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A study of provincial agricultural extension services in Canada : 1952-1961 Keesing, Paul Brunton 1965

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i A STUDY OF PROVINCIAL AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN CANADA: 1952-1961 by PAUL BRUNTON KEESING B.Agr.Sc., The U n i v e r s i t y o f New Zealand, 1952 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . , I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Vancouver 8 , p a n a d a Date ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s the st u d y o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s o f Canada. As a background t o t h i s s t u d y t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s was i n v e s t i -g a t e d and a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d p r e s e n t e d . F o l l o w i n g t h e h i s t o r y i s a s t u d y o f t h e methods used to c o n t a c t f a r m e r s by A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s d u r i n g t h e t e n y e a r p e r i o d 1952 t o 1961. The h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d b e g i n s w i t h t h e " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " o f 1913 w h i c h l e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n b e i n g c a r r i e d out by each p r o v i n c e . When t h e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n under t h i s A c t t e r m i n a t e d , a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n was l e f t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p r o v i n c i a l governments, and t y p i c a l l y , e ach e v o l v e d a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n t o house t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e w i t h i n i t s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . W i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l A gents f i n d a g r e a t degree o f i n d i v i d u a l freedom b u t a l s o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c a r r y i n g out many d u t i e s , some o f w h i c h r e l a t e l i t t l e t o e x t e n s i o n work, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , d e t r a c t from t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as A g e n t s . The a c t i v i t i e s o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s d u r i n g t h e t e n y e a r s 1952 t o 1961 were s t u d i e d , c h i e f l y f r om i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n t he a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f the p r o v i n c i a l departments o f a g r i c u l -t u r e , and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , n u m e r i c a l d a t a were sought and accumu-l a t e d . The n u m e r i c a l data were c o p i e d onto key s o r t punch c a r d s and f r o m thence b u i l t i n t o t a b l e s f o r each a c t i v i t y , most o f i i i w h i c h f e l l i n t o t h e t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s I n d i v i d u a l Methods, Group Methods, and Mass Media Methods. W i t h the aim o f d e t e c -t i n g any changes i n t h e methods used over t h e t e n y e a r p e r i o d , t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s were compared w i t h t h e second f i v e y e a r s f o r each method and t h e change e x p r e s s e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s . From the s e changes g e n e r a l t r e n d s and e x c e p t i o n s a r e p e r c e p t i b l e . The i n t e r e s t o f f a r m e r s i n e x t e n s i o n was s t u d i e d and as judged by t h e i r r e q u e s t s t o Agents p e r f a r m e r , i n t e r e s t i n c r e a s e d by 19.5 p e r c e n t . However, a t t h e same t i m e , a t t e n d a n c e a t group e v e n t s d e c r e a s e d . The numbers o f s e r v i c e s f o r f a r m e r s performed by A g e n t s were p r e s e n t e d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e y p r o v i d e t o c o n t a c t f a r m e r s . The d a t a f o r t h e number o f t i m e s each method o f c o n t a c t was used by A g e n t s i n e a ch p r o v i n c e were n o t always complete and t h i s imposed some l i m i t a t i o n on t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e d a t a . However, the number of A g e n t s , and hence the number o f t i m e s an a c t i v i t y was used p e r A g e n t , was a v a i l a b l e i n most c a s e s , and t h e c a l c u l a t e d changes o f a c t i v i t i e s p e r Agent a r e a p p a r e n t l y i n d i c a t i v e o f the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y show t h a t t h e r e was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e o f l e s s t h a n one p e r c e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s , a d e c r e a s e o f 15.5 p e r c e n t o f m e e t i n g s , and 36.7 o f o t h e r group e v e n t s , but a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n the use o f mass media. On a p e r A g e n t b a s i s , the a v e r a g e Agent made 5 per c e n t l e s s i n d i v i d u a l i v c o n t a c t s , o r g a n i z e d 13.7 fe w e r group e v e n t s , b u t used mass media more e x t e n s i v e l y . When the number o f c o n t a c t s p e r f a r m e r i s c o n s i d e r e d , the i n c r e a s e s were g r e a t e r because of a d e c r e a s e i n number o f farms. I n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s p e r f a r m i n c r e a s e d by 10 p e r c e n t , meetings d e c r e a s e d by o n l y 7.3 p e r c e n t , and t h e use o f mass media p e r f a r m showed a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e t h a n t h e p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e o f mass media e v e n t s . V TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION 1 O r i g i n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n and the "County A g e n t " 2 Pur p o s e 3 Sources o f Data 3 P r o c e d u r e 5 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 9 Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e 10 L i t e r a t u r e o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s 12 I I . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 19 The Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e 19 The A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t o f Canada . . . 21 Guidance i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 24 A l l o c a t i o n o f the g r a n t 26 Mon t h l y g a z e t t e 28 E f f e c t o f t h e A c t 28 H i s t o r i c a l S k e t c h e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Branches 29 O n t a r i o 2 9 New Br u n s w i c k 3 2 A l b e r t a 3 6 Saskatchewan 4 0 v i CHAPTER PAGE Manitoba 47 B r i t i s h Columbia 48 Quebec 52 Nova S c o t i a 53 P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 57 Newfoundland 60 Oth e r O r g a n i z a t i o n s I n v o l v e d i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n 62 Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 62 U n i v e r s i t i e s 68 P r i v a t e b o d i e s 73 P h i l o s o p h y o f E x t e n s i o n 74 O b j e c t i v e s o f A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t . . 75 O b j e c t i v e s o f e x t e n s i o n i n the U.S.A 76 S t a t e d aims i n Canada 77 The Agent 81 R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 81 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 82 Sphere o f i n f l u e n c e 83 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 87 U n i v e r s i t y and e x t e n s i o n 87 E v a l u a t i o n o f p r e s e n t s y s t e m 89 C o n t r a s t w i t h U.S.A. . 90 C o o p e r a t i o n more i m p o r t a n t t h a n h o u s i n g . . . 90 v i i CHAPTER PAGE I I I . ACTIVITIES OP EXTENSION WORKERS . 94 I n d i v i d u a l Methods 95 Farm v i s i t s 95 Telephone c a l l s 98 L e t t e r s w r i t t e n 100 O f f i c e c a l l e r s 102 I n d i v i d u a l methods combined 104 Number o f c o n t a c t s p e r Agent . 105 I n d i v i d u a l Methods by P r o v i n c e 108 Summary o f number o f c o n t a c t s 118 Summary o f number of c o n t a c t s p e r Agent . . . . 118 C o n c l u s i o n s 120 Group Methods 122 M e e t i n g s 123 S h o r t c o u r s e s h e l d by A g e n t s 125 Farm d e m o n s t r a t i o n s 125 D e m o n s t r a t i o n p l o t s used by A g e n t s 128 F i e l d days 128 Group t o u r s 131 Group methods combined 131 C o n c l u s i o n 136 Mass Media Methods 136 P r e s s r e l e a s e s 137 P u b l i c a t i o n s • I 3 7 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE R a d i o programs 140 T e l e v i s i o n 140 C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . 142 Number o f Farmers C o n t a c t e d 142 I n d i v i d u a l methods 142 Group methods 144 Mass media methods 146 Use o f methods by A g e n t s p e r thousand farms . . 146 Changes by p r o v i n c e 148 R a t e o f change . . 150 Farm Management I n s t r u c t i o n 153 Summary 154 C o n c l u s i o n s 156 IV. EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTENSION 159 C o n t a c t w i t h Farmers 159 C o n t a c t s and a d o p t i o n . 159 S e r v i c e s t o f a r m e r s 161 Measurements o f P r o d u c t i o n , E f f i c i e n c y , and Improvements 162 Improvements i n q u a l i t y of produce 162 Improvement o f farms 165 Measurement of the p h y s i c a l volume o f p r o d u c t i o n I 6 6 E f f i c i e n c y o f p r o d u c t i o n 169 i x CHAPTER PAGE V. INTEREST OF FARMERS IN EXTENSION SERVICES 179 Requests by Farmers to Agents 179 L e t t e r s to Agents 179 Number of farmers' requests to Agents r e l a t i v e t o number o f farms . 179 Attendance a t Group Events 183 L i s t e n i n g to Radio and T.V . . . . . 187 C o n c l u s i o n 190 Requests . . . . . . . 190 Attendance 191 L i s t e n e r s 191 BIBLIOGRAPHY 192 X LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Radio Programs . . 41 I I . E x t e n s i o n Work of Experimental Farms S e r v i c e . . 67 I I I . Farms per Agent 1956 85 IV. Days Worked w i t h Youth by Agents i n Saskatchewan 87 V. Index Numbers f o r Farm V i s i t s per Agent . . . . 97 VI. Index Numbers f o r Telephone C a l l s per Agent . . 99 V I I . Index Numbers f o r L e t t e r s W r i t t e n per Agent . . 101 V I I I . Index Numbers f o r O f f i c e C a l l e r s per Agent . . . 103 IX. I n d i v i d u a l Contacts f o r B.C., A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , and Newfoundland 106 X. Contacts per Agent, Moving Averages f o r the P r o v i n c e s B.C., A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , Newfoundland, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 109 XI. Average Contacts per Agent per Year (1952-61). . 119 X I I . Meetings Attended by Agents, Index Numbers f o r Number o f Meetings per Agent 124 X I I I . Short Courses Held by Agents 126 XIV. Farm Demonstrations 127 XV. Demonstration P l o t s Used by Agents 129 XVI. F i e l d Days Held by Agents 130 XVII. Group Tours Arranged by Agents 132 x i TABLE PAGE XVIII. Group Events, Index Numbers o f Moving Average . 134 XIX. Group Contacts per Agent: Moving Averages . . . 135 XX. P r e s s Releases by Agents 138 XXI. P u b l i c a t i o n s D i s t r i b u t e d by Agents, Index Numbers 139 XXII. Mass Media: Radio and T.V. Programs 141 XXIII. Mass Media E v e n t s : Moving Averages of Events and Events per Agent f o r A l l A v a i l a b l e P r o v i n c e s . 143 XXIV. Number of Farmers Contacted by Each Method Each Year 1952-61 P e r i o d 145 XXV. Use o f Methods per 1000 Farms 147 XXVI. Change i n Use of Methods 149 XXVII. Trend i n Number of Contacts per Farm 151 XXVIII. Comparison of C l a s s e s of Methods . 152 XXIX. Farm Management I n s t r u c t i o n and A s s i s t a n c e . . . 155 XXX. Summary o f Changes of Contacts per Agent . . . . 157 XXXI. Number o f Contacts per Year f o r 1952-61 . . . . 161 XXXII. S e r v i c e s per Thousand Farms . . 163 XXXIII. 1962 Index of Farm P r o d u c t i o n 168 XXXIV. Input and Output f o r A g r i c u l t u r e 169 XXXV. S o i l Samples and Forage Samples Taken by Agents and by S p e c i a l i s t s 171 VXXXVTA. Stock P l a c e d by Agents 172 XXXVIB. Stock P l a c e d by L i v e s t o c k D i v i s i o n . . 172 XXXVII. Seed C e r t i f i c a t i o n : P o t a t o e s , G r a i n and P a s t u r e 173 x i i TABLE PAGE XXXVIII. Land Development 174 XXXIX. A g r i c u l t u r a l P a i r s , Stock and Produce Shows . . 175 XL. M a s t i t i s T e s t s 176 XLI. P o u l t r y T e s t s f o r Pull o r u m 176 XLIIA. Surveys 177 XLIIB. Seed D r i l l Surveys: Number of Samples from D r i l l s 178 X L I I I . L e t t e r s Received by Agents, L e t t e r s Received per Agent . . 180 XLIV. Requests to Agents 181 XLV. Farm V i s i t s by Agents 201 XLVI. Telephone C a l l s w i t h Agents 202 XLVII. L e t t e r s W r i t t e n by Agents 203 XLVIII. O f f i c e C a l l e r s on Agents 204 XLIX. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia: I n d i v i d u a l Contacts 205 L. P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a : I n d i v i d u a l Contacts . . . 206 L I . P r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan: I n d i v i d u a l Contacts . 207 L I I . P r o v i n c e o f Manitoba: I n d i v i d u a l Contacts . . . 208 L I I I . P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o : I n d i v i d u a l Contacts . . . 209 LIV. P r o v i n c e of Quebec: I n d i v i d u a l Contacts . . . . 210 LV. P r o v i n c e of Nova S c o t i a : I n d i v i d u a l Contacts . 211 LVT. P r o v i n c e of Newfoundland: I n d i v i d u a l Contacts . 212 L V I I . P r o v i n c e of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d : I n d i v i d u a l Contacts 213 L V I I I . Meetings Attended by Agents 214 x i i i TABLE PAGE LIX. B r i t i s h Columbia: Group Contacts per Agent . . 215 LX. Saskatchewan: Group Contacts per Agent . . . . 215 LXI. A l b e r t a : Group Contacts per Agent 216 LXII. Manitoba: Group Contacts per Agent 217 L X I I I . O n t a r i o : Group Contacts per Agent 217 LXIV. Quebec: Group Contacts per Agent 218 LXV. Nova S c o t i a : Group Contacts per Agent 218 LXVT. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d : Group Contacts per Agent 219 LXVII. Newfoundland: Group Contacts per Agent . . . . 219 LXVIII. P u b l i c a t i o n s D i s t r i b u t e d 220 LXIX. D i s t r i b u t i o n of C i r c u l a r s 221 LXX. P u b l i c a t i o n s D i s t r i b u t e d by Agents I n c l u d i n g C i r c u l a r s . 222 LXXI. Number of Farms, Agents, and Farms per Agent . 223 LXXIIA. Attendance a t Meetings Held by Agents 224 LXXIIB. Attendance per Meeting and Per Cent Meetings Represented 225 LXXIII. Farm Demonstrations: Attendance per Demonstration 226 LXXIV. Short Courses: Attendance per Course 227 LXXV. F i e l d Days: Attendance.per Day 228 LXXVI. Moving Average of Attendance Rate per Event . . 229 LXXVII. T o t a l Attendances C a l c u l a t e d : Meetings . . . . 230 LXXVIII. T o t a l Attendances C a l c u l a t e d : Farm Demonstrations 231 LXXIX. T o t a l Attendances C a l c u l a t e d : Short Courses . . 232 x i v TABLE PAGE LXXX. T o t a l Attendances C a l c u l a t e d : F i e l d Days . . . 233 LXXXI. Farmers' Clubs 234 LXXXII. Number of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agents 1952-1961 . 235 XV LIST OP FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. The Agent as the Centre o f the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n Program . . . . . . 46 2. P r o p o r t i o n o f I n d i v i d u a l Methods Used i n 1952-61 f o r B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Que., N.S., and N f l d . . . 107 3. Number o f I n d i v i d u a l Contacts per Agent f o r B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Que., N.S., N f l d . , P.E.I. . . 110 4. I n d i v i d u a l Methods: Percentage Used per Agent During 1952-61 f o r the Seven P r o v i n c e s B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Quebec, N.S., N f l d . , and P.E.I. . . I l l 5. P r o p o r t i o n s of I n d i v i d u a l Methods Used by the Average Agent During the P e r i o d 1952 to 1961 . . 117 6. Comparison of Number and P r o p o r t i o n o f Each Method Used by the Average Agent f o r 1952-56 and 1957-61 (from T a b l e X of Moving Averages of Contacts per Agent) 121 7. T o t a l Meetings Held i n E i g h t P r o v i n c e s o f Canada ( P r o v i n c e s Excluded: New Brunswick and Newfoundland) 133 8. Percentage Change i n Requests t o Agents Between 1952 and 1961 182 9. Attendance a t Meetings (from T a b l e LXXVTI) . . . . 184 10. Attendance a t Group Events 186 xv i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to acknowledge guidance from the i n c e p t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , surveyance, and the encouragement t o improve, from my p r o f e s s o r , Dr. C o o l i e Verner, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n e a r l y p a r t s of the t h e s i s h i s e d i t i n g was extremely h e l p f u l and an example t o f o l l o w . Dr. J . J . R i c h t e r o f my t h e s i s committee I thank f o r s e v e r a l suggestions of ways t o presen t n u m e r i c a l data. The l i b r a r i a n s of the S o c i a l Sciences D i v i s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , deserve a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l n e s s . I am g r a t e f u l t o my dear w i f e , C h r i s t i n e , f o r her u n t i r i n g work as t y p i s t of numerous d r a f t s , f o r h e l p f u l a s s i s t a n c e i n making c o r r e c t i o n s and i n checking, and a l s o f o r p u t t i n g up w i t h "the t h e s i s " i n the home f o r so lon g . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s a form o f e d u c a t i o n f o r f a r m e r s w h i c h has t h e o b j e c t i v e o f i m p r o v i n g t h e l i f e o f f a r m f a m i l i e s . When i t de v e l o p e d towards the end o f l a s t c e n t u r y a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n was concerned w i t h t e a c h i n g f a r m e r s improved methods o f f a r m i n g w h i c h would h e l p them i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n and hence t h e i r income and s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . I n Canada t h i s i s s t i l l t he main co n c e r n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n ; however, more r e c e n t l y some emphasis has been g i v e n t o h e l p i n g f a r m e r s improve t h e i r f i n a n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h r e s u l t a n t economies w h i c h can be extended t o b e n e f i t t h e whole f a m i l y . I n a d d i t i o n , the f a r m e r and h i s f a m i l y have been encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s f o r t h e i r own d i s t r i c t and i n r u r a l community a f f a i r s . S p e c i f i c a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e , d i r e c t e d towards b e t t e r i n g r u r a l home l i f e , i s b e i n g made a v a i l -a b l e more and more. The a c c e p t a n c e by f a r m e r s o f e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y and hence i t i s a major t a s k o f e x t e n s i o n t o ed u c a t e f a r m e r s t o s e e the b e n e f i t s t h a t come f r o m new methods i n a g r i c u l t u r e . The c h i e f means o f r e a c h i n g r u r a l p e o p l e used by t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent. ORIGIN OP AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND THE "COUNTY AGENT" 2 The idea of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension was introduced i n the State of Louisiana i n 1886 by Seaman A. Knapp, once a farmer with very s c i e n t i f i c methods, and subsequently Professor of A g r i c u l t u r e at Iowa State C o l l e g e . 1 His p r i n c i p a l objective was to interest people i n s e t t l i n g on land which had appeared unprofitable to farm. He did t h i s by bringing them onto the land and working with them i n such a way that the land produced before t h e i r eyes and by t h e i r own e f f o r t s . Dr. Knapp hoped that the demonstration of correct farming techniques would pro-vide an example that would encourage others i n the neighbourhood, and to do t h i s he sent A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents to selected farms to help them use correct farm procedures. This method did not spread information e f f e c t i v e l y , however, and Dr. Knapp rea l i z e d that each farmer needed to be contacted d i r e c t l y but to do t h i s each county would require at l e a s t one f u l l - t i m e A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent. The f i r s t "county agent" was appointed i n 1906, i n Texas. About the same time, a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers also appeared i n Ontario, and a f t e r the passing of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Instruction Act by the Canada Parliament i n 1913, A g r i c u l t u r a l •'•Lincoln D. Kelsey & Cannon C. Hearne, Cooperative  Extension Work (New York: Comstock Publishing Associates, 1949), p. 17. 3 Ag e n t s were a p p o i n t e d i n e v e r y e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c e by 1918. Today t h e r e a r e about f o u r hundred throughout Canada and i t i s th e work o f t h e s e A g e n t s w i t h w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned. PURPOSE The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o s t u d y t h e development o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work i n Canada. I n so d o i n g , i t w i l l : 1. g i v e an h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h o f Canada's a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , t o g e t h e r w i t h an a c c o u n t o f i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s ; 2. r e v e a l any t r e n d s i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ; 3. make r e l e v a n t comparisons between p r o v i n c e s ; 4. p r e s e n t any s u p p o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w i l l i n d i c a t e r e s u l t s o f t h e work o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . SOURCES OP DATA The d a t a i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e drawn c h i e f l y from government r e p o r t s . The d a t a on the h i s t o r y and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Canada were e x t r a c t e d f r o m a r e p o r t on t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t o f 1913, as w e l l as a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f the Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l departments s i n c e t h e i r i n c e p t i o n . Statements o f p h i l o s o p h y and o b j e c t i v e s a r e from t h e same s o u r c e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h some d e p a r t m e n t a l j o b s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Comments on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n 4 and philosophy of the Extension Service have been extracted from the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review and other publications r e l a t i n g to ag r i c u l t u r e and extension. Further information and comments were drawn from books and reports published outside Canada, c h i e f l y i n the United States. Data on the a c t i v i t i e s of extension workers i n the f i e l d were taken from the p r o v i n c i a l department of ag r i c u l t u r e annual r e p o r t s . 2 The reports have been supplemented by information d i r e c t l y from the extension services of the departments. Most of the data f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and Nova Scotia were taken d i r e c t l y from the o r i g i n a l records kept by the f i e l d workers. Annual reports f o r Manitoba were issued from 1959 only, and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Services D i v i s i o n i n Manitoba could supply data f o r p r i o r years f o r some a c t i v i t i e s only. The data collected and analyzed includes the items i n the following l i s t . The a c t i v i t i e s recorded were chosen because of the consistency of th e i r appearance i n the annual recordB of the departments. The a c t i v i t i e s of the Agents with 4»H Clubs are not dealt with i n th i s thesis because i t i s concerned s o l e l y with a g r i c u l t u r a l extension work with the farm family as a unit. 2 I n the Province of Manitoba the Reports are from the Department of Agriculture and Conservation; i n the Province of Quebec the Reports are from the Department of Agriculture and Colonization; i n the Province of Newfoundland the Reports are from the Department of Mines and Resources; i n the Province of Nova Scotia the Reports are from the Department of Agriculture and Marketing. 5 Number of extension workers Farm v i s i t s O f f i c e c a l l e r s Telephone c a l l s L etters written Letters received Meetings attended Meetings addressed Demonstration plots used Farm demonstrations F i e l d days Short courses Group tours Study groups Farm management assistance Newsletters and other c i r c u l a r s d i s t r i b u t e d B u l l e t i n s and other publications di s t r i b u t e d Press releases Radio broadcasts T.V. programs A g r i c u l t u r a l f a i r s and produce f a i r s Land clearing Drainage and i r r i g a t i o n S o i l samples Forage samples Seed c e r t i f i c a t i o n Milk tests f o r mastitis Poultry tests f o r Pullorum disease S o i l surveys and other surveys Days with adults Days with youth PROCEDURE Data on the a c t i v i t i e s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents were accumulated and tabulated for a ten year period beginning with 1952. I t was necessary to use 1961 as the terminating year because not a l l the reports of the various departments of 6 a g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1962 were ava i l a b l e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of data. In analyzing the work of A g r i -c u l t u r a l Agents the a c t i v i t i e s reported f o r each province are c l a s s i f i e d into i n d i v i d u a l , group, and mass media methods, with an added category of services to farmers f o r those a c t i v i t i e s which cannot properly be c l a s s i f i e d as educational methods. The number of times that in d i v i d u a l contacts, group methods or mass media were used, are usually given i n the records as to t a l s f o r the province f o r the year and, unless otherwise stated, i t i s presumed that a l l the Agents i n a province have contributed to these numbers. When these numbers are tabulated, however, the data suggest that occasionally the number of a c t i v i t i e s recorded represented the work of only some of the Agents. Only i n the case of B r i t i s h Columbia and Nova Scotia i s the number of Agents involved known prec i s e l y since these data were collected from the o r i g i n a l records kept by the Agents. Missing data. The a c t i v i t i e s of Agents i n New Brunswick have not been reported and, consequently, that province has been omitted from t h i s aspect of the study. In some cases one or more provinces have not reported data f o r a certain a c t i v i t y , such as i s the case with telephone c a l l s which were not a v a i l -able f o r Quebec, Newfoundland, or Prince Edward Island, and farm v i s i t s which were recorded f o r Ontario i n a few years only. 7 (These a r e the o n l y i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n s t o the d a t a o f t h e " i n d i v i d u a l methods" o f c o n t a c t s t u d i e d . ) M i s s i n g d a t a and the o c c a s i o n s when o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s have been r e p o r t e d i n any y e a r produce i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n some o f t h e a n a l y s e s o v e r the t e n y e a r s s t u d i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the t o t a l s f o r each y e a r which r e p r e s e n t t h e sum o f t h e d a t a o f one t y p e o f a c t i v i t y f o r a l l p r o v i n c e s . I n t h e s e cases the m i s s i n g d a t a has been s u p p l i e d by u s i n g a s i m p l e i n t e r p o l a t e d a v e r a g e o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g f o u r y e a r s o r , i f t h e space i s a t o r n e a r one end o f t h e t e n y e a r p e r i o d , t h r e e y e a r s . The number o f A g e n t s g i v e n as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o such an i n t e r p o l a t e d average has been s i m i l a r l y c a l c u l a t e d . I n t h e s e cases a l l d a t a s u p p l i e d by e x t r a p o l a t i o n s , and t o t a l s w h i c h i n c l u d e them, a r e I d e n t i f i e d w i t h an a s t e r i s k on t h e T a b l e s i n w h i c h they a r e p r e s e n t e d . The above p r o c e d u r e has not been used to s u p p l y data f o r a c t i v -i t i e s p e r Agent f o r p r o v i n c e s s i n g l y , b u t o n l y t o a r r i v e a t t o t a l s f o r a l l p r o v i n c e s t o g e t h e r . Punch c a r d s . A f t e r a c c u m u l a t i n g the d a t a on the a c t i v -i t i e s o f t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s , t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d r e g u l a r l y were e n t e r e d on McBee key s o r t punch c a r d s , w i t h d a t a f o r a l l t e n y e a r s f o r one p r o v i n c e on one c a r d . T a b u l a t i o n . A l l t h e it e m s were t a b u l a t e d . The t a b l e s r e p o r t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f Agents I n d i c a t e t h e number o f c o n t a c t s f o r each y e a r by p r o v i n c e and a c t i v i t y . 8 F u r t h e r m o r e , the number o f A g e n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s i s i n d i c a t e d where a p p r o p r i a t e . The d a t a f o r c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s may be i r r e g u l a r , due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e number o f Agents employed by t h e p r o v i n c e , o r t o the n a t u r e o f t h e r e p o r t s f o r t h a t y e a r . However, when c o n t a c t s p e r Agent a r e a n a l y z e d , a r e l i a b l e p i c t u r e o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f an average Agent i s e v i d e n t and t r e n d s can be d i s c e r n e d . The numbers o f c o n t a c t s p e r Agent f o r each p r o v i n c e f o r t h e t e n y e a r p e r i o d o f t h i s s t u d y have been c o n v e r t e d t o i n d e x numbers f o r w h i c h the base p e r i o d i s 1952 a t 100 c o n t a c t s . Measurement o f change. F o r most o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h e t r e n d s have been measured by t a k i n g t h e average c o n t a c t s p e r A g e n t f o r t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f t h e p e r i o d s t u d i e d and com-p a r i n g i t w i t h t h e a v e r a g e f o r t h e second f i v e y e a r p e r i o d . Change i s t h e n measured as the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two p e r i o d s e x p r e s s e d a s a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e f i r s t p e r i o d . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f d a t a . As t h e number o f b o t h Agents and f a r m e r s changes f r o m 1952 t o 1961, t h e number o f c o n t a c t s p e r f a r m e r v a r i e s . T h i s i s a n a l y z e d by c o n s i d e r i n g the number o f c o n t a c t s p e r f a r m e r . I n r e l a t i n g the number o f a c t i v i t i e s t o the c h a n g i n g number o f f a r m o p e r a t o r s and t o f a r m p r o d u c t i o n , d a t a f rom th e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s a r e used. From d a t a s u c h as t h e numbers o f l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d and a t t e n d a n c e a t m e e t i n g s the i n t e r e s t o f f a r m e r s i n e x t e n s i o n and any change i n i n t e r e s t i s measured. 9 DEFINITION OF TERMS A g e n t : see A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent. A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t : i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e a l l f u l l - t i m e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n c l u d i n g D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t s , A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and Agronomes, whose p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n i s t h a t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l agent. A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n ! a d u l t e d u c a t i o n among f a r m i n g p e o p l e . A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e : an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s u c h as e x t e n s i o n b r a n c h e s o f the p r o v i n c i a l government departments o f a g r i c u l t u r e . Group Method: an e d u c a t i o n a l method w h i c h i n v o l v e s a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . See Method. Group C o n t a c t s : c o n t a c t s made i n the c o u r s e o f u s i n g a group method. I n d i v i d u a l Method: an e d u c a t i o n a l method w h i c h i n v o l v e s one i n d i v i d u a l a t a time i n a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . See Method. I n d i v i d u a l C o n t a c t : c o n t a c t made w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e c o u r s e o f u s i n g an I n d i v i d u a l method. Mass Media Method: a method f o r the l a r g e s c a l e d i f f u s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Mass Media C o n t a c t s ; i n d i v i d u a l s c o n t a c t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f u s i n g mass media. 10 Method; a way o f o r g a n i z i n g a d u l t s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . S e r v i c e : A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . T e c h n i q u e ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l agent ( a d u l t e d u c a t o r ) t o f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g among a p a r t i c u l a r and p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d body o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . 3 REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Canadian p u b l i c a t i o n s on a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a r e n o t numerous b u t f o r t h e most p a r t they a r e up t o d a t e s i n c e they a r e c h i e f l y a n n u a l r e p o r t s . The p r o v i n c i a l government d e p a r t -ments, w i t h i n w h i c h the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s a r e s i t u a t e d , p u b l i s h a n n u a l r e p o r t s i n w h i c h the a c t i v i t i e s o f A g e n t s a r e r e p o r t e d , and p o l i c i e s and aims a r e f r e q u e n t l y p r o -c l a i m e d . D u r i n g t h e p a s t few y e a r s , v a r i o u s groups have s t u d i e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Canada and r e p o r t s from them p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s o f t h e day. To d a t e , no comprehensive a c c o u n t s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Canada have been p u b l i s h e d . To s t u d y the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d the development and p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f E x t e n s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , one must t u r n t o m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , t h e ^ C o o l i e V e r n e r , A C o n c e p t u a l Scheme f o r t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f P r o c e s s e s f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( C h i c a g o ; A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1962). 4 S e e F o o t n o t e 2, page 4, f o r t i t l e s o f departments. 11 most r e l e v a n t o f w h i c h i s t h a t f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s fo u n d i n th o s e A c t s o f P a r l i a m e n t w h i c h p r o v i d e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , and i n the r e p o r t on the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t , " 5 and s c a t t e r e d p e r i o d i c a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f p r o v i n c i a l departments o f a g r i -c u l t u r e . C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e h i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia were made by E a g l e s and M a c G i l l i v r a y i n May 1 9 6 1 . 6 The h i s t o r y o f 4-H i n Canada i s g i v e n by L i d s t e r . 7 The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Canada i s d e a l t w i t h i n some o f the a n n u a l p r o v i n c i a l r e p o r t s , and i n a s h o r t s u r v e y p u b l i s h e d by t h e F e d e r a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h o u t l i n e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e i n each p r o v i n c e , as w e l l as an a c c o u n t o f the p l a c e o f e x t e n s i o n w i t h i n t h e 8 8 F e d e r a l Department. A s i m i l a r s u r v e y was made by M c F a u l l . °Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , R e p o r t on the A g r i c u l t u r a l  I n s t r u c t i o n A c t . 1913-1922. 6Dean B l y t h e A. E a g l e s , " A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n a t U.B.C. P a s t and P r e s e n t , " P r o c e e d i n g s : A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x -te n s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1961); and W. M a c G i l l i v r a y , "An E f f e c t i v e P r o v i n c i a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , " P r o c e e d i n g s : A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x -t e n s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1961). 7 E c h o L i d s t e r , "50 Y e a r s o f 4-H i n Canada," A g r i c u l t u r a l  I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . X V I I I : 2 , 1963. 8Ganada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Canada's A g r i c u l t u r a l  E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s (Ottawa? Queen's P r i n t e r . 1956); and 3. K. M c F a u l l , . " A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s " ( u n p u b l i s h e d t e rm p a p e r f o r t h e B.S.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, 1964). 12 C r i t i c i s m o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and p o l i c i e s o f e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n Canada have been made by members o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f Canada. G l e n made s t a t e m e n t s about t h e p l a c e o f r e s e a r c h , i t s l i n k w i t h e x t e n s i o n , and w h i c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be concerned w i t h e x t e n s i o n . 9 A committee was s e t up by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e w i t h the purpose o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f e x t e n s i o n and i t s f u t u r e , and t h e i r f i n d i n g s , c r i t i c i s m s , comments, and s u g g e s t i o n s were r e p o r t e d on by P a r k s , P a u l , and W e i r . 1 0 S i m i l a r m a t e r i a l has been p r e p a r e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o e x t e n s i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 1 I n 1956 The N u f f i e l d F o u n d a t i o n commission t o N o r t h A m e r i c a r e p o r t e d on t h e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n O n t a r i o w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o organ-12 i z a t i o n . L i t e r a t u r e o f Ot h e r C o u n t r i e s W h i l e Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i s l i m i t e d , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r -a b l e l i t e r a t u r e produced i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t i s r e l e v a n t ^ R o b e r t G l e n , " E d u c a t i o n f o r A g r i c u l t u r e : Whose R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XIV:5 (September-October 1959). 1 0 D . L. P a r k s , L o m e P a u l , J . R. W e i r , "Symposium on R u r a l E x t e n s i o n f o r C a n a d a — P r e s e n t and F u t u r e , " A g r i c u l t u r a l  I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XV:4 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1960). 1 3 - J . K. F r i e s e n , "How can U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n B e s t S e r v e A g r i c u l t u r e ? " P r o c e e d i n g s ; A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1961). 1 2 T h e N u f f i e l d F o u n d a t i o n , F a r m i n g A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a (London: The N u f f i e l d F o u n d a t i o n , 19567-13 t o t h e Canadian A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e have been no r e p o r t s on r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e use o f the v a r i o u s e x t e n s i o n methods and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Canada, h ut t h e r e have been u s e f u l works produced i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Among t h e s e i s a h i s t o r y o f e x t e n s i o n r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h i n c l u d e s some a c c o u n t o f t h e County A g e n t s and o t h e r r u r a l ex-t e n s i o n workers employed by s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s . 1 3 Brunner and Y a n g 1 4 d e a l t w i t h many a s p e c t s o f a g r i c u l -t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f ex-t e n s i o n i s g i v e n by r e l a t i n g t h e agreements between t h e F e d e r a l Government and t h e S t a t e C o l l e g e s c o n c e r n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l ex-t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , p o i n t i n g out t h e soundness o f the p r i n c i p l e s b e h i n d t h e agreements t h a t have r e s u l t e d i n s u c h harmonious c o o p e r a t i o n and w h i c h "has s t o o d t h e t e s t o f t i m e . " The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e S t a t e E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r a r e enumerated, i n c l u d i n g h i s im p o r t a n c e i n making s u g g e s t i o n s t o t h e F e d e r a l Department and i n m a i n t a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r S t a t e departments and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These a u t h o r s have produced a T a b l e o f t h e R e l a t i v e 1 3 T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , C e n t e n n i a l Committee, C e n t u r y of S e r v i c e (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t -ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1963). 1 4Edmund de S. Brunner and E. H s i n Pao Yang, R u r a l A m e r i c a  and t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e (New Y o r k : Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1949). 14 I n f l u e n c e o f Methods o f communication, and a t t h e top o f t h e l i s t a r e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , m e e t i n g s , and v i s i t s , each c o n t r i b u t i n g about 15 p e r c e n t . I n a n o t h e r T a b l e , each method was a t t r i b u t e d w i t h the s h a r e o f the Agent's t i m e i t t o o k , t h e s h a r e o f t h e c o s t o f e x t e n s i o n , and t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f changes i t b r o u g h t a b o u t . R a d i o , c i r c u l a r s , and b u l l e t i n s were some o f t h e most e f f i c i e n t methods, but t h e s e were a t the bottom o f t h e p r e v i o u s T a b l e o f r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t methods o f e x t e n s i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has been g a t h e r e d s i n c e 1923. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has been summarized by W i l s o n and G a l l u p i n 15 t h e i r s t u d y o f e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g methods. These a u t h o r s compare e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f methods by c l a s s o f method, by a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r a c t i c e s t o w h i c h t h e y a r e a p p l i e d , by c o s t , and by i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f methods. There i s a d i s c u s s i o n and a l i s t o f the e s s e n t i a l elements g i v e n f o r each method. W i l s o n and G a l l u p d i s c u s s e x t e n s i o n as e d u c a t i o n , and t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a d o p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e s , i n c l u d i n g age, s i z e o f f a r m , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and c o n t a c t w i t h e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . 1 5 M e r e d i t h G. W i l s o n and Gladys G a l l u p , E x t e n s i o n  T e a c h i n g Methods, and Other F a c t o r s t h a t I n f l u e n c e A d o p t i o n  o f A g r i c u l t u r a l and Home Economics P r a c t i c e s . F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e C i r c u l a r 495, August 1955 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1955). 15 Two U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e C i r c u l a r s r e p o r t on e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s and accomplishments f o r the y e a r 1943-44. S h e f f i e l d 1 6 a n a l y z e d t h e County Agent's j o b and p r o -v i d e s d a t a on the number o f f a r m v i s i t s and t e l e p h o n e c a l l s made, as w e l l as t h e A gent's c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h Government and o t h e r a g e n c i e s . The number o f farms i n f l u e n c e d i s g i v e n and t h e i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n between 1914 and 1943 i s p o i n t e d o u t . H. W. P o r t e r 1 7 c o v e r s s i m i l a r ground more t h o r o u g h l y , a l w a y s g i v i n g d a t a f o r the whole c o u n t r y , i n c l u d i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f County A g e n t s , Home D e m o n s t r a t i o n A g e n t s , and 4-H C l u b A g e n t s , i n each c o u n t y . P o r t e r a n a l y z e s a n Agent's work on the b a s i s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n such as t h e numbers o f f a r m e r s a s s i s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g improved v a r i e t i e s , u s i n g l i m e and f e r t i l i z e r , and c o n t r o l l i n g p e s t s . The numbers o f farms and f a m i l i e s i n f l u e n c e d were r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f o r g a n i z e d e x t e n s i o n programs. P o r t e r a l s o t a b u l a t e d t h e t i m e devoted t o v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . A l s o g i v e n was t h e ti m e devoted t o a d u l t s . Gordy r e p o r t s a s i m i l a r i n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e Home D e m o n s t r a t i o n A g e n t s and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e whole 1 6 C h a r l e s A. S h e f f i e l d , N a t i o n a l R e p o r t o f County  A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent Work. J u l y 1, 1943-June 30, 1944. F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e C i r c u l a r 418 (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1944). 1 7 H . W. P o r t e r , E x t e n s i o n A c t i v i t i e s and Accomplishments  1943. F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e C i r c u l a r 419 (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1944). 16 c o u n t r y . 1 8 The number o f times t h e average Agent used v a r i o u s methods o f c o n t a c t I s g i v e n , i n c l u d i n g home v i s i t s , t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , and meetings h e l d , and t h e s e d a t a show t h a t t h e number o f e a c h k i n d o f c o n t a c t p e r Agent remained about t h e same between 1930 and 1956. The use o f l o c a l l e a d e r s has i n c r e a s e d , f o r t h e number o f l o c a l l e a d e r s p e r Agent c l i m b e d f r o m 52 i n 1925 t o 182 i n 1956, and the membership o f o r g a n i z e d groups had reached 1,403,283 by 1956. The g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e and i n c r e a s i n g use o f t h i s means o f e x t e n s i o n i s made c l e a r . Data a r e g i v e n f o r t h e number o f f a m i l i e s a s s i s t e d f o r each " s u b j e c t m a t t e r , " f o r example, F a m i l y Economics, o r Foods. The time s p e n t on v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r s i s g i v e n f o r each Agent as w e l l as t h e t i m e spent w i t h a d u l t s and y o u t h . I n a f u r t h e r r e p o r t G o r d y 1 9 d e a l t w i t h t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s w i t h 4-H C l u b s . W h i l e t h e a c t i v i t i e s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m th o s e connected w i t h f a r m f a m i l i e s , t h e approach t o t h e way i n w h i c h t h e workers use t h e i r t i m e i s o f i n t e r e s t . T h i s r e p o r t c o v e r s the time Agents devoted t o 4-H C l u b s o v e r t h e t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r p e r i o d 1930 t o 1954 and r e l a t e d t h i s t o l 8 A m e l i a S. Gordy, P r o g r e s s i n Home D e m o n s t r a t i o n Work. A S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f Trends. 1910-1956. F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e C i r c u l a r 516 (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1958). l 9 A m e l i a S. Gordy, S t a t i s t i c a l Summary o f 4 ^ Cl u b Work, F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e C i r c u l a r 504 (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1956). 17 s u c h f a c t o r s as t h e numbers o f c l u b s ; members p e r c l u b ; c l u b s engaged i n community a c t i v i t i e s ; t o t a l number o f l o c a l l e a d e r s b o t h men and women; l e a d e r s p e r c l u b ; meetings h e l d on 4-H C l u b work, w i t h l e a d e r - t r a i n i n g meetings g i v e n s e p a r a t e l y . Under t h e same h e a d i n g s , f i g u r e s a r e g i v e n f o r every S t a t e f o r t h e y e a r 1954. Data a r e p r o v i d e d f o r each S t a t e f o r 1954 on: 1. P e r c e n t a g e o f time devoted t o 4-H by A g e n t s d o i n g p r i m a r i l y Home D e m o n s t r a t i o n work, 4-H C l u b work, o r a g r i c u l t u r a l work, w i t h p e r c e n t a g e s f o r a l l A g e n t s and t o t a l time s p e n t ; 2. Work w i t h men and women 18-30 y e a r s o f age, a c c o r d i n g t o method o f c o n t a c t : community group o r c o u n t r y - w i d e group; 3. E x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z e d , o r j o i n t l y o r g a n i z e d by E x t e n s i o n and a n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 4. Groups worked w i t h b u t n o t o r g a n i z e d by E x t e n s i o n , and o t h e r s worked w i t h b u t n o t i n o r g a n i z e d groups. Two p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h p o l i c i e s o f t h e County A g e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e by R. K. B l i s s 2 0 and by K e l s e y and H e a r n e . 2 1 B l i s s s t u d i e s the p h i l o s o p h y o f e x t e n s i o n a t F e d e r a l , c o u n t y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and Agent l e v e l s , and d i s c u s s e s t h e m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . K e l s e y and Hearne made a h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y o f e x t e n s i o n work and r e p o r t t h e aims o f e x t e n s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a t t r i b u t e d t o the men most 2 0 R . K. B l i s s ( e d . ) , The S p i r i t and P h i l o s o p h y o f E x t e n s i o n Work (Washington: Graduate S c h o o l , U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and E p s i l o n Sigma P h i , N a t i o n a l H o n o r a r y E x t e n s i o n F r a t e r n i t y , 1952). 2 1 L i n c o l n D. K e l s e y and Cannon C. Hearne, C o o p e r a t i v e  E x t e n s i o n Work (New Y o r k : Comstock P u b l i s h i n g A s s o c i a t e s , i y 4 9 ) . 18 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o u n d i n g e x t e n s i o n work such as Seaman A. Knapp and A. F. L e v e r . A r e p o r t on e x t e n s i o n work i n European C o u n t r i e s , p r e -p a r e d by M a u n d e r , 2 2 w h i c h grew out o f a Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e , l i s t s many c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s , a i m s , and d e f i n i t i o n s o f e x t e n s i o n methods, o r g a n i z a t i o n , and A g e n t s . 2 2 A . E, Maunder, Improvement of A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s i n European C o u n t r i e s . Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n Development P a p e r No. 41 (Rome: Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l Organ-i z a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1954). CHAPTER I I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e From i t s e a r l i e s t days the Canada Department o f A g r i c u l -t u r e has a s s i s t e d f a r m e r s i n p r a c t i c a l ways and o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e when n e c e s s a r y . The Department has grown over t h e y e a r s as i t has u n d e r t a k e n a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and as i t s o p e r a t i o n s have I n c r e a s e d i n s i z e . A t t h e same t i m e , i t has ceased t o p e r f o r m those a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have been t a k e n o v e r by the p r o v i n c e s . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s now r e p l a c e some o f t h e work the Canada Department o r i g -i n a l l y p e r f ormed. E a r l y a c t i v i t i e s . By 1 9 0 6 the Department was w e l l o r g a n -i z e d and i n t h a t y e a r i n a u g u r a t e d an u n u s u a l e x t e n s i o n p r o j e c t c o n s i s t i n g o f s p e c i a l t r a i n s t r a v e l l i n g a c r o s s Canada w h i c h s t o p p e d f o r one hour a t p r e v i o u s l y announced p o i n t s . On t h i s t r i p 2 0 6 meetings were h e l d w i t h an aver a g e a t t e n d a n c e o f 140 p e o p l e each, o f whom, i t was e s t i m a t e d , 9 5 p e r cent were f a r m e r s . T h i s s p e c i a l e x t e n s i o n p r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l a i n wheat smut and i t s c o n t r o l and t o e x h i b i t samples o f good seed. These Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e  f o r t h e Dominion o f Canada f o r t h e 5 Months ended March 5 1 . 1 9 0 6 7 "(Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 0 6 J , p. x l v . 20 t r a i n s were s t i l l i n use i n t h e ' t h i r t i e s ' b u t they a r e now a d i s t i n c t i v e p a r t o f e x t e n s i o n h i s t o r y . A c t i v i t i e s i n 1 9 1 1 - 1 2 . The f u n c t i o n s o f the Department had expanded by 1 9 1 1 and i n c l u d e d i m p l e m e n t i n g A c t s o f P a r l i a m e n t s u c h as t h o s e r e g a r d i n g a n i m a l d i s e a s e q u a r a n t i n e . Under t h e Department were t h e "cow t e s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s , " D a i r y Record C e n t r e s , and e x p e r i m e n t s i n d a i r y i n g f o r w h i c h i t p u r c h a s e d a creamery b u s i n e s s . A f t e r making an " E n q u i r y i n t o t h e F r u i t I n d u s t r y " t h e Department p a i d a bonus t o f r u i t growers f o r u s i n g c o l d s t o r a g e . I t encouraged the use o f s u p e r i o r seeds t h r o u g h seed t e s t i n g , seed i n s p e c t i o n , seed c o m p e t i t i o n s , and seed f a i r s a t w h i c h p r i z e s were awarded. I t a l s o r a n f o u r t e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l farms and two s u b s t a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d f r o m t h e e a s t e r n t o t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . C e r e a l s were b r e d and s e l e c t e d t o improve q u a l i t y , and f o r the newly s e l e c t e d v a r i e t i e s o f wheat, m i l l i n g and b a k i n g t e s t s were made. An example o f the many p r o j e c t s o f t h e Department's Botany D i v i s i o n was the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d i s e a s e s o f t u r n i p s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the Department p r e p a r e d many p u b l i c a t i o n s and d i s t r i b u t e d them t o f a r m e r s . 2 E a c h y e a r t h e r e a f t e r , some new s e r v i c e was added s u c h as t h e placement o f s i r e s begun i n 1 9 1 3 , w h i c h was a most Important 2 C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , R e p o r t o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e  f o r t h e Dominion o f Canada f o r the y e a r ended March 3 1 , 1 9 1 2 . Xottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 1 2 J . 21 p o l i c y f o r the f u t u r e o f the l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y . 3 L i m i t a t i o n s o f e x t e n s i o n work. There was no b r a n c h o f t h e Department a s s i g n e d the s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n o f t a k i n g i n f o r -m a t i o n t o t h e f a r m e r w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e r e was a complete l a c k o f e x t e n s i o n , except f o r t h e o c c a s i o n a l s p e c i a l t r a i n s and t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f b u l l e t i n s . R e s e a r c h was f i n d i n g the needed i n f o r m a t i o n and c o r r e c t t e c h n i q u e s were b e i n g demonstrated on t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l f a r m s , but as Seaman A. Knapp had d i s c e r n e d i n L o u i s i a n a , more i n t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n was needed b e f o r e t h e f u l l b e n e f i t o f t h i s work would be implemented on t h e f a r m s . THE AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION ACT OP CANADA The one event w h i c h b o o s t e d t h e development o f a g r i c u l -t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Canada was the passage o f the " A g r i c u l t u r a l 4 I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " on June I S , 1913. The A c t s t a t e s t h a t : . . . I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t encouragement be g i v e n t o a g r i c u l t u r e i n the p r o v i n c e s o f Canada, and . . • g r e a t and permanent b e n e f i t w i l l r e s u l t t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t i o n c a r r i e d on a l o n g l i n e s w e l l d e v i s e d and o f a c o n t i n u o u s n a t u r e . . . . The A c t was d e s i g n e d t o s u p p o r t a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t o r s i n c o l l e g e s , i n s c h o o l s , and among the p e o p l e . As w e l l as o b s e r v i n g p r o g r e s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n 3Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , A n n u a l R e p o r t f o r 1913. (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1913), p. 19. 4 S t a t u t e s o f Canada. 1913, c.5. 22 i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada was i n f l u e n c e d by a c t i v i t i e s i n P r a n c e and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , by a r e p o r t f r o m B e l g i u m where twenty-eeven "agronomes de l ' E t a t " w i t h e i g h t a s s i s t a n t s made a measurable d i f f e r e n c e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n the twenty-f i v e y e a r s f rom t h e commencement o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n 1885. On B e l g i u m ' 8 11,373 s q u a r e m i l e s c a t t l e i n c r e a s e d f rom 1,382,815 t o 1,817,687 i n 1907, w h i l e swine i n c r e a s e d f r o m 646,375 t o 1,379,462, and the wheat y i e l d i n c r e a s e d by f o u r t e e n b u s h e l s t o 38.55 b u s h e l s p e r a c r e f o r t h e y e a r s 1907-1910. I n 1911 t h e i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h a t y e a r compared w i t h 1885 was e s t i -mated t o be w o r t h £10,000,000 a t a c o s t o f o n l y £40,000. The B e l g i a n s used a w i n t e r c o u r s e of l e c t u r e s f o r t h e i r f a r m e r s as a b a s i s f o r t h e i r e x t e n s i o n program and v i s i t e d farms t o f o l l o w up t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n . 5 The C a n a d i a n A c t was t o be implemented by t h e p r o v i n c i a l Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e and E d u c a t i o n . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e f i e l d s of a g r i c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e s c r o s s two d i f f e r e n t measures o f f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e . These a r e S e c t i o n 93 o f the B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t w h i c h r e a d s : I n and f o r each p r o v i n c e the l e g i s l a t u r e may e x c l u s i v e l y make laws i n r e l a t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n , .. . .® meaning t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s a r e d i r e c t e d e x c l u s i v e l y by t h e 5 C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , R e p o r t on t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c -t i o n A c t 1914. (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1915), p. 20. 6 S t a t u t e s o f Canada. 1867, c.3 S e c t i o n 93. 23 p r o v i n c e s ; and S e c t i o n 95 w h i c h r e a d s : I n each p r o v i n c e t h e l e g i s l a t u r e may make law s i n r e l a t i o n t o a g r i c u l t u r e i n the p r o v i n c e . . . and any law s h a l l have e f f e c t i n and f o r t h e p r o v i n c e as l o n g and as f a r o n l y as i t i s not repugnant t o any A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada, . . , 7 w h i c h means t h a t p r o v i n c i a l laws r e l a t i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e can toe o v e r - r u l e d by A c t s made by t h e F e d e r a l Government. The " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " was worded so t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e s would f e e l e n t i r e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs, y e t t h e i r p l a n s must be s u b m i t t e d t o the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r Canada who th e n made the f u n d s a v a i l a b l e . I n h i s r e p o r t on the A c t , Commissioner James sums up th e s i t u a t i o n t h u s : The A c t i s i n t e n d e d n o t t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i n i t i a t i v e o r freedom o f t h e p r o v i n c e , b u t a t t h e same time t o g i v e t h e Dominion M i n i s t e r the power o f s u p e r v i s i o n as he i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f Canada. As t h i s s u g g e s t s t h e r e was a l r e a d y a r e c o g n i z e d d e s i r e i n a l l t h e p r o v i n c e s t o Improve a g r i c u l t u r e by means o f i n s t r u c t i o n . S e c t i o n 6 o f t h e A c t p r o v i d e s f o r the n e c e s s a r y s a f e g u a r d i n g o f F e d e r a l e x p e n d i t u r e . S e c t i o n 6 s t a t e s : The M i n i s t e r i s empowered t o a p p o i n t o f f i c e r s t o c o n f e r w i t h the p r o v i n c e s , a d v i s e them, i n s p e c t t h e i r work, and t o see t h a t t h e moneys a r e expended i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f the A c t . 7 S t a t u t e s o f Canada, 1867, c.3 S e c t i o n 95. 8 C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , R e p o r t on A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n  A c t . 1914 (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1915}, p. 6. 24 G u i d a n c e i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e took s t e p s t o ensure t h e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the A c t . F i r s t , he i n v i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l p r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n and A g r i c u l t u r a l Departments t o a C o n f e r e n c e on March 2 4 t h and 2 5 t h , 1913, p r i m a r i l y t o d i s c u s s and become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the w o r k i n g o f t h e A c t . T h i s was an unique event b e i n g the f i r s t o c c a s i o n a l l M i n i s t e r s o f A g r i c u l t u r e had met t o g e t h e r and t h e C o n f e r e n c e was thought t o have been w e l l w o r t h w h i l e . 9 Suggested e x p e n d i t u r e o f the g r a n t . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 6, "suggested l i n e s " r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f f u n d s were s e n t t o p r o v i n c i a l Departments o f A g r i c u l t u r e f r o m t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r Canada i n 1913, b e f o r e t h e A c t was f i n a l l y p a s s e d . These s u g g e s t i o n s were as f o l l o w s : (1) Equipment and maintenance o f A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e s , A g r i c u l t u r a l S c h o o l s , D a i r y S c h o o l s , H o r t i c u l t u r a l S c h o o l s , and V e t e r i n a r y C o l l e g e s . (2) A s s i s t a n c e i n t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g and maintenance o f a g r i c u l t u r a l b ranches i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d and m a i n t a i n e d by p r i v a t e b e n e f a c t i o n . (3) S h o r t c o u r s e s i n a l l l i n e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l work. (4) Appointment o f p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r s o r a g e n t s whose d u t i e s s h a l l be t o d i r e c t o r i n s t r u c t o r i n s p e c t a l o n g any l i n e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n . (5) A s s i s t i n g i n the t e a c h i n g o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s as f o l l o w s : 9 I b l d . . p. 26. 25 (a) Appointment o f d i r e c t o r o r s u p e r v i s o r o f a g r i c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g ; Courses o f t r a i n i n g f o r t e a c h e r s ; S e r v i c e s and expenses o f su c h t e a c h e r s ; P r i n t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b u l l e t i n s and pamphlets e n c o u r a g i n g and a s s i s t i n g i n s u ch work; I n s p e c t i o n o f work; Any e x p e n d i t u r e d i r e c t l y t e n d i n g t o encourage the maintenance o f s c h o o l gardens, t e a c h i n g o f n a t u r e s t u d y o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e . ( 6 ) S e r v i c e s and expenses o f : ( a <* ( c ( ? ) ( a ( c T eachers o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n c o l l e g e s o r h i g h s c h o o l s ; L o c a t e d county o r d i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , d e m o n s t r a t o r s , o r i n s t r u c t o r s , whose work c o n s i s t s i n g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e a l o n g a l l l i n e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l work. T r a v e l l i n g I n s t r u c t o r s i n a g r i c u l t u r e . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Women's I n s t i t u t e s o r o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s o r c i r c l e s f o r t h e women o f t h e r u r a l p a r t s o r f o r women engaged i n any a g r i -c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s ( h o r t i c u l t u r a l , d a i r y i n g , p o u l t r y , b e e k e e p i n g , e t c . ) ; The g i v i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n t o women i n domestic s c i e n c e o r any l i n e o f work connected w i t h r u r a l l i f e o r any a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t ; T r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s o r i n s t r u c t o r s f o r t h e above work. ( 8 ) E x p e n d i t u r e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h any l i n e o f demon-s t r a t i o n t e n d i n g t o encourage and a s s i s t t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n t o b e t t e r l i v i n g and more p r o f i t a b l e methods o f work; D e m o n s t r a t i o n farms D e m o n s t r a t i o n t r a i n s D e m o n s t r a t i o n on f a r m s , o r fa r m d e m o n s t r a t i o n s D e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n d r a i n i n g , s o i l c u l t i v a t i o n , c r o p p r o d u c t i o n D e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n d a i r y i n g , h o r t i c u l t u r e , p o u l t r y k e e p i n g D e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n l i v e s t o c k , b e e k e e p i n g , f a r m management, and any o t h e r branches o f a g r i c u l t u r a l work. NOTE: I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h any d e m o n s t r a t i o n where a com-p e t i t i o n i s p r a c t i c a b l e and d e s i r a b l e , a sum not t o exceed 26 t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l amount a l l o t t e d f o r s a i d demon-s t r a t i o n may be expended on p r i z e s o r awards, p r o v i d e d t h e moneys a r e used f o r a c q u i r i n g f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n o r a r e expended f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l c o m p e t i t o r s a l o n g t h e l i n e o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . (9) M i s c e l l a n e o u s c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f any k i n d connected w i t h o r r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a r r y i n g on o f any o f the above-mentioned l i n e s o f e x p e n d i t u r e . 1 0 A l l o c a t i o n o f t h e Gr a n t S e c t i o n 3 o f the A c t p r o v i d e s f o r g r a n t s t o t h e p r o v i n c e s . S e c t i o n 3 s t a t e s , i n p a r t : F o r the purpose o f a i d i n g and a d v a n c i n g t h e f a r m i n g i n d u s t r y by i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e . . . t h e f o l l o w i n g sums a g g r e g a t i n g #10,000,000 s h a l l be a p p r o p r i a t e d and p a i d out b e g i n n i n g 31 March 1914 . , , any p o r t i o n w h i c h remains unexpended a t the end o f t h e f i s c a l y e a r s h a l l be c a r r i e d f o r w a r d and remain a v a i l a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o i t s a p p o r t i o n m e n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f the A c t d u r i n g the s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s . The funds were a p p o r t i o n e d t o be a v a i l a b l e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : 1 1 f o r 1913-14 #700,000, w i t h an i n c r e a s e of #100,000 a n n u a l l y f o r f o u r y e a r s making #800,000 a v a i l a b l e f o r 1914-15, #900,000 f o r 1915-16, #1,000,000 f o r 1916-17, #1,100,000 f o r 1917-18 and f o r each y e a r u n t i l 1922-23. T h i s money was t o be a l l o c a t e d t h u s : ( l ) #20,000 t o t h e v e t e r i n a r y c o l l e g e s a c c o r d i n g t o e n r o l m e n t ; 1 2 1 0 I b i d . , p 8 12. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 7. 1 2 T h e two e x i s t i n g c o l l e g e s , The O n t a r i o V e t e r i n a r y C o l l e g e and The S c h o o l o f Comparative M e d i c i n e and V e t e r i n a r y 27 (2) #20,000 f o r e v e r y p r o v i n c e ; (3) the remainder d i v i d e d among t h e p r o v i n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o p o p u l a t i o n , b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t t h e r e were n i n e p r o v i n c e s a t the t i m e . A l l o c a t i o n s f o r 1913 were: P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d #26,529 Nova S c o t i a # 54,288 New Br u n s w i c k #44,509 Saskatchewan # 54,296 A l b e r t a #46,094 Quebec #159,482 B r i t i s h Columbia #47,334 O n t a r i o #195,733 Mani t o b a #51,730 I n 1917 a l l o c a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d by p r o p o r t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g t o popu-l a t i o n , o f the a d d i t i o n a l #400,000 t o #31,741 f o r P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and #336,274 f o r O n t a r i o . Use o f g r a n t s f o r e x t e n s i o n . I n a l l o c a t i n g t h e i r f i r s t a n n u a l g r a n t s i n 1913 e v e r y p r o v i n c e made a p r o v i s i o n f o r s h o r t c o u r s e s v a r y i n g f r o m #1,000 i n New B r u n s w i c k t o #7,500 i n O n t a r i o . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r l i n e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n w h i c h i n v o l v e meetings o f the n a t u r e o f s h o r t c o u r s e s . The sum o f #93,000 was a p p o r t i o n e d f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s l n amounts v a r y i n g from #1,500 i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d t o #23,000 i n Quebec. I n a d d i t i o n , #10,000 was a l l o c a t e d f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n S c i e n c e a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , b e n e f i t e d . Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , R e p o r t on A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t . 1914 (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1915), p. 9. 28 S t r a i n s by New B r u n s w i c k , Quebec," and M a n i t o b a . 1 3 As A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s were a p p o i n t e d over t h e e n s u i n g y e a r s p o r t i o n s were a l l o c a t e d f o r t h e i r s a l a r i e s . M o n t h l y G a z e t t e The Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e commenced the monthly p u b l i c a t i o n o f The A g r i c u l t u r a l G a z e t t e o f Canada i n J a n u a r y 1914. T h i s was i n t e n d e d to c a r r y i n f o r m a t i o n on work done by Dominion and p r o v i n c i a l departments p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s . 1 4 T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n may be s y m b o l i c o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e Canada Department t o the p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t -ments. The n a t i o n a l body i s geared t o f i n d the b e s t answers t o a l l c o n d i t i o n s and p r o b l e m s , and t h e n p a s s e s on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n ' s e x t e n s i o n m e d i a — t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s — w h o t a k e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o the farms where i t i s needed. E f f e c t o f t h e A c t O n t a r i o was the o n l y p r o v i n c e w h i c h had a g r i c u l t u r a l ex-t e n s i o n a g e n t s when t h e A c t was p a s s e d . The e f f e c t o f t h e A c t was t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f Agents from twenty i n 1911 t o t h i r t y - s e v e n i n 1914. The o t h e r p r o v i n c e s a l s o t o o k advantage o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y and i n 1913 Quebec a p p o i n t e d f i v e A g e n t s and made p l a n s f o r f u r t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t s , and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d I b i d . , p. 16. T b i d . , p. 26. 29 arranged f o r three men to spend about h a l f t h e i r time on exten-s i o n work. In 1915 B r i t i s h Columbia appointed one and Nova S c o t i a two D i s t r i c t Agents, each c o v e r i n g an area l a r g e r than a county. In Manitoba s i x graduates operated from the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e and i n Saskatchewan f o u r Agents were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e . A l b e r t a appointed f i v e Agents i n 1916 and New Brunswick three i n 1 9 1 8 . 1 5 There has been a steady i n c r e a s e i n the number of A g r i -c u l t u r a l Agents appointed i n a l l p r o v i n c e s , e x c e p t i n g P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and i n 1961 t h e r e were 431 A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents a c t i v e i n Canada. HISTORICAL SKETCHES OP THE PROVINCIAL AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION BRANCHES O n t a r i o The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e o f the P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o has the d i s t i n c t i o n o f b e i n g the only p r o v i n c e of Canada w i t h an " A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e r v i c e " e x i s t i n g b e f o r e the passage of the " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " by the N a t i o n a l P a r l i a m e n t i n 1913. The o r i g i n of A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents. C l a s s e s w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f improving a g r i c u l t u r e had been o f f e r e d i n the h i g h 1 5 P r o m the Annual Reports on A g r i c u l t u r e of the v a r i o u s P r o v i n c e s . 30 s c h o o l s o f O n t a r i o f o r some time p r i o r t o 1913. These c l a s s e s were n o t s u p p o r t e d a t a l l w e l l , and were a l m o s t e x t i n c t when b o t h Commissioner C. C. James and t h e head o f one o f the s c h o o l s s u g g e s t e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l g r a d -u a t e s be t r a i n e d and s e n t I n t o t h e c o u n t i e s t o s p r e a d knowledge among t h e f a r m e r s I n su c h a way as t o g a i n t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e . Among o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s , t h i s would a t t r a c t p u p i l s t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l a t w h i c h t h e Agent would t e a c h a g r i c u l t u r e as p a r t o f h i s d u t i e s . James' s u g g e s t i o n was c o n t a i n e d i n a memorandum t o t h e M i n i s t e r i n 1906. T h i s memorandum s t a t e d : The i d e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e department w i l l be t o have a s p e c i a l i s t — a n a g e n t , a t r a i n e d a g r i c u l t u r i s t i n e v e r y county o r d i s t r i c t o f the p r o v i n c e , p a i d by t h e department, and whose e n t i r e s e r v i c e s w i l l be a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f the department f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h a t county o r d i s t r i c t . T h i s l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e would be t h e moving o r d i r e c t i n g s p i r i t o f e v e r y a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n -i z a t i o n , a s s i s t i n g the f a r m e r s , d i r e c t i n g s p e c i a l movement, i n s p e c t i n g , i n s t r u c t i n g , a d v i s i n g , r e p o r t i n g t h e appearance o f any new p e s t o r d i s e a s e , p r o c u r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o a l l q u e s t i o n s t h a t f a r m e r s would a s k , k e e p i n g the f a r m e r s i n f o r m e d as t o a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , and be t h e d i r e c t l i n k between the f a r m e r s , the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e , and t h e d e p a r t m e n t . 1 5 The memorandum f u r t h e r e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t , a p a r t from a t t r a c t i n g sons o f f a r m e r s t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u r s e s , i t would " t a k e knowledge a l r e a d y g a i n e d and send i t a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y " and spre a d t h e knowledge g r a d u a l l y " l i k e a 1 6 0 n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r e and E x p e r i m e n t a l U n i o n , " 2 9 t h R e p o r t , " A n n u a l R e p o r t O n t a r i o Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e 1907 ( T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 0 8), p. 92. 31 l i t t l e leaven through the whole lump of the d i s t r i c t . * ' 1 7 A c t i o n was taken immediately on t h i s s u g g e s t i o n and s i x a g r i c u l t u r a l graduates were t r a i n e d and assigned d i s t r i c t s . B efore the end of 1907 the O n t a r i o Department had s e t as i t s aim that of having "a t r a i n e d a g r i c u l t u r i s t i n every county or d i s t r i c t . " 1 8 There were twenty Agents i n 1911, t h i r t y - o n e i n 1913, and t h i r t y - s e v e n i n 1914. A l l these men held the B.S.A. degree. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Agents today. Today there a r e f i f t y - f i v e A gents, i n f o r t y - f o u r c o u n t i e s , w i t h from two thousand to s i x thousand farmers each. In the bi g g e r counties t h e r e are two Agents, of whom the second i s concerned l a r g e l y w i t h 4-H and Young Farmers' a c t i v i t i e s . In 1956 the A g r i c u l t u r a l Represen-t a t i v e S e r v i c e was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a new E x t e n s i o n Branch which i n c l u d e s the Home Economics S e r v i c e , the F r u i t and Vegetable S e r v i c e , the A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r i n g S e r v i c e , and the Tobacco E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The l a s t three S e r v i c e s employ a t o t a l o f twenty-three s p e c i a l i s t s c a l l e d E x t e n s i o n S p e c i a l i s t s , who operate i n much the same way as do the Agents themselves. The E x t e n s i o n Branch i s headed by a D i r e c t o r w i t h o f f i c e s a t the p r o v i n c i a l government headquarters i n Toronto and he i s 1 7 I b i d . , p. 77. l 8 I b l d . . p. 71. 32 d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e . There are two A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r s , one of whom i s based a t Guelph to a c t as a l i a i s o n w i t h O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e . T h i s c o l l e g e i s a d m i n i s t r a t e d by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e a l o n g w i t h the O n t a r i o V e t e r i n a r y C o l l e g e , the K e m p t v i l l e A g r i c u l t u r a l S c h o o l , and the Western O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l School. These i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e s p e c i a l i s t s and i n f o r m a t i o n , arrange demonstrations, have l a b o r a t o r i e s which handle s o i l sample a n a l y s e s , and make r a d i o broadcasts o f i n t e r e s t t o f a r m e r s . 1 9 New Brunswick The b e g i n n i n g o f a p r o v i n c i a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e came when an "Act r e l a t i n g to A g r i c u l t u r e , " 1875, t r a n s f e r r e d d u t i e s o f the Board o f A g r i c u l t u r e to immediate s u p e r v i s i o n of the E x e c u t i v e Government. 2 1 A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s are farmers' o r g a n i z a t i o n s , having government support and l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . R e g u l a t i n g and a s s i s t i n g the A g r i c u l -t u r a l S o c i e t i e s seems to have been the only i n t e r e s t i n 1 9 A schematic p r e s e n t a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the O n t a r i o Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and of each o f the other P r o v i n c e s ' A g r i c u l t u r a l Departments i s a v a i l a b l e i n a Government p u b l i c a t i o n : Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Canada's A g r i c u l -t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956). 2 0 S t a t u t e s of New Brunswick. 38 V i c , Cap. 12. 2 1 P r o v i n c e o f New Brunswick. Annual Report of the S e c r e t a r y  f o r A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the year 1875 ( P r e d e r i c t o n : L e g i s l a t u r e , 1876) p. 5. 33 a g r i c u l t u r e of the government i n 1876 although the Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n that year went so f a r as t o i n c l u d e a d v i c e on crops grown i n the p r o v i n c e , i n a d d i t i o n t o p r e s e n t i n g the r e p o r t s o f the S o c i e t i e s . The 4 t h p r o v i s i o n of the "Regulations f o r the Government o f the S o c i e t i e s " contained i n the "Act r e l a t i n g to A g r i c u l t u r e " empowers the Governor i n C o u n c i l to r e t a i n o n e - h a l f the grants to the S o c i e t i e s i n any year i n which i t i s considered a d v i s a b l e t o import stock. T h i s was because the i s o l a t i o n o f New Brunswick made i t too c o s t l y f o r S o c i e t i e s i n d i v i d u a l l y to import s t o c k , y e t the S o c i e t i e s were so keen t o do t h i s t h a t they wanted to use the whole grant f o r the purpose. A d e l e g a t i o n on b e h a l f of the S o c i e t i e s was sent to other p r o v i n c e s and the Un i t e d S t a t e s , and was prepared to go to Europe to buy good b r e e d i n g stock. They found e x c e l l e n t s t o c k i n O n t a r i o and Quebec and only needed to go f u r t h e r a f i e l d f o r Pecheron horses which they brought from I l l i n o i s . The s t o c k was much needed t o improve that e x i s t i n g i n the p r o v i n c e i n both q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y . 2 2 A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents. The " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " brought p r o g r e s s i v e changes i n the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . In 1917 three A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents, with an a s s i s t a n t each, were app o i n t e d i n New B r u n s w i c k . 2 3 By 1961 there were ni n e t e e n Agents, ^ P r o v i n c e o f New Brunswick, pj>. c i t . 2 3 C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , Report on the A g r i c u l t u r a l  I n s t r u c t i o n A c t , 1917-1918 (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1919), p. 9. 3 4 and a t present there a r e twenty-one. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s are s t a t i o n e d i n s i x t e e n d i s t r i c t s and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n an E x t e n s i o n Branch o f the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e i s c o - o r d i n a t e d and a s s i s t e d by a D i r e c t o r of E x t e n s i o n . The Agents are p a r t i c u -l a r l y f r e e to p l a n t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s and t h i s makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the D i r e c t o r to operate h i s Branch w i t h a minimum of o f f i c e s t a f f . The D i r e c t o r i s answer-a b l e t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r New Brunswick. P a r a l l e l to and c o o p e r a t i n g with the E x t e n s i o n Branch a r e other Branches which do some s p e c i a l i z e d e x t e n s i o n work and are the Agent's c h i e f sources of t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . These Branches a r e : L i v e s t o c k Branch, F i e l d Husbandry Branch, D a i r y Branch, P o u l t r y Branch, H o r t i c u l t u r e Branch, P l a n t P r o t e c t i o n Branch, A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r i n g Branch. Role of Agents. The a t t i t u d e of the Department about the r o l e of the Agents and t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n with other Branches i s expressed i n the Department's Report: As general contact men, the work of the Agents i s l a r g e l y to f o s t e r and promote, w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s t r i c t s , the v a r i o u s p o l i c i e s and programs i n s t i t u t e d by the s p e c i a l i z e d Branches o f t h i s Department. 2 4 The Report f o r 1959 i n c l u d e d t h i s statement: 2 4 P r o v i n c e of New Brunswick, Annual Report of the  Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1957 ( i ' r e d e r i c t o n : Queen's P r i n t e r ) , p. 17. 35 O t her s u c h work was i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s , l i v e s t o c k a s s o c i a t i o n s , a r t i f i c i a l b r e e d i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s , herd improvement a s s o c i a t i o n s , and s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a s s i s t e d by I n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s and by c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s . 2 5 The Agents a r e a c t i v e i n a f u l l range o f f a r m i n g a c t i v i t y b r i n g i n g new methods o f f a r m i n g as w e l l as the development o f l o c a l community a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e whole p r o v i n c e . They have encouraged t h e use o f many a g r i c u l t u r a l a i d s s u c h as f i e l d t i l e d r a i n s t o h e l p make t h e b e s t use o f t h e l a n d , o r the use o f good b r e e d i n g s t o c k under t h e S i r e Bonus P o l i c i e s . The L i v e s t o c k B r a n c h , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e A g e n t s , c o n t i n u a l l y demonstrates t h e r e q u i r e d type o f b e e f c a r c a s s t o h e l p t h e grower a c h i e v e maximum r e t u r n s . The p r o d u c t i o n o f c e r t i f i e d seed p o t a t o e s i s a s u b s t a n t i a l i n d u s t r y i n d i c a t i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f produce now a t t a i n e d . 2 6 I n a d d i t i o n , s h o r t c o u r s e s f o r f a r m e r s have been g i v e n , and i n some y e a r s a F o l k S c h o o l has been h e l d a t Shediao " t o encourage and d e v e l o p l o c a l l e a d e r s who would r e t u r n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e communities and a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g community p r o g r a m s . " 2 7 2 & P r o v i n c e o f New B r u n s w i c k , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1960 ( F r e d e r i c t o n : Queen's P r i n t e r ) , p. 6. 2 6 S e e T a b l e XXXVII, page 173. 2 7 P r o v i n c e o f New B r u n s w i c k , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1954 ( F r e d e r i c t o n : Queen s P r i n t e r ) , p. 137. 36 A l b e r t a E x t e n s i o n b e f o r e 1920. A t t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1905 i t was d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e n t e e n d i s t r i c t s . The e x t e n s i o n work r e p o r t e d i n t h e f i r s t a n n u a l r e p o r t o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e c o n s i s t e d o f f o r t y meetings w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s a d d r e s s e d by s p e c i a l i s t s f r om O n t a r i o , some o f t h e 9 8 m e e t i n g s i n c l u d i n g f a t s t o c k c o m p e t i t i o n s . Such work i n c r e a s e d and t h e need f o r s p e c i a l e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s was met i n 1916 when f i v e men were a c t i v e f o r s i x months o f the y e a r . P a r t - t i m e em-ployment s o l v e d the problem o f f i n d i n g t r a i n e d men f o r t h e work and i n 1918 s i x t e e n men from t h e s t a f f o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s and o t h e r s o u r c e s were employed f r o m A p r i l t o J u l y when t h e s c h o o l s were c l o s e d . These men's main o b j e c t i v e was t o a r r a n g e f o r b r e a k i n g I n l a n d b e l o n g i n g t o men who d i d n o t have t h e n e c e s s -a r y equipment as p a r t o f a wartime e f f o r t towards h i g h e r p r o d u c -t i o n . 2 9 E x t e n s i o n s i n c e 1920. The war r e s u l t e d i n a l a p s e i n t h e work and the n between 1920 and 1922 t h r e e A g e n t s were a p p o i n t e d on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s . However much o f t h e i r work was w i t h boys and g i r l s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n t i n u e d w i t h an emphasis on work w i t h young p e o p l e b u t w i t h the A g e n t s ' a c t i v i t i e s g r a d u a l l y 2 8 P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f A g r i -c u l t u r e f o r 1905 and 1906 (Edmonton: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1907). 2 9 P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1918 (Edmonton: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r ) , p. 42. 37 expanding and t h e i r number i n c r e a s i n g to nine i n 1936. In 1954 t h e r e were f o r t y - f o u r Agents and i n 1961 f i f t y - s i x . 3 0 O r g a n i z a t i o n and programs of Agents. The E x t e n s i o n Branch of the A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e has a D i r e c t o r and an A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , and s u p e r v i s i n g the Agents i s a S u p e r v i s o r of A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents. The Department d e s c r i p t i o n of the Agent's job as g i v e n i n 1961 i s as f o l l o w s : T h i s i s p r o f e s s i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work a s s i s t i n g i n or d i r e c t i n g promotion and development of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n an a s s i g n e d area of the p r o v i n c e . Employees i n t h i s c l a s s i n t e r p r e t the f i n d i n g s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h f o r farm f a m i l i e s . They t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and groups the p r a c t i c e of s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o -d u c t i o n , farm business management and marketing of a g r i c u l -t u r a l commodities t o enable them to a c h i e v e a more s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l o f l i v i n g . Programme p l a n n i n g and development i s on a d i s t r i c t l e v e l c o n s i s t e n t with broad departmental p o l i c y . Summing up, the work of the Agents was expressed as "to improve p r a c t i c e s ; to improve farming; to c o n t r i b u t e to b e t t e r l i v i n g ; to c o n t r i b u t e t o s a t i s f a c t i o n s . " The f i e l d s of the Agents' work are: Farm Management Farm and Home Improvement S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n F i e l d Crop D i s e a s e s — i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c o n t r o l measures L i v e s t o c k Improvement—placements L i v e s t o c k Marketing P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , Annual Reports of the Department  o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the years concerned. 38 L i v e s t o c k P e s t s and D i s e a s e s — p r o g r a m s f o r e r a d i c a t i o n D a i r y i n g — i n t r o d u c t i o n of new i d e a s , a r t i f i c i a l breeding, e t c . P u b l i c i t y — c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the p r e s s , r a d i o and T.V. S e r v i c e Boards—members and t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s 4-H Clubs and J u n i o r Parmer a c t i v i t i e s The Agents a l s o a s s i s t a t a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s , f a i r s and produce shows, and s e r v e as a l i n k w i t h the E x t e n s i o n E n g i n e e r s , and the I r r i g a t i o n D i v i s i o n . S p e c i a l mention must be made of the f i r s t two items l i s t e d . E x t e n s i o n i n farm management. Farm management on a planned b a s i s i s a p o l i c y which the A l b e r t a Department has been p r e s e n t i n g to farmers i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y concerted way. The need f o r t h i s i s p l a i n and the awakening to the v a l u e of i t by farmers can be i n t e r p r e t e d from t h i s statement i n the 1953 Annual Report: A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents are r e c e i v i n g a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g number of requests f o r a s s i s t a n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n on balanced farm p l a n n i n g , farm lease-agreements, f a t h e r and son agree-ments, and farm accounts. 1 I n t h a t year 117 farmers were a s s i s t e d w i t h p l a n n i n g , an i n t e r e s t which i n d i c a t e s good promotion by the Agents. The r e p o r t on farm management i n 1956 shows p r o g r e s s , both i n work with farmers and s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g of Agents. I n t e r e s t i n the business aspects o f f a r m i n g has i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d u r i n g the p a s t year. More farmers a r e r e a l -i z i n g t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f sound farm management i s an 3 1 P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , Annual Report o f the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1953 (Edmonton: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1954), p. 85. 39 i n c r e a s i n g l y important f a c t o r i n t h e i r attempt t o maintain an adequate economic p o s i t i o n d u r i n g the presen t c o s t - p r i c e s i t u a t i o n . Long-term farm s t a b i l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l i n main-t a i n i n g a h e a l t h y i n d u s t r y . T r a i n i n g Agents i n management extension. To develop and adopt the "whole farm" approach i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n i n -creased t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n n e l has been undertaken l n farm a c c o u n t i n g , farm management, busi n e s s a n a l y s i s , and E x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g methods. S e v e r a l new forms and techniques have been brought i n t o use as a i d s i n t h i s regard. The response and r e s u l t s o f these e f f o r t s have been encouraging and the d e s i r a -b i l i t y o f i n t e n s i f i e d work i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i s apparent. In 1956, 546 farm p l a n s were prepared w i t h farmers; 260 were a s s i s t e d w i t h farm accounts; and 5,500 other farmers were 32 a s s i s t e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n or a d v i c e . Farm and Home Improvement. The Farm and Home Improvement a s s i s t a n c e became a d e f i n i t e program o f the Branch i n 1955. By 1953 the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents r e c o g n i z e d the f a m i l y as the c e n t r e and h e a r t o f any s u c c e s s f u l farm. Help was giv e n on occ a s i o n s towards i n c r e a s i n g the comfort, p l e a s u r e and u t i l i t y which can be d e r i v e d from a w e l l planned farmstead. Each year about three hundred farmsteads a re planned by Department H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and f i v e hundred to s i x hundred s h e l t e r b e l t s p l a n t e d . Under the 3 2 F o r a c t i v i t i e s concerned w i t h farm management between 1952 and 1961 see Tabl e XXIX, p. 155. 40 program commenced i n 1955 groups a r e a s s i s t e d by the A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s and t h e Home Ec o n o m i s t s combined. S e r v i c e Boards. The S e r v i c e Boards mentioned above a r e f o r the purpose o f s u p e r v i s i n g farms w h i c h a r e mismanaged o r n e g l e c t e d , and a l s o promote a g r i c u l t u r a l Improvement programs i n c l u d i n g Bang's and T.B. c o n t r o l campaigns, weed c o n t r o l , c o y o t e c o n t r o l , "Save t h e S o i l Campaigns," " B e t t e r F a r m i n g C o m p e t i t i o n s , " and s h o r t c o u r s e s and f i e l d days. There a r e t h i r t y - s e v e n Boards and t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent i s always a member o f the Board i n h i s d i s t r i c t on w h i c h he a c t s as a t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r . He i s a l s o a b l e t o promote programs t h r o u g h the Board. C o o p e r a t i o n . An i l l u s t r a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e A g e n t s i s found i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r a d i o programs t o farm p e o p l e , ( s e e T a b l e X X I I , page 141). I n t h i s work t h e A g e n t s have had the c o o p e r a t i o n o f o t h e r departments and p e o p l e as t a b u l a t e d on page 41. Saskatchewan C o o p e r a t i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Department o f A g r i c u l -t u r e t h r o u g h the D i r e c t o r o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s B r a n c h and t h r o u g h the D i r e c t o r o f the Department o f E x t e n s i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan. The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s a r e c o - o r d i n a t e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y 41 TABLE I RADIO PROGRAMS P e r s o n a l i t y Appearances 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 A l b e r t a Department o f 215 85 91 100 89 76 Other A l b e r t a Government 13 12 27 28 14 11 Canada Department of 17 21 8 16 26 26 U n i v e r s i t y o f 16 8 15 11 11 16 128 128 109 125 82 79 P e o p l e from other 21 27 24 X Source: P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , Annual Report of the Department o f  A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1961 (Edmonton: Queen's P r i n t e r 1962), p. 217. gt Data not a v a i l a b l e . ===============^ ^ 42 C o u n c i l through the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n Program. Coopera t i v e E x t e n s i o n Program. The C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n Program makes p r o v i s i o n f o r a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e f f o r t and r e -sources through three p r i n c i p a l c o o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s — t h e Saskatchewan Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the Department of Ex-t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan and the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e o f f e r s r e s e a r c h , i n f o r m a t i o n , and a s s i s t a n c e programs. The Department of E x t e n s i o n c o n t r i b u t e s s p e c i a l i s t , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and r e s e a r c h s e r v i c e s . The Saskatchewan Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f u r n i s h e s s p e c i a l i s t and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s p l u s a s s i s t a n c e programs d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h farmers. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Agents. The A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Branch i s organized to implement the C o o p e r a t i v e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Program and e f f e c t a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i o n and im-provement w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . The f i e l d o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of t h i r t y - s e v e n Agents who work through t h i r t y - s i x D i s t r i c t Boards and 307 A g r i c u l t u r a l C o n s e r v a t i o n and Improvement Committees. These Agents a r e the e x t e n s i o n f i e l d s t a f f f o r a l l a g e n c i e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the Cooper a t i v e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Program. The Boards and the Committees c o n s t i t u t e l o c a l farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s designed t o promote and c a r r y out a g r i c u l t u r a l 33 improvement a t the l o c a l l e v e l . 3 3 P r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan, Annual Report of the 43 The P r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . The P r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l i s composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each o f the three p r i n c i p a l c o o p e r a t i n g agencies p l u s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the D i s t r i c t Boards, the Saskatchewan A s s o c i a t i o n o f R u r a l M u n i c i -p a l i t i e s , the Saskatchewan F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , the Saskatchewan L i v e s t o c k Board, the Saskatchewan Department of C o o p e r a t i v e s , the Saskatchewan Homemakers Clubs, and the Saskatchewan Wheat P o o l . T h i s C o u n c i l i s s e t up to determine the most s a t i s f a c t o r y means of employing and c o - o r d i n a t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s and s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to Saskatchewan farmers. I t adv i s e s the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S e r v i c e on the development of s p e c i f i c programs l e a d i n g to farm improvement.34 A D i s t r i c t Board c o n s i s t s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s appointed by each m u n i c i p a l u n i t w i t h i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i s -t r i c t , together w i t h h a l f that number appointed by the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent i s always a member of the D i s t r i c t Board. D i s t r i c t Boards are s e t up to c o - o r d i n a t e and a s s i s t with a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and programs. They a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making use of i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v i c e s not a v a i l -a b l e t o committees, to handle problems beyond the scope of Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the 12 months ended March 31st, 1953 (Reglna: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1953J, p. 60. S 4 I b i d . . p. 59. 44 committees and to a i d i n a sound approach to l o c a l problems. They p l a n the o v e r a l l farm programs f o r t h e i r own d i s t r i c t s . The D i s t r i c t Board g i v e s l e a d e r s h i p i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and program matters through study o f r u r a l problems, promotion of p o l i c i e s , and i n i t i a t i o n o f p r o j e c t s . I t i s i n an i d e a l p o s i t i o n to i n f l u e n c e a g r i c u l t u r a l improvements through the committees and the farmer on the one hand and through the Department of A g r i c u l -t u r e on the other hand. Major problems w i l l r e ach complete s o l u t i o n o n l y through the a c t i v i t i e s of s t r o n g D i s t r i c t Boards supported by a c t i v e c o m m i t t e e s . 3 4 A g r i c u l t u r a l committees. Each r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y and l o c a l improvement d i s t r i c t i s represented by an a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i o n and improvement committee c o n s i s t i n g o f s i x or more members, one from each d i v i s i o n of the m u n i c i p a l u n i t . The members are appointed and p a i d by the l o c a l government, a r e a c t i v e l y engaged i n farming and a r e l e a d e r s i n t h e i r communities. They meet w i t h the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent to p l a n and c a r r y out a g r i c u l t u r a l improvement programs f o r t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t y or l o c a l improvement d i s t r i c t . Over the past number of years there has been a c o n t i n u a l i n c r e a s e i n the number of p r o j e c t s and programs c a r r i e d on by a g r i c u l t u r a l committees. T h i s h e l p i n d e a l i n g w i t h l o c a l problems and i n f l u e n c i n g l a r g e numbers o f farmers has g r e a t l y enhanced the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent. Committees arrange f o r 45 l a n d use surveys to d i s c o v e r and ana l y s e p r o b l e m s . 3 5 Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . E x t e n s i o n i n Saskatchewan i s t r u l y a community e f f o r t . Besides the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of farmers many busi n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s have made a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n cash, time, equipment, and s t a f f h e l p , to f o r w a r d i n g the work of ex t e n s i o n . Among those a s s i s t i n g a l s o a re s e r v i c e c l u b s and etc community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The Agent. The diagram F i g u r e 1, page 46, d e p i c t s the Agent i n proper p e r s p e c t i v e as the ce n t r e o f c o o p e r a t i v e a g r i c u l -t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , a l i n k between a l l concerned through which i n -f o r m a t i o n , d i r e c t i v e s , and suggestions flow two ways, and agree-ments and a c t i o n are encouraged and implemented. Sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The Agents' c h i e f sources o f t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a r e the U n i v e r s i t y , the Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and the Saskatchewan Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Branches of the l a t t e r d i r e c t l y s u p p l y i n g the Agents a r e s i m i l a r to those f o r the other p r o v i n c e s . 3 5 P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, Annual Report f o r the Depart-ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 12 months ended 51st March. 1955 ^Kegma: Queen Ts P r i n t e r , 1955), p. 61. 3 6 P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, Annual Report of the Depart-ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 12 months ended 51st March. 1954 (Regina: QueenT P r i n t e r , 1954*77 P' AS X I I . 3""For d e t a i l s o f p r o v i n c i a l departments see under "New Brunswick," p. 54. A . R . 8 A G R I C U L T U R A L A N N U A L R E P O R T , 1957 '58 46 CO-OPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION A TWO WAY FLOW OF INFORMATION THE FARMER and HIS FAMILY LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS RURAL COMMUNITY FLF! Council and Ag. C O W Sask. Dept. AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY of SASKATCHEWAN CANADA Dept. of Agriculture Advisory Council -Saskatchewan's Co-operative Agricultural Extension Program. F I G U R E 1 T H E A G E N T A S T H E C E N T R E O F T H E C O O P E R A T I V E E X T E N S I O N P R O G R A M 47 M a n i t o b a By 1914 an a c t i v e E x t e n s i o n B r a n c h had developed a t the M a n i t o b a A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e and t h i s B r a n c h r e c e i v e d the g r a n t under t h e " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " and expended i t i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s . L a t e r t h e org a n -i z a t i o n came i n t o a l i g n m e n t w i t h the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s and i s today t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e B r a n c h o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and C o n s e r v a t i o n w h i c h Department i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e and C o n s e r v a t i o n f o r M a n i t o b a , and h i s Deputy M i n i s t e r and A s s i s t a n t Deputy. The Bra n c h has i t s own D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t and i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e d i v i s i o n s : A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Home E c o n o m i s t s , S p e c i a l i s t s , S e r v i c e s , and Y o u t h . 3 8 There i s a gr o w i n g number o f A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e D i s t r i c t s , p r e s e n t l y t h i r t y - s e v e n , each w i t h about 1,500 farms. I n 1961 t h e r e were f o r t y - t h r e e A g e n t s and a s s i s t a n t s a l l w i t h the B.S.A. d e g r e e . 3 9 E x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g . The Agents c o - o r d i n a t e e x t e n -s i o n work towards p r o m o t i n g the p o l i c i e s and programs determined f o r t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . T h i r t y A g r i c u l t u r a l C o u n c i l s i n v o l v i n g n e a r l y s i x hundred community l e a d e r s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Agents 3 8 P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a , R e p o r t o f Department o f A g r i c u l -t u r e and C o n s e r v a t i o n f o r t h e y e a r ended March 3 1 s t . 1961 ( W i n n i p e g : the L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y ) , p. 5. 3 9 P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a , R e p o r t o f Department o f A g r i c u l -t u r e and C o n s e r v a t i o n f o r t h e y e a r ended March 5 l s T t 1968 IWinnipeg: the L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y ) , p. 17. 48 h e l p make a r e a programs. The A g e n t s c o o p e r a t e w i t h a l l o r g a n -i z e d f a r m groups s u c h as L i v e s t o c k B r e e d e r s ' C l u b s , Seed Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n s , A g r i c u l t u r a l and H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s . They a l s o d i r e c t the 4-H C l u b work i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t a l t h o u g h t h i s work i s l i g h t e n e d by t h e S u p e r v i s o r o f 4-H C l u b s f o r the p r o v i n c e . S p e c i a l i s t s . The s p e c i a l i s t s a c t as the l i n k between s c i e n c e and p r a c t i c e by s u p p l y i n g the Agents w i t h i d e a s i n a p p l i c a b l e f o r m t o meet the demands of t h e day. They a r e a l i a i s o n between th e Agent and t h e U n i v e r s i t y , Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s . S p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e B r a n c h i n c l u d e an a g r o n o m i s t , an a g r i c u l t u r a l e n g i n e e r , an a p i a r i s t , an h o r t i c u l t u r i s t , and a p o u l t r y m a n . B r i t i s h Columbia The P r o v i n c i a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e began i n a v e r y s m a l l way i n 1873 and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i t s growth was i n f l u e n c e d by f a r m e r c o r r e s p o n d e n t s , o f whom f i f t y - f o u r i n 1891 s u p p l i e d t h e M i n i s t e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on the f a r m i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r 40 r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s . I n 1895 a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n was c a r r i e d out by such means as a t r a v e l l i n g d a i r y s c h o o l t o i n s t r u c t f a r m e r s i n b u t t e r m a k i n g , 4 1 but t h e f i r s t A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent ^ D e a n B l y t h e A. E a g l e s , " A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n a t U.B.C. P a s t and P r e s e n t , " P r o c e e d i n g s : A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n -s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1961), p. 13. 4 1 E a g l e s . OP. c i t . , p. 11. 49 was not appointed u n t i l 1913 on the passing of the "A g r i c u l t u r a l Instruction Act." Organization of extension. About 1945 the Department was reorganized and the Development and Extension Branch was created. This Branch houses the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents, A g r i c u l t u r a l Engin-eering and Land Clearing Divisions, and the 4-H Clubs. More recently a Poultry D i v i s i o n and an Home Economists D i v i s i o n have been created i n the Branch. There are eighteen d i s t r i c t s each with an A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent, and in some years a few Assistant Agents have been employed. The d i s t r i c t s are zoned into three areas each under the d i r e c t i o n of a Supervising A g r i c u l t u r i s t . Local Planning Committees. In 1955 one of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents brought about the formation of an A g r i c u l t u r a l Planning Committee by the farmers of his d i s t r i c t , and not only has this Committee performed many useful functions but i t has been the means of unifying the farmers i n such a way that they l o y a l l y support i n s a t i s f y i n g strength a c t i v i t i e s promoted by the Committee. 4 2 A second such Committee was formed i n another 43 d i s t r i c t i n 1961. 42W. MacGillivray, "An E f f e c t i v e P r o v i n c i a l Extension Service," Proceedings: A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961), p. 38. Ibid., p. 39. 50 The Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . The Department i n c l u d e s t h r e e o t h e r main branches a l o n g w i t h the Development and E x t e n -s i o n B r a n c h , w h i c h a r e t h e H o r t i c u l t u r e , L i v e s t o c k , and D a i r y B r a n c h e s , and t h e s e a l l have s p e c i a l i s t f i e l d s m e n a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t l n e x t e n s i o n work. The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B r a n c h under t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a g r i c u l -t u r a l p o l i c i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l -t u r e and f o r t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f r e p o r t s and p u b l i c a t i o n s . T h i s B r a n c h a l s o m a i n t a i n s d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f the F i e l d C r o p s , S o i l S u r v e y , P l a n t , P a t h o l o g y , Entomology, A p i a r y , Markets and • , 44 S t a t i s t i c s , Farmers I n s t i t u t e s and Women s I n s t i t u t e s Branches. F i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n . S i n c e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f funds under t h e " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " t e r m i n a t e d i n 1923, t h e money has had t o come from s o u r c e s o t h e r t h a n t h e F e d e r a l Government, and i n a poor p r o v i n c e l i k e P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ( s e e page 57) the money was not a v a i l a b l e and e x t e n s i o n s u f f e r e d . The r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g funds n a t u r a l l y f e l l t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l governments and i n most p r o v i n c e s a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f money has been s e t a s i d e . One o f the cases where t h i s was n o t so was i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e 1930's when the U n i v e r s i t y had t o cease i t s a c t i v e , p a r t l y v o l u n t a r y , work when funds f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l government were d i s c o n t i n u e d . The C a r n e g i e C o r p o r a t i o n 'Canada Y e a r Book. 1957-58, p. 410. 51 o f New Y o r k gave the sum o f #50,000 t o each o f t h e f o u r w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i c h were a l l i n a s i m i l a r p l i g h t . T h i s i s p erhaps the o n l y case i n w h i c h a l a r g e amount has been g i v e n f r o m o u t s i d e the Government. I t i s now t h e a c c e p t e d r o l e o f the p r o v i n c i a l governments t o p r o v i d e funds f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n -s i o n and i n t h i s p r o v i n c e t h e f u n d s f o r o p e r a t i o n o f the E x t e n -s i o n B r a n c h a r e v o t e d each y e a r by the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s -l a t u r e as p a r t o f the v o t e f o r the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . The e s t i m a t e s o f e x p e n d i t u r e a r e p r e p a r e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , approved by t h e T r e a s u r y Board and s u b m i t t e d t o the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r f i n a l a p p r o v a l . I t might be noted t h a t R o b e r t G l e n p r o p h e s i e d t h a t " t h e c o s t o f f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be t o o g r e a t t o be b o r n e w i t h o u t F e d e r a l a i d . . . " and he i n c l u d e s e x t e n s i o n i n t h e term a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e was t e m p o r a r i l y made p o s s i b l e i n 1957 by a l i a i s o n o f the F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and t h e U n i v e r s i t y Department o f E x t e n s i o n w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Department o f 4 & G . L. Landon, D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , l e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r , V i c t o r i a , 2 1 s t F e b r u a r y , 1964. ^ R o b e r t G l e n , D i r e c t o r o f R e s e a r c h , Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , " E d u c a t i o n f o r A g r i c u l t u r e : Whose R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XIV:5 ( S e p t . - O c t . 1959), p. 21. 52 Art A g r i c u l t u r e . The need today o f such a c o - o r d i n a t i n g a d v i s o r y committee has heen e x p r e s s e d by b o t h t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r , Mr. M a c G i l l i v r a y , and Dr. F r i e s e n , D i r e c t o r o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n AR a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. Quebec The Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e o f Quebec i s m a s s i v e b e i n g many tim e s l a r g e r than the Departments o f the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , even about t h r e e times l a r g e r than t h e O n t a r i o Department. The f i r s t f i v e "county agronomes," as the A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s a r e c a l l e d , were a p p o i n t e d i n 1913 a t w h i c h time p r o v i s i o n was made f o r f u r t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t s . The number i n c r e a s e d u n t i l t h e r e were n i n e t y i n c l u d i n g a s s i s t a n t s i n 1930, and t h e number over the p a s t t e n y e a r s has been f l u c t u a t i n g between 131 and 143. E v e r y Agent i s the h o l d e r o f t h e B.S.A. degree. There a r e b e s i d e s l a r g e numbers o f f i e l d m e n i n o t h e r Branches who c o n t r i b u t e t o e x t e n s i o n work. O r g a n i z a t i o n . The Department c o n s i s t s o f t h i r t e e n B r anches a l l w e l l s u b d i v i d e d , a D a i r y Commission, R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , L e g a l A d v i s o r , t h r e e s c h o o l s and two farms. The B r a n c h 4 7 E a g l e s , op_. c i t . , p. 22. 4 % . M a c G i l l i v r a y , op., c i t . , p. 37; J . K. F r i e s e n , "How Can U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n B e s t Serve A g r i c u l t u r e ? " P r o c e e d i n g s : A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia "(Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1961), p. 46. 53 responsible for the Agents i s the Extension Service which also contains d i v i s i o n s for the A g r i c u l t u r a l Societies and Farm Clubs, Farm Labour, sugar beet production, and A g r i c u l t u r a l Merit Competitions. The Sugar Beet Section has ten s p e c i a l i s t s i n s t r u c t i n g farmers. Farm management competitions. Since 1889 Quebec farmers have been encouraged by best farm competitions with the award of the Order of A g r i c u l t u r a l Merit. In 1958 there were 1,002 farmers competing i n th i r t y - n i n e contests for awards of merit. A farmer has the opportunity of competing every f i f t h year. Another competition i s organized by the F i e l d Husbandry Service with f a r reaching benefit. This i s the "Better Farming Competition" under which the farmer i s bound to cooperate f o r f i v e years during which he i s advised by his Agent who may replan hi s farm, and an annual grant is ava i l a b l e i f large expenses f o r improvements such as draining are necessary. At the end of the 49 f i v e years the most improved farms are given awards. Nova Scotia Development of Extension. In the ten years leading up to 1915 the a c t i v i t i e s of the Department of Agriculture had grad-u a l l y increased u n t i l they formed the framework of present day 4 9A11 information f o r the Province of Quebec i s from the Department of Agriculture Annual Reports f o r the years 1913, 1930, 1952-1961. 54 a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i n c r e a s e had been towards the end of the p e r i o d helped g r e a t l y by the money granted under the " A g r i c u l -t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t . " U n t i l then the p r o v i n c e could not a f f o r d to do much i n the way of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n and had no A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agents. I n 1915, s t a f f o f the C o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e were a b l e to devote a l a r g e share of t h e i r time to e x t e n s i o n work, and i n c o u n t i e s w i t h the g r e a t e s t need Agents were h i r e d f o r the whole y e a r . 5 0 In 1916 s i x men and two a s s i s t a n t s were appointed f u l l - t i m e but spent most o f t h e i r time 51 on demonstration work. By 1925 the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Agents had become more o f the type to be expected o f E x t e n s i o n Agents. Three Agents w i t h one p a r t - t i m e Agent made farm v i s i t s , worked on a program f o r promotion o f marketing the farmers' produce, and did much to encourage boys' and g i r l s ' a c t i v i t i e s . 5 2 E a r l y o r g a n i z a t i o n . In 1926 the f i r s t s e r i o u s attempt was made to or g a n i z e e x t e n s i o n . U n t i l then the e x t e n s i o n work c o n s i s t e d of experimenting w i t h the l i m i t e d funds made a v a i l -a b l e . In 1926 the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e was formed w i t h i t s headquarters a t the Nova S c o t i a A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e 5 0 P r o v i n c e of Nova S c o t i a , Annual Report f o r A g r i c u l t u r e  f o r 1915 ( H a l i f a x : King's P r i n t e r , 1916), p. 15. 5 1 P r o v i n c e o f Nova S c o t i a , op., c i t . , 1916, p. 16. 5 2 P r o v i n c e of Nova S c o t i a , op_. c i t . , 1925, p. 16. 55 at Truro, and from then the work progressed on sound l i n e s . P o l i c i e s . In 1930 there were f i f t e e n Agents together with eight student assistants f o r the summer. The Service's aim was to work on a community basis with community l e a d e r s , 5 4 and th i s was carried out to some extent although the Service event-u a l l y developed along the l i n e s of the other provinces. I t was c o r r e c t l y pointed out in support of th i s aim that two thousand farmers i s f a r too many f o r one Agent to v i s i t i n d i v i d u a l l y and even more impossible to make the follow up v i s i t s necessary to get the f u l l benefit from i n i t i a l v i s i t s . Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A notable event i n 1930 was the formation i n Annapolis County of an Advisory Council of three 55 farmers and two County Councilors. At this time there were also Study Clubs i n Eastern Nova Scotia and i t was thought most desirable to extend t h i s idea. The Clubs discussed s o c i a l and economic subjects. Extension a c t i v i t i e s . During the 1930's much work was done with boys' and g i r l s ' clubs, and also the use of l o c a l leadership was developed. In 1930 there were 1,330 l o c a l leaders 5 3 P r o v i n c e of Nova Scotia, op., c i t . , 1926, p. 27. 5 4 P r o v i n c e of Nova Scotia, O P . c i t . , 1930, pp. 12-13. 5 5 P r o v i n c e of Nova Scotia, op., c i t . , 1930, p. 37. 56 and i n 1940 there were 6,487. In 1941 the a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out by seventeen Agents and three A s s i s t a n t s , w i t h the h e l p o f f o u r students i n the summer. By 1952 the number of Agents had i n c r e a s e d t o eighteen, and i n 1962 there were f i f t e e n Agents and ten A s s i s t a n t s making a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - f i v e . Between 1955 and 1962 there were from three to f i v e farm manage-ment s p e c i a l i s t s working out farm p l a n s w i t h farmers and t r a i n -i n g farmers i n management and a c c o u n t i n g i n s c h o o l s , groups, and f a m i l i e s . Marked improvement i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e n t e r p r i s e s i n c l u d i n g an i n c r e a s e i n s i z e r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r p r o f i t i n far m i n g . P r o v i n c i a l C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee. In 1933 an A d v i s o r y Committee on A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s was formed to c o - o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Departments of A g r i c u l -t u r e . The aims o f t h i s body are to e l i m i n a t e the d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , and to for m u l a t e p o l i c i e s f o r the promotion of the f a r m i n g i n d u s t r y . 5 6 The members of the Committee a r e the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , the D i r e c t o r of E x t e n s i o n , the P r i n c i p a l of Nova S c o t i a A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , the Superintendent of F e d e r a l Experimental S t a t i o n a t Nappon, the D i r e c t o r of F e d e r a l Research S t a t i o n a t K e n t v i l l e , and the D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r , P r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e s , Canada Department o f 5 6 P r o v i n c e o f Nova S c o t i a , op,, c i t . , 1941, p. 12. 57 A g r i c u l t u r e , Moncton, New Brunswick. This Committee s e t s up Sub-Committees, f o r example f o r Crop Improvement, S o i l s and F e r t i l i z e r s , or Sheep and C a t t l e . New o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Department has r e c e n t l y been r e -or g a n i z e d and the f i n a l set-up i s probably as f o l l o w s , a new f e a t u r e b e i n g the d i v i s i o n o f the p r o v i n c e i n t o three regions each w i t h a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The D i r e c t o r and h i s A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r have on t h e i r s t a f f : S u p e r v i s o r of Farm Management, S u p e r v i s o r o f Home Economics and Women's I n s t i t u t e s , S u p e r v i s o r o f 4-H, S u p e r v i s o r of Resource Development, S u p e r v i s o r o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s , and thr e e Regional D i s t r i c t Represen-t a t i v e s f o r E a s t e r n Nova S c o t i a , C e n t r a l Nova S c o t i a , and Western Nova S c o t i a . Each R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l have i n h i s Region, c o n s i s t i n g of some t h i r d o f the eighteen c o u n t i e s i n Nova S c o t i a , a 4-H S u p e r v i s o r , two Home Economists, an A s s i s t a n t A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent i n h i s home county and an A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent i n each o f the other c o u n t i e s . I t i s intended that approximately h a l f o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s time w i l l be spent on e x t e n s i o n work i n h i s home county and h a l f on r e g i o n a l matters at which times the A s s i s t a n t w i l l c a r r y on the exte n s i o n work i n h i s home county. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d The work of a p r o v i n c i a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e began a t an e a r l y date, w i t h r e s u l t a n t progress such as i n c r e a s e s i n 58 y i e l d s of c e r e a l s and seed q u a l i t y which were r e p o r t e d as e a r l y 57 as 1909, hut n e v e r t h e l e s s a g r i c u l t u r e remained a t a compara-t i v e l y poor l e v e l and e x t e n s i o n work was commensurately l a c k i n g . I t was r e a l i z e d a t the time the " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " was passed i n 1913 that the p r o v i n c e s which were most helped were those w i t h small p o p u l a t i o n s which could not manage ot h e r -wise to a f f o r d A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d b e i n g the s m a l l e s t p r o v i n c e was the one most b e n e f i t e d i n t h i s way, and i t was one of the f i r s t to use the grant f o r employing Agents. In 1913 three men were employed, a l t h o u g h t h i s was on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . So dependent was the p r o v i n c e on the grant t h a t a f t e r i t ceased and other p r o v i n c i a l governments were a b l e to take over the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d was a g a i n i n the p o s i t i o n where i t could not a f f o r d t o employ Agents. U n s a t i s f a c t o r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . In 1937 e x t e n s i o n work was a t a very low ebb, there b e i n g no A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents. Of the n i n e employees of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g stenographers, the F i e l d Promoter was the only one w i t h a p o s i t i o n a k i n to an Agent and he was c h i e f l y occupied w i t h Herd Improvement A s s o c i a t i o n work. T h i s man expressed h i s d i s -appointment t h a t low p r o d u c i n g herdsmen were not t e s t i n g t h e i r 5 7 P r o v i n c e of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Renort of the Depart-ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1909 (Charlottetown: Murley & Garnhum, 1909). 59 cows, and that to produce feed they were not p l a n t i n g more b a r l e y , which had been p l a i n l y proven most s u i t a b l e f o r the farming c o n d i t i o n s . H i s disappointment merely p o i n t e d to the need f o r ex t e n s i o n work, which was l i m i t e d c h i e f l y to s h o r t C O courses f o r youth i n the winter. ° I n the past years when Agents were employed they were plagued w i t h many d u t i e s o t h e r than ex-t e n s i o n work. That such w a s t e f u l use o f t r a i n e d extension workers when other men c o u l d j u s t as competently perform those o t h e r d u t i e s a f f e c t s most of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers 59 i n Canada today was p o i n t e d out by D. L. Parks i n 1960. Even today i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d much of the Agent's time i n the summer i s spent w i t h 4-H Clubs and t h i s statement was made by an Agent i n 1961: I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e that because o f the l i m i t e d s t a f f , there i s so much work other than e x t e n s i o n , t h a t extension workers must do. I t i s my f e e l i n g t h a t e x t e n s i o n through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t i s the most important and rewarding work th a t we as fie l d m e n can do.°° T h i s t i n y Department of A g r i c u l t u r e has no D i r e c t o r but each Branch sometimes c o n s i s t i n g of one person, i s d i r e c t l y 5 8 P r o v i n c e of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Annual Report of the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1937 (Chario t t e t o w n : The P a t r i o t P u b l i s h i n g Cl>., 1938), p. 42. 5 9D. X i . Parks, "Programs, P e r s o n n e l Research and T r a i n i n g i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n , " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XV:4, (July-August I960), pp. 16-17. 6 0 P r o v i n c e o f P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Annual Report o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1961. 60 under the Deputy M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e and h i s M i n i s t e r . By 1951 a P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l C o u n c i l had been c r e a t e d f o r the p l a n n i n g of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e i n c l u d i n g c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the F e d e r a l s e r v i c e s . A l l the p r o f e s s i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l workers In the p r o v i n c e meet a t the annual meetings o f t h i s C o u n c i l . Three f u l l - t i m e Agents a r e employed and Improvement i s b e i n g made i n s e v e r a l f i e l d s of farming. Support by p r i v a t e f i r m s . Two a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s decade which were sponsored by p r i v a t e f i r m s deserve s p e c i a l mention. One i s a L e a d e r s h i p Course f o r young people, and the other i s a t o u r to O n t a r i o by seventy farmers to study s t o c k management. The tour was sponsored by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e j o i n t l y w i t h the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways, Canada Packers, S w i f t Canadian Co. L t d . , Massey-Ferguson, P u r i n a Feeds, and Master Feeds. The v a l u e o f t h i s t o u r was demonstrated when the s t o c k -men, t h e i r eyes b e i n g so widely opened, brought home f i v e c a r -l o a d s of b r e e d i n g s t o c k w i t h them. 6 1 Newfoundland A g r i c u l t u r e has not been of g r e a t importance i n Newfoundland's growth u n t i l very r e c e n t l y , and to date there i s no Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ; but there i s a D i v i s i o n of 6 1 P r o v i n c e of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Annual Report of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1960. 61 A g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n the Department o f Mines and Resources, w i t h a D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f A g r i c u l t u r e answerable to t h e A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e . When c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i t i s o n l y i n the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e years t h a t farming i n t h i s p r o v i n c e has been p r o g r e s s i n g from a s t a t e of s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g i t must be remembered that Newfoundland Is the most r e c e n t l y founded p r o v i n c e of Canada. Much e x t e n s i o n needed. T h i s s t a t e o f farming l e a v e s great o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the n i n e Agents supported by the remain-der of the s t a f f of the D i v i s i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e which i s twenty-two s t r o n g a l t o g e t h e r . There are f i v e branches c o n s i s t i n g of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s , the Land Development S e r v i c e s , I n s p e c t i o n S e r v i c e s , L i v e s t o c k Improvement Branch and Marketing Branch. E f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n by Agents. The Agents have been kept busy promoting f a r m i n g on a commercial b a s i s , and encouraging improvement of sto c k s u c c e s s f u l l y i n which they a r e a i d e d by a F e d e r a l bonus a v a i l a b l e f o r approved types of b u l l s , cows, rams, ewes, c o c k e r e l s and mink. L i v e s t o c k numbers are i n c r e a s i n g and so i s v e g e t a b l e p r o d u c t i o n . The D i v i s i o n i s a s s i s t i n g w i t h l a n d c l e a r i n g to the extent of about 750 a c r e s a year and i n connection w i t h t h i s Agents are i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g out l a n d use surveys f o l l o w e d up by p r o d u c t i o n surveys. A c l o s e l i a i s o n i s maintained A O w i t h the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . * 6 2 P r o v i n c e of Newfoundland, Annual Report of the 62 OTHER ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e The Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e today i s d i r e c t e d by the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e and h i s two Deputy M i n i s t e r s and c o n s i s t s of t h r e e main Branches, each under an A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , and f o u r other main d i v i s i o n s . The Department employs 63 a s t a f f of ten thousand. An o u t l i n e o f the v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s o f the whole Depart-ment and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s f o l l o w s . The Branch i n which the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents a r e most i n t e r e s t e d i s the Research Branch. Economics D i v i s i o n : under a D i r e c t o r General. Research and a d v i s e . I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n : under the Deputy M i n i s t e r . D i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n by p r e s s , r a d i o and T.V.; l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . P r o d u c t i o n and Marketing Branch: under a D i r e c t o r General answer-a b l e t o an A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r . L e g i s l a t i o n and i n s p e c t i o n , f o r example, i n s p e c t i o n of seed c r o p s , and r e g i s t r a t i o n of seed; g r a d i n g and standards; s i r e r e c o r d s . The A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r o f P r o d u c t i o n and Marketing a l s o a d m i n i s t e r s the Department o f Mines and Resources f o r the year ended 31st March. 1961 ( P r o v i n c e of Newfoundland, M i n i s t e r of Mines, A g r i c u l t u r e & R e s o u r c e s ) , p. 1. 6 3 C a n a d a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Annual Report f o r the  y ear ended March 31, 1963 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963). 63 A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board w h i c h s u p p o r t s p r i c e s ; t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t s Board w h i c h can be a u t h o r i z e d t o p u r c h a s e f o o d ; the Crop I n s u r a n c e and P r a i r l e Farm A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; and t h e H e a l t h o f A n i m a l s B r a n c h under the V e t e r i n a r y D i r e c t o r G e n e r a l who a d m i n i s t e r s c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e l e g i s l a t i o n ; meat i n -s p e c t i o n ; A n i m a l P a t h o l o g y L a b o r a t o r i e s . A second A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r l i n k s up f i v e b o d i e s concerned w i t h P l a n n i n g , Land Development and G r a i n P o l i c y . R e s e a r c h B r a n c h : a d m i n i s t e r e d by a t h i r d A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r ; c o n t r o l l e d by a D i r e c t o r G e n e r a l , and h i s a s s i s t a n t . R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e s and S e r v i c e s c o v e r i n g a n i m a l , p l a n t , s o i l , p e s t , e n g i n e e r i n g , and a l l t o p i c s concerned w i t h f a r m i n g . C o n t r o l s R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n s , R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r i e s and E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms. A s s i s t a n c e i n E x t e n s i o n . From the R e s e a r c h B r a n c h t h e A g e n t i s f e d i n f o r m a t i o n on a l m o s t any m a t t e r t o do w i t h a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n he i s l i k e l y t o want. T h i s i s b r o u g h t t o him p a r t l y t h r o u g h the I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n i n w r i t t e n f o r m , and p a r t l y t h r o u g h s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e f i e l d . The A g e n t s may t a k e a s p e c i a l i s t t o a f a r m e r s ' meeting t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on a c u r r e n t p r o b l e m o r t h e Agent may a r r a n g e f o r f a r m e r s t o v i s i t an E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm t o see e x p e r i m e n t a l work and r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s . O f f i c i a l l y any e x t e n s i o n work w i t h f a r m e r s i s done w i t h the f u l l knowledge o f , and u s u a l l y under the co-o p e r a t i o n of t h e Agent f o r t h e d i s t r i c t , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d 64 d u p l i c a t i o n and i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the Agent's e x t e n s i o n program. Much e d u c a t i o n a l work i s performed by the I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n which disseminates f i n d i n g s of the Department by means of b u l l e t i n s , and over r a d i o and T.V. programs. These s e r v i c e s a r e designed to cover the wide requirements of a l l r a t h e r than the s p e c i a l requirements o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s . The use made o f these s e r v i c e s seems to vary from p r o v i n c e to p r o v i n c e , but they 64 appear t o be used most by the poorer ones. Experimental Farms S e r v i c e . The Experimental Farms S e r v i c e began i t s work i n 1886, from which year farms f o r the purpose of demonstrating f a r m i n g methods and working out l o c a l problems were s e t up as farmers advanced a c r o s s the country i n t o new and a g r i c u l t u r a l l y u n t r i e d l a n d s . T h i s p i o n e e r i n g r e s e a r c h was of immense v a l u e t o the e a r l y farmers and must have been the source of encouragement and c o n f i d e n c e . Today the farms are s t i l l t h e r e working on l o c a l problems. There a r e twenty-eight E x p e r i -mental F a r m s , 6 5 a l s o over f i f t y D i s t r i c t Experimental S u b s t a t i o n s r u n by the farms, and over 170 I l l u s t r a t i o n Farms which a r e p r i v a t e l y owned farms whose op e r a t o r s cooperate i n running t h e i r farms a c c o r d i n g to an experimental p l a n l a i d down by the 6 4 N u f f i e l d Foundation, Farming A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s i n N o r t h  America (London: N u f f i e l d Foundation, 1956}, p. 90. 6 5 C a n a d a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Dominion Experimental Farms, Annual Report o f the D i r e c t o r 1948-49. p. 5. 65 E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms S e r v i c e . Demonstration farms. A l l these farms serve as demon-s t r a t i o n s f o r farmers i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t b e s i d e s p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y t o apply r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t o p r a c t i c a l farming. The l a t t e r i s a most important end to r e s e a r c h and the farms a r e most u s e f u l i n demonstrating r e s e a r c h to farmers i n a way which they can understand and a c c e p t . In 1948 the twenty-eight Experimental Farms and S t a t i o n s were d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : i n B r i t i s h Columbia there were f o u r , i n A l b e r t a f o u r , i n Saskatchewan s i x , i n Manitoba two, i n O n t a r i o t h r e e , i n Quebec f o u r , In New Brunswick one, i n Nova S c o t i a two, and i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d two. There were a l s o 67 e i g h t l a b o r a t o r i e s . In 1956 there were 227 I l l u s t r a t i o n S t a t i o n s and Experimental S u b s t a t i o n s i n Canada d i v i d e d among the p r o v i n c e s a c c o r d i n g to need. Newfoundland had s i x ; P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d seven; Nova S c o t i a f i f t e e n ; New Brunswick f o u r t e e n ; Quebec f o r t y ; O n t a r i o twenty-three; Manitoba s i x t e e n ; Saskatchewan f i f t y - t h r e e ; A l b e r t a t h i r t y ; B r i t i s h Columbia twenty-three. I t 6 6 C a n a d a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , R e p o r t o f the M i n i s t e r  f o r the year ended 31 March. 1956 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r T , p. 108. 6 7 C a n a d a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Dominion Experimental Farms, Annual Report o f the D i r e c t o r 1948-49, p. 5. 6 8 C a n a d a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Report o f the M i n i s t e r  f o r the year ended 31 March. 1956 (Ottawa: Queen's Printe~F)~f p. 108. 66 i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a l t h o u g h the headquarters and o r i g i n o f the S t a t i o n s i s i n Ottawa, O n t a r i o , t h i s has not "biased d i s -t r i b u t i o n but w i t h a good share i n even the most d i s t a n t western p r o v i n c e s the S t a t i o n s have been s e t up as the need arose. Some o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Experimental Farms S e r v i c e a r e given i n T a b l e I I , page 67. Scope of Experimental Farms S e r v i c e . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f the d i v i s i o n s of the Experimental Farms S e r v i c e w i l l i l l u s -t r a t e the wide coverage of t h i s S e r v i c e : Animal Husbandry D i v i s i o n ; A p i c u l t u r e D i v i s i o n ; C e r e a l Crops D i v i s i o n ; F i e l d Husbandry, S o i l s and A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n ; Forage Crops D i v i s i o n ; H o r t i c u l t u r e D i v i s i o n ; I l l u s t r a t i o n s D i v i s i o n ; P o u l t r y D i v i s i o n ; Tobacco D i v i s i o n . D i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s . In comparison w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the century i t i s seen t h a t w h i l e the Department continues w i t h fundamental and a p p l i e d r e -s e a r c h , by and l a r g e the p o l i c y i s t o leave i t to the p r o v i n c i a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s to help farmers become aware o f, to understand, and to apply r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . While the Department a d m i n i s t e r s many A c t s c o n t r o l l i n g and s u p p o r t i n g p r o d u c t i o n the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r s are o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing these A c t s , f o r i n s t a n c e the Department grants bonuses f o r s i r e s o f a hig h standard but p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r s grade, award bonuses, and p l a c e s i r e s , u s i n g money from the F e d e r a l g r a n t s . 67 TABLE I I EXTENSION WORK OF EXPERIMENTAL FARMS SERVICE lethods 1952 1953 1954 1955 I l l u s t r a t i o n S t a t i o n s : 141 159 156 122 F i e l d Days 12,029 13,015 11,764 10,075 Average/Group 85 82 x 82 Meetings addressed 776 71 83 x E x p e r i m e n t a l  Farms S t a f f : Radio x 242 335 ) T.V. x si 2 ) E x h i b i t s a t f a i r s x 66 103 74 Days a s s i s t i n g a t meetings, f a i r s x 1,862 1,898 x V i s i t o r s : groups w i t h prov. dept. 1,069 1,197- 1,256 x T o t a l v i s i t o r s 49,983 91,425 99,010 x F i l m s made 7 1 10 15 P u b l i c a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d 453,679 431,150 478,758 399,870 P u b l i c a t i o n s sent i n b u l k to Agents and o r g a n i z a t i o n s 308,605 377,600 265,286 307,870 Market Reports 1,058,020 1,033,475 1,028,602 1,029,668 P r e s s A r t i c l e s 870 1,152 1,109 1,130 C i r c u l a t i o n 170,457 x x x ftnu^flf fianaria D f l p n r t m f t n t of A g r i c u l t u r e . Report of the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , f o r years ended 31 March, 1953, 1954, 1955 and 1956. x Data not a v a i l a b l e . , 68 Independence o f E x t e n s i o n and F e d e r a l Department. With the f u l f i l l m e n t o f the " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " i n 1923 the p r o v i n c i a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s could no l o n g e r he dependent on the F e d e r a l Government f o r f i n a n c i a l support and are, i n f a c t , q u i t e independent o f the F e d e r a l Government having no t i e s e x c e p t i n g f o r the B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t , chapter 3, s. 95, which has never heen used to c o n t r o l the exte n s i o n s e r v i c e s . There i s a c e r t a i n amount of c o o p e r a t i o n between F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Departments but perhaps s t r o n g e r organ-i z a t i o n a l t i e s would make f o r the g r e a t e r c o o p e r a t i o n thought a d v i s a b l e by a N u f f i e l d Foundation o b s e r v a t i o n m i s s i o n to Canada which s t a t e d : To the o u t s i d e v i s i t o r the l a c k o f o r g a n i c c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the dominion s e r v i c e s , the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y (or a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e ) s e r v i c e s , and the p r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s would appear to be a d e t e r r e n t to an i n t e g r a t e d and e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e . There d i d , however, appear to be a very happy s p i r i t o f r e a l c o o p e r a t i o n between the members of the three s e r v i c e s . 6 9 U n i v e r s i t i e s U n i v e r s i t i e s are p a r t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Canada. D i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e i n v o l v e d to a d i f f e r e n t extent, and some not a t a l l . I t i s s t i l l a debated q u e s t i o n whether a g r i c u l t u r a l e xtension i s a f i e l d u n i v e r s i t i e s s h ould be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . b y T h e N u f f i e l d Foundation, Farming A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s i n  N o r t h America (London: The N u f f i e l d Foundation, 1956), p. 94. 69 Some examples w i l l I l l u s t r a t e the a c t i v i t i e s o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l -t ure a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia gave many l e c t u r e s and s h o r t courses e a r l i e r i n the century. Between 1918 and 1923 t h i r t y - t h r e e e x t e n s i o n courses were g i v e n i n r u r a l areas and were attended by 2,255 s t u d e n t s . 7 0 There were a l s o s h o r t courses o f two or t h r e e weeks a t the u n i v e r s i t y i n the two years from 1917. From 1923 to 1930, a f t e r the grants from the F e d e r a l Government had ceased, a s e r i e s o f s h o r t courses were given f o r two months each winter a t a c o s t o f ten d o l l a r s to each student. Between 1926 and 1932 a r a d i o l e c t u r e s e r i e s was g i v e n , and from 1934 a Farm Radio Program was a s s i s t e d and taken over a l t o g e t h e r i n 1937. 1 7 1 I n 1938 t r a v e l l i n g t e a c h i n g caravans were sent i n t o the r u r a l a r e a s . The U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n Department, c r e a t e d i n 1936, ran eight-week Youth L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Schools each year and the F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e took p a r t i n t h i s w o r k . 7 2 Today t h e r e i s no government money a v a i l a b l e but s t i l l much work i s done and always behind the a c t i v i t i e s i s the 7 0 D e a n B l y t h e A. E a g l e s , " A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n at U.B.C. Pas t and P r e s e n t , " Proceedings: A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n -s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbla (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961), p. 17. 7 1 I b i d . , p. 18. 7 2 I b i d . , p. 21. 70 o b j e c t i v e o f f i n d i n g out the b e s t means of extension. Among the a c t i v i t i e s today there are a Stockmen's Conference, a Horse-men's Conference, and a Sheepmen's Conference; Dairymen, Bee-masters, and Swinebreeders' s h o r t courses and a l s o one f o r the Western Pood P r o c e s s o r s ; a F i e l d Day on the U.B.C. Farm, and evening c l a s s e s on Animal B r e e d i n g and Reproduction. S p e c i a l events i n 1963 were the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an evening panel d i s -c u s s i o n on the European Common Market, and a conference on the F u t u r e of A g r i c u l t u r e i n the Lower Mainland with r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by the Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Board, the F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l -t u r e , and farm l e a d e r s from the d i s t r i c t concerned. A conference on Western Canadian Roadside Development was a l s o held a t the U n i v e r s i t y . The m a j o r i t y o f these programs are c a r r i e d out i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and/or a farm o r g a n i z a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan. I t was p o i n t e d out i n the h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h o f ex t e n s i o n i n Saskatchewan t h a t the work f o r the p r o v i n c e was d i r e c t e d by an A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the C o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, and from b o t h the Canada and Saskatchewan Depart-ments of A g r i c u l t u r e . 7 3 In 1953 i t was re p o r t e d t h a t : S p l e n d i d c o o p e r a t i o n between the three p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the program i s b e i n g experienced. As time passes, each See page 40. p a r t i c i p a n t i s t a k i n g care of s p e c i a l areas o f e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s and t h i s i s a t r i b u t e to those i n charge of the t h r e e a g e n c i e s . 7 4 The D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y not only co-o r d i n a t e s the e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s of the v a r i o u s f a c u l t i e s but a l s o s u p e r v i s e s Farm Radio Forum, s h o r t courses held throughout the p r o v i n c e , p r o d u c t i o n o f l e a f l e t s and b u l l e t i n s , 4-H Club and Farm Boys' and G i r l s * Camps at f a i r s , and a g r i c u l t u r a l and h o r t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s . The D i r e c t o r of Women's Work super-v i s e s 4-H G i r l s ' Clubs and Homemakers' Clubs and p r o d u c t i o n of r a d i o programs and l i t e r a t u r e f o r the women's work. In 1960 and 1961 members of the C o l l e g e s t a f f spent about one thousand days a year s u p p l y i n g s p e c i a l i s t s e r v i c e s i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h Agents. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t over the same p e r i o d s the Canada Department s u p p l i e d only two hundred man days a year and non-government p a r t i e s e i g h t hundred days a y e a r . 7 5 A g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s . I n O n t a r i o , the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l -t u r a l C o l l e g e i s i n the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and so a r e the K e m p t v i l l e and Western O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l Schools. Besides b e i n g sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p r o v i n c i a l e x t e n s i o n 7 4 P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, Annual Report of the Depart-ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1955 (Regina: Queen's P r i n t e r J T P. 60. 7 5 P r o v l n c e of Saskatchewan, Annual Report of the Depart-ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the 12 months ended March 31. 1962 (Regina: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962), p. AR 13. 72 s e r v i c e these i n s t i t u t i o n s a s s i s t hy doing l a b o r a t o r y work, f o r example, s o i l sample t e s t s and blood t e s t s , and a l s o do a con-s i d e r a b l e amount o f e x t e n s i o n work. There i s now a d i r e c t l i a i s o n between the Department Ex-t e n s i o n S e r v i c e and the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e by means of an A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n l o c a t e d a t the C o l l e g e . A l s o , the Department E n g i n e e r i n g S t a f f has a member w i t h the Engineer-i n g S c i e n c e Department of the C o l l e g e , and the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the two s t a f f s i s r e p o r t e d as being h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l . Nova S c o t i a . The Nova S c o t i a A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e has i t s headquarters a t the C o l l e g e . U n i v e r s i t i e s and e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g . The g r e a t e s t con-t r i b u t i o n to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n made by the u n i v e r s i t i e s i s t r a i n i n g men f o r t h e i r l i f e as Agents. At present each p r o v i n c e , except some i n the east, has an a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e o f f e r i n g the B.S.A. degree, and the m a j o r i t y of Agents hold t h a t degree. T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l t r a i n i n g t o p r o v i d e the men w i t h an adequate s c i e n t i f i c background. J u s t as e s s e n t i a l i s t r a i n i n g i n exten-s i o n work, more e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e d by c a l l i n g i t a d u l t educa-t i o n . The Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, M c G i l l , and The O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e o f f e r graduate programs i n e x t e n s i o n and The U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan i s p l a n n i n g to,do so. The need i s becoming reco g n i z e d but much 73 s t i l l has to he done b e f o r e there are adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l Agents t o r e c e i v e the r e q u i s i t e t r a i n i n g . P r i v a t e Bodies P a r t i c i p a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l support by p r i v a t e bodies has been forthcoming to a s m a l l extent over the y e a r s . Probably the g r e a t e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ext e n s i o n work i s by f e e d , f e r t i l i z e r , and p e s t i c i d e manufacturers whose salesmen are o f t e n graduates i n a g r i c u l t u r e and a r e given some t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g to prepare them f o r a d v i s i n g farmers on the use of t h e i r wares. These f i r m s "are perhaps c o n t r i b u t i n g more i n the aggregate i n t h a t f i e l d than a r e governmental agencies and f o r obvious r e a s o n s . " 7 6 The i n s t a n c e has a l r e a d y been c i t e d o f s e v e r a l l a r g e f i r m s co-o p e r a t i n g i n sending a p a r t y o f farmers from P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d t o the mainland to observe and study s t o c k management from which 77 the farmers g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d . In i t s annual r e p o r t f o r 1953 the Saskatchewan Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e made t h i s g e n e r a l statement i n a p p r e c i a t i o n of con-s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t and a s s i s t a n c e given i n that p r o v i n c e : Many busi n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o made a v a l u a b l e con-t r i b u t i o n i n cash, time, equipment, and s t a f f help t o 76W. M a c G i l l i v r a y , "An E f f e c t i v e P r o v i n c i a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , " Proceedings: A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l Extens i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961), p. 38. 7 7 S ee page 60. 74 f o r w a r d i n g the work of E x t e n s i o n . Among those a s s i s t i n g a l s o a r e s e r v i c e c l u b s , and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s e v e r a l s p e c i a l g r o u p s . ' 8 Mention has a l r e a d y been made of the generous g i f t o f f i f t y thousand d o l l a r s to each of the f o u r western u n i v e r s i t i e s by the Carnegie C o r p o r a t i o n i n 1933 a t a time of extreme need. In B r i t i s h Columbia t h i r t y thousand d o l l a r s o f t h i s was used to s e t up a U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n Department which p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . A l s o i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the B.C. E l e c t r i c Railway Company L i m i t e d presented Farm Radio Broadcasts i n the 1930*s which were d e d i c a t e d t o the farmers of B r i t i s h Columbia. The broadca s t s were made a v a i l a b l e i n b u l l e t i n form "to forward t h i n k i n g farmers who wished to make use of the i n -f o r m a t i o n . " 7 9 PHILOSOPHY OP EXTENSION In 1959, Dean Weir of the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba s t a t e d : In my o p i n i o n , the f a c t t h a t we have thought more of our l i v e s t o c k , crops, and s o i l than we have of the i n d i v -i d u a l and the f a m i l y u n i t o f the farm i s one of the t r a g e d i e s of our times and i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to our i n t e n s i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l program of i n s t r u c t ion.°® T h i s d i s t u r b i n g statement has been r e i t e r a t e d on many occasions 7 8 P r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan, Annual Report of the Depart-ment of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1953 (Regina: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1953), p. AS x i i . 7Q 'Eagles, op. c i t . . p. 18. 8 0 J . R. Weir, Address to A.I.C. Convention f o r 1959, A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XIV:5, (Sept.-Oct. 1959), p. 17. 75 by as many people. I t i s a c r i t i c i s m which, al t h o u g h extreme, has much t r u t h i n i t . The measurement o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n by a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n to b e t t e r l i v i n g i s d i f f i c u l t but the p o s i t i o n must be examined. Ob.lectives o f A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t The " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t " of 1913 created the pre s e n t e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n Canada, and the o b j e c t of t h i s A c t was to encourage the development of a g r i c u l t u r e and g i v e permanent b e n e f i t through education of a continuous nature. T h i s g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e does not appear t o i n c l u d e any a s s i s t a n c e d i r e c t l y aimed a t improving the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and way of l i f e o f farming p e o p l e , but the "suggested l i n e s " f o r u s i n g the grant, which were sent out to a l l p r o v i n c i a l governments, do i n c l u d e some r e l a t i n g to b e t t e r l i v i n g . 8 1 These a r e : (7) (a) The o r g a n i z a t i o n of Women1s I n s t i t u t e s i n r u r a l p a r t s , (b) The g i v i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n to women i n domestic s c i e n c e or any l i n e of work connected w i t h r u r a l l i f e or any a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t , (c) T r a i n i n g o f teachers or i n s t r u c t o r s f o r the above work. (8) E x p e n d i t u r e i n connect i o n w i t h any l i n e o f demon-s t r a t i o n t e n d i n g t o encourage and a s s i s t the r u r a l popula-t i o n to b e t t e r l i v i n g and more p r o f i t a b l e methods of work. And t h i s s e c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by suggestions of demonstrations, a l l o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . These do not suggest t h a t the f a m i l y be t r e a t e d as a u n i t and i n s t r u c t e d as a u n i t i n means of b e t t e r l i v i n g , or suggest a See page 25. 76 whole farm f a m i l y p l a n n i n g scheme as i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g evolved. O b j e c t i v e s of E x t e n s i o n i n the U.S.A. Turni n g to the U n i t e d S t a t e s and commencing w i t h the Smith-Lever A c t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o p e r a t i v e e x t e n s i o n , we f i n d from the b e g i n n i n g a more l i b e r a l and a l l i n c l u s i v e a t t i t u d e . The co-author of the A c t , the Hon. A. P. L e v e r , r e f e r r i n g to a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n the S t a t e s s a i d : "The aim of which i s b e t t e r farming, b e t t e r l i v i n g , more happiness, more education and b e t t e r c i t i z e n s h i p . 1 , 8 2 E x t e n s i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has f o l l o w e d t h i s aim more and more as i t has grown to cope w i t h such a broad t a s k . An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Workshop of e x t e n s i o n d i r e c t o r s i n the S t a t e s i n 1946 adopted the f o l l o w i n g statement which can be considered a u t h o r i t a t i v e : The u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e towards which E x t e n s i o n work i s d i r e c t e d i s more f r u i t f u l l i v e s and b e t t e r l i v i n g f o r a l l people. E f f o r t s of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e to a t t a i n t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n c l u d e : 1. Improvement o f the economic, s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l w e l l -b e i n g o f the farm f a m i l y . 2. Improvement of farm income through the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n c e and farm mechanization. 3. Encouragement o f people to be wiser consumers. 4. Improvement of h e a l t h through b e t t e r n u t r i t i o n and more adequate h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . 5. Improvement of f a m i l y l i v i n g through b e t t e r housing, r u r a l e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n and more adequate l a b o r s a v i n g equipment. 8 2 L i n c o l n D. K e l s e y and Cannon C. Hearne, Co o p e r a t i v e  E x t e n s i o n Work (New York: Comstock P u b l i s h i n g A s s o c i a t e s , 1949), p. 33. 77 6. Improvement of e d u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the home and the community. 7. Development of a b e t t e r understanding of and more e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community, s t a t e , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s to the end t h a t c o n s t r u c t i v e p o l i c i e s may be determined. 8. Improvement of the c o n s e r v a t i o n of resources so that f u t u r e generations a l s o may have a good l i v i n g and the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e be thereby s a f e g u a r d e d . 8 3 The statement i s s p e c i f i c because the e x t e n s i o n workers know from experience e x a c t l y what i s t h e i r aim. W e l l - b e i n g of the people i s now a f u n c t i o n of e x t e n s i o n , and not j u s t an aim. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s even more s t r o n g l y expressed by K e l s e y and Hearne thus: However much we may work wi t h the humdrum t h i n g s and the s p e c i f i c t h i n g s o f the farm and home, however w e l l we may o r g a n i z e and p i l e up our s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s and s e r v i c e s , the u l t i m a t e and primary purpose of i t a l l i s the develop-ment o f the men and women and the boys and g i r l s themselves The d e v i c e s and methods a r e only necessary means t o an end. S t a t e d Aims i n Canada The E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s i n the Canadian p r o v i n c e s p u b l i s h t h e i r s t a t e d aims and a sample w i l l i l l u s t r a t e them. A l b e r t a : 1960 To improve farm p r a c t i c e s ; to improve farming; to con-t r i b u t e to b e t t e r l i v i n g ; to c o n t r i b u t e to s a t i s f a c t i o n s . 0 0 8 3 I b i d . , p. 117. 8 4 I b i d . , p. 124. 8 5 P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , "Job S p e c i f i c a t i o n , " 1960. (Mimeographed.) 78 1953 The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t r e c o g n i z e s the f a m i l y as the c e n t r e and heart o f any s u c c e s s f u l farm. Help i s giv e n on many oc c a s i o n s towards i n c r e a s i n g the comfort, p l e a s u r e and u t i l i t y which can be d e r i v e d from a w e l l planned farm-s t e a d . 8 6 On page 39 i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t o f Agents l e d to a Farm and Home Improvement a s s i s t a n c e program of great b e n e f i t . B r i t i s h Columbia: 1955 Development of ge n e r a l p o l i c y of a s s i s t i n g farmers to produce t o the maximum those a g r i c u l t u r a l commodities f o r which t h e i r land h o l d i n g s , s o i l types, c l i m a t e s and p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n s were most adapted, emphasising, where p o s s i b l e , the market demands f o r e a c h . 8 ' New Brunswick; 1956 As g e n e r a l contact men, the work o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l -t u r i s t s i s l a r g e l y to f o s t e r and promote, w i t h i n t h e i r r e s -p e c t i v e d i s t r i c t s , the v a r i o u s p o l i c i e s and programs i n s t i -t u t e d by the s p e c i a l i z e d Branches o f t h i s Department. 8 8 O n t a r i o : 1961 The c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f e x t e n s i o n work i s to help r u r a l people help themselves. The pro c e s s i s the development of c a p a c i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s that enable people to b e t t e r meet and cope w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l and the community problems 8 6 P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , Annual Report of the Department  o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1953. 8 7 P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1955. 8 8 P r o v i n c e of New Brunswick, Annual Report o f the Depart-ment of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1956. 79 w i t h which they a r e c o n f r o n t e d . T h i s i s accomplished through e d u c a t i o n and through the p r o v i s i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a d e r s h i p . Programs i n e x t e n s i o n must of n e c e s s i t y be e d u c a t i o n a l i n nature i f they are to r e s u l t i n the advance-ment of the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g of the people they s e r v e . As the s c i e n c e o f A g r i c u l t u r e becomes more complex the job of the e x t e n s i o n worker i n v o l v e s new r e s -p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The r e s u l t has been a s h i f t l n emphasis from the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t e a c h i n g of f a c t s and techniques. Over the years the p h i l o s o p h y o f e x t e n s i o n has been shaped by the d e d i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s whose d e s i r e has been to help others a c h i e v e a f u l l e r and more s a t i s f y i n g way o f l i f e . 8 9 Saskatchewan: 1953 Improved "land use" and "farm management" p r a c t i c e s which w i l l r e s u l t i n an o v e r a l l improvement i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of p r o d u c t i o n aimed a t improving l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s on farms and s e r v i n g our b a s i c i n d u s t r y so that we may r e a l i z e a g r e a t e r measure of s t a b i l i t y and s e c u r i t y i n our a g r i c u l t u r a l and p r o v i n c i a l economy. 9 0 Comments. I t can be seen from these t h a t w h i l e there i s a s t r o n g s t r a i n of the a t t i t u d e found i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s which i n c l u d e s the whole f a m i l y l i f e , t h i s i s outweighed by more s t r i c t l y p r a c t i c a l farm improvement o b j e c t i v e s . I n Saskatchewan a R o y a l Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e and R u r a l L i f e r e p o r t e d i n 1958: The content of present e x t e n s i o n programs i s l i m i t e d l a r g e l y to the p h y s i c a l problems of p r o d u c t i o n . S t u d i e s of the community show t h a t the problems f a c i n g farmers " ^ P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , " O b j e c t i v e s , R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Programs of the E x t e n s i o n Branch" ( O n t a r i o , 1961. Mimeographed.) 9 0 P r o v l n c e of Saskatchewan, Annual Report o f the Depart  ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the 12 months ended March 31, 1954 (Regina: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1954), p. 59. 80 today go f a r beyond t h e i r a b i l i t y to make the s o i l p r o d u c e . y i T h i s shows c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e p a n c y w i t h the balanced o b j e c t i v e s quoted above f o r the P r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan. I t appears t h a t by and l a r g e e x t e n s i o n does not l i v e up to the s t a t e d aims. I n the f i r s t p l a c e , the p h i l o s o p h y ex-pre s s e d by these aims i s not as broad as i t could be, not as broad as that of the ex t e n s i o n l e a d e r s i n the 5 U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r example. Two reasons f o r e x t e n s i o n not l i v i n g up to i t s s t a t e d aims a r e t h a t each Agent has too many farms to care f o r and too many other d u t i e s to keep him from h i s designated e x t e n s i o n qo work. ° To c l o s e w i t h a statement from the Symposium on R u r a l E x t e n s i o n f o r Canada i n 1960 i s only to c o n f i r m t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . "The i m p l i c a t i o n i n t h i s r e p o r t i s t h a t f o r too l o n g extension has emphasized p r o d u c t i o n , that e x t e n s i o n i s educa t i o n working q a w i t h people, not j u s t 'cows, sows, and plows.'" S i m i l a r statements were made a t the Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n 94 i n B r i t i s h Columbia by Dr. J . K. F r i e s e n . 9 1 P r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan, "Report No. 13 Farm Income 1957," Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e and R u r a l L i f e 1958. p. 318. 9 2 S e e p. 84, "Number of Farms," and p. 86, "Hampered by 'Joe Jobs.'" 9 3 T . R. B i l l i a r d i n "Symposium on R u r a l E x t e n s i o n f o r C a n a d a — P r e s e n t and F u t u r e , " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XV:4, (July-August i 9 6 0 ) , p. 32. 9 4 J . K. F r i e s e n , "How Can U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n Best 81 THE AGENT R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s The Agent's work p e r t a i n s to the whole broad f i e l d o f far m i n g l i f e and t h i s can make f o r him a very i n v o l v e d and f u l l l i f e . T h i s would be so even i f he j u s t kept to the s e t respon-s i b i l i t i e s such as those l a i d down by the O n t a r i o Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , which are s i x t e e n i n number and range from number one which says: "To assemble, i n t e r p r e t and disseminate s c i e n -t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a t the county or d i s t r i c t l e v e l i n such a form as to be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and u s e f u l to farm p e o p l e , " to number el e v e n which i s : "To p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l guidance to r u r a l p e o p l e l n t h e i r e f f o r t to improve the economic and c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f the f a m i l y or community" and a l l the d u t i e s n ecessary to p e r -form t h i s range of o b j e c t i v e s , g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , c o - o r d i n a t i n g agencies p r o v i d i n g knowledge and a s s i s t a n c e , and e n s u r i n g that the farmers are guided on the r i g h t l i n e s and f o l l o w up suggestions and programs given them. 9 5 The t h i r t e e n t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f Agents i n O n t a r i o i s " t o have a thorough knowledge of the o v e r a l l E x t e n s i o n program i n the county o r d i s t r i c t and t o c o - o r d i n a t e a l l phases of an i n t e g r a t e d e x t e n s i o n program w i t h i n the county Serve A g r i c u l t u r e ? " Proceedings: A Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l  E x t e n s i o n i n Br11ish~Golumbla (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961), p. 45. 9 5 A n o u t l i n e of the f i e l d s o f knowledge and a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d by an Agent i n the p r a i r i e s i s gi v e n under A l b e r t a , p. 37. 82 or d i s t r i c t " which i n f e r s an up to date knowledge of a l l r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s going on i n the county or which a r e b e i n g planned, and an a b i l i t y to get people and o r g a n i z a t i o n s to cooperate. The Agent can t r u l y be a very c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n r u r a l l i f e and by b e i n g so he can do a great deal towards b r i n g i n g the best t o a community i n an e f f i c i e n t way. A former Deputy M i n i s t e r i s quoted as s a y i n g that "the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e i n h i s own county or d i s t r i c t , " 9 6 and t h i s seems a most apt analogy, e x c e p t i n g that the Agent needs to use f a r more d i p l o m a t i c l e a d e r s h i p than a p o l i t i c i a n , i n o r g a n i z i n g and e n s u r i n g a c t i o n without the use of laws and w i t h -out g i v i n g o r d e r s . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s What k i n d of man i s the Agent? F i r s t o f a l l he i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l worker i n a g r i c u l t u r e and i n most cases possesses a degree i n a g r i c u l t u r e from a Canadian u n i v e r s i t y . I n Quebec 100 per cent of the 130 or so Agents have a degree w h i l e i n Saskatchewan i n 1961 t h i r t y - n i n e out of forty-two Agents had a degree. The Agent has a second p r o f e s s i o n and t h a t i s as an a d u l t educator and the more a b i l i t y he has i n t h i s f i e l d the e a s i e r and more e f f e c t i v e w i l l h i s e f f o r t s be. As has been p o i n t e d out, H l l l i a r d , op_. c i t . , p. 32. 83 t r a i n i n g i n t h i s p r o f e s s i o n i s g r e a t l y l a c k i n g a t p r e s e n t . P r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g helps the man even n a t u r a l l y g i f t e d to use the q u a l i t i e s spoken of by a Danish delegate to a European meeting on a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n when he s a i d the Agent . . . must have the a b i l i t y to speak and mix f r e e l y w i t h a l l c l a s s e s o f people, he must possess a country man's mind, he must a t a l l times be teacher, guide and c o l l e a g u e to the farmers he i s a d v i s i n g ; and above a l l be t h e i r q _ f r i e n d and the man i n whom they have complete confidence. A l l these s k i l l s and more are needed to awaken farmers to t h e i r needs, Involve them i n s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r y i n g out improve-ment, and " t o help the people to help themselves" which i s the aim of e x t e n s i o n , sometimes s t a t e d , 9 8 elsewhere unstated but i n -f e r r e d . The Agent as the c e n t r e o f farming l i f e i s d e p i c t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y f o r an Agent i n Saskatchewan on page 46. But he i s not only the c e n t r e of p h y s i c a l events. He i s a l s o the f o c a l p o i n t of ideas coming i n and going out, and a q u i e t l y , c o n t i n u a l l y o p e r a t i n g d r i v i n g f o r c e a t the hub, keeping a steady p r e s s u r e on even the most p e r i p h e r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s d i s t r i c t . Sphere of I n f l u e n c e Number of farms. The number of farms i n an Agent's 9 7 A . H. Maunder, Improvement of A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s i n European C o u n t r i e s . FAO Development PsTper No. 41 (Home: FAO o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1954), p. 23. 9 8 C a n a d a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Canada's A g r i c u l t u r a l  E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s . Ottawa 1956, p. 23, and P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s n Columbia, Annual Report of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r  1961. p. 45. 84 d i s t r i c t can a f f e c t h i s e f f i c i e n c y i n two ways. I f there a r e too many farms f o r him to a t t e n d to each p r o p e r l y he w i l l e i t h e r not c o n t a c t many farmers a t a l l , o r, i n an endeavour to co n t a c t a l l he w i l l not he a b l e to spend the time where i t i s needed to i n v o l v e whole farm f a m i l i e s and to help develop farms and farm-i n g communities. The farms one Agent can handle i s an unknown number and depends on the Agent's techniques and the d i s t a n c e between farms, and other f a c t o r s o f t h i s k i n d . Approximate numbers o f farms f o r Agents i n the Canadian p r o v i n c e s i n 1956 a r e shown i n Table I I I , page 85. The average number of farms pe r Agent i n Canada i n 1956 was 1,376. Remarks i n re c e n t Saskatchewan A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Branch r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t hat the Agents with an average of about 1,500 farms each a r e so f u l l y occupied that they have to f o r s a k e i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s f o r group a c t i v i t i e s . Small groups. A whole farm f a m i l y approach n e c e s s a r i l y i n f e r s a more i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t . Some Agents are a l r e a d y success-f u l l y working through cl u b s or small groups, thus o b v i a t i n g the 99 time consuming method of c a l l i n g on i n d i v i d u a l farmers. 1 7 Freedom i n work. The Agent u s u a l l y has the freedom to choose h i s methods and techniques, or i f he i s under a r e g i o n a l y y S e e Table XXIX, p. 155, f o r numbers of groups and a c t i v i t i e s concerned w i t h farm management improvement. TABLE I I I FARMS PER AGENT 1956 ProvInce No. o f Farms^ a) No. of Agents Farms/Agent Farms per Agent f o r , . Geographic Regions'*^ Western B r i t i s h Columbia 24,748 21 1,179 P r o v i n c e B r i t i s h Columbia 1,200 A l b e r t a 79,424 50 1,589 P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s Saskatchewan 103,391 40 2,585 A l b e r t a ) Saskatchewan) 1,900 Manitoba 49,201 35 1,406 Manitoba ) C e n t r a l O n t a r i o 140,602 84 1,674 P r o v i n c e s O n t a r i o 1,650 Quebec 122,617 136 902 Quebec 900 New Brunswick 22,116 20 1,106 Maritime Nova S c o t i a P r o v i n c e s 21,075 21 1,004 N. Brunswick) Nova S c o t i a ) Newfoundland 2,387 8 298 N ewfoundland) 1,300 P.E.I. ) P r i n c e Edward I s . 9,432 3 3,144 A l l P r o v i n c e s 575,015 418 1,376 ( a)canada Year Book: 1960, p. 500. (^Averaged to nearest hundred. 86 s u p e r v i s o r r e a d i l y f i n d agreement and a s s i s t a n c e from h i s super-v i s o r i n d e v e l o p i n g them. The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t from the P o s i t i o n S p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r an Agent i n O n t a r i o i n d i c a t e s the l i g h t n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n and freedom he has. C o n t r o l by S u p e r v i s o r : O f f i c e i n s p e c t i o n v i s i t ( l per y e a r ) ; Submits d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s . C o n t r o l by Procedure; Receives g e n e r a l d i r e c t i v e s as to Departmental p o l i c i e s and s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s as to methods of a p p l y i n g r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h . Ingenuity i s r e q u i r e d to persuade farming i n t e r e s t s to accept new a g r i c u l t u r a l methods and techniques. Hampered by "Joe Jobs." There i s one u n f o r t u n a t e way i n which an Agent i s r e s t r i c t e d and t h a t i s by b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r jobs o u t s i d e e x t e n s i o n . These comments by Parks, a l r e a d y mentioned, are based on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used by the A g r i c u l -t u r a l I n s t i t u t e i n 1960. E x t e n s i o n workers are too busy to keep up to date . . . . A common complaint v o i c e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was that too much time i s devoted to non-educational a c t i v i t i e s or "Joe jobs"; some p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s spend up to 50 per cent o f t h e i r time on r e g u l a t o r y work and on government p o l i c i e s . 1 0 0 Youth work. A l l through the years the p r o v i n c i a l exten.-s i o n s e r v i c e s have e x i s t e d , great emphasis has been p l a c e d on y o u t h events i n c l u d i n g 4-H Clubs. I f the Agent were f r e e d from 1 0 0 D . L. Parks, "Programs, Personnel Research and T r a i n i n g i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n , " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XV:4 (July-August 1960), pp. 16-17. h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to young people he would be a b l e to devote more time to h i s main o b j e c t i v e . As an example of the con-sumption o f time i n t h i s way, Agents i n Saskatchewan spent 18.2 p e r cent o f t h e i r working days w i t h youth over the p e r i o d 1952 to 1961. See T a b l e IV. TABLE IV DAYS WORKED WITH YOUTH BY AGENTS IN SASKATCHEWAN Year Days w i t h A d u l t s Days w i t h Youth Days w i t h Youth Per Cent of T o t a l 1952 8,626 1,469 14.5% 1953 8,304 1,786 17.7$ 1954 X X X 1955 8,617 1,898 18.0% 1956 9,039 2,178 19.4% 1957 8,662 2,217 20.4% 1958 9,299 2,191 19.1% 1959 9,133 1,888 17.1% 1960 9,413 2,182 18.8% 1961 9,205 2,004 17.9% 1952-1961 80,298 17,813 18.2% Source: Annual Reports, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r Saskatchewan. g Data not a v a i l a b l e .  ADMINISTRATION U n i v e r s i t y and E x t e n s i o n The U n i t e d S t a t e s , so near, and so s i m i l a r i n c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r e , have an a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e run by the u n i v e r s i t i e s which i s both s u c c e s s f u l and very l a r g e . However, 88 the u n i v e r s i t i e s p r o v i d i n g the s e r v i c e are the "land grant c o l l e g e s " which had t h e i r land granted them on the c o n d i t i o n they s u p p l i e d a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the s t a t e s to which they belong. I t would be unexpected i f the exte n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s broke away from t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means and very home to s e t up i n some other way, e s p e c i a l l y when the f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of some of the Canadian p r o v i n c e s are co n s i d e r e d . However, Glen develops an argument a g a i n s t the u n i v e r s i t i e s t a k i n g over the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n C a n a d a . 1 0 1 F i r s t he p o i n t s out the d i f f e r e n c e between pure r e s e a r c h which we f i n d a t u n i v e r s i t i e s , and b a s i c a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h , and develop-ment a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h , then s t a t e s : However, the l o n g range goals should be f o r p r o v i n c i a l departments t o emphasize development a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h a p p r o p r i a t e to the s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r own l o c a l problems, and the F e d e r a l Department t o emphasize b a s i c a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h . . . . A c c e p t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n b r o a d l y as p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e the f r u i t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h he e s t a b l i s h e s a t i e between development a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h and exte n s i o n , and concludes that they thus both belong t o the one body, and that t h i s i s t h e r e f o r e the p r o v i n c i a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e . A gain, r e f e r r i n g t o u n i v e r s i t i e s Glen s a i d : "They should not become s e r i o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n e i t h e r development r e s e a r c h or a g r i c u l t u r a l l 0 1 R o b e r t Glen, "Education f o r A g r i c u l t u r e : Whose R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XIV:5 (Sept.-Oct. 1959), p. 26. 89 e x t e n s i o n . M l u < { E v a l u a t i o n of P r e s e n t System A p a r t y o f B r i t i s h s p e c i a l i s t s e v a l u a t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n In N o r t h America considered that the S e r v i c e i n O n t a r i o , taken as an example o f a Canadian p r o v i n c e , i s smooth r u n n i n g . 1 0 3 When a l l the e x t e n s i o n i n a p r o v i n c e i s under the one department i t c e r t a i n l y makes the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d w i t h a great p o s s i b i l i t y f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n . One o f the reasons put forward f o r t h i s c o - o r d i n a t i o n i s t h a t the Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e i n O n t a r i o , and i n most p r o v i n c e s , i s a f u l l time 103 c i v i l s e rvant and an a g r i c u l t u r a l graduate. There are decided advantages having the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n under the department of a g r i c u l t u r e of each p r o v i n c e , whereby ex-t e n s i o n can be supported by and c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h other branches of the department. C o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e i s not very evident but on the other hand nor i s i n t e r f e r e n c e . The Canada Department implements many Ac t s of P a r l i a m e n t through-out Canada but t h i s should not i n t e r f e r e w i t h e x t e n s i o n work, even though a few A c t s , such as the P r a i r i e Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t and the Maritime Marshlands R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t are i n support l 0 2 I b i d . , p. 27. 1 0 3 N u f f i e l d Foundation, Farming A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s i n N o r t h America (London: N u f f i e l d Foundation, 1956), p. 90. 90 of farm improvement w i t h which the p r o v i n c i a l departments a s s i s t . C o n t r a s t w i t h U.S.A. A c o n t r a r y s i t u a t i o n has and s t i l l does e x i s t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s where many a g e n c i e s , b o t h S t a t e and F e d e r a l , take the freedom of forw a r d i n g t h e i r own p o l i c i e s w i t h i n a s t a t e without so much as the knowledge of other agencies l e t a l o n e t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . One example c i t e d i s o f a farm l e a d e r who was o f f e r e d 301 a c t i v i t i e s i n one week from seven p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , some c o n f l i c t i n g i n t h e i r r ecommendations. 1 0 4 I n some i n s t a n c e s o b j e c t i v e s of two or more a c t i v i t i e s a r e s i m i l a r w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the people a re e i t h e r conscious o f the unnecessary o v e r l a p p i n g o r, not u n n a t u r a l l y , c o n f u s e d . 1 0 4 The m e r i t o f Brunner and Yang's f o l l o w i n g o p i n i o n i s l o g i c a l . They suggested t h a t housing a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l and other t a x supported agencies w i t h r e l a t e d or complementary purposes t o g e t h e r i s d e s i r a b l e and l e a d s to higher p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 1 0 5 T h i s o n l y bears out the advantage o f the Canadian system of p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f ex t e n s i o n t o the e x c l u s i o n o f F e d e r a l c o n t r o l . C o o p e r a t i o n more Important than Housing These o p i n i o n s do not r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y of the 1 G 4Edmund de S. Brunner and E. Hs i n Pao Yang, R u r a l  America and the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e (New York: Bureau of P u b l i -c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1949), p. 63. 105 I b i d . . p. 65, 91 e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e b e i n g under another o r g a n i z a t i o n such as the u n i v e r s i t y , p r o v i d e d t h e r e was c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the p r o -v i n c i a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e so t h a t e x t e n s i o n would have the f u l l b e n e f i t o f a l l r e s e a r c h work. In e i t h e r case, f o r c l o s e c o - o r d i n a t i o n these two organ-i z a t i o n s should be l i n k e d together and p r e f e r a b l y beneath the same r o o f , as i n O n t a r i o , even i f not under the same d i r e c t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e housing £ . In o p p o s i t i o n to the pr e s e n t admin-i s t r a t i v e arrangement i n Canada, L o m e Pa u l argues t h a t extension would be b e t t e r under the u n i v e r s i t i e s , to remove i t from p o l i t -i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s , to c o - o r d i n a t e t r a i n i n g o f ex t e n s i o n workers w i t h needs, and to guide u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h , f o r extension men w i l l b r i n g back from the f i e l d to the u n i v e r s i t i e s suggestions f o r e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g and f o r needed r e s e a r c h . 1 0 6 Dr. P a u l was speaki n g on b e h a l f of a Committee s e t up by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada to d e f i n e and study the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e xtension i n Canada. I t has been s t a t e d t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to Glen, e x t e n s i o n and a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h should be w i t h i n the same o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h a t t h i s would have t o be the department of a g r i c u l t u r e , the reason g i v e n b e i n g t h a t only b a s i c r e s e a r c h should be undertaken 1 0 6 L o r n e P a u l , "Symposium on R u r a l E x t e n s i o n f o r C a n a d a — Present and F u t u r e , " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review, V o l . XV:4 (July-Aug. I960), p. 24. 92 by u n i v e r s i t i e s , and d e f i n i t e l y not development a p p l i e d 107 r e s e a r c h . The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t u n i v e r s i t y a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s are exceptions to t h i s p r i n c i p l e should be c o n s i d e r e d . There are many a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s l i k e the two i n New Zealand each of which i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r u r a l area i n the midst o f i t s own s e t of farms where a l l the main kinds o f f a r m i n g i n the country are represented and much development a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h i s c a r r i e d on. F u r t h e r , a t one c o l l e g e a p r o f e s s o r was f a c u l t y head of the d a i r y farming department of the c o l l e g e with the managers of the d a i r y farms answerable to him, and at the same time he l d the post of D i r e c t o r of the New Zealand Government D a i r y Research I n s t i t u t e which i s based at the c o l l e g e and c a r r i e s out work, f o r example chemical and b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , o f t e n o f a fundamental nature though d i r e c t e d a t s p e c i f i c problems. Such an a l l i a n c e o f t e a c h i n g , a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h , and b a s i c r e s e a r c h i s v a l u a b l e f i r s t l y f o r the students and, secondly, to expedite the t r a n s f e r e n c e of b a s i c r e s e a r c h i n t o p r a c t i c e . I n common w i t h o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s , programs of study a r e p r o v i d e d f o r p r a c t i s i n g farmers and t h e i r sons and to t h i s end a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h on u n i v e r s i t y farms i s most d e s i r a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y to i l l u s t r a t e new recommended techniques and management p r a c t i c e s . I t appears t h a t a l l l e v e l s of r e s e a r c h have a p l a c e a t the c o l l e g e s suggest-i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e homes t o e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s of the c o l l e g e s 93 or the p r o v i n c i a l departments on the b a s i s of Glen's c r i t e r i a . The u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g would c e r t a i n l y be d e s i r a b l e as a base f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents and would a l l o w a hig h c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g and needs. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o be a t the u n i v e r s i t y would mean b e i n g separated from the p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t -ment and the r e s e a r c h work and s p e c i a l i s t s e r v i c e s i t has to o f f e r , j u s t as a t the present day the S e r v i c e s are l a r g e l y separ-a t e d from the knowledge and a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e a t the u n i v e r -s i t i e s . Cooperation l e a d i n g to c o - o r d i n a t i o n c e r t a i n l y appears to be the major need. I t can be seen t h a t there are contending s i d e s about t h i s matter. As i t stands, e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n Canada a r e w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l departments. The u n i v e r s i t i e s have cooperated i n the past and were most h e l p f u l i n the growing days of department e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , and b e f o r e these s e r v i c e s e x i s t e d c a r r i e d out much ext e n s i o n work, but d i d l e s s and l e s s as the government departments gathered s t r e n g t h , and because there has not been much money a v a i l a b l e f o r the u n i v e r s i t i e s to use on a g r i c u l t u r a l exten-s i o n . What the f u t u r e holds may be r e v e a l e d b e f o r e l o n g because the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e should b r i n g a l l s i d e s o f the matter b e f o r e those i n t e r e s t e d so that a proper d e c i s i o n one way or the oth e r may be p o s s i b l e . CHAPTER I I I ACTIVITIES OP EXTENSION WORKERS The b i g g e s t task o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent i s to encourage the farmer to apply new p r a c t i c e s to the farming e n t e r p r i s e . The Agent does not h i m s e l f c a r r y out any p r a c t i c e s on farms but he does supply the farmer w i t h ideas about new p r a c t i c e s . The Agent can extend h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s by encouraging the farmers i n h i s a r e a to seek ideas and knowledge themselves. There are many ways i n which an Agent can help farmers a c q u i r e new i d e a s . Among the most e f f e c t i v e o f these are i n d i v -i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n methods which ensure the c l o s e a t t e n t i o n o f the Agent to the farmer and h i s s p e c i f i c problems. A t the same time, however, i n d i v i d u a l methods are c o s t l y and l i m i t the scope o f the Agent's work. Thus the Agent f i n d s i t expedient to meet farmers i n groups so that he can contact many more at a giv e n time. Prom the p o i n t o f view of time t h e r e f o r e , group i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods a r e more e f f i c i e n t , but the i n t e n s i t y of the e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n f o r each farmer i s not as great as i t i s w i t h i n d i v i d -u a l methods, and ehanges made by farmers i n response to these methods are a c c o r d i n g l y fewer i n p r o p o r t i o n to the number con-t a c t e d . Mass media methods of d i f f u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a r e the most e f f i c i e n t i n r e a c h i n g many people w i t h l e a s t e f f o r t ; but only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f those reached are motivated t o become i n v o l v e d . 95 Mass media methods are u s e f u l i n q u i c k l y and widely d i s s e m i n -a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; and may a l s o he the means of i n v o l v i n g a c e r t a i n number o f farmers i n f o l l o w i n g up i d e a s , but t h i s amounts to a very s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of those contacted. While a l l three c l a s s e s o f methods perform s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s they do so i n d i f f e r e n t degrees o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y . INDIVIDUAL METHODS The methods an Agent uses to make i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s w i t h farmers vary from making a v i s i t t o a farm a t expenditure o f c o n s i d e r a b l e time, c o s t , and e f f o r t , to spending a day s i t t i n g i n h i s o f f i c e and b eing c a l l e d on by farmers a t comparatively l i t t l e expenditure f o r each c o n t a c t . When an Agent f i r s t comes i n t o a d i s t r i c t i t i s n a t u r a l f o r him to begin by c a l l i n g on farmers to get to know them and to l e a r n to know h i s d i s t r i c t , but as h i s c l i e n t e l e b u i l d s up and farmers are prepared to go to the Agent he w i l l f i n d i t expedient to depend more on o f f i c e c a l l e r s and use farm v i s i t s l e s s , and a movement i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n a c t u a l l y has taken p l a c e over the p e r i o d under study. There are f o u r commonly used methods o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t and these are farm v i s i t s , telephone c a l l s , o f f i c e c a l l s , and l e t t e r s . ffarm V i s i t s The most p e r s o n a l and e f f e c t i v e c o n t a c t s a r e v i s i t s by the 96 Agent to the farmer on h i s own farm. Data on the number of farm v i s i t s a r e a v a i l a b l e over the ten year p e r i o d under study, 1952 to 1961, f o r the seven p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Quebec, Newfoundland, Nova S c o t i a , and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and a l s o f o r Manitoba from 1959 to 1961. Every year an average of 162,000 v i s i t s were made by Agents i n these seven p r o v i n c e s over t h i s p e r i o d . Over the ten years 1952 to 1961 the number of i n d i v i d u a l farm v i s i t s changed by a decrease of 1.7 per c e n t 1 and the average number per year was 7,672 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 22,942 i n A l b e r t a , 12,225 i n Saskatchewan, 104,060 i n Quebec, 2,445 i n Newfoundland, 11,802 i n Nova S c o t i a , and 1,256 i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . The average number of farm v i s i t s per Agent f o r the seven p r o v i n c e s was 575.3 a year. T h i s number d e c l i n e d by 8.8 per cent. ( T a b l e X, page 109.) I t should be noted that i f i t were not f o r m i s s i n g data f o r Quebec f o r 1960 and 1961 t h i s would be more l i k e a decrease o f 4 per cent. The number of farm v i s i t s v a r i e d among the p r o v i n c e s from 300.4 per Agent i n Saskatchewan to 764 i n Quebec, v i s i t s per Agent b e i n g more numerous i n the c e n t r a l and maritime p r o v i n c e s where d i s t a n c e s between farms a r e not as great as i n the western p r o v i n c e s . The average number per Agent was 426 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 457.8 i n A l b e r t a , 300.4 i n Saskatchewan, "Change," as d e f i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter, i s the d i f f e r e n c e i n data between the two f i v e year p e r i o d s 1952-56 and 1957-61 expressed as a percentage of the 1952-56 data. The i n c r e a s e s and decreases mentioned are such changes. TABLE V INDEX NUMBERS FOR FARM VISITS PER AGENT BASE PERIOD 1952 = 100 (a) Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Quebec Newfld. N.S. P.E.I. For 7 P r o v i n c e s 1952 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1953 208 100 117 102 68 X 70 102.5 1954 X 96 96 100 99 88 136 104.3 1955 X 82 96 99 75 99 122 100.1 1956 199 80 95 113 79 82 X 105.8 1957 212 70 82 7-113 72 77 X 101.2 1958 171 68 88 107 76 X 136 94.8 1959 206 68 81 110 82 80 131 99.5 1960 219 67 71 X 99 76 146 ( 6 4 . 6 ) ( b 1961 179 74 82 X 100 65 125 ( 6 6 . 0 ) ( b CHANGE: 1957/61-1952/56^ 1952/56 '° 17% -24% -20% 7% 2% -14.7% 25.8% (a) v 'Source: T a b l e XLV, p. 201. Data not avaiLable. The index number i s pro v i d e d f o r a v a i l a b l e data. 98 764.3 i n Quebec, 305.6 i n Newfoundland, 712.7 i n Nova S c o t i a , and 579 i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . (Prom T a b l e XLV, page 201.) In A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and Nova S c o t i a there was a d i s t i n c t decrease i n number of v i s i t s per Agent of 24 per cent, 20 per cent, and 14.7 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . There was an i n -crease of 17 per cent i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 7 per cent i n Quebec, 2 per cent i n Newfoundland, and 25.8 per cent i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . Telephone C a l l s Data i n t h i s category are a v a i l a b l e f o r the f i v e p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , and Nova S c o t i a , and a l s o f o r Manitoba from 1959 to 1961. The number o f telephone c a l l s w i t h Agents f o r these p r o v i n c e s averaged 252,033 a year between 1952 and 1961 and the change was a decrease of 5.1 per c e n t . The number i n each p r o v i n c e d i d not vary g r e a t l y except f o r Saskatchewan, and f o r the one year 1956 when the datum f o r A l b e r t a i s abnormally l a r g e . The average number of telephone c a l l s per Agent was 1,178.5 per year f o r the s i x p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Manitoba, O n t a r i o , and Nova S c o t i a . The average number per Agent was 1,280 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1,062.4 i n A l b e r t a , 1,085.7 i n Saskatchewan, 1,186.7 i n Manitoba, 1,572.7 i n O n t a r i o , and 1,024.1 i n Nova S c o t i a . Saskatchewan i s the only p r o v i n c e w i t h an i n c r e a s e of telephone c a l l s per Agent and t h i s TABLE VI INDEX NUMBERS FOR TELEPHONE CALLS PER AGENT : BASE PERIOD 1952 = i o o ( a ) Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Man. O n t a r i o N.S. F o r 6 P r o v i n c e s 1952 ... 100 100 100 X 100 100 100 1953 ... I l l 111 119 X X X 96 1954 ... x 112 126 X 83 81 119 1955 ... X 98 140 X 78 73 112 1956 ... 72 180 155 X 78 73 134 1957 ... 82 76 140 X 76 64 103 1958 ... 81 79 146 X 73 X 104 1959 ... 49 78 166 100 X 69 95 1960 ... 74 86 152 88 X 61 92 1961 ... 122 93 199 96 81 70 119 CHANGE: -31.2% 26% -9.2% -19% ( ^ S o u r c e : Ta b l e XLVT, p. 202. x Data not a v a i l a b l e . 100 amounts to 26 per cent. E a c h Saskatchewan Agent made 750 c a l l s f o r the year 1952 a g a i n s t an average of 1,387 f o r Agents i n B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , O n t a r i o , and Nova S c o t i a . By 1961 the Saskatchewan number had i n c r e a s e d to 1,493 which i s g r e a t e r than the average o f 1,259 i n the other f i v e p r o v i n c e s . In the other p r o v i n c e s the decrease i n telephone c a l l s per Agent was 31.2 per cent i n A l b e r t a , 19 per cent i n Nova S c o t i a , 13 per cent i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and 9.2 per cent i n O n t a r i o . The decrease f o r these f i v e p r o v i n c e s t o g e t h e r , i n c l u d i n g Saskatchewan, was 4.85 per cent. L e t t e r s W r i t t e n Data a v a i l a b l e from B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, Newfoundland, and Nova S c o t i a showed that the average number o f l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by Agents was 322,236 a year between 1952 and 1961. Over these ten years the only marked changes were a decrease i n Nova S c o t i a of 23.9 per cent and an i n c r e a s e i n Newfoundland of 28.4 per cent. The average number o f l e t t e r s w r i t t e n per Agent was 947.4 pe r year over the ten y e a r s . The average number f o r each p r o -v i n c e was 1,127.3 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 869.3 i n A l b e r t a , 952.8 i n Saskatchewan, 1,434.2 i n O n t a r i o , 643.7 i n Quebec, 502 i n Newfoundland, 1,147.6 i n Nova S c o t i a , and 459.3 i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . An i n c r e a s e i n the number of Agents i n A l b e r t a by 29 p e r cent from 44 i n 1952 to 56 i n 1961 was accompanied by a TABLE VII INDEX NUMBERS FOR LETTERS WRITTEN PER AGENT j BASE PERIOD 1952 = 100^ 8^ Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. O n t a r i o Quebec Newfld. N.S. P.E.I. Fo r 8 P r o v i n c e s 1952 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1953 102.1 110 69 103 110 91.58 X 109 95.73 1954 . . . X 116 76 95 110 113.82 87 51 108.64 1955 . . . X 107 84 96 105 102.53 72 220 93.41 1956 77.0 106 89 91 109 98.5 80 X 93.71 1957 130.9 80 82 96 109 114.4 72 X 91.79 1958 112 73 85 96 117 116.9 X X 91.29 1959 114 84 91 X 116 131.9 72 185 78.96 1960 143 83 92 X X 143.43 65 X 89.4 1961 226 82 101 95 X 143.72 67 92 112.88 CHANGE: 1 9 5 7 ^ i ) 5 9 6 5 2 / ^ ^ -25.5$ 5.5$ -1.4$ 6.4$ 28.4$ -19% 15.3$ ( ^S o u r c e : Table XLVII, p. 203. H 1 o H-102 decrease by 25.5 per cent of the number of l e t t e r s p e r Agent. Another s u b s t a n t i a l change was an i n c r e a s e of 53.6 per cent i n the number of l e t t e r s per Agent w r i t t e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia w h i l e Newfoundland had an i n c r e a s e of 28.4 per cent and Nova S c o t i a a decrease of 19 per cent. In the other p r o v i n c e s changes were not ve r y great. There were i n c r e a s e s of 5.5 per cent f o r Saskatchewan, 6.4 per cent f o r Quebec, and a decrease of 1.4 per cent f o r O n t a r i o . O f f i c e C a l l e r s Every year between 1952 and 1961 an average o f 332,576 farmers v i s i t e d Agents i n t h e i r o f f i c e s and t h i s number does not i n c l u d e P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d or New Brunswick f o r which data were not a v a i l a b l e . In B r i t i s h Columbia the average per year was 12,511.5, i n A l b e r t a 57,956.5, i n Saskatchewan 29,695.6, i n Manitoba 44,249.9, i n O n t a r i o 123,684, i n Quebec 53,251.4, i n Newfoundland 2,707.5, and i n Nova S c o t i a 10,610.1. H a l f the p r o v i n c e s r e p o r t i n g data had an i n c r e a s e of c a l l e r s and h a l f a decrease r e s u l t i n g i n an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e of 5.7 per cent. The f o u r p r o v i n c e s w i t h i n c r e a s e s a r e B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Those w i t h decreases a r e O n t a r i o , Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , and Newfoundland. An i n c r e a s e of Agents i n A l b e r t a accounts f o r a decrease i n o f f i c e c a l l e r s per Agent of 11.9 per cent. Decreases of o f f i c e c a l l e r s p e r Agent were a l s o noted i n O n t a r i o of 12.9 per cent, i n TABLE V I I I INDEX NUMBERS FOR OFFICE CALLERS PER AGENT : BASE PERIOD 1952 - 100 ^ a) F o r Y ear B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Man. O n t a r i o Quebec Newfld. N.S. P.E.I. A d j u s t e d T o t a l (*») of 8 P r o v i n c e s 1952 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 X 100 1953 199.0 107.2 116.3 109.4 95.7 96.8 86.0 X X 104.9 1954 X 119.3 145.5 108.7 100.3 99.4 44.6 72.3 X 110.3 1955 X 104.8 136.0 108.0 92.1 94.2 42.9 61.6 100 102.4 1956 200.8 101.2 151.4 111.8 89.0 93.6 45.3 60.5 X 102.0 1957 254.0 82.3 132.6 108.3 90.2 94.5 43.4 50.3 X 98.4 1958 266.9 103.2 138.9 106.3 82.4 99.6 57.4 X X 99.4 1959 198.4 89.7 148.2 127.3 X 99.6 49.6 55.3 116.9 84.2 1960 282.7 92.4 156.3 107.6 X X 46.5 38.0 X 109.6 1961 401.1 101.3 218.4 115.6 76.9 X 43.8 50.2 146.2 137.3 CBANGE: 1957/61-1952/56^ 1952/56 68.2% -11.9% 22.7% 5.0% -12.9% 1.1% -24.5% -34.2% 32.0% ( ^ S o u r c e : T a b l e XLVIII, p. 204. g ( ^ T a b l e XLVIII. " x Data not a v a i l a b l e . 104 Nova S c o t i a o f 34.2 per cent, and i n Newfoundland of 24.5 per c e n t . Quebec had an i n c r e a s e of o f f i c e c a l l e r s per Agent of 1.1 p e r cent, w h i l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia there was an i n c r e a s e of 68.2 per cent, w i t h 22.7 per cent i n Saskatchewan, and 5 per cent i n Manitoba. The average number of o f f i c e c a l l e r s per Agent was 867.8 f o r a l l p r o v i n c e s r e p o r t i n g . I n d i v i d u a l Methods Combined The t o t a l number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made each year i s f a i r l y constant judged by the combination of farm v i s i t s , o f f i c e c a l l e r s , and l e t t e r s w r i t t e n f o r the s i x p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , and Newfoundland. There was an average o f 650,579 a year f o r the years 1952 t o 1961. The s l i g h t change i n t o t a l number f o r these p r o v i n c e s was an i n c r e a s e o f 0.64 per cent. The changes f o r each method f o r the s i x p r o v i n c e s c i t e d were a decrease of 1.8 per cent of farm v i s i t s and 0.7 per cent of l e t t e r s w r i t t e n and an i n c r e a s e of 5.7 p e r cent o f o f f i c e c a l l e r s . The p r o p o r t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s devoted to each of these three methods a l t e r e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d under study. The number of l e t t e r s w r i t t e n was 50.6 per cent i n 1952 and t h i s d e c l i n e d by 2.3 per cent to 48.3 per cent i n 1961. A t the same time the share o f farm v i s i t s d e c l i n e d from 25.2 per cent i n 1952 by 2 per cent % o r d e f i n i t i o n of change see page 96, f o o t n o t e 1. 105 and to balance these two decreases o f f i c e c a l l s i n c r e a s e d from 24.2 to 28.5 per cent. The change away from farm v i s i t s and l e t t e r s w r i t t e n was made p o s s i b l e by more farmers paying o f f i c e c a l l s t o the Agent which each time saves him making a v i s i t or w r i t i n g a l e t t e r . The f o u r p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and Nova S c o t i a show a decrease i n telephone c a l l s w i t h Agents o f 3.2 per cent. Number o f Contacts per Agent The average number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by an Agent over the ten year p e r i o d 1952 to 1961 was 3,569. T h i s number i s the average f o r a l l p r o v i n c e s except New Brunswick. The annual number f o r the Agents i n each p r o v i n c e v a r i e d from 5,054 i n O n t a r i o to 2,326 i n Newfoundland. See T a b l e XI, page 119. There was a decrease of c o n t a c t s made by the average Agent over the ten year p e r i o d 1952 to 1961 of 5.59 per cent f o r the seven p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , Newfoundland, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . The de-creases f o r each type of con t a c t were: 8.8 per cent o f farm v i s i t s , 4.85 per cent o f telephone c a l l s , 3.19 per cent o f l e t t e r s w r i t t e n , and 2.49 per cent o f o f f i c e c a l l e r s . See T a b l e X, page 109. P r o p o r t i o n s . Prom the data f o r the above seven p r o v i n c e s the p r o p o r t i o n o f each method used by the average Agent was 16.1 TABLE IX INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS FOR B.C., ALTA. , SASK. , QUE., N.S. , NFLD. Farm V i s i t s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s Percentage of T o t a l Y ear T o t a l V i s i t s L e t t e r s O f f i c e C a l l s 195S 165,845 333,074 158,972 819 657,891 25.2 50.6 24.2 1953 161,707 325,345* 158,213* 765 645,265 25.1 50.4 24.5 1954 161,012* 323,680* 168,251* 786 652,943 24.7 49.6 25.7 1955 158,880* 322,474* 161,723* 810 643,077 24.7 50.1 25.2 1956 166,947 314,803 161,551 785 643,301 26.0 48.9 25.1 1957 161,913 312,954 153,956 800 628,823 25.7 49.8 24.5 1958 158,729* 318,130* 170,106* 820 646,965 24.5 49.2 26.3 1959 160,946 323,114* 163,535* 801 647,595 24.9 49.9 25.2 1960 158,961* 322,591* 170,972* 805 652,524 24.4 49.4 26.2 1961 159,375* 331,740* 196,294* 803 687,409 23.2 48.3 28.5 T o t a l 1 ,614,315 3,227,905 1,663,573 7,994 6 ,505,793 24.8 49.6 25.6 CHANGE: 1957/61-1952/56^ ± e«, 1952/56 x • /o -0.7$ +5.7$ 0.64$ -2$ -2.3$ +4.3$ (S)A i s the number o f Agents which made the T o t a l number of c o n t a c t s . o * Includes c a l c u l a t e d f i g u r e s where data were not a v a i l a b l e f o r one or more p r o v i n c e . 49.6% LETTERS WRITTEN •BY AGENTS 25.6$ 24.8$ OFFICE FARM CALLERS VISITS TO BY AGENTS AGENTS FIGURE 2 PROPORTION OF INDIVIDUAL METHODS USED IN 1952-61 FOR B.C., ALTA., SASK., QUE., N.S., AND NFLD. 108 p e r cent o f farm v i s i t s , 24.3 per cent o f o f f i c e c a l l e r s , 26.5 p e r cent o f l e t t e r s , and 33.0 per cent o f telephone c a l l s . See F i g u r e 4. INDIVIDUAL METHODS BY PROVINCE B r i t i s h Columbia In B r i t i s h Columbia the number of i n d i v i d u a l contacts per year averaged 30,308.3 over the ten years under study, and i n -creased by 4.5 per cent over t h i s p e r i o d . As the number o f Agents employed i n B r i t i s h Columbia decreased by 12 per cent t h e r e was an expected i n c r e a s e i n the number of c o n t a c t s per Agent, which was 24.5 per cent. T h i s i n c r e a s e per Agent was f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l methods e x c e p t i n g telephone c a l l s which decreased by 13 per cent. The i n c r e a s e s were 17 per cent o f farm v i s i t s , 53.6 per cent o f l e t t e r s w r i t t e n , and 68 per cent of o f f i c e c a l l e r s . ( T a b l e XLIX, page 205.) The average number a year o f t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l c ontacts made by the average Agent was 3,499. In B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the ten year p e r i o d under study the number o f farm v i s i t s as a p r o p o r t i o n of a l l i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s per Agent was s m a l l e r than the average f o r the p r o v i n c e s o f 16.1 per cent, b e i n g 11.8 per c e n t . 3 The number o f o f f i c e c a l l e r s per Agent was only 19.3 per cent, which i s l e s s than the 'These averages are given on page 105 under " P r o p o r t i o n s . " 109 TABLE X CONTACTS PER AGENT MOVING AVERAGES FOR THE PROVINCES B.C., ALTA., SASK., QUE., N.S., NFLD. AND P.E.I. Years Farm V i s i t s T e l e p h o n e d ) C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l s T o t a l 1952/56 610.50 1,250.00 974.40 867.40 3 ,702.30 1953/57 611.90 1,257.40 958.20 861.00 3 ,688.50 1954/58 602.70 1,274.40 899.35 856.00 3 ,632.45 1955/59 596.88 1,241.10 887.00 812.40 3 ,497.56 1956/60 554.70 1,196.00 925.40 824.50 3 ,461.00 1957/61 512.74 1,162.40 929.00 883.20 3 ,447.50 INDEX NUMBERS OF MOVING AVERAGES BASE PERIOD 1952/56 = 100 Ye a r s Farm V i s i t s T elephone^ 3) C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l s T o t a l 1952/56 100 100 100 100 100 1953/57 100.22 100.59 98.33 99.26 99.62 1954/58 98.72 101.95 92.29 98.68 98.11 1955/59 97.76 99.28 91.03 93.65 94.47 1956/60 90.85 95.61 94.97 95.05 93.48 1957/61 83.98 92.99 95.34 101.82 93.12 CHANGE: -8.8$ -4.85$ -3.19$ -2.49$ -5.59$ E x c l u d i n g Quebec, Newfoundland, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . 110 1200 Telephone C a l l s 1000 O f f i c e C a l l e r s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n 500 Farm V i s i t s S o u rce: Moving Averages T a b l e X. 0 FIGURE 3 NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS PER AGENT FOR B.C. , ALTA., SASK., QUE., N.S., NFLD., P.E.I. 33.0% TELEPHONE GALLS 26.5% PER LETTERS AGENT WRITTEN PER AGENT 24.3% OFFICE CALLERS PER AGENT 16.1% FARM VISITS PER AGENT FIGURE 4 INDIVIDUAL METHODS : PERCENTAGE USED PER AGENT DURING 1952-61 FOR THE SEVEN PROVINCES B.C., ALTA., SASK., QUEBEC, N.S., NFLD., AND P.E.I. 112 average f o r the p r o v i n c e s o f 24.3 per cent. A l b e r t a The number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made i n A l b e r t a was almost constant over the ten years under study a t an average o f 179,413 per year. There was an i n c r e a s e i n the number of Agents employed from f o r t y - f o u r i n 1952 to f i f t y - s i x i n 1961, or 26 per cent, and a cor r e s p o n d i n g decrease i n the number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s per Agent of 23 per cent. The number per Agent d e c l i n e d f o r a l l methods, the decreases b e i n g 24.1 per cent o f farm v i s i t s , 31.2 per cent o f telephone c a l l s , 25.5 per cent o f l e t t e r s w r i t t e n and 11.9 per cent o f o f f i c e c a l l e r s . ( T a b l e L, page 206.) The average number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made a year was 3,525.9 per Agent. The p r o p o r t i o n of each method used by each Agent was near the average f o r the p r o v i n c e s . The b i g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e was i n o f f i c e c a l l e r s which accounted f o r 33 per cent of the c o n t a c t s , o r 8 per cent more than the average. Only 13 per cent of the co n t a c t s were farm v i s i t s which i s l e s s than average by 4 per cent. (Compare w i t h F i g u r e 4, page 111.) Saskatchewan There was a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e of 21.7 per cent i n the t o t a l number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s by Agents i n Saskatchewan between 1952 and 1961 r e a c h i n g 166,113 i n 1961 compared to 110,615 i n 1952. T h i s i n c r e a s e was not accounted f o r e n t i r e l y 113 by an a d d i t i o n o f Agents e q u i v a l e n t to a change of 8 per cent. The remainder o f the i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l number of con-t a c t s Is accounted f o r by an i n c r e a s e i n con t a c t s made per Agent of 6.2 per cent. Telephone c a l l s per Agent i n c r e a s e d by 26 per cent, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by 5.5 per cent, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s by 22.7 per cent, but farm v i s i t s decreased by 20 per cent. ( T a b l e L I , page 207.) The average number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made each year by the Agent was 3, 065. The p r o p o r t i o n o f each method t o the t o t a l number of i n -d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s was farm v i s i t s 9.8 per cent, telephone c a l l s 35.4 per cent, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n 31.1 per cent, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s 23.7 per cent. Manitoba The only records a v a i l a b l e f o r farm v i s i t s , telephone c a l l s , and l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by Agents are from 1959 to 1961 d u r i n g which time the con t a c t s by each method i n c r e a s e d . O f f i c e c a l l e r s i n c r e a s e d from 35,108 i n 1952 to 56,298 i n 1961. The number of Agents employed i n c r e a s e d from t h i r t y - o n e i n 1952 t o f o r t y - t h r e e i n 1961 so t h a t the number of o f f i c e c a l l e r s per Agent Increased by only 5 per cent. The number of co n t a c t s per Agent f o r the othe r three methods showed an i n c r e a s e from 1959 to 1961. The average number of a l l i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made a year by each Agent was 3,673. 114 The p r o p o r t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by each method was farm v i s i t s 11.2 per cent, telephone c a l l s 32.3 per cent, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n 22.4 per cent, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s 34.1 per cent. O n t a r i o When the numbers of telephone c a l l s , l e t t e r s w r i t t e n , and o f f i c e c a l l e r s are combined the t o t a l s show a steady decrease from 408,888 i n 1952 to 376,121 i n 1961 i n s p i t e o f a s m a l l i n -cre a s e i n the number of Agents from eighty-one t o eighty-seven. The number of co n t a c t s per Agent show corresponding decreases, the changes b e i n g decreases of 9.2 per cent of t e l e -phone c a l l s , 1.4 per cent of l e t t e r s w r i t t e n , and 12.9 per cent of o f f i c e c a l l e r s w h i l e the decrease per Agent f o r the three methods combined was 7 i 5 per cent. ( T a b l e L I U , page 209.) The average number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made a year by each Agent by these three methods was 4,479.3. The p r o p o r t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by each o f the th r e e methods by the average Agent f o r 1952 to 1961 was telephone c a l l s 35.1 per cent, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n 32.0 per cent, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s 32.9 per cent. Quebec The t o t a l number of farm v i s i t s , l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by Agents, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s averaged 245,105 each year from 1952 u n t i l 1959 a f t e r which the records were not a v a i l a b l e . The number of Agents decreased from 143 i n 1952 to 132 i n 1959, and, a t the same time, 115 the number of co n t a c t s per Agent i n c r e a s e d by 5.5 per cent. The i n c r e a s e s of co n t a c t s per Agent f o r each method were 7 per cent f o r farm v i s i t s , 6.4 per cent f o r l e t t e r s w r i t t e n , and 1.1 per cent f o r o f f i c e c a l l e r s . (Table LIV, page 210.) The average o f the t o t a l number of times these methods were used per Agent was 1,797.3 a year. The p r o p o r t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l c ontacts made by these three methods were farm v i s i t s 42.5 per cent, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n 35.8 per cent, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s 21.7 per cent. Nova S c o t i a The t o t a l number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s per year made i n Nova S c o t i a decreased from 81,611 i n 1952 to 48,977 i n 1961. The number of a l l i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made per Agent de-c l i n e d s t e a d i l y from 4,801 i n 1952 to 3,061 i n 1961. There was a decrease i n con t a c t s per Agent f o r each method. The g r e a t e s t decrease was 34.2 per cent i n o f f i c e c a l l e r s , w h i l e telephone c a l l s and l e t t e r s w r i t t e n each decreased by 19 per cent, and farm v i s i t s by 14.7 per cent. The decrease f o r the f o u r methods com-b i n e d was 21 per cent c o n t a c t s per Agent. ( T a b l e LV, page 211.) The p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by the average Agent by each method between 1952 and 1961 was farm v i s i t s 20.2 per cent, telephone c a l l s 29.0 per cent, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n 32.5 per cent, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s 18.2 per cent. Newfoundland There was a t o t a l o f e i g h t Agents i n Newfoundland i n 116 every year between 1952 and 1961. The t o t a l number o f i n d i v i d -u a l c o n t a c t s f o r the three methods r e p o r t e d was 11,190 i n 1952 d e c r e a s i n g to an average of 7,983 from 1955 to 1957 and then i n -c r e a s i n g to 10,000 by 1961. The c a l c u l a t e d change showed an i n c r e a s e o f 3.2 per cent. The number of farm v i s i t s f o l l o w e d the same p a t t e r n as the t o t a l number o f c o n t a c t s , b e g i n n i n g and end-i n g the ten year p e r i o d w i t h n e a r l y 2,900 farm v i s i t s a year and w i t h a 2 per cent i n c r e a s e over the ten y e a r s . L e t t e r s w r i t t e n i n c r e a s e d by 28 per cent to 4,990 i n 1961, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s decreased 24.5 per cent to 2,120 i n 1961. As the number o f Agents i n Newfoundland was constant, the changes i n number of c o n t a c t s per Agent f o l l o w e d the number o f c o n t a c t s given above. The average number o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by each Agent by the three methods was 1,146.2 a year. The p r o p o r t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by each method by the average Agent was: farm v i s i t s 26.7 per cent, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n 44.0 per cent, and o f f i c e c a l l e r s 29.5 per cent. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d The data f o r P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d a r e so incomplete that t h e i r u t i l i t y i s d o u b t f u l . On only f i v e o c c asions a r e a l l the Agents' a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d , and on many occ a s i o n s the data are from one Agent o n l y . The p r o v i n c e had t h r e e Agents f o r the ten y e a r s 1952 to 1961, w i t h f i v e i n 1953 and f o u r i n 1957. No data were a v a i l a b l e f o r telephone c a l l s , and o f f i c e c a l l e r s were r e p o r t e d i n three years only. 117 Average B.C. A l t a , Sask. Man. N.S, 30 20 10 0 P T L 0 P T L 0 P T L 0 P T L 0 P T L 0 F T L 0 % 40 30 20 10 0 Ont. Que. N f l d , P.E.I, T L 0 F L 0 F L 0 F L 0 P i s farm v i s i t s ; T i s t e l e p h o n e c a l l s ; L i s l e t t e r s ; 0 i s o f f i c e c a l l s . FIGURE 5 PROPORTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL METHODS USED BY THE AVERAGE AGENT DURING THE PERIOD 1952 TO 1961 118 Prom s u c h d a t a as i s a v a i l a b l e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f an i n c r e a s e o f 26 p e r cent i n f a r m v i s i t s by Agen t s between 1952 and 1961. The l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d a t a i n d i c a t e i n c r e a s e s i n c o n t a c t s p e r Agent o f 32 per cent f o r o f f i c e c a l l e r s and 15 p e r c e n t f o r l e t t e r s w r i t t e n . The average number o f c o n t a c t s made by an Agent by t h e s e t h r e e methods was 1,452. The p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by t h e s e t h r e e methods was fa r m v i s i t s 39.9 p e r c e n t , l e t t e r s w r i t t e n 31.6 p e r c e n t , and o f f i c e c a l l e r s 28.5 p e r c e n t . Summary o f Number o f C o n t a c t s F o r s i x p r o v i n c e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , and Newfoundland, t h e r e was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e o f 0.64 p e r cen t o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made between 1952 and 1961. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e number o f Agents was a l m o s t con-s t a n t . See T a b l e IX, page 106. The number o f o f f i c e c a l l e r s i n -c r e a s e d by 5.7 p e r c e n t w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e s i n f a r m v i s i t s o f 1.8 p e r c e n t and l e t t e r s w r i t t e n o f 0.7 p e r c e n t ; and a d e c r e a s e o f 3.2 per c e n t f o r t e l e p h o n e c a l l s f o r w h i c h t h e d a t a does n o t i n c l u d e Quebec and Newfoundland. Summary o f Number o f C o n t a c t s p e r Agent There was a d e c r e a s e o f c o n t a c t s made by t h e average Agent Farm L e t t e r s O f f i c e T o t a l  V i s i t s W r i t t e n C a l l e r s (3 Methods) -1.8% -0.7% 5.7% 0.64% Telephone C a l l s ( e x c l u d i n g Quebec  and Newfoundland) -3.2% 119 TABLE XI AVERAGE CONTACTS PER AGENT PER YEAR^ a) (1952-61) P r o v i n c e Farm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s Combination of Methods B.C. 415 1,281 1,127 676 3,499 A l b e r t a 458 1,062.4 869 1,136 3,525 Sask. 300 1,086 953 726 3,065 Manitoba 410 1,187 822 1,254 3,673 O n t a r i o X 1,572.7 ( e x c l u d i n g 1,434 1959 and 1,472 1960) 5,054* Quebec 763 X 644 391 2,979* N.S. 713 1,024 1,148 643 3,528 Newfld. 306 X 502 339 2,326* P.E.I. 579 X 459 414 2,630* F o r a l l above /, v P r o v i n c e s ^  ' 575.3* 1,178.5* 947.4 867.8 3,569.0* ( a t a b l e s XLIX to L V I I . ( ^ T a b l e s XLV to XLVIII. x Data not a v a i l a b l e , o r means that averages a r e used t o a r r i v e a t the number designated w i t h an a s t e r i s k . 120 i n the above s i x p r o v i n c e s , together w i t h P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , o f 5.59 per cent. The decreases f o r each method were: Farm Telephone L e t t e r s O f f i c e  V i s i t s C a l l s W r i t t e n C a l l e r s -8.8% -4.85% -3.19% -2.49% C o n c l u s i o n s E x c e p t i o n s to these general movements occurred of i n -creased farm v i s i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Quebec, Newfoundland, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and i n c r e a s e s of l e t t e r s w r i t t e n i n Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Newfoundland, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . These are accounted f o r i n the f o l l o w i n g ways. The i n c r e a s e s were balanced i n B r i t i s h Columbia by a l a r g e decrease i n l e t t e r s w r i t t e n and by a decrease i n o f f i c e c a l l e r s i n Quebec, O n t a r i o , Nova S c o t i a , and Newfoundland. In Saskatchewan there was a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l number o f c o n t a c t s . E x c e p t i o n s to the general decrease i n c o n t a c t s per Agent were i n c r e a s e s In the t o t a l number of c o n t a c t s per Agent i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Saskatchewan, Quebec, Newfoundland, and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . In B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s was the r e s u l t of i n -creased farm v i s i t s , l e t t e r s w r i t t e n and o f f i c e c a l l e r s per Agent. I n Saskatchewan a l l methods i n c r e a s e d on a per Agent b a s i s e x c e p t i n g farm v i s i t s . In Quebec a l l methods i n c r e a s e d e x c e p t i n g telephone c a l l s . In Newfoundland farm v i s i t s per Agent and l e t t e r s w r i t t e n per Agent i n c r e a s e d . In P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n a l l methods e x c e p t i n g telephone c a l l s C o n t a c t s 1200 1000 800 600 500 200 1 0 0 Farm V i s i t s 16.5$ 14.7$ elephone C a l l s 53. 5$ 33$ L e t t e r s W r i t t e n 26.3$ 26.8$ Offi'ce C a l l s 23.4$ 25.2$ 1952/56 | 1957/61 1952/56 |l957/61 1952/56 | 1957/61 1952/561 1957/61 FIGURE 6 COMPARISON OF NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF EACH METHOD USED BY THE AVERAGE AGENT FOR 1952/56 AND 1957/61 £ (FROM TABLE X OF MOVING AVERAGES OF CONTACTS PER AGENT) 122 p e r Agent. Other e x c e p t i o n s were l a r g e r than average d e c r e a s e s i n f a r m v i s i t s p e r Agent i n O n t a r i o , and i n Nova S c o t i a l a r g e r t h a n average d e c r e a s e s i n t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , l e t t e r s w r i t t e n , and o f f i c e c a l l e r s p e r Agent, w h i l e t h e r e was a l s o a l a r g e d e c r e a s e o f o f f i c e c a l l e r s p e r Agent i n Newfoundland. Trends. I n f i v e p r o v i n c e s c o n t a c t by the aver a g e Agent by o f f i c e c a l l e r s and l e t t e r s w r i t t e n i n c r e a s e d w h i l e c o n t a c t by t e l e p h o n e c a l l s o r f a r m v i s i t s d e c r e a s e d . I n one p r o v i n c e , Newfoundland, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n were used i n c r e a s i n g l y w h i l e t h e use o f o t h e r methods d e c r e a s e d o r remained s t e a d y . I n t he r e m a i n i n g p r o v i n c e s f a r m v i s i t s and t e l e p h o n e c a l l s p e r Agent d e c r e a s e d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than t h e o t h e r methods; e x c e p t i n g t h a t i n Nova S c o t i a o f f i c e c a l l e r s p e r Agent decre a s e d more than any o t h e r method. Thus an i n c r e a s i n g number o f t h e Agent's c o n t a c t s have been by f a r m e r s c a l l i n g on him, and by w r i t i n g l e t t e r s i n r e p l y t o f a r m e r s ' l e t t e r s r a t h e r t h a n by f a r m v i s i t s and t e l e p h o n e c a l l s . ( L e t t e r s r e c e i v e d p e r Agent i n c r e a s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland. T a b l e X L I I I , page 180. Note: t h e r e a r e no r e c o r d s o f l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d f o r Quebec.) GROUP METHODS The g r e a t e s t number o f c o n t a c t s by group methods a r e th o s e made by h o l d i n g meetings o f w h i c h t h e r e have been an average o f 123 over twenty thousand a year recorded i n Canada d u r i n g the p e r i o d from 1952 to 1961. There have been a few thousand farm demon-s t r a t i o n s and demonstration p l o t s used each y e a r , and the remain-i n g a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g group methods c o n s i s t of a few hundred f i e l d days and s h o r t courses and an average of n i n e t y group tours each y e a r . Meetings There was a decrease i n the number of meetings held each year between 1952 and 1961 f o r e i g h t o f the p r o v i n c e s together, t h e r e b e i n g no data f o r Newfoundland and New Brunswick. The measurement of the extent of the decrease i s marred because not a l l of these e i g h t p r o v i n c e s r e p o r t e d meetings held i n every year. When the m i s s i n g data are s u p p l i e d by c a l c u l a t i n g i n t e r p o l a t e d averages the average number o f meetings a year f o r the p e r i o d 1952 to 1961 i s 25,127, and the change f o r the p e r i o d was a de-c r e a s e o f 12.1 per cent. See T a b l e L V I I I , page 214, and Table X V I I I , page 134. Meetings p e r Agent. There was an average of 72.2 meetings pe r Agent held a year between 1952 and 1961 i n the e i g h t p r o v i n c e s . The number i n each p r o v i n c e v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from 30 per year i n Quebec to 142 i n Nova S c o t i a and 1 2 3 i n O n t a r i o . In B r i t i s h Columbia there were 63 a year per Agent, i n A l b e r t a 78, i n Saskatchewan 47, i n Manitoba 78, and i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 84. ( T a b l e L V I I I , page 214.) TABLE XII MEETINGS ATTENDED BY AGENTS INDEX NUMBERS FOR NUMBER OF MEETINGS PER AGENT : BASE PERIOD 1952 = 100 Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N.S. P.E.I. Average f o r 8 P r o v i n c e s 1952 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1953 128 106 100 137 235 98 X 115 135 1954 X 120 113 110 205 109 100 X 135 1955 . . . x 119 39 147 189 90 88 88 117 1956 261 X 74 X 180 82 81 X 116 1957 138 (15) 69 X 184 82 64 X 92 1958 126 136 20 172 194 73 X X 107 1959 113 138 X 71 X 77 70 95 81 1960 86 143 X X X X 62 50 141 1961 138 146 X X 146 X 63 66 148 CHANGE: 1957/61-1952/56o/ • 1952/56 ' -26$ +27$ -47$ -2$ +4$ - 1 9 . £ !$ -29$ -31$ - 5 . 8 $ x Data not a v a i l a b l e . H1 CO It* 125 There was a d i s t i n c t decrease of meetings held per Agent which was 5.8 per cent over the ten y e a r s . By way of exception t h e r e were i n c r e a s e s o f meetings per Agent o f 27 per cent i n A l b e r t a and 4 per cent i n O n t a r i o . The changes i n meetings held per Agent are summarized i n Tab l e X I I , page 124. Sh o r t Courses Held by Agents Short courses have been used throughout the years that a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has e x i s t e d i n Canada. A wide v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s has been taught by t h i s method and many of the courses a r e given a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s . The i r r e g u l a r i t y o f the data makes i t d i f f i c u l t to comment on the use o f t h i s method a t p r e s e n t . In 1960 seven p r o v i n c e s held a t o t a l o f 355 short courses which was an average of two f o r every Agent i n those seven p r o v i n c e s . The p r o v i n c e s not i n c l u d e d , because the data was not a v a i l a b l e , a r e O n t a r i o , Quebec, and New Brunswick. There i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f an i n c r e a s e o f s h o r t courses suggested by a r i s e i n Saskatchewan from 3' i n 1954 to 250 i n 1961, and an i n c r e a s e i n Manitoba i n the few years up to and i n c l u d i n g 1961.* (Table X I I I , page 126.) Farm Demonstrations The farm demonstration i s an o l d and w e l l used method o f x Some o f t h i s change may be due to a change i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f a s h o r t course. TABLE XIII SHORT COURSES HELD BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. N f l d . N.S. P.E.I. T o t a l Agents A d j u s t e d . T o t a l s ^ (7 P r o v i n c e s ) Per Agent 1952 8 70 2 80 115 80 0.70 1953 5 124 2 3 134 119 134 1.13 1954 3 33 2 2 11 51 156 56 0.33 1955 20 2 1 3 26 71 31 0.37 1956 2 4 2 6 12 90 17 0.13 1957 4 3 1 1 3 12 91 12 0.13 1958 13 37 68 1 1 120 133 83 0.90 1959 5 108 93 1 2 209 110 116 1.90 1960 4 16 186 140 1 7 1 355 188 199 1.89 1961 250 220 470 85 258 5.53 T o t a l 1,469 1,158 986 1.27 E x c l u d i n g Manitoba. H1 CO Ol TABLE XIV FARM DEMONSTRATIONS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. Que. P.E .1 T o t a l Per Agent A A A A A A 1952 40 227 55 34 143 2,712 3 14 2,987 12.4 1953 24 1,505 44 162 39 286 132 1,533 5 5 3,491 14.3 1954 42 678 39 327 141 2,745 3 5 3,745 16.6 1955 48 148 39 ' 120 84 56 143 2,698 3 2 3,024 9.5 1956 40 119 84 34 136 2,478 3 25 2,656 10.1 1957 56 543 84 42 133 2,153 2,738 10.0 1958 62 44 131 911 955 5.0 1959 38 443 132 996 1,439 8.5 1960 39 190 190 4.9 1961 T o t a l 1,505 1,575 1,079 633 166 16,196 51 21,225 10.8 CO -3 128 e x t e n s i o n and yet r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s that i t s e f f e c t i s a t the expense of c o n s i d e r a b l e time and c o s t compared w i t h other methods. 3 The data r e p o r t i n g the use of t h i s method a r e very e r r a t i c but would i n d i c a t e a d e f i n i t e decrease i n the number o f farm dem-o n s t r a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e s of A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and Quebec, from twelve a year per Agent to f i v e a year per Agent f o r these t h r e e p r o v i n c e s . ( T a b l e XIV.) Demonstration P l o t s Used by Agents Demonstration p l o t s a r e o f t e n a v a i l a b l e a t experimental farms, r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s , and i l l u s t r a t i o n farms. There have been one or two hundred p l o t s used a year by some p r o v i n c e s , and i n O n t a r i o the average f o r f o u r years was 2,646 p l o t s per year. There does appear to be a decrease i n the use of p l o t s , e x c e p t i n g i n O n t a r i o , and the l i m i t e d data accumulated i n d i c a t e s t h at the number o f p l o t s used per Agent has decreased by 30 per cent i n the ten years 1952 to 1961. ( T a b l e XV.) F i e l d Days The number of f i e l d days decreased i n the p e r i o d 1952 to 1961 by 18.6 per cent f o r the f i v e p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Newfoundland, and Nova S c o t i a together, SM. C. Wilson and Gladys G a l l u p , E x t e n s i o n Teaching Methods. F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , U.S. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , E x t e n s i o n C i r c u l a r 495, August 1955 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1955), p. 17. TABLE XV DEMONSTRATION PLOTS USED BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. T o t a l Moving Average Use Per Agent O n t a r i o only Use Per A cent 19 52 1953 1954 1955 1956 166 560 1,034 186 96 100 1,742 1,957 166 560 2,776 2,053 286 1952/56 1,168 1953/57 1,641 1954/58 2,427 6.4 12.7 22.0 16.7 3.2 OJ hO t>0 £ <SJ •H U > CO o > 12.2 11.3 14.9 20.73 (1954) 23.30 (1955) 1957 1958 1959 41 94 76 2,438 4,448 2,532 4,489 76 1955/59 1,887 1956/60 1,551 1957/61 1,503 2.0 30.7 1.9 10.9 8.1 7.7 29.00 (1957) 52.95 (1958) 1960 228 82 63 373 2.7 1961 45 45 1.0 T o t a l 166 2,049 448 108 10,585 13,356 CHANGE: -5.6% -30.5% CO «o TABLE XVI FIELD DAYS HELD BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask, Man. Ont. N f l d . N.S. P.E.I, T o t a l s 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 A 9 10 100 57 10 91 14 118 18 130 13 97 44 46 42 275 56 32 62 195 11 4 89 41 A 39 40 39 40 42 41 45 167 184 257 239 251 237 55 A 81 82 50 84 84 193 84 136 38 32 39 111 84 84 87 87 89 32 84 31 28 28 A 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 3 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 4 A 22 142 22 21 21 145 92 117 16 110 24 116 19 88 21 98 A 5 1 4 3 A 159 462 189 376 72 424 152 545 163 585 182 297 214 662 211 515 209 372 122 171 T o t a l 89 723 204 548 286 1,185 77 143 762 666 80 27 166 908 1,67 3 4,409 F i e l d Days Per Agent 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 2.8 1.9 5.4 3.4 3.5 1.6 3.1 2.5 1.8 1.4 Moving Averages Years 1952/56 1953/57 1954/58 1955/59 1956/60 1957/61 CHANGE i Per Agent 3.40 3.16 3.40 2.82 2.50 2.08 -25.1 T o t a l s f o r B.C., Sask., Ont., N f l d . , N.S. 552 515 536 513 437 355 -18.1 r-1 O TOT i s f o r A gents. 131 and the number ranged from over 637 i n 1958 to 171 i n 1961, a v e r a g i n g 453. On a per Agent b a s i s there were decreases of 66 per cent i n O n t a r i o , 38 per cent i n Saskatchewan, 9 per cent i n Nova S c o t i a , and 3 per cent i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The average per Agent was n e a r l y three a year over the ten year p e r i o d . ( T a b l e XVI.) Group Tours A Group Tour can be a most enjoyable and e d u c a t i o n a l ex-p e r i e n c e . The c o s t to p a r t i c i p a n t s no doubt l i m i t s i t s use but n e v e r t h e l e s s there are i n d i c a t i o n s t hat the p r o v i n c e s o f Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and O n t a r i o each run upwards of f i f t y a y e a r . The very l i m i t e d data a v a i l a b l e about t h i s method shows an i n c r e a s e o f the order of 40 per cent i n the decade 1952 to 1961. Group Methods Combined The f i v e m e t h o d s — s h o r t courses, f i e l d days, farm demon-s t r a t i o n s , demonstration p l o t s , and group t o u r s — w e r e used f o r an average of 3,930 events each year between 1952 and 1961 and the number decreased by 37 per cent from 4,800 a year to 3,000 a year. The change i n number of each event, i n c l u d i n g meetings, i s g i v e n i n T a b l e XVIII, page 134. On the average each Agent held 98 events a year d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1952 to 1961, of which 70 were meetings. The number of events per Agent decreased over the p e r i o d TABLE XVTI GROUP TOURS ARRANGED BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. P.E.I. Agents T o t a l " Moving Average Tours Per Agent Saskatchewan Tours/Agent 1952 1953 1954 57 83 83 40 39 39 57) 83 j 83) 1952/56 71.6 1.4 2.1 2.1 t-* Moving GO Average 1.4 2.1 2.1 1955 61 1 39 62) 1953/57 75.4 1.6 1.9 1.6 1956 73 40 73) 1954/58 75.2 1.8 1.6 1.8 1957 76 42 76 1955/59 98 1.8 1.4 1.8 1958 12 70 104 82 1956/60 100.4 0.8 1.4 1.7 1959 56 74 67 166 197 1957/61 109.8 1.2 1.4 1.4 1960 74 45 74 1.6 1.6 1961 65 53 2 88 120 1.4 1.5 T o t a l 12 698 127 68 2 680 907 1.3 CHANGE: 38.7% -20. 3% CO 30,876 29,765 26,647 26,786 25,742 22,119 21,552 22,513 23,193 22,076 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 FIGURE 7 TOTAL MEETINGS HELD IN EIGHT PROVINCES OF CANADA (PROVINCES EXCLUDED: NEW BRUNSWICK AND NEWFOUNDLAND) TABLE XVIII GROUP EVENTS INDEX NUMBERS OP MOVING AVERAGE : BASE PERIOD 1952/56 = 100 Years Meetings S h o r t d Courses ) Paring) D emons t ra t i ons P l e l d d ) Days G r o u p d ) Tours Demonstration^ e) P l o t s Used T o t a l s 1952/56 ... 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1953/57 99.6 76.9 98.9 93.3 105.3 140.5 100.9 1954/58 95.8 61.5 91.6 97.1 106.4 207.8 99.5 1955/59 90.5 80.0 72.5 92.9 100.0 161.6 91.6 1956/60 38.0 130.8 X 79.2 143.0 132.9 86.3 1957/61 81.0 204.6 X 64.3 156.1 128.7 81.3 CHANGE: 1955/61-1952/58^ w 1952/58 ^ - 1 2 ' ^ +74$ -25$ -18.6$ +28$ +5.6$ -13.7$ ( a W B.C., Sask. , Ont., N f l d . , N.S., P. E.I. ( b ) p 0 r A l t a . , Sask., Ont. , Que. , P.E.I. d ) p o r B.C., Sask. , Ont., N f l d . , N.S. d ) P o r A l t a . , Sask., Man. , Ont. , P.E.I. 'For B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Man., Ont. M x Data not a v a i l a b l e . TABLE XIX GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT : MOVING AVERAGES Years Meetings ShortW Cours es Farm( b) Demon s t ra t i ons F i e l c ^ 0 ) Days G r o u p ^ ) Tours D emons t ra t i on ^  P l o t s Used T o t a l s 1952/54 73.9 0.68 14.5 3.4 6.1 13.7 112 1953/55 77.3 0.57 13.5 3.6 1.6 17.1 114 1954/56 70.2 0.27 12.1 3.1 1.8 14.0 106 1955/57 64.8 0.20 9.9 2.8 1.7 13.3 93 1956/58 62.9 0.39 3.4 2.6 1.4 18.0 94 1957/59 55.8 0.67 7.8 2.6 1.2 17.6 85 1958/60 65.6 1.27 6.1 2.5 1.1 11.8 88 1959/61 73.9 2.81 X 1.9 1.4 1.9 86 CHANGE: 1952/57-1956/6LT7 1952/57 / 0 -9.8% +200% -54% -25% -54% -15% -17% ( a ) F o r B.C., Sask., Ont., N f l d . , N.S., P.E.I. ^ F o r A l t a . , Sask., Ont., Que., P.E.I. ( c ) F o r B.C., Sask., Ont., N f l d . , N.S. ( ^ F o r A l t a . , Sask., Man., Ont., P.E.I. ^ F o r B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Man., Ont. cn x Data not a v a i l a b l e . 136 by 17 per cent. Approximations o f the changes f o r each method, as t r u l y as the data w i l l permit a re given i n Ta b l e XIX. C o n c l u s i o n The o b s e r v a t i o n that there has been a gen e r a l decrease i n the use o f group methods over the t e n years i s confirmed by an examination of the data. The few exceptions i n c l u d e an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f s h o r t courses i n Saskatchewan from three i n 1954 to two hundred and f i f t y i n 1961, and an i n c r e a s e o f sh o r t courses i n Manitoba s i n c e the records were c o l l e c t e d i n 1959. The remain-i n g exception i s the l a r g e i n c r e a s e from twenty-one t o f i f t y - t h r e e per Agent between 1954 and 1958 i n the use of demonstration p l o t s i n O n t a r i o . The l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e data may conceal some other trends but a l l i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t o a general decrease o f group events over the ten years from 1952 to 1961. MASS MEDIA METHODS With the e x c e p t i o n of d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l e x t e n s i o n u t i l i z e s the t e c h n i c a l advances i n mass communication o f t h i s age, and t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n has occurred c h i e f l y i n the decade under review. As a consequence, i n f o r m a t i o n about the use o f mass media i s sparse i n the e a r l i e r p a r t of the p e r i o d but becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y p l e n t i f u l . The f o u r methods used by exte n s i o n and recorded i n the annual r e p o r t s a r e pre s s r e l e a s e s , p u b l i c a t i o n s , r a d i o and t e l e -v i s i o n . 137 P r e s s Releases The number of p r e s s r e l e a s e s Increased s t e a d i l y i n the p e r i o d from 1952 to 1961. The data a r e not complete f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r s , but they show an in c r e a s e d use i n the p r o v i n c e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and a s u s t a i n e d use i n O n t a r i o . The average number of r e l e a s e s per year by Agents i n these p r o v i n c e s i s 240 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 2,140 i n A l b e r t a , 1,467 i n Saskatchewan, 1,432 i n Manitoba, and 4,234 i n O n t a r i o . (Table XX.) P u b l i c a t i o n s A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agents make use of b u l l e t i n s , pamphlets, c i r c u l a r s , and n e w s l e t t e r s . The use o f these as a way of c o n t a c t i n g farmers has remained c o n s i s t e n t d u r i n g the decade s t u d i e d , having i n c r e a s e d by the s m a l l amount o f 3 per cent, and the number d i s t r i b u t e d by Agents each year has a v e r -aged n e a r l y two m i l l i o n f o r a l l the pr o v i n c e s e x c l u d i n g P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and New Brunswick. In th r e e p r o v i n c e s , A l b e r t a , Newfoundland, and Nova S c o t i a , there was a decrease i n the number of p u b l i c a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d , the decreases b e i n g 62 per cent, 5.5 per cent, and 6.7 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . In O n t a r i o , n e a r l y one m i l l i o n a year has been d i s t r i b u t e d . The changes i n numbers d i s -t r i b u t e d i n each p r o v i n c e are i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e XXI, page 139. The average number d i s t r i b u t e d per Agent was 5,041.5 and between 1952 and 1961 decreased by 7 per cent. ( T a b l e LXX, page 222.) TABLE XX PRESS RELEASES BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. T o t a l 1952 60 1,876 5,216 7,152 1953 42 (42) 1954 1955 4,750 4,750 1956 251 3,633 3,884 1957 177 1,379 4 , 2 3 e x 5,794* 1958 338 1,337 4,852 6,527 1959 522 1,471 1,259 3,716 6,968 1960 330 2,100 1,505 1,417 4,034 9,386 1961 196 2,306 1,641 1,619 3,435 9,197 Average 239.5 2,141 1,467 1,432 4,234 CO TABLE XXI PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTED BY AGENTS INDEX NUMBERS : BASE PERIOD 1952 = 100 Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Ont. Que. N f l d . N.S. T o t a l (7 P r o v i n c e s ) 1952 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1953 108 78.9 132.0 113.0 89.7 98.6 103 1954 111.2 166.8 104.4 95.7 94.4 90 107 1955 123.2 184.8 106.6 84.4 96.6 109 111 1956 126 100.6 205.2 107.0 72.1 98.6 117 107 1957 389 35.8 109.5 105.4 88.6 90.8 92 92 1958 310 110.7 86.8 91.6 106 1959 220 266.0 120.7 91.7 91.8 126 118 1960 230 80.6 303.5 83.7 93.7 76 100 1961 428 65.8 310.1 116.5 94.3 94 117 CHANGE: 1957/61-1952/56** 1952/56 185$ -62$ 56.8$ 1.1$ 0.7$ -5.4$ -6.7$ 140 Radio Programs Radio programs have i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a r i t y i n the ten y e a r s under study. Sometimes the Agent h i m s e l f speaks on the r a d i o , sometimes he makes a tape r e c o r d i n g which i s broadcast l a t e r , on other o c c a s i o n s he submits a s c r i p t to be read, and he may a l s o arrange f o r i n t e r v i e w s over the a i r . The number o f r a d i o programs f o r f i v e p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and O n t a r i o i n c r e a s e d by 99.4 per cent i n the ten years s t u d i e d . The t o t a l number f o r these p r o v i n c e s was l e s s than 1,500 a year a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the p e r i o d and averaged 4,656 f o r the l a s t three y e a r s . In 1961 t h e r e were 89 programs given by Agents i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 615 i n A l b e r t a , 1,002 i n Saskatchewan, 239 i n Manitoba, and 3,365 i n O n t a r i o . ( T a b l e XXII.) The number of programs per Agent f o r these p r o v i n c e s i n -creased by 82 per cent, from 5 to 14 a year. i T e l e v i s i o n The number of t e l e v i s i o n programs a s s i s t e d by Agents has i n c r e a s e d i n a manner s i m i l a r to the use o f r a d i o . The ten year p e r i o d under study has seen the b e g i n n i n g of T.V. as a medium f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n Canada and, w h i l e i t i s as y e t not i n very great use, i t i s a popular method w i t h farmers. The p r o -v i n c e s u s i n g T.V. r e g u l a r l y are Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , Manitoba, O n t a r i o , Newfoundland, and New Brunswick. Nova S c o t i a and TABLE XXII MASS MEDIA: RADIO AND T.V. PROGRAMS T o t a l s Per Agent Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N f l d . N.S. PEI Cal Programs A g e n t s v ' RADIO PROGRAMS 1952 6 152 503 749 1,728 3,152 397 7.9 1953 12 127 891 1,031 364 2.8 1954 80 130 364 1,374 1,869 388 4.8 1955 50 256 432 1,656 2,413 393 6.1 1956 251 146 563 1,620 2,435 390 6.2 1957 203 177 826 2,205 3,235 391 8.3 1958 119 9 947 2,298 3,374 399 8.5 1959 131 600 874 231 3,029 4,266 441 9.7 1960 128 586 90 207 3,364 4,376 311 14.1 1961 89 615 1,002 239 3,365 5,325 317 16.8 31,476 3,791 8.3 T.V. PROGRAMS 1 9 5 4 ^ ) 52 52 388 0.1 1955 107 107 393 0.3 1956 6 258 264 390 0.7 1957 137 9 146 391 0.4 1958 3 134 137 399 0.4 1959 1 21 72 19 235 348 441 0.8 1960 1 183 39 96 24 343 311 1.1 1961 1 166 232 57 200 24 680 317 2.1 2,077 3,791 0.5 d ^ A l l Agents employed by the p r o v i n c e s . ^ N o data a v a i l a b l e f o r 1952/53. 142 Quebec have a p p a r e n t l y not s t a r t e d u s i n g T.V. w h i l e P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d used i t i n 1957 but has not s i n c e , and B r i t i s h Columbia s t a r t e d out u s i n g i t in.1956 but i n the years 1959 to 1961 gave only one program a year. F o r the s i x p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Manitoba, O n t a r i o , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , programs i n c r e a s e d 76 per cent from 52 i n 1954 to 680 i n 1961. ( T a b l e XXII.) New Brunswick f e a t u r e s a f i f t e e n minute 4 weekly program. C o n c l u s i o n s There was a d e f i n i t e i n c r e a s e i n the use of mass media methods over the ten years from 1952 to 1961. The g r e a t e s t percentage i n c r e a s e s were i n r a d i o programs 99.4 per cent, and t e l e v i s i o n programs 76 per cent, f o l l o w e d by press r e l e a s e s 50.8 per cent, w i t h a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e of 3 per cent i n p u b l i c a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d . The use of mass media methods on a per Agent b a s i s i n -creased f o r a l l methods except the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n s which decreased by 7 per cent. NUMBER OF FARMERS CONTACTED I n d i v i d u a l Methods The average number o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by Agents 4 J . C. Bremner, D i r e c t o r of E x t e n s i o n f o r New Brunswick, P e r s o n a l L e t t e r , January 27, 1964. TABLE XXIII MASS MEDIA EVENTS: MOVING AVERAGES OF EVENTS AND EVENTS PER AGENT FOR ALL AVAILABLE PROVINCES' a' Radio T.V. P u b l i c a t i o n s Years Programs Programs Per Agent Programs Programs Per Agent Number D i s t r i b u t e d Number Per Agent P r e s s Releases 1952/54 1953/55 967 1,771 5.17 4.63 1,766,135 1,826,917 5,221.7 5,367.0 (7,194) 1952 only 4,792 1954/56 2,239 5.70 " 127 0.37 1,847,798 5,361 4,315 1955/57 2,694 6.90 172 0.47 1,761,356 5,053 4,809.3 1956/58 3,015 7.70 j 182 0.50 1,880,576 4,937 5,401.7 1957/59 3,625 9.00 210 0.53 1,798,050 4,890 6,429.7 1958/60 4,005 10.70 276 0.77 1,842,875 4,860 ~7,627 1959/61 4,656 13.50 457 1.30 1,906,509 4,842 8,517 CHANGE: 1956/61-1952/57^ 1952/57 / 0 +99.4% +82% +76% +46% +3% -7% +50.8% ( e x c l u d i n g moving average f o r 1952/54) The p r o v i n c e s a v a i l a b l e are as i n Tables XX, XXI, and XXII. £ 144 each year was 1,307,178 f o r the ni n e p r o v i n c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Manitoba, O n t a r i o , Quebec, Newfoundland, Nova S c o t i a , and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . T h i s i n c l u d e s c a l c u l a t e d averages i n those cases where data were not a v a i l a b l e . The number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s per year by methods, f o r the p e r i o d 1952 to 1961, w i t h the percentages o f the t o t a l f o r each a r e : 227,348 farm v i s i t s , comprising 17.4 per cent o f the t o t a l , 310,691 o f f i c e c a l l e r s or 23.8 per cent, 355,047 l e t t e r s w r i t t e n or 27.2 per cent, and 414,092 telephone c a l l s c o m p r i s i n g 31.6 per cent. Group Methods The number o f con t a c t s made a t group events i s the product of the number of events and the average attendance. Between 1952 and 1961 88.5 per cent of the c o n t a c t s due to the occurrence o f group methods r e p o r t e d were made a t meetings. ( T a b l e LXXVII, page 230.) The average number o f co n t a c t s made a year a t meet-in g s f o r the p e r i o d 1952 to 1961 was 1,265,777 f o r a l l p r o v i n -ces e x c e p t i n g New Brunswick and Newfoundland. The l i m i t e d data a v a i l a b l e on other group methods y i e l d e d the number 164,388 con-t a c t s per year f o r s h o r t courses, f i e l d days, and farm demon-s t r a t i o n s together. Comparison of methods. The percentage o f co n t a c t s a t t r i b u t i n g to each c l a s s of method i s 47.6 per cent f o r i n -d i v i d u a l and 52.4 per cent f o r group methods counting i n a l l TABLE XXIV NUMBER OF FARMERS CONTACTED BY EACH METHOD EACH YEAR 1953-61 PERIOD INDIVIDUAL METHODS: Farm V i s i t s O f f i c e C a l l e r s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n Telephone C a l l s T o t a l Contacts Per Year Per Cent P r o v i n c e s Included 227,348^*) 310,691, , 355,047>D{ 414,092^°' 17.4 23.8 27.2 31.6 (1) B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Ont., Man., Quebec, N f l d . , N.S., P.E.I. (2) As above e x c l u d i n g N f l d . As f o r (2) above. 1,307,178 100.0 GROUP METHODS: Meetings Short Courses, F i e l d Days and Demonstrations T o t a l 1,265,777 164,388 88.5 11.5 1,430,165 100.0 INDIVIDUAL METHODS GROUP METHODS T o t a l 1,298,009 1,430,165 47.6 52.4 2,728,174 100.0 DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLICATIONS l,939,345^ d) B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Man., Ont., Quebec, N.S.. N f l d . Remarks on Procedure: (a) O n t a r i o : c a l c u l a t e d . Manitoba: average f o r 1959/61. (bJ Manitoba: average f o r 1959/61. ( c ; Quebec and Newfoundland: c a l c u l a t e d . Manitoba: average H» f o r 1959/61. (d) Manitoba: average f o r 1959/61. 146 p r o v i n c e s e x c e p t i n g New Brunswick and Newfoundland f o r both methods. See T a b l e XXIV. Mass Media Methods The number of contacts made through mass media cannot be c a l c u l a t e d from the data because o f the h i g h l y d i f f u s i v e n a t u r e of these methods. The r e s u l t s o f three surveys on r a d i o l i s t e n -e rs and T.V. viewers which a re given i n Chapter V i n d i c a t e the grea t coverage o f r a d i o and T.V. programs but do not account f o r t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f press r e l e a s e s and p e r i o d i c a l s cannot be measured f o r the same reason. The number of c o n t a c t s made through the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n s each y e a r was 1,939,345. T h i s i s the average number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d each year over the p e r i o d 1952 to 1961 f o r the e i g h t p r o v i n c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , Newfoundland, and Manitoba. Use of Methods by Agents per Thousand Farms The number of farms, and hence the number of o p e r a t o r s , changed over the ten year p e r i o d under study by a decrease of 9.3 per cent. See Tab l e LXXI, page 2 2 3 . When, t h e r e f o r e , the use o f methods i s r e l a t e d t o number o f farms an i n c r e a s e i n the use of a method p e r farm i s g r e a t e r than the i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l number o f times the method i s used. When the number of con t a c t s per thousand farms f o r the two p e r i o d s 1952 to 1956 and 1957 to 1961 are compared, there i s TABLE USE OP METHODS INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS/lOOO Farms per year 1952/56 1957/61 • • « • .(b) CHANGE: Source: Tables XLV T XLVI T XLVII. XLVIII GROUP METHODS: MEETINGS/1000 Farms per year 1952/56 1957/61 CHANGE:^) OTHER GROUP METHODS/IOOO Farms per year 1952/56 1957/61 CHANGE: .(b) B.C. A l t a . Sask. 1,180 2,315 1,093 1,200 2,369 1,415 1.6$ 2.3$ 29.5$ 40 31 44 47 21 12 -17. 6.9$ -42.9$ ( C a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t o t a l ( n i t i t MASS MEDIA METHODS: PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTED/lOOO Farms per year 1952/56 .... 1957/61 CHANGE: .(b) 539 3,665 1,790 1,621 2,455 3,076 200$ -35$ 71.8$ PRESS RELEASES/1000 Farms 1952/56 p e r i o d .... 1957/61 p e r i o d .... CHANGE: .(b) RADIO AND T.V./1000 Farms 1952/56 p e r i o d .... 1957/61 p e r i o d .... CHANGE: .(b) 16 8 27 28 36 45 75$ 350$ 67$ No. of farms from T a b l e LXXI, Appendix. No. of farms i n 1956 used f o r 1952/56 p e r i o d . No. of farms i n 1961 used f o r 1957/61 p e r i o d . (b) Change 1952/56-1957/61^ 1952/56 '°* XXV PER 1000 F A R M S ^ Ont. Que. N.S. N f l d . P.E.I. Man. A v a i l a b l e P r o v i n c e s Combined^ 0 2,735 1,998 3,175 3,779 332 2,863 2,253 2,752 2,774 415 4.7% 12.8% -13.3% -26.6^ 25.0% ex. farm ^ex. t e l e . ex. t e l e , v i s i t s ^ ' c a l l s c a l l s 1,834 2,018 74 36 130 37 53 79 33 105 29 58 6.8% -8.3% -19.2% -21.6% 9.4% 55 51 -7.3% No. of farms l n a l l p r o v i n c e s . ) II II It II II II \ 57.5 42.6 -25.86% 6,503 2,350 4,858 3,645 7,253 2,666 5,232 2,450 11.5% 13.5% 7.7% -32.8% 3,633 4,090 9.9% 66.7 109.4 64% 48 118 146% 22.8 69.3 204% ^ C a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the No. of farms i n the p r o v i n c e s i n c l u d e d . ' T o t a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s i s f o r B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Quebec, N.S., N f l d . from T a b l e IX, p. 106. ( e^Ex. means e x c l u d i n g . 148 seen to be an Increase of 10 per cent of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s from 1,834 a year to 2,018 f o r the p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , and Newfoundland. A s i m i l a r comparison f o r meetings held by Agents showed a de-c r e a s e of 7.3 per cent from 55 to 51 a year f o r the p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and Manitoba. The number o f sh o r t c o u r s e s , f i e l d days, and farm demonstrations was 25.8 per cent fewer, d e c r e a s i n g from 57.5 per thousand farms f o r the f i v e years 1952 to 1956 to 42.6 f o r the f i v e years 1957 to 1961. Of the mass media methods, p u b l i c a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d by Agents made the l e a s t i n c r e a s e and t h i s was 9.9 per cent or from 3,633 a year to 4,090 a year per thousand farms f o r the p r o v i n c e s B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, Nova S c o t i a , and Newfoundland. Press r e l e a s e s per thousand farms i n c r e a s e d from 67 f o r the f i v e years 1952 to 1956 to 109 f o r the f i v e years 1957 to 1961, or 64 per cent. Radio and t e l e v i s i o n programs per thousand farms f o r the same two p e r i o d s i n c r e a s e d from 22.8 to 69.3 or 204 per cent i n B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and O n t a r i o . See Table XXV. Changes b£ P r o v i n c e The p r o v i n c e s d i d not a l l have i n c r e a s e s i n i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s per thousand farms, f o r Nova S c o t i a had a decrease of 13.3 per cent and Newfoundland a decrease of 26.6 per cent. The 149 TABLE XXVI CHANGE IN USE OP METHODS^a ^  Change i n Number : Per C e n t ( b ) Per Cent Change/1000 Farms I n d i v i d u a l Contacts 0.64 10.0 Meetings -15.5 -7.3 Other Group Events -36.7 -25.8 P u b l i c a t i o n s 1.1 9.9 P r e s s Releases 50.8 64.0 Radio and T.V. 178.0 204.0 F o r p r o v i n c e s represented see Tab l e XXV. (^As Moving Averages were not used i n these c a l c u l a t i o n s these percentages may d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from those given elsewhere. 150 g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e s were of 29.5 per cent i n Saskatchewan and 25.0 per cent i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , w i t h 12.8 per cent i n Quebec, 4.7 per cent i n O n t a r i o , 2.3 per cent i n A l b e r t a , and 1.6 per cent i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Three p r o v i n c e s had an i n c r e a s e of meetings per thousand farms i n c o n t r a s t to the decrease i n the other p r o v i n c e s , and these were Manitoba w i t h an i n c r e a s e o f 9.4 per cent, A l b e r t a w i t h a 6.9 per cent i n c r e a s e , and O n t a r i o w i t h a 6.8 per cent i n c r e a s e . The g r e a t e s t decrease was i n Saskatchewan and that was 42.9 per cent. P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d had a decrease of 21.6 p e r cent, Nova S c o t i a o f 19.2 per cent, B r i t i s h Columbia of 17.5 per cent, and Quebec o f 8.3 per cent. In B r i t i s h Columbia,there was a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n s o f 200 per cent and an i n c r e a s e i n Saskatchewan of 71.8 per cent, i n Quebec o f 13.5 per cent, l n O n t a r i o of 11.5 per cent, and i n Nova S c o t i a of 7.7 per cent. There were decreases o f 33 per cent and 32.8 per cent i n A l b e r t a and Newfoundland r e s p e c t i v e l y . The i n c r e a s e s i n r a d i o and T.V. programs per thousand farms were 75 per cent i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 350 per cent i n A l b e r t a , 67 per cent i n Saskatchewan, and 146 per cent i n O n t a r i o . Rate o f Change When the change i n number of events f o r the years 1951 TABLE TREND IN NUMBER OP (1) (2) U s i n g Number of Farms i n Canada i n : INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS^) per year CHANGES: RATE OF CHANGE : ^ Data f o r 1952/56 Data f o r 1957/61 1951 10.41 1956 11.35 GROUP EVENTS ( i ) Meetings^ ' per year CHANGES: RATE OF CHANGE: 0.043 0.04 ( i i ) Other Group E v e n t s ^ 6 ) (5 year p e r i o d s ) CHANGES: RATE OF CHANGE: 0.039 0.026 MASS MEDIA . » ( i ) Radio and T . V . K T ) (5 year p e r i o d s ) CHANGES: RATE OF CHANGE: 0.018 0.038 ( l i ) P u b l i c a t i o n s ^ (5 year p e r i o d s ) CHANGES: RATE OF CHANGE: 14.45 16.08 ^ a'Number of farms i n Canada: 1951 = 623,091; ( ^ I n d i v i d u a l Contacts: Table IX. (°)Rate of Change: 1956/61 compared w i t h 1951/56. ( ^ M e e t i n g s : T a b l e L V I I I . ( e ) o t h e r Group Ev e n t s : Short Courses, Farm Demonstrations, ^ R a d i o and T.V. : Numbers from T a b l e XXII. ( ^ P u b l i c a t i o n d a t a : T a b l e LXX. XXVII CONTACTS PER FARM 151 (a) Change 1951/56 Data f o r 1952/56 Data f o r 1957/61 Change 1956/61 Rate of (6)-(*37 Change " (3) 9% 1956 11.28 1961 12.51 10.9% 21% -7% 0.047 0.044 -6.3% 10% -33.3% 0.042 0.029 -30.1% 9.6% 111% 0.019 0.043 126% 13.5% 11.88% 15.66 17.73 13.2% , 17% 1956 = 575,015; 1961 = 521,634. T a b l e LXXI. See Column ( 7 ) . F i e l d Days, Group Tours, Demonstration P l o t s used, Tables X I I I to XVII. TABLE XXVIII COMPARISON OP CLASSES OP METHODS I n d i v i d u a l Contacts Group Methods: Meetings Other Group Methods Mass Media: Radio & T.V. Programs P u b l i c a t i o n s I n d i v i d u a l Contacts Group Methods: Meetings Mass Media: Radio & T.V. Programs P u b l i c a t i o n s Table IX. (e) Table X. Tb (f 1952/56 T o t a l Number/Year 648,495 26,821 (a) tt>) 4,807 2,265^°) (a) 1,803,052 Average Number/Agent 3,674.4 (e) 71.54 5,250 5.8 (a) (c) 1957/61 T o t a l Number/Year 652,663 23,870 3,035 4,446 1,857,003 Average Number/Agent ) Table XVIII. (c) Table XXII, 3,468.7 64.55 12.44 4,882 Per Cent Change 0.64 -12.1 -36.7 96.5 3.0 -5.59 -5.8 115.2 -7.0 Table XXIII. Table LVIII, 153 to 1956 i s compared with the change f o r the years 1956 to 1961, the " r a t e of change" as a percentage i s r e s o l v e d . C a l c u l a t i o n s made i n t h i s way show that the i n c r e a s e i n number of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s was 21 per cent g r e a t e r i n the second h a l f of the ten years 1952 to 1961 than i n the f i r s t h a l f . S i m i l a r l y , the number o f meetings per farm decreased a t a slower r a t e by 10 per cent i n the l a t e r p e r i o d and p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d 17 per cent more, while r a d i o and T.V. i n c r e a s e d a t a g r e a t e r r a t e by 13.5 per cent i n the second p a r t of the ten y e a r s . Thus these c a t e -g o r i e s of c o n t a c t s were tending to i n c r e a s e i n number made per farm over the f i v e years 1957 to 1961 compared w i t h the f i v e year p e r i o d 1952 to 1956. FARM MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTION A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents have p a i d an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f a t t e n t i o n to a s s i s t i n g farmers i n management over the l a s t twenty y e a r s , and t h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n A l b e r t a . A g r i -c u l t u r a l Agents have been a b l e to teach farmers farm business management i n groups which have formed i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers. ( T a b l e XXIX.) Many farmers are a s s i s t e d by having t h e i r whole farm e n t e r p r i s e replanned or p a r t l y planned. Agents a l s o a s s i s t and encourage the keeping of farm records and i n the a n a l y s i s of these r e c o r d s . One r e s u l t of the emphasis on t h i s approach to f a r m i n g i s the i n c r e a s e i n s i z e of farms. Between 1951 and 1961 the average s i z e o f farms i n c r e a s e d by n i n e t e e n per cent. As a 154 c o r o l l a r y to t h i s , the number o f farms decreased 16.3 per cent from 623,091 i n 1951 to 521,634 i n 1961. See T a b l e LXXI, page 223. T h i s has meant that the same number of Agents have been a b l e to g i v e a more concentrated s e r v i c e to the farmers. Some Agents have been s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d i n farm management e x t e n s i o n because of the i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f the importance o f g u i d i n g farmers to make changes on the b a s i s o f the a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r r e c o r d s . In Nova S c o t i a there have been s p e c i a l i s t s g i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n farm management s i n c e 1955, and i n 1958 s i x s c h o o l s o f farm management were held a t which over one hundred farmers were t r a i n e d . The importance of an understanding o f t h e i r economic a f f a i r s f o r the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f a farm i s o f t e n not r e a l -i z e d by farmers, and i n the f i e l d o f awakening farmers i n t h i s r e s p e c t Agents have a most important r o l e to enact f o r which they a r e i n an i d e a l p o s i t i o n . The r e s u l t of b e t t e r business management i s i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s which b e n e f i t the whole farm f a m i l y . SUMMARY Number of events. The data accumulated f o r methods of e x t e n s i o n used by A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents i n Canada f o r the ten years from 1952 to 1961 i n d i c a t e t hat there was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the number of c o n t a c t s by the use of i n d i v i d u a l methods, a de-c r e a s e i n the number of group events, and an i n c r e a s e i n the use TABLE XXIX FARM MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTION AND ASSISTANCE Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. On t a r i o Quebec N.S. Groups (to) 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 117A 67H 65H 25M 50M 82M 76C (a) 14B 92M V"' 182A 17 IC 397R 133C 156C 1,800R 25B 373C 39B 323C 37B 38M 440C 135M 535C 114M 203A 26B 285C 70 IR 89M-F 816M-F 1,022M-F 1,022M-F 47C 34C 201A 26C 200R 24M 1,00QA 350C 3M 6S 150R 245A T o t a l s A , Advised or a s s i s t e d . A 1 ,948 B Farm business c l u b s . B 141 C Farmers coo p e r a t i n g i n pl a n n i n g . C : 2 ,949 H Farm and Home Development Clubs. H : 132 M Farm Management Clubs M 563 M-F , M e r i t Farm Competition. M-F 2 ,949 R Records kept and analyzed. R 3 ,248 S , Farm Management School. S • 6 (a) Sask. 1960, 1,340 p a r t i c i p a n t s . T*7 25 63 129 162 96 127 140 cn Groups accounted f o r i n the Table. 156 o f mass media. Events per Agent. On a per Agent b a s i s the average Agent made 5.6 per cent fewer i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s , organized 13.7 per cent fewer group events, but used mass media methods more exten-s i v e l y . Contacts per farmer. The number of c o n t a c t s per farmer by i n d i v i d u a l methods Increased by 10.0 per cent but meetings hel d decreased by 7.3 per cent. The number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s d i s -t r i b u t e d per farmer i n c r e a s e d by 9.9 per cent and the number of T.V. and r a d i o programs i n c r e a s e d by over 204 per cent. CONCLUSIONS On l o o k i n g f o r r e l a t e d changes from one c l a s s o f contact to another I t i s seen that f o u r p r o v i n c e s P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Newfoundland, Quebec, and B r i t i s h Columbia, which make l i t t l e o r no use of e i t h e r r a d i o or T.V., and, i n the case of the two Maritime p r o v i n c e s , l i t t l e use of n e i t h e r , have had an i n c r e a s e i n a l l or some i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s , c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l t r e n d . Thus, the number o f farm v i s i t s per Agent i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d went up 26 per cent i n the ten y e a r s . L e t t e r w r i t i n g i n c r e a s e d 28.4 per cent i n Newfoundland and farm v i s i t s i n c r e a s e d by 2 per cent. In Quebec there was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s per Agent due to an i n c r e a s e o f farm v i s i t s by 7 per cent, and 6.4 per cent i n l e t t e r s w r i t t e n . TABLE XXX SUMMARY OP CHANGES OP CONTACTS PER AGENT I n d i v i d u a l Contacts Group Contacts Mass Media Average Change: Decrease 5$ Average Change: - Decrease 13.7$ Average Change: + Increase B r i t i s h Columbia + ( L e t t e r s and V i s i t s ) - + (No T.V.) A l b e r t a Saskatchewan + ( O f f i c e C a l l e r s (Telephone C a l l s O f f i c e C a l l e r s L e t t e r s -±m 25% 23% 5.5$) - (Short Courses i n c r e a s e d 3 t o 250) + ( P u b l i c a t i o n s -62$) Manitoba + + (Short Courses) + O n t a r i o - ( O f f i c e C a l l e r s -13$) + (Demonstration P l o t s 156$) + Quebec + (Farm V i s i t s L e t t e r s 7$) - (No T.V.) Nova S c o t i a - ( A l l methods O f f i c e C a l l e r s -34$) - - ( P u b l i c a t i o n s No T.V.) Newfoundland + ( L e t t e r s V i s i t s 88$) — — ( P u b l i c a t i o n s ) (Radio; only 1 per year) P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d + ( V i s i t s 26$) — — (No Radio No T.V.) Ul -3 158 I n B r i t i s h Columbia farm v i s i t s i n c r e a s e d 17 per cent and t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s 24.5 per cent. The f o l l o w i n g simultaneous changes occurred w i t h i n p r o -v i n c e s . I n O n t a r i o a decrease i n o f f i c e c a l l e r s of 12.9 per cent, c o n t r a r y to the t r e n d , happened as the use of demonstration p l o t s per Agent doubled. In Saskatchewan a l l t h r e e c l a s s e s of methods i n c r e a s e d . I n Manitoba telephone c a l l s and l e t t e r s w r i t t e n decreased but farm v i s i t s i n c r e a s e d 4 per cent, while s h o r t courses i n c r e a s e d , a l l three changes toeing c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l t r e n d . Nova S c o t i a and A l b e r t a showed a decrease i n a l l c l a s s e s of methods. The r e c e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n on Farm P l a n n i n g may account f o r t h i s decrease i n A l b e r t a as Agents may have been c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h p l a n n i n g s p e c i a l i s t s and otherwise spending much time encouraging and a s s i s t i n g farmers p l a n . A c t i v i t i e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l i s t s may be recorded as the s p e c i a l -i s t s ' a c t i v i t i e s and not the Agents' i n which case there would be a d e f i c i e n c y i n recorded work by the Agents. The movements recounted i n t h i s s e c t i o n are the main e x c e p t i o n s to the movements i n d i c a t e d i n the Summary, page 154. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n the use of mass media methods w h i l e the average Agent's use of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s and group methods d e c l i n e d , the l a t t e r by more than i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s . CHAPTER IV EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTENSION A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n i s d i r e c t e d a t improving farm p r a c t i c e s , and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f improved p r a c t i c e s i n c l u d e g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n , g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y i n the use of f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n , higher q u a l i t y o f produce, and improvements to farmland, such as f i e l d d rainage, which i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . The advent of these m a n i f e s t a t i o n s depends upon whether or not the farmer i s motivated to improve h i s farming by changing h i s way o f o p e r a t i n g through the a d o p t i o n of new p r a c t i c e s and r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y based on w e l l kept accounts and other r e c o r d s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t the a d o p t i o n o f recommended p r a c t i c e s i s the key to improvement. T h i s can be assessed i n -d i r e c t l y by measurements of p r o d u c t i o n , e f f i c i e n c y , and improve-ments . CONTACT WITH FARMERS Contacts and Adoption The adoption of recommended p r a c t i c e s i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t h e r e i s good reason to b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s a l s o t r u e i n Canadian p r o v i n c e s . W i l s o n and G a l l u p note: "The extent to which farmers and home-makers make co n t a c t s w i t h members of the e x t e n s i o n s t a f f l a r g e l y 160 determines the a d o p t i o n of recommended p r a c t i c e s . h 1 R e p o r t i n g on f i e l d s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 10,733 farm f a m i l i e s i n s i x t e e n S t a t e s , they found that 76 per cent had contact w i t h e x t e n s i o n workers. The a d o p t i o n of recommended p r a c t i c e s was c a r r i e d out by 87 per cent of those contacted, but by only 38 per cent of those not contacted. The adoption of p r a c t i c e s by the "no contact group" was the r e s u l t of e x t e n s i o n t e a c h i n g through mass media and of i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e — c h i e f l y neighbours. The c o n t a c t s of Agents w i t h farmers a r e measured by the number of contacts per thousand farms i n Chapter I I I , Table XXV, page 147, and i n t h i s Chapter by the number of s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d per thousand farms. The t h r e e c l a s s e s of c o n t a c t s , i n d i v i d u a l , group, and mass media, are each used e x t e n s i v e l y i n both Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s each of the three c l a s s e s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l a r g e share of the r e s u l t s . I n d i v i d u a l methods have t h e i r share of d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e but a l s o add to the e f f e c t o f other methods, hence t h e r e i s some complementarity between d i f f e r e n t methods used. On the s p e c i a l v a l u e s of i n d i v -i d u a l c o n t a c t s , Wilson and G a l l u p have t h i s to say: Farm and home v i s i t s c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y to the e f f e c -t i v e n e s s of the t e a c h i n g done through meetings, the p r e s s , •••Meredith C. Wilson and Gladys G a l l u p , E x t e n s i o n Teaching  Methods, F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , U.S. Department of A g r i c u l -t u r e , E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e C i r c u l a r 495, August 1955 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1955), p. 24. 161 And r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n , and c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s . The agent knows a t f i r s t h a n d the problems of h i s c l i e n t e l e and a t l e a s t p a r t of the farm people know from experience that the agent has h i s f e e t on the ground. 2 I f the v i s i t i s p r i m a r i l y f o r the purpose of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , that i n f o r m a t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d and u t i l -i z e d more e f f e c t i v e l y because of the agent's f i r s t h a n d knowledge of the circumstances i n v o l v e d . 2 TABLE XXXI NUMBER OP CONTACTS PER YEAR FOR 1958-61 Number of I n d i v i d u a l Contacts Number o f Group Contacts Number o f P u b l i c a t i o n s Number of Radio and T.V. Programs Number of Farms i n Canada i n 1956 Average Number Per Year Number Per Farm 1,298,010 1,427,407 1,917,924 3,355 575,015-or 8.86 8.48 3.34 0.0058 1 to every 171.4 farms S e r v i c e s t o Farmers Some s e r v i c e s provided f o r the farmer by the p r o v i n c i a l departments of a g r i c u l t u r e , and some p r o v i d e d by the F e d e r a l Department i n v o l v e the Agent. Examples of these s e r v i c e s a re s o i l sampling and p l a c i n g h i g h c l a s s stock w i t h farmers. Land c l e a r i n g , drainage, and i r r i g a t i o n are a l l performed by the p r o v i n c i a l departments which, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , p r o v i d e funds f o r 2 I b i d . . p. 33. 162 the work done. I n c r e a s i n g l y , a separate e n g i n e e r i n g s e c t i o n o f each department i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s k i n d o f work, but even i f the Agent i s not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d , the work i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r contact between the farmer and the department which the Agent i s a b l e to use. The Agent i s most f i t t e d f o r s e r v i c e s l i k e s o i l sampling, which, f o l l o w e d by i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and recommendations on f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n , can be p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d out only by someone w i t h an i n t i m a t e knowledge o f the d i s t r i c t , i n c l u d i n g the v a r i a t i o n s i n s o i l type and the r e s u l t s of v a r i o u s uses of the l a n d types. The Agent may undertake some s e r v i c e s which would otherwise be performed by s p e c i a l i s t s , f o r they may be worth the o p p o r t u n i t y they o f f e r the Agent to i n t r o d u c e ideas t o the farmer and a t l e a s t to make hi m s e l f known. When the number of s e r v i c e s per thousand farms f o r the two p e r i o d s 1952 to 1956 and 1957 to 1961 are compared, a d i s -t i n c t i n c r e a s e i s shown. A b r i e f summary of s e r v i c e s performed by Agents, or by a combination of Agents and s p e c i a l i s t s , i s given i n Table XXXII, page 163. MEASUREMENTS OP PRODUCTION, EFFICIENCY, AND IMPROVEMENTS Improvements i n Q u a l i t y o f Produce C e r t i f i c a t i o n of seed and placement of s t o c k w i t h farmers a r e i n d i c a t i o n s of improvement i n q u a l i t y of produce while a g r i -c u l t u r a l shows and s t o c k and produce f a i r s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s 163 TABLE XXXII SERVICES PER THOUSAND FARMS S e r v i c e s 1952-56( a) 1 9 5 7 - 6 l ( b ) P e r -centage Change S o i l sampling by Agents number 23.4 60.5 158.8% C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f Seed Potatoes a c r e s 270.6 411.8 52.1% Stock p l a c e d by Agents and L i v e s t o c k D i v i s i o n s number 14.3 94.8 184.9% P o u l t r y t e s t s f o r Pul l o r u m number 5,087 6,199 21.9% T e s t s f o r m a s t i t i s i n d a i r y cows number 63 230 265% Land development, broken, c l e a r e d or l e v e l l e d a c res 135.9 188 38.6% Drainage f e e t 5,389 58,006 975% Number o f farms i n Canada 1956, used f o r 1952-56, was 575,014. (^Number o f farms i n Canada 1961, used f o r 1957-61, was 521,634. 164 f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s t a n d a r d s o f produce. Seed p o t a t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The a c r e a g e o f p o t a t o e s c e r t i f i e d f o r seed has i n c r e a s e d a l i t t l e over the t e n y e a r s 1952 t o 1961, and has averaged 37,000 a c r e s a y e a r . P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d has the g r e a t e s t a c r e a g e a v e r a g i n g 24,600 a y e a r . New B r u n s w i c k has the second g r e a t e s t a r e a , and t h e o t h e r p r o -v i n c e s , B r i t i s h C o lumbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, and O n t a r i o , a v e r a g e d l e s s than 1,500 a c r e s a y e a r . F o r d e t a i l s see T a b l e X X X V I I , page 173. G r a i n and p a s t u r e seed c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I n 1961 the f o u r p r o v i n c e s o f M a n i t o b a , N o w B r u n s w i c k , A l b e r t a , and B r i t i s h C olumbia had 271,000 a c r e s o f g r a i n and p a s t u r e seed c e r t i f i e d . The g r e a t e s t a r e a was i n M anitoba where 247,000 a c r e s were c e r t i f i e d , the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e p r o v i n c e s s h a r i n g 24,000 a c r e s . D e t a i l s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e XXXVTI, page 173. S t o c k p l a c e d . T h i s s e r v i c e i s a s s i s t e d by A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents by j u d g i n g s t o c k f o r f a r m e r b u y e r s , and o f t e n a c t u a l l y p u r c h a s i n g on b e h a l f o f b u y e r s . So much importance i s g i v e n t o t h i s a s s i s t a n c e t h a t , as mentioned i n C hapter I I , f i n a n c i a l a i d i s g i v e n by the F e d e r a l Government. I n a d d i t i o n t o a i d i n p u r -c h a s i n g s t o c k , bonuses a r e awarded f o r the h o l d i n g o f s t o c k w h i c h a r e judged by t h e Agents t o be up t o s p e c i f i e d s t a n d a r d s . An a v e r a g e of e i g h t thousand head of s t o c k a y e a r was p l a c e d 165 between 1952 and 1961, and, i n a d d i t i o n , l i v e s t o c k d i v i s i o n p e r s o n n e l p l a c e d f i v e thousand a year i n B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , and Manitoba. (Table XXXVI, page 172.) A g r i c u l t u r a l f a i r s . s t o c k and produce shows. The a g r i -c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s are very a c t i v e i n h o l d i n g f a i r s and shows. Government f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s given and A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents a r e u s u a l l y judges of produce. In 1960 the number of shows i n each p r o v i n c e ranged from 243 a g r i c u l t u r a l f a i r s and 37 produce shows i n O n t a r i o , to 10 a g r i c u l t u r a l f a i r s and 2 produce shows i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . (Table XXXIX, page 175.) Plowing matches. These events a r e held each year i n many d i s t r i c t s w i t h a p r o v i n c i a l match as a " f i n a l . " I n 1961 O n t a r i o had 105 matches, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 3, and Nova S c o t i a 1. ( T a b l e XXXIX.) Improvement of Farms Land development. Government a s s i s t a n c e i s g i v e n i n c l e a r i n g , b r e a k i n g , and l e v e l l i n g l a n d . T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d at b r i n g i n g l a n d i n t o p r o d u c t i o n , but a t the same time much o f the b r e a k i n g and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the l e v e l l i n g i s improve-ment o f farmland a l r e a d y b e i n g farmed. The l e v e l l i n g i s a necess-ary p r e l i m i n a r y step to i r r i g a t i o n and sometimes f o r drainage. There was an average of 40,394 acres c l e a r e d f o r the ten years 1952 to 1961 and i n s e v e r a l years out of the ten there were over 166 20,000 acres broken i n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Saskatchewan al o n e . There were between 2,000 and 7,000 acres l e v e l l e d i n some years i n each of A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan. (Table XXXVIII, page 174.) Drainage. In O n t a r i o over 20,000,000 f e e t of t i l e s have been l a i d i n one year while a t the same time about 300,000 f e e t have been l a i d i n Nova S c o t i a . T h i s and other land development was c a r r i e d out e i t h e r by the e x t e n s i o n branches or s p e c i a l engin-e e r i n g branches of the p r o v i n c i a l departments o f a g r i c u l t u r e , or e l s e assessed by t h e i r engineers and s u b s i d i z e d . ( T a b l e XXXVIII.) Surveys. Various surveys which a s s i s t i n proper land use are held throughout the country, i n c l u d i n g s o i l surveys, e r o s i o n surveys, l a n d use surveys, and s t o c k surveys. (Table XLIIA, page 177, and T a b l e XLIIB, page 178.) Measurement of the P h y s i c a l Volume of P r o d u c t i o n The p h y s i c a l volume of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i s measured by an Index Number used by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s of Canada. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the Index Number f o l l o w s : The formula used i n the index was the f i x e d - b a s e weighted aggregate. The commodities i n c l u d e d were the major items of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n s o l d through commercial channels ( e x c l u d i n g i n t e r - f a r m t r a n s f e r s ) and/or consumed i n farm homes. Commodities which are used almost e n t i r e l y as feed, f o r l i v e s t o c k and those r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t products f o r which there i s l i t t l e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p r o d u c t i o n and p r i c e s were omitted f o r the most p a r t . The base p e r i o d used was the f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d , 1935 to 1939. T h i s base 167 was chosen i n order that the index of p h y s i c a l volume of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n might be d i r e c t l y comparable w i t h the other Bureau indexes c o n s t r u c t e d on the same base. In computing the index, p r o v i s i o n was made f o r a v o i d i n g double-counting of farm p r o d u c t i o n . W i t h i n a p r o v i n c e , such double-counting could occur when feed g r a i n s , c r e d i t e d to f i e l d crop p r o d u c t i o n , are f e d to l i v e s t o c k and appear l a t e r as l i v e stock and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s . I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l l y , d u p l i c a t i o n could occur when feed g r a i n s produced i n one p r o v i n c e a r e f e d i n another and when f e e d e r c a t t l e r a i s e d i n one s e c t i o n o f the country a re shipped t o another f o r f i n i s h i n g . ' I n r e b a s i n g the index i n 1962, i t was f i r s t r e c o n s t r u c t e d on a weight base of 1947 to 1951 = 100 f o r the years 1947 to date and then converted to a time base of 1949 = 100. For the years 1935 t o 1946 i n c l u s i v e , the o r i g i n a l index was l i n k e d to the new index. For the years 1947 to date, the a g r i c u l t u r a l products i n c l u d e d i n the index are, i n so f a r as s t a t i s t i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e , a l l commodities f o r s a l e produced on f a r m s . 4 These data a re not a f f e c t e d by change l n area of farmland as the area has remained v i r t u a l l y the same, d e c r e a s i n g by 0.1 per cent between 1951 and 1956. The moving average f o r the Index Numbers o f p r o d u c t i o n i s 114.56 f o r the p e r i o d 1946 to 1955, and 128.26 f o r the p e r i o d 1951 t o 1960. The i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n between these two p e r i o d s i s 11.8 per cent o f the p r o d u c t i o n i n the p e r i o d 1946 t o 1955. (Table XXXIII. ) d o m i n i o n Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Q u a r t e r l y B u l l e t i n of  A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s . V o l . XLV:2 ( A p r i l - J u n e 1952j^ ^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Index of Farm P r o d u c t i o n  1962 u s i n g New Base 1949 = 100, June 1963, Catalogue No. 21-203. TABLE XXXIII 1962 INDEX OP FARM PRODUCTION ( E x c l u s i v e of Newfoundland) Ind ex Numbers 1949 = 100 Moving Average 1935 83.3 1936 73.5 1937 74.2 1938 94.2 1939 111.2 1940 111.9 1935-1944 99.07 1941 89.7 1936-1945 99.87 1942 141.4 1937-1946 103.15 1943 94.0 1938-1947 105.78 1944 117.3 1939-1948 . 106.90 1945 91.3 1940-1949 105.78 1946 106.3 1941-1950 105.59 1947 100.5 1942-1951 108.78 1948 105.4 1943-1952 108.72 1949 100.0 1944-1953 112.33 1950 110.0 1945-1954 110.92 1951 121.6 1946-1955 114.56 1952 140.8 1947-1956 117.96 1953 130.1 1948-1957 119.99 1954 103.2 1949-1958 122.44 1955 127.7 1950-1959 125.39 1956 140.3 1951-1960 128.26 1957 120.8 1952-1961 128.22 1958 129.9 1953-1962 129.28 1959 . 129.5 1960 . 138.8 1961 121.2 1962 151.4 Source: Canada Year Book 1963-64, p. 448. 169 E f f i c i e n c y o f P r o d u c t i o n Mackenzie made a comparison o f the value o f input f a c t o r s and output i n a g r i c u l t u r e f o r Canada and produced the f o l l o w i n g 5 index numbers. TABLE XXXIV INPUT AND OUTPUT FOR AGRICULTURE Index of Value Index of Value of Net Output o f F a c t o r Inputs 100.0 100.0 100.0 113.1 88.6 127.7 115.6 80.4 143*. 8 Between 1949-53 and 1954-58 the i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e of out-put was 2.2 per cent and the decrease i n v a l u e o f input was 9.3 per cent. The R a t i o of Net Value added to F a c t o r Input i n c r e a s e d by 12.6 per cent. I t i s very p o s s i b l e that t h i s i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n and e f f i c i e n c y i s l a r g e l y due to the work o f the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . William Mackenzie, "The Impact o f T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change on the E f f i c i e n c y of P r o d u c t i o n i n Canadian A g r i c u l t u r e , " Canadian J o u r n a l o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics. V o l . X : l , 1962, pp. 41-53. 'Ii »'» • •-gff'MWIITTgr-flTT"Tn7'^ J«»,lt«^'lt--T(—if Tilt R a t i o o f Net Value added to F a c t o r Input Indexes of Constant D o l l a r Volume 1944-58 1944-48 1949-53 1954-58 170 In 1951 there were 411 Agents i n Canada, and i n 1956 there were 418. The e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s have "been a b l e to r e a c h a higher p r o p o r t i o n o f farmers without an i n c r e a s e i n the number of Agents f o r there was a decrease o f farms between 1951 and 1956 o f 7.7 per cent. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the extension s e r v i c e s may w e l l be i n c r e a s i n g f o r t h i s reason r e g a r d l e s s o f any i n -crease of Agents. TABLE XXXV SOIL SAMPLES AND FORAGE SAMPLES TAKEN BY AGENTS AND BY SPECIALISTS Samples Taken By Agents: S o i l Forage Samples Year B.C. A l t a . O n t a r i o Quebec T o t a l s B.C. A l t a . O n t a r i o 1952 1,909 1,524 3,433 1953 500 2,703 3,203 1954 1,580 1,580 1955 2,576 2,214 4,790 276 1956 89 3,536 3,625 19 1957 1,700 765 8,253 3,828 14,546 29 635 1958 554 1,323 8,571 4,011 14,459 58 763 1959 505 10,913 4,586 16,004 61 1960 354 2,319 16,343 19,016 34 659 1961 528 2.253 16.884 19.665 86 799 554 T o t a l s 8,715 6,660 60,964 23,982 100,321 563 2,856 554 Samples Taken By S p e c i a l i s t s : S o i l Forage Samples Year B.C. A l t a . O n t a r i o N.B. P.E.I. N.S. T o t a l s B.C. 1952 428 25,663 1,345 510 9,147 37,093 1953 356 19,400 1,383 390 8,739 30,268 1954 2,260 3,700 7,383 352 8,613 22,308 1955 3,729 782 400 8,399 13,310 1956 24,086 955 346 3,851 29,238 1957 1,950 3,863 28,477 704 371 5,198 40,563 155 1958 2,875 4,893 29,672 686 5,906 44,032 503 1959 280 3,837 673 4,945 9,735 1960 3,580 61,158 1,651 1,165 7,256 74,810 150 1961 i 4,120 62,472 1.000 1.175 3.558 81.325 212 T o t a l s 15,849 8,756 262,194 24,203 6,068 65,612 382,682 1,020 TABLE XXXVIA STOCK PLACED BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l t a . Man. Ont. Que. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. T o t a l s 1952 174 280 1,567 I l l 93 2,225 1953 58 154 74 108 17 411 1954 104 627 33 101 865 1955 81 1,107 57 1,360 180 79 2,864 1956 47 541 185 4,480 408 189 33 5,883 1957 12 12,845 270 696 41 13,864 1958 18 9,742 1,143 2,570 750 11 52 14,286 1959 48 1,484 1,392 1,525 2,927 570 82 8,028 1960 32 12,478 6,880 1,159 111 81 20,741 1961 2,226 5,224 1.206 74 72 8.802 T o t a l s 574 40,423 13,496 5,709 13,875 2,861 380 651 77,969 TABLE XXXVIB STOCK PLACED BY LIVESTOCK DIVISION Year A l t a . Sask. Que. T o t a l s 1952 231 2,607 2.838 1953 274 274 1954 386 386 1955 1,107 860 694 2,061 1956 541 155 696 1957 12,845 374 13,219 1958 9,742 383 10,125 1959 1,484 829 1,713 1960 17,478 226 17,704 1961 2,226 165 2.391 T o t a l s 45,423 2,683 3,301 51,407 TABLE XXXVII SEED CERTIFICATION POTATOES Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Ont. N.B. P.E.I. T o t a l s 1952 578 13,164 21,049 34,791 1953 844 15,770 23,292 39,906 1954 905 (335 tons} 24,062 24,967 1955 1,960 965 (17,517 bu. ) 23,452 26,377 1956 2,030 1,129 103 84,165 27,427 1957 2,106 1,272 116 13,099 27,503 44,096 1958 2,260 1,300 1,400 12,800 88,345 46,105 1959 1,460 1,716 125 999 11,826 23,365 39,491 1960 2,102 1,547 278 777 11,274 83,093 39,071 1961 2.108 1.442 333 14.194 27.944 46.021 T o t a l s 14,026 11,698 955 3,176 92,127 846,270 368,252 GRAIN AND PASTURE Year B.C. A l t a . (Pasture Only) Man. N.B. T o t a l s 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 4,845 4,624 3,918 3,548 3,696 6,293 2.896 930 298 1,613 6,887 18,855 8,395 7.380 304,426 247 r259 13,164 15,770 13,099 12,800 11,826 11,274 14.194 13,164 15,770 5,775 4,916 18,630 88,635 88,377 330,388 871.069 T o t a l s 29,220 37,692 551,685 92,127 710,724 TABLE XXXVIII LAND DEVELOPMENT (A) LAND CLEARED Year B.C. Sask. Ont. N.B. N f l d . N.S. T o t a l s 1952 15,803 14,600 15,274 1,060 46,137 1953 4,227 982 1,947 7,156 1954 2,441 40,000 850 1,893 45,184 1955 7,933 61,215 10,237 750 900 1,378 82,413 1956 7,000 7,348 7,674 1,000 1,000 2,194 26,216 1957 13,032 89,280 7,583 1,610 925 2,773 55,203 1958 7,573 26,384 3,682 1,543 39,182 1959 8,844 28,840 1,950 700 1,334 41,068 1960 8,081 18,725 5,932 2,500 700 2,470 38,348 1961 7,448 12,391 796 2,399 23,028 403,935 (B) LAND BROKEN (C) LAND LEVELLED Year B.C. Sask. Ont. T o t a l A l t a . Sask. T o t a l 1952 13,776 13,776 1953 1,011 1,011 4,350 4,350 1954 1955 9,530 9,530 1956 846 7,429 8,275 1957 2,142 31,217 7,431 40,790 2,170 2,170 1958 2,154 67,921 70,075 4,074 3,705 7,779 1959 4,491 20,743 25,234 1960 4,952 18,029 22,981 5,850 5,850 1961 4,075 20,328 24,403 6,880 6,880 216,075 27,029 (D) DRAINS (FEET) r—gr*ffiTib»""ni-ii 'ifta^!-*'-1; • " i " • B * i i r i T " " " l " f 1 1 1 •••'"*"'T''**™'''H^n*rr r»ii'H'i'"CT\y^- iiT ar'aviivtf'i' i " J i i T- — Year B.C. Sask. O n t a r i o Quebec N.B. N.S. T o t a l s 1952 2,084 1,000,000 201.359 506,318 53,872 1,763,639 1953 900,000 208,875 1,178,780 149,100 2,436,755 1954 10,000 1,108 8,1001^) 238,983 265,352 514,335 1955 1,058,000 312,553 1,379,761 1956 269,901 259,979 529,880 1957 1,503,000 292,360 250,000 343,661 2,389,021 1958 21,500,000T 414,305 749,131 283,496 22,946,932 1959 14,000,000T 503,117 872,000 71,529 15,446,646 1960 375,050T 16,000,OOOT 436,788 16,811,838 1961 82,350 202,300 284,650 64,503,457 T i s t i l e d r a i n s . -a TABLE XXXIX AGRICULTURAL FAIRS, STOCK AND PRODUCE SHOWS Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Man. O n t a r i o New Brunswick F a i r s Produce Fa I r s Produce F a i r s F a i r s F a i r s P l o w ( a ) Produce F a i r s Produce 1952 65 29 326 250 13 1953 69 26 476 251 134 1 19 1954 75 25 61 565 249 117 41 16 10 1955 73 27 24 198 248 131 37 61 1956 65 29 12 213 248 79 150 10 1957 66 5 210 246 100 38 19 1 1958 65 1 28 176 248 112 158 18 1959 64 178 305 245 110 17 1960 63 33 60 178 316 243 102 36 18 1961 63 24 180 72 241 105 36 T o t a l 668 1 221 162 2,720 693 2,469 990 497 120 82 Year Nova S c o t i a Newfoundland P.E.I. TOTALS( b) F a i r s Plow^a<> F a i r s Stock F a i r s Plow^ aJ Stock 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 32 7 1 24 6 33 3 28 2 22 1 4 41 5 23 1 17 1 21 5 22 7 10 22 10 22 12 14 22 22 6 2 11 24 8 2 10 2 10 3 9 3 10 2 7 3 FAIRS 7,240 P L O W ^ 1,036 PRODUCE 742 STOCK 157 T o t a l 220 31 58 131 71 15 26 Plowing Matches. T o t a l s : exclude Manitoba exce p t i n g f o r " F a i r s " 1959-61. TABLE XL MASTITIS TESTS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N.B. P.E.I. T o t a l s 1952 107 1, ,367 3 ,059 4, ,533 1953 ,200 582 5, ,782 1954 10, ,940 1, ,495 • 12, ,435 1955 21, ,814 1 ,544 23 ,358 1956 25, ,727 3 < ,532 1 ,665 30, ,924 1957 440+ 52, ,812 925 54, ,177 1958 4, ,800 34, ,637 1 ,487 40, ,924 1959 4, ,854 10,406 50, ,790 1 ,154 67, ,204 1960 8, ,101 16,305 1 ,231 25, ,637 1961 7,517 1 ,247 8, ,764 273, ,738 TABLE XLI POULTRY TESTS FOR PULLORUM Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N.B. P.E.I. T o t a l s 1952) 294,320 946,731 436,659 57,373 60,100 33,377 2,059,546 1953} Average 302,599 1,029,621 551,459 2,234,865 1954)= 291,086 367,866 228,899 397,162 1,285,013 1955) 319,501 223,016 30,889 864,492 1956 311,693 318,492 237,726 1,411,720 465,970 2,745,601 1957 286,446 369,434 237,413 1,335,314 34,478 2,263,085 1958 233,909 404,233 226,659 41,373 906,174 1959 253,884 359,647 214,039 1,493,628 40,980 39,358 2,401,536 1960 223,082 318,484 175,622 271,055 1,300,000 32,843 31,014 2,352,100 1961 260,146 340,479 152,099 249,129 1,401,761 34,681 2,438,295 19,550,707 TABLE XLIIA SURVEYS (ACRES UNLESS DESIGNATED SURVEYS) Year B.C.. A l t a . Sask. Man. O n t a r i o N.B. 1952 30,000 E 29 21 surveys surveys L V 1953 1954 46 surveys L 550,000 S 250,000 S 1955 20 surveys L 4,019,890 S 356,400 S 1956 64,834 S 1957 37,235 S 14 surveys L 381,000 1958 18,906 S 300,000 S 1959 600,000 S 227,000 1960 72,597 S 1,035,000 S 10,000 S 1961 84,000 S 654,120 S 103,500 Year N.S. N f l d . P.E.I. 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 4,646,000 S 3,848,000 S 9,995,000 S 7,743,000 S 6 surveys V 7 surveys L 1,950 S 1 survey V S = s o i l survey. E = erosion survey. L = land useT V = various (stock, etc.). 178 TABLE XLIIB SEED DRILL SURVEYS: NUMBER OP SAMPLES PROM DRILLS Year A l t a . Sask. Ont. Que. N.B. P.E.I 1952 1,626 77 1953 1954 165 1955 91 1956 299 1957 672 263 1958 746 617 85 1959 184 359 1960 290 687 1961 CHAPTER V INTEREST OP FARMERS IN EXTENSION SERVICES REQUESTS BY FARMERS TO AGENTS L e t t e r s to Agents One measure of i n t e r e s t o f farmers i n a g r i c u l t u r a l exten-s i o n s e r v i c e s to be considered i s the number o f requests sent to Agents by m a l l , the measure a v a i l a b l e b e i n g the numbers of l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d by them. From the p e r i o d 1952 to 1956 to the p e r i o d 1957 to 1961 the t o t a l number of l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d by Agents i n c r e a s e d by 10 per cent. I n B r i t i s h Columbia the number of l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d per Agent i n c r e a s e d by 18.2 per cent between the same p e r i o d s . I n Saskatchewan, the i n c r e a s e i n l e t t e r s per Agent was 9.4 per c e n t , and i n Newfoundland 39 per cent, while there was a de-c r e a s e of 22.5 per cent i n Nova S c o t i a , and an i n c r e a s e i n Manitoba over the years 1959 to 1961. O m i t t i n g the l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d i n O n t a r i o i n 1961, there was a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e of 2 per cent of l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d per Agent. (Table X L I I I , page 180.) Number o f Farmers' Requests to Agents R e l a t i v e to Number of Farms O f f i c e c a l l e r s to Agents can a l s o be considered requests to Agents. When the number of these per Agent i s added to l e t t e r s to Agents the sum has been taken as t o t a l requests to Agents. TABLE LETTERS RECEIVED Year B.C. Sask. Manitoba O n t a r i o A< a ) A A A 1952 9 11,132 40 27,647 81 152,985 1953 10 11,509 39 27,232 82 153,311 1954 (7,482) 39 27,411 84 156,956 1955 M (4,932) 39 28,071 84 158,462 1956 5 2,381 40 31,118 84 152,168 1957 6 4,707 42 28,361 84 158,902 1958 6 3,730 42 30,374 84 158,191 1959 4 4,701 41 31,799 38 33,937 (85j (170,843 1960 •X 4,414 45 37,662 39 32,520 (86"! (183,495 1961 3 4,774 42 38,463 43 34,119 89 233,392 T o t a l s 46 47,348 409 308,138 120 100,576 672 1,324,367 Average 5,918.5 30,814 33,525 165,546 LETTERS RECEIVED 1952 1,237 691 1,889 1953 1,151 698 1,870 1954 703 1,869 1955 7.20 1,887 1956 476 778 1,812 1957 785 675 1,892 1958 622 723 1,883 1959 1,175 776 893 1960 1,471 837 834 1961 1,591 916 . ;.838 2,622 Average 1,029 753 855 1,971 CHANGE: +18.2$ +9.4$ +14.3$ A i s f o r Agents. ( ^ B r a c k e t s enclose I n t e r p o l a t e d averages. 180 X L I I I BY AGENTS Nova S c o t i a N f l d . T o t a l A d j u s t e d T o t a l * A 17 29,458 f. x (18) (25,515) 18 23,197 .17 23,888 16 23,328 15 14,624 (18) (19,718) 18 23,244 15 17,674 16 17,860 132 173,273 21,695 A 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 80 3,480 2,460 3,180 3,320 3,400 3,840 3,920 4,490 4,860 4,910 57,860 3,786 224,702 194,512 210,744 213,741 212,395 210,434 196,215 98,171 97,130 343,518 2,001,562 200,156 224,702 220,027* 218,226* 218,673* 212,395 210,434 215,933* 235,077* 248,105* 299,399 2,302,971 PER AGENT 1,733 1,289 1,405 1,458 975 1,291 1,178 1,116 435 1,449.7 308 1,399.4 398 1,414.4 415 1,444.2 425 1,388.2 480 1,357.6 490 1,401.5 561 900.7 607 883.0 614 1,709.0 1,313 -22.5$ 1,371.9 e x c l u d i n g Manitoba, i n c l u d i n g i n t e r p o l a t e d averages, TABLE REQUESTS Requests B.C. A l t a . Sask. O f f i c e C a l l e r s t o Agents 1952/56 L e t t e r s t o Agents 1952/56 Requests p e r y e a r 1952/56 Requests p e r 1000 farms (1956) 25,668 25,022 282,408 «<*> 128,145 141,479 50,690 16,897 682.7 282,408 56,482 711.14 269,624 53,925 521.56 O f f i c e C a l l e r s t o Agent s 1957/61 L e t t e r s t o Agents 1957/61 Request s p e r y e a r 1957/61 Request s p e r 1000 farms (1961) 74,424 22,326 297,157 x 168,811 166,659 96.750 19,350 808.06 297.157 59,431.7 796.02 335.470 67,094 710.72 D i f f e r e n c e 1957/61-1952/56 CHANGE; 1952/56-1957/61^ 1952/56 ' +125.36 18.36% +84.88 11.93% +189.16 36.26% T o t a l r e q u e s t s p e r y e a r p e r 1000 farms f o r 1952/56 977.43) «' • » » " » " " " 1957/61 1,168.59) x Data n ot a v a i l a b l e . XL IV TO AGENTS 181 Man i t o b a O n t a r i o Quebec N.S. N f l d . 198,851 642,872 270,338 52,314 15,425 x 773,882 X 99,871 15,840 198.851 1.416.754 220.338 152,185 31.265 39,770 283,351 44,067.6 30,437 6,253 808.31 2,015.27 359.39 1,444.22 2,619.6 243,639 346,601 155,673 32,567 11,650 X 550,485 73,402 22,020 243.639 897.086 155.673 105,969 33.670 48,728 299,029 51,891 26,492 6,734 1,100.84 2,345.47 476.65 1,450.50 2,005.36 +292.53 +330.20 +117.26 +6.28 -614.24 36.19% 16.38% 32.62% 0 .-43% -23.44% D i f f e r e n c e : 191.16 CHANGE: 19.56% 182 18.36 36.26 16.38 36.19 32.62 B.C. 11.93 A l t a . 0.43 Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N. S. ma. 3 P r o v i n c e s 23.44 19.56 FIGURE 8 PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN REQUESTS TO AGENTS BETWEEN 1952 AND 1961 183 In T a b l e XLIV the requests per Agents per thousand farms f o r 1952 to 1956 i s compared w i t h the requests f o r 1957 to 1961 and the change was found to be an i n c r e a s e of 19.6 per cent. Out o f the e i g h t p r o v i n c e s o n l y Newfoundland had a de-crease which was 23.44 per cent, and the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e was 36.26 per cent i n Saskatchewan. Increases i n the other p r o v i n c e s were 18.36 per cent i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 11.93 per cent i n A l b e r t a , 36.19 per cent i n Manitoba, 16.38 per cent i n O n t a r i o , 32.62 per cent i n Quebec, and 0.43 per cent i n Nova S c o t i a . ATTENDANCE AT GROUP EVENTS Meetings > There was a decrease i n attendance a t meetings of 40 per cent i n the p r o v i n c e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, and Nova S c o t i a when meetings i n the p e r i o d 1952 to 1956 were compared with those i n 1957 to 1961. The de-c r e a s e s i n the p r o v i n c e s s e p a r a t e l y were 58 per cent i n Saskatchewan, 40 per cent i n Nova S c o t i a , 20 per cent i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 16 per cent i n A l b e r t a , and 12 per cent i n Quebec. ( T a b l e LXXIIB, page 225.) Other Group Events A t farm demonstrations the attendances i n the 1957 to 1961 p e r i o d i n c r e a s e d by 6.8 per cent over attendances i n the 1952 to 1956 p e r i o d , when the abnormal data f o r 1958 are ex-cluded. F o r the same p e r i o d s attendance a t f i e l d days decreased BRITISH COLUMBIA ALBERTA POP'S POP'S •60 -3 P -2 0 -2 2 P •2 P 0 -170 -150 YEAR: '962 '53 '54 '55 '56 '57 '53 '59 "60 '61 NOVA SCOTIA POP'S — 1 2 0 1PP _ 50 3 0 2 P YEAR: 1952 '53 '54 ' 55*57 '58 '59 '60 '61 PPO'S 2 8 P 2 5 P 2-0 O •15 0 QUEBEC YEAR: 1952 '54 '55 '56 '57 '59 '60 OPP'S -2,000 ", -1,500 -1,000 YEAR: 1952 '53 '54 '55 '56 '57 '58 '59 CANADA (8 P r o v i n c e s ) s o o ^ \ j \Jj o 1 & [53 P54 [55 >5fi l'57l>5RH5Q FIGURE 9 ATTENDANCE AT MEETINGS (FROM TABLE LXXVII) 185 27 per cent and a t s h o r t courses decreased 47.5 per cent. ( T a b l e s LXXIII to LXXV and Moving Averages T a b l e LXXVI.) As the number o f farm .operators decreased by 17 per cent between 1951. and 1961 these decreases i n attendances should be m o d i f i e d by 17 per cent to r e l a t e the change i n attendances to the number of farmers. T h i s a l t e r a t i o n reduces the decreases i n attendance a t meetings to 33 per cent, a t f i e l d days to 22 per cent, and a t s h o r t courses to 40 per cent, and i n c r e a s e s a t t e n -dance a t farm demonstrations to 8 per cent. The steady decrease i n attendance a t the f o u r kinds of group events i s e v i d e n t i n graph form i n F i g u r e 10. In t h i s F i g u r e the number a t t e n d i n g each k i n d of event i s i l l u s t r a t e d and i t can be seen t h a t the l a r g e s t attendance i s a t f i e l d days a t which 146.2 attended each event i n 1952 to 1954 but only 88.2 i n 1959 to 1961. Attendance a t meetings decreased from 66.8 to 34.6, a t s h o r t courses from 108 to 45, and a t farm demonstrations from 27.7 i n 1952 to 1954 to 27.4 i n the years 1956, 1957 and 1959. T o t a l Attendance The t o t a l attendance a t a l l meetings ranged from 2,179,845 i n 1953 to 741,754 i n 1961 when the attendance data from B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, O n t a r i o , Quebec, and Nova S c o t i a ' a r e c o n s i d e r e d . The number a t t e n d i n g per farm was 4 i n 1953 and 1.7 i n 1961. (Table LXXVII, page 230.) ISO NUMBER ATTENDING EACH EVENT (PROM TABLE LXXVI) i r r,ei.o -PAIS 1 ~lA7£f Tints 1 1 1 « ; 1 , , <f£2A4 "isyss ifsyst, i<fss/si /fst/s-9 tisi/si tfse/io 'fsyti CHANGE =, 1956/61-1952/57^ 1952/57 Meetings -40% Farm Demonstrations 7% F i e l d Days -27% Short Courses -48% REPRESENTATION: 112,515 Meetings r e p r e s e n t i n g 55% of a l l Meetings. 17,001 Farm Demonstrations r e p r e s e n t i n g 80% of a l l Farm Demonstrations. 2,330 F i e l d Days r e p r e s e n t i n g 59% o f a l l F i e l d Days. 1,220 Short Courses r e p r e s e n t i n g 82% o f a l l Short Courses. FIGURE 10 ATTENDANCE AT GROUP EVENTS 187 The t o t a l attendance f o r f i e l d days, c a l c u l a t e d s i m i l a r -l y , averaged 47,526 a year over the ten years 1952 to 1961, and the t o t a l f o r farm demonstrations averaged 62,044 a year, and attendance a t s h o r t courses 5,482 a year. (Tables LXXVIII to LXXX.) LISTENING TO RADIO AND T.V. Y/ilson and G a l l u p gave data f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s which show that r a d i o and news s t o r i e s are the most e f f i c i e n t means o f e x t e n s i o n i n terms of c o s t . However, only the very s m a l l percentage o f 1.2 per cent o f the adoption of recommended p r a c -t i c e s was a t t r i b u t e d to r a d i o programs. 1 U s u a l l y r a d i o and T.V. programs r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n which i s given by b u l l e t i n s , meetings, demonstrations, or p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . A s m a l l number of r e p o r t s on numbers of l i s t e n e r s and viewers, and r e p o r t s on requests prompted by programs, are given i n the annual r e p o r t s f o r the p r o v i n c i a l departments o f a g r i c u l -t u r e from 1952 to 1961, and are reproduced below. Radio In Saskatchewan, the number of l i s t e n e r s to r a d i o p r o -grams on a g r i c u l t u r e was s i x t y - f i v e thousand i n 1956, and i n •"•Meredith C. Wilson and Gladys G a l l u p , E x t e n s i o n Teaching  Methods. E x t e n s i o n C i r c u l a r 495, August 1955 ( F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , U.S. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ) , 1955, p. 15. 2 I b i d . . p. 63. ^ P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, 52nd Annual Report of 188 1959 i t , was r e p o r t e d to be f o r t y - n i n e thousand. 4 A check on ten thousand homes i n A l b e r t a showed that 12.4 per cent hear the program on a g r i c u l t u r e d a i l y . 5 In 1955, the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a estimated t h i r t y - f i v e thousand l i s t e n -e rs to 260 br o a d c a s t s . The i n t e r e s t of l i s t e n e r s i n programs i s i n d i c a t e d t a n g i b l y by l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d r e q u e s t i n g f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r copies of the program. In Saskatchewan, a program "Making a Trencher" was broadcast f i v e times i n 1957 and brought one thousand l e t t e r s . Another program i n the same year on "Farm P l a n n i n g " brought 210 requests f o r a copy of the program. Another t o p i c mentioned b r i e f l y on f i v e broadcasts brought 190 l e t t e r s . 8 In Saskatchewan i n 1954 there was an i n c r e a s e i n requests f o r b u l l e t i n s which were s p e c i f i c a l l y promoted on programs. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the 12 Months end ed March 51. 1957. p. R . l . ^P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, Annual Report of Department  o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1959. p. 107. P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , Annual Report of Department of  A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1954, p. 162, Radio and Information Branch. 6 P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , Annua1 Report o f Department of  A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1955, p. 175. ^ P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, Annual Report of Department  o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1957. 8 I b i d . , p. 5. 189 In B r i t i s h Columbia, the a p i a r i s t r e p o r t e d i n t e r e s t i n these words: T a l k s on beekeeping were given over the r a d i o s t a t i o n s at Kelowna and Vancouver. There i s no method of a s s e s s i n g the v a l u e of such b r o a d c a s t s , but as f r e q u e n t comment i s made by beekeepers to the A p i a r y Branch r e f e r r i n g to t h i s method of i n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s assumed that they are of d e f i n i t e v a l u e . T e l e v i s i o n I n B r i t i s h Columbia i t was r e p o r t e d that e i g h t thousand people viewed a weekly program on h o r t i c u l t u r e . 1 0 E i g h t thousand i s about one t h i r d of a l l farm o p e r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1961 two surveys i n Manitoba showed t h a t over 50 per cent o f Manitoba's farm o p e r a t o r s ( o f 44,264 farms) watched one or more of a s e r i e s of seven haIf-hour programs c a l l e d " T h i s B u s i n e s s o f Farming" on beef c a t t l e p r o d u c t i o n , f i e l d crop p r o -d u c t i o n and farm and home t o p i c s . I f each operator watched only one program t h i s would mean that over 7 per cent of the farm o p e r a t o r s watched each program. The surveys were c a r r i e d out by the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n and by the Manitoba 11 Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and C o n s e r v a t i o n . y P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of Depart-ment of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1954. p. 41. 1 0 P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of Depart-ment of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1960. p. 21. •^Province of Manitoba, Annual Report of Department o f  A g r i c u l t u r e and C o n s e r v a t i o n f o r the y e a r ended March g i s t , 1962 (Winnipeg: The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly), p. 79. 190 F o l l o w i n g the programs i n Manitoba mentioned above there 11 were ten thousand requests f o r k i t s based on the-T.V. program. In Saskatchewan, a f t e r one f i l m i n 1956, A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents r e c e i v e d f i f t y e n q u i r i e s . There were a l s o requests f o r more t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s . ^ Another f i v e minute program one a f t e r n o o n which was i n the form of an i n t e r v i e w , was f o l l o w e d by twenty requests f o r b u l l e t i n s . An A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent a t P r i n c e A l b e r t s a i d that t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o were considered e f f e c t i v e when evaluated on the b a s i s of requests f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . 1 2 An i n c r e a s e i n s o i l sampling f o l l o w i n g a program was r e p o r t e d by P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d i n 1958.^ 3 CONCLUSION Requests F i v e out of s i x p r o v i n c e s with records of l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d by Agents had i n c r e a s e s of t h i s form o f request. Four o f these a l s o had an i n c r e a s e i n numbers o f o f f i c e c a l l e r s and three a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s . When allowance i s made f o r the decrease i n number of farms the r e s u l t i s that only Newfoundland showed a decrease of i n t e r e s t i n the form of 1 2 P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, Annual Report o f Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1956. ISprovince of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Annual Report of Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1958, p. 96. 191 decreased requests to Agents. Attendance A l l the group events had a decrease i n t o t a l attendance each year. When adjustment i s made f o r the decrease i n number of farmers over ten years, decreases i n attendance per event range from 40 per cent f o r s h o r t courses, 33 per cent f o r meet-in g s , to 22 per cent f o r f i e l d days, but attendance per farm demonstration i n c r e a s e d 8 per cent. L i s t e n e r s Radio and t e l e v i s i o n a re p r o v i n g to be a c c e p t a b l e and e f f i c i e n t methods of e x t e n s i o n . Surveys i n d i c a t e t h a t over 12 per cent o f the farm o p e r a t o r s i n Canada l i s t e n to every r a d i o program and over 7 per cent view every t e l e v i s i o n program. S t u d i e s i n the United S t a t e s i n d i c a t e that a t present the e f f e c -t i v e n e s s of these methods i s s m a l l compared with other methods but would i n c r e a s e i f the number of programs i n c r e a s e d . In Canada r a d i o programs increased 99 per cent i n the ten years 1952 to 1961, and t e l e v i s i o n programs 76 per cent. Programs f o r both methods a r e estimated to i n c r e a s e a t a r a t e 14 per cent f a s t e r over the next decade. BIBLIOGRAPHY 193 Anderson, W. A. B i b l i o g r a p h y o f the Department o f R u r a l S o c i o l o g y C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y . Mimeograph B u l l e t i n No. 48. New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p erimental S t a t i o n , 1956. . 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R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Conser-v a t i o n f o r t h e Y e a r ended March 5 1 s t . 1961. Winnipeg: The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. . R e p o r t o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Conser-v a t i o n f o r t h e Y e a r ended March 3 1 s t . 1962. Winnipeg: The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. P r o v i n c e o f New B r u n s w i c k . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y f o r  A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the Year 1875. P r e d e r i c t o n : L e g i s l a t u r e , 1876. . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1952. P r e d e r i c t o n : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . . A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961. P r e d e r i c t o n : Queen's P r i n t e r . P r o v i n c e o f Newfoundland. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the Department o f  M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e Y e a r ended 3 1 s t March 1952. P r o v i n c e o f Newfoundland: M i n i s t e r o f Mines and R e s o u r c e s . 197 P r o v i n c e o f Newfoundland. A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f t h e Department o f Mines and R e s o u r c e s f o r the Y e a r s ended March 3 1 s t 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960. P r o v i n c e o f Newfoundland: M i n i s t e r o f Mines and R e s o u r c e s . . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the Department o f M i n e s . A g r i c u l t u r e and Resources f o r the Y e a r ended 3 1 s t March 1961. P r o v i n c e o f Newfoundland: M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , A g r i c u l t u r e , and R e s o u r c e s . P r o v i n c e o f Nova S c o t i a . A n n u a l R e p o r t f o r A g r i c u l t u r e f o r  1915. H a l i f a x : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1916. . A n n u a l R e p o r t s f o r A g r i c u l t u r e f o r t h e Y e a r s 1916, 1925, 1926, 1930, 1941, 1952. H a l i f a x : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . . A n n u a l R e p o r t f o r A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1953. H a l i f a x : Queen'8 P r i n t e r , 1954. . A n n u a l R e p o r t s f o r A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961. H a l i f a x : Queen's P r i n t e r . P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r e and E x p e r i m e n t a l U n i o n . " 2 9 t h R e p o r t . " A n n u a l R e p o r t O n t a r i o Department o f A g r i c u l -t u r e 1907. T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1908. . Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 1952. T o r o n t o : Queen1!} P r i n t e r , 1954. . A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the Y e a r s 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, i 9 6 0 , 1961. T o r o n t o : Queen's P r i n t e r . . " O b j e c t i v e s , R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and Programs o f t h e E x t e n s i o n B r a n c h . " O n t a r i o : Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1961. (Mimeographed.) P r o v i n c e o f P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f  A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1909. C h a r i o t t e t o w n : M u r l e y & Garnham, 1909. . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1937. C h a r l o t t e t o w n : The P a t r i o t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1938. ' A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r t h e Y e a r s 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961. 198 P r o v i n c e o f Quebec. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Annual Reports f o r the Years 1913, 1930, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961. P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan. Annual Report of the Department of  A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the 12 Months ended 31st March. 1955. Regina: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1953. . Annual Reports o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r each of the 12 Months ended 31st March, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962. Regina: Queen fs P r i n t e r . . "Report No. 13 Farm Income 1957." Roya l Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e and R u r a l L i f e 1958. S h e f f i e l d , C h a r l e s A. N a t i o n a l Report of County A g r i c u l t u r a l  Agent Work. J u l y 1, 1943-June 30, 1944. F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n C i r c u l a r 418. Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1944. S t a t u t e o f Canada. 1913, c.5. . 1867, c.3. S t a t u t e s of New Brunswick. 38 V i c . Cap. 12. S t o t t , Margaret M., and C o o l i e Verner. A T r i a l B i b l i o g r a p h y  o f Research P e r t a i n i n g to A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Vancouver: E x t e n s i o n Department, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. The U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , C e n t e n n i a l Committee. Century o f S e r v i c e . Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1963. V e r n e r , C o o l i e . A Conceptual Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Chicago: A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1962. Weir, J . R. "Address to A.I.C. Convention f o r 1959." A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review. V o l . XIV:5, 1959. W i l s o n , M e r e d i t h C , and Gladys G a l l u p . E x t e n s i o n Teaching  Methods, and Other F a c t o r s t h a t I n f l u e n c e A d o p t i o n of  A g r i c u l t u r a l and Home Economic P r a c t i c e s . F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e C i r c u l a r 495. Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1955. 199 W i l s o n , M. L. "S t a t e F e d e r a l Cooperation i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Programs." The Book of the S t a t e s . Annual Report of the D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n Work, 1945-46. Chicago: The C o u n c i l o f S t a t e Governments, 1945. • APPENDIX TABLE XLV FARM VISITS BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Manitoba O n t a r i o Quebec ) A A A A A 195S 26 5,939 44 25,008 40 13,241 143 103,816 1953 16 7,582 44 24,936 39 15,075 82 130,220 132 97,732 1954 (18) (7,021*) 42 22,947 39 12,396 ' 141 101,906 1955 (18) (7,021*) 48 22,422 39 12,398 143 103,042 1956 15 6,812 50 22,672 40 12,571 136 111,025 1957 16 7,749 56 22,399 42 11,400 133 108,082 1958 18 7,005 62 24,124 42 12,158 131 101,793 1959 19 8,930 54 20,827 41 11,041 38 15,242 87 1,570 132 105,084 1960 20 10,000 54 20,510 45 10,576 39 16,022 87 2,742 (132)(104,986*) 1961 18 7,355 56 23,572 42 11,393 43 17,942 (132)(105,038*) T o t a l 61,372 229,417 122,249 49,206 832,480 Average/ A gent 426.0 457.8 300.4 409.7 721.8 764.3 Year N f l d . N.S. P.E.I. T o t a l ( b > Agents Average Per Agent A d j u s t e d T o t a l A A A 1952 8 2,880 17 14,961 3 1,439 167,284 281 595.3 166,324^ 1953 8 1,950 (18)(14,432*) 5 1,678 148,953 244 610.5 162,266* 1954 8 2,840 18 13,902 1 650 154,641 249 621.1 161,662 1955 8 2,160 17 11,873 2 1.173 153,068 257 595.6 159,502 1956 8 2,280 16 11,587 W ) (629*] 1 166,947 265 630.0 167,576* 1957 8 2,060 15 10,223^ U ) 1 (629*J > 161,913 270 602.3 162,542 s 1958 8 2,180 (17)(11,469*) 1 650 147,910 262 564.5 159,379* 1959 8 2,350 18 12,714 2 1,260 162,206 274 592.0 161,576* 1960 8 2,860 15 10,029 2 1,400 55,375 144 384.6 159,661* 1961 8 2,890 16 9,130 3 1,800 56,140 143 392.6 159,978 T o t a l 24,450 94,419 10,050 1,374,437 2,389 575.3 1,620,466 Agent 305.6 712.7 579.0 575.3 Years 1952/56 1953/57 1954/58 1955/59 1956/60 1957/61 MOVING AVERAGES Per Agent 610.5 611.9 602.7 596.88 554.70 512.74 Adju s t e d T o t a l s 163,466 162,709 162,132 162,115 162,147 160,627 T a j A i s f o r Agents. E x c l u d i n g O n t a r i o and Manitoba. to x I n t e r p o l a t e d averages not in c l u d e d i n o r d i n a r y t o t a l s , but i n c l u d e d i n "adjusted o t o t a l . " TABLE XLVI TELEPHONE CALLS WITH AGENTS Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Manitoba * ( a) A A A 1952 5 7,201 44 46,834 40 29,994 1953 5 7,978 44 51,745 39 34,697 1954 (4,902) 42 50,027 39 36,717 1955 (4,902) 48 50,019 39 40,792 1956 2 2,057 50 95,572 40 46,504 1957 2 2,373 56 45,431 42 44,175 1958 2 2,327 62 52,356 42 46,115 1959 3 2,129 54 44,955 41 50,968 38 47,656 1960 1 1,070 54 49,261 45 51,411 39 43,157 1961 1 1,756 56 55,631 42 62,705 43 51,585 T o t a l 21 26,891 510 541,831 409 444,078 120 142,398 Average/Agent 1,280 1,062.4 1,085.7 1,186.7 Y e a r O n t a r i o Nova S c o t i a T o t a l Average Per Agent f o r B.C., A l t a . , Sask.. N.S. A d j u s t e d T o t a l s 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 81 (83)( 84 84 84 84 84 89 156,948 139,655*) 135,556 126,461 126,075 124,065 119,220 127,627*} 127,627*) 139,595 A 17 23,524 (21,792) 18 20,060 17 17,009 16 16,157 15 13,275 (15,272) 18 17,268 17 14,365 16 15,571 264,501 94,420 242,360 234,281 286,365 229,319 220,018 115,320 116,107 275,258 1,116 1,073 1,324 1,246 1,492 1,152 1,158 1,158.3 1,020.9 1,323.3 264,501 255,867* 247,262 239,183 286,365 229,319 235,890* 242,947* 243,734* 275,258 T o t a l ... 590 927,920 134 137,229 2,077,949 2,520,326 Average/Agent 1,572.7 1,024.1 1,178.5 MOVING AVERAGES Years 1952/56 1953/57 1954/58 1955/59 1956/60 1957/61 Per Agent (as above) 1,250.0 1,257.4 1,274.0 1,241.1 1,196.0 1,162.4 Ad j u s t e d T o t a l s 258,636 251,599 247,604 246,741 247,651 245,430 T a l A i s f o r Agents. T*7 Excludes Manitoba, CO o CO TABLE XLVII LETTERS WRITTEN BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Manitoba O n t a r i o Quebec (a) 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1 9 6 0 1961 11 11 1 0 , 7 9 2 1 1 , 0 2 1 5 6 5 4 3 3 324) 3 , 7 7 9 7 , 7 0 5 5 , 5 1 6 4 , 4 6 1 4 , 1 9 6 6/644s. A A A 44 4 1 , 4 1 6 40 4 7 , 3 3 2 44 4 5 , 6 8 2 39 2 9 , 3 2 9 42 4 5 , 6 9 5 39 3 2 , 1 4 9 48 4 8 , 3 6 8 39 3 5 , 3 4 9 50 4 9 , 7 7 0 40 3 8 , 3 7 5 56 4 2 , 0 0 8 42 3 7 , 4 3 4 62 4 2 , 3 5 1 42 3 8 , 5 5 6 54 4 2 , 7 1 5 41 4 0 , 3 4 0 38 54 4 2 , 3 7 4 45 4 4 , 7 7 7 39 56 4 2 , 9 3 9 42 4 6 , 0 4 6 43 3 2 , 0 0 5 3 2 , 5 2 0 3 4 , 1 1 9 8 1 82 8 4 8 4 84 84 8 4 1 2 0 , 3 7 1 1 2 5 , 9 1 8 1 1 8 , 5 3 1 1 2 0 , 2 1 6 1 1 3 , 2 5 7 1 2 0 , 3 8 6 1 1 9 , 8 1 7 ( 8 6 ) ( 1 2 1 , 8 3 9 ) ( 8 6 ) ( 1 2 1 , 8 3 9 ) 89 1 2 5 , 3 1 5 A 143 132 141 143 136 133 131 132 ( 1 3 2 ) ( 1 3 2 ) 8 4 , 2 9 4 8 5 , 8 5 8 9 1 , 7 1 6 8 8 , 3 1 6 8 6 , 9 7 5 8 5 , 2 5 6 9 0 , 0 7 2 8 9 , 8 5 8 ; 8 8 , 3 9 5 ) , 8 8 , 3 9 5 ) T o t a l 48 5 4 , 1 1 1 5 1 0 ^ 4 4 3 , 3 1 8 409 3 8 9 , 6 8 7 120 9 8 , 6 4 4 672 9 6 3 , 8 1 1 1 , 0 9 1 7 0 2 , 3 4 5 Average/ Agent 1 , 1 2 7 . 3 8 6 9 . 3 9 5 2 . 8 8 2 2 . 0 1 , 4 3 4 . 2 6 4 3 . 7 Year N f l d . N.S. P.E.I. T o t a l ^ Agents Average Per Agent A d j u s t e d Total(°) A A A 1952 8 3,470 17 25,399 3 10,920 343,994 347 991.3 333,074 1953 8 3,180 (17)(22,352) 2 793 301,781 318 ,949 323,340* 1954 8 3,950 18 23,315 1 185 315,541 293 1,077 323,680* 1955 8 3,560 17 18,341 1 802 314,952 340 926 322,474* 1956 8 3,420 16 19,227 314,803 339 929 314,803 1957 8 3,970 15 16,195 312,954 344 910 312,954 1958 8 4,060 (16)(17,302) 300,372 332 905 317,674* 1959 8 4,580 18 19,321 1 675 201,950 258 782.75 323,114* 1960 8 4,980 15 14,463 110,790 125 886.3 321,024* 1961 8 4,990 16 15,899 3 1,000 242,830 217 1,119.03 330,225* T o t a l 80 40,160 165 152,160 11 14,375 2,759,967 2,913 3,222,362 Agent 502 1,147.6 459.3 947.43 MOVING AVERAGES OP AVERAGE PER AGENT 1952/56 974.4 1953/57 958.2 1954/58 899.4 1955/59 887.0 1956/60 925.4 1957/61 929.0 i s f o r Agents. ^ E x c l u d i n g Manitoba. ^ E x c l u d i n g P.E.I, and Manitoba, CO o 03 TABLE XLVIII OFFICE CALLERS ON AGENTS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Manitoba O n t a r i o ) A A A A 1952 26 7,587 44 51,307 40 20,048 31 35,108 81 131,569 1953 ... 16 9,292 44 55,023 39 22,730 31 38,412 82 127,421 1954 (18) (9,337) 42 58,407 39 28,444 32 39,408 84 136,833 1955 ... (19) (9,382) 48 58,667 39 26,578 34 41,593 84 125,589 1956 15 8,789 50 59,004 40 30,345 35 44,330 84 121,460 1957 16 11,860 56 53,739 42 27,920 35 42,935 84 123,007 1958 18 13,997 62 62,597 42 29,231 35 42,132 84 112,383 1959 19 11,000 54 56,483 41 30,448 38 54,766 (87)(115,534) 1960 20 16,500 54 58,179 45 35,243 39 47,517 (87)(115,534) 1961 18 21,067 56 66,159 42 45,969 43 56,298 89 111,211 T o t a l 148 100,092 510 579,565 409 296,956 353 442,499 846 989,473 A vera ge/A gent 676.3 1,136.4 726.1 1,253.5 1,169.6 Year Quebec Nfld-. Nova S c o t i a P.B.I. T o t a l A d j u s t e d T o t a l ( t ) A A A A 1952 143 57,463 8 4,840 17 17,727 325,649 325,649 1953 132 51,360 8 4,160 (18)(15,648) 308,398 324,046 1954 141 56,289 8 2,160 18 13,569 335,110 3 4 4 , 4 4 7 1955 143 54,093 8 2,075 17 10,928 1 (342) 319,865 328,905 1956 136 51,133 8 2,190 16 10,090 327,341 327,341 1957 133 50,468 8 2,100 15 7,869 319,898 319,898 1958 131 52,378 8 2,780 (17) (9,123) 315,498 . 324,621 1959 132 52*827 8 2,400 18 10,377 1 (400) 218,701 334,235 1960 (132)(51,891) 8 2,250 15 5,944 165,633 333,058 1961 (132)(52,365) 8 2,120 16 8,377 1 (500) 311,701 ' 363,566 T o t a l 1,091 426,011 80 27,075 132 84,881 3 1,242 2,947,794 3,325,766 Average/Agent 390.5 338.43 643.0 414 867.8 v 'A i s f o r Agents. d j u s t e d t o t a l s i n c l u d e bracketed numbers which a r e c a l c u l a t e d i n t e r p o l a t e d averages, but exclude P.E.I. TABLE XLIX PROVINCE OP BRITISH COLUMBIA: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Farm Telephone L e t t e r s O f f i c e Moving Average Year V i s i t s C a l l s W r i t t e n C a l l e r s X U wCL J .O o f T o t a l 1952 5,939 7,201 10,792 7,587 31,519 1952/56 29,610 1953 7,582 7,978 11,021 9,292 35,873 1953/57 28,999 1954 1955 1956/58 1956 6,812 2,057 3,779 8,789 21,437 26,656 1957 7,749 2,373 7,705 11,860 29,687 1957/59 28,351 1958 7,005 2,327 5,516 13,997 28,845 1958/60 29,044 1959 8,930 2,129 4,461 11,000 26,520 1959/61 31,702 1960 10,000 1,070 4,196 16,500 31,766 1961 7,355 1,756 6,641 21,067 36,819 T o t a l 61,372 26,891 54,111 100,092 242,466 Each type as a p e r cent o f a l l types 25.3 11.1 22.3 41.3 Average/ 3,498.8 Agent 414.7 1,280.5 1,127.3 676.3 CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Farm Telephone L e t t e r s O f f i c e T o t a l V i s i t s C a l l s W r i t t e n C a l l e r s 1952 • • • 228.3 1,440 981 291.8 2,941 1953 • • • 473.9 1,596 1,002 580.8 3,653 1954 1955 1956 ... 454.1 1,029 755.8 585.9 2,825 1957 • • • 484.3 1,187 1,284.2 741.3 3,697.6 1958 ... 389.2 1,164 1,103.2 777.6 3,434 1959 ... 470.0 710 1,115.3 578.9 2,874 1960 ... 500.0 1,070 1,398.7 825.0 3,791.9 1961 408.6 1,756 2,213.7 1,170.4 5,548.7 T o t a l • » • 3,408.4 9,952 7,870.9 5,551.7 CHANGE: +17% r-13% +53.6% +68% . +24.5J PER CENT EACH TYPE OF CONTACT PER AGENT OF ALL TYPES 1952 • • • 7.7 49.0 33.4 9.9 1961 • • • 7.4 31.6 39.9 21.1 Average 11.8 34.6 34.3 19.3 CO o cn TABLE L PROVINCE OP ALBERTA: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Year Farm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l s Moving Average o f T o t a l 1952 25,008 46,834 41,416 51,307 164,565 1952/54 173,009 1953 24,936 51,745 45,682 55,023 177,386 1953/55 177,979 1954 22,947 50,027 45,695 58,407 177,076 1954/56 194,524 1955 22,422 50,019 48,368 58,667 179,476 1955/57 190,024 1956 22,672 95,572 49,770 59,004 227,018 1956/58 190,674 1957 22,399 45,431 42,008 53,739 163,577 1957/59 169,995 1958 24,124 52,356 42,351 62,597 181,428 1958/60 172,244 1959 20,827 44,955 42,715 56,483 164,980 1959/61 174,535 1960 20,510 49,261 42,374 58,179 170,324 1961 23,572 55,631 42,939 66,159 188,301 T o t a l 229,417 541,831 443,318 579,565 1,794,131 Each type as a per cent of a l l types 12.8 30.2 24.7 32.3 Average/ Agent 457.8 1,062.4 869.3 1,136.4 3,525.9 CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Farm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 568.4 566.7 546.4 467.1 453.4 400.0 389.1 385.7 379.8 420.9 1,064.4 1,176.0 1,191.1 1,042.0 1,911.4 811.3 844.5 832.5 912.2 993.4 941.3 1,038.2 1,088.0 1,007.7 995.4 750.1 683.1 791.0 784.7 766.8 1,166.1 1,250.5 1,390.6 1,222.2 1,180.1 959.6 1,203.8 1,046.0 1,077.4 1,181.4 3,740.2 4,031.4 4,216.1 3,739.0 4,540.3 2,921.0 3,120.5 3,055.2 3,154.1 3,362.5 T o t a l 4,577.5 10,771 8,846.3 11,677.7 35,872.5 CHANGE: -24. Ifo -31.2% -25.5% -11.9% -23% PER CENT EACH TYPE OP CONTACT PER AGENT OP ALL TYPES 1952 1961 15.2 12.5 28.5 29.5 25.2 22.8 31.1 35.1 Average 1952-61 12.8 30.0 24.7 32.6 60 O Ol TABLE L I PROVINCE OP SASKATCHEWAN: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Year Farm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l s . Moving Average o f T o t a l 1952 13,241 29,994 47,332 20,048 110,615 1952/54 107,3S4 1953 15,075 34,697 29,329 22,730 101,831 1953/55 108,885 1954 12,396 36,717 32,149 28,444 109,706 1954/56 117,539 1955 12,398 40,792 35,349 26,578 115,117 1955/57 121,280 1956 12,571 46,504 38,375 30,345 127,795 1956/58 124,928 1957 11,400 44,175 37,434 27,920 120,929 1957/59 126,595 1958 12,158 46,115 38,556 29,231 126,060 1958/60 133,688 1959 11,041 50,968 40,340 30,448 132,797 1959/61 146,972 1960 10,576 51,411 44,777 35,243 142,007 1961 11,393 62,705 46,046 45,969 166,113 T o t a l 122,249 444,078 389,687 296,956 1,252,970 Each type as a per cent o f a l l types +9.8$ +35$ +31$ +24$ Average/ Agent 300.4 1,085.7 952.8 726.1 3,065.0 CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Parm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 331.0 386.5 317.8 317.9 314.3 271.4 289.5 269.3 235.0 271.3 749.9 889.7 941.5 1,045.9 1,162.6 1,051.8 1,098.0 1,243.1 1,142.5 1,493.0 1,083.3 752.0 824.3 906.4 959.4 891.3 918.0 983.9 995.0 1,096.3 501.2 582.8 729.3 681.5 758.6 664.8 696.0 742.6 783.2 1,094.5 2,665.4 2,611.0 2,812.9 2,951.7 3,194.9 2,879.3 3,001.5 3,238.9 3,155.7 3,955.1 T o t a l 3,004 10,818 9,409.1 7,234.5 CHANGE; -20% +26% +5.5% • +22.7% +6.18% PER CENT EACH TYPE OP CONTACT PER AGENT OP ALL TYPES 1952 ... 1961 12.41 6.85 28.13 37.74 40.64 27.71 18.80 27.67 Average 1952-61 9.8 35.42 31.08 23.69 TABLE L I I PROVINCE OF MANITOBA: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Year Farm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l s 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 15,242 16,022 17,942 47,656 43,157 51,585 32,005 32,520 34,119 35,108 38,412 39,408 41,593 44,330 42,935 42,132 54,766 47,517 56,298 149,669 139,216 159,944 T o t a l 49,206 142,398 98,644 442,499 448,829 Each type as a per cent o f a l l types 10.9$ 31.7$ 22.0$ 35.3$ Average/ Agent 409.7 1,186.7 822 1,253.5 3,671. CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Parm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 401.1 410.8 417.3 1,254.1 1,106.6 1,199.7 842.2 833.8 793.5 1,132.5 1,239.1 1,231.5 1,223.3 1,266.7 1,226.7 1,203.8 1,441.2 1,218.4 1,309.3 3,938.6 3,569.6 3,719.8 T o t a l 1,229.2 3,560.4 2,469.5 12,492.4 11,228.0 CHANGE: +5.03% PER CENT EACH TYPE OP CONTACT PER AGENT OP ALL TYPES 1959 1961 10.2 11.2 31.8 32.3 21.4 21.3 36.6 35.2 Average 1952-61 11.15 32.31 22.38 34.13 TABLE L I I I PROVINCE OP ONTARIO: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Year Parm V i s i t s (2) Telephone C a l l s (3) L e t t e r s W r i t t e n (4) O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l o f ( 2 ) + ( 3 ) + ( 4 ) A d j u s t e d T o t a l o f ( 2 ) + ( 3 W ( 4 ) 1952 1953 1954 1955 ... 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 130,220 1,570 2,742 156,948 (139,655) 135,556 126,461 126,075 124,065 119,220 (127,627) (127,627) 139,595 120,371 125,918 118,531 120,216 113,257 120,386 119,817 (121,839) (121,839) 125,315 131,569 127,421 136,833 125,589 121,460 123,007 112,383 (115,534) (115,534) 111,211 408,888 253,339 390,920 372,266 360,792 367,458 351,420 376,121 408,888 392,994 387,920 372,266 360,792 367,458 351,420 365,000 365,000 376,121 T o t a l 927,920 963,811 989,473 2,881,204 3,747,859 Each type as a per cent o f a l l types 32.20% 33.45% 34. 34% Average/ Agent (525.5) 1,572.7 1,434.2 1,472.4 4,479.3 CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Farm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1,588 18.0 31.5 1,937.6 1,613.8 1,505.5 1,500.9 1,477.0 1,419.3 1,568.5 1,486.1 1,535.6 1,411.1 1,431.1 1,348.5 1,433.2 1,426.4 1,408.0 1,624.3 1,553.9 1,628.9 1,495.1 1,446.0 1,464.4 1,337.9 1,249 5,048.0 4,653.8 4,431.7 4,295.4 4,374.6 4,183.6 4,225.5 T o t a l 1,637.5 11,022.6 11,480.0 11,799.5 31,212.6 CHANGE: -9.2$ -1.4$ -12.9$ -7.5$ PER CENT EACH TYPE OP CONTACT PER AGENT OP ALL TYPES 1952 1961 38.3 37.1 29.4 33.3 32.3 29.6 Average 1952-61 35.11 32.01 32.87 to o <o TABLE LIV PROVINCE OP QUEBEC: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Year Farm V i s i t s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l 1952 1955 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 103,816 97,732 101,906 103,042 111,025 108,082 101,793 105,084 84,294 85,858 91,716 88,316 86,975 85,256 90,072 89,858 57,463 51,360 56,289 54,093 51,133 50,468 52,378 52,827 245,573 234,950 249,911 245,451 249,133 243,806 244,243 247,769 T o t a l 832,480 702,345 426,011 1,960,836 Each type as a per cent o f a l l types 42.41$ 35.81$ 21.71$ Average/Agent 763.0 643.8 390.5 1,797.3 CONTACTS PES AGENT Year Farm L e t t e r s O f f i c e T o t a l V i s i t s W r i t t e n C a l l e r s 1952 726.0 589.5 401.8 1,717.3 1953 740.4 650.4 389.1 1,779.9 1954 722.7 650.5 399.2 1,772.4 1955 720.6 617.6 378.3 1,716.5 1956 816.4 639.5 . 376.0 1,831.9 1957 818.1 641.0 379.5 1,838.6 1958 777.0 687.6 400.0 1,864.6 1959 796.1 680.7 400.2 1,877.0 1960 1961 T o t a l 6,117.3 5,156.8 3,124.1 14,398.2 CHANGE: +7$ +6.4$ +1.1$ +5.5$ PER CENT EACH TYPE OP CONTACT PER AGENT OP ALL TYPES 1952 42.20 34.30 23.40 1959 42.41 36.33 21.32 Average 1952-59 42.45 35.82 21.72 TABLE LV PROVINCE OP NOVA SCOTIA: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Year Parm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 14,961 13,902 11,873 11,587 10,223 12,714 10,029 9,130 23,524 20,060 17,009 16,157 13,275 17,268 14,365 15,571 25,399 23,315 18,341 19,227 16,195 19,321 14,463 15,899 17,727 13,569 10,928 10,090 7,869 10,377 5,944 8,377 81,611 70,846 58,151 57,061 47,562 59,680 44,801 48,977 T o t a l 94,419 137,229 152,160 84,881 468,689 Each type ae a per cent o f a l l types 20.14% 29.27% 32.46% 18.11% Average/Agent 712.7 1,024.1 1,147.6 643.0 3,527.4 CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Farm V i s i t s Telephone C a l l s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 • • • • • • • • t • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • 880.0 772.0 698.4 724.2 681.5 706.3 668.6 570.6 1,383.8 1,114.4 1,000.5 1,009.8 885.0 959.3 845.0 973.2 1,494.1 1,295.3 1,078.9 1,201.7 1,079.7 1,073.4 964.2 993.7 1,042.8 753.8 642.8 630.6 524.6 576.5 396.3 523.6 4,800.7 3,935.5 3,420.6 3,566.3 3,170.8 3,315.5 2,874.1 3,061.1 T o t a l • • • 5,701.6 8,171.0 9,181.0 5,091.0 CHANGE: -14.7$ -19$ -18.9$ -34.2$ -20.99$ PER CENT EACH TYPE OP CONTACT PER AGENT OP ALL TYPES 1952 1961 • • • • • • 18.33 18.9 28.8 31.8 31.3 32.5 21.7 17.1 Average 1952-61 20.2 29.0 32.5 18.2 TABLE LVI PROVINCE OP NEWFOUNDLAND: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Year Parm L e t t e r s O f f i c e T o t a l V i s i t s W r i t t e n C a l l e r s 1952 2,880 3,470 4,840 11,190 1953 1,950 3,180 4,160 9,290 1954 2,840 3,950 2,160 8,950 1955 2,160 3,560 2,075 7,795 1956 2,280 3,420 2,190 7,890 1957 2,060 3,970 2,100 8,130 1958 2,180 4,060 2,780 9,020 1959 2,350 4,580 2,400 9,330 1960 2,860 4,980 2,250 10,090 1961 2,890 4,990 2,120 10,000 T o t a l 24,450 40,160 27,075 91,685 E a c h type as a per cent of a l l types 26.66% 43.80% 29.53% Average/Agent 305.6 502.0 338.6 1,146.2 CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Parm L e t t e r s O f f i c e T o t a l V i s i t s W r i t t e n C a l l e r s 1952 360 434 605 1,398.7 1953 ... 244 398 520 1,161.3 1954 • •. 355 494 270 1,119.0 1955 • • • 270 445 259 974.7 1956 • • • 285 428 274 986.3 1957 ... 258 496 . 261 1,016.3 1958 •. • 273 508 348 1,127.5 1959 294 573 300 1,166.3 1960 • • • 358 623 281 1,261.3 1961 361 624 265 1,250.0 T o t a l • • * 3,058 5,023 3,383 11,461.4 CHANGE: +2% +28.4% -24.5% +3.2% PER GENT EACH TYPE OP CONTACT PER AGENT OP ALL TYPES 1952 • • • 25.7 31.0 43.3 1961 • • • 28.8 49.9 21.2 Average 1952-61 26.7 43.8 29.5 TABLE LVII PROVINCE OP PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND: INDIVIDUAL CONTACTS Year Parm V i s i t s L e t t e r s W r i t t e n O f f i c e C a l l e r s T o t a l s Moving Average o f T o t a l 1952 1,439 1,092 2,531 1952/56 1,946 1953 1,678 793 2,471 1953/57 1,874 1954 650 185 835 1954/58 1,267 1955 1,173 802 342 2,317 1955/59 1,734 1956 1956/60 1,462 1957 1957/61 2,312 1958 650 650 1959 1,260 675 400 2,335 1960 1,400 1,400 1961 1,800 1,000 500 3,300 T o t a l 10,050 4,547 1,242 15,839 Average/Agent 579 459.3 414 1,452.3 CONTACTS PER AGENT Farm L e t t e r s O f f i c e T o t a l Year V i s i t s W r i t t e n C a l l e r s 1952 • • t 479.7 364 342 1,185.7 1953 • » • 335.6 396.5 1954 • • • 650.0 185 1955 • • • 586.5 802 1956 1957 1958 • • * 650 1959 • • • 630 675 400 1,705 1960 • • • 700 1961 • • * 600 333 500 1,433 T o t a l • • * 4,631.8 2,755.5 1,242 4,323.7 CHANGE: 25.8$ 15.3$ 31.6$ 32.3$ PER CENT EACH TYPE OF CONTACT PER AGENT OF ALL TYPES Average 1952-61 39.9 31.6 28.5 TABLE L V I I I MEETINGS ATTENDED BY AGENTS Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Manitoba O n t a r i o 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 k(a) 10 15 13 15 15 13 12 15 621 794 (974) (974) 1,622 857 783 702 532 859 A 44 44 42 48 56 62 54 54 56 3,136 3,332 3,757 3,736 (4,026) 477 4,274 4,335 4,470 4,589 40 39 39 39 40 42 42 2,589 2,599 2,930 1,001 1,919 1,782 510 31 31 32 34 35 38 2,116 2,908 2,324 3,100 (2,638) (2,638) 3,632 1,495 2,588) 2,588) A 81 5 ,750 82 13 ,522 84 11 ,781 84 10 ,893 84 10 ,377 84 10 ,596 84 11 ,138 (10 ,039 (10 ,039 89 8 ,382 T o t a l 108 6,770 460 32,106 281 13,330 201 15,575 672 82,439 Average 13.5 846 51 3,567 40 1,904 33.5 2,596 84 11,77? Average/Agent 62.7 78.3 ( e x c l u d i n g 1957) 47.4 77.5 122.7 Y e a r Quebec N.S. P.E.I. T o t a l M e e t i n g s P e r Agent A d j u s t e d T o t a l A A 1952 143 4,618 17 1953 132 4,505 1954 141 5,037 18 1955 143 4,160 17 1956 136 3,799 16 1957 133 3,785 15 1958 131 3,356 1959 132 3,564 18 1960 (3,568} 14 1961 (3,568) 16 2,960 (2,838) 2,962 2,591 2,405 1,894 (2,049) 2,065 1,832 1,873 3 3 3 3 3 329 378 62 192 7 313 164 217 22,119 28,038 28,791 25,673 20,122 18,914 23,693 12,474 6,998 15,920 59.94 81.03 80.87 69.95 69.63 54.82 64.21 48.35 84.31 88.94 22,119 30,876 29,765 26,647 26,786 21,552 25,742 22,513 23,193 22,076 T o t a l 1,091 32,824 131 18,582 17 1,662 203,219 251,269 Average 136.4 4,103 16.4 2,323 2.8 266 3,423 25,127 CHANGE: -5.8% -15.5% Average/Agent 30.1 141.9 83.5 ( e x c l u d i n g 1958) 72.2 72.2 TO A i s f o r A g e n t s . to TABLE LIX BRITISH COLUMBIA: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Meetings Farm Demonstrations 215 F i e l d Days Average 1952-61 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 62.7 62.1 52.9 124.4 57.1 52.2 54.0 44.3 55.9 62.7 6.6 11.1 5.7 9.1 8.4 7.2 7.5 8.1 10.3 CHANGE: -26$ -3$ TABLE LX SASKATCHEWAN: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT Year lee t i n g s Farm Demonstrations F i e l d Days Average 4.4 1952-61 47.4 5.7 1952 64.7 7.3 4.3 1953 66.6 8.4 4.6 1954 75.1 3.1 1955 25.7 3.0 6.6 1956 48.0 6.0 1957 42.4 0.4 1958 12.1 6.0 1959 5.8 1960 1.2 1961 CHANGE: -47$ -37$ TABLE LXI ALBERTA: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Meetings Short Farm F i e l d Group Courses Demonstrations Days Tours Demonstration Plots Used Average 1952-61 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 69.8 71.2 75.7 89.5 77.8 68.9 80.3 82.8 81.9 0.46 0.6 0.3 6.3 3.7 16.1 3.1 9.7 0.7 2.2 1.0 6.5 0.6 3.1 0.2 0.2 7.5 12.7 24.6 3.7 0.7 4.2 CHANGE: 27% to o> TABLE LXII MANITOBA: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT 217 Year Meetings Farm Demonstrations F i e l d Days Average 1952-60 , 77.5 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 ... 68.3 93.8 72.6 . • • 91.2 103.8 ... 39.3 • • • 11.7 4.9 0.84 2.85 CHANGE: -2% TABLE LXII I ONTARIO: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Farm F i e l d Meetings Demonstrations Days Demonstration P l o t s Used Average 1952-61 122.7 0.69 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 71.0 164.9 140.3 129.7 123.5 126.1 132.6 0.4 0.61 1.02 0.7 2.50 0.4 1.61 0.5 0.38 1.00 0.36 0.32 0.31 20.7 23.3 29.0 53.0 CHANGE: 4$ -66$ TABLE LXIV 218 QUEBEC: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Meetings Parm Demonstrations A vera ge 1952-59 30.1 14.8 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 32.3 34.1 35.7 29.1 27.9 28.5 25.6 27.0 19.0 11.6 19.5 18.9 18.2 16.2 7.0 7.3 CHANGE: -19.8% -41.7% TABLE LXV NOVA SCOTIA: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Meetings F i e l d Days Average 1952-61 141.9 5.0 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 174.1 164.6 152.4 150.3 126.3 114.7 130.9 117.1 6.5 6.6 4.4 5.6 6.9 4.8 4.6 4.7 CHANGE: -29% -9% 219 TABLE LXVI PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT Year Meetings Farm F i e l d Demonstrations Days Average 1952-61 89.6 3.0 0.4 1952 109.7 4.7 1953 126 1.0 0.2 1954 1.7 1955 96 0.7 1956 8.3 1957 0.8 1958 1959 104.3 1960 54.7 1961 72.3 -CHANGE: -31$ TABLE LXVTI NEWFOUNDLAND: GROUP CONTACTS PER AGENT 1952 ) 1953 ) 1954 ) 1955 j 1956 ) DATA NOT AVAILABLE 1957 ) 1958 ) 1959 ) 1960 ) 1961 ) TABLE LXVTII PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTED Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. i • 1 — O n t a r i o Quebec N f l d . N.S. 1952 283,197 ( i n c l d g . c i r c u l a r s ) 52,109 141,831 325,977 8*900 28,497 1953 11,362 223,521 60,441 160,666 292,425 8,780 1954 314,910 83,230 157,792 312,080 8,400 7,012 1955 348,979 96,854 157,696 8,640 1956 8,485 284,797 113,629 160,671 8,780 3,009 1957 28,639 101,457 149,732 288,957 8,080 1958 20,005 162,687 8,150 1959 19,576 152,671 299,027 8,170 1960 14,912 228,194 27,103 8,340 1961 23,244 186,497 8,390 63 63 O TABLE LXIX DISTRIBUTION OF CIRCULARS Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N.S. 1952 1953 1954 1,869 in c l u d e d i n T a b l e LXVTII I F 65,317 93,522 112,611 . 719,069 812,542 741,197 i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e LXVIII 69,875 81,291 1955 it 120,167 760,135 275,000 1956 6,956 I I 127,291 760,233 235,059 112,200 1957 19,219 n 128,587 758,007 i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e LXVIII 90,855 1958 18,186 ti 790,576 282,913 1959 7,499 it 312,357 7,644 1,038,900 124,133 1960 13,370 ti 356,436 90,150 720,800 1961 24,427 I I 364,141 106,652 1,002,676 92,246 63 63 TABLE LXX PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTED BY AGENTS INCLUDING CIRCULARS' Year B.C. A l b e r t a Sask. Man. O n t a r i o 1952 12,307 283,197 117,426 860,900 1953 13,231 223,521 153,963 973,208 1954 14,336* 314,910 195,841 898,989 1955 14,336* 348,979 217,021 917,831 1956 15,441 284,797 240,920 920,904 1957 47,858 101,457 128,587 907,739 1958 38,191 200,236* 220,472* 953,263 1959 27,075 200,236* 312,357 160,315 1,038,900 1960 28,282 228,194 356,436 117,253 720,800 1961 52,671 186,497 364,141 106,652 1,002,676 T o t a l 263,728 2,372,024 2,307,164 384,220 9,195,210 CHANGE: 184.9$ -62.4$ 56.8$ 1.1$ Year Quebec N f l d . N.S. Ad j u s t e d T o t a l Number o f Agent8 D i s t r i b u t i o n Per Agent 1952 • • • 325,977 8,900 98,372 1,707,079 343 4,977 1953 292,425 8,780 93,338* 1,758,466* 331 5,313 1954 312,080 8,400 88,303 1,832,859* 341 5,375 1955 275,000 8,640 107,619 1,889,426* 349 5,414 1956 235,059 8,780 115,209 1,821,110 344 5,294 1957 288,957 8,080 90,855 1,573,533 353 4,458 1958 1959 • . • 282,913 299,027 8,150 8,170 107,494* 124,133 1,810,719* 2,009,898* 358 ^ 390 ) 5,058 5,154 1960 ... 290,970* 8,340 74,987 1,708,009 391 4,368 1961 ... 294,999* 8,390 92,246 x ( a 2,001,620* ^ 400 5,004 T o t a l 2,897,407 84,630 992,556 18,112,719 50,415 CHANGE: 0.7$ -5.5$ 6.7$ 1.05$ -7$ E x c l u d i n g Manitoba. CO CO CO TABLE NUMBER OP PARMS, AGENTS 1951 1956 Farms Agents Farms Per Agent Farms Agents B.C. 26,406 26 1,015.6 24,748 21 A l b e r t a 84,315 44 1,916.3 79,424 50 Saskatchewan 112,018 39 2,872.3 103,391 40 Manitoba 52,383 31 1,689.8 49,201 35 O n t a r i o 149,920 82 1,828.3 140,602 84 Quebec 134,336 132 1,017.7 122,617 136 N.B. 26,431 24 1,101.3 22,116 20 Nova S c o t i a 23,515 22 1,068.9 21,075 21 P.E.I. 10,137 3 3,379.0 9,432 3 Newfoundland 3,626 8 453.3 2,387 8 Yukon & N.W. T e r r i t o r y 4 22 CANADA 623,091 411 1,516.03 j 575,015 418 Change i n No. o f Farms per Agent: 1951 to 1956 -9.26% : 1956 to 1961 -12.01$ : Change l n No. o f Farms: 1951 to 1961 -16.28% o f 1951 : 1951 to 1956 -7.72% : 1956 to 1961 -9.28% : NOTE: Area o f farmland decreased 0.1% 1951 to 1956. Sources: No. o f Farms, Canada Year Book 1960, p. 500, and 1963-64, p. 477. (1956 d e f i n i t i o n o f farms used f o r a l l y e a rs.) 223 LXXI AND FARMS PER AGENT 1961 1951-1961 Farms Per Agent Farms Agents Farms P e r Agent Change Farms Per Agent 1,178.5 1,588.5 2,584.8 1,406 1,673.8 901.6 1,105.8 1,003.6 3,144 298.4 23,946 74,661 94,402 44,264 127,492 108,865 18,331 18,264 8,025 3,358 26 18 56 42 43 89 (132) 19 21 3 8 1,331.3 1,333.2 2,247.7 1,029.4 1,432.5 824.7 964.8 869.7 2,675.0 419.8 315.7 31.1$ 583.1 -30.4$ 624.6 -21.8$ 660.4 -39.1$ 395.8 -21.7$ 193.0 -19.0$ 136.5 -12.4$ 199.2 -18.6$ 704.0 -20.8$ 33.5 -7.4$ 1,375.63 521,634 431 1,210.29 305.74 -20.16$ 1951 t o 1961 -20.16$. 1951 t o 1961 -16.28$. TABLE LXXIIA ATTENDANCE AT MEETINGS HELD BY AGENTS^ a^ Year B.C. A l b e r t a Saskatchewan Manitoba 1952 7,435 221 189,375 3,136 146,585 2,468 1953 8,868 316 184,322 3,332 1954 222,310 3,757 1955 193,154 3,736 1956 51,547 1,403 284,137 1,919 1957 14,316 649 35,540 477 1958 13,800 644 178,377 4,274 22,160 510 1959 11,803 491 172,739 4,335 40,092 1,495 1960 6,681 240 185,194 4,470 1961 . 17,030 465 190,864 4,589 • Year O n t a r i o Quebec Nova S c o t i a T o t a l Attendances T o t a l Meetings 1952 854,343 5, 750 247,594 4,618 115,044 2,960 1,560,376 19,153 1953 1,074,999 13, 522 261,707 4,505 1,529,896 21,675 1954 282,049 5,037 63,002 2,962 567,361 11,756 1955 4,329 206 243,730 4,160 58,140 2,591 499,353 10,693 1956 4,348 199 208,597 3,799 53,351 2,405 601*980 9,725 1957 184,238 3,785 34,580 1,894 268,674 6,805 1958 162,474 3,356 376,811 8,784 1959 181,609 3,564 34,647 2,065 440,890 11,950 1960 26,582 1,832 218,457 6,542 1961 24,632 1,873 232,526 6,927 The number a t t e n d i n g the given number of meetings f o r each p r o v i n c e . TABLE LXXIIB ATTENDANCE PER MEETING AND PER CENT MEETINGS REPRESENTED Year B.C. 2( a ) I 1952 33.6 35 60.4 100 1953 88.1 40 55.3 100 1954 ... 59.1 100 1955 ... 51.7 100 1956 36.7 87 1957 22.1 76 74.5 100 1958 21.4 82 41.7 100 1959 24.0 70 39.8 100 1960 27.8 45 41.4 100 1961 36.6 54 41.6 100 Average of T o t a l s 29.7 65 Average 1952-56 32.8 Average 1957-61 26.4 D i f f e r e n c e CHANGE: 6.4 -20$ A l b e r t a 48.3 100 56.6 47.8 8.8 -16$ Sask. Manitoba O n t a r i o 59.4 95 148.1 100 43.5 100 27.8 100 148.6 79.5 21.0 21.9 100 100 2 2 92.5 37 27.8 8 98.5 24 103.8 43.5 60.3 -58$ 114 Y e a r Average Quebec N.S. A t t e n d a n c e Moving Average P e r M e e t i n g 1952 53.6 100 38.9 100 81.5 1952/54 66.8 1953 58.1 100 70.6 1953/55 55.2 1954 56.0 100 21.3 100 48.3 1954/56 52.3 1955 58.6 100 22.4 100 46.7 1955/57 49.4 1956 54.9 100 22.2 100 61.9 1956/58 48.1 1957 48.7 100 18.3 100 39.5 1957/59 39.8 1958 48.4 100 42.9 1958/60 37.7 1959 51.0 100 16.8 100 36.9 1959/61 34.6 1960 14.5 100 33.4 1961 13.2 100 33.6 Average o f T o t a l s 54 100 22.1 100 55.6 A v e r a g e 1952-56 56.2 26.2 61.8 Average 1957-61 49.3 15.7 37.3 D i f f e r e n c e 6.9 10.5 24.5 CHANGE: -12% -40% -40% A t t e n d a n c e data i n p r e v i o u s column a r e f o r t h e g i v e n p e r c e n t a g e o f a l l m eetings r e c o r d e d f o r t h a t y e a r . TABLE LXXIII FARM DEMONSTRATIONS: ATTENDANCE PER DEMONSTRATION Year A l t a . Man. Ont. Que. Average^3) Per P r o v i n c e Moving Averages 1952 81.4 18.3 65.029 = 23.8 1952/54 27.3 2,731 1953 49.1 38.6 67.153 = 39.6 1953/55 25.8 1,695 1954 17.5 20 65.755 = 19.6 1954/56 23.2 3,363 1955 10.2 16.5 50.334 = 18.3 1955/57 25.9 2,754 1956 ... 31.6 78.287 = 31.6 1956/58 42.1 - 2,478 1957 19.2 30.1 75.317 = 27.9 1957/59 39.3 2,696 1958 31.7 69.0 64.263 = 67.3 1956/57/59 27.4 955 1959 22.6 7.433 = 22.6 329 CHANGE: +7.4$ $ Demonstrations i n each y e a r r e p r e s e n t e d above $ o f a l l Demonstrations , 1.367 1,427 95.7$ 1.367 1,575 87$ 329 443 74.3$ 329 633 52$ 75 75 100$ 75 166 45$ 15.230 16,196 94$ 15.230 16,196 94$ REPRESENTATION: 17.001 = 80$ 21,205 o f Farm Demonstrations i n T a b l e XIV. T o t a l attendances d i v i d e d by number of meetings. CO CO TABLE LXXIV SHORT COURSES: ATTENDANCE PER COURSE Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. N.S. P.E.I. 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 ... 30 1959 1960 1961 42.2 128.8 66.7 50.1 45.8 34.6 58.0 56.6 36.1 151.1 35.0 66.0 83.3. 27.1 17.0 Attendance 30 per Course 1 1.560 37 32.899 635 21.268 453 10.925 80 822 15 = 30 $ Courses i n each y e a r r e p r e s e n t e d above 100$ 42.16 100$ 51.80 100$ 46.95 100$ 136.6 '78$ 54.8 100$ 100$ $ o f a l l Courses i n T a b l e X I I I 100% 70$ 99$ 100$ 35$ 88$ 47$ Year Average(a) Per P r o v i n c e Moving Average 1952 1953 10.578 70 = 151.1 1952/55 1954/56 106.7 84.1 1954 1955 1956 482 12 2.576 20 500 40.2 128.8 83.3 1955/58 1956/59 1958/60 90.0 65.0 53.8 1957 6 1959/61 46.3 1958 1959 1960 1961 6.126 106 10.807 201 16.626 334 16.608 470 S 57.8 53.8 49.8 35.3 CHANGE: -47.5% T o t a l 67.524 1,222 .S 55.26 REPRESENTATION: 1.222 1,469 a 83.2% of Short Courses i n T a b l e X I I I . (a) T o t a l attendances d i v i d e d by number o f meetings. TABLE LXXV FIELD DAYS: ATTENDANCE PER DAY Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. N.S. N f l d . 1952 70.1 41.8 67.6 162.2 1953 77.3 96.0 1.333.3 1954 90.7 41.2 98.1 1955 57.3 129.8 1956 49.4 209.0 133.9 1957 101.4 26.0 49.9 136.7 50 1958 60.9 37.7 64.4 1959 110.3 233.3 32.1 123.9 69 1960 97.0 44.7 39.6 194.3 1961 43.0 64.0 75 302 548 367 143 59 908 3 733 548 1,001 143 134 908 8 % o f Days i n each year 100% 100% represented above 41% 100% 37% 44% 38% % of a l l F i e l d Days 41% 100% 31% 100% 11% 100% 11% Year Average^*) Per P r o v i n c e Moving Average 1 9 5 2 3 2 . 0 3 9 1 0 0 . 1 1 9 5 2 / 5 4 1 4 6 . 1 3 2 0 1 9 5 3 1 6 . 8 8 3 s 2 7 6 . 8 1 9 5 3 / 5 5 1 4 0 . 9 6 1 1 9 5 4 2 6 . 4 4 8 s 6 1 . 5 1 9 5 4 / 5 6 8 5 . 6 4 3 0 1 9 5 5 2 0 . 7 0 3 s 8 4 . 5 1 9 5 5 / 5 7 9 9 . 7 2 4 5 1 9 5 6 1 8 . 7 1 5 s 1 1 0 . 7 1 9 5 6 / 5 8 8 6 . 6 1 6 9 1 9 5 7 2 4 . 6 3 9 1 0 4 . 0 1 9 5 7 / 5 9 8 5 . 4 2 3 7 1 9 5 8 1 2 . 7 7 7 = 4 5 . 1 1 9 5 8 / 6 0 8 2 . 5 2 8 3 1 9 5 9 / 6 1 1 9 5 9 2 0 . 4 6 7 3 1 0 7 . 2 8 8 . 2 1 9 1 1 9 6 0 2 7 , 2 4 5 zs 9 4 . 6 2 8 8 1 9 6 1 6 . 6 4 4 s 6 2 . 7 1 0 6 CHANGE: 3 0 . 5 $ REPRESENTATION: 2 . 3 3 0 3 , 9 7 0 » 5 9 $ of a l l F i e l d " Days i n T a b l e XVI. T o t a l attendances d i v i d e d by number o f meetings. TABLE LXXVI MOVING AVERAGE OP ATTENDANCE RATE PER EVENT Years Meetings F i e l d Days Farm Demonstrations Short Courses 195S/54 66.8 146.2 27.7 1953/55 55.2 140.0 25.8 (1952/55: 106.7) 1954/56 52.3 85.7 23.2 84.1 1955/57 49.4 99.4 25.9 90.0 1956/58 48.1 87.0 (1956/59: 65.0) 1957/59 39.8 85.0 (1956-7-9: 27.4) 1958/60 37.7 82.2 53.8 1959/61 34.6 88.2 46.3 CHANGE: 1956/61-1952/57^ 1952/57 / -40% -27% +6.8% -47.5% Sources: Tables LXXII to LXXV. 63 CO TABLE MEETINGS: TOTAL ATTENDANCES B.C. A l b e r t a Year (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) 1952 621 33.6 20,866 3,136 60.4 189,375 1953 794 28.1 22,311 3,332 55.3 184,322 1954 974* 28,928 3,757 59.1 222,310 1955 974* 28,928 3,736 51.7 193,154 1956 1,622 36.7 59,527 4,026 s (194,456) 1957 857 22.1 18,940 477 74.5 35,540 1958 783 21.4 16,756 4,274 41.7 178,377 1959 702 24.0 16,848 4,335 39.8 172,739 1960 532 27.8 14,790 4,470 41.4 185,194 1961 859 36.6 31,439 4,589 41.6 190,864 Average 846 29.7 25,126 3,567^° ) 48.3 172,430 Year Quebec (1) (2) (5) Nova S c o t i a (1) (2) (3) 1952 4,618 1953 4,505 1954 5,037 1955 4,160 1956 3,799 1957 3,785 1958 3,356 1959 3,564 1960 3,568* 1961 3,568* 53.6 58.1 56.0 58.6 54.9 48.7 58.4 51.0 247,594 261,707 282,049 243,730 208,597 184,238 162,474 181,609 (192,672) (192,672) 2,960 2,838* 2,962 2,591 2,405 1,894 2,049* 2,065 1,832 1,873 38.9 21.3 22.4 22.2 18.3 16.8 14.5 13.2 115,044 (62,720) 63,002 58,140 53,351 34,580 (45,283) 34,647 26,582 24,632 Average 3,282 54.0 221,498 2,323 22.1 51,247 ^ M e e t i n g s . ^ A v e r a g e Attendance. ^ C a l c u l a t e d t o t a l attendance. LXXVII CALCULATED (a) Saskatchewan (1) 2,589 2,599 2,930 1,001 1,919 1,782 510 (2) 59.4 148.1 43.5 1,904 92.5 (3) 153,786 (240,407) (271,025 (92,592) 284,137 (164,835) 22,160 175,564 O n t a r i o 230 (1) (2) (3) 5,750 13,522 11,781 10,893 10,377 10,596 11,138 (10,039) (10,039) 8,382 148.6 79.5 21 21 854,343 1,074,999 (1,343,034) (1,241,602 (1,182,978 1,207,944 1,269,732 1,144,446] (1,144,446) (955,548) 4,103 114 114,191 i Canada C a l c u l a t e d T o t a l ^ ) Year (1) (2) (3) 1952 22,119 81.5 1,802,698 1953 30,876 70.6 2,179,845 1954 29,827 48.3 1,440,640 1955 26,647 46.7 1,244,415 1956 26,786 61.9 1,658,053 1957 22,295 39.5 880,653 1958 25,742 42.9 1,104,332 1959 22,513 36.9 830,730 1960 23,192 33.4 774,646 1961 22,076 33.6 741,754 Average 55.6 1,265,777 The average attendance f o r the p r o v i n c e i s used where attendance f o r a year i s not a v a i l a b l e . Numbers thus c a l c u l a t e d a r e i n b r a c k e t s . ( ^ M e e t i n g s f o r a l l p r o v i n c e s e x c l u d i n g N.B. and N f l d . ( T a b l e L V I I I ) u s i n g average attendance from B.C., A l t a . , Sask., Ont., Que., N.S. (•^Excluding 1957. TABLE LXXVIII TOTAL ATTENDANCES CALCULATED^ a) PARM DEMONSTRATIONS Quebec 7 P r o v i n c e s Year A l b e r t a (as i n T a b l e XIV) (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) 1952 2,712 18.3 49,629 2,987 23.8 71,091 1953 162 49.1 7,954 1,533 38.6 59,174 3,497 39.6 138,481 1954 678 17.5 11,865 2,745 20.0 54,900 3,796 19.6 74,016 1955 148 (3,493). 2,698 16.5 44,517 3,024 18.3 55,339 1956 353 (8,331) 2,478 31.6 78,305 3,009 31.6 95,084 1957 543 19.2 10,426 2,153 30.1 64,805 2,738 27.9 76,390 1958 44 31.7 1,394 911 69.0 62,859 955 (26,167) 1959 966 (41,538) 966 22.6 21,832 1960 190 (5,206) 1961 Average 23.6 7,244 43 56,966 27.4 62,044 The average attendance f o r the pr o v i n c e i s used where attendance f o r a year i s not a v a i l a b l e . Numbers thus c a l c u l a t e d are i n b r a c k e t s . (^Farm Demonstrations. (^Average Attendance. ( ^ C a l c u l a t e d T o t a l Attendance. to 03 TABLE LXXIX TOTAL ATTENDANCES CALCULATED^ a^ SHORT COURSES Year Saskatchewan Manitoba (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) Nova S c o t i a (1) (2) (3) 8 P r o v i n c e s (as i n T a b l e X I I I ) (1) (2) (3) 87 151.1 13,146 (7,404) 134 56 40.2 2,251 31 128.8 3,993 17 83.3 1,416 (608) 11 83 57.8 4,797 116 53.8 6,241 199 49.8 9,910 258 35.3 9,107 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 3 20 4 3 68 108 186 250 128.8 66.7 50.1 45.8 34.6 2,576 4,536 5,411 8,518 8,650 2 1 6 1 93 58.0 140 56.6 220 36.1 5,394 7,924 7,942 66.0 132 83.3 450 27.1 189 Average 51.8 5,475 47.0 7,087 54.8 257 55.3 5,482 TV (1) The average attendance f o r the p r o v i n c e i s used where attendance f o r a year i s n ot a v a i l a b l e . Numbers thus c a l c u l a t e d a re i n b r a c k e t s . Short Courses. (2) Average Attendance. (3) C a l c u l a t e d T o t a l Attendance. to to TABLE LXXX TOTAL ATTENDANCES CALCULATED^ a ) FIELD DAYS B r i t i s h Columbia A l b e r t a Saskatchewan Year (1) (2) ( 3 ) = ( l ) x ( 2 ) (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) 1952 100 70.1 7,010 167 41.8 6,981 1953 77.3 4,406 46 96.0 4,416 184 (18,952) 1954 92* 90.7 (8,344) 275 41.2 11,330 221 (22,763) 1955 92* (8,344) 257 57.3 14,726 1956 91 49.4 4,495 239 209.0 49,951, 1957 118 101.4 11,965 32 26.0 832 246* 49.9 12,275* 1958 130 60.9 7,917 195 37.7 7,351 251 64.4 16,228 1959 97 110.3 10,699 237 233.3 55,292 1960 89 97.0 8,633 55 44.7 2,458 1961 41 43.0 1,763 T o t a l 73,576 23,929 - 199,626 Average 77.8 7,358 50.2 5,982 103 22,181 A l l P r o v i n c e s E x c l u d i n g Year Nova S c o t i a Newfoundland Man., Que., and N.B. (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) (1) (2) (3) 1952 142_ 162.2 23,032 3 (195) 462 100.1 46,246 1953 144* (18,720) 4 (260) 474 276.8 131,203 1954 145 98.1 14,224 4 (260) 601 61.5 36,961 1955 92 129.8 11,942 3 (195) 637 84.5 53,826 1956 117 133.9 15,666 2 (130) 585 110.7 64,760 1957 n o , 136.7 15,037 2 50 100 278 104.0 28,912 1958 113* (14,577) 2 (130) 580 45.1 26,158 1959 116 123.9 14,372 2 69 138 483 107.2 51,777 1960 88 194.3 17,098 1 (65) 261 94.6 24,691 1961 98 64.0 6,272 4 75 300 171 62.7 10,722 T o t a l . 150,940 1,773 475,256 Average 130 15,094 65 177 397 101.8 47,526 The average attendance f o r the pr o v i n c e i s used where attendance f o r a year i s not a v a i l a b l e . Numbers thus c a l c u l a t e d a r e i n b r a c k e t s . ( ^ F i e l d Days. (^Average Attendance. ( ^ C a l c u l a t e d T o t a l Attendance. to ca ca TABLE LXXXI FARMERS' CLUBS Year A l t a . Sask. Ont. Que. N.B. N.S. P.E.I. 1952 1 S 3 S 1 S 50 F 1953 162 C 34 C 1. s 4 S 1 S 54 F 1954 68 F 46 C 103 F 7 C 4 S 2 P 1955 108 F 42 C 133 F 18 C 4 S 33 F 1956 152 F 206 C 10 C 135 P 4 C 4 S 2 S 1957 104 F 227 C 43 C 200 G 2 S 47 P 1958 107 C 77 F 48 C 235 G 37 F Attendance; 1959 65 F 41 C 2,500/week G 4 S 7 P 27 F 1960 56 F 2,500/week G 6 S 25 F 1961 2,300/week G 1 S 17 F m i l l l l C = Crop and L i v e s t o c k . P = Parm Forum. G = Study Groups. S = F o l k Schools. g TABLE LXXXII NUMBER OP AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS 1952-1961 Year B.C. A l t a . Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N.B. N f l d . N.S. P.E.I. 1952 26 44 40 31 81 143 24 8 22 3 1953 24 44 39 31 82 132 24 8 5 1954 23 42 39 32 84 141 20 8 22 3 1955 21 48 39 34 84 143 20 8 21 3 1956 21 50 40 35 84 136 20 8 21 3 1957 21 56 42 35 84 133 20 8 16 4 1958 18 62 42 35 84 131 19 8 17 3 1959 20 54 41 38 87 132 18 8 24 3 1960 20 54 45 39 87 19 8 19 3 1961 18 56 42 43 89 19 8 21 3 CO OJ 

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