UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Immediate identification and correction of error in a complex psychomotor task - typewriting Rankine, Frederick Charles 1966

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1966_A8 R3.pdf [ 2.03MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104625.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104625-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104625-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104625-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104625-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104625-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104625-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104625-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104625.ris

Full Text

i IMMEDIATE IDENTIFICATION AND CORRECTION OF ERROR IN A COMPLEX PSYCHOMOTOR TASK —TYPEWRITING— by Frederick Charles Rankine B. Ed., University of British Columbia, 1965 A THESIS. SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS. in the Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1966 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives„ It is understood that copying or publ i -cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Education  The University of Brit ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August 1, 1966 ABSTRACT i i This study was an attempt to il l u s t r a t e the relation-ship between augmented feedback with and without an opportunity for remedial practice and the learning and performance of students from a beginning s k i l l subject—typewriting. Aug-mented feedback supplied additional information which was removed later without loss of efficiency. The original s t a t i s t i c a l design took account of only the f i n a l two observations and although these results failed to achieve a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference, the results were in the anticipated direction and sufficient to reach the 857. level of confidence. A revised s t a t i s t i c a l design which made f u l l e r use of the available data and was more r e a l i s t i c i n acknowledging the essentially ordinal nature of typewriting scores permitted rejection of the null hypothesis (p<^.01)» The hypothesis postulated for this study was accepted. It states: Novice typists supplied with immediate knowledge of error and remedial practice w i l l experience greater gains i n learning and performance than an equivalent control group which does not receive immediate knowledge of error and remedial practice. A partial treatment was incorporated into this design to ascertain i f only knowledge of error would be as effective as knowledge of error and remedial practice. There i s a strong indication that the knowledge plus practice group was superior to the knowledge only group; the results however are inconclusive (p<ao). - i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION AND PLAN OF THE PAPER 1 Introduction 1 Plan of the paper 3 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS 4 Review of the literature 4 Hypothesis.. 7 Definition of terms.... 8 III. THEORETICAL ORIENTATION 9 IV. RESEARCH DESIGN 13 Experimental 13 Sta t i s t i c a l 16 Original design., • 17 Revised design. • 18 V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 20 Results 20 Discussion of Results 24 VI. SUMMARY AND. CONCLUSIONS 29 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32 APPENDIX A. Random Block Procedure... 37 APPENDIX B. Mean Scores Expressed In Net Words Per Minute 38 APPENDIX C. Graph - Gross Words Typed Per Minute......... 39 APPENDIX D. Graph - Net Words Typed Per Minute..... 40 LIST OF TABLES i v TABLE, PAGE I. Average Typewriting Rate For Observations Nineteen And Twenty Expressed In Net Words Per Minute For Each Treatment Group.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 20 II. Analysis Of Variance Summary For Observations Nineteen And Twenty.• ••••• 21 III. Gain Scores Expressed In Net Words Per Minute Obtained By Comparison Of Fooled Observations Nineteen And Twenty With Net Easter Typewriting Rate.. • « . o . o • . a « . . o . e • a o « a o . • » • • • o o » a • o • • o • . • • • • e * 22 IV. Difference And Ranks Of Difference*Of Mean Scores Between Augmented Practice Group And Control Group For Calculation Of T. ....... 23 V. Difference And Ranks Of Difference Of Mean Scores Between Augmented Practice Group And Augmented Group For Calculation Of T 24 V LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE l a AdjUStlve B e h a v i o r a a e a a a a a o a a a e a o o a « a a • o * • a • • 10 2. Gross Words Typed Per Minute For Each Treatment GrOUp« m»o»»»9o«»9»»ao • a ' o V a • a • • o o • . . • • . o • 6 o » s • o a • e • • 39 3. Net Words Typed Per Minute For Each Treatment GrOUp o a a e a a o a a a o o a a a'a o « • • e'o o o o a a a a a a e e a a a e a o a a*a a'a'a a AO ACKNOWLEDGMENT vi I wish to acknowledge the assistance of Dr. W. E. Schwann and Dr. T. D. M. McKie for their many helpful comments. I also wish to acknowledge the co-operation which I received from both the students and staff of Eric Hamber Secondary School. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND PLAN OF THE PAPER The following investigation concerns an attempt to apply psychological principles from learning theory to a practical classroom situation. The area chosen for the experiment i s the psychomotor process of typewritingj the specific psychological topic under investigation i s know-ledge of results or feedback. Introduction Feedback ordinarily received by an organism i s in the form of ta c t i l e , kinaesthetic, auditory, and visual feedback. Novice s k i l l learners are unable to make the fine discrim-inations necessary for efficient u t i l i z a t i o n of the many sensory cues, impinging on the organism. Often they do not realize when they have made an error in typewriting. Therefore, deliberate feedback i n the form of augmented visual cues w i l l be incorporated into the s k i l l task to ensure the novice learner receives precise knowledge when an error has been made. With an opportunity to practice the correct sequence where the error occurred, the learner should be able to pay particular attention to the c r i t i c a l movements and thus integrate the correct sequence of cues into the s k i l l structure. Successful integration w i l l enable the learner to make finer discrimin-ations which are crucial for improvement. The remedial practice, which should reduce tension i f that sequence i s encountered again, w i l l promote efficiency. 2 The paucity of research dealing with the typewriting process forced the experimenter to rely heavily on the pertinent literature from psychology, i n particular that dealing with the psychomotor process of learning. The bulk of research reviewed lends support to the contention that knowledge of results given immediately improves learning. Although this study i s not a comparative study of current practices and some hypothesized theoretical approach, i t should be mentioned that i n normal typewriting d r i l l , an error w i l l often go unnoticed u n t i l a proof-reading of the copy locates and identifies this error. This i s particularily true for novice typists; however, an expert typist develops such precise sensory accuity, that immediately a mistake i s made, the expert w i l l acknowledge such mistake. Underlying the assumptions above was a desire to construct a typewriting laboratory for students with partic-ular d i f f i c u l t i e s which they seemed to experience consistently. Special electronic equipment capable of verifying any given d r i l l exercise could be used to signal the typist immediately an error was made. The construction of this equipment involved an electric keyboard synchronized with a paper-tape reader. However, due to the prohibitive cost, i t was decided that the principles involved should be put to a scie n t i f i c test. The actual experiment then was concerned with the f e a s i b i l i t y of constructing such school equipment as described above as well as with testing the c r i t i c a l theoretical hypothesis which w i l l be stated i n a later section. 3 Plan of the paper The following sections of this paper w i l l include a review of the literature and statement of the hypothesis. A theoretical discussion which u t i l i z e s a theory of adjustive behavior w i l l attempt to present a conception of the type-writing process and how feedback may be ut i l i z e d to improve instruction. The research design, both experimental and statistical<will be followed by a presentation of the results and a discussion thereof. The implications of this study together with some speculative comments w i l l be included within the discussion of results section. A short summary w i l l conclude the paper,. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF' THE LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS Feedback i s a concept which i s crucial to. any discussion of learning. Feedback supplies information regarding the extent, speed, and quality of any response--thus control becomes, a function of negative feedback. Knowledge of results i s a form of feedback, specifically, knowledge which an individual receives relating to the outcome of a response and supplied in the case of the present study by augmented visual cues. Review of the literature Feedback i s the strongest most important variable controlling performance and learning (Bilodeau and Bilodeau, 1961). Gagne (1959) considers repetition with reinforcement the most important factor for acquisition of motor s k i l l s . Jensen (1955-56) theorizes that practice provides knowledge of results which i s somewhat analogous to Annet and Kay's (1957) statement that performance might be improved i f subjects attended more to learning to correct past errors than to modifying present a c t i v i t i e s . Smith (1962) stresses the importance of immediate feedback as opposed to feedback with any delay interval for learning, while Stroud's (1942) discussion of the role of practice i n learning emphasizes the necessity for practice at the point of error. Knowledge of results f a c i l i t a t e s improvement as the learner i s able to make finer response discriminations (Ammons, 1956), and the augmented cues which lead to these finer discrim-inations may be removed without loss of efficiency when they become redundant to the learning process (Annet and Kay, 1957), A review of the experimental literature dealing with the psychomotor process lends i t s e l f to classification into five major areas,, These five areas w i l l be identified and the major supporting evidence w i l l be cited. Area (1). Knowledge of results increases the rate of improvement on new tasks. Several investigators (Bilbdeau, Bilodeau, and Schumsky, .1959; Ewell and Grindley, 1938; Keller, 1943; Keller, .1945; Lavery and Suddon, 1962; Lindahl, 1945; MacPherson, Dees, and Grindley, 1948-9; Payne and Hauty, 1955; Pressey, 1950; Reynolds and Adams, 1953; Smode, 1958) provide support for this major area. Area (2). Knowledge of results increases performance on overlearned tasks (Lindahl, 1945; McGuigan, 1959; MacPherson Dees, and Grindley, 1948-9; Reynolds and Adams, 1953; Trowbridg and Cason, 1932). Area (3)ffl Knowledge of results has a motivating effect on learning and performance. Most of the evidence i n this major area i s based on the subjective impressions of the experimenters (Ewell and Grindley, 1938; L i t t l e , 1934; MacPherson, Dees, and Grindley, 1948; Payne and Hauty, 1955; Pressey, 1950; Reynolds and Adams, 1953, Smode, 1958). 6 Area (4), The amount of learning and performance i s directly proportional to the schedule of knowledge of results (Bilodeau, 1955; Bilodeau and Bilodeau, 1958(a), 1958(b); Bilodeau, Bilodeau, and Schumsky, 1959; Bilodeau and Ryan, 1960; Bourne, 1957; Brackbill, Bravos, and Starr, 1962; Brackbill and Kappy, 1962; Ewell and Grindley, 1938; Greenspoon and Foreman, 1956; Lavery and Suddon, 1962; L i t t l e , 1934; Lorge and Thorndike, 1935; Michael and Maccoby, 1953; McGuigan, 1958; Payne and Hauty, 1955; Reynolds and Adams, 1953; Smode, 1958; Trowbridge and Cason, 1932). Area (5). Interference with knowledge of results has deleterious effects on learning and performance (Held, 1965; Held and Freedman, 1963;Judd, 1905; McGuigan, 1959; Neumann and Ammons, 1957; Payne and Hauty,. 1955; Smith, 1962),,, As this study i s specifically concerned with the manipulation of knowledge of results for a task that i s new--drill material not previously typewritten--only Area (1) investigations w i l l be reviewed. The psychologists investig« ating this problem have ut i l i z e d a variety of conditions and apparatus. Pulling a manual lever the proper distance was investigated by Lavery and Suddon (1962) and by Bilodeau and Bilodeau (1958(a). Pressing a key for a specified time was used by MacPherson, Dees, and Grindley (1948). The Pressey (1950) and Keller (1943, 1945) experiments u t i l i z e d a punch-board scoring apparatus and a Morse key apparatus respectively. Coordinated movements of limbs were required by Ewell'and 7 Grindley (1938) and Lindahl (1945) while various tracking tasks were used by Smode (1958), Reynolds and Adams (1953), and by Payne and Hauty (1955). The data from these exper-iments i s consistent in supporting the view that knowledge of results increases the rate of improvement early in the performance of a new task. The present study i s designed as a preliminary investigation of typewriting which u t i l i z e s the opportunity to immediately identify and correct errors. From the review of the literature, i t would seem that augmented cues properly interpreted by a subject w i l l increase performance. Stroud's (1942) theoretical discussion centres around the desire to use practice as a device to reinforce the correct sequence of movements. Repetition of specific sequences occurs at the point where errors are made, thus d r i l l material becomes more meaningful. The point stressed by Smith (1962) i s the necessity of immediate feedback i f such feedback i s to be put to the most efficient, use. Hypothesis This study was designed, then, to test the following specific hypothesis: Novice typists supplied with immediate knowledge of error and remedial practice w i l l experience greater gains i n learning and performance than an equivalent control group which does not receive immediate knowledge of error and remedial practice. 8 The study was also designed to ascertain i f further investigation i s warranted respecting the f e a s i b i l i t y of constructing a typewriting laboratory. Definition of Terms Novice typists,. Students enrolled in first-year typewriting and having received seven and one-half months instruction. Immediate knowledge of error. Notification of error i s achieved by extinguishing a signal light placed immediately above the d r i l l exercise being typed. Normally the light i s extinguished when subject has typed two or three strokes past the error.. Gain in learning and performance. The achievement score for a subject consists of the net words typed per minute as determined by the International Typewriting Contest Rules. CHAPTER III THEORETICAL ORIENTATION The psychomotor act i s very complicated behavior, therefore, an attempt w i l l be made to indicate how the various component parts of this process are integrated to permit display of s k i l l . Because feedback becomes crucial to s k i l l learning, i t i s proposed to use Coleman's (1960, p, 187) model of the adjustive process which relies upon feedback as the mechanism that corrects behavior which has deviated from the required norm. This model explains with f a c i l i t y the complex perceptual-cognitiv.e-motor event with feedback providing the dynamic element for the model, A diagram of the relationship between feedback and the other component parts i s presented i n Figure 1, If this theoretical model i s applied to the specific process of typewriting, the d r i l l material i s the input or stimulation from the f i e l d . The perception component i s the selection and organization of the input from the f i e l d to-gether with an awareness of meaning* Evaluation w i l l consist of the possible courses of action, and selection w i l l be the choice from among alternatives. Output w i l l consist of muscle movements which operate the typewriter. This process applies to individual keys at the lower levels of s k i l l mastery, letter combinations at a more advanced level, and complete words and phrases at a s t i l l higher level. 10 THROUGHPUT INPUT Stimul-ation from within organism and from f i e l d Processing of adjustive demand by self-aware organism PERCEPTION (selection and organization of input; aware-ness of meaning) EVALUATION (definition of adjustive demand and formulation of possible actions) SELECTION (choice of action prom-ising best balance of risk, cost, richness of reward) Processing influenced by: 1) Individual's frame of reference—realistic assumptions make for clear perception, sound evaluation, wise choice of action; unrealistic assumptions lead to cognitive distortions ± 3 OUTPUT Task-or-iented and/or defense-oriented action 2) Motive pattern and action tendancies— needs and interests influence which stimuli "get through" and guide choice of action. 3) Resources for handling problem—capacities, s k i l l s , knowledge, and general competencies gained from experience determine actual a b i l i t y to cope with the demand and quality of action possible. 4) Momentary conditions—mental set affects what stimuli are selected and what possibil-i t i e s of action are thought of; emotional involve-ment or fatigue may disrupt effective proces- j sing; etc. J I FEEDBACK Information which t e l l s organism how processing and action are proceeding. * FIGURE 1 ADJUSTIVE BEHAVIOR (From Coleman, 1960, p. 187) 11 Feedback received by the organism i s i n the form of ta c t i l e , kinaesthetic, auditory, and visual feedback* Because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n controlling these -variables only deliberate feedback w i l l be added to the experimental design i n an attempt to augment the other forms already available to the novice typist,, As this deliberate feedback is by means of a light being extinguished, i t w i l l u t i l i z e the visual sense and give notification of error to the s k i l l learner as soon as possible after an error has been committed. With an opportunity to practice the correct sequence where the error occurred, the typist should be able to pay partic-ular attention to these crucial movements and thus integrate the proprioceptive cues available into their existing s k i l l structure. This w i l l permit the organism to acquire a finer mechanism for discriminatory purposes. This general apparatus permits the input—symbols from the printed copy-«to act upon the organism producing sensations. In an intelligent organism these sensations are recognized and result i n a planning of action on the part of the organism. A decision which arises from a judgemental process activates the motor producing portions of the organ-ism resulting i n output of a response—operation of the typewriter. Each bit of the response i s fed back to the organism by the sense organs. In this experiment, additional information i s received when a typewriting error occurs and an opportunity i s provided to permit practice of the proper sequence of finger movements. This remedial acti v i t y w i l l allow the novice an opportunity to integrate the proprio-ceptive feedback available from the practice session into her cognitive system. CHAPTER IV RESEARCH DESIGN Experimental Twenty-four female students were a r b i t r a r i l y selected by the administration of Eric Hamber Secondary School. A l l students were enrolled i n Typewriting I classes and had received seven and one-half months instruction. The mean age of the subjects was fifteen years, four months; the mean Otis (AM) IQ was 105. No attempt was made to match subjects on any variable except their Easter typewriting rate. This was accomplished by use of a random block design (Edwards, 1960) which ensured greater homogeneity between treatment groups at the start of the experiment. The results of this procedure are located i n Appendix A. Age and IQ are included for comparative purposes. Each subject underwent twenty observations for purposes of data collection. An observation consisted of an eight-minute period comprised of a five-minute d r i l l period; a one-minute rest period; and a two-minute test period. During the test period the experimental equipment which provided treatment effects was removed. A l l subjects used typewriters with which they were familiar—the Underwood touch-master FIVE—at three-position adjustible typewriting desks. Six error lights permitted the simultaneous observation of six subjects at any one sitti n g . The observers were fellow 14 students who were also taking part in the experiment. Each subject had a variety of observers including the experimenter during the twenty observation periods. The error lights consisted of a radio p i l o t light mounted i n a large Bulldog paper c l i p . A silent switch which could be operated by the observer who was watching the subject type was connected to the pi l o t light by a two-conducter wire seven feet long. Thus the observer did not interfere with the subject undergoing the observation. Power supply for the lights was from a six-volt b e l l transformer. The total cost of equipment used to construct the six error lights was less than twelve dollars; The observations were carried out i n a small business machines room at the school. Room dimensions were fifteen by thirty feet; the equipment i n the room consisted of fourteen typewriters, two tables, several chairs, and two additional pieces of office equipment. Exclusive use of this room was impossible, however, other students using the room did not interfere with the experimental subjects. In fact, the additional act i v i t y in the room more nearly approximated the actual classroom conditions of their normal typewriting class. The timing of the observations was by stop-watch operated by the experimenter. The treatment variations to be described below were applied only during the five minute d r i l l period. Prior to the start of the experiment, a brief explanation was offered to the students concerning the 15 nature of research,, Treatment 1 (Augmented Practice Group)„ An error made during the d r i l l period resulted in the observer extinguishing the error light after subject had typed two or three strokes past the error. One line of corrected,sequence was typewritten immediately, then the d r i l l was resumed at a point i n the copy immediately following the error. Printed instructions prepared by the experimenter were supplied to each subject<which indicated to each group what action to take i f the error light went out. The instructions supplied to Augmented Practice Group follow: If the signal light goes out--STOP—locate your error, return carriage, and type one line of corrected sequence. After completion, return carriage and resume typing at point i n copy immediately following error. If error i s located in a five-stroke word or under, the line of correct sequence w i l l include the word immediately preceeding the error plus the word that contains the error. If error i s located i n a word over five-strokes, the line of correct sequence w i l l consist of only the word which contains the error. Treatment 2 (Augmented Group). An error made during the d r i l l period resulted i n the observer extinguishing the error light after subject had typed two or three strokes past the error. The d r i l l was resumed after the subject had made a mental note of the error. No opportunity was permitted for correction of the error. The printed instructions supplied to the Augmented Group are reproduced below: If the signal light goes out--STOP—locate error and make a mental note to try to avoid this error i n the timed-writing that follows. Resume typing. 16 Treatment 3 (Control Group). The Control Group had the same d r i l l material, ,took the same timed-writings, and were subjected to the same forms of experimental manipulation as the other groups. Although observers stood behind the Control Group extinguishing the error lights at random--four to five times during a five-minute d r i l l period—there was no identification and correction of error during the d r i l l period. The instructions supplied to the Control Group are reproduced below: Type practice material for five-minutes using correct techniques. The signal light w i l l have nothing to do with your typing. After completion of the d r i l l period, a l l groups then had a one-minute rest period which was used to remove the experimental equipment and ensure the observers were not standing behind the subjects. It also permitted an inspection of the d r i l l material which had been typewritten by a l l groups. The two-minute test period consisted of a timed-writing on the d r i l l material that each individual subject had previously been practicing., The material used for this purpose consisted of Underwood Typing Tests, Volume 4, Numbers 1 to 4 inclusive. Each observation concentrated on a particular paragraph which the subject had not previously encountered. S t a t i s t i c a l It had originally been planned to analyze the data from only the f i n a l two observation periods as the belief was that the greatest difference between mean scores would be at that point. It was later realized that a mode of analysis that would 17 take f u l l e r account of a l l of the data would be more approp-riate. Accordingly both s t a t i s t i c a l designs were used to interpret the data. Original design. The comparison of means between the Augmented Practice Group and the Control Groups—the hypothesis postulated deals specifically with this comparison—utilized a " t " test following the method specified by Hays (1963, p. 474), TKis particular technique requires the sum of squares for a comparison and i s obtained by removing the sum of squares for the Augmented Practice Group and the Control Group from the treatment sum of squares obtained from the random block analysis of variance (Edwards, I960*). The-formulas for this process are given below: Because there i s an Augmented Group included i n this design, i t had been proposed to find i f the residual sum of squares yielded a significant F ratio. This test (Hays, 1963, p. 478) indicates i f there i s any other significance to the data. A significant F ratio would indicate that there was s t i l l some va r i a b i l i t y among means other than between the Augmented Practice Group and the Control Group. Since the (*1 - x 3 ) 2 I + I n l n3 18 remaining comparisons of interest—Augmented Practice Group with Augmented Group and Augmented Group with Control Group-.-were not orthogonal to the f i r s t comparison or to each other, i t had been planned to use a conservative technique by treating the data as unplanned comparisons and using the Tukey(a) procedure (Winer, 1962, p. 87). Revised design. While collecting the data for this experiment, i t became apparent that the mean scores from the Augmented Practice Group were markedly and consistently superior to those of the Control Group. Basing the results of this study on observations nineteen and twenty, not the bulk of the data collected, placed a l l confidence for the experimental results on too narrow a sample of performance when data from twenty learning sessions was available. It should have been realized earlier that a more adequate s t a t i s t i c a l design would have taken account of this. The hypothesis which predicted that the Augmented Practice Group would experience greater gains i n learning and performance was concerned with the consistency of the results as well as with the absolute d i f f -erence between the two groups. Because typewriting scores have the characteristics of ordinal measurement, a non-parametric technique was used to analyze trend. The f i r s t four observations were a r b i t r a r i l y eliminated from the test while the last sixteen were analyzed by the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test (Siegel, 1956, p. 75) This particular test took account of the relative magnitude as,well as the 19 direction of the difference* The mean scores from each of the treatment groups were plotted graphically for comparative purposes. Separate graphs for gross words per minute and for net words per minute arelpresented i n Appendix C and Appendix D respect-ively, and w i l l be discussed in a later,section of this report. CHAPTER V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Results The data from this experiment was composed of 469 timed writings obtained from the participating students over a period of six weeks. Observations nineteen and twenty were pooled to give a more stable picture of the f i n a l results. The mean scores for each type of treatment expressed in net words per minute are presented in Table I. TABLE I AVERAGE TYPEWRITING RATE FOR OBSERVATIONS NINETEEN AND TWENTY EXPRESSED IN NET WORDS PER MINUTE FOR EACH TREATMENT GROUP Block Augmented Augmented Control Practice Group Group Group 1 46 48.5 38 2 30.5 25.5 27.5 3 27 46.5 20 4 4£. 5 25.5 24 5 33 25.5 20 6 27 15 21 7 12 12 33 Total 225 198.5 183.5 Mean 32.14 28.35 26.21 The resulting " t " between Augmented Practice Group and the Control Group was 1.12. This failed to reach the .05 level of significance, however, the results were in the anticipated direction and sufficient to reach the 85% level of confidence. From the analysis of variance, i t was found that the residual sum of squares was not sufficient to warrant further treat-ment of the data--the a posteriori comparisons which had been planned between the means of the Augmented Practice Group and the Augmented Group and between the Augmented Group and the Control Group. The summary table from the analysis of variance for the f i n a l two observations i s presented i n Table II below. TABLE II ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SUMMARY FOR OBSERVATIONS - NINETEEN AND TWENTY Source of Variation SS df Mean Square F Treatment 126 2 63 .63 Block 1252 6 208.6 2.08 Error 1203 12 100.25 -Total 2581 . 26 The results of this experiment when expressed as gain scores are consistent i n showing the superiority of'the Augmented Practice Group over the Control Group (p ^ . 1 5 ) . The increase in net words per minute was calculated by sub-tracting the net Easter typewriting rate from the average of observations nineteen and twenty; Table III presents the 22 results of these calculations. TABLE III GAIN SCORES EXPRESSED IN NET WORDS PER MINUTE OBTAINED BY COMPARISON OF POOLED OBSERVATIONS NINETEEN AND TWENTY WITH NET EASTER TYPEWRITING RATE Treatment Condition Easter Rate Average of Ob's 19 & 20 Gain Augmented Practice Group Augmented Group Control Group 26.71 25.71 26.28 32.14 28.35 26.21 +5.43 +2.64 - .07 The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test (Siegel, 1956, p. 75) which took cognizance of the direction and magnitude of any difference was applied to check the consis-tency of the data. Only observations five to twenty inclusive were used for this purpose. The mean scores for the three treatment conditions over the twenty observations areppresenfced in Appendix B. The Augmented Practice Group was compared with the Control Group; the resulting T--ranks with less frequent signs—was 21. This was found to be significant i n indicating that the Augmented Practice Group demonstrated consistently superior performance on the timed-writings than the equivalent Control Group (p<^.0l). The calculation of T i s given below i n Table IV. This technique was also applied to ascertain i f the Augmented Practice Group was superior to the Augmented Group. As direction had not been specified beforehand, a two-tailed 23 test was used,. The resulting T of 35 just failed to achieve significance at the .05 level* There i s certainly a strong indication that the Augmented Practice Group i s superior to the Augmented Group (p<C[VlO)j however, the data does not unequivocally support this conclusion* Further research appears warranted i f this area of doubt i s to be resolved. Table V presents calculations for T between the Augmented Practice Group and the Augmented Group. TABLE IV DIFFERENCE AND RANKS OF DIFFERENCE OF MEAN SCORES BETWEEN AUGMENTED PRACTICE GROUP AND CONTROL GROUP FOR CALCULATION OF T Observation Difference Ranks of Difference Ranks with less frequent signs 5 1.875 4 6 3.75 9 7 -3.00 -6.5 -6.5 8 2.5 5 9 3.375 8 10 6.29 , 14 11 3.00 "6.5 12 5.15 13 13 .14 1 14 .29 2 15 -1.14 -3 -3 16 10.86 16 17 -4.43 -11.5 -11.5 18 3.86 10 19 7.43 15 20 4.43 11.5 T = 21.0 * Significance of T determined from Table G (Siegel, 1956, p. 254). 24 TABLE V DIFFERENCE AND RANKS OF DIFFERENCE OF. MEAN SCORES BETWEEN AUGMENTED PRACTICE GROUP AND AUGMENTED GROUP FOR CALCULATION OF T, Observation Difference Ranks of Difference Ranks with less frequent signs 5 4,25 10.5 6 3.50 9 7 r2.375 -5 -5 8 .50 1 9 4.25 10.5 10 9.86 15 11 6.00 14 12 -1.85 -3 -3 13 10.14 16 14 2.43 6 15 -2.57 -7 -7 16 .58 2 17 -3.15 -8 -8 18 -4.86 -12 -12 19 5.29 13 20 2.29 4 T = 35 * * Significance of T determined from Table G (Siegel, 1956, p. 254). An inspection of the data indicated that there was no pos s i b i l i t y of any significant difference between the Augmented Group and,the Control Group. Discussion of results The results of this experiment permit acceptance of the hypothesis. The Augmented Practice Group made consistently greater gains in learning and performance when compared with an equivalent Control Group which did not receive immediate error identification and an opportunity for practice of the correct 25 s k i l l sequence. The original s t a t i s t i c a l design placed a l l confidence for the experimental results on too narrow a sample of performance considering that data from twenty learning sessions were available. In this design, the planned " t " test between the Augmented Practice Group and the Control Group indicated the former was superior at the 85% level of confidence. A revised s t a t i s t i c a l design made fu l l e r use of the data available and permitted a more comprehensive analysis. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test (Siegel, 1956, p.75), which concerned i t s e l f with the consistency of the data, as well as the magnitude of the obtained differences between the mean scores, indicated the superiority of the Augmented Practice Group over the Control Group (p<Coi). It i s considered that the revised design i s more r e a l i s t i c for two reasons: (1) i t takes account of the* bulk of the data, rather than of the results of only^two j t r i a l s , and (2) i t acknowledges the essentially ordinal character of the data. One of the theoretical assumptions made earlier was that the students receiving error identification and remedial practice would become much more sensitive to the proprio-ceptive feedback available. Objective observations by the experimenter support this assumption. Students in the Augmented Practice Group required error notification for the earlier observations, but during the later sessions, these students would stop typewriting instinctively when an error 26 was made. It would appear that these students had acquired a finer mechanism for discriminatory purposes,. Some students in the Augmented Group also displayed this behavior. Several factors reduced the possibility of obtaining highly significant results on a single observation. Due to time limitations, i t was necessary to conduct this experiment during the closing months of the school year. The students who, participated i n this experiment had eight months exper-ience, obviously with some rather well established habits. Any treatment effect imposed would f i r s t have to overcome the established habits before the significance of the treatment would be noted. The experiment began with an N of twenty-four, but during the course of the, experiment, one of the subjects broke her finger. Because this caused elimination of a complete random block, the N was reduced to twenty-one, causing a reduction i n the degrees of freedom by three and thus making the s t a t i s t i c a l tests more rigorous. Appendix C, the graph depicting mean gross words typed per minute, appears to reflect the relative d i f f i c u l t y of the material being typed. The fluctuations of the Augmented Practice Group and the Control Group are almost identical while the Augmented Group varies between these two. Appendix D presents the mean net words typed per minute for each individual treatment group and takes into account the number of errors. The superiority of the Augmented Practice 27 Group can be clearly observed. The general pattern for a l l three group i s one of improvement; however,.the steepest slope i s found for the Augmented Practice Group while the flatest slope depicts the Control Group. It would appear that a projection of these trends would lead to a significant difference between means for a single observation. This of course i s speculation and w i l l require verification by an extended experiment conducted along similar lines. , The results of this experiment would seem to have „ certain implications for education. Insofar as typewriting i s concerned, there i s now ju s t i f i c a t i o n for construction of a typewriting laboratory. Equipment of this nature could be used for further research purposes, to a point where individual d r i l l exercises were prepared for each learning d i f f i c u l t y experienced by individual students in beginning typewriting. The method of error notification employed by this experiment coupled with remedial practice did result i n superiority of learning and performance of the Augmented Practice Group. This inexpensive apparatus could be effec-tively used in any classroom situation i f students were matched to work together as observer and typist. As there i s a paucity of research dealing with typewriting theory, i t i s hoped that this investigation w i l l lead to further research on psychomotor s k i l l s employed by students in the business .subjects. The limitations previously discussed relating to size of sample and time of school year 28 should be important i f related studies are anticipated. The results of this experiment do indicate a need for further research to c l a r i f y the role of notification of error only in contrast to notification of error with remedial practice. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION An attempt was made in the classroom setting to determine the influence of augmented feedback with and with-out remedial practice in a complex psychomotor task—type-writing. Twenty-four female students enrolled i n a f i r s t year high-school typewriting class were assigned by a random block procedure to one of three treatment groups. The Augmented Practice Group received error notification and had an opportunity to correct any errors committed; the Augmented Group received notification of error only. The Control Group practiced the d r i l l material i n the usual manner; no error notification or practice was permitted. It was hypothesized that the Augmented Practice Group would show significant improvement i n learning and performance when compared with the Control Group. During a six-week period, twenty observations per student were obtained with each observation being composed of an eight-minute period of typewriting--five-minutes d r i l l , one-minute rest, and a two-minute test period. Error lights operated by fellow students who acted in the capacity of observers were used to signal the treatment groups, i f required, when an error had been made. The Control Group experienced operation of the error lights, although for this group they had no significance. During the test period, the 30 error lights were extinguished, and the observers moved from behind the experimental "subjects to some other part of the classroom. Two s t a t i s t i c a l designs were used to interpret the data obtained from this experiment. The original ,:"t" test between the means of the Augmented Practice Group and the Control Group which was obtained from the f i n a l two obser-vations yielded a value of 1.12 which failed to reach the .05 level of significance. The revised Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test (Siegel, 1956, p. 75) made fu l l e r use of the data, and was concerned with the consistency of the superiority of one group over another as well as the magnitude of the obtained difference between mean scores. This revised design i s more r e a l i s t i c as i t considers a much larger portion of the data and acknowledges the essentially ordinal character of typewriting scores. Superiority of the Augmented Practice Group over the Control was found (p<^.01) which permitted the rejection of the n u l l hypothesis. An attempt was also made to find i f the Augmented Practice Group was superior to the Augmented Group. There was certainly a strong indication that this was so (p^.10); however, the data does not permit unqualified acceptance. Generalizations from this experiment are d i f f i c u l t i n view of the limited size of the sample used. A matching system of typist and observer would however seem to possess certain merit for students experiencing consistent d i f f i c u l t y 31 in a specific area of typewritings There would also appear to now be sufficient justification for the construction of a typewriting laboratory which could be used for the conduct of research i n the psychomotor s k i l l area. Electronic equip-ment capable of verifying a given d r i l l exercise could signal a typist immediately an error was made and thus provide an opportunity for remedial practice. Under the conditions outlined by this experiment, this procedure of error ident-i f i c a t i o n and remedial practice has shown i t s superiority over the normal d r i l l methods. B I B L I O G R A P H Y BIBLIOGRAPHY 33 Amnions, Robert B. Effects of knowledge of performance: A survey and tentative theoretical formulation. J. of General Psych., 1956, 54, 279-299. Annet, J., and Kay, H. Knowledge of results and skilled .performance. Occupational Psych., 1957, 31, 69-79. Annet, John. The role of knowledge of results i n learning: A Survey. Educational Technology - Readings In Program-med- Instruction. DeCecco. John P. (ed.). New York: HoTt, 1964, 493 pp. Bilodeau, E. A. Motor performance as affected by magnitude and direction of error contained in knowledge of results. J. Psych.. 1955, 40, 103-113. Bilodeau, E. A., and Bilodeau, Ina McD. Variable frequency of knowledge of results and the learning of a simple s k i l l . J. Exp, Psych., 1958(a), 55, 379-383. Bilodeau, E. A.j and Bilodeau, Ina McD. Variations of temporal intervals among c r i t i c a l events i n five studies of know-ledge of results. J. Expe Psych., 1958(b), 55, 603-612. Bilodeau, E. A., and Bilodeau, Ina McD. Motor-skills learning. Annual Review Of Psychology. 1961, 12, 243-280. Bilodeau, E. A., Bilodeau, Ina McD., and Schumsky, D. A. Some effects of introducing and withdrawing knowledge of results early and late i n practice. J. Exp. Psych.^ 1959, 58, 142-44. Bilodeau, E, A., and Ryan, F. J. A. A test for interaction of delay of knowledge of results.and two types of interpolated activity. J. Exp. Psych., 1960, 59, 414-419. Bourne, L. E., Jr. Effects of delay of information feedback and task complexity on identification of concepts. J. Exp. Psych., 1957, 54, 201-207. Brackbill, Yvonne, Bravos, A., and Starr, R. H. Delay-improved retention of a d i f f i c u l t task. J. Comp. Physiol. Psych., 1962, 55, 947-952. Brackbill, Yvonne, and Kappy, Michael S. Delay of reinforcement and retention. J. Gomp. Physiol. Psych. t 1962, 5J>, 14-18. Coleman, J. C. Personality Dynamics And Effective Behavior. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co., i960, 5bb pp. 34 Edwards, Allen L. Experimental Design i n Psychological Research (Rev. Ed.). New York: RineKart, 1960, 398 pp. Ewell, J. L., and Grindley, E. C. Knowledge of results. Br. J. of Psych.. 1938, 29, 39-54. Gagne, R. M., and Fleishman, Edwin A. Psychology and Human  Performance. New York: Holt, 1959, 493 pp. Greenspoon, J., and Foreman, Sally. Effects of delay of knowledge of results on learning a motor task. J. Exp. Psych.. 1956, 51, 226-228. Hays., William L., Statistics For Psychologists. New York: Holt, 1963, 7lT"pp: ' Held, Richard. Plasticity i n sensory-motor systems. Scientific American. November 1965, 213(5)» 84-94. Held, Richard, and Freedtnan, S. J. Plasticity i n Human Sensori-motor control. Science» October 1963, 142, 455-62. Jensen, Barry T. This thing called practice. Peabody J. of -Educ., 1955-56, 33, 221-226. ~~ Judd, C. H. Practice without knowledge of results. Psych. Monographs, 1905, 7, 185r198. Keller, F. S. Studies i n international Morse code. I. A. new method of teaching code reception. ,J. Appl. Psych.. 1943, 27, 407-415.^ ~ — ^ - J L ' Keller* F. S. Studies in international Morse code. J. Appl. Psych.. 1945, 29, 161-163. Lavery, J. J., and Suddon, F. H. Retention of simple motor s k i l l s as a function of the number of t r i a l s by which knowledge of results i s delayed. Perceptual and,Motor  S k i l l s . 1962, 15, 231-237. ' Lindahl, Lawrence G. Movement analysis as an industrial training method. J. Appl. Psych.. 1945, 29, 420-436. L i t t l e , J. K. Results of use of machines for testing and for d r i l l s upon learning in educational psychology. J. Exp. Psych., 1934, 3, 45-49. " ' Lorge, Irving, and Thorndike, E. L. The influence of delay in the after effect of a connection. J. Exp. Psych., 1935, 18, 186-194. ~ — 4 1  35 Michael, D., and Maccoby, N. Factors influencing verbal learning from films under varying conditions of audience participation. J. Exp. Psych.,. 1953, 46, 411-418. McGuigan, F. J. Precision, delay, and schedule of knowledge of results on performance. J. Exp. Psych., 1959, 58, 79-84. ~ ~~ MacPherson, S. J., Dees, V., and Grindley, G. C. The effects of knowledge of results on learning and performance: II Some characteristics of very simple s k i l l s . Quart. J. Exp. Psycho, 1948-9, 1, 68-78. ~ Neumann, E., and Amnions, R. B. Acquisition and long-term retention of a simple serial perceptual motor s k i l l . J. Exp.. Psych.. 1957, 53, 159-61. Payne, R. B., and Hauty, G. T. Effect of psychological feed-back upon work decrement. J. Exp. Psych., 1955, 50, 343-351. ~ ~~ Pressey, S. L. Development and appraisal of devices providing immediate automatic scoring of objective tests and con-comitant self-instruction. J. Psych.. 1950, 29, 417-447. Reynolds, B., and Adams, J. A. Motor performance as a function of c l i c k reinforcement. J. Exp. Psych., 1953, 45, 315-320. Siegel, Sidney. Nonparametric Statistics For The Behavioral  Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956, 312 pp. Smith, K. U. Delayed Sensory Feedback And Behavior. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., iSTBT, 109 pp. Smode, A. F» Learning and performance i n a tracking under two levels of achievement information feedback. J. Exp. Psych.. 1958, 56, 297-304. Stroud, J. B. The role of practice i n learning. The Psych-ology Of Learning« N. S. S. E. Yearbook. 1942, Part II Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1942, 353-376. Trowbridge, M. H., and Cason, H. An experimental study of Thorndike's theory of learning. J. Gen. Psych., 1932, 7, 245-260. Winer, B. J. S t a t i s t i c a l Principles In Experimental Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962/672 pp. A P P E N D I X APPENDIX A RANDOM BLOCK PROCEDURE Augmented Practice Group Augmented Group Control Group Block Subject Easter Net Rate Age I. Q. Easter Subject Net Rate Age I. Q. Subject Easter Net Rate Age I. Q. 1 11 38 15-4 115 . 21 48 14-4 114 31 40 15-3 105 2 12 37 16-6 89 22 32 15-0 113 32 33 14-10 108 3 13 30 14-9 110 23 32 15-0 117 33 32 17-3 103 4 14 29 15-4 96 24 24 14-11 116 34 26 15-3 107 5 15 20 15-11 94 25 25 15-4 98 35 24 14-8 102 6 16 21 14-11 109 26 19 15-9 98 36 18 15-4 93 7 17 18 14-5 122 27 15 16-8 99 37 16 15-5 99 8 18 12 15-7 95 28 0 17-10 115 38 11 14-7 119 Mean (N = 8/Group) 25.6 15-3 103.7 24.3 15-6 108.7 25 15-3 102.6 Mean (N * = 7/Group) 26.7 15.5 101.1 25.7 15.4 110.1 26.3 15-3 103.1 * Block 7 removed due to broken finger suffered by subject #17. CO APPENDIX B MEAN SCORES EXPRESSED IN NET WORDS PER MINUTE Augmented Observation Practice Augmented Control Group Group Group 1 16.00 18.75 22.875 2 17.625 26.25 21.00 3 20.75 22.375 20.625 4 20.375 21.375 22.25 5 26.00 21.75 24.125 6 27.75 24.25 24.00 7 22.375 24.75 25.375 8 22.75 22.25 20.25 9 29.125 24.875 25.75 10 32.29 22.43 26.00 11 27.14 21.14 24.14 12 26.29 28.14 21.14 13 24.43 14.29 24.29 14 28.43 26.00 28.14 15 18.57 21.14 19.71 16 26.29 25.71 15.43 17 23.14 26.29 27.57 18 28.00 32.86 24.14 19 33.00 27.71 25.57 20 31.29 29.00 26.86 APPENDIX C GROSS WORDS TYPED PER MINUTE FOR EACH TREATMENT GROUP APPENDIX D I : I i i • 0 5 10 15 20 Observations FIGURE 3 NET WORDS TYPED PER MINUTE FOR ° EACH TREATMENT GROUP 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104625/manifest

Comment

Related Items