Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the roles of selected agricultural extension agents in British Columbia Job, Claude Hollis 1965

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1965_A4 J6.pdf [ 10.18MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104628.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104628-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104628-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104628-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104628-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104628-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104628-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104628-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104628.ris

Full Text

A STUDY OF THE ROLES OF S E L E C T E D A G R I C U L T U R A L E X T E N S I O N AGENTS I N B R I T I S H COLUI.LBIA CLAUDE HOLLIS JOB A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE I^QUIREMEM'S FOR THE' DEGREE OF M.STER OF SCIEKCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUIVJBIA A p r i l , 1965 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f • B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y * I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t , c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r a l B & t a n i s i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e A P r i l 22nd, 1965 i ABSTRACT This t h e s i s i s a study of the r o l e s of c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l exten-s i o n agents i n B r i t i s h Columbia, &s viewed by the agents themselves. An attempt i s made to i d e n t i f y the d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s the agents perform and to enquire i n t o how w e l l the agents are adapting themselves to the changing d e f i n i t i o n s of extension work. The data f o r the study i s based on responses given to a questionnaire by three types of a g e n t s , — D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and Other Agents who have been on the s t a f f of the B r i t i s h Columbia Extension Service f o r two or more years. The three types of agents are i n general agreement w i t h respect to the f u n c t i o n s of the Extension S e r v i c e on which most time and e f f o r t have been devoted i n the past but d i f f e r e d as to the r e l a t i v e importance of the d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s . The i n d i c a t i o n i s however, that the E x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e concentrates on work of a s e r v i c e nature such as p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c farm p r a c t i c e s and teaching the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s of farming, r a t h e r than on community development processes. D i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s appear i n the r o l e s of each type of agent as defined by the a c t i v i t i e s they perform. lUost of them i d e n t i f y 'consultant', 'source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' and 'student' the three most important out of a t o t a l c f nine types of a c t i v i t i e s . However, D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s per-form a wider range of a c t i v i t i e s than do the other two types of agents. The m a j o r i t y of each type of agent i n d i c a t e s that they do not f e e l very p r o f i c i e n t i n performing any one r o l e , Though i n g e n e r a l , the r o l e s which they consider important form a p a t t e r n which i s s i m i l a r to the ones they a c t u a l l y perform, i t appears that they are l e a s t q u a l i f i e d to perform the r o l e s which they consider to be important. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so among D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . Of the three agent; groups, D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s achieve the highest l e v e l of r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t and l e a s t amount of r o l e s t r e s s , w i t h Other Agents next and D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s l a s t . This may be due to the wider area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s compared to the other two groups. The evidence suggests that the agents do not conform to the 'changing d e f i n i t i o n of extension work' since the r o l e s which rank high both i n importance and performance, are those w i t h major emphasis on work of a s e r v i c e nature and on a g r i -c u l t u r a l production. •The opportunity to h e l p other people', 'personal contact' w i t h people and 'freedom i n planning and doing my work' appear to be the strong m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s i n ext e n s i o n work. For these agents 'the l a c k of a w e l l defined program' i s c h i e f among the l e s s d e s i r a b l e aspects of the job. I n general, the agents have favourable opinions of the p r e s t i g e of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and both s t a t u s consciousness and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the job are a l s o high. The agents perceive of t h e i r a l t e r groups as having d i f f e r e n t i a l e xpectations w i t h respect to the r o l e s the agents should perform; each type of agent views these expectations i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r own s e l f image of the job, and the vested i n t e r e s t s of each group. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t -u r i s t s are most responsive to t h e i r X l o e a l M-ieihtBiehc^thert-viihihfeto i i i those people above them. Other Agents show a greater o r i e n t a t i o n to t h e i r d i r e c t o r s than to the f a r m e r s ' ( l o c a l i n t e r e s t s ) . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s seem to be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r l o c a l c l i e n t e l e and t h e i r d i r e c t o r s to an equal extent. The agents have s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h farm o r g a n i -z a t i o n s , while non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s and u n i v e r s i t y extension pl a y very minor r o l e s i n t h e i r y/ork. "Inadequate communications 1 prevents the agents from f u l f i l l i n g the expectations of t h e i r a l t e r groups, and this:_'suggests that the Extension S e r v i c e i s not a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d s o c i a l , system. Groups other than the agents themselves p a r t i c i p a t e very l i t t l e i n the determination of the e x t e n s i o n program. .' Though, the agents f e e l that the extension program i n the main should be t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? they i n -d i c a t e a d e s i r e f o r more p a r t i c i p a t i o n by other groups. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t -u r i s t s want to make greater use of program planning committees, D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s s t r e s s i n d i v i d u a l farmers, while Other Agents want to see t h e i r d i r e c t o r s be more i n v o l v e d . I t appears that the agents t r y to use t h e i r time and resources more e f f i c i e n t l y by c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on farmers w i t h higher incomes as they are i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to f o l l o w the extension recommendations. Thus, there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of time the agents devote to farmers and the income l e v e l of the farmers. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ' PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1. The E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1 Purpose of the Study 5 Need f o r the Study 5 Methodology 7 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 7 Review of L i t e r a t u r e 8 The Concept of Role 8 Roles of the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agent 9 f l . PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGENTS 1 7 Age 1 7 Length of S e r v i c e 1 8 T r a i n i n g f o r the Job 2 0 Academic T r a i n i n g 2 0 E x t e n s i o n T r a i n i n g 2 2 T r a i n i n g Requirements 2 5 Summary 2 6 I I I . THE AGENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR JOBS 2 8 F u n c t i o n s of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e §8 Roles of the Agent 36 Role D e f i n i t i o n 3 8 Importance of the Roles Role Performance 46 Time D e s i r e d f o r Performing the Roles 5 1 G r a t i f i c a t i o n Roles 5 5 CHAPTER PAGE R o l e A d e q u a c y 5 9 R o l e S t r e s s 6 3 C o n c l u s i o n s 7 1 R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e J o b 7 3 L i k e s a n d D i s l i k e s i n E x t e n s i o n Work 7 ^ P r e s t i g e o f t h e A g e n t s ' P o s i t i o n 7 9 S t a t u s C o n s c i o u s n e s s 8 3 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e J o b 8 3 E x t e n s i o n P r o c e d u r e s 8 5 R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h O t h e r s 9 0 P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e E x p e c t a t i o n s o f O t h e r s 9 1 B a r r i e r s t o F u l f i l l i n g E x p e c t a t i o n s o f O t h e r s 9 6 J o b O r i e n t a t i o n 9 9 R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h O r g a n i z a t i o n 1 0 6 C o n t a c t w i t h F a r m e r s w i t h D i f f e r e n t Income L e v e l s 1 1 5 P r o g r a m D e t e r m i n a t i o n 1 2 1 I V . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1 3 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1^5 APPENDIX' A • lk7 v i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f 3 T y p e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 1 7 I I . L e n g t h o f S e r v i c e i n E x t e n s i o n Work o f 3 T y p e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 2 8 I I I . L e n g t h o f S e r v i c e i n P r e s e n t D i s t r i c t f o r 3 T y p e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 19 I V . L e v e l o f A c a d e m i c T r a i n i n g o f 3 T y p e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 2 1 V. Rank O r d e r o f A c a d e m i c T r a i n i n g on t h e B a s i s o f " V a l u e i n E x t e n s i o n Work" b y 3 G r o u p s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 2 2 V I . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e Amount o f T r a i n i n g i n E x t e n s i o n M e t h o d s T h e y Have R e c e i v e d 2k V I I . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e Type o f E x t e n s i o n T r a i n i n g T h e y D e s i r e 2 5 V I I I . Rank O r d e r i n g o f 4 F u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e on t h e B a s e s o f ( 1 ) "Time S p e n t on E a c h F u n c t i o n D u r -i n g t h e P a s t Y e a r " , a n d ( 2)"How I m p o r t a n t E a c h F u n c t i o n S h o u l d B e " , by 3 T y p e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 3 1 V1X -TABLE PAGE , I X . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e R o l e They P e r f u j s j i i & i , . 39 X. Rank O r d e r i n g o f T h e i r R o l e s on t h e B a s i s o f I m p o r t -a n c e by 3 G r o u p s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s h2 X I . Rank O r d e r i n g o f T h e i r R o l e s on t h e B a s i s o f T i $ e S p e n t on E a c h R o l e d u r i n g t h e P a s t Y e a r by 3 G r o u p s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 47 X I I . Rank O r d e r i n g o f T h e i r R o l e s on t h e B a s i s o f Time D e s i r e d by 3 G r o u p s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 52 X I I I . Rank O r d e r i n g o f T h e i r R o l e s on t h e B a s i s o f " E n j o y -m e n t M by 3 G r o u p s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n Agents JA 56 X I V . Rank O r d e r i n g o f T h e i r R o l e s on t h e B a s i s o f "Adequacy 1* by 3 G r o u p s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 60 XV. C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n a n d C o n c o r d a n c e f o r t h e R a n k i n g s o f t h e A g e n t s ' R o l e s on D i f f e r e n t B a s e s 65 X V I . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e T h i n g s " L i k e d " a b o u t E x t e n s i o n Work 75 X V I I . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e T h i n g s " L i k e d L e a s t " a b o u t E x t e n s i o n Work 77 V1X1 TABLE PAGE XVIII. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Responses t o t t h e Question "In Comparison with Other P o s i t i o n s R e q u i r -i n g S i m i l a r T r a i n i n g , How Much i s Your P o s i -t i o n Respected by Others" A c c o r d i n g to Type, Age and Length of S e r v i c e of the Agent 80 XIX. Number out of 11 Agents Who F e e l That Re-spect f o r t h e i r P o s i t i o n i s "Somewhat Above" that of P o s i t i o n s R e q u i r i n g S i m i l a r T r a i n i n g , I n d i c a t i n g the R e l a t i v e Importance of t h e i r Roles and the Fu n c t i o n s of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e 82 X3t-i-- D i s t r i b u t i o n of Responses to the Question "How Important Is I t to You that Other People Think Well of Your P o s i t i o n ? " A c c o r d i n g to Age, Type and Length of S e r v i c e of the Agents 8k XXI. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Responses to the Question "How S a t i s f i e d Are You with Your Job" A c c o r d i n g to Type, Age and Length of S e r v i c e of the Agents 86 XXII. Number out of 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and 5 Other Agents I n d i c a t i n g t h e i r Choice of A l t e r n a t e E x t e n s i o n Procedures 88 IX TABLE PAGE X X I I I . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a nd 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e R o l e s t h a t D i r e c t o r s , F a r m e r s a n d S p e d i a l i s t s E x -p e c t Them t o P e r f o r m 92 X X I V . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g B a r r i e r s t o F u l f i l l i n g t h e E x p e c t a t i o n s o f D i r e c t o r s , F a r m e r s a n d S p e c i a l i s t s 97 XXV. Rank O r d e r i n g o f D i f f e r e n t G r o u p s on t h e B a s i s o f t h e I n f l u e n c e E a c h G r o u p Has on t h e i r A t t i t u d e s a n d B e h a v i o u r by 3 T y p e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x -t e n s i o n A g e n t s 101 X X V I . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e Ways ffhey Work W i t h F a r m a n d Non-Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s 107 XXV.II2 Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g t h e A s s i s t a n c e G i v e n Them by F a r m a n d Non-Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d U n i -v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n 109 X X V I I I . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 8 O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g What t h e i r I n i t i a t i v e S h o u l d Be i n W o r k i n g W i t h F a r m a n d Non-Far m O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n 110 TABLE PAGE X X I X . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e B a r r i e r s t o B e t t e r C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h F a r m a n d Non-Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n 1 1 3 XXX. Rank O r d e r i n g o f F a r m e r s o f D i f f e r e n t Income L e v e l s on t h e B a s i s o f Time S p e n t w i t h Them D u r i n g t h e P a s t Y e a r by 3 T y p e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n -s i o n A g e n t s H i X X X I . Number o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e Type o f S e r v i c e T h e y Gave t o F a r m e r s o f D i f f e r e n t Income L e v e l s D u r i n g t h e P a s t Y e a r 1 1 7 X X X I I . Rank O r d e r i n g o f 5 G r o u p s on t h e B a s i s o f E x t e n t E a c h G r o u p " P a r t i c i p a t e d " a n d " S h o u l d P a r t i c i p a t e " i n P r o g r a m D e t e r m i n a t i o n b y 3 T y p e s o f B r i t i s h C o l -u m b i a E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s 1 2 2 X X X I I I . Number o u t o f 1 5 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d 5 O t h e r A g e n t s I n d i c a t i n g t h e Amount o f Time They S p e n t on D i f f e r e n t T y p e s o f P r o g r a m s 1 2 8 L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t a n d O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g How I m p o r t a n t t h e F u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e A r e "How" 2. P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g How I m p o r t -a n t t h e F u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e " S h o u l d B e " 3. P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g t h e I m p o r t -a n c e o f T h e i r R o l e s k. P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g t h e "Time S p e n t " on T h e i r R o l e s ; 5. P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g t h e "Time D e s i r e d " To S p e n d on T h e i r R o l e s 6. P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , a n d O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g "How Much T h e y E n j o y " T h e i r R o l e s 7. P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g T h e i r "Ade-q u a c y " i n P e r f o r m i n g T h e i r R o l e s x i i F IGURE PAGE 8 . P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g t h e " I n f l u e n c e O t h e r P e o p l e Have on T h e i r B e h a v i o u r " 102 9. P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g t h e "Time S p e n t " w i t h F&gmers o f D i f f e r e n t Income L e v e l s 1 1 8 1 0 . P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g t h e E x t e n t D i f f e r e n t G r o u p s " P a r t i c i p a t e d " i n P r o g r a m D e t e r -m i n a t i o n 1 2 3 1 1 . P e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s R a t i n g t h e E x t e n t D i f f e r e n t G r o u p s " S h o u l d P a r t i c i p a t e " i n P r o g r a m D e t e r m i n a t i o n 124 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGE Ei\TS I am g r a t e f u l to s e v e r a l people f o r t h e i r h e l p i n t h i s study. Dr. C. Verner, my supervisor and Dr. J . J . R i c h t e r , chairman of my committee;, gave guidance and a s s i s t a n c e during a l l phases of the work. The members of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , despite t h e i r heavy programs, w i l l i n g l y made themselves a v a i l a b l e to be int e r v i e w e d . Misses L. Hampton and S. Lever helped i n preparing the ta b l e s and graphs w h i l e H i s s Ann Clough typed both the d r a f t s and the f i n a l copy of the t h e s i s . To a l l these people I am indebted. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to r e c o r d rry g r a t i t u d e to the Government of T r i n i d a d and Tobago f o r g r a n t i n g leave from my job, and to the Canadian Commonwealth S c h o l a r s h i p and F e l l o w s h i p Committee f o r p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to enable me to do t h i s study. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Changes i n the p a t t e r n and s t r u c t u r e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y i n Canada w i t h i n recent times, have caused problems to develop which a f f e c t the whole conception of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . S o c i a l and economic problems a f f e c t i n g community s e r v i c e s accompany the c o n t i n u i n g d e c l i n e i n the number of farms and farm people. The i n c r e a s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of technology to farming have caused overproduction and a consequent preoccupation w i t h problems of income s t a b i l i t y , and p r i c e support. There i s c l o s e r i n t e g r a t i o n of farm production, food p r o c e s s i n g and food r e t a i l i n g through formal production c o n t r a c t s ; and a l s o i n c r e a s i n g commercia-lization of farming and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of farm o p e r a t i o n s . A l l of these changes create a widening d i s p a r i t y of incomes between regions and bet?/een i n d i v i d u a l s , and emphasize the problem of marginal farming. Indeed, a g r i c u l t u r e i n Canada i s undergoing a r e v o l u t i o n which has i n v a l i d a t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f that farming i s more a 'way of l i f e ' r a t h e r than a business. W i t h i n t h i s a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n the r o l e of the extension w o r k e r — a r o l e which i n B r i t i s h Columbia nor i n any other province i n Canada has never t r u l y been d e f i n e d — t a k e s on a new meaning. I t has been w i d e l y accepted t h a t though the t r a d i t i o n a l charge to 'help people to h e l p themselves' i s as v a l i d as ever, extension's broadening r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e r e d e f i n i t i o n of the r o l e of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agents. This study attempts such a d e f i n i t i o n . The Extension S e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s marked by wide v a r i e t y d i c t a t e d i n 2 l a r g e part by c l i m a t e , topography and the l o c a t i o n of the major urban c e n t r e s . B a s i c a l l y , f r u i t production predominates i n the Okanagan; d a i r y -i n g , p o u l t r y farming and market gardening i n the Eraser V a l l e y and Vancouver I s l a n d , and beef ranching i n the Cariboo, Karnloops, and C h i l c o t i n country. Elsewhere, mixed farming predominates. T o t a l farm cash income f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n 19&2 was $151.4 m i l l i o n . Crops accounted f o r $46.5 m i l l i o n or 37-7 per cent of which f r u i t s c o n t r i b u t e d Srl9«4 m i l l i o n . Receipts from l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k products were $102.4 m i l l i o n or 67.6 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l of which d a i r y production was the s i n g l e highest component w i t h $36.1 m i l l i o n f o l l o w e d by c a t t l e and cal v e s w i t h $50.4 m i l l i o n and p o u l t r y and eggs w i t h $27.5 million."'" Success i n the development of an a g r i c u l t u r a l e xtension program i n any-country w i l l vary w i t h the importance of a g r i c u l t u r e to the general economy, the manner i n which the plans were evolved, and w i t h the a t t i t u d e of the people to whom the program i s d i r e c t e d . While a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s a s u b s t a n t i a l i n d u s t r y i n i t s e l f , i t i s dwarfed by the strong i n d u s t r i a l emphasis and other re sourcedevelopments . I n i960 a g r i c u l t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d only 4»7 per cent of the net value of t o t a l production of the province, while the 196l census shows that the farm p o p u l a t i o n was on l y 5<2"± per"cent' of ' the 2 t o t a l f o r the p r o v i n c e . In general t h e r e f o r e , a g r i c u l t u r e i s considered to be a minor s e c t o r of the economy, and t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d to a somewhat slow ' B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s Report 1962, ( V i c t o r i a , Queen's "Printer, 1963), p. 2 Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada 196l, A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, B u l l e t i n 5-3-4? (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963) 3 development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e xtension s e r v i c e , when compared w i t h other provinces. A Royal Commission on a g r i c u l t u r e i n 1914 recommended as f o l l o w s : I t seems to us that the system now being f o l l o w e d i n Ontario of hav-i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the department i n each d i s t r i c t , to be c a l l e d D i s t r i c t I n s t r u c t o r , might be f o l l o w e d w i t h advantage...he s h a l l be a guide, c o u n s e l l o r and a f r i e n d to every farmer...3 This recommendation was accepted, but i t s implementation does not appear to have f o l l o w e d any r e a l p l a n . Thus, M a c G i l l i v a r a y p o i n t s out that the growth of the extension s e r v i c e " . . . r e f l e c t e d mainly the i n f l u e n c e of expediency and economy r a t h e r than a soundly planned, p r o p e r l y i n t e g r a t e d s t r u c t u r e designed to provide maximum e f f i c i e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y . " ^ The establishment as i t i s today, was formed i n 1946". E x t e n s i o n work i s performed by s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t branches of the Department of Agriculture,,.:and there seems to be very l i t t l e formal c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s among them. Furthermore, no one branch has as i t s f u n c t i o n an e x c l u s i v e l y . e x t e n s i o n a l r a l e — the work of each branch being a combination of r e g u l a t o r y and e d u c a t i o n a l work. The Development and Extension Branch, as the name i m p l i e s , i s the only branch vrtiose f u n c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l , and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r exten-s i o n work of a general nature encompassing a l l types of crops and l i v e s t o c k , 4 H clubs and land development. The H o r t i c u l t u r a l Branch concerns i t s e l f w i t h extension work e x c l u s i v e l y to the growers of - f r u i t , vegetables and ornamentals, while the F i e l d Crops Branch, i n a d d i t i o n to performing a d v i s o r y work r e l a t i n g to the production of such crops as c e r e a l s , pasture, hay and potatoes, c a r r y • Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Report of the Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e , ( V i c t o r i a r His Majesty's P r i n t e r , 1914)> P« 37 M a c G i l l i v a r a y , "An E f f e c t i v e P r o v i n c i a l Extension S e r v i c e " (Paper read a t a Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension i n B r i t i s h Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 l ) 4 o u t s o i l a n a l y s e s , and t e s t w e e d i c i d e s and f e r t i l i s e r s . The D a i r y B r a n c h i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the enfordement o f the M i l k I n d u s t r y A c t — s a m p l i n g and t e s t i n g m i l k , and l i c e n s i n g d a i r i e s and d a i r y p e r s o n e l — a n y -e d u c a t i o n a l work b e i n g o n l y i n c i d e n t a l . P r oblems o f the p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the j o b o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t a s s e t out by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e n o t e s : He i s the 'key' man i n the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c e he i s on the f i r i n g l i n e i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the f a r m e r and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . He i s the 'key' man because he i s the o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n h i s community. H i s j o b i s t o c o - o r d i n a t e the a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s a r e a , and t o pass on the f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i m e n t s t o the f a r m e r s . H i s a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e 4 H c l u b s , l a n d c l e a r i n g , d r a i n a g e , dugout c o n s t r u c -t i o n . ...program p l a n n i n g w i t h l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m i t t e e s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s , s h o r t c o u r s e s , emphasis on e c o n o m i c a l p r o d u c t i o n o f c r o p s and l i v e s t o c k , f a r m management and a t t e n d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l m e e t i n g s . The E x t e n s i o n A g e n t t h u s f a c e s a c o l o s s a l t a s k . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y he i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i r e c t o r o f h i s department, o r one o f the D i r e c t o r ' s sub-o r d i n a t e s , but f u n c t i o n a l l y i t can be s a i d t h a t he i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o h i s c l i e n t e l e — t h e f a r m e r s . The f a c t t h a t he i s d e s c r i b e d a s the 'key' man i n -d i c a t e s t h a t h i s p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d by h i s d i r e c t o r s . I f t h e ' a g e n t i s t o r e a l i z e h i s g o a l s , the s o c i a l s y s t e m i n w h i c h he o p e r a t e s must be n o t o n l y h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d , but j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t , he must have the t i m e a v a i l -a b l e f o r a s s e s s m e n t a n d r e a s s e s s m e n t o f the needs o f h i s c l i e n t s and f o r f i x i n g p r i o r i t i e s . Many w r i t e r s have f o u n d , however, t h a t t i m e i s a v e r y l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e to the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F i f t e e n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t 1 9 & 3 ? ( V i c t o r i a t Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 4 . ) ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , A g r i c u l t u r a l Development and E x t e n s i o n Bra.nch, V i c t o r i a , 1 9 6 3 • (Mimeographed^ a i e the e x c l u s i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the P o u l t r y Branch.5 5 Purpose o f t h e S t u d y T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y r o l e t h e o r y t o an a n a l y s i s o f the p o s i -t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the E x t e n -s i o n S e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The o v e r a l l purpose i s t o g a i n g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what the a g e n t p e r c e i v e s a s h i s f u n c t i o n s i n a r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g r u r a l community. The p r o b l e m i s e s s e n t i a l l y one o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s , t h a t i s , v«hat does the a g e n t see as h i s j o b . E f f o r t s a r e made t o d e t e r m i n e the a g e n t ' s s e l f c o n c e p t i o n o f the j o b , and the degree o f concensus between the a g e n t ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s j o b and h i s a c t u a l p e r f c r m a n c e . A n o t h e r o b j e c t i v e i s t o de t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e i s any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a g e n t ' s r o l e p e r c e p -t i o n , and h i s age and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n . Heed f o r t h e S t u d y The 1961 C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e Canadian S o c i e t y o f R u r a l E x t e n s i o n , d e s i g n e d t o d i s c o v e r and h i g h l i g h t some o f t h e major c o n c e r n s o f i t s member-s h i p , c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was too l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i n E x t e n s i o n p r o c e s s e s b e i n g done i n Canada. They f e l t so c o n c e r n e d about t h i s p r oblem, t h a t a committee was s e t up t o d e c i d e a n o b j e c t i v e and a p l a n f o r e x t e n s i o n r e s e a r c h 7 i n Canada. B a k e r p o i n t e d o u t t h e l i m i t e d and i n d i r e c t n a t u r e o f E x t e n s i o n r e s e a r c h i n Canada... He s t a t e s : "The Saskatchewan R o y a l Commission on R u r a l L i f e b r o u g h t o u t a p i o n e e r i n g a p p r o a c h t o E x t e n s i o n type r e s e a r c h . . . i n a d d i -t i o n t h e r e a r e a h a n d f u l o f g r a d u a t e t h e s e s i n E x t e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n w i t h 7A. J . Webs t e r , 'Outgoing P r e s i d e n t ' s Comments', ( R e g i n a : P r o c e e d i n g s o f the C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y o f R u r a l E x t e n s i o n , 1962), p. 1. (Mimeographed) c o n t e n t o r i g i n a t i n g i n Canada, and t e n d t o p o i n t up the segmented and Un-ci s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f e x t e n s i o n r e s e a r c h . " Many s c h o l a r l y p a p e r s n o t based on e m p i r i c a l s t u d y , have g i v e n p r o -j e c t i o n s o f what w i l l be the r o l e o f the e x t e n s i o n a g e n t i n the f u t u r e . They, however, d i d n o t s u g g e s t n o r seek t o f i n d o u t how the a g e n t o r i e n t a t e s h i m s e l f and d e f i n e s h i s r o l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the 'new image' o f e x t e n s i o n . H u t c h i n s o n sees the scope and f u n c t i o n o f the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as "...a p r o c e s s o f p r o g r e s s i v e and c o n t i n u o u s p l a n n e d change t o meet the c h a n g i n g f e l t needs o f r u r a l p e o p l e . . . " p r o c e e d i n g f r o m an a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y p r o -d u c t i o n o r i e n t a t e d program t o emphasis on the economic and management a s p e c t s 9 o f f a r m i n g and the s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f r u r a l l i v i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o B e l l , t he e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r who de v o t e s h i s time t o ' d i s p e n s i n g p i l l s ' and ' p u t t i n g o u t f i r e s ' i s r a p i d l y becoming a m i s f i t . The c o m p l e x i t y o f modern a g r i c u l t u r e r e q u i r e s t h a t emphasis be p u t on t e a c h i n g management a h d . i s k i l l s , and on l e a d e r s h i p d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ B a k e r f e e l s t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n o f the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n must be changed t o one t h a t i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y e d u c a t i o n a l . . . " T h e s u b t l e and d i f f i c u l t r o l e o f e x t e n s i o n i s t o d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n v e r t e v e r y s e r v i c e t y p e j o b t o a n e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r the c l i e n t . . . I t i s a t a s k o f t h i s s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e how w e l l the a g e n t has seen t h e s e changes, and w h e t h e r the new 'image' i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e . ..11 Q H.D. Baker, " R e s e a r c h i n E x t e n s i o n - P r e s e n t and F u t u r e , " A g r i c u l t u r a l I n - s t i t u t e Review, XY , i960, p. 16 9 ' L . J . H u t c h i n s o n ; " E x t e n s i o n S t a f f Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s must be Upgraded", A g r i c u l t - u r a l I n s t i t u t e R eview, X V I I , 1962, p..26 ^ C . E . B i l l , J r . : "The F o r w a r d Look i n E x t e n s i o n " , A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Re-v i e w , XIV, 1959, p. 36 hl.'R. B a k e r : "Where a r e I n s t i t u t e R e v i e w , X V I I , 1962, p. 20 "^"4-1.R. we g o i n g i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n " A g r i c u l t u r a l 7 M e t h o d o l o g y The d a t a f o r the s t u d y i s base d on r e s p o n s e s g i v e n t o a s c h e d i i l e o f q u e s t i o n s ( Appendix A) by c e r t a i n a g e n t s who have been on the s t a f f o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e f o r two o r more y e a r s . Three d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a g e n t s -were s t u d i e d ; D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s — a group w h i c h i n c l u d e s l i v e s t o c k , p o u l t r y and a p i a r y i n s p e c t o r s . A n a t t e m p t was made t o g a t h e r d a t a f r o m a l l t h e s e a g e n t s , b u t i t was o n l y p o s s i b l e t o c o n t a c t a t o t a l o f 28 agents—15 o u t o f I S D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r -i s t s , 8 o u t o f 14 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a nd 5 o u t o f a t o t a l o f 9 O t h e r A g e n t s . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Some o f the terms u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : R o l e d e f i n i t i o n r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y t o the a g e n t 1 s p e r c e p t i o n o f what ought t o be h i s r o l e , d e t e r m i n e d by the i m p o r t a n c e he a t t a c h e s t o h i s d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . R o l e performance r e f e r s t o what the a g e n t has done w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f time p r e v i o u s t o t h i s s t u d y , t h a t i s , the amount o f time he d e v o t e d t o each a c t i v i t y d u r i n g 19&3. R o l e concensus measures the amount o f agreement i n r o l e d e f i n i t i o n among ( l ) the a g e n t s o f one t y p e , a n d (2) a g e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s . R o l e f u l f i l l m e n t r e f e r s t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h the a g e n t s ' r o l e p e r -formance s a t i s f i e s h i s r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , - t h a t i s , t o what e x t e n t does the ag e n t do what he c o n s i d e r s to'.be i m p o r t a n t . REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the t h e o r e t i c a l s e t t i n g i n w h i c h the r o l e o f o f t he e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d the manner i n w h i c h the term ' r o l e ' i s u s e d i n s o c i o l o g y . 1. THE CONCEPT OP r.OLE 12 Gross e t _ a l i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t usages o f the term r o l e i n s o c i o l o g -i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Some w r i t e r s emphasize the n o r m a t i v e and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f r o l e — " w h a t s o c i e t y e x p e c t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p y i n g a g i v e n s t a t u s . " T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t any s t a t u s i s f u n c t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d by the r o l e a t t a c h e d t o i t . To o t h e r s , r o l e i s the b e h a v i o u r o f a c t o r s o c c u p y i n g a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n emphasises n o t what the a c t o r s h o u l d dc_, b u t what he a c t u a l -l y does as a p o s i t i o n o c c u p a n t . A n o t h e r group d e f i n e s r o l e w i t h r e g a r d t o i n t e r a c t i o n a n d p a t t e r n s o f a c t s r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l acts.' r e f e r r i n g t o non - n o r m a t i v e s t i m u l i f o r a n o t h e r a c t o r , whose r e s p o n s e becomes a s t i m u l u s f o r the f i r s t a c t o r , and so on. P a r s o n s - c o n c e i v e s r o l e a s an i n d i v i d . u a ! d e f i n i t i o n s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i s a n d o t h e r s ' s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . R o l e s i n v o l v e the i d e a o f f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a sys-t-em, i n t e r a c t i o n between p e r s o n s , and norms o r v a l u e -s t a n d a r d s . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n w h i c h . i s the one most a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s t u d y , i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d a g a i n s t the back g r o u n d o f an a c t i o n frame o f r e f e r e n c e . 12 N. G r o s s , W.S. l a s o n and A. McEachern; E x p l o r a t i o n s i n R o l e A n a l y s i s (Hew Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons, 1958) U T. P a r s o n s , The S o c i a l System, ( G l e n c o e : The F r e e P r e s s , 1951) pp. 25, 38-P a r s o n s and S h i l s see a c t i o n as behaviou-r o r i e n t e d t o a t t a i n m e n t o f ends o r g o a l s . . . " t a k e s p l a c e i n a s i t u a t i o n , i s n o r m a t i v e l y r e g u l a t e d and i n v o l -ves e x p e n d i t u r e o f energy o r e f f o r t . . . " A c t o r s do n o t o r i e n t r a n d o mly, but i n some p a t t e r n e d way; t o a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s v i e w c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h a t o f N a d e l . 1 ? R o l e s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e the r e s u l t s o f p e r s o n s ' e n g a g i n g i n p u r p o s i v e b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n an i n t e r a c t i o n a l c o n t e x t g o v e r n e d by group norms and t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n . Thus, as W i l k e n i n g and S m i t h " ^ p o i n t o u t , t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t f o u r a s p e c t s o f r o l e : ( l ) the f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d by the r o l e o c c u p a n t , (2) t h e n a t u r e o f the i n t e r a c t i o n betvreen the r o l e o c c u -pant and o t h e r s , (3) concensus w i t h r e s p e c t t o e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o u r ( o r norms) and (4) the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n v o l v i n g p e r s o n s and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to the r o l e o c c u p a n t . T h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m -ed, but some a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o the i n t e r a c t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s . I I . ROLES OP THE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENT The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n be c o n s i d e r -ed t o be a s o c i a l system. Groups i n t h i s s o c i a l s y s t e m a r e the d i s t r i c t a g e n t h i m s e l f , the s p e c i a l i s t s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the f a r m i n g p u b l i c . The l a s t t h r e e groups a r e p e r c e i v e d as t h e ' a l t e r ' g roups who d e f i n e the 15 " S.F. N a d e l , The Theory o f S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , (London: Gohen & West, 1957) pp. 36-38 W i l k e n i n g and R. S m i t h , " P e r c e p t i o n s o f F u n c t i o n s , O r g a n i z a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n , and R o l e D e f i n i t i o n o f a Group o f S p e c i a l E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s " , The Midwest S o c i o l o g i s t , X X I , 1958. p. 19' 10 b e h a v i o u r a p p r o p r i a t e t o the d i s t r i c t a g e n t . I n a n o t h e r sense, the d i s t r i c t a g e n t c a n be p e r c e i v e d as the communication l i n k between two s o c i a l s y s t e m s — the s o c i a l system o f the b u r e a u c r a c y to w h i c h he b e l o n g s , and the s o c i a l s y stem o f h i s c l i e n t s . Because the d i s t r i c t a g e n t ' s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i s l o c a t e d midway between t h e b u r e a u c r a c y t o w h i c h he i s ^ r e s p o n s i b l e and the c l i e n t s ystem i n w h i c h he works, he i s s u b j e c t e d t o v a r i o u s r o l e c o n f l i c t s . He i s o f t e n e x p e c t e d t o engage i n c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s by h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l system., and a t the same t i m e , he i s e x p e c t e d by h i s c l i e n t s ystem t o c a r r y on q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s . I t i s perhaps most c o n v e n i e n t t h e r e f o r e , t o d i s c u s s the r o l e o f the d i s t r i c t •agent w i t h r e s p e c t t o ( l ) the agent h i m s e l f , ( 2 ) t h e b u r e a u c r a c y and ( 5 ) the c l i e n t s . T / i l k e n i n g d e v e l o p e d a r o l e t h e o r y model f o r a n a l y s i n g the r o l e o f the c o u n t y agent i n W i s c o n s i n . T h i s model w h i c h c l o s e l y f o l l o w s P a r s o n s ' c o n -c e p t i o n o f r o l e , i l l u s t r a t e s the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s and. the complex i n t e r p l a y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e an a g e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s r o l e , and the f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h i s r o l e . He i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s the r e s o l u t i o n o f w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s the r o l e d e f i n -i t i o n o f the a g e n t s . These p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s a r e ( l ) the a g e n t ' s n e e d s , i n t e r e s t s , a s p i r a t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s , (2) the a g e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r s o n s i n h i s d i s t r i c t , and (3) the a g e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r s o n s i n e x t e n s i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s — e x p e c t a t i o n s , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , economic r e s o u r c e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t — o n the one hand, and the f a c i l i t i e s o f e x t e n s i o n — o n the o t h e r , 11 w h i c h p r o v i d e the s e t t i n g i n w h i c h the r o l e i s p e r f o r m e d . ^ Austman u s e d t h i s model w i t h some r e f i n e m e n t s t o e v a l u a t e the r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e , r o l e 18 d e f i n i t i o n and r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t o f new a g e n t s i n W i s c o n s i n . The. a c t i v i t i e s o f c o u n t y a g e n t s and s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s 19 have been a n a l y z e d by many w o r k e r s . The g e n e r a l conclusion:.; o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h a t the a g e n t p e r f o r m s s e v e r a l r o l e s w h i c h can be c a t e g o r i z e d as ( l ) c o n s u l t a n t , (2) p u b l i c ( o r program) a d m i n i s t r a t o r , ( j ) s a l e s m a n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s , (4) s t u d e n t , (5) o r g a n i z e r o f g r o u p s , (6) o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s and (7) f a c i l i t a t o r , e x p i d i t o r o r s e r v i c e a g e n t . I n s t u d i e s done i n W i s c o n s i n , c o u n t y a g e n t s emphasized t h e i r m a j o r f u n c t i o n s as 'promotion o f p r a c t i c e i n f o r m a t i o n ' , ' t e a c h i n g o f p r i n c i p l e s ' , ' t r a i n i n g l o c a l l e a d e r s ' , and 'program p l a n n i n g ' . When a s k e d t o r a n k n i n e a c t i v i t i e s on the b a s i s o f t h e 'importance o f g e t t i n g the j o b done', the a g e n t s tended t o emphasize the r o l e s o f e d u c a t o r , l e a d e r , and a d m i n s t r a t o r , as more i m p o r t a n t t h a n ' c o - o r d i n a t i n g U n i v e r s i t y and U.S.I).A. programs' and ' a d v i s i n g groups i n the c o u n t y ' . ^ l *7E.A. W i l k e n i n g , The County E^tensiDri*:Agen±iinjY/^e 6 i l si n> (?Sldi'6Q»i^  Wisconsin A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , 203, 1957) 13 H.H. Austman, "Jo b performance o f E x t e n s i o n W o r k e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o s e l e c t e d Background F a c t o r s " , ( B a n f f : P r o c e e d i n g s o f the C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y o f R u r a l E x t e n s i o n , 1963), pp. 41-48' (Mimeographed) E.A. ' W i l k e n i n g , The County E x t e n s i o n A g e n t i n W i s c o n s i n , ( M a d i s o n : W i s c o n s i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , 203, 1957); N. Randabaugh, F u n c t i o n s o f E x t e n s i o n S p e c i a l i s t , (Ames: Iowa S t a t e C o l l e g e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e B u l l e t i n , 383> 1952) 20 J.T. S t o n e , "How County A g r i c u l t u r a l " A g e n t s Teach", ( R e g i n a : P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Canadian S o c i e t y o f R u r a l E x t e n s i o n , 1961) pp. 21-36. (Mimeographed) 21 E.A. W i l k e n i n g , The County E x t e n s i o n A g e n t i n W i s c o n s i n , ( M a d i s o n : W i s c o n s i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , 203, 1957) 12 The d i s t r i c t a g e n t f i n d s h i s p o s i t i o n t o be one o f c o n s i d e r a b l e ' o c c u p a t i o n r o l e s t r e s s ' because he has t o v a s c i l l a t e c o n s t a n t l y between the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t h o s e o f t h e f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n and h i s own p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e j o b , a t the same t i m e . N i x and B a t e s p r o v i d e a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r o l e s t r e s s o f the v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l t e a c h e r , w h i c h c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f t h e d i s t r i c t a g e n t . They i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e a s p e c t s o f r o l e s t r e s s — - r o l e c o n f l i c t , r o l e f r u s t r a t i o n and r o l e i n a d e q u a c y . £-R o l e c o n f l i c t d e v e l o p s when, " t h e p l a y e r o f a f o c a l r o l e p e r c e i v e s t h a t he i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n c o m p a t i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s o r norms... I t the i d e a l l e v e l , t h i s o c c u r s when f e l t o b l i g a t i o n s a p p e a r l o g i c a l l y o r m o r a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t t o the a c t o r . . . " The d i s t r i c t a g e n t has the t a s k o f h e l p i n g r u r a l p e o p l e o b t a i n a more s a t i s f a c t o r y home and s o c i a l l i f e . To a c h i e v e t h i s , economic n e c e s s i t y may f o r c e him t o promote methods w h i c h he may-f e e l t o be a n t i t h e t i c a l t o the t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l way o f l i f e . E v e n i f t h e r e a r e no c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n f e l t o b l i g a t i o n s , r o l e c o n f l i c t may d e v e l o p f r o m the p r e s s u r e s o f c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by s i g n i f i c a n t r e f e r -ence g r o u p s . R o l e f r u s t r a t i o n o c c u r s when t h e a c t o r . i s u n a b l e t o f u l f i l l a p e r -c e i v e d role because o f s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . R a p i d changes i n a g r i c u l t u r e t e n d t o f r u s t r a t e the i d e a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the d i s t r i c t a g e n t — t h a t o f h e l p i n g the f a r m e r t o be more s u c c e s s f u l . F r u s t r a t i o n d e r i v e s f r o m the r a p i d s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances i n a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h the r e s u l t -a n t o v e r p r o d u c t i o n and economic, squeeze p l a c e d on the s m a l l s c a l e p r o d u c e r . E.L. N i x and E.L. B a t e s , " O c c u p a t i o n a l R o l e S t r e s s - A S t r u c t u r a l A p p r o a c h " , R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , X X V I I , 1962, pp. 7-17 13 H o l e i n a d e q u a c y r e f e r s t o the i n a b i l i t y o f a c t o r s t o f u l f i l l a p e r -c e i v e d r o l e because o f p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c i e s . One o f t h e c h r o n i c c o m p l a i n t s o f e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s i n Canada i s the l a c k o f t r a i n i n g , b o t h i n amount and d e p t h , t o k e e p up w i t h t h e r a p i d changes a f f e c t i n g t h e i r j o b s . The A g e n t and the B u r e a u c r a c y The e x t e n s i o n a g e n t i s a member o f a b u r e a u c r a c y w h i c h has a t r a d i -t i o n a l f u n c t i o n t o s e r v e p e o p l e engaged i n a dynamic o c c u p a t i o n . E f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the s y s t e m r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e r e must be some agreement w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s and f u n c t i o n s o f the system among the p e o p l e i n v o l v -e d . S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e however, t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t between the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the a g e n t ' s s e l f d e f i n i t i o n o f 23 h i s r o l e . Y / i l k e n i n g n o t e d t h a t the c o u n t y a g r i c u l t u r a l committee members t e n d t o h o l d a more t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f e x t e n s i o n work t h a n do c o u n t y a g e n t s . They v i e w the c o u n t y a g e n t s a s a ' g e n e r a l i s t ' and t h e y p r e f e r t h a t he p e r -f o r m s an ' a c t i o n ' r o l e w h i c h p r o m i s e s e a s i l y v i s i b l e r e s u l t s . On the o t h e r hand, t h e a g e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e as one o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , and p r e f e r a p l a n n e d program c a l c u l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e economic e f f i c i e n c y . P r e i s s ' ^ 4 a n a l y s i s o f r o l e c o n f l i c t s among M i c h i g a n c o u n t y a g e n t s s u g g e s t s t h a t the more s u c c e s s f u l a g e n t s were t h o s e who d i s r e g a r d e d the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e b u r e a u c r a c y i n f a v o u r o f t h e i r l o c a l c l i e n t s y s t em. 2 3 E .A. W i l k e n i n g , 'Concensus o f R o l e D e f i n i t i o n o f County E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s between the A g e n t and L o c a l s p o n s o r i n g Committee Members', R u r a l S o c i o l -ogy X X I I I , 1958, pp. I84-197. 24 C.fe. Ro'gers, D i f f u s i o n o f I n n o v a t i o n s , (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n -coe, 1962), p. 253 c i t i n g J . J . P r e i s s , ' F u n c t i o n s o f R e v e l a n t Power and A u t h o r i t y Groups i n the E v a l u a t i o n o f County E x t e n s i o n A g e n t P e r f o r m a n c e ' ( U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1958) x 4 The d i s t r i c t a g e n t l a c k s a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s r o l e i n the e x -t e n s i o n s e r v i c e b u r e a u c r a c y . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f E x t e n s i o n S p e c i a l i s t s p r o v i d e d by Brown and Deekeus i s e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n d e s c r i b -i n g , the d i s t r i c t a g e n t . They note t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e p r o v i d e s no c l e a r l y d e f i n e d l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y , and the a g e n t o c c u p i e s a 1 d y s f u n c t i o n a l 1 p o s i t i o n , caughjt between the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the c l i e n t e l e , b o t h o f whom e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y 25 o v e r him i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. The Agent and h i s C l i e n t e l e The e x t e n s i o n a g e n t i s a l o c a l - l e v e l b u r e a u c r a c y whose purpose i s t o i n j e c t a c o s m o p o l i t e i n f l u e n c e t o i n n o v a t e i n t o a c l i e n t s o c i a l s y s t e m . I n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e i n d i f f u s i n g new i d e a s and p r a c t i c e s , he must s e c u r e l i n k a g e w i t h h i s c l i e n t s y s t em. T h i s l i n k a g e i s d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e and though he may l i v e i n the same community w i t h h i s c l i e n t s , he may be s t i l l an o u t s i d e r t o t h e m — * a m a r g i n a l man' i n the s o c i a l s y s t e m . ^ Emery and Oeser , w r i t i n g i n r e g a r d t o A u s t r a l i a n D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l O f f i c e r s , (D.A.O.) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n o f an ' o u t s i d e r ' r e s t s on t h e d i r e c t i o n and l o c a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A.D.A.O. i s n o t a c c o u n t a b l e f o r h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n to anyone i n the l o c a l i t y . . He i s a c c o u n t a b l e o n l y t o a somewhat 2 5 E . J . Brown and A. Dee k e n s , " " R o l e s o f S u b j e c t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s " , R u r a l . S o c i o l o g y , X X V I I , 1958, pp. 265-276. 2 6 See D.G. Wray, "The M a r g i n a l Men i n Indus try',' A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l -o g y L I V , 1949, PP. 296 -301 . 1 5 remote o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . . . N o m a t t e r how h i g h l y r e g a r d e d he may"be, the D.A.O. r e m a i n s , s o c i o l o g i c -a l l y s p e a k i n g , a n o u t s i d e r . ^ 7 The c l i e n t ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f the r o l e o f the a g e n t i s o f t e n a t adds w i t h t h a t h e l d by the a g e n t h i m s e l f . W h i l e f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n w i t h i n t he b u r e a u c r a c y - ' s t r a t e g i c l e n i e n c y 1 — r e d u c e s t he p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f c o n f l i c t between the a g e n t and t h e b u r e a u c r a c y , w i t h t he f a r m i n g p u b l i c , h i s p o s -i t i b n i s more i n f l e x i b l e . W i l k e n i n g i n . W i s c o n s i n and B i b l e and N o l a n i n P e n n s y l v a n i a p o i n t e d o ut the c o n f l i c t s i n e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r be-tween c o u n t y a g e n t s and t h e i r l o c a l c l i e n t s . F o r example, the a g e n t s p e r c e i v e d o f t h e i r r o l e a s one o f p r o v i d i n g b a s i c ^ e d u c a t i o n b u t t h e i r c l i e n t s e x p e c t e d them t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s s u c h as f i n d i n g s p e a k e r s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e e x t e n s i o n a g e n t o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e r o l e a m b i g u i t y . He o c c u p i e s a " d y s f u n c t i o n a l ' p o s i t i o n , c a u g h t between t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h a t o f h i s c l i e n t e l e , b o t h o f whom e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y o v e r him i n a d i f f e r e n t 3 0 manner." As h i s r o l e i s n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , he w i l l t e n d t o be m o t i v a t -2 7 F..Ki. Emery and O.A. Oeser, I n f o r m a t i o n , D e c i s i o n and A c t i o n ; A S t u d y o f  the P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e t e r m i n a n t s o f Changes i n F a r m i n g T e c h n i q u e s , (New Y o r k : 2 8 E. A. W i l k e n i n g , " P e r c e p t i o n s c f F u n c t i o n s , O r g a n i z a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n , and R o l e D e f i n i t i o n o f a Group o f S p e c i a l E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s " , The Mi d w e s t S o c i o l - o l i s t , X X I , 1 9 5 8 , p. 1 9 2 9 B.L. B i b l e and F.L. N o l a n , The R o l e o f th e E x t e n s i o n Committee Member i n the County E x t e n s i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n i n P e n n s y l v a n i a , ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k : P e n n s y l v a n i a A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 6 6 5 , i 9 6 0 ) 30 E . J . Brown and A. Deekens, " R o l e s o f S u b j e c t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s , " R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , XXVTJI, 1 9 5 8 , pp. 2 6 3 - 2 7 6 ed t o conform t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e whom he c o n s i d e r s t o he h i s major r e f e r e n c e group. ' W i l k e n i n g and S m i t h i n a s t u d y o f S p e c i a l E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s i n "Wisconsin f o u n d t h a t " r o l e d e f i n i t i o n w i t h i n a system o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e i s a p r o c e s s w h i c h i n v o l v e s commitment t o the j o b , p e r c e p t i o n o f the f u n c t i o n s o f the j o b , s e l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d the c l i e n t e l e o r t o the 'system', and the o r d e r i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s o v e r space 31 and t i m e . " The a s p e c t w h i c h g e t s p r i o r i t y a p p e a r s t o depend on t h e needs and i n t e r e s t s o f the a g e n t , and t h e s e i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e whether he l o o k s t o w a r d h i s c l i e n t s o r t o the b u r e a u c r a c y f o r h i s r e w a r d s . 'E.A. W i l k e n i n g and'B. S m i t h , " P e r c e p t i o n s o f F u n c t i o n s , O r g a n i s a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n , and R o l e D e f i n i t i o n o f a Group o f S p e c i a l E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s " The Midwest S o c i o l o g i s t , X X I , 1958, pp. 19-28. 17 CHAPTER I I PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE A G E I M T S There a r e a number o f s o c i o - e c o n o r a i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? d i i c h a p p e a r to i n f l u e n c e the r o l e behasiro-ur o f a n i n d i v i d u a l . These i n c l u d e age, l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n the o r g a n j z a t i o n i n w h i c h the r o l e i s p e r f o r m e d and e d u c a t i o n o r t r a i n i n g t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l o b t a i n e d . These s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the a g e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e d e s c r i b e d below. I . AGE The age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s a r e shown i n Table'.1.1. The most o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s t a b l e i s the a p p a r e n t absence o f young a g e n t s o f any t y p e . O n l y 21 .4 F e r c e n t o f a l l the a g e n t s a r e l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o l d , and a l m o s t a l l o f them a r e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The m a j o r i t y o f the a g e n t s a r e i n the age group f o r t y to f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s . About 28 p e r c e n t o f a l l the a g e n t s a r e o v e r f i f t y y e a r s o f age, most o f t h e s e b e i n g D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s (37 P e r c e n t ) and O t h e r A g e n t s (40 p e r c e n t ) . TABLE I AGE DISTRIBUTION OF 3 TYPES OF BRITISH COLTJHBIA. EXTENSION AGENTS TYPE OF AGENTS AGE GROUP D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s O t h e r A g e n t s T o t a l 39 and l e s s y e a r s No. 1o No. No. % No. io 39 a * i d l e s s y e a r s 40 - 49 y e a r s 50 and more y e a r s 5 8 2 33.34 53-33 13.33 1 4 • 3 12.50 50.00 37.50 0 3 60.00 2 40.00 6 21.43 15 53.57 77 25.OO T o t a l 15 100.00 8 100.00 5 100.00 28 100.00 18 I t a p p e a r s t h e r e f o r e t h a t the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department o f A g r i -c u l t u r e has been u n a b l e t o a t t r a c t and keep new c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s . 'An-o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the a p p a r e n t absence o f young a g e n t s , i s t h a t t h e r e has been, f o r some y e a r s now, a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y o f l i t t l e o r no expan-s i o n i n the p e r s o n n e l o f t h e E x t e n s i o n Branch o f t h e Department. I I . LENGTH OF bEltYlCE L e n g t h o f s e r v i c e r e f e r s t o the number o f y e a r s an a g e n t has been employed w i t h the b r a n c h o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h i s c o n -c e r n e d w i t h e x t e n s i o n work, and a l s o , t o the number o f y e a r s t h a t an a g e n t has been i n h i s p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t . T h i s g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f m o b i l i t y w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T a b l e I I shows the number o f y e a r s t h a t a g e n t s o f each group have been employed i n e x t e n s i o n work. A f e a t u r e common t o t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s i s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f them have been employed w i t h the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e f o r more t h a n e l e v e n y e a r s , i n d i c a t i n g a low t u r n o v e r . O n l y 14 p e r c e n t o f a l l the a g e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d have been i n e x t e n s i o n work f o r l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s . These i n c l u d e 2 o u t o f the 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 2 out o f t h e 5 O t h e r A g e n t s , but none o f t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a s one g e t s o l d e r the more s t a b l e one becomes and the m o t i v a t i o n t o s t a y i n one j o b i s s t r e n g t h e n e d . The lo?; t u r n o v e r o f a g e n t s t h e r e f o r e i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r u n e x p e c t e d f o r t h e r e has been l i t t l e o r no r e c r u i t m e n t i n r e c e n t t i m e s . The m a j o r i t y o f the a g e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d a r e i n t h a t age grotip when, because o f v a r i o u s commitments, t h e r e i s l i t t l e , i f any, m o t i v a t i o n t o seek o t h e r employment. 19 TABLE I I LENGTH OF SERVICE IN EXTENSION WORK OF 3 TYPES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS TYPE OF AGENTS YEARS WITH EX-TENSION SERVICE D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t O t h e r . A g r i c u l t u r i s t s H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s A g e n t s TOTAL No. 10 y e a r s and l e s s 1 1 - 1 5 y e a r s 16 and more y e a r s 2- 13-33 7 46.67 6 40.00 0 4 4 0.00 50.00 50.00 2 40.00 2 40.00 1 20.00 4 13 11 14.28 46.43 39.29 T o t a l 15 100.00 8 100.00 5 100.00 28 100.00 The number o f y e a r s t h a t the a g e n t s have been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t d i s -t r i c t s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e I I I . Over h a l f o f a l l o f them have been i n the same d i s t r i c t f o r t e n o r more y e a r s , and t h i s i n c l u d e s a m a j o r i t y o f each type o f a g e n t . A g e n t s w i t h s i x y e a r s and l e s s i n the same d i s t r i c t a r e f o u n d p r i m a r i l y among the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s t ype o f agent i s most m o b i l e . T h i s i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h the more g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f the work and a r e a s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r -i s t s compared to the o t h e r g r o u p s . H o r t i c u l t u r a l and s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t -u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n the most p a r t a r e the c o n c e r n o f a g e n t s o t h e r t h a n D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l area.s. G e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r e on the o t h e r hand, i s p r o v i n c e - w i d e w i t h the f a r m e r s s p r e a d r e l a t i v e l y t h i n l y t h r o u g h o u t the a r e a . The needs o f t h e s e f a r m e r s and the e x i g e n c i e s o f the s e r v i c e may r e s v l t i n more f r e q u e n t movement o f the D i s -t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t between d i s t r i c t s . The r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d o f time t h a t the a g e n t s s t a y i n a d i s t r i c t i s i m p r e s s i v e ; and t h i s seems t o depend on age and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e , f r e -quent t r a n s f e r s n o t b e i n g the p o l i c y o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . So l o n g as a n a g e n t becomes r e a s o n a b l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n the community and i s g i v i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e , he i s a l l o w e d t o s t a y ; and m o b i l i t y depends m a i n l y on p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement and p r o m o t i o n . There i s a s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y among th e a g e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d a r i s i n g out o f the knowledge t h a t t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e w i l l n o t be d i s r u p t e d by f r e q u e n t o r sudden t r a n s f e r s and t h a t t h e y a r e r e a s o n a b l y c e r t a i n o f h a v i n g a l o n g enough time t o g e t to know the d i s t r i c t and t h e i r c l i e n t s . TABLE I I I LENGTH OF SERVICE IK PRESENT DISTRICT FOR 3 TYPES OF BRITISH COLukriA EXTENSION AGENTS TYPE OF AGENTS YEARS WITH EX-TENSION SERVICE D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t O t h e r TOTAL A g r i c u l t u r i s t s H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s A g e n t s No. No. io No. No. , 4 30 y e a r s and l e s s 3 20.00 0 0.00 2 40.00 5 17.86 4 - 7 y e a r s 3 20.00 0 0.00 0. '0.00 3 10.71 7 - 9 y e a r s 3 20.00 1 12.50 •1 20.00 5 17.86 10 and more y e a r s 6 40.00 7 87.50 2 40.00 15 53.57 T o t a l 15 100.00 8 100.00 5 100.00 28 100.00 I I I . TRAINING FOR THE JOB Academic T r a i n i n g T a b l e IV shows the academic t r a i n i n g o f the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s . A l l t h e a g e n t s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and two O t h e r A g e n t s have the B a c h e l o r ' s Degree. The p a u c i t y o f t r a i n i n g a t the p o s t g r a d u a t e l e v e l i s however v e r y a p p a r e n t . O n l y t h r e e a g e n t s - two D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and. one D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t - have a fester's Degree. R e l a t i v e l y few o f the a g e n t s (32 p e r c e n t ) had any c o u r s e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l program. There i s a r e l a t i v e l y 21 h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f o t h e r degrees among O t h e r A g e n t s . T h i s i s due to the f a c t t h a t t h e s e -agents had s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g n o t a t a u n i v e r s i t y hut u n d e r some ag e n c y w h i c h s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e i r f i e l d . The p a u c i t y o f t r a i n i n g a t the p o s t g r a d u a t e l e v e l a p p e a r s t o be a r e -s u l t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y g o v e r n i n g t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a v e . I t w o u l d appear t h a t a l t h o u g h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r u p g r a d -i n g t h e s t a f f a n d f o r t r a i n i n g a.t the p e s t graduate l e v e l , and o f f e r some inducements such as s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e , t h e s e inducements a r e n o t s t r o n g enough to encourage the a g e n t s t o f u r t h e r f o r m a l t r a i n i n g . S i n c e the l e a v e o f f e r e d i s n o t l o n g enough t o c o v e r the complete p e r i o d o f s t u d y , n o r i s i a n y c s p e c i a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n , t he agent must be o v e r l y k e e n and v e r y a m b i t i o u s b e f o r e he w i l l u n d e r t a k e p o s t g r a d u a t e s t u d y . TABLE IV LETEL OP ACADEMIC TRAINING- OP 3 TYPES OP BRITISH COLOMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS TYPES OP AGENTS 6 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s O t h e r A g e n t s A l l A g e n t s No. No. °/o* Bo. %* No. °/c* A g r i c u l t u r a l c o u r s e s i n H i g h S c h o o l 6 40.00 3 37.50 1 20.00 10 32114 B a c h e l o r s Degree 14 93.33 s 100.00 3 60.00 25 89.28 Ma.sters Degree 2 13>33 i 12.50 0 5 10.71 O t h e r Degree 2 ^•.33 2 25.00 2 40.00 6 21.42 * S h o u l d be r e a d as f o l l o w s : 4-0 p e r c e n t o u t o f 15 D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 37-5 p e r c e n t o u t o f 8 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , 20 p e r c e n t out o f 15 O t h e r A g e n t s , 32.14 p e r c e n t o u t o f a t o t a l o f 28 a g e n t s and so on. l"'\o The a g e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t he v a l u e o f t h e i r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a h a i d t o the e x t e n s i o n work. Q u a n t i t a t i v e s c o r e s were d e v e l o p e d f o r e a c h 22> l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n by a s s i g n i n g a r b i t r a r y w e i g h t s t o e a c h r a t i n g , p e r m i t t i n g the l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g to be r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g to the a v e r a g e s c o r e o f a l l the a g e n t s . F o r example, much i s g i v e n 3; some,2; l i t t l e , 1; and none , 0 . These r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e V. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and the D i s t r i c t H o r t -i c u l t u r i s t s emphasize the B a c h e l o r ' s Degree f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by the M a s t e r ' s , and gave l i t t l e v a l u e to a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u r s e s t a k e n i n h i g h s c h o o l . The O t h e r A g e n t s however, f e e l t h a t t h e i r ' o t h e r ' d e grees and d i p l o m a s a r e most v a l u a b l e . TABLE V R A M ORDER OF ACADEMIC TRAINING OK THE BASIS OF "VALUE OF EXTENSION WORK" BY 3 GROUPS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGLET TYPES OF AGENTS D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t O t h e r A g r i c u l t u r i s t s H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s A g e n t s B a c h e l o r s Degrees 1 1 3 testers Degrees 2 2 -O t h e r Degrees o r Diplomas 3 3 1* A g r i c u l t u r a l c o u r s e s i n H i g h S c h o o l 4 4 l * * These i t e m s had the same t o t a l s c o r e . E x t e n s i o n T r a i n i n g F o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n methods i s c o n s p i c o u s l y a b s e n t among the a g e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d . T a b l e V I i n w h i c h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d , shows t h a t o n l y 28 p e r c e n t o f a l l the a g e n t s had any e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g d u r i n g t h e i r academic c a r e e r and i n the most p a r t t h i s t r a i n i n g has been d e s c r i b e d as v e r y l i t t l e a nd n o t o f any r e a l v a l u e t o the j o b . T h i s l a c k o f f o r m a l e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t t h a t c o u r s e s i n e x t e n s i o n methods a t the u n d e r g r a d u a t e l e v e l a r e v e r y r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n s a t C a n a d i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e y a r e n o t c o m p u l s o r y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r g r a d u a -t i o n f r o m u n i v e r s i t y n o r f o r e n t r y i n t o the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The amount o f f o r m a l e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g shows a te n d e n c y t o r e l a t e t o t h e age and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n work, i n c r e a s i n g w i t h b o t h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . The e i g h t a g e n t s who have t h i s f o r m o f t r a i n i n g a r e a l l above f o r t y y e a r s o f age and have been w i t h the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e f o r more th a n e l e v e n y e a r s . S i n c e i t i s n o t wrong t o assume t h a t a s t u d e n t w i l l e n -d e a v o r t o t a k e c o u r s e s w h i c h w i l l b e s t f i t him f o r the c a r e e r w h i c h he i n t e n d s to commit h i m s e l f , one wonders whether many o f the a g e n t s had any i n t e n t i o n o f j o i n i n g the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e w h i l e t h e y were a t U n i v e r s i t y , o r have done so o n l y a s a l a s t r e s o r t . A n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r may be the f a c t t h a t f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n methods i s n o t a c o m p u l s o r y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r j o i n i n g t h e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n c o n t r a s t to academic t r a i n i n g , o v e r 90 p e r c e n t o f a l l the a g e n t s had some f o r m o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n methods. ( T a b l e V I) . T h i s i s however n o t enough, f o r when a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y had s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g t o do an e f f e c t i v e j o b , h a l f o f the a g e n t s r e p l i e d i n the n e g a t i v e . A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t i n c o m p a r i s o n o f i n - s e r v i c e e x t e n -s i o n t r a i n i n g w i t h age a n d l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e . More t h a n t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the a g e n t s who had t h i s type o f t r a i n i n g a r e o v e r f o r t y y e a r s o f age and have been W i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r more t h a n e l e v e n y e a r s . As i t i s ob-v i o u s t h a t the l o n g e r the a g e n t works i n E x t e n s i o n the g r e a t e r the number o f c o u r s e s he i s l i k e l y t o a t t e n d , t h i s p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g . TABLE V I NUMBER OUT OE 15 'DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND 5 OTHER AGENTS INDICATING THE AMOUNT OF TRAINING I N EXTENSION 1ETHODS THEY HAVE RECEIVED DISTRICT DISTRICT OTHER ALL AGRICULTURISTS HORTICULTURISTS AGENTS AGENTS F o r m a l I n - S e r v i c e F o r m a l I n - S e r v i c e Formal I n - S e r v i c e F o r m a l I n - S e r v i c e Amount o f T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g No. No. No. fo No. f No. % No. * No. No. Much 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 20 0 0 1 4 Some 0 0 10 •67 0 0 4 50 1 20 1 20 1 4 15 54 L i t t l e 4 27 4 26 2 25 4 50 1 20 2 40 7 25 10 36 None 11 73 1 6 6 75 0 0 3 60 1 20 20 71 2 7 T o t a l 15 100 15 100 8 100 8 100 5 100 5 100 28 100 28 100 25 T r a i n i n g R e q u i r e m e n t s There i s some d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n among the t h r e e agent groups as t o the f o r m o f e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g t h a t w i l l b e s t s e r v e t h e i r needs. T a b l e V I I i n wh i c h t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d , shows t h a t f u r t h e r f o r m a l s t u d y and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a r e most p o p u l a r . There i s a s t r o n g f e e l i n g among D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f o r f u r t h e r ' f o r m a l ' s t u d y ( p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g ) i n a d d i t i o n t o i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h a t t h e i r needs w i l l be b e s t met by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f more e x p e r i e n c e and i n -s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , w h i l e the O t h e r A g e n t s t h i n k t h a t i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a l o n e w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t . The ag e ' o f the a g e n t and h i s l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e do n o t seem t o make any d i f f e r e n c e a s t o the type o f t r a i n i n g d e s i r e d , b u t more e x -p e r i e n c e i s p o p u l a r among o l d e r a g e n t s , and thos e w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l o n g s e r v i c e . TABLE V I I NUMBER OUT OF 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND 5 OTHER AGENTS INDICATING TEE TYPE OP EXTENSION TRAINING THEY DESIRE D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t -u r i s t s D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t -u r i s t s O t h e r A g e n t s A l l J d l A/pAgents More e x p e r i e n c e F u r t h e r F o r m a l S t u d y I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g O t h e r Programs No. fo No. fo No. °/o No. fo 0 1 0 6 6 . 6 0 14 93-30 1 6.60 y 4 50.00 2 25.00 5 62.50 2 25.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 5 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 5 17.80 13 4 6 . 4 0 22| 8 6 . 7 0 3 1 G . 7 0 These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a depends h e a v i l y on e x p e r i e n c e and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t o meet the e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n needs o f i t s a g e n t s . T h i s i s a n o b v i o u s weakness. I t wou l d be to the advantage o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , a nd the a g e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r 2 6 t h a t f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n methods he made a c o m p u l s o r y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r r e c r u i t m e n t . I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g can t h e n he u s e d , n o t f o r r e m e d i a l a c t i o n , b u t f o r i t s r i g h t f u l p u n p o s e — t h a t o f e x -p o s i n g a g e n t s to new methods and t e c h n i q u e s o f e x t e n s i o n work as t h e s e a r e d e v e l o p e d . Summary There i s l i t t l e d i s p a r i t y i n the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d among the a g e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d . A l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y o f t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a r e i n t h e age group f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s , t h i s group a l s o had the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f a g e n t s l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o l d ( § 3 p e r c e n t ) and the l o w e s t p r e p o r t i o n f i f t y and more y e a r s o f age ( 1 3 p e r c e n t ) . More t h a n 8 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s have been i n e x t e n s i o n work f o r l o n g e r t h a n t e n y e a r s , but o n l y 6 0 p e r c e n t o f them have been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t f o r o v e r s i x y e a r s a t a t thai t i m e o f the i n t e r v i e w . One a g e n t does n o t have a B a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e , b u t 2 have M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s . W h i l e more t h a n 7 0 p e r c e n t o f them had no f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n , 9 3 p e r c e n t had t h i s f o r m o f t r a i n i n g w h i l e on the j o b . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h a t f u r t h e r f o r m a l s t u d y and i n -s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g w i l l b e s t meet t h e i r t r a i n i n g needs. O n l y one D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t i s l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age; f o u r o f t h e s e a r e i n the age group f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s and t h r e e a r e f i f t y o r more y e a r s o l d . A l l o f t h e s e a g e n t s have been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t f o r o v e r s i x y e a r ; 8 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e b e i n g i n the same d i s t r i c t f o r t e n o r more y e a r s . A l l o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s have B a c h e l o r ' s D e g r e e s , one have a M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e . L i k e S i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , t h e s e 2 7 a g e n t s f e e l t h a t the B a c h e l o r ' s Eegree i s the most v a l u a b l e o f a l l t h e i r a cademic t r a i n i n g , f o r e x t e n s i o n work. Y/hile a l l o f the a g e n t s had i n -s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n methods, 7 5 per c e n t o f them h a d none o f t h i s form o f t r a i n i n g d u r i n g t h e i r f o r m a l academic c a r e e r . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a r e o f the o p i n i o n t h a t t h e i r t r a i n i n g needs i n e x t e n s i o n c a n be b e s t s e r v e d by 'more e x p e r i e n c e ' and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . The f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were o v e r f o r t y y e a r s o l d . Three o f them have been i n e x t e n s i o n work f o r more t h a n t e n y e a r s , and two have been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t f o r t h r e e o r l e s s y e a r s . None o f t h e s e a g e n t s have a M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e , t h r e e have B a c h e l o r ' s degrees and two have d i p l o m a s i n t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s . U n l i k e the o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s , O t h e r A g e n t s r a n k t h e i r ' o t h e r degrees and d i p l o m a s ' a s the most v a l u a b l e f o r m o f f o r m a l aca.demic t r a i n i n g , f o r t h e i r e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s . W h i l e f o u r o u t o f the f i v e a g e n t s h a d i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n methods, t h r e e o f them d i d n o t have t h i s t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e a g e n t s f e e l t h a t ' i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ' can b e s t s e r v e t h e i r needs f o r t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n methods. 28 CHAPTER I I I THE AGENTS PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR JOBS The manner i n w h i c h the a g e n t p e r c e i v e s o f the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f h i s j o b w i l l i n f l u e n c e h i s r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , r o l e p erformance and h i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n the work. H i s r o l e d e f i n i t i o n w i l l i n i t s e l f i n v o l v e a ress&iu-t i o n o f c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n a l and i n t e r a c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , s u c h as h i s p e r -c e p t i o n s o f the g o a l s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , h i s asses s m e n t o f the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o needs, i n t e r e s t s and r e s o u r c e s , and h i s a s s e s s m e n t o r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f pe o p l e w i t h i n and o u t s i d e o f t h e o r g a n i z - . a t i o n . An a t t e m p t i s made i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o a n a l y z e the agents'; p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r j o b s w i t h some a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n a l and i n t e r a c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . I . FbJMCTIOKS OF THE EXTENSION SERVICE The t r a d i t i o n a l charge o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e has been t o d e v e l o p a more s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l and home l i f e o f r u r a l p e o p l e , and i t has a l w a y s been assumed . tha.t t h i s can b e s t be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l e f f i c i e n c y . I n the e a r l y days o f development emphasis was p l a c e d on the i n d i v i d i x a l i a r m e r s , and the prime o b j e c t i v e was the f i e l d a p p l i c a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s . A l l e n e r g y was d i r e c t e d to i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n , u s u a l l y i n an a d hoc p i e c e meal I c : s h i o n , and any e d u c a t i o n a l and development work i n v o l v e d was o n l y i n c i d e n t a l . To t h e m a j o r -i t y o f the f a r m e r s the e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r was an a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e m a n , — ' t h e doer o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c h o r e s ' . 29 :' S i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the s i z e of. f a r m s , i n economic c o n d i t i o n s and i n t e c h n o l o g y d u r i n g r e c e n t t i m e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e must w i d e n i t s scope and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i f i t i s t o a c h i e v e i t s g o a l and j u s t i f y i t s e x i s t e n c e . No l o n g e r can the o r g a n i z a t i o n be s a t i s -f i e d w i t h d o i n g work o f a s e r v i c e n a t u r e m e e t i n g the s p e c i f i c demands o f the i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r s . There has t o be an i n t e n t i o n a l s h i f t f r o m s e r v i c e work t o e d u c a t i o n a l and development a c t i v i t i e s . The a t t a i n m e n t o f a more s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l a nd home l i f e o f r u r a l p e o p l e r e q u i r e s more complex programs, a knowledge o f the s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s a f f e c t i n g t he f a m i l y i n a c h a n g i n g community and e m p h a s i z i n g a r e a development and w i d e r t r a i n i n g o f r u r a l y o u t h . F a r m i n g i s no l o n g e r a 'way o f l i f e ' , i t i s a b u s i n e s s and the economics o f f i n a n c e , c r e d i t , p u r c h a s i n g and m a r k e t i n g assume s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e . Though no e f f o r t i s made t o d e s c r i b e i n a co m p l e t e sense what a r e , o r s h o u l d be., the f u n c t i o n s o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , the s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o f i n d o u t whether t h e r e has been an i n d i c a t i o n o f s h i f t i n the emphasis f r o m work o f a s e r v i c e n a t u r e t o thos e t h a t a r e more e d u c a t i o n a l and development-a l . The ag e n t s were a s k e d t o r a t e the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f f o u r major f u n c t i o n s o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e on the b a s i s o f ( l ) the amount o,f.<ltiroee and e f f o r t g i v e n t o ea.ch f u n c t i o n d u r i n g the p r e c e d i n g y e a r , and (2) what the a g e n t f e e l s the i m p o r t a n c e o f each f u n c t i o n should, be. 'The f o u r f u n c t i o n s a r e : ( l ) ' P r o v i d i n g s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c f a r m p r a c t i c e s ' ?7hich d e a l s w i t h the s e r v i c e n a t u r e o f the work, (2) ' T e a c h i n g the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n -c i p l e s o f f a r m i n g ' — e m p h a s i z i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s , (3) ' C o n s u l t i n g "!.... i n the a n a l y s i s and'management o f the t o t a l farm, e n t e r p r i s e ' — e m p h a s i z i n g 30 d e v e l o p m e n t a l a s p e c t s , and (4) 'Community development, p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p and i n f o r m a t i o n t o the c o m m u n i t y ' — c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s . A r b i t r a r y w e i g h t s were g i v e n t o the r e s p o n s e s so a s t o r a n k the f u n c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o the t o t a l s c o r e o f each t y p e o f a g e n t . ( T a b l e VIII) P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s r a n k e d as number one by each a g e n t group on the b a s i s o f time and e f f o r t d e v o t e d to i t d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r . More th a n 70 p e r c e n t o f a l l the a g e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d r a t e d t h i s f u n c t i o n as 'very i m p o r t a n t ' and t h i s i n c l u d e s l a r g e m a j o r i t i e s o f e a c h type o f a g e n t , w h i l e o n l y 3 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was 'not i m p o r t a n t 1 . ( F i g u r e I ) On the b a s i s o f how i m p o r t a n t the a g e n t s f e e l each f u n c t i o n s h o u l d be, ' p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ' rank'..-' s e c o n d w i t h r e s p e c t to the t o t a l s c o r e f o r a l l a g e n t s . A l t h o u g h 42 p e r c e n t o f a l l the a g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h i s f u n c t i o n s h o u l d be 'very i m p o r t a n t ' , t h e y a r e c o n f i n e d m o s t l y t o D i s -t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s . Over 75 per c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s r a t e t h i s f u n c t i o n as ' v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' as compared t o o n l y 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r a t i n g i t t h a t h i g h . ( F i g u r e 2) T e a c h i n g P r i n c i p l e s . When a l l the a g e n t s a r e t a k e n as a group, ' t e a c h i n g p r i n c i p l e s ' r a n k s second on the b a s i s o f time and e f f o r t s p e n t d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r , and t h i r d on the b a s i s o f how i m p o r t a n t i t s h o u l d be. D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k t h i s f i i n c t i o n s i m i l a r l y on b o t h b a s i s b u t b o t h D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and- O t h e r A g e n t s r a n k i t h i g h e r on the b a s i s o f t i m e and e f f o r t , t h a n on the b a s i s o f how i m p o r t a n t i t s h o u l d be. Most o f the a g e n t s r a t e d t h i s f u n c t i o n as ' i m p o r t a n t ' on b o t h bases, w i t h s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t i s n o t o r s h o u l d n o t be i m p o r t a n t . TABLE VIII R A M ORDERING QF- 4 FUNCTIONS OF THE EXTENSION SERVICE ON THE BASES OF (1) "TBIE SPENT Offi EACH FUNCTION "DURING THE PAST YEAR" AND (2) "1107/ IMPORTANT EACH FUNCTION SHOULD BE BY 3 TYPES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS FUNCTIONS OF THE TYPE: 01' AGENT D i s t r i c t . D i s t r i c t O t h e r ...1A11 EXTENSION SERVICE A g r i c u l t u r i s t s H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s A g e n t s • -i..-AAgents Time I i vportance Time Importance Time Importance T i i e .Importance , Spent Spent S p e n t S p e n t P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on S p e c i f i c Farm p r a c -t i c e s 1 4 1 1 1 ± 1 2 T e a c h i n g the u n d e r l y -i n g p r i n c i p l e s of f a r m -i n g 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 C o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l -y s i s and management o f the t o t a l f arm e n t e r -p r i s e 3 l 3 3 3 l Community development-p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p to the community 3 i 2 4 4 4 4 4 3 32 farlculturtsts Horfcultunsts Other Agents All A3ents I X I O N 66% 97 WZA 90% Aqnojltymts Horticullonsts All ft^nte Agriculturists Agriculturists HortiCO^turists Cther R3ents All ftge.n'ts FIGAJRE. I' PERCENTAGE OF DISTRICT W^RlCUtTURlSTS, DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND OTHER, AQENTSRATlNG, HOW IMPORTANT THE FUN.C.T/ONS OF THE EXTEWSION SERVICE ARE .NOW" VERY IMPORTANT TTT7\ IMPORTANT JZZ3 NOT IMPORTANT 33 /Viculiurists Horticulturists Other fluents fill Bjents Agriculturists Worticulturisb Other fiqents fill fi<jents rViculturists | horticulturists', Other Ftaenli ; fill figents I ^£Qm.VJ«y,,tt<h )N..f ARM , M B N p ^ l £ . ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ floriculturists |P Horticulturists Other Agents fill fljents *»'/. t«g C O M M U N I T Y PPM 2« 100*/. FIGURE 2. PERCENTAGE OF P I S T R I C T I vRt,RJCUUTt;RlSTS, DISTRICT. HORTICULTURISTS RND OTHER AGENTS RATlN^ HOW IMPORTANT THE FUNCTIONS OF THE EXTENSION SERVICE "SHOULD Bt" VERY J M P O R T R N T (7771 IMPORTANT NOT IMPORTANT c C o n s u l t i n g . F o r a l l a g e n t s , ' c o n s u l t i n g i s the a n a l y s i s and management o f t h e t o t a l f a r m e n t e r p r i s e ' r a n k s t h i r d on the b a s i s o f t i m e and e f f o r t s p e n t , b u t f i r s t i n the b a s i s o f how i m p o r t a n t t h i s f u n c t i o n s h o u l d be. Once mere, D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k t h i s f u n c -t i o n s i m i l a r l y on b o t h b a s e s , w h i l e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k i t h i g h e r on the b a s i s o f how i m p o r t a n t i t s h o u l d be t h a n on the b a s i s o f time and e f f o r t . A c o m p a r i s o n o f F i g u r e s 1 and 2 shows w h i l e o n l y 14 p e r c e n t o f a l l t he a g e n t s r a t e d t h i s f u n c t i o n as ' v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' on the b a s i s o f time and e f f o r t s p e n t , o v e r 60. p e r c e n t o f them r a t e d i t t h i s h i g h on the b a s i s o f how i m p o r t a n t i t s h o u l d be, the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f them b e i n g D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . Community Development. The o v e r a l l r a n k i n g o f the community d e v e l o p -ment f u n c t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y low- on b o t h b a s e s — f o u r t h i n the time and e f f o r t s p e n t , and t h i r d w i t h r e s p e c t t o how i m p o r t a n t i t s h o u l d be. However t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f a g e n t s ( c o n f i n e d m a i n l y t o D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t -u r i s t s ) who f e e l t h a t t h i s f u n c t i o n i s n o t g e t t i n g the emphasis t h a t i t d e s e r v e s , a s r e v e a l e d by a c o m p a r i s o n o f F i g u r e 1 w i t h F i g u r e 2. O n l y 10 p e r c e n t o f a l l the a g e n t s r a t e community development as ' v e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 on the b a s i s o f the t i m e and e f f o r t s p e n t on i t d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r s , b u t 39 per c e n t o f them r a n k the f u n c t i o n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y on the b a s i s o f how i m p o r t a n t t h e f u n c t i o n s h o u l d be. Summary. The t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s were i n g e n e r a l agreement i n r a n k -i n g the f u n c t i o n s on the b a s i s o f t i m e and e f f o r t s p e n t on them d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r s . There was however l i t t l e agreement among them as to w h i c h o f the f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d be g i v e n the most emph a s i s . 35 L i k e the two o t h e r t y p e s o f a g e n t s , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k • p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ' f i r s t on the b a s i s o f time and e f f o r t s p e n t , f o l l o w -ed by ' t e a c h i n g p r i n c i p l e s ' , ' c o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s and management' and 'community development' i n t h a t o r d e r . However, a b o u t 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s r a t e ' t e a c h i n g p r i n c i p l e s ' as n o t i m p o r t a n t on t h i s b a s i s . There i s no s i m i l a r i t y between the r a n k i n g on t h i s b a s i s and t h a t on the b a s i s o f how i m p o r t a n t t h e s e a g e n t s f e e l t h i s s h o u l d be. I n t h i s c a s e , ' c o n s u l t i n g i n a n a l y s i s and management' r a n k s as number one, w i t h 'community d e v e l o p -ment', ' t e a c h i n g p r i n c i p l e s ' and ' p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ' f o l l o w i n g i n t h a t o r d e r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t o n l y 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s f e e l t h a t ' p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ' , p a t r a d i t i o n a l f m i c t i o n o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , s h o u l d be r a t e d a s ' v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k the f o u r f u n c t i o n s s i m i l a r l y on b o t h b a s e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no change i n emphasis f r o m what i t has been i n the p a s t . Indeed the c l o s e n e s s o f the t o t a l s c o r e s s u g g e s t s t h a t e x c e p t f o r 'community development' on w h i c h v e r y l i t t l e emphasis i s p l a c e d , t h e s e a g e n t s see a l l f u n c t i o n s a s e q u a l i n i m p o r t a n c e . The o r d e r i n g o f the f u n c t i o n s on b o t h bases was ' p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ' f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by ' t e a c h i n g p r i n c i p l e s ' , ' c o n s u l t i n g i n a n a l y s i s and management' and, 'community development'. O t h e r A g e n t s i n d i c a t e the f e e l i n g t h a t g r e a t e r emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on ' c o n s u l t i n g i n a n a l y s i s and management', but ' p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ' s h o u l d , as i n the p a s t , r e m a i n the most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s i n p r o j e c t i n g what has been d e s c r i b e d as the 'changing image 3# o f e x t e n s i o n work. 1 On the b a s i s o f emphasis giA^en t o each f u n c t i o n d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r , work o f a s e r v i c e n a t u r e s t i l l r e m a i n s t h e main f u n c t i o n o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . There i s some e v i d e n c e h o w e v e r , t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t s a r e f o r c e d t o spend a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t ime on work w h i c h i s n o t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r i d e a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the r o l e o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s f e e l t h a t the p r i m a r y r o l e o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s h o u l d be d i s s e m m i n a t i o r i o f i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e s and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t e a c h i n g o f p r i n c i p l e s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s on the o t h e r hand show a t r e n d , though s l i g h t , t o p r o j e c t i n g the 'new image 1 o f e x t e n s i o n when t h e y d e f i n e the r o l e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n as e x t e n d i n g beyond the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s p e c i f i c t e c h n i -ques and p r a c t i c e s . They f e e l t h a t the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s h o u l d be more o f an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n agency and l e s s o f a s e r v i c e a gency and, i f i t i s t o a t t a i n i t s g o a l o f d e v e l o p i n g a„more s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l and home l i f e f o r r u r a l p e o p l e , emphasis mast', now- be p l a c e d on problems o f management, p u b l i c a f f a i r s and community r e l a t i o n s . ..... ... > . • . i I I . ROLES OF THE AGENTS The q u e s t i o n o f r o l e d e f i n i t i o n as i t a p p l i e s t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the E x t e n s i o n A g e n t i s one o f extreme d i f f i c u l t y . The a g e n t b e l o n g s t o a s o c i a l system i n w h i c h the d i f f e r e n t groups may have v a r y i n g and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g -needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s . As he t r i e s t o o r g a n i z e h i s work t o meet the needs o f h i s c l i e n t e l e he r e l a t e s h i m s e l f t o p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t ways. To some he i s th e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e man, t o o t h e r s he i s a government o f f i c i a l who c a r r i e s o u t p o l i c i e s o f the department i n a d e s i g n a t e d a r e a ; w h i l e t o s t i l l J37 o t h e r s , he i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , management and market p r a c t i c e s . Because o f t h e s e s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d the v a r i e d and complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t he r o l e o f the e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s c a n -n o t he c l e a r l y d e f i n e d f o r any l e n g t h o f t i m e . I t w i l l he more a c c u r a t e t o s a y t h a t t he a g e n t has a h i e r a r c h y o f r o l e s e ach o f w h i c h changes i n i m p o r t -a n c e , d e p e n d i n g on the c o n t e n t o r f u n c t i o n o f the work, and the pe o p l e and gro u p w i t h whom he i s c o n c e r n e d a t the t i m e . Many i n v e s t i g a t o r s have a t t e m p t e d t o c l a s s i f y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f e x t e n s i o n work. One o f these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s was d e v e l o p e d by S t o n e , based on s t u d i e s done i n Michigan."'' W i t h S t o n e ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as a g u i d e , n i n e c a t e g o r i e s o f r o l e s were d e v e l o p e d , w h i c h i t i s hoped w i l l i n c l u d e a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e a g e n t s ' work. These c a t e g o r i e s a r e : 1. S t u d e n t — a c q u i r i n g f a c t s , i n f o r m a t i o n , knowledge o r s k i l l s . 2. Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r — a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f u n c t i o n s . 3. S o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s — s t i m u l a t i n g p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t and e n c o u r a g i n g them t o t r y new p r a c t i c e s , done on the a g e n t ' s own i n i t i a t i v e . 4. O r g a n i z e r and S u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s — s e t t i n g up group s i t u a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g . 5. O r g a n i z e r o f g r o u p s — e n c o u r a g i n g and a c t u a l l y h e l p i n g p eople o r -g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s f o r c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . 6. S e r v i c e A g e n t — - s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s , w h i c h cannot be c l a s s e d a s t e a c h -i h g j b u t makes i t e a s i e r f o r p e o p l e t o f o l l o w e x t e n s i o n recommend-a t i o n s . 7. C o n s u l t a n t — c o u n s e l l i n g p e o p l e who r e q u e s t the a g e n t ' s h e l p . 8 . Program p l a n n e r — p l a n n i n g and making program d e c i s i o n s . 9. Community d e v e l o p m e n t — L e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and p r o v i d i n g the m o t i -v a t i o n f o r d e s i r a b l e change on a b r o a d e r community b a s i s . The a g e n t s were a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h f a l l w i t h i n the scope o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e some J.T. S t o n e , "How County A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s Teach", P r o c e e d i n g s o f the  C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y o f R u r a l E x t e n s i o n , 196l, pp..21-36 -36 o b v i o u s weaknesses i n t h i s s o r t o f c a t e g o r i s a t i o n s i n c e the a g e n t s a r e f o r c e d i n t o c o n s i d e r i n g c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h may n o t have any meaning to him. A f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g the r o l e s , t h e .agents vrere r a t e d on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f each s p e c i f i c r o l e . They were r e q u i r e d t o r e s p o n d on ( l ) the amount o f time s p e n t on each r o l e d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r ; (2) how i m p o r t a n t t h e y f e e l e a c h r o l e i s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r j o b s ; (3) whether t h e y r e q u i r e t o spend more, l e s s o r the same amount Of t i m e on each r o l e ; (4) how w e l l - e q u i p p e d t h e y were t o p e r f o r m e a c h r o l e a n d (5) how much t h e y e n j o y e a c h r o l e . Three o r f o u r c a t e g o r i e s a r e u s e d i n t h e r a t i n g s o f e a c h o f t h e s e a s p e c t s , and q u a n t i t a t i v e s c o r e s a r e d e v e l o p e d f o r e ach r o l e by a s s i g n i n g a r b i t r a r y w e i g h t s to e a c h r a t i n g . F o r example, w i t h r e s p e c t to the amount o f time s p e n t on each f u n c t i o n d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r , 'much' i s g i v e n 3; 'some', 2; ' l i t t l e ' , 1; and 'none', 0. R o l e D e f i n i t i o n R o l e d e f i n i t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f u n c t i o n s t h a t the a g e n t s i d e n t i f y as p a r t o f t h e i r j o b s , and a l s o by the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t t h e y a t t a c h t o e a ch f u n . c t i o n . T a b l e IX shows the f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h type o f a g e n t who i d e n t i f y the n i n e r o l e s a s coming w i t h i n the scope o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . Of the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t s d i s p l a y the g r e a t e s t degree o f consensus i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the scope o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and a r e unanimous i n a l l but t h r e e o f the r o l e s . One a g e n t does n o t c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f t o be a 'program a d m i n i s t r a -t o r ' , w h i l e two o f them do n o t c o n s i d e r 'community development' as a n a s p e c t o f t h e i r j o b s . TABLE IX NUMBER OUT OF 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS, AND 5 OTHER AGENTS INDICATING THE ROLES THEY PERFORM DISTRICT DISTRICT OTHER ALL AGRICULTURISTS HORTICULTURISTS AGEHTS AGEHTS ROLES No. % No. io No. fo No. °/o S t u d e n t 15 100 8 100 4 80 27 96 Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r 14 93 4 50 3 60 21 75 S o u r c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n and Ideas 15 100 8 100 4 80 27 96 O r g a n i z e r and S u p e r v i s o r o f E v e n t s . 15 100 6 75 5 100 26 93 O r g a n i z e r o f Groups 15 100 3 37 4 80 22 77 S e r v i c e Agent .15 100 5 62 4 80 24 86 C o n s u l t a n t 15 100 8 100 5 100 28 100 Program P l a n n e r 14 93 . 6 75 4 80 24 85 Community Development 13 87 4 50 3 60 20 71 vo D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . D i v e r s i t y o f o p i n i o n i s g r e a t e s t among t h i s g r o u p o f a g e n t s . The r o l e s o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , ' s t u d e n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' a r e the unanimous c h o i c e o f t h e s e e i g h t a g e n t s . S i x o f them f e e l t h a t t h e y ' o r g a n i z e and s u p e r v i s e e v e n t s ' , a n o t h e r f i v e i d e n t i f y ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' , h a l f o f t h i s group f e e l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e .'pro-gram a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' and 'community development', w h i l e o n l y t h r e e o f them i n d i c a t e t h a t they a r e ' o r g a n i z e r s o f g r o u p s ' . O t h e r A g e n t s . O t h e r A g e n t s show l e s s d i s p a r i t y t h a n D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t -u r i s t s b u t more th a n D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n i d e n t i f y i n g the r o l e s w h i c h t h e y p l a y . Two r o l e s — ' s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and id.eas' and ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ax-e i d e n t i f i e d by a l l f i v e o f t h i s group but o n l y t h r e e o f them f e e l t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e 'program a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n ' and 'community development'. E a c h o f the o t h e r r o l e s were i d e n t i f i e d as p a r t o f t h e i r j o b s by f o u r o f t h e s e a g e n t s . The l a c k o f concensus between the d i f f e r e n t a g e n t groups i n i d e n t i f y -i n g t h e i r r o l e s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the n a t u r e o f the work and i n t e r e s t s o f e ach g r o u p . I n a d d i t i o n t o t r y i n g t o r e s o l v e the a g r i c u l t -u r a l problems o f h i s d i s t r i c t , the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t has t o be i n t e r e s t -ed i n r u r a l l i f e i n g e n e r a l . I t i s n o t u n l i k e l y t h a t some o f the s e r v i c e demanded by h i s c l i e n t s may c o n f l i c t w i t h the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ' s i n t e r e s t s o r h i s i d e a l d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s r o l e . However, t r a d i t i o n may have i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d t h e s e s e r v i c e s as p a r t o f the j o b and c o n s e q u e n t l y , he has t o p e r f o r m t h e s e w h e t h e r he l i k e s t o o r n o t , i f he i s t o o b t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y l o c a l s u p p o r t f o r e x t e n s i o n work. D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s , b e i n g p r i m a r i l y more c o n c e r n e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y t h a n w i t h r u r a l l i f e i n g e n e r a l , have l e s s c o m p r o m i s i n g j o b s . I n d e e d the t i t l e s o f t h e i r j o b s connote s p e c i a l c o n c e r n f o r a s p e c i f i c a r e a o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y . As s u c h , t h e y do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s a s ' g e n e r a l e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s ' but r a t h e r as ' s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' s p e c i a l i s t s . These a g e n t s t e n d t o emphasise o n l y t h o s e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h p e r t a i n t o t h e i r s p e c i a l i t i e s and l e a v e g e n e r a l development o f r u r a l l i f e t o the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , because t h e r e i s l i t t l e p r e s s u r e f r o m e i t h e r the f a r m e r s o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r them to' expand t h e i r r o l e s i n t o f a m i l y and community a f f a i r s . Summary. The t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s d i f f e r w i d e l y i n d e f i n i n g , the r o l e s t h e y p l a y . They a r e however unanimous i n i d e n t i f y i n g ' c o n s u l t a n t ' as t h e i r main r o l e , and t h e y a r e c l o s e t o u n a n i m i t y f o r ' s t u d e n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' . L e a s t agreement was shown f o r 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' and 'community development' Importance o f t h e H o l e s The r a n k o r d e r i n g o f the r o l e s on the b a s i s o f 'how i m p o r t a n t the a g e n t s f e e l t h i s s h o u l d be' i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X. F i g u r e 3 shows the p r o p o r t i o n o f e a c h group r a t i n g the r o l e s as ' v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' , ' i m p o r t a n t ' , a n d 'not i m p o r t a n t ' D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . ' C o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' and ' s t u d e n t ' a r e c o n s i d e r e d by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s t o be t h e i r most i m p o r t a n t r o l e s ; w h i l e ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' a r e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . These a g e n t s a l s o r a n k 'community TABLE X RANK ORDERING OP .THEIR ROLES ON THE BASIS OP IMPORTANCE BY 3 GROUPS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGENTS ROLES TYPE OF AGENT AGE GROUP LENGTH OF SERVICE IN EXTENSION D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l - H o r t i c u l - O t h e r t u r i s t t u r i s t A g e n t s 39 and 50 and 10 and 16 and Less 40 t o More L e s s 11 - 15 More Years 49 y e a r s Y e a r s Y e a r s Years Years S t u d e n t 3* Frogram A d m i n i s t r a t o r 6 S o u r c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n and I d e a s 1* O r g a n i z e r and S u p e r v i s o r o f E v e n t s 8 O r g a n i z e r o f Groups 5 S e r v i c e A g e n t 9 C o n s u l t a n t 1* Program P l a n n e r 3* Community Development 6 3 7* 1* 4» 7* 4* 1* 4 * 3* 7 3* 3* l 6 9 1* 6* 1* 3 7 4* 9 l * 4* 6* 8* 4 8* 1 5 2 5* 3 5 7 8* l 4 8* 2 6* 3* 5 *^ 9 l 6* 6* 3 6* 2 6 9 5 8 2 4 6* 5 9 1 4 7 * R o l e s w i t h e q u a l r a n k had t o t a l s c o r e s w h i c h were the same. Hocticoltljrists Otho-Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Othtr Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other A3&nts Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agent* Agriculturists HortitultunsU Other Agents AgricolXvinsts Horticulturists Other Agents j PRGAWZEa.PF .GROUPS )% fio/i «>»/« V / / / / / / / / / / / , r.ONS.i'-TfetC, V / / / / / J 80% iOt>Vt *oV» 60% F I G U R E a PERCENTAGE OF DISTRICT A&Rt CULTUR1 STS, DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS flHD OTHER, AG£NT£ RATING THE'IMPORTANCE* OF THEIR ROLES VtfcY IMPORTANT 2223 tlPOKTAftT f77A NOT IMPORTANT NO ANSWfcR d e v e l o p m e n t 1 and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . I t i s i n t e r e s t -i n g t o n o t e t h a t 66 per c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s r a t e ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' as n o t i m p o r t a n t , and a n o t h e r 33 p e r c e n t put ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' i n t he same c a t e g o r y . The p e r c e n t a g e o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s who f e e l t h a t 'program p l a n n e r ' i s a ' v e r y i m p o r t a n t ' r o l e i s l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e who r a t e I c o r a s u l t a n t ' t h a t h i g h ; a l s o , the number who r a t e 'community d e v e l o p -ment' a s 'very i m p o r t a n t ' i s a l m o s t as much as tho s e who p l a c e the ' s t u d e n t ' r o l e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . The r o l e s w h i c h r a n k as the t o p t h r e e by D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , — ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and idea.s' and ' s t u d e n t ' — a r e a l s o r a n k e d i n t h i s p a t t e r n by D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . However, t h e s e a g e n t s c o n s i d e r ' s e r v i c e a g e n t and ' o r g a n i s i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g -e v e n t s ' t o be o f r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i m p o r t a n c e , w h i l e t h e s e a r e the 'two r o l e s w h i c h D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l a r e o f l e a s t i m p o r t a n c e . On the o t h e r hand, 'community de v e l o p m e n t 1 and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' w h i c h D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , a r e the l e a s t i m p o r t a n t t o D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . S e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h i s group r a t e 'community development' as n o t i m p o r t a n t , w h i l e 50 p e r c e n t o f them gave the same r a t i n g t o 'program a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' . ( F i g u r e 3) O t h e r A g e n t s . L i k e the o t h e r two gr o u p s , O t h e r A g e n t s r a n k ' c o n s u l t -a n t 1 , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' and ' s t u d e n t ' a s the t h r e e most i m -p o r t a n t r o l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e a g e n t s r a n k ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' h i g h . The r o l e s w h i c h O t h e r A g e n t s r a n k as l e a s t i m p o r t a n t — ' c o m m u n i t y development' and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' — a r e the same as tho s e t h a t the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s p l a c e a t t h i s ' l e v e l . ( T a b l e X) 45 I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r -v i s i n g e v e n t s ' i n c l u d e the s o - c a l l e d 'joe j o b s ' , and can be s a i d t o r e f l e c t the ' o l d image' o f e x t e n s i o n , w h i l e 'community development' i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the 'new image'. The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o t h e s e r o l e s by the d i f f e r e n t agent groups seems t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e f o r e , t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t s a r e more c o n s c i o u s o f the c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f e x t e n s i o n work th a n the o t h e r twc g r o u p s . . Age. Yftien t he i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o the r o l e i s r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o age group, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g s i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . (See T a b l e XV, p. 65) R e g a r d l e s s o f the age gr o u p , ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , ' s t u d e n t ' and • ^program, p l a n n e r ' a r e r a n k e d v e r y h i g h , a n d ' s e r v i c e agent', l o w . ( T a b l e X) A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the a g e n t s i n the age group 40-49 y e a r s r a t e 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' , ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' and 'program p l a n n i n g ' as v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e s , w h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who f e e l t h a t 'community d e v e l o p -ment' i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t a r e und e r f o r t y y e a r s o f age. L e n g t h o f S e r v i c e . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the o r d e r -i n g o f r o l e s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e between the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n work. ( T a b l e XV, p. 65) As w i t h age, ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , ' s t u d e n t ' and 'program p l a n n e r ' r a n k c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h , and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' low. . A g e n t s w i t h t e n y e a r s and l e s s s e r v i c e r a n k 'program p l a n n i n g 1 lower and ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e w i t h e i t h e r e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , o r s i x t e e n o r more y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e new r e c r u i t s a r e more a p t t o take a group a p p r o a c h to t h e i r work. ( T a b l e X) Summary. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s a h i g h degree o f agreement among the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s i n o r d e r i n g t h e i r r o l e s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g s was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . (See T a b l e XV, 46 p. 6 5 ) ' C o n s u l t a n t 1 , ' s t u d e n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' a r e the t h r e e t o p r o l e s . There was however some d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n as t o the l e a s t i m p o r t a n t r o l e s . On the h a s i s o f the t o t a l s c o r e f o r a l l the a g e n t s t a k e n as a g r o u p , the i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' , . ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' and 'community development' a r e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . However, D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k ' s e r v i c e a g e n t s ' and ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' a s l e a s t i m p o r t a n t , w h i l e to D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s , the l e a s t i m p o r t a n t r o l e s a r e 'community development' and 'program a d m i n s t r a t o r ' . R o l e P e r f o r m a n c e The a g e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e the amount o f time t h e y s p e n t on e a c h r o l e d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r as measure of t h e i r r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e . These r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e X i and F i g u r e A. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . On the b a s i s o f the t o t a l s c o r e f o r each r o l e , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s s p e n t most o f t h e i r time p e r f o r m i n g a s 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' and ' c o n s u l t a n t ' f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by ' o r -g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' . More t h a n 66 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y s p e n t 'much' time as ' c o n s u l t a n t s ' and 'source o f i n f o r m -a t i o n and i d e a s ' , w h i l e 40 per c e n t d e v o t e d t h a t amount o f time to ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' . L e a s t time was spent i n the r o l e s o f ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' , ' s t u d e n t ' and 'community development'. O n l y 20 per c e n t o f them were a b l e t o g i v e 'much' time t o ' s t u d e n t ' r o l e , w h i l e 'community d e v e l o p -ment' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' , was g i v e n t h i s amount o f time by o n l y 3 p e r c e n t and 13 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE X I RANK ORDERING OF THEIR ROLES OH THE BASIS OF TIME SEE FT ON EACH ROLE DURING THE PAST YEAR BY 3 GROUPS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS LENGTH OF SERVICE I N TYPE OF AGENT ' AGE GROUP EXTENSION D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t 39 and 50 and 10 and 16 and ROLES A g r i c u l - H o r t i c u l - O t h e r L e s s 40 t o More L e s s 11 - 15 More t u r i s t t u r i s t A g e n t s Years 49 y e a r s y e a r s Y e a r s Years Y e a r s S t u d e n t 7* 3* 5 9 4 3 7 4* Frogram A d m i n i s t r a t o r 4 7 8 5* 5* 9 6 6* S o u r c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n and Ideas .1 2 2 l 2 ' 2 2 1* 2 O r g a n i z e r and S u p e r v i s o r o f E v e n t s ' 3 3* 2* 3 4* 6 3 O r g a n i z e r o f Groups 5 8- 6* 4 7* 8 4* 8 6* S e r v i c e A g e n t Q 6 3* 7* 7* 4* 4* 4 8 C o n s u l t a n t 2 1 1 2* l l l 1* 1 Program F l a n n e r 6 5 6* 5* 5* 6* 7* 5 4* Community Development 7* 0 9 7* Q o 7* 9 o * R o l e s w i t h e q u a l r a n k had t o t a l s c o r e s w h i c h were the same. Agriculturists Horticulturists Other ft^ents A^ncutjturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists uuw Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Otter Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Othw Aojftnts i Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Whir, Agents PROGRjj N<X> mmmm. 1 0 0 % 0 Xo'A M <>*/<> 6 0 /• '80 */r t"' 6o'A FIGURE ft too'/o P E R C E N T A G E OF D I S T R I C T AQRt CULTUR* S T S , D I S T R A C T HORTt CUUTURI S T * ANJ> OTHER AGENTS R A T » N < * TWE TIME S ? E N T V O N THEIR " R O L E S p^wg MUCH pgqg f??Sf Ul T T L E fVTI MftNE' CZZJ NO AMSWER. 49 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . L o s t o f the time o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r -i s t s was d e v o t e d t o ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' . A l l t h e s e a g e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y s p e n t 'much' time as ' c o n s u l t a n t ' w h i l e 87 p e r c e n t o f them p l a c e 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The r o l e o f ' s t u d e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' were r a n k e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , h u t the number o f a g e n t s who i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y s p e n t 'much' time on t h e s e r o l e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n ' t h a t o f the two t o p r o l e s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s s p e n t l e a s t t ime p e r f o r m -i n g 'community d e v e l o p m e n t 1 and ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' . Hone o f t h e s e a g e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y s p e n t 'much' time on 'community development' n o r 'organ-i z i n g g r o u p s ' . O t h e r A g e n t s . O t h e r A g e n t s o r d e r e d t h e i r a c t i v i t e s on the b a s i s o f the amount o f time s p e n t , i n a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . ' C o n s u l t a n t ' t o o k the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t i m e , w i t h a l l f i v e o f t h e s e a g e n t s r a t i n g the amount o f time a s 'much'. T h i s was f o l l o w e d c l o s e -l y by 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' , on w h i c h 6 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y spent much t i m e . ' S e r v i c e a g e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r -v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' were n e x t i n l i n e w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h i s g roup i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e y s p e n t 'some' ( t h o u g h n o t 'much') time on these r o l e s . O t h e r A g e n t s d e v o t e d v e r y l i t t l e t i me t o 'community development' and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' . A f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s i s i n d i c a t e d by the a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r t i m e . The b r o a d e r r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i s r e v e a l e d by h i s tendency f o r him to s p r e a d h i s time o u t and p e r f o r m a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . F o r example, a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e a g e n t s d e v o t e d some time to 'community development', ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' and ' a d m i n i s t e r i n g p r o g r a m s ' — a c t i v i t i e s t o w h i c h r e l a t i v e l y few o f the o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s d e v o t e d t h e i r t i m e . Indeed a h i g h p r o -p o r t i o n o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e s e a c t i v -i t i e s do n o t come w i t h i n the scope o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Age and L e n g t h o f S e r v i c e . I n g e n e r a l , n e i t h e r the age o f the a g e n t n o r l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n r e l a t e t . t o the amount o f time the a g e n t d e v o t e d to each r o l e . R e g a r d l e s s o f age, 'much' ti m e was s p e n t on 1 s o t i r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' and on ' c o n s u l t a n t ' w h i l e 'community development' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' r a n k low on the l i s t . There i s a t r e n d however, f o r the time s p e n t on 'community development', ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' t o d e c r e a s e w i t h t h e age and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e . S i n c e t h e s e a r e t h e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h group a c t i v i t y , the i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t as the a g e n t g e t s o l d e r and more s e t i n h i s ways he tends to c o n f i n e h i m s e l f more to b e i n g a ' c o n s u l t a n t ' t o i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r s r a t h e r t h a n t a k i n g a g roup a p p r o a c h t o h i s work. Summary. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e was more agreement t h a n d i s a g r e e m e n t i n the p a t t e r n o f r a n k i n g o f the r o l e s on the b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t on them d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r among the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s . The t h r e e a g e n t groups s p e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r amount o f time p e r f o r m i n g as ' c o n s u l t -a n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' t h a n a l l o t h e r r o l e s . ' P l a n n i n g and admin-i s t e r i n g programs' t o o k a g r e a t d e a l more o f the time o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s t h a n o f the o t h e i two g r o u p s . L e a s t time was s p e n t on 'community development' and ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' . Though the r o l e o f 51 ' s t u d e n t ' r a n k s r e l a t i v e l y low,, the i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t -u r i s t s were a b l e t o devote much more ti m e to t h i s r o l e t h a n t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s . Time D e s i r e d One o f the d i m e n s i o n s o f r o l e s t r e s s i s measured by w h e t h e r the a g e n t s a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h the amount o f t i m e t h e y gave to each a c t i v i t y , a s i n d i c a t e d by w h e t h e r t h e y d e s i r e t o devote more, the same o r l e s s time p e r f o r m i n g each r o l e . I n T a b l e X I I the r o l e s a r e r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t o t a l s c o r e f o r each r o l e on the b a s i s o f time d e s i r e d , w h i l e F i g u r e 5 p r e s e n t s the p e r c e n t -ages o f each t y p e o f a g e n t d e s i r i n g more, the same o r l e s s t i m e f o r p e r f o r m i n g each r o l e . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The manner i n w h i c h D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s o r d e r e d r o l e s on t h i s b a s i s , show no r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e — the p a t t e r n o f the r a n k i n g s on t h e b a s i s o f time s p e n t . The m a j o r i t y o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e t o devote more time t o 'community development', 'program p l a n n i n g ' a n d the ' s t u d e n t ' r o l e s . These a r e t h e r o l e s w h i c h r a n k v e r y low on the b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t . A s i z e a b l e number o f them emphasize ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' . There i s a s t r o n g f e e l i n g f o r d e v o t i n g l e s s time t o ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' , w h i l e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f these a g e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y d e s i r e no changes i n the amount o f t i m e d e v o t e d t o 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' and ' c o n s u l t a n t ' . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e p a t t e r n o f r a n k i n g o f the r o l e s on t h i s b a s i s and t h a t on the b a s i s o f time s p e n t d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r f o r t h e s e a g e n t s . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t change i s ' TABLE X I I RANK ORDERING OF THEIR ROLLS ON THE- BASIS OF "TINE DESIRED" BY 3 GROUPS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS i F E OF AGENT AGE GROUP LENGTH OF SERVICE I N EXTENSION ROLES D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l -t u r i s t D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l -t u r i s t O t h e r A g e n t s 39 and L e s s Y e a r s 40 49 t o y e a r s 50 and More Y e a r s 10 and L e s s Y e a r s 11 - 15 Y e a r s 16 and More Y e a r s S t u d e n t 1 1* 1* 1 1 1 1 1* 1* Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r 6* 6* 5 7* 4* 5* 6 5* Source o f I n f o r m a t i o n and I d e a s 3* 3 Q 6* 3* 4* 5* 4* O r g a n i z e r and S u p e r v i s o r o f E v e n t s 5* 4 3* 6* 7* 6* 2 8 5* O r g a n i z e r o f groups 7* 6* 3* 6* 6 6* 8 7 3* S e r v i c e Agent 9 9 6 9 9 9 9 9 9 C o n s u l t a n t 5* 1* 1* 2 2 2 3* l * 3* Program P l a n n e r *^ 5 3* 4 3* 3 5* 4* 1* Community Development 2 8 6* 3 3* 8 3* 3 5* * R o l e s w i t h e q u a l r a n k had t o t a l s c o r e s w h i c h were the same. Agriculturists f Horticulturists Other Agents 53 Agriculturists! Horticulturists f Other Agents Agriculturist Wort/cc/tunsts Otker Agents A^icuftunst Horticulturists O t W Ajtervt: /-Jorbcurfcunsts OtWA^ e/*fc< Aoncul-tunsts ffori/curfjur/sts O t K c r A ^ t s Agriculturists Horticulturists' Orjoer Agents A^ricu l^unsts Work ico rtvnsts Aj)nci;l-tur<st: Other Agent*, /oo% /ot>% /60% /O0% /06% r C O M M U N I T Y npvrt n p M f H T ^ g g % pEftCeNTA&e Or^  O / S T j Q s f C T AGrRI I S T S ; D I S T A I CT W O R T I C U L T D A/ STS AND OTHER AQENTS RATI THE "TIMF oesiR£c>xro SPEWD 0/V T H ^ J R Roi.es /oo% E S ^ MORE Eg$S SAME" TZZ3 LffSS 54 f o r t he ' s t u d e n t ' r o l e w h i c h now r a n k s number one w i t h ' c o n s u l t a n t ' b u t t h e s e a g e n t s a r e a b o u t e v e n l y d i v i d e d as t o whether t h e y r e q u i r e more o r . th e same amount o f t i m e t o devote t o t h e s e two f u n c t i o n s . Most o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a p p e a r t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h the amount o f t i m e now d e v o t e d t o the o t h e r r o l e s , b u t a s m a l l m a j o r i t y i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e t o spend l e s s t i m e as ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' . O t h e r A g e n t s . As f o r D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , O t h e r Agents show no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g s on t h i s b a s i s and t h a t on ther. b a s i s o f time s p e n t . The r o l e s o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and ' s t u d e n t ' r a n k h i g h e s t i n time d e s i r e d . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s e two r o l e s , and 'community dev e l o p m e n t 1 f o r w h i c h a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n d e s i r e more t i m e , t h e s e a g e n t s i n d i c a t e no g r e a t f e e l i n g t o devote more time t o any one r o l e . Age and L e n g t h o f S e r v i c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the p a t t e r n o f the r a n k i n g s on the b a s i s o f time d e s i r e d i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the d i f f e r e n t age groups and a l s o f o r the d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n work. (See T a b l e XV, p. ) The m a j o r i t y o f the a g e n t s i n e a c h age group and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e f e e l t h a t t h e y r e q u i r e more time f o r the ' s t u d e n t ' r o l e and l e s s time f o r ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' . ' C o n s u l t a n t ' and 'community development' r a n k h i g h i n t h e t i m e d e s i r e d by a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f each age group. A g e n t s w i t h s i x t e e n o r more y e a r s o f s e r v i c e r a n k 'program p l a n n i n g ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' h i g h ; f o r those w i t h e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e ' c o n s u l t a n t ' r a n k s number one; w h i l e t h o s e w i t h t e n o r l e s s y e a r s o f s e r v i c e w o u l d l i k e t o de v o t e more time t o ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' . 55 G r a t i f i c a t i o n R o l e s The manner i n w h i c h the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s r a n k t h e i r r o l e s on the b a s i s o f how much t h e y e n j o y p e r f o r m i n g each r o l e i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X I I I . The p e r c e n t a g e o f e a c h agent g r o u p r a t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i v e e n -joyment t h e y o b t a i n f r o m each r o l e i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 6 . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f r a n k i n g i s v e r y s i m i l a r f o r the t h r e e agent g r o u p s — t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0 . 0 1 l e v e l . ( T a b l e XV, p. 6 5 ) D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . ' C o n s u l t a n t 1 , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n 1 a n d ' s t u d e n t ' a r e the r o l e s most e n j o y e d by D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . A l s o h i g h i n enjoyment a r e 'program a d m i n s t r a t o r and program p l a n n e r ' . These a g e n t s f i n d l e a s t enjoyment i n p e r f o r m i n g the r o l e o f ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' . I t may be w o r t h w h i l e t o p o i n t o u t t h a t though some o f t h e s e a g e n t s may f i n d l i t t l e enjoyment i n some o f the r o l e s , ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' i s the o n l y r o l e f o r w h i c h some o f them i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y c a n f i n d no eirgoyment. E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f i n d some enjoyment i n 'community development 1 and ' o r g a n i s i n g g r o u p s ' , two r o l e s w h i c h do n o t f i n d much f a v o u r w i t h e i t h e r D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s o r O t h e r A g e n t s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . These a g e n t s r a n k ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' and ' s t u d e n t ' as the t h r e e r o l e s w h i c h they f i n d most g r a t i f y -i n g . I n c o n t r a s t to D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , t h e y a l s o r a n k e d ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , but p l a c e 'community development' l a s t on the l i s t . I n d e e d , two o u t o f the f o u r a g e n t s who i d e n t i f i e d 'commun-i t y development' as p a r t o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y f i n d no enjoyment i n p l a y i n g t h i s r o l e . TABLE X I I I RANK ORDERING OE THEIR ROLES ON THE BASIS OP "ENJOYMENT" BY 3 GROUPS OP BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS TIPE OF AGENT D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t O t h e r A g r i c u l t u r i s t s H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s A g e n t s AGE GROUP 9 and l e s s 40-49 50 and more y e a r s y e a r s y e a r s S t u d e n t Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r S o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r -v i s o r o f e v e n t s O r g a n i z e r o f groups S e r v i c e a g e n t C o n s u l t a n t Program p l a n n e r Community d e v e l o p -ment 3 4 1* 7 5 9 • i * 6 8 6 1* 4* 8 7 l * 4* 9 2 6* 3* 5 8 3* l 6* 4* 2* 4* 77 9 2* 6 3 7 5 6 9 1 4 1* 6 1* 7 l * 4 * R o l e s w i t h the e q u a l r a n k had t o t a l s c o r e s the same Agriculturists Worticu/tufjsb Other Agents S T U D E N T 57 MX 0 'Agriculturists p OtKtrAgents Agriculturists iHortiCultur/st OUitr AoW J 0 % 4 % /DO/O Agriculturists; /rorticultur/st o »).•.• Agriculturists r/orticu/tur/st: 7 0 % /WO .20% 4(5% f<J% i m m i l l i m r-. 1 Agriculturists Worticultur/sts Other /A^ervts r i i i i A<)ncultuns-ts| /iort-icurturisU OUer Agents L '..'•!i,.a-.vw,.'!''.ar V / / / / / A Agriculturist 40% • 1 ~ .1*/ Agriculturists, Hodicurtun&l Other Ajenis 3.0 Vo 4'o% &>o% ' F l S - O R E 6 P E R C E N T A G E OFIHSTfi-ICT fiQRl CUL.TVRtST£,DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AVID OTUEfl. AGENTS RftTlMG-'WOV^ MUCH THEV eW70V*TH£:iR ROUES S 3 MUCH BSB SOME KS3 UTTl«E E22J NONE C Z 3 0^ ANSWER G 58 O t h e r A g e n t s . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f 'community development' O t h e r A g e n t s f i n d some o r much enjoyment in. p e r f o r m i n g a l l the r o l e s , and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t o t a l s c o r e f o r each r o l e a r e s m a l l . However, ' c o n s u l t -a n t ' r a n k h i g h e s t f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by ' s t u d e n t ' , 'source o f infoEmation' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t 1 . 'Community development', 'program -planning and p r o -gram a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' a r e r a n k e d l o w e s t . Age. Iviore agreement t h a n d i s a g r e e m e n t i s f o u n d i n the o r d e r i n g o f the f u n c t i o n s on t h i s b a s i s when the t h r e e age groups a r e compared, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . (See T a b l e X V , p. 65) 'Source o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s ' , ' c o n s u l t a n t s ' and ' s t u d e n t s ' r a n k h i g h , w h i l e ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' , 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r -v i s i n g e v e n t s ' r a n k low f o r each group. I t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o n o t e t h a t a g e n t s l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age r a n k 'community development' as number one i n enjoyment, w h i l e a g e n t s above t h a t age f i n d v e r y l i t t l e enjoyment i n p e r f o r m i n g t h i s r o l e w h i c h s u p p o r t s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t younger a g e n t s a r e the ones most l i k e l y t o 'take a g r o u p a p p r o a c h to t h e i r work. Summary. The t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s show a h i g h l e v e l o f agreement on the r o l e s t h e y most e n j o y , but D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s d i f f e r f r o m the o t h e r two groups as t o the r o l e s w h i c h a r e l e a s t g r a t i f y i n g . R o l e s most e n j o y e d a r e ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' and ' s t u d e n t ' . ' S e r v i c e a g e n t ' i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n enjoyment f o r O t h e r A g e n t s b u t low f o r D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , w h i l e ' community development', w h i c h does n o t f i n d much f a v o u r w i t h D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s , i s r a n k e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h by D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g f o r the a g e n t group i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . ( T a b l e XV, p. 65) '59 R o l e Adequacy R o l e adequacy w h i c h r e f e r s to the i n a b i l i t y o f t h e a g e n t s t o f u l f i l a p e r c e i v e d r o l e because o f r e c u r r e n t p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c i e s i s a n i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f r o l e s t r e s s i n e x t e n s i o n work. The manner i n w h i c h the a g e n t s o r d e r t h e i r r o l e s on the b a s i s o f t h e i r - a d e q u a c y i n p e r f o r m i n g them a c c o r d -i n g t o the t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h r o l e i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XIV, w h i l e the r a t i n g g i v e n t h e i r adequacy f o r each r o l e i s summarized i n F i g u r e "J. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . V e r y few o f these a g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e ' v e r y a d e q u a t e ' i n p e r f o r m i n g any one s p e c i f i c r o l e . O n l y i n the case o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' i s the p r o p o r t i o n o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s who f e e l ' v e r y a d e q u a t e ' i s h i g h e r t h a n 20 p e r c e n t . I n d e e d , f o r t h e s e a g e n t s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a case o f knowing a b i t o f e v e r y t h i n g , b u t n o t much o f a n y t h i n g . Though the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l s c o r e s a r e v e r y s m a l l , the i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l most a'dequatetini"''.orgahizihg^a] !id^ s u p e r v i s - , i n g e v e n t s ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' . A r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f them f e e l i n a d e q u a t e i n p e r f o r m i n g ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'community development', 'program p l a n n i n g ' and perhaps s u r p r i s i n g l y , ' s t u d e n t ' . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . L i k e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , o n l y v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n s o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e ' v e r y a d e q u a t e ' i n p e r f o r m i n g any o f t h e n i n e r o l e s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' , and i n no case was the p r o p o r t i o n more t h a n 12 p e r c e n t . There was l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the. t o t a l s c o r e , but i t a p p e a r s t h a t D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a r e most p r o f i c i e n t i n p e r f o r m i n g the r o l e s o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' , and ' s t u d e n t ' and l e a s t adequate i n 'communit^r development', 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' . O t h e r A g e n t s . U n l i k e t h e o t h e r two groups o f a g e n t s , few o f whom i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y a r e ' v e r y a d e q u a t e ' i n any one s p e c i f i c r o l e , r e l a t i v e -TABLE XIV B A M ORDERING OF THEIR ROLES OW TEE BASIS OF "ADEQUACY" BY 3 GRQcPS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS LENGTH OF SERVICE I N TY'FE OF AGENT AGE GROUP EXTENSION D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t 39. and 50 and 10 and l6 and A g r i c u l - E o r t i c u l - O t h e r L e s s 40 t o leore L e s s 11 - 15 More t u r i s t t u r i s t Agents Years 49 y e a r s Y e a r s Y e a r s Y e a r s Y e a r s S tu.dent 7* 2* . 4* 6* 6 3* 6* 7* 3* Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r ^# n 8* 1* 8 3* 8* 5 7 S o u r c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n and I d e a s 2* 2* 4* 5 2* 2 3* 3* 3* O r g a n i z e r and S u p e r v i s o r o f E v e n t s 1 2* 4* l * 2* 3* 2 5* 3* O r g a n i z e r o f Groups 5* n O 4* 4 7 8 3* 7* 6 S e r v i c e A g e n t 2* 2 2* l * 2* 3* l 2 8 C o n s u l t a n t 4 1 1 8 l 1 3* 1 1* Program P l a n n e r A- 2* 2* 6* rs 3* 8* 6 1* Community Development 9 9 8* 9 9 . 9 6* 9 9 * R o l e s w i t h e q u a l r a n k had t o t a l s c o r e s w h i c h were the same. AjricuWi^ ts. Horticulturists Other Agents Agricuttunsts. Horticutturists Other Agents Aqnculiunsts Horticulturists OtherAgents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agri cultures Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Ageivts Agriculturists Horticultun'sts Other Agents, J; Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents 40% 6o\ FIGURE 7 P E R C E N T A G E OF D I S T R I C T fiQR 1CUUTUR ISTS T>\ S T R I C T H O R T I C U V - T U R ISTS ftND O T H E R A G E N T S RflTINCr THEIR * A D E Q U A C Y I N • P E R F O R M I N G THEIR "ROLES Vfcft^  At>E&uATE posq A I > E G I U A T E xrr^ I N A ^ E G U J A T E r~~{ NO AUSWEft l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s o f O t h e r A g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e ' v e r y adeq^^ate' i n p e r f o r m i n g ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , ' s e r v i c e agent' and 'program p l a n n i n g ' . A g a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t o t a l s c o r e a r e n o t l a r g e , but t h e s e a g e n t s f e e l t h e l e a s t p r o f i c i e n t i n 'community development'. Age. There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t the age g roup o f t h e a g e n t s a f f e c t t h e o r d e r i n g o f the f u n c t i o n s on the b a s i s o f adequacy, but the d i f f e r e n c e s between the t o t a l s c o r e s o f e ach r o l e i s v e r y s m a l l . A l l the age groups f e e l l e a s t adequate i n p e r f o r m i n g the r o l e o f 'community development'. A g e n t s l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age f e e l . r e l a t i v e l y i n a d e q u a t e as ' c o n s u l t -a n t ' and v e r y adequate i n 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' , but t h i s f e e l i n g i s r e v e r s e d i n t h e case o f the o t h e r two a'ger.groups. I n a d d i t i o n , a g e n t s under f o r t y i n d i c a t e adequacy as ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' , and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' , w h i l e those i n the age g roup f o r t y t o f o r t y - f i v e . , and f i f t y y e a r s and o v e r , f e e l r e l a t i v e l y p r o f i c i e n t i n 'source o f i n f o r m -a t i o n and i d e a s ' , ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' , and i n a d e q u a t e i n ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' . L e n g t h o f S e r v i c e . There i s l i t t l e agreement i n a c o m p a r i s o n o f the r a n k i n g s o f t h e r o l e s on the b a s i s o f a dequacy by the a g e n t a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n . (See T a b l e XV, p. ) A g e n t s w i t h t e n and. l e s s y e a r s s e r v i c e f e e l most adequate a.s ' s e r v i c e a g e n t s ' and ' o r -g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' , and l e a s t adequate i n 'program p l a n n i n g ' and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' . Those w i t h t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e i n d i c a t e p r o f i c i e n c y f o r ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' and a r e l e a s t p r o f i c i e n t f o r 'community development', ' s t u d e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' . A g e n t s w i t h more t h a n f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e r a n k ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and 'program p l a n n i n g ' h i g h e s t , a n d 'community development' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' l o w e s t i n adequacy. Summary. The m a j o r i t y o f the a g e n t s do f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e n o t v e r y p r o f i c i e n t i n p e r f o r m i n g any one s p e c i f i c r o l e . I n d e e d i t a p p e a r s t h a t the a g e n t s a r e l e a s t p r o f i c i e n t i n the r o l e s w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r t o be i m p o r t a n t . F o r example, the r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' r a n k s v e r y h i g h on t h e b a s i s o f adequacy. The f a c t t h a t h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t e i n a d e q u a c y a s ' s t u d e n t s ' does n o t mean t h a t t h e y a r e n o t a c a d e m i c a l l y q u i a l i f i e d f o r t h i s r o l e . What seems t o be the case i s t h a t n e i t h e r the time n o r the f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r them to p e r f o r m t h i s r o l e . R o l e S t r e s s A n i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f r o l e s t r e s s i n e x t e n s i o n work i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the degree o f r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t t h a t i s a c h i e v e d by an a g e n t , meaning the e x -p t e n t t o w h i c h he does what he d e f i n e s as i m p o r t a n t t o h i s j o b . As W i l k e n i n g p o i n t s o u t , c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s , too many e x p e c t a t i o n s , l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s S and l a c k o f a b i l i t y a r e among many t h i n g s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o low r o l e f u l f i l l -ment. A c o m p a r i s o n o f the r a n k i n g s onethe b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e w i t h t h a t based on time s p e n t d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r , and a l s o the r a n k i n g s based on whether the a g e n t w o u l d l i k e t o spend more, the same o r l e s s time on each r o l e i s used a s a measure o f r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t f o r each agent group. O t h e r elements o f r o l e F.A. W i l k e n i n g , The County E x t e n s i o n Agent i n W i s c o n s i n , (iviadison: W i s c o n s i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , 203, 1957) 6 4 s t r e s s i s i n d i c a t e d by c o m p a r i s o n between the o r d e r i n g o f the r o l e s on t h e b a s i s o f adequacy w i t h the r a n k i n g on t h e bases o f i m p o r t a n c e , t i m e s p e n t d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r and enjoyment. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e and t h a t on the b a s i s o f time s p e n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h i s group o f a g e n t s . ( T a b l e XV) The r o l e s o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' r a n k e d a t t h e t o p o f b o t h b a s e s . These a g e n t s however, r a n k ' s t u d e n t ' and 'program p l a n n e r ' h i g h e r , and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' l o w e r on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e t h a n on the b a s i s o f time s p e n t . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s show no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g s o f the r o l e s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e w i t h t h a t on the b a s i s o f time d e s i r e d . There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s however, t h a t t h e s e a g e n t s w o u l d l i k e t o spend more time on those a c t i v i t i e s t h e y c o n s i d e r t o be i m p o r t a n t , b u t on w h i c h l i t t l e t i m e has been s p e n t i n the p a s t . Thus.,, t h e s e a g e n t s w o u l d l i k e t o devote more time t o i m p o r t a n t r o l e s a s ' s t u d e n t ' , 'program p l a n n e r ' and, community development'. I n a d d i t i o n , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' l o w e r on the b a s i s o f t i m e d e s i r e d t h a n on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r d e r i n g o f r o l e s on the b a s i s o f a d e -quacy w i t h t h e r a n k i n g s on the bases o f i m p o r t a n c e , time s p e n t and enjoyment, i n a l l c a s e s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . ( T a b l e XV) W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' w h i c h r a n k s h i g h on a l l t h e s e b a s e s , and ' s t u d e n t ' w h i c h r a n k s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n enjoyment and i m p o r t a n c e , b u t low i n adequacy and time s p e n t , the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n f o r these a g e n t s i s one 65 TA6U XV; GOEFF I CENTS OF COfcRtkATl ON AMD CONCORDANCE " FOft-TH£. R^WKiHas OF THE AGENTS' ROUES OH DIFFERENT 6AS£S Tvft&-S .p.QJfik.__ -4-Time & gPChfttiANS Rflr/K C-Qge£LAT>OM COEFFICIENTS (T^ fly c.t\Uo rt c ts , JUe- &\jo»ft»TwTi& pant jA^T^AJQ^q^ Time O.-M.Ol Q-.f.oa. fctitrtct . | 0 W » 4 r . 0 ^ 7 2 \\rfii. -„..A-3.t& ftlft-OJ\th 0 •*72l S f r O r d <)vooj 0-7S5 fide-o..M5p.ty4 0.-l7^) qt* 0.i.8p_3 ,3^  a n d ^g.firs < i P S £ S T \W [Hrrie flAe- fcr\)o^ ko-aq y e a r s Tir«a- T i m * Spoilt idg&lrejj^Q^ i / q r T1 m ^ f T i V i f t fide. - {f^ jo^  • lo-7<?8 T\Wk5^r& 'Tt Y M cte-S\re4,-0:.5:.<j I3g 0-2|4 - * Q . 0 5 m i Ti'm-e. T» rr\a AjLSvroj o„..JJ7. A AQ . -Sp&Kt .0 .-.<}.».5... ,o-A^ 7. ^ 0 snA, more veo , ^ 11 m-e. 0--6il T\rn< Aes'vrgd AL.7JA.. VAfttR<bL£S Tjpe of. fls^nt A3^ C^rOop._ C t t E F f l C l E N T OF COlVCO RMUCC Lmpor-Ttn»e Time /Ide- Enjoy «\A.nt o f i n a d e q u a c y i n t h o s e r o l e s w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r t o he i m p o r t a n t and e n j o y p e r f o r m i n g and t o w h i c h t h e y d e v o t e most o f t h e i r t i m e . There i s however, a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , between t h e r a n k i n g s on adequacy and time d e s i r e d , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e a g e n t s w i s h to spend more time on t h e r o l e s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e l e s s p r o f i c i e n t . P e r h a p s t h e y f e e l t h a t more e x p e r i e n c e w i l l make them b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d to p e r f o r m these r o l e s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . L i k e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g s o f t h e r o l e s on t h e b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e and the r a n k i n g s on the b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t . ( T a b l e XT) ' C o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' and ' s t u d e n t ' r a n k h i g h e s t and 'community development 1', 'program a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' and ' o r -g a n i z e r o f g r o u p s ' r a n k l o w e s t on b o t h b a s e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e a g e n t s r a n k ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' h i g h e r i n i m p o r t a n c e t h a n i n time s p e n t . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a l s o show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o r d e r i n g o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e and on the b a s i s o f t i m e d e s i r e d ; a n d o f the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s , t h e y a r e the o n l y ones who sho?/ t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f the r a n k i n g s i s v e r y s i m i l a r on b o t h bases w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' w h i c h i s r a n k e d v e r y much h i g h e r i n i m p o r t a n c e t h a n i n t i m e d e s i r e d . The r a n k i n g s o f the r o l e s on the b a s i s o f adequacy i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e on the bases o f i m p o r t a n c e , t i m e s p e n t , and enjoyment f o r D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s ; and u n l i k e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l c a s e s . The r o l e s o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' a n d ' s t u d e n t ' a r e r a n k e d c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e s t , and 'community development' ' o r g a n i z e r o f groups' and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' . , l o w e s t cm a l l b a s e s . 67 O t h e r A g e n t s . Though the p a t t e r n o f the o r d e r i n g o f t h e r o l e s on t h e b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e i s i n g e n e r a l s i m i l a r t o t h a t on the b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t and the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s i g n i f i c a n t , O t h e r A g e n t s show some i m p o r t a n t v a r i a -t i o n s i n t h e r a n k i n g s on t h e s e two b a s e s . ' C o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a -t i o n ' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' a r e r a n k e d h i g h and 'community development' and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' a r e r a n k e d low on b o t h b a s e s . However, these a g e n t s r a n k ' s t u d e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z e r o f g r o u p s ' h i g h e r and ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' l o w e r on t h e b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e Shan on the b a s i s o f time s p e n t . Lake D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , O t h e r A g e n t s show l i t t l e agreement i n t h e r a n k i n g s o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e as compared to t h a t on the b a s i s o f time d e s i r e d . ( T a b l e XV) ' C o n s u l t a n t ' , ' o r g a n i z e r o f .groups' and 'student;': a r e r a n k e d h i g h on b o t h b a s e s , but t h e r e i s wide v a r i a t i o n s i n the o r d e r i n g o f the o t h e r r o l e s . These a g e n t s r a n k ' o r g a n i z -i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' , 'program p l a n n i n g ' and 'community development', h i g h e r , and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' . and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' l o w e r , on the b a s i s o f time d e s i r e d t h a n on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e . O t h e r A g e n t s show a p a t t e r n o f r a n k i n g w h i c h in;;.general i s t h e same on the bases o f adequacy compared w i t h i m p o r t a n c e , t i m e s p e n t and enjoyment. The r o l e o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t 1 r a n k h i g h , w h i l e 'community development' and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 1 r a n k low on a l l . b a s e s . Age. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r a n k -i n g s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e w i t h the r a n k i n g s on the b a s i s o f time s p e n t , f o r b o t h age groups t h i r t y - n i n e y e a r s and under, and f i f t y y e a r s and o v e r , b u t n o t f o r the group o f f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s . ( T a b l e XV) The most n o t i c e a b l e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s e r a n k i n g s f o r a g e n t s t h i r t y - n i n e y e a r s and 68 lander a r e t h a t ' s t u d e n t ' w h i c h i s r a n k e d among t h e t o p two i n the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e i s r a n k e d l o w e s t on t h e b a s i s o f time s p e n t , and i n c o n t r a s t , ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' r a n k s second on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e , b u t e i g h t h on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t . The p a t t e r n o f the r a n k i n g s on b o t h b a s e s by the f i f t y y e a r s and o v e r group i s v e r y s i m i l a r w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f ; " ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' w h i c h r a n k s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h on the b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t , b u t low i n i m p o r t a n c e . The f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s group show? a g r e a t d i s p a r i t y between the r a n k i n g s on t h e s e two b a s e s . T h i s group r a n k s ' o r -g a n i z i n g groups ', 'community development' and ' s t t i d e n t ' h i g h e r , and 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' , ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' l o w e r on t h e b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e t h a n time s p e n t . The degree o f concensus between the r a n k i n g s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t -ance and t h a t on the b a s i s o f t i m e d e s i r e d was s i g n i f i c a n t i n the c a s e o f a g e n t s l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age, and t h o s e f i f t y y e a r s o l d and more, b u t n o t f o r tho s e i n t h e age g r o u p f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s . ( T a b l e XV) A l l age group s r a n k ' s t u d e n t ' and ' c o n s u l t a n t ' h i g h on b o t h b a s e s , b u t u n l i k e t h e o t h e r two gr o u p s , a g e n t s under f o r t y y e a r s o l d r a n k 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n i m p o r t a n c e b u t low i n time d e s i r -ed. The age group., f i f t y y e a r s and o v e r r a n k 'community development' low on b o t h b a s e s , w h i l e the o t h e r two groups r a n k t h i s r o l e r e l a t i v e l y low i n i m p o r t a n c e b u t h i g h i n time d e s i r e d . No d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n i s o b s e r v e d when the r a n k i n g s i n the b a s i s o f adequacy i s compared w i t h r a n k i n g s i n t h e o t h e r bases f o r the d i f f e r e n t a.ge g r o u p s . There i s however, a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the r a n k i n g s o f the r o l e s on the b a s i s o f adequacy and the r a n k i n g s on the 6 9 "bases o f "both t i m e d e s i r e d and enjoyment f o r the age group t h i r t y - n i n e y e a r s and l o w e r . ( T a b l e XV) The f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e age group shows s i m i l a r i t y between the r a n k i n g s on the b a s i s o f adequacy w i t h t h o s e on the b a s i s o f time s p e n t , b u t the r a n k i n g s on the b a s i s o f adequacy i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t t o tho s e on the b a s i s o f e i t h e r enjoyment o r i m p o r t a n c e . F o r example, t h e s e a g e n t s r a n k ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' and ' s e r v i c e a ^ e n t ' r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n adequacy b u t v e r y low on i m p o r t a n c e and t i m e s p e n t . The p a t t e r n o f r a n k i n g s i s v e r y s i m i l a r on a l l b a s e s f o r the f i f t y y e a r s and o v e r g r o u p . L e n g t h o f S e r v i c e . R o l e f u l f i l l m e n t i s h i g h f o r a g e n t s w i t h t e n y e a r s and l e s s , and t h o s e w i t h s i x t e e n y e a r s and more s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n , but v e r y low f o r the e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s group as i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e -l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g s o f the r o l e s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e and on the b a s i s o f time s p e n t . ( T a b l e XV) A l l groups r a n k ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' h i g h on b o t h b a s e s , b u t u n l i k e the o t h e r two g r o u p s , a g e n t s w i t h e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s o f s e r v i c e show wide d i s p a r i t y i n t h e r a n k i n g s o f the o t h e r r o l e s on t h e s e two b a s e s . T h i s g r o u p r a n k 'community development', ' s t u d e n t ' and ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r -v i s i n g e v e n t s ' h i g h e r , a n d ' ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' and ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' l o w e r on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e t h a n on t i m e s p e n t . On the o t h e r hand, o n l y one r o l e i s r a n k e d w i t h any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e on b o t h bases by the o t h e r two g r o u p s . A g e n t s w i t h s i x t e e n and more y e a r s o f s e r v i c e r a n k ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' l o w e r i n i m p o r t a n c e t h a n i n t i m e s p e n t , w h i l e f o r t h o s e w i t h t e n y e a r s and l e s s , ' s e r v i c e a g e n t 1 i s r a n k e d l o w e r i n i m p o r t a n c e t h a n i n time s p e n t . 70 Two c a t e g o r i e s o f l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n — t h o s e w i t h e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s , and t h o s e w i t h s i x t e e n and more y e a r s — s h o w a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the o r d e r i n g o f the r o l e s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e compar-ed w i t h t h a t on the b a s i s o f ' t i m e d e s i r e d . ( T a b l e XV) F e a t u r e s o f t h i s c o m p a r i s o n a r e t h a t b o t h groups r a n k Jsource o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' h i g h e r i n i m p o r t -ance t h a n i n time d e s i r e d , and a l s o , t h a t the e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r group g i v e r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e to 'community development' w h i l e a t the same ti m e r e q u i r e much more t i m e t o devote t o t h i s f u n c t i o n . A g e n t s w i t h t e n y e a r s and l e s s s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n show w i d e d i s p a r i t y i n the r a n k i n g s on t h e s e two b a s e s . T h i s group r a n k s 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' , 'organ-i z i n g g r o u p s ' and ' c o n s u l t a n t ' h i g h e r , and 'community development' and ' o r g a n i -z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' l o w e r on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e t h a n on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e d e s i r e d . There seems t o be a t e n d e n c y f o r r o l e s t r e s s t o d e c r e a s e , and r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t t o i n c r e a s e w i t h the l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n . ( T a b l e XV) A g e n t s w i t h t e n y e a r s and l e s s s e r v i c e show wide v a r i a t i o n s i n the o r d e r i n g o f t h e i r r o l e s on the b a s i s o f adequacy as compared w i t h t h a t on the b a s i s o f e i t h e r i m p o r t a n c e o r time s p e n t . I n o t h e r worets, n e i t h e r the i m p o r t a n c e n o r t h e amount o f t i m e d e v o t e d t o the f u n c t i o n b e a r a n y r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the p r o f i c i e n c y o f t h i s group i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e r o l e s . F o r a g e n t s w i t h e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e , adequacy i n p e r f o r m i n g the d i f f e r e n t r o l e s t e n d t o conform c l o s e r y w i t h t h e amount o f t i m e d e v o t e d t o the r o l e s , b u t n o t t o the i m p o r t a n c e thes e a g e n t s a t t a c h t o the r o l e s . On the o t h e r hand, a g e n t s w i t h s i x t e e n y e a r s and more s e r v i c e t e n d t o r a n k the i m p o r t a n c e o f , and the ti m e s p e n t on the r o l e s i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f adequacy i n p e r f o r m i n g them. 71 C o n c l u s i o n s The h i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w h i c h e x i s t s f o r each a g e n t group be-tween the r a n k i n g o f t h e r o l e s on t h e bases o f i m p o r t a n c e and time s p e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l the a g e n t s a c h i e v e a h i g h l e v e l o f r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t , a nd i n g e n e r a l , the r o l e s c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t f o r m a p a t t e r n t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o those t h e y a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m . O n l y D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s show any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween t h e r a n k i n g s o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s on t h e b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e w i t h t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e d e s i r e d . The absence o f a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the o t h e r two groups o f a g e n t s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e the i m p o r t a n c e o f an a c t i v i t y i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e d by the amount o f time the a g e n t w i l l l i k e t o spend on i t i n the f u t u r e . What i s s i g n i f i c a n t i s w h e t h e r the ag e n t d e s i r e s t o spend more t i m e on tho s e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h he c o n s i d e r s t o be i m p o r t a n t t o t h e j o b , but. on w h i c h he d e v o t e d l i t t l e o f h i s time i n the p a s t . Thus, the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s w i l l l i k e t o spend more time on the ' s t u d e n t ' r o l e . I n a d d i t i o n , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r e q u i r e more time f o r 'community development' and 'program p l a n n i n g ' w h i l e O t h e r A g e n t s w i l l l i k e to d e v o t e more time to ' o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s ' . I n g e n e r a l , the r o l e s w h i c h t h e a g e n t s r a n k h i g h i n i m p o r t a n c e , a n d on w h i c h t h e y s p e n t most t i m e i n the p a s t , a r e t h o s e whose m a j o r c o n c e r n i s i n t he a r e a o f s e r v i c e work and i n c r e a s e d f a r m p r o d u c t i o n , and n o t i n com--m u n i t y development and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the case o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s . The i n d i c a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the a g e n t s do n o t con f o r m t o the c h a n g i n g d e f i n i t i o n s o f e x t e n s i o n work. I t a p p e a r s t h a t w h i l e the a g e n t s w o u l d pay ' l i p s e r v i c e ' t o t h e need f o r change i n t h e f o c u s o f e x t e n s i o n work, t h e y a r e c o n t e n t e d t o , o r f o r c e d t o 72 emphasize, b o t h i n i m p o r t a n c e and t i m e s p e n t , the t r a d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s . P e r h a p s the r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t l o c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , p r e s -s u r e s and c o n d i t i o n s have p l a c e d t h e s e r o l e s h i g h e r i n the h e r i a r c h y . The l o c a l f a r m e r s have come to e x p e c t t h e s e s e r v i c e s b e f o r e a l l o t h e r s , and the a g e n t , b e i n g more s e n s i t i v e t o f a r m e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s , has t o go a l o n g w i t h t h i s i f he i s t o get the n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t f o r h i s programs. These r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s occupy a p o s i t i o n o f g r e a t e r r o l e s t r e s s t h a n the o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s . "While' D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g ents show a h i g h degree o f concensus between the o r d e r i n g o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s on a l m o s t a l l o f the bases s t u d i e d , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s appear t o be f o r c e d to devote much time on a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h do n o t conform w i t h t h e i r i d e a l o f f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i r r o l e s , and are. g e n e r -a l l y s p e a k i n g , l e s s a d equate i n t h o s e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r t o be i m p o r t a n t . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a t t a c h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i m p o r t a n c e t o the r o l e s o f 'community development' and 'program p l a n n e r ' w h i c h p o r t r a y s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f e x t e n s i o n work, b u t i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o g i v e e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h i s i n t h e i r a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . These a g e n t s i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e t o devote l e s s time t o 'program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' — a r o l e w h i c h i n c l u d e s a d m i n s t r a t i v e and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s — w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r to be n o t v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o the j o b . Though t h e y c o n s i d e r t h a t ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' a r e i m p o r t a n t r o l e s , they w i l l a l s o l i k e t o reduce the amount o f t i m e t h e y s p e n t on t h e s e a n d devote more time t o 'community development', ' s t u d e n t * and 'program p l a n n i n g ' . 73 P e r h a p s the wide n a t u r e o f t h e j o b o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t compared to t h a t ' o f t h e o t h e r two a g e n t groups i s f o r t h e main p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s g r e a t e r degree o f r o l e s t r e s s . B o t h h i s time and r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e demand made on him, and the emphasis i n s e r v i c e s p r e a d s h i s work t h i n l y . Thus, the a g e n t may have a p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s r o l e , but the f a c t t h a t t h e r e must be c o n t i n u o u s a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e f e l t needs o f h i s c l i e n t s , p r e v e n t s him f r o m making a l l the p r e p a r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l p e r -formance o f h i s r o l e as he sees i t . Comparison between these r a n k i n g s i n d i c a t e a t r e n d f o r r o l e s t r e s s t o d e c r e a s e and r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t t o i n c r e a s e a s the age and the l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n ¥rork i n c r e a s e . I n o t h e r w ords, t h e r e i s a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s and r o l e s t r e s s . P e r h a p s , as the a g e n t g e t s o l d e r and c o n t i n u e s h i s work i n e x t e n s i o n , he i s b e t t e r a b l e t o make h i s performance conform to h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s r o l e . He n o t o n l y becomes b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d i n p e r f o r m i n g h i s r o l e s , b u t a l s o , he becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more p r o f i c i e n t i n t h o s e r o l e s , w h i c h he t h i n k s a r e i m p o r t a n t , e n j o y s p e r f o r m i n g and t o w h i c h he d e v o t e s most t i m e . I I I . RELATIONSHIP Y/ITH THE JOB R e g a r d l e s s o f y/Iiat m o t i v a t e d an a g e n t to j o i n the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i t c a n be assumed t h a t he w i l l r e m a i n i n e x t e n s i o n o n l y i f t h e a d v a n t a g e s , b o t h m a t e r i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l , o f f s e t the l e s s d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s o f the j o b . As t i m e p r o g r e s s e s he w i l l d e v e l o p d e f i n i t e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the j o b . Thus, q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d so as t o g e t a n u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the a g e n t to the j o b , h i s l i k e s and h i s d i s l i k e s , and h i s v i e w s o f the n a t u r e o f the e x t e n s i o n work, s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t a t u s , p r e s t i g e and s a t i s f a c t i o n . 74 L i k e s and D i s l i k e s i n E x t e n s i o n Work Response t o t h e t h i n g s l i k e d a b o ut e x t e n s i o n work i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XVI. 'The o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p o t h e r p e o p l e ' and t h e 'freedom i n p l a n n i n g and d o i n g m§r work' a r e the prime f o r c e s w h i c h m o t i v a t e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r -i s t s . A l m o s t a l l o f t h e s e a g e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y ' l i k e d ' t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f the work, w i t h more t h a n 60 per c e n t i n d i c a t i n g s t r o n g l i k i n g . A l s o h i g h l y v a l u e d by t h e s e a g e n t s i s ' p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e ' w h i c h 86 p e r c e n t ' l i k e d ' and 33 P e r c e n t ' l i k e d s t r o n g l y ' . Though a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s ' l i k e d ' , ' t h e r e i s a l w a y s something-d i f f e r e n t e v e r y day', none o f them i n d i c a t e d t h a t ' s t r o n g l i k i n g ' f o r t h i s i t e m . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a r e m o t i v a t e d by the same two f o r c e s w h i c h m o t i v a t e s D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . T w e n t y - f i v e per c e n t o f these a g e n t s however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y l i k e d the ' s e c u r i t y f o r t h e j o b s as compared t o o t h e r s ' , an i t e m f o r w h i c h none o f the o t h e r two types o f a g e n t s show any c o n c e r n . A l s o , t h e s e a g e n t s a p p e a r t o v a l u e 'the v a r i e t y o f t h i n g s t o do' more t h a n the o t h e r a g e n t g r o u p s , as p e r c e n t o f them i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g l i k i n g f o r t h i s a s p e c t o f the work. I n g e n e r a l , t h e v i e w s o f O t h e r A g e n t s as t o the a s p e c t s o f e x t e n s i o n work w h i c h t h e y l i k e a r e s i m i l a r t o those o f the o t h e r two g r o u p s . However, u n l i k e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , O t h e r Agents a p p e a r t o p l a c e g r e a t e r v a l u e on ' p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e ' t h a n on J'freedom An p l a n n i n g and d o i n g my work. ' I T e i t h e r age n o r the l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n appear t o have any r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the f o r c e s w h i c h m o t i v a t e the a g e n t s i n t h e i r work. The TABLE XVI NULBER OUT CE 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND 5 OTHER AGEHTS INDICATING TEE THINGS "LIKED" ABOUT EXTENSION WORK DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS OTHER AGENTS ALL AGENTS THINGS LIKED ABOUT L i k e d L i k e d L i k e d L i k e d EXTENSION "uOPK L i k e d S t r o n g l y Lil< :ed S t r o n g l y L i k e d S t r o n g l y L i k e d S t r 'ongly No. > No. 7> No. 7o ho. i No. . % No. i No. :/o No. <"„ /° F e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e 13 86 5 33 6 75 2 25 5 100 4 80 24 86 11 39 Freedom i n p l a n n i n g and d o i n g my work 15 100 10 66 8 100 3 38 3 60 3 60 26 93 16 57 O p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p o t h e r p e o p l e 14 93 12 80 8 100 6 7R 5 100 4 80 27 96 22 78 A l w a y s s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t e v e r y day 12 80 0 0 6 '75 3 38 4 80 0 0 22 78 3 10 The r e c o g n i t i o n one g e t s 4 27 0 0 3 38' • •0 0 2 AO 0 0 9 32 0 0 E x p e r i e n c e i t i s g i v i n g mo f o r o t h e r work 1 7 0 0 1 13- 0 0. 1 20 0 0 3 10 0 0 S e c u r i t y o f the j o b a,s compared t o o t h e r s 0 0 0 0 2 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 0 0 VJ1 76 t h r e e i t e m s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y as i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s s t a n d o u t i n e v e r y c a s e . I t a p p e a r s however, t h a t a g e n t s i n the age group f o r t y to f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s , a n d those w i t h e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s o f s e r v i c e a r e more p r e s t i g e c o n s c i o u s t h a n t h e o t h e r g r o u p s , as a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r -t i o n o f t h e s e a g e n t s check ' r e c o g n i t i o n one g e t s ' as one o f the t h i n g s l i k e d a bout e x t e n s i o n work. I n c o n t r a s t t o the s t r o n g agreement as t o the v i r t u e s o f e x t e n s i o n work, the t h r e e a g e n t t y p e s have w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l e s s d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t s o f the j o b . ( T a b l e X V I I ) D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s show s t r o n g e s t d i s l i k e f o r 'the l a r g e number o f n i g h t m e e t i n g s ' f o l l o w e d by the ' l a c k o f a w e l l - d e f i n e d program' and t h e ' l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e c i a l i z e i n one f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t ' i n t h a t o r d e r . None o f t h e s e a g e n t s checked 'poor f a c i l i t i e s ' as one o f t h e t h i n g s l e a s t l i k e d i n e x t e n s i o n work. On the o t h e r hand, D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h a t 'poor f a c i l i t i e s ' and 'the l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e c i a l i z e ' a r e the f e a t u r e s o f t h e work t h a t t h e y most s t r o n g l y d i s l i k e , w h i l e a t t h e same time t h e y show r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r 'the l a r g e number o f n i g h t m e e t i n g s ' . O t h e r A g e n t s show s t r o n g e s t d i s l i k e f o r 'the l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e c i a l i z e ' . O t h e r i t e m s f o r w h i c h a l l a g e n t s show l i t t l e c o n c e r n a r e ' r e -p o r t s and paper work', ' l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n ' , ' l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o -m o t i o n ' , 'too many d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e and groups t o work w i t h ' , and 'the demands made on t i m e and e n e r g y ' . There a p p e a r s t o be no a s s o c i a t i o n between e i t h e r the l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n work o r the age g r o u p o f a g e n t s and those f e a t u r e s o f e x t e n s i o n TABLE XVII NUMBER OUT OF 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AMD 5 OTHER AGE.tTS INDICATING THE THINGS "LIKED LEAST" ABuUT EXTENSION WORK THINGS LIKED LEAST ABOUT EXTENSION WORK DIS TRICT AGRIC ULTURIS TS DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS OTHER AGENTS ALL AGENTS Li k e d L i k e d l e a s t Liked' L i k e d l e a s t L i k e d L i k e d L i k e d L i k e d Least S t r o n g l y Leas t S t r o n g l y Least Least Least Least S t r o n g l y S t r o n g l y No. i No. No. No. No. • h No. 7° No, , t • 7° No. 10 60 4 27 38 2 25 2 40 0 0 15 54 6 21 7 48 \ 3 20 4 50 0 0 2 40 1 20 13 46 4 14 3 20 1 7 l 13 0 0 2 40 1 20 6 21 2 7 3 20 1 7 l 13 0 0 1 20 0 0 5 18 1 4 1 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 7 1 7 3 38 1 13 1 20 1 20 5 18 3 10 0 0 0 0 4 50 3 38 2 40 0 0 6 21 3 10 7 48 2 13 A 50 3 38 3 60 1 20 14 50 6 21 2 13 0 0 i 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 10 0 0 4 26 1 7 3 38 0 0 2 40 0 0 9 32 1 4 Large number of night meetings Lack of a w e l l d.efined program Demands too much time and energy Too many d i f f e r e n t people and groups to work w i t h S p e c i a - l i s t s expect too much Lack of opportunity f o r promotion Poor f a c i l i t i e s f o r my work Lack of opportunity to s p e c i a l i z e i n one f i e l d ' Lack of r e c o g n i t i o n Reports arid paper work 78 work w h i c h t h e y l i k e l e a s t . R e g a r d l e s s o f age o r l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e s t r o n g -e s t d i s l i k e i s i n d i c a t e d f o r 'the l a r g e number o f n i g h t m e e t i n g s ' , ' l a c k o f a w e l l d e f i n e d program' and t h e ' l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e c i a l i s e ' and v e r y l i t t l e c o n c e r n i s shown f o r 'the t i m e and e n e r g y demanded' and 'too many-d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e and groups to work w i t h ' . Summary, The t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s a r e v e r y much i n agreement as to the v i r t u e s o f e x t e n s i o n work b u t have w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to the l e s s d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t s o f t h e j o b . A l l the a g e n t s a r e s t r o n g l y m o t i v -a t e d i n t h e i r work by t h r e e f o r c e s — ' p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e ' , ' o p p o r t u n -i t y t o h e l p o t h e r p e o p l e ' and 'freedom i n p l a n n i n g and d o i n g my work'. 'The v a r i e t y o f t h i n g s t o do' i s a l s o v a l u e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h by a l l the a g e n t s , but o n l y D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l s t r o n g l y a b o u t t h i s . V e r y low on t h i s l i s t o f t h i n g s l i k e d a r e ' s e c u r i t y o f the j o b ' and ' r e c o g n i t i o n one g e t s ' , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p r e s t i g e and s e c u r i t y a r e n o t prime c o n c e r n s o f t h e s e a g e n t s . S i m i l a r l y ' e x p e r i e n c e i t has g i v e n me f o r o t h e r work' was checked by o n l y one a gent o f each group, i n d i c a t i n g a f i r m commitment to the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as a c a r e e r by a l m o s t a l l o f the a g e n t s . A s u b s t a n t i a l number o f the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s d i s l i k e 'the l a c k o f a w e l l d e f i n e d program'. The g r e a t e r degree o f c o n c e r n shown by D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s f o r the ' l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e c i a l i z e ' r e l a t i v e t o t h a t shown by D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , r e v e a l once more the s u b -j e c t m a t t e r o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e two t y p e s o f a g e n t s . On the o t h e r hand, t h e more g e n e r a l and w i d e s p r e a d n a t u r e o f the work o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s a p p a r e n t f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h ' n i g h t m e e t i n g s ' a n d h i s n o t b e i n g a b l e t o d e v e l o p and keep to an e f f e c t i v e program I t must be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t t h i s c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e a g e n t s who f e e l t h a t 'freedom i n p l a n n i n g and d o i n g my work' i s one o f the more d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e s o f e x t e n s i o n work. P r e s t i g e o f t h e A g e n t s ' P o s i t i o n s The a g e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r e s t i g e o f t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s a r e measured by r e s p o n s e s t o the q u e s t i o n : " I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g , how much i s y o u r p o s i t i o n r e s p e c t e d by o t h e r s ? " Answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X V I I I show t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r a t e t h e m s e l v e s above o t h e r p e r s o n s w i t h s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g , w h i l e o n l y f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s r a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n t h i s h i g h . The h i g h e r r a t i n g o f t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s stem f r o m the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a f e e l i n g among t h e m a j o r i t y o f these a g e n t s t h a t t h e y a r e ' s p e c i a l i s t * a g e n t s , r a t h e r t h a n ' g e n e r a l ' e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , and i t appears t h a t i n the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s p e c i a l i s t s have a 'halo e f f e c t ' and a r e a c c o r d e d more r e s p e c t t h a n g e n e r a l e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s . The p r e s t i g e a t t a c h e d t o the p o s i t i o n does n o t a p p e a r t o be r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r the a^e o r the l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e o f the a g e n t . P r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s has shown t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h l e v e l o f agreement i n t h e a g e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i r v a r i o u s r o l e s , the most i m p o r t a n t r o l e s b e i n g ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' and ' s t u d e n t ' . Blow do the r a t i n g s o f t h e s e r o l e s r e l a t e t o the a g e n t s ' f e e l i n g s o f p r e s t i g e f o r h i s p o s i t i o n ? The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the e l e v e n a g e n t s who r a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s above t h a t o f p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g v a r i e s w i d e l y between t h e s e TABLE X V I I I DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE QlkSTIOh: " I N COMPARISON WITH OTHER POSITIONS REQUIRING SIMILAR TRAILING-, HOW NUCH IS YOUR POSITION RESPECTED BY vTHJiRS?" ACCEDING TO TYPE, AGE j AND LiNCTH OF SERvIC* OF THE AGENTS SOMEWHAT ABOUT THE SOMEWHAT IvHCE ABOVE ABOVE SA1-E BELOW TYPE OF AGEfcT Ho. i No. c/° No. No. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 0 0 5 33 7 1 48 3 20 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t 0 0 5 62 3 38 0 0 O t h e r A g e n t s 1 20 l 20 3 60 0 0 AGE No. i No. i° No. i No. > 39 and l e s s y e a r s 0 0 3 50 2 33 1 17 40 - 49 y e a r s 1 7 3 20 9 60 2 13 50 and more y e a r s 0 0 5 71 2 24 0 0 LENGTH OF SERVICE I N EXTENSION OF WORK No. Ho. i No. > No. i 10 and l e s s y e a r s 1 25 2 50 0 0 1 25 11 - 15 y e a r s 0 0 5 38 7 54 1 8 16 and more y e a r s 0 0 4 36 6 55 1 0 > A l l A g e n t s 1 4 l l 39 13 46 3 10 81 t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s . ( T a b l e X I X ) E o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s f e e l t h a t the ' s t u d e n t ' r o l e i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t , 54 P e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s f a t e "t'soiiireeeof i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' s i m i l a r l y , w h i l e f o r the r o l e o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' the p r o p o r t i o n was 90 p e r c e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e a g e n t s r a n k 'program p l a n n i n g ' as b e i n g v e r y i m p o r t a n t . On the o t h e r hand, w h i l e a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e a g e n t s c o n s i d e r 'community development' to be u n i m p o r t a n t , t h i s r o l e i s r a n k e d as v e r y i m p o r t a n t by two o u t o f the t h r e e a g e n t s who r a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n as 'much below' th o s e r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g . Emphasis on ±oles o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' and 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ' ( t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s o f e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s ) t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t -ed w i t h g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o l o c a l i n t e r e s t s w h i l e community d e v e l o p -ment i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i n t e r e s t s o f a l a r g e r p u b l i c and ;the bureaxicracy.-I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h o s e a g e n t s who f e e l t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n has h i g h p r e s t i g e v a l u e show a t e n d e n c y to be more o r i e n t e d t o l o c a l i n t e r -e s t s r a t h e r t h a n t o the b u r e a u c r a c y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a g e n t s ' v i e w s o f t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e show a s i m i l a r t r e n d . ( T a b l e XIX) The t h r e e a g e n t s who have l o w e s t f e e l i n g s o f p r e s t i g e f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n c o n s i d e r •community development' as an i m p o r t a n t r o l e ( w i t h two o f them r e s p o n d i n g ' v e r y i m p o r t -a n t ' ) . On the o t h e r hand, 55 p e r c e n t o f the a g e n t s who f e e l t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n i s somewhat above t h o s e r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g , a r e o f the E.A. W i l k e n i n g and R. S m i t h , " P e r c e p t i o n o f F u n c t i o n s , O r g a n i z a t i o n a l O r i e n t -a t i o n , a n d R o l e D e f i n i t i o n o f a group o f S p e c i a l E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s " The Midwest  S o c i o l o g i s t , 1955, PP- 19-25 82 TABLE X I X NUMBER OUT OF 11 AGENTS WHO FEEL TEAT RESPECT FOR THEIR POSITION IS "SOMEWHAT ABOVE" THAT OF OTHER POSITIONS REQUIRING SIMILAR TRAINING, INDICATING THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THEIR ROLES AND OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THIS EXTENSION SERVICE VERY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPOR'TANT A g e n t s 1 R o l e s No. io No. °L No. S t u d e n t 5 45 6 55 0 0 Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r 3 27 5 46 3 27 S o u r c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n a.nd Ideas 6 54 5 45 0 0 O r g a n i z e r and S u p e r v i s o r o f E v e n t s 2 18 7 6A 2 18 O r g a n i z e r o f Groups 2 18 6 55 3 27 S e r v i c e A g e n t 3 27 2 18 6 55 C o n s u l t a n t 10 91 1 9 0 0 Program P l a n n e r 6 55 3 27 2 18 Community Development 2 18 5 45 4 37 F u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c f a r m p r a c t i c e s 5 45 6 55 0 C o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s and management o f t o t a l f a r m 7 64 3 27 1 9 T e a c h i n g u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f f a r m i n g 6 55 5 45 0 0 Community development l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g 0 0 5 45 6 55 • o p i n i o n that t h i s r o l e i s not important, but they emphasize ' c o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s and management of t o t a l farm enterprise'.. Status Consciousness Status consciousness was measured by responses to the questions "Hov/ important i s i t to you that other people t h i n k w e l l of your p o s i t i o n ? " . The r e s u l t s were presented i n Table XX. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s appear to be the most status conscious of the three types of agents. T h i r t y - t h r e e per cent of them f e e l that i s i s 'very important' that other people t h i n k w e l l of t h e i r p o s i t i o n , while another 53 per cent t h i n k t h i s i s 'quite important'. None of these agents i n d i c a t e that i t i s of ' l i t t l e importance' that people think w e l l of t h e i r p o s i t i o n . Though the m a j o r i t y of D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and Other Agents i n -d i c a t e that i t i s 'quite important' that other people think w e l l of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , none of these two groups f e e l that t h i s i s 'very important', and one of the Other Agents i n d i c a t e that t h i s i s of ' l i t t l e importance'. This may suggest that these two groups f i n d t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n i n f a c t o r s other than s t a t u s consciousness. Neither the age nor the length of s e r v i c e of the agent shows any de-f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t a t u s consciousness. t ,^Furthermore, no r e l a t i o n s h i p i s apparent between the agents' s t a t u s eonsciousness and n e i t h e r h i s percept-ions of the importance of h i s r o l e as an extension agent, the f u n c t i o n s of the extension s e r v i c e nor h i s l i k e s and d i s l i k e s i n extension work. S a t i s f a c t i o n With The Job S a t i s f a c t i o n .is one of the end products of the job, and re g a r d l e s s of how the agent f e e l s about other aspects, a c e r t a i n l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n i s necessary to keep him i n "the work, and t h i s i n i t s e l f w i l l depend on the per-84 TABLE XX DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE QUESTION: "HOW IMPORTANT IS IT TO YOU THAT OTHER PEOPLE THINE VfELL OF YOUR POSITION", ACCORDING TO TYPE, AGE, AND LENGTH OF SERVICE, OF THE AGENTS VERY QUITE SOME LITTLE IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANCE IMPORTANCE Type o f Agent No. No. No. No. i D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 5 33 8 53 2 13 0 0 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t 0 0 5 63 3 37 0 0 O t h e r A g ents 0 0 4 80 0 0 1 0 Age No. i No. i No. i No. i<> 39 a n < i l e s s y e a r s 2 33 3 50 1 17 0 0 40 - 49 y e a r s 3 20 10 67 2 13 0 0 50 and more y e a r s 0 0 4 57 2 29 1 14 L e n g t h o f S e r v i c e I n E x t e n s i o n Work No. / ° No. i° No. # No. • i 10 and l e s s y e a r s 0 0 2 50 1 25 1 25 11 - 15 y e a r s 4 31 7 54 2 15 0 0 16 and more y e a r s 1 9 8 72 2 19 0 0 A l l A g e n t s 5 18 17 61 5 18 1 4 85 s o n a l g o a l s o f t h e a g e n t . Responses t o the q u e s t i o n "How s a t i s f i e d a r e y o u w i t h jKinar j o b ? " reveal;:- a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r a l l a g e n t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t y p e , .age o r l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e . ( T a b l e X X I ) W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f two D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s who r e s p o n d e d ' h a l f and h a l f a l l the a g e n t s a r e e i t h e r 'more s a t i s f i e d t h a n d i s s a t i s f i e d ' o r 'de-f i n i t e l y s a t i s f i e d ' w i t h the j o b . A p p a r e n t l y , s a t i s f a c t i o n i s n o t a k e y f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a g e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f h i s v a r i o u s r o l e s , the f u n c t i o n s o f t h e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , n o r h i s l i k e s and d i s l i k e s i n e x t e n s i o n work, s i n c e none o f t h e v a r i a b l e s show any d e f i n i t e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the l e v e l s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n as measured i n t h i s s t u d y . E x t e n s i o n P r o c e d u r e s I n g o i n g a b o u t h i s j o b , i t c a n be e x p e c t e d t h a t the a g e n t w i l l d e v e l o p c e r t a i n b a s i c i d e a s a b o u t p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h w i l l make the j o b more e f f e c t i v e , b u t w h i c h due t o l i m i t e d t i m e and r e s o u r c e s , he i s u n a b l e t o implement. The a g e n t s were a s k e d t o choose between a l t e r n a t e ways o f d o i n g t h e j o b . I t i s . f e l t t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X X I I , w i l l a l s o g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n as t o the o r i e n t a t i o n o f the a g e n t w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d the e x t e n t to w h i c h he s u b j u g a t e s h i s own f e e l i n g t o l o c a l needs and i n t e r e s t s . I m p r o v i n g A b i l i t y . The m a j o r i t y o f the a g e n t s r e g a r d l e s s o f t y p e , age, o r l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e , f e e l t h a t t h e y can b e s t improve t h e i r a b i l i t y t o do a more e f f e c t i v e j o b by 'making a s t u d y o f the problems i n the d i s t r i c t ' r a t h e r t h a n by ' g e t t i n g b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the p e o p l e ' . T h i s f e e l i n g was l e a s t 86 TABLE XXI DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO TEE QUESTION "HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH YOUR JOB", ACCORDING TO TY t E , AGE, AND LENGTH OF SERVICE OF TEE AGENTS DEFINITELY SATISFIED 1V,0RE SATISFIED THAN DISSATISFIED HALF HALF AND TOTAL Type o f A g e n t No. 1° No. No. oL No. > D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s ; 3 20 12 80 0 0 15 54 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s 4 50 2 25 2 25 8 29 O t h e r A g e n t 3 60 2 40 0 0 5 17 Age No. > No. No. fo 39 a n ( i l e s s y e a r s 1 17 5 83 0 0 6 21 40 - 49 y e a r s 5 33 9 60 1 7 15 54 50 and more y e a r s 4 57 2 29 1 14 7 25 L e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n No. °/° No. No. 10 and l e s s y e a r s 1 25 3 75 0 0 4 14 11 - 15 y e a r s 4 31 9 69 0 0 13 47 16 and more y e a r s 5 45 4 36 2 0 l l 39 A l l A g e n t s 10 36 16 57 2 7 28 100 . . 87 so among D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , and t h o s e a g e n t s f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s , a n d w i t h e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e . The E x t e n s i o n Program/ The t h r e e agent groups were a b o u t e v e n l y d i v i d e d i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s a s t o whether a s u c c e s s f u l e x t e n s i o n program i s more dependent on ' g e t t i n g w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programs' o r ' d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h k ey p e r s o n s ' . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e f o r the d i f f e r e n t age groups w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s , 60 p e r c e n t o f ?/hom chose ' g e t t i n g w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i -p a t i o n ' . When t h e a g e n t s a r e grouped a c c o r d i n g t o l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e s p o n s e s a r e g r e a t e r . ' E n l i s t i n g w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' i s the c h o i c e o f 75 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h more t h a n f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e , v f h i l e 6l p e r c e n t o f the a g e n t s w i t h e l e v e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e f e e l t h a t ' d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h k e y p e r s o n s ' i s more e f f e c t i v e f o r a s u c c e s s f u l e x t e n s i o n program. A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t he dependence o f the e x t e n s i o n program on e i t h e r 'knowing s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' o r 'knowing p e o p l e who c a n h e l p ' b r i n g s d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e a g e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o t y p e , age and l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e . A l l O t h e r A g e n t s and 62 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t ' s emphasise 'knowing the s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' , w h i l e 73 per c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s choose 'knowing p e o p l e who c a n h e l p 1 i n p r e f e r e n c e t o 'know-i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' . These r e s p o n s e s s u p p o r t the view t h a t D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t -u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s a r e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r i e n t e d i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e more g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . There i s some e v i d e n c e o f a low p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between age and s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r i e n t a t i o n . O n l y 16 p e r c e n t o f the a g e n t s under f o r t y y e a r s 88 TABLE X X I I NUMBER OUT OP 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND 5 OTHER AGENTS INDICATING THEIR CHOICE OF ALTERNATIVE EXTENSION PROCEDURES A l t e r n a t i v e E x t e n s i o n DISTRICT DISTRICT OTHER ALL P r o c e d u r e s , AGRICULTURIST HORTICULTURIST AGENTS AGENTS No. fo No. c/o No. io No. io 1. The b e s t way t o i m -p r o v e one's a b i l i t y t o do a b e t t e r j o b i s t o : a ) Make a s t u d y o f the 'problems 9 60 6 75 4 80 19 68 b) Get b e t t e r a c q u a i n -. .'. t e d ; w i t h jpeople 6 40 2 25 1 20 9 32 2. A s u c c e s s f u l e x t e n s i o n program i s more depend-a n t o n : a) G e t t i n g w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n 8 53 5 63 3 60 16 57 b) D e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n -a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h k ey j e o p l e 7 47 5 57 2 40 12 45 5- A s u c c e s s f u l e x t e n s i o n program i s more depend-a n t on: a) Knowing p e o p l e who can h e l p 11 73 3 37 0 0 14 50 b) Knowing s u b j e c t m a t t e r _ 5 37 0 65 5 100 15 46 4. I n d o i n g my work I t h i n k f i r s t a b o u t : a) What needs t o be done i n my t o t a l p l a n 9 60 6 ' 75 2 40 17 61 b) What seems t o need a t t e n t i o n a t the time 6 40 2 25 60 11 39 5. Emphasis i n a n n u a l r e p o r t s h o u l d be: a) N a r r a t i v e 6 40 7 88 5 100 18 64 b) S t a t i s t i c a l 9 80 1 12 0 0 10 6. My a n n u a l r e p o r t i s : a) W o r t h the t i m e f o r my program i n the d i s t r i c t 12 80 1 75 3 60 21 75 b) Not w o r t h the time 3 20 2 25 2 40 7 25 89 o f age f e e l t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l e x t e n s i o n program i s more dependent on 'knowing the s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' t h a n on 'knowing p e o p l e who can h e l p ' . On t h e o t h e r hand, 53 p e r c e n t and 71 p e r c e n t o f the a g e n t s i n the age g roups f o r t y "to f o r t y - n i n e , and f i f t y y e a r s and o v e r r e s p e c t i v e l y , choose 'knowing the s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' i n p r e f e r e n c e t o 'knowing p e o p l e who can h e l p ' . W i t h r e g a r d t o l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n , the e v i d e n c e i n -d i c a t e s a s l i g h t l y n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h i s v a r i a b l e and s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r i e n t a t i o n . S u b j e c t m a t t e r i s f a v o u r e d by a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f a g e n t s w i t h t e n y e a r s and l e s s s e r v i c e , w h i l e 'knowing p e o p l e who c a n h e l p ' i s t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f a s m a l l m a j o r i t y o f a g e n t s w i t h e l e v e n to f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n . Work P l a n . A common g r i p e o f e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s i s t h a t t h e demands o f them a r e s u c h t h a t t h e y cannot m a i n t a i n o r keep t o a d e f i n i t i i - p r o g r a m o f work. T h i s i s however, n o t s u p p o r t e d by the a g e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y s i n c e t h e o v e r a l l m a j o r i t y i n d i c a t e t h a t i n g o i n g about t h e i r work t h e y t h i n k f i r s t o f 'what needs to be done i n t h e i r t o t a l p l a n o f work' r a t h e r t h a n 'what seems to need a t t e n t i o n a t the t i m e ' . I t a p p e a r s however, t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s f i n d most d i f f i c u l t y i n k e e p i n g t o a p l a n o f work, s i n c e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f these two groups i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y do 'what seems to r e q u i r e a t t e n t i o n a t the t i m e ' . A n n u a l R e p o r t . A l m o s t a l l the a g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e i r a n n u a l r e p o r t i s 'worth the time w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s b e a r i n g on t h e i r program i n the d i s t r i c t ' , b u t t h e y d i f f e r e d somewhat as to the f o r m the r e p o r t s h o u l d t a k e . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s a r e a l m o s t unanimous i n the f e e l -90 i n g t h a t the a n n u a l r e p o r t s h o u l d be o f a ' n a r r a t i v e ' r a t h e r t h a n ' s t a t -i s t i c a l ' n a t u r e , w h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h a t t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t s h o u l d be more ' s t a t i s t i c a l ' . The n a r r a t i v e r e p o r t i s f a v o u r e d by a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f a g e n t s w i t h more t h a n t e n y e a r s s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n , and t h o s e i n the age group f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s , but the c h o i c e between n a r r a t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l , i s a b o u t e v e n l y s p l i t f o r a g e n t s l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age, t e n y e a r s and l e s s s e r v i c e and more t h a n f i f t e e n y e a r s s e r v i c e . Summary. The t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s have s i m i l a r v i e w s w i t h r e s p e c t to e x t e n s i o n p r o c e d u r e s . The m a j o r i t y o f e a c h group a r e o f the o p i n i o n t h a t , ( l ) by ' s t u d y i n g the problems o f the d i s t r i c t ' r a t h e r t h a n by ' g e t -t i n g b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the p e o p l e ' , one can do a b e t t e r j o b ; (2) 'wide-s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' rather t h a n ' p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h k e y p e o p l e 1 w i l l make the e x t e n s i o n program more s u c c e s s f u l and (3) the a n n u a l r e p o r t i s v a l u a b l e t o t h e i r programs. However, u n l i k e the o t h e r two ag e n t g r o u p s , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h a t t he a n n u a l r e p o r t s h o u l d be s t a t i s t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n n a r r a t i v e , and a l s o t h a t 'knowing p e o p l e who can h e l p ' i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n ' s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' i n the s u c c e s s o f t h e e x t e n s i o n program. P e r h a p s , thes e a g e n t s f e e l t h a t a n a r r a t i v e r e p o r t w i l l add t o t h e i r a l r e a d y l i m i t e d time and r e s o u r c e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the f a c t t h a t t h e y emphasize 'knowing p e o p l e who can h e l p ' i n d i c a t e s t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s depend on the o t h e r groups i n the d i s t r i c t f o r s u p p o r t o f t h e i r programs more t h a n the o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s . I V . RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS I t has been p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e e x t e n s i o n a g e n t o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n where he i s s u b j e c t e d t o the i n f l u e n c e 9 1 o f d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , and a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g he does i n v o l v e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and f o r m s . Some o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e the outcome o f a c c e p t e d v a l u e s and p r o c e d u r e s . I n g e n e r a l however, t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are, n o t c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d , and a r e o f an i n f o r m a l and p e r s o n a l n a t u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g a compromise between h i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t , the i n t e r -e s t s o f the agent and the i n t e r e s t s o f the group w i t h whom he d e a l s . The n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the agent w i t h o t h e r s i n h i s s o c i a l s ystem i s a n i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t o f the a g e n t ' s r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , and some a s p e c t s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e s t u d i e d . One o f t h e s e i s the a g e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i s r e f e r e n c e group b o t h w i t h i n and o u t s i d e h i s d i s t r i c t a nd the b a r r i e r s t o m e e t i n g t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s . A n o t h e r t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the degree t o w h i c h t h e s e d i f f e r e n t groups i n f l u e n c e the b e h a v i o u r end a t t i t u d e o f the a g e n t i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t h i s d u t i e s . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the j o b o r i e n t a t i o n o f the a g e n t , t h a t i s whether he i s more° r e s p o n s i v e t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f those above h i m — h i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and d i r e c t o r s , — o r the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i s c l i e n t e l e , — t h e f a r m e r s , The e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n and the amount o f a s s i s t a n c e f r o m l o c a l f a r m and non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s a l s o s t u d i e d . P e r c e p t i o n s o f the E x p e c t a t i o n s o f O t h e r s The a g e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s as to what ( l ) d i r e c t o r s , (2) r e s e a r c h p e o p l e a n d (3) f a r m e r s ( h i s major r e f e r e n c e groups) e x p e c t o f them, a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X X I I I . The a g e n t o c c u p i e s a n i n t e r m e d i a r y p o s i t i o n bejween t h e s e g r o u p s , r . a r i d ' i n most c a s e s he i s the o n l y means o f communication between one group and the o t h e r . 92 X X ut -I CD < I— 0 H ^ o h i> d u o — V- a/ u O d iii li-o tt or %' — u c Y-O — c p Of t- r- z ui T Ui h O »-- o Ul Ui cv ut f— f- Ui o: o vy r- r-U — O 1-o — o . — <£ o o CL 2 ul r-l v- trt o </* — t- a at •2 2 Mi cr tr — >/> a Of <* ui £ i <r-<L o Q U. r-o a z sC « ui CD £. O o a; c <2 J-o -4-H Q. 6 \p a • -s- oL, of cn o o l/HH C o ' 5 12 4 OA a <jJ0 ( J o o; o, i ~o" u i I I o O I i O o: o1 o "c O o 1 q i v<3 O Q O i ! O O "o" o r ! _ -i-o; o " I T o 00 o< O 00 o o O! o —• o i__ a l A i 3 A ^ Jo o ~o CO o o a-O o o cc 95 D i r e c t o r s • A l l the a g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e i r d i r e c t o r s and t h e i r a d -m i n i s t r a t i o n e x p e c t them t o p l a y s e v e r a l r o l e s . ' L i a i s o n communicator', t h a t i s , communicate the problems o f the f a r m e r s to a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r -i t i e s and t a k e back the r e s u l t s o f r e a s e a r c h t o the f a r m e r s , and ' i n t e r -p r e t e r and i m p l e m e n t o r o f p o l i c i e s ' , a r e the most mentioned by D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s (55>?°) • F o r t y p e r c e n t o f these a g e n t s t h i n k t h a t admin-i s t r a t o r s e x p e c t them t o be ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r s ' as i n d i c a t e d by r e s p o n s e s s u c h as 'keep o u r noses c l e a n ' and 'keep t r o u b l e s away f r o m head o f f i c e ' , w h i l e yj> p e r c e n t f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d to be ' t e c h n i -c a l e x p e r t s ' , t h a t i s , k e e p up to d a t e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r . F o u r D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s (26°/o) do n o t know what t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s want. A l m o s t a l l t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s t h i n k t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s e x p e c t them to be ' l i a i s o n communicators' an d ' t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s ' . Two o f t h e s e a g e n t s m e n t i o n ' i n t e r p r e t e r and i m p l e m e n t o r o f p o l i c y * , w h i l e ; ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r ' i s m entioned by one o f them. There does n o t a p p e a r t o be any agreement among the O t h e r A g e n t s as to what t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r e x p e c t s o f them. About h a l f o f t h e s e a g e n t s m e n t i o n ' t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s ' , ' l i a i s o n communicator' and ' i n t e r p r e t e r and i m p l e m e n t o r o f p o l i c y ' . Hone o f them f e e l t h a t t h e i r d i r e c t o r s e x p e c t them t o be ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r s ' . The a g e n t s ' v i e w s as t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f d i r e c t o r s show some v a r i -a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o age group. Two o f the f o u r a g e n t s w i t h t e n y e a r s and . l e s s s e r v i c e do n o t know what i s e x p e c t e d o f them. H a l f o f the a g e n t s l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y do n o t know what the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s e x p e c t o f them; and the o t h e r h a l f f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e c e x p e c t e d t o be ' l i a i s o n c o mmunicators' f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r ' . The main 9 4 c h o i c e o f the m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e i n the age group,'; f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s i s ' l i a i s o n communicator' f o l l o w e d by ' t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s ' and ' i n t e r p r e t e r and i m p l e m e n t o r o f p o l i c y ' . On t h e o t h e r hand most o f t h e a g e n t s f i f t y y e a r s and o v e r f e e l t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be ' t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s ' and ' l i a i s o n communic-a t o r ' , w i t h a v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n i n d i c a t i n g the o t h e r r o l e s . R e g a r d l e s s o f l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f a g e n t s a r e o f the o p i n i o n t h a t d i r e c t o r s e x p e c t them t o be p r i m a r i l y ' l i a i s o n c ommunicators', w i t h ' t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t ' , ' i n t e r p r e t e r and implementor o f p o l i c y ' and ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r ' f o l l o w i n g i n t h a t o r d e r . F a r m e r s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a.re s t r o n g i n the f e e l i n g t h a t f a r m e r s e x p e c t them t o be ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , t h a t i s , a s s i s t i n g , a d v i s i n g , and h e l p i n g them w i t h problems r e l a t i n g e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e i r f a r m o p e r a t i o n s . F o r t y - s i x p er c e n t o f these a g e n t s f e e l t h a t f a r m e r s e x p e c t them t o be ' s p e c i a l i s t s and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s ' meaning t h a t the a g e n t s h o u l d have e x -p e r t knowledge on s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e . A n o t h e r 40 p e r c e n t f e e l t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be ' s e r v i c e a g e n t s ' whereby t h e y p e r f o r m 'joe j o b s ' f o r f a r m e r s . Two o f the f i f t e e n a g e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y do n o t know what a r e t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the f a r m e r s . The v i e w s o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s as to t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f a r m e r s i s v e r y s i m i l a r . ' S p e c i a l i s t and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t ' i s the r o l e most o f t e n m entioned by t h e s e two a g e n t groups w i t h ' c o n s u l t a n t ' n e x t i n l i n e . Hone o f them i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y do n o t know what the f a r m e r s e x p e c t e d o f them. The m a j o r i t y o f the a g e n t s l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age, and t h o s e w i t h t e n y e a r s and l e s s o f s e r v i c e f e e l t h a t f a r m e r s e x p e c t them t o be 95 • c o n s u l t a n t ' . Those o v e r f o r t y y e a r s o l d , and t h o s e w i t h more t h a n t e n y e a r s s e r v i c e a r e a b o u t e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between ' t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t ' and ' c o n s u l t a n t ' . R e s e a r c h e r s and S p e c i a l i s t s . E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h a t s p e c i a l i s t s and r e s e a r c h p e o p l e e x p e c t them to p e r f o r m t h e r o l e o f ' l i a i s o n communicator', i n w h i c h t h e y b r i n g problems t o the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s e s p e c i a l i s t s , and t a k e the f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h t o the f a r m e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , \two o f t h e s e a g e n t s f e e l t h a t r e s e a r c h p e o p l e ex-p e c t them to a c t a s ' r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s ' meaning t h a t t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d to l a y o u t t r i a l s as d e s i g n e d by r e s e a r c h e r s , and c o l l e c t the r e s u l t s f o r a n a l y s i s . Two D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s do n o t know what t h i s group e x p e c t s o f them. S i m i l a r l y , the m a j o r i t y o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s a r e o f the o p i n i o n s t h a t t h i s g r o u p s e x p e c t s them to be ' l i a i s o n communicators'. One D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t f e e l s t h a t he i s a l s o e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m the r o l e o f ' r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t ' b u t none o f the O t h e r A g e n t s a r e o f t h i s v i e w . Two o f the e i g h t D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and two o f the f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s do n o t know what s p e c i a l i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e c t o f them. Summary. These r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t the a g e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e i r a l t e r groups as h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e i r views o f t h e s e e x p e c t a -t i o n s seem to be i n l i n e w i t h the a g e n t s 1 own s e l f - i m a g e o f the j o b and v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s o f ea,ch group. The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t because o f the g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f h i s j o b , and h i s w i d e r range o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f e e l the p r i m a r y e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s t h a t he s h o u l d be 'the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e 1 i n h i s d i s t r i c t , — a s o r t o f 96 ' b u f f e r between, head o f f i c e and the f a r m e r s ' . Thus, t h e s e a g e n t s emphasize s u c h r o l e s a s ' l i a i s o n communicator', ' i n t e r p r e t e r and i m p l e m e n t o r o f g o v e r n -ment p o l i c i e s ' and ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r ' . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s , b e i n g c o n c e r n e d i n t h e most p a r t w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h a r e more o r l e s s q u i t e s p e c i -f i c i n n a t u r e ,andJ v e r j r l o c a l i z e d . ^ , a r e e v i d e n t l y s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r i e n t e d , and f e e l t h a t t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s e x p e c t them t o be p r i m a r i l y s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e i r m ain l i n e o f a c t i v i t y a n d a l s o ' l i a i s o n communicators'. The a g e n t s s e e the v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s o f f a r m e r s a s b e i n g m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h problems r e l a t e d t o h i s f a r m i n g e n t e r p r i s e . As s u c h , the a g e n t s a r e v e r y much i n agreement t h a t f a r m e r s e x p e c t them t o be ' c o n s u l t a n t s ' and ' e x p e r t s ' i n s c i e n t i f i c agronomy. On t h e o t h e r hand the a g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h -e r s need them p r i m a r i l y a s ' l i a i s o n communicator', b r i n g i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h and t a k i n g back the r e s u l t s o f the r e s e a r c h t o t h e f a r m e r . • B a r r i e r s t o F u l f i l l i n g E x p e c t a t i o n s T a b l e XXIV shows the f r e q u e n c y f o r the r e s p o n s e s of e a c h type o f a g e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the b a r r i e r s t h a t p r e v e n t them f r o m e f f e c t i v e l y f u l f i l l i n g t he e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s . D i r e c t o r s . 'Inadequate c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' meaning l i m i t e d c o n t a c t w i t h the d i r e c t o r s , i s mentioned by 46 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . A n o t h e r J3 P e r c e n t c f t h e s e a g e n t s f i n d ' l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s ' — i n a d e q u a t e o f f i c e space, s e c r e t a r i a l h e l p and. s u p p l i e s — t o be a b a r r i e r . Twenty p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r e p o r t 'no b a r r i e r s ' t o f u l f i l l i n g t he e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r d i r e c t o r s . TABLE XXIV NUMBER OUT OF 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, '8 HORTICULTURISTS AM) 5 OTHER AGENTS INDICATING BARRIERS TO FULFILLING THE EXPECTATIONS OF DIRECTORS, FARMERS AND SPECIALISTS TYPE' OF BARRIER No I n t e r - p e r s o n a l Inadequate L a c k o f Inadequacy D i d Not TYPE OF B a r r i e r s R e l a t i o n s Communications R e s o u r c e s Of O t h e r s Answer D i r - Spe- D i r - Spe- D i r - Spe- D i r - Spe- D i r - Spe- D i r - Spe-AGENT e c t - F a r - c i a - e c t - F a r - c i a - e c t - F a r - c i a - e c t - P a r - c i a - e c t - F a r - c i a - e c t - F a r - c i a -o r s mers l i s t o r s mers l i s t o r s mers l i s t o r s mers l i s t o r s mers l i s t o r s mers l i s t D i s t r i c t No. 3 6 2 1 0 1 7 4 7 5 2 2 1 4 2 0 3 5 A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i 20 40 13 7 0 7 46 26 46 33 13 13 7 26 13 0 20 20 D i s t r i c t No. 4 7 4 0 . 0 0 4 0 2 2 1 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s i= 50 87 50 0 0 0 50 0 25 25 12 37 0 0 25 0 0 0 O t h e r A g e n t s No. 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 40 40 60 20 20 20 20 0 40 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 A l l A g e n t s No- 9 15 9 2 1 1 12 4 11 8 5 5 1 4 4 0 3 3 i 32 54 32 7 4 4 43 14 39 28 18 18 4 14 14 0 10 10 The h a r r i e r s m e n t i o n e d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s , a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . However, l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s o f these two t y p e s o f a g e n t s — 5 0 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and 40 p e r c e n t o f the O t h e r A g e n t s — f i n d no d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n m e e t i n g t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s . F a r m e r s . 'Ho b a r r i e r s ' i n m e e t i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f a r m e r s i s m e n t i o n e d by 40 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . 'Inadequate c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ' , meaning i n t h i s case l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n as t o vfchat the f a r m e r s want, and 'inadequacy o f the f a r m e r s ' — s p e c i f i c a l l y l a c k o f i n t e r e s t — a r e each r e p o r t e d by 26 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s . O n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f them f e e l t h a t ' l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s ' i s a b a r r i e r . O n l y one D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r e p o r t s any b a r r i e r s t o m e e t i n g f a r m e r s e x p e c t a t i o n s — ' l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s ' b e i n g the one mentioned. E i g h t y -s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s r e p o r t 'no b a r r i e r s ' . ' I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ' ( p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h e s ) , ' i n a d e q u a t e commun-i c a t i o n s 1 a.nd ' l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s ' a r e e a c h mentioned by one o u t o f the f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s . Two o f t h e s e a g e n t s f i n d 'no b a r r i e r s ' w i t h r e s p e c t to the fairaners' e x p e c t a t i o n s . R e s e a r c h e r s and. S p e c i a l i s t s . As i n the case o f t h e o t h e r a l t e r g r o u p s , ' l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ' i s the f a c t o r most o f t e n m e n t i o n e d as a b a r r i e r t o m e e t i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h p e o p l e . 'Lack o f r e s o u r c e s ' , meaning i n a d e q u a t e o r n o t enough r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s i s mentioned as a b a r r i e r by two D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and two D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . 'Inadequacy o f r e s e a r c h e r ' w h i c h i n c l u d e s s u c h f a c t o r s a s the r e s e a r c h b e i n g t o o t e c h n i c a l , and the l o n g t i m e l a g between r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the 99 r e s u l t s , i s mentioned by a small p r o p o r t i o n of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . About one-eighth of the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t -u r i s t s and h a l f of the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and Other Agents, f i n d no d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting the expectations of s p e c i a l i s t s and research people. Summary. These responses suggest t h a t , of the three reference groups, the agents f i n d l e a s t b a r r i e r s i n f u l f i l l i n g the expectations of farmers. A l s o , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s of the three types of agents, f i n d the most b a r r i e r s to meeting the expectations of any one group. This nay be as a r e s u l t of the wider area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of these agents and the g reater v a r i e t y of demands made on them. The f a c t that 'inadequate communications' i s the main b a r r i e r which prevents the agents from f u l f i l l i n g the expectations of t h e i r a l t e r groups, i n d i c a t e that the extension o r g a n i s a t i o n , as a s o c i a l system, i s not very w e l l i n t e r g r a t e d . The agents, being as i t were, caught between the expect-a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t groups, each of which ex e r c i s e some a u t h o r i t y over them, though i n a d i f f e r e n t manner, f e e l somewhat i s o l a t e d , and do not seem to have s u f f i c i e n t contact or communication w i t h these a l t e r groups to permit proper s e l f e v a l u a t i o n . Job O r i e n t a t i o n The p o s i t i o n of the agent i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the exten-s i o n s e r v i c e i s one which permits d i f f e r i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s on the part of the agentjon the basis of the extent to which he i s s e n s i t i v e to the expectations of h i s various reference groups. These reference groups are d i f f e r e n t sources of reward and sanctions f o r the agent, and i t can be assumed that h i s o r i e n t -a t i o n w i t h i n the system w i l l depend on the degree to which he i s responsive 100 t o the rewards and s a n c t i o n s o f e a c h group. As W i l k e n i n g and S m i t h p o i n t o u t , t h i s p r o b l e m of o r i e n t a t i o n i s one o f t h e b a s i c dilemmas o f the p r o -f e s s i o n a l i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v i n g a c l i e n t e l e . ^ The a g e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e the i n t e n s i t y w i t h w h i c h f i v e g r o u p s — f a r m e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o r d i r e c t o r s , r e s e a r c h p e o p l e , f a r m o r g a n -i z a t i o n s ana non^farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e t h e i r t h i n k i n g , a t t i t u d e ; ' and b e h a v i o u r , i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r d u t i e s . The i n t e n s i t y o f i n -f l u e n c e i s r a t e d , 'much 1, 'some', ' l i t t l e ' o r 'none', and q u a n t a t i v e s c o r e s a r e d e v e l o p e d f o r each group by g i v i n g w e i g h t s o f 0 f o r none, 1 f o r l i t t l e , 2 f o r some and 3 f o r much. These r e s u l t s a r e given., i n T a b l e XV and. F i g u r e 8. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s l i t t l e agreement among the t h r e e a g e n t g r o u p s as t o the i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e g r oups. Re-g a r d l e s s o f t y p e , age, o r l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n t h e a g e n t s a r e l e a s t o r i e n t e d t o non- f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t e a v e r y s t r o n g o r i e n t a t i o n t o f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h a t i s , t o the l o c a l l e v e l . A l l t h e s e a g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e s e two group s have 'some' i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r b e h a v i o u r , w i t h two-t h i r d s o f them i n d i c a t i n g 'much' i n f l u e n c e . A l s o , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a p p e a r t o be more o r i e n t e d t o r e s e a r c h p e o p l e t h a n to t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , 53 p e r c e n t o f them f e e l t h a t s p e c i a l i s t s have 'much' i n f l u e n c e , w h i l e o n l y 26 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e t h i s f e e l i n g t o w a r d the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s show no s t r o n g r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o any one group ^ E.A. W i l k e n i n g - and R. S m i t h , op. c i t . 101 TABLE XXV RANK ORDERING uP DIFFERENT GROUPS OK TEE BASIS OF TEE INFLUENCE EACH GROUP HAS ON THEIR ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR BY 3 TYPES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS Groups TYPE OF AGENT D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t O t h e r A l l A g r i c u l t u r a l H o r t i c u l t u r a l Agents. . A g e n t s T o t a l T o t a l S c o r e Rank S c o r e T o t a l Rank S c o r e Rank T o t a l S c o r e Rank D i r e c t o r s 31 Farmers 45 S p e c i a l i s t s and R e s e a r c h e r s 35 Farm O r g a n i z a -t i o n s 41 Non-farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s 10 4 1 22 22 20 17 l l 3 4 5 18 1 14 2 l l 3 10 4 io 4 71 79 66 68 25 2 1 4 3 5 f\Sncu\tx>nsts Other Agents Agriculturist Hbrticultvrisk Other A$crfe> 5 Ay r icukun s ^ ' p ^ ^ Other Agents AjfriccJtunsts ffoftyec/tonst' #thcr Agents HorbcuJiunsts Other Agents X6% F/QU«I= $ f>eHC£HTfK6E OP- OlSTf<\CT fitQiRlCOLTURISTS, 0<SrA/C7T HORTICULTURISTS A NO OTW£ft /\G£WTS RAHA/S TH£ "INFLUENCE'OTHER P E O P L E we OM THE IA 6EHAVI0U* MUCH rrrh LITTLE ° i—H HoHS 103 w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s , whose i n f l u e n c e , i s v e r y l ow. The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s however, a s l i g h t o r i e n t a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f f a r m e r s and the d i r e c t o r s o v e r f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T / i t h r e s p e c t t o O t h e r A g e n t s , the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s s t r o n g e s t , w i t h f a r m e r , r e s e a r c h p e o p l e , f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s and non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g i n t h a t o r d e r . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the l a s t t h r e e groups a r e n o t v e r y g r e a t . I n g e n e r a l t h e r e f o r e , i t can be s a i d t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a r e most s e n s i t i v e t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e w i t h whom t h e y work a t the l o c a l l e v e l , r a t h e r t h a n t o those above them, w h i l e the o p p o s i t e i s t r u e f o r O t h e r A g e n t s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s show no s t r o n g r e s p o n s e t o a n y one gr o u p , e i t h e r a t the l o c a l l e v e l o r above him. The i n f l u e n c e o f f a r m e r s i s g r e a t e s t and t h a t of non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s l e a s t , r e g a r d l e s s o f the l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e o f the a g e n t s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t o t a l s c o r e s f o r the o t h e r r e f e r e n c e groups a r e s m a l l , but the i n -f l u e n c e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s more t h a n t h a t o f farm, o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e ag e n t w i t h t e n y e a r s and l e s s and those w i t h f i f t e e n y e a r s and more o f s e r -v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n . The e f f e c t o f age c n the o r i e n t a t i o n o f the a g e n t s w i t h i n , t h e o r g a n i z -a t i o n i s n o t v e r y c l e a r , s i n c e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h have a r e l a t i v e l y low s c o r e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the t o t a l f o r ea,ch r e f e r e n c e g roup. There i s ho?rever, a n i n d i c a t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and o r i e n t a t i o n to d i r e c t o r s . A g e n t s f i f t y y e a r s and o v e r , r a n k the i n f l u e n c e o f d i r e c t o r s as number one, w h i l e t h o s e f o r t y t o 104 f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s and t h o s e l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age, r a n k t h i s g r oup as t h i r d and f o u r t h r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n a s t u d y done i n 'Wisconsin, W i l k e n i n g and S m i t h , c o m p a r i n g the a g e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f some f u n c t i o n s o f the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e w i t h o r i e n t -a t i o n w i t h i n the system, f o u n d s u p p o r t f o r the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t emphasis i s upon ' t e a c h i n g ' f u n c t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e s t a t e l e v e l ( ^ a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , w h i l e emphasis on ' s e r v i c e ' t y p e f u n c t i o n s i r . a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r i e n t a t i o n to the l o c a l l e v e l ( f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z -a t i o n s ) . Ho s i i c h d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s seen i n t h i s s t u d y e i t h e r among the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a g e n t s o r when t h e y a r e a l l t a k e n as a group. However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t c D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s who a r e most r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( l o c a l i n t e r e s t s ) , p e r c e i v e s o f ' c o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s o f the t o t a l farm:'enter-p r i s e ' as "being the most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , on the othez- hand, to whom the i n f l u e n c e o f a d -m i n i s t r a t o r s and f a r m e r s a r e a b o u t the same, b u t t h a t o f f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e l a t i v e l y low, r a n k t h i s same f u n c t i o n l o w e r i n i m p o r t a n c e to ' t e a c h i n g the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f f a r m i n g ' . I t has been p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a s l i g h t t e n d e n c y f o r those' a g e n t s who have a h i g h o p i n i o n o f the p r e s t i g e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s t o show a g r e a t e r degree o f o r i e n t a t i o n t o the l o c a l l e v e l ( f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) . T h i s t e n d e n c y i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by the r a t i n g s g i v e n t o the i n f l u e n c e o f the d i f f e r e n t groups on t h e i r b e h a v i o u r by a g e n t s who a r e E.A. W i l k e n i n g and R. S m i t h , op. c i t . 105 o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n i s somewhat above t h a t o f p o s i t i o n s o f s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g . E l e v e n o f the a g e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y f e e l t h a t f a r m and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s have 'some' i n f l u e n c e on them, w i t h 59 per c e n t o f them r a t i n g the i n f l u e n c e as 'much'. W h i l e 81 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e f e e l t h a t the d i r e c t o r s have 'some' i n f l u e n c e , o n l y a b out 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e g roup r a t e t h i s i n f l u e n c e as 'much'. There i s no a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a g e n t s o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h -i n the s y s t e m and e i t h e r h i s s t a t u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s j o b . Though a s m a l l m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who a r e ' d e f i n i t e l y s a t i s f i e d 1 i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r degree o f r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and r e s e a r c h p e o p l e , i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n e x t e n s i o n work comes f r o m a f a v o u r a b l e o r i e n t a t i o n t o the b u r e a u c r a c y o f the e x t e n s i o n s e r -v i c e o r f r o m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e r v e p e o p l e . Indeed i t a p p e a r s t h a t b o t h f a c t o r s a r e e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . N e i t h e r i s o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the system r e l a t e d t o l i k e s and d i s l i k e s i n the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . R e g a r d l e s s o f d i r e c t i o n o f o r i e n t a t i o n , the i t e m s s t r o n g l y l i k e d o r d i s l i k e d a r e more o r l e s s the same. Summary. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s l i t t l e agreement among the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s as t o i n t e n s i t y o f i n f l u e n c e o f the v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s g r o u p s . They a r e a l l l e a s t o r i e n t e d t o non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s show the g r e a t e s t o r i e n t a t i o n t o the l o c a l l e v e l ( f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) , w h i l e O t h e r A g e n t s a r e more r e s p o n s i v e to t h e i r d i r e c t o r s t h a n to o t h e r g r o u p s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a ppear to be i n f l u e n c e d , by f a r m e r s and d i r e c t o r s t o an e q u a l e x t e n t . S t a t u s and s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h the j o b seem to have no a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the o r i e n t -106 a t i o n o f the a g e n t s , but t h e r e i s i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h o s e a g e n t s who have a h i g h o p i n i o n o f the p r e s t i g e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n , a r e more o r i e n t e d t o l o c a l i n t e r e s t s . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h O r g a n i z a t i o n s Q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d p e r t a i n i n g t o the manner i n w h i c h the a g e n t s r e l a t e t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the l o c a l l e v e l — t h e e x t e n t t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e i n , and the amount o f a s s i s t a n c e f r o m these o r g a n i z a t i o n s . No a t t e m p t i s made to s p e c i f y the d i f f e r e n t groups and a g e n c i e s ; t h e s e were a l l c l a s s e d as b e i n g e i t h e r f a r m o r C n o n - f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C o n t a c t w i t h O r g a n i z a t i o n s T a b l e XXVI shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the r e s p o n s e s to the ctuestiori.fi: " I n what ways do you work w i t h f a r m and non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? " . Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s . The t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s a g r e e i n g e n e r a l on the ways t h e y make c o n t a c t w i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l l t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t -u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s and 80 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s 'speak and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u l a r l y ' t o t h e s e g r o u p s . ' A d v i s e on programs' i s m e n t i o n e d by a l l the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , 73 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and 80 p e r c e n t o f the O t h e r A g e n t s , w h i l e more t h a n t w o - t h i r d s o f each g r o u p i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y ' s i t i n on m e e t i n g s ' . V e r y few o f e ach t y p e o f a g e n t a r e members o f f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e , i n most c a s e s , p r e s s u r e groups c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r members, and t h e a g e n t b e i n g a government o f f i c i a l , has ,to a p p e a r i m p a r t i a l t o a l l g r o u p s . Non-Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p r i m a r y f orms o f c o n t a c t . w i t h non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i f f e r s w i t h each a g e n t group. A b o u t h a l f o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y have no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s e t y p e s o f o r -g a n i z a t i o n s , w h i l e t h i s i s t r u e f o r two o f the e i g h t D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s TABLE XXVI NUMBER OUT OF 15-DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND 5 OTHER AGENTS, INDICATING THE WAYS THEY WORK WITH FARM AND NON-FARM ORGANISATIONS DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS OTHER AGENTS ALL AGENTS Farm O r g a n i -z a t i o n s Non-farm O r g a n i -z a t i o n s Farm O r g a n i -z a t i o n s Non-farm O r g a n i -z a t i o n s Farm O r g a n i -z a t i o n s Non-farm O r g a n i -z a t i o n s Farm O r g a n i -z a t i o n s Non-farm O r g a n i -z a t i o n s No. i No. i No. i No. % No. i No. No. i° No. of\ /'-A c t i v e Members 4 27 5 33 1 12 2 25 0 0 1 20 5 18 8 28 A d v i s e on Programs 11 93 3 20 8 100 2 25 4 80 2 40 23 82 7 25 Speak and P r o v i d e I n f o r m a t i o n R e g u l a r l y 12 80 6 40 8 100 5 62 5 100 2 40 25 89 13 46 S i t i n on M e e t i n g s 10 67 7 47 7 87 3 37 4 80 2 40 21 75 12 43 F r o v i d e I n f o r m a t i o n O n l y M i e n A s k e d 2 13 7 47 2 25 3 37 1 . 20 3 60 ' 5 18 13 46 . F r i e n d l y w i t h R e p r e s e n t a t i v e 5 33 4 27 4 50 4 50 3 60 2 4 12 43 10 36 No C o n t a c t 0 0 8 0 0 2 25 0 0 1 20 0 0 i i 39 108 and one o f the f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s . ' P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y when a s k e d ' and ' s i t t i n g i n on m e e t i n g s ' i s the p r i m a r y f o r m o f c o n t a c t t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s have w i t h non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These two items a r e m e n t i o n e d by about 47 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s . About t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s s a y t h a t t h e y 'speak and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u l -a r l y ' t o non-farm, o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i l e h a l f o f them m e n t i o n ' f r i e n d l y w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ' o f t h e s e groups. Two D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s have no c o n t a c t w i t h non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Three o f the O t h e r A g e n t s say t h a t t h e y ' p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y when a s k e d ' , w h i l e one o f them has no c o n t a c t w i t h non-farm g r o u p s . A s s i s t a n c e f r o m O r g a n i z a t i o n s The e x t e n t t o w h i c h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s , non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s and u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n a s s i s t the a g e n t i n h i s work, i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s t u d i e d . By w e i g h t i n g the 'much' r e s p o n s e 3, 'some' 2, ' l i t t l e ' 1, and 'none' 0, the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s a s s i s t a n c e i s o b t a i n e d . T a b l e X X V I I i n w h i c h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d , Bhows t h a t the a g e n t s r e c e i v e a l m o s t a l l o f t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e from f a r m g r o u p s , w i t h non-farm groups and u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n p l a y i n g a v e r y m i n o r r o l e . The degree o f r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t o f the a g e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f a r m and non-farm groups and u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n i s i n -d i c a t e d by t h e i r e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e f o r 'more', the 'same,' o r ' l e s s ' i n i t i -a t i v e in. w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s e groups. ( T a b l e X X V I I l ) . TABLE X X V I I NUMBER OUT OP 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND 5 OTHER AGEHTS RATING THE ASSISTANCE GIVEN THEM BY EARM AND NON-FARM ORGANIZATIONS AND UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Type o f A g e n t s D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s O t h e r A g e n t s A l l A g e n t s No. 1o No. 1° No. i No. FARM ORGANIZATIONS NON-FARM ORGANISATIONS UNIVERSITY EXTENSION T o t a l T o t a l . T o t a l v'luch Sfme L i t t l e None S c o r e Much S%me L i t t l e None S c o r e Much Same L i t t l e None S c o r e 9 5 1 60 33 7 7 1 87 12 18 0 2 2 1 40 40 20 38. 1 3 10 1 7 20 67 7 19 0 23 12 2 1 4 25 12 50 1 12 o 3 0 38 0 11 1 2 0 40 20 40 0 10 20 1 20 20 13 5 8 2 0 4 6 72 64 29 7 0 14 21 46 18 37 5 .7 3 33 47 20 4 •50 2 40 11 7 21 39 32 17 29 TABLE X X V I I I NUMBER OUT OP 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND 5 OTHER AGENTS RATING WHAT THEIR INITIATIVE SHOULD BE IN WORKING WITH FARM, AND NON-FARM ORGANIZATIONS AND UNIVERSITY EXTENSION FARM ORGANIZATIONS NON-FARM ORGANIZATIONS UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Type o f ' D o not - . T o t a l Do n o t T o t a l Do n o t T o t a l A g e n t s More Some Le s s Enow S c o r e More Some Less Know Sco r e More Some L e s s Know S c o r e D i s t r i c t No. 6 8 1 0 3 10 0 2 11 2 0 2 A g r i c u l t u r i s t s 20 16 24 40 53 7 0 20 67 o 13 73 13 0 13 D i s t r i c t No. 3 5 0 0 2 4 0 2 4 O O 4 H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s 11 8 i 37 63 0 0 25 50 0 25 50 0 0 50 No. 3 2 0 0 ' 1 2 1 1 4 0 0 1 8 4 °/o 60 40 0 0 20 40 20 20 80 0 0 20 O t h e r A g e n t s A l l No. 12 15 1 0 6 16 1 5 19 2 0 7 A g e n t s 39 28 40 i 43 54 4 0 21 57 4 18 68 7 0 25 H O I l l Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s . More t h a n h a l f o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h a t t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e i n w o r k i n g w i t h f a r m groups s h o u l d be t h e 'same' as b e f o r e , w h i l e t h i s i s t r u e f o r o n l y two out o f the f i v e . O t h e r A g e n t s . A l m o s t two-f i f t h s o f t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and about o n e - t h i r d o f t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , b u t t h r e e o u t o f the f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s f e e l t h a t they s h o u l d show 'more' i n i t i a t i v e i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s e g r o u p s . One D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t e . b u t , none o f the o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s , i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t he s h o u l d work l e s s w i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . lion-Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s . The m a j o r i t y o f each type o f a g e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no change i n the way t h e y work w i t h non-farm o r g a n i z -a t i o n s . However, two D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , two D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and one Other A g e n t do not know what t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e s h o u l d be i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s e g r o u p s . U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n . There i s a s t r o n g f e e l i n g among the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s f o r c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n as i n d i c a t e d by the number who f e e l t h a t t h e i r i n i a t i v e s h o u l d be 'more' i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . S e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and 80 p e r c e n t o f the O t h e r A g e n t s a r e o f t h i s o p i n i o n . Though none o f the a g e n t s i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e f o r ' l e s s ' i n -i a t i v e , two D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , f o u r D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and one O t h e r Agent do n o t know what t h e i r i n i a t i v e s h o u l d be. I t a p p e a r s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the a g e n t s a c h i e v e a h i g h l e v e l o f r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f a r m and non-farm o r -112 o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s i s n o t s o , however, w i t h u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n as t h e r e i s a s t i ' o n g d e s i r e f o r more c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s .group. B a r r i e r s to B e t t e r C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s and U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n The d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h the a g e n t s e n c o u n t e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o b e t t e r G O -'S o p e r a t i o n w i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s and u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XXIX. Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s . S even D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , f o u r D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and one O t h e r A g e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y f i n d 'no b a r r i e r s ' t o b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 'Inadequacy o f the o r -g a n i z a t i o n s ' meaning l a c k o f i n t e r e s t s and c o n f l i c t i n g and u n r e a s o n a b l e demands, i s the b a r r i e r most o f t e n m e n t i o n e d — b y 33 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c a l t u r i s t s , 37 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e O t h e r A g e n t s . 'Inadequate c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ' i s mentioned by one D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , two D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d one O t h e r Agent. U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n . 'Inadequate c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' i s the major b a r r i e r t o b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n . T h i s i s mentioned by more t h a n h a l f o f t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and about t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s . O n e - t h i r d o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and o n e - q u a r t e r o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and o n e - f i f t h o f the O t h e r A g e n t s f i n d ' d i s t a n c e ' t o be a b a r r i e r , w h i l e t h r e e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and two D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s m e n t i o n 1 i n a d e q u a c y o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' . One a g e n t o f each group i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s 'no b a r r i e r ' t o b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n . > TABLE XXIX BARRIERS TO COOPERATION MvIBER OUT OP 15 DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS, 8 DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS AND 5 OTHER AGENTS INDICATING THE BARRIERS TO- BETTER COOPERATION WITH FARR". ORGANIZATIONS AND UNIVERSITY EXTENSION DISTRICT AGRICULTURISTS DISTRICT HORTICULTURISTS OTHER AGENTS ALL AGENTS Farm Or- U n i v e r s i t y Farm Or- U n i v e r s i t y Farm Or- U n i v e r s i t y Farm O r - University g a n i z a t i o n s E x t e n s i o n g a n i z a t i o n s E x t e n s i o n g a n i z a t i o n s E x t e n s i o n g a n i z a t i o n s E x t e n s i o n No. too. No. c/o No. % « O . 7o No. NO . Mo. No B a r r i e r s D i s t a n c e 7 47 l 7 I n t e r - p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s 1 7 I n a d e q u a t e Communications 1 7 Inadequacy o f O t h e r s 5 33 1 7 4 50 1 12 1 20 5 33 0 0 2 25 0 0 2 13 8 53 2 13 0 0 2 25 3 37 1 12 5 62 3 37 0 0 1 20 1 20 1 20 12 43 3 10 1 20 1 4 8 29 0 0 3 60 0 o 1 4 4 14 9 32 3 10 16 57 5 18 I H Summary-C o n t a c t v ; i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s m a i n l y i n the f o r m o f "speak and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u l a r l y ' , ' a d v i s e on programs' and ' s i t i n on m e e t i n g s ' f o r the t h r e e a g e n t g r o u p s . However, the a g e n t s d i f f e r somewhat i n the way t h e y m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h the non-farm g r o u p s . The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s who have any c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s group i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y ' p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y when a s k e d ' w h i l e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t -u r i s t s a r e e i t h e r ' f r i e n d l y w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' o r 'speak and p r o v i d e i n -f o r m a t i o n r e g u l a r l y ' . The a g e n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e y o b t a i n most a s s i s t a n c e f r o m f a r m g r o u p s , and w h i l e t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , s a t i s f i e d with the r e l a t i o n s h i p s ' , w i t h f a r m and non-farm g r o u p s , show dctrong d e s i r e f o r c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n . 'Inadequate c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ' and ' d i s -t a n c e ' a r e t h e major b a r r i e r s t o b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h u n i v e r s i t y e x -t e n s i o n , b u t w i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s the major b a r r i e r i s 'inadequacy o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' . Perhaps the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the d i f f e r e n t groups a s s i s t i n the a g e n t ' s work, the c o n t a c t the a g e n t s have w i t h the groups and the a g e n t s ' need f o r 'more 1, 'same' o r 1'less' c o - o p e r a t i o n from, the g r o u p s , r e s u l t f r o m the p o s i t i o n the d i f f e r e n t groups occupy w i t h i n the a g e n t s ' s p h e r e s o f a c t i v i t y . Farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e i n the most p a r t made up o f the a g e n t s ' c l i e n t e l e , and as s u c h , have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on the amount o f s u p p o r t t h a t the a g e n t s o b t a i n f o r t h e i r programs. U n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n on ±he o t h e r hand, have no f o r m a l t i e s w i t h t h e a g e n t s , and any a s s i s t a n c e t h a t t h i s group g i v e s iB.oo.ftly a t the r e q u e s t o f the a g e n t s . Thus, w h i l e "the a g e n t s a r e s u s c e p t i b l e to the demands o f l o c a l f a r m g r o u p s , the o r g a n i z -115 a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a does n o t r e a l l y p r o v i d e f o r v e r y c l o s e c o n t a c t between the a g e n t s and u n i v e r s i t y -e x t e n s i o n . C o n t a c t w i t h Farmers o f D i f f e r e n t Income L e v e l s Because o f the h e t e r r o g e n e o u s n a t u r e o f h i s c l i e n t e l e and the l i m i t s t o h i s time and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the a g e n t t o g i v e t h e t y p e o f a t t e n t i o n needed i n a l l c a s e s . He has t o choose th o s e f a r m e r s t o whom he w i l l d e v o t e most o f h i s a t t e n t i o n . One o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i s u s e d t o c a t e g o r i z e f a r m e r s i s the a n n u a l g r o s s income of the f a r m , and the a g e n t s i n g e n e r a l t e n d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between f a r m e r s on t h i s b a s i s . Thus,the manner i n w h i c h the a g e n t a l l o c a t e s h i s time w i t h r e s p e c t t o f a r m e r s o f d i f f e r e n t income groups and the t y p e o f s e r v i c e , (wheth-e r s p e c i a l , r e g u l a r o r a n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s o n l y ) w h i c h t h e y gave to each group d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s s t u d y . The manner i n w h i c h the a g e n t s r a n k the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f f a r m e r s on t h e b a s i s o f the amount o f time t h e y d e v o t e d t o e a c h group i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XXX, w h i l e T a b l e XXXI shows the type o f s e r v i c e g i v e n t o each group c f f a r m e r s d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r . The p e r c e n t a g e o f each a g e n t group r a t i n g the r e l a t i v e amount o f time g i v e n t o each c a t e g o r y of f a r m e r i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 9-D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . There a p p e a r s t o be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount o f t i m e t h a t • D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a l l o c a t e d t o e a c h c a t e g o r y o f f a r m e r s and t h e income l e v e l o f the f a r m e r s . Most time was de-v o t e d t o f a r m e r s w i t h a n n u a l g r o s s incomes o f more t h a n 10,000 d o l l a r s o r 116 TABLE XXX RAKK ORDERING OF FARIAS OF FARlJEiHS OF D I F F E R E N T INCOME LEVELS ON THE BASIS OF TIKE SPENT UITH THEM DURING TEE P A S T YEAR, BY 3 TYPES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS TYPE OF AGENT D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t O t h e r A l l A g r i c u l t u r a l H o r t i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s A g e n t s T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l S c o r e Rank S c o r e Rank S c o r e Rank S c o r e Rank |10 and o v e r 33 l 17 1 11 l 61 1 $5,000 - $10-,000 33 : . i 17 1 11 . l 61 1 $2,500 - $ 5,000 24 3 16 3 10 3 45 3 L e s s t h a n $2,500 18 6 11 4 5 5 34 5 P a r t - t i m e Farmers 25 4 11 4 9 4 45 3 Non-Farmers 19 c, J 10 6 5 5 34 5 A n n u a l Gross Income o f Farmers 117 </> f -o — ^» a: t - > UJ - i 7* 1* . o — 7 - \n h ; OJ cy a o U i u l r r t - J -— _ > <J as 1 Z u l c f — D u - Pt O C« VP •» ~t l / l OL (- >- > U l -J X X :> u h V- r U l - i o - J , D a o oo O 2. <c 1 a - r -• «r < t~ CC »-» Ui V- Q t y u z m — M u . »- ( A — i n V- a -. — 2. (S u-' w o ct — cr> a£ y. Ul o X 2: V-V- o <c 2. o u. 1. or « • O tJJ c u •z I' c o z a l i d d a l > o <S o o I o . o a. o a o -5. o o G 2 £ y o v > T > < J c j '"3'-jT(\>T>S~~' to " " 1 Q ' CO O o; M l O o O M -is ft <x so o I n .Oj o i «• A • w - i 3. Oil "3 Z. 118 ^Agriculturists f Horticulturists Other Agents Agriculturists Worticuftunsts OtAer Agents Agriculturists Horticulturists! Othtr Agents 0 Agriculturists* Hort/cultjurisis ^ M V ^ Ajncultunsts Morhcultun sis Othttr AdcnU mmmmmmmmmmmmsBBBBm 4 o % /oo /o AOncol-tunstsf //ort/cu Itunstr OtAer Agents F I G U R E <7 P F R C e / v r A ^ OF D I STP. I c r A&R I CULTURl S T 5 Y O 15TRI CT f-lORT I CULTUR 1STS AND OTHER /\QEJvTS flAT/MQ T H E ' Y l M E SPg-AIT1'W/TH FARMERS OF D J P F £ 7 ? E W JMCOrAE LEVELS MUCH 50Mf L I T T L E CZZt NONE | 1 N 0 ANSWER I • / 119 5 , 0 0 0 t o 1 0 , 0 0 0 d o l l a r s , w i t h f a r m e r s h a v i n g incomes o f 2 , 5 0 0 t o 5 > 0 0 0 d o l l a r s , p a r t - t i m e f a r m e r s , n o n - f a r m e r s and f a r m e r s w i t h incomes o f l e s s t h a n 2 , 5 0 0 d o l l a r s f o l l o w i n g i n t h a t o r d e r . The same r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a p p a r e n t i n the type o f s e r v i c e t h a t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s gave t o the d i f f e r e n t groups o f f a r m e r s . H i g h income f a r m e r s were i n c l u d e d i n the ' r e g u l a r ' o r ' s p e c i a l ' programs o f t h e s e a g e n t s , w h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e a g e n t s 'answers r e -q u e s t s o n l y ' f o r f a r m e r s w i t h incomes l e s s t h a n 2 , 5 0 0 d o l l a r s , p a r t - t i m e f a r m -e r s and n o n - f a r m e r s . L e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n c l u d e d t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s o f f a r m e r s i n t h e i r r e g u l a r o r s p e c i a l programs. D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k the d i f f e r e n t g roups o f f a r m e r s i n a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n as D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . on the b a s i s o f the t i m e t h e y d e v o t e d t o each group d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r . A l s o , the type o f s e r v i c e g i v e n t o the d i f f e r e n t f a r m groups by D i s t r i c t H o r t i -c u l t u r i s t s i s s i m i l a r t h a t g i v e n by t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The m a j o r i t y o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s gave r e g u l a r o r s p e c i a l s e r v i c e t o h i g h income f a r m e r s . O n l y one o f t h e s e a g e n t s i n c l u d e d , f a r m e r s A v i t h incomes l o w e r t h a n 2 , 5 0 0 d o l l a r s i n t h e i r r e g u l a r program and none gave t h i s type o f s e r v i c e to p a r t - t i m e f a r m e r s o r n o n - f a r m e r s . However, 7 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s 'answer r e q u e s t s o n l y ' f o r t h e s e g r o u p s . O t h e r A g e n t s . The p a t t e r n i n w h i c h O t h e r A g e n t s o r d e r the c a t e g o r i e s o f f a r m e r s on t h e b a s i s o f . t i m e spent i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the o t h e r two g r o u p s , b u t the t y p e o f s e r v i c e g i v e n i s d i f f e r e n t . O t h e r A g e n t s seem to c o n c e n t r a t e on 'a n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s o n l y ' f o r the f a r m e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e income l e v e l . I n d e e d i t seems t h a t v e r y few o f th e s e a g e n t s have ' r e g u l a r 1 , o r ' s p e c i a l ' programs. Three o u t o f the f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y 'answer r e q u e s t s o n l y ' f o r a l l the groups w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f 'non-farmers and f a r m e r s w i t h a n n u a l incomes o f 2,5000 t o 5?000 d o l l a r s where o n l y two o f t h e s e a g e n t s g i v e t h i s r e s p o n s e . ' R e g u l a r ' s e r v i c e i s g i v e n by two o f t h e s e a g e n t s t o f a r m e r s w i t h a n n u a l incomes o f more t h a n 10,000 d o l l a r s v / h i l e one o f them g i v e t h i s t y p e o f s e r v i c e t o f a r m e r s i n the 5?000 t o 10,000 d o l l a r income l e v e l , a nd p a r t - t i m e f a r m e r s . Summary. There i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a g e n t s ' a l l o c -a t i o n o f t h e i r t i m e , and the a n n u a l g r o s s income o f the f a r m e r s . Farmers w i t h a n n u a l incomes o f 10,000 d o l l a r s , r e c e i v e d most a t t e n t i o n , w h i l e l e a s t time was d e v o t e d t o f a r m e r s whose incomes were below 2,500 d o l l a r s . H i g h income f a r m e r s — t h o s e w i t h a n a n n u a l g r o s s income o f more t h a n 2,500 d o l l a r s — r e c e i v e d ' r e g u l a r ' o r ' s p e c i a l ' s e r v i c e from D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a nd D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , w h i l e f a r m e r s w i t h a n n u a l incomes o f l e s s t h a n 2,500 d o l l a r s , p a r t - t i m e f a r m e r s and n o n - f a r m e r s g e t a t t e n t i o n o n l y when t h e y make ' s p e c i a l r e q u e s t s ' . O t h e r A g e n t s a p p e a r t o have n e i t h e r r e g u l a r o r s p e c i a l programs f o r any s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y o f f a r m e r s , perhaps w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f thos e w i t h a n n u a l incomes o f more t h a n 10,000 d o l l a r s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e a g e n t s c o n t a c t the f a r m e r s o n l y when ' r e q u e s t e d ' by the f a r m e r . . The f a c t t h a t the a g e n t s c o n c e n t r a t e p r i m a r i l y on h i g h income farms b o t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r time and the typ e o f s e r v i c e s w h i c h they g i v e , r e p r e s e n t s t h e a g e n t s ' s o l u t i o n o f the prob l e m o f e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e i r l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . Low income f a r m e r s do n o t have the knowledge n o r the r e s o u r c e s to make any r e a l use o f the a g e n t s ' s e r v i c e s , a nd a l t h o u g h the 121 the a g e n t s a d o p t a s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e t o t h e s e f a r m e r s , and i n many c a s e s e x p r e s s a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o h e l p them, t h e y ( t h e a g e n t s ) f e e l t h a t t h e i r time and e n e r g y w i l l he c o m p l e t e l y w asted on s u c h f a r m e r s . Program D e t e r m i n a t i o n The t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r g e o f e x t e n s i o n o f ' h e l p i n g p e o p l e to h e l p t h e n -s e l v e s ' f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n the ' g r a s s r o o t s ' d o c t r i n e w h i c h e x p c u s e s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f l o c a l p e o p l e i n program p l a n n i n g and e x e c u t i o n . P r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s has shown t h a t the a g e n t s v a l u e s t r o n g l y t h e 'freedom i n p l a n n i n g a n d d o i n g t h e i r work' y e t t h e y d i s l i k e the ' l a c k o f a w e l l d e f i n e d program t o f o l l o w ' . T h i s a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n shows program p l a n n i n g t o be a p r o b l e m a r e a o f e x t e n s i o n work. The l o o s e s t r u c t u r e o f the e x t e n s i o n b u r e a u -c r a c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a l l o w s a g r e a t d e a l o f freedom, to t h e agent i n d e t e r m i n i n g the program f o r the d i s t r i c t as l o n g as he keeps w i t h i n c e r t a i n b r o a d l i n e s o f p o l i c y . The a g e n t s were a s k e d t o r a t e the e x t e n t t o w h i c h v a r i o u s groups p a r t -i c i p a t e i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e programs o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s t r i c t s on the b a s i s o f ( l ) the p a r t o f e a c h ' p l a y e d ' d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r and (2) the p a r t the a g e n t f e e l s the group ' s h o u l d p l a y ' . These groups a r e ( l ) t h e agent h i m s e l f , (2) h i s d i r e c t o r s , (3) s p e c i a l i s t s . (4) f a r m e r s and (5) program p l a n n i n g c o mmittees. The r a n k i n g s based on the t o t a l s c o r e f o r each g r o u p i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X X X I I , w h i l e F i g u r e s 10 and l i show how each t y p e o f a g e n t r a t e d the groups on b o t h b a s e s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The f i v e groups a r e r a n k e d i n a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n on b o t h bases by D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The a g e n t h i m s e l f i s f i r s t , TABLE X X X I I B A M ORDERING OP 5 GROUPS ON THE BASIS 01' EXTENT EACH GROUP "PARTICIPATED" AND "SHOULD PARTICIPATE" IN PROGRAM" DETERMINATION BY 3 TYPES OP BRITISH COLUMBIA EXTENSION AGENTS TYPE OF AGENTS D i s t r i c t A g r i cxil t u r i s t s D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s O t h e r A g e n t s A l l A g e n t s S h o u l d S h o u l d S h o u l d S h o u l d P a r t i c i p a t e d P a r t i c i p a t e P a r t i c i p a t e d P a r t i c i p a t e P a r t i c i p a t e d P a r t i c i p a t e P a r t i c i p a t e d P a r t i c i p a t e GROUP T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l S c o r e Rank Score Rank S c o r e Rank S c o r e Rank S c o r e Rank S c o r e Rank S c o r e Rank S c o r e Rank A g e n t Him-s e l f 44 1 45 l 22 1 27) 1 15 1 15 1 81 1 83 1 D i r -e c t -o r s 16 5 27 5 12 3 16 3 11 2 12 2 39 3 55 3 Spec-i a l i s t s 21 4 28 4 8 4 15 4 8 3 Farmers 24 3 33 3 14 2 20 2 5 4 1 5 7 3 37 4 43 2 44 5 6o 2 program P l a n n i n g Commit-t e e s 26 37 2 7 5 3 5 5 4 36 5 51 4 ia3 Agriculturists^'™** Hor t i col tonstsl Other Agents Agriculturists f Worh cult oris-Otter Adents Ajf/culturist rjort/culturigtsf Other A^'eni ! Agriculturists rrortf cult unsfcs Oihcr Ajenis t Agriculturists r/ort/cultunsis| Other Ajent .,....AG?^r,H.^S,^ F • 4 0 % 1,0% /oo% 4o% i,c% FIGURE 10 PERCENTAGE OF D I S T R I C T A G R I C U L T U R I S T S , D I S T R I C T HORT I CULTURI STs AND OrweR AGENTS RAT I NQ TME exTFWT D'I PFFAe/yT* GROUPS " p A « T / c r P A T £ 0 , v I H PROO-ftAW OBTERMlNftT ION 50MF T777i LITTLE | 1 WONE 12^ Horticulturists OtWA^eryts HovticultonsU Other A^anU JRQENT H\HS£LF Agriculturists Horticulturists f Other f^ent* o Agriculturists P Horticulturist* Agriculturists Horticulturists Other Agents 60% *»% Tl-^MNING- COMMITTEE' FlQURE 11 8 6 % /OO/o PERCENTAGE. OF "DISTRICT AGR.I C UJ-TURl STS, X)I STRICT HO-RTI CO LTtm\STS Am) OTHETt AGENTS RATING TH P EXTENT BIFFERENT GROUPS SHDULT> " P A f v n c JPATE" IN "PROGRAM .DETERMINATION f^-yi MUCH [55$ SOME P77?j L»TT«-e NONE 125 program p l a n n i n g committees seco n d , f a r m e r s t h i r d , s p e c i a l i s t s f o u r t h ' and d i r e c t o r s f i f t h . F i g u r e 10 sho?/s t h a t 95 p e r c e n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t s r a t e the p a r t p l a y e d by the a g e n t h i m s e l f as 'much' w h i l e o n l y 25 p e r c e n t r a t e f a r m e r s and s p e c i a l i s t s t h i s h i g h . O n l y 6 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t d i r e c t o r s p l a y e d 'much'; p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g the program d u r -i n g t he y e a r . O n e - t h i r d o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t n e i t h e r d i r e c t o r s o r s p e c i a l i s t s p l a y e d any p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e program. Though t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k the p a r t each g r o u p ' s h o u l d p l a y ' i n a s i m i l a r manner the p a r t each group p l a y e d t h e r e i s some s i g n i f i -c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n the number o f a g e n t s who r a t e as 'much' t h e e x t e n t groups o t h e r t h a n t h e m s e l v e s ' s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ' i n d e t e r m i n i n g the program. W i t h r e s p e c t t o program p l a n n i n g c o n n e c t i o n s , 73 p e r c e n t o f the a g e n t s a r e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , A6 per c e n t f o r f a r m e r s and 25 p e r c e n t f o r b o t h s p e c i a l i s t s and d i r e c t o r s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k t h e groups s i m i l a r l y on b o t h b a s e s , b u t i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r t o D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s . The agent h i m s e l f i s r a n k e d as number one, f o l l o w e d i n o r d e r by f a r m e r s , d i r e c t o r s , s p e c i a l i s t s and program p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s . As w i t h t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s , t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s who r a t e as 'much' the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the groups o t h e r t h a n t h e m s e l v e s ' s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ' a s compared t o ' p a r t i c -i p a t e d ' i n program d e t e r m i n a t i o n . T h i s i s h i g h e s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o f a r m e r s . W h i l e o n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f the D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r a t e the e x t e n t f a r m e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d a s 'much', more t h a n 6 0 p e r c e n t t o the e x t e n t f a r m e r s ' s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ' . 126 O t h e r A g e n t s . These a g e n t s r a n k the groups i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r on b o t h b a s e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e x t e n t e a c h group ' p a r t i c i p a t e d ' i n the program, O t h e r A g e n t s r a n k t h e 'agent h i m s e l f as number one, f o l l o w e d by f a r m e r s , d i r e c t o r s , s p e c i a l i s t s and program p l a n n i n g committees i n t h a t oaider. The agent h i m s e l f i s a l s o r a n k e d h i g h e s t on t h e b a s i s o f the e x t e n t each group ' s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ' , b u t i n t h i s c a s e d i r e c t o r s a r e second, f a r m e r s t h i r d , program p l a n n i n g committees f o u r t h and s p e c i a l i s t s f i f t h . O t h e r A g e n t s d e s i r e i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f each group w i t h the e x c e p -t i o n o f s p e c i a l i s t s . W h i l e t h r e e o f these a g e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t s p e c i a l i s t s ' p a r t i c i p a t e d ' i n t h e i r programs ( w i t h two i n d i c a t i n g 'much') o n l y one f e e l s t h a t s p e c i a l i s t s ' s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ' i n the program. The e x t e n t t o w h i c h the d i f f e r e n t groups p a r t i c i p a t e d s h o u l d o r s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the programs o f the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a g e n t s shows a p o s i -t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f o r i e n t a t i o n o f the a g e n t s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s whom p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s has shown t o be more o r i e n t e d t o the l o c a l l e v e l t h a n t o those above them, n o t o n l y made more use o f the f a r m e r s a n d program p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s , b u t f e e l s a l s o , t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s the r i g h t one. O t h e r A g e n t s who show g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o p e o p l e above them a l s o r a n k d i r e c t o r s h i g h e r t h a n f a r m e r s and program p l a n n i n g committees on the base s o f b o t h t h e ' e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p a s t ' , and 'what they f e e l t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d be'. D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s show no r e a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o e i t h e r t he l o c a l l e v e l o r t h o s e above them, and a l s o have t o t a l s c o r e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the e x t e n t t o w h i c h f a r m e r s and d i r e c t o r s ' p a r t i c i p a t e d ' o r ' s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ' i n program d e t e r m i n a t i o n . 127 'Table XXXXEE shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the amount o f time t h e y d e v o t e d t o t y p e s o f p r o -grams d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s o f how the programs were p l a n n e d . These programs a r e ( l ) those p l a n n e d by t h e agent on t h e b a s i s o f what he t h o u g h t t h e f a r m e r s needed; (2) t h o s e p l a n n e d by the a g e n t on the b a s i s o f what f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o l d him t h e y needed; (3) t h o s e p l a n n e d by the s p e c i a l i s t s i n w h i c h the a g e n t a s s i s t e d and (4) those p l a n n e d and i n -s t i t u t e d a s p a r t o f department p o l i c y . The main i n t e n t i s to i n q u i r e i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p be,tween the amount o f time the a g e n t d e v o t e d t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n t programs, and the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the d i f f e r e n t groups p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the programs. I n g e n e r a l , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s d i s t r i b u t e d t h e i r t i m e among the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f programs i n a s i m i l a r manner. The m a j o r i t y o f these two groups o f a g e n t s d e v o t e d most o f t h e i r t i m e t o programs w h i c h t h e y 'planned on the b a s i s o f what t h e y thought t h e f a r m e r s needed', and l e a s t time t o programs 'planned by s p e c i a l i s t s ' and t h o s e 'planned and implemented as d e p a r t m e n t p o l i c y ' . F u r t h e r m o r e , the amount o f time t h e s e a g e n t s devoted, t o the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f programs, shows a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the d i f f e r e n t groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the d e t e r -m i n a t i o n o f the program d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r . The m a j o r i t y o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , u n l i k e the o t h e r two g r o u p s , d e v o t e d the g r e a t e s t p o r t i o n o f t h e i r time t o 'programs p l a n n e d and i n s t i t u t e d a s department p o l i c 3 r ' . I t a ppears a l s o , t h a t t h e r e i s a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount o f time t h a t t h e s e a g e n t s devote t o the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f programs, and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p r o -gram d e t e r m i n a t i o n . More t h a n cj0 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e a g e n t s r a t e the e x t e n t t o 128 h-1/5 2 V— 3« 2: |— ui sJ — 7-V- Ui vV "X o ^ 1 v - £ 0 -CO v> H o I-- I u & t r * I £ Of a vr o ui o£ * a-f~ u. - 2 a u. o Cr. ul U <^ - Mi 2 U . H A I— 2 TZ O U l - • C T . <C . 1 o o <£ a? vir o u-o ul a . >• I-1 c —' • " c (1-3 i 7 ^ * 1A § 1 CL- o c 2 3 <-*-o l a -1 * 1 i<5--,5 00-.--o— A-ST CO UN — o 1 %0 o Go — o o 60 OO - 5 so o ' A 4 2 2 v u * j C £ Li. O a . —1 a O on C o a' — O -~ cn a <x 3> -4-4 . — 0 •p CD O <3-C D I J J o d o o cA i2 129 w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the program as 'much', but o v e r 80 p e r c e n t o f them d e v o t e d l e s s t h a n 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r time to p r o -grams w h i c h 'they p l a n n e d on the b a s i s o f what t h e y thought the f a r m e r s needed'. A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s i n a c o m p a r i s o n between the e x t e n t to w h i c h f a r m e r s and program p l a n n i n g committees p a r t i c i p a t e d i n program d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and the amount o f time t h e s e a g e n t s d e v o t e d t o 'programs w h i c h t h e y p l a n n e d on the b a s i s o f what f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s s a i d t h e y needed'. P e r h a p s the r e a s o n f o r t h i s a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n l i e s i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n scope o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s as compared to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . o f the o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s . The B r i t i s h Colum-b i a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , a s a p o l i c y d e c i s i o n p l a c e s g r e a t empliasis on l a n d development and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 4H c l u b s . On the l o c a l l e v e l b o t h o f t h e s e a r e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s o n l y , and i n many c a s e s , may c o n s t i t u t e t h e major p a r t o f the a g e n t ' s program. I t i s v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t may p l a n t h e p r o -gram f o r the d i s t r i c t w i t h l i t t l e h e l p f r o m any o t h e r g r o u p , but because the major p o r t i o n o f h i s program i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h l a n d development and the o r -g a n i z a t i o n o f 4H c l u b s b o t h o f w h i c h a r e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s o f the department, he m a y . f e e l t h a t he i s d e v o t i n g most o f h i s time t o programs 'planned and i n s t i t u t e d by department p o l i c y ' . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s on the o t h e r hand, l i e s o n l y w i t h i n t h e i r s p e c i a l f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y , and any work t h e s e a g e n t s may p e r f o r m i n s u c h a r e a s as l a n d development and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 4H c l u b s i s p u r e l y i n c i d e n t a l . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s t h e r e f o r e , have more c o n t r o l o v e r the d i r e c t i o n , o f t h e i r e f f o r t s and the 130 e x t e n t t o w h i c h o t h e r groups p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r programs, r e l a t i v e t o D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . I t i s n o t too s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e , t h a t u n l i k e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , t h e s e two t y p e s o f a g e n t s show a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the amount o f ti m e t h a t t h e y d e v o t e d t o the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f programs and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h o t h e r groups p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e t e r -m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r programs. Summary. The e v i d e n c e i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the ag e n t i s more o r l e s s h i s own boss a s f a r a s program p l a n n i n g i s c o n c e r n e d , and he wants t h i s p o s i t i o n t o be c o n t i n u e d . The a g e n t s made v e r y l i t t l e use o f o t h e r groups i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e program. Program p l a n n i n g committees and f a r m e r s were used by D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s more t h a n d i r e c t o r s and s p e c i a l i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s u s e d f a r m e r s and d i r e c t o r s a b o u t an e q u a l e x t e n t , b u t made v e r y l i t t l e use o f program p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s . B e s i d e s t h e m s e l v e s , O t h e r A g e n t s o b t a i n some h e l p f r o m d i r e c t o r s and s p e c i a l i s t s , but l i t t l e f r o m f a r m e r s and program p l a n n i n g committees i n d e t e r m i n i n g the programs. I n g e n e r a l , most o f the a g e n t s show a d e s i r e f o r a h i g h e r degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f one o r more groups i n program d e t e r m i n a t i o n . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r more use o f program p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s want more p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r s , w h i l e O t h e r A g e n t s f e e l t h a t more use must be made o f d i r e c t o r s and l e s s o f s p e c i a l i s t s . I t a p p e a r s however, t h a t the d o c t r i n e s o f ' h e l p i n g one h e l p h i m s e l f has been honoured more i n b r e a c h t h a n i n o b s e r v -a n c e , s i n c e v e r y l i t t l e use has been made o f 'program p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s ' i n w h i c h t h e 'grass r o o t s ' i d e o l o g y i s i n h e r e n t . 131 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s d e v o t e d most o f t h e i r t i m e t o programs t h e y t h e m s e l v e s p l a n n e d 'on the b a s i s o f what t h e y t h o u g h t f a r m e r s needed' and gave l e a s t time t o 'programs p l a n n e d a n d im-p l e m e n t e d as department p o l i c y ' . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s on the o t h e r hand s p e n t the m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e i r time on 'programs p l a n n e d and i n -s t i t u t e d as department p o l i c y 1 and v e r y l i t t l e time on programs w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s p l a n n e d on t h e b a s i s o f e i t h e r 'what t h e y t h o u g h t the f a r m -e r needed' o r 'what the f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s s a i d t h e y needed'. 132 CHAPTER I V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s i s a s t u d y o f the r o l e o f c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as v i e w e d by t h e a g e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . Three t y p e s o f a g e n t s a r e s t u d i e d : D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s . I t i s an a t t e m p t to i d e n t i f y the d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s t h a t the a g e n t s p e r f o r m , and to e n q u i r e i n t o how w e l l the a g e n t s a r e a d a p t i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o the c h a n g i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f e x t e n s i o n work. V a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s o f r o l e a r e a n a l y z e d . The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t t h e agent a t t a c h e s t o each r o l e he i d e n t i f i e s g i v e s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , w h i l e r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e i s i n d i c a t e d by the amount o f time the a g e n t d e v o t e d t o each r o l e i n the p a s t . Comparison between p e r f o r m a n c e , importance, and time de-s i r e d p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r m e a s u r i n g r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t . The amount o f a g r e e -ment among the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s o f r o l e , provid.es a measure o f r o l e c o n c e n s u s . The a g e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the f u n c t i o n s of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e and r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s w i t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e d i s t r i c t s a r e a l s o s t u d i e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t h r e e a g e n t groups a r e v e r y s i m i l a r . The m a j o r -i t y o f the a g e n t s a r e f o r t y t o f o r t y - n i n e y e a r s o f age, b u t w h i l e a bout one-t h i r d o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a r e l e s s t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f age, o n l y one D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and none o f the O t h e r A g e n t s a r e t h i s young. E a c h a g e n t g r o u p has r e l a t i v e l y l o n g s e r v i c e b o t h i n e x t e n s i o n work and i n t h e i r p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t s b u t D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s t e n d t o have l o n g e r s e r v i c e i n b o t h a r e a s t h a n D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s . The e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a r e a l i k e i n many r e s p e c t s . E x c e p t f o r one D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , a l l the a g e n t s i n t h e s e two groups have the B a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e , but v e r y few o f them have any g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s . These groups f e e l a l s o , t h a t t h e B a c h e l o r ' s degree i s the most v a l u a b l e o f a l l t h e i r academic t r a i n -i n g f o r e x t e n s i o n work. O n l y t h r e e o f the f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s have the B a c h e l o r ' s degree, b u t two o f them have d i p l o m a s i n t h e i r s p e c i a l i t y . O t h e r A g e n t s r a n k t h e i r ' o t h e r d e grees and d i p l o m a s ' as t h e most v a l u a b l e f o r m o f academic t r a i n i n g f o r e x t e n s i o n work. W h i l e f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n methods i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y a b s e n t , a l m o s t a l l o f the a g e n t s had some f o r m o f t h i s t r a i n i n g w h i l e on the j o b . There i s a s t r o n g f e e l i n g among e a c h t y p e o f a g e n t t h a t ' i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ' w i l l b e s t s a t i s f y t h e i r need f o r t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n methods. However, D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s w i l l a l s o l i k e t o combine w i t h t h i s ' f u r t h e r f o r m a l s t u d y ' w h i l e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s show a. p r e f e r e n c e f o r 'more e x p e r i e n c e ' . The t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s a r e i n g e n e r a l agreement w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f u n c t i o n s o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e on w h i c h most time and e f f o r t was d e v o t e d i n the p a s t , b u t t h e r e i s l i t t l e agreement among them as to the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s . Most f e e l t h a t the major time was s p e n t ' p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c f a r m p r a c t i c e s ' and ' t e a c h i n g the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f f a r m i n g ' w i t h some time g i v e n t o ' c o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s i n the management o f t h e t o t a l f a r m e n t e r p r i s e ' . V e r y l i t t l e time was s p e n t on 'community development'. On the o t h e r hand, w h i l e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s f e e l t h a t ' p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e s ' and ' t e a c h i n g p r i n c i p l e s ' s h o u l d be the most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s o f 134 the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k th e s e two f u n c t i o n s l o w e r t h a n ' c o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s and management o f the t o t a l f a r m e n t e r p r i s e ' and 'community development'. The i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t the E x -t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s t i l l c o n c e n t r a t e s on work o f a s e r v i c e n a t u r e because the a g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y what f a r m p e o p l e want. T h i s emphasis on l o c a l i n t e r e s t s f o r c e s D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s t o devote a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f h i s time t o work t h a t i s n o t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i s i d e a l f u n c t i o n o f the r o l e o f the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . D i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r i n the r o l e s o f each t y p e o f a g e n t as d e f i n e d by the t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n s they p e r f o r m . There i s h i g h e s t concensus among D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , n e x t among O t h e r A g e n t s and l e a s t among D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s w i t h r e s p e c t , t o the r o l e s t h e y p e r f o r m . The m a j o r -i t y o f each group i d e n t i f y t h e i r major r o l e s a s ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n -f o r m a t i o n ' and ' s t u d e n t ' . The i n d i c a t i o n i s , t h a t due t o h i s w i d e r a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t he D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s have t o p e r f o r m a wid.er range o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a n the o t h e r two groups o f a g e n t s . Thus, w h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s s a y t h e y a l s o p e r f o r m the r o l e s o f 'community development', ' o r g a n i z e r o f g r o u p s ' and 'program, a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' , v e r y few D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e s e t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s a r e w i t h i n the scope o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . There i s g e n e r a l agreement among the t h r e e a g e n t groups as t o the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i r r o l e s . A l l t h r e e groups r a n k ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' and ' s t u d e n t ' h i g h e s t o u t o f a t o t a l o f n i n e c a t e g o r -i e s . To D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t r o l e s a r e ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' and 1 3 5 • o r g a n i z e r a n d s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' , w h i l e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a n d O t h e r A g e n t s p u t 'community d e v e l o p m e n t ' a n d ' p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . W h i l e t h e t h r e e a g e n t g r o u p s a g r e e i n g e n e r a l on t h e r a n k i n g o f t h e n i n e r o l e s on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t , t h e r e a r e some d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s . E a c h g r o u p e m p h a s i z e ' s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s ' , • c o n s u l t a n t ' a n d ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' a s t h e t o p t h r e e r o l e s . I n a d d i t i o n , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s r a n k ' s t u d e n t ' i n t h e same p o s i t i o n a s ' o r g a n i z e r a n d s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' , w h i l e O t h e r A g e n t s p l a c e ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' i n t h i s p o s i t i o n a l s o . The two r o l e s w h i c h D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s r a n k l o w e s t i n i m p o r t -a n c e — ' c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ' a n d ' p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' — a r e a l s o r a n k e d l o w e s t on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t , w h i l e D i s t r c i t A g r i c u l t u r -i s t s p u t ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' , ' s t u d e n t ' a n d 'community d e v e l o p m e n t ' i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . A l l t h e a g e n t s i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o d e v o t e more Virile t o t h e ' s t u d e n t ' r o l e a n d l e s s t i m e t o ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' , b u t t h e r e i s a w i d e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e a c h t y p e o f a g e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o t h e r r o l e s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s d e s i r e t o s p e n d more t i m e on t h o s e r o l e s w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r t o be i m p o r t a n t b u t t o w h i c h l i t t l e t i m e was d e v o t e d t o i n t h e p a s t , and a s s u c h , show no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r a n k i n g s o f t h e r o l e s on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e d e - ^ s i r e d a n d t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t . T h u s , t h e s e a g e n t s r a n k • s t u d e n t ' , 'community d e v e l o p m e n t ' a n d ' p r o g r a m p l a n n e r ' h i g h e s t a n d ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' a n d ' p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' l o w e s t on t h e b a s i s o f 136 t i m e d e s i r e d . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e a n d i n g e n e r a l t h e r o l e s w h i c h a r e r a n k e d h i g h a n d l o w on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e d e s i r e d f o r m a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e s p e n t . O t h e r A g e n t s show no g r e a t d e s i r e t o d e v o t e more t i m e t o an y one r o l e w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f ' c o n s u l t a n t ' a n d ' s t u d e n t ' . The t h r e e a g e n t g r o u p s a g r e e on t h e r o l e s t h a t t h e y f i n d most g r a t -i f y i n g , b u t D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s d i f f e r f r o m t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r o l e s f r o m w h i c h t h e y g e t l e a s t e n j o y m e n t . ' C o n s u l t a n t ' , • s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s ' a n d ' s t u d e n t ' a r e t h e r o l e s t h a t e a c h g r o u p e n j o y m o s t . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f i n d ' s e r v i c e a g e n t 1 l e a s t g r a t i f y i n g , w h i l e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a nd O t h e r A g e n t s p l a c e 'comm-u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t 1 i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The m a j o r i t y o f e a c h t y p e o f a g e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y do n o t f e e l v e r y p r o f i c i e n t i n p e r f o r m i n g a n y one r o l e , a nd i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e y a r e l e a s t q u a l i f i e d t o p e r f o r m t h e r o l e s w h i c h t h e y f e e l a r e i m p o r t a n t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s o w i t h D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a n d l e a s t s o among O t h e r A g e n t s . A l l g r o u p o ohow v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r a d e q u a c y i n e a c h r o l e , a n d t h e y d i f f e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r most p r o -f i c i e n t a n d l e a s t p r o f i c i e n t r o l e s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e b e s t e q u i p p e d t o p e r f o r m ' o r g a n i z e r a n d s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s ' , ' s e r v i c e a g e n t 1 a n d ' s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d l e a s t p r o f i c i e n t i n 'comm-u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ' a n d ' p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g * . D i s | r , i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s emph-a s i z e ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , ' s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t on' and ' s t u d e n t ' , a n d p l a c e 'comm-u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t * , ' p o r g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' a n d ' o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s ' a s t h e r o l e s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e l e a s t w e l l e q u i p p e d . O t h e r A g e n t s seem t o be most a d e q u a t e a s ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , ' s e r v i c e a g e n t ' and ' p r o g r a m p l a n n e r ' , a n d l e a s t p r o f i c i e n t i n 'community d e v e l o p m e n t ' . 137 D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a p p e a r t o a c h i e v e the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t , and the l e a s t amount o f r o l e s t r e s s , w i t h O t h e r Agents n e x t and D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s l a s t , a s measured by the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a n k i n g s o f the r o l e s on the d i f f e r e n t b a s e s . A c o m p a r i s o n between the o r d e r -i n g o f the a c t i v i t i e s on the b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n c e and t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f time s p e n t shows a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a & i o n f o r e a c h agent g r o u p i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a l l t h e a g e n t s a c h i e v e a h i g h l e v e l o f r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The r o l e s t h e y c o n s i d e r t o be i m p o r t a n t f r o m a p a t t e r n w h i c h i n g e n e r a l , i s s i m i l a r t o those t h e y a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m . However, w h i l e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r -i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s show a h i g h degree o f concensus between the r a n k i n g s o f the r o l e s on a l m o s t a l l o t h e r b a s e s , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s do n o t show t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f r a n k i n g s f o r D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s i s one o f i n a d e q u a c y i n tho s e r o l e s w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r i m p o r t a n t , e n j o y p e r f o r m -i n g and t o w h i c h t h e y devote most o f t h e i r t i m e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e a g e n t s occupy a p o s i t i o n o f g r e a t e r r o l e s t r e s s t h a n the o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s , and may be due t o the wide a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a s compared to the o t h e r two a g e n t groups. The time and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a r e l i m i t e d r e l a t i v e to the demands made on him more so t h a n the o t h e r two t y p e s o f agents^a.nd t h e f a c t t h a t he must c o n s t a n t l y a d a pt t o the f e l t needs o f h i s c l i e n t s may p r e v e n t him f r o m m aking a l l p r e p a r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n ce o f h i s r o l e a s he see i t . There i s a t r e n d f o r r o l e s t r e s s t o d e c r e a s e and r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t t o i n c r e a s e , as age and l e n g t h o'f • s e r v i c e i n e x t e n s i o n work i n c r e a s e s . T h i s n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between r o l e s t r e s s and these two v a r i a b l e s s u g g e s t s t h a t a s t h e a g e n t g e t s o l d e r and c o n t i n u e s i n e x t e n s i o n work he i s b e t t e r a b l e to make h i s performance conform to h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s r o l e . 138 I n g e n e r a l t h e r o l e s w h i c h t h e a g e n t s r a n k h i g h i n i m p o r t a n c e and time spent(pef'formance) a r e t h o s e w i t h m a j o r emphasis on work o f a s e r v i c e n a t u r e and on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , h u t n o t on community development p r o c e s s e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y among D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s . Though D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a t t a c h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i m p o r t a n c e t o 'community dev-elopment' and 'program p l a n n e r ' t h e y appear to he u n a b l e t o devote much time t o t h e s e r o l e s . I t a p p e a r s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the a g e n t s do n o t conform to the 'changing d e f i n i t i o n s o f e x t e n s i o n w o r k 1 , and though t h e y may f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s need f o r change i n the f o c u s o f e x t e n s i o n work, t h e y a r e c o n t e n t e d , o r f o r c e d t o emphasize the t r a d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s . P e r h a p s t h i s i s he-cause l o c a l p r e s s u r e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s have p l a c e d t h e s e ' s e r v i c e - t y p e ' r o l e s h i g h on the h e r i a r c h y , and the a g e n t , b e i n g v e r y s e n s i t i v e t o l o c a l e x p e c t a -t i o n s , has t o go a l o n g w i t h t h i s i f he i s t o g e t the n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t f o r h i s program. The t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s a r e v e r y much i n agreement as to the v i r t u e s o f e x t e n s i o n work, h u t have w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the l e s s d e s i r a . b l e a s p e c t s o f the j o b . 'The o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p o t h e r p e o p l e ' , ' p e r s o n -a l c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e ' and 'freedom i n p l a n n i n g and d o i n g my work' a p p e a r t o be s t r o n g m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s . A l m o s t a l l i n d i c a t e d t h e y l i k e d t h e s e a s p e c t s o f the j o b , w i t h more t h a n 50 p e r c e n t f e e l i n g 'very s t r o n g l y ' a b out t h i s . To a. s u b s t a n t i a l number o f t h e t h r e e a g e n t groujjs ' l a c k o f a w e l l de-f i n e d program' i s one o f the t h i n g s l e a s t l i k e d a b o u t e x t e n s i o n work. D i s -t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s show s t r o n g e r d i s l i k e f o r the ' l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e c i a l i z e i n one f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t ' t h a n D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r -i s t s , w h i c h i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r i e n t a t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, t h e more g e n e r a l and widesprea-d n a t u r e o f the work o f D i s t r i c t A g r i -c u l t u r i s t s f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e i r s t r o n g d i s l i k e f o r 'the l a r g e number o f n i g h t meetings',, and the i n a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p and keep t o a w e l l d e f i n e d program. Of the t h r e e a g e n t g r o u p s , D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s have a more f a v -our-able o p i n i o n o f the p r e s t i g e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n as compared to o t h e r p os-i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g . F i v e o u t o f the e i g h t D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t -u r i s t s f e e l t h e i r p o s i t i o n s was ' r e s p e c t e d by o t h e r s ' more th a n o t h e r p o s i t i o n s w h i l e t h i s was t r u e f o r o n l y f i v e out o f the f i f t e e n D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s an two o f the f i v e O t h e r A g e n t s . Perhaps the h i g h p r e s t i g e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a r i s e o u t o f the 'halo e f f e c t ' w h i c h i i s a c c o r d e d ' s p e c i a l i s t s ' and ' q u a s i - s p e c i a l i s t s ' i n the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . There i s a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n f o r t h e s e a g e n t s who f e e l t h a t t h e s e p o s i t i o n s have h i g h p r e s t i g e v a l u e to be more o r i e n t e d to l o c a l i n t e r -e s t s t h a n t o the b u r e a u c r a c y . S t a t u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , though r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f o r e a ch group, a p p e a r s to be h i g h e s t among D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e a g e n t s i n e a c h group f e e l t h a t i t i s ' q u i t e i m p o r t a n t ' t h a t ' o t h e r p e o p l e t h i n k w e l l o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s ' . However, w h i l e no D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s n o r O t h e r A g e n t s f e e l t h a t i t i s 'very i m p o r t a n t ' t h a t p eople t h i n k w e l l o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n , one-t h i r d o f the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s f e e l t h i s way. A l l the a g e n t s a r e s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r j o b as measured by r e s p o n s e to a f i v e c a t e g o r y q u e s t i o n f r o m 'very w e l l s a t i s f i e d ' t o ' d e f i n i t e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d ' I t a p p e a r s however, t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n i s n o t a k e y f a c t o r i n the a g e n t s * r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s , s i n c e none o f the a s p e c t s o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n showed any d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the l e v e l s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n as measured i n t h i s s t u d y . 1 4 0 A l l t h r e e a g e n t g r o u p s have v e r y s i m i l a r v i e w s w i t h r e s p e c t to e x t e n -s i o n p r o c e d u r e s , h o s t f e e l t h a t , ( l ) a b e t t e r j o b can be done by ' s t u d y i n g the problems o f the d i s t r i c t ' r a t h e r t h a n by ' g e t t i n g b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h p e o p l e ' , (2) ' o b t a i n i n g w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' r a t h e r t h a n ' d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h key p e o p l e ' w i l l make the e x t e n s i o n program, more s u c c e s s f u l and (3) t h e i r a n n u a l r e p o r t s a r e v e r y v a l u a b l e t o t h e i r programs. W h i l e D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s emphasize 'knowing the s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' f o r a s u c c e s s f u l e x t e n s i o n program and p r e f e r a ' n a r r a t i v e ' a n n u a l r e p o r t , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s a r e o f the o p i n i o n t h a t 'knowing .people who can help', r a t h e r t h a n 'knowing s u b j e c t m a t t e r ' w i l l e n sure s u c c e s s o f the e x -t e n s i o n program, and t h a t the a n n u a l r e p o r t s h o u l d be ' s t a t i s t i c a l ' . The a g e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e i r a l t e r groups as h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l e x p e c t a -t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to the r o l e s the a g e n t s s h o u l d p e r f o r m ; and i t a p p e a r s t h a t the a g e n t s see t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r own s e l f - i m a g e o f the j o b , and the v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s o f each group. Thus, t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s f e e l t h a t one o f the main r o l e s t h a t d i r e c t o r s and r e s e a r c h people e x p e c t them t o p e r f o r m i s t h a t o f ' l i a i s o n - c o m m u n i c a t o r ' , w h i l e f a r m e r s e x p e c t them to be ' c o n s u l t a n t s ' and ' t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s ' . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s show c o g n i z a n c e o f the w i d e r scope o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by a l s o e m p h a s i z i n g ' i n t e r p r e t e r and i m p l e m e n t o r o f p o l i c i e s ' and ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r ' as r o l e s w h i c h d i r e c t o r s e x p e c t them t o . p l a y , w h i l e the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r i e n t a -t i o n c f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e i r f e e l i n g t h a t ' t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t ' i s one o f the main e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r d i r e c t o r s . 'Inadequate c o m m u n i c a t i o n 1 i s the main b a r r i e r w h i c h p r e v e n t s the a g e n t s f r o m f u l f i l l i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r a l t e r g r o u p s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t , as 141 a s o c i a l s y s t e m , the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r i o t v e r y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d . The a g e n t s i n d i c a t e l e a s t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m e e t i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f a r m e r s , w i t h more t h a n h a l f o f a l l o f them i n d i c a t i n g 'no b a r r i e r ' . T h i s i s t r u e f o r a b o ut o n e - t h i r d o f them w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h d i r e c t o r s and s p e c i a l i s t s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s because o f the wide scope o f t h e i r j o b and the g r e a t s e r v a r i e t y o f demands made on them, f i n d mere d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n the o t h e r two t y p e s o f a g e n t s , i n f u l f i l l i n g t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f any one group. There i s l o w e s t agreement among the t h r e e t y p e s o f a g e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t to o r d e r i n g t h e i r r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s on the b a s i s o f the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the groups i n f l u e n c e them i n the performance o f t h e i r j o b s . The a g e n t s a r e l e a s t i n f l u e n c e d by non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s show g r e a t e s t o r i e n t a t i o n s to l o c a l c l i e n t e l e ' { f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) w i t h s p e c i a l -i s t s and r e s e a r c h p e o p l e and d i r e c t o r s f o l l o w i n g i n t h a t o r d e r . O t h e r A g e n t s a p p e a r t o be most r e s p o n s i v e t o d i r e c t o r s f o l l o w e d by f a r m e r s , r e s e a r c h p e o p l e , and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s seem to be i n f l u e n c e d by f a r m e r s and d i r e c t o r s t o an e q u a l e x t e n t . S t a t u s and s a t i s f a c -t i o n w i t h the j o b show no a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f o r i e n t -a t i o n o f the a g e n t s . The a g e n t s have s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h i l e non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s and ' u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n p l a y v e r y minor r o l e s i n t h e i r ?rork. The m a j o r i t y o f e a c h type o f a g e n t c o n t a c t f a r m g r o u p s t h r o u g h t h r e e w a y s — ' s p e a k and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u l a r l y ' , ' a d v i s e i n the programs o f the group' and ' s i t i n on m e e t i n g s ' . Mgst o f them m a i n t a i n no c o n t a c t w i t h non-f a r m -groups. The few D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and Other A g e n t s who work w i t h non-farm g r o u p s , ' p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y when a s k e d ' w h i l e D i s t r i c t H ' o r t i -142 c u l t u r i s t s a r e e i t h e r ' f r i e n d l y w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' o r 'speak and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u l a r l y ' . R o l e f u l f i l l m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t to the a g e n t s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f a r m and non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , most o f them b e i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h the i n i t i a t i v e t h e y show i n w o r k i n g .with t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . There i s , however, a s t r o n g d e s i r e by each t y p e o f a g e n t f o r c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h u n i -v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n . 'Inadequate c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ' and ' d i s t a n c e ' a r e m e n t i o n e d as t h e major b a r r i e r s t o b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n . 'With f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e major d i f f i c u l t y t o b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n i s 'inadequacy o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' by w h i c h i s meant l a c k o f i n t e r e s t s and c o n f l i c t i n g and u n r e a s o n a b l e demands o f the p a r t o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, most o f the a g e n t s f i n d no b a r r i e r s w t o c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p o s i t i o n w h i c h t h e d i f f e r e n t groups occupy/ w i t h i n the a g e n t s * s p h e r e o f a c t i v i t y i s perhaps r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p e ach group has w i t h the a g e n t s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e a g e n t s t r y t o use t h e i r time and r e s o u r c e s meet e f f i c i e n t l y by c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on f a r m e r s w i t h h i g h e r incomes who a r e i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o f o l l o w t h e i r recommendations. Thus, t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount o f time the a g e n t s devote t o f a r m -e r s ahdiithe income l e v e l o f the f a r m e r s . The t h r e e a g e n t groups i n d i c a t e t h a t d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r , most o f t h e i r time was s p e n t w i t h f a r m e r s who had an a n n u a l , g r o s s income o f more th a n 10,000 d o l l a r s o r 5,000 t o 10,000 d o l l a r s . A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s r a n k p a r t - t i m e f a r m e r s and n o n - f a r m e r s h i g h e r t h a n f a r m e r s w i t h a n n u a l g r o s s incomes o f l e s s t h a n 2,500 d o l l a r s . 143 V e r y few D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s and D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s gave ' r e g u l a r ' o r ' s p e c i a l ' s e r v i c e t o f a r m e r s whose incomes a r e l e s s t h a n 2 , 5 0 0 d o l l a r s , p a r t - t i m e f a r m e r s and non-ramers, t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s e groups b e i n g i n the f o r m o f ' a n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s o n l y ' . On the o t h e r hand the m a j o r i t y o f the O t h e r A g e n t s do n o t seem t o m a i n t a i n ' r e g u l a r ' n o r ' s p e c i a l ' s e r v i c e , and c o n t a c t the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f f a r m e r s o n l y when r e q u e s t e d . Groups o t h e r t h a n the ag e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d v e r y l i t t l e i n the d e t e r -m i n a t i o n o f - t h e e x t e n s i o n program. D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s made use o f p r o -gram p l a n n i n g committees more t h a n t h e y u s e d d i r e c t o r s and i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r s . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s u s e d f a r m e r s and d i r e c t o r s b e s i d e t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l e O t h e r A g e n t s o b t a i n e d more h e l p .from d i r e c t o r s and s p e c i a l i s t s t h a n f r o m any o t h e r g r o u p s . Program p l a n n i n g committees p a r t i c i p a t e d t o the l e a s t e x t e n t i n t he program o f D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s and O t h e r A g e n t s . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h groups b e s i d e s the a g e n t s t h e m s e l v e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e program shows a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the d i r e c t i o n o f o r i e n t a t i o n o f e a c h type o f a g e n t . W i t h r e s p e c t t o the e x t e n t t h a t e a c h group ' s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n program d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a l l the a g e n t s f e e l the;.' t h e m s e l v e s s h o u l d p l a y the g r e a t e s t p a r t , b u t t h e y i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e f o r more p a r t i c i p a t i o n by o t h e r g r o u p s . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y want t o make g r e a t e r use o f program p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s ; D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s s t r e s s i n d i v i d u a l f a r -mers, w h i l e O t h e r A g e n t s want d i r e c t o r s t o p l a y a g r e a t e r r o l e . D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t s a nd O t h e r A g e n t s d e v o t e d most o f t h e i r t i m e to programs w h i c h t h e y p l a n n e d on the b a s i s o f 'what t h e y thought the f a r m e r s needed' and gave l i t t l e t i me t o programs p l a n n e d on the b a s i s o f 'what the U 4 f a r m e r s a n d f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s s a i d t h e y needed' and programs w h i c h o r i g i n -a t e d as department p o l i c y . T h i s i s n o t t r u e w i t h D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s , who because o f the scope o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , have t o spend the m a j o r p a r t o f t h e i r time on programs w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r to be 'planned and i n s t i t -u t e d as department p o l i c y ' . These f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i s p e r c e i v e d b o t h w i t h i n and o u t s i d e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r i m a r i l y as a s e r v i c e agency, where the s t a f f f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on problems o f a g r i -c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and u n d e r t a k e l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n a l image. However, D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t s u n l i k e the o t h e r two a g e n t g r o u p s , show a c o n s c i o u s -ness f o r change i n t h e f o c u s o f e x t e n s i o n work. They w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e the t o t a l and a l l i n c l u s i v e a p p r o a c h t o t h e i r work, i n w h i c h t h e r e w i l l be a b l e n d o f b o t h s e r v i c e and e d u c a t i o n , and the e x t e n s i o n program w i l l encompass n o t o n l y a g r i c u l t u r e b u t o t h e r a s p e c t s o f community l i f e . 145 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Emery, P.E. and D.A. O e s e r . I n f o r m a t i o n , D e c i s i o n and A c t i o n ; A S t u d y  o f the P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e t e r m i n a n t s o f Changes i n F a r m i n g T e c h n i q u e s . He?; York:. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 Gross,N., H.G. Mason and A. McEachern. E x p l o r a t i o n s i n R o l e A n a l y s i s . Hew Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons, 1 9 5 & -N a d e l , S.F. The Theory o f S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e . London, Cohen and West, 1 9 5 7 P a r s o n s , . T. The S o c i a l System. Hew Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1 9 5 1 , and E. S h i l s . Toward A G e n e r a l Theory o f A c t i o n . Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 • R o g e r s , E.L;. D i f f u s i o n o f I n n o v a t i o n s . Hew Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1 9 6 2 GOYEEKMENT PUBLICATIONS B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s R e p o r t : 1 9 6 2 . V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 3 , F i f t e e n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t : 19§3_f V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 4 Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . Census o f Canada 1 9 6 I : A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t - i s h C o l u m b i a , B u l l e t i n 5 « 3 - 4« O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 § P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e p o r t o f the R o y a l Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e ; V i c t o r i a ; Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 1 4 * ARTICLES AND PERIODICALS B a k e r , H.R. 'Research i n E x t e n s i o n — P r e s e n t and F u t u r e 1 , A g r i c u l t u r a l  I n s t i t u t e Review, XV, i 9 6 0 , p. l 6 . , 'Where a r e We g o i n g i n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n 1 , A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e R e v i e w , X V I I , September-October, 1 9 6 2 , pp. 2 0 - 2 2 , 4 6 . B a l l , J r . C E . 'The F o r w a r d Look i n E x t e n s i o n ' , A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e  R e view, X I V , toy-June, 1959. pp. 26-27. 146 B i b l e , B.L. and P.L. Nolan. The Role of the Ext e n s i o n Committee Member  i n the County Extension O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Pennsylvania,. U n i v e r s i t y Park; Pennsylvania A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n B u l l e t i n 665, i 9 6 0 . . Brown, E. J . a.nd A.'Deekens. 'Roles of Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s ' , R u r a l  S o c i o l o g i s t , X X I I I , 1958. pp. 263-276. • Hutchinson, L . J . 'Extension S t a f f Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s should be Upgraded' A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review, XVII, September-October, 1962. pp. 26-28. Ni x , i i . L . and P.L. Bates. 'Occupational Role S t r e s s — A S t r u c t u r a l Approach', R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , XXVII, 1962. rp. 7-17-Randabaugh, IT. Functions of Ext e n s i o n S p e c i a l i s t s . Ames: Iowa State College A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e B u l l e t i n 383 5 1952. "Wilkening, E.A. 'Concensus of Role D e f i n i t i o n of County Extension Agents and L o c a l Sponsoring Committee Members', R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , X X I I I , 1958* . The CoiTi.ty E x t e n s i o n Agent i n Wisconsin. Madison: Wisconsin A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n Research B u l l e t i n 203, 1957* , and R. Smith. 'Perceptions of Functions, O r g a n i z a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n and Role D e f i n i t i o n of a Group of S p e c i a l E x t e n s i o n Agents', The Midwest S o c i o l o g i s t , XXI, 1558. pp. 18-28. Wray, D.G. 'The Marginal Men i n Industry', American Journal of Sociolog y , LIV, 1949. pp. 298-301. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Austman, H.H. 'Job Performance of Extension Workers i n Relation to Se l e c t e d Background F a c t o r s ' , Banff: Proceedings of the Canadian S o c i e t y of Rural E x t e n s i o n , 1963. pp. 4-48. (Mimeographed) B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . A g r i c u l t u r a l Development and  Extension Branch. V i c t o r i a , 1963 (Mimeographed) M a c G i l l i v a r a y , W. 'An E f f e c t i v e P r o v i n c i a l Extension S e r v i c e ! ' Paper read a t a seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x tension i n B r i t i s h Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961. Stone, J . J . 'How County A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents Teach', Regina: Proceedings of the Canadian S o c i e t y of R u r a l E x t e n s i o n , 1961. pp. 21-36 (Mimeographed) Webster, A . J . 'Outgoing P r e s i d e n t ' s Comments', Regina: Proceedings of the Canadian S o c i e t y of R u r a l Extension, 196I. p. 1 (Mimeographed) 147 APHLKDIX A A g r i c u l - t u r a l i E E t e n s i o n A g e n t s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R o l e D e f i n i t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S e r v i c e R e c o r d 1. What i s y o u r age? 1 1 Under 29 ' 1 3 0 - 3 9 2 40 - A9 3 5 0 - 5 5 4 60 and o v e r 5 2. How many y e a r s have y o u worked i n E x t e n s i o n ? 2 Under 5 • 1 6 - 10 2 11-15 3 Over 15 4 3. How many y e a r s have y o u been i n y o u r p r e s e n t D i s t r i c t ? 3 Under 3 1 4 - 6 2 7 - 9 3 Over 9 4 4. What i s y o u r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n ? A D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t " / . l D i s t r i c t H o r t i c u l t u r i s t 2 O t h e r s 3 5. What was y o u r o c c u p a t i o n b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e ? 5 S t u d e n t 1 F a r m i n g o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Job 2 O t h e r 3 T r a i n i n g f o r t h e Job 6. What i s y o u r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n ? 6 Grade t w e l v e 1 B a c h e l o r ' s degree 2 M a s t e r ' s degree 3 O t h e r degrees o r d i p l o m a s A 7. D i d you take A g r i c u l t u r a l c o u r s e s i n High; S c h o o l ? 7 Yes 1 Ho 2 148 8. I n d i c a t e the v a l u e o f y o u r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n as an a i d t o y o i r r E x t e n s i o n work. A g r i c u l t u r a l c o u r s e s i n H i g h S c h o o l 8 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 B a c h e l o r ' s Degree 9 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Some 4 M a s t e r ' s Degree 10 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 Ot h e r d e g r e e s or d i p l o m a s 11 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 9« How much t r a i n i n g i n E x t e n s i o n d i d you r e c e i v e i n y o u r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ? 12 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 1>10, "H-owr much' l i n r j i s e r v i c e ' t i r a i i i i n g . . . h a v e ; grour>reGe±sr&d i i n Ex'tensiDfi? 13 ..-Much • 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 1 1 . Do y o u f e e l you have adequate t r a i n i n g i n E x t e n s i o n to do a n e f f e c t i v e j o b ? 14 Yes • 1 No 2 1 2 . Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t r a i n i n g i n E x t e n s i o n Methods i s n e c e s s a r y ? 15 Yes " • 1 No 2 149 13. I f y o u r answer i s y e s wtoatttype o f program can b e s t h e l p ? IViore e x p e r i e n c e 1-6 • /Yes -..c-i 1" ho 2 F u r t h e r f o r m a l s t u d y 17 Yes 1 Bo 2 I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g 18 Yes 1 Ho ' 2 O t h e r s 19 Yes 1 Ho 2 14. What d e t e r m i n e d the program you c a r r i e d o ut i n y o u r d i s t r i c t a nd what p a r t d i d each p l a y ? You " 20 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 Your D i r e c t o r s 21 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 S p e c i a l i s t s 22 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Some 4 Farmers 2$> Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone . 4 Program P l a n n i n g Committees 24 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 1 5 0 15. Who do you t h i n k s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e the program and what p a r t should, each p l a y ? You " 2 5 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 Your D i r e c t o r s 26 Much 1 Some 2 • L i t t l e 3 None 4 S p e c i a l i s t s 27 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 Farmers -228 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 Program P l a n n i n g Committee 29 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 16. On what b a s i s s h o u l d y o u r program he d e t e r m i n e d ? D i s t r i c t b a s i s 30 Yes 1 No 2 P r o v i n c e - w i d e b a s i s 31 Yes 1 No 2 R e g i o n a l b a s i s 33 Yes ' 1 No 2 1 5 1 1'7. What a r e the main t y p e s o f f a r m i n g w i t h w h i c h y o u a r e c o n c e r n e d ? (Number i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e ) D a i r y ' F r u i t B e e f P r o c e s s i n g Crops Hog F o r e s t r y Sheep F i e l d Crops P o u l t r y O t h e r s 18. F o r w h i c h t y p e s have you been t r a i n e d ? 19. F o r w h i c h do y o u f e e l l e a s t q u a l i f i e d on the b a s i s o f y o u r t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e ? 20. On what b a s i s has y o u r d i s t r i c t been d e f i n e d ? 34 Geography • 1 Number o f f a r m e r s 2 Number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s 3 M u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s 4 O t h e r s 5 21. What a r e y o u r r e a s o n s f o r so d e f i n i n g y o u r d i s t r i c t ? 22. How much time d i d you g i v e i n 19^3 farms c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g g r o s s incomes per f a r m ? $10,000 and o v e r • 35 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 $5,000 - 110,000 36 Much 1 L i t t l e 2 Some 3 Hone 4 $2,500 - $5,000 37 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 Under $2,500 38 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 152 P a r t - t i m e f a r m e r s 39 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 Eon-Farmers 40 Much- 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 23. Yfhich g r o u p s h o u l d y o u spend the most time w i t h ? ( i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e ) 24. What ty p e o f s e r v i c e d i d y o u g i v e t o each g r o u p ? • $10,000 and o v e r • 41 R e g u l a r 1 S p e c i a l 2 A n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s 3 $5,000 - $10,000 42 R e g u l a r 1 S p e c i a l 2 A n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s 3 $2,500 - $5,000 43 Re g u l a r 1 S p e c i a l 2 A n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s 3 Under $2,500 44 R e g u l a r 1 S p e c i a l 2 A n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s 3 P a r t - t i m e f a r m e r s 45 R e g u l a r 1 S p e c i a l 2 A n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s 3 Non-farmers AG R e g u l a r 1 S p e c i a l 2 A n s w e r i n g r e q u e s t s 3 25. 7/hat o r g a n i z a t i o n s do y o u come i n c o n t a c t w i t h (farm, and n o n - f a r m ) ? 153 26. I n what ways do you. work w i t h f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? A c t i v e members 47 Yes 1 No . 2 A d v i c e on Programs A8 Yes 1 Hon 2 Speak and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u l a r l y 49 Yes 1 I o 2 S i t i n on m e e t i n g s 50 Yes " 1 So 2 F r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y when a s k e d 51 Yes 1 I o 2 J. F r i e n d l y , w i i t h r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s 52 Yes ' " 1 I o 2 27. I n what ways do y o u work with l i o n - f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? A c t i v e members • 53 Yes 1 I o 2 A d v i s e i n programs 54 Ye s 1 Ho 2 Speak and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g u l a r l y 55 "Yes " 1 I o 2 S i t i n on m e e t i n g s 56 Yes " 1 Bo 2 J P r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y when a s k e d 57 Yes 1 I o 2 . F r i e n d l y w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s 58 Yes 1 I o 2 154 28. To what e x t e n t do t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s s i s t y o u i n c a r r y i n g o u t y o u r programs? Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s • 59 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 hone 4 Non-farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s 60 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n 6 l Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 29. Which o r g a n i z e d group i n f l u e n c e s y o u most i n y o u r program? 62 Farm groups 1 Non-farm groups 2 U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n 3 30. From w h i c h o f t h e s e groups w o u l d y o u l i k e t o have more c o - o p e r a t i o n ? 63 Farm groups 1 Son-farm groups 2 U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n 3 31. What b a r r i e r s i f a n y a r e t h e r e to, b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n between y o u and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? No b a r r i e r s 64 Yes 1 No 2 D i s t a n c e 65 Yes 1 No 2 I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 66 Yes 1 Ho ' 2 I n a d e q u a t e communications 67 Yes 1 No 2 Inadequacy o f o t h e r s 68 ^es 1 No 2 155 32. What h a r r i e r s a r e t h e r e t o b e t t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n between you and U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n ? No b a r r i e r s 69 Yes 1 No 2 D i s t a n c e 70 Yes 1 No 2 I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 71 Yes 1 No 2 I n a d e q u a t e communications 72 Yes 1 No 2 Inadequacy o f o t h e r s 73 Yes 1 No 2 33* What do y o u t h i n k y o u i n i a t i v e s h o u l d be i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? Farm • 74 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 Do n o t know 4 Non-farm. 75 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 Do n o t know 4 U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n J6 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 Do n o t know 4 ( S t a r t D a t a C a r d #2) 34* What do y o u see as y o u r f u n c t i o n ? S t u d e n t • 1 Yes 1 No 2 Program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 Yes 1 No " 2 Source o f I n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s Yes No O r g a n i z e r and S u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s Yes No O r g a n i z e r o f groups Yes No S e r v i c e A g e n t Yes No C o n s u l t a n t Yes No Program P l a n n e r Yes No L e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and Community Yes No" 35- A p p r o x i m a t e l y ho?; much time d i d y o u f u n c t i o n d u r i n g 1963? S t u d e n t Much Some L i t t l e None Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r .. Much Soiiiele L i t t l e None c S o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s Much Some L i t t l e None 156 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2 6 1 2 7 1 2 8 1 2 development 9 1 2 spend on each 10 1 2 3 4 11 1 2 3 4 12 1 2 3 4 157 O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s 13. Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Groups 14 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 S e r v i c e A g e n t 15 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 C o n s u l t a n t 16 Much 1 Some ' 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 Program P l a n n e r 17 Much - 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 L e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g a nd Community development 18 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 36. How i m p o r t a n t do y o u t h i n k t h e s e f u n c t i o n s a r e ? S t u d e n t 19 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Not i m p o r t a n t 3 Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r V e r y i m p o r t a n t I m p o r t a n t Not i m p o r t a n t 20 1 2 3 158 S o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 21 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Hot i m p o r t a n t 3 O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s 22 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 S o t i m p o r t a n t 3 O r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s 23 Very i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Hot i m p o r t a n t 3 S e r v i c e Agent 2A V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Not i m p o r t a n t 3 C o n s u l t a n t 25 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Not i m p o r t a n t 3 Program P l a n n e r 26 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Not i m p o r t a n t 3 L e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and Community development 27 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Not i m p o r t a n t 3 37- Based on the i m p o r t a n c e and the time s p e n t on t h e s e i n I963 how much time would y o u l i k e to spend on t?iese f u n c t i o n s now? S t u d e n t • 28 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r 29 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 159 S o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s JO More 1 Same 2 Le s s 3 O r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s 31 t o r e ' 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 O r g a n i z i n g groups 32 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 S e r v i c e A g e n t s 33 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 C o n s u l t a n t 34 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 Program P l a n n e r 35 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 T r a i n i n g L e a d e r s and Community development 36 More 1 Same 2 L e s s 3 38. How adequate do you f e e l i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e f u n c t i o n s ? S t u d e n t 37 V e r y a d e q u a t e 1 Adequate 2 Inade q u a t e 3 Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r '.'38 V e r y adequate 1 Adequate 2 Ina d e q u a t e 3 ^ o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 39 V e r y adequate 1 1 Adequate 2 Inadequate 3 160 O r g a n i s i n g and S u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s 40 V e r y adequate 1 Adequate 2 I n a d e q u a t e 3 O r g a n i z i n g gi'oups 41 V e r y adequate 1 Adequate 2 I n a d e q u a t e 3 S e r v i c e Agent 42 V e r y a d e q u a t e 1 Adequate 2 I n a d e q u a t e 3 C o n s u l t a n t 43 V e r y Adequate 1 Adequate 2 I n a d e q u a t e 3 Program P l a n n i n g 44 V e r y a d e q u a t e 1 Adequate 2 I n a d e q u a t e 3 T r a i n i n g l e a d e r s and community development 45 V e r y adequate 1 Adequate 2 I n a d e q u a t e 3 39• Sow much do you e n j o y p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e f u n c t i o n s ? S t u d e n t • 46 Much 1 Some 2 l i t t l e 3 None 4 Program A d m i n i s t r a t o r 47 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 S o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 48 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 161 O r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g e v e n t s 49 Much 1 ^ome 2 L i t t l e 3 l o n e 4 O r g a n i z i n g groups 50 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 S e r v i c e A g e n t 51 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 C o n s u l t a n t 52 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 Program P l a n n i n g 53 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 T r a i n i n g l e a d e r s and community development 54 MMuch 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 F u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e 40. How i m p o r t a n t a r e the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s o f t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , based on t h e time and e f f o r t s p e n t on them, now? P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c farm p r a c t i c e s ? -55 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Not i m p o r t a n t 3 T e a c h i n g the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f f a r m i n g 56 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Not i m p o r t a n t 3 162 C o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s and management o f the t o t a l f a r m e n t e r p r i s e 57 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Hot i m p o r t a n t 3 Community d e v e l o p m e n t — p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p and i n f o r m a t i o n t o the community 58 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Hot i m p o r t a n t 3 41. How i m p o r t a n t do y o u t h i n k t h e s e f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d he? P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c f a r m p r a c t i c e s 59 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Hot i m p o r t a n t 3 T e a c h i n g the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f f a r m i n g 60 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Hot i m p o r t a n t 3 C o n s u l t i n g i n the a n a l y s i s and management o f the t o t a l f a r m e n t e r p r i s e 6 l V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t . 2 Hot i m p o r t a n t 3 Community d e v e l o p m e n t — p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p and i n f o r m a t i o n t o the community 62 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 I m p o r t a n t 2 Hot i m p o r t a n t 3 42. How much use have y o u made o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ways o f i n f l u e n c i n g p e o p l e d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r ? Mass c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( R a d i o , TV, c i r c u l a r ' l e t t e r s ) 63 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 M e e t i n g s , t o u r s , f a i r s , o r g a n i z e d by y o u o r f o r w h i c h y o u p r o v i d e d programs 64 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 163 P e r s o n a l C o n t a c t s — f a r m v i s i t s , o f f i c e c a l l s , t e l e p h o n e Much 65 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 P e r c e p t i o n s o f E x p e c t a t i o n s o f _p_thers_ 43. What do y o u t h i n k the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e e x p e c t o f you? Your d i r e c t o r s •"'aimers S p e c i a l i s t s end r e s e a r c h s t a f f 44• What d i f f i c u l t i e s i f any do you. have i n m e e t i n g the e x p e c t a -t i o n s o f y o u r d i r e c t o r s ? S o . ' d i f f i c u l t y 66 -t'es 1 No 2 I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 67 Yes 1 So 2 Inade q u a t e communications 68 Yes 1 So 2 L a c k o f r e s o u r c e s 69 Yes 1 So 2 Inadequacy o f o t h e r s 70 Yes 1 No 2 ( S t a r t Data- C a r d #3) 45. What d i f f i c u l t i e s i f any do y o u have i n m e e t i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f a r m e r s ? No d i f f i c u l t i e s 1 Yes 1 No 2 164 I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s Yes No Inadequate communications Yes No Lack o f r e s o u r c e s Yes No Inadequacy i n o t h e r s Yes No 46. What d i f f i c u l t i e s do y o u have i n m e e t i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s p e c i a l i s t s and r e s e a r c h s t a f f ? No d i f f i c u l t y • 6 Yes 1 No 2 I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 7 Yes 1 No ' 2 Inade q u a t e communications 88 Yes 1 No 2 Lack o f r e s o u r c e s 9 Yes 1 No 2 Inadequacy o f o t h e r s 10 Yes " 1 No 2 47. How much do the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e i n f l u e n c e y o u r t h i n k -i n g , . a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t y o u r j o b ? Your d i r e c t o r s 11 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 5 None A 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 l 2 5 . l 2 165 Farmers 12 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 S p e c i a l i s t s a n d r e s e a r c h s t a f f 13 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 Farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s 14 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 Hone 4 Non-farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s 15 Much 1 Some 2 L i t t l e 3 None 4 40. What p e r c e n t a g e o f your- time d i d y o u spend on each o f the f o l l o w i n g d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r ? Programs p l a n n e d by y o u on the b a s i s o f what you. . .-• t h o u g h t the f a r m e r s needed 16 0 - 24>"* 1 •25-4995 2 50-74"/ 3 75-100/ 4 Programs p l a n n e d by you on the b a s i s o f what f a r m e r s and f a r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s tocid y o u t h e y needed 17 0 - 24/ 1 25-49/ 2 50-74/ 3 74-100/ 4 Programs p l a n n e d by s p e c i a l i s t s i n w h i c h y ou a s s i s t e d 18 0 - 24/ 1 25-49/ 2 50-74/ 3 74-100c/a 4 166 Programs p l a n n e d a n d i n s t i t u t e d a s department p o l i c y 19 0 - 24/ ~ 1 24-49/ 2 50-74/ 3 75-100^ 4 Your r e l a t i o n s h i p t o y o u r j o b Answers t o be based on y o u r a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r o r two. Choose the a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h most n e a r l y d e s c r i b e s the s i t u a t i o n i n jrour c a s e . I n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t the c h o i c e was d i f f i c u l t . 49• Th-e most i m p o r t a n t way o f i m p r o v i n g one's a b i l i t y t o do a b e t t e r j o b i s : (a,) make a s t u d y o f the problems i n the d i s t r i c t 20 1 (b) g e t t i n g b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the p e o p l e 2 D i f f i c u l t t o choose 21 Yes 1 No 2 50. A s u c c e s s f u l e x t e n s i o n program i s more dependent on: 22 (a) f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s d e v e l o p e d t o e n l i s t w i d e -s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n you r program 1 (b) d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h k e y pe r s o n s ( i n the d i s t r i c t 2 D i f f i c u l t t o choose 23 Yes 1 No 2 51. A s u c c e s s f u l e x t e n s i o n program i s more dependant on: 24 ( a ) knowing p e o p l e who c a n h e l p w i t h y o u r program 1 (b) k n o w i n g y o u r s u b j e c t m a t t e r 2 D i f f i c u l t t o choose 25 Yes 1 No 2 52. I n g o i n g a b o u t my work, I t r y t o t h i n k f i r s t a b o u t : 26 (a) what needs t o be done 1 (b) what seems t o need a t t e n t i o n a t the ti m e 2 D i f f i c u l t t o choose '< 27 Yes 1 No 2 53• I n my a n n u a l r e p o r t , I f e e l the most emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d o n : 28 (a) n a r r a t i v e r e p o r t s 1 (b) s t a t i s t i c a l summary 2 D i f f i c u l t t o choose 29 Yes 1 No 2 167 54• I l o o k on my a n n u a l r e p o r t a s a r e q u i r e m e n t o f the j o b w h i c h i s : 30 (a) Worth the time f o r my r e p o r t i n the d i s t r i c t 1 (b) Not w o r t h the time f o r i t s b e a r i n g on my p r o -gram i n the d i s t r i c t 2 D i f f i c u l t t o choose 31 Yes 1 I o 2 55• I g e t more s a t i s f a c t i o n o ut o f : 32 (a) O r g a n i z i n g groups ^ 1 (b) P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n programs p l a n n e d by f a r m e r groups 2 D i f f i c u l t t o choose 33 Yes 11 No 2 56. What a r e the t h i n g s y o u l i k e b e s t a b o u t E x t e n s i o n work? The p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h people 34 . Yes 1 No 2 L i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p o t h e r p e o p l e 35 Yes 1 No 2 L i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The freedom i n p l a n n i n g and d o i n r my work 36 Yes ~ 1 No 2 L i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The s e c u r i t y o f the j o b as corn-pared t o o t h e r s 37 Yes 1 No 2 L i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The r e c o g n i t i o n one g e t s 38 Yes 1 No 2 L i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The e x p e r i e n c e i t i s g i v i n g me f o r o t h e r work 39 Yes 1 No 2 L i k e s t r o n g l y 5 168 There i s a l w a y s s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t e v e r y day 40 Yes ' 1 No 2 L i k e s t r o n g l y 3 ( i f you f e e l s t r o n g l y a b o u t any, c i r c l e #3 i n s t e a d o o f # l ) 57* What a r e t h e t h i n g s y o u l i k e l e a s t a b out E x t e n s i o n Work? The l a r g e number o f n i g h t m e e t i n g s -4± Yes " 1 Ho 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 I t demands too much o f my time and energy 42 Yes 1 No 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The l a c k o f a w e l l d e f i n e d program 43 Yes ~ 1 Ho ' 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 Too many d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e and groups t o work w i t h 44 Yes 1 No 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 S u b j e c t m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t s e x p e c t too much 45 Yes 1 No 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n 46 . Yes 1 No 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The p o o r f a c i l i t i e s f o r my work 47 Yes 1 No 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 The l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y to s p e c i a l i z e i n one f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t • 48 Yes 1 No 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 169 The l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n one g e t s as an A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Agent 49 Yes 1 Ho 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y J The r e p o r t s and paper work 50 Yes 1 ITo 2 D i s l i k e s t r o n g l y 3 58. I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g , how much i s y o u r p o s i t i o n r e s p e c t e d by o t h e r s ? Much above 1 Somewhat above 2 About t h e same 3 Somewhat below 4 59» How i m p o r t a n t t o you to have o t h e r p e o p l e t h i n k w e l l o f y o u r p o s i t i o n 52 V e r y i m p o r t a n t 1 Q u i t e i m p o r t a n t 2 Some i m p o r t a n c e 3 L i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e A 60. How s a t i s f i e d a r e y o u w i t h y o u r j o b ? 53 D e f i n i t e l y s a t i s f i e d 1 Mere s a t i s f i e d t h a n d i s s a t i s f i e d 2 H a l f and h a l f 3 More d i s s a t i s f i e d t h a n s a t i s f i e d 4 D e f i n i t e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d 5 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104628/manifest

Comment

Related Items