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Information identification systems in city planning : an evaluation of existing systems Denike, Kenneth George 1966

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INFORMATION IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS IN CITY PLANNING: AN EVALUATION OF EXISTING SYSTEMS  KENNETH GEORGE DENIKE B.Sc.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the D i v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1966  In presenting the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  this thesis i n partial fulfilment  advanced degree at  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that available  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  mission for extensive p u r p o s e s may his  be  cation.of  Library  study*  written  the  Head o f my  permission-  Regional Planning  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada *e  April,  Department or  s h a l l not  1966.  .  per-  scholarly  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d that, c o p y i n g or  D i v i s i o n , of Community and  D a  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  I f u r t h e r agree that  t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain  w i t h o u t my  the U n i v e r s i t y o f •  c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  g r a n t e d by  representatives*  the  of  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT  Systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n have l o n g been used i n c i t y p l a n n i n g to relate*- land use i n f o r m a t i o n to the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e or p a t t e r n .  The  s t r e e t address  i s the form of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t i s commonly used i n land use  surveys;  but with the advent of the computer, the systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n use w i t h i n the c i t y have become outmoded because they cannot be r e a d i l y mechanized.  The  g r i d was  with the computer  discovered to be h i g h l y compatible  military  and hence i t has g e n e r a l l y been adopted as the system of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r use with automated means of l o c a t i n g land use i n f o r m a t i o n and r e t r i e v i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r research  purposes.  computer-produced And  A r e s u l t of t h i s combination  map.  y e t , a l l s p a t i a l l y l o c a t e d a c t i v i t i e s can be  e a s i l y referenced by s t r e e t addresses. ducted  i s the  Surveys are con-  from the s t r e e t and the i n f o r m a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d  the s t r e e t address.  To make use of the m i l i t a r y g r i d i t i s  necessary to convert s t r e e t addresses military grid.  by  to l o c a t i o n s on a  In p r a c t i c e a l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t r e e t  must be maintained.  Before adopting the m i l i t a r y g r i d  the inherent conversion from the s t r e e t addresses,  and  it is  necessary t o determine what purposes are f u l f i l l e d by u s i n g (iii)  I  both s t r e e t addresses  and the m i l i t a r y g r i d .  r e f e r e n c i n g i n f o r m a t i o n by s t r e e t addresses fill  the i n f o r m a t i o n requirements  Furthermore, alone may  of urban p l a n n e r s .  T h i s study deals with the two  fundamental systems  of i n f o r m a t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : the s t r e e t address the m i l i t a r y g r i d type.  ful-  type  and  Both are evaluated f o r use i n  r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c i t y p l a n n i n g and a framework i s s t r u c t u r e d f o r t h i s purpose.  The r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a are  e s t a b l i s h e d by r e f e r e n c e to the p r i n c i p l e s upon which informa^ t i o n handling i s based.  The framework and  the r e l e v a n t  c r i t e r i a are t e s t e d with e x i s t i n g e m p i r i c a l evidence and i t i s found that i t i s f e a s i b l e and u s e f u l f o r comparing the two  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. The two  and  systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are then  i t i s found that the s t r e e t address  evaluated  type should  s e l e c t e d f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n i n systems f o r r e t r i e v i n g  be informa-  t i o n at the interdepartmental l e v e l and d i r e c t l y from land use surveys.  There are other reasons  f o r developing systems  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g the a n a l y s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n once i t has been c o l l e c t e d and  communicating the r e s u l t s of the  analysis. Therefore, f o l l o w i n g the g e n e r a l e v a l u a t i o n , f u r t h e r c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to the d i s c r e t e nature of land use are developed  designs  and a p p l i e d to an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system  c u r r e n t l y being implemented i n the C i t y of Vancouver, (iv)  B.C.  This i s a case study of a s t r e e t address i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system and  type of i n f o r m a t i o n  f u l f i l l s the requirements  handling i n f o r m a t i o n i n urban p l a n n i n g .  for  I t i s used to  assure that the c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to the d i s c r e t e nature of land use can be recommended f o r use  i n future evaluation  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. Based upon the case study a recommendation i s made that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s necessary t o explore the i m p l i c a t i o n s of u s i n g the s t r e e t  address  type of i n f o r m a t i o n i d e n t i f i c a -  t i o n system f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and p o s s i b l y the m i l i t a r y g r i d type of i n f o r m a t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r printing  that i n f o r m a t i o n ,  i n t o the uses, design and  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s necessary e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  systems i n urban p l a n n i n g .  (v)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I should l i k e t o thank the many i n d i v i d u a l s who a s s i s t e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s .  Specifically, I  am indebted t o Dr. K.J. Cross of the D i v i s i o n o f Community and Regional Planning f o r ,;his c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m throughout i t s p r e p a r a t i o n ; and Mr. G.F. F a r r y , Head, Transp o r t a t i o n Planning S e c t i o n , C i t y of Vancouver f o r g u i d i n g the r e s e a r c h upon which the t h e s i s i s based. The co-operation provided by o f f i c i a l s of the C i t y of Vancouver i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d : Mr. Wm. C u r t i s , S t a f f Engineer f o r h i s r e s e a r c h on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system; Mr. P.D. L e c k i e , Data P r o c e s s i n g S u p e r v i s o r of the C i t y Finance Department f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s on p r o c e s s i n g techniques. I express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Mr. Wm. Graham, D i r e c t o r of Planning, C i t y of Vancouver f o r the f i n a n c i a l  support  of my r e s e a r c h on an i n f o r m a t i o n system f o r the Planning Department and the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n f o r the P l a n n i n g F e l l o w s h i p which g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s  thesis.  I am indented t o Dr. H.P. Oberlander, D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n o f Community and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r h i s encouragement. (vi)  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE IEDFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CITY PLANNING  1  The Role o f the C i t y Planner i n D e c i s i o n Making  3  A d v i s o r t o the Executive  3  C o l l e c t i n g the Information  5  Information R e t r i e v a l  Systems f o r C i t y  Planning  7  Information R e t r i e v a l  Systems i n General .  Assumptions  7 10  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Systems Used f o r L o c a t i o n Oriented Information  11  The Current Controversy i n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Systems  II  11  Study Hypothesis  18  Summary  19  FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATION OF  IDENTIFICATION  SYSTEMS FOR CITY FLAMING  24  Functions o f Information Process  26  The Information Process  26  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Information  28  (vii).  CHAPTER  PAGE The Problems of E v a l u a t i n g  Identification  Systems  31  B a s i c Framework  31  Work Done on E v a l u a t i n g Information R e t r i e v a l Systems  33  Framework f o r the E v a l u a t i o n of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Systems f o r C i t y P l a n n i n g  40  A Minimal Set of C r i t e r i a  40  Framework f o r E v a l u a t i o n  . .  44  Summary III  .46  THE EVALUATION OF IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR . . 48  USE WITH LOCATION-ORIENTED INFORMATION T e s t i n g the Framework f o r E v a l u a t i o n  . . . 49  Purpose o f T e s t i n g the Framework f o r 49  Evaluation The E v a l u a t i o n o f H i s t o r i c a l Systems f o r A s s i g n i n g Addresses .  51  E v a l u a t i o n of B a s i c A l t e r n a t i v e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Systems  57  The G r i d Co-ordinate  Identification  System  57  The S t r e e t - o r i e n t e d I d e n t i f i c a t i o n System 61 Changing the Assumption Upon which the 64  Study i s Based (viii)  CHAPTER  PAGE The Purpose f o r Developing a System . . .  64  The D i s p l a y C a p a c i t y of the S t r e e t o r i e n t e d System  66  Summary IV  67  A STREET-ORIENTED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER B.C  70  The Purpose and Method of Conducting the Case Study  72  The Purpose  72  The Method o f Conducting the Case Study  75  The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of R e s i d e n t i a l C l u s t e r s  79  A l t e r n a t i v e Methods of I d e n t i f y i n g C l u s t e r s and T h e i r E v a l u a t i o n  . . . .  Observations and I m p l i c a t i o n s Summary V  79 87 89  OBSERVATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  93  Observations  93  General Observations  94  P o t e n t i a l A p p l i c a t i o n of the S t r e e t o r i e n t e d I d e n t i f i c a t i o n System Conclusions  101 105  (ix)  CHAPTER  PAGE E v a l u a t i o n of Study Method  105  Conclusions  110  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research . . . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Systems  115  . 116  C r i t e r i a f o r Evaluation  118  Summary  119 123  BIBLIOGRAPHY  (x)  LIST OP FIGURES  FIGURE  PAGE  1  G r i d C o - o r d i n a t e Map  2  Street-oriented  3  A l t e r n a t i v e Methods of I d e n t i f y i n g S i t e s  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n System  for Street-oriented Systems 4  59 . .  63  Identification  . .  82  A Method o f I d e n t i f y i n g S i t e s  (xi)  84  CHAPTER I INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CITY PLANNING  Planners have r e l i e d e x t e n s i v e l y upon i n t u i t i o n t o understand  c i t i e s ; but w i t h new i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g techniques.  a more p r e c i s e understanding i s p o s s i b l e .  Before these  techniques a r e adopted, Creighton argues, reasoning among planners has t o be based l a r g e l y upon i n d i v i d u a l experiences w i t h people and consequently, many years o f experience a r e r e q u i r e d t o comprehend the f o r c e s which cause growth and decay i n e i t i e s ; and, that the "probable e f f e c t s o f a g i v e n a c t i o n and o f the probable e f f e c t s o f a l t e r n a t e d e c i s i o n s " a r e not known now because planners are unable t o handle the a v a i l a b l e information."*"  He f i n d s that these new techniques provide  o p p o r t u n i t i e s " f o r the f i r s t time...to overcome these difficulties." Although the probable e f f e c t s o f a g i v e n d e c i s i o n a r e not known now, v a r i o u s authors have i n d i c a t e d the importance of the decision-makers on urban growth p a t t e r n s . emphasizes the c r i t i c a l nature of governmental  Schaller  expenditures  p  i n the growth processes.  A c c e p t i n g the c r i t i c a l nature o f  c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s , Chapin and Weiss d e s c r i b e urban growth p a t t e r n s i n terms o f d e c i s i o n s by i n d i v i d u a l s and p u b l i c and p r i v a t e groups.^  Furthermore,  c e r t a i n governmental  expend-  i t u r e s f o r c a p i t a l works provide the p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g  2  "secondary"  decision-making.^  For "any  process as complex as planning,  and  p a r t i c u l a r l y any process w i t h great requirements f o r  informa-  t i o n " to become e f f e c t i v e , i t "must be organized around some f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d concepts".  A theory f o r c i t y  planning  i s proposed by Optner s t r e s s i n g the importance of g o a l d e f i n i t i o n and  the means of implementing g o a l s .  He  f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d concepts which are compatible i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g techniques  utilizes  with  new  to e v e n t u a l l y s o l v e urban  problems r e l a t i n g to land use c o n t r o l s and the a l l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c funds f o r c a p i t a l works. The advantages and uses of new techniques  information  handling  i n s o l v i n g c i t y planning problems are discussed 7  by Creighton. t o o l s and i n t o them. important  He  emphasizes that the machines are  only  that the planner must decide what f a c t s to be Wheaton has  put  i n d i c a t e d t h a t some f a c t s are more  than others t o decision-makers and  that "the  simple  a c t of p r o v i d i n g f a c t s regarding market trends...would make a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n our urban development r a t e s .  Webber  acknowledges the importance of s u p p l y i n g b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n that might be used as a b a s i s of more r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , and q i n d i c a t e s the need f o r f o r e c a s t s . c e n t e r s " which would supply the The planner  He d e s c r i b e s  "intelligence  information.  i s responsible f o r providing information  on what i s o c c u r r i n g and a n a l y z i n g past experience  w i t h i n the  c i t y and making proposals as to what should be o c c u r r i n g  3 w i t h i n s e l e c t e d s u b s t a n t i v e areas such as land use development.  On any p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t being considered by the  m u n i c i p a l executive, the planner i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making e x p l i c i t the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n .  The planner's  impact on  the c i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h i s c o n t i n u i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f u n c t i o n and the interdependent  a p p l i c a t i o n o f techniques  i n f o r m a t i o n i n order t o implement p l a n s .  f o r handling  These plans a r e not  s t a t i c proposals but a r e c o n t r o l s which can be adjusted t o changes i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the c i t y .  The d i f f i c u l t y f o r  planning i s t h a t change makes plans obsolete u n l e s s r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n can be c o l l e c t e d and analyzed q u i c k l y enough t o permit c e r t a i n adjustments i n these plans to compensate f o r changes.  A l s o , the planner i n d i r e c t l y implements  these  adjustments through the municipal executive and hence the planner needs the continuous to  supply o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n order  inform the e x e c u t i v e . I . THE ROLE OF THE CITY PLANNER IN DECISION-MAKING  A d v i s o r t o the Executive The present r o l e o f the planner can e s s e n t i a l l y be improved.  10  In order t o advise the executive the planner  must have an e f f i c i e n t means o f c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as a n a l y z i n g and r e p o r t i n g i t .  Fundamentally, t h i s i s  communicating s e l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n as a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r legislation  and places c e r t a i n requirements  on the i n f o r m a t i o n .  4  The i n f o r m a t i o n must be t o the l e v e l o f d e t a i l r e q u i r e d by the l e g i s l a t o r .  I f i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d on c o n s t r u c t i o n  a c t i v i t y over a p e r i o d o f time and t h e r e has been a continuous c o l l e c t i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , then the d e s i r e d l e v e l o f d e t a i l s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e .  I f t h i s i s not the case and  the i n f o r m a t i o n i s too d e t a i l e d , i t must be g e n e r a l i z e d b e i n g presented t o the e x e c u t i v e .  before  F u r t h e r m o r e , the i n f o r m a -  t i o n must be presented a t the time i t i s requested i n o r d e r t o be u s e f u l i n the l e g i s l a t i o n o r p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n b e i n g considered.  T h i s may mean, t h a t the l e g i s l a t o r s a r e not a b l e  t o make the v e r y b e s t d e c i s i o n r e q u i r i n g complete  knowledge  and complete i n f o r m a t i o n but t h a t enough i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n t o make a r e a s o n a b l e d e c i s i o n .  I f the d e c i s i o n i s not  made, the o p p o r t u n i t y may pass out of the  legislators'  hands. I n f o r m i n g the e x e c u t i v e and making the  executive  sympathetic t o the scope and n a t u r e o f p l a n n i n g purposes r e q u i r e s more than s t r i c t l y communicating i n f o r m a t i o n t o them. Accurate forecasts  a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d and t h i s e n t a i l s  i n g a model o f what the c i t y may be l i k e , be l i k e , i n the near f u t u r e .  creat-  o r i s expected  R e l a t i v e t o the c i t y ,  to  this  model w i l l l i k e l y be a s p a t i a l one a l t h o u g h the a c t u a l  fore-  c a s t may be economic, such as an a l l o c a t i o n of f u n d s , or i t may be a complex model, such as a f u n c t i o n a l change i n l a n d use.  5  A system which w i l l supply a c o n t i n u i n g source o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed i f the planner i s t o f u l f i l l h i s r o l e e f f e c t i v e l y as an a d v i s o r t o decision-makers.  I f the planner  i s unable t o supply the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n a t the r i g h t time and the the requested l e v e l of d e t a i l , the planner's r o l e i s s e v e r e l y limited..  advisory  The executive, making a c o u n c i l  d e c i s i o n on a c a p i t a l works p r o j e c t which i s intended t o l a s t f o r twenty years, may look to reasonable  l o n g range  o b j e c t i v e s , but the d e c i s i o n w i l l l i k e l y be based on short range p r o j e c t i o n s and p o s s i b l y the d e c i s i o n may be made v i a a p l e b i s c i t e , i n which case only s h o r t range c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may be taken i n t o account.  Consequently, both the formula-  t i o n o f l o n g range o b j e c t i v e s and the f o r e c a s t i n g of short range p r o j e c t i o n s may be r e q u i r e d t o evaluate a l t e r n a t i v e s i n order t o reach any one d e c i s i o n .  1 1  Therefore l o n g range  p r o j e c t i o n s may be made and then modified a t i n t e r v a l s f o r a l o n g range p l a n and accurate short range p r o j e c t i o n s may be r e q u i r e d f o r the f i r s t  interval.  I n the example being  considered, the r o l e o f a d v i s o r t o the executive becomes an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the decision-making  process.  But t h i s i s  dependent on the planner being a b l e t o provide accurate i n formation.  C o l l e c t i n g the Information The planner c o l l e c t s i n f o r m a t i o n from secondary sources and i n some cases from d i r e c t surveys.  Secondary  6 sources r e l a t e to c i v i c departments which generate  informa-  12 t i o n acquired from t h e i r own  d i r e c t surveys.  This  informa-  t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y c o l l e c t e d f o r use w i t h i n the c i v i c  depart-  ment a c q u i r i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n and hence the i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n s u i t a b l e only f o r the o r i g i n a l purpose of c o l l e c t i o n . The  r o l e of the planner as a d v i s o r to decision-makers i s  g e n e r a l l y enacted  coterminous with preparing plans which  r e q u i r e compriehensive p h y s i c a l , economic and tion.  social  To c o l l e c t the m a j o r i t y of the necessary  informa-  information  from d i r e c t surveys would r e s u l t i n d u p l i c a t i n g secondary sources which may purposes but may  c o l l e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t a c q u i r e e s s e n t i a l l y the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the  planner r e q u i r e s .  There i s a f u r t h e r i n e f f i c i e n c y i n  d u p l i c a t i n g the secondary source; although the  information,  or data upon which the i n f o r m a t i o n i s based, may e x a c t l y i n the form that the planner r e q u i r e s . department probably  c o l l e c t s i n f o r m a t i o n on a  not The  be civic  continuous  b a s i s , whereas the planner g e n e r a l l y conducts d i r e c t only when a d i s t i n c t shortage p a r t i c u l a r problem e x i s t s .  surveys  of i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to a  The  planner w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d  i n c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y z i n g data on a p e r i o d i c b a s i s to e s t a b l i s h and but he may  evaluate trends i n urban growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  not be able t o conduct the r e q u i r e d surveys  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s such as those acquiring c o n f i d e n t i a l information.  because  involved i n  However, the planner  will  be i n t e r e s t e d i n the trends i n urban growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  7  and g e n e r a l l y not i n the c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r s e . The planner i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the p a t t e r n of s o c i a l welfare cases and not i n the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y .  However, i f the  planner i s t o e s t a b l i s h the p a t t e r n , he must conduct a survey of a c o n f i d e n t i a l nature or a l t e r n a t i v e l y c o l l e c t the informat i o n from a secondary source such as a c i v i c w e l f a r e agency. U t i l i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from a secondary source i s the most e f f i c i e n t o f the a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the planner. '* 1  In t h i s  way, the planner can a l s o maintain a check on c e r t a i n i n d i c e s without having t o c o n t i n u a l l y conduct  surveys.  I I . INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS FOR CITY PLANNING Information R e t r i e v a l Systems i n G e n e r a l ^ 1  The r e t r i e v a l o f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n from secondary sources i s n e c e s s i t a t i n g the development of informat i o n r e t r i e v a l systems i n l a r g e c i t i e s .  These systems have  g e n e r a l l y been designed w i t h s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s i n mind and consequently the proposed city.  systems d i f f e r g r e a t l y from c i t y t o  In some c i t i e s the i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems a r e  being developed with the o b j e c t i v e s of e x i s t i n g departments i n mind; -' while i n others, the o b j e c t i v e s a r e those of 1  16 centralizing administration. The p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s of the department which a c t u a l l y develops the i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system tends t o  8 f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e the d e s i g n . complexities and  Each a p p l i c a t i o n has c e r t a i n  the c i v i c department w i t h i n which or f o r  which the system i s i n i t i a l l y developed tends t o on these c o m p l e x i t i e s .  concentrate  Hence the i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l  system tends to be o r i e n t e d towards s o l v i n g the problems found w i t h i n the department f o r which the system i s i n i t i a l l y developed and  consequently  t h i s must be considered when -  l o o k i n g at these systems from the o r i e n t a t i o n of the Hearle d e s c r i b e s the trend i n i n f o r m a t i o n  planner.  retrieval  systems towards more comprehensive systems i n c o r p o r a t i n g the 17 needs of more and more departments.  T h i s i s i n keeping  with c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c i t y departments, but although t h i s seems to o f f e r the most e f f i c i e n t for  operation  c i t i e s , the methods of a c h i e v i n g sueh a system have not  yet been developed.  The  problem i s t h a t o f a c h i e v i n g  c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n purpose between departments. c e r t a i n necessary  f u n c t i o n s c a r r i e d out by m u n i c i p a l  ments which tend to be incompatible f u n c t i o n and  There are depart-  such as the r e a l estate  the urban renewal f u n c t i o n s .  The i n c o m p a t i b i l -  i t y of o b j e c t i v e s between departments i s r e f l e c t e d i n the requirements made on i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems.  Proposals  have been made f o r c e n t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems which would i n c o r p o r a t e a l l the c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n but method i s i n c l u d e d by which t h i s can be done g i v e n the ing  objectives involved i n information c o l l e c t i o n .  workable methods have been developed, such proposals  no  differ-  Until should  9 command l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from urban planners. e x i s t i n g evidence,  Given the  i t would seem that there w i l l l i k e l y be a  p o s s i b i l i t y f o r developing a c e n t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system, but i t would relate^ b a s i c a l l y t o i n f o r m a t i o n  generated  from secondary sources and not t o a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d f o r the c i t y . Before c e n t r a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems are developed  i t i s necessary  i n f o r m a t i o n requirements  that planners f u l l y document t h e i r so that these can be accommodated  i n any c e n t r a l system which i s developed.  This discussion  on i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems i s meant t o p o i n t out that these systems r e f l e c t the o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the department for  which the system was i n i t i a l l y developed.  a system i s i n i t i a l l y developed i n one department.  Essentially,  t o handle complexities w i t h -  Furthermore, the choice as t o what  o b j e c t i v e s t o f u l f i l l has p a r t i a l l y been determined by f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h techniques other than p l a n n i n g .  t r a n s f e r r e d from d i s c i p l i n e s  A c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n  r e t r i e v a l systems from the p e r s p e c t i v e of planning must be c a r r i e d out so that planners w i l l be a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e the development of these systems. of  The a l t e r n a t i v e i s acceptance  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems designed  for different  o b j e c t i v e s than those of planning o r t r a n s f e r r e d techniques which w i l l not f u l f i l l p l a n n i n g The  requirements.  c i t y planner i s the a d v i s e r and a n a l y s t on the  p h y s i c a l environment of the c i t y and e s p e c i a l l y on the methods  10 of making p l a n s .  Rodwin d e s c r i b e s him as concerned with the  d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s p a t i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of p u b l i c and 18 private decisions.  Information r e q u i r e d by the  planner,  t h e r e f o r e , tends to be l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d such as f a c t s r e l a t e d to land use. Assumptions T h i s f o c u s s i n g of a t t e n t i o n on i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the p h y s i c a l environment has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r any or p a r t of a system, designed planning.  system,  to handle i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c i t y  Information which i s not i d e n t i f i e d i n a manner  which r e l a t e s to l o c a t i o n must subsequently  be i d e n t i f i e d  by  the l o c a t i o n to which i t r e f e r s ; i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to a b u i l d i n g s i t e must be i d e n t i f i e d by the l o c a t i o n of t h a t s i t e i n the c i t y .  Otherwise, i t i s extremely  difficult  to e f f e c t -  i v e l y u t i l i z e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n s p a t i a l l y l o c a t i n g urban activities.  Hence, the assumption t h a t only l o c a t i o n -  o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be considered  in this  C u r r e n t l y , systems being designed  study.  to r e t r i e v e l a r g e  q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n are l i k e l y to be used with automation.  The l a t e s t and most p r o f i c i e n t techniques now a v a i l a b l e  r e l a t e to mechanized systems. systems developed  I t would seem then that  to handle i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c i t y planning are  a l s o l i k e l y to be mechanized systems because of the q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n which must be handled. a system designed  The requirement  f o r r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n or an  that  integral  11 p a r t of that system be compatible w i t h automation i s used as a further  b a s i c assumption o f t h i s study.  Systems or  i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f r e t r i e v a l systems which cannot be mechanized are l i k e l y t o be used only f o r s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d purposes i n the  future. These assumptions l i m i t the scope of t h i s study to  the a n a l y s i s physical  of methods o f i d e n t i f y i n g  l o c a t i o n such as a b u i l d i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to  s i t e f o r which the  r e t r i e v a l o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be mechanized. I I I . IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS USED FOR LOCATIONORIENTED INFORMATION The Current Controversy i n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Systems  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems a r e not a new i n v e n t i o n but have e x i s t e d  f o r c e n t u r i e s i n the form of p o s t a l addresses.  In t h i s form the address i s the method of i d e n t i f y i n g the destination  o f the l e t t e r .  While the r e t r i e v a l i s manual  t h i s method works extremely w e l l . location  The postman knows the  o f the address and hence h i s performance i n d e l i v e r -  ing l e t t e r s i s generally f a u l t l e s s .  T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the  t a s k which mechanized r e t r i e v a l systems must do although i n an a b s t r a c t way. the  physical  They do not a c t u a l l y d e l i v e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o  s i t e but they a r e r e q u i r e d t o d e l i v e r  r e l a t i n g t o that s i t e .  information  However, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f that  i n f o r m a t i o n may be e s s e n t i a l l y the same as the p o s t a l address.  12 Some form o f address i s a c t u a l l y used t o i d e n t i f y i n a l l location-oriented i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  the s i t e  systems.  Recent innovations i n the mechanization of i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g have p a r t i a l l y outmoded the h i s t o r i c systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n such as p o s t a l addresses.  These  systems  g e n e r a l l y l a c k the l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y necessary f o r machine c o m p a t i b i l i t y although they can be made machine o p e r a t i v e w i t h extensive r e d e s i g n i n g .  When t h i s i s done they can be  considered " s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  In  even broader terms even the manual p o s t a l type of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system could be considered a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d  system.  S t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems are but one form of identification  systems.  An a l t e r n a t i v e type of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s the " g r i d c o - o r d i n a t e " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which is a military  grid.  essentially  The g r i d i s superimposed on the c i t y  and a b u i l d i n g s i t e f o r example would be i d e n t i f i e d by the 20 i n t e r s e c t i o n o f the nearest h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l l i n e . The l i n e s a r e g e n e r a l l y based on 1000 foot  intervals.  The emphasis which i s now placed on the aspect of mechanization w i t h i n systems accounts f o r the major  criticism  of h i s t o r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems such as the p o s t a l address type.  I n unmodified form the h i s t o r i c a l type i s not  g e n e r a l l y compatible w i t h automation.  However, t o analyze  f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the component p a r t s of the 21 c i t y suggests a mechanized r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n .  13 A c c e p t i n g the view of the c i t y as a complex p h y s i c a l product resulting  from operations o f i n t r i n s i c f u n c t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e s  the automatic  r e t r i e v a l of information.  The c l a s s i c a l  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems a r e not r e a d i l y converted d i r e c t l y to machine o p e r a t i o n although d i r e c t o r i e s  g i v i n g the p o s t a l  address and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s compatible.with have been  machine r e t r i e v a l  prepared.  Approaching the r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n from the p o i n t o f view o f the requirements y i e l d s some i n t e r e s t i n g  n e c e s s i t a t e d by automation  observations.  An understanding of  the machines a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s purpose would f a c i l i t a t e t h i s approach but s u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t some form of coo r d i n a t e system would be the most p r a c t i c a l f o r mechaniza22  tion.  A c c o r d i n g l y , most i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems designed  f o r the mechanized r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n have been designed w i t h t h i s i n mind. The t r a n s l a t i o n  o f t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i n t o a system  f o r the mechanized r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n was most i n the case o f the g r i d co-ordinate system. location  obvious  Information  i n t h i s system i s i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to the p o s i t i o n  of the s i t e i n the c i t y , the i n f o r m a t i o n can be d i r e c t l y p o s i t i o n e d on a map f o r v i s u a l  interpretation.  S t r e e t - o r i e n t e d systems e s s e n t i a l l y use the s t r e e t s as co-ordinate l i n e s as the b a s i s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . the s t r e e t  Since  i s the co-ordinate l i n e , a curve i n the s t r e e t  should be a curve i n the co-ordinate l i n e .  I t i s not and  14 t h e r e f o r e the i n f o r m a t i o n l o c a t i o n i n the system i s not r e l a t i v e t o t h e p o s i t i o n of the s i t e i n the c i t y . ^ 2  t i o n r e l a t i n g t o curved s t r e e t were s t r a i g h t .  Informa-  s t r e e t s would be p o s i t i o n e d as i f t h e T h i s r e s u l t s i n a d i s t o r t e d view of  the c i t y when i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r i n t e d d i r e c t l y on a map. Hence any e v a l u a t i o n of s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems i n terms o f d i r e c t machine p o s i t i o n i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n on maps are l i k e l y t o be negative a t present. Both these b a s i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems have been used and can be used t o i d e n t i f y i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to c i t y planning.  Taking account of the vested i n t e r e s t s of those  i n v o l v e d i n developing these systems i t i s with some h e s i t a t i o n that an e v a l u a t i o n o f these systems i s attempted. comparing workable techniques  In  i t i s g e n e r a l l y the case t h a t  the r e s e a r c h e r i s a c c e p t i n g a point o f view and i f t h i s p o i n t o f view d i f f e r s from those o f the persons d e v e l o p i n g the techniques,  controversy i s l i k e l y .  There i s a f u r t h e r reason  f o r t h i s h e s i t a t i o n and i t r e l a t e s t o the problems i n v o l v e d i n comparingcone segment of a t o t a l system with an a l t e r n a t i v e segment of the system.  R e a l progress can be made only with  a framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g the whole system o f which the segment i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t .  I t w i l l not be p o s s i b l e to  e s t a b l i s h such a framework, although the t h e o r e t i c a l cons i d e r a t i o n s w i l l be documented i n order t o l i m i t the evaluat i o n t o comparable p a r t s .  15 What documentation i s a v a i l a b l e on both  identification  systems tends t o be b i a s e d p r e c i s e l y because there i s no o v e r a l l framework w i t h i n which to o b j e c t i v e l y analyze achievements w i t h i n any ing  D i f f e r e n t people work-  on s e l e c t e d segments of i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g are i n t e r e s t e d  b a s i c a l l y i n how of  one segment.  the  the system works r e l a t i v e to t h e i r segment,  interest. Narrowing the area of e v a l u a t i o n to a s i n g l e segment  from the o v e r a l l framework which would be necessary  to use i n  e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems i n g e n e r a l does not make the c h o i c e any l e s s d i f f i c u l t .  The g r i d  co-ordinate  system can be expanded from g r i d systems a l r e a d y i n use  on  many maps and t h e r e f o r e can be used as a common denominator of  those g r i d systems.  I t i s a l s o h i g h l y compatible  with  automated equipment f o r e f f i c i e n t l y h a n d l i n g a . l a r g e q u a n t i t y of  i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g d i r e c t l y mapping and graphing  information.  T h i s can be an extremely  the  e f f e c t i v e .means "-'of  communicating i n f o r m a t i o n because a p i c t u r e tends t o be much more q u i c k l y comprehensible .than t a b l e d f a c t s .  The  informa-  t i o n can be t a b l e d r e l a t i y e to the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n of i t s source.  T h i s system can a l s o be h i g h l y e d u c a t i o n a l i n t h a t  the communication between planners and laymen i s g r e a t l y improved. And  yet i t seems d i f f i c u l t  not to l o o k to a s t r e e t -  o r i e n t e d system because i t has been used t o such a l a r g e extent i n the p a s t .  The v e r y p r e c i s i o n with which m a i l i s  16 d e l i v e r e d i s a case i n p o i n t , as w e l l as the s t r e e t  being  one of the most permanent p h y s i c a l forms i n the c i t y .  The  s t r e e t s i n a b u i l t up area are very l i k e l y to remain, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the c h a r a c t e r of t h e i r use may  change.  The  s t r e e t s g e n e r a l l y o u t l a s t the b u i l d i n g s they serve and represent a v e r y l a r g e investment  of s o c i a l c a p i t a l .  planner's o r i e n t a t i o n to the s p a t i a l aspects of the t h e r e f o r e focus to a great extent on the s t r e e t .  The city  He has very  much more c o n t r o l over the use of the s t r e e t s than  over  surrounding l a n d because the s t r e e t s are p u b l i c l y owned whereas the surrounding land i s g e n e r a l l y not p u b l i c l y owned. These f a c t o r s tend t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of most c i t i e s . N o t i n g these t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between both systems r e s u l t s i n an o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t each system has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t reasons.  The g r i d  o r d i n a t e system i s h i g h l y compatible w i t h automation  and  cothe  s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d system u t i l i z e s an e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y which * has h i s t o r i c a l l y been proven o p e r a t i o n a l f o r r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and  i s of i n t e r e s t as an e n t i t y per se.  This  system, although h i s t o r i c a l l y used under v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s , suggests a f u r t h e r u t i l i t y f o r urban planning and f o r i n dependent reasons i s incompatible w i t h d i r e c t v i s u a l communication. Is t h i s then a dilemma which condemns planners to deny the automation  aspects of the c o - o r d i n a t e system or the  u t i l i t y of u s i n g an e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y as i n the  "street-  17 o r i e n t e d " system?  S t r e e t engineers, o r i e n t e d to s t r e e t  maintenance were not concerned w i t h the v i s u a l aspects of conimunication and hence opted f o r s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d I t would he extremely d i f f i c u l t  systems.  to defend t h e i r system  without f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of p l a n n i n g . As the g r i d co-ordinate system has been used and i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g t e s t e d f o r p l a n n i n g use, the same cannot be s a i d of t h i s system.  However, proponents of t h i s system may  have  accepted the ease of automation aspect of the g r i d coo r d i n a t e s at the expense of a number of o p e r a t i o n a l aspects which may prove to be t h e o r e t i c a l f a u l t s which cannot be e a s i l y overcome.  N e i t h e r system should be r e a d i l y accepted  and yet a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e i s not r e a l l y any more s a t i s f a c t o r y . Proponents o f systems have been put i n the p o s i t i o n of having t o defend t h e i r system and have been v e r y worried l e s t they provide evidence f o r opponents of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems i n g e n e r a l .  The r e j e c t i o n of these systems  because  they have apparent d i f f i c u l t i e s i s much worse, from the p o i n t of view of s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s , than the f o r m u l a t i o n of hypothesis.  I f there i s no conformity between the r e s u l t i n g  systems, and what i s r e q u i r e d i n a system f o r urban planning, 25  then the system has one s t r i k e a g a i n s t i t .  J  Attempting t o  s c i e n t i f i c a l l y j u s t i f y a system p r o v i d e s a check on otherwise gealous p a t r i o t s of one system or the other, while a t the same time adding an o b j e c t i v e fund of knowledge which w i l l l i k e l y enable r e s e a r c h e r s to go beyond the current method.  18 Study Hypothesis Attempting to j u s t i f y a system i s the l o g i c a l way to make progress  i n p r o v i d i n g the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  urban planning, an attempt to v a l i d a t e the use of the s t r e e t o r i e n t e d system s h a l l be made.  I t i s accepted  that  system cannot now be automated t o d i r e c t l y p r i n t on maps corresponding  to the source l o c a t i o n .  this  information  The hypo-  thesis i s that: A 2street-oriented" information r e t r i e v a l  system  provides the optimum s o l u t i o n t o a number of problems i n the r e t r i e v a l of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o urban p l a n n i n g . But  even i f i t should be proven that a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d system .  has a number o f inherent problems, the h i s t o r i c a l use o f t h i s system should make i n v e s t i g a t o r s look elsewhere- f o r the explanation.  The value of t h i s approach d e r i v e s p r e c i s e l y  from the h i s t o r i c a l use o f s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d p o s t a l  addresses.  I f the use o f these systems has changed so d r a s t i c a l l y  that  the h i s t o r i c a l reasons a r e no longer v a l i d , then i t w i l l be necessary  t o l o o k to the a c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n  r e t r i e v a l systems i n g e n e r a l to see what appeal systems h o l d .  competing  P o s s i b l y the very emphasis on automation f o r  these systems has s u f f i c i e n t l y changed the operations of i n f o r m a t i o n handling so that h i s t o r i c uses no l o n g e r h o l d . t h i s does not prove that the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d systems cannot operate  effectively,  only that f u r t h e r knowledge may be  r e q u i r e d as t o the a c t u a l purposes of i n f o r m a t i o n  handling.  But  19 The emphasis i n t h i s study i s placed on e v a l u a t i n g the methods of i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and developing the c r i t e r i a by which t o evaluate these methods. The t e s t i n g procedure  i s t o evaluate the t h e o r e t i c a l con-  f o r m i t y o f these methods and the c r i t e r i a .  After this  evaluation of t h e o r e t i c a l considerations, a simulation of a p h y s i c a l environment  study i s documented.  T h i s study w i l l  be conducted manually but d u p l i c a t e s those o f conducting a study w i t h a s t r e e t ^ o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system.  It is  hoped that t h i s simulated study w i l l p o i n t the way t o a more exact s e t of c r i t e r i a f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n relevant to c i t y planning.  Subsequently,  certain  recommenda-  t i o n s a r e made r e l a t i n g t o the g e o g r a p h i c a l expansion o f t h i s system, t o r e g i o n s .  Summary The o b j e c t i v e o f the study r e p o r t e d on here i s to develop a crude s e t of c r i t e r i a i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e e x i s t i n g methods of i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n used i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems f o r c i t y p l a n n i n g .  In addi-  t i o n , a case study i s used t o t e s t the o p e r a t i o n o f one of these systems f o r a simulated p h y s i c a l environment  study.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d information, must be compatible w i t h automation and the continuous of i n f o r m a t i o n and may be accomplished  collection  by two g e n e r a l methods  s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems such as p o s t a l address  20  or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , g r i d co-ordinate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems such as the m i l i t a r y g r i d . A t t e n t i o n i s concentrated  on s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems i n t h i s study.  I t i s hypothesized  t h a t : A " s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d " i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system provides the optimum s o l u t i o n to a number of problems i n the r e t r i e v a l of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to urban p l a n n i n g . I t i s assumed that i f an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system cannot  fulfill  the c r i t e r i a to be e s t a b l i s h e d , the o v e r a l l i n f o r m a t i o n system cannot be expected  t o be e f f e c t i v e f o r h a n d l i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to urban p l a n n i n g i n a manner.  continuous  21  REFERENCES  Roger L. C r e i g h t o n . " U t i l i z a t i o n o f Data P r o c e s s i n g i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Research." Automatic Data P r o c e s s i n g : I t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o Urban P l a n n i n g . East Lansing, I n s t i t u t e f o r Community Development, Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , I960, p. 45. p  Howard G. S c h a l l e r (ed.) P u b l i c Expenditures D e c i s i o n s i n the Urban Community. Baltimore, Maryland, The John Hopkins Press, 1962.  •5 •\F. S t u a r t Chapin, J r . and S h i r l e y F. Weiss. "Land Development P a t t e r n s and Growth A l t e r n a t i v e s " . Urban Growth Dynamics i n a Regional C l u s t e r o f C i t i e s . New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962. 4  . F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Land Development. Chapel H i l l , North C a r o l i n a , I n s t i t u t e f o r Research i n S o c i a l Science, U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a , August, 1962. 5  Robert D. Cambell and Hugh L. LeBlanc. An Informat i o n System f o r Urban P l a n n i n g . Washington, D.C. Housing and Home Finance Agency, Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , p. 86. Stanford L. Optner. "Looking a t the C i t y as a System". Report on the F e a s i b i l i t y of E.D.P. i n C i t y Planning to the Department o f C i t y Planning, C i t y of Los Angeles, by S.L. Optner and A s s o c i a t e s , 1959. 7  Roger L. Creighton et a l . "Data P r o c e s s i n g i n C i t y Planning." J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f Planners,  V o l . 25, No. 2.(May 1959), pp. 96-103.  W i l l i a m L.C. Wheat on, " P u b l i c and P r i v a t e Agents o f Change". E x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o Urban S t r u c t u r e . P h i l a d e l p h i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvania Press, 1964, p. 189. Q M e l v i n M. Webber. "The Roles of I n t e l l i g e n c e Systems i n Urban-Systems P l a n n i n g " . J o u r n a l o f the American I n s t i t u t e o f Planners. V o l . 31, No. 4 (November 1965), pp. 289-296. I b i d . , p. 294  22 i  :  i  12 1 5  l P i d . .  p.  Campbell,  I b i d . , p.  294.  o p . c i t . , p.  27.  30.  14 Information R e t r i e v a l Systems r e f e r t o automated systems f o r the purpose o f r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from departments which c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n through surveys f o r t h e i r i n t e r n a l purposes. 15 ^ W i l l i a m C u r t i s . An Information R e t r i e v a l System $or Urban Areas. Vancouver, C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g Department, February. 1965-,-- p. 2. i g  C h a r l e t o n B l o c k et a l . "Summary and F i n d i n g s " . A P r o p o s a l f o r the Establishment of an Automated P l a n n i n g and O p e r a t i o n a l F i l e by the C i t y of Los Angeles, p. 1. 17  Edward F.R. H e a r l e . "A Data P r o c e s s i n g System f o r S t a t e and L o c a l Governments". P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review. V o l . 22 (Sept. 1963), pp. 146-152. 18 L l o y d Rodwin. The Roles of the C i t y Planner. Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , East Lansing, Michigan, I n s t i t u t e f o r Community Development and S e r v i c e s . March, 1959. 19  -Mohn L. M c C l e l l a n d . Documentation. Indexing, and R e t r i e v a l of S c i e n t i f i c Information. Washington, D.C. John L. M c C l e l l a n d , Chairman, Committee on Government Operations, 86th Congress, 2nd S e s s i o n , Senate Document No. 3, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , I960. 20 Glenn 0. Johnson, "The U t i l i z a t i o n of Automatic Data P r o c e s s i n g i n C i t y P l a n n i n g " , an unpublished t h e s i s presented at the U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1963. 21 Stanford L. Dptner. "Looking at the C i t y as a System". Report on the F e a s i b i l i t y of E.D.P. i n C i t y Planning t o the Department of C i t y Planning, C i t y of Los Angeles, by S.L. Otner and A s s o c i a t e s , 1959. 22 R i c h a r d A. Johnson, Fremont E. Eask and James E. Rosenzweig. Theory and Management of Systems, New York, McGraw-Hill, 196 3 . ^  23 -'Curtis, o p . c i t . , p. 28. PA  Edgar M. Horwood et a l . U s i n g Computer Graphics i n Community Renewal. Urban Renewal S e r v i c e , Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Housing and Home Finance Agency, Washington, 25, D.C., 1963. P a u l P. Schmidt. "Some M e r i t s and M i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of S c i e n t i f i c Method." S c i e n t i f i c Monthly. January, 1956, pp. 20-24.  CHAPTER I I FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATION OF IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR CITY PLANNING  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems a r e c u r r e n t l y being developed and w i l l be extremely c o s t l y t o change when o p e r a t i o n a l . However, t h e r e i s not y e t any e x p l i c i t documentation  1  o f the  requirements t h a t these systems must f u l f i l l t o be u s e f u l i n c i t y planning.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s a r e , that  should development o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems continue and c i t y planners not document requirements, the systems w i l l soon be o p e r a t i o n a l . major adjustments  I t w i l l then be h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that  can be i n c o r p o r a t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e  informa-  t i o n handling f o r c i t y planning. I f the requirements of c i t y planners a r e t o be taken i n t o account, i t i s necessary t o develop and document c r i t e r i a i n order t o reach p r o v i s i o n a l c o n c l u s i o n s about ambiguous performance.  The b a s i c concern i s t o provide  recommendations t o serve as a b a s i s f o r decision-making by executive a u t h o r i t y .  Hence the t h e o r e t i c a l aspects a r e  s t r e s s e d i n an attempt t o provide b a s i c and exhaustive criteria.  Theytheory, and not the machinery,  i n p o s t u l a t i n g l o n g range e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a .  i s of interest The under-  l y i n g theory o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems i s examined towards t h i s purpose f o r the assessment  of competing  2§  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. A framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n i s used t o o b j e c t i v e l y analyze comparable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems from the point of view o f c i t y p l a n n i n g . it  To assure that o b j e c t i v i t y i s served,  i s necessary to compile the c r i t e r i a from evidence  independent o f a d i r e c t a n a l y s i s of one type o f system or other.  Comparing  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems based on c r i t e r i a  adopted from an a n a l y s i s o f one o f these systems cannot but r e s u l t i n biased c o n c l u s i o n s .  Only i f the system used f o r  compiling the c r i t e r i a were an i d e a l system would there be any hope o f o b t a i n i n g an o b j e c t i v e comparison.  In the two  b a s i c systems b e i n g compared, t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y not the case. An i d e a l system a g a i n s t which t o compare a c t u a l systems i s e s s e n t i a l l y what a d e t a i l e d framework f o r evaluat i o n would be.  However, i n the a l t e r n a t i v e systems to be  compared, n e i t h e r has the requirements of an i d e a l system. The b a s i c problems i n the two g e n e r a l systems are that  few  a n a l o g i e s seem t o e x i s t between the two systems f o r i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n beyond  the b a s i c  essentials.  T h e r e f o r e i t i s necessary t o compile the c r i t e r i a from f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s of i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s w i l l  directly  r e s u l t i n a minimal s e t of c r i t e r i a f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of comparable  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  However,  i t should be noted that only a minimal l e v e l o f o p e r a t i o n  26  can be assured  with these c r i t e r i a .  More d e t a i l e d c r i t e r i a  would f i r s t r e q u i r e examination o f f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l  evidence  to recommend c r i t e r i a f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . To develop c r i t e r i a from f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s of informat i o n h a n d l i n g r e q u i r e s an a n a l y s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n i n general.  The i n f o r m a t i o n process  o f simple s t e p s .  process  i n c o r p o r a t e s a number  A review o f the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s the  f u n c t i o n s o f the steps and u n d e r l y i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s ; but not a procedure f o r comparing a l t e r n a t i v e techniques any  of f u l f i l l i n g  one f u n c t i o n . I. FUNCTIONS OF INFORMATION PROCESS  The  Information The  Process  i n f o r m a t i o n process r e f e r s t o the f u n c t i o n s of  a c q u i r i n g , s t o r i n g , r e t r i e v i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g and p r e s e n t i n g d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n ; and i n the broadest a l s o cover the g e n e r a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n .  conception would F o r the purposes  of e x p l a i n i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n process, generation o f informat i o n i s segregated  from the other f u n c t i o n s .  The i n f o r m a t i o n  process a c q u i r e s i n f o r m a t i o n which i s generated from other i n f o r m a t i o n processes tion.  and i n t u r n generates i t s own  The generation o f i n f o r m a t i o n from other  processes  informa-  information  i s beyond the e f f e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f any one  i n f o r m a t i o n process.  There i s l i t t l e that can be done w i t h i n  one i n f o r m a t i o n process  t o a f f e c t the g e n e r a t i o n of informa-  t i o n from other i n f o r m a t i o n processes.^  I f t h i s were not  27 the case, d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n would he generated when -  r e q u i r e d and process.  The  there would he only the need of one initial  i n f o r m a t i o n process  information  i n a sense would  he educated to produce the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n d i r e c t l y . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n process  implies  the very c r i t i c a l concept t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n which i s s e l e c t e d for  a c q u i s i t i o n can be communicated.  A c t u a l l y , the d e c i s i o n  as to what i n f o r m a t i o n to c o l l e c t i s p a r t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by the form of generated information:. t i o n one must f i r s t  "To c o l l e c t  t r a n s l a t e one's observations  informa-  into a  t r a n s f e r a b l e , t r a n s m i s s i b l e , comprehensible form."^  This  does not r e f e r to the i n i t i a l g e n e r a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n ; an i d e a which i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e cannot be generated i n any form whether a u d i b l e , v i s i b l e or t a c t i l e , although i d e a can be i n i t i a l l y content  collected.  Given that the  such an  information  can be communicated, t h i s does not mean t h a t the  i n f o r m a t i o n can be t r a n s m i t t e d .  Survey maps must be t r a n s -  mitted i n a v i s i b l e form f o r reasons of l e g a l i t y , whereas the i n f o r m a t i o n content a u d i b l e form.  could a c t u a l l y be t r a n s m i t t e d i n an  The survey map  conveys more i n f o r m a t i o n than  i t s a c t u a l content because the form i s p a r t of the tion.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e important  to u t i l i z e the form w i t h i n  an i n f o r m a t i o n process best adapted to conveying tion.  informa-  the  informa-  S e v e r a l forms such as a u d i b l e and v i s i b l e may  actually  be used t o convey i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n any given process.  Information which i s represented  information  i n a v i s i b l e form  28 s u c h a s t h e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e may be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r i n f o r m a tion  i n an a u d i b l e  transmitted  form g i v e n t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  c a n be r e c o r d e d  being u t i l i z e d  i n w r i t t e n language.  The f o r m  w i t h i n an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s t o convey  information affects  the a c q u i s i t i o n o f information.  c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t t i m e s imposes restrictions  being  on what i n f o r m a t i o n  The  critical  c a n be a c q u i r e d  and t r a n s -  mitted. For tion  the reasons already given,  of desired information  information process. is  This  the i n i t i a l genera-  c a n n o t be g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d b y a n i s t r u e f o r when t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  g e n e r a t e d a s w e l l a s f o r what i n f o r m a t i o n  i s generated.  Hence, f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t o be a c c e s s i b l e when d e s i r e d are  storage  dependent  and r e t r i e v a l  on a n u n d e r l y i n g  functions.  there  These f u n c t i o n s a r e  i m p l i c a t i o n that r e l a t e s  t o the  characterization of information.  Identification The there  of Information  retrieval  of information,  i n fact,  i s something which i s r e c o g n i z a b l e  implies  that  i n the information  5 and  which determines whether i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e s i r e d o r n o t .  Information, which r e l a t e s in  once c o l l e c t e d , must have t h i s to the content.  terms o f i t s c o n t e n t  However, t h i s  characteristic  By i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o then r e t r i e v e i t .  implies that the information  i s reduced t o  some s e t o f s e m a n t i c symbols s o t h a t t h e c o n t e n t ,  itself,  29  does not have t o be r e t r i e v e d i n o r d e r t o determine i f i t i s required.  The s e t o f semantic symbols may r e f e r t o a d e s c r i p -  t i o n o r some o t h e r a t t r i b u t e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n .  Therefore,  i t l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w s t h a t i f i n f o r m a t i o n must be r e c o g n i z a b l e by content and t h e content  i s reduced t o a unique s e t o f  terms o f u n i q u e semantic symbols t o be r e t r i e v e d .  Informa-  t i o n r e t r i e v a l i s p o s s i b l e when i n f o r m a t i o n can be a s s i g n e d a s e t o f unique semantic symbols.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n terms  o f a s e t o f unique semantic symbols i s t h e r e f o r e fundamental t o i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems. T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n terms o f content which i s reduced t o semantic symbols.  The a c t u a l  content r e d u c t i o n i s known as i n d e x i n g a l t h o u g h ,  generally,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n terms o f semantic symbols i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o by t h i s term.  There i s a f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i c a -  t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n which can be c a r r i e d o u t . T h i s i s known as coding o r r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e t o f semantic symbols i n terms o f a s e t o f symbols such as z e r o e s and ones which p e r mits techniques  o f l o g i c and i n d u c t i o n .  T r a n s l a t i n g the s e t  o f i d e n t i f i e r s i n t o unique codes s e r v e s o n l y as a p a r t i c u l a r means f o r p e r f o r m i n g  the r e c o g n i t i o n or indexing the  information. I n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s the f i n a l f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s o r , i n more f o r m a l terms, "the i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system."  However, t o i n t e r p r e t  i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n be r e t r i e v e d  30 and t h i s assumes t h a t the method of i n f o r m a t i o n r e d u c t i o n i s taken i n t o account.  Demand must match the way  that  informa-  t i o n i s put i n t o the i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system i n o r d e r t o r e t r i e v e the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n .  T h i s matching procedure  i s c r i t i c a l because i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n a manner which can s u b s e q u e n t l y be r e t r i e v e d has t o be demanded i n a form.  The  recognizable  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the matching procedure p a r t i a l l y  determines t h e degree t o which i n f o r m a t i o n i n the  retrieval  system can i n f a c t be r e t r i e v e d . The  e s s e n t i a l problem i n r e t r i e v a l i s p r o v i d i n g an  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the p o t e n t i a l u s e r of the system.  The  i n f o r m a t i o n content must be  a b l e by a l i m i t e d s e t of symbols which serve as "Adequate and u s e f u l e v a l u a t i o n of an I.R.  represent-  identifiers.  (informational  r e t r i e v a l ) system must p r o v i d e means t o a p p r a i s e  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s a s p e c t of the system; the measure thus d e v i s e d s h o u l d be h i g h l y weighted i n any o v e r a l l f i g u r e o f c  merit." The  symbols or codes i n terms of l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems a r e the addresses of the s i t e .  The  i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s i t e can be imagined t o be reduced t o t h e address i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system. i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e t r i e v e d by g o i n g t o t h i s a d d r e s s .  The  Actually,  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s o n l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s address and  the  r e d u c t i o n t o o k p l a c e when t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d . F o r example, t h e i n f o r m a t i o n may  r e l a t e t o the number of  31 persons at a s i t e .  Only s e l e c t e d aspects  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  r e l a t i n g t o the persons w i l l have been c o l l e c t e d ;  essentially  t h i s task of s e l e c t i n g what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to r e c o r d i s a form of i n f o r m a t i o n r e d u c t i o n . p r i m a r i l y with the aspect  However, we are concerned  of addressing  i n f o r m a t i o n and  not  the form of reducing i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to r e c o r d i n g only selected characteristics i n this I I . THE  study.  PROBLEMS OP EVALUATING IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS  B a s i c Framework I t should be pointed out t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n  identifica-  t i o n w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n terms of i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the c i t y planner.  D i f f e r e n t users have d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e -  ments of i n f o r m a t i o n and  i t i s necessary  to ensure that  formal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a l l users i s p o s s i b l e although precedence must be g i v e n to c i t y A unique addressing system £s  necessary  planning.  f o r machine p r o c e s s i n g  f o r a l l users. Assessment of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems depends l a r g e l y on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of knowledge of b a s i c f a c t o r s . These b a s i c f a c t o r s r e l a t e to the purpose and mechanics of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems. o b j e c t i v e s , dynamics and ance.  S p e c i f i c a l l y they are;  the  systematic methodology of perform-  32 I t i s f e l t that these three f a c t o r s should be  utilized  i n e v a l u a t i o n procedures f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems. T h i s r e s u l t s i n e v o l v i n g a framework permissive  of i n c o r p o r a t -  i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems.  Although  the framework could be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the t h r e e b a s i c f a c t o r s and be,  i n r e a l i t y , three fused frameworks, a s i n g l e  framework should be more e f f e c t i v e f o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y evaluating c r i t e r i a .  The  b a s i c concern being t o  evaluate  c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to theory, comparison of i n f o r m a t i o n systems must n e c e s s a r i l y be more than the e v a l u a t i o n of a d d i t i v e f a c t o r s except i n the concept of the whole. p a r t s do not operate  independent of the system and  The  only by 7  r e l a t i n g the part to the whole i s comparison p o s s i b l e . Emphasis being placed on the t h e o r e t i c a l  aspects  r e s u l t s i n the framework being an a b s t r a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n .  The  cost and time i n v o l v e d i n a c t u a l l y operat-  i n g an i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system are not Each i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system has and  l o n g range e f f i c i e n c i e s may  inefficiencies.  considered.  i t s own  complexities  be the r e s u l t of current  C r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to -theoretical aspects  a r e l o n g range and w i l l not be as q u i c k l y outmoded by panding the i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system.  ex-  Furthermore, by  emphasizing the u n d e r l y i n g theory i t should be p o s s i b l e to evaluate, w i t h i n the context  of the framework, i n d i v i d u a l  p a r t s of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems. P a r t s which f u l f i l context  comparable f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the  of the framework are evaluated  l a t e r i n terms of t h e i r  r e s p e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n systems.  By comparing a b s t r a c t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e i r o p e r a t i o n i n a consistent~manner, a" meaningful e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s can c a r r i e d out.  be  I t i s not the a b s t r a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of opera-  t i o n s which are a p p l i e d per se, but the c r i t e r i a .  This  n e c e s s i t a t e s c a r r y i n g out the a p p l i c a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y and measuring the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p a r t w i t h i n the framework.  The  framework does not change and  t h e r e f o r e i t should  be p o s s i b l e to evaluate p a r t s f u l f i l l i n g comparable f u n c t i o n s . T h i s framework f o r systematic  evaluation  permits  a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i v e p a r t s of competing systems and c l u s i o n s as to the comparative a p p l i c a b i l i t y of r e t r i e v a l systems f o r s p e c i f i c purposes. c l o s i n g time and  con-  information  A framework en-  cost c r i t e r i a would a l s o be b e n e f i c i a l but  t h i s i s secondary to the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of p r o v i d i n g recommendations r e l a t i n g t o l o n g range e v a l u a t i o n .  Therefore  f o l l o w i n g e v o l u t i o n of a framework does not enclose  the  these  criteria. Work Done on E v a l u a t i n g Information R e t r i e v a l Systems There has been a great d e a l of work done on s e l e c t e d f a c e t s of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems but a review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t few attempts outside of l i b r a r y systems have been made to provide the means f o r examining a l t e r n a t i v e systems i n respect to t h e i r purpose.  In planning,  a number of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems have been proposed  34 and developed but the l a c k o f a framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n l i m i t s the f u t u r e development.  Without a means f o r examining  a l t e r n a t i v e systems the b e n e f i t s of i n n o v a t i o n of s u b s t i t u t i n g comparable p a r t s are l e f t to c o n j e c t u r e , i  The development  o f s e l e c t e d f a c e t s of i n f o r m a t i o n  r e t r i e v a l systems has been brought about t o extend techniques t o handle g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n than t r a d i t i o n a l l y possible.  The methods of indexing f o r r e t r i e v a l of d e s i r e d  i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d then handle only s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f common i n f o r m a t i o n .  The v a s t i n c r e a s e i n i n f o r m a t i o n  relat-  i n g to p l a n n i n g has been brought about by the i n c r e a s e i n i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s and the need f o r more informat i o n f o r d e c i s i o n making. There have been a number of attempts to develop i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems f o r l i b r a r y use.  Techniques  are c u r r e n t l y being t e s t e d t o represent books more f u l l y than t r a d i t i o n a l l y p o s s i b l e i n the l o c a t i o n system.  Documents  a r e machine s t o r e d and handled and i n a sense the i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system provides a means of h i g h speed browsing. There have been a number of other developments based on librarians'  i n d e x i n g methods and automated methods.  There  have been a number a c t u a l l y developed and although the c u r r e n t value o f these i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems may l i m i t e d , the p o t e n t i a l i s not. these systems i s dependent  be  Any l o n g range e v a l u a t i o n of  on a s c e r t a i n i n g :  35 1. the b a s i c o p e r a t i n g  characteristics,  2. t h e volume of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be accommodated, 3. 'the degree o f r e l e v a n c e and r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e retrieved  information,  4. t h e e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n and u t i l i z e a system, q 5. t h e economics o f t h e system. There i s a f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n problem: "A r e l a t e d problem i s t h e l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f d a t a elements i n common use and t h e codes used t o r e p r e s e n t those elements. While t h i s l a c k i s a problem of l o n g s t a n d i n g ,  predating  t h e computer by many y e a r s , t h e advent o f e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g has r a i s e d the problem t o a p o s i t i o n o f h i g h priority. I n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n a form which can be used by a l l those who r e q u i r e i t .  Traditionally,  information  was c o l l e c t e d r e s p e c t i v e t o t h e s p e c i f i c use of t h e organization collecting i t .  T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g adverse e f f e c t s . 1. S i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o l l e c t e d and s t o r e d by d i f f e r e n t groups without  c o n s i d e r a t i o n being g i v e n t o the  i n f o r m a t i o n which has a l r e a d y been c o l l e c t e d . The i n f o r m a t i o n i s s i m i l a r , but because i t i s used f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes i t i s i n a d i f f e r e n t form. ing  Duplication i n collect-  the s t o r i n g information r e s u l t s . 2. I n f o r m a t i o n which i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i s i d e n t i -  f i e d i n a manner which cannot be used except f o r t h e o r i g i n a l  36 purpose f o r which i t was he used without more d i f f i c u l t  collected.  p r i o r conversion and  The  i n f o r m a t i o n cannot  the conversion may  than the task of c o l l e c t i n g the  3. Information  collected  he  information.  and used i n a non-automated  form must g e n e r a l l y he automated to be used f o r other than the i n i t i a l purpose.  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y slow and  difficult  to t r a n s f e r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and keep i t up-to-date. Ignorance on the user's part i n regard to the s p e c i f i c knowledge w i t h i n the i n f o r m a t i o n system or the methods used to reduce knowledge to i t s coded i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a d i f f i c u l t y which i s independent of machine or manual operation.  The  not machinery.  problem i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e d u c t i o n and  Machines can speed up the o p e r a t i o n under  some c o n d i t i o n s but they may at  coding,  be i n f l e x i b l e and i n e f f i c i e n t  times. Information p r o c e s s i n g i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s i s more  efficient  i f manually c a r r i e d  out.  The p o t e n t i a l  usefulness  of machine p r o c e s s i n g i s l o s t when o n l y a s m a l l amount of i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be processed  or when complex a n a l y s i s  cannot be reduced t o a s e t of r i g o r o u s o p e r a t i o n s .  In these  cases a common indexing or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system would f a c i l i t a t e other users of t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n but machine p r o c e s s i n g may  be i n e f f e c t i v e although  i t may  be  beneficial  f o r other u s e r s to put the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a machine usea b l e form.  Once the i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n a form which can  used by the machine the i n f o r m a t i o n can be used a g a i n  be  and  37 again.  T h e r e a f t e r the i n f o r m a t i o n can he used as b a s i c  i n f o r m a t i o n or as secondary i n f o r m a t i o n . A simple manual system of r e t r i e v i n g  information  w i l l o f t e n provide d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n seconds whereas a proposed machine system w i l l r e q u i r e h o u r s . ^  In the  manual case, the u s e r may  information  be able to go to the  or d i r e c t a search i n the r i g h t l o c a t i o n .  The  simple  user i s  aware of the existence of c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i n the manual system although h i s request may  be made i n ignorance  i n f o r m a t i o n i n an automated system.  The u s e r may  of the  not  be  f a m i l i a r w i t h the automated methods of r e d u c t i o n of knowledge to coded i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  This d i f f i c u l t y  i s less  l i k e l y to a r i s e with manual systems than with automated systems. S p e c i a l purpose i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems are o f t e n very e f f e c t i v e .  R e s u l t s can be obtained w i t h  machine a s s i s t a n c e and  the operations  can be made simple. to  little  e i t h e r are simple  or  These systems are g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d  search f u n c t i o n s and  the machine a s s i s t a n c e c o n t r i b u t e s  very l i t t l e more than p o s s i b l e by s t r i c t l y manual means. The  i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y r e l a t e d t o one  i n f o r m a t i o n r e d u c t i o n i s unique. t i o n i n one  s u b j e c t and  s u b j e c t and  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  the  informa-  completeness of i n f o r m a t i o n reduc-  t i o n i s the reason f o r e f f e c t i v e  search.  In some municipal departments, only a s p e c i a l purpose i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system may  be warranted.  This poses  38 a s e r i o u s problem t o planners who r e q u i r e the i n f o r m a t i o n , but, as was mentioned i n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s  chapter,  cannot g r e a t l y a f f e c t the g e n e r a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n from t h a t department.  F o r the c i t y planners  t o conduct a survey  would be t o d u p l i c a t e the f a c i l i t i e s of that department f o r i  information c o l l e c t i o n .  To meet the needs of a department,  other than t h e p l a n n i n g department, a s p e c i a l  purpose  r e t r i e v a l system may be a l l that i s r e q u i r e d , but t o meet the needs of t h e p l a n n i n g department, a g e n e r a l purpose r e t r i e v a l system i s r e q u i r e d . S o l v i n g t h i s problem i s a d i f f i c u l t  task.  The work  t h a t has been done towards t h i s end has g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t e d i n posing a common i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system.  I t i s also  p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h i s system could be used by most ments and s t i l l be r e t r i e v e d tion collected  depart-  f o r a n a l y s i s r e q u i r i n g informa-  by s e v e r a l departments.  Hence t h e purpose  o f a g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system are achieved as w e l l as those  of s p e c i a l purpose i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l  systems f o r some departments. In order t o guard a g a i n s t a f a l l a c i o u s view of the resulting  g e n e r a l purpose i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system i t s  o r g a n i z a t i o n should be explored.  The s p e c i a l purpose  informa-  t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems used by s p e c i f i c departments form the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n stage of a g e n e r a l i z e d r e t r i e v a l system.  To do t h i s r e q u i r e s a common i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system  so t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n can be used between departments.  39  The i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system which c i t y p l a n n e r s need to keep a check on t r e n d s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the c i t y i s g e n e r a l purpose i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system.  the  The p l a n n i n g  department may a l s o conduct i t s own surveys i n which case t h e p l a n n i n g department would use i t s own s p e c i a l purpose information r e t r i e v a l system.  It i s quite l i k e l y that only  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system would be common to a l l d e p a r t ments . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a common i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r most departments w i t h i n t h e c i t y s o l v e s the problem of r e q u i r i n g u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y of a r e t r i e v a l system.  The  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system i s not r e a l l y u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e ; the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s . i s recognized,  Once t h i s  factor  the work done on e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  r e t r i e v a l systems can be put i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e . " " 1  A number  1  o f the problems r e l a t i n g t o l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n have a r i s e n because c i t y p l a n n e r s have not a s s i m i l a t e d t h i s factor. Data p r o c e s s i n g e x p e r t s seem not t o have  differentiated  the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems adequately to define the p a r t s .  Therefore,  any knowledge  where the p a r t s f i t has been o n l y from o p e r a t i o n a l  of  knowledge.  But i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  between  the d e p a r t m e n t a l l e v e l and the i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems a number of c r i t e r i a can i m m e d i a t e l y be a s c e r t a i n e d .  Had the d a t a p r o c e s s i n g  experts  40  broken a g e n e r a l purpose system i n t o l e v e l s  of r e t r i e v a l  systems and the component p a r t s of each; then the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g these component p a r t s would have been  relatively  easily ascertained. I I I . FRAMEWORK FOR THE EVALUATION OF IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR CITY PLANNING A Minimal Set of C r i t e r i a The r e a l i z a t i o n which i s u n i v e r s a l l y  t h a t i t i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  a p p l i c a b l e and not s p e c i a l  system  purpose  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems, a i d s i n c l a r i f y i n g what c r i t e r i a are e s s e n t i a l departments.  f o r the r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n from  F i r s t , the c r i t e r i a r e l a t e t o the  special  purpose r e t r i e v a l system used w i t h i n departments. these c r i t e r i a r e l a t e  to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which  must be common t o a l l departments c o l l e c t i n g  location-  oriented information.  F i n a l l y , the c r i t e r i a must  between the two l e v e l s  of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l  An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must f u l f i l l requirements r e l a t i n g to the s p e c i a l r e t r i e v a l systems. is collected  Second,  distinguish  systems. essential  purpose i n f o r m a t i o n  This i s the l e v e l at which  information  and without i n f o r m a t i o n , the value o f an  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system i s academic a t best.  These  requirements depend on the o b j e c t i v e s of c o l l e c t i n g the information.  Engineering departments i n c i t i e s g e n e r a l l y  c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h maintenance  and  41 construction tasks.  Such t h i n g s as s t r e e t maintenance  g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s t h a t a l o c a t i o n he very a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i fied. and  Assessors''departments conduct f i e l d surveys c o n t i n u a l l y  t h e r e f o r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n from the s t r e e t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r  e f f i c i e n t operation.  P l a n n i n g departments c o l l e c t  informa-  t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the p h y s i c a l environment and r e q u i r e that i n f o r m a t i o n be i d e n t i f i e d so t h a t i t can be analyzed in flexible spatial units. An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must be common t o a l l departments c o l l e c t i n g l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n .  This  requirement i s e s s e n t i a l i f there i s t o be a g e n e r a l purpose i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system.  Without o n e , c i t y  planners  w i l l have t o conduct t h e i r own surveys and t h i s has been shown t o be an unacceptable  a l t e r n a t i v e . I t should be  pointed out, however, t h a t there i s no. inherent reason why the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which i s common t o a l l departments has t o be the same one t h a t i s used w i t h i n the departments. Two l e v e l s o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems could be used w i t h two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  This  would n e c e s s i t a t e t r a n s l a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d a t the inter-department warranted.  l e v e l but i n s p e c i f i c instances t h i s may be  However, the minimal c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n  would remain the same. The  e s s e n t i a l requirement from the p o i n t of view o f  c i t y p l a n n i n g i s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the p h y s i c a l environment be permissive  of being grouped r e l a t i v e to  42 different areal units. A l i m i t a t i o n which i s v e r y r e l e v a n t f o r planning d e c i s i o n s i s the d i f f i c u l t y caused by d i f f e r e n t sources u s i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n area u n i t s upon which t o base t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n . Often the i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n non-comparable u n i t s because the d i f f e r e n t u n i t s are juxtaposed  over one another.  This  r e s u l t s i n a kaleidoscope of base areas which must be manually broken down to the lowest common denominator and b u i l t up a g a i n to areas s u i t a b l e f o r a n a l y s e s .  Manual  grouping o f areas i s time consuming because the areas must be c o n t i n u a l l y checked f o r e r r o r s and c o m p a t i b i l i t y .  Informa-  t i o n c o l l e c t e d at the b l o c k l e v e l such as t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n per block, cannot be used at a lower l e v e l such as the p o p u l a t i o n f o r any p a r t i c u l a r household.  Grouping  blocks  i n t o a l a r g e r g e o g r a p h i c a l area f o r a n a l y s i s purposes i s a l s o c o s t l y u n l e s s the i n f o r m a t i o n i s automated.  Accurate  and r a p i d a n a l y s i s of change i n urban areas t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s t h a t machine p r o c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n be  utilized.  The b a s i c d i f f i c u l t y to be overcome i n implementing a coordinated approach to i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l r e l a t e s to surveys being custom-designed f o r p a r t i c u l a r Surveys tend t o be conducted the geographic  purposes.  a t the l e v e l of d e t a i l and  on  b a s i s r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of a n a l y s i s  r e q u i r e d of the i n f o r m a t i o n being c o l l e c t e d f o r a s p e c i f i c problem or purpose.  I t would, however, i n no way  impinge  upon the accuracy of any survey i f a b a s i c g e o g r a p h i c a l u n i t  43 and  c o n s i s t e n t methodology were adopted f o r the c o l l e c t i o n  and  t a b u l a t i o n of d a t a . For any department t o use the c o l l e c t e d data f o r  i n t e r n a l use i t i s necessary that t h e lowest common s t a t i s t i c a l a r e a u n i t he adopted. to c o l l e c t data r e l a t e d t o planning  The i d e a l u n i t on which i s the i n d i v i d u a l p a r c e l .  U s i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r c e l i s the most expensive because o f the l e v e l of d e t a i l but the i n d i v i d u a l p a r c e l i s the lowest common u n i t and t h e r e f o r e can be used e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y or grouped t o make up l a r g e r u n i t s f o r a n a l y s e s . way  In t h i s •  the s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t serves m u l t i p l e purposes.. A number of problems a r i s e i n r e c o r d i n g data other  than on an i n d i v i d u a l p a r c e l b a s i s .  The f i r s t  problem  r e l a t e s t o the permanency o f the b a s i c geographical  unit.  I f the boundaries change t h e u n i t cannot be used as a s t a b l e building unit.  This presents the problem o f u t i l i z i n g  large  areas u n i t s which may be only o f h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e because o f changing c o n d i t i o n s and s h i f t i n g s o c i a l  patterns.  These u n i t s may r e q u i r e a d j u s t i n g t o account f o r changes. I f the boundaries of the u n i t s are adjusted,  continuity i s  l o s t between t h e data c o l l e c t e d p r i o r to the adjustment and a f t e r the adjustment. not  I f the boundaries of the u n i t s a r e  changed the u n i t s l o s e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r  social-economic p a t t e r n s . s i z e of the a r e a u n i t .  analyzing  The second problem r e l a t e s to the  The l a r g e s t b a s i c u n i t f o r t a b u l a t i n g  data cannot be too l a r g e t o be a common denominator which can  44  be used f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes.  The  s i z e of the u n i t i s  about i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the cost of c o l l e c t i n g data f o r that s i z e of a u n i t .  However, the cost of  collecting  the data s e v e r a l times w i t h s u i t a b l e boundaries f o r s p e c i f i c analyses  may  increase the cost to an extent  that i t would  have been more e f f i c i e n t t o have c o l l e c t e d the d a t a on b a s i s of a s m a l l e r s i z e i n i t i a l l y .  The  the  f i n a l problem a r i s e s  i n r e l a t i n g a l o c a t i o n a l index to the s t a t i s t i c a l area u n i t . This i s s e s s e n t i a l l y a cross-reference  which r e q u i r e s that a  unique p o s i t i o n be a l l o c a t e d f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l area u n i t . Without having a unique p o s i t i o n to which to a l l o c a t e informat i o n t h i s would be The  difficult.  requirements which are r e f e r r e d to above are  r e a l l y minimal f o r o p e r a t i o n a l purposes.  An  identification  system which could not f u l f i l l these requirements could be e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d  in city  not  planning.  Framework f o r E v a l u a t i o n The  framework f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of  systems f o r l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n  identification  incorporates  only  the e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i a f o r a s s u r i n g o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . These are g e n e r a l i z e d  to enable an o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n  comparable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use at the  of  planning  department l e v e l as w e l l as the inter-department l e v e l . framework can be segmented i n the f o l l o w i n g manner:  The  45  1. The automation,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must he compatible  (a) Therefore  with  the l o c a t i o n code or address must  u n i q u e l y d e f i n e the l o c a t i o n and hence the p o s i t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to t h a t l o c a t i o n ,  (b) I t must be  p o s s i b l e to d i r e c t l y group i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o f l e x i b l e  area  units. 2. The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must be able to a c t  as a common system f o r inter-department 3. The w i t h continuous  use.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must be field  compatible  surveys.  At t h i s time i t should be mentioned that the requirements r e l a t i n g t o the i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g represented  by  the  l o c a t i o n code or address have the g r e a t e s t importance t o  any  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system whether i t i s to be automated or not. The way  t h a t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n i s  g e n e r a l l y thought of i s as a p o s i t i o n i n space.  The  machine  however, works on the b a s i s of l i n e a r l o g i c and hence cannot r e a l l y p o s i t i o n information.  The  be a l l o c a t e d a p o i n t on a l i n e .  i n f o r m a t i o n must a c t u a l l y This makes the aspect  of  u n i q u e l y a l l o c a t i n g a p o i n t more c r i t i c a l f o r mechanized systems than f o r manual systems.  I t i s considered  to mention t h i s because manual systems are analyzed the framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n .  advisable to t e s t  46 Summary I f c i t y planners are to have t h e i r requirements  information  taken i n t o account "wihen inter-department  t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems are being developed document t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n requirements.  been done i t i s necessary  then they must As t h i s has  not  t o analyze the i n f o r m a t i o n process  of c o l l e c t i n g and ;;assimilating i n f o r m a t i o n . a d v i s a b l e to concentrate  informa-  I t was  on the t h e o r e t i c a l aspects  deemed of  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems i n order to e s t a b l i s h a framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n .  I t was  found  t h a t only segments of  these systems are being worked on at present.  In order to  put the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n problem i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s necessary  to examine the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between  i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l and departmental systems.  I t was  information r e t r i e v a l  found t h a t there i s a common i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system h o l d i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system together. The departmental  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems supply  i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e the requirements  the  necessary f o r  t h e i r o p e r a t i o n were adopted f o r the framework.  In a l l  likelihood  depart-  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system used at the  mental l e v e l would a l s o be used at the level. uniquely  inter-departmental  The most e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n i s that i n f o r m a t i o n be identified.  47 REFERENCES  "'"Peter L e c k i e . Information Systems - C i t y of Vancouver, September, 1965, p. 4. 2 A r t h u r Anderson and Co., Research Study of C r i t e r i a and Procedures f o r E v a l u a t i n g S c i e n t i f i c Information R e t r i e v a l Systems. S p r i n g f i e l d , Va., O f f i c e of T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s , Department of Commerce, 1962, p. 13. •5  ^Anderson, I b i d . , p. 13.  ^Robert D. Campbell and Hugh L. LeBlanc, An Informat i o n System f o r Urban Planning, Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Housing and Home Finance Agency, (Washington, U.S. Government P r i n t ) 1965, p. 2. 5  Anderson, I b i d . , p. 13. 6  I b i d . . p. 23.  7  I b i d . , p. 8.  I b i d . . p. 8. ^United States Bureau of the Budget, Report to the P r e s i d e n t on the Management o f Automatic Data P r o c e s s i n g i n the F e d e r a l Government (Washington Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1965), p. 47. 8  C . N . Moors, The Next Twenty Years i n Information R e t r i e v a l . American Documentation, V o l . i i , No. 3, J u l y I960, p. 229. 10  "^Anderson, o p . c i t . , p. 8.  CHAPTER I I I THE EVALUATION OP IDENTIFICATION-SYSTEMS FOR USE WITH LOCATION-ORIENTED INFORMATION  I t has been suggested t h a t the framework f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems and i t s r e l a t e d  criteria  can be used t o make an approximate estimate of t h e way i n which an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system w i l l f u l f i l l requirements. fill  operational  An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which can not f u l -  these requirements could not be used f o r the continuous  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n from surveys.  To t e s t the  framework, h i s t o r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems are evaluated; s i n c e they a r e not d i r e c t l y compatible with automation, they should not be a b l e t o f u l f i l l the minimum r e q u i r e ments. There i s a f u r t h e r aspect t o the e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems which r e l a t e s t o the problem of communicating  the i n f o r m a t i o n once i t has been c o l l e c t e d .  T h i s i s d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y because, although a system can not  be used i n the c o l l e c t i o n  of i n f o r m a t i o n from surveys i t  may have u t i l i t y i n the communication  of that  information.  In educating the m u n i c i p a l executive t h i s becomes an important  aspect of the planners' r o l e .  Information, once c o l l e c t e d ,  must be analyzed and communicated and t h i s may have serious ramifications for identification  systems.  49 Before changing the b a s i c assumptions of t h i s alternative  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems are t e s t e d .  t i o n cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y c o l l e c t e d , and  t h e r e f o r e t h i s aspect I . TESTING THE  study,  I f informa-  i t cannot be  communicated  i s dealt with f i r s t . FRAMEWORK FOR  EVALUATION  Purpose of T e s t i n g the Framework f o r E v a l u a t i o n A framework f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems tends to become obsolete q u i c k l y i f p r a c t i c a l and  not t h e o r e t i c a l  c r i t e r i a are i n c o r p o r a t e d .  hand, the framework may  On the  it  other  be u s e l e s s i f the c r i t e r i a are  general that e v a l u a t i o n i s reduced t o mere value without any  criteria  empirical basis.  so  judgement  F o r both of these reasons,  i s necessary to t e s t the framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n i n  order to c l a r i f y the scope o f the framework needed and nature of the r e l e v a n t The  criteria.  framework e s s e n t i a l l y  c r i t e r i a and  incorporates  three  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems each of which l a c k s one In t h i s way  what e f f e c t the other two The  basic  t h e r e f o r e the e v a l u a t i o n o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  systems i s probably best demonstrated by t e s t i n g  requirements.  the  i t should  three  of the  be p o s s i b l e to  c r i t e r i a have i n the  basic  see  evaluation.  b a s i c requirements are that an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system  be compatible with automation, f i e l d  surveys and  sized  Existing  p h y s i c a l u n i t s of comparison.  systems are evaluated  different  identification  r e l a t i v e to these c r i t e r i a i n order  to  50 permit e v a l u a t i o n o f the framework.  One of the assumptions  o f t h i s study i s that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems a r e compatible with automation and by e v a l u a t i n g systems which a r e not compatible w i t h automation r e l a t i n g t o automation.  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o assess  criteria  T h i s i s an i n d i r e c t means o f t e s t i n g  the framework but i t i s the only way that e m p i r i c a l  evidence  can be used which i s r e l e v a n t ; y e t separate from the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system t o be evaluated.  I f the hypothesis  i s based upon e s s e n t i a l l y the same e m p i r i c a l evidence as the framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n , i t i s necessary t o f i r s t t e s t the framework b e f o r e t e s t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s .  This, i n i t s e l f , i s  not a s m a l l task, but by o r g a n i z i n g the o u t s i d e e m p i r i c a l evidence i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s i m p l i f y the t a s k .  In t h i s  case,  h i s t o r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems a r e i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n c l u d e d so that every c r i t e r i o n i s t e s t e d . The purpose  of t e s t i n g the framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n  i s e s s e n t i a l l y that the framework i s based upon t h e same e m p i r i c a l evidence as i s the hypothesis and t h e r e f o r e i t must be t e s t e d with independent Subsequently,  empirical  evidence.  i t should be p o s s i b l e t o t e s t the hypothesis  w i t h i n t h i s framework.  I n t h i s study the hypothesis r e f e r s  to one o f two a l t e r n a t i v e methods of i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and hence the a l t e r n a t i v e method should a l s o be t e s t e d w i t h t h i s framework.  I f they both f u l f i l l the necessary r e q u i r e -  ments then the hypothesis i s l i k e l y to be too g e n e r a l to explain anything.  I f the a l t e r n a t i v e method r e f e r r e d t o i n  51 the hypothesis requirements  i s the only one which f u l f i l l s the necessary  then i t i s t o be f a v o r e d .  t h a t the hypothesis disproved.  This does not imply  i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d ; only t h a t i t i s not  Even t h i s , however, depends on t e s t i n g the frame-  work f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use i n c i t y p l a n n i n g . The E v a l u a t i o n of H i s t o r i c a l Systems f o r A s s i g n i n g Addresses H i s t o r i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r a s s i g n i n g addresses  a r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems such as those used i n  p o s t a l a d d r e s s i n g , and were e s t a b l i s h e d before t h e r e was a need f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h automation.  They a r e e s s e n t i a l l y  manual systems, and as such, g e n e r a l l y l a c k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e q u i r e d by automation. requirements  The t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of these  i s r e l a t e d t o the unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a  s i t e about which i n f o r m a t i o n i s recorded.  In h i s t o r i c a l  systems, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y coupled with human knowledge o f the p r o x i m i t y of the area and t h e r e i s no unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The address  s t r e e t i s the co-ordinate i n t h i s system and the-  i s the code which i s assigned t o the s i t e .  The s i t e  can a l s o be r e f e r r e d t o as the b a s i c s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t .  The  numbering o f these s i t e s or b a s i c s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t s g e n e r a l l y begins a t some a x i s and progresses the a x i s .  s e q u e n t i a l l y away from  There i s g e n e r a l l y a f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n of the  c i t y by s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n s .  Two s i t e s on the same s t r e e t  52  but separated by an i n t e r s e c t i o n w i l l l i k e l y be i d e n t i f i e d by addresses which a r e n u m e r i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t by about one hundred.  A t times s i t e s on opposite s i d e s of the same s t r e e t  are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the l a s t d i g i t of the address.  In  t h i s case, the address of a s i t e on one s i d e of the s t r e e t w i l l end i n an even number while the address o f the s i t e on the opposite s i d e o f the s t r e e t w i l l end i n an odd number. By knowing the names of the s t r e e t s and the numbering technique it  i s possible to locate a s p e c i f i c  site.  I f the s t r e e t name i s not known, however, the " address cannot be l o c a t e d .  An i n d i v i d u a l l o o k i n g f o r an  address would be r e q u i r e d t o l o o k a t an index map of the city.  F o r example, the a x i s may be i n an east-west  direction  and a north-south d i r e c t i o n and without knowing the s t r e e t or whether the address was east, west, n o r t h or south, s e v e r a l addresses would have t o be checked.  The point t o  be made here, i s that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s based on a f a m i l i a r i t y o f the l o c a t i o n o f addresses and s t r e e t s . The b a s i c requirement o f systems being compatible with automation i s not f u l f i l l e d system.  i n this  identification  The reason that i t i s not, r e l a t e s t o the ambiguity  i n the address.  Without knowing the s t r e e t s t h e r e i s no  inherent method of l o c a t i n g the d e s i r e d s t r e e t and even then t h e r e may be two addresses which have the same numerical address separated only by an east, west or n o r t h , south prefix.  Automation  cannot handle t h i s because the addresses  53 are not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  a l l o c a t e d t o the s i t e s and t h e r e f o r e  there i s not a unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f every s i t e i n the city.  This  i s known as the problem of l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l and  f o r automation i t i s necessary that an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system use  sequential  numbering.  Without t h i s , there i s not adequate  location control. When an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r p o s t a l addresses u t i l i z e s sequential  numbering of s t r e e t s  ( o r i g i n a t i n g from  the i n t e r s e c t i o n of two axes) adequate l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l may e x i s t f o r automation.  C i t i e s which conform e n t i r e l y to the  " m i l i t a r y g r i d " method of d e s i g n i n g s t r e e t s a r e a case i n point. not  I f the s t r e e t s have been numbered s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and  named randomly, as most s t r e e t s w i t h i n  c i t i e s have, a  knowledge of the technique of numbering s t r e e t s and s i t e s i s adequate t o l o c a t e any address.  Hence l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l and  unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e x i s t and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system should be compatible w i t h automation. The  c r i t e r i a incorporated  i n the framework f o r evalu-  a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h automation has t h e r e f o r e been v e r i f i e d .  The aspect of unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s b a s i c  t o c o m p a t i b i l i t y with automation i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. By a n a l y z i n g  the p o s t a l address method of i d e n t i f y i n g s i t e s i t  i s p o s s i b l e t o c l a r i f y t h i s w i t h e x i s t i n g evidence. theoretical basis  of the requirements r e l a t i n g t o automa-  t i o n may be v e r i f i e d with e m p i r i c a l f o r e be accepted.  The  evidence and can t h e r e -  54 Rather than numbering the s t r e e t s and s i t e s i t i s p o s s i b l e to number areas surrounded which are g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d  by s t r e e t s .  These areas  " b l o c k s " can then be s e q u e n t i a l l y  numbered s t a r t i n g from one p o i n t of o r i g i n i n the c i t y with the blocks numbered p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n the c i t y u n t i l b l o c k i s numbered.  every  When the c i t y conforms to the m i l i t a r y  g r i d , s e q u e n t i a l numbering i s extremely  simple.  There i s a s e r i o u s problem i n s e q u e n t i a l numbering r e l a t i n g to u t i l i z i n g anything but i n d i v i d u a l blocks f o r analysis.  There i s almost no l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l i n t h a t  a d j o i n i n g blocks may  have very d i f f e r e n t numbers.  A block  which has been assigned a number w i l l be one number l e s s than an a d j o i n i n g b l o c k and one number more than an a d j o i n i n g b l o c k on one a x i s .  However, the a d j o i n i n g blocks  the opposite a x i s are not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y numbered.  on  The  numbering system i s systematic only from the o r i g i n and t h e r e f o r e only area u n i t s of s i n g l e b l o c k s i z e can normally be used f o r a n a l y t i c a l The requirement  purposes. t h a t an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system be  compatible w i t h d i f f e r e n t s i z e d u n i t s i s not f u l f i l l e d i n t h i s system.  Although the blocks are u n i q u e l y  identified  they cannot be r e a d i l y grouped or d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by s e c t o r s o f the c i t y .  S e q u e n t i a l numbering i s not r e a d i l y a d a p t i b l e  f o r a n a l y s i s of other than b l o c k s i z e d area u n i t s . C r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g t o t h i s requirement be c l a r i f i e d .  can t h e r e f o r e  I f d i f f e r e n t a r e a l u n i t s can be r e a d i l y formed  55  f o r a n a l y s i s then the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system can be s a i d to meet these c r i t e r i a .  That s e q u e n t i a l numbering of  blocks  does not meet these c r i t e r i a shows t h a t i t f u l f i l l s a l i m i t i n g f u n c t i o n on the number of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r comparisons The relating  s e q u e n t i a l numbering system meets the c r i t e r i a  to c o m p a t i b i l i t y with automation because each  block i s uniquely By not  identified.  including c r i t e r i a relating  to a r e a l u n i t s f o r  a n a l y s i s , s e q u e n t i a l numbering would be considered a b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system.  an  accept-  Hence, the c r i t e r i a are e s s e n t i a l  f o r a framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n . The  c i t y has been d i v i d e d i n t o a number' of  u n i t s such as census t r a c t s f o r s p e c i f i c purposes.  area These  area u n i t s are g e n e r a l l y d i v i d e d f u r t h e r i n t o such u n i t s as enumeration areas. a n a l y s i s and  not  However, these u n i t s are used f o r  f o r continuous c o l l e c t i o n  I t i s necessary to c o l l e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n area than the enumeration a r e a . site level.  F o r the intended  of  information.  for a  smaller  T h i s i s u s u a l l y done at  the  purpose the area u n i t g e n e r a l l y  works w e l l but r e l i e s on maps f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  It  only be used because i t i s p o s s i b l e to c o l l e c t the  informa-  t i o n f o r a s m a l l e r area such as the s i t e and form the enumeration a r e a s .  can  group s i t e s to  This n e c e s s i t a t e s manipulation  of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r i o r to r e c o r d i n g then must be i d e n t i f i e d by a map.  i t f o r area u n i t s which  Information that cannot  be  56 c o l l e c t e d and d i r e c t l y recorded i n r e l a t i o n to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system n e c e s s i t a t e s p r i o r m a n i p u l a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and hence i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h d i r e c t machine p r o c e s s i n g . I f the same a r e a u n i t of a n a l y s i s was  suitable f o r a l l  purposes t h i s would not be such a problem; but they are not, and i t i s a problem. Unit areas such as enumeration areas are not g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  They work w e l l f o r  s p e c i f i c purposes of a n a l y s i s but not f o r the continuous c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a v a r i e t y of purposes. c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to continuous c o l l e c t i o n and  If  compatibility  w i t h automation were not i n c l u d e d , t h i s system would be acceptable as a g e n e r a l purpose i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system.  That enumeration areas a r e not a c c e p t a b l e shows the value of i n c l u d i n g these c r i t e r i a .  They l i m i t the number of  systems f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e leave the systems f o r s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n which l i k e l y warrant such a t t e n t i o n . The framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n has been  tested.  I t i n c o r p o r a t e s approximate c r i t e r i a a r r i v e d a t from analyses of the p r i n c i p l e s of the i n f o r m a t i o n process which if fulfilled  would assure that an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system has  a t l e a s t minimal o p e r a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l .  A f u r t h e r observa-  t i o n can be made r e l a t i n g t o an h i s t o r i c a l p o s t a l addressing system: those systems having unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s i t e s and s e q u e n t i a l systematic numbering  of s t r e e t s f u l f i l l the  57  e s s e n t i a l requirements f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h automation.  As  they have h i s t o r i c a l l y been used f o r continuous c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n  i n the f i e l d these c r i t e r i a are  f u l f i l l e d as w e l l as the use of d i f f e r e n t s i z e d u n i t s f o r analysis.  F u l f i l l i n g the c r i t e r i a incorporated  framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n  i n the  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s form of i d e n t i f i c a -  t i o n system should be researched f u r t h e r f o r use i n informat i o n r e t r i e v a l systems. I I . EVALUATION OF BASIC ALTERNATIVE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS The G r i d Co-ordinate I d e n t i f i c a t i o n System A g r i d co-ordinate system i s superimposed on a and the l o c a t i o n of a p h y s i c a l s i t e s may  map  then be i d e n t i f i e d  by the nearest i n t e r s e c t i o n of c o - o r d i n a t e s .  The measure-  ment u n i t of the base g r i d i s o p t i o n a l but i s g e n e r a l l y some m u l t i p l e  of t e n f e e t .  In Los Angeles the proposed  base g r i d u n i t was one thousand f e e t .  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the  s c a l e which f a c i l i t a t e s d i r e c t machine p r i n t i n g can be used. The base g r i d i n t h i s case i s g e n e r a l l y s i x to eight v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s per i n c h . the base g r i d i s superimposed on a map  In e i t h e r case, of the c i t y .  The base g r i d i s superimposed on the c i t y and addresses of s i t e s o r a n a l y s i s areas may  then be i d e n t i f i e d by l o c a t i n g  i n t e r s e c t i o n s of the h o r i z o n t a l l i n e and v e r t i c a l  line  58 i n t e r s e c t i o n nearest the center of the s i t e or a n a l y s i s area being i d e n t i f i e d .  The h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l l i n e s are  numbered s e q u e n t i a l l y and hence the s i t e or a n a l y s i s area i s assigned the c o - o r d i n a t e numbers f o r the h o r i z o n t a l l i n e and v e r t i c a l l i n e .  The  intersecting  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  s e v e r a l s i t e s and a l a r g e r a n a l y s i s area i s shown i n F i g u r e 1.  (Page 59)  The g r i d  c o - o r d i n a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must  be t e s t e d a g a i n s t the framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n .  As  now  has  a l r e a d y been mentioned t h i s system has been shown to be h i g h l y compatible  w i t h automation.  T h i s , however, must be  v e r i f i e d ; and b a s i c c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to automation do not r e q u i r e c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h machinery only.  Information must  be u n i q u e l y i d e n t i f i e d such as a s s i g n i n g each p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n a number and as the superimposed g r i d  co-  ordinates are s c a l e d from maps t h i s becomes p r o b l e m a t i c . Information r e l a t i n g to areas f a l l i n g between c o - o r d i n a t e s must be i d e n t i f i e d by i n t e r p o l a t i n g the l o c a t i o n of the a r e a from the nearest c o - o r d i n a t e s .  By a l l o c a t i n g  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s manner i t i s p o s s i b l e to g i v e the same area s e v e r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  T h i s r e s u l t s i n ambiguity  Therefore t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s  not r e a l l y compatible  w i t h automation.  Theoretically, i t  provides absolute c o n t r o l of l o c a t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n but by attempting to superimpose an a b s t r a c t g r i d on the p h y s i c a l c i t y , the p r a c t i c a l v a l u e i s s a c r i f i c e d .  There i s a f u r t h e r  59 CO CM  t"— C O co co o o  VO  CTi  V O CO CTiCTN  CO  CO CO  I—I CO CO  CM CO CO  £•067  P065 00640 00638 00634 0063  0061  Note:  400  1  Grid, =  0065  1878  40;': G r i d = 00638  18768 ( S i t e A)  20' G r i d = 00640  18796 ( S i t e B.)  FIGURE  1  GRID CO-ORDINATE  BAB  60  problem r e l a t e d t o a b s t r a c t i o n s from the p h y s i c a l c i t y .  The  g r i d i s superimposed on a map which may not be a p e r f e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the c i t y t o begin w i t h .  Using a d i f f e r e n t  map would r e s u l t i n a d i f f e r e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  What has  been mistaken f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y with automation i s a c t u a l l y ease o f machine r e p r o d u c t i o n .  This i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t .  There i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e between an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system being compatible  with the d i r e c t r e p r o d u c t i o n of  i n f o r m a t i o n and the unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h a t tion.  informa-  This i s not g e n e r a l l y r e a l i z e d because i n f o r m a t i o n  i s d i r e c t l y reproduced space and an address  by being p o s i t i o n e d a t a p o i n t i n  i s thought o f as a point i n space.  Seemingly then, i n a formal sense, an address  i s a point i n  space f o r s t o r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n i s reproduced a t a p o i n t i n space.  As the co-ordinate system can be very  e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d t o reproduce i n f o r m a t i o n and i n a formal sense both s t o r i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n and reproducing  i t are  thought of i n the same way, the c o - o r d i n a t e system should be e f f e c t i v e f o r s t o r i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l . true.  " S p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f addresses  T h i s i s not  i n such a space a r e not  m e t r i c a l , and c o n v e n t i o n a l co-ordinate systems a r e not d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o the formal storage problem."" " 1  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n can be achieved by a l l o c a t i n g a number o f address  t o a s i t e but the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the g r i d co-  o r d i n a t e r e l a t i v e to d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s achieved a t the expense of being a b l e t o e f f i c i e n t l y a l l o c a t e  61 addresses  f o r continuous  surveys.  Surveys are g e n e r a l l y  conducted from the s t r e e t and the p r o b a b i l i t y of e r r o r s i s extremely  high unless s i t e s are numbered s e q u e n t i a l l y from  the s t r e e t .  Information  on the s t r e e t i t s e l f i s o f t e n  r e q u i r e d and yet the g r i d co-ordinate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system cannot i d e n t i f y a s t r e e t by one number unless t h a t s t r e e t happens to be coterminous w i t h a g r i d l i n e .  This i s seldom  the case and hence the s t r e e t i s i d e n t i f i e d by a s u c c e s s i o n of p o i n t s which cannot be r e t r i e v e d at the same time. complex s t r e e t p a t t e r n can be represented u n i n t e l l i g i b l e group of numbers.  only by a v i r t u a l l y  Because p o i n t s are p o s i -  tioned f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n the g r i d co-ordinate  operates  e f f e c t i v e l y f o r t h i s purpose but not f o r continuous Complex and  curbed  A  surveys.  s t r e e t p a t t e r n s are i n f a c t unmanageable  w i t h i n the g r i d co-ordinate system f o r the above  reasons.  The S t r e e t - o r i e n t e d I d e n t i f i c a t i o n System The  s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system adopts the  s t r e e t s w i t h i n the c i t y as the c o - o r d i n a t e s , and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n s them s e q u e n t i a l numbers.  These s t r e e t s are the b a s i c  g r i d which f i t s the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the s t r e e t s whether they are curved  or s t r a i g h t .  Such a b a s i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system  2 has been developed  f o r the C i t y of Vancouver.  East-west  s t r e e t s have been assigned numbers above f i v e hundred while north-south  s t r e e t s have numbers below f i v e hundred with a  r e s e r v e of numbers provided f o r p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e s t r e e t s .  62 T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system as  the  system f o r p o s t a l addresses f o r a s t r e e t system which r i g i d l y conforms to the m i l i t a r y g r i d .  The  only d i f f e r e n c e i s that  the c o - o r d i n a t e l i n e s curve to f i t the streets.  This The  i s shown i n F i g u r e  street-oriented  configuration  of  the  2, page 6 3 .  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s u t i l i z e d  w i t h a more systematic numbering technique than that normally employed f o r p o s t a l addresses.  By a l l o c a t i n g addresses  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s assured and the r e l a t i n g to unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a are  hence ful-  filled. The  s t r e e t s are the  co-ordinates and  are numbered  s e q u e n t i a l l y w i t h a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l of l o c a t i o n .  Hence  any  s i z e d area ranging from an i n d i v i d u a l s i t e to the whole c i t y can be u t i l i z e d f o r a n a l y s i s . The and  numbering technique assures that both the  the s i t e s are numbered s e q u e n t i a l l y and  hence  streets  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s compatible with continuous surveys. The  street-oriented  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f u l f i l l s  the necessary requirements f o r at l e a s t minimum potential.  This  e s s e n t i a l part  i s a major accomplishment because  of i n f o r m a t i o n  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the relevant  operational the  r e t r i e v a l i s the unique  information.  However, t h e r e are  f a c t o r s t o be considered such as communicating  information  once i t i s c o l l e c t e d and i d e n t i f i e d .  other the  CO CM CM  536  538  CM CM  r o t e : S t r e e t S e c t i o n A = 536 225  ;  S t r e e t . S e c t i o n B = 225 536  FIGURE 2 STREET-ORIENTED MAP-  64  I I I . CHANGING THE ASSUMPTION UPON WHICH THE STUDY IS BASED The Purpose f o r Developing An important  aspect  a System of the m u n i c i p a l planners'  r e l a t e s t o a d v i s i n g the executive  role  (to make r a t i o n a l and  i n f o r m a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s ) and t h i s can he aided by having a mechanical means o f assembling i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s p l a y i n g i t visually.  This aspect can be d e a l t with by changing  the b a s i c assumption that an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must be compatible  w i t h automation f o r the b a s i c purpose o f c o l l e c t -  ing information. I f the primary reason f o r developing an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s changed from the c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o the a n a l y s i s and d i s p l a y o f that i n f o r m a t i o n there a r e s e r i o u s r a m i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e design o f the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system.  The g r i d co-ordinate  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has been documented  as being most e f f e c t i v e f o r u t i l i z i n g v i s u a l a i d s to f a c i l i t a t e communication between s p e c i a l i s t s and laymen. The  i n f o r m a t i o n i s p o s i t i o n e d by machine and a map p r i n t e d  by a machine from i n f o r m a t i o n f e d i n t o the machine i s a s p e c t e c u l a r example of what can be done by automated systems. However, t h i s has been used p r i m a r i l y as a c a r t o g r a p h i c and d i s p l a y method r a t h e r than f o r r e s e a r c h purposes. These v i s u a l a i d s can subsequently use  be i n t e r p r e t e d by  of an o v e r l a y of some r e c o g n i z a b l e f e a t u r e s such as s t r e e t  65 patterns, overlay The  Reproduction o f the v i s u a l a i d and transparent  can he made on a s i n g l e p r i n t t o f a c i l i t a t e  map i s a c t u a l l y p r i n t e d as a g r i d of type  display.  characters  which completely covers the map and the i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r i n t e d f o r any a n a l y s i s  zone.  When the a n a l y s i s zones a r e r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d and l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n are r e q u i r e d purposes, t h i s method works extremely w e l l . be d i s p l a y e d  by p o s i t i o n i n g information  areas being analyzed. processing  for display Trends can a l s o  i n sequence f o r  Automated mapping i s e f f e c t i v e when  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of information  for large  analysis  areas that a r e r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d such as f o r census t r a c t s . The  d i s p l a y can a l s o be of a s p a t i a l p a t t e r n such as mapping  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of welfare cases and urban b l i g h t .  In  t h i s way, areas r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s can be q u i c k l y located. There i s a l i m i t a t i o n t o the s c a l e that can be used f o r d i s p l a y which i s s e t by the spacing o f the standard symbols o r characters of symbols.  used as w e l l as the a v a i l a b l e kinds  That curves a r e represented as a s e r i e s of  v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s because of the s p a c i n g of the characters  i s not a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n when the s c a l e i s  f o u r inches t o the mile or g r e a t e r .  Fixed  zones negate use  of f l e x i b l e a n a l y s i s zones f o r v i s u a l d i s p l a y but the g r i d nature o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system does not i n i t s e l f l i m i t the d i s p l a y t o r e c t a n g u l a r  plans.  I r r e g u l a r plans  66 can be d i s p l a y e d g i v e n an a p p r o p r i a t e  grid  size.  It i s c u r r e n t l y p o s s i b l e to d i s p l a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks once they are i d e n t i f i e d .  The  p r i n t provides  quick v i s u a l check of the accuracy of the system.  From f i v e to t e n patterns and  p l o t t e d as w e l l as a map  of assigned  a  identification  time contours can  volumes.  Display  be  of  the d e n s i t y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems i s an e f f e c t i v e use these machines. and  The  time f o r p l o t t i n g t r a f f i c  of  assignments  d i s p l a y i n g t r a f f i c volumes i s g r e a t l y reduced by use  of  mapping machines. The  D i s p l a y Capacity The  of the S t r e e t - o r i e n t e d System  s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system has  yet been developed f o r d i r e c t v i s u a l d i s p l a y of However, d i s t a n c e s are recorded  not  information.  f o r a l l s t r e e t s and  system has been used e f f e c t i v e l y f o r o r g a n i z i n g the  the routing  procedures of t r u c k s . As the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system has been used f o r r o u t ings which r e q u i r e absolute ing  of d i s t a n c e s  be developed.  l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l and  the  record-  i t seems probable t h a t v i s u a l d i s p l a y could  I t i s not  p r e s e n t l y developed and  until i t  i s , there i s a problem of i n s t a l l i n g a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r both i n f o r m a t i o n purposes and  d i s p l a y purposes.  collection  T h i s must be s e r i o u s l y checked  before a s i n g l e general purpose i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s developed w i t h i n any  city.  67 The s o l u t i o n  t o t h e problem of which i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system t o adopt f o r s p e c i f i c purposes can be p a r t i a l l y c l a r i f i e d by an understanding of the purposes of developing a system.  However, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t there w i l l be s e v e r a l  purposes f o r developing any one system and p o s s i b l y the only solution  may be t o develop an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r  c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r d i s p l a y i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n .  In t h i s case the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system f o r d i s p l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n may be f o r use o n l y w i t h i n the planning department and not f o r a l l the departments  with-  in a city. Summary The b a s i c element of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l i s the unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n .  The s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f u l f i l l s t h i s requirement a t l e a s t w e l l enough to assure a minimum o p e r a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l .  The  framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n was t e s t e d t o ensure t h a t i t i s objective.  The framework i s based on the assumption that  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems are developed f o r the purpose of identifying  information collected  This assumption i s changed.  from continuous surveys.  When the purpose of developing  an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s the communication once i t has been c o l l e c t e d ;  of i n f o r m a t i o n  the g r i d co-ordinate  t i o n system has the r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  identifica-  which have not  y e t been developed f o r the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system. and  The information  therefore  must f i r s t he c o l l e c t e d , however,  the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system  f u l f i l l s the necessary requirements.  69  REFERENCES  Anderson, and Procedures f o r R e t r i e v a l Systems, Commerce, 1962, p.  A r t h u r and Co. Research Study of C r i t e r i a E v a l u a t i n g S c i e n t i f i c Information S p r i n g f i e l d , Va., U.S. Department of 26.  2  C i t y Engineering Department, An Information R e t r i e v a l System f o r Urban Areas, "Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. ^ U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, U s i n g Computer Graphics i n Community Renewal. Urban Renewal S e r v i c e (Urban Renewal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Housing and Home Finance Agency, Washington D.C.)', 1963.  CHAPTER IV A STREET-ORIENTED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF  The  THE  CITY OF VANCOUVER  B.C.  framework f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  systems f o r l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n  enables an  objective  comparison to be made i n order to assure that a minimum l e v e l of operation  can be performed.  To e s t a b l i s h more r e f i n e d  c r i t e r i a i t -is necessary to examine f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l evidence. it  As there  i s no a v a i l a b l e body of such evidence  i s necessary to examine a study where a b a s i c a l l y work-  a b l e system has  been used.  Only i n t h i s way  can recommenda-  t i o n s as to more r i g o r o u s t e s t i n g procedures and  the develop-  ment of r e f i n e d c r i t e r i a be made f o r e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use i n c i t y  planning.  Once t h i s i s done, the c r i t e r i a w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y have a p p l i c a b i l i t y f o r other than the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system studied.  Recommendations based on a s i n g l e study are  a p p l i c a b l e t o the system being are a p p r o p r i a t e  examined i n t h i s study.  f o r other i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems only i f a l l  r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s are equal.  I t i s u n l i k e l y that t h i s  occur without: a n a l y z i n g the r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s such as o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n which the system i s u t i l i z e d ; establishing identical conditions. described  They  here, observations  will the  and  For the case study  are made which are a p p l i c a b l e  71 o n l y t o the case study.  Although c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g  iden-  t i f i c a t i o n systems other than the one being s t u d i e d cannot be made from these observations, i n f e r e n c e s about  criteria  f o r e v a l u a t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems having widespread a p p l i c a b i l i t y can be drawn. A p p r o p r i a t e and u s e f u l recommendations must from a conscious be  evolve  e x p r e s s i o n o f the purpose of the methods to  evaluated and the means of f u l f i l l i n g t h a t purpose.  Recommendations made without l i k e l y to attract  regard t o p r a c t i c a b i l i t y a r e  l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n ; e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to  i n f o r m a t i o n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems which a r e being developed. The b a s i c purpose f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems i n c i t y i s the problem of having t i o n which planners need.  other departments c o l l e c t  i s very d i f f i c u l t  informa-  Except f o r making a v a i l a b l e the  i n f o r m a t i o n which i s normally it  planning  c o l l e c t e d by other departments,  f o r c i t y planners  t o induce  departments t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r them. reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t c i t y planners  these  The b a s i c  have not made e x p l i c i t  t h e i r purposes f o r c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and how t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n must be i d e n t i f i e d .  G e n e r a l l y , recommendations  are made by c i t y planners r e g a r d i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems without  the p r a c t i c a l means of implementing them.  Ideal  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r c i t y planning have been proposed but no p r a c t i c a l means of implementing them or even how they can be used without  p r i o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the types and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d .  72  I . THE PURPOSE AND METHOD OP CONDUCTING THE CASE STUDY The Purpose The purpose of the case study i s t o t e s t the s t r e e t oriented information i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system w i t h land use patterns which are by nature d i s c r e t e rather than  continuous.  R e s i d e n t i a l land use i s composed of subdivisions which are d i s c r e t e p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s rather than s i t e s which are continuous segments of the c i t y .  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems are  generally developed with the s i t e , or the s t r e e t bounded area known as the block, as the l e v e l of a n a l y s i s rather than d i s c r e t e land use patterns. With a p r i o r knowledge of which s i t e s a r e included w i t h i n a s u b d i v i s i o n , i t i s possible t o i d e n t i f y the subdivision.  The s u b d i v i s i o n i s not i d e n t i f i e d ; the p h y s i c a l  l o t s or s i t e s are.  Land use u n i t s tend t o be d i s c r e t e and  yet i t i s necessary t o i d e n t i f y the i n d i v i d u a l l o t s .  This  s o l u t i o n to the problem of providing desired information f o r a n a l y s i s of s u b d i v i s i o n does not correspond with the associated need f o r analyzing subdivisions to determine the i  optimal combination of s i t e s . I n d u s t r i a l land use tends t o be composed of i n d u s t r i a l parks and i d e n t i f y i n g the i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r y s i t e of the t o t a l area does not f a c i l i t a t e understanding f a c t o r i e s provide the optimal combination.  of which An i d e n t i f i c a -  73  t i o n system i s used i n the a n a l y s i s of f a c t o r y l o c a t i o n s t h e r e f o r e should  and  be able to s a t i s f y the demand f o r informa-  t i o n on d i s c r e t e land use  patterns.  S i t e s w i t h i n s u b d i v i s i o n s and  i n d u s t r i a l parks are  g e n e r a l l y connected by s t r e e t s which tend to be one most permanent s t r u c t u r e s made by man.  of the  S t r e e t r e l o c a t i o n or  widening tends to be extremely c o s t l y and  once a s t r e e t  system i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s not g e n e r a l l y r e l o c a t e d . Hence i t seems that a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d system i s  acceptable  as a means of i d e n t i f y i n g the a b u t t i n g s i t e s f o r purposes o f a n a l y z i n g optimal  combinations ©f land  use.  In order to examine combinations of s i t e s  within  s u b d i v i s i o n s f o r p h y s i c a l environment s t u d i e s i t i s necessary t h a t the l o c a t i o n of a s i t e w i t h i n a s u b d i v i s i o n be as w e l l as the type of s u b d i v i s i o n . done; but any  identified  C u r r e n t l y , t h i s can  be  only by p r i o r knowledge of which s i t e s compose  specific subdivision.  I d e n t i f y i n g s u b d i v i s i o n s p r i o r to  being able to u t i l i z e an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system represents time consuming task f o r c i t y planners.  Therefore  a  a study i s  c a r r i e d out to determine what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are e s s e n t i a l f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s u b d i v i s i o n s and  f o r the subsequent examina-  t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e means of doing t h i s . Generally,  c l u s t e r s w i t h i n s u b d i v i s i o n s which are  nature d i s c r e t e , tend to c o n s i s t of only a few l o t s .  The  r e s i d e n t i a l c l u s t e r or group of houses f a c i n g each other seems to be a more b a s i c element than the neighbourhood.  by  74 Hence the l e v e l of a n a l y s i s being c a r r i e d study r e l a t e s  out i n t h i s case  t o the c l u s t e r as the b a s i c element of r e s i d e n t i a l  l a n d use. The  s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s  analyzed r e l a t i v e t o the r e s i d e n t i a l  cluster.  T h i s necess-  i t a t e s examining the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r area u n i t s g r e a t e r than the i n d i v i d u a l block.  s i t e but s m a l l e r than the c i t y  The l o t s i n the b l o c k can be s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i n which  case the boundaries would be l a n e s . are  (Street-bounded blocks  described e a r l i e r i n t h i s study.) A n a l y s i s a t a more d e t a i l e d  l e v e l than the b l o c k  l e v e l has g e n e r a l l y been regarded t o r e q u i r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n only of the i n d i v i d u a l  s i t e and not the r e s i d e n t i a l  cluster.  Research has concentrated on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the s i t e . The  s i t e i s of course the lowest common denominator and  t h e r e f o r e must be u n i q u e l y i d e n t i f i e d .  But t h i s i n i t s e l f ,  i s not adequate f o r examining s u b d i v i s i o n s which a r e d i s c r e t e by nature and c o n s i s t  of more than an i n d i v i d u a l  site.  What i s r e q u i r e d of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s a f u r t h e r degree of l o c a t i o n  control  by unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n alone. clusters  T h i s i s necessary i f  a r e t o be i d e n t i f i e d without p r i o r knowledge o f  which s i t e s comprise a s u b d i v i s i o n . to sample d i f f e r e n t first and  than that n e c e s s i t a t e d  With t h i s i t i s p o s s i b l e  types of s u b d i v i s i o n s without having t o  compile a l i s t i n g of a l l s u b d i v i s i o n s of any one type  t h e i r constituent s i t e s .  75  The Method  o f Conducting  the Case Study  A s i d e from the purpose of conducting a case it  study,  i s necessary t o document the conceptual l e v e l of which a  method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o he c a r r i e d out. u l t i m a t e purpose i s t o have recommendations  As the  r e l a t i n g to  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems implemented the i d e a l  conceptual  l e v e l should r e l a t e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t o the o p e r a t i o n a l level.  I n terms of the a t t e n t i o n l i k e l y t o be g i v e n to the  u l t i m a t e recommendations  by m u n i c i p a l executives i t i s  necessary that there be a means of implementing these recommendations systems.  i n operational information i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  The conceptual l e v e l must t h e r e f o r e be v e r y c l o s e  to the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l t o the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l or must f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y simulate i t . The u s e f u l n e s s of these recommendations  to other  than p l a n n i n g departments w i l l depend to a l a r g e degree on whether these can be implemented f o r surveys. necessary t o : f i r s t ,  If i t is  i d e n t i f y the s i t e and t h e r e f o r e the  i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h a t s i t e ; and then have t o u t i l i z e some f u r t h e r technique to implement the recommendations, they a r e u n l i k e l y to be implemented i n any department but the planning department.  As most of the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  c i t y planners i s c o l l e c t e d outside o f the p l a n n i n g department, the f u t i l i t y o f these recommendations t o c o l l e c t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n . have to conduct  can be seen r e l a t i v e  The p l a n n i n g department would  a survey of the whole c i t y t o implement  76 these  recommendations. To f o r e s t a l l t h i s , p r a c t i c a l means of implementing  recommendations needed.  a t the l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n a r e  Should i t be shown that these cannot be  a t the survey l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n , then i t may  be necessary  f o r c i t y planners t o conduct t h e i r own surveys. to accept t h a t t h i s i s necessary without a  fulfilled  Merely  comprehensive  a n a l y s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n at the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l i s t o ignore any i n f l u e n c e that c i t y planners are l i k e l y to have on the development  o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  It  may be necessary t o have a separate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r use only by the planning department. efficiency,  t h i s should be implemented  In the i n t e r e s t s of only as a l a s t  r e s o r t and even then a method of c o n v e r t i n g to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system used at the i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l l e v e l i s e s s e n t i a l . An assumption of t h i s study i s that the recommendat i o n s are t o be o r i e n t e d towards the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l of identifying  information.  Hence the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n must be  unique as w e l l as i n c o r p o r a t i n g the recommendations.  The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must f i r s t be compatible w i t h a t l e a s t minimal o p e r a t i v e p o t e n t i a l b e f o r e more r e f i n e d c r i t e r i a are a p p l i e d to i t . A workable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s used as the b a s i s upon which to t e s t a l t e r n a t i v e means of the  site.  identifying  The a l t e r n a t i v e means account f o r a v a r y i n g degree  of c o n t r o l f o r f a c t o r s other than unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  77 A c o - o r d i n a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which can he c l a s s i f i e d as a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s c u r r e n t l y being implemented i n the C i t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia i s used as the b a s i c system.  I t has been  documented that the advantages of t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system are m a n i f o l d .  1  I t can be used a t the l e v e l o f : i n d i v i d u a l  b u i l d i n g s ; s i t e s ; a c i t y block, e i t h e r s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d and bounded by lanes or bounded by s t r e e t s ; the s t r e e t or segment of the s t r e e t or lane i n c l u d i n g the i n t e r s e c t i o n ; and any area w i t h i n the c i t y . requirements  The system meets the  f o r machine use and continuous  finally,  necessary  field  surveys.  F u r t h e r , the system w i l l provide an e f f i c i e n t means of i d e n t i f y i n g land value i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n of assessed land v a l u e s .  mechanical  R e l a t i v e to c l u s t e r s  and d e t a i l e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such d i s c r e t e areas system d i s t i n g u i s h e s between: major s t r e e t s and s t r e e t s ; north-south and  east-west  s t r e e t s ; and,  the  minor corner and  other s i t e s . For the purpose o f i d e n t i f y i n g s u b d i v i s i o n s , these f a c t o r s do not provide a comprehensive enough i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to be used without p r i o r knowledge of which s i t e s comprise a s u b d i v i s i o n . The s u b d i v i s i o n may  be a c l u s t e r of four or  f i v e s i t e s i n the center of a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d b l o c k .  There  i s no e x p l i c i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s c l u s t e r which d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from the r e s t of the b l o c k e x c l u d i n g the corner s i t e s .  Only c l u s t e r s of f o u r s i t e s  surrounding  78 i n t e r s e c t i o n s can be r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the remainder of the r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the c i t y .  As these represent  only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l number o f c l u s t e r s i n the c i t y , a f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l u s t e r s i s r e q u i r e d . The s i t e s surrounding i n t e r s e c t i o n s may not be p a r t s o f the same c l u s t e r but may be o r i e n t e d towards s i t e s i n the b l o c k . U t i l i z i n g i n t e r s e c t i o n s i t e s f o r purposes  of examining  c l u s t e r s would then lead to spurious r e s u l t s . The examination o f the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n s begins w i t h t h e c l u s t e r which i s then i d e n t i f i e d . way the p h y s i c a l environment  i s g i v e n the focus o f a t t e n t i o n  r a t h e r than the means of i d e n t i f y i n g i t .  Planners a r e  p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the p h y s i c a l environment the techniques f o r a n a l y z i n g t h i s s u b j e c t .  not with  To l i m i t the  p e r s p e c t i v e only t o the means and not be b a s i c a l l y i n the fundamental  In t h i s  interested  reason f o r u t i l i z i n g the means i s l i k e l y  to r e s u l t i n a p r a c t i c a l o p e r a t i o n a l technique which s e v e r e l y l i m i t s the p e r s p e c t i v e . it  To assure that t h i s does not occur  i s necessary that the method of conducting the study  r e f l e c t s the importance  of the purpose and only then, the  means of a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e . Means a r e u t i l i z e d  t o achieve some d e s i r e d  but they tend t o a f f e c t the purpose.  The means l i m i t the  p e r s p e c t i v e o f the d e s i g n e r u n l e s s the purpose concern.  result  i s the prime  C o n c e n t r a t i o n p r i m a r i l y on the means and not the  purpose l e a d s t o s t r i c t l y pragmatic progress towards d i f f u s e  79  objectives.  A study cannot r e f l e c t the primary purpose i f  the approach begins s o l e l y at the means. kept i n p e r s p e c t i v e  The means must be  i f they a r e not t o s e r i o u s l y a l t e r the  purpose. R e f l e c t i n g these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the case study i s conducted by a s s e s s i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s a c l u s t e r o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f such a c l u s t e r . ive  s o l u t i o n s to the problem o f i d e n t i f y i n g such c l u s t e r s  are posed and t e s t e d under simulated The  Alternat-  conditions  o f use.  c o n d i t i o n s a r e those under which surveys a r e t o be  conducted.  This approach p l a c e s the proper p e r s p e c t i v e on  the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g c l u s t e r s and the means of identification. I I . THE IDENTIFICATION OF RESIDENTIAL CLUSTERS A l t e r n a t i v e Methods of I d e n t i f y i n g C l u s t e r s and T h e i r Evaluation The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u b d i v i s i o n s presupposes that  aspects of s u b d i v i s i o n s can be i d e n t i f i e d .  Being concerned  here w i t h how s u b d i v i s i o n s r e l a t e t o l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems, only the l a t t e r are considered, i n t h i s way i t ' i s p o s s i b l e t o focus on the problem without a l o n g d i s c u s s i o n on s u b d i v i s i o n s . The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n aspects of s u b d i v i s i o n s  i s assumed t o be more important than other aspects.  These  aspects r e l a t e t o the l o c a t i o n o f s i t e s w i t h i n the block and  80 are assumed to be: the corner s i t e s of any i n t e r s e c t i o n ;  the  p o s i t i o n of a s i t e r e l a t i v e to those surrounding  it;  the  arrangement o f s i t e s i n o r d e r along the s t r e e t .  The  street  c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s a l s o important R e l a t i v e to the street-bounded  for subdivision analysis. block the lanes become  important and a problem a r i s e s as to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of blocks which are d i v i d e d i n h a l f by a s i n g l e lane; are d i v i d e d i n quarters by "H"  shaped l a n e s ; have no lanes or  only p a r t i a l l a n e s ; are d i v i d e d i n h a l f by lanes but a number of s i t e s have no lane a c c e s s .  The  identification  of these b a s i c types of blocks would g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e p h y s i c a l environmental s t u d i e s . There are a l t e r n a t i v e methods of i d e n t i f y i n g  sites  i n the c i t y while r e t a i n i n g the b a s i c s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d system. As development of s i t e s i s g e n e r a l l y more compatible  on  opposite s i d e s of s t r e e t s than a c r o s s l a n e s , i t seems important  to r e t a i n t h i s system.  accomplished,  T h i s can be  readily  but which a l t e r n a t i v e provides the optimum  s o l u t i o n i n l i g h t of the f o r e g o i n g assumptions? The a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s i s t o f : s e q u e n t i a l l y numbering the s i t e s from one corner w i t h one s i d e of the s t r e e t g i v e n even numbers and the opposite s i d e , odd numbers; s e q u e n t i a l l y numbering the s i t e s from the middle middle  of one b l o c k to the  of the next b l o c k on the same s t r e e t ; and  numbering  the s i t e s w i t h i n a s t r e e t bounded b l o c k s t a r t i n g from corner s i t e and c o n t i n u i n g u n t i l that s i t e i s a g a i n  one  reached.  81 The  l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e can he adapted t o g i v e a f u r t h e r  a l t e r n a t i v e but t h i s i s d e s c r i b e d l a t e r i n t h i s study. alternatives  These  a r e shown i n F i g u r e 3, page 82 and a r e numbered  i n the order g i v e n above. These a l t e r n a t i v e s not are:  required  provide f o r l o c a t i o n  controls  f o r unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s i t e s .  corner s i t e s are r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d  The  controls  from other than  corner s i t e s ; the s i d e o f the s t r e e t which the s i t e i s on i s distinguished the  by whether the l a s t number i s odd or even;  p o s i t i o n of a s i t e from one corner i s given i f numbers  are not saved f o r f u t u r e  s i t e s or s u b d i v i s i o n  of e x i s t i n g  sites. Taking i n t o account that development g e n e r a l l y  occurs  more s i m i l a r l y across a s t r e e t than across a l a n e , and c l u s t e r s are oriented street-oriented  towards a s t r e e t i t seems that a '  s i t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s preferable.  A  f u r t h e r reason i s that surveys, conducted from the s t r e e t , are more compatible w i t h s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d Information f o r both s i d e s  identifications.  of the s t r e e t can be c o l l e c t e d  a t the same time and as the s i t e s a c r o s s s t r e e t s a r e generally  more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  than the s i t e s across  l a n e s t h i s i s c l e a r l y an advantage.  U t i l i z i n g a street  bounded b l o c k tends t o negate the f u n c t i o n a l  relationships  of land use which i s s i m i l a r across the s t r e e t and l e s s so a c r o s s the l a n e .  8.2  536 -  in CM  A 2  I tfo 4$ odd  in OJ CM  4  6  8  10  Alternative I  536 2" tc 48 eve n  50 to 98 even  Alternative 2  536  flbte:  S i t e A = 536 225 02. S i t e B = 536 225 07  2  4  6  I  3  5' 7  8 10 9  JB 1  in  A l t e r n a t i v e "5>  CM C\J  FIGURE 3 ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF NUMBERING SITES  83 Before a c c e p t i n g s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d  site identification,  however, a f u r t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e " i s pointed out r e l a t i v e t o the  street-bounded b l o c k which can be adapted t o s t r e e t -  oriented  site identification.  This a l t e r n a t i v e  provides  more l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l than the other a l t e r n a t i v e s , but l i k e l y at the expense o f being able t o r e a d i l y conduct surveys to c o l l e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n .  This a l t e r n a t i v e i s shown i n  F i g u r e 4, page 84. Alternatives alternatives.  can be mechanically converted t o other  The a l t e r n a t i v e with the g r e a t e s t  location  c o n t r o l , however, would l o s e a degree o f that l o c a t i o n cont r o l upon conversion t o any other a l t e r n a t i v e .  F o r example,  a s i t e i n the middle o f the block may be i d e n t i f i e d so that it  can be c l e a r l y denoted as such by one a l t e r n a t i v e but  upon conversion, t o any other a l t e r n a t i v e , the p o s i t i o n o f the  s i t e i n the b l o c k may be l o s t .  I t i s important to  mention t h i s i n regard t o the a l t e r n a t i v e shown i n F i g u r e 4. This a l t e r n a t i v e  i d e n t i f i e s the l o c a t i o n o f any one  s i t e r e l a t i v e to those e i t h e r on both s i d e s and across the s t r e e t or on both s i d e s and across the l a n e ; the i n t e r s e c t i o n s a t both ends of the s t r e e t which the s i t e i s on; and the arrangement of s i t e s along the s t r e e t from  either  corner. There are problems involved  i n u t i l i z i n g t h i s form  of s i t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and they r e l a t e t o Only twenty o r twenty-five s i t e s between  administration. intersections  ® /  ©\ ©/  ® \  Numbering Mechanism  5>36  ©  ® I  2  2  I  I  2  2  I  c  0  tr\ CM CM  Nbte:Site C = 536 2 2 5 52  FIGURE 4 A METHOD OF NUMBERING SITES  85 f a c i n g one  s t r e e t can be  f o r t h i s purpose. s i t e s w i t h two  i d e n t i f i e d by u t i l i z i n g two  digits  o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s can i d e n t i f y 99  The  d i g i t s and  there are blocks w i t h more than  t w e n t y - f i v e s i t e s f a c i n g one  s t r e e t from one  direction in  Vancouver. The  major c r i t i c i s m of t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s not  more than two not  d i g i t s may  d i r e c t l y record  that he  be r e q u i r e d  but  that  that a person can-  the s i t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n at the  i s c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r that s i t e .  same time It i s  necessary to have the s i t e i d e n t i f i e d u n i q u e l y before information i s c o l l e c t e d . cannot be  corrected  Any  d u r i n g the  s e q u e n t i a l l y numbered, but  errors i n i d e n t i f y i n g s i t e s survey because s i t e s are  must be picked up l a t e r .  are a l s o problems i n a s c e r t a i n i n g f o r survey purposes i s the  one  i f the  not  There  site identified  f o r which i n f o r m a t i o n i s being  collected. A person on f o o t , conducting a survey needs to a b l e t o s t a r t at one  i n t e r s e c t i o n and  successively  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r every s i t e on that s t r e e t . the  i n f o r m a t i o n he must be  and  hence the s i t e s must be s u c c e s s i v e l y  i n t e r s e c t i o n t o the next. being considered, the from two  oriented  be  record  While c o l l e c t i n g  from one  intersection  i d e n t i f i e d from  one  In the form of s i t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  s i t e s are i d e n t i f i e d s u c c e s s i v e l y  i n t e r s e c t i o n s t o the center of the b l o c k .  o r i e n t a t i o n i s from two  i n t e r s e c t i o n s and  would have to s t a r t at one  The  a person on  i n t e r s e c t i o n and  walk f i r s t  foot to  86 the middle  of the b l o c k and then go t o the other  t i o n and walk back to the same s i t e .  intersec-  For continuous  surveys  of the whole c i t y t h i s i s considered to be too tedious and time consuming.  A l s o , i t would be v i r t u a l l y impossible to  a d m i n i s t e r which route a person should use while information.  As s i t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  collecting  are to be checked by  the person on f o o t i t i s imperative t h a t a r e a d i l y ascertaina b l e s i t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n method be used.  I f the person  f o o t cannot v e r i f y the method of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  on  check  f o r any r e c o r d e r r o r s such as s i t e s which have been subd i v i d e d but not recorded as such; the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s l i k e l y to have only l i m i t e d use f o r surveys. From the p o i n t of view of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d system i s A l t e r n a t i v e one f o r i d e n t i f y i n g  collec-  essential.  s i t e s i s c l e a r l y the best  from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a n d p o i n t .  However, i t f a i l s to  c l e a r l y p r o v i d e a number of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r s which are b a s i c t o the a n a l y s i s of p h y s i c a l environment.  A method of  identifying  requirements  s i t e s which f u l f i l l s the necessary  f o r c i t y p l a n n i n g cannot be used i n the a c t u a l c o l l e c t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n .  Information that i s i d e n t i f i e d by a  g e n e r a l i z e d method such as the one which can be s o l v e d f o r the s p e c i a l i z e d  method and  only the  readily specialized  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n method can be mechanically converted to the g e n e r a l i z e d method.  On the other hand, only the g e n e r a l i z e d  method can be r e a d i l y used f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n  87 and once i d e n t i f i e d , the i n f o r m a t i o n cannot be converted to the  specialized  Observations and  method of i d e n t i f y i n g  information.  Implications  Conversions can be made only from s p e c i a l i z e d more g e n e r a l i z e d forms of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  to  Following  t h i s l o g i c f u r t h e r leads to the o b s e r v a t i o n that i t should be p o s s i b l e t o convert from mechanized  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems  to non-mechanized i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. collected  from s t r e e t surveys may  Information  be i d e n t i f i e d by the  p o s t a l address so l o n g as both the p o s t a l address and the mechanized  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system address are i n c l u d e d i n  one survey card f o r checking.  In t h i s way,  conversion i s p o s s i b l e to e i t h e r system.  r a p i d mechanical  Once, the whole  c i t y i s covered by both systems, only one need be used f o r the  a c t u a l c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n .  However both are  r e q u i r e d f o r the f i r s t complete survey.  Otherwise the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n could be only by the form used i n c o l l e c t i o n or a mechanical conversion t o a more g e n e r a l i z e d  form.  Once a mechanical conversion has been e s t a b l i s h e d , e i t h e r method o f i d e n t i f y i n g c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n .  i n f o r m a t i o n can be used f o r the I f p o s t a l addresses are used  than they can be converted t o a mechanized  form of i d e n t i f i c a -  t i o n system l a t e r . For  a n a l y s i s , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which i s  compatible w i t h automation i s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d .  New  sub-  88 divisions  c a n be i n t r o d u c e d  i n this  type of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  s y s t e m and be r e a d i l y o b v i o u s a s a n e r r o r i f t h e y a r e n o t b e c a u s e a p e r s o n on f o o t Keeping dual the  can check t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  identification  systems u p - t o - d a t e r e q u i r e s  person a c t u a l l y c o l l e c t i n g the -information  r e a d i l y a s c e r t a i n e r r o r s and c o r r e c t  them.  s y s t e m s must be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h f i e l d However, n e i t h e r  be a b l e t o  Therefore  both  checking.  o f t h e s e systems f u l f i l l s  requirements n e c e s s a r y f o r p h y s i c a l environment As i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o r e a d i l y f i e l d of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n which f u l f i l l s  that  a l l the  studies.  c h e c k w i t h t h e method  these requirements i t r e l e -  g a t e s t h e s y s t e m t o ad h o c s t u d i e s .  As a n  identification  s y s t e m i s more t h a n a n a i d t o e f f i c i e n t  project  c o n s i s t e n t m e t h o d o l o g y must be u t i l i z e d  i n the c o l l e c t i o n of  information  on a p e r i o d i c b a s i s .  s i s t e n c i e s r e s u l t from c o l l e c t i n g b a s i s and t r e n d s This ment s t u d i e s and  S h o r t c o m i n g s and information  implies  that  information  c a n n o t be i d e n t i f i e d  on an ad hoc  r e a c h any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s . environmental information  for physical  e x c e p t f o r ad hoc shortcomings.  i n the progress o f the r e s e a r c h  seem a n y way t h a t  incon-  c a n n o t be r e a d i l y o b s e r v e d .  ad hoc s t u d i e s h a v e i n h e r e n t  point  planning,  but there  i t c a n be i n c o r p o r a t e d  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system.  this  of physical does n o t  into the basic  P o s s i b l y a n a u x i l i a r y code  t i o n m i g h t be a s o l u t i o n .  studies  i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  i s required  At  environ-  I n any event, i t w i l l  identifica-  be n e c e s s a r y  89 t o continue t o u t i l i z e a more d e t a i l e d form o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n than that c u r r e n t l y provided by mechanized  systems.  I I I . SUMMARY The case study has been c a r r i e d out i n Vancouver. I t was f e l t that t h i s case study should be i n c l u d e d  because  the framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n i n c l u d e s only the e s s e n t i a l requirements f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r urban p l a n n i n g . Although t h i s type of e v a l u a t i o n permits the e l i m i n a t i o n of the i n e f f i c i e n t or t o t a l l y unworkable ones i t does not point t o the s e r i o u s aspects o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n that w i l l be r e q u i r e d o f these systems.  That the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d one  f u l f i l l s these e s s e n t i a l requirements i n no way makes i t a complete  system.  In f a c t i t r e q u i r e s a great d e a l more work  e s p e c i a l l y r e l a t i n g t o d i r e c t l y p r i n t i n g maps and although the a b i l i t y t o d i r e c t l y p r i n t maps f o r the g r i d c o - o r d i n a t e system was a t the expense of e f f i c i e n t r e t r i e v a l of informat i o n , t h i s f a c t o r cannot be overlooked.  P r i m a r i l y the aspect  overlooked r e l a t e s t o planners b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d i n groupings and f u n c t i o n s and hence r e q u i r i n g much more l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l than that a v a i l a b l e i n any system. A l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s i s an e s s e n t i a l l y c e n t r a l i z e d o p e r a t i o n and a breaking up of departments  i n t o more func-  t i o n a l u n i t s so that each has i t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r i  i t s particular function.  T h i s has been proposed as a second  stage development but the r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o put the  90  system i n as one u n i t and n o t as segmented p a r t s .  The  r e a s o n f o r u s i n g one u n i t i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and i f adopted would r u l e out t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n e f f i c i e n t systems remaini n g throughout t h e second s t a g e . A n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o have each department d e v e l o p i t s own i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which would be s i m i l a r o n l y f o r i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n exchange.  T h i s would  mean, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p l a n n i n g department c o u l d  incorporate  n e a r l y a l l i t s own m o d i f i c a t i o n s w i t h i n i t s own i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system w h i l e r e t a i n i n g some degree o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o t h e r departments, a l t h o u g h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  exchange exchange  would be much l e s s t h a n from t h e method b e i n g adopted.  91  REFERENCES  / ? Reekie. Information Systems - C i t v of Vtmcirnnrar (unpublished r e p o r t ) Sept., 1965. — 1  e  t  e  r  CHAPTER V OBSERVATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMJ>LENDATIONS  POR FURTHER RESEARCH A s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r use i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems i s analyzed  i n this  study  through a framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n s t r u c t u r e d to enable comparison o f a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  The  c r i t e r i a i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the framework represent an attempt to develop a g e n e r a l , e m p i r i c a l method f o r e v a l u a t i n g the performance of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use i n the c o l l e c t i o n  of i n f o r m a t i o n from surveys  and i n the  mechanical r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n from municipal ment departments conducting  govern-  surveys.  Subsequent t o t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a relating  t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of s e l e c t e d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -  mental f a c t o r s a r e p o s t u l a t e d and u t i l i z e d i n an examination of a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d r e t r i e v a l system developed f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, B.C.  F o r t h i s study the c r i t e r i a a r e assumed  to be e s s e n t i a l f o r a n a l y z i n g land use p a t t e r n s which a r e by nature d i s c r e t e . When t h e necessary  elements are developed, s t r e e t -  o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems should f u l f i l l the r e q u i r e ments f o r g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n c i t y p l a n n i n g . i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems can be regarded  Before  as o p e r a t i o n a l t o o l s  93 for the study of subdivisions, further research is recommended.  However, the street-oriented identification system is  sufficiently developed to be considered a valuable mechanism in the collection of factual information for city planning. These observations are drawn from the study but require a systematic analysis in order to enable the formulation of explicit conclusions and recommendations for city planners.  Without an analysis there is no adequate method  of interpreting the research and hence the conclusions are not explicit enough to enable sufficient documentation. It is imperative to substantiate the hypothesis in order to provide direction for further criticism and research. In this way, innovation of new technique can be justified and verified for use in city planning or by being proven unacceptable may enable progress towards constructive innovation. I. OBSERVATIONS In the evaluation of information identification systems for planning use i t is possible to make observations that are wider in scope than those made relating to specific criteria.  These observations are general in nature and  implications can be drawn from them. Implications both as to: the impact that identification systems will likely have on city planning; and the potential application of these systems and information retrieval systems which incorporate  94  them i n c i t y p l a n n i n g , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d . General  Observations I d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems are not simply a more e f f i c i e n t  means f o r the h a n d l i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . i n the concepts  They r e q u i r e a change  of those u s i n g them even though they may  be  o r i g i n a l l y adopted f o r the e f f i c i e n t handling of i n f o r m a t i o n . To e f f e c t i v e l y accommodate component i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems an awareness of the t o t a l system i s necessary.  This o f t e n  l e a v e s questions of design to be answered outside of c i t y p l a n n i n g f o r reasons  of t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  It  seems evident t h a t unless the questions are e x p l i c i t l y asked and  the answers evaluated by c i t y planners; questions  of  system d e s i g n are l i k e l y to be answered by the a v a i l a b l e means r a t h e r than what i s r e q u i r e d by c i t y p l a n n e r s .  It i s  a l s o p o s s i b l e t o make observations r e l a t i v e to the u s e f u l n e s s of r e s e a r c h conducted by means which are a l i e n t o the purpose of the r e s e a r c h . Awareness of the t o t a l system f o r h a n d l i n g  informa-  t i o n i s l i k e l y to have d i f f e r e n t meanings f o r p l a n n i n g departments having d i f f e r e n t  s c a l e s of o p e r a t i o n .  A large  c i t y has, g e n e r a l l y a complex p l a n n i n g department which has d i f f e r e n t  sections with d i f f e r e n t  Some s e c t i o n s may  s c a l e s of o p e r a t i o n .  be f u l f i l l i n g s t r i c t l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f u n c t i o n s which r e q u i r e only l i m i t e d  information.  The  cost  of c o l l e c t i n g comprehensive i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to a s p e c i f i c  95  -problem i s g e n e r a l l y n o t warranted f o r t h e depth of a n a l y s i s which i s r e q u i r e d t o p r e s e n t a s o l u t i o n .  Hence, an attempt  may be made t o u t i l i z e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by a n o t h e r department i n o r d e r t o promote e f f i c i e n c y .  I n t h i s case  o n l y a l i m i t e d degree of awareness o f the t o t a l system i s necessary f o r operational e f f i c i e n c y . the  On t h e o t h e r hand,  p l a n n e r may be c o n d u c t i n g a s t u d y which r e q u i r e s almost  t o t a l awareness  o f t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e system.  would n e c e s s i t a t e a h i g h degree o f knowledge  This  of s p e c i a l i z a -  t i o n i n t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system. Whether t h e s c a l e o f i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g i s l a r g e or s m a l l t h e p l a n n i n g department i s l i k e l y t o depend upon outside s p e c i a l i z e d a s s i s t a n c e t o develop i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems.  The  t e c h n i c a l a i d may come from c o n s u l t a n t s o r o t h e r m u n i c i p a l departments.  I n e i t h e r case t h e purpose f o r implementing t h e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s communicated t o those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e s i g n i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system. The d e s i g n g e n e r a l l y begins w i t h s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems i n mind r a t h e r t h a n w i t h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e purposes f o r implementing t h e system.  The a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d and p o s s i b l y  minor v a r i a t i o n s the  a r e developed t o somewhat modify one o f  a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t h e purpose o f implementing a system.  E s s e n t i a l l y , however, t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s do n o t g r e a t l y change t h e b a s i c a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e .  The d e s i g n begins  96 w i t h s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s i n mind and ends w i t h a d e c i s i o n t o u t i l i z e the b a s i c or modified system. T h i s i s not meant t o imply t h a t o u t s i d e s p e c i a l i s t s are a t f a u l t .  A general observation i s that p a r t i a l  accommodation o f these purposes  i s a l l that can p r e s e n t l y be  expected w i t h i n the d e s i g n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. planners have conveyed the purposes  City  f o r implementing  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems t o the s p e c i a l i s t s i n a g e n e r a l manner. They have not explicitjLy~ documented t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e r  ments.  The s p e c i a l i s t s , a l r e a d y o r i e n t e d towards b a s i c  a l t e r n a t i v e s , attempt  t o accommodate the purposes  departments w i t h one of them.  of a l l  N e i t h e r design r e s e a r c h e r s  nor c i t y planners formulate probable i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e ments; which may vary over time but s t i l l r e q u i r e s t a t i n g , and hence the design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s which are developed  tend  to vary l i t t l e from those o f the b a s i c a l t e r n a t i v e s . The approach t o d e s i g n i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems that i s commonly used i s considered t o be g e n e r a l l y acceptable.  The problem l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t the d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a -  t i o n s are not developed ments.  t o accommodate the necessary r e q u i r e -  As the b a s i c a l t e r n a t i v e s have been i n i t i a l l y deve-  loped f o r other purposes, these other purposes requirements  the design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  too g r e a t l y .  reflect  By developing t h e i r  more f u l l y c i t y planners could expect the design  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t o more f u l l y r e f l e c t these needs.  \  97 In a g e n e r a l manner i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i v i d e a l l design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  i n t o those r e l a t i n g t o performance  and those r e l a t i n g t o c o s t .  Only performance  specifications  are analyzed i n t h i s study from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f c i t y p l a n n i n g and t h e r e f o r e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o make observat i o n s about d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  that relate to cost.  Design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , r e l a t i n g t o performance, have not  been developed f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r c i t y  planning.  Only i n s p e c i a l cases, which g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e  s i n g l e purpose i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems, have any d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s been developed. it  Without such s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ,  i s extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r c i t y planners t o be assured  of an adequate l e v e l of performance. As d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s have not been adequately developed f o r i n f o r m a t i o n systems, the requirements of i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g a r e used t o p o s t u l a t e d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a tions.  By p o s t u l a t i n g these d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s from the  process of h a n d l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , a s p e c i f i c l e v e l o f performance can be guaranteed t o the c i t y p l a n n e r . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system can then be implemented w i t h an a s s u r ance o f a t l e a s t a minimum l e v e l of performance. T h i s study documents the above method of developing design s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  However  a g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n can be made about the l e v e l of performance which can be guaranteed w i t h these d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a tions.  These a r e developed from f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s and  98 t h e r e f o r e can he r e l a t e d only t o t h e o r e t i c a l performance. As d e s i g n c r i t e r i a i n t h i s study are e s t a b l i s h e d from t h e o r e t i c a l performance; the s e l e c t i o n of a s i n g l e  identifica-  t i o n system which meets these c r i t e r i a i s made on a theoretical basis.  Hence the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s  s e l e c t e d because i t assures a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l of performance. J u s t as the c r i t e r i a a r e based s o l e l y on theory, the c r i t e r i a a r e l i k e l y t o r e l a t e only t o a minimum l e v e l of - -performance i n o p e r a t i o n .  F i r s t p r i n c i p l e s of i n f o r m a t i o n  h a n d l i n g a r e analysed t o e s t a b l i s h the d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and hence o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e not c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s has not been observed t o be a s e r i o u s problem i n the s e l e c t i o n of a s i n g l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r installation.  However, i t appears t o become a s e r i o u s  problem when a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e being e v a l u a t e d . The c r i t e r i a a r e used t o evaluate competing systems as w e l l as f o r the s e l e c t i o n of a s i n g l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system; but as the number o f systems i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d of a c l e a r e v a l u a t i o n can be seen t o decrease. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s taken from the t e s t i n g procedure used on the c r i t e r i a .  Three i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems are used  and there i s no problem i n the e v a l u a t i o n w h i l e systems l a c k d i f f e r e n t necessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to be o p e r a t i o n a l . However, i t can be noted that when a l l three  identification  systems f u l f i l l a s i n g l e requirement, i t i s extremely  99 difficult that it  t o a s c e r t a i n which system i s the best  criterion.  seems l i k e l y  characteristics arises  W i t h more t h a n two that at least  t h e two  basic  to such ambiguities.  characteristics  and  t h e p r o b l e m c a n be r e a d i l y  The  organization  fulfills  criteria  the e s s e n t i a l  is clearly  An  certain  solved  by  establishes  the  identification  r e q u i r e m e n t s and  superior  does  identification  o f the c r i t e r i a  importance of the c r i t e r i a .  basic  then  satisfactory  B o t h systems l a c k  systems.  the  problem  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems  t o t h e framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g  system which  The  t h e most  reference  relative  systems  criteria.  Evaluating lead  to  have t h e n e c e s s a r y  criterion.  as t o w h i c h s y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e s  combination of  not  identification  two w i l l  t o meet any one  relative  t o one  that  hence  does  not.  Once d e v e l o p e d , t h e framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n p e r m i t s an o b j e c t i v e the  evaluation  above r e a s o n .  street-oriented this  It  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r  comparison o f the g r i d  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems  framework g i v e n  A testing  tion  A  o f two  that  i s a l o g i c a l use  procedure i s c a r r i e d c a n be o b s e r v e d t h a t  out i n t h i s  the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d  I t should  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems  i s n o t an e s s e n t i a l a r e viewed  identifica-  co-ordinate  be p o i n t e d  t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems of information  of  study.  s y s t e m meets t h e c r i t e r i a w h i l e t h e g r i d  display  and  t h e framework i s a d e q u a t e l y t e s t e d .  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m does n o t . that  co-ordinate  with mechanical  criterion.  from the p o i n t  out  If  of view  of  100 d i r e c t l y d i s p l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n once i t i s c o l l e c t e d  then i t  i s necessary to i n c l u d e t h i s c r i t e r i o n while o m i t t i n g others from the framework.  By adding t h i s c r i t e r i o n t o the frame-  work without removing o t h e r s , i t appears that the outcome of any e v a l u a t i o n i s l i k e l y to change.  However the  purpose  f o r d e v e l o p i n g the framework must change a l s o . For a thorough e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r a l l purposes  i t appears that more than the above  c r i t e r i o n can be added.  S u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a are not i n the  framework but t h i s only serves to i l l u s t r a t e that the framework i s developed  to assure only that an  identification  system which s a t i s f i e s the i n c o r p o r a t e d c r i t e r i a has  potential  a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n c i t y p l a n n i n g f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of information. S u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a are p o s t u l a t e d and a p p l i e d t o the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d system but i t can be observed that  this  system does not adequately f u l f i l l the necessary r e q u i r e ments.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these c r i t e r i a are not  t e s t e d by a l t e r i n g the assumptions based.  fully  upon which they are  However i t i s observed that they tend t o be  compatible w i t h a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  extremely  system  although t h i s system does not e x p l i c i t l y meet the c r i t e r i a . The g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n made i s that the o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f u l f i l l s the  street-  requirements  p o s t u l a t e d w i t h i n t h i s study with a l i m i t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g : the d i r e c t d i s p l a y of i n f o r m a t i o n ; and, s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a  101 f o r e v a l u a t i n g the c a p a b i l i t i e s to permit  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems  the d i r e c t r e t r i e v a l of s u b d i v i s i o n s .  P o t e n t i a l A p p l i c a t i o n of the S t r e e t - o r i e n t e d  Identification  System Identification  systems have p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n  i n fundamental areas that a r e important  to c i t y planning.  A s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system could be implemented i n i t s present  form i n c r e a t i n g an i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l  system f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n  regions.  Many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t  e f f o r t towards  c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas.  L i m i t i n g the  development o f an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o one m u n i c i p a l i t y i s o f dubious value to c i t y p l a n n e r s .  Economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  tend t o be s i m i l a r throughout the r e g i o n and hence  accurate  economic and p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s r e q u i r e the c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n from many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The time  to c o l l e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n and the accuracy  of t h a t  necessary informa-  t i o n , i s l a r g e l y determined by the m u n i c i p a l i t y which i s slowest  i n c o l l e c t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n and the m u n i c i p a l i t y  which maintains  the l e a s t accurate r e c o r d s .  i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g techniques  Hence,  improving  i n only one m u n i c i p a l i t y i s  not l i k e l y t o g r e a t l y improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r e g i o n a l information c o l l e c t i o n . that the continuous  Of course the q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s made  c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to  102 the r e g i o n as a whole i s r e q u i r e d . Planners advise m u n i c i p a l  a r e g e n e r a l l y i n the p o s i t i o n o f having to executives on the b a s i s o f p a r t i a l underi  standing on p a r t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  When the problem i s  r e g i o n a l i n scope the i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o l i k e l y t o be largely inconsistent.  Conducting a s p e c i a l survey  of the  r e g i o n may provide more and b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o improve the p o t e n t i a l f o r r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making but the informat i o n must be made a v a i l a b l e and manipulated i n time f o r a reasonable, course o f a c t i o n t o be recommended t o the municipal executive o r e x e c u t i v e s .  The d e c i s i o n cannot wait f o r the  i n f o r m a t i o n and as a r e s u l t , d e c i s i o n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been made from o p e r a t i o n a l knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n . O p e r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e based on e m p i r i c a l experience and r u l e of thumb.  I n c r e a s i n g the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of the  i n f o r m a t i o n by conducting a s i n g l e r e g i o n a l survey  improves  the p o t e n t i a l f o r a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r d e c i s i o n s but only a f u r t h e r understanding  o f the s i t u a t i o n can s u b s t a n t i a l l y  improve t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . Only the continuous  c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a  r e g i o n a l b a s i s can assure f u r t h e r understanding and  of situations  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n time t o improve the  p o t e n t i a l f o r b e t t e r d e c i s i o n making.  To f a c i l i t a t e  c o l l e c t i n g the information a street-oriented i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system could be u t i l i z e d .  This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system could  be used f o r the r e g i o n as w e l l as an i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t y .  103 I t could be r e a d i l y expanded f o r r e g i o n a l a n a l y s i s such as transportation studies. Transportation  s t u d i e s represent  only one  type of  r e g i o n a l study but can be used to provide an example of a p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r the continuous c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n regional basis.  on a  For c l a r i f i c a t i o n , i t i s assumed that a  r e g i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n agency i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g  the  information. R e g i o n a l problems of developing  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n net-  works are g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p a r t i a l understanding of the e f f e c t that d e c i s i o n s have on the o v e r a l l land development.  A v a r i e t y of r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s are a v a i l a b l e  f o r a c h i e v i n g planning  objectives.  t i o n of b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y and  One  land use  device  so that the  p o r t a t i o n system i s always adequate f o r the generated.  i s the  trans-  traffic  I f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i s improved  b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y can be r a i s e d assuming there are no v a r i a b l e s such as d i v e r s e s o c i a l goals generating  more t r a f f i c .  i l l u s t r a t e the use  T h i s device  the other  i n v o l v e d , thereby i s used only to  of c o n t r o l s as there would l i k e l y  d i v e r s e s o c i a l , economical and  regula-  physical objectives  be  involved  i n any r e g u l a t i o n of b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y . T h i s c o n t r o l depends on a l l other t r a f f i c f a c t o r s being  equal and  i f they are not  would l i k e l y be necessary.  equal,  generation  other  devices  However, g i v e n that a l l other  104 f a c t o r s are e q u a l , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o determine what the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y and t r a f f i c generat i o n i s a t any time t o determine whether i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e the b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y or improve the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  To determine what i s happening a feedback of  information i s required.  A feedback i s a method f o r p r o v i d -  i n g a r e g u l a t i n g l i n k between,for example, a f u r n a c e and room temperature. a thermostat and  the  I n t h i s case the feedback i s p r o v i d e d electrical  by  wires.  P a r t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a complex s i t u a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s feedback c o n t r o l s . t r a f f i c generation use p a t t e r n s and  A complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  would be p e r m i s s i v e  of p r e d i c t i n g l a n d  the consequences of imposing new  a r t e r i e s on t h i s l a n d use.  traffic  The u n d e r s t a n d i n g would p e r m i t  a f o r e c a s t o r p r e d i c t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n demands f a r enough ahead t o p l a n a d e q u a t e l y .  This does not seem r e m o t e l y  p o s s i b l e without c o n t i n u a l l y checking Transportation  on what i s happening.  t r e n d s a r e observed and p r o j e c t i o n s made and  d e c i s i o n s a r e based on c u r r e n t t r e n d s .  Controls are then  put i n t o e f f e c t i n an attempt t o improve the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network.  The  d e c i s i o n may  be timed t o c o i n c i d e w i t h what  i s a c t u a l l y happening o r i t may  not.  N o r m a l l y t h e r e are a  number of c o n t r o l s a t work but f o r purposes of t h e example i t i s assumed t h a t o n l y one  illustrating  control i s relevant.  I f the c o n t r o l i s p o o r l y t i m e d , the consequences may c r i t i c a l and  be  i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o q u i c k l y change the  105 control decision.  A feedback loop i s necessary so that the  r e s u l t s o f the d e c i s i o n can be measured.  Without a f e e d -  back loop, d e c i s i o n s a r e l i k e l y to be made a t inopportune times and the d e c i s i o n s not changed i n time t o prevent ' s e r i o u s problems. handling  C u r r e n t l y , the accepted technique for"  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems i s the a d d i t i o n o f unplanned  a r t e r i e s on an ad hoc r a t h e r than systematized Identification  basis.  systems a r e r e q u i r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e  the c o l l e c t i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n  so that even d e c i s i o n s based  upon p a r t i a l understanding and p a r t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n effective.  can be  D e c i s i o n must be made while the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  system i s i n o p e r a t i o n .  The d e c i s i o n cannot g e n e r a l l y be  h e l d up u n t i l a study i s conducted i f i t i s going t o r e q u i r e an extensive  p e r i o d t o c o l l e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n . I I . CONCLUSIONS  A framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n i s used i n the s e l e c t i o n of a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n i n systems f o r r e t r i e v i n g planning.  i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to c i t y  S u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a a r e i n d i c a t e d and used i n  the f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system being developed i n Vancouver, B.C. E v a l u a t i o n o f Study Method The incorporates  framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n developed i n t h i s study the c r i t e r i o n of automation f o r the e v a l u a t i o n  106  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r c i t y p l a n n i n g .  T h i s appears  t o he the b a s i c c r i t e r i o n f o r o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems which a r e t o be u t i l i z e d i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems.  Many p o s s i b l e c r i t e r i a a r e c i t e d  w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y such a s : unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s i t e s ; u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e system f o r use i n a l l m u n i c i p a l departments; and f l e x i b l e a r e a s o f a n a l y s i s . These f o r the most p a r t can be assumed under a u t o mation. the  I f t h e r e i s n o t unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r example  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l system w i l l break down when  mechanically s o r t i n g information. as b a s i c i s e s s e n t i a l l y  Accepting this  criterion  p r o v i n g t h a t t h e assumption  relating  t o automation i n t h i s s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r y i n any e v a l u a t i o n i  of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  A f u r t h e r advantage o f p r o v i n g  t h i s assumption i s t h a t t h i s c r i t e r i o n can be used i n a more r e f i n e d way than t h e o t h e r c r i t e r i a .  In relying  on automation,  a measure can be used and more t h a n the presence o r absence of an e s s e n t i a l requirement e s t a b l i s h e d .  I t i s possible to  e v a l u a t e t h e degree t o which an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system can be automated. When r e l y i n g on t h e o t h e r c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o measure o n l y the  presence o r absence o f d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .  An  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i n c o r p o r a t i n g a r e q u i r e d d e s i g n specification, criterion.  cannot be e v a l u a t e d any f u r t h e r w i t h t h a t  Hence, i t i s g e n e r a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o u t i l i z e as  107 many c r i t e r i a as p o s s i b l e to evaluate  the p o t e n t i a l of an  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system. The  c r i t e r i a i n t h i s study are e s t a b l i s h e d by  i n g the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s way, s u f f i c i e n t  of i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g .  c r i t e r i a are included to assure that  analyz-  In t h i s an  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which s a t i s f i e s the c r i t e r i a has l e a s t a minimum degree of p r a c t i c a l use r e t r i e v a l systems.  in  at  information  R e l a t i v e to p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h -  i n r e t r i e v a l systems, a measure of the degree to which an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s compatible w i t h automation i s essential.  F u r t h e r , t h i s c r i t e r i o n e s t a b l i s h e d more than  the presence or absence of an a t t r i b u t e and the other c r i t e r i a .  tends to assume  In l i g h t of these advantages i t i s  necessary that c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h automation be any  included i n  framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use  in city  planning. There i s no inherent manner of weighting the c r i t e r i a  adequately w i t h i n a framework to assure that more important c r i t e r i a c a r r y more weight.  Having e s t a b l i s h e d the  c r i t e r i a from f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s  i t i s now  p o s t u l a t e a framework to i n c o r p o r a t e test  i t w i t h e m p i r i c a l evidence.  The  necessary to  these c r i t e r i a and e m p i r i c a l evidence  used i n t h i s study i s a set of e x i s t i n g systems.  basic  identification  T h i s s e t : i s mutually e x c l u s i v e of the s e t of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems to be examined; and,  i s composed of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems each of which l a c k at l e a s t  one  108 e s s e n t i a l d e s i g n f e a t u r e f o r use with i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems.  The t e s t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s that the framework f o r  e v a l u a t i o n can he used t o t e s t two i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  systems.  Therefore, the study method f o r e v a l u a t i n g two i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems i s o b j e c t i v e and l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t .  Identifica-  t i o n systems l a c k i n g any of the e s s e n t i a l requirements only l i m i t e d  have  use i n the r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n a t the  interdepartment  l e v e l or at the department  level for city  planning. The study does not end once i t i s e s t a b l i s h e d that b a s i c requirements  are necessary  f o r an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system  to be used i n the r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n a t the i n t e r department  l e v e l and d i r e c t l y from surveys.  considered the fundamental reasons  These a r e  f o r developing  informa-  t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems and hence i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems i n c i t i e s ; but there are f u r t h e r uses of these systems which demand c o n s i d e r a t i o n from c i t y p l a n n e r s . Information,  once c o l l e c t e d , r e q u i r e s a n a l y s i s .  Sub-  sequently, the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s are g e n e r a l l y communicated.  Both of these f u n c t i o n s a r e considered as a  b a s i s f o r f o r m u l a t i n g recommendations  about  identification  systems.. Consequently, the f u n c t i o n s of a n a l y s i n g the  informa-  t i o n and communicating the r e s u l t s a r e considered as a b a s i s  1 0 9 for formulating recommendations about i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. Recommendations pertaining to the direct display of informat i o n take account of the consideration established early i n the study that the grid co-ordinate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s d e f i n i t e l y superior f o r this function.  No empirical  evidence i s generated l a t e r i n the study to make this consideration controversial. No such considerations are established pertaining to the analysis of information and i t i s therefore suggested that a case study i s the best way to generate empirical evidence to f a c i l i t a t e theoretical investigation.  On this  premise, a case study i s conducted of a street-oriented information r e t r i e v a l system currently being implemented i n the City of Vancouver, B.C. However, i t i s pointed out that recommendations made on the basis of this case study have relevance only to street-oriented i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. Recommendations are evolved from a conscious expression of the purpose of the methods to be evaluated. Alternative means of identifying the individual s i t e are evaluated i n the case study for the purpose of identifying land use designs which by nature cover more than the i n d i vidual s i t e .  A further consideration r e l a t i n g to the  p r a c t i c a l i t y of u t i l i z i n g the alternative means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s made.  This consideration i s necessary i f the r e -  commendations are intended to attract any attention from  110 those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e s i g n i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system.  Making recommendations beyond those c i t e d above are not j u s t i f i e d w i t h the a v a i l a b l e e m p i r i c a l evidence.  How-  ever, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw i n f e r e n c e s from the case study. The behaviour of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems under d i f f e r ent  t e s t i n g procedures i s l a r g e l y unknown, and hence conduct-  i n g a case study u t i l i z i n g a t e s t i n g procedure i s l i k e l y to to be very rewarding.  The r e s u l t s of a case study under  these c o n d i t i o n s are l i k e l y to generate f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e c r i t e r i a f o r evaluation. Although recommendations p e r t a i n i n g to both g e n e r a l systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n cannot be j u s t i f i e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e to draw g e n e r a l i n f e r e n c e s about c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g both of them on the b a s i s of s t u d y i n g only one i d e n t i f i c a tion  system. Therefore, the study method assures that recommenda-  t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s based on the case study are adequately qualified.  The case study can be used t o make recommenda-  t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the means of i d e n t i f y i n g  l a n d use designs,  f o r use s p e c i f i c a l l y and t o draw i n f e r e n c e s p e r t a i n i n g to c r i t e r i a f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems i n general. Conclusions Identification  systems are being i n s t a l l e d as  component p a r t s of i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems t o handle  Ill f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n which i s r e q u i r e d by c i t y p l a n n e r s . i s suggested  It  t h a t u n l e s s c i t y planners a r e t e c h n i c a l l y a b l e  t o s e l e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems which a r e conscious exp r e s s i o n s of t h e i r requirements;  component p a r t s a r e l i k e l y  to be i n s t a l l e d , c o n t r a r y t o the planners'  interests.  T h i s study i n d i c a t e s a framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n , s t r u c t u r e d t o enable comparison of a l t e r n a t i v e  identifica-  t i o n systems t o be i n s t a l l e d ' i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e the c o l l e c t i o n and h a n d l i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  After structuring  and t e s t i n g the framework, the d e s i g n c r i t e r i a i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n i t a r e used i n the s e l e c t i o n o f a general system of identification.  A case study i s conducted u t i l i z i n g  this  g e n e r a l system o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n upon which recommendations are made and i n f e r e n c e s drawn r e g a r d i n g f u r t h e r d e s i g n criteria. To o r i e n t t h i s study, an hypothesis and t e s t e d i n the manner d e s c r i b e d above.  i s established As s c i e n t i f i c  progress i s made by f o r m u l a t i n g s p e c i f i c hypothesis and attempting  t o s u b s t a n t i a t e them; i t i s hypothesized  that:  A " s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system provides the optimum s o l u t i o n t o a number o f problems i n the r e t r i e v a l of f a c t u a l information p e r t a i n i n g to c i t y planning. g e n e r a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n t h i s study with  The hypothesis i s qualifications  r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the purpose f o r s e l e c t i n g and i n s t a l l i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  112 S t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems are  essential  f o r c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n both a t the interdepartment and d i r e c t l y from surveys.  level  They are not yet compatible  with  automation f o r the purpose of d i r e c t l y mapping i n f o r m a t i o n . However, i n f o r m a t i o n must be c o l l e c t e d d i s p l a y e d and  before i t can  be  t h e r e f o r e the d i s p l a y of i n f o r m a t i o n i s con-  s i d e r e d secondary t o i t s c o l l e c t i o n . The  framework f o r e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  systems f o r use select  i n c i t y p l a n n i n g i s used i n t h i s study to  the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r i n s t a l l a -  t i o n i n r e t r i e v a l systems f o r the purposes of i n f o r m a t i o n at the interdepartment surveys.  The  collecting  l e v e l and d i r e c t l y from  framework i s a l s o t e s t e d i n t h i s study f o r the  e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. co-ordinate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s found  The  grid  to l a c k r e q u i r e d  d e s i g n elements f o r purposes of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n . T e s t s i n d i c a t e that the framework i s adequate f o r the  evalua-  t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems given t h a t not more than two  are being compared.  As the design c r i t e r i a and  the framework i n c o r p o r a t -  i n g the c r i t e r i a are t e s t e d procedures concluded  of e v a l u a t i o n ; i t i s  t h a t the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s  s u p e r i o r to the g r i d c o - o r d i n a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r purposes of c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a t the l e v e l and at the department l e v e l .  interdepartment  There are i n d i c a t i o n s  that the g r i d co-ordinate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system has p r e s e n t l y  113 superior characteristics for compatibility with automation for purposes of d i r e c t l y printing information, once the information has been collected.  For c i t y planners the  essential purpose of i n s t a l l i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems relates to c o l l e c t i n g the information while a secondary purpose relates to the representation of that  information.  The framework i s structured on t h i s consideration, to enable comparison of alternative i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems, and fore substantiates the  there-  hypothesis.  There are further considerations to be regarded such as those r e f l e c t e d i n the case study as well as s p e c i f i c limitations on the study r e s u l t s .  Only f a c t u a l information  such as that information r e l a t i n g to land use which can be transmitted i n r e t r i e v a l systems i s considered.  A further  l i m i t a t i o n i s that only t h e o r e t i c a l performance standards are established and not cost standards.  These limitations  affect the scale of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system which i s p r a c t i c a l f o r any given c i t y .  However, they are u n l i k e l y  to seriously affect which i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s p r a c t i c a l for given purposes. The case study conducted on a street-oriented i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system being developed i n the City of Vancouver, B.C.  provides a basis f o r the general  conclusion  that a street-oriented i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s required f o r the analysis of land use designs which are discrete by nature. As the streets are the most permanent physical elements i n  114 the c i t y and the c o s t s of r e b u i l d i n g an e n t i r e s t r e e t system i s p r o h i b i t i v e , i t can be s a i d that u s i n g the s t r e e t s as coo r d i n a t e s provide  the most permanent form of l o c a t i o n  c o n t r o l imaginable.  Planners i n v a r i a b l y analyse the s t r e e t s  or a b u t t i n g s i t e s and u s i n g the s t r e e t s as co-ordinates f a c i l i t a t e s these  analyses.  As t h e s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system does not p r e s e n t l y c o n t a i n a l l the design  elements r e q u i r e d to  i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e land use designs without p r i o r a n a l y s i s , recommendations a r e made f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h Inferences use  on t h i s system.  can be drawn t h a t any i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r  i n c i t y planning r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on i d e n t i f y -  i n g land use designs.  I t i s p o s s i b l e to u n i q u e l y  identify  the s i t e and t h e r e f o r e t h e i n f e r e n c e can be drawn that i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y land use designs. Inferences criteria.  a r e a l s o drawn r e l a t i n g t o t h e design  Those incorporated  w i t h i n the framework f o r  e v a l u a t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use i n c i t y  planning  are s u f f i c i e n t t o assure p r a c t i c a l i n s t a l l a t i o n i n informat i o n r e t r i e v a l systems.  They a r e not s u f f i c i e n t , however,  t o enable an adequate e v a l u a t i o n of t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y of an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system with a n a l y s i s .  Subjective  design  c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to land use designs a r e assumed i n the case study, and a l t e r n a t i v e methods of i d e n t i f y i n g land use design attempted.  I t i s concluded t h a t the most p r a c t i c a l  method o f i d e n t i f y i n g the i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s which make the  115 p h y s i c a l c i t y , f o r purposes of c o n t i n u a l l y c o l l e c t i n g t i o n , does not provide s u f f i c i e n t  informa-  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a l t e r n a t -  i v e land use d e s i g n s . The c o n c l u s i o n s do not preclude the development of an i d e a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r use i n c i t y p l a n n i n g . They do, however, i n d i c a t e that a s t r e e t o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i s e s s e n t i a l f o r c o l l e c t i n g that planners are s t i l l  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  faced with the problem o f developing  a s i n g l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r the purposes of c o l l e c t ing, a n a l y z i n g and d i s p l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .  The two funda-  mental systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d system and g r i d co-ordinate system combined, requirements.  f u l f i l l the necessary  But even i f there i s evidence t o support the  claims of both i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems, i t i s imperative t o first  i n s t a l l a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r  g e n e r a l use w i t h i n c i t i e s . ance that s u f f i c i e n t  Hence, t h e r e would be an a s s u r -  information i s a v a i l a b l e to c i t y  planners i n a s u i t a b l e form. I I I . R E C O R D A T I O N S FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e i n d i c a t e d from the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, t o evaluate the s e l e c t i o n of a s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n in  i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l systems from the p o i n t of view o f  the c i t y planner.  In g e n e r a l , r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d  into:  the p o t e n t i a l use of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems i n c i t y planning;  116  the design of these systems; and, the selection of these i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Systems Further research should be conducted into the potential use of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems i n c i t y planning and the design characteristics which these systems are l i k e l y to possess.  The street-oriented  systems of identifying  information possess design characteristics which make them essential for c o l l e c t i n g information from surveys while the grid co-ordinate systems of identifying information possess design characteristics which make them extremely with the machine display of information.  compatible  Hence, the potential  uses of these systems are largely limited by design characteristics.  However, the design characteristics should be  the conscious expression of the purpose for that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system. The design characteristics of an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system are generally determined by the available  alternatives  rather than with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of the purposes f o r implementing  the system.  With further research i t should  be possible to i d e n t i f y the information handling requirements of the c i t y planner and then to adequately document these requirements.  The potential uses of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems  could then be ascertained with some degree of accuracy.  By  making e x p l i c i t the potential uses of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems,  117 further research  on the design c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these  systems i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems being installed to f u l f i l l  the d e s i r e d purposes r a t h e r than on the  b a s i s of c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . This argument i m p l i e s  that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  be con-  ducted on the a c t u a l d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  I t i s both f e a s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e t o conduct  further research  on the d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems and the d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g e n e r a l systems o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . research  The r e s u l t s of t h i s  a r e l i k e l y t o be the s e p a r a t i o n  o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  o f component  The component parts  could  parts likely  be combined i n d i f f e r e n t ways t o f u l f i l l d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e ments . The  s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d type o f systems of i d e n t i f i c a -  t i o n a r e extremely e f f e c t i v e f o r conducting surveys and f o r a n a l y s i s of s m a l l p h y s i c a l areas.  There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s  t h a t the g r i d co-ordinate type of systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are e f f e c t i v e f o r d i r e c t p o s i t i o n i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o simulate maps and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l a r g e p h y s i c a l areas which do not r e q u i r e t h e degree of l o c a t i o n c o n t r o l necessary for  small p h y s i c a l areas.  I t may be p o s s i b l e to separate  the component p a r t s of these systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and combine them i n a manner which would f u l f i l l a n y d e s i r e d purpose.  A recommendation i s made t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be  conducted on t h i s aspect immediately i f the i n t e r e s t s of c i t y  118 planners a r e t o be expressed i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n being developed f o r r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l  systems  surveys.  C r i t e r i a f o r Evaluation To evaluate  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems that a r e being  developed and have been developed, a recommendationr i s made that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be conducted t o provide design c r i t e r i a . information  Only by thoroughly e v a l u a t i n g proposed  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e t o  assure that s u f f i c i e n t d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n provide  adequate  be i n c l u d e d to  c i t y planners w i t h a working t o o l . A framework, i n c o r p o r a t i n g d e s i g n c r i t e r i a , i s  s t r u c t u r e d i n t h i s study f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system i n c i t y planning.  However, i t assures only  that  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems meet minimum performance standards relative  to the c o l l e c t i o n  of i n f o r m a t i o n .  i s made that cost standards be considered  A recommendation and that f u r t h e r  d e s i g n c r i t e r i a be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the framework. Incorporating  the s u b j e c t i v e design c r i t e r i a assumed  i n the case study r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h both t o subs t a n t i a t e the c r i t e r i a and t e s t t h e i r relevance planning.  i n city  The s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a cannot be excluded because  i t may be d i f f i c u l t to s u b s t a n t i a t e .  They seem  essential  f o r a thorough e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use i n c i t y planning and r e q u i r e t e s t i n g  i f only t o be shown  inadequate and hence p o i n t the way by the research and  119  c r i t i c i s m to better  criteria.  In g e n e r a l , recommendations a r e made t h a t f u r t h e r research  i s conducted: t o provide more e x p l i c i t  criteria;  to r i g o r o u s l y assess the i m p l i c a t i o n s of r e q u i r i n g that planners have the t e c h n i c a l competency t o s e l e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems without w e l l d e f i n e d purposes f o r i n s t a l l i n g these systems; and, t o assess the a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems.  T h i s study provides  o n l y the b a s i c  framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems and t h e r e f o r e a s p e c i f i c recommendation i s made that i t be enlarged. Summary The  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to evaluate a  s p e c i f i c method of i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d f o r use i n c i t y planning.  The method evaluated  information i s a street-  o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system such as that commonly used f o r s t r e e t addresses.  I n a d d i t i o n , a crude s e t o f c r i t e r i a  f o r e v a l u a t i n g methods o f i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a r e developed. In order t o be o p e r a t i o n a l l y u s e f u l , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must g e n e r a l l y be compatible with the r e t r i e v a l of l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n  from municipal  departments  and  w i t h the c o l l e c t i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from  surveys.  The  most fundamental requirement f o r an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  system i s that i t be o p e r a t i o n a l w i t h i n the departments a c t u a l l y c o l l e c t i n g the information.  Assessors can provide  120 a l a r g e part of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d by c i t y  planners,  but the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system must be capable of being used f o r the continuous c o l l e c t i o n , s t o r i n g and r e t r i e v i n g of that information.  I f i t i s not,  there i s every i n d i c a t i o n that  the r e t r i e v a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t the interdepartment  level  i s l i k e l y t o break down. The  emphasis i n t h i s study i s placed  on e v a l u a t i n g  the methods o f i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and developing methods.  the d e s i g n c r i t e r i a by which t o evaluate  these  A framework i s s t r u c t u r e d with the r e l e v a n t  c r i t e r i a t o evaluate  the two g e n e r a l systems of i d e n t i f i c a -  t i o n which a r e proposed f o r use i n r e t r i e v i n g at"the"interdepartment  level.  information  I t i s observed t h a t a s t r e e t -  o r i e n t e d method o f i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a t i o n - o r i e n t e d informat i o n f u l f i l l s these r e l e v a n t  criteria.  A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of continuous, r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study i s presented i n an attempt t o show a p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems. T h i s i s done i n order to provide  the general reasons f o r  c o l l e c t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n and hence i l l u s t r a t e the b a s i c purpose f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems: t o enable the r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n a t the interdepartment o r i n t e r m u n i c i p a l A t t e n t i o n i s focussed  on the method o f u s i n g c o n t r o l s to  r e g u l a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems but i t should t h i s i s t o p o i n t out that i n f o r m a t i o n handling process.  level.  be noted that i s a continuous  121 Two  systems of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : the s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d  system and the g r i d co-ordinate system are d e s c r i b e d evaluated i n an approximate manner.  and  Since there are a  number of c o m p l e x i t i e s and problems i n v o l v e d i n a s i n g l e a p p l i c a t i o n of an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system, the fundamental t h e o r i e s are emphasized i n the e v a l u a t i o n .  The  framework  and r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s e v a l u a t i o n assure an o b j e c t i v e comparison. The  s p e c i f i c hypothesis  i n t h i s study i s t h a t : a  " s t r e e t - o r i e n t e d " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system provides the optimum s o l u t i o n t o a number of problems i n the r e t r i e v a l of f a c t u a l information pertaining to c i t y planning.  This i s t e s t e d i n  the study and i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d with q u a l i f i c a t i o n s the problems.  For the problems o f r e t r i e v i n g  at the interdepartment  information  l e v e l and from surveys, the  o r i e n t e d system does provide the s o l u t i o n . the problem of d i r e c t l y producing maps, t h i s system does not provide the  regarding  street-  However, f o r identification  solution.  Recommendations are made r e g a r d i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o , the purposes, d e s i g n and e v a l u a t i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n systems f o r use i n c i t y p l a n n i n g .  I t i s hoped t h a t these  recommendations provide the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and c r i t i c i s m ; and  thereby may  enable progress towards an  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system f o r c i t y p l a n n i n g .  ideal  122  BIBLIOGRAPHY  123 • BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Bellman, R i c h a r d . Adaptive C o n t r o l Processes: A Guided Tour. P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961. Bellman, R i c h a r d , Dynamic Programming. P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, P r i n c e t o n , 1957". Berkeley, Edmund C. and Wainright, Lawrence. Computers, T h e i r Operation and A p p l i c a t i o n . New York, Reinhold, 1956. Campbell, Robert D. and LeBlanc. An Information System f o r Urban P l a n n i n g . 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A P r o p o s a l f o r the Establishment of an Automated Planning and O p e r a t i o n a l P i l e , by the C i t y of Los Angeles, 1965. C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, C i t y of Vancouver, E s t a b l i s h i n g an Information System f o r the P l a n n i n g Department (Data C o l l e c t i o n and Research Methods), Working Papers,  1965.  Johnson, Glenn 0. The U t i l i z a t i o n of Automation Data P r o c e s s i n g i n C i t y P l a n n i n g . An unpublished t h e s i s presented to the U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1963L e c k i e , P.D.  Information System, C i t y of Vancouver,  1965.  127  F. OTHER SOURCES C i t y Engineering Department, C i t y of Vancouver, B.C., Interviews and Research Co-operation - g i v e n by Mr. Wm. C u r t i s , S t a f f Engineer, through the summer of 1 9 6 5 . Finance Department, C i t y of Vancouver, B.C. Interviews and Research c o - o p e r a t i o n g i v e n by Mr. P.D. L e c k i e , Data P r o c e s s i n g Supervisor, through t h e Summer of 1 9 6 5 . C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, C i t y of Vancouver, Research guidance and c o - o p e r a t i o n g i v e n by Mr. G.F. F a r r y , Head, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Planning S e c t i o n through the Summer'and F a l l o f 1 9 6 5 on p r e p a r i n g working papers E s t a b l i s h i n g an Information System f o r the Planning Department (Data C o l l e c t i o n and Research Methods).  

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