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Tagalog transformational syntax : a preliminary statement Peralta-Pineda, Ponciano Bendiola 1967

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TAGALOG TRANS FOPiMATIONAL SYNTAX: A PRELIMINARY STATEMENT by Po n c i a n o B. P e r a l t a - P i n e d a A.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Santo Tomas M a n i l a , P h i l i p p i n e s , 19^8 LL.B., Manuel L. Quezon U n i v e r s i t y M a n i l a , P h i l i p p i n e s , 1952 Diploma, Supreme Court o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , 1953 A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree of Mas t e r of A r t s i n t he Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967 In p re sen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the- L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study, I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex ten s i ve copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives. . It i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n permiss ion POtfCTANO B. PERALTA-PINEDA Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n o f L i n g u i s t i c The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 2 May 1967 Abstract This study deals with the description of Tagalog syntax using the techniques of transformational- generative grammar. . Specifically, the formulations in this work, follow, to a large extent, the statements of Chomsky in his "A Transformational Approach to Syntax." The primary aims of this work are to formu- late the basic rules of Tagalog kernel sentences, and to show some of the most common transformations in the language. Further, this thesis seeks to establish a basis for a more detailed study of the transformational syntax of Tagalog, and expects to provide a point of departure for future contrastive analyses of Tagalog and other languages. The author believes that he has provided the teacher of Tagalog with basic material for the teaching of the fundamentals of Tagalog trans- formational-generative grammar, and the new learner with a ready manual for the easy grasp of the core of Tagalog structures. The analysis concerns the linguistic intuition of the author as a native speaker of Tagalog. The steps involved i n the analysis are as follows: investi- gation of actual and possible sentences known and p e r m i t t e d by the i n t u i t i o n of the a u t h o r , i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e w r i t t e n c o r p u s ; f o r m u l a t i o n of the r u l e s o f v a r i o u s k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s , g e n e r a t i o n of g r a m m a t i c a l s t r i n g s v/ith morphographemic r e a l i z a t i o n s , accompanied by the n e c e s s a r y e x p l a n a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t r e e s t r u c - t u r e s ; c o l l a t i n g the d i f f e r e n t k e r n e l r u l e s and f o r m i n g t h e base r u l e s of ^ a g a l o g k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s ; showing some of the most common t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , w i t h p e r t i n e n t comments; and c o n c l u d i n g w i t h a summary of what was d i s c o v e r e d i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h recommen- d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f o r m u l a t i o n s show the r u l e s f o r s i x t y p e s o f s e n t e n c e s , namely, s e n t e n c e s of the c o n s t r u c t i o n verb p h r a s e p l u s noun p h r a s e ; s e n t ences of the c o p u l a t y p e s , which are a d j e c t i v e or a d j e c t i v a l p h r ase p l u s noun p h r a s e , adverb o r a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e p l u s noun p h r a s e , noun phrase p l u s noun.phrase, pronoun p l u s noun p h r a s e , and p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase p l u s noun p h r a s e . A l l t h e k e r n e l s e n t e n c e ^ r u l e s are b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n the base r u l e s of Tagalog k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s . Ten k i n d s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s are shown: pronoun t r a n s f o r m a t i o n — d e c l a r a t i v e and i m p e r a t i v e - — n e g a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , yes-no i n t e r r o g a t i v e t r a n s f e r - i v m a t i o n , yes-no n e g a t i v e i n t e r r o g a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , p r o n o u n - n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , ay_ i n - v e r s i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , manner a d v e r b i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i n d i r e c t o b j e c t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , - i n - p a s s i v e t r a n s f o r - m a t i o n , and : n o m i n a l i z a t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n f i n d s some deep r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the language; and i t a l s o f i n d s some problems f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES OP THE GRAMMAR . . 17 K e r n e l 1 R u l e s . . 19 K e r n e l 2 R u l e s 63 K e r n e l 3 R u l e s 75 K e r n e l 4 R u l e s 87 Copula K e r n e l Sentence Ru l e s . . . . . . 96 Base R u l e s of Tagalog K e r n e l Sentences 99 III,; TRANSFORMATIONS 103 Pronoun T r a n s f o r m a t i o n — D e c l a r a t i v e and I m p e r a t i v e 107 N e g a t i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 110 Yes-No I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . . 112 N e g a t i v e - I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 115 P r o n o u n - N e g a t i v e - I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r - m a t i o n 117 Ay I n v e r s i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 119 - I n - P a s s i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 123 Manner A d v e r b i a l 127 I n d i r e c t O b j e c t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 129 v i CHAPTER PAGE N o m i n a l i z a t i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . . . . 1 3 1 I V . CONCLUSION 136 A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 140 APPENDIX ' 1^3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT i s due t o the E x t e r n a l A i d O f f i c e , Government of Canada, f o r g i v i n g me the o p p o r t u n i t y t o pursue g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s i n L i n g u i s t i c s i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia on a Colombo S c h o l a r s h i p Grant; t o the I n s t i t u t e o f N a t i o n a l l anguage, Government of the P h i l i p p i n e s , f o r g i v i n g me a s t u d y l e a v e of absence f o r the d u r a t i o n of my g r a d u a t e work; t o P r o f . Ruth M c C o n n e l l , f o r i n t r o d u c i n g me t o t r a n s f o r - m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e t h e o r y , and f o r p a t i e n t l y g u i d i n g me i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s ; to Dr. Robert J . Gre f o r h i s l e c t u r e s i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s of L i n g u i s t i c s , f o r e n c o u r a g i n g me t o go on v/ith t h i s s t u d y , and f o r r e v i e w i n g t h i s work; t o P r o f e s s o r P. Bowers, f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s ; and t o M i s s Maura San Andres, f o r s u p p l y - i n g the n o t a t i o n a l symbols and the t r e e s t r u c t u r e s . CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study. The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t h r e e f o l d : ( l ) to f o r m u l a t e the b a s i c f i n i t e r u l e s t h a t o p e r a t e i n the g e n e r a t i o n of an i n f i n i t e number of Tagalog s e n t e n c e s , based on o b s e r v a b l e f a c t s of the language and i n l i n e v/ i t h the i n t u i t i o n o f the n a t i v e s p e a k e r ; ( 2 ) t o show a few o f the most common t r a n s f o r m s ; and ( 3 ) t o c o n s t r u c t t h e r e b y a b a s i s f o r a more comprehensive s t u d y o f Tagalog s y n t a x . Such a grammar may a l s o p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f u t u r e c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s e s of t h e s y n t a x of Tagalog and o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . T h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d f o r ( l ) the t e a c h e r of T a g a l o g , and ( 2 ) t h e new l e a r n e r of the language. I t i s hoped t h a t the s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e the t e a c h e r w i t h b a s i c m a t e r i a l f o r the t e a c h i n g of the fundamentals of Tagalog t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar. I t i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t h a t the new l e a r n e r w i l l g a i n from t h i s work a ready grasp of the fundamental s t r u c t u r e s o f Tagalog. Geared t o t h i s end, t h i s s t u d y i s o r g a n i z e d i n such a way t h a t the u s e r w i l l f i n d i t easy t o f o l l o w the r u l e s s t e p by s t e p . N e c e s s a r y e x p l i c a t i o n s are i n c o r p o r a t e d t o g i v e a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r u l e s as w e l l as the i t e m s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . Scope and D e l i m i t a t i o n of the Study. T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s p r i m a r i l y v/ith major, b a s i c , T a g a l o g s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , i . e . , w i t h the phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s t h a t g e n e r a t e the s t r i n g s of the k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s , and t h e n v / i t h the most common t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . The model f o r t h i s work i s Chomsky's "A T r a n s f o r - m a t i o n a l Approach t o Syntax. I have a l s o found some guidance i n the works of Thomas,^ Goodman,3 and Kout- soudas.^" I have mapped out a grammar t h a t i s supposed t o d e s c r i b e the i d e a l s p e a k e r - h e a r e r ' s i n t r i n s i c competence.5 -^•Third Texas Conference on Problems of L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s ( A u s t i n , Texas, .1962), .pp. 124-169. P ^Owen Thomas, T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar and the Teacher of E n g l i s h (New York, 1965). 3 R a l p h Goodman, "A Look a t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar," i n Norman C. S t a g e b e r g , An I n t r o d u c t o r y E n g l i s h Grammar (New York, 19657, PP. 287-383. ^Andreas Koutsoudas, W r i t i n g T r a n s f 0 r m a t i o n a l Grammars: An I n t r o d u c t i o n (New York, 1966), , ", ^Noam Chomsky, A s p e c t s of t h e Theory of Syntax (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1965), pp. 3-k* 3 This i s n e i t h e r an exhaustive nor a f i n a l statement of the subject. At best, t h i s t h e s i s , using the techniques of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar, attempts to look i n t o the deep r e g u l a r i t i e s that u n d e r l i e Tagalog s t r u c t u r e s . Review of Related Studies. There are at present s e v e r a l good d e s c r i p t i o n s of Tagalog syntax w r i t t e n i n the c l a s s i c a l or i n the s t r u c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , but no work has yet been done i n l i n e w i t h the theory of t r a n s f o r - mational-generative grammar developed by Chomsky. I have found only one published a r t i c l e on ^agalog trans-for- mational syntax, and i t i s about ambiguity i n Tagalog s t r u c t u r e s . ^ The a r t i c l e i s , however, too l i m i t e d i n scope to be used as a b a s i s f o r general t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s y n t a c t i c d e s c r i p t i o n . The present study i s a modest attempt at d e s c r i b i n g Tagalog syntax i n accord w i t h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e theory. I have decided to use the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - generative approach to t h i s study because I b e l i e v e i n the theory's s i m p l i c i t y , e x p l i c i t n e s s , explanatory 6paul Schachter, " S t r u c t u r a l Ambiguity i n Ta- galog, " Language Learning, XI ( 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 135-14-5 . 4 power, and i n s i g h t f u l a s s e r t i o n s about language which ar e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o the s p e a k e r - h e a r e r of the language. The f o r m u l a t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e based l a r g e l y on the Texax Conference model.^ Fundamental P r i n c i p l e s of T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - G e n e r a t i v e Grammar. F i r s t of a l l , a language, i n Chomsky's term,8 i s a f i n i t e o r i n f i n i t e s e t o f s e n t e n c e s , each one of whi c h i s f i n i t e i n l e n g t h and c o n s t r u c t e d out of a f i n i t e s e t of elements. I n t h i s sense, grammar i s a system of f i n i t e r u l e s t h a t enumerates an i n f i n i t e number of p o s s i b l e u t t e r a n c e s , and a s s i g n s to each g e n e r a t e d g r a m m a t i c a l sentence i t s p r o p e r s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s and e x p r e s s e s the f a c t s about the sentence t h a t a re a v a i l a b l e t o the s p e a k e r - h e a r e r of the language. 9 ?See Noam Chomsky, "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach to S y ntax," i n T h i r d Texas Conference on Problems of L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s ( A u s t i n , Texas, 1962) pp. 124-169. ^Noam Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s (The Hague, 1965), p. 13 . ^Noam Chomsky, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n P a u l R o b e r t s , E n g l i s h Syntax (New York, 1964), p. i x . 5 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar i s one grammar t h a t meets the r e q u i r e m e n t s s e t f o r t h above. T h i s grammar, a sentence grammar, d e a l s w i t h the p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l y i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s , and a l s o w i t h the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p among s e n t e n c e s . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t sees t h a t t h e speakers o f a language are not o p e r a t i n g on a mass of s t o r e d c o r p u s , b u t v/ith a system f o r g e n e r a t i n g s e n t e n c e s . To the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t , t h i s system i s c e n t r a l , so t h a t he comes t o g r i p s w i t h " u n d e r s t a n d i n g the d e e p l y b u r i e d mechanisms t h a t make language v i a b l e . " " ' " 0 ... T h i s t h e o r y i s based on c e r t a i n a ssumptions about the k i n d s of p r o c e s s e s t h a t e x i s t i n language and the manner i n whi c h they i n t e r r e l a t e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t assumes t h a t fundamental t o the i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n and f o r m i n g of se n t e n c e s are c e r t a i n p r o c e s s e s — c a l l e d g r a m m a t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s — t h a t r e l a t e a sentence to a s e t of u n d e r l y i n g s e n t e n c e - l i k e s t r u c - t u r e s of a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m p l e form. These s i m p l e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s ... e x p r e s s a l l of the g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f u n c t i o n s t h a t appear i n any s e n t e n c e . The normal sentences h f everyday l i f e a r e formed, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , by a complex s e r i e s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g - s t r u c t u r e s . A l t h o u g h the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c - t u r e s are f i n i t e i n number, the r u l e s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n can be used i n i n d e f i n i t e l y many arrangements t o form an unending v a r i e t y of s entence t y p e s 1 . H 1 0 P a u l R o b e r t s , E n g l i s h Syntax (New York, 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 1 5 - 1 6 . HChomsky, " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , pp. x i - x i i 1 . 6 The components of a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar are ( l ) the s y n t a c t i c component, and (2) the p h o n o l o g i c a l component. The s y n t a c t i c component c o n s i s t s of the phrase s t r u c t u r e l e v e l and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s t r u c - t u r e l e v e l . The u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s of sentences ar e s t a t e d by the phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s of the grammar, and t h i s t a k e s p l a c e by s p e c i f y i n g the s y n t a c t i c c l a s s e s , t h e i r c o - o c c u r r e n c e r e l a t i o n s , and t h e l e x i c o n . The changes i n th e s e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s a r e a s s i g n e d by the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s of the grammar. The p r o n u n c i a - t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s i s a s s i g n e d by the p h o n o l o g i c a l com- 12 ponent. ^ T h i s s t u d y shows, as examples, some of the major morphophonemic r t i l e s i n T a g a l o g . Sources o f D a t a . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n concerns my own l i n g u i s t i c i n t u i t i o n as a n a t i v e speaker, of the language. The grammar p r e s e n t e d here "attempts t o c h a r a c t e r i z e i n the most n e u t r a l p o s s i b l e terms the ^Andreas Koutsoudas, W r i t i n g T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammars: An I n t r o d u c t i o n (New York, 1966), p. 5. See a l s o F r a n c i s P. Dinneen, "Noam Chomsky: T r a n s f o r - m a t i o n a l Grammar a n d . L i n g u i s t i c U n i v e r s a l s , i n F. P. Dinneen, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s (New York, 1967), pp. 355-399. 7 knowledge of the language that provides the b a s i s f o r a c t u a l use of language by the speaker-hearer.""^ In t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar, knowledge of the language i n v o l v e s the i m p l i c i t , a b i l i t y to understand an i n f i n i t e number of sentences, i n c l u d i n g those that might not have been spoken or w r i t t e n . Treatment of M a t e r i a l . I t took a great deal of time and e f f o r t to t e s t and r e t e s t the v a l i d i t y and accuracy of the r u l e s before a t e n t a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n such as t h i s one could be reached. The procedure fol l o w e d was: ( l ) i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a b i g number of a c t u a l and p o s s i b l e Tagalog sentences which my i n t u i t i o n knows and permits, i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e w r i t t e n corpus; ( 2 ) f o r m u l a t i o n of the r u l e s of various k e r n e l sentence types; ( 3 ) explanation of these r u l e s ; ( 4 ) generation of grammatical s t r i n g s ; ( 5 ) s e a t i n g up of s t r u c t u r e trees of d e r i v a t i o n ; ( 6 ) exemplifying some k e r n e l sentences represented by the s t r u c t u r e t r e e s ; ( 7 ) c o l l a t i n g the d i f f e r e n t k e r n e l r u l e s to form the b a s i c component of Tagalog k e r n e l sentences; ( 8 ) showing some of the most elementary or common transformations, supplying comments 13 Chomsky, Aspects, p. 8 . 8 whenever i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o do so; and (9) c o n c l u d i n g the s t u d y w i t h a statement on what the i n v e s t i g a t i o n has r e v e a l e d . E x p l a n a t i o n of Terms. G e n e r a t i v e Grammar. G e n e r a t i v e grammar i s a system of r u l e s t h a t i n some e x p l i c i t and w e l l - d e f i n e d way a s s i g n s s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s t o s e n t e n c e s . T h i s system of r u l e s can be a n a l y z e d i n t o the t h r e e major components of a g e n e r a t i v e grammar: ( l ) the s y n t a c t i c component w h i c h s p e c i f i e s , f o r each s e n t e n c e , a deep s t r u c t u r e t h a t determines: i t s p h o n e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; ( 2 ) t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l component wh i c h d e t e r m i n e s the p h o n e t i c form of a sentence g e n e r a t e d by the s y n t a c t i c r u l e s ; and ( 3 ) the semantic component w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s the semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a s e n t e n c e . The base of a s y n t a c t i c component i s a system of r e w r i t i n g and e x p a n s i o n r u l e s : t h a t g e n e r a t e a h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d s e t of b a s i c s t r i n g s , each v / i t h an a s s o c i a t e d s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n c a l l e d a base P h r a s e - marker. These base Phrase-markers a r e the e l e m e n t a r y u n i t s of v/hich deep s t r u c t u r e s are c o n s t i t u t e d . U n d e r l y i n g each sentence o f the language i s a sequence of P h r a s e - markers, each g e n e r a t e d by t h e base of t h e s y n t a c t i c 9 component. T h i s sequence i s the b a s i s of the sentence t h a t i t u n d e r l i e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s base, the s y n t a c t i c component o f a g e n e r a t i v e grammar c o n t a i n s a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l subcomponent. T h i s i s concerned w i t h g e n e r a t i n g a s e n t e n c e , w i t h s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e , from i t s b a s i s . S i n c e t h e base g e n e r a t e s o n l y a r e s t r i c t e d s e t of base Phrase-markers most sentences w i l l have a sequence of such s t r u c t u r e s as an u n d e r l y i n g b a s i s . Among the sentences v/ith . s i n g l e base P h r a s e - markers as b a s i s i s a d e l i m i t e d subset c a l l e d k e r n e l sentences 1. These are se n t e n c e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i m p l e s o r t t h a t i n v o l v e o n l y o b l i g a t o r y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s i n t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s c o n s i s t of r u l e s of d e l e t i o n , rearrangement, a d j u n c t i o n , and so on. Among the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s are those which form q u e s t i o n s , i m p e r a t i v e s , e t c . , when the deep s t r u c - t u r e so i n d i c a t e s , i . e . , when the deep s t r u c t u r e r e p r e - s e n t s the c o r r e s p o n d i n g "mental a c t " i n an a p p r o p r i a t e n o t a t i o n . The base r u l e s a l l o w f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n • of new p r o p o s i t i o n s , i . e . , t h e r e a r e r e w r i t i n g r u l e s o f t h e f o r m : A — > ...S..., where S i s t h e i n i t i a l symbol of t h e p h r a s e - s t r u c t u r e grammar t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s 10 the base; t h e r e are no o t h e r r e c u r s i v e d e v i c e s . ^ ^ ' ^ ^ G e n e r a t i o n . G e n e r a t i o n i s t h e enumeration of a sequence of f o r m a t i v e s as a sentence i n the l a n g u a g e . G e n e r a t i o n does not mean the p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s . The l a t t e r i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by some o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t — a man or a machine — o p e r a t i n g w i t h a g e n e r a t i v e grammar. T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . By t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s meant the a d d i t i o n , d e l e t i o n , or change i n o r d e r or form of t h e morphemes i n v o l v e d , e.g.: Masipag ang e s t u d y a n t e . ('The s t u d e n t i s i n d u s t r i o u s . ' ) T h i s can be r e o r d e r e d by a s i m p l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i . e . , Ang e s t u d y a n t e ay ma- s i p a g . The r u l e i s : X + Y ===> Y + av_ + X Each t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e i s marked as e i t h e r o p t i o n a l o r o b l i g a t o r y . The f i r s t p a r t o f the r u l e i s a s t r u c - t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n (S.D., a l s o c a l l e d s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s o r s t r u c t u r e i n d e x ) , s p e c i f y i n g the c l a s s of s t r i n g s -^Chomsky, A s p e c t s , pp. 8-18. 15Koam Chomsky, C a r t e s i a n L i n g u i s t i c s : A Chapter i n the H i s t o r y of R a t i o n a l i s t Thought (New York, 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 31-51. 11 i n terms of t h e i r a n a l y s i s by phrase-markers to which the r u l e a p p l i e s . Por example, a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e may a p p l y t o a l l s e n t e n c e s v/ith t r a n s i t i v e p h r a s e s , e.g.: S.D.: V t + I\TP0 + NP S.C. ( S t r u c t u r a l Change): St-fc ( t r a n s i t i v e verb stem) + - i n - + n- + NP + B P 0 (noun phrase o b j e c t ) The p h o n e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the r u l e s a re the f o l l o w i n g ; S.D. : Grumawa nang l a r u a n ang b a t a. ==^ 'made' n- + D e t s g 'toy' D e t S g ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d made a t o y . ' ) S . C : Ginawa nang b a t a ang l a r u a n . 'made' n- * D e t B g ' c h i l d , ' D e t s g ' t o y ' ('The t o y was made by the c h i l d . 1 ) The r u l e would t h e n a p p l y t o an i n d e f i n i t e number of t e r m i n a l s t r i n g s w hich c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p a r t s t r a c e a b l e one a f t e r a n o t h e r t o nodes of p h r a s e - markers as s p e c i f i e d above. O f t e n , the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n c o n t a i n s v a r i a b l e symbols such as X or Y, s t a n d i n g f o r any s t r i n g s . Por example, i f o n l y two o r more it e m s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r u l e , o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s may be a l l o w e d by p o s i t i o n i n g an X or a'Y. Suppose, 12 the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r u l e i s i n t e r e s t e d i n 7j_ + HP, the f o r m u l a t i o n may b e X + V i + KP + y. The second p a r t s p e c i f i e s the s t r u c t u r a l change (S.C.) by means of v a r i a b l e s i g n s l i k e X w i t h s u b s c r i p t numbers or s i m p l y numbers r e f e r r i n g t o the segments s p e c i f i e d by t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n . I n the above example, X3 would r e f e r t o whatever i s HP i n t h e s t r i n g . I n t h i s s t u d y t h i s system i s used o n l y i n i s o l a t e d cases'. I t i s o c c a s i o n a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o s t a t e v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s t h a t must be met i n a d d i t i o n t o th o s e s p e c i f i e d i n the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n . Por i n s t a n c e , i f a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a p p l i e s t o two s e n t e n c e s and a p a r t of the sentence i s d e l e t e d , the r u l e s p e c i f i e s t h a t f a c t by means of a c o n d i t i o n i n g statement l i k e 'where t h e HP's a r e i d e n t i c a l , ' o r , V/here HP i s a •^ rper o- ( p e r s o n a l pronoun s i n g u l a r ) ' . We c i t e h e r e x sg a r u l e from Chomsky: P a s s i v e ( O p t i o n a l ) S t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s : NB + Aux + V + HP S t r u c t u r a l change: Xj_ + X2 + X3 + Xij. ===5> + X 2 + be + en + X3 + by + X]_ 16Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , p. 112. 1.3 The r u l e may be p a r a p h r a s e d t h u s : A p a s s i v e may be formed from any s t r i n g t h a t matches the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s ( l ) a noun phrase f o l l o w e d by (2) the a u x i l i a r y ( i . e . , t h e complex of elements l e a d i n g t o p a s t t e n s e , p e r s o n marker, modals, and so on) f o l l o w e d by (3) a verb ( a c t u a l l y a verb o f a c e r t a i n c l a s s must be s p e c i f i e d ) f o l l o w e d by (4) a second noun p h r a s e . The p a s s i v e c o u n t e r p a r t t o each such sentence i s formed by s w i t c h i n g noun p h r a s e s (X]_ - t h e f i r s t segment of the a n a l y z e d s t r i n g - and X 4 ) , by a t t a c h i n g be + en (t h e p a s t p a r t i c i p l e f o r m a n t ) t o the a u x i l i a r y , and try p l a c i n g by_ b e f o r e t h e l a s t noun p h r a s e . B i l l P a s t + 0 see John may be t r a n s f o r m e d t o the p a s s i v e s t r i n g : John + P a s t + 0 + be + en + see + by + B i l l i . e . , John was seen by B i l l . On the o t h e r hand, t h e phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s a r e s e t up i n such a way t h a t the s t r i n g B i l l + P a s t + go + home v a i l n o t undergo t h e p a s s i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( i . e . , so t h a t home i n t h i s s t r i n g i s by d e r i v a t i o n n o t an K P ) . The p r o d u c t of a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o as a t r a n s f o r m , and marked T p a s s i v e , Tnom, etc.-' - 7 •*-?See Emmon Bach, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammars (New York, 1964-), pp. 5 9 - 8 5 . Ik E x p l i c i t n e s s . By e x p l i c i t n e s s i s meant th e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t the t h e o r y i t s e l f s t a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e forms, t h a t by a s e r i e s of " m e c h a n i c a l " s t e p s the forms h f the language may be produced i n p r o p e r sequence and c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a minimum of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l e f t t o the i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the r e a d e r o r u s e r o f the t h e o r y . Performance and Competence. A c t u a l performance i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f the knowledge of the language by an i d e a l s p e a k e r - l i s t e n e r , i n a c o m p l e t e l y homogeneous speech community, who knows i t s language p e r f e c t l y and i s u n a f f e c t e d by such g r a m m a t i c a l l y i r r e l e v a n t c o n d i t i o n s as memory l i m i t a t i o n s , d i s t r a c t i o n s , s h i f t s of a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t , and e r r o r s random or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . To s t u d y a c t u a l l i n g u i s t i c p e rformance, the i n t e r a c t i o n of a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s , of which the u n d e r l y i n g competence of the s p e a k e r - h e a r e r i s o n l y one, must be c o n s i d e r e d . Competence i s the s p e a k e r - h e a r e r ' s knowledge of h i s language, and performance i s the a c t u a l use of language i n c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s ' . Only under t h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n i s performance a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n of competence. I n a c t u a l f a c t , i t o b v i o u s l y c o u l d not d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t competence 1. 15 K e r n e l Sentence. A sentence t h a t i s d e r i v e d from phrase s t r u c t u r e t e r m i n a l s t r i n g s by the a p p l i c a t i o n of o b l i g a t o r y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o n l y and p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s i s c a l l e d a k e r n e l s e n t e n c e . I n t h i s way every sentence of the language w i l l be e i t h e r a k e r n e l sentence o r one produced by a c o m b i n a t i o n of o b l i g a t o r y and o p t i o n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ' . R u l e . A r u l e i s an i n s t r u c t i o n t o r e w r i t e one s t r i n g o r two s t r i n g s a s a n o t h e r s t r i n g . P h r a s e S t r u c t u r e R u l e s (PS R u l e s ) . The phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s a r e t h e f i r s t s e t of r u l e s i n a grammar, and t h e y s p e c i f y the s y n t a c t i c c l a s s e s and t h e i r co- o c c u r r e n c e r e l a t i o n s ^ P h r a se s t r u c t u r e r u l e s ( o r PS r u l e s , o r P - r u l e s ) are s i m p l e s t r i n g r e placement r u l e s ; i . e . , one s t r i n g r e p l a c e s a n o t h e r i n the sense t h a t one and o n l y one symbol i s expanded i n t o a s t r i n g . The r u l e s must be w r i t t e n i n such a way as t o p e r m i t th e a u t o m a t i c assignment of phrase markers (P-markers) t o the s t r i n g s of morphemes d e r i v e d from t h e s e r u l e s . P h r a s e Markers ( P - m a r k e r s ) . The u n d e r l y i n g p h r a s e markers (P-markers) are phrase markers a s s i g n e d by the phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s ( P - r u l e s ) . 1 6 S t r i n g . A s t r i n g i s any l i n e a r sequence of symbols g e n e r a t e d by the phrase s t r u c t u r e component of the grammar, by the r u l e s of o r d e r , by the l e x i c o n , by the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s , and by the morphophonemic ru l e s ' . D e r i v a t i o n . A d e r i v a t i o n of a g i v e n s t r i n g from a g i v e n grammar i s a sequence of s t r i n g s o f symbols of w h i c h the f i r s t s t r i n g i s an i n i t i a l s t r i n g and i n v/hich e v e r y s t r i n g f o l l o w s from the p r e c e d i n g one by the a p p l i c a t i o n of a r u l e . Tree or Tree S t r u c t u r e . A t r e e o r t r e e s t r u c t u r e i s a l a b e l e d b r a c k e t i n g i n t o a t r e e - l i k e diagram o f c o n s t i t u e n t s of v a r i o u s t y p e s showing the most o b v i o u s f o r m a l p r o p e r t y of u t t e r a n c e s . A l l the d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n above are borrowed from s e v e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s of t r a n s f o r - m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar. I have a l s o c o p i e d from some of them a few symbols I have used i n t h i s work. Other symbols have been c o n t r i v e d by me. A v o c a b u l a r y of symbols i s i n c l u d e d as appendix f o r handy r e f e r e n c e . CHAPTER I I . PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES OP THE GRAMMAR The c o n s t i t u e n t - s t r u c t u r e of the k e r n e l sen- tence o f Tagalog i s of the g e n e r a l shape: X — > Y + Z. There are two main t y p e s of s e n t e n c e s , as f o r m u l a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y : ( l ) the verb p hrase t y p e , i . e . , VP + NP; and (2) the c o p u l a t y p e s , i . e . , Cop + X + HP. There are d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c o p u l a s t r u c - t u r e s , and t h e s e a r e : c o p u l a p l u s d e s c r i p t i v e p l u s noun phrase (Cop + D + NP), c o p u l a p l u s noun p h r a s e p l u s noun p h r a s e (Cop + NP + NP), and c o p u l a p l u s p r e - p o s i t i o n a l p h r ase p l u s noun phrase (Cop + P r e p p ^ + NP). Cop + D i s o f two k i n d s , namely: c o p u l a p l u s a d j e c t i v e (Cop + A d j ) , and c o p u l a p l u s adverb (Cop + Ad v ) . Cop + NP i s a l s o of two k i n d s : c o p u l a p l u s noun (Cop + N), and c o p u l a p l u s pronoun, p e r s o n a l , s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l , and d e m o n s t r a t i v e , s i n g u l a r o r p l u r a l (Cop + P r p e r _ ) . Each k e r n e l sentence type i s mapped out below i n the form of c o n s t i t u e n t - s t r u c t u r e r u l e s . F o l l o w i n g t h e statement of the r u l e s of each k e r n e l sentence type i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r u l e s i n c l u d i n g the g e n e r a t i o n of s t r i n g s . A f t e r l i s t i n g a l l the r u l e s and d i s c u s s i n g p e r t i n e n t p o i n t s , I w i l l b r i n g t o g e t h e r a l l the r u l e s o f the c o p u l a k e r n e l sentence t y p e s t o form the c o p u l a 18 k e r n e l sentence r u l e s , and then I w i l l c o l l a t e them w i t h t h e verb k e r n e l sentence r u l e s t o c o n s t i t u t e the base r u l e s of Tagalog k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s . I have p l a c e d t h e verb k e r n e l sentence rules.- f i r s t i n the o r d e r of f o r m u l a t i o n because t h i s type of sentence i s t h e most t y p i c a l of ^-'agalog s t r u c t u r e s . The c o p u l a k e r n e l sentence r u l e s have been c o n f l a t e d i n t o t h r e e b i g r u l e s f o r r e a s o n s of economy o f formu- l a t i o n . Some of the most common t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , v / i t h comments s u p p l i e d , a re shown a f t e r the base r u l e s ' . KERNEL 1 RULES (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) s pp YP HP PP + IIP — » VP (Adv) r V t + NP 0) U / o n- + NP P r e p m + NP (Tm)l Adv — ^ P i a (Tm) Tm FP C (6) NP — > (7) NP sg 7>< sg F P p l L e t , ( S i ) ? r p e r S g N Name. > P r p o s s to . Prdem D e t p l r r • Name 7 (8) N P p l — M P r dem. P r P r p e r p i P°Spl 20 (9) V t — s (10) v ± S t t 2 s t t 3 s t ± 1 S t i 2 — S t i 3 (11) As To L e x i c o n Com A c t l P r o 1 + -um- + mag- -um- mag- + -um- + mag- -um- > As > As (12) Detop- — > , ang / k s i / N Name (13) Detpi < ang manga / l s i n a / A Name N P r d emj (14) P r e p m — > s a (15) P i a — d i t o 'here', d i y a n 'there-', do on 'there ( y o n d e r ) ' . . . (16) Tm — » • bulcas 'tomorrow', kahapon ' y e s t e r - day', w a l a 'absent'... 21- (17) P r p e r s g —^> ako ' I ' , i k a w 'you', s i y a 'he/ she'. (18) P r p e r — > kami 'we - e x c l u s i v e ' , tayo 'we - i n c l u s i v e ' , s i l a ' t h e y 1 . (19) ^ p o s s g — a k i n 'mine', i y o 'yours', k a n i - y a ' h i s / h e r s ' . (20) ? r p o s p i —•» amin 'ours', i n y o ' yours', k a - n i l a ' t h e i r s 1. (21) J P r d e m —-y i t o ' t h i s ' , i y a n ' t h a t ' , i y o n ' t h a t ( y o n d e r ) ' . (22) Stt]_ — p i l i ' s e l e c t / c h o o s e * , h i n g i 'ask', p i t a s ' p i c k ' . . . ( 2 3 ) S t t 2 — b i g a y ' g i v e ' , t a n i m ' p l a n t ' , d i - wang ' c e l e b r a t e ' . . . (24) S t i 1 — ^ tapang ' b r a v e r y ' , a l l s ' l e a v e ' , u l a n ' r a i n ' . . . (25) S t i 2 — > l i n g k o d ' s e r v i c e / s e r v a n t ' , s undalo ' s o l d i e r ' , bus 'bus'... (26) S t t ^ — > b a s a 'read', b i i a n g 'count*, s u - l a t ' l e t t e r / w r i t e ' . . . (27) S t j ^ — i w a s 'evade/elude', i y a k ' c r y * , t i - n g a l a 'look upward'... b a t a ' c h i l d ' , e s t u d y a n t e 'student l a l a k i 'man'... l i b r o 'book', kuwarto 'room', aso damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g 'love g a l a k ' j o y ' . . . . 23" DISCUSSION The r u l e s w i l l now be o p e r a t e d t o g e n e r a t e some s t r i n g s v/hich u n d e r l i e sentences v / i t h a b a s i c p a t t e r n i n w hich VP (verb p h r a s e ) i s a V (verb o r v e r b a l ) , and not a Cop ( c o p u l a ) v / i t h a p r e d i c a t e . Each r u l e v / i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l as we go a l o n g . A p p l i c a t i o n o f the r u l e s i s from l e f t t o r i g h t . Only one symbol, t h a t on the extreme l e f t of the arrow, may be r e w r i t t e n a t a t i m e , and the r e w r i t i n g goes on u n t i l t he t e r m i n a l s t r i n g i s r e a l i z e d . A r e v / r i t i n g r u l e e i t h e r makes s u b s e t s of the c l a s s r e p r e s e n t e d by the symbol o r expands the symbol i n t o i t s elements. Por example: S PP + NP The r e v / r i t i n g p r o c e s s goes on u n t i l a l l the symbols can no l o n g e r be r e w r i t t e n o r expanded, and by t h e n t h e y r e p r e s e n t a g r a m m a t i c a l s t r i n g t h a t u n d e r l i e s a k e r n e l s e n t e n c e . Steps i n G e n e r a t i n g S t r i n g s ( l ) W r i t e S ( s e n t e n c e ) . PLewrite S as PP ( p r e d i - c a t e p h r a s e ) p l u s NP (noun p h r a s e ) . The arrow, an o p e r a t o r , 24- means ' r e w r i t e a s ' , or 'expand t o ' . The arrow i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i o n " i s a". (2) PP ( p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e ) i s t a k e n f i r s t , i t b e i n g t o t h e l e f t of the n e x t symbol. PP i s r e w r i t t e n as VP (verb p h r a s e ) . A VP may a l s o o c c u r w i t h an Adv (adverb or a d v e r b i a l ) . T h e r e f o r e , two s t r i n g s a r e now p o s s i b l e : VP + MP VP + Adv + MP These s t r u c t u r e s , are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g b r a n c h i n g t r e e s . S VP Adv 25 (3) The n e x t s t e p i s t o r e w r i t e VP (verb o r v e r b p h r a s e ) as d i r e c t e d by the a r r o w - o p e r a t o r . VP has two major r e w r i t i n g , p o s s i b l i t i e s : + NP Q ( t r a n s i t i v e v erb v / i t h NP 0 ( o b j e c t noun p h r a s e ) ) ; and o t h e r w i s e , ( i n t r a n s i t i v e verb v/hich o c c u r s w i t h o u t an o b j e c t , though t h e r e may be an adverb o r a d v e r b i a l ) . The s t r i n g s g e n e r a t e d by the r u l e s a r e the f o l l o w i n g : V t + NP 0 + MP V t + NP 0 + Adv + NP V ± + NP V ± + Adv + NP Adv (adverb o r a d v e r b i a l ) w i l l be e x p a l i n e d i n d e t a i l i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f Rule ( 5 ) ; NP Q w i l l a l s o be d e v e l o p e d l a t e r . Some of the s t r u c t u r e s g i v e n above a r e shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t r e e s .  27 There i s another c l a s s of Vj_ that i s not t r e a t e d i n t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n . This ? i i s a small set of verbs, u s u a l l y r e f e r r i n g to acts of nature, that need no NP ( i . e . , no subject) to c o n s t i t u t e a sentence. Por example: Umuulan. ('It i s r a i n i n g . ' ) K u m i k i d l a t . ('The l i g h t n i n g i s f l a s h i n g . ' ) l u m i l i n d o l . ('The earth i s quaking.') A r u l e to generate t h i s type of verb-sentence could w e l l be l i k e the f o l l o w i n g : S — > PP + 0 The V±n (nature verb i n t r a n s i t i v e ) would be chosen i n the environment of (Adv) + 0, and V±a (the ordinary i n t r a n s i t i v e verb) otherwise. We have not i n c l u d e d the r u l e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n because t h i s k i n d of s t r u c t u r e i s p e r i p h e r a l i n the language. The r u l e may be shown i n the f o l l o w i n g tree s t r u c t u r e s . s pp VP V-i n Umuulan. (' I t i s r a i n i n g . ' ) PP VP V-i n Adv Umulan kaiiapon. ' r a i n e d ' ' y e s t e r d a y ' ( ' I t r a i n e d y e s t e r d a y . ' ) 29 (4) NP Q ( o b j e c t noun p h r a s e ) w i l l be r e w r i t t e n as n- + HP. The n- i s a morpheme-operator t h a t marks the r e l a t i o n s h i p " o b j e c t " , and the morphophonemics w i l l change the sahpe of the d e t e r m i n e r . Otherwise t h e NP p a r t of the NP 0 w i l l be developed l i k e the NP i n s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n . The grammar thus shows the l a r g e g e n e r a l r u l e s of the noun phrase p a r t o f the language. (5) Adv (adverb or a d v e r b i a l ) has two p o s s i b l e r e w r i t e s . F i r s t , i t may be r e w r i t t e n as P r e p m ( p r e p o s i t i o n marker) p l u s NP (noun p h r a s e ) . Tm (time a d v e r b i a l ) i s o p t i o n a l . T h i s r u l e g e n e r a t e s t h e s e s t r i n g s : P r e p m + NP P r e p m + NP + Tm The d e l e t i o n of the d e t e r m i n e r ang i n r e l a t i o n t o P r e p m s a w i l l be e x p l a i n e d l a t e r i n the morphophonemic ru l e s ' . The o t h e r r e w r i t e of Adv i s P l a ( p l a c e a d v e r b i a l ) , w h i c h may o r may not o c c u r w i t h an o p t i o n a l element Tm ( t i m e a d v e r b i a l ) , but Tm may o c c u r a l o n e . These a d v e r b i a l s do not need a P r e p m . The r u l e w i l l g e n e rate the f o l l o w i n g s t r i n g s : P l a P l a + Tm Tm The s t r i n g s g i v e n i n the p r e c e d i n g page shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t r e e s .  3 2 (6) NP (noun p h r a s e ) , a h i g h - l e v e l symbol, i s the s t a r t i n g node of a l l b r a n c h i n g r u l e s r i g h t of the c o n c a t e n a t i o n s i g n as w e l l as of the NP of the NP 0. NP i s r e w r i t t e n as F P s g (noun p h r a s e s i n g u l a r ) , o r NPpl (noun phrase p l u r a l ) . ( 7 ) NP Sg i s t h e n expanded t o D e t S g ( d e t e r m i n e r s i n g u l a r ) p l u s e i t h e r o f the f o l l o w i n g : N (noun), o r Name. The o t h e r p o s s i b l e :expansions a r e P r p e r s g ( p e r - s o n a l pronoun s i n g u l a r ) , and Prdem ( d e m o n s t r a t i v e p r o - noun), which do not tak e a d e t e r m i n e r . Rule ( 7 ) w i l l t h u s produce t h e s e p o s s i b l e s t r i n g s : D e t S g + N D e t S g + Name E r p e r s g P r P O s s g (8) NPpi i s r e w r i t t e n as D e t p i ( d e t e r m i n e r p l u r a l ) p l u s any o f N, Name, and Pr<3_era. Ano t h e r p o s s i b l e r e w r i t e i s P r p e r ( p e r s o n a l pronoun p l u r a l ) , w i t h o u t d e t e r m i n e r . R u l e (8) can thus produce th e s e s t r i n g s t h a t may comprise NPp^: D e t p l + N D e t p i + Name 33 Det p l + P r d e m P r P e r p l P r p o s p i It can be seen from Rules ( 7 ) and ( 8 ) that Tagalog nouns do not show number. It is the determiner that expresses number, singular or plural. The same i s true with Name, although Name takes a different set of markers. The ^rdem i s unmarked for singular, but marked for plural by a Detpl. The P r p e r has different forms for singular and plural. The correct choice for determiners is shown in Rules (12.) and (13). These strings are shown in the following diagrams1. N P E P 3 4 35 The symbol S]_ r e p r e s e n t s any sentence t h a t can t a k e the p l a c e of NT. S i i s produced by n o m i n a l i z a t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . (9) and (10) These two r u l e s have common r e - w r i t i n g p r o p e r t i e s ' . They r e v e a l t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f the v e r b . A V (verb or v e r b a l ) i s a com- b i n a t i o n of a stem and a verb f o r m a t i v e and an a s p e c t marker. There are t h r e e c l a s s e s of stems: ( l ) those t h a t take the f o r m a t i v e -um-; (2) those t h a t p e r m i t mag- f o r m a t i v e ; and (3) t h o s e t h a t t a k e e i t h e r -um- o r mag-. Vt ( T r a n s i t i v e Verb) S t t i + -um- p i l i + -um- —-> p u m i l i 'to s e l e c t / t o choose/chose' h i n g i + -um- —-> humingi 'to a s k / a s k e d ' p i t a s + -um- —-> pumitas 'to p i c k / p i c k e d ' S t t 2 + mag- b i g a y + mag- — > magbigay 'to g i v e ' t a n i m + mag- — m a g t a n i m 'to p l a n t ' diwang + mag- —•> magdiwang 'to c e l e b r a t e ' V i ( I n t r a n s i t i v e Verb) s t i l + -urn- tap ang + -um- — t u m a p a n g 'to be brave/became b r a v e ' 36 a l i s + -urn- — ? umalis 'to leave/left' ulan + -urn- — ^ umulan 'to rain/rained' Sti£ + mag- lingkod + mag- — > magi ingle od 'to render service 1 sundalo + mag- — > magsundalo 'to perform the function of a soldier' bus +. mag- — m a g b u s 'to take the bus/ride i n a bus' Vt and Vj (Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb) Stt-j + -um-, or mag- basa + -um- —*> bumasa 'to read/rea.d' b i l ang + -um- — b u m i l a n g 'to count/counted' sulat + -um- —•> sumulat 'to write/wrote' S t t 3 + m a g ~ basa + mag- —> magbasa 'to read (with frequency)' bilang + mag- —=>• magbilang 'to count (with frequency) sulat + mag- —> magsulat 'to write (with frequency)' Sti3 + ~ u m ~ iwas + -um- — ^ umiwas 'to evade or elude/evaded or eluded' iyak + -um- — > umiyak 'to cry/cried' tingala + -um- — t u m i n g a l a 'to look up/looked up' 37 The morphophonemics of the stem and the formative, together w i t h aspect, w i l l be discussed i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . The formatives -urn- and mag- are sometimes merely v e r b a l markers: e.g., sayaw i s 'dance' (noun), but the a d d i t i o n of -um- or mag- marks "verb". " Some- times the choice f o r St3 verbs i s merely s t y l i s t i c ; sometimes the choice conveys a d i f f e r e n t meaning. The -um- formative marks As (aspect) Com (com- pl e t e d ) f o r S ^ and S t 3 verbs, but also f r e q u e n t l y c a r r i e s meaning of i n t e r n a l motion, or " w i l l i n g " . I t expresses the i n t e n t i o n a l p u t t i n g i n t o a c t i o n of what the stem, denotes, e.g.: t i w a l a g + -um- — > tumiwalag 'to separate •separate/remove or drop o f f v o l u n t a r i l y or drop o f f (as (as member of an organ- member of an i z a t i o n ) * o r g a n i z a t i o n ) ' t i w a l a g mag- — > magtiwalag 'of the o f f i c e r s or members of an organ- i z a t i o n , to drop or separate from membership another member without v o l i t i o n on the part of the l a t t e r ' 38 To i l l u s t r a t e : Tumiwalag ' ang estudyante sa kapisanan. 'dropped o f f D e t s g 'student' P r e p m ' s o c i e t y ' v o l u n t a r i l y ' ('The student resigned as a member of the s o c i e t y . ' ) Nagtiwalag nang manga kasapi ang patnugutan. 'dropped Off* n- + D e t p l 'member' D e t s g ' d i r e c t o r s h i p ' ('The board of d i r e c t o r s dropped from the r o l l some members of the s o c i e t y . ' ) (a) The a f f i x -um- al s o expresses impersonal a c t s , acts of nature, and self-change through time or the i n t e r v e n t i o n of man. (1) umulan 'to r a i n / r a i n e d ' bumagyo 'to storm/stormed' humangin 'of the wind, to blow/the wind blew' (2) tumub0 'to grow/grew' sumilang 'to shine/shone' s.umibbl 'to s p r i n g up/sprung up' (3) pumuti 'to become white' tumaba 'to become f a t ' dumami 'to m u l t i p l y ' (b) Acts of t a k i n g a part from the whole humiwa 'to cut a s l i c e ' 3 9 pumitas 'to p i c k ' l i u m a t i 'to t a k e h a l f ( c ) The a f f i x -um- sometimes e x p r e s s e s a c t s o f g o i n g towards o r away from a p l a c e . pumakanan 'to t u r n t o the r i g h t . ' pumagitna 'to g e t t o the c e n t e r ' u m a l i s 'to go away' Mag- e x p r e s s e s p u t t i n g i n t o m otion what the stem den o t e s , the mo t i o n b e i n g more e x t e r n a l i n c h a r a c t e r , and l e s s i n t e n s e t h a n -um- v e r b s i n v o l u n t a r i n e s s . I t means t o do, p e r f o r m , o r a c c o m p l i s h a c t s of t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , and i n v o l v e s e x t e r n a l m o t i o n . magsundalo 'to p e r f o r m the f u n c t i o n of a s o l d i e r ' magbus 'to ta k e the b u s / r i d e i n a bus' magtanim 'to p l a n t ' Mag- may a l s o e x p r e s s f r e q u e n c y of a c t i o n . P o r example: St + -um- St + mag- b i l a n g + -um- — > b u m i l a n g b i l a n g + mag — > magbilang 'count' 'count/ 'count' "to count counted' ( f r e q u e n t l y ) ' 40 ( l l ) The element As (aspect) must be chosen i n Rules (9) and (10). The As symbol i s expanded to Pro (proposed) f o r an a c t i o n viewed as yet to happen; or, A c t l ( a c t u a l ) f o r an a c t i o n viewed as being i n progress; or, Com (completed) f o r an a c t i o n that i s viewed as having happened. The s e l e c t i o n of As i s made i n Rule ( l l ) . As i s not marked by a formative, but As acts at the morphophonemic l e v e l . The s t r u c t u r e of the Verb i s shown by the f o l l o w i n g t r e e s . Com   ^3 Morphophonemic R u l e s of the Verb Stem, F o r m a t i v e , and A s p e c t T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l e x p l a i n the p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t t a k e p l a c e when a stem, a f o r m a t i v e , and an a s p e c t are chosen. The r u l e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s : ( l ) S ^ + -um- + As, (2.) S t 2 + mag- + As, and (3) S t ^ ) L As. Each p a r t i s s u b d i v i d e d . . \ mag-J i n t o (a) r u l e s t h a t a f f e c t stems w i t h i n i t i a l /C/ ( c o n - s o n a n t ) , and (b) r u l e s t h a t p e r t a i n t o stems w i t h i n i t i a l /V/ (vowel)'. The sequence of /C/ and /V/ symbols are i n t h e o r d e r of t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e verb stem. The 0 symbol i s p o s t u l a t e d to mark d e l e t i o n of the -um- f o r m a t i v e i n As ( a s p e c t ) Pro ( p r o p o s e d ) , ( l ) S t i + -um- + As (a) St./CV.../ + -um- + Com — > /C/ + -um- + /V.../ e.g.: p i l i + -um- + Com — » p u m i l i ' s e l e c t e d / c h o s e ' h i n g i + -um- + Com — > humingi 'asked' We are concerned here w i t h t h e morphographemics and not v / i t h p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s . I n p h o n o l o g i c a l terms, the i n i t i a l phone of t h e s e stems i s a /C/ ( c o n s o n a n t ) . 44 St /CV.../ + -um- + Actl —> /C/ + -um- + /V/ + /C/ + /V.../ e.g.: p i l i + -um- + Actl —> pumipili * selecting/choosing 1 hingi + -um- + Actl —-> humihingi 'asking.1 St /CV.../ + -um- + Pro — ^ /C/+/0/+/VJ+/V/+/Y.../ e.g.: P i l i + -um- + P r 0 —> p i p i l i 'will select/will choose' hingi + -um- + Pro —> hihingi 'will ask' (h) St /VC.../ + -um- + Com ~ > ' _ u m - + /V/+/C.../ e.g.: asa + -um- + Com —> umasa 'hoped' iwas + -um- + Com —> umiwas 'evaded/eluded' St /VC.../ + -um- + Actl —> -um- + /V/+/V.'../ e.g.: asa + -um- + Actl —> umaasa 'hoping' iwas + -um- + Actl —> umiiwas 'evading/eluding' St /W.../ + -um- + Pro —> '/jt/+/$/+/V.../ e.g.: asa + -um- + Pro — > aaaa 'will hope' iwas + -um- + Pro —> iiwas 'will evade/will elude' ( 2 ) S t 2 + mag- + As (a) St /CV.../ + mag- + Com —> mag- + /CV.../ 45 I n t he morphophonemics, t h e f o r m a t i v e mag-, a s p e c t P r o , t r a n s f o r m s t o nag- i n a s p e c t s Com and A c t l . ' e.g.: tanmm + mag- + Com — > nagtanim ' p l a n t e d * diwang + mag- + Com — > nagdiwang ' c e l e b r a t e d ' St /CV.../ + mag- + A c t l — > mag- +/C/+/Y/+/0/+/V.../ e.g.: t a n i m + mag- + A c t l — > n a g t a t a n i m ' p l a n t i n g ' diwang + mag- + A c t l — > nagdidiwang ' c e l e b r a t i n g ' St /CV.../ + mag- + P r o — > mag- +/C/+/V/+/C/+/Y. "../ e.g.: t a n i m + mag- + P r o — > magtatanim ' w i l l p l a n t ' diwang + mag- + Pro — > magdidiwang ' w i l l c e l e b r a t e ' (b) St /VC.../ + mag- + Com — > mag- +/V/+/Q.../ e.g.: a f a l + mag- + Com — n a g a r a l ' s t u d i e d ' impok + mag- + Com ~=> nagimpok 'saved (money)' St /CV.../ + mag- + A c t l — > mag- +/Y/+/Y/+/C.../ e. g.. : a r a l + mag- + A c t l — > n a g a a r a l ' s t u d y i n g ' impok + mag- + A c t l --> nagiimpok ' s a v i n g (money)' St /VC.../ + mag- + P r o — > mag- +/Y/+/Y/+/0.../ a r a l + mag- + Pro — > magaaral ' w i l l s t u d y ' impok + mag- + Pro — > magiimpok ' w i l l save (money)' 46 (3) S t 3 J . [ As 1 mag- (a) St /CV.../ + _um-. + Com — -> /C/+ -um- + /V.../ e.g. : b i l ang + -um- + Com —9» b u m i l a n g 'counted' s u l a t + -um- + Com — > sumulat "wrrbte' St /CV.../ + -um- £ A c t l — » /C/+ -um- +/V/+/C/+/V.../ e.g. : b i l a n g + -um- + A c t l — ^ b u m i b i l a n g ' c o u n t i n g ' s u l a t + -um- + A c t l — > sumusulat ' w r i t i n g ' St /CV.../ + -um- + Pro — > /C/+/0/+/Y/+/C/+/V.../ e.g.: b i l a n g + -um- + Pro — b i b i l a n g ' w i l l count' s u l a t + -um- + Pro —*>> s u s u l a t ' w i l l w r i t e ' (b) St /VC.../ + -um- + Com —>~-um- +/Y/+/C.../ e.g.: apuhap + -um- + Com — > umapuhap 'examined w i t h t he touch/groped i n the dark' iwas + -um- + Com — > umiwas 'evaded/eluded' St /VC.../ + -um- + A c t l — > -um- +/Y/+/Y/+/C.../ e.g.: apuhap + -um- + A c t l — > umaapuliap ' t o u c h i n g w i t h the h a n d / g r o p i n g i n the dark' iwas + -um- + A c t l —-> umiiwas ' e v a d i n g / e l u d i n g ' St /VC.../ + -um- + P r o --/# -/+/V/+/V/+/0.../ e.g. : apuhap + -um- + Pro — ^ aapuliap ' w i l l t o u c h w i t h the the hand/ w i l l grope i n the dark' iwas + -um- + Pro —-» i i w a s ' v a i l e l u d e / w i l l evade 1 St /VC.../ + mag- + Com — > mag- + /V/+/C.../ e.g.: apuhap + mag- + Com — > nagapuhap 'touched w i t h the hand/groped i n the dark' iwas + mag- + Com —•> nagiwas 'eluded/evaded ( t h e a c t i o n b e i n g f r e q u e n t ) St /VC.../ + mag- + A c t l — > mag- +/Y/+/Y/+/C.../ e.g.: apuhap + mag- + A c t l — ^ nagaapuhap ' t o u c h i n g w i t h the h a n d / g r o p i n g I n the dark ( t h e a c t i o n b e i n g f r e q u e n t ) ' iwas + mag- + A c t l — > n a g i i w a s ' e l u d i n g / e v a d i n g ( t h e a c t i o n b e i n g f r e q u e n t ) ' 48 St /VC.'../ + mag- + P r o — > /0/+/Y/+/Y/+/O.../ e.g.: apuhap + mag- + Pro —;>aapuhap ' w i l l t o u c h w i t h the h a n d / w i l l grope i n the dark iwas + mag- + Pro — i i w a s ' w i l l e v a d e / w i l l e l u d e ' We have shown the morphophonemics of t h e stem, f o r m a t i v e , and a s p e c t of t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . A more d e t a i l e d grammar would i n c l u d e t h e sub- c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s . Such a grammar would s p e c i f y what k i n d of HP a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s of Vt ( t r a n s i t i v e v e r b ) or Vj_ ( i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b ) would t a k e . Perhaps t h e HP 0 would a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c i n g environment o f the v e r b . Morphophonemics of P r e p m sa and the l e t e r m i n e r g ang, ang manga, s i , and s i n a The d e t e r m i n e r ang i s d e l e t e d i n the morphophonemics, as f o l l o w s : sg —> Prep e.g.: sa + ang + b a t a sa b a t a . Prep m Det sg • c h i l d ' P r e p m ' c h i l d ' ' t o / w i t h / f r o m the c h i l d 49 s a + ang + maganda —-j> sa maganda P r e p m D e t s g ' b e a u t i f u l ' P r e p m ' b e a u t i f u l * (' t o / v / i t h / f r o m the b e a u t i f u l one') [ N ] P r e p m + D e t p l i •» — > P r e p m + manga P r d em. Adj ^ rdem J s a + ang + manga + b a t a — > s a manga b a t a P r e p m De-!; Det ]_ ' c h i l d , 1 ? r e p m manga ' c h i l d 1 ( ' t o / w i t h / f r o m the c h i l d r e n ' ) s a + ang. + manga + maganda — » s a manga maganda P r e p m D e t p i ' b e a u t i f u l ' P r e p m manga ' b e a u t i f u l ' ( ' t o / w i t h / f r o m the b e a u t i f u l ones') s a * ang + manga + i t o —•» s a manga i t o P r e p m manga ' t b i i s ' ( ' t o / w i t h / f r o m t h e s e ' ) The D e t S g and Det p]_ markers b e f o r e Name a r e r e p l a c e d by new markers. The morphophonemic r u l e undergoes a c y c l e , t h u s : 50 D e t S g + Name > s i . + Name P r e p m + s i + Name — ^ - \ P r e p m + kay + Name Detp]_ + Name —»-•• s i n a + Name P r e p m + s i n a + Name -—> P r e p m + k i n a + Name The morphophonemic mapping i s shown below: s i s i n a J s a — kay k i n a e.g. sa kay P a b l o 1 t o / w i t h / f r o m P a b l o ' s a k i n a P a b l o ' t o / w i t h / f r o m P a b l o and h i s companions' Morphophonemics o f the Pronoun P r p e r S g ( p e r s o n a l pronoun s i n g u l a r ) , Prp e rp- j_ ( p e r s o n a l pronoun p l u r a l ) and P r a e m ( d e m o n s t r a t i v e pronoun) a re p o s s i b l e r e w r i t e s o f NP. A f t e r the P r e p m ( p r e p o s i t i o n m a r k e r ) , which i s always s a , P r p e r ( s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ) changes shape, and t a k e s t h e form o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s s e s s i v e pronoun, P r p o s ' ^ke morphophonemic mappings a r e shown below: S i n g u l a r : ako »I' >/ s a — » ika w 'you' s i y a 'he/she' a k i n 'mine' i y o 'yours' k a n i y a ' h i s / h e r s ' 51 P l u r a l : amin 'ours' Inyo 'yours' k a n i l a ' t h e i r s ' The forms a k i n , i y o , k a n i y a , amin, i n y o and k a n i l a a r e i n c l u d e d among the P r p o s forms, but a f t e r sa t h e y do not always denote " p o s s e s s i o n " . However, the s e forms do denote p o s s e s s i o n i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i n the se n t e n c e , i . e . , when they a re produced by the s t r i n g : Cop + P r e d + HP Cop a k i n ang l i b r o — » A k i n ang l i b r o . Cop 'mine' D e t S g 'book' ('The book i s m i n e . 1 ) Morphophonemics of n- + HP Ru l e (4) s t a t e s t h a t HP 0 ( o b j e c t noun p h r a s e ) s h o u l d be r e w r i t t e n as n- + HP. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t an HP c a r r i e s D e t S g , which i s ang f o r H (noun), and Detp]_ ang manga f o r H. D e t S g f o r Hame i s s i ; Detp]_ f o r Hame i s s i n a . The morphophonemic r u l e f o r N i s as f o l l o w s : - n- + ang —•> nang n- + ang manga — n a n g manga kami 'we' kayo 'you' s i l a 'they' / s a On t h e o t h e r hand, the morphophonemic r u l e f o r Name appear s , t h u s : n- + ' s i — n ± n- + s i n a — ^ n i n a e.g.: V NP 0 NP Humingi nang l a p i s ang estudyante, 'asked' n- + D e t 3 g ' p e n c i l ' D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s t u d e n t asked f o r a p e n c i l . ' ) (1) s 'read' -um- Com n + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' Detsg .'student' Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n ang e s t u d y a n t e . ^ ('The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) a) b a s a mag- Com n- ang H k s i y o n s a ahg 'read' mag- Com n- + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' P r e p m , kuwarto 'room 1 ang manga e s t u d y a n t e D e t p i ' s t u d e n t ' Nagbasa nang l i k s i y o n s a kuwarto ang manga estudyante, ('The s t u d e n t s r e a d the l e s s o n i n the room.') (3; s ba s a mag- Com n- ang l i k s i y o n fiito^ :.kag,a~bi ang manga e s t u d y ante 'read' mag- Com n- + D e t s g 'lesson' 'here' ' l a s t n i g h t ' D e t p i ' s t u d e n t ' Nagbasa nang l i k s i y o n d i t o kagab.i ang manga e s t u d y a n t e . ('The s t u d e n t s ^ r e a d the l e s s o n h e r e l a s t n i g h t . ' ) (4) st 12 mag- As bus mag- Com 'bus' mag- Com Nagbus s i P a b l o . ('Pablo to o k the bus.') s i P a b l o Det 'Pablo (5) s l i n g k o d mag- A c t l sa a h g hukbo ang b i n a t a ' s e r v e ' mag- A c t l P r e p m 'army' D e t s g 'young man N a g l i l i n g k o d sa hukbo ang b i n a t a . ('The young man i s s e r v i n g i n the army.') (<o) l i n g k o d mag- A c t l sa .;ihg hukbo ngayon ang b i n a t a ' s e r v e 1 mag- A c t l P r e p m 'army' 'now1 D e t s g "young man" N a g l i l i n g k o d sa hukbo ngayon ang binata'. ('The young man i s s e r v i n g now i n the army.') 59 The t r e e s t r u c t u r e s i n the p r e c e d i n g pages r e p r e s e n t k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s l i k e the f o l l o w i n g . (1) (a) P u m i l i nang l i b r o ang e s t u d y a n t e . 'chose 1 n- + D e t S g 'book' B e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s t u d e n t chose a book.') (b) P i p i t a s nang r o s a s ang b i n a t a . ' w i l l p i c k ' n- + D e t s g ' r o s e ' D e t s g 'young man1 ('The young man w i l l p i c k a r o s e . ' ) (c) Humingi nang p a l i w a n a g ang 'asked' n- + D e t s g ' e x p l a n a t i o n ' £>et s g e s t u d y a n t e . ' s t u d e n t ' (2) (a) P u m i l i nang l i b r o s a e s t a n t e 'chose' n- + D e t s g 'book' T?revm ' s h e l f ang e s t u d y a n t e . D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' (b) N a g d i r i w a n g nang kaarawan s a ' c e l e b r a t i n g ' n- + D e t s g ' b i r t h d a y ' Prepm tahanan ang d a l a g a . 'home' Detcjp- 'young woman' (c) 'Magbibigay n a n g panayam s a ' w i l l g i v e ' n- + D e t s g ' l e c t u r e ' P r e p m a u d i t o r y u m ang p r o p e s o r . ' a u d i t o r i u m ' D e t s g ' p r o f e s s o r ' 60 ('The p r o f e s s o r w i l l g i v e a l e c t u r e i n the a u d i t o r i u m . ' ) (a) P u m i l i nang l i b r o s a e s t a n t e 'chose' n- + D e t s g 'book' P r e p m ' s h e l f k a n i n a ang e s t u d y a n t e . 'sometime ago' D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' (b) l a g d i r i w a n g nang kaarawan s a ' c e l e b r a t i n g ' n- + Det ' b i r t h d a y ' Prep™ tahanan ngayon ang d a l a g a . 'home* 'now* D e t S g 'young woman' ('The young woman i s c e l e b r a t i n g h e r b i r t h - day a t h e r home now.') (c) M a g b i b i g a y nang panayam s a ' w i l l g i v e ' n- + D e t s g ' l e c t u r e ' P r e p m a u d i t o r y u m bukas ang p r o p e s o r . ' a u d i t o r i u m ' 'tomorrow' D e t S g ' p r o f e s s o r ('The p r o f e s s o r w i l l g i v e a l e c t u r e a t the a u d i t o r i u m tomorrow.') (a) Umalis" s a kuwarto ang e s t u d y a n t 'went o u t ' P r e p m 'room' D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s t u d e n t went out from the room.') (b) Nagbus s a P a s i g k a h a p 0 n 'took the bus' P r e p m ' P a s i g ' ' y e s t e r d a y ' 61 s i P a b l o . D e t s g '.'Pablo' ('Pablo took the bus i n P a s i g y e s t e r d a y . ' ) (e) Tumingala s a l a n g i t ang babae. 'looked upward' P r e p m 'sky' D e t s g 'woman' ('The woman l o o k e d up t o the sky.') (a) Umiiyak s a kuwarto ang babae.. ' c r y i n g ' P r e p m 'room' Det 'woman' ('The woman i s c r y i n g i n the room.') (b) N a g l a l a k a d s a k a l y e ang 'w a l k i n g ' Pi>ep:m ' s t r e e t ' D e t s g b a t a . ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d i s w a l k i n g i n the s t r e e t . ' ) ( c ) l a g i i w a s sa b i n a t a ' e v a d i n g / e l u d i n g ' P r e p m 'young man' ang d a l a g a . D e t S g 'young woman' ('The young woman i s e l u d i n g the young man.') (a) Umiiyak sa kuwarto k a g a b i ' c r y i n g ' P r e p r n 'room' ' l a s t n i g h t ' ang babae. D e t S g 'woman' ('The woman was c r y i n g i n the room l a s t n i g h t . 62 N a g l a l a k a d sa k a l y e k a n i n a ' w a l k i n g ' P r e p m ' s t r e e t ' 'sometime ago ang b a t a . D e t s g ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d was w a l i n g i n the s t r e e t sometime ago.') Magiiwas sa b i n a t a ' e v a d i n g / e l u d i n g ' P r e p m 'young man' ngayon ang d a l a g a . 'now' D e t S g 'young woman' ('The young woman i s e v a d i n g the young man now. 1) KERNEL 2 RULES 63 (1) S — > PP + NP (2.) PP — ^ Cop + P r e d (3) P r e d — ± • D Adj JL&V (5) Adv P l a (Tm) 'NP, (6) NP (4) D —> - * S S ( S l ) (7) NP sg Det P r T sg N ] i Name > p e r s g I P^dem (8) N P p l To L e x i c o n (9) Oop (10) D e t S £ D e t p l N Name Prdeml Pr-P e r p l — > M S / s i ' / . Name I 6k (11) (12) (13) (15) (16) (17) D e t 0 i —^> Adj ang manga / s i n a / Name f N P r d e m > masipag ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' , maganda ' b e a u t i f u l ' , maaga ' e a r l y ' . . . P i a — d i t o 'here', d i y a n ' t h e r e ' , doon ' t h e r ( y o n d e r ) " . . . (ik) Tm — b u k a s 'tomorrow', kahapon ' y e s t e r d a y ' , w a l a 'ab s e n t ' . . . P r p e r s g — » • ako ' I ' , i k a w 'you', s i y a 'he/she' P r p e r p x — k a m i 'we - e x c l u s i v e ' , tayo 'we - i n c l u s i v e * , s i l a 'they'. P r d e m — i " t o ' t h i s ' , i y a n " t h a t ' , i y o n ' t h a t ( y o n d e r ) ' . ' b a t a ' c h i l d ' , e s t u d y a n t e ' s t u d e n t ' , l a - l a k i 'man'... — l i b r o 'book', kuwarto 'room', aso 'dog'..' damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g ' l o v e ' , ga- l a k ' j o y ' . . . (18) N DISCUSSION The Copula Cop ( c o p u l a ) , i s p o s t u l a t e d i n the PP ( p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e ) ol" t h i s k e r n e l and t h a t of K e r n e l s 3 and k f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two u n i t s o f the s e n t e n c e , namely, the type o f p r e d i c a t e and the NP (noun p h r a s e ) . A l t h o u g h unmarked ( i . e . , jtf) i n the s u r f a c e grammar, Cop i s needed as a r e l a t i o n - m a r k e r . The n e c e s s i t y §6r i n c l u d i n g Cop i n the r u l e s becomes more p a t e n t i n the case o f NP (noun p h r a s e ) + NP (noun p h r a s e ) sentence t y p e , t o show t h a t the two NP*s a r e not e q u a l i n v a l u e . The u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n marker i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y i n i n v e r s e t r a n s - f o r m a t i o n . Por i n s t a n c e : Base s e n t e n c e : Cop + Adj + NP Cop maganda ang b a t a . Cop ' b e a u t i f u l ' D e t Q g ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l ' . ) can be t r a n s f o r m e d t o the s t r i n g : NP + Cop + ay + Adj Ang b a t a Cop ay maganda. ('The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l ' . ) 66 w h i c h u n d e r l i e s the s e n t e n c e : • - Ang b a t a ay maganda. ('The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l ' . ) One s c h o o l of thought i n t r a d i t i o n a l T agalog grammar t h e o r i z e s t h a t ay_ i s a c o p u l a . But ay_ i s used i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e and i n o t h e r p a t t e r n s a l s o t o mark s i m p l e i n v e r s i o n . The n o t i o n of the c o p u l a - l i k e s i g n a l i s c o r r e c t . The Cop i n the deep s t r u c t u r e shows t h i s u n d e r l y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , and i s made 0 by the morpho- phonemic r u l e s i n b o t h p a t t e r n s . A d j e c t i v e Sentence Type K e r n e l 2 i s of the sentence s t r u c t u r e t ype D ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) + IIP (noun p h r a s e ) . A c t u a l l y , t h i s r u l e b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t w o ^ s i m i l a r sentence t y p e s : ( l ) Adj ( a d j e c t i v e o r a d j e c t i v a l ) + NP, and (2) Adv (adverb o r a d v e r b i a l ) + NP. The t r e e s t r u c t u r e s i n the f o l l o w i n g pages show t y p i c a l a d j e c t i v e structures:;. 67 68 69 70 Adj i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . T h i s f o r m - c l a s s may appear as ( l ) s i m p l e stem, (2) stem w i t h f o r m a t i v e morpheme, o r , (3) stem f u l l y r e d u p l i c a t e d . The ma- morpheme a t t a c h e d to the i n i t i a l phoneme of any ad- j e c t i v e stem i s commonly used i n the f o r m a t i o n 1 of ad- j e c t i v e s and a d j e c t i v a l s . (1) s i m p l e a d j e c t i v e stem p i l i ' c h o s e n / s e l e c t e d ' e.g.: P i l i ang manga a t l e t a . ' s e l e c t e d ' P e t p ] _ ' a t h l e t e ' ('The a t h l e t e s a r e s e l e c t e d ' . ) duwag 'coward' e.g.: Duwag ang l a l a k l . 'coward' D e t s g 'man' ('The man i s a coward.') apat ' f o u r ' e.g.: Apat s i l a . ' f o u r ' 'they' ('They a r e f o u r . ' ) (2) stem w i t h ma- morpheme ma- + ganda — > maganda 'beauty' ' b e a u t i f u l ' 71 e.g.: Maganda ang b a t a . ' b e a u t i f u l ' D e t s g ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) ma- + s i p a g — m a s i p a g ' i n d u s t r y ' ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' e.g.: Masipag s i P a b l o . ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' D e t S g 'Pablo' ('Pablo i s i n d u s t r i o u s . ' ) ma- + aga — m a a g a ' e a r l i n e s s ' ' e a r l y ' e.g.: Maaga ang p r o p e s o r . ' e a r l y ' D e t S g ' p r o f e s s o r ' ('The p r o f e s s o r i s e a r l y . ' ) stem f u l l y r e d u p l i c a t e d p u n i t - p u n i t ' t o r n ' ' t o r n ' e.g.: P u n i t - p u n i t ang - damit. ' t o r n ' ' t o r n ' D e t S g ' c l o t h e s ('The c l o t h e s a re s e r i o u s l y t o r n . b a l i - b a l i ' f r a c t u r e d ' ' f r a c t u r e d ' 72 e.g.: B a l i - b a l i ang p a t p a t . ' f r a c t u r e d ' ' f r a c t u r e d ' D e t s g 'bamboo s p l i t ' ('The bamboo s p l i t i s f r a c t u r e d . ' ) l i m a - l i m a ' f i v e ' ' f i v e ' e.g.: L i m a - l i m a ang hanay. ' f i v e * ' f i v e ' D e t s g 'column' ('The column i s f i v e deep.') The A d v e r b i a l Adv (adverb o r a d v e r b i a l ) may be r e w r i t t e n as P l a ( p l a c e a d v e r b i a l ) , + Tm (time a d v e r b i a l ) . Thus,we get the s t r i n g s : Cop + P l a + FP Cop + P l a + Tm + FP P l a must be chosen. Tm i s o p t i o n a l . The s t r u c - t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t Tm i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o g e n e r a t e a g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e . I f Tm i s chosen a t a l l , i t must co- o c c u r w i t h P l a . The s t r i n g s a re shown i n the f o l l o w i n g s t r u c - t u r e t r e e s . 73 74 (2) Cop + P i a + Tm + FP Cop 0 <» D d-ito bukas an 'here' (tomorrow' D e t S g ('The d a n c i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e here tomorrow.') sayawan 'dancing' KERNEL 3 RULES (1) s —=• PP + FP (2) PP — C o p + Bred ( 3) Pred — > FP (4) FP (5) FPS< (6) F P p l [ NPpi Det I ( S i ) sg N Name — > < Pr - p e r s g P r P O s s g Prdem Det p i < N Name P rdem \ Pr- Pr p e r p i pospi To Lexicon (7) Cop — > 0 (8) D e t s g — > < ang / s i / . . 1 Name 1 76 (9) (10) (14) D e t p l Pr. — • > <̂ p e r s g ( 1 1 ) Pr-P e r p l ( 1 2 ) P r possg ( 1 3 ) P r P O S p l P rdera ang manga / s i n a / Name N P rdem| i — > ako ' I ' , i k a w 'you', s i y a 'he/ s h e 1 . — > kami 'we - e x c l u s i v e ' , tayo 'we - i n c l u s i v e ' , kayo 'you*, s i l a 'they'. — > a k i n 'mine', i y o 'yours', k a n i - y a ' h i s / h e r s ' . — > amin 'ours', i n y o 'yours', k a n i l a ' t h e i r s ' . i t o ' t h i s ' , i y a n ' t h a t ' , i y o n ' t h a t ( y o n d e r ) ' . ' b a t a ' c h i l d ' , e s t u d y a n t e ' s t u d e n t ' , l a l a k i 'man'... ( 1 5 ) N — > J l i b r o 'book', kuwarto 'room', aso 'dog'.. damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g ' l o v e ' , g a l a k »joy'... 77 DISCUSSION We e x p l a i n e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of K e r n e l 2 r u l e s t h a t Cop i s p o s t u l a t e d t o show the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two p a r t s of the s e n t e n c e , and a l s o t o s i g n a l the o c c u r - rence of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n marker ay_. The need f o r e s t a b l i s h - i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p appears to be more r e l e v a n t i n the NP + NP sentence c o n s t r u c t i o n t y p e . The f i r s t NP i n t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s t r a c e a b l e t o PP. W i t h t h e p o s t u l a t i o n of Cop, i t becomes c l e a r t h a t the two NP s e t s d i f f e r from each o t h e r and a r e no t e q u a l i n ra n k . I n the s e n t e n c e : NP NP Ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o . D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' D e t s g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s the s t u d e n t . ' ) i t i s assumed t h a t one NP i s the s u b j e c t , and the o t h e r i s the p r e d i c a t e . However, t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t o r t o show which s e t b e l o n g s t o what s e t . V/ith Cop p o s i t i o n e d i n f r o n t o f ang e s t u d y a n t e , the l a t t e r r e v e a l s i t s r a nk as p r e d i c a t e , hence: Cop + NP + NP Cop ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o . Cop D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' D e t s g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s the s t u d e n t . ' ) 78 The s t r u c t u r e may be c l e a r l y shown by the f o l l o w i n g t r e e . 79 I n o t h e r words, ang e s t u d y a n t e ('the s t u d e n t ' ) i s a PP ( p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e ) by s o u r c e . The k e r n e l s t r i n g : Cop + FP-j_ +' NP 2 Cop + ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o . Cop D e " f c S g ' s t u d e n t ' D e t S g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s the s t u d e n t . ' ) may be t r a n s f o r m e d t o : FP 2. + ay_ + Cop + F P X Ang s e k r e t a r y o ay ang e s t u d y a n t e . D e t S g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ay_ D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s the s t u d e n t . * ) Note t h a t Cop i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y d e l e t e d i n the morpho- phonemics. T h i s e x p l i c a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p l i e s as w e l l t o a l l pronouns i n the PP p o s i t i o n and pronouns i n t h e NP p o s i t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p and rank of the s e e m i n g l y e q u a l s e t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by the p o s t u l a t i o n o f Cop. The r u l e s i n c l u d e s t r u c t u r e s l i k e the f o l l o w i n g : NP + NP jtf ang d o k t o r s i P a b l o . Cop D e t S g ' d o c t o r ' D e t s g 'Pablo' ('Pablo i s t h e d o c t o r . ' ) 80 0 ang t i t s e r s i Maura. Cop D e t S g ' t e a c h e r ' D e t s g "Maura' ('Maura i s the t e a c h e r . ' ) 0 ang manga mananayaw s i n a I s a b e l . Cop D e t p i 'dancer' D e t p l ' I s a b e l ' ( ' I s a b e l and h e r companions are the d a n c e r s . ' ) I n a c t u a l u t t e r a n c e the d e t e r m i n e r s a r e d e l e t e d when th e y o c c u r b e f o r e p r o f e s s i o n nouns, t h u s : 0 d o k t o r s i P a b l o . ' d o c t o r ' D e t S g 'Pablo' ('Pablo i s the d o c t o r . ' ) 0 t i t s e r s i Maura. ' t e a c h e r ' D e t s g 'Maura' ('Maura i s the t e a c h e r . ' ) 0 mananayaw s i n a I s a b e l . 'dancer' D e t p l I s a b e l ' ( ' I s a b e l and h e r companions a r e the da n c e r s . ' ) The f i r s t FP has o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e w r i t e s : P r p e r s g ( p e r s o n a l pronoun s i n g u l a r ) , P r p e r p i ( p e r s o n a l pronoun p l u r a l ) , P r p o s s g ( p o s s e s s i v e pronoun s i n g u l a r ) , P ^ p o s p i ( p o s s e s s i v e pronoun p l u r a l ) , and Pr& em (demons- t r a t i v e p r o n o u n ) . P i p e r and P r p O S have s i n g u l a r as w e l l 81 as p l u r a l forms, but do not take a d e t e r m i n e r . j P r d e m does not t a k e a D e t s g , but i t t a k e s a D e t p l . Pronoun i n PP p o s i t i o n and pronoun i n NP p o s i t i o n have the same r e w r i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The g e n e r a l r u l e produces s e n t e n c e s l i k e the f o l l o w i n g : S i y a s i y a . 'he/she' 'he/she' ( ' I t is.'he/she*.) Ako s i y a . ' I ' 'he/she' ( ' i t i s I . 1 ) S i l a i k a w . 'they' 'you' ('You are t h e y . ' ) A l s o the f o l l o w i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s : I y a n i y a n . • t h a t ' ' t h a t ' ('That i s t h a t . ' ) I t o i y a n . • t h i s ' ' t h a t ' ('That i s t h i s ^ ') 82 I y a n i t o . • t h a t ' ' t h i s ' ('This i s t h a t . ' ) I t seems t h a t P r p 0 s needs c o n d i t i o n i n g . Should the pronoun i n t h e PP p o s i t i o n be a P r p O S > the pronoun s h o u l d not take a Prpos i n the FP p o s i t i o n , and v i c e v e r s a . T h i s i s due t o the p r o d u c t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g a b e r r a n t s t r u c t u r e s : * A k i n i y o . •mine' 'yours' ('Yours i s mine.') * I y o a k i n , • yours' 'mine.' ('Mine i s y o u r s . ' ) * K a n i l a i n y o . ' t h e i r s ' 'yours' ('Yours ( p l u r a l ) i s t h e i r s . ' ) These would need a d e t e r m i n e r . Base: * A k i n i y o . 'mine' 'yours' ('Yours i s mine.') * I y o a k i n . 'yours' 'mine' ('Mine i s y o u r s . ' ) * K a n i l a i n y o . ' t h e i r s ' 'yours' ('Yotirs ( p l u r a l ) i s t h e i r s . ' ) A c t u a l Sentence: A k i n ang i y o . 'mine' Detgg 'yours' ('Yours i s mine.') Iyo ang a k i n . 'yours' D e t S g 'mine' (•Mine i s y o u r s . ' ) K a n i l a ang i n y o . ' t h e i r s ' Detgg 'yours' ('Yours ( p l u r a l ) i s t h e i r s . ' ) the ay_ t r a n s f o r m : Ang i y o ay a k i n . D e t S g 'yours' ay_ 'mine ('Yours i s mine.') 8k Ang a k i n ay D e t S g 'mine' ay_ ( 'Ifine i s y o u r s . ' ) i y o , 'yours' Ang i n y o ay k a i i i l a . D e t S g 'yours' ay_ ' t l i e i r s ' ('Yours ( p l u r a l ) i s t h e i r s . ' ) But such s e n t e n c e s a r e p e r i p h e r a l . Sample d e r i v a t i o n s are shown by the f o l l o w i n g t S D e t s g 'Pablo' 'he' ('He i s Pablo.') 86 KERNEL k RULES (1) S —> PP + NP (2) PP —** Cop + Pred (3) Pred P r e p p n (4) Prepph — > ( P r e p w ) P r e p m (5) Ml? NP sg —> Det ( S i ) (6) N P B g sg N Name — > < P r T p e r s g P r p o s S g I Praem (7) NP p l I N Detp]_ ^ Name S .•Prdem Pr > ' P e r p i P r p o s p i To L e x i c o n (8) Cop (9) D e t S g —> 0 — V < ang / s i / . N Name 88 (10) (11) (13) (15) Det p i —> < P r p e r s g (12) P r P e r p l P z p o s s g (Ik) P r POSpl P rdem (16) Prep w (17) Prep m ang manga / s i n a / Name r l^rdem (18) N — > — a k o ' I ' , i k a w "you 1, s i y a 'he/ she'. — > kami 'we - e x c l u s i v e ' , tayo 'we - i n c l u s i v e ' , kayo 'you', s i l a ' they'... — > a k i n 'mine', i y o 'yours', k a n i - y a ' h i s / h e r s ' . —>• amin 'ours', i n y o 'yours', k a - n i l a ' t h e i r s ' . ~> i'fco ' t h i s ' , i y a n ' t h a t ' , i y o n ' t h a t ( y o n d e r ) ' . -> ayon ' i n a c c o r d w i t h ' , t u n g k o l 'about', nasa ' l o c a t e d a t / w i t h ' . . . -> s a ' b a t a ' c h i l d " , e s t u d y a n t e ' s t u d e n t ' , l a l a k i 'man'... S l i b r o 'book', kuwarto 'room', aso 'dog' damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g ' l o v e ' , g a i a k 'joy *... 89 DISCUSSION The P r e p w ( P r e p o s i t i o n Word) P r e p w ( p r e p o s i t i o n word) i s a c o v e r symbol f o r f u l l - w o r d s , which by t h e i r n a t u r e are p r e p o s i t i o n s . F u l l - word p r e p o s i t i o n s o r p r e p o s i t i o n a l s cannot f u n c t i o n a l o n e . They must c o - o c c u r w i t h the p r e p o s i t i o n marker, s a . To i l l u s t r a t e : Prepw — ^ tungk o l 'about' w i t h o u t a s a a f t e r i t , w i l l produce a d e v i a n t s t r i n g : * P r e p w + NP t u n g k o l n a s y o n a l i s m o 'about' ' n a t i o n a l i s m ' about n a t i o n a l i s m ' ) The g r a m m a t i c a l s t r i n g i s : P r e p w + P r e p m + NP t u n g k o l s a n a s y o n a l i s m o 'about* P r e p m ' n a t i o n a l i s m ' ('about n a t i o n a l i s m ' ) The d e l e t i o n of the d e t e r m i n e r s i n g u l a r ang a f t e r sa w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n . t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Sentences c o n t a i n i n g the above s t r i n g s are shown i n the t r e e s t r u c t u r e s below. 90 S 'about' P r e p m ' n a t i o n a l i s m ' D e t s g ' l e c t u r e ' ('The l e c t u r e i s about n a t i o n a l i s m . " ) 91 92 The D e t e r m i n e r i n R e l a t i o n t o P r e p m ( P r e p o s i t i o n Marker) The D e t S g ( d e t e r m i n e r s i n g u l a r ) i s d e l e t e d a f t e r s a i n the morphophonemics, i . e . : ang / s a — 0 ang manga / s a — 5 » 0 manga e.g.: s a + ang + N" — s a + N * s a ang b a t a — > s a b a t a P r e p m D e t S g ' c h i l d * (•'to/from/with t h e c h i l d ' ) s a + ang + P r d e m — » s a + P r d e m * s a ang i y o n —•» s a i y o n P r e p m D e t S g " t h a t ' ( t o / f r o m / w i t h t h a t one') sa + ang manga + N —-s» sa + manga + N * s a ang manga b a t a — * s a manga b a t a P r e p m D e t p i ' c h i l d ' ( t o / f r o m / w i t h the c h i l d r e n * ) The morphophonemics of d e t e r m i n e r s s i and s i n a i s d i f f e r e n t . These markers are r e p l a c e d by kay and k i n a , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h u s : s i / s a —•> kay s i n a / s a —•> k i n a 93 s a + kay + Name sa kay P a b l o ( * t o / f r o m / w i t h P a b l o ' ) s a + k i n a + Name sa k i n a P a b l o ('to/from/wi t h Pab1o and h i s f r i e n d s ' ) The Prpoggg ( p o s s e s s i v e pronoun s i n g u l a r ) and P r p 0 S l ) i ( p o s s e s s i v e pronoun p l u r a l ) We have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d the morphophonemics °£ -^pergg ( p e r s o n a l pronoun s i n g u l a r ) and P r p e r p ] _ ( p e r s o n a l pronoun p l u r a l ) i n commenting on R u l e (7), K e r n e l 1 R u l e s , but we are l i s t i n g the morphophonemic r u l e a g a i n because of i t s r e l e v a n c e i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . P r p o s S g ( p o s s e s s i v e pronoun s i n g u l a r ) and ?rp 0 Sp-]_ ( p o s s e s s i v e pronoun p l u r a l ) i n K e r n e l k R u l e s a re p o s s i b l e r e w r i t e s of N P s g and N P p l , i n R u l e s (7) and (8), r e s p e c - t i v e l y . The p o s s e s s i v e form of the pronoun, o c c u r r i n g i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r s a i s not r e a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g as a p o s s e s s i v e . The p o s s e s s i v e i s p r e s e n t e d here as a t r a n s - sa + s i _ * s a s i P r e p m Detsg sa + s i n a * s a s i n a P r e p m Detpi + Name — P a b l o 'Pablo' + Name — P a b l o — > 'Pablo' 94 form of the p e r s o n a l pronoun. The morphophonemic com- ponent i s the f o l l o w i n g : S i n g u l a r : ako TI» ikaw 'you' s i y a 'he/she' P l u r a l : kami 'we' kayo 'you' s i l a 'they' Examples;: P a r a s a ' f o r ' P r ePm ('The book i s f o r me.') / s a —-> / s a —•= a k i n 'mine' ang Det sg a k i n 'mine' i y o 'yours' k a n i y a ' h i s / h e r s amin 'ours' i n y o 'yours' k a n i l a ' t h e i r s ' l i b r o . 'book' Ayon s a k a n i y a s i P a b l o . ' i n a c c o r d v / i t h ' P r e p m ' h i s / h e r s ' D e t s g 'Pablo' ('Pablo i s i n a c c o r d v / i t h him. ') But i n s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n , the p o s s e s s i v e pronoun f u l f i l l s i t s f u n c t i o n as a p o s s e s s i v e . Examples: P a r a s a i y o - ang ' f o r ' P r e p m 'yours' Det ('Mine i s f o r you.') sg a k i n . 'mine 95 Sa i n y o ang k a n i l a . P r e P m 'yours ( . p l u r a l ) ' D e t s g ' t h e i r s ' ( ' T h e i r s i s y o u r s . ' ) A d e r i v a t i o n would reduce t o the f o l l o w i n g tree'. S x p o s s g 0 Para s a a k i n ang manga i y o n ' f o r ' P r e p m 'mine' D e t p i ' t h a t ' ('Those are f o r me.') COPULA KERNEL SENTENCE RULES 96 (5) (1) S — > PP + NP (2) PP — > Cop + P r e d D (3) P r e d — > < NP Prepph P r e p p h —> ( P r e p w ) P r e p m + NP ' m Adv _ ' P i a (Tm) / Cop D — * (6) Adv — > < (7) NP —> P r e p m + NP (Tm) P i a (Tm) _Tm NP C sg NP ( S i ) p l (8) NP Det sg Name sg —> i Pr- P r pOSgg > ^ P r d e m 97 f I* 11 D e t p i •< Name > ( 9 ) N P p l - > <̂ Name P rdem Pr-P e r p l P r p o s p i To L e x i c o n (10) Cop (11) D e t s g (12) D e t p i (13) P r e p m (14) Adj { ang / s i / „ Name N P^dem ang manga / s i n a / Name — > s a —> masipag ' i n d u s t r i o u s 1 , maganda ' b e a u t i f u l ' , maaga ' e a r l y ' . . . (15) P l a — > d i t o 'here', d i y a n ' t h e r e ' , doon 'there ( y o n d e r ) ' . . . (16) Tm — > bukas 'tomorrow', kahapon ' y e s t e r d a y ' , w a l a 'absent'... (17) P r e p w —>• ayon ' i n a c c o r d v / i t h ' , t u n g k o l 'about', l a b a n ' a g a i n s t ' . . . (18) P r P© rsg — > ako ' I ' , i k a w ' you', s i y a ' he/ she'. 98 (19) (20) (21) (22) ? r p e r p i — k a m i 'we - e x c l u s i v e ' , tayo 'we - i n c l u s i v e ' , s i l a 'they'. P r p o s S g —•> a k i n 'mine', i y o 'yo u r s ' , k a n i - y a ' h i s / h e r s ' , P r p o s p l — a m i n 'ours', I n y o .'yours', k a - l a ' t h e i r s ' . P r d e m — > i l 2 ' t h i s ' , i y a n ' t h a t ' , i y o n ' t h a t ( y o n d e r ) ' . b a t a ' c h i l d 1 , e s t u d y a n t e ' s t u d e n t ' , l a l a k i 'man'... l i b r o 'book', kuwarto 'room', aso 'dog' damdamin ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g " ' l o v e ' . g a l a k ' j o y ' . . . (23) N — + < 99 (1) (2) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) PP — • > BASE RULES OP TAGALOG KERNEL SENTENCES S — ^ PP + NP VP (Adv) Cop + Pred v"t , ' . + IIP NP 0 — > n- + NP f D VP — > o (5) Pred — > < ( 6 ) D (7) Adv (8) (9) NP IPrepph J Adj Adv f P l a (Tm) / Cop ^ P r e p m "+' NP (Tm) P l a (Tm) Tm P r e P p h — > (Prep w) Prepm + NP FP — > 1 NP sg ( S i ) (10) N P s g - > ) Let sg Pr-'per s g Prpossg P rdem )1 Name J r L N £ (11) NPpi Detpi < N Name f (12:) Vt — > < P r p e r p l L P r P o s p l S t t i + -um- " St-fc2 + mag- A-um- s t t 3 St As (13) V ± ^ i l + -um- Sti£ + mag- -um- > As 3 mag-_ (14) As — > « Com A c t l ^Pro To Lexicon (15) Cop (16) D e t s g 0 'ang. / s i / . Name (17) Detpi — * <, ang manga / s i n a / Name 101 (18) P r e p m — s a (19) Adj- — > masipag ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' , maganda ' b e a u t i f u l ' , maaga ' e a r l y ' . . . (20) P i a — > d i t o 'here', d i y a n ' t h e r e ' , doon 'there ( y o n d e r ) 1 . . . (21) Tm — b u k a s 'tomorrow', kahapon ' y e s t e r - day', v/ala 'absent'... (22) P r e p w — a y on ' i n a c c o r d w i t h ' , t u n g k o l 'about', l a b a n ' a g a i n s t ' . . . (23) P r p e r S g —•> ako ' I ' , i k a w 'you', s i y a 'he/ she'. (24) P r p e r p i — k a m i 'we - e x c l u s i v e ' , t a y o 'we - i n c l u s i v e ' , s i l a 'they'. (25) P r p o s s g — a k i n 'mine', i y o 'yours', k a - n i y a ' h i s / h e r s ' . (26) P r p o s p i — a m i n 'ours', i n y o ' y o u r s ' , k a - n i l a ' t h e i r s ' . (27) ? r d e m — * i t o ' t h i s ' , i y a n ' t h a t ' , i y o n ' t h a t ( y o n d e r ) ' . ( 2 8 ) St-fj-j_ — > p i l i ' s e l e c t / c h o o s e ' , h i n g i 'ask', p i t a s ' p i c k ' . . . (29) S t t 2 — * b i g a y ' g i v e ' , t a n i m ' p l a n t ' , diwang ' c e l e b r a t e ' . . . 1 0 2 ( 3 D ( 3 3 ) S t i . (32) s t t ( 3 0 ) S t - ^ — ^ . t a p a n g ' b r a v e r y ' , a l i s ' l e a v e ' , u l a n ' r a i n ' . . . — • > l i n g k o d ' s e r v i c e / s e r v a n t ' , s u n d a - l o ' s o l d i e r ' , b u s ' b u s ' . . . 3 — ^ b a s a ' r e a d ' , b i l a n g ' c o u n t ' , s u l a t ' w r i t e ' . . . 3 — * i w a s ' e v a d e / e l u d e *, i y a k ' c r y ' , t i n g a l a ' l o o k u p w a r d 1 . . . b a t a ' c h i l d ' , e s t u d y a n t e ' s t u d e n t ' , l a l a k i 'man'.., l i b r o ' b o o k ' , k u w a r t o 'room', a s o ' d o g ' . . . ^ d a m d a m i n ' f e e l i n g ' , p a g i b i g ' l o v e ' , g a l a k ' j o y ' . . . Sti ( 3 4 ) XST -> 2 CHAPTER I I I . TRANSFORMATIONS We w i l l now have a l o o k a t some s i m p l e t r a n s - f o r m a t i o n s . I n i t s o p e r a t i o n , a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n may p e r f o r m one or,.more o f the f o l l o w i n g : 1. I t may r e a r r a n g e elements i n a s t r i n g , 2 . I t may add elements t o a s t r i n g , 3 . I t may d e l e t e elements, and 4. I t may combine two s t r i n g s . A t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e may be e i t h e r ( l ) o b l i g a t o r y , o r (2) o p t i o n a l . Each t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e has two p a r t s : ( l ) the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n (S.D.), a l s o c a l l e d s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s , o r s t r u c t u r e Index, and (2) s t r u c - t u r a l change ( S . C ) . The s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s p e c i f i e s the c l a s s of s t r i n g s ( i n terms of t h e i r a n a l y s i s by phrase markers) to wh i c h the r u l e a p p l i e s . The s t r u c t u r a l change s p e c i f i e s the changes by means of v a r i a h l e s i g n s . Examples: 1. Rearrangement ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.: V t + N P 0 + NP Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n ang e s t u d y a n t e . 'read' n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n * D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) 104 S . C . : V-t + NP + H P 0 Bumasa ang e s t u d y a n t e nang l i k s i y o n . 'read' D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' n- + £>etSg ' l e s s o n ' ('The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) S.D.: V t + NP Q + Adv + NP Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n k a g a b i ang e s t u d y a n t e 'read' n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n ' ' l a s t D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' n i g h t ' (•The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n l a s t n i g h t . ' ) S.C.: V"t + Adv + NP 0 + NP Bumasa k a g a b i nang l i k s i y o n ang e s t u d y a n t e . 'read' ' l a s t n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n ' D e t s g 'student n i g h t ' ('The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n l a s t n i g h t . ' ) A d d i t i o n ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D. ( 1 ) : V± + NP Dumating ang p r o p e s o r . ' a r r i v e d ' D e t s g ' p r o f e s s o r ' ('The p r o f e s s o r a r r i v e d . ' ) S.D. (2.): Cop + Adj + NP Cop maaga ang p r o p e s o r . Cop ' e a r l y ' D e t S g ' p r o f e s s o r ' ("The p r o f e s s o r i s e a r l y . ' ) 105 CONDITION: The two HP's must be i d e n t i c a l . S.C.: " 'V± + n- + ang + Adj + NP Dumating nang maaga ang p r o p e s o r . ' a r r i v e d ' n- + D e t s g ' e a r l y ' D e t s g ' p r o f e s s o r ' ('The p r o f e s s o r a r r i v e d e a r l y . ' ) S . D . ( l ) : Cop + NP]_ + F P 2 Where NP-̂  i s a Pronoun ( s i n g u l a r o r p l u r a l ) 0 S i y a ang t i t s e r . Cop 'he/she'' Det^n- ' t e a c h e r ' ('He/she i s the t e a c h e r . ' ) S.D . ( 2 ) : Cop + Adj + NP / Mabait ang t i t s e r . Cop ' k i n d ' D e t s g ' t e a c h e r ' ('The t e a c h e r i s kind..') S . C : Cop + HP 1 + na .+ Adj + NP 2 0 S i y a + na + mabait + ang + t i t s e r , S i y a n g mabait ang t i t s e r . 'she' + na ' k i n d ' D e t s g 1 tea.ch.er' ('The t e a c h e r i s the one who i s k i n d . ' ) I n the morphophonemics, whehever^ n e s t r u c t u r e marker na f o l l o w s a word v/ith f i n a l v o w el, na becomes -ng and i s a t t a c h e d t o the v/ord t h a t i t i s f o l l o w i n g . 106 When following a word ending i n the nasal consonant -n, the marker na transforms to - g and i s attached to the word that i t follows, e.g.: siya + na + mab ait —> siyang mab ai t estudyante + na + mabait —> estudyanteng mabait akin (mine')+ na + libro — ^ aking libro bayan ('country') + na + malaya ('free') — * bayang malaya 3 . Deletion (Optional) S.D.(l): Y± + . FP Tumakbo ang kabayo. 'ran' D 3 t S g 'horse' ('The horse ran.') S.D(2).: Cop + Adj + FP 0 Mabilis ang kabayo. Cop 'fast' • Det s g 'horse.1 (.'The horse i s fast.') S.C.: Cop' + Adj + (VP) + "NP 0 Mabiiis ang kabayo. Cop 'fast' De^sg 'horse,' (.'The horse i s fast.') The native speaker implies- VP ("ran") in this struc- ture. 107 4 ; . Combination ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.(1): Cop " + Adj + • NP 0 Mabait s i P a b l o . Cop ' k i n d ' D e t s g 'Pablo' ('Pablo i s k i n d . ' ) S.D.(2): Cop + Adj + NP 0 Masipag s i P a b l o . Cop ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' D e t s g 'Pablo' ('Pablo i s i n d u s t r i o u s . ' ) CONDITION:' "'The two NP's must be i d e n t i c a l . S . C : Cop '+ Adj + a t •.• + Adj + NP 0 Mabait a t masipag s i P a b l o . Cop ' k i n d ' 'and' ••' ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' D e t s g 'Pablo' ('Pablo i s k i n d and i n d u s t r i o u s . ' ) I n the morphophonemics, a t t r a n s f o r m s t o j_t and i s a t t a c h e d to the word i t i s f o l l o w i n g when such word ends w i t h a v o w e l , e.g.: b a t a ' t matanda 'young and o l d ' ; k a y o ' t ako .'you and I 1 . The Pronoun T r a n s f o r m a t i o n The pronoun i n s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n i s a t t r a c t e d by the Verb or Adverb i n p r e d i c a t e p o s i t i o n . T h i s i s an o b l i g a t o r y t r a n s f o r m . 1 0 8 1'. T-pr T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , D e c l a r a t i v e and I m p e r a t i v e a.. D e c l a r a t i v e ( O b l i g a t o r y ) S.D',': Cop + AdV]_ + Adv 2 + NP Where NP i s a Pronoun ( s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ) , and Adv£ i s Tm (time a d v e r b i a l ) N a r i t o bukas ako. 'here' 'tomorrow' ' I 1 ('I w i l l be here tomorrow. 1) S.C. : Cop + AdV]_ + NP + A d v 2 N a r i t o ako bukas. 'here' ' I ' 'tomorrow' ('I w i l l be here tomorrow.') S.D.: V t + NP 0 + NP Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n s i y a . •read' n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n ' 'he/she.1 ('He/she r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) S.C.: V t + HP + NP 0 Bumasa s i y a nang l i k s i y o n . 'read' 'he/she,' n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n ' ('He/she r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) 109 S.D.: Y± + Adv + NP Tumapang s a digmaan s i y a . 'became b r a v e ' P r e p m 'war' 'he/she' (He/she became b r a v e i n the war.') S.C. : ' ¥ i + MP + Adv Tumapang s i y a sa digmaan. 'became b r a v e ' 'he/she' P r e p m 'war' ('He/she became b r a v e i n the war.') b. I m p e r a t i v e ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.: V t + NP Q + NP Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n i k a w . 'read' n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n ' 'you' ('You r e a d the l e s s o n . ' o r 'Read t h e l e s s o n . ' ) S.C.: V t +. NP + NP 0 Bumasa k a * nang l i k s i y o n ' . 'read' 'you' n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n ' ('You r e a d the l e s s o n . ' o r 'Read the l e s s o n . ' ) Note t h a t i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e , the second p e r s o n s i n g u l a r p e r s o n a l pronoun ikaw 'you' always changes t o the s h o r t form k a 'you'. 110 S.D.: V ± + Adv + NP Umiwas sa panganib kayo, 'keep away' PrePm 'danger' 'you' ('Keep away from danger.') S.C. : "Vj_ + NP + Adv Umiwas kayo s a panganib. 'keep away' 'you' ? r e P m 'danger' ('Keep away from danger.') N e g a t i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n N e g a t i o n i n ^ a g a l o g i s e x p r e s s e d by the n e g a t i v e morpheme h i n d i 'no/not'. H i n d i i s sometimes s h o r t e n e d t o d i . The n e g a t i v e morpheme always precedes the head- word of the PP ( p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e ) . The s t r i n g : V + NPQ + NP ( e . g . , Sentence: Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n ang e s t u d y a n t e . 'The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) can be neg a t e d by a d d i n g h i n d i . The r u l e i s : PP + NP h i n d i + PP + NP T-neg ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.: V t + NP 0 + NP Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n ang est u d y a n t e , 'read' n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n ' D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) I l l S.C.: H i n d i + V t + F P Q + FP H i n d i bumasa nang l i k s i y o n ang e s t u d y a n t e . •not' 'read* n- + D e t s g ' l e s s o n ' D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s t u d e n t d i d n ' t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) S.D.: Cop + Adj + FP Maganda ang - t a n a w i n . ' b e a u t i f u l ' D e t g g 'view' ('The v i e w i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S.C.: H i n d i + Cop + Adj +''NP H i n d i maganda ang t a n a w i n . 'not' ' b e a u t i f u l ' D e t K a- 'view' "to : ('The v i e w i s not b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S.D.: Cop + Adv + FP D i t o ang sayawan. 'here' D e _ t s g 'dancing' ('The d a n c i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e h e r e . ' ) S.C. : P l i n d i + Cop + Adv + FP H i n d i d i t o ang sayawan. •not' 'here' D e t s g 'dancing' ('The d a n c i n g w i l l not t a k e p l a c e h e r e . ' ) 112 S.D.: Cop + W?1 + MP 2 Ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o . D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' Detgg ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s the s t u d e n t . ' ) S.C. : H i n d i + Cop + KP^ + NP £ H i n d i ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o . 'not' D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' D e t S g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s not the s t u d e n t . ' ) S.D.: Cop + P r e p w + NP X + HP 2 Where NP-j_ i s a Pronoun ( s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ) Sangayon s a a k i n s i Pablo', ' i n a c c o r d w i t h ' P r e p m 'mine' D e t s g 'Pablo.' ( 'Pablo agrees v / i t h me. ') S.C.: H i n d i + Cop + P r e p w + NP̂ ^ + HP 2 H i n d i sangayon sa a k i n s i P a b l o 'not' ' i n a c c o r d w i t h ' P r e p m 'mine' D e t s g 'Pablo' ('Pablo does not agree w i t h me.') The Yes-No I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n The q u e s t i o n marker ba i s always a t t r a c t e d t o the headword i n the PP ( p r e d i c a t e p h r a s e ) . T-ba a p p l i e s d i r e c t l y to the d e r i v e d s t r i n g . The r u l e i s : V + X ==> V + b a + X 113 T-ba ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.: V t + F P Q + NP Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n ang 'read' n- + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' D e t s g e s t u d y a n t e . ' student,'. ('The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) S.O.: V t'+ ba + NP 0 + NP Bumasa ba nang l i k s i y o n ang 'read* Sa n- + Det S P- ' l e s s o n ' Det-,. ('Did the st u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n ? ' ) e s t u d y a n t e , ' s t u d e n t ' S.D.: V t + NP NP o l i k s i y o n ' . ' l e s s o n ' Bumasa. ang e s t u d y a n t e nang 'read' D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' n- + D e t S g ('The s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) S.G.: V-fc + b a + NP + NP Q Bumasa ha ang e s t u d y a n t e nang l i k s i y o n ? 'read' b a D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' n- + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' ('Did the s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n ? ' ) Gopula s t r u c t u r e s a re governed by the f o l l o w i n g r u l e : D Copl NP. £rep w Cop D NP P r e p w ba. S.D. : Cop + Ad-j + HP Maganda ang t a n a w i n . ' b e a u t i f u l ' D e t S g 'view' ('The v i e w i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S.C. : Cop + Adj + ba + F P Maganda ba ang tan a w i n ? ' b e a u t i f u l ' ba D e t c n - 'view' ('Is the v i e w b e a u t i f u l ? ' ) S.D. : Cop + Adv + F P D i t o ang sayawan. 'here' D e t S g 'dancing' ('The d a n c i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e h e r e . ' ) S . C : Cop + Adv + ba + HP D i t o ba ang sayawan? 'here' b a D e t s g 'dancing' ( ' W i l l the d a n c i n g t a k e p l a c e h e r e ? ' ) S.D.: Cop + F P X + F P 2 Ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o . D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' D ^ s g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s the s t u d e n t . ' ) 115 i.e. S.D. S.C. Cop Ang + EP-L + ba + NP ; e s t u d y a n t e ba ang s e k r e t a r y o ? ' s t u d e n t ' b a D e t S g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('Is the s e c r e t a r y the s t u d e n t ? * ) D e t S g Cop + P r e p w + K P i + NP 2 Where NP-̂  i s a Pronoun ( s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ) , and NP2- i s Name Sangayon s a a k i n s i P a b l o . ' i n a c c o r d w i t h ' P r e p m 'mine' D e t S g 'Pablo' ( 'Pablo agrees v/ith me. ') Cop + P r e p w + ba + WB-j. + NP2- Sangayon ba s a a k i n s i P a b l o ? 'agree' ba P r e p m 'mine' D e t S g 'Pablo' ('Does P a b l o agree w i t h me?') .The N e g a t i v e - I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f T-neg and T-ba. I t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t T-neg must a p p l y b e f o r e T-ba can because the marker ba d i r e c t l y f o l l o w s h i n d i except when the NP i s k a , i n v/hich case t h e o r d e r i s h i n d i + k a + b a . So the g e n e r a l r u l e i s : H i n d i + ba V D NP > , P r e P p h , 116 T-neg/ba ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.: H i n d i + ? t + NP 0 + HP H i n d i bumasa nang l i k s i y o n ang •not' 'read' n- + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' D e t S g e s t u d y ant e'. ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s t u d e n t d i d n o t r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) S . C : H i n d i + ba + V t + HP 0 + HP H i n d i ba bumasa nang l i k s i y o n 'not' ba 'read' n- + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' ang e s t u d y a n t e ? D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' ('Didn^t'' the s t u d e n t r e a d the l e s s o n ? ' ) S.D.: H i n d i + Cop + Adj + MP H i n d i maganda ang t a n a w i n . 'not' ' b e a u t i f u l ' Detse- 'view' ('The v i e w i s not b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S.C.: H i n d i + ba + Cop + A d j ' + NP H i n d i b a maganda ang tanawin? 'not' b a ' b e a u t i f u l ' Det ('Isni'f the v i e w b e a u t i f u l ? ' ) 1 1 7 S.D.: H i n d i + Cop + Adv + NP H i n d i d i t o ang sayawan. 'not' 'here' D e t S g 'dancing' ('The d a n c i n g w i l l not t a k e p l a c e h e r e . ' ) S . C : H i n d i + ba + Cop + Adv + NP H i n d i ba d i t o ang sayawan? 'not.' ba 'here' D e t S g 'dancing' ('Won't" '.' the d a n c i n g t a k e p l a c e h e r e ? ' ) S.D.: H i n d i + Cop + NP X + N P £ H i n d i ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o . 'not' D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' -Det Sg ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('The s e c r e t a r y •'isn'*cfc'; the s t u d e n t . ' ) S.C : H i n d i + ba + Cop + NP X + NP 2' H i n d i b a ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o ? 'not' ba D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' D e t S g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('IsiT-'t the s e c r e t a r y t h e s t u d e n t ? ' ) The P r o n o u n - N e g a t i v e - I n t e r r o g a t i v e - - T r a n s f o r m a t i o n The n e g a t i v e s i g n a l and the q u e s t i o n marker behave d i f f e r e n t l y i n the environment o f pronouns as a s u b s e t of NP i n s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n , e.g.: 118 T-pr/neg/ba ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D.: V t ' V HP Q + 'HP Where NP i s a Pronoun Bumasa nang l i k s i y o n s i y a . 'read* n- + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' 'he/she' ('He/she r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) T-neg ' S . C . ( l ) : H i n d i + HP + V t + HP 0 H i n d i s i y a bumasa nang l i k s i y o n . 'not' 1 h e / s h e 1 'read' n- + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' ('He/she didn't:, r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) T-ba S.C. ( 2 ) : V t + ba + HP + HP 0 Bumasa b a s i y a nang l i k s i y o n ? 'read' ba 'he/she.' n- -f D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' ('Did he/she r e a d the l e s s o n ? ' ) T-pr/neg/ba S.C.(3): H i n d i + ba + HP + V t + NP Q H i n d i ba s i y a bumasa nang l i k s i y o n ? 'not' b a 'he/she' 'read' n- + D e t S g ' l e s s o n ' ('Didn't he/she r e a d the l e s s o n ? ' ) 119 S.D.: Y± + Adv + FP Where Adv i s P r e p m + FP N a g l i n g k o d s a hukbo Ikaw. ' s e r v e d ' P r e p m 'army' 'you' ('You s e r v e d i n the army.') T-neg S . M l ) : H i n d i + FP + Y± + Adv H i n d i k a n a g l i n g k o d s a hukbo. 'not' 'you' 's e r v e d ' P r e p m 'army' ('You d i d not s e r v e i n the army.') T-ba S.C. ( 2 ) : Vj, + FP + ba + Adv N a g l i n g k o d k a ba s a hukbo? 'se r v e d ' 'you' b a P r e p m 'army' ('Did you s e r v e i n the army?') T-pr/neg/ba S.C.: H i n d i + FP + b a + Y± + Adv H i n d i k a ba n a n g l i n g k o d sa hukbo? 'not' 'you' ba ' s e r v e d ' P r e p m 'army' ('Didn't you s e r v e i n t h e army?') The 'ay' I n v e r s i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n A l l b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s may undergo a T-ay t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n permutes the two 120 p a r t s of the sentence (PP + F P ) , i . e . , t r a n s f e r s the FP t o the PP p o s i t i o n , and the PP to t h e FP p o s i t i o n . A c o n s t r u c t i o n marker ay_ i s added t o t h e PP to mark the p e r m u t a t i o n . T h i s i s an o p t i o n a l t r a n s f o r m , seldom used i n c o l l o q u i a l speech. Whenever used, i t t r a n s f e r s emphasis t o the f i r s t element. The r u l e i s : PP + FP FP + ay_ + PP T-ay ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D. V t + F P 0 + N P Babasa nang ' W i l l r e a d ' n- + Det l i k s i y o n ang S g ' l e s s o n ' D e t S g ('The s t u d e n t w i l l r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) e s t u d y a n t e , ' s t u d e n t ' S.C. : FP + ay. + V t + F P 0 Ang e s t u d y a n t e ay babasa nang D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' ay_ ' w i l l r e a d ' n- + D e t S g l i k s i y o n . ' l e s s o n ' ('The s t u d e n t w i l l r e a d the l e s s o n . ' ) S.D.: Cop + Adj + FP Maganda ang t a n a w i n . ' b e a u t i f u l ' Det sg 'view' (IDhe v i e w i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) 121 S.C. : FP + av_ •+- Cop + Adj Ang t a n a w i n ay maganda. D e t S g 'view' ay_ ' b e a u t i f u l ' ('The v i e w i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S.D.: Cop + Adv + NP D i t o ang sayawan. 'here' D e t s g 'dancing' ('The d a n c i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e h e r e . ' ) S . C : FP + ay. + Cop + Adv Ang sayawan ay d i t o , D e t S g 'dancing' ay_ 'here' ('The d a n c i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e h e r e . ' ) S.D.: Cop + FP-L + F P 2 Ang e s t u d y a n t e ang s e k r e t a r y o . D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' D e t s g ' s e c r e t a r y ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s t h e s t u d e n t . ' ) S . C : F P 2 + ay. + Cap + FPx Ang s e k r e t a r y o ay ang e s t u d y a n t e . D e t S g ' s e c r e t a r y ay_ D e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s e c r e t a r y i s the s t u d e n t . ' ) 122 S.D.: Cop + Preppy + HP Where' P r e p p ^ i s P r e p m + FP, and FP i s Det + Fame Sangayon s a a k i n s i P a b l o , ' i n a c c o r d w i t h * P r e p m 'mine' D e t S g 'Pablo' ('Pablo agrees v / i t h me.') S.C.: FP + ay_ + Cop + Prep h S i P a b l o ay sangayon s a a k i n . D e t S g 'Pablo' ay_ ' i n a c c o r d w i t h ' P r e p m 'mine' ('Pablo agrees w i t h me.') I n t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , the arrangement o f the elements i n ea.cn u n i t of the sentence i s not a l t e r e d . One morphophonemic r u l e must be remembered i n T-ay t r a n s f o r m . Whenever ay_ f o l l o w s N (noun), P r ( p e r s o n a l pronoun, and d e m o n s t r a t i v e p r o n o u n ) , Adj ( a d j e c t i v e ) , o r Adv (adverb o r a d v e r b i a l ) t h a t ends w i t h a v o w e l , ay i s c o n t r a c t e d t o _*j£ and a t t a c h e d t o the f o r m - c l a s s t h a t lx_ i s f o l l o w i n g , e.g.: Ako'y a a l i s . ( ' I w i l l l e a v e . ' ) Kami * y dalawa. ('We were two.') The same p r o c e s s o c c u r s a l s o i n cases where the p r e c e d i n g f o r m - c l a s s ends i n the n a s a l consonant ^ n , b u t i n such 1 2 J ; case the 311 i s r e p l a c e d by the c o n t r a c t e d shape of ay_, i . e . , e.g.: ang + bayan + ay + umaasa — > ang baya'y umaasa ('the p e o p l e are hoping') a l i n m a n + ay + raaaari — > a l i n m a ' y maaari ( ' a n y t h i n g w i l l do') The - i n - P a s s i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( O p t i o n a l ) The - i n - ( s o - c a l l e d " p a s s i v e " ) t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a p p l i e s t o sentences v / i t h -um- v e r b s and mag-verbs. - i n - _ Vt + NPp • + HP I j- -m-) f ' i ! S.D. : S t t 1 . . I As + n- -f HP X H 1 mag-J HP 2 P u m i l i nang l i b r o ang e s t u d y a n t e . 'chose' n- + D e t S g 'book' I > e t s g ' s t u d e n t ' ('The s t u d e n t chose a book.') S . C : S t t + - i n - + As + n- + HP 2 + HP-ĵ P i n i l i nang e s t u d y a n t e ang l i b r o : . 'chose' n- + D e t S g ' s t u d e n t ' D e t S g 'book' ('The book was chosen by the s t u d e n t . ' ) Assuming t h a t NP i s D e t g g + Hame, i . e . , P u m i l i nang l i b r o s i P a b l o . ('Pablo chose a book.') 124 t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i l l b e; S. C : S t t + - i n - + As + n- + F P 2 + MP 1 P i n i l i n i P a b l o ang 'chose' n- + D e t g ^ 'Pablo' D e t S g ('The book was chosen by P a b l o . * ) v t + F P 0 + l i b r o . 'book' FP S.D. r St t As + n + FP 1 1 + F P , -um- |i mag- j Nagtanim nang r o s a s ang d a l a g a . '.'planted' n- + D e t S g ' r o s e ' D e t S g 'young woman' ('The young woman p l a n t e d the r o s e . ' ) S . C : St-t + «in- + As + n- + NP 2 + FP]_ I t i n a n i m * nang d a l a g a ang r o s a s . ' p l a n t e d ' n- + I>et Sg 'young woman' D e t S g 'rose' ('The r o s e v/as p l a n t e d by the young woman.') Three t h i n g s happen i n an - i n - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : (1) F P 0 and FP are permuted, (2) -um- and mag- f o r m a t i v e s a re changed t o - i n - f o r m a t i v e , The i - * T h i s verb has two f o r m a t i v e s , i - , and - i n - f o r m a t i v e i s a d e r i v a t i v e of - i n - . 125 (3) the a- marker i s not c a r r i e d by the NP 0. The morphophonemic r u l e s , i n v o l v e d a r e : n- + ang — n a n g Sr + s i —* Si. The As ( a s p e c t ) of the verb i n the k e r n e l i s c a r r i e d t h r o u g h t o the t r a n s f o r m . T - V j - i n - I n the - i n - ( s o - c a l l e d " p a s s i v e " ) t r a n s f o r - m a t i o n o f the Vj_ ( i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b ) , the r u l e changes: (1) the -um- f o r m a t i v e t o - i n - f o r m a t i v e , (2) t h e £rep m ( p r e p o s i t i o n marker) s a i n the a d v e r b i a l p h rase to nang, i . e . , n- + ang. No u n i t s o r elements are permuted. The As ( a s p e c t ) of the v e r b i n the k e r n e l i s c a r r i e d t h r o u g h t o the t r a n s f o r m . Y± + Adv + NP r r 1 I i S.D.: StjL + -um- + As + P r e p m + NP X + NP^ Tumapang s a digmaan ang l a l a k i . 'became b r a v e l P r e p m : 'war' D e t S g 'man' (The man became b r a v e i n t h e war.') S . C . : " S t ± + - i n - + As + n- + NP X + N P 2 P i n a t a p a n g nang digmaan ang l a l a k i . 'made b r a v e ' n- + D e t s g 'war' £>etSg 'man' ('The man was made br a v e by the war.') 126 The verb p i n a t a p a n g ('made b r a v e ' ) i n the p r e c e d i n g sentence c o n t a i n s the f o r m a t i v e s pa-, and - i n - . The p a - f o r m a t i v e , which i s dependent on - i n - , i s a d e r i v a t i o n o f the l a t t e r f o r m a t i v e . Not a l l -um- i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s p e r m i t - i n - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . P o r i n s t a n c e : Umalis ang l a l a k i . 'went away' D e t S g 'man' ('The man went away. 1) w i l l n o t t r a n s f o r m t o : * I n a l i s nang l a l a k i . Umi i y ak ang b ab ae. ' c r y i n g ' Det 'woman' ('Tht woman i s c r y i n g . ' ) w i l l n o t t r a n s f o r m t o : I n i i y a k nang babae. Tumingala s i P a b l o , •looked upward' ^e^Sg 'Pablo' ( 'Pablo l o o k e d upv/ard. ') w i l l n o t t r a n s f o r m t o : T i n i n g a l a n i P a b l o . 127 The i n t r a n s i t i v e verb w i t h mag- f o r m a t i v e appears n o t t o a l l o w - i n - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . F o r example: F a g l i n g k o d s a hukbo ang b i n a t a . ' s e r v e d ' P r e p m 'army' D e t S g 'young man' ('The young man s e r v e d i n the army. 1) w i l l n o t t r a n s f o r m t o : * L i n i n g k o d nang b i n a t a ang hukbo. Fagsundalo s i y a . 'performed the 'he/she' a c t s of a s o l d i e r ' ('He performed t h e a c t s of a s o l d i e r . ' ) w i l l n o t t r a n s f o r m t o : * S i n u n d a l o n i y a . Fagbus s i P a b l o , 'took the b u s / rode i n a bus' D e t S g 'Pablo' ('Pablo too k t h e bus.') w i l l n o t t r a n s f o r m t o : * B i n u s n i P a b l o . Manner A d v e r b i a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n The manner a d v e r b i a l i s an a d j e c t i v e from Cop + Adj + FP c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t i s c o n f o i n e d t o 128 a b a s i c sentence by means of the c o n s t r u c t i o n marker nang, I . e . , n- + ang. T-man ( O p t i o n a l ) S . D . ( l ) : V ± ' + FP Dumating ang p r o p e s o r . ' a r r i v e d ' D e t S g ' p r o f e s s o r ' ('The p r o f e s s o r a r r i v e d . ' ) S.D.(2): 'Cop + Adj + FP Maaga ang p r o p e s o r . ' e a r l y ' D e t s g ' p r o f e s s o r ' ('The p r o f e s s o r i s e a r l y . ' ) S . C : V± + n- + ang + Cop + Adj + FP Dumating nang maaga ang p r o p e s o r . ' a r r i v e d ' n- + ang ' e a r l y ' D e t s g ' p r o f e s s o r ' ('The p r o f e s s o r a r r i v e d e a r l y . ' ) A verb o r v e r b a l may a l s o t r a n s f o r m t o a manner a d v e r b i a l , b u t b e f o r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n can a p p l y , the verb o r v e r b a l b e i n g made an a d v e r b i a l must f i r s t undergo an elementary t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i . e . , i t mast be t r a n s f o r m e d t o an ad- j e c t i v a l . S.D.^1): Y i + FP Lumakad ang b a t a . 'walked* D e t s g ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d walked.') 129 S.D.(2): V± + NP Tumakb o ang b a t a . 'ran' D e t s g ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d r a n . ' ) The verb tumakbo ('ran') must undergo a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o a d j e c t i v a l . S.C of ( 2 ) : Adj + FP P a t akb o ang b a t a . ' r u n n i n g - l i k e ' D e t s g ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d i s r u n n i n g - l i k e . ' ) Nov/, t h e manner a d v e r b i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i l l a p p l y to the l a s t s t r u c t u r e above. S . C : Y± + n— + ang + Adj + FP Lumakad nang patakbo 'walked' n- + D e t s g ' r u n n i n g - l i k e ' ang b a t a . D e t s g ' c h i l d ' ('The c h i l d walked as i f he were r u n n i n g . ' ) The I n d i r e c t O b j e c t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n The s t r u c t u r e w i t h an i n d i r e c t o b j e c t i s d e r i v e d from two k e r n e l s e n t e n c e s : ( l ) the sentence t h a t con- t a i n s a d i r e c t o b j e c t , i . e . , + F P D + FP, and (2) the sentence w i t h the' s t r u c t u r e Cop + P r e p p ^ + FP. A l l 13.0 i n d i r e c t o b j e c t s a re i n t r o d u c e d by t h e P r e p w ( p r e p o - s i t i o n v/ord) p a r a p l u s P r e p m s a , i . e . , p a r a s a . I n the morphophonemics, the d e t e r m i n e r ang i s d e l e t e d , and the d e t e r m i n e r s i i s r e p l a c e d by kay ( f o r s i n g u l a r ) o r k i n a ( f o r p l u r a l ) , as the case may be. T-i o ( O p t i o n a l ) S . D . ( l ) : V t + NP 0 i 1 n- + NPi + FP Z Where NP 2 i s Fame B u m i l i nang l i b r o s i 'bought' n- + D e t q 0 . 'book' Det sg P a b l o . 'Pablo' ( 'Pablo bought a book.') S.D. ( 2 ) : Cop + P r e p p l l + F P S.C. P r e p w + P r e p m + F P X P a r a s a kay Maura ang ' f o r ' P r e p m D e t s g 'Maura' D e t s g ('i'The book i s f o r Maura.') V t"+ n - + F P 0 + HP 2 + Preppy + FP]_ Where FP^ and HP 2 are Names. B u m i l i nang l i b r o s i 'bought' n- + D e t s g 'book* D e t s g l i b r o . 'book 1 P a b l o 'Pablo' (Cont.) 131 p a r a s a kay Maura, ' f o r ' P r e p m D e t s g 'Maura' ('Pablo bought a book f o r Maura.' o r , 'Pablo bought Maura a book.') N o m i n a l ! z a t i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n A Ndm (nominal) may be a f o r m - c l a s s to which a D e t S g , ang, o r D e t p i , anfi manga i s anteponed; o r a sentence (S-j_) t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o the base sentence by a c o n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t o r marker, na. The ang or ang manga, as the case may be, may or may not o c c u r between the r e l a t o r marker na, and t h e i n i t i a l word o f the sentence t h a t i s b e i n g r e l a t e d to t h e base s e n t e n c e . The n o m i n a l i z e d f o r m - c l a s s e s a r e p a r t s of d e l e t e d u n i t s of the s t r u c t u r e from which n o m i n a l i z e d f o r m - c l a s s e s a re d e r i v e d , e.g.: * S i P a b l o ang nagbus s i _ D e t S g 'Pablo' D e t s g 'rode i n a bus' D e t S g P a b l o . 'Pablo' ( ' I t ' s P a b l o who rode i n a bus i t ' s P a b l o . ' ) 132. * S i y a ang maganda s i y a , 'he/she' D e t s g ' b e a u t i f u l ' 'he/she' (' She i s b e a u t i f u l she.:'). ' ) *Mahalaga ang ngayon ang mahalaga. ' i m p o r t a n t ' D e t s g ' t o d a y / p r e s e n t ' D e t s g ' i m p o r t a n t ' ( ' I t ' s the p r e s e n t t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t . ' ) * I y a n ang a k i n i y a n . ' t h a t ' D e t s g 'mine' ' t h a t ' ('That's v/hat i s mine t h a t . ' ) *Ang bayan ang l a b a n D e t s g 'people' D e t s g ' a g a i n s t ' s a P r e s i d e n t e ang bayan. P r e p m ' P r e s i d e n t ' • D e' tsg 'people' ('The p e o p l e are a g a i n s t t h e P r e s i d e n t the p e o p l e . ' ) The u n d e r l i n e d s t r i n g s are o b l i g a t o r i l y d e l e t e d i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g I E U ' a Mom (nominal) f o r m - c l a s s ^ : ang J V. Adj <l Adv P r - N o m i n a l i z a t i o n of the sentence (S-^) w i l l not b t r e a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T-nom Form-Glass ( O p t i o n a l ) S.D. : Y± +' HP Where NP i s Name Nagbus s i P a b l o . 'took the b u s / rode i n a bus' D e t S g 'Pablo' ('Pablo rode i n a bus.') S . C : NP + D e t s g + v S i P a b l o ang nagbus. Detgg 'Pablo' D e t S g 'took the b u s / rode i n a bus' ('I t i s P a b l o who rode i n a bus.') S.D.: Cop + Adj + NP Maganda s i y a . ' b e a u t i f u l ' 'he/she' ('She i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) S . C : NP" + D e t S g + A d j " S i y a ang maganda. "he/she' D e t s g ' b e a u t i f u l ' ('She i s the one who i s b e a u t i f u l . ' ) 13^ S.D.: Cop + Adv + D e t S g + Adj Where Adv i s Tm (time a d v e r b i a l ) Ngayon ang mahalaga. 'today' D e t S g ' i m p o r t a n t ' ('Today i s i m p o r t a n t . ' ) S.C.: Adj + D e t s g + Adv Mahalaga ang ngayon. ' i m p o r t a n t ' D e t S g 'today' ('Today i s i m p o r t a n t . ' ) T h i s p a r t i c u l a r n o m i n a l i z a t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n shows t h a t time a d v e r b i a l must c o - o c c u r w i t h n o m i n a l as s u b j e c t . I n o t h e r words, t h i s t r a n s f o r m uses- a t r a n s f o r m t h a t has undergone a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l c y c l e . S.D.: Cop + WB1 + F P 2 Where FP^ i s a Prpos ( p o s e s s i v e p r o n o u n ) , and F P 2 i s a P r d e E i ( d e m o n s t r a t i v e pronoun) A k i n i y a n . 'mine' ' t h a t ' (ilThat i s mine.') S . C : F P 2 + D e t S g +~ P r p o s I y a n ang a k i n , ' t h a t ' Detgg 'mine' ('That which i s mine i s t h a t . ' ) 135 S.D.: Cop + Preppy + NP P r e p w + P r e p m + NP-]_ l a b a n s a P r e s i d e n t e ang bayan. . ' a g a i n s t ' , P r e p m ' P r e s i d e n t ' D e t s g 'people' ('The p e o p l e a r e a g a i n s t the P r e s i d e n t . ' ) S . C : NP + D e t s g + P r e P p h + ^1 Ang bayan ang l a b a n s a Det S p . 'people' D e t S g ' a g a i n s t ' P r e p m P r e s i d e n t e . ' P r e s i d e n t ' ( ' I t ' s the P r e s i d e n t whom the p e o p l e are a g a i n s t . ' ) CHAPTER IV. CONCLUSION Summary T h i s s t u d y has a c c o m p l i s h e d i t s p r i m a r y aims, namely: ( l ) the f o r m u l a t i o n of the b a s i c f i n i t e r u l e s t h a t o p e r a t e i n the g e n e r a t i o n of an i n f i n i t e number of Tagalog s e n t e n c e s , (2) the d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the most common t r a n s f o r m s i n the language, and (3) the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b a s i s f o r a more d e t a i l e d s t u d y of Tagal o g s y n t a x . F i n d i n g s and O b s e r v a t i o n s T h i s s t u d y has r e v e a l e d : (1) t h a t the v e r b a l stem and the f o r m a t i v e s -um- or mag- are g r a m m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d ; (2) t h a t the morpheme n- i s a s t r u c t u r e marker t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l i n the grammar; (3) t h a t the f o l l o w i n g may be produced by h i g h l y r e g u l a r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r u l e s : (a) the i n d i r e c t o b j e c t ; • (b) the ay. i n v e r s e s t r u c t u r e ; ( c ) the - i n - s e n t e nces from base sentences w i t h -um- and mag- f o r m a t i v e s ; (d) the manner a d v e r b i a l ; and 137 (e) the n o m i n a l ; (4) t h a t Cop ( c o p u l a ) i s a symbol t h a t u n d e r l i e s k e r n e l s e n t e nces 2, 3, and k; (5) t h a t the - i n - f o r m a t i v e i s an i n d i c a t o r o f p a s s i v i z a t i o n of s e n t e n c e s w i t h v e r b s o c c u r r i n g w i t h -um- or mag- f o r m a t i v e s ; (6) t h a t c e r t a i n -um- t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s do not p e r m i t - i n - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; and (7) t h a t mag- i n t r a n s i t i v e v e r b s appear not t o a l l o w - i n - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Recommendations I t i s s u g g e s t e d : ( l ) t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y be made of the f o l l o w i n g : (a) v e r b s and v e r b a l s , to f i n d out whether the c h o i c e of v e r b s and v e r b a l s i n the l e x i c o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by the environment, and t h e r e b y the v e r b s and v e r b a l s may be sub- c l a s s i f i e d i f n e c e s s a r y ; (b) adverbs and a d v e r b i a l s , to f i n d out whether t h e r e i s f u r t h e r need f o r c l a s s i f y i n g and s u b - c l a s s i f y i n g them; 138 (2) t h a t a st u d y be made o f the nouns, t o f i n d out whether they i n f l u e n c e the c h o i c e of verb or o b j e c t noun, and on what g r a m m a t i c a l b a s i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of nouns must be made; (3) t h a t b e s i d e s the f o r m a t i v e s -um- and mag-, o t h e r f o r m a t i v e s , p r i n c i p a l o r d e r i v e d , be s t u d i e d f u r t h e r , t o f i n d out the g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g , i f any, between these f o r m a t i v e s and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n - i n - p a s s i v e , as w e l l as i t s d e r i v a t i v e s ; (4) t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y be made on r e c o v e r y r u l e s t h a t seem t o b r i n g t o t h e s u r f a c e an o b l i g a t o r i l y d e l e t e d u n i t i n the s t r u c t u r e t o which the - i n - p a s s i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a p p l i e s ; (4) t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y be made on n o m i n a l i z a - t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y as t h e y i n v o l v e S-̂ . The Summing Up. T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Tagalog t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s y n t a x has a l s o a c c o m p l i s h e d o t h e r t a s k s : the t e s t i n g of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t r a n s f o r - m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e t h e o r y as a p p l i e d t o Tag a l o g , and the b u i l d i n g of a f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u t u r e Tagalog t r a n s - f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e s y n t a c t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s . More tha n e v e r , I am c o n v i n c e d of t h e s i m p l i c i t y , e x p l i c i t n e s s , 139 e x p l a n a t o r y power arid i n s i g h t f u l a s s e r t i o n s about language of the t h e o r y of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar. A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Bach, Emmon. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammars. Hew York, 1964. ~ Chomsky, Hoam. C u r r e n t -Issues i n L i n g u i s t i c Theory. The Hague, 19 6W. . S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s . The Hague, 1965. . A s p e c t s of the Theory o f Syntax. Cam- b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1965. ' . C a r t e s i a n L i n g u i s t i c s ; A Chapter i n the H i s t o r y o f R a t i o n a l i s t Thought. New York, 1966. G l e a s o n J r . , H. A. L i n g u i s t i c s and E n g l i s h Grammar. Hew York, 1965. H a r r i s , Z e l l i g S. S t r i n g A n a l y s i s of Sentence S t r u c - t u r e . The Hague, 1965* I n s t i t u t e of H a t i o n a l Language. E n g l i s h - T a g a l o g D i c t i o n a r y . M a n i l a , i 9 6 0 . I n s t i t u t e o f H a t i o n a l Language. N a t i o n a l Language- E n g l i s h V o c a b u l a r y . 5th ed., M a n i l a , 1950. K a t z , J e r r o l d J . , and Paul. M. P d s t a l . An I n t e g r a t e d Theory of L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n s . Cambridge, . . M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1965* ' Koutsoudas, Andreas. W r i t i n g T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammars: An I n t r o d u c t i o n . New York, 1966. L e e s , R o b e r t B. The Grammar of E n g l i s h N o m i n a l i z a t i o n s . B l o o m i n g t o n , I n d i a n a , i 9 6 0 . Matthews, G. H. H i d a t s a Syntax. The Hague, 1965. P o s t a l , P a u l M._. C o n s t i t u e n t S t r u c t u r e : A Study o f Contemporary Models o f S y n t a c t i c D e s c r i p t i o n . ... Bl o o m i n g t o n , I n d i a n a , 1964. " 141 R o b e r t s , P a u l . E n g l i s h Syntax, Teacher's E d i t i o n . New York, 1964. S t a g e b e r g , Norman C. An I n t r o d u c t o r y E n g l i s h Grammar. New York, 1965. Thomas, Owen. T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar and the Teacher o f E n g l i s h . New York, 1965. ' [ " T h i r d Texas Conference on Problems of l i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s i n E n g l i s h . A u s t i n , Texas, 1962. B. TAGALOG BOOKS (POR CORPUS) I n s t i t u t e , o f N a t i o n a l Language. " B a l a r i l a ng Wikang Pambansa" ( " N a t i o n a l Language Grammar"). 4 t h ed., M a n i l a , 1950. P e r a l t a - P i n e d a , P. B., and G e r t r u d e s K. d e l R o s a r i o . " P i l i p i n o 11: B a l a r i l a a t Kumposisyon" ( " P i l i p i n o 11: Grammar and C o m p o s i t i o n , Book I " ) . M a n i l a , 1966. V i l l a Panganiban, J o s e , A. P. V i l l a n u e v a , and A. D. G. Ma r i a n o . " B a l a r i l a n g P i n a g a a n " ( " S i m p l i f i e d Grammar"). M a n i l a , 1948. . . . . C. PARTS OP BOOKS Chomsky, Noam. "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach to Syn t a x , " i n J e r r y A. Podor and J a r r o l d J . K a t z . ( e d . ) . The S t r u c t u r e of Language: Readings i n the P h i l o s o p h y o f Language. Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y (1965), -pp^ 211-245. . "Review of B . P. S k i n n e r ' s V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , " i n Podor and K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e o f Language, pp. 547-578. . "On t h e N o t i o n R u l e of Grammar," i n Podor and K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e o f Language, pp. 119- 136. 142 . "Degree of Grammaticalness," i n Fodor and K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e o f Language, pp. 384-389, Dinneen, F r a n c i s P. "Noam Chomsky: T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar and L i n g u i s t i c U n i v e r s a l s , " i n F. P. Dinneen, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s . New York (1967), PP. 355-399. Goodman, R a l p h . " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar," i n Norman C. Sta g e b e r g . I n t r o d u c t o r y E n g l i s h Grammar. New York (1965), pp. 285-283. H a r r i s , Z e l l i g S. "Co-occurrence and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e , " i n Fodor and K a t z , The S t r u c - t u r e o f Language, pp... 155-210. H i l l , A. A., "G r a m m a t i c a l ! t y , " i n H a r o l d B. A l l e n ( e d . ) . Readings i n . A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 2nd. ed., Englev/ood C l i f f s , New Je isey (1964), pp. .1^3^172. K a t z , J e r r o l d J . "Semi-sentences," i n Fodor and K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e of.Language, pp. 4Q0.-416. K l i m a , Edward S. "Negation i n E n g l i s h , " i n Fodor and K a t z , The S t r u c t u r e o f Language, pp. 246-323. L e e s , R. B. "Review of N. Chomsky's S y n t a c t i c S t r u c - t u r e s (1957)," Language, 33 (1957). . " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n and the F r i e s Frame- work, " i n A l l e n , R e a d ings, pp. 137-155. P o s t a l , P a u l M. " U n d e r l y i n g and S u p e r f i c i a l L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e , " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 34 (1964), pp. 246-266. S c h a c h t e r , P a u l . " S t r u c t u r a l A m b i g u i t y i n ^ a g a l o g , " Language L e a r n i n g , X I , 3 & 4, pp. 135-145. D. UNPUBLISHED MATE REAL S t o c k w e l l , Robert P. "A C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s of E n g l i s h and T a g a l o g , " Los A n g e l e s : 1958. (Mimeographed.) APPENDIX A. VOCABULARY SYMBOLS Other t h a n l e x i c a l morphemes, the f o l l o w i n g are the v o c a b u l a r y symbols used i n t h i s s t u d y . A c t l a c t u a l Adj = a d j e c t i v e , a d j e c t i v a l Adv adverb, a d v e r b i a l As = a s p e c t /c / consonant Com = completed a s p e c t Cop c o p u l a D = d e s c r i p t i v e Det = dete rminer N = noun Name = name of p e r s o n Nom no m i n a l = noun phrase NP 0 = noun phrase o b j e c t P I = p l u r a l P l a = p l a c e a d v e r b i a l PP = p r e d i c a t e phrase P r d e m = d e m o n s t r a t i v e pronoun 144 P r p e r = p e r s o n a l pronoun P r p o s = p o s s e s s i v e pronoun P r e d = p r e d i c a t e P r e P m = p r e p o s i t i o n marker Prepph = p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h rase P r e p w = p r e p o s i t i o n word Pro = proposed a s p e c t S = sentence Sg = s i n g u l a r St = verb stem Sti-j_ = i n t r a n s i t i v e verb stem t h a t t a k e s -um- f o r m a t i v e S t i 2 = i n t r a n s i t i v e verb stem t h a t t a k e s mag- f o r m a t i v e S t i ^ = i n t r a n s i t i v e verb stem t h a t t a k e s e i t h e r -um- or mag- f o r m a t i v e Stt]_ = t r a n s i t i v e verb stem t h a t t a k e s -urn- f o r m a t i v e ^"^2; = t r a n s i t i v e verb stem, t h a t t a k e s mag- f o r m a t i v e S t t ^ = t r a n s i t i v e v erb stem t h a t t a k e s e i t h e r -um- or mag- f o r m a t i v e Tm = time a d v e r b i a l 145 /V/ = vowel v"i = i n t r a n s i t i v e verb V-k = t r a n s i t i v e verb VP = verb p h r a s e B. SPECIAL SYMBOLS The p l u s s i g n i s used t o s y m b o l i z e the o p e r a t i o n of c o n c a t e n a t i o n and i n d i c a t e s the bounda- r i e s o f the symbols i n a s t r i n g ; i t i n d i - c a t e s where the symbols bounded by the p l u s s i g n b e g i n and end and t h a t t hey form a s t r i n g . An arrow i n d i c a t e s the o p e r a t i o n of r e v / r i t i n g , i . e . , t h a t the s t r i n g on the l e f t of the arrow i s t o be r e w r i t t e n as the s t r i n g on the r i g h t . I n a d d i t i o n , the arrow i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i o n o f the s t r i n g on the l e f t t o the s t r i n g on the r i g h t . P a r e n t h e s e s are used to a b b r e v i a t e the l i s t i n g o f , o r t o c o n f l a t e , two or more r u l e s w h i c h are i d e n t i c a l except f o r the o p t i o n a l a d d i - t i o n a l o c c u r r e n c e of one or more symbols 1. A double a r r o w i s used i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l rules : . 146 A "brace i s used t o c o n f l a t e two or more r u l e s w h i c h a re i d e n t i c a l except f o r one symbol or a sequence of symbols which always o c c u r s i n the same p o s i t i o n . Example: T h i s means t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e replacements, f o r a symbol, one of w h i c h but not b o t h must be chosen a t a s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n , are l i s t e d v e r t i c a l l y or h o r i z o n t a l l y w i t h i n b r a c e s and s e p a r a t e d by commas. The l a t t e r n o t a t i o n i s u s e f u l as a space- s a v i n g d e v i c e where l o n g l i s t s : * as of l e x i c a l i t e m s , a r e g i v e n . Where t h e r e i s no danger of c o n f u s i o n the b r a c e s a re o f t e n o m i t t e d around a h o r i z o n t a l l i s t i n g . A square b r a c k e t i s used to a b b r e v i a t e . t h e l i s t - i n g of two or more r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g , t o s t r i n g s w h ich a r e d i f f e r e n t and i d e n t i c a l i n the same p l a c e s . These r u l e s must d i f f e r i n a t l e a s t two p l a c e s , so t h a t a t l e a s t two p a i r s of b r a c k e t s must appear i n the c o n f l a t e d r u l e . The symbols w h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t a r e p l a c e d or C + X C + X [:] 147 v e r t i c a l l y and e n c l o s e d i n b r a c k e t s , and the r u l e t h u s c o n f l a t e d i s r e a d a c r o s s by l i n e s ; f o r example, the r u l e 'A c o n f l a t e s the two r u l e s : A + C + X a + C + X B + C + X ==:> b + C + X and s p e c i f i e s t h a t a d i f f e r e n t change a p p l i e s t o A than a p p l i e s t o B when each i s f o l l o w e d by C + X; i n o t h e r words, the c o n f l a t e d r u l e s s p e c i f i e s two changes which o c c u r i n t h e same environment. * An a s t e r i s k a p p e a r i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g of a sentence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s t r u c t u r e i s u n g r a m m a t i c a l . ... Three d o t s a f t e r a s e r i e s of symbols r e p r e s e n t the m i s s i n g symbols, t h a t i s , the o t h e r p o s s i b l e e n t r i e s i n the s e r i e s 1 . / / Two s l a s h e s e n c l o s e phonemic symbols. 0 T h i s symbol means zero'.' / T h i s n o t a t i o n means " i n the environment o f " ; sometimes t h e shape i s • /.

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