UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Problem of the sources of the ornament on the Siena Cathedral facade Bismanis, Naija Ruta 1967

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1967_A8 B5.pdf [ 15.49MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104642.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104642-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104642-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104642-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104642-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104642-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104642-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104642-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104642.ris

Full Text

/  THE  PROBLEM OF THE SOURCES OF THE ORNAMENT DIM THE SIEIMA CATHEDRAL FACADE by M a i j a Ruta  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  Bismanis  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1964  A" THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FDR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department of FINE ARTS  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  the r e q u i r e d  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH Spring,  1967  COLUMBIA  In  presenting  for  an a d v a n c e d  that  thesis  Department  the  agree  that  freely  or  representatives.  of  my w r i t t e n  this  thesis  may be g r a n t e d  for  permission,  Depa rtrnent The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 , Canada  for  Columbia  It  of  British  available  permission  purposes  by h i s  fulfilment  U n i v e r s i t y of  scholarly  publication  without  at  in p a r t i a l  s h a l l make i t  I further for  thesis  degree  tha L i b r a r y  study,  or  this  for  the  Columbia,  I  reference  and  extensive by  requirements  copying  gain  this  t h e Head o f my  is understood  financial  of  agree  shall  that not  be  copying allowed  ABSTRACT  In t h i s on  t h e west  to  find  style  and  facade  the sources  and o r i g i n s  o f t h e ornament  o f S i e n a C a t h e d r a l a r e examined  the a r t i s t i c  developments which  influenced  i n order the Gothic  in Italy. The  into  paper  ornament  on t h e S i e n a C a t h e d r a l f a c a d e c a n be s u b d i v i d e d  two s t a g e s , one o f w h i c h was one by I t a l i a n  a r t , both  influenced  Classical  by F r e n c h  and T u s c a n  Gothic a r t ,  Romanesque  architecture. The modelled brought  form after  into  Cistercian  o f t h e west French  facade wall  facade w a l l  n o r t h e r n and c e n t r a l  monks,  above t h e a i s l e The is  that  first  influenced  the Siena facade  architectural  Virgin  derived facade  from  projecting  Gothic carved  of C h r i s t , That  an a r c h i t e c t u r a l i s indicated  ornament on a F r e n c h  of Siena Cathedral  by F r e n c h  Gothic  forms  which  ornament were n o t d e r i v e d f r o m  ornament, b u t from  de Don J u a n .  ornament  silhouette  o f a nave  Gothic ornamental  i s the t o u r e l l e  and C h i l d h o o d  de V a l e n c i a  influenced  The F r e n c h  the French farm  Romanesque, f a c a d e  s t a g e o f ornament on t h e f a c a d e  forms.  ornamental  influence  by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e  facade silhouette  o f ornament w h i c h was  to decorate  Italy  Due t o F r e n c h  roofs.  ornamental  Gothic  forms.  a t S i e n a t h e Tuscan  was a b a n d o n e d f o r t h e F r e n c h  a t S i e n a C a t h e d r a l was  the ornamental  ivory  forms  altarpieces.  eg. Scenes from  French  One  the L i f e  c a . 1300, C o l l :  French  G o t h i c ornament w h i c h  d i d not i n f l u e n c e  by t h e f a c t  Gothic facade  that  differs  the r o l e  from  that  such  of the  French  source  used  Institutio was  the Siena of the  on t h e west  wall  of Siena  Cathedral  Cathedral.  c a t h e d r a l behind  of  ornament  to the The  is  i t .  Gothic  supported  schemes w h i c h idea  of the  around  the  use  (at f i r s t )  or s c e n e o f c e n t r a l  to c r e a t e a border third  around  stage  o f ornament  was  Tuscan  Romanesque a r c h i t e c t u r e .  gables  on  cornice. doors  the  The  from  Siena  Romanesque f a c a d e . of the  incorporate  facade  three equal  were d e r i v e d ! f r o m  concept  Italian  there  At  facade  into  the  the  the  design  the Siena  to  facade  decorative eg.  to c r e a t e a  i s adopted  Siena  the  border  at  Siena  Cathedral  from C l a s s i c a l  similar  art  over  and  of the s t r i n g c o u r s e  to t h a t of a the  the r e t e n t i o n of  a screen  facade  on  profiles  arches  used  nave window.  d e c o r a t i v e arcades  Siena  as  importance  sources,  sized  Cathedral.  altarpieces,  in niches  found  are  on  purpose  sculpture  o f Amiens  appear  in ivory  The  the  from the  ornament  west f a c a d e  facade  and  derived  the  facades  facade  Siena  the s t r u c t u r e  ornament w h i c h was  of h a l f - l e n g t h f i g u r e s  a figure  The  the  that at Siena  only  Gothic  transition  i n f l u e n c e d the  fact  appear  eg.  t h e west w a l l o f  which c o n c e a l s  architectural  ivories  by  easy  facade,  s u p p o s i t i o n that the  on  In F r e n c h  i s t o c r e a t e an  s t r u c t u r e of the  decorate  ornament  creates a decorative screen  of the the  The  Classical  t h r e e west  of the  the  facade  Tuscan  Tuscan  Romanesque  w a l l made i t p o s s i b l e t o the  d i v e r s e ornamental  forms  mentioned. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e was  found  t o be  were F r e n c h , facade  design  form  and  ornament o f the  d e r i v e d from p r i m a r i l y  consequently was  the  three  sources,  g r e a t e r p a r t of the  i n f l u e n c e d by  French  Gothic  Siena  art.  Cathedral  two  Siena  of  which  Cathedral  However,  at  Siena French  there occurs  forms a r e j o i n e d  decorative the  Italy  country's  with  I t may  o f t h e ornament  style  were f u s e d in  surface.  sources  Gothic  no i m i t a t i o n  in Italy  with  of the French  Italian  The  ones  into  a homogeneous  be c o n c l u d e d  from  the evidence  on t h e S i e n a  was b a s e d  native Italian  on F r e n c h  tradition.  Cathedral Gothic  developments  a p p e a r s as i t d i d i n F r a n c e , Romanesque  Gothic.  a new  facade  of  that the  developments  so t h a t t h e G o t h i c development  based  which style on t h e  TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION I.  II.  A BRIEF HISTORY OF CISTERCIAN ARCHITECTURE IN CENTRAL AND NORTHERN ITALY ANALYSIS OF FACADE FORMS WHICH HAVE A RELATIONSHIP TO THE SIENA CATHEDRAL FACADE .  III.  ORNAMENT ON THE SIENA CATHEDRAL FACADE: INFLUENCE  FRENCH  IV.  DRNAMENT ON THE SIENA CATHEDRAL FACADE: INFLOENCE.  ITALIAN  CONCLUSION  .  APPENDIX: . . ILLUSTRATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY  TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS  A.  TEXT PLAN  OF SIENA". CATHEDRAL  Fig.  I.  B a s i c farm  o f t h e west f a c a d e  Fig.  2.  B a s i c form  of the c e n t r a l  Romanesque  facade  Fig.  3.  B a s i c f o r m o f t h e Abbey o f F o s s a n o v a  Facade  Fig.  4.  Decoration  o f Facade of C i s t e r c i a n  Fig.  5.  Comparison Triquitras  of location  Fig.  6.  Comparison  of crochet  Fig.  7.  Comparison  of mouldings.  of Siena  Cathedral  Abbeys  and b a s i c f u n c t i o n o f  forms  PHOTOGRAPHS  B. APPENDIX:: Fig.  Ia".  L o c a t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e by G i o v a n n i Cathedral facade.  Eig.  2a".  Facade o f S i e n a  Fig.  2b.  Facade o f O r v i e t o  Cathedral Cathedral.  Pisano  on S i e n a  INTRODUCTION  Italian differ the  structures  i n many i m p o r t a n t  w h i c h have been c l a s s i f i e d aspects  same term h a s been a p p l i e d .  assume two p o s s i b i l i t i e s . it  was o n . t h e  achieved  gothic  have  to  imitate  in  carrying  used  because  French this  Gothic  that  that  they  Italian  only  be assumed  n o t be t e r m e d that the  architecture of this  arch  and  nave.  The G o t h i c  gothic,  and d e t a i l  the t w e l f t h structures  and r i b v a u l t  and f o u r t e e n t h  to structures  to buildings  which  erected i n  centuries, i t  of t h i s  are gothic  period  s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f o r the a i s l e s  forms a complete  architecture;  Romanesque s t r u c t u r e s  however, i s n o t  as t h e c o v e r i n g  centuries  successful  and f o u r t e e n t h  style i n Italy  the h i s t o r y of I t a l i a n  attempted  b u t were n o t v e r y  applying  have t h e m a j o r g o t h i c  characteristics  since  s t y l e began and  should  and I t a l i a n  sense,  in structure  pointed  Italian  i t could  I f t h e term  1  France during  thirteenth  Italy  structures  out.' '  the  in  i t c a n be assumed  i n common i n d i c a t e t h e I t a l i a n s may have  adhere e x a c t l y  evident  f r o m t h i s one c a n  the Gothic  century  which French  i n i t s narrowest  northern  i n F r a n c e t o which  development, perhaps the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f  Secondly,  characteristics period  First,  and f o u r t e e n t h  at a l l .  those  Judging  l i e de F r a n c e t h a t  i t s highest  thirteenth  is  from  as. g o t h i c  f o r the s t r u c t u r e s of  in Italy  n o r do t h e y  of the early Renaissance  chapter  are not s i m i l a r to  e x h i b i t the style in Italy.  2  It the of  i s my p u r p o s e  facade  paper  t o a n a l y s e t h e ornament oh  o f S i e n a C a t h e d r a l and i n t h i s  i t s origin  because,  in this  and n a t u r e .  i n the f i r s t  way t o l e a r n  This particular  facade  was  p l a c e i t was n o t an o b v i o u s l y  something chosen  imitative  2 work o f a f o r e i g n Secondly,  prototype  as was, f o r i n s t a n c e , M i l a n C a t h e d r a l .  the d e c o r a t i o n o f the facade  relatively  s h o r t p e r i o d from  fourteenth  century."^  the l a t e  design (and  i n the h i s t o r y  provided  use  an I t a l i a n  projection in  understanding  the I t a l i a n  and  weigh  of a r c h i t e c t u r e  gothic  facade  transition  of French  and n a t i v e I t a l i a n  be c a r r i e d  as t h e  between t h e nave  w h i c h c a n however be e x p l a i n e d  in stylistic  and C o s m a t i  such  t h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n an  as C i s t e r c i a n  and t h e f o r m  Romanesque f a c a d e will  be f o u n d ,  of Siena Cathedral  gothic, i n general, i t i s necessary  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  elements: f o r  f o r i n s t a n c e , between  towers;  influence:  styles  analysis  of Orvieto Cathedral,  of a l l the sources of the facade  and  architecture  cannot  t o c r e a t e an easy  and t h e two s i d e  terms of French  because i t s  of Florence Cathedral).  prototype or source  p a r t s of the s t r u c t u r e  those  t h e S i e n a f a c a d e was;  o f S i e n a C a t h e d r a l t h e r e appear  of d e c o r a t i v e arcades  different  to the mid-  architecture,  f o r the facade  f o r the facade  On t h e f a c a d e which  And f i n a l l y ,  o f Tuscan  a prototype  t o some e x t e n t  thirteenth  out i n a  So a l l o f t h e f o r m s o f ornament were  known t o t h e g o t h i c c r a f t s m a n . important  was B a r r i e d  formation  architecture,  out i n t h i s  such  will  Classical  as t h e I t a l i a n  The way t o w h i c h paper  phases and  t h e French  g o t h i c ornament,  developments such  work.  t o examine  this  be t o b r e a k  down  3  the  facade  and  t r a c e the  diverse along  1.  of Siena  stylistic  origins  with  Cathedral  of the  them t h e  into  origins facade  o f each  will  true nature  i t s main component  of  of t h e s e .  become e v i d e n t , the  Gothic  style  elements  Then and in  the  perhaps Italy.  T h e s e two o p i n i o n s a r e q u i t e p r e v a l e n t i n w r i t i n g s •n g o t h i c a r t d a t i n g f r o m t h e e a r l y p a r t and t u r n of the c e n t u r y . CH. Moore i n The D e v e l o p m e n t and C h a r a c t e r of G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e (London: Macmillan, 1 8 9 0 ) , t r e a t s t h e s u b j e c t o f I t a l i a n g o t h i c a r t as a minor or i n f e r i o r development. C. E n l a r t i n h i s work L e s o r i q i n e s f r a n c a i s e de 1 a r c h i t e c t u r e q o t h i q u e en I t a l y ( P a r i s , 1 8 9 4 ) , j u s t i f i e s : i n many p a s s a g e s t h e v a l i d i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e phenomena o f I t a l i a n G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e . In o t h e r w r i t i n g s I t a l i a n G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e i s seen as an e q u a l l y v a l i d , a l t h o u g h m i n o r p h a s e o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e G o t h i c i n E u r o p e , e.g., P. F r a n k l , G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e (London, 1962). 1  2.  Paul F r a n k l i n Gothic Architecture.(London, I960), p.175. r e - M i l a n C a t h e d r a l n o t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f M i l a n C a t h e d r a l a r e l o w e r and w i d e r t h a n t h o s e o f most F r e n c h c a t h e d r a l s o f t h e same p e r i o d , because of s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , M i l a n s t i l l b e l o n g s t o t h e same group of c a t h e d r a l s as do B o u r g e s and LeMans. C a t h e d r a l s .  3.  G i o v a n n i P i s a n o worked on t h e S i e n a f a c a d e from 1284 t o 13D0. The f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n was t h e n l e f t and n o t begun a g a i n u n t i l 1369. Paul F r a n k l , G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e . ( L o n d o n , I 9 6 0 ) , p.174. Frankl's c h r o n o l o g y o f work on t h e S i e n a f a c a d e i s a s f o l l o w s : 1284 G i o v a n n i P i s a n o b e g i n s t o work on t h e f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n , 1300 t h e f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n i s i n t h e a r e a o f t h e d o o r s , 1369 work i s once a g a i n begun on t h e f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n and t h e u p p e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e f a c a d e are d e c o r a t e d .  4.  " A r n o l f o must have known t h e f a c a d e o f t h e C a t h e d r a l S i e n a . . . . " P a u l F r a n k l , G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e . (London p.144. A r n o l f o ' s work on t h e C a t h e d r a l o f F l o r e n c e f a c a d e d a t e s from c a . 1 2 9 4 .  of 1960),  I  fl", BRIEF HISTORY OF CISTERCIAN ARCHITECTURE IN AND NORTHERN ITALY  According  to  brought  the  first  as  had  into  they  francaise  que  Camille  Enlart,  major French Germany and  revient  gothic  l'honneur  d'avoir  had  French  i n I t a l y , such  service  of  the  examples a l s o Italy,  for  Cathedral of  Saint  brought  Angevin  of  Sulpice into  I t a l y by  was  not  and  imposed  monastic  ideal;  Cistercian  into  into  faith.  In  Europe  should  from  desired  region order live  of  spread  of western to  l'art  or  the  architecture  built  French  by  canons  influence  as  ruler,  but  religious  became  while  after i t s  foreign.  The  i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y minded.  t h e i r reformed monastic  the  was  architecture  reformed  architecture  in  the the  Francophile  a short  on  Isolated  Europe which p r o f e s s e d  ensure that  under  gothic  regarded  i t s outset  to  ca.1266.  a popular  was,  longer  de  F r e n c h workmen  because C i s t e r c i a n  I t a l y and  I t a l y , no  Cistercians  Cistercian constructions  a French  spread  aux  just  F r e n c h masons i n  Barletta  thus C i s t e r c i a n  o r d e r was  Cistercians every  whim o f  in northern  introduction  the  mho  Italy  V e r c e i l i n Piedmont, at  enduring,  the  the  However, t h e  means o f  the  connected'with  naturalized  The  by  at  church  1199.  and  as  into  "C'est  examples o f  influenced  church  the  about  most c o n s i s t e n t  was  the  Cistercians  dote l ' l t a l i e  i n Naples,  French  Genes and  the  it  kings  e x i s t of  instance,  been o t h e r  the  influence  Scandinavia:  g o t h i q u e . T h e r e architecture  i t was  CENTRAL  Cistercian  s i m i l a r circumstances  the  brothers i t was  ideals  Catholic a l l over  felt  5  necessary and  to i d e n t i f y  each  not with r e g i o n a l  Clunacs  followed  daughter  abbeys  or l o c a l  w i t h t h e mother house  models.  but the C i s t e r c i a n s  i n doing t h i s .  regardless  of t h e i r  The  distance  of adaptation  mother house  in their  were more p e r s i s t e n t  various Cistercian  from  of Citeaux  Other o r d e r s such as the  the p r o t o t y p e of t h e i r  consistant  degree  abbey  and  houses,  C i t e a u x , a l t h o u g h w i t h some  or m o d i f i c a t i o n ,  adhered  closely  in their 2  plans  to e i t h e r The  however,  that  Cistercian  an  Cistercian  within  architecture  does  abbeys,  and  Cistercian and  the a r c h i t e c t u r e  a school  was  forms  the: A u v e r g n e  o f two of the  birthplace  mother house  t h e y were s p r e a d i n g a b r o a d  forms  of  Benedictine  When t h e C i s t e r c i a n s , of t h e i r  needs.  of architecture: i n  or a d e r i v a t i v e  Cthe  not,  i t s own  for instance,  o f Burgundy  p l a n s r e p r o d u c e d the form  of the  w i t h maps  i n Burgundy  the Burgundian  form  architecture. development  thirteenth  t h e s e was the  form  r e f o r m e d movement).  The and  not form  the monastic a r c h i t e c t u r a l  throughout Europe, of  the order to s a t i s f y  o f t h e word as d o e s ,  I t i s a combined  architecture,  Fontenay.  form o f m o n a s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e  innovation  the proper sense school.  o f C i t e a u x o r t h e Abbey o f  that  Gothic,  Gothic,  the p e r i o d  centuries  into  i n Burgundy  The  architecture two  phases.  of t r a n s i t i o n  1150-1170 t o 1225,  of g r e a t e s t  architecture.  falls  of the s t y l e  about  began  of Burgundian  i n 1225.  achievement  architecture  from  i n the The  twelfth  first  of  t h e Romanesque t o  the second  phase,  The  of t r a n s i t i o n  period  i n medieval  that  of the was  Burgundian  o f t h e s e c o n d phase  was  a  hybrid  6  form  consisting  architecture gothic used  of  the  modified  the  during  of  l i e de  the  native by  period  of  architecture  the  half  of  the  from  .  . . i n the  1150's i n t h e  .  . . The  in  Cistercian  house a t to rib  vault  under that of  and  the  the early  Although church  the  It  was  central  develop only  the  r i b vault  and  still  The up  to  was  builders  to  may  the  of  Valley)  Burgundy.  the  1225  Burgundian  period  of  slow  an  including amalgamation  Romanesque nave t h e and  the  implications  Burgundy  w h i c h was  uses  chapter-  structure.  rest  of  the  structural  c a l l e d Ribbed Vaulted  to  by  i m p l i e d ' by  its  as  of  appeared  Yonne V a l l e y  Romanesque d e s i g n be  1150  t h i s height  with  in roofing  course  East  of  seen  used  the  were, however,  1225,  be  Burgundian  i s i n the  of  can  been  most c o n s i s t e n t  vault  r i b vault  adhered  with  and  architecture  gothic  p h a s e from  achievement c o i n c i d e d  ribbed  i n the  the  had  Yonne  North  a f u l l , development  consequently  Italy, for  earliest  in  r i b vault  and  employed  the  "In  structural possibilities  moved t o  of  this early  expansion.  the  Cistercians, form  of  r i b vault  (S.E.. F r a n c e and  Burgundian  influence.  structure  principles,  The  the  the  the  Romanesque  achievements of  as: 1150.  century,  first  of  i t i s evident  Yonne V a l l e y  of  architecture  and  foreign of  One  5  Fontenay.  explore  was  and  Burgundy  early  t h i s area  vault  Cistercians..""  as  twelfth  throughout  the  In  transition;  sporadically  ribbed  t r a n s i t i o n a l form  innovations  France.  Cistercian second  the  or  Romanesque..  introduced  into  architectural  greatest  Cistercian  European  7 Thus, t h e Italy  i n the  early  construction  of  architectural architecture structures central period  northern  gothic  based  on  the  l i e de  French  was  evolution Italy  influence  until  and was  why  a form  u n d e r the  a close  i n the  into Italy  Death c r o s s e d  Italy  deterioration  w h i c h came w i t h  age  form of  i n or  gothic  influence  of  mid-fourteenth  during  transitional  s e c o n d wave  was  during  the  of mid-  construction  France.  the  the  style in  The  century  i t prevented  the  influence  the  of c a t h e d r a l  in northern  the  gothic  Consequently  of the  in  Romanesque  gothic  architecture.  great  which  of  appear  later.  expansion  gothic  to  burgundian  F r a n c e does n o t  when the  drawing  to  for central  o f Citeaux:,  developed  which p e n e t r a t e d  century  influence  that  explains  highly  Italy  Burgundian  already  age  This  northern  Europe,  fourteenth was  gothic  forms.  the  Cistercian  important  i t s abbeys adhered  i n the  and of  most  The and  Black  the  compLete  economic  construction  5 of  any  significant  structure thirteenth The  of  and  was  abbey  the:  under the to  cathedrals  fourteenth  first  F o s s a n o v a on 1187  the  structure  architecture  into  d'Houtecombe  i n Savoy.  modest  way  near  source  of  Italy.  distinctly  i n an  Turacena.  most  I.  Abbey i n the  of  Work on I t was  important  have f o u n d  s t y l e of  the  the  large  new  of  that  Burgundian of  itself  was  As  of  begun i n  Abbey  source f o r abbey.  abbey  abbey  the  the  style.  i t was  influx  tradition;  here the  during  the  this  d'Houtecombe  local  The  early gothic  I t s mother house was The  hardly  Burgundian  the  style.  C i s t e r c i a n s was  of F r e d e r i c k  Romanesque s t r u c t u r e  of Fossanova could  the  gothic  w h i c h were b u i l t  c e n t u r i e s , are by  fippian  late  in Italy  built  patronage  become t h e  i n the  a  builders; the the  Abbey  8  •f  Fossanova  was  it  was' i n t e n d e d t o a c t as a mother house t o C i s t e r c i a n  It  i s probable  that  up" t h e p l a n s and significance presided  located it  was  on  of  abbey was  of Fossanova  the Appian  and  a large  travellers  impressions  Way  expansion.  by  such  III  that  travellers  Pope I n n o c e n t  centre.  First,  t o C.  Enlart,  "Une  i t was  the Holy  City.  that  i n the  the a l r e a d y  wealthy  These m u l t i t u d e s  must have c a r r i e d  form  into  consequently  f o r Fossanova  o f money t o d e f r a y i t s c o s t s .  s t o p p i n g at Fossanova  and  from  IU g r a n t e d  12D8.  developed  Naples,  t o or  hospitality  c e n t u r y Pope A l e x a n d e r sum  drew  The  between Rome and  visited  Italy  mason f o r F o s s a n o v a . ^  f o r t u o main r e a s o n s  of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  days^according  in central  of Citeaux i n France  intellectual  the expense of t h i s  mid-thirteenth abbey  the master  artistic  frequently  Such was  chose  General  abbey  t h e ceremony o f i t s c o n s e c r a t i o n on J u n e 18,  Abbey  a significant  major C i s t e r c i a n  the Chapter  o f t h e new  over  The  the f i r s t  away w i t h  o f t h e abbey w h i c h was  modele d ' a r t p l u s p a r f a i t  them  i n those tout  7 qu'elle  avait  attached  The  (or i n France  e x i s t e n c e of the There  Valvescolo education ordained return  and  Secondly,  1  w h i c h may  be  termed  (College  des  s c h o o l at Fossanova  i s r e c o r d e d an  Fossanova  i s supported  argument between  which n o t e s  the  the p r i o r  ( g i v e ) to the  a week l a t e r ,  D f the s a i d  sum  abbey  ten gold  abbey  at Fossanova florins  on  abbey  had  a: m o n a s t i c to the C o l l e g e  B e r n a r d i n e s de by  Paris.)  documentary  the Abbots  t o be p a i d  o f t e n monks; a t t h e s c h o o l o f Fossanova.: that  the  a: C a t h e d r a l S c h o o l ) , s i m i l a r  the Bernardines of P a r i s .  evidence.  or  1 antiquite."  t o i t a S^tudium A r t i u m ,  university of  va d e p u i s  of  f o r the  "Similarly  i t is  o f V a l v e s c o l o i s bound t h e day  of St.  to  Stephen,  b e l o n g i n g t o the. p r e v i o u s l y  9  mentioned at  the  abbey  of Valvescolo  s a i d Fossanova."  claimed  as  applied  f o r the  During  geometry  and  Study  the  of  Arts  that  he  has  m i d d l e ages a r c h i t e c t u r e  consequently  i t i s almost  was  certain  g that the  a r c h i t e c t u r e was fact  worked  that  on  and  his  two  church  of  Amasino,  the  Church  of  the  formal  the  school  studies,  but  the  to monastic  the  It i s only  in  be  this  had,  that  would  be  in Terracine.  students  are  was  that  work o f  terminated  architect  study  throughout  f o r b u i l d i n g and  Italy.  C i s t e r c i a n s which  of  gothic  c a r r i e d out  by  were  t h e s e men  contact  with  development  why  to  be  The  Abbey  dissemination  However, t h e tended  architecture explain  phase i n her  Italy.  gothic  working would  conservative.  did. not  knowledge o f i t .  the  gothic  i n the  l i e de  and  of  Fossanova  of  the  The  the  France,  new was  lack  date  have a t r u e  a r c h i t e c t u r a l development: during of  to  on  in  influence  d i f f e r e n t o r more up Italy  of  of  i n s t r u c t e d them by  the  Piperno,  Petrus  i n 1291  The not  town o f  b o t h monks and! laymen,  a r c h i t e c t s who  become a. c e n t r e  d i r e c t systematic  little  P i p e r n o who  or C i s t e r c i a n  spread  the  greatest  they  J o c o b u s who  F o s s a n o v a was  natural  Burgundian the  by  having  way  of  gothic  and  as  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of C i s t e r c i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e  s t y l e throughout  of  to  abbey;  A n d r e a s de  at  recorded  came from  the  i s supported  infused, with  then,  gothic  and  Annunciation  apprenticed  time  from  This  are  resemblance  most p a r t  miles  at  site.  Fossanova".  sons M o r i s i u s  the  architecture  held  farms f o r the  is situated five  Gulinari  at  a r c h i t e c t s o r masons who  c h u r c h e s which  architectural which  taught  forms  high  period Italy  of  had  ID  Fossanova consecrated  established  t h e Abbey  i n September o f 1217.  of Casamari  Casamari  first  Santa M a r i a d'Arbons i n the A r r u z z i  1224,  San  Galgana  which  was  t o have i n f l u e n c e  The been  site  i n Tuscany.  on w h i c h  the hermitage  named G a l g a n o . effected  and  After  I t was  i n turn  and  then i n  t h e Abbey o f San  Galgano  t h e Abbey' o f San  of Siena  Galgano  Cathedral.  was  built  of a r e p e n t a n t w o r l d l y  on h i s tomb.  as t h e b a s i s  the C i s t e r c i a n s , a few  In 1185  when t h e k n i g h t had  f o r a monastic  (i\lo s i g n i f i c a n t  in  safeguarded the p o s i t i o n  the e d i c t  patronage with  and  that  been c a n o n i z e d ,  at t h i s  building  he,  was  in internal  taxation.  In 12DS  the monastery's  and  a t , Pope I n n o c e n t and  Secular  immunity  affairs  to e l e c t  own  body.  With  enlarge  the monastery;  these r o y a l  i n t h e w i l d s o f Mount this  "violate  Henry  IV,  complete  came a  legal  guarantee  from  local  safeguard  t h e monks' f r e e d o m  the  govern  p a p a l s a f e g u a r d s i t was  and  Bishops  were g i v e n t h e  monks;  themselves  t h e number o f b r o t h e r s i n Mount S i e p i  was from  i n C o u r t s Df  t h u s monks were s e n t from  his  our m u n i f i c e n c e  and: f r e e d o m  to t h i s  b i s h o p s , and and  site.)  t h e s e monks under  sentences pronounced  In a d d i t i o n  right  increase  and  done on  III reaffirmed  from  Rulers. their  at a z e n i t h ,  Along with t h i s  liberty  taxation  t i m e was  o f t h e monks, f o r h i s c h a n c e l l e r y  of complete  arrived  cult with  the s o v e r e i g n , took  t e m p e r a r i o u s audacity.""''^  t h e new  communicated  h i s neighbours not to  warned  knight  He  Citeaux to s e t t l e  Slept.  issued  foundation.  whose r e p u t a t i o n  monks were s e n t f r o m  119L,  had  t h e k n i g h t ' s d e a t h m i r a c u l o u s c u r e s were  the Bishop of VoLtera c o n c e i v e d of the idea of l e t t i n g serve  was  established  Mountains  on t h e b u i l d i n g  death p l a c e  which  as a s o v e r e i g n  decided to  Fossanova to help  to construct  11  an  abbey.  San GalganD t h e n  establishment The occurred  link  through  that  between t h e C i s t e r c i a n  of  in civilian  of f a v o u r  matters  was kept up f o r t h e n e x t  i n 1262 t h e P o d e s t a  one h u n d r e d  of Siena  took  Abbot  g i v e n o t i c e by m e s s e n g e r  I shall  o f t h e r e g i o n near which that the said  abbey  it  a f f e c t i o n a t e request  monks a n d t o d e f e n d On a meeting St.  February  Christopher  cathedral. during  reflect  The p o s i t i o n  the l a s t  allegiance  to decide  decade;  t o her,  t o t h e l o r d s and  inflict  began  extend  no i n j u r y  are held  were o u r f e l l o w  upon  to a i d the  citizens.  i n Siena  on March  25th),  i n the church of  on what was t o be done a b o u t  the c i t y ' s  had i n c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e  s h e h e l d a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f towns i n  and i t was d e c i d e d  the c i t i z e n s '  Lord  o f t h e abbey a r e  Campagna was. h e l d  of Siena  As a r e t u r n  and I s h a l l  t h a t we o f S i e n a  della  years.  and i t s g o o d s a r e  of Siena,  11, 1259 ( t h e new y e a r  of the Conseglio  of the treasurer  and l e t t e r  o f San G a l g a n o  them as i f t h e y  This practice of  " a t t h e demand o f my  t o them t h a t t h e y  o r any o f i t s goods s e e i n g  to Siena  t h e m o n a s t e r y o f San  the possessions  u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e Commune the  in artistic  f r o m San G a l g a n o  the p o s i t i o n  the p r o t e c t i o n of the c i t y  situated,  the Sienese  later  o f t h e town.  Galgano under  people  At f i r s t  a f f a i r s -but  In 1257 a monk was s e n t  a monk from San G a l g a n o f i l l  the city  monks and t h e S i e n e s e  t h e monks o f San G a l g a n o .  supervise the f i n a n c i a l  having  monastic  i s , on t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e town's  new c a t h e d r a l . to  influential  i n the d i s t r i c t .  c o n s u l t e d ' t h e monks o n l y ones;  became t h e most  to b u i l d  a c a t h e d r a l which  p r i d e and t h e town's i m p o r t a n c e .  would  A committee  12  •f  nine  of  the  the  good men  t h e mason and  experience  with  t h e new  another  east the  very  time  from  1271  again the  Siena  son.of  decoration  bay  style,  In 1284  t h e hew  structure.  church.  terminated  i n 1348  was  facade. a new  appointed  records  time  given The  facade.  The  had  m a s t e r mason  of  seem t o  ordered  have  Fra  Melano,  to e r e c t a t h e nave  present  He  builder  for  seems t o  o f t h e works  from  the task  town by  The 1284  when  of c r e a t i n g  now  felt  t o be  nave would t a s k was  built  The  Giovanni, sculpture  d e c o r a t i o n of the doors  the  angle  t r a n s e p t of  i n 1340,  and  barely  at a r i g h t  work had over  work  t h a t the c a t h e d r a l  become t h e begun  was  first  devised to enlarge the  to the p l a g u e .  and  Cistercian construction  dates  nave was  close  that  i n 1258.  as f a r as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a v a u l t  a south  had  surprising  a F r a Maggio.  proper  scheme was  A new  monks  to complete  worked on  This grandiose due  the  begin  F r a M e l a n o ' s name a p p e a r s  the master  monk, t h i s  N i c o l a Pisano,  and  and  G a l g a n o , was  building  Cathedral facade  f a r the  the S i e n e s e  i t i s not  o f t h e nave and  Terzi  intermediary  work, f o r h i s s u c c e s s o r  San  t o h i s abbey and  t h e c a t h e d r a l so t h e  only  t h e new  i n Sienese  inadequate  completed to  first  a Cistercian  As  F r a V/ernaccio d o e s n o t  monk from  t o 1274.  t o a c t as: an  F r a V e r n a c c i o was  f a r with  the  have r e t u r n e d  was  1259,  i n t h e new  of the l o c a l  a m a s t e r mason t o  Galgano  t e r m i n a t i o n of the church. last  the  t h e monks o f San  Cistercian  over  to appoint  town c o u n c i l .  c a t h e d r a l works.  proceeded  vault  20,  each  c a t h e d r a l and  the  in building  February  ( t h r e e from  i t was  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new  connections  on  Formed  town) whose d u t y  between  on  was  but  was  progressed east a i s l e  windows o f  and  these  13  bays i s of Siena. the  This  cathedral  a new  which As  the  form  the  proper  to  of  influenced work on  b u i l d i n g has  The  square termination plan.  The  s u r m o u n t e d by  Cathedral  surprising the  that  surface  beginning by  the  the  gothic,  Cathedral  of  the  plague  this of  Siena  to  the  round a rose  end  the was  window i n t h e  influenced  the  facade  the  form  by of  Siena  east  the  completion there  had the  cathedral  tiers  E n l a r t , Les o r i q i n e s f r a n c a i s e de I t a l i e . ( P a r i s , 1894), p.ID.  been He  de  part that  wall  fallows  of  three  recall  Since  the  C i s t e r c i a n church  Cathedral  of  surprising  the  the  single French  interior  Cistercian architecture the  in  facade.  for a great  Cathedral  two  east  wall.  date  Cistercian architecture.  of Siena  a r c h w a y s and  handling  the  east  with  that  t i m e from  C i s t e r c i a n monks, i t i s n o t  of  of  of  up  from  ornamentation  was  division  anything  period  structural affinities  B u r g u n d i a n manner o f Siena  than  in the  the  the  the  lights  the  Italy  t i m e d i r e c t e d by  Cistercian  of g o t h i c  indicates that  penetration  France,  of  a purer  it is  of  not  influenced!  facade.  1.  C. en  2.  As t h i s p a p e r d e a l s w i t h f a c a d e s and n o t w i t h p l a n s , t h e v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e b a s i c C i s t e r c i a n p l a n w i l l n o t be d e a l t with here. This m a t e r i a l i s covered i n Marcel Aubert, L ' A r c h i t e c t u r e C i s t e r c i e n n e ( P a r i s , 1957), pq.151-226.  3.  Robert Branner, pp. 14-18.  4..  T h i s term R i b - V a u l t e d Romanesque i s a p p l i e d by R Branner to t h e B u r g u n d i a n C i s t e r c i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the t w e l f t h century. R. B r a n n e r , B u r g u n d i a n G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 10-14.  Burgundian  Gothic  1' a r c h i t e c t u r e  Architecture  qothique  (London,1960),  r  14  5.  Work c o n t i n u e d on b o t h F l o r e n c e and M i l a n C a t h e d r a l s on i n t o t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y . In t h e c a s e o f M i l a n the e x t e r i o r of t h e C a t h e d r a l was n o t c o m p l e t e d u n t i l t h e 19th c e n t u r y .  6.  See s e c t i o n on F o s s a n o v a i n : ( d i s c u s s e d b e c a u s e o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as Mother h o u s e ) , F. S c h e v i l l e , "San Galgano, a C i s t e r c i a n Abbey o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s " , A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l Review, V, 14 ( 1 9 0 8 ) , pp. 22-37.  7.  Enlart, Italie.  Les  oriqines  francaise  de  1'architecture  qothique  en  8.  Enlart, Italie,  Les o r i q i n e s p.17.  francaise  de  1 architecture  qothique  en  9.  F o r f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t see C E . (Morton, H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s o f C h u r c h B u i l d i n g i n t h e M i d d l e Ages, V e n i c e , S i e n a and F l o r e n c e , (New York, 1 8 8 0 ) , pp. 26-28.  10.  F. S c h e v i l l e , "San G a l g a n o , A C i s t e r c i a n Abbey o f t h e M i d d l e Ages", A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l Review, V, 14 ( 1 9 0 8 ) , pp.22-37.  11.  Scheville,  loc. c i t .  1  15 II  ANALYSIS OF FACADE FORMS WHICH HAVE A RELATIONSHIP' TO THE SIENA CATHEDRAL FACADE  The that  basic  which  is left  been t a k e n of  the  the  basic  Italian  of the  remaining  away, i s a f l a t  aisles  simple  component p a r t o f t h e S i e n a west f a c a d e ,  and  the  form  after  w a l l s u r f a c e which  to the  Romanesque C h u r c h ,  facade  a l l d e c o r a t i v e elements  Early  but  a t S i e n a t h e r e has  of the form  form  Siena facade  of the c e n t r a l  Cistercian in  of the  the  Abbey  and  surface  will  because of the French  influence  An  the  shift  brought  of or  facade  into  or  analysis  of i t with  s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e component p a r t s o f t h e  occurred  division  to the facade  show t h a t  and  i n emphasis  facade.  a comparison  Romanesque F a c a d e and  of Fossanova  Basilica  occurred a s h i f t of the  outline  T h i s i s the  Christian  i n the b a s i c  a r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s u b - d i v i i s i o n  have  f o l l o w s the  h i g h e r nave between them.  similar  or  the the  change at  Italy  Siena by  the  Cistercians."'' The rectangle subdivided  basic  surmounted  o f t h e west by  horizontally  divisions. by  form  The  facade  a square  (see Figure 1 ) .  into  stories  horizontal  two  division  a s t r i n g c o u r s e a c r o s s the width  aisle  roofs.  nature  The  vertical  for i t i s carried  divisions.  The  equally  t h r e e by  ratio  into  o f 1:1:1.  lower  The  at S i e n a  out  of the  into  differently  the gabled  facade  upper s e c t i o n  into  at the  i n both  of the facade  over  of the  of the  each  facade  is  into two  three i s made  level  t h r e e i s o f a more  division arches  of a  T h i s form  vertically  of the facade  division  horizontal  and  i s that  of  the  complex  horizontal i s divided  of the doors i s divided  in a  into  16  t h r e e by ratio  -  an  o f 1::2:1.  shapes,  The  facade  side  o f t h e nave p r o t r u s i o n i n a  at Siena then  consists  o f two  basic  members o f t h e S i e n a f a c a d e  of balance  achieved  by  The  the  by  variation  i n the  shape o f t h e c e n t r a l  t h e shape o f t h e west  a higher  but  The  into  a  of v a l u e which i s  shape o f t h e two  of a high r e c t a n g l e with  which touch  are brought  because of the compensation  basic  represented consists  and  shape o f t h e h i g h e r p i t c h e d r o o f nave e x t e n s i o n .  horizontal  state  at e i t h e r  t h e r e c t a n g u l a r s h a p e o f t h e main body o f t h e c h u r c h  the square two  arcade  component  parts.  Romanesque f a c a d e may facade  slanting  s m a l l e r form  at P i s a  be  Cathedral;  s i d e s (the a i s l e  o f t h e same shape  it  roofs)  ( t h e nave  2' protrusion  with  i t s p i t c h e d r o o f ) (see F i g u r e 2 ) .  main  emphasis o f the P i s a  facade  (and  on  of the  f a c a d e w h i c h c l o s e s o f f t h e nave  the by  the lower aisles. t h e use  surface of  section The  accentuation of t h i s  of superimposed  of the f a c a d e .  the facade  are high  ascend  to the gable  spaced  until  version levels  of the  complete  form  decorate  the  protrusion effect  that  The and  they  arcades  widely  arcades." facade  because  ofthe facade entire  into  lower  spaced.  As  in size  i t i s here  arcades.  whole  but  closely  a diminished on  the  there occurs  A l s o , t h e use  the facade  of arcades  s e c t i o n s D f the c a t h e d r a l facade  consists  o f one  single  lower  t h e most  facade w a l l s u r f a c e i n t e g r a t e s o p t i c a l l y  the lower  section  arcades  a r e more  i s focused  that  the  emphasized  and  and  i s achieved  t h e rows o f  contains nothing  Thus, a t t e n t i o n  facade  to d e c o r a t e  i n the  are decreased  5  Romanesque f a c a d e ) i s  p a r t of the  rows o f a r c a d e s  t h e nave p r o j e c t i o n  of the  the c e n t r a l  The  unified  to  the  nave  creating  shape.  the  17  It west is  uill  facades  not  Pisa  divergence which  o f S i e n a and  similar  (i.e.,  overall  shapes, the  facade  but  the a one  bands o f  divisions does n o t  Cathedral  new  s u r f a c e covered  with  vertically  one  of  Siena  facade  of the i s not  (at Siena)  at  and  repeated  facade placed  there i s equality  divisions;  type  of facade  division  which  of  Second,  horizontally, here  there  design, i . e . ,  i s found  where t h e nave t e r m i n a t i o n i s c l e a r l y  s e c t i o n s of the  is  a French  in  a l l early  facade  architectural and  the source  developed  t h e Abbey C h u r c h  French  facade  but  the comparison  independent found  yet i n t e g r a t e d with  some  unit  degree  In o r d e r  to of  i t i s necessary  t o examine t h e west  facade  o f San  that  the  s u r f a c e arrangement  of the Siena  when i t i s remembered  Siena  basic  and  compare  Because of h i s t o r i c a l  o f t h e Abbey  at  s e t o f f from  Gothic Cathedrals.  f o r the  of Fossanova  of S i e n a C a t h e d r a l . the  as an  characteristic  or p r o t o t y p e  the S i e n a C a t h e d r a l facade of  section  emphasis  have t h e s e  the  main p o i n t s o f  s u r f a c e through  both  of  arcades.  The  find  facade  to the  s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f s h a p e s as a t P i s a .  at P i s a  uniform  the f a c a d e  The  i s i n the  facade., h e r e  of the  a t S i e n a : has  facade  Cathedrals that  facades  i s at the P i s a  through  above d e s c r i p t i o n  At t h e S i e n a f a c a d e  integration  not  Pisa  the  Romanesque f a c a d e ) . two  i s emphasized.  an  from  i n shape or s u r f a c e d i v i s i o n  between t h e  t h e nave as  lower  either  the c e n t r a l  on  is  have been n o t e d  this  i t with fact  Galgano might and  Fossanova  abbey was  an  t h e west  facade  examination  of  be more t o t h e p o i n t facades  a training  i s not  illogical  centre f o r  18  architects Also, that  and  t h e b u i l d e r s o f Ban  the basic  form  of a l l C i s t e r c i a n  only  abut by  occurs  against i t .  four  pilaster  The  west  facade  o f t h e Abbey  as has  t h e west  west  facade  fairly  f a c a d e may  in  which facade  rows o f a r c h t a p p e d  and  San  west  windows  Consequently  the  G a l g a n o must have been  f a c a d e o f t h e Abbey  of a lower  roofs,  churches.  r e c t a n g u l a r form  divided  from  i t by  o f f at the  a t t h e t o p by  bottom  by  facade at  o f t h e nave  The the  Fossanova  west  a stringcourse  t h e nave p r o j e c t i o n .  i s marked  The  of  nave  at  the  projection's  above  t h e base of the pediment  proper  mentioned  above i t ( s e e  3)..  Figure  Certain the facade slanting  at Fossanova,  o f the  side  a s p e c t s of the facade  w h i l e they  the c e n t r a l  is  o r two  o f most C i s t e r c i a n  a;bove i t , and  doors  Variation  broken  have a r o s e window as does t h e  shape o f t h e west  w h i c h has  stringcourse  i s plain,  o f t h e Abbey o f F o n t e n a y .  consists  shape  roofs  appearance.  to that  of a i s l e  is similar,  above t h e a i s l e  windows.  abbey.  i s i n the h a n d l i n g of the  of S i l v i c a n e  Fossanova  square  facades  this  facades  surface i t s e l f  b u t t r e s s e s and  facade  basic  similar  wall  o f t h e Abbeys o f F o s s a n o v a  similar The  level  The  i n the C i s t e r c i a n  windows.  two  abbey  i s , i n a l l a b b e y s t h e nave p r o j e c t s  which  is  G a l g a n o came f r o m  are f l a t  the a i s l e  at Siena;  Siena facade are equal door  ones,  similar.  e.g.,  on  the facade  although  at Siena d i f f e r roofs and  in size,  at Fossanova  the b a s i c  the  from  those  of Fossanova  are  arches over  the  w h i l e the i s larger  surface division  arch than  of both  of  over are  the  facades  19  It  c a n be s t a t e d ,  of the French central French  facade  therefore,  surface  division  Romanesque f a c a d e s u r f a c e influence  brought  into  that  at Siena  and d e v i a t i o n  division  Italy  a r c h i t e c t u r a l decoration,  found  other  occurred  from  accepted  because o f the  by t h e C i s t e r c i a n monks.  However, as t h e C i s t e r c i a n s had v e r y of  the acceptance  little  o r no  tradition  s o u r c e s o f i n f l u e n c e must be  f o r t h e ornament on t h e S i e n a  l\lo.2 f o r f u r t h e r  Cathedral  facade.  1.  See f o o t n o t e  discussion  of t h i s  term.  2.  C e n t r a l Romanesque i s t h e t e r m u s e d by C.A.. Cummings i n A H i s t o r y o f I t a l i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e when he d i s c u s s e s t h e Romanesque A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e c i t i e s o f C e n t r a l I t a l y P i s a , L u c c a , F l o r e n c e , P i s t o i a and T o s c a n e l l a .  3.  T h i s t y p e o f f a c a d e d e c o r a t i o n i s termed by John W h i t e i n A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1250-14DD, p.7D, a s t h e P i s a n - L u c c h e s e scheme. This facade type according to White, i s a v a r i a n t o f t h e f r e e - s t a n d i n g screen f a c a d e s o f t h e Romanesque and E a r l y G o t h i c c h u r c h e s o f Lombardy and E m i l i a .  20 Ill  ORNAMENT QIM THE  The  most s i g n i f i c a n t  of Siena  Cathedral  forms.  The  on  from  this  the  part  been  Siena  p a r t o f t h e ornament  on  i n f l u e n c e d by  Gothic  d i d not  consequently  the  Cathedral  source.  Cistercian in  has  Cistercians  ornamentation, found  SIENA CATHEDRAL FACADE: FRENCH INFLUENCE  The  a b b e y s was  have a t r a d i t i o n French  facade  decoration  decreed  French  Gothic  a g a i n s t by  of  Facade ornamental  architectural  i n f l u e n c e d ornament  c o u l d not of the  the  have been  exterior Bernard  i t c o n s t i t u t e d the w o r l d l i n e s s of such  and  derived Df  interior  of C l a i r v a u x , * f o r  orders  as  the  2 B e n e d i c t i n e s whose r u l e Sculpture decorate  and  other  their  abbeys.  i s a Virgin  the  Df  Cistercian  rule  adhered  supported Cistercian of  The  used  had  by  extant  reformed.  the C i s t e r c i a n s  example o f  (ca. mid-fourteenth  late  date  rule years  only  i n d i c a t e s how  century),  well  arch by  two  o f the  around  had  to pass before  embellishment  architectural  the  the the  derivation  facade.  or  arch  instance,  ( F i g u r e 4)  of the  Cathedral, with  ornament c o u l d not  For  nave doorway and  the largest  from  o f t h e west f a c a d e  of Fontenay  the c e n t r a l  b u i l d e r s of Siena  from  which p r o h i b i t e d d e c o r a t i o n , f o r  Abbey  columns over  to  Cistercian  appearance of s c u l p t u r e i n  doorway o r window o f  embellishment  a compound  The  hundred  rarely  earliest  Child  to the  of Citeaux  abbeys c o n s i s t e d of a d e c o r a t i v e moulding  central  facade  one  occurred.  Cistercian the  and  Fontenay.  approximately the  The  abbeys at t h i s  Cistercians  founders  ornament was  sculpture Abbey  the  around the  c o n s i s t s of arch  nave windows.  their  have p r o v i d e d  o f an  meagre the  of  The  tradition  prototype  for  21  the  French  i n f l u e n c e d ornament  As C i s t e r c i a n the  French  source  Gothic  of French  A comparison Siena the from  ornament  difference ornament  facade  uhich  on t h e S i e n a  only  facade  n o t come d i r e c t l y  embellishment, Gothic  facade  carved  facade  f o r example  Gothic  evident  In o t h e r  ornament.  from  uords,  of the  d e r i v e d from  another  on t h e  suggests  that  differed  facade.  This  architectural French  Gothic  and n o t t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e to French  Gothic  ornament  on t h e S i e n a  architectural  a l s o used  from  i s used  facade  Gothic  o f t h e ornament  than  source,  architectural  the minor a r t s ,  facade but from  ornament f o r  especially  T h i s term,  uhich  i s used  t h e more o r n a t e structural  of the facade  the s c u l p t u r e d f i g u r e s ,  c a t h e d r a l s may  on t h e c a t h e d r a l f a c a d e  transition  facade,  French  altar-pieces."^  of the French  ornament  t h e model f o r  C a t h e d r a l facade  i s similar  uhich  other  designate  aspects  source  ivory  was  from a French  The ornament,  structural  Gothic  t h e form  As t h e farm  I b e l i e v e t h a t the prototype  some i n t e r m e d i a r y  t h e ornament  on t h e S i e n a  i n d i c a t e s that  facade.  ornament must have i n f l u e n c e d i t .  and on a F r e n c h  a r c h i t e c t u r a l sources.  did  Cathedral  i t h a d on t h e F r e n c h  on t h e S i e n a  ornament  on t h e S i e n a  architectural  o f t h e ornament  the r o l e  Cathedral  a r c h i t e c t u r e d i d not p r o v i d e  o f t h e manner i n u h i c h  Cathedral  role  on t h e S i e n a  be c a l l e d  structural  on t h e  or termed  ornament,  i s meant t o  t o enhance t h e s t r u c t u r a l and a t t h e same t i m e s c u l p t u r e to the l e s s  ornament  so that t h e y  embellishes  uill  c r e a t e an  easy  ornate s t r u c t u r e .  the p u r e l y  integrate uith  elements  mechanical  the s c u l p t u r e of  22  the  facade  to achieve  west f a c a d e Cathedral, wall  which  overall  G o t h i c c a t h e d r a l , f o r example,  i s supported  by  Dfthe  The  presence  w h i c h can  be  integrate  of these  f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of porches  sculptural termed  cycles.  structural  them w i t h  Amiens  the  additional  The  between  space f o r the  i s located  on  s c u l p t u r e of the porches  b e s i d e them.  located  the stepped  example o f s t r u c t u r a l crockets for  add  the facade pilasters soar and  stand  above i t , t h e g a l l e r y integration  would r e m a i n  On  instead  ornament and  the facade  internal  the  strips  the r e s t  into  i t s two  this  of  the  w h i c h would  of the facade  and  into  of S i e n a C a t h e d r a l the  the  be  lost.  they  would  facade  one  The  areade,  overall  t h e ornament was  and  ornate surface.  ornament c a n n o t  have t h e r o l e  be  called  of i n t e g r a t i n g  At S i e n a t h e t o t a l  applied  the  facade  structure  i s c r e a t e d by means o f ornament w i t h o u t Before  of kings' i n  facade;  divide  s c u l p t u r e of the facade.  structure.  with  t h r e e s h o r t segments and  would  integrated  an  d e c o r a t i o n the  component p a r t s ,  f o r i t does n o t  provide  make i t p o s s i b l e  the g a l l e r y  Without  of kings, i n t o  of being  the f a c a d e  structural structure  divided  pilaster  or f u s e with  a p a r t from  pilaster  On  crockets  pinnacles decorated  structural  to i n t e g r a t e  t o t h e r o o f as b l a n k  sculpture,  The  w a l l a l o n g s i d e o f them. would  horizontal  of  ornament.  r i c h n e s s to the  the p i l a s t e r  of the facade  ornament  these b u t t r e s s e s  o f Amiens C a t h e d r a l , p i n n a c l e s d e c o r a t e d w i t h o f f stage  the  them  g r e a t e r p a r t of the  ornament  to  b u t t r e s s e s on  the facade on  The  f o u r b u t t r e s s e s which c o r r e s p o n d  of the have.  allowed  homogeneous w a l l s u r f a c e .  i n t u r n p r o v i d e d the n e c e s s a r y  figures  to  of a French  divisions  the facade  an  regard the  the effect  to  facade  was  23  merely at  a flat  Siena  screen  Cathedral  f o r the  designer the  blank  was  church  container  wall surface. was  not  to  nave w a l l .  free  i n t e g r a t e , but On  to e m b e l l i s h  i n the  Thus t h e  the  facade  role  relics  ornament  to c r e a t e a d e c o r a t i v e  at Siena  the w a l l s around  same manner t h a t a c r a f t s m a n  for a saint's  of the  the  Cathedral entrance  embellished  or the moulding  around  an  the of  the  ivory  5 panel  d e p i c t i n g the  life  Architectural most o f t h e and  carved  French ivory  pinnacles.  ivory  panel  panels  especially  i n the  for  the  fact  ornament  that there  are not but  found  w h i c h do  Amongst be  these  from  In t h e  behind  architectural  on  the  ivory Siena  i n the  (which  will  them t h e  T o u r e l l e , and  thirteenth  Tuscan  ornament u s e d  altar  facade,  of the  discussed Cusped  the  carved  Romanesque The  the  prototype  i s confirmed  the  Siena  French carved  arts,  by  facade  Gothic ivory  in greater d e t a i l  the which  facades  altar-piece. later)  may  Square.  carved  t o make s m a l l p o r t a b l e a l t a r s  or m o n a s t i c d e v o t i o n .  as  and  their  i n the minor  piece provided  Cathedral  century,  such  by  reliquaries  o f a p p l i e d ornament.  decoration be  period  crockets  Sienriese to d e r i v e  a p p e a r d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t s on  appear  in this  gables,  a minor a r t source  had  carved  with  i n t h e , d e c o r a t i v e scheme o f t h e  i n c l u d e d the  together  were e m b e l l i s h e d  decorative tradition  that the  Christ.  i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts,  p a s s i b l e f o r the  ornament  hypothesis  of  f o r m s were a d o p t e d  arts;  because they  architectural  Passion  ornament  minor  I t was  architectural  and  ivory  panels  w h i c h were used  These a l t a r - p i e c e s  were j o i n e d for private  were p r e c i o u s o b j e c t s  and  2k  were w i d e l y Several pieces  f o r them;  Burgundy,  location  and  \J, Jean  Charles  little  on  He  de  centuries  the  d i p l o m a t i c and ivory  LeBraillier,  UI  both  documentary  o f t h e w o r k s h o p s and  altar-pieces. the  gifts  The  centre  France.  Philip  Jean  be  Le  attained a position  here  concerning  Le Duke  and  the  of these  ivory  t o have  been  fourteenth  f o r the  o f enough  Jean Hardi,  surmised  the t h i r t e e n t h  altar-  Aubert.^  exists  o f c a r v i n g can  During  missions.  employed  methods o f p r o d u c t i o n  t r a d e must h a v e p r o s p e r e d  carved! i v o r i e s  and  employed  evidence  other  c a r v e r s t o make  f o r i n s t a n c e , P h i l i p : LeLong  Charles  Very  in  as  E u r o p e a n c o u r t s employed  Scelleur; of  exchanged  craftsmen  significance  to  who  have  7 their The  names s p e c i a l l y  c a r v e r or p l a c e From t h e  ivory  altar-piece  panels.  division  The  which  ornament u s e d similar  In t h e decorated' with  as t h e  form  arts. Dyptych  stages  of the  three  i s used i n the  bear  levre  des  Metiers.  inscriptions  to  identify  origin.  architectural  of the  the  Gothic  carved  used ivory  according  panel.  decoration  development  ornament was  basic types on  in origin,  architectural  liberal  of  earliest  been d i v i d e d i n t o  was  i n t h e . P a r i s Le  p i e c e s t h e m s e l v e s however,do n o t  their  the  no:ted  of the  carved  f o r the  frames  altar-pieces  to the  However, t h e  of a l l three  t h a t i s , a l l o f i t was  types  type form  of of  have  surface the  of i v o r y  derived  of  panels  from  ornament. treasury of Milan gabled  niches  T h i s cup  Cathedral  containing figures  i s assigned  of S o i s s o n s .  Q  there  The  by  cup  Hochelin was  i s an  ivory  cup-  representing to the  i n Milan  same  before  the atelier  IkkO  for  25  it  i d e n t i f i e d u i t h a cup i n t h e i n v e n t o r y o f t h i s y e a r o f  c a n be  the  church  the  rest  o f t h e San  treasury it  o f San G o t t a r d o  of Milan  Milan.  Gottardo  In 1440  The s i g n i f i c a n c e  i n d i c a t e s t h a t some o f t h e e a r l i e s t  carvers  ateliers  of the a t e l i e r date  i n Milan  were  present  products  in Italy.  uith the  o f t h e cup i s t h a t of the French  ivory  "The e x i s t e n c e o f a  of the Dyptych of the Treasury makes i t r e a s o n a b l e  cup a l o n g  transferred to  t r e a s u r e s was  Cathedral.  this  of Soissons  t o assume t h e p r e s e n c e  at  product this  in Italy  g of other  works o f t h i s  Most Siena  o f t h e ornament  Cathedral  ornament  atelier."  facade  may  used t o d e c o r a t e  pieces.  However,  on t h e S i e n a  have been d e r i v e d from the French  although  Cathedral  facade  a r c h i t e c t u r e t h e ornament  from  i t s original their  on t h e f a c a d e location,  the  carved  i s d e r i v e d , from  architectural  original  Gothic  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  from  retain  i n t h e d e c o r a t i v e scheme Dn t h e  used  architectural  ivory  altar-  ornament  which  a source  once  appears removed  i s not t o t a l l y  divorced  i . e . , crockets' s t i l l  function of decorating  the s t r a i g h t  edges o f  gables. The ornament facade  f o l l o w i n broadest  cathedral facade  d e r i v e d from  facade.  was  Italian a: f a c a d e  What o c c u r r e d  the adaptation  craftsmen w h i c h was  outline  the Gothic t h e form  n o t an a t t e m p t  ivory  Siena  Gothic  of the Siena  architectural  carved  on t h e  of the French  i n the design  of French  v i a the French  ivories  ornament  altar-piece  tD i m i t a t e the French  Cathedral  known t o to c r e a t e  Gothic  facade,  26  but  uas  facade  a r e - c r e a t i o n of the in decorative The  derived can  be  from  facade  ornament  by  the  surface.  up  to the  On  the  level  ivory  facade,  of  of the  gabled  these  p o r t a l s do  springing  the  of the  of k i n g s  uhich  ivory  First,  Gothic  the  Siena forms  French  Here  role.  the  Second,  forms u h i c h ornament  facade  the  uere  for  their  ornamental  t h a t the  most  occurs.  Gothic  cathedral's uest  c o n s i s t s of three deeply  p o r t a l s are  been  louer section  a single  intD  has  altar-piece  the  ornamental  fused  ornamental  Cathedral  portals. not  l o c a t e d the  of the  louer level  Unlike those f i t betueen  (see f o o t n o t e The  the  doors arches  4).  facade  recessed  portals.  g r e a t e r p a r t of  are  the  prototype  f o r the  s u r f a c e at Siena  uas  of the  facade  French  recessed  doors  to the  In t h i s  and  also  Gothic  uhich  p o r t a l s of Siena  shallouly  over  of the  the p i l a s t e r s  The  d e c o r a t i v e members have been  a flat  Gothic  architectural  are on  facade  stringcourse.  o f s u b o r d i n a t e d , bands o f o r n a m e n t .  The  French  the  cathedral's sculptured iconographical cycle.  three  structure.  of the  architectural  here  area  of the  these  At S i e n a  uall  French  of the  d e c o r a t i v e needs,  gallery  Cathedral  c a r v e r s from  louer level  ualls  the  in i t s original  handling  The  Siena  t u o main d i v i s i o n s .  It i s in this  original  figures  the  to the  i s used  specific  uest  on  ornament on  up  form  terms.  s e c t i o n of the  devised oun  the  divided into  of the  upper  ornament  essential  provided  are not the  area  the  the  based i n from  the  stringcourse consists s e c t i o n of the  of a r c h i t e c t u r a l by  facade  support  substituted for structural handling  has  carved  facade  ones. ornament  ivory  on  altar-piece,  27  for  here  architectural  flatter  use.  between  the  decorated gabled with to  gables  arches  appear  the  Siena  of the  in a similar and  -  triquitras.  light an  On  as  the  being  facade  aisle  the  by  the  handling  by  handling The  of space  section  arches  tryptych  on  to the  i n which  gable  and  empty  by  of the  i s made  triangular  This creates  arcade  overlapping  of a d i p t y c h .  area  Siena  the  facade  and  triquitras  a French  g a b l e s on  from  s t r i n g c o u r s e resembles  -  or  Compare, f o r  the  in  ivory  Wernher c o l l e c t i o n  of the  the  decorated  facade  gable.  Crucifixion,  between  were  Siena  o f an  spaces  spaces  ivories  the  of the V i r g i n , i n the  wall  to a  s i d e p i l a s t e r s : were  o f t h e edges o f t h e p a n e l  the Master  doorway  the  adapted  flat  the  s i d e of the  edge o f a l e a f  Cca.  facade.  empty and  gables  to t h a t of the  of the V i r g i n  the  doors  at e i t h e r  the C o r o n a t i o n  to  the  manner t o w h i c h  Each o f the  similar  1300),  a l r e a d y been  i f i t overlaps a rectangular panel  enclosed  instance,  had  frames of the carved  c o l o u r e d border  effect  ornament  the  (Figure  Siena  s p r i n g i n g of  the type  each o f t h e l e a v e s c o n t a i n s a s i n g l e  of  the  ivory  narrative  incident. On  the  the p o r t a l s outer  are f r e e  edge o f t h e  Gothic the  French  facade  flat  carvers  ornament. ornament  facade  the g a b l e s  standing units  deeply  c o u l d not  handling had,  Gothic  f o r they  recessed facade have p r o v i d e d  of these  however, used I t i s , i n factb,  gable  are l o c a t e d at  portals.  as  the an  Siena almost  t h e most commonly  i n t h e whole o f i v o r y  the arches  carving.  French  o r example f o r  facade. two  found  of  the  Thus t h e  the precedent  e l e m e n t s on the  over  The  ivory  dimensional architectural  T h i s i s the  source  which  28 most l i k e l y handling  provided  of the gables  At t h e l e v e l gable  on  the  step-back The  the p r o t o t y p e  step-back  Gothic  area  Siena  i t with  The  counterpart instead  on  altar-piece  tourelle-gable relationship the  carved  However, is  not  identical  altarpiece.  facade  along  are  form  with  In i v o r y  a pinnacle decorated  stepped-back:  The  to At  gables  of the c e n t r a l  p a n e l o f The  on  Siena  the  second  the d e c o r a t i v e  the  Siena  facade  pinnacle.  were on  The  the  facade  gabled  narrative  carved  the  itself  on  niches  of  6)  found  tourelle  e.g.,  on  they  the  Virgin  the S i e n a  on  by  p a r t of the  o f two  a cubical west f a c a d e  tourelles and  facade  the carved  consists  c o u n t e r p a r t of the  i t has  facade;  purpose. tracery  the S i e n a  the t o u r e l l e  before  the  been  first  of the p o r t a l s .  c r o c k e t s supported  the  the  to the t o u r e l l e - g a b l e  tourelle  c a r v i n g the  columns which r e p r e s e n t  with  found  Cn  (Figure  of the  with  structural  b u t t r e s s and  D f the  tops  thali o f  porch  Amiens C a t h e d r a l .  c a r v i n g formed  gables.  altar-pieces. the  facade.  l a r g e or s e v e r a l s m a l l  l o c a t e d as  is similar  the  Cathedral  there occurs  ornament  in ivory  between t h e  found  '  i . e . , highest  i s decorated  stepped-back  relationship  ivory  one  b u t t r e s s p i n n a c l e , are  the S i e n a  Siena  ornamental  buttress i s recreated in decorative  which  of the s t r u c t u r a l  tourelles ivory  level  s c u l p t u r e and  tourelles, of the  with  a d e c o r a t i v e and  the p i n n a c l e d step-back  terms.  the  b u t t r e s s e s , e.g.,  at t h i s  the  on  of the c e n t r a l ,  i s decorated  of the p i l a s t e r  integrate  doors  shallow,  c a t h e d r a l facade  four facade  p i n n a c l e s w h i c h have b o t h face  the  o f t h e peak  French  of the  over  f o r the  an  Childhood tourelle  ivory  parts,  fam  or  pilaster  top of the of  has  four  Christ been  29  abandoned,  o r has been r e p l a c e d by an a r c h u h i c h f i t s  pinnacle into  the gable.  level, of the s p r i n g i n g sculptured  The a r c h a l s o  o f t h e door  a r c h e s t o form  The  form  been p r e v i o u s l y  and  consequently the French  the French  noted,  Gothic ivory  t h e form  of the  u a s d e r i v e d from i n form  level  are handled  they uere  i n t h e upper  French  facade;  still  projection.  i s the space  Houever,  The  from  that  facade  appear  form  sections  differences  from  uith  g r e a t e r i n n o v a t i o n than  the t i p s  Elements  derived  sections  of the  to bridge the area of the  the side  the arcade  b u t t r e s s t o t h e nave  d e r i v e d from  ivory  to give i t a f i n a l  architectural  i n French  Gothic  Gothic carved  Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e  of uhich touch  form  areade. consists of  columns c a r r y i n g  arches  e.g.,  o f t h e u e s t f a c a d e o f IMotre Dame i n P a r i s .  the arcade  ( t o the  of the facade the  on t h e upper  i s used  of the French  arcade  t h e upper  the French  d e c o r a t i v e elements  have been combined  different  section  of the facade.  f o r i n s t a n c e , an a r c a d e that  from  architecture  of the Siena facade  and u i t h  sections  architecture  roofs,  carving  more f r e e l y  i n the l o u e r  Cistercian  i n d e c o r a t i v e terms o f the French  ornament f o r m s u h i c h a r e d e r i v e d from ivories  altar-piece.  Due t o t h e s e  i n t h e upper  Because o f t h i s  elements  o f t h e S i e n a C a t h e d r a l f a c a d e , as  Gothic uest facade.  same e x t e n t ) t h e i m i t a t i o n facade.  part  i t uas d i f f e r e n t  t h e r e does n o t o c c u r  aisle  a niche f o r a  level, of the Siena facade  o f t h e upper  has  from  to the  G o t h i c facade uas r e c r e a t e d i n d e c o r a t i v e terms-uhose  seem t o be d e r i v e d f r o m  of  ddunuard  figure.''''''  Thus, on t h e l o u e r French  extends  the t o u r e l l e  upon a s t r i n g c o u r s e , The  3Q  arcade uhich  of the Siena does n o t t o u c h  behind  the gables  the arcade  (Here  Siena form  the side  betueen  i s gabled  then,  marble; free  this  standing r o u of arched  i s no l o n g e r t h o u g h t uall  and h a s t o u r e l l e s as found  o f as a d e v i c e t o f i l l  surfaces.)  located  The a r c a d e a t  betueen  the gables.  Gothic  or  the i n c i d e n t s  i n t h e bands o f n a r r a t i v e .  a r e surmounted  individual uhich  the figures  arcade. in  gabled  form  the  gabled  the  scene  free-standing units  o f the n a r r a t i v e  (implying that  of C h r i s t .  i s confirmed  for their  panel,  u a s d e r i v e d from  by t h e f a c t  oun p a r t i c u l a r  that form  of a square  uith  Here t h e The  The S c e n e s o f t h e P a s s i o n , disappear  behind  of C h r i s t ) .  the arch  t h e arcade  a prototype  In  i s behind i n t h e upper  i n the carved  t o t h e Siena: a r c a d e  have  been  u h i c h u a s d e v i s e d by t h e i v o r y  d e c o r a t i v e needs.  interior  up  o f and b e h i n d t h e  the arch i s i n f r o n t  may be b e s t d e s c r i b e d a s , o r t e r m e d ,  consists  t o break  by t h e manner i n  t h e arms o f C h r i s t  made a d d i t i o n s o f an o r n a m e n t a l  farm  move i n f r o n t  The s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t  of the Siena facade  carvers  a r e used  and a r e f l a n k e d by t o u r e l l e s .  of the c r u c i f i x i o n  arch  uhich  o f t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n i n t h e same i v o r y  the f i g u r e  ivories  ivories  For i n s t a n c e , i n the i v o r y  t h e scene  stage  by g a b l e s  arches  The  a t S i e n a C a t h e d r a l has a p r o t o t y p e i n  of the French  arches  The u a l l  c r e a t e s an e f f e c t o f  the arcades separate  ornament  t o u e r s and nave p r o t r u s i o n o f t h e f a c a d e .  tuo h o r i z o n t a l  of the arcade  a foliated  a g a i n s t an edge ( s t r i n g c o u r s e ) .  i s of striped  the arcade,  space  i s tipped uith  as a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l  columns betueen  in  facade  a cusped  quatrafoil  The square  cusping.  ornamental for i t The i v o r y  31  carvers  used  decorative be  used  used  these  cusped  interest  t o an  successfully.  e x t e n s i v e l y are  pierced Siena  panels  facade  of the  facade  area  Ivory called  exists  the  squares  where o t h e r panels  Here t h e  the  same f u n c t i o n o f d e c o r a t i n g  the  carved  is  ivory  altar-pieces.  very  closely  spaced  achieve  a total  overall  which support stringcourse with  area  facade  base o f the capitals  arcade  of the  column.  ornament w h i c h  arcade  Siena  question the  form  the  had  Siena  together reduce area  arcade  as  into  they  facade  with  of  the  to the  was  d e r i v e d from this  of the  On  the  had  in  ornament  I f the  to  columns  to descend to be  arcade  The  cusped  the  enlarged  not  of the  facade  enrich  the  h e a v i l y ornamented  length of  r o o f s an  facade  design  area by  unornamented of  virtue  standing  rich of i t s '  character.  t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e nave p r o t r u s i o n Cistercian  architecture.  The  area  posed  a: c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o b l e m ,  decorate  their  abbey  provide  the  coordinated would  squares  aisle  free  these  columns  the  ornament  t o a minimum t h e  were  i s embellished  The  the  not  essentially  would n o t  ornament.  Cathedral  c o u l d not  have  been a l l o w e d  the  area  d i d not  just  p o s s i b l e area  the  facade  squares  a three dimensional  of d e c o r a t i n g  example o f  A l b e r t Museum.  a border,  of  Cistercians  Gothic  cusped  roofs.  adds v a r i a t i o n  appearance of having  at  facade  aisle  and  and  an  add  squares  l o c a t e d between t h e  integrating  T h i s makes t h e  The  every  arcade  of the  of the  decoration could  r i c h n e s s of w a l l s u r f a c e .  i t s f u n c t i o n of  empty  are  On  as mere c l e a n l i n e s  the remainder  fulfill the  the  and  d e c o r a t i o n or to  i n which cusped  Victoria  squares  arcade.  border  pierced panels;  i n the  cusped  as  a prototype  facades  and  because the  the  for  French  extent  of  32  decoration  in this  area  an  ornamental moulding  of  the  arcade  facade and  was  the  architecture  i v o r i e s d i d not could  innovation of  was  placed  instance, and  the  century  decoration  had  Siena in  frame l i k e  after  the  i t was  facade  are  decoration French  scheme o f  the  the  begun  ivory carving  long  of  small  5iena  Gothic  used  derived  crocket and  By  crocket  form  that  found  ivory  the  The  ornament p l a y e d  a major r o l e  the  panels. of  the  crockets of  used the  i t became  Gothic  continued  Figure  between  of a r c h i t e c t u r e  late  See  However, t h e  a r c a d e s were  open u n t i l  i s , similar  circular  the m i d d l e  form  an  nave  decoration  from  edge o f t h e  of  A'- band  the  the  carved  i n the  design  prophets.  a l s o be  ivory panels.  facade.  a  arcade.  of the  s a i n t s or  in architecture.  i n form,  carved  ornament  edges o f  niches  used  are  compact  the  As  from w h i c h  gabled  in architecture.  c l o s e heavy  heavy  Gothic  facade  decorative  area: t h e  The  the  may  French  crocket  along  abandoned  of  gabled  f i g u r e s of  and  a  of  section  nave p r o j e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d  t o become e l o n g a t e d  ripple the  facade.  dimensional  the  the  i n s t e a d of  thirteenth  In  facade  form  kings,  in this  counterpart  similarities  t o u r e l l e s of the  ivory carving  almost  each o f  Siena  of  a s c u l p t u r a l square around  less explicit the  consisted  Amiens C a t h e d r a l .  s i d e each o f  half-length sculptured  ornament on  gables  two  a p p l i e d along created  gallery  e.g.,  Siena  of the  facade  window, because, t h i s  of decoration  f o r the  of the  Within  •ther  in  tradition  use  this  nave window.  rose  towers,  termination  i n the  protrusion;  the  Gothic  between t h e  western  no  French  possess a decorative  the  arcading  For  around  have been d e r i v e d  to decorate  the  enclosed  two  had  on  to  crockets  to  the  an  gable. be on  used the  crockets  used  7. i n the  ornament was  decorative not  derived  33  directly  from  Thus, we may arts  played  facade. total must Siena  architectural  say t h a t t h e ornamental a significant  But, F r e n c h  form also  sources,  be a c c o u n t e d  t h e minor  forms o f t h e French  p a r t i n the embellishment  ornament  of the Siena  but from  facade.  i s not e n t i r e l y Native  arts. minor  of the Siena  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  Italian  architectural  forms  f o r i n t h e d e c o r a t i v e scheme o f t h e f a c a d e a t  Cathedral.  1.  In h i s l e t t e r t o t h e C l u n i a c s , S t . B e r n a r d e x p r e s s e d h i s v i e w s about o r n a t e and s p l e n d i d c h u r c h e s . The l e t t e r ends " t h e c h u r c h i s r e s p l e n d e n t i n h e r w a l l s , b e g g a r l y i n her poor; she c l o t h e s h e r s t o n e s i n g o l d and l e a v e s her sons naked." G.G. Caul-ton, A r t and t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , P a r t I I , The F a t e o f M e d i e v a l A r t i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and R e f o r m a t i o n (New Y o r k , 1958) A p p e n d i x 26, p p . i v - v i .  2.  S t . R o b e r t , Abbot o f Molesme, i n 1098 f o u n d e d a m o n a s t e r y i n t h e f o r e s t o f C i t e a u x : where monks l i v e d u n d e r t h e reformed r u l e of S t . B e n e d i c t . The new m o n a s t e r y o n l y began t o f l o u r i s h i n 1112 when S t . B e r n a r d e n t e r e d t h e o r d e r .  3.  As~ f a r a s I am aware t h e i n f l u e n c e o f F r e n c h G o t h i c c a r v e d i v o r y a l t a r - p i e c e s on t h e ornament o f t h e S i e n a C a t h e d r a l f a c a d e has n o t been p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . The o n l y m e n t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m i n o r a r t s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n w h i c h I e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g my r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s p a p e r was i n R, S t u r g i s , H i s t o r y o f . A r c h i t e c t u r e ( s e e f t n . 5 ) .  k.  As t h e C a t h e d r a l o f S i e n a i s v a u l t e d i n s t o n e , i t would a p p e a r t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f s t r e s s on, and s u p p o r t o f , t h e f a c a d e would be s i m i l a r t o t h a t f a c e d i n F r e n c h G o t h i c cathedrals. However, t h e C a t h e d r a l a t S i e n a was l o w e r t h a n t h e F r e n c h G o t h i c c a t h e d r a l s and t h e p r o b l e m o f s t r e s s c o u l d be h a n d l e d i n a d i f f e r e n t manner t h a n t h r o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n of p i l a s t e r s t r i p s to the w a l l . At S i e n a a wide p i l a s t e r was p l a c e d , a t each c o r n e r o f t h e nave and a g a i n a t each c o r n e r o f t h e nave p r o t r u s i o n .  34  5.  R. S t u r g i s i n h i s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r e (New Y o r k , 1917), d i s c u s s e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e f a c a d e o f Orvieto Cathedral the idea of embellishment o f the c a t h e d r a l u i t h a s c r e e n f a c a d e i s d e r i v e d from t h e minor a r t s . S t u r g i s a r r i v e s a t t h i s i d e a because so many o f t h e c r a f t s m e n w o r k i n g on I t a l i a n c a t h e d r a l f a c a d e s had been t r a i n e d as g o l d s m i t h s .  6.  J . N a t a n s o n , G o t h i c I v o r i e s o f t h e 1 3 t h and 1 4 t h C e n t u r i e s (London, 1951), p.18.  7.  Loc.  8.  F. K o c h e l i n , " Q u e l q u e s a t e l i e r s d ' i v o i r e s f r a n c a i s aux X I I I s i e c l e e t XIV s i e c l e , " P a r t s I and I I , G a z e t t e de Beaux A r t s ( 1 9 0 5 ) , v o l s . I and I I , p . 9 1 .  9.  Loc.  ID.  Collection: Institutio F r e n c h , c a . 1300.  de V a l e n c i a  11.  For f u r t h e r  of t h i s  12.  Collection: Victoria  cit.  cit.  discussion  and A l b e r t  de Don J u a n ,  point  Madrid,  see appendix.  Museum, F r e n c h ,  c a . 1300.  IV ORNAMENT ON  The Siena  second  Cathedral  architecture On handling  facade  other  of  gables  ornament.  Siena,  or g a b l e  do  they  however, c o n s i s t  The  do,  prototype  come from the  facade  edges on arches  although  the  for this  classical  the  flower design  s u r f a c e and row  on  the  as  undersides  facade  such  doors.  The  profiles  of  of Siena  cornice in a  usually five,  the  the  Cathedral  of the  cornice,  rows o f  ornament.  s t r i n g c o u r s e may  have  Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e  which  i s made up  undercut  lower  profile  profile  and  rows  the s t r i n g c o u r s e  that of a c l a s s i c a l  Thus t h e  t h e model f o r t h e h a n d l i n g  of  the  o f ornament o f e i t h e r  on  Siena  string-  a deeply  course  the  of the  moulding  s t r i n g c o u r s e i s u n l i k e t h a t Df  of  decoration  In F r e n c h  Gothic  provided  method  manner o f h a n d l i n g  (see F i g u r e 8 ) .  facade  the  Classical  of s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e d  architecture.*  s l o p i n g upper  the  is,  on  classical  of the  e x a c t l y c o i n c i d e with  w h i c h has' a t i t s b a s e a. s i n g l e ball  the  i n the  s t r i n g c o u r s e c o n s i s t s of a d r i p  steeply  ornament  Romanesque a r c h i t e c t u r e .  adopted  the  that  ITALIAN  c o n s i s t s of s e v e r a l subordinated, At  not  Italian;  Cathedral  over  i n f l u e n c e d the  Tuscan  straight  and  order  which  was  c o r n i c e was  and  of  source  the Siena the  classical  SIENA CATHEDRAL FACADE: INFLUENCE  (Roman) and  course the  THE  surface tooth  of the  of the  i t c o u l d not  of a  or  French  stringhave  s t r i n g c o u r s e or  gables  facade.  Traces  o f C o s m a t i work can  facade  of Siena  Cathedral.  be  found The  i n the  centre  d e c o r a t i v e scheme  f o r C o s m a t i work  was  36  Rome. all  In t w e l f t h  craftsmen  who worked m a r b l e  These c r a f t s m e n The  term  were n o t e d  was f i r s t  independent  Canterbury  Westminster  applied  workmen.  moved f a r a f i e l d in  c e n t u r y Rome t h e name C o s m a t i mosaic  as p r a c t i c i n g to four  or f i v e  (the f l o o r  and a l t a r s . cosmatesca.  families  and s e v e r a l  of the arte  Rome, f o r t h e r e e x i s t  Cathedral (the floor  floors  the arte  The p r a c t i t i o n e r s  from  Abbey  into  was a p p l i e d t o  cosmatesca  examples o f t h e i r  o f S t . Thomas C h a p e l )  of the sanctuary).  There  work  and i n  also  exist  2 examples o f c o s m a t i of P i s a  work i n T u s c a n y .  C a t h e d r a l was o f c o s m a t i work.  Baptistry  at Pisa  Cathedral  t h e nave f l o o r  although All  also  bear  i t i s probably  o f t h e above c i t e d  traces  a local  of cosmati  imitation  The f a c a d e  mosaic.  and t h e At S i e n a  marble  of cosmati  work,  ornament.  examples o f c o s m a t i work a r e f l o o r s b u t , used  as a d e c o r a t i o n i n t h e m i n o r  and c a t h e d r a l f a c a d e s , e s p e c i a l l y  Italy.  o f t h e nave  The Campo S a n t o  shows e v i d e n c e s o f i n l a i d  c o s m a t e s q u e ornament was a l s o arts  The pavement  o f San L o r e n z o  i n Rome and i n s o u t h e r n  Fuori  l e Mura, Rome, i s  decorated  w i t h c o s m a t i work: t h e e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e p o r t i c o i s  decorated  with  the  a band  o f marble  e n t a b l a t u r e of the colonnade  triumphal  arch  decoration straight tracery  mosaic. which  At C i v i t a flanks  i s decorated with Cosmati  work.  Castellana,  the facade's The a r e a o f  on a t r u e c o s m a t e s q u e f a c a d e was a l o n g t h e b a s e o f a  edge such  as an e n t a b l a t u r e o r s t r i n g c o u r s e .  o f wheel windows was o f t e n  also  The  i n t h e cosmatesque  facade  37  decorated of  the r e s t  minor The is  uith  marble  of the  facade,  a r t or s p e c i a l  location similar  to i t s l o c a t i o n  it  was  Siena  uas  imitation  squares,  This  i s not,  interrupted  which runs however,  by  the  similar  pedestals  of the  facade.  The  alongside  the v e r t i c a l  source  fidr  role  presence diverging  on  the top  difficult  almost workers;  ornament on  edge o f t h e  the  and  by  the  filled  stringcourse.  band o f ornament  for i t i s  arcade  filled  with  o f t h e nave p r o t r u s i o n forms are l i k e  A  underneath  JJocated a t a l o w e r  level  on  the  runs  i s also  those  the  of  found cosmati  marble. ornament  a secondary  t o use  another  i n the d e c o r a t i o n of  one,  to f i l l  type  of ornament.  however, d o e s g i v e an  cathedral.  can  Roman marmori  cosmati  s o u r c e s o f t h e ornament w h i c h was  f a c a d e f o r the  facade.  o f ' d e c o r a t i o n appears  of the c o s m a t i - l i k e  the facade  by  facade  base of the nave p r o j e c t i o n .  individual  are carved i n  be  facade.  t h e c a r v e d band o f ornament w h i c h  t h e S i e n a C a t h e d r a l f a c a d e was where i t would  of the  o f a n a r r o w band o f diamonds  figures  arcade  c o s m a t i work, f o r t h e  The  band  sculptured  The  arcades  along the  segmented m o s a i c  work, o n l y t h e y  along  aisle  the r e s t  the S i e n a C a t h e d r a l  executed  workmen.  independent  c o n c e i v e d as a p i e c e o f  t h e S i e n a f a c a d e , ue  a continuous  two  decoration  the t r u e cosmatesque  actually  local  s c u l p t u r e which runs  in  on  Cathedral facade c o n s i s t s  with  was  ornament on  ornament on  not  by  this  i . e . , i t uas  of the cosmati  definitely  but  d e c o r a t i o n a s i d e from  However, t h e c o s m a t i say  mosaic,  indication  i n areas  of  to c r e a t e the  Its  the screen  38  The  Siena facade  the c e n t r a l doors  also  adheres,  Romanesque f a c a d e .  The  are a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the  facades  o f such  churches  Romanesque s t r i p e d  i s used  extreme edges of the f a c a d e .  the  form  uas  but  architectural  that  the  o f an  exterior  T h i s meant  o f the church  in practice  that  any  scheme u h i c h uas  found  to  of the nave.  the u e s t u a l l  concept  of the uest u a l l  Cathedral and  t o be  to adopt  to weld  the r e t e n t i o n  the  Pisa Cathedral.  the p i l a s t e r s  need n o t form  ornamental  the  uas  interior.  o f ornament o r d e c o r a t i v e pleasing  c o u l d be  Because of the r e t e n t i o n  as; a s c r e e n  i t uas  a single  from  possible widely  at  of  applied the  Siena  d i v e r g i n g sources  ornate wall surface.  1.  The s t r i n g c o u r s e on t h e S i e n a C a t h e d r a l f a c a d e has a s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e m o u l d i n g s on t h e P i s a C a t h e d r a l p u l p i t on w h i c h G i o v a n n i P i s a n o worked. A d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p o i n t o c c u r s i n the Appendix. A diagram of the p r o f i l e of the P i s a C a t h e d r a l p u l p i t moulding appears i n F i g . 7 .  2.  E. H u t t o n ,  The  Cpsmati  to  type  This concept  reflect  at  central  o f an  concept.  aesthetically  into  decorate  d e r i v e d from  d e c o r a t i v e elements  them t o g e t h e r  facade  T h i e l e m e n t most s i g n i f i c a n t  Romanesque a r c h i t e c t u r e the r e t e n t i o n  uhich  the  to decorate  u h i c h uas not  over  r e s p e c t s , to  M i n i a t o A l Monte and  the  of the S i e n a facade  arches  arcades  as San  m a r b l e work  in certain  (London,  1950),  p.7.  CONCLUSION  If  that  which  i s Gothic  to the  characteristics  lie  de  France  did  not  experience  However,  Italy  long  o r was  examination  of the  of the  the  First, Siena  the  as  i t was  in Italy  was  d e r i v e d from  The  ornament on  French  source,  but  the  by  French derived  the  Second, marble  by  from  Cathedral of the  facade.  facade  was  on  the  sources.  T h e s e i n t u r n can  of the  Roman C a s m a t i the  which p r o v i d e d  facade.  s t r i n g c o u r s e and  And  the p r o t o t y p e  gables  i n f l u e n c e d the  third,  central  f a r the  arcade  over  There  Cistercian  the  facade.  however,  the  of facade  divided a  into  prototype  of the S i e n a s e c t i o n s of  Romanesque  the  i n f l u e n c e d by  e l e m e n t s on  c o r n i c e which p r o v i d e d  work w h i c h  from  ornament  be  Europe.  Cathedral  embellishment  Italian  handling  the  as  b a s i c shape  also  Third,  classical  Siena  source,  architectural  ornament used  last  through  o f t h e ornament used, on  Gothic  accepted,  facade.  The  ivories.  the  is  became e v i d e n t  a French  Siena  Italy  i n some r e g i o n s o f  carved  First,  on  the  French  architectural  Gothic  three.  not  the form  the  development.  architecture  design  b a s i c shape o f t h e  Second,  for  of Gothic  on  c e n t u r i e s , then  component p a r t s o f S i e n a  facade  o f the  according  phase which perhaps d i d not  Gothic  architecture. form  defined  thirteenth  t h r e e main component p a r t s i n t h e  facade. of  definition  as h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d nature  be  a g o t h i c phase i n i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l  d i d have a G o t h i c  The  only  s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h were b u i l t  t w e l f t h and  i f a broader  then  are  i n the  of the  can  facade. inlaid  architecture  t h e nave d o o r s  and  most  important,  west f a c a d e  from  as an  From t h i s Gothic had  style  instance, French  evidence  but  an  French  be c o n c l u d e d ,  first  development  to s u i t  here  end  anything found  Gothic architecture  i t developed received  in relative  i t s ' own  the  second,  which  the  and for  i s d e r i v e d from  i t i s fused with  result  the  for i t s t i l l  aesthetic;  the S i e n a f a c a d e  a r t , but  f o r m s t o a c h i e v e an  and  that  Gothic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  on  of  wall.  independent  much o f t h e ornament  Italian  must be  i t can  c h a n g e d them  more e l a b o r a t e t h a n  but  screen  i t s n a t i v e Romanesque t r a d i t i o n ,  Gothic ornamental  ornamental  art  was  G o t h i c d i d .adopt  innovations,  d e r i v e d at Siena the concept  ornamental  in Italy  bonds w i t h  Italian  i t was  natural  i s different  and  i n France. was  n o u r i s h e d by  independence  as a p a r a l l e l d e v e l o p m e n t  and  French  Gothic  consequently i t  to French  Gothic a r t .  APPENDIX:  The  decoration  a- u n i f i e d ' d e s i g n ,  on  the  facade  however t h e  authorship  poses a c o n s i d e r a b l e problem. uith  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  enough  specific  facade  design  at  Siena Cathedral  the  century I31D,  and  documentary  the year  he mas  Orvieto Cathedral. in  Siena  c a . 1288;  part  of the  note  Paganello  Houever, the  1  Siena as  of the  evidence  but  Giovanni  Lorenzo Miatani  the  appointed  f o r the  last  father's  name).  be  tempting  d e s i g n , f o r the  coming  from  a Cistercian continued  At  over  name a p p e a r e d  time  i n 1284  time  position  master  builder.  Pisano  1296;  his last  recorded  period  of uork  at the  the  until  Caput M a q i s t r o  visit  Cathedral  at  uas  also  t o him  a  records  France.  in connection  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  uith Giovanni  documented. Siena Cathedral  commenced u o r k  master 1287  held t h i s  after  Drvieto Cathedral  i n the  work  uorks  (uithout association uith  Pisano  monk, F r a Maggio u a s  in this  years  the mountains i n  Cathedral,  the  thirteenth  to a t t r i b u t e  d e s i g n , i s most c l e a r l y  the  commenced  f o r tuenty  Universalis  exist  attribute  decade of the  facade  first  design  2 "Shadouy" Romano d i P a g a n e l l o  i t uould  Pisano's  facade  to d e f i n i t e l y  to r e s i d e i n Siena  The  facade  forms  t h e r e does n o t  of a l l the p e r s o n a l i t i e s mentioned  to the  records  Cathedral  during  c o n s t r u c t i o n of Siena  Pisano,  Cathedral  S e v e r a l names a r e a s s o c i a t e d  t o anyone p e r s o n .  continued  of Siena  builder.  uhen P i s a n o  position  to Siena  at the Fra  occured  (1287-96) t h e r e  years,  i n 1314. exist  Cathedral,  Maggio  succeeded  f o r nine  his  him  as  until From  fifteen  this  45  sculptured Pisana  executed  located three  figures  on  the  figures  figures  left  Isaiah, sybil,  f o r the C a t h e d r a l f a c a d e .  on  each  facade  The  Baalam; David,  The  may  b)  The  around  o f Moses, and  the  Virgin  r e p r e s e n t persons  as complex- o r e x t e n s i v e as  stands  two: p a r t s :  as a s t y l i s t i c a l l y that  Pisano  d i d more uork  above m e n t i o n e d  sculpture;  sections  facade  First,  the: f a c a d e  tuo  of the  uith  to  of nave:  t h e most g e n e r a l l y a c c epted  Haggi,  Habbakkuk,  a  uall  of  F i g . IA. s c u l p t u r e uas  the  dedicated.  uho  told  of  sculptural  the  cycle  Gothic i c o n o g r a p h i c a l them.  around  the  facade  the r e s t  exactly  the  d e s i g n e r s uorked  Siena facade  than  uhich  i s open  point of vieu  just  be  portals  of  I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed  did design  from  o f S i e n a C a t h e d r a l can  different  houever,  Pisano  subsequently  c) south  s e p a r a t e unit, from  of d e c o r a t i n g the f a c a d e .  Giovanni  uall  history  the French  the ornamentation  This indicates  problem  the  Plato,  Although  some r e l a t i o n s h i p  d e c o r a t i v e scheme on  out  facade.  and' C h r i s t .  i t does bear  into  to  sculptured figures,  Aristotle."^  in biblical  is  The  oriented  t o uhom t h e C a t h e d r a l uas  of the V i r g i n  programs,  the  have been  have b e e n : a) IMorth  the C a t h e d r a l facade;  of  a l t o g e t h e r removed  sequence of the  coming  divided  figures  i c o n o g r a p h i c a l scheme o f t h e f a c a d e  figures  not  being  but  uhich  the poses  Solomon, Moses, Simeon, J o s h u a ;  nave; Mary, s i s t e r  centred  proper.  original  to r i g h t ,  The  of the nave u a l l s  animals  T h i s s c u l p t u r e uas  arches, u i t h  only shifted- in p o s i t i o n ,  the f a c a d e . from  four s c u l p t u r e d symbolic  s p a n d r e l s c f the  of the  moved, n o t  and  on  the  that  c r e a t e the  additional  to tuo i s that  interpretations. Giovanni  46  Pisano only the  uas  as  asked  f a r as  the  spandrels.  most  to design  the  decoration  According  total  facade  of the  doors  but and  the uork the  progressed  sculpture  to t h i s  interpretation  the  facade  d e c o r a t i o n uas  carried  s u c c e s s f u l p a r t of the  on  aesthetically out  in  4 the is  early  fourteenth century.  that Pisano  decoration  designed  from  the  and  figures  The  second  supervised on  the  spandrels  possibility  execution  upuard  to  that  of the  about  exists  facade  the  level  5 os  the  aisle  roofs.  Under t h e of  the  facade  embellished of  p o r t a l s uas  this  subordinated  of subordinated Italian that  the  was  the  embodyment  a p e r i o d of  two  facade  The  of t h e i r  prepared  on  the  located'on  The  City not  The  Giovanni the  to take  be  facade  the  chronology  spandrels  probably  of  the  p r i d e , and  three  years  both  Cistercians  extend  motif  realized  skilfully dounward  Pisano  uas  uhich called  p e r i o d from 1284 at the  finished The  their  The  form n i c h e s  of the  arches  over  f o r the. d e c o r a t i o n  of the  Sieoa  the  to  Cathedral work  transition  handled. to  a  cathedral  worked  task.  rous  frequently in  able to create  facade  the  traditionally  decorative  i s found  Fathers  Pisano  over  the  area  columns t o s u p p o r t i n g  doors  civic  design.  transition;  Cistercians  carved  facade  d e c o r a t i v e schemes i s v e r y  the;,tourelles figures  the  b u i l d e r s uould  uhen F r a Maggio: and  Pisano  and  d e c o r a t i v e scheme f o r t h e  to c r e a t e the  while the  over  The  b u i l d e r s the  s t r u c t u r e s , • and  of t u i s t e d  arches  Cistercian  •uas t o be  1287  p a r t of t h e i r rous  Cistercian  decorated.  Romanesque c h u r c h e s .  satisfactory  in  s u p e r v i s i o n of the  between  arches for  doors.  Cathedral  the  of  kl  facade,  I feel  supervised  should  and  completed  1287-1296 d e s i g n e d facade  and  read  carved  as  the  f o l l o w s : ; 12B4-1ZB7 F r a decoration  decorative nineteen  scheme f o r t h e  work  is carried  T h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e can  around  1330.  compared in  grounds.  When t h e  dramatic  verticality than  those  of s p a c e ) , The  the  the  greatest  shift  of  rectangular  within all  the  three  of  forms,  to  as  not  1330  Orvieta  support emphasize  of  the  Orvieto  of c l e a r l y  the  units.  clearly  be  with the  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e  clarity  Orvieto  wall  planes(to  design  are  to  narrower  achieve  flatly  a  sense  splayed.  however  simple  i s in  shapes  the  (Siena  elements;  by  the  interaction  enclosure  of  the  rose  This creates At  one  form  c l a r i t y of d e l i n e a t i o n of facade  separation  window  i n which  O r v i e t a the  i s a l s o reduced  to the  decoration a minimum design  J o h n White w r i t e s "the (of form),  a  reduce  or c r e a t e d  crochets,  of  are  d e l i n e a t e d minor  recognized.  Orvieto  begun  aesthetic i s evolving  doors are  facade  e.g.,  from  on  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  facade  flat  facade  components,  the  a new  facade  the  up  gables  supported  Siena  horizontality.fit  built  to d e t r a c t  diversability,  by  are  can  e.g.,  that The  rectangular  parts  facade.  Cathedrals  i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f a few  u n i t s at*; O r v i e t a  the  and  facade) to a m u l t i p l i c i t y form  be  1320,  of Orvieto  change i n t h e an  on  the  facades  embrasures  away f r o m  for i t ;  out  in part  of  was  s p a c e and  and  upper p a r t  Cathedral  p i e r s which  at S i e n a  portals;  of Orvieta  design.  sense of  facade  facade  i t becomes e v i d e n t  architectural  new  The  the  p i e c e s of s c u l p t u r e  minor a d d i t i o n a l d e c o r a t i v e  stylistic  of  Maggio  and  the  so  elements. new  consequent  48  measurability prepares  t h e way  Florentine a facade is The  on  of the minor p a r t s  Renaissance".^  such  as  infinite  facade  was  and  influence  that  r i c h n e s s of d e t a i l ,  influenced  was  executed  of French  influence  by  and  Pisano  after  French  of the  indicate  exactly  and  would  thirteenth was  to c o n s t r u c t  key  be  d e s i g n e d ' by  an  emphasis anachronism.  Giovanni  the P i s a  century  when  quite strong.  years l a t e r ,  the b e g i n n i n g exist  1310  that  early  the  G o t h i c a r t , e.g.  art in Italy fifty  attitude  to design  probably  i n the l a t e  Gothic  However, t h e r e d o e s n o t conclusively  an  at S i e n a C a t h e d r a l i n which  of O r v i e t o c a t h e d r a l b u i l t of t h i s  architecture  Consequently  o f S i e n a C a t h e d r a l was  P i s a n o who Pulpit,  f o r the modular  reflect  o f a new  Cathedral the  The  a l r e a d y shows t h e aesthetic.  Fig. 2  enough p u b l i s h e d d o c u m e n t a r y  facade waining a&b.  evidence  which p a r t of the S i e n a facade  Giovanni  did design.  Harvey,  The  G o t h i c World  (London  1.  0.  1936)  2.  The but  3.  John Pbpe-Hennessy i n I t a l i a n G o t h i c S c u l p t u r e (London 1 9 5 5 ) , p.179., a t t r i b u t e s t h e s e f i g u r e s t o P i s a n o and g i v e s t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n the S i e n a f a c a d e .  4.  3. Pope-Hennessy i n I t a l i a n G o t h i c S c u l p t u r e (London 1955) p.179., seems t o a c c e p t t h i s break-down o f t h e f a c a d e d e s i g n .  5.  The q u a l i t y o f t h e d e c o r a t i o n on t h e b u t t r e s s e s and g a b l e s o f t h e r o o f seems somewhat i n f e r i o r t o t h a t on t h e r e s t o f t h e facade. T h e r e i s r e c o r d o f work i n t h e f a c a d e i n 1370. It i s p o s s i b l e i t was t h i s one t h a t was t h e n d e c o r a t e d .  6.  J . White p. 293.  term "shadowy" b e c a u s e r e c o r d s m e n t i o n no d e f i n i t e works have been a t t r i b u t e d  A r t and  Architecture in Italy  to  this sculptor t o him.  1250-1400 (London  1966)  <>  _  <\ •O  *  i  J  c  -  <i  s  fc?  »  ft  ->  9  <>  \  ]  N  0  Q  <v !  /  J\  \ •  >  /  '  7  ')  '/  0  z  /  3  /  /  /  •  O R I G / A J A L C A T H E D R A L  C* \ T H E  V7EMSIOKJ  0. I T WWs r o F O R M T H E A LAftCE  NA  V E  :ATHFt>£AL.THE >ULC  / /  iJ  /  &  / /  /  ',  -J  / /  L'/ / / / / / / / / / ./ / /  A SJ C  s  A  cA  B E COM 1  h T" 1*  m  1 HE T R A M  s r e u a 'ORE.  /  n  a  O F  / /  /  L  T H E D R A L  T. W MTi A RT AMD ARCHITECT ORE / j rrfl -Y 0-  7  j  >-  Xk  X  I  s  x  X  Xi  X: xXX X  X X  x  B B E 2 DF  J T 'E HA Y  _ [  X A 2 h \ OF  B  -  •  4  D  -ACAD  F_ IJ E C O R A T  EC O R A T 1 O N O F  CI5  (  L -AO  y  OF  >TEH C I A N A B B E Y :  1  1  I V T)  )C  r  %J  1  s / J \  ;  /  ^/ /  LOCATE.D BETWEE  /  1  T /  -i  HE f ACADE \A V A L L  O N  :  E rABLE5 C)VEP E DOOR 3 Atv D T OUREILE!  /  /  A  5 EN/\ F ACAD  O yy /  CARVED  I V O R Y /ALTAf PIE C E  TH!L CR JC F x ON  MA STE.R  0  THE DE/I T H  r  FRENCH CA. _ CO  1  _  «  -  1  T ,,i V P & ri 3  E ABOIN  "HE L OC K  ' P A R I S O N OF FUN C T ON O F I  1  r  Ti  (  101  )U1TRAS.  0  JELDRATWE  [  /  /  _ K-  \ _  CH  Q<J  I r 1 1C  B  SAftL E  ON  \10RTh T f t A N S E NOTRE  CA M E  =T  PORTAL  CATHED K „ AL G A B L E O V E I I THE  c  5 1 E MA FACADE  CARVE  TVO  ALTAK-PlFCE  SCENES  F R O M THE  PARIS  OF  COL L  CB  FORMS •  1  l  OF  G 50C 5  T M S T nW f D  D E D O N J U A Ni  C O M P A R I 5 0 AJ c E C R O C K E T  n FF  CHR S T  FRENCH  F  :  r "Ht VIRGIN a ND CHILDHOOD  TRIALS J  1  VALF \1 c A  L  I f  L  \  L  V  D \  \1/ E A  A CLASS/OA] . -KENCr  £  0  "3  IENA  c AT ^  JKAL  3 ISA CATHEDRAL  TULPIT 3  I-x L 7 C O n P A K I S O M Oh nOULDTNJ  1  OP C I T  FIG. ZO,  •  _  \  / / / /  1  \B L  )  c  C  H  »  hlORTf-  FACAD L  SOUTr  I 4AG6I  D  PLAT<  L  B  E  HABRAKKUK  M  F Q  A SYBIL  TSATAH  c BAALAr1  H  MAP A  \  t  BB .L. 5 I S T E R OF  noses  K :>T  DAVID 5 0 L O M ON  1 MOSES EON u K J05HUA  ORIGINAL  c T A  —  LOCATION  HEORAL rACA D  t  OF  SC J  r UF ^E  0 N T HE  5 IE  B  —>  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A u b e r t , M. 1947. Balcarres,  L'Architecture Cistercienne v o l s . I and I I . L.  The E v o l u t i o n  en F r a n c e .  of I t a l i a n  Paris,  Sculpture.  London,  1909. Berteaux, E. " L e s A r t i s t s F r a n c a i s e au S e r v i c e d e s R o i s A n g e v i n s de N a p l e s . " G a z e t t e de B e a u x - A r t s , 1905. V o l . I , p . 262; V o l . I I , p.89.  Espagne." 637. B r a n n e r , R.  "La S c u l p t u r e du X l V e S i e c l e en I t a l i e e t en H i s t o i r e de l ' A r t . P a r i s , 1906, p p . 508-  Burgundian Gothic  Gothic  Architecture.  Architecture.  Braun, J . Die Reliquaire Entwicklunq. Frieburg,  0.  Cummings, B. and I I .  Italian  Cust,  The I v o r y 1902.  A.  Dimier,  Illuminated  L e s Grands C a t h e d r a l s .  Anselme. L ' A r t  Architecture.  D r i n g e r , D. The I l l u m i n a t e d London, 1957.  Lille,  Italy.  Evans , J . -  Vol.I  Ages.  London,  P a r i s , 1962.  Book, I t s H i s t o r y  and  Production.  siecle."  Les o r i q i n e s f r a n c a i s e de 1' a r c h i t e c t o r e . P a r i s , 1894. Art i n Medieval  Irhe  1900.  London, 1902.  E n l a r t , C. " L ' A r c h i t e c t u r e G o t h i q u e au X l V e Histoire.de l'Art. P a r i s , 1906.  en  und  Manuscripts.  Workers of the M i d d l e  Cistercien.  1960  Y o r k , 1965.  Des C h r i s t l i c h e n K u l t s 1940. "  B r i t i s h Museum. R e p r o d u c t i o n s from S e r i e s I, I I , I I I . Cloquet,  New  London,  France.  New  York, 1948.  qothique  Frankl,  3.hi.  Franklin, Hutton,  Gothic  P.  E.  Architecture.  The  Cathedrals  of  The  Cosmati.  London,  J a c k s o n , T.G. Gothic V o l s . I and I I .  London,  Italy.  Architecture.  1962  London,  L958.  195D. Cambridge,  1915.  H o c h e l i n , R. Les I v o i r e s Gothiques F r a n c a i s e . V o l s . I and I I . j_  Paris,  1924.  " Q u e l q u e s A t e l i e r s d ' l v o i r i e r s f r a n c a i s e aux X H I e S i e c l e et XlVe S i e c l e . " G a z e t t e de Beaux A r t s . 1905,' V o l s . I and I I .  Labart, J. . l'epoque  H i s t o i r e des a r t s i n d u s t r i e l s au Moyen-aqe e t a de l a R e n a i s s a n c e . P a r i s , 1666. V o l s . I t o IV.  L a V a g i n i n o , E. "Element! D e c o r a t i v e Di O r i g i n e A r c h i t e c t u r i a Del T r i d i c i s i m o S i c o l o N e i l Meridinonale." S t u d i e s i n Western A r t . pp. 168-183.  Goticia: Weil I t a l i a Centra Princeton, 1963,  M a r q u e t de V a s s e l o t , J . et XlVe S i e c l e s . " 988.  " L ' O f f e v r e r i e e t l ' E m a i l l e r i e aux X H I e H i s t o i r e de l ' A r t . P a r i s , .1906, pp. 917-  Masai,  Miniatures.  E.  Medieval  New  York,  1965.  Morey, C. " I t a l i a n Gothic I v o r i e s . Medieval Studies i n Memory o f A. K i n q s l e y P o r t e r . C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1939. Vol.1. 11  Natanson, J . London, N o r t o n , C. Middle  Gothic 1951.  Historical Ages, V e n i c e ,  Pope-Hennessy, J . Saylor,  H.  I v o r i e s of  Italian  the  13th  and  14th  Centuries.  s t u d i e s of Church B u i l d i n g i n the S i e n a and F l o r e n c e . New Y o r k , 1880.  Gothic  D i c t i o n a r y of  Sculpture.  Architecture.  London, New  York,  S c h e v i l l e , F. "San G a l g a n o , A C i s t e r c i a n Abbey o f Ages." A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l . 14, pp. 22^37.  1955. 1963.  the Middle 1908,  S'chmarsow, A". Augsburg,  Italienishe 1928.  Sturgis,  A H i s t o r y of A r t .  Toesca,  R. P.  V e n t u r i , A. IV, I I . White,  J. London,  II Trecento. Storia Milan, A r t and 1966.  Kunst  im Z e i t a l t e r  New  Turin,  Del l ' A r t e 1906.  York,  Dantes.  1917.  1951.  Italiana.  Vols.  Architecture in Italy:  IV, I ,  1250-1400.  W i e n b e r g e r , M. "The F i r s t F a c a d e o f t h e C a t h e d r a l o f F l o r e n c e . " J o u r n a l o f t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e . V o l . IV, 1940,41. pp.69.  Remarks on t h e r o l e o f F r e n c h m o d e l s w i t h i n t h e e v o l u t i o n of G o t h i c Tuscan S c u l p t u r e . S t u d i e s i n Western Art. P a r t I . Romanesque and G o t h i c . P r i n c e t o n , 1963, pp.. 198-207.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104642/manifest

Comment

Related Items