UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The figure of the knight in Eichendorff's narrative prose 1966

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1966_A8 M5.pdf [ 6.14MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0104648.json
JSON-LD: 1.0104648+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0104648.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0104648+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0104648+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0104648+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0104648.ris

Full Text

i THE FIGURE OP THE KNIGHT IN EICHENDORFF'S NARRATIVE PROSE fey CATHERINE MARY MILLS B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 191+3 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the -Department of German We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In p resen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that pe rmiss ion f o r ex tens i ve copy ing of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copy ing or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n permiss ion Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date i i Abstract In the following study, the writer has considered, the figure of the knight as i t appears i n Eichendorff'a narrative prose works, p a r t i c u l a r l y the two novels, "Ahnung und Gegenwart" and "Dichter und ihre Gesellen", and two Mfirchennovellen, "Die Zauberei im Herbste" and "Das Marmorbild". The knight i s not necessarily good: he may embody e v i l p r i n c i p l e s , or, through weakness, succumb to the daemonic forces i n nature. Generally, however, the knight possesses strong r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and i t s attendant virtues of l o y a l t y , patriotism, and service to others. Whereas Eichendorff 1 a 3 t r o n g r e l i g i o u s stand varies from the usual Romantic pattern, h i s association of art and metaphysics i s t y p i c a l l y Romantic: the knight may also be a poet or become a p r i e s t . The knights of the Napoleonic era, that i s , those i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", turn away from society, but those i n the l a t e r works p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n mundane a f f a i r s . Indeed, i n the end, Eichendorff comes to acknowledge the incidence of chivalrous behaviour i n persons not born to knightly estate. • • • XXX CONTENTS PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . "DIE ZAUBEREI IM HERBSTE" 6 I I I . "AHNUNG UND GEGENWART" 17 IV. "DAS MARMORBILD" 35 V. "DICHTER UND IHRE GESELLEN" 55 V I . LATER NOVELLEN 85 V I I . CONCLUSION 91 BIBLIOGRAPHY 106 I . Introduction Eichendorff recognized human goodness wherever he found i t : i n the n o b i l i t y , the bourgeoisie, peasants and artisans; i n h i s fellow-Catholics, i n Protestants, Jews or atheists; i n the inhabitants of c i t y or country. He also,acknowledged the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of changes i n the s o c i a l order and i n government, and adapted himself with commendable courage and patience to the d r a s t i c a l l y reduced circumstances of h i s adult l i f e and to the t r i b u l a t i o n s of c i v i l service amidst uncongenial colleagues. But i n h i s l i t e r a r y works he constantly e x t o l l e d "the good old days" of the hereditary n o b i l i t y , when, he believed, everyone knew h i s p o s i t i o n and stayed i n i t unquestioningly, and when everyone was a devout Catholic. In t h i s attitude i t i s easy to detect the general view of the German Romantics toward t h e i r national h i s t o r y . Novalis' essay, "Die Christenheit oder Europa", i s a c r y s t a l l i s a t i o n of t h i s opinion, namely that during the Middle Ages thought and art were inspired by C h r i s t i a n unity. In t h e i r resentment of French intrusion into German a f f a i r s under Napoleon, many German i n t e l l e c t u a l s of the early nineteenth century sought comfort and i n s p i r a t i o n i n t h e i r national past, through whose evoca- t i o n they wished to inspi r e t h e i r fellow-countrymen to national unity and resistance to the enemy. Knowledge of - 2 - h i s t o r y being even more imperfect than than now, the Romantics chose for t h i s purpose that period during which the zenith of mediaeval culture was reached: the l a t e twelfth and early t h i r t ee n th centuries, the time of the epic of c h i v a l r y (or, as i t was then c a l l e d i n French, the "romant", from which the word "romantic" i s derived), the time of the Crusades. In t h i s period Eichendorff, l i k e Novalis, saw what he looked for: an i d e a l society i n which, church and state were united i n the outward form of the Holy Roman Empire with the Pope as s p i r i t u a l authority and the Emperor as temporal, the l a t t e r owing allegiance and protection to the former, and the whole of Europe happily German, since Charlemagne, the founder of t h i s Empire, had been a Germanic c h i e f t a i n . I t i s unnecessary to point out the f a l l a c i e s and d e f i c i e n c i e s of such a view, the present study not being an h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s . I t s u f f i c e s merely to state that t h i s was E i c h e n d o r f f s conception of Germany up to the time of the Reformation (indeed, u n t i l the time of the Aufklarung, since he r e f e r s to the T h i r t y Years' War as "diese grosse Tragodie des M i t t e l a l t e r s " (11,1023^ i n h i s essay "Der Adel •'"Volumes and pages are r e f e r r e d to throughout t h i s study according to the most complete edition available to date of E i c h e n d o r f f a works: Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff. Neue Gesamtausgabe der Werke und Schriften i n v i e r Banden. herausgegeben von Gerhard Bauraann i n Verbindungmit S i e g f r i e d Grosse (J.G. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachf., S t u t t g a r t ) . These four.volumes-appeared i n 1957; & subsequent f i f t h volume was not available to the present writer. The reference above i s to Volume I I , page 1023, of t h i s e d i t i o n . - 3 - und die Revolution" (l8ij.8), on which event he blamed a l l the subsequent i l l s of mankind, i n h i s c r i t i c a l though not i n h i s l i t e r a r y works, which, f o r a l l t h e i r firmness, even r i g i d i t y , of p r i n c i p l e , are seldom tendentious. In t h i s sketchy conception of the times, the outstanding figure i s that of the knight. He i s , of course, a Roman Catholic; he i s equally obviously of gentle b i r t h and breeding; he i s , l i k e every hero of a mediaeval romance, the most handsome man imaginable, and so wealthy as never to have to think of money. He may be a prince, he may be a poet, he may turn monk or p r i e s t . Such a figure appears i n almost a l l of Eichendorff's narrative and dramatic works, the few exceptions being s a t i r e s i n which the virtue of the knight i s emphasized by h i s absence: that i s to say, there i s no v i r t u e i n a world without c h i v a l r y . His n o b i l i t y moreover, i s not only that of b i r t h , but that of character; E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s knight must be f i r s t of a l l a good Catholic, although i n the l i t e r a r y works r e l i g i o u s dogma i s so l i t t l e stressed that one could almost substitute the phrase "a good Ch r i s t i a n " , or even "a r e l i g i o u s man"; i n addition, the knight i s a l o y a l subject of h i s king or prince and the f a i t h f u l protector of h i s own dependants, and should serve as an example of perfect wisdom i n a l l matters, s p i r i t u a l and temporal. Eichendorff made use of the mediaeval i n s t i t u t i o n of knighthood, not to supply a picturesque background to h i s works, as did Tieek, Fouque', and others, but to c a l l a ttention to a period during which ideals, as expressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the time, were p a r t i c u l a r l y high, and which he regarded as the standard for a Chri s t i a n society; and hence to ins p i r e h i s contemporaries, p a r t i c u l a r l y the members of the n o b i l i t y , the s p i r i t u a l descendants of Pa r z i v a l and Iwein, to acknowledge and to attempt to r e v i v i f y these i d e a l s . F 0 r although, i n "Die Gesehichte der poetischen L i t e r a t u r Deutschlands", (1857), Eichendorff censures, with an animosity quite astonishing i n a man otherwise so mild and courteous, anyone, past or present, who dares to c r i t i c i s e the n o b i l i t y or any other manifesta- t i o n of t r a d i t i o n , he i s by no means unaware that nobles can have f a u l t s . But he believes that they also have and should apply the a b i l i t y to overcome t h e i r f a u l t s , that i t i s t h e i r duty to be noble i n the s p i r i t u a l sense of the word and to encourage t h e i r s o c i a l i n f e r i o r s to behave as well as i s consistent with t h e i r lesser capacity. In only one way does Eichendorff acknowledge the equality of mankind, and that i m p l i c i t l y : a l l men (and even women) are equal i n the eyes of God, equally e n t i t l e d to His Grace, equally obliged to be good Catholics: the figure of the "Taugenicht that d e l i g h t f u l , irresponsible, i n c o r r u p t i b l e m i l l e r ' s son, i s a case i n point. But even i n the realm of r e l i g i o n , the nobles are better endowed by th e i r superior heredity than the common f o l k , and should act as lay interpreters of the word of God, and as examples of the true C h r i s t i a n . - 5 - On© of the characters i n a sketch for an a l l e g o r i c a l drama i s thus described by Eichendorff: " E i n g e t r e u e r R i t t e r : r i t t e r l i c h und treu und hochherzig aufopfernd, das a l t e Regime b i s zum Tode verteidigeod.",tI,955) The one indispensable attribute which he omits from the above description, but which can be deduced both from the fa c t that the drama was to be i n the style of Calderon and from Eic h e n d o r f f 1 s general attitude to l i f e , i s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h . In h i s view, anyone who i s " r i t t e r l i c h " i s a devout Ch r i s t i a n , pure i n heart, without t a i n t of world- l i n e s s , and, as i n the description, l o y a l and nobly s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g . E i c h e n d o r f f s exhortation to noble behaviour was no empty r h e t o r i c . He himself rode o f f to war i n the best knightly t r a d i t i o n , to help free h i s country from her enemies, and devoted years of service to the Prussian government. In private l i f e , he was an exemplary C h r i s t i a n and nobleman, meeting adversity with f o r t i t u d e and fame with humility, and suffering f o o l s , i f not gladly, at least with courtesy. In h i s purely l i t e r a r y works he never ceased to express the beauty of h i s i d e a l s , almost e n t i r e l y without didacticism, and i t i s to some of these that we must turn to follow the gradual a l t e r a t i o n of h i s views of the place of the knight i n the society of h i s own time • I I . Die Zauberei im Herbste (Summary. The knight Ubaldo, separated from h i s companions during a hunt, comes upon a man who shelters him overnight i n an i s o l a t e d cave. Ubaldo deduces, from the man*s clothing and from the song and incoherent prayers which he overhears during the night, that h i s host i s a knight doing panance for some sin, but without the strength of mind or of f a i t h to bring about h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Ubaldo repeats h i s v i s i t , and f i n a l l y induces the hermit to come to h i s castle and t e l l him h i s story. The hermit r e l a t e s that he and a f r i e n d were about to set out on a crusade together, but that he f a i l e d to j o i n i t because of h i s secret love f o r a young lady. He rides o f f hunting instead, and hears hunting horns and a song which he eventually finds to be sung by h i s beloved, who receives him i n an exotic garden. She says that she has long loved him, but, that he i s unfortunate to have come within hearing of her song; without explaining t h i s odd statement, she t e l l s him that she has been forced into betrothal with his f r i e n d , who has deceived him and w i l l come on the morrow to fetch her away - unless he dies. On the following day he meets the f r i e n d i n the mountains, f i g h t s with him, and pushes him over a c l i f f . Thereupon he hastens to the lady's castle, where he stays as her lover. She suffers from melancholy at the decline of the autumn, and one night he awakes to f i n d her apparently dead. Once more he rushes o f f aimlessly into the wilderness, awaking the next morning to discover that spring has come. He f e e l s too bewildered and g u i l t y to return to normal l i f e , and seeks to expiate h i s sins i n solitude. A f t e r a year Ubaldo finds him. Ubaldo thereupon reveals to Raimund, whom he has recognised during the narrative, that he himself was the f r i e n d Raimund thought he had k i l l e d : that he had gone on the crusade and af t e r i t had married Berta whom they both loved; that many years have passed, with Raimund under the influence of an e v i l magic which appears i n t h i s neighbour- hood i n the autumn. The information that he has spent his whole l i f e under an i l l u s i o n drives Raimund to despair. He rushes out into the woods, where the music of the autumnal enchantment can once more be heard, and i s never seen again.) - 7 - E i c h e n d o r f f • s f i r s t prose n a r r a t i v e , "Die Zauberei im Herbste", was w r i t t e n i n 1809 a l t h o u g h not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1906. T h i s i s one o f o n l y two prose t a l e s by E i c h e n d o r f f which are s e t i n the M i d d l e Ages; the second, "Die G l u c k s r i t t e r " , w r i t t e n i n I8I1I, i s mediaeval only i n E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s view o f the term (see p. 3 ) , t a k i n g p l a c e s h o r t l y a f t e r the T h i r t y Years' War. ^he f i r s t i s a product o f h i s immaturity; hence, presumably, i t s s u p p r e s s i o n u n t i l l o n g a f t e r h i s death; the second i s a p i c a r e s q u e v a r i a t i o n on the theme o f "Aus dem Leben e i n e s Taugenichts", w i t h which i t shares r e a l i s m i n d e t a i l and a t o t a l l a c k of r e a l i s m i n p l o t . L i k e w i s e a fundamental p u r i t y ennobles both the " O l t i c k s r i t t e r " , S i g l h u p f e r , and Taugenichts, each of whom i s a m i l l e r ' s son w i t h a s e r i o u s e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e u n d e r l y i n g h i s apparent f r i v o l i t y . A l l E i c h e n d o r f f ' a M&rchen, N o v e l l e n and n o v e l s , subsequent to "Die Z a u b e r e i im Herbste", are s e r i o u s c o n f r o n t a t i o n s of contemporary problems, even when, as i n " L i b e r t a s und i h r e P r e i e r " , the problems are d e a l t w i t h i n the g u i s e of a r o l l i c k i n g f a r c e . I n n e i t h e r o f the two "mediaeval" s t o r i e s does the h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n p l a y an important p a r t : i t merely s u p p l i e s a few d e t a i l s i n events which, a p a r t from the mention of the Crusades or the T h i r t y Years' War, c o u l d e q u a l l y w e l l have taken p l a c e i n the author's l i f e - t i m e . In f a c t , E i c h e n d o r f f t o t a l l y l a c k e d a sense of h i s t o r i c a l - 8 - or geographical background - his t r o p i c a l islands i n "Eine Meerfahrt" (1835) are merely S i l e s i a n h i l l s with palm trees a deficiency which can also be remarked i n Shakespeare's works, and which hardly constitutes a reproach to either writer, as both were concerned mainly with the human soul. "Die Zauberei im Herbste" sets f o r t h the chief problem which i s to be found throughout Eichendorff's works: a choice between adherence to the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , or despair and a n n i h i l a t i o n . This c o n f l i c t can be observed i n a l l the l i t e r a r y works, from such apparently simple l y r i c s as "Zwielicht" (1811) to the tragedies, conceived on the grand scale. F a i t h even becomes a c r i t e r i o n i n h i s l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . In "Die Zauberei im Herbste", the problem i s confronted on the smallest scale: one steadfast C h r i s t i a n knight i s opposed to another knight who succumbs to temptation; one i d e a l woman i s contrasted with temptation pe r s o n i f i e d as her double. Numerous minor figures may be ignored, as they have no influence on the action. Eichendorff goes straight to the heart of the matter: the soul i s endangered by lack of f a i t h associated with sensuality. Ubaldo, the exemplary knight, and his wife, Berta, r e s i s t these dangers successfully: "Zauberei s o i l i n den nahen Wflldern wohnen, und oft zur Herbstzeit s t r e i f e n solche TBne i n der Nacht bis an unser Schloss. Es vergeht eben so schnell als es kommt, und wir bekfimmern uns - 9 - welter nicht darum ( l l , 98l), 1 , 1 His resistance to temptation a r i s e s d i r e c t l y from h i s f a i t h which also leads him f a r enough into the missionary f i e l d to attempt to redeem the knightly recluse, Raimund, even before recognizing him as h i s old f r i e n d : "Dies bewog den frommen R i t t e r Ubaldo , seine Besuche Bfter zu wiederholen, um den Schwindelden mit der ganzen v o l l e n Kraft eines ungetrtlbten, schuldlosen Gamuts zu umfassen und zu erhalten." ( I I , 973) Ubaldo !s zeal causes him to express himself l i k e a p r i g ; Berta, h i s perfect wife, s e l f - e f f a c i n g , pious, and competent, appears i n s i p i d . These flaws perhaps motivated i n part the long suppression of t h i s t a l e . Nevertheless, i n these two figures Eichendorff expresses the i d e a l conception of the knight and h i s lady to which he adhered a l l his l i f e , although he gradually overcame the problem of presenting his characters i n a manner which does not repel the reader. Parenthetically i t should be remarked that Ubaldo has f u l f i l l e d the m i l i t a r y aspect of his c a l l i n g , i n that he fought i n the Holy Land f o r several years. This a c t i v i t y , ^Eichendorff usually associates spring and the s u l t r i n e s s of summer with sensual temptation, but i n t h i s early work autumn, the season of decline and of a f i n a l l a t e flowering i n nature, i s equated with a moral decline and an increased s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to sensual temptation i n mankind. This temptation i s made manifest i n the birdsong and hunting horns which accompany the temptress on her r i d e through the woods. -10 - however, Eichendorff regards as l e s s important than the l i f e l o n g C h r i s t i a n duty of the knight. Ubaldo's doughty deeds are merely matter for conversation i n the story, whereas h i s f a i t h obviously i s the cause of h i s going on a crusade, the guiding l i g h t of h i s way of l i f e , and the spur for h i s endeavour to help Raimund. The unfortunate Raimund i s E i c h e n d o r f f s f i r s t depiction of the knight who knows h i s duty but f a i l s to carry i t out. He had planned to go on a crusade with Ubaldo, but drew back from t h i s venture at the l a s t moment because of h i s secret love f o r Berta. Had h i s f a i t h been as sincere as Ubaldo 1s, he too would have made the hazardous pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and perhaps there have recovered from h i s unhappy love. Instead he i s lured into the wilderness by the sensual "Zauberei im Herbste", pe r s o n i f i e d as Berta'3 double, a device used again more s k i l f u l l y i n "Das Marmorbild", and also on a number of more t r i v i a l occasions, though the "Doppelg&nger" motif i s more commonly associated with E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s male characters. Raimund, having once f a l l e n v i c t i m to the snare of sensuality, becomes, l i k e most other Eichendorff figures i n the same s i t u a t i o n , bewildered, deluded, oblivious to the passage of time. He thinks that only a year has elapsed since Ubaldo's departure to the Holy Land, whereas perhaps ten years have passed by. H o r r i f i e d by Ubaldo's statement of the facts concerning himself and Berta, Raimund - 11 c r i e s , "Verloren, a l l e s v e r l o r e n l ... Ja, verloren, und meine Liebe und mein ganzes Leben eine lange Tfiuschungl" (II , 98I4.) Ubaldo* s e f f o r t s are vain. Raimund relapses permanently into h i s delusion at the next manifestation of the autumnal bewitchment. The e f f e c t of f a i t h i s manifested very p l a i n l y i n t h i s story i n the difference between Ubaldo's and Raimund*s responses to the e r o t i c song of the enchantress, "Uber gelb' und rote S t r e i f e n " ( I I , 976), and also to the sound of church b e l l s . Both Ubaldo and Raimund, and presumably Berta, since Ubaldo says, "Wir bekummern uns nicht darum" (II, 981), are susceptible to the daemonic appeal to the senses as symbolised by the autumnal music, but t h i s appeal i s firmly repressed by Ubaldo, secure i n h i s 2 f a i t h and i n h i s happy marriage." Even the sound of church b e l l s , on most occasions a source of reassurance to Eichendorff's characters, brings no comfort to Raimund. In r e l a t i n g h i s story, he says to Ubaldo: ^Marriage i s a topic seldom discussed by Eichendorff, although two happy marriages, both between members of the bourgeoisie, are touched upon i n "Dichter und ihre Gesellen" ( I 8 3 I 4 . ) , and most of h i s novels and Wovellen end with the imminent prospect of one or more happy marriages. In general, his characters are single or widowed or unhappily married: for instance, the unhappy marriages of the Pur3t and F f i r s t i n and of Otto and Annidi o f f s e t the two happy ones i n "Dichter und ihre Gesellen . - 12 - "... im Innersten erschreckten mich noch immer die Glockenklflnge des fernen Doms, wenn sie am klaren Sonntagsmorgen fiber die Berge zu mir herflberlangten, a l s suchten sie das a l t e , s t i l l e Gottesreich der Kindheit i n meiner Brust, das nicht mehr i n i h r war...." (II, 983) This admission indicates that he i s l o s t beyond r e c a l l : the cathedral b e l l s arouse t e r r o r i n him instead of c a l l i n g him back to the church, and the "heavenly kingdom of childhood" - childhood being v i r t u a l l y synonymous with home and heaven i n the view of Eichendorff and other Romantics - has passed away from him. Therefore h i s avowed attempt to p u r i f y himself by l i v i n g as a hermit and praying i s a vain show of repentance, lacking the f a i t h which would cause him to go to the nearest p r i e s t for assistance i n overcoming h i s weakness and atoning f o r h i s s i n s . Raimund 1s s p i r i t u a l v a c i l l a t i o n i s symbolized by his a t t i r e : although l i v i n g as a hermit, he wears "einen sehr z i e r l i c h e n und prflchtigen Warns" (II, 972), the doublet which Eichendorff considers indispensable f o r a knight: horse, armour and weapons are expendable, but a 3 " r i t t e r l i c h e r Warns" at once i d e n t i f i e s a knight. The u n s u i t a b i l i t y of the clothing to h i s way of l i f e s t r i k e s Ubaldo (and the reader) at once: here i s a hermit who has been unable to cast aside the lure of worldly l i f e and assume a devout attitude together with a monk's habit. ^ I t i s the sole c h i v a l r i c a t t r i b u t e of the would-be knight i n Rudolf's castle i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" (II, 2^3), and of course, i n h i s case, i s rather a disguise.than a token of honourable estate. - 13 - Hia doublet i a no masquerade garment: he has a r i g h t to i t ; but i t betrays the f a c t that h i s pretension to r e l i g i o u s l i f e i s insincere. This f a c t emerges yet more c l e a r l y i n the prayers, "wie verwirrte Zauberformeln", and i n the song, "Aus der K l u f t t r e i b t mich das Bangen" (II, 972), both overheard by Ubaldo, whom Raimund supposed to be asleep. The second stanza begins with the l i n e s : "Gottl Inbrunstig mScht' i c h beten, Doch der Erde Blld e r treten Immer zwischen. dich und mich." He foresees h i s doom, expressed i n the f i n a l l i n e s of h i s song: "Ach, wie bald bin i c h verlorenl .Jesus, h i l f i n meiner N 0 t i " Even t h i s d i r e c t appeal to Jesus does not help. The more mature Eichendorff scarcely ever allows sinners to be denied grace: for instance, Otto i n "Dichter und ihre Gesellen", i n a s i t u a t i o n very similar to that of Raimund, dies i n circumstances strongly suggesting absolution; but the less tolerant young author of "Die Zauberei im Herbste" denies salvation to Raimund. The main difference between the two knights of t h i s story l i e s i n the s i n c e r i t y of t h e i r f a i t h : Ubaldo i s sincere and steadfast, Raimund insincere, v a c i l l a t i n g , and eventually l o s t . Raimund sums up t h i s d i s p a r i t y at the beginning of h i s v i s i t to Ubaldo's c a s t l e : "'Ihr seid glticklieh,' sagte er, 'und i c h - betrachte Eure feste, freudige,-mfinnliche Gestalt mit wahrer Scheu und Ehrfurcht, wie Ihr Euch, unbekuramert durch Leid und Preud, bewegt und das Leben ruhig r e g i e r t , - l l f - wfihrend Ihr Euch demselben ganz hinzugeben scheint, g l e i c h einem S c h i f f e r , der bestimmt weiss, wo er hinsteuern s o i l , und s i c h von dem wunderbaren Liede der Sirenen unterwegens nicht i r r e machen l U s s t . Ich bin mir i n Eurer Wâ ie schon o f t vorgekommen wie ein feiger Tor oder wie ein Wahnsinniger.- Es gibt vom Leben B e r a u s c h t e - ach, wie schrecklich i s t es, dann auf einraal wieder nfichtern zu werdenl'" (II, 973-1*) The true knight i s , l i k e Ubaldo, " f e s t , freudig und mfinnlich"; the knight who neglects h i s duty joins the ranks of numerous other characters "intoxicated by l i f e " , whom daemonic possession leads to t h e i r doom. This motif of the knight who i s unable to l i v e up to the demands of h i s c a l l i n g i s by no means unique to Eichendorff. I t i s to be found, f o r instance, i n Tieck's "Der getreue Eckart und der Tannenhfiuser" (I, 799) (which "Die Zauberei im Herbste" strongly resembles) and "Der Runenberg" (1802), i n Pouque 1s "Undine" ( l 8 l l ) and G r i l l p a r z e r * s most Romantic play, "Melusine" (1823) . But Eichendorff's t a l e , while i n f e r i o r i n structure to these other Romantic works, d i f f e r s from them i n supplying a counterpart to the unbridled hero who follows h i s daemonic urges u n t i l he i s destroyed. Ubaldo, however unconvincingly depicted, personifies the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s necessary for a good, steadfast l i f e . Thus, i n Eichendorff's e a r l i e s t prose work, hi s e s s e n t i a l difference from the other Romantic writers i s made manifest: though indisputably Romantic i n sty l e and thematic material, he never loses h i s grip on a moral purpose, that i s , the necessity of - 1 5 - f a i t h to combat the i r r a t i o n a l forces i n man and the world. The dangers confronting the Romantic poet are v i v i d l y described by V i c t o r of "Dichter und ihre Gesellen": "'Es gibt nur wenige Dichter i n der Welt, und von -den wenigen kaum einer steigt unversehrt i n diese marchenhafte, pracht'ge Zaubernacht, wo die wilden, feurigen Blumen stehen und die Liederquellen verworren nach den Abgrunden gehen, und der zauberische Spielmann zwischen dem Waldesrauschen mit herzzerreissenden Klfingen nach dem Venusberg verlockt, i n welchem a l l e Lust und Pracht der Erde entzundet, und wo die Seele w ^ e ^ m ^raum f r e i wird mit ihren dunklen Gelustanl'" (II, 657) The poet who wishes to remain unharmed by the dangers inherent i n h i s pursuit of the Muse, must c l i n g to r e l i g i o n , which indeed i s the only hope for anyone, as phantasy and sensuality are not reserved for poets alone. Moreover, i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste", as i n the l a t e r M&rchen, "Das Marmorbild" (1819), Eichendorff uses i r r a t i o n a l phenomena i n nature as symbolic of the confrontation with temptation taking place within the soul of the hero. That t h i s c o n f l i c t i s universal i s shown by Ubaldo 1s and Berta's awareness of the autumnal magic; that the outcome need not be t r a g i c i s shown by t h e i r adherence to t h e i r r e l i g i o u s f a i t h . The unfortunate Raimund i s def i c i e n t i n t h i s a t t r i b u t e , as are the t r a g i c heroes of most other Romantic t a l e s . Thus "Die Zauberei im Herbste" i s redeemed from being a mere echo of Tieck's "Der blonde Eckbert" or "fGe,treuer- Eckart 1; not by i t s plot , structure, or characterisation, but by i t s firm recommendation of an - 16 - a l t e r n a t i v e to Romantic "Zerrissenheit", by the assertion of the absolute value of r e l i g i o n which was E i c h e n d o r f f s lodestar. Of his two knights, the one who y i e l d s to h i s daemonic urges i s l o s t , f a i l i n g i n h i s duty to God and h i s country. On the other hand, the one who c a r r i e s out the duties of the C h r i s t i a n knight i s safe i n h i s f a i t h , and serves as an example of what Eichendorff considered to be the e s s e n t i a l attributes of a knight: f a i t h , patriotism (here, of course, manifested i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a Crusade, an u l t r a - n a t i o n a l phenomenon), l o y a l t y and service to others. I I I . Ahnung und Gegenwart (Summary. Book I. F r i e d r i c h , t r a v e l l i n g after the completion ot h i a u n i v e r s i t y studies, i s attacked by robbers. He regains consciousness i n the home of Leontin, with whose s i s t e r Rosa he has already f a l l e n i n love on meeting her b r i e f l y during h i s journey. A mysterious boy, Erwin, has attached himself to F r i e d r i c h as h i s servant. Afte r some weeks of pleasant companionship with Leontin and the poet Faber, F r i e d r i c h sets o f f on a further journey with these friends, Leontin having returned i n a state of alarm from one of h i s s o l i t a r y v i s i t s to the woods. Rosa i n s i s t s on accompanying them, but soon meets her friend Romana, who takes her to the c a p i t a l . Faber also goes h i s own way. Leontin and F r i e d r i c h continue t h e i r t r a v e l s , alone except for Erwin, and are i n v i t e d to stay with Herr v.A # J h i s widowed s i s t e r , and h i s b e a u t i f u l daughter, J u l i e . A f t e r an i d y l l i c sojourn, Leontin takes f r i g h t at the thought of marriage and f l e e s , leaving F r i e d r i c h to make t h e i r farewells and proceed on h i s way. Book I I . F r i e d r i c h a r r i v e s i n the c a p i t a l , i s received by the Prime Minister, and becomes a f r i e n d of the Crown Prince, who i s the leader of a group of young noblemen interested i n working for t h e i r country. F r i e d r i c h disrupts, by b r u t a l l y frank c r i t i c i s m , a l i t e r a r y salon at which various Romantic aberrations are i l l u s t r a t e d . The c e n t r a l thought of Eichendorff's works, the triumph of C h r i s t i a n i t y over paganism, the l a t t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the guise of unbridled sensuality, i s depicted i n a tableau with Rosa as C h r i s t i a n i t y , with a knight kneeling before her, and Romana as paganism. Romana, a b e a u t i f u l and talented but unprincipled young widow, f a l l s i n love with F r i e d r i c h and almost succeeds i n seducing him, but he -is rescued i n time by hearing Leontin singing outside. Romana f a l l s into despair, and a f t e r a period of wild behaviour,, varied by an attempt at piety, k i l l s h e r s e l f i n her ancestral c a s t l e . F r i e d r i c h meanwhile neglects Rosa i n h i s absorption i n the Prince and h i s c i r c l e , with whose v e i l e d selfishness he gradually becomes d i s i l l u s i o n e d . Eventually the Prince abducts Rosa despite F r i e d r i c h ' s l a s t minute attempt to save her. Book I I I . F r i e d r i c h , on h i s way to I t a l y a f t e r these disheartening experiences, f a l l s i n with a group of g u e r i l l a f i g h t e r s who are making a l a s t stand against the - 18 - tyranny of Napoleon. He finds temporary s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f i g h t i n g for h i s country and i n prayer, but h i s group i s defeated, and as h i s r u l e r had made an a l l i a n c e with the enemy, F r i e d r i c h ' s lands are confiscated. He proceeds towards Leontin's c a s t l e , and, at the nearby m i l l where he had been attacked by robbers on h i s f i r s t v i s i t , finds Leontin and J u l i e , now betrothed, and a young g i r l , the former "Erwin", who had disappeared before F r i e d r i c h l e f t the c a p i t a l , and who, a f t e r her sudden, untimely death, i s found to be F r i e d r i c h 1 s niece. Leontin too has been outlawed, though he can expect to be forgiven as Rosa i s about to marry the Crown Prince. Leontin and F r i e d r i c h t r a v e l through the mountains and come to a castle inhabited by l u n a t i c s , which turns out to belong to F r i e d r i c h ' s long l o s t brother Rudolf, whose resemblance to Leontin has caused various puzzles. Rudolf i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d with love, a r t , philosophy and r e l i g i o n , and despite F r i e d r i c h ' s e f f o r t s to restore h i s f a i t h , declares that he i s going to Egypt to study magic. Faber finds h i s way to the castle i n time to j o i n the wedding celebrations for Leontin and J u l i e ; no one notices Rosa i n a group of p i l g r i m s . Then a l l the main characters scatter: Leontin and J u l i e to America, Faber to h i s usual pursuits i n Germany, Rudolf presumably to Egypt. F r i e d r i c h alone remains behind on the mountain top, about to enter the priesthood and to a i d i n the salvation of his country by prayer.) With the completion i n 1812 of h i s f i r s t novel "Ahnung und Gegenwart", Eichendorff suddenly achieved a r t i s t i c eminence. The novel represents an almost incredible improvement upon "Die Zauberei im Herbste", which embodies i n immature and incomplete form Eichendorff's views on the duties of the knight and of the dangers which might prevent performance of these duties. The early t a l e has a plot which might have been invented by any young writer of the day, being strongly reminiscent of Tieck's "Der getreue Eckart und der Tannenhfiuser", and combining elements of magic with a conventional mediaeval background. - 19 - Only c e r t a i n d e t a i l s of style serve to give i t that i n d i v i d u a l i t y which i s unmistakably Eichendorff's even i n th i s embryonic work: for instance, the "unzflhlige Lerchen" (II, 983) which here make t h e i r l i t e r a r y debut; the "grflnlich-goldene Scheine" (II, 985) of the enchantress' jewels, which colour i s always associated with e v i l in 1 Eichendorff's works; the p o t e n t i a l for e v i l in music, as represented here by the "goldgelber Vogel" (II, 985) whose singing lures Raimund to his doom at the enchanted castle, the song of the enchantress (another device frequently used l a t e r , though never again so sensually expressed), and the "verlockendes Waldhornslied" (II, 976), yet another motif 2 very f a m i l i a r to readers of Eichendorff; the exclamation, "Mein Gotti wo bin i c h so lange gewesen" (II, 982), which i s the t y p i c a l outcry of Eichendorff's "vom Leben Berauschten" (II, 97̂ 4) as they emerge from t h e i r delusions; the deathly p a l l o r and r i g i d i t y of the temptress and the horror f e l t by her v i c t i m (II, 982), and the frequent use of the verb "verwirren" i n reference to temptation. Even i n 1809 E i c h e n d o r f f s style was already so highly developed that almost any paragraph could be i d e n t i f i e d out of context as Eichendorff's work by anyone f a m i l i a r with h i s ^"This point w i l l be discussed in Chapter IV. 2Against t h i s theme of the seductive q u a l i t y of music must be considered i t s power for salvation, as i n the cases of F r i e d r i c h of "Ahnung und Gegenwart" (1815) and F l o r i o of "Das Marraorbild" (1819). Music i s only p o t e n t i a l l y , not necessarily, e v i l - l i k e mankind. - 20 - l a t e r w ritings. Likewise his e t h i c a l values were already established. Nevertheless, the narrative as such seems puerile and the events are often derivative: the pool with the bathing maidens (I I , 979) reminds the reader at once of the similar scene i n Novalis 1 "Heinrich von Ofterdingen", and the bleeding apparition of Ubaldo at the window of Raimund's c a s t l e ( I I , 985) i s reminiscent of countless, similar phenomena i n Gothic novels and fate dramas of the period. There i s , i n f a c t , nothing i n t h i s t a l e , other than the charm and o r i g i n a l i t y of i t s l i t e r a r y s t y l e , to indicate anything but a mediocre t a l e n t . It i s astounding, therefore, to r e a l i z e that three years a f t e r writing i t , i t s author completed h i s second prose work, "Ahnung und Gegenwart", a novel which assured him of immediate recognition i n the l i t e r a r y world on i t s publication i n I 8 l 5 . V i r t u a l l y between one moment and the next, the boy became a man, the hackneyed story was followed by a mature novel with amazing breadth of v i s i o n and sureness of judgment. There are s t i l l occasional reminders that Eichendorff was only twenty-three when he f i n i s h e d t h i s novel: F r i e d r i c h sometimes appears as pri g g i s h as Ubaldo f p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s homilies to Romana (II, 223) and the l i t e r a r y salbn (II, 11+5), where he upbraids the poetasters with candour, acumen, and gross discourtesy (but one cannot imagine the l i f e l e s s Ubaldo capable of either acumen or - 21 - discourtesy;-^ and i n s p i t e o f numerous d i s c u s s i o n s on poetry, one o f the main themes of the n o v e l , E i c h e n d o r f f leaves us a t the end a l i t t l e unsure as to h i s requirements f o r the poet's l i f e and m i s s i o n . But he has advanced so f a r beyond the l i t e r a r y c a p a c i t y he showed i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste", t h a t he can r i d i c u l e t h i s type of s t o r y which he has already l e f t f a r behind. Twice i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" E i c h e n d o r f f s c o f f s at the l i t e r a r y f i c t i o n o f the k n i g h t , once i n the l i t e r a r y s a l on, where, besides quoting two of h i s own poems ( I I , 133- I3I4.), w r i t t e n under the i n f l u e n c e of h i s f r i e n d , as models of worthlessness, he parodies i n Romana's grotesque b a l l a d ( I I , 135-11+0) the f o l l y of poets who attempt to d i s g u i s e themselves as k n i g h t s of o l d ; and a second time i n Rudolf's c a s t l e , where the second of Rudolf's c o l l e c t i o n of l u n a t i c s to greet F r i e d r i c h and L e o n t i n i s a young man dressed i n the i n d i s p e n s a b l e "Warns" ( I I , 253), who r a n t s about h i s own unworthiness of the d i g n i t y of knighthood before removing the doublet, together w i t h h i s high s t y l e o f speech, and r e v e a l i n g h i m s e l f as an up-to-date adherent of the B e r l i n l i t e r a r y s a l o n s . Thus does E i c h e n d o r f f expose the value- l e s s n e s s of the mediaeval knight used as a mere l i t e r a r y convention. ^ I t i s amusing i n t h i s connection to r e c a l ^ a note at the end of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s "Memoirenfragmente": , .Predigt von - der Pedanterie der Jugend." ( I I , 1091+K - 22 - This c r i t i c i s m might seem at f i r s t glance to eliminate the knight as a figure of importance i n h i s works. Such a deduction, however, i s f a l s e : not only- does Eichendorff i n t h i s novel use the terms " r i t t e r l i c h " and " a l t r i t t e r l i c h " repeatedly i n a favourable sense, but also h i s characters hold serious discussions on knightly virtues and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to contemporary l i f e , for instance, i n F r i e d r i c h ' s impassioned r e j e c t i o n of a r t i f i c e i n poetry: 11 'Wo s o i l die rechte, schlichte S l t t e , das treue ,-Tun, das schBne Lieben, die deutsche Ehre und a l l e die a l t e h e r r l i c h e SchSnheit s i c h hinfluchten, wenn es ihre angebornen R i t t e r , die Dichter,_ nicht wahrhaft e h r l i c h , a u f r i c h t i g und r i t t e r l i c h mit i h r £der PoesieJmeinen?'" (II, 32) The question of the degree to which the knight and the poet are i d e n t i c a l w i l l a r i s e l a t e r and therefore can be l e f t i n abeyance for the moment. The important aspect of t h i s extract from F r i e d r i c h ' s speech i s i t s affirmation of knightly virtues.- This i s no mere stage setting as i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste", but an earnest recommendation of e t h i c a l ideals which governed the knights of the Middle Ages and which have universal relevance. These ideals seem to be lacking i n one of the most curious characters to appear i n the novel: the Don Quixote figure wrapped i n a white cloak and mounted upon a white jade. (II, 70)^ He i s a debased modern version of ^This i s one of many references to Don Quixote (e.g. I I , 37 and 11+8) which hint at Eichendorff' s ̂ interest i n Spanish l i t e r a t u r e . In the l8i|0'Vone of h i s main l i t e r a r y ^ a c t i v i t i e s was the t r a n s l a t i o n of Spanish poems and plays into German. Amongst these were eleven plays of Calderon, whom, for r e l i g i o u s reasons, he regarded as superior to Shakespeare. - 23 - the knight errant, a mounted tramp who trades on h i s knightly- b i r t h to obtain free board and .lodging with the Herr v.A. and neighbouring members of the country n o b i l i t y . At f i r s t reading, his few entrances hint at mystery, l i k e those of Rudolf, who remains u n i d e n t i f i e d for most of the book, but t h i s Knight of the Woeful Countenance remains a minor figure, an emasculated reminder of the "Raubritter" i n h i s p a r a s i t i c ways, an indicat i o n that noble b i r t h i s not necessarily accompanied by n o b i l i t y of character. His function i s to serve as a warning against the p o t e n t i a l ludicrousness of attempting to preserve the external and i n e s s e n t i a l aspects of mediaeval knighthood i n the modern world. The extreme example of the possible discrepancy between b i r t h and character i s to be found i n the Crown Prince, who on h i s f i r s t appearance impresses F r i e d r i c h most favourably: "Wie wenn ein R i t t e r , noch ein h e i l i g e s B i l d voriger, rechter Jugend, dessen A n b l i c k s unser Auge lfingst entwBhnt i s t , uns p l B t z l i c h begegnete, so ragte der h e r r l i c h e Reiter fiber die verworrene, falbe Menge, die sein wildes Ross auseinandersprengte. (II, 12?) This magnificent e f f e c t seems to be confirmed by F r i e d r i c h 1 a subsequent association with the Prince, who gathers about him a group of high-minded young men to discuss and promote the welfare of t h e i r country. Everything appears to indicate that the Prince i s , as he should be, the flower of chivalry, the prime model of the knightly c l a s s . - 21+ - Eventually, however, the h i n t contained i n the above quotation, namely, that although the Prince i a compared ' 5 with a " R i t t e r " , he i a referred to as a "Reiter", a mere horseman, i s amplified by successive discoveries to the Prince's d i s c r e d i t which reach t h e i r nadir i n h i s confession of utter i n s i n c e r i t y , h i s abduction of Rosa, and h i s a l l i a n c e with the enemy. The image of almost sacred knighthood which he at f i r s t presented has gradually crumbled to reveal the corrupt figure of a scoundrel and t r a i t o r . The Prince's f a l l from grace i s the most spectacular deviation from the ideals of c h i v a l r y i n the novel. However, there i s one example of greater importance to the main characters: that of Rudolf, brother of F r i e d r i c h , double of Leontin, and owner of the "Narrenburg" near which the culminating events occur. The three Grafen, Rudolf, F r i e d r i c h and Leontin, were born into the knightly c l a s s , and could be expected to carry out i t s ideals to the f u l l , e s p e c i a l l y as a l l are ^This d i s t i n c t i o n between " R i t t e r " and "Reiter" i s repeated i n connection with Rudolf's "Ritternarr"• F r i e d r i c h und Leontin "bemerkten mit Verwunderung, dass er-ein ledernes Reiterwams trug und seine ganze Trecht uberhaupt altdeutsch s e i . " (II, 125) On the next page, a f t e r h i s voluntary unmasking, the sham knight "zog sein Ritterwams vom Leibe". Once Eichendorff has made h i s point about the f a l s i t y of the young man's claim, he uses the word " R i t t e r " f o r him, t r u s t i n g that the reader w i l l "mit und fiber dem Buche dichten" (II, 9 9 ) and keep the pretence i n mind. , - - 2* - unusually i n t e l l i g e n t and talented. In the end, only one cli n g s to the f u l l duty of the knight - r e l i g i o u s , m i l i t a r y , and s o c i a l - and Rudolf seems to have renounced a l l the obligations of h i s rank. Rudolf remains anonymous i n the novel u n t i l the moment when, af t e r years of separation, he walks up to F r i e d r i c h , remarking phlegmatically, "Willkommen, BruderV (II, 260)1 His existence was f i r s t mentioned on Fr i e d r i c h ' s meeting with Leontin, who reminds him of h i s long-lost elder brother. A mysterious stranger who converses with Erwin at night i n Leontin's garden (II, 39), a second who frightens Leontin into f l i g h t from h i s castle ( I I , 36), a t h i r d , dressed as a black knight with suggestions of a skeleton, who speaks to Rosa and others at a b a l l i n the Residenz (II, 113-115), a l l turn out to have been Rudolf. His i d e n t i t y i s hinted at just before h i s appearance at the "Narrenburg" by Leontin 1s confession that h i s f l i g h t had been inspired by the horror of an encounter, i n the forest near h i s sweetheart's house, with a stranger who i s his double (II, 255-256). The motif of the "Doppelganger" recurs i n Rudolf's l a s t encounter with the stranger, seen by him f o r the f i r s t time on the occasion of h i s f l i g h t from h i s birthplace, for the second time when an old gypsy woman t e l l s h i s and Angelina's fortunes at the cas t l e where the brothers grow up, and subsequently at various turning points i n h i s l i f e u n t i l he ac c i d e n t a l l y k i l l s t h i s double. - 26 - The m y s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e a d e r by t h i s r e p e a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n o f R u d o l f , t h e s t r a n g e r , A n g e l i n a and t h e gypsy, i s one o f th e c h i e f weaknesses o f t h e n o v e l : e x c e s s i v e emphasis on c o i n c i d e n c e i s i n a r t i s t i c i n such a s e r i o u s work. However, m y s t e r y f o r i t s own sake a p p e a l e d i r r e s i s t i b l y t o E i c h e n d o r f f , and always r e m a i n e d a f a c t o r i n h i s works, even i n h i s l a s t N o v e l l e , " l i b e r t a s und i h r e P r e i e r " and i n many o f h i s ^ • 6 .. -l y r i c s . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t so much m y s t i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be a t t a c h e d t o R u d o l f . E i c h e n d o r f f may have i n t e n d e d i t t o emphasize t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r , b u t i t s e f f e c t has been the e x a c t o p p o s i t e , and t h e o b s c u r i t y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e v e n t s o f R u d o l f ' s l i f e h a s s e r v e d t o d i v e r t t h e r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t f r o m h i m r a t h e r t h a n a t t r a c t i t t o him. R u d o l f has r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n 7 from t h e c r i t i c s . Thomas A. R i l e y a t t e m p t s t o reduce h im t o an a l l e g o r y o f t h e " Z e i t g e i s t " o r o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m . ^ H i s comedy, "Die F r e i e r " , i s an extreme example o f m y s t i f i c a t i o n and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , comparable t o N e s t r o y ' s " L i e b e s g e s c h i c h t e n und H e i r a t s s a c h e n " and d o u b t l e s s l i k e w i s e i n s p i r e d by t h e V i e n n e s e comic t r a d i t i o n , E i c h e n d o r f f b e i n g a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d ttKasperlM e n t h u s i a s t , as numerous e n t r i e s i n h i s d i a r i e s o f h i s l o n g s t a y i n V i e n n a (1810-1813) r e l a t e ( e . g . I l l , 265, 267 , 2 7 2 ) . ^Thomas A. R i l e y , "An a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Eichendorff»s ''Ahnung und Gegenwart**, MLR, L I V (1959) , 201+-213. A l s o "Die E r z l h l t e c h n i k des jungen E i c h e n d o r f f s , A u r o r a . XX ( I960, 30 - 3 5 ) . - 27 - Ingeborg-Maria Porsch considers that the i n s e c u r i t y of R u d o l f ' s childhood has rendered him incapable of accom- 9 p l i s h i n g anything worthwhile i n h i s m a t u r i t y . Emil Tamm says Rudolf i s "der bedeutendate ReprSsentant der r o m a n t i s c h - i n d i v i d u a l i s t i s c h e n Lebensanschauung i n 'Ahnung und G-egenwart'", but gives him up as a f a i l u r e , as indeed E i c h e n d o r f f does h i m s e l f . Ricarda H u c h , ^ l i k e the present w r i t e r , considers Rudolf one of the three heroes of the n o v e l , the others being F r i e d r i c h and L e o n t i n , but grants no more than t h i s statement to him i n her very short d i s c u s s i o n of the work. Her only r e a l i n t e r e s t i n him i s with regard to E i c h e n d o r f f s conception of I t a l y as a s u l t r y background to i l l i c i t love a f f a i r s , since R u d o l f s l i a i s o n with Angelina i s the sole event i n h i s l i f e which she c o n s i d e r s . Helga Haberland*^ regards him as an extreme example of the Romantic Z e r r i s s e n e r . The only c r i t i c who 12 holds out any hope f o r him i s Hans Brandenburg, who, although r e f e r r i n g to Rudolf as " e i n e inziges romantisches Ingeborg-Maria Porsch, Die Macht des vergangenen Lebens i n E i c h e n d o r f f s Roman "Ahnung und Gegenwart". (Frankfurt - am-Main, 1951) (a doc tora l d i s s e r t a t i o n ) . , ^Emil Tamm, Die Bedeutung des Romans "Ahnung und Gegenwart" fur Ejchendorffs g e i s t i g e Entwicklung. [Hambur g, 1924) (a doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n ) , p . 43. - - 1 0 R i c a r d a Huch, Die Romantik. ( L e i p z i g , 1920) . •^Helga Haberland, "Das Problem der Damonie im Werke Josef von E i c h e n d o r f f s " , (Frankfurt-am-Main, 195U) (a doc tora l d i s s e r t a t i o n ) , pp. 116-129. 1 2 H a n s Brandenburg, Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f . '('Munchen, 1922), p . ,21*0. - - ' - 28 - Krankheitsbild", remarks that "dennoch i s t ihm a l s Letztes und Einziges die Sehnsucht geblieben, a l s mUsse die Sonne aufgehen." The present writer agrees with Brandenburg that Rudolf's case i s not so hopeless as i t seems. Undoubtedly Eichendorff intended to make of t h i s character a dreadful example, even as he meant F r i e d r i c h to represent human perf e c t i o n . And yet he f a i l e d i n both attempts. Rudolf i s presented as a black sheep, but he has c a r r i e d out h i s duty as a knight by fig h t i n g f o r h i s country, he has made a l i v i n g by painting pictures, he has studied philosophy, and when the reader i s f i n a l l y introduced to him i n h i s own r i g h t , Rudolf i s running a successful mental asylum. He has obviously a f o r c e f u l and energetic personality, and retains a vestige of that f a i t h which he himself believes he has l o s t and which Eichendorff considered v i t a l . Rudolf says of h i s abandoning the study of philosophy, " a l l e Systeme ftihrten mich entweder von Gott ab, oder zu einem falschen Gott" (II, 27k)' such a statement implies a b e l i e f i n God, however i n a c t i v e . His announcement of h i s plan to study magic i n Egypt does not carry conviction: i t seems rather a desperate attempt on the part of the author to keep t h i s l i v e l y character within the bounds o r i g i n a l l y set for him. I f he r e a l l y were to come to a bad end, "es mflsste wahrlich mit dem Eigensinn eines Romanschreibers zugehen" (II, 710), as Walter says i n "Dichter und ihre Gesellen". - 29 - F r i e d r i c h , on the other hand, the intended paragon of the novel, r e f l e c t s p a l l i d l y the events of Rudolf's l i f e . He, too, f u l f i l l s h i s knightly duty i n b a t t l e and likewise suffers defeat; but h i s experiences s a t i s f y him at the time, whereas Rudolf's were a l l unpleasant, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s regaining consciousness on the b a t t l e f i e l d , deserted amongst corpses. Both brothers give up their a r t , F r i e d r i c h that of poetry, Rudolf painting, the springs of t h e i r talent apparently subsiding when their loves come to an end. Both incur g u i l t i n love: Angelina bears Rudolf an i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter whom she takes with her on abandoning him; F r i e d r i c h merely neglects and forgets Rosa, whom he has l e d to expect marriage. In t h e i r general duty toward society, Rudolf has accomplished more with h i s lunatics than F r i e d r i c h with the Crown Prince's group of planners; however, the f a i l u r e of t h i s group i s by no means attri b u t a b l e to F r i e d r i c h , and he hopes to carry out his obligations i n a di f f e r e n t way, namely, through prayer. The brothers* l i v e s are too si m i l a r to j u s t i f y one being condemned outright while the other i s ext o l l e d . Rudolf's character, already appearing i n a more favourable l i g h t by i t s likeness to Fr i e d r i c h ' s , i s further redeemed when he i s compared with the Crown Prince, the r e a l l y v i l l a i n o u s personage, laden with g u i l t i n many matters from seduction to treason, a f a l s e knight i n a l l respects. F r i e d r i c h and Rudolf f u l f i l l i n varying degrees t h e i r duties as knights. Both f i g h t for their country but subsequently give up the use of arms, t h e i r defection - 30 - being symbolised by the broken eoat-of-arms at t h e i r o l d home (II , 251). In regard to the knight's obligation to protect the weak, Rudolf has worked wonders with the mentally a f f l i c t e d , whereas the younger F r i e d r i c h has as yet accomplished nothing, though he has hopes of succeeding i n his own way. Eichendorff's knights must, above a l l , be good Christians. Rudolf f u l f i l l s t h i s duty i n regard to works, though h i s f a i t h i s not a l l that i t should be. F r i e d r i c h , on the other hand, i s endowed with an unshakeable f a i t h , through which he hopes to help bring about better conditions i n h i s country. His f a i t h leads him to embrace the vocation of priesthood, h i s moment of decision being described as almost an apotheosis of the knighthood he has renounced: "Da Q.n der Bibel} fand er Trost fiber die Verwirrung der Ze i t , und das einzige Recht und H e i l auf Erden i n dem h e i l i g e n Kreuze. Er hatte endlich den phantastischen, tausendfarbigen Pilgermantel abgeworfen, und stand nun i n blanker Rfistung a l s Kfirapfer Gottes gleichsam an der Grenze zweier Welten. Wie o f t , wenn er da fiber die T&ler hinaussah, f i e l er auf seine Knie und betete inbrfinstig zu Gott, ihm Kraft zu verleihen, was er i n der Erleuchtung erfahren, durch Wort und Tat seinen Brfidern mitzuteilen. f t (II, 281+) This exaltation i s the c o r o l l a r y to h i s dream of the Christ c h i l d , who said: "'Liebst du mich recht, so gehe mit mir unter. .-Als Sonne wirst du dann wieder aufgehen, und die Welt i s t f r e i l ' " ( I I , 166) Thus, though both brothers must be considered f a i l u r e s as knights, at l e a s t the elder has found a - 31 - p r a c t i c a l way of helping mankind, and the younger, though not quite the hero his p o s i t i o n as c e n t r a l character i n the novel might lead the reader to expect, nevertheless r e j e c t s h i s knighthood only to embrace a c a l l i n g which transcends i t i n Eichendorff»s view: that of the p r i e s t . The only character who remains true to a l l of the ideals of knighthood i s Leontin, although he too f e e l s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of carrying them out i n the Germany of h i s day (In t h i s matter the poet Eichendorff i s at variance with the Preiherr von Eichendorff who, shortly after the completion of t h i s novel, joined the Lutzower Jager to h e l p l i b e r a t e h i s country, and subsequently devoted to i t many years as a c i v i l servant.), He f e e l s that the present i s hopelessly corrupt, but that God w i l l put an end to t h i s degradation and open the way for useful action by the f a i t h f u l . A f t e r expressing t h i s opinion i n the song, "0 konnt' i c h mich niederlegen" (II, 293-291*), he states h i s plans f o r the future: " fUnd so', aagte er, ' w i l l i c h denn i n dem noch unberflhrten Waldesgrun eines andern W e l t t e i l s Herz und Augen starken und mir die Ehre und die Erinnerung an die vergangene grosse Z e i t , sowie den t i e f e n Schmerz uber die gegenwSrtige h e i l i g bewahren, damit i c h der kunftigen, bessern, die wir a l l e hoffen, wurdig bleibe, und s i e mich wach und r u s t i g finde.'" ( I I , 291+) This statement apart from the plan of v i s i t i n g the New World, i s completely i n harmony with Eichendorff's p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y views. He does not, as i s often claimed, renounce present and future i n nostalgia for the - 32 - p a s t , " d i e a l t e gute Z e i t " , as he o f t e n expresses i t , but r e g a r d s the grandeur o f the past as an i n s p i r a t i o n f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t t e r . The present i s never an end i n i t s e l f , and never appeared s a t i s f a c t o r y t o E i c h e n d o r f f a f t e r h i s student days, but i s always merely the time d u r i n g which one works towards improvement, both o f o n e s e l f and, so f a r as i t i s p o s s i b l e , o f one's c o u n t r y . Thus L e o n t i n i n t e n d s t o preserve the memory o f the g l o r i o u s p a s t and the ignominious pres e n t i n the hope o f a c h i e v i n g something worth w h i l e i n the f u t u r e . He r e t a i n s h i s k n i g h t l y i d e a l s , but, f i n d i n g they are u n f a s h i o n a b l e and s u b j e c t to r i d i c u l e l i k e the l u d i c r o u s a s p e c t s of Don 13 Quixote ( I I , 293), f i n d s no a l t e r n a t i v e t o withdrawing from h i s country u n t i l such time as k n i g h t l y conduct s h a l l a g a i n be In demand. In "Ahnung und Gegenwart" E i c h e n d o r f f c o n s i d e r s the m e r i t s of a number o f k n i g h t s , without r e a c h i n g the f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s on knighthood which are t o be found i n h i s l a t e r n o v e l , " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " ( I 8 3 I + ) The e a r l i e r n o v e l has the v i r t u e o f y o u t h f u l v i t a l i t y and the drawback o f y o u t h f u l c o n f u s i o n . Though E i c h e n d o r f f ' s p r i n c i p l e s are to be found i n i t , the reader has t o search "^Strange t o say, a l l E i c h e n d o r f f ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o Don Quixote p e r t a i n e x c l u s i v e l y to the r i d i c u l o u s or anachron- i s t i c a s p e c t s o f t h i s i d e a l i s t i c K n i g h t . ^ " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV of t h i s study. - 33 - for them, and the fact that he took for h i s central character a young man whose choice of vocation, however laudable, did not enjoy h i s f u l l sympathy, weakens the structure of the novel. For the r e a l hero, i n spite of E i c h e n d o r f f f s plans, i s Leontin, who corresponds to Fortunat, the c e n t r a l figure of the second novel, and indeed to the poet or musician heroes of a number of h i s Novellen, who resemble t h e i r 15 creator far more c l o s e l y than F r i e d r i c h does. Leontin appears to give up the m i l i t a r y aspect of knighthood even as Rudolf and F r i e d r i c h do, but t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i n h i s case, i s temporary: having been outlawed by h i s country because of a misapprehension, he would be i l l - a d v i s e d to announce hi s presence to the army. There i s no reason to believe, however, that, a f t e r h i s strategic withdrawal to America, he might not again bear arms for h i s country under improved circumstances. His r e l i g i o u s f a i t h never comes under suspicion ( i t was h i s singing of a hymn which rescued F r i e d r i c h from Romana's wile s ) , and a f t e r h i s war experiences he casts o f f the somewhat f r i v o l o u s attitude to l i f e which characterised h i s youth, and seeks for a way of helping h i s country. This i s barred to him for the moment, but he i s convinced that a time w i l l come when h i s knightly p r i n c i p l e s w i l l again be wanted for the •^This commentary should not be taken to mean that the present writer believes that heroes of novels should necessarily resemble t h e i r authors; i t i s merely a fact that Eichendorff 1 a most successful and convincing heroes do resemble him strongly. - 3k - r e s t o r a t i o n of h i s land. He says i n one of the l a s t songs of the novel: "Denn eine Zeit wird kommen, Da macht der Herr ein End', Da wird den Ealschen genommen Ihr unechtes Regiment. Denn wie die Erze vom Hammer, So wird das lockre Geschlecht Gehaun sein von Not und Jammer Zu festem Eisen recht. Da wird Aurora tagen Hoch fiber den Wald hinauf, Da gibt's was zu siegen und schlagen, Da wacht, i h r Getreuen, auf." (II, 29l+) - 35 - IV. Das Marmorbild (Summary. F l o r i o , approaching Lucca on the grand tour, meets another knight, the poet Portunato, who takes him to an evening party being held near the c i t y . Here P l o r i o f a l l s i n love with a young g i r l , Bianka. The company i s joined by the knight, Donati, whose presence seems to disturb everyone but P l o r i o , to whom he makes himself very agreeable. P l o r i o , r e s t l e s s a f t e r t h i s f e s t i v i t y , goes for a walk i n the country by moonlight. He comes to a neglected garden where he sees a statue apparently come to l i f e . Eventually he again finds the garden, now well tended, by daylight, and sees a lady who resembles the statue wandering through i t , singing. On attempting to overtake her, he finds Donati sleeping amongst some rui n s . The knight promises to introduce him to the lady one day. At a masked b a l l , P l o r i o again encounters the "statue", t h i s time exactly l i k e Bianka i n appearance and costume, and has a short conversation with her. F l o r i o v i s i t s Donati, who takes him to the mysterious garden and leaves him with the lady and her attendants. F l o r i o becomes more and more enamoured of her, and i n the evening accompanies her indoors alone. While he i s admiring her and her surroundings, he hears Fortunato singing a hymn outside, and prays not to be l o s t . Immediately a storm begins, signs of neglect appear outside the window, a green-golden snake vanishes into a clump of weeds, the lady looks white and r i g i d l i k e a statue, and the whole house begins to collapse. F l o r i o f l e e s i n horror, passing the s i t e of Donati's splendid mansion, where now only a lowly hut stands. Deciding to leave Lucca, F l o r i o meets Fortunato with Piet r o (Bianka's uncle and guardian) and an unknown young man, and i s i n v i t e d to accompany them on t h e i r t r a v e l s . They pass by the garden, once more i n ruins, and Fortunato t e l l s the legend of Venus which i s associated with i t . F l o r i o , now completely released from the enchantment, recognises the "young man" as Bianka, whose uncle was taking her on a journey to help her forget her g r i e f over F l o r i o ' s neglect of her. F l o r i o says he hopes never to part from her again, and the party goes j o y f u l l y on i t s way.) Gerhard MBbus, a contemporary c r i t i c of Eichendorff, writes: - 36 - "Wer s i c h um eine Deutung der Dichtung Eichendorf fs beraflht, koramt, welchen Weg er auch einschlagen mag, immer wieder i n die Nflhe des "Marmorbildes" . E r s c h l i e s s t s i c h der Sinn dieses Werkes, das der Dichter selbst e i n Marchen geraannt hat , dann erflffnet s i c h mit ihm z u g l e i c h der Zugang zum Gehalt des Gesamtwerkes."-*- Hans Brandenburg, one of the f i r s t important c r i t i c s of Eichendorff ,whose indispensable biography of E i c h e n d o r f f has been outs t r ipped i n many ways i n regard to h i s c r i t i c i s m of the l i t e r a r y works, nevertheless gives an a n a l y s i s of the theme of t h i s Marchen which cannot be bet tered: "Diese l y r i s c h getBnte, c h r i s t l i c h - r o m a n t i s c h e Marchenallegorie zeigt e i n f e i n und sauber eingefa'deltes Motivwerk und eine schone, mehrfal t ige Symmetrie des Baues, mit -der sie den Helden zwischen die Zauberin und die wahre G e l i e b t e , zwischen den btisen und guten R i t t e r s t e l l t und, i n holier en Ordnungen diese P a r a l l e l e n wiederholend, die dann nur noch a l s S p l e g e l b i l d e r jener hflheren B i l d e r , a l s Symbole der Symbole erscheinen: zwischen das Venus- und ^adonnenbild, zwischen das Bacchus- und C h r i s t u s r e i c h . " (op. c i t . , p . 357) Venus and Madonna f i g u r e s have already appeared i n the e a r l i e r works; the reader i s ever conscious of the " C h r i s t u s r e i c h " , and also of the "Bacchusreich" . This term i s used by Brandenburg because of the mention of Bacchus (and Venus) i n Fortunato 's song (II , 311-313), which describes C h r i s t ' s overcoming of the ancient gods: by i t he wishes to symbolise the pagan world (as represented •^•Gerhard MBbus, Per andere E i c h e n d o r f f : zur Deutung der Dichtung Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f s (Osnabruck, I960), p , 3 1 . The text and notes of t h i s book also contain excel lent evaluations of other recent c r i t i c a l works on E i c h e n d o r f f . - 37 - by Romana i n th© tableau i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" I I , 1 2 9 , which Eichendorff interprest as "die griechische Figur, die lebenslustige, vor dem Glanze des Christentums zu Stein gewordene Religion der Phantasie" I, 1 3 0 ) and also those daemonic forces which, even i n the Ch r i s t i a n world, w i l l not subject themselves to Ch r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s . The ancient gods, or at l e a s t the natural forces which they symbolize, have not r e a l l y been overcome. They s t i l l e x i s t i n every human being, however f i r m l y he may adhere to the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , and must constantly be overcome anew. In fact, taking Brandenburg's view of the hero of "Das Marmorbild" being placed between good and e v i l , and MBbus' view of t h i s story as the key to a l l Eichendorff's l i t e r a r y works, one gains a perspective of countless heroes, of mankind, i n f a c t , e t e r n a l l y at the cross roads between good and e v i l . Each new step may lead to e i t h e r . The problem i s not solved with one decision, though any one decision may turn out to be of overwhelming importance i n determining the future d i r e c t i o n of the indiv i d u a l ' s path. In F l o r i o ' s case, as i n many others, the danger ari s e s out of h i s own emotions. He reaches the outskirts of Lucca i n h i s hith e r t o customary state of equanimity, but almost at once f a l l s i n love with the be a u t i f u l young Bianka. His feelings toward her are i n no doubt at the time of h i s singing h i s toast, "Jeder nennet froh die Seine" (II, 3 1 0 ) , yet, l a t e r i n the same night, a f t e r a dream i n which Bianka - 38 - has appeared, he sings a serenade, "Wie kfihl schweift sich's bei n&cht'ger Stunde" (I I , 317), whereupon Eichendorff writes: "Er musste fiber s i c h selber lachen, da er am -Ende nicht wusste, wem er das St&ndchen brachte. Denn die reizende Kleine CBianka] mit dem Blumenkranze war es lange nicht mehr, die er e i g e n t l i c h meinte." (II, 317) What has happened during these few hours to change h i s views so r a d i c a l l y ? The source of the change can be traced to the one new character to enter the story between P l o r i o ' s two songs: the knight, D 0 n a t i ( i t should be pointed out here that Eichendorff no longer makes the d i s t i n c t i o n between "Reiter" and " R i t t e r " remarked upon i n connection with "Ahnung und Gegenwart". Although the reader i s never in, any doubt as to -Donati's character, he i s r e f e r r e d to as a " R i t t e r " except at one moment where he i s having d i f f i c u l t i e s with h i s horse and therefore "Reiter" i s more apt ( l l , 3l£ ) • During the i n t e r v a l between writing the two works, Eichendorff has shed a l l l i n g e r i n g i l l u s i o n of the knight as e s s e n t i a l l y pure). Donati i s branded as e v i l i n the f i r s t sentence concerning him: "Da t r a t ein hoher, schlanker R i t t e r i n reichem Geschmeide, das grfinlichgoldene Scheine zwischen die im Walde flackernden Idchter warf, i n das Z e i t herein." (II, 311+) An innocuous description; but to those who have observed the symbolism of the few colours mentioned by Eichendorff, "grfinlichgolden" signals moral danger. This observation was mentioned i n regard to the enchantress i n - 39 - "Die Zauberei im Herbste", of whom i s written: "die Aster von ih r e r Stirne warf lange grfinlich-goldene Scheine fiber die Heide" ( I I , 9 8 5 ) . The association of th i s colour with e v i l i s thus found i n E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s f i r s t known work of any length, and also i n one of h i s l a s t , the verse epic, " J u l i a n " (1853). In the twelfth canto of t h i s epic, Oktavian comes to his senses i n the garden of the temptress, Pausta, who bears a strong likeness to the enchantresses of "Die Zauberei im Herbste" and "Das Marmorbild": "Dem R i t t e r graut' vor ihren Wangen, Er sann, und wusst' nicht, wo er i s t , Doch wie er aufsprang, schlfipften Schlangen Grfingolden zfingelnd ins Genist." (I, H 3 3 ) 2 On the occasion when F l o r i o , i n Donati's company, meets the enchantress, he notices t h i s : "ein Edelstein an ihr e r Brust warf i n der Abendsonne lange, grfinlichgoldne Scheine fiber die Wlese hi n " - almost the same words as i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste" and i n the reference i n regard It i s int e r e s t i n g to compare E i c h e n d o r f f s attitude with that adopted by E.T.A, Hoffmann i n h i s Per goldene Topf (Stuttgart: Reclam I960), f i r s t published i n l b l l | . The student, Anselmus, i s s i t t i n g under an elderberry bush: "er schaute hinauf und e r b l i c k t e d r e i i n grfinem Gold erglarizende; SchlSnglein," (p.10) one of which, Serpentina, later,becomea, i n human form, h i s bride. Serpentina represents a fusion of mineral (the jewel-like glow of her r e p t i l i a n form), plant (her mother, the l i l y ) , animal (her father, the salamander, who also appears i n human form), and human; Hoffmann does not take r e l i g i o n into consideration i n t h i s phantasy. Such a fusion i s foreshadowed i n Novalis' Heinrich von Ofterdingen and Tieck's Per Runenberg.but would be unthinkable to the conservative - Catholic Eichendorff, for whom th i s world and heaven (and perhaps h e l l ) e x i s t separately, whereas Hoffmann's two worlds of r e a l i t y and magic (the l a t t e r including the arts) ex i s t together, overlapping i n space and time. - u o - to D o n a t i . The f i n a l mention o f the c o l o u r i n "Das Marmorbild" i s made j u s t a f t e r F l o r i o ' s p r a y e r : "Herr G o t t , l a s s mich n i c h t verlorengehen i n der Welt" ( I I , 338)1 A storm b e g i n s , and F l o r i o n o t i c e s s u r p r i s i n g s i g n s o f n e g l e c t , o u t s i d e the window of the enchantress' house. "Eine Schlange f u h r z i s c h e n d daraus hervor und s t f l r z t e mit dem g r f i n l i c h g o l d n e n Schweife s i c h r i n g e l n d i n den Abgrund h i n u n t e r " ( I I , 3 3 8 ) . Even without the r e f e r e n c e t o c o l o u r , the symbolism o f t h i s passage i s c l e a r : e v i l has been vanquished and c a s t i n t o the abyss. J o s e f Kunz comments on the s u b j e c t of t h i s c o l o u r : "Von dem Geschmeide, das er (t)°nafc4/ t r i . g t , , h e i s s t es, dass es "g r to" n 1 i c h g o l d e n e S c h e i n e z w i s c h e n d i e i m W i n d e f l a t t e r n d e n L i c h t e r w a r f " . Das Gold, das an s i c h d i e H e l l e und das -Strahlende des L i c h t e s bewahrt und a u s s t r a h l t , e r f S h r t so Schmfllerung und B e e i n t r f l c h t i g u n g s e i n e s Glanzes durch d i e andere, raehr dem Dunkel v e r h a f t e t e Farbe."-^ Whether t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n or any o t h e r caused E i c h e n d o r f f to r e g a r d green-gold w i t h such abhorrence, the f a c t remains t h a t he mentions t h i s c o l o u r c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h r e g a r d t o -\Tosef Kunz, E i c h e n d o r f f ; H6hepunkt und K r i s e der Spfltromantik (Oberusel, 1951), p. 153- Kunz used the Gesammelte Werke (Mflnchen und L e i p z i g , 1913); h i s use o f "Winde" i n the q u o t a t i o n about-Donati sounds more c o n v i n c i n g than the "Walde" which r e p l a c e s i t i n the C o t t a e d i t i o n used by the p r e s e n t w r i t e r and quoted on p. 3k' the marquee i s p i t c h e d i n an open meadow, not a wood where f l i c k e r i n g l i g h t s would c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i o u s f i r e h a z a r d i n an I t a l i a n summer. Gerhard MBbus a l s o mentions'the three i n s t a n c e s of " g r f l n l i c h g o l d e n " i n "Das Marmorbild"; "Behutsam andeutend w e i s t E i c h e n d o r f f damit beide G e s t a l t e n Donati und d i e Zauberin dem B e r e i c h des Dfimonischen und D i a b o l i s c h e n zu" (op. c i t . , p. 9 8 ) . - I l l - k e v i l , and that therefore the reader i s warned of Donati's wickedness from the moment of h i s appearance. This moment has a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p to Pl o r i o ' s emotional state, f o r Donati appears not long a f t e r the young man has f a l l e n i n love for the f i r s t time, and hence has l e f t the stage of c h i l d i s h s i m p l i c i t y to enter that of adolescent v u l n e r a b i l i t y . Eichendorff mentions "die dunkelglflhenden B l i c k e " (II, 310) of Bianka towards F l o r i o , an astonishing description of a g i r l whose name means "white" and who symbolizes pure womanhood, from an author who generally reserves t h i s adjective f o r dark red objects, such as wine or peonies. I t seems that he i s hi n t i n g d e l i c a t e l y that passion can ex i s t i n and be inspired by even the most innocent g i r l . F l o r i o responds to t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n with an advance towards mature s t a b i l i t y : " F l o r i o war recht i n n e r l i c h s t vergntigt, a l l e blBde Bangigkeit war von seiner Seele genommen, und er- sah fast trSumerisch s t i l l vor frflhlichen Gedanken zwischen den Lichtern und Blumen i n die wunderschSne, langsam i n die Abendgluten versinkende Landschaft vor sich hinaus." (II, 310) A f t e r Bianka's departure and his subsequent conversation with Donati, however, P l o r i o becomes confused, shortly forgets Bianka (though her presence i n hi s dream indicates ^ I t i s twice mentioned i n the novel, "Dichter und ihre Gesellen", (II, £80 and 598), both times with a connotation of e v i l magic. "GoldgruV 1 occurs once i n "Libertas und ihre F r e i e r " (II, 959) with a connotation of magic but no e v i l . - if2 - that the forgetting i s only at the conscious l e v e l ) , and fe e l s an undirected longing which sends him out into the countryside. Here he f i r s t sees the deserted garden with the statue of Venus which appears momentarily to come to l i f e i n the s h i f t i n g l i g h t of the moon amongst the clouds, and which dominates h i s thoughts and desires throughout the remainder of h i s stay i n Lucca. Donati's connection with the garden i s not at f i r s t apparent, but when F l o r i o succeeds i n finding i t by daylight, a f t e r numerous f r u i t l e s s attempts, and sees the awakened statue walking amongst the exotic plants which have taken the place of the moonlit ruins, he finds Donati sleeping nearby "fast wie ein Toter" (II, 323), on some f a l l e n stonework; and Donati takes him to the garden for h i s t h i r d and f i n a l v i s i t . When F l o r i o passes by the same place on his departure from Lucca, i t i s a l i f e l e s s r u i n : i therefore the semblance of l i f e which the garden and the statue assumed must have depended on Donati, and has vanished with him. In turn, Donati's existence depends on F l o r i o ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y to temptation through his newly aroused sensuality: once F l o r i o prays f o r help, he receives divine protection, and the e v i l forces arrayed against him dis i n t e g r a t e . Although the action of the story takes place within a few days, F l o r i o passes through three states of emotional development within t h i s time, from c h i l d i s h - hy - innocence through adolescent v u l n e r a b i l i t y to matur i ty . He has s t i l l not advanced emotionally beyond the innocence of childhood when he says to Fortunato: "Auf dem Lande i n der S t i l l e aufgewachsen, wie lange habe i c h da die fernen blauen Berge sehnsfichtig betrachtet , wenn der Frtlhling wie e i n zauberischer Spielraann durch unsern Garten ging und von der wunderschflnen Ferne verlockend sang und von grosser , unermesslicher L u s t . " (II , 308) He has obviously no perception of the danger inherent i n the temptation and pleasure of which the "Spielmann" s i n g s . The older and more experienced Fortunato i s taken aback by t h i s naivete', and seeks to warn h i s young f r i e n d without alarming him: " 'Habt Ihr wohl jemals ' , sagte er zers t reut , aber sehr e r n s t h a f t , 'von dem wunderbaren Spielmann gehort, der durch seine T8ne die Jugend i n einen Zauberberg n i n e i n v e r l o c k t , aus dem keiner wieder zuruckgekehrt i s t ? Hutet E u c h ' . ' " ( I I , 308) The reference here i s obviously to T i e c k ' s "Der getreue Eckart und der Tannenhaluser". The inf luence of t h i s ta le i s more apparent but not openly acknowledged i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste" , whose p l o t i s b a s i c a l l y the same as that of the second part of T i e c k ' s M&rchen. In both the Tieck and the e a r l i e r of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s t a l e s , the music of temptation i s given an object ive q u a l i t y , because i t i s perceived by many. In T i e c k ' s t a l e , i t i s heard only by those who have already given themselves up to temptation, and none who hears i t can r e s i s t ; but even h i s unfortunate F r i e d r i c h , who has l e d a blameless l i f e , i s doomed because Tannenhluser k i s s e d him - kk - b e f o r e h i s f l i g h t back t o the H o r s e l b e r g . In "Die Zaub e r e i im Herbste", the music i s heard by a l l , but can be r e s i s t e d by those w i t h a s t r o n g f a i t h : Ubaldo and B e r t a remain s t e a d f a s t while Raimund succumbs. Thus, though the music a p p a r e n t l y e x i s t s o b j e c t i v e l y , the r e a c t i o n o f the hearer i s s u b j e c t to h i s r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n or l a c k o f i t , u n l i k e that o f T i e c k ' s c h a r a c t e r s . "Das Marmorbild", fundamentally a t h i r d v e r s i o n o f the same s t o r y but broadened and immensely improved,^* does not have music as the medium of enchantment. I n s t e a d , as i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" and a l l subsequent prose n a r r a t i v e s , songs a r e simply used t o express the f e e l i n g s or thoughts o f the s i n g e r ; i n f a c t , the songs i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste" serve t h i s purpose a l s o , but t h a t of the enchantress has the a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f l u r i n g the s u s c e p t i b l e to t h e i r doom, -'Ludwig T i e c k , Der getreue E c k a r t und der Tannenhauser, i n Deutsche L i t e r a t u r , Reihe Komantik, V I I ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 3 3 ) , p. 2 6 9 . ^ o b u s (op. c i t . , p. 88) g i v e s F r i e d r i c h Kind's s t o r y , "Das Prinzen-Bank", Tulpen.,VII ( L e i p z i g , 1810), as an a d d i t i o n a l source - f o r "Das Marmorbild". There.are s e v e r a l s t r i k i n g correspondences between the two s t o r i e s ; however, Mfibus' c o n c l u s i o n that E i c h e n d o r f f s i d e a o f b r i n g i n g the statue t o l i f e i s drawn from Kind's i d e a o f b r i n g i n g the corpse of Helen of Troy to l i f e , i s open to q u e s t i o n . E i c h e n d o r f f had a l r e a d y used the i d e a of a d e s t r u c t i v e s p i r i t which d i e s p h y s i c a l l y and i s r e s u r r e c t e d i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste", w r i t t e n a t l e a s t a year before the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Kind's s t o r y , though the enchantress i s not d e s c r i b e d as a remnant o f c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y . Other d e t a i l s may have been copied by E i c h e n d o r f f , c o n s c i o u s l y or otherwise. E i c h e n d o r f f h i m s e l f wrote t o T i e c k i n a l e t t e r quoted i n p a r t by Mfibus on p. 79, t h a t Happel's R e l a t i o n e s c u r i o s a e f u r n i s h e d the.impetus f o r h i s t a l e ; and an account o f Happel's ghost s t o r y , i n which the e v i l Donati f i r s t appeared, was p u b l i s h e d by K i n d i n the same volume o f Tulpen as "Der Fremde i n Lucca". T h i s l a t t e r t a l e may have i n f l u e n c e d some d e t a i l s of "Das Marmorbild". - 1 £ - as do the hunting horns and birdsong associated with h e r . In "Das Marmorbild" , the apparatus of temptation can a l l be asc r ibed to an i l l u s i o n a r i s i n g out of F l o r i o ' s advancement to the stage of sensual awareness and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y . Apart from t h i s i l l u s i o n , E i c h e n d o r f f never abandons what one might c a l l the "romantic r e a l i s m " c h a r a c t e r i s i n g much of h i s work: even the magic i n h i s f i r s t t a le i s not e s s e n t i a l to the p l o t , but can a lso be in terpre ted as an i l l u s i o n , whereas the works of many other Romantic wr i ters depend upon magic: f o r instance, Hoffmann's "Der goldene T o p f " , mentioned above, i s only one of many s t o r i e s i n which t h i s author mingles i n e x t r i c a b l y the worlds of magic and of ordinary l i f e . (For those readers who would r e j e c t the term " r e a l i s m " as a p p l i e d to the prose works of E i c h e n d o r f f , e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to "Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts" , i t should be pointed out that although the Taugenichts ' adventures are u n l i k e l y , they are cast i n terms of r e a l i t y ; on the other hand, events i n "Auch i c h war i n A r k a d i e n " {lQ3k) and "Liber tas und ihre F r e i e r " ( I 8 I 4 . 9 ) c e r t a i n l y do not f i t into t h i s framework despite the seriousness of the ideas underlying them.) i F l o r i o ' s state of c h i l d l i k e innocence ends at h i s meeting wi th Bianka. Having f a l l e n i n l o v e , he i s now vulnerable to sensual temptation, and promptly, l i k e an emissary from the d e v i l , Donati appears, ready to lead the young knight a s t r a y . Sensual awareness, l i k e other n a t u r a l forces , i s - k6 - not i n i t s e l f e v i l , but without proper c o n t r o l can lead to e v i l . Here we have the young knight , as Brandenburg says, placed between the good and e v i l knights , and f e e l i n g uneasy when he i s l e f t alone with them. I t i s noteworthy that Donati pays no a t t e n t i o n to anyone but F l o r i o , whom i t i s h i s mission to corrupt , and no one but F l o r i o speaks to him, though a l l f e e l uneasy i n h i s presence; he never addresses Fortunato, who symbolizes good as Donati symbolizes e v i l . Fortunato has the advantage of being r e a l as w e l l as symbolic; h i s hymn, sung i n the r e a l r u i n e d garden, checks F l o r i o on the brink of perdi t ion . "^ F l o r i o turns from the seductress i n her elaborate room, to the window, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c gesture of E i c h e n d o r f f s f i g u r e s , who mostly turn away from the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the man-made world to the great realm of nature, the c r e a t i o n of God. Yet Fortunato 's inf luence i s not enough, i n i t s e l f , to save F l o r i o : the impulse must come from w i t h i n ; and i t i s not u n t i l F l o r i o ut ters h i s few words of prayer that the inf luence of e v i l i s averted. Immediately a f t e r h i s prayer , the snake appears and vanishes into a c r e v i c e : t h i s inc ident i s a "Symbol der Symbole", to quote Brandenburg again, the snake being a symbol of the power of Donati , who himself i s merely a symbol of e v i l . With the vanquishing of e v i l , the enchantress' house begins to c o l l a p s e , and F l o r i o f l e e s . He has passed through the second stage, that of adolescent v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and i s about ^Even so did L e o n t i n ' s song rescue F r i e d r i c h from Romana's e v i l inf luence ( II , 160). - kl - to enter the t h i r d stage of stable maturity l i k e that of Fortunato, both deriving t h e i r a b i l i t y to gain and adhere to t h i s stage of development from their f i r m C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . Wilhelm Emrich says i n "Eichendorff, Skizze einer Asthetik der G-eschichte"? "Das Marmorbild v e r t r i t t die Idee der erstarrten Vergangenheit..., urn dann a l s lebendig singende Frau p l f l t z l i c h a l l e g o r i s c h Wahrheit und Ewigkeit a l l e s vergangenen Seins ttberhaupt i n ihren eigenen Worten zu beschwBren....Es i s t Urform a l l e r Geschichte, d.h. AHegorie" (p. lf>). The present writer does not f e e l that the statue represents h i s t o r y , even F l o r i o ' s own history, since i t s apparently l i v i n g form i s a conjuration made by a conjuration (Donati) of h i s own emotions when he advances beyond h i s childhood (his past up to that point) on f a l l i n g i n love with Bianka. However, Emrich i s not alone i n equating the statue with the past: Kunz writes: "In dieser fur sein Leben so bedeutsamen Stunde begegnet also F l o r i o dem Wesen, das, Spiegelung seiner eigenen Situation, verzaubert i s t i n den eigenen Ursprung, wie er nicht die Kraft hat, s i c h diesem Zauber zu entwinden und seine Weigerung mit der Leblosigkeit und Starrheit bezahlt. Denn Leben i s t nur miJglich, wo die Spannung von Ursprung und Z i e l ausgehalten wird; Leben - und urn diesen G-edanken k r e i s t ja Eichendorffs Denken immer wieder - o ^Wilhelm Emrich: Protest und Verheissung, (Frankfurt- am-Main and Bonn, I960), pp. 11-2L),. - ka - verdankt seine Intensi tUt und Prische nur dem S c h r i t t , den der Mensch wagt i n das Neue, s i c h damit l o s l S s e n d von der ewigen Wiederholung des Anfangs" (op. c i t . , I 6 3 - I 6 I 4 ) . Kunz has much that i s new, penetra t ing , and i l l u m i n a t i n g to say about E i c h e n d o r f f , but i n the above quotation i t i s apparent that i t i s h i s own t h i n k i n g , not E i c h e n d o r f f ' s , which centres upon the danger of remaining t i e d to one's o r i g i n . Although E i c h e n d o r f f s characters genera l ly do venture f o r t h into something new, i t i s not through r e j e c t i o n of t h e i r childhood and "Heimat", but i n extension of them i n a manner b e f i t t i n g greater m a t u r i t y . The statue r e f l e c t s F l o r i o ' s new emotional s ta te , not h i s o r i g i n . Prom the conversation near the end of "Das Marmorbild" and Fortunato 's songon the subject ( II , 3^1- 3l |3) , i t i s apparent that a Tannenhauser-like legend i s attached to the abandoned garden and i t s ru ined temple of Venus. This serves as a s u p e r f i c i a l explanation of F l o r i o ' s adventures; nevertheless , he f i r s t hears of the legend a f t e r these phenomena are past , and therefore they must be regarded as an independent p r o j e c t i o n of h i s emotional problems. Once the problems are deal t wi th , the ever more elaborate p r o j e c t i o n of them capsizes , l eaving no trace except i n F l o r i o ' s mind and i n Bianka's g r i e f at b e l i e v i n g he has forgotten h e r . Despite the u n r e a l i t y of these adventures, F l o r i o b e n e f i t s g r e a t l y from them and w i l l henceforth be a much more worthy knight than p r e v i o u s l y , having had overwhelming t - k'9 - proof of the e f f i c a c y of prayer (though even i n Eichendorff not a l l prayers are answered with such spectacular speed) and the reward of v i r t u e . The reader feels assured that he w i l l develop into as fine an example of h i s class as Fortunato, with the added advantage of a b e a u t i f u l and devoted wife. The most int e r e s t i n g figure i n regard to knighthood i s D o n a t i . The treatment of t h i s character, however unreal he may be, provides a s t r i k i n g contrast to the usual conception of the knight as an i d e a l . He i s never described i n terms that might lead the reader to admire him: h i s only knightly virtues appear to be excellent horsemanship, good manners (though these are intermittent), and the wealth which was the outward manifestation of s p i r i t u a l greatness i n the mediaeval view of the knight. In fact, i t i s only i n the le s s e r , expendable virtues that he shows any proof of knighthood: i n the greater virutes, e s p e c i a l l y f a i t h , he i s t o t a l l y d e f i c i e n t . The change of E i c h e n d o r f f s attitude to a "schwarzer R i t t e r " i s i n t e r e s t i n g . During h i s v i s i t to Breslau i n 1809 with h i s brother, Wilhelm, he made the following entry i n h i s diary on 3 November: "Liess mich von dem nicht ganz talentlosen Maler R a a b e auf der Taschengasse e n M i n i a t u r e a l s schwarzer R i t t e r mit goldner Kette u. S t i c k e r e i fur L [puisej malen." ( I l l , 222) . Manifestly the black clothing here has no other significance - 50 - than to serve as a f o i l to h i s own f a i r good l o o k s . But a wealth of emotional overtones i s aroused when, ten years l a t e r , he descr ibes Donati i n the same a t t i r e : "Er war ganz schwarz gekleidet und sah heute ungewShnlich vers t f i r t , h a s t i g und beinah w i l d aus. - P l o r i o erschrak o r d e n t l i c h vor Freude, a l s er ihn e r b l i c k t e , denn er gedachte sogle ich der schfinen F r a u . "Kann i c h s ie sehen?" r i e f er ihm s c h n e l l entgegen. Donati scbi i t te l te verneinend mit dem Kopfe und sagte, t r a u r i g vor s i c h auf den Boden hinsehend: "Heute i s t Sonntag." - Dann fuhr er rasch f o r t , s i c h s o g l e i c h , wieder ermahnend: "Aber zur Jagd w o l l t ' i c h Euch abholen . " ( I I , 325) Eichendorff himself " a l s schwarzer R i t t e r " was just a handsome young man being portrayed i n c l o t h i n g b e f i t t i n g h i s rank - an El izabethan velvet doublet wi th a modest r u f f . But Donati i n black i s another matter e n t i r e l y . He i s a "schwarzer R i t t e r " with the pejora t ive q u a l i t i e s which t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t tach to black : e v i l and g r i e f . He i s i n mourning f o r a strange reason: apparently he cannot cause the enchantress to use her wiles on Sunday, though he t r i e s to soften t h i s blow by o f f e r i n g a hunt as c o n s o l a t i o n . But the mourning has a reverse s i g n i f i c a n c e r e l a t e d to the e v i l associated with b l a c k : he causes g r i e f to others . He plans to b r i n g F l o r i o to d i s a s t e r ; through F l o r i o ' s danger Fortunato i s d i s t r e s s e d , Bianka heartbroken and her uncle P i e t r o worried on her account. The a s s o c i a t i o n of black with e v i l and with mourning f o r an obscure cause was already made i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart". Two i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g Rudolf c l a d i n - 51 - black were mentioned i n Chapter I I . In the f i r s t (II , 113), Rudolf attended a masked b a l l i n a black k n i g h t ' s costume adorned wi th skeleton hands, h i s e f f e c t on the guests being much l i k e that of Donati at the f^ te champStre, namely, to cause p e r t u r b a t i o n , though the reason for t h i s i s due to the costume i n R u d o l f ' s case and to e v i l character i n D o n a t i ' s ; R u d o l f ' s i n t e n t i o n i s to c a l l s inners to repentance. In the second instance (II , 2 7 8 ) , Rudolf quite by chance picks up a black " R i t t e r t r a c h t " belonging to A n g e l i n a ' s husband whom he inadver tent ly k i l l s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the costume on t h i s occasion, though one can be sure that , because of E i c h e n d o r f f s sparing and symbolic use of c o l o u r , a s i g n i f i c a n c e was intended. , Perhaps i t i s that the g u i l t i n t h i s manslaughter, l i k e the costume, belongs to the husband. C e r t a i n l y tragedy r e s u l t s from Rudolf*s borrowing the " R i t t e r t r a c h t " , and g r i e f and horror are brought to him and A n g e l i n a . A f u r t h e r example i n t h i s novel of the wearing of black for a strange reason i s Romana's appearance at the M i n i s t e r ' s evening p a r t y : "Sie war schwarz angezogen und f a s t furchtbar schBn anzusehen." ( II , 163) Several people speak to her , but : "Romana antwortete n i c h t s , sondern setzte s i c h an den F l u g e l und sang e in wildes L i e d , das nur aus dem t i e f s t e n Jammer einer zerr issenen Seele kommen konnte. '1st das n i c h t sch8n?' fragte s ie e inige Male-dazwischen, s i c h mit Trflnen i n den Augen zu F r i e d r i c h herumwendend und lachte abscheulich d a b e i . . . F r i e d r i c h bemerkte, dass Romana z i t t e r t e . " (II , l6 i | ) - 52 - The reason for t h i s d i s p l a y of g r i e f i s to be found a l i t t l e e a r l i e r i n the n o v e l , on the occasion of her attempted seduction of F r i e d r i c h , to whom she says: "Wenn i c h mich einmal recht v e r l i e b t e , es wurde mich gewiss das Leben kosten" (11,158)1 A f t e r t h i s she appears " to tenblass" ( I I , 159), an appropriate symptom i n one who has just made an accurate prophecy. For she has already f a l l e n s e r i o u s l y i n love with F r i e d r i c h , subsequently dresses i n black to express her despair at h i s r e j e c t i o n of her , and eventual ly takes her own l i f e to put an end to her g r i e f . Donati shows no such immoderate emotion on the f a i l u r e of h i s plan to ensnare F l o r i o ; i n f a c t , h i s l a s t appearance i n "Das Marmorbild" occurs when he hands the young knight over to the enchantress, confident that h i s wi les are about to succeed. As we have seen, when F l o r i o r a l l i e s enough to make h i s prayer and thus destroy the power of e v i l , the snake s l i t h e r s from the w a l l and vanishes, n e a t l y and unmistakably symbolizing the defeat of e v i l - i n t h i s instance, of F l o r i o ' s lower nature . Donati as a "schwarzer R i t t e r " may not be the most memorable f i g u r e to anyone reading t h i s Mlrchen simply f o r pleasure i n i t s beauty, but he c e r t a i n l y i s important i n being E i c h e n d o r f f ' s f i r s t por t rayal of a knight who i s unmistakably bad from the beginning . The fac t that he i s depicted as a c rea t ion of F l o r i o ' s imagination i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s regard : what matters i s that Donati makes h i s appearance as a member of the k n i g h t l y c l a s s , and as such i s - 53 - i a disgrace to the i d e a l s of c h i v a l r y . E ichendorff has shown once more that the f i g u r e of the knight does not n e c e s s a r i l y represent the highest i d e a l s of c h i v a l r y : there are unworthy knights who not only lack f a i t h but even, as i n the case of Donat i , incorporate e v i l . Here the knight i s not merely a problematic f i g u r e l i k e Raimund or Rudolf , but represents the essence of e v i l , whereas he should s t r i v e cease less ly to uphold the highest i d e a l s of knighthood. E ichendorff has not yet formulated the c o r o l l a r y to t h i s thought, namely, that persons of lower b i r t h may be chival rous through the n o b i l i t y of t h e i r character , as he does l a t e r i n " V i e l Llrraen urn n i c h t s " (1832), "Das Schloss Dtirande (1837), "Die G l u c k s r i t t e r " (181+1), and "Robert und Guiscard" (1855), each of which works represents a broadening of h i s outlook. But the b r e v i t y , l u c i d i t y and balance of "Das Marmorbild" r e v e a l h i s philosophy wi th no ambiguity, once the reader has recognized that the phantast ic elements are "Symbole der Symbole". MBbus and B r a n d e n b u r g between them have defined the scope and importance of t h i s work. "Das Marmorbild" ends on a much happier and more confident note than "Ahnung und Gegenwart", p a r t l y , no doubt, because i t does not touch on p o l i t i c a l considerat ions , but concentrates e n t i r e l y on the e ternal moral problems of mankind. Two poems from these works sum up the outlook of the author i n 1812 and 1819. The f i r s t , from "Ahnung und Gegenwart", sung by Leontin outside Romana1s "Schloss" - % - j u s t i n time to rescue F r i e d r i c h from temptation, s t a r t s : "Vergangen i s t der l i c h t e Tag" (II, 1 6 0 ) . In i t Leontin considers the dangers and fears which beset mankind at night, with God's care the only protection u n t i l morning. The second, a quatrain sung by a peasant a f t e r F l o r i o has withstood h i s t r i a l successfully, begins with a c l o s e l y contrasting l i n e , but expresses the joy of that t r u s t i n God which overcomes e v i l : "Vergangen i s t die f i n s t r e Nacht, -Des Bosen Trug und Zaubermacht, Zur Arbeit weckt der l i c h t e Tag; F r i s c h auf, wer Gott noch loben magi" (II, 3 ^ 0 ) - 5,5 - V. Dichter und ihre Gesel len (Summary. Book I . Portunat accompanies h i s f r i e n d Walter to the home of the l a t t e r 1 s fiance'e, F l o r e n t i n e , whose fa ther i s b a i l i f f to Graf V i c t o r von Hohenstein, a famous poet . F i o r e n t i n e ' s cousin Otto, having just f i n i s h e d at u n i v e r s i t y , wishes to be a poet l i k e V i c t o r , but Walter persuades him to undertake something more p r a c t i c a l . Walter returns to the c i t y , and Fortunat continues h i s t r a v e l s , f a l l i n g i n with a company of s t r o l l i n g p l a y e r s , i n c l u d i n g the " L i t e r a t u s " , L o t h a r i o , who had conducted Fortunat around the garden of the absent V i c t o r , and the "Musikus" , Dryand e r . T he company i s i n v i t e d to perform at the F i r s t ' s country seat, on the way to which Lothario rescues a b e a u t i f u l r i d e r i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . Portunat i s i n v i t e d to stay at the c a s t l e , u n l i k e the p l a y e r s , who have quarters elsewhere. His f i r s t acquaintance here i s the p a i n t e r , Guido, whose a t t i t u d e to a r t i s much l i k e h i s own, i n contrast to a second p a i n t e r , A l b e r t , who cannot l e t anyone forget that he fought i n 1813, and loudly praises everything North German. One of the guests of the F u r s t i n i s the rescued r i d e r , the Spanish G r a f i n Juanna, who a t t r a c t s and r e j e c t s a l l the men. Soon Otto jo ins the p l a y e r s , having given up h i s bor ing studies to continue with h i s poetry . He i s i n love with the actress, Kordelchen. The p r i n c e l y party goes hunt ing , and takes refuge from a storm i n the tumbledown c a s t l e of Baron E b e r s t e i n , whose daughter, Gertrud, sings at the F i r s t ' s request . Then the E n g l i s h L o r d , another guest of the F u r s t , t e l l s "The Story of the Wild Spanish Lady" , h a l f f a i r y t a l e , h a l f war adventure s tory , which seems to have some r e l a t i o n to Juanna. Otto reads h i s drama to the company's d i r e c t o r , who praises i t f a i n t l y . This r e b u f f and Kordelchen's u n f a i t h f u l n e s s depress Otto , but Lothario advises him to write to Hohenstein f o r money so that he can continue to w r i t e . Baron E b e r s t e i n and Gertrud come to v i s i t r e l a t i v e s , and Dryander, who has become court poet, shows considerable i n t e r e s t i n the g i r l , though he had ta lked himself into and out of love with the F u r s t i n a short time e a r l i e r . On a hunt, Juanna plans to.evade the F u r s t i n ' s attempt to provide her with a sui table husband, by escaping to a convent, but she i s d iver ted by a chamois and gets in to d i f f i c u l t i e s . Lothario rescues her once more and then t r i e s to abduct her , but i n order to elude him she makes her horse jump into the r i v e r . This time h i s e f f o r t s to save her are unsuccessful , and she drowns. - 56 - Book I I . Fortunat stays i n Rome at the home o f the impoverished Marchese A . , with whose young daughter, Fiaraetta, he f a l l s i n l o v e . His f r i e n d , Grundl ing , takes him to a l i t t l e house where Kordelchen i s l i v i n g with Guido. Here <' Grundling t e l l s a burlesque vers ion of the L o r d ' s story of the Spanish l a d y . Otto has made himself at-home i n I t a l y to the extent of renouncing h i s German heri tage and marrying an I t a l i a n g i r l , A n n i d i ; on f i n d i n g her f a i t h l e s s , he sets o f f f o r Germany again with Kordelchen. Portunat , b e l i e v i n g Piametta loves another, t ravels i n Naples and S i d i y . On h i s r e t u r n to Rome, he f i n d s the Marchese's palace empty, the old gentleman having become bankrupt and gone away with h i s daughter, who had f a l l e n i l l a f t e r F o r t u n a t ' s departure. Fortunat buys the palace , i n s t a l l s Grundling as caretaker, and sets o f f i n search of h i s beloved. Book I I I . Lothar io comes to the c a p i t a l of the Ffirst , who- has l o s t h i s mind. The poet pursues h i s c r a f t i n an i n n , but f e e l s the d e v i l i s encouraging him to mislead h i s readers , and gives up i n h o r r o r . He looks i n at a performance of a play by Graf V i c t o r von Hohenstein - and receives an ovation as i t s author. The applause repels him, the more so as the play i s the true s t o r y of Juanna, i n which he himself had taken part as the E n g l i s h Lord had recounted. V i c t o r , h i t h e r t o known to the reader as L o t h a r i o , rushes from the theatre and encounters Kordelchen, who begs him not to leave her again, as she has. always been true to him i n her h e a r t . He, however, sets f o r t h again , f e e l i n g that he must make a f r e s h s t a r t . She subsequently goes mad. Otto experiences a rather sordid r e p e t i t i o n of the "Zauberei im Herbste" theme, f a l l s i l l , repents , and sets o f f for home, v i s i t i n g the mountain of the hermit , V i t a l i s , on h i s way. On the mountain he f a l l s asleep and dies p e a c e f u l l y . Fortunat f i n d s Fiametta i n an i n n . She and her maid have been looking for him to rescue her from the plans for her marriage being made by her kinsman, Baron Manfred, her guardian since the death of her f a t h e r . Fortunat takes her to Hohenstein, where Walter and F l o r e n t i n e , now a married couple with a baby, can look a f t e r her while he seeks permission to marry h e r . The p r i n c i p a l characters a l l meet at Otto's grave, then proceed to the abandoned monastery where the hermit , a former monk, marries Fortunat and Piametta with Manfred's approval . With the r e a l hermit i s the supposed hermit , V i t a l i s , who i s i n f a c t V i c t o r , i n retirement p r i o r to becoming a p r i e s t . The wedding breakfast i s enjoyed by the b r i d a l couple, the two p r i e s t s , ac tual and prospect ive , - 57 - Manfred, Walter , and for a time the ubiquitous Dryander. V i c t o r speaks of h i s hope of converting the c u l t u r e d European heathen, Manfred of h i s plans f o r govern- ment s e r v i c e , Portunat w i l l re turn to I t a l y with Fiametta and continue to write poetry . As the f r i e n d s part -at sunr ise , V i c t o r climbs upward, and Dryander i s seen f a r below p l a y i n g the v i o l i n at the head of a troupe of a c t o r s . The novel ' c loses to the s t ra ins of the h e r m i t ' s song on the vani ty of the w o r l d , ) E i c h e n d o r f f s second n o v e l , "Dichter und ihre G e s e l l e n " (I83I4.), i s i n many ways a r e p e t i t i o n of the e a r l i e r "Ahnung und Gegenwart" (1815). Both begin with a young man taking the grand tour , and f o l l o w h i s adventures and those of h i s f r i e n d s to t h e i r point of dec is ion as to t h e i r vocat ion, and t h e i r separat ion. Both have the same c y c l i c a l s tructure d i v i d e d i n t o three books, and end with a wedding on a mountain top fol lowed by a n i g h t - l o n g open-air d i s c u s s i o n amongst the most important characters , i n c l u d i n g one who i s entering the profess ion of p r i e s t h o o d . Both f i n i s h with that sunrise which, i n E i c h e n d o r f f , almost always implies a new beginning, and i n both the p r i e s t watches the rest of the characters proceeding down to the l e v e l of ordinary l i f e . Both centre on E i c h e n d o r f f s main concerns: r e l i g i o n and poetry . The philosophy underlying the two novels i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same, but i n the long i n t e r v a l separating t h e i r composition, the author 's ideas have c r y s t a l l i z e d , and various problems which he s t i l l had not resolved s a t i s f a c t o r - i l y i n the e a r l i e r work, are c l a r i f i e d i n the l a t e r one. In regard to knighthood, E ichendorff r e j e c t s more emphatically i n the second novel the r e t e n t i o n of those - 58 - outward aspects of c h i v a l r y which have become meaningless i n a changed s o c i e t y . "Der Maler A l b e r t " , one of the two a r t i s t s l i v i n g at the F i r s t ' s country house, draws the author 's f i r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h i s respect , and also i s a prey to what E ichendorff c a l l e d " V a t e r l S n d e r e i " ( II , 296), here expressed i n A l b e r t ' s undiscr iminat ing pra ise of everything North German. Fortunat expresses E i c h e n d o r f f s views on the needlessness of boasting about service to one's country when A l b e r t shows him h i s s t u d i o . A l b e r t i s a car i ca ture of the p r e - C h r i s t i a n hero of Germanic l i t e r a t u r e , f o r whom i t was compulsory to sing h i s own p r a i s e s , whereas Fortunat represents the modern, modest knight who c a r r i e s out h i s duties q u i e t l y : "Es war sein A t e l i e r , e i n hohes, r i t t e r l i c h . e s -Gemach, an dessen schmuckloser Hauptwand e in grosses, mit der Jahreszahl 1813 bezeichnetes Schwert h i n g , um das s i c h e i n verwelkter Eichenkranz wand. "Das i s t mein treuer Reisege- f a h r t e , " sagte Alber t zu Fortunat , "und wenn mich s c h l a f f e Ruh' oder weichliche Lust schleichen wollen , b l i c k ' i c h die Eisenbraut an und gedenke der ernsten, grossen Z e i t . " - "Ach, das i s t schon eine a l te Geschichte' ." entgegnete Fortunat lachend. - " S i n d Sie damals rait zu Felde gewesen?" fragte d er Maler etwas s p i t z i g . - " F r e i l i c h , " - e r w i d e r t e jener , "das versteht s i c h „ j a ganz von s e l b s t . " " . . . D a waren die ungeheuersten 1 Anstal ten zur -Kunst dazwischen mehrere vollendete B i l d e r , Historienstf icke aus der antiken Heroenzeit von selnv-zusammengesetzter, s t u d i e r t e r und nicht l e i c h t f a s s l i c h e r K o m p o s i t i o n . . . diese anmasslichen, a f f e k t i e r t e n Heldengestalten v o l l Mannerstolz wol l ten ihm [Fortunat 'J n i c h t im mindesten b e h a g e n . . . . " " . . . Z u l e t z t musste er l a u t auflachen fiber den wunderlichen Zorn, i n den ihn das - 59 - "Larvenkunstkabinett des Malers versetzt h a t t e . Die Morgensonne s p i e l t e golden durch die Wipfel der B&ume und unzalhlige VSgel sangen. Er b l i c k t e f r & h l i c h umher und fand, dass die Welt t r o t z a l i e n Narren so schon und l u s t i g b l i e b , wie s ie war . " ( I I , 560-562) This episode i l l u s t r a t e s c l e a r l y E i c h e n d o r f f » s a b i l i t y to use a comic i n c i d e n t f o r the expression of serious ideas . A l b e r t ' s thoughts are not a l l f o o l i s h : the " s c h l a f f e R u h ' " he seeks to avoid i s a constant object of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s d isapproval ; but A l b e r t exaggerates a few sound ideas to the point of ludicrous parody. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that such an unrestrained opponent of a l l things southern, i n which the painter includes the Roman Cathol ic Church, becomes a Carbonaro, and, on the f a i l u r e of t h i s venture, takes h i s own l i f e with h i s f e t i s h , h i s "Schwert vom Jahre 1813". And i n t h i s character , i n c i d e n t a l l y , E ichendorff q u i e t l y s a t i r i z e s those aspects of Protestant Pruss ia which he found uncongenial , while g i v i n g i t due c r e d i t f o r i t s share i n the Wars of L i b e r a t i o n . Portunat, on the other hand, the c e n t r a l character of the novel , opposes the s t e r i l e c l i n g i n g to past g lory which brings about A l b e r t ' s downfall , and turns to nature f o r i n s p i r a t i o n and refreshment: i t s e t e r n a l l y renewed beauty r e f l e c t s the g lory of God f a r bet ter than any mere human art can do. Baron E b e r s t e i n has taken the opposite a t t i tude to A l b e r t ' s : he has l e t everything go to rack and r u i n , - 60 - h i s neglect of h i s knighthood being symbolized by the c o a t - o f - arms over h i s gate, i n whose helmet sparrows make t h e i r home. As i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", t h i s symbol may have the a d d i t i o n a l meaning of e x t i n c t i o n of an ancient name, since the Baron*s only c h i l d i s a daughter. This former o f f i c e r experiences a b r i e f resurgence of chivalrous behaviour during the unexpected v i s i t of the Fflrst with h i s hunting par ty , seeking shel ter from a storm. Even t h i s episode i s marred by l u d i c r o u s i n c i d e n t s , such as the P f i r s t i n ' s r e p l y i n g i n German to h is ceremonious questions i n French, and the breaking out of a dog f i g h t almost under t h e i r f e e t . Subsequently he rever ts to the uncouth state i n which we f i r s t found him, and worse, as he d r i v e s h i s quite commonplace but pleasant daughter i n t o a disastrous marriage with the e b u l l i e n t poet and vagabond, Dryander. Baron Ebers te in i s an extreme example of a knight degenerating to an almost sub-human l e v e l , indeed going over to the camp of the " P h i l i s t e r " , whom Eichendorff despised as almost the a n t i t h e s i s of the k n i g h t l y i d e a l , being an incarnat ion of the " s c h l a f f e Ruhe" which he detested. As i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", the person who should most s t r i c t l y uphold the i d e a l s of c h i v a l r y i s the one who f a l l s far thest away from them. The case i s more deplorable i n the l a t e r novel inasmuch as the character i n question i s a r e i g n i n g p r i n c e , not merely a crown pr ince , and that h i s excesses lead him eventual ly to madness (We know nothing of - 61 - the l i f e of the Erbprinz a f t e r h i s marriage to Rosa.). Eichendorff c e r t a i n l y put not h i s t r u s t i n princes, for Prince Romano i n " V i e l Larmen um n i c h t s " i s another example, l i k e the two mentioned above, of a character who allows h i s whims and emotions untrammelled freedom. The Ftirst of "Dichter und ihre Gesellen" i s a minor figure, whose amorousness a c t u a l l y appears i n the novel only i n h i s pursuit of Juanna, i n which disreputable a c t i v i t y almost a l l the male characters are engaged, Fortunat and the painter Guido, the true a r t i s t s , being amongst the exceptions. Juanna re j e c t s h i s advances very simply and e f f e c t i v e l y by leading him to the cottage of a g i r l whom he has seduced and abandoned and who i s now mad. Madness i s h i s own destiny, as Eichendorff r e l a t e s : "Zwischen Genuss und Reue, Lust und Grauen war -er allmflhlich immer tiefer.hinabgestiegen i n die schimmernden Abgrunde, wo mit verlockendem Gesang die Nixen im Mondenscheine auf den Klippen i h r feuchtes Haar kflmmen, das feme Wetterleuchten der Religion verwirrte ihn nur noch mehr; so hatte .er s i c h im sbhBnen Leben v e r i r r t und konnte sic h nicht wieder nach Hause finden. Da schlug die himmlische Liebe ihr eh "Sternenmantel um den Todmuden. Er v e r f i e l i n eine schwere Krankheit, und als er wieder genas, war auf einmal a l l e s vorbei. Die Leute nannten ihn wahnsinnig, er aber war vergnugt und bl&tterte Tag fur Tag mit s t i l l e r , h e r z l i c h e r Lust-in den alten Bilderbuchern, die er a l s Kind gelesen; a l l e s andere hatte er vergessen." ( I I , 61+8; The f i r s t sentence of this excerpt i a t y p i c a l of E i c h e n d o r f f s philosophy and of his a r t i s t r y : the shimmering abysses whence comes music to lure away the heedless one so - 62 - that he becomes l o s t and cannot f i n d h i s way home. "Nach Hause" i s used, l i k e h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "Heimat", to mean home, chi ldhood, or heaven. In the second sentence, an element new to E i c h e n d o r f f ' s nar ra t ive prose i s introduced: grace i s granted to a s inner . There was a h i n t of t h i s i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" a f t e r the death of Romana who had p r e v i o u s l y ut tered nearly the same words as i n the above paragraph: "Ich habe mich h i e r oben v e r i r r t , i c h weiss den Weg n i c h t mehr nach Hause" ( II , 222 ) . This i s l i t e r a l l y t rue , but a lso has the same symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e as the F i r s t ' s l o s i n g h i s way. F r i e d r i c h f i n d s her dead: "Ihn i l lberfiel im ersten Augenblicke e i n seltsamer -Zorn , er fasste sie i n beide Arme, a l s mflsste er s ie mit Gewalt noch dem Teufel e n t r e i s s e n . Aber das wilde S p i e l war fur immer v e r s p i e l t , s i e hatte s i c h gerade ins Herz geschossen. Der mflde L e i b ruhte schcin und fromm, da ihn die heidnische Seele n i c h t mehr r e g i e r t e . Er kniete neben i h r h i n und betete fur s ie aus Herzensgrunde." ( II , 221+) Here i s a strange and s t r i k i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the pious body and heathen s o u l : the body i s as God made i t , but the soul had d e l i b e r a t e l y abandoned i t s e l f to e v i l . Romana's song, "Laue L u f t kommt blau gef lossen" (II , 121+), comes to mind, with the opening l i n e of i t s def iant second stanza, "Und i c h mag mich nicht bewahreni" Although Eichendorff would obviously have l i k e d to save the soul of someone so r i c h l y talented as Romana, he d i d not quite f e e l the confidence to do so i n t h i s e a r l y - 63 - novel* Sa lva t ion could come only to the r ighteous , or to the formal ly repentant s inner , as we may assume Rosa to be from her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the pilgrimage at the end of the n o v e l . But the mellowing e f f e c t of experience caused a change i n t h i s a t t i t u d e , as i s to be seen also i n the conclusion of h i s f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l tragedy, " E z e l i n von Romano" (1828). E z e l i n ' s only v i r t u e , i f such i t may be c a l l e d , i s that he i s an astute general ; but h i s astuteness i s employed s o l e l y to increase h i s own power with a view to proclaiming himself Holy Roman Emperor (The a c t i o n of the p l a y takes place during the Interregnum.) . The monk, Antonio , attempts to br ing E z e l i n to repentance; f a i l i n g to do so, Antonio departs with the words: "Hier r e i c h t k e i n Mensch mehr aus - so gnad' d i r Gott" (I , 766)1 In a l a t e r scene h i g h l y reminiscent of Gretchen ^at mass i n Faust I , wi th a chorus outside singing about the Day of Judgment, E z e l i n admits the j u s t i c e of A n t o n i o ' s arguments, and dies saying, "Hier b i n i c h , Herr" (I , 796)! (which words a lso form the opening of F l o r i o ' s song (II , 31+5) i n "Das Marmorbild" , a f t e r he has escaped from e v i l ) . The guard and the choir both pray for grace for him. He has acknowledged h i s s i n s and declared himself ready to submit to judgment, not formal ly to a p r i e s t , but merely i n a spontaneous prayer i n the very l a s t moment of h i s l i f e . Only grace can save him; the tone o f the scene implies that i t w i l l be granted. - 6 U - Having one© adopted t h i s p r i n c i p l e of salvation by- grace, Eichendorff continues to employ i t . The Fiirst obviously never repents sincerely, yet he receives grace, perhaps with h i s madness as p r o p i t i a t i o n for h i s sins: "Da schlug die hiramlische Liebe ihren Sternenmantel um den Todmuden" (II, 61+8). A s i m i l a r end i s provided for Otto, not a knight, but a poet and companion of various knights. Otto v a c i l l a t e s , l i k e the Furst, between d i s s i p a t i o n and regret, and also between l i t e r a t u r e and jurisprudence. In h i s f i n a l state of repentance he proceeds towards h i s old home, and i s l e d by an angelic c h i l d to a mountain where he can overlook his home and where he has a v i s i o n of Rome. Here he l i e s down and dies. Neither Otto nor Dryander has any claim to knighthood, but both have a claim to be ranked with knights. An early sonnet (c. 1809) of E i c h e n d o r f f s on the mission of the poet contains the l i n e : "Das Leben hat zum R i t t e r ihn geschlagen" (I, 70). (It also contains the phrase, "Hie bin i c h H e r r i " remarked upon above.) F r i e d r i c h , i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", speaking of poetry, r e f e r s to "ihre angebornen R i t t e r , die Dichter" (II, 32). But the r e a l reason for including these two unsatisfactory poets amongst the e l i t e i s t h e i r being able to f i n d t h e i r way to the p r i e s t , V i t a l i s , on h i s mountain top. This mountain i s not a mere geographical phenomenon, but a symbol of s p i r i t u a l - 6£ - eminence. Eichendorff writes: "Unerwartet waren sie h i e r auf einer jener Zinnen des Lebens zusammengekommen, die immer nur fur wenige Raum hat" (II, 719). Neither Otto nor Dryander displays any moral superiority; therefore i t must be the fact that they are poets which renders them e l i g i b l e for t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , even though they are far from being great poets. Nevertheless, t h e i r being able to compose poetry at a l l immediately raises them above the ordinary l e v e l : Eichendorff considered that poets have a mission almost as important as that of the clergy. One might say more important, except that i t i s i n both novels the p r i e s t who remains on the heights, and i n "Dichter und ihre Gesellen" the p r i o r i t y of priesthood i s emphasised by the dwelling there of the hermit who, though a p r i e s t , i s c e r t a i n l y no poet. The apparent pre-eminence of the poet i n Eichendorff's works i s merely due to his taste i n subject matter. Otto reaches V i t a l i s , but i s ordered away, though he again climbs the mountain, where he dies and i s buried. His repulsion i s probably due to h i s moral and a r t i s t i c i n f e r i o r i t y . Readers of Eichendorff notice, perhaps with amusement or i r r i t a t i o n , that the poems i n the novels and Novellen are almost always sung to an instrumental accompaniment; the author considers i t worthy of remark i f the circumstances are d i f f e r e n t . Once, i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", F r i e d r i c h hears Erwin singing "ohne a l l e Begleitung eines Instrumentes" (II, 177). Faber, the - 66 - p r o f e s s i o n a l poet whose a t t i t u d e to h i s a r t i s denounced by the egregious F r i e d r i c h e a r l y i n the novel (though at the end Faber assumes to some extent the vole of E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s mouthpiece), merely r e c i t e s the l a s t poem a t t r i b u t e d to him i n the book (II , 2 9 6 ) . Otto sinks even lower: the only poems ascribed to him (II , 6 3 7 - 6 3 8 ) are w r i t t e n . No one knew bet ter than Eichendorff that good poetry must not only be w r i t t e n , but also rewri t ten and p o l i s h e d e n d l e s s l y . Nevertheless , i t i s h is l i t e r a r y convention that h i s characters must sing t h e i r poems extempore to the accompaniment of a musical instrument, u s u a l l y a g u i t a r or a l u t e . Thus the reader observes F l o r i o i n "Das Marmorbild" s e t t i n g out f o r a country walk i n the middle of the night with a gui tar slung about him (II , 316). Dryander does not d i s p l a y the same moral weakness as Otto; i n f a c t , he i s an amoral character , reminding the reader of Puck and A r i e l : even h i s name suggests a male 1 w o o d - s p i r i t ; only h i s hearty appetite i s corporea l : E ichendorff himself r e f e r s to him as an " I r r l i c h t " (II , 7 2 5 ) . He i s a comical , chameleon-like character , r e f l e c t i n g the mood of h i s surroundings. His lack of p o e t i c a l greatness i s i n d i c a t e d by the v e r t i g o which overcomes him i n the abandoned monastery which i s V i t a l i s ' temporary abode. However, he manages to f i n d h i s way as f a r as the hermit ' s "*"The name "Dryander" may be derived from the Greek -ApuoLs, a t r e e ^ s p i r i t , and £.v£^>«i"o*, masculine. - 67 - dwell ing a l i t t l e lower down on at leas t two occasions, and therefore we must admit h i s c l a i m to being a poet, mercurial though he i s . The remaining characters who succeed i n a t t a i n i n g the heights are three knights and a l a d y : V i t a l i s , of course, Fortunat and h i s br ide Fiametta, and Manfred (It had also become the permanent home of the hermit before V i t a l i s ' a r r i v a l : i n f a c t , he had been "Prater Sammler" i n the r u i n e d monastery before i t s suppression, and chose to remain behind i n s o l i t u d e when the other monks l e f t . ) . Of these, Manfred i s the l e a s t important: although very successful i n the management of h i s lands , and dest ined f o r important service to the s ta te , he is not a poet, and therefore has only a small part to play i n a novel concerned mainly with poets . However, as a knight he f u l f i l l s a l l h i s o b l i g a t i o n s : the reader knows he i s about to enter an important government p o s i t i o n , such as F r i e d r i c h i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" v a i n l y prepared f o r (even as E i c h e n d o r f f d i d i n l i f e ' P though he d i d not know, at the time of w r i t i n g the e a r l i e r n o v e l , that h i s hopes would always be disappointed) . Manfred's m i l i t a r y service and r e l i g i o u s f a i t h are not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned, but , with Fortunat , we can say, "das versteht s i c h ja ganz von selbst" ( I I , 5 6 0 ) . H i s acceptance of s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s i s amply proved by h i s intended p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e , h i s r e s t o r a t i o n to p r o s p e r i t y of the lands and v i l l a g e s which had been i n poor c o n d i t i o n when he i n h e r i t e d them, and h i s concern for h i s - 68 - young kinswoman, the Marchesin Fiametta . Piametta, l i k e J u l i e i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l , i s allowed to transcend the ordinary run of women, who, E i c h e n d o r f f considered, should remain i n the home. Even these heroines are only allowed to reach the heights on the s t r i c t understanding that they w i l l marry and be subordinate ever a f t e r . Romana, i n the e a r l i e r novel , i s an outstanding character , but debarred from s p i r i t u a l greatness by her immorali ty . Juanna, i n the l a t e r novel , i s not a poet, nor i s she s i n f u l l i k e Romana; but, though also an imposing character , she i s equal ly r e p e l l e n t to E i c h e n d o r f f i n that she i s not content to accept the ordinary l o t of women, and refuses to take a husband. She admittedly displays an arrogance which would be equal ly deplorable i n a man, and a lso a c e r t a i n weakness of character which i n d i r e c t l y brings about her doom: on her way to a convent to escape her horde of s u i t o r s , she allows h e r s e l f to be diver ted by the sport of chasing a chamois, and i s l o s t , l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y . Lothar io f i n d s and rescues her ( for the second t ime) , but he then seeks to abduct her , b e l i e v i n g , perhaps s i n c e r e l y , that t h i s i s the only means of winning the heart of such a c o l d Diana . In t h i s he i s mistaken: at the f i r s t opportunity she makes her horse jump down into a r i v e r , where she drowns despite L o t h a r i o ' s attempts to save h e r . Although she has a taste f o r the heights , they b r i n g her to d i s a s t e r . Piametta 's and J u l i e ' s equal i ty to the knights , - 69 - which enables them to reach, and for a time to remain on, the summit, a r i s e s from two t h i n g s : f i r s t l y , they are poets, Piametta being the singer of one of E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s l o v e l i e s t l y r i c s , "Es schienen so golden die Sterne" ( II , 711); and secondly, they conform to E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s i d e a l of young womanhood, being not only b e a u t i f u l , l i v e l y , ta lented and r e s o u r c e f u l , but a lso sweet, pure, and well-behaved. The hermit i s the permanent res ident of the mountain-top, but even higher than h i s dwel l ing i s the abandoned monastery, temporarily inhabited by the p r i e s t , V i t a l i s . This character has been several times mentioned i n t h i s chapter under t h i s and h i s other pseudonym of L o t h a r i o . 2 He i s r e a l l y Graf V i c t o r von Hohenstein, who, a f t e r a successful career as an o f f i c e r i n Spain and a poet at home, j o i n s a troupe of s t r o l l i n g players as L o t h a r i o , poet and p l a y e r . During t h i s per iod he leads the diss ipated l i f e implied by t h i s name i n E n g l i s h (Lothario i n Goethe's "Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre" also belongs i n t h i s l i b e r t i n e category) , h i s crowning f o l l y being the attempted abduction of Juanna which r e s u l t s i n her death. The shock of t h i s v i r t u a l murder ( i n which he i s f a r more g u i l t y than Rudolf i n the death of h i s incubus, who rushes on the sword Rudolf has drawn i n self -defence) causes him to f l e e . Eventual ly p The L a t i n s p e l l i n g here suggests that the etymological s i g n i f i c a n c e of the name i s to be observed; i t i s not with V i k t o r i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart". - 70 - he comes by chance upon the hermit , whose h u m i l i t y and s i m p l i c i t y set h i s feet on the path to the pr ies thood, the v i t a l mission which gives him h i s t h i r d name, expressing h i s concern with the s p i r i t u a l l i f e which should permeate t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e . V i c t o r i s the most complex, of E i c h e n d o r f f s c r e a t i o n s . His true'name s i g n i f i e s triumph and an exalted p o s i t i o n . In h i s own r i g h t he succeeds both as a knight and as a poet, but h i s energetic p e r s o n a l i t y i s not s a t i s f i e d with ordinary l i f e , i n spite of the h i g h reputat ion he has acquired both as an o f f i c e r i n the Wars of L i b e r a t i o n i n Spain and as a poet . He t r i e s a new l i f e i n a lower s t a t i o n , i n which he f i n d s considerable amusement but also f a l l s in to mischief and r e a l g u i l t , not only towards Juanna, but also towards the a c t r e s s , Kordelchen, who eventual ly goes mad for love of him, l i k e the country g i r l abandoned by the Ff i rs t . A f t e r the t r a g i c ending of t h i s t h e a t r i c a l i n t e r v a l , V i c t o r (whose i d e n t i t y i s s t i l l not revealed to the reader) i s s e i z e d once again with the urge to w r i t e , but t h i s apparently innocent pastime a l s o ends i n h o r r o r : " A l s er s i c h aber so einsam hinsetz te und h a s t i g . t rank und schr ieb , da war's ihm, a l s r i e f e es durch die S t i l l e seinen Namen, erst l e i s e , dann l a u t e r , und der Teufel sflhe ihm beim Schreiben fiber die Schulter und f l f i s t e r t e zu ihm: Nur zu, nur zu'. die unschuldige Welt mit vornehmen Worten belogen und verf t ihr t , i c h w i l l d i c h daffir auf die Zinnen des Ruhms s t e l l e n , und die Welt s o i l d i r h u l d i g e n i - " ( I I , 61+9) Hereupon V i c t o r forsakes the w r i t t e n word, goes to the - 71 - window and sings to the accompaniment of h i s g u i t a r a song of renuncia t ion containing these l i n e s : "Wildester d er Lflgengeister, Ring mit mir , i c h lache d e i n ! " ( I I , 61+9) The expression, "wildester der Lflgengeister" recurs i n other works: here i t may be taken to mean " s u p e r b i a " . V i c t o r has not only become successful as knight and poet: he has become famous, and has imperceptibly begun to crave fame. E a r l i e r i n the n o v e l , Fortunat took him aback by saying, " i c h glaube, du kBnntest e i n grosser Dichter s e i n , wenn du n i c h t so s t o l z wSrest" ( I I , $66), And subsequently, the simple but shrewd hermit perceives the same f a u l t i n the sportsman who comes to him f u l l of the scorn of the h i g h l y cul tured for the uneducated: "Ich sage Euch, Demut i s t der Anfang und das -Ende, hochmtitiger Mensch!" ( II , 669 The l i t t l e sermon ending i n t h i s sentence completes the work begun by the death of Juanna, the h a l l u c i n a t i o n about the "Lu'gengeist", and the storm of applause received immediately thereaf ter at the performance of one of h i s p l a y s , when he i s recognized by the audience. V i c t o r has not a word to say i n answer to the hermit , but on the f o l l o w i n g morning the ^That t h i s character i s reminiscent of Abraham a Santa C l a r a i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n view of the opening l i n e s of a sketch for an autobiographical Novelle e n t i t l e d "TrBsteinsam- k e i t : Aus dem Tagebuch eines E i n s i e d e l s " : "VERSCHIEDENE BE TRA CH TUNG-EN ( i n Prosa) = r e l i g i B s , - dithyrambisch, auch humorist isch a l a Abraham a S t . C l a r a ! " ( II , 99i+). Although the treatment i s f a r c i c a l , the underlying impression given by the monk i s one of strength and r e l i a b i l i t y , as wi th S c h i l l e r ' s somewhat s i m i l a r f i g u r e i n Wallensteins Lager. - 72 - f u t u r e V i t a l i s reveals h i s true greatness i n a speech which a f f e c t s the hermit as deeply as the h e r m i t ' s had a f f e c t e d him: " ' S i e h , ' sagte er , 'das i s t e i n Priede Gottes fiberall, a l s zBgen die Engelscharen singend fiber die Erdel . Die" armen Menschenkinder'. s ie horen's nur, wie im Traume. . .O, wer ihnen a l i e n den Fr ieden bringen ktinntei Aber wer das e h r l i c h wi l l ,muss ers t Frieden s t i f t e n i n s i c h s e l b s t , und wenn er darfiber zusammenbrllche, was t u t ' s i - S i e h , G e s e l l , und das i s t g e i s t l i c h e s Recht und Tagewerk'."' (II, 670) V i c t o r ' s arrogance has been overcome and he i s now ready to enter h i s r e a l vocat ion of pr ies thood . Once again , as wi th F r i e d r i c h i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", the knight and poet have given way to the p r i e s t , but i n the l a t e r novel to a p r i e s t of f a r greater a b i l i t y than i n the former. F r i e d r i c h ' s character i s indeterminate: he serves mainly as a mouthpiece for E i c h e n d o r f f s o p i n i o n s . He f a l l s into no s i n , except for h i s contemptible behaviour towards Rosa; nei ther does he achieve greatness. His only p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s h i s f a i t h . He and V i c t o r have a common i d e a l i n t h e i r wish to remain as missionaries i n Europe, though t h e i r manner of saying so i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t , F r i e d r i c h ' s being verbose, i d e a l i s t i c , and vague, whereas V i c t o r ' s i s d i r e c t and almost crude. F r i e d r i c h says, i n t e r a l i a : " ' . . . M i r scheint i n diesem E l a n d , wie immer, keine andere Hfi lfe , a l s die R e l i g i o n . . . W e n n das Geschlecht vor der Hand einmal a l l e seine i r d i s c h e n Sorgen, Mfihen und f rucht losen Versuche, der Z e i t wieder auf die Beine zu h e l f e n , . Vergessen und wie e i n K l e i d a b s t r e i f e n , und s i c h daffir mit v o l l e r , s iegreicher Gewalt zu Gott wenden w o l l t e , wenn die Gemfiter auf solche Weise - 73 - von den g o t t l i c h e n Wahrheiten der R e l i g i o n lange v o r b e r e i t e t , e r w e i t e r t , g e r e i n i g t und wahrhaft durchdrungen wfirden, dass der G e i s t Gottes und das Grosse im tiffentlichen Leben wieder Raum i n ihnen gewBnne, dann e r s t w ird es Z e i t s e i n , u n m i t t e l b a r zu handeln, und das a l t e Recht, d i e a l t e F r e i h e i t , Ehre und Ruhm i n das wiedereroberte Re i c h z u r f i c k z u f { I h r e n . Und i n d i e s e r Gesinnung b l e i b e i c h i n Deutschland und wahle mir das Kreuz zum Schwerte. Denn, w a h r l i c h , wie man sonst M i s s i o n a r i e n u n t e r Kannibalen aussahdte, so.tut es j e t z t v i e l mehr not i n Europa, dem a u s g e b i l d e t e n H e i d e n s i t z e ' . " ( I I , 296-297) "Ahnung und Gegenwart" was w r i t t e n at a time o f defeat and d e s p a i r , when i t seemed t h a t Napoleon c o u l d never be d r i v e n from Germany. The n o v e l i s permeated w i t h p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s and l i t e r a r y w o r r i e s . " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " , w r i t t e n d u r i n g a p e r i o d of g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y , i s v e r y l i t t l e concerned w i t h p o l i t i c s or economic matters, though the s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r " V i e l Larmen um n i c h t s " and a number of l a t e r N o v e l l e n d i s c u s s them. Thus V i c t o r ' s speech on the r e c o n v e r s i o n o f Europe can be r e s t r i c t e d to moral problems: " ' N i c h t morsche MBnche. Quaker und altenWeiber; d i e Morgenfrischen, Kuhnen w i l l i c h werben, d i e r e c h t aus Herzensgrund nach K r i e g v e r l a n g t CsicJ . Auch n i c h t fibers Meer hinfiber b l i c k ' i c h , wo unschuldige Vfilker unter Palmen vom k f i n f t i g e n Morgenrot traumen, m i t t e n auf den a l t e r , schwfil'en,, s t a u b i g e n Markt von Europa w i l l i c h h i n u n t e r s t e i g e n , d i e selbstgemachten Gotzen, um d i e das Volk der Renegaten t a n z t , g e l f i s t e t ' s mich umzustfirzen und L u f t zu hauen durch den dick e n Qualm, dass s i e schauernd das tre u e Auge Gottes wiedersehen im t i e f e n Himmelsgrund'." ( II , 726-727) Both F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r quote "Hamlet" i n t h e i r l a s t speeches. F r i e d r i c h says: - 7lf - " ' V e r l o r e n i s t , wen d i e Z e i t u n v o r b e r e i t e t und unbewaffnet t r i f f t ; und wie mancher, der weich und a u f g e l e g t zu L u s t und fr8h.licb.em Dichten, s i c h so gern mit der Welt v e r t r f l g e , w i r d, wie P r i n z Hamlet, zu s i c h s e l b e r sagen: Weh, dass ^ i c h zur Welt, s i e e i n z u r i c h t e n , kam!'" ( I I , 3 0 2 r But whereas F r i e d r i c h , l i k e Hamlet, l e a v e s t h i s remark as a lament, the more p o s i t i v e V i c t o r turns i t i n t o a c h a l l e n g e i n h i s l a s t words to h i s f r i e n d s : " ' 0 Freunde, das i s t e i n e Z e i t ! g l t t c k l i c h , wer - d r i n geboren ward, s i e a u s z u f e c h t e n i 1 " ( I I , 727) A f u r t h e r s i m i l a r i t y between the two i s to be found i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f F r i e d r i c h " i n blanker Rflstung a l s K&apfer G o t t e s " ( I I , 281+), and i n F o r t u n a t ' s l a s t words t o V i c t o r , "Ade, du g e i s t l i c h e s Soldatenherz" ( I I , 727) • Both o f these phrases b r i n g t o mind the k n i g h t s of the mediaeval r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s , who were monks or p r i e s t s as w e l l as s o l d i e r s . In h i s second h i s t o r i c a l tragedy, "Der l e t z t e Held von Marienburg" (I83O), E i c h e n d o r f f wrote about monk-knights o f many d i f f e r e n t d i s p o s i t i o n s ; a l t h o u g h the admission i s not made i n the p l a y , the reader cannot escape the c o n c l u s i o n that E i c h e n d o r f f found the combination of s o l d i e r and p r i e s t untenable, the two being i n f a c t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . Nothing daunted, E i c h e n d o r f f c o n t i n u e d to r e g a r d the C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t as the i d e a l , a t t a i n a b l e or n o t . He never again a f t e r 1830 attempted t o d e p i c t a c h a r a c t e r who *+The time i s out of j o i n t ; 0 c u r s e d s p i t e , That ever I was born to s e t i t r i g h t . (Act I , Scene $) ^ T h i s i s not the o n l y c o n t r a d i c t i o n maintained throughout h i s works, another, f o r example, being the apparent ambiguity o f h i s c o n c e p t i o n of nature, which i s v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as p e r i l ( t o the i n f i d e l ) or panacea ( t o the f a i t h f u l ) . - 75 - was simultaneously s o l d i e r and p r i e s t , though knight and c l e r i c are each expected to share something of the o ther ' s v i r t u e s : a crusade has need of both. He expresses the root of the trouble i n one of h i s l a s t works, "Geschichte der poetischen L i t e r a t u r Deutschlands" (1857): "Und dieser wesentl ich tragische Doppelgeist des Rit ter tums, die gewaltige Naturkraft und die f r e i w i l l i g e Demfltigung vor einem HBheren. mit einem Wort: das durch Christentum v e r k l a r t e Heldentum, i s t denn auch der e i g e n t l i c h e . Gegenstand der P o e s i e d e s M i t t e l a l t e r s , die for tan jeden w e l t l i c h e n Kampf mehr oder minder zum Kreuzzuge g e s t a l t e t . " (IV, 1+3) However, we may be sure that nei ther F r i e d r i c h nor V i c t o r , on becoming a p r i e s t , would be c a l l e d upon to bear arms, t h e i r f i g h t i n g being of a purely s p i r i t u a l nature. V i c t o r ' s l a s t speech contains one very s t r i k i n g a l l u s i o n which seems the a n t i t h e s i s of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s view of the h igh p o s i t i o n of the knight : " ' . . . d e r T e u f e l i n funkelndera Ritterschmuck r e i t e t die Reihen entlang und ze igt den VBlkern durch den Wolkenriss d i e H e r r l i c h k e i t der . Lender und r u f t ihnen zu: Seid f r e i , und a l l e s i s t e u e r i ' " ( I I , 727) This d e s c r i p t i o n of the d e v i l i s s t rongly reminiscent of D o n a t i ' s f i r s t appearance i n "Das Marmorbild" : " e i n hoher, schlanker R i t t e r i n reichem G-eschmeide" ( I I , 311+), who subsequently i s revealed as the d e v i l or one of h i s emissaries as c a l l e d up by the baser side of F l o r i o ' s nature, l a t e r happi ly overcome. I t a lso serves as a reminder of the "schimmernde Abgrflnde" ( I I , 61+8) which proved the undoing of the F u r s t . E ichendorff i n t h i s imagery has reversed the - 76 - mediaeval a r t i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f the f o r c e s o f e v i l , which were always p i c t u r e d as u g l y and monstrous. He s u b s t i t u t e s f o r i t a l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e o f e v i l c o n c e a l e d behind a mask of e n t i c i n g beauty. Thus the most p e r n i c i o u s f o r c e can take on the appearance o f the b e s t : the d e v i l may loo k l i k e a s p l e n d i d k night; the enchantress i n "Das Marmorbild" appears on one o c c a s i o n as the double o f Bianka, the enchantress o f "Die Zauberei im Herbste" as the double o f B e r t a , Although V i c t o r remains behind on the mountain top a f t e r h i s companions' departure, and the l a s t word i s g i v e n to the hermit ("Du schone Welt, nimm d i c h i n a c h t ! " ) ( I I , 728), the supremacy o f the p r i e s t l y c a l l i n g being thus a f f i r m e d , the main c h a r a c t e r o f the no v e l i s P o r t u n a t . H i s very name, l i k e t h a t o f Fort u n a t o i n "Das Marmorbild", i n d i c a t e s t h a t he o c c u p i e s a favoured p o s i t i o n , and i n a n o v e l e n t i t l e d " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " , t h i s p o s i t i o n cannot escape being t h a t o f the true poet. Three poets o f the n o v e l have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d : V i c t o r , who a c h i e v e d w o r l d l y success as a poet but gave up l i t e r a t u r e i n favour o f p r i e s t h o o d ; Otto, who f e r v e n t l y admired V i c t o r ' s p o e t r y but c o u l d not a t t a i n greatness; and the Jack o f a l l t r a d e s , Dryander, who does not m e r i t s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a poet. F i a m e t t a , too, has a smal l c l a i m to a t t e n t i o n on t h i s score, though she i s more important as muse than as poet. But F o r t u n a t i s the genuine poet by p r o f e s s i o n , who says t o V i c t o r : - 77 - "'Du Vic t o r zumal, verwirrst mir schon s e i t gestern, wie ein nfichtliches Wetterleuchten, der Seele Grund: t i e f e Klttfte. mit kuhnen Stegen dartfber und manche a l t e , geliebte Gegend fernab, aber a l l e s so fremd und wunderbar wie i n TrHuman. Zuletzt i s t ' s doch dasselbe, was i c h e i g e n t l i c h auch meine i n der Welt, i c h habe nur kein anderes Metier daftlr als meine Dichtkunst, und bei der w i l l i c h leben und sterbenl'" ( I I , 727) In t h i s f i n a l speech, Portunat sums up the essence of E i c h e n d o r f f s views on the poet's mission. I t i s fundament- a l l y the same as that of the p r i e s t : the poet must regard the world without fear or favour, and be guided at a l l times by r e l i g i o n , but instead of conducting services and administering the sacraments, he must preach the gospel i n d i r e c t l y and subtly by means of h i s l i t e r a r y s k i l l . This i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same view as that expressed i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", but with a difference: i n the early novel the professional poet, Faber, i s treated as a comic character, and Leontin, the true poet, pursues l i t e r a t u r e only as an avocation, while planning to make government service his profession. However, he i s not obliged to earn hi s own l i v i n g , and i n fac t h i s sole profession i s poetry. In the l a t e r novel, Fortunat i s able to devote h i s time e n t i r e l y to poetry and the sheer joy of l i v i n g . As i n the case of the Taugenichts, who owned nothing but h i s v i o l i n , everything but h i s talen t , Fortunat i s able to marry and l i v e happily ever after with no tiresome obligation to earn money. The same disregard for the provenance of the next meal i s to be found i n Siglhupfer, the hero of "Die G l u c k s r i t t e r " , W i l l i b a l d i n " V i e l Larmen um nichts", who had l o s t - 7'8 - who, though he sings songs, gives h i s profess ion as "wandernder Musikus" ( I I , 895) , h i s instrument being the " K l a r i n e t t " whose name he takes as h i s pseudonym. Of the twelve poets appearing i n E ichendorff 'a n a r r a t i v e prose , three are a lso musicians(of course, the others can play a few chords of accompaniment on l u t e or g u i t a r ) : Taugenichts, Dryander, and S i g l h u p f e r . I t would be possible to add the "Prager Studenten" of "Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts" (1826) to t h i s l i s t ; however, they are not p r o f e s s i o n a l musicians, but merely theology students earning t h e i r l i v i n g as wandering minst re ls during t h e i r ' h o l i d a y s . Nevertheless, they serve to h i n t at the bond Eichendorff wishes to strengthen between r e l i g i o n and the a r t s , as does the serious painter Guido of "Dichter und ihre G e s e l l e n " . The three poet-musicians, besides being of humble o r i g i n , are a l l i r r e s p o n s i b l e . The leas t admirable of the three i s Dryander, w i t h h i s weathercock a d a p t a b i l i t y to changing winds, shown, f o r instance, i n the "Hofra t " episode at the F i r s t ' s court ( II , 593) , and h i s b r i e f enthusiasm for husbandry during h i s v i s i t to Manfred (II , 6 6 3 ) . Nevertheless , i n spi te of h i s i n s t a b i l i t y and impishness, there i s no e v i l i n him, and he i s c e r t a i n l y as l i t t l e enslaved by Mammon as the more lovable Taugenichts and S i g l h u p f e r . Dryander's f i r s t and l a s t appearances i n the novel are as a v i o l i n i s t ( II , 510 and 728), a f a c t which suggests that music i s h i s - 79 - true vocation and that he should concentrate on i t , i f such a v a c i l l a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y i s capable of perseverance. The reader ' s l a s t glimpse of him, f i d d l i n g down the road ahead of the s t r o l l i n g p l a y e r s , i s f u l l of charm. The two m i l l e r s ' sons, Taugenichts and S i g l h u p f e r , win admiration by t h e i r very s i m p l i c i t y and lack of pretent iousness . S ig lhupfer seems s l i g h t l y the l e s s pure of the two, when one considers h i s vulgar anecdote about h i s parents ( I I , 897) and h i s l i g h t - h e a r t e d opportunism. But t h i s one can forgive him i n view of h i s e s s e n t i a l innocence; he i s no more corrupted by h i s adventures i n Graf G e r o l d ' s p a l a t i a l home than Taugenichts i s by h i s journey to I t a l y as a supposed noblewoman i n d i s g u i s e . Both return to the simple l i f e without a thought f o r the splendours they are l e a v i n g , and t h i s i s the more remarkable i n S i g l h u p f e r , who does not have a d e l i g h t f u l l i t t l e "Schloss" given him as dowry with h i s b r i d e , but returns to a precarious l i f e of vagabondage i n order to be reuni ted with h i s true love , D e n k e l i . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Siglhupfer " b l i e b fortan i n den Wfildern s e l i g v e r s c h o l l e n " (II , 933), the woods being E i c h e n d o r f f s favouri te symbol of the proximity to nature which he considers indispensable to a balanced l i f e . S iglhupfer i s the l a s t a r t i s t ( i n the general sense) to appear i n E i c h e n d o r f f s works, and h i s chosen l o t i n l i f e confirms the idea , elsewhere advanced, that the a r t i s t should not look for worldly advancement, but leave himself i n the hands of God. As Taugenichts says more than once, with s l i g h t - 80 - v a r i a t i o n s : "Den lieben Gott l a s s i c h nur walten; Der B&chlein, Lerchen, Wald und Peld Und Erd' und Himmel w i l l erhalten, Hat auch raein' Sach' aufs best' b e s t e l l t i " (II, 35*0) Of the nine remaining poets, who are not also accomplished musicians, seven are knights. The two who are not, Faber and Otto, are not i n great favour with th e i r author. Faber i s treated mainly as a clown, a f o i l to the more talented F r i e d r i c h and Leontin, though Eichendorff redeems him to some extent i n the l a s t chapter and allows him to continue h i s l i f e as a poet by p r o f e s s i o n , though i n f e r i o r to his f r i e n d s . The unexplained change i n h i s views i s just another inconsistency i n the development of "Ahnung und Gegenwart", one of those flaws which conceal from the casual reader the true depth of the philosophy underlying the novel. But Faber's l a s t speech about h i s p r o f e s s i o n merits serious consideration: "'...Denn das Haschen der Poesie nach aussen, das geistige Verarbeiten und Bekfiramern um das, was eben vorgeht, das Ringen und Abarbeiten an der Z e i t , so gross und lobenswert als Gesinnung, i s t doch immer unkiinstierisen. Die Poesie mag wohl Wurzel schlagen i n demselben Boden der Religion und N a t i o n a l i s t , aber unbekfimraert, bloss um ih r e r himmlischen Schflnheit w i l l e n , als Wunderblume zu uns heraufwachsen. Sie w i l l und s o l i zu nichts brauchbar sein. Aber das versteht i h r [.Friedrich und Leontin]] nicht und macht mich nur i r r e . E i n f r B h l i c h e r Kfinstler mag sic h vor euch hfiten. Denn wer die Gegenwart aufgibt, wie F r i e d r i c h , wem die f r i s c h e Lust am Leben und seinem fiberschwenglichen Reichtume gebrochen i s t , mit dessen Poesie i s t es aus. Er i s t wie ein Maler ohne Farben.'" (II, 2 9 7 ) That tendentious l i t e r a t u r e i s usually lacking i n a r t i s t r y - 81 - i s a t r u i s m . That E ichendorff recommends a r t for a r t ' s sake could be miscontrued by a l a t e r generation, but for h i s q u a l i f y i n g h i s statement by noting that poetry i s rooted i n the same s o i l as r e l i g i o n and n a t i o n a l i t y (not "Vaterl&nderei But the idea i n t h i s paragraph which i s perhaps most t y p i c a l of E ichendorff i s the i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y for the a r t i s t of "die f r i s c h e Lust am Leben und seinem uberschwenglichen Reichtume" I t i s t h i s joy of l i v i n g which character izes the true a r t i s t s i n E i c h e n d o r f f , and perhaps explains t h e i r freedom from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . For not only those who are by nature i r r e s p o n s i b l e are provided for by unexplained means: a lso those who are acutely aware of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the poet are r e l i e v e d from any necessi ty to earn t h e i r bread: L e o n t i n , though h i s lands are c o n f i s c a t e d , has no f i n a n c i a l worries i n regard to h i s tour of the New World; Fortunato, F l o r i o , and Fortunat have l a v i s h incomes from u n s p e c i f i e d sources; the reader makes the acquaintance of the "Amtmann" who administers V i c t o r ' s estates and keeps him w e l l provided f o r , and i n d i r e c t l y Otto, whom V i c t o r anonymously supports. This exemption from the need to earn was enjoyed by Eichendorff only i n h i s e a r l y youth, before h i s f a t h e r ' s fortune began to dwindle. When he was grown up, he suffered from r e a l poverty for some time, and was never wealthy i n h i s own r i g h t , though from middle age onward he had an adequate income. As the e a r l y per iod of prosper i ty coincided with h i s studies at school and u n i v e r s i t y and i n preparat ion for f i r s t the A u s t r i a n and then the Prussian c i v i l service - 82 - examinations, h i s only extended l e i s u r e was after h is retirement i n 182+24• From then on h i s only l i t e r a r y creations were the Marchen, "Libertas und ihre P r e i e r " (181^9), the three verse epics, "J u l i a n " (1852), "Robert und Guiscard" (1855), and "Lucius" (1857), and a few short poems of which only the l a s t mentioned are important (He also wrote many c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l works and translations from the Spanish during h i s retirement.). Leisure, therefore, can be discounted as a prerequisite f o r E i c h e n d o r f f s own l i t e r a r y composition; but i t i s no wonder that, forced himself to support h i s wife and children by uncongenial work, he should provide the poets of h i s novels and ̂ ovellen with an i d e a l l i f e i n which they could devote themselves to th e i r art, though, indeed, h i s l a s t a r t i s t , Siglhupfer, author of the remarkable aphorism, "nichts langweiliger a l s Gltlck (II, 920), chooses a hard l i f e i n preference to luxury. Otto, l i k e Dryander a non-knightly poet, i s dismissed as n e g l i g i b l e . Nevertheless, despite h i s creative i n s u f f i c i e n c y , he has the a r t i s t ' s perception, and i s blessed with v i s i o n s , one of which may explain, in part, E i c h e n d o r f f s p r e d i l e c t i o n for sending h i s poets o f f to I t a l y , apart from the general a t t r a c t i o n of the southern clime for northerners: "J.Wunderbar', sagte er TOtto} zu sich selbst, .'schon i n meiner Klndhelt, wie o f t bei s t i l l e r Nacht im Trauma hort' i c h der fernen Roma Glocken schallen, und nun, da i c h hi e r bin, hor' ich sie wie damals aus welter, welter Feme, a l s gib' es noch eine andere Roma we i t h i nter die sen dunklen Hugeln.'" (II, 639-61+0) The b e l l s , of course, are church b e l l s , and the "other Rome" - 83 - beyond the h i l l s i s the Kingdom of Heaven. Rome i s not merely the c h i e f c i t y of I t a l y , the land of dreams of German c l a s s i c i s t s and romanticists a l i k e , but also the centre and symbol of the Roman Catholic Church of which Eichendorff and a l l h i s poets are devout adherents. Thus the nostalgia of hi s a r t i s t s for I t a l y i s not merely a longing for a subtropical climate and for the opportunity to view a wealth of art treasures, as was the case with many of h i s contemporaries, but also an expression of the pilgrimage towards heaven which 6' i s a recurrent theme throughout h i s works. Eichendorff, however, equates I t a l y , not only with an earthly reminder of heaven, but also with the land of temptation to such an extent that Ricarda Huch, i n one of her pithy, unforgettable phrases, says, i n regard to "Das Marmorbild": "Ganz I t a l i e n i s t der Hfirselberg; den Verlockten r e t t e t die Kirche oder denn - Deutschland." (op. c i t . , p. 3 8 ) . I t i s noteworthy that the only poet to f a l l by the wayside i n I t a l y i s Otto, the unsuccessful, who i s miraculously saved af t e r h i s return to Germany. F l o r i o ± 3 the only other poet to be severely tempted i n I t a l y j i n h i s case, the church, or more accurately h i s own devoutness, saves him. The choice of the poet who i s also a knight seems to be not quite as stated by Ricarda Huch, but rather between the two aspects of Home: the church or I t a l y . For of the ^This topic i s discussed i n , for example, Reinhold Schneider's "Prophetische Pilgerschaft", to be found i n Eichendorff heute. ed. Paul StScklein (Mfinchen I 9 6 0 ) . - 81+ - seven k n i g h t l y poets , F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r become p r i e s t s , Fortunato and F l o r i o are I t a l i a n s res ident i n I t a l y , and the remaining three, L e o n t i n , W i l l i b a l d and Fortunat , a l l marry and go abroad, Leontin to America, but the other two to I t a l y (The v o l a t i l e Taugenichts, too, a f t e r denouncing " f a l s e I t a l y " , suggests to h i s beloved that they should go there on t h e i r honeymoon!). I t i s noteworthy that only L e o n t i n , the e a r l i e s t of E i c h e n d o r f f s true poets, does not go to I t a l y : t h i s exception may be due to the p o l i t i c a l circumstances under which E i c h e n d o r f f wrote "Ahnung und Gegenwart", even I t a l y being under Napoleon's domination at that time; i n a l l h i s post-Napoleonic w r i t i n g s , I t a l y seems the s p i r i t u a l home of the true poet . In regard to the bond which E i c h e n d o r f f postulates between poetry and knighthood, i t i s to be remarked that a l l E i c h e n d o r f f s true poets are knights , although the converse does not h o l d . There are f i v e of these poets: Leont in , Fortunato, F l o r i o , W i l l i b a l d and Fortunat . With them are associated two other knights who give up poetry for the pr ies thood : F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r . Thus there i s a powerful a s s o c i a t i o n i n E i c h e n d o r f f s mind between the knight , the poet, and the p r i e s t . There seems l i t t l e doubt that E ichendorff had the Highest respect f o r those characters i n whom a l l three c a l l i n g s are success ively combined: F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r . Nevertheless , h i s heart equal ly obviously l i e s w i t h those whose choice i s h i s own, e s p e c i a l l y with W i l l i b a l d and Fortunat , the products of h i s matur i ty . - 8$ - V I . - L a t e r N o v e l l e n L i t t l e has been s a i d h i t h e r t o about " V i e l L&rmen um n i c h t s " (1850), as i t s c a r c e l y touches on the s u b j e c t of knighthood. However, i t s hero, W i l i i b a l d , i s a k n i g h t , and the short s t o r y o f h i s l i f e , o f t e n quoted by c r i t i c s , i s worth a r e p e t i t i o n : "Der Sturm der Z e i t , der so v i e l e Sterne verlo'scht und neue entzfindet, h a t t e auch den Stammbaum se i n e s a l t e n , berfihmten G e s c h l e c h t s z e r z a u s t : seine E i t e r n s tarben an gebrochnem S t o l z , i h r e Gfjter und s e i n e Heimat waren l S n g s t an andre B e s i t z e r gekommen, d i e er n i c h t einmal dem Kamen nach kannte. Aber Ungltlck g i b t e i n e n t i e f e n Klang i n einem t u c h t i g e n Gerailt und h a t t e auch i h n f r u h z e i t i g durch den t r a g i s c h e n E r n s t des Lebens der Poesie zugewendet. M i t freudigem Schauer f f i h l t e er s i c h bald e i n e r andern, wunderbaren A d e l s k e t t e angeh8rig, uber welche d i e Z e i t keine Gewalt hat, und r a s c h Konnexionen, B r o t p e r s p e k t i v e n und a l i e n Plunder, der das Gemeine b&ndigt, von s i c h a b s c h f i t t e l n d , zog er nun eben arm, aber f r e i und vergnfigt, i n d i e Welt wie i n s e i n weites, f r B h l i c h e s R e i c h h i n a u s . Nur seine schcne Heimat, d i e am Ausgange d i e s e s Gebirges l a g , und an der seine Seele mit a l l e r Macht j u g e n d l i c h e r E r innerung h i n g , w o l l t e er noch einmal wiedersehen und dann s i c h nach I t a l i e n wenden." ( I I , U70) T h i s passage more than any other sums up the mature E i c h e n d o r f f 1 s views on l i f e , though w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c concealment behind imagery which does not at f i r s t , or even second, glance r e v e a l the p h i l o s o p h y behind i t . For i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h E i c h e n d o r f f founded h i s whole l i f e on r e l i g i o n , t here i s no s p e c i f i c mention of i t i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h , but whoever has r e a d much of t h i s author, p i c k s up the r e l i g i o u s overtones i n h e r e n t i n h i s use of the words - 86 - "Heimat", "Schauer", " I t a l i a n " . The heart of the passage i s i n the t h i r d sentence of the quotat ion: ("Mit freudigem Schauer", e t c . ) , where W i l l i b a l d gives up the temporal for the e t e r n a l , the ear thly for the heavenly, s e c u r i t y for a l i f e of wandering; by t h i s renuncia t ion he i s c e r t a i n l y impoverished f i n a n c i a l l y , but i n f i n i t e l y enriched s p i r i t u a l l y : he i s l e a v i n g h i s "Heimat", but i n re turn the whole world becomes h i s " f r B h l i c h e s R e i c h " . He makes the same dec is ion as the A p o s t l e s , as the p r i e s t s , as Taugenichts and S i g l h u p f e r : he puts himself in to the hands of God. He even forgets h i s noble descent, f e e l i n g himself to be a l l i e d rather with those who are noble i n character (and p a r t i c u l a r l y with poets, as the "Adelsket te" r e s u l t s from h i s dedicat ion to "Poesie") than w i t h those who are noble by b i r t h . And by h i s loss he g a i n s . The contradic t ions inherent i n E i c h e n d o r f f s works are shown i n t h i s passage to be concealed strength rather than weakness: "mit freudigem Schauer", for instance , i s a bold paradox of a type recurrent i n E i c h e n d o r f f s works (the l i n e "Fromm zerbrechend a l l e Bande" from "Nachtfe ier" (I , 127) , w r i t t e n i n 1810, i s a case i n p o i n t , and "Romana1s "Von dem Glanze s e l i g b l i n d " ( I I , 125) another) . But more important i s the contrast between the "Ungluck" and " t ragischen Ernst des Lebens" of one sentence, and the " f r e i und vergnugt" and " s e i n weites , f r B h l i c h e s Reich" of the next . E i c h e n d o r f f s philosophy i s capable of a Hegelian r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of opposites : W i l l i b a l d experiences tragedy and turns i t to - 87 - joy by a process not e x p l i c i t l y stated i n this paragraph but i m p l i c i t i n a l l of E i c h e n d o r f f s works, namely, by b e l i e f i n C h r i s t . W i l l i b a l d renounces everything which r e s t r i c t s "das Gemeine", or, as Taugenichts expressed i t , "die Tr&gen, die zu Hause lie g e n " (II, 35>0). In return, he receives something far above the common l o t even of poets - Aurora as h i s bride. Since "Aurora", with i t s Boehmean connotation of the soul's awareness of Sod, means variously i n E i c h e n d o r f f s works the Romantic muse, poetry, dawn, or resurrection, W i l l i b a l d outshines Solomon i n a l l h i s glory. W i l l i b a l d also serves as the common denominator of a l l the poets i n E i c h e n d o r f f s narratives, for, though he belongs to the knightly c l a s s , he renounces the p r i v i l e g e s and, even more d i f f i c u l t , the customs of h i s c l a s s , to set o f f with no provision for the future, l i k e Siglhupfer, his only objective being the pursuit of poetry (not, i n the beginning, the Grfifin Aurora, whom he meets in the course of h i s adventures). Thus he i s at once knight and vagabond, poet and p i l g r i m . By going to I t a l y , l i k e most of h i s confreres, he wanders i n search of greener f i e l d s ; t h i s emigration i s E i c h e n d o r f f s symbolic escape from constraint, from a l l those aspects of l i f e i n Prussia which distressed him during h i s long stay i n the north, where he never f e l t at home. With W i l l i b a l d the roster of poets i s complete. I t i s apparent that Eichendorff prefers the poet who i s also a knight, as was usually the case i n the Middle High German - 88 - p e r i o d w h i c h he g r e a t l y a d m i r e s . However, W l l l i b a l d ' s " A d e l s k e t t e " opens the r a n k s t o t h o s e who a r e pure i n h e a r t , who s i n g l e - m i n d e d l y f o l l o w the p o e t ' s c a l l i n g , s e t t i n g up the h e a v e n l y l a d d e r s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f the l e s s p e r c e p t i v e , as he says i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f A r n i m i n " G e s c h i c h t e der p o e t i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r D e u t s c h l a n d s " : " K e i n D i c h t e r g i b t e i n e n f e r t i g e n Himmel; e r s t e l l t nur d i e H i m m e l s l e i t e r a u f von der schfinen E r d e . Wer zu tr&ge und u n l u s t i g , n i c h t den Mut v e r s p f i r t , d i e l o s e n , goldenen S p r o s s e n zu b e s t e i g e n , dem b l e i b t der g e h e i m n i s v o l l e Buchstabe doch ewig t o t , und e i n L e s e r , der n i c h t s e l b e r m i t und fiber dem Buche n a c h z u d i c h t e n vermag, t£te b e s s e r , an e i n l 8 b l i c h e s Handwork zu gehen, a l s so m i t mfissigem L e s e n s e i n e Z e i t zu v e r d e r b e n . " ( I V , 2 9 0 J 1 W i l l i b a l d b ears a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e resemblance t o t h e k n i g h t l y poet P o r t u n a t , b u t m i s f o r t u n e s u c c e s s f u l l y overcome has t r a n s f i g u r e d him. He has a charm as u n f o r g e t t a b l e as t h a t o f the T a u g e n i c h t s , w i t h none o f t h e l a t t e r ' s i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r c h i l d i s h n e s s . E i c h e n d o r f f ' s l a s t p o e t - k n i g h t i s a l s o h i s b e s t . F i g u r e s o f k n i g h t s appear i n most o f the N o v e l l e n E i c h e n d o r f f wrote a f t e r " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " . However, t h i s second n o v e l p r e s e n t s i n d e f i n i t i v e f o r m h i s v i e w s on the k n i g h t p r o p e r , w h i c h the l a t e r N o v e l l e n do n o t expand. They do, n e v e r t h e l e s s , acknowledge the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h i v a l r o u s b e h a v i o u r by men of u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d b i r t h and even by women of a l l r a n k s . The u l t i m a t e b r e a d t h o f the "'"This passage i s a r e w o r k i n g o f one i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" ( I I , 9 9 ) , one o f numerous unacknowledged q u o t a t i o n s f rom h i s own works. - 89 - a u t h o r ' s views on t h i s m a t t e r i s e x p r e s s e d i n the f i g u r e o f M a r i e i n "Robert und G u i s c a r d " (1855), w h i c h , b e i n g a v e r s e e p i c , i s t e c h n i c a l l y o u t s i d e the scope o f t h i s s t u d y . M a r i e r e s c u e s from a band o f F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s the a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l y t h a t h e r f a t h e r s e r v e s as g a r d e n e r , accompanies i t on i t s f l i g h t t o H e i d e l b e r g , and m a r r i e s t h e e l d e r s o n . E i c h e n d o r f f i n h i s y o u t h would have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s m a r r i a g e a m i s a l l i a n c e , but he makes h i s way t o t h i s i d e a by slow s t a g e s w h i c h can be o b s e r v e d t h r o u g h o u t h i s l a t e r N o v e l l e n such as "Das S c h l o s s Durande" (1837) and " E i n e M e e r f a h r t " ( n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 186b.). I n h i s p e n u l t i m a t e l i t e r a r y work, "Robert und G u i s c a r d " , E i c h e n d o r f f overcame a l l s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t t h o s e who a r e no b l e i n s p i r i t b u t n o t by b i r t h , a v i e w p o i n t w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n i n h i s e s s a y " H a l l e und " H e i d e l b e r g " (1857): "Unsere U n i v e r s i t & t e n s i n d e n d l i c h b i s h e r e i n e A r t von R e p u b l i k , d i e e i n z i g e n noch u b r i g g e b l i e b e n e n Trimmer d e u t s c h e r E i n h e i t , e i n b r u d e r l i c h e r V e r e i n ohne R f i c k s i c h t a u f d i e U n t e r s c h i e d e der P r o v i n z , des Ranges oder R e i c h t u m s , wo den N i e d r i g g e b o r e n e n d i e U b e r l e g e n h e i t d e s G e i s t e s und C h a r a k t e r s zum S e n i o r uber F u r s t e n und G r a f e n erhob." ( I V , 1076) S i n c e t h i s second p a r t o f " E r l e b t e s " i s b a s e d on h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s as a s t u d e n t , t h e thou g h t o f s p i r i t u a l e q u a l i t y i n s o c i e t y (as w e l l as i n r e l i g i o n ) may have been on h i s mind from h i s e a r l y y o u t h , but i t was not u n t i l f i f t y y e a r s a f t e r h i s e n r o l l m e n t a t H a l l e t h a t i t found e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s l i t e r a r y works as an a c t u a l m a r r i a g e between a k n i g h t and a g i r l o f humbler b i r t h . A p a r t f r o m t h i s development i n r e g a r d t o men o f - 90 - lowly b i r t h and to women, the l a t e r Novel len, except "Die G l f l c k s r i t t e r " which has been mentioned above, are of l i t t l e importance with respect to knighthood, "Dichter und ihre G e s e l l e n " representing E i c h e n d o r f f ' s mature opinion on t h i s subject . - 91 - VII. Conclusion The knight occurs as an image throughout the entire period of E i c h e n d o r f f s creative work, a matter of f i f t y years. This persistence i n i t s e l f indicates that the figure of the knight i s one of great importance to the author. In the course of time h i s attention s h i f t s from mediaeval knighthood to a passive confrontation with Napoleon, and f i n a l l y to an active encounter with nineteenth century society i n Germany. In E i c h e n d o r f f s e a r l i e s t prose narrative, he presents the knight i n an elemental struggle with e v i l . Of the two knights i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste", Ubaldo f u l f i l l s the duties of the mediaeval knight, f i r s t as a crusader and l a t e r i n leading an exemplary Chr i s t i a n l i f e , whereas Raimund, through lack of f a i t h , f a l l s v i c t i m to the daemonic. During the few years which passed between the composition of this Marchen and the novel, "Ahnung und Gegenwart", Eichendorff abandoned the outward forms of mediaeval knighthood except i n those works which are set i n the Middle Ages. These forms are dismissed as affectations i n contemporary l i f e and l i t e r a t u r e . Nevertheless, Eichendorff e x p l i c i t l y c l i n g s to the ideals for which the mediaeval knight stood, the climax of the novel being the account of F r i e d r i c h 1 s decision to enter the priesthood: - 92 - "Er hatte endlich den phantastischen, tausendfarbigen Pilgermantel abgeworfen, und stand nun i n blanker Rfistung a l s KSmpfer Gottes gleiehsam an der Grenze zweier Welten." (II, 281|) Both the pilgrim's cloak and the shining armour are, of course, purely symbolic, as are the two worlds on whose border he stands. The cloak represents what F r i e d r i c h e a r l i e r c a l l e d h i s " I r r f a h r t " (II, 210} through the manifold experiences of ordinary l i f e i n the everyday world; the armour stands for the pu r i t y and detachment of the c l e r i c a l l i f e whose world he i s about to enter. These two worlds exist together, but the l a t t e r i s more d i r e c t l y oriented to the l i f e to come than i s the former, and therefore commands Eichendorff's highest respect. The world to come i s always uppermost i n Eichendorff's thought; r e l i g i o n i s h i s mainspring and h i s constant concern. The p r i e s t ' s occupation absorbs him i n r e l i g i o n , and this absorption places him at the summit o f human achievement. But clos e l y a l l i e d to him i n the preaching and protection of r e l i g i o n are the poet (and other a r t i s t s ) and the knight. Throughout Eichendorff's prose works members of a l l three c a l l i n g s are found i n close association. The intimate connection between art and r e l i g i o n characterises the thought of a l l Romantics and finds i t s d e f i n i t i v e expression i n Schleiermacher's "Reden fiber die R eligion". Eichendorff adds a t h i r d c a l l i n g to these c e n t r a l human concerns, that of the knight. In "Ahnung und Gegenwart", F r i e d r i c h , Rudolf and Leontin are - 93 - knights, Rudolf being i n addition a painter and the other two poets, of whom one forsakes poetry for priesthood. Their f r i e n d , Faber, i s a poet but not a knight. Eichendorff evidently did not regard the p r i e s t - hood as a suitable topic for l i t e r a r y discussion: F r i e d r i c h i n this novel and V i c t o r i n "Dichter und ihre Gesellen" disappear from the story before t h e i r ordination. Apparently the author believed that p r i e s t s should be regarded as s p i r i t u a l representatives of! God, on too high a plane'to be considered as mere characters i n a novel or Novella. The sole exception i n h i s narrative prose i s the hermit i n the l a t e r novel, a rather crude and comical character, who i s depicted on a decidedly lower plan i n t e l l e c t u a l l y than V i c t o r and the other knights and poets, but who, nominally, at l e a s t , i s s p i r i t u a l l y superior to a l l i n view of the fact that he has been ordained. Ubaldo i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste" was a crusader; F r i e d r i c h i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" appears as a "Kfimpfer Gottes". These two characters from Eichendorff*s e a r l i e s t prose narratives draw attention to the knight who defends the f a i t h by force of arms as well as by the preaching and practice of C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s . In h i s h i s t o r i c a l tragedy, "Der letzte^Held von Marienburg" (1830, Eichendorff examined i n d e t a i l the moral dilemma involved, i n f u l f i l l i n g simultaneously the duties of the monk and those of the s o l d i e r , and discovered that i t was impossible. The - 9J+ - c o n f l i c t between the Grand Master, Plauen, and the Counci l of the Teutonic Knights , concerns the matter of whether the Order should save i t s e l f through war or peace. Both sides are r i g h t ; on the one hand, the Order could not maintain i t s dominance i n Prussia a f t e r 11+10 without war, but, on the other, war to uphold mere temporal power,, a f t e r the missionary purpose of the Order has been f u l f i l l e d , i s contrary to the s p i r i t of C h r i s t i a n i t y . Plauen 1 s e f f o r t s to avert the doom he foresaw for the Order b r i n g about h i s own d o w n f a l l . He i s a v i c t i m of the "wesentl ich t ragischer Doppelgeist des Rit tertums" (IV, 1+3) on which Eichendorff commented i n h i s l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . I t i s impossible to be monk and s o l d i e r at once. Perhaps t h i s awareness contr ibuted to E i c h e n d o r f f ' s reluctance to write about p r i e s t s i n h i s narra t ive prose, with the exception noted above, and instead to delegate part of the p r i e s t ' s duties to knights and poets . In t h i s delegation he was undoubtedly influenced by the general Romantic a t t i t u d e i l l u s t r a t e d by N o v a l i s ' ideas on the purpose of the poet, which Eichendorff describes thus i n h i s "G-eschichte der poetischen L i t e r a t u r Deutschlands": "Die Poesie war ihm e i n Gottesdienst , der Dichter e i n P r i e s t e r , d i e I n s p i r a t i o n des glllubig Schauenden und echte dichter ische Begeisterung e in und dasselbe . " (IV, 25>1+) The l i n k which Eichendorff perceives between poet and knight appears i n h i s s tudies of mediaeval l i t e r a t u r e ; "Und so f i e l s ie Q l e Poesie] denn auch sehr bald den R i t t e r n anheim, a l s dem Stande, der das Sussere Leben am entschiedensten bestimmte und f u h r t e . " (IV, 61+) - 95 - "Dieser Mirmegesang aber war eben nur der Widerklang und poetische Ausdruck des damaligen Lebens, seinen Gegenstand b i l d e t e n f a s t a u s s c h l i e s s l i c h dieselben g e i s t i g e n Elemente, die auch das Ri t ter tum i n s e i n e r schBnsten Blute umfasste: Gottesdienst , unverbrfichliche Treue im Herren- und Prauendienst, und e n d l i c h dieser Prauendienst s e l b s t . " (IV, 66) "Der Adel t e i l t e noch immer das t i e f e Naturgefuhl des V o l k s , und stand im Wissen nur wenig fiber - demselben . . . D a h e r sind diese r i t t e r l i c h e n Minnelieder noch ganz f r e i von a l l e r gelehrten Pretension und Pedanterie , und wurden . . . s t e t s , wie das v 0 l k s l i e d , gesungen." (IV, 67) I t i s doubtful whether E i c h e n d o r f f s opinion of a deep f e e l i n g for nature being expressed i n Minnesang can be j u s t i f i e d . However, one must accept that he found i n mediaeval l i t e r a t u r e the basis for the close a f f i n i t y he f e l t to e x i s t between poet and knight , and that he bel ieved that both were imbued with strong f a i t h and l o y a l t y , along with love of nature, and that poetry i s i n t i m a t e l y a l l i e d with music . This c lose bond between poet and knight , between r e l i g i o n , poetry and music, i s expressed c l e a r l y i n "Das Marmorbild" , whose c h i e f f i g u r e s , P l o r i o and Fortunato, are both knights and poets . The l a t t e r i s f i r s t named, as "der Singer Fortunato" (II , 309), a term which emphasizes E i c h e n d o r f f s view of poetry and music as almost inseparable (An ins t rumental is t might take an opposite stand, regarding words as an i n t e r r u p t i o n and d i s t r a c t i o n . Nevertheless, b e a u t i f u l poetry i s always a pleasure to the ear and i s i n i t s e l f m u s i c a l . ) . The bond with r e l i g i o n i s manifested i n Fortunato 's two b a l l a d s , "Was k l i n g t mir so h e i t e r " ( I I , - 96 - 311-313) and "Von kuhnen W Underbildern" (II, 31+2-31+3), and the l a s t song of the Novelle, F l o r i o ' s "Hier bin ich, Herri Gegrtfsst das L i c h t i " (II, 3/4$). The close a l l i a n c e of poet, p r i e s t , and knight i s found not only i n the prose narratives, but also i n works of other types throughout E i c h e n d o r f f s l i f e , as i n the following stanza from "An die Freunde" (l8l5>), which equates preaching with l i t e r a t u r e and m i l i t a r y l i f e : "Nennt mir die Palme eures hohen Strebensi Bequeme Rast i s t nicht des Lebens wert, , Nach Ruh' sehnt sich die Menschenbrust vergebens, E r ka* m p f t w i l l sein, was hoher Sinn begehrt. Ein Krieger b l e i b t der grossre Mann zeitlebens, Er kampf mit Rede, Buchern oder Schwert, Und rechter Friede wird nur da geschlossen, Wo jedem S t r e i t e r seine Palmen sprossen." (I, 1 5 > 1 ) Gorgia, arguing i n favour of C h r i s t i a n charity against Ezelin's p o l i c y of power, i n "Ezelin von Romano", affirms the id e n t i t y of knighthood and r e l i g i o n : "Herr, i s t das Schwert Doch selbst ein Kreuzi" (I, 7 6 7 ) E i c h e n d o r f f s conviction of the t i e between poetry and r e l i g i o n i s strongly expressed i n h i s "Geschichte d er poetischen L i t e r a t u r Deutschlands" (181+6): "Gerade der fr i s c h e B l i c k in die Welt und die -tiefere Ahnung ihrer verhullten geistigen Physiognomie bezeichnet den Dichter, dessen Sache es i s t nicht, wie der-Vogel Strauss beim Anblick des J&gers, von dem bunten Wirrsal f e i g den Kopf zu verstecken, sondern die sinnliche Erscheinung im Feuer himmlischer Sch8nheit zu taufen und vom Gemeinen zu e r l 8 s e n . -Nur i n der w o h l v e r s t a n d e n e n innigen Eintracht von Poesie und Religion also i s t fur beide H e l l ; denn die wahre Poesie i s t durchaus religions, und die Religion poetisch, und eben diese geheimnisvolle Doppelnatur beider darzustellen, war die grosse - 97 - Aufgabe der Romantik." (IV, 400-1*01) Thus Eichendorff, l a t e i n h i s long l i t e r a r y career, reaffirmed h i s conviction of the kinship of poetry and r e l i g i o n which was already stated i n the poem of l8l£, where i t i s enlarged to include knighthood. These three things remained united at the heart of Eichendorff's philosophy from f i r s t to l a s t . Fortunato symbolizes the steadfast positive side of knighthood, from which F l o r i o wavers but to which he returns unscathed: Donati the negative, oriented not to God, but towards the world, the f l e s h and the d e v i l . F l o r i o ' s decisive r e j e c t i o n of the daemonic, a f t e r a period of dazzled a t t r a c t i o n , i s t y p i c a l of Eichendorff's treatment of the young man whose character i s in the beginning unformed but with a decided bias i n favour of the p o s i t i v e . F l o r i o ' s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h i s never i n doubt; i t i s merely the sensual side of h i s nature which for a time imperils h i s soul, but which i s eventually brought under control by h i s f a i t h . In "Die Zauberei im Herbste", Ubaldo likewise represents man whose f a i t h prevents him from succumbing to sensual temptation, while Raimund i s unable to r e s i s t . Thus we see that the knight i s not necessarily an example of G 0d's order on earth, but may be a t y p i c a l human being, a seeker a f t e r t r u t h , who must combat e v i l and possibly succumb to i t , or may even be the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of e v i l i t s e l f . - 98 - In "Dichter und ihre Gesellen", V i c t o r dedicates himself to the priesthood. The supremacy of t h i s vocation i s symbolized by V i c t o r ' s remaining on the mountain a f t e r h i s friends have descended; the hermit, already ordained, holds for the time being a more honoured p o s i t i o n than Victor, i n spite of the l a t t e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l (and s o c i a l ) s u p e r i o r i t y . The second highest vocation i s that of the poet, Portunat, the lucky one. Though h i s p o s i t i o n i s regarded as i n f e r i o r to that of the p r i e s t , i t i s he who has the f u l l e s t experience of l i f e and whose words w i l l be heard most widely. The f a c t that he i s nearly the equal of the p r i e s t and shares h i s c a l l i n g as a preacher i s symbolized by h i s f e e l i n g quite at home on the heights. Manfred, on the other hand, though a worthy man, i s uneasy on the mountain and breathes f r e e l y only when he returns to the mundane concerns of the v a l l e y . The Romantic exaltation of priesthood or poetry i s not for him. His i s the lowest of the three suitable professions for knights: he i s about to enter into government service, having already proved h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and administrative a b i l i t y by r e s t o r i n g the prosperity of the lands which had been i n poor heart on h i s succession to them, and i n h i s concern for h i s young r e l a t i v e , Piametta. Eichendorff does not consider Manfred's choice contemptible, merely less desirable than the other two. Someone must look after the lesser f o l k i f the p r i e s t and poet are to be r e l i e v e d of worldly r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and i t i s Manfred who takes up t h i s burden. He i s the indispensable counterpart of Portunat i n - 99 - regard to p r a c t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . P r i m a r i l y he performs the s o c i a l duties required of the knight , without being able or anxious to c la im the superior attainments of V i c t o r and Portunat . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", wr i t ten during the Napoleonic domination of Germany, a l l the important knights r e t i r e d from the world : F r i e d r i c h to a c l o i s t e r , Leontin to America, Rudolf f i r s t to h i s "Narrenburg", then to Egypt . There seems to be no place for them i n contemporary German s o c i e t y . F r i e d r i c h , the only one to remain i n Germany, has no expectation of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the l i f e of the country: he bel ieves i t w i l l be impossible to take e f f e c t i v e act ion u n t i l everyone has turned whole- hear tedly to God, and that prayer i s h i s only means of helping h i s people while awaiting that improbable state of a f f a i r s . "In "Dichter und ihre G e s e l l e n " , on the other hand, wr i t ten twenty years a f te r the f i r s t novel, the knights a l l remain a c t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y Manfred. Portunat intends to l i v e i n I t a l y , but h i s poetry w i l l s t i l l be German, and one cannot imagine t h i s elder brother of the Taugenichts never t r a v e l l i n g back to Germany. In any case, he w i l l be taking part i n as normal a l i f e as i s p o s s i b l e f o r E i c h e n d o r f f ' s poets . V i c t o r w i l l perforce withdraw from the world for the p e r i o d of h i s c l e r i c a l t r a i n i n g , but intends thereaf ter to r eturn to the dusty market-place to preach to the European heathen. The re turn of comparative s t a b i l i t y to German a f f a i r s made - 10.0 - p o s s i b l e a far more energetic and p o s i t i v e approach to society than was the case i n 1812. In "Dichter und ihre O e s e l l e n " Eichendorff has f i n a l l y formulated h i s ideas on knighthood as i t could be prac t i sed i n the nineteenth century. His only advance beyond t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l standpoint i s i n regard to the extension of the category " c h i v a l r o u s " to include s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r men and heroic women, who, i n h i s l a t e r works, command h i s increas ing admirat ion . Woman becomes, i n f a c t , emancipated, the free equal of man, though i t i s doubtful whether Eichendorff recognized just what a r e v o l u t i o n she had s u c c e s s f u l l y brought about i n h i s works: the idea i s i m p l i c i t , not e x p l i c i t . This manifestat ion of n o b i l i t y of s p i r i t amongst people born below noble rank reveals an ambiguity i n E i c h e n d o r f f s thought. While he c o n s i s t e n t l y upheld the value of t r a d i t i o n , to the point of being f requently accused of react ionary ideas , and opposed emancipation and a l l i t s works ( for instance, i n "Auch i c h war In Arkadien" Cl83ljp, he nevertheless was receptive to new thoughts which might be for the general good. As Fortunat says: "Das rechte A l t e i s t ewig neu, und das r e c h t e Neue schaff t s i c h doch Balm uber a l l e B 9 r g e . " ( II , £08) The idea of the combination of new and old elements i n a healthy society i s expressed more formal ly i n "Der Adel und die R e v o l u t i o n " , which was wri t ten I n and a'fter 1839 and i s - 101 - thus contemporaneous with the Novellen containing heroic women: "Aber nur die v 8 l l i g e Barbarei kann ohne Adel bestehen. In jedem Stadium der Z i v i l i s a t i o n wird es, g l e i c h v i e l unter welchen Namen und Formen, immer wieder Aristokraten geben, das he i s s t eine bevorzugte Klasse, die s i c h fiber die Massen erhebt, um sie zu lenken. Denn der Adel (um ihn bei dem einmal t r a d i t i o n n e l gewordenen Namen zu nennen) i s t seiner unverglnglichen Natur nach das ideale Element der Gesellschaft; er hat die Aufgabe, a l l e s Grosse, Edle und Schfine, wie und wo es auch im v d l k e auftauchen mag, r i t t e r l i c h zu wahren, das- ewig wandelbare Naue mit dem ewig Bestehenden zu vermitteln und somit erst w i r k l i c h lebensf&hig zu machen. Mit romantischen Illusionen und dem blossen eigensinnigen Festhalten des La'ngstver- j&hrten i s t also h i e r b e i gar nichts getan." (11,1043) The earnestness of t h i s support of new ideas and new sources of ideas belies the accusation of extreme conservatism which attaches to Eichendorff. I t also makes one wonder just what he was r i d i c u l i n g i n a passage from the unfinished auto-biographical Novelle, "Unstern", somewhat reminiscent of the "Adelskette" of " V i e l L&rmen um nichts" (II, 470): "Ich habe es immer gesagt, nichts a l s -Narrenpossen mit dieser G-leichheit. Das s o i l naturgem&ss sein! Als wEre die N atur nicht trade erst a r i s t o k r a t i s c h , s t e l l t den Ochsen ber das Kalb, den Hund fiber die Katze, die Katze fiber die Ratte, und unter den Menschen den hohen Geburtsadel des Genies fiber das andre gemeine Pack." (II, 1007) Is he parodying the egal i t a r i a n s or t h e i r opponents, or both? And i s he praising the "aristocracy of genius" for i t s s u periority or c r i t i c i s i n g i t for conceit? He c e r t a i n l y did not consider himself above c r i t i c i s m , self-parody, whether of himself or h i s works, being a f a i r l y common occurrence, one of the most amusing being i n the ninth - 102 - scene of "Meierbeths Giflck und E nde" (1827), where the Muse, surrounded by "Literatoren", complains, " i c h hab' es satt, mich an der %.tur zu ergBtzen" (I, 6 1 + 3 ) . But whatever E i c h e n d o r f f s doubts on equality may have been, he c e r t a i n l y believed i n recognizing true worth wherever i t might appear, and i s hence at least p a r t l y i n sympathy with the democratic party, as the following words of Robert, the revolutionary brother i n "Robert und Guiscard", show: "Vergebens fa b e l t i h r von Prau'n und Schreibern, Nein, mit Gedanken heisst's zum Kampfe gehn, Die immerdar aus der Erschlagnen Leibern, Ein unsichtbarer Heerbahn, neu erstehn, Von Menschenadel geht durchs ^olk ein Ahnen, Der Miter i s t a l s unsre a l t s t e n Ahnen ... Wollt i h r die ersten sein, zeigt euch a l s solche, So haben eure Ahnen einst getan, ErwBrgt der alten ^acht geschwollne Molche, Brecht selbst den Morgen an und l 8 s t den Bann, Wie's R i t t e r n zukommt, der gefangnen Dame, Die-Zukunft i s t i h r Reich, P r e i h e i t ihr Name." (I, U56-1+57) "Menschenadel" and " R i t t e r " - yet again the association of human n o b i l i t y with knights, of n o b i l i t y of the s p i r i t with n o b i l i t y of b i r t h . I t i s the duty of hereditary knights to have, and to cherish wherever i t springs anew, n o b i l i t y of s p i r i t , though from his e a r l i e s t prose work, "Die Zauberei im H e r b s t e " , Eichendorff acknowledged that the knight i s not necessarily noble i n character. The idea of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the knight for earthly j u s t i c e and h i s dedication through r e l i g i o n are expressed f i n a l l y i n E i c h e n d o r f f s l i t e r a r y l a s t w i l l and - 103 - testament, "Die h e i l i g e Hedwig", a fragment of the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a biography of S i l e s i a ' s patron s a i n t , begun s h o r t l y before h i s death i n 1857, i n the f o l l o w i n g passages: "Diesen hBheren w e l t g e s c h t l i c h e n K r e i s e n gehBrten z.B.: die g e i s t l i c h e n R i t t e r o r d e n u. die KlBster an, deren Regel gleichmSssig durch a l l e Nationen ging. Ihnen gehoren insbesondere auch Charaktere, wie die der H e i l i g e n , an. In d i e s e r Region der Weltgeschichte g i b t es keinen Unterschied der Nationen, der Stflnde und des Geschlechts; M i l d e und K r a f t v e r e i n i g e n s i c h zu e i n e r holier en Harmonie a l l e r Seelenkr&fte." (IV, 1074) " i n w e i t e r e r Gliederung nach unten gruppierte s i c h -um den K a i s e r das R i t t e r t u m , i n seinem i n n e r s t e n Wesen g l e i c h f a l l s e i n k i r c h l i c h religiBser V e r e i n , um auch i n untergeordneten K r e i s e n die G e r e c h t i g k e i t e t c . Gottes auf Erden d a r z u s t e l l e n : Schutz der Witwen und Waisen, Verehrung der Frauen a l s eines Abglanzes der h e i l i g e n Maria, der Mariendienst e t c . e t c . " (IV, 1075) These two passages c o n t r i b u t e the l a s t expression of E i c h e n d o r f f s i d e a l : no d i s t i n c t i o n of n a t i o n , rank or sex, and the k n i g h t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of d i v i n e j u s t i c e on e a r t h . This e x a l t e d concept of the knight was E i c h e n d o r f f s i d e a l throughout h i s l i f e , and as he matured, the concept widened to embrace both men and women of l e s s than k n i g h t l y b i r t h who, i n s p i t e of t h i s handicap, a t t a i n to l o f t i n e s s of s p i r i t . This i d e a i s expressed i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", where F r i e d r i c h speaks of poetry's "angeborene R i t t e r , d i e D i c h t e r " ( I I , 3 2 ) , E i c h e n d o r f f s f i r s t l i n k i n g of the two p r o f e s s i o n s i n h i s prose works, an e a r l y suggestion of W i l l i b a l d ' s " A d e l s k e t t e " of poetry ( I I , 1+70). F r i e d r i c h a l s o l i n k s knighthood w i t h r e l i g i o n i n saying, " i c h ... - 101+ - wfihle mir das Kreuz zum Schwerte" ( II , 297) A t h i r d l i n k i n E i c h e n d o r f f s t r i n i t y of poet, p r i e s t , and knight i s to be found i n the fo l lowing stanzas of F r i e d r i c h ' s fa rewel l to poetry, known i n c o l l e c t i o n s as "An die D i c h t e r " : "Der Dichter kann nicht mit verarmen; Wenn a l l e s um ihn her zerfMllt, Hebt ihn e in gUttliches Erbarmen - Der Dichter i s t das Herz der Welt . Den bidden Wil len a l l e r Wesen, Im Irdischen des Herren Spur, S o i l er durch L i e b e s k r a f t erlBsen, Der schBne L i e b l i n g der Natur. Drum hat ihm Gott das Wort gegeben, Das kuhn das Dunkelste benennt, Den frommen Ernst im reichen Leben, Die F r e u d i g k e i t , die keiner kennt . Da s o l i er singen f r e i auf Erden, In Lust und Not auf Gott ver t raun, Dass a l l e r Herzen f r e i e r werden, Eratmend i n die Klange schaun." ( II , 298-299) Both poet and knight share the p r i e s t l y duty of f o s t e r i n g r e l i g i o n and c a r r y i n g out i t s e th ics beyond the p o r t a l s of the church. The knight need not be a poet nor the poet a knight , but i n general the two c a l l i n g s are combined, while F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r give up both vocations for that of pr ies thood . Knightood or , to use a more e l a s t i c term, c h i v a l r y can be expanded to embrace women of any rank and men of l e s s e r rank whose characters show the i d e a l t r a i t s of r e l i g i o u s fervour , p u r i t y , l o y a l t y and readiness to s a c r i f i c e themselves f o r o thers . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were pr ized by Eichendorff a l l h i s l i f e , wi th a broadening - 10^ - a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r i n c i d e n c e as he grew o l d e r . Thus the k n i g h t , i n h i s s p i r i t u a l though not h i s temporal m a n i f e s t a - t i o n s , may be c o n s i d e r e d the embodiment of E i c h e n d o r f f s i d e a l of humanity throughout h i s works. - 106 - BIBLIOGRAPHY I. E i c h e n d o r f f s Works'. Eichendorffs Werke (ed. Richard Dietze), Vols. I-II (Leipzig and Wien, 1891). Eichendorffs Werke (ed. Ludwig Krlhe), Vols. I-IV (B e r l i n , L eipzig, Wien and Stuttgart, 1908). Sffmtliche Werke des Freiherrn Joseph von Eichendorff. "~~ H i s t o r i s c h - k r i t i s c h e Ausgabe (ed. Wilhelm Kosch). Vols. I, 1-2, I I I , VI, X, XI, XII, XIII, XXII (Regensburg, 1908- ). Eichendorff, Joseph Preiherr von, Neue Gesamtausgabe der Werke und Schriften (ed. Gerhard Baumann and S i e g f r i e d tfrosse), v 0 l s . I-IV (Stuttgart, 1957 ). I I . Other Works. Bauer, Jolantha, Eichendorff als Hjstoriker (Dissertation, Wi-en, 19U9). " - Behrendt, Roland, O.S.B. Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f s Romantic Concept of History and the Restoration of Marienburg Castle (Master's Dissertation. Minnesota. 1953). Benz, Richard, Die deutsche Romantik. Geschichte einer geistigen Bewegung (Leipzig. 19U0). Brandenburg, Hans, Joseph von Eichendorff. Sein Leben und sein Werk (Munchen, 1922). Coogan, Daniel Francis, Junior. The Themes of E i c h e n d o r f f s L y r i c Poetry (Dissertation, Wisconsin, 194-L )• ~~* Emrich, Wilhelm, Protest und Verheissung (Frankfurt-am- Main and Bonn, 1960K Forster, R.# "Kaiser J u l i a n i n der Dichtung a l t e r und neuer Z e i t , " Studien zur Vergleichkunden, L i t . V (1905), 50-57. G r i l l p a r z e r , Franz, Werke. (ed. F r i e d r i c h Schreyvogl) Vols. I-II, (Salzburg and Stuttgart, 1958). Grosse, Helmut. Das C h r i s t u s b i i d der romantischen Dichtung (Dissertation, Marburg, 1949). - 107 - Haberland, Helga, Das Problem der P&nonie im Werke J o s e f von E i c h e n d o r f f s ( D i s s e r t a t i o n . Frankfurt-am-Main. 1954) . Hoffman, E.T.A., Per goldene Tppf ( S t u t t g a r t , I 9 6 0 ) . H S l l e r e r , Walter, "Schflnheit und E r s t a r r u n g , " DU, V I I , H e f t 2 (1955), 93-103. - ~~" Huch, R i c a r d a , Die Rpmantik ( L e i p z i g , 1920) . K e l l e r , Otto, E i c h e n d o r f f s K r i t i k der Romantik ( Z u r i c h , 1954) . Kluckhohn, P a u l , Die deutsche Rpmantik ( B i e l f e l d and L e i p z i g , 1 9 2 4 T - Kluckhchn, P a u l , Das Ideengut der deutschen Rpmantik (Ttfbingen, 19^3TT Kluckhchn, P a u l , " V i e l f a l t und E i n h e i t der Rpmantik," U n i v e r s i t a s . J g . V I I I , Bd. 1 (1953), 139-147. K p r f f , H. A., G e i s t der Gpe t h e z e i t . V o l s . I-IV, ( L e i p z i g , 1953) . Kunisch, Hermann, "Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f , 'Das Wiedersehen'. E i n u n v e r S f f e n t l i c h e s Npvellenfragment aus der H a n d s c h r i f t m i t g e t e i l t und e r l f i u t e r t vpn Hermann Kunisch," A u r e r a . XXV (1965), 7-39. Kunz, J o s e f , E i c h e n d o r f f ; HBhepunkt und K r i s e der Spfltromantik (Qberusel..1 9 5 1J. » L u t h i , Hans J f l r g , "Dionysos und C h r i s t u s i n der L y r i k J o s e f s von E i c h e n d o r f f , " Schweizer Monatshefte, No. VII (1957-1958), 782-791. . M a r t i n i . F r i t z , Deutsche L j t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t e von den Anf&ngen b i s .zur Gegenwart. ( S t u t t g a r t , I 9 6 0 ) . Mauser, Wolfram, " E i c h e n d o r f f - L i t e r a t u r 1959-1962," DU, J g . XIV, H e f t - 4 (1962), B e i l a g e , 1-12. M8bus, Gerhard, Per andere E i c h e n d o r f f . (Oanabrflck, I 9 6 0 ) . MBbus, Gerhard, " E i c h e n d o r f f a l s N i h i l i s t , " Stimmen der Z e i t . CLV (1954-1955), 372-380. Mflhler, Robert, "Pie Zauberei im Herbste," Aurora.;XXlV. (1964), 46 -65 . - . M f i l l e r , Joachim, "Per Stand der E i c h e n d o r f f - F o r s c h u n g , " Forschungen und F p r t s c h r l t t e . J g . XXXVII,Heft 5 , B e r l i n (1963) . ' - Muschg, Walter, T r a g i s c h e L j t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t e (Bern, 1957) . - 108 - Porsch, Ingeborg-Maria, Die Macht des vergangenen Lebens i n E ichendorffs Roman "Ahnung und Gegenwart . ( D i s s e r t a t i o n . i ' rankfurt-am-Hain, 1951). Requadt, P a u l , "E ichendorffs 'Ahnung und Gegenwart' " DU, V I I , Heft 2 (1955), 79-92. ~~ Riepe, C h r i s t i a n , Ejohendorffs Mensohengestaltung ( B e r l i n , 1941). R i l e y , Thomas A . , "An A l l e g o r i c a l In terpre ta t ion of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s 'Ahnung und Gegenwart ' ," MLR, LIV (1959), 204-213. H i l e y , Thomas A . , "Die Erzfthltechnik des jungen E i c h e n d o r f f s , " . A u r o r a . XX (i960), 30-35. Schneider, Reinhold , E i c h e n d o r f f . Die Sendung des chr is t l i c 'hen R i t t e r s . Mit einem Anhang: "Ewig i s t das Rit ter tum" Gedichte von J o s e p h v o n E i c h e n d o r f f (Aschaffenburg, 1949). S c h u l t z , Pranz, K l a s s i k und Rpmantik der Deutschen (Epochen der deutschen L i t e r a t u r , IV, 2, S tut tgar t , 1952). Seeker, Gtlnther, Joseph vpn Sjchendorffa "Schlcss Dflrande" ( D i s s e r t a t i p n , Marburg, 1927). S e i d l i n , Oskar, " E i c h e n d c r f f s B l i c k i n die G 9 a c h i c h t e " PMLA, LXXVII (1962), 544-560. Sengle, F r i e d r i c h , Das deutsche Geschichtsdrama. Gesohichte eines l i t e r a r i s c h e n Mythos (Stut tgar t . 1952). Skidmore, W i l l a r d Evans, E i c h e n d o r f f '3 "Weltanschauung" as Revealed i n h i s Language ( D i s s e r t a t i o n . I l l i n o i s , 1942). Steinbfichel , ^omantik. E i n Zyklus Tfibinger Vorlesungen (ed. Theodor steinbtichel) , (Tubingen und Stut tgar t , 1548). S t e n z e l , Die deutschen R omantiker (ed. Gerhard S t e n z e l ) , V o l s . I - I I (Salzburg, 1954). S t o c k l e i n , E ichendorff heute (ed. Paul S t o c k l e i n ) , (Munchen, I960). S t B c k l e i n , P a u l , Joseph yon Eichendorff in Selbstzeugnlssen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1963). Tamm, E m i l , Die Bedeutung des Romans "Ahnung und Gegenwart" fur Ejchendorffs g e l s t l g e Entwicklung ( D i s s e r t a t i o n . Hamburg, 1924). - 109 - Tieck, Ludwig, Per getreue Eckart und der Tannenhfluser (Deutsche L i t e r a t u r , Reihe Romantik, VII, L e i p z i g , 1933). Uhlendorff, Franz, "Frflhlingssehnsucht und V erlockung bei Eichendorff," Aurora. X V l l l (1958), 18-32. Wehrli, Ren/, Eichendorffs Erlebnis und Oestaltung der Sinnenwelt (Frauenfeld and Leipzig. 1938). Weseraeier, Reinhold, Joseph von Eichendorffs s a t i r i s c h e Novellen (Dissertation, Marburg, 1915). Wlese, Benno von, Pie deutsche Npvelle. Interpretationen. Vols. I-II (Ptlaseldorf, 1961+J. Workman, John Pavid, The Themes of E i c h e n d o r f f s Narrative Prose (Pi s s e r t a t i o n , Wisconsin, 1939).

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Germany 12 21
Netherlands 6 0
United States 4 1
Slovak Republic 4 0
France 2 0
Romania 2 0
United Kingdom 1 0
China 1 39
City Views Downloads
Unknown 22 21
Bratislava 4 0
Beijing 1 0
Durham 1 0
Wilmington 1 0
Buffalo 1 0
Deltona 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items