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The impact of electric transmission lines on suburban areas : a case study in Surrey, British Columbia MacArthur, Douglas Brian 1966

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THE IMPACT OF ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION LINES ON SUBURBAN AREAS: A CASE STUDY IN SURREY, BRITISH COLUMBIA by DOUGLAS BRIAN MacARTHUR B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study* I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission Department of Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 85 Canada Date 5 May 1 9 6 5 i i ABSTRACT The c e n t r a l problem w h i c h o v e r h e a d e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s pose f o r suburban a r e a s i s t h a t r i g h t o f way l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s made i n e a r l i e r y e a r s have i n f l u e n c e d , and sometimes d e t e r m i n e d , the p r e s e n t o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f suburban development and e s p e c i a l l y i t s r e s i d e n t i a l a s p e c t s . The s t u d y i s t h e r e -f o r e l i m i t e d t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e i m p a c t on r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The r e s u l t has been t h a t p a s t d e c i s i o n s made by one agency on t h e b a s i s o f t e c h n i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s and economic c r i -t e r i a a p p l i c a b l e t o a u t i l i t y p r o j e c t have o f t e n been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t form and p a t t e r n o f u r b a n a r e a s . A n o t h e r problem i s t h a t i n the suburban a r e a s n e a r t h o s e l i n e s w h i c h have u g l y s t r u c t u r e s and u n m a i n t a i n e d r i g h t s o f way, t h e r e i s an a d v e r s e e f f e c t upon t h e q u a l i t y o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l development. T h i s e f f e c t i s most marked i n t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h a r e s t r i v i n g f o r u r b a n s t a n d a r d s o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y and neighbourhood amenity. A l m o s t e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t w i t h t h e e f f e c t s w h i c h power l i n e s may have on t h e a r e a s t h e y pass t h r o u g h i s t h e s i m p l e f a c t o f t h e tremendous amount o f l a n d w h i c h t h e y u s e and a l i e n a t e f o r most o t h e r u r b a n u s e s . The s t u d y i s co n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m p a c t o f o v e r h e a d e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s o n suburban a r e a s , and n o t w i t h e l e c t r i c l i n e s a t d i s t r i b u t i o n v o l t a g e s . E x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e i i i l i n e s a r e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o p l a n n i n g , f o r t h e y p r e s e n t t e c h n i c a l and economic problems w h i c h e i t h e r p r e c l u d e o r make i m p r a c t i c a l c o n v e r t i n g them t o underground forms* A c c o r d i n g l y , as o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s a r e l i k e l y to have c o n t i n u i n g e f f e c t , t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s i s advanced. Because t h e l o c a t i o n o f o v e r h e a d e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s has had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e (sometimes a d v e r s e ) o n t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f r e s i d e n t i a l development, t h e r e i s need f o r c o o r d i n -a t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e u t i l i t y agency and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . The s t u d y d e s c r i b e s i n some d e t a i l t h o s e l o c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and s t a n d a r d s o f e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s w h i c h have a b e a r i n g upon t h e use o f l a n d . The optimum l o c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r o v e r h e a d e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way and suburban d e n s i t y and typ e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l development a r e shown to be n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l . The two a r e t h e r e f o r e i n c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e use o f l a n d , and t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n i s most marked i n suburban a r e a s where l a n d v a l u e s a r e l o w e r t h a n i n the c e n t r a l c i t y . A s p e c i f i c e x a m i n a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e e f f e c t s on t h e suburban r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o f S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h i s an u r b a n i z i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y on t h e f r i n g e s o f the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . The c a s e s t u d y shows t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the p r e s e n t p a t t e r n i v o f r e s i d e n t i a l development, as measured by assessment v a l u e s and p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , and t h e p r e s e n c e o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way. The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e l i n e s i s t h e most l i k e l y c a u s a l f a c t o r . That t h e i n f l u e n c e has been sometimes a d v e r s e i s n o t as d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t t h e c o n c l u s i o n may be i n f e r r e d from s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e a e s t h e t i c e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d . F u r t h e r s t u d y o f o b j e c -t i v e e v i d e n c e i s c a l l e d f o r . The s t a t e m e n t i n t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c o o r d i n a t e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e u t i l i t y agency and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s i s b a s i c a l l y v a l i d , b u t i s f e l t t o be i n a d e q u a t e . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y must, wherever p o s s i b l e , be an i n t e g r a t i v e one, and i n v o l v e many o t h e r departments o f government, i n c l u d i n g t h e f e d e r a l . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t an i n t e g r a t i v e P r o v i n c i a l Development Department c o u l d w e l l be the most e f f e c t i v e method o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e more u n f a v o u r a b l e a s p e c t s o f e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t o f way l o c a t i o n and appearance. i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r f i n d s t h a t he has a f t e r a l l adopted c e r t a i n s u b t l e changes i n a t t i t u d e w h i c h c a n o n l y be a s c r i b e d to P r o f e s s o r H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , Head o f t h e Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g program a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. I t i s hoped t h a t t h e s e changes have e n r i c h e d t h e t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s w h i c h t h e w r i t e r g a i n e d w h i l e w o r k i n g under Mr. J . C. C a r a b e t t a , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f T r a n s m i s s i o n L i n e C o n s t r u c t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Power and E n g i n e e r i n g C o n s u l t a n t s L i m i t e d . P r o f e s s o r K e v i n J . C r o s s has shown g r e a t p a t i e n c e i n d i r e c t i n g t he e f f o r t s o f a p l o d d i n g w r i t e r . The w r i t e r a l s o w i s h e s to thank Mr. Louke B. K l e y n , P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r i n S u r r e y , and Mr. Gary Harkness o f h i s s t a f f . I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l a d v i c e o n s o u r c e s o f i n f o r -m a t i o n , Mr. K l e y n has k i n d l y s u p p l i e d base maps from w h i c h t h e c a r t o g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s were made. F i n a l l y , t h e w r i t e r a l s o w i s h e s t o thank h i s w i f e , D i a n a , f o r h e r knowledge o f B. C. E l e c t r i c Land Department m a t t e r s w h i c h she g a i n e d w h i l e employed by t h e Company. TABLE OF CONTENTS P A G E T i t l e Page i A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents v L i s t o f Tables and Figures v i l i Acknowledgements • • i x CHAPTER I . ADVERSE EFFECTS OF OVERHEAD ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION LINES UPON SUBURBAN AREAS I Some Problems f o r R e s i d e n t i a l Land Use and Their S i g n i f i c a n c e 1 Objectives o f the I n v e s t i g a t i o n 8 L i m i t s and Range o f the Study 9 D e f i n i t i o n s of S p e c i a l Terms 14 Hypothesis 17 I I . CONFLICT OF FORCES AND NEEDS: OVERHEAD TRANS-MISSION LINES AND RESIDENTIAL LAND USE 19 The E l e c t r i c U t i l i t y Viewpoint 19 Increase i n E l e c t r i c a l Demand and Trans-m i s s i o n Needs . . . . 22 Engineering L o c a t i o n Determinants o f Transmission Lines 27 Right o f Way A c q u i s i t i o n P r a c t i c e 37 R e s i d e n t i a l Land Needs and Objectives i n Suburban Fringe Areas 41 Suburban Growth of M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas. . . . 42 v i CHAPTER PAGE Some General Objectives f o r Suburban R e s i d e n t i a l Areas. . . . . 46 Case f o r Amenity i n R e s i d e n t i a l Areas 48 Resolving Land Use C o n f l i c t s 53 U t i l i t y - P r o p e r t y Owner N e g o t i a t i o n 53 Roles and Powers of S p e c i a l Purpose Boards . . 56 Roles and Powers of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and Planning Agencies. • 59 Summary. 60 I I I . LAND USE COMPETITION IN THE DISTRICT OF SURREY: OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES AND RESIDENTIAL USE. . 64 Surrey's R e l a t i o n to the Vancouver Metro-p o l i t a n Area 64 E l e c t r i c Transmission Network i n Surrey. . . . . 71 P a t t e r n o f the Network . . . . . 71 V i s u a l Q u a l i t y and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Network • 73 R e s i d e n t i a l Area Character and P a t t e r n . . . . . 76 R e s i d e n t i a l Character i n Surrey. . . 76 R e s i d e n t i a l P a t t e r n i n Surrey 82 Resolving Land Use C o n f l i c t s 89 Probable Developments i n Surrey. . . . . . . . . 94 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . 95 v i i CHAPTER PAGE IV. IMPACT OF TRANSMISSION LINES ON SUBURBAN AREAS AND THE NEED FOR THEIR ORDERLY DEVELOPMENT . . . . 97 Te c h n i c a l Parameters and L i m i t a t i o n s 97 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Transmission Lines f o r the Form and Q u a l i t y o f Suburban Development 101 Need f o r Transmission L i n e Development Coo r d i n a t i o n • • • • • • 104 E v a l u a t i o n o f the Hypothesis and the Scope o f the Thesis 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY 109 v i i i LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES PAGE TABLE 1. Comparative C o n s t r u c t i o n Costs o f Overhead and Underground E l e c t r i c Power Lin e s i n Great B r i t a i n i n 1957 33 FIGURE 1. L o c a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f Surrey W i t h i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Area . . . . . 66 2. L o c a t i o n o f Major E l e c t r i c , O i l and Gas L i n e Rights o f Way i n the D i s t r i c t o f Surrey, 1965 . . . 67 3. L o c a t i o n o f Overhead E l e c t r i c Transmission Lines i n the D i s t r i c t o f Surrey, by general type,1965 . . 68 4. T y p i c a l 60 kv and 230 kv S t r u c t u r e s 69 5. 360 kv and 500 kv S t r u c t u r e s P r e s e n t l y Used i n the D i s t r i c t o f Surrey, 1965 70 6. Transmission L i n e Rights o f Way and Po p u l a t i o n Density by Quarter S e c t i o n i n the D i s t r i c t o f Surrey, 1961 83 7. Rights o f Way i n Formerly R u r a l Small Holdings Areas i n The D i s t r i c t o f Surrey 84 8. Rights of Way Through R e s i d e n t i a l , and Small Holdings Development i n the D i s t r i c t of Surrey. . . 85 9. Rights o f Way Which are i n Dual Use or have Received Some A t t e n t i o n f o r Appearance 86 10. Transmission L i n e R i g h t s o f Way and Assessed Land Value per Quarter S e c t i o n , D i s t r i c t o f Surrey,1964. 87 CHAPTER I ADVERSE EFFECTS OF OVERHEAD ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION LINES UPON SUBURBAN AREAS The g e n e r a l s u b j e c t a r e a o f t h i s t h e s i s i s an i n v e s t i -g a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s upon r e s i d e n t i a l development w h i c h e l e c t r i c o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s may have. A p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f r e s i d e n t i a l development w h i c h has c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be drawn upon f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n , namely, a r a t h e r low d e n s i t y suburban a r e a l o c a t e d on t h e f r i n g e o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . T h i s a r e a c e n t r e s o n S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y s o u th-west o f the c i t y o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s ( w h i c h a r e e x p l a i n e d i n s e c t i o n 3 o f t h i s c h a p t e r ) , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s a r e a p r e s e n t s a f a i r l y c o m plete r a n g e o f s i t u a t i o n s and c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s w h i c h w i l l be u s e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s sub-j e c t . 1. SOME PROBLEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL LAND USE AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE Overhead e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s r a i s e many problems f o r u r b a n and suburban a r e a s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y p a s s , b u t t h o s e w h i c h have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r suburban r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e as f o l l o w s . 2 I t i s o f t e n t h e c a s e t h a t l a r g e o v e r h e a d power l i n e s -o r r i g h t s o f way f o r them - were e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s f o r u r b a n development came i n t o b e i n g . The e f f e c t i n many o f t h e s e c a s e s has been t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e l a r g e works has tended t o e s t a b l i s h l a n d u se p a t t e r n s a r b i t r a r i l y , t h a t i s , w i t h o u t r e l a t i o n t o t h e l o n g - r u n l a n d use needs o f t h e community. When f i r s t b u i l t , t h e s e l a r g e works were o f t e n t h e o n l y a l i e n development i n an o t h e r w i s e homogen-eous r u r a l a r e a , o r perhaps t h e o n l y development i n an o t h e r w i s e u n d e v e l o p e d a r e a . Subsequent u r b a n growth has o f t e n been s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s p a t t e r n o f development, o r even i t s l o c a t i o n , as a r e s u l t . I t may be s u g g e s t e d , i n f a c t , t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l a r g e power l i n e has some o f t h e s p a t i a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c e r t a i n prominent n a t u r a l phy-s i c a l f e a t u r e s , s uch as wa t e r c o u r s e s o r esc a r p m e n t s , t o u s e two examples. To u s e a man-made example, a l a r g e power l i n e may i n h i b i t o r shape r e s i d e n t i a l development much as a r a i l w a y does. The c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e r a i l w a y as a d e t e r m i n i n g f o r c e s h o u l d n o t be drawn too c l o s e l y , however, f o r t h e p a r a l l e l b r e a k s down somewhat when comparing t h e b a r r i e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e two t y p e s o f works. Whereas t h e r a i l w a y has a f o c u s i n g o r c h a n n e l l i n g a s p e c t w h i c h i s m a n i f e s t e d by s t a t i o n s a t i n t e r -v a l s , dependent i n d u s t r y , and o t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y u s e f u l s e r v i c e s , 3 t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e does n o t a t t r a c t u r b a n u s e s i m m e d i a t e l y t o i t owing t o t h e s e r v i c e i t p r o v i d e s . That a s p e c t o f t h e r a i l r o a d w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o c u s f o r t h e com-m u n i t y t h r o u g h w h i c h i t p asses i s absent f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . I n s h o r t , whereas t h e r a i l w a y tends t o d i v i d e a r e a s owing t o i t s c a p a c i t y t o f o s t e r s p e c i a l i z e d l a n d u s e s dependent upon i t , u s e s o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s , t h e power t r a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e t e n d s r a t h e r t o d i v i d e a r e a s s p a t i a l l y . The "wrong s i d e o f t h e t r a c k s ' 1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tends t o be l a c k i n g i n c a s e s o f power l i n e s e p a r a t i o n and s i m i l a r r e s i d e n t i a l development o f t e n b e g i n s a g a i n o n t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e " t r a c k s ' 1 . T h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l development i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o l a r g e and o b t r u s i v e l i n e s may n o t be a f f e c t e d . Y e t t h e f a c t r emains t h a t a l a r g e power l i n e , o r l i n e s upon a s i n g l e r i g h t o f way, does i n h i b i t o r shape p a t t e r n s o f r e s i d e n t i a l development t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . The p o i n t t o t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s i s t h a t u r b a n development p a t t e r n s may be a r e s u l t o f some man's o r some agency's d e c i s i o n made upon t h e b a s i s o f r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d economic o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l c r i -t e r i a , t h a t i s , f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes o r o b j e c t i v e s t h a n community g o a l s . By c o n t r a s t , t h e p a t t e r n i n g w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m prominent p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s c a n be a d j u s t e d o n l y s l i g h t l y by man, and even t h a t w h i c h r e s u l t s from t h e p r i o r l o c a t i o n o f 4 a r a i l r o a d i s more j u s t i f i a b l e t h a n power l i n e p r e - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r r a i l r o a d l o c a t i o n s a t t h e m i c r o s c a l e a r e d e t e r m i n e d by topography and g r a d i e n t s t a n d a r d s w h i c h a r e o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i m p o r t a n c e when l o c a t i n g power l i n e s . A second problem c o r o l l a r y t o t h a t o f p r e - d e t e r m i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s , i s t h a t l a r g e power l i n e s have a f r a g -m e n t i n g e f f e c t upon p o t e n t i a l l y homogeneous r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i n w h i c h r e s i d e n t i a l development has begun e i t h e r o n a s m a l l h o l d i n g b a s i s , o r o n a s c a t t e r e d o r s p r a w l e d b a s i s . The tendency i s f o r the u t i l i t y agency t o choose t h a t r o u t e w h i c h s t r i k e s t h e f e w e s t h o u s e s . The c r i t e r i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , an economic one, b u t a g a i n t h e l o n g - r u n l a n d use needs o f t h e community may n o t be a d e q u a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d . I n d e e d , i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e u t i l i t y t o c o n s i d e r any s u c h needs i f t h e community's o b j e c t i v e s have n o t been e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d . A t h i r d p r oblem, one o f no s m a l l i m p o r t a n c e , i s t h a t l a r g e o v e r h e a d power l i n e s as we know them t o d a y a r e u s u a l l y deemed a v i s u a l d i s a m e n i t y f o r h o u s i n g , w i t h a consequent l o w e r i n g e f f e c t o n t h e v a l u e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s c l o s e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e l i n e s . There i s a l s o a group o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l problems i n v o l v e d i n h i g h v o l t a g e power l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n and power t r a n s m i s s i o n w h i c h w i l l be m e r e l y mentioned a t t h i s p o i n t . The problem most 5 p e o p l e a r e aware o f i s t h e e x t r a c o s t n e c e s s a r y f o r u n d e r -g r o u n d i n g e l e c t r i c l i n e s . The argument i s o f t e n advanced t h a t t h e e x t r a c o s t s a r e a s m a l l premium t o pay f o r t h e amenity. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, t h e s e arguments a r e u s u a l l y based upon u n d e r g r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y upon u n d e r g r o u n d i n g t h e l o w e r v o l t a g e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . The p roblem o f u n d e r g r o u n d i n g e x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s ( a t y p e o f l i n e w h i c h i s becoming more common) i s one o f much l a r g e r mag-n i t u d e . A complex problem stems from th e e x c e e d i n g l y r a p i d advance o f e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n and g e n e r a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y a t p r e s e n t . The s i t u a t i o n now e x i s t s t h a t e x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e p a r t i a l l y o b s o l e s c e n t w i t h i n as l i t t l e as t e n y e a r s , y e t t h e u t i l i t i e s e x p e c t them t o r e m a i n i n o p e r a t i o n f o r a t l e a s t f o r t y y e a r s f o r t h a t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e i r d e s i g n l i f e . The r e s u l t i s t h a t power l i n e s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r o l i f e r a t e b o t h i n mere numbers and i n v i s u a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e t y p e s , a r e s u l t w h i c h may be somewhat c o n f u s i n g and d i s t a s t e f u l t o t h e c i t i z e n * T here i s t h e f u r t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l problem o f r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n i n t e r f e r e n c e , b u t t h i s i s n o t as s e r i o u s as many t h i n k . H i g h v o l t a g e power l i n e s have a d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c w h i c h h e l p s t o s e t them a p a r t i n any c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r 6 o b t r u s i v e r i b b o n - l i k e u t i l i t i e s o r f a c i l i t i e s s u ch as r a i l r o a d s o r highways. The d i s a r a e n i t y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f the l a t t e r may be s l i g h t l y j u s t i f i e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y c a n p r o v i d e some s e r v i c e t o t h e a r e a s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y p a s s . There may be f o r i n s t a n c e , a r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n o r a fr e e w a y i n t e r c h a n g e w h i c h w i l l b e n e f i t a t l e a s t some o f t h e o c c u p a n t s o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . A h i g h v o l t a g e power l i n e , however, g i v e s no immediate s e r v i c e t o t h e a r e a s t h r o u g h w h i c h i t p a s s e s . The e x t r e m e l y h i g h c o s t o f t r a n s f o r m i n g h i g h v o l t a g e power t o u s a b l e v o l t a g e s p r e c l u d e s u s e a l o n g t h e l i n e - even f o r I n d u s t r i a l u s a g e , a l t h o u g h h e r e t h e r e i s t h e r a r e e x c e p t i o n . The c o n c l u s i o n may be drawn t h e n , t h a t t h e m i t i g a t i n g f e a t u r e o f o b t r u s i v e r a i l w a y l i n e s o r f r e e -ways wh i c h r e s u l t from t h e i r s e r v i c i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (however s l i g h t t h e argument) i s l a c k i n g e n t i r e l y f o r t h e h i g h v o l t a g e o v e r h e a d power l i n e . T h i s d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tends t o emphasize o t h e r a d v e r s e e f f e c t s w h i c h power l i n e s may have o n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y p a s s . A f u r t h e r problem stems from t h e o f t e n l a r g e amount o f l a n d t a k e n up by t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way owing s i m p l y t o t h e i r g r e a t w i d t h s as compared t o t h e r i g h t s o f way o f o t h e r u t i l i t i e s . Though t h e r i g h t o f way o f a low v o l t a g e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e may be l i t t l e w i d e r t h a n t h e c o n d u c t o r s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s l o c a t e d upon an easement a l o n g a r o a d o r s t r e e t , s u c h l i n e s i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s t i t u t e a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n 7 o f t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n urban areas f o r reasons which are explained i n Chapter I I * On the o t h e r hand, a main e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n r i g h t o f way l a r g e enough to accommodate two o r even three e x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s may be three to f i v e hundred f e e t wide. Only l i m i t e d access d i v i d e d highways approach t h i s w i d t h , and i f s e v e r a l such t r a n s m i s s i o n r i g h t s o f way occur i n a d i s t r i c t some i d e a may be gained o f the amount o f land a l i e n -ated f o r o t h e r urban purposes. There i s the o v e r - r i d i n g problem t h a t any i l l e f f e c t s and c o n f l i c t s o f land use which now e x i s t w i l l tend to i n c r e a s e w i t h the passage o f time owing to more in t e n s e use both o f neighbour-i n g areas and o f the power l i n e r i g h t s o f way themselves f o r f u r t h e r and l a r g e r t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . I t i s common knowledge t h a t the demand f o r e l e c t r i c power i n urban areas i s r i s i n g a t a much f a s t e r r a t e than the r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , and t h i s i s a f a c t which has strong i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n as w e l l as d i s t r i b u t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . I n B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r example, the increase i n e l e c t r i c a l consumption i n the nine-year p e r i o d between 1950 and 1959 was 193 per c e n t , whereas the i n -crease i n p o p u l a t i o n i n the ten years between 1951 and 1961 was 39.8 per c e n t . 1 T ) e r i v e d from Inventory o f the N a t u r a l Resources of  B r i t i s h Columbia (B.C. N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1964), p. 457 8 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE INVESTIGATION I n v i e w o f t h e problems l i s t e d above, problems w h i c h a r e common to many u r b a n a r e a s , t h e r e would appear t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e need f o r a comprehensive approach t o a l l e v i a t i n g t h o s e t h a t e x i s t and t o p r e v e n t t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f new ones i n t h e f u t u r e . Many o f t h e e x i s t i n g problems have t h e i r o r i g i n i n ti m e s and c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h s i m p l e economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were deemed t o s u p p l y s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a f o r d e c i d i n g t h e form o f d e v e l o p -ment and su c h an approach i s h e r e f e l t t o be q u i t e i n a d e q u a t e . An assessment o f t h e s o c i a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e development upon d i f f e r e n t forms o f r e s i d e n t i a l development i s t h e r e f o r e mandatory i n any f i n a l a n a l y s i s l e a d i n g t o d e c i s i o n making. A s i g n i f i c a n t l y u s e f u l c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s t o show how a c h o i c e may be made between a l t e r n a t i v e s cannot be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h i s t h e s i s . However, s i n c e t h e k e y s t o n e t o any e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s l i e s a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l , t h e o b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine and e v a l u a t e how p r e s e n t c o n f l i c t i n g demands a r e r e s o l v e d , and t o s u g g e s t a g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g c o n f l i c t i n g demands a t a h i g h e r l e v e l and o n a l a r g e r s p a t i a l s c a l e , where i t i s f e l t t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y i s l a c k -i n g o r i n a d e q u a t e . 9 The proposals f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n are te s t e d by t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Surrey i n the Greater Vancouver area* To t h a t end, r e s i d e n t i a l patterns o f development are examined, and l i k e l y o r d e s i r e d development i s as c e r t a i n e d o r suggested. Present t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e and l a r g e s u b s t a t i o n development are a l s o examined i n Chapter I I I . A l s o examined are c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t a e s t h e t i c elements of e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y development, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r m u l t i p l e use o f r i g h t s o f way and c e r t a i n o t her aspects, p r i n c i p a l l y the o v e r a l l r o l e and r e l a t i o n which overhead l i n e s and t h e i r r i g h t s o f way d e s i r a b l y could have i n the suburban r e s i d e n t i a l community. For i n s t a n c e , i t i s not t r u e t h a t the best design o f a u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e d i c t a t e s that i t be s e l f - e f f a c i n g . "Rows o f pylons cannot be made to melt i n t o the background and . . . they have 2 a c e r t a i n grandeur," suggests a prominent B r i t i s h planner. 3. LIMITS AND RANGE OF THE STUDY This study i s concerned w i t h the e f f e c t o f overhead e l e c t r i c a l t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s upon r e s i d e n t i a l areas o n l y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis upon suburban r e s i d e n t i a l areas, but con-s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to the e f f e c t o f such works upon amenity 2 Lewis Keeble, P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e o f Town and Country Planning (London: The Est a t e s Gazette L t d . , 1952), p. 265. 10 a r e a s w h i c h a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l u s e - l o c a l p a r k s , p r i m a r i l y . A g r e a t d e a l o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t r e l a t i n g o v e r h e a d l i n e s t o t h e whole range o f u s e s w h i c h o c c u r i n u r b a n and u r b a n f r i n g e a r e a s w i t h a v i e w t o o p t i m i z i n g l i n e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e whole community. I t may be d e s i r a b l e , f o r example, to r e l a t e l a r g e o v e r h e a d l i n e s t o i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s s i m p l y t o r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s a m e n i t y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . L o c a t i o n a l o n g r a i l w a y s and p r i m a r y highways m i g h t i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r o v e d e s i r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , a l l e f f e c t s and b e n e f i t s b e i n g weighed. D e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f e f f e c t s on n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y , however, A second major l i m i t t o t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f o n l y a v e r y s p e c i a l i z e d i group o f e l e c t r i c a l " t r a n s m i s s i o n " f a c i l i t i e s , namely w i t h h i g h v o l t a g e t r a n s m i s s i o n , and n o t w i t h t h e l o c a l s e r v i c e s . B o t h s e c o n d a r y and p r i m a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n systems a r e e x c l u d e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . There a r e two r e a s o n s f o r t h i s e x c l u s i o n . F i r s t l y , a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amount o f p l a n n i n g and r e l a t e d t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e problem o f o v e r h e a d d i s t r i b u t i o n s ystems, whereas t h e r e would appear t o be a d e f i n i t e l a c k o f s t u d y i n t o the problem o f t h e e f f e c t s o f h i g h v o l t a g e o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n systems upon n e i g h b o u r i n g l a n d u s e s . There i s s t i l l a g r e a t d e a l o f w i r i n g , p o l e s and 11 o t h e r p a r a p h e r n a l i a o v e r h e a d i n o u r c i t i e s , b u t t h i s i s b e i n g g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s e d , and i t i s now becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y common to c o n s t r u c t f i r s t c l a s s s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h underground systems. T h i s p roblem, i f n o t as y e t e n t i r e l y surmounted, i s b e i n g c o n -s i d e r e d and d e a l t w i t h on a l l s i d e s . The second r e a s o n why t h i s s t u d y i s c o n f i n e d t o h i g h v o l t a g e t r a n s m i s s i o n i s t h a t t h o s e f o r c e s w h i c h make t h e under-g r o u n d i n g o f d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s e c o n o m i c a l l y sound a r e t o a g r e a t e x t e n t l a c k i n g f o r t h e h i g h e r v o l t a g e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n suburban a r e a s as opposed t o t h e d e n s e r u r b a n a r e a s . F o r example, t h e v e r y r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances w h i c h demand and p e r m i t c o n s t a n t l y r i s i n g h i g h e r t r a n s m i s s i o n v o l t a g e s a r e o u t s t r i p p i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r u n d e r g r o u n d i n g t h e s e v o l t a g e s . There a r e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e t e r -m i n a n t s as w e l l w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r p l a n n i n g i n suburban a r e a s , and t h e s e a r e examined i n C h a p t e r I I . Some a t t e n t i o n i s d e v o t e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o t h e need f o r more v i s u a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y d e s i g n s f o r o v e r h e a d l i n e s , i n c l u d i n g s i t i n g and g r o u p i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . However, an o u t l i n e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s must s u f f i c e , f o r a f u l l l i s t o f t h e d e s i g n a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e would be i m p o s s i b l e . I n any e v e n t , i t i s thought t h a t i t i s more u s e f u l t o emphasize an approach t o th e problem r a t h e r t h a n t o a t t e m p t t o c o m p i l e a handbook o f i n f o r m a t i o n . 12 A l t e r n a t i v e forms o r types o f e l e c t r i c a l t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t y (underground versus overhead, f o r example) as w e l l as a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r a l l the types w i t h i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas would be best evaluated by numerical b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s which would consider i n t a n g i b l e aspects along w i t h the t a n g i b l e . Again, t h i s study cannot go i n t o the d e t a i l necessary f o r t h i s form o f examination. The complexity o f such an approach r e s u l t s from a number of f a c t o r s . S e well gives an o u t l i n e o f the elements which would 3 be i n v o l v e d i n a f u l l b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s . On the b e n e f i t s i d e there are d i r e c t b e n e f i t s , secondary o r i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s , i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s (not q u a n t i f i e d i n everyday use but which can be assigned reasonable numerical values) and unmeasurable b e n e f i t s such as amenity o r view. The p r i n c i p a l elements on the c o s t s i d e are primary o r d i r e c t c o s t s , a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s which may be e i t h e r s u b t r a c t e d from primary b e n e f i t s o r added to the co s t s t o t a l , secondary c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n the production o f secondary b e n e f i t s , and i n t a n g i b l e c o s t s . W i t h i n f a i r l y narrow l i m i t s primary and secondary b e n e f i t s are almost a constant r e g a r d l e s s o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e form o r r o u t e , f o r a l a r g e urban area r e q u i r e s a more o r l e s s g i ven amount o f e l e c t r i c power, the W. R. D. Sewell e t a l . , Guide to B e n e f i t - C o s t A n a l y s i s (Ottawa: Q u e e r s P r i n t e r , 1962), pp. 1 - 13. 13 use o f a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f power b e i n g v a r i a b l e i n p r a c t i c e 4 w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y n a rrow a r e a . B e i n g r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t , t h e y c o u l d be o m i t t e d a l t o g e t h e r * P r i m a r y and se c o n d a r y c o s t s a r e more v a r i a b l e , b u t w i t h some work, r e a s o n a b l y m e a s urable. A s s o c i a t e d and i n t a n g i b l e c o s t s a r e more complex elements* Here would have t o be i n c l u d e d t h e r e m o v a l o f l a n d from o t h e r u s e s , t h e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s upon t h e v a l u e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o -p e r t i e s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t , impairment o f v i e w o r a m e n i t y , and so on* I t w i l l be o b v i o u s t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f c a r e f u l and d e t a i l e d s t u d y would be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t r e a l i s -t i c e s t i m a t e s o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s . I n f a c t , t h e i n t a n g i b l e c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , as com-par e d t o a s i m i l a r a r e a o f c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e development, c o n s t i t u t e s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f a l l c o s t s t h a t an e s t i m a t e o f t o t a l c o s t must n e c e s s a r i l y be h i g h l y sub-j e c t i v e and a r r i v e d a t o n l y w i t h g r e a t c i r c u m s p e c t i o n . I n t a n -g i b l e and immeasurable b e n e f i t s p r e s e n t a s i m i l a r c o m p l e x i t y and d i f f i c u l t y . The assignment o f v a l u e , t o a m e n i t y , t o c o n s i d e r t h e s u b j e c t i v e extreme, would be a v e r y d i f f i c u l t m a t t e r , though a v e r y i m p o r t a n t one* The development o f e l e c t r i c power s o u r c e s w i t h i n an u r b a n a r e a has o n l y a l i m i t e d e f f e c t upon t h e need f o r h i g h v o l t a g e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e f a c i l i t i e s , as i s e x p l a i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I o f t h i s s t u d y . 14 I n summary, an a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and c o s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r o u t e s and s t r u c t u r a l t y p e s , though t h e c o n c e r n o f p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s b o t h l o c a l and r e g i o n a l , c annot be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h o u t d e t a i l e d and q u a l i -t a t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f a l l p o s s i b l e r o u t e s , t y p e s o f l i n e s , t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l development, and t h e forms o f a e s t h e t i c a d a p t a t i o n w h i c h may be p o s s i b l e . T h i s s t u d y w i l l n o t go i n t o t h i s d e t a i l ; i t w i l l a t t e m p t m e r e l y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e g e n e r a l n e c e s s i t y f o r s u c h an a p p r o a c h , and i n d i c a t e where and how t h e approach c o u l d be used i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . O v e r a l l p a t t e r n s o f r e s i d e n t i a l development, p r i n c i p a l l y as t h e y have been r e c o r d e d by S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y , a r e examined. As has been s u g g e s t e d above, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d v a l u e s i s n o t u n d e r t a k e n , e x c e p t i n g e n e r a l and i n somewhat q u a l i t a t i v e terms. V e r y u s e f u l c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be drawn from a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f c e r t a i n l a r g e overhead l i n e s upon th e v a l u e s o f i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y as e v i -denced by assessment e v a l u a t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n s , however, would have t o be based upon a wide range o f s i t u a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g c o n t r o l a r e a s , and t h i s s t u d y has n o t the r e s o u r c e s t o c a r r y o u t s u c h an e x a m i n a t i o n . 4. DEFINITIONS OF SPECIAL TERMS S u b u r b ^ . Suburban i s d e f i n e d h e r e i n a s p e c i a l way f o r l a c k o f a more s u i t a b l e term. A s i m p l e s p a t i a l c o n c e p t i s t h e 15 one d e s i r e d ; one which does not denote planning q u a l i f i c a t i o n s such as suburban i n d u s t r i a l as d i s t i n c t from suburban r e s i -d e n t i a l , f o r example. Nor does i t imply any o f the s o c i o l o g i -c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s such as "bedroom community". "Urban p e r i p h e r a l " i s a term which comes c l o s e but i s unduly awkward. I n other words, the i n t e n t i o n i s to i n c l u d e those expanding areas on the f r i n g e o f l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. U t i l i t y . The u t i l i t y i n t h i s study i s the e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y company o r agency which operates the e l e c t r i c system. The u t i l i t y r e f e r r e d to i n the case study i s the former B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company L i m i t e d which i n 1961 became the p u b l i c l y owned B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . Transmission l i n e means any e l e c t r i c a l t r a n s m i t t i n g f a c i l i t y which transmits e l e c t r i c a l energy at v o l t a g e s h igher than d i s t r i b u t i o n v o l t a g e . I n North America the present u s u a l upper l i m i t f o r primary d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s i s approximately 12,000 v o l t s , o r 12 kv. (The o t h e r s i z e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , secondary d i s t r i b u t i o n , c a r r i e s power d i r e c t l y i n t o houses at 120 and 240 v o l t s . ) A t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e may be overhead o r underground. Overhead l i n e s are supported on s t r u c t u r e s which commonly may c a r r y one o r two c i r c u i t s , and l e s s commonly ( u s u a l l y at the lower t r a n s m i s s i o n v o l t a g e s ) three o r f o u r c i r -c u i t s . I t has been customary on t h i s c o n t i n e n t to r e f e r to l i n e s by v o l t a g e s i z e , " t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e " r e f e r r i n g to t r a n s m i s s i o n 16 l i n e s of up to about 130 kv. These were the l a r g e s t l i n e s i n use up to about 1940. "High v o l t a g e " l i n e s (HV) were developed a f t e r the war and were around 230 kv. I n the nineteen f i f t i e s " e x t r a h i g h v o l t a g e " l i n e s (EHV) were developed and are from 345 to 360 kv. I n B r i t i s h Columbia at the present time 500 kv l i n e s are under c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g one w i t h i n the study area, and no d i s t i n c t i v e name f o r t h i s v o l t a g e has been adopted. A l l the above l i n e s are f o r a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t power (AC) but s t u d i e s are c u r r e n t l y i n progress i n the province to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g d i r e c t c u r r e n t (DC) c i r c u i t s a t about 900 kv. On the other hand, the nomenclature convention i n the United Kingdom has been the " g r i d " a t 132 kv, the " s u p e r g r i d " a t 275 kv, and the "380 kv" system. This study w i l l r e f e r to l i n e s by v o l t a g e o n l y , f o r example 60 kv, 130 kv, e t c e t e r a , and AC o r DC where p e r t i n e n t . S t r u c t u r e means ( i n a d d i t i o n to the d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the above s e c t i o n ) any s o r t o f wooden pole device i n a d d i t i o n to the many designs of metal s t r u c t u r e . I t i n c l u d e s guy-wires as w e l l . I n a d d i t i o n , " s t r u c t u r e " may r e f e r to the o f t e n complex mass o f metal supporting frames which occupy sub-s t a t i o n s and s w i t c h i n g s t a t i o n s . A c i r c u i t commonly c o n s i s t s o f three wires ( o r phases) i n t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s up to 230 kv. Large tower l i n e s are u s u a l l y s i n g l e c i r c u i t o r double c i r c u i t w i t h three o r s i x 17 phases r e s p e c t i v e l y . A DC c i r c u i t on the other hand, r e q u i r e s o n l y two phases (though i t should be remembered t h a t such c i r c u i t s are a t t h i s time o n l y i n the planning s t a g e ) . A d i s -t i n c t i o n i s made between "phases" and " w i r e s " , f o r a t v o l t a g e s o f 360 kv and up, more than one wire i s used per phase. For reasons of e l e c t r i c a l e f f i c i e n c y , the two, three o r f o u r wires ( o r conductors) o f each phase are spaced about one f o o t apart i n a f l a t , t r i a n g u l a r , o r square c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l p a t t e r n . At the extremely h i g h v o l t a g e s i n v o l v e d , the a i r space w i t h i n the p a t t e r n i s energized, r e s u l t i n g i n a l a r g e a i r - m e t a l conductor, o r "bundle". I n such c i r c u i t s (and u s u a l l y such l a r g e t r a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e s have o n l y one c i r c u i t ) the spacing between the phases must be very l a r g e . For i n s t a n c e , 360 kv r e q u i r e s a phase spacing o f a t l e a s t 28 f e e t f o r a t o t a l width o f the three phases of 56 f e e t , and t h i s dimension governs the length o f the "cross arm" on a l a r g e s i n g l e c i r c u i t , s t r a i g h t l i n e tower. 5. HYPOTHESIS Land planning has been p r o p e r l y concerned w i t h the growth and development of l a r g e urban areas, and very o f t e n i t s "sprawl" i n t o the surrounding c o u n t r y s i d e . I t has o f t e n been the case that one o r two decades ago the e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y agencies e s t a b l i s h e d t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r cross-country t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n what was then a predominantly r u r a l area not f a r from the urban f r i n g e . Such a terminus became a focus 18 f o r numerous t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s w h i c h g r a d u a l l y were t i e d t o g e t h e r i n t o an e x t r a - r e g i o n a l g r i d . G i v e n , t h e n , t h e r a p i d g rowth p a t t e r n s o f l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s , t h e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p e r c a p i t a demand f o r e l e c t r i c power, the t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n t r a n s m i s s i o n o f power, and t h e t r e n d toward b u i l d i n g more l i n e s t o t i e s m a l l systems i n t o l a r g e g r i d s , c o n f l i c t w i t h en-l a r g i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s must f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t . T h i s s t u d y t h e r e f o r e advances t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s : Because t h e l o c a t i o n o f o v e r h e a d e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s has had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e (sometimes a d v e r s e ) on t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f r e s i d e n t i a l development, t h e r e i s need f o r c o o r d i -n a t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e u t i l i t y agency and t h e appro-p r i a t e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . CHAPTER I I CONFLICT OF FORCES AND NEEDS: OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES AND RESIDENTIAL LAND USE A g e n e r a l a p p r a i s a l o f t h e f o r c e s and needs o p e r a t i v e i n suburban f r i n g e a r e a s i n q u e s t i o n s o f c o n f l i c t o f l a n d use between o v e r h e a d e l e c t r i c a l t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s and r e s i d e n t i a l development i s u n d e r t a k e n i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The t e c h n i c a l r e -qui r e m e n t s o f t h e e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y m e r i t e x a m i n a t i o n , b u t e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u s e . A c c o r d i n g l y , some optimum c o n d i t i o n s and o b j e c t i v e s a r e o u t -l i n e d f o r each, s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e w h i c h may l e a d t o c o n f l i c t . The s i t u a t i o n i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C olumbia under t h e j u r i s -f d i c t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y has p r o v i d e d many examples, b u t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s f a i r l y t y p i c a l i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . 1. THE ELECTRIC UTILITY VIEWPOINT H i s t o r i c a l l y , a t l e a s t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d some e x o n e r a t i o n f o r t h e more q u e s t i o n a b l e power l i n e development w h i c h appears t h r o u g h o u t o u r l a n d s c a p e . I t i s i n p l a c e s u g l y , though perhaps one s h o u l d n o t go q u i t e so f a r as an E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t who d e s c r i b e d o v e r h e a d w i r e s and s t r u c t u r e s 20 as "spreading as l i t t e r through every type o f landscape. 1 , 1 As w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d l a t e r i n t h i s study, the f a c t remains th a t there are innumerable examples o f incongruous and d e l e -t e r i o u s t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and North America. Many o f these l i n e s , however, were b u i l t under former economic p h i l o s o p h i e s which were almost u n i v e r s a l l y accepted and g e n e r a l l y supported. The conception o f the e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y as a p u b l i c s e r v i c e under p u b l i c c o n t r o l i s r e l a t i v e l y new, though the conception gained support at d i f f e r e n t times i n d i f f e r e n t areas o f the con-t i n e n t . Ontario Hydro, f o r example, dates back to the f i r s t decade o f t h i s century and as a p u b l i c l y owned u t i l i t y s e t an important and c o n t r o v e r s i a l example f o r the r e s t o f the c o n t i n e n t . On the o t h e r hand, the acceptance o f p u b l i c ownership and con-t r o l o f u t i l i t i e s has been much slower i n the United States than i n Canada. A p r i v a t e l y owned u t i l i t y i s n e c e s s a r i l y governed by a d i f f e r e n t v a l u e system than a p u b l i c one, though the d i f f e r e n c e may be s u b t l e . Regardless o f any c o n v i c t i o n s t h a t i t s d i r e c t o r s ^ S y l v i a Crowe, Tomorrow's Landscape (London: A r c h i t e c -t u r a l P r e s s , 1956), p. 74. ^ e r i l l Denison, The People's Power (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d , 1960), passim. 21 may have t h a t t h e i r o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n i s t h e o v e r a l l p u b l i c b e n e f i t , t h e f a c t always remains t h a t t h e f i n a l a r b i t e r s o f u t i l i t y e x p e n d i t u r e s must be the owners, t h a t i s , the s h a r e -h o l d e r s . I t i s i n e v i t a b l e i n s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t t h e p u b l i c b e n e f i t r e a l l y t a k e s on a r a t h e r narrow economic b r e a d t h , and even though t h e g e n e r a l good i s s i n c e r e l y k e p t i n mind, t h i s g e n e r a l good s i m p l y t a k e s t h e form o f l e a s t p o s s i b l e r a t e c h a r g e s . Under t h i s p h i l o s o p h y , one w h i c h i s s t i l l o f t e n ad-h e r e d t o by p u b l i c l y owned u t i l i t i e s as w e l l , t h e c h e a p e s t way o f d e v e l o p i n g and t r a n s m i t t i n g power makes f o r t h e g e n e r a l good and i s t h e b e s t way. I t i s s u g g e s t e d h e r e t h a t t h o s e t r a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e s w h i c h were d e v e l o p e d under t h i s p h i l o s o p h y and w h i c h a r e now v i e w e d as i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h c e r t a i n o t h e r uses i n o u r m e t r o p o l i t a n f r i n g e a r e a s , a r e t o be e x o n e r a t e d from any p r e s e n t d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s w h i c h t h e y may have. That i s , e a r l i e r p r a c t i c e went a l m o s t u n q u e s t i o n e d , and as a consequence the b u i l d e r s o f t h o s e t i m e s were under no p r e s s u r e , and t h e r e -f o r e m o r a l i n j u n c t i o n t o b u i l d d i f f e r e n t l y . T h i s i s n o t to s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s w h i c h t h e s e o l d l i n e s now cause s h o u l d n o t be c o r r e c t e d now t h a t u r b a n development has o c c u r r e d around them. 22 Increase i n E l e c t r i c a l Demand and Transmission Needs Increase i n e l e c t r i c a l usage. I n Chapter I f i g u r e s were given which showed t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n e l e c t r i c a l consumption i n B r i t i s h Columbia was approximately f i v e times t h a t o f the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n f o r a s i m i l a r p e r i o d . Industry used about two-thirds o f a l l e l e c t r i c power i n 1959, and though t h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s down from about three-quarters i n 1950, the f a c t remains t h a t i n d u s t r i a l usage continues to be a more im-portant determinant f o r the r a t e o f e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y development than r e s i d e n t i a l demand, the tremendous i n c r e a s e i n r e s i d e n t i a l 3 usage notwithstanding. The consumption o f e l e c t r i c energy i s i n c r e a s i n g much more r a p i d l y than other forms o f f u e l energy i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The consumption o f a l l forms o f energy in c r e a s e d by t h i r t y - n i n e per cent i n the nine-year p e r i o d up to 1959, but e l e c t r i c energy, one p o r t i o n o f the whole, increased by 193 per cent i n that time. Dr. H. L. Keenleyside has s t a t e d t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia's need f o r e l e c t r i c a l energy i s i n c r e a s i n g at a compound r a t e o f about 7% per cent per year, and he sug-4 gests t h a t t h i s r a t e may r i s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n the near f u t u r e . 3 Inventory o f the N a t u r a l Resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia (B.C. N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1964), p. 455. 4 H. L. Keenleyside, Columbia R i v e r Agreement, published address to the A d v e r t i s i n g and Sales Bureau of the Vancouver Board o f Trade (10 February, 1964), p. 4. 23 Need f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n n e t w o r k s . One o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f any l a r g e modern t r a n s m i s s i o n system i s t h e development o f e l a b o r a t e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k s between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e u t i l i t y system. I n e a r l i e r t i m e s , g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t s each tended t o s e r v e i t s own s e r v i c e a r e a , b u t m e r e l y f o r purposes o f emergency some c o n n e c t i o n s would e x i s t a t lower v o l t a g e l e v e l s between d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e a r e a s . L a t e r , c o n -n e c t i o n s a t t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n l e v e l began t o be made between g e n e r a t i n g systems s e r v i n g a s i n g l e l a r g e l o a d c e n t r e a r e a , the c o n n e c t i n g l i n e s b e i n g j u s t o u t s i d e t h e l o a d c e n t r e , t h a t i s , j u s t o u t s i d e the u r b a n a r e a . The r e s u l t has been to i n t e g r a t e a l l g e n e r a t i n g s o u r c e s s e r v i n g s u c h an u r b a n a r e a i n t o a s i n g l e complex system. P r e s e n t developments have seen a s t i l l h i g h e r l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n between two o r more o f t h e s e systems. I n g e n e r a l t e r m s , two b a s i c t e c h n i c a l needs u n d e r l i e t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n . F i r s t l y , t h e r e i s t h e need t o make more e f f i c i e n t u se o f r e s o u r c e s , whether t h e r m a l f u e l o r w a t e r . G i v e n an e x i s t i n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h power s o u r c e s , hydro w i l l be used f o r peak l o a d demands. Even between s e v e r a l hydro s o u r c e s , however, e f f i c i e n c y may c a l l f o r v a r y i n g t h e l o a d between them, f o r r e s e r v o i r f i l l i n g p a t t e r n s may f l u c t u a t e d i f f e r e n t l y d u r i n g t h e y e a r f o r example. Among t h e r m a l p l a n t s t h e most e f f i c i e n t u n i t s , u s u a l l y t h e most modern, w i l l be used f i r s t . The second need t o be s a t i s f i e d i s e q u a l l y as i m p o r t a n t . I t i s t h e need t o a c h i e v e r e l i a b i l i t y o f s e r v i c e o f t h e p r i n -c i p a l s u p p l y i n g e l e m e n t s : o f g e n e r a t i o n equipment, o f t r a n s -m i s s i o n and o f h i g h v o l t a g e t r a n s f o r m i n g and s w i t c h i n g . The p a t r o n s o f p r e s e n t day e l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t i e s do n o t t o l e r a t e f r e q u e n t o u t a g e s ; i n f a c t o n l y t h e i n f r e q u e n t " a c t o f God" as an o u t a g e cause i s c o n s i d e r e d t o l e r a b l e . These two needs - e f f i c i e n t u s e o f power r e s o u r c e s , and r e l i a b i l i t y o f s e r v i c e - m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n modern t r a n s -m i s s i o n system i n two p r i n c i p a l ways. F i r s t l y , e l a b o r a t e r i n g systems have been b u i l t o r a r e p l a n n e d around t h e l a r g e u r b a n l o a d c e n t r e s . Up to a p o i n t , a p a r a l l e l may be drawn w i t h a r i n g f r e e w a y system about an u r b a n a r e a . I t may be c o n s i d e r e d a h i g h p r e s s u r e , mass movement f a c i l i t y from w h i c h s m a l l branches o r f e e d e r s d i s t r i b u t e s m a l l amounts i n t o l o c a l i t i e s and n e i g h -bourhoods. The e l e c t r i c a l r i n g system has a f u r t h e r u s e , however, w h i c h r a t h e r s t r e t c h e s t h e p a r a l l e l . Whereas d i f f i -c u l t i e s o f movement wh i c h may be e n c o u n t e r e d a t a s p o t on t h e r i n g r o a d u s u a l l y mean a s l o w i n g down o r s l i g h t d i s l o c a t i o n o f t r a f f i c , p a r a l l e l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l r i n g u s u a l l y mean t h a t a p o r t i o n o f t h e l i n e must be s h u t down c o m p l e t e l y . I n p r a c t i c e , i n s u c h an e v e n t o n l y a segment o f t h e r i n g i s shu t down, and t h e p o r t i o n s on each s i d e o f t h e i s o l a t e d segment a r e s t i l l c a p a b l e o f s u p p l y i n g power t o t h e s t a t i o n s t h r o u g h w h i c h 25 t h e r i n g p a s s e s . I n t h i s way t h e r i n g p r o v i d e s r e l i a b i l i t y o f s e r v i x e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r i n g may sometimes s e r v e as a c o l l e c t o r s ystem f o r s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i n g s o u r c e s . I n modern t r a n s m i s s i o n s y s t e m s , t h e s e two needs o f e f f i c i e n c y and r e l i a b i l i t y a l s o m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e c u r r e n t development o f l o n g d i s t a n c e i n t e r t i e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s between f o r m e r l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d systems. The purpose o f t h e s e l i n e s i s f r e q u e n t l y t o t r a n s m i t power on a r e g u l a r b a s i s from one system t o a n o t h e r . V e r y o f t e n , however, t h e y e x i s t m e r e l y t o make even more r e l i a b l e t h e power s u p p l y i n any one system. Such a l i n e may v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y be a c t u a l l y t r a n s m i t t i n g power, b u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f emergency c o n d i t i o n s may j u s t i f y i t s e x i s t e n c e . E f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e u s e , though n o t as y e t a p r i n c i p a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n t e r t i e s , w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y become one i n most p a r t s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a as power need i n c r e a s e s . S t u d i e s have a l r e a d y been c a r r i e d o u t to a p p r a i s e t h e p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f t r a n s m i t t i n g e l e c t r i c a l power from t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a a r e a . 5 I n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r t i e s have been mooted i n Canada. These would have t h e f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g U n i t e d S t a t e s , B o n n e v i l l e Power A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S t u dy  o f a H i g h V o l t a g e I n t e r c o n n e c t i o n between t h e P a c i f i c Northwest  and C a l i f o r n i a , s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Senate Committee on I n t e r i o r and I n s u l a r A f f a i r s ( F e b r u a r y 1960). 26 e f f i c i e n c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e v e n i n g o u t p e a k - l o a d c o n d i t i o n s stemming s i m p l y from t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n peak-hour w h i c h r e s u l t s from d i f f e r e n t t i m e zones. As y e t , o n l y s i n g l e i n t e r t i e l i n e s u s u a l l y have been d e v e l o p e d between s y s t e m s , b u t p r e s e n t t r e n d s p o i n t t o development o f a system o f m u l t i p l e i n t e r t i e s , a g a i n p a r t l y t o i n c r e a s e r e l i a b i l i t y . Such a complex system i s com-monly known as a g r i d . Load c e n t r e g e n e r a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n needs. I t has been s u g g e s t e d by t h e f o r e g o i n g t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n and c l o s e by l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s a r e i n c r e a s i n g f a s t e r t h a n t h e growth o f t h e s e a r e a s . On t h e one hand, t h e r e i s a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p e r c a p i t a demand f o r power, and on t o p o f t h i s i n c r e a s e t h e r e i s a t r e n d toward b u i l d i n g t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t i e s s i m p l y t o s u p p l y g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y and g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y o f r e s o u r c e u s e . However, t h e thought t h a t may o c c u r t o t h e i n t e r e s t e d layman who i s , p e r h a p s , a p p a l l e d a t t h i s g r e a t n e twork, m i g h t w e l l be t h a t t h e r e i s much j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r o n - s i t e g e n e r a t i o n by t h e most modern t h e r m a l methods, s u c h as t h e n u c l e a r . However, t h e need f o r c o m p l e t e l y r e l i a b l e s e r v i c e would r e q u i r e a c o m p l e t e l y c o o r d i n a t e d network i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l s u c h s t a t i o n s . Dr. K e e n l e y s i d e p o i n t s o u t f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r u s e o f n u c l e a r power i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i t u a t i o n . He s t a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h n u c l e a r energy has b r o u g h t a new element 27 i n t o a l l power c a l c u l a t i o n s , i t w i l l n o t make o b s o l e t e t h e p r e s e n t hydro system. The c o s t o f n u c l e a r energy w i l l con-t i n u e t o d e c l i n e and a t some p e r i o d e s t i m a t e d a t from t e n t o t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , n u c l e a r power w i l l make most o t h e r new i n s t a l l a t i o n s uneconomic However, "Once d e v e l o p e d and t h e c a p i t a l c o s t s p a i d , hydro p l a n t s c a n produce power f o r a n y t h i n g f r o m 100 t o 200 y e a r s w i t h no c o s t f o r f u e l and w i t h a minimum e x p e n d i t u r e f o r maintenance and o p e r a t e a t a p r i c e t h a t no n u c l e a r i n s t a l l a t i o n c o u l d e v e r match."^ T h i s s u b s t a n t i a l argument i s , o f c o u r s e , based o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e economics o f p r o d u c t i o n a l o n e i s t h e d e t e r m i n a n t . E n g i n e e r i n g L o c a t i o n D e t e r m i n a n t s o f T r a n s m i s s i o n L i n e s A p a r t from t h e e x t r a c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s u n d e r g r o u n d , c e r t a i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s demand c l o s e s c r u t i n y . There a r e l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e p o s s i b i -l i t i e s f o r u n d e r g r o u n d i n g , and t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s t o o v e r h e a d l i n e l o c a t i o n s , though t h e s e a r e n o t so c r i t i c a l . Problems o f u n d e r g r o u n d i n g . The c e n t r a l problem i s t h a t t h e t e c h n o l o g y f o r u n d e r g r o u n d i n g h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s i s l a g g i n g b e h i n d power development and e l e c t r i c a l needs. An i l l u s t r a t i o n H. L. K e e n l e y s i d e , oj>. c i t . , p. 5. 7lb£d. 28 may be drawn from the C i t y o f Vancouver i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1948 the c i t y a p p l i e d to the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission to f o r c e B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company Li m i t e d to b u i l d i t s 230 kv Boundary Road l i n e underground. The Commission decided o a t t hat time that the request was not t e c h n i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . However, w i t h i n a dozen y e a r s , B. C. E l e c t r i c had more 230 kv l i n e s underground than overhead. Great t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances had been made o n l y i n that s h o r t i n t e r v a l . These l i n e s have been b u i l t underground f o r reasons of economics r a t h e r than amenity however. The r i g h t o f way r e q u i r e d w i t h i n a c i t y f o r new overhead l i n e s o f t h i s v o l t a g e makes an overhead l i n e more expensive than underground cable i n s t a l l a t i o n . However, now t h a t underground technology can handle 230 kv, l a r g e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s l e a d i n g i n t o f r i n g e areas o f Greater Vancouver are no longer o f t h i s v o l t a g e but are 360 kv, w i t h 500 kv a c t u a l l y under c o n s t r u c t i o n . No cables e x i s t f o r these v o l t a g e s except f o r s p e c i a l s h o r t i n s t a l l a t i o n s such as from underground power houses to the s u r f a c e . I t may be reasonably a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t technology w i l l make cables o f some s o r t economically f e a s i b l e at some time i n the f u t u r e . I t should be pointed o u t , however, t h a t from the s t r i c t l y economic B r i t i s h Columbia. P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission, Annual  Report 1948 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r ) , p. 8. 29 p o i n t o f view, underground high v o l t a g e l i n e s of 230 kv, w h i l e f e a s i b l e i n f a i r l y densely b u i l t - u p urban areas as mentioned above i n the Vancouver case, are not o f t e n p r a c t i c a b l e i n the suburban f r i n g e areas o f our l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s . The d e n s i t y i n the f r i n g e areas i s s t i l l not so h i g h as to preclude the a c q u i s i t i o n o f overhead r i g h t s of way; n e i t h e r land c o s t s nor d i s l o c a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g development would a c t as e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r s , g i v e n the t r a d i t i o n a l economic determinants. Furthermore, new power l i n e developments i n those areas i s very o f t e n a matter o f b u i l d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l l i n e on an e x i s t i n g r i g h t o f way which may have been acquired f o r t h i s purpose at some time i n the past. However, economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s i d e , there are prac-t i c a l l i m i t s to the d i s t a n c e which hig h v o l t a g e AC power can be t r a n s m i t t e d through underground c a b l e s . The problem i s the inductance e f f e c t o f c a b l e s . In s h o r t , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of power i n t o a cable r e s u l t s i n a charging c u r r e n t i n i t , t h a t i s , c u r r e n t i s a c t u a l l y consumed i n the c a b l e . The engineers o f B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y s t a t e that the l i m i t f o r 138 kv cable i s twenty e i g h t m i l e s , and t h a t f o r 230 kv i s 9 eighteen m i l e s . There are methods and devices which can overcome t h i s problem, but the c o s t s are t r u l y formidable, i n L. R. Home, Cable Engineer, B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , by i n t e r v i e w , March 1965. 30 the view o f the County Planning O f f i c e r o f H e r t f o r d s h i r e i n E n g l a n d . 1 0 The answer to t h i s problem i s DC t r a n s m i s s i o n , but as y e t p r a c t i c a l devices f o r c o n v e r t i n g high v o l t a g e d i r e c t c u r r e n t to usable AC do not e x i s t . A break through i n t h i s matter appears to be not d i s t a n t , however, and a great d e a l of res e a r c h i s p r e s e n t l y being devoted to i t . I n f a c t , many tra n s m i s s i o n l i n e engineers h o l d t h a t overhead l i n e s a t vol t a g e s h i g h e r than 500 kv w i l l have to be DC, f o r AC has n e a r l y reached i t s p r a c t i c a l v o l t a g e l i m i t . High v o l t a g e t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s . Even though overhead c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s i s g e n e r a l l y " I t i s not p r a c t i c a b l e to transmit e l e c t r i c i t y f e r very long distances by cable because the i n s u l a t i o n g ives r i s e to a w a t t l e s s c u r r e n t c a l l e d a h i g h l e a d i n g power f a c t o r . Because the conductors are surrounded by an i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l which i s i t s e l f surrounded by a metal sheath, the cable acts as a con-denser which can h o l d a charge o f e l e c t r i c i t y . This e l e c t r i c a l c a p a c i t y o f the cable acts as a r e s i s t a n c e to a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t . "To some extent t h i s l e a d i n g power f a c t o r can be counteracted by what i s known as the l a g g i n g power f a c t o r i n overhead l i n e s , i . e . where the c u r r e n t gets behind the v o l t a g e . To ensure that a l e a d i n g power f a c t o r i s not experienced a t n i g h t , when i n d u s t r i a l motors are shut down, i t may be necessary to run the generating s t a t i o n s to c a n c e l the charging c u r r e n t i n the cable o r to i n s t a l l expensive s p e c i a l apparatus a t i n t e r v a l s along the leng t h o f the c a b l e . "Thus the Board are faced w i t h •mis-employment 1 o f power s t a t i o n s o r the p r o v i s i o n o f c o r r e c t i v e p l a n t s a i d to c o s t £250,000 f o r a 2-mile le n g t h o f 275 kV. double c i r c u i t c a b l e . With 0.3 sq. i n . copper conductor underground the e l e c t r i c a l charge s e t up i n the cable w i l l be equal to and c a n c e l out the whole c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f the cable when the length o f the cable 31 much cheaper than underground i n suburban f r i n g e areas, y e t the c o s t remains a formidable p a r t o f t o t a l hydro power development. The F r a s e r R i v e r Board i n i t s P r e l i m i n a r y Report on Flood C o n t r o l and Hydro E l e c t r i c Power i n the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n s t a t e d t h a t "the c a p i t a l c o s t s t h a t would be i n c u r r e d f o r f a c i l i t i e s to t r a n s p o r t the power from the generators to the load center w i l l be a m a t e r i a l p a r t o f the estimated c o s t o f the whole system and cou l d be the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n determining the economic f e a s i b i l i t y o f many p r o j e c t s . " 1 1 The c o s t o f 500 kv l i n e s p r e s e n t l y under c o n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s estimated to 12 be i n the neighbourhood*]© f $90,000 per m i l e . I t should be i s 27 m i l e s - a sobering thought whether one i s e l e c t r i c a l l y o r amenity minded.' "With 0.75 sq. i n . cable the same r e s u l t i s reached w i t h 31 m i l e s . This means tha t i n gene r a l circumstances 1-1/2 - 2 m i l e s o f underground cable would compel the Board to i n s t a l l c o r r e c t i v e p l a n t . I n the extreme case o f 30 m i l e s o f c a b l e , t h i s p l a n t would have the e f f e c t o f doubling the generating p l a n t needed to f i l l the c a b l e . 33 kV. l i n e s are economical f o r loads o f 15 MW. f o r distances up to 15 m i l e s o f underground cable and 11 kV. f o r loads o f 5 MW. up to 5 m i l e s . The problem does not a r i s e w i t h low t e n s i o n c a b l e , but the v o l t a g e drop i n long lengths o f a l l low t e n s i o n work i s formidable." E. H. Doubleday, O.B.E., and W. O r b e l l , E l e c t r i c i t y and Amenity (London: paper d e l i v e r e d to P u b l i c Works and M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s Congress, 1958), p.7. 11 Fr a s e r R i v e r Board, P r e l i m i n a r y Report on Flood Con- t r o l and Hydro E l e c t r i c Power i n the Fra s e r R i v e r B a s i n ( V i c t o r i a : 1958), p. 75. 12 J . C. Carabetta, Superintendent o f Transmission L i n e C o n s t r u c t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Power and Engineering Consultants L i m i t e d , by i n t e r v i e w , March 1965. 32 pointed o u t , however, t h a t t h i s c o s t r e a l l y becomes ap p r e c i a b l e o n l y i n terms o f the t o t a l lengths o f these l i n e s . The F r a s e r R i v e r Board was no doubt c o n s i d e r i n g l i n e s o f perhaps two hundred m i l e s , and the l i n e about to be constructed between the Peace R i v e r and the Vancouver area w i l l be about s i x hundred m i l e s i n l e n g t h . A comparison o f overhead l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n costs w i t h underground cos t s i s the p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t f o r urban and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , however, and not absolute c o s t s . G e n e r a l l y the questions which a r i s e are where l i n e s are to be b u i l t and what form they are to take i n order t h a t the best long-term i n t e r e s t s o f the whole community are considered. The question whether power i s needed i s r a r e l y the i s s u e . There i s the problem that the cost o f c o n s t r u c t i n g an underground l i n e i s not a f i x e d m u l t i p l e o f the overhead c o s t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t c o s t s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y much more to underground the h i g h e r v o l t a g e s - t h a t i s , the higher the v o l t a g e , the h i g h e r the m u l t i p l i e r . I n view o f the v e r y l a r g e t e c h n o l o g i c a l problems f o r undergrounding the v e r y h i g h v o l t a g e s which were mentioned above, i t w i l l be r e a l i s t i c to compare overhead w i t h underground o n l y f o r v o l t a g e s o f 230 kv and below. ( I t i s recognized, o f course, t h a t s p e c i a l circumstances could j u s t i f y the undergrounding o f higher v o l t a g e l i n e s , but o n l y f o r short d i s t a n c e s , conceivably o n l y where very s t r o n g arguments f o r 33 s o c i a l need o r amenity could be advanced.) A need to weigh the a l t e r n a t i v e s assumes t h a t both are p o s s i b l e . Obviously the urban s i t u a t i o n i n which land i s i n t e n s i v e l y developed w i l l not place an overhead s o l u t i o n i n a com p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n f o r simple economic reasons; o n l y i n suburban f r i n g e areas i s a weighing o f a l t e r n a t i v e s r e a l i s t i c . B r i t i s h costs f o r both forms o f c o n s t r u c t i o n y i e l d r a t i o s which are very c l o s e to those which f o l l o w from a com-pa r i s o n o f p r a c t i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Table 1 COMPARATIVE CONSTRUCTION COSTS OF OVERHEAD AND UNDER-GROUND ELECTRIC POWER LINES IN GREAT BRITAIN IN 1957 S i z e o f Average cos t s per m i l e l i n e Underground Overhead R a t i o (pounds s t e r l i n g ) 275 kv 350,000 25,000 14.0 132 kv 65,000 10,000 6.5 33 kv 12,500 2,500 5.0 11 kv 6,000 1,350 4.4 Source: Doubleday and O r b e l l , gj>. c i t . . adapted from Appendix I , p. 17. Very comparable r a t i o s apply a t t h i s time i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r a c t i c e , though the vol t a g e s d i f f e r . 230 kv i s approximately twelve times as expensive i n the underground form, and 60 kv i s roughly s i x times. I t must be s t r o n g l y emphasized 34 t h a t t h e s e r a t i o s a r e o n l y r o u g h l y a p p r o x i m a t e . The averages from w h i c h they a r e g a i n e d assume f a i r l y good c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . I n a c t u a l i t y , t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s c a n v a r y f u l l y as w i d e l y w i t h ground c o n d i t i o n s as c a n highway c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s . No s u b s t a t i o n c o s t s a r e i n c l u d e d . T e c h n i c a l l o c a t i o n d e t e r m i n a n t s f o r o v e r h e a d l i n e s . Un-l i k e highways w h i c h c a n be b u i l t a l m o s t as c h e a p l y on a c u r v e d a l i g n m e n t as i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e ( d i f f e r e n c e i n ground c o n d i t i o n s a s i d e ) l a r g e o v e r h e a d l i n e s become much more e x p e n s i v e w i t h s h a r p changes i n d i r e c t i o n . The s t a n d a r d " s t r a i g h t l i n e " tower i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t o a h o r i z o n t a l change o f t h r e e d e g r e e s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y f i v e . S l i g h t l y l a r g e r d e f l e c t i o n s r e q u i r e a h e a v i e r s t r u c t u r e , b u t l a r g e r changes, sa y t w e n t y - f i v e degrees and more, r e q u i r e a "dead-end" s t r u c t u r e w h i c h can e a s i l y c o s t t e n t i m e s as much as a s t r a i g h t l i n e tower. The d e s i g n e n g i n e e r i s o f t e n a n x i o u s t o t a k e advantage o f r i d g e s and k n o l l s f o r t o w e r s , p r o v i d i n g t h a t l o c a t i o n o n them does n o t mean undue b e n d i n g o f h i s r o u t e . T r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e c o s t s a r e s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by t h e number o f towers p e r m i l e , and h i g h l o c a t i o n s f o r s t r u c t u r e s r e l a t i v e to s u r r o u n d i n g ground c a n mean l e n g t h e n i n g t h e s t a n d a r d span l e n g t h w h i c h i n f l a t c o u n t r y i s i n t h e neighbourhood o f 1200 f e e t . A s t a n d a r d s t r a i g h t l i n e s t r u c t u r e i s u s u a l l y c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g t h e l o a d o f c o n d u c t o r i n spans up t o 2000 f e e t i n l e n g t h . 35 The ground c l e a r a n c e o f t h e c o n d u c t o r s a t m i d span i s , o f c o u r s e , an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r . The a c t u a l d i s -t a n c e w i l l v a r y b o t h w i t h t h e t y p e o f l a n d u se e x p e c t e d below t h e c o n d u c t o r and w i t h t h e v o l t a g e . Minimum c l e a r a n c e s f o r h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s u s u a l l y v a r y between t w e n t y - f i v e and t h i r t y -t h r e e f e e t . By u n i v e r s a l r e g u l a t i o n no s t r u c t u r e h i g h e r t h a n about f o u r f e e t i s a l l o w e d under a t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e . F o o t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e towers a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n d e t e r m i n a n t s . Marshy c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t as i m p o r t a n t a d e t e r r e n t t o b u i l d i n g as t h e y a r e f o r a highway, however, f o r a few p i l e s w i l l s u p p o r t a tower. P o t e n t i a l s l i d e a r e a s a r e a v o i d e d a t a l m o s t a l l c o s t s , o n t h e o t h e r hand, f o r h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s a r e e x p e c t e d and d e s i g n e d n e v e r to f a i l s t r u c t u r a l l y . I n f a c t , t h e v e r y few whi c h have f a i l e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n the l a s t few decades have been b r o u g h t down by c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( u s u a l l y n a t u r a l ) w h i c h c o u l d n o t have been r e a s o n a b l y p r e d i c t e d . A h i g h v o l t a g e o v e r h e a d l i n e r i g h t o f way i s much w i d e r t h a n t h a t f o r any s t a n d a r d roadway, and t h e y a r e o f t e n w i d e r t h a n freeway r i g h t s o f way. One r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t o have complete s a f e t y from f a l l i n g t r e e s , f o r a d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t i s t h a t no t r e e may be h i g h enough to s t r i k e t h e o u t s i d e c o n d u c t o r i n t h e ev e n t t h a t i t f a l l s s t r a i g h t toward t h e l i n e . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t t h i s s a f e t y from f a l l i n g t r e e s i s a l m o s t a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e , as compared t o 36 13 an o v e r h e a d d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e . I n an a r e a o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h t r e e s , however, i t i s f r e q u e n t l y t h e p r a c t i c e t o f a l l t h e v e r y h i g h e s t "danger t r e e s " w h i c h a r e j u s t o u t s i d e t h e f u l l y c l e a r e d r i g h t o f way* The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s p r a c t i c e a r e p u r e l y economic, however, f o r i t i s cheaper to do t h i s t h a n t o widen t h e c l e a r e d a r e a . F o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s , s t e e p s i d e - h i l l l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h f o r e s t e d a r e a s r e q u i r e a w i d e r r i g h t o f way t h a n f l a t o n e s . The o t h e r r e a s o n f o r g r e a t w i d t h o f r i g h t o f way i s s i m p l y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e l i n e s w h i c h a r e p l a n n e d to be b u i l t o n i t . I t has been mentioned above t h a t e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y p r a c t i c e i s t o a c q u i r e r i g h t o f way f o r f i n a l development w h i c h may be many y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e . F o r example, much o f t h e Wanleach r i g h t o f way i n t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i s s i x hundred f e e t w i d e , b u t o n l y p a r t o f t h i s i s c l e a r e d and i n u s e by one l a r g e l i n e . However, even w i t h o u t p l a n s f o r f u t u r e a d d i t i o n s t o p r e s e n t r i g h t s o f way, t h e v e r y l a r g e s t l i n e s each r e q u i r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e w i d t h . A 500 k v l i n e r u n n i n g t h r o u g h unimproved wooded l a n d r e q u i r e s a minimum w i d t h o f 250 f e e t . I n t h i s c a s e t h e w i d t h o f t h e c o n d u c t o r p a t t e r n (and t h e r e f o r e t h e tower c r o s s - a r m ) i s e i g h t y f e e t , and t h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t y - f i v e f e e t 13 E l e c t r i c a l " o u t a g e s " , o r power f a i l u r e s , w h i c h o c c u r d u r i n g storms a r e u s u a l l y caused by t r e e s s t r i k i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d i m p r a c t i c a l t o d e s i g n d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s t o be e n t i r e l y s a f e from s u c h m i s h a p s . 37 on each s i d e allows s a f e t y from f a l l i n g t r e e s . Rights o f way i n p a r t i a l l y improved and farm areas tend to be narrower, not o n l y because there i s l e s s danger from f a l l i n g t r e e s , but because the economics o f easement cost s discourage the a c q u i -s i t i o n o f any width over the barest minimum r e q u i r e d . Great width i s a l s o due to the need f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e space between c i r c u i t centres ( t h a t i s , between tower l i n e centres on the l a r g e s t l i n e s , f o r such l i n e s u s u a l l y have o n l y one circuitX The reason i s not so much to prevent one l i n e f o u l i n g i t s neighbour i n the event o f p o s s i b l e d i s a s t e r , as to overcome the e l e c t r i c a l e f f e c t o f one c i r c u i t upon the o t h e r . Consequently, from 125 to 150 feet,, c i r c u i t spacing i s r e q u i r e d between the h i g h e s t v o l t a g e l i n e s . 2. RIGHT OF WAY ACQUISITION PRACTICE The o u t l i n e which f o l l o w s i s drawn from the p r a c t i c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , a p u b l i c l y owned u t i l i t y which replaced B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company L i m i t e d i n the south western part o f the province i n 1961. The prac-t i c e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s very s i m i l a r to general p r a c t i c e i n North America. This o u t l i n e i n d i c a t e s some e v o l u t i o n i n t h i s p r a c t i c e i n keeping w i t h the changing r e a l i t i e s o f land ownership exp e c t a t i o n s . 38 I n s h a r e h o l d e r owned u t i l i t i e s t h e f i r s t s t e p i n r i g h t o f way a c q u i s i t i o n i s u s u a l l y t o o b t a i n a c e r t i f i c a t e o f p u b l i c n e c e s s i t y and c o n v e n i e n c e from t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e g u l a t i n g body o f one o f t h e s e n i o r governments. I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h i s body i s t h e P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission. P u b l i c l y owned u t i l i t i e s may n o t need to make any a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t e s to a p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s c ommission. A g a i n , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as a r e s u l t o f government e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e s h a r e h o l d e r owned company, t h e s u c c e e d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , i s n o t r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n a c e r t i f i c a t e . U n t i l sometime i n the l a t e f i f t i e s s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e when about to a c q u i r e a new r i g h t o f way, was t h e e n g i n e e r i n g de-partment o f t h e u t i l i t y d e c i d e d upon a f a i r l y p r e c i s e l y l o c a t e d r o u t e p l a n . T h i s p l a n , t o g e t h e r w i t h l a n d p a r c e l p r i n t s from t h e s u r v e y o r s , was g i v e n to t h e u t i l i t y ' s l a n d department. I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e l a n d department was i n s t r u c t e d to a c q u i r e t h e d e s i g n a t e d r i g h t o f way. L a t t e r l y , however, t h i s p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n from t h e e n g i n e e r i n g department has tended t o be r e -p l a c e d by a more g e n e r a l i z e d r o u t e p l a n . Now v e r y o f t e n t h e l a n d department r e c e i v e s from t h e C h i e f E n g i n e e r perhaps m e r e l y r u n s o f a i r photos w h i c h have c o l o u r e d l i n e s drawn on them i n -d i c a t i n g a rough c e n t r e l i n e . I n t h i s e v e n t , t h e l a n d d e p a r t -ment a c q u i r e s t h e c h e a p e s t p o s s i b l e r o u t e w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s o f i t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t e c h n i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . 39 I n t h e l a s t few y e a r s t h e n e x t s t e p has been an approach by members o f t h e l a n d department, perhaps a " l a n d man" and an e n g i n e e r , t o t h e r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c e r o f each m u n i c i p a l i t y i n v o l v e d . I f t h e r e i s no p l a n n i n g department i n t h e m u n i c i -p a l i t y t h e e n g i n e e r o r r e e v e would be i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s p r o c e d u r e r e s u l t s i n some c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e needs and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e u t i l i t y agency and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . Though the u t i l i t y agency i n i t i a t e s t h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n , i t s m o t i v e i s n o t e n t i r e l y a l t r u i s t i c . O r i g i n a l l y t h e m o t i v e was s i m p l y a d e s i r e t o have a s s i s t a n c e i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n p r o j e c t . F o r i n s t a n c e , d i p l o m a t i c c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e s e n i o r m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e r s c o u l d r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g w h i c h p r o p e r t i e s m i g h t be u n d u l y e x p e n s i v e o r c o u l d p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c q u i s i t i o n . I t must be remembered t h a t i n t h e e a r l i e r p e r i o d t h e b a l a n c e o f n e g o t i a t i n g s t r e n g t h has been r a t h e r i n f a v o u r o f t h e u t i l i t y agency. G r a d u a l l y , however, as p l a n n i n g departments have become more e f f e c t i v e , t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n has tended t o become more a b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h some changes i n r o u t e s to s u i t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . F o r example, much v a c a n t l a n d i s b e i n g h e l d f o r s c h o o l and l o c a l p a r k s i t e s , and t h e u t i l i t y ' s l a n d d e p a r t -ment i s u s u a l l y n o t aware o f t h i s b e f o r e h a n d . Some t r a d i n g o f l a n d may o c c u r a t t h i s p o i n t i f t h e l i n e must go t h r o u g h a p u b l i c s i t e ; t h e u t i l i t y may o f f e r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y an e q u i v a l e n t p a r c e l o f l a n d somewhere nearby o v e r w h i c h th e u t i l i t y has the d e v e l o p -40 ment r i g h t s . I n t h i s way the land department determines routes which are p o s s i b l e o f a c q u i s i t i o n . However, i t must be remembered t h a t , w i t h i n the u t i l i t y agency, engineering has the f i r s t and 14 l a s t word on l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . I t w i l l be appreciated that engineering c o n s i d e r a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y have much weight i n con-f l i c t s which a r i s e w i t h many o u t s i d e agencies and persons. The land d i v i s i o n must, o f course, b r i n g to the engineers' a t t e n -t i o n those cases where a c q u i s i t i o n i s i m p r a c t i c a l . U s u a l l y these are instances which i n v o l v e property under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the two s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government; I n d i a n Reserves are a case i n p o i n t . O c c a s i o n a l l y very l a r g e p r i v a t e commercial o r g a n i z a t i o n s can f o r c e a change of r o u t e , e i t h e r through t h e i r s t a t u s as " p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s " ( p r i m a r i l y the r a i l r o a d s ) o r through economic compensation requirements. Very l a r g e land development companies sometimes have t h i s power. I n the B r i t i s h Columbia s i t u a t i o n , a l l matters of c r o s s i n g s o f o t h e r u t i l i t i e s and t e c h n i c a l agencies are handled d i r e c t l y by the engineering d i v i s i o n . These are bodies such as the r a i l r o a d s , the p r o v i n c i a l Highways Department and the Harbours R. W. Gross, Land D i v i s i o n Manager, B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , by i n t e r v i e w , March 1965. 41 Boards, i n the main. Requirements f o r c r o s s i n g the works o f these agencies i s d e f i n e d t e c h n i c a l l y i n g e n e r a l terms by s t a t u t e o r government r e g u l a t i o n s . I t w i l l be r e a l i z e d t h a t the r i g h t o f way a c q u i s i t i o n process i s u s u a l l y a v e r y p r o t r a c t e d matter. Only when a p o s s i b l e r o u t e i s determined through the above steps i s i t p o s s i b l e to embark upon the f i n a l time consuming process o f c o n t a c t i n g p r o p e r t y owners. Before c o n t a c t i n g owners, however, some s c a l e o f l a n d v a l u e s i s a r r i v e d a t f o r the areas through which the l i n e w i l l pass. G e n e r a l l y an easement o f f e r i s made r a t h e r than an o f f e r f o r o u t r i g h t purchase. The easement p r i c e i s a v a r i a b l e percentage o f the f u l l market v a l u e o f the r i g h t o f way p o r t i o n o f the owner's p r o p e r t y . i I n former times, i t was much more common to purchase the whole o f each i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o p e r t y i f the p a r c e l s were not l a r g e . Subsequently the p o r t i o n o f each p a r c e l not needed f o r the r i g h t o f way was s o l d on the open market. I n c r e a s i n g l a n d c o s t s have tended to m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t t h i s p r a c t i c e , except when the p r e s e n t use o f the l a n d c o n f l i c t s w i t h the p r o j e c t e d r i g h t o f way use. 3. RESIDENTIAL LAND NEEDS AND OBJECTIVES IN SUBURBAN FRINGE AREAS As was noted p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s study i s r e s t r i c t e d to the e f f e c t o f h i g h v o l t a g e overhead e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s upon 42 r e s i d e n t i a l areas o n l y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on suburban r e s i d e n t i a l areas. I t i s w e l l known tha t the p o p u l a t i o n growth o f suburban areas i s i n c r e a s i n g much f a s t e r than the growth o f c e n t r a l urban areas. I t i s p e r t i n e n t here to d e s c r i b e i n out-l i n e t h i s growth r a t e and some of the reasons f o r t h i s growth p a t t e r n . The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s f i r s t l y to g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n of the growing a r e a l demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d , and secondly the a e s t h e t i c requirements o f t h i s development where i t comes i n contact w i t h h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e r i g h t s o f way. Suburban Growth of M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas The s o c i o l o g i s t R. L. Warren has r e c e n t l y described "the great change i n American communities" as i n p a r t , fundamental changes i n u r b a n i z a t i o n and s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n . Whereas Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas i n the United States have grown ve r y r a p i d l y the o u t e r , o r suburban r i n g s o f these areas have grown even more r a p i d l y . I n 1940, the Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas com-p r i s e d 51 per cent o f the United S t a t e s p o p u l a t i o n , but two decades l a t e r i n 1960, these Areas comprised 63 per cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . However, i n the United S t a t e s , I n recent decades the p r i n c i p a l growth has been not i n the c e n t r a l c i t i e s themselves, but r a t h e r i n the surrounding areas. A c t u a l l y , a l a r g e number o f c e n t r a l c i t i e s have d e c l i n e d i n popula-t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 1940, d e s p i t e the growth i n the Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n Area o f which the c i t y i s the core. Thus where e a r l i e r i t was accurate to speak of the growth o f c i t i e s , i t i s now more 43 appropriate to speak o f the growth o f t h a t p a r t o f the Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas o u t s i d e o f the c e n t r a l c i t i e s . 1 5 The United States Yearbook o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1963, r e f e r -r i n g to land use on the n a t i o n a l s c a l e , notes t h a t "the g r e a t e s t change i n land use s i n c e 1920 has been the doubling o f areas i n special-purpose uses, such as urban areas, highways and roads, parks and w i l d l i f e refuges." 1*' However, urban uses and highways and roads accounted f o r about 90 per cent o f t h i s category i n 1959. Urban uses and o t h e r b u i l t - u p areas have i n -creased by two-thirds s i n c e 1920, and though t h i s i n c r e a s e may not be very impressive i n view o f the time span i n v o l v e d , i t should be remembered th a t l a r g e urban areas i n North America have grown a t a f a s t e r r a t e than the s m a l l e r . The p o i n t of im-portance f o r t h i s study, however, i s t h a t i t i s p r e c i s e l y i n the expanded p o r t i o n s o f the l a r g e r urban areas t h a t l a r g e e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s p r e s e n t l y terminate. I n almost a l l cases these l a r g e l i n e s and t h e i r t e r m i n a l s w i t c h i n g and transforming s t a t i o n s were l o c a t e d there before the i n t e n s i v e urban develop-ment which now o f t e n surrounds them. 1 5R. L. Warren, The Community i n America (Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1963), p. 75. 1 6M .M. Regan and H.H. Wooten, "Land Use Trends and Urbani-z a t i o n " , A Place to L i v e . Yearbook o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1963, United S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e (Washington, D.C: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ) , p. 62. 44 I n those cases where urban development has not "caught up" and surrounded these e l e c t r i c works, there i s much l i k e -l i h o o d t h a t they w i l l be overtaken i n the f u t u r e . I n the next two decades i n the United S t a t e s , urban and b u i l t - u p areas are 18 expected to undergo a f u r t h e r t w o - f i f t h s a r e a l i n c r e a s e . That these trends apply a l s o to the Canadian s i t u a t i o n i s o f course an assumption, but i t i s probably l e g i t i m a t e . The r a p i d growth o f the o u t e r p o r t i o n s o f the m e t r o p o l i -tan areas i n Canada i s owing at l e a s t p a r t l y to the housing mortgage p o l i c i e s o f the f e d e r a l government. Most working c l a s s persons are r e s t r i c t e d to N a t i o n a l Housing A c t loans f o r the purchase of housing. This c l a s s cannot a f f o r d the down pay-ments necessary under a prime i n s t i t u t i o n a l lender loan. Though the s t a t u t o r y loan-to-value r a t i o maximum o f t h i s lending group has r e c e n t l y been increased to s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent, o n l y uncommonly were mortgage loans made a t the former s t a t u t o r y maximum o f 66-2/3 per cent. S i x t y per cent has been a commonly used r a t i o , and t h i s may i n c r e a s e under the r e v i s e d s t a t u t e , but not l i k e l y to s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent. As the e f f e c t i v e i n t e r e s t r a t e on second mortgages c u r r e n t l y s t a r t s a t twelve per cent and i s o f t e n h i g h e r , i t can be seen that the p u b l i c i s M. M. Regan and H.H. Wooten, op. c i t . , p. 63. 45 not anxious to take out second mortgages to complement a prime loan. The moderate income group i s i n e f f e c t f o r c e d to r e l y upon the government insu r e d loans o f the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t , but these loans are a v a i l a b l e o n l y f o r new housing. These loans have a higher loan-to-value r a t i o f o r modest houses, being n i n e t y - f i v e per cent o f the f i r s t $13,000, and seventy per cent o f the next $1,900 on a three bedroom house. The s i t u a t i o n i n the United States d i f f e r s i n t h a t the F e d e r a l Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n finances o l d houses e x a c t l y l i k e the new, and " i n 1962 s i x t y - t h r e e per cent o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s 18 i n s u r e d loans were f o r o l d e r p r o p e r t i e s . " The f o r c e s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l growth i n our m e t r o p o l i t a n f r i n g e areas brought about by f e d e r a l p o l i c y w i l l be apparent. J . B. M i l n e r s t a t e s the case b r i e f l y . "Our whole f i n a n c i a l s t r u c t u r e under the N.H.A. for c e s people to the o u t s k i r t s i n search o f new houses w i t h low down payments, whereas many might p r e f e r to purchase i n 19 more c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s i f r e f i n a n c i n g were a v a i l a b l e . " Quite apart from t h i s apparent housing p o l i c y o f the Canadian f e d e r a l government, the demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l land 18 J . B. M i l n e r , Community Plan n i n g : A Casebook on Law  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1963), p. 291. I 9 I b i d . , p. 290. 46 around l a r g e c i t i e s w i l l continue i f o n l y because vacant land w i t h i n the c e n t r a l c i t i e s i s becoming more scarce. Trends to redevelopment o f the o l d e r s i n g l e f a m i l y areas w i t h i n the c e n t r a l c i t i e s w i t h m u l t i - f a m i l y housing w i l l merely slow down the demand f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y housing, f o r there w i l l always e x i s t the young f a m i l i e s w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n who w i l l r e l y upon the l a t t e r form. Some General Objectives f o r Suburban R e s i d e n t i a l Areas I n the broad context, F. S t u a r t Chapin has l i s t e d the general p r i n c i p l e s o f l o c a t i o n requirements f o r r e s i d e n t i a l areas, and these are as follows: L i v i n g areas should be l o c a t e d i n convenient p r o x i m i t y to the work and l e i s u r e - t i m e areas where there are nearby t r a n s i t and thoroughfare routes to i n s u r e easy access back and f o r t h . They should be i n convenient p r o x i m i t y to l a r g e open spaces and should i n c l u d e s m a l l e r open spaces to i n s u r e an open-order c h a r a c t e r o f development, w i t h r e s i -d e n t i a l areas i n easy walking d i s t a n c e o f accessory community f a c i l i t i e s . They should be l o c a t e d i n areas protected from t r a f f i c and incompatible uses, i n areas economic and a t t r a c t i v e to develop, and i n areas where d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s w i t h a range o f choice can be assured.^° These g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s r e q u i r e f u r t h e r refinement i n those p a r t i c u l a r aspects which are p o s s i b l e o f being r e l a t e d to F. S t u a r t Chapin, J r . , Urban Land Use Planning (Urbana, I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r ess, 1963), p. 291. 47 h i g h v o l t a g e power l i n e s and t h e i r r i g h t s of way. R e s i d e n t i a l area t e r r a i n should o f f e r v a r i e t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y f a i r l y l e v e l , r o l l i n g and h i l l - s i d e s i t e s , depending on topography character-i s t i c s o f the urban area, but avoid i n g steep o r i r r e g u l a r s i t e s and low o r poo r l y drained areas; the slope should u s u a l l y be 21 under f i f t e e n per cent. I t w i l l be apparent t h a t optimum l o c a t i o n s f o r l a r g e overhead power l i n e s have the same r e q u i r e -ments . R e s i d e n t i a l areas have a need f o r playground areas and parks i n some v a r i e t y . Needed are " q u i e t parks on steep, l e v e l , o r low s i t e s and f i n g e r s of open space. . . i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a c t i v e and passive r e c r e a t i o n areas and the l a r g e r open space system according to the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d by land forms i n 22 l o c a l e . " I t w i l l be apparent here, too, that r i g h t s o f way o f la r g e power l i n e s i n p r a c t i c e very o f t e n occupy land i n ways which are remarkably s i m i l a r to i d e a l open space and park area needs. The o b j e c t i v e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l p u b l i c open space on the one hand, and the needs o f high v o l t a g e power l i n e r i g h t s of way on the ot h e r are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o n f l i c t . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r j o i n t use m e r i t d e t a i l e d examination, and ate undertaken l a t e r i n t h i s study. 21 F. S t u a r t Chapin, J r . , oj>. c i t . , p. 294. 48 R e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , whether u r b a n o r suburban, a r e g e n e r a l l y more e f f i c i e n t and more s a t i s f y i n g t o l i v e i n i f t h e y conform to a c e r t a i n optimum s i z e . They a r e more e f f i c i e n t i f , f o r example, t h e y c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e catchment a r e a f o r a p u b l i c s c h o o l , and c e r t a i n o t h e r neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s s u ch as s h o p p i n g a r e a , l o c a l p a r k s , l i b r a r y and c h u r c h e s , a l l w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e . The neighbourhood may c o n s t i t u t e a more s a t i s f y i n g environment i f i t p r o v i d e s a sense o f p l a c e to i t s r e s i d e n t s , t h a t i s , i f i t has d e f i n a b l e b o u n d a r i e s , o r edges. However, t h e c o n c e p t o f h a v i n g a boundary i m p l i e s t h a t t h e n e i g h -bourhood i s b u i l t - u p w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s i n a c o n t i n u o u s and r a t i o n a l way. A r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a w h i c h i s s p l i t by a highway o r some v e r y e x t e n s i v e n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u se c a n o n l y i n e x c e p t i o n a l c ases be a u n i f i e d n eighbourhood. I t w i l l be a p p a r e n t t h a t a l a r g e power l i n e r i g h t o f way c a n c o n c e i v a b l y have pronounced d i v i s i v e e f f e c t s upon a p o t e n -t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l n eighbourhood. An i l l - k e p t r i g h t o f way w i t h u n a t t r a c t i v e s t r u c t u r e s w i l l have a s t r o n g d i v i d i n g e f f e c t . I t w i l l be a p p a r e n t , t o o , t h a t s u c h a r i g h t o f way c a n q u i t e p o s s i b l y have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t upon r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . Case f o r Amenity i n R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a s I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t as a d e t e r m i n a n t o f l a n d u s e , F. S t u a r t C h a p i n examines a m e n i t y as one o f f i v e 49 23 elements "prompting t h e u s e " o f l a n d c o n t r o l s . The f i r s t f o u r , h e a l t h , s a f e t y , c o n v e n i e n c e , and economy, a r e b e g i n n i n g to be a c c e p t e d w i t h l i t t l e q u e s t i o n as a s p e c t s o f urban l i f e r e q u i r i n g c o n t r o l i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . As a measure o f t h e i r a c c ep-t a n c e , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o examine t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h the l e g a l t e s t s have s u p p o r t e d them. However, as t h i s same w r i t e r p o i n t s o u t , " F o r p l a n n i n g purposes a more advanced c o n c e p t e o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s w a r r a n t e d , one w h i c h b u i l d s o n t h e l e g a l t e s t s b u t w h i c h seeks f o r w a r d - l o o k i n g g u i d e p o s t s t a k e n d i r e c t l y 24 from ; i t h e s o c i a l c u r r e n t s o f t h e t i m e s . " Though from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f l e g a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e f i v e elements amenity i s a newcomer, from the s o c i a l p o i n t o f v i e w i t s h o u l d be o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e w i t h t h e o t h e r f o u r . No doubt one o f t h e main r e a s o n s why o u r s o c i e t y has been s l o w t o a c c e p t i t i s owing to t h e f a c t t h a t a e s t h e t i c s and most o t h e r a s p e c t s o f amenity a r e o f t e n e i t h e r " m a t t e r s o f t a s t e " , o r t h e y a r e p o i n t s o n c o n t i n u a w h i c h a r e s u b j e c t i v e and d i f f i c u l t t o q u a n t i f y . The need f o r amenity i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i s n e v e r t h e l e s s r e a l . I t has n o t been l o n g s i n c e we j u s t i f i e d most l a r g e de-23 F. S t u a r t C h a p i n , J r . , gj>. c i t . , pp. 42-56. 2 4 I b i d . . p. 42. 50 velopments simply on economic r e s u l t s . The creed has been production a t minimum c o s t , however, "the f a l l a c y l a y i n the 25 f a c t t h a t the r e a l c o s t was hidden." The d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t o f i l l - k e p t r i g h t s of way upon adjacent r e s i d e n t i a l areas has been touched on above. S y l v i a Crowe l i s t s three reasons f o r the unpleasant aspect which op-26 p r e s s i v e tower l i n e s may have. They may be i n t r i n s i c a l l y u g l y , she suggests, and n a t u r a l l y the answer to t h i s i s simply good design. Secondly, they may make an unpleasant composition w i t h t h e i r surroundings, and the answer here would appear to be a t t e n t i o n p a i d to proper s i t i n g . T h i r d l y , however, the o b j e c t i o n may be p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than v i s u a l , meaning p r i n c i p a l l y t h a t we tend to have a t r a d i t i o n a l i n g r a i n e d o b j e c t i o n to any o b t r u s i v e man-made work i n e i t h e r a n a t u r a l o r a t r a d i t i o n a l s e t t i n g . To the extent t h a t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t i o n s t i l l p r e v a i l s , even though an overhead power l i n e may not be open to c r i t i c i s m on the f i r s t two counts, i t would seem t h a t o n l y r e -education, time, and good example can overcome i t . Suburban r e s i d e n t i a l areas and the people who l i v e i n them may reasonably demand o f tr a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s and t h e i r r i g h t s S y l v i a Crowe, The Landscape o f Power (London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1958), p. 10. 26 S y l v i a Crowe, Tomorrow's Landscape (London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1956), p. 74. 51 o f way c e r t a i n b a s i c amenity and a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n the event t h a t the overhead l i n e i s to remain as a u t i l i t y form. One o f the most obvious requirements i s the improving of the a c t u a l r i g h t o f way s u r f a c e . A j u n g l e o f brush, stumps and weeds can h a r d l y be j u s t i f i e d i n even undeveloped areas. I t would appear th a t even economics are now m i l i t a t i n g a g a i n s t the t r a d i t i o n a l maintenance approach, which i s to s l a s h the brush when i t i s i n danger o f s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g the l i n e . I n the Cariboo d i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, B. C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y i s now seeding i t s e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n r i g h t s o f way w i t h a hardy grass which w i l l choke out weeds, h o l d back en-croachment o f t r e e s , prevent s o i l e r o s i o n , and a t the same time provide g r a z i n g f o r c a t t l e . The seeding by h e l i c o p t e r i s expected to be expensive, but the cost w i l l probably be o f f s e t 27 by savings i n maintenance c l e a r i n g . I t may be thought unfor-tunate that economics must pl a y such an important p a r t i n a t t a i n i n g a r e s u l t which s o c i a l values should be able to j u s t i f y . Some ot h e r disadvantages f o r r e s i d e n t i a l areas are the u g l y pole s t r u c t u r e s so o f t e n used f o r l i n e s o f up to 230 kv, and the d i s o r d e r l y a r r a y o f these s t r u c t u r e s on wide r i g h t s o f way, f o r o f t e n many o f these r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l t r a n s m i s s i o n 27 News Item i n the Vancouver ( B r i t i s h Columbia) Sun. February 10, 1965. 52 l i n e s e x i s t s i d e by s i d e . These may e x i s t o n a r i g h t o f way a l o n g w i t h one o r more s t e e l tower l i n e s w h i c h a r e themselves f r e q u e n t l y u n a t t r a c t i v e . The non-complementary q u a l i t y o f t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g d e s i g n s produces an o v e r a l l e f f e c t w h i c h a good r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a c o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e . L a r g e o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s c a n be s t i m u l a t i n g and a t t r a c t i v e . A t t h e i r b e s t t h e y c a n be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f man's i m a g i n a t i o n and d a r i n g . There a r e a few s i t u a t i o n s , however, when even the b e s t may be o u t o f p l a c e . F o r example, i t would be i n j u d i c i o u s to group t h e s e i n h e r e n t l y l a r g e con-s t r u c t i o n s c l o s e to f o c a l b u i l d i n g s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a l u e , f o r t h e y would be dwarfed and o p p r e s s e d by them. I t may a c t u a l l y be t h e c a s e t h a t t h e d e s i g n s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f o u r tower l i n e s a r e owing to t h e speed o f t e c h n i c a l p r o g r e s s and m a n u f a c t u r e today. S y l v i a Crowe s u g g e s t s t h a t i n f o r m e r p e r i o d s t h e r e was t i m e f o r t h e c r a f t s m e n t o 28 p e r f e c t o u r a r t i f a c t s . T h i s w r i t e r i s u n d o u b t e d l y c o r r e c t when she goes on to say t h a t " t h e s o l u t i o n l i e s i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h w i l l a l l have to work t o g e t h e r i f we a r e to 29 b r i n g o r d e r t o o u r s u r r o u n d i n g s . " S y l v i a Crowe, Tomorrow's Landscape, pp. c i t . . p. 74. 2 9 T L J , 53 4. RESOLVING LAND USE CONFLICTS The b u i l d i n g o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , as w i t h most o t h e r l a r g e u t i l i t i e s , i n d e v e l o p e d o r p a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d l a n d , n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s a c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the u s e o f l a n d , and v e r y o f t e n c o n f l i c t ensues. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e competing demands and c o n f l i c t s c a n be d i s c u s s e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s . A t an e l e m e n t a l l e v e l , t h e e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y s e t t l e s q u e s t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y owners d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h u t i l i t y a g e n t s . Those t h a t c annot be s e t t l e d q u i t e so s i m p l y a r e o f t e n a p p e a l e d to s p e c i a l purpose boards and commissions. A t a more complex o r l a r g e r a r e a l l e v e l , c o n f l i c t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g s e t t l e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . U t i l i t y - p r o p e r t y Owner N e g o t i a t i o n I t i s n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o d e s c r i b e some o f t h e mechanics o f r i g h t s o f way a c q u i s i t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y owner's f i r s t n o t i c e o f t h e i n t e n t i o n o f a u t i l i t y agency t o a c q u i r e a r i g h t o f way, whether by easement o r o t h e r w i s e , i s u s u a l l y a v i s i t from a l a n d department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the agency. I n B r i t i s h C olumbia g e n e r a l l y o n l y an easement i s d e s i r e d f o r w h i c h t h e owner i s o f f e r e d an easement f e e w h i c h i s a c e r t a i n p e r c e n -tage o f the m arket v a l u e o f the l a n d w h i c h makes up t h e p r o -j e c t e d easement. T h i s easement f e e i s a o n e - t i m e o n l y payment, t h a t i s , t h e r e a r e no f u r t h e r p e r i o d i c payments a c c r u i n g to t h e owner from an easement. The owner i s a l s o o f f e r e d a sum f o r 54 each u t i l i t y s t r u c t u r e w h i c h may be b u i l t o n h i s p r o p e r t y and he i s promised r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r any damage t o h i s l a n d owing to c o n s t r u c t i o n a t any t i m e . I f t h e r e s i d u a l v a l u e o f t h e prop-e r t y o u t s i d e t h e easement a r e a i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d , t h e u t i l i t y agency w i l l u s u a l l y o f f e r t o p u r c h a s e t h e whole p r o p e r t y . The easement becomes a permanent charge a g a i n s t t h e t i t l e . As may be i m a g i n e d , r e s i s t a n c e t o a c q u i s i t i o n i s f r e -q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d , and t h e u t i l i t y w i l l o f t e n go t o some l e n g t h s i n o f f e r i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e form o f a d v i c e as to how t h e owner may b e s t use t h e r e m a i n d e r o f h i s l a n d . One o f t h e most f r e q u e n t c o m p l a i n t s o f l a n d owners i n suburban f r i n g e a r e a s i s t h a t t h e y a r e b e i n g d e p r i v e d o f l a n d w h i c h has sub-d i v i s i o n p o t e n t i a l . Owners u s u a l l y have some g e n e r a l n o t i o n o f th e p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n w h i c h s u b d i v i s i o n may t a k e ; t h e u t i l i t y ' s l a n d agent may a t t h i s p o i n t use some i n g e n u i t y i n showing t h e owner how he may p r o f i t a b l y i n c o r p o r a t e t h e easement i n t o a l o t p a t t e r n so t h a t t h e backs o f l o t s o n l y a r e w i t h i n t h e easement, l e a v i n g b u i l d i n g s o u t s i d e t h e r i g h t o f way boundary. The a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e t h a t a gents g i v e a r e k e p t d e l i b e r a t e l y on an i n f o r m a l and a d v i s o r y b a s i s . F a i l u r e t o ag r e e o n a p r i c e u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a sug-g e s t i o n by t h e agent t h a t b o t h t h e owner and t h e agency s h o u l d a g r e e t o submit t o an in d e p e n d e n t a p p r a i s a l , w i t h t h e a p p r a i s a l c o s t s a t t h e u t i l i t y ' s expense. F a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e agreement 55 w i t h t h i s suggestion u s u a l l y leads to e x p r o p r i a t i o n procedures, i f agreement has already been reached w i t h owners o f neighbouring p r o p e r t i e s . Resistance by s e v e r a l owners i n one area may at t h i s p o i n t cause a r e l o c a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t e d easement, es-p e c i a l l y i f i t i s a new easement and not simply a matter o f widening an e x i s t i n g one. E x p r o p r i a t i o n p r i c e i s u s u a l l y determined by a r b i t r a t i o n . I t may be appreciated that i n some cases owner assent i s not achieved by these methods. E x p r o p r i a t i o n u s u a l l y p r e v a i l s i n these cases but i n many j u r i s d i c t i o n s owners have the r i g h t to s t a t e t h e i r cases before a P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission o r Board. I n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t has been customary f o r u t i l i t y agencies to take easements o n l y . I n Manitoba, however, there has r e c e n t l y been a p o l i c y to purchase the fee simple o f the r i g h t o f way property r e q u i r e d . This property i s then o f f e r e d 30 to the former owner on a lease b a s i s . Land which i s a g r i -c u l t u r a l o r developed on a non-intensive s m a l l holdings b a s i s i s w e l l adapted to t h i s technique f o r " r e a l l y there i s nothing 31 the owner can do w i t h t h i s r i g h t o f way except c u l t i v a t e i t . " J . G a i t Wilson, S o l i c i t o r , by i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 1965. 31 J J T b i d . 56 There would seem to be l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the p r a c t i c e of purchasing the fee f o r , a f t e r a l l , the r i g h t o f way i s f o r a p u b l i c use and the p u b l i c should own i t * Roles and Powers of S p e c i a l Purpose Boards P u b l i c U t i l i t y Commissions g e n e r a l l y have both l e g i s -l a t i v e and j u d i c i a l powers. As a r e s u l t , they operate under a broad grant o f power from the l e g i s l a t u r e , and i n i s s u i n g orders they have l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y , f o r these orders assume the f o r c e o f law. A t the same time, i n g r a n t i n g hearings and handing down d e c i s i o n s , the t y p i c a l commission takes on the r o l e o f a 32 j u d i c i a l o r q u a s i - j u d i c i a l body. M. G. G l a e s e r , however, po i n t s out t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e commission g e n e r a l l y has j u r -i s d i c t i a n n over o n l y those u t i l i t i e s which are q u a s i - p r i v a t e 33 c o r p o r a t i o n s . Much more common i n the United S t a t e s , though they e x i s t i n Canada too, these u t i l i t i e s are p r i v a t e l y owned to the extent t h a t t h e i r shares are owned by the p u b l i c but they have o s t e n s i b l e o b j e c t i v e s of p u b l i c s e r v i c e . P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s o p e r a t i n g as arms of government are o n l y r a r e l y r e g u l a t e d by p u b l i c commissions. This general r u l e i s borne out i n B r i t i s h Columbia; the present B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y 32W. E. Mosher, " P u b l i c U t i l i t y R e g u l a t i o n " , i n Regulatory  A d m i n l s t r a t i o n . G.A. Graham and H. R e i n i n g , e d i t o r s (New York: Wiley, 1943), p. 130. 33M. G. G l a e s e r , P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s i n American C a p i t a l i s m (New York: MacMillan, 1957), p. 590. 57 i s not c o n t r o l l e d i n any s i g n i f i c a n t matter by the B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission. However, B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company L i m i t e d , which was the p r i n c i p a l body expropriated i n 1961 to form the above mentioned a u t h o r i t y , was r e g u l a t e d by the Commission. Where a r e g u l a t o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e commission e x i s t s , however, i t s broad grant o f powers may be used to s e t t l e con-f l i c t i n g demands i n questions o f the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . For example, i n e a r l y 1961 i n the D i s t r i c t o f Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia, a Burnaby r a t e payers* c o u n c i l urged the Commission to consider recommending l e g i s l a t i o n to compel e l e c t r i c u t i -l i t i e s to place h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e s underground. I n t h i s case the Commission c a r r i e d out a study and d e l i v e r e d an o p i n i o n and judgement. I t concluded that the undergrounding o f h i g h vo l t a g e l i n e s was i m p r a c t i c a l from a costs p o i n t o f view except i n , 34 p a r t i c u l a r cases. The Commission may have str o n g persuasive powers. Also i n Burnaby, i n 1959, the Standard O i l Company and c e r t a i n r e s i d e n t s i n Burnaby, i n a d e p o s i t i o n to the commission, objected to a proposed route f o r an overhead power l i n e . During the h e a r i n g , however, Standard O i l was persuaded to a l l o w a l i n e B r i t i s h Columbia. P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission, Annual  Report 1961. ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r ) . 58 through i t s property. This l o c a t i o n e l i m i n a t e d "most o f the 35 o b j e c t i o n s o f the r e s i d e n t s i n North Burnaby." The Commission may a l s o perform the v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e of informing people o f t h e i r r i g h t s . I n the C h i l l i w h a c k D i s t r i c t i n 1951, a group of farmers ob j e c t e d to the route to be taken by a 360 kv overhead power l i n e . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s were made and the complainants were informed o f t h e i r r i g h t s . The matter was then l e f t to the p a r t i e s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n and 36 settlement. As the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission ho longer has j u r i s -d i c t i o n over the major p u b l i c u t i l i t y agency i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t w i l l be seen t h a t a c e r t a i n vacuum now e x i s t s i n s e t t l i n g questions o f the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . The r o l e o f the N a t i o n a l Energy Board i n Canada i n matters d e a l i n g w i t h e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i s an important one w i t h i n a narrow scope. I t r e g u l a t e s questions and c o n f l i c t s which a r i s e when tr a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s cross p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundaries. I t w i l l be seen, however, th a t a d e c i s i o n on where a l i n e should cross a boundary w i l l have r a m i f i c a t i o n s , even important ones, f o r the use o f land where the l i n e leads up to the decided c r o s s i n g p o i n t . 35 B r i t i s h Columbia. P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission, Annual Report 1959. ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r ) . 59 R o l e s and Powers o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and P l a n n i n g A g e n c i e s I n t h i s a r e a , t h e r e has been much l e s s s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f powers f o r r e g u l a t i n g q u e s t i o n s o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t d e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way t h a n i n t h e p r e c e d i n g . The l i m i t a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y d e l i b e r a t e o n t h e p a r t o f l e g i s -l a t u r e s , however, f o r " c h e a p e s t power a t t h e l o w e s t c o s t " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have u s u a l l y meant to l e g i s l a t u r e s t h a t any s i d e e f f e c t s ( t h a t i s , non-economic c r i t e r i a ) must t a k e a m i n o r p l a c e t o t h e o b j e c t i v e o f p r o v i d i n g cheap power to the m a in l o a d c e n t r e . Moreover, i n t h e p a s t , t h e absence o f p l a n s , o r even e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r u r b a n growth i n f r i n g e a r e a s , has tended f u r t h e r to d e p r e c i a t e the demands o f t h e s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t u t i l i t y works be d e v e l o p e d i n an o r d e r l y manner. I n B r i t i s h C olumbia g e n e r a l l y , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h o l d a m i n o r r o l e i n d e c i d i n g u t i l i t y l a n d u s e . The D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y ' s s o l i c i t o r h o l d s t h a t b a s i c a l l y t h e P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s „ 37 Commission p r e v a i l s o v e r t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , w h i c h i s n o t r e g u l a t e d by t h e Commission, i s "beyond the r e a c h o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . " I n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , m e n t i o n i s made o f an a t t e m p t by the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f S u r r e y to r e g u l a t e t h e l o c a t i o n o f a u t i l i t y l i n e . J . G a i t Wilson, by i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 1965. 60 M u n i c i p a l powers t o a f f e c t a t l e a s t l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s a r e g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t was mentioned i n s e c t i o n 2 o f t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t t h e approach o f u t i l i t y l a n d o f f i c i a l s t o m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e r s p r i o r t o a c q u i r i n g r i g h t o f way has changed s u b t l y . Whereas f o r m e r l y t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e u t i l i t y was e s s e n t i a l l y t o l e a r n w h i c h r o u t e would be t h e c h e a p e s t , l a t t e r l y t h e r e l a t i o n has t a k e n on r a t h e r a b a r g a i n i n g f l a v o u r . Though the p o s i t i o n o f u l t i m a t e s t r e n g t h c o n t i n u e s t o be h e l d by t h e u t i l i t y , t h e l a t t e r has come t o r e a l i z e t h e f o r c e o f an a r o u s e d p u b l i c . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s , which by t h e extended n a t u r e o f t h e u t i l i t y r i g h t o f way pro b l e m , s h o u l d perhaps have t h e l a r g e s t r o l e i n l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . M a t t e r s o f p u r e l y l o c a l e f f e c t c o n c e i v a b l y c o u l d b e s t be h a n d l e d by l o c a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . A p u r e l y a d v i s o r y r e g i o n a l b o a r d , t h e s o r t w h i c h as y e t p r e v a i l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i l l n a t u r a l l y c a r r y f a r l e s s w e i g h t t h a n one w i t h powers o f c o n t r o l and development. 5 . SUMMARY The groundwork o f most o f t h e o l d e r e l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t y systems was l a i d when t h e q u a s i - p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n was t h e r u l e . Owing b o t h t o t h i s p r i v a t e e l ement, and to a s i m p l e r p u b l i c p h i l o s o p h y , t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e forms o f development w h i c h e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s t o o k were g e n e r a l l y s i m p l y 61 economic: th e c h e a p e s t form o f e l e c t r i c a l s u p p l y was t h e b e s t . The f u t u r e need f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i l l i n -c r e a s e more r a p i d l y t h a n t h e growth o f p o p u l a t i o n i n m e t r o p o l i -t a n a r e a s f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . P e r c a p i t a consumption o f e l e c t r i c i t y i s r i s i n g , and shows no s i g n o f l e v e l l i n g o f f . E x p a n s i o n s t o t r a n s m i s s i o n networks w i l l be r e q u i r e d b o t h to make more e f f i c i e n t use o f power r e s o u r c e s , and t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f s e r v i c e . There i s a l s o a p r e s e n t t r e n d to d e v e l o p v e r y l o n g d i s t a n c e i n t e r t i e l i n e s between major c o n t i n e n t a l a r e a s . The u n d e r g r o u n d i n g o f t h e h i g h e s t v o l t a g e l i n e s w i l l n o t o n l y be v e r y e x p e n s i v e , b u t a t p r e s e n t i n v o l v e t e c h n i c a l p r o -blems w h i c h have n o t y e t been overcome. The optimum e n g i n e e r i n g c r i t e r i a f o r l o c a t i n g h i g h v o l t a g e o v e r h e a d l i n e s a r e i n g e n e r a l t h e same as t h o s e w h i c h h o l d f o r optimum development o f r e s i -d e n t i a l a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l development i n suburban a r e a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , h i g h v o l t a g e o v e r h e a d l i n e r i g h t s o f way may be from 200 f e e t t o 500 f e e t i n w i d t h . The f a c t o r s w h i c h g o v e r n t h e l o c a t i o n o f new r i g h t s o f way have undergone some e v o l u t i o n . Whereas e n g i n e e r i n g d e t e r -m i n a n t s a t f i r s t governed a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y , o f l a t e , the h i g h c o s t o f l a n d r e s u l t i n g from t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r i t s u s e has become an i m p o r t a n t element. A l s o o f l a t e , b u t n o t as y e t an 62 i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , i s t h e c r i t e r i o n o f t h e community i n t e r e s t stemming from t h e e f f e c t s w h i c h l a r g e u t i l i t y w o r k s , s u c h as t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , have upon t h e a r e a s t h e y pass t h r o u g h . The need f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d on t h e f r i n g e s o f metro-p o l i t a n a r e a s w i l l i n c r e a s e , whether the p a t t e r n o f development i s g u i d e d by o v e r a l l p l a n s , o r m e r e l y f o l l o w s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l method o f i n - f i l l i n g and p a t c h development, c o n f l i c t s w i t h t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t forms w i l l r e s u l t . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s making f o r an optimum r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o r neighbourhood r e v e a l s t h a t o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s and t h e i r r i g h t s o f way e i t h e r may c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s , o r complement them. Suburban r e s i d e n -t i a l a r e a s and t h e p e o p l e who l i v e i n them may r e a s o n a b l y demand o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s c e r t a i n a m e n i t y and a e s t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e o v e r h e a d l i n e i s to r e m a i n as a u t i l i t y form. The methods o f r e c o n c i l i n g t h e c o n f l i c t i n g demands o f t h e e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y and t h e owners o f p o t e n t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d a r e d e s c r i b e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s . An i s o l a t e d w i t h h o l d e r i n t h e f a c e o f r i g h t o f way a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l o f t e n f a c e a f o r c e f u l t a k i n g . F u l l y p u b l i c l y owned u t i l i t i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a r e u s u a l l y n o t r e g u l a t e d by a p u b l i c c ommission, b u t p r o p e r t y 63 owners, e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y combine i n g r o u p s , may make an e f f e c t i v e d e p o s i t i o n t o a commission when t h e u t i l i t y i s a q u a s i - p r i v a t e one. The r o l e s and powers o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s , i n q u e s t i o n s o f c o n f l i c t o v e r t h e use o f l a n d by u t i l i t i e s , have been s m a l l b u t a r e i n c r e a s i n g . Con-c e r t e d p u b l i c p r e s s u r e s a r e r e i n f o r c i n g t h i s t r e n d . CHAPTER I I I LAND USE COMPETITION I N THE DISTRICT OF SURREY: OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES AND RESIDENTIAL USE The D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y i s i n g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c i n g many o f t h e problems w h i c h p r e s e n t l y b e s e t many fo r m e r r u r a l a r e a s w h i c h a r e on the f r i n g e o f a r a p i d l y g r o w i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n complex. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , S u r r e y ' s problems stemming from the many u t i l i t y r i g h t s o f way w h i c h pass t h r o u g h r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e pronounced, i n comparison to t h e r e s t o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g the d e t a i l s o f th e s e r i g h t s o f way and the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t h e y pass t h r o u g h , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to d e s c r i b e S u r r e y b r i e f l y t o d e t e r m i n e why t h e e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n problem i s more pronounced i n t h i s D i s t r i c t . 1. SURREY'S RELATION TO THE VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA From any p o i n t o f v i e w , b u t e s p e c i a l l y from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h i s s t u d y , S u r r e y ' s most d i s t i n c t i v e and m o u l d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s i t s p o s i t i o n a t h w a r t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f a c c e s s r o u t e s to the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . F i g u r e 1 on page 66 shows S u r r e y ' s l o c a t i o n i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h i s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i s e x c e p t i o n a l i n t h a t i t i s s i t u a t e d on t h e n o r t h west c o r n e r o f a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l f l a t v a l l e y a r e a bounded 65 on the north by a b a r r i e r o f mountains and on the west by the S t r a i t o f Georgia. Aside from water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to the west and the main l i n e o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway which ap-proaches the m e t r o p o l i t a n area from the east on the north s i d e o f the Fraser R i v e r , a l l major access i s a t l e a s t f o r some di s t a n c e through the D i s t r i c t o f Surrey. A l l the major high-ways from the n o r t h , east and south, three r a i l r o a d s , the p r i n c i p a l gas and o i l trunk l i n e s s u p p l y i n g the m e t r o p o l i t a n area, and even the major a i r routes from the east and south, pass through o r over Surrey. As might be expected, Surrey has proven to be an advantageous l o c a t i o n f o r major long d i s t a n c e e l e c t r i c power l i n e s as w e l l . Figure 2 on page 67 shows the major e l e c t r i c , o i l and gas l i n e r i g h t s o f way i n Surrey. I t i s necessary to make an important q u a l i f i c a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t , however, f o r these l a r g e l i n e s do not pass d i r e c t l y through the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Surrey has such a favourable c o r r i d o r s e t t i n g that the main t e r m i n a l s w i t c h i n g and transforming s t a t i o n i n south western B r i t i s h Columbia has been l o c a t e d there: Ingledow S u b s t a t i o n . Surrey's general r o l e i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area i n c r e a s -i n g l y has been to accommodate r e s i d e n t i a l expansion, e s p e c i a l l y the s i n g l e - f a m i l y suburban type. I n conformity to f r i n g e area trends common to most lar g e c e n t r e s , Surrey's p o p u l a t i o n has increas e d f a s t e r than that f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n area as a whole. Between 1951 and 1961 the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s share o f the population 66 LEGEND , N Freeways o 2 4 ~ 6 8 10 Other a r t e r i a l roads M i l e s LOCATION OF THE DISTRICT OF SURREY WITHIN THE VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN.AREA FIGURE 1 LOCATION OF-MAJOR ELECTRIC, OIL AND GAS LINE RIGHTS OF WAY IN THE DISTRICT OF SURREY, 1965 FIGURE 2 L O C A T I O N OP OVERHEAD E L E C T R I C T R A N S M I S S I O N L I N E S I N T H E D I S T R I C T OP S U R R E Y - B Y G E N E R A L T Y P E P I G U R E 5 TYPICAL 60 kv AND 230 kv LIKES The structure on the l e f t i s a s t e e l dead-end tower on a 230 kv double c i r c u i t l i n e ; a more g r a c e f u l suspension tower can be seen i n the l e f t distance. The three-pole s t r u c t u r e i s also a dead-end on a 230 kv l i n e , but s i n g l e c i r c u i t ; pole 'H' frame suspension structures can be seen i n the distance. The s i n g l e pole i n the foreground i s a 60 kv s t r a i g h t l i n e s t r u c t u r e . FIGURE 4 360 kv AND 500 kv STRUCTURES PRESKKTLY USED IK TI . DIS1 I JT OF SURREY The top photograph i s of the 360 kv Wahle ch .Line, c o n s i s t i n g of two-wire bundle c o n d u c t o r s on ' p o r t a l ' type steel towers. Below i s a 500 kv ' c a n t i l e v e r ' type tower line which is under c o n s t r u c t i o n . Each of the t h r e e c o n d u c t o r s w i l l consist of a four-wire b u n d l e . Some i d e a o f the s i z e o f the tower can be gained from comparing the house beneath i t ; the house w i l l be moved. F I G U R E 5 71 incr e a s e d from 6.5 to 8.9 per cent.*" 2. ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION NETWORK IN SURREY P a t t e r n of the Network Ingledow S u b s t a t i o n (near the western boundary o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y ) became the focus o f the present p a t t e r n i n 1952. Before that time the l i n e s i n Surrey were a l l of the wood pole type, some 230 kv, but mostly 60 kv. The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c -t r i c Company L i m i t e d (which was then the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h the a u t h o r i t y to generate and d i s t r i b u t e power i n south-western B r i t i s h Columbia) decided on the Ingledow l o c a t i o n f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons. The importance o f Surrey owing to i t s entrance cor-r i d o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has been mentioned above. The reasons f o r choosing the Ingledow s i t e over others i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y are the good hard-pan f o o t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , i t s c o n t i g u i t y to the company's e l e c t r i c r a i l r o a d (which s t i l l has two 60 kv l i n e s along i t ) , i t s p r o x i m i t y to the c r o s s i n g p o i n t of s e v e r a l o f the e x i s t i n g wood pole l i n e s , and to a d e c i s i o n around 1952 to b u i l d what was then an unprecedented h i g h v o l t a g e l i n e from Wahleach about e i g h t y m i l e s to the east. The l o c a t i o n of e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way i s mapped i n Figure 3, page 68. There i s o f t e n ^Brideeview: A Sub/Urban Renewal Study i n Surrey. B.C. ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Community and Regional Planning S t u d i e s , Student P r o j e c t No. 4, Vancouver: the Department, 1965), p. 10. 72 a width v a r i a t i o n f o r a r i g h t o f way. C a l c u l a t i o n s based on these average widths i n d i c a t e t h a t a l i t t l e l e s s than 2.5 square m i l e s o f Surrey's t o t a l area o f 133 square m i l e s are taken up w i t h e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way. This i s about 1.9 per cent o f the t o t a l m u n i c i p a l area. Roughly three-quarters o f these r i g h t s of way, 1169 ac r e s , c o n s i s t s o f easements on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . 2 Figure 3 a l s o i n d i c a t e s the l o c a t i o n of these overhead e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n Surrey by v o l t a g e r a t i n g and general s t r u c t u r e type. A l l these s t r u c t u r e s are s i n g l e - c i r c u i t ( t h a t i s , having o n l y three phases) except the 230 kv, double-c i r c u i t , which has s i x conductors. Figures 4 and 5, pages 69 and 70, i l l u s t r a t e a l l these types as they p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n Surrey. I n Surrey there are p r e s e n t l y fourteen overhead t r a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e s . There are four 60 kv. l i n e s on tra n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way, plus two along the former e l e c t r i c r a i l r o a d . These are g e n e r a l l y on s i n g l e wood p o l e s , double pole (or 'H' frame) c o n s t r u c t i o n being used o n l y at r a r e points such as long spans over r a v i n e s o r r i v e r s . There are f i v e 230 kv l i n e s on wood pole 'H' frames, i n c l u d i n g a sh o r t p o r t i o n of the G. D. Higgs, M u n i c i p a l Assessor, Surrey, by i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 1965. 73 o r i g i n a l N o r t h West Power P o o l I n t e r t i e w h i c h was t a k e n o u t o f s e r v i c e when t h a t l i n e was d i v e r t e d i n t o t h e new Ingledow S u b s t a t i o n . T h i s d i s u s e d s e c t i o n s t i l l r e m a i n s . The *H* frame f o r 230 k v i s s t a n d a r d f o r s t r a i g h t l i n e s and s m a l l a n g l e s ; a t h r e e - p o l e guyed s t r u c t u r e i s used f o r heavy a n g l e s and dead-ends. There a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f s t e e l tower l i n e s p r e s e n t l y used i n S u r r e y . There i s one d o u b l e c i r c u i t 230 k v l i n e , one • p o r t a l * t y pe tower l i n e on the Wahleach l i n e , and p r e s e n t l y under c o n s t r u c t i o n , one 500 k v c a n t i l e v e r t y p e tower l i n e w hich w i l l be an i n t e r t i e to the N o r t h West Power P o o l . F i g u r e s 4 and 5 d e p i c t t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s . V i s u a l Q u a l i t y and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Network F o r t h e i r e f f e c t on p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , i t has been thought n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r o n l y the v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . The p h y s i c a l danger o f t h e s e l i n e s and t h e i r s t r u c t u r e s i s n e g l i g i b l e , as was p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p t e r I . Radio i n t e r f e r e n c e f o r a d j a c e n t h o u s i n g i s e i t h e r n o n - e x i s t e n t o r i n s i g n i f i c a n t . There i s a s l i g h t l y a u d i b l e 0 hum from an o p e r a t i n g l i n e w h i c h v a r i e s s l i g h t l y i n s t r e n g t h as weather c o n d i t i o n s change, but i t i s s t e a d y and n o t d i s p l e a s i n g t o most p e o p l e . There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e hum from Ingledow S u b s t a t i o n w h i c h i s a u d i b l e up to a q u a r t e r m i l e away, and 74 o r i g i n a t i n g from t h e r e , too, i s the o c c a s i o n a l loud r e p o r t , as from a gun, which oc c u r s whenever the l a r g e r breakers (switches) a r e a c t i v a t e d . Ingledow i s l o c a t e d , however, i n an i n d u s t r i a l a r e a which i s expanding and t a k i n g o v e r the s c a t t e r e d r e s i -d e n t i a l development nearby. From the h y p o t h e t i c a l p o i n t o f view o f o r d e r l y r e s i -d e n t i a l areas through which such l i n e s might pass, these l i n e s and t h e i r r i g h t s o f way would be g e n e r a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e . There would, f i r s t l y , be a c o n f u s i n g v a r i e t y o f s t r u c t u r e s which are f r e q u e n t l y u g l y . As w i l l be seen from F i g u r e 3 on page 68, most o f the r i g h t s o f way accommodate a t l e a s t two types o f l i n e with v a r y i n g span lengths and w i d e l y v a r y i n g s t r u c t u r e types. Span lengths o f a l l s t e e l tower l i n e s a re s i m i l a r , between 1100 and 1200 f e e t on the average, but 230 kv pole l i n e lengths average around 700 f e e t , and 60 kv span lengths a r e s h o r t e s t o f a l l , b e i n g perhaps o n l y 300 o r 400 f e e t . P o l e s t r u c t u r e s being what they a r e ( f r e q u e n t l y not u p r i g h t , w i t h crooked and d i s -c o l o u r e d p o l e s ) , the c l o s e s p a c i n g makes a l a r g e r i g h t o f way ha v i n g s e v e r a l o f these l i n e s look l i k e a brown f o r e s t when viewed down the l i n e o r a t sh a l l o w a n g l e s . S t e e l tower l i n e s i n the are a , though not f r e e from f a u l t , do not s u f f e r from most o f the above d i s a m e n i t i e s . The wider s p a c i n g o f the towers l o n g i t u d i n a l l y allows an e v i d e n t 75 and g r a c e f u l sag o f the conductors. T h i s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l importance o f the s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t s i n a pro-g r e s s i o n o f long curves se p a r a t e d by s t r o n g nodal p o i n t s . The curve i t s e l f cannot be a l t e r e d , and should not be, f o r the c a t e n a r y curve i s n a t u r a l l y g r a c e f u l . The towers themselves, u s u a l l y l a c k g r a c e f u l n e s s , though t h e i r symmetry gives them an advantage o v e r p o l e s t r u c t u r e s . No u t i l i t y r i g h t o f way i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y appears to r e c e i v e any a t t e n t i o n from the A u t h o r i t y simply f o r appearance. Some are covered by t a l l , j u n g l e - l i k e brush. On o t h e r s the brush appears to be c u t more r e g u l a r l y . Some o f the l a t t e r , however, are v a s t d e s e r t s o f weeds. G e n e r a l l y , o n l y the r i g h t s o f way through a g r i c u l t u r a l areas have an o r d e r l y appearance. There i s an o c c a s i o n a l example where the owner o f a s m a l l h o l d i n g has developed t u r f on h i s p o r t i o n o f the easement. A r i g h t o f way which has been a c q u i r e d f o r a f u t u r e use, e s p e c i a l l y i f a c q u i r e d from the m u n i c i p a l i t y , becomes a s o r t o f no-man's la n d . The a c q u i s i t i o n amounts to a detriment to development, f o r though the u t i l i t y i s not u s i n g i t , no one e l s e sees any i n c e n t i v e to i t s use. The l a r g e r i g h t o f way l e a d i n g south from Ingledow i s a case i n p o i n t . The c e n t r e o f i t has l a i n empty f o r many y e a r s , though now the new 500 kv l i n e w i l l occupy p a r t o f i t . 76 3. RESIDENTIAL AREA CHARACTER AND PATTERN R e s i d e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i n Surrey The p r i n c i p a l d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Surrey's r e s i d e n t i a l development i s the low d e n s i t y p a t t e r n , and • s c a t t e r a t i o n ' . A p a r t from an area around Whalley i n the north-west, and a few s m a l l areas elsewhere, development may b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as s p r a w l i n g . Though f o r m e r l y r u r a l , the north-western p o r t i o n (where most r e s i d e n t i a l development and most o f the t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s are l o c a t e d ) has never had l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r the s o i l i s an upland type con-s i s t i n g o f a t h i n g r a v e l l y mixture o v e r l y i n g g l a c i a l t i l l . T h i s a r e a has a t t r a c t e d to i t i n the p a s t r e s i d e n t s who d e s i r e d s m a l l acreage h o l d i n g s , and who were w i l l i n g , i n r e t u r n f o r the amenity o f space, to p r o v i d e many o f t h e i r own s e r v i c e s . Now, however, t h i s p a r t o f S u r r e y has become caught up i n the g e n e r a l m e t r o p o l i t a n expansion, and more and more people a r e occupying urban s i z e d l o t s i n the a r e a . As was mentioned a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r , the p o p u l a t i o n o f the m u n i c i -p a l i t y i s i n c r e a s i n g more r a p i d l y than the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a as a whole. R e s i d e n t i a l development i n S u r r e y i s not the middle c l a s s suburban type. A v i s u a l examination o f development suggests t h i s . A comparison o f employment c a t e g o r i e s o f employed per-sons i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h those f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n area 77 tends to c o n f i r m the i m p r e s s i o n . The p e r c e n t a g e o f S u r r e y ' s l a b o u r f o r c e i n t h e m a n a g e r i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and c l e r i c a l groups i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , w h i l e t h e p e r c e n t a g e s i n s a l e s , p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n , c r a f t s m e n , 3 and l a b o u r e r groups a r e much h i g h e r . The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n S u r r e y i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 6, page 83, by q u a r t e r s e c t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be no t e d f i r s t t h a t o n l y one o f t h e s e q u a r t e r s e c t i o n s has t e n persons p e r a c r e o r o v e r . T h i s d e n s i t y may be c o n s i d e r e d a r a t h e r low one f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l suburbs o f a c e n t r a l c i t y . An a r e a o f f i t y f o o t l o t s and s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s would house about s e v e n t e e n p e r s o n s p e r a c r e . T h i s q u a r t e r s e c t i o n i s some d i s t a n c e away from t h e n e a r e s t o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e . The r e m a i n d e r o f S u r r e y ' s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a has g e n e r a l l y a much lo w e r d e n s i t y s t i l l . I n an i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s p r a w l emphasizes t h e problem o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s w h i c h a r e a d i s a m e h i t y f o r h o u s i n g . The low d e n s i t y , and t h e r e f o r e t h e low p e r a c r e a s s e s sment, m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t the use o f more d e s i r a b l e forms o f u t i l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n whenever t h e l a t t e r i m p l y h i g h e r c o s t s . From t h e v i e w p o i n t o f the l a r g e r o v e r a l l community, an e v a l u a t i o n o f s o c i a l c o s t s and B r l d g e v i e w . op. c i t . , p. 39 78 b e n e f i t s w i l l tend to a l l o c a t e l e s s funds to m i t i g a t e d i s -amenity i n a sprawled area than i n a more dense and e f f i c i e n t area. The p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r o f Surrey's r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment, i n s o f a r as i t tends to be o f a lower q u a l i t y than i n other suburban areas (as was o u t l i n e d above) tends f u r t h e r to aggra-vate t h i s problem. There i s evidence t h a t c o n t i g u i t y to overhead tr a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e s as they p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n Surrey, adversely a f f e c t s the value o f urban-sized r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s . The M u n i c i p a l Assessor i s f i r m l y of t h i s o p i n i o n , and to i l l u s t r a t e h i s c o n v i c t i o n s , he c i t e d the case o f a l a r g e s u b d i v i s i o n near Johnston and Town l i n e Roads which was developed about 1958 by a 4 r e a l e s t a t e company. A p o r t i o n o f t h i s development takes i n the f u l l width of the Ruskin r i g h t of way which c a r r i e s two 60 kv wood pole l i n e s . Many o f the l o t s are not y e t s o l d , and the Assessor holds that the f o l l o w i n g three conclusions may l e g i -t i m a t e l y be drawn. The l a s t l o t s s o l d are those p a r t l y w i t h i n , and those immediately adjacent t o , the r i g h t o f way. Secondly, the developers found i t necessary to i n c r e a s e the s i z e o f those l o t s a f f e c t e d by the r i g h t of way i n order to s e l l them at the same p r i c e as others more d i s t a n t from the r i g h t o f way. G. D. Higgs, M u n i c i p a l Assessor, by I n t e r v i e w , A p r i l , 1965. 79 T h i r d l y , t h e A s s e s s o r f e e l s t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a r i g h t o f way w i l l h o l d back a p a r c e l o f l a n d from th e s u b d i v i s i o n market i f a l t e r n a t i v e s u b d i v i d a b l e p r o p e r t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a r e a . E v i d e n c e d e m o n s t r a t i n g the e f f e c t o f o v e r h e a d t r a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e s upon the s a l e s p r i c e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n . However, the c o n c l u s i o n w h i c h may be drawn from S u r r e y ' s assessment p r a c t i c e i s much c l e a r e r . A s c h e d u l e o f assessment d e c r e a s e due t o easements o f e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s was p a r t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s s u b m i s s i o n to t h e N a t i o n a l Energy Board i n the d i s p u t e o v e r t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e 500 k v i n t e r t i e t o t h e N o r t h West Power P o o l i n 1964. 5 Of a 1962 assessment o f $1,585,487.63 o f a l l p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s h a v i n g e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n r i g h t o f way easement, a t o t a l o f $215,802.65 was d educted owing t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f the easement. O b v i o u s l y , p r e s s u r e s from p r o p e r t y owners have been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g about t h i s d e c r e a s e , f o r the m u n i c i -p a l i t y f e e l s s t r o n g l y t h a t i t i s b e i n g d e p r i v e d o f needed income. The s o l i c i t o r f o r S u r r e y , J . G a i t W i l s o n , makes t h i s c a s e a t l e n g t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e N a t i o n a l Energy U n p u b l i s h e d document, Assessment Department, D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y . 80 B o a r d . Most o f t h e l a n d upon w h i c h e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n r i g h t s o f way l i e i s zoned some form o f r e s i d e n t i a l . A q u a l i f i c a t i o n must be made i n t h i s m a t t e r o f a d v e r s e e f f e c t upon r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s i n S u r r e y . T h i s i s t h a t t he e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an a d v e r s e e f f e c t upon r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y v a l u e s caused by an e l e c t r i c o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e i s i n g e n e r a l c o n f i n e d t o u r b a n s i z e d p r o p e r t i e s . B o t h t h e Land D i v i s i o n Manager o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , and t h e M u n i c i p a l A s s e s s o r a r e o f the o p i n i o n t h a t many o f the r e s i d e n t owners o f s m a l l a c r e a g e h o l d i n g s r e g a r d c o n t i g u i t y to. a r i g h t o f way as an advantage, r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s i n h e r e n t d i s a -m e n i t y . Two m o t i v e s a r e advanced. Some p l a c e a h i g h v a l u e upon p r i v a c y and freedom from p o t e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r s , and o t h e r s v a l u e t h e openness o f p r o s p e c t w h i c h even t h e p r e s e n t r i g h t s o f way g e n e r a l l y a f f o r d . The ind e p e n d e n t a p p r a i s a l s c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Power A u t h o r i t y g i v e w e i g h t to t h i s f a c t o r , as m i g h t be e x p e c t e d . 7 Though t h e A u t h o r i t y has e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e v a l u e o f s m a l l h o l d i n g s p r o p e r t i e s i s n o t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d i n a con-^ U n p u b l i s h e d s u b m i s s i o n o f S o l i c i t o r f o r t h e D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y t o N a t i o n a l Energy Board o f Canada, I n the M a t t e r o f the National Energy Bo_a__d Ac_£ I__ t h e M a t t e r g£ __n Application a l B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y f o r a C e r t i f i c a t e o f  P u b l i c Convenience and N e c e s s i t y t o C o n s t r u c t a Second T r a n s - m i s s i o n L i n e t o t h e Nor t h w e s t Power P o o l , November 1, 1963. 7 U n p u b l i s h e d a p p r a i s a l s i n t h e f i l e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . 81 s i s t e n t f a s h i o n , on the o t h e r hand, the A u t h o r i t y has l i t t l e , i f any, evidence t h a t the v a l u e o f u r b a n - s i z e d p r o p e r t i e s i s n o t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . Such evidence i s e s p e c i a l l y l a c k i n g i n those p o r t i o n s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver where o r d e r l y , n o n - s c a t t e r e d development has been the i n t e n t and apparent need. The f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i r e c t evidence t h a t the v a l u e s o f u r b a n - s i z e d p r o p e r t i e s have been a f f e c t e d by the presence o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s should not be taken as proof t h a t the e f f e c t does not o c c u r . A p o s i t i v e answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n o f e f f e c t on p r o p e r t y v a l u e w i l l o n l y be a t t a i n e d as a r e s u l t o f d e t a i l e d comparative study o f v a r i o u s types o f r e s i d e n t i a l development. I t should be emphasized a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t e f f e c t on a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y v a l u e s i s o n l y one aspect o f the t o t a l p o s s i b l e impact which t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s may have on the r e s i -d e n t i a l community. The impact o f r i g h t s o f way as they p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n S u r r e y upon a d j a c e n t housing cannot be f u l l y d e s c r i b e d without c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e q u a l l y important but more s u b j e c t i v e elements. The g e n e r a l v i s u a l miBeu c r e a t e d by these u t i l i t y works i s more d i f f i c u l t to d e s c r i b e than n u m e r i c a l p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , but i s not t h e r e f o r e l e s s d e s e r v i n g o f examination. Though sprawl, s c a t t e r a t i o n o f development, and the working c l a s s c h a r a c t e r of the S u r r e y suburban community may not be the r e s u l t s o f the 82 presence o f these l a r g e power l i n e s and t h e i r r i g h t s o f way, n e v e r t h e l e s s , the e x i s t e n c e o f these f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r present form does n o t h i n g p o s i t i v e to overcome these l i m i t a t i o n s . The f a c t i s t h a t the c o n d i t i o n o f the r i g h t s o f way i s so u n a t t r a c -t i v e as to c o n s t i t u t e a d i s a m e n i t y f o r a d j a c e n t housing, and e s p e c i a l l y f o r housing a t urban d e n s i t i e s . The views shown i n F i g u r e s 7 and 8 , pages 84 and 85 , are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r i g h t s o f way i n r e s i d e n t i a l and s m a l l h o l d i n g s areas i n Surrey. F i g u r e 9 , page 86, shows two attempts a t improvement by l o c a l p r o p e r t y owners, but these attempts are r a r e . The argument t h a t the c o n d i t i o n o f r i g h t s o f way i n S u r r e y has no e f f e c t upon housing i s i n one r e s p e c t e t h i c a l l y u ntenable. T h i s i s to argue t h a t the p r e s e n t r e l a t i v e l y low r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y standards a d j a c e n t to the l i n e s are proper f o r the area. Not o n l y i s t h i s stand d i s c r i m i n a t o r y toward the pr e s e n t r e s i d e n t i a l community i n Surrey, but i t makes d i f f i -c u l t any community a c t i o n aimed a t improving the g e n e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n . R e s i d e n t i a l P a t t e r n i n Surrey C o n s i d e r i n g the Surrey r e s i d e n t i a l community on a broader and more g e n e r a l canvas than the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l development c l o s e l y a d j a c e n t to overhead power l i n e s , c e r t a i n broad p a t t e r n s appear. There i s evidence t h a t the l o c a t i o n o f these l i n e s c o r r e l a t e s TRANSMISSION LINE RIGHTS OF WAY AND POPULATION DENSITY BY QUARTER SECTION IN THE DISTRICT OF SURREY, 1961 FIGURE 6 RIGHTS OF WAY IN FORMERLY RURAL SMALL HOLDINGS AREAS IN THE DISTRICT OF SURREY Eoth photographs are looking east from the King George Highway. Above i s the Port Kann and Ruskin right of way, and below i s the Wahleach Line. The lower view shows a joint use of a right of way, but i t also i l l u s t r a t e s a prevalent attitude toward e l e c t r i c transmission l i n e s . FIGURE 7 RIGHTS O F WAY THROUGH RESIDENTIAL AND SMALL HOLDINGS RESI-DENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IK THE DISTRICT O F SURREY The upper view i l l u s t r a t e s a f a i r l y good quality house and the quality of the adjacent right of way. The l o w e r view shows a r ight of way which has been allowed to grow up i n weeds and low b r u s h ; the effect i s barren. In a c t u a l i t y , some q u i t e h i g h quality res ident ia l subdivisions b o r d e r t h i s r i g h t o f way, but are separated from i t by a s c r e e n i n g o f brush and t r e e s . FIGURE 8 RIGHTS OP WAY WHICH ARE IN DUAL USE OR HAVE RECEIVED SOME ATTENTION FOR APPEARANCE The upper view i s from Panorama Ridge and shows an adjacent householder's effor ts to maintain the t u r f . However, the unorganized array of structures places a l i m i t upon the i n -d i v i d u a l ' s scope for improvement. The lower view merely demonstrates the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for dual use; such development does not lessen the unpleasant appearance of the fore t t of poles. FIGURE 9 87 TRANSMISSION LINE RIGHTS OP WAY AND ASSESSED LAND VALUE PER QUARTER SECTION IN THE DISTRICT OF SURREY, 1 9 6 4 FIGURE 1 0 88 n e g a t i v e l y w i t h both present assessed land values per quarter s e c t i o n , and gross p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y per quarter s e c t i o n . Figure 6 on page 83 and Figure 10 on page 87 s p a t i a l l y r e l a t e these two elements to the l o c a t i o n o f overhead l i n e r i g h t s of way i n Surrey. That there i s c o r r e l a t i o n between t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e l o c a t i o n s and both these elements there i s l i t t l e doubt, but t h a t the l i n e s may have a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a matter r e -q u i r i n g examination. The question i s : what o t h e r f a c t o r s may have caused these d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n and assessment independently o f overhead t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s of way? The examination may reasonably be confined to e v a l u a t i o n on a quarter s e c t i o n b a s i s . General topographical examination, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e v e a l s t h a t both power l i n e s and r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment eschew l o w - l y i n g bottom land f o r the most p a r t . I t was demonstrated i n s e c t i o n 3 o f Chapter I I th a t suburban r e s i d e n -t i a l areas have some of the same optimum requirements as l a r g e overhead tr a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n matters o f topography and s o i l charac t e r i s t i c s . The l o c a t i o n o f a r t e r i a l roads has probably had the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t upon the present d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and assessment. These have been i n ex i s t e n c e f o r s e v e r a l decades, probably p r i o r to the l o c a t i o n of the e a r l i e s t t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . The l a t t e r have tended to have been placed intermediate 89 between these a r t e r i a l s and p a r a l l e l to them where p o s s i b l e . However, a c l o s e examination o f Figures 6 and 10 (pages 83 and 86) suggests that the v a r i a t i o n s between the quarter s e c t i o n u n i t s are so pronounced i n the v i c i n i t y o f the r i g h t s o f way, t h a t the presence o f the l a t t e r must have had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . Other f a c t o r s are i n s u f f i c i e n t to e x p l a i n the f u l l e f f e c t of the c o r r e l a t i o n . I t i s necessary to observe t h a t the quarter s e c t i o n l i n e boundaries may not c o i n c i d e w i t h boundaries of a c t u a l land use, o r w i t h boundaries i n terms of the elements o f assessment and pop u l a t i o n . I t should a l s o be observed, however, that a quarter s e c t i o n i s a s m a l l p a r t o f Surrey's t o t a l area o f some 133 square m i l e s ; these u n i t s are l/530th p a r t o f the whole area. The e l i m i n a t i o n o f the non-urbanizing areas o f Surrey from the f r a c t i o n s t i l l r e s u l t s i n the u n i t being q u i t e f i n e , l e s s than one per cent o f the u r b a n i z i n g area. The apparent coarseness o f the quarter s e c t i o n u n i t does not, then, d i s q u a l i f y the con-c l u s i o n s t h a t there i s c o r r e l a t i o n between assessment and popu-l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , and the presence o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way. 4. RESOLVING LAND USE CONFLICTS I n e s s e n t i a l s , the r o l e s and powers of the u t i l i t y agency, the m u n i c i p a l i t y o f Surrey and i t s Planning D i v i s i o n , 90 and o f i n d i v i d u a l s are as o u t l i n e d i n the p a r a l l e l s e c t i o n o f Chapter I I , which has g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . As i s the case w i t h most f u l l y p u b l i c l y owned u t i l i t y a gencies i n North America, B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y i s exempted by s t a t u t e from r e g u l a t i o n by the pro-v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i n g board, the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission, with the e x c e p t i o n o f c e r t a i n matters a f f e c t i n g p u b l i c t r a n s i t f r a n c h i s e s . I t w i l l be seen, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t those powers which the Commission may e x e r c i s e o v e r p r i v a t e u t i l i t i e s i n r e s t r a i n i n g and d i r e c t i n g the bodies i n v o l v e d , w i t h a view to forwarding the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , a r e l a c k i n g where the above Hydro A u t h o r i t y has j u r i s d i c t i o n . I t was p o i n t e d o u t i n Chapter I I t h a t , b e f o r e the e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company i n 1961 and the consequent forming o f the p r e s e n t Hydro A u t h o r i t y , the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission p r e v a i l e d o v e r both the company and o v e r the powers o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as s e t out i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t . T h i s has meant, i n s h o r t , t h a t the formal powers o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to a c h i e v e d e s i r e d ends i n the f a c e o f o p p o s i t i o n by the e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y , though not h i g h b e f o r e 1961, have been reduced s t i l l f u r t h e r . However, c o u n t e r a c t i n g t h i s decrease i n s t a t u t o r y powers o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to have a v o i c e i n l a n d use d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v -91 v i n g the u t i l i t y agency, through other channels there has been a slow and gradual i n c r e a s e o f the powers o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and coordinated c i t i z e n groups. Owing to the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s s t r a -t e g i c l o c a t i o n f o r long d i s t a n c e u t i l i t y works, Surrey has been the battleground f o r s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t t e s t cases i n v o l v i n g m u n i c i p a l r i g h t to c o n t r o l u t i l i t y development. The f i r s t case to be described i n v o l v e d a n a t u r a l gas trunk l i n e , but the p r i n c i p l e had equal i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r power tr a n s m i s s i o n l i n e l o c a t i o n . I n 1955 the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company a p p l i e d to the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s commission to b u i l d an eighteen i n c h h i g h pressure gas l i n e which would cut d i a g o n a l l y across the D i s t r i c t o f Surrey. The m u n i c i p a l manager was informed ( i l l - i n f o r m e d , as i t turned out) by an o f f i c i a l i n the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t h a t the D i s t r i c t could l e g i s l a t e by zoning by-laws to c o n t r o l the l o c a t i o n s o f u t i l i t y t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . The e l e c t r i c company succeeded i n i t s case to the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia i n having Surrey's by-law amendment quashed, as being u l t r a v i r e s the c o u n c i l and g bad f o r u n c e r t a i n t y . In 1956, the B r i t i s h Columbia Appeal Court upheld t h i s d e c i s i o n . However, before the Appeal Court judgement was brought down, the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and the newspapers made c a p i t a l o f g Norman Pearson, "Multi-Purpose Powers i n Designating Land Use v s . Single-Purpose P u b l i c U t i l i t y Powers i n U t i l i t y L o c a t i o n " . (Unpublished graduate student paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1963), p. 5. 92 r e p o r t s that company property agents were h a b i t u a l l y misrepre-s e n t i n g f a c t s to property owners. Supporting the m u n i c i p a l i t y at t h i s time, the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board (an advisory body) d e l i v e r e d a r e p o r t s t a t i n g that diagonal con-s t r u c t i o n would impair property values and reduce the p o s s i -9 b i l i t i e s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development. The combined e f f e c t o f these f o r c e s r e s u l t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company agreeing to c o n s t r u c t i t s gas l i n e i n easements p a r a l l e l to Surrey's s t r e e t l i n e s . E s s e n t i a l l y , p u b l i c pressures had suc-ceeded i n a t t a i n i n g t h i s g r i d p a t t e r n l o c a t i o n ; i t can be seen i n Figure 2 on page 67. The l e g a l i s s u e was subsequently taken to the Supreme Court of Canada, and again the company was upheld. The second case occurred a f t e r the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company e x p r o p r i a t i o n , the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission then having no j u r i s d i c t i o n . The present Hydro A u t h o r i t y a p p l i e d i n January of 1964 to the N a t i o n a l Energy Board of Canada f o r a C e r t i f i c a t e of P u b l i c Convenience and N e c e s s i t y to c o n s t r u c t a 500 kv e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e to the i n t e r -n a t i o n a l boundary from Ingledow S u b s t a t i o n , p a r a l l e l to an e x i s t i n g 230 kv wood pole l i n e . The l a t t e r had become inade-quate as an i n t e r t i e l i n e connecting the B r i t i s h Columbia system to the remainder o f the North West Power P o o l . As the obsole-o Norman Pearson, op., c i t . . p. 9. I Q S u r r e y v. B.C.E.R.. 1957, SCR 121. 93 s c e n t 230 kv l i n e passed t h r o u g h some o f S u r r e y ' s most v a l u a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y , the m u n i c i p a l i t y d e c i d e d t o p r e s s f o r a new l o c a t i o n o f t h e proposed l i n e f u r t h e r t o the e a s t . S u r r e y ' s p r o p o s a l i n v o l v e d p a r a l l e l l i n g t h e Wahleach l i n e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f C l o v e r d a l e f o r some f o u r m i l e s , thence due s o u t h t h r o u g h a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u n t i l i t met t h e e x i s t i n g r i g h t o f way n o t f a r from White Rock. S u r r e y t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f to t h e N a t i o n a l Energy Board as an i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y t o the a p p l i c a t i o n s f B r i t i s h C olumbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . The Bo a r d d e c i d e d t h a t S u r r e y was an i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y . S u r r e y ' s s u b m i s s i o n r e v o l v e d around s e v e r a l arguments, e s s e n t i a l l y o r d e r l y d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , and am e n i t y and c o s t s f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y . ^ Though t h e Board d i d n o t g r a n t S u r r e y ' s a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e s o l i c i t o r f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y h o l d s t h a t two i m p o r t a n t 12 p r e c e d e n t s have r e s u l t e d . F i r s t l y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t , f o r the f i r s t t i m e i n boundary c r o s s i n g q u e s t i o n s , a m u n i c i p a l i t y ^ U n p u b l i s h e d s u b m i s s i o n i n t h e m a t t e r o f N a t i o n a l Energy B o a r d , l o c . c i t . 12 J . G a i t W i l s o n , S o l i c i t o r f o r t h e D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y , by i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 1965. 94 c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y . S e c o n d l y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a q u e s t i o n o f r o u t e has been e s t a b l i s h e d as a m a t t e r f o r a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . 5. PROBABLE DEVELOPMENTS IN SURREY There c a n be l i t t l e doubt t h a t S u r r e y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow more r a p i d l y t h a n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o f Vancouver. I t may undergo fundamental changes i n t h e p r o c e s s , b u t t h e e x a c t form t h a t t h e s e changes w i l l t a k e i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t . What c a n be p r e d i c t e d w i t h more c e r t a i n t y i s t h e b u i l d i n g o f new and l a r g e r t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s i n t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y which i s a l r e a d y too w e l l endowed w i t h them. A t l e a s t f i v e more v e r y l a r g e o v e r h e a d l i n e s a r e p l a n n e d , one more to t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary, one b e s i d e t h e p r e s e n t 360 k v Wahleach l i n e , and a t h i r d e i t h e r t o the n o r t h s i d e o f the F r a s e r R i v e r o r a g a i n up the Wahleach l i n e . I t would appear t h a t two more 230 kv doub l e c i r c u i t l i n e s a r e p l a n n e d , one b e s i d e the p r e s e n t one t o A r n o t t n e a r L a d n e r , and one i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f A n n a c i s I s l a n d . As f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development, the one c e r t a i n p r o s p e c t i s t h a t t h e a r e a w i l l become more u r b a n , whether f o l l o w i n g a p l a n o r n o t . Concomitant w i t h t h i s w i l l be a d e c r e a s e i n t h e s m a l l a c r e a g e h o l d i n g s . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h i s group f o r p r i v a c y above a l l e l s e w i l l have to g i v e way f o r de n s e r d e v e l o p -ment, i f o n l y because o f t h e r i s i n g c o s t s o f s e r v i c i n g . The 95 o v e r a l l r e s u l t w i l l probably be l e s s t o l e r a n c e f o r the present p a t t e r n of disamenity r i g h t s o f way and u n a t t r a c t i v e pole s t r u c t u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y o f the smaller l i n e s . Even p a r t i a l implementation o f the suggestions contained i n Surrey Planning D i v i s i o n ' s r e p o r t s w i l l a c c e l e r a t e the c o n f l i c t inherent i n the c o n t i g u i t y of present t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s and r e s i d e n t i a l 13 areas. 6. CONCLUSIONS In c o n c l u s i o n i t may be s t a t e d that the adverse e f f e c t s of present t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s upon the values of adjacent pro-p e r t i e s i s d i f f i c u l t to demonstrate, but i t may be i n f e r r e d . The s u b j e c t i v e elements, p r i n c i p a l l y the v i s u a l e f f e c t , cannot j u s t i f i a b l y be ignored simply because they are d i f f i c u l t o f q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e to make a strong case f o r the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n e f f e c t brought about by these l a r g e l i n e s and t h e i r r i g h t s of way, but the e f f e c t i s not a b s o l u t e l y provable. For though i t i s not p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e the tr a n s m i s s i o n l i n e system from other p o s s i b l e c a u s a l f a c t o r s , the c o r r e l a t i o n between the l o c a t i o n o f the r i g h t s o f way and the d i s t r i b u t i o n D i s t r i c t o f Surrey, Planning D i v i s i o n , P e r s p e c t i v e '81 (Community P l a n S e r i e s , No. 9 Surrey, B r i t i s h Columbia: the D i v i s i o n , 1965), passim. 96 o f p o p u l a t i o n and assessment i s so s t r o n g t h a t t h e c o n t e n t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s p r o v e . The o u t l o o k i s f o r more l i n e s to s e r v e t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a a t t h e expense o f S u r r e y ( f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y s u f f e r s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s m a l l f i n a n c i a l payments a c c r u i n g from t h e s e l i n e s ) . I t i s i n e q u i t a b l e t h a t S u r r e y must pay, i n t h e form o f d i s a m e n i t y , a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e p a r t o f t h e c o s t s f o r a s e r v i c e w h i c h w i l l b e n e f i t the whole o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . CHAPTER IV IMPACT OF TRANSMISSION LINES ON SUBURBAN AREAS AND THE NEED FOR THEIR ORDERLY DEVELOPMENT E l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s a re i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n f l i c -t i n g w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l requirements i n the o u t l y i n g suburban p o r t i o n s o f expanding m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . The e f f e c t s o f these l i n e s upon the form and q u a l i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment r e q u i r e s t h a t there be some development c o o r d i n a t i o n . C e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l f a c t s and l i m i t s should be borne i n mind, however. 1. TECHNICAL PARAMETERS AND LIMITATIONS As a f i r s t s t e p i n any comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t s o f e l e c t r i c overhead t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s upon our urban a r e a s , i t i s necessary to r e c o g n i z e c e r t a i n b a s i c f a c t s . I t i s a l l too easy to recommend t h a t a l l overhead l i n e s be put underground. This i s , i n an important sense, a f a i l u r e to face up to the problems o f l i n e s . To sweep the power l i n e s out o f s i g h t i s simply to d e p l o r e them. A more p o s i t i v e approach i s necessary. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f f a c t s , a t l e a s t , must be c o n s i d e r e d . 1) The a p p a r e n t l y simple problem o f p o p u l a t i o n growth, a p a r t from i t s obvious i m p l i c a t i o n f o r g r e a t e r power consump-t i o n , u s u a l l y means i n urban areas t h a t the g r e a t e s t growth 98 w i l l o c c u r i n the l a n d around t h e c i t y where the l a r g e t r a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e s a r e most common. Though t h i s growth may be p l a n n e d , i t s t e x t u r e w i l l not l i k e l y be as dense as t h a t i n the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the a r e a . Low d e n s i t y r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how much and what p r o p o r t i o n o f funds a r e j u s t i f i e d as an e x p e n d i t u r e to a c h i e v e amenity. 2) The demand f o r e l e c t r i c power i s i n c r e a s i n g much more r a p i d l y t h a n p o p u l a t i o n growth. The r e s u l t i s a need f o r more l i n e s a t h i g h e r v o l t a g e s . 3) Added to t h e above two elements o f i n c r e a s e i s t h e s t i l l f u r t h e r element o f o u r i n c r e a s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n o f complete r e l i a b i l i t y o f s e r v i c e . T h i s i m p l i e s r e s e r v e systems o f t r a n s -m i s s i o n . Though o f t e n j u s t i f i e d o n t h e grounds o f r e l i a b i l i t y , t h e l o n g - d i s t a n c e i n t e r t i e l i n e s ( s u c h as t h o s e t h a t j o i n t h e systems w i t h i n the N o r t h West Power P o o l ) a r e a l s o d e v e l o p e d s i m p l y to a l l o w more e f f i c i e n t use o f r e s o u r c e s . 4) A l a r g e number o f o u r p r e s e n t o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s a r e d e c i d e d l y u n p l e a s a n t v i s u a l l y , and u n d o u b t e d l y have some e f f e c t upon the p o t e n t i a l o f a d j a c e n t l a n d f o r t h e more d e s i r a b l e c a t e g o r i e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l development. 5) Some o f t h e f o r c e s which make th e u n d e r g r o u n d i n g o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s e c o n o m i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e i n the c e n t r a l c i t y a r e l a c k i n g i n suburban a r e a s , and t h e y may r e m a i n so f o r some 99 while. The reasons are two. The u t i l i t y agencies of two or three decades ago did not foresee the tremendous growth of future demand. The acquisition of further overhead l ine rights of way there now is more expensive than the high costs of building an underground system. The second reason is that there i s a technical l imit to the length of high voltage under-ground AC c i r c u i t s , and the suburban area lines must often be larger than the l imi t . 6) There is an almost staggering number of o f f i c i a l entit ies which are capable of making signif icant decisions affecting the routes and design of transmission l ines . Federally there i s the National Energy Board which controls a l l provincial and international boundary crossing points and routes leading to them. The Department of Transport controls a l l crossings of navigable waters and high spans which may endanger a ircraf t . The Departments of Indian and Veterans' A f f a i r s , and the National Harbours Board are an additional three. Provincial ly , the Public U t i l i t i e s Commission is the principal body where i t applies. The B r i t i s h Columbia Energy Board i s empowered to carry out signif icant duties which could affect decisions. The Department of Lands and Forest, * W ~ ' s u * * \ ; and Water Resources often makes signif icant decisions through each of i t s separate services, and the Department of Highways may make important decisions, not to mention the Parks Branch. 100 Each r a i l r o a d has i t s own c r o s s i n g s t a n d a r d s , some r e -q u i r i n g heavy dead-end s t r u c t u r e s and o t h e r s n o t . L o c a l l y , t h e w a t e r boards may make i m p o r t a n t t e c h n i c a l s t i p u l a t i o n s . The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t r i v e t o c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t i o n as t h e y see t h e i r needs, b u t w i t h o u t an o f f i c i a l v o i c e . The r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g boards may make recommendations w h i c h sometimes a r e e f f e c t i v e . The r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g need f o r power has p r e s e n t l y o u t s t r i p p e d t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s t o b u i l d t h e h i g h e s t v o l t a g e l i n e s i n c a b l e form f o r u n d e r g r o u n d i n g . T h i s problem w i l l p r o b a b l y be overcome, p o s s i b l y i n n o t too many y e a r s , and perhaps developments i n DC t r a n s m i s s i o n w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t h i s . However, c o s t s may always be h i g h e r t h a n o v e r h e a d . I n t h e n o n - i n t e n s i v e a r e a s on the f r i n g e o f l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s t h e q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d whether u n d e r g r o u n d i n g may always be n e c e s s a r y and j u s t i f i e d . I n the l o n g r u n , and i n the o v e r a l l community, t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t must be r e c o g n i z e d as an a r r a y o f r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h a r e f a r more complex t h a n t h e c r i t e r i o n o f c h e a p e s t pos-s i b l e power t o t h e u s e r . There a r e o t h e r c o s t s than t h e p u r e l y economic, and t h e f a c t t h a t c o s t s and b e n e f i t s may be s e c o n d a r y , and even i n t a n g i b l e i n d o l l a r t e r m s , does n o t l e s s e n t h e i r s i g -n i f i c a n c e . Only a f t e r t h e t o t a l c o s t s a r e weighed a g a i n s t t h e 101 t o t a l b e n e f i t s c a n the i m p o r t a n t development q u e s t i o n s o f 'where', 'what form' and 'when' be d e c i d e d . 2. IMPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES FOR THE FORM AND QUALITY OF SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT The most i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t , f o r good o r i l l , r i g h t o f way l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s made i n e a r l y y e a r s have i n f l u e n c e d and sometimes d e t e r m i n e d the p r e s e n t o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f r e s i d e n t i a l development. When t h e s e d e c i s i o n s were made, t h e a r e a s though w h i c h t h e r i g h t s o f way passed were e i t h e r u n d eveloped o r e n t i r e l y r u r a l , and no a d v e r s e e f f e c t s seemed l i k e l y . The r e s u l t has been, however, t h a t p a s t d e c i s i o n s made by one agency ( o r even one man) s i m p l y on the b a s i s o f t e c h n i -c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s and economic c r i t e r i a f o r t h e u t i l i t y p r o j e c t have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t form o f u r b a n a r e a s . The second i m p o r t a n t f a c t i s t h a t i n t h e suburban r e s i -d e n t i a l a r e a s n e a r t h e s e l i n e s , t h e c o n c l u s i o n i s i n d i s p u t a b l e t h a t o v e r h e a d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s w h i c h have u g l y s t r u c t u r e s and u n m a i n t a i n e d r i g h t s o f way do have an a d v e r s e e f f e c t upon the q u a l i t y o f a d j a c e n t development. T h i s e f f e c t i s most marked i n t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h a r e s t r i v i n g f o r u r b a n s t a n d a r d s o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y and neighbourhood a m e n i t y . 102 That even those transmission lines which are s t r u c t u r a l l y a t t r a c t i v e appear acceptable only i n farming areas points immediately to the problem of r i g h t of way maintenance. In a broader and more usefu l sense, the problem i s f a i l u r e to i n t e -grate the lines with t h e i r surroundings. I t i s completely incongruous that whereas a g r i c u l t u r a l areas are not greatly disadvantaged by the presence of a well designed l i n e , r e s i -d e n t i a l areas, on the other hand, s u f f e r a great disadvantage. In point of public need, the opposite would be the tolerable condition. In urban areas, no 'natural' economic forces e x i s t which would obviate the adverse e f f e c t s . In r u r a l areas of pasture and t i l l e d f i e l d s , modern transmission lines are a t t r a c t i v e because what i s best for the former i s at the same time either the best f o r the u t i l i t y agency, or at least acceptable to i t . Neither party, i n other words, i s due any s p e c i a l c r e d i t f o r a desirable state of a f f a i r s . There i s no doubt that precise and s c i e n t i f i c quanti-f i c a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of power lines upon r e s i d e n t i a l development could be car r i e d out. For example, studies of the ef f e c t s upon property values should be made. In a r e a l sense, however, demand for such f i n a n c i a l proof i s often quibbling. The c r i t i c a l issue may be stated i n t e r r o g a t i v e l y . What res-103 p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n possessed o f even a modicum o f r e g a r d f o r the appearance o f h i s home environment would not be d i s t u r b e d by having one o f the present suburban r i g h t s o f way a t h i s door-step? The s u g g e s t i o n o f a v o i d i n g d i a g o n a l l o c a t i o n s f o r r i g h t s o f way, and s i m i l a r l y l i m i t i n g t h e i r adverse e f f e c t s upon p r o p e r t y v a l u e s i s e s s e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e . The problem i s not how to s c r e e n and h i d e the l i n e s , but how to adapt them, how to use them a t t r a c t i v e l y , how to i n t e g r a t e them with r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The f a c t i s t h a t overhead t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s need not be u n a t t r a c t i v e . Competent a r c h i t e c t u r a l a t t e n t i o n to t o t a l v i s u a l e f f e c t i s completely l a c k i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia and p o s s i b l y i n North America. A p o s i t i v e approach c o u l d f i n d m u l t i p l e use f o r r i g h t s o f way and so have them c o n t r i b u t e to the suburban area p a t t e r n i n s t e a d o f s p l i t t i n g i t as so o f t e n o c c u r s a t p r e s e n t . A landscaped r i g h t o f way c o u l d s a f e l y a l l o w some t r e e s i n s e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s , and thereby p r o v i d e both park f a c i l i t i e s and d e f i n i n g boundaries to r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods. Almost e q u a l l y important w i t h the e f f e c t s which power l i n e s may have on the areas they pass through i s the simple f a c t o f the tremendous amount o f l a n d which they use, and t h e r e -by a l i e n a t e f o r most urban uses. R i g h t s o f way o f 450 f e e t wide 104 are now common i n Surrey, and widths up to 600 f e e t are pro-j e c t e d f o r the f u t u r e . P r a c t i c a l d u a l use o f t h i s land i s p o s s i b l e , and green s t r i p s which are neighbourhood d i v i s i o n s c o u l d be one o f the most d e s i r a b l e . Governmental a c t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n a re necessary f o r a c h i e v i n g these ends, however. 3. NEED FOR TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Such a weighing o f t o t a l c o s t s and t o t a l b e n e f i t s pre-cedent to d e c i s i o n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s cannot be c a r r i e d o ut e f f e c t i v e l y under the pr e s e n t system i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The l i s t o f a f f e c t e d , o r decision-making bodies o u t l i n e d i n the pre c e d i n g s e c t i o n suggests t h a t even c o o r d i n a -t i o n would not be i d e a l . The r e a l i t i e s o f the governmental s i t u a t i o n i n Canada r e q u i r e t h a t the pro v i n c e s have e s s e n t i a l c o n t r o l i n a l l matters which have p r o v i n c i a l a r e a l scope. I n a l l questions which have r a m i f i c a t i o n s o n l y w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l boundaries, i t would be d e s i r a b l e (perhaps e s s e n t i a l ) t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government's r o l e be an i n t e g r a t i v e one. The two g r e a t e s t shortcomings o f the pr e s e n t arrangements a r e f i r s t l y , t h a t l o c a l government, which i s the body w i t h the g r e a t e s t concern i n matters o f adverse e f f e c t caused by t r a n s -m i s s i o n l i n e s , i s the one w i t h the l e a s t amount o f s t a t u t o r y power o f c o n t r o l . The second i s t h a t p r o v i n c i a l government 105 a c t i o n i s by p r a c t i c a l l y independent departments, branches and boards. The r e c e n t l y passed B i l l 83 of the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e could have provided some modicum o f c o o r d i n a t i o n of t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e development matters i f the Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y had been given a place i n the T e c h n i c a l Planning Committees o f the Regional Boards.*" The l i m i t e d a r e a l extent o f each board makes the system somewhat inadequate f o r s e t t l i n g questions o f l o c a t i o n o f long d i s t a n c e power l i n e s . I t would seem th a t the o n l y answer i s an i n t e g r a t i n g Development Department a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . T r u l y r e g i o n a l -s i z e d boards under such a department could w e l l seat f e d e r a l agency t e c h n i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , those a c t i o n s could be co-o r d i n a t e d w i t h needs. 4. EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS AND THE SCOPE OF THE THESIS The hypothesis upon which t h i s study was based, and upon which a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out, has not proven to be v a l i d i n i t s e n t i r e t y . I t was phrased: "Because the l o c a t i o n o f overhead e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s has had co n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e B r i t i s h Columbia, B i l l No. 83. being An Act to Amend the  M u n i c i p a l A c t , as passed Third Reading on the 26th day o f March, 1956 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r ) . 106 (sometimes adverse) on the s p a t i a l pattern of r e s i d e n t i a l development, there i s need f o r coordinating the requirements of the u t i l i t y agency and the appropriate planning agencies." I t has become evident during the study that many p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l departments must take a large r o l e i n decisions. Regional planning agencies having e f f e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over r e l a t i v e l y large geographic regions would provide conditions which would s a t i s f y most of the needs of l o c a l area r e s i d e n t i a l development which i s subject to u t i l i t y agency development of long distance transmission l i n e s . To t h i s extent the hypothesis i s v a l i d . Federal and p r o v i n c i a l departments should not be excluded from loc a t i o n and technical design decisions, however. That the location of overhead transmission lines i n Surrey has had considerable influence on the s p a t i a l pattern of r e s i d e n t i a l development i s established, though not with e n t i r e c e r t a i n t y . However, the discrete changes i n assessment and population density which occur at the r i g h t s of way i n many places i n Surrey provide strong evidence. I t must be pointed out that the presence of the r i g h t of way may be a concomitant v a r i a t i o n with some other more fundamental cause, though the writer has not been able to i d e n t i f y any other which i s as im-portant as the presence of transmission l i n e s . Topography and s o i l conditions must be ruled out as possible causes. 107 That the i n f l u e n c e on the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n has been oc-c a t i o n a l l y adverse i s r a t h e r more d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h . I t would appear, however, that a r i g h t o f way p a t t e r n which has been determined as a r e s u l t o f pure engineering and cost c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s e v e r a l decades ago i s l i k e l y to be a r b i t r a r y i n the l i g h t o f present community needs f o r o r d e r l y r e s i d e n t i a l development. I t w i l l be remembered th a t there was l i t t l e development of any s o r t near most o f the r i g h t s o f way when they were l o c a t e d . E s t a b l i s h i n g more d e f i n i t e and u s e f u l answers to the problems suggested by the hypothesis could w e l l m e r i t f u r t h e r study. Mention was made tha t l i t t l e i s known of the p r e c i s e e f f e c t s upon values of r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s immediately adjacent to overhead t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e r i g h t s o f way. A r c h i -t e c t u r a l e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e l i n e designs could be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r m u l t i p l e use of r i g h t s of way could w e l l be explored a l s o . But, perhaps what i s most u r g e n t l y needed i s a c a r e f u l l y worked out system o f r e l a t i v e values and p r i o r i t i e s . A system o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r tr a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s which weighs a l l the costs and a l l the b e n e f i t s - not simply the economic - would be i n -v a l u a b l e f o r both the f u t u r e development o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s and f o r t a k i n g steps to improve e x i s t i n g t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s and t h e i r r i g h t s of way where they l i e w i t h i n the r a p i d l y developing 108 f r i n g e areas of our c i t i e s . I t i s i n e q u i t a b l e that f r i n g e area communities must pay ( i n the form of disamenity) a d i s -p r o p o r t i o n a t e p a r t o f the costs f o r a s e r v i c e which b e n e f i t s the whole o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n area. B I B L I O G R A P H Y 109 A. BOOKS Chapin, F. S t u a r t , J r . Urban Land Use Planning. Urbana, I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1963. Cotton, Harry. The Transmission and D i s t r i b u t i o n of E l e c t r i c a l Energy. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1946 ( f i r s t p r i n t e d 1937). Crowe, S y l v i a . The Landscape of Power. London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press, 1958. . Tomorrow's Landscape. London: A r c h i t e c t -u r a l Press, 1956. Dennison, M e r i l l . The People's Power. Toronto: McC l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1960. Gale, Chas. J . Gale on Easements. 13th ed. by M i c h a e l Bowles. London: Sweet, 1959. G a r f i e l d , Paul J . and W. F. Lovejoy. P u b l i c U t i l i t y Economics. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1964. Glaeser, M. G. P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s i n American C a p i t a l i s m . New York: Macmillan, 1957. Haar, C h a r l e s , M. Land-Use Planning. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, 1959. . "The S o c i a l C o n t r o l o f Urban Space", i n C i t i e s and Space, ed. by Lowdon Wingo, J r . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Pr e s s , 1963. Haig-Brownj R. L. The L i v i n g Land. Produced by the B r i t i s h Columbia Resources Conference. Toronto: Macmillan, 1961. Keeble, Lewis. P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e o f Town and Country  Planning. London: Estates Gazette, 1952. 110 Maiden, C e c i l . L i g h t e d Journey, the Story o f the B. C. E l e c t r i c . Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company L i m i t e d , 1947. M i l n e r , J . B. (ed.) Community Planning: A Casebook on Law  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1963. Mosher, W. E. " P u b l i c U t i l i t y R e g u l a t i o n " , i n Regulatory  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . G. A. Graham and H. R e i n i n g , eds. New York: Wiley, 1943. Regan, M. M. And Wooten, H. H. "Land Use Trends and Ur b a n i z a t i o n " , i n A Place to L i v e . United States Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . Washington, D.C.: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . S e w e l l , W. R. D., e t a l . 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UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Document, "Decrease Due to Easements o f B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y T r a n s m i s s i o n L i n e s " . Assessment Department, D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y . S u b m i s s i o n o f S o l i c i t o r f o r D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y to N a t i o n a l Energy Board o f Canada. I n the M a t t e r o f the N a t i o n a l  Energy Board A c t and I n t h e M a t t e r o f an A p p l i c a t i o n  o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y f o r a C e r t i f i c a t e o f P u b l i c Convenience and N e c e s s i t y to  C o n s t r u c t a Second T r a n s m i s s i o n L i n e to t h e N o r t h - west Power P o o l . November 1, 1963. A p p r a i s a l s i n the f i l e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . P e a r s o n , Norman, " M u l t i - p u r p o s e Powers i n D e s i g n a t i n g Land Use v s . S i n g l e Purpose P u b l i c U t i l i t y Powers i n U t i l i t y L o c a t i o n " . U n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, 1963. 

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