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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Instructional devices in adult education McGown, William Fell 1966

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INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES IN ADULT EDUCATION by MILLIAM FELL MCGOWN B . S c , S i r George W i l l i a m s U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 ^ 2 B.Ed., S a i n t Mary's U n i v e r s i t y , i 9 6 0  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Faculty  of Education  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1 9 6 6  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of Columbia, for  I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  British available  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be  g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s It  freely  representatives.  i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  financial  the  for  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n  Pjejo^ltfient o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  T h i s study i s d e d i c a t e d t o my w i f e , Frances Ann McGown, and children.  our  iii ABSTRACT  This study discusses the nature of i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n the a d u l t education  s e t t i n g and p r e s e n t s  a typology  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i n w h i c h a l l such d e v i c e s can organized,,  c l a s s i f i e d , integrated or  I t was  devices  or  be  considered.  i m p o r t a n t t o c a r r y out a f a i r l y wide and  deep  r e v i e w o f a l l r e s e a r c h t h a t m i g h t p o s s i b l y be p e r t i n e n t , o r even p a r t i a l l y p e r t a i n , t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  instructional  d e v i c e s , f o r t h e y were r e g a r d e d n o t j u s t a s a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s but r a t h e r a s a means t h a t c o u l d be used p u r p o s e l y  to  o r enhance t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , whether a method o r t e c h n i q u e ,  strengthen -  and w h i c h c o u l d supplement  e i t h e r of these i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the  educational  objective. T h i s r a t h e r b r o a d approach t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n v o l v e d t h e a u t h o r w i t h some a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g  devices  supplements  t h a t are not u s u a l l y found i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s , y e t i t was 11  considered  c o l o r " o r "group s i z e  1 1  t h a t such an i t e m , f o r example, a s  s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s a d e v i c e  that  a t e a c h e r must c o n s i d e r , choose and t r y t o use f o r t h e b e s t instructional  results.  I n summary i t can be s a i d t h a t i n t h i s r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e use o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s adult education  i t was  the in  f o u n d t h a t t h e i r p r o p e r use can improve  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f most t e a c h i n g  situations.  tamper*  1% wXXX hm aem ti%at «fe*r* i * a  tk& field of lms^*?fc£#«al d*v&s«#.  aad  Tfci* Sa aUtted £$ftJttMfetr  ©•£ i«^© %m %hm $&Um&m tm t&tt i&fcuatrat© t u t i*©iiit. #  msiiint aitv laat^etloiiAJl 4*d«9a» siad tfc* question  «tsp coe&iaatioft o r e££*ztt&mm*  mm %$t®  tm%® consideration ®m tm%%%* and abilities ©f th©  *it3* r*@o«S t© tka d*vi©e. {*)  T&s utffect «f «lt» H8« of a devise, * i * i a a certain M l % tfft$WUte M » tipeH tfeft characterlatlcft «f  nitlstft tlie d*vic* ' i W f * i s tansst Itttemld&®mi %h&& tftat It wmzld  &assMit»£  tea the c^nelualoft m ppmlm  is  J A M O *  sreaearchor, »tudeist «r teacher that *w  i»afcr»«ti@i*a-2. devlcos  J$*aiel#m** use «f my ©r a l l erdar to 8^ssi£iis» t h e mte&  «ld«  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i i  L I S T OF TABLES  „  L I S T OF FIGURES  vi v i i  DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECT MATTER DISPLAYED I N TABULAR FORM  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xiii  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION  1  The A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S e t t i n g The P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y The S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms II.  THE NATURE OF DEVICES  9  Purpose, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Requirements and Use. Typology o f Devices III. IV. V.  ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH PERTAINING TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES  20  COLOUR AS AN INFLUENCE I N DEVICE EFFECTIVENESS  188"  SUMMARY AND  197  CONCLUSIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  207  APPENDIX  I  251  APPENDIX  II  253  vi LIST OF TABLES  Table I.  Page C h a r t P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Recommended Graph Forms. ( A g r i s e a r c h ) • ••••••••••••••••••  62  vii LIST OF FIGURES Page  Figure 1.  He-ban*s C o n c r e t e t o A b s t r a c t Graph  11  2.  D a l e * s Cone o f E x p e r i e n c e  13  3.  F a m i l y Tree o f Teaching D e v i c e s  4.  Chart P r e s e n t i n g a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e v i c e E f f e c t i v e n e s s as Based on C o n c r e t e n e s s o f D e v i c e and P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n Inherent i n the Device • •  252  •••••••  254  DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECT MATTER DISPLAYED I N TABULAR FORM Page  R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f V i s u a l and A u d i t o r y  22  Presentation (Carver) I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f Radio B r o a d c a s t T a l k s . (Vernon)  27  The E f f e c t s o f B r o a d c a s t i n g a S e r i a l i z e d V e r s i o n o f 29  a Book, on t h e Reading o f t h e Book. ( V e r n o n ) . Optimum L e n g t h o f an I n f o r m a t i o n B r o a d c a s t T a l k .  29  (Vernon) F a c t o r s E f f e c t i n g Radio Programs, and Some Program R e s u l t s . (Vernon)  29  •••••••  A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Radio B r o a d c a s t s i n O h i o . 32  (Howard)  43  V a l u e o f t h e Shop D e m o n s t r a t i o n . ( E r i c s o n ) R e l a t i o n s h i p between Correspondence Course C o m p l e t i o n and M e e t i n g a D e a d l i n e . (Hughes)  51  •  U s e f u l n e s s o f Study G u i d e s t o t h e USAFI Correspondence C o u r s e s . ( T u c k e r )  54  •  E v a l u a t i o n o f Graphs. (Washburne)  59  E v a l u a t i o n o f Graphs. ( P e t e r s o n & Schramm)  60  E v a l u a t i o n o f Graphs. ( A g r i s e a r c h )  60  E v a l u a t i o n o f Graphs. ( P e t e r s o n ) E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Graphs. (Vernon) •  63  •••• •  •  65  D e s i g n and Use o f E f f e c t i v e G r a p h i c A i d s . 65  ( S a u l and o t h e r s ) E f f e c t s o f T r a i n i n g Men by U s i n g E x p e r i m e n t a l F i l m V a r i a b l e s . (Jaspen)  •  72  ix Page Effectiveness  of T r a i n i n g Films i n B u s i n e s s . (Brooker)..  U s e f u l n e s s o f F i l m s i n R e t a i l Trade T r a i n i n g . Effectiveness  (Hague)...  o f F i l m s i n R e t a i l Trade T r a i n i n g .  (Haas).  76 76 77  Requirements o f F i l m Used f o r T r a i n i n g i n R e t a i l 77  T r a d e . (Haas) Effectiveness  of F i l m s Compared t o The  o f I n s t r u c t i o n . (Long)  L e c t u r e Method  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Film Production,  Utilization  Research R e s u l t s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , Canada A u s t r a l i a . ( G r e e n h i l l and Use  78  • and and  79  Tyo)  of O p t i c a l E f f e c t s i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l F i l m s .  Navy I n s t r u c t o r s ' O p i n i o n s o f E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f and  Slide Films.  (Mercer).  #2  Films 86  ( M i l e s and S p a i n )  Summary o f S i x t y - f i v e F i l m Research R e p o r t s 93  o f t h e U.S.N. ( C r i l e ) Factors  I n f l u e n c i n g Frequency o f Use  of S l i d e s  and  F i l m s t r i p s by A g r i c u l t u r e Teachers i n W i s c o n s i n . 106  (Mikhail) Factors Associated  W i t h Amount o f Use  of S l i d e s  and  F i l m s t r i p s by A g r i c u l t u r e Teachers i n W i s c o n s i n . (Mikhail) Effectiveness  107 of TV f o r T e a c h i n g A d u l t s .  (Rock, Duva & Murray) Effectiveness  108  of TV f o r T e a c h i n g A d u l t s i n W i d e l y  S e p a r a t e d Groups. (Rock, Duva & M u r r a y )  109  X  Page U t i l i z a t i o n o f TV i n Army T r a i n i n g . ( F r i t z and o t h e r s } . .  114  Summary o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l TV Research R e p o r t s o f t h e U.S.N. ( C r i l e )  115  P r i n c i p l e s of V i s u a l Design A f f e c t i n g C l a r i t y of TV P i c t u r e . (Jackson}  117  TV's C o n t r i b u t i o n t o Mass T r a i n i n g . (Jackson} TV V i e w i n g  H a b i t s o f Open-Country F a m i l i e s .  (Crile, Reist & Tait) TV V i e w i n g  123  H a b i t s i n t h e U.S.A. i n 1954* ( A g r i s e a r c h } . . .  Changes i n t h e TV V i e w i n g  124  H a b i t s i n U.S.A., 1955.  (Agrisearch)  •••••  V i e w i n g H a b i t s i n a TV S a t u r a t e d (Agrisearch) TV V i e w i n g  119  •  125  Community. 125  •  and R e l a t e d H a b i t s A f t e r Nine Y e a r s o f TV  i n a Oommunity A p p r o a c h i n g TV S a t u r a t i o n . (Agrisearch) TV V i e w i n g  126  •  H a b i t s i n R u r a l L o u i s i a n a , 1958.  (Bertrand & Bates)  •  127  Impact o f TV Upon t h e M a t u r i n g P r o c e s s o f t h e 128  A d u l t . (Tadros) Recommendations o f t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Educational Broadcasters  Regarding E d u c a t i o n a l  TV S e r v i c e  129  Some R e s u l t s o f E d u c a t i o n a l TV i n Kamloops, B.C. (Arnett)  .....  133  xi Page The  E f f e c t s o f F r i n g e M i g r a t i o n o n Use o f D i f f u s i o n  Devices. Use  (Anderson)  •  o f I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e s by F a r m e r s i n S c h u y l e r  County, N . I . ( D i c k e r s o n ) Use  178  •  •  l£0  o f Information Sources by Farmers.  (Abell,  Larson & Dickerson)  181  I n f o r m a t i o n M e d i a U s e d by A d u l t S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s in  California.  (Damon)  •  ••••  182  I n f o r m a t i o n M e d i a Used by A d u l t S t u d e n t s i n California. Summary  (Damon)  182  o f Media E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Reaching A d u l t  Students i n C a l i f o r n i a .  (Damon)  183  P h y s i c a l B a r r i e r s t o Communication. ( N a f z i g e r , E n g s t r o m & MacLean, J r . ) a n d (Myren) F a c t o r s on Which E f f e c t i v e is  •  I84  Communication o f I n f o r m a t i o n  Dependent. ( N a f z i g e r , E n g s t r o m & MacLean, J r . )  and  (Myren)  Single  135  Colour and C o l o u r Combinations  Preference.  (Jastrow)  189  C o l o u r P r e f e r e n c e s o f I n d i a n s , W h i t e s and o f People with Mixed Blood. Summary  (Garth)  o f Research P e r t a i n i n g t o Colour  o f Men a n d Women. ( A g r i s e a r c h ) Summary  189 Preferences •  190  o f C o l o u r P r e f e r e n c e s o f Men a n d Women: The  Recurring Factors. (Agrisearch)  190  xii Page Some G e n e r a l C o n c l u s i o n s R e g a r d i n g C o l o u r P r e f e r e n c e . (Agrisearch)  191  •  R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f C o l o u r e d and Uncoloured A d s . 192  (Nelson) Comparative  Study o f Impact o f F o u r - C o l o u r and B l a c k 192  and White A d s . (Warner and Fraaen) V a l u e o f C o l o u r i n A t t r a c t i n g A t t e n t i o n . (Nixon) ••••••• C o l o u r V i s i b i l i t y and Frequency  193  o f Use i n A d s . 194  (McGraw-Hill) An E v a l u a t i o n o f C o l o u r and B l a c k and White Ad C o s t s With V i s i b i l i t y Being Considered. (McGraw-Hill) L e g i b i l i t y o f Various Colour Combinations.  (Hackl)......  195 195  A d v e r t i s i n g Research R e s u l t s W i t h Reference t o Use o f C o l o u r . ( A g r i s e a r c h ) •  196  •  E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f V a r i o u s P r e s e n t a t i o n Methods. 193  (Hearne) I n s t r u c t o r s * P r e f e r e n c e s f o r D e v i c e s Used i n T r a i n i n g Young Women f o r M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e i n t h e U.S.  199  (Shaffter) Comparative  Study o f P r e s e n t i n g I n f o r m a t i v e Speeches  W i t h and Without t h e Use o f V i s u a l A i d s . 201  (Bodenhamer) Summary o f t h e C o n t r i b u t i o n s That T e a c h i n g D e v i c e s Can Make To The T e a c h i n g - L e a r n i n g S i t u a t i o n . F i n n & D a l e ) and (McClusky)  (Hoban), 204  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The w r i t e r acknowledges h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o Dr. C o o l i e V e r n e r , P r o f e s s o r o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , and t h o s e o t h e r members o f t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, who gave so much o f t h e i r t i m e and encouragement, and w i t h o u t whose c o - o p e r a t i o n t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d n e v e r have been completed. Dr. V e r n e r , Chairman o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r y Committee, was b o t h an i n s p i r a t i o n and s t e a d y i n g f o r c e , and p r o v i d e d t h e v e r y n e c e s s a r y guidance i n t h e development o f t h e approach  t o t h i s study.  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  The A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  Adult Education  Setting  t o d a y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h a t  organized  e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y t h a t a p e r s o n p u r s u e s w h i l e h i s main a c t i v i t y o r l i v e l i h o o d i s i n some o t h e r f i e l d .  V e r n e r (432)  d e f i n e s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n much more e x a c t l y when he s a y s : A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s t h e a c t i o n o f an e x t e r n a l e d u c a t i o n a l agent i n p u r p o s e f u l l y o r d e r i n g b e h a v i o r i n t o p l a n n e d s y s t e m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t can r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g f o r t h o s e f o r whom such a c t i v i t y i s s u p p l e m e n t a l t o t h e i r p r i m a r y r o l e i n s o c i e t y , and which i n v o l v e s some c o n t i n u i t y i n an exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e agent and t h e l e a r n e r so t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s under c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n . Adult education  i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y more  important  as a d u l t s seek t o f i t t h e m s e l v e s f o r a r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . ... a d u l t s must c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n .... The c u r r e n t genera t i o n o f mature a d u l t s r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n f a c e d w i t h managing a c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d t h a n t h e one o r i g i n a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d t o them. The consequence o f t h i s new f a c t o f l i f e i s such t h a t t h e w e l l - e d u c a t e d y o u t h o f t o d a y i s an o b s o l e t e man tomorrow. (3) To g i v e some i d e a o f t h e e x t e n t and depth o f a d u l t education  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Read and M a r b l e (341) l i s t e d  400 s e p a r a t e education  and d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h conducted a d u l t  programs.  I n every i n s t a n c e , these o r g a n i z a t i o n s are  i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g and c o n d u c t i n g  e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r  2  adults.  Such programs r e q u i r e t h e use o f a v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e l e a r n i n g opport u n i t i e s f o r the adult p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Heretofore, educational  programs d e s i g n e d f o r a d u l t s have tended t o d u p l i c a t e t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and a c t i v i t i e s used w i t h c h i l d r e n , b u t i n r e c e n t y e a r s i t has become o b v i o u s t h a t a d u l t s r e q u i r e special consideration. As t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has developed, i n c r e a s i n g l y more c a r e f u l thought  i s given t o the s p e c i a l i z e d  needs o f a d u l t s i n t h e d e s i g n and management o f l e a r n i n g activities.  I n so d o i n g , g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n i s d e v e l o p i n g i n  i d e n t i f y i n g t h e fundamental concepts which c o n s t i t u t e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l process i n adult education.  Among t h e s e elements  i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s can be found a complex  assortment  o f i n s t r u m e n t s , m a t e r i a l s , and c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h , f o r convenience, V e r n e r has i d e n t i f i e d a s d e v i c e s (433)•  The r o l e which t h e s e  p l a y i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n has n o t been c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d due t o t h e mass o f d a t a about them and t h e c o n f u s i o n c r e a t e d by t h e v a r i e t y o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t h e use o f d e v i c e s in different instructional  situations.  I n o r d e r t h a t d e v i c e s m i g h t be used more e f f e c t i v e l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t e x t a n t r e s e a r c h be s y s t e m a t i z e d and i n t e g r a t e d both t o p r o v i d e a f u n c t i o n a l g u i d e t o t h e use o f d e v i c e s as w e l l as i n d i c a t i n g gaps o r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n e x t a n t knowledge about them.  3  The Purpose o f the Study  The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o review pertaining to instructional  the r e s e a r c h  a i d s and d e v i c e s i n a d u l t  education;  t o analyse t h i s r e s e a r c h and t o c o n s t r u c t a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r such d e v i c e s which w i l l o r g a n i z e , c l a s s i f y  and  i n t e g r a t e what i s known so t h a t the knowledge w i l l be f u n c t i o n a l l y available to adult  educators.  4 The Sources o f  Information  There have been few r e v i e w s o f r e s e a r c h  pertaining  e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e use o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s i n a d u l t education,  S h e a t s and Svenson  (364) p u b l i s h e d a r e v i e w i n  1950 d e a l i n g w i t h t h e use o f a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , Brunner (60) p r o v i d e d a good s u r v e y o f d e v i c e s i n 1959«  Goulette^  review of research  (168)  t h e s i s i s an  c a r r i e d out i n t h e U . S . Armed  certain excellent Services  w i t h some r e f e r e n c e t o d e v i c e s used i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , V e r n e r (434) g i v e s a s u c c i n c t  survey of research  and  pertaining  t o d e v i c e s used i n t h e a d u l t f i e l d i n 1959• Although reviews r e l a t e d to adult education a r e s p a r s e t h e r e have been many r e v i e w s o f r e s e a r c h  specifically on t h e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s g e n e r a l l y t h a t are not w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to adult education.  These have been  p u b l i s h e d q u i t e r e g u l a r l y s i n c e Hoban*s (200) work i n 1937, 1941,  w h i c h was f o l l o w e d by Dale and Hoban (107)  and by D a l e and o t h e r s ( 1 0 9 ) ,  A l l e n (14),  comprehensive  (15)  (108)  i n 1956, M c C l u s k y (279)  i n 1949 and 1950. i n 1949 and S t e n i u s  (385) i n 1945 p u b l i s h e d g e n e r a l r e v i e w s o f r e s e a r c h . graphies of research  in  Biblio-  s t u d i e s were c o m p i l e d by t h e s t a f f  of  t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l F i l m Research Program ( 7 0 ) , L a r s o n and Runden ( 2 5 8 ) , and M o l d s t a d ( 3 0 0 ) . p e d i a o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research comprehensive  A s s t a t e d by t h e E n c y c l o -  ( i 9 6 0 ) ( I 8 7 ) , however, t h e most  a n a l y s i s up t o i 9 6 0 was t h e r e p o r t p r e p a r e d i n  5 1950  f o r t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l F i l m R e s e a r c h Program by Hoban and  VanOrmer ( 2 0 4 ) .  The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h  b r i n g s t h e s u r v e y o f r e s e a r c h up t o d a t e and p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s up t o I960, The i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s f o r t h i s t h e s i s were many and varied.  The b i g g e s t c o n t r i b u t o r o f r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n was  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed F o r c e s , f o l l o w e d by t h e C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n s and t h e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s o f s e v e r a l S t a t e U n i v e r s i t i e s , and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l P r o j e c t i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Communications have p u b l i s h e d many v a l u a b l e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s which were h e l p f u l .  Several univer-  s i t y degree and non-degree s t u d e n t r e s e a r c h papers were particularly useful. The problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n a l y z i n g such r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l a r e l e g i o n b u t t e n d t o a r i s e f r o m one c i r c u m s t a n c e : when r e s e a r c h was b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a d e v i c e , u s u a l l y i t s use was g e n e r a l i z e d and n o t examined f o r a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , t h u s some v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f a d e v i c e i n one t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n may n o t h o l d t r u e i n a n o t h e r .  T h i s can be i l l u s t r a t e d  by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e use o f a r i f l e , t h e a c t u a l a r t i c l e , as a teaching device.  I t s h o u l d be used t o i l l u s t r a t e what a r i f l e  i s , o b v i o u s l y i t i s much b e t t e r t h a n p i c t u r e s , o r f i l m , o r any  6 o t h e r d e v i c e , however i t i s not an e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g how  the chamber gases are e x p e l l e d or how  i s f o r c e d i n t o the breech. v i s u a l , t h r e e dimensional  I t i s e x c e l l e n t as an d e v i c e i n one  i n f e r i o r t o a cutaway o r a two  round  illustrative  i n s t a n c e but i s  d i m e n s i o n a l non p r o j e c t e d device  such as a p i c t u r e s e r i e s i n the next Again,  a new  instance.  from the b a s i s o f r e i n f o r c i n g l e a r n i n g o r  t e a c h i n g a student t o achieve a c e r t a i n standard o f speed  and  e x c e l l e n c e , the a c t u a l equipment can be used but, as Gagne' (150) p o i n t e d out, the problem o f e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g here i s not  one  of making the t a s k s i m i l a r but r a t h e r o f a r r a n g i n g the c o n d i t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e i n such a way  t h a t e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s are most e a s i l y  learned. I t can be seen then t h a t r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a d e v i c e , w i l l have t o r e l a t e t o how d e v i c e i s used and f o r what purpose.  the  7  D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms There a r e s e v e r a l common terms t h a t have a s p e c i a l meaning a s used i n t h i s t h e s i s . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n was d e f i n e d e a r l i e r , i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , ( s e e p. 1 ) . V e r n e r s d e f i n i t i o n s a r e used a s b e i n g t h e most f  a u t h o r i t a t i v e and d e f i n i t i v e : Method may be d e f i n e d a s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a p o t e n t i a l body o f p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e purpose o f s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i f f u s i n g knowledge among a p r e s c r i b e d b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d p u b l i c . (432, p. 9) Technique may be d e f i n e d a s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l agent ( a d u l t e d u c a t o r ) t o f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g among a p a r t i c u l a r and p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d body o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . (432, p. 9) An I n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e may be d e f i n e d as any means w h i c h i s u s e d t o s t r e n g t h e n o r enhance t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s but w h i c h does n o t a l o n e p r o v i d e t h e d i r e c t l e a r n e r i n s t r u c t o r r e l a t i o n s h i p n e c e s s a r y t o be c o n s i d e r e d an e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e o r method. Such d e v i c e s w i l l supplement o r s t r e n g t h e n a method o r t e c h n i q u e i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . (432, p. 10 and V e r n e r s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n l e c t u r e r s a t UBC 1961) f  I n g e n e r a l , d e v i c e s may be c l a s s e d a s : 1. 2.  ideas practices  3.  instruments  4.  combinations  of the preceding three  Some a d d i t i o n a l quotes may be i n o r d e r here t o p o i n t up t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s between method and t e c h n i q u e .  8  Method i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y centered and, t h e r e f o r e , an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n ; w h i l e technique i s p a r t i c i p a n t centered and, thus, a f u n c t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Techniques a r e , f o r the most p a r t , independent o f methods. J u s t as an i n s t i t u t i o n may use one o r more methods f o r t h e d i f f u s i o n o f knowledge so may i t s agent use a v a r i e t y o f techniques w i t h i n the l i m i t s imposed by the method. I n some i n s t a n c e s , c e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s which come i n t o being w i t h i n t h e concept o f a s i n g l e method are more a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h a t method than t o o t h e r s ; however, i n g e n e r a l , most t e c h n i q u e s are a p p l i c a b l e under more than one method. (432, p. 9)  CHAPTER I I  THE NATURE OF DEVICES  V i r t u a l l y any l e a r n i n g of i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices.  s i t u a t i o n i s enhanced by t h e use  I d e a l l y , t h e purpose o f a d e v i c e i s  t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e more e f f e c t i v e performance o f one o r more o f the f o l l o w i n g  phases i n t h e l e a r n i n g  s i t u a t i o n by a p p e a l i n g t o  a maximum number o f senses i n an optimum environment: 1.  Promote group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n  2.  I n t r o d u c e new  3*  Clarify details  4.  Stimulate  5«  Summarize  6.  Review  material  interest  B e i n g a supplementary measure, t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  of a  d e v i c e w i l l n o t overcome by i t s own m e r i t s , a d e f i c i e n c y o f i n t e r e s t w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r h o l d s f o r a g i v e n group. Also i t i s not a substitute maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s  f o r teacher preparation: f o r  an i n s t r u c t o r s h o u l d have complete  f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a d e v i c e , and i t s o p e r a t i o n a l o r mechanical aspects.  The p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n o f a d e v i c e  i s n e c e s s a r y f o r maximum e f f e c t , and s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a t i o n o f d e v i c e s i s e s s e n t i a l t o p r e v e n t boredom.  Among t h e e a r l i e s t  work r e l a t e d t o d e v i c e s was t h a t done by Hoban i n 1937,  which  10 was  concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s .  pp.  22-5)  teaching  stated four general p r i n c i p l e s regarding devices i n the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g  be k e p t i n mind when comparing and  (203,  Hoban  t h e use  of  s i t u a t i o n which should  evaluating devices.  These  a r e as f o l l o w s : A.  The v a l u e o f v i s u a l a i d s i s & f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r degree o f r e a l i t y .  B.  The v a l u e o f v i s u a l a i d s i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f the p u p i l s * p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . I f v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e has a l r e a d y developed wide and manif o l d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n from t h e c o n c r e t e through the intermediate l e v e l s of experience to the m e a n i n g f u l use o f words ( v e r b a l i z a t i o n ) , f u r t h e r v i s u a l a i d s are u n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e development o f p r o g r e s s i v e a b s t r a c t i o n . The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e v a r i o u s v i s u a l a i d s i s i n d i r e c t r a t i o t o the p u p i l ' s stage o f l e a r n i n g and development. T h i s p r i n c i p l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m : (shown on page 11) . . . The, v a l u e o f v i s u a l a i d s i s & f u n c t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e degree of r e a l i t y and the p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e l e a r n e r are h i g h l y r e l a t e d and cannot be i s o l a t e d f r o m each o t h e r .  c  »  D.  Mere c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e , i n i t s e l f , i s no guarantee o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ; i t m e r e l y s u p p l i e s the s i t u a t i o n by w h i c h t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n becomes p o s s i b l e and meaningf u l . The a c t u a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s and must be t a u g h t on t h e v e r b a l l e v e l . I f t e a c h e r s w i l l f i r s t determine t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e y can t h e n determine whether v i s u a l a i d s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e toward t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e and w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l a i d l e n d s i t s e l f b e s t toward t h i s end. The v a l u e o f v i s u a l a i d s i s & f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y o f the l e a r n e r . I t has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y o f mind d e t e r m i n e s i n p a r t t h e a b i l i t y t o see r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t o form generalizations. . . . I t f o l l o w s , t h e n , t h a t the amount and c o n c r e t e n e s s o f t h e v i s u a l a i d n e c e s s a r y t o t h e development o f any g i v e n l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n i s g r e a t e r where t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y o f t h e l e a r n e r i s l o w e r , and v i c e v e r s a . . . . P r o v i s i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s are g e n e r a l l y q u a n t i t a t i v e , whereas t h e y must a l s o be q u a l i t a t i v e . . . .  FIGURE 1  words diagrams maps flat  pictures  slides stereographs films models objects total situation t h e concrete  the  abstract  12  A b o u t t w e n t y y e a r s a f t e r Hoban d e v i s e d  the scale  (Figure  1) w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e l e a r n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s audio-visual  a i d s i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , D a l e (106)  revised this  i n t o h i s n o t e d "Cone o f E x p e r i e n c e "  to  explain "the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the various  audio-visual materials, in  (Figure  as w e l l  the learning process".  rigid,  inflexible  2, p . 13)  types o f  as t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s  (106)  The b a n d s shown a r e n o t  d i v i s i o n s , e.g.,  . . . a m o t i o n p i c t u r e c a n be s i l e n t o r c a n combine s i g h t and s o u n d . Y o u c a n v i e w a d r a m a t i z a t i o n a s a s p e c t a t o r o r y o u may p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t a s a n a c t o r . . . . The cone d e v i c e , then, i s a v i s u a l metaphor o f l e a r n i n g experiences, i n which t h e v a r i o u s types o f a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s are a r r a n g e d i n t h e o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g a b s t r a c t i o n s a s one proceeds from d i r e c t experiences. ( 1 0 6 , p . 42$ * not  I t should  be n o t e d t h a t  mean i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y .  t r i p s to the pinnacle difficult  but only  experience.  increasing abstractness  E x h i b i t s are nearer than  a more  of devices  with respect  may  call  f o r d i f f e r e n t kinds  p e r f o r m more t h a n one f u n c t i o n .  functions  required  i n a learning  a clue to the  to the functions  they perform i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . therefore,  abstract  42-3)  D a l e ' s "Cone o f E x p e r i e n c e " p r o v i d e s classification  field  o f t h e c o n e , n o t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e more  because they provide  ( 1 0 6 , pp  does  Different  of devices  functions,  a n d some  In general,  which  devices  the chief  situation involve  illustration,  r e - e n f o r c e m e n t , and t h e environment, w h i c h i d e n t i f y t h e t h r e e principal  classifications  catalogued.  i n t o which devices  c a n be  conveniently  13 FIGURE 2  verbal symbols visual symbols recordings, radio s t i l l pictures motion p i c t u r e s television exhibits field  trips  demonstrations dramatized  experiences  contrived  experiences  d i r e c t , purposeful experiences  Ik The most common f u n c t i o n f o r which d e v i c e s are used i s that of i l l u s t r a t i o n .  I n t h i s case the d e v i c e  facilitates  l e a r n i n g by i n v o l v i n g sense p e r c e p t i o n i n a c q u i r i n g t h e m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d . The I l l u s t r a t i v e D e v i c e s have a n a t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o A u d i o d e v i c e s and V i s u a l d e v i c e s and f u r t h e r , t h e Audio sub-group i t s e l f can be r e a d i l y d i v i d e d i n t o L i v e , and devices.  Mechanical  The V i s u a l subgroup o f d e v i c e s have a f u r t h e r con-  s e q u e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o Three D i m e n s i o n a l Dimensional Non-Projected  d e v i c e s , and Two  devices,  Two  Dimensional P r o j e c t e d  devices. Re-enforcement i s an e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f l e a r n i n g and t o a c h i e v e re-enforcement The  there are a v a r i e t y of devices a v a i l a b l e .  d e v i c e s used i n t h e r e - e n f o r c i n g t y p e o f t e a c h i n g can them-  s e l v e s be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t y groups, - P r a c t i c e , D r i l l , and P e r f o r m a n c e . The l e a s * used t y p e o f d e v i c e i n v o l v e s c e r t a i n e n v i r o n mental aspects of the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .  The  environment  i t s e l f i s not g e n e r a l l y f o r g o t t e n o r i g n o r e d but i t i s not u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as a c o n t r o l l a b l e d e v i c e . a r e reviewed under two ational.  Here t h e s e  s u b d i v i s i o n s , - P h y s i c a l and  The P h y s i c a l , o f c o u r s e , i s a l l t h e  devices  Organiz-  controllable  p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the m e e t i n g p l a c e whereas t h e  Organiz-  a t i o n a l i s s u b d i v i d e d and c o n s i d e r e d under t h e two h e a d i n g s o f Group S i z e , and Arrangement o f L e a r n e r s .  15 A l t h o u g h the f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f d e v i c e s f a l l s i n t o the t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s  indicated, there i s a further  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n imposed by the n a t u r e o f t h e d e v i c e s t h e m s e l v e s . Some d e v i c e s are u s e f u l i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n d i r e c t l y w h i l e o t h e r commonly used d e v i c e s are l e s s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s but are p r i m a r i l y u s e f u l f o r the general d i f f u s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n .  This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  D i f f u s i o n D e v i c e s i s d i v i d e d i n t o the two D i s t r i b u t e d D e v i c e s which i n c l u d e s  subdivisions  of  such as C i r c u l a r L e t t e r s ,  B u l l e t i n s , e t c . , and E x t e n s i o n D e v i c e s w h i c h c o n s i d e r s C i r c u i t TV,  Open  r a d i o , and M o t i o n p i c t u r e s .  As we  have seen, the i n i t i a l d i v i s i o n i n the  classif-  i c a t i o n system i s by t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d any  employment o f a 1.  of  in  device.  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices A l l t h e d e v i c e s used i n s k i l l t r a i n i n g , i l l u s t r a t i o n , r e - e n f o r c e m e n t and m a x i m i z i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t o r , method, t e c h n i q u e and  the  environment t o  f a c i l i t a t e t h e accomplishment o f t h e  educational  o b j e c t i v e o f the agency where some degree o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t i s p o s s i b l e between t h e agent and 2.  D i f f u s i o n Devices  the  learner.  {  These a r e d e v i c e s w h i c h p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n  to  the  p u b l i c w i t h no more p r e - s e l e c t i o n o f l e a r n e r s t h a n t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the m e d i a .  F i t z g e r a l d (41)  lists  the  16  f o l l o w i n g as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h t y p i f y d i f f u s i o n devices: a* b. c. d.  broad coverage o f a heterogeneous group low u n i t c o s t f o r p r o d u c e r and consumer speed mass i n t e r e s t , w i t h some e n t e r t a i n m e n t v a l u e ; a b i l i t y t o communicate e a s i l y and s i m p l y t o t h e average i n t e l l e c t . T h i s group i n c l u d e s o n l y d e v i c e s w h i c h serve t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e changes i n a t t i t u d e . (41)  An e x a m i n a t i o n an i n s t r u m e n t  o f t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s w i l l show t h a t  o r p r a c t i c e w i l l become a d e v i c e o n l y by  a p p l i c a t i o n , n o t by v i r t u e o f some i n h e r e n t  property.  17 Typology o f D e v i c e s The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e t a i l e d , i f n o t complete o f d e v i c e s by ( l j f u n c t i o n , l i s t i n g of representative I.  listing  (2) sense a p p e a l e d t o , and (3) a  d e v i c e s i n each c a t e g o r y .  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices A. 1.  Illustrative Audio a.  L i v e , - v e r b a l i z a t i o n - by i n s t r u c t o r o r l e a r n e r participant,  b.  Mechanicali  recitation. -  (1) Monaural and S t e r e o r e c o r d s (2) t a p e s (3) 2.  radio  Visual a.  Three d i m e n s i o n a l : -  (1) mock ups (2) d e m o n s t r a t i o n s (3) animated p a n e l s (4)  diorama  (5)  cutaways  (6) museum m a t e r i a l s (7) f i e l d  trips  (8) r o l e - p l a y i n g (9)  exhibits  (pantorium)  - d i s p l a y o f a c t u a l items  18  B.  b.  Two  dimensional,  Non  projected.  (1  blackboards  (2  magnetic and f e l t boards  (3  books  (4  handouts  (5  correspondence c o u r s e s  (6  study  (7  teacher  (a  posters  (9  bulletin  guides guides  boards  (10  b e f o r e and a f t e r p i c t u r e s  (11  stereoscopes  (12  graphics -  (13  comic  (14  cartoons  (15  technamation d i s p l a y s  charts graphs f l i p charts  strips  c.  Two  (1  opaque and t r a n s p a r e n t  (2  film  (3  f i l m s t r i p and  (4  micro f i l m p r o j e c t i o n s  (5  E d u c a t i o n a l TV  dimensional  projected projections  slide projections  (closed c i r c u i t )  Re-Enforcing 1,  P r a c t i c e : - a c t u a l a r t i c l e or simulator or o p e r a t i v e mock up  19  C.  2.  D r i l l : - a. r e a d i n g machines ( t a c h i s t s c o p e , pacer, reading f i l m ) b. language and o t h e r r e p e t i t i v e t y p e recordings c. f l a s h c a r d s  3.  P e r f o r m a n c e: a* T e a c h i n g machines and programmed instruction b. S k i l l t e s t s  Environmental !•  2.  Physical: - a l l controllable physical i n the meeting p l a c e . a. Colour b.  Lighting  c.  Temperature  Organi z a t i o n a l : a.  Group s i z e  b.  Arrangement o f l e a r n e r s : (1) r e a c t i o n team (2) o b s e r v a t i o n team (3) l i s t e n i n g team (4) " t h r e a d  D i f f u s i o n devices A.  B.  Distributed 1.  Circular letters  2.  Bulletins  3.  News S t o r i e s  Extension 1.  Open c i r c u i t  2.  Radio  3«  Motion  TV  Pictures  man"  -  facilities  CHAPTER I I I  ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH PERTAINING TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OFINSTRUCTIONAL  DEVICES  I n r e v i e w i n g and a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d t o d e v i c e s , t h e m a t e r i a l w i l l be o r g a n i z e d and p r e s e n t e d i n t h e arrangement i n d i c a t e d by t h e Typology  of Devices presented i n  the preceeding chapter. I.  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices A.  Illustrative 1.  Audio (a) L i v e  To open t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e use o f l i v e ,  audio  t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i t may be s u i t a b l e t o m e n t i o n D a l e ' s (106) "cone o f e x p e r i e n c e " t o w h i c h he r e f e r s when he s t a t e s t h a t words must be seen on r i s i n g levels of abstraction.  The c l o s e r a word i s t o some p o s s i b l e  c o n c r e t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , - t o showing t h e o b j e c t t o w h i c h i t r e f e r s - t h e e a s i e r i t i s t o t e a c h and t o l e a r n .  Conversely,  t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a word can be u n d e r s t o o d , t h e more d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o t e a c h and t o learn. As Corey (93) p o i n t e d o u t , t h e l e c t u r e method o f t e a c h i n g d e v e l o p e d and t h r i v e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y u n i v e r s i t y p e r i o d ,  21 l a r g e l y because o f t h e s c a r c i t y o f books and a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d e n t use.  manuscripts  The u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t i e s t h e n knew  many t h i n g s not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e and t h e o n l y f e a s i b l e method f o r them t o d i s s e m i n a t e lecturing.  t h e i r l e a r n i n g was  by t e l l i n g  W i t h modern advances i n p r i n t i n g and  or  multigraphing,  t h e h i s t o r i c a l argument f o r the l e c t u r e method o f t e a c h i n g been weakened.  A d u l t s t u d e n t s a r e not so dependent on  has  teachers  f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l nourishment as t h e y are f o r s t i m u l a t i o n and guidance. Day  and Beach (112)  r e v i e w e d the r e s e a r c h up t o 1950  comparing t h e v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n o f and f o u n d t h a t i t was  in  information  d i v i d e d 50/to as t o w h i c h t e c h n i q u e  was  more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d . I n 1953  L u l l (271)  r e p o r t e d t h a t a comparison o f o r a l  w r i t t e n communications t o a group o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and  and  industrial  w o r k e r s showed t h a t o r a l communication was more e f f e c t i v e . Webb and W a l l o n (448) i n 1956  c o n c l u d e d from a r e s e a r c h  project  on comprehension by r e a d i n g v e r s u s h e a r i n g t h a t s i n c e  r e a d i n g i s more r a p i d f o r a one t i m e a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h m a t e r i a l , r e a d i n g i s t h e p r e f e r r e d method.  But i f e q u a l time i s a v a i l a b l e  f o r r e a d i n g as f o r a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more m a t e r i a l may  be o b t a i n e d by  Rankin (338)  has  reading.  shown us t h a t l i s t e n i n g i s t h e most  f r e q u e n t l y used language a r t and W o r c e s t e r (463)  pointed  out  t h a t t h e a u d i t o r y method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e v i s u a l method f o r r e t e n t i o n o f communicated  22 subject matter.  He a l s o  showed u s t h a t  one method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n  one who  also learns easily  learns easily  by  by t h e o t h e r  method, and g e n e r a l l y n e i t h e r t h e v i s u a l n o r a u d i t o r y method h a s any  distinct  a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e o t h e r i n t e r m s o f t h e number o f  r e p e t i t i o n s needed f o r l e a r n i n g . (250)  On t h e o t h e r hand, K r a w i e c  s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h a t t h e v i s u a l method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i s  usually  superior to oral  presentation  f o r t h e l e a r n i n g and  r e t e n t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , a n d a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r method i s c o n s i s t ently to  superior f o r retention, the v i s u a l presentation  auditory  presentation  De W i c k advertising  five  superior to visual  p r o d u c t s and t r a d e  Stanton^  o f from  months. (3^2)  findings generally  For recall,  support those o f  shown t o be s u p e r i o r t o t h e  t h e peak s u p e r i o r i t y f o r t h e aud-  i t o r y method came a t t h e s e v e n d a y i n t e r v a l * auditory  and v i s u a l  A f t e r 21  For recognition the greatest  s u p e r i o r i t y f o r t h e a u d i t o r y method o c c u r r e d  a t 21  days.  On t h e b a s i s o f a w h o l e s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s , concluded t h a t :  (1)  The r e l a t i v e  days both  r e s u l t s were much l o w e r and t h e m a r g i n  b e t w e e n t h e two h a d d e c r e a s e d .  (78)  of  presentation  names a f t e r a d e l a y  The a u d i t o r y method was  v i s u a l method.  material.  (117) shows u s t h a t t h e a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n  days t o f i v e  De W i c k .  f o r the learning of d i f f i c u l t  copy i s d i s t i n c t l y  for recalling  i s superior  Carver  effectiveness of visual  varies d i r e c t l y with the d i f f i c u l t y when t h e d i f f i c u l t y  presentation of the content,  i s j u d g e d on t h e b a s i s o f g r a d e d  curriculum content:  t h e e a s i e r t h e m a t e r i a l , t h e more  l i k e l y w i l l a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n be s u p e r i o r t o v i s u a l presentation, (2)  When d i f f i c u l t y of m a t e r i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f s u b j e c t s are h e l d c o n s t a n t , r e c o g n i t i o n , v e r b a l i s m , r e c a l l , and n o n - c r i t i c a l n e s s ( s u g g e s t i b i l i t y ) are more e f f e c t i v e l y e x e r c i s e d when l i s t e n i n g t h a n when r e a d i n g . On t h e o t h e r hand, comprehension, c r i t i c a l n e s s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n are b e s t f a c i l i t a t e d by  (3)  The  and  reading.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n seems t o  be l i m i t e d t o f a m i l i a r and m e a n i n g f u l m a t e r i a l . (4)  The  higher the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the s u b j e c t s , the  g r e a t e r t h e c a p a c i t y t o b e n e f i t from a u d i t o r y presentation.  (7#)  A l l t h e s e f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t n e i t h e r a u d i t o r y  nor  v i s u a l methods o f p r e s e n t a t i o n are c o n s i s t e n t l y e f f e c t i v e under a l l c o n d i t i o n s and f o r a l l t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  Television  appears t o be more e f f e c t i v e as i t combines v i s u a l and methods.  auditory  F o r some pure r e c a l l , o r a l methods o f p r e s e n t a t i o n  are found t o be c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r t o v i s u a l .  On t h e o t h e r hand,  f o r problem s o l v i n g o r m a s t e r i n g d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t m a t t e r , v i s u a l methods are p r o b a b l y s u p e r i o r t o a u d i t o r y methods. K r e i t l o w and Edwards (251)  i n 1961,  made a comparison  o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e l e c t u r e , t h e b u l l e t i n , 16 mm  film  and t e l e v i s i o n , i n p r e s e n t i n g r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t o a d u l t groups and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e l e c t u r e medium was  t h e most e f f e c t i v e .  24 A l s o t h a t t h e b u l l e t i n medium s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n f i l m o r but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so, and, f i n a l l y t h a t t h e h i g h e r  TV,  the  academic grade l e v e l a t t a i n e d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f c o r r e c t answers s c o r e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e media u s e d . Hovland (209)  concludes  t h a t f a c e - t o - f a c e communication  i s almost u n i v e r s a l l y r e p o r t e d t o be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n i s radio. M i c h a e l P o l a n y i (330)  s a i d t h a t words can convey i n f o r m -  a t i o n , but t h e sender o f t h e message w i l l a l w a y s have t o r e l y f o r t h e comprehension o f h i s message on t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n addressed.  O n l y by v i r t u e o f t h i s a c t of comprehension, o f t h i s  t a c i t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f h i s own,  can the r e c e i v i n g p e r s o n be s a i d  t o a c q u i r e knowledge when he i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a s t a t e m e n t . I t may  not be out o f p l a c e here t o remind o u r s e l v e s  of  t h e n e c e s s i t y t o c o n s i d e r t h e n a t i o n a l i t y o r language o f t h e people we  are i n v o l v i n g i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s .  Magazine, f o r September 20,  1963  (402)  reported that  Time General  M o t o r s d i s c o v e r e d "Body by F i s h e r " came out "Corpse by F i s h e r " i n F l e m i s h , and "Schweppes T o n i c Water" was  s p e e d i l y changed t o  "Schweppes T o n i c a " i n I t a l y where " i l w a t e r " i d i o m a t i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s a bathroom.  A g a i n , n a t i v e words i n one A f r i c a n town  are o b s c e n i t i e s 50 m i l e s away, and the o l d a d v e r t i s i n g catchword "magic" i s d i f f i c u l t t o use:  t o A f r i c a n s t h e word i s l i n k e d t o  a m y t h i c a l d e v i l named Tokoloshe who  g e t s young g i r l s p r e g n a n t .  25 A.  Illustrative 1.  Audio (b)  Mechanical  T h e r e ,have b e e n r e l a t i v e l y effectiveness  of radio  ation to adults  and r e c o r d i n g s  on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  "discussion clusions! and  starters".  some f i n d i n g s f r o m r e s e a r c h o f recordings  were e f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n  t h e need f o r a t r a i n e d l e a d e r .  a skit  themselves with  s i t u a t i o n s portrayed  icant and  the  Individuals  Nelson, M o l l  starters  resist  and tended t o promote  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  and J a s p e n  (310)  undesirable  problematic  showed t h a t  l e a r n i n g accrued from the presentation  of film  signif-  a s a whole  o f e i t h e r t h e audio o r video  and a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r  channel  c h a n n e l was c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r  o t h e r b o t h c h a n n e l s t o g e t h e r were c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r  e i t h e r one a l o n e .  In general,  d a r k a p p e a r s t o be s l i g h t l y (3) Crile's  hearing  superior  t h e sound t r a c k  t o hearing  than  than  i n the  i t i n the light.  Radio (98) f i n d i n g s f r o m r a d i o  good b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h i s s e c t i o n . radio  con-  helped d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s t o i d e n t i f y  from t h e presentation  alone,  used as  A variety of  s i t u a t i o n s b u t i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t i n c o r r e c t i n g situations.  com-  The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e f o l l o w i n g  problems w i t h i n  discussion.  f a c t u a l inform-  a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s .  and e v a l u a t i o n  - the recordings  they lessened  s t u d i e s made o f t h e  i n teaching  and i n c h a n g i n g a d u l t  Tewes (400) r e p o r t e d pleted  few b a s i c  and p r i n t , s e e m i n g l y u n l i k e  research  Clinton  provided  (82) o b s e r v e d  each other,  a that  a c t u a l l y have  26 certain  similarities.  but r a t h e r suggests.  L i k e p r i n t , r a d i o does n o t demonstrate I t s scenes and e v e n t s a r e i n t h e i m a g i n -  a t i o n o f t h e a u d i e n c e , making r a d i o almost a s m o b i l e a s p r i n t . A l s o l i k e p r i n t , r a d i o does n o t r e q u i r e a s e t t i n g :  the narrator  has freedom f o r he may speak from a s p e c i f i c t i m e and p l a c e o r from no t i m e and no p l a c e .  A n a r r a t o r i s e a s i l y accepted.  I n 1935 C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t  (67) proved t h a t e d u c a t i o n  c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y conducted by r a d i o .  K a t z and E i s e n b e r g  (236) l a t e r f o u n d t h a t l i s t e n e r s p r e f e r r e d e d u c a t i o n a l  material  t o be e n t e r t a i n i n g and were l i k e l y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m a t e r i a l and r e t a i n i t b e t t e r when i t was p r e s e n t e d i n an e n t e r t a i n i n g manner.  H a r r e l l , Brown and Schramm (186) f o u n d t h a t a u d i e n c e s  p r e f e r b r o a d c a s t s w h i c h do n o t c o n t a i n t o o many  individual  i t e m s even though t h e y may r e t a i n more i n a b s o l u t e numbers from t h e b r o a d c a s t s w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e more i t e m s . t h a t human i n t e r e s t ,  They a l s o showed  s p e c t a c u l a r o r nearby e v e n t s a r e remembered  b e t t e r t h a n s e r i o u s s u b j e c t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and e v e n t s o f distant origin.  Golden (162) measured t h e degrees o f r e t e n t i o n  o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t p r e s e n t e d i n r a d i o b r o a d c a s t by a lecture,  a d i a l o g u e i n i n t e r v i e w s t y l e , and a d r a m a t i z a t i o n ,  each o f 15 m i n u t e s d u r a t i o n .  Retention scores immediately  f o l l o w i n g t h e b r o a d c a s t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups.  Four weeks l a t e r t h o s e who had been exposed t o t h e  t a l k showed much h i g h e r r e t e n t i o n t h a n t h e o t h e r two groups. The d r a m a t i z a t i o n group.  group s c o r e d much l o w e r t h a n t h e d i a l o g u e  The h i g h e r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e  27 h i g h e r were t h e r e t e n t i o n s c o r e s o f t h o s e who had h e a r d t h e lecture.  A t below h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , r e t e n t i o n was about  from l e c t u r e and d i a l o g u e . b r o a d c a s t s were e f f e c t i v e  W a l l ' s (441)  s t u d y suggested  equal that  t e a c h i n g i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h normal  groups a n d , on the w h o l e , w i t h t h e b e t t e r o f t h e b a c k w a r d . t h e v e r y backward t h e evidence suggested t h a t  For  s c r i p t s would have  t o be s p e c i a l l y a d a p t e d .  On b e h a l f o f the B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g  C o r p o r a t i o n , Vernon (437)  made f i v e s t u d i e s i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f  r a d i o as an e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e . i b i l i t y of broadcast (1)  The s t u d y on the i n t e l l i g -  t a l k s showed t h a t :  -  Crowding a g r e a t many p o i n t s i n t o t h e t a l k had a l e s s harmful e f f e c t than a n t i c i p a t e d .  A l a r g e number o f  t e a c h i n g p o i n t s makes f o r d i f f i c u l t y a l t h o u g h h i g h interest  t a l k s can c o n t a i n 10 o r more major  points.  Many s u b s i d i a r y p o i n t s o r f a c t s may seem c o n f u s i n g but are n o t f o u n d h a r m f u l . (2)  There was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e  i n comprehension and r e c a l l  between r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l b u t r e a d i n g was s u p e r i o r a t h i g h e r l e v e l s ,  matter,  and l i s t e n i n g  was s u p e r i o r i n younger and d u l l e r and t h e o v e r 60 learners. (3)  D r a m a t i z e d i n c i d e n t s had g r e a t e r d e l a y e d r e c a l l .  (4)  Good o r poor d e l i v e r y ( w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e  limits)  has  l i t t l e e f f e c t on i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , a l t h o u g h i t may i n f l u e n c e a p p r e c i a t i o n ; o v e r - s p e e d y d e l i v e r y i s more harmful.  28 (5)  Overlong sentences, d i f f i c u l t vocabulary,  many p r e p o s -  i t i o n s tend to increase u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y to a  slight  degree. (6)  V a r i o u s measures o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l speech, p e r s o n a l "human i n t e r e s t " words, a l s o f a i l e d t o show any  (7)  B o t h l u c i d i t y and l i v e l i n e s s o f s t y l e are  (8)  A c l e a r summary h e l p s .  (9)  The most s u c c e s s f u l t a l k s d e a l t w i t h c o n c r e t e  and  relevance.  important.  subjects  o f a p r a c t i c a l k i n d , w h i c h were f a m i l i a r t o l i s t e n e r s i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s o r a f f e c t e d them p e r s o n a l l y .  The  l e a s t successful t a l k s dealt with very abstract t o p i c s such as "the n a t u r e o f c l e a r t h i n k i n g " , o r w i t h  subjects  such as l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h reminded t h e l i s t e n e r o f h i s schooldays. (10)  S c i e n t i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s are more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e o r i e s .  (11)  The  i n t e r e s t a r o u s e d by a t a l k ( p a r t i c u l a r l y among d u l l  and  average l i s t e n e r s ) g r e a t l y outweighs i n importance  any f a c t o r s o f s t y l e o r l a n g u a g e . Vernon (437)  (437)  found t h a t about h a l f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  can  r e c a l l o n l y one t h i r d o r f e w e r o f t h e main p o i n t s o f an eleme n t a r y e d u c a t i o n a l t a l k and  s a i d , "Perhaps we  r e a c h t h e bottom 25% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ,  can n e v e r hope t o  - e x c e p t by  face-to-face  instruction. The  B.B.C. r e p o r t  (by Vernon) on t h e e f f e c t s o f b r o a d -  c a s t i n g a s e r i a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f a book on t h e r e a d i n g o f book were a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g : -  the  29 (lj  I t s p u r r e d l i b r a r y l o a n s and s a l e s of t h e book.  (2)  I t l e d t o r e a d i n g o t h e r books by t h e same a u t h o r .  (3)  The  subsequent r e a d i n g o f the b r o a d c a s t book was  t o t h e i n t e r e s t aroused i n t h e book and not t o i n " what was m i s s e d o f t h e The  due "filling  broadcast.  i n q u i r y i n t o t h e optimum l e n g t h of an  information  b r o a d c a s t t a l k showed t h a t : (1)  There was  s e r i o u s d i m i n i s h i n g o f r e t u r n s a f t e r 15  m i n u t e s , and f o r 30 m i n u t e s the t o t a l amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed d i d not (2)  A f t e r 15 for  minutes the a s s i m i l a t i o n of m a t e r i a l decreases  the e n t i r e broadcast,  t h e f i r s t 15 (3)  increase.  not o n l y f o r t h e p a r t a f t e r  minutes.  Most p e o p l e who  s w i t c h o f f a program do so i n t h e  f i r s t two m i n u t e s , w i t h l i t t l e s w i t c h i n g a f t e r f i v e minutes. (4)  A l i s t e n e r h e a r i n g a 15  minute b r o a d c a s t r e c a l l s t w i c e  as much as one h e a r i n g a 30 minute (5)  L i s t e n e r s p r e f e r 30 m i n u t e  (6)  Of a 15 11  broadcasts.  minute newscast an audience w i l l  o f 20 i t e m s , 15  o f 30 and IB  o f 40  I n a n o t h e r program s e r i e s i t was (1)  one.  An a r t i f i c i a l l y  remember  items.  found t h a t : -  c o n t r i v e d s e t t i n g seemed t o d i s t r a c t  from t h e program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . (2)  Programs change a t t i t u d e s as w e l l as s u p p l y  information.  30 (3)  There was a h i g h p o s i t i v e  correlation  between  r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g e n j o y e d t h e program and a f e e l i n g t h e y had l e a r n e d from i t . (4)  A common i n t e r e s t program can a p p e a l t o s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n w i t h no i l l I n 1950 t h e B.B.C. (51)  the extent o f understanding  effect. conducted a study t o determine  o f a s c i e n c e t a l k by s e v e r a l  a u d i e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l background.  The r e s u l t s  showed t h a t i n t e r e s t was g r e a t e s t a t t h e p a r t i a l l e v e l and t h i s i n d i c a t e d  t h e need o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f  d i f f i c u l t y f o r use w i t h t h e g e n e r a l The P e n n s y l v a n i a Department (327)  public.  State College A g r i c u l t u r a l  Extension  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e b e s t l e n g t h f o r an a g r i -  c u l t u r a l extension r a d i o broadcast W i l h i l i n and S i c e r  (454)  i s between 15 and 30 m i n u t e s .  r e p o r t from t h e i r f i n d i n g s  t h a t t w i c e weekly b r o a d c a s t s m a i n t a i n e d weekly  understanding  i n t e r e s t b e t t e r than  broadcasts. As t h e r e s u l t o f a s t u d y C r i l e (99) completed i n J a n u a r y  1952,  she r e p o r t e d t h a t o n l y 4 o u t o f 10 county e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s  who were r e g u l a r l y  b r o a d c a s t i n g had r e c e i v e d any t r a i n i n g i n  b r o a d c a s t i n g , and suggested a l l a g e n t s so engaged s h o u l d be g i v e n t r a i n i n g and a s s i s t a n c e t o improve t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . She  a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t h e r survey  showed t h a t  agricultural  a u d i e n c e s l i k e t h e i r programs between noon and 1 P M , o n l y 1/3  and a s  o f t h e t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l programs a r e on a t t h i s  t i m e an e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o i n c r e a s e t h i s number.  31 Elliot  (133) t e l l s us t h a t where t h e r e t e n t i o n o f  m a t e r i a l i s concerned, t e l e v i s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o r a d i o and r a d i o i s s u p e r i o r t o f i l m .  He a l s o shows us t h a t  c h i l d r e n s h i f t from a u d i t o r y t o v i s u a l dominance a t t h e t i m e t h e y l e a r n t o r e a d , and i n d i c a t e s t h e r e may be a s h i f t back, p a r t i c u l a r l y among women and t h e l e s s w e l l educated t o a u d i t o r y dominance i n l a t e r l i f e .  Klapper s f  (245) s t u d i e s , w h i c h d i d  not i n c l u d e t e l e v i s i o n , showed a s u p e r i o r i t y f o r a u d i t o r y o v e r v i s u a l methods.  G o l d s t e i n (163), and L a r s e n  and F e d e r  (256)  a l l g e n e r a l l y agree w i t h K l a p p e r , b u t show t h a t t h e advantages of auditory devices d i m i n i s h w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y of the m a t e r i a l . Cook and Nemzek (88) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d by r a d i o and n o n - r a d i o s t u d e n t s , and Haugh (189) f o u n d t h a t t h e r e were no  significant  differences i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of reading or l i s t e n i n g t o r a d i o drama i n a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h a t n e i t h e r method caused any s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e s . B r u n n e r (60) s t a t e s t h a t one o f t h e most s u c c e s s f u l programs known t o have r e l i e d upon t h e use o f a u d i o - v i s u a l d e v i c e s was t h e Canadian Farm Radio Forum, as r e p o r t e d by N i c o l , and o t h e r s  (317)•  The u n i q u e n e s s o f t h i s program,  w h i c h was a c t i v e c o n t i n u o u s l y from 1941 t o 1965, was t h a t i t provided f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s belonging t h e programs and r e l a y e d s u g g e s t i o n s central broadcasting  office.  t o groups which  discussed  and q u e s t i o n s t o t h e  32 Howard (212)  reviewed the b r o a d c a s t i n g o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  e x t e n s i o n m a t e r i a l on 102  commercial r a d i o s t a t i o n s i n Ohio  and r e p o r t e d the f o l l o w i n g : (1)  The u s u a l frequency o f b r o a d c a s t s i s 6 days p e r week, w i t h 5 days p e r week n e x t .  (2)  The most l i k e l y time o f b r o a d c a s t i s a t noon w i t h n e a r l y 1/3  (3)  About 1/3  o c c u r r i n g between 6 and  o f the programs are i n the charge o f the  county a g r i c u l t u r a l (4)  7AM.  agent.  The county agent r e l e a s e s are the c h i e f source o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r programs.  (5)  At s t a t i o n s where the a g r i c u l t u r a l agent i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o r p a r t o f the program, 3 are r a t e d 4 are very good and 17  (6)  (7)  excellent,  good.  There were some suggestions t h a t , (a)  The agent c o u l d put more time on h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  (b)  Too much t e c h n i c a l language i s used.  (c)  Too much g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s b r o a d c a s t .  About 2 o f those who  commented f e l t the a g r i c u l t u r a l  agents c o u l d use more t r a i n i n g .  (212)  A c c o r d i n g t o Putnam ( 3 3 6 ) , the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e c o n t a c t s more people by r a d i o i n the c o u n t i e s o f A t t a l a , Coahoma, Oktibbeha and P e a r l R i v e r , M i s s i s s i p p i , than i t does by any o t h e r o r a l l o t h e r means combined.  The newspaper was  the next most e f f e c t i v e means o f r e a c h i n g r u r a l p e o p l e . of 171  people surveyed, 86 a p p l i e d a t l e a s t one  practice  Out  33  recommended by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t . for  The hours p r e f e r r e d  farm and home r u r a l e d u c a t i o n r a d i o programs a r e i n t h e  following order: t h i r d , 7 PM.  f i r s t , 12 noon t o 1 PM; second, 6 AM; and  A x i n n ' s (30) f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g a l i s t e n i n g  a u d i e n c e i n Delaware agreed w i t h t h o s e o f Putnam f o r M i s s i s s i p p i i n t h a t more farm o p e r a t o r s ( i n Delaware) can be r e a c h e d by r a d i o t h a n any o t h e r media, and t h e l a r g e s t r a d i o a u d i e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e noon hour.  He a l s o drew some o t h e r  c o n c l u s i o n s , v i z - t h e b e s t t i m e f o r a farm TV show i n Delaware i s on Sunday a f t e r n o o n between 12 and 3 PM, and more f a r m e r s t a k e weekly newspapers t h a n d a i l i e s . S i l v e y (370) p o i n t s out t h a t t h e i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f b r o a d c a s t s depends f a r more upon t h e " i n t e r e s t i n g n e s s " t h a n upon any o t h e r f a c t o r .  He re-emphasizes K a t z and E i s e n b e r g * s  (236) f i n d i n g s w h i c h showed t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n becomes more m e a n i n g f u l as i t i s r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t s , c o n d i t i o n s , o r s i t u a t i o n s t h a t are f a m i l i a r t o the audience.  S i l v e y here  r e p o r t s t h a t t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g t a l k s f o r t h e average o r below average a u d i e n c e s a r e t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h c o n c r e t e s u b j e c t s of  a p r a c t i c a l k i n d which are f a m i l i a r t o l i s t e n e r s i n t h e i r  d a i l y l i v e s , o r a f f e c t them p e r s o n a l l y .  H i g h l a n d e r (195)  shows  us t h a t i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s more i m p o r t a n t i n g a i n i n g a u d i e n c e a p p r o v a l t h a n a r e t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e speaker or the  other production techniques.  Or, as D i e t r i c h (119)  states,  c o n t e n t i s g e n e r a l l y more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i n i n c r e a s i n g f a v o r a b l e r e a c t i o n t o a communication.  Highlander  a g r e e s w i t h C a n t r i l , Gaudet and Herzog (68) nonauthority  i n that  the  speaker produces e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t s e q u a l t o  t h o s e o f t h e a u t h o r i t y speaker, as t h e mass media t e n d t o c o n f e r p r e s t i g e and a u t h o r i t y by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e  speaker  has been s e l e c t e d by t h e media o r i n s t i t u t i o n t o appear b e f o r e the p u b l i c .  When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s o f H i g h l a n d e r (211)  C a n t r i l , i t i s w e l l t o r e v i e w t h e Hovland and Weiss r e s e a r c h w h i c h showed t h a t t h e r e was  no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e  amount o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n e d from t r u s t w o r t h y untrustworthy  sources,  and  or  nor i n t h e amount remembered a f t e r a  p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l weeks.  Also that a trustworthy  more e f f e c t i v e t h a n an u n t r u s t w o r t h y  source i s  source i n i n d u c i n g  o p i n i o n change. C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t (67)  found t h a t f o r o r d i n a r y  e d u c a t i o n a l , f a c t u a l , o r news b r o a d c a s t s t h e most s u i t a b l e l e n g t h g e n e r a l l y seems t o be about 15 m i n u t e s . Broadcasting  System Radio Network (85)  The  Columbia  has n o t e d t h a t people  w i t h d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n , such as a m o t o r i s t , can h e a r  and  remember f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n b r o a d c a s t on t h e r a d i o . (245)  Klapper  p o i n t s out t h a t r a d i o draws i t s l i s t e n e r s from a l l  c u l t u r a l and age l e v e l s and t h u s r e a c h e s an audience not o f t e n reached by o t h e r mass m e d i a . research  Lucas and B r i t t ' s  (269)  shows t h a t r a d i o i s t h e most a c c e s s i b l e source o f  i n f o r m a t i o n t o some i n d i v i d u a l s ; t h e y use i t most and i t as much as t h e y b e l i e v e p r i n t . t h o s e who  as  Elliott  (133)  believe  proved t h a t  l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o most are t h e b e s t l i s t e n e r s and  remember b e t t e r what t h e y h e a r t h a n what t h e y see.  Also,  the  35 l e s s educated and l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t l i s t e n more and remember b e t t e r what t h e y h e a r by r a d i o t h a n do t h e more educated and more i n t e l l i g e n t .  As reported e a r l i e r , Carver's  (78) work  proved t h a t f a c e - t o - f a c e t a l k i s a b e t t e r "agent" than the t r a n s m i t t e d v o i c e , which i n t u r n i s g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r than "print".  He f u r t h e r showed t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a u d i t o r y  presentation over reading v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y with t h e d i f f i c u l t y of the m a t e r i a l .  G o l d s t e i n ( I 6 3 ) f o l l o w e d up C a r v e r ' s work  by showing t h a t more i s remembered f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d from what i s h e a r d t h a n from what i s r e a d i f s i m p l e m a t e r i a l i s used, Dayton's (113) r e v i e w o f t h i r t y r a d i o s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f b o t h men and women o f a l l age and income groups l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o programs o f t h e County E x t e n s i o n a g e n t s and t h o s e o f t h e S t a t e E x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s i n the College s t a t i o n broadcasts.  Also that extension  radio  programs r e a c h a s many p e o p l e a s a l l o t h e r e x t e n s i o n methods combined.  Putnam (336) p o i n t s o u t t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l who  l i s t e n t o t h e e x t e n s i o n r a d i o programs f i n d them h e l p f u l , and G a l l u p (153) shows us t h a t r a d i o i s an e f f e c t i v e means o f t e a c h i n g , f o r a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f people t a k e d e f i n i t e a c t i o n as t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s e programs i n such ways a s a t t e n d i n g e x t e n s i o n m e e t i n g s , o r d e r i n g b u l l e t i n s and changing o l d p r a c t i c e s o r a d o p t i n g new ones.  Moe's (299) r e s e a r c h  t h a t b o t h men and women c o n s i d e r r a d i o an i m p o r t a n t  reveals  source o f  i n f o r m a t i o n a s i t i s a t i m e l y , r e g u l a r and easy way t o g e t  36  information.  As a source o f f a r m and home i n f o r m a t i o n i t  always ranks h i g h .  Page (325) p o i n t s out t h a t when l o c a l  l e a d e r s used a r a d i o s e r i e s o f sewing l e s s o n s t o supplement t h e i r p r o j e c t work t h e y s a i d r a d i o r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r  teaching  and gave theini community r e c o g n i t i o n and a u t h o r i t y t h a t e n a b l e d them t o do a b e t t e r j o b .  C r i l e * s (99) s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t  was t h e o p i n i o n o f o n l y 3% o f a l l r e g u l a r e x t e n s i o n work broadsc a s t e r s i n t h e n i n e c e n t r a l s t a t e s i n 1950 t h a t t h e y c o u l d have p u t t h e i r r a d i o t i m e t o b e t t e r advantage i n some o t h e r extension a c t i v i t y .  She p o i n t s o u t t h a t a l t h o u g h t e l e v i s i o n i s  w i d e s p r e a d , r u r a l owners s t i l l t e n d t o l i s t e n t o f a r m and county e x t e n s i o n programs on t h e r a d i o ; i f t h e r e i s a dominance o f t e l e v i s i o n i t i s more pronounced i n t h e e v e n i n g . It  i s o f i n t e r e s t t o note that there are, today, over  160 e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o s t a t i o n s a c t i v e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t h e f i r s t s t a t i o n t o b r o a d c a s t e d u c a t i o n a l programs, WHA, University of Wisconsin, i s s t i l l i n operation. In t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with audio-mechanical  devices,  an e l e c t r o n i c r e a d i n g d e v i c e d e s c r i b e d i n an a r t i c l e i n t h e Vancouver Sun o f 19 O c t o b e r , 1964 (423) s h o u l d be mentioned. It  was i n v e n t e d by D r . M.P. Beddoes o f t h e E l e c t r i c a l  Department o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., and i s now b e i n g w i t h t h e hope t h a t b l i n d p e r s o n s may, w i t h i t s use, as f a s t as 170 words p e r m i n u t e .  Engineering tested  soon r e a d  The machine c o n s i s t s o f s i x  p h o t o - e l e c t r i c c e l l s which when passed o v e r a l i n e o f s t a n d a r d t y p e w r i t e r p r i n t emit a c o m b i n a t i o n o f sounds, - beeps, h i s s e s  37 and a c l i c k , a m p l i f i e d by t r a n s i s t o r s . The r e s u l t s o f c u r r e n t t e s t s w i t h two b l i n d p e r s o n s and t h e equipment i n Vancouver have been q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y a s i n d i c a t e d by D r . Beddoes who r e p o r t s t h a t p r o g r e s s has been v e r y  encouraging.  Sleep-Learning As s l e e p - l e a r n i n g i s u s u a l l y a t t e m p t e d w i t h t h e use o f a u d i o m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s , i t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  here.  McComos  (282) made an e v a l u a t i o n o f s l e e p - l e a r n i n g f o r t h e U.S. A i r F o r c e i n 1949» and a l t h o u g h he d i d n o t , a s a r e s u l t , s t a t e any s p e c i f i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , he d i d p r e d i c t i t s u s e f u l n e s s .  In  1954 t h e U.S. A i r F o r c e had a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t conducted by t h e Rand C o r p o r a t i o n .  Simon and Emmons (371) i s s u e d t h e  r e s u l t i n g r e p o r t t h a t covered a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s o b s e r v e d i n t h e Rand Learning Laboratory.  Sleep-  Once a g a i n no f u n d a m e n t a l s were r e v e a l e d  or p r i n c i p l e s obtained.  However, t h e y a l s o d i d n o t d i s c o u n t  the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f s l e e p - l e a r n i n g .  Some d e f i n i t e and  p o s i t i v e r e s e a r c h was r e p o r t e d by Whitney (452) i n an a r t i c l e i n t h e Vancouver newspaper "The P r o v i n c e " o f 1 O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 4 . He s t a t e s t h a t George Washington U n i v e r s i t y e x p e r i m e n t e r s f o u n d t h a t a r e c o r d i n g o f C h i n e s e words p l a y e d t o s l e e p i n g students helped i n l e a r n i n g t h a t language.  The s t u d e n t s were  d i v i d e d , one group g e t t i n g a l i s t o f C h i n e s e words and t h e c o r r e c t E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s , and t h e o t h e r s g e t t i n g t h e same l i s t w i t h mismatched E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s .  When awakened, t h e  f i r s t group l e a r n e d t h e l i s t a f t e r f i v e r e p e t i t i o n s , whereas t h e second group r e q u i r e d e l e v e n r e p e t i t i o n s .  38  Curtis  (105)  gives  b o o k " L e a r n W h i l e You specific  instances  effective  teaching  Sleep"  i n w h i c h he  a b i g boost with reports  where s l e e p - l e a r n i n g h a s  over  his  twenty  b e e n u s e d as  an  device.  I t w o u l d seem t h a t and  sleep-learning  function i n adult  l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , and  s l e e p - l e a r n i n g has  education,  particularly  a t t i t u d e and  habit  a definite i n the  changing.  place  realm  of  39 I.  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices A.  Illustrative  2.  Visual a.  (1)  Three  Mockup: A mockup c a n  real the  Dimensional  or  defined  as  a working r e p l i c a ,  o b j e c t w o u l d be  of the  real  in  present  thing.  c o s t l y or impossible  o f an  later  p o i n t s out  the  i n the  consider  illustrative,  I t s p r a c t i c e and  considered  training  too  This thesis w i l l  category  sional device.  v i s u a l three  category.  n i c e d i f f e r e n c e between u s i n g the  presentation  and  teaching  e i t h e r measurement o f  or performance  dimensional  o r by  device  the  of  research  materials  United  evaluation,  (128)  be  a  class  of oper-  performance  concerning as t e a c h i n g  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  devices  S t a t e s Armed S e r v i c e s .  requirements f o r t h e i r  has  b e e n done  Procedures f o r  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  and  Torkelson  use  (126),  were a l l r e v i e w e d i n a s e r i e s o f t e c h n i c a l p a p e r s , (127),  dimen-  improvement.  Most o f the  for  a simulator  now  (150)  a mockup a s  ational  achieve  i t as  Gagne'  using  equipment t o  - an i m i t a t i o n  performance f u n c t i o n s w i l l  Reinforcing  aid to f a c i l i t a t e  on  t h e mockup f o r  i n f o r m a t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e , and  three  made f r o m  s y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s , u s e d when p r a c t i c e o r t r a i n i n g  real  the  be  (148). (408)  reported  n e s s o f a mockup, a cutaway and  on a  the  comparative  effective-  series of projected  charts  40 i n t e a c h i n g t h e nomenclature and f u n c t i o n o f t h e 40 mm a i r c r a f t weapon and t h e mark X I I I t o r p e d o .  anti-  With students of  s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y t h e r e was no l a r g e o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among t h e compared media. was  On t o r p e d o  i n s t r u c t i o n t h e cutaway  f a v o r e d o v e r manual i l l u s t r a t i o n s and b l a c k and  transparencies.  white  W i t h groups o f average a b i l i t y t h e mockup  was  f a v o r e d o v e r manual i l l u s t r a t i o n s and b l a c k and w h i t e t r a n s parencies.  The  cutaway and mockup were f a v o r e d i n l e a r n i n g  r e s u l t s but t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were s m a l l .  Any advantages a c c r u i n g  t o t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l m a t e r i a l s were so s m a l l i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r h i g h c o s t as t o d i s c o u r a g e t h e i r use except under s p e c i a l circumstances.  M u r n i n , and o t h e r s (303)  d i s c o v e r e d no  advant-  ages f o r t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l mock-up o v e r methods t h a t used n a v a l t r a i n e e drawings o f schematic  e l e c t r i c a l systems o r  t e a c h i n g methods t h a t used no d e v i c e s .  V r i s (440)  found t h a t  complex motor s k i l l s such as t h r e a d i n g a m o t i o n - p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r c o u l d be t a u g h t b e t t e r by t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l models t h a n by t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l  a i d s , and concluded  t h a t 3-D  materials  s h o u l d be used where t h e t a s k t o be l e a r n e d i s e s s e n t i a l l y three-dimensional i n nature. by V e r g i s * (431)  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was  f i n d i n g s w i t h 3-D  substantiated  s l i d e s and C o g s w e l l ' s  (83)  r e s u l t s from t e a c h i n g t h e assembly o f t h e breech b l o c k o f an a n t i - a i r c r a f t gun by u s i n g s t e r e o s c o p i c m o t i o n p i c t u r e s . Swanson, (393)  on b e h a l f o f t h e U.S.  A i r Force, reported  a study t h a t found no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e  training  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f mock-ups, cutaways, animated p a n e l s , c h a r t s ,  41  and s y m b o l i c diagrams i n t e a c h i n g s k i l l e d A i r F o r c e p e r s o n n e l . When t e a c h i n g i n e x p e r i e n c e d mechanics, he found a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a t l e a s t m o d e r a t e l y r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f equipment t o be p r o v i d e d i n t e a c h i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f equipment components, t h a t c o l o r - c o d i n g be used where a p p r o p r i a t e , and t h a t more t h a n one t y p e o f v i s u a l a i d be used i n o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e unique i n s t r u c t i o n a l advantages o f v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g - a i d characteristies. (2)  Demonstrations (aj  Method o r p r o c e s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s  T h i s type o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n shows an assembled group  how  t o c a r r y out a g i v e n p r a c t i c e . (b)  Result demonstration  T h i s t y p e o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n shows t h e r e s u l t o f a recommended p r a c t i c e  i n comparison w i t h a former  under a c t u a l e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  practice,  The r e s u l t d e m o n s t r a t i o n has  been found t o be an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g d e v i c e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . G i l b e r t s o n and G a l l u p (160) r e p o r t t h a t r e s u l t  demonstrations  s t i m u l a t e more i n t e r e s t t h a n i l l u s t r a t e d pages o r t a l k s  and  i n c r e a s e t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f f a r m e r s and homemakers i n t h e recommendations  o f t h e i r e x t e n s i o n agents and s p e c i a l i s t s .  They  a l s o h e l p d i s c o v e r and d e v e l o p l o c a l l e a d e r s , p r o v i d e a r e c o r d o f o u t s t a n d i n g r e s u l t s t h a t can be used as a t a n g i b l e b a s i s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g b e n e f i t s o f e x t e n s i o n work t o f a r m e r s and homemakers, and c o n v i n c e p e r s o n s who  have more c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e  42 e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e i r n e i g h b o r s and i n demonstrated than i n r e p o r t s of r e s e a r c h .  A l t h o u g h t h e above  a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e a r e some s i g n i f i c a n t a l s o r e c o r d e d by G i l b e r t s o n and G a l l u p . follows.  results advantages  disadvantages  These were r a t e d as  The d e m o n s t r a t i o n s r e q u i r e much t i m e i n p l a n n i n g ,  e s t a b l i s h i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g .  Also the d i r e c t cost per  p r a c t i c e changed i s h i g h because few p e o p l e a c t u a l l y see t h e r e s u l t demonstrations.  Moreover, few p e o p l e see t h e f i e l d  d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o r p i c t u r e s o f t h e stage when t h e r e s u l t s a r e most c o n v i n c i n g . A g a i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d p e o p l e t o keep t h e n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s f o r some p r o j e c t s and p r a c t i c e s , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e v e l o p s p e c i f i c p r o o f o f t h e advantages o f some s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e - e.g. u s i n g a b e t t e r d i e t .  W i l s o n and  G a l l u p * s (459) f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y agreed w i t h G i l b e r t s o n and G a l l u p * s i n t h a t t h e y r e p o r t e d 6.4% o f new p r a c t i c e a d o p t i o n s c o u l d be c r e d i t e d t o r e s u l t d e m o n s t r a t i o n .  Blackmore,  Dimit  and Baum (39) found t h a t t h e newer i d e a s o f a g r i c u l t u r e c o u l d b e s t be brought t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f f a r m e r s by t h e way o f t e s t demonstration farms.  However, t h o s e c l o s e s t t o t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n  adopted more new p r a c t i c e s .  The average number o f a d o p t i o n s  i n c r e a s e d from one t o two m i l e s , remained  c o n s t a n t from two t o  f i v e m i l e s , and d e c r e a s e d beyond t h a t d i s t a n c e , (c)  Shop  Demonstration  In t h e shop d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h e t e a c h e r shows how b e s t t o do t h i n g s , t h e most e f f i c i e n t way so t h a t good h a b i t s o f execu t i o n w i t h t o o l s , m a t e r i a l s and machines w i l l be formed a l o n g with the r i g h t  attitude.  43 E r i c s o n (134)  s t a t e d t h a t , "From t h e t i m e t h a t  i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e manual a r t s was i n t r o d u c e d as a s c h o o l s u b j e c t , t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n has s t o o d out as t h e most d e f i n i t e and v a l u a b l e means o f i n s t r u c t i o n " . d e m o n s t r a t i o n as performed  He added t h a t t h e shop  by t h e s k i l l f u l t e a c h e r i s u n f a i l i n g  i n d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t among s t u d e n t s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons: (1)  There i s an a p p e a l t o t h e sense o f v i s i o n .  (2)  S k i l l f u l performance i n hand m a n i p u l a t i o n s  always  attracts attention. (3)  S t u d e n t s see immediate p r o g r e s s as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r effort.  (4)  A d e s i r e i s aroused t o emulate t h e work o f t h e t e a c h e r . (134) In  War  t h e "Handbook f o r S p e c i a l Teachers  o f Food P r o d u c t i o n :  T r a i n i n g C l a s s e s " (183), i t i s s t a t e d t h a t the p e r f e c t  d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n v o l v e s t e l l i n g , showing, q u e s t i o n i n g , i l l u s t r a t i n g , s l o w l y and c l e a r l y ; one t h a n y o u r s t u d e n t s can m a s t e r .  s t e p a t a t i m e , and no more I t not o n l y t e a c h e s , but s e t s  s t a n d a r d s o f performance (speed and e x c e l l e n c e ) f o r s t u d e n t s t o attain.  I n t e a c h i n g groups where s t u d e n t s " l e a r n by d o i n g " t h e  c a r d i n a l r u l e i s t o i n s t r u c t o r demonstrate a t t h e moment when t h e s t u d e n t s need t h e p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v e d . I t was r e p o r t e d i n "A Study i n A d u l t Homemaking E d u c a t i o n i n P e n n s y l v a n i a " (391)  t h a t most t e a c h e r s used a  c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g methods i n t h e conduct o f t h e 33 a d u l t  44 classes.  The use o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n  accompanied by c l a s s  d i s c u s s i o n was employed by 62.5% o f t h e t e a c h e r s , w h i l e demons t r a t i o n supplemented by l a b o r a t o r y work was used by 16.2%. The problem method, accompanied by d e m o n s t r a t i o n  and d i s c u s s i o n  was used by 16.2% and t h e problem method a l o n e by 4«1%« (6)  Museum m a t e r i a l : -  "Museum" m a t e r i a l s , w h i c h i n c l u d e s models, mockups, dioramas and specimens, have a l l t o some e x t e n t been s u c c e s s f u l l y used a s t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s and were r e p o r t e d on a s such by B i e s e l (36) and t h e U.S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n (7)  Field Trips:-  F i e l d t r i p s o r planned l a r classroom  (420).  v i s i t s t o p o i n t s outside the regu-  are, understandably,  n o t g e n e r a l l y used i n a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h Bigman (37) r e p o r t e d t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s such as a r t g a l l e r i e s p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i n g and e f f e c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t y for  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l b e i t u n s t r u c t u r e d , and a r e used t o good  advantage by many p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r s and s t u d e n t s .  Cass (79) o b s e r v e d  t h a t f i e l d t r i p s were v e r y  e f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s t a r t e r s and p r o v i d e d e x c e l l e n t m o t i v a t i o n for  f u r t h e r study. (S)  Role P l a y i n g : -  As Brunner (60) r e p o r t s , r o l e - p l a y i n g i s a r e l a t i v e l y new t e a c h i n g d e v i c e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and one f o r which t h e r e i s considerable enthusiasm.  The most t h o r o u g h study o f t h e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r o l e - p l a y i n g a s a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e was conducted by Zander (464) on b e h a l f o f t h e Armed S e r v i c e s , and h i s  45 f i n d i n g s based on a l e a d e r t r a i n i n g program i n v o l v i n g 8,000 men  p l a c e s some doubt on t h e v a l i d i t y o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r r o l e -  playing.  Zander showed t h a t r o l e - p l a y i n g does not  involve  r i g i d p e r s o n s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o a l l o w them t o p a r t i c i p a t e u n l e s s much time i s used and more t h a n two  experiences  are  provided.  He a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t r o l e - p l a y i n g always f a i l e d when t h e  nature  o f t h e c l a s s s e s s i o n tended t o w a r d n e u t r a l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t h e i s s u e s under d i s c u s s i o n .  For a s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g exper-  i e n c e t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e group had t o be worked up t o spark a d i s c u s s i o n .  to  sufficiently  On t h e o t h e r hand, W i l s o n ' s  (457)  r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h the r o l e - p l a y i n g demonstrated t h e arguments used w i t h respect to the i s s u e s discussed i n t e r e s t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and other viewpoints.  J a n i s and K i n g  stimulated  the  i n c r e a s e d t h e i r sympathy f o r (226)  reported t h a t the  f a c t o r s i n r o l e - p l a y i n g found most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r o p i n i o n change were "amount o f i m p r o v i s a t i o n " and "degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h own  performance".  J a n i s and K i n g a l s o found t h a t o v e r t v e r b a l -  i z a t i o n i n d u c e d by r o l e - p l a y i n g tended t o augment t h e ness of a persuasive  communication.  effective-  Brunner (60) c o n c l u d e s by  r e m a r k i n g t h a t more r e s e a r c h i s needed t o determine what t y p e s o f p e o p l e , k i n d s o f t o p i c s , p u r p o s e s and  s i t u a t i o n s l e n d them-  s e l v e s t o i t s e f f e c t i v e use, and t o determine more p r e c i s e l y j u s t what a r e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t o r e f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n r o l e playing.  46 (9)  Exhibits:-  P e r h a p s a few words d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g e x h i b i t s and museums would be i n o r d e r h e r e .  By " e x h i b i t " we w i l l mean a c a r e f u l  arrangement o f m a t e r i a l s , u s u a l l y t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l ,  designed  t o i n f o r m t h e o b s e r v e r s about a s u b j e c t o f e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f icance.  A museum, on t h e o t h e r hand, s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f o b j e c t s  t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o t o u c h , f e e l , l i f t , and study i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e l e a r n i n g and make i t more permanent. Derryberry(115)  i n r e p o r t i n g on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h e a l t h  e x h i b i t s a t t h e New York W o r l d ' s F a i r (1939) and San F r a n c i s c o W o r l d ' s F a i r (1940) made some s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s v i z . P a n e l s o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , g r a p h s , and t a b l e s u s u a l l y f a i l a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n o r get t h e message a c r o s s .  Also panels  to  that  p r e s e n t e d a s i n g l e s t a t i s t i c a l f a c t were most l i k e l y t o be u n d e r s t o o d though n o t remembered.  Although s t a t i s t i c a l  are o f t e n e f f e c t i v e m o t i v a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s ,  facts  common p r o f e s s i o n a l  words may be m i s l e a d i n g t o t h e p u b l i c ; e . g . t h e r a p e u t i c ,  neph-  ritis.  Even e x p e r t l y d e s i g n e d e x h i b i t s may i m p a r t m i s i n f o r m -  ation.  T e s t s were d i s c o v e r e d t o be a good e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e  t o accompany t h e e x h i b i t s ; e . g . 35,000 p e o p l e a t t h e New York f a i r and 70,000 people a t t h e San F r a n c i s c o f a i r t o o k a s h o r t t e s t a t t h e e x h i b i t s and demanded t h e c o r r e c t  answers.  An e x h i b i t o f w h i t e r a t s was p l a c e d i n each s c h o o l i n W i n s t o n C o u n t y , M i s s i s s i p p i and a l s o i n a p u b l i c s t o r e window in Louisville.  The e x h i b i t was d e s i g n e d t o show t h e a d v a n t a g e s ,  47 emphasize t h e a c c e p t a n c e and use o f b e t t e r n u t r i t i o n a l h a b i t s f o r humans.  G a r l a n d (155) r e p o r t e d t h i s r e s e a r c h and n o t e d o f  204 p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d , one h a l f t h e women and almost one h a l f t h e men had h e a r d o f t h e e x h i b i t .  T h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e women  and t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e men knew why t h e experiment had been conducted.  E i g h t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e women and n i n e p e r c e n t  o f t h e men who had h e a r d o f t h e experiment s a i d t h e y had made some changes i n f o o d h a b i t s a s a r e s u l t .  More t h a n t w e n t y - f i v e  p e r c e n t o f t h e mothers w i t h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d changes i n the c h i l d r e n ' s food h a b i t s as a r e s u l t o f the e x h i b i t .  The  g r e a t e s t number o f changes was r e p o r t e d by p e r s o n s i n t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l groups. Elliott  (132) found t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an e x h i b i t  was i n c r e a s e d about twenty-seven p e r c e n t when i t was r e i n f o r c e d w i t h a v i s u a l medium such a s a d v e r t i s i n g , and s i x t y p e r c e n t when i t was r e i n f o r c e d w i t h a u d i t o r y a d v e r t i s i n g such a s r a d i o , and a s i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e when t h e e x h i b i t was r e i n f o r c e d w i t h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v i s u a l - a u d i t o r y media such a s p o s t e r and radio advertising. Raudabaugh and Cooke (339) made a s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an e x h i b i t and r e p o r t e d t h a t o f t h e 228 f a m i l i e s i n t e r viewed n i n e t y - f o u r p e r c e n t p l a n n e d t o adopt some o f t h e recommended p r a c t i c e s , and o f t h e 80,000 p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d t h e e x h i b i t t h r o u g h o u t 30 c o u n t i e s o f Iowa, e i g h t y p e r c e n t adopted an average o f t h r e e new p r a c t i c e s p e r f a m i l y .  48 There i s l i t t l e doubt r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and p o p u l a r i t y of e x h i b i t s as t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s .  S c h l u p (358") makes  a r e v i e w of some o f t h e e x h i b i t s t h a t have not been r e p o r t e d f o r r e s e a r c h purposes and n o t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s . A farm and home l a b o r - s a v i n g e x h i b i t i n W i s c o n s i n v i s i t o r s i n 1945  60,000  and more t h a n 7,000 s i g n e d r e q u e s t s f o r p l a n s  and b l u e p r i n t s o f t h e shown d e v i c e s . toured Michigan  had  A r u r a l progress e x h i b i t  i n J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y and March o f 1946  and r e c e i v e d 150,000 v i s i t o r s i n t h e 114  1947  and  day showings.  No  b u l l e t i n s were g i v e n away h e r e , b u t b l a n k s were p r o v i d e d f o r o r d e r i n g them, and an average o f one b u l l e t i n per v i s i t o r ordered.  was  I n I n d i a n a an e x h i b i t t r a i n made f i f t y - s i x s t o p s i n  f i f t y - t w o c o u n t i e s and had 66,415 v i s i t o r s .  In Minnesota  153,000 p e o p l e v i s i t e d a farm l a b o r s a v i n g and  safety exhibit  i n f o r t y - f o u r county showings, and r e q u e s t s were made f o r 41,000 bulletins,  pamphlets and p l a n s .  I n Montana 3 5 , 5 9 4 p e o p l e  v i s i t e d a labor-saving e x h i b i t i n forty-two counties requested  1,679  b l u e p r i n t s of k i t c h e n plans.  and  D u r i n g 1947  in  South C a r o l i n a 73,000 people v i s i t e d a farm and home l a b o r saving e x h i b i t i n f o r t y - t h r e e counties.  I n Tennessee i n  1947,  25,000 p e o p l e v i s i t e d a r u r a l p r o g r e s s l a b o r - s a v i n g e x h i b i t d u r i n g t w e n t y - f i v e one day s t o p s . V i r g i n i a was  A labor-saving exhibit i n  v i s i t e d by 29,000 p e o p l e i n t h i r t y - n i n e  counties,  and 52,773 p e o p l e v i s i t e d a s p e c i a l 4 H C l u b e x h i b i t t r a i n i n M i s s i s s i p p i i n 1947 1946,  when i t made f i f t y - e i g h t s t o p s .  In A p r i l ,  a farm and home d e v i c e s e x h i b i t t r a i n t o u r e d New  York  49  S t a t e , making about f o r t y 6 5 , 0 0 0 people.  stops, and was v i s i t e d by about  50 A.  Illustrative  2.  Devices  Visual b.  Two  D i m e n s i o n a l t Non P r o j e c t e d  C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , b u l l e t i n s , pamphlets, l e a f l e t s news s t o r i e s , a l t h o u g h v i s u a l , two d i m e n s i o n a l and  and  non  p r o j e c t e d , w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d here but l a t e r , a l o n g w i t h "Diffusion, Distributed" devices. F i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h based on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i r e c t m a i l o r r e q u e s t e d m a i l i n g l i s t , p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l have a l s o been i n c l u d e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e b u l k o f the r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , i n the t r e a t m e n t  of D i f f u s i o n devices.  I t i s r e a l i z e d , however, t h a t t h e s e a r e , i n e f f e c t , v e r y to  "handouts" and c o u l d have been c o n s i d e r e d under t h i s C l i n t o n (82)  observed  similar category.  t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p r i n t e d page  does not p o s s e s s t h e warmth and impact o f the human v o i c e , as do r a d i o , f i l m s and TV,  i t does have l a c k o f movement, which  he c o n s i d e r s i t s p r i n c i p l e a s s e t .  The p r i n t e d p i c t u r e s and  p r i n t e d words can be s t u d i e d , d i s c u s s e d , c u t out, f i l e d , around o r r e a d a t a more c o n v e n i e n t t i m e . i t s audience  I t i s s e l e c t i v e of  and demands an a c t i v e mind. (5)  Correspondence C o u r s e s  As o u t l i n e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f (418)  i n 1920,  passed  Education  the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o r r e s -  pondence c o u r s e s i s t h e method o f s t u d y : c o n s t a n t , w r i t t e n e f f o r t s by t h e s t u d e n t , a n d posta-L t r a n s m i s s i o n a l o n e .  c o r r e c t i o n . b y t h e t e a c h e r , and  not  51 B i t t n e r (38) p o i n t s o u t i n " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  i n Action"  t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency away from t h e e l a b o r a t e s y l l a b i c and s p e c i a l t e x t b o o k s and toward s i m p l e r o u t l i n e s and t e x t s used in universities.  A l s o t h e r e i s a tendency t o a d j u s t  more c l o s e l y t o t h e needs o f each s t u d e n t .  instruction  In general, corres-  pondence i n s t r u c t i o n has f r e s h n e s s and v i t a l i t y .  B i t t n e r gives  some i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e s r e g a r d i n g correspondence c o u r s e s  that  tend t o r e f u t e the supposition t h a t t h e i r m o r t a l i t y r a t e i s high.  I f you e l i m i n a t e t h o s e who o n l y send i n one r e p o r t and  t h o s e who o n l y r e g i s t e r and a l l t h e o t h e r r e a l l y n o n - s t a r t e r s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who once s t a r t e d go ahead and complete t h e course a v e r a g e s , among s e v e r a l t a b u l a t i o n s , a t about 68%. Hughes* (214)  study r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s t r o n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p between course deadline: (1)  completion  and h a v i n g t o meet a  f o r example -  75% o f t h o s e r e p o r t i n g t h a t t h e y had t o meet a d e a d l i n e were s u c c e s s f u l .  (2)  56.6% o f t h e group who d i d n o t have t o meet a d e a d l i n e were s u c c e s s f u l .  (3)  80% o f those who e n r o l l e d from one t o s i x months ahead o f t h e d e a d l i n e were s u c c e s s f u l , whereas o n l y 64«3% o f t h o s e who had more t h a n a y e a r t o meet t h e i r d e a d l i n e were s u c c e s s f u l . (214)  A l s o he found t h a t t h e purpose f o r w h i c h t h e student e n r o l l e d had a marked e f f e c t on h i s p r o s p e c t s o f s u c c e s s f u l  completion.  52 I t has been d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s w i l l range a l l the way 79.5% for  s u c c e s s f u l f o r Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n t o 55.1%  P r o f e s s i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l improvement.  from  successful  Again, Hughes  r e p o r t e d t h a t a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the amount of  c o l l e g e work a student has had and the p r o b a b i l i t y o f h i s  s u c c e s s f u l completion:  f o r example « i n the group i n d i c a t i n g  some c o l l e g e c r e d i t but no degree, 65.8% whereas 76.1%  were s u c c e s s f u l ,  of the degree h o l d e r s were s u c c e s s f u l .  r e p o r t e d t h a t 59% o f the group w i t h no p r i o r study was  also  correspondence  s u c c e s s f u l , whereas 78% of those w i t h p r i o r  were s u c c e s s f u l .  He  experience  In b r i e f , Hughes r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t good  work and study h a b i t s were the most important f a c t o r s i n the s u c c e s s f u l completion o f correspondence Smith  courses.  (374), some y e a r s e a r l i e r had r e p o r t e d much the  same i n f o r m a t i o n as Hughes, but i n a more g e n e r a l way,  when he  s t a t e d t h a t the evidence i n d i c a t e d those a d u l t s w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g c a r r y through t h e i r courses more f r e q u e n t l y than do those w i t h l e s s f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g . And,  even more  b r o a d l y , t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p on one hand, t o the e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and c a p a c i t y o f the student and,  on  the o t h e r , t o the purpose which the student has i n h i s study to the completion o f the courses t a k e n . A review o f the r e s e a r c h completed of  by Larson (257)  and  t h a t r e p o r t e d by B i t t n e r (38) and Hosmer (208) shows t h a t  correspondence  courses and r e s i d e n c e study are f a i r l y  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , as measured i n grades o b t a i n e d .  equal i n  C e r t a i n l y there  53 i s n o t h i n g t o i n d i c a t e any c o n s i s t e n t a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n s t a n d a r d s between t h e two methods.  There a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s  o f s u p e r i o r i t y f o r t h e correspondence  courses but these are  probably a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the student t h a t e n a b l e d him t o become a s u c c e s s f u l correspondence  course  student• Between 1942 and 1959 t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed I n s t i t u t e had e n r o l l e d 4 , 5 0 6 , 0 0 0 correspondence  course  Forces students,  and 466,000 i n 195&* a l o n e . Bradt (45),  w o r k i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e U.S. Armed F o r c e s ,  s t u d i e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r " d r o p - o u t s " from t h e s e USAFI c o u r s e s , and h i s r e p o r t o f A u g u s t , 1954 main r e a s o n s f o r e n r o l l m e n t :  showed t h a t t h e r e were t h r e e general i n t e r e s t , school-related  r e a s o n s and c a r e e r - r e l a t e d r e a s o n s .  More t h a n h a l f o f t h e  e n r o l l e e s i n d i c a t e d no i n t e r e s t i n o b t a i n i n g c r e d i t f o r t h e courses.  He showed t h a t correspondence  and s e l f - t e a c h i n g  c o u r s e s a r e made more e f f e c t i v e by s t u d e n t c o u n s e l l i n g and w i t h a more r e a l i s t i c  g e a r i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s course program t o h i s  needs, a b i l i t i e s , and a v a i l a b l e t i m e . D i V e s t a (120) 1954,  r e p o r t e d some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s e a r c h i n  i n which three s t y l e s of p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a  correspondence  course were s t u d i e d f o r t h e i r r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s , as measured by an achievement e x a m i n a t i o n .  The t h r e e s t y l e s were  not found t o be d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , n o r d i d they seem t o a f f e c t t h e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e achievement l e v e l . his  f i n d i n g s regarding the w r i t i n g o f examinations are  Also  54 noteworthy,  as f o l l o w s .  S t u d e n t s who  wrote an "open book"  e x a m i n a t i o n had h i g h e r f i n a l and r e t e n t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n l a t e r ) s c o r e s t h a n d i d t h o s e s t u d e n t s who book" e x a m i n a t i o n .  (30  days  wrote t h e " c l o s e d  A l t h o u g h t h e "open book" s t u d e n t s t o o k  s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s e s o v e r t h e 30 day p e r i o d , t h e i r r e t e n t i o n s c o r e was  s t i l l h i g h e r t h a n t h e " c l o s e d book" s t u d e n t s ,  who  almost m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l achievement l e v e l . (6) Tucker  Study Guides (412)  made a s t u d y t o determine how  u s e f u l the  s t u d y g u i d e s were t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed F o r c e s I n s t i t u t e (USAFI) correspondence (1)  c o u r s e s , and r e p o r t e d as f o l l o w s : -  75% o f t h e e n r o l l e e s b e l i e v e d t h a t study g u i d e s were u s e f u l and i n c r e a s e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g the course.  (2)  14%  (3)  About 1/3  f e l t t h a t t h e s t y l e was t o o t e r s e , t o o b r i e f . o f t h e s t u d e n t s wanted more e x p l a n a t i o n  and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c p o i n t s . (4)  The m o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t o f a study guide was for  (5)  greater  those w i t h l e s s e d u c a t i o n .  R e g a r d i n g an " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t h a t p r o v i d e d g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e course by s u p p l y i n g background i n f o r m a t i o n , about 40% r a t e d i t v e r y u s e f u l , 50% u s e f u l , and 6% c o n s i d e r e d i t not u s e f u l . d e f i n i t e tendency  fairly  There was  a  f o r students with l e s s education to  p l a c e a h i g h e r v a l u e on t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n .  55 (6)  About 2/3 o f t h e e n r o l l e e s r a t e d Study Notes as v e r y u s e f u l , and most o f t h e r e s t r a t e d them a s f a i r l y useful.  There was some tendency f o r t h o s e w i t h l e s s  e d u c a t i o n t o r a t e t h e v a l u e o f Study Notes h i g h e r . (7)  There was g e n e r a l agreement t h a t t h e Study Guide p r o v i d e d h e l p e d t h e s t u d e n t s p r e p a r e f o r t h e end-ofthe-course t e s t .  About i r e p o r t e d t h a t i t h e l p e d a  l o t , and 45% t h a t i t h e l p e d somewhat. (412) Course O u t l i n e s B r a d t * s (44) p u b l i c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f USAFI I n s t r u c t o r s * Course O u t l i n e s s t a t e d t h a t t h o s e who have used them w i s h t o have them c o n t i n u e d .  The most  frequent c r i t i c i s m concerns t h e time t a b l e , since t h e a c t u a l number o f c l a s s h o u r s i s o f t e n much l e s s t h a n t h a t f o r which t h e o u t l i n e s were d e s i g n e d .  They a r e f e l t t o be o f p r i m a r y  b e n e f i t t o i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s , and many i n s t r u c t o r s w i s h t o see more t e a c h i n g a i d s and s u g g e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n them. (S)  The P o s t e r The p o s t e r i s designed t o t e l l i t s s t o r y a t a g l a n c e ,  and i t may use p i c t u r e s , c a r t o o n s , g r a p h s , diagrams o r maps. The (320)  U.S. O f f i c e o f F a c t s and F i g u r e s G r a p h i c s D i v i s i o n i n 1942 r e p o r t e d t h a t war p o s t e r s t h a t make a p u r e l y  a p p e a l a r e by f a r t h e b e s t .  emotional  No m a t t e r how b e a u t i f u l t h e a r t  work, how s t r i k i n g t h e c o l o u r s , how c l e v e r t h e i d e a , u n l e s s t h e war p o s t e r a p p e a l s t o a b a s i c human emotion i n b o t h p i c t u r e and t e x t , i t i s n o t l i k e l y t o make a deep i m p r e s s i o n .  War p o s t e r s  56 t h a t a r e s y m b o l i c do n o t a t t r a c t a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n and f a i l t o arouse enthusiasm.  Often they are misunderstood.  A  p o s t e r s h o u l d be a p i c t u r e - a t r u e and l i t e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in  photographic  d e t a i l o f p e o p l e and o b j e c t s a s t h e y a r e ,  (though n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p h o t o g r a p h ) ,  and a s t h e y l o o k t o t h e  m i l l i o n s o f average people who make up t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e country.  These f i n d i n g s , though based on "war" p o s t e r s  c e r t a i n l y have b r o a d e r and more g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . (10)  Pictures There i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a v a i l a b l e on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  o f p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o r " f l a t " p i c t u r e s as a t e a c h i n g device.  However, s e v e r a l r e v i e w s o f t h e r e s e a r c h have been  p r e p a r e d by D a l e and o t h e r s ( 1 0 8 ) , (109), I b i s o n (220) ( n o n - a d u l t ) , S p a u l d i n g (378) and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s D i v i s i o n o f Communications ( 4 2 1 ) . From a c a r e f u l r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h and an w i t h newly l i t e r a t e a d u l t s i n L a t i n A m e r i c a ,  experiment  S p a u l d i n g (377)  s t a t e d t h a t an i l l u s t r a t i o n s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f t h e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e ; i t s h o u l d be kept s i m p l e , i t s h o u l d be i n c o l o r , and c a p t i o n s s h o u l d be used t o g e n e r a l i z e , m o d i f y , r e l a t e , and extend t h e meaning o f t h e illustration. As p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n , v i s u a l two d i m e n s i o n a l nonprojected aids, the research p e r t a i n i n g t o the l e g i b i l i t y of t y p e forms has been r e v i e w e d and some o f i t p r e s e n t e d here f o r guidance w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s .  57 T i n k e r and P a t e r s o n (407) i n 1946, and e a r l i e r , T i n k e r (404) r e p o r t e d t h a t l e t t e r s and words i n c a p i t a l s a r e r e a d a t g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s than those i n corresponding lower case.  However,  B r e l a n d and B r e l a n d (48) found t h a t under normal r e a d i n g cond i t i o n s , p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n l o w e r case i s more l e g i b l e t h a n material i n capitals.  A l s o T i n k e r and P a t e r s o n (4O5) f o u n d  t h a t under r e a d i n g c o n d i t i o n s l o w e r case p r i n t i s r e a d much f a s t e r t h a n p r i n t i n c a p i t a l s and s l i g h t l y f a s t e r t h a n m a t e r i a l in italics.  T i n k e r (4O4) a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n  d i s t a n c e f o r r e a d i n g words and u n r e l a t e d l e t t e r s i n l o w e r case a r e g r e a t e r t h a n i n t h e case o f c a p i t a l s . (406)  T i n k e r and P a t e r s o n  i n a n o t h e r study r e p o r t e d t h a t r e a d e r s g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r  t y p e arrangements  w i t h moderate v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e t y p e forms  used. Photographs and p i c t u r e s have many u s e s , as S c h l u p (358) r e p o r t s ; t h e y can be used t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n , arouse  interest,  m o t i v a t e , d e v e l o p a t t i t u d e s , d e v e l o p a p p r e c i a t i o n , i n t r o d u c e new s u b j e c t s , and e x p l a i n and i l l u s t r a t e s p e c i f i c s t e p s i n d o i n g a job.  They can t e l l a g r a p h i c s t o r y when used w i t h c i r c u l a r s  and b u l l e t i n s , p r e s s a r t i c l e s and r e p o r t s .  They l i g h t e n t h e  t e x t , and when w e l l composed f o r m a v a l u a b l e supplement  t o the  w r i t t e n word. B u s w e l l (63) s t u d i e d t h e n a t u r e o f eye movements o f 200 i n d i v i d u a l s as t h e y l o o k e d a t 55 p i c t u r e s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s and reported that the directions given p r i o r t o looking at a picture have a marked i n f l u e n c e upon t h e c h a r a c t e r o f p e r c e p t i o n .  5* Brandt  (46) c o n t r i b u t e d t h e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e  i n i t i a l f i x a t i o n s o f t h e eyes tended t o f a l l t o t h e l e f t and above t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p i c t u r e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c o n t e n t o f an i l l u s t r a t i o n s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d so a s n o t t o oppose e y e movement t e n d e n c i e s , b u t r a t h e r t o p l a c e t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s o f an i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h e c e n t e r o r upper l e f t o f t h e picture.  G a l l u p (154) noted t h e f o l l o w i n g : - people w i l l  not take time o r t r o u b l e t o f i g u r e out a p i c t u r e , t h e r e f o r e i t s h o u l d be t a k e n i n a t a g l a n c e . are not as e a s i l y understood or a r t , photographic  Modern a r t , symbols o r s k e t c h e s  as a c t u a l p i c t u r e s .  Photographs,  i n d e t a i l , w i l l s t o p t w i c e a s many p e o p l e  as an a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h o u t photographs o r such a r t . P i c t u r e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t o r y are more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h o s e which a r e not.  Photographs t h a t p i c t u r e p e o p l e i n a s i t u a t i o n ,  especially  i n a c t i o n , a r e b e t t e r than people d e p i c t e d " a l o n e " o r " s t i l l " . R e a l o r a c t u a l backgrounds add m a t e r i a l l y t o i n t e r e s t .  Pictures  t h a t show p e o p l e e x p r e s s i n g some o b s e r v a b l e emotion such as a woman waving and s m i l i n g , a r e b e t t e r t h a n "dead pan"  pictures.  And l a s t l y , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t : - i f you want t o s t o p t h e maximum number o f women o f 35 y e a r s o f age, use p i c t u r e s o f women o f about t h e same age. (12)  Graphics S i n c e t h e e a r l y s t u d i e s on the most e f f e c t i v e forms o f  g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n were completed ( 1 0 2 ) ,  (103),  (104),  (130),  ( 4 2 9 ) , and ( 4 4 6 ) , v e r y l i t t l e p e r t i n e n t r e s e a r c h a p p l i c a b l e t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n h a s been r e p o r t e d .  59  Speaking g e n e r a l l y , Schlup (353) mentions t h a t E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e makes wide use o f c h a r t s and graphs, c h i e f l y t o a n a l y s e a problem o r s i t u a t i o n and t o c l a r i f y and g i v e emphasis t o o r a l presentations.  They h e l p t o f o c u s t h e a u d i e n c e ' s a t t e n t i o n  and  a r e a g r e a t v a l u e i n h e l p i n g a p e r s o n t o p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l i n an o r d e r l y and l o g i c a l way.  He p o i n t s out t h a t t h e b e s t c h a r t s a r e  s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o be e a s i l y r e a d by everybody i n t h e room and emphasize a s i n g l e i d e a .  They s h o u l d be s i m p l e i n d e s i g n  and c o n t a i n a l i m i t e d amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n . g r a p h s a r e e f f e c t i v e f o r making comparisons, f o r presenting complicated f a c t s .  He s t a t e s t h a t f o r contrasts or  A good graph r e q u i r e s l i t t l e  e x p l a n a t i o n and t e l l s i t s s t o r y q u i c k l y . Washburne's (446) (1)  r e s e a r c h showed t h a t : -  Simple v i s u a l p a t t e r n s w i t h few d a t a t e n d t o  produce more s p e c i f i c r e c a l l .  More g e n e r a l r e c a l l  r e s u l t s from p r e s e n t i n g more d a t a i n more complex visual patterns. (2)  Bar graphs are b e s t f o r complex o r s l i g h t l y  complex s t a t i c  comparisons.  (3)  P i c t o g r a p h s are b e s t f o r s i m p l e  comparisons.  (4)  L i n e graphs a r e b e s t f o r dynamic  (5)  S t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s are b e s t f o r s p e c i f i c  comparisons.  comparisons. (6)  Round numbers, and not t o o many o f them, a r e  b e s t f o r c o n v e y i n g s p e c i f i c amounts.  (446)  60 About 27 y e a r s l a t e r P e t e r s o n and Schramm (329) c o n c l u d e d some r e s e a r c h which i n d i c a t e d t h a t : (1)  A c c u r a c y o f e s t i m a t e drops w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n  t h e number o f d i m e n s i o n s i n t h e g r a p h i c f o r m , i . e . a r e a forms such as b a r graphs a r e r e a d more a c c u r a t e l y t h a n volume forms such as t h e c y l i n d e r . (2)  A c c u r a c y o f e s t i m a t e drops w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n  t h e number o f elements i n c l u d e d i n a s i n g l e p r e s e n t a t i o n . (3)  A c c u r a c y i n r e a d i n g graphs i s r e l a t e d t o age,  e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e use o f graphs. (4)  I n e s t i m a t i n g p a r t s o f a whole, t h e l a r g e s t  p a r t t e n d s t o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d w h i l e t h e m i d d l e - s i z e d p a r t s t e n d t o be o v e r e s t i m a t e d . (5)  A c i r c u l a r graph i s a s u p e r i o r way o f i l l u s -  t r a t i n g p a r t s o f a whole.  E e l s (130) made a p a r t i c u l a r  study o f t h e c i r c u l a r g r a p h and h i s f i n d i n g s agreed w i t h t h o s e o f P e t e r s o n and Schramm ( 3 2 9 ) • A g r i s e a r c h o f November 1955  (9) r e v i e w s t h e r e s e a r c h  p e r t a i n i n g t o graphs and summarized t h e f i n d i n g s a s f o l l o w s : (1) A c c u r a c y o f e s t i m a t e s drops w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f d i m e n s i o n s i n t h e g r a p h i c form, i . e . , a r e a forms such as t h e b a r graph a r e r e a d more a c c u r a t e l y t h a n volume forms such a s t h e c y l i n d e r . (2) A c c u r a c y o f e s t i m a t e s d r o p s w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f elements i n c l u d e d i n a s i n g l e presentation. (3) A c c u r a c y i n r e a d i n g graphs i s r e l a t e d t o age, e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e use o f graphs.  61 (4) Simple v i s u a l p a t t e r n s p r o d u c e more s p e c i f i c r e c a l l .  with  few  data  (5) A c i r c l e g r a p h i s a s u p e r i o r way t r a t i n g p a r t s o f a whole.  of  tend  to  illus-  (6) In e s t i m a t i n g p a r t s o f a whole, the l a r g e s t p a r t t e n d s t o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d w h i l e t h e m i d d l e s i z e d p a r t s t e n d t o be o v e r e s t i m a t e d . (9) The  article  visual pattern, recall  studies  t h e more s p e c i f i c  the  show t h e  recall,  material  and  affect  visual recall.  seem t o have t h e i r  relative  amounts; v i s u a l  designs,  seem t o a f f e c t A  chart  is  best  It  i s an  in  graphic  f a c t o r s i n the  numerous  grouping of  data.  quantitative  greatest  recall  effect  f a c t o r s , - the the  recall  i s also presented  representation, 62)  general  organization  attempt t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r  (p.  more  the  L o g i c a l f a c t o r s , - the  of  and  on t h e graphic  specific  which  suited for several different  convenience,  simpler  and  r e s u l t s f r o m a complex v i s u a l p a t t e r n and  Both l o g i c a l  data,  reports that  forms  of and  amounts.  shows what t y p e o f  s i t u a t i o n s or  the  opinion  of  of  i s reproduced here  graph  requirements. researchers for  62  TABLE I  C h a r t P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Recommended Graph Forms  To Show  S i n g l e M u l t i p l e C ^ c ^ e L i n e Cosmo- 'Pictograph bar bar o r P i e Graph graph  lAfriole and i t s part-S..  V  X  S i m p l e comparisons  9  V  Multiple  X  V  X  Trends  X  V  X  Frequencies  X  V  X  comparisons  Key: V ~ recommended  •  ?  =  possible  v/  X  a  •  9  9  •  •  V  ?  X  9  X  9  X  X  V  X  9  V  7  • «  n o t recommended (9)  63 Peterson  (328) made a study o f t h e use o f graphs as  t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l i n t h e U.S. A i r F o r c e , and r e p o r t e d t h e following: (1)  The t i t l e s h o u l d be made complete and u s e f u l ,  i t s h o u l d t e l l what, where, by whom, e t c . (2)  I f t h e graph cannot be l a b e l l e d , s u p p l y a good  key and p l a c e i t a t o r n e a r t h e t o p o f t h e g r a p h . (3)  Make any l a b e l s used easy t o r e a d .  (4)  Do n o t r u n g r i d l i n e s i n t o l a b e l s .  (5)  P l a c e a l a b e l on t h e p a r t i t names, and i f  t h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e , use an arrow. (6)  The t y p e s i z e o f a l a b e l s h o u l d n e v e r f a l l  below 8 p o i n t . (7)  The placement and d i r e c t i o n o f s c a l e s f o l l o w  d i r e c t l y from mathematics usage.  Positive  N e g a t i v e •«-  -» P o s i t i v e  Negative (8)  Begin a l l s c a l e s a t zero.  (9)  I f range o f s c a l e i s t o o l o n g , break i t .  (10)  I f some d a t a , s a y f o r a month o r a y e a r , a r e  m i s s i n g , l e a v e a space and e x p l a i n i n a f o o t n o t e . (11)  A graph w i t h o n l y a few b a r s s h o u l d be  h o r i z o n t a l - i f i t h a s many b a r s , i t s h o u l d be v e r t i c a l . (12)  I f t h e r e a r e o n l y a few b a r s t h e space between  them s h o u l d be t h e s i z e o f t h e b a r .  (13)  I f t h e r e are many b a r s t h e space between them  can be s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h e w i d t h o f a b a r . (14)  I f b a r s need not be a r r a n g e d i n a t i m e  o t h e r f i x e d sequence, arrange them i n e i t h e r or descending (15)  ascending  order.  Be l o g i c a l , r u n a l t i t u d e l i n e s v e r t i c a l l y  distance l i n e s (16)  or  and  horizontally.  Data l i n e s must be h e a v i e s t , base l i n e s n e x t  h e a v i e s t , and g r i d l i n e s t h e l i g h t e s t . (17)  I n pictographs the p i c t u r e  must be  easily  identified. (18)  The p i c t o g r a p h symbol s h o u l d be capable  enlargement o r r e d u c t i o n w i t h o u t (19)  I f different  difference (20)  of  distortion.  symbols a r e u s e d , be sure t h e  i s o b v i o u s and  Indicate quantities  clear. by numbers, n o t s i z e o f  symbol. (21)  E x p l a i n the amount a symbol r e p r e s e n t s .  (22)  Avoid f r a c t i o n s with pictographs.  (23)  P i c t o g r a p h s s h o u l d o n l y be used when e x a c t  numbers are n o t i m p o r t a n t .  (328)  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t Vernon (435)  made a comprehen-  s i v e r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h on g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n i n England i n 1952,  and p o i n t e d out f o u r c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h g r a p h i c  p i c t o r i a l a i d s are e f f e c t i v e .  These he l i s t e d as f o l l o w s :  and -  65 (1)  Readers r e q u i r e s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g t o e n a b l e  them t o u n d e r s t a n d most g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s (2)  properly.  Diagrams do n o t always i n s u r e b e t t e r under-  s t a n d i n g o r r e t e n t i o n t h a n do t a b l e s o f f i g u r e s . (3)  D i f f e r e n t s o r t s o f d a t a and r e l a t i o n s h i p s may  require d i f f e r e n t kinds of f i g u r e s . (4)  P i c t o r i a l and g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n i s u s u a l l y  u n d e r s t o o d b e t t e r when supplemented w i t h v e r b a l  explan-  a t i o n . These g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the research. S a u l and o t h e r s an e x t e n s i v e  (435) (355) on b e h a l f o f t h e U.S. Navy, made  review o f the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h e design  and use o f e f f e c t i v e g r a p h i c t r a i n i n g a i d s . references  They r e v i e w e d 240  and found t h a t many o f t h e r e p o r t s were c o n t r a d i c t -  o r y and i n c o n s i s t e n t .  There was g e n e r a l agreement on p o i n t s  such a s ! (1)  Photographs s h o u l d have a c l e a r - c u t c e n t e r o f  i n t e r e s t , p o s s e s s c l a r i t y , sharpness and s t r o n g and be f r e e from f a l s e  contrast  impressions.  (2)  Cross-sectional designs are d i f f i c u l t t o read.  (3)  Too many c o l o r s d e t r a c t , b u t c o l o r s p r o p e r l y  used can f e a t u r e o r emphasize p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s . (4)  G r a p h i c a i d s , a s most o t h e r a i d s , need an  explanatory  introduction.  66 (5)  C a p t i o n s must be p r o p e r l y p l a c e d , p r i n t e d i n  l a r g e enough l e t t e r s and s e r v e a t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n . (6)  P i c t o r i a l graphs are more e a s i l y  than the c o n v e n t i o n a l l i n e o r bar t y p e .  understood P i e graphs  are not recommended. (7)  Graphs h e l p i n t e l l i g e n t people u n d e r s t a n d  the  w r i t t e n t e x t ; however, t h e l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t a r e not h e l p e d by them. (8)  Layout i s important t o graphic a i d s .  Good  g r a p h i c s s h o u l d p o s s e s s b a l a n c e , u n i t y , harmony, emphasis, rhythm, p r o p e r l e t t e r i n g and p r o p e r  color.  (355)  There was  g e n e r a l agreement a l s o on the f a c t t h a t t h e  effect-  i v e n e s s o f g r a p h i c a i d s depends on the i n s t r u c t o r , - the s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d be p r o p e r , t h e group p r e p a r e d ,  t h e use o f t h e  a i d i n t h e t e a c h i n g l o c a t i o n be t r i e d and t h e use o f t h e a i d be  previewed. (13)  Comic S t r i p s The U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed F o r c e s I n f o r m a t i o n and  O f f i c e (20)  made two  s t u d i e s t o evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  comic books as a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e and from t h e f i r s t r e p o r t e d t h e r e was  Education  no evidence  t h a t the men  who  study  received  i n s t r u c t i o n i n " M i l i t a r y C o u r t e s y " by l e c t u r e and comic book l e a r n e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e men  who  r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n by l e c t u r e  and a f i e l d manual, o r by o n l y a l e c t u r e .  However t h e second  s t u d y o f t h i s s e r i e s a y e a r l a t e r i n w h i c h c o p i e s o f t h e comic  67 book were l e f t i n t h e lounge showed some d i f f e r e n t f i n d i n g s . A l t h o u g h few men p i c k e d up t h e comic books, t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n knowledge by b o t h f a s t and slow l e a r n e r s when t h e y r e a d t h e book.  I t was n o t e d t h a t o f  a l l t h o s e who r e a d t h e comic book i t was o n l y t h e b e t t e r educated men who r e t a i n e d more. (15J  Technamation D i s p l a y s Technamation d i s p l a y s a r e d e v i c e s t h a t use a method o f  applying transparent  p l a s t i c s t o s t i l l p i c t u r e s so t h a t t h e y  appear t o move when o r d i n a r y l i g h t , p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h a r e v o l v i n g d i s c o f p o l a r i z e d p l a s t i c , i s thrown on them.  Motion  can be c o n t r o l l e d so a c c u r a t e l y t h a t a technamated cutaway d r a w i n g o f a j e t engine shows t h e f u e l f l o w i n g i n and b u r n i n g , t h e t u r b i n e s and g e a r s t u r n i n g and gases r u s h i n g o u t t h e r e a r , a l l i n the exact t i m i n g of a r e a l engine.  The U.S. Government  i s u s i n g a t e c h n a m a t i o n d e v i c e t o t e a c h employees t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e underground s i l o s and f u e l system f o r t h e T i t a n m i s s i l e . The  f a c t o r s t h a t determine t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t e c h n a m a t i o n  d e v i c e would seem t o be i t s s u i t a b i l i t y i n s i t u a t i o n s where i t e m s such a s s a f e t y , s e c u r i t y and c o s t have t o be  considered  i n r e l a t i o n t o whether o r n o t i t i s t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e  device  t o e i t h e r a s s i s t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and t e a c h i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l knowledge, o r where performance must be measured and o r improved.  A r e v i e w o f r e c e n t developments i n t e c h n a m a t i o n  d i s p l a y s was r e p o r t e d by Time Magazine i n A p r i l 1961  (4O3J.  6a E l e c t r o n i c Education A new  and v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t e a c h i n g d e v i c e i s d e s c r i b e d  by T r o t t e r (410)  i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " E l e c t r o n i c E d u c a t i o n " ,  p u b l i s h e d i n t h e d a i l y newspaper, t h e Vancouver Sun, on O c t o b e r , 1964.  17  I t i s mentioned here as i t would appear t o  have tremendous p o t e n t i a l use i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  Dr. T r o t t e r ,  chairman o f t h e board o f G e n e r a l Telephone and E l e c t r o n i c s L a b o r a t o r i e s L t d . , e x p l a i n s t h a t one e x c e l l e n t t e a c h e r can  now  i n s t r u c t an e n t i r e county, s t a t e o r p r o v i n c e t h r o u g h two-way t e l e p h o n e c i r c u i t s , f o r as t h e t e a c h e r w r i t e s n o t e s and draws diagrams t h e s e are t r a n s f e r r e d t o a type o f b l a c k b o a r d by t e l e p h o n e ; - and t h e c i r c u i t s a r e much l e s s c o s t l y t h a n c l o s e d circuit television  systems.  69 A.  I l l u s t r a t i v e Devices  2.  Visual c  (1)  »  Two  Opaque and t r a n s p a r e n t No r e s e a r c h  o f opaque and education. for  dimentional*  was  -  Projected  o r overhead p r o j e c t i o n s  found t h a t d e a l t w i t h the  overhead p r o j e c t i o n s as t e a c h i n g  devices i n adult  However i t can be seen t h a t the opaque p r o j e c t i o n i s ,  t h e most p a r t , i n e f f e c t , j u s t an extended use  posters  effectiveness  e t c . ; and t r a n s p a r e n t  more e a s i l y used and  of  graphics,  o r overhead p r o j e c t i o n s , a l t h o u g h  capable o f w i d e r a p p l i c a t i o n and  greater  f l e x i b i l i t y , have much the same r e s u l t s as the f i l m s t r i p s l i d e p r o j e c t i o n s , - and t h e s e two  and  are examined a t some l e n g t h  a l i t t l e f u r t h e r on i n t h i s p a p e r . T h i s tremendous advantage o f wide a p p l i c a t i o n  and  f l e x i b i l i t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d v i v i d l y i n an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by Brann (47)  t h a t appeared i n t h e N a t i o n a l O b s e r v e r on 23  November,  I 9 6 4 , e n t i t l e d " P i t t ' s Amazing P r o f e s s o r P e t e r s o n Teaches English With A (2)  Projector".  Film As C l i n t o n (82) p o i n t e d  out, f i l m s s t a r t e d w i t h  t h e n added words - whereas the " p r e s s "  pictures  s t a r t e d w i t h words, t h e n  added p i c t u r e s . F i l m makes an immediate mass a p p e a l . s t a t e d the case when he s a i d , "The  Plato nicely  i m i t a t i o n o f l i f e h o l d s the  w i d e s t a p p e a l t o c h i l d r e n and t o the a t t e n d a n t s o f c h i l d r e n t o the v u l g a r mass".  C a r p e n t e r and G r e e n h i l l (73)  and  e x p l a i n i t by  70 s a y i n g t h e showing o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v i t e s s u s p e n s i o n s e l f and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s .  of  This then b r i n g s i n t o play  submerged i m p u l s e s w h i c h are r e p r e s s e d under t e n s i o n . l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e f i l m , can be  The strength-  ened w i t h words, but i t r e a l l y does not need them as i t s a p p e a l a n t i d a t e s speech. U n t i l f a i r l y r e c e n t l y most of t h e r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d i n t h e f i e l d o f t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s was e d u c a t i o n a l motion p i c t u r e s .  done w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o  A t h o r o u g h r e s e a r c h on f i l m  p u b l i s h e d by Hoban and VanOrmer (204)  out  i n 1950.  Other  was  reviews  o f r e s e a r c h on the use o f f i l m as a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e were n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y as f o l l o w s , A l l e n (14), M c C l u s k y ( 2 7 9 ) , and S t e n i u s  D a l e ( 1 0 9 ) , Dale  (108),  (385).  Most o f the e a r l y r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out on t h e n e s s o f f i l m as a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e was s t u d e n t s , - see A r n s p i g e r  (24),  based on work w i t h  C o n s i t t (87),  Holaday  S t o d d a r d ( 1 8 1 ) , Knowlton and T i t o n ( 2 4 9 ) , Merchant W a t k i n s ( 4 4 7 ) , Weber ( 4 4 9 ) , and Wise ( 4 6 1 ) . did  effectiveschool  and  (286),  However t h i s work  show t h a t f i l m s can t e a c h f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y  o v e r a wide range o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t , ages, and c o n d i t i o n s o f u s e .  Hovland and o t h e r s (210)  w i t h about 2000 s o l d i e r s i n 1949  abilities  i n working  p r o v e d t h a t f i l m s are q u i t e  successful i n imparting f a c t u a l information to adults,  although  not an e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g m o t i v a t i o n s o r  modifying  basic attitudes.  71 VanderMeer (427)  completed a study on t h e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n by f i l m s p l u s s t u d y g u i d e s and  (3)  (1)  relative  f i l m s e x c l u s i v e l y , (2)  s t a n d a r d l e c t u r e method and  f o u n d t h a t f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes the t h r e e methods were o f almost e q u a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F i l m has been a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f p e r c e p t u a l motor s k i l l s .  R e s e a r c h by McClusky  McClusky ( 2 8 1 ) , Brown and M e s s e r s m i t h (56), P r i e b e and B u r t o n  (334)  motor s k i l l by f i l m was VanderMeer (424)  (264),  Lockhart  and  a l l proved t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n of a as e f f e c t i v e as by c o n v e n t i o n a l methods. r e p o r t e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t r a i n i n g  l a t h e o p e r a t o r s by means o f e i g h t U.S. and  and  O f f i c e of Education  films  s t a t e d t h a t the use o f f i l m s cut t h e w o r k i n g t i m e , r e s u l t e d  i n a r e d u c t i o n o f the t r i a l - a n d e r r o r l e a r n i n g t i m e ,  and  produced more f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on machine o p e r a t i o n . concluded  He  t h a t f i l m s are p r o b a b l y more e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g  more complex s k i l l s t h a n t e a c h i n g t h e s i m p l e ones. y e a r s l a t e r VanderMeer and C o g s w e l l  (428)  About seven  r e p o r t e d on  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f u s i n g f i l m t o t r a i n servicemen i n t h e use maintenance o f t h e 16 mm attempt was  sound p r o j e c t o r .  the  and  They s t a t e d t h a t t h e  v e r y s u c c e s s f u l and t h a t a t t i t u d e s were i n f l u e n c e d  i n f a v o u r o f f i l m o b j e c t i v e s , and t h e t r a i n e e s were f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o w a r d t h e f i l m approach t o l e a r n i n g . f o u n d t h a t two  f i l m showings were b e t t e r t h a n  Hoban (201)  A l s o i t was one.  r e p o r t e d a study by Beck and Lumsdaine  w h i c h compared t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e assembly and d i s a s s e m b l y  of  72  a portable  radar  instructor using required  station with a f i l m a s c a l e model.  a b o u t t h e same l e n g t h  a t i o n s when t e s t e d ,  increased  publication  Hoban r e p o r t e d  on t h e c o m p a r a t i v e film  although there  same  teaching  a n d t h e m o t i o n p i c t u r e and  was l i t t l e  superior  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  (352) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e  effectiveness of a training film  designed t o teach  increased  as the f i l m  film will  be more e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g  case knot t y i n g )  l e a r n e r a s he w i l l  approaches r e a l i s m  i s portrayed  perform the a c t .  w h i c h shows t h e m o t i o n s i n v o l v e d requiring static  a skill i s  and r e p o r t e d a skill  that the  i f the task ( i n  from the viewing angle o f the Also  he p r o v e d t h a t  i n a perceptual-motor  a  film  task  c o n t i n u o u s m o t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n a s e r i e s o f  pictures. Jaspen  (227),  t r a i n i n g men by u s i n g one,  In t h i s  m e d i a a s m e a s u r e d by t h e t e s t s . Roshal  this  the f i l m  t h e m o t i o n p i c t u r e a p p e a r e d t o be s l i g h t l y  teaching  two  o f time t o perform t h e oper-  teamwork a n d e f f i c i e n c y .  effectiveness of the s l i d e  in  A l t h o u g h t h e two g r o u p s  the i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that  instruction  said that  and w i t h a competent  he u s e d  (228) made two s t u d i e s o f t h e e f f e c t s on experimental f i l m  seventeen d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s  and  i n s t u d y two, f o u r t e e n  can  be l i s t e d (1)  variables.  as f o l l o w s : Repetition add  In study  of a training film  different versions.  The r e s u l t s  -  o f the demonstration of a task  t o effectiveness of a given  film.  will  73 (2)  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o have t o o many o r too few words i n the n a r r a t i o n .  Medium v e r b a l i z a t i o n , about  100 words p e r m i n u t e , was found most e f f e c t i v e . (3)  Showing  common e r r o r s t o be a v o i d e d i n c r e a s e s  the i n s t r u c t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a f i l m . (4)  The use o f t e c h n i c a l nomenclature does n o t appear t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e l e a r n i n g o f an assembly p r o c e s s .  (5)  The i n c l u s i o n o f "How-it-works" sequence d i d n o t contribute to learning.  (6)  Having t h e a u d i e n c e p e r f o r m t h e t a s k as i t i s shown on t h e s c r e e n i s an e f f e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e i f t h e r a t e o f development  i s slow enough t o p e r m i t t h e l e a r n e r  t o view t h e f i l m and p e r f o r m t h e t a s k w i t h o u t t o o much l o s s o f a t t e n t i o n t o e i t h e r . (7)  R a p i d compact t r e a t m e n t ( s u c c i n c t t r e a t m e n t ) i s ineffective.  The r a t e o f development must be co-  ordinated with the t r a i n e e s r a t e of l e a r n i n g . Ash and Jaspen (27)  a g a i n proved t h a t second and t h i r d  r e p e t i t i o n s o f a f i l m d e m o n s t r a t i n g a s k i l l was v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n terms o f t r a i n e e s performance and speed o f s k i l l a f t e r seeing the f i l m .  Harby  (184) and M u r n i n and o t h e r s (304)  used  the d a y l i g h t p r o j e c t i o n of r e p e t i t i v e f i l m loops i n the t e a c h i n g of a t h l e t i c s k i l l s .  They f o u n d t h a t a r e p e a t e d m o t i o n - p i c t u r e  d e m o n s t r a t i o n was a t l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as a l i v e i n s t r u c t o r ' s d e m o n s t r a t i o n b u t t h a t l i v e i n s t r u c t i o n was s u p e r i o r when  74 i n d i v i d u a l c o a c h i n g was  added.  (197)  Hirsch's  work emphasized  t h e s e r e s u l t s when he showed t h a t r e p e t i t i v e f i l m l o o p s t a u g h t r i f l e marksmanship s k i l l s t o Army T r a i n e e s as w e l l as d i d the u s u a l l e c t u r e - d e m o n s t r a t i o n - a p p l i c a t i o n method.  (124)  Duvall  compared t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i n g Servicemen i n t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s by sound m o t i o n p i c t u r e s and s l i d e s p l u s t a p e s and by c o n v e n t i o n a l f a c e - t o - f a c e He r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e was  by  instruction.  an i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  t r a i n e e ' s s c o r e s on a l l t h r e e methods.  Brody's (53)  I960 showed t h a t r e l a t i v e l y complex and  complete  work i n  perceptual  motor s k i l l s can be t a u g h t by f i l m w i t h o u t the a i d o f any instruction.  T h i s would not p r e c l u d e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f  other  practice  on o p e r a t i o n a l equipment e.g. motor c a r f o r d r i v i n g s k i l l s ,  but  t h e p r a c t i c e t i m e on t h e equipment can be r e d u c e d . Zuckerman (466)  s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t s of commentary  v a r i a t i o n s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s on p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r t a s k s . He r e p o r t e d t h a t a medium l e v e l o f v e r b a l i z a t i o n p e r m i n u t e ) was  (89  - 125  best and t h a t t h e use o f t h e second p e r s o n  pronoun and t h e i m p e r a t i v e mood were most e f f e c t i v e . p e r s o n p a s s i v e e.g.,  "a l o o p i s formed", was  The most e f f e c t i v e phase r e l a t i o n s h i p was picture.  C o g s w e l l (83)  The  third  least effective.  where sound l e d t h e  found t h a t a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  t h e assembly o f t h e b r e e c h b l o c k o f a 40 mm was  words  f i l m on  a n t i - a i r c r a f t gun  no more e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g t h e assembly s k i l l t h a n a  two-dimensional f i l m .  I t can be recommended t h e n t h a t  average f a c t u a l o r m o t o r - s k i l l t r a i n i n g f i l m need not  the be  75 s t e r e o s c o p i c a s t h e added expense o f t h e t e c h n i q u e j u s t i f i e d by any i n c r e m e n t i n l e a r n i n g .  i s not  I t would seem t h a t  monocular cues f o r d e p t h p e r c e p t i o n a r e s u f f i c i e n t f o r l e a r n i n g t h i s kind of task e f f e c t i v e l y . dimensional  I t i s possible that three-  f i l m s a r e v a l u a b l e i n t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s where  judgement o f depth i s an e s s e n t i a l cue t o l e a r n i n g . Wiese (453) r e p o r t e d t h a t f i l m s t a u g h t a d u l t  illiterates  w i t h much l e s s supplementary h e l p t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l methods r e q u i r e d and P e l l (326) r e c o r d s t h e s u c c e s s f u l use o f f i l m s i n Workers  education. An unfounded c r i t i c i s m o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s i s t h a t  l e a r n i n g from them i s " p a s s i v e " and i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h i n k i n g and t h e development o f c o n c e p t s and i n f e r e n c e s . evidence t o t h e c o n t r a r y .  There i s some  Vernon's (436) study o f t h e e f f e c t i v e -  n e s s o f a sound f i l m and s i l e n t f i l m s t r i p i n t e a c h i n g  British  seamen t r a i n e e s t o t a k e soundings showed t h a t t h e f i l m and f i l m s t r i p produced a g r e a t e r g a i n i n t h e "comprehension" s c o r e s t h a n i n t h e "memory f o r d e t a i l " s c o r e s .  There i s some i n d i c a t i o n  t h a t f i l m s a r e , t o some e x t e n t , p a s s i v e l y viewed a s S i l l a r s (368) w r i t e s t h a t when used as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n medium, motion p i c t u r e impressions  s h o u l d n o t be p a s s i v e l y r e c e i v e d  . . . b u t s h o u l d be a s s i m i l a t e d c r i t i c a l l y  . . . by p u r p o s e f u l  and i n t e l l i g e n t l y g u i d e d d i s c u s s i o n . B r o o k e r (54) made a s u r v e y o f 500 b u s i n e s s e s and i n d u s t r i e s on t h e i r use o f t r a i n i n g f i l m s and r e p o r t e d t h e following interesting results.  76 (1)  F i l m s speeded up t r a i n i n g w i t h o u t any l o s s i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  (2)  F i l m s made c l a s s w o r k more i n t e r e s t i n g and r e s u l t e d i n l e s s  absenteeism.  (3)  F i l m s made on t h e u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e l e v e l  were used s u c c e s s f u l l y on l o w e r grade l e v e l s . n o t good i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s . and w e l l u s e d .  (4) F i l m s a r e  They a r e good o n l y i f w e l l made  Over-optimism i s c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t .  (5) There  was e v i d e n c e t h a t f i l m v i e w e r s thought t h e y knew more t h a n t h e y d i d and on t h e o t h e r hand t h e y had l e a r n e d some t h i n g s on a nonverbal l e v e l they could not express.  (54)  Hague (180) r e p o r t e d some e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s as t h e r e s u l t o f a s u r v e y made o f 112 Department s t o r e s and 15 S p e c i a l t y s t o r e s p l u s 44 i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r s o f these stores.  H i s f i n d i n g s a r e as f o l l o w s .  Motion p i c t u r e s  a r e o f p r o v e n v a l u e i n fcetail t r a i n i n g , (1)  To arouse emotions, such a s f e e l i n g s o f l o y a l t y t o t h e  store, or pride i n a job.  (2) To i n f l u e n c e employee a t t i t u d e  f o r example, t o c o u r t e o u s t r e a t m e n t o f customers.  (3) To  p r o v i d e b a s i c background i n f o r m a t i o n , such as t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f merchandise, how i t s h o u l d be used, h a n d l e d and c a r e d f o r , i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n f e a t u r e s and o t h e r s e l l i n g p o i n t s . (4)  F o r j o b i n s t r u c t i o n i n b o t h s e l l i n g and n o n - s e l l i n g  categories.  (5) M o t i o n p i c t u r e s a r e a u t h o r i t a t i v e .  They can  t e a c h p e o p l e who would n o t r e s p o n d t o an i n s t r u c t o r e.g. e x p e r i e n c e d s a l e s p e o p l e r e s e n t a t t e m p t s t o g i v e them a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g b u t more r e a d i l y a c c e p t t r a i n i n g from a f i l m . B u s i n e s s S c r e e n (62) a l s o r e c o r d s an e f f e c t i v e use o f f i l m s  77 f o r an i n d u s t r i a l i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program.  Haas  (178)  •writes t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r of r e t a i l t r a i n i n g f o r MontgomeryWard & C o . s t a t e s t h a t when t r a i n i n g f i l m s are u s e d Employees l e a r n 35% more. (3)  (2)  (1)  Employees remember 35% l o n g e r .  F i l m s g i v e employees c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o work  s u c c e s s f u l l y and t h u s b u i l d m o r a l e . everyone must "see  (4)  I n any o r g a n i z a t i o n  a l i k e " and " d o a l i k e " i n t h e maintenance  s t a n d a r d s and o n l y f i l m can make t r a i n i n g u n i f o r m .  (5)  of  Films  make i t p o s s i b l e t o meet w o r k i n g and t r a i n i n g s t a n d a r d s i n l e s s t i m e t h u s s a v i n g t i m e and money. Haas a l s o s t a t e s t h a t B . A . Augenbaugh f o u n d t h a t r a t i o o f r e t e n t i o n has been as h i g h as 9 t o 1 f o r t h e group o v e r t h e word group when d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , i t i o n o r a r g u m e n t a t i o n are p r e s e n t e d as t h e s u b j e c t  the  film expos-  matter.  One t e s t employed t e x t book s t u d y v e r s u s p i c t u r e s o f the same s u b j e c t and i t was f o u n d t h a t where i t u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d 10 days t o c o v e r t h e work u s i n g t h e t e x t book t h e same s u b j e c t c o u l d be " c o v e r e d " by f i l m i n 15 m i n u t e s and the t r a i n e e s l e a r n e d more and r e t a i n e d i t l o n g e r .  Haas adds one p r i n c i p l e t o  a l r e a d y noted f o r e f f e c t i v e f i l m t e a c h i n g , alized.  - i t must be p e r s o n -  H i s o t h e r p o i n t s have been brought o u t , d i r e c t l y o r  indirectly,  i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and s u r v e y s but can be  s t a t e d a g a i n : - F i l m t r a i n i n g (1) Must be s i m p l e . practical.  (3) Must be e d u c a t i o n a l .  (5) Must f i t the b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n . support.  those  (7) Must be  effective.  (4) Must be  (2) Must be interesting.  (6) must have management  78 Long (265)  summarizes e l e v e n s t u d i e s i n r e p o r t i n g t h a t  t h e use o f f i l m as compared t o t h e l e c t u r e method o f i n s t r u c t i o n shows: - (1) The  s u p e r i o r i t y o f f i l m i n a c q u i s i t i o n and  r e t e n t i o n , (2) The  s u p e r i o r i t y o f the f i l m i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e d  when as much as 3 t o 4 months have e l a p s e d between the l e a r n i n g and  the f i n a l t e s t .  (3) I n a c q u i s i t i o n and  initial  retention  t h e c o l o r f i l m i s as s u p e r i o r t o b l a c k and w h i t e f i l m as  black  and w h i t e f i l m i s t o the l e c t u r e method o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Vandemeer's (426) Long's.  f i n d i n g s d i d not e n t i r e l y agree w i t h  I n comparing the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f b l a c k  and  w h i t e f i l m w i t h c o l o u r f i l m he showed each v e r s i o n o f a f i l m t o 250  t r a i n e e s and t e s t e d f o r r e s u l t s .  He r e p o r t e d  that there  no d i f f e r e n c e i n the amount o f l e a r n i n g but t h a t r e t e n t i o n g r e a t e r from c o l o u r f i l m .  Although colour f i l m i s l i k e d  t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n t e n t was whether o r not the f i l m was white or coloured.  " l i k e d " , t h a n i f i t was  He a l s o n o t e d t h a t the t e a c h i n g  v i e w e r s but c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was  better  black  and  effectiveness  w e l l i t i s l i k e d by  the  not enough d i f f e r e n c e i n  e f f e c t i v e n e s s to j u s t i f y the increased  cost of c o l o r .  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r e p e t i t i v e showings o f i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l f i l m has been s t u d i e d and researchers,  was  much more i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g  o f a f i l m i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o how  The  was  reported  on by  several  a l r e a d y n o t e d as f o l l o w s - VanderMeer and  ( 4 2 8 ) , Jaspen ( 2 2 8 ) , and Ash  and  Jaspen ( 2 7 ) •  Cogswell  McTavish  s t a t e s t h a t the f i r s t r e p e t i t i o n r e s u l t e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e m e n t s i n l e a r n i n g and t h r e e  showings f a i l e d t o  add  (284)  79 m a t e r i a l l y o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e l e a r n i n g e f f e c t e d by two showings.  Four showings r e s u l t e d i n an even s m a l l e r  increment,  o r i n two c a s e s a s l i g h t decrement o v e r t h r e e showings. Carpenter's  (71) f i n d i n g s do n o t e n t i r e l y agree w i t h those o f  McTavish (284).  He r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e second showing i n c r e a s e d  l e a r n i n g 35% o v e r t h e f i r s t showing and t h e t h i r d showing caused an i n c r e a s e o f 7.4% o v e r t h e second showing.  The f o u r t h  showing r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e o f 1.1% o v e r t h e 3 r d showing. To add t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , N e l s o n and VanderMeer (312)  found  t h a t f o r an assembly t a s k , i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h as many as s i x r e p e t i t i o n s h a s been o b s e r v e d and t h a t t h e l i m i t o f r e p e t i t i o n s a s an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g d e v i c e i s n o t known. H i r s c h (196) r e p o r t s t h a t a second showing o f an i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m w i l l r e a s s u r e t h e t r a i n e e s , - as w e l l a s a i d r e t e n t i o n . J a c k s o n (223) compared t h e t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f f i l m s and k i n e s c o p e s  and r e p o r t e d t h a t when a k i n e s c o p e o r  t r a i n i n g f i l m i s d e s c r i b e d as a k i n e s c o p e ,  l e a r n i n g increases  s i g n i f i c a n t l y and t h a t s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s o c c u r w i t h kinescope  i n b l a c k and w h i t e o r i n c o l o u r .  l a t e r , i n 1955, H u r s t  About t h r e e  years  (217) d i d much t h e same r e s e a r c h and  reported t h a t t h e kinescope  had l o s t i t s n o v e l e f f e c t and t h a t  t r a i n e e s l e a r n e d about t h e same amount from a f i l m whether t h e y were t o l d i t was a k i n e s c o p e  or f i l m .  G r e e n h i l l and Tyo (173) r e v i e w e d  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  f i l m p r o d u c t i o n , u t i l i z a t i o n and r e s e a r c h i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , Canada and A u s t r a l i a and r e p o r t a s f o l l o w s : - ( l ) The sequence  o f p i c t u r e s i n f i l m s t r i p s s h o u l d be a b s o l u t e l y l o g i c a l and human i n t e r e s t s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d whenever p o s s i b l e .  (2) A  s i l e n t m o t i o n p i c t u r e w i t h t e a c h e r commentary i s most e f f e c t i v e . (3) C l a s s e s t a u g h t by f i l m s t r i p s o b t a i n e d b e t t e r s c o r e s t h o s e t a u g h t by t h e u s u a l l e c t u r e method.  than  (4) Not o n l y t h e  " r e g u l a r " c l a s s e s b u t t h o s e who had seen t h e f i l m s t r i p  obtained  h i g h e r marks i f they had seen t h e m o t i o n p i c t u r e f i l m .  (5) Two  c l a s s e s w h i c h had no o r d i n a r y ( l e c t u r e ) i n s t r u c t i o n b u t which saw t h e f i l m t w i c e i n f i f t y m i n u t e s were about a s i n f o r m e d , on a paper t e s t , a s t h o s e c l a s s e s which had r e c e i v e d t h r e e p e r i o d s o f n o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m weak i n s t r u c t o r s .  full  (6) E i t h e r  f i l m o r f i l m s t r i p can be used p r o f i t a b l y and b o t h a r e w o r t h w h i l e when time a l l o w s .  Furthermore t h e y can compensate e i t h e r  f o r weakness i n t h e i n s t r u c t o r o r f o r a r a t h e r poor l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the class. Ash and C a r l t o n (26) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e v a l u e o f n o t e t a k i n g d u r i n g f i l m l e a r n i n g and r e p o r t e d t h a t groups s e e i n g a f i l m w i t h o u t t a k i n g n o t e s answered a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t e s t q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y t h a n d i d groups whose members t o o k  notes.  The n o t e - t a k i n g seemed t o a c t u a l l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h l e a r n i n g . There were f o u r groups c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y : - "no f i l m " , " f i l m & n o t e s " , " f i l m , n o t e s and r e v i e w " and " f i l m o n l y " , and t h e t h r e e u s i n g t h e f i l m were a l l s u p e r i o r t o t h e "no f i l m " group• Some i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s were produced by A s h (25) a s a r e s u l t o f a study he made i n t o t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  81 massed v e r s u s spaced f i l m p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  He r e p o r t e d t h a t  t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s u s i n g f i l m may l a s t as l o n g as an hour and s t i l l r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g and t h a t l o n g massed f i l m s e s s i o n s had not been shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n s h o r t spaced s e s s i o n s .  effective  The t r a i n e e s d i d n o t seem t o  l o n g f i l m s e s s i o n s l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a n s h o r t spaced  find  sessions  and t h e l e a r n i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d seems t o be r e l a t i v e l y independent of expressed  interest.  B r e n n e r , W a l t e r and K u r t z ( 4 9 ) , B r e n n e r (254)  and K u r t z , W a l t e r and  completed s t u d i e s as t o the e f f e c t s o f i n s e r t e d  q u e s t i o n s and s t a t e m e n t s on f i l m l e a r n i n g .  These  studies  c o n c l u d e d t h a t the f i l m r e p e a t e d o r t h e f i l m w i t h i n s e r t e d q u e s t i o n s o r the f i l m w i t h p e r s i s t e n t  statements were a l l  s u p e r i o r t o t h e o r i g i n a l f i l m shown o n l y o n c e .  Also  that  showing t h e o r i g i n a l f i l m t w i c e i s a l s o about as e f f e c t i v e i n s e r t i n g questions or r e i n f o r c i n g  as  statements.  VanderMeer ( 4 2 5 ) , r e p o r t e d on t h e e f f e c t s o f  practice  i n f i l m - v i e w i n g as a f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g from i n s t r u c t i o n a l films.  The f i n d i n g s were s i g n i f i c a n t and suggest t h a t  efforts  d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e development o f s k i l l i n l e a r n i n g from f i l m s s h o u l d meet w i t h i m p r e s s i v e r e s u l t s . V i n c e n t , Ash and G r e e n h i l l (438)  s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t on  l e a r n i n g of v a r y i n g t h e t o t a l amount o f f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n a f i l m o f g i v e n l e n g t h , and t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e a l l o t t e d t o c o n v e y i n g a f i x e d amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  They  82  reported  that generally a longer f i l m with a l i g h t  concentration  o f f a c t s was t h e most e f f e c t i v e f o r l e a r n i n g . Zuckerman (467) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s  that  music made t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s and reported  t h a t t h e r e was no good e v i d e n c e o f t h e v a l u e o f m u s i c .  A l s o t h e r e was no g e n e r a l expressing groups.  agreement about t h e v a l u e o f music i n  c e r t a i n emotional expressions but that i t v a r i e d  He c i t e s one r e s e a r c h  with  w h i c h s t a t e s music can make t h e  three great  c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f u n i t y , atmosphere and enhancement  of dramatic  values.  S h e t t e l and o t h e r s (365) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e use o f s p e c i a l f i l m s as p o s s i b l e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r o r supplements t o e x p e n s i v e and  cumbersome m o b i l e t r a i n i n g d e v i c e s and r e p o r t e d t h a t  filmed  l e c t u r e s c o u l d be used t o supplement, and i n some cases r e p l a c e , the t r a i n i n g devices.  A l s o i t was shown t h a t f i l m e d l e c t u r e s  c o u l d be used as p e r i o d i c r e v i e w s . Working on b e h a l f o f t h e U.S. N a v a l S p e c i a l D e v i c e s C e n t r e a t t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e C o l l e g e , M e r c e r (293) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l from i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s and t h e use o f o p t i c a l e f f e c t s ( f a d e s , w i p e s and  d i s s o l v e s ) i n such f i l m s , and a l s o t h e f i l m l i t e r a c y o f  such o p t i c a l e f f e c t s . 1.  He r e p o r t e d  that: -  The n o t e d o p t i c a l e f f e c t s d i d n o t a i d f a c t u a l learning.  2.  Film viewers attached  no s p e c i f i c meaning t o  specific optical effects.  83 3»  O t h e r cues i n the p i c t u r e and  sound t r a c k were t h e  deciding factors i n i n t e r p r e t i n g o p t i c a l effects to indicate t r a n s i t i o n s . 4»  P r o d u c e r s o f f i l m s were found t o be i n t h e i r use  I t was  of o p t i c a l e f f e c t s .  inconsistent  (293)  recommended i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f economy t h a t  o p t i c a l e f f e c t s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s be e l i m i n a t e d o r g r e a t l y r e d u c e d i n number.  T r a n s i t i o n s s h o u l d be i n d i c a t e d by  o r s t a t e m e n t s i n the L a t h r o p and butions  commentary. Norford  (261)  o f f i l m i n t r o d u c t i o n s and  i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s and r e p o r t e d and  examined t h e p o s s i b l e  (313)  contri-  summaries t o l e a r n i n g from t h a t both contributed  i n f a c t , an i n t r o d u c t i o n i n one Neu  titles  case had  little  an a d v e r s e e f f e c t .  i n q u i r e d i n t o the e f f e c t of a t t e n t i o n  d e v i c e s on f i l m - m e d i a t e d  l e a r n i n g and found t h e r e was  gaining  no  e v i d e n c e t h a t r e l e v a n t a t t e n t i o n - g a i n i n g d e v i c e s added t o e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f f i l m s and t h e r e was  evidence t h a t non-relevant  a t t e n t i o n - g a i n i n g d e v i c e s (e.g. b a t h i n g d e t r a c t e d from the t e a c h i n g There was  no  the  beauty) a c t u a l l y  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the f i l m s .  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between e f f e c t i v e -  n e s s o f sound and v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g d e v i c e s . t o r e c a l l t h e a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g d e v i c e s was  The  ability  practically  independent of l e a r n i n g . N o r t h r u p (319) c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d  d e t e r m i n e d how  and how  the c o n t e n t o f f i l m s  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a f f e c t s l e a r n i n g .  H i s r e s u l t s showed t h a t a d d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l t o a  84 l o o s e l y organized  f i l m a i d s i n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e men  benefitting  most from t h i s " o r g a n i z a t i o n " were t h o s e i n t h e l o w e r h a l f o f the c l a s s .  I t was  a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t too much d e t a i l e d o u t -  l i n i n g f o r an a l r e a d y w e l l o r g a n i z e d i t s effectiveness.  f i l m may  K i m b l e and W u l f f (241)  a c t u a l l y decrease  investigated  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a u d i e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o see whether o r b u i l t - i n - g u i d e s which a l e r t e d the viewers t o important a t i o n would a s s i s t l e a r n i n g . p r o c e d u r e was  They f o u n d t h a t t h e  Such g u i d a n c e c l u e s c o u l d be  i n t o e x i s t i n g f i l m o r c o u l d be p r o v i d e d review  inform-  guidance  s u p e r i o r f o r b o t h t h e i n t e l l i g e n t and  i n t e l l i g e n t viewers.  i n properly  less incorporated spaced  sessions. C a r p e n t e r , S m i t h and VanOrmer (74)  studied the e f f e c t s  o f p o i n t i n g out p o s s i b l e e r r o r s , the r a t e o f development the use  not  and  of t e c h n i c a l nomenclature, i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s .  They r e p o r t e d  t h a t f i l m s i n c l u d i n g an e r r o r sequence produced  b e t t e r l e a r n i n g and t h a t slow development was t o f a s t development. be f a v o u r a b l e  The  c l e a r l y superior  o m i s s i o n o f nomenclature seemed t o  t o l e a r n i n g when the nomenclature i t s e l f i s not  an o b j e c t i v e o f the i n s t r u c t i o n . S t e i n (384)  examined the e f f e c t o f a p r e - f i l m t e s t  l e a r n i n g f r o m an e d u c a t i o n a l  sound m o t i o n p i c t u r e and  on  showed  t h a t a p r e - f i l m t e s t w h i c h has i d e n t i c a l , o r d e r e d i t e m s , w i t h complete knowledge o f r e s u l t s , i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by a f i l m w i l l r e s u l t i n more l e a r n i n g and  r e t e n t i o n t h a n when a f i l m  a l o n e i s shown once, o r t w i c e i n immediate  succession.  35 M i l e s and S p a i n  (297) r e v i e w e d  t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h e use  o f A u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s i n t h e Armed S e r v i c e s , i n W o r l d War I I , w i t h t h e view o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . s t u d i e s supported emotional  Their  t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t f i l m s can and do a f f e c t  a t t i t u d e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n p r e d e t e r m i n e d t o be  d e s i r a b l e and t h a t such a t t i t u d e s t e n d t o p e r s i s t f o r a considerable time.  They a l s o showed t h a t f i l m s d e f i n i t e l y  i n c r e a s e d f a c t u a l knowledge and such knowledge remained w i t h the t r a i n e e s f o r a considerable period o f time.  They r e p o r t e d  t h a t t h e S e r v i c e i n s t r u c t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e use o f movies and f i l m s t r i p s s h o r t e n e d  t r a i n i n g time, r e s u l t e d i n greater  l e a r n i n g , and s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n .  Their  r e v i e w r e v e a l e d t h e comparison o f l e a r n i n g s d e r i v e d from (1)  a t r a i n i n g f i l m (2) s t u d y i n g f r o m a w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d manual  and  (3) an o r g a n i z e d l e c t u r e u s i n g 19 l a n t e r n s l i d e s .  Both t h e  s u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r s e c t i o n s o f t h e movie group d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r two groups, b o t h i m m e d i a t e l y and when t e s t e d a g a i n a f t e r two months.  Also, l e a r n i n g increased  when t h e i n s t r u c t o r preceded t h e f i l m w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n .  Miles  and S p a i n , i n t h e same p u b l i c a t i o n , r e p o r t a survey of, S e r v i c e instructors Although  1  o p i n i o n s o f 159 m o t i o n p i c t u r e s and 45 s l i d e f i l m s .  t h i s i s n o t r e s e a r c h , t h e study made by t h e T r a i n i n g  A i d s D i v i s i o n o f t h e Bureau o f N a v a l P e r s o n n e l i n 1945 was s u f f i c i e n t l y wide i n scope and t h o r o u g h t o w a r r a n t c o n s i d e r ation.  There were 3441 i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s o f f i l m s and 457  86  r a t i n g s o f .slide f i l m s . opinions  The more i m p o r t a n t o f t h e I n s t r u c t o r  concerning the general effectiveness of appropriate  use  o f f i l m s and s l i d e f i l m s can be summarized a s f o l l o w s : (1 )  Navy i n s t r u c t o r s t h i n k t r a i n i n g f i l m s c o n s t i t u t e an e f f e c t i v e p a r t o f t h e t r a i n i n g program.  (2 )  M o t i o n p i c t u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d more v a l u a b l e i n t r a i n i n g than s l i d e f i l m s .  (3 )  F i l m s can be s u c c e s s f u l l y used t o p r e s e n t h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s i n a c l e a r and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e manner.  (4)  Navy i n s t r u c t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t men l e a r n more, remember l o n g e r and show more i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g when f i l m s a r e used t h a n when t r a d i t i o n a l methods a r e employed.  (5)  Films tend t o standardize  t r a i n i n g , shorten t r a i n i n g  time and make i n s t r u c t i o n more p r a c t i c a l . (297) Although i t i s generally motivations,  agreed t h a t f i l m s can m o d i f y  i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s  i f they are  designed t o stimulate o r r e i n f o r c e e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s of the audience, i t i s pointed  o u t by H a r r i s (187) t h a t t h e r e i s  l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t f i l m s can make changes i f t h e y a r e c o n t r a r y to the e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s , personality structure, or s o c i a l environment o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e a u d i e n c e . Standohar and S m i t h (381)  investigated the contribution  o f l e c t u r e supplements t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an a t t i t u d e f i l m and  reported  t h a t t h e Airmen t r a i n e e s who h e a r d one o f t h e  l e c t u r e s w i t h t h e f i l m e x p r e s s e d more f a v o u r a b l e  opinions  c o n c e r n i n g m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e t h a n t h o s e who had seen t h e  &7 movie w i t h o u t a l e c t u r e .  Supplemental l e c t u r e s provide  a means  f o r making more e f f e c t i v e use o f f i l m s w h i c h a r e a l r e a d y inent t o a given a t t i t u d e .  F r e n c h (145)  pert-  studied the e f f e c t i v e -  n e s s o f a movie i n changing a t t i t u d e s i n a m i l i t a r y a u d i e n c e . He r e p o r t e d t h a t a f a c t u a l t e s t , measuring u n d e r s t a n d i n g and memory, showed t h a t t h e average s e r v i c e man had absorbed more t h a n 1/3  o f t h e f i l m d e t a i l s and t h a t o f f i c e r groups absorbed  about 2 / 3 . and  A l s o t h a t measurements o f a t t i t u d e change  before  a f t e r t h e f i l m i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t change had been  achieved. (210)  I t s h o u l d be kept i n mind t h a t Hovland and o t h e r s  showed t h a t f i l m s a l o n e a r e n o t an e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t  f o r influencing motivations F o w l k e s (143)  or modifying  basic attitudes.  i n r e p o r t i n g t h e work o f A h l g r e n and o t h e r s ,  showed t h a t t h e use o f a f i l m w i t h a c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d manual can a p p r e c i a b l y  change a t t i t u d e s and, t o a l e s s e r degree  a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o a community improvement program. In pursuing i n t e r e s t s , Lashley on v e n e r e a l  t h e e f f e c t o f f i l m s upon m o t i v a t i o n s and and Watson (259) found t h a t a l t h o u g h a f i l m  d i s e a s e had no measurable e f f e c t on subsequent  s e x u a l b e h a v i o u r o f t h e audience i t d i d i n f l u e n c e v i e w e r s who had  contracted  a venereal  Ramseyer's (337)  d i s e a s e , t o seek immediate t r e a t m e n t . study o f s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s w i t h  documentary f i l m s i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g l y t h a t a m o t i o n p i c t u r e can i n f l u e n c e s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s i f t h e a t t i t u d e t o be changed i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e f i l m and i f t h e f i l m conforms t o t h e s o c i a l norms o f t h e a u d i e n c e .  I f the f i l m  88  t r i e s t o promote an a t t i t u d e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s o c i a l norm, i t may r e s u l t i n a "boomerang" e f f e c t , a c t u a l l y the  existing attitude instead  reinforcing  o f changing i t . T h i s r e s u l t was  seen i n t h e s t u d y by Cooper and Dinerman (90) i n w h i c h a f i l m i n t e n d e d t o have a s p e c i f i c e f f e c t on an a u d i e n c e a c t u a l l y had the  opposite e f f e c t .  A study by W i l n e r (456) found  that  S o u t h e r n e r s v i e w i n g t h e f i l m , "Home o f t h e B r a v e " were n o t persuaded t o change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward t h e Negro, b u t a c t u a l l y had t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s r e i n f o r c e d .  T h i s f a c t was a l s o  demonstrated i n a study w i t h p o l i t i c a l c a r t o o n s by Cooper and Jahoda ( 9 1 ) . K i s h i e r (244) s t u d i e d  t h e e f f e c t t h a t audience a t t i t u d e  t o w a r d , and a u d i e n c e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h , t h e main c h a r a c t e r o f a f i l m had upon l e a r n i n g .  U s i n g t h e f i l m , "Keys o f t h e Kingdom",  whose s t a r r i n g r o l e i s t h a t o f a Roman C a t h o l i c  priest, Kishler  found t h a t t h e f i l m had more e f f e c t upon t h e t o l e r a n c e  attitude  o f t h o s e who o r i g i n a l l y h e l d t h e r o l e o f Roman C a t h o l i c  priest  i n h i g h r e g a r d t h a n t h o s e who h e l d i t i n l o w r e g a r d . (383)  reported that mental h e a l t h  program o f m e n t a l t h e r a p y .  Stein  f i l m s c o u l d be used i n a  The l e a s t w e l l - a d j u s t e d showed t h e  g r e a t e s t e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e f i l m s , and t h o s e who had  problems s i m i l a r t o t h e problems d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f i l m s  seemed t o r e a c t more s t r o n g l y  and remember t h e f i l m s l o n g e r .  F e a r i n g (139) found t h a t f i l m s on v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e and m a l a r i a d i s c i p l i n e were e f f e c t i v e i n c h a n g i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s o f N a v a l T r a i n e e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n a d v o c a t e d by t h e f i l m s .  39  I t would seem from t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t an audience has  a  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o a c c e p t an a t t i t u d e o r o p i n i o n w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e communication. (337)  Ramseyer  shows t h a t t h e r e a c t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s t o f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h  s o c i a l s u b j e c t s was Hovland and o t h e r s predisposed  r e l a t e d t o the occupation  of t h e i r  parents.  (210) found t h a t m i l i t a r y t r a i n e e s who  were  t o a c c e p t c e r t a i n o p i n i o n s p r i o r t o a f i l m showing  tended t o h o l d t h e s e same o p i n i o n s n i n e weeks a f t e r t h e a l t h o u g h when t e s t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e showing, t h e i r f e l l i n t o no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n .  film,  opinion  G r e e n h i l l and McNiven  (172)  d i s c o v e r e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g from a f i l m and  the  degree t o w h i c h the v i e w e r p e r c e i v e s t h e f i l m t o be o f use  to  him, which K i s h l e r ' s (244)  (198),  (199) two  research reemphasizes.  Hoban's  s t u d i e s c o n c l u d e t h a t audience i n v o l v e m e n t i n an  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s i s d e t e r m i n e d more by a s p i r a t i o n than present audience s t a t u s .  s t a t u s , although  Some impedance o f communication i s l i k e l y t o  r e s u l t w i t h the upper-status presented  reaction i s related to  l e v e l o f an audience when t h e  values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the lower-status  Lange (255)  film  level.  s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of u s i n g f i l m s along  w i t h group d i s c u s s i o n s , as a means o f p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e f i l m s r e s u l t e d i n a b r o a d e n i n g of viewpoint a l s o gained  i n d e a l i n g w i t h l e a d e r s h i p problems. experience  The  trainees  i n a n a l y z i n g problems and e x p r e s s e d the  f e e l i n g of gaining confidence  i n t h e i r judgement.  These  t r a i n e e s a l s o showed g r e a t e r improvement i n t h e q u a l i t y o f  90 t h e i r s o l u t i o n s t o l e a d e r s h i p problems.  They were a l s o b e t t e r  j u d g e s o f who t h e t o p l e a d e r s i n t h e i r c l a s s were. (231)  Johnson  showed t h a t f i l m s can e f f e c t i v e l y be used i n t r a i n i n g  s t a f f members i n a community o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a b e t t e r unders t a n d i n g o f human r e l a t i o n s . S i l l a r s (368) n o t e d t h a t f i l m used a s an a d u l t d e v i c e " s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d by p u r p o s e f u l  education  and i n t e l l i g e n t l y  g u i d e d d i s c u s s i o n as a p r a c t i c a l means o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e formation  o f a t t i t u d e s and p o l i c i e s w h i c h g u i d e us i n d e a l i n g  w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f o u r environment".  Ress (344) s t a t e s t h a t  s i n c e n o n - t h e a t r i c a l , documentary f i l m s a r e n o t made t o be used as a s t i m u l u s f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  d i s c u s s i o n groups, t h e i r  e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r t h i s purpose i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s k i l l o f t h e l e a d e r i n so u s i n g them a s t o g i v e t h e d i s c u s s i o n a focus.  Auerbach (29) a l s o warns t h a t where t h e r e i s a growing  use o f f i l m s a s a source o f c o n t e n t o r means o f i n t r o d u c i n g content i n parent education  or parent-child r e l a t i o n s , the f i l m s  t h e m s e l v e s can i n c r e a s e t h e t e n s i o n s and a n x i o u s n e s s o f an audience.  Gruenberg (176)  s a i d much t h e same t h i n g  eighteen  y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y when he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e use o f methods (such as f i l m ) where t h e m a t e r i a l cannot be adapted t o t h e known r e s i s t a n c e o f p a r e n t s , t o t h e i r needs, o r t o t h e i r i n i t i a l  level  o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r e s u l t s i n e r r o r s and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . However i t s h o u l d a l s o be o b s e r v e d t h a t i n t r y i n g t o determine t h e e f f e c t o f c h r o n i c and s i t u a t i o n a l a n x i e t y on how much a s t u d e n t would l e a r n from i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s , A l l i s o n and Ash  91 (16) f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e d a n x i e t y - p r o d u c i n g s t r u c t i o n s made h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n t h o s e who r e c e i v e d  inanxiety-  r e l i e v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . I n answer t o Auerbach and Gruenberg, B r i m (50) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e a r e no counter-arguments t o t h e s e d e f e c t s i n t h e use o f media (such as f i l m ) e x c e p t t h e one t h a t t h e r e h a s n o t been any s c i e n t i f i c  demonstration that t h i s  more t h a n any o t h e r method, i n c r e a s e s p a r e n t a l a n x i e t y , m i s i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n o f i d e a s . I t may be s t a t e d a g a i n t h a t Hovland*s (209) comprehensive  review  o f s t u d i e s o f communication media e f f e c t i v e n e s s  i n d i c a t e s t h a t an o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , ( r a d i o , l e c t u r e o r o t h e r such t y p e ) , i s more e f f e c t i v e i n changing o p i n i o n t h a n i s p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l ; and we can add h i s remarks here t h a t f i l m s seem t o be about e q u a l t o an i n s t r u c t o r i n b r i n g i n g about g a i n s i n f a c t u a l knowledge and c o n c e p t s . One  o f t h e most e x t e n s i v e uses o f f i l m s i n an  experimental Ogdens ( 3 2 1 ) ,  adult education  p r o j e c t was t h a t made by t h e  ( 3 2 2 ) , and t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s d i d n o t c o n t r a d i c t  any p r e v i o u s l y mentioned i n t h i s p a p e r .  They summarized t h a t  t h e r e was no sure way t o s e l e c t f i l m s f o r a d u l t  education  e x c e p t t h r o u g h t h e eyes o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r audience w i t h which t h e p i c t u r e i s t o be u s e d . S t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y show t h a t a d d i n g f i l m s t o u s u a l t e a c h i n g methods b r i n g s about i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g .  Films  communicate t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y c o n t a i n and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i s f e l t more i n r e t e n t i o n t h a n i n immediate r e c a l l .  They  92 u s u a l l y do not t e a c h by i m p l i c a t i o n but by s t i m u l a t i n g o t h e r l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s such as d i s c u s s i o n s , v o l u n t a r y r e a d i n g , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and a r t work.  As shown p r e v i o u s l y f i l m s are  about e q u a l t o , and i n some cases b e t t e r t h a n s u p e r i o r i n s t r u c t o r s not u s i n g f i l m s , i n communicating f a c t s and demonstrating  concepts. Hoban and VanOrmer (204)  were mentioned as c o n t r i b u t i n g 1950.  t h e most comprehensive a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s up t o The m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h r e f e r e n c e s have a l r e a d y been reviewed noted.  i n t h i s r e p o r t , however some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s A f t e r p r e s e n t i n g a l l t h e many s t r e n g t h s and u s e s o f f i l m ,  t h e a u t h o r s remark t h a t f i l m s , o f c o u r s e , cannot r e p l a c e t h e i n s t r u c t o r i n matters of p r o v i d i n g m o t i v a t i o n , answering q u e s t i o n s and p r o v i d i n g t h e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  In other  words t h e i n s t r u c t o r must s t r u c t u r e t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r group i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Job A i d . - F i l m : - A j o b a i d i s a c a r e f u l l y f i l m w h i c h a worker can watch w h i l e he i s p e r f o r m i n g assigned task.  I t can be r e - r u n as o f t e n as d e s i r e d .  and Lumsdaine (205) i n t r a i n i n g a man way,  prepared an Hoehn  i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e use o f t h e j o b a i d f i l m t o do a j o b i n a m e c h a n i c a l y e t  satisfactory  w i t h o u t g i v i n g him an adequate t e c h n i c a l background  preliminary training.  and  They r e p o r t e d t h a t airmen c o u l d p e r f o r m  l o n g and e x a c t i n g bench-check o p e r a t i o n s w i t h o u t i n s t r u c t i o n by u s i n g a j o b a i d f i l m .  previous  I t i s so c a l l e d " j o b a i d "  93 because i t i s a h e l p on t h e j o b r a t h e r t h a n d u r i n g t r a i n i n g . I t s use r e d u c e s t r a i n i n g t i m e , f a c i l i t a t e s t h e employment o f l o w e r s k i l l e d men  and i n c r e a s e s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f human  performance• A l t h o u g h not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t e a c h i n g d e v i c e , t h e f a c t o r s " s e a t i n g arrangement" and "amount o f l i g h t "  should  be t a k e n i n t o account when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f films.  I n 1943  the S o c i e t y of Motion P i c t u r e Engineers  recommended t h a t t h e maximum d i s t a n c e f o r v i e w i n g was s i x screen widths.  O t h e r p e r t i n e n t r e s e a r c h on t h e s e f a c t o r s  has  been r e p o r t e d by the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n (308), Gibson  (159), and Ash and Jaspen ( 2 8 ) . Crile  (96)  records a p u b l i c a t i o n of the United States  N a v a l T r a i n i n g D e v i c e C e n t e r , P o r t Washington, New  York.  It  r e p r e s e n t s a summary o f s i x t y - f i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s and, whereas most o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t s have a l r e a d y been r e v i e w e d h e r e , t h e summarized p u b l i c a t i o n i s reproduced  t o ensure t h a t n o t h i n g has been i n a d v e r t e n t l y o m i t t e d .  Much o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o has d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o t e l e v i s i o n use and s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d a g a i n i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . 1.  E f f e c t i v e n e s s - F i l m s a r e a t l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as o t h e r comparable means o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  F i l m s a l o n e can  be  used t o t e a c h f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . 2.  M o t o r - s k i l l s - M o t o r - s k i l l s t h a t a r e a t l e a s t as complex as o p e r a t i n g a sound m o t i o n p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r o r p e r f o r m i n g gymnastic  s k i l l s can be t a u g h t by means o f  94 film  alone.  An i n s t r u c t o r  n e s s by u s i n g f i l m  h i s time  Daylight viewing  of f i l m s i s very  from  the center  Mental  Specific  skills  t o improve p e r s o n a l  Films - Specific  content  are l i k e l y  objectives.  be more e f f e c t i v e  formulated  t o be l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h a n content  films  a i m e d a t an a u d i e n c e  of  for a  and i f t h e y instructional  When f i l m s a r e u s e d content  Films are l i k e l y  i f they are i n t e g r a t e d into the  C o n s i s t e n t Use - P e o p l e  are related t o c a r e f u l l y objectives. l e a r n t o l e a r n from  as f i l l - i n , f o r  films.  entertainment,  ori f  d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o t h e t r a i n e e t o be  p e r t i n e n t t o the course to  with  aimed a t a g e n e r a l i z e d  P u r p o s e f u l Use - Use f i l m s t o t e a c h .  the  Films  audience.  curriculum,  7»  films  i n films i s required  S p e c i f i c A u d i e n c e - F i l m s s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d  to  degrees  characteristics.  specific °»  and 30  adjustment.  content  instructional  with well specified  5*  Optimum  and f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s u i t a b l e  superficial  audience  known  effective.  line.  meet s p e c i f i c  broad  individuals.  Hygiene - I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g e f f e c t i v e f o r  c a n be u s e d  to  t o coaching  o c c u r s w i t h i n 12 s c r e e n w i d t h s  teaching  4«  l o o p s t o teach a s k i l l t o groups  w h i l e he d e v o t e s  viewing  3.  can i n c r e a s e h i s e f f e c t i v e -  being  studied, there i s l i k e l y  be l e s s l e a r n i n g t h a n w o u l d o t h e r w i s e  be t h e c a s e .  95 3«  E v a l u a t i o n - F i l m s s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d u s i n g a f i l m a n a l y s i s form.  9*  Dramatic F i l m s - A s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d e x p o s i t o r y o r documentary approach i n f i l m s w i l l be a s e f f e c t i v e o r more e f f e c t i v e f o r t e a c h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n a f i l m t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s dramatized  sequences e s p e c i a l l y i f  these are e l a b o r a t e l y staged. 10.  P e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s - F i l m s t h a t a r e p e r c e i v e d by students t o contain u s e f u l m a t e r i a l w i l l provide the g r e a t e s t amount o f l e a r n i n g .  11•  A t t i t u d e Changes - A c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d an  12.  attitude.  Cost o f F i l m - I n most c i t i e s f i l m s can be p r e p a r e d l o c a l l y and r e l a t i v e l y by n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  13•  f i l m may change  i n e x p e n s i v e l y i n a few weeks  personnel.  Camera Angle - Show a performance on t h e s c r e e n t h e way t h e l e a r n e r would see i t i f he were d o i n g t h e j o b himself.  14*  R a t e s o f Development - The r a t e o f development o f a f i l m s h o u l d be slow enough t o p e r m i t t h e l e a r n e r s t o g r a s p t h e m a t e r i a l a s i t i s shown.  15*  S u c c i n c t Treatment - P r e s e n t i n g o n l y t h e bare e s s e n t i a l s o r r a p i d coverage o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r may be v e r y ineffective.  16.  Show e r r o r s - L e a r n i n g performance s k i l l s from f i l m s w i l l be i n c r e a s e d i f you show common e r r o r s and how t o a v o i d them.  96 17*  R e p e t i t i o n - O r g a n i z e a f i l m so t h a t i m p o r t a n t sequence or concepts are repeated.  Repetition of films, or parts  w i t h i n a f i l m , i s nne o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e means f o r increasing learning to a required 18.  level.  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l O u t l i n e - F i l m s which t r e a t d i s c r e t e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l appear t o be improved by t h e use o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o u t l i n e i n t i t l e s and commentary.  19*  Introductions - Present relevant information i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n and t e l l t h e v i e w e r what he i s e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n from t h e f i l m .  20.  Summary - Summarize t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n t h e f i l m i n a c l e a r c o n c i s e manner. significantly  Summaries p r o b a b l y do n o t  improve l e a r n i n g u n l e s s t h e y a r e complete  enough t o s e r v e as a r e p e t i t i o n and r e v i e w . 21.  Visual Potentialities  - Take advantage o f t h e a b i l i t y  o f t h e motion p i c t u r e medium t o show m o t i o n , t o speed up and slow down m o t i o n , t o t e l e s c o p e  and o t h e r w i s e  c o n t r o l t i m i n g o f e v e n t s and p r o c e s s e s , and t o o r g a n i z e  e v e n t s and a c t i o n s .  to bridge  space,  The v i s u a l s and  commentary i n a f i l m s h o u l d r e i n f o r c e each o t h e r . 22.  P i c t u r e - c o m m e n t a r y R e l a t i o n s h i p - The commentary o f a typical  i n f o r m a t i o n a l f i l m appears t o t e a c h more t h a n  o n l y t h e p i c t u r e s o f t h a t same f i l m when l e a r n i n g i s measured by v e r b a l t e s t s .  T h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  mean t h a t t h e commentary has g r e a t e r i n h e r e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h a n p i c t u r e s ; i t may mean t h a t p r o d u c e r s a r e  97 currently pictures  r e l y i n g more h e a v i l y or  on  the  23•  carry  Concentration of presented at audience to  24*  Care  a rate  comprehend  s h o u l d be of  A v o i d the  to  or  terms i n a f i l m and  ability  of  (per minute of  "pack" the  do  be the  film)  learning.  sound  track.  improve  a  so. d i r e c t forms of  second person) i n f i l m  passive  learners,  the  r e a d a b i l i t y formulas to  address  commentaries.  voice.  Nomenclature - I n t r o d u c t i o n  on  burden.  a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on  o f P e r s o n a l P r o n o u n s - Use  (imperative  picture  concepts should  to  number o f words  not  where  them.  taken not  commentary may  26.  appropriate  commentary has  Application  Use  main t e a c h i n g  on  two.  n o n - v e r b a l t e s t s , the  Ideas - Ideas or  Commentary - The i n the  25•  the  of the  t e a c h performance s k i l l s ,  i s m e a s u r e d , by  appears to  commentary t h a n  optimum i n t e g r a t i o n  With f i l m s designed to learning  on  i m p o s e s an may  o f new  names o r  technical  additional teaching  impede t h e  learning  of  a  burden performance  skill• 27•  Comparative E f f e c t i v e n e s s differences  were f o u n d i n t h e  c u t a w a y s , mockups, and instructional 28.  of Training Aids  -  No  training effectiveness  transparencies  used  of  in  sequences.  Special  Effects - Special  getting  d e v i c e s have no  e f f e c t s used as  positive influence  attention on  learning.  29•  O p t i c a l E f f e c t s - A f i l m i n which such o p t i c a l e f f e c t s as f a d e s , w i p e s , and d i s s o l v e s have been r e p l a c e d bys t r a i g h t c u t s , t e a c h e s j u s t as e f f e c t i v e l y as a f i l m which uses these  30.  effects.  S t e r e o s c o p i c F i l m s - I n t h e one  experiment conducted,  t h e a d d i t i o n o f s t e r e o s c o p i c v i s i o n d i d not  increase  t h e l e a r n i n g of a motor s k i l l p e r f o r m a n c e .  For  a complex motor s k i l l a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  teaching  model may  be  b e t t e r than a two-dimensional a i d . 31•  Color - Experimentation  has not y e t demonstrated  any  g e n e r a l o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g as a r e s u l t o f u s i n g color i n instructional 32.  films.  Music - P r e l i m i n a r y experimentation  s u g g e s t s t h a t music  does not add t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  an  informational f i l m . 33•  P r e t e s t i n g - S c r i p t s , workprints, demonstrations,  and  f i n a l p r i n t s can be e v a l u a t e d q u i c k l y u s i n g t h e l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e method o f f i l m e v a l u a t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e s a group o f t r a i n e e s t o e s t i m a t e t h e i r own  learning.  A  a n a l y s i s form s h o u l d be used f o r p r e p r o d u c t i o n u a t i o n on f i l m s . economically 34•  film eval*=  Audience r e a c t i o n s t o f i l m s can  be  o b t a i n e d u s i n g i n f r a r e d photography.  F i l m Loops - S h o r t f i l m l o o p s which can be  repeated  c o n t i n u o u s l y as many t i m e s as d e s i r e d , appear t o be good way  of teaching d i f f i c u l t  skills.  a  99 35-  Participation  - Learning  will  practices a s k i l l  while  provided  develops  the  film  p e r i o d s of time are p r a c t i c e without  i n c r e a s e i f the  i t i s presented  the  s l o w l y enough, o r  allowed  missing  on  viewer  which permit  new  the  screen,  provided learner to  m a t e r i a l shown on  the  screen. 36.  Dramatic Sequences - I n c o r p o r a t i o n o f dramatic such as staged will  37•  comedy, s i n g i n g c o m m e r c i a l s ,  improve t h e  Filmograohs - Filmographs which i n c o r p o r a t e s t i l l  p u r p o s e s and  be  less  V i s u a l Recordings  be  equally effective  expensive  - F i l m s may  describe with  training film  Inexpensive  be  p r o d u c e d t o make a be  difficult  to  alone. applied  production.  F i l m s - Because c o l o r ,  optical  and  e f f e c t s have l i t t l e  learning  f r o m f i l m s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e them.  and  can  be  i n t h i s manner can  with increasing  be made i n e x p e n s i v e l y  produced q u i c k l y .  Protagonist - In a f i l m it  t o do  effects  dramatic  Films prepared  41•  f o r some  R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s - R e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s s h o u l d be to  40.  words  shots  than motion p i c t u r e s .  v i s u a l r e c o r d i n g o f a t a s k t h a t may  39*  information  film.  r a t h e r t h a n m o t i o n may  38.  or elaborately  s e t t i n g s i n f i l m s to teach f a c t u a l  not  sequences  intended  to  i s d e s i r a b l e to c h a r a c t e r i z e the  change a t t i t u d e s protagonist  or  100  commentator c l e a r l y . be  I t i s e v e n more i m p o r t a n t t h a t  a p r e s t i g e j f i g u r e close t o the audience's  he  reference  group• 1+2.  L e t t h e f i l m do t h e i n s t r u c t i o n - Good f i l m s c a n be u s e d a s t h e s o l e means f o r t e a c h i n g material  some k i n d s o f f a c t u a l  and performance s k i l l s .  s i t u a t i o n makes i t a d v i s a b l e ,  Where t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  take advantage o f t h i s  possibility. 43 •  Instruct  students t o l e a r n from f i l m s - T e l l t h e viewers  firmly, that 44*  they are expected t o l e a r n from the f i l m .  I n c r e a s e t h e amount o f l e a r n i n g - L e a r n i n g c a n be increased  by r e p e t i t i v e showings, p r e t e s t i n g ,  testing with film  post-  knowledge o f r e s u l t s , and i n t r o d u c i n g t h e  and s t a t i n g t h e purpose and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e  showing. 45*  Use o f S t u d y G u i d e s - A b i l i t y t o l e a r n f r o m improves with will and  4°.  i n l e a r n i n g from f i l m s .  l e a r n more i f p r i n t e d after film  Trainees  study guides are used  before  viewing.  D i s t r a c t i o n s - N o t e - t a k i n g s h o u l d n o t be e n c o u r a g e d during with  47.  practice  films  t h e average f i l m  a t t e n t i o n and hence  Use f i l m film  learning.  l o o p s i n t h e p r a c t i c e a r e a - One s h o w i n g o f a  dealing  Show a f i l m can  showing because i t i n t e r f e r e s  with  a c o m p l e x s k i l l may be  insufficient.  i n t h e p r a c t i c e a r e a so t h a t t h e s t u d e n t  e a s i l y r e f e r t o t h e f i l m model as o f t e n  as necessary.  101 T h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d by r e a r p r o j e c t i o n o f l o o p s on d a y l i g h t s c r e e n s i n the work a r e a . s h o u l d s i t w i t h i n 12 degrees of the c e n t r e 48.  film  Students 30  s c r e e n w i d t h s and w i t h i n line.  Use m e n t a l p r a c t i c e - Men  can p a r t i a l l y l e a r n t o do  s k i l l by w a t c h i n g a f i l m and  imagining  a  t h a t t h e y are  p e r f o r m i n g the s k i l l and by g o i n g t h r o u g h the "mentally",  even though t h e y do not have the  available.  F i l m s can p r o v i d e  skill equipment  a model f o r g u i d e d  "mental" p r a c t i c e . 49•  Length of F i l m Sessions - F i l m viewing sessions  of  i n f o r m a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l can extend t o a t l e a s t 1 hour without reduction 50.  in training effectiveness.  E v a l u a t e F i l m Showings - Do not assume t h a t has o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f showing a f i l m .  learning Evaluate  the e f f e c t o f a f i l m by g i v i n g a t e s t . 51*  P r i n c i p l e s - E x p l a i n the p r i n c i p l e s o f o p e r a t i o n when i t may  be n e c e s s a r y f o r a t r a i n e e t o g e n e r a l i z e  his  l e a r n i n g t o a d i f f e r e n t but r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n .  (96)  I n summing up t h e use  o f f i l m s , Barnouw (31)  states that  when a f i l m succeeds i n c h a n n e l i n g i n n e r d r i v e s toward new and  a c t i o n s , i t i s seldom through i t s own  through the face-to-face was  impact a l o n e  ideas  but  r e l a t i o n s h i p i t sets i n motion.  s t a t e d even more s t r o n g l y by D e F l e u r and L a r s e n (114)  This when  t h e y n o t e d t h a t i n s u c c e s s f u l communication the a u d i e n c e must be no b y s t a n d e r , but t h e c h i e f a c t o r .  T h i s of course j u s t  102 echoes what S i l l a r s (368}  wrote some t e n y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y .  An e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e c o n c e r n i n g t h e use o f m o t i o n p i c t u r e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was  (340J and i t  w r i t t e n by R a z i k  appears i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , J a n u a r y , 1965 •  He d i s c u s s e s  o f t h e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l r e v i e w e d i n t h i s t h e s i s and t h a t maybe not enough use teaching  i s b e i n g made of f i l m as an  some  suggests important  device. (3)  F i l m s t r i p and  slide  These are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common.  projections together  as t h e y have  They are s t i l l p i c t u r e s o r  p r o j e c t i o n s ; the s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s o f t e n a v a i l a b l e i n b o t h media, and t h e p r o d u c t i o n  procedures are s i m i l a r .  The  slide film  or  f i l m s t r i p i s n o t h i n g more t h a n a l o g i c a l l y a r r a n g e d s e r i e s o f s t i l l p i c t u r e s on a s t r i p o f 35 nun F i l m s t r i p s and teaching  film.  s l i d e s are among t h e most e c o n o m i c a l o f  d e v i c e s ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as compared  w i t h t h e more e x p e n s i v e m o t i o n p i c t u r e has f r e q u e n t l y been studied. (280)  E a r l y s t u d i e s by Brown ( 5 5 ) , James (225), McClusky  and McClusky and McClusky (281),  (already r e f e r r e d t o ) ,  comparing f i l m s t r i p s and  s l i d e s w i t h the s i l e n t motion p i c t u r e  found t h a t t h e p r o j e c t e d  s t i l l p i c t u r e s were about as e f f e c t i v e  in The  teaching  f a c t u a l information  as s i l e n t m o t i o n p i c t u r e s .  s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h f i l m s made s e v e r a l o t h e r  t o f i l m s t r i p s f o r comparison p u r p o s e s , and may C a r s o n (77) r e c o r d s Educational  references  be r e f e r r e d t o .  a s t u d y made by t h e S c o t t i s h  F i l m A s s o c i a t i o n i n w h i c h l o n g and  abbreviated  103 v e r s i o n s o f a f i l m s t r i p on A m e r i c a n cowboys were compared w i t h a sound f i l m on the same s u b j e c t .  As measured by a 40  item  t r u e - f a l s e and m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t , t h e two f i l m - s t r i p groups were g r e a t l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e sound f i l m group i n l e a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n c e p t s .  Vernon's (436)  experiments i n  t e a c h i n g B r i t i s h seamen t o u n d e r s t a n d and l e a r n t o t a k e soundings w i t h a l e a d l i n e found t h e f i l m s t r i p and f i l m t o be about e q u a l i n v a l u e , w i t h a g r e a t advantage t o t h e method t h a t combined t h e two d e v i c e s . (297)  the M i l e s and S p a i n  G i b s o n ( 1 5 9 ) , as r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r i n r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h compared a group  i n s t r u c t e d t h r o u g h f i l m s w i t h a l e c t u r e group f o r which t h e l e c t u r e s were o r g a n i z e d around a s e r i e s of 19  s l i d e s and  a group t h a t r e a d a w e l l - w r i t t e n and w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d on the A i r - T r a i n i n g s u b j e c t o f p o s i t i o n f i r i n g . l e a r n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a c t s , were about e q u a l .  H e i d g e r k e n (191)  f i l m on map  presented  f i l m group  found no d i f f e r e n c e s among combined w i t h m o t i o n  p i c t u r e s i n t e a c h i n g c e r t a i n p a r t s o f a course  training  booklet  t h e l e c t u r e and manual groups  f i l m s t r i p s , m o t i o n p i c t u r e s , and f i l m s t r i p s  Hovland and o t h e r s (210)  The  with  on n u r s i n g  arts.  compared t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an Army  r e a d i n g w i t h an Army f i l m s t r i p  that  t h e same c o n t e n t and r e p o r t e d t h a t t e s t i n g i n d i c a t e d  t h e t r a i n e e s l e a r n e d s l i g h t l y , b u t not r e l i a b l y , m o r e from t h e filmstrip.  Lasser  (260)  compared t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a f i l m -  s t r i p w i t h a f i l m i n t e a c h i n g a simple performance t a s k o f r e p a i r i n g a broken sash c o r d i n a window. d i f f e r e n c e s were found e x c e p t f o r one  No  significant  sub-operation  on which  104  t h e f i l m group d i d much b e t t e r , presumably because t h e f i l m had continuity.  On s e v e r a l o p e r a t i o n s n e i t h e r medium was e f f e c t i v e .  As r e c o r d e d e a r l i e r , T o r k e l s o n  (4O8) i n a comparison o f t h e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f mock-ups, t r a i n i n g manual i l l u s t r a t i o n s  alone,  cutaways, and p r o j e c t e d b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e and c o l o r e d t r a n s parencies dimensional  as d e v i c e s i n t e a c h i n g found t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e t h r e e mock-ups and cutaways produced s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g ,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were so s m a l l i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r h i g h  cost  t h a t t h e i r g e n e r a l use appeared t o be u n j u s t i f i e d . K a l e and G r o s s l i g h t (233) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f R u s s i a n  vocabulary  under s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , t h a t i n c l u d e d p i c t u r e s p l u s t i t l e s v e r s u s t i t l e s o n l y , m o t i o n v e r s u s s t i l l p i c t u r e s , and sound v e r s u s s i l e n t p i c t u r e s .  They found t h a t p i c t u r e s o f an  o b j e c t o r a c t were an a i d t o l e a r n i n g v o c a b u l a r y ,  that  still  p i c t u r e s were as e f f e c t i v e as moving p i c t u r e s and t h a t t h e pronunciation  o f t h e words by a n a r r a t o r seemed t o i n h i b i t  l e a r n i n g t o w r i t e t h e words. Zukerman (468)  showed how a p r e - p r o d u c t i o n  f i l m s t r i p of  t h e o u t l i n e f o r a t r a i n i n g f i l m c o u l d be used t o p r e d i c t t h e l e a r n i n g t h a t would r e s u l t from t h e completed f i l m . (415)  The UNESCO  r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "The H e a l t h y V i l l a g e " c o n c e r n i n g a v i s u a l  education  experiment i n West C h i n a , showed t h a t a u d i o - v i s u a l  materials are e f f e c t i v e i n teaching health p r i n c i p l e s to a p a r t i a l l y l i t e r a t e r u r a l population. considered  F i l m s t r i p s and s l i d e s were  t h e most e f f e c t i v e means used i n r e a c h i n g  large  numbers o f p e o p l e and i n making t h e deepest and most l a s t i n g  105 impression.  The c o m p a r a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c a p t i o n s on s l i d e s  was r e v i e w e d by B u t t s (64) imperative  and he r e p o r t e d t h a t d e c l a r a t i v e and  c a p t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r t o i n t e r r o g a t i v e  c a p t i o n s i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s l e a r n and r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . K e r r i s o n (240) t e l l s u s t h a t f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s p r o p e r l y used have made u n i o n m e e t i n g s more i n t e r e s t i n g and Browser (58)  profitable.  and most i n e x p e n s i v e Callahan  (65)  d e c l a r e s s l i d e f i l m s t o be t h e b e s t  a i d f o r group t r a i n i n g i n s e l l i n g .  and Edwards (129)  both conclude t h a t f i l m s t r i p s  are l e s s e x p e n s i v e and more f l e x i b l e t h a n motion p i c t u r e s . Hague (180) i n w r i t i n g on t h e use o f t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f department and s p e c i a l t y s t o r e p e r s o n n e l  reports  t h a t f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g , namely t h o s e where an o p e r a t i o n i s t o be t a u g h t o r where t h e i n s t r u c t o r needs t o i n t e r p o l a t e , t h e s l i d e f i l m has d e f i n i t e advantages o v e r t h e motion p i c t u r e .  He s t a t e s t h a t where a t t i t u d e t r a i n i n g i s t h e  o b j e c t i v e o r where movement and e x p r e s s i o n a r e i m p o r t a n t , t h e m o t i o n p i c t u r e i s by f a r t h e b e s t medium. (283)  McGuigan and Grubb  on b e h a l f o f t h e U.S. Army, i n v e s t i g a t e d s e v e r a l methods  o f t e a c h i n g c o n t o u r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e most e f f e c t i v e device f o r classroom  use was t o p i c t u r i n g t h e t e r r a i n  f e a t u r e s on t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s l i d e s w i t h c o n t o u r l i n e s as represented (210)  on 3 - d i m e n s i o n a l r e l i e f maps.  Hovland and o t h e r s  r e p o r t y e t a n o t h e r e f f e c t i v e use o f s l i d e f i l m s .  found t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g o f a p h o n e t i c  alphabet  I t was  was f a c i l i t a t e d  when Army t r a i n e e s shouted t h e c o r r e c t word as a l e t t e r was  106 p r o j e c t e d f r o m t h e f i l m s t r i p on t o a s c r e e n . (297)  M i l e s and S p a i n  i n t h e i r r e v i e w o f a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s i n t h e Armed  S e r v i c e s r e p o r t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s and t r a i n i n g - a i d o f f i c e r s had  confidence  i n s l i d e f i l m s a s a major a i d i n t e a c h i n g .  S l i d e f i l m s a r e n o t used t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t because o f a l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r use, of t h e i r i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y .  and, i n some c a s e s , because  They c o u l d be made more e f f e c t i v e  by c o n t a i n i n g frames a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  that offered suggestions  t o i n s t r u c t o r s , and r e v i e w and q u i z frames a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n . The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a teaching device i s a v a l i d  c o n s i d e r a t i o n only i f the device  i s a c t u a l l y used, t h e r e f o r e  t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g f r e q u e n c y o f use and t h o s e  associated  w i t h amount o f use a r e o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s paper.  Mikhail  (296)  made a study o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e c u r r e n t use o f  s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s by v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e t e a c h e r s i n Wisconsin.  He i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e  e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t h e s e a i d s , and d e t e r m i n e d what f a c t o r s were r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t o r use o r non-use o f s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s . The  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g f r e q u e n c y o f use were as f o l l o w s : (1)  Convenient l o c a t i o n o f equipment f o r i n s t r u c t o r s .  (2)  S i z e o f s l i d e and f i l m s t r i p l i b r a r y , - a b i g one was used more.  (3)  C o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r v a l u e as a t e a c h i n g  (4)  Courses t a k e n i n a u d i o - v i s u a l methods.  (5)  Local production,  device.  - i f t h e y c o u l d be made l o c a l l y ,  t h e i r use was h i g h .  107 (6)  I n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g had a h i g h f r e q u e n c y  o f use  correlation. (7)  E f f o r t s t o keep up w i t h new i n f o r m a t i o n had a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h high frequency  o f u s e . (296)  The f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e amount o f use o f s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s : (1)  Age o f i n s t r u c t o r , - o l d e r i n s t r u c t o r s used a l a r g e r number o f t h e s e a i d s .  (2)  L o n g e r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  higher  t o t a l use. (3)  I n s t r u c t o r s who had a good s i z e d s l i d e and f i l m s t r i p l i b r a r y a l s o had a h i g h e r t o t a l u s e .  (4)  I n s t r u c t o r s w i t h f u n d s t o spend on v i s u a l a i d s had a higher t o t a l use.  (5)  A c c e p t a n c e o f recommended p r o c e d u r e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r t o t a l u s e . (296) On t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h on f i l m -  s t r i p s and s l i d e s , Hoban and VanOrmer (204) concluded  that the  s u p e r i o r i t y o f the motion p i c t u r e probably r e s u l t e d from the g r e a t e r a d a p t a b i l i t y o f movies f o r p o r t r a y i n g i n t e r - a c t i n g e v e n t s , whereas t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e f i l m s t r i p was  probably  due t o t h e s l o w e r r a t e o f development used i n t h e a c t u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the f i l m s t r i p t o the audience. (5)  Television  To i n t r o d u c e t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h E d u c a t i o n a l TV i t i s h e l p f u l i f we now r e v i e w V e r n e r s (433) remarks on t h e f  108  subject.  He  stated that,  -  U n s t r u c t u r e d and u n s u p e r v i s e d , t e l e v i e w i n g i s o b v i o u s l y n o t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , e v e n t h o u g h l e a r n i n g may result. T e l e v i e w i n g becomes a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o n l y when i t i n c l u d e s an a g e n t - l e a r n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o g i v e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s some d i r e c t i o n . S u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p may o f t e n be so m i n i m a l t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n n e e d s t o d e s i g n ways o f c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o enhance t h e q u a l i t y o f t e l e v i s i o n a s an e d u c a t i o n a l method. (433, p. 32) -  or device.  use  i s by  One  way  i n which t h i s  combining w i t h  correspondence  Rock, Duva and M u r r a y first  t o r e p o r t any  teaching adults. results  d e v i c e has  (348),  (349)  (348),  its  study. a p p e a r t o have b e e n  r e s e a r c h b a s e d on t h e u s e  Their findings  strengthened  of t e l e v i s i o n f o r  w h i c h were b a s e d on  o b t a i n e d w i t h t h r e e g r o u p s o f men,  the  e a c h a b o u t 100  the  strong,  were t h a t : (1)  TV  can  be  to widely (2)  50$  used e f f e c t i v e l y separated  o f t h e men  f o r conveying  groups.  l e a r n e d more and  25$  a s much a s g r o u p s g i v e n t r a d i t i o n a l (3)  The  Naval  o f TV (4)  The  information  o f t h e men classroom  A i r R e s e r v i s t s used i n the  learned instruction.  s t u d y were i n f a v o u r  instructions.  kinescopes,  l a t e r used as officers, enlisted  o r TV  recordings, are  e f f e c t i v e when F o r 94$  sound m o v i n g p i c t u r e s .  kinescope personnel  was  as  i t was  comparisons.  Kinescope  instructor i n  3/4  of the  effective as  was  a s TV  of  and  for  effective  i n 73$  of  b e t t e r than  the  local  c o m p a r i s o n s made.  the  (348).  the  109 I n t h e i r second s t u d y , (349) t h a t i n v o l v e d e i g h t onehour l e s s o n s t e l e c a s t  a t weekly i n t e r v a l s t o 3000 Array F i e l d  F o r c e s R e s e r v i s t s from t h e S p e c i a l D e v i c e s C e n t e r t o 10 s t a t i o n s i n t h e e a s t and n o r t h c e n t r a l s t a t e s , that: (1)  i t was found  TV i n s t r u c t i o n i s an e f f e c t i v e means o f t r a i n i n g  large  groups o f men i n w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d g r o u p s . (2)  The R e s e r v i s t s n o t o n l y l e a r n e d b u t remembered most o f what t h e y had l e a r n e d 4 t o 6 weeks l a t e r .  (3)  TV i n s t r u c t i o n i s h i g h l y  a c c e p t a b l e as 70$ o f t h e  o f f i c e r s and 60$ o f t h e e n l i s t e d p e r s o n n e l  stated  a preference f o r i t . (4)  The amount o f g a i n on t e s t i t e m s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p l i c i t n e s s o f treatment of the t o p i c . treated  material  Sketchily  caused p o o r e r s c o r e s a f t e r  i n s t r u c t i o n as i t caused c o n f u s i o n . (5)  The most e f f e c t i v e t y p e o f TV p r e s e n t a t i o n was: a.  N a r r a t i o n w i t h meaning-conveying f i l m .  b.  Drama w i t h some form o f  c.  L e s s e f f e c t i v e were N a r r a t i o n and Drama. (349)  narration.  110 There has been a d i s t i n c t i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l use o f TV i n t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s and p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e Kumata (253)  r e p o r t e d h i s r e v i e w o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l TV i n 1956*  At that  t i m e he s t a t e d t h a t a s f a r a s i n f o r m a t i o n a l g a i n i s concerned no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s seemed t o e x i s t between c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t a u g h t and TV taught The  students.  Iowa S t a t e C o l l e g e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n  Service  (221) t e l e c a s t a s e r i e s o f 9 t h i r t y - m i n u t e shows w h i c h demons t r a t e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c o t t o n d r e s s and a l t h o u g h i t was not r e q u i r e d , 3,004 e n r o l l e d f o r t h e s e r i e s . programmed a t 2:30 P.M. Wednesday and F r i d a y s .  The shows were More t h a n h a l f  t h e e n r o l l e e s l i v e d i n town and 76% o f t h e town women had n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n E x t e n s i o n work, whereas o n l y 30% o f the farm women were "new" t o E x t e n s i o n . t h e women completed t h e i r d r e s s .  T h i r t y - s i x percent o f  The s e r i e s was c o n s i d e r e d  h e l p f u l by 58%, h e l p f u l by 37% and n o t h e l p f u l by 5%.  very  Of t h o s e  who made a d r e s s 93% s a i d i t f i t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , and 99% s a i d t h e g e n e r a l appearance was s a t i s f a c t o r y .  There was l i t t l e  a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r e s u l t s o f f o u r t e a c h i n g methods t e s t e d : t e l e v i s i o n o n l y , t e l e v i s i o n p l u s home economist assistance, t e l e v i s i o n plus b u l l e t i n , o r t e l e v i s i o n b u l l e t i n p l u s home economist h e l p .  plus  W i l s o n and Moe (460) and  P o l l o c k and Meloche (332) a l s o f o u n d TV h i g h l y . e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g sewing p r a c t i c e s t o women. Husband (218), M i l l i s a t Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y (298)  and Stromberg (390) a l l f o u n d t h a t t h e a d u l t home TV  Ill  a u d i e n c e a c h i e v e d h i g h e r grades i n p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s t h a n d i d t h e r e g u l a r on-campus s t u d e n t s .  (298)  Millis  reported  that  1 0 , 0 0 0 t o 3 0 , 0 0 0 s e t s were tuned i n t o the program 9:00 A.M.  weekdays and o f t h e 289  completed and 46 w i t h d r e w . was  67%  who  209  r e g i s t e r e d f o r t h e course  The median score o f t h e TV  students  whereas t h a t o f t h e campus s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e same  c o u r s e was  54%«  The  g r e a t amount of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l which  r e q u i r e d o f t h e t e l e - s t u d e n t s was range was  from 19  to over  v e r y w e l l done.  Their  a  over  t h e E d u c a t i o n a l TV s t a t i o n i n C h i c a g o , - o f which  were t a k i n g t h e c o u r s e s f o r c r e d i t .  r e g i s t e r e d f o r the second semester 71% There was  age  i n 1957-58, t h e r e was  t o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n o f 7,239 f o r t h e t e l e c o u r s e s g i v e n Channel 11,  was  50.  As r e p o r t e d by C l i n t o n (82)  1511  9:30  to  constant  Of the t o t a l number  completed t h e  courses.  s u p e r v i s i o n by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l agent f o r  t h o s e r e g i s t e r e d , and f o r those t a k i n g t h e course f o r c r e d i t , p a p e r s had t o be completed and  exams w r i t t e n .  A n o t h e r good example o f E d u c a t i o n a l Classroom.  T h i s c o n s i s t e d o f p h y s i c s and  sponsored by s e v e r a l c o r p o r a t i o n s  TV i s t h e  chemistry  Continental  lectures  such as t h e F o r d F o u n d a t i o n  and  c a r r i e d o v e r t h e N.B.C. commercial network a t 6 A.M.  was  t h e f i r s t network e d u c a t i o n a l TV c l a s s and was  by 350  c o l l e g e s i n 47  States.  It  recognized  I f an a d u l t wished t o p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the academic work o f the C l a s s r o o m he c o u l d r e g i s t e r w i t h any  one  o f the 350  colleges that recognizes  i t for credit  p u r p o s e s and t h e r e g i s t r a n t s came under t h e c o n s t a n t  supervision  112 by t h e c o l l e g e c o n c e r n e d .  The U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d i n  comparing t h e work o f i t s r e g u l a r s t u d e n t s t o t h a t o f i t s TV s t u d e n t s found t h e T V , s t u d e n t s t o be 60% s u p e r i o r . I t may be o f i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t i n March 1957, t h i r t y - s e v e n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s were o f f e r i n g c o l l e g e c r e d i t c o u r s e s o v e r TV, - w i t h homework b e i n g  completed and  f o r w a r d e d by m a i l t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r m a r k i n g and r e t u r n . I n most c a s e s t h e s t u d e n t was r e q u i r e d t o go t o t h e campus f o r the f i n a l examination. Education estimated  I n 1955 t h e American C o u n c i l on  t h a t 12,000 s t u d e n t s p a i d f e e s f o r TV  courses. Shimberg (366) r e p o r t i n g on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e l e v i s i o n i n t e a c h i n g home n u r s i n g s t a t e d t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l A m e r i c a n Red C r o s s f o u n d t e l e v i s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n t o be as e f f e c t i v e a s c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n i n t e a c h i n g f a c t s about home n u r s i n g and i n p r o m o t i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e care o f t h e s i c k .  Those t a u g h t by TV d i d a l m o s t  as w e l l on t h e performance t e s t a s t h o s e t a u g h t i n t h e c l a s s room a l t h o u g h t h e y had about one h a l f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e . The  a t t i t u d e o f t h o s e who viewed t h e t e l e v i s i o n programs  r e g u l a r l y was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y f a v o u r a b l e  toward t h i s method o f  instruction. Tannenbaum (396) found t h a t c l o s e d - c i r c u i t TV l e c t u r e demonstration i n p e r i o d o n t i c s t o p r a c t i s i n g d e n t i s t s i n s i x s t a t e s was h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e a s compared w i t h a c o n t r o l group and  a group t h a t s t u d i e d o n l y a manual.  113  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y  the U.S.  Armed F o r c e s  has  sponsored a g r e a t amount o f r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g  to teaching  d e v i c e s and  Important  TV has  r e s e a r c h has  i t s share of a t t e n t i o n .  been c a r r i e d out  D e s i d e r a t o and Runyon and  had  on b e h a l f of the Armed F o r c e s by  o t h e r s ( 1 1 6 ) , Kanner and  h i s a s s o c i a t e s (354)*  examined the  o t h e r s (235)*  Kanner and  comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s  u s u a l t y p e of b a s i c t r a i n i n g . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  and  F o u r t e e n h o u r s of  i n f o r m a t i o n and  the Army's instruction,  s k i l l s taught i n  the  f i r s t e i g h t weeks of Army b a s i c t r a i n i n g , were s e l e c t e d  and  p a r a l l e l t e l e v i s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n was  All  p r e p a r e d and  and  (235)  others  of TV  (234),  given.  the u s u a l s t a n d a r d i z i n g p r e c a u t i o n s , such as m a t c h i n g , were o b s e r v e d ; and used i n the  t e s t s were g i v e n t o about 12,000 b a s i c  research.  I t was  found t h a t TV  trainees  i n s t r u c t i o n i s at  l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n and more e f f e c t i v e f o r lower-aptitude groups.  Television  instruction also  remembered a t l e a s t as w e l l as r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n and scope (TV r e c o r d i n g s ) i n s t r u c t i o n i s as e f f e c t i v e as instruction.  i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the  regular one  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than scores obtained i n i t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n , and  f o r low-aptitude trainees  receiving  one  the t e s t  scores  kinescope review  approached t h o s e of h i g h - a p t i t u d e groups f o l l o w i n g initial  kine-  A t e s t performance f o r groups r e c e i v i n g  k i n e s c o p e r e v i e w was  is  their  instruction. Other s t u d i e s were conducted f o r the m i l i t a r y by Rock  and  others (346),  ( 3 4 7 ) , Boehm (43),  Allen  (13),  Dowell  (122)  114 and Frank ( 1 4 4 ) ; and by t h e U.S. Army S i g n a l C e n t e r ( 4 1 7 ) , and in  every i n s t a n c e i t was found t h a t TV i n s t r u c t i o n was a t l e a s t  as e f f e c t i v e as r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m m i l i t a r y - t r a i n i n g subjects.  i n s t r u c t i o n i n teaching  D o w e l l (122) a l s o showed t h a t  TV was even more e f f e c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g about a t t i t u d i n a l changes and i n t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f pure i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n i n the teaching o f a s k i l l . F r i t z and o t h e r s (146) made a comprehensive survey o f t e l e v i s i o n u t i l i z a t i o n i n Army t r a i n i n g , r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e (100 r e f e r e n c e s ) and i n t e r p r e t i n g p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s i n terms o f d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o Army t r a i n i n g problems.  Their  c o n c l u s i o n s were a s f o l l o w s : (1)  T e l e v i s i o n can be a d v a n t a g e o u s l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e Army T r a i n i n g Program.  (2)  Q u a l i f i e d o f f i c e r s u s i n g a c a r e f u l l y prepared list  check  can determine which t r a i n i n g l e n d s i t s e l f t o  television. (3)  M i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g can be a c h i e v e d w i t h  commercially  a v a i l a b l e TV equipment. (4)  T r a i n i n g a i d s designed  f o r demonstrational  purposes  are u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o TV. (5)  The advantages o f m a g n i f i c a t i o n and c l o s e - u p  views  make TV t e a c h i n g e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e . (6)  The m a t e r i a l s on hand can be u s e d , t h e r e i s no need for  s p e c i a l equipment.  115 (7)  One TV camera i s s a t i s f a c t o r y b u t two would make t h e t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n more r e l i a b l e and f l e x i b l e .  (8)  K i n e s c o p e r e c o r d i n g s a r e most u s e f u l i n t r a i n i n g instructors, duplicating  l e s s o n s and d i s s e m i n a t i n g  new developments r a p i d l y . (9)  ' Q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s can e a s i l y be t a u g h t t o be s u i t a b l e TV i n s t r u c t o r s .  (10)  TV Teacher T r a i n i n g  can be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y  s h o r t time i f t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d have had p r e v i o u s teacher t r a i n i n g . Crile  (146)  (96) r e p o r t s a summary o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e l e -  v i s i o n r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s made by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a v a l D e v i c e C e n t e r and i n t e g r a t i n g made f o r t h i s body.  the findings  Training  of various studies  Many o f t h e s e i t e m s have a l r e a d y been  noted but t h e i r value i s not l o s t i n t h e r e p e t i t i o n . (1)  A TV program can be a t l e a s t a s e f f e c t i v e a s comparable means o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  (2)  TV i n s t r u c t i o n i s w e l l l i k e d . were h i g h l y  W e l l p r e p a r e d programs  a c c e p t a b l e a f t e r an 8 week p e r i o d o f TV  training. (3)  TV i s a f e a s i b l e and e f f e c t i v e means f o r  instructing  w i d e l y separated groups. (4)  Most l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l  was r e t a i n e d  o v e r a s i x week  period. (5)  A l l grades o f p e r s o n n e l l e a r n e d from TV programs.  116 (6)  There was  I n 1950  a novelty e f f e c t noted.  s a i d t h a t the  trainees  TV i n s t r u c t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e d was  e f f e c t i v e t h a n the average t r a i n i n g f i l m . i n s t r u c t i o n was p r e s e n t e d and (7)  Material  the t r a i n e e s  t h a t was  Sketchily (8)  c a r e f u l l y prepared,  treated  t r i e d to  was  not  This  skillfully learn.  e x p l i c i t l y covered was material  well  Little  learning  learned.  learned.  L e a r n i n g o c c u r r e d when s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n presented.  more  was  o c c u r r e d from d r a m a t i c  or s i t u a t i o n a l presentations. (9)  A criteria  check l i s t has  been developed t o determine  c o u r s e s of i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h are (10)  One  TV  but  for reliability  more (11)  suited f o r t e l e v i s i n g .  camera w i l l f u l f i l l most m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g needs and  f l e x i b i l i t y , two  cameras are  desirable.  Q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s can  be t r a i n e d t o t e a c h  by  t e l e v i s i o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y short time. (12)  E f f e c t i v e TV t e a c h i n g has  been c a r r i e d out  in a  large  number of s u b j e c t a r e a s . (13)  F i l m s are e f f e c t i v e on  (14)  F i l m r e c o r d i n g s of TV programs ( k i n e s c o p e s ) are  TV. very  s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g even though the picture (15)  q u a l i t y may  be  poor.  K i n e s c o p e s were recommended f o r t r a i n i n g duplicating and  l e s s o n s , d i s s e m i n a t i n g new  as a s u b s t i t u t e  instructors,  developments  for instructional films.  117 (16)  Unless i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o the subject being taught, c o l o u r does n o t i n c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e l e v i s i o n teaching,  (17)  T r a i n i n g d e v i c e s may be t e l e v i s e d t o a l a r g e r group t h a n can n o r m a l l y see them.  Thirty-one p r i n c i p l e s f o r  i m p r o v i n g v i s i b i l i t y have been noted - see J a c k s o n (18)  (224)•  TV expense and l a b o u r can be more e a s i l y j u s t i f i e d when t h e t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s dangerous o r mass t r a i n i n g i s essential.  (19)  Dramatic  t r e a t m e n t s b r o u g h t about l e s s l e a r n i n g than  other types of treatment. (20)  P o l l s have shown a d e f i n i t e acceptance  of "attitude"  t y p e programs d e a l i n g w i t h book r e v i e w s , problems, h i s t o r y and t h e l i k e .  social  (96)  A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g r e s e a r c h study was made f o r t h e (224) who t e s t e d 105  U n i t e d S t a t e s Navy by J a c k s o n devices f o r t h e i r v i s i b i l i t y  training  on TV and r e p o r t e d 31 p r i n c i p l e s  o f v i s u a l d e s i g n t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e i r c l a r i t y as a TV p i c t u r e . These a r e l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : (1)  The f i g u r e o r p r i n c i p a l p a r t t o be seen s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d i n a h o r i z o n t a l movement from l e f t  (2)  to right.  Three h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n g i v e t h e b e s t visibility.  (3)  Radial-type organization i s e f f e c t i v e . o v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be a v o i d e d .  Circular or  118 )  V e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be  avoided.  )  Simple o r g a n i z a t i o n i s b e s t .  )  Moving p a r t s s h o u l d o p e r a t e s l o w l y .  }  A l i g h t f i g u r e on a dark background i s b e s t .  )  A f i g u r e s h o u l d extend o v e r 2/3  )  The d e v i c e s h o u l d have a b o r d e r o f about 1/3  o f background. o f the  t o t a l area. )  D u l l l i g h t g r a y t o n e s a g a i n s t d u l l dark g r a y s g i v e the best c o n t r a s t .  )  Where s e v e r a l c o n t r a s t s a r e needed i t i s b e s t t o work f r o m dark t o l i g h t , t o dark t o l i g h t e t c .  )  A v o i d e i t h e r t o o g r e a t o r t o o l i t t l e c o n t r a s t i n gray shades.  )  Avoid glazed or r e f l e c t i n g surfaces.  )  Avoid translucent materials.  )  Rough s u r f a c e d wood and paper g i v e the b e s t  )  Transparent  visibility.  g l a s s o r p l a s t i c g i v e s an i l l u s i o n o f  transparency. )  D u l l o r t a r n i s h e d b r a s s g i v e s an i l l u s i o n o f m e t a l .  )  Very l a r g e o r v e r y s m a l l d e v i c e s can be used e q u a l l y w e l l .  )  H e i g h t t o w i d t h r a t i o s s h o u l d be from 3 X 4 t o 4 X 4»  )  D e t a i l must be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t o t a l s i z e o f d e v i c e .  )  S m a l l d e v i c e s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d  so t h a t t h e hand w i l l  not h i d e them. )  H e i g h t o f l e t t e r s and numbers s h o u l d be  Height-of-device  119 (23)  Width o f l e t t e r s  (24)  Stroke width width  (25)  of letters  a n d numbers s h o u l d b e a b o u t  of device  100  L e t t e r s a n d numbers s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d one  (26)  and numbers s h o u l d be W i d t h o f d e v i c e  stroke  by  approximately  width.  Above 4 r u l e s  s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r d e t a i l  wherever  possible. (27)  Letters,  numbers, e t c . s h o u l d be l i g h t  against  dark  background. (28)  Three dimensional  o b j e c t s s h o u l d be s u r r o u n d e d  o n l y by  air. (29)  Charts  s h o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r c u t a w a y s .  (30)  Light yellow  a g a i n s t r e d o r dark blue  (31)  Light yellow  surrounded  3-dimensional Jackson  by a i r i s e x c e l l e n t f o r  d e v i c e s . (224)  concluded  by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t TV c o n t r i b u t e s  t h r e e m a i n a d v a n t a g e s t o mass t r a i n i n g : 1.  g i v e s good c o n t r a s t ,  -  P o s i t i o n , - t h e TV camera c a n v i e w an o b j e c t f r o m many angles  uncommon t o t h e human e y e .  From above, a t a  distance, e t c . 2.  A m p l i f i c a t i o n , - The TV camera c a n e n l a r g e object i.e.  3.  o r d e t a i l s o f any o b j e c t .  a small  Reverse i s t r u e ,  l a r g e o b j e c t s c a n be made s m a l l .  O r g a n i z a t i o n , - The TV c a m e r a c a n f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on o b j e c t s o r d e t a i l s and e l i m i n a t e extraneous w h i c h may d e t r a c t o r d i s t r a c t .  objects  120 F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n here o f some r e s e a r c h mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , completed by Ash and Jaspen ( 2 8 ) , as t h e i r r e p o r t on t h e optimum p h y s i c a l v i e w i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r a r e a r p r o j e c t i o n d a y l i g h t screen has d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o e f f e c t i v e viewing of t e l e v i s i o n .  They f o u n d t h a t t h e optimum a r e a f o r  v i e w i n g was w i t h i n 30 degrees o f each s i d e o f a c e n t e r l i n e drawn p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e s c r e e n and 12 s c r e e n w i d t h s deep.  I n t h i s optimum a r e a performance i s b e t t e r under  c o n d i t i o n s o f d a y l i g h t ; o u t s i d e t h e optimum a r e a performance i s b e t t e r under c o n d i t i o n s o f d a r k n e s s .  Increasing the distance  from t h e s c r e e n r e s u l t s i n s h a r p e r l o s s i n performance t h a n i n c r e a s i n g t h e a n g l e o f view, and t h e r e l a t i v e l o s s i s g r e a t e r under d a y l i g h t v i e w i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a n under  darkness.  Warner and Bowers (445) r e p o r t e d some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s from t h e use o f open-channel t e l e v i s i o n i n p o s t - g r a d u a t e medical education.  F o u r TV c l i n i c s were t r a n s m i t t e d by open-  c h a n n e l TV from S a l t Lake County G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l .  Three  hundred and f o r t y - t w o p h y s i c i a n s p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h o v e r one h a l f l o c a t e d o u t s i d e S a l t Lake county.  There was g r e a t e r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p h y s i c i a n s who l i v e d a t a d i s t a n c e from t h e m e d i c a l s c h o o l and new f a c t s were o b t a i n e d by 74% o f those v i e w i n g one o r more o f t h e c l i n i c s .  S i x t y - s i x percent o f those  v i e w i n g t h e c l i n i c s f e l t they were t h e p r e f e r a b l e form o f p o s t graduate m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e r u r a l seminars and t h e c o u r s e s g i v e n a t t h e m e d i c a l c e n t e r were l i s t e d a s second c h o i c e by 30% o f t h e p h y s i c i a n s i n t e r v i e w e d .  121 To show i t s v e r s a t i l i t y a s a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e and i n contrast with the previous  s t u d y , t h e work completed by E s c h l e r ,  D e l l and A l e x a n d e r (135) showing t h e e f f e c t i v e use o f TV i n g i v i n g a s h o r t course (5 h a l f - h o u r l e s s o n s ) i n d a i r y c a t t l e feeding i s c i t e d .  Two thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven  e n r o l l e d , b e f o r e and a f t e r q u i z z e s g i v e n , p e r s o n a l  interviews  h e l d and t h e mean knowledge s c o r e on a 28 i t e m q u i z improved f r o m 45 t o 5 9 $ . C o l l i c a n (84) s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g by TV compared t o t e a c h i n g by t h e use o f an E x t e n s i o n  bulletin  and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e group v i e w i n g t h e TV program had a g r e a t e r change i n knowledge t h a n d i d t h o s e r e a d i n g a b u l l e t i n . F u l t o n and Timken ( 1 4 9 ) , made an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e opinions of teachers regarding the effectiveness of a t e l e v i s e d , modern o r i e n t e d mathematics i n - s e r v i c e c o u r s e . that the teachers  considered  I t was r e p o r t e d  t h e TV d i s c u s s i o n method s u p e r i o r  t o any o t h e r t y p e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .  They p a r t i c u l a r l y  t h e s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n s f o l l o w i n g each t e l e c a s t . administrators also considered  favoured The s c h o o l  t h e TV d i s c u s s i o n s t o be very  w o r t h w h i l e and t h e y would encourage t h e i r t e a c h e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n future offerings. Evans (137) r e p o r t e d a study t e l e v i s i o n i n l a t e r maturity.  she made on e d u c a t i o n by  She s t a t e d t h a t o v e r h a l f o f t h e  o l d e r p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d watched t h e u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n  channel  and t h e most p r e f e r r e d f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t were w e l f a r e 73$, c u r r e n t e v e n t s 6 8 $ , h e a l t h 66$ and music 6 5 $ .  They f e l t  that  122 t h e programs s h o u l d be e n t e r t a i n i n g a s w e l l a s e d u c a t i o n a l and t h e t y p e s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n most d e s i r e d were p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s , i l l u s t r a t e d l e c t u r e s , i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . C r i l e , R e i s t and T a i t (100) r e p o r t i n g on t h e use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Extension t e l e v i s i o n i n Lancaster  and Lebabon  c o u n t i e s Pa., found t h a t more t h a n 2/3 o f b o t h men and women who  watched t h e e x t e n s i o n TV programs g i v e n by t h e county  e x t e n s i o n agents found t h e i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l .  Of t h o s e who  s a i d t h e programs were u s e f u l , 1/5 o f t h e men and 2/5 o f t h e women had used some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  presented.  Mathews and U e l a n d (289) i n examining how consumers g o t i n f o r m a t i o n i n L o u i s v i l l e saw t h a t one o r more p e r s o n s i n more t h a n 21,000 h o u s e h o l d s had seen t h e "Market Basket Show", a consumer m a r k e t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t e l e v i s i o n program.  About 7 i n  10 s a i d t h e y r e c e i v e d "some" o r " v e r y much" b e n e f i t from t h e show and about 3 o u t o f 4 remembered r e c e i v i n g some h e l p f u l information. Reporting  on TV coverage i n Vermont, W i l l i a m s (455)  found t h a t the Extension  s e r v i c e TV Program " A c r o s s t h e Fence"  had been watched by 53% o f t h e f a r m h o u s e h o l d s , 42% o f t h e non-farm h o u s e h o l d s and 37% o f t h e urban h o u s e h o l d s , - an estimated  t o t a l o f between 20,000 t o 25,000 f a m i l i e s o r  50,000 p e o p l e i n t h e t e l e c a s t a r e a . Gordy (165) r e p o r t e d t h a t county e x t e n s i o n  agents  t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r use o f TV b r o a d c a s t s  f o r extension teaching as f o l l o w s  123 1953  - 4,653 t e l e c a s t s , 1954  - 14,071 t e l e c a s t s ,  1955  -15,135 t e l e c a s t s , 1956  -15,837 t e l e c a s t s .  J u s t as C r i l e for  (99)  recommended t r a i n i n g i n r a d i o  t h e county E x t e n s i o n  i n 1962  (232)  broadcasting  agents a c t i v e i n t h i s media so Jones  e v a l u a t e d A g r i c u l t u r a l and Home Economics  programming by e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l on TV s t a t i o n s s e r v i n g O h i o . He  s u r v e y e d d a t a from 25 TV S t a t i o n s w i t h i n Ohio and  7  TV  s t a t i o n s a c r o s s the s t a t e b o r d e r but s e r v i n g l a r g e a r e a s o f O h i o , and r e c o r d e d t h a t 11  s t a t i o n s s a i d t h e a g e n t s needed  t r a i n i n g i n TV p r e s e n t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n g e n e r a l , 10  specif-  i c a l l y i n p u b l i c s p e a k i n g , grammar, d i c t i o n , p r o n u n c i a t i o n 20 i n u s i n g v i s u a l a i d s and etc.  etc.,  5 i n c h o i c e o f c l o t h i n g , grooming  Three are r e p o r t e d as n e e d i n g t r a i n i n g i n news w r i t i n g f o r  TV,  11  i n photography f o r TV and 15  for  t h e audience t h e y are t r y i n g t o  i n s e l e c t i n g subject matter reach.  There have been many s t u d i e s made o f t h e r a p i d growth o f TV v i e w i n g  and the r e l a t e d v i e w i n g h a b i t s o f t h e a u d i e n c e .  Some  o f t h e s e s t u d i e s w i l l be examined here t o g i v e a b e t t e r unders t a n d i n g o f t h e f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d  and t o  contribute  i n f o r m a t i o n toward t h e p o s s i b l e more e f f e c t i v e use o f TV as a teaching device.  C r i l e , R e i s t and T a i t * s (100)  open-country f a m i l i e s ; v i l l a g e , town and  work was  with  c i t y f a m i l i e s were not  included. (1)  TV was  s e t s were owned by about l / 4 o f t h o s e whose f a r m i n g and by more t h a n 1/2  and by 41%  o f a l l open c o u n t r y  o f t h o s e not residents.  occupation farmers  124  (2)  P a t t e r n o f v i e w i n g was much t h e same f o r weekdays, a n d S u n d a y s e x c e p t o n Sunday t h e a f t e r n o o n v i e w i n g earlier.  started  Few men a n d women w a t c h e d b e f o r e l a t e a f t e r n o o n  on weekdays a n d 1 PM on S u n d a y s . (3)  The p a t t e r n i s much t h e same f o r men and women e x c e p t more women w a t c h TV a t a l m o s t  every hour.  The h i g h e s t  p e r c e n t a g e w a t c h between 8 PM a n d 9 PM. (4)  The t i m e o f t h e d a y i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e d a y o f t h e week f o r e x t e n s i o n w a t c h i n g . to  (5)  8 PM, a n d t h e 2nd c h o i c e i s 12 n o o n .  TV h a d l i t t l e at meetings  effect  on n e w s p a p e r r e a d i n g a n d a t t e n d a n c e  but i t d i d reduce  the radio l i s t e n i n g  T h i s comparison  i sf o r the t o t a l  not  extension.  exclusively  and L e b a n o n c o u n t i e s l o s t a s compared w i t h t o t a l The  The b e s t t i m e i s 6  Agrisearch series  u s e o f t h e s e media and  Extension radio  relatively  i n Lancaster  few l i s t e n e r s t o TV  r a d i o . (100) ( 7 ) have made a g r e a t d e a l o f TV  r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r easy r e f e r e n c e . July  time.  1955 ( 1 1 ) r e p o r t s f i g u r e s t h a t  Agrisearch f o r  indicate the very  rapid  g r o w t h o f TV i n t h e U.S. a s f o l l o w s : - TV owners p e r 100 f a m i l i e s in  1948 was 1.4 w h e r e a s i n 1954 t h e number h a d i n c r e a s e d t o  76 p e r c e n t , ( l l ) T h i s r e p o r t (1)  also  showed t h a t : -  ^About 9 o u t o f 10 TV s e t s c a n be e x p e c t e d t o be t u n e d i n f o r a b o u t 4 h o u r s e v e r y weekday e v e n i n g . (2) N o r m a l l y 67 t o 7 5 % o f t h e members o f TV f a m i l i e s w i l l v i e w TV f o r a b o u t 2 h o u r s d u r i n g a n a v e r a g e weekday evening. (3) The a v e r a g e TV f a n s p e n d s a b o u t 12 h o u r s a week w a t c h i n g TV on weekday e v e n i n g s .  125 (4)  (5)  Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y , husbands and w i v e s spend t h e most e v e n i n g t i m e w a t c h i n g TV (13 p l u s h o u r s ) ; c h i l d r e n under 10 the l e a s t (7*7 h o u r s ) ; w h i l e teen-age c h i l d r e n and young a d u l t s occupy a m i d d l e p o s i t i o n w i t h 10 t o 12 h o u r s . TV owners who buy s e t s some t i m e a f t e r TV becomes a v a i l a b l e a r e l e s s devoted t o TV t h a n t h e e a r l i e r b u y e r s . (11) A g r i s e a r c h f o r August 1955  (6)  summarized  research to  show t h a t : (1) 2) 3) (4) (5) (6)  Members o f TV f a m i l i e s a d j u s t home r o u t i n e s t o a l l o w f o r t e l e v i s i o n and f o r o t h e r l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . V i s i t i n g and e n t e r t a i n i n g f r i e n d s d e c r e a s e s i n TV homes. When a TV s e t i s brought i n t o a home, movie a t t e n d a n c e and magazine r e a d i n g drop a t f i r s t t h e n i n c r e a s e . Housewives a r e t h e most a v i d daytime and e v e n i n g TV f a n s . E x c e p t f o r weekday mornings, r a d i o l i s t e n i n g t e n d s t o d e c r e a s e i n i t i a l l y i n TV homes and t h e n t o i n c r e a s e . F a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n upkeep c o s t s e x p l a i n why t h e l o w e r c l a s s f a m i l i e s own r e l a t i v e l y f e w e r TV s e t s . (6) The two p r e c e d i n g r e p o r t s (6)  and (11)  seven i n i t i a l s t u d i e s i n t h e Videotown s e r i e s . i s New B r u n s w i c k , New of  were based on t h e Videotown  actually  J e r s e y , an urban c e n t e r w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n  about 4 0 , 0 0 0 , b e i n g 30 m i l e s southwest o f New York c i t y  and  used as a l a b o r a t o r y f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e growth and impact o f t e l e v i s i o n by t h e A d v e r t i s i n g f i r m Cunningham and Walsh, I n c . , Madison Avenue, New Y o r k , In per  December 1956  N.Y. A g r i s e a r c h (10)  100 f a m i l i e s had r i s e n t o 87.7  s t a t e d t h a t TV owners  and added t h a t i n a community  which i s a p p r o a c h i n g s a t u r a t i o n i n t e l e v i s i o n growth, and maturity i n viewing habits, 1) 2)  More t h a n 90% o f t h e "homes w i l l have TV s e t s . About 9 out o f 10 TV s e t s can be e x p e c t e d t o be tuned i n f o r about 4 h o u r s on an average weekday evening.  126 (3) (4) (5)  G e n e r a l l y , about 75% o f t h e members o f TV f a m i l i e s w i l l view TV f o r a l i t t l e more t h a n 2 hours d u r i n g an average weekday e v e n i n g . The average TV v i e w e r w i l l spend about 11 h o u r s a week w a t c h i n g TV on weekday e v e n i n g s . Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y e v e n i n g s , husbands, w i v e s , and grown-up c h i l d r e n w i l l spend about 3«5 h o u r s each evening i n TV v i e w i n g ; c h i l d r e n 10 - 18 w i l l view f o r l e s s t h a n 3 h o u r s ; and c h i l d r e n under 10 w i l l view f o r a l i t t l e more t h a n 2 h o u r s . (10) A g r i s e a r c h f o r January 1957  t h e Videotown  (8) c o n t i n u e d i t s r e v i e w o f  s e r i e s and r e p o r t s what happens t o h o m e l i f e , movie  a t t e n d a n c e , r e a d i n g h a b i t s and r a d i o l i s t e n i n g a f t e r n i n e y e a r s w i t h t e l e v i s i o n , - assuming t h a t t h e community i s a p p r o a c h i n g s a t u r a t i o n w i t h TV. In t h e average TV home, most o f t h e f a m i l y w i l l view TV on a weekday e v e n i n g , a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n w i l l view d u r i n g t h e a f t e r n o o n s , and r e l a t i v e l y few w i l l view d u r i n g weekday mornings. Housewives i n TV homes w i l l account f o r most o f t h e morning and a f t e r n o o n v i e w i n g , and add t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n a l weight t o evening v i e w i n g . Radio l i s t e n i n g i n TV homes w i l l t e n d t o be h i g h l y l i m i t e d d u r i n g weekday e v e n i n g s . M o r n i n g r a d i o l i s t e n i n g i n TV homes w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d by t h e c o m p e t i t i o n o f TV. On an average weekday morning, more people w i l l l i s t e n t o r a d i o t h a n view TV; however, more t i m e w i l l be spent i n v i e w i n g TV. V i s i t i n g and e n t e r t a i n i n g w i l l t e n d t o i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f TV growth, decrease as TV becomes e s t a b l i s h e d , and i n c r e a s e a g a i n as TV s a t u r a t i o n i s approached. U s u a l l y , newspaper r e a d i n g w i l l n o t be a f f e c t e d by t h e c o m p e t i t i o n o f TV. On t h e average, p r o g r e s s i v e l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s of t h e h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p e o p l e w i l l be TV owners. As a p a t t e r n , l a r g e r f a m i l i e s buy TV s e t s e a r l i e r , t h e average s i z e f a m i l i e s buy them l a t e r , w h i l e t h e s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s w i l l h o l d . (8) B e r t r a n d and B a t e s i n December 1958  (35) made a study o f  TV use i n r u r a l L o u i s i a n a and r e p o r t e d t h a t , -  127 (1)  On -weekdays t h e peak v i e w i n g p e r i o d f o r r u r a l men i s 7 t o 10 PM.  Between 8 and 9 PM as many as 90% o f men  i n t e r v i e w e d from TV homes were w a t c h i n g t h e i r s e t . (2)  On S a t u r d a y s more men use t h e i r s e t s between noon and 6 PM and fewer women view TV on S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s t h a n d u r i n g t h e week.  (3)  More men use TV on Sunday a f t e r n o o n s t h a n on weekdays o r S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s b u t fewer watch on Sunday e v e n i n g t h a n on weekdays o r S a t u r d a y e v e n i n g .  Women  f o l l o w much t h e same p a t t e r n b u t n o t t o t h e same degree. (4)  (5)  R u r a l men's c h o i c e o f programs - 1 s t  S p o r t s , 2nd Comedy,  R u r a l women's c h o i c e o f programs 1 s t  Comedy, 2nd M y s t e r y .  About 3/5 r u r a l a d u l t s r e g u l a r l y view a g r i c u l t u r a l programs.  (6)  The f a v o u r i t e t i m e s t o view a g r i c u l t u r a l programs: 1st  (7)  6 t o 8 PM, 2nd noon hour.  TV has d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d t h e t i m e r u r a l people devoted t o r a d i o , movies and r e a d i n g .  (8)  Economic f a c t o r s a r e t h e main r e a s o n s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f r u r a l non-TV owners. Crile  (35)  (96) r e v i e w e d t h e i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t , as r e p o r t e d  by B r o a d c a s t i n g , T e l e c a s t i n g , i n January 1957, August 1956  (52)  s u r v e y showed a more r a p i d growth o f TV  t h a t an households  outside m e t r o p o l i t a n areas than i n s i d e . A f a i r l y l a r g e amount o f r e s e a r c h has been completed on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f k i n e s c o p e r e c o r d i n g s o f l i v e TV  128 programs.  Some o f these,  a l r e a d y noted, - Hurst  ( 2 1 8 ) , Jackson ( 2 2 3 ) , Kanner and (346)  and  Tannenbaum (396)  ( 3 8 9 ) , U l r i c h (414) scope r e c o r d i n g s  and  others  ( 2 1 7 ) , Husband  ( 2 3 5 ) , Rock and  some o t h e r s ,  - Stover and  Dumazedier ( 1 2 3 ) , a l l found the  and  others Tear kine-  of a TV program t o be at l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e  as r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n , and  i n some cases s u p e r i o r t o such  instruction. From the r e s e a r c h TV,  kinescopes, and  r e s u l t s reviewed i t appears t h a t  conventional  f i l m s are about e q u i v a l e n t (146),  a teaching  p o i n t of view, and F r i t z and  and  ( 3 4 7 ) , found t h a t a d u l t students were g e n e r a l l y  others  favourably  others  and Rock  conducted an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the  o f TV upon the maturing p r o c e s s o f the a d u l t and rather disappointing r e s u l t s . empirical, pertinent research  (1)  from  i n c l i n e d toward TV i n s t r u c t i o n .  Tadros (394)  apparently  live  does l i t t l e  He reviewed 39 and  or n o t h i n g  reported  impact  reported  some  s t u d i e s of  t h a t TV  viewing  f o r , or i s i n i m i c a l to,  the promotion of a d u l t growth i n knowledge; p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r e a t i v e i n t e r e s t s and constructive  activities.  (2)  growth i n t o s o c i o - c e n t r i c i t y .  (3)  grasp of  (4)  growth i n t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  reality independence.  I t i s concluded t h a t TV i s capable of h e l p i n g  (394) adult  viewers t o mature but i t does not make a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the maturing p r o c e s s .  The m a j o r i t y  of a d u l t viewers  129 w i l l n o t d e v e l o p t h e i r m a t u r i t y a s l o n g as t h e i r main i n t e r e s t i s TV e n t e r t a i n m e n t  programs, w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e b u l k o f TV  fare. I n 1962 t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l Broadcasters  p u b l i s h e d t h e r e s u l t s o f a survey o f t h e needs o f  e d u c a t i o n f o r T e l e v i s i o n Channel A l l o c a t i o n s (307)•  I t reported  t h a t s i n c e 1952 t h e F e d e r a l Communications Commission had r e s e r v e d some 275 TV c h a n n e l s o f t h e e x i s t i n g 2200 f o r t h e use o f e d u c a t i o n a l TV and t h a t o n l y 62 were i n o p e r a t i o n .  It  recommended t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l TV s e r v i c e s h o u l d be expanded:(1)  To p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a t every  (2)  stage o f l i f e .  To h e l p overcome t h e d e f i c i t i n t e a c h e r s and extreme shortages  (3)  i n some d i s c i p l i n e s .  To make c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e community a t l a r g e f o r c o n t i n u i n g and s p e c i a l education  (4)  programs.  To f a c i l i t a t e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n among s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and c o l l e g e s f o r t h e use o f c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s and instructional  (5)  resources.  A s t h e l i m i t e d space i n t h e TV spectrum may be f i l l e d before the necessary  f a c i l i t i e s and t e c h n i q u e  f o r TV  i n s t r u c t i o n can be i d e a l l y d e v e l o p e d . (307) Mayer w r i t i n g i n The S a t u r d a y E v e n i n g P o s t , September 1963,  (290) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e TV s e t s t o d a y i n t h e g r e a t  m a j o r i t y o f American s c h o o l s , though o n l y i n a s m a l l m i n o r i t y  130  of the classrooms.  He r e p o r t e d t h a t almost 80 c i t i e s had t h e i r  own e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s w i t h New York S t a t e  alone  e x p e c t i n g t o have 27 t r a n s m i t t e r s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a few y e a r s . I n 1962 U.S. Congress a p p r o p r i a t e d $32 m i l l i o n f o r m a t c h i n g g r a n t s t o S t a t e s , C i t i e s and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which were i n t e r e s t e d i n p u t t i n g up e d u c a t i o n a l TV f a c i l i t i e s . Lyon's A r t i c l e (274) on 27 O c t o b e r , 1964,  i n the  Vancouver Sun r e p o r t s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n i s now a v a i l a b l e t o 100 m i l l i o n Americans t h r o u g h 84 non-commercial channels,  and i n a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e 182 c l o s e d c i r c u i t  school  systems i n o p e r a t i o n w i t h some l i n k i n g as many as 100 s c h o o l s . I n t h e U.S. i n I963 t h e r e were 229,857 c l a s s e s t a u g h t by television. I n i 9 6 0 Schramm (3°0) n o t e d t h a t a d u l t audiences are very important  education  keys t o educational  television  success.  He s t a t e d t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a d u l t s h i g h l y  motivated  t o l e a r n p r e s e n t s a unique o p p o r t u n i t y f o r TV and  when c o s t s f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i t may show t h a t a d u l t courses  credit  such as those o f f e r e d i n Chicago may " c a r r y " t h e  e d u c a t i o n a l TV  station. E d u c a t i o n a l TV i n , Canada  Development o f e d u c a t i o n a l TV i n Canada has r u n up a g a i n s t a h o s t o f problems w h i c h t h r e a t e n t o b l o c k f u r t h e r progress.  Creery  (95) r e v i e w s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n two a r t i c l e s  w r i t t e n f o r t h e Vancouver newspaper, "The P r o v i n c e " , on t h e 18 and 19 June, 1964.  Most o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s stem from t h e f a c t  131  t h a t whereas the major p r o d u c e r o f e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s b o t h TV and r a d i o i s t h e p u b l i c l y - o w n e d  Canadian  on  Broadcasting  C o r p o r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f i s t h e most j e a l o u s l y guarded o f provincial  jurisdictions.  Some of t h e p r o v i n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Quebec, want a degree o f c o n t r o l o v e r e d u c a t i o n a l programs t h a t t h e CBC reluctant to grant.  The  is  C o r p o r a t i o n , w h i l e acknowledging t h e  Provinces* r i g h t s t o c o n t r o l over e d u c a t i o n a l content, on r e t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o v e r p r o d u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s .  Up t o  insists now,  f e d e r a l p o l i c y has been t o r e f u s e l i c e n s e s t o a p p l i c a t i o n s from P r o v i n c i a l governments o r t h e i r a g e n c i e s  and w h i l e not i n any  s t a t u t e , t h e p o l i c y has been f o l l o w e d s i n c e c o u r t d e c i s i o n s i n t h e 1930s d e c r e e d t h a t b r o a d c a s t i n g i s i n t h e a r e a o f f e d e r a l jurisdiction. The  C.B.C. i s a l s o d e e p l y  concerned w i t h t h e e x t e n t t o  w h i c h i t i s j u s t i f i e d i n spending money out of the  Corporation*s  budget, - w h i c h i s more t h a n t w o - t h i r d s f e d e r a l t a x money, on p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n programs.  The problem i s h e i g h t e n e d  by  f a c t t h a t some p r o v i n c e s get more t h a n o t h e r s , depending on a m b i t i o u s t h e y have been i n l a u n c h i n g e d u c a t i o n a l Dr. S t e w a r t ,  the how  TV.  p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and a f o r m e r p r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , f o r e s e e s t h e need, not f a r i n t h e f u t u r e , f o r a comprehensive  d a i l y schedule  of e d u c a t i o n a l programming.  i n c l u d e c o u r s e s f o r e l e m e n t a r y and  I t would  secondary s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t y  c o u r s e s , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s and programs which s e r v e not  as  132  a c r e d i t course i n themselves, but as an " e n r i c h i n g " element t o s p e c i f i c courses o r i n a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l way. There has been some d i s c u s s i o n i n i n t e r e s t e d c i r c l e s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a C.B.C. e d u c a t i o n a l network, but the i d e a f l i e s immediately  i n t o the problem o f p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l  jurisdiction. The  Board o f Broadcast  Governors has taken  some steps  to encourage e d u c a t i o n a l TV i n t h a t i t has r e s e r v e d an u l t r a h i g h frequency  channel  f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n  T e l e v i s i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f Toronto.  educational  A l s o i t has sought t o  encourage p r i v a t e s t a t i o n s by a l l o w i n g them t o count e d u c a t i o n a l programs as 100% Canadian, t o meet the 55% Canadian  content  r u l e , even i f they come from abroad. E v e n t u a l l y , t h e problem o f channel r e s t r i c t i o n s may be overcome by u l t r a - h i g h frequency  (U H F) which w i l l o f f e r many  more channels than t h e present v e r y h i g h frequency system.  (V.H F)  Canada l a g s behind the U.S. here again because i t  does not have a r e g u l a t i o n o f the American type r e q u i r i n g new TV s e t s produced a f t e r 1 January 1965 t o be equipped t o p i c k up U H F. One o f the major problems i s g e t t i n g down the u n i t cost o f e d u c a t i o n a l TV, and t h i s can probably be achieved o n l y by i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l agreement t o use t h e same courses. agreement i s not reached,  I f such  the l i k e l y outcome would be t h e  i m p o r t a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l TV from the U n i t e d S t a t e s where the economics o f s c a l e have a l r e a d y been r e a l i z e d .  133 The n a t u r e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l TV problem may  soon be  r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d by t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f TV tape which can  be  f e d i n t o s e t s t o reduce t r a n s m i s s i o n c o s t s . The  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s would  r e q u i r e an immense amount o f p l a n n i n g and c o - o p e r a t i o n which has h a r d l y begun.  Even i f agreement were reached  on  content,  i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o get>,the r i g h t program t o t h e r i g h t group a t t h e r i g h t t i m e , a l t h o u g h t h i s s h o u l d be somewhat e a s i e r i n the f i e l d of a d u l t education than i n the l i k e h i g h s c h o o l academic  of  courses.  John A r n e t t , t h e e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e r f o r t h e d a i l y newsp a p e r , The Vancouver Sun,  adds t o our knowledge o f t h e Canadian  E d u c a t i o n a l TV s i t u a t i o n by h i s two a r t i c l e s on t h e 9 t h (21) how  and 11th  February,  1965  (22).  February,  He g i v e s a good account o f  the c i t y o f Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia i s u s i n g TV i n t h i s  1964-65 s c h o o l y e a r as a r e g u l a r means o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r i t s grade 8 and grade 9 p u p i l s .  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s not A d u l t  e d u c a t i o n , but some o f t h e outcomes are r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g v a l i d , o f d i r e c t v a l u e , and r e a d i l y u s a b l e i n t h e a d u l t situation: (1)  The t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the TV programming a l l agree t h a t i t has improved t h e i r t e a c h i n g 100  percent.  t e a c h e r s s t a t e t h e y are v e r y c r i t i c a l o f one  The  another's  t e a c h i n g , - "as soon as a c l a s s i s o v e r , we get each o t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o i t and we are p r e t t y f r a n k i n c r i t i c i z i n g one  another.".  134  (2)  Some t e a c h e r s f e l t concern t h a t t h e y were l o s i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r a p p o r t between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t .  (3)  Some t e a c h e r s s t a t e d i t was d i f f i c u l t t o know i f you were " r e g i s t e r i n g " w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s .  (4)  Some s t u d e n t s f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e n t r a t e when a t e a c h e r spoke f o r l o n g p e r i o d s w i t h o u t u s i n g v i s u a l a i d s .  (5)  S t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t i n t e r e s t was r o u s e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f view p r e s e n t e d by t h e t e a c h e r who t a u g h t t h e TV l e s s o n and t h e t e a c h e r who l e d t h e s m a l l e r d i s c u s s i o n group t h a t f o l l o w e d .  (6)  The d i s c u s s i o n groups t h a t f o l l o w t h e TV p r e s e n t a t i o n have t o be s m a l l enough t o g i v e everybody t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o speak.  (7)  I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t TV w i l l n e v e r r e p l a c e t h e t e a c h e r i n the classroom.  As a teaching device i t i s e x c e l l e n t  but b e h i n d i t a l l stands a good t e a c h e r .  I f anything  i t can o n l y make t h e good t e a c h e r b e t t e r . (22) In t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n m e n t i o n can be made o f a study p u b l i s h e d by Barrow (32) under t h e t i t l e , "Proposed Theory F o r The E f f e c t Of E d u c a t i o n a l Television".  He p r o p o s e s t h i s t h e o r y and a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e  t e s t s i t against e x i s t i n g experimental s t u d i e s .  I t i s a good  r e v i e w o f communication t h e o r y , v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g and p e r t i n e n t t o o u r knowledge o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n .  135 B.  Re-Inforcing Devices 1.  Practice  A c t u a l a r t i c l e o r s i m u l a t o r o r o p e r a t i v e mockup. As Gagne (150) p o i n t s o u t t h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f u t i l i z a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g d e v i c e s , - performance improvement and performance measurement.  Both uses may be made o f a s i n g l e  p i e c e o f equipment, o r t h e y may be k e p t s e p a r a t e w i t h d i f f e r e n t equipment.  I n t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h p r a c t i c e we w i l l  c o n s i d e r t h e f i r s t u s e , - performance  only  improvement.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e d e v i c e used f o r improving  performance i s t h e amount o f t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n i n g t o  an o p e r a t i o n a l t a s k .  The degree o f s i m u l a t i o n i s a secondary  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many o c c a s i o n s i n w h i c h t h e a c t u a l equipment r a t h e r t h a n a s u b s t i t u t e d e v i c e i s used as a t r a i n i n g d e v i c e e.g. t h e r i f l e .  The problem o f e f f e c t i v e  t r a i n i n g i s n o t one o f making t h e t a s k s i m i l a r , but r a t h e r o f a r r a n g i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e i n such a way t h a t e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s a r e most e a s i l y  learned.  S k i l l t r a i n i n g d e v i c e s p r o v i d e m o t i v a t i o n and r e i n f o r c e ment i n t h e i r i n s t a n t a n e o u s  knowledge  of r e s u l t s .  Their design  can i n c o r p o r a t e p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f occurrence  o f response i f a s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e i s e s s e n t i a l , o r  may have g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e i f o n l y f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h p r i n c i p l e s i s sought. The s i m u l a t o r u s u a l l y has a h i g h degree o f resemblance to  t h e o p e r a t i o n a l equipment i n i t s d i s p l a y , c o n t r o l s , and t h e  136 way  one  (316).  a f f e c t s t h e o t h e r , - and t h i s i s recommended by Newton The most common use o f s i m u l a t o r s i s t h a t of p r o f -  i c i e n c y measurement, - which we w i l l examine a l i t t l e  later.  U s u a l l y the degree o f p r e c i s i o n i n s i m u l a t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d o n l y by a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e i n c o s t . (2)  Adams, and  others,  checked t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c o c k p i t procedure t r a i n e r  and found t h a t good performance i n t h e t r a i n e r does not good performance i n a c t u a l  assure  operation.  T e a c h i n g the p r o c e s s need not r e q u i r e the r e s p o n s e p r e c i s i o n o f the a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n ; i t may  prove more e f f e c t i v e  t o s a c r i f i c e e x a c t s i m u l a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o emphasize t h e c r i t i c a l aspects of a given  task.  Games t h a t t e a c h are o f t e n used by b u s i n e s s , and t h e Armed S e r v i c e s  ( 1 3 3 ) , (345)•  We  industry  are a l l aware o f Army  manoeuvres and N a v a l f l e e t e x e r c i s e s w h i c h are war  games i n  effect. Most o f t h e s e games are p l a y e d on a m a k e - b e l i e v e b a s i s i n s p e c i a l l y b u i l t game rooms i n w h i c h a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s can simulated.  T h i s method was  t e s t e d (243)  f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s by  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s A i r F o r c e and t h e r e s u l t s were Those who did  favourable.  had t a k e n p a r t i n an o p e r a t i o n a l game f o r f i v e hours  c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r during t h e i r t r a i n i n g than those  had not t a k e n p a r t i n t h e game. and was  be  P o s i t i v e t r a n s f e r was  c r e d i t e d t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e game and t h e  situation.  who  noted actual  137 Two  o t h e r s t u d i e s ( 1 4 2 ) , (324)* conducted f o r t h e  A i r F o r c e showed t h a t a f l i g h t s i m u l a t o r used f o r p i l o t was  v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g about performance  flying  training  improvement i n  procedures. A t y p e o f s e l f - t u t o r i n g game d e v i c e was t e s t e d by  (188).  U.S.  Hatch  The a i d was t o h e l p p i l o t s r e c a l l a l a r g e body o f  n e c e s s a r y j o b i n f o r m a t i o n and i t proved q u i t e e f f e c t i v e . P l a y e r s improved  s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t h e c r i t e r i o n t e s t s whereas  non-players d i d not.  138 B.  Re-Inforcing Devices 2.  Drill  a. Reading machines There are t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s o f d e v i c e s t h a t are g e n e r a l l y used f o r i n c r e a s i n g r e a d i n g e f f i c i e n c y and  effective-  n e s s and t h e s e a r e : 1.  The T a c h i s t o s c o p e , - a machine w h i c h combines a s l i d e p r o j e c t o r and a camera-type s h u t t e r which can  flash  l i n e s o f p r i n t on a s c r e e n a t a c o n t r o l l a b l e r a t e . 2.  The  r e a d i n g p a c e r , - a machine t h a t c o v e r s and  then  exposes p r i n t d i r e c t l y t o a s u b j e c t a t a c o n t r o l l a b l e rate. 3»  I t i s sometimes c a l l e d a r e a d i n g r a t e c o n t r o l l e r .  R e a d i n g f i l m , - p r i n t i s p r o j e c t e d on a s c r e e n from a f i l m i n a motion p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r .  The p r i n t i s  p r o j e c t e d on t h e s c r e e n and t h e n removed a t a r a t e e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f the f i l m . Each o f t h e s e d e v i c e s can be used t o i n c r e a s e t h e speed and comprehension o f r e a d i n g program p a r t i c i p a n t s over t h e i r p r e v i o u s r e a d i n g performance l e v e l . t h e r e was  Smith and Tate (376)  found  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n c r e a s e i n r e a d i n g speed  and time spent i n a r e a d i n g c o u r s e . by r e a d i n g t e s t s was  The improvement as measured  not n e a r l y as g r e a t as was  shown on the  r e a d i n g r a t e c o n t r o l l e r , however some p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i n d i c a t e d speed g a i n d i d t r a n s f e r w i t h l i t t l e l o s s i n comprehension. Manolakes (285) s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t o f not u s i n g a t a c h i s t o s c o p e i n a r e a d i n g improvement course and spending  the  139 saved i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e i n a b r o a d e r program o f t r a i n i n g i n vocabulary  and comprehension s k i l l s .  The c o n t r o l group t h e n  w i t h t a c h i s t o s c o p e , r e a d i n g r a t e c o n t r o l l e r and book study made a g a i n about one h a l f t h a t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  group t h a t  d i d n o t use t h e t a c h i s t o s c o p e . Other apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a r e n o t e d . r e p o r t e d t h a t a b o o k - c e n t e r e d , 21 hour r e a d i n g  Thompson (401)  instruction  course f o r a d u l t s can r e s u l t i n r e a d i n g speeds t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e speeds a t t a i n e d by machinecentered i n s t r u c t i o n .  Although  he s t a t e s t h a t s u b j e c t s i n a  m a c h i n e - c e n t e r e d s h o r t course devote a c o n s i d e r a b l e  proportion  o f t h e i r time (1) g e t t i n g accustomed t o t h e machine and (2) "weaning" t h e m s e l v e s away from t h e machine a t t h e end o f t h e c o u r s e , and adds t h a t w i t h a few more hours a m a c h i n e - c e n t e r e d course might show up c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r . Schwartz ( 3 6 2 ) , on t h e o t h e r hand r e p o r t e d q u i t e f a v o u r a b l y on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r e a d i n g t r a i n i n g g i v e n i n t h e U.S. N a v a l p r e - f l i g h t s c h o o l t h a t made good use o f t h e r e a d i n g r a t e controller.  Of t h e twenty-one h o u r s f o r t h e complete  course,  seven were used f o r a c t u a l r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e , - p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h t h i s device.  A t t h e end o f t h e course t h e average  d i s p l a y e d an 88% i n c r e a s e i n speed f o r r e a d i n g  student  fictional  m a t e r i a l and a f t e r t e n weeks o f no f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n , an average o f 90% o f t h i s improvement was r e t a i n e d .  Also the  r e a d i n g speed f o r t e c h n i c a l m a t e r i a l showed an average i n c r e a s e o f 104% and once a g a i n 90% o f t h i s i n c r e a s e d speed was r e t a i n e d a f t e r t e n weeks.  140 B.  Re-Inforcing Devices 3•  Performance  a. T e a c h i n g machines and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n * As the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t e a c h i n g machine i s t h e i n h e r e n t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , v e r y o f t e n t h e w i d e r t e r m o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s used f o r a l l methods o f programmed automated t e a c h i n g , whether o r not a machine i s involved. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t w i t h o u t an agent i t i s r e a l l y a mass communication source t h a t can be used f o r s e l f e d u c a t i o n whereas i n t h e hands o f an agent i t becomes a t e a c h i n g Although  device.  " t e a c h i n g machines" have g a i n e d  prominence  o n l y i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s Lumsdaine and G l a s e r (273)  report  t h a t w o r k a b l e models i n v a r i o u s forms have been i n e x i s t a n c e s i n c e 1924  and as e a r l y as 1862  Qarr (76) D e v i c e s " i n 1959 i n t h i s f i e l d was it.  reviewed  a p a t e n t was  t h e l i t e r a t u r e on  issued f o r  "Self-Instructional  and r e p o r t e d a t t h a t time t h a t t h e g r o w i n g so f a s t i t was  H i s f i n d i n g s were t h a t t h e r e was  one.  literature  h a r d t o keep up w i t h  t h r e e major c l a s s e s o f  v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l e a r n i n g by means o f s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s and t h e s e are (1) c h a r a c t e r x s t i e s of the device program (3)  (2)  the  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e l e a r n e r .  He  stated that  much a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o programming on t h e arrangement o f m a t e r i a l s t o be l e a r n e d i n p r o p e r sequence w h i c h maximizes t h e r a t e o f l e a r n i n g and degree o f r e t e n t i o n , and o f course t h i s i s  141  s t i l l true*  He p o i n t s out t h a t t h e concept o f i n d i v i d u a l  d i f f e r e n c e s must s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  reference  t o t h e l e a r n e r ' s background and i n t e l l i g e n c e ; and h i s a p t i t u d e and i n t e r e s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r w i l l  very  p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e t h e program i n t h e m a t t e r o f r e p e t i t i o n , sequence and s t e p p i n g .  He concluded  by s t a t i n g t h a t more  r e s e a r c h i s needed t o determine c o r r e l a t i o n between I.Q.  and  achievement f o r s u b j e c t s u s i n g t e a c h i n g machines. G a l a n t e r (152) p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e  that  P . I . p r o v i d e s a means s u p e r i o r t o c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f academic s k i l l s and pure mastery o f  content  w i t h a r e t e n t i o n l e v e l at l e a s t equal to t h a t of c o n v e n t i o n a l teaching. I n I960 Bryan and Rigney ( 6 l )  made a r e v i e w o f "the  c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n automated t u t o r i n g " on b e h a l f o f t h e  U.S.  Navy and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g machines as p r e s e n t l y developed  would o n l y supplement c o n v e n t i o n a l methods and t h a t  c o m p l e t e l y automated t r a i n i n g would be u n r e a l i s t i c a t t h a t t i m e . Silverman's  (369)  r e v i e w o f automated t e a c h i n g t h e o r y  and r e s e a r c h i n i 9 6 0 i s i n t e r e s t i n g and i m p o r t a n t but does not g i v e any i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f P . I .  He  does p o i n t out t h e importance o f a n a l y s i n g e x a c t l y what i s t o be l e a r n e d and t h e n t h e need f o r m e a s u r i n g v e r y a c c u r a t e l y what has been l e a r n e d , b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o make a comparison between programmed and c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n .  142 I r i o n and B r i g g s (222) r e p o r t e d on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an a u t o m a t i c  d e v i c e used i n t h e U.S. A i r F o r c e f o r t e a c h i n g  s u b j e c t m a t t e r and n o t e d t h a t t h e most e f f e c t i v e modes o f p r e s e n t a t i o n were q u i z and m o d i f i e d q u i z , i n t h a t o r d e r .  The  f o r m e r p r o v i d e d immediate i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t and t h e l a t t e r p r o v i d e d immediate feedback o n l y i f t h e t r a i n e e chose t h e c o r r e c t answer. The Renner Company (343) d e v i s e d a d e v i c e c a l l e d t h e Study Card S e t S y n t h e t i c S i m u l a t o r .  Rather t h a n use a  " g i m i c k e d " g u i d e d m i s s e l f o r t r a i n i n g purposes i t i n t r o d u c e s paper problems f o r s o l v i n g , r e q u i r e s s t e p by s t e p t e s t i n g , p r o v i d e s f o r immediate r e i n f o r c i n g a t time o f t e s t i n g , s i m u l a t e s a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , g i v e s immediate f e e d b a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n and s e l f - s c o r i n g i f d e s i r e d .  The r e p o r t s from  t h e U.S. N a v a l T r a i n i n g Device C e n t e r i n d i c a t e t h a t  students  who used t h e T r a i n e r - T e s t e r were s u p e r i o r t o s t u d e n t s who used equipment o n l y i n both B a s i c E l e c t r o n i c s and Advanced Radar T r a i n i n g . Mowry, Webb and G a r v i n (302) concluded  a s e r i e s of  s t u d i e s i n A i r T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e U.S. Navy i n 1955 and r e p o r t e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t y p e o f t e a c h i n g machine c a l l e d a c l a s s r o o m  communicator.  They found t h a t i t d i d f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h a t i t d i d improve s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g as measured by an e x a m i n a t i o n .  It  was n o t d e t e r m i n e d t o what degree t h e i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g was due t o t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e d e v i c e .  The s t u d e n t s approved o f  143  t h e use o f t h e d e v i c e and t h e i n s t r u c t o r s d i d n o t , - perhaps because o f f a u l t y equipment and improper p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i t s use. T a i t ( 3 9 5 ) made a comparison o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n v e r s u s l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n as means o f t r a i n i n g newly h i r e d county e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l i n t h e subject of radio broadcasting.  T e s t s g i v e n a f t e r one day  showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r b o t h groups b u t t h e g a i n s f o r t h e program i n s t r u c t e d group were c o n s i d e r a b l y In  I 9 6 0  t h e U.S. A i r F o r c e  (291)  greater.  summarizing i t s  e x p e r i e n c e on t h e use o f a t e a c h i n g machine f o r i t s SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground E n v i r o n m e n t ) system s t a t e d t h a t t h e SAGE s t a f f ' s i n i t i a l enthusiasm f o r u s i n g a t e a c h i n g machine f o r o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g was s u s t a i n e d over a 1 6 month p e r i o d d e s p i t e t h e o b s e r v e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n problems. Benson and K a p s t e i n  A year l a t e r  ( 3 4 ) r e p o r t i n g on some r e s e a r c h  they  completed f o r t h e U.S. A i r F o r c e s t a t e d t h a t t h e automated t e a c h i n g o f b a s i c e l e c t r o n i c s , i n t h e f i r s t t e s t and w i t h completely  u n t r i e d m a t e r i a l s , t a u g h t as w e l l as an e x p e r i e n c e d  l i v e i n s t r u c t o r and added t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n o f t r a i n i n g t i m e seems w e l l w i t h i n  reach.  Only about one i n f o u r o r f i v e s t u d i e s o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s has used a d u l t s so as y e t t h e r e a r e some assumptions made t h a t a r e based on r e s e a r c h w i t h non a d u l t populations.  144 Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has been t r i e d and has r e s u l t e d i n l e a r n i n g a t every l e v e l from p r e s c h o o l , A l t e r , E i g e n and K i n g ( 1 7 ) , and G l a s e r , Taber and o t h e r s ( l 6 l ) t o graduate p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l , F e r s t e r ( 1 4 0 ) , and Green (I7l)«  I t has  been used s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h slow l e a r n e r s , Smith and Quackenbush ( 3 7 3 ) , and S t o l u r o w Jensen (230).  (388), and on mature, s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t s ,  I t has been used t o t e a c h package and b i l l i n g  c l e r k s , H i c k l e y and A n w y l l ( 1 9 3 ) ,  electronics technicians,  Benson and K o p s t e i n (34) and computor o p e r a t o r s , Hughes  (215).  The l a s t t h r e e were, o f c o u r s e , a d u l t s t u d i e s . Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n h a s been used s u c c e s s f u l l y t o t e a c h a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r and a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f b e h a v i o u r s , - among them, r o t e l e a r n i n g , G o t k i n and G o l d s t e i n ( 1 6 7 ) , p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g , B l y t h and o t h e r s ( 4 1 ) , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f f o r m u l a s , K e i s l a r (238), c o n s t r u c t i o n o f d e d u c t i v e l o g i c a l p r o o f s , Evans ( 1 3 ° ) , f o r m a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s , Gagne and Brown ( 1 5 1 ) , d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g c o u r s e , Reed and Hayman (342), t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g i n e l e c t r o n i c w i r i n g , Cantor and Brown ( 6 6 ) , and r e a d i n g a r a d a r s c r e e n , A r n o u l t ( 2 3 ) .  The  l a s t two were a d u l t s t u d i e s . Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has been used t o t e a c h a l l o r p a r t o f t h e b a s i c s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f a c o u r s e , o r t o supplement t h e main p a r t o f a course as i n K l a u s and Lumsdaine (247) who t e s t e d t h e method as a supplement t o Harvey W h i t e ' s p h y s i c s l e c t u r e s on t h e C o n t i n e n t a l Classroom used i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s and a t home.  TV program.  I t has been  I t h a s been used c a s u a l l y  145 and  without  desirable  assignment  o r s u p e r v i s i o n and  has  (353)  been used and  vertical,  effectively  h i s work w i t h  successfully  - and  i n many d i f f e r e n t  covert responses,  room l e c t u r e s and and  G r o p p e r and  television  Lumsdaine (36l)  Schramm officers  devoted  70  to  these  c l a s s e s have b e e n Roe  size  of step, responses, Class-  "programmed"  (350);  others  On  e l e v e n U.S.  through  of a tape  course.  And  Tilley  reported that  Reserve  time  a program, t h e n  r e c o r d i n g when  the b a s i s of t e s t s ,  o f f i c e r s l e a r n e d about  of a college  Naval  d u r i n g t e n days t o f u l l  d a y s a s t h e y w o u l d h a v e l e a r n e d i n one  (248)  and  used  with  amounts o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  resulted,  working  a s t u d y o f grammar and  estimated that  been  (174)•  hours  f i n i s h e d the program.  Roshal  without  prompts,  with d i f f e r e n t  reports that  the Russian language,  and  -  orally.  (see  constructed or selected  k i n d s and  i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g has  and  I t has  - w i t h and  k i n d s o f cues  overt  with different  both v i s u a l l y  styles  amounts o f r e p e t i t i o n ,  in  c a r d s , programmed t e x t s ,  a s programmed f i l m s ,  different and  successfully  4200 n a v a l r e c r u i t s ) .  branching, with d i f f e r e n t  and  been used  of t e a c h i n g machines, f l a s h  b o t h h o r i z o n t a l and It  produced  results.  Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n h a s the form  still  i n an E n g l i s h  and  their  instructor  one-half  study, Knight  class.  moving  a s much i n t e n  t e a c h i n g machine, l e a r n e d t o a g i v e n c r i t e r i o n  of  they  R.A.F. c a d e t s , t a u g h t w i t h  q u i c k l y as a c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t a u g h t  study  about  semesters and a twice  as  146 Hughes and McNamara (216)  making a s t u d y f o r t h e I.B.M.  company r e p o r t e d t h a t a c l a s s o f computer programmers  completed  t h e i r course work i n about h a l f t h e t i m e , u s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , as was needed f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l c l a s s methods. A g a i n , H i c k e y and L a i d l a w ( 1 9 4 ) , r e p o r t i n g on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n a U.S.  Navy Supply  Officers  c o u r s e , s t a t e d t h a t t h e Supply Corps S c h o o l s t u d e n t s who  used  t h e a d j u n c t program saved 56% o f u s u a l homework t i m e and  17%  o f u s u a l o v e r a l l s t u d y time i n r e a c h i n g performance c r i t e r i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s l e c t u r e hours were reduced and t h e a t t i t u d e was  54%  generally favourable.  H o l t and V a l e n t i n e (207)  i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e use o f a  programmed s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n course i n b a s i c e l e c t r i c i t y f o r t h e B e l l Telephone L a b o r a t o r i e s and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e time t a k e n t o complete t h e t r a i n i n g course was  about t h e same f o r  b o t h t h e "programmed" group and t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t a u g h t group b u t t h a t t h e p r o f i c i e n c y o f t h e program-taught group s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r as measured by e x a m i n a t i o n s  was  immediately  a f t e r t h e course and a g a i n s i x months l a t e r . Smith  (375)  made a comparison  on b e h a l f o f t h e U.S. o f t e a c h i n g elementary  A i r Force Academy, s t a t i s t i c s by t h e  c o n v e n t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m method as compared w i t h t h e use o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e was no  signif-  i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between t h e two groups a l t h o u g h t h e programmed group r e q u i r e d l e s s t i m e . s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e r e s t i n the  A l s o t h e r e was groups.  no  147 I n c . (398)  T e a c h i n g Machines,  r e p o r t the  Sandia  C o r p o r a t i o n ' s i n t e r e s t i n g c o s t f i g u r e s on t e a c h i n g by programmed i n s t r u c t i o n .  To t e a c h R u s s i a n t o t h e i r employees  i n c o n v e n t i o n a l c l a s s e s c o s t $57.15 per c o m p l e t i o n ; t o t e a c h i t by P . I . c o s t $ 2 0 . 1 9 .  Algebra taught c o n v e n t i o n a l l y cost  $20.50 p e r c o m p l e t i o n ; t h e c o s t t o t e a c h i t by program $16.79«  The  c o s t o f i n s t r u c t o r ' s s a l a r i e s was  t h e same f o r e i t h e r way  was  approximately  o f t e a c h i n g but w i t h programs t h e  i n s t r u c t o r s c o u l d handle more s t u d e n t s and o b t a i n e d a h i g h e r percentage  of completions.  I n view o f t h e f i n d i n g s t h u s f a r s e v e r a l t e n t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s may  be made about programmed l e a r n i n g .  a i n l y can be e f f e c t i v e as K r u m b o l t z  and Weisman (252)  t h a t s t u d e n t s have l e a r n e d s u c c e s s f u l l y from i t . p r o v e d t h a t P . I . can reduce  I t certshowed  Holland  (206)  s t u d e n t e r r o r and t h a t p r o p e r  a n a l y s i s f o l l o w e d by s u i t a b l e r e v i s i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l can d e c r e a s e e r r o r s even f u r t h e r d u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Lysaught  (275)  showed t h a t P . I . t e n d s t o l e v e l t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  i n l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t i e s among s t u d e n t s ; w h i l e a l l s t u d e n t s exposed t o t h e program may  show achievement, t h e g a i n seems t o  be more c o n s p i c u o u s among t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n o f t h e c l a s s distribution. t i m e may own  E i g e n (131)  p o i n t e d out t h a t i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g  v a r y w i d e l y w i t h P . I . s i n c e s t u d e n t s work a t t h e i r  speeds.  Little  (263)  i n d i v i d u a l s u c c e s s may  warns t h a t p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f  decrease because slow l e a r n e r s and  148 o t h e r s may  p e r f o r m b e t t e r on P . I . t h a n would have been  i n d i c a t e d by p r e v i o u s b e h a v i o u r on o t h e r ways o f l e a r n i n g . And  i n a d d i t i o n , B l y t h (40)  may  i n c r e a s e because o f t h e s t u d e n t s  notes t h a t m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n 1  immediate knowledge o f  s u c c e s s ; w h i c h i s not u s u a l l y f o r t h c o m i n g i n o t h e r , c o n v e n t i o n a l forms o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  149 B»  Re-Inforcing; Devices 3•  Performance. -  b. S k i l l  tests*  The r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a c t u a l a r t i c l e , o r s i m u l a t o r o r o p e r a t i o n a l mock-up, a s a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e was reviewed  and e v a l u a t e d i n two p r e v i o u s  s e c t i o n s , - (1) I l l u s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s , v i s u a l and t h r e e dimensional  (2) R e - I n f o r c i n g d e v i c e s , p r a c t i c e .  However i t s h o u l d be n o t e d a g a i n , h e r e , t h a t Gagne' (150) p o i n t e d o u t t h e most common use o f t h e s i m u l a t o r , o r o p e r a t i o n a l equipment i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , i s t o measure performance o r t e s t s k i l l .  The o t h e r u s e , a s mentioned  p r e v i o u s l y , i s t o improve p e r f o r m a n c e . A g a i n , b o t h u s e s can be made o f t h e same p i e c e o f equipment o r d e v i c e , eg., a r i f l e ; f o r as Gagne' s a i d "what d i s t i n g u i s h e s a t r a i n i n g d e v i c e i s n o t i t s appearance o r c o n s t r u c t i o n but r a t h e r how and f o r what purpose i t i s used." He a l s o showed t h a t i f a d e v i c e i s used f o r s k i l l t e s t s i t must have t h e i m p o r t a n t and  (2) v a l i d i t y .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f (1) r e l i a b i l i t y  150  C.  Environmental Devices Physical* - a l l controllable physical facilities a.  i n t h e meeting p l a c e .  Colour  C o l o u r w i l l be d e a l t w i t h as a s e p a r a t e  e n t i t y and i n  more d e t a i l f u r t h e r on i n t h i s t h e s i s b u t f o r now i t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as a c o n t r o l l a b l e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y  i n the physical  environment o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . A c o l o u r can be p l e a s i n g o r r e p e l l i n g depending on what o t h e r c o l o u r ( s ) i t i s combined w i t h . r e p o r t s t h a t i t can c o n t r i b u t e t o e m o t i o n a l  McClendon (277) d i s t u r b a n c e and  f a t i g u e as one q u a r t e r o f t h e b o d i l y energy i s consumed i n r e t i n a l a c t i v i t y and where c o l o u r schemes a r e poor, t h e r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e d eye s t r a i n causes f a t i g u e and e m o t i o n a l strain. Mason (288)  made some i m p o r t a n t  o b s e r v a t i o n s and  recommendations r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f c o l o u r f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and o t h e r s t u d i e s have been made i n t h e use o f c o l o u r e.g.,  as an a i d t o s a f e t y and e f f i c i e n c y i n  industrial activities (4H)« b. L i g h t i n g I t i s r e a d i l y seen t h a t an adequate amount o f l i g h t i s u s u a l l y important  f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g t o take p l a c e .  This  r e l a t i o n between i l l u m i n a t i o n and v i s i o n has o f t e n been s t u d i e d and r e p o r t e d .  Among t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e t h o s e o f Crouch  (101),  151 Hibben ( 1 9 2 ) , Weston ( 4 5 1 ) , Guth and o t h e r s (363).  ( 1 7 7 ) , and Seagers  I n s t u d i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e t h e m o d i f y i n g f a c t o r o f age  i s usually  considered,  H i b b e n (192) p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n d o o r t a s k s a r e performed under a wide and sometimes c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g b r i g h t n e s s .  The  new l i g h t s o u r c e s a r e n o t i n h e r e n t l y t r o u b l e s o m e b u t c a l l f o r s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e i n usage.  He adds t h a t t h e p a r t n e r s h i p  o f l i g h t and v i s i o n i n v o l v e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f age f o r a l t h o u g h a t 20 y e a r s t h e p u p i l d i a m e t e r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  8 mm, a t 60  y e a r s p l u s , t h e d i a m e t e r may be reduced t o about t§ mm. a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n g s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d  Thus  f o r t h e average o f  e l d e r l y p e o p l e and w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f c o n t r a s t b r i g h t n e s s , s m a l l e r o b j e c t s can be seen.  The background b r i g h t n e s s  should  be o n e - h a l f t h a t o f t h e t a s k and a l l g l a r e and b r i g h t l i g h t s t h a t may be exposed s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d from view. Weston (451) found a c o n s i d e r a b l e decrement i n v i s u a l performance (combined speed and a c c u r a c y ) w i t h age. observers  Older  a t t a i n e d a g r e a t e r improvement i n performance w i t h  i n c r e a s e d i l l u m i n a t i o n t h a n d i d t h e younger o b s e r v e r s .  However,  even w i t h t h e h i g h e s t i l l u m i n a t i o n (500 f o o t - c a n d l e s ) t h e o l d e r group was unable t o a c h i e v e t h e same performance as t h e younger group d i d w i t h t h e l o w e s t i l l u m i n a t i o n (5 f o o t - c a n d l e s ) . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d however t h a t W e s t o n s t e s t i n v o l v e d f  "quickness  o f p e r c e p t i o n " , eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n and manual  d e x t e r i t y and t h e s e l a s t two f a c t o r s may l i m i t t h e performance more t h a n v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n .  152 G u t h , E a s t m a n and M c N e l i s of  the l i g h t i n g requirements  typical All  office  d e f e c t s were e x c l u d e d . visibility the  f o r o l d e r workers u s i n g  and l a b o r a t o r y  those with p a t h o l o g i c a l  (177) made a t h o r o u g h  t o t h e age  change becomes more p r o n o u n c e d  i.e.,  t h e 20s,  40s  30s,  decrease f o r a l l foot  from  age  45  t o 50 and  e t c . , has  and  a fairly  requirements that  that  The  45,  a g i v e n improvement  contribute to better becomes more  the educator.  (363)  The  publication  Protection,  Environmental  markedly group illumination  Higher foot  probable  Very  candles  progresses t h i s  factor  a r e : V i s u a l Development i n  P h y s i o l o g y o f the Eye,  Physics of Light, Light There  and  i s also a glossary  s h o w i n g recommended l e v e l s  instructional  Care  a  of  ready  of illumination f o r  learning  environments,  Temperature  little  temperature  a r e a s and  Eye  Seeing,  a s w e l l a s an a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y and  c.  of  The  Recommendations.  reference table all  also  i s a v e r y u s e f u l manual f o r  chapter headings  t h e G r o w i n g C h i l d , Anatomy and  terms used  a s age  equal  o b s e r v a t i o n was  i n c r e a s e move  in visibility.  group  important.  Seagers*  and  age  which  c o n s t a n t and  a l l except the o l d e s t  s e e i n g and  after  each  (6I-65 y e a r s ) r e q u i r e d a b o u t t h e same p e r c e n t a g e for  eye  the decrease i n  o f about  candle l e v e l s .  made t h a t t h e l i g h t i n g  years.  uncorrectable optical  They r e p o r t e d t h a t  i s g r a d u a l up  100  e m p l o y e e s a g e d 17 t o 65  and  study  r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d on t h e  i n the l e a r n i n g  situation.  Mayo  (292)  effect did  153 investigate  the influence  o f summer h e a t on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f  Naval A i r t r a i n e e s performing sedentary t a s k s . g r o u p s o f 404 men e a c h were u s e d ; one g r o u p conditioned  studied  i n an a i r  b u i l d i n g m a i n t a i n e d a t a mean t e m p e r a t u r e o f  and t h e o t h e r g r o u p only  Two m a t c h e d  studied  i n a b u i l d i n g w i t h an e x h a u s t f a n  and a mean t e m p e r a t u r e o f 8 2 ° F .  was f o u n d i n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t  71«3°  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  o f t h e two g r o u p s a l t h o u g h t h e  group working  i n the higher temperature thought t h e i r  learning  was i m p a i r e d .  The g r o u p s h a d a mean age o f " s l i g h t l y  o v e r 20"  t h u s we do n o t know w h e t h e r t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d students.  apply t o o l d e r  154 C.  Environmental 2.  Devices  Organi z a t i o n a l  The organization^, of the e d u c a t i o n a l environment appears t o be heading f o r many changes.  Although  c e r t a i n l y not  r e s e a r c h , MacPherson ( 2 7 6 ) , gave an i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t when a d d r e s s i n g a symposium on s c h o o l design at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n January 1965•  He spoke of the f u t u r e  s c h o o l , - not planned around a blackboard, and w i t h l e a r n i n g areas s u i t e d t o the b a s i c t e a c h i n g s of each d i s c i p l i n e . (242)  King  at the same symposium, s a i d t h a t the formal b o x - l i k e  c l a s s room w i t h i t s row  of desks i s on i t s way  out.  In i t s  p l a c e w i l l come l e c t u r e t h e a t r e s , seminar rooms, and p o s s i b l y i n d i v i d u a l study areas f o r s t u d e n t s .  He added t h a t we  can  expect t o have team t e a c h i n g i n l e c t u r e t h e a t r e s h o l d i n g w e l l over 100  students which could be f o l l o w e d by more i n f o r m a l  l e c t u r e s i n s m a l l e r rooms.  He s t a t e d t h a t windowless rooms  are being t r i e d to see i f there i s any i n c r e a s e i n e f f e c t i v e ness due t o l a c k o f d i s t r a c t i o n , and,  i n elementary  schools,  t h e r e are some classrooms f i t t e d w i t h c a r p e t s where c h i l d r e n are encouraged t o s i t on the f l o o r and work, - once again i n an e f f o r t t o f i n d the most e f f e c t i v e way  f o r education to  take p l a c e . In October 1964  T r o t t e r (410)  spoke of other d e v i c e s  and ways of education which would r a d i c a l l y change the e d u c a t i o n a l environment.  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , he  t h a t one e x c e l l e n t t e a c h e r can now  i n s t r u c t an e n t i r e  said county,  155 s t a t e or p r o v i n c e through a two way telephone  circuit.  He  r e p o r t e d t h a t i t i s now p o s s i b l e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o w r i t e notes and draw diagrams t h a t a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o a by telephone  - and these telephone  "blackboard"  c i r c u i t s are much l e s s  c o s t l y than c l o s e d c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n  systems.  T r o t t e r continued t o say t h a t the present  school  b u i l d i n g s could be used t o educate elementary and secondary students from 8 a.m. t o 3 p.m. and the same b u i l d i n g s could be used f o r j u n i o r c o l l e g e s from 3 p.m. t o 8 p.m.  T h i s means t h e  c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s would double t h e i r c a p a c i t y because they would o n l y have t o teach two undergraduate y e a r s and post graduate  courses. "The  most popular  i n a d u l t education  and f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  i s t h e meeting or c l a s s " ,  (434)  There a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t must be considered  - o r group. i n relation  t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a group as a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e .  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a group i s c e r t a i n l y m o d i f i e d by i t s s i z e and the s i z e i n t u r n i s determined by "attendance". Coleman (287)  Marsh and  found t h a t attendance i s r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l  l e v e l and i n c r e a s e s w i t h e d u c a t i o n .  Crile  (97)  listed  other  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g attendance i n r u r a l areas, v i z . , - income, s i z e o f farm, d i s t a n c e t o the p l a c e o f meeting. Shoptaw (367)  found t h a t r u r a l f a m i l i e s w i l l  attend  e d u c a t i o n a l meetings i f they a r e planned t o i n t e r e s t a l l members o f the f a m i l y , t h a t continuance  on a l o n g term b a s i s  encourages p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h a t d i s t a n c e i n f l u e n c e s  156 attendance.  He recommended the use  b u i l d i n g s and  of churches, community-  country s t o r e s r a t h e r than c o n s o l i d a t e d  as t h i s r e s u l t e d i n reduced t r a v e l l i n g d i s t a n c e and neighbourhood s p i r i t .  Crile  (97)  reported  schools  encouraged  t h a t the e f f e c t i v e -  ness of the meeting r e l a t e d to prompt s t a r t i n g , r e g u l a r attendance, p a r t i c i p a n t i n t e r e s t i n the t o take p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s , r e a d i n e s s and  adequately t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p .  or groups i n a d u l t education f i n d i n g s o f W i l s o n and G a l l u p  The  subject,  willingness  t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p o p u l a r use  of meetings  seems t o be j u s t i f i e d by (459)  and  Rohrer  the  (351).  a. Group S i z e Brim (50)  made q u i t e a thorough study o f the e f f e c t of  s i z e on the f u n c t i o n i n g of groups i n parent education f i n d i n g s are reviewed.  He p o i n t s out t h a t Cheavens  and  his  (80)  a f f i r m s t h a t group d i s c u s s i o n i s a s u p e r i o r means f o r  reaching  a s o l u t i o n t o any  s p e c i f i c c h i l d - r e a r i n g problem presented  by  a member.  (125)  the  Eckert  narrowed t h i s down by s t a t i n g t h a t  evidence i s q u i t e c o n c l u s i v e t h a t the best t h i n k i n g occurs i n small groups; probably a group o f f i v e i s an i d e a l s i z e . adds t h a t t h e r e  i s considerable  Brim  evidence on group v e r s u s  i n d i v i d u a l problem - s o l v i n g , as presented by Lorge and (268), i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s statement and t h i s g e n e r a l of view are not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e .  Brim observes t h a t  others point  the  s u p e r i o r i t y of group or i n d i v i d u a l problem - s o l v i n g depends on a l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s such as the l e v e l of s k i l l the group members and  the type o f problem.  of  157 There are s e v e r a l o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s noted between educators as t o what i s the most d e s i r a b l e s i z e of a group. Kawin (237)  suggests a group of 25 i s i d e a l .  says 20 t o 30 i s good.  Goller  be from 8 t o 22 w i t h about 15  (164)  s t a t e s t h a t the range  may  b e i n g the most d e s i r a b l e .  Cheavens (80) i n d i c a t e s t h a t between 15 thought t o be i d e a l .  (175)  Grossman  and 25 i s u s u a l l y  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say whether the  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s noted are s u f f i c i e n t t o constitute  disagreement. Terrien  (399)  made a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n t o  t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f group "Law  size.  Basing h i s work on  o f Family I n t e r a c t i o n " he p o i n t e d out t h a t w i t h  Bossard*s two  people t h e r e i s o n l y one l i n e o f communication but t h a t as f a m i l y (or group) members are added the l i n e s o f communication between any two people i n c r e a s e f a s t e r than the number of members.  The formula f o r t h i s p r o c e s s i s r  r a number of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which i s t o be n = the number o f persons i n the group, o t h e r persons i n the group who  may  = n(n-l)  where  determined,  ( n - l ) stands f o r a l l  be c o n t a c t e d by a g i v e n  i n d i v i d u a l , the 2 by which the whole i s d i v i d e d i s necessary because it  each l i n e connects two persons.  can be determined t h a t i n a group of 100  4950 p o t e n t i a l two person c o n t a c t s . 1 9 , 9 0 0 two person c o n t a c t s and so on. 1  Using t h i s formula people t h e r e are  With 200 people In a 2 person  person w i l l have 100% p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y ,  — group,  158 3 p e r s o n group, 1 p e r s o n w i l l have 67% p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y 4 person group, 1 p e r s o n w i l l have 50% p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y 5 p e r s o n group, 1 p e r s o n w i l l have 40% p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y 6 p e r s o n group, 1 p e r s o n w i l l have 3 3 % p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y 7 p e r s o n group, 1 p e r s o n w i l l have 28.6% p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y I t i s s o c i o l o g i c a l axiom t h a t , as t h e s i z e o f t h e group i n c r e a s e s i t moves away from i n t r i n s i c e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d and from government by empathy. evaluate  Members  each o t h e r by an e x t r i n s i c b a s i s - j u d g i n g them by t h e  s e r v i c e s t h e y can p e r f o r m r a t h e r t h a n f o r what t h e y are as humans.  Group c o n t r o l i s i n c r e a s i n g l y f o r m a l i z e d , - r u l e s a r e  s u b s t i t u t e d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and communication  becomes  i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t as t h e l e s s e r i n d i v i d u a l i s e v e r f u r t h e r from t h e source o f power. Bass and Norton (33) r e p o r t e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s on group s i z e and i t s e f f e c t on l e a d e r l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s .  They noted t h a t  when l e a d e r l e s s d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was s t u d i e d i n groups o f 2, 4,  6, 8 and 12 t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n the  mean l e a d e r s h i p assessment  earned by p a r t i c i p a n t s as t h e groups  s t u d i e d became l a r g e r i n s i z e . i n the absolute  A l s o t h a t maximum s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  sense o c c u r r e d i n d i s c u s s i o n groups o f 6.  R e l a t i v e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n tended t o i n c r e a s e d i r e c t l y w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n d i s c u s s i o n group s i z e .  O b s e r v e r agreement a l s o  r e a c h e d a maximum w i t h d i s c u s s i o n groups o f 6 and tended t o d e c l i n e as group s i z e was a l t e r e d i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n .  They  159 added t h a t c o n s i s t a n c y of l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r i n d i s c u s s i o n groups o f 2.  was  Beyond t h a t p o i n t no  a t a minimum systematic  t r e n d s were c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e f o r b e h a v i o r a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n r e l a t i o n t o group s i z e . The  s e a t i n g behaviour  Kennedy and K l e i n (239) c o n c l u s i o n s made.  o f l a r g e groups was  s t u d i e d by  and s e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were noted  and  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h d e l e g a t e s suggested t h a t  t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who  are most i n t e n s e l y committed t o s m a l l  groups as t h e i d e a l medium f o r human problem s o l v i n g and l e a r n i n g tended t o have a s e t a g a i n s t the " l a r g e t h e o r y s e s s i o n s " b e f o r e e x p e r i e n c i n g them.  Other o b s e r v a t i o n s noted  t h a t might w e l l i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the m e e t i n g f o r t h e group p a r t i c i p a n t s are v i z . , the o r d e r  of  a r r i v a l a t t h e l e c t u r e s - e a r l y o r l a t e , the degree o f p o s t meeting s a t i s f a c t i o n expressed,  t h e amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  and, what seemed t o be the most i m p o r t a n t  o b s e r v a t i o n , - the  t o t a l movement s c o r e o r v a r i a b i l i t y i n c h o i c e o f s e a t .  This  l a s t i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s h i f t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l over a s e r i e s of meetings. Schellenberg*s  (357)  s t u d y o f group s i z e as a f a c t o r i n  t h e success o f academic d i s c u s s i o n groups r e p o r t e d a c o n s i s t e n t and  s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g o f an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  group s i z e and p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n . d i s c o v e r y was  A second  important  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of  i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s .  I n s t r u c t o r s are more i n c l i n e d t h a n  s t u d e n t s t o show s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l a r g e r g r o u p s .  Also there  160 was  limited  evidence presented t o i n d i c a t e  showed s l i g h t l y  that  h i g h e r academic achievement  smaller  groups  than d i d l a r g e r  groups. Gibb's vary  (157) work  i n v e r s e l y w i t h group  group  size  solving  and t h r e a t  consensus,  and e x a m i n e s t h e e f f e c t s o f  r e d u c t i o n upon c r e a t i v i t y  (185) examined t h e e f f e c t  interaction  as t h e group  fractional!sm  becomes l a r g e r  s h o u l d become more (372)  Slater's s i z e found t h a t  groups  s m a l l and g r o u p s size  and s a t i s f a c t i o n  o f 5 than i n groups  h i g h e r i n groups  The  size  o f 5 was  o f group  in a  problem  size  on  and f o u n d t h e s e a l l  o f 12.  He a l s o  t h a n 12 t h e t r e n d  study o f c o n t r a s t i n g l a r g e r than  toward  seen as t h e group  correlates of  4 were n e v e r  s m a l l e r t h a n 6 were n e v e r  i n t e l l e c t u a l task, - that  noted  apparent.-  felt  s i z e which,  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v i e w p o i n t , was most e f f e c t i v e an  appears t o  situation. Hare  that  showed t h a t p r o d u c t i v i t y  felt  group  t o be t o o  t o be t o o l a r g e . from the  i n dealing  with  o t h e r t h a n a p h y s i c a l o r manual  operation. T a y l o r and F a u s t  (397) f o u n d t h a t  groups  s l o w e r on c o n c e n t r a t e d p r o b l e m s t h a n g r o u p s on  abstract  problems.  Whereas, Z i l l e r  (465)  o f two, b u t f a s t e r showed  a c c u r a c y i n d e c i s i o n making i s b e t t e r i n groups groups  of four are  that  o f s i x than i n  of 2 or 3 persons. In  I 9 6 I D a v i s (111) r e p o r t e d some r e s e a r c h b a s e d on a  study o f group  l o s s o r drop  o u t s from Great  Book  discussion  161 groups, t a k i n g i n t o account such f a c t o r s as s i z e o f group age o r s e n i o r i t y o f t h e g r o u p s . 6-10,  11-15, 1 6 - 2 0 , 21-24  and  The group s i z e s s t u d i e d were  and 25 o r more; and t h e s e n i o r i t y of:  t h e groups observed were from t h e f i r s t y e a r t h r o u g h f o u r t h o r more.  T h i s s t u d y however showed no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n .  i s a tendency f o r t h e l a r g e r groups t o have h i g h e r  There  retention  r a t e s i n t h e second and t h i r d y e a r but i n t h e most s e n i o r groups t h e r e i s no t r e n d , and one cannot conclude t h a t e i t h e r l a r g e o r s m a l l groups are more s u c c e s s f u l .  B e g i n n e r s have  h i g h e r drop out r a t e s when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h advanced members. I t appears t h a t s e n i o r i t y and s i z e are not v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f G r e a t Book groups, - except as b o t h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e n s i t y f o r newcomers t o have a  greater  loss rate. S t o g d i l l (387) r e p o r t e d t h a t w i t h i n t h e group, p e r f o r m ance, i n t e r a c t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y o f s u p e r i o r s e x e r t a d i r e c t e f f e c t upon t h e performance and i n t e r a c t i o n s o f subordinates.  The l e a d e r s h i p p r o c e s s may be more smoothly  maintained i n a s t r a t i f i e d  o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a n i n a p r i m a r y group.  I n a p r i m a r y group l e a d e r s h i p i s s u b j e c t t o t h e b u f f e t s o f face-to-face  i n t e r a c t i o n . The b e h a v i o u r o f one member o f a  group i s l i k e l y t o have an immediate and d i r e c t e f f e c t upon t h e b e h a v i o u r o f o t h e r members o f t h e group.  In a s t r a t i f i e d  i z a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o be more h i g h l y Counterbalancing e f f e c t s are observed i n l a r g e  organ-  formalized.  organizations  162  as w e l l as i n s m a l l ones but t h e l a r g e more s t a b l e to  appear t o m a i n t a i n  s y s t e m o f i n t e r a c t i o n s and t o be l e s s  interactional  tensions.  a  sensitive  163 b. Arrangement o f l e a r n e r s Carp (69) r e p o r t s how i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h e group can be a r r a n g e d o r o r g a n i z e d r e s u l t s or effects.  by t h e t e a c h e r t o b r i n g about c e r t a i n  I f t h e group i s l a r g e t h e s e  o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be more i m p o r t a n t (lj  described  and a p p l i c a b l e ,  R e a c t i o n Team! - Sometimes i t i s a d v i s a b l e , i f a p r e s e n t -  a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be r a t h e r complex, t o s e l e c t a few members t o a c t as a u d i e n c e o r group r e a c t i o n spokesmen.  With both t h e  t e a c h e r and audience o r group agreed i n advance, i t i s t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e s e spokesmen t o i n t e r r u p t t h e speaker whenever a p o i n t b e i n g made needs f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o r e l a b o r a t i o n . T h i s r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g use o r i t might h i n d e r r a t h e r t h a n h e l p t h e communication p r o c e s s .  As a v a r i a t i o n ,  " q u i z z c a r d s " can be w r i t t e n as t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n proceeds and t h e s e can be handed i n f o r s y n t h e s i s , c o m b i n a t i o n and answering a t t h e end o f t h e t a l k . (2)  Observation  Team: - T h i s l e n d s i t s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l t o  t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f an i n c i d e n t o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f a s k i l l . O t h e r v i s u a l o r a u d i o p r e s e n t a t i o n s , such as f i l m s , recordings, etc., are also e x c e l l e n t .  slides,  The group t h e n , e i t h e r  as i n d i v i d u a l s o r i n s m a l l e r g r o u p s , i s asked t o r e p o r t observations.  When i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  d e s i r a b l e t o view t h e  i n c i d e n t from v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f v i e w , t h e s e p a r a t e groups can be so i n s t r u c t e d .  smaller  The c o o r d i n a t e d r e p o r t t h e n f o r  t h e e n t i r e group can be p r e p a r e d by c o l l a t i n g t h e w r i t t e n observations  o r having  a b r i e f "buzz s e s s i o n " .  164 (3)  L i s t e n i n g Teams: - T h i s i s a u s e f u l d e v i c e i n which the  group i s d i v i d e d i n t o l i s t e n i n g teams by t h e t e a c h e r eg.,  those  on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e room f o r m one team, t h o s e i n t h e  center  a n o t h e r , and t h o s e on t h e l e f t , a t h i r d . particular points.  F o r example one team might l i s t e n f o r  "points requiring c l a r i f i c a t i o n " . f o r " t h i n g s we  Thread Man:  A second team c o u l d l i s t e n  question or disagree w i t h " .  l i s t e n f o r " t h i n g s we (4)  Each team l i s t e n s f o r  A t h i r d team c o u l d  ought t o do something about".  - This i s another o r g a n i z a t i o n a l device t h a t  can be used w i t h i n a group, p a r t i c u l a r l y where t h e group i s t o meet f o r a number o f t i m e s .  S c h m i t t and Svenson (359)  describe  t h i s a c t i v i t y by p o i n t i n g out t h e t h r e a d man  function i s to  b r i n g i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o f o c u s .  individual,  c o - o r d i n a t o r , master-of-ceremonies,  The  chairman, - p e r s o n i f i e s  t h e o v e r - a l l u n i t y and p u r p o s e f u l n e s s of t h e program.  He  u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e s t h e purpose and p l a n o f the program a t the o u t s e t and t h e r e a f t e r p o i n t s up t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  experiences  t o each o t h e r and t o t h e l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s ; and he may summarize.  also  165 II  D i f f u s i o n Devices A.  Distributed  As C l i n t o n (82) p o i n t e d o u t , o f a l l t h e d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s , v i z . , the p r i n t e d page, f i l m , r a d i o and  recordings,  and t e l e v i s i o n ; t h e p r i n t e d page i s the o n l y one t h a t does not have t h e human v o i c e . the devices  I t may  be n o t e d a g a i n here t h a t a l t h o u g h  eg., f i l m , r a d i o and TV do p o s s e s s t h e warmth and  impact o f t h e human v o i c e , t h e l a c k o f movement i s t h e p r i n c i p a l a s s e t o f t h e p r i n t e d page.  The  p r i n t e d words can be s t u d i e d , d i s c u s s e d ,  printed pictures c u t out,  filed,  p a s s e d around, o r r e a d a t a more c o n v e n i e n t t i m e .  It i s  and  s e l e c t i v e o f i t s a u d i e n c e and demands an a c t i v e mind. B r i m (50)  s t a t e s t h a t one  of the strongest  arguments  i n f a v o u r o f the use o f d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s i s t h a t t h e y have t h e l o w e s t c o s t per c a p i t a o f d e l i v e r i n g u n i t s o f A l s o as t h e y are a b l e t o r e a c h i n t o the home and a d u l t s who  information. influence  do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i s c u s s i o n groups o r  l e c t u r e s t h e y are more l i k e l y t o r e a c h t h o s e not  attend  otherwise  contacted. An a s p e c t of d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s t h a t has r e c e i v e d and i s s t i l l r e c e i v i n g c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n from a d u l t e d u c a t o r s concerns t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l o f the communication, a s s e s s e d i n such manner as the " r e a d i n g pamphlet". W e l f a r e (419)  I n 1955,  a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d to understand the  t h e U.S.  Dept. of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n  and  c a l l e d t o the a t t e n t i o n o f parent educators t h a t  166 the  mothers o f n e a r l y  years  o f age  school only  included nearly  education,  one  sixteen million  or l e s s ,  to four years  c h i l d r e n under  f i v e m i l l i o n with  and  of high  nine  million,  school.  s t u d i e s completed  o f t h a t t i m e t o have a h i g h (462)  research  showed t h e  i n 1934  Ojemann's  (323)  sampled r e q u i r e d  tendency  seems t o have  a t r e n d toward  o f the 80%  at the  reading  9th  of the  and  7th  o r 10th  users,  researched  level  by  grade or  designing  are  grade l e v e l  T  too  clientele  and  of  the  school.  This  i n d i c a t i o n s of (450)  in  1952  the  analysis  pamphlets  and  material  Witmer s  s t a t e p a m p h l e t s and  the  showed  remaining  of the  media f o r the  Leary  first  (170).  reading  ability  systematically  They f o u n d t h a t  clarity  s m o o t h n e s s o f s t y l e made a w r i t t e n work more r e a d a b l e  more e n j o y a b l e . motivation  They a l s o d i s c o v e r e d  that  i n t e r e s t and  c o u l d overcome s u c h h a n d i c a p s a s  s e n t e n c e s , u n u s u a l p o l y s y l l a b i c words and Morriss  and  material d e a l t with  Holverson familiar  20%  above.  o r r e a d a b i l i t y , was G r a y and  users  probably  beyond h i g h  o f a s u b s a m p l e o f 44 o r 8th  completed  printed  quarters  A S t u d y by Weng  n a t i o n a l and  at the  This  parent  changed as t h e r e  simplicity.  some 75  t o be  ability  had  level.  work i n d i c a t e d some t h r e e  material  analyzed  show t h e  m a t e r i a l t h e n was  f o r more t h a n h a l f o f t h e  who  r e a d i l y understandable.  intellectual  difficult  a grammar  It follows that  o f mass m e d i a must make t h e i r m a t e r i a l Two  five  (301)  strong  long  involved  a heavy  style.  found t h a t  concepts,  and  subjects  i f the or  written  scenes,  167 t h e a d u l t s t u d e n t s r e a d and e n j o y e d w r i t i n g o f a more d i f f i c u l t l e v e l t h a n t h e y would o t h e r w i s e f i n i s h . d i t i o n i n g i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r acceptance  Their cultural  of the w r i t i n g .  conLorge  (267) s a i d much t h e same t h i n g when he r e p o r t e d t h a t people not o n l y t e n d t o r e a d what t h e y a l r e a d y know about, a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , b u t because o f t h e i r  interest,  t h e meaning t h e y g i v e t h e t e x t grows o u t o f t h e i r own background o f e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge. Carpenter  (75) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f p u b l i c a t i o n s  appears t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r r u r a l  audiences.  He made an e l a b o r a t e comparison  o f a 64 page  o f t h e acceptance  b o o k l e t and a 4 page l e a f l e t on t h e same s u b j e c t , by 200 W i s c o n s i n f a r m e r s and found t h e b o o k l e t p r e f e r r e d by 47*2% and t h e l e a f l e t by 36%; 16.8% b e i n g u n d e c i d e d .  There was no  r e l a t i o n o f c h o i c e t o economics, t e n u r e , e d u c a t i o n o r age. F o r example, a l t h o u g h t h o s e who were h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s o r b e t t e r p r e f e r r e d t h e b o o k l e t , so d i d t h o s e w i t h l e s s t h a n h i g h s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , and t h o s e w i t h some h i g h s c h o o l education favoured the l e a f l e t . I n 1959 t h e U.S. A i r F o r c e (416) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e a d a b i l i t y o f i t s l i t e r a t u r e and took a c t i o n t o determine t h e r e a d a b i l i t y i n d e x o f some o f i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s . p r e v i o u s l y , K l a r e , Mabry and G u s t a f s o n  A few y e a r s  (246) a n a l y z e d t h e  r e a d a b i l i t y o f a s t a n d a r d A i r F o r c e s t u d y g u i d e and found t h a t when r e a d a b i l i t y was i n c r e a s e d ( a s measured by a s t a n d a r d f o r m u l a ) t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n immediate r e t e n t i o n and  168 r e a d i n g speed.  A l s o t h e more r e a d a b l e study g u i d e s were  judged t o be more i n t e r e s t i n g , and t h e use o f p e r s o n a l r a t h e r t h a n i m p e r s o n a l words d i d not i n c r e a s e t h e i n t e r e s t i n g n e s s Mowry, Webb and G a r v i n ( 3 0 2 ) , i n t h e i r  o f the g u i d e .  study  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e a d a b i l i t y o f some o f the naval p u b l i c a t i o n s . m a t e r i a l was  I n one  a t the 10 t o 12  s c h o o l most o f the  analyzed  grade l e v e l but much was  at the  U n i v e r s i t y l e v e l whereas t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l o f 26% o f t h e t r a i n e e s u s i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s was below t h e grade 10 53% was  below t h e grade 11  l e v e l , 97% was  At  of i t s t r a i n e e s could read at the  l e v e l of the m a t e r i a l .  12  below the grade  l e v e l and 99% was below t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . s c h o o l o n l y 12%  level,  another analyzed  I n g e n e r a l , t h e y found t h a t 88% t o  97% o f t h e a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l was " o v e r t h e head" o f the t r a i n e e s i n three Naval A i r T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g Schools. S t a n d l e e and F a t t u (380)  p o i n t out t h a t t h e U.S.  Navy  s h o u l d no l o n g e r accept f o u r t h grade r e a d i n g a b i l i t y as an i n d i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y and t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o r e a d o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s he w i l l encounter  i n the Navy.  a n a l y z e d e i g h t navy p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r r e a d a b i l i t y and, t h e F l e s h f o r m u l a s , r a t e d them from 6th  They using  grade t o c o l l e g e l e v e l  i n degree o f d i f f i c u l t y and human i n t e r e s t  level.  Twenty-one y e a r s a f t e r h i s work, mentioned p r e v i o u s l y ( 1 7 0 ) , Gray r e v i e w e d t h e r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o the r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f a d u l t s ( 1 6 9 ) , and found t h e average a b i l i t y about e q u a l t o t h e average a b i l i t y o f p u p i l s i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f ninth  grade.  169  Cowing (94)  made a study o f changes i n the r e a d a b i l i t y  o f s t a t e p u b l i c a t i o n s between 1943 based on samples o f 111 and 112  and I960.  The % s c o r i n g a t  grade comprehension l e v e l advanced from  words w i t h t h e average s y l l a b l e count f a l l i n g from 153 words.  1943  the  t o 71 and t h e average sentence l e n g t h dropped from 20 t o  p e r 100  was  p u b l i c a t i o n s being d i s t r i b u t e d i n  t h a t were a v a i l a b l e i n I960.  d e s i r e d 6th t o 9th  His analysis  49  16  to  146  On t h e m a t t e r o f human i n t e r e s t the % i n t h e  " i n t e r e s t i n g " o r " h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g " c a t e g o r y advanced from 5 t o 31%»  However 40%  a l t h o u g h t h i s was  continued  t o score i n t h e d u l l  category  a decrease from the e a r l i e r f i g u r e o f  69%.  Many s t u d i e s have been pursued i n an attempt t o determine the usefulness  o f d i s t r i b u t e d d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s as i t i s a  m a t t e r of r e c o r d t h a t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i s t h e most used of a l l adult education  devices.  W i l s o n and G a l l u p  b u l l e t i n ' s i n f l u e n c e d the a d o p t i o n o f 8.6% s t u d i e d and A b e l l , L a r s o n and D i c k e r s o n  (459)  found t h a t  of the p r a c t i c e s (1) found t h a t farm  p a p e r s and b u l l e t i n s were p r e f e r r e d by f a r m e r s i n County, New and  others  Schuyler  Y o r k , t o o t h e r s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n . (81)  made a s u r v e y o f 55 of O k l a h o m a ^ 77  agents to o b t a i n t h e i r opinions and u s e f u l n e s s  Childers  c o n c e r n i n g the  understandability  o f t h e Oklahoma A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l  Station bulletins.  T h e i r s t u d y showed t h a t more a t t e n t i o n  s h o u l d be g i v e n t o c l a r i t y i n t a b l e s and t o p r o v i d i n g subheads.  county  plentiful  A l s o i t seemed c l e a r t h a t a g e n t s (and perhaps  b u l l e t i n a u t h o r s ) need t o be more f u l l y a d v i s e d  of the purpose  170 of  e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n s and t h e i r  (agents)  r e l a t i o n to extension c i r c u l a r s . F r u t c h e y (147)  i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e c o g n i z e d needs o f t h e  p u b l i c f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and attempted t o determine t h e use made of  p o p u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n s i s s u e d by t h e Vermont E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e .  He r e p o r t e d t h a t people are apt t o r e a d s h o r t e a s y - t o - r e a d p u b l i c a t i o n s on t o p i c s t h a t i n t e r e s t them. a p u b l i c a t i o n t h e y are more l i k e l y sent t o them u n r e q u e s t e d .  I f people ask f o r  t o r e a d i t than i f i t i s  But i f t h e y do r e c e i v e an  unrequested  p u b l i c a t i o n t h e y w i l l u s u a l l y l o o k i t o v e r and i f i t i n t e r e s t s them t h e y w i l l r e a d i t . the i n t e r e s t s of people.  R e a d e r s h i p can be f o r e c a s t by knowing Readers q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h e needs  t h e y are aware o f but not t h e i r unknown needs.  He a l s o  stated  that the p u b l i c i s i n t e r e s t e d i n g a i n i n g a b e t t e r understanding of  problems as w e l l as l e a r n i n g new  skills.  He c o n c l u d e d t h a t  a m a i l s u r v e y i s a p r a c t i c a l method o f " t a k i n g a r e a d i n g " o f r e a d e r s h i p and t h e use o f p u b l i c a t i o n s . In  1927  f a r m e r s on how most o f t h e 1035  W i l s o n (45^)  t r i e d t o o b t a i n s u g g e s t i o n s from  t o make e x t e n s i o n b u l l e t i n s more u s e f u l however f a r m e r s s a i d t h e y knew so l i t t l e about t h e  t e c h n i q u e t h e y c o u l d not make c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s .  Since  t h a t t i m e however t h e t r e n d i n p u b l i c a t i o n s has been toward the short b u l l e t i n or l e a f l e t . t h a t s i n c e 1930  W i l s o n and G a l l u p (459)  noted  county e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s have g r a d u a l l y  i n c r e a s e d t h e emphasis p l a c e d upon b u l l e t i n s and  circulars.  171 Brown (57) made an e v a l u a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l i s t n e w s l e t t e r s a s a means o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g to  county e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s i n Texas.  a g e n t s r e l y h e a v i l y on t h e s p e c i a l i s t s  extension  information  He r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e 1  newsletters f o r the  l a t e s t f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics.  Also that s p e c i a l i s t s  1  n e w s l e t t e r s are important  l i n k s i n g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o the f i e l d through newspaper columns and r a d i o programs.  agents  1  A l l findings generally  were s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r o f more and b e t t e r n e w s l e t t e r s . Goss (166) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e use o f a g r i c u l t u r a l news i n t h e Vermont p r e s s f r o m 18 J a n u a r y t o 13 March 1954 and found t h a t t h e d a i l y and w e e k l y newspapers want s h o r t s t o r i e s from 100 t o 300 words.  Extension service m a t e r i a l rated a high  p e r c e n t a g e o f use, - 75% o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l news i n t h e w e e k l i e s and 43% i n t h e d a i l i e s . as were a n i m a l p a t h o l o g y  stories.  Economic news was w e l l used Stories with a l o c a l  got good a c c e p t a n c e , - e s p e c i a l l y w i t h w e e k l i e s .  angle  The d a i l y  p a p e r s u s e spot news more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e y use i n f o r m a t i o n stories.  He observed t h a t t h e e x t e n s i o n s t o r i e s p r i n t e d  r e c e i v e d wide d i s t r i b u t i o n .  M u l t i p l y i n g column i n c h e s p r i n t e d  and newspapers c i r c u l a t e d , almost 7 8 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n c h e s o f e x t e n s i o n m a t e r i a l was sent o u t i n d a i l i e s and n e a r l y 1 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n c h e s i n w e e k l i e s , d u r i n g t h e e i g h t weeks. T r o l d a h l and L e w i s (409) conducted an e v a l u a t i o n o f reader i n t e r e s t i n a d a i r y newsletter that i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o  172 a d d r e s s e s on a r e q u e s t e d m a i l i n g l i s t .  They r e p o r t e d t h a t  about h a l f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e a d t h e n e w s l e t t e r w i t h o u t  fail  and over h a l f mentioned t h e y had found i d e a s i n i t t h e y use.  could  Two t h i r d s l i s t i t a s one o f t h e i r s o u r c e s o f d a i l y  i n f o r m a t i o n and a q u a r t e r name i t a s t h e i r p r i m a r y N i n e t y one p e r c e n t  source.  c o n s i d e r i t e i t h e r " a l m o s t always o r  always - r e l i a b l e " . I n H a l l and D e l a n y ' s (182) study o f t h e use made o f Cornell U n i v e r s i t y ' s Extension B u l l e t i n ,  "Reupholstering  C h a i r s W i t h Foam Rubber", t h e y f o u n d t h a t o v e r h a l f t h e women who sent f o r t h e b u l l e t i n never used any o t h e r . most f r e q u e n t  s u g g e s t i o n f o r making C o r n e l l B u l l e t i n s more  u s e f u l was t o p u b l i c i z e them more. percent  Also t h e i r  Although  twenty-three  sent f o r t h e b u l l e t i n f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y , 10% used  i t f o r information only.  And women w i t h l e s s s c h o o l i n g used  t h e b u l l e t i n t o t h e same e x t e n t and i n t h e same way as r e p o r t e d by women w i t h more s c h o o l i n g . Venne (430) e x p l o r e d d i r e c t m a i l announcements a s a way t o expand t h e audience f o r e x t e n s i o n work i n 67 o f Wisconsin's b e i n g used.  71 c o u n t i e s : f o u r p r i m a r i l y urban c o u n t i e s n o t He r e p o r t e d a r e s p o n s e o f from 10 t o 15% can be  e x p e c t e d and i t can be assumed t h a t some o f t h o s e who d i d n o t r e s p o n d a l r e a d y had adequate a c c e s s t o p u b l i c a t i o n s . D i r e c t m a i l announcements w i l l p e r f o r m a s e r v i c e f o r about 75% o f t h e respondents.  Although  9% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e v e r y a c t i v e i n  e x t e n s i o n work, n e a r l y 60% a r e i n t h e "seldom o r n e v e r a c t i v e "  173 o r "no r e c o r d " c a t e g o r y .  I t was shown t h a t t h e f a c t o r s t h a t  a f f e c t t h e 10 t o 15% r e t u r n a r e (1)  type o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f f e r e d  (2) number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s o f f e r e d (3) d e s i g n o f t h e c a r d (4) t i m i n g o f t h e c a r d .  A l s o n o t e d was t h a t d i r e c t m a i l  announcements s h o u l d be c o n f i n e d t o l i s t i n g p o p u l a r  type  p u b l i c a t i o n s , easy t o i n t e r p r e t and use by t h e average f a r m e r and homemaker, - r a t h e r t h a n t e c h n i c a l o r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s . He found t h a t a good g e n e r a l r u l e might be t o l i m i t t h e number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s l i s t e d on one c a r d t o 10 w i t h a c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n o f each i n c l u d e d .  F i n a l l y , t h e w i n t e r months a r e  p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t months f o r m a i l i n g , b u t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed on t h i s s u b j e c t b e f o r e a d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn. I t i s r e a l i z e d that the f i n d i n g s of research  concerning  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i r e c t m a i l , o r requested m a i l i n g l i s t , p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be reviewed  along w i t h  "handouts", i n t h e V i s u a l , Two D i m e n s i o n a l ,  non-projected  s e c t i o n ; however i n d u l g e n c e  i s requested  as i t was  considered  t o f a c i l i t a t e a more compact and comprehensive t r e a t m e n t i f t h e y c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e b u l k o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n t h i s review of D i f f u s i o n , distributed  devices.  Who r e a d s g e n e r a l c i r c u l a t i o n magazines? P o l i t z (331)  A study by  g i v e s u s some i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a u d i e n c e s o f  such magazines as Reader's D i g e s t , S a t u r d a y E v e n i n g P o s t , L i f e and Look.  174 G e n e r a l l y , p e o p l e w i t h more e d u c a t i o n more magazines.  g e t and read  About 6/8 o f t h e c o l l e g e educated  population  were "exposed" t o one o r more i s s u e s o f t h e s e t o f f o u r , whereas about 3/8 o f t h e l e s s t h a n h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s were exposed.  T h i s study a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e h i g h e r s o c i o -  economic groups n o t o n l y have a g r e a t e r chance o f b e i n g  exposed,  but a r e more l i k e l y t o l o o k i n t o i s s u e s s e v e r a l t i m e s t h a n a r e l o w e r socio-economic groups.  F o r example, t h e c o l l e g e educated  make up s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n o n e - f i f t h o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n b u t make up b e t t e r t h a n o n e - f o u r t h  adult  o f t h e audience  o f t h e f o u r magazines combined, and c o n t r i b u t e n e a r l y t w o - f i f t h s o f t h e " r e a d i n g days" o f t h e f o u r combined.  The l e s s t h a n h i g h  s c h o o l educated make up s l i g h t l y more t h a n o n e - h a l f  of the t o t a l  a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , make up j u s t under two f i f t h s o f t h e audience o f f o u r , and c o n t r i b u t e j u s t a shade more t h a n one f o u r t h o f t h e " r e a d i n g days".  W i t h e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s r i s i n g i t i s t o be  n o t e d t h a t e v e r y a d d i t i o n o f 1,000,000 p e r s o n s t o t h e c o l l e g e educated groups would p r o v i d e an i n c r e a s e o f between 300,000 and  400,000 i n r e a d e r s o f t h e s e f o u r magazines on t h e b a s i s o f  present r e l a t i o n s h i p s . On 3 O c t o b e r 1964, Province  (335)  a Vancouver d a i l y newspaper, The  r e p o r t e d a new d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e  t h e p r e v i o u s day i n Japan.  demonstrated  I n b r i e f i t showed t h a t an e n t i r e  newspaper can be t r a n s m i t t e d t o a s u b s c r i b e r ' s home by u l t r a high frequency broadcast.  The d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n Tokyo used a  175  t r a n s m i t t e d s i g n a l from t h e newspaper o f f i c e t h a t was p i c k e d up by a r a d i o r e c e i v e r 4 m i l e s away, scanned and p r i n t e d on c h e m i c a l l y s e n s i t i z e d paper a t 300 words p e r minute, complete w i t h photographs.  T h i s d e v i c e would seem t o have wide  p o t e n t i a l use i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n be watched w i t h  interest.  and i t s development  will  176 II*  Diffusion B.  Devices  Extensions: Open c i r c u i t TV, r a d i o and r e c o r d i n g , m o t i o n pictures. Research  p e r t a i n i n g to these extension, d i f f u s i o n  d e v i c e s was r e v i e w e d p r e v i o u s l y when r a d i o was  d i s c u s s e d as a  m e c h a n i c a l , a u d i o , i l l u s t r a t i v e d e v i c e , and m o t i o n p i c t u r e s and c l o s e d c i r c u i t TV were c o n s i d e r e d as two projected, v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i v e devices.  dimensional,  When t h e s e were p r e -  v i o u s l y r e v i e w e d i t was w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l sense and a l l p e r t i n e n t r e s e a r c h was i n c l u s i v e p o i n t of view. e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f TV was  examined and r e p o r t e d f r o m t h i s  U s i n g TV as an example, t h e t o t a l c o n s i d e r e d when i t was  i n t r o d u c e d as a  two d i m e n s i o n a l , p r o j e c t e d , v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i v e d e v i c e and just i t s effectiveness i n a closed c i r c u i t viewing  not  situation.  The e x t e n s i o n , d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s can a l s o be used as supplementary e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e s , as i n t h e case o f t h e C i t i z e n Forum programs on t h e CBC  T e l e v i s i o n network, where  s m a l l d i s c u s s i o n groups are b u i l t around t h e t e l e v i s e d programs. A s t u d y completed by Cook (89) may report, called "Tel-lecture May  1963  w  was  be r e v i e w e d h e r e .  His  p r i n t e d i n Adult Leadership,  and d e s c r i b e d an extended use o f TV t h a t c o u l d w e l l  have wide a p p l i c a t i o n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . as a f a i r l y e f f e c t i v e way  He shows T e l - l e c t u r e  o f p r e s e n t i n g speakers s i t u a t e d i n  one l o c a t i o n , by t e l e v i s i o n t o a u d i e n c e s assembled i n a n o t h e r ,  177  w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o ask q u e s t i o n s o f t h e speaker and r e c e i v e an immediate and  spontaneous r e p l y .  on a T e l - l e c t u r e a t t e n d e d  by 100  to  B a s i n g h i s study  people a t La Crosse S t a t e  C o l l e g e he found t h a t a l l r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h e T e l - l e c t u r e t o be e i t h e r a "Very E f f e c t i v e " o r " E f f e c t i v e " method o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g .  S i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t a g e of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t  t h e T e l - l e c t u r e was  "As E f f e c t i v e " as a l e c t u r e " i n p e r s o n "  and 25% f e l t i t t o be " L e s s E f f e c t i v e " . Cook recommends t h a t t h e T e l - l e c t u r e s h o u l d not be used t o r e p l a c e t h e l e c t u r e r who  can r e a s o n a b l y  c e r t a i n l y be c o n s i d e r e d  individual  a t t e n d a group; but i t should  as a means o f b r i n g i n g t o a s m a l l  group o r t o an i s o l a t e d community, good s k i l f u l , g i f t e d t e a c h e r s o r l e c t u r e r s who  might o t h e r w i s e n e v e r p e r s o n a l l y  r e a c h such g r o u p s . C l i n t o n (82) t e l l s us t h a t l i v e TV i n t r o d u c e s something n e v e r seen i n f i l m s : - r e a l t i m e . a person-to-person  relationship.  The The  effect i s to e s t a b l i s h f e e l i n g of r e a l i t y i s  conveyed by t h e c l o s e t o l i f e s i z e heads on t h e s c r e e n  and  t h e n a t u r a l d i s t a n c e between t h e audience and t h e show.  It  g i v e s an a c t o r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r e a t e r e a l c o n t i n u i t y . Each of t h e f o u r d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s , - the p r i n t e d page, r a d i o and r e c o r d i n g s , TV,  and m o t i o n p i c t u r e s o r f i l m , has  tendency t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e a f f a i r s o f one  a  or a l l of  the other t h r e e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d a g a i n t h a t r a d i o and TV are for  devices  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o n l y when t h e y are o r g a n i z e d f o r t h i s  178 purpose.  Of t h e two, TV has made t h e g r e a t e s t advancement as  an e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e , - perhaps as a r e s u l t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h i r t y y e a r s o f r a d i o programming.  TV, t h e  newest o f t h e d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s , has become t h e m e e t i n g ground f o r t h e o t h e r media. Radio cannot s e i z e t h e eye and i s t h e r e f o r e t h e one mass medium o r d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e t h a t can serve an a c t i v e audience. Anderson (19) uncovered some i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s when he s t u d i e d t h e problems r e s u l t i n g from f r i n g e m i g r a t i o n (the m i g r a t i o n o f c i t y workers t o t h e suburbs o r f r i n g e o f t h e c i t y ) .  He found t h a t ( l ) Farm  and p a r t - t i m e farm f a m i l i e s c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r l i s t e n i n g t o one r a d i o s t a t i o n , w h i l e non-farm f a m i l i e s d i v e r s i f y t h e i r l i s t e n i n g to include several stations.  (2)  The m e t r o p o l i t a n d a i l y which  r e a c h e s t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f farm f a m i l i e s i s f a r exceeded i n c i r c u l a t i o n by a second m e t r o p o l i t a n d a i l y i n r e a c h i n g p a r t t i m e f a r m e r s and n o n - f a r m e r s .  ( 3 ) L o c a l weekly newspapers a r e  much more e f f e c t i v e i n r e a c h i n g f a r m e r s and p a r t - t i m e t h a n i n r e a c h i n g non f a r m e r s .  farmers  ( 4 ) The more e x t e n s i v e communic-  a t i o n s , such as mimeographed m a t e r i a l , c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , and " d o - i t - y o u r s e l f " b u l l e t i n s , a r e about e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n reaching the l a r g e proportions of the three (farmers, f a r m e r s and non-farmers) o p e n - c o u n t r y p o p u l a t i o n  part-time  groupings.  ( 5 ) Announcements g i v e n i n two t y p e s o f communications  channels,  179 such as m e t r o p o l i t a n d a i l i e s and r a d i o s t a t i o n s , o r r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n news programs, r e a c h n e a r l y a l l o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . ( 6 ) The l o c a l weekly newspaper r e a c h e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n  around  t h e community i n which i t i s p u b l i s h e d . ( 1 9 ) Long, Hughes J r . , and Bowers ( 2 6 6 ) made a study o f how the farmers i n a tobacco cooperative  i n K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee,  got t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and r e p o r t e d t h a t o u t o f t h e 224 members, 6 3 r e c e i v e d t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n from newspapers, 51 g o t t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n from n e i g h b o u r s , 41 from t h e r a d i o , 22 g o t t h e i r s from o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l ,  16 members g o t t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e " a u c t i o n f l o o r " , and l e s s e r numbers elsewhere. education  They a l s o found t h a t w i t h i n any g i v e n  level-of-  group t h e t o b a c c o growers who used t h e newspapers  as t h e i r p r i n c i p a l source o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e t o b a c c o c o o p e r a t i v e had a h i g h e r score  (answered more  questions  c o r r e c t l y ) t h a n d i d growers who r e l i e d p r i n c i p a l l y upon neighbours f o r information. Dickerson  (118) made a v e r y d e t a i l e d study o f  i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s used by 278 men f a r m e r s i n S c h u y l e r County, New Y o r k .  One o f t h e v a l u a b l e r e p o r t s she p u b l i s h e d  shows t h e l e v e l o f a d o p t i o n o f new farm p r a c t i c e s from t h e i n f o r m a t i o n source,  - as f o l l o w s :  180  Information Sources  Level of adoption Low Medium High 79% (51) 90% (63) 86% (64) 72% (46) 79% (55) 69% (51)  Farm Papers Radio Neighbours, friends, relatives 68% Printed Extension, news, c i r c u l a r s Farm bureau 59% Newspapers 43% Oral Extension (talk with Country agent, Extension m e e t i n g s , demonstrations) 34% Salesmen and Dealers 29% Other a g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n c i e s e.g. S o i l Conservation Service  (43)  '64% (45)  62% (46)  (38) (27)  65% (45) 46% (32)  81% (60) 3^% (28)  (22)  44% (31)  59%  (44)  (19)  27% (10)  41%  (30)  25% (22)  41% (29)  5&*% (43)  (118)  The low, medium and h i g h l e v e l s o f a d o p t i o n a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e r a t i o o f approved p r a c t i c e s f o l l o w e d t o t h e approved p r a c t i c e s a p p l i c a b l e , eg. 64 f a r m e r s o r 23% were i n t h e low range o f 0 t o . 3 , 70 f a r m e r s o r 25% were i n t h e medium  range  o f . 4 t o .6 and 74 f a r m e r s o r 27% were i n t h e h i g h range o f .7 and o v e r .  Seventy f a r m e r s o r 25% were e x c l u d e d because  t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s d i d not r e q u i r e adoption o f the p r a c t i c e s i n question.  An i l l u s t r a t i o n may be i n o r d e r h e r e : - u s i n g f i r s t  f i g u r e s i n each case; t h e r e were 64 f a r m e r s i n t h e low l e v e l o f a d o p t i o n group and o f t h i s group 51 o r 79% used farm papers as an i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e .  A l t h o u g h m u l t i p l e answers were counted  and t h e t r e n d i s n o t s h a r p , t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t h i g h a d o p t e r s tended t o s p e c i f y more o f t h e more t e c h n i c a l and more p r o f e s s i o n a l s o u r c e s . (118)  This i s particularly noticeable i n  181 p r i n t e d and o r a l e x t e n s i o n and f o r " o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s " such as S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e , t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Adjustment A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and t h e Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A b e l l , L a r s o n and D i c k e r s o n (1)  reviewed the research  p e r t a i n i n g t o s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n used by f a r m e r s and found t h a t t h e S c h u y l e r County study and t h i r t e e n o t h e r s between 1947  and 1956  completed  a l l more o r l e s s agreed and i n d i c a t e d  the f o l l o w i n g o v e r a l l trends: (1)  Farm papers rank f i r s t o r n e a r l y f i r s t among f a r m e r s as  p r e f e r r e d (usual) sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . (2)  Neighbours,  or  third place.  f r i e n d s , and r e l a t i v e s i s most o f t e n i n second I n t h e S c h u y l e r study i t ranked  fourth.  (3) Radio r a n k s t h i r d t o s i x t h i n most o f t h e s t u d i e s but i n t h i s ( S c h u y l e r ) study i t was t h i r d . (4) P r i n t e d e x t e n s i o n (Farm Bureau News, c i r c u l a r s ,  Cornell  b u l l e t i n s ) , which t i e s f o r f i r s t p l a c e i n t h e S c h u y l e r s t u d y , ranked l o w e r i n most o f t h e o t h e r s . (5) O r a l e x t e n s i o n ( t a l k s w i t h county agent, e x t e n s i o n meetings, ( d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ) r a n k s below p r i n t e d e x t e n s i o n i n most o f t h e s t u d i e s b u t was named " h e l p f u l " by more t h a n h a l f o f t h e f a r m e r s i n the Schuyler study. (6) Salesmen and d e a l e r s and o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s low i n n e a r l y a l l o f t h e s t u d i e s . Damon (110)  completed  rank  (1)  a study i n 1957  on t h e e f f e c t i v e -  n e s s o f v a r i o u s ( p r a c t i c e s ) d e v i c e s i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g infoiranation about p u b l i c s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a .  He sent out  182  two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , one t o 162 A d u l t S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h e second t o 2591 e n r o l l e e s i n 27 A d u l t s c h o o l s ; 138 o r 85.18% a d m i n i s t r a t o r s completed and r e t u r n e d t h e i r f o r m s . of the processed  A comparison  r e s u l t s i s i n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e .  PERCENTAGE OF SCHOOLS REPORTING VARIOUS INFORMATIONAL MEDIA USED  1.  Newspaper s t o r i e s and p i c t u r e s  93.48  2.  S c h e d u l e s and o t h e r p r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n  92.03  3.  Dependence on word-of-mouth p u b l i c i t y -  70.29  4.  L e t t e r s or postcards i n the mail  65.22  5.  L e t t e r s sent home w i t h day s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  39.13  6.  Announcements a t m e e t i n g s  36.96  7.  Displays  23.91  8.  T a l k s on A d u l t  9.  Posters  19.56  10.  Radio  18.11  11.  Television  education  23.91  3.62  PERCENTAGE OF ADULT!.STUDENTS INDICATING VARIOUS SOURCES OF ADULT EDUCATION INFORMATION Word-of-mouth  35.93%  2.  A d u l t school schedule o r l e a f l e t  25.05  3.  Newspaper  17.91  4.  L e t t e r o r postcard i n the mail  10.65  5.  L e t t e r brought home by day s c h o o l  6.  T a l k on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  2.97  7.  D i s p l a y on a d u l t  2.28  8.  Announcement a t a m e e t i n g  9.  Radio  .66  10.  Television  .54  11.  Poster  .42  education  child  3.82  1.08  183 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s t h i n k newspapers, p r i n t e d s c h e d u l e s and word-of-mouth p u b l i c i t y work b e s t .  S c h e d u l e s a r e t h e most  e x p e n s i v e t o use c o s t i n g $1.13 p e r u n i t o f average d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e compared t o $.18 o r l e s s f o r o t h e r  devices.  Newspaper p u b l i c i t y r e a c h e s o l d e r p e r s o n s more t h a n younger p e r s o n s and women more t h a n men.  Word-of-mouth p u b l i c i t y t e n d s  t o r e a c h new s t u d e n t s more t h a n t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y e n r o l l e d and a l s o younger a d u l t s .  S c h e d u l e s appear t o work b e t t e r i n  r e a c h i n g a d u l t s p r e v i o u s l y e n r o l l e d and p e r s o n s above age 25• Some c o n c l u s i o n s were made, as f o l l o w s : (1) F a v o u r a b l e word-of-mouth p u b l i c i t y from s a t i s f i e d  students  and o t h e r s who recommend t h e s c h o o l b r i n g s more s t u d e n t s t o a d u l t c l a s s e s t h a n does any d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e o r p u b l i c i z i n g medium. (2)  Newspapers, p r i n t e d s c h e d u l e s and d i r e c t m a i l  contacts  a t t r a c t a f a i r l y large proportion o f the students. (3) Announcements, t a l k s , l e t t e r s c a r r i e d by day s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , d i s p l a y s , p o s t e r s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n r e a c h  only  a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s who e n r o l l f o r a d u l t education  c l a s s e s . (110)  P o r t e r and W i l s o n  (333) made an e v a l u a t i o n study o f a  consumer m a r k e t i n g program t h a t had been conducted by r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n and newspapers i n t h e S t . Joseph, M i s s o u r i  area.  Of t h e 246 p e r s o n s c o n t a c t e d who d i d most o f t h e f o o d b u y i n g f o r t h e i r h o u s e h o l d s , 88% had been exposed t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g t h e t e s t week.  184  79% had been exposed v i a one medium, 18 v i a two, and 3% a l l 3 72% were c o n t a c t e d by some arrangement i n v o l v i n g newspapers 28% by t e l e v i s i o n 15% by r a d i o Something might be s a i d about t h e p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s t h a t e x i s t f o r d i f f u s i o n devices, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e ever p r e s e n t need f o r " r e a d a b i l i t y " t h a t has a l r e a d y been quite  discussed  fully. The problem o f i n f o r m i n g t h e p u b l i c i s n o t s i m p l e .  The  p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s a r e r e i n f o r c e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s , past experiences, perceptions, expectations, p e r s o n a l i t y and so o n .  The p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s must be a p p r a i s e d  i n the l i g h t of the psychological b a r r i e r s . Sheatsley  (219)  individual  As Hyman and  p o i n t out t h e p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s t o communication  m e r e l y impede t h e s u p p l y o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  In order t o increase  p u b l i c knowledge i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e n t more i n f o r m a t i o n and t h a t t h e mass a u d i e n c e be exposed t o i t and t h a t i t absorb t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . S t u d i e s by N a f z i g e r , Engstrom and MacLean, J r . , (306) and Myren  ( 3 0 5 ) , and o t h e r s , p o i n t t o d e f i n i t e p h y s i c a l  b a r r i e r s t o communication on t o p i c s o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t t o the p u b l i c .  T h e i r f i n d i n g s were as f o l l o w s : -  (1) Media c o n t a i n i n g g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e p u b l i c a r e not always a v a i l a b l e , and n o t a l w a y s a c c e s s i b l e . (2) There may n o t be enough r e p e t i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . (3) Much g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e p u b l i c may n o t appear i n t h e more p o p u l a r media.  185 (4) The  g e n e r a l p u b l i c may  not p o s s e s s the v e r b a l o r  s k i l l s needed f o r f o l l o w i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g information presented,  the  (See p r e v i o u s d i s c o u r s e on  i n Distributed, D i f f u s i o n Devices).  other  particular "readability"  I n a d d i t i o n i t was  t h a t e f f e c t i v e communication o f i n f o r m a t i o n depends on:  noted -  (1) The time and space devoted t o p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . (2) The  b i a s e s and d i s t o r t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e  particular  d e v i c e o r medium. (3) E d i t o r i a l o r communicator i n t e r e s t and  objectivity.  186 Some A M i t i o n a l  L e a r n e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s That A f f e c t t h e Use o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r must be k e p t i n mind when c o n s i d e r i n g ations  t h e e f f e c t i v e use o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l communic-  and t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s .  I t i s now u s u a l l y agreed  that  C a r p e n t e r (72) s t a t e d an a c c e p t a b l e p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices generally  when he s a i d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s  o f f i l m i n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s , depends more upon the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the perceivers,  i n d i v i d u a l s and  a u d i e n c e s , t h a n upon t h e e l e m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e f i l m s themselves. With f u r t h e r reference t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r Hovland and o t h e r s (210)  found t h a t l i k e s and d i s l i k e s  of a f i l m are r e l a t e d t o the f i l m ' s i n f l u e n c e the  o t h e r hand Ash ( 2 5 ) ,  on o p i n i o n s .  Heidgerken ( 1 9 1 ) , Twyford (413)  On  and  VanderMeer (426) found l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r e s t i n f i l m s and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d from them.  In the  study o f l i k i n g and l e a r n i n g from e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n programs, M e r r i l l (294)  found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s .  There i s e v i d e n c e from a number o f s t u d i e s ( 2 9 5 ) , and (436) t h a t p e r s o n s o f h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e  (158), ( 2 1 0 ) , usually  l e a r n more from f i l m s t h a n t h o s e o f medium o r low i n t e l l i g e n c e , a l t h o u g h i n some cases those o f l o w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e appear t o make a g r e a t e r i n c r e m e n t i n l e a r n i n g b u t n o t enough t o s u r p a s s t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e average o r s u p e r i o r  students.  187 Hoban and VanOrmer (204)  r e p o r t t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y  a f i l m depends not o n l y on i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r but a l s o on  the  l e a r n e r ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e , t r a i n i n g , o r p r e v i o u s knowledge of subject.  There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i n  v i e w e r ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n from t h e f i l m s .  increase  the  viewing  f i l m s or " f i l m l i t e r a c y " developes w i t h increased viewing and l e a r n i n g from f i l m s , and t h i s f a c t o r may  of  of  the  T h i s i s supported  by r e p o r t s from t h e A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n ( 8 6 ) , and VanderMeer ( 4 2 7 ) . N e l s o n and VanderMeer (311) modifying  r e p o r t e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f  t h e spoken commentary o f an animated f i l m f o r the  l e v e l o f t h e l e a r n e r audience and  stated that a l l simplified  commentaries were c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p e r i o r t o the  original  commentary (but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) , and t h a t t h e b e s t had s h o r t e s t s e n t e n c e s and the most p e r s o n a l  \  pronouns.  the  CHAPTER IV  COLOR AS AN INFLUENCE IM DEVICE EFFECTIVENESS  C o l o r has been g i v e n s e p a r a t e  c o n s i d e r a t i o n here f o r  a l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e e f f e c t of c o l o r has d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o most t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s , r e s e a r c h and f i n d i n g s w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s f i l m , and  (277),  environmental  (288),  facility,  (411)  (265),  (426)  the in  i n c o l o r as a c o n t r o l l a b l e  have been q u i t e w e l l d i v i d e d between  human p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c o l o r s , i n many a s p e c t s , and t h e i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s i n a d v e r t i s i n g copy.  effect-  A review  t h e r e s e a r c h under b o t h t h e s e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s w i l l be  of  giuen  here. Most o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n was A g r i s e a r c h r e p o r t s , December 1955 Color  (4)  found i n two  and March, 1956  (5).  Preferences A t e a c h e r competes f o r group a t t e n t i o n and i t would  appear p r u d e n t f o r him t o a r r a n g e t h i n g s so t h a t h i s b i t o f i n f o r m a t i o n has an advantage o v e r o t h e r  bits.  As t h e c o l o r o f m a t e r i a l o r d e v i c e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s one o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t can be m a n i p u l a t e d  i t i s important  t e a c h e r s t o know which c o l o r o r c o m b i n a t i o n  for  o f c o l o r s i s most  e f f e c t i v e f o r the p a r t i c u l a r m a t e r i a l i n t e n d e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r audience.  Of the many t h i n g s t h a t w i l l a f f e c t t h e  understanding  189 o f o u r m a t e r i a l t h e f i r s t w i l l be exposure.  I f t h e group's  a t t e n t i o n i s n o t caught by o u r m a t e r i a l , we l o s e o u r chance o f e x p o s i n g them t o i t .  C o l o r f u l t h i n g s a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n and  i f t h e group we want t o r e a c h p r e f e r s t h e c o l o r o r c o l o r s we use, we i n c r e a s e t h e chances f o r exposure. C o l o r p r e f e r e n c e has s t i m u l a t e d r e s e a r c h f o r many y e a r s . In  1867 J a s t r o w  (229) r e p o r t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f a study o f .  p r e f e r e n c e f o r s i n g l e c o l o r s and f o r c o l o r c o m b i n a t i o n s .  1  He  reported that: (1) Blue was chosen by about 1/4 o f t h e s u b j e c t s and r e d by-about 1/8 o f t h e s u b j e c t s . (4500 persons a t t h e World's Columbian E x p o s i t i o n ) . (2) The l e a s t p r e f e r r e d c o l o r s were orange and i t s shades toward y e l l o w and r e d . (3) The d a r k e r c o l o r s were p r e f e r r e d over t h e l i g h t e r . (4) There was a d e c i d e d p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e p r i m a r y c o l o r s as opposed t o t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e c o l o r s . (5) No c o m b i n a t i o n o f c o l o r s was as d e c i d e d a f a v o u r i t e as-was b l u e among t h e s i n g l e c o l o r s . (6) The t h r e e most p r e f e r r e d c o m b i n a t i o n s , i n o r d e r , were: red w i t h v i o l e t , r e d w i t h b l u e , and b l u e w i t h v i o l e t . (7) The c o l o r c o m b i n a t i o n s most g e n e r a l l y a v o i d e d were orange w i t h g r e e n , orange w i t h v i o l e t , and l i g h t e r orange w i t h l i g h t e r b l u e . (229) In  1922, G a r t h  (156) r e p o r t e d a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g  study  o f t h e c o l o r p r e f e r e n c e s o f 559 f u l l - b l o o d e d I n d i a n s , 56O w h i t e s and 176 people o f mixed b l o o d . Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  R a c i a l Color Preferences Indians Mixed Bloods Whites Red Blue Blue Blue Red Green Violet Violet Red Green White Violet Orange Green Orange Yellow Orange Yellow White Yellow White (I56)  190 I n a n o t h e r e a r l y study L u c k e i s c h (270) found t h a t t h e c o l o r s whose dominant hues were n e a r t h e end o f t h e spectrum ( b l u e - v i o l e t ) were p r e f e r r e d by more people and t h a t t h e o r d e r o f p r e f e r e n c e from h i g h t o low was: b l u e , r e d , p u r p l e , green, orange and y e l l o w . Other r e s e a r c h was c a r r i e d out l a t e r by Dorcus ( 1 2 1 ) , Walton and o t h e r s (442) and S t . George (3&6). convenience  F o r t h e sake o f  o r easy r e f e r e n c e , t h e c o l o r p r e f e r e n c e s o f both  men and women, as r e p o r t e d by t h e mentioned r e s e a r c h , (4) i s p r e s e n t e d here i n c h a r t form. COLOR PREFERENCES OF MEN AND WOMEN Garth J a s l ;row Dorcus Men Women Men " Women Men Women Blue Red Blue Blue Blue Blue and and Red Green Orange V i o l e t its its Green Orange V i o l e t Green related V i o l e t V i o l e t Green Red Colors Orange Red Red Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow W a l t o n and o t h e r s S t . George Men Women Men Women Blue Red Blue Blue Red Violet Green Green Green B l u e Red Red V i o l e t Green Orange Y e l l o w Orange Y e l l o w Y e l l o w Orange V i o l e t V i o l e t (4) Y e l l o w Orange The f i n d i n g s from two o t h e r s u r v e y s , one i n A g r i c u l t u r e (12)  and t h e o t h e r i n Home Economics ( 3 7 9 ) ,  suggest t h a t men  p r e f e r green w h i l e women p r e f e r r e d . When a l l t h e r e s e a r c h i s c o n s i d e r e d c e r t a i n can be n o t e d : (1) Both men and women appear t o be f o n d o f b l u e .  regularities  191 (2) V i o l e t appears t o f a l l a t t h e m i d d l e o f t h e p r e f e r e n c e range f o r b o t h groups,  r a t i n g s l i g h t l y h i g h e r w i t h women.  (3) Red appears t o be a g r e a t e r f a v o u r i t e w i t h women. (4) Green t e n d s t o be a t t h e upper end o f t h e p r e f e r e n c e range and y e l l o w and orange a t t h e l o w e r end o f t h e range f o r both men and women. (4) In general then: (1) F o r b o t h men and women, b l u e and r e d t e n d t o be t h e more h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d c o l o r s , w h i l e y e l l o w and orange t e n d t o be the l e s s h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d . (2) The d a r k e r c o l o r s t e n d t o be p r e f e r r e d over t h e l i g h t e r colors. (3) Combination  o f t h e more h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d c o l o r s t e n d t o be  more a t t r a c t i v e than c o m b i n a t i o n s u s i n g c o l o r s o f h i g h and low preference. (4) S c h o o l c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s do n o t d i f f e r g r e a t l y i n t h e i r color preferences. (5) The c o l o r p r e f e r e n c e s o f women t e n d t o v a r y more t h a n t h o s e o f men. (6) S o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , environment, and o t h e r f a c t o r s h e l p t o determine  c o l o r p r e f e r e n c e s . (4)  In deciding the color of the educational device or m a t e r i a l some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be made f o r t h e n a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e people t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . As p o i n t e d o u t i n Time Magazine, 20 September 1963 ( 4 0 2 ) , a l t h o u g h p u r p l e i s a n o b l e shade i n Japan i t r e p r e s e n t s death  192 i n Burma.  And i n Formosa, r e d i s c o n s i d e r e d a v e r y l u c k y  c o l o r d e s p i t e the p o l i t i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s . examples o f many t h a t c o u l d be The  These a r e o n l y  noted.  Use o f C o l o r i n A d v e r t i s i n g and Communicating G e n e r a l l y I n some e a r l y r e s e a r c h N e l s o n  (309)  found t h a t : 27  (1) More c o l o r e d t h a n u n c o l o r e d ads were remembered by p e o p l e , 5 remembered t h e same number o f b l a c k and w h i t e c o l o r e d ads and 4 remembered more b l a c k and w h i t e (2) C o l o r e d ads were r e c a l l e d a t o t a l o f 233 ones 142 (3)  two  as  ads.  times, uncolored  t i m e s - an advantage o f 66% i n f a v o u r o f c o l o r .  T a k i n g i n t o account the " g e n e r a l " m e n t i o n s , c o l o r e d ads  were r e c a l l e d a t o t a l o f 262 t i m e s , u n c o l o r e d 182 t i m e s , - an advantage o f 44% i n f a v o u r o f c o l o r . (4)  U s i n g p r e v a i l i n g ad r a t e s f o r b l a c k and w h i t e and f o u r -  c o l o r , t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o s t f o r c o l o r can be j u s t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f added r e c a l l .  (309)  Warner and Franzen  (444)  made a comparative  study o f  t h e impact o f ' f o u r - c o l o r and b l a c k and w h i t e ads u s i n g one each as a p a i r f o r comparison o f r e s u l t s f o r i n t e r e s t impact.  of  and  They r e p o r t e d : -  (1) I n most c a s e s , t h e c o l o r e d member o f a p a i r had advantage i n both i n t e r e s t and impact  the  value.  (2) The advantage o f c o l o r appeared t o be g r e a t e r i n the of  impact.  (3)  I n i n t e r e s t v a l u e , c o l o r u s u a l l y - but not always -  outweighed such f a c t o r s as t e x t , a p p e a l , e t c .  case  193 (4)  F o r i m p a c t , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were u s u a l l y l a r g e r f o r l i k e  comparisons, - c o l o r w i t h c o l o r , and b l a c k and w h i t e w i t h and w h i t e ,  - and  s m a l l e r f o r u n l i k e comparisons.  The  black  invest-  i g a t o r s n o t e d t h a t i n view o f t h e added c o s t of c o l o r a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f purpose i n r e l a t i o n t o the  cost (444)  might curb u n c r i t i c a l use of e x p e n s i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . N i x o n * s (318) (1)  study showed t h a t : -  C o l o r i s i n f e r i o r i n a t t e n t i o n power.  Even i n a t t r a c t i n g  i n i t i a l a t t e n t i o n , i t i s not n e a r l y as e f f e c t i v e as p i c t u r e s o f people. (2)  C o l o r i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n b l a c k and w h i t e i n a t t r a c t i n g  i n i t i a l a t t e n t i o n , but i t l o s e s t h i s advantage r a p i d l y . 10  seconds, t h e b l a c k and w h i t e c o m p e t i t o r  After  becomes s l i g h t l y  superior i n getting attention. (3)  C o l o r has a c o n s i d e r a b l e  e f f e c t i n i n c r e a s i n g memory o f (318)  t h a t which appears i n c o l o r .  He urged t h a t c o l o r s h o u l d not be t o o b l i n d l y a c c e p t e d as a p o t e n t a t t e n t i o n d e v i c e and t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s o r n o v e l t y change may  be more b a s i c a t t e n t i o n f a c t o r s .  He a l s o  or  stated  t h a t c o l o r e d ads among o t h e r c o l o r e d ads need not e x p e c t t o p r o f i t e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f e x t r a a t t e n t i o n .  This  p o i n t appears t o be c o n t r a d i c t e d by N e l s o n ' s (309)  last  f i n d i n g of  g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n impact between c o l o r e d ads o r between b l a c k and w h i t e t h a n between c o l o r and b l a c k and Two  McGraw - H i l l ,  without exception,  two-color  (213)  and  white.  ( 1 8 ) , s t u d i e s showed t h a t ,  ads were b e t t e r r e a d t h a n b l a c k  194  and w h i t e i n every i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t group.  However i t was  o b s e r v e d t h a t a d d i n g c o l o r t o an ad does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y b r i n g g a i n s i n r e a d e r s h i p . Many b l a c k and w h i t e ads surpassed t w o - c o l o r ads w i t h i n t h e same p r o d u c t group because o f such f a c t o r s as more e f f e c t i v e copy and i l l u s t r a t i o n .  Effective  use o f c o l o r , however, appeared t o be o f d e f i n i t e h e l p i n promoting r e a d e r s h i p . A f u r t h e r McGraw - H i l l  (422)  a n a l y s i s o f 946  ads f o r  v i s i b i l i t y and f o r t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h which f i v e s t a n d a r d c o l o r s were used i s summarized i n t h e n e x t c h a r t . r a t i n g s a r e based on b l u e = 100, on 946 ads =  Visibility  and f r e q u e n c y o f use i s based  100%. C o l o r V i s i b i l i t y and Frequency o f Use Color Visibility Frequency o f Use Orange Il"8" 16.4% Yellow 113 10.3% Green 103 7.5% Red 102 55.8% Blue 100 10% (422)  An o b v i o u s i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e more v i s i b l e c o l o r s are n o t t h e ones t h a t are most o f t e n used. M c G r a w - H i l l (439)  then i n v e s t i g a t e d i f the i n c r e a s e d  c o s t i n t h e use o f c o l o r p a i d f o r i t s e l f i n g r e a t e r v i s i b i l i t y or  exposure.  A survey based on IO63 s i n g l e and  double-page  ads a p p e a r i n g i n f i v e i s s u e s o f a M c G r a w - H i l l p u b l i c a t i o n produced t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t a b l e .  F o r purposes o f  comparison, t h e average p e r c e n t o f r e a d e r s who  r e c a l l e d seeing  a s i n g l e - p a g e , b l a c k and w h i t e ad and t h e c o s t o f a s i n g l e - p a g e , b l a c k and w h i t e ad were a s s i g n e d a base r a t i n g o f  100.  195 A l l comparisons were i n terms o f an i n c r e a s e over t h e base f i g u r e . C o l o r V i s i b i l i t y and Cost Comparisons Percent Increase S i z e and Type o f Ad Visibility Cost S i n g l e - p a g e b l a c k and w h i t e Base Base S i n g l e - p a g e two c o l o r 34 13 Double-page b l a c k and w h i t e 132 100 Double-page two c o l o r 180 127  (439)  I t seems c l e a r t h a t r e a d e r s r e c a l l t w o - c o l o r ads b e t t e r t h a n b l a c k and w h i t e , whether s i n g l e o r double page.  I n terms  o f c o s t , a 13% i n c r e a s e f o r a s i n g l e - p a g e , t w o - c o l o r ad w i l l i n c r e a s e v i s i b i l i t y by 34%. i n c r e a s e o f 127%  S i m i l a r l y , f o r double pages, an  i n c o s t by u s i n g two c o l o r s i n c r e a s e s  v i s i b i l i t y by 180%,  However a d e c i s i o n t o use c o l o r can be  c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t c o s t i s measured i n d o l l a r s and v i s i b i l i t y i n readers.  F o r example a 100% i n c r e a s e i n c o s t  may r e p r e s e n t a jump from $300 t o $600, w h i l e a 200% i n c r e a s e i n r e a d e r s may r e p r e s e n t a jump from 10 t o 30 r e a d e r s .  The  q u e s t i o n t h e n becomes, - "Are 20 e x t r a r e a d e r s w o r t h $300 extra dollars?" Perhaps t h e most common use o f c o l o r i n p r i n t e d work i s to  combine c o l o r e d paper and c o l o r e d i n k .  may o r may n o t be p l e a s i n g , but s t r i c t l y (179)  on l e g i b i l i t y ,  effect Hackl  u s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , ranked t h e v a r i o u s c o l o r  combinations 1.  The r e s u l t i n g  as f o l l o w s : -  B l a c k on Y e l l o w  5« B l a c k on White  9 . White on B l a c k  2 . Green on White  6. Y e l l o w on B l a c k  10,  Red on Y e l l o w  3.  7» White on Red  11,  Green on Red  8 . W h i t e on Grange  12,  Red on Green  B l u e on W h i t e  4 . White on B l u e  (179)  196 The p a r t i c u l a r shade o f any c o l o r i s , o f c o u r s e , an important v a r i a b l e .  Important t o o , i s t h e f a c t t h a t  legibility  i s o n l y one o f t h e f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e use o f color. Warden and F l y n n (443) c o n f i r m e d an o l d b e l i e f t h a t d a r k e r c o l o r s t e n d t o make t h i n g s l o o k h e a v i e r and s m a l l e r , and l i g h t e r c o l o r s t e n d t o make t h i n g s l o o k l i g h t e r and l a r g e r . Most o f t h e s e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , a l t h o u g h p e r t a i n i n g d i r e c t l y t o a d v e r t i s i n g , have a p p l i c a t i o n t o many o f t h e d e v i c e s used i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f a d u l t s , whether t h e d e v i c e i s three dimensional, printed, o r projected, o r other.  The use o f  c o l o r i s a c c e p t e d as an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t e a c h i n g when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t e a c h i n g depends on communicating and communicating r e l i e s on b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and "exposure" o r the " e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a d v e r t i s i n g " . These d i s c u s s e d a d v e r t i s i n g r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s (5) a r e c o l l e c t e d and p r e s e n t e d here f o r easy r e f e r e n c e : (1) O t h e r f a c t o r s b e i n g e q u a l , p e o p l e t e n d t o remember colored o b j e c t s b e t t e r than uncolored o b j e c t s . (2) P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n c o l o r t e n d s t o g e t h i g h e r r e a d e r s h i p t h a n s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l i n b l a c k and w h i t e . (3) F o r l i k e c o n t e n t , c o l o r i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n b l a c k and w h i t e i n a t t r a c t i n g i n i t i a l a t t e n t i o n . (4) Orange and y e l l o w t e n d t o be h i g h l y v i s i b l e c o l o r s ; g r e e n , r e d , and b l u e t e n d t o have l o w v i s i b i l i t y . (5) Red i s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used c o l o r a l t h o u g h i t i s t h e next t o l o w e s t i n v i s i b i l i t y . (6) The most h i g h l y l e g i b l e c o l o r c o m b i n a t i o n s a r e i n o r d e r , b l a c k on y e l l o w , green on w h i t e , b l u e on w h i t e , w h i t e on b l u e , b l a c k on w h i t e . (7) The l e a s t l e g i b l e c o l o r c o m b i n a t i o n s a r e r e d on y e l l o w , green on r e d , and r e d on g r e e n . (8) D a r k e r c o l o r s t e n d t o make t h i n g s l o o k h e a v i e r and s m a l l e r . (9) L i g h t e r c o l o r s t e n d t o make t h i n g s l o o k l i g h t e r and l a r g e r . (5)  CHAPTER V.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  There has been much r e s e a r c h  completed i n t h e l a s t  t h i r t y y e a r s t h a t compares t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f several i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices i n adult education. v a l u a b l e and a p p r e c i a t e d  Some o f t h i s  r e s e a r c h was r e v i e w e d p r e v i o u s l y when  dealing with the r e l a t i v e effectiveness of the D i f f u s i o n D e v i c e s , - t h e d i s t r i b u t e d ( a l l t y p e s ) , and r a d i o and TV. O t h e r comparisons made by G i b s o n (159)> C o l l i c a n (84) and T a i t (395) p o i n t up t h e c o m p a r a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e v e r a l t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s ; b u t a d d i t i o n a l comparisons w i l l be made a g a i n here i n t h e Summary s e c t i o n f o r t h e y do i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f many o f t h e d e v i c e s and b r i n g u s , i n a n a t u r a l way, t o a p o i n t where g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e i n o r d e r . I n 1932, Hearne (190) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e m e e t i n g as a means o f e x t e n s i o n teaching,  i n the f i e l d of a g r i c u l t u r e .  He used a p o p u l a t i o n  o f 893 a d u l t s a t 32 m e e t i n g s and t h e r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d were a s follows:  198 INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS PRESENTATION METHODS ON ADOPTION OF PRACTICES Presentation Method  % o f Farmers Exposed P r a c t i c e s Changed p e r Who Were I n f l u e n c e d Farm A t t r i b u t e d t o M e e t i n g ( a l l farms) Index  1/  Percent  Lecture & Slidefilm  148  $6.6  Lecture & Chart  123  47.2  Lecture & L o c a l Leader  117  Lecture & Discussion L e c t u r e Only-  Index  Final Index  2/  Percent  1/  .88  155  161  .87  142  44 • 8  139  .75  128  117  44* 8  126  .68  121  100  38.3  100  .54  100  163  46.I  A l l Meeting  ;i9o)  .73  I n each case t h e f i g u r e f o r t h e l e c t u r e - o n l y method was c o n s i d e r e d 100 and t h e i n d e x f o r each o f t h e o t h e r methods The f i n a l i n d e x , 2/,  was c a l c u l a t e d from t h i s .  was  calculated  by a d d i n g t h e i n d e x f o r p e r c e n t a g e o f f a r m e r s i n f l u e n c e d t o t h e i n d e x f o r p r a c t i c e s changed p e r f a r m .  The r e s u l t i n g sum  f o r each method was d i v i d e d by sum o f t h e i n d i c e s f o r t h e l e c t u r e o n l y method i . e . 200,  a f t e r m u l t i p l y i n g by 100.  apparent t h a t t h e l e c t u r e - o n l y method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n weakest o f t h e f i v e Schaffter,  Iti s  was t h e  studied. (356)  i n r e p o r t i n g on t h e t r a i n i n g o f young  women f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , determined t h a t a l t h o u g h many t e a c h e r s i n women's s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s s i n g l e d out v i s u a l aids f o r s p e c i f i c approval,  even more o f them approved a  combination o f various teaching  methods u s u a l l y  including  199 visual aids.  She r e c o r d e d s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s ,  as f o l l o w s : -  (1) V a r i e d methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n t o meet group needs, s t r e s s i n g a p p l i c a t o r y phases and performance t e s t i n g . (2) A c o m b i n a t i o n o f l e c t u r e s and f i l m . (3) The i n t e n s i f i e d t r a i n i n g method making use o f v i s u a l a i d s , teacher  d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and f i e l d  trips.  (4) The c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n between f i l m s and c l a s s r o o m work; t h e l e c t u r e method; and s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . (5) The method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e l i b e r a l use o f c o n f e r e n c e s , the constant  emphasis on morale and l e a d e r s h i p , t h e v a l u a b l e  experiences which evolved  from group l i v i n g , t h e a c t i v e program  of h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s have c o n t r i b u t e d many s p l e n d i d i d e a s which may be i n c l u d e d i n c i v i l i a n s c h o o l programs. (356) As r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s l y , T o r k e l s o n  (408)  found t h a t w i t h  s t u d e n t s o f s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a mock-up, a cutaway and a s e r i e s of c h a r t s and w i t h groups o f average a b i l i t y t h e mock-up was f a v o u r e d o v e r manual i l l u s t r a t i o n s and t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . As r e v i e w e d e a r l i e r , Swanson (,393) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r a i n i n g a i d s d e s i g n e d f o r use i n m o b i l e t r a i n i n g detachments and employed by i n s t r u c t o r s i n conjunction with a l e c t u r e presentation.  The d e v i c e s used and  s t u d i e d were o p e r a t i n g mock-ups, n o n - o p e r a t i n g mock-ups, cutaway mock-ups, animated p a n e l s , diagrams. appreciable  c h a r t s , and s y m b o l i c  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study showed t h a t t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s among t h e v a r i o u s  200 t r a i n i n g a i d s employed. t h a t s i m p l e and l e c t u r e may Two  However, the r e s u l t s a l s o suggested  cheap t r a i n i n g a i d s used w i t h a w e l l p r e p a r e d  be as e f f e c t i v e as complex o r e x p e n s i v e ones.  y e a r s l a t e r , Swanson and Aukes (392)  made an e v a l u a t i o n o f  t r a i n i n g d e v i c e s used i n the t e a c h i n g of B-47  Fuel, Hydraulic  and Rudder Power C o n t r o l Systems t o A i r F o r c e p e r s o n n e l , once a g a i n , t h e study f a i l e d t o show any  and,  significant differ-  ences i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s among the v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g a i d s i n v o l v e d , i n terms o f t e s t s c o r e s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r lecture  and  the  6 t o 8 weeks l a t e r .  I n 1954  Newman and H i g h l a n d  (315)  made an  experimental  comparison o f f o u r methods of t e a c h i n g a f i v e - d a y course i n " P r i n c i p l e s o f R a d i o " and r e p o r t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n by F i l m TV c o u l d reduce i n s t r u c t i o n a l time by about 20%.  They added  t h a t a s u b j e c t might be t a u g h t f o r 1 o r 2 h o u r s per day f i l m but i t i s d o u b t f u l i f 8 h o u r s per day be g i v e n by f i l m , - due More i m p o r t a n t  and  by  of i n s t r u c t i o n  t o r e s u l t a n t f a t i g u e and eye  could  strain.  t h e y n o t e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e f f e c t i v e  and i n e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n seems t o depend l a r g e l y on  factors  t h a t are i n t e r n a l t o a p a r t i c u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g dependent on t h e method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . F o r c e r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r study i n 1956 two  gentlemen, Newman and H i g h l a n d  c l a s s e s were t a u g h t a 5 day  The  U.S.  Air  conducted by the same  (314).  T h i s time matched  course i n P r i n c i p l e s o f Radio  by:  201 (1) I n s t r u c t o r s r a t e d above average i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l a b i l i t y , (2)  Workbook and t a p e r e c o r d i n g s ,  or  or  (3) Mimeographed notebook, o r (4)  Tape r e c o r d i n g s and The  slides.  p o s t course e x a m i n a t i o n showed no  appreciable  d i f f e r e n c e among t h e c l a s s e s t a u g h t by a mass media method  and  t h a t t a u g h t by an i n s t r u c t o r . Bodenhamer (42)  studied the e f f e c t of  i n f o r m a t i v e speeches w i t h and w i t h o u t  presenting  the use o f v i s u a l a i d s  t o v o l u n t a r y a d u l t a u d i e n c e s and r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g . (1) A d u l t a u d i e n c e s l e a r n e d more from speeches supplemented with visual aids. (2)  There was  no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i n c r e a s e i n l e a r n i n g d e r i v e d  from v i s u a l s between l o w e r age groups, and h i g h e r age (3) A d u l t s o f h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a d u l t s of lower l e v e l s of education (4)  Adult audiences presented  groups.  b e n e f i t e d more t h a n  from the use o f v i s u a l s .  an i n f o r m a t i v e speech w i t h v i s u a l  a i d s p e r c e i v e d the v i s u a l a i d s as i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the speech t o a h i g h e r degree t h a n a d u l t a u d i e n c e s t h e speech w i t h o u t (5,)  Increase  presented  visuals.  i n e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was  p o s i t i v e l y associated with  t h e b e l i e f t h a t v i s u a l s add t o t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a speech.  (42) The  use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s i n  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n must be, t o some e x t e n t , c o n d i t i o n e d by needs and b i a s e s o f t h e group.  There have been s e v e r a l  the  202 r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d which i n d i c a t e t h a t what an o b s e r v e r o r s t u d e n t p e r c e i v e s i s not s o l e l y d e t e r m i n e d by h i s p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s as p e r c e p t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e needs o f a p e r s o n , h i s b i a s e s , h i s a t t i t u d e s , h i s whole b e i n g .  Communicators and  t e a c h e r s must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r messages w i l l be i n t h e l i g h t o f needs and b i a s e s . (262)  interpreted  L e v i n e , Chein and Murphy  i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t a s t a t e o f b o d i l y need can a l t e r t h e  p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e environment when t h e y showed t h a t  hungry  p e o p l e p e r c e i v e more f o o d i t e m s i n response t o ambiguous s t i m u l i t h a n do people who  are not hungry.  Another  interesting  r e s e a r c h work, completed by Bruner and Goodman ( 5 9 ) , n o t been v a l i d a t e d f o r a d u l t s but which may a t i o n , c o u l d be r e v i e w e d h e r e .  which  has  have some a p p l i c -  They f o u n d t h a t c h i l d r e n tended  t o e s t i m a t e a l l c o i n s t o be l a r g e r t h a n t h e y r e a l l y were.  The  s i z e of the over-estimates increased successively f o r n i c k e l s , dimes and q u a r t e r s , but dropped  somewhat f o r h a l f - d o l l a r s .  A n o t h e r group o f c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e s i z e o f c a r d b o a r d d i s c s i n s t e a d o f c o i n s and i n t h i s case t h e r e were p r a c t i c a l l y no o v e r e s t i m a t e s .  I t was a l s o found t h a t  children  w i t h l e s s money, from p o o r e r homes, made l a r g e r o v e r e s t i m a t e s of c o i n s i z e than d i d the r i c h c h i l d r e n .  Again r i c h  children  o v e r e s t i m a t e d o n l y t h e s i z e o f t h e h a l f - d o l l a r whereas p o o r e r c h i l d r e n tended t o e s t i m a t e a l l c o i n s l a r g e r t h a n t h e y r e a l l y were. I n a n o t h e r s t u d y i n t h e same theme Cooper (92) a communication  - p e r s u a s i o n s i t u a t i o n and demonstrated  examined that  203  when a communicator sends a message, he w i l l l i k e l y i n j e c t h i s own b i a s e s i n t o i t . (or  He r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e communicator's  t e a c h e r ' s ) message c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e way i n  w h i c h he h a s thought o f t h e event and, i n a d d i t i o n , p r o t e c t s his  own s e l f o r ego.  The r e c e i v e r ( o r s t u d e n t ) p e r c e i v e s  messages a c c o r d i n g t o h i s ego needs.  The messages ( o r  i n f o r m a t i o n b i t s o r e d u c a t i o n ) t h a t f i t s t h e r e c e i v e r ' s ego needs a r e p e r c e i v e d as "good" w h i l e t h o s e t h a t do n o t a r e evaluated accept,  a s "poor".  The r e c e i v e r ( o r s t u d e n t ) needs t o  r e j e c t , o r i n t e r c e p t i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t h i s ego. Assuming t h a t we know t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l  interpret  i n f o r m a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v e s , we  still  do n o t know f o r sure which needs and m o t i v e s a r e r e l e v a n t . S u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g may be a q u e s t i o n o f f i r s t a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l e v a n t needs and m o t i v e s o f s t u d e n t s  ( o r r e c e i v e r s ) and t h e n  d e s i g n i n g communications, - t h e t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n complete w i t h d e v i c e s , t o f i t i n such a way as t o r e s u l t i n a " t r u e " o r t h e best p o s s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e v e n t . t e a c h i n g i s n o t easy.  This type of  No m a t t e r how we view t h e t a s k , t h e  s i t u a t i o n i s c l e a r : - p e o p l e p e r c e i v e what t h e y need. In review, research  i t may be mentioned here t h a t t h e 120  studies p e r t a i n i n g to teaching devices, reported i n  the " E n c y c l o p e d i a  o f E d u c a t i o n a l , R e s e a r c h " by Hoban, F i n n and  Dale (202), and a l s o t h e e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w  of pertinent  r e p o r t e d i n "The A^V B i b l i o g r a p h y " by McClusky (278),  research support  204 t h e c l a i m t h a t t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s , when p r o p e r l y used i n the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n , can a c c o m p l i s h  the f o l l o w i n g ; - (202,  p.  84)  (1) They supply a c o n c r e t e b a s i s f o r c o n c e p t u a l t h i n k i n g and hence reduce m e a n i n g l e s s word-responses o f s t u d e n t s . (2) They have a h i g h degree o f i n t e r e s t f o r s t u d e n t s . (3) They make l e a r n i n g more permanent. (4) They o f f e r a r e a l i t y of e x p e r i e n c e which s t i m u l a t e s s e l f - a c t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f p u p i l s . (5) They develop a c o n t i n u i t y o f t h o u g h t ; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of motion p i c t u r e s . (6) They c o n t r i b u t e t o growth o f meaning and hence t o v o c a b u l a r y development. (7) They p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e s not e a s i l y o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h o t h e r m a t e r i a l s and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e f f i c i e n c y , depth, and v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g . (202, p. 84) These p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t  the d i s t i l l a t i o n o f a v a s t amount of  r e s e a r c h by many i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The  governing  p r i n c i p l e f o r t h e use o f a p a r t i c u l a r  t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s h o u l d be t h a t i t i s b e t t e r t h a n any  other  device or m a t e r i a l f o r that s p e c i f i c teaching s i t u a t i o n ; i f i t i s not b e t t e r , i t s use i s not As Brunner (60) education  justified.  s a i d , "Most a u t h o r s agree t h a t a d u l t  can be s u c c e s s f u l l y conducted u s i n g any  audio-visual  a i d ( d e v i c e ) o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f a i d s , and t h a t the q u e s t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s must t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e h a b i t s y  abilities,  and  ( i n c l u d i n g needs and b i a s e s , as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y )  of the p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h regard t o the (and  of  technique"  device). I n c o n c l u s i o n i t can be s a i d t h a t m  t h i s review  of  t h e r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l c d e v i c e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n we have seen t h a t the j u d i c i o u s use o f t h e s e d e v i c e s can improve t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of most t e a c h i n g  205  s i t u a t i o n s , - whether i m p a r t i n g knowledge o r c o n v e y i n g a s k i l l o r b r i n g i n g about a d e s i r e d change i n a t t i t u d e . I t was shown t h a t much more and b e t t e r use c o u l d and s h o u l d be made o f f i l m and TV i n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s .  Also  t h a t care must be e x e r c i s e d t o ensure t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l used f u l f i l s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f " r e a d a b i l i t y " and " l e n g t h " f o r t h e group concerned, and t h a t t h e f a c t o r o f c o l o r i s always cons i d e r e d as a c o n t r o l l a b l e component o f t h e d e v i c e , - whether p r i n t e d matter, or other, i n the o v e r a l l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The s i z e o f t h e group i n v o l v e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s was shown t o be an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a d e f i n i t e f a c t o r t h a t can m o d i f y t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e l e a r n i n g t h a t can  occur. The t h e o r y b e h i n d t h e e f f e c t i v e use o f a t h r e e  dimensional  i n s t r u c t i o n a l device  r a t h e r more c o m p l i c a t e d  o r mock-up t u r n e d  t h a n i t seemed a t f i r s t  I t was shown t o depend on t h e t e a c h i n g  o u t t o be  encounter.  o b j e c t i v e , - whether  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n knowledge, o r t h e measurement ~ o f performance t o a c r i t e r i a , o r t h e improvement o f performance f o r u l t i m a t e t r a n s f e r t o t h e a c t u a l equipment. I t was found t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l a l a r g e segment o f t h e N o r t h American p o p u l a t i o n t h a t can be reached more e a s i l y by r a d i o t h a n any o t h e r  medium.  A l s o , t h e e f f e c t o f a w e l l d e s i g n e d and a d v e r t i s e d " e x h i b i t " o r " r e s u l t d e m o n s t r a t i o n " can make v e r y contributions to adult  education.  significant  206  Some s u r p r i s e was e x p e r i e n c e d i n f i n d i n g t h e tremendous amount o f r e s e a r c h on programmed i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t had been completed i n r e c e n t y e a r s , and t h e p r o m i s i n g ,  wide-ranging  a p p l i c a t i o n o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n t o such a v a r i e t y o f teaching situations. in  A l s o t h e advances t h a t have been noted  sleep-learning are quite  remarkable.  I t would seem t h a t t h e d e v i c e r e p o r t e d as " t e c k n a m a t i o n d i s p l a y " w i l l p r o b a b l y enjoy some degree o f p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e a s i t i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and v e r y  effective.  As t h e demand f o r more and more e d u c a t i o n becomes more widespread  and a c c e p t e d as a requirement  f o r more p e o p l e ,  g r e a t e r use w i l l be made o f any o f t h e d e v i c e s t h a t can be used t o h e l p speed up t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , - p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e reading pacer.  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  A b e l l , H.C., L a r s o n , O.F., and D i c k e r s o n , E.R. Communication o f A g r i c u l t u r a l I n f o r m a t i o n i n a S o u t h - C e n t r a l New York County. B u l l e t i n No. 4 9 . I t h a c a : A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , J a n u a r y , 1957•  2.  Adams, J . , R u f f o r d , L., and Dunlop, J . P a r t V e r s u s - Whole Task L e a r n i n g o f a F l i g h t Manoeuver. P o r t Washington, New Y o r k : U.S. Naval T r a i n i n g Device Center, I960.  3•  Adult._Education - A New I m p e r a t i v e f o r o u r Times. The Commission" o f t h e P r o f e s s o r s o f A d u l t Education o f the Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , Chicago, 1961.  4.  A g r i s e a r c h . "Choose C o l o r s ! " , N a t i o n a l P r o j e c t i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Communications. 1: 7, December, 1955• M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , E a s t L a n s i n g .  5.  Agrisearch. "Colorful, Isn't I t ? " , National Project i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Communications. 2 : 3, March, 1956. Wells H a l l , Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y , East Lansing.  6.  A g r i s e a r c h , " L i v i n g With T e l e v i s i o n " , N a t i o n a l P r o j e c t i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Communications, 1: 3, August, 1955« Wells H a l l , Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y , East Lansing. M a t e r i a l from Videotown s e r i e s produced by Cunningham and Walsh, I n c . , Madison Ave., N.Y.  7*  A g r i s e a r c h . 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