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Tagalog transformational syntax : a preliminary statement Peralta-Pineda, Ponciano Bendiola 1967-12-31

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TAGALOG TRANS FOPiMATIONAL SYNTAX: A PRELIMINARY STATEMENT by P o n c i a n o B. P e r a l t a - P i n e d a A.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f S a n t o Tomas M a n i l a , P h i l i p p i n e s , 19^8 L L . B . , M a n u e l L . Quezon U n i v e r s i t y M a n i l a , P h i l i p p i n e s , 1952 D i p l o m a , Supreme C o u r t o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , A Thesis Submitted i nP a r t i a l the Requirements  1953  Fulfilment of  f o r t h e Degree o f  Master  of Arts  i n t h e Department of Classics Division of Linguistics We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required  as conforming  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  1967  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s for  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree  t h a t the- L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study, thesis  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  this  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my  Department o r by h i s  representatives..  It  i s understood t h a t  copying  o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n  POtfCTANO B. PERALTA-PINEDA  Department o f  Classics  Division of L i n g u i s t i c  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  2 May  1967  Abstract This study deals with the description of Tagalog syntax using the techniques of transformationalgenerative grammar. . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the formulations i n this work, follow, to a large extent, the statements of Chomsky i n his "A Transformational Syntax."  Approach to  The primary aims of this work are to formu-  l a t e the basic rules of Tagalog kernel sentences, and to show some of the most common transformations language.  i n the  Further, this thesis seeks to establish a  basis f o r a more detailed study of the transformational syntax of Tagalog, and expects to provide a point of departure f o r future contrastive analyses of Tagalog and other languages. provided  The author believes that he has  the teacher of Tagalog with  basic material  for the teaching of the fundamentals of Tagalog transformational-generative  grammar, and the new learner  with a ready manual f o r the easy grasp of the core of Tagalog structures. The analysis concerns the l i n g u i s t i c i n t u i t i o n of the author as a native speaker of Tagalog. steps involved i n the analysis are as follows:  The investi-  gation of actual and possible sentences known and  p e r m i t t e d by  the i n t u i t i o n of the author, i n c l u d i n g  a l a r g e w r i t t e n corpus;  f o r m u l a t i o n of the r u l e s o f  v a r i o u s k e r n e l sentences,  generation  of grammatical  s t r i n g s v/ith m o r p h o g r a p h e m i c r e a l i z a t i o n s , by  the necessary  tures;  explanations  accompanied  including tree struc-  c o l l a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t k e r n e l r u l e s and  the base r u l e s of ^agalog  k e r n e l sentences;  forming  showing  some o f t h e most common t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , w i t h p e r t i n e n t comments; and  c o n c l u d i n g w i t h a summary o f what  was  d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h recommendations f o r f u r t h e r study The  formulations  of sentences,  and  investigation.  show t h e r u l e s f o r s i x t y p e s  namely, sentences of the  verb p h r a s e p l u s noun p h r a s e ;  construction  sentences of the  t y p e s , which are a d j e c t i v e or a d j e c t i v a l phrase noun phrase,  copula plus  adverb or a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e p l u s noun  phrase,  noun p h r a s e p l u s noun.phrase, pronoun p l u s noun  phrase,  and p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e p l u s n o u n  All  the k e r n e l sentence^rules  are brought together  the base r u l e s of Tagalog k e r n e l  negative  in  sentences.  Ten k i n d s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s pronoun t r a n s f o r m a t i o n —  phrase.  are  d e c l a r a t i v e and  shown: imperative-—  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , yes-no i n t e r r o g a t i v e t r a n s f e r -  iv m a t i o n , yes-no n e g a t i v e i n t e r r o g a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , pronoun-negative-interrogative  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , ay_ i n -  v e r s i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , manner a d v e r b i a l indirect  transformation,  object transformation, - i n - passive transfor-  mation, and  :  nominalization  transformation.  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n f i n d s some deep  regularities  i n t h e l a n g u a g e ; and i t a l s o f i n d s some p r o b l e m s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II.  PAGE 1  INTRODUCTION PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES OP THE GRAMMAR Kernel 1 Rules  . .  19  . .  Kernel 2 Rules  63  Kernel 3 Rules  75  Kernel 4 Rules  87  Copula K e r n e l Sentence Rules Base Rules o f Tagalog  96  . . . . . .  Kernel 99  Sentences  III,;  17  103  TRANSFORMATIONS Pronoun Transformation — and  Declarative 107  Imperative  Negation  110  Transformation  Yes-No I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Negative-Interrogative Transformation Pronoun-Negative-Interrogative  . .  112  .  115  Transfor117  mation Ay I n v e r s i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n  119  -In-  123  Passive Transformation  Manner A d v e r b i a l I n d i r e c t Object  127 Transformation  129  vi CHAPTER  PAGE Nominalization  IV.  Transformation  . . . .  131 136  CONCLUSION  A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  140  APPENDIX  1^3  '  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  is  due  to the E x t e r n a l  Canada, f o r g i v i n g me graduate  studies  of B r i t i s h  A i d O f f i c e , Government o f the o p p o r t u n i t y t o  i n L i n g u i s t i c s i n the  Columbia  absence Prof.  University  on a Colombo S c h o l a r s h i p  to the I n s t i t u t e of N a t i o n a l of the P h i l i p p i n e s ,  pursue  language,  f o r g i v i n g me  f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f my  Grant;  Government  a study l e a v e of  g r a d u a t e work; t o  Ruth McConnell, f o r i n t r o d u c i n g  me  to  transfor-  m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e t h e o r y , and f o r p a t i e n t l y me  guiding  i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s ; t o D r . R o b e r t J . Gre  for his lectures  i n d i f f e r e n t areas of L i n g u i s t i c s ,  f o r e n c o u r a g i n g me  t o go on v/ith t h i s s t u d y , and f o r  r e v i e w i n g t h i s w o r k ; t o P r o f e s s o r P. B o w e r s , f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s ; and t o M i s s M a u r a San A n d r e s , i n g the n o t a t i o n a l  symbols  and t h e t r e e  f o r supply-  structures.  CHAPTER I .  INTRODUCTION  Purpose of the Study. study i s t h r e e f o l d : r u l e s that operate number o f T a g a l o g  transforms;  and  purpose of  ( l ) to formulate  sentences,  finite  infinite  b a s e d on o b s e r v a b l e  facts  i n l i n e v/ith the i n t u i t i o n of  ( 2 ) t o show a few  the  o f t h e most common  ( 3 ) to construct thereby  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f T a g a l o g a grammar may  this  the b a s i c  i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f an  o f t h e l a n g u a g e and n a t i v e speaker;  The  a basis for  syntax.  Such  also provide a starting point f o r future  contrastive analyses  of the syntax of Tagalog  and  other  languages. T h i s study i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d f o r ( l ) the t e a c h e r of Tagalog, language.  and  ( 2 ) t h e new  l e a r n e r of  I t i s hoped t h a t the s t u d y w i l l  the  provide  t e a c h e r w i t h b a s i c m a t e r i a l f o r the t e a c h i n g of  the  the  fundamentals of Tagalog t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar.  I t i s a l s o expected  g a i n f r o m t h i s work a ready s t r u c t u r e s of Tagalog. is  t h a t t h e new  grasp  of the  Geared t o t h i s  o r g a n i z e d i n s u c h a way  learner w i l l fundamental  end,  this  t h a t the u s e r w i l l  easy t o f o l l o w the r u l e s step by  step.  study  find i t  Necessary  e x p l i c a t i o n s are i n c o r p o r a t e d to give a f u l l  understanding  o f t h e r u l e s as w e l l as t h e i t e m s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . Scope and D e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y .  This  t h e s i s d e a l s p r i m a r i l y v/ith major, b a s i c , Tagalog s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , i . e . , w i t h the phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s that generate the s t r i n g s of the k e r n e l sentences, and t h e n v / i t h t h e most common t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . The m o d e l f o r t h i s w o r k i s Chomsky's "A T r a n s f o r mational Approach  to Syntax.  I have a l s o found  some  g u i d a n c e i n t h e w o r k s o f Thomas,^ Goodman,3 and K o u t soudas.^" I h a v e mapped o u t a grammar t h a t i s s u p p o s e d to describe the i d e a l speaker-hearer's i n t r i n s i c competence.5  Analysis  -^•Third T e x a s C o n f e r e n c e on P r o b l e m s o f L i n g u i s t i c ( A u s t i n , T e x a s , .1962), .pp. 124-169. P  ^Owen Thomas, T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar and t h e T e a c h e r o f E n g l i s h (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 5 ) . 3 R a l p h Goodman, "A L o o k a t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar," i n Norman C. S t a g e b e r g , An I n t r o d u c t o r y E n g l i s h Grammar (New Y o r k , 19657, P P . 287-383. ^Andreas Koutsoudas, W r i t i n g T r a n s f 0 r m a t i o n a l Grammars: An I n t r o d u c t i o n (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 ) , , ", ^Noam Chomsky, A s p e c t s o f t h e T h e o r y ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 3-k*  of Syntax  3  T h i s i s n e i t h e r an e x h a u s t i v e nor a f i n a l statement of the s u b j e c t . the t e c h n i q u e s attempts  At b e s t , t h i s t h e s i s , u s i n g  of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar,  to l o o k i n t o the deep r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t u n d e r l i e  Tagalog s t r u c t u r e s . Review of R e l a t e d S t u d i e s . There are a t  present  s e v e r a l good d e s c r i p t i o n s of Tagalog s y n t a x w r i t t e n i n the c l a s s i c a l or i n the s t r u c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , but  no  work has y e t been done i n l i n e w i t h the t h e o r y of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar developed  by Chomsky.  I  have found o n l y one p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e on ^ a g a l o g t r a n s - f o r m a t i o n a l s y n t a x , and i t i s about a m b i g u i t y i n Tagalog s t r u c t u r e s . ^ The  a r t i c l e i s , however, too l i m i t e d i n  scope t o be used as a b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s y n t a c t i c d e s c r i p t i o n . The p r e s e n t study i s a modest attempt a t d e s c r i b i n g Tagalog s y n t a x i n a c c o r d w i t h transformational-generative theory. I have d e c i d e d to use the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l g e n e r a t i v e approach to t h i s study because I b e l i e v e i n the t h e o r y ' s s i m p l i c i t y , e x p l i c i t n e s s ,  explanatory  6paul S c h a c h t e r , " S t r u c t u r a l Ambiguity i n Tag a l o g , " Language L e a r n i n g , X I ( 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 1 3 5 - 1 4 - 5 .  4 power, and i n s i g h t f u l a s s e r t i o n s about language are  which  consistent with the information a v a i l a b l e tothe  speaker-hearer of the language. this  The f o r m u l a t i o n s i n  s t u d y a r e based l a r g e l y on t h e Texax  Conference  model.^ Fundamental G e n e r a t i v e Grammar.  P r i n c i p l e s of TransformationalFirst  of a l l , a language, i n  Chomsky's t e r m , 8 i s a f i n i t e  or i n f i n i t e  s e n t e n c e s , e a c h one o f w h i c h i s f i n i t e constructed out of a f i n i t e  set of  i n l e n g t h and  s e t of elements.  In this  s e n s e , grammar i s a s y s t e m o f f i n i t e r u l e s t h a t an i n f i n i t e to  enumerates  number o f p o s s i b l e u t t e r a n c e s , a n d a s s i g n s  each g e n e r a t e d grammatical sentence i t s p r o p e r  structural description.  This description  and e x p r e s s e s t h e f a c t s a b o u t  incorporates  the sentence that a r e  a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s p e a k e r - h e a r e r o f t h e language.9 ? S e e Noam Chomsky, "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A p p r o a c h to Syntax," i n T h i r d Texas Conference on Problems o f L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s ( A u s t i n , Texas, 1962) pp. 124-169. ^Noam Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s  (The Hague,  1965), p. 13. ^Noam Chomsky, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n P a u l R o b e r t s , E n g l i s h S y n t a x (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . i x .  5 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar i s one grammar t h a t meets t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s s e t f o r t h above.  T h i s grammar,  a s e n t e n c e grammar, d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l y i n g the  p r o d u c t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s , and a l s o w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g  relationship sees  among s e n t e n c e s .  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t  that the speakers of a language are not o p e r a t i n g  on a mass o f s t o r e d c o r p u s , b u t v / i t h a s y s t e m f o r generating sentences. system i s c e n t r a l ,  To t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t ,  so t h a t he comes t o g r i p s  this  with  " u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e d e e p l y b u r i e d m e c h a n i s m s t h a t make language  viable.""'"  0  ... T h i s t h e o r y i s b a s e d on c e r t a i n assumptions about t h e k i n d s o f p r o c e s s e s t h a t e x i s t i n l a n g u a g e and t h e manner i n which they i n t e r r e l a t e . In particular, i t assumes t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and f o r m i n g o f s e n t e n c e s a r e c e r t a i n processes — c a l l e d grammatical transformations — that r e l a t e a sentence to a s e t o f u n d e r l y i n g s e n t e n c e - l i k e s t r u c t u r e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m p l e f o r m . These s i m p l e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s ... e x p r e s s a l l o f t h e g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f u n c t i o n s t h a t a p p e a r i n any s e n t e n c e . The normal sentences h f everyday l i f e are formed, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , by a complex s e r i e s of transformations underlyings t r u c t u r e s . Although the underlying s t r u c t u r e s a r e f i n i t e i n number, t h e r u l e s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n c a n be u s e d i n i n d e f i n i t e l y many a r r a n g e m e n t s t o f o r m an u n e n d i n g v a r i e t y of s e n t e n c e t y p e s . H 1  1 0  pp.  P a u l R o b e r t s , E n g l i s h S y n t a x (New Y o r k ,  15-16.  HChomsky,  " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , pp. x i - x i i . 1  1964),  6 The components o f a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l are  grammar  ( l ) t h e s y n t a c t i c component, and ( 2 ) t h e  component.  phonological  The s y n t a c t i c component c o n s i s t s o f t h e  phrase s t r u c t u r e l e v e l ture l e v e l .  and t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  The u n d e r l y i n g  structures  struc-  of sentences  are  s t a t e d b y t h e p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e r u l e s o f t h e grammar,  and  t h i s takes place  their  by s p e c i f y i n g the s y n t a c t i c  co-occurrence r e l a t i o n s ,  changes i n t h e s e u n d e r l y i n g the  transformational  and t h e l e x i c o n .  structures  classes, The  a r e a s s i g n e d by  r u l e s o f t h e grammar.  The p r o n u n c i a -  t i o n o f sentences i s a s s i g n e d by the p h o n o l o g i c a l  com-  12 ponent. ^ This  s t u d y shows, a s e x a m p l e s , some o f t h e  m a j o r morphophonemic r t i l e s i n T a g a l o g . Sources of Data.  This  description  my own l i n g u i s t i c i n t u i t i o n a s a n a t i v e language.  The grammar p r e s e n t e d h e r e  characterize  concerns  speaker, o f the  "attempts t o  i n t h e most n e u t r a l p o s s i b l e  terms t h e  ^Andreas Koutsoudas, W r i t i n g Transformational Grammars: An I n t r o d u c t i o n (New Y o r k , 1966), p . 5. See a l s o F r a n c i s P. D i n n e e n , "Noam Chomsky: T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar a n d . L i n g u i s t i c U n i v e r s a l s , i n F. P. D i n n e e n , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 355-399.  7  knowledge of the language t h a t p r o v i d e s a c t u a l use  the b a s i s f o r  of language by the s p e a k e r - h e a r e r . " " ^ I n  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar, knowledge of the language i n v o l v e s the i m p l i c i t , a b i l i t y to u n d e r s t a n d an  infinite  number of s e n t e n c e s , i n c l u d i n g those t h a t might not have been spoken or w r i t t e n . Treatment of M a t e r i a l . of time and and  I t took a great  e f f o r t to t e s t and r e t e s t the  a c c u r a c y of the r u l e s b e f o r e  such as t h i s one f o l l o w e d was:  validity  a tentative  c o u l d be r e a c h e d .  The  formulation  procedure  ( l ) i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a b i g number of  a c t u a l and p o s s i b l e Tagalog sentences which my knows and p e r m i t s , (2)  (3)  intuition  i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e w r i t t e n corpus;  f o r m u l a t i o n of the r u l e s of v a r i o u s k e r n e l  types;  deal  e x p l a n a t i o n of these r u l e s ; ( 4 )  of g r a m m a t i c a l s t r i n g s ; ( 5 ) t r e e s of d e r i v a t i o n ; ( 6 ) sentences r e p r e s e n t e d  sentence  generation  s e a t i n g up of s t r u c t u r e  exemplifying  some k e r n e l  by the s t r u c t u r e t r e e s ; ( 7 )  collating  the d i f f e r e n t k e r n e l r u l e s to form the b a s i c component of Tagalog k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s ; ( 8 )  showing some of the most  elementary or common t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , 13  Chomsky, A s p e c t s , p.  8.  supplying  comments  8 w h e n e v e r i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o do s o ; and  (9) c o n c l u d i n g  t h e s t u d y w i t h a s t a t e m e n t on what t h e  investigation  has  revealed. E x p l a n a t i o n o f Terms. G e n e r a t i v e Grammar.  G e n e r a t i v e grammar i s a  s y s t e m o f r u l e s t h a t i n some e x p l i c i t way  and  well-defined  assigns s t r u c t u r a l descriptions to sentences. This  s y s t e m o f r u l e s c a n be a n a l y z e d i n t o t h e t h r e e m a j o r c o m p o n e n t s o f a g e n e r a t i v e grammar: ( l ) t h e component w h i c h s p e c i f i e s ,  syntactic  f o r e a c h s e n t e n c e , a deep  s t r u c t u r e t h a t determines: i t s p h o n e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; ( 2 ) t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l component w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e p h o n e t i c f o r m o f a s e n t e n c e g e n e r a t e d by t h e rules;  and  ( 3 ) t h e s e m a n t i c component w h i c h  syntactic determines  the semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a sentence. The b a s e o f a s y n t a c t i c  component i s a  system  o f r e w r i t i n g and e x p a n s i o n r u l e s : t h a t g e n e r a t e a highly restricted  set of b a s i c s t r i n g s ,  each v/ith  a s s o c i a t e d s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n c a l l e d a base marker.  These base P h r a s e - m a r k e r s  an  Phrase-  are the elementary  u n i t s o f v/hich deep s t r u c t u r e s a r e c o n s t i t u t e d . U n d e r l y i n g each s e n t e n c e o f the language i s a sequence markers,  each g e n e r a t e d by t h e base  of the  of P h r a s e syntactic  9 component.  T h i s sequence i s t h e b a s i s o f t h e sentence  that i tunderlies. syntactic  I n a d d i t i o n to i t s base, the  component o f a g e n e r a t i v e grammar  a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l subcomponent. w i t h generating a sentence, from i t s b a s i s . restricted  contains  This i s concerned  with surface structure,  Since t h e base generates  s e t o f b a s e P h r a s e - m a r k e r s most  only a sentences  w i l l h a v e a s e q u e n c e o f s u c h s t r u c t u r e s a s an u n d e r l y i n g basis.  Among t h e s e n t e n c e s  v/ith  . s i n g l e base  markers as b a s i s i s a d e l i m i t e d subset sentences .  These a r e s e n t e n c e s  1  called  Phrasekernel  of a p a r t i c u l a r l y  simple  sort that involve only obligatory transformational rules i n their generation.  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s  c o n s i s t of r u l e s of d e l e t i o n , rearrangement, a d j u n c t i o n , and  so o n .  Among t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  are those  f o r m q u e s t i o n s , i m p e r a t i v e s , e t c . , when t h e deep  which struc-  t u r e s o i n d i c a t e s , i . e . , when t h e deep s t r u c t u r e r e p r e sents the corresponding notation.  "mental a c t " i n an a p p r o p r i a t e  The b a s e r u l e s a l l o w f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n •  o f new p r o p o s i t i o n s , i . e . , t h e r e a r e r e w r i t i n g r u l e s o f the form:  A  —>  . . . S . . . , where S i s t h e i n i t i a l  s y m b o l o f t h e p h r a s e - s t r u c t u r e grammar t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s  10 t h e b a s e ; t h e r e a r e no Generation.  other recursive  devices.^^'^^  Generation i s the  enumeration  o f a s e q u e n c e o f f o r m a t i v e s as a s e n t e n c e i n language.  G e n e r a t i o n does not  p r o d u c t i o n of sentences. by  some o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t —  operating  with  a generative  Transformation. the  By  ('The  l a t t e r i s accomplished  a man  or a machine  —  grammar. transformation  e.g.:  i s meant  M a s i p a g ang  student i s industrious.')  a simple transformation,  sipag.  The  +  Each t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l or o b l i g a t o r y .  The  tural description or s t r u c t u r e  Y  ===> Y  reordered  e s t u d y a n t e ay  f i r s t part (S.D., a l s o  index),  +  av_  +  r u l e i s m a r k e d as of the  ma-  X  either  rule i s a  optional struc-  called structural analysis  s p e c i f y i n g the  -^Chomsky, A s p e c t s , pp. i n the  estudyante.  T h i s can be  i . e . , Ang  of  rule i s : X  pp.  physical  a d d i t i o n , d e l e t i o n , o r change i n o r d e r o r f o r m  t h e morphemes i n v o l v e d ,  by  The  mean t h e  the  c l a s s of  strings  8-18.  15Koam Chomsky, C a r t e s i a n L i n g u i s t i c s : A C h a p t e r H i s t o r y o f R a t i o n a l i s t T h o u g h t (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 ) ,  31-51.  11 i n terms of t h e i r a n a l y s i s the  rule applies.  by phrase-markers to which  P o r example,  a transformational  r u l e may a p p l y t o a l l s e n t e n c e s v / i t h t r a n s i t i v e phrases,  e.g.:  S.D.:  V  t  +  I\TP  S.C. ( S t r u c t u r a l +  +  0  NP  C h a n g e ) : St-fc ( t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s t e m )  - i n - +  n-  +  NP  +  The p h o n e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f S.D. :  Grumawa  nang  'made' n - + D e t  BP  0  (noun p h r a s e  the r u l e s  laruan  are the following;  ang  b a t a.  'toy' Det g  s g  object)  ==^  'child'  S  ('The c h i l d made a t o y . ' ) S.C:  Ginawa  nang  'made' n - * D e t  bat a B g  'child,'  ang Det  laruan. 'toy'  s g  ('The t o y was made b y t h e c h i l d . ) 1  The r u l e w o u l d t h e n a p p l y t o a n i n d e f i n i t e number o f t e r m i n a l s t r i n g s w h i c h c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o p a r t s t r a c e a b l e one a f t e r a n o t h e r t o n o d e s markers as s p e c i f i e d  strings.  of phrase-  above.  Often, the s t r u c t u r a l description variable  four  contains  s y m b o l s s u c h a s X o r Y, s t a n d i n g f o r a n y P o r e x a m p l e , i f o n l y two o r more i t e m s a r e  important i n the transformation r u l e , other p o s s i b i l i t i e s may b e a l l o w e d b y p o s i t i o n i n g  a n X o r a'Y.  Suppose,  12 the  transformation rule i s interested  the  f o r m u l a t i o n may b e X  +  V  +  i  i n 7j_ +  KP  +  HP,  y.  The s e c o n d p a r t s p e c i f i e s t h e s t r u c t u r a l change ( S . C . ) b y means o f v a r i a b l e subscript  signs l i k e  X with  numbers o r s i m p l y numbers r e f e r r i n g t o t h e  segments s p e c i f i e d by t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n . the  above example,  i n the s t r i n g .  X3  would r e f e r  In  t o w h a t e v e r i s HP  I n t h i s study t h i s system i s used  o n l y i n i s o l a t e d cases'. It i s occasionally conditions  necessary to state  t h a t must be met i n a d d i t i o n  to those  s p e c i f i e d i n the s t r u c t u r a l description. if  a transformation applies  Por  f a c t b y means o f a c o n d i t i o n i n g  'where t h e HP's a r e i d e n t i c a l , ' • ^ p e r o- ( p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n x sg r  a rule  from  Passive  instance,  t o two s e n t e n c e s and a  p a r t of the sentence i s d e l e t e d , the r u l e that  various  specifies  statement  like  o r , V/here HP i s a  singular)'.  We  cite  here  Chomsky: (Optional)  Structural  analysis:  Structural  change: ===5>  NB Xj_ + X  16Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c  + + 2  Aux X2  +  + be  +  + X3 en  Structures,  V  +  HP  + Xij. + X3  + by  p. 112.  + X]_  1.3 The r u l e may b e p a r a p h r a s e d  thus:  A p a s s i v e may b e  formed from any s t r i n g t h a t matches t h e s t r u c t u r a l ( l ) a noun p h r a s e f o l l o w e d by (2) t h e  analysis auxiliary past by  (i.e.,  t h e complex o f elements l e a d i n g t o  t e n s e , p e r s o n m a r k e r , m o d a l s , and so o n ) f o l l o w e d  (3) a verb  ( a c t u a l l y a verb  of a certain  be s p e c i f i e d ) f o l l o w e d b y ( 4 ) a s e c o n d n o u n The p a s s i v e by  counterpart  (the  phrase.  t o each such sentence i s formed  s w i t c h i n g noun p h r a s e s  the analyzed  c l a s s must  (X]_ - t h e f i r s t  segment o f  s t r i n g - and X 4 ) , by a t t a c h i n g be + en  p a s t p a r t i c i p l e formant) t o t h e a u x i l i a r y , and  try p l a c i n g by_ b e f o r e Bill  t h e l a s t noun  phrase.  Past + 0 see John  may b e t r a n s f o r m e d  to the passive  string:  J o h n + P a s t + 0 + b e + en + s e e + b y + B i l l i.e.,  J o h n was s e e n b y B i l l .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e  p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e r u l e s a r e s e t up i n s u c h a way t h a t the  string B i l l  the passive  + P a s t + go + home v a i l n o t u n d e r g o  transformation  (i.e.,  so t h a t home i n t h i s  s t r i n g i s b y d e r i v a t i o n n o t an K P ) .  The p r o d u c t o f  a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o as a t r a n s f o r m , and marked T p a s s i v e ,  Tnom, e t c . - '  -7  •*-?See Emmon B a c h , A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammars (New Y o r k , 1964-), p p . 5 9 - 8 5 .  Ik Explicitness.  By e x p l i c i t n e s s  requirement that the theory i t s e l f between  state  the forms, t h a t by a s e r i e s  s t e p s t h e f o r m s h f t h e l a n g u a g e may sequence left  i s meant t h e the  of "mechanical" be p r o d u c e d i n p r o p e r  and c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a minimum o f  t o the i n t e l l i g e n c e  relationships  interpretation  of the r e a d e r o r u s e r o f the  theory. P e r f o r m a n c e and is application  Competence.  o f the knowledge  ideal speaker-listener, s p e e c h c o m m u n i t y , who  Actual  performance  of the language by  an  i n a c o m p l e t e l y homogeneous knows i t s l a n g u a g e  perfectly  and i s u n a f f e c t e d b y s u c h g r a m m a t i c a l l y i r r e l e v a n t c o n d i t i o n s as memory l i m i t a t i o n s , d i s t r a c t i o n s , of  attention  and i n t e r e s t ,  characteristic. the  interaction  and e r r o r s  To s t u d y a c t u a l of a v a r i e t y  shifts  random o r  linguistic  of f a c t o r s ,  performance,  of which the  u n d e r l y i n g competence o f t h e s p e a k e r - h e a r e r i s o n l y one, must b e  considered.  h e a r e r ' s knowledge is  the a c t u a l  Competence i s t h e s p e a k e r -  o f h i s l a n g u a g e , and  performance  use of language i n c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s ' .  Only under t h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n i s performance a r e f l e c t i o n of competence. could not d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t  In actual  direct  fact, i t obviously  competence . 1  15  K e r n e l Sentence.  A sentence that i s derived  from phrase s t r u c t u r e t e r m i n a l s t r i n g s by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f o b l i g a t o r y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o n l y and phonological rules i s c a l l e d a kernel sentence. t h i s way e v e r y s e n t e n c e o f t h e l a n g u a g e w i l l  In  be  either  a k e r n e l s e n t e n c e o r one p r o d u c e d b y a c o m b i n a t i o n of  o b l i g a t o r y and o p t i o n a l Rule.  one  transformations'.  A r u l e i s an i n s t r u c t i o n t o r e w r i t e  s t r i n g o r two s t r i n g s a s a n o t h e r s t r i n g . P h r a s e S t r u c t u r e R u l e s (PS R u l e s ) .  structure rules are the f i r s t and t h e y s p e c i f y t h e s y n t a c t i c occurrence r e l a t i o n s ^  The p h r a s e  s e t o f r u l e s i n a grammar, c l a s s e s and t h e i r c o -  Phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s  ( o r PS  rules,  or P-rules) are simple s t r i n g  replacement  rules;  i . e . , one s t r i n g r e p l a c e s a n o t h e r i n t h e s e n s e  t h a t one and o n l y one s y m b o l i s e x p a n d e d i n t o a  string.  The r u l e s m u s t b e w r i t t e n i n s u c h a way a s t o p e r m i t the to  automatic assignment  of phrase markers  (P-markers)  t h e s t r i n g s o f morphemes d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s e Phrase Markers  phrase markers  (P-markers).  rules.  The u n d e r l y i n g  (P-markers) a r e phrase markers a s s i g n e d  by t h e p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e r u l e s  (P-rules).  16  String.  A s t r i n g i s any l i n e a r s e q u e n c e  symbols g e n e r a t e d by the p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e grammar, b y t h e r u l e s o f o r d e r , by  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  of  component  by t h e l e x i c o n ,  r u l e s , and b y t h e m o r p h o p h o n e m i c  rules'. Derivation. a given  A d e r i v a t i o n of a given  grammar i s a s e q u e n c e  which the f i r s t  s t r i n g from  of s t r i n g s of symbols  s t r i n g i s an i n i t i a l  of  s t r i n g and i n v/hich  e v e r y s t r i n g f o l l o w s f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g one b y  the  a p p l i c a t i o n of a r u l e . Tree or Tree S t r u c t u r e . is  a labeled bracketing  constituents formal  of v a r i o u s  property All  of  A tree or tree  structure  i n t o a t r e e - l i k e diagram t y p e s showing  of  t h e most o b v i o u s  utterances.  the d e f i n i t i o n s given  above a r e  borrowed  f r o m s e v e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f t r a n s f o r mational-generative  grammar.  some o f them a f e w s y m b o l s  I have a l s o  I have u s e d i n t h i s  O t h e r s y m b o l s h a v e b e e n c o n t r i v e d b y me. of symbols i s i n c l u d e d  copied  from  work.  A vocabulary  as appendix f o r handy  reference.  CHAPTER I I . The tence  PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES OP THE GRAMMAR c o n s t i t u e n t - s t r u c t u r eof the k e r n e l  o f Tagalog  i s of the g e n e r a l shape: X — >  T h e r e a r e two m a i n t y p e s o f s e n t e n c e s , formulated i n t h i s study: i.e.,  as  ( l ) the verb phrase  There a r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c o p u l a  t u r e s , and t h e s e a r e : noun p h r a s e  type,  struc-  copula plus d e s c r i p t i v e  plus  (Cop + D + N P ) , c o p u l a p l u s n o u n p h r a s e  p l u s noun p h r a s e  (Cop + NP + N P ) , and c o p u l a p l u s  p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e p l u s noun p h r a s e + D i s o f two k i n d s , n a m e l y :  (Cop  Y + Z.  VP + NP; and ( 2 ) t h e c o p u l a t y p e s , i . e . , Cop +  X + HP.  Cop  sen-  (Cop + P r e p p ^ + N P ) . copula plus a d j e c t i v e  + A d j ) , and c o p u l a p l u s adverb  + NP i s a l s o o f two k i n d s :  pre-  (Cop + A d v ) .  Cop  c o p u l a p l u s n o u n (Cop + N ) ,  and  copula p l u s pronoun, p e r s o n a l , s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l ,  and  demonstrative,  singular or plural  Each k e r n e l sentence in  e r  _).  t y p e i s mapped o u t b e l o w  the form of c o n s t i t u e n t - s t r u c t u r e r u l e s .  the statement is  (Cop + P r p  Following  o f t h e r u l e s o f each k e r n e l sentence  type  a d i s c u s s i o n of the rules i n c l u d i n g the generation  of s t r i n g s .  After listing  a l l t h e r u l e s and d i s c u s s i n g  pertinent p o i n t s , I w i l l b r i n g together a l l the rules of the copula k e r n e l sentence  types  t o form the copula  18 kernel  sentence r u l e s , and then I w i l l  the verb k e r n e l  them  with  sentence r u l e s t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e base  r u l e s of Tagalog k e r n e l  sentences.  I have p l a c e d t h e verb k e r n e l first  collate  s e n t e n c e rules.-  i n the order of f o r m u l a t i o n because t h i s type of  s e n t e n c e i s t h e most t y p i c a l o f ^-'agalog s t r u c t u r e s . The into  copula kernel  sentence r u l e s have been  conflated  t h r e e b i g r u l e s f o r r e a s o n s o f economy o f f o r m u -  lation. Some o f t h e most common t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ,  v/ith  comments s u p p l i e d , a r e shown a f t e r t h e b a s e r u l e s ' .  KERNEL 1 RULES  (1)  s  (2)  pp  PP — »  VP r  (3)  YP  (4)  HP o  +  V  IIP (Adv)  U  n-  Adv  —  ^  0  /  +  Prep (5)  NP )  +  t  NP +  m  Pia  NP  (Tm)l  (Tm)  Tm FP (6)  NP  —>  sg  C  FP  (Si)  p l  N Let, (7)  NP s g  Name. ?r  7><  p  e  r g  Pr pos .  (8)  NP  p l  s  to  rr  Prdem  Det  >  S  p l  • Name 7 P r dem.  —M  Pr p e r i p  P r P°Spl  20  (9)  V  St  — s  t  t 2  (10)  v  >  As  mag-  2  +  -um-  +  mag-  > As  3  Com Actl  As  mag-  -um-  Sti  (11)  +  3  ± 1  Sti  —  ±  -um-  -um-  stt  st  +  1  Pro To  Lexicon  (12)  Detop-  — >  N  ang /  , k  si  Name  /  A  N  (13)  a n g manga / Detpi  < l  (14)  (15)  Prep Pia  m  —>  — d i t o  Tm  —»•  'here',  diyan  'there-', do on  (yonder)'...  bulcas day',  d  Name  sa  'there (16)  P r emj  sina /  'tomorrow', k a h a p o n  wala  'absent'...  'yester-  21(17)  Prper  —^>  s g  ako  ' I ' , i k a w 'you', s i y a  'he/  she'. (18)  Prp  —>  e r  kami  inclusive', (19)  ^possg  — a k i n ya  (20)  ? r  pos i  JPr  d e m  sila  'we  -  'they . 1  'mine', i y o  amin 'ours',  nila (21)  - e x c l u s i v e ' , tayo  'yours',  kani-  'his/hers'.  —•»  p  'we  inyo  'yours',  ka-  'theirs . 1  —-y  i t o 'this', iyan  'that', iyon  'that  (yonder)'. (22)  Stt]_  — p i l i pitas  (23)  Stt2  S t i  1  —^  Sti  2  'give', tanim  tapang  —>  'bravery',  Stt^  lingkod  —>  basa lat  (27)  Stj^  'plant', d i -  alls  'leave',  'rain'... 'service/servant',  ' s o l d i e r ' , bus (26)  'ask',  'celebrate'...  ulan (25)  hingi  'pick'...  — b i g a y wang  (24)  'select/choose*,  'bus'... biiang  'count*,  su-  'letter/write'...  — i w a s ngala  'read',  sundalo  'evade/elude', i y a k  'look  upward'...  'cry*, t i -  bata  'child', lalaki  libro  estudyante  'student  'man'...  'book', k u w a r t o  'room', a s o  damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g galak  'joy'....  'love  23"  DISCUSSION The r u l e s w i l l now be o p e r a t e d s t r i n g s v/hich u n d e r l i e s e n t e n c e s  t o generate  some  v/ith a b a s i c p a t t e r n  i n w h i c h VP ( v e r b p h r a s e ) i s a V ( v e r b o r v e r b a l ) , a n d n o t a Cop ( c o p u l a ) v / i t h a p r e d i c a t e . be e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l  Each r u l e  v/ill  a s we go a l o n g .  A p p l i c a t i o n of the r u l e s i s from l e f t O n l y one s y m b o l , t h a t on t h e e x t r e m e l e f t  to right.  of the arrow,  may be r e w r i t t e n a t a t i m e , and t h e r e w r i t i n g g o e s on until  the terminal s t r i n g i s r e a l i z e d .  e i t h e r makes s u b s e t s  A rev/riting  rule  of the c l a s s r e p r e s e n t e d by the  symbol o r expands t h e symbol i n t o i t s elements.  Por  example:  S  PP  The r e v / r i t i n g p r o c e s s  +  NP  g o e s on u n t i l  a l lthe  s y m b o l s c a n no l o n g e r b e r e w r i t t e n o r e x p a n d e d , and b y then they represent a grammatical a kernel Steps  string that underlies  sentence.  i n Generating (l)  Strings  Write S (sentence).  PLewrite S a s PP  c a t e p h r a s e ) p l u s NP ( n o u n p h r a s e ) .  (predi-  The a r r o w , a n o p e r a t o r ,  24means ' r e w r i t e the r e l a t i o n (2)  as', or  PP  arrow  indicates  (predicate phrase) i s taken f i r s t , i t of the next  (verb p h r a s e ) .  (adverb  The  " i s a".  being to the l e f t as VP  'expand t o ' .  A VP may  or a d v e r b i a l ) .  symbol. also  Therefore,  PP i s  rewritten  o c c u r w i t h an two  s t r i n g s are  Adv now  possible: VP  +  MP  VP  +  Adv  +  MP  These s t r u c t u r e s , a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g trees.  S  VP  Adv  branching  25  (3)  The  verb phrase) VP  has  two  (transitive  as  The  Adv in  object,  v e r b v/ith NP  (intransitive t h o u g h t h e r e may  V  t  +  NP  0  +  MP  V  t  +  NP  0  +  Adv  V  ±  +  NP  V  ±  +  Adv  +  NP  discussion  be  of Rule  will (5);  +  NP  noun p h r a s e ) ) ;  Q  and  occurs without  an a d v e r b o r  r u l e s are  +  or  the  adverbial). following:  NP  be NP  expalined Q  will  in  also  detail be  later.  Some o f the  (verb  arrow-operator.  v e r b v/hich  the  (adverb or a d v e r b i a l ) the  the  (object  0  s t r i n g s g e n e r a t e d by  developed  in  d i r e c t e d by  VP  major r e w r i t i n g , p o s s i b l i t i e s :  otherwise, an  next step i s to r e w r i t e  following  the  structures  trees.  g i v e n above a r e  shown  27  There i s a n o t h e r c l a s s of Vj_ t h a t i s not i n this formulation.  T h i s ? i i s a s m a l l s e t of  u s u a l l y r e f e r r i n g to a c t s of n a t u r e ,  treated verbs,  t h a t need no  ( i . e . , no s u b j e c t ) to c o n s t i t u t e a sentence.  NP  Por  example: Umuulan.  ('It i s r a i n i n g . ' )  Kumikidlat.  ('The  lightning i s flashing.')  lumilindol.  ('The  e a r t h i s quaking.')  A r u l e to g e n e r a t e t h i s type of v e r b - s e n t e n c e c o u l d w e l l be l i k e the f o l l o w i n g : S The  V±  n  —>  PP  0  +  (nature verb i n t r a n s i t i v e ) would be chosen i n  the environment of (Adv)  +  0,  i n t r a n s i t i v e verb) otherwise.  and V±  a  We  (the  ordinary  have not i n c l u d e d  the  r u l e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n because t h i s k i n d of s t r u c t u r e i s p e r i p h e r a l i n the language. The structures.  r u l e may  be shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t r e e  s pp  VP V-i n Umuulan. ('It i s r a i n i n g . ' )  PP VP  Adv  V-i n Umulan  kaiiapon.  'rained'  'yesterday'  ('It r a i n e d  yesterday.')  29  (4) a s n - + HP.  NP  ( o b j e c t n o u n p h r a s e ) w i l l be  Q  The n- i s a m o r p h e m e - o p e r a t o r t h a t m a r k s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  " o b j e c t " , and  the morphophonemics  change t h e s a h p e o f t h e d e t e r m i n e r . p a r t of the NP position. of  w i l l be  0  The  m a r k e r ) p l u s NP  The Prep  language.  i t may  be  two  r e w r i t t e n as P r e p  (noun p h r a s e ) .  Tm  m  +  NP  Prep  m  +  NP  +  s a w i l l be  possible (preposition  (time a d v e r b i a l ) i s  This r u l e generates these Prep  m  strings:  Tm  d e l e t i o n o f t h e d e t e r m i n e r ang i n r e l a t i o n m  NP  t h e NP i n s u b j e c t  (adverb or a d v e r b i a l ) has  First,  optional.  the  will  grammar t h u s shows t h e l a r g e g e n e r a l r u l e s  Adv  rewrites.  Otherwise  developed l i k e  the noun phrase p a r t of the (5)  rewritten  to  e x p l a i n e d l a t e r i n the morphophonemic  rules'. The w h i c h may  o t h e r r e w r i t e o f Adv  o r may  i s P l a (place  adverbial),  n o t o c c u r w i t h an o p t i o n a l e l e m e n t  ( t i m e a d v e r b i a l ) , b u t Tm may do n o t n e e d a P r e p . m  The  rule w i l l  strings: Pla Pla Tm  +  occur alone.  Tm  These  generate the  Tm  adverbials following  The s t r i n g s g i v e n i n t h e p r e c e d i n g shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  trees.  page  32  (6)  NP ( n o u n p h r a s e ) , a h i g h - l e v e l  symbol, i s  t h e s t a r t i n g node o f a l l b r a n c h i n g r u l e s r i g h t o f t h e c o n c a t e n a t i o n s i g n a s w e l l a s o f t h e NP o f t h e N P . 0  NP i s r e w r i t t e n a s F P NPpl  (noun p h r a s e (7)  s g  (noun p h r a s e  singular), or  plural).  N P g i s t h e n expanded t o D e t g S  S  s i n g u l a r ) plus e i t h e r of the f o l l o w i n g : Name.  The o t h e r p o s s i b l e :expansions  (determiner  N (noun), o r  are P r p  e r s  g  (per-  s o n a l p r o n o u n s i n g u l a r ) , a n d Prdem ( d e m o n s t r a t i v e noun), which  do n o t t a k e a d e t e r m i n e r .  Rule  (7)  prowill  thus produce these p o s s i b l e s t r i n g s : Det g  +  N  Det g  +  Name  S  S  Erper P  (8)  r  POs  s  s g  g  NPpi i s r e w r i t t e n as D e t p i  p l u r a l ) p l u s a n y o f N, Name, a n d Pr<3_ . era  possible rewrite i sP r p without determiner.  e r  Rule  p l  Detpi  Another  (personal pronoun (8) can thus produce  s t r i n g s t h a t may c o m p r i s e NPp^: Det  (determiner  +  N  +  Name  plural), these  33 Det  +  p l  P r  P  P r  pos i  e r  Pr  d e m  pl p  It can be seen from Rules ( 7 ) and ( 8 ) that Tagalog nouns do not show number.  I t i s the determiner that expresses  number, singular or p l u r a l .  The same i s true with Name,  although Name takes a d i f f e r e n t set of markers.  The  ^ dem i s unmarked f o r singular, but marked f o r p l u r a l r  by a Detpl.  The P r r has d i f f e r e n t forms f o r singular  and p l u r a l .  The correct choice f o r determiners i s shown  p e  i n Rules (12.) and ( 1 3 ) . These strings are shown i n the following diagrams . 1  NP  E P  34  35 The  s y m b o l S]_ r e p r e s e n t s  take the p l a c e  o f NT.  any  sentence that  S i i s p r o d u c e d by  can  nominalization  transformation. (9)  and  (10)  T h e s e two  w r i t i n g properties'.  They r e v e a l t h e  s t r u c t u r e of the v e r b . b i n a t i o n o f a s t e m and marker.  There are  t h a t take the magor Vt  and  (3)  (verb  morphological  or v e r b a l )  a verb formative  and  c l a s s e s of stems: -um-;  (2)  those that  i s a coman  aspect  ( l ) those permit  those that take e i t h e r  -um-  mag-. ( T r a n s i t i v e Verb) Stti  -um-  +  pili  —->  pumili  h i n g i + -um-  —->  humingi  'to  ask/asked'  p i t a s + -um-  —->  pumitas  'to  pick/picked'  Stt  Vi  A V  three  formative  formative;  r u l e s h a v e common r e -  + -um-  +  mag-  bigay  + mag-  2  —>  'to s e l e c t / t o c h o o s e / c h o s e '  magbigay  t a n i m + mag-  — m a g t a n i m  d i w a n g + mag-  —•>  'to  give'  'to p l a n t '  magdiwang  'to  celebrate'  ( I n t r a n s i t i v e Verb) s  t  i l  +  t a p ang  -urn+ -um-  —tumapang  ' t o be  brave/became b r a v e '  36  a l i s + -urn-  —?  umalis 'to l e a v e / l e f t '  ulan + -urn-  —^  umulan 'to rain/rained'  Sti£  +  mag-  lingkod + mag-  —>  magi ingle od 'to render s e r v i c e  sundalo + mag-  —>  magsundalo 'to perform the  1  function of a s o l d i e r ' bus +. mag-  —magbus  'to take the bus/ride i n  a bus' Vt and Vj (Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb) Stt-j + -um-,  or  mag-  basa + -um-  —*>  b i l ang + -um-  —bumilang  sulat + -um-  —•>  sumulat  basa + mag-  —>  magbasa 'to read (with frequency)'  bilang + mag-  —=>• magbilang  sulat + mag-  —>  S t t 3  Sti3  +  +  m a  ~  u m  bumasa 'to read/rea.d' 'to count/counted' 'to write/wrote'  g~  magsulat  'to count (with frequency) 'to write (with frequency)'  ~  iwas + -um-  —^  umiwas 'to evade or elude/evaded or eluded'  iyak + -um-  —>  t i n g a l a + -um-  umiyak 'to cry/cried'  —tumingala  'to look up/looked up'  37  The morphophonemics o f t h e stem and t h e f o r m a t i v e , t o g e t h e r w i t h aspect, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r The f o r m a t i v e s -urn-  and mag-  section.  a r e sometimes  m e r e l y v e r b a l markers: e.g., sayaw i s 'dance'  (noun),  but t h e a d d i t i o n o f -um- o r mag- marks "verb". " Sometimes t h e c h o i c e f o r S t 3 v e r b s i s merely  stylistic;  sometimes t h e c h o i c e conveys a d i f f e r e n t meaning. The -um- f o r m a t i v e marks As ( a s p e c t ) Com (comp l e t e d ) f o r S ^ and S t v e r b s , b u t a l s o f r e q u e n t l y 3  c a r r i e s meaning o f i n t e r n a l motion, o r " w i l l i n g " .  It  e x p r e s s e s t h e i n t e n t i o n a l p u t t i n g i n t o a c t i o n o f what the  stem, denotes,  e.g.:  t i w a l a g + -um-  —>  •separate/remove or  tumiwalag  'to s e p a r a t e  o r drop o f f v o l u n t a r i l y  drop o f f (as  member o f an  (as member o f an organization)*  organization)' tiwalag  mag-  —>  magtiwalag  'of t h e o f f i c e r s  or members o f an organi z a t i o n , t o drop o r s e p a r a t e from membership a n o t h e r member w i t h o u t v o l i t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e l a t t e r '  38 To i l l u s t r a t e : Tumiwalag '  ang  'dropped o f f  Det  estudyante  sa  'student' P r e p  s g  kapisanan. 'society'  m  voluntarily' ('The s t u d e n t r e s i g n e d as a member o f t h e s o c i e t y . ' ) Nagtiwalag  nang  manga k a s a p i  'dropped Off* n- + D e t  p l  ang  'member' D e t  s g  patnugutan. 'directorship'  ('The b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s dropped from t h e r o l l  some  members o f t h e s o c i e t y . ' ) (a)  The a f f i x -um-  also expresses impersonal  a c t s , a c t s o f n a t u r e , and s e l f - c h a n g e through time o r the  i n t e r v e n t i o n o f man. (1)  umulan 'to r a i n / r a i n e d ' bumagyo 'to storm/stormed' humangin 'of t h e wind, t o blow/the wind blew'  (2)  tumub0 'to grow/grew' s u m i l a n g 'to s h i n e / s h o n e ' s.umibbl 'to s p r i n g up/sprung up'  (3)  pumuti  'to become w h i t e '  tumaba 'to become f a t ' dumami 'to m u l t i p l y ' (b) A c t s o f t a k i n g a p a r t from the whole humiwa 'to c u t a  slice'  39  pumitas liumati (c)  'to p i c k ' 'to take  The a f f i x -um-  of going towards  half sometimes e x p r e s s e s  acts  o r away f r o m a p l a c e .  pumakanan  'to t u r n t o t h e right.'  pumagitna  'to get t o the  umalis  center'  ' t o go away'  Mag- e x p r e s s e s p u t t i n g i n t o m o t i o n what t h e s t e m d e n o t e s , t h e m o t i o n b e i n g more e x t e r n a l and l e s s i n t e n s e  t h a n -um-  i n character,  verbs i n v o l u n t a r i n e s s . I t  means t o do, p e r f o r m , o r a c c o m p l i s h a c t s feeling,  and i n v o l v e s  external  magsundalo  of t h i n k i n g ,  motion.  'to perform the f u n c t i o n  of a s o l d i e r ' magbus ' t o t a k e t h e b u s / r i d e magtanim MagPor  may a l s o  i n a bus'  'to p l a n t ' express frequency of a c t i o n .  example:  S t + -umb i l a n g + -um'count'  St —>  bumilang 'count/ counted'  +  mag-  b i l a n g + mag — > 'count'  magbilang "to count  (frequently)'  40 (ll)  The element As ( a s p e c t ) must be  i n R u l e s (9) and ( 1 0 ) . Pro  chosen  The As symbol i s expanded  to  (proposed) f o r an a c t i o n viewed as y e t t o happen;  o r , A c t l ( a c t u a l ) f o r an a c t i o n viewed as b e i n g i n p r o g r e s s ; o r , Com  (completed) f o r an a c t i o n t h a t i s  viewed as h a v i n g happened. i n Rule ( l l ) .  The s e l e c t i o n of As i s made  As i s n o t marked by a f o r m a t i v e ,  but As  a c t s a t the morphophonemic l e v e l . The s t r u c t u r e of t h e Verb i s shown by the following trees.  Com  ^3 Morphophonemic R u l e s and  o f t h e Verb Stem,  Aspect This s e c t i o n w i l l  processes and  Formative,  are  three p a r t s :  (l) S^  (3)  and  chosen.  and  i n i t i a l /V/  formative,  r u l e s are d i v i d e d i n t o  + As,  L As.  (2.) S t  2  +  mag-  Each p a r t i s subdivided  \ mag-J  (a) r u l e s t h a t a f f e c t  sonant),  The  + -um-  St^ )  . . into  phonological  t h a t t a k e p l a c e when a s t e m , a  an a s p e c t  + As,  e x p l a i n the  stems w i t h i n i t i a l /C/  (con-  ( b ) r u l e s t h a t p e r t a i n t o stems w i t h (vowel)'.  The  s e q u e n c e o f /C/  are i n the o r d e r of t h e i r occurrence  and /V/  i n the verb  symbols stem.  The 0 s y m b o l i s p o s t u l a t e d t o mark d e l e t i o n o f t h e formative (l)  i n As  S t i + -um-  (aspect) Pro +  -um-  (proposed),  As  ( a ) S t . / C V . . . / + -um-  + Com  —>  /C/  + -um-  + /V.../  e.g.: pili  + -um-  h i n g i + -um-  + Com + Com  —» —>  pumili humingi  'selected/chose' 'asked'  We a r e c o n c e r n e d h e r e w i t h t h e m o r p h o g r a p h e m i c s and n o t v / i t h p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s . In p h o n o l o g i c a l terms, t h e i n i t i a l phone o f t h e s e stems i s a /C/ (consonant).  44  St /CV.../ + -um- + A c t l — > /C/ + -um- + /V/ + /C/ + /V.../ e.g.: p i l i + -um- + A c t l — > pumipili * selecting/choosing hingi + -um- + Actl —-> humihingi  1  'asking.  1  St /CV.../ + -um- + Pro — ^ /C/+/0/+/VJ+/V/+/Y.../ e.g.: P i l i  +  -um-  +  P r 0  —>  p i p i l i  'will s e l e c t / w i l l choose'  hingi + -um- + Pro — > hihingi (h) St /VC.../ + -um- + Com  'will ask'  ~>'_um-  +  /V/+/C.../  e.g.: asa + -um- + Com — > umasa 'hoped' iwas + -um- + Com — > umiwas 'evaded/eluded' St /VC.../ + -um- + A c t l — > -um- + /V/+/V.'../ e.g.: asa + -um- + A c t l — > umaasa 'hoping' iwas + -um- + A c t l — > umiiwas  'evading/eluding'  St /W.../ + -um- + Pro — > '/jt/+/$/+/V.../ e.g.: asa + -um- + Pro — > aaaa 'will hope' iwas + -um- + Pro — > iiwas 'will evade/will elude' ( ) 2  St2+  mag- + As  (a) St /CV.../ + mag- + Com — > mag- + /CV.../  45 In  t h e morphophonemics,  Pro,  t h e f o r m a t i v e mag-, a s p e c t  t r a n s f o r m s t o n a g - i n a s p e c t s Com and A c t l . '  e.g.: tanmm + mag- + Com — >  nagtanim  d i w a n g + mag- + Com — >  'planted*  nagdiwang  S t /CV.../ + mag- + A c t l — >  'celebrated'  mag- +/C/+/Y/+/0/+/V.../  e.g.: t a n i m + mag- + A c t l — >  nagtatanim 'planting'  d i w a n g + mag- + A c t l — >  nagdidiwang  St /CV.../ + mag- + P r o — >  'celebrating'  mag- +/C/+/V/+/C/+/Y. "../  e.g.: t a n i m + mag- + P r o — >  magtatanim  d i w a n g + mag- + P r o — > (b)  'will  magdidiwang  S t /VC.../ + mag- + Com — >  plant'  'will  celebrate'  mag- +/V/+/Q.../  e.g.: a f a l + mag- + Com — n a g a r a l  'studied'  impok + mag- + Com ~=> n a g i m p o k S t /CV.../ + mag- + A c t l — >  'saved  (money)'  mag- +/Y/+/Y/+/C.../  e. g.. : aral  + mag- + A c t l — >  nagaaral  'studying'  impok + mag- + A c t l --> n a g i i m p o k ' s a v i n g S t /VC.../ + mag- + P r o — > aral  + mag- + P r o — >  impok + mag- + P r o — >  (money)'  mag- +/Y/+/Y/+/0.../  magaaral ' w i l l magiimpok  study'  'will  save  (money)'  46  (3) S t J . [ As 1 mag3  (a)  S t /CV.../ + _um-. + Com — -> /C/+ -um- + /V.../  e.g. : b i l ang + -um- + Com — 9 » b u m i l a n g sulat  + -um- + Com — > s u m u l a t  'counted'  "wrrbte'  S t /CV.../ + -um- £ A c t l — » /C/+ -um-  +/V/+/C/+/V.../  e.g. : bilang sulat  + -um- + A c t l — ^ b u m i b i l a n g ' c o u n t i n g ' + -um- + A c t l — > s u m u s u l a t  S t /CV.../ + -um- + P r o — >  'writing'  /C/+/0/+/Y/+/C/+/V.../  e.g.: bilang sulat  + -um- + P r o — b i b i l a n g + -um- + P r o —*>> s u s u l a t  'will 'will  ( b ) S t /VC.../ + -um- + Com —>~-um-  count'  write' +/Y/+/C.../  e.g.: apuhap + -um- + Com — > umapuhap 'examined w i t h t h e touch/groped i n the dark' i w a s + -um- + Com — > umiwas  'evaded/eluded'  S t /VC.../ + -um- + A c t l — > -um-  +/Y/+/Y/+/C.../  e.g.: apuhap + -um- + c t l A  —>  umaapuliap the  'touching with  hand/groping i nthe dark'  iwas  + -um- + A c t l —-> u m i i w a s  S t /VC.../ + -um- + P r o  'evading/eluding' -/+/V/+/V/+/0.../  --/#  e.g. : apuhap + -um- + P r o — ^ aapuliap ' w i l l  touch w i t h the  the hand/ w i l l  grope i n t h e  dark' iwas  + -um- + P r o — - » i i w a s  'vail  elude/will  evade  1  /V/+/C.../  S t /VC.../ + mag- + Com — > mag- + e.g.: apuhap + mag- + Com — > n a g a p u h a p  'touched  with the  hand/groped i n the dark' i w a s + mag- + Com —•> n a g i w a s  'eluded/evaded  action being S t /VC.../ + mag- + A c t l — >  mag-  (the  frequent) +/Y/+/Y/+/C.../  e.g.: apuhap + mag- + A c t l — ^ n a g a a p u h a p  'touching with  the hand/groping  I n the  dark  being  (the action  frequent)' i w a s + mag- + A c t l — > n a g i i w a s (the  'eluding/evading  a c t i o n being frequent) '  48 S t /VC.'../ + mag-  + P r o — > /0/+/Y/+/Y/+/O.../  e.g.: apuhap + mag-  + P r o —;>aapuhap ' w i l l  touch w i t h the  h a n d / w i l l grope i n the dark i w a s + magWe  + Pro — i i w a s  have  'will  evade/will  shown t h e m o r p h o p h o n e m i c s o f t h e s t e m ,  f o r m a t i v e , and a s p e c t o f t r a n s i t i v e verbs.  elude'  and  intransitive  A more d e t a i l e d grammar w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e s u b -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t r a n s i t i v e  and i n t r a n s i t i v e  verbs.  S u c h a grammar w o u l d s p e c i f y what k i n d o f HP a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o f V t ( t r a n s i t i v e v e r b ) o r Vj_ ( i n t r a n s i t i v e would take.  Perhaps the HP  0  w o u l d a l s o be  verb)  considered  as a p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c i n g environment o f t h e v e r b . Morphophonemics  of P r e p  ang manga, s i , and  m  s a and t h e l e t e r m i n e r g  sina  The d e t e r m i n e r ang i s d e l e t e d i n t h e as  ang,  morphophonemics,  follows: sg  —>  Prep  e.g.: sa Prep  + m  ang  Det s g  +  bata •child'  sa  bata.  Prep  m  'child'  'to/with/from the  child  49 sa Prep  +  ang Det  m  +  maganda  —-j>  'beautiful'  s g  sa Prep  maganda m  'beautiful*  (' t o / v / i t h / f r o m t h e beautiful Prep  m  +  Det  p l  [N ] i •» — > P r em.  Prep  one') Adj  + manga  m  d  s a + a n g + manga + b a t a Prep  m  De-!; D e t ]_  —>  'child,  1  ^ demJ r  sa ?rep  m  manga  bata  manga  'child  1  ('to/with/from the children') sa Prep  + m  ang. + manga + maganda — » Det i p  'beautiful'  sa Prep  m  manga  maganda  manga  'beautiful'  ('to/with/from the beautiful s a * a n g + manga + i t o —•»  sa  Prep  m  ones')  manga  i t o  manga  'tbiis'  ('to/with/from The D e t g S  and Det ]_ markers p  r e p l a c e d b y new m a r k e r s . undergoes a c y c l e ,  thus:  these')  b e f o r e Name a r e  The morphophonemic  rule  50 Det g  + Name  Prep  + s i + Name — ^ - \ P r e p  S  m  >  Detp]_ + Name Prep The  + m  si. +  Name m  + k a y + Name  —»-•• s i n a + Name  s i n a + Name -—>  Prep  + k i n a + Name  m  m o r p h o p h o n e m i c m a p p i n g i s shown b e l o w : si  J  sina  kay sa —  kina  e.g. sa kay Pablo  1  to/with/from Pablo'  sa k i n a Pablo  ' t o / w i t h / f r o m P a b l o and h i s companions'  Morphophonemics o f t h e Pronoun P r  per g S  (personal  (personal  pronoun s i n g u l a r ) ,  p r o n o u n p l u r a l ) and P r  pronoun) a r e p o s s i b l e r e w r i t e s Prep P r  a  e  m  Prp p-j_ er  (demonstrative  o f NP.  After the  ( p r e p o s i t i o n marker), which i s always s a ,  m  per  ( s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ) changes shape, and t a k e s  the form o f t h e corresponding p o s s e s s i v e pronoun, P r  pos'  ^ k e m o r p h o p h o n e m i c m a p p i n g s a r e shown b e l o w :  Singular: ako »I' ikaw 'you' siya  akin >/  'he/she'  sa — »  iyo  'mine' 'yours'  kaniya  'his/hers'  51 Plural: k a m i 'we'  /  kayo 'you' sila The  sa  'they'  'ours'  Inyo  'yours'  kanila  'theirs'  forms a k i n , i y o , k a n i y a , amin, i n y o and k a n i l a a r e  i n c l u d e d among t h e P r  p  o  s  forms,  b u t a f t e r s a t h e y do  not always denote " p o s s e s s i o n " . do  amin  However, t h e s e  denote p o s s e s s i o n i n i n i t i a l  forms  p o s i t i o n i n the sentence,  i . e . , when t h e y a r e p r o d u c e d b y t h e s t r i n g : Cop  +  Pred  +  HP  Cop  akin  ang  Cop  'mine'  Det g S  libro — »  A k i n ang l i b r o .  'book'  ('The b o o k is  mine. ) 1  M o r p h o p h o n e m i c s o f n - + HP Rule  (4) s t a t e s t h a t H P  0  s h o u l d be r e w r i t t e n a s n - + HP.  ( o b j e c t noun p h r a s e ) I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d  t h a t a n HP c a r r i e s D e t g , w h i c h i s a n g f o r H S  and Detp]_ a n g manga f o r H. Detp]_ f o r Hame i s s i n a .  D e t g f o r Hame i s s i ; S  The m o r p h o p h o n e m i c r u l e f o r  N i s as follows:n- + a n g  —•>  n- + a n g manga  (noun),  nang — n a n g  manga  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e morphophonemic appears,  r u l e f o r Name  thus: n-  +' s i  — n ±  n-  +  —^  sina  nina  e.g.: V  NP  Humingi 'asked' ('The  nang  NP  0  lapis  n- + D t e  3 g  student asked  'pencil'  ang Det  s g  for a pencil.')  estudyante, 'student'  (1)  s  ' r e a d ' -um-  Com  n + Det g S  Bumasa n a n g l i k s i y o n ang ('The  student read  the  'lesson'  estudyante.  lesson.')  Detsg  .'student' ^  a)  basa  mag- Com  n - ang  Hksiyon  ' r e a d ' mag- Com n - + D e t g S  sa  'lesson' Prep  ahg  kuwarto  ang manga  ,  'room  Detpi  m  N a g b a s a n a n g l i k s i y o n s a k u w a r t o a n g manga  estudyante,  ('The s t u d e n t s r e a d t h e l e s s o n i n t h e room.')  1  estudyante 'student'  (3;  s  basa  mag- Com  'read'  mag- Com  nn-  ang  + Det  s g  liksiyon 'lesson'  N a g b a s a n a n g l i k s i y o n d i t o kagab.i a n g manga ('The  fiito^  .kag,a~bi  :  a n g manga e s t u d y a n t e  'here' ' l a s t n i g h t ' estudyante.  students^read the l e s s o n here l a s t n i g h t . ' )  Det i p  'student'  (4)  s t 12  As  mag-  bus  mag-  Com  si  Pablo  'bus' mag-  Com  Det  'Pablo  Nagbus s i P a b l o . ('Pablo t o o k the bus.')  (5) s  lingkod  mag-  Actl  sa  'serve'  mag-  Actl  Prep  Naglilingkod  a  hg  m  s a hukbo ang b i n a t a .  ('The y o u n g man i s s e r v i n g i n t h e army.')  hukbo  ang  'army'  Det  binata s g  'young man  (<o)  lingkod  mag-  Actl  sa  'serve  mag-  Actl  Prep  1  Naglilingkod ('The  . hg ;i  'army'  m  s a hukbo n g a y o n ang b i n a t a ' .  y o u n g man  i s s e r v i n g now i n t h e  hukbo  army.')  ngayon 'now  1  ang Det  s g  binata "young  man"  59 The  t r e e s t r u c t u r e s i n the p r e c e d i n g pages r e p r e s e n t  k e r n e l sentences (1)  (a)  l i k e the  Pumili  following.  nang  libro  n- + D e t g  'chose  1  'book'  ('The  student chose a book.')  S  (b) P i p i t a s  nang  ('The  y o u n g man nang  'asked'  n- + D e t  pick a  estudyante. 'student'  s g  ang  'rose'  s g  will  Humingi  Bet  rosas  ' w i l l p i c k ' n- + D e t  (c)  ang  Det  binata.  s g  man  rose.')  paliwanag  ang  'explanation'  s g  'young  £>et  sg  estudyante. 'student' (2)  (a)  Pumili  nang  'chose'  n- + D e t  ang Det (b)  libro  s g  'book'  s g  nang  tahanan 'home'  'will  T?rev  'shelf  m  'student'  Nagdiriwang  'Magbibigay  estante  es tudyante.  kaarawan  ' c e l e b r a t i n g ' n- + D e t  (c)  sa  n  a  s g  'birthday'  ang  dalaga.  Detcjp-  'young woman'  n  panayam  g  g i v e ' n- + D e t auditoryum 'auditorium'  'lecture'  s g  ang Det  s g  sa Prepm  sa Prep  propesor. 'professor'  m  1  60 ('The p r o f e s s o r w i l l  give a lecture i n the  auditorium.') (a)  Pumili  nang  'chose'  libro  n- + D e t  (b)  'book'  s g  kanina  sa  ang  'sometime a g o '  Det  lagdiriwang  nang  'student' kaarawan  ' c e l e b r a t i n g ' n- + Det ngayon  'home*  'now*  'shelf  m  estudyante.  s g  tahanan  Prep  estante  sa  ' b i r t h d a y ' Prep™ ang  dalaga.  Det g  'young woman'  S  ('The y o u n g woman i s c e l e b r a t i n g h e r b i r t h day a t h e r home now.') (c)  Magbibigay 'will  nang  g i v e ' n- + D e t auditoryum  sa  'lecture'  Prep  s g  bukas  'auditorium'  give a l e c t u r e at the  tomorrow.')  Umalis"  sa  kuwarto 'room'  m  Nagbus 'took t h e b u s '  sa Prep  P  m  a  s  i  ang  estudyant  Det g  'student'  S  ('The s t u d e n t went o u t f r o m (b)  propesor. S  auditorium  'went o u t ' P r e p  ang  m  'tomorrow' D e t g ' p r o f e s s o r  ('The p r o f e s s o r w i l l  (a)  panayam  t h e room.') g  'Pasig'  k  a  h  a  p  0  n  'yesterday'  61 si  Pablo.  Det  '.'Pablo'  s g  ('Pablo t o o k t h e bus i n P a s i g y e s t e r d a y . ' ) (e)  Tumingala  sa  'looked upward' ('The (a)  Prep  ang  'sky' D e t  m  babae. 'woman'  s g  woman l o o k e d up t o t h e s k y . ' )  Umiiyak  sa  'crying' ('The (b)  langit  Prep  kuwarto 'room'  m  ang  babae..  Det  'woman'  woman i s c r y i n g i n t h e room.')  Naglalakad  sa  'walking'  kalye  Pi>ep:  ang  'street'  m  Det  s g  bata. 'child' ('The (c)  c h i l d i s walking i n the street.')  lagiiwas  sa  'evading/eluding'  m  ang  dalaga.  Det g  'young woman'  S  ('The (a)  Prep  binata  y o u n g woman i s e l u d i n g t h e y o u n g  Umiiyak  sa  'crying'  Prep  ang Det g S  ('The  'young man'  kuwarto r n  'room'  man.')  kagabi 'last  night'  babae. 'woman'  woman was c r y i n g i n t h e room l a s t  night.  62 Naglalakad  sa  'walking'  Prep  ang Det ('The  kalye  kanina  'street'  m  'sometime ago  bata. 'child'  s g  c h i l d was w a l i n g i n t h e s t r e e t  sometime  ago.')  Magiiwas  sa  'evading/eluding' ngayon 'now'  Prep  binata 'young man'  m  ang D  et g S  dalaga. 'young woman'  ('The y o u n g woman i s e v a d i n g now. ) 1  t h e y o u n g man  63 KERNEL 2 RULES (1)  S  —>  (2.)  PP  (3)  Pred  (4)  D  PP  — ^ — ±  +  Cop  NP +  Pred  •D Adj  —>  JL&V  (5)  (6)  Adv  Pla 'NP, *  -  NP  (Tm)  S  (  S  NP sg  ]  i Name  Prp e r T  ) N  D e t sg (7)  S l  >  s g  I P^dem N (8)  NP  Name  Detpl p l  Prdeml PrP To  e r  pl  Lexicon  (9)  Oop  (10)  Det  S £  — >  MS  /  si'/ .  Name I  6k fN  (11)  Det i  a n g manga /  —^>  0  P r  sina /  (12)  Adj  >  masipag ful',  (13)  Pia  Name  dem  ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' , maganda  'beauti  maaga ' e a r l y ' . . .  — d i t o  'here', diyan  'there',  doon  'ther  (yonder)"... (ik)  Tm  — b u k a s wala  (15) (16)  P  r  P r  per  s  g  perpx  'tomorrow', k a h a p o n  'ab s e n t ' . . .  —»•  a k o ' I ' , i k a w 'you', s i y a ' h e / s h e '  — k a m i  'we - e x c l u s i v e ' ,  inclusive*,  (17)  P r  dem  'yesterday',  — i " t o  sila  tayo  'we -  "that', iyon  'that  'they'.  'this', iyan  (yonder)'. ' bata  'child', laki  (18)  N  — l i b r o  estudyante  'student', l a -  'man'...  'book', k u w a r t o 'room', a s o 'dog'..'  damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g lak  'joy'...  'love', ga-  DISCUSSION The  Copula Cop ( c o p u l a ) , i s p o s t u l a t e d  p h r a s e ) ol" t h i s k e r n e l  i n t h e PP  and t h a t o f K e r n e l s  (predicate  3 and k f o r  the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  two u n i t s o f t h e s e n t e n c e , n a m e l y , t h e t y p e o f  predicate  a n d t h e NP (noun p h r a s e ) .  ( i . e . , jtf) i n t h e s u r f a c e relation-marker. the  A l t h o u g h unmarked  grammar, Cop i s n e e d e d a s a  The n e c e s s i t y  §6r i n c l u d i n g Cop i n  r u l e s becomes more p a t e n t i n t h e c a s e o f NP  p h r a s e ) + NP ( n o u n p h r a s e ) s e n t e n c e t y p e , the  two NP*s a r e n o t e q u a l i n v a l u e .  The  t o show t h a t underlying  c o n s t r u c t i o n marker i s a l s o necessary i n i n v e r s e formation. Cop  Por instance: +  Adj  +  Base  sentence:  NP  Cop  maganda  ang  Cop  'beautiful' Det  bata. 'child'  Q g  ('The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l ' . ) c a n be t r a n s f o r m e d t o t h e s t r i n g : NP Ang  +  Cop  +  ay  +  b a t a Cop ay maganda.  ('The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l ' . )  Adj  (noun  trans-  66 which underlies • -  the sentence:  Ang b a t a a y maganda. ('The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l ' . ) One s c h o o l  grammar t h e o r i z e s in this  that  ay_ i s a c o p u l a .  s t r u c t u r e and i n o t h e r p a t t e r n s  simple i n v e r s i o n . is  of thought i n t r a d i t i o n a l  correct.  underlying  The n o t i o n  a l s o t o mark  of the c o p u l a - l i k e  signal  r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d i s made 0 b y t h e morphopatterns.  S e n t e n c e Type  Kernel  2 i s of the sentence s t r u c t u r e  ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) + IIP ( n o u n p h r a s e ) . brings  B u t ay_ i s u s e d  The Cop i n t h e deep s t r u c t u r e shows t h i s  phonemic r u l e s i n b o t h Adjective  Tagalog  together two^similar  type D  Actually, this  sentence types:  rule  ( l ) Adj  ( a d j e c t i v e o r a d j e c t i v a l ) + NP, a n d (2) Adv ( a d v e r b o r adverbial)  + NP.  The t r e e s t r u c t u r e s typical adjective  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s show  structures:;.  67  68  69  70 Adj i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e .  This  may a p p e a r a s ( l ) s i m p l e s t e m , (2) morpheme, o r , (3)  stem f u l l y  form-class  stem w i t h  reduplicated.  morpheme a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n i t i a l  formative The ma-  phoneme o f a n y a d -  j e c t i v e s t e m i s commonly u s e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n jectives  1  of ad-  and a d j e c t i v a l s . (1) s i m p l e a d j e c t i v e s t e m pili  'chosen/selected'  e.g.:  Pili  ang  'selected'  manga  Pet ]_  atleta. 'athlete'  p  ('The a t h l e t e s a r e s e l e c t e d ' . ) duwag  'coward'  e.g.:  Duwag  ang  'coward'  Det  lalakl. 'man'  s g  ('The man i s a c o w a r d . ' ) apat  'four'  e.g.:  Apat  sila.  'four'  'they'  ('They a r e f o u r . ' ) (2) s t e m w i t h ma- morpheme ma-  +  ganda 'beauty'  —>  maganda 'beautiful'  71 e.g.:  Maganda  ang  'beautiful'  Det  bata. 'child'  s g  ('The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) ma- + s i p a g  — m a  'industry' e.g.:  sipag 'industrious'  Masipag  s i  'industrious'  Pablo.  Det g  'Pablo'  S  ('Pablo i s i n d u s t r i o u s . ' ) ma- + a g a  — m a a g a  'earliness' e.g.:  Maaga  'early' ang  'early'  propesor.  Det g  'professor'  S  ('The p r o f e s s o r stem f u l l y  i s early.')  reduplicated  punit-punit 'torn' e.g.:  'torn' Punit-punit 'torn'  'torn'  ('The c l o t h e s  ang Det g S  'clothes  are seriously  bali-bali 'fractured'  damit.  'fractured'  torn.  72 e.g.:  Bali-bali 'fractured'  ang 'fractured' D e t  ('The bamboo s p l i t i s  patpat. s g  'bamboo  split'  fractured.')  lima-lima 'five' e.g.:  'five' Lima-lima  ang  'five*  Det  ('The The  'five'  hanay. 'column'  s g  column i s f i v e  deep.')  Adverbial Adv (adverb o r a d v e r b i a l )  Pla  (place  adverbial),  + Tm  may b e r e w r i t t e n  (time a d v e r b i a l ) .  as  Thus,we  get the s t r i n g s : Cop + P l a + FP Cop + P l a + Tm + F P Pla ture  reveals  grammatical  must be c h o s e n . that  Tm i s o p t i o n a l .  The  Tm i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o g e n e r a t e  sentence.  I f Tm i s c h o s e n  struca  a t a l l , i t must  co-occur with P l a . The s t r i n g s a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ture  trees.  struc-  73  74  (2)  Cop + P i a + Tm + FP  Cop  <» D  0 ('The  d-ito  bukas  'here'  (tomorrow'  dancing w i l l  sayawan  an Det g S  take p l a c e here tomorrow.')  'dancing'  KERNEL 3 RULES (1)  s  (2)  PP  ( ) 3  (4)  —=•  PP  +  — C o p  Pred  — >  FP +  Bred  FP  FP [ NPpi  I  (Si) N  Det sg (5)  —>  FP < S  Name  < P r- p e r P r  POs  s g  s g  Prdem \  N Det p i (6)  FP  < Name P r  p l  dem  Pr-p e r i p  Prpospi To L e x i c o n (7) (8)  Cop Det  —>  0 ang /  s g  — >  <  si / .  .  1  Name  1  76  N  (9)  Det  ang manga / —•>  p l  <^  r  sina /  (10)  Pr.p e r  s  g  i  P dem|  —>  Name  a k o ' I ' , i k a w 'you', s i y a 'he/  she . 1  (11)  Pr-  P  e  r  pl  —>  kami  'we - e x c l u s i v e ' ,  i n c l u s i v e ' , kayo (12)  P rp o s s g  —> ya  (13)  P rP O S p l  akin  'you*, s i l a  tayo  'we -  'they'.  'mine', i y o ' y o u r s ' ,  kani-  'his/hers'.  —>  amin  'ours', inyo  'yours', k a n i l a  'theirs'.  (14)  P dera r  ito  'this', iyan  'that', iyon  'that  (yonder)'. ' bata  'child', lalaki  (15)  N  — >  J libro  estudyante 'student',  'man'...  'book', k u w a r t o  'room', a s o  damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g galak  »joy'...  'dog'..  'love',  77 DISCUSSION We that two  explained  i n the d i s c u s s i o n of Kernel  Cop i s p o s t u l a t e d parts  2 rules  t o show t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e  o f t h e s e n t e n c e , and a l s o t o s i g n a l t h e  occur-  r e n c e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n m a r k e r ay_. The n e e d f o r e s t a b l i s h ing  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p e a r s t o be more r e l e v a n t  NP + NP s e n t e n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n The f i r s t to PP. that not  NP i n t h i s  i n the  type. formulation  i s traceable  W i t h t h e p o s t u l a t i o n o f Cop, i t becomes c l e a r  t h e two NP s e t s d i f f e r f r o m e a c h o t h e r equal i n rank.  I n the sentence:  NP Ang Det  NP  estudyante s g  and a r e  ang  'student'  Det  s g  sekretaryo. 'secretary'  ('The s e c r e t a r y i s t h e s t u d e n t . ' ) it  i s assumed t h a t one NP i s t h e s u b j e c t ,  is  the p r e d i c a t e .  However, t h e r e  and t h e o t h e r  i s no i n d i c a t o r t o  show w h i c h s e t b e l o n g s t o what s e t . V / i t h Cop i n f r o n t o f ang e s t u d y a n t e , r a n k as p r e d i c a t e , Cop  +  positioned  the l a t t e r r e v e a l s i t s  hence: NP  +  NP  Cop  ang  estudyante  ang  sekretaryo.  Cop  Detsg  'student'  Detsg  'secretary'  ('The s e c r e t a r y i s t h e s t u d e n t . ' )  78 The following  structure tree.  may  be  c l e a r l y shown by  the  79 In other a PP  w o r d s , ang  estudyante  ( p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e ) by Cop  +  FP-j_  Cop  +  ang  Cop  D e  +'  be  "fc g  FP .  +  2  Ang  ay_  NP  student') i s The  kernel  string:  2  'student'  S  transformed  source.  estudyante  ('The may  ('the  ang  sekretaryo.  Det g  'secretary'  S  s e c r e t a r y i s the  student.')  to: +  Cop  +  FP  X  sekretaryo  ay  ang  estudyante.  Det g  'secretary'  ay_  Det g  'student'  ('The  s e c r e t a r y i s the  student.*)  i s automatically  deleted  S  Note t h a t  Cop  S  i n the  morpho-  phonemics. This  e x p l i c a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p l i e s  w e l l t o a l l pronouns i n the i n t h e NP  position.  The  seemingly equal sets are of  PP p o s i t i o n and  r e l a t i o n s h i p and e s t a b l i s h e d by  pronouns  rank of  the  as  the  postulation  Cop. The  rules include  structures like  NP jtf Cop  ang  +  S  'doctor'  ('Pablo i s the  following:  NP  doktor  Det g  the  si Det  doctor.')  s g  Pablo. 'Pablo'  80 0  ang  Cop  Det g S  t i t ser  s i  'teacher'  Det  Maura. "Maura'  s g  ('Maura i s t h e t e a c h e r . ' ) 0  ang  Cop  manga  mananayaw  Detpi  sina  'dancer'  Det  Isabel. 'Isabel'  p l  ( ' I s a b e l and h e r c o m p a n i o n s a r e t h e d a n c e r s . ' ) In  actual utterance  the determiners  when t h e y o c c u r b e f o r e p r o f e s s i o n n o u n s , 0  doktor  s i  'doctor'  Det g S  are deleted  thus:  Pablo. 'Pablo'  ('Pablo i s t h e d o c t o r . ' ) 0  titser  s i  Maura.  'teacher' D e t  s g  'Maura'  ('Maura i s t h e t e a c h e r . ' ) 0 mananayaw s i n a I s a b e l . 'dancer'  Detpl  Isabel'  ( ' I s a b e l and h e r companions a r e t h e d a n c e r s . ' ) The f i r s t P r  per  s g  FP h a s o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e w r i t e s :  (personal pronoun s i n g u l a r ) , P r  pronoun p l u r a l ) ,  Prpossg  (possessive pronoun p l u r a l ) ,  trative  pronoun).  e  e  r i  (personal  p  (possessive pronoun  P^pospi  Pip  p  r  and P r p  O S  singular),  and Pr& m e  (demons-  have s i n g u l a r as w e l l  81 as p l u r a l f o r m s , b u t does n o t t a k e a D e t  do n o t t a k e a d e t e r m i n e r .  s g  ,  but i t takes a D e t p l .  jPr  Pronoun  i n PP p o s i t i o n and p r o n o u n i n NP p o s i t i o n h a v e same r e w r i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . sentences  like  the  The  following:  Siya  siya.  'he/she'  'he/she'  ( ' I t is.'he/she*.) Ako  siya.  'I'  'he/she'  ('it i s  I. ) 1  Sila  ikaw.  'they'  'you'  ('You  are  A l s o the f o l l o w i n g  they.') possibilities:  Iyan  iyan.  •that'  'that'  ('That i s t h a t . ' ) Ito •this'  iyan. 'that'  ('That i s t h i s ^ ')  d e m  general rule  the produces  82 Iyan  ito.  •that' ('This It  'this' i s that.')  seems t h a t P r  p 0  s  needs c o n d i t i o n i n g .  t h e p r o n o u n i n t h e P P p o s i t i o n be a P r p should not take a Prpos versa. aberrant  O S >  i n t h e FP p o s i t i o n ,  Should  the pronoun and  vice  T h i s i s due t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g structures: *Akin i y o . •mine'  'yours'  ('Yours i s m i n e . ' ) *Iyo  akin,  •yours'  'mine.'  ('Mine i s y o u r s . ' ) *Kanila inyo. 'theirs'  'yours'  ('Yours ( p l u r a l ) i s t h e i r s . ' ) These w o u l d n e e d a  determiner.  Base: *Akin i y o . 'mine'  'yours'  ('Yours i s m i n e . ' )  *Iy o  akin.  'yours'  'mine'  ('Mine i s y o u r s . ' ) *Kanila  inyo.  'theirs' ('Yotirs Actual  'yours'  (plural) i s theirs.') Sentence:  Akin 'mine'  ang  iyo.  Detgg  'yours'  ('Yours i s m i n e . ' ) Iyo  ang  'yours'  akin.  Det g  'mine'  S  (•Mine i s y o u r s . ' ) Kanila  ang  inyo.  'theirs'  Detgg  'yours'  ('Yours  (plural) i s theirs.')  t h e ay_ t r a n s f o r m : Ang  iyo  Det g S  'yours'  ('Yours i s m i n e . ' )  ay  akin.  ay_  'mine  8k Ang Det g S  akin  ay  iyo,  'mine'  ay_  'yours'  ( 'Ifine i s y o u r s . ' ) Ang  inyo  ay  kaiiila.  Det g  'yours'  ay_  'tlieirs'  ('Yours  (plural) i s theirs.')  S  But such sentences are  peripheral.  Sample d e r i v a t i o n s are shown by the f o l l o w i n g t  S  Det ('He  s g  i s Pablo.')  'Pablo'  'he'  86  KERNEL k RULES  —>  (1)  S  (2)  PP  (3)  Pred  (4)  Prepph  (5)  PP  —**  +  NP  Cop  +  Prep —>  p n  (Prep )  Prep  w  NP s g  —>  Ml?  Pred  m  (Si)  N Det s g (6)  NP  B g  — >  <  Name  Prp e r T  s g  Pr os g p  S  I Praem IN  Detp]_ (7)  NP  ^ Name  S  >  .•P dem r  p l  P r' P e r i p  P r  pos i p  To L e x i c o n  (8)  —>  Cop  0 ang /  (9)  Det g S  —V  <  si / .  N Name  88  (10) (11)  Det p i  < sina /  Prp e r  — a k o  s g  r  ang manga /  —>  l^rdem  Name  ' I ' , ikaw  " y o u , s i y a 'he/ 1  she'.  (12)  P r  —>  Pe pl r  kami  inclusive',  (13)  —>  Pzpossg  ya (Ik)  P rP O S p l  P dem r  Prep  w  —>•  ~>  ->  P r e pm  ->  i'fco ' t h i s ' , i y a n  —> S  'yours', k a -  'that',  iyon  (yonder)'. ayon  ' i n accord with', nasa  'located  tungkol  at/with'...  sa ' c h i l d " , estudyante lalaki  N  kani-  'theirs'.  ' bata  (18)  'they'...  'mine', i y o ' y o u r s ' ,  amin 'ours', i n y o  'about', (17)  'you', s i l a  'we -  'his/hers'.  'that (16)  kayo  akin  nila  (15)  'we - e x c l u s i v e ' , t a y o  libro  'student',  'man'...  'book', k u w a r t o  'room', a s o 'dog'  damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g gaiak  ' j o y *...  'love',  89 DISCUSSION The P r e p  ( P r e p o s i t i o n Word)  w  Prep  ( p r e p o s i t i o n word) i s a c o v e r symbol f o r  w  f u l l - w o r d s , w h i c h by t h e i r n a t u r e a r e p r e p o s i t i o n s . word p r e p o s i t i o n s  or p r e p o s i t i o n a l s  They must c o - o c c u r w i t h  cannot  function  the p r e p o s i t i o n marker,  Fullalone.  sa.  illustrate: Prepw  — ^  tungkol  without a sa a f t e r i t , w i l l *Prep  +  w  tungkol  Prep  string:  NP  nationalism') string i s :  w  +  Prep  tungkol  sa  'about*  Prep  ('about The  a deviant  'nationalism'  about grammatical  produce  nasyonalismo  'about'  The  'about'  m  +  NP nasyonalismo 'nationalism'  m  nationalism')  d e l e t i o n o f t h e d e t e r m i n e r s i n g u l a r ang a f t e r s a  w i l l be  explained  in.the  following  Sentences  containing  shown i n t h e t r e e s t r u c t u r e s  section.  the above s t r i n g s a r e below.  To  90  S  'about' ('The  Prep  m  l e c t u r e i s about  'nationalism' nationalism.")  Det  s g  'lecture'  91  92 The  Determiner  i n Relation to Prep  (Preposition  m  Marker) The  Det g S  (determiner s i n g u l a r ) i s deleted  a f t e r s a i n t h e morphophonemics, i . e . : ang  — 0  / sa  ang manga  / sa  —5»  0  manga  e.g.: sa  +  ang  *sa Prep  ang  ang  *sa  sa  ang  manga  ang  manga  +  bata  (•'to/from/with  e  m  — »  sa  —•»  sa  N  +  Pr  the child')  d  e  m  iyon  ( t o / f r o m / w i t h t h a t one') —-s» s a  'child'  sa  +  manga  manga  +  (to/from/with the c h i l d r e n * )  thus:  / sa  —•>  / sa  N  bata  s i and s i n a  These m a r k e r s a r e r e p l a c e d b y k a y a n d  kina, respectively,  sina  N  morphophonemics o f d e t e r m i n e r s  different.  si  d  +  sa  bata — *  Detpi  m  The is  Pr  a  "that'  S  +  s  —>  iyon  Det g  *sa Prep  +  ang m  —  'child*  S  +  N" bata  Det g  m  sa  Prep  +  kay —•>  kina  93  sa  + si_  *sa Prep  m  sa  +  *sa  Prep  m  +  Name  s i  Pablo  Detsg  'Pablo'  sina  +  —  sa  +  sa  Name  sina  Pablo  Detpi  'Pablo'  kay  +  Name  kay  Pablo  ( * to/from/with —  sa  —>  sa  +  kina  Pablo')  +  kina  Name Pablo  ( ' t o / f r o m / w i t h Pab1o and h i s f r i e n d s ' )  The  Prpoggg ( p o s s e s s i v e pronoun s i n g u l a r ) and P r p  0 S l )  i  (possessive pronoun p l u r a l ) We h a v e a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h e m o r p h o p h o n e m i c s °£ - ^ p e r g g ( p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n s i n g u l a r ) a n d P r p e r ] _ p  ( p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n p l u r a l ) i n commenting o n R u l e Kernel 1 Rules,  b u t we a r e l i s t i n g  r u l e again because o f i t s relevance P pos g r  S  (7),  t h e morphophonemic i nthis discussion.  ( p o s s e s s i v e pronoun s i n g u l a r ) and ?rp p-]_ 0S  (possessive pronoun p l u r a l ) i n K e r n e l k Rules rewrites of N P  s g  and N P  p l  , i n Rules  (7)  are possible  a n d (8),  respec-  tively. The immediately possessive.  possessive  form of the pronoun, o c c u r r i n g  a f t e r s a i s n o t r e a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g as a The p o s s e s s i v e  i spresented  here as a t r a n s -  94  form of the p e r s o n a l pronoun.  The m o r p h o p h o n e m i c com-  ponent i s the f o l l o w i n g : Singular: ako  T  I»  akin  'mine'  ikaw  'you'  siya  'he/she'  kaniya  kami  'we'  amin  'ours'  kayo  'you'  inyo  'yours'  sila  'they'  /  sa  —->  iyo  'yours' 'his/hers  Plural:  /  sa  —•=  kanila  'theirs'  Examples;: Para  akin  ang  libro.  'mine'  Det sg  'book'  sa  'for'  P  ('The  book i s f o r  r e  Pm  me.')  Ayon  sa  ' i n accord v/ith'  Prep  kaniya m  si  'his/hers'  Det  Pablo. 'Pablo'  s g  ( ' P a b l o i s i n a c c o r d v / i t h h i m . ') But i n s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n , the p o s s e s s i v e pronoun its  fulfills  f u n c t i o n as a p o s s e s s i v e .  Examples: Para 'for'  sa Prep  iyo m  ('Mine i s f o r y o u . ' )  'yours'  ang Detsg  akin. 'mine  95 Sa P r  ePm  inyo  ang  kanila.  'yours ( . p l u r a l ) ' D e t  'theirs'  s g  ('Theirs i s yours.') A d e r i v a t i o n would reduce t o t h e f o l l o w i n g  tree'.  S  x  0  Para  sa  'for' Prep  possg  akin m  'mine'  ('Those a r e f o r me.')  a n g manga Detpi  iyon 'that'  96 COPULA KERNEL SENTENCE RULES  (1)  S  (2)  PP  —>  PP  —>  +  Cop  NP +  Pred  D (3)  Pred  —>  < NP Prepph  Prepp  (5)  D  —>  h  — *  (Prep )  Adv  — >  +  m  'm Adv _ 'Pia  (6)  Prep  w  <  Prep  (Tm) +  m  Pia  / Cop NP  (Tm)  (Tm)  _Tm  (7)  NP  —>  NP NP  sg  C  (Si)  pl Det sg  (8)  NP s g  —> i PrP rpOSgg ^ dem P r  Name  >  NP  97  ( ) 9  NP  ->  p l  I* 11  f  <^  Name •< Name > P dem  Detpi  r  Pr-  P  e r  pl  Prpospi To  Lexicon  (10)  Cop  (11)  Det  ang /  {  s g  Name  si / „  (12)  Detpi  P^dem sina /  (13) (14)  Prep Adj  —>  m  —>  Pla  masipag ' i n d u s t r i o u s , 1  —>  dito 'there  (16)  Tm  —>  Prep  w  —>•  maaga  'here',  Pr  P© sg r  —> she'.  'early'...  diyan  ' t h e r e ' , doon  'tomorrow', k a h a p o n  'yesterday',  'absent'... ayon ' i n a c c o r d v/ith',  'about', l a b a n (18)  maganda  (yonder)'...  bukas wala  (17)  Name  sa  'beautiful', (15)  N  a n g manga /  tungkol  'against'...  ako ' I ' , i k a w ' you',  siya  ' he/  98  (19)  ? perpi r  — k a m i inclusive',  (20)  P r  pos g S  —•> ya  (21)  P r  pos  p l  P r  dem  —>  sila  'we -  'they'.  'mine', i y o ' y o u r s ' ,  kani-  'his/hers',  — a m i n la  (22)  akin  'we - e x c l u s i v e ' , t a y o  ' o u r s ' , I n y o .'yours', k a -  'theirs'. i l 2'this', iyan  'that', iyon  'that  (yonder)'. bata  ' c h i l d , estudyante 1  lalaki (23)  N  —+  < libro  'student',  'man'...  'book', k u w a r t o 'room', a s o 'dog'  damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , galak  'joy'...  pagibig"'love'.  99 BASE RULES OP TAGALOG KERNEL SENTENCES (1)  S  (2)  PP  (3)  VP  (4)  NP  — ^  PP  +  VP  NP (Adv)  — • >  Cop  Pred  v"t , ' . +  —>  n-  —>  0  +  +  IIP o  NP  fD (5)  Pred  —>  < NP IPrepph J  (6)  Adj  D  Adv f  (7)  Pla Prep  Adv  (Tm) "+'  m  Pla  / Cop ^ NP  (Tm)  (Tm)  Tm (8)  P Pph  (9)  FP  —>  r e  —>  1  (Prep ) NP sg  (Si)  r  L e t sg (10)  NP  s g  ->  Prepm  w  ) Pr-' p e r  s g  Prpossg P dem r  )1  L Name N J £  +  NP  N  < Name f  Detpi (11)  NPpi Prperpl L  Pos  P r  Stti  (12:)  p l  -um- "  +  St-fc2 Vt  —>  <  +  t 3  St i l V  ^  ±  As  A-um-  st  (13)  mag-  +  Sti£  -ummag-  +  > As  -um3  mag-_  Com (14)  As  —>  « Actl ^Pro  To L e x i c o n  (15) (16)  0  Cop Det  'ang. / s g  si / .  (17)  Name  ang manga / Detpi  — *  <, sina /  Name  101 (18)  Prep  (19)  Adj-  —  m  s  —>  a  m a s i p a g ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' , maganda ' b e a u t i f u l ' , maaga  (20)  Pia  —>  dito  'here', d i y a n  'there (21)  Tm  (22)  Prep  —  w  a  y  P per g  —•>  r  S  doon  1  'tomorrow', k a h a p o n v/ala  'yester-  'absent'...  on ' i n a c c o r d  'about', l a b a n (23)  'there',  (yonder) ...  — b u k a s day',  'early'...  with',  tungkol  'against'...  ako ' I ' , i k a w  'you', s i y a 'he/  she'. (24)  P r  perpi  — k a m i  'we - e x c l u s i v e ' ,  'we - i n c l u s i v e ' , s i l a (25)  P r  possg  — a k i n niya  (26)  P r  pospi  ?r em d  — a m i n  St-fj-j_  — *  —>  Stt2  — *  'ours',  i t o 'this',  inyo  'yours', k a -  iyan  'that',  iyon  (yonder)'.  pili  pitas (29)  'mine', i y o ' y o u r s ' , k a -  'theirs'.  'that (28)  'they'.  'his/hers'.  nila (27)  tayo  ' select/choose',  hingi  'ask',  'pick'...  bigay  'give', tanim  'celebrate'...  ' p l a n t ' , diwang  102 (30)  St-^  —^.  tap ang  ulan  (3D  Sti.  —•>  s t t3  — ^  a l i s  'leave',  'rain'... lingkod  lo  (32)  'bravery',  'service/servant',  'soldier', basa  bus  'read',  sunda-  'bus'... bilang  'count',  sulat  'write'...  (33)  Sti  3  — *  iwas tingala bata  ' e v a d e / e l u d e *, 'look  (34)  XST  ->  2  l i b r o  1  estudyante  kuwarto  'feeling',  galak  'student',  'man'..,  'book',  damdamin  'cry',  upward ...  'child', l a l a k i  iyak  'joy'...  'room',  pagibig  aso  'dog'...^  'love',  CHAPTER I I I .  TRANSFORMATIONS  We w i l l now h a v e a l o o k formations.  In i t s operation,  a t some s i m p l e  trans-  a transformation  may  p e r f o r m one or,.more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1.  I t may r e a r r a n g e e l e m e n t s i n a s t r i n g ,  2.  I t may a d d e l e m e n t s t o a s t r i n g ,  3.  I t may d e l e t e  4.  I t may combine two s t r i n g s .  A transformational (l) obligatory,  e l e m e n t s , and  r u l e may b e e i t h e r  o r (2) o p t i o n a l .  Each t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  r u l e h a s two p a r t s :  ( l ) the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n  (S.D.), a l s o  structural analysis, or structure tural  change ( S . C ) .  specifies  called  I n d e x , and (2)  The s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n  t h e c l a s s o f s t r i n g s ( i n terms o f t h e i r  a n a l y s i s by phrase markers) t o which the r u l e The  struc-  applies.  s t r u c t u r a l change s p e c i f i e s t h e c h a n g e s b y means  of v a r i a h l e  signs.  Examples: 1.  Rearrangement S.D.:  V  t  (Optional) NP  +  Bumasa  nang  'read'  n- + D e t  0  +  liksiyon s g  'lesson*  NP  ang Det  s g  ('The s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' )  estudyante. 'student'  104  +  V-t  S.C. :  Bumasa 'read'  NP ang  HP  +  estudyante  Det g  nang  'student'  S  0  liksiyon.  n - + £>et g ' l e s s o n ' S  ('The s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' ) S.D.:  V  +  t  Bumasa 'read'  NP  nang  +  Q  Adv  liksiyon  n- + D e t  +  kagabi  ang  'lesson' 'last  s g  NP estudyante  Det g S  'student'  night' (•The s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n l a s t S.C.:  V"t  +  Adv  +  NP  Bumasa  kagabi  nang  'read'  'last  n- + D e t  +  0  NP  liksiyon s g  night.')  ang e s t u d y a n t e .  'lesson' D e t  s g  'student  night' ('The s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n l a s t Addition S.D.  night.')  (Optional)  (1):  V  ±  +  Dumating 'arrived'  NP ang  Det  propesor. 'professor'  s g  ('The p r o f e s s o r a r r i v e d . ' ) S.D. (2.):  Cop  +  Adj  Cop  maaga  Cop  'early'  +  NP ang p r o p e s o r . Det g  ("The p r o f e s s o r i s e a r l y . ' )  S  'professor'  105  CONDITION: The two HP's S.C.:  " 'V  +  ±  n- + ang  Dumating  +  ('The p r o f e s s o r Cop  +  s g  NP _  ang  'early'  FP  'professor'  s g  2  Where NP-^ i s a P r o n o u n  Cop  Det  propesor.  early.')  +  ]  0  NP  maaga  arrived  +  identical.  Adj  nang  ' a r r i v e d ' n- + D e t  S.D.(l):  must be  Siya  ang  'he/she''  Det^n-  (singular or p l u r a l ) titser. 'teacher'  ('He/she i s t h e t e a c h e r . ' ) S.D.(2):  Cop  +  Adj  /  Mabait  Cop  'kind'  ('The t e a c h e r S.C:  Cop 0  +  +  HP  1  Siya  ang Det  titser. 'teacher'  s g  i s kind..')  +  na  +  na  Siyang 'she'  NP  +  .+  Adj  mabait  + ang  'kind'  Detsg  ('The t e a c h e r  NP  2  +  titser,  titser. 1 tea.ch.er'  i s t h e one who i s k i n d . ' )  I n t h e morphophonemics, w h e h e v e r ^ marker n a f o l l o w s a word v/ith f i n a l -ng a n d i s a t t a c h e d  ang  mabait + na  +  n e  structure  v o w e l , n a becomes  t o t h e v/ord t h a t i t i s f o l l o w i n g .  106 When following a word ending i n the nasal consonant -n, the marker na transforms to - g and i s attached to the word that i t follows, e.g.: siya + na + mab a i t  —>  siyang mab a i t  estudyante + na + mabait — >  estudyanteng  mabait  akin (mine')+ na + l i b r o — ^ aking l i b r o bayan ('country') + na + malaya ('free') — * bayang malaya 3.  Deletion (Optional) S.D.(l):  Y  +  ±  .  Tumakbo  FP ang  'ran'  D  kabayo.  3t g  'horse'  S  ('The horse ran.') S.D(2).:  Cop  +  0  Adj  +  FP  Mabilis  Cop  ang  'fast' •  Det  kabayo. 'horse.  1  s g  (.'The horse i s fast.') S.C.:  Cop' + 0 Cop  Adj  +  (VP) + "NP  Mabiiis  ang  kabayo.  'fast'  De^sg  'horse,'  (.'The horse i s fast.') The native speaker implies- VP ("ran") i n this structure.  107 4. ;  Combination (Optional) S.D.(1):  Cop  "  +  Adj  + •  0  Mabait  Cop  'kind'  NP  si Det  Pablo. 'Pablo'  s g  ('Pablo i s k i n d . ' ) S.D.(2):  Cop  +  Adj  0  +  Masipag  Cop  NP  si  Pablo.  'industrious' D e t  s g  'Pablo'  ('Pablo i s i n d u s t r i o u s . ' ) CONDITION:' "'The two NP's S.C:  Cop  '+  Adj  must be  +  at  0  Mabait  at  Cop  'kind'  'and'  •.•  identical. Adj  +  masipag ••'  +  NP  si  Pablo.  'industrious' D e t  s g  'Pablo'  ( ' P a b l o i s k i n d and i n d u s t r i o u s . ' ) I n the morphophonemics,  at transforms  t o j_t and i s  a t t a c h e d t o t h e word i t i s f o l l o w i n g when s u c h word w i t h a v o w e l , e.g.: kayo't  ends  b a t a ' t m a t a n d a 'young and o l d ' ;  ako .'you and I . 1  The P r o n o u n  Transformation  The p r o n o u n i n s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n i s a t t r a c t e d by t h e Verb o r Adverb i n p r e d i c a t e p o s i t i o n . an o b l i g a t o r y t r a n s f o r m .  This i s  108  1'.  T-pr T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a..  Declarative  S.D',':  Cop  +  Declarative  and I m p e r a t i v e  (Obligatory) AdV]_  Adv 2  +  +  NP  Where NP i s a P r o n o u n ( s i n g u l a r a n d p l u r a l ) , and  Adv£ i s Tm  Narito  (time  adverbial)  bukas  'here'  ako.  'tomorrow' ' I  1  ('I w i l l be h e r e t o m o r r o w . ) 1  S.C. :  Cop  +  AdV]_  +  NP  Narito  ako  'here'  'I'  +  Adv  2  bukas. 'tomorrow'  ('I w i l l b e h e r e t o m o r r o w . ' ) S.D.:  V  t  +  NP  Bumasa •read'  0  +  NP  nang n- + D e t  s g  ('He/she r e a d t h e S.C.:  V  t  +  Bumasa 'read'  HP  +  NP  liksiyon  siya.  'lesson'  'he/she.  1  lesson.')  0  siya 'he/she,'  ('He/she r e a d t h e  nang n- + D e t lesson.')  liksiyon. s g  'lesson'  109 S.D.:  Y  +  ±  Adv  +  Tumapang  NP sa  digmaan  'became b r a v e ' P r e p  siya.  'war'  m  'he/she'  (He/she became b r a v e i n t h e w a r . ' ) S.C. : ' ¥  +  i  MP  +  Tumapang  Adv siya  'became b r a v e '  sa  'he/she'  digmaan.  Prep  'war'  m  ('He/she became b r a v e i n t h e w a r . ' ) b. I m p e r a t i v e S.D.:  V  t  +  (Optional) NP  Bumasa  +  Q  NP  nang  'read'  n- + D e t  s g  liksiyon  ikaw.  'lesson'  'you'  ('You r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' o r 'Read t h e l e s s o n . ' ) S.C.:  V  t  +.  NP  +  NP  0  Bumasa  ka*  nang  'read'  'you'  n- + D e t  liksiyon'. s g  'lesson'  ('You r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' o r 'Read t h e l e s s o n . ' )  Note t h a t i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e , t h e second p e r s o n s i n g u l a r p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n i k a w 'you' a l w a y s c h a n g e s t o t h e s h o r t f o r m k a 'you'.  110 S.D.:  V  +  ±  Adv  +  NP  Umiwas 'keep away'  sa  panganib  kayo,  PrePm  'danger'  'you'  ('Keep away f r o m S.C. :  +  "Vj_  NP  +  Umiwas  danger.') Adv  kayo  'keep away'  'you'  ('Keep away f r o m Negation  sa ? r  ePm  Transformation  morpheme h i n d i  'no/not'.  s  expressed by the n e g a t i v e  H i n d i i s sometimes  The n e g a t i v e morpheme a l w a y s p r e c e d e s  word o f t h e PP ( p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e ) . NPQ  +  NP ( e . g . , S e n t e n c e :  estudyante. negated  'danger'  danger.')  Negation i n ^agalog i  to d i .  panganib.  t h e head-  The s t r i n g :  V  +  Bumasa n a n g l i k s i y o n a n g  'The s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' ) c a n be  by adding h i n d i . PP  shortened  +  NP  The r u l e i s : hindi  +  PP  +  NP  T-neg ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.:  V  t  +  NP  0  +  NP  Bumasa  nang  'read'  n- + D e t  liksiyon s g  'lesson'  ang Det  ('The s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' )  s g  estudyante, 'student'  Ill S.C.:  Hindi  +  Hindi  bumasa  •not'  +  t  FP  liksiyon  student didn't  Cop  +  Adj  +  'lesson' D e t  s g  ang -  +  Det  'view'  g g  Cop  +  Adj  +''NP  maganda  ang  'not'  'beautiful'  Det -  ('The  tanawin. 'view'  K a  :  view i s not b e a u t i f u l . ' ) +  Adv  +  FP  Dito  ang  'here'  S.C. :  Plindi  D e _ t  dancing w i l l +  Cop  +  Hindi  dito  •not'  'here'  ('The  'student'  tanawin.  Hindi  ('The  s g  view i s b e a u t i f u l . ' )  Hindi  Cop  estudyante.  read the lesson.')  "to  S.D.:  ang  FP  'beautiful' ('The  FP  nang  Maganda  S.C.:  +  Q  'read* n- + D e t  ('The S.D.:  V  dancing w i l l  sayawan.  sg  'dancing'  take place Adv  + ang  Det  s g  here.')  FP sayawan. 'dancing'  not take place  here.')  112 S.D.:  Cop  +  Ang  1  'student'  S  ('The  secretary  Hindi  +  'not' ('The  +  Detgg  'secretary'  student.')  KP^  +  sekretaryo.  Det g  'student'  Det g  'secretary'  Prep  i s not +  w  NP  X  'in accord  the  student.')  +  HP  sa  +  with' Prep  Cop  Hindi  +  The  question  to the  +  X  'Pablo.'  s g  Prep  +  HP  2  akin  si  Pablo  'mine' D e t s g  m  'Pablo'  me.')  Transformation i s always a t t r a c t e d to  (predicate phrase).  derived V  NP^^ sa  with'  marker ba  t h e h e a d w o r d i n t h e PP directly  +  w  agree w i t h  Yes-No I n t e r r o g a t i v e  Pablo',  ')  sangayon ' i n accord  plural)  si  'mine' D e t  m  Prep  ('Pablo does not The  2  akin  ( ' P a b l o a g r e e s v / i t h me.  'not'  S  i s a P r o n o u n ( s i n g u l a r and  Sangayon  Hindi  £  ang  Where NP-j_  S.C.:  NP  estudyante  S  +  sekretaryo.  ang  secretary  Cop  ang  i s the  Cop  Hindi  S.D.:  2  estudyante  Det g  S.C. :  MP  +  W?  string. ==>  The V  +  T-ba  rule i s : ba  +  X  applies  113 T-ba ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.:  V  t  +  FP  +  Q  Bumasa  NP  nang  'read' n- + D e t g S  liksiyon  ang  'lesson'  Det  estudyante. ' student,'.  s g  ('The s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' ) S.O.:  V '+ b a + N P t  Bumasa  ba  'read*  Sa  0  + NP nang  V  t  +  'lesson'  Det-,.  S P  NP  NP  Bumasa. a n g 'read' D e t  ang  n- + Det -  ('Did t h e s t u d e n t S.D.:  liksiyon  'student'  read the lesson?')  o  estudyante  s g  estudyante,  nang  liksiyon'.  'student' n- + D e t g S  'lesson'  ('The s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' ) S.G.:  V-fc +  ba  +  NP  Bumasa  ha  ang  'read'  ba Det g S  +  NP  Q  estudyante 'student'  nang  liksiyon?  n- + D e t g S  'lesson'  ('Did t h e s t u d e n t r e a d t h e l e s s o n ? ' ) Gopula s t r u c t u r e s a r e governed by t h e f o l l o w i n g D  D Copl  NP. £rep  Cop w  NP Prep  ba. w  rule:  S.D. :  Cop  +  +  Ad-j  Maganda 'beautiful'  HP  ang  tanawin.  Det g  'view'  S  ('The v i e w i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S.C. :  Cop  +  Adj  +  Maganda 'beautiful'  Cop  +  FP  ang  tanawin?  ba  Detcn-  'view'  Adv  beautiful?') +  FP  Dito  ang  sayawan.  'here'  Det g  'dancing'  S  ('The d a n c i n g w i l l S.C:  +  ba  ('Is t h e v i e w S.D. :  ba  Cop  +  Adv  Dito  ba  'here'  ba  +  take place  ba  +  ang Det  s g  HP  sayawan? 'dancing'  ('Will the dancing take place S.D.:  Cop  +  FP  X  +  FP  here.')  here?')  2  Ang  estudyante  ang  sekretaryo.  Det g  'student'  D^sg  'secretary'  S  ('The s e c r e t a r y i s t h e s t u d e n t . ' )  115 i.e.  Cop  +  EP-L +  ba  +  NP  ;  Ang  estudyante  ba  ang  sekretaryo?  Det g  'student'  ba  Det g  'secretary'  S  S  ('Is t h e s e c r e t a r y t h e s t u d e n t ? * ) S.D.  Cop  +  Prep  +  w  KPi  +  NP  2  Where NP-^ i s a P r o n o u n ( s i n g u l a r a n d p l u r a l ) , and NP2-  i s Name  Sangayon  sa  'in accord with'  akin  Prep  s i  'mine'  m  Pablo.  Det g  'Pablo'  S  ( ' P a b l o a g r e e s v / i t h me. ') S.C.  Cop  +  Prep  w  +  ba  Sangayon  ba  sa  'agree'  ba  Prep  akin  NP 2  s i  'mine'  m  ('Does P a b l o a g r e e w i t h .The N e g a t i v e - I n t e r r o g a t i v e  WB-j. +  +  Det g S  Pablo? 'Pablo'  me?')  Transformation  The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f T-neg a n d T-ba.  I t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t T-neg must a p p l y  b e f o r e T-ba c a n b e c a u s e t h e m a r k e r b a d i r e c t l y hindi  follows  e x c e p t when t h e NP i s k a , i n v/hich c a s e t h e o r d e r  i s h i n d i + ka + ba.  So t h e g e n e r a l r u l e i s : V D  Hindi + ba  >  NP ,  P r e  Pph,  116 T-neg/ba ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.:  Hindi  +  ?  +  Hindi  bumasa  •not'  'read'  t  NP  +  0  HP  nang  liksiyon  ang  'lesson'  Det g  n- + D e t g S  S  e s t u d y a n t e'. 'student' ('The s t u d e n t d i d n o t r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' ) S.C:  Hindi  +  ba  +  Hindi  ba  bumasa  'not'  ba  'read'  ang  +  t  HP  +  0  HP  nang  liksiyon  n- + D e t g  'lesson'  S  estudyante?  Det g  'student'  S  S.D.:  V  ('Didn^t''  the student read the lesson?')  Hindi  Cop  +  Hindi  +  Adj  maganda  'not'  +  ang  MP tanawin.  ' b e a u t i f u l ' Detse-  'view'  ('The v i e w i s n o t b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S.C.:  Hindi  +  ba  Hindi  ba  'not'  ba  ('Isni'f  +  Cop  +  maganda  Adj' + ang  ' b e a u t i f u l ' Det  the view b e a u t i f u l ? ' )  NP tanawin?  117  S.D.:  Hindi  S.C:  +  'not'  'here'  ('The  dancing w i l l +  +  Cop  ba  'here'  ('The Hindi  'dancing'  not take p l a c e here.')  'not.'  +  Cop  +  D  Adv  NP  et g  Det g  'dancing'  S  take place +  X  NP  'student'  +  Cop  +  £  sekretaryo.  -Det g  'secretary'  S  NP  student.') +  X  Hindi  ba  ang  estudyante  'not'  ba  Det g  'student'  ('IsiT-'t  S  the s e c r e t a r y the  n e g a t i v e s i g n a l and  NP ' 2  ang  sekretaryo?  Det g 'secretary' S  student?')  Pronoun-Negative-Interrogative-The  here?')  ang  s e c r e t a r y •'isn'*cfc'; t h e ba  NP sayawan?  estudyante  S  +  +  ang  '.' t h e d a n c i n g  ang  'not'  sayawan.  S  dito  +  NP  Det g  ba  Hindi  The  ba  +  ang  Hindi  Hindi  :  Adv  dito  ('Won't"  S.C  +  Hindi  Hindi  S.D.:  Cop  Transformation  the q u e s t i o n marker  behave d i f f e r e n t l y i n the environment of pronouns a subset  o f NP i n s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n ,  e.g.:  as  118 T-pr/neg/ba S.D.:  V  (Optional)  ' V  t  HP  +  Q  'HP  Where NP i s a P r o n o u n Bumasa  nang  'read*  n- + D e t g S  liksiyon  siya.  'lesson'  'he/she'  ('He/she r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' ) T-neg 'S.C.(l):  Hindi  Hindi 'not'  +  HP  +  siya 1  V  t  +  HP  bumasa  he/she  0  nang  liksiyon.  'read' n- + D e t g  1  'lesson'  S  ('He/she d i d n ' t : , r e a d t h e l e s s o n . ' ) T-ba S.C. ( 2 ) :  V  t  +  Bumasa  +  HP  ba  'read' ('Did  ba  +  HP  siya  0  nang  liksiyon?  'he/she.' n - -f D e t g  ba  S  'lesson'  he/she read t h e l e s s o n ? ' )  T-pr/neg/ba S.C.(3):  Hindi Hindi 'not'  + ba ba  ba  +  HP  siya 'he/she'  +  V  t  bumasa  +  NP  Q  nang  liksiyon?  'read' n- + D e t g  ('Didn't he/she r e a d the l e s s o n ? ' )  S  'lesson'  119 Y  S.D.:  +  ±  Adv  +  FP  Where Adv i s P r e p Naglingkod  + FP  m  sa  'served'  Prep  m  hukbo  Ikaw.  'army'  'you'  ('You s e r v e d i n t h e army.') T-neg S.Ml):  Hindi  +  Hindi  FP ka  'not'  Y  +  +  ±  Adv  naglingkod  'you'  sa  'served'  Prep  hukbo. 'army'  m  ('You d i d n o t s e r v e i n t h e army.') T-ba S.C. ( 2 ) :  Vj,  +  FP  +  Naglingkod  ba ka  'served'  'you'  +  Adv  ba  sa  ba  P ep  hukbo?  r  m  'army'  ('Did y o u s e r v e i n t h e a r m y ? ' ) T-pr/neg/ba S.C.:  Hindi  +  Hindi 'not'  FP  +  ka 'you'  ba  +  Y±  +  Adv  ba  nanglingkod  ba  'served'  sa Prep  hukbo? m  'army'  ('Didn't you s e r v e i n t h e army?') The  'ay' I n v e r s i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n A l l b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s may u n d e r g o a T-ay  transformation.  T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n permutes the  two  120 p a r t s of the sentence  (PP + F P ) , i . e . , t r a n s f e r s t h e  FP t o t h e PP p o s i t i o n , a n d t h e PP t o t h e FP p o s i t i o n . A construction  m a r k e r ay_ i s added t o t h e PP t o mark  the permutation.  T h i s i s an o p t i o n a l  used i n c o l l o q u i a l speech. emphasis t o t h e f i r s t PP  +  Whenever u s e d ,  element.  FP  transform,  FP  seldom  i t transfers  The r u l e i s :  +  ay_  +  PP  T-ay ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.  V  t  FP  +  +  0  Babasa  NP  nang  ' W i l l r e a d ' n- + Det g S  ('The s t u d e n t w i l l S.C. :  FP  +  ay. +  V  ang  'lesson'  Det g  +  t  estudyante  ay  Det g  'student'  ay_  FP  babasa 'will  ('The s t u d e n t w i l l +  Adj  Maganda 'beautiful'  +  read the lesson.') FP  ang Det  sg  (IDhe v i e w i s b e a u t i f u l . ' )  nang  r e a d ' n- + D e t g  'lesson'  Cop  'student'  0  liksiyon.  S.D.:  S  estudyante,  read the lesson.')  Ang S  liksiyon  tanawin. 'view'  S  121 S.C. :  FP  +  av_  Ang  •+-  maganda.  'view'  ay_  'beautiful'  view i s b e a u t i f u l . ' )  Cop  +  Dito  ('The FP  Adv  Det  ay.  Ang  Cop  +  'dancing'  ay_  'here'  FP-L  +  'student'  Ang  take place FP  Det g  2  Adv dito,  estudyante  FP  +  ay.  +  ang Det  Cap  sekretaryo  + ay  Det g  'secretary  ('The  s e c r e t a r y i s the  S  here.')  2  s e c r e t a r y i s the +  here.')  ay  Ang  ('The  take place  dancing w i l l  S  S.C:  'dancing'  s g  sayawan  S  Cop  sayawan.  +  Det g  S.D.:  NP  dancing w i l l +  ('The  +  ang  'here'  S.C:  Adj  ay  S  S.D.:  +  tanawin  Det g ('The  Cop  ay_  sekretaryo. 'secretary'  s g  student.')  FPx ang Det  s g  estudyante. 'student'  student.')  122 S.D.:  Cop  +  Preppy  +  HP  Where' P r e p p ^ i s P r e p Sangayon  S.C.  :  + F P , a n d F P i s D e t + Fame  m  sa  akin  s i  Pablo,  'mine'  Det g  'Pablo'  'in accord with* Prep  m  ('Pablo  me.')  FP  +  agrees  ay_ +  Si Det g S  Cop  +  Pablo  ay  'Pablo'  ay_  ('Pablo In t h i s elements  v/ith  Prep  S  h  sangayon  sa  ' i n accord with' P r e p  akin. m  'mine'  a g r e e s w i t h me.') t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , the arrangement o f the  i n ea.cn u n i t o f t h e s e n t e n c e  i s not altered.  One m o r p h o p h o n e m i c r u l e must b e remembered i n T-ay transform. pronoun,  Whenever ay_ f o l l o w s N ( n o u n ) , P r ( p e r s o n a l  and d e m o n s t r a t i v e p r o n o u n ) ,  Adj ( a d j e c t i v e ) ,  o r Adv ( a d v e r b o r a d v e r b i a l ) t h a t ends w i t h a v o w e l , ay i s c o n t r a c t e d t o _*j£ a n d a t t a c h e d t o t h e f o r m - c l a s s t h a t lx_ i s f o l l o w i n g , e . g . : Ako'y  aalis.  ('I will Kami * y  leave.') dalawa.  ('We w e r e t w o . ' ) The  same p r o c e s s o c c u r s a l s o i n c a s e s where t h e p r e c e d i n g  f o r m - c l a s s ends i n t h e n a s a l consonant  ^ n , b u t i n such  12J;  c a s e t h e 311 i s r e p l a c e d b y o f ay_, i . e . , ang  t h e c o n t r a c t e d shape  e.g.:  + b a y a n + ay + umaasa — >  ang b a y a ' y umaasa ('the  a l i n m a n + ay +  raaaari  —>  alinma'y  people  hoping')  maaari  ('anything w i l l The  are  do')  - i n -Passive Transformation (Optional) The  - i n - (so-called "passive") transformation  a p p l i e s t o s e n t e n c e s v / i t h -um-  v e r b s and  mag-verbs.  -in_  S.D. :  I  St  t  Vt  +  j- -m-)  f  '  1 . . I As  +  NPp •  i  nang  libro  S . C :  HP  'book'  ('The  a book.')  Stt  s t u d e n t chose +  - i n -+  Pinili 'chose' ('The  nang n- + D e t g S  b o o k was  A s s u m i n g t h a t NP  As  i s Det g g  chose  n-  I>et  +  HP  H  2  estudyante. 'student'  s g  HP  2  +  HP-j^  estudyante  ang  libro .  'student'  Det g  'book'  c h o s e n by  P u m i l i nang l i b r o ('Pablo  +  X  ang  ' c h o s e ' n- + D e t g S  HP  !  -f  n-  1 mag-J  Pumili  +  the  student.')  + Hame, i . e . , s i Pablo.  a book.')  S  :  124 the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i l l be; S.C:  St  t  + - i n - + As + n - + F P  Pinili  ni  b o o k was c h o s e n b y v  S.D.  r  t  +  -um-  St t |i  S.C:  As  FP +  n  'book'  S  n- + D e t g S  FP  +  0  1  rosas 'rose'  +  FP,  ang Det g S  dalaga. 'young woman'  y o u n g woman p l a n t e d t h e r o s e . ' )  St-t + «in- + As + n - + N P Itinanim*  nang  2  + FP]_  dalaga  ' p l a n t e d ' n- + I>et g S  ('The  Det g  FP 1  +  nang  '.'planted'  libro.  Pablo.*)  mag- j  Nagtanim  ('The  'Pablo'  1  ang  Pablo  'chose' n- + D e t g ^ ('The  + MP  2  ang  rosas.  'young woman' D e t g  'rose'  S  r o s e v/as p l a n t e d b y t h e y o u n g woman.')  Three t h i n g s happen i n an - i n - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : (1) F P  0  and FP a r e permuted,  ( 2 ) -um- a n d mag- f o r m a t i v e s a r e c h a n g e d t o -in-  The  formative, * T h i s v e r b h a s two f o r m a t i v e s , i - , a n d - i n f o rmative i s a derivative of - i n - . i -  125 (3)  the a- marker i s not  c a r r i e d by  the  NP . 0  The m o r p h o p h o n e m i c r u l e s , i n v o l v e d a r e : n- + ang  Sr The As  — n a n g  —*  si  +  Si.  ( a s p e c t ) of the verb i n the k e r n e l i s c a r r i e d  through to the t r a n s f o r m .  T  - V j -  i  n  -  In  the - i n -  (so-called  "passive") transfor-  m a t i o n o f t h e Vj_ ( i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b ) , t h e r u l e (1)  t h e -um-  (2)  the £rep  a d v e r b i a l phrase or  elements  formative to - i n - formative, ( p r e p o s i t i o n marker) sa i n the  m  t o n a n g , i . e . , n- + a n g .  are permuted.  The As  verb i n the k e r n e l i s c a r r i e d ±  S.D.:  1  r  StjL + -umTumapang  + As sa  'became b r a v e l P r e p (The man S.C.:  " St  ±  +  m  through to the t r a n s f o r m . Adv  +  NP  i  I + Prep digmaan  + NP + NP^ ang lalaki.  m  : 'war'  -in- +  As  was  +  nang  'made b r a v e ' n- + D e t man  units  X  Det g  'man'  S  became b r a v e i n t h e w a r . ' )  Pinatapang  ('The  No  (aspect) of the  +  Y  r  changes:  s g  n-  +  NP  +  X  digmaan  ang  'war'  £>et g  made b r a v e by t h e w a r . ' )  NP  2  lalaki. S  'man'  126 The  verb  sentence The  pinatapang  ('made b r a v e ' ) i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  c o n t a i n s t h e f o r m a t i v e s pa-,  and - i n - .  p a - f o r m a t i v e , w h i c h i s d e p e n d e n t on - i n - , i s a  d e r i v a t i o n of the l a t t e r Not  formative.  a l l -um- i n t r a n s i t i v e  transformation.  Por instance:  Umalis 'went away' ('The  verbs permit - i n -  ang  lalaki.  Det g  'man'  S  man went a w a y . ) 1  w i l l not transform t o : *Inalis  nang  Umi i y ak 'crying' ('Tht  lalaki.  ang Det  b ab a e . 'woman'  woman i s c r y i n g . ' )  w i l l not transform t o : I n i i y a k nang babae. Tumingala •looked upward'  s i  Pablo,  ^^g  'Pablo'  e  S  ( ' P a b l o l o o k e d upv/ard. ') w i l l not transform t o : Tiningala n i Pablo.  127 The  i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b w i t h mag-  not  to a l l o w - i n - transformation. Faglingkod  sa  'served'  Prep  ('The  y o u n g man  formative For  hukbo m  appears  example: ang  'army' D e t g S  served i n the  binata. 'young  army. ) 1  w i l l not transform t o : * L i n i n g k o d n a n g b i n a t a ang Fagsundalo  siya.  'performed the  'he/she'  a c t s of a ('He w i l l not  hukbo.  soldier'  performed the a c t s of a  soldier.')  transform to: *Sinundalo  niya.  Fagbus 'took  the  si  Pablo,  bus/  rode i n a bus'  Det g S  'Pablo'  ('Pablo took the bus.') w i l l not  transform to: *Binus n i Pablo.  Manner A d v e r b i a l The Cop  + Adj  Transformation  manner a d v e r b i a l i s an a d j e c t i v e f r o m  + FP  construction that i s confoined  to  man'  128 a b a s i c s e n t e n c e b y means o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n nang, I.e., T-man  n- + ang.  (Optional)  S.D.(l):  V  ' +  ±  FP  Dumating 'arrived' ('The S.D.(2):  propesor.  Det g  'professor'  S  arrived.')  'Cop + A d j + F P ang  'early' ('The V  ang  professor  Maaga  S.C:  ±  Det  propesor. 'professor'  s g  professor  i s early.')  + n- + a n g + Cop + A d j + F P Dumating  nang  maaga  ang  ' a r r i v e d ' n- + ang ' e a r l y ' D e t ('The  professor  arrived  before  being  transformation  Y  i  +  FP  Lumakad 'walked* ('The  adverbial,  the verb o r v e r b a l  undergo an e l e m e n t a r y  i . e . , i t mast be t r a n s f o r m e d t o a n a d -  jectival. S.D.^1):  'professor'  t o a manner  can apply,  made a n a d v e r b i a l must f i r s t  transformation,  s g  propesor.  early.')  A v e r b o r v e r b a l may a l s o t r a n s f o r m but  marker  child  ang Det  s g  bata. 'child'  walked.')  129 S.D.(2):  V  +  ±  NP  Tumakb o  ang  'ran' ('The  Det  child  The  verb  to  adjectival.  S.C  of  bata. 'child'  s g  ran.')  tumakbo ('ran') must u n d e r g o a  (2):  Adj  +  FP  P a t akb o  ang  'running-like' ('The Nov/, to  Det  'child'  s g  child i s running-like.')  Y  +  ±  +  n—  ang  +  ang Det ('The  +  FP patakbo  s g  'running-like'  bata. s g  'child'  c h i l d w a l k e d as i f he were r u n n i n g . ' )  I n d i r e c t Object  f r o m two  Adj  nang  ' w a l k e d ' n- + D e t  The  apply  s t r u c t u r e above.  Lumakad  The  bata.  t h e manner a d v e r b i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i l l  the l a s t  S.C:  transformation  Transformation  s t r u c t u r e w i t h an i n d i r e c t  k e r n e l sentences:  object i s derived  ( l ) the sentence t h a t  tains a direct object, i . e . ,  + FP  s e n t e n c e w i t h the' s t r u c t u r e Cop  + P r e p p ^ + FP. A l l  D  + FP,  and  con(2)  the  13.0  indirect  o b j e c t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d by t h e P r e p  s i t i o n v/ord) p a r a p l u s P r e p  w  (prepo-  sa, i . e . , para sa. In  m  the morphophonemics, t h e d e t e r m i n e r ang i s d e l e t e d , and  the determiner s i i s r e p l a c e d by kay ( f o r s i n g u l a r )  or k i n a T-io  (for plural),  a s t h e c a s e may b e .  (Optional)  S.D.(l):  V  +  t  NP  +  0  i  1  n- + Where N P  FP Z  NPi i s Fame  2  Bumili  nang  'bought'  libro  n- + D e t . q 0  Pablo.  si  'book'  Det  'Pablo'  sg  ( 'Pablo bought a book.') S.D. ( 2 ) :  Cop  +  Prep  Prep Para 'for'  + Prep  w  sa  +  p l l  + FP  m  kay  Prep  m  Det  FP  s g  X  Maura  ang  'Maura'  Det  libro. s g  'book  1  ('i'The b o o k i s f o r M a u r a . ' ) S.C.  V "+ t  n  - + FP  0  + HP 2 + P r e p p y  Where F P ^ a n d H P Bumili  nang  'bought'  n- + D e t  2  s g  + FP]_  a r e Names. libro  s i  'book*  Det  Pablo s g  'Pablo' (Cont.)  131 para  sa  'for'  Prep  kay m  ('Pablo bought 'Pablo bought  Det  s g  Maura, 'Maura'  a book f o r Maura.' o r , Maura a book.')  Nominal!zation Transformation A Ndm  ( n o m i n a l ) may be a f o r m - c l a s s t o w h i c h  a D e t g , a n g , o r D e t p i , anfi manga i s a n t e p o n e d ; o r S  a sentence  (S-j_) t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e b a s e  by a c o n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t o r marker, n a .  sentence  The a n g o r  ang manga, a s t h e c a s e may b e , may o r may n o t o c c u r b e t w e e n t h e r e l a t o r m a r k e r n a , and t h e i n i t i a l of the sentence that i s being r e l a t e d  word  to t h e base  sentence. The n o m i n a l i z e d f o r m - c l a s s e s a r e p a r t s o f d e l e t e d u n i t s of the s t r u c t u r e from which n o m i n a l i z e d form-classes are derived, * Si  Pablo  Det g S  e.g.:  ang  'Pablo' D e t  s g  nagbus  si_  'rode i n a b u s ' D e t g S  Pablo. 'Pablo' ( ' I t ' s P a b l o who r o d e i n a b u s i t ' s  Pablo.')  132. *Siya  ang  'he/she' D e t (' She  s g  maganda  siya,  'beautiful'  'he/she'  i s b e a u t i f u l she.:'). ' )  *Mahalaga  ang  'important' D e t  ngayon  ang  'today/present' D e t  s g  s g  mahalaga. 'important'  ('It's the present t h a t i s important that is  important.')  *Iyan  ang  'that'  Det  s g  akin  iyan.  'mine'  'that'  ( ' T h a t ' s v/hat i s m i n e t h a t . ' ) *Ang Det  bayan 'people'  s g  sa Prep ('The the The  ang  m  Det  s g  laban 'against'  Presidente  ang  bayan.  'President'  • ' sg  'people'  people  De  t  are a g a i n s t the P r e s i d e n t  people.')  u n d e r l i n e d s t r i n g s are o b l i g a t o r i l y d e l e t e d i n  t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g I E U ' a Mom form-class^  : V.  ang  J  Adj Adv Pr-  <l  (nominal)  N o m i n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e (S-^) w i l l  not b  treated i n t h i s study. T-nom F o r m - G l a s s S.D. :  Y  HP  +'  ±  (Optional)  Where NP i s Name Nagbus  s i  Pablo.  Det g  'Pablo'  'took t h e b u s / rode i n a bus'  S  ('Pablo rode i n a bus.') S.C:  NP  +  Det  Si Detgg  +  s g  v  Pablo  ang  nagbus.  'Pablo'  Det g  'took t h e b u s /  S  rode i n a bus' ( ' I t i s P a b l o who r o d e i n a b u s . ' ) S.D.:  Cop  +  Adj  +  NP  Maganda  siya.  'beautiful'  'he/she'  ('She i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S.C:  NP" +  Det g  Siya "he/she'  S  + Adj" ang  Det  s g  maganda. 'beautiful'  ('She i s t h e one who i s b e a u t i f u l . ' )  13^ S.D.:  Cop  +  Adv  +  +  S  i s Tm  Ngayon  ang  mahalaga.  'today'  Det g  'important'  Adj  (time  Adj  Where Adv  S  ('Today i s S.C.:  Det g  +  adverbial)  important.')  Det  +  s g  Mahalaga 'important'  Adv  ang  ngayon.  Det g  'today'  S  ('Today i s  important.')  This p a r t i c u l a r n o m i n a l i z a t i o n transformation shows t h a t t i m e as s u b j e c t . transform  a d v e r b i a l must c o - o c c u r  with nominal  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h i s t r a n s f o r m uses- a  t h a t has  undergone a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  cycle. S.D.:  Cop  +  1  Where FP^ and  FP  2  FP  +  WB  2  i s a Prpos (posessive  is a Pr  Akin  iyan.  'mine'  'that'  d e E  i  (demonstrative  (ilThat i s mine.') S.C:  FP  2  +  Iyan 'that'  Det g S  +~  pronoun),  Pr  p  o  s  ang  akin,  Detgg  'mine'  ('That w h i c h i s mine i s t h a t . ' )  pronoun)  135 S.D.:  Cop  +  Preppy  Prep  w  +  + Prep  laban  sa  S.C:  m  people are  NP  +  Ang Det p. S  Det  + NP-]_ Presidente  'against' ,P r e p ('The  m  +  ang  'President' against P h  P r e  s g  bayan  NP  the +  p  ang  'people' D e t g S  Det  bayan. . s g  'people'  President.') ^1  laban  sa  'against'  Prep  m  Presidente. 'President' ( ' I t ' s t h e P r e s i d e n t whom t h e p e o p l e a r e  against.')  CHAPTER I V .  CONCLUSION  Summary This  study has accomplished i t s primary  namely: ( l ) the f o r m u l a t i o n  of the basic f i n i t e  that operate i n the generation of Tagalog sentences,  (2)  aims, rules  o f an i n f i n i t e number  the demonstration of the  most common t r a n s f o r m s i n t h e l a n g u a g e , and (3)  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b a s i s f o r a more d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f Tagalog  syntax.  Findings  and O b s e r v a t i o n s This (1)  -um-  o r mag(2)  study has r e v e a l e d : t h a t t h e v e r b a l stem and t h e f o r m a t i v e s are grammatically  related;  t h a t t h e morpheme n -  i s a structure  m a r k e r t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l i n t h e grammar; (3)  t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g may b e p r o d u c e d b y  highly regular transformation (a) t h e i n d i r e c t  rules: object; •  ( b ) t h e ay. i n v e r s e  structure;  (c) the - i n - sentences from base s e n t e n c e s w i t h -um- and mag-  formatives;  (d) t h e manner a d v e r b i a l ; a n d  137 (e) the (4)  that  Cop  (copula)  i s a symbol  s e n t e n c e s 2,  underlies kernel (5)  nominal;  t h a t the - i n -  3,  and  formative  that  k; i s an i n d i c a t o r  of p a s s i v i z a t i o n of s e n t e n c e s w i t h v e r b s o c c u r r i n g w i t h -um-  o r mag(6)  not  that  permit - i n (7)  formatives; c e r t a i n -um-  transformation;  t h a t mag-  to allow - i n -  t r a n s i t i v e verbs  do  and  i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs appear  not  transformation.  Recommendations I t i s suggested: ( l ) t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y be  made o f  the  following: ( a ) v e r b s and whether the  choice  verbals,  to f i n d  o f v e r b s and  the  l e x i c o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by  and  t h e r e b y t h e v e r b s and  out  verbals  the  in  environment,  v e r b a l s may  be  sub-  c l a s s i f i e d i f necessary; ( b ) a d v e r b s and whether there and  a d v e r b i a l s , to f i n d  i s f u r t h e r need f o r  s u b - c l a s s i f y i n g them;  out  classifying  138 (2) find  t h a t a s t u d y b e made o f t h e n o u n s , t o  out whether they i n f l u e n c e the choice  of verb  o r o b j e c t n o u n , a n d on what g r a m m a t i c a l b a s i s t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f n o u n s must b e made; (3)  that besides the formatives  mag-, o t h e r  formatives,  p r i n c i p a l o r d e r i v e d , be  studied further, to find relations and  -um- a n d  out the grammatical  e x i s t i n g , i f any, between these  the transformation  - i n - passive,  formatives  as w e l l as i t s  derivatives; (4) rules that deleted  t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y b e made on seem t o b r i n g t o t h e s u r f a c e  (4)  applies;  t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y b e made on  nominaliza-  e s p e c i a l l y a s t h e y i n v o l v e S-^. The Summing Up.  transformational tasks:  an o b l i g a t o r i l y  u n i t i n the s t r u c t u r e t o which the - i n - passive  transformation  tion,  recovery  This p r e s e n t a t i o n  of Tagalog  syntax has a l s o accomplished  other  the t e s t i n g of the effectiveness of t r a n s f o r -  mational-generative  theory  as a p p l i e d t o T a g a l o g , and  the b u i l d i n g of a f o u n d a t i o n formational-generative than ever,  f o r future Tagalog  trans-  s y n t a c t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s . More  I am c o n v i n c e d o f t h e s i m p l i c i t y , e x p l i c i t n e s s ,  139 explanatory  power arid i n s i g h t f u l  a s s e r t i o n s about  language of the theory of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar.  A SELECTED A.  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS  B a c h , Emmon. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Grammars. Hew Y o r k , 1964. Chomsky, Hoam. C u r r e n t -Issues The Hague, 19 6W. . bridge,  Transformational ~  i n L i n g u i s t i c Theory.  Syntactic Structures.  The Hague,  . A s p e c t s o f the Theory o f Syntax. M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1965. '  1965. Cam-  .  the  C a r t e s i a n L i n g u i s t i c s ; A Chapter i n H i s t o r y o f R a t i o n a l i s t T h o u g h t . New Y o r k , 1966.  G l e a s o n J r . , H. A. Hew Y o r k , 1965.  L i n g u i s t i c s and E n g l i s h  H a r r i s , Z e l l i g S. S t r i n g A n a l y s i s t u r e . The Hague, 1965* I n s t i t u t e o f H a t i o n a l Language. Dictionary. Manila, i960.  Grammar.  o f Sentence  Struc-  English-Tagalog  I n s t i t u t e o f H a t i o n a l Language. N a t i o n a l LanguageE n g l i s h Vocabulary. 5 t h e d . , M a n i l a , 1950. K a t z , J e r r o l d J . , a n d P a u l . M. P d s t a l . An I n t e g r a t e d Theory o f L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n s . Cambridge, . . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1965* ' Koutsoudas, Andreas. W r i t i n g Grammars: An I n t r o d u c t i o n .  Transformational New Y o r k , 1966.  L e e s , R o b e r t B. The Grammar o f E n g l i s h Bloomington, Indiana, i960. M a t t h e w s , G. H.  Hidatsa  Syntax.  Nominalizations.  The Hague,  1965.  P o s t a l , P a u l M._. C o n s t i t u e n t S t r u c t u r e : A Study o f Contemporary Models o f S y n t a c t i c D e s c r i p t i o n . ... B l o o m i n g t o n , I n d i a n a , 1964. "  141 Roberts, P a u l . E n g l i s h Syntax, New Y o r k , 1964. S t a g e b e r g , Norman C. New Y o r k , 1965. Thomas, Owen. of E n g l i s h .  Teacher's  Edition.  An I n t r o d u c t o r y E n g l i s h Grammar.  Transformational New Y o r k , 1965.  Grammar and t h e T e a c h e r ' [ "  T h i r d T e x a s C o n f e r e n c e on P r o b l e m s o f l i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s i n E n g l i s h . A u s t i n , T e x a s , 1962. B.  TAGALOG BOOKS (POR CORPUS)  I n s t i t u t e , o f N a t i o n a l Language. " B a l a r i l a ng Wikang P a m b a n s a " ( " N a t i o n a l L a n g u a g e Grammar"). 4 t h e d . , M a n i l a , 1950. P e r a l t a - P i n e d a , P. B., and G e r t r u d e s K. d e l R o s a r i o . " P i l i p i n o 11: B a l a r i l a a t Kumposisyon" ( " P i l i p i n o 11: Grammar a n d C o m p o s i t i o n , B o o k I " ) . M a n i l a , 1966. V i l l a P a n g a n i b a n , J o s e , A. P. V i l l a n u e v a , and A. D. G. Mariano. " B a l a r i l a n g P i n a g a a n " ( " S i m p l i f i e d Grammar"). M a n i l a , 1948. . . . . C.  PARTS OP BOOKS  Chomsky, Noam. "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A p p r o a c h t o S y n t a x , " i n J e r r y A. P o d o r and J a r r o l d J . K a t z . ( e d . ) . The S t r u c t u r e o f Language: Readings i n the P h i l o s o p h y o f L a n g u a g e . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y ( 1 9 6 5 ) , -pp^ 211-245. . " R e v i e w o f . P. S k i n n e r ' s V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , " i n P o d o r and K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e o f Language, pp. 547-578. B  . "On t h e N o t i o n R u l e o f Grammar," i n P o d o r a n d K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e o f L a n g u a g e , p p . 119-  136.  142  and  Katz,  . "Degree o f G r a m m a t i c a l n e s s , " i n F o d o r The S t r u c t u r e o f L a n g u a g e , p p . 384-389,  D i n n e e n , F r a n c i s P. "Noam Chomsky: Transformational Grammar a n d L i n g u i s t i c U n i v e r s a l s , " i n F. P. D i n n e e n , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s . New Y o r k (1967), PP.  355-399.  Goodman, R a l p h . C. S t a g e b e r g .  " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar," i n Norman I n t r o d u c t o r y E n g l i s h Grammar. New Y o r k  (1965), p p . 285-283.  H a r r i s , Z e l l i g S. " C o - o c c u r r e n c e a n d T r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e , " i n F o d o r a n d K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e o f L a n g u a g e , pp... 155-210. H i l l , A. A., " G r a m m a t i c a l ! t y , " i n H a r o l d B. A l l e n ( e d . ) . R e a d i n g s i n . A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 2nd. e d . , Englev/ood C l i f f s , New J e i s e y ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . .1^3^172. Katz, The  J e r r o l d J . "Semi-sentences," i n Fodor and K a t z , S t r u c t u r e o f . L a n g u a g e , p p . 4Q0.-416.  K l i m a , E d w a r d S. " N e g a t i o n i n E n g l i s h , " i n F o d o r a n d K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e o f L a n g u a g e , p p . 2 4 6 - 3 2 3 . L e e s , R. B. " R e v i e w o f N. Chomsky's S y n t a c t i c t u r e s (1957)," L a n g u a g e , 33 (1957).  Struc-  . "Transformation and t h e F r i e s Framew o r k , " i n A l l e n , R e a d i n g s , p p . 137-155. P o s t a l , P a u l M. " U n d e r l y i n g a n d S u p e r f i c i a l L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e , " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 34 (1964),  pp. 246-266.  Schachter, Paul. " S t r u c t u r a l Ambiguity i n ^agalog," L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g , X I , 3 & 4, p p . 135-145. D.  UNPUBLISHED MATE REAL  S t o c k w e l l , R o b e r t P. "A C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h and T a g a l o g , " L o s A n g e l e s : 1 9 5 8 . ( M i m e o g r a p h e d . )  APPENDIX A. Other  VOCABULARY SYMBOLS  t h a n l e x i c a l morphemes, t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e  the v o c a b u l a r y symbols used Actl Adj  =  adjective, adverb,  =  /c/ Com  adjectival  adverbial  aspect consonant  =  Cop  completed  aspect  copula  D  =  descriptive  Det  =  dete rminer  N  =  noun  Name  =  name o f p e r s o n  Nom  nominal  =  noun  =  noun phrase  PI  =  plural  Pla  =  place  PP  =  predicate  =  demonstrative  NP  P r  0  dem  study.  actual  Adv As  i n this  phrase object  adverbial phrase pronoun  144 P r  per  =  p e r s o n a l pronoun  P r  pos  =  p o s s e s s i v e pronoun  =  predicate  =  preposition  Prepph  =  prepositional  Prep  =  p r e p o s i t i o n word  Pro  =  proposed  S  =  sentence  Sg  =  singular  St  =  verb  Pred P r e  Pm  Sti-j_  w  -umSti  =  2  stem  =  =  takes  formative takes  formative  intransitive e i t h e r -um-  Stt]_  verb stem t h a t  i n t r a n s i t i v e verb stem t h a t mag-  Sti^  phrase  aspect  intransitive  =  marker  verb o r mag-  t r a n s i t i v e verb  stem t h a t  takes  formative  s t e m t h a t t a k e s -urn-  formative ^"^2;  transitive  =  verb  stem, t h a t t a k e s  formative Stt^  =  t r a n s i t i v e v e r b stem t h a t e i t h e r -um-  Tm  =  time  o r mag-  adverbial  takes  formative  mag-  145 /V/  =  vowel  v"i  =  intransitive  V-k  =  transitive  VP  =  verb phrase B.  verb  verb  S P E C I A L SYMBOLS  The p l u s s i g n i s u s e d t o s y m b o l i z e t h e o p e r a t i o n of  c o n c a t e n a t i o n and i n d i c a t e s t h e b o u n d a -  r i e s o f the symbols i n a s t r i n g ; i t i n d i c a t e s where t h e s y m b o l s b o u n d e d b y t h e p l u s s i g n b e g i n and end and t h a t t h e y f o r m a string. An a r r o w i n d i c a t e s t h e o p e r a t i o n o f r e v / r i t i n g , i.e.,  t h a t t h e s t r i n g on t h e l e f t  of the  a r r o w i s t o be r e w r i t t e n a s t h e s t r i n g the  right.  In addition,  the  relation  the  string  the arrow  of the s t r i n g  on  indicates  on t h e l e f t t o  on t h e r i g h t .  Parentheses are used to a b b r e v i a t e the l i s t i n g of,  o r t o c o n f l a t e , two o r more r u l e s  which  are  identical  addi-  except f o r the o p t i o n a l  t i o n a l o c c u r r e n c e o f one o r more s y m b o l s . 1  A double arrow i s used i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  rules:.  146 A "brace i s u s e d t o c o n f l a t e  two o r more  w h i c h a r e i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t f o r one or a sequence  o f symbols w h i c h  rules symbol  always  o c c u r s i n t h e same p o s i t i o n .  Example:  or T h i s means t h a t  alternative  replacements,  f o r a s y m b o l , one o f w h i c h b u t n o t b o t h must be c h o s e n a t a s i n g l e are  listed vertically  application,  or h o r i z o n t a l l y  w i t h i n b r a c e s a n d s e p a r a t e d b y commas. The l a t t e r n o t a t i o n  i s useful  as a space-  s a v i n g d e v i c e where l o n g l i s t s : * l e x i c a l items, are given. no d a n g e r  as of  Where t h e r e i s  of confusion the braces are often  omitted around a h o r i z o n t a l  listing.  A square b r a c k e t i s used t o a b b r e v i a t e . t h e ing  list-  o f two o r more r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g , t o s t r i n g s  w h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t and i d e n t i c a l i n t h e same places.  These r u l e s must d i f f e r i n a t l e a s t  two p l a c e s , so t h a t  a t l e a s t two p a i r s  b r a c k e t s must a p p e a r i n t h e c o n f l a t e d The  of rule.  symbols w h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t a r e p l a c e d  147 vertically and  and e n c l o s e d i n b r a c k e t s ,  the r u l e thus  a c r o s s by l i n e s ;  c o n f l a t e d i s read f o r example, t h e r u l e  'A  [:]  C + X  C + X  c o n f l a t e s t h e two r u l e s : A + C + X  B + C + X and  a + C + X ==:>  b + C + X  specifies that a different  change  a p p l i e s t o A t h a n a p p l i e s t o B when e a c h i s f o l l o w e d b y C + X; i n o t h e r words, the c o n f l a t e d r u l e s two  specifies  c h a n g e s w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e same  environment. *  An a s t e r i s k a p p e a r i n g sentence is  ...  at the beginning  of a  i n d i c a t e s that the s t r u c t u r e  ungrammatical.  Three dots a f t e r a s e r i e s o f symbols  represent  the m i s s i n g symbols, t h a t i s , the other p o s s i b l e entries i n the series . 1  / 0 /  /  Two s l a s h e s e n c l o s e p h o n e m i c  symbols.  T h i s s y m b o l means zero'.' T h i s n o t a t i o n means " i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f " ; sometimes t h e shape i s  •  /.  

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