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Retail compatibility : a problem for comprehensive planning of the central business district Merlo, Albert Lino 1966

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RETAIL COMPATIBILITY: A PROBLEM FOR COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING OF THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRI by ALBERT LINO MERLO B . S c . Bus. A d . , Michigan Technological U n i v e r s i t y , 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF AR^S i n the D i v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept this thesis as conforming to required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Community and Regional Planning. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date May 18, 1966. i i ABSTRACT The r e t a i l sections of central business d i s t r i c t s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia have a low degree of r e -t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Many unrelated commercial and other land uses that exis t within the prime r e t a i l areas of central business d i s t r i c t s weaken the degree of r e t a i l com-p a t i b i l i t y of the prime r e t a i l areas. The hypothesis of t h i s study is that planning measures can and should be taken to improve the low degree of r e t a i l land use compa-t i b i l i t y e x i s t i n g in the centra l business d i s t r i c t s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The need for study of this subject is j u s t i f i e d on the basis of the importance and concern placed on c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s . The improvement of a c e n t r a l business d i a t r i c t must include the improvement of the r e t a i l sec t ion which comprises a v i t a l component of any c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . The decline of the shopping funct ion in c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s has been the cause of serious concern to planning and c i t y o f f i c i a l s a l i k e , and needless to say, to the affec ted r e t a i l e r s as w e l l . The convenience fac tor can be increased appreciably i n a r e t a i l area which is p l a n -ned or p a r t i a l l y redeveloped to increase the degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , the tax base of the mu-n i c i p a l i t y would be improved because of the increased i i i v i a b i l i t y due to greater r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the cent-.-ii business d i s t r i c t . The c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s of the three munici-p a l i t i e s of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Gastlegar in B r i t i s h Columbia are invest igated in the study. It is shown that the degrees of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s of the three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are poor. The main object ives of the study are to i d e n t i f y and analyze c e r t a i n planning measures which could be implemented to improve the degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The r e c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n of the widely-permissive general business t y p e of zoning category is desirable in order to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The object ive of r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is t o d i r e c t the grouping together of compatible r e t a i l land uses, as well as other commercial uses comnonly found i n c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s . On the basis of analysis of the attitudes of the three municipal c o u n c i l s , i t is concluded that re -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is p o l i t i c a l l y f e a s i b l e and i t is s trongly recommended that r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to be s e r i o u s l y considered by planning agencies for recommendation to the C t l v : -c o u n c i l s . The e l iminat ion of nonconforming uses that c o n s t i t u t e "dead spots" i n the r e t a i l areas of central busit>-'? d i s -t r i c t s is urged s t r o n g l y . It is reveale'd that t h i s problem has been neglected to date by the selected municipal iv councils as r e f l e c t e d by the lack of enforcement of the statutes of the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act to c o n t r o l or eliminate nonconforming uses. It Is suggested that amortization approach to eliminate nonconforming uses which is used in parts of the United States should be added to the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipal A c t . It i s suggested thnt i t is necessary for the munici -pal councils to review t h e i r p o l i c i e s in r e l a t i o n to r e -c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of general commercial zones and in r e l a t i o n to the e l i m i n a t i o n of "dead spots"' within a comprehensive c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t planning program. The use of Federal Urban Renewal L e g i s l a t i o n to Improve commercial areas is a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y to achieve a higher degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . It is recommended that the objectives of a central business d i s t r i c t urban re -newal scheme should coincide with the object ives of a com-prehensive c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t planning program. The i n c l u s i o n of a scheme to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y within a central business d i s t r i c t renewal scheme appears to be p o l i t i c a l l y acceptable . A l s o , the p o t e n t i a l l y af fec ted r e t a i l e r s appear to be in favor of schemes to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . It is concluded that planning measures can and could be taken to improve the low degree of r e t a i l land use com-p a t i b i l i t y e x i s t i n g i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s in B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE OP CONTENTS PRELIMINARY PAGES PAGE T i t l e Page . . . • i Abstract 11 Table of Contents 0 . . v L i s t of Tables „ . . . < > ix L i s t of Maps o ° x Acknowledgment x l CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 A Planning Problem-Poor R e t a i l Compatibility . 1 Organization and Methodology of the Thesis . . 3 Statement of the Hypothesis 7 II. PRINCIPLE OP RETAIL LAND USE COMPATIBILITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PLANNING 3 Cumulative A t t r a c t i o n „ 5 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Re t a i l Store Groupings . . . 10 P r i n c i p l e of Re t a i l Land Use Compatibility . „ 11 Relationship of R e t a i l Land Use Compatibility to Planning . . . . . . . . l£ Summary 19 I I I . MEASUREMENT OP RETAIL LAND USE COMPATIBILITY--CASE STUDIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA ?0 Case Study Municipalities . . „ 20 Method of Analysis . „ ?8 v i CHAPTER ' PAGE Degree of R e t a i l Compatibility 33 R e t a i l compactness 33 "Dead spots" 37 How do the three C^D's rate in r e l a t i o n to r e t a i l compatibility? 33 Summary I4O IV. COMMERCIAL Z O N E RECLASSIFICATION 1x2 Relationship of Zoning and Re t a i l Lnnd Use Comoa t i b i l i t y \\2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Re t a i l Business Use? . . . . I4.3 Commercial C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of Case Study Munic i p a l i t i e s Ixlx Exclusion of Residential Land Uses from the CBD 1x7 Model Zoning Ordinances--What CBD Commercial C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ? , 1x9 Analysis of Questionnaire Responses on P o l i t i c a l A cceptability of R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 59 Summary 6? V. ELIMINATION OF NONCONFORMING TISES TO IMPROVE RETAIL COMPATIBILITY 61x Zoning Provisions for the Elimination of Nonconforming Uses 65 Limitation on expansion and a l t e r a t i o n . . . 6 7 Discontinuance of nonconforming uses . . . . 63 v i i CHAPTER PAGE Seventy-f ive per cent rule . . . . . . . . . 70 Expropria t ion 71 Abatement of Nuisances 73 Provisions Held C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Outside B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . 0 74 Amortizat ion of nonconforming uses . . . . . 75 Retroactive a p p l i c a t i o n of ordinances . . . 79 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - E l i m i n a t i o n of Nonconforming Uses in Selected M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 80 Summary . „ 86 VI. IMPROVEMENT OP RETAIL COMPATIBILITY—A COMPONENT OP A TOTAL CBD RENEWAL SCHEME . . . 88 Hypothetical Scheme to Improve R e t a i l C o m p a t i b i l i t y 89 Pederal Urban Renewal Assistance 91 Limited Methods to Improve R e t a i l Compat ibi l i ty . . . . o 9k The P o l i t i c a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y of Methods to Implement the Hypothetical Scheme . . . . . 9 5 Reaction of Commercial Proprietors to Hypothetical Scheme „ 98 Summary 107 VII . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 108 BIBLIOGRAPHY 113 v i i i APPENDICES PAGE APPENDIX A. Example of the Use of the Rule of R e t a i l C o m p a t i b i l i t y . 117 APPENDIX B. General Business Class i f i c a t i o n - - D u n c a n , B r i t i s h Columbia . 120 APPENDIX C. General Business C l a s s i f i c a t i o n - -Grand Porks, B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . 1?3 APPENDIX D. Commercial Class i f i c a t i o n s - - C a s t l e g a r , B r i t i s h Columbia 1?6 APPENDIX E. An Experience i n R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . 1 ? 9 APPENDIX P. Questionnaire-Chapter IV 133 APPENDIX G. S e c t i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l A c t of B r i t i s h Columbia 0 lbr2 APPENDIX H. Questionnaire-Chapter VI „ 1/+3 ix LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I. R e t a i l C o m p a t i b i l i t y Table—Medium Sized Community . . . . . . . . . . . 16 II . Case Study Munic ipal i t ies—Elements of S i m i l a r i t y 23 I I I . Common CBD Business Establishments i n Case M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . . . . . . . 25 IV. Recommended Zoning Categories for CBD's—Model Zoning Ordinances . „ 51 V. Proprietors Reactions to a Hypothetical Scheme to Improve R e t a i l Compat ibi l i ty . . . 103 X LIST OF. MAPS MAP N O . PAGE 1. Location of Case Study M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . . „ . . 21 2 . R e t a i l Compatibi l i ty—Duncan, B r i t i s h Columbia . 30 3 . R e t a i l Compatibi l i ty—Grand Forks, B r i t i s h Columbia » . . . • 31 l i . R e t a i l C o m p a t i b l l i t y - - C a s t l e g a r , B r i t i s h Columbia ..<><> o 32 5. Locations of Business Proprietors Interviewed-Duncan, B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . 99 6 . Locations of Business Proprietors interviewed-Grand Forks , B r i t i s h Columbia . . . 100 ,7. Locations of Business Proprietors interviewed-Cast legar , B r i t i s h Columbia 101 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank Dr. Kevin J . Cross f o r the con-s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and guidance which he offered through-out the wri t ing of this t h e s i s . I am also indebted to Miss Mary Rawson and Mr. F r a n k l i n Wiles of the planning consul -tant f i rm of Rawson & Wiles , Co. L t d . , Vancouver, who were extremely h e l p f u l in providing necessary information of the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . My thanks a lso go to the Ci ty Clerks and the members of the Munic ipal Councils of the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Castlegar who gave f r e e l y of t h e i r time in answering the many questions directed to them. An expression of grat i tude is given to my wife , L u c i a , for her encouragement throughout the w r i t i n g of the thesis and for her perseverance in the typing of the t h e s i s . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. A PLANNING- PROBLEM—POOR RETAIL COMPATIBILITY The r e t a i l sections of c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s - * of selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have a low degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . R e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y may be measured by the degree to which r e t a i l businesses interchange customers. The greater the rate of interchange of customers between r e t a i l businesses the h i g h -er i s the degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y between those bus-inesses . Unrelated commercial and other land uses that ex is t within the prime r e t a i l areas of CBD's weaken the de-gree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the prime r e t a i l areas . This study i d e n t i f i e s and measures the degree of r e -t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the CBD's of selected muni-c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The main object ive of the study i s to i d e n t i f y and analyze cer ta in planning measures which can be Implemented to improve the degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The need f o r study can be j u s t i f i e d on the basis of ^Hereinaf ter referred to as the CBD. the importance and concern presently placed on CBD's . The improvement of a GBD, or the "heart" of a c i t y as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d , must include improvement of the r e t a i l section which comprises a v i t a l part of any CBD. The de-c l i n e of the shopping funct ion i n CBD's has been the cause of grave concern to planning and c i t y o f f i c i a l s a l i k e , and, needless to say, to r e t a i l e r s as w e l l . Whether or not the shopping funct ion i s d e c l i n i n g in a CBD, the degree of r e -t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y should be increased for the sake of the shopper as wel l as the r e t a i l e r . The convenience fac tor can be greatly increased in a r e t a i l area which i s planned or p a r t i a l l y redeveloped to increase the degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , the e x i s t i n g c a p i t a l investment in r e t a i l land uses In the CBD would be pro-tected because of increased v i a b i l i t y due to greater r e -t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Thus, the tax base of the munic ipal i ty or c i t y would be strengthened somewhat. It was not poss ible to analyze the degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of a l l of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia because of the l i m i t a t i o n s i n time and resources a v a i l a b l e to conduct th is study. Therefore the study has been r e s t r i c t e d to a sample of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s selected ac-cording to s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a : populat ion ; r e g i o n a l c e n t r a l -i t y ; t ransportat ion l inkages ; and economic base s i m i l a r i t y . It i s d i f f i c u l t to be very r e s t r i c t i v e on the basis of the 3 above c r i t e r i a but i t is f e l t that some p r a c t i c a l basis of comparison is a f f o r d e d . The B r i t i s h Columbia m u n i c i p a l i t i e s chosen for the study are Duncan, Grand Porks, and Cast legar . Only the prime r e t a i l areas in the CBD's are analyzed, although the object ives of the study are a p p l i c a b l e i n many respects to other types of r e t a i l areas. The study could conceivably be extended to cover planned or unplanned region-a l and neighborhood shopping centres, although the problem is not serious in many planned centres . Limitat ions in time n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t the scope of the study to shopping areas i n CBD's. This dec is ion is j u s t i f i e d on the basis of the importance of the v i a b i l i t y of downtown areas . Another f a c -tor r e s t r i c t i n g the study to the CBD is that the m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s chosen do not contain s u f f i c i e n t l y large o u t l y i n g shop-ping centres to f a c i l i t a t e research. II. ORGANIZATION AND METHODOLOGY O'-' THE THESIS The p r i n c i p l e of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y is r e -viewed In Chapter I I . The views of various authors on th is subject are reviewed and compared. S p e c i a l a t tent ion is given to the work of Richard L . Nelson in the development of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y r a t i n g s . A review of the p r i n c i p l e of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y provides the basis for a n a l y s i s of the selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s car r ied out in Chapter I I I . An attempt Is made to e s t a b l i s h the present s i t u a t i o n in the k case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n regard to r e t a i l l a n d use com-p a t i b i l i t y In the CBD's, The c o m p a t i b i l i t y r a t i n g method developed by Richard L. Nelson was a p p l i e d to the r e t a i l land uses of the CBD's of the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s may be questioned In c o n s i d -e r a t i o n of the f a c t that the r a t i n g system d e v i s e d by Nelson was based on surveys conducted i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e d of America. The r a t i n g system may not be t o t a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The assumption was made that whatever d i s c r e p a n c i e s d i d e x i s t would not be Important enough to d i s t o r t the f i n d i n g s . Another assumption made was that the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y -s i s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e l a t i v e degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the downtown shopping areas of most B r i t i s h Columbia m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A f t e r the s t a t u s of the problem was determined, i t then became necessary to analyze the p l a n n i n g means or mea-sures that are a v a i l a b l e to s o l v e the problem i n p r a c t i c e . An a n a l y s i s was conducted i n Chapter IV to determine whether or not the broad g e n e r a l commercial zone c l a s s i f i c a t i o n could be r e o r g a n i z e d f o r the purpose of i n c r e a s i n g r e t a i l l and use c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h i n CBD commercial zones. L i b r a r y r e s e a r c h was conducted t o I n v e s t i g a t e zoning regrouping attempts and model zoning bylaws i n order to de-termine the number and content of commercial land use categories which could Induce a high degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . This research was hampered by the lack of model zoning bylaws a v a i l a b l e as well as the lack of i n -formation on zoning regrouping attempts. A mailed quest ion-naire was sent to the members of the municipal counci ls of the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to obtain t h e i r views of zon-ing regrouping of commercial land uses to improve r e t a i l com p a t i b i l i t y . The mailed questionnaire technique was used be-cause i t was f e l t that the questions were simple enough to secure meaningful r e p l i e s . The v a l i d i t y of the f indings was hindered by the poor returns of the Castlegar municipal c o u n c i l . Two r e p l i e s out of a poss ible f i v e were r e c e i v e d . In Chapter V, an analys is was c a r r i e d out concerning the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses from the CBD zones. The purpose of the analysis was to determine the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the e x i s t i n g statutes of the B r i t i s h Columbia Munici p a l Act to eliminate nonconforming uses. In t h i s s e c t i o n , other methods to eliminate nonconforming uses that have been held c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n various parts of the United States are analyzed i n respect to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l acceptance i n B r i t i s h Columbia. L i b r a r y research was undertaken to c l a r i f y the various means a v a i l a b l e to eliminate nonconforming uses. Questionnaires were then used as a basis for Interviewing the c i t y c lerks for the purposes previously mentioned. It 6 was f e l t that the c i t y clerks may not have been s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r with some of the means to e l iminate nonconforming uses that have been held c o n s t i t u t i o n a l in various parts of the United States . For this reason, the personal interview method was preferred over the mailed questionnaire technique as described i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r chapter. A l i m i t a t i o n on the v a l i d i t y of the f indings i s that the opinion of just one municipal o f f i c i a l was obtained i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y . Only one o f f i c i a l was interviewed due to l i m i t a t i o n s of time. The use of the Federal Urban Renewal provis ions of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act was studied in Chapter VI, as a possible means of attack on the problem. The analys is consists of the determination of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ' accep-tance of urban renewal schemes to improve r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . A l s o , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n was conducted to de-termine the p o t e n t i a l acceptance of such urban renewal sche-mes by selected commercial p r o p r i e t o r s . The commercial p r o -p r i e t o r s selected were those who would most l i k e l y be a f f e c t -ed by an urban renewal scheme to improve r e t a i l compatibility. As in Chapter V, the personal interview method was selected i n preference to the mailed questionnaire t e c h n i -que. It would have been very d i f f i c u l t to derive s a t i s -factory r e p l i e s through the use of the mailed questionnaire technique. Personal explanations were necessary in order f o r the c i t y clerks and the proprietors to r e p l y with an 7 understanding of the proposals . Recommendations and conclusions are contained in Chapter V I I , which also provides a summary of the f indings of the t h e s i s . Subject areas related to the thesis topic that require fur ther study are Indicated. I I I . STATEMENT OP THE HYPOTHESIS It is necessary at this point to present a statement of the hypothesis of th is study, namely, Planning measures can and should be taken to improve the low degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y e x i s t i n g in the CBD's of m u n i c i p a l i -t ies i n B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER II PRINCIPLE OP RETAIL LAND USE COMPATIBILITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PLANNING The purpose of t h i s chapter is to describe the gen-e r a l l y accepted p r i n c i p l e s governing the r e l a t i o n s h i p s that exis t between r e t a i l land uses. A r e l a t i v e l y well e s t a b l i s h -ed body of knowledge regarding such r e l a t i o n s h i p s has been developed, p r i m a r i l y i n the f i e l d of r e t a i l i n g . C l a r i f i -ca t ion of the p r i n c i p l e s of r e t a i l land use r e l a t i o n s h i p s is f a c i l i t a t e d through a review of the pert inent l i t e r a t u r e . This chapter i s a lso designed to Indicate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i n c i p l e s of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y , and implementation of planning objectives i n the CBD. I . CUMULATIVE ATTRACTION It is common to f i n d severa l stores s e l l i n g s i m i l a r goods side by side i n a shopping d i s t r i c t . These stores are said to be complementary, that i s , each store aide each other i n r e l a t i o n to s a l e s . The theory of cumulative a t t r a c -t ion reveals that "a given number of stores deal ing i n the same merchandise w i l l do more business i f they are located adjacent or in proximity to each other than i f they are wide-l y scat tered. ' '^ Pour women's c l o t h i n g stores in close iRichard L . Nelson, The S e l e c t i o n p_f R e t a i l Locat ions , (New York: P. W. Dodge Corporat ion, 1959), p . 5«. 9 proximity w i l l do more business than I f they were located several blocks apart. I f brought together, they w i l l be-come a "women's clothing center." Generally In such i n -stances the t o t a l trading area Is Increased and frequently each store's percentage share of business from the o r i g i n a l t o t a l sales area is increased. A prospective r e t a i l e r attempting to select a loca-tion and a landlord or r e a l t o r renting space must decide whether or not to follow the p r i n c i p l e of cumulative a t t r a c -t i o n . The prospective r e t a i l e r has the alte r n a t i v e of plac-ing a store i n an intercepting l o c a t i o n , that i s , a location that competes by creating a new sales area. Although sales volume estimates are necessary for f i n a l determination, gen-e r a l l y , the interceptor position i s preferable for conven-ience type stores such as groceries and other stores dealing In standard brand a r t i c l e s . 2 When the Items sold involve comparison shopping to s a t i s f y c r i t e r i a such as; f i t , s t y l e , design, price, and colour, the cl u s t e r position is generally preferable. Also, the lower the generative power of the in d i v i d u a l store, the more Important a cl u s t e r position becomes.3 Women's clothing stores are a good example. Women when shopping f o r clothing tend to compare items from ^Ibld., p. [4.8 3lbid. 10 various stores before making a f i n a l decision. I I . CLASSIFICATION OF RETAIL STORE GROUPINGS There are three main c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of r e t a i l store groupings.^- This tendency seems to be pr o f i t a b l e for the merchant and i s convenient for the shopper. The theory of cumulative a t t r a c t i o n Is the basic p r i n c i p l e behind one of the groupings. Further examples of this p r i n c i p l e in prac-t i c e Is the tendency for department stores to locate near each other, and s i m i l a r l y for car sales lots to group together. Obviously, there i s a l i m i t to which competitive r e t a i l outlets can group together. When the ad d i t i o n a l stores do not at t r a c t new trade but rather divide the exi s t i n g trade, they are then detrimental rather than help-f u l to the competitors.5 A second grouping is made up of stores of the same general class of trade but each s e l l i n g d i f f e r e n t types of goods.° The following groupings are quite often found in r e t a i l d i s t r i c t s : ( 1 ) grocery stores, meat markets, bakeries and candy shops; (2) shoe stores, dry-goods stores, jewelry stores, and m i l l i n e r y stores; (3) paint stores, furniture 4-Clare Barker, Ira Anderson, Principles of Re t a i l i n g , (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1935), pp. Ij-B-W. ^Ibid., p. 1|8 6 I b l d . , p. u,9 11 st o r e s , c u r t a i n and drapery s t o r e s , upholstery s t o r e s , hard-ware s t o r e s . Often the second group breaks i n t o men's shop groupings and women's shop groupings. Each store complements the others by a t t r a c t i n g shoppers with s i m i l a r purchasing o b j e c t i v e s . Moreover, a favorable buying mood i s created because of the presence of many stores o f f e r i n g a wide range of goods. A t h i r d type of grouping Involves grouping f o r bor-rowed support.7 Many stores l o c a t e near department st o r e s to b e n e f i t from the large number of shoppers they a t t r a c t . Such stores s e l l goods s i m i l a r to those a v a i l a b l e i n the department s t o r e , and b e n e f i t from the overflow of shoppers not completely s a t i s f i e d with the s e l e c t i o n o f f e r e d by the department s t o r e . To be s u c c e s s f u l , the sma l l e r stores must be r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r i n grade because shoppers g e n e r a l l y w i l l not compare goods i n stores of varying grade. I I I . PRINCIPLE OP RETAIL LAND USE COMPATIBILITY The foregoing d i s c u s s i o n e s t a b l i s h e s the ba s i s of the p r i n c i p l e of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . To date, r e l a -t i v e l y l i t t l e research has been concerned w i t h r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The only notable research found regarding t h i s t o p i c was conducted by Richard L. Nelson. Nelson ^ I b i d . , Q °Richard L. Nelson, The S e l e c t i o n of R e t a i l Locations, (New York: P. W. Dodge Corporation, 1953 ) f PP° 66-7HT 12 indicates t h a t , "the measure of c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s the degree to w h i c h the two businesses interchange customers."^ Nelson studied several hundred business d i s t r i c t s and shop-ping centers as well as more than 10,000 i n d i v i d u a l shopping t r i p s . On the basis of th is study, he found t h a t , "there l a a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the rate of interchange i n two establishments and t h e i r business volumes."10 The r e s u l t s of the study f a c i l i t a t e d the formation of Nelson's r u l e of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y : Two compatible businesses located i n close proximity w i l l show an increase i n business volume d i r e c t l y pro-portionate to the incidence of t o t a l customer Inter -change between them, i n v e r s e l y proportionate to the r a t i o of the business volume of the la rger store to t h a t of the smaller store , and d i r e c t l y proportionate to the sum of the r a t i o s of purposeful purchasing to t o t a l purchasing i n each of the two s t o r e s * 1 ! A purposeful purchase i s one made by a shopper who, when interviewed, states that a v i s i t to the store was a major purpose of the shopping t r i p . T o t a l purchases, of course, include i n c i d e n t a l and imDulse ourchases as w e l l . 1 2 The r u l e i s expressed by these r e l a t i o n s h i p s : V = l(V1 + V s ) x V g + ( P i + P g ) 1 3 V i ( V i Vg") ? l b l d . , p . 66. 1 0 I b i d . ^ I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . 1 3 l b i d . 13 i n which: V = volume of larger store ( t o t a l purchasing) p = purposeful purchasing i n larger store V = volume of smaller store ( t o t a l purchasing) P = purposeful purchasing i n smaller store V = increase In t o t a l volume of two stores I = degree of interchange. IM-An example, explaining f u r t h e r the use of the r u l e is given i n Appendix A. In conjunction with business interchange, Nelson uses other fac tors to measure c o m p a t i b i l i t y . These fac tors are negative since they tend to be detrimental to near-by r e t a i l s tores . Nelson states that harmful in ter rupt ions i n the t r a f f i c flow may be caused by: (1) dead spots where a shopper loses in teres t i n going f a r t h e r (pedestrians d i s l i k e dead f rontage) ; (?) d r i v e -ways and other p h y s i c a l breaks i n the sidewalk: (3) cross t r a f f i c , e i ther vehicular or pedestr ian ; {}+) areas that are I d e n t i f i e d with hazard, noise , odor, u n s I g h t l i n e s s , or other p e d e s t r i a n - I n h i b i t i n g q u a l i t i e s ; (5) businesses which generate t r a f f i c in the form of t rucks , p u b l i c v e h i c l e s , pr iva te automobiles, or pedestrians who are not shoppers, and which tend, therefore , to create con-g e s t i o n ; (6) businesses whose customers' average parking time i s extremely long.15 Nelson constructed c o m p a t i b i l i t y tables for four types of shopping d i s t r i c t s , they are : (1) r u r a l t rading center ; (2) neighborhood d i s t r i c t or center; (3) shopper's goods center (the downtown of a medium-size community, a major o u t l y i n g shopping d i s t r i c t i n a b i g c i t y , or a •LM-Ibld. 1 ^ I b i d . , p. 68 r e t a i l section of the central commercial d i s t r i c t of a large c i t y . An analysis was conducted of more than 10,000 shop-ping trips, in these four types of shopping d i s t r i c t s and centers in a l l parts of the United States. Along with t h i s , the records of many hundred d i f f e r e n t store types in d i f f e r -ent situations forms the basis of the compatibility tables. The tables account for two factors; "the incidence of int e r -change of business between store types and occurrence of im-pulse i n t e r r u p t i o n . B u s i n e s s interchange was found through personal interview of shoppers determining where pur-chases were made for each shopping t r i p . The physical r e l a -tionships were then noted for each shopping t r i p . Pedestrian t r a f f i c counts were used to determine impulse interruption. The tables contain quite a complete l i s t of r e t a i l uses and include many non-retail uses which are commonly found in shopping d i s t r i c t s . The existence of many non-r e t a i l uses i n r e t a i l areas i s a r e s u l t of zoning bylaws that allow such non-retail uses in broad business or commercial categories. Five degrees of compatibility were formed by Nelson, they are: (1) highly compatible—10-P0 per cent of the t o t a l l & l b i d . , p. 69 15 customers of both establishments are interchanged (that i s , th is percentage v i s i t e d both 'es tabl ishments ) ; (2) moderately compatible—5-10 per cent customer interchange; (3) incom-p a t i b l e — n e g l i g i b l e Interchange; and (I4.) dele ter ious- -one of the uses has a deleter ious e f f e c t on the other u s e . ^ The s ize of stores is not accounted for i n the c o m p a t i b i l i t y c a l c u l a t i o n . Only the l e v e l of Interchange between stores Is considered. Por the purposes of this study the c o m p a t i b i l i t y t a b l e , shown as Table I, which was developed for the shop-pers' goods center of a medium-size community, w i l l be used. This p a r t i c u l a r table was chosen because i t is the most use-f u l in the analys is of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y In the CBD's of the selected B r i t i s h Columbia m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . IV. RELATIONSHIP OF RETAIL LAND USE COMPATIBILITY TO PLANNING Before the ac tual r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y and planning can be adequately explained, i t i s necessary to place the downtown r e t a i l sect ion in i t s ' proper planning perspect ive . In other words, the CBD i t s e l f must be discussed i n terms of i t s present problems and p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The problems are many. Congestion, b l i g h t , 1 7 i b i d . , p. 78. TABLE I RETAIL COMPATIBILITY TABLE—-MEDIDM-SIZED COMMUNITY CetrrtftUace footfa Dru* SwpCTMrkcf B«£ry Grocery Meat U q w Hardware iVnt, wallpaper Books Caaieni Onelr Florist G;ftt, cards 1 :.'J;J«, tow C.: -ie equipment D:p*rt-itnl store Apparel, children's U«Or •en's. , Hosiery, V*Ofeili Lingerie Shoci, f«-Hv. •sen's, boys Variety, 5c ft 10t ^ c w * ' n r Furniture 00 Dry foods Knitting Linen Appliances (3) Bar,'tavern Drive-In e«tlnf Eating, drinking Services (5> Berber BeeurJderi Ocutr , laundry 05) Gtaxlnf l^ndrotwt Medical clinic Offices CO Best estate •Opwaelrhrt, Optical Photo srapher .. Pott o»kC Utility collection Rep* in, cycle household Shoe repair, thine safes, terries Acts .Car dcafc Auto parti, accessories Auto repair Service static* Used car lol MbceftaMOM Bank. ftnartdeJ Bowlffti Mortuary Theater liliJiiifijjjaii - i*J. nnn Kn_u T + + + T + + + T + 4 4 V + + + T + + + T + + + T + +4 T + + + T + + + T + + + T + + + T + + + • + • • T + + + T + + + T + + + + • ++ . Q D D D ? + + + T + + + •+ + + + • • + + + T + + + T + + + v+++ T + + + +++ + ++•• O Q 9 + + + + + 4 » 4 4-4+4 • • • • • • • • Q Q Q O • • • • T + 4 4 t l H B T T n u u T f U Y Y 4 4 UTT++ TT++ T + + 4 n+ T 4 T T T + p + + + + Y 9 9 T T 9 + + + + + + 4 4 - + + + + + + • + • + + + + + + + + • • + + + • + + + + + • 4 - * + + • + • + + + + + + + + + + + +++++ n m +++++ +++++ •+•++ +•+++ • • • • • tn t n ••+ + + + + + 9 9 + + 9 + + + • + 4 - + 4 4 4 • +4+ + • + + + + + + • 4 + 4 4 4 4 + 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 $ 3 3 1 9 4 + 4 4 4 0 9 + + 9 4 4 + 4 4 • • • • • O O D D D O O Q D O 4 4 + 4 4 • • • • • 4 + 4 4 + • • + • + + T + + + • T + + + +T + + + • T + + + • 4 4 4 + ++++ + + + • + • 4 4 4 + + ++++ + +•+ ++ T+ +TT + + + + + + + T + • •••• +++++ •++++ ++++• +++++ ++ +++ +• + • + • + • •• 4 4 + + 4 J 4 * + + • • + •• ~ + 4 4 4 4 • • + • • • 4 4 + + + • • + + + + • ++++>• _ + + + + • + 4 + + + + • + 9 + + • + • •• " + + + • + • + + + + + • + + + + + • • • • • • I ++++ • ++++ -tttti 4 4 4 4 4 • S + 9 9 9 9 + + ++ + + + + • + ++++ + + 4 4 4 4 + + + + + 4 4 4 4 4 + + + + + 3 9 9 3 I S J i J + ++++ 9 9 + 9 + • + +++ D O Q D D • • • • • • • • D O +++++ +++++ O O T + Q + T + + + +• + • + • + • +• + • +• +• 3 9 + • + • ++ + • 9 9 3 9 + • + • Q Q • 9 + • nnnnn •i inn n onn D U a a un nnn una nnn una 1CJUU I T T V T T • + • + + + j nnnnn p nnnnn E uuuuu t +++++ 4+++++ 1••••• T T T T T ' T T T T T +++++ +++++ 0 9 9 9 9 8 * 3 3 0 9 9 9 9 8 + + • + + n n t +++++ +++++ mtt 0099d + ++++ • 9 * 9 30 9 0 9 9 • • • • • • O D D D • • • • • + 4 + 4 + • • • • • ++++ + nnnnn nnnnn nnnnu nnnaa unnun uunua D una nn an nnn a uuun T T T T T +++++ nnnnn • n u i i Q uuuaa ttxt • • • • • T T T T T T T T T T « + + + 9 9 9 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 + + +++ +++++ +++++ + ++++ +++++ + + • + + + + +++ 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 ++++ + 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 ••••a aaaaa +++++ 3 0 0 9 9 •aaaa +++++ nnnTT T T I J T T T T f l T T T T U T T T T Q T T T T U T T T T I 1 Y T T T I 1 T T T T U T T T T E 1 T T T T Q T T + T T T . ++ + na T T Y YD. T T T U T ' T + + + . + 4 + 4 • • • • • T + T + + T + T + + tt +++++ ++ + + + 9 9 9 9 9 9 + 9 9 S 9 9 9 9 9 + +++ + m +++++ +++++ + + + 4 4 9 9 9 3 -9 9 9 9 +++++ 9 + 9 9 0 9 + 9 9 9 O D D D Q • •••a ••••• +++++ 0 0 0 0 3 • • • • Q +++++ ++•++ +••++ + 9 9 9 9 + 9 9 9 9 • • • • • aooaa • • • • • ++•++ 9 4 9 4 + • nana + T O U U + +»« ttli tttl + 4 * 9 4 + t« •+•* + + 9<t + 4 9 * + • » * 4 4 » * + • » • 4 4 • » + + « » + 4 9 K 4 4 * « 4 4 « » • • D O + • » » 4 + 9 * T T 9 T T i T T » 9 9 9 9 9 T « - + + * •-tu •• + S* -• + (,+ •• + + + •-+•• 9 S 9 9 nt»t U Y T + 0 0 3 S + + » + Q O D 9 • •aa O Q D 9 + + +S + + OS ?aoo + 9 0 9 4 + + + 9 + + + + « + • + + 9 + + 4 4 « • • • + 9 4 4 4 4 • + + • + 9 4 4 4 4 S + + + 4 9 4 4 4 4 • 4 4 4 4 * 4 4 4 4 » 4 4 4 4 * 4 4 4 4 » 4 4 4 4 • 4 4 4 4 » + + • • 9 4 4 4 4 • • • • • 9 4 4 4 4 9 4 4 + 4 9 4 Y 4 4 » 4 Y 4 + T » T + t 9 9 & « » 9 9 9 % + • • 9 9 D t »*n -9 + 9 9 + + + + • + 4 4 4 4 4 ++ +++ 9 + 9 9 9 9 + 9 » S • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • o + n n + • 8 D D O 0 + 0 9 + n+ 9 9 + 9 9 t+ + «» •+e +++»» ++•*«-+++»« + + • 9 * • + • • ' 8 + • • * « + • • • ; « 4 4 4 « » + +. .+** 4 4 4 * * + • • » > * 4 4 4 * t t • + + « * 4 4 4 * • • • * * 4 4 4 * 4 4 + 9 * 4 4 + 9 * • + •*» * + » * » + 4 9 9 * • C 9 * « 4 4 + * * • 4 I U * 4 » * » 4 4 * 9 ® 4 4 9 S 4 4 4 4 4 4 + 4 9 4 9 9 4 9 9 4 4 4 9 9 S + 4 3 * 9 4 4 t > 3 • 4 4 9 * • + • 9 3 0 + 4 9 9 + + 4 9 9 0 + + I 3 • • • 9 3 + 4 + 9 9 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 • 4 • • 9 4 9 4 9 4 4 4 9 4 • • • + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 9 + + • « 9 » 9 9 * « + 4 4 + » S 9 9 + + c n nn 9 + 9 9 9 9 9 9 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • O joa ODO • • • oaa • • • • • • • • a • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9 • • • • • • •an ••• • D D + • 9 <$•• •na • • • • • • • • a • • • +++ +•+ 9 9 9 9 9 9 « 9 D ana Qtl lJ aa aoa O D D • • • • • • • 9 0 + + 9 D f +IB+ • H'eUy compatible +9al Y Moderately 4 9 0 + ~Tf. 4 9 0 + compatible tint + Sligbtly compatible 4 9 Q + * Incompatible +••+ • Deleterioua +••+ + T D T T T D B •• tm + 909) • 3 0 9 9 9 0 * + + 9 + H 3 0 9 U 3 Q 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 ++••• 9 9 9 9 + 9 9 9 • O D D • O D D •at 9 •• a ••a Source: Richard L. Nelson, The Selection of Retail Locations, (Hew York: P.W. Dodge Corporation, I^WT Table 8.3, p. 74. 17 the decline of the shopping function, and the erosion of the assessed values of the downtown area are the prime problems. The planning objectives have been b a s i c a l l y the same for the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of CBD's, namely: improved c i r c u l a t i o n and parking; elimination of b l i g h t ; provision of new amenities in terms of aesthetics and convenience; u n i f i c a t i o n in design and layout to prevent deterioration; and the Improvement of the municipal tax base. The d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered in attempts to improve the CBD lay in the fact that: Downtown is slow to adjust to changing conditions. Because of i t s c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t , i t s f a i l u r e to achieve u n i f i e d action downtown development lags be-hind rapid suburban development. Downtown r e a l es-tate has the r i g o r of age; suburban r e a l estate the f l e x i b i l i t y of youth. Suburban properties because of their control by i n d i v i d u a l owners in large areas lend themselves to comprehensive development within a short two or three year period.1 " The degree to which the CBD w i l l be affected by sub-urban developments depends upon the extent to which the CBD takes action to protect i t s e l f against further suburban development. 1^ Although the CBD i s in need of improvement, certain strengths of CBD are evident, such as: . . . a better selection of merchandise, better selection of prices, more frequent bargain sales, l^Ross McKeever, Shopping Centers Re-studied, Part  One--Emerglng Patterns (Washington: Technical B u l l e t i n No. 30, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , May 19$7)» p. 14. " i b i d . b e t t e r a c c e s s t o p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and more c o n -v e n i e n t r e a s o n s f o r m e e t i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c i t y f o r s h o p p i n g t r i p s , b e t t e r e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and more e r r a n d s t h n t t h e y can a c c o m p l i s h a t a s i n g l e t i m e i n t h e downtown b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . ^ 0 C o u n t e r i n g t h e s e s t r e n g t h o f t h e CBD a r e the weak-n e s s e s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n v e n i e n c e f a c t o r . P o r i n s t a n c e , t h e I n c o n v e n i e n c e s c a u s e d by t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n and t h e s i t u a t i o n o f l i m i t e d p a r k i n g s p a c e s . The g e n e r a l b e l i e f t o d a y r e g a r d i n g t h e CBD i s t h a t i t s d e f i c i e n c i e s must be e l i m i n a t e d and i t s a d v a n t a g e s e m p h a s i z e d i f i t i s t o com-p e t e e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h o u t l y i n g s h o p p i n g a r e a s . Where does t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e Lack o f r e t a i l l a n d u s e c o m p a t i b i l i t y e n t e r ? The improvement o f r e t a i l l a n d u s e c o m p a t i b i l i t y I n t h e CBD s h o u l d be d i r e c t l y u t i l i z e d , i n t h e s t r u g g l e t o h a l t t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e s h o p p i n g f u n c -t i on i n t h e CBD and p o s s i b l y t o i n c r e a s e i t . Improved r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y would c r e a t e a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f c o n -v e n i e n c e f o r t h e s h o p p e r i n terms o f s h o p p i n g t i m e . D i s t a n c e s f o r c o m p a r i s o n s h o p p i n g would be d e c r e a s e d . A l s o , g r e a t e r r e t a i l s t o r e c o m p a t i b i l i t y would p r o v i d e o t h e r shop-p i n g a m e n i t i e s In terms o f g r e a t e r s e l e c t i o n o f t y p e s o f consumer goods i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f f e r i n g a g r e a t e r r a n g e i n s t y l e , q u a l i t y , c o l o r , s i z e , and p r i c e . T h u s , t h e p l a n -n i n g o b j e c t i v e o f i n c r e a s i n g r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y would p r o v i d e g r e a t e r s h o p p i n g a m e n i t i e s and i n c r e a s e d s h o p p i n g c o n v e n i e n c e ^ 0Tbid» V. SUMMARY 19 The p r i n c i p l e of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y is recognized i n the f i e l d of r e t a i l i n g even though r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e research has been conducted on the subject . The only notable study found regarding r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y was that of Richard L . Nelson. More study of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y is des i rable f o r planning purposes i n CBD's. The improvement of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y should be one of the many object ives in CBD Improvement. CHAPTER III MEASUREMENT OP RETAIL LAND USE COMPATIBILITY-CASE STUDIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The analysis i n this chapter i l l u s t r a t e s and explains the e x i s t i n g degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y In the selected B r i t i s h Columbia case study communities of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Castlegar shown on Map 1, page 21. Purposes of t h i s analysis are twofold. F i r s t l y , It i s imperative that the e x i s t i n g degree of r e t a i l land use com-p a t i b i l i t y be measured p r i o r to determining what remedial act ion should be recommended i f any. In other words, the extent and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the problem must be c l e a r l y ana-lyzed and understood before a proper considerat ion can be given to the planning measures necessary to solve that problem. Secondly, poor r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y has several causes which are revealed through the analys is presented In t h i s chaDter. Consideration of appropriate means to a l l e v i -ate or eradicate these causes forms the basis of analys is i n the remainder of the study. Obviously, these causes must be w e l l understood before any planning recommendations can be made. I. CASE STUDY MUNICIPALITIES The case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were chosen on the basis of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y i n r e l a t i o n to four c r i t e r i a ; 21 C A S E S T U D Y M U N I C I P A L I T I E S Universi ty of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a Div. of Communi ty &, Regional Planning M . A . T h e s i s A . M e r l o 0 ipol V///1 Y///A _ J Mi les April 1966 M a p No. 1 22 r e g i o n a l c e n t r a l i t y , p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , economic base, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s . Because of a lack of time the study was r e s t r i c t e d to the a n a l y s i s of three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s chosen f o r the case study are r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r i n r e s p e c t to the above c r i t e r i a . S i m i -l a r i t y on the b a s i s of the f o u r c r i t e r i a i s necessary b e f o r e a p r a c t i c a l comparison can be made. The b a s i c elements of the comparison a r e shown In Table II on the f o l l o w i n g page. The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , b e i n g r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s , s a t i s f y the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n . Duncan i s p a r t of the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i -p a l i t y of North Cowichan and i s the main c e n t e r of employ-ment and commerce of the Cowichan V a l l e y . 1 S i m i l a r l y , Grand Porks i s the c e n t e r of the Boundary r e g i o n between the West Kootenays and the Southern Okanagan. C a s t l e g a r , being a t the southern e x t r e m i t y of the Arrow Lakes as w e l l as a t the confluence of the Kootenay and Columbia R i v e r s i s i n a n a t u r a l c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . C a s t l e g a r i s the c e n t e r of a r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g the communities of B l u e b e r r y Creek, B r i l -l i a n t , K r e s t o v a , Pass Creek, Renata and Robson. A l l t h r e e c i t i e s are c e n t e r s of economic r e g i o n s d e l i m i t e d i n the Regiona l Index of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2 iBureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , R e g i o n a l Index  of B r i t i s h Columbia, ( V i c t o r i a : Department of Trade, Commerce and I n d u s t r i a l Development, 19660, p. 299. 2 I b i d . , p p 0 51. 107, 299. 23 TABLE II CASE STUDY MUNICIPALITIES—ELEMENTS OP SIMILARITY Duncan Grand Forks Castlegar Regional C e n t r a l i t y * -Economic region center -Main center i n School D i s t r i c t No. 6 5 . -Economic - r e g i o n center -Main center in School D i s t r i c t No. 12. -Economic region center -Main center i n School D i s t r i c t No. 9 . Population ( 1 9 6 l)b Estimated Dec. 31, 1964.c 3,726 4 , 1 0 0 2,314-7 2,600 2,253 2,750 Sectors of Economyd 1 .Forestry 2.Service industr ies 3 . A g r i c u l t u r e 4„Cement ma-nufacturing ^•Commercial f i s h i n g 1. Fores t r y 2. R e t a i l trade 3. Mining 4 . A g r i c u l t u r e 5. Tourism 1.Fores t r y 2.Service i n d u s t r i e s 3 . Trade 4 . Tourism 5. A g r i c u l t u r e Transpor-t a t i o n f a c i l i t l e s e - T w o - r a i l l i n e s -Trans-Canada Highway - F e r r y services - T w o - r a i l l i n e s -Trans-Canada Highway - O n e - r a i l l i n e -Trans-Canada Highway - A i r p o r t (CPA ) aBureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Regional Index of  B r i t i s h Columbia, January 1966, pp. 51, 107, 299. b I b l d . c B r i t i s h Columbia Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Munic ipal S t a t i s t i c s » ( V i c t o r i a : Department of Munic ipal A f f a i r s , 1964), pp. 10, 11. d 0 p . c i t . e i b l d . 2k The U9© of school d i s t r i c t s can show fur ther the c e n t r a l i t y of the above m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Duncan, Grand Forks , and Castlegar are the centers of School D i s t r i c t Numbers s i x t y - f i v e , twelve and n i n e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 3 School d i s t r i c t s are merely one index of r e g i o n a l c e n t r a l i t y but are s u f f i -c ient to prove that the p r i n c i p a l c i t i e s are r e g i o n a l centers . The boundaries of the school d i s t r i c t s may not coincide exact ly with that of the p a r t i c u l a r region but w i l l be approximately s i m i l a r because of the r e s t r i c t i v e nature of the t e r r a i n i n the three areas discussed. In other words, the regions have been l a r g e l y predetermined by n a t u r a l features such as mountains and water b o d i e s . The three c i t i e s are comparable on the basis of popu-l a t i o n s ize even though Duncan is somewhat l a r g e r than Castlegar and Grand Forks . The prime considerat ion i s that population s ize determines the range of goods and serv ices a v a i l a b l e . The di f ference In population is not large enough to cause any great variance In the types of goods and services that are necessary. The main concern i s to have m u n i c i p a l i t i e s that o f f e r b a s i c a l l y the same types of out-l e t s . Although Duncan has more r e t a i l outlets than e i t h e r Grand Forks or Cast legar , the types of business e s t a b l i s h -ments are s i m i l a r as shown by Table III on the f o l l o w i n g page. This table is comprehensive l i s t of the types of land m i d . 25 TABLE III COMMON CBD BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENTS IN CASE MUNICIPALITIES Convenience Goods Services Drugs Barber Ve Supermarket Ve Beaut ic ian Ve Bakery Cleaner , laundry Ve Grocery * Glazing • Meat • f r Laundromat G,C Liquor Ve Medical C l i n i c Ve Hardware Ve O f f i c e s Ve Paint , Wallpaper Real Estate Ve Books Optometrist , O p t i c a l Ve Camera Photographer Ve Candy Ve Post O f f i c e Vr F l o r i s t & U t i l i t y C o l l e c t i o n Ve G i f t s , Cards D Repairs , - c y c l e D O f f i c e Equipment G -household Hobbles, toys Gardening - Shoe r e p a i r , shine * - Auto Sales , Services Shoppers' Gqods Car Dealer D,G Department Store D,G Auto parts , accessories D,G Apparel - c h i l d r e n ' s Ve Auto r e p a i r D,G - f a m i l y Ve Service S t a t i o n Ve -men's Ve Used Car l o t D,G -women's Ve Miscellaneous Hosiery , women's Bank, f i n a n c i a l Bowling Ve Linger ie Ve Ve Shoes, , - f a m i l y Vr Mortuary G -men's, boy's Ve Theatre # -women's * Other* Varie ty & lOjzf Ve B i l l i a r d s Ve Jewelry Ve Motels C Furni ture Ve Hotels Dry goods Residences Ve K n i t t i n g D Vacant Stores Ve Linens - Parking l o t s Ve Appleances Ve Vacant Lots Vr Bar, Tavern Vt D r i v e - i n Eating -E a t i n g , Drinking Ve Tearooms — Legend: Use common to a l l three case m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . D Use e x i s t i n g i n Duncan. G Use e x i s t i n g in Grand F o r k s . C Use e x i s t i n g i n Cast legar . - Use not e x i s t i n g i n a l l three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . a The uses l i s t e d i n t h i s category are those not i n c l u -ded in Richard L . Nelson's l i s t shown in Table I on page 16 . 26 uses found In CBD's of small communities and shows those uses common to a l l of the case m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The economic bases of the three case m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are s i m i l a r i n that the main sectors of the economies are s i m i l a r . Forestry i s the most important economic a c t i v i t y i n a l l three areas while the service and r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s are secondary.^- Other minor economic a c t i v i t i e s are shown in Table I I . A l l three communities show promise of poten-t i a l growth, thus, increasing the s t a b i l i t y of the economies. Growth i s expected i n the f o r e s t r y Industries of Duncan and Grand Forks while i t i s l i k e l y that C a s t l e g a r , w i l l Increase as a center of tourism and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 5 The construe- -t l o n of the Arrow Dam near Cast legar , which w i l l provide employment f o r 650 men u n t i l 1968, must not be over looked.6 A l l three communities are wel l served by railways and the trans-Canada highway. A l l three communities have r a i l -road f r e i g h t service while only Duncan has passenger s e r v i c e . The communities benef i t by the bus and truck services that operate on a l l trans-Canada highways. Although, Duncan has f e r r y services a v a i l a b l e because of i t s coastal l o c a t i o n and Castlegar operates an a i r p o r t used d a i l y by Canadian 5 l b l d . , pp. 53, 107, 299. 6 I b i d . , p„ 51. P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s the communities are quite comparable i n regard to t ransporta t ion l inkages . The main point is that the three communities are served equally w e l l by r a i l and highway which are the important t ransporta t ion linkages i n this class of community. The foregoing analysis reveals that for a l l intents and purposes the three communities are s i m i l a r enough to be prac t i cably compared. The degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the CBD's of the three case m u n i c i p a l i t i e s obviously i s not t o t a l l y representative of the degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y in the CBD's of a l l B r i t i s h Columbia m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Muni-c i p a l i t i e s varying great ly according to the four c r i t e r i a discussed w i l l i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d have the same problems r e l a ted to r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y but varying In extent . The problems that e x i s t i n l a r g e r CBD's could be expected to be greater i n magnitude and more complex than those i n smaller CBD's . It i s highly u n l i k e l y that many CBD's , I f any, would not have any of the problems that are discussed l a t e r in t h i s chapter. The assumption Is that the problems related to r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y in the CBD's of the case study muni-c i p a l i t i e s are s i m i l a r to those found i n the CBD's of other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or c i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. I I . METHOD OP ANALYSIS A3 mentioned in Chapter I I , Richard L. Nelson's compatibility table for the downtown area of a medium-sized community, shown as Table I on page 16 Is used i n the analysis undertaken in this Chapter. The f i v e symbols representing r e l a t i v e degrees of r e t a i l compatibility are used as well. Although the table has a large l i s t of uses that are generally found In downtown areas, some very c r i t i c a l uses are not l i s t e d . The omission of r e s i d e n t i a l uses, vacant r e t a i l stores and motels from the table has required the adoption of a si x t h symbol. The adopted symbol (for uses omitted by Nelson) i s equivalent in r e l a t i v e compatibi l i t y to his f i f t h symbol (de l e t e r i o u s ) , except that i t is i the shape of a c i r c l e rather than a square. The lowest degree of r e t a i l compatibility given in this instance is j u s t i f i e d on the basis of Nelson's d e f i n i t i o n of r e t a i l compatibility cited on page 1? of C h a p t e r II„ N o i n t e r -change of customers would occur between a vacant store and any type of commercial use. A similar s i t u a t i o n exists where residences and motels are adjacent to any commercial land use since the types of residences and motels found in the three municipalities*studied have low densi t i e s . Thus the interchange for a l l intents and purposes is n e g l i g i b l e . 29 Each symbol shown on Maps 2, 3, and 1+ on the f o l l o w i n g pages r e p r e s e n t the degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y between two adjacent uses. I t i s f e l t t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e to i l l u s t r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y the degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y between uses t h a t are separated by o t h e r uses. Besides, Nelson does not f u l l y e x p l a i n when two uses a r e In c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ; t h i s i s necessary before commercial uses can have an e f f e c t upon one another. A very s m a l l number of cases occurred where the e f f e c t of one s t o r e to another was more f a v o r a b l e than the converse, i n e f f e c t they are not e q u a l l y compatible. For example, a department s t o r e i s h i g h l y compatible to a wool shop whereas a wool shop i s moderately compatible to a department s t o r e . In such cases the h i g h e s t degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y was d e s i g -nated. The use o f the symbols i s not to be i n t e r p r e t e d as the exact degree of interchange as c i t e d by Nelson. Since the r e l a t i o n s h i p s are based on a n a l y s i s of v a r i o u s c i t i e s i n the U n i t e d States they are not f o o l - p r o o f In t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to the B r i t i s h Columbia m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s p o s s i b l y the o n l y and b e s t one a v a i l a b l e f o r the purposes of t h i s study. The o b j e c t of t h e i r use Is to p r o v i d e an approximate measurement of the r e l a t i v e degrees of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 30 • highly compatible • moderately compatible + slightly compatible © incompatible • deleterious O deleterious (note p.29 D dead spots LEGEND' tOO'vH convenience & shoppers goods Y//A serv ices k \ N automotive t-——— 1 miscel laneous 1 1 other (note p.29 CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT OF DUNCAN B.C. University of B r i t i sh Columbia Div. of Community ^Regional Planning M. A. Thesis—A.Merlo ©2 feet April 1966 MapNo. 2 J i . R E T A I L C O M P A T I B I L I T Y L E G E N D • h igh ly compat ib le conven ience & shoppers goods • m o d e r a t e l y compa t ib le V///A s e r v i c e s + s l i g h t l y c o m p a t i b l e F C X ^ au tomo t i ve ( n o t e p.25) © i n c o m p a t i b l e • d e l e t e r i o u s O de I e t e r i c us (note p.28) D dead s p o t s N nonconforming uses li m i s c e l l a n e o u s 1 o t h e r C E N T R A L B U S I N E S S D I S T R I C T O F GRAND F O R K S B.C. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Div. of C o m m u n i t y & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M . A . T h e s i s - A . M e r l o Y///A Y///2L. 200 feet A p r i l 1 9 6 6 M a p N o . 3 32 R E T A I L C O M P A T I B I L I T Y Maple s t . • hi ghly c o m p a t i b l e • m o d e r a t e l y compat ib le + s l i g h t l y c o m p a t i b l e © i n c o m p a t i b l e • d e l e t e r i o u s O d e l e t e r i o u s ( n o t e p . 2 8 ) D d e a d s p o t s N n o n c o n f o r m i n g u s e s L E G E N D convenience & shoppers goods s e r v i c e s K \ 1 automotive ( note p.25) Ir-J^zll misce l laneous I I o ther C E N T R A L B U S I N E S S DISTRICT O F C A S T L E G A R B . C U n i v e r s i t y o f . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a „ Djv. of Communi ty & Regional Planning M. A . The s i s - A . M e r Io WA Y//M feet Apri l 1966 M a p No. I I I . DEGREE 0* RETAIL COMPATIBILITY Before the degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of each case munic ipal i ty i s analyzed i n d i v i d u a l l y , cer tain common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t i n g r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y are discussed. Lack of compactness of the c e n t r a l r e t a i l areas and the existence of "dead spots" in the centra l r e t a i l areas are evident i n the communities of Duncan, Grand Porks and Castlegar whose CBD's are i l l u s t r a t e d on Maps ?, 3» and h . Admittedly, the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s exist In the case m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n varying degrees. Nevertheless , the causes of a lack of compactness and the causes of the existence of "dead spots" are s i m i l a r i n a l l three case m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . R e t a i l Compactness It appears that a higher degree of r e t a i l compati-b i l i t y is caused by a higher degree of r e t a i l compactness. The reason being that fewer incompatible or n o n - r e t a i l uses are located between r e t a i l uses when a high degree of r e t a i l compactness e x i s t s . Grand Porks is superior i n t h i s respect as compared with Duncan and Cast legar . In the l a t t e r two communities several r e t a i l uses are located scattered around the prime r e t a i l area which are separated by cer ta in n o n - r e t a i l uses. The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway r ight -of -way adjacent to the CBD of Castlegar separates 31+ cer ta in r e t a i l uses from the prime r e t a i l sect ion s i tuated around the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Columbia Avenue and Pine S t r e e t . The r e s u l t s are that a poor degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y exists between the uses separated from and an opportunity has been los t f o r increased c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the prime r e -t a i l areas by the i n c l u s i o n of these separated uses. In Duncan, r e t a i l uses are located north of Ingram Street and on McAdam Street as well as in the block bounded by Ingram S t r e e t , Jubi lee Avenue and Kenneth. S t ree t . In t o t a l th is accounts f o r fourteen r e t a i l uses that general ly have a deleter ious degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y with adjacent uses. Although 3-rand Porks i s r e l a t i v e l y more compact than ei ther Duncan or Castlegar , the problem exists i n Grand Porks as w e l l . Pour r e t a i l uses located at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Ninth Street East and Second Avenue South are remote from the prime shopping area which is located on P i r s t Avenue South between Tenth Street East and twelf th Street E a s t . A l s o , c e r t a i n r e t a i l uses north of Centra l Avenue are remote from the prime shopping areas, not so much by distance as by heavy t r a f f i c along Centra l Avenue which i s the Southern t r a n s - p r o v i n c i a l highway. Two of the above mentioned r e t a i l uses located on the block bounded by Ninth Street Eas t , Central Avenue, and Tenth Street East are separated by d i s -tance as well as by t r a f f i c from the prime r e t a i l area. The locations of these two r e t a i l uses, a supermarket and l i q u o r 35 store, are c r i t i c a l in regard to future r e t a i l compa-t i b i l i t y . The strong drawing power of the two uses may have a tendency to a t t r a c t other r e t a i l uses wishing to c a p i t a l i z e on the shopper t r a f f i c . Thus a minor nucleus could develop separately from the prime r e t a i l - a r e a . I t is l i k e l y , i n such an event, that r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y would weaken since there would ex is t a greater opportunity for n o n - r e t a i l uses to locate between the two nodes of r e t a i l land uses than i f a compact character were achieved. Lack of compactness of the r e t a i l uses of a C ^ D can have several causes. Overzoning, high land values and broad c e n t r a l commercial zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s can have a serious weakening e f f e c t on the attainment of a high degree of r e t a i l compactness. The e f f e c t of overzoning for commercial purposes i s summed up by the f o l l o w i n g : The area and frontage zoned for commercial purposes in the ent i re c i t y should not exceed by more than a reason-able margin what c a r e f u l and r e a l i s t i c estimates indica te w i l l l i k e l y be absorbed by business develop-ments within the predic table f u t u r e . The common pract ice of zoning too much property f o r business purposes r e s u l t s in a scattered type of development, deprecia t ion of values , r u i n i n g of property f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes in advance of i t s need for business , excessive expendi-tures f o r municipal s e r v i c e s , and so on. For example, a l l of the frontage on major s treets is sometimes regarded as p o t e n t i a l business frontage. In most c i t i e s the l o t s along major streets represent about 2 5 per cent of the t o t a l developed urban area but only 2 to £ percent is required for business purposes. Zoning a s u b s t a n t i a l portion of this frontage for business purposes ruins i t for i t s only p r a c t i c a b l e purposes — 3 6 r e s i d e n t i a l uses. Many c i t i e s have zoned from three to ten times as much frontage for business uses as w i l l ever be required."7 Overzoning, as well aa being detrimental to r e s i -d e n t i a l areas, is harmful to the compactness of r e t a i l areas. The p o s s i b i l i t y la greater for development of a scattered pattern of r e t a i l uses when a CBD i s over-zoned commercially than I f the CBD i s adequately zoned for commercial purposes as described above. The influence of variations in land values in or near the CBD area on compactness of the r e t a i l core i s quite evident. Retailers choosing a s i t e may decide to locate two or three blocks from the prime r e t a i l area, favoring cheaper c a p i t a l coats In land and buildings over greater pot e n t i a l sales volumes that are possible in or adjacent to the prime r e t a i l area. It is conceivable that a central commercial zon-ing c l a s s i f i c a t i o n that permits many non-retail uses would not be conducive to obtaining a compact r e t a i l center. The adoption of such a zoning d i s t r i c t would r e s u l t i n the encouragement of a mixture of land uses, thus l i m i t i n g the degree of r e t a i l compactness which could be achieved. 7Mary McLean (ed.), Local Planning Administration, (Chicago: The International City Managers' Association, 1914.8), pp. ?77-?78. 37 "Dead S p o t s " . The term, "dead spots" , as used by Richard L . Nelson, (explained on page 13 of Chapter I I . ) is held synonymous with dead frontages . Por the purposes of this study "dead spots" are vacant s tores , n o n - r e t a i l uses and c e r t a i n automotive uses in or near the prime r e t a i l areas. The i n c l u s i o n of automotive uses as "dead spots" i s j u s t i f i e d on the basis of the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the ped-es t r ian and the automobile in r e l a t i o n to the shopping func-t i o n . A l l three of the case study communities have c e r t a i n dead spots which are detrimental to adjacent r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h -ments. The influence of such dead spots is r e a d i l y evident upon analysis of maps 2, 3, and I4., of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Castlegar r e s p e c t i v e l y . In a l l cases, the dead spots have a deleterious e f f e c t on t h e i r neighbors. Dead spots are the e f f e c t of three causes; ( 1 ) over-zoning, ( 2 ) broad c e n t r a l commercial zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and, ( 3 ) the existence of nonconforming uses . Over-zoning allows greater opportunity f o r dead spots to e x i s t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of over-zoning to dead spots i s s i m i l a r to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between over-zoning and a lack of r e t a i l compactness. A higher degree of compactness of r e t a i l uses would r e s u l t In fewer dead spots . Central commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s th*t allow a wide range of land uses , many of which are n o n - r e t a i l uses, engen-38 der the existence of dead spots i n the prime r e t a i l areas. This is e s p e c i a l l y evident in the case of Duncan which has a very broad general business c l a s s i f i c a t i o n imposed on the CBD which allows v i r t u a l l y any use which i s not of noxious nature .8 B a s i c a l l y the same s i t u a t i o n ex is t s i n Grand Porks which has a very broad commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 9 The e f fec ts are more evident i n Duncan than i n Grand Forks . Castlegar does not have a broad commercial c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n , ra ther , the core commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n includes several n o n - r e t a i l uses . lO Even so, dead spots do exis t abundantly i n the prime r e t a i l area i n the form of non-conforming uses. I t seems that Cast legar is in a more favorable p o s i t i o n i n this regard, gradual e l i m i n a t i o n of the non nonconforming uses in favor of conforming uses would increase r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . How do the three CBD's rate in Relat ion to R e t a i l Compatibi- l i t y ? It i s necessary to discuss the o v e r - a l l r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the three case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s taking each one in t u r n . The CBD of Duncan shows promise in one respect and i s d isappoint ing i n another respec t . 0See Appendix B, page 1?0. 9See Appendix C, page 123« lOSee Appendix D, page 126. 39 The business uses l o c a t e d near the i n t e r s e c t i o n of S t a t i o n s t r e e t and C r a i g Avenue have the h i g h e s t degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The hundred per cent l o c a t i o n or the hi g h -e s t valued p r o p e r t i e s per square f o o t i n the CBD are probably found i n t h i s l o c a t i o n . There are few Incompatible or d e l e t e r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h i s a rea. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n most in s t a n c e s range from s l i g h t l y compatible to h i g h l y compatible. An e x c e p t i o n a l s e r i e s of moderately comoatible and h i g h l y compatible uses are found on the n o r t h s i d e of S t a t i o n S t r e e t bound by C r a i g and Canada Avenues. The remainder of the CBD e x h i b i t s p r i m a r i l y incompatible and d e l e t e r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h some s l i g h t l y compatible uses and v i r t u a l l y no moderately or h i g h l y compatible uses. The reasons f o r t h i s have been expressed i n the f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n s d i s c u s s i n g compactness and dead s p o t s . Grand Porks, l i k e Duncan, shows promise although the same degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y has not been achieved i n the prime r e t a i l area. The frontages along P i r s t Avenue South bounded by E l e v e n t h S t r e e t E a s t and T w e l f t h S t r e e t East e x h i b i t the h i g h e s t degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Except f o r two dead spots which have d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on n e i g h b o r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , t h i s area ranges from s l i g h t -l y compatible uses to h i g h l y compatible uses. The fro n t a g e s on F i r s t Avenue South bound by Tenth S t r e e t E a s t and El e v e n t h S t r e e t E a s t do not a t t a i n the same degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y as the previously mentioned frontages. Three dead spots i n this area are s e r i o u s l y h a r m f u l . . The replacement of these dead spots by s u i t a b l e r e t a i l uses would ra ise the degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y considerably . The remainder of the uses are s e r i o u s l y a f fec ted by a lack of a s s o c i a t i o n to other r e t a i l uses . The existence of dead spots and non-r e t a i l uses interspersed between the remainder of the r e t a i l uses is not iceably harmful. B a s i c a l l y the seme s i t u a t i o n is evident in Castlegar as in Duncan and Grand Porks. The highest degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s found between the stores on the east side of Columbia Avenue bounded by Maple Street and Pine S t r e e t . The range is from s l i g h t l y compatible to highly compatible. The remainder of r e t a i l uses are hampered by the deleter ious e f fec ts of dead soots and nonconforming uses. Some s l i g h t l y compatible uses are found i n the block bound by Pine S t r e e t , Columbia Avenue and the Canadian P a c i f i c railway r i g h t - o f -way. IV. SUMMARY The analys is of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y presented in this chapter reveals that the CBD's of the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are r e l a t i v e l y equal l n t h e i r degrees of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . A l l three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have prime r e t a i l areas located within the CBD where r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y , in general , ranges from s l i g h t l y compatible to highly compatible. In each case, the degree of compa-t i b i l i t y In the area surrounding the prime r e t a i l i n t e r -sections or areas leaves much to be d e s i r e d . The degrees of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y In the surrounding areas are mostly d e l e t e r i o u s , with a few instances showing s l i g h t compatibi -l i t y . The four main causes of pt)or r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y are: overzonlng; broad CBD commercial zoning c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n s ; existence of nonconforming u s e s ; and the fac t that property values are lower in the periphery of the CBD 1s than in or near the prime r e t a i l areas. A lack of com-pactness and the existence of dead spots are the r e s u l t s of the above causes which i n turn are detrimental to r e -t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . A l l of the above causes are not analyzed in the remainder of th is study due to l i m i t a t i o n s In time* Analysis Is not made of overzoning and property values i n the CBD's of the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . CHAPTER IV COMMERCIAL ZONE RECLASSIFICATION This chapter shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n of commercial zones and CBD r e t a i l land use com-p a t i b i l i t y . The main purpose of t h i s chapter is to analyse the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r e c l a s s i f y i n g commercial categories found in selected municipal zoning bylaws i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The purpose of r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is to achieve a higher degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . I. RELATIONSHIP OF ZONING AND RETAIL LAND USE COMPATIBILITY An important object ive of zoning is to protect cer ta in areas from the encroachment of undesirable land uses. O r i g i n a l l y , such protect ion was f e l t necessary p r i m a r i l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l areas. L i t t l e consideration was given to other uses, —such as r e t a i l business zones. The object ive of zoning f o r protect ion is as appl icable to r e t a i l areas as i t i s to r e s i d e n t i a l areas, even though this concept has not been widely implemented.^ The place of zoning in achieving r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y is that : I t is a mechanism f o r long-term re-grouping of compa-t i b l e uses, in which various types of r e t a i l business zones w i l l be made up of businesses which are comple-iRIchard L . Nelson, Frederick T . Aschman, Conservation & R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Major Shopping D i s t r i c t , (Technical B u l l e t i n No. ??, Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , February, 1951*.), p. 35. kl mentary to each other (aa i n customer-interchange) or at leas t are not adverae to the proper f u n c t i o n i n g of a d i s t r i c t (aa i n the caae of busineasea which are "dead spots" , so far as other buainessea are concerned.) If proper zones are e s t a b l i s h e d , i t ia then poss ible that over a period of time many incompatible uses may gradually disappear or be relocated in more proper areas I I . CLASSIFICATION OF RETAIL BUSINESS USES C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e t a i l business uses involves group-ing together compatible uses and separating uses which are not compatible or in other words, uses which are deleterious to one another. This resul t s i n a l i s t of categories much too large f o r p r a c t i c a l use in a zoning bylaw. The long l i s t must be consolidated in to fewer d i s t r i c t s before they can be properly administered i n the form of a zoning bylaw. Since a l l c i t i e s have i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a thorough analysis would be required to determine the most sui table number of d i s t r i c t s and t h e i r composition. R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or c l a a a i f i c a t i o n should be baaed on the f o l l o w i n g : C l a a a i f i c a t i o n should be so arranged as to r e s u l t i n the grouping together of those establishments which w i l l ' draw trade which is mutually interchangeable. Where the i n t r o d u c t i o n of an establishment would create a "dead s p o t * ? $ t should insofar as poss ible be given separate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 3 3 l b i d . I I I . COMMERCIAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF CASE STUDY MUNICIPALITIES Before any recommendations f o r r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e t a i l business zones can be made, i t i s necessary to e s t a b l i s h the nature of the commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s that ex is t s i n selected B r i t i s h Columbia m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . For th is purpose, the commercial zone c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of Duncan, Grand Forks, and Castlegar are analyzed. Analys is is r e s t r i -cted to those d i s t r i c t s designed f o r the CBD area . The zoning bylaw of the C i t y of Duncan provides two types of commercial d i s t r i c t s , - - l o c a l shopping d i s t r i c t s and general business d i s t r i c t s . The general business d i s t r i c t ^ which applies to the CBD of Duncan, allows a wide range of commercial uses . This bylaw is a p r o h i b i t i v e by-law, al lowing a l l uses except cer ta in s p e c i f i e d uses which are of the noxious i n d u s t r i a l v a r i e t y , as shown i n Appendix B. This bylaw, besides a l lowing a wide range of commercial uses, allows many non-commercial uses, such as dwel l ings , that are not of the noxious i n d u s t r i a l v a r i e t y . I t i s un-l i k e l y that such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would promote a high degree of r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . No attempt has been made to group mutually complementary uses and to segregate i n -compatible or deleterious uses. The zoning bylaw of the Ci ty of Grand Forks i s s i m i l a r to that of Duncan i n that i t provides f o r two types of commercial d i s t r i c t s , - - l o c a l shopping d i s t r i c t s and general business d i s t r i c t s . The general business d i s t r i c t permits uses allowed i n r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , l o c a l commercial d i s t r i c t s and several other commercial uses, as shown i n Appendix C. In e f f e c t , b a s i c a l l y the same s i t u a t i o n ex is t s i n Grand Porks as i n Duncan i n regard to r e t a i l business c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The zoning bylaw of Castlegar allows for s ix com-mercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . ^ - A l o c a l commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n allows convenience type businesses . The core commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n allows a r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group of businesses which of fers f o r sale or r e p a i r household or personal goods and personal s e r v i c e s . Hotels are also permitted while dwellings are not . A service commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n allows the l a t t e r r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group as wel l as a second r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group of businesses which of fers f o r sale or service any goods that require access by automobile.5 The grouping together of compatible uses is attempted as r e -vealed by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . An attempt has been made to separate uses that cater to automobile t r a f f i c and those that cater to pedestrian t r a f f i c . Another c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , service s t a t i o n commercial, allows the second r e t a i l -service group and uses that o f f e r f o r sale motor fuels or IjJSee Appendix D, page 1?6. S l b i d . l u b r i c a t i n g o i l s with or without minor repairing of motor vehicles or the sale of motor vehicles accessories. The service station commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n also permits touri s t accommodations. There are also two service t o u r i s t commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which permit t o u r i s t accommodations and accessory one-family dwellings, the difference between the two being that one allows for t r a i l e r sales while the other does not. The Castlegar commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s much more sophisticated than e i t h e r that of Grand Forks or Duncan. The f a c t is that the Castlegar zoning bylaw, adopted shortly a f t e r June 1965, i s a result of a recent planning study conducted for Castlegar by a town planning consulting firm.^ The previous zoning bylaw of Castlegar specified just one commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n allowing o f f i c e uses, commercial uses and r e s i d e n t i a l uses when in conjunction with permitted commercial uses.7 The uses included by the terms " o f f i c e uses" and "commercial uses" were not s p e c i f i e d . It is obvious that the l a t t e r c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n has had more of an effect upon the existing state of r e t a i l compatibility than the recently adopted 6Formerly Rawson 5c Williams Co. Ltd, Vancouver B. C. presently Rawson & Wiles Co. Ltd. Vancouver, B.C. ?The Corporation of the Village of Castlegar, Bylaw  No. 2\\2. p. 5» c l a s s i f i c a t i o n since i t was i n e f f e c t much longer . There has not been an attempt in e i t h e r Duncan or Grand Porks to group compatible uses in the CBD areas through the use of zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Both e x i s t i n g general business c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , appl icable to the CBD's of Duncan and Grand Porks, are very general , a l lowing a v a r i e t y of uses . Such broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are not con-ducive to r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Dwellings are one of the uses permitted without any r e s t r i c t i o n s in the CBD commercial zones of both Duncan and Grand Porks. Here again , the Castlegar Bylqw r e f l e c t s greater understanding of the problems of r e t a i l compatibi-l i t y . Dwellings are not permitted i n the core commercial zones, service commercial zones and service s t a t i o n commer-c i a l zones of Castlegar but sre permitted as accessory uses in the l o c a l commercial zones and service t o u r i s t commercial zones. The exclusion of residences from the CBD commercial areas eliminates the chances of residences c r e a t i n g "dead spots" . IV. EXCLUSION OP RESIDENTIAL LAND USES FROM THE CBD Before zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are discussed to im-prove r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n CBD's, a p o l i c y regarding dwellings i n the business zones must be e s t a b l i s h e d . The pol icy of excluding dwellings from business zones is 1*8 s p r e a d i n g . 0 The s i t u a t i o n i n regard to permit t ing d w e l l -ings i n business zones may be summarized by the f o l l o w i n g : Dwellings i n business zones are of several v a r i e t i e s . Some are located above s tores , others are located i n separate b u i l d i n g s . Homes above stores do not i n t e r -fere with the business carr ied on below, but the dwellings are bound to be affec ted by t h e i r l o c a t i o n . C l o s e l y k n i t groups of stores and the t ranspor ta t ion l i n e s conducive to good business leave l i t t l e room f o r l i g h t , a i r , and open space necessary for r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s - - d w e l l i n g s , schools , playgrounds. What is good for business is not n e c e s s a r i l y good for family l i f e . T r a f f i c , n o i s e , heat, dust, and d i r t from the s treets in a business sec t ion are detrimental to home l i f e and the r e a r i n g of c h i l d r e n . R e s i d e n t i a l uses that are not part of business structures break up business d i s t r i c t s and create dead spots that reduce the close i n t e r a c t i o n of business a c t i v i t i e s . Intruding uses cause undue s c a t t e r i n g of businesses which In turn slows down movement of goods and people. Free standing dwellings are also a f fec ted by a business d i s t r i c t environment A s p e c i a l case is presented in the case of r e s i -d e n t i a l land use because, as indicated above, they break up r e t a i l frontages and sometimes create "dead s p o t s " . The adverse e f f e c t s on dwellings i n the CBD's of Duncan, Grand Forks and Castlegar are not nearly as extreme as described above. The quotation describes the s i t u a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n much l a r g e r c i t i e s where the detrimental effec ts are con-s iderably greater . However, residences do break-up r e t a i l rtflAmerIcan Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Exclusive  I n d u s t r i a l and Commercial Zoning, (Chicago: Information Report No. 91, Planning Advisory S e r v i c e , American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , October 1956.) p . 22. 9 l b i d k9 frontages and create dead spots In Duncan, Grand Porks and Cast legar . Por the purposes of Improving r e t a i l compati-b i l i t y It would be desi rable to disal low r e s i d e n t i a l land uses In the commercial zones of CBD's. T h i s would be met with severe c r i t i c i s m in small communities because a r e l a -t i v e l y high percentage of people would be affec ted as com-pared to large c i t i e s . As indicated p r e v i o u s l y , the ad-verse ef fec ts on dwellings i n small CBD's is not harmful . At least i t i3 not harmful enough to prevent a high per-centage of people from choosing to l i v e there. In view of this fac t the p o l i c y taken is a compromise. Dwellings should be allowed i n the CBD's of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Castlegar i f the dwellings are of an accessory nature . Also dwellings may be permitted on a c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s . V. M0D3L ZONING ORDINANCES - WHAT CBD COMMERCIAL CLASSIFICATIONS? Before any recommendations can be made concerning proper CBD commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , a review of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n attempts is necessary. A review of the a v a i l a b l e model zoning o r d i n -ances is made in an e f f o r t to determine the general ly accepted planning p r i n c i p l e s , I f any, that are r e l a t e d to CBD commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The d i f f i c u l t y of recom-mending c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i s re la ted to the fact that the 50 number and types of d i s t r i c t s to be included in a zoning plan depends upon the size and cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community and that no generalizations can be made i n this r e s p e c t . R e g a r d l e s s of the l i m i t a t i o n s , i t i s f e l t that there is some evidence of general agreement regarding the nature o f the various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of CBD commercial areas. Most of the uncertainty in c l a s s i f y i n g CBD commercial areas is i n determining the number of zones i n r e l a t i o n to population size of the p a r t i c u l a r urban area. The problem of c l a s s i f y i n g CBD commercial areas i s made up of two as-pects; number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and the nature or make-up of the various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , both of which are d i r e c t l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . Generally, the larger the population of a c i t y , the larger w i l l be the number of commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s In the CBD commercial area. This f a c t is borne out by the analysis of several model zoning ordinances. Even though this fact is r e a d i l y apparent, many discrepancies e x i s t . For example, some model zoning ordinances specify the same number and types of CBD commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c communities that vary markedly i n population sizes. Table IV on page 51 shows this point. Four c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are recommended for the CBD's of the urban areas i n Jackson J-UMurlin R. Hodgell, Zoning, (Manhattan: Kansas Engineering Experiment Station, B u l l e t i n 81^ ., Vol. XLII, No. 6. Kansas State College, A p r i l 1, 1958), p. 1+0. 51 TABLE IV RECOMMENDED ZONING CATEGORIES POR CBD --MODEL ZONING ORDINANCES Area No. of Muni-c i p a -l i t i e s Popula-t i o n Range Average Popula-t i o n size Zones re la ted to CBD No. Descr ipt ion Hood River County, Oregona 2 660-3,657 2; 158 1. General Jackson County, Oregonb 6 762+- 6,1+1+0 k* 1. R e t a i l business and ser -vices 2. Heavy Commercial 3. O f f i c e Commercial 1+. Thoroughfare Commercial State of Kansas 0 5 , o o o -15,000 10,000 1. 1. General Stanislaus County, C a l l f o r -nlad 15 1,109-36,585 5,683 3. 1. O f f i c e s 2. R e t a i l , services and wholesale and o f f i c e s 3. Commercial-l ight manu-f a c t u r i n g A general recommendation f o r "smal l towns" .© 3. 1. R e t a i l , o f f i c e s , service 2. Wholesale, warehousing, r e p a i r shops 3. D r i v e - l n establishments Sources;  a . B u r e a u of Munic ipal Research and S e r v i c e , Uniform  Zoning Ordinance f o r Hood River County and the C i t i e s of the  County, U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, A p r i l 1963, pp. 10-11. ^•Bureau of Munic ipal Research and S e r v i c e , Zoning  Ordinance Pat tern , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, December 1962, pp. 1+-5. c » M u r l i n R. Hodgel l , Zoning, (Manhattan:Kansas Engineer-ing Experiment S t a t i o n , B u l l e t i n Hi+, V o l . XLII , No. 6. Kanaas State C o l l e g e , A p r i l 1, 1958), p . 1+0. d . W i l l i a m E . Spangle J r . , Model Zoning Ordinance, (Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n l s l a u s C i t i e s - C o u n t y Advance Planning Staf$ January 1+, I960), pp. 87-97. e « R i c h a r d L . Nelson, Frederick T . Aschman, Conservation  and Rehab111tat1on of Major Shopping D i s t r i c t s , (Technical B u l l e t i n No. 22, Washington:Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , February 1951+), PP. 1+1-1+2. County, Oregon, These urban Areas range i n population from 769 to 2hti}±25» It i s u n l i k e l y that the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is equally s u i t a b l e f o r a l l of the towns, indeed, i t may not be sui table at a l l for some towns of a c e r t a i n s i z e . This s i t u a t i o n exis ts with respect to the other model zoning bylaws shown on Table IV , e x p e c i a l l y i n the case of the model zoning bylaw recommended f o r Stanislaus County, C a l i f o r n i a , which has a town population range of 1,109 to 36,585. Another discrepancy becomes evident when comparing the recommendations of various model zoning bylaws. In some instances more c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are recommended for com-munities that are smaller than other communities. For example, one general CBD commercial zone Is recommended for towns between 660 and 3»657 population In Hood River County, Oregon, while four CBD c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are recommended for towns between 769 and 3»657 population i n Jackson County, Oregon. Other s i m i l a r s i tua t ions are observable i n Table IV. There are no standards that re la te population size to numbers and types of commercial zones. General standards based on f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between population s ize and the types of commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s would be very u s e f u l as general guidel ines In d r a f t i n g CBD commercial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . An exhaustive survey, beyond the scope of 53 th is study, would be necessary to attempt formulation of such standards. The task of determining the favorable number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r CBD is made more d i f f i c u l t by the inconsistency revealed i n the recom-mendations of the various model zoning bylaws. As indicated p r e v i o u s l y , the number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and the nature or make-up of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are i n t e r -r e l a t e d . The number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s is d i r e c t l y depen-dent upon the degree to which various use groups should be segregated. The experience of Chicago's rezoning project can serve as an example f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . H At the out-set of the study twenty-three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were spe-c i f i e d . 12 Bach c l a s s i f i c a t i o n consisted of a group of business uses which were economically and mutually com-p a t i b l e . The twenty-three categories did not represent a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which could be d i r e c t l y appl ied to a zoning ordinance. This was considered a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y impossible and also the f a c t o r of e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e was considered to be too great to permit an a r b i t r a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on the basis of pure economic c o m p a t i b i l i t y . 1 3 -L-LRichard L . Nelson, Frederick T . Aschman, Conser- vat ion and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Major Shopping D i s t r i c t s , (Technical B u l l e t i n No. 2 2 , Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , February, 1951+), pp. 36-1+2. 12 S ee Appendix E , page 129. ^ N e l s o n , op . , c i t . , p. 1+0. The r e s u l t was that the twenty-three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were synthesized Into s ix major d i v i s i o n s which could be worked into the zoning ordinance, many of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s being absorbed by non-business d i s t r i c t s . The new cat-egor iza t ion had to consider "lack of economic harm" as well as that of economic b e n e f i t . The same approach would be u s e f u l i n preparing bus-iness c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r Duncan, Grand Porks and Cast legar , although two factors would tend to reduce the number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s for such small towns as compared to larger c i t i e s , they are : 1. The geographic areas of business are small and not as many business c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are needed—would merely become confusing. 2. The shopping areas in most small towns are r u r a l t rading centers . This means that s u b s t a n t i a l propor-t ion of t h e i r business comes from farm areas- -from people who make r e l a t i v e l y infrequent t r i p s but of longer durat ion . To these people a theatre and tav-ern may be e s s e n t i a l a t t rac t ions of the same business d i s t r i c t . 1 ° Table IV gives an i n d i c a t i o n of the various categorizat ions of businesses recommended for zoning pur-poses In CBD's. The main groupings i n general seem to be: 1. R e t a i l businesses and services 2. O f f i c e commercial 3. Wholesaling Highway-Oriented uses ^ I b i d . I5lbld. l 6 I b i d . , p . I4.I 55 On the basis of the twenty-three categories form-ulated in the Chicago study and the four main general groupings above, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are l i s t e d which r e -present compatible categories of the types of uses found In smaller urban areas. The two factors c i t e d above were kept i n mind when formulating these categories . These categories are not recommended for adoption into a zoning bylaw. This l i s t merely represents the compatible group-ings which should be analyzed p r i o r to consol idat ion into zoning bylaw form. 1. R e t a i l B u s i n e s s e s : ^ Group I. Includes those types of businesses whose customers are mutually interchangeable, i n other words, those types of businesses that are compatible with one another. Bakery goods stores Book stores Banks Beauty parlors Barber shops Branch post o f f i c e s Cigar stores Confectionery and Candy stores Diaper service s tat ions Dry goods stores Department stores E l e c t r i c appliances and radio stores F r u i t and vegetable stores Cosmetic stores Custom dressmaking stores Currency exchanges Camera shops Clothes cleaning agencies, pressing establishments or cleaners pick-up stat ions Drug stores Delicates sens Music conservatories , music schools and musical instrument stores Notion stores Photographic supply shops Paint stores Restaurants •Wlbld.. pp. 37, 38 56 Frozen food stores F u r r i e r s Grocery stores G i f t shops Hardware and paint stores Haberdasheries Household appliance stores Heating equipment showrooms Hat r e p a i r Inter ior decorating and f u r n i t u r e stores Jewelry stores with watch and clock r e p a i r Launderettes Laundry agencies Leather goods and luggage stores Liquor stores (package) Loan o f f i c e s Meat markets M i l l i n e r y shops Ready-to-wear shops R e t a i l f l o r i s t s (without nurseries or greenhouses) Super marts Shoe stores Shoe repair shops and shoe shining Studios (photographic) Stat ionery stores Sporting goods Toy stores T r a v e l bureaus T a i l o r , c l o t h i n g and wearing apparel shops Tearooms and cafes (excluding dancing and entertainment) T i r e and auto accessory stores where there Is no break i n the s i d e -walk ) Variety stores Group I I . The businesses In th is group have minor interchange of customers from group I . These uses are included with the uses of group I . In smaller urban areas such uses do not occur in large enough numbers to warrant segregation. In larger c i t i e s segregation of group II uses may be warranted on the basis of unat t rac t ive appearance, and nuisances i n opera t i o n . Antique shops Art stores and ar t studios Bi rd stores Boat showrooms Coin and p h i l a t e l i c stores Costume r e n t a l shops Fuel s tores , b u i l d i n g mater ia l and lumber stores (where the operations take place ins ide a s i n g l e b u i l d i n g only) Garden supplies Live b a i t stores Masseur salons Orthopedic and medical appliance stores Pawnshops Pet shops Public baths Picture framing Reducing salons R e t a i l feed stores Second-hand stores and rummage shops Taxidermists 57 ?. Entertainment F a c i l i t i e s 18 There is l i t t l e Interchange between entertainment f a c i l i t i e s and r e t a i l stores. These establishments re-present a di f f e r e n t time and category of economic action. Bowling a l l e y s B i l l i a r d and pool h a l l s Dance h a l l s and studios Night clubs, 3how clubs Supper clubs Restaurants Shooting g a l l e r i e s Penny arcades Skating rinks Taverns, Bars Hotels Thea tres 1*. Offices There i s l i t t l e Interchange of trade between o f f i c e s and other types of business establishments except that the o f f i c e employees are customers of adjacent shops and eating establishments. Medical Offices Dental o f f i c e s Administrative and E d i t o r i a l Offices U.. Highway-oriented Uses C l i n i c s Professional and Business o f f i c e s Public o f f i c e s This category provides for those commercial uses that are appropriate to highway or thoroughfare locations and are dependant upon vehicular t r a v e l . Boat and T r a i l e r sales Motels and Hotels Tourist courts T r a i l e r camps Auto service stations New and used car lots Drive-in auto wash Restaurants Drive-ln eating places 5. Heavy Commercia1 P i s t r l c t This d i s t r i c t is designed to provide a location for the necessary heavy commercial uses and services. The uses are p a r a l l e l s to the r e t a i l businesses in that there are functional linkages between the two categories. i f t l b i d . , p. 39. 53 Wholesale business Storage Warehousing Automobile and truck repair B u i l d i n g mater ial sales Plumbing and heating shops Bakery B o t t l i n g plants Cleaning and laundry establishments Glass c u t t i n g and g l a z i n g yards Contractor storage yards Carpentry shoos Upholstering shops establishments Sign p a i n t i n g shops Solder ing and welding shops It is questionable whether or not the f i v e cate-gories l i s t e d would be u s e f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s In urban areas the s i z e of Duncan, Grand Porks and Cast legar . Perhaps there are too many categories and these should be consolidated on the basis of the two reasons c i t e d on page £{4.. At this p o i n t , when deciding the number of c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n s , one f inds that no e m p i r i c a l data or t e c h n i -ques are a v a i l a b l e . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the main c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s or compatible groupings are general ly agreed upon but the number of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to population sizes are not. Because of a lack of general ly accepted standards, and due to inconsistency between model zoning bylaws It is not possible to make a d e f i n i t e recom-mendation for Duncan, Grand Porks and Castlegar that is completely free from value judgement. Regardless of t h i s , a recommendation In view of a l l the facts presented i s desirable—the most reasonable consol idat ion would be to group r e t a i l businesses , entertainment f a c i l i t i e s and offices together leaving the highway-oriented category and the heavy commercial group as they are . V I . ANALYSIS OP QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES ON POLITICAL ACCEPTABILITY OP RECLASSIFICATION The questionnaire shown as Appendix P was used for Interviewing members of the municipal counci ls of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Cast legar . The purpose of the ques t ion-naire i s to determine the p o l i t i c a l acceptance of the reoommendations expressed In this chapter. Recommendations can be suggested but they must be p o l i t i c a l l y f e a s i b l e or acceptable before they can be implemented. The questionnaire is designed to determine the a t t i -tude of i n d i v i d u a l municipal c o u n c i l s ' towards r e t a i n i n g dwellings i n the CBD, i n other words, to what degree would dwellings be allowed i n the CBD by the i n d i v i d u a l c o u n c i l s . The main purpose of the questionnaire was to obtain the i n d i v i d u a l municipal c o u n c i l s ' react ion to the CBD zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system proposed i n this chapter. Replies from the c i t y clerks were sought free of bias that could be caused by the inf luence of the e x i s t i n g zoning r e g u l a -t ions « A questionnaire form was sent to each of the members of the municipal councils of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Cast legar . Out of the f i v e members of the Duncan c o u n c i l (one mayor and four aldermen) three r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d . In Grand Porks, four r e p l i e s were received from a c o u n c i l of one mayor and six aldermen and In Castlegar two r e p l i e s were received from a c o u n c i l of one mayor and four aldermen. The mayors r e p l i e d from each m u n i c i p a l i t y . The f i r s t question asks whether dwellings should be : permitted completely; allowed as accessory uses; allowed on a c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s ; or disallowed completely. Not one member of any c o u n c i l is in favor of a l lowing dwellings i n the CBD of t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t y without having some form of control or r e s t r i c t i o n * Two of the Duncan c o u n c i l members were i n favor of d i s a l l o w i n g dwellings completely while one member f e l t they should be allowed on a c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s . Both respondents of Castlegar f e l t that dwellings should be allowed i n the CBD as accessory uses. The four r e p l i e s from Grand Forks revealed that the responding c o u n c i l members were l n favor of al lowing dwellings on a c o n d i t i o n a l b a s i s . The r e p l i e s of the Duncan and Grand Forks c o u n c i l members reveal d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r e x i s t i n g zoning regulations which allow dwellings i n the CBD. It i s quite l i k e l y that i n the future the zoning regulat ions may change ln t h i s respect . The p o s s i b i l i t y of a change may be depen-dent upon the degree of planning which w i l l take place f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . At present , planning for Duncan and Grand Forks i s handled by private consultants* Only i n recent years have the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s hired planning c o n s u l -tants . Castlegar is s i m i l a r i n that planning has been a recent occurrence. Nevertheless , Castlegar has had a general 6 1 plan study and a zoning study compelted by consultants. The r e p l i e s of the Castlegar council members were in keep-ing with the regulations of the recently adopted zoning by-law regarding dwellings i n the CBD i n d i c a t i n g that they are s a t i s f i e d with the e x i s t i n g regulations. The second question asked whether or not the c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n system shown on pages 55-57 is acceptable. This system is made up of f i v e categories: r e t a i l business; entertainment f a c i l i t i e s ; o f f i c e s ; highway-oriented uses; and heavy commercial uses. The t h i r d question provided an alternative to the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system o f f e r i n g three categories whereby r e t a i l businesses, entertainment f a c i l i t i e s , and o f f i c e s , comprise one category; while high-way-oriented uses and heavy commercial uses comprise the remaining two categories. A fourth question was designed to obtain each council member's views on other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems which they f e l t would be more suitable f o r their municipality. This was to be done i n case they were not s a t i s f i e d with the two alternatives given. Not one council member provided a response for this p a r t i c u l a r question. The three respondents from Duncan stated that they would not accept the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f i v e categories but would accept the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n consisting of three cate-gories. The Mayor of Duncan commented that, "a certain amount of blending i s desirable in a smaller c i t y " . This 62 statement r e f l e c t s the two factors stated previously on page 51+ which would tend to reduce the number of c l a s s i f i -cations i n small towns. S i m i l a r l y , the four respondents of the Grand Porks c o u n c i l re jected the f i v e category c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and accepted the three category c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . They did not i d e n t i f y reasons for t h e i r choice . The two Castlegar respondents accepted both c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n systems but unfortunately they did not indicate which system was p r e f e r a b l e . V I I I . SUMMARY Zoning may be considered as a mechanism f o r long-term re-grouping of compatible uses. R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g zones i n CBD's of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may be necessary to achieve r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . A l s o , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s must give s p e c i a l considerat ion to dwellings in the CBD which are detrimental to r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . No general izat ions can be made i n regard to the number of zoning categories desi rable f o r the CBD's of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Cast legar . The construct ion of a commercial zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system on the basis of c o m p a t i b i l i t y would produce a l i s t of categories which could not be d i r e c t l y appl ied to a zoning bylaw. Problems of administrat ion would a r i s e . In the case of the se lec ted m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , two factors would require the consol idat ion of a l i s t of uses grouped together on the basis of mutual c o m p a t i b i l i t y : many business c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n small geographic areas of business are not needed and become c o n f u s i n g ; because of the nature of shopping i n small towns, a higher degree of "mix" of various commercial uses Is needed. As r e f l e c t e d by the responding c o u n c i l members, none of the municipal councils are in favor of a l lowing dwellings unres t r i c ted i n the CBD. This is an important f i n d i n g , i n that the e x i s t i n g zoning bylaws of Duncan and Grand Porks allow dwellings i n the respect ive CBD's . The conclusion i s drawn that a proposed bylaw r e s t r i c t i n g dwellings in the CBD would be acceptable . Another Important f i n d i n g is that both the municipa-l i t i e s of Duncan and Grand Porks would react favorably to a proposal to r e c l a s s i f y the e x i s t i n g commercial zones. The number of zones they would permit is questionable but i t i s known that they would accept three categories . The r e p l i e s of the Castlegar c o u n c i l r e f l e c t the regulations of the recently adopted zoning bylaw and i t is u n l i k e l y that further changes would be acceptable or d e s i r a b l e . CHAPTER V ELIMINATION OP NONCONFORMING USES TO IMPROVE RETAIL COMPATIBILITY This chapter describes the means a v a i l a b l e f o r e l i m -inat ing nonconforming uses In general , with s p e c i f i c i n -terest i n CBD commercial zones. A general approach i s necessary since the procedures for the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses are a p p l i c a b l e to a l l types of zones. The questionnaire sect ion of th is chapter deals s p e c i -f i c a l l y with the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses In the CBD commercial zones or selected B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i -p a l i t i e s (Duncan, Grand Porks, and C a s t l e g a r ) . The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the e x i s t -ing statutes of the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipal Act^" that have to do with the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses. The statutes involved deal with three main subject areas: zoning; expropr ia t ion ; and the abatement of nuisances. Other l e g a l means to el iminate nonconforming uses which are held c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n various parts of the United States are analyzed as w e l l . -^ The B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipal Act i s an enabling act conferr ing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of municipal r e g u l a t i o n from the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e to the municipal c o u n c i l s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for making laws f o r municipal I n s t i t u -tions are under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the provinces as d i c t a -ted under sec t ion 92 subsection 8 of the B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867. Aa pointed out in Chapter I I I , some nonconforming uses are "dead Spots" in CBD commercial zones. The e l -imination of nonconforming uses which constitute "dead spots" would increase r e t a i l compatibility provided that they are replaced with compatible uses. The desired objective i s not to eliminate a l l nonconforming uses but rather to eliminate cer t a i n detrimental land uses in r e l a t i o n to r e t a i l land use compatibility. The statutes c o n t r o l l i n g the elimination of non-conforming uses are analyzed l n respect to the i r e f f e c t -iveness in the selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , the acceptance by the selected B r i t i s h Columbia municipalities of the l e g a l means used l n various parts of the United States is studied. I. ZONING PROVISIONS FOR THE ELIMINATION OF NONCONFORMING USES The p r i n c i p l e of zoning was developed before the rapid growth of metropolitan c i t i e s , the automobile era, and the technological revolution. The main concept of zoning was and s t i l l i s that c i t i e s can be divided into "zones" or " d i s t r i c t s " in which only certain types of compatible land uses are allowed; uses incompatible with them are not allowed. The f i r s t advocates of zoning, hoped that non-conforming uses would eventually disappear, but this has not been the case. Nonconforming uses have continued to exist because they derive benefit from their monopolistic positions created by the zoning laws. The zoning provisions contained in the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act are representative of those pro-visions conferred by other provinces of Canada as well as by the i n d i v i d u a l states In the United States of America. The B r i t i s h Columbia statutes tend to protect the nonconforming use by avoiding harshness in t h e i r elimination. The statutes analyzed In this section are a c t u a l l y meant to control nonconforming uses with the hope that the control w i l l eventually extinguish the use.^ The basic doctrine In the law c o n t r o l l i n g nonconforming uses is that zoning cannot operate r e t r o a c t i v e l y . Court decisions sanction this p r i n c i p l e by recognizing the fact that the requirement of Immediate elimination of e x i s t i n g nonconforming uses under a newly adopted ordinance places undue hardship on the i n d i v i d u a l . Thus, retroactive zoning applications have been held unconstitutional. Retroactive zoning as well as amortization are the d i r e c t methods of eliminating nonconforming uses. The B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act has provision f o r the t y p i c a l i n -^Beverly J . Pcoley, Planning and Zoning in the United  States (Ann Arbor: L e g i s l a t i v e Research Center, The Univer-s i t y of Michigan Law School, Michigan Legal Publications, 1961), p. 105. 67 d i r e c t methods discussed in the fo l lowing sections but not f o r the d i r e c t methods mentioned above. L i m i t a t i o n on Expansion and A l t e r a t i o n This method of e l i m i n a t i n g or c o n t r o l l i n g nonconfor-ming uses is permitted In the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act, Sect ion 705 , Subsection 3.3 This statute r e s t r i c t s the expansion and a l t e r a t i o n of nonconforming uses. Through-out the h i s t o r y of zoning this method has been recognized as l e g i t i m a t e . Two main theories have developed regarding what l i m i t a t i o n s may be placed on the extension of the e x i s t i n g use, they a r e : ^ 1. The f i r s t i s that the use once i n s t i t u t e d may be r e s t r i c t e d to the boundaries of the o r i g i n a l l o t , but within t h i s sphere must be allowed to increase by n a t u r a l expansion. ?. The narrower theory is that the use as of the date of the zoning enactment describes the exact l i m i t s . 5 The l a t t e r theory i s represented In the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipal Act which means that no s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s may be made unless s p e c i f i c a l l y allowed by the Zoning Board of Appeal . 3see Appendix G» page 11+?. i+University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Noncon- forming Uses: A Rationale and an Approach ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Law School , V o l . 10?, 1953), p. 9 8 . 5 i b i d . The r a t i o n a l e of the extension method Is depen-dent upon the basic c o n f l i c t of zoning that allows noncon-forming uses to continue in order to protect present i n -vestment, encourage future investment^ and to prevent economic waste. Limitat ions on expansion seem to en-courage conversion to a conforming use without a l t e r i n g the o r i g i n a l reasons for a l lowing the use. The owner Is able to e x p l o i t the monopoly created by l»w but must relocate when expansion i s r e q u i r e d . The problem here is that most reasonable businessmen expect to be able to expand f a c i l i t i e s when business warrants expansion. Therefore a s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n rule a l lowing for changes through the Zoning Board seems the most reasonable s o l u t i o n such as the p r o v i s i o n i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipal Act Sect ion 705, Subsection 3.6 Discontinuance of Nonconforming Uses The p r i n c i p l e of discontinuance of nonconforming uses i s provided for In the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipal A c t , Sect ion 705, Subsection 2.? This i s a common method of e l iminat ing nonconforming uses through adoption of a bylaw which requires that i f a use is discontinued for a s p e c i f i e d period of time, the property must conform with the land use ^See Appendix G, page llj.2. 7 I b l d . 69 zoning regulation when brought back into use. The stated period of time in the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act is t h i r t y days. The reasoning behind this method is that once an owner shows that conformance to a zoning ordinance would not be an unreasonable demand the use is then required to comply with the ordinance. The courts agree that an owner, by discontinuance of the use for a s p e c i f i c time period reveals that conformance would not be unreasonable. In a c t u a l i t y , the courts have had d i f f i c u l t y in applying the provision to show discontinuance in various s i t u a t i o n s . This may be due to the manner in which the bylaw was drafted. A problem of interpretation arises as to whst the word "discontinuance" means which is used in zoning ordinances. The courts have erroneously held that the meaning of the word "discontinuance" i s synonomous with the meaning of the word "abandoned."0 Furthermore, the doctrine requires a voluntary, completed, affirmative act on the part of the owner.^ Abandonment requires the intent to abandon and some act or f a i l u r e to act which implies abandonment.-^ The passage of time alone does not necessarily indicate "Op.cit., p. 100 ^Ibld., quoting (or " c i t i n g " ) BInghamton v G a r t e l l , 275 App . T T v . 1+57, 90 N.Y.3. 2d 556 (3d Dep't. 191+9) 1 0 I b i d . , quoting (or " c i t i n g " ) Wood v . D i s t r i c t of Columbia, 39 A 2d (D.C. Mun. App. 191+1+• ) 70 abandonment, since intent is of prime importance, but i n -tent to abandon becomes easier to prove the longer the time period becomes. In determining the intent i t must be known whether or not the b u i l d i n g could s t i l l accommodate the use, and i f the use has been changed. These two factors give considerable weight in determining the i n t e n t . It is c lear that the courts , through the doctrine of discontinuance have a desire to protect the nonconforming user . Protect ion is achieved by applying the narrow rules of abandonment of uses instead of applying the d e f i n i t e meaning of the word "discontinuance" as stated in the zoning p r o v i s i o n . Correct i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the bylaw is des i rable in order to determine whether the community in teres t through the gradual e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses is greater than the community i n t e r e s t i n the protect ion of abandoned nonconforming uses. The bylaw should define the term "discontinuance" so as to be absolute ly c lear of i t s mean-i n g . Seventy-Five per cent Rule The p r o v i s i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal A c t , Section 705# Subsection 1+,"^  i s related to the extension doctrine as wel l as the discontinuance method. uiSee Appendix G» page l i ; ? . In the case where a nonconforming use is destroyed or damaged, the b u i l d i n g inspector must a s c e r t a i n whether or not the loss Is up to or more than seventy-f ive per cent of the market value of the b u i l d i n g above Its foundations. If he decides that the use is damaged to this extent then the Zoning Board of Appeal is requested to review the dec is ion and the reconstruct ion or r e p a i r of the property w i l l not be permitted unless the new proposed use conforms with the e x i s t i n g land use zoning r e g u l a t i o n . I t Is doubtful whether or not many nonconforming uses are el iminated through the use of this p r o v i s i o n . Nevertheless , des t ruc t ion , e i ther voluntary or Involun-tary, are very r e a l occurrences and i t is wise to reco^ni such opportunit ies to el iminate nonconforming uses. Once a nonconforming use is eliminated i t can be replaced by a conforming use which presumably would increase r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . I I . EXPROPRIATION There is no s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act which allows expropriat ion for the exclusive purpose of e l iminat ing nonconforming uses. Rather, a m u n i c i p a l i t y may expropriate nonconforming uses 72 through the p r o v i s i o n of Section hjb$, Subsection 2 b . 1 2 This sect ion provides that the m u n i c i p a l i t y may expropriate property for the purposes of r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, or i n d u s t r i a l development. This p r o v i s i o n has the disadvantage that permission to expropriate nonconforming uses Is depend-ent upon the d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers of the Lieutenant-Governor In C o u n c i l . I t i s questionable whether or not an a p p l i c a -t ion would be accepted for the purposes of Improving r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y , as w e l l , there Is no assurance of directness of permission. • If a bylaw were drafted for the exclusive purpose of e l i m i n a t i n g nonconforming uses by e x p r o p r i a t i o n , resul t s would occur sooner and the exact l e g a l l i m i t a t i o n s would be expressed i n w r i t i n g . The use of the word "property" in Section 1(65 leaves some doubt i n the reader ' s mind as to what a m u n i c i p a l i t y can expropriate , —land alone or land with a l l those things a f f i x e d . The Munic ipal Act of fers d e f i n i t i o n s for " r e a l property" and " l a n d " but not for "proper ty" . The word " r e a l " should be included to c lear up this ambiguity since Sect ion does In a c t u a l i t y deal with r e a l property . It i s general ly accepted that the use of expro-p r i a t i o n to eliminate nonconforming uses is not p r a c t i c a l . In order to change nonconforming uses to conforming uses 73 by e x p r o p r i a t i o n excessive f i n a n c i n g would be r e q u i r e d , excessive i n respect to the funds a v a i l a b l e to most munici-p a l i t i e s o Arduous procedures would be involved i n the purchase of s e v e r a l s i n g l e p a r c e l s of r e a l property. •The usefulness of e x p r o p r i a t i o n as an e f f e c t i v e means of e l i m i n a t i n g nonconforming uses l i e s i n the progress of urban renewal, the r e l a t i v e l y recent approach to urban improvement whereby Federal grants up to £0 per cent of the proje c t cost are a v a i l a b l e i n Canada. Urban renewal has been concerned p r i m a r i l y with the e l i m i n a t i o n of b l i g h t and the p r o v i s i o n of adequate housing i n pre s c r i b e d r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Urban renewal a s s i s t a n c e became a v a i l a b l e f o r commercial areas i n 1961).. I t i s expected that f e d e r a l urban renewal w i l l be used i n c r e a s i n g l y to improve c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s by the e r a d i c a t i o n of b l i g h t e d s t r u c t u r e s and the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses. The removal of nonconforming uses In r e t a i l areas f a c i l i t a t e d by urban renewal schemes would g r e a t l y increase r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . This i s discussed f u r t h e r i n Chapter VI. I I I . ABATEMENT OP NUISANCES ' When an incompatible land use c o n s t i t u t e s a genuine menace to the surrounding area, i t may be c l a s s i f i e d as a nuisance and therefore be ordered to di s c o n t i n u e . The abatement of nuisances e x i s t e d before zoning, and i s considered the f i r s t stage of zoning. This f i r s t stage included a group of court cases deal ing with "nuisance uses" and gained recognit ion as a l e g a l use of the pol i ce power. The nuisance is general ly considered a d e f i n i t e , t angible , p h y s i c a l e f f e c t that menaces publ ic h e a l t h , safety, and w e l f a r e . ^ The abatement of nuisances i s provided f o r in the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal A c t , Sect ion S y O . 1 ^ The nuisance doctrine has received l i t t l e a t tent ion recent ly i n the e l i m i n a t i o n of incompatible uses, l e t alone nonconforming uses. G e n e r a l l y , the f e e l i n g is that the "nuisance" must be so tangible as to be obviously harmful to p u b l i c h e a l t h , safe ty , and welfare . I t appears that this general opinion of the use of the abatement of nuisance doctrine w i l l continue, thus l i m i t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of Its usage as a means to eliminate nonconforming uses which const i tute "dead spots" . IV. P R O V I S I O N S HELD CONSTITUTIONAL OUTSIDE BRITISH COLUMBIA Zoning provisions to el iminate nonconforming uses which have been held c o n s t i t u t i o n a l in various parts of the United States and which are not provided for i n the B r i t i s h l-JNorton C. McKim, " E l i m i n a t i o n of Incompatible Uses, "Law Se Contempory Problems, (A law q u a r t e r l y . Durham, N.C.tDuke U n i v e r s i t y School of Law, Spring 1955) . P . 13?. ^ S e e Appendix G , page U4.2. Columbia Munic ipal Act are described below. Through the ensuing discuss ion i t i s hoped that i t w i l l be clear whether or not such provisions would be acceptable in B r i t i s h Columbia. Amortization of Nonconforming Uses Amortizat ion is a r e l a t i v e l y new method of e l i m -inat ing nonconforming uses. The method or ig inated in the United States and has been authorized in severa l states inc luding C a l i f o r n i a , Oregon, Utah, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, and V i r g i n i a . It seems that the acceptance of amortization of nonconforming uses w i l l increase . To Improve zoning ordinances, i t Is necessary eventually to eliminate nonconforming uses. A c o n f l i c t a r i ses at t h i s point between the r ights of the p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l and the concern for the better development of the community. The process of amortization is an attempt to reconci le this c o n f l i c t through the adoption of an or-dinance which provides for the eventual l i q u i d a t i o n of nonconforming uses within a designated period commen-surate with the investment. In other words, the remaining useful l i f e of a nonconforming property is determined and the owner is allowed to continue his use for the prescribed period, at the end of which he must e i ther eliminate i t or change i t to a conforming use. I t i a extremely d i f f i c u l t to determine when or where the word " a m o r t i z a t i o n " was i n i t i a l l y u9ed i n t h i s sense, but over a pe r i o d o f 10 years the use of a m o r t i z a t i o n s t a t u t e s have been advocated. A few cases upheld such s t a t u t e s and In t u r n other c o u r t s accepted these previous cases as a u t h o r i t y . A s e r i e s of cases r e s u l t e d which may be considered as weak a u t h o r i t y but are c i t e d "en masse" as p e r s u a s i v e . ^ The case which i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as having most i n f l u e n c e on other cases i s t h a t of the c i t y of Los Angeles v. Gage.^6 The owner had a nonconforming use i n a conforming b u i l d i n g . The court analyzed the f i n a n c i a l l o s s and the c o s t of moving and r u l e d that a f i v e - y e a r a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d was reasonable as w e l l as a c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l e x e r c i s e of the p o l i c e power. The c o u r t adopted a b a l a n c l n g - o f - l n t e r e s t s approach. The court determined that the l o s s to the defendant was q u i t e s m a l l as com-pared to the p u b l i c g a i n . F u r t h e r , the court f e l t that a well-planned community can only be achieved by the e l i m -i n a t i o n of e x i s t i n g nonconforming uses and th a t reasonable a m o r t i z a t i o n i s the onl y e f f e c t i v e method of e v e n t u a l J-Samuel B. Hickman, "Zoning - E l i m i n a t i o n of Nonconforming Uses by 'A m o r t i z a t i o n " , " C o r n e l l Law  Q u a r t e r l y ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Law Sch o o l , V o l . 1+1+, S p r i n g 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 1+51+. ^ i b l d . , q u o t i n g (or " c i t i n g " ) Los Angeles v. Gage, 21k P. 2d~3lT(Col. App. 1951L) p. 1+55. elimination. The court also suggested that amortization is most l i k e l y to be reasonable i f the ordinance does not r e s t r i c t the l o c a l zoning board to fixed periods but allows adequate time for the affected owner to make necessary ad-justments . The court pointed out that the old i n d i r e c t methods of eliminating nonconforming uses are i n e f f e c t i v e . These indirect methods are discussed i n this chapter in section I (Zoning Provisions For the Elimination of Nonconforming Uses} When these methods were o r i g i n a l l y drafted, i t was f e l t that such r e s t r i c t i o n s would eventually eliminate noncon-forming uses. Experience has shown that nonconforming uses have continued to th r i v e , enjoying their somewhat mono-p o l i s t i c positions. The amortization method could be con-sidered a f a i r method of eliminating nonconforming uses as long as the owner is given an opportunity to make new plans to help offset any loss he might s u f f e r . This loss is spread over a period of years while the owner enjoys a monopolistic position because of the zoning ordinance. There are strong arguments against the use of amor-t i z a t i o n as expressed by Judge Van Voorhis in the case of Harbison v. City of B u f f a l o . ^ In his dissent of the const-J-fSamuel 3 . Hickman, "Zoning: Elimination of Noncon-forming Uses by 'Amortization'," Cornell Law Quarterly, (Ithaca: Cornell University Law School, Vol. I+/4., Spring 19 59) quoting (or " c i t i n g " ) Harbison v. City of Buffalo, k N.Y. 2d 553, 152 N.E. 2d 4 ? » 176 N.Y.S. 2d 593., p. l ^ . 73 i t u t i o n a l i t y of the amortization method, Judge Van Voorhis points out that there is a r e l a t i v e l y close s p l i t of au-t h o r i t y on the problem with many courts soundly r e j e c t i n g amortization p r o v i s i o n s . He explains that the adoption of amortization provisions i n zoning bylaws is an attempt to redevelop areas without due compensation to affec ted owners. He also states that such provis ions would diminish the owner's s t a b i l i t y to the point where he would be hes-i tant about improving his property in order to make com-plete productive use of the land. The e f f e c t would be the encouragement of run-down p r o p e r t i e s . There is the pos-s i b i l i t y that l o c a l pressure groups would use favorable l e g i s l a t i o n to force out legi t imate but undesired business for t h e i r own personal g a i n . Furthermore, Judge Van Voorhis explains that courts are unable to determine what is a f a i r length for the amortization p e r i o d . The r e s u l t is the creat ion of new f i e l d s of d i s c r e t i o n i n adminis t ra t ive law without any guides i n the nature of standards. He concludes that the acceptance of the amortization method provides a large new area f o r adminis t ra t ive and court decisions which w i l l provide opportunit ies f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , inconsis tency , and a r b i t r a r i n e s s . From the foregoing discussion i t is apparent that the method of amortization to el iminate nonconforming uses is in a state of " f l u x " . The courts disagree with the con-a t i t u t i o n a l i t y of the method and both sides can o f f e r very strong arguments i n support of thei r cases. The problem r e a l l y hinges on the use of the word "reasonable" i n reference to the term "a reasonable period of t ime" . The c o n f l i c t of disagreement w i l l continue into the future u n t i l at some point the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of the amortiza-t i o n method w i l l be r e s o l v e d . The use of the amortization method to el iminate nonconforming uses for the purpose of increasing r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s a d e f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t y in the future of B r i t i s h Columbia. , Retroactive A p p l i c a t i o n of Ordinances. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , a basic p r i n c i p l e In the law of nonconforming uses Is thgt zoning cannot operate r e t r o a c t i v e l y . Even so, there have occurred some cases which indicate that i t would be c o n s t i t u t i o n a l to eliminate nonconforming uses providing that the b e n e f i t to the nubile Is not absolute ly out-weighed by the harm to the property owner. In New York the court of appeals upheld a r e t r o -act ive zoning ordinance. The court stated that the enforce-ment of such a zoning regula t ion would be v a l i d ; "where the r e s u l t i n g loss to the owner is r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t and insub-s t a n t i a l . "1°" F l o r i d a and Louisiana as well have held l^James A. Young, "The Regulator and Removal of Nonconforming u s e s , " Western Reserve Law Review, (Cleveland: Western U n i v e r s i t y , 1961), p. 656. 8 0 retroactive zoning laws aa c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . There are two main flaws in this doctrine. 1. the right to protect would in most cases be depen-dent upon the dol l a r value of the use in question and 2. the large nonconforming uses which are the ones most detrimental to the public, would in a l l prob-a b i l i t y be the uses that would be allowed to continue. It i s unlikely that the use of retroactive zoning ordinances w i l l become widespread, although the power that such ordinances provide would be very e f f e c t i v e l y used in many instances. Generally speaking, a provision of this nature would be more applicable in larger c i t i e s than small ones because of the inherent d i f f i c u l t y of imposing the regulations• V. QUESTIONNAIRE-ELIMINATION OF NONCONFORMING USES IN SELECTED MUNICIPALITIES The questionnaire shown as Appendix H was used as the basis f o r personal interview with the City Clerks of Duncan, Grand Forks and Castlegar. The purpose of the questionnaire is to determine: the e x i s t i n g municipal attitude toward nonconforming uses in CBD's; the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the s p e c i f i c statutes of the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act related to the elimination of nonconforming uses; and the degree of acceptance of procedures to elimin-ate nonconforming uses held c o n s t i t u t i o n a l in parts of the 81 United States of America. The three c i t y c lerks gave b a s i c a l l y the same responses to the f i r s t question to determine whether or not the statutes mentioned e a r l i e r i n this chapter are e f f e c t i v e in e l i m i n a t i n g nonconforming uses from the CBD of the p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y . One common element was indica ted , that is that each of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had few experiences i n e l i m i n a t i n g nonconforming uses by the enforcement of the p a r t i c u l a r s ta tutes . The C i t y Clerk of Duncan indicated that there has never been a need for the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses since there are very few nonconforming uses i n Duncan even though there are many incompatible uses. This is the case because of the wide range of uses permitted i n the CBD general business zoning category. Since there was no experience i n the usage of the p a r t i c u l a r statutes the C i t y Clerk of Duncan could not Indicate whether or not the p a r t i c u l a r statutes were e f f e c t i v e . The C i t y Clerk of Grand Porks indicated that there has not been a need for the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses i n Grand Porks f o r the same reason given by the C i t y Clerk of Duncan. As i n Duncan there are several incompati-ble uses i n Grand Porks that are permitted In the CBD general business zoning category. It was pointed out that few opportunit ies arose in Grand Forks whereby some of the 82 statutes could be enforced. For instance, there had been no opportunit ies to enforce the statute related to the discontinuance of a use (Section 7 0 5 , subsection 2) and to the seventy-f ive per cent regula t ion (Section 7 0 5 , sub-section It was indicated that the use of the statute related to the abatement of nuisances (Section 8 7 0 ) ^ was e f f e c t i v e i n c leaning up one p a r t i c u l a r property i n the CBD of Grand Forks. The C i t y Clerk of Castlegar expressed greater concern regarding c e r t a i n nonconforming uses than did the C i t y Clerks of Duncan and Grand Forks . This may be due to the fact that the recent adoption of a new zoning bylaw created many more nonconforming uses than existed p r e v i o u s l y . The previous zoning bylaw of Castlegar was s i m i l a r to the present bylaws of Duncan and Grand Forks . The C i t y Clerk of Castlegar indicated th8t a l l of the statutes concerned with noncon-forming uses would be enforced except expropriat ion (Sect ion P P i;65, subsection 2b)£: . He f e l t that they would be e f f e c t i v e when enforced but since In the past there has been no need and few opportunit ies to eliminate nonconforming uses he couldn ' t comment on t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . ^Osee Appendix G, page li+2, 2 1 I b l d . 2 2 I b i d . 83 The second question was not answered by the c i t y clerkso It was designed to determine the order of e f f e c t i v -eness of the p a r t i c u l a r statutes in e l i m i n a t i n g noncon-forming uses. The t h i r d question asked whether or not more effective statutes were required f o r the e l iminat ion of nonconforming uses. A l l of the c i t y c lerks f e l t that more e f f e c t i v e statutes for the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses were not needed. The C i t y Clerks for Grand Forks and Castlegar f e l t that the e x i s t i n g statutes would be s u f f i c i e n t i f they were enforced. The C i t y Clerk of Duncan was not able to Indicate whether or not more e f f e c t i v e statutes were required since there has been l i t t l e experience i n Duncan r e l a t e d to the s ta tutes . In the f o u r t h question i t was asked i f a c c e l e r a t i o n of nonconforming uses was necessary. The Ci ty Clerks of Duncan and Grand Forks f e l t that a c c e l e r a t i o n of the e l i m i n -a t ion of nonconforming uses was not necessary while the C i t y Clerk of Castlegar f e l t that a c c e l e r a t i o n was necessary. A l l of the c i t y c lerks answered negat ively i n relation to the f i f t h , s i x t h and seventh questions which are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . In r e l a t i o n to the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses, the f i f t h , , s i x t h , and seventh questions are designed to determine, r e s p e c t i v e l y : i f any studies have been author-i z e d ; i f any s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and/or programs have been 31+ contemplated f o r the f u t u r e . None of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have: authorized any s t u d i e s ; formulated s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and/or programs i n the present; or have contemplated any s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and/or programs for the f u t u r e . It was indicated that the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are faced with many more serious problems at the moment. The two f i n a l questions r e f e r to methods of e l i m -i n a t i n g nonconforming uses which are held c o n s t i t u t i o n a l in various parts of the United States but not i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The eighth question asks whether or not the amortization of nonconforming uses would be acceptable to the i n d i v i d u a l municipal c o u n c i l s . The n i n t h questions whether or not the r e t r o a c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of ordinances would be acceptable by the i n d i v i d u a l municipal c o u n c i l s . F i r s t of a l l , the c i t y clerks f e l t that the amortization method of e l i m i n a t i n g nonconforming uses would be acceptable to t h e i r municipal counci ls although they Indicated that there is no acute need at the moment for the p r o v i s i o n of amortization to be added to the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipal A c t . Secondly, a l l of the c i t y c lerks f e l t that r e t r o a c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of a zoning ordinance would not be acceptable . It i s u n l i k e l y that a statute a l lowing the amorti -zation of nonconforming uses w i l l be added to the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l Act f o r many years, i f at a l l . This conclusion is derived from the fact that m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are faced with more serious planning problems r e l e g a t i n g the problem of nonconforming uses f a r down on the l i s t of study p r i o r i t i e s . It i s u n l i k e l y that p r o v i n c i a l l e g -i s l a t i v e act ion would take place unless there i s a demand for such ac t ion o r i g i n a t i n g from the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s them-selves , or from within the Department of Munic ipal A f f a i r s . It is not possible to determine the effec t iveness of the p a r t i c u l a r statutes discussed i n this chapter f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses from the CBD's of the selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . There has not been a desire or a need to eliminate nonconforming uses from the CBD's of Duncan, Grand Forks, and Castlegar as expressed by the C i t y C l e r k s . Only recent ly i n Castlegar has i t been recog-nized that c e r t a i n incompatible nonconforming uses should be eliminated from the CBD. The effect iveness of enabling l e g i s l a t i o n i s depen-dent upon the wi l l ingness of a municipal c o u n c i l to use and enforce i t in the form of a municipal bylaw. The bylaw i t s e l f must coincide with the expressed or implied p o l i c y of the c o u n c i l . Unless this r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s , i t is questionable whether or not the p a r t i c u l a r bylaw w i l l be e f f e c t i v e , mainly because i t probably w i l l not be enforced. S t r i c t and consistent enforcement of a bylaw reveals that the objectives are c lear in the form of p o l i c i e s . Municipal councils should review t h e i r e x i s t i n g bylaws p e r i o d i c a l l y to r e - a l i g n them with e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s and to formulate new p o l i c i e s to complement e x i s t i n g bylaws to enable purposeful enforcement. VL. SUMMARY Nonconforming uses may be eliminated or c o n t r o l l e d under f i v e sections of the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipal A c t . Three of the statutes are i n d i r e c t zoning methods which tend to avoid harshness in the e l iminat ion of nonconforming uses. The remaining two means a v a i l a b l e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to eliminate nonconforming uses are expropriat ion and the abatement of nuisances. It i s u n l i k e l y that expropriat ion w i l l be used extensively to eliminate nonconforming uses except within an urban renewal program (discussed in Chapter V I ) . The abatement of nuisances is e f f e c t i v e In e l iminat ing detrimental nonconforming uses but is r a r e l y a p p l i e d . Amortizat ion and r e t r o a c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of o r d i n -ances are methods used in various parts of the United States to eliminate nonconforming uses . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the l a t t e r method w i l l probably never become l e g a l while the amortization method may eventually become l e g a l . It was found that the councils of the selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would probably desire the amortization method. The adoption of the amortization method by the B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l A c t i s de p e n d e n t upon f u t u r e demand f o r s u c h an a d o p t i o n s i n c e the e x i s t i n g demand a o p e a r s be q u i t e weak. CHAPTER VI IMPROVEMENT OP RETAIL COMPATIBILITY—A COMPONENT OF A TOTAL CBD RENEWAL SCHEME A comprehensive approach to cope with the problem of improving r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n the CBD's of selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, has not been considered up to t h i s point of this study. The e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses and the compatible r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of business zones of CBD's should be i n t e g r a l parts of a comprehensive approach to the improvement of poor r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses which c o n s t i -tute "dead spots" would Improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y , but greater improvement i s poss ible and d e s i r a b l e . Besides, the rate of e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses by the en-forcement of s p e c i f i c statutes of the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act (as discussed In Chapter V) would probably be very slow, r e q u i r i n g many years. Amort izat ion of non-conforming uses would provide a much fas ter rate of e l i m i n -ation,, Nevertheless , i t Is highly u n l i k e l y that amortization of nonconforming uses w i l l be l e g a l l y recognized i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r some time as pointed but in Chapter V. I t i s evident , therefore , that the e l i m i n a t i o n of noncon-forming uses would more l i k e l y be achieved in some other f a s h i o n . For instance , the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming 89 uses could be achieved as an i n t e g r a l part of a compre-hensive CBD urban renewal scheme. The r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of CBD commercial zones to improve r e t a i l compatibility could be e f f e c t i v e , but results would occur very slowly f o r the same reasons oited above in regard to the elimination of nonconforming uses. R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would provide for future grouping of com-patible uses but the resultant nonconforming uses would not be eliminated r a p i d l y . Therefore, r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of CBD commercial zones f o r the purposes of obtaining improved r e t a i l compatibility should be considered as an in t e g r a l part of a comprehensive urban renewal scheme for the CBD. I. HYPOTHETICAL SCHEME TO IMPROVE RETAIL COMPATIBILITY Improvement of r e t a i l compatibility would be one of the many objectives related to CBD's that require application of the planning process. Generally, the prime objectives in CBD urban renewal are: improved c i r c u l a t i o n and parking; elimination of b l i g h t ; provision of new amenities in terms of aesthetics and convenience; u n i f i c a t i o n in design and layout to prevent deterioration; and the improvement of the municipal tax base. The improvement of r e t a i l compatibility in an i n t e g r a l part of the objective to provide convenience to shoppers. In the l i g h t of the foregoing, i t is apparent that any scheme to Improve r e t a i l compatibility should be 90 co-ordinated with a l l other plana of a comprehensive CBD urban renewal project. Nevertheless, a hypothetical scheme to improve r e t a i l compatibility can be stated. F i r s t of a l l , the existing r e t a i l pattern would require study in r e l a t i o n to r e t a i l compatibility as shown in Chapter I I I . From such an analysis i t would be possible to delineate that portion of the CBD which should be developed as the prime r e t a i l area. The delineation would also be based on a complete economic analysis considering future r e t a i l needs of the community. It would be necessary to determine what buaineases should be relocated to improve r e t a i l compatibility. This would involve moving desirable r e t a i l businesses into the delineated r e t a i l area as well as moving out undesirable uses from within the delineated area. Changes may then be required ln commercial zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to ensure that r e t a i l compatibility would be protected i n the future. As noted in Chapter IV, no generalization can be made in this regard. The commercial zone c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s must be t a i l o r e d to the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l c i t y . Zones would necessarily be provided for those uses which would be moved from the delineated prime r e t a i l area. In e f f e c t , the relocation of businesses would tend to bring about greater comnatibility of the zones by eliminating or r e l o c a t i n g nonconforming uses. Total conformity would not n e c e s s a r i l y be desirable because of the probable high expense involved . I I . FEDERAL URBAN RENEWAL ASSISTANCE It is h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , large or s m a l l , are able to finance a comprehensive CBD r e -newal program. Nevertheless , a community can undertake a comprehensive CBD renewal program through the use of a i d offered by the f e d e r a l government which Is s p e c i f i e d in federal urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n . Amendments made to the National Housing Act in I96J4. removed a number of r e s t r a i n t s on the form and content of possible renewal p r o j e c t s , a id was offered over a wider range of a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g , for the f i r s t time, n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l r e n e w a l . ! In summary the National Housing Act now allows the f e d e r a l government: a) to bear h a l f the cost of a c q u i r i n g and c l e a r i n g a substandard area and also of preparing the s i t e f o r d i s p o s a l even when there is no housing content, e i ther e x i s t i n g or proposed; , b) to bear h a l f the v cost of i n s t a l l i n g municipal services or works, other than b u i l d i n g s , in any renewal area Including areas scheduled f o r r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n rather than clearance;. c) to bear h a l f the cost of employing s t a f f or con-sultants In connection with a c q u i s i t i o n , c learance , r e l o c a t i o n , publ ic Information and the assistance of af fec ted property owners; -"-Stanley H. P i c k e t t , "An A p p r a i s a l of the Urban Renewal Program i n Canada," A paper read at the Graduate School of Publ ic and Internat ional A f f a i r s , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t sburgh , March 17th and 18th, 1965, p . 3o 92 d) to lend to a province or municipality up to two-thirds of the actual cost of implementing a re-newal scheme, a f t e r the deduction of federal grants, and e) to insure loans made by approved lenders to the owners of housing scheduled for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n urban renewal areas. These loans, up to 85$ of the lending value a f t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , are secured by f i r s t mortgage and allow for the discharge of e x i s t i n g encumbrances. Should lenders be unwilling to invest i n a renewal area CMHC i s empowered to make d i r e c t loans. 2 Prior to the amendments of 1961+, grants were a v a i l -able from the federal government for studies to determine: ex i s t i n g physical, economic, and s o c i a l conditions; the need for a d d i t i o n a l housing; and the kind of renewal action which may be appropriate In various parts of the urban area.3 This type of federal renewal study assistance, which provides seventy-five per cent of cost of the study, has been a v a i l -able to municipalities since 1956 under the provisions of the National Housing Act. A second type cf study, sided by a $0% federal grant, was introduced in the I96I4. amendments and is intended f o r the preparation of Individual urban renewal schemes. These studies complete the detailed examination of areas previously i d e n t i f i e d for action in either an urban re-newal study or through normal municipal planning work. The completed scheme includes a re-use plan set within the context of the o f f i c i a l plan for the community; the designation of buildings for clearance and for r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n ; a re-housing plan for persons and families d i s -paced; a program for r&»w municipal services and f a c i l i -^ I b l d . 3 l b i d . 93 t i e s ; proposals f o r phasing the program where appropri-ate; statement on methods proposed for the control of development; for the encouragement of private r e h a b i l i -tation and for retarding further depreciation in the area and, inevitably, an estimate of costs. This urban renewal scheme arrangement Is an important part of the new comprehensive approach to renewal in Canada. It is intended to bridge the gap between the general statements of needs and program contained in urban renewal studies and the hard detailed d i s c i p l i n e of project applications. Experience has shown the dangers of entering uoon project agreements with what are subsequently revealed to be inadequate s t a f f i n g and financing arrangements and with i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of the economic and s o c i a l aspects of the area concerned.4-Since aid is no longer r e s t r i c t e d to r e s i d e n t i a l areas i t is possible for proposals to improve r e t a i l com-p a t i b i l i t y to be an i n t e g r a l part of such urban renewal schemes described above. As indicated previously the desire to improve r e t a i l compatibility should be one of the ob-jectives of a CBD urban renewal scheme. L i t t l e experience can be drawn upon to point out the effectiveness of the 1961+ amendments at this point, especially i n r e t a i l com-p a t i b i l i t y . Indeed, i t Is questionable whether or not the improvement of r e t a i l compatibility has been a serious consideration in any urban renewal schemes prepared to date. While i t Is not possible at this time to analyze sny results of the 1961+ amendments, i t is possible to summarize some of the factors which have discouraged adequate l o c a l programs of renewal. The preparation of proposals f o r l«bld 9k studies and programs i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the munic i -p a l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g reasons account for the r e l a t i v e l y slow response by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s : . . . i n c l u d i n g lack of c l a r i t y about the c o n f l i c t i n g ob-j e c t i v e s of urban renewal and d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a v a i l a b l e c a p i t a l f o r the s u b s t a n t i a l municipal share of the cost . Many of the smaller c i t i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r have l i t t l e comprenhension of renewal object ives or pro-cesses, or of the a i d offered by the f e d e r a l government. Aggressive promotion of renewal by senior governments may not have been i n accord with the p o l i t i c a l climate of the past f i v e years, but programs of systematic Information f o r the guidance of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s could have received more a t t e n t i o n , at both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s of government.5 Another fac tor which has discouraged the urban renewal p r o -gram in Canada Is the inadequate s t a f f i n g at the l o c a l l e v e l . The shortage of s t a f f i s a lso evident at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . Only the Province of Ontario has s t a f f employed f u l l - t i m e on urban renewal. I I I . LIMITED METHODS TO IMPROVE RETAIL COMPATIBILITY Besides a comprehensive urban renewal scheme, there are l i m i t e d methods which could be employed to increase the degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . One p o s s i b i l i t y would be f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y concerned to become a c t i v e l y engaged in the r e a l estate market. Such a m u n i c i p a l i t y could then manipulate cer ta in r e t a i l properties to reach the desired objective i . e . improving r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . 5lbld. ,""p. 6. 6 I b i d . This prac t ice is u n l i k e l y to become widespread since most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have l imi ted funds and no desire to get into the r e a l estate business . Besides, more press ing problems have a much higher p r i o r i t y ln regard to municipal monetary, p o l i c y . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s for the municipal planning departments or the municipal counci l members to d i r e c t or influence prospective businesses in r e t a i l s i t e s e l e c t i o n in an e f f o r t to increase r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . It Is questionable to what degree municipal c o u n c i l members would become a c t i v e l y engaged in this respect , but c e r t a i n l y the planning department should be very act ive i n th is regard . Unfortunately , most of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia do not have planning departments. A disadvantage of this procedure is that i t would be a "piecemeal" approach to improved r e t a i l c o m p a t l b i l i t y , IV. THE POLITICAL ACCEPTABILITY OP METHODS TO - IMPLEMENT THE HYPOTHETICAL SCHEME The questionnaire shown as Appendix H was used as the basis f o r personal interview with the C i t y Clerks of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Cast legar . The purpose of the questionnaire i s to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of implementing the hypothe-t i c a l scheme described i n t h i s Chapter to improve r e t a i l compat ibi l i ty i n the selected m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The 96 questionnaire i s concerned w i t h three ways i n which the scheme could be implemented. The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s Involve-ment i n r e a l e s t a t e Is one method; the e f f o r t s by the m u n i c i p a l i t y to d i r e c t p r i v a t e developers i s another. The t h i r d method i s by urban renewal made p o s s i b l e by f e d e r a l government a s s i s t a n c e . The f i r s t two questions are concerned with the i n -volvement of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s In r e a l estate t r a n s a c t i o n s to improve r e t a i l land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y . In r e l a t i o n to the f i r s t question, Duncan was the only m u n i c i p a l i t y of the three which had d e a l t i n commercial r e a l estate i n the past. A l l of the C i t y Clerks r e p l i e d n e g a t i v e l y when asked whether or not the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would deal i n r e a l estate i n the f u t u r e to implement the h y p o t h e t i c a l scheme. The C i t y Clerks f e l t that the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s could not a f f o r d t h i s type of redevelopment. They stressed the point that there were more press i n g problems to be taken care of. The t h i r d and f o u r t h questions are concerned with the r o l e the municipal c o u n c i l s have played and w i l l p lay i n regard to i n f l u e n c i n g p o t e n t i a l p r i v a t e developers i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n f o r the purpose of improving r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . In the past, as Indicated by the C i t y C l e r k s , none of the municipal c o u n c i l s have attempted to d i r e c t p o t e n t i a l r e t a i l developers i n t h i s regard. A l l of the C i t y C l e r k s answered a f f i r m a t i v e l y when asked whether or not the c o u n c i l would 97 attempt to d i r e c t p o t e n t i a l r e t a i l developers In the f u t u r e . The C i t y Clerks pointed out that in past years r e t a i l devel -opments have been small i n scale and did not warrant the councils concern. They also indicated that there is promise for larger scale r e t a i l developments in the future which w i l l warrant the a t tent ion of the c i t y councils in r e l a t i o n to s i t e s e l e c t i o n . The f i f t h , s i x t h , and seventh questions of the questionnaire have to do with the use of f e d e r a l assistance f o r urban renewal i n r e l a t i o n to improving r e t a i l compati-b i l i t y . F i r s t of a l l , i t was found that Duncan is the only case study m u n i c i p a l i t y which has applied for f e d e r a l assistance to conduct an urban renewal study. The Castlegar c o u n c i l is contemplating a proposal for an urban renewal study for an area adjacent to the CBD, but at the moment the proposal Is in the prel iminary stages and l i t t l e information i s a v a i l a b l e . In r e l a t i o n to the s i x t h quest ion, the C i t y Clerk of Duncan expressed the opinion that improved r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s part of the urban renewal scheme although the main object ive is f o r the development of a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g area . The r e p l i e s to the seventh question revealed that a l l of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would be i n favor of having the hypothet ica l scheme developed as described i n t h i s Chapter as a part of a federal urban renewal scheme for the CBD area . On the basis of the questionnaire responses, i t i s f e l t that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y in the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s is l i m i t e d to urban renewal with f e d e r a l ass is tance , and poss ibly to municipal guidance of s i t e s e l e c t i o n f o r p o t e n t i a l r e t a i l developers. What w i l l happen i n the future is questionable but the opportun-i t y does exist to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The impor-tance which w i l l be given to Improved r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y within a CBD renewal scheme i s quest ionable . I t i s stressed that improved r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y should be s e r i o u s l y considered i n any OBD renewal scheme. V. REACTION OP COMMERCIAL PROPRIETORS TO HYPOTHETICAL SCHEME A survey of several commercial proprie tors was made in the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s shown on Maps 5, 6 , and 7 on the f o l l o w i n g pages. The purpose of the survey was to discover the reactions of the proprietors when faced with a hypothet ica l urban renewal scheme which cause them to r e l o c a t e ; e i t h e r Into, the prime r e t a i l area or out of the prime r e t a i l area depending on the nature of the e s t a b l i s h -ment. The establishments queried were those which would l i k e l y be a f fec ted by the hypothet ica l scheme proposed e a r l i e r in th is Chapter. The business establishments chosen for the survey do not n e c e s s a r i l y represent the only commercial land uses which may be desirable to be relocated -i r LOCATIONS O F BUSINESS P f o P R I E T Q R S INTERVIEWSD • highly compatible T moderately compatible • slightly compatible © incompatible 0 deleterious O deleterious D dead spots -I±-nmcffiDiojmi.ng uses. L E G E N D tC*COI convenience & shoppers goods Y//A serv ices k \ N automotive La_mc— rati miscel laneous * 1 , 1 o ther J^J locat ions of interviewees CrNTRAu BUSINESS DlSTRiC DUNCAN B.C. Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m o i a D i v of C o m m u n i t y &Rf_] ional P l a n n i n g M A Tr.es i s - A M e r i o _£.QO _ -j f e e t April 1966 Map N o . OQQ. LOCATIONS O F BUSINESS PROPRIETORS I N T E R V I E W E D Centra l ave. J a v e . A s . N oo 2nd ave s • h igh ly compat ib le T m o d e r a t e l y compat ib le + s l i g h t l y c o m p a t i b l e 0 i n c o m p a t i b l e D d e l e t e r i o u s O d e l e t e r i o u s D d e a d s p o t s L E G E N D WWft conven ience & shoppers goods V/ZQ s e r v i c e s au tomo t i ve fcr->---1 m i s c e l l a n e o u s o * ] o t h e r locat ions of interv iewees CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT C F GRAND F O R K S B.C. University of Br i t ish Columbia Div. of Community &. Regional Planning M.A. Thcsis-A.Mer le 0 200 feet April 1966 Map No.. 6 101 LOCATIONS O F BUSINESS PROPRIETORS INTERVIEWED §j N 8 D P Main st . • hi ghly compat ib le • modera te ly compatible + s l ight ly compatible © incompat ib le • d e l e t e r i o u s O d e l e t e r i o u s D dead s p o t s N nonconforming uses L E G E N D convenience & shoppers goods s e r v i c e s K \ 1 automot ive L'-J^-fll m isce l laneous f~ I o ther ^ ^ * - loca t ions of interviewees CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT OF C A S T L E G A R B . C . Bri t ish Columbia „ Div. of Community & Regional Planning M A Thes i s -A .Mer lo April 196A 102 nor Is i t supposed that they are the most c r i t i c a l . The purpose is not to propose a s o l u t i o n for the improvement of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y In the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s but rather to observe the reactions of the p r o p r i e t o r s . Table V, page 103 shows the reactions of the proprie tors quer ied . The s i x establishments analyzed i n Castlegar are si tuated north of the prime r e t a i l area separated by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway r i g h t - o f - w a y . Presently the degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y is deleter ious i n this area . I f those uses are properly s i tuated In the prime r e t a i l area the r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the prime r e t a i l area would Improve. In Grand Porks, the proprietors of four business establishments were queried i n r e l a t i o n to moving into the prime r e t a i l area and two proprietors were questioned in r e l a t i o n to moving out of the prime r e t a i l area . Four establishments are scattered on the f r inges of the CBD and represent r e t a i l uses which could be b e n e f i c i a l to the Im-provement of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the prime r e t a i l area . The two gas s tat ions In the prime r e t a i l area would be better s i tuated along Centra l Avenue which has considerable t r a f f i c . The removal of the gas s t a t i o n s , which presently cause deleter ious c o m p a t i b i l i t y , would provide space for r e t a i l uses which would Improve the r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of that p a r t i c u l a r area . 103 TABLE V PROPRIETORS REACTIONS TO A HYPOTHETICAL SCHEME TO IMPROVE RETAIL COMPATIBILITY CASTLEGAR: l.tf Grocery store 2. Jewelry store 3. Mechanical supplies I+. Cafe 5. Shoe Repair 6 . Cafe The owners would discontinue the bus-iness and r e t i r e . They would welcome the chance to s e l l property for a f a i r pr ice enabling them to acquire new residence of equal u t i l i t y . The proprietors would l i k e the oppor-tuni ty to locate in the prime r e t a i l area. They f e e l that t h e i r business would increase despite the increase i n property taxes which would r e s u l t . The lessee would move r e a d i l y without any d i f f i c u l t i e s with the e x i s t i n g rent agreements. The propr ie tor is s a t i s f i e d with the e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n although he would favor a l o c a t i o n i n the prime r e t a i l area but he questions the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s i t e s . The propr ie tor ( lessee) desires to move into prime r e t a i l area . He would not have any problem with the e x i s t i n g r e n t a l agreements. The propr ie tor ( lessee) would favor the chance to move to Improve business . The e x i s t i n g r e n t a l agreements would not be a problem. #The numbers correla te with those on Maps 5 , 6 , and 7 which show the locat ions of the proprie tors interviewed. 101+ GRAND FORKS: 1. Shoe Repair The propr ie tor would welcome the chance to s e l l his property since he w i l l be soon r e c e i v i n g a pension. He would r e -t i r e . 2. Appliances The propr ie tor o r i g i n a l l y t r i e d to buy property l n the prime r e t a i l area but no one would s e l l . He feels that his business would be better located i n the prime r e t a i l area . 3. Paint Shop The p r o p r i e t o r Is d i s s a t i s f i e d with the e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n . He would desire to s e l l the property and re locate in a l o c a t i o n with more pedestrian t r a f f i c . 1+. Gas S t a t i o n The owner had mixed r e a c t i o n s . He i n -dicated that he would s e l l for a f a i r p r i c e but that he was s a t i s f i e d with his l o c a t i o n . He l i k e s his automobile show-room to be near pedestrian t r a f f i c . He fee ls that his gas business is good. 5. Gas Sta t ion The owner would favor an opportunity to move. 6. Bakery The owner would l i k e to s e l l for a f a i r pr ice and locate his business in an area where there is more opportunity for impulse buying . DUNCAN: 1. Laundry The owner would re locate i f the r i g h t pr ice was offered although he was not too enthused about the prospect . 2. Beauty Salon The owner has the business i n her dwelling (a house). She was concerned with how the property would be valued since i t serves a double purpose. She would welcome the chance to re locate for a f a i r p r i c e . i o 5 3. E l e c t r i c Shop The owner favors the scheme and fee ls that he would benef i t by r e l o c a t i n g . 1+. Gas Sta t ion The owner f e e l s It would be b e n e f i c i a l to his business to relocate providing the a p p r a i s a l was reasonable. 5. Iron Works The owner would welcome the opportunity to move to an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e providing that he was f a i r l y compensated for the e x i s t i n g property and that he could f i n d an a l ternate s i te at a reasonable p r i c e . 6. Confectionery Store At present Is looking f o r a new s i t e nearer to the pedestrian stream. 106 B a s i c a l l y the same types of establishments were analyzed in Duncan as i n Grand Porks, Pour businesses analyzed are scattered outside of the main business area while two uses analyzed are in the main business area. The four businesses would be bet ter loca ted , i n r e l a t i o n to r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n or near the prime r e t a i l a rea . The two uses, a gas s ta t ion and an i ron works shop, would be bet ter located elsewhere. The reactions of the propr ie tors are favorable to the hypothet ica l scheme. It appears that there would be l i t t l e res is tance to r e l o c a t i o n . But i t must not be over-looked that most of the owner-proprietors were favorable to the scheme assuming that a f a i r p r i c e would be paid f o r t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . This i s an assumption which i n ac tual fact may not be t rue . In r e a l i t y , the value of a property as i n t e r -preted by an appraiser may c o n f l i c t markedly with the value of that property as interpreted by the owner. Another l i m i t a t i o n of the f indings i s that most of the proprie tors assumed that a l t e r n a t i v e locat ions would be provided. A c t u a l l y , under f e d e r a l urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n i t i s not necessary to provide a l ternate s i t e s for businesses affected by urban renewal. VI. SUMMARY 107 I t was pointed out ln this chapter that a hypo-t h e t i c a l scheme to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y should coincide with a comprehensive CBD urban renewal program* E f f o r t s to el iminate detrimental nonconforming uses and to r e c l a s s i f y CBD commercial zones f o r the purpose of improv-ing r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y should be co-ordinated with the hypothet ical scheme, rather than as separate approaches to the problem of deleter ious r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Recent amendments to the Nat ional Housing Act provide f i n a n c i a l a i d to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s interested i n commercial urban renewal. It was found that the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s favor the use of the recent l e g i s l a t i o n to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . A l s o , a survey of commer-c i a l proprietors seemed to indicate that the opposi t ion to r e l o c a t i o n would not be very great . In f a c t , the majority of the proprie tors seemed to welcome the opportunity to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r businesses i n new l o c a t i o n s . CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS There i s a need for more research In respect to r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y as re lated to p lanning . The study conducted by Richard L . Nelson is a s t a r t in the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . Attempts should be made to develop a model system c o n s i s t i n g of complete r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y r a t -ings a p p l i c a b l e to c i t i e s and towns of varying s i z e s . Planning departments should conduct research in order to develop a r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y system a p p l i c a b l e to com-mercial areas within t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . Such r a t i n g systems would be very u s e f u l i n the a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t i n g degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y In commercial areas . Analyses of the degree of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y through the use of r a t i n g systems would form the basis of synthesis and design of plans and programs f o r the Improvement of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The implementation of schemes to improve r e t a i l com-p a t i b i l i t y is c r i t i c a l . There are planning measures which can be implemented to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . Proper use of the zoning technique Is fundamental l n encouraging c o m p a t i b i l i t y l n r e t a i l areas . The r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the widely-permissive general business type of zoning category i s desirable in order to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . 109 It was found that no generalizations can be made in r e l a t i o n to the number and composition of zones which should be applied into a zoning bylaw form for communities the size of Duncan, Grand Porks, and Castlegar, nor for communities of any p a r t i c u l a r size. The reason for this i s that each c i t y has certain p e c u l i a r i t i e s which may not be properly accommodated by generalized regulations. There is general agreement that smaller towns require fewer c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s but no standards are evident in t h i s respect. Also, there seems to be general agreement on the categorization of com-mercial uses, i n other words, the grouping of certain uses together for the purposes of Increasing compatibility within zones i s generally agreed upon. It appears highly possible that r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n attempts would be accepted by B r i t i s h Columbia municipal councils. R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be carried out in muni-c i p a l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia which presently enforce the widely-permissive general business type of zoning category in t h e i r CBD's. The i n i t i a t i o n of r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the planners involved in planning for the municipalities. The elimination of nonconforming uses that constitute "dead spots" in the r e t a i l areas of CBD's i s necessary in order to improve r e t a i l compatibility, ^he e x i s t i n g zoning reg-ulations of the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act having to do 110 with nonoonforming uses may eliminate nonconforming uses i n an i n d i r e c t f a s h i o n . They are designed to control noncon-forming uses with the hope that the contro l w i l l ext inguish the uses. It may f a i r l y be said that this approach through municipal c o n t r o l of nonconforming uses has not been p a r t i c -u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l . The effect iveness of the s p e c i f i c bylaws in regard to e l i m i n a t i n g nonconforming uses in the three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s analyzed was not determined because they had not been enforced. S i m i l a r l y , i t was found that the abate-ment of nuisances approach to el iminate nonconforming uses had r a r e l y been u t i l i z e d In the case study m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . It is suggested that such bylaws should be enforced In co -ordinat ion with municipal p o l i c y i n regard to the im-provement of r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The amortization approach to el iminate nonconforming uses appears to be acceptable to B r i t i s h Columbia munic ipal -i t i e s on the basis of the analys is of the a t t i tudes of the three municipal c o u n c i l s . A statute p r o v i d i n g f o r the amor-t i z a t i o n of nonconforming uses should be added to the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal A c t . This addi t ion would provide munici -p a l i t i e s with a more powerful device f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses than those which they presently have w i t h -i n t h e i r power. The Implementation of a scheme to improve r e t a i l com-p a t i b i l i t y can be f a c i l i t a t e d through the use of Federal I l l Urban Renewal L e g i s l a t i o n . A scheme to improve r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y should be a component part of any CBD urban renewal scheme and must coincide with a comprehensive CBD planning program. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s are favorable that r e t a i l compati-b i l i t y schemes w i l l occur within urban renewal schemes In B r i t i s h Columbia; I n c i d e n t a l l y or as a r e s u l t of d i rec t cons idera t ion . The p o l i t i c a l acceptance of r e t a i l compa-t i b i l i t y schemes appears to be f a v o r a b l e . I t Is the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the planners to be aware of the need f o r Improved r e t e l l c o m p a t i b i l i t y and to influence the d e c i s i o n -makers in this respect . Another important fac tor i s the reac t ion of poten- ' t i a l l y af fec ted r e t a i l e r s . On the basis of analys is of the a t t i tudes of r e t a i l e r s conducted in the case study munic i -p a l i t i e s , i t appears that schemes to improve r e t a i l com-p a t i b i l i t y would be favored. The co-operation of the r e -t a i l e r s who must relocate depends on the f a i r n e s s of property appraisals and the p r o v i s i o n of a l te rnate l o c a t i o n s . It i s recommended that an amendment be made to Federal Urban Renewal L e g i s l a t i o n which would require the p r o v i s i o n i n g of a l ternate s i tes f o r affec ted business p r o p r i e t o r s . Some of the conclusions are l i m i t e d by the f a c t that a small sample of three communities were studied i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Further research i n r e l a t i o n to the problem p r e -sented in this thesis would require a larger sample of commun-i t i e s . BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY 113 A . BOOKS Barker,, Clare and Ira Anderson. P r i n c i p l e s of R e t a i l i n g . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 19357~ Bassett , Edward M. Zoning. New York: R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 191+0. G a l l i o n , Arthur B. The Urban Pat tern . Pr inceton , New Jersey: D. van Nostrand Company, I n c . , I960. Hodgel l , Murl in R. Zoning. Engineering Experiment S t a t i o n . B u l l e t i n 8J+. Volume XLII , Number 6. Manhatten: Kansas State C o l l e g e , 1958. Mayer, Harold M. and Clyde F , Kohn ( e d s . ) . Readings i n  Urban Geography* Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1959. McChesney, Frank. Zoning, Insurance f o r L l v a b i l i t y . Harr i sburg : Pennsylvania Department of In ternal A f f a i r s , 1962. McLean, Mary ( e d . ) . Local Planning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Chicago: The Internat ional C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 191+8. M i l n e r , James B. Community Planning-A Casebook on Law and  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, T9bT Nelson, Richard L . The S e l e c t i o n of R e t a i l Loca t ions . New York: F . W. Dodge Corporat ion, 1958. Pickard , Jerome P. Changing Urban Land Uses as Affec ted by  Taxat ion . Research Monograph No„ 6. Washington, D, C : Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 196l„ Pooley, Beverley J . Planning and Zoning in the United  S ta tes . Michigan Legal P u b l i c a t i o n s . Ann Arbour, Michigan: L e g i s l a t i v e Research Center, The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Law School , 1 9 6 l 0 Spangle, Wil l iam E, J r . Model Zoning Ordinance. Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a : S tanis laus C i t i e s - C o u n t y Advance Planning S t a f f , 1960 o I l l ; B. ARTICLES AND PERIODICALS Hickman, Samuel B . "Zoning-El iminat ion of Nonconforming Uses by ' A m o r t i z a t i o n ' , " C o r n e l l Law Q u a r t e r l y 0 Cornel l U n i v e r s i t y Publ ica t ions in Law, V o l . Ithaca, New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, Spring 1959. McKim, Norton C. " E l i m i n a t i o n of Incompatible U s e s , " Law  and Contemporary Problems. Duke U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n In Law. Durnham, North C a r o l i n a : Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, Spring 1955. U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Law Review. "Nonconforming Uses: A Rationale and an Approach," U n i v e r s i t y of  Pennsylvania Law Review. U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Publicat ions In Law, V o l . 102. P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pennsylva-n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, 1953. Young, James A , "The Regulation and Removal of Nonconfor-ming Uses , " Western Reserve Law Revlew 0 Western U n i v e r s i t y Publicat ions i n Law. Cleveland, Ohio: Western U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1961. C. PUBLIC DOCUMENTS B r i t i s h Columbia. Munic ipal A c t . R . S . B . C . 1965. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Municipal A f f a i r s . Munic ipal  S t a t i s t i c s . V i c t o r i a : Department of Munic ipal A f f a i r s , Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . Regional Index of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade, and Commerce, 1966. D. REPORTS American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s . Exclusive Indus-t r i a l and Commercial Zoning. Information Report number 91. Chicago: Planning Advisory S e r v i c e . American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , October 1956. Construction and C i v i c Development Department. Zoning and  C i v i c Development. Washington; Chamber of Commerce of the United States , 1950. 115 McKeever, Rosa,, Shopping Centers Re-s tudied , Part One— Emerging Patterns. Technical B u l l e t i n No. 30. Wash-ington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , May 1957. McLean, Mary. Zoning B u f f e r s : Solut ion or Panacea. Information Report Number 133. Chicago: American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , A p r i l 1960 o Nelson, Richard L . and Frederick T . Aschman. Conservation  and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Major Shopping D i s t r i c t s . Technical B u l l e t i n No. 22. Washington I Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , February 1951+. O'Harrow, Dennis. Zoning D i s t r i c t s . Information Report Number 13b. Chicago: American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , July I960. E. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Bureau of Munic ipal Research and S e r v i c e . Uniform Zoning  Ordinance f o r Hood River County and the C i t i e s of the  County. U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1963. Bureau of Munic ipal Research and S e r v i c e . Zoning Ordinance  Pa t tern . U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1962. City of Grand Forks . Bylaw No. 511. Corporation of the C i t y of Duncan. Bylaw No. 8 l . Corporation of the V i l l a g e of Cast legar . Bylaw No. 21+2» Corporation of the V i l l a g e of C a s t l e g a r , Zoning Bylaw 1965. P i c k e t t , Stanley H. "An A p p r a i s a l of the Urban Renewal Program in Canada." Paper read at the Graduate School O f Public^and Internat ional A f f a i r s , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , P i t t sburgh , Pennsylvania, March 17 and 18, 1965. APPENDIX A EXAMPLE OP THE USE OP THE RULE OP RETAIL COMPATIBILITY 117 I f there are two r e t a i l stores side by side and one customer i n 100 makes a purchase i n both, the rule indicates that together they w i l l do 1 per cent more business than i f separated by 3uch a distance as to make th is Interchange impossible or u n l i k e l y . If one customer i n ten makes purchases i n both s tores , t h e i r t o t a l increase in business w i l l be about 10 per cent . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i f every customer bought in both s tores , t h e i r t o t a l business volume would double, i f both businesses did about the same d o l l a r volume. However, a very large store and a very smal l store would not show the same t o t a l increase as two stores of equivalent s i z e . For example, i f a department store doing § 5 » 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 worth of r e t a i l volume a year were next door to a v a r i e t y store doing $500,000 a year, t h e i r t o t a l would not double even with a 100 per cent interchange of customers. I f t h e i r customer Interchange were on the order of 25 out of 100, the t o t a l increase i n business f o r the two e s t a b l i s h -ments would be d i r e c t l y proportionate to the interchange, or 25 per cent, but Inversely ( i t a l i c s ln the o r i g i n a l ) proportionate to the r a t i o of t h e i r volumes, which i s 1 0 : 1 . Thus the t o t a l increase would equal one-tenth of 25 per cent or 2 . 5 per cent . I f , however, interviews showed purposeful purchasing at the department store and the v a r i e t y store to be, r e s p e c t i v e l y , on the order of 90 per cent and 15 per cent of t o t a l purchasing, the 2 „ 5 per cent increase would have to be m u l t i p l i e d by 105 per cent . Thus, these two stores together would show a business Increase of 2*5 x 1.05 = 2.625 per cent of the t o t a l of $5>500,000, or an addi t iona $114.14-,375. This is not a measure of market p o t e n t i a l . A l l c o m p a t i b i l i t y determinations assume that an adequate market e x i s t s .1 lRichard L . Nelson, The S e l e c t i o n of R e t a i l Locations (New York: F» W. Dodge Corporat ion, 195^),. p . 67. APPENDIX B GENERAL BUSINESS CLASSIFICATION—DUNCAN, BRITISH COLUMBIA 10 In General Commercial Zones 120 (a) I t s h a l l be l a w f u l to operate commercial and p r i v a t e parking areas and to e r e c t , c o n s t r u c t , a l t e r , r e c o n s t r u c t , r e p a i r or maintain b u i l d i n g s f o r any use other than the uses enumerated In Schedule "B" to t h i s Bylaw, the p r o v i s i o n s of which Schedule "B" s h a l l be deemed to be e x p r e s s l y enacted by and to form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s Bylaw, S C H E D U L E "B" Uses p r o h i b i t e d In a l l D i s t r i c t s . 1. Ammonia, c h l o r i n e or b l e a c h i n g powder manufacture, 2. Assaying (other than gold or s i l v e r ) . 3. Asphalt manufacturing or r e f i n i n g , {j.. B l a s t furnaces, 5, B r i c k , concrete products, t e r r a c o t t a or t i l e manufac-t u r i n g , 6, B o i l e r making, 7, Brewing or d i s t i l l i n g of l i q u o r s . 8, Candle manufacturing. 9, Coke manufacturing. I C C e l l u l o i d manufacturing. 11. Creosote manufacturing. 12. D i s i n f e c t a n t , i n s e c t i c i d e or poison manufacturing. 13. Crematory, except i n cemetery. I I4. . D i s t i l l a t i o n of c o a l , wood or bones. 15. Dyestuff manufacturing. 16. Emery c l o t h and sand-paper manufacturing. 17. E x p l o s i v e s , f i r e w o r k s or gunpowder manufacturing. 18. Pat rendering. 19. F e r t i l i z e r manufacturing. 2 0 . Gas manufacture or storage. 21 . Gasoline or naptha r e f i n i n g . 2 2 . Glue, s i z e and g e l a t i n e manufacture. 2 3 . I n c i n e r a t i o n or r e d u c t i o n of garbage, e f f a l , dead animals or r e f u s e . 121 21+. Match manufacturing. 25. Lamp-black manufacture. 26. Lime, cement or p l a s t e r of Paris manufacturing. 27. O i l - c l o t h or l inoleum manufacturing. 2 8 . Ore reduct ion . 2 9 . Paint o i l , varnish or turpentine manufacturing. 30. ^aper and pulp manufacturing. 31. Petroleum r e f i n i n g or storage. 32. P r i n t i n g ink manufacturing. 33. P i c k l e , sauerkraut, sausage or vinegar manufacturing. 31).. Potash r e f i n i n g . 35* Pyroxyline manufacturing. 36. R o l l i n g m i l l . 37. Rawhides or skins storage, cur ing or tanning. 38. Rubber manufacturing from the crude m a t e r i a l . 39. Saw or planing m i l l . 1+'). Shoddy manufacture or wool scouring . 1+1. Soap manufacture. 1+2. Starch, glucose or dextrine manufacturing. 1+3. Sugar r e f i n i n g . 1+1+. Sulphurous, s u l p h u r i c , n i t r a t e or hydrochlor ic a c i d manufacturing. 1+5. Soda and soda compounds manufacturing. 1+6. Stove p o l i s h manufacturing. 1+7. Tallow, grease or l a r d manufacturing or r e f i n i n g . 1+8. Tar d i s t i l l a t i o n or manufacturing. 1+9. Tar r o o f i n g or tar waterproofing manufacturing. 5>0. Tobacco manufacturing or treatment for chewing purposes. 51. Yeast manufacturing. 5>2. Any other trade, industry or use that is noxious or of fensive by reason of the emission of odours, dust, smoke, gas or noise or v i b r a t i o n . 53* T r a i l e r courts and t r a i l e r s occupied ss dwel l ings . Source: The Corporation of the C i t y of Duncan, Bylaw No. 681 , p. 11+, 17. APPENDIX G GENERAL BUSINESS CLASSIFICATION—GRAND FORKS, BRITISH COLUMBIA 1?3 9 . In ( ) General Business D i s t r i c t s -(1) No bui ldings or part thereof and no land s h a l l be used for purposes other than: (a) Bui ldings and uses permitted in (B) D i s t r i c t s and which conform to the regulat ions c o n t r o l l i n g height , yard and area s p e c i f i e d for the most r e s t r i c t e d use d i s t r i c t in which they are permitted! (b) Bui ldings and uses permitted in (C) D i s t r i c t s : (c) An o f f i c e for the p r i n t i n g and p u b l i c a t i o n of a newspaper: (d) Salesroom or yard for motor v e h i c l e s : (e) An undertaker 's establishment: ( f ) An h o t e l , restaurant , Y . M . C . A . , Y. irf .C.A. (h) B i l l b o a r d f o r a d v e r t i s i n g purposes: ( i ) A theatre , dance h a l l , skating r i n k , or other l i k e places of amusement but not i n c l u d i n g a shooting g a l l e r y , merry-go-round, or any other occupancy l i k e l y to cause a p u b l i c nuisance: ( j ) An accessory use which i s customarily incident to uses permitted in th is sect ion and occupying not more than one-quarter of the f l o o r space of the b u i l d i n g to the use of which i t i s a n c i l l a r y . (2) The height of any b u i l d i n g s h a l l not exceed twice the h o r i z o n t a l distance from the centre of the street upon which the b u i l d i n g f ronts to the face of the wall of the b u i l d i n g f r o n t i n g upon such s t ree t . 8. In (C) Local Shopping D l s t r i c t s -(1) No b u i l d i n g or part thereof and no land s h a l l be used f o r purposes other than: (a) B u i l d i n g s and uses permitted in (B) D i s t r i c t s , and which conform to the regulations of Sec t ion 7 hereof: (b) A r e t a i l store or shop: (c) An o f f i c e f o r or i n connection with a business or p r o f e s s i o n : (d) A garage used only for the storage of motor vehicles in connection with a business carr ied on upon the same or a d j o i n i n g premises: (e) A motor service s t a t i o n : (f) A bank: (g) A moving pic ture theatre . In (B) Residential D i s t r i c t s : (1) No b u i l d i n g or part thereof and no land s h a l l be used f o r purposes other than: (a) One family and two family dwellings: multiple dwellings: rooming and boarding houses: (b) Churches, l i b r a r i e s , museums, and s i m i l a r uses. (c) Nurseries, truck gardening and greenhouses: (d) Playgrounds and recreational areas: (e) Private schools, community h a l l , and club rooms: (f) Hospitals other than f o r the treatment of inebriates, infectious and contagious diseases: (g) The keeping of poultry and horses: (h) Home occupations and the o f f i c e of a professional person when located i n his dwelling: (1) Building accessory to the above uses not exceeding twelve feet in height, located in the rear yard of the b u i l d i n g to which they are accessory and not occupying more than thirty-percent of the rear yard, provided that 1. A private garage or small accessory building s h a l l be situated not less than s i x t y feet from the street in front nor less than f i v e feet from any other street l i n e and where the b u i l d i n g opens onto a lane i t s h a l l be not less than f i v e feet from the lane. 11. A building to shelter domestic animals or birds s h a l l be situated not less than eight feet from the street ln front nor less than t h i r t y - f i v e feet from the s i t e of a residence on any adjacent l o t . Source: The City of Grand Porks, B r i t i s h Columbia, Bylaw No. g l i . pp. 6, 5» 2>» APPENDIX D COMMERCIAL CLASSIFICATIONS—CASTLECAR, BRITISH COLUMBIA 126 "use, r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group 1" means land, b u i l d i n g s , or structures used f o r the sale at r e t a i l or r e p a i r of household or personal goods or th ings , or for pro-v i d i n g services to persona; Includes grocery s tores , bakery shops, meat and f i s h markets, supermarkets, del ica tessens , drug s tores , c l o t h i n g s tores , personal furnishings shops, hardwares, var ie ty s tores , department stores , book shops, toy s tores , home f u r n i s h i n g and appliance s tores , camera shops, s tat ionery stores pro-f e s s i o n a l and semi-profess ional o f f i c e s , banks, business o f f i c e s , finance o f f i c e s , barbers , h a i r d r e s s e r s , t a i l o r s , shoemakers, launderettes , dry cleaners , p r i n t e r s , trade and business schools , appliance r e p a i r s , restaurants and cafes , coffee houses, dance and music s tudios , a r t g a l l e r i e s , s o c i a l c lubs, b i l l i a r d h a l l s , l e g i o n s , f r a t e r n a l lodges, bowling a l l e y s , and theatres ; excludes " r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group 2 use" , " service s ta t ion use" , " t o u r i s t accommodation use" , and " h o t e l use" . "use, r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group 2" means land, b u i l d i n g s , or structures used for the sale at r e t a i l or s e r v i c i n g of non-household or non-personal goods or th ings , or f o r the sale at r e t a i l or s e r v i c i n g of any goods or things that necessi tate access by motor v e h i c l e ; includes new and used automobile s a l e s , the sale of goods in an unenclosed area, the sale of automotive goods, l i g h t marine sa les , l i g h t machinery sales , b u i l d i n g supply sales , glass s a l e s , plumbing shops, sheet metal shops, heating shops, n u r s e r i e s , automobile and l i g h t truck s e r v i c i n g and r e p a i r , car washes, d r i v e - i n f a c i l i t i e s , d r i v e - i n cafes and restaurants , bowling a l l e y s , skating and c u r l i n g r i n k s , r o l l e r r i n k s , recreat ion c l u b s , heal th c lubs , and mortuaries; excludes " r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group 1 use" , " service s t a t i o n use" , " t o u r i s t accommodation use" , and " h o t e l use" , Includes t r a i l e r s a l e s . "use, service s t a t i o n " means land, b u i l d i n g s , or structures used for the r e t a i l sale of motor fuels or l u b r i c a t i n g o i l s , with or without the s e r v i c i n g or minor r e p a i r of motor vehicles or the sale of automobile a c c e s s o r i e s . 127 C-1 Core Commericttl C-3 L o c a l Commercial CS-1 S e r v i c e Commerical CS-2 S e r v i c e S t a t i o n Commercial CS-3 S e r v i c e T o u r i s t Commercial CS-I4. S e r v i c e T o u r i s t Commercial ZONE IN WHICH USE IS PERMITTED USE C-1 C-3 CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-I4. P r i n c i p a l Use: L o c a l s t o r e no yes no no no no r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group 1 yes no yes no no no r e t a i l - s e r v i c e group 2 no no yes yes no no s e r v i c e s t a t i o n no no no yes no no h o t e l yes no no no no no t o u r i s t accommodation no no yes yes yes yes o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g yes no no no no no t r a i l e r s a l e s no no no no no yes t r a i l e r c ourts no no no no yes yes Accessory Use: a c c e s s o r y one-family r e s i d e n t i a l no yes no no yes yes a c c e s s o r y o f f - s t r e e t l o a d i n g yes no yes yes no no a c c e s s o r y o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g yes yes yes yes yes yes a c c e s s o r y unenclosed storage no no yes yes no no Source: C o r p o r a t i o n of the V i l l a g e of C a s t l e g a r , "Zoning Bylaw 1965." PP. l + , 5 , 11+. APPENDIX E AN EXPERIENCE IN RECLASSIFICATION 129 An Experience In C l a s s i f i c a t i o n In Chicago's rezoning project,! Real Estate Research Corporation l i s t e d 23 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of business groups i n which physical adjacency of the components of each group results i n mutual economic enhancement. Excluded from these l i s t i n g s were some business uses which have been almost un i v e r s a l l y and consistently c l a s s i f i e d in manufacturing and i n d u s t r i a l zones, even though they do not d i r e c t l y involve the f a b r i c a t i n g or making of products or the processing of materials. These were such businesses as scrap yards, Junk yards, lumber yards, dumping places, f r e i g h t yards, r a i l -road repair shops, blacksmiths, experimental laboratories, building material sales yards, contractors equipment storage yards, feed and f u e l yards, draylng, f r e i g h t i n g , or trucking yards, carpet and rug cleaning establishments, public u t i l i t y service yards, or transforming stations. Such uses were considered economically incompatible with each of the ?3 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and were recommended as properly belonging in separate categories apart from the normal business complex. Following are the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s set up as the f i r s t step i n a r r i v i n g at new business zones for Chicago: !• Private ichools (non-public day schools f o r children and not Including trade or secondary schools or boarding schools). Suoh f a c i l i t i e s for daytime care are needed because of the tremendous increase In incidence of working wives. (The study noted that 78$ of newlywed wives had reported an intention to be permanently employed.) Private schools were recommended as being permissible in any r e s i d e n t i a l zone provided that certain minimum standards were observed i n terms of physical layout, f a c i l i t i e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l conformity, and occupancy. 2. Parking lots (including public l o t s , private lots operated f o r p r o f i t , metered l o t s and l o t s both with and without attendants, and lots i n connection with permissible uses), were recommended to be allowed i n a l l business and commercial areas provided adequate standards are met. 3. Clubs (Including golf, country, tennis, beach, swimming, and s o c i a l clubs; f r a t e r n a l and r e l i g i o u s associations and lodges of a non-profit variety only; without public advertising or signs other than small i d e n t i f i c a t i o n plaques) were not considered compatible IH. F. Chaddick, Director; Evert Klncaid, Consultant. 130 with business areas . I4.. P u b l i c services ( i n c l u d i n g e l e c t r i c a l d i s -t r i b u t i n g s u b - s t a t i o n s , telephone s u b - s t a t i o n s , water sub-s ta t ions , f i r e stations, , p o l i c e sub-stat ions and l i b r a r i e s ) are l a r g e l y the u t i l i t i e s and p u b l i c services required on a neighborhood b a s i s . Provided that a r c h i -t e c t u r a l , p lanning , and height , b u l k , and setback r e s t r i c -t ions are e s t a b l i s h e d , such f a c i l i t i e s were recommended for i n c l u s i o n In business d i s t r i c t s only by s p e c i a l permission. 5. Medical c l i n i c s (bui ldings f o r human t r e a t -ment only , used wholly or e x c l u s i v e l y for doctors ' and d e n t i s t s ' o f f i c e s where sale of p r e s c r i p t i o n s and t r e a t -ments is done inside the b u i l d i n g with no separate entrance) were recommended for apartment zones under cer-t a i n standards for s i g n i n g , parking , and a r c h i t e c t u r e , but f i r s t f l o o r use by c l i n i c s was recommended to be excluded from r e t a i l and wholesale zones. It was noted that the Incident of " t r i p s to the doctor" coupled with shopping is so small as not to warrant the increased congestion which such c l i n i c s cause. 6. R e t a i l business T., was set up as one of two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s for general r e t a i l business , i n c l u d i n g r e t a i l shoos, stores and businesses dispensing conven-ience goods, shoppers' goods and s e r v i c e s . R e t a i l Business I Includes those types of establishments whose customers are mutually interchangeable; that i s , those r e t a i l businesses which a t t r a c t customers who are i n turn prospects for adjacent r e t a i l establishments . They generally Include stores and shops of a non-nuisance v a r i e t y which are sources of regular or frequent per iodic purchase. I t was recommended that a separate r e t a i l cate-gory be established which would l i m i t ground f l o o r use to various of the uses l i s t e d and al lowing use above the ground f l o o r for r e t a i l , r e s i d e n t i a l , o f f i c e , or medical purposes only where a d d i t i o n a l adequate o f f - s t r e e t park-ing is provided on s i t e for such u p s t a i r s uses. Basements could be devoted to any of the uses s p e c i f i e d i n c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s 1 through 1? but might be used f o r c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s 8 through 12 only where the entrance to the basement is wholly within a b u i l d i n g and adequate o f f -street parking is provided for that use. L i s t i n g s in R e t a i l Business I were recommended as f o l l o w s : Bakery goods stores Book stores Banks Beauty par lors Barber shops Branch post o f f i c e s Cigar stores Confectionery and candy stores Cosmetic stores Custom dressmaking shops Currency exchanges Camera shops Clothes c leaning agencies, pressing establishments or cleaners pick-up sta tions Drug stores Delicatessens Diaper service s tat ions Dry goods stores Department stores Leather goods and luggage stores Liquor stores (package) Loan o f f i c e s Meat markets M i l l i n e r y shops Music conservatories , music schools and musical instrument stores Notion stores Photographic supply shops Paint stores Public u t i l i t y c o l l e c t i o n o f f i c e s Restaurants Ready-to-wear shops R e t a i l f l o r i s t s (without nurseries or green-houses ) 7. Reta11 Business II a l l uses in R e t a i l Business I types of r e t a i l establishment 131 E l e c t r i c appliances and radio stores P r u i t and vegetable stores Frozen food stores F u r r i e r s Grocery stores G i f t shops Hardware and paint stores Haberdasheries Household appliance stores Heating equipment showrooms Hat repai r I n t e r i o r decorating and f u r n i t u r e stores Jewelry stores with watch and clock r e p a i r Launderettes Laundry agencies Real estate o f f i c e s Super marts Shoe stores Shoe r e p a i r shops and shoe shining Studios (photographic) Stat ionery stores Savings & Loan As socia tions Sporting goods Toy stores T r a v e l bureaus T a i l o r , c l o t h i n g and wearing apparel shops Tearooms and cafes (excluding dancing and entertainment) T i r e and auto accessory stores where there i s no break in the s i d e -walk ) Varie ty stores was recommended to Include plus a number of secondary p o i n t s . The addit ions are 132 business which, i n some degree, have an economic i n t e r -change of customers with establishments in R e t a i l B u s i -ness I but which nonetheless for one reason or another ( e . g . , unat t rac t ive appearance, nuisances i n operation) are not warranted of i n c l u s i o n in many r e t a i l areas . The addit ions to R e t a i l Business I to make up R e t a i l Business II i n c l u d e : Antique shops Art stores and ar t studios Bird stores Boat showrooms Coin and p h i l a t e l i c stores Costume r e n t a l shops Fuel s tores , b u i l d i n g mater ial and lumber stores (where the operations take place inside a s i n g l e b u i l d i n g only) Garden supplies Live b a i t stores Masseur salons Oot ic ian o f f i c e s Optometrist o f f i c e s Orthopedic and medical appliance stores Pawnshops Pet shops P r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s other than r e a l estate Public baths Picture framing Reducing salons R e t a i l feed stores Second-hand stores and rummage shops Taxidermists 8 . Neighborhood r e p a i r establishments (where r e p a i r or the minor f a b r i c a t i n g necessary to r e p a i r is done on the premises and are for neighborhood or emer-gency use) were recommended for exclusion from R e t a i l Business I d i s t r i c t s but possibly f o r i n c l u s i o n with R e t a i l Business II uses. General ly these establishments are r a r e l y v i s i t e d by shoppers in conjunction with any of the r e t a i l establishments, so i t was recommended that they be categorized separately . The l i s t Includes: Automobile showrooms Automobile r e p a i r shops Battery repai r shops B i c y c l e r e p a i r shops and b i c y c l e r e n t a l shops and o f f i c e s where no f a b r i c a t i n g i s done on the premises and where a l l storage of materials is inside a s ingle b u i l d -ing only Cabinet or carpenter shops (small) Exterminating shops Laundry and c leaning es-tablishments (with r e s -ervations ) Plumbing shops and showrooms Public garages Sheet metal shops Sign p a i n t i n g and paint shops S i l v e r p l a t i n g and r e p a i r shops Solder ing shops Upholster ing shops (custom) Umbrella shops 133 Glass cut t ing and glazing Venetian b l i n d and win-establishments dow r e p a i r shops. 9. Wholesale, storage and warehousing ( a l l types other than those i n v o l v i n g uncanned meat, f i s h , f r u i t and vegetables) are p a r a l l e l s to the r e t a i l business as another intermediary step in the d i s t r i b u t i o n process and are located In areas where goods are sold to f i n a l s e l l e r s . It was recommended that a separate wholesale and storage zone be established in which, as a maximum r e t a i l i n g and o f f i c e use should be permitted only when i n c i d e n t a l to the whole-sale or storage operation and as a minimum, such uses might be permitted regardless of incidence to the bas ic operat ion. No wholesaling should be allowed in r e t a i l areas or o f f i c e areas. 10. Off i ces ( i n c l u d i n g business and p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s and schools , and cer ta in services re la ted thereto) by and large represent points of t r a f f i c I n t e r r u p t i o n , and increase congestion and parking problems in r e t a i l and wholesale areas. There is l i t t l e interchange of trade between such o f f i c e s and other types of business e s t a b l i s h -ments, except that employes thereof represent a market for r e t a i l purchases in adjacent shops and eat ing e s t a b l i s h -ments. I t was therefore recommended, from an economic standooint, that business o f f i c e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l and business schools be excluded from ground f l o o r use i n r e t a i l areas, but be permitted only in upper s tor ies in such areas where adequate o f f - s t r e e t parking for th is is inc luded. I t was a lso recommended, however, that the sep-arate o f f i c e use category allow r e t a i l i n g and wholesal ing. 11. Dr lve - In establishments, ( included automobile service stations and gas s t a t i o n s , auction h a l l s , barbecue stands, d r i v e - i n auto wash, d r i v e - i n theaters , d r i v e - i n restaurants , d r i v i n g ranges and archery ranges, f r u i t and vegetable stands, hamburger and other eating stands, c h i l -drens amusement parks, miniature golf courses, pony r i d i n g r i n g s , shuffleboard courts , e tc . ) Such establishments are economically incompatible with r e t a i l establishments, whole-sale establishments and with o f f i c e use because (a) they increase congestion and t r a f f i c , (b) they represent points of in ter rupt ion of pedestrian t r a f f i c f low, and (c) they are i n c l i n e d to be b r i g h t l y colored and garish i n appear-ance and extreme i n archi tec ture because of t h e i r need f o r quick a t t r a c t i o n of r e p i d l y moving c a r s . It was recommended that such uses (not i n c l u d i n g d r i v e - i n parking and auto-mobile repair ) be excluded from r e t a i l and wholesale zones. 131+ 1 ? . Entertainment f a c i l i t i e s (including bowling a l l e y s , b i l l i a r d and pool h a l l s , dance halls and studios, night clubs, show clubs, supper clubs with dancing, shoot-ing g a l l e r i e s and penny arcades, skating r i n k s , taverns, bars and other establishments dispensing a l c o h o l i c bev-erages but where food i s not served and theatres) were recommended as a special category but with possible com-bination with the drive-in category. These establishments have v i r t u a l l y no interchange business with r e t a i l or whole-sale establishments and represent a d i f f e r e n t time and category of economic action. In addition to lacking q u a l i t i e s of economic enhancement or compatibility with other businesses, these uses do in fact contain elements of considerable detriment to r e t a i l and wholesale estab-lishments in that they (a) increase congestion and t r a f f i c , (b) may be noisy, and (c) often increase the incidence of vandalism on adjacent property. 13. Cemeteries (including a l l human b u r i a l places) were considered economically incompatible with any business use other than mortuaries, f l o r i s t s , nurseries gnd monument shops and were therefore recommended as a completely sep-arate category. 11+. Stables and animal hospitals were s i m i l a r l y considered incompatible with a l l other businesses and recommended for exclusion from a l l r e t a i l , wholesale, and o f f i c e zones. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r i d i n g stables, animal hospitals and c l i n i c s , dog kennels, pounds, and such businesses as the r a i s i n g of chickens, ducks and geese. 1 5 . Major gathering places (including such i n s t a l -lations as baseball stadia, boxing arenas, auditoriums, armories and large gymnasiums, f o o t b a l l stadia, and race tracks) were considered as high nuisance factors during periods of use and not contributors to neighboring busi-nesses except those which s p e c i f i c a l l y cater to the assembly crowds. It was recommended that they be excluded from a l l r e t a i l , wholesale and o f f i c e areas. 16. Wholesale food markets (handling food not preserved) represent a high nuisance to other types of business use by vl r t u r e of congestion, noise, odor and in some instances unsightliness, and were therefore recommended to be confined to s p e c i f i c market areas. 17. Mortuaries ( a l l places other than churches where funeral services are held and where embalming is 135 performed) are highly imcompatible with a l l other categories (except cemeteries) because (a) they are dead spots of bus-iness i n t e r r u p t i o n , (b) they cause extreme congestion at funera l times, and (c) they represent an emotional de-pressant rather than the stimulant which most business men seek in t h e i r environment to encourage business . 13. Used car lots (where operations take place out of doors and not in conjunction with a showroom for new cars) were recommended as a separate category because of t h e i r general i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y from a l l types of r e t a i l or wholesale business . A d i s t i n c t i o n was made between such lo ts and those operated i n conjunction with new car showrooms because of fundamental dif ferences in mode of operation and a t t i t u d e and, sometimes, in entrepreneuria l s t a b i l i t y . 19. Nurseries (nurseries for flowers and p l a n t s , greenhouses, with d i s t i n c t i o n from r e t a i l f l o r i s t s Included in cqtegory 6) represent "dead spots" with no economic interchange with other r e t a i l or wholesale establishments and were recommended for exclusion from a l l r e t a i l , whole-sale and o f f i c e d i s t r i c t s . 20. T r a1 l e r camps were considered not only I n -compatible with a l l r e t a i l , wholesale, and o f f i c e uses, but with r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l uses as w e l l . The only concession to a general recommendation for exclusion from the e n t i r e community was to recommend permission by s p e c i a l permit only and then not in r e t a i l , wholesale, or o f f i c e d i s t r i c t s . 21. T o u r i s t courts ( i n c l u d i n g motels and other establishments where parking is adjacent to s leeping quarters leased on a t ransient basis) were considered a superior economic use over t r a i l e r camps but subject to the same general objections i n varying lesser degrees. It was recommended that , contrary to wide general p r a c t i c e , this category be s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded from a l l r e t a i l , wholesale and o f f i c e areas, except for possible combina-t ion with the d r i v e - i n category. 22. Large-seale i n s t i t u t i o n a 1 uses were rec -ommended for s p e c i f i c review in each instance due to the fact that c o l l e g e s , h o s p i t a l s , e tc . may have varying de-grees of c o m p a t i b i l i t y or i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y with other uses, and might conceivably be properly permitted adjacent to r e -t a i l or wholesale d i s t r i c t s in s p e c i a l cases. 136 23. Temporary uses ( a l l uses of vacant land which are temporary or t ransient in nature, such as t ransient c i rcus and amusement enterpr ises , f i e s t a s , and s treet f a i r s , b i l l b o a r d s , a d v e r t i s i n g s i g n s , a d v e r t i s i n g s t r u c -tures , large poster panels and large pole signs on vacant land) have no economic value to adjacent businesses and may in fac t be areas of d i r t , noise and u n s i g h t l i n e s s . On the other hand, such businesses have some value in g i v i n g earning power to vacant land which must be taxed despite i t s n o n - p r o d u c t i v i t y . The recommendations were to al low such uses only in categories from 1 through 22 but only on a short-term permit b a s i s . APPENDIX F QUESTIONNAIRE-CHAPTER 133 QUESTIONNAIRE-CHAPTER IV 1. Check the a l t e r n a t i v e that you f e e l i s the moat desirable regarding dwellings i n c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t commercial zones of your munic ipal i ty? (a) a l low dwellings completely (b) allow dwellings as accessory uses (c) a l low dwellings as c o n d i t i o n a l uses (d) r e s t r i c t dwellings completely Comment: 2. Would you accept the f o l l o w i n g zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system for the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of your community? Yes No (1 ) R e t a i l Business (2) Entertainment f a c i l i t i e s (These categories are (3) Off i ces described i n d e t a i l on Highway-oriented Uses the fo l lowing pages) (f>) Heavy Commercial D i s t r i c t Comment: 3 . Would you accept the f o l l o w i n g zoning c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system for the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of your community? Yes No (1) R e t a i l Business, Entertainment f a c i l i t i e s , O f f i c e s (2) Highway-oriented Uses (3) Heavy Commercial D i s t r i c t Comment: 1+8 I f none of the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems are accept -able to you, b r i e f l y describe the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system that you think would be most des i rable for your m u n i c i p a l i t y . Also comment b r i e f l y on the reasons for your choice . Comment: Note: Your honest opinion is sought unaffected by the e x i s t i n g zoning regulat ions of your munic ipal i tyo 139 1. R e t a i l Businesses Bakery goods stores Book stores Banks Beauty parlors Barber shops Branch post o f f i c e s Cigar stores Confectionery and candy stores Cosmetic stores Custom dressmaking shops Currency exchanges Camera shops Clothes Cleaning agencies, pressing establishments or cleaners pick-up stat ions Drug stores Delicatessens Diaper service stations Dry goods stores Department stores E l e c t r i c appliances and radio stores F r u i t and vegetable stores Frozen food stores F u r r i e r s Grocery stores G i f t shops Hardware and paint stores Haberdasheries Household appliances stores Heating equipment showrooms Hat r e p a i r I n t e r i o r decorating and' Furni ture stores Antique shops A r t stores and ar t studios Bird stores Boat showrooms Coin and p h i l a t e l i c stores Costume r e n t a l shops Fuel s tores , b u i l d i n g mater ia l and lumber stores (where the operations take place Inside a s ingle b u i l d i n g only Garden supplies Jewelry stores with watch and clock r e p a i r Launderettes Leather goods and luggage stores Liquor stores (package) Loan o f f i c e s Meat markets M i l l i n e r y shops Music conservator ies , music schools and musical instrument stores Notion stores Photographic supply shops Paint stores Restaurants Ready-to-wear shops R e t a i l f l o r i s t s (without nurseries or green-houses ) Super marts Shoe stores Shoe r e p a i r shops and shoe shining Studios (photographic) Stat ionery stores Toy stores T r a v e l bureaus T a i l o r , c l o t h i n g and wearing apparel shops Tearooms and cafes (excluding dancing and entertainmant) T i r e and auto accessory stores where there is no break i n the side-walk Var ie ty stores Sporting goods Live b a i t stores Masseur salons Orthopedic and medical appliance stores Pawnshops Pet shops Public baths Pic ture framing Reducing salons R e t a i l feed stores Second-hand stores and rummage shops Taxidermists 2. Entertainment F a c i l i t i e s Bowling a l l e y s B i l l i a r d and pool h a l l s Dance h a l l s and studios Night c l u b s , Show clubs Supper clubs Restaurants 3. O f f i c e s Medical o f f i c e s Dental o f f i c e s Adminis t ra t ive and E d i t o r i a l o f f i c e s ll, Highway-Oriented Uses Auto service s ta t ions New and uses car l o t s D r i v e - l n auto wash Restaurants D r i v e - i n eat ing places 5« Heavy Commercial D i s t r i c t Wholesale business Storage Warehousing Automobile and truck r e p a i r B u i l d i n g mater ia l sales yards Contractor storage yards Carpentry shops Upholster ing shops Shooting g a l l e r i e s Penny arcades Skating r inks Taverns, Bars Hotels Theatres , Movies C l i n i c s P r o f e s s i o n a l and Business o f f i c e s Publ ic o f f i c e s Boat and T r a i l e r sales Motels and Hotels Tour is t courts T r a i l e r camps Plumbing and heating shops Bakery B o t t l i n g plants Cleaning snd laundry establishments Glass cut t ing and g laz ing establishments Sign p a i n t i n g shops Solder ing and welding shop APPENDIX G IONS OP THE MUNICIPAL ACT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 11+2 Sections of the Munic ipal Act of B r i t i s h Columbia ( R . S . B . C . 1965) Buildings or structures under con-s t r u c t i o n . Non-conform-ing use. Extension of non-conform-ing use. Damaged b u i l d i n g or s tructure not to be repaired i f non-con-forming. Power to acquire land f o r s i tes other than for municipal purposes. 705o (1) A b u i l d i n g or s tructure l a w f u l l y under construct ion at the time of the coming into force of a zoning by-law s h a l l , for the purpose of that by- law, be deemed to be a b u i l d i n g or structure e x i s t i n g at that t ime. (?) A lawful use of premises e x i s t i n g at the time of the adoption of a zoning by-law, although such use does not conform to the provis ions of the by-law, may be continued; but If such non-conforming use is d i s c o n -timued for a period of t h i r t y days, any future use of those premises s h a l l , subject to the provis ions of t h i s s e c t i o n , be in conformity with the provis ions of the zoning by- law. (3) A lawful use of a b u i l d i n g or s t r u c -ture e x i s t i n g at the time of the adoption of the zoning by-law, although such use does not conform to the provis ions of the zoning by-law, may be extended throughout the b u i l d i n g or s t ruc ture , but no s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s except those required by Statute or by by-law or those allowed by the Zoning Board of Appeal s h a l l be made therein or thereto. (I4.) Where any b u i l d i n g or s tructure the use of which doesnot conform to the p r o v i -sions of an a p p l i c a b l e zoning by-law i s damaged or destroyed to the extent of seventy-f ive per centum or more of i t s value above i t s foundations, as determined by the b u i l d i n g inspector , whose dec is ion s h a l l be subject to review by the Zoning Board of Appeal , It s h a l l not be repaired or recon-s t r u c t e d , except for a conforming use in accordance with the zoning by- law. I4.65. (1) The Counci l may develop property owned by the m u n i c i p a l i t y for the use as a r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, or i n d u s t r i a l area , or any combination of such uses, and provide such works and services as are deemed neces-sary or b e n e f i c i a l to the development. (2) For the purposes of subsection (1), the C o u n c i l of a c i t y or d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y may, 11+3 By-law pro-v i s i o n s for preventing and abating nuisances and disturbances, e tc . (a) by r e s o l u t i o n or by-law, acquire property other than by e x p r o p r i a t i o n ; or , (b) by by-law and with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in C o u n c i l , acquire property by e x p r o p r i a t i o n . 870. The Council may by by-law (a) require owners or occupiers of b u i l d -ings to prevent pigeons or other bi rds from perching, r o o s t i n g , or nest ing thereon, and regulate the feeding of pigeons or other b i r d s by persons other than t h e i r ownera: (b) prevent, abate, and p r o h i b i t nuisances, and previde for the recovery of the cost of abatement of nuisances from the person causing the nuisance or such other person'or persons as may be described i n the by-law; (c) regulate or p r o h i b i t the making or causing of noises or sounds in or on a highway or elsewhere in the municipa-l i t y which d i s t u r b , or tend to d i s t u r b , the q u i e t , peace, r e s t , enjoyment, com-f o r t , or convenience of the neighbour-hood, or of persons i n the v i c i n i t y , or which i n the opinion of the C o u n c i l are object ionable or l i a b l e to d is turb the q u i e t , peace, r e s t , enjoyment, comfort, or convenience of i n d i v i d u a l s or the p u b l i c , and may make d i f f e r e n t regulat ions or p r o h i b i t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t areas of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . (d) prevent or p r o h i b i t persens from shouting, using megaphones, and making other noise i n or at or on s t r e e t s , wharves, docks, p i e r s , steam-boat - landings , rai lway s t a t i o n s , or other p u b l i c p l a c e s ; (e) regulate or p r o h i b i t the sale or? d i s p o -s a l to any person of f i r e - c r a c k e r s and other fireworks of every nature or k i n d ; ( f ) prevent char ivar ies and other l i k e disturbances of the peace; (g) p r o h i b i t persons from causing or permit-t ing water, r u b b i s h , or noxious, 11+1+ o f f e n s i v e , or unwholesome matter or substance to c o l l e c t or accumulate around t h e i r premises, or from deposi t ing or throwing b o t t l e s , broken g l a s s , or other rubbish in any open place ; ) regulate untidy and u n s i g h t l y premises, and require the owners or occupiers of r e a l property, or t h e i r agents, to remove therefrom any accumulation of f i l t h , discarded m a t e r i a l s , or rubbish of any k i n d ; and f o r p r o v i d i n g that i n defaul t of such removal the municipa-l i t y , by i t s workmen and others , -«ay enter and ef fec t such removal at the expense of the person so d e f a u l t i n g ; and f o r providing that the charges f o r so doing, i f unpaid on the t h i r t y -f i r s t day of December In any year , s h a l l be added to and form part of the taxes payable In respect of that r e a l property as taxes In a r r e a r ; ) require the owners or occupiers of r e a l property , or t h e i r agents, to el iminate or reduce the f o u l i n g or contaminating of the atmosphere through the emission of smoke, dust , gas, sparks, ash, soot , c i n d e r s , fumes, or other e f f l u v i a ; and for p r e s c r i b i n g measures and precautions to be taken f o r such purpose; and f o r f i x i n g l i m i t s not to be exceeded In respect of such emissions ; ) require manufacturers and processors to dispose of the waste from t h e i r plants i n the manner di rec ted by the by- law; ) require the owners or occupiers of r e a l property, or t h e i r agents, to c l e a r such property of brush, t rees , noxious weeds, or other growths; and f o r providing that in d e f a u l t of such c l e a r i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t y , by i t s work-men and others , may enter a«d e f f e c t such c l e a r i n g at the expense of the person so d e f a u l t i n g ; and f o r providing that the charges f o r so doing, i f un-paid on the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of December in any year, s h a l l be added li+5 to and form part of the taxes payable i n respect of that r e a l property as taxes i n a r r e a r ; 1) r e q u i r e the owners or occupiers of r e a l property, or t h e i r agents, to prevent I n f e s t a t i o n by c a t e r p i l l a r s and other noxious or d e s t r u c t i v e i n s e c t s , and to c l e a r such property of c a t e r p i l l a r s and other noxious or d e s t r u c t i v e i n s e c t s ; and f o r p r o v i d i n g that i n d e f a u l t of d e s t r u c t i o n and c l e a r i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t y , by I t s workmen and o t h e r s , may enter and e f f e e f f e c t such d e s t r u c t i o n and c l e a r i n g at the expense of the person so d e f a u l t i n g ; and f o r p r o v i d i n g that the charges f o r so doing, i f unpaid on the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of December i n any year, s h a l l be added to and form part of the taxes payable i n respect of that r e a l property as taxes l n a r r e a r ; m) p r o h i b i t the p o s t i n g , e x h i b i t i n g , or d i s t r i b u t i n g of p l a c a r d s , p l a y - b i l l s , p o s t e r s , a d v e r t i s i n g , w r i t i n g s , or p i c t u r e s , or the w r i t i n g of words, or the making of p i c t u r e s or drawings which are indecent or may tend to c o r r u p t or demoralize, on w a l l s or fences, or elsewhere, on or adjacent to a highway or p u b l i c p l a c e ; n) prevent v i c e , drunkenness, profane swearing, or indecent, obscene, b l a s -phemous, or g r o s s l y I n s u l t i n g language, or other Immorality and indecency; o) r e g u l a t e the bathing or washing of the person i n any p b u l i c waters i n or near the m u n i c i p a l i t y ; p) o f f e r bounties f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n of beasts and b i r d s of a noxious or d e s t r u c t i v e c h a r a c t e r ; q) provide, notwithstanding the p r o v i s i o n s of the Sheep P r o t e c t i o n A c t , that no c l a i m s h a l l be authorized by the Coun-c i l under that Act unless the C o u n c i l i s s a t i s f i e d that the owner of sheep, goats, or p o u l t r y submitting the c l a i m has taken a l l resonable precautions f o r 11+6 protec t ing such sheep, goats, or p o u l t r y ; ( r ) regulate the sale of animals, and the d r i v i n g of animals through the munici -p a l i t y ; (s) p r o h i b i t c ruel ty to animals, and provide for the des t ruct ion of any animal s u f f e r i n g from an incurable disease ; ( t ) require that owners, possessors, or harbourers of dogs, or any class of dogs, s h a l l keep them e f f e c t i v e l y muzzled while they are at large or upon a highway or p u b l i c p l a c e , or s h a l l keep them on leash or under contro l ofa competent person while upon a highway or publ ic place , as the by-law may d i r e c t ; (u) p r o h i b i t the carrying-on of any noxious or offensive trade, business , or manufacture. 1957, c . 1+2, s. 8 7 5 ; 1953, c.. 32, s. 3J+0? 1961,.Co 1+3, a. 1+9; 1961+, c. 33, a. 71 . APPENDIX H QUESTIONNAIRE-CHAPTER VI 11+8 QUESTIONNAIRE 1. In your M u n i c i p a l i t y are the f o l l o w i n g statutes of the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act considered e f f e c t i v e i n e l i m i n a t i n g nonconforming uses in the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t ? a) Discontinuance: Sect ion 70$, subsection 2 b) Limit expansion and a l t e r a t i o n ; Section 705, subsection 3* c) Abatement of nuisances to p u b l i c heal th , safety and welfare; sections 870, 635. d) E x p r o p r i a t i o n ; Sect ion 1+65, subsection 2b. e) 7$% rule ; ; Section 70$, subsection i+. 2. Indicate by number, the order of effec t iveness of the above statutes to el iminate nonconforming uses in the centra l business d i s t r i c t of your M u n i c i p a l i t y . a) b) c) d) e) yes no yes no yes no yes no yes no 3. Are more e f f e c t i v e statutes required in the B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act in order to f a c i l i t a t e the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses in the centra l business d i s t r i c t of your municipal i ty? yes no Comment: 1+. Is there a need for the a c c e l l e r a t i o n of the e l i m i n a t i o n of nonconforming uses i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of your municipal i ty? yes no Comment: 5. Has your M u n i c i p a l i t y conducted or authorized any studies on th is problem. yes no If so, l i s t : 6 . Are there any s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and/or programs which your munic ipal i ty has i n progress to el iminate nonconforming 114-9 uses from the centra l business d i s t r i c t ? yes no I f so, e x p l a i n : 7. Are there any s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and/or programs being contemplated f o r the future to el iminate nonconforming uses in the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of your munic ipal i ty? yes no If so, expla in : The next two questions r e f e r to methods of e l i m i n a t i n g nonconforming uses that have been held c o n s t i t u t i o n a l in some states of the U . S. in various instances . The amort i -zat ion method allows a c e r t a i n time l i m i t which r e f l e c t s the remaining u s e f u l l i f e of a nonconforming use a f t e r which the nonconforming use must be discont inued. The time period is designed to allow a nonconforming user to plan and to reduce the loss of r e l o c a t i o n as much as p o s s i b l e . 9. Would your m u n i c i p a l i t y be in favor of e l i m i n a t i n g non-conforming uses from the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t by the amortization method? yes no Comment: 9. Would your m u n i c i p a l i t y be in favor of a zoning ordinance that required immediate conformance of nonconforming uses once such an ordinance was introduced? yes no Comment: 

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