UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The figure of the knight in Eichendorff's narrative prose Mills, Catherine Mary 1966-12-31

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i  THE FIGURE OP THE KNIGHT IN EICHENDORFF'S NARRATIVE PROSE fey CATHERINE MARY MILLS B.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  191+3  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the -Department of German  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as to  conforming  the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1966  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  t h e s i s in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of Columbia, for  I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  thesis for  Department  for  representatives. thesis  for  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  available  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be  i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  financial  British  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s It  freely  the  ii  Abstract In the f o l l o w i n g study, the w r i t e r has considered, the f i g u r e o f the knight as i t appears i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' a n a r r a t i v e prose works, p a r t i c u l a r l y the two n o v e l s , "Ahnung und Gegenwart" and " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " , and two Mfirchennovellen, "Das Marmorbild".  "Die Zauberei  The knight  im H e r b s t e " and  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y good:  may embody e v i l p r i n c i p l e s , o r , through weakness, t o the daemonic f o r c e s i n n a t u r e .  he  succumb  G e n e r a l l y , however, the  knight possesses s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and i t s attendant v i r t u e s o f l o y a l t y , p a t r i o t i s m , and s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s . Whereas E i c h e n d o r f f a 3 t r o n g r e l i g i o u s stand v a r i e s f r o m 1  the u s u a l Romantic p a t t e r n , h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o f a r t and metaphysics i s t y p i c a l l y Romantic: a poet or become a p r i e s t .  the knight may a l s o be  The k n i g h t s  o f the Napoleonic  e r a , t h a t i s , those i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", t u r n away from s o c i e t y , but those i n the l a t e r works p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n mundane a f f a i r s .  Indeed, i n the end,  E i c h e n d o r f f comes t o acknowledge t h e i n c i d e n c e o f c h i v a l r o u s behaviour i n persons not born t o k n i g h t l y e s t a t e .  • • •  XXX  CONTENTS PAGE I. II.  III.  IV.  V. VI. VII.  INTRODUCTION  1  "DIE ZAUBEREI IM HERBSTE"  6  "AHNUNG UND GEGENWART"  17  "DAS MARMORBILD"  35  "DICHTER UND IHRE GESELLEN"  55  LATER NOVELLEN  85  CONCLUSION  91  BIBLIOGRAPHY  106  I.  Introduction E i c h e n d o r f f r e c o g n i z e d human goodness  he found i t :  wherever  i n the n o b i l i t y , the b o u r g e o i s i e , peasants  and a r t i s a n s ; i n h i s f e l l o w - C a t h o l i c s , i n P r o t e s t a n t s , Jews o r a t h e i s t s ;  i n the i n h a b i t a n t s o f c i t y o r c o u n t r y .  He also,acknowledged the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f changes  i n the  s o c i a l order and i n government, and adapted h i m s e l f w i t h commendable courage and p a t i e n c e t o the d r a s t i c a l l y reduced c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f h i s a d u l t l i f e and t o the t r i b u l a t i o n s of c i v i l  s e r v i c e amidst u n c o n g e n i a l c o l l e a g u e s .  But i n h i s l i t e r a r y works he c o n s t a n t l y e x t o l l e d "the good old  days" o f the h e r e d i t a r y n o b i l i t y , when, he b e l i e v e d ,  everyone knew h i s p o s i t i o n and stayed i n i t u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y , and when everyone was a devout In  Catholic.  t h i s a t t i t u d e i t i s easy t o d e t e c t the g e n e r a l  view o f t h e German Romantics toward t h e i r n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . N o v a l i s ' essay, "Die C h r i s t e n h e i t oder Europa", i s a c r y s t a l l i s a t i o n o f t h i s o p i n i o n , namely t h a t d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages thought and a r t were i n s p i r e d by C h r i s t i a n unity.  I n t h e i r resentment o f F r e n c h i n t r u s i o n  into  German a f f a i r s under Napoleon, many German i n t e l l e c t u a l s of  the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y sought comfort and  i n s p i r a t i o n i n t h e i r n a t i o n a l p a s t , through whose evocat i o n they wished t o i n s p i r e t h e i r fellow-countrymen t o n a t i o n a l u n i t y and r e s i s t a n c e t o the enemy.  Knowledge o f  - 2 -  h i s t o r y b e i n g even more i m p e r f e c t than than now, Romantics  the  chose f o r t h i s purpose t h a t p e r i o d d u r i n g which  the z e n i t h o f mediaeval c u l t u r e was reached:  the l a t e  t w e l f t h and e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , the time o f the e p i c of c h i v a l r y  (or, as i t was  then c a l l e d i n French, the  "romant", from which the word "romantic" i s d e r i v e d ) , the time o f the Crusades. In t h i s p e r i o d E i c h e n d o r f f , l i k e N o v a l i s , what he l o o k e d f o r :  saw  an i d e a l s o c i e t y i n which, church and  s t a t e were u n i t e d i n the outward form o f t h e H o l y Roman Empire w i t h the Pope as s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y and the Emperor as temporal, the l a t t e r owing a l l e g i a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n t o the former, and the whole o f Europe h a p p i l y German, s i n c e Charlemagne, the founder o f t h i s Empire, had been a Germanic chieftain.  I t i s unnecessary t o p o i n t out the f a l l a c i e s  and  d e f i c i e n c i e s o f such a view, the p r e s e n t study not b e i n g an historical analysis.  I t s u f f i c e s merely to s t a t e t h a t  this  was E i c h e n d o r f f s c o n c e p t i o n o f Germany up to the time o f the Reformation (indeed, u n t i l the time o f the A u f k l a r u n g , s i n c e he r e f e r s to the T h i r t y Years' War Tragodie des M i t t e l a l t e r s "  as " d i e s e grosse  ( 1 1 , 1 0 2 3 ^ i n h i s essay "Der A d e l  •'"Volumes and pages are r e f e r r e d t o throughout t h i s study a c c o r d i n g t o the most complete e d i t i o n a v a i l a b l e to date o f E i c h e n d o r f f a works: Joseph F r e i h e r r von E i c h e n d o r f f . Neue Gesamtausgabe der Werke und S c h r i f t e n i n v i e r Banden. herausgegeben von Gerhard Bauraann i n V e r b i n d u n g m i t S i e g f r i e d Grosse (J.G. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung Nachf., S t u t t g a r t ) . These four.volumes-appeared i n 1957; & subsequent f i f t h volume was not a v a i l a b l e t o the present w r i t e r . The r e f e r e n c e above i s to Volume I I , page 1023, o f t h i s e d i t i o n .  - 3  -  und  die Revolution"  (l8ij.8), on which event he blamed a l l  the  subsequent i l l s  o f mankind, i n h i s c r i t i c a l though not  i n h i s l i t e r a r y works, which, f o r a l l t h e i r f i r m n e s s , r i g i d i t y , of p r i n c i p l e , are seldom In t h i s sketchy outstanding  tendentious.  conception  o f the times,  f i g u r e i s t h a t of the k n i g h t .  a Roman C a t h o l i c ; he and breeding;  he  i s , of  i s equally obviously of gentle  imaginable,  t o have to t h i n k o f money.  He may  t u r n monk or p r i e s t .  and  the few exceptions  being  a  dramatic works,  s a t i r e s i n which the v i r t u e of the t h a t i s to say, His  E i c h e n d o r f f s k n i g h t must be f i r s t 1  there  nobility  moreover, i s not o n l y t h a t o f b i r t h , but t h a t o f  character;  o f a l l a good C a t h o l i c ,  a l t h o u g h i n the l i t e r a r y works r e l i g i o u s dogma i s so  little  c o u l d almost s u b s t i t u t e the phrase "a  good C h r i s t i a n " , or even "a r e l i g i o u s man";  i n addition,  i s a l o y a l s u b j e c t o f h i s k i n g or p r i n c e and  f a i t h f u l p r o t e c t o r of h i s own  dependants, and  should  as an example of p e r f e c t wisdom i n a l l matters, and  be  Such a f i g u r e appears i n  i s no v i r t u e i n a world without c h i v a l r y .  the knight  birth  be a p r i n c e , he may  i s emphasized by h i s absence:  s t r e s s e d t h a t one  course,  so wealthy as never  almost a l l o f E i c h e n d o r f f ' s n a r r a t i v e and  knight  He  the  i s , l i k e every hero of a mediaeval romance,  the most handsome man  poet, he may  even  the  serve  spiritual  temporal. E i c h e n d o r f f made use  of the mediaeval i n s t i t u t i o n  o f knighthood, not t o supply a p i c t u r e s q u e  background t o  h i s works, as d i d T i e e k , Fouque', and o t h e r s , but t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o a p e r i o d d u r i n g which i d e a l s , as expressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f the time, were p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h , and which he regarded as the standard f o r a C h r i s t i a n  society;  and hence t o i n s p i r e h i s contemporaries, p a r t i c u l a r l y the members o f the n o b i l i t y , the s p i r i t u a l descendants o f P a r z i v a l and Iwein, t o acknowledge and t o attempt t o r e v i v i f y these i d e a l s .  F r although, i n "Die Gesehichte 0  der p o e t i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r Deutschlands",  (1857), E i c h e n d o r f f  censures, w i t h an a n i m o s i t y q u i t e a s t o n i s h i n g i n a man otherwise so m i l d and courteous, anyone, past or p r e s e n t , who dares t o c r i t i c i s e  the n o b i l i t y o r any other m a n i f e s t a -  t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n , he i s by no means unaware that nobles can have f a u l t s .  But he b e l i e v e s t h a t they a l s o have and  should a p p l y the a b i l i t y t o overcome t h e i r f a u l t s , t h a t i t i s t h e i r duty t o be noble i n the s p i r i t u a l sense o f the word and t o encourage t h e i r s o c i a l i n f e r i o r s t o behave as w e l l as i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r l e s s e r c a p a c i t y .  I n o n l y one  way does E i c h e n d o r f f acknowledge t h e e q u a l i t y o f mankind, and t h a t i m p l i c i t l y :  a l l men (and even women) a r e equal  i n the eyes o f God, e q u a l l y e n t i t l e d t o H i s Grace, e q u a l l y o b l i g e d t o be good C a t h o l i c s :  t h e f i g u r e o f the "Taugenicht  t h a t d e l i g h t f u l , i r r e s p o n s i b l e , i n c o r r u p t i b l e m i l l e r ' s son, i s a case i n p o i n t .  But even i n the r e a l m o f r e l i g i o n , the  nobles a r e b e t t e r endowed by t h e i r  s u p e r i o r h e r e d i t y than  the common f o l k , and should a c t a s l a y i n t e r p r e t e r s o f the word o f God, and as examples o f the t r u e C h r i s t i a n .  - 5  -  On© o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n a sketch f o r an a l l e g o r i c a l drama i s thus d e s c r i b e d by E i c h e n d o r f f : "Ein g e t r e u e r R i t t e r : r i t t e r l i c h und t r e u und h o c h h e r z i g aufopfernd, das a l t e Regime b i s zum Tode v e r t e i d i g e o d . " , t I , 9 5 5 ) The  one  i n d i s p e n s a b l e a t t r i b u t e which he  omits from the  above d e s c r i p t i o n , but which can be deduced both from the f a c t t h a t the drama was  t o be i n the s t y l e of Calderon  from E i c h e n d o r f f s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e to l i f e , 1  faith.  I n h i s view, anyone who  i s religious  is "ritterlich" i s a  devout C h r i s t i a n , pure i n h e a r t , without l i n e s s , and,  and  t a i n t of  as i n the d e s c r i p t i o n , l o y a l and  world-  nobly  self-sacrificing. E i c h e n d o r f f s e x h o r t a t i o n to noble behaviour no empty r h e t o r i c .  He h i m s e l f rode o f f to war  was  i n the best  k n i g h t l y t r a d i t i o n , to h e l p f r e e h i s country from h e r enemies, and devoted y e a r s o f s e r v i c e t o the P r u s s i a n government.  In p r i v a t e l i f e ,  he was  an exemplary C h r i s t i a n  and nobleman, meeting a d v e r s i t y w i t h f o r t i t u d e and fame w i t h h u m i l i t y , and with courtesy. ceased  In h i s p u r e l y l i t e r a r y works he  to express  e n t i r e l y without  s u f f e r i n g f o o l s , i f not g l a d l y , at l e a s t never  the beauty o f h i s i d e a l s , almost d i d a c t i c i s m , and i t i s to some o f these  t h a t we must t u r n to f o l l o w the gradual a l t e r a t i o n of h i s views o f the p l a c e o f the k n i g h t i n the s o c i e t y of h i s time •  own  II.  D i e Z a u b e r e i im Herbste  (Summary. The k n i g h t Ubaldo, separated from h i s companions d u r i n g a hunt, comes upon a man who s h e l t e r s him o v e r n i g h t i n an i s o l a t e d cave. Ubaldo deduces, from the man*s c l o t h i n g and from the song and i n c o h e r e n t p r a y e r s which he overhears d u r i n g the n i g h t , t h a t h i s host i s a k n i g h t doing panance f o r some s i n , but without the s t r e n g t h o f mind or of f a i t h t o b r i n g about h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Ubaldo r e p e a t s h i s v i s i t , and f i n a l l y induces the hermit t o come t o h i s c a s t l e and t e l l h i m h i s s t o r y . The hermit r e l a t e s t h a t he and a f r i e n d were about t o set out on a crusade together, but t h a t he f a i l e d to j o i n i t because o f h i s s e c r e t l o v e f o r a young l a d y . He r i d e s o f f h u n t i n g i n s t e a d , and hears h u n t i n g horns and a song which he e v e n t u a l l y f i n d s t o be sung by h i s beloved, who r e c e i v e s him i n an e x o t i c garden. She says t h a t she has l o n g l o v e d him, but, t h a t he i s u n f o r t u n a t e t o have come w i t h i n h e a r i n g o f her song; without e x p l a i n i n g t h i s odd statement, she t e l l s him that she has been f o r c e d i n t o b e t r o t h a l w i t h h i s f r i e n d , who has d e c e i v e d him and w i l l come on the morrow t o f e t c h her away - u n l e s s he d i e s . On the f o l l o w i n g day he meets the f r i e n d i n the mountains, f i g h t s w i t h him, and pushes him over a c l i f f . Thereupon he hastens t o the l a d y ' s c a s t l e , where he s t a y s as h e r l o v e r . She s u f f e r s from melancholy a t t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e autumn, and one n i g h t he awakes t o f i n d h e r a p p a r e n t l y dead. Once more he rushes o f f a i m l e s s l y i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s , awaking the next morning t o d i s c o v e r t h a t s p r i n g has come. He f e e l s too b e w i l d e r e d and g u i l t y t o r e t u r n t o normal l i f e , and seeks t o e x p i a t e h i s s i n s i n s o l i t u d e . A f t e r a year Ubaldo f i n d s him. Ubaldo thereupon r e v e a l s t o Raimund, whom he has r e c o g n i s e d d u r i n g the n a r r a t i v e , t h a t he h i m s e l f was the f r i e n d Raimund thought he had k i l l e d : t h a t he had gone on the crusade and a f t e r i t had m a r r i e d B e r t a whom they both l o v e d ; t h a t many y e a r s have passed, w i t h Raimund under the i n f l u e n c e o f an e v i l magic which appears i n t h i s neighbourhood i n the autumn. The i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t he has spent h i s whole l i f e under an i l l u s i o n d r i v e s Raimund t o d e s p a i r . He rushes out i n t o the woods, where the music o f the autumnal enchantment c a n once more be heard, and i s never seen again.)  - 7 Eichendorff•s im H e r b s t e " , was until  1906.  This  i s one set  s h o r t l y a f t e r the product  suppression picaresque  until  a total purity  (see p. 3 ) ,  T h i r t y Y e a r s ' War.  with  by  the  taking first  is a  theme o f  the  "Aus  second i s a  dem  Leben  Likewise  "Olticksritter",  a  eines  ethical attitude underlying  h i s apparent  Eichendorff'a  M&rchen, N o v e l l e n  "Die  im H e r b s t e " , a r e  and  Siglhupfer, a  All  subsequent  serious confrontations  c o n t e m p o r a r y p r o b l e m s , e v e n when, as  i n " L i b e r t a s und  Preier",  i n the  rollicking  problems are  dealt with  historical  two  of  of ihre a  " m e d i a e v a l " s t o r i e s does  s i t u a t i o n p l a y an  s u p p l i e s a few  details  mention of the  Crusades or the  fact, Eichendorff  important  part:  i n events which, a p a r t  e q u a l l y w e l l have t a k e n p l a c e In  guise  to  farce.  In n e i t h e r of the the  and  serious  frivolity.  novels,  and  fundamental  e a c h o f whom i s a m i l l e r ' s son w i t h  the  in  place  which i t shares r e a l i s m i n d e t a i l  ennobles b o t h the  Zauberei  second,  hence, presumably, i t s  lack of r e a l i s m i n p l o t .  Taugenichts,  ^he  long a f t e r h i s death;  v a r i a t i o n on  Taugenichts",  prose t a l e s  i n I8I1I, i s m e d i a e v a l o n l y  term  of h i s immaturity;  Zauberei  published  i n the M i d d l e Ages; the  view o f the  1  although not  o f o n l y two  Glucksritter", written  Eichendorff s  prose n a r r a t i v e , "Die  w r i t t e n i n 1809  E i c h e n d o r f f which are "Die  first  totally  from  T h i r t y Y e a r s ' War, i n the  lacked  author's a  sense o f  i t merely the could  life-time. historical  - 8 or  g e o g r a p h i c a l background - h i s t r o p i c a l i s l a n d s i n "Eine (1835) are merely  Meerfahrt"  S i l e s i a n h i l l s w i t h palm t r e e s  a d e f i c i e n c y which can a l s o be remarked i n Shakespeare's works, and which h a r d l y c o n s t i t u t e s a r e p r o a c h t o e i t h e r w r i t e r , as both were concerned mainly w i t h the human s o u l . "Die Z a u b e r e i im Herbste" s e t s f o r t h the problem which i s t o be found throughout  E i c h e n d o r f f ' s works:  a c h o i c e between adherence t o the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , d e s p a i r and a n n i h i l a t i o n .  history.  lyrics  (1811) t o the t r a g e d i e s , c o n c e i v e d on the  as " Z w i e l i c h t " scale.  or  T h i s c o n f l i c t can be observed i n  a l l the l i t e r a r y works, from such a p p a r e n t l y simple  grand  chief  F a i t h even becomes a c r i t e r i o n i n h i s l i t e r a r y  I n "Die Zauberei im Herbste", the problem i s  c o n f r o n t e d on the s m a l l e s t s c a l e :  one  k n i g h t i s opposed t o another k n i g h t who temptation;  one  steadfast Christian succumbs t o  i d e a l woman i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h  p e r s o n i f i e d as her double.  temptation  Numerous minor f i g u r e s may  be  i g n o r e d , as t h e y have no i n f l u e n c e on the a c t i o n . E i c h e n d o r f f goes s t r a i g h t t o the h e a r t of the matter:  the s o u l i s endangered by l a c k o f f a i t h a s s o c i a t e d  with sensuality.  Ubaldo, the exemplary k n i g h t , and h i s  w i f e , B e r t a , r e s i s t these dangers s u c c e s s f u l l y :  "Zauberei  s o i l i n den nahen Wflldern wohnen, und o f t zur H e r b s t z e i t s t r e i f e n s o l c h e TBne i n der Nacht b i s an unser S c h l o s s .  Es  vergeht eben so s c h n e l l a l s es kommt, und w i r bekfimmern uns  - 9 w e l t e r n i c h t darum ( l l ,  98l),  1 , 1  His resistance to  temptation a r i s e s d i r e c t l y from h i s f a i t h which a l s o l e a d s him f a r enough i n t o the m i s s i o n a r y f i e l d t o attempt  to  redeem the k n i g h t l y r e c l u s e , Raimund, even b e f o r e r e c o g n i z i n g him as h i s o l d f r i e n d : Ritter  Ubaldo  "Dies bewog den frommen  , seine Besuche B f t e r zu wiederholen,  den Schwindelden mit der ganzen v o l l e n K r a f t  eines  ungetrtlbten, s c h u l d l o s e n Gamuts zu umfassen und ( I I , 973)  um  zu e r h a l t e n . "  U b a l d o s z e a l causes him t o express h i m s e l f l i k e !  a p r i g ; B e r t a , h i s p e r f e c t w i f e , s e l f - e f f a c i n g , p i o u s , and competent, appears  insipid.  These flaws perhaps motivated  i n p a r t the l o n g s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h i s t a l e . i n these two  Nevertheless,  f i g u r e s E i c h e n d o r f f expresses the  ideal  c o n c e p t i o n o f the k n i g h t and h i s l a d y to which he  adhered  a l l h i s l i f e , a l t h o u g h he g r a d u a l l y overcame the problem o f p r e s e n t i n g h i s c h a r a c t e r s i n a manner which does not r e p e l the r e a d e r . P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y i t should be remarked t h a t Ubaldo has f u l f i l l e d the m i l i t a r y aspect o f h i s c a l l i n g , he fought i n the Holy Land f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s .  i n that  This a c t i v i t y ,  ^ E i c h e n d o r f f u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e s s p r i n g and the s u l t r i n e s s o f summer w i t h sensual temptation, but i n t h i s e a r l y work autumn, the season of d e c l i n e and of a f i n a l l a t e f l o w e r i n g i n n a t u r e , i s equated w i t h a moral d e c l i n e and an i n c r e a s e d s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to s e n s u a l temptation i n mankind. T h i s temptation i s made m a n i f e s t i n the b i r d s o n g and h u n t i n g horns which accompany the temptress on her r i d e through the woods.  -10  -  however, E i c h e n d o r f f regards as l e s s important lifelong  C h r i s t i a n duty of the k n i g h t .  deeds are merely matter  than the  Ubaldo's doughty  f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n i n the  story,  whereas h i s f a i t h o b v i o u s l y i s the cause of h i s going on a crusade, the g u i d i n g l i g h t  of h i s way  of l i f e ,  and  the  spur f o r h i s endeavour t o h e l p Raimund. The u n f o r t u n a t e Raimund i s E i c h e n d o r f f s f i r s t d e p i c t i o n of the k n i g h t who c a r r y i t out.  knows h i s duty but f a i l s  He had planned t o go on a crusade  to  with  Ubaldo, but drew back from t h i s venture at the l a s t moment because o f h i s s e c r e t l o v e f o r B e r t a . as s i n c e r e as U b a l d o s , 1  Had h i s f a i t h been  he too would have made the  hazardous p i l g r i m a g e to the Holy Land, and perhaps there have r e c o v e r e d from h i s unhappy l o v e .  I n s t e a d he  i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s by the s e n s u a l "Zauberei im  i s lured  Herbste",  p e r s o n i f i e d as B e r t a ' 3 double, a device used a g a i n more skilfully trivial  i n "Das Marmorbild",  and a l s o on a number o f more  o c c a s i o n s , though the "Doppelg&nger" m o t i f i s more  commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E i c h e n d o r f f s male c h a r a c t e r s . 1  Raimund, h a v i n g once f a l l e n v i c t i m t o the of  snare  s e n s u a l i t y , becomes, l i k e most other E i c h e n d o r f f f i g u r e s  i n the same s i t u a t i o n , bewildered, deluded, the passage o f time.  oblivious to  He t h i n k s t h a t only a year  has  e l a p s e d s i n c e Ubaldo's departure t o the Holy Land, whereas perhaps t e n y e a r s have passed by. statement  H o r r i f i e d by Ubaldo's  o f the f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g h i m s e l f and B e r t a , Raimund  -  11  c r i e s , " V e r l o r e n , a l l e s v e r l o r e n l ... J a , v e r l o r e n ,  und  meine L i e b e und mein ganzes Leben eine lange Tfiuschungl" ( I I , 98I4.)  Ubaldo* s e f f o r t s are v a i n .  Raimund r e l a p s e s  permanently i n t o h i s d e l u s i o n at the next m a n i f e s t a t i o n  of  the autumnal bewitchment. The  e f f e c t of f a i t h i s m a n i f e s t e d  very  i n t h i s s t o r y i n the d i f f e r e n c e between Ubaldo's Raimund*s responses t o the e r o t i c  song of the  "Uber g e l b ' und r o t e S t r e i f e n " ( I I , 976), sound of church b e l l s .  appeal  and  enchantress, a l s o t o the  Both Ubaldo and Raimund,  presumably B e r t a , s i n c e Ubaldo says, "Wir n i c h t darum" ( I I , 981),  and  plainly  and  bekummern  are s u s c e p t i b l e to the daemonic  t o the senses as symbolised  by the autumnal music,  but t h i s appeal f a i t h and  i s f i r m l y r e p r e s s e d by Ubaldo, secure 2 i n h i s happy marriage."  Even the sound o f c h u r c h b e l l s , on most a source  uns  of reassurance  no comfort t o Raimund.  occasions  to Eichendorff's characters, In r e l a t i n g h i s s t o r y , he  in his  brings  says t o  Ubaldo: ^Marriage i s a t o p i c seldom d i s c u s s e d by E i c h e n d o r f f , although two happy marriages, both between members o f the b o u r g e o i s i e , are touched upon i n " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " ( I 8 3 I 4 . ) , and most of h i s n o v e l s and Wovellen end w i t h the imminent p r o s p e c t o f one or more happy marriages. In g e n e r a l , h i s c h a r a c t e r s are s i n g l e or widowed or unhappily m a r r i e d : f o r i n s t a n c e , the unhappy marriages o f the Pur3t and F f i r s t i n and o f Otto and A n n i d i o f f s e t the two happy ones i n " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n .  - 12 "... im I n n e r s t e n e r s c h r e c k t e n mich noch immer die Glockenklflnge des fernen Doms, wenn s i e am k l a r e n Sonntagsmorgen fiber d i e Berge zu mir herflberlangten, a l s suchten s i e das a l t e , s t i l l e G o t t e s r e i c h der K i n d h e i t i n meiner B r u s t , das n i c h t mehr i n i h r war...." ( I I , 983) T h i s admission  i n d i c a t e s t h a t he  i s l o s t beyond r e c a l l :  the c a t h e d r a l b e l l s arouse t e r r o r i n him him back to the church, and  the "heavenly  i n s t e a d of c a l l i n g kingdom of  c h i l d h o o d " - c h i l d h o o d being v i r t u a l l y synonymous w i t h home and heaven i n the view o f E i c h e n d o r f f and Romantics - has passed away from him.  other  T h e r e f o r e h i s avowed  attempt t o p u r i f y h i m s e l f by l i v i n g as a hermit is  a v a i n show o f repentance,  and  praying  l a c k i n g the f a i t h which would  cause him t o go to the n e a r e s t p r i e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n overcoming h i s weakness and a t o n i n g f o r h i s s i n s . Raimund s s p i r i t u a l v a c i l l a t i o n i s symbolized  by  1  his  attire:  although l i v i n g as a hermit, he wears "einen  sehr z i e r l i c h e n und p r f l c h t i g e n Warns" ( I I , 972),  the  doublet which E i c h e n d o r f f c o n s i d e r s i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r a knight:  horse, armour and weapons are expendable, but a  3 " r i t t e r l i c h e r Warns" at once i d e n t i f i e s a k n i g h t . u n s u i t a b i l i t y o f the c l o t h i n g t o h i s way Ubaldo (and the r e a d e r ) a t once:  of l i f e  The strikes  here i s a hermit who  been unable to c a s t a s i d e the l u r e o f w o r l d l y l i f e  and  assume a devout a t t i t u d e together w i t h a monk's h a b i t . ^ I t i s the s o l e c h i v a l r i c a t t r i b u t e o f the would-be k n i g h t i n R u d o l f ' s c a s t l e i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" ( I I , 2^3), and o f course, i n h i s case, i s r a t h e r a d i s g u i s e . t h a n a token o f honourable e s t a t e .  has  - 13  Hia  -  doublet i a no masquerade garment:  he has a r i g h t t o i t ;  but i t b e t r a y s the f a c t t h a t h i s p r e t e n s i o n t o r e l i g i o u s life  i s insincere.  T h i s f a c t emerges y e t more c l e a r l y i n  the p r a y e r s , "wie v e r w i r r t e Zauberformeln", "Aus  and i n the song,  der K l u f t t r e i b t mich das Bangen" ( I I , 972),  both  overheard by Ubaldo, whom Raimund supposed t o be a s l e e p . The  second s t a n z a begins w i t h the  lines:  "Gottl I n b r u n s t i g m S c h t ' i c h beten, Doch der Erde B l l d e r t r e t e n Immer zwischen. d i c h und mich." He  f o r e s e e s h i s doom, expressed i n the f i n a l l i n e s of h i s  song: "Ach, wie b a l d b i n i c h v e r l o r e n l .Jesus, h i l f i n meiner N t i " 0  Even t h i s d i r e c t appeal t o Jesus does not h e l p .  The more  mature E i c h e n d o r f f s c a r c e l y ever a l l o w s s i n n e r s to be grace: in  denied  f o r i n s t a n c e , Otto i n " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " ,  a s i t u a t i o n very s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Raimund, d i e s i n  circumstances  strongly suggesting absolution;  but the  t o l e r a n t young author of "Die Zauberei im Herbste"  less  denies  s a l v a t i o n t o Raimund. The main d i f f e r e n c e between the two k n i g h t s o f t h i s s t o r y l i e s i n the s i n c e r i t y o f t h e i r f a i t h :  Ubaldo i s  s i n c e r e and s t e a d f a s t , Raimund i n s i n c e r e , v a c i l l a t i n g , eventually l o s t .  Raimund sums up t h i s d i s p a r i t y a t the  b e g i n n i n g of h i s v i s i t t o Ubaldo's c a s t l e : "'Ihr s e i d g l t i c k l i e h , ' sagte e r , 'und i c h - b e t r a c h t e Eure f e s t e , freudige,-mfinnliche G e s t a l t mit wahrer Scheu und E h r f u r c h t , wie I h r Euch, unbekuramert durch L e i d und Preud, bewegt und das Leben r u h i g r e g i e r t ,  and  -  llf -  wfihrend I h r Euch demselben ganz hinzugeben s c h e i n t , g l e i c h einem S c h i f f e r , der bestimmt weiss, wo e r h i n s t e u e r n s o i l , und s i c h von dem wunderbaren L i e d e d e r Sirenen unterwegens n i c h t i r r e machen l U s s t . I c h bin mir i n Eurer Wa^ie schon o f t vorgekommen wie e i n f e i g e r Tor oder wie e i n Wahnsinniger.- E s g i b t vom Leben B e r a u s c h t e ach, wie s c h r e c k l i c h i s t es, dann a u f einraal wieder nfichtern zu werdenl'"  (II,  The  973-1*)  t r u e k n i g h t i s , l i k e Ubaldo, " f e s t , f r e u d i g und  mfinnlich"; the knight who n e g l e c t s h i s duty j o i n s the ranks of  numerous other c h a r a c t e r s " i n t o x i c a t e d by l i f e " , whom  daemonic p o s s e s s i o n l e a d s t o t h e i r doom. T h i s m o t i f o f the k n i g h t who i s unable t o l i v e up to  the demands o f h i s c a l l i n g i s by no means unique t o  Eichendorff. "Der  I t i s t o be found, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n T i e c k ' s  getreue E c k a r t und der Tannenhfiuser"  "Die Zauberei  im Herbste"  Runenberg" ( 1 8 0 2 ) ,  ( I , 799)  (which  s t r o n g l y resembles) and "Der  i n Pouque s "Undine" ( l 8 l l ) and 1  G r i l l p a r z e r * s most Romantic p l a y , "Melusine"  (1823).  But  E i c h e n d o r f f ' s t a l e , w h i l e i n f e r i o r i n s t r u c t u r e t o these other Romantic works, d i f f e r s from them i n s u p p l y i n g a c o u n t e r p a r t t o the u n b r i d l e d hero who f o l l o w s h i s daemonic urges u n t i l he i s d e s t r o y e d .  Ubaldo, however u n c o n v i n c i n g l y  d e p i c t e d , p e r s o n i f i e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s necessary good, s t e a d f a s t l i f e .  for a  Thus, i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' s e a r l i e s t  prose work, h i s e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e from the other Romantic w r i t e r s i s made m a n i f e s t :  though i n d i s p u t a b l y  Romantic i n s t y l e and thematic m a t e r i a l , he never l o s e s his  g r i p on a moral purpose, t h a t i s , the n e c e s s i t y o f  -  -15  f a i t h t o combat the i r r a t i o n a l f o r c e s i n man The  and the  world.  dangers c o n f r o n t i n g the Romantic poet are v i v i d l y  d e s c r i b e d by V i c t o r of " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " : "'Es g i b t nur wenige D i c h t e r i n der Welt, und von -den wenigen kaum e i n e r s t e i g t unversehrt i n d i e s e marchenhafte, pracht'ge Zaubernacht, wo d i e w i l d e n , f e u r i g e n Blumen stehen und d i e L i e d e r q u e l l e n verworren nach den Abgrunden gehen, und der zauberische Spielmann zwischen dem Waldesrauschen mit h e r z z e r r e i s s e n d e n Klfingen nach dem Venusberg v e r l o c k t , i n welchem a l l e Lust und Pracht der Erde entzundet, und wo d i e Seele ^ ^ ^raum f r e i w i r d mit i h r e n dunklen G e l u s t a n l ' " ( I I , 657) w  The poet who  e  m  wishes t o remain unharmed by  the  dangers i n h e r e n t i n h i s p u r s u i t of t h e Muse, must c l i n g t o r e l i g i o n , which indeed i s the only hope f o r anyone, as phantasy  and s e n s u a l i t y are not r e s e r v e d f o r poets  alone.  Moreover, i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste",  as i n the  l a t e r M&rchen, "Das Marmorbild"  ( 1 8 1 9 ) , E i c h e n d o r f f uses  i r r a t i o n a l phenomena i n nature as symbolic  of the  c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h temptation t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n the s o u l o f the h e r o .  That t h i s c o n f l i c t  i s u n i v e r s a l i s shown by  U b a l d o s and B e r t a ' s awareness o f the autumnal magic; t h a t 1  the outcome need not be t r a g i c i s shown by t h e i r adherence to t h e i r r e l i g i o u s f a i t h .  The u n f o r t u n a t e Raimund i s  d e f i c i e n t i n t h i s a t t r i b u t e , as are the t r a g i c heroes most other Romantic t a l e s .  Thus "Die Zauberei im  i s redeemed from being a mere echo o f T i e c k ' s "Der E c k b e r t " or " Ge,treuer- Eckart ; not by i t s p l o t , f  1  of  Herbste" blonde  structure,  or c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n , but by i t s f i r m recommendation of an  - 16  -  a l t e r n a t i v e t o Romantic " Z e r r i s s e n h e i t " ,  by the  o f the a b s o l u t e value of r e l i g i o n which was lodestar.  Of h i s two  k n i g h t s , the  one  who  assertion  Eichendorffs y i e l d s to  daemonic urges i s l o s t , f a i l i n g i n h i s duty t o God country. duties  On  of the  the  o t h e r hand, the  one  who  his  and  his  c a r r i e s out  the  C h r i s t i a n knight i s safe i n h i s f a i t h ,  and  serves as an example of what E i c h e n d o r f f c o n s i d e r e d t o the  essential attributes  of a k n i g h t :  faith,  be  patriotism  (here, o f course, manifested i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a Crusade, an u l t r a - n a t i o n a l phenomenon), l o y a l t y and others.  service  to  III.  Ahnung und Gegenwart  (Summary. Book I . F r i e d r i c h , t r a v e l l i n g a f t e r the completion ot h i a u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s , i s a t t a c k e d by r o b b e r s . He r e g a i n s consciousness i n the home of L e o n t i n , w i t h whose s i s t e r Rosa he has a l r e a d y f a l l e n i n l o v e on meeting her b r i e f l y d u r i n g h i s journey. A mysterious boy, Erwin, has a t t a c h e d h i m s e l f to F r i e d r i c h as h i s s e r v a n t . A f t e r some weeks of p l e a s a n t companionship w i t h L e o n t i n and the poet Faber, F r i e d r i c h s e t s o f f on a f u r t h e r journey w i t h these f r i e n d s , L e o n t i n having r e t u r n e d i n a s t a t e o f alarm from one of h i s s o l i t a r y v i s i t s t o the woods. Rosa i n s i s t s on accompanying them, but soon meets her f r i e n d Romana, who takes her t o the c a p i t a l . Faber a l s o goes h i s own way. L e o n t i n and F r i e d r i c h continue t h e i r t r a v e l s , alone except f o r Erwin, and are i n v i t e d to s t a y w i t h Herr v.A h i s widowed s i s t e r , and h i s b e a u t i f u l daughter, J u l i e . A f t e r an i d y l l i c sojourn, L e o n t i n takes f r i g h t a t the thought o f marriage and f l e e s , l e a v i n g F r i e d r i c h to make t h e i r f a r e w e l l s and proceed on h i s way. #J  Book I I . F r i e d r i c h a r r i v e s i n the c a p i t a l , i s r e c e i v e d by the Prime M i n i s t e r , and becomes a f r i e n d o f the Crown P r i n c e , who i s the l e a d e r of a group o f young noblemen i n t e r e s t e d i n working f o r t h e i r c o u n t r y . Friedrich disrupts, by b r u t a l l y f r a n k c r i t i c i s m , a l i t e r a r y s a l o n at which v a r i o u s Romantic a b e r r a t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t e d . The c e n t r a l thought of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s works, the triumph o f C h r i s t i a n i t y over paganism, the l a t t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the guise of u n b r i d l e d s e n s u a l i t y , i s d e p i c t e d i n a t a b l e a u w i t h Rosa as C h r i s t i a n i t y , with a k n i g h t k n e e l i n g b e f o r e her, and Romana as paganism. Romana, a b e a u t i f u l and t a l e n t e d but u n p r i n c i p l e d young widow, f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h F r i e d r i c h and almost succeeds i n seducing him, but he - i s rescued i n time by h e a r i n g L e o n t i n s i n g i n g o u t s i d e . Romana f a l l s i n t o d e s p a i r , and a f t e r a p e r i o d of w i l d behaviour,, v a r i e d by an attempt at p i e t y , k i l l s h e r s e l f i n her a n c e s t r a l c a s t l e . F r i e d r i c h meanwhile n e g l e c t s Rosa i n h i s a b s o r p t i o n i n the P r i n c e and h i s c i r c l e , with whose v e i l e d s e l f i s h n e s s he g r a d u a l l y becomes d i s i l l u s i o n e d . Eventually the P r i n c e abducts Rosa d e s p i t e F r i e d r i c h ' s l a s t minute attempt t o save h e r . Book I I I . F r i e d r i c h , on h i s way t o I t a l y a f t e r these d i s h e a r t e n i n g experiences, f a l l s i n with a group o f g u e r i l l a f i g h t e r s who are making a l a s t stand a g a i n s t the  - 18 -  tyranny o f Napoleon. He f i n d s temporary s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f i g h t i n g f o r h i s country and i n p r a y e r , but h i s group i s d e f e a t e d , and as h i s r u l e r had made an a l l i a n c e w i t h the enemy, F r i e d r i c h ' s l a n d s are c o n f i s c a t e d . He proceeds towards L e o n t i n ' s c a s t l e , and, a t the nearby m i l l where he had been a t t a c k e d by robbers on h i s f i r s t v i s i t , f i n d s L e o n t i n and J u l i e , now b e t r o t h e d , and a young g i r l , the former "Erwin", who had disappeared before F r i e d r i c h l e f t the c a p i t a l , and who, a f t e r her sudden, untimely death, i s found t o be F r i e d r i c h s n i e c e . L e o n t i n too has been outlawed, though he can expect t o be f o r g i v e n as Rosa i s about t o marry the Crown P r i n c e . 1  L e o n t i n and F r i e d r i c h t r a v e l through the mountains and come t o a c a s t l e i n h a b i t e d by l u n a t i c s , which turns out to belong t o F r i e d r i c h ' s l o n g l o s t b r o t h e r R u d o l f , whose resemblance to L e o n t i n has caused v a r i o u s p u z z l e s . Rudolf i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h l o v e , a r t , p h i l o s o p h y and r e l i g i o n , and d e s p i t e F r i e d r i c h ' s e f f o r t s t o r e s t o r e h i s f a i t h , d e c l a r e s t h a t he i s going to Egypt to study magic. Faber f i n d s h i s way t o the c a s t l e i n time to j o i n the wedding c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r L e o n t i n and J u l i e ; no one n o t i c e s Rosa i n a group o f p i l g r i m s . Then a l l the main c h a r a c t e r s s c a t t e r : L e o n t i n and J u l i e t o America, Faber to h i s u s u a l p u r s u i t s i n Germany, R u d o l f presumably to Egypt. F r i e d r i c h alone remains behind on the mountain top, about t o enter the p r i e s t h o o d and to a i d i n the s a l v a t i o n o f h i s country by prayer.) With the completion  i n 1812  of h i s f i r s t  novel  "Ahnung und Gegenwart", E i c h e n d o r f f suddenly  achieved  a r t i s t i c eminence.  almost  The n o v e l r e p r e s e n t s an  i n c r e d i b l e improvement upon "Die Zauberei im which embodies i n immature and incomplete  Herbste",  form E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  views on the d u t i e s o f the knight and of the dangers which might prevent performance o f these d u t i e s .  The  early  tale  has a p l o t which might have been i n v e n t e d by any young w r i t e r of the day, "Der  being s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f T i e c k ' s  getreue E c k a r t und der Tannenhfiuser",  and  elements o f magic w i t h a c o n v e n t i o n a l mediaeval  combining background.  - 19  -  Only c e r t a i n d e t a i l s of s t y l e serve to give i t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i t y which i s unmistakably E i c h e n d o r f f ' s even i n t h i s embryonic work: ( I I , 983)  f o r i n s t a n c e , the "unzflhlige Lerchen"  which here make t h e i r l i t e r a r y debut;  "grflnlich-goldene Scheine"  ( I I , 985)  of the  the  enchantress'  jewels, which c o l o u r i s always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e v i l i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' s works; represented  1  the p o t e n t i a l f o r e v i l  here by the " g o l d g e l b e r Vogel"  i n music, as  ( I I , 985)  s i n g i n g l u r e s Raimund to h i s doom at the enchanted the song o f the enchantress later,  though never a g a i n  "verlockendes  (another  castle,  device f r e q u e n t l y used  so s e n s u a l l y expressed),  Waldhornslied"  whose  ( I I , 976),  and  the  y e t another m o t i f  2 very f a m i l i a r t o r e a d e r s "Mein G o t t i  wo  of E i c h e n d o r f f ;  the  exclamation,  b i n i c h so lange gewesen" ( I I , 982),  i s the t y p i c a l o u t c r y of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s "vom  which  Leben  Berauschten" ( I I , 97^4) as they emerge from t h e i r d e l u s i o n s ; the d e a t h l y p a l l o r and r i g i d i t y of the temptress and h o r r o r f e l t by her v i c t i m ( I I , 982), of the verb " v e r w i r r e n " i n 1809  and  the frequent  i n r e f e r e n c e to temptation.  E i c h e n d o r f f s s t y l e was  the use Even  a l r e a d y so h i g h l y developed  t h a t almost any paragraph c o u l d be  i d e n t i f i e d out  of  context as E i c h e n d o r f f ' s work by anyone f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s ^"This p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  IV.  A g a i n s t t h i s theme of the seductive q u a l i t y of music must be c o n s i d e r e d i t s power f o r s a l v a t i o n , as i n the cases o f F r i e d r i c h of "Ahnung und Gegenwart" (1815) and F l o r i o o f "Das Marraorbild" (1819). Music i s only p o t e n t i a l l y , not n e c e s s a r i l y , e v i l - l i k e mankind. 2  - 20 -  later writings. established.  L i k e w i s e h i s e t h i c a l v a l u e s were a l r e a d y  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the n a r r a t i v e as such seems  p u e r i l e and the events are o f t e n d e r i v a t i v e : the b a t h i n g maidens ( I I , 979) the s i m i l a r scene i n N o v a l i s  the p o o l w i t h  reminds the reader a t once o f 1  " H e i n r i c h von O f t e r d i n g e n " ,  and the b l e e d i n g a p p a r i t i o n o f Ubaldo a t the window of Raimund's c a s t l e ( I I , 985)  i s r e m i n i s c e n t of c o u n t l e s s ,  s i m i l a r phenomena i n G o t h i c n o v e l s and f a t e dramas o f the period.  There i s , i n f a c t , n o t h i n g i n t h i s t a l e , other than  the charm and o r i g i n a l i t y of i t s l i t e r a r y s t y l e , t o i n d i c a t e a n y t h i n g but a mediocre t a l e n t .  I t i s astounding, t h e r e f o r e , t o r e a l i z e t h a t three y e a r s a f t e r w r i t i n g i t , i t s author completed  his  second  prose work, "Ahnung und Gegenwart", a n o v e l which assured him of immediate r e c o g n i t i o n i n the l i t e r a r y world on i t s publication i n I 8 l 5 .  V i r t u a l l y between one moment and  next, the boy became a man,  the hackneyed s t o r y was  followed  by a mature n o v e l w i t h amazing breadth of v i s i o n and of judgment.  There are s t i l l o c c a s i o n a l reminders  E i c h e n d o r f f was novel:  o n l y twenty-three  when he f i n i s h e d  F r i e d r i c h sometimes appears  the  sureness  that this  as p r i g g i s h as U b a l d o  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s h o m i l i e s t o Romana ( I I , 223)  and  f  the  l i t e r a r y s a l b n ( I I , 11+5), where he upbraids the p o e t a s t e r s w i t h candour, acumen, and gross d i s c o u r t e s y (but one imagine  cannot  the l i f e l e s s Ubaldo capable of e i t h e r acumen or  - 21 discourtesy;-^  -  and i n s p i t e o f numerous d i s c u s s i o n s on  poetry,  one o f the main themes o f the n o v e l , E i c h e n d o r f f l e a v e s us a t the end a l i t t l e unsure as t o h i s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the p o e t ' s l i f e and m i s s i o n .  But he has advanced so f a r beyond the  l i t e r a r y c a p a c i t y he showed i n "Die Z a u b e r e i  im  Herbste",  t h a t he can r i d i c u l e t h i s type o f s t o r y w h i c h he has left far  already  behind. Twice i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" E i c h e n d o r f f  a t t h e l i t e r a r y f i c t i o n o f t h e k n i g h t , once i n the  scoffs  literary  s a l o n , where, b e s i d e s q u o t i n g two o f h i s own poems ( I I ,  133-  I3I4.), w r i t t e n under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h i s f r i e n d , as models o f worthlessness,  he p a r o d i e s  i n Romana's grotesque b a l l a d ( I I ,  135-11+0) the f o l l y o f p o e t s who  attempt t o d i s g u i s e t h e m s e l v e s  as k n i g h t s of o l d ; and a second t i m e i n R u d o l f ' s  castle,  where the second o f R u d o l f ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f l u n a t i c s t o g r e e t F r i e d r i c h and L e o n t i n i s a young man i n d i s p e n s a b l e "Warns" ( I I , 253),  who  dressed i n the  r a n t s about h i s  own  u n w o r t h i n e s s o f the d i g n i t y o f k n i g h t h o o d b e f o r e removing t h e d o u b l e t , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s h i g h s t y l e o f speech,  and  r e v e a l i n g h i m s e l f as an u p - t o - d a t e adherent of t h e  Berlin  l i t e r a r y salons.  value-  Thus does E i c h e n d o r f f expose the  l e s s n e s s o f the m e d i a e v a l k n i g h t used as a mere l i t e r a r y convention. ^ I t i s amusing i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t o r e c a l ^ a note a t the end o f E i c h e n d o r f f ' s "Memoirenfragmente": , . P r e d i g t von der P e d a n t e r i e der Jugend." ( I I , 1091+K  - 22 T h i s c r i t i c i s m might seem a t f i r s t glance  to  e l i m i n a t e the knight as a f i g u r e o f importance i n h i s works. Such a deduction,  however, i s f a l s e :  E i c h e n d o r f f i n t h i s n o v e l use  not only- does  the terms " r i t t e r l i c h "  " a l t r i t t e r l i c h " repeatedly i n a favourable his  and  sense, but a l s o  c h a r a c t e r s h o l d s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s on k n i g h t l y v i r t u e s  and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o contemporary l i f e ,  f o r instance,  i n F r i e d r i c h ' s impassioned r e j e c t i o n o f a r t i f i c e i n p o e t r y : 'Wo s o i l d i e r e c h t e , s c h l i c h t e S l t t e , das treue ,-Tun, das schBne Lieben, d i e deutsche Ehre und a l l e d i e a l t e h e r r l i c h e SchSnheit s i c h h i n f l u c h t e n , wenn es i h r e angebornen R i t t e r , d i e D i c h t e r , _ n i c h t wahrhaft e h r l i c h , a u f r i c h t i g und r i t t e r l i c h mit i h r £der PoesieJmeinen?'" ( I I , 32)  11  The  q u e s t i o n o f the  degree to which the k n i g h t and the poet  are i d e n t i c a l w i l l a r i s e l a t e r and t h e r e f o r e can be l e f t i n abeyance f o r the moment.  The  important  aspect  of t h i s  e x t r a c t from F r i e d r i c h ' s speech i s i t s a f f i r m a t i o n of k n i g h t l y v i r t u e s . - T h i s i s no mere stage Zauberei  im Herbste", but an earnest  s e t t i n g as i n "Die  recommendation o f  e t h i c a l i d e a l s which governed the k n i g h t s o f the Middle Ages and which have u n i v e r s a l r e l e v a n c e . These i d e a l s seem t o be l a c k i n g i n one most c u r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s to appear i n the n o v e l :  of the the  Don  Quixote f i g u r e wrapped i n a white c l o a k and mounted upon a white j a d e .  ( I I , 70)^  He  i s a debased modern v e r s i o n o f  ^ T h i s i s one o f many r e f e r e n c e s to Don Quixote (e.g. I I , 37 and 11+8) which h i n t at E i c h e n d o r f f ' s ^ i n t e r e s t i n Spanish literature. In the l8i|0'Vone of h i s main l i t e r a r y ^ a c t i v i t i e s was the t r a n s l a t i o n of Spanish poems and p l a y s i n t o German. Amongst these were eleven p l a y s o f Calderon, whom, f o r r e l i g i o u s reasons, he regarded as s u p e r i o r to Shakespeare.  - 23 the k n i g h t e r r a n t , a mounted tramp who  t r a d e s on h i s knightly-  b i r t h t o o b t a i n f r e e board and .lodging w i t h the Herr  v.A.  and n e i g h b o u r i n g members of the c o u n t r y n o b i l i t y .  At  f i r s t r e a d i n g , h i s few entrances h i n t at mystery,  like  those o f Rudolf, who  remains  u n i d e n t i f i e d f o r most of the  book, but t h i s Knight of the Woeful Countenance remains minor f i g u r e , an emasculated  reminder  a  o f the " R a u b r i t t e r "  i n h i s p a r a s i t i c ways, an i n d i c a t i o n that noble b i r t h i s not n e c e s s a r i l y accompanied by n o b i l i t y of c h a r a c t e r . H i s f u n c t i o n i s t o serve as a warning  a g a i n s t the p o t e n t i a l  l u d i c r o u s n e s s of attempting to p r e s e r v e the e x t e r n a l and i n e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f mediaeval knighthood  i n the modern  world. The extreme example of the p o s s i b l e d i s c r e p a n c y between b i r t h and c h a r a c t e r i s t o be found i n the Crown P r i n c e , who  on h i s f i r s t  appearance impresses  Friedrich  most f a v o u r a b l y : "Wie wenn e i n R i t t e r , noch e i n h e i l i g e s B i l d v o r i g e r , r e c h t e r Jugend, dessen A n b l i c k s unser Auge lfingst entwBhnt i s t , uns p l B t z l i c h begegnete, so r a g t e der h e r r l i c h e R e i t e r fiber die verworrene, f a l b e Menge, d i e s e i n w i l d e s Ross auseinandersprengte. ( I I , 12?) T h i s m a g n i f i c e n t e f f e c t seems t o be confirmed by F r i e d r i c h a 1  subsequent  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the P r i n c e , who  him a group o f high-minded young men the w e l f a r e o f t h e i r c o u n t r y .  gathers  t o d i s c u s s and promote  E v e r y t h i n g appears  i n d i c a t e that the P r i n c e i s , as he  about  to  should be, the flower  o f c h i v a l r y , the prime model of the k n i g h t l y  class.  - 21+  -  E v e n t u a l l y , however, the h i n t contained  i n the above  q u o t a t i o n , namely, t h a t although the P r i n c e i a compared ' 5 w i t h a " R i t t e r " , he  i a r e f e r r e d t o as a " R e i t e r " ,  a mere  horseman, i s a m p l i f i e d by s u c c e s s i v e d i s c o v e r i e s to P r i n c e ' s d i s c r e d i t which reach t h e i r n a d i r i n h i s o f u t t e r i n s i n c e r i t y , h i s abduction a l l i a n c e w i t h the enemy.  The  of Rosa, and  image of almost  knighthood which he at f i r s t presented crumbled to r e v e a l the c o r r u p t  has  the  confession his  sacred  gradually  f i g u r e o f a scoundrel  and  traitor. The  Prince's f a l l  from grace i s the most  s p e c t a c u l a r d e v i a t i o n from the i d e a l s o f c h i v a l r y i n the novel.  However, there  to the main c h a r a c t e r s :  i s one  example of g r e a t e r  t h a t of Rudolf, b r o t h e r  F r i e d r i c h , double o f L e o n t i n , and  owner of the  near which the c u l m i n a t i n g  occur.  The  events  importance of  "Narrenburg"  three Grafen, R u d o l f , F r i e d r i c h and  Leontin,  were born i n t o the k n i g h t l y c l a s s , and c o u l d be expected to c a r r y out i t s i d e a l s to the f u l l ,  e s p e c i a l l y as a l l are  ^ T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between " R i t t e r " and " R e i t e r " i s repeated i n connection w i t h R u d o l f ' s " R i t t e r n a r r " • F r i e d r i c h und L e o n t i n "bemerkten mit Verwunderung, dass e r - e i n l e d e r n e s Reiterwams t r u g und s e i n e ganze Trecht uberhaupt a l t d e u t s c h s e i . " ( I I , 125) On the next page, a f t e r h i s v o l u n t a r y unmasking, the sham knight "zog s e i n Ritterwams vom L e i b e " . Once E i c h e n d o r f f has made h i s p o i n t about the f a l s i t y o f the young man's c l a i m , he uses the word " R i t t e r " f o r him, t r u s t i n g t h a t the reader w i l l "mit und fiber dem Buche d i c h t e n " ( I I , 9 9 ) and keep the pretence i n mind. , -  - 2* u n u s u a l l y i n t e l l i g e n t and t a l e n t e d .  I n the end, only one  c l i n g s t o the f u l l duty o f the k n i g h t - r e l i g i o u s , and  s o c i a l - and Rudolf  military,  seems t o have renounced a l l the  o b l i g a t i o n s o f h i s rank. Rudolf remains anonymous i n the n o v e l u n t i l the moment when, a f t e r years o f s e p a r a t i o n , he walks up t o F r i e d r i c h , remarking p h l e g m a t i c a l l y , "Willkommen, BruderV (II,  260)1 H i s e x i s t e n c e was f i r s t mentioned on F r i e d r i c h ' s  meeting w i t h L e o n t i n , who reminds him o f h i s l o n g - l o s t elder brother.  A mysterious  stranger who converses  with  Erwin a t n i g h t i n L e o n t i n ' s garden ( I I , 39), a second who f r i g h t e n s L e o n t i n i n t o f l i g h t from h i s c a s t l e  ( I I , 36), a  t h i r d , d r e s s e d as a b l a c k knight w i t h suggestions  of a  s k e l e t o n , who speaks t o Rosa and others a t a b a l l i n the Residenz ( I I , 113-115), a l l t u r n out t o have been  Rudolf.  H i s i d e n t i t y i s h i n t e d a t j u s t before h i s appearance a t the "Narrenburg" by L e o n t i n s c o n f e s s i o n that h i s f l i g h t 1  had been i n s p i r e d by the h o r r o r o f an encounter,  i n the  f o r e s t near h i s sweetheart's house, w i t h a s t r a n g e r who i s his  double ( I I , 255-256).  The m o t i f o f the "Doppelganger"  r e c u r s i n Rudolf's l a s t encounter w i t h the s t r a n g e r , seen by him f o r the f i r s t  time on t h e o c c a s i o n o f h i s f l i g h t  from h i s b i r t h p l a c e , f o r the second time when an o l d gypsy woman t e l l s h i s and A n g e l i n a ' s  f o r t u n e s a t the c a s t l e where  the b r o t h e r s grow up, and subsequently  at various turning  p o i n t s i n h i s l i f e u n t i l he a c c i d e n t a l l y k i l l s  this  double.  -  The  mystification  of Rudolf,  26  -  o f the reader  by t h i s r e p e a t e d  the stranger, Angelina  a n d t h e g y p s y , i s one o f  the c h i e f weaknesses o f t h e n o v e l : coincidence  i sinartistic  excessive  emphasis on  i n such a s e r i o u s work.  m y s t e r y f o r i t s own s a k e a p p e a l e d i r r e s i s t i b l y and  association  always remained a f a c t o r  However,  to Eichendorff,  i n h i s works, even i n h i s l a s t  N o v e l l e , " l i b e r t a s u n d i h r e P r e i e r " a n d i n many o f h i s ^ • 6 .. lyrics. It  i s unfortunate  s h o u l d be a t t a c h e d it  t o Rudolf.  t h a t s o much  mystification  E i c h e n d o r f f may h a v e  intended  t o emphasize t h e importance o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r , b u t i t s  e f f e c t has been t h e exact surrounding the reader's  opposite,  the events o f Rudolf's interest  and t h e o b s c u r i t y l i f e h a s served  from him r a t h e r than a t t r a c t  to divert i tto  him. Rudolf  has r e c e i v e d very l i t t l e  serious  attention  7  from t h e c r i t i c s . to an a l l e g o r y  Thomas A . R i l e y  attempts t o reduce him  of the "Zeitgeist" or of Protestantism.  ^ H i s comedy, " D i e F r e i e r " , i s a n e x t r e m e e x a m p l e o f m y s t i f i c a t i o n and misunderstandings, comparable t o Nestroy's "Liebesgeschichten und H e i r a t s s a c h e n " and doubtless l i k e w i s e i n s p i r e d by t h e Viennese comic t r a d i t i o n , Eichendorff being a self-confessed Kasperl enthusiast, a s numerous e n t r i e s i n h i s d i a r i e s o f h i s l o n g s t a y i n V i e n n a ( 1 8 1 0 - 1 8 1 3 ) r e l a t e ( e . g . I l l , 265, 2 6 7 , 2 7 2 ) . tt  M  ^Thomas A . R i l e y , "An a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Eichendorff»s ''Ahnung u n d Gegenwart**, MLR, L I V ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 201+-213. A l s o " D i e E r z l h l t e c h n i k d e s j u n g e n E i c h e n d o r f f s , A u r o r a . XX (I960, 30-35).  - 27 Ingeborg-Maria P o r s c h  considers  that the i n s e c u r i t y  R u d o l f ' s c h i l d h o o d has rendered him incapable  of  "der bedeutendate  ReprSsentant  der  r o m a n t i s c h - i n d i v i d u a l i s t i s c h e n Lebensanschauung und G-egenwart'",  novel,  i n 'Ahnung  but g i v e s him up as a f a i l u r e , as indeed  E i c h e n d o r f f does h i m s e l f . writer,  accom-  9 E m i l Tamm  p l i s h i n g a n y t h i n g worthwhile i n h i s m a t u r i t y . says R u d o l f i s  of  R i c a r d a H u c h , ^ l i k e the p r e s e n t  c o n s i d e r s R u d o l f one o f the  three heroes of  the  the others b e i n g F r i e d r i c h and L e o n t i n , but grants  no more than t h i s  statement to him i n her v e r y  d i s c u s s i o n of the work.  Her o n l y r e a l  short  i n t e r e s t i n him i s  w i t h r e g a r d to E i c h e n d o r f f s c o n c e p t i o n o f I t a l y as a s u l t r y background to i l l i c i t  love a f f a i r s ,  l i a i s o n w i t h A n g e l i n a i s the  sole  she c o n s i d e r s . example  since R u d o l f s  event i n h i s l i f e which  Helga H a b e r l a n d * ^ r e g a r d s him as an extreme  of the Romantic Z e r r i s s e n e r .  The o n l y c r i t i c who  12 h o l d s out any hope f o r him i s Hans Brandenburg, r e f e r r i n g t o R u d o l f as " e i n e i n z i g e s  who,  although  romantisches  Ingeborg-Maria P o r s c h , Die Macht des vergangenen Lebens i n E i c h e n d o r f f s Roman "Ahnung und Gegenwart". (Frankfurtam-Main, 1951) (a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n ) . , ^ E m i l Tamm, Die Bedeutung des Romans "Ahnung und Gegenwart" f u r E j c h e n d o r f f s g e i s t i g e E n t w i c k l u n g . [Hambur g , 1924) (a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n ) , p . 43. - 1 0  R i c a r d a Huch, Die Romantik.  (Leipzig,  1920).  •^Helga H a b e r l a n d , "Das Problem der Damonie im Werke J o s e f von E i c h e n d o r f f s " , ( F r a n k f u r t - a m - M a i n , 195U) (a doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n ) , pp. 116-129. 12  H a n s Brandenburg, Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f . '('Munchen,  1 9 2 2 ) , p . ,21*0.  - -  '  - 28 -  K r a n k h e i t s b i l d " , remarks t h a t "dennoch i s t ihm a l s L e t z t e s und E i n z i g e s d i e Sehnsucht geblieben,  a l s mUsse d i e Sonne  aufgehen." The present Rudolf's  w r i t e r agrees w i t h Brandenburg t h a t  case i s n o t so h o p e l e s s as i t seems.  E i c h e n d o r f f intended  Undoubtedly  to make o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r a d r e a d f u l  example, even as he meant F r i e d r i c h t o r e p r e s e n t  human  perfection.  And y e t he f a i l e d i n both attempts.  i s presented  as a b l a c k sheep, but he has c a r r i e d out h i s  duty as a knight by f i g h t i n g f o r h i s country,  Rudolf  he has made a  l i v i n g by p a i n t i n g p i c t u r e s , he has s t u d i e d p h i l o s o p h y , and when the reader  i s f i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d t o him i n h i s own  r i g h t , R u d o l f i s running has  a s u c c e s s f u l mental asylum.  He  o b v i o u s l y a f o r c e f u l and e n e r g e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y , and  r e t a i n s a v e s t i g e o f t h a t f a i t h which he h i m s e l f b e l i e v e s he has l o s t and which E i c h e n d o r f f considered  vital.  says o f h i s abandoning the study o f philosophy,  Rudolf  "alle  Systeme ftihrten mich entweder von Gott ab, oder zu einem falschen Gott"  ( I I , 27k)'  b e l i e f i n God, however  such a statement i m p l i e s a inactive.  H i s announcement o f h i s  p l a n t o study magic i n Egypt does not c a r r y c o n v i c t i o n : it  seems r a t h e r a desperate attempt on the p a r t o f the  author t o keep t h i s l i v e l y c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n the bounds o r i g i n a l l y s e t f o r him. bad  I f he r e a l l y were t o come t o a  end, "es mflsste w a h r l i c h m i t dem E i g e n s i n n  eines  Romanschreibers zugehen" ( I I , 710), as Walter says i n " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " .  - 29 F r i e d r i c h , on the other hand, the i n t e n d e d paragon of He,  the n o v e l , r e f l e c t s p a l l i d l y the events o f R u d o l f ' s  life.  too, f u l f i l l s h i s k n i g h t l y duty i n b a t t l e and l i k e w i s e  s u f f e r s d e f e a t ; but h i s experiences s a t i s f y him a t t h e time, whereas R u d o l f ' s were a l l unpleasant, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s r e g a i n i n g consciousness on the b a t t l e f i e l d , corpses.  deserted amongst  Both b r o t h e r s g i v e up t h e i r a r t , F r i e d r i c h t h a t o f  p o e t r y , R u d o l f p a i n t i n g , the s p r i n g s o f t h e i r  talent  a p p a r e n t l y s u b s i d i n g when t h e i r l o v e s come t o an end. incur g u i l t daughter  i n love:  Both  A n g e l i n a bears R u d o l f an i l l e g i t i m a t e  whom she takes w i t h her on abandoning him;  F r i e d r i c h merely n e g l e c t s and f o r g e t s Rosa, whom he has l e d to  expect m a r r i a g e .  I n t h e i r g e n e r a l duty toward  society,  Rudolf has accomplished more w i t h h i s l u n a t i c s than F r i e d r i c h w i t h the Crown P r i n c e ' s group o f p l a n n e r s ; however, the f a i l u r e o f t h i s group i s by no means a t t r i b u t a b l e to  F r i e d r i c h , and he hopes t o c a r r y out h i s o b l i g a t i o n s i n a  d i f f e r e n t way, namely, through p r a y e r . The b r o t h e r s * l i v e s are t o o s i m i l a r t o j u s t i f y one b e i n g condemned o u t r i g h t w h i l e t h e other i s e x t o l l e d . R u d o l f ' s c h a r a c t e r , a l r e a d y appearing i n a more f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t by i t s l i k e n e s s t o F r i e d r i c h ' s , i s f u r t h e r redeemed when he i s compared w i t h the Crown P r i n c e , the r e a l l y v i l l a i n o u s personage,  laden with g u i l t  i n many matters  from  seduction t o treason, a f a l s e knight i n a l l r e s p e c t s . F r i e d r i c h and R u d o l f f u l f i l l t h e i r d u t i e s as k n i g h t s .  i n v a r y i n g degrees  Both f i g h t f o r t h e i r country but  subsequently g i v e up t h e use o f arms, t h e i r  defection  - 30 b e i n g symbolised by the broken eoat-of-arms a t t h e i r o l d home ( I I , 2 5 1 ) .  I n r e g a r d t o the k n i g h t ' s o b l i g a t i o n t o  p r o t e c t t h e weak, Rudolf has worked wonders w i t h the m e n t a l l y a f f l i c t e d , whereas t h e younger F r i e d r i c h has as y e t accomplished his  own way.  n o t h i n g , though he has hopes o f succeeding i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' s k n i g h t s must, above a l l , be  good C h r i s t i a n s .  Rudolf f u l f i l l s  t h i s duty i n r e g a r d t o  works, though h i s f a i t h i s not a l l t h a t i t should be. F r i e d r i c h , on the other hand, i s endowed w i t h an unshakeable f a i t h , through which he hopes t o h e l p b r i n g about b e t t e r conditions i n h i s country.  H i s f a i t h l e a d s him t o embrace  the v o c a t i o n o f p r i e s t h o o d , h i s moment o f d e c i s i o n b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as almost an a p o t h e o s i s o f t h e knighthood he has renounced: "Da Q.n der B i b e l } fand e r T r o s t fiber d i e Verwirrung der Z e i t , und das e i n z i g e Recht und H e i l a u f Erden i n dem h e i l i g e n Kreuze. E r h a t t e e n d l i c h den p h a n t a s t i s c h e n , t a u s e n d f a r b i g e n P i l g e r m a n t e l abgeworfen, und stand nun i n b l a n k e r Rfistung a l s Kfirapfer Gottes gleichsam an der Grenze zweier Welten. Wie o f t , wenn er da fiber d i e T&ler hinaussah, f i e l e r a u f seine Knie und b e t e t e i n b r f i n s t i g zu G o t t , ihm K r a f t zu v e r l e i h e n , was e r i n der E r l e u c h t u n g e r f a h r e n , durch Wort und T a t seinen Brfidern m i t z u t e i l e n . ( I I , 281+) f t  T h i s e x a l t a t i o n i s t h e c o r o l l a r y t o h i s dream o f t h e C h r i s t c h i l d , who s a i d : " ' L i e b s t du mich r e c h t , so gehe mit mir u n t e r . .-Als Sonne w i r s t du dann wieder aufgehen, und die Welt i s t f r e i l ' " ( I I , 166) Thus, though both b r o t h e r s must be considered f a i l u r e s as k n i g h t s , a t l e a s t t h e e l d e r has found a  - 31  p r a c t i c a l way  -  o f h e l p i n g mankind, and  the younger, though  not q u i t e the hero h i s p o s i t i o n as c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l might l e a d the r e a d e r  t o expect,  nevertheless  h i s knighthood o n l y to embrace a c a l l i n g which it  i n Eichendorff»s view: The  t h a t of the  o n l y c h a r a c t e r who  rejects  transcends  priest.  remains t r u e to a l l o f the  i d e a l s of knighthood i s L e o n t i n , although he  too f e e l s  the  i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f c a r r y i n g them out i n the Germany o f h i s day  (In t h i s matter the poet E i c h e n d o r f f i s a t v a r i a n c e  w i t h the P r e i h e r r von E i c h e n d o r f f who, completion  the  of t h i s n o v e l , j o i n e d the Lutzower Jager t o h e l p  l i b e r a t e h i s country, y e a r s as a c i v i l  and  subsequently  servant.),  He  degradation  and open the way  devoted t o i t many  f e e l s t h a t the p r e s e n t i s  h o p e l e s s l y c o r r u p t , but t h a t God  faithful.  shortly after  w i l l put an end  to t h i s  f o r u s e f u l a c t i o n by  A f t e r e x p r e s s i n g t h i s o p i n i o n i n the  konnt' i c h mich n i e d e r l e g e n "  ( I I , 293-291*),  he  the  song, "0 states h i s  p l a n s f o r the f u t u r e : " U n d so', aagte e r , ' w i l l i c h denn i n dem noch unberflhrten Waldesgrun e i n e s andern W e l t t e i l s Herz und Augen s t a r k e n und mir d i e Ehre und d i e E r i n n e r u n g an d i e vergangene grosse Z e i t , sowie d e n t i e f e n Schmerz uber d i e g e g e n w S r t i g e h e i l i g bewahren, damit i c h der k u n f t i g e n , bessern, d i e w i r a l l e h o f f e n , wurdig b l e i b e , und s i e mich wach und r u s t i g f i n d e . ' " ( I I , 291+) f  T h i s statement a p a r t from the p l a n of v i s i t i n g the New  World, i s c o m p l e t e l y  p o l i t i c a l and  l i t e r a r y views.  claimed, renounce present and  i n harmony with E i c h e n d o r f f ' s He  does not, as i s o f t e n  f u t u r e i n n o s t a l g i a f o r the  - 32 past,  "die alte  gute Z e i t " ,  regards  the grandeur o f the  present  and  as he past  future, particularly  i s n e v e r an  end  in itself,  and  as  an  the  i t , but  inspiration  latter.  The  never appeared  to E i c h e n d o r f f a f t e r h i s student the  o f t e n expresses  d a y s , but  for present  satisfactory  i s always merely  time during  w h i c h one  w o r k s t o w a r d s improvement,  o f o n e s e l f and,  so f a r a s  i t i s p o s s i b l e , o f one's  Thus L e o n t i n i n t e n d s past  and  the  to preserve  ignominious present  something worth w h i l e  i n the  knightly  finding  subject  ideals,  but,  to r i d i c u l e  like  the  country.  t h e memory o f t h e i n the  future. they  are  hope o f  both  glorious  achieving  He r e t a i n s h i s unfashionable  ludicrous aspects  of  and  Don  13 ( I I , 293),  Quixote  from h i s country again  be  until  alternative to  withdrawing  s u c h time as k n i g h t l y c o n d u c t  shall  I n demand. In  the m e r i t s  "Ahnung u n d  Gegenwart" E i c h e n d o r f f  o f a number o f k n i g h t s ,  firm conclusions later  f i n d s no  novel,  on k n i g h t h o o d w h i c h a r e  " D i c h t e r und  e a r l i e r n o v e l has  the  ihre Gesellen"  are  t o be  reaching  t o be  the  found i n h i s The  (I83I+)  v i r t u e of youthful v i t a l i t y  drawback o f y o u t h f u l c o n f u s i o n . principles  without  considers  and  the  Though E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  found i n i t , the reader  has  to  search  " ^ S t r a n g e t o s a y , a l l E i c h e n d o r f f ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o Don Quixote p e r t a i n e x c l u s i v e l y to the r i d i c u l o u s or anachroni s t i c aspects of t h i s i d e a l i s t i c Knight. IV  ^ " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " of t h i s study.  i s discussed  i n Chapter  - 33 for  them, and the f a c t t h a t he took f o r h i s c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r  a young man  whose c h o i c e o f v o c a t i o n , however l a u d a b l e , d i d  not enjoy h i s f u l l sympathy, weakens the s t r u c t u r e of the novel.  For the r e a l hero, i n s p i t e of E i c h e n d o r f f s p l a n s , f  i s L e o n t i n , who of  corresponds t o F o r t u n a t , the c e n t r a l  figure  the second n o v e l , and indeed t o the poet or m u s i c i a n  heroes o f a number of h i s N o v e l l e n , who  resemble  their  15  c r e a t o r f a r more c l o s e l y than F r i e d r i c h does. L e o n t i n appears knighthood  t o g i v e up the m i l i t a r y aspect of  even as R u d o l f and F r i e d r i c h do, but  s i t u a t i o n , i n h i s case, i s temporary:  having been  by h i s c o u n t r y because o f a misapprehension, i l l - a d v i s e d to announce h i s presence  this outlawed  he would be  t o the army.  There i s  no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e , however, t h a t , a f t e r h i s s t r a t e g i c withdrawal  t o America,  he might not again bear arms f o r h i s  c o u n t r y under improved c i r c u m s t a n c e s . never comes under s u s p i c i o n ( i t was  His r e l i g i o u s  faith  h i s s i n g i n g o f a hymn  which rescued F r i e d r i c h from Romana's w i l e s ) , and a f t e r h i s war  e x p e r i e n c e s he c a s t s o f f the somewhat f r i v o l o u s  a t t i t u d e t o l i f e which c h a r a c t e r i s e d h i s youth, and o f h e l p i n g h i s country.  seeks  for  a way  T h i s i s b a r r e d t o him  for  the moment, but he i s convinced t h a t a time w i l l come  when h i s k n i g h t l y p r i n c i p l e s w i l l a g a i n be wanted f o r the • ^ T h i s commentary should not be taken to mean t h a t the present w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t heroes o f novels should n e c e s s a r i l y resemble t h e i r authors; i t i s merely a f a c t t h a t E i c h e n d o r f f a most s u c c e s s f u l and c o n v i n c i n g heroes do resemble him s t r o n g l y . 1  - 3k restoration of h i s land.  He says i n one o f the l a s t songs  of the n o v e l : "Denn eine Z e i t w i r d kommen, Da macht der Herr e i n End', Da w i r d den E a l s c h e n genommen I h r unechtes Regiment. Denn wie d i e E r z e vom Hammer, So w i r d das l o c k r e Geschlecht Gehaun s e i n von Not und Jammer Zu f e s t e m E i s e n r e c h t . Da w i r d Aurora tagen Hoch fiber den Wald h i n a u f , Da g i b t ' s was zu siegen und schlagen, Da wacht, i h r Getreuen, a u f . " ( I I , 29l+)  - 35 -  IV.  Das  Marmorbild  (Summary. F l o r i o , approaching Lucca on the grand t o u r , meets another k n i g h t , the poet Portunato, who takes him t o an evening p a r t y being h e l d near the c i t y . Here P l o r i o f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h a young g i r l , Bianka. The company i s j o i n e d by the k n i g h t , Donati, whose presence seems t o d i s t u r b everyone but P l o r i o , t o whom he makes h i m s e l f very agreeable. P l o r i o , r e s t l e s s a f t e r t h i s f e s t i v i t y , goes f o r a walk i n the country by moonlight. He comes t o a n e g l e c t e d garden where he sees a s t a t u e a p p a r e n t l y come t o l i f e . E v e n t u a l l y he again f i n d s the garden, now w e l l tended, by d a y l i g h t , and sees a l a d y who resembles the s t a t u e wandering through i t , s i n g i n g . On attempting t o overtake her, he f i n d s Donati s l e e p i n g amongst some r u i n s . The k n i g h t promises to i n t r o d u c e him t o the l a d y one day. At a masked b a l l , P l o r i o a g a i n encounters the " s t a t u e " , t h i s time e x a c t l y l i k e Bianka i n appearance and costume, and has a short c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h e r . F l o r i o v i s i t s Donati, who takes him t o the mysterious garden and l e a v e s him with the l a d y and her a t t e n d a n t s . F l o r i o becomes more and more enamoured o f her, and i n the evening accompanies her indoors a l o n e . While he i s admiring her and her surroundings, he hears F o r t u n a t o s i n g i n g a hymn o u t s i d e , and prays not t o be l o s t . Immediately a storm begins, s i g n s of n e g l e c t appear o u t s i d e the window, a green-golden snake v a n i s h e s i n t o a clump o f weeds, the l a d y looks white and r i g i d l i k e a s t a t u e , and the whole house begins to c o l l a p s e . F l o r i o f l e e s i n h o r r o r , p a s s i n g the s i t e of Donati's s p l e n d i d mansion, where now o n l y a l o w l y hut stands. D e c i d i n g t o l e a v e Lucca, F l o r i o meets F o r t u n a t o w i t h P i e t r o (Bianka's u n c l e and guardian) and an unknown young man, and i s i n v i t e d t o accompany them on t h e i r t r a v e l s . They pass by the garden, once more i n r u i n s , and F o r t u n a t o t e l l s the legend o f Venus which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . F l o r i o , now completely r e l e a s e d from the enchantment, r e c o g n i s e s the "young man" as Bianka, whose uncle was t a k i n g her on a journey to h e l p her f o r g e t her g r i e f over F l o r i o ' s n e g l e c t o f h e r . F l o r i o says he hopes never t o p a r t from her a g a i n , and the p a r t y goes j o y f u l l y on i t s way.) Gerhard MBbus, a contemporary c r i t i c Eichendorff, writes:  of  - 36 "Wer s i c h um eine Deutung der Dichtung E i c h e n d o r f f s beraflht, koramt, welchen Weg er auch e i n s c h l a g e n mag, immer wieder i n die Nflhe des " M a r m o r b i l d e s " . E r s c h l i e s s t s i c h der Sinn d i e s e s Werkes, das der D i c h t e r s e l b s t e i n Marchen geraannt h a t , dann e r f l f f n e t s i c h mit ihm z u g l e i c h der Zugang zum Gehalt d e s Gesamtwerkes."-*Hans Brandenburg, one of the f i r s t  important  critics  of  E i c h e n d o r f f , w h o s e i n d i s p e n s a b l e biography o f E i c h e n d o r f f has been o u t s t r i p p e d i n many ways i n r e g a r d t o h i s c r i t i c i s m o f the l i t e r a r y works, n e v e r t h e l e s s g i v e s  an  a n a l y s i s of the theme o f t h i s Marchen which cannot be bettered: "Diese l y r i s c h getBnte, c h r i s t l i c h - r o m a n t i s c h e M a r c h e n a l l e g o r i e z e i g t e i n f e i n und sauber eingefa'deltes Motivwerk und eine schone, m e h r f a l t i g e Symmetrie des Baues, m i t - d e r s i e den Helden zwischen d i e Zauberin und d i e wahre G e l i e b t e , zwischen den btisen und guten R i t t e r s t e l l t und, i n holier en Ordnungen d i e s e P a r a l l e l e n wiederholend, d i e dann nur noch a l s S p l e g e l b i l d e r j e n e r hflheren B i l d e r , a l s Symbole der Symbole e r s c h e i n e n : zwischen das Venus- und ^ a d o n n e n b i l d , zwischen das Bacchusund C h r i s t u s r e i c h . " (op. c i t . , p . 357) Venus and Madonna f i g u r e s have a l r e a d y appeared i n the e a r l i e r works;  the reader i s ever conscious  "Christusreich",  and a l s o o f the  of  the  "Bacchusreich".  This  term i s used by Brandenburg because of the mention o f Bacchus  (and Venus) i n F o r t u n a t o ' s  which d e s c r i b e s  song ( I I ,  311-313),  C h r i s t ' s overcoming o f the a n c i e n t  by i t he wishes to symbolise the pagan w o r l d (as  gods: represented  •^•Gerhard MBbus, Per andere E i c h e n d o r f f : zur Deutung der Dichtung Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f s (Osnabruck, I960), p , 3 1 . The t e x t and notes o f t h i s book a l s o c o n t a i n e x c e l l e n t e v a l u a t i o n s of other r e c e n t c r i t i c a l works on E i c h e n d o r f f .  - 37 II, 1 2 9 ,  by Romana i n th© t a b l e a u i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart"  which E i c h e n d o r f f i n t e r p r e s t as " d i e g r i e c h i s c h e F i g u r , d i e l e b e n s l u s t i g e , v o r dem Glanze des Christentums zu S t e i n gewordene R e l i g i o n der P h a n t a s i e " daemonic  I, 1 3 0  ) and a l s o those  f o r c e s which, even i n the C h r i s t i a n world, w i l l not  s u b j e c t themselves t o C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s . or  The a n c i e n t gods,  a t l e a s t the n a t u r a l f o r c e s which they symbolize, have  not  r e a l l y been overcome.  They s t i l l e x i s t i n e v e r y human  b e i n g , however f i r m l y he may adhere t o the C h r i s t i a n and must c o n s t a n t l y be overcome anew.  In f a c t ,  faith,  taking  Brandenburg's view o f t h e hero o f "Das Marmorbild" being p l a c e d between good and e v i l , as  and MBbus' view o f t h i s  story  the key t o a l l E i c h e n d o r f f ' s l i t e r a r y works, one gains a  p e r s p e c t i v e o f c o u n t l e s s heroes, o f mankind,  i n fact,  e t e r n a l l y a t the c r o s s roads between good and e v i l . new step may l e a d to e i t h e r .  Each  The problem i s not s o l v e d w i t h  one d e c i s i o n , though any one d e c i s i o n may t u r n out t o be o f overwhelming importance i n determining t h e f u t u r e of  direction  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a t h . In  F l o r i o ' s case, as i n many o t h e r s , the danger  a r i s e s out o f h i s own emotions.  He reaches the o u t s k i r t s  of Lucca i n h i s h i t h e r t o customary s t a t e o f equanimity, but almost a t once f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h the b e a u t i f u l young Bianka. His  f e e l i n g s toward h e r a r e i n no doubt a t the time o f h i s  s i n g i n g h i s t o a s t , "Jeder nennet f r o h d i e Seine" ( I I , 3 1 0 ) , yet,  l a t e r i n the same n i g h t , a f t e r a dream i n which Bianka  - 38 has appeared, he bei  -  s i n g s a serenade, "Wie  n&cht'ger Stunde" ( I I , 317),  kfihl schweift  sich's  whereupon E i c h e n d o r f f  writes: "Er musste fiber s i c h s e l b e r lachen, da er am -Ende n i c h t wusste, wem er das St&ndchen brachte. Denn die r e i z e n d e K l e i n e CBianka] mit dem Blumenkranze war es lange n i c h t mehr, d i e er e i g e n t l i c h meinte." ( I I , 317) What has happened d u r i n g these few hours to change h i s views so  radically? The  new  source o f the change can be t r a c e d to the  character  to enter the s t o r y between P l o r i o ' s two  one  songs:  the k n i g h t , D n a t i ( i t should be p o i n t e d out here that 0  E i c h e n d o r f f no longer makes the d i s t i n c t i o n between " R e i t e r " and  " R i t t e r " remarked upon i n connection  Gegenwart".  Although the reader  with  i s never in, any  to -Donati's c h a r a c t e r , he i s r e f e r r e d to as a except a t one  moment where he  i s having  During the i n t e r v a l between w r i t i n g the two shed a l l l i n g e r i n g i l l u s i o n  pure).  Donati  concerning  him:  "Da  "Ritter" with  ( l l , 3l£ ) • works, E i c h e n d o r f f  of the k n i g h t as  i s branded as e v i l  und  doubt as  difficulties  h i s horse and t h e r e f o r e " R e i t e r " i s more apt  has  "Ahnung  i n the f i r s t  essentially  sentence  t r a t e i n hoher, schlanker R i t t e r i n  reichem Geschmeide, das g r f i n l i c h g o l d e n e Scheine zwischen die (II,  im Walde f l a c k e r n d e n I d c h t e r warf, i n das Z e i t h e r e i n . " 311+)  An  innocuous d e s c r i p t i o n ; but  to those who  observed the  symbolism of the few  Eichendorff,  " g r f i n l i c h g o l d e n " s i g n a l s moral danger.  o b s e r v a t i o n was  have  c o l o u r s mentioned by This  mentioned i n r e g a r d to the enchantress i n  - 39 -  "Die Zauberei im Herbste", o f whom i s w r i t t e n : " d i e A s t e r von i h r e r S t i r n e warf lange grfinlich-goldene Scheine die  Heide"  (II, 985).  fiber  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h i s c o l o u r w i t h  e v i l i s thus found i n E i c h e n d o r f f s f i r s t  known work o f any  1  l e n g t h , and a l s o i n one o f h i s l a s t , the verse e p i c , " J u l i a n " (1853).  I n the t w e l f t h canto o f t h i s e p i c , Oktavian  comes t o h i s senses i n the garden o f the temptress, Pausta, who  bears a s t r o n g l i k e n e s s t o the enchantresses o f "Die  Zauberei im Herbste" and "Das Marmorbild": "Dem R i t t e r g r a u t ' v o r i h r e n Wangen, Er sann, und wusst' n i c h t , wo e r i s t , Doch wie e r aufsprang, schlfipften Schlangen Grfingolden zfingelnd i n s G e n i s t . " ( I , H 3 3 ) 2  On the o c c a s i o n when F l o r i o , i n D o n a t i ' s company, meets the enchantress, he n o t i c e s t h i s :  " e i n E d e l s t e i n an  i h r e r Brust warf i n der Abendsonne lange, grfinlichgoldne Scheine fiber d i e Wlese h i n " - almost t h e same words as i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste" and i n the r e f e r e n c e i n r e g a r d I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare E i c h e n d o r f f s a t t i t u d e w i t h t h a t adopted by E.T.A, Hoffmann i n h i s Per goldene Topf ( S t u t t g a r t : Reclam I960), f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n l b l l | . The student, Anselmus, i s s i t t i n g under an e l d e r b e r r y bush: "er schaute h i n a u f und e r b l i c k t e d r e i i n grfinem Gold erglarizende; S c h l S n g l e i n , " (p.10) one o f which, S e r p e n t i n a , later,becomea, i n human form, h i s b r i d e . Serpentina represents a f u s i o n o f m i n e r a l (the j e w e l - l i k e glow o f her r e p t i l i a n form), p l a n t (her mother, the l i l y ) , animal (her f a t h e r , the salamander, who a l s o appears i n human form), and human; Hoffmann does n o t take r e l i g i o n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s phantasy. Such a f u s i o n i s foreshadowed i n N o v a l i s ' H e i n r i c h von O f t e r d i n g e n and T i e c k ' s P e r Runenberg.but would be u n t h i n k a b l e t o the c o n s e r v a t i v e - C a t h o l i c E i c h e n d o r f f , f o r whom t h i s w o r l d and heaven (and perhaps h e l l ) e x i s t s e p a r a t e l y , whereas Hoffmann's two worlds o f r e a l i t y and magic (the l a t t e r i n c l u d i n g t h e a r t s ) e x i s t t o g e t h e r , o v e r l a p p i n g i n space and time.  - uo to  Donati.  The  final  mention o f the  M a r m o r b i l d " i s made j u s t a f t e r l a s s mich n i c h t verlorengehen storm begins, outside  and  t h e window o f t h e  Schlange fuhr  zischend  grfinlichgoldnen hinunter" the  Florio  ( I I , 338).  cast  i n der  notices  "Herr  house.  und  the  A neglect,  "Eine  stflrzte mit  dem  Abgrund  reference  is clear:  Gott,  ( I I , 338)1  s i c h r i n g e l n d i n den  the  "Das  s u r p r i s i n g signs of  Even without  into  in  prayer:  Welt"  enchantress'  symbolism o f t h i s passage  v a n q u i s h e d and  Florio's  daraus hervor  Schweife  colour  evil  has  to  colour,  been  abyss.  J o s e f Kunz comments on  the  subject  of t h i s  colour:  "Von dem G e s c h m e i d e , das e r (t)° fc4/ tri.gt, , h e i s s t e s , d a s s e s "g r to" n 1 i c h g o l d e n e S c h e i n e z w i s c h e n d i e i m W i n d e f l a t t e r n d e n L i c h t e r w a r f " . Das G o l d , das an s i c h d i e H e l l e und das - S t r a h l e n d e des L i c h t e s b e w a h r t und a u s s t r a h l t , e r f S h r t so Schmfllerung und B e e i n t r f l c h t i g u n g s e i n e s G l a n z e s d u r c h d i e a n d e r e , raehr dem D u n k e l v e r h a f t e t e Farbe."-^ na  Whether t h i s to  regard  t h a t he  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o r any  green-gold  mentions t h i s  with  other  caused  such abhorrence,  the  colour c o n s i s t e n t l y with  Eichendorff fact  remains  regard  to  -\Tosef Kunz, E i c h e n d o r f f ; H6hepunkt und K r i s e d e r S p f l t r o m a n t i k ( O b e r u s e l , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 153Kunz u s e d t h e Gesammelte Werke (Mflnchen und L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 3 ) ; h i s use o f "Winde" i n t h e q u o t a t i o n a b o u t - D o n a t i sounds more c o n v i n c i n g t h a n t h e "Walde" w h i c h r e p l a c e s i t i n t h e C o t t a e d i t i o n u s e d by t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r a n d q u o t e d on p . 3k' t h e marquee i s p i t c h e d i n an open meadow, n o t a wood where f l i c k e r i n g l i g h t s w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i o u s f i r e h a z a r d i n an I t a l i a n summer. G e r h a r d MBbus a l s o m e n t i o n s ' t h e t h r e e i n s t a n c e s o f " g r f l n l i c h g o l d e n " i n "Das M a r m o r b i l d " ; "Behutsam a n d e u t e n d w e i s t E i c h e n d o r f f damit b e i d e G e s t a l t e n D o n a t i und d i e Z a u b e r i n dem B e r e i c h d e s Dfimonischen u n d D i a b o l i s c h e n z u " (op. c i t . , p. 9 8 ) .  -  Ill  -  k evil,  and t h a t t h e r e f o r e the reader i s warned o f Donati's  wickedness from the moment o f h i s appearance. T h i s moment has a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o P l o r i o ' s emotional s t a t e , f o r Donati appears not l o n g a f t e r the young man has f a l l e n i n l o v e f o r the f i r s t time, and hence has l e f t of  the stage o f c h i l d i s h s i m p l i c i t y to enter t h a t  adolescent v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  E i c h e n d o r f f mentions " d i e  dunkelglflhenden B l i c k e " ( I I , 3 1 0 ) o f Bianka towards F l o r i o , an a s t o n i s h i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f a g i r l whose name means "white" and who symbolizes pure womanhood, from an author who g e n e r a l l y r e s e r v e s t h i s a d j e c t i v e f o r dark r e d o b j e c t s , such as wine o r p e o n i e s .  I t seems that he i s h i n t i n g  d e l i c a t e l y t h a t p a s s i o n can e x i s t i n and be i n s p i r e d by even the most innocent g i r l .  F l o r i o responds  w i t h an advance towards mature  to this  inspiration  stability:  " F l o r i o war r e c h t i n n e r l i c h s t vergntigt, a l l e blBde B a n g i g k e i t war von s e i n e r Seele genommen, und er- sah f a s t t r S u m e r i s c h s t i l l v o r f r f l h l i c h e n Gedanken zwischen den L i c h t e r n und Blumen i n d i e wunderschSne, langsam i n d i e Abendgluten versinkende Landschaft vor s i c h hinaus." ( I I , 3 1 0 ) A f t e r Bianka's  departure and h i s subsequent c o n v e r s a t i o n  w i t h Donati, however, P l o r i o becomes confused, f o r g e t s Bianka  (though h e r presence  shortly  i n h i s dream i n d i c a t e s  ^ I t i s twice mentioned i n the n o v e l , " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " , ( I I , £ 8 0 and 5 9 8 ) , both times w i t h a c o n n o t a t i o n of e v i l magic. "GoldgruV occurs once i n " L i b e r t a s und i h r e F r e i e r " ( I I , 9 5 9 ) w i t h a c o n n o t a t i o n o f magic but no evil. 1  - if2  -  t h a t the f o r g e t t i n g i s o n l y a t t h e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l ) , and f e e l s an u n d i r e c t e d l o n g i n g which sends him out i n t o the countryside.  Here he f i r s t  sees the d e s e r t e d garden w i t h  the statue o f Venus which appears momentarily life  i n the s h i f t i n g l i g h t  t o come t o  o f the moon amongst the c l o u d s ,  and which dominates h i s thoughts and d e s i r e s throughout the remainder  o f h i s stay i n Lucca. Donati's c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the garden  i s not a t  f i r s t apparent, but when F l o r i o succeeds i n f i n d i n g i t by d a y l i g h t , a f t e r numerous f r u i t l e s s attempts, and sees the awakened s t a t u e walking amongst the e x o t i c p l a n t s which have taken the p l a c e o f the m o o n l i t r u i n s , he f i n d s Donati s l e e p i n g nearby " f a s t wie e i n T o t e r " ( I I , 323),  on some  f a l l e n stonework; and Donati takes him t o the garden f o r h i s t h i r d and f i n a l v i s i t .  When F l o r i o passes by the same  p l a c e on h i s d e p a r t u r e from Lucca, i t i s a l i f e l e s s  ruin:  i  t h e r e f o r e the semblance o f l i f e which the garden and the statue assumed must have depended on Donati, and has v a n i s h e d w i t h him.  In t u r n , Donati's e x i s t e n c e depends on  F l o r i o ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o temptation through h i s newly aroused s e n s u a l i t y :  once F l o r i o prays f o r h e l p , he  r e c e i v e s d i v i n e p r o t e c t i o n , and the e v i l f o r c e s a r r a y e d a g a i n s t him d i s i n t e g r a t e . Although the a c t i o n o f the s t o r y takes p l a c e w i t h i n a few days, F l o r i o passes through three s t a t e s o f emotional development w i t h i n t h i s time, from  childish  - hy innocence  through a d o l e s c e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y to m a t u r i t y .  has s t i l l not advanced e m o t i o n a l l y beyond the c h i l d h o o d when he says to  He  innocence  of  Fortunato:  "Auf dem Lande i n der S t i l l e aufgewachsen, wie lange habe i c h da d i e f e r n e n blauen Berge sehnsfichtig b e t r a c h t e t , wenn der F r t l h l i n g wie e i n z a u b e r i s c h e r Spielraann durch unsern Garten ging und von der wunderschflnen Ferne v e r l o c k e n d sang und von g r o s s e r , unermesslicher L u s t . " ( I I , 308) He has o b v i o u s l y no p e r c e p t i o n o f the danger temptation  and p l e a s u r e  o f which the  o l d e r and more experienced naivete',  Fortunato  inherent  i n the  "Spielmann" s i n g s .  The  i s taken aback by t h i s  and seeks to warn h i s young f r i e n d without  alarming  him: " ' H a b t Ihr wohl j e m a l s ' , sagte er z e r s t r e u t , aber sehr e r n s t h a f t , ' v o n dem wunderbaren Spielmann g e h o r t , der durch seine T8ne d i e Jugend i n einen Zauberberg n i n e i n v e r l o c k t , aus dem k e i n e r wieder zuruckgekehrt i s t ? Hutet E u c h ' . ' " ( I I , 308) The r e f e r e n c e here i s o b v i o u s l y t o T i e c k ' s "Der getreue Eckart  und der Tannenhaluser".  more apparent Herbste",  The i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s  whose p l o t i s b a s i c a l l y the  of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  g i v e n an o b j e c t i v e  tales,  q u a l i t y , because i t  given themselves  up to t e m p t a t i o n ,  life,  is  i s p e r c e i v e d by many.  i s heard o n l y by those who have  but even h i s unfortunate  the  the music o f temptation  it  blameless  same as that of  In both the T i e c k and the  In T i e c k ' s t a l e ,  resist;  is  but not openly acknowledged i n " D i e Zauberei im  second p a r t of T i e c k ' s M&rchen. earlier  tale  already  and none who hears i t  F r i e d r i c h , who has l e d a  i s doomed because Tannenhluser k i s s e d him  can  - kk before h i s f l i g h t im H e r b s t e " , by  back t o t h e H o r s e l b e r g .  t h e music  i s h e a r d by a l l ,  those w i t h a strong f a i t h :  Ubaldo  s t e a d f a s t w h i l e Raimund succumbs. apparently exists is  subject to h i s religious  that  b u t c a n be r e s i s t e d  and B e r t a  Thus, though  t h e music  the r e a c t i o n o f the hearer  conviction or lack of i t ,  Marmorbild",  unlike  fundamentally a t h i r d version o f  same s t o r y b u t b r o a d e n e d  n o t have music  a n d immensely improved,^*  a s t h e medium o f e n c h a n t m e n t .  "Ahnung u n d G e g e n w a r t " a n d a l l s u b s e q u e n t songs a r e the  remain  of Tieck's characters.  "Das the  objectively,  In "Die Zauberei  simply used t o express  singer;  serve  i n fact,  t h i s purpose  additional  function  I n s t e a d , as i n  prose  the f e e l i n g s  does  narratives,  or thoughts o f  the songs i n "Die Z a u b e r e i im H e r b s t e "  also,  but that  of luring  o f the enchantress has the  the s u s c e p t i b l e  to their  doom,  -'Ludwig T i e c k , D e r g e t r e u e E c k a r t und d e r T a n n e n h a u s e r , i n D e u t s c h e L i t e r a t u r , R e i h e Komantik, V I I ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 3 3 ) , p. 2 6 9 . ^ o b u s ( o p . c i t . , p . 88) g i v e s F r i e d r i c h K i n d ' s s t o r y , "Das P r i n z e n - B a n k " , T u l p e n . , V I I ( L e i p z i g , 1 8 1 0 ) , a s a n a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e - f o r "Das M a r m o r b i l d " . There.are several s t r i k i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two s t o r i e s ; however, Mfibus' c o n c l u s i o n t h a t E i c h e n d o r f f s i d e a o f b r i n g i n g t h e s t a t u e t o l i f e i s drawn f r o m K i n d ' s i d e a o f b r i n g i n g t h e c o r p s e o f H e l e n o f T r o y t o l i f e , i s open t o q u e s t i o n . E i c h e n d o r f f had a l r e a d y used the i d e a o f a d e s t r u c t i v e s p i r i t which d i e s p h y s i c a l l y and i s r e s u r r e c t e d i n "Die Z a u b e r e i i m Herbste", w r i t t e n a t l e a s t a year before the p u b l i c a t i o n o f K i n d ' s s t o r y , though t h e e n c h a n t r e s s i s not d e s c r i b e d a s a remnant o f c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y . O t h e r d e t a i l s may h a v e b e e n c o p i e d by E i c h e n d o r f f , c o n s c i o u s l y or o t h e r w i s e . E i c h e n d o r f f h i m s e l f w r o t e t o T i e c k i n a l e t t e r q u o t e d i n p a r t b y Mfibus on p . 79, t h a t H a p p e l ' s R e l a t i o n e s c u r i o s a e f u r n i s h e d t h e . i m p e t u s f o r h i s t a l e ; and an account o f Happel's ghost s t o r y , i n w h i c h t h e e v i l D o n a t i f i r s t a p p e a r e d , was p u b l i s h e d b y K i n d i n t h e same volume o f T u l p e n a s "Der Fremde i n L u c c a " . This l a t t e r t a l e may h a v e i n f l u e n c e d some d e t a i l s o f "Das Marmorbild".  -1£  -  as do the h u n t i n g horns and b i r d s o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e r . In "Das M a r m o r b i l d " ,  the apparatus o f temptation can a l l be  a s c r i b e d to an i l l u s i o n a r i s i n g out o f F l o r i o ' s to the stage of sensual awareness from t h i s i l l u s i o n ,  advancement  and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y .  Apart  E i c h e n d o r f f never abandons what one might  c a l l the "romantic r e a l i s m " c h a r a c t e r i s i n g much of h i s work: even the magic i n h i s f i r s t plot,  t a l e i s not e s s e n t i a l  but can a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i l l u s i o n ,  works of many other Romantic w r i t e r s instance,  to  the  whereas  depend upon magic:  the for  Hoffmann's "Der goldene T o p f " , mentioned above,  only one of many s t o r i e s  is  i n which t h i s author mingles  i n e x t r i c a b l y the worlds of magic and of o r d i n a r y l i f e .  (For  those r e a d e r s who would r e j e c t the term " r e a l i s m " as a p p l i e d to the prose works of E i c h e n d o r f f , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d "Aus dem Leben e i n e s T a u g e n i c h t s " ,  it  to  should be p o i n t e d out  t h a t a l t h o u g h the T a u g e n i c h t s ' adventures are u n l i k e l y ,  they  are c a s t i n terms of r e a l i t y ;  in  "Auch i c h war i n A k a d i e n " r  Freier"  (I8I4.9)  certainly  despite  the s e r i o u s n e s s  on the other hand, events  {lQ3k)  and " L i b e r t a s und i h r e  do not f i t i n t o t h i s framework o f the ideas u n d e r l y i n g them.)  i F l o r i o ' s s t a t e o f c h i l d l i k e innocence ends a t meeting w i t h B i a n k a .  his  Having f a l l e n i n l o v e , he i s now  v u l n e r a b l e to sensual t e m p t a t i o n , emissary from the d e v i l ,  and promptly, l i k e an  D o n a t i appears,  ready to lead  the  young k n i g h t a s t r a y . Sensual awareness,  l i k e other n a t u r a l f o r c e s ,  is  - k6 not i n i t s e l f e v i l , evil.  but without proper c o n t r o l can l e a d to  Here we have the young k n i g h t , as Brandenburg says,  p l a c e d between the good and e v i l k n i g h t s , and f e e l i n g uneasy when he i s l e f t alone w i t h them.  It  i s noteworthy that  D o n a t i pays no a t t e n t i o n to anyone but F l o r i o , h i s m i s s i o n to c o r r u p t ,  is  and no one but F l o r i o speaks to him,  though a l l f e e l uneasy i n h i s presence; Fortunato,  whom i t  he never  addresses  who symbolizes good as Donati symbolizes e v i l .  F o r t u n a t o has the advantage o f being r e a l as w e l l as s y m b o l i c ; h i s hymn, sung i n the r e a l r u i n e d garden, checks F l o r i o on the b r i n k o f p e r d i t i o n . " ^ her e l a b o r a t e  F l o r i o t u r n s from the seductress  room, to the window, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  in  gesture  o f E i c h e n d o r f f s f i g u r e s , who mostly t u r n away from the a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f the man-made world t o the g r e a t real m o f nature,  the c r e a t i o n o f God.  not enough, i n i t s e l f , from w i t h i n ;  and i t  to  Yet F o r t u n a t o ' s  save F l o r i o :  influence i s  the impulse must come  i s not u n t i l F l o r i o u t t e r s h i s few words  o f p r a y e r that the i n f l u e n c e of e v i l i s a v e r t e d . after h i s prayer, crevice:  Immediately  the snake appears and vanishes i n t o a  t h i s i n c i d e n t i s a "Symbol der Symbole", to  quote  Brandenburg a g a i n , the snake b e i n g a symbol of the power o f D o n a t i , who h i m s e l f i s merely a symbol o f e v i l . vanquishing of e v i l , collapse,  the e n c h a n t r e s s '  and F l o r i o f l e e s .  second stage,  With the  house begins to  He has passed through the  t h a t o f a d o l e s c e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and i s about  ^Even so d i d L e o n t i n ' s song rescue F r i e d r i c h from Romana's e v i l i n f l u e n c e ( I I , 160).  - kl  to e n t e r  -  the t h i r d stage o f s t a b l e m a t u r i t y  Fortunato,  l i k e that  both d e r i v i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y to g a i n and  of  adhere  to t h i s stage of development from t h e i r f i r m C h r i s t i a n faith. Wilhelm Emrich says i n " E i c h e n d o r f f , A s t h e t i k der G-eschichte"?  "Das  Skizze  Marmorbild v e r t r i t t d i e Idee  der e r s t a r r t e n Vergangenheit..., urn dann a l s  lebendig  singende Frau p l f l t z l i c h a l l e g o r i s c h Wahrheit und a l l e s vergangenen Seins  ttberhaupt  The  present  Ewigkeit  i n i h r e n eigenen Worten zu  beschwBren....Es i s t Urform a l l e r Geschichte, (p. lf>).  d.h.  h i s t o r y , even F l o r i o ' s own  apparently  l i v i n g form i s a c o n j u r a t i o n made by a  childhood Bianka.  emotions when he  conjuration  advances beyond h i s i n love with  However, Emrich i s not alone i n equating Kunz w r i t e s :  the  Wesen,  Spiegelung s e i n e r eigenen S i t u a t i o n , verzaubert er n i c h t d i e K r a f t hat,  das,  i s t in  seine Weigerung mit  und  Denn Leben i s t nur miJglich, wo  Spannung von Ursprung und  den  s i c h diesem  Zauber zu entwinden und Starrheit bezahlt.  statue  "In d i e s e r f u r s e i n Leben so  bedeutsamen Stunde begegnet a l s o F l o r i o dem  eigenen Ursprung, wie  statue  h i s t o r y , since i t s  ( h i s past up t o that p o i n t ) on f a l l i n g  w i t h the p a s t :  AHegorie"  w r i t e r does not f e e l t h a t the  represents  (Donati) o f h i s own  einer  der L e b l o s i g k e i t  Z i e l ausgehalten wird;  die  Leben -  und  urn d i e s e n G-edanken k r e i s t j a E i c h e n d o r f f s Denken immer wieder o ^Wilhelm Emrich: P r o t e s t und Verheissung, am-Main and Bonn, I960), pp. 11-2L),.  (Frankfurt-  - ka verdankt  seine I n t e n s i t U t  -  und P r i s c h e nur dem S c h r i t t ,  den  der Mensch wagt i n das Neue, s i c h damit l o s l S s e n d von der ewigen Wiederholung des Anfangs" (op. c i t . , has much t h a t i s new, p e n e t r a t i n g ,  and i l l u m i n a t i n g t o  about E i c h e n d o r f f , but i n the above q u o t a t i o n i t that i t  i s h i s own t h i n k i n g , not  E  Kunz  I 6 3 - I 6 I 4 ) .  ichendorff's,  is  say  apparent  which  c e n t r e s upon the danger o f remaining t i e d to o n e ' s o r i g i n . A l t h o u g h E i c h e n d o r f f s c h a r a c t e r s g e n e r a l l y do venture i n t o something new,  it  i s not through r e j e c t i o n  c h i l d h o o d and "Heimat",  but i n extension  b e f i t t i n g greater maturity.  of  forth  their  o f them i n a manner  The statue r e f l e c t s  Florio's  new emotional s t a t e , not h i s o r i g i n . Prom the c o n v e r s a t i o n M a r m o r b i l d " and F o r t u n a t o ' s 3l|3),  it  i s apparent  near the end of "Das  songon the s u b j e c t  (II,  3^1-  that a T a n n e n h a u s e r - l i k e legend  is  a t t a c h e d to the abandoned garden and i t s r u i n e d temple Venus.  T h i s serves as a s u p e r f i c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n  adventures;  nevertheless,  of  of F l o r i o ' s  he f i r s t hears o f the legend a f t e r  these phenomena are p a s t , and t h e r e f o r e they must be regarded as an independent p r o j e c t i o n problems.  of h i s  emotional  Once the problems are d e a l t w i t h , the ever more  elaborate projection  of them c a p s i z e s ,  l e a v i n g no t r a c e  except i n F l o r i o ' s mind and i n B i a n k a ' s g r i e f at b e l i e v i n g he has f o r g o t t e n  her.  D e s p i t e the u n r e a l i t y o f these adventures, benefits  Florio  g r e a t l y from them and w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be a much  more worthy knight than p r e v i o u s l y , having had overwhelming  t  - k'9 -  p r o o f o f the e f f i c a c y of prayer  (though even i n E i c h e n d o r f f  not a l l p r a y e r s are answered w i t h such s p e c t a c u l a r speed) and  the reward of v i r t u e .  w i l l develop  The reader  f e e l s a s s u r e d t h a t he  i n t o as f i n e an example of h i s c l a s s  as  F o r t u n a t o , w i t h the added advantage of a b e a u t i f u l  and  devoted w i f e . The most i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e i n r e g a r d to is onati.  The  D  may  treatment  of t h i s c h a r a c t e r , however u n r e a l he  be, p r o v i d e s a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t to the u s u a l  o f the k n i g h t as an i d e a l .  He  conception  i s never d e s c r i b e d i n terms  that might l e a d the reader t o admire him: v i r t u e s appear t o be  knighthood  h i s only k n i g h t l y  e x c e l l e n t horsemanship, good manners  (though these are i n t e r m i t t e n t ) , and the wealth which the outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l greatness mediaeval view of the k n i g h t .  totally  i n the  In f a c t , i t i s o n l y i n the  l e s s e r , expendable v i r t u e s t h a t he knighthood:  was  shows any p r o o f of  i n the g r e a t e r v i r u t e s , e s p e c i a l l y f a i t h , he i s  deficient. The change o f E i c h e n d o r f f s a t t i t u d e to a "schwarzer  Ritter" i s interesting.  During h i s v i s i t  to B r e s l a u i n  1809  w i t h h i s b r o t h e r , Wilhelm, he made the f o l l o w i n g e n t r y i n h i s d i a r y on 3 November: " L i e s s mich von dem n i c h t ganz t a l e n t l o s e n Maler R a a b e auf der Taschengasse e n M i n i a t u r e a l s schwarzer R i t t e r mit goldner K e t t e u. S t i c k e r e i f u r L [ p u i s e j malen." ( I l l , 222) . M a n i f e s t l y the b l a c k c l o t h i n g here has no other  significance  - 50 than t o serve as a f o i l  to h i s own f a i r good l o o k s .  w e a l t h of emotional overtones later,  But a  i s aroused when, t e n years  he d e s c r i b e s D o n a t i i n the same a t t i r e :  " E r war ganz schwarz g e k l e i d e t und sah heute ungewShnlich v e r s t f i r t , h a s t i g und beinah w i l d a u s . - P l o r i o erschrak o r d e n t l i c h vor Freude, a l s er i h n e r b l i c k t e , denn er gedachte s o g l e i c h der schfinen F r a u . "Kann i c h s i e sehen?" r i e f er ihm s c h n e l l entgegen. Donati scbiittelte verneinend mit dem Kopfe und sagte, t r a u r i g vor s i c h auf den Boden h i n s e h e n d : "Heute i s t S o n n t a g . " - Dann f u h r er r a s c h f o r t , s i c h s o g l e i c h , wieder ermahnend: "Aber zur Jagd w o l l t ' i c h Euch a b h o l e n . " ( I I , 325) Eichendorff himself "als  schwarzer R i t t e r " was j u s t  a  handsome young man being p o r t r a y e d i n c l o t h i n g b e f i t t i n g h i s rank - an E l i z a b e t h a n v e l v e t doublet w i t h a modest r u f f . But D o n a t i i n b l a c k i s another matter e n t i r e l y . "schwarzer R i t t e r " w i t h the p e j o r a t i v e  He i s a  q u a l i t i e s which  t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t a c h to b l a c k :  e v i l and g r i e f .  mourning f o r a strange r e a s o n :  a p p a r e n t l y he cannot  the enchantress  He i s i n cause  to use her w i l e s on Sunday, though he  tries  to s o f t e n t h i s blow by o f f e r i n g a hunt as c o n s o l a t i o n . the mourning has a r e v e r s e s i g n i f i c a n c e r e l a t e d associated with black:  he causes g r i e f t o o t h e r s .  to b r i n g F l o r i o to d i s a s t e r ; Fortunato  is distressed,  P i e t r o w o r r i e d on her  to the  But evil  He p l a n s  through F l o r i o ' s danger  Bianka heartbroken and her u n c l e  account.  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f b l a c k w i t h e v i l and w i t h mourning f o r an obscure cause was a l r e a d y made i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart".  Two i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g R u d o l f c l a d i n  - 51 b l a c k were mentioned i n Chapter I I .  In the f i r s t  (II,  R u d o l f attended a masked b a l l i n a b l a c k k n i g h t ' s  113),  costume  adorned w i t h s k e l e t o n hands, h i s e f f e c t on the g u e s t s b e i n g much l i k e that of D o n a t i at cause p e r t u r b a t i o n , costume  the f ^ t e  champStre,  though the r e a s o n f o r t h i s  namely,  to  i s due to  the  i n R u d o l f ' s case and to e v i l c h a r a c t e r i n D o n a t i ' s ;  Rudolf's intention is second i n s t a n c e  (II,  to c a l l s i n n e r s t o r e p e n t a n c e .  In the  2 7 8 ) , R u d o l f q u i t e by chance p i c k s up  a b l a c k " R i t t e r t r a c h t " b e l o n g i n g to A n g e l i n a ' s husband whom he i n a d v e r t e n t l y k i l l s .  It  i s d i f f i c u l t to  interpret  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the costume on t h i s o c c a s i o n ,  though  one can be sure t h a t , because o f E i c h e n d o r f f s s p a r i n g and symbolic use of c o l o u r , Perhaps i t costume,  a s i g n i f i c a n c e was i n t e n d e d . ,  i s that the g u i l t i n t h i s manslaughter,  belongs to the husband.  C e r t a i n l y tragedy  from R u d o l f * s borrowing the " R i t t e r t r a c h t " , h o r r o r are  like  the  results  and g r i e f and  brought to him and A n g e l i n a . A f u r t h e r example  i n t h i s n o v e l o f the  wearing  o f b l a c k f o r a strange reason i s Romana's appearance M i n i s t e r ' s evening p a r t y : f a s t furchtbar speak t o h e r ,  at  the  " S i e war schwarz angezogen und  schBn a n z u s e h e n . "  (II,  163)  S e v e r a l people  but:  "Romana antwortete n i c h t s , sondern s e t z t e s i c h an den F l u g e l und sang e i n w i l d e s L i e d , das nur aus dem t i e f s t e n Jammer e i n e r z e r r i s s e n e n Seele kommen konnte. ' 1 s t das n i c h t sch8n?' f r a g t e s i e e i n i g e Male-dazwischen, s i c h mit Trflnen i n den Augen zu F r i e d r i c h herumwendend und l a c h t e a b s c h e u l i c h d a b e i . . . F r i e d r i c h bemerkte, dass Romana z i t t e r t e . " ( I I , l 6 i | )  - 52 The reason f o r t h i s d i s p l a y o f g r i e f i s t o be found a l i t t l e e a r l i e r i n the n o v e l ,  on the o c c a s i o n of her  s e d u c t i o n o f F r i e d r i c h , to whom she s a y s : einmal r e c h t v e r l i e b t e , k o s t e n " (11,158)1 (II,  attempted  "Wenn i c h mich  es wurde mich gewiss das Leben  A f t e r t h i s she appears  "totenblass"  159), an a p p r o p r i a t e symptom i n one who has j u s t made  an a c c u r a t e prophecy.  For she has a l r e a d y f a l l e n  seriously  i n l o v e w i t h F r i e d r i c h , subsequently d r e s s e s i n b l a c k to express her d e s p a i r at h i s r e j e c t i o n o f h e r , takes her own l i f e  to put an end to her  and e v e n t u a l l y  grief.  Donati shows no such immoderate emotion on the f a i l u r e o f h i s p l a n to ensnare appearance  F  lorio;  in fact,  his  last  i n "Das Marmorbild" occurs when he hands the young  k n i g h t over to the e n c h a n t r e s s , about to succeed.  c o n f i d e n t t h a t h i s w i l e s are  As we have seen, when F l o r i o r a l l i e s  enough to make h i s prayer and thus d e s t r o y the power of  evil,  the snake s l i t h e r s from the w a l l and v a n i s h e s , n e a t l y and unmistakably s y m b o l i z i n g the d e f e a t instance,  of e v i l - i n t h i s  of F l o r i o ' s lower n a t u r e . Donati as a "schwarzer R i t t e r " may not be the most  memorable f i g u r e to anyone r e a d i n g t h i s Mlrchen simply f o r p l e a s u r e i n i t s beauty,  but he c e r t a i n l y i s important i n  being E i c h e n d o r f f ' s f i r s t p o r t r a y a l of a k n i g h t who i s unmistakably bad from the b e g i n n i n g .  The f a c t that he i s  d e p i c t e d as a c r e a t i o n o f F l o r i o ' s i m a g i n a t i o n i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t in this regard:  what matters i s t h a t D o n a t i makes h i s  appearance as a member of the k n i g h t l y c l a s s ,  and as such i s  i  - 53 a disgrace  to the i d e a l s of c h i v a l r y .  E i c h e n d o r f f has shown  once more t h a t the f i g u r e o f the k n i g h t does not r e p r e s e n t the h i g h e s t  i d e a l s of c h i v a l r y :  k n i g h t s who not o n l y l a c k f a i t h but even, Donati,  incorporate  evil.  necessarily  there are  unworthy  as i n the case o f  Here the k n i g h t i s not merely a  p r o b l e m a t i c f i g u r e l i k e Raimund or R u d o l f , but r e p r e s e n t s the essence of e v i l ,  whereas he should s t r i v e  ceaselessly  to u p h o l d the h i g h e s t i d e a l s o f k n i g h t h o o d . E i c h e n d o r f f has not yet  formulated the c o r o l l a r y to t h i s thought,  namely,  t h a t persons o f lower b i r t h may be c h i v a l r o u s through the n o b i l i t y of t h e i r character, Llrraen urn n i c h t s " Glucksritter"  (1832),  as he does l a t e r i n " V i e l  "Das Schloss Dtirande ( 1 8 3 7 ) ,  "Die  (181+1), and "Robert und G u i s c a r d " ( 1 8 5 5 ) ,  each  o f which works r e p r e s e n t s a broadening of h i s o u t l o o k . the b r e v i t y ,  l u c i d i t y and balance  of "Das Marmorbild"  But reveal  h i s p h i l o s o p h y w i t h no a m b i g u i t y , once the r e a d e r has r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the p h a n t a s t i c Symbole".  MBbus and B  r a n  the scope and importance  elements  are  "Symbole der  d e n b u r g between them have d e f i n e d of t h i s work.  "Das Marmorbild" ends on a much h a p p i e r and more c o n f i d e n t note than "Ahnung und Gegenwart",  partly,  no doubt,  because i t does not touch on p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  but  c o n c e n t r a t e s e n t i r e l y on the e t e r n a l moral problems of mankind.  Two poems from these works sum up the outlook o f  the author i n 1812 and 1819. Gegenwart",  The f i r s t ,  from "Ahnung und  sung by L e o n t i n o u t s i d e Romana s 1  "Schloss"  - % j u s t i n time t o rescue F r i e d r i c h from temptation, "Vergangen i s t der l i c h t e Tag" c o n s i d e r s the dangers and  (II, 1 6 0 ) .  starts:  In i t L e o n t i n  f e a r s which b e s e t mankind a t n i g h t ,  w i t h God's care the o n l y p r o t e c t i o n u n t i l morning.  The  second,  a q u a t r a i n sung by a peasant a f t e r F l o r i o has w i t h s t o o d h i s t r i a l s u c c e s s f u l l y , begins w i t h a c l o s e l y c o n t r a s t i n g l i n e , but expresses the j o y o f t h a t t r u s t i n God which overcomes evil: "Vergangen i s t d i e f i n s t r e Nacht, -Des Bosen Trug und Zaubermacht, Zur A r b e i t weckt der l i c h t e Tag; F r i s c h auf, wer Gott noch loben magi" ( I I , 3 ^ 0 )  - 5,5 -  V.  D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n  (Summary. Book I . Portunat accompanies h i s f r i e n d Walter to the home of the l a t t e r s fiance'e, F l o r e n t i n e , whose f a t h e r i s b a i l i f f to G r a f V i c t o r von H o h e n s t e i n , a famous poet. Fi t i n e ' s c o u s i n O t t o , having j u s t f i n i s h e d at u n i v e r s i t y , wishes to be a poet l i k e V i c t o r , but Walter persuades him to undertake something more p r a c t i c a l . Walter r e t u r n s to the c i t y , and Fortunat continues h i s t r a v e l s , f a l l i n g i n w i t h a company of s t r o l l i n g p l a y e r s , i n c l u d i n g the " L i t e r a t u s " , L o t h a r i o , who had conducted F o r t u n a t around the garden of the absent V i c t o r , and the " M u s i k u s " , Dryand e r . 1  o r e n  he company i s i n v i t e d to perform at the F i r s t ' s country s e a t , on the way to which L o t h a r i o rescues a b e a u t i f u l r i d e r i n d i f f i c u l t i e s . Portunat i s i n v i t e d t o stay at the c a s t l e , u n l i k e the p l a y e r s , who have q u a r t e r s elsewhere. H i s f i r s t acquaintance here i s the p a i n t e r , Guido, whose a t t i t u d e to a r t i s much l i k e h i s own, i n c o n t r a s t to a second p a i n t e r , A l b e r t , who cannot l e t anyone f o r g e t t h a t he fought i n 1813, and l o u d l y praises everything North German. One of the guests of the F u r s t i n i s the r e s c u e d r i d e r , the Spanish G r a f i n Juanna, who a t t r a c t s and r e j e c t s a l l the men. Soon Otto j o i n s the p l a y e r s , h a v i n g g i v e n up h i s b o r i n g s t u d i e s t o continue w i t h h i s p o e t r y . He i s i n l o v e w i t h the actress, K o r d e l c h e n . T  The p r i n c e l y p a r t y goes h u n t i n g , and takes refuge from a storm i n the tumbledown c a s t l e o f Baron E b e r s t e i n , whose daughter, G e r t r u d , s i n g s a t the F i r s t ' s r e q u e s t . Then the E n g l i s h L o r d , another guest of the F u r s t , t e l l s "The S t o r y of the W i l d Spanish L a d y " , h a l f f a i r y t a l e , h a l f war adventure s t o r y , which seems to have some r e l a t i o n to Juanna. Otto reads h i s drama to the company's d i r e c t o r , who p r a i s e s i t f a i n t l y . T h i s r e b u f f and K o r d e l c h e n ' s u n f a i t h f u l n e s s depress O t t o , but L o t h a r i o a d v i s e s him to w r i t e to Hohenstein f o r money so t h a t he can continue t o write. Baron E b e r s t e i n and G e r t r u d come to v i s i t r e l a t i v e s , and Dryander, who has become c o u r t p o e t , shows c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n the g i r l , though he had t a l k e d h i m s e l f i n t o and out o f l o v e w i t h the F u r s t i n a short time e a r l i e r . On a h u n t , Juanna plans to.evade the F u r s t i n ' s attempt to p r o v i d e her w i t h a s u i t a b l e husband, by escaping to a c o n v e n t , but she i s d i v e r t e d by a chamois and gets i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s . L o t h a r i o rescues her once more and then t r i e s to abduct h e r , but i n order to elude him she makes her horse jump i n t o the r i v e r . T h i s time h i s e f f o r t s t o save h e r are u n s u c c e s s f u l , and she drowns.  - 56 Book I I . F o r t u n a t stays i n Rome a t the home o f the impoverished Marchese . , w i t h whose young daughter, Fiaraetta, he f a l l s i n l o v e . H i s f r i e n d , G r u n d l i n g , takes him to a l i t t l e house where Kordelchen i s l i v i n g w i t h G u i d o . Here <' G r u n d l i n g t e l l s a b u r l e s q u e v e r s i o n o f the L o r d ' s s t o r y o f the Spanish l a d y . Otto has made h i m s e l f at-home i n I t a l y to the extent o f renouncing h i s German h e r i t a g e and marrying an I t a l i a n g i r l , A n n i d i ; on f i n d i n g her f a i t h l e s s , he sets o f f f o r Germany a g a i n w i t h K o r d e l c h e n . A  P o r t u n a t , b e l i e v i n g Piametta l o v e s another, t r a v e l s i n Naples and S i d i y . On h i s r e t u r n to Rome, he f i n d s the M a r c h e s e ' s palace empty, the o l d gentleman h a v i n g become bankrupt and gone away w i t h h i s daughter, who had f a l l e n i l l a f t e r Fortunat's departure. F o r t u n a t buys the p a l a c e , i n s t a l l s G r u n d l i n g as c a r e t a k e r , and s e t s o f f i n search o f his beloved. Book I I I . L o t h a r i o comes t o the c a p i t a l o f the F f i r s t , who- has l o s t h i s m i n d . The poet pursues h i s c r a f t i n an i n n , but f e e l s the d e v i l i s encouraging him to m i s l e a d h i s r e a d e r s , and g i v e s up i n h o r r o r . He l o o k s i n at a performance of a p l a y by Graf V i c t o r von Hohenstein - and r e c e i v e s an o v a t i o n as i t s a u t h o r . The applause r e p e l s h i m , the more so as the p l a y i s the true s t o r y of Juanna, i n which he h i m s e l f had taken p a r t as the E n g l i s h Lord had r e c o u n t e d . V i c t o r , h i t h e r t o known to the reader as L o t h a r i o , rushes from the t h e a t r e and encounters K o r d e l c h e n , who begs him not to leave h e r a g a i n , as she has. always been t r u e t o him i n her heart. He, however, s e t s f o r t h a g a i n , f e e l i n g t h a t he must make a f r e s h s t a r t . She subsequently goes mad. Otto experiences a r a t h e r s o r d i d r e p e t i t i o n of the " Z a u b e r e i im H e r b s t e " theme, f a l l s i l l , r e p e n t s , and s e t s o f f f o r home, v i s i t i n g the mountain of the h e r m i t , V i t a l i s , on h i s way. On the mountain he f a l l s a s l e e p and d i e s peacefully. F o r t u n a t f i n d s F i a m e t t a i n an i n n . She and h e r maid have been l o o k i n g f o r him to r e s c u e h e r from the p l a n s f o r h e r marriage b e i n g made by her kinsman, Baron Manfred, her g u a r d i a n s i n c e the death o f h e r f a t h e r . F o r t u n a t takes h e r to H o h e n s t e i n , where Walter and F l o r e n t i n e , now a m a r r i e d couple w i t h a baby, can l o o k a f t e r her while he seeks p e r m i s s i o n to marry h e r . The p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s a l l meet at Otto's g r a v e , then proceed t o the abandoned monastery where the h e r m i t , a former monk, m a r r i e s Fortunat and Piametta w i t h M a n f r e d ' s approval. With the r e a l hermit i s the supposed h e r m i t , V i t a l i s , who i s i n f a c t V i c t o r , i n r e t i r e m e n t p r i o r to becoming a p r i e s t . The wedding b r e a k f a s t i s enjoyed by the b r i d a l c o u p l e , the two p r i e s t s , a c t u a l and p r o s p e c t i v e ,  - 57 Manfred, Walter,  and f o r a time the u b i q u i t o u s Dryander.  V i c t o r speaks of h i s hope of c o n v e r t i n g the c u l t u r e d European heathen, Manfred of h i s p l a n s f o r government s e r v i c e , Portunat w i l l r e t u r n to I t a l y w i t h Fiametta and continue to w r i t e p o e t r y . As the f r i e n d s p a r t -at s u n r i s e , V i c t o r c l i m b s upward, and Dryander i s seen f a r below p l a y i n g the v i o l i n a t the head of a troupe of a c t o r s . The n o v e l ' c l o s e s to the s t r a i n s of the h e r m i t ' s song on the v a n i t y o f the w o r l d , ) Eichendorffs Gesellen"  second n o v e l , " D i c h t e r und i h r e  (I83I4.), i s i n many ways a r e p e t i t i o n  o f the  "Ahnung und Gegenwart"  (1815).  t a k i n g the  and f o l l o w h i s adventures  grand t o u r ,  Both b e g i n w i t h a young man and those  o f h i s f r i e n d s t o t h e i r p o i n t of d e c i s i o n as to vocation,  and t h e i r  separation.  earlier  their  Both have the same c y c l i c a l  s t r u c t u r e d i v i d e d i n t o three books, and end w i t h a wedding on a mountain top f o l l o w e d by a n i g h t - l o n g o p e n - a i r amongst  the most important c h a r a c t e r s ,  e n t e r i n g the p r o f e s s i o n o f p r i e s t h o o d .  discussion  i n c l u d i n g one who i s Both f i n i s h with t h a t  s u n r i s e which, i n E i c h e n d o r f f , almost always i m p l i e s a new beginning,  and i n both the p r i e s t watches the r e s t o f  c h a r a c t e r s proceeding down to the l e v e l o f o r d i n a r y Both c e n t r e on E i c h e n d o r f f s main c o n c e r n s : poetry.  the same, but i n the long i n t e r v a l  t h e i r composition,  is  separating  the a u t h o r ' s ideas have c r y s t a l l i z e d ,  v a r i o u s problems which he s t i l l had not r e s o l v e d i l y i n the e a r l i e r  life.  r e l i g i o n and  The p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g the two novels  essentially  the  work, are  and  satisfactor-  c l a r i f i e d i n the l a t e r  one.  In r e g a r d to k n i g h t h o o d , E i c h e n d o r f f r e j e c t s more emphatically  i n the  second n o v e l the r e t e n t i o n  o f those  - 58 outward aspects of c h i v a l r y which have become meaningless i n a changed s o c i e t y .  "Der M a l e r A l b e r t " , one of the two  a r t i s t s l i v i n g at the F i r s t ' s author's  country house,  f i r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n this respect,  draws the and a l s o i s a  p r e y to what E i c h e n d o r f f c a l l e d " V a t e r l S n d e r e i " ( I I , 296), here expressed i n A l b e r t ' s u n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p r a i s e  of  e v e r y t h i n g North German.  F o r t u n a t expresses E i c h e n d o r f f s  views on the needlessness  o f b o a s t i n g about s e r v i c e  country when A l b e r t shows him h i s s t u d i o .  to  Albert is a  c a r i c a t u r e o f the p r e - C h r i s t i a n hero o f Germanic  literature,  f o r whom i t was compulsory to s i n g h i s own p r a i s e s , Fortunat represents  one's  the modern, modest k n i g h t who  whereas carries  out h i s d u t i e s q u i e t l y : "Es war s e i n A t e l i e r , e i n hohes, r i t t e r l i c h . e s -Gemach, an dessen schmuckloser Hauptwand e i n g r o s s e s , mit der J a h r e s z a h l 1813 bezeichnetes Schwert h i n g , um das s i c h e i n verwelkter Eichenkranz wand. "Das i s t mein t r e u e r R e i s e g e f a h r t e , " sagte A l b e r t zu F o r t u n a t , "und wenn mich s c h l a f f e Ruh' oder w e i c h l i c h e Lust s c h l e i c h e n w o l l e n , b l i c k ' i c h die E i s e n b r a u t an und gedenke der e r n s t e n , grossen Z e i t . " " A c h , das i s t schon eine a l t e G e s c h i c h t e ' . " entgegnete F o r t u n a t l a c h e n d . - " S i n d Sie damals rait zu Felde gewesen?" f r a g t e d er Maler etwas s p i t z i g . - " F r e i l i c h , " - e r w i d e r t e j e n e r , "das v e r s t e h t s i c h „ j a ganz von s e l b s t . " " . . . D a waren d i e ungeheuersten 1 A n s t a l t e n zur -Kunst dazwischen mehrere v o l l e n d e t e B i l d e r , H i s t o r i e n s t f i c k e aus der a n t i k e n H e r o e n z e i t von selnv-zusammengesetzter, s t u d i e r t e r und n i c h t l e i c h t f a s s l i c h e r K o m p o s i t i o n . . . d i e s e anmasslichen, a f f e k t i e r t e n H e l d e n g e s t a l t e n v o l l Mannerstolz w o l l t e n ihm [Fortunat'J n i c h t im mindesten behagen...." " . . . Z u l e t z t musste er l a u t a u f l a c h e n fiber den wunderlichen Z o r n , i n den i h n das  - 59 " L a r v e n k u n s t k a b i n e t t des Malers v e r s e t z t hatte. Die Morgensonne s p i e l t e golden durch d i e W i p f e l der B&ume und unzalhlige V S g e l sangen. E r b l i c k t e f r & h l i c h umher und f a n d , dass d i e Welt t r o t z a l i e n Narren so schon und l u s t i g b l i e b , wie s i e w a r . " ( I I , 560-562) T h i s episode  illustrates  clearly  a b i l i t y to use a comic i n c i d e n t f o r the serious  ideas.  "schlaffe  Eichendorff»s  expression  A l b e r t ' s thoughts are not a l l f o o l i s h :  R u h ' " he seeks to a v o i d i s a constant o b j e c t  Eichendorff's  disapproval;  s u r p r i s i n g that such an u n r e s t r a i n e d i n which the p a i n t e r  Church, becomes a Carbonaro, venture,  It  is  opponent o f a l l  of  not things  i n c l u d e s the Roman C a t h o l i c  and, on the f a i l u r e  takes h i s own l i f e w i t h h i s f e t i s h ,  vom Jahre 1813".  the  but A l b e r t exaggerates a few  sound ideas to the p o i n t of l u d i c r o u s p a r o d y .  southern,  of  And i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r ,  his  of  this  "Schwert  incidentally,  E i c h e n d o r f f q u i e t l y s a t i r i z e s those aspects of P r o t e s t a n t P r u s s i a which he found u n c o n g e n i a l , credit  for its  due  share i n the Wars of L i b e r a t i o n .  Portunat, of the n o v e l ,  while g i v i n g i t  on the other hand, the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r  opposes the  s t e r i l e c l i n g i n g to p a s t  which b r i n g s about A l b e r t ' s  glory  d o w n f a l l , and t u r n s to nature  f o r i n s p i r a t i o n and refreshment:  its  eternally  renewed  beauty r e f l e c t s the g l o r y of God f a r b e t t e r than any mere human a r t  can d o . Baron E b e r s t e i n has taken the  to A l b e r t ' s :  he has l e t  opposite  attitude  e v e r y t h i n g go to rack and r u i n ,  - 60 h i s neglect  of h i s knighthood being symbolized by the  arms over h i s g a t e ,  i n whose helmet sparrows make t h e i r home.  As i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart",  this  symbol may have  the  a d d i t i o n a l meaning o f e x t i n c t i o n of an a n c i e n t name, the Baron*s o n l y c h i l d i s a daughter. experiences  coat-of-  T h i s former  since  officer  a b r i e f resurgence o f c h i v a l r o u s behaviour during  the unexpected v i s i t of the F f l r s t w i t h h i s h u n t i n g p a r t y , seeking s h e l t e r  from a s t o r m .  by l u d i c r o u s i n c i d e n t s ,  Even t h i s episode i s  marred  such as the P f i r s t i n ' s r e p l y i n g i n  German to h i s ceremonious q u e s t i o n s i n F r e n c h ,  and the  b r e a k i n g out of a dog f i g h t almost under t h e i r  feet.  Subsequently he r e v e r t s to the uncouth s t a t e i n which we first  found h i m , and worse,  but p l e a s a n t  daughter  as he d r i v e s h i s q u i t e commonplace  into a disastrous  e b u l l i e n t poet and vagabond, Dryander.  marriage w i t h the Baron E b e r s t e i n  an extreme example o f a k n i g h t degenerating  to an almost  sub-human l e v e l , indeed going over to the camp o f "Philister", antithesis  whom E i c h e n d o r f f d e s p i s e d as almost  the  most s t r i c t l y  of  detested.  As i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart",  falls  the  of the k n i g h t l y i d e a l , being an i n c a r n a t i o n  the " s c h l a f f e Ruhe" which he  is  the person who should  uphold the i d e a l s of c h i v a l r y i s the one who  f a r t h e s t away from them.  The case i s more d e p l o r a b l e  i n the l a t e r n o v e l inasmuch as the c h a r a c t e r i n q u e s t i o n i s a reigning prince,  not merely a crown p r i n c e ,  excesses l e a d him e v e n t u a l l y to madness  and that h i s  (We know n o t h i n g o f  - 61  -  the l i f e of the E r b p r i n z a f t e r h i s marriage  to  Rosa.).  E i c h e n d o r f f c e r t a i n l y put not h i s t r u s t i n p r i n c e s , f o r P r i n c e Romano i n " V i e l Larmen um n i c h t s " i s another example, l i k e two mentioned above, of a c h a r a c t e r who  the  allows h i s whims and  emotions untrammelled freedom. The Ftirst o f " D i c h t e r und  i h r e G e s e l l e n " i s a minor  f i g u r e , whose amorousness a c t u a l l y appears i n the n o v e l o n l y i n h i s p u r s u i t o f Juanna, i n which d i s r e p u t a b l e a c t i v i t y almost  a l l the male c h a r a c t e r s are engaged, F o r t u n a t and  p a i n t e r Guido, the t r u e a r t i s t s ,  being amongst the e x c e p t i o n s .  Juanna r e j e c t s h i s advances v e r y simply and e f f e c t i v e l y l e a d i n g him t o the c o t t a g e o f a g i r l whom he has abandoned and who  i s now  mad.  the  by  seduced and  Madness i s h i s own d e s t i n y ,  as E i c h e n d o r f f r e l a t e s : "Zwischen Genuss und Reue, Lust und Grauen war -er a l l m f l h l i c h immer t i e f e r . h i n a b g e s t i e g e n i n die schimmernden Abgrunde, wo mit verlockendem Gesang d i e Nixen im Mondenscheine auf den K l i p p e n i h r f e u c h t e s Haar kflmmen, das f e m e Wetterleuchten der R e l i g i o n v e r w i r r t e i h n nur noch mehr; so h a t t e .er s i c h im sbhBnen Leben v e r i r r t und konnte s i c h n i c h t wieder nach Hause f i n d e n . Da s c h l u g d i e himmlische Liebe i h r eh "Sternenmantel um den Todmuden. E r v e r f i e l i n eine schwere K r a n k h e i t , und a l s er wieder genas, war auf einmal a l l e s v o r b e i . Die Leute nannten i h n wahnsinnig, er aber war vergnugt und b l & t t e r t e Tag f u r Tag mit s t i l l e r , h e r z l i c h e r L u s t - i n den a l t e n B i l d e r b u c h e r n , die er a l s K i n d g e l e s e n ; a l l e s andere h a t t e er vergessen." ( I I , 61+8; The  first  sentence  o f t h i s excerpt i a t y p i c a l  E i c h e n d o r f f s p h i l o s o p h y and o f h i s a r t i s t r y :  of the  shimmering  abysses whence comes music to l u r e away the h e e d l e s s one  so  - 62 t h a t he becomes l o s t and cannot  f i n d h i s way home.  Hause" i s used, l i k e h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  "Nach  of "Heimat", to mean  home, c h i l d h o o d , or heaven. In the second sentence, an element new to Eichendorff's narrative granted to a s i n n e r .  prose i s i n t r o d u c e d :  grace  is  There was a h i n t of t h i s i n "Ahnung  und Gegenwart" a f t e r the death of Romana who had p r e v i o u s l y u t t e r e d n e a r l y the same words as i n the above " I c h habe mich h i e r oben v e r i r r t , mehr nach Hause" ( I I ,  222).  paragraph:  i c h weiss den Weg n i c h t  This i s l i t e r a l l y true,  but  a l s o has the same symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e as the F i r s t ' s h i s way.  losing  F r i e d r i c h f i n d s her dead:  "Ihn i l l b e r f i e l im e r s t e n Augenblicke e i n seltsamer - Z o r n , er f a s s t e s i e i n beide Arme, a l s mflsste er s i e mit Gewalt noch dem T e u f e l e n t r e i s s e n . Aber das w i l d e S p i e l war f u r immer v e r s p i e l t , s i e h a t t e s i c h gerade i n s Herz geschossen. Der mflde L e i b ruhte schcin und fromm, da i h n d i e h e i d n i s c h e Seele n i c h t mehr r e g i e r t e . E r k n i e t e neben i h r h i n und b e t e t e f u r s i e aus Herzensgrunde." ( I I , 221+) Here i s a strange and s t r i k i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the pious body and heathen s o u l :  the body i s as God made i t ,  had d e l i b e r a t e l y abandoned i t s e l f to e v i l . "Laue L u f t kommt b l a u g e f l o s s e n " w i t h the opening l i n e of i t s  (II,  but the s o u l  Romana's  song,  121+), comes to mind,  d e f i a n t second s t a n z a ,  "Und i c h  mag mich n i c h t bewahreni" Although E i c h e n d o r f f would o b v i o u s l y have to save the s o u l of someone so r i c h l y t a l e n t e d  liked  as Romana,  he d i d not q u i t e f e e l the confidence to do so i n t h i s  early  - 63 novel*  S a l v a t i o n c o u l d come o n l y to the r i g h t e o u s ,  the f o r m a l l y repentant s i n n e r ,  Romano" ( 1 8 2 8 ) .  tragedy,  E z e l i n ' s only v i r t u e ,  a  " E z e l i n von  i f such i t may be  i s t h a t he i s an a s t u t e g e n e r a l ;  i s employed s o l e l y to  the  as i s to be seen a l s o i n the  conclusion of h i s f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l  called,  the end o f  But the mellowing e f f e c t o f experience caused  change i n t h i s a t t i t u d e ,  to  as we may assume Rosa to be  from her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p i l g r i m a g e at novel.  or  but h i s  astuteness  i n c r e a s e h i s own power w i t h a view to  p r o c l a i m i n g h i m s e l f Holy Roman Emperor (The a c t i o n o f p l a y takes p l a c e d u r i n g the I n t e r r e g n u m . ) .  the  The monk,  A n t o n i o , attempts to b r i n g E z e l i n to repentance;  failing  to do so, Antonio d e p a r t s w i t h the words:  reicht  "Hier  k e i n Mensch mehr aus - so gnad' d i r G o t t " ( I ,  766)1  In a  l a t e r scene h i g h l y r e m i n i s c e n t  of Gretchen ^at mass i n  Faust I ,  s i n g i n g about the Day of  Judgment,  w i t h a chorus o u t s i d e E z e l i n admits  and d i e s s a y i n g ,  the  j u s t i c e of A n t o n i o ' s  "Hier b i n i c h , Herr" (I,  words a l s o form the opening of F l o r i o ' s  796)!  arguments, (which  song ( I I ,  31+5) i n  "Das M a r m o r b i l d " , a f t e r he has escaped from e v i l ) . guard and the c h o i r both pray f o r g r a c e f o r h i m .  The He has  acknowledged h i s s i n s and d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f ready to to judgment, spontaneous  not f o r m a l l y to a p r i e s t , prayer  but merely i n a  i n the v e r y l a s t moment of h i s  Only grace can save h i m ; the tone o f the i t w i l l be  granted.  submit  life.  scene i m p l i e s t h a t  - 6  U  -  Having one© adopted t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f s a l v a t i o n bygrace, E i c h e n d o r f f continues t o employ i t . o b v i o u s l y never repents  The F i i r s t  s i n c e r e l y , y e t he r e c e i v e s grace,  perhaps w i t h h i s madness as p r o p i t i a t i o n f o r h i s s i n s :  "Da  schlug d i e hiramlische Liebe i h r e n Sternenmantel um den Todmuden" ( I I , 61+8). A s i m i l a r end i s p r o v i d e d f o r Otto, not a knight, but a poet and companion o f v a r i o u s k n i g h t s . vacillates,  Otto  l i k e the F u r s t , between d i s s i p a t i o n and r e g r e t ,  and a l s o between l i t e r a t u r e and j u r i s p r u d e n c e .  In h i s  f i n a l s t a t e o f repentance he proceeds towards h i s o l d home, and  i s l e d by an a n g e l i c c h i l d t o a mountain where he can  overlook h i s home and where he h a s a v i s i o n o f Rome. he  Here  l i e s down and d i e s . N e i t h e r Otto nor Dryander has any c l a i m t o  knighthood,  but both have a c l a i m to be ranked with  knights.  An e a r l y sonnet ( c . 1809) o f E i c h e n d o r f f s on the m i s s i o n o f the poet c o n t a i n s the l i n e : i h n geschlagen"  ( I , 70).  "Das Leben h a t zum R i t t e r  ( I t a l s o c o n t a i n s the phrase,  "Hie b i n i c h H e r r i " remarked upon above.)  Friedrich, i n  "Ahnung und Gegenwart", speaking o f poetry, r e f e r s t o " i h r e angebornen R i t t e r , d i e D i c h t e r " ( I I , 32). r e a l reason  But the  f o r i n c l u d i n g these two u n s a t i s f a c t o r y poets  amongst the e l i t e i s t h e i r being a b l e t o f i n d t h e i r way t o the p r i e s t , V i t a l i s , on h i s mountain top.  T h i s mountain i s  not a mere g e o g r a p h i c a l phenomenon, but a symbol o f s p i r i t u a l  - 6£ -  eminence.  Eichendorff writes:  "Unerwartet waren s i e h i e r  auf e i n e r j e n e r Zinnen des Lebens zusammengekommen, d i e immer nur f u r wenige Raum h a t " ( I I , 719). Dryander  N e i t h e r Otto nor  d i s p l a y s any moral s u p e r i o r i t y ; t h e r e f o r e i t must  be the f a c t that they are poets which renders them e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , even though they are f a r from being great p o e t s .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i r being a b l e t o compose  p o e t r y a t a l l immediately r a i s e s them above the o r d i n a r y level:  E i c h e n d o r f f c o n s i d e r e d that poets have a m i s s i o n  almost as important as that of the c l e r g y .  One might  say  more important, except that i t i s i n both n o v e l s the p r i e s t who  remains  on the h e i g h t s , and i n " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n "  the p r i o r i t y of p r i e s t h o o d i s emphasised there of the h e r m i t who, poet.  by the d w e l l i n g  though a p r i e s t , i s c e r t a i n l y no  The apparent pre-eminence of the poet i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  works i s merely due  to h i s t a s t e i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  Otto reaches V i t a l i s , but i s ordered away, though he a g a i n climbs the mountain, where he d i e s and i s b u r i e d . H i s r e p u l s i o n i s p r o b a b l y due inferiority.  to h i s moral and  artistic  Readers o f E i c h e n d o r f f n o t i c e , perhaps w i t h  amusement or i r r i t a t i o n , t h a t the poems i n the n o v e l s and N o v e l l e n are almost always  sung t o an i n s t r u m e n t a l  accompaniment; the author c o n s i d e r s i t worthy o f remark i f the circumstances are d i f f e r e n t .  Once, i n "Ahnung und  Gegenwart", F r i e d r i c h hears Erwin s i n g i n g "ohne a l l e B e g l e i t u n g e i n e s Instrumentes"  ( I I , 177).  Faber, the  - 66 p r o f e s s i o n a l poet whose a t t i t u d e  to h i s a r t  i s denounced by  the egregious F r i e d r i c h e a r l y i n the n o v e l (though at end Faber assumes to some extent the vole  the  of E i c h e n d o r f f s 1  mouthpiece), merely r e c i t e s the l a s t poem a t t r i b u t e d to him i n the book ( I I ,  296).  Otto s i n k s even l o w e r :  poems a s c r i b e d to him ( I I ,  the  6 3 7 - 6 3 8 ) are w r i t t e n .  only  No one  knew b e t t e r than E i c h e n d o r f f t h a t good p o e t r y must not  only  be w r i t t e n , but a l s o r e w r i t t e n and p o l i s h e d e n d l e s s l y . Nevertheless,  it  i s h i s l i t e r a r y convention that h i s  c h a r a c t e r s must s i n g t h e i r poems extempore  to  the  accompaniment of a m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t , u s u a l l y a g u i t a r or a l u t e .  Thus the reader  Marmorbild" s e t t i n g  observes F l o r i o i n "Das  out f o r a c o u n t r y walk i n the middle  o f the n i g h t w i t h a g u i t a r  s l u n g about him ( I I ,  316).  Dryander does not d i s p l a y the same moral weakness as O t t o ; reader  in fact,  he i s an amoral c h a r a c t e r ,  o f Puck and A r i e l : 1  wood-spirit;  even h i s name suggests  only h i s hearty appetite  Eichendorff himself refers  reminding the  is  a male  corporeal:  to him as an " I r r l i c h t "  (II,  He i s a c o m i c a l , c h a m e l e o n - l i k e c h a r a c t e r , r e f l e c t i n g mood of h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s .  725). the  H i s l a c k of p o e t i c a l greatness  i s i n d i c a t e d by the v e r t i g o which overcomes him i n the abandoned monastery which i s V i t a l i s '  temporary abode.  However, he manages to f i n d h i s way as f a r as the h e r m i t ' s "*"The name "Dryander" may be d e r i v e d from the Greek -ApuoLs, a t r e e ^ s p i r i t , and £.v£^>«i"o*, m a s c u l i n e .  - 67 -  dwelling a l i t t l e  lower down on at  l e a s t two o c c a s i o n s ,  therefore  we must admit h i s c l a i m to b e i n g a poet,  though he  is. The remaining c h a r a c t e r s who succeed  the h e i g h t s are t h r e e k n i g h t s and a l a d y : Fortunat  and h i s b r i d e F i a m e t t a ,  mercurial  i n attaining  Vitalis,  and Manfred ( I t  become the permanent home of the hermit b e f o r e  and  of  course,  had a l s o  Vitalis'  arrival:  i n f a c t , he had been " P r a t e r Sammler" i n the r u i n e d  monastery  before i t s  s u p p r e s s i o n , and chose to remain b e h i n d  i n s o l i t u d e when the other monks l e f t . ) . is  the l e a s t i m p o r t a n t :  management  Of t h e s e , Manfred  although v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n the  of h i s l a n d s , and d e s t i n e d f o r important  to the s t a t e , he i s not a poet,  service  and t h e r e f o r e has o n l y a s m a l l  p a r t to p l a y i n a n o v e l concerned mainly with p o e t s . as a k n i g h t he f u l f i l l s a l l h i s o b l i g a t i o n s :  However,  the reader knows  he i s about to enter an important government p o s i t i o n , such as F r i e d r i c h i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" v a i n l y prepared f o r  (even  as E i c h e n d o r f f d i d i n l i f e '  the  time of w r i t i n g the e a r l i e r always be d i s a p p o i n t e d ) .  P  though he d i d not know, at n o v e l , t h a t h i s hopes would  M a n f r e d ' s m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e and  religious  f a i t h are not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned, b u t , with  Fortunat,  we can say,  (II, 560).  "das v e r s t e h t s i c h j a ganz von  selbst"  H i s acceptance of s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s i s amply  proved by h i s intended p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e ,  his restoration  to  p r o s p e r i t y of the lands and v i l l a g e s which had been i n poor c o n d i t i o n when he i n h e r i t e d them, and h i s concern f o r h i s  - 68 young kinswoman, the Marchesin F i a m e t t a . Piametta,  l i k e J u l i e i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l ,  a l l o w e d to transcend  is  the o r d i n a r y run o f women, who,  Eichendorff considered,  s h o u l d remain i n the home.  Even  these h e r o i n e s are o n l y a l l o w e d to reach the h e i g h t s s t r i c t understanding t h a t they w i l l marry and be ever a f t e r . character,  Romana, i n the e a r l i e r  on the  subordinate  n o v e l , i s an o u t s t a n d i n g  but debarred from s p i r i t u a l g r e a t n e s s by her  immorality.  Juanna,  i n the l a t e r n o v e l , i s not a poet,  nor i s she s i n f u l l i k e Romana; b u t ,  though a l s o an imposing  character,  to E i c h e n d o r f f i n t h a t  she i s e q u a l l y r e p e l l e n t  she i s not content to accept the o r d i n a r y l o t refuses  to take a husband.  of women, and  She a d m i t t e d l y d i s p l a y s an  arrogance which would be e q u a l l y d e p l o r a b l e i n a man, and a l s o a c e r t a i n weakness about her doom: of s u i t o r s ,  o f c h a r a c t e r which i n d i r e c t l y b r i n g s  on her way to a convent  she allows h e r s e l f t o be d i v e r t e d by the  of chasing a chamois,  and i s l o s t ,  L o t h a r i o f i n d s and r e s c u e s her then seeks t o abduct h e r , this  to escape her horde sport  l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y .  ( f o r the second t i m e ) ,  but he  b e l i e v i n g , perhaps s i n c e r e l y ,  that  i s the o n l y means of winning the h e a r t o f such a c o l d  Diana.  In t h i s he i s m i s t a k e n :  she makes h e r horse  a t the f i r s t  jump down i n t o a r i v e r ,  d e s p i t e L o t h a r i o ' s attempts to save h e r . a t a s t e f o r the h e i g h t s ,  they b r i n g her to  P i a m e t t a ' s and J u l i e ' s  opportunity  where she drowns  A l t h o u g h she has disaster.  e q u a l i t y to the k n i g h t s ,  - 69 which enables them to r e a c h ,  and f o r a time to remain on,  summit, a r i s e s from two t h i n g s : Piametta b e i n g the lyrics,  firstly,  s i n g e r o f one of E i c h e n d o r f f s (II,  poets, loveliest  1  "Es schienen so golden d i e S t e r n e "  secondly,  they are  the  7 1 1 ) ; and  they conform to E i c h e n d o r f f s i d e a l o f young 1  womanhood, b e i n g not o n l y b e a u t i f u l , l i v e l y , t a l e n t e d resourceful,  but a l s o  The hermit mountain-top,  and w e l l - b e h a v e d .  i s the permanent r e s i d e n t  of  the  but even h i g h e r than h i s d w e l l i n g i s  abandoned monastery, Vitalis.  sweet, pure,  and  t e m p o r a r i l y i n h a b i t e d by the  T h i s c h a r a c t e r has been s e v e r a l  the  priest,  times mentioned  in  t h i s chapter under t h i s and h i s other pseudonym o f L o t h a r i o . 2 He i s r e a l l y Graf V i c t o r successful  c a r e e r as an o f f i c e r  j o i n s a troupe player.  von H o h e n s t e i n , who, a f t e r a i n Spain and a poet at  of s t r o l l i n g p l a y e r s as L o t h a r i o ,  During t h i s p e r i o d he leads  "Wilhelm M e i s t e r s L e h r j a h r e "  poet and  the d i s s i p a t e d  i m p l i e d by t h i s name i n E n g l i s h ( L o t h a r i o  home,  life  i n Goethe's  a l s o belongs i n t h i s  libertine  c a t e g o r y ) , h i s crowning f o l l y b e i n g the attempted a b d u c t i o n of Juanna which r e s u l t s i n her d e a t h . v i r t u a l murder  The shock of  ( i n which he i s f a r more g u i l t y than R u d o l f  i n the death o f h i s i n c u b u s , who rushes on the has drawn i n s e l f - d e f e n c e ) p  this  causes him to f l e e .  sword Rudolf Eventually  The L a t i n s p e l l i n g here suggests t h a t the e t y m o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the name i s to be observed; i t i s not w i t h V i k t o r i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart".  - 70 he comes by chance upon the h e r m i t , whose h u m i l i t y and s i m p l i c i t y set h i s f e e t on the path to the p r i e s t h o o d ,  the  v i t a l m i s s i o n which g i v e s him h i s t h i r d name, e x p r e s s i n g h i s concern w i t h the s p i r i t u a l l i f e which should permeate terrestrial  life.  V i c t o r i s the most complex, o f E i c h e n d o r f f s creations.  H i s true'name  s i g n i f i e s triumph and an  exalted  position.  In h i s own r i g h t he succeeds both as a knight and  as a p o e t ,  but h i s e n e r g e t i c  with ordinary l i f e ,  i n spite  p e r s o n a l i t y i s not  satisfied  of the h i g h r e p u t a t i o n he has  a c q u i r e d b o t h as an o f f i c e r i n the Wars of L i b e r a t i o n i n Spain and as a p o e t .  He t r i e s  a new l i f e  i n a lower  station,  i n which he f i n d s c o n s i d e r a b l e amusement but a l s o f a l l s m i s c h i e f and r e a l g u i l t , not o n l y towards Juanna,  into  but a l s o  towards the a c t r e s s , K o r d e l c h e n , who e v e n t u a l l y goes mad f o r l o v e of him, l i k e the country g i r l abandoned by the F f i r s t . A f t e r the t r a g i c Victor  ending of t h i s t h e a t r i c a l  (whose i d e n t i t y i s s t i l l not r e v e a l e d to the  i s s e i z e d once a g a i n w i t h the urge to w r i t e ,  but  interval, reader)  this  a p p a r e n t l y innocent pastime a l s o ends i n h o r r o r : " A l s er s i c h aber so einsam h i n s e t z t e und h a s t i g . t r a n k und s c h r i e b , da w a r ' s ihm, a l s r i e f e es durch d i e S t i l l e s e i n e n Namen, e r s t l e i s e , dann l a u t e r , und der T e u f e l sflhe ihm beim Schreiben fiber die S c h u l t e r und f l f i s t e r t e zu ihm: Nur zu, nur zu'. d i e unschuldige Welt m i t vornehmen Worten belogen und v e r f t i h r t , i c h w i l l d i c h daffir auf d i e Zinnen des Ruhms s t e l l e n , und d i e Welt s o i l d i r h u l d i g e n i - " ( I I , 61+9) Hereupon V i c t o r f o r s a k e s  the w r i t t e n word, goes to  the  - 71 -  window and sings t o the accompaniment  of h i s g u i t a r  a song  o f r e n u n c i a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g these l i n e s : " W i l d e s t e r d er L f l g e n g e i s t e r , Ring mit m i r , i c h lache d e i n ! " The e x p r e s s i o n , works:  "wildester  (II,  der Lflgengeister" r e c u r s i n other  here i t may be taken to mean " s u p e r b i a " .  not o n l y become s u c c e s s f u l as knight and p o e t : famous,  V i c t o r has he has  and has i m p e r c e p t i b l y begun to crave fame.  i n the n o v e l , Fortunat du kBnntest wSrest"  61+9)  Earlier  " i c h glaube,  e i n g r o s s e r D i c h t e r s e i n , wenn du n i c h t so  (II,  $66),  hermit p e r c e i v e s to him f u l l  took him aback by s a y i n g ,  become  And s u b s e q u e n t l y ,  the same f a u l t i n the  of the  the  simple but  stolz  shrewd  sportsman who comes  scorn of the h i g h l y c u l t u r e d f o r  the  uneducated: " I c h sage E u c h , Demut i s t der Anfang und das -Ende, hochmtitiger M e n s c h ! " ( I I , 669 The l i t t l e  sermon ending i n t h i s  begun by the death of Juanna,  sentence completes  the h a l l u c i n a t i o n about  "Lu'gengeist",  and the storm of applause r e c e i v e d  t h e r e a f t e r at  the performance  i s r e c o g n i z e d by the a u d i e n c e . i n answer  to the h e r m i t ,  the work the  immediately  o f one of h i s p l a y s , when he V i c t o r has not a word to  say  but on the f o l l o w i n g morning the  ^That t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s r e m i n i s c e n t of Abraham a Santa C l a r a i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n view o f the opening l i n e s o f a sketch f o r an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l N o v e l l e e n t i t l e d " T r B s t e i n s a m keit: Aus dem Tagebuch eines E i n s i e d e l s " : "VERSCHIEDENE BE TRA CH TUNG-EN ( i n Prosa) = r e l i g i B s , - d i t h y r a m b i s c h , auch h u m o r i s t i s c h a l a Abraham a S t . C l a r a ! " ( I I , 99i+). A l t h o u g h the treatment i s f a r c i c a l , the u n d e r l y i n g i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n by the monk i s one of s t r e n g t h and r e l i a b i l i t y , as w i t h S c h i l l e r ' s somewhat s i m i l a r f i g u r e i n W a l l e n s t e i n s L a g e r .  - 72 f u t u r e V i t a l i s r e v e a l s h i s true g r e a t n e s s i n a speech which a f f e c t s the hermit as deeply as the h e r m i t ' s had  affected  him: " ' S i e h , ' sagte e r , 'das i s t e i n P r i e d e Gottes fiberall, a l s zBgen d i e Engelscharen s i n g e n d fiber die E r d e l . Die" armen Menschenkinder'. s i e h o r e n ' s n u r , wie im T r a u m e . . . O , wer ihnen a l i e n den F r i e d e n b r i n g e n ktinntei Aber wer das e h r l i c h will,muss erst Frieden s t i f t e n i n s i c h s e l b s t , und wenn er darfiber zusammenbrllche, was t u t ' s i - S i e h , G e s e l l , und das i s t g e i s t l i c h e s Recht und Tagewerk'."' ( I I , 670) V i c t o r ' s arrogance has been overcome and he i s now ready  to  enter h i s r e a l v o c a t i o n of p r i e s t h o o d . Once a g a i n , Gegenwart",  as w i t h F r i e d r i c h i n "Ahnung und  the k n i g h t and poet have g i v e n way to the  but i n the l a t e r n o v e l to a p r i e s t than i n the former.  of far  greater a b i l i t y  F r i e d r i c h ' s character i s  he serves mainly as a mouthpiece  priest,  indeterminate:  for E i c h e n d o r f f s opinions.  He f a l l s i n t o no s i n , except f o r h i s contemptible  behaviour  towards Rosa;  His only  neither  does he achieve  positive characteristic is his f a i t h .  greatness.  He and V i c t o r have  common i d e a l i n t h e i r wish to remain as m i s s i o n a r i e s Europe,  though t h e i r manner o f saying so i s  different,  Friedrich's  being verbose,  whereas V i c t o r ' s i s d i r e c t inter  and almost  in  characteristically  idealistic, crude.  a  and vague,  F r i e d r i c h says,  alia: " ' . . . M i r s c h e i n t i n diesem E l a n d , wie immer, keine andere H f i l f e , a l s die R e l i g i o n . . . W e n n das Geschlecht vor der Hand einmal a l l e seine i r d i s c h e n Sorgen, Mfihen und f r u c h t l o s e n Versuche, der Z e i t wieder auf d i e Beine zu h e l f e n , . Vergessen und wie e i n K l e i d a b s t r e i f e n , und s i c h daffir mit v o l l e r , s i e g r e i c h e r Gewalt zu Gott wenden w o l l t e , wenn die Gemfiter auf solche Weise  - 73 von den g o t t l i c h e n W a h r h e i t e n d e r R e l i g i o n l a n g e v o r b e r e i t e t , e r w e i t e r t , g e r e i n i g t und wahrhaft d u r c h d r u n g e n wfirden, d a s s d e r G e i s t G o t t e s u n d das G r o s s e im tiffentlichen L e b e n w i e d e r Raum i n i h n e n gewBnne, dann e r s t w i r d e s Z e i t s e i n , u n m i t t e l b a r zu h a n d e l n , und das a l t e Recht, d i e a l t e F r e i h e i t , E h r e und Ruhm i n d a s w i e d e r e r o b e r t e Reichzurfickzuf{Ihren. Und i n d i e s e r G e s i n n u n g b l e i b e i c h i n D e u t s c h l a n d und wahle m i r das K r e u z zum S c h w e r t e . Denn, w a h r l i c h , w i e man s o n s t M i s s i o n a r i e n unter Kannibalen aussahdte, so.tut e s j e t z t v i e l mehr n o t i n E u r o p a , dem a u s g e b i l d e t e n H e i d e n s i t z e ' . " ( I I , 296-297) "Ahnung u n d G e g e n w a r t " was w r i t t e n a t a t i m e o f defeat  a n d d e s p a i r , when i t seemed t h a t  be d r i v e n  f r o m Germany.  political  as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s  The n o v e l i s p e r m e a t e d and l i t e r a r y  " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " , w r i t t e n greater  stability,  or economic  i svery l i t t l e  Thus V i c t o r ' s  could with  worries.  concerned w i t h  a n d a number o f l a t e r  earlier  politics "Viel  Novellen discuss  s p e e c h on t h e r e c o n v e r s i o n o f E u r o p e  to moral  never  during a period of  m a t t e r s , though t h e s l i g h t l y  Larmen um n i c h t s "  restricted  Napoleon  them.  c a n be  problems:  " ' N i c h t m o r s c h e MBnche. Quaker u n d a l t e n W e i b e r ; d i e M o r g e n f r i s c h e n , Kuhnen w i l l i c h werben, d i e r e c h t a u s H e r z e n s g r u n d n a c h K r i e g v e r l a n g t CsicJ . A u c h n i c h t fibers Meer h i n f i b e r b l i c k ' i c h , wo u n s c h u l d i g e V f i l k e r u n t e r Palmen vom k f i n f t i g e n M o r g e n r o t traumen, m i t t e n a u f den a l t e r , schwfil'en,, s t a u b i g e n M a r k t v o n E u r o p a w i l l i c h h i n u n t e r s t e i g e n , d i e s e l b s t g e m a c h t e n G o t z e n , um d i e das V o l k d e r Renegaten t a n z t , g e l f i s t e t ' s m i c h u m z u s t f i r z e n u n d L u f t zu hauen d u r c h den d i c k e n Qualm, d a s s s i e s c h a u e r n d d a s t r e u e Auge Gottes wiedersehen im t i e f e n Himmelsgrund'."  (II,  726-727)  Both F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r last  speeches.  Friedrich  says:  quote  "Hamlet"  i n their  -  -  7lf  " ' V e r l o r e n i s t , wen d i e Z e i t u n v o r b e r e i t e t und u n b e w a f f n e t t r i f f t ; u n d w i e mancher, d e r w e i c h u n d a u f g e l e g t zu L u s t und fr8h.licb.em D i c h t e n , s i c h so g e r n m i t d e r W e l t v e r t r f l g e , w i r d , w i e P r i n z H a m l e t , zu s i c h s e l b e r s a g e n : Weh, dass ^ i c h zur W e l t , s i e e i n z u r i c h t e n , kam!'" ( I I , 3 0 2 r But  whereas F r i e d r i c h ,  l i k e Hamlet, l e a v e s t h i s remark as  l a m e n t , t h e more p o s i t i v e V i c t o r in his last  words t o h i s  turns i t into  a  a  challenge  friends:  " ' 0 F r e u n d e , das i s t e i n e Z e i t ! g l t t c k l i c h , wer - d r i n g e b o r e n ward, s i e a u s z u f e c h t e n i " ( I I , 727) 1  A found  f u r t h e r s i m i l a r i t y between t h e  in Eichendorff's description  ( I I , 281+), and  last  words t o V i c t o r ,  du  (II,  727)  •  Both o f these  of the mediaeval a s w e l l as letzte  religious  soldiers.  Held  the  and  priest  untenable,  Nothing  never again  after  tragedy,  the  two  cannot  1830  the  "Der  ideal,  the escape  the c o m b i n a t i o n being  i n fact  daunted, E i c h e n d o r f f c o n t i n u e d  C h r i s t i a n k n i g h t as  priests  although  i s n o t made i n t h e p l a y , t h e r e a d e r  exclusive. the  were monks o r  dispositions;  c o n c l u s i o n that E i c h e n d o r f f found  soldier  knights  (I83O), E i c h e n d o r f f w r o t e a b o u t  m o n k - k n i g h t s o f many d i f f e r e n t admission  Soldatenherz"  In h i s second h i s t o r i c a l  von M a r i e n b u r g "  " i n blanker  b r i n g t o mind the  o r d e r s , who  be  i n Fortunat's  geistliches  phrases  i s to  of F r i e d r i c h  Rflstung a l s K&apfer G o t t e s " "Ade,  two  of mutually  to  regard  a t t a i n a b l e or not.  attempted to d e p i c t a c h a r a c t e r  He who  *+The t i m e i s o u t o f j o i n t ; 0 c u r s e d s p i t e , T h a t e v e r I was b o r n t o s e t i t r i g h t . ( A c t I , Scene  $)  ^ T h i s i s not the o n l y c o n t r a d i c t i o n maintained throughout h i s w o r k s , a n o t h e r , f o r example, b e i n g t h e a p p a r e n t ambiguity o f h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f n a t u r e , w h i c h i s v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as p e r i l ( t o the i n f i d e l ) or panacea ( t o the f a i t h f u l ) .  - 75 was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s o l d i e r and p r i e s t , cleric  are each expected to share something of the  virtues: o f the  though k n i g h t and  a crusade has need o f b o t h .  He expresses the  t r o u b l e i n one of h i s l a s t works,  poetischen L i t e r a t u r Deutschlands"  other's  "Geschichte  root  der  (1857):  "Und d i e s e r w e s e n t l i c h t r a g i s c h e D o p p e l g e i s t des R i t t e r t u m s , die gewaltige N a t u r k r a f t und d i e f r e i w i l l i g e Demfltigung vor einem HBheren. mit einem Wort: das durch Christentum v e r k l a r t e Heldentum, i s t denn auch der e i g e n t l i c h e . Gegenstand der P o e s i e d e s M i t t e l a l t e r s , d i e f o r t a n jeden w e l t l i c h e n Kampf mehr oder minder zum Kreuzzuge g e s t a l t e t . " (IV, 1+3) However, we may be sure that n e i t h e r F r i e d r i c h nor V i c t o r , becoming a p r i e s t ,  would be c a l l e d upon to bear arms,  f i g h t i n g b e i n g of a p u r e l y s p i r i t u a l Victor's last  the h i g h p o s i t i o n o f the  their  nature.  speech c o n t a i n s  a l l u s i o n which seems the a n t i t h e s i s  on  one very s t r i k i n g  of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s view of  knight:  " ' . . . d e r T e u f e l i n funkelndera Ritterschmuck r e i t e t d i e Reihen e n t l a n g und z e i g t den V B l k e r n durch den Wolkenriss d i e H e r r l i c h k e i t d e r . Lender und r u f t ihnen z u : S e i d f r e i , und a l l e s i s t e u e r i ' " (II, 727) T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the d e v i l i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t Donati's f i r s t  appearance i n "Das M a r m o r b i l d " :  schlanker R i t t e r  i n reichem G-eschmeide"  (II,  of  " e i n hoher,  311+), who  subsequently i s r e v e a l e d as the d e v i l or one of h i s emissaries  as c a l l e d up by the baser s i d e of F l o r i o ' s  l a t e r h a p p i l y overcome.  It  "schimmernde Abgrflnde" ( I I , the F u r s t .  nature,  a l s o serves as a reminder of 61+8)  Eichendorff i n this  the  which proved the undoing of imagery has r e v e r s e d  the  - 76 mediaeval  artistic  c o n c e p t i o n o f the f o r c e s o f e v i l ,  were a l w a y s p i c t u r e d a s u g l y a n d m o n s t r o u s . for  i ta logical principle  of e n t i c i n g  beauty.  of e v i l  im H e r b s t e "  Although  the  as t h e double  on t h e m o u n t a i n t o p  and t h e l a s t w o r d i s g i v e n  ("Du schone W e l t , nimm d i c h i n a c h t ! " ) ( I I , 7 2 8 ) ,  that of Fortunato  c a l l i n g being  i n "Das M a r m o r b i l d " ,  occupies a favoured p o s i t i o n ,  thus a f f i r m e d ,  being t h a t o f the true Three poets Victor,  H i s v e r y name, indicates  and i n a n o v e l  " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " , t h i s p o s i t i o n  discussed:  appears  the enchantress o f  the main c h a r a c t e r o f t h e n o v e l i s P o r t u n a t .  he  a  of Berta,  V i c t o r remains behind  supremacy o f t h e p r i e s t l y  like  a mask  i n "Das M a r m o r b i l d "  o f Bianka,  a f t e r h i s companions' d e p a r t u r e , to t h e h e r m i t  concealed behind  t h e d e v i l may l o o k l i k e  the enchantress  on one o c c a s i o n a s t h e d o u b l e "Die Z a u b e r e i  He s u b s t i t u t e s  Thus t h e most p e r n i c i o u s f o r c e c a n t a k e  on t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e b e s t : splendid knight;  which  that  entitled  cannot  escape  poet. o f t h e n o v e l have a l r e a d y been  who a c h i e v e d w o r l d l y s u c c e s s a s a p o e t  b u t gave up l i t e r a t u r e  i n favour o f priesthood; Otto,  who  f e r v e n t l y admired V i c t o r ' s poetry but could not a t t a i n greatness; not merit has  a n d t h e J a c k o f a l l t r a d e s , D r y a n d e r , who does serious c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a poet.  a s m a l l c l a i m t o a t t e n t i o n on t h i s  more i m p o r t a n t genuine poet  a s muse t h a n a s p o e t .  b y p r o f e s s i o n , who s a y s  Fiametta, too,  s c o r e , t h o u g h she i s But F o r t u n a t i s the  to Victor:  - 77 "'Du V i c t o r zumal, v e r w i r r s t mir schon s e i t g e s t e r n , wie e i n n f i c h t l i c h e s Wetterleuchten, der Seele Grund: t i e f e Klttfte. mit kuhnen Stegen dartfber und manche a l t e , g e l i e b t e Gegend fernab, aber a l l e s so fremd und wunderbar wie i n TrHuman. Z u l e t z t i s t ' s doch dasselbe, was i c h e i g e n t l i c h auch meine i n der Welt, i c h habe nur k e i n anderes M e t i e r daftlr a l s meine D i c h t k u n s t , und b e i der w i l l i c h l e b e n und s t e r b e n l ' " ( I I , 727) I n t h i s f i n a l speech, Portunat sums up the essence o f E i c h e n d o r f f s views on the poet's m i s s i o n . a l l y the same as that o f the p r i e s t :  I t i s fundament-  the poet must r e g a r d  the world without f e a r or favour, and be guided a t a l l times by r e l i g i o n , but i n s t e a d o f c o n d u c t i n g s e r v i c e s and a d m i n i s t e r i n g the sacraments,  he must preach the gospel  i n d i r e c t l y and s u b t l y by means o f h i s l i t e r a r y s k i l l .  This  i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same view as t h a t expressed i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart", but w i t h a d i f f e r e n c e :  i n the e a r l y n o v e l  the p r o f e s s i o n a l poet, Faber, i s t r e a t e d as a comic c h a r a c t e r , and L e o n t i n , the t r u e poet, pursues  literature  o n l y as an a v o c a t i o n , w h i l e p l a n n i n g t o make government service h i s profession.  However, he i s not o b l i g e d to earn  h i s own l i v i n g , and i n f a c t h i s sole p r o f e s s i o n i s p o e t r y . In the l a t e r n o v e l , F o r t u n a t i s able t o devote h i s time e n t i r e l y t o p o e t r y and the sheer j o y o f l i v i n g .  As i n the  case o f the Taugenichts, who owned n o t h i n g but h i s v i o l i n , W i l l i b a l d i n " V i e l Larmen um n i c h t s " , who had l o s t e v e r y t h i n g but h i s t a l e n t , F o r t u n a t i s able t o marry and l i v e h a p p i l y ever a f t e r w i t h no tiresome o b l i g a t i o n to earn money. The  same d i s r e g a r d f o r the provenance  o f the next meal i s  to be found i n S i g l h u p f e r , the hero o f "Die G l u c k s r i t t e r " ,  - 7'8 who, though he s i n g s songs, g i v e s h i s p r o f e s s i o n as "wandernder Musikus"  (II,  8 9 5 ) , h i s instrument b e i n g the  " K l a r i n e t t " whose name he takes as h i s pseudonym. Of the twelve poets appearing i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' a narrative prose, others  three are a l s o m u s i c i a n s ( o f c o u r s e ,  can p l a y a few chords o f accompaniment on l u t e  guitar):  T a u g e n i c h t s , Dryander, and S i g l h u p f e r .  be p o s s i b l e to add the "Prager  It  the or would  Studenten" of "Aus dem Leben  e i n e s T a u g e n i c h t s " (1826) to t h i s l i s t ;  however,  not p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c i a n s , but merely theology  they  are  students  e a r n i n g t h e i r l i v i n g as wandering m i n s t r e l s during t h e i r ' holidays.  Nevertheless,  they serve t o h i n t a t  the bond  E i c h e n d o r f f wishes to strengthen between r e l i g i o n and the arts,  as does the s e r i o u s p a i n t e r Guido o f " D i c h t e r und i h r e  Gesellen". The three p o e t - m u s i c i a n s , b e s i d e s being of humble origin,  are a l l i r r e s p o n s i b l e .  The l e a s t admirable o f the  three i s Dryander, w i t h h i s weathercock changing winds, shown, f o r i n s t a n c e , at  the F i r s t ' s  court  (II,  adaptability  to  i n the " H o f r a t " episode  5 9 3 ) , and h i s b r i e f enthusiasm f o r  husbandry d u r i n g h i s v i s i t to Manfred ( I I ,  663). Nevertheless,  i n s p i t e of h i s i n s t a b i l i t y and impishness, there i s no e v i l i n him, and he i s c e r t a i n l y as l i t t l e  e n s l a v e d by Mammon as  the more l o v a b l e Taugenichts and S i g l h u p f e r . f i r s t and l a s t (II,  appearances  Dryander's  i n the n o v e l are as a v i o l i n i s t  510 and 7 2 8 ) , a f a c t which suggests t h a t music i s h i s  - 79 t r u e v o c a t i o n and that he s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on i t ,  i f such  a v a c i l l a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y i s capable of p e r s e v e r a n c e . reader's last  The  glimpse of him, f i d d l i n g down the road ahead  o f the s t r o l l i n g p l a y e r s ,  i s f u l l o f charm.  The two m i l l e r s ' sons, Taugenichts and S i g l h u p f e r , win a d m i r a t i o n by t h e i r very s i m p l i c i t y and l a c k of pretentiousness.  S i g l h u p f e r seems s l i g h t l y the l e s s pure o f  the two, when one c o n s i d e r s h i s v u l g a r anecdote about h i s parents  (II,  897) and h i s l i g h t - h e a r t e d opportunism.  t h i s one can f o r g i v e him i n view of h i s e s s e n t i a l he i s no more c o r r u p t e d by h i s adventures  But  innocence;  i n Graf Gerold's  p a l a t i a l home than Taugenichts i s by h i s journey to I t a l y a supposed noblewoman i n d i s g u i s e . l i f e without a thought f o r the  as  Both r e t u r n to the simple  splendours they are l e a v i n g ,  and t h i s i s the more remarkable i n S i g l h u p f e r , who does not have a d e l i g h t f u l l i t t l e h i s b r i d e , but r e t u r n s  " S c h l o s s " g i v e n him as dowry w i t h  to a p r e c a r i o u s l i f e of  vagabondage  i n order to be r e u n i t e d with h i s true l o v e , D e n k e l i .  It  is  s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t S i g l h u p f e r " b l i e b f o r t a n i n den Wfildern s e l i g verschollen" (II, favourite  933), the woods b e i n g E i c h e n d o r f f s  symbol of the p r o x i m i t y to nature which he  c o n s i d e r s i n d i s p e n s a b l e to a balanced l i f e . the l a s t  artist  Siglhupfer is  ( i n the g e n e r a l sense) to appear  E i c h e n d o r f f s works, and h i s chosen l o t i n l i f e  in confirms  the i d e a , elsewhere advanced,  that the a r t i s t should not  l o o k f o r w o r l d l y advancement,  but leave h i m s e l f i n the hands  of God.  As Taugenichts says more than once,  with s l i g h t  - 80  -  variations: "Den Der Und Hat  l i e b e n Gott l a s s i c h nur walten; B&chlein, Lerchen, Wald und P e l d E r d ' und Himmel w i l l e r h a l t e n , auch raein' Sach' aufs b e s t ' b e s t e l l t i " Of the nine remaining poets, who  accomplished  musicians,  seven are k n i g h t s .  ( I I , 35*0)  are not a l s o The  two who  are  not, Faber and O t t o , are not i n g r e a t favour w i t h t h e i r author.  Faber  i s t r e a t e d mainly as a clown, a f o i l  to the  more t a l e n t e d F r i e d r i c h and L e o n t i n , though E i c h e n d o r f f redeems him t o some extent i n the l a s t chapter and him to continue h i s l i f e i n f e r i o r to h i s f r i e n d s . is  allows  as a poet by p r o f e s s i o n , though The unexplained change i n h i s views  j u s t another i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the development of "Ahnung  und Gegenwart", one  of those flaws which c o n c e a l from the  c a s u a l reader the t r u e depth of the p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g the novel.  But Faber's l a s t  speech about h i s p r o f e s s i o n m e r i t s  serious consideration: "'...Denn das Haschen der Poesie nach aussen, das g e i s t i g e V e r a r b e i t e n und Bekfiramern um das, was eben vorgeht, das Ringen und A b a r b e i t e n an der Z e i t , so gross und lobenswert a l s Gesinnung, i s t doch immer u n k i i n s t i e r i s e n . Die Poesie mag wohl Wurzel schlagen i n demselben Boden der R e l i g i o n und N a t i o n a l i s t , aber unbekfimraert, b l o s s um i h r e r himmlischen Schflnheit w i l l e n , a l s Wunderblume zu uns heraufwachsen. Sie w i l l und s o l i zu n i c h t s brauchbar s e i n . Aber das v e r s t e h t i h r [.Friedrich und Leontin]] n i c h t und macht mich nur i r r e . E i n f r B h l i c h e r K f i n s t l e r mag s i c h vor euch hfiten. Denn wer d i e Gegenwart a u f g i b t , wie F r i e d r i c h , wem d i e f r i s c h e Lust am Leben und seinem fiberschwenglichen Reichtume gebrochen i s t , mit dessen Poesie i s t es aus. Er i s t wie e i n Maler ohne Farben.'" ( I I , 2 9 7 ) That tendentious l i t e r a t u r e i s u s u a l l y l a c k i n g i n a r t i s t r y  - 81 i s a truism.  That E i c h e n d o r f f recommends a r t  c o u l d be miscontrued  by a l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n ,  for a r t ' s  sake  but f o r h i s  q u a l i f y i n g h i s statement by n o t i n g t h a t poetry  i s rooted  the same s o i l as r e l i g i o n and n a t i o n a l i t y  "Vaterl&nderei  But the  (not  i d e a i n t h i s paragraph which i s perhaps most t y p i c a l  o f E i c h e n d o r f f i s the  i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y f o r the a r t i s t o f  f r i s c h e L u s t am Leben und seinem uberschwenglichen It  is this  and perhaps  responsibility.  explains t h e i r  For not o n l y those who are by nature  are p r o v i d e d f o r by unexplained means:  those who are  acutely  though h i s l a n d s are c o n f i s c a t e d ,  the  bread:  has no f i n a n c i a l  worries  i n r e g a r d to h i s tour of the New World;  Florio,  and F o r t u n a t  Fortunato,  have l a v i s h incomes from u n s p e c i f i e d  the reader makes the acquaintance  who a d m i n i s t e r s  also  aware o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  poet are r e l i e v e d from any n e c e s s i t y to earn t h e i r  for,  artists  freedom from  irresponsible  sources;  "die  Reichtume"  joy o f l i v i n g which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t r u e  in Eichendorff,  Leontin,  in  o f the "Amtmann"  V i c t o r ' s e s t a t e s and keeps him w e l l p r o v i d e d  and i n d i r e c t l y O t t o ,  whom V i c t o r anonymously  supports.  T h i s exemption from the need to earn was enjoyed by E i c h e n d o r f f o n l y i n h i s e a r l y y o u t h , before h i s f o r t u n e began t o d w i n d l e .  When he was grown up, he  from r e a l poverty f o r some t i m e , h i s own r i g h t ,  with h i s  studies  in  onward he had an  As the e a r l y p e r i o d o f p r o s p e r i t y at  suffered  and was never wealthy  though from middle age  adequate income.  father's  s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y and i n  coincided  preparation  f o r f i r s t the A u s t r i a n and then the P r u s s i a n c i v i l  service  - 82 examinations,  h i s o n l y extended l e i s u r e was a f t e r h i s  r e t i r e m e n t i n 182+24•  From then on h i s o n l y l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n s  were the Marchen, " L i b e r t a s und i h r e P r e i e r " (181^9), the t h r e e verse e p i c s , " J u l i a n " (1855),  (1852),  "Robert  und G u i s c a r d "  and " L u c i u s " (1857), and a few short poems o f which  o n l y the l a s t mentioned a r e important  (He a l s o wrote many  c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l works and t r a n s l a t i o n s from the Spanish during h i s r e t i r e m e n t . ) .  L e i s u r e , t h e r e f o r e , c a n be  discounted as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r E i c h e n d o r f f s own l i t e r a r y composition;  but i t i s no wonder t h a t , f o r c e d h i m s e l f t o  support h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n by uncongenial work, he should p r o v i d e the poets o f h i s n o v e l s and ^ o v e l l e n w i t h an i d e a l l i f e i n which they c o u l d devote themselves t o t h e i r a r t , though, indeed, h i s l a s t a r t i s t , S i g l h u p f e r , author  o f the  remarkable aphorism, " n i c h t s l a n g w e i l i g e r a l s Gltlck ( I I , 920), chooses a h a r d l i f e i n p r e f e r e n c e to l u x u r y . Otto, l i k e Dryander a n o n - k n i g h t l y poet, i s d i s m i s s e d as n e g l i g i b l e .  Nevertheless, despite h i s c r e a t i v e  i n s u f f i c i e n c y , he has the a r t i s t ' s p e r c e p t i o n , and i s b l e s s e d w i t h v i s i o n s , one o f which may e x p l a i n , i n p a r t , E i c h e n d o r f f s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r sending h i s poets o f f t o I t a l y , a p a r t from the g e n e r a l a t t r a c t i o n o f the southern clime f o r n o r t h e r n e r s : "J.Wunderbar', sagte e r TOtto} zu s i c h s e l b s t , .'schon i n meiner K l n d h e l t , wie o f t b e i s t i l l e r Nacht im Trauma h o r t ' i c h der f e r n e n Roma Glocken s c h a l l e n , und nun, da i c h h i e r b i n , hor' i c h s i e wie damals aus w e l t e r , w e l t e r F e m e , a l s g i b ' es noch eine andere Roma we i t h i n t e r d i e sen dunklen Hugeln.'" ( I I , 639-61+0) The b e l l s , o f course, a r e church b e l l s , and the "other Rome"  - 83 -  beyond the h i l l s  i s the Kingdom o f Heaven.  the c h i e f c i t y o f I t a l y ,  Rome i s not merely  the l a n d o f dreams o f German  c l a s s i c i s t s and r o m a n t i c i s t s a l i k e , but a l s o the c e n t r e and symbol o f the Roman C a t h o l i c Church o f which E i c h e n d o r f f and a l l h i s poets are devout adherents.  Thus the n o s t a l g i a o f  h i s a r t i s t s f o r I t a l y i s not merely a l o n g i n g f o r a s u b t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e and f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o view a wealth o f a r t  t r e a s u r e s , as was the case with many o f h i s contemporaries, but  a l s o an e x p r e s s i o n  of the p i l g r i m a g e  towards heaven which 6' i s a r e c u r r e n t theme throughout h i s works. E i c h e n d o r f f , however, equates I t a l y , n o t o n l y  with  an e a r t h l y reminder of heaven, but a l s o w i t h the l a n d o f temptation  to such an extent t h a t R i c a r d a Huch, i n one o f h e r  pithy, unforgettable Marmorbild":  phrases, says,  i n regard  to "Das  "Ganz I t a l i e n i s t der H f i r s e l b e r g ; den V e r l o c k t e n  r e t t e t d i e K i r c h e oder denn - Deutschland." (op. c i t . , p. 3 8 ) . I t i s noteworthy t h a t the o n l y poet to f a l l by the wayside i n I t a l y i s Otto,  the u n s u c c e s s f u l , who i s m i r a c u l o u s l y  a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o Germany.  Florio  to be s e v e r e l y tempted i n I t a l y j  ±  3  saved  the o n l y other  i n h i s case,  poet  the church,  or more a c c u r a t e l y h i s own devoutness, saves him. The  c h o i c e o f the poet who i s a l s o a k n i g h t seems  to be not q u i t e as s t a t e d by R i c a r d a Huch, but r a t h e r between the two aspects  of Home:  the church or I t a l y .  F o r o f the  ^ T h i s t o p i c i s d i s c u s s e d i n , f o r example, R e i n h o l d Schneider's "Prophetische P i l g e r s c h a f t " , t o be found i n E i c h e n d o r f f heute. ed. Paul S t S c k l e i n (Mfinchen I 9 6 0 ) .  - 81+ seven k n i g h t l y p o e t s ,  F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r become p r i e s t s ,  F o r t u n a t o and F l o r i o are I t a l i a n s r e s i d e n t the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e ,  in Italy,  and  L e o n t i n , W i l l i b a l d and F o r t u n a t ,  all  marry and go abroad, L e o n t i n to A m e r i c a , but the other two to I t a l y  (The v o l a t i l e T a u g e n i c h t s , too,  "false Italy",  suggests  to h i s b el o v ed t h a t they should go  there on t h e i r honeymoon!). Leontin,  the e a r l i e s t  a f t e r denouncing  It  i s noteworthy t h a t o n l y  of E i c h e n d o r f f s true p o e t s ,  does not  go t o I t a l y :  t h i s e x c e p t i o n may be due t o the p o l i t i c a l  circumstances  under which E i c h e n d o r f f wrote "Ahnung und  Gegenwart", even I t a l y b e i n g under Napoleon's domination a t that t i m e ;  i n a l l h i s post-Napoleonic w r i t i n g s , I t a l y  the s p i r i t u a l home o f the true  seems  poet.  I n r e g a r d t o the bond which E i c h e n d o r f f p o s t u l a t e s between p o e t r y and k n i g h t h o o d , i t  i s t o be remarked t h a t a l l  E i c h e n d o r f f s true poets are k n i g h t s , although the does not h o l d .  There are f i v e o f these p o e t s :  Leontin,  Fortunato,  F l o r i o , W i l l i b a l d and F o r t u n a t .  associated  two other k n i g h t s who give up p o e t r y f o r  priesthood:  F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r .  converse  With them are the  Thus there i s a powerful  a s s o c i a t i o n i n E i c h e n d o r f f s mind between the k n i g h t , poet,  and the p r i e s t .  There seems l i t t l e doubt t h a t  E i c h e n d o r f f had the H i g h e s t r e s p e c t i n whom a l l t h r e e c a l l i n g s are F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r .  the  f o r those  characters  s u c c e s s i v e l y combined:  Nevertheless, h i s heart equally  o b v i o u s l y l i e s w i t h those whose c h o i c e i s h i s own, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h W i l l i b a l d and F o r t u n a t , h i s maturity.  the products o f  - 8$  VI.  - Later  Novellen  Little um  short  worth a  h a s been  (1850),  nichts"  knighthood. the  -  said hitherto  about  a s i t s c a r c e l y t o u c h e s on  However, i t s h e r o , W i l i i b a l d ,  story of h i s l i f e ,  often  "Viel  L&rmen  the s u b j e c t  i s a knight,  q u o t e d by c r i t i c s ,  of and  is  repetition:  "Der S t u r m d e r Z e i t , d e r so v i e l e S t e r n e v e r l o ' s c h t u n d neue e n t z f i n d e t , h a t t e a u c h d e n Stammbaum s e i n e s a l t e n , berfihmten G e s c h l e c h t s zerzaust: s e i n e E i t e r n s t a r b e n an gebrochnem S t o l z , i h r e G f j t e r und s e i n e H e i m a t waren l S n g s t a n a n d r e B e s i t z e r gekommen, d i e e r n i c h t e i n m a l dem Kamen n a c h k a n n t e . Aber Ungltlck g i b t e i n e n t i e f e n K l a n g i n einem t u c h t i g e n Gerailt u n d h a t t e a u c h i h n f r u h z e i t i g d u r c h den t r a g i s c h e n E r n s t d e s L e b e n s d e r P o e s i e zugewendet. M i t f r e u d i g e m Schauer f f i h l t e e r s i c h b a l d e i n e r andern, wunderbaren Adelskette angeh8rig, uber welche d i e Z e i t k e i n e G e w a l t h a t , und r a s c h K o n n e x i o n e n , B r o t p e r s p e k t i v e n und a l i e n P l u n d e r , der das Gemeine b & n d i g t , v o n s i c h a b s c h f i t t e l n d , z o g e r nun e b e n arm, a b e r f r e i u n d v e r g n f i g t , i n d i e W e l t wie i n s e i n w e i t e s , f r B h l i c h e s R e i c h hinaus. Nur s e i n e s c h c n e H e i m a t , d i e am Ausgange d i e s e s G e b i r g e s l a g , u n d an d e r s e i n e S e e l e m i t a l l e r Macht j u g e n d l i c h e r E r i n n e r u n g h i n g , w o l l t e e r n o c h e i n m a l w i e d e r s e h e n und dann s i c h n a c h I t a l i e n wenden." ( I I , U70) T h i s p a s s a g e more t h a n any o t h e r E i c h e n d o r f f s v i e w s on l i f e , 1  sums up t h e  though w i t h  mature  characteristic  c o n c e a l m e n t b e h i n d i m a g e r y w h i c h does n o t a t f i r s t , o r e v e n second, g l a n c e r e v e a l  the p h i l o s o p h y behind i t .  For  instance,  although Eichendorff  founded h i s whole  religion,  there  mention  i s no  specific  life  on  of i t i n t h i s  p a r a g r a p h , b u t whoever h a s r e a d much o f t h i s a u t h o r , p i c k s up  the r e l i g i o u s  overtones inherent  i n h i s use  o f the  words  - 86 "Heimat",  "Schauer",  "Italian".  The h e a r t of the passage i s i n the t h i r d sentence of the q u o t a t i o n :  ( " M i t freudigem Schauer",  etc.),  W i l l i b a l d g i v e s up the temporal f o r the e t e r n a l , f o r the h e a v e n l y ,  security  the  impoverished f i n a n c i a l l y ,  i n f i n i t e l y enriched s p i r i t u a l l y :  he i s l e a v i n g h i s  but i n r e t u r n the whole world becomes h i s  as Taugenichts and S i g l h u p f e r :  this but  "Heimat",  "frBhliches Reich".  same d e c i s i o n as the A p o s t l e s , as the  hands of God.  earthly  f o r a l i f e of wandering; by  r e n u n c i a t i o n he i s c e r t a i n l y  He makes the  where  priests,  he puts h i m s e l f i n t o  He even f o r g e t s h i s noble descent,  the  feeling  h i m s e l f to be a l l i e d r a t h e r w i t h those who are noble i n c h a r a c t e r (and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h p o e t s ,  as the  "Adelskette"  r e s u l t s from h i s d e d i c a t i o n to " P o e s i e " ) than w i t h those who are noble by b i r t h . contradictions  And by h i s l o s s he g a i n s .  i n h e r e n t i n E i c h e n d o r f f s works are  t h i s passage to be concealed "mit freudigem Schauer",  s t r e n g t h r a t h e r than  for instance,  zerbrechend a l l e  Bande" from " N a c h t f e i e r "  i s a case i n p o i n t ,  selig blind"  (II,  125)  c o n t r a s t between the  and "Romana s  another).  " s e i n weites,  opposites:  1  (I,  written  127),  "Von dem Glanze  But more important  is  the  Ernst  des  " f r e i und vergnugt"  and  f r B h l i c h e s R e i c h " o f the n e x t .  p h i l o s o p h y i s capable  weakness:  l i n e "Fromm  "Ungluck" and " t r a g i s c h e n  Lebens" of one sentence, and the  shown i n  i s a b o l d paradox of  a type r e c u r r e n t i n E i c h e n d o r f f s works (the  i n 1810,  The  Eichendorffs  of a H e g e l i a n r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  W i l l i b a l d e x p e r i e n c e s tragedy and turns  of it  to  - 87 j o y by a process not e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n t h i s paragraph but implicit  i n a l l of E i c h e n d o r f f s  works, namely, by b e l i e f i n  Christ.  W i l l i b a l d renounces e v e r y t h i n g  which r e s t r i c t s  "das  Gemeine", or, as Taugenichts expressed i t , "die Tr&gen, d i e zu Hause l i e g e n " ( I I , 35>0).  In r e t u r n , he r e c e i v e s  something  f a r above the common l o t even of poets - Aurora as h i s b r i d e . Since "Aurora", w i t h i t s Boehmean c o n n o t a t i o n o f the awareness of Sod,  means v a r i o u s l y i n E i c h e n d o r f f s  soul's  works  the Romantic muse, p o e t r y , dawn, or r e s u r r e c t i o n , W i l l i b a l d outshines Solomon i n a l l h i s g l o r y . Willibald also  serves as the common denominator of  a l l the poets i n E i c h e n d o r f f s  narratives,  f o r , though he  belongs to the k n i g h t l y c l a s s , he renounces the p r i v i l e g e s and,  even more d i f f i c u l t , the customs of h i s c l a s s , to set  o f f w i t h no p r o v i s i o n f o r the f u t u r e , l i k e S i g l h u p f e r , o n l y o b j e c t i v e being the p u r s u i t of p o e t r y (not,  his  i n the  b e g i n n i n g , the G r f i f i n Aurora, whom he meets i n the  course  of h i s a d v e n t u r e s ) .  vagabond,  poet and p i l g r i m . confreres,  Thus he  i s a t once knight and  By going to I t a l y , l i k e most of h i s  he wanders i n search of greener f i e l d s ;  emigration i s E i c h e n d o r f f s  symbolic escape from c o n s t r a i n t ,  from a l l those aspects of l i f e him  during h i s long  this  i n P r u s s i a which d i s t r e s s e d  stay i n the north, where he never  felt  a t home. With W i l l i b a l d the r o s t e r of poets i s complete. I t i s apparent t h a t E i c h e n d o r f f a knight,  as was  p r e f e r s the poet who  i s also  u s u a l l y the case i n the Middle H i g h German  - 88 p e r i o d w h i c h he  g r e a t l y admires.  However,  " A d e l s k e t t e " opens the r a n k s t o those who  single-mindedly  who  are pure i n h e a r t ,  f o l l o w the poet's c a l l i n g ,  heavenly l a d d e r s f o r the b e n e f i t of the he  Wlllibald's  s e t t i n g up  less perceptive,  says i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of A r n i m i n "Geschichte  poetischen  Literatur  Deutschlands":  290J  bears a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e resemblance to  k n i g h t l y poet P o r t u n a t , has  as  der  " K e i n D i c h t e r g i b t e i n e n f e r t i g e n Himmel; e r s t e l l t nur d i e H i m m e l s l e i t e r a u f von der s c h f i n e n E r d e . Wer zu t r & g e u n d u n l u s t i g , n i c h t den Mut v e r s p f i r t , d i e l o s e n , g o l d e n e n S p r o s s e n zu b e s t e i g e n , dem b l e i b t d e r g e h e i m n i s v o l l e B u c h s t a b e d o c h e w i g t o t , und e i n L e s e r , d e r n i c h t s e l b e r m i t und fiber dem Buche n a c h z u d i c h t e n v e r m a g , t£te b e s s e r , a n e i n l 8 b l i c h e s Handwork zu g e h e n , a l s so m i t mfissigem L e s e n s e i n e Z e i t zu v e r d e r b e n . " ( I V , Willibald  the  t r a n s f i g u r e d him.  but misfortune He  t h a t of the Taugenichts,  has  the  s u c c e s s f u l l y overcome  a charm as u n f o r g e t t a b l e  w i t h none o f t h e  i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or c h i l d i s h n e s s .  1  as  latter's  Eichendorff's last  poet-  knight i s also h i s best. Figures of knights E i c h e n d o r f f wrote a f t e r this  " D i c h t e r und  second novel presents  the k n i g h t p r o p e r , They do,  a p p e a r i n most o f t h e  ihre Gesellen".  later Novellen  do n o t  n e v e r t h e l e s s , acknowledge the p o s s i b i l i t y by men  e v e n by women o f a l l r a n k s .  However,  i n d e f i n i t i v e form h i s views  which the  chivalrous behaviour  Novellen  expand. of  of u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d b i r t h The  ultimate breadth  on  of  and the  "'"This p a s s a g e i s a r e w o r k i n g o f one i n "Ahnung u n d G e g e n w a r t " ( I I , 9 9 ) , one o f numerous u n a c k n o w l e d g e d q u o t a t i o n s f r o m h i s own w o r k s .  - 89 author's views  on t h i s matter  i s expressed  i n the figure o f  Marie  i n "Robert  epic,  i s t e c h n i c a l l y o u t s i d e t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y .  rescues  u n d G u i s c a r d " (1855), w h i c h ,  f r o m a band o f F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s  f a m i l y t h a t h e r f a t h e r s e r v e s as gardener, its  flight  being a verse Marie  the a r i s t o c r a t i c  accompanies i t on  t o H e i d e l b e r g , and m a r r i e s t h e e l d e r s o n .  E i c h e n d o r f f i n h i s y o u t h w o u l d have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s  marriage  a m i s a l l i a n c e , b u t h e makes h i s way t o t h i s i d e a b y s l o w stages which  c a n be o b s e r v e d  throughout  his later  s u c h a s "Das S c h l o s s D u r a n d e " (1837) a n d " E i n e (not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l "Robert  186b.).  Novellen  Meerfahrt"  I n h i s penultimate l i t e r a r y  work,  und G u i s c a r d " , E i c h e n d o r f f overcame a l l s o c i a l  p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t t h o s e who a r e n o b l e i n s p i r i t b u t n o t b y birth,  a viewpoint which  connotation i n h i s essay  i s expressed  i n a different  " H a l l e und " H e i d e l b e r g "  (1857):  "Unsere U n i v e r s i t & t e n s i n d e n d l i c h b i s h e r e i n e A r t von R e p u b l i k , d i e e i n z i g e n noch u b r i g g e b l i e b e n e n Trimmer d e u t s c h e r E i n h e i t , e i n b r u d e r l i c h e r V e r e i n ohne R f i c k s i c h t a u f d i e U n t e r s c h i e d e d e r P r o v i n z , des R a n g e s o d e r R e i c h t u m s , wo d e n N i e d r i g g e b o r e n e n d i e U b e r l e g e n h e i t d e s G e i s t e s u n d C h a r a k t e r s zum Senior uber F u r s t e n und Grafen erhob." (IV, 1076) Since t h i s  second  p a r t o f " E r l e b t e s " i s b a s e d o n h i s own  experiences as a student, the thought in society  of s p i r i t u a l  ( a s w e l l a s i n r e l i g i o n ) may h a v e b e e n o n h i s m i n d  f r o m h i s e a r l y y o u t h , b u t i t was n o t u n t i l h i s enrollment a t H a l l e that i t found l i t e r a r y works as an a c t u a l marriage girl  equality  o f humbler  f i f t y years  after  expression i n h i s between a k n i g h t and a  birth.  A p a r t f r o m t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i n r e g a r d t o men o f  - 90 l o w l y b i r t h and to women, the l a t e r N o v e l l e n , except "Die G l f l c k s r i t t e r " which has been mentioned above,  are o f  little  importance w i t h r e s p e c t to knighthood, " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " r e p r e s e n t i n g E i c h e n d o r f f ' s mature o p i n i o n on t h i s subject.  - 91 -  VII.  Conclusion The k n i g h t occurs as an image throughout  p e r i o d of E i c h e n d o r f f s c r e a t i v e work, a matter years. of  the e n t i r e  of f i f t y  T h i s p e r s i s t e n c e i n i t s e l f i n d i c a t e s that the f i g u r e  the k n i g h t i s one  of g r e a t importance  t o the author.  the course of time h i s a t t e n t i o n s h i f t s from knighthood  In  mediaeval  t o a p a s s i v e c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h Napoleon, and  f i n a l l y to an a c t i v e encounter w i t h n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i e t y i n Germany. In E i c h e n d o r f f s e a r l i e s t prose n a r r a t i v e ,  he  p r e s e n t s the k n i g h t i n an elemental s t r u g g l e w i t h e v i l .  Of  the two k n i g h t s i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste", Ubaldo f u l f i l l s the d u t i e s o f the mediaeval  k n i g h t , f i r s t as a crusader  l a t e r i n l e a d i n g an exemplary C h r i s t i a n l i f e ,  and  whereas Raimund,  through l a c k of f a i t h , f a l l s v i c t i m to the daemonic. During the few years which passed between the composition o f t h i s Marchen and the n o v e l , "Ahnung und Gegenwart", E i c h e n d o r f f abandoned the outward forms o f mediaeval knighthood except the M i d d l e Ages.  i n those works which are s e t i n  These forms are d i s m i s s e d as a f f e c t a t i o n s  i n contemporary l i f e and l i t e r a t u r e .  Nevertheless,  E i c h e n d o r f f e x p l i c i t l y c l i n g s to the i d e a l s f o r which the mediaeval account  knight stood, the c l i m a x of the n o v e l being the  of F r i e d r i c h s d e c i s i o n to enter the p r i e s t h o o d : 1  -  92  -  "Er h a t t e e n d l i c h den p h a n t a s t i s c h e n , t a u s e n d f a r b i g e n P i l g e r m a n t e l abgeworfen, und stand nun i n blanker Rfistung a l s KSmpfer Gottes gleiehsam an der Grenze zweier Welten." ( I I , 281|) Both the p i l g r i m ' s c l o a k and the s h i n i n g armour a r e , o f course, p u r e l y symbolic, as a r e the two worlds on whose border he stands.  The c l o a k r e p r e s e n t s what F r i e d r i c h ( I I , 210}  earlier called h i s "Irrfahrt" experiences o f o r d i n a r y l i f e  through  the manifold  i n the everyday world; the  armour stands f o r the p u r i t y and detachment o f t h e c l e r i c a l l i f e whose w o r l d he i s about to e n t e r .  These two worlds  e x i s t t o g e t h e r , but the l a t t e r i s more d i r e c t l y o r i e n t e d to  the l i f e t o come than i s t h e former,  and t h e r e f o r e  commands E i c h e n d o r f f ' s h i g h e s t r e s p e c t . The world t o come i s always uppermost i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' s thought; constant concern.  r e l i g i o n i s h i s mainspring  and h i s  The p r i e s t ' s occupation absorbs him i n  r e l i g i o n , and t h i s a b s o r p t i o n p l a c e s him a t the summit o f human achievement.  But c l o s e l y a l l i e d  to him i n the  p r e a c h i n g and p r o t e c t i o n of r e l i g i o n a r e the poet (and other a r t i s t s ) and the k n i g h t .  Throughout E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  prose works members o f a l l three c a l l i n g s a r e found association.  The i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n between a r t and  r e l i g i o n c h a r a c t e r i s e s the thought  o f a l l Romantics and  f i n d s i t s d e f i n i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n i n Schleiermacher's fiber die  i n close  Religion".  "Reden  E i c h e n d o r f f adds a t h i r d c a l l i n g t o  these c e n t r a l human concerns,  t h a t o f the k n i g h t .  In  "Ahnung und Gegenwart", F r i e d r i c h , Rudolf and L e o n t i n are  -  93  -  k n i g h t s , Rudolf b e i n g i n a d d i t i o n a p a i n t e r and the  other  two poets, of whom one f o r s a k e s p o e t r y f o r p r i e s t h o o d . T h e i r f r i e n d , Faber,  i s a poet but not a k n i g h t .  E i c h e n d o r f f e v i d e n t l y d i d not r e g a r d the  priest-  hood as a s u i t a b l e t o p i c f o r l i t e r a r y d i s c u s s i o n : F r i e d r i c h i n t h i s n o v e l and V i c t o r i n " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " disappear from the s t o r y before t h e i r o r d i n a t i o n . Apparently the author b e l i e v e d t h a t p r i e s t s should be regarded s p i r i t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of! God,  as  on too h i g h a p l a n e ' t o  considered as mere c h a r a c t e r s i n a n o v e l or N o v e l l a . sole e x c e p t i o n i n h i s n a r r a t i v e prose  i s the h e r m i t  The i n the  l a t e r n o v e l , a r a t h e r crude and c o m i c a l c h a r a c t e r , who d e p i c t e d on a d e c i d e d l y lower p l a n i n t e l l e c t u a l l y V i c t o r and the other k n i g h t s and p o e t s , but who,  be  is  than nominally,  at l e a s t , i s s p i r i t u a l l y s u p e r i o r t o a l l i n view of the  fact  t h a t he has been o r d a i n e d . Ubaldo i n "Die Zauberei im Herbste" was F r i e d r i c h i n "Ahnung und Gegenwart" appears as a Gottes".  These two  a crusader; "Kfimpfer  c h a r a c t e r s from E i c h e n d o r f f * s e a r l i e s t  prose n a r r a t i v e s draw a t t e n t i o n t o the k n i g h t who  defends  the f a i t h by f o r c e o f arms as w e l l as by the p r e a c h i n g practice of Christian principles.  In h i s h i s t o r i c a l  and  tragedy,  "Der l e t z t e ^ H e l d von Marienburg" ( 1 8 3 0 , E i c h e n d o r f f examined i n d e t a i l the moral dilemma involved, i n f u l f i l l i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the d u t i e s of the monk and s o l d i e r , and d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i t was  those o f the  impossible.  The  - 9J+ c o n f l i c t between the Grand M a s t e r , P l a u e n , and the C o u n c i l o f the T e u t o n i c K n i g h t s , concerns  the matter of whether  Order should save i t s e l f through war or peace. are r i g h t ; its  the  Both s i d e s  on the one hand, the Order c o u l d not maintain  dominance i n P r u s s i a a f t e r 11+10 without war, b u t ,  other,  on the  war to uphold mere temporal power,, a f t e r the m i s s i o n a r y  purpose o f the Order has been f u l f i l l e d , s p i r i t of C h r i s t i a n i t y .  Plauen s e f f o r t s 1  i s c o n t r a r y to  to a v e r t the doom  he foresaw f o r the Order b r i n g about h i s own d o w n f a l l . i s a v i c t i m of the Rittertums"  (IV, 1+3)  literary history. once.  "wesentlich tragischer  It  D o p p e l g e i s t des  i s i m p o s s i b l e to be monk and s o l d i e r  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n noted above,  in his narrative  In  d e l e g a t i o n he was undoubtedly i n f l u e n c e d by the i l l u s t r a t e d by N o v a l i s '  purpose of the p o e t , his  prose,  and i n s t e a d to delegate  d u t i e s to k n i g h t s and p o e t s .  Romantic a t t i t u d e  part  this general  ideas on the  which E i c h e n d o r f f d e s c r i b e s  thus i n  "G-eschichte der p o e t i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r D e u t s c h l a n d s " : " D i e Poesie war ihm e i n G o t t e s d i e n s t , der D i c h t e r e i n P r i e s t e r , d i e I n s p i r a t i o n des g l l l u b i g Schauenden und echte d i c h t e r i s c h e B e g e i s t e r u n g e i n und d a s s e l b e . " (IV, 2 5>1+) The l i n k which E i c h e n d o r f f p e r c e i v e s  and k n i g h t appears  at  c o n t r i b u t e d to E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  to w r i t e about p r i e s t s  of the p r i e s t ' s  He  on which E i c h e n d o r f f commented i n h i s  Perhaps t h i s awareness  reluctance  the  i n h i s s t u d i e s of mediaeval  between poet literature;  "Und so f i e l s i e Q l e Poesie] denn auch sehr bald den R i t t e r n anheim, a l s dem Stande, der das S u s s e r e Leben am e n t s c h i e d e n s t e n bestimmte und f u h r t e . " (IV, 61+)  - 95 " D i e s e r Mirmegesang aber war eben nur der Widerklang und p o e t i s c h e Ausdruck des damaligen Lebens, s e i n e n Gegenstand b i l d e t e n f a s t a u s s c h l i e s s l i c h d i e s e l b e n g e i s t i g e n Elemente, d i e auch das R i t t e r t u m i n s e i n e r s c h B n s t e n B l u t e umfasste: G o t t e s d i e n s t , unverbrfichliche Treue im H e r r e n - und P r a u e n d i e n s t , und e n d l i c h d i e s e r Prauendienst s e l b s t . " (IV, 66) "Der A d e l t e i l t e noch immer das t i e f e N a t u r g e f u h l des V o l k s , und s t a n d im Wissen nur wenig fiber demselben . . . D a h e r sind d i e s e r i t t e r l i c h e n M i n n e l i e d e r noch ganz f r e i von a l l e r g e l e h r t e n P r e t e n s i o n und P e d a n t e r i e , und wurden . . . s t e t s , wie das l k s l i e d , gesungen." (IV, 67) v  It  0  i s d o u b t f u l whether E i c h e n d o r f f s o p i n i o n of a deep  f e e l i n g f o r nature b e i n g expressed i n Minnesang can be justified.  However, one must accept t h a t he found i n  mediaeval l i t e r a t u r e  the b a s i s f o r the c l o s e a f f i n i t y he  f e l t to e x i s t between poet and k n i g h t , and t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t both were imbued w i t h s t r o n g f a i t h and l o y a l t y , along with love of nature,  and that p o e t r y i s i n t i m a t e l y a l l i e d  with music. T h i s c l o s e bond between poet and k n i g h t , between religion,  p o e t r y and music, i s expressed c l e a r l y i n "Das  M a r m o r b i l d " , whose c h i e f f i g u r e s , P l o r i o and F o r t u n a t o , both k n i g h t s and p o e t s . Singer F o r t u n a t o "  (II,  The l a t t e r i s f i r s t named, as 309),  are  "der  a term which emphasizes  E i c h e n d o r f f s view of p o e t r y and music as almost (An i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t might take an o p p o s i t e stand, words as an i n t e r r u p t i o n and d i s t r a c t i o n .  inseparable regarding  Nevertheless,  b e a u t i f u l p o e t r y i s always a p l e a s u r e t o the ear and i s i n itself musical.). Fortunato's  The bond with r e l i g i o n i s manifested i n  two b a l l a d s , "Was k l i n g t mir so h e i t e r "  (II,  - 96 311-313) and "Von kuhnen W n d e r b i l d e r n " U  last  (II,  31+2-31+3), and  the  song of the N o v e l l e , F l o r i o ' s "Hier b i n i c h , H e r r i  Gegrtfsst das L i c h t i "  ( I I , 3/4$).  The c l o s e a l l i a n c e o f poet, p r i e s t , and k n i g h t i s found n o t o n l y i n the prose n a r r a t i v e s , but a l s o i n works o f other types throughout  Eichendorffs life,  as i n the f o l l o w i n g  stanza from "An d i e Freunde" (l8l5>), which equates preaching w i t h l i t e r a t u r e and m i l i t a r y  life:  "Nennt m i r d i e Palme eures hohen S t r e b e n s i Bequeme Rast i s t n i c h t des Lebens wert, , Nach Ruh' sehnt s i c h d i e Menschenbrust vergebens, E r k a * m p f t w i l l s e i n , was hoher Sinn begehrt. E i n K r i e g e r b l e i b t d e r g r o s s r e M nn z e i t l e b e n s , E r kampf mit Rede, Buchern oder Schwert, Und r e c h t e r F r i e d e wird nur da geschlossen, Wo jedem S t r e i t e r seine Palmen sprossen." ( I , 1 5 > 1 ) a  G o r g i a , arguing i n favour o f C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y a g a i n s t E z e l i n ' s p o l i c y o f power, i n " E z e l i n von Romano", a f f i r m s t h e i d e n t i t y o f knighthood  and r e l i g i o n :  "Herr, i s t das Schwert Doch s e l b s t e i n K r e u z i " ( I , 7 6 7 ) E i c h e n d o r f f s c o n v i c t i o n of the t i e between p o e t r y and r e l i g i o n  i s s t r o n g l y expressed  p o e t i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r Deutschlands"  i n h i s "Geschichte d er (181+6):  "Gerade d e r f r i s c h e l i c k i n d i e Welt und d i e - t i e f e r e Ahnung i h r e r v e r h u l l t e n g e i s t i g e n Physiognomie bezeichnet den D i c h t e r , dessen Sache es i s t n i c h t , wie der-Vogel S t r a u s s beim A n b l i c k des J&gers, von dem bunten W i r r s a l f e i g den Kopf zu v e r s t e c k e n , sondern d i e s i n n l i c h e Erscheinung im Feuer himmlischer S c h 8 n h e i t zu t a u f e n und vom Gemeinen zu e r l 8 s e n . -Nur i n der w o h l v e r s t a n d e n e n innigen Eintracht von Poesie und R e l i g i o n a l s o i s t f u r beide H e l l ; denn d i e wahre Poesie i s t durchaus religions, und die R e l i g i o n p o e t i s c h , und eben d i e s e g e h e i m n i s v o l l e Doppelnatur b e i d e r d a r z u s t e l l e n , war d i e grosse B  - 97  (IV, 400-1*01)  Aufgabe d e r Romantik."  Thus E i c h e n d o r f f , l a t e i n h i s long l i t e r a r y  career,  r e a f f i r m e d h i s c o n v i c t i o n o f the k i n s h i p of p o e t r y r e l i g i o n which was it  a l r e a d y s t a t e d i n the poem o f l8l£, where  i s e n l a r g e d t o i n c l u d e knighthood.  These three  remained u n i t e d a t the heart of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s from f i r s t  and  things  philosophy  to l a s t . Fortunato  symbolizes  the s t e a d f a s t p o s i t i v e s i d e  of knighthood, from which F l o r i o wavers but t o which he r e t u r n s unscathed: God,  Donati  the n e g a t i v e ,  o r i e n t e d not t o  but towards the world, the f l e s h and  the  devil.  F l o r i o ' s d e c i s i v e r e j e c t i o n o f the daemonic, a f t e r a p e r i o d of d a z z l e d a t t r a c t i o n , i s t y p i c a l of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s treatment o f the young man  whose c h a r a c t e r i s i n the  beginning  unformed but with a decided b i a s i n favour of the  positive.  F l o r i o ' s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h i s never i n doubt; i t i s merely the s e n s u a l s i d e of h i s nature  which f o r a time i m p e r i l s  h i s s o u l , but which i s e v e n t u a l l y brought under c o n t r o l by his faith.  In "Die Zauberei  r e p r e s e n t s man  im Herbste", Ubaldo l i k e w i s e  whose f a i t h prevents him  from succumbing to  sensual  temptation,  while Raimund i s unable to r e s i s t .  Thus we  see that the k n i g h t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y an example  of G d's order on e a r t h , but may 0  a seeker a f t e r t r u t h , who succumb t o i t , or may itself.  be a t y p i c a l human b e i n g ,  must combat e v i l and p o s s i b l y  even be the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of e v i l  - 98  In " D i c h t e r und  ihre Gesellen", Victor  h i m s e l f to the p r i e s t h o o d . i s symbolized  -  The  supremacy o f t h i s v o c a t i o n  by V i c t o r ' s remaining  on the mountain a f t e r  h i s f r i e n d s have descended; the hermit, holds  dedicates  already  ordained,  f o r the time being a more honoured p o s i t i o n than V i c t o r ,  i n s p i t e of the l a t t e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l (and s o c i a l ) The  superiority.  second h i g h e s t v o c a t i o n i s that o f the poet, Portunat,  l u c k y one.  Though h i s p o s i t i o n i s regarded  t h a t of the p r i e s t , i t i s he who  has  as i n f e r i o r to  the f u l l e s t  experience  o f l i f e and whose words w i l l be heard most w i d e l y . t h a t he  i s n e a r l y the equal  of the p r i e s t and  The  shares  fact  his  c a l l i n g as a preacher  i s symbolized  home on the h e i g h t s .  Manfred, on the other hand, though a  worthy man,  by h i s f e e l i n g q u i t e a t  i s uneasy on the mountain and breathes  freely  o n l y when he r e t u r n s t o the mundane concerns of the The Romantic e x a l t a t i o n him.  for knights: having  he  suitable  professions  i s about to enter i n t o government  a l r e a d y proved h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  a b i l i t y by r e s t o r i n g  the p r o s p e r i t y of the lands which had  concern f o r h i s young r e l a t i v e , Piametta.  d e s i r a b l e than the other two. l e s s e r f o l k i f the p r i e s t and w o r l d l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and  in his  E i c h e n d o r f f does  not c o n s i d e r Manfred's c h o i c e contemptible,  He  service,  administrative  been i n poor h e a r t on h i s s u c c e s s i o n to them, and  burden.  valley.  of p r i e s t h o o d or p o e t r y i s not f o r  H i s i s the lowest o f the three  the  merely l e s s  Someone must look a f t e r poet are to be r e l i e v e d  i t i s Manfred who  i s the i n d i s p e n s a b l e c o u n t e r p a r t  takes up  the of this  o f Portunat  in  - 99 -  r e g a r d to p r a c t i c a l  responsibility.  P r i m a r i l y he performs  the s o c i a l d u t i e s r e q u i r e d of the k n i g h t , without being able or anxious to  c l a i m the s u p e r i o r attainments  of V i c t o r and  Portunat. It  is interesting  to note that i n "Ahnung und  Gegenwart", w r i t t e n d u r i n g the Napoleonic domination of Germany, a l l the important k n i g h t s r e t i r e d F r i e d r i c h to a c l o i s t e r , his  from the w o r l d :  L e o n t i n to America, R u d o l f f i r s t  " N a r r e n b u r g " , then to E g y p t .  There seems to be no p l a c e  f o r them i n contemporary German s o c i e t y .  F r i e d r i c h , the o n l y  one to remain i n Germany, has no e x p e c t a t i o n i n the l i f e of the c o u n t r y : to take e f f e c t i v e heartedly his  to  of  participating  he b e l i e v e s i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e  a c t i o n u n t i l everyone has turned whole-  to God, and that prayer  i s h i s o n l y means of h e l p i n g  people while a w a i t i n g t h a t improbable s t a t e of  affairs.  " I n " D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n " , on the other hand, written  twenty y e a r s a f t e r the f i r s t n o v e l , the k n i g h t s a l l  remain a c t i v e , in Italy,  e s p e c i a l l y Manfred.  but h i s p o e t r y w i l l  still  Portunat  intends to  be German, and one  imagine t h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r o f the Taugenichts never back t o Germany.  live cannot  travelling  In any c a s e , he w i l l be t a k i n g p a r t i n as  normal a l i f e as i s p o s s i b l e f o r E i c h e n d o r f f ' s p o e t s .  Victor  w i l l p e r f o r c e withdraw from the world f o r the p e r i o d o f h i s c l e r i c a l t r a i n i n g , but i n t e n d s t h e r e a f t e r to r eturn to  the  dusty market-place  The  to preach to the European heathen.  r e t u r n of comparative  s t a b i l i t y to German a f f a i r s made  - 10.0 p o s s i b l e a f a r more e n e r g e t i c and p o s i t i v e approach society  to  than was the case i n 1812. In " D i c h t e r und i h r e O e s e l l e n " E i c h e n d o r f f has  f i n a l l y formulated h i s ideas on knighthood as i t c o u l d be practised  i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  H i s o n l y advance  beyond t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l standpoint extension  i s i n regard to  o f the c a t e g o r y " c h i v a l r o u s " to i n c l u d e  i n f e r i o r men and h e r o i c  socially  women, who, i n h i s l a t e r works,  command h i s i n c r e a s i n g a d m i r a t i o n . emancipated,  the  Woman becomes,  the f r e e equal of man, though i t  in fact,  is doubtful  whether E i c h e n d o r f f r e c o g n i z e d j u s t what a r e v o l u t i o n had s u c c e s s f u l l y brought about implicit,  not  i n h i s works:  the i d e a  she is  explicit.  This manifestation  of n o b i l i t y o f s p i r i t  amongst  people born below noble rank r e v e a l s an ambiguity i n Eichendorffs  thought.  value of t r a d i t i o n , accused all  While he c o n s i s t e n t l y  to the p o i n t of b e i n g f r e q u e n t l y  of reactionary ideas,  i t s works ( f o r  instance,  and opposed emancipation and i n "Auch i c h war In A r k a d i e n "  Cl83ljp, he n e v e r t h e l e s s was r e c e p t i v e might be f o r  upheld the  the g e n e r a l good.  to new thoughts which  As Fortunat  says:  "Das r e c h t e A l t e i s t ewig neu, und das r e c h t e Neue s c h a f f t s i c h doch Balm uber a l l e B r g e . " ( I I , £08) 9  The i d e a of the combination o f new and o l d elements i n a healthy  society  i s expressed more f o r m a l l y i n "Der A d e l und  d i e R e v o l u t i o n " , which was w r i t t e n I n and a'fter 1839 and i s  - 101 thus contemporaneous w i t h the N o v e l l e n c o n t a i n i n g h e r o i c women: "Aber nur d i e v 8 l l i g e B a r b a r e i kann ohne A d e l bestehen. I n jedem Stadium der Z i v i l i s a t i o n w i r d es, g l e i c h v i e l unter welchen Namen und Formen, immer wieder A r i s t o k r a t e n geben, das h e i s s t eine bevorzugte K l a s s e , d i e s i c h fiber die Massen erhebt, um s i e zu lenken. Denn der A d e l (um i h n b e i dem einmal t r a d i t i o n n e l gewordenen Namen zu nennen) i s t s e i n e r u n v e r g l n g l i c h e n Natur nach das i d e a l e Element der G e s e l l s c h a f t ; e r hat d i e Aufgabe, a l l e s Grosse, E d l e und Schfine, wie und wo es auch im d l k e auftauchen mag, r i t t e r l i c h zu wahren, das- ewig wandelbare Naue mit dem ewig Bestehenden zu v e r m i t t e l n und somit e r s t w i r k l i c h l e b e n s f & h i g zu machen. M i t romantischen I l l u s i o n e n und dem b l o s s e n e i g e n s i n n i g e n F e s t h a l t e n des La'ngstverj&hrten i s t a l s o h i e r b e i gar n i c h t s getan." v  (11,1043) The earnestness of t h i s support o f new i d e a s and new sources of  i d e a s b e l i e s the a c c u s a t i o n o f extreme conservatism which  attaches to Eichendorff.  I t a l s o makes one wonder j u s t what  he was r i d i c u l i n g i n a passage from the u n f i n i s h e d a u t o - b i o g r a p h i c a l N o v e l l e , "Unstern", of  somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t  the " A d e l s k e t t e " o f " V i e l L&rmen um n i c h t s " ( I I , 470): "Ich habe es immer gesagt, n i c h t s a l s -Narrenpossen mit d i e s e r G-leichheit. Das s o i l naturgem&ss s e i n ! A l s wEre d i e N t u r n i c h t rade e r s t a r i s t o k r a t i s c h , s t e l l t den Ochsen ber das K a l b , den Hund fiber d i e Katze, d i e Katze fiber d i e R a t t e , und unter den Menschen den hohen G e b u r t s a d e l des Genies fiber das andre gemeine Pack." ( I I , 1007) a  t  Is he parodying the e g a l i t a r i a n s or t h e i r opponents, or both?  And i s he p r a i s i n g the " a r i s t o c r a c y o f genius" f o r  i t s s u p e r i o r i t y or c r i t i c i s i n g did  i t for conceit?  He c e r t a i n l y  not c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f above c r i t i c i s m , s e l f - p a r o d y ,  whether o f h i m s e l f or h i s works, being a f a i r l y  common  occurrence, one o f the most amusing being i n the n i n t h  - 102 scene o f "Meierbeths Giflck und E d e " ( 1 8 2 7 ) , where the Muse, n  surrounded by " L i t e r a t o r e n " , complains, " i c h hab' mich an der % . t u r zu ergBtzen"  (I,  6  1  +  3  )  es s a t t ,  .  But whatever E i c h e n d o r f f s doubts on e q u a l i t y may have been, he c e r t a i n l y b e l i e v e d i n r e c o g n i z i n g t r u e worth wherever i t might appear, and i s hence a t l e a s t p a r t l y i n sympathy with the democratic p a r t y , as the f o l l o w i n g words o f Robert, the r e v o l u t i o n a r y b r o t h e r i n "Robert und G u i s c a r d " , show: "Vergebens f a b e l t i h r von Prau'n und S c h r e i b e r n , Nein, m i t Gedanken h e i s s t ' s zum Kampfe gehn, Die immerdar aus der Erschlagnen L e i b e r n , E i n u n s i c h t b a r e r Heerbahn, neu erstehn, Von Menschenadel geht durchs ^ o l k e i n Ahnen, Der M i t e r i s t a l s unsre a l t s t e n Ahnen ... W o l l t i h r d i e e r s t e n s e i n , z e i g t euch a l s solche, So haben eure Ahnen e i n s t getan, ErwBrgt der a l t e n ^acht geschwollne Molche, Brecht s e l b s t den Morgen an und l 8 s t den Bann, Wie's R i t t e r n zukommt, der gefangnen Dame, Die-Zukunft i s t i h r Reich, P r e i h e i t i h r Name." ( I , U56-1+57)  "Menschenadel" and " R i t t e r " - y e t again the a s s o c i a t i o n o f human n o b i l i t y w i t h k n i g h t s , o f n o b i l i t y o f the s p i r i t w i t h n o b i l i t y o f b i r t h .  I t i s the duty o f  h e r e d i t a r y k n i g h t s t o have, and t o c h e r i s h wherever i t s p r i n g s anew, n o b i l i t y o f s p i r i t , prose work, "Die Zauberei  im e r b s t e " , E i c h e n d o r f f  acknowledged t h a t the k n i g h t character.  though from h i s e a r l i e s t  H  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y noble i n  The i d e a o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the k n i g h t f o r  e a r t h l y j u s t i c e and h i s d e d i c a t i o n through r e l i g i o n are expressed  f i n a l l y i n E i c h e n d o r f f s l i t e r a r y l a s t w i l l and  - 103  -  t e s t a m e n t , "Die h e i l i g e Hedwig", a fragment o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n to a biography of S i l e s i a ' s patron s a i n t , begun s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s death i n 1857,  i n the f o l l o w i n g  passages: "Diesen hBheren w e l t g e s c h t l i c h e n K r e i s e n gehBrten z.B.: d i e g e i s t l i c h e n R i t t e r o r d e n u. d i e KlBster an, deren R e g e l gleichmSssig d u r c h a l l e N a t i o n e n g i n g . Ihnen gehoren i n s b e s o n d e r e auch C h a r a k t e r e , wie d i e der H e i l i g e n , an. I n d i e s e r Region der W e l t g e s c h i c h t e g i b t es k e i n e n U n t e r s c h i e d der N a t i o n e n , der Stflnde und des G e s c h l e c h t s ; M i l d e und K r a f t v e r e i n i g e n s i c h zu e i n e r holier en Harmonie a l l e r S e e l e n k r & f t e . " (IV, 1074) " i n w e i t e r e r G l i e d e r u n g nach u n t e n g r u p p i e r t e s i c h -um den K a i s e r das R i t t e r t u m , i n seinem i n n e r s t e n Wesen g l e i c h f a l l s e i n k i r c h l i c h r e l i g i B s e r V e r e i n , um auch i n u n t e r g e o r d n e t e n K r e i s e n d i e G e r e c h t i g k e i t e t c . G o t t e s auf Erden d a r z u s t e l l e n : S c h u t z der Witwen und Waisen, Verehrung der F r a u e n a l s e i n e s A b g l a n z e s der h e i l i g e n M a r i a , der M a r i e n d i e n s t e t c . e t c . " (IV, 1075) These two passages c o n t r i b u t e the l a s t e x p r e s s i o n Eichendorff s ideal:  of  no d i s t i n c t i o n o f n a t i o n , rank o r  and the k n i g h t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f d i v i n e j u s t i c e on T h i s e x a l t e d concept o f the k n i g h t was  sex,  earth.  Eichendorffs  i d e a l t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e , and as he matured, the c o n c e p t widened t o embrace b o t h men b i r t h who, spirit.  and women o f l e s s than k n i g h t l y  i n s p i t e of t h i s h a n d i c a p , a t t a i n t o l o f t i n e s s o f  T h i s i d e a i s e x p r e s s e d i n "Ahnung und  where F r i e d r i c h speaks o f p o e t r y ' s D i c h t e r " ( I I , 32),  Gegenwart",  "angeborene R i t t e r ,  E i c h e n d o r f f s f i r s t l i n k i n g o f the  p r o f e s s i o n s i n h i s p r o s e works, an e a r l y s u g g e s t i o n W i l l i b a l d ' s "Adelskette" of poetry  die two  of  ( I I , 1+70). F r i e d r i c h  a l s o l i n k s knighthood w i t h r e l i g i o n i n saying, " i c h  ...  - 101+ wfihle mir das Kreuz zum Schwerte"  (II,  297)  A third link in Eichendorffs priest,  t r i n i t y of p o e t ,  and k n i g h t i s t o be found i n the f o l l o w i n g stanzas  of F r i e d r i c h ' s  f a r e w e l l to p o e t r y ,  known i n c o l l e c t i o n s  as  "An d i e D i c h t e r " : "Der D i c h t e r kann n i c h t mit verarmen; Wenn a l l e s um i h n her z e r f M l l t , Hebt i h n e i n gUttliches Erbarmen Der D i c h t e r i s t das Herz der W e l t . Den bidden W i l l e n a l l e r Wesen, Im I r d i s c h e n des Herren Spur, S o i l er durch L i e b e s k r a f t erlBsen, Der schBne L i e b l i n g der N a t u r . Drum hat ihm Gott das Wort gegeben, Das kuhn das Dunkelste benennt, Den frommen E r n s t im r e i c h e n Leben, Die F r e u d i g k e i t , d i e k e i n e r k e n n t . Da s o l i er singen f r e i auf E r d e n , In L u s t und Not auf Gott v e r t r a u n , Dass a l l e r Herzen f r e i e r werden, Eratmend i n d i e Klange s c h a u n . " ( I I ,  298-299)  Both poet and k n i g h t share the p r i e s t l y duty of  fostering  r e l i g i o n and c a r r y i n g out i t s  portals  o f the c h u r c h .  e t h i c s beyond the  The k n i g h t need not be a poet nor  poet a k n i g h t , but i n g e n e r a l the two c a l l i n g s  the  are  combined, w h i l e F r i e d r i c h and V i c t o r give up both vocations  f o r that of  priesthood.  Knightood o r ,  to use a more e l a s t i c  term,  c h i v a l r y can be expanded to embrace women of any rank and men of l e s s e r rank whose c h a r a c t e r s show the i d e a l of r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r , sacrifice  themselves  purity,  l o y a l t y and r e a d i n e s s  for others.  These  were p r i z e d by E i c h e n d o r f f a l l h i s l i f e ,  traits to  characteristics w i t h a broadening  - 10^ appreciation knight,  in his  t i o n s , may ideal  of t h e i r  be  incidence  spiritual considered  as he  though not the  grew o l d e r .  his  temporal  embodiment o f  of humanity throughout h i s works.  Thus  the  manifesta-  Eichendorffs  - 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY I.  E i c h e n d o r f f s Works'. E i c h e n d o r f f s Werke (ed. R i c h a r d D i e t z e ) , V o l s . I - I I ( L e i p z i g and Wien, 1891). E i c h e n d o r f f s Werke (ed. Ludwig K r l h e ) , V o l s . I-IV ( B e r l i n , L e i p z i g , Wien and S t u t t g a r t , 1908). Sffmtliche Werke des F r e i h e r r n Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f . "~~ H i s t o r i s c h - k r i t i s c h e Ausgabe (ed. Wilhelm Kosch). V o l s . I, 1-2, I I I , V I , X, XI, X I I , X I I I , XXII (Regensburg, 1908- ). E i c h e n d o r f f , Joseph P r e i h e r r von, Neue Gesamtausgabe der Werke und S c h r i f t e n (ed. Gerhard Baumann and S i e g f r i e d tfrosse), v l s . I-IV ( S t u t t g a r t , 1957 0  ).  I I . Other Works. Bauer, J o l a n t h a , E i c h e n d o r f f a l s H j s t o r i k e r ( D i s s e r t a t i o n ,  Wi-en, 19U9). "  -  Behrendt, Roland, O.S.B. Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f s Romantic Concept o f H i s t o r y and the R e s t o r a t i o n o f Marienburg C a s t l e (Master's D i s s e r t a t i o n . Minnesota. 1953). Benz, R i c h a r d , Die deutsche Romantik. G e s c h i c h t e e i n e r g e i s t i g e n Bewegung ( L e i p z i g . 19U0). Brandenburg, Hans, Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f . und s e i n Werk (Munchen, 1922).  Sein  Leben  Coogan, D a n i e l F r a n c i s , J u n i o r . The Themes o f E i c h e n d o r f f s L y r i c P o e t r y ( D i s s e r t a t i o n , Wisconsin, 194-L )• ~~* Emrich, Wilhelm, P r o t e s t und V e r h e i s s u n g (Frankfurt-amMain and Bonn, 1 9 6 0 K F o r s t e r , R. " K a i s e r J u l i a n i n der Dichtung a l t e r und neuer Z e i t , " S t u d i e n zur Vergleichkunden, L i t . V #  (1905), 50-57.  G r i l l p a r z e r , F r a n z , Werke. (ed. F r i e d r i c h Schreyvogl) V o l s . I - I I , (Salzburg and S t u t t g a r t , 1958). Grosse, Helmut. Das C h r i s t u s b i i d der romantischen Dichtung ( D i s s e r t a t i o n , Marburg, 1949).  - 107 H a b e r l a n d , H e l g a , Das P r o b l e m d e r P & n o n i e i m Werke von  E i c h e n d o r f f s ( D i s s e r t a t i o n . Frankfurt-am-Main.  H o f f m a n , E.T.A., P e r g o l d e n e T p p f H S l l e r e r , Walter,  (Stuttgart,  "Schflnheit und E r s t a r r u n g , "  2 (1955), 93-103.  Huch, R i c a r d a , Keller,  Josef  Otto,  1954).  I960). DU, V I I , H e f t  - ~~"  ( L e i p z i g , 1920).  D i e Rpmantik Eichendorffs  Kritik  d e r Romantik  (Zurich,  1954).  Kluckhohn, P a u l , D i e deutsche Rpmantik ( B i e l f e l d and Leipzig, 1924T K l u c k h c h n , P a u l , Das I d e e n g u t d e r d e u t s c h e n R p m a n t i k ( T t f b i n g e n , 19^3TT K l u c k h c h n , P a u l , " V i e l f a l t und E i n h e i t d e r R p m a n t i k , " U n i v e r s i t a s . J g . V I I I , Bd. 1 (1953), 139-147. K p r f f , H. A., G e i s t d e r G p e t h e z e i t .  1953).  V o l s . I-IV, ( L e i p z i g ,  K u n i s c h , Hermann, " J o s e p h v o n E i c h e n d o r f f , 'Das W i e d e r s e h e n ' . E i n u n v e r S f f e n t l i c h e s Npvellenfragment aus der H a n d s c h r i f t m i t g e t e i l t u n d e r l f i u t e r t v p n Hermann K u n i s c h , " A u r e r a . XXV ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 7 - 3 9 . Kunz, J o s e f , E i c h e n d o r f f ; HBhepunkt u n d K r i s e d e r Spfltromantik (Qberusel..1951J.  »  L u t h i , Hans J f l r g , " D i o n y s o s und C h r i s t u s i n d e r L y r i k J o s e f s v o n E i c h e n d o r f f , " S c h w e i z e r M o n a t s h e f t e , No.  VII  (1957-1958),  782-791..  M a r t i n i . F r i t z , Deutsche L j t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t e von den A n f & n g e n b i s .zur G e g e n w a r t . ( S t u t t g a r t , I 9 6 0 ) . M a u s e r , W o l f r a m , " E i c h e n d o r f f - L i t e r a t u r 1 9 5 9 - 1 9 6 2 , " DU,  J g . XIV, H e f t - 4  (1962), B e i l a g e , 1-12.  M8bus, G e r h a r d , P e r a n d e r e E i c h e n d o r f f . MBbus, G e r h a r d ,  "Eichendorff  Mflhler, Robert,  "Pie Zauberei  Z e i t . CLV (1954-1955), (1964), 46-65.  I960).  (Oanabrflck,  alsNihilist,"  372-380.  Stimmen d e r  im H e r b s t e , " Aurora.;XXlV.  -  .  M f i l l e r , Joachim, "Per Stand der E i c h e n d o r f f - F o r s c h u n g , " Forschungen und F p r t s c h r l t t e . J g . XXXVII,Heft 5,  Berlin  (1963).  '  Muschg, W a l t e r , T r a g i s c h e  -  Ljteraturgeschichte  (Bern,  1957).  - 108 P o r s c h , Ingeborg-Maria, Die Macht des vergangenen Lebens i n E i c h e n d o r f f s Roman "Ahnung und Gegenwart . ( D i s s e r t a t i o n . i ' r a n k f u r t - a m - H a i n , 1951). Requadt, P a u l , " E i c h e n d o r f f s 'Ahnung und Gegenwart' V I I , H e f t 2 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 79-92. R i e p e , C h r i s t i a n , E j o h e n d o r f f s Mensohengestaltung 1941).  " DU, ~~  (Berlin,  R i l e y , Thomas . , "An A l l e g o r i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s 'Ahnung und G e g e n w a r t ' , " MLR, LIV (1959), 204-213. A  H i l e y , Thomas . , " D i e E r z f t h l t e c h n i k des jungen E i c h e n d o r f f s , " . A u r o r a . XX (i960), 30-35. A  S c h n e i d e r , R e i n h o l d , E i c h e n d o r f f . Die Sendung des c h r i s t l i c ' h e n Ritters. M i t einem Anhang: "Ewig i s t das R i t t e r t u m " Gedichte von J o s e p h v o n E i c h e n d o r f f (Aschaffenburg, 1949). S c h u l t z , P r a n z , K l a s s i k und Rpmantik der Deutschen (Epochen der deutschen L i t e r a t u r , IV, 2, S t u t t g a r t , 1952). Seeker, Gtlnther, Joseph vpn S j c h e n d o r f f a " S c h l c s s Dflrande" ( D i s s e r t a t i p n , Marburg, 1927). S e i d l i n , Oskar, " E i c h e n d c r f f s B l i c k i n d i e G c h i c h t e " PMLA, LXXVII (1962), 544-560. 9 a  Sengle, F r i e d r i c h , Das deutsche Geschichtsdrama. Gesohichte e i n e s l i t e r a r i s c h e n Mythos ( S t u t t g a r t . 1952). Skidmore, W i l l a r d E v a n s , E i c h e n d o r f f ' 3 "Weltanschauung" as Revealed i n h i s Language ( D i s s e r t a t i o n . I l l i n o i s , 1942). S t e i n b f i c h e l , ^omantik. E i n Zyklus Tfibinger Vorlesungen ( e d . Theodor s t e i n b t i c h e l ) , (Tubingen und S t u t t g a r t , 1548). S t e n z e l , Die deutschen o m a n t i k e r V o l s . I - I I ( S a l z b u r g , 1954). R  ( e d . Gerhard S t e n z e l ) ,  S t o c k l e i n , E i c h e n d o r f f heute ( e d . P a u l S t o c k l e i n ) ,  I960).  (Munchen,  S t B c k l e i n , P a u l , Joseph yon E i c h e n d o r f f i n S e l b s t z e u g n l s s e n und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek b e i Hamburg, 1963). Tamm, E m i l , Die Bedeutung des Romans "Ahnung und Gegenwart" fur E j c h e n d o r f f s g e l s t l g e E n t w i c k l u n g ( D i s s e r t a t i o n . Hamburg, 1924).  -  109  -  T i e c k , Ludwig, Per getreue E c k a r t und der Tannenhfluser (Deutsche L i t e r a t u r , Reihe Romantik, V I I , L e i p z i g , 1933).  U h l e n d o r f f , Franz, "Frflhlingssehnsucht und V r l o c k u n g Eichendorff," A u r o r a . X V l l l (1958), 18-32. e  W e h r l i , Ren/, E i c h e n d o r f f s E r l e b n i s und O e s t a l t u n g Sinnenwelt ( F r a u e n f e l d and L e i p z i g . 1 9 3 8 ) .  bei  der  Weseraeier, R e i n h o l d , Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f s s a t i r i s c h e N o v e l l e n ( D i s s e r t a t i o n , Marburg, 1 9 1 5 ) . Wlese, Benno von, P i e deutsche N p v e l l e . V o l s . I - I I (Ptlaseldorf, 1961+J.  Interpretationen.  Workman, John P a v i d , The Themes of E i c h e n d o r f f s N a r r a t i v e Prose ( P i s s e r t a t i o n , Wisconsin, 1 9 3 9 ) .  

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