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Instructional devices in adult education McGown, William Fell 1966

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INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES IN ADULT EDUCATION by MILLIAM FELL MCGOWN B . S c , S i r George Wil l i a m s U n i v e r s i t y , 19^2 B.Ed., S a i n t Mary's U n i v e r s i t y , i 9 6 0 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the F a c u l t y of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1966 In p resen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copy ing of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copy ing or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n permiss ion Pjejo^ltfient o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada This study i s dedicated to my wife, Frances Ann McGown, and our children. i i i ABSTRACT T h i s study d i s c u s s e s the nature of i n s t r u c t i o n a l d evices i n the a d u l t education s e t t i n g and presents a typology o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i n which a l l such d e v i c e s can be organized,, c l a s s i f i e d , i n t e g r a t e d o r considered. I t was important t o c a r r y out a f a i r l y wide and deep review o f a l l research t h a t might p o s s i b l y be p e r t i n e n t , o r even p a r t i a l l y p e r t a i n , t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s , f o r they were regarded not j u s t as a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s but r a t h e r as a means t h a t c o u l d be used purposely t o strengthen o r enhance the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the l e a r n i n g process, -whether a method o r technique, and which c o u l d supplement e i t h e r o f these i n the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . T h i s r a t h e r broad approach t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s i n v o l v e d the author w i t h some aspects o f t e a c h i n g supplements t h a t are not u s u a l l y found i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s , yet i t was considered t h a t such an item, f o r example, as 1 1 c o l o r " o r "group s i z e 1 1 should be regarded as a device t h a t a teacher must consid e r , choose and t r y t o use f o r the best i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s u l t s . I n summary i t can be s a i d t h a t i n t h i s review o f the research p e r t a i n i n g t o the use o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d evices i n a d u l t education i t was found t h a t t h e i r proper use can improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f most t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . tamper* 1% wXXX hm aem ti%at «fe*r* i * a aad tk& field of lms^*?fc£#«al d*v&s«#. Tfci* Sa aUtted £$ ft JttMfetr ©•£ i«^© # %m %hm $&Um&m tm t&tt i&fcuatrat© t u t i*©iiit. msiiint aitv laat^etloiiAJl «tsp coe&iaatioft or 4*d«9a» siad tfc* question e££*ztt&mm* mm %$t® tm%® consideration ®m tm%%%* and abilities ©f th© *it3* r*@o«S t© tka d*vi©e. {*) T&s utffect «f «lt» H8« of a devise, * i * i a a certain M l % tfft$WUte M » tipeH tfeft characterlatlcft «f nitlstft tlie d*vic* ' i W f * &assMit»£ i s tansst It ttemld &®mi %h&& tftat It wmzld tea the c^nelualoft sreaearchor, »tudeist «r teacher that m ppmlm i s J A M O * *w J$*aiel#m** use «f my ©r a l l i»afcr»«ti@i*a-2. devlcos erdar to 8^ssi£iis» the mte& «ld« TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i i LIST OF TABLES „ v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECT MATTER DISPLAYED IN TABULAR FORM v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i i Chapter I . INTRODUCTION 1 The A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S e t t i n g The Purpose of the Study The Sources of I n f o r m a t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms I I . THE NATURE OF DEVICES 9 Purpose, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Requirements and Use. Typology o f Devices I I I . ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH PERTAINING TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES 20 IV. COLOUR AS AN INFLUENCE IN DEVICE EFFECTIVENESS 188" V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 197 BIBLIOGRAPHY 207 APPENDIX I 251 APPENDIX I I 253 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I . Chart P r e s e n t a t i o n of Recommended Graph Forms. (Agrisearch) • •••••••••••••••••• 62 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figur e Page 1. He-ban*s Concrete t o A b s t r a c t Graph 11 2 . Dale*s Cone of Experience 13 3 . Family Tree of Teaching Devices 252 4 . Chart P r e s e n t i n g a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Device E f f e c t i v e n e s s as Based on Concreteness of Device and P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n Inherent i n the Device • • ••••••• 254 DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECT MATTER DISPLAYED IN TABULAR FORM Page R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of V i s u a l and Au d i t o r y P r e s e n t a t i o n (Carver) 22 I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of Radio Broadcast T a l k s . (Vernon) 27 The E f f e c t s of Broadcasting a S e r i a l i z e d V e r s i o n of a Book, on the Reading of the Book. (Vernon). 29 Optimum Length of an Information Broadcast Talk. (Vernon) 29 F a c t o r s E f f e c t i n g Radio Programs, and Some Program R e s u l t s . (Vernon) ••••••• 29 A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Radio Broadcasts i n Ohio. (Howard) 32 Value of the Shop Demonstration. (Ericson) 43 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Correspondence Course Completion and Meeting a Deadline. (Hughes) • 51 Usefulness of Study Guides to the USAFI Correspondence Courses. (Tucker) • 54 E v a l u a t i o n of Graphs. (Washburne) 59 E v a l u a t i o n o f Graphs. (Peterson & Schramm) 60 E v a l u a t i o n of Graphs. (Agrisearch) 60 E v a l u a t i o n of Graphs. (Peterson) •••• 63 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Graphs. (Vernon) • • • 65 Design and Use of E f f e c t i v e Graphic A i d s . (Saul and others) 65 E f f e c t s of T r a i n i n g Men by Using Experimental F i l m V a r i a b l e s . (Jaspen) • 72 i x Page E f f e c t i v e n e s s of T r a i n i n g F i l m s i n Business. (Brooker).. 76 Usefulness of Films i n R e t a i l Trade T r a i n i n g . (Hague)... 76 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of F i l m s i n R e t a i l Trade T r a i n i n g . (Haas). 77 Requirements of F i l m Used f o r T r a i n i n g i n R e t a i l Trade. (Haas) 77 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of F i l m s Compared t o The Lecture Method of I n s t r u c t i o n . (Long) • 78 I n s t r u c t i o n a l F i l m P r o d u c t i o n , U t i l i z a t i o n and Research Re s u l t s i n Great B r i t a i n , Canada and A u s t r a l i a . ( G r e e n h i l l and Tyo) 79 Use of O p t i c a l E f f e c t s i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l F i l m s . (Mercer). #2 Navy I n s t r u c t o r s ' Opinions of E f f e c t i v e n e s s of F i l m s and S l i d e F i l m s . ( M i l e s and Spain) 86 Summary of S i x t y - f i v e F i l m Research Reports of the U.S.N. ( C r i l e ) 93 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Frequency of Use of S l i d e s and F i l m s t r i p s by A g r i c u l t u r e Teachers i n Wisconsin. ( M i k h a i l ) 106 F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d With Amount of Use of S l i d e s and F i l m s t r i p s by A g r i c u l t u r e Teachers i n Wisconsin. ( M i k h a i l ) 107 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of TV f o r Teaching A d u l t s . (Rock, Duva & Murray) 108 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of TV f o r Teaching A d u l t s i n Widely Separated Groups. (Rock, Duva & Murray) 109 X Page U t i l i z a t i o n o f TV i n Army T r a i n i n g . ( F r i t z and o t h e r s } . . 114 Summary of I n s t r u c t i o n a l TV Research Reports of the U.S.N. ( C r i l e ) 115 P r i n c i p l e s of V i s u a l Design A f f e c t i n g C l a r i t y of TV P i c t u r e . (Jackson} 117 TV's C o n t r i b u t i o n to Mass T r a i n i n g . (Jackson} 119 TV Viewing Habits of Open-Country F a m i l i e s . ( C r i l e , R e i s t & T a i t ) 123 TV Viewing Habits i n the U.S.A. i n 1954* (Agrisearch}... 124 Changes i n the TV Viewing Habits i n U.S.A., 1955. (Agrisearch) ••••• • 125 Viewing Habits i n a TV Saturated Community. (Agrisearch) • 125 TV Viewing and Related Habits A f t e r Nine Years of TV i n a Oommunity Approaching TV S a t u r a t i o n . (Agrisearch) • 126 TV Viewing Habits i n R u r a l L o u i s i a n a , 1958. (Bertrand & Bates) • 127 Impact of TV Upon the Maturing Process of the A d u l t . (Tadros) 128 Recommendations of the U.S. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Ed u c a t i o n a l Broadcasters Regarding E d u c a t i o n a l TV S e r v i c e 129 Some R e s u l t s of E d u c a t i o n a l TV i n Kamloops, B.C. (Arnett) ..... 133 x i Page The E f f e c t s o f F r i n g e M i g r a t i o n on Use o f D i f f u s i o n D e v i c e s . (Anderson) • 178 Use o f Info r m a t i o n Sources by Farmers i n Sc h u y l e r County, N.I. (Dickerson) • • l£0 Use o f Info r m a t i o n Sources by Farmers. ( A b e l l , Larson & Dickerson) 181 In f o r m a t i o n Media Used by A d u l t School A d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n C a l i f o r n i a . (Damon) • •••• 182 Inf o r m a t i o n Media Used by Ad u l t Students i n C a l i f o r n i a . (Damon) 182 Summary of Media E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Reaching A d u l t Students i n C a l i f o r n i a . (Damon) 183 P h y s i c a l B a r r i e r s t o Communication. ( N a f z i g e r , Engstrom & MacLean, J r . ) and (Myren) • I84 F a c t o r s on Which E f f e c t i v e Communication o f Inf o r m a t i o n i s Dependent. ( N a f z i g e r , Engstrom & MacLean, J r . ) and (Myren) 135 S i n g l e C o l o u r and C o l o u r Combinations P r e f e r e n c e . (Jastrow) 189 Co l o u r P r e f e r e n c e s o f Indians, Whites and of People w i t h Mixed Blood. (Garth) 189 Summary of Research P e r t a i n i n g t o Colou r P r e f e r e n c e s o f Men and Women. ( A g r i s e a r c h ) • 190 Summary o f Colour P r e f e r e n c e s o f Men and Women: The Re c u r r i n g F a c t o r s . ( A g r i s e a r c h ) 190 x i i Page Some General Conclusions Regarding Colour Preference. (Agrisearch) • 191 R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Coloured and Uncoloured Ads. (Nelson) 192 Comparative Study of Impact of Four-Colour and Black and White Ads. (Warner and Fraaen) 192 Value of Colour i n A t t r a c t i n g A t t e n t i o n . (Nixon) ••••••• 193 Colour V i s i b i l i t y and Frequency of Use i n Ads. (McGraw-Hill) 194 An E v a l u a t i o n of Colour and Black and White Ad Costs With V i s i b i l i t y Being Considered. (McGraw-Hill) 195 L e g i b i l i t y of Various Colour Combinations. ( H a c k l ) . . . . . . 195 A d v e r t i s i n g Research R e s u l t s With Reference t o Use of Colour. (Agrisearch) • • 196 E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Various P r e s e n t a t i o n Methods. (Hearne) 193 I n s t r u c t o r s * Preferences f o r Devices Used i n T r a i n i n g Young Women f o r M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e i n the U.S. ( S h a f f t e r ) 199 Comparative Study of Pr e s e n t i n g Informative Speeches With and Without the Use of V i s u a l A i d s . (Bodenhamer) 201 Summary of the C o n t r i b u t i o n s That Teaching Devices Can Make To The Teaching-Learning S i t u a t i o n . (Hoban), F i n n & Dale) and (McClusky) 204 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The w r i t e r acknowledges h i s indebtedness t o Dr. C o o l i e Verner, P r o f e s s o r of A d u l t Education, and those other members of the F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, who gave so much of t h e i r time and encouragement, and without whose co-operation t h i s t h e s i s could never have been completed. Dr. Verner, Chairman of the Supervisory Committee, was both an i n s p i r a t i o n and steadying f o r c e , and provided the very necessary guidance i n the development of the approach t o t h i s study. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The A d u l t Education S e t t i n g A d u l t Education today i s considered t o be t h a t organized e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y t h a t a person pursues while h i s main a c t i v i t y o r l i v e l i h o o d i s i n some other f i e l d . Verner (432) d e f i n e s a d u l t education much more e x a c t l y when he says: Adult education i s the a c t i o n of an e x t e r n a l e d u c a t i o n a l agent i n p u r p o s e f u l l y o r d e r i n g behavior i n t o planned systematic experiences t h a t can r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g f o r those f o r whom such a c t i v i t y i s supplemental t o t h e i r primary r o l e i n s o c i e t y , and which i n v o l v e s some c o n t i n u i t y i n an exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p between the agent and the l e a r n e r so tha t the educ a t i o n a l process i s under constant s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n . A d u l t education i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y more important as a d u l t s seek t o f i t themselves f o r a r a p i d l y changing s o c i e t y . ... a d u l t s must continue t o l e a r n .... The current gener-a t i o n of mature a d u l t s represents the f i r s t generation faced w i t h managing a c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d than the one o r i g i n a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d t o them. The consequence of t h i s new f a c t of l i f e i s such t h a t the well-educated youth of today i s an obsolete man tomorrow. (3) To g i v e some i d e a of the extent and depth of a d u l t education i n the United S t a t e s , Read and Marble (341) l i s t e d 400 separate and d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s which conducted a d u l t education programs. In every i n s t a n c e , these o r g a n i z a t i o n s are i n v o l v e d i n planning and conducting e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r 2 a d u l t s . Such programs r e q u i r e the use of a v a r i e t y of i n s t r u c -t i o n a l processes i n order t o provide s u i t a b l e l e a r n i n g oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r the a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s . Heretofore, educational programs designed f o r a d u l t s have tended t o d u p l i c a t e the l e a r n i n g experiences and a c t i v i t i e s used w i t h c h i l d r e n , but i n recent years i t has become obvious t h a t a d u l t s r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . As the d i s c i p l i n e of a d u l t education has developed, i n c r e a s i n g l y more c a r e f u l thought i s given t o the s p e c i a l i z e d needs of a d u l t s i n the design and management of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . In so doing, g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n i s developing i n i d e n t i f y i n g the fundamental concepts which c o n s t i t u t e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l process i n a d u l t education. Among these elements i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l processes can be found a complex assortment of instruments, m a t e r i a l s , and c o n d i t i o n s which, f o r convenience, Verner has i d e n t i f i e d as devices (433)• The r o l e which these p l a y i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n has not been c l e a r l y i d e n t -i f i e d due t o the mass of data about them and the confusion created by the v a r i e t y of research r e l a t e d t o the use of devices i n d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . In order t h a t devices might be used more e f f e c t i v e l y , i t i s necessary t h a t extant research be systematized and i n t e g r a t e d both t o provide a f u n c t i o n a l guide t o the use of devices as w e l l as i n d i c a t i n g gaps or d e f i c i e n c i e s i n extant knowledge about them. 3 The Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to review the research pertaining to i n s t r u c t i o n a l aids and devices i n adult education; to analyse t h i s research and to construct a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r such devices which w i l l organize, c l a s s i f y and integrate what i s known so that the knowledge w i l l be function-a l l y available to adult educators. 4 The Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n There have been few r e v i e w s o f r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g e x c l u s i v e l y t o the use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , Sheats and Svenson (364) p u b l i s h e d a rev iew i n 1950 d e a l i n g w i t h the use o f a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , Brunner (60) p r o v i d e d a good survey o f c e r t a i n d e v i c e s i n 1959« G o u l e t t e ^ (168) t h e s i s i s an e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w of r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out i n the U . S . Armed S e r v i c e s w i t h some r e f e r e n c e t o d e v i c e s used i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and V e r n e r (434) g i v e s a s u c c i n c t survey o f r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o d e v i c e s used i n the a d u l t f i e l d i n 1959• A l t h o u g h r e v i e w s r e l a t e d t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y are sparse t h e r e have been many r e v i e w s o f r e s e a r c h on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s g e n e r a l l y t h a t are not w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . These have been p u b l i s h e d q u i t e r e g u l a r l y s i n c e Hoban*s (200) comprehensive work i n 1937, which was f o l l o w e d by Dale and Hoban (107) i n 1941, and by Dale and o t h e r s ( 1 0 9 ) , (108) i n 1949 and 1950. A l l e n ( 14) , (15) i n 1956, McClusky (279) i n 1949 and S t e n i u s (385) i n 1945 p u b l i s h e d g e n e r a l r e v i e w s o f r e s e a r c h . B i b l i o -g r a p h i e s o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s were compiled by the s t a f f of the I n s t r u c t i o n a l F i l m Research Program ( 7 0 ) , L a r s o n and Runden (258) , and M o l d s t a d ( 3 0 0 ) . As s t a t e d by the E n c y c l o - p e d i a o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research ( i 9 6 0 ) ( I 8 7 ) , however, the most comprehensive a n a l y s i s up t o i 9 6 0 was the r e p o r t prepared i n 5 1950 f o r the I n s t r u c t i o n a l F i l m Research Program by Hoban and VanOrmer (204). The Encyclopedia of E d u c a t i o n a l Research b r i n g s the survey of research up t o date and provides an e x c e l l e n t review of the most important research on teaching devices up t o I960, The i n f o r m a t i o n sources f o r t h i s t h e s i s were many and v a r i e d . The biggest c o n t r i b u t o r of research i n f o r m a t i o n was the United States Armed Forces, f o l l o w e d by the Cooperative Extension S e r v i c e of the United S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental S t a t i o n s and the Extension S e r v i c e s of s e v e r a l State U n i v e r s i t i e s , and the United S t a t e s N a t i o n a l P r o j e c t i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Communications have published many val u a b l e research r e p o r t s which were h e l p f u l . S e v e r a l u n i v e r -s i t y degree and non-degree student research papers were p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l . The problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n a l y z i n g such research m a t e r i a l are l e g i o n but tend t o a r i s e from one circumstance:-when research was being c a r r i e d out on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a device, u s u a l l y i t s use was g e n e r a l i z e d and not examined f o r a p a r t i c u l a r type of t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , thus some v a l i d c onclusions regarding the use of a device i n one teaching s i t u a t i o n may not ho l d t r u e i n another. This can be i l l u s t r a t e d by r e f e r r i n g t o the use of a r i f l e , the a c t u a l a r t i c l e , as a teaching d e v i c e . I t should be used t o i l l u s t r a t e what a r i f l e i s , o b v i o u s l y i t i s much b e t t e r than p i c t u r e s , o r f i l m , o r any 6 other device, however i t i s not an e f f e c t i v e device f o r i l l u s -t r a t i n g how the chamber gases are expelled or how a new round i s forced into the breech. I t i s excellent as an i l l u s t r a t i v e v i s u a l , three dimensional device i n one instance but i s i n f e r i o r to a cutaway or a two dimensional non projected device such as a picture series i n the next instance. Again, from the basis of r e i n f o r c i n g learning or teaching a student to achieve a cer t a i n standard of speed and excellence, the actual equipment can be used but, as Gagne' (150) pointed out, the problem of e f f e c t i v e teaching here i s not one of making the task s i m i l a r but rather of arranging the conditions of practice i n such a way that e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s are most e a s i l y learned. I t can be seen then that research material regarding the effectiveness of a device, w i l l have to relate to how the device i s used and f o r what purpose. 7 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms There are s e v e r a l common terms t h a t have a s p e c i a l meaning as used i n t h i s t h e s i s . A d u l t education was defined e a r l i e r , i n the i n t r o -d u c t i o n , (see p. 1). V e r n e r f s d e f i n i t i o n s are used as being the most a u t h o r i t a t i v e and d e f i n i t i v e : Method may be defined as the r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a p o t e n t i a l body of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the purpose of s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i f f u s i n g knowledge among a p r e s c r i b e d but not n e c e s s a r i l y f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d p u b l i c . (432, p. 9) Technique may be defined as the r e l a t i o n s h i p estab-l i s h e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l agent (adult educator) t o f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g among a p a r t i c u l a r and p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d body of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . (432, p. 9) An I n s t r u c t i o n a l device may be defined as any means which i s used t o strengthen o r enhance the l e a r n i n g process but which does not alone provide the d i r e c t l e a r n e r -i n s t r u c t o r r e l a t i o n s h i p necessary t o be considered an edu c a t i o n a l technique or method. Such devices w i l l supplement o r strengthen a method or technique i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the educ a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . (432, p. 10 and Ve r n e r f s Adult Education l e c t u r e r s at UBC 1961) I n g eneral, devices may be c l a s s e d as: 1. ideas 2. p r a c t i c e s 3. instruments 4. combinations of the preceding three Some a d d i t i o n a l quotes may be i n order here t o point up the fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s between method and technique. 8 Method i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y centered and, therefore, an administrative function; while technique i s participant centered and, thus, a function of the learning s i t u a t i o n . Techniques are, f o r the most part, independent of methods. Just as an i n s t i t u t i o n may use one or more methods f o r the d i f f u s i o n of knowledge so may i t s agent use a variety of techniques within the l i m i t s imposed by the method. In some instances, certain techniques which come into being within the concept of a single method are more appropriate to that method than to others; however, i n general, most techniques are applicable under more than one method. (432, p. 9) CHAPTER I I THE NATURE OF DEVICES V i r t u a l l y any l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s enhanced by the use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e s . I d e a l l y , the purpose of a device i s to f a c i l i t a t e the more e f f e c t i v e performance of one or more of the f o l l o w i n g phases i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n by appealing t o a maximum number of senses i n an optimum environment: 1. Promote group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n 2. Introduce new m a t e r i a l 3* C l a r i f y d e t a i l s 4. Stimulate i n t e r e s t 5« Summarize 6. Review Being a supplementary measure, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a device w i l l not overcome by i t s own m e r i t s , a d e f i c i e n c y of i n t e r e s t which the subject matter holds f o r a given group. A l s o i t i s not a s u b s t i t u t e f o r teacher p r e p a r a t i o n : f o r maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s an i n s t r u c t o r should have complete f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h the p o t e n t i a l of a device, and i t s opera-t i o n a l or mechanical aspects. The proper s e l e c t i o n o f a device i s necessary f o r maximum e f f e c t , and s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a t i o n o f devices i s e s s e n t i a l t o prevent boredom. Among the e a r l i e s t work r e l a t e d t o devices was t h a t done by Hoban i n 1937, which 10 was concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s . Hoban (203, pp. 22-5) s t a t e d f o u r general p r i n c i p l e s regarding the use of t e a c h i n g devices i n the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n which should be kept i n mind when comparing and e v a l u a t i n g d e v i c e s . These are as f o l l o w s : A. The value of v i s u a l a i d s i s & f u n c t i o n of t h e i r  degree of r e a l i t y . B. The value of v i s u a l a i d s i s a f u n c t i o n of the nature  and extent of the p u p i l s * previous experience. I f v a r i e d experience has already developed wide and mani-f o l d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n from the concrete through the intermediate l e v e l s of experience to the meaningful use of words ( v e r b a l i z a t i o n ) , f u r t h e r v i s u a l a i d s are unnecessary f o r the development of pr o g r e s s i v e a b s t r a c t i o n . The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the v a r i o u s v i s u a l a i d s i s i n d i r e c t r a t i o to the p u p i l ' s stage of l e a r n i n g and development. This p r i n c i p l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g diagram: (shown on page 11) . . . c» The, value of v i s u a l a i d s i s & f u n c t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s  of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p a r t i c u l a r classroom s i t u a t i o n . I t i s apparent th a t the degree of r e a l i t y and the previous experience of the l e a r n e r are h i g h l y r e l a t e d and cannot be i s o l a t e d from each other. Mere concrete experience, i n i t s e l f , i s no guarantee of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ; i t merely s u p p l i e s the s i t u a t i o n by which t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n becomes p o s s i b l e and meaning-f u l . The a c t u a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s and must be taught on the v e r b a l l e v e l . I f teachers w i l l f i r s t determine the o b j e c t i v e s of i n s t r u c t i o n , they can then determine whether v i s u a l a i d s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e toward the attainment of t h i s o b j e c t i v e and which p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l a i d lends i t s e l f best toward t h i s end. D. The value of v i s u a l a i d s i s & f u n c t i o n o f the i n t e l - l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y of the l e a r n e r . I t has been pre-v i o u s l y s t a t e d t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y of mind determines i n p a r t the a b i l i t y t o see r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t o form g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . . . . I t f o l l o w s , then, t h a t the amount and concreteness of the v i s u a l a i d necessary to the development of any given l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n i s g r e a t e r where the i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y of the l e a r n e r i s lower, and v i c e v e r s a . . . . P r o v i s i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s are g e n e r a l l y q u a n t i t a t i v e , whereas they must a l s o be q u a l i t a t i v e . . . . FIGURE 1 words diagrams maps f l a t pictures s l i d e s stereographs fi l m s models objects t o t a l s i t u a t i o n the concrete the abstract 12 About twenty y e a r s a f t e r Hoban d e v i s e d the s c a l e ( F i g u r e 1) which i l l u s t r a t e s the l e a r n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , Dale (106) r e v i s e d t h i s i n t o h i s noted "Cone o f E x p e r i e n c e " ( F i g u r e 2, p. 13) t o e x p l a i n "the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the v a r i o u s t y pes o f a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , as w e l l as t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p o s i t i o n s i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s " . (106) The bands shown are not r i g i d , i n f l e x i b l e d i v i s i o n s , e.g., . . . a motion p i c t u r e can be s i l e n t o r can combine s i g h t and sound. You can view a d r a m a t i z a t i o n as a s p e c t a t o r o r you may p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t as an a c t o r . . . . The cone d e v i c e , then, i s a v i s u a l metaphor o f l e a r n i n g experiences, i n which the v a r i o u s t y pes o f a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s are arranged i n the order o f i n c r e a s i n g a b s t r a c t i o n s as one proceeds from d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s . (106, p. 42$ * I t should be noted t h a t i n c r e a s i n g a b s t r a c t n e s s does not mean i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y . E x h i b i t s are n e a r e r than f i e l d t r i p s t o the p i n n a c l e o f the cone, not because they are more d i f f i c u l t but o n l y because they p r o v i d e a more a b s t r a c t e x p e r i e n c e . (106, pp 42-3) Dale's "Cone of E x p e r i e n c e " p r o v i d e s a c l u e t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f d e v i c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f u n c t i o n s which they perform i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , c a l l f o r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f d e v i c e s and some d e v i c e s may perform more than one f u n c t i o n . In g e n e r a l , the c h i e f f u n c t i o n s r e q u i r e d i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v e i l l u s t r a t i o n , re-enforcement, and the environment, which i d e n t i f y the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t o which d e v i c e s can be c o n v e n i e n t l y c a t a l o g u e d . 13 FIGURE 2 verbal symbols v i s u a l symbols recordings, radio s t i l l pictures motion pictures t e l e v i s i o n exhibits f i e l d t r i p s demonstrations dramatized experiences contrived experiences d i r e c t , purposeful experiences Ik The most common f u n c t i o n f o r which devices are used i s t h a t of i l l u s t r a t i o n . I n t h i s case the device f a c i l i t a t e s l e a r n i n g by i n v o l v i n g sense p e r c e p t i o n i n a c q u i r i n g the m a t e r i a l to be l e a r n e d . The I l l u s t r a t i v e Devices have a n a t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o Audio devices and V i s u a l devices and f u r t h e r , the Audio sub-group i t s e l f can be r e a d i l y d i v i d e d i n t o L i v e , and Mechanical d e v i c e s . The V i s u a l subgroup of devices have a f u r t h e r con-s e q u e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o Three Dimensional d e v i c e s , Two Dimensional Non-Projected d e v i c e s , and Two Dimensional P r o j e c t e d d e v i c e s . Re-enforcement i s an e s s e n t i a l aspect of l e a r n i n g and t o achieve re-enforcement there are a v a r i e t y of devices a v a i l a b l e . The devices used i n the r e - e n f o r c i n g type of t e a c h i n g can them-selv e s be subdivided i n t o three d i s t i n c t t eaching a c t i v i t y groups, - P r a c t i c e , D r i l l , and Performance. The l e a s * used type of device i n v o l v e s c e r t a i n e n v i r o n -mental aspects of the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The environment i t s e l f i s not g e n e r a l l y f o r g o t t e n or ignored but i t i s not u s u a l l y considered as a c o n t r o l l a b l e d e vice. Here these devices are reviewed under two s u b d i v i s i o n s , - P h y s i c a l and Organiz-a t i o n a l . The P h y s i c a l , of course, i s a l l the c o n t r o l l a b l e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the meeting place whereas the Organiz-a t i o n a l i s subdivided and considered under the two headings of Group S i z e , and Arrangement of Learners. 15 Although the f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of devices f a l l s i n t o the three main ca t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t e d , there i s a f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n imposed by the nature of the devices themselves. Some devices are u s e f u l i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n d i r e c t l y w h i l e other commonly used devices are l e s s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l process but are p r i m a r i l y u s e f u l f o r the general d i f f u s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f D i f f u s i o n Devices i s d i v i d e d i n t o the two s u b d i v i s i o n s of D i s t r i b u t e d Devices which i n c l u d e s such as C i r c u l a r L e t t e r s , B u l l e t i n s , e t c . , and Extension Devices which considers Open C i r c u i t TV, r a d i o , and Motion p i c t u r e s . As we have seen, the i n i t i a l d i v i s i o n i n the c l a s s i f -i c a t i o n system i s by the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n any employment of a device. 1. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices A l l the devices used i n s k i l l t r a i n i n g , i l l u s t r a t i o n , re-enforcement and maximizing the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n s t r u c t o r , method, technique and environment to f a c i l i t a t e the accomplishment of the e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e of the agency where some degree of personal contact i s p o s s i b l e between the agent and the l e a r n e r . 2. D i f f u s i o n Devices { These are devices which present i n f o r m a t i o n t o the p u b l i c w i t h no more p r e - s e l e c t i o n of l e a r n e r s than the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the media. F i t z g e r a l d (41) l i s t s the 16 f o l l o w i n g as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which t y p i f y d i f f u s i o n d e v i c e s : -a* broad coverage of a heterogeneous group b. low u n i t cost f o r producer and consumer c. speed d. mass i n t e r e s t , w i t h some entertainment value; a b i l i t y t o communicate e a s i l y and simply to the average i n t e l l e c t . T h i s group i n c l u d e s only devices which serve t o disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e changes i n a t t i t u d e . (41) An examination of these two ca t e g o r i e s w i l l show t h a t an instrument or p r a c t i c e w i l l become a device only by a p p l i c a t i o n , not by v i r t u e of some inherent p r o p e r t y . 17 Typology of Devices The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e t a i l e d , i f not complete l i s t i n g of devices by ( l j f u n c t i o n , (2) sense appealed t o , and (3) a l i s t i n g of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e devices i n each category. I . I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices A. I l l u s t r a t i v e 1. Audio a. L i v e , - v e r b a l i z a t i o n - by i n s t r u c t o r or l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a n t , r e c i t a t i o n . b. Mechanical i -(1) Monaural and Stereo records (2) tapes (3) r a d i o 2. V i s u a l a. Three dimensional: -(1) mock ups (2) demonstrations (3) animated panels (pantorium) (4) diorama (5) cutaways (6) museum m a t e r i a l s - d i s p l a y of a c t u a l items (7) f i e l d t r i p s (8) r o l e - p l a y i n g (9) e x h i b i t s 18 b. Two dimensional, Non projected. (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (a (9 (10 (11 (12 (13 (14 (15 c. (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 blackboards magnetic and f e l t boards books handouts correspondence courses study guides teacher guides posters b u l l e t i n boards before and a f t e r p i c t u r e s stereoscopes graphics - c h a r t s graphs f l i p c h arts comic s t r i p s cartoons technamation d i s p l a y s Two dimensional p r o j e c t e d opaque and transparent p r o j e c t i o n s f i l m f i l m s t r i p and s l i d e p r o j e c t i o n s micro f i l m p r o j e c t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l TV (closed c i r c u i t ) B. Re-Enforcing 1, P r a c t i c e : - a c t u a l a r t i c l e o r simulator or o p e r a t i v e mock up 19 2. D r i l l : - a. reading machines ( t a c h i s t s c o p e , pacer, reading f i l m ) b. language and other r e p e t i t i v e type-r e c o r d i n g s c. f l a s h cards 3. Performance: a* Teaching machines and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n b. S k i l l t e s t s C. Environmental !• P h y s i c a l : - a l l c o n t r o l l a b l e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the meeting p l a c e . a. Colour b. L i g h t i n g c. Temperature 2. Organi z a t i o n a l : -a. Group s i z e b. Arrangement of l e a r n e r s : -(1) r e a c t i o n team (2) o b s e r v a t i o n team (3) l i s t e n i n g team (4) "thread man" D i f f u s i o n devices A. D i s t r i b u t e d 1. C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s 2. B u l l e t i n s 3. News S t o r i e s B. Extension 1. Open c i r c u i t TV 2. Radio 3« Motion P i c t u r e s CHAPTER I I I ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH PERTAINING TO THE EFFECTIVENESS  OFINSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES In reviewing and a n a l y z i n g the research m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to d e v i c e s , the m a t e r i a l w i l l be organized and presented i n the arrangement i n d i c a t e d by the Typology of Devices presented i n the preceeding chapter. I . I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices A. I l l u s t r a t i v e 1. Audio (a) L i v e To open t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the use of l i v e , audio t e a c h i n g devices and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Ad u l t Education i t may be s u i t a b l e t o mention Dale's (106) "cone of experience" t o which he r e f e r s when he s t a t e s t h a t words must be seen on r i s i n g l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t i o n . The c l o s e r a word i s t o some p o s s i b l e concrete p r e s e n t a t i o n , - t o showing the object t o which i t r e f e r s - the e a s i e r i t i s t o teach and t o l e a r n . Conversely, the g r e a t e r the number of concrete experiences r e q u i r e d before a word can be understood, the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o teach and t o l e a r n . As Corey (93) pointed out, the l e c t u r e method of teaching developed and t h r i v e d during the e a r l y u n i v e r s i t y p e r i o d , 21 l a r g e l y because of the s c a r c i t y of books and manuscripts a v a i l a b l e f o r student use. The u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t i e s then knew many t h i n g s not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e and the only f e a s i b l e method f o r them to disseminate t h e i r l e a r n i n g was by t e l l i n g or l e c t u r i n g . With modern advances i n p r i n t i n g and multigraphing, the h i s t o r i c a l argument f o r the l e c t u r e method of teaching has been weakened. Adult students are not so dependent on teachers f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l nourishment as they are f o r s t i m u l a t i o n and guidance. Day and Beach (112) reviewed the research up to 1950 i n comparing the v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and found t h a t i t was d i v i d e d 50/to as to which technique was more e a s i l y understood. In 1953 L u l l (271) r e p o r t e d t h a t a comparison of o r a l and w r i t t e n communications to a group of p r o f e s s i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l workers showed t h a t o r a l communication was more e f f e c t i v e . Webb and Wallon (448) concluded from a research p r o j e c t i n 1956 on comprehension by re a d i n g versus hearing t h a t since reading i s more r a p i d f o r a one time acquaintance w i t h m a t e r i a l , reading i s the p r e f e r r e d method. But i f equal time i s a v a i l a b l e f o r reading as f o r a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more m a t e r i a l may be obtained by r e a d i n g . Rankin (338) has shown us t h a t l i s t e n i n g i s the most f r e q u e n t l y used language a r t and Worcester (463) pointed out t h a t the a u d i t o r y method of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y s u p e r i o r t o the v i s u a l method f o r r e t e n t i o n of communicated 22 s u b j e c t m a t t e r . He a l s o showed us t h a t one who l e a r n s e a s i l y by one method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s o l e a r n s e a s i l y by the o t h e r method, and g e n e r a l l y n e i t h e r the v i s u a l nor a u d i t o r y method has any d i s t i n c t advantage over the o t h e r i n terms o f the number o f r e p e t i t i o n s needed f o r l e a r n i n g . On the o t h e r hand, Krawiec (250) s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h a t the v i s u a l method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i s u s u a l l y s u p e r i o r t o o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , and alt h o u g h n e i t h e r method i s c o n s i s t -e n t l y s u p e r i o r f o r r e t e n t i o n , the v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n i s s u p e r i o r t o a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the l e a r n i n g o f d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l . De Wick (117) shows us t h a t the a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a d v e r t i s i n g copy i s d i s t i n c t l y s u p e r i o r t o v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r r e c a l l i n g p r o d u c t s and t r a d e names a f t e r a d e l a y o f from f i v e days t o f i v e months. S t a n t o n ^ (3^2) f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y support those o f De Wick. The a u d i t o r y method was shown t o be s u p e r i o r t o the v i s u a l method. F o r r e c a l l , the peak s u p e r i o r i t y f o r the aud-i t o r y method came at the seven day i n t e r v a l * A f t e r 21 days both a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l r e s u l t s were much lower and the margin between the two had decreased. F o r r e c o g n i t i o n the g r e a t e s t s u p e r i o r i t y f o r the a u d i t o r y method oc c u r r e d a t 21 days. On the b a s i s o f a whole s e r i e s o f experiments, Carver (78) concluded t h a t : -(1) The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h the d i f f i c u l t y o f the content, when the d i f f i c u l t y i s judged on the b a s i s o f graded c u r r i c u l u m content: the e a s i e r the m a t e r i a l , the more l i k e l y w i l l a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n be s u p e r i o r t o v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , (2) When d i f f i c u l t y of m a t e r i a l and educational l e v e l of s u b j e c t s are h e l d constant, r e c o g n i t i o n , v e r b a l i s m , r e c a l l , and n o n - c r i t i c a l n e s s ( s u g g e s t i b i l i t y ) are more e f f e c t i v e l y e x e r c i s e d when l i s t e n i n g than when reading. On the other hand, comprehension, c r i t i c a l n e s s , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n are best f a c i l i t a t e d by r e a d i n g . (3) The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n seems to be l i m i t e d t o f a m i l i a r and meaningful m a t e r i a l . (4) The higher the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the s u b j e c t s , the g r e a t e r the c a p a c i t y t o b e n e f i t from a u d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n . (7#) A l l these f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t n e i t h e r a u d i t o r y nor v i s u a l methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n are c o n s i s t e n t l y e f f e c t i v e under a l l c o n d i t i o n s and f o r a l l types of i n f o r m a t i o n . T e l e v i s i o n appears t o be more e f f e c t i v e as i t combines v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y methods. For some pure r e c a l l , o r a l methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n are found t o be c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r t o v i s u a l . On the other hand, f o r problem s o l v i n g or mastering d i f f i c u l t subject matter, v i s u a l methods are probably s u p e r i o r t o a u d i t o r y methods. K r e i t l o w and Edwards (251) i n 1961, made a comparison of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l e c t u r e , the b u l l e t i n , 16 mm f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n , i n p r e s e n t i n g research f i n d i n g s t o a d u l t groups and reported t h a t the l e c t u r e medium was the most e f f e c t i v e . 24 A l s o t h a t the b u l l e t i n medium scored higher than f i l m or TV, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so, and, f i n a l l y t h a t the higher the academic grade l e v e l a t t a i n e d , t h e greater the number of c o r r e c t answers scored, r e g a r d l e s s of the media used. Hovland (209) concludes t h a t f a c e - t o - f a c e communication i s almost u n i v e r s a l l y reported t o be more e f f e c t i v e than i s r a d i o . M i c h a e l P o l a n y i (330) s a i d t h a t words can convey i n f o r m -a t i o n , but the sender of the message w i l l always have to r e l y f o r the comprehension of h i s message on the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the person addressed. Only by v i r t u e of t h i s act of comprehension, of t h i s t a c i t c o n t r i b u t i o n of h i s own, can the r e c e i v i n g person be s a i d t o acquire knowledge when he i s presented w i t h a statement. I t may not be out of place here to remind ourselves of the n e c e s s i t y t o consider the n a t i o n a l i t y o r language of the people we are i n v o l v i n g i n the e d u c a t i o n a l process. Time Magazine, f o r September 20, 1963 (402) r e p o r t e d t h a t General Motors discovered "Body by F i s h e r " came out "Corpse by F i s h e r " i n Flemish, and "Schweppes Tonic Water" was s p e e d i l y changed t o "Schweppes Tonica" i n I t a l y where " i l water" i d i o m a t i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s a bathroom. Again, n a t i v e words i n one A f r i c a n town are o b s c e n i t i e s 50 m i l e s away, and the o l d a d v e r t i s i n g catchword "magic" i s d i f f i c u l t t o use: t o A f r i c a n s the word i s l i n k e d t o a m y t h i c a l d e v i l named Tokoloshe who gets young g i r l s pregnant. 25 A. I l l u s t r a t i v e 1. Audio (b) M e c h a n i c a l There ,have been r e l a t i v e l y few b a s i c s t u d i e s made of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f r a d i o and r e c o r d i n g s i n t e a c h i n g f a c t u a l i n f o r m -a t i o n t o a d u l t s and i n changing a d u l t a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s . Tewes (400) r e p o r t e d some f i n d i n g s from r e s e a r c h com-p l e t e d on the p r e p a r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f r e c o r d i n g s used as " d i s c u s s i o n s t a r t e r s " . The r e s u l t s support the f o l l o w i n g con-c l u s i o n s ! - the r e c o r d i n g s were e f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s t a r t e r s and they l e s s e n e d the need f o r a t r a i n e d l e a d e r . A v a r i e t y o f problems w i t h i n a s k i t h e l p e d d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s t o i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h s i t u a t i o n s p o r t r a y e d and tended t o promote d i s c u s s i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s r e s i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with u n d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n s but i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t i n c o r r e c t i n g p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s . Nelson, M o l l and Jaspen (310) showed t h a t s i g n i f -i c a n t l e a r n i n g accrued from the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i l m as a whole and from the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e i t h e r the audio o r vi d e o channel alone, and although n e i t h e r channel was c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r than the o t h e r both channels t o g e t h e r were c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r than e i t h e r one a l o n e . In g e n e r a l , h e a r i n g the sound t r a c k i n the dark appears t o be s l i g h t l y s u p e r i o r t o h e a r i n g i t i n the l i g h t . (3) Radio C r i l e ' s (98) f i n d i n g s from r a d i o r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e d a good background f o r t h i s s e c t i o n . C l i n t o n (82) observed t h a t r a d i o and p r i n t , seemingly u n l i k e each o t h e r , a c t u a l l y have 26 c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s . L i k e p r i n t , r a d i o does not demonstrate but r a t h e r suggests. I t s scenes and events are i n the imagin-a t i o n of the audience, making r a d i o almost as mobile as p r i n t . A l s o l i k e p r i n t , r a d i o does not r e q u i r e a s e t t i n g : the n a r r a t o r has freedom f o r he may speak from a s p e c i f i c time and place o r from no time and no p l a c e . A n a r r a t o r i s e a s i l y accepted. In 1935 C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t (67) proved t h a t education could be s u c c e s s f u l l y conducted by r a d i o . Katz and Eisenberg (236) l a t e r found t h a t l i s t e n e r s p r e f e r r e d e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l t o be e n t e r t a i n i n g and were l i k e l y to understand the m a t e r i a l and r e t a i n i t b e t t e r when i t was presented i n an e n t e r t a i n i n g manner. H a r r e l l , Brown and Schramm (186) found t h a t audiences p r e f e r broadcasts which do not con t a i n too many i n d i v i d u a l items even though they may r e t a i n more i n absolute numbers from the broadcasts which contain the more items. They a l s o showed t h a t human i n t e r e s t , s p e c t a c u l a r or nearby events are remembered b e t t e r than s e r i o u s s u b j e c t s , p u b l i c a f f a i r s and events of d i s t a n t o r i g i n . Golden (162) measured the degrees of r e t e n t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l content presented i n r a d i o broadcast by a l e c t u r e , a dialogue i n i n t e r v i e w s t y l e , and a dr a m a t i z a t i o n , each of 15 minutes d u r a t i o n . Retention scores immediately f o l l o w i n g the broadcasts showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups. Four weeks l a t e r those who had been exposed t o the t a l k showed much higher r e t e n t i o n than the other two groups. The d r a m a t i z a t i o n group scored much lower than the dialogue group. The higher the ed u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the s u b j e c t s , the 27 h i g h e r were the r e t e n t i o n scores o f those who had heard the l e c t u r e . At below h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , r e t e n t i o n was about equa l from l e c t u r e and d i a l o g u e . W a l l ' s (441) s tudy suggested t h a t b r o a d c a s t s were e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h normal groups and, on the whole , w i t h the b e t t e r o f the backward. For the very backward the evidence suggested t h a t s c r i p t s would have t o be s p e c i a l l y adapted . On b e h a l f of the B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , Vernon (437) made f i v e s t u d i e s i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f r a d i o as an e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e . The study on the i n t e l l i g -i b i l i t y o f broadcast t a l k s showed t h a t : -(1) Crowding a grea t many p o i n t s i n t o the t a l k had a l e s s h a r m f u l e f f e c t than a n t i c i p a t e d . A l a r g e number o f t e a c h i n g p o i n t s makes f o r d i f f i c u l t y a l t h o u g h h i g h i n t e r e s t t a l k s can c o n t a i n 10 or more major p o i n t s . Many s u b s i d i a r y p o i n t s or f a c t s may seem c o n f u s i n g but are not found h a r m f u l . (2) There was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n comprehension and r e c a l l between r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r , but r e a d i n g was s u p e r i o r a t h i g h e r l e v e l s , and l i s t e n i n g was s u p e r i o r i n younger and d u l l e r and the over 60 l e a r n e r s . (3) Dramatized i n c i d e n t s had g r e a t e r de layed r e c a l l . (4) Good or poor d e l i v e r y ( w i t h i n reasonable l i m i t s ) has l i t t l e e f f e c t on i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , a l t h o u g h i t may i n f l u e n c e a p p r e c i a t i o n ; over-speedy d e l i v e r y i s more h a r m f u l . 28 (5) Overlong sentences, d i f f i c u l t vocabulary, many prepos-i t i o n s tend t o increase u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y t o a s l i g h t degree. (6) Various measures of c o n v e r s a t i o n a l speech, personal and "human i n t e r e s t " words, a l s o f a i l e d t o show any relevance. (7) Both l u c i d i t y and l i v e l i n e s s of s t y l e are important. (8) A c l e a r summary h e l p s . (9) The most s u c c e s s f u l t a l k s d e a l t w i t h concrete subjects of a p r a c t i c a l k i n d , which were f a m i l i a r t o l i s t e n e r s i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s or a f f e c t e d them p e r s o n a l l y . The l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l t a l k s d e a l t w i t h very a b s t r a c t t o p i c s such as "the nature of c l e a r t h i n k i n g " , or w i t h subjects such as l i t e r a t u r e which reminded the l i s t e n e r of h i s schooldays. (10) S c i e n t i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s are more e f f e c t i v e than t h e o r i e s . (11) The i n t e r e s t aroused by a t a l k ( p a r t i c u l a r l y among d u l l and average l i s t e n e r s ) g r e a t l y outweighs i n importance any f a c t o r s of s t y l e or language. (437) Vernon (437) found t h a t about h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n can r e c a l l only one t h i r d or fewer of the main p o i n t s of an elem-entary e d u c a t i o n a l t a l k and s a i d , "Perhaps we can never hope t o reach the bottom 25% of the p o p u l a t i o n , - except by f a c e - t o - f a c e i n s t r u c t i o n . The B.B.C. re p o r t (by Vernon) on the e f f e c t s of broad-c a s t i n g a s e r i a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f a book on the reading of the book were a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g : -29 ( l j I t spurred l i b r a r y l oans and s a l e s of the book. (2) I t l e d t o reading other books by the same author. (3) The subsequent reading of the broadcast book was due t o the i n t e r e s t aroused i n the book and not to " f i l l i n g i n " what was missed of the broadcast. The i n q u i r y i n t o the optimum l e n g t h of an i n f o r m a t i o n broadcast t a l k showed t h a t : -(1) There was s e r i o u s d i m i n i s h i n g of r e t u r n s a f t e r 15 minutes, and f o r 30 minutes the t o t a l amount of i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed d i d not i n c r e a s e . (2) A f t e r 15 minutes the a s s i m i l a t i o n of m a t e r i a l decreases f o r the e n t i r e broadcast, not only f o r the p a r t a f t e r the f i r s t 15 minutes. (3) Most people who switch o f f a program do so i n the f i r s t two minutes, w i t h l i t t l e s w i t c h i n g a f t e r f i v e minutes. (4) A l i s t e n e r hearing a 15 minute broadcast r e c a l l s twice as much as one hearing a 30 minute one. (5) L i s t e n e r s p r e f e r 30 minute broadcasts. (6) Of a 15 minute newscast an audience w i l l remember 11 of 20 items, 15 of 30 and IB of 40 items. In another program s e r i e s i t was found t h a t : -(1) An a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n t r i v e d s e t t i n g seemed to d i s t r a c t from the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . (2) Programs change a t t i t u d e s as w e l l as supply i n f o r m a t i o n . 30 (3) There was a high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between respondents having enjoyed the program and a f e e l i n g they had learned from i t . (4) A common i n t e r e s t program can appeal t o s e v e r a l l e v e l s of education w i t h no i l l e f f e c t . In 1950 the B.B.C. (51) conducted a study t o determine the extent of understanding of a science t a l k by s e v e r a l audiences of d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l background. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t i n t e r e s t was gr e a t e s t at the p a r t i a l understanding l e v e l and t h i s i n d i c a t e d the need of three d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of d i f f i c u l t y f o r use w i t h the general p u b l i c . The Pennsylvania State College A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Department (327) reported t h a t the best l e n g t h f o r an a g r i -c u l t u r a l extension r a d i o broadcast i s between 15 and 30 minutes. W i l h i l i n and S i c e r (454) r e p o r t from t h e i r f i n d i n g s t h a t twice weekly broadcasts maintained i n t e r e s t b e t t e r than weekly broadcasts. As the r e s u l t of a study C r i l e (99) completed i n January 1952, she reported t h a t only 4 out of 10 county extension agents who were r e g u l a r l y broadcasting had r e c e i v e d any t r a i n i n g i n broadcasting, and suggested a l l agents so engaged should be given t r a i n i n g and a s s i s t a n c e t o improve t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . She a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t her survey showed t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l audiences l i k e t h e i r programs between noon and 1 P M , and as only 1/3 of the t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l programs are on at t h i s time an e f f o r t should be made t o increase t h i s number. 31 E l l i o t (133) t e l l s us t h a t where the r e t e n t i o n of m a t e r i a l i s concerned, t e l e v i s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o r a d i o and r a d i o i s s u p e r i o r t o f i l m . He a l s o shows us t h a t c h i l d r e n s h i f t from a u d i t o r y t o v i s u a l dominance at the time they l e a r n t o read, and i n d i c a t e s there may be a s h i f t back, p a r t i c u l a r l y among women and the l e s s w e l l educated t o a u d i t o r y dominance i n l a t e r l i f e . K l a p p e r f s (245) s t u d i e s , which d i d not i n c l u d e t e l e v i s i o n , showed a s u p e r i o r i t y f o r a u d i t o r y over v i s u a l methods. G o l d s t e i n (163), and Larsen and Feder (256) a l l g e n e r a l l y agree w i t h Klapper, but show t h a t the advantages of a u d i t o r y devices d i m i n i s h w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y of the m a t e r i a l . Cook and Nemzek (88) found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n acquired by r a d i o and non-radio students, and Haugh (189) found t h a t there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of reading or l i s t e n i n g t o r a d i o drama i n a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h a t n e i t h e r method caused any s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e s . Brunner (60) s t a t e s t h a t one of the most s u c c e s s f u l programs known to have r e l i e d upon the use of a u d i o - v i s u a l devices was the Canadian Farm Radio Forum, as reported by N i c o l , and others (317)• The uniqueness of t h i s program, which was a c t i v e continuously from 1941 t o 1965, was t h a t i t provided f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s belonging t o groups which discussed the programs and r e l a y e d suggestions and questions t o the c e n t r a l broadcasting o f f i c e . 32 Howard (212) reviewed the broadcasting of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension material on 102 commercial radio stations i n Ohio and reported the following:-(1) The usual frequency of broadcasts i s 6 days per week, with 5 days per week next. (2) The most l i k e l y time of broadcast i s at noon with nearly 1/3 occurring between 6 and 7 A M . (3) About 1/3 of the programs are i n the charge of the county a g r i c u l t u r a l agent. (4) The county agent releases are the chief source of information f o r programs. (5) At stations where the a g r i c u l t u r a l agent i s responsible f o r a l l or part of the program, 3 are rated excellent, 4 are very good and 17 good. (6) There were some suggestions that, -(a) The agent could put more time on h i s presentations. (b) Too much techn i c a l language i s used. (c) Too much general information i s broadcast. (7) About 2 of those who commented f e l t the a g r i c u l t u r a l agents could use more t r a i n i n g . (212) According to Putnam (336) , the Extension Service contacts more people by radio i n the counties of A t t a l a , Coahoma, Oktibbeha and Pearl River, M i s s i s s i p p i , than i t does by any other or a l l other means combined. The newspaper was the next most e f f e c t i v e means of reaching r u r a l people. Out of 171 people surveyed, 86 applied at l e a s t one practice 33 recommended by the e d u c a t i o n a l broadcast. The hours p r e f e r r e d f o r farm and home r u r a l education r a d i o programs are i n the f o l l o w i n g order: f i r s t , 12 noon t o 1 PM; second, 6 AM; and t h i r d , 7 PM. Axinn's (30) f i n d i n g s regarding a l i s t e n i n g audience i n Delaware agreed w i t h those of Putnam f o r M i s s i s s i p p i i n t h a t more farm operators ( i n Delaware) can be reached by r a d i o than any other media, and the l a r g e s t r a d i o audience i s a v a i l a b l e during the noon hour. He a l s o drew some other c o n c l u s i o n s , v i z - the best time f o r a farm TV show i n Delaware i s on Sunday afternoon between 12 and 3 PM, and more farmers take weekly newspapers than d a i l i e s . S i l v e y (370) p o i n t s out t h a t the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of broadcasts depends f a r more upon the " i n t e r e s t i n g n e s s " than upon any other f a c t o r . He re-emphasizes Katz and Eisenberg*s (236) f i n d i n g s which showed t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n becomes more meaningful as i t i s r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t s , c o n d i t i o n s , o r s i t u a t i o n s t h a t are f a m i l i a r t o the audience. S i l v e y here r e p o r t s t h a t the most i n t e r e s t i n g t a l k s f o r the average or below average audiences are those d e a l i n g w i t h concrete subjects of a p r a c t i c a l k i n d which are f a m i l i a r t o l i s t e n e r s i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , o r a f f e c t them p e r s o n a l l y . Highlander (195) shows us t h a t i n t e r e s t i n the subject matter i s more important i n g a i n i n g audience approval than are the a b i l i t y of the speaker or other production techniques. Or, as D i e t r i c h (119) s t a t e s , the content i s g e n e r a l l y more important than the p r e s e n t a t i o n i n i n c r e a s i n g f a v o r a b l e r e a c t i o n to a communication. Highlander agrees w i t h C a n t r i l , Gaudet and Herzog (68) i n t h a t the nonauthority speaker produces e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t s equal to those of the a u t h o r i t y speaker, as the mass media tend t o confer p r e s t i g e and a u t h o r i t y by the f a c t t h a t the speaker has been s e l e c t e d by the media or i n s t i t u t i o n t o appear before the p u b l i c . When co n s i d e r i n g these f i n d i n g s of Highlander and C a n t r i l , i t i s w e l l t o review the Hovland and Weiss (211) research which showed t h a t there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the amount of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n e d from tru s t w o r t h y or untrustworthy sources, nor i n the amount remembered a f t e r a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l weeks. A l s o t h a t a trustworthy source i s more e f f e c t i v e than an untrustworthy source i n i n d u c i n g o p i n i o n change. C a n t r i l and A l l p o r t (67) found t h a t f o r o r d i n a r y e d u c a t i o n a l , f a c t u a l , o r news broadcasts the most s u i t a b l e l e n g t h g e n e r a l l y seems t o be about 15 minutes. The Columbia Broadcasting System Radio Network (85) has noted t h a t people w i t h d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n , such as a m o t o r i s t , can hear and remember f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n broadcast on the r a d i o . Klapper (245) p o i n t s out t h a t r a d i o draws i t s l i s t e n e r s from a l l c u l t u r a l and age l e v e l s and thus reaches an audience not as o f t e n reached by other mass media. Lucas and B r i t t ' s (269) research shows t h a t r a d i o i s the most a c c e s s i b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n t o some i n d i v i d u a l s ; they use i t most and b e l i e v e i t as much as they b e l i e v e p r i n t . E l l i o t t (133) proved t h a t those who l i s t e n t o the r a d i o most are the best l i s t e n e r s and remember b e t t e r what they hear than what they see. A l s o , the 35 l e s s educated and l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t l i s t e n more and remember b e t t e r what they hear by r a d i o than do the more educated and more i n t e l l i g e n t . As reported e a r l i e r , Carver's (78) work proved t h a t f a c e - t o - f a c e t a l k i s a b e t t e r "agent" than the tr a n s m i t t e d v o i c e , which i n t u r n i s g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r than " p r i n t " . He f u r t h e r showed t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of au d i t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n over reading v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h the d i f f i c u l t y of the m a t e r i a l . G o l d s t e i n ( I63) f o l l o w e d up Carver's work by showing t h a t more i s remembered f o r a lon g e r p e r i o d from what i s heard than from what i s read i f simple m a t e r i a l i s used, Dayton's (113) review of t h i r t y r a d i o s t u d i e s revealed t h a t a high p r o p o r t i o n of both men and women of a l l age and income groups l i s t e n t o the r a d i o programs of the County Extension agents and those of the State Extension workers i n the College s t a t i o n broadcasts. Also t h a t extension r a d i o programs reach as many people as a l l other extension methods combined. Putnam (336) p o i n t s out tha t v i r t u a l l y a l l who l i s t e n t o the extension r a d i o programs f i n d them h e l p f u l , and Gal l u p (153) shows us t h a t r a d i o i s an e f f e c t i v e means of teach i n g , f o r a high p r o p o r t i o n of people take d e f i n i t e a c t i o n as the r e s u l t of these programs i n such ways as attending extension meetings, o r d e r i n g b u l l e t i n s and changing o l d p r a c t i c e s or adopting new ones. Moe's (299) research r e v e a l s t h a t both men and women consider r a d i o an important source of in f o r m a t i o n as i t i s a t i m e l y , r e g u l a r and easy way t o get 36 i n f o r m a t i o n . As a source of farm and home in f o r m a t i o n i t always ranks h i g h . Page (325) p o i n t s out t h a t when l o c a l l e a d e r s used a r a d i o s e r i e s of sewing le s s o n s t o supplement t h e i r p r o j e c t work they s a i d r a d i o r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r t eaching and gave theini community r e c o g n i t i o n and a u t h o r i t y t h a t enabled them t o do a b e t t e r j o b . C r i l e * s (99) study i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was the op i n i o n of only 3% of a l l r e g u l a r extension work broads-c a s t e r s i n the nine c e n t r a l s t a t e s i n 1950 t h a t they could have put t h e i r r a d i o time t o b e t t e r advantage i n some other extension a c t i v i t y . She p o i n t s out tha t although t e l e v i s i o n i s widespread, r u r a l owners s t i l l tend t o l i s t e n t o farm and county extension programs on the r a d i o ; i f there i s a dominance of t e l e v i s i o n i t i s more pronounced i n the evening. I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o note th a t there are, today, over 160 e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o s t a t i o n s a c t i v e i n the United S t a t e s , and the f i r s t s t a t i o n t o broadcast ed u c a t i o n a l programs, WHA, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, i s s t i l l i n o p e r a t i o n . In t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h audio-mechanical devices, an e l e c t r o n i c reading device described i n an a r t i c l e i n the Vancouver Sun of 19 October, 1964 (423) should be mentioned. I t was invented by Dr. M.P. Beddoes of the E l e c t r i c a l Engineering Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., and i s now being t e s t e d w i t h the hope t h a t b l i n d persons may, wit h i t s use, soon read as f a s t as 170 words per minute. The machine c o n s i s t s of s i x p h o t o - e l e c t r i c c e l l s which when passed over a l i n e of standard t y p e w r i t e r p r i n t emit a combination of sounds, - beeps, h i s s e s 37 and a c l i c k , a m p l i f i e d by t r a n s i s t o r s . The r e s u l t s of current t e s t s w i t h two b l i n d persons and the equipment i n Vancouver have been qu i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y as i n d i c a t e d by Dr. Beddoes who r e p o r t s t h a t progress has been very encouraging. Sleep-Learning As s l e e p - l e a r n i n g i s u s u a l l y attempted w i t h the use of audio mechanical devices, i t w i l l be considered here. McComos (282) made an e v a l u a t i o n of s l e e p - l e a r n i n g f o r the U.S. A i r Force i n 1949» and although he d i d not, as a r e s u l t , s t a t e any s p e c i f i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , he d i d p r e d i c t i t s u s e f u l n e s s . In 1954 the U.S. A i r Force had another research p r o j e c t conducted by the Rand Cor p o r a t i o n . Simon and Emmons (371) i s s u e d the r e s u l t i n g r e p o r t t h a t covered a review of the l i t e r a t u r e and a d i s c u s s i o n o f the experiments observed i n the Rand Sleep-Learning Laboratory. Once again no fundamentals were revealed or p r i n c i p l e s obtained. However, they a l s o d i d not discount the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of s l e e p - l e a r n i n g . Some d e f i n i t e and p o s i t i v e r e s e a r c h was reported by Whitney (452) i n an a r t i c l e i n the Vancouver newspaper "The Province" of 1 October, 1964. He s t a t e s t h a t George Washington U n i v e r s i t y experimenters found t h a t a r e c o r d i n g of Chinese words played t o s l e e p i n g students helped i n l e a r n i n g t h a t language. The students were d i v i d e d , one group g e t t i n g a l i s t of Chinese words and the c o r r e c t E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s , and the others g e t t i n g the same l i s t w i t h mismatched E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s . When awakened, the f i r s t group l e a r n e d the l i s t a f t e r f i v e r e p e t i t i o n s , whereas the second group r e q u i r e d eleven r e p e t i t i o n s . 38 C u r t i s (105) g i v e s s l e e p - l e a r n i n g a b i g boost w i t h h i s book "Learn While You S l e e p " i n which he r e p o r t s over twenty s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s where s l e e p - l e a r n i n g has been used as an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g d e v i c e . I t would seem t h a t s l e e p - l e a r n i n g has a d e f i n i t e p l a c e and f u n c t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the realm o f language l e a r n i n g , and a t t i t u d e and h a b i t changing. 39 I . I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices A. I l l u s t r a t i v e 2. V i s u a l a. Three Dimensional (1) Mockup: -A mockup can be d e f i n e d as a working r e p l i c a , made from r e a l o r s y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s , used when p r a c t i c e o r t r a i n i n g on the r e a l o b j e c t would be too c o s t l y or i m p o s s i b l e - an i m i t a t i o n o f the r e a l t h i n g . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i d e r the mockup f o r now i n the present category o f an i l l u s t r a t i v e , v i s u a l t h r e e dimen-s i o n a l d e v i c e . I t s p r a c t i c e and performance f u n c t i o n s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r i n the R e i n f o r c i n g c a t e g o r y . Gagne' (150) p o i n t s out the n i c e d i f f e r e n c e between u s i n g a mockup as a c l a s s t r a i n i n g a i d t o f a c i l i t a t e the p r e s e n t a t i o n and t e a c h i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l knowledge, and u s i n g i t as a s i m u l a t o r o f oper-a t i o n a l equipment t o achieve e i t h e r measurement o f performance o r performance improvement. Most o f the r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h r e e dimensional m a t e r i a l s as t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s has been done f o r o r by the United S t a t e s Armed S e r v i c e s . Procedures f o r d e v i c e e v a l u a t i o n , requirements f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n and use were a l l reviewed i n a s e r i e s o f t e c h n i c a l papers, - (126) , (127), (128) and (148). T o r k e l s o n (408) r e p o r t e d on the comparative e f f e c t i v e -ness o f a mockup, a cutaway and a s e r i e s o f p r o j e c t e d c h a r t s 40 i n t e a c h i n g the nomenclature and f u n c t i o n of the 40 mm a n t i -a i r c r a f t weapon and the mark X I I I torpedo. With students of s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y there was no l a r g e or s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the compared media. On torpedo i n s t r u c t i o n the cutaway was favored over manual i l l u s t r a t i o n s and black and white t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . With groups of average a b i l i t y the mockup was favored over manual i l l u s t r a t i o n s and b l a c k and white t r a n s -p a r e n c i e s . The cutaway and mockup were favored i n l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s but the d i f f e r e n c e s were s m a l l . Any advantages a c c r u i n g to three dimensional m a t e r i a l s were so small i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r h i g h cost as t o discourage t h e i r use except under s p e c i a l circumstances. Murnin, and others (303) discovered no advant-ages f o r the three dimensional mock-up over methods t h a t used naval t r a i n e e drawings of schematic e l e c t r i c a l systems or teaching methods t h a t used no d e v i c e s . V r i s (440) found t h a t complex motor s k i l l s such as t h r e a d i n g a motion-picture p r o j e c t o r could be taught b e t t e r by three-dimensional models than by two-dimensional a i d s , and concluded t h a t 3-D m a t e r i a l s should be used where the task t o be learned i s e s s e n t i a l l y three-dimensional i n nature. This c o n c l u s i o n was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by V e r g i s * (431) f i n d i n g s w i t h 3-D s l i d e s and Cogswell's (83) r e s u l t s from teaching the assembly of the breech block of an a n t i - a i r c r a f t gun by u s i n g s t e r e o s c o p i c motion p i c t u r e s . Swanson, (393) on behalf of the U.S. A i r Force, reported a study t h a t found no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t r a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of mock-ups, cutaways, animated panels, c h a r t s , 41 and symbolic diagrams i n teaching s k i l l e d A i r Force personnel. When te a c h i n g inexperienced mechanics, he found a requirement f o r at l e a s t moderately r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of equipment t o be provided i n t e a c h i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f equipment components, t h a t c o l o r - c o d i n g be used where a p p r o p r i a t e , and t h a t more than one type of v i s u a l a i d be used i n order t o c a p i t a l i z e on the unique i n s t r u c t i o n a l advantages of v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g - a i d c h a r a c t e r i s t i e s . (2) Demonstrations (aj Method or process demonstrations This type of demonstration shows an assembled group how to c a r r y out a given p r a c t i c e . (b) Result demonstration This type of demonstration shows the r e s u l t of a recommended p r a c t i c e i n comparison w i t h a former p r a c t i c e , under a c t u a l e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The r e s u l t demonstration has been found t o be an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g device i n a d u l t education. -G i l b e r t s o n and Gallup (160) r e p o r t t h a t r e s u l t demonstrations s t i m u l a t e more i n t e r e s t than i l l u s t r a t e d pages or t a l k s and increase the confidence of farmers and homemakers i n the recom-mendations of t h e i r extension agents and s p e c i a l i s t s . They a l s o help d i s c o v e r and develop l o c a l l e a d e r s , provide a record of outstanding r e s u l t s t h a t can be used as a t a n g i b l e b a s i s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g b e n e f i t s of extension work to farmers and home-makers, and convince persons who have more confidence i n the 42 experiences of t h e i r neighbors and i n demonstrated r e s u l t s than i n r e p o r t s of r e s e a r c h . Although the above advantages are w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d there are some s i g n i f i c a n t disadvantages a l s o recorded by G i l b e r t s o n and G a l l u p . These were r a t e d as f o l l o w s . The demonstrations r e q u i r e much time i n planning, e s t a b l i s h i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g . A l s o the d i r e c t cost per p r a c t i c e changed i s high because few people a c t u a l l y see the r e s u l t demonstrations. Moreover, few people see the f i e l d demonstrations or p i c t u r e s of the stage when the r e s u l t s are most c o n v i n c i n g . Again, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d people t o keep the necessary records f o r some p r o j e c t s and p r a c t i c e s , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o develop s p e c i f i c proof of the advantages of some s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e - e.g. u s i n g a b e t t e r d i e t . Wilson and Gallu p * s (459) f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y agreed w i t h G i l b e r t s o n and Gallup*s i n th a t they reported 6.4% of new p r a c t i c e adoptions could be c r e d i t e d t o r e s u l t demonstration. Blackmore, Dimit and Baum (39) found t h a t the newer ideas of a g r i c u l t u r e could best be brought t o the a t t e n t i o n o f farmers by the way of t e s t -demonstration farms. However, those c l o s e s t t o the demonstration adopted more new p r a c t i c e s . The average number of adoptions increased from one t o two m i l e s , remained constant from two t o f i v e m i l e s , and decreased beyond t h a t d i s t a n c e , (c) Shop Demonstration In the shop demonstration the teacher shows how best t o do t h i n g s , the most e f f i c i e n t way so t h a t good h a b i t s of exec-u t i o n w i t h t o o l s , m a t e r i a l s and machines w i l l be formed along w i t h the r i g h t a t t i t u d e . 43 E r i c s o n (134) s t a t e d t h a t , "From the time t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n the manual a r t s was introduced as a school subject, the demonstration has stood out as the most d e f i n i t e and v a l u a b l e means of i n s t r u c t i o n " . He added t h a t the shop demonstration as performed by the s k i l l f u l teacher i s u n f a i l i n g i n developing and m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t among students f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: -(1) There i s an appeal t o the sense of v i s i o n . (2) S k i l l f u l performance i n hand manipulations always a t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n . (3) Students see immediate progress as a r e s u l t of t h e i r e f f o r t . (4) A d e s i r e i s aroused t o emulate the work of the teacher. (134) In the "Handbook f o r S p e c i a l Teachers of Food Pr o d u c t i o n : War T r a i n i n g C l a s s e s " ( 183) , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t the p e r f e c t demonstration i n v o l v e s t e l l i n g , showing, q u e s t i o n i n g , i l l u s -t r a t i n g , s l o w l y and c l e a r l y ; one step at a time, and no more than your students can master. I t not only teaches, but s e t s standards of performance (speed and e x c e l l e n c e ) f o r students t o a t t a i n . In teaching groups where students " l e a r n by doing" the c a r d i n a l r u l e i s t o i n s t r u c t or demonstrate at the moment when the students need the p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v e d . I t was reported i n "A Study i n A d u l t Homemaking Education i n Pennsylvania" (391) t h a t most teachers used a combination of teaching methods i n the conduct of the 33 a d u l t 44 c l a s s e s . The use of the demonstration accompanied by c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n was employed by 62.5% of the teachers, w h i l e demon-s t r a t i o n supplemented by l a b o r a t o r y work was used by 16.2%. The problem method, accompanied by demonstration and d i s c u s s i o n was used by 16.2% and the problem method alone by 4«1%« (6) Museum m a t e r i a l : -"Museum" m a t e r i a l s , which i n c l u d e s models, mockups, dioramas and specimens, have a l l t o some extent been success-f u l l y used as teaching devices and were reported on as such by B i e s e l (36) and the U.S. O f f i c e of Education ( 4 2 0 ) . (7) F i e l d T r i p s : -F i e l d t r i p s or planned v i s i t s t o p o i n t s outside the regu-l a r classroom are, understandably, not g e n e r a l l y used i n a d u l t education although Bigman (37) reported t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s such as a r t g a l l e r i e s provide a c o n t i n u i n g and e f f e c t i v e opportunity f o r a d u l t education a l b e i t u n structured, and are used t o good advantage by many p r o f e s s i o n a l people, white c o l l a r workers and students. Cass (79) observed t h a t f i e l d t r i p s were very e f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s t a r t e r s and provided e x c e l l e n t m o t i v a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r study. (S) Role P l a y i n g : -As Brunner (60) r e p o r t s , r o l e - p l a y i n g i s a r e l a t i v e l y new te a c h i n g device i n a d u l t education and one f o r which there i s c onsiderable enthusiasm. The most thorough study of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of r o l e - p l a y i n g as a teac h i n g device was conducted by Zander (464) on be h a l f of the Armed S e r v i c e s , and h i s 45 f i n d i n g s based on a l e a d e r t r a i n i n g program i n v o l v i n g 8,000 men places some doubt on the v a l i d i t y of enthusiasm f o r r o l e -p l a y i n g . Zander showed t h a t r o l e - p l a y i n g does not i n v o l v e r i g i d persons s u f f i c i e n t l y t o a l l o w them t o p a r t i c i p a t e unless much time i s used and more than two experiences are provided. He a l s o reported t h a t r o l e - p l a y i n g always f a i l e d when the nature of the c l a s s s e s s i o n tended toward n e u t r a l i t y w i t h respect t o the i s s u e s under d i s c u s s i o n . For a s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g exper-ience the f e e l i n g s of the group had t o be worked up s u f f i c i e n t l y t o spark a d i s c u s s i o n . On the other hand, Wilson's (457) research i n which the r o l e - p l a y i n g demonstrated the arguments used w i t h respect to the i s s u e s discussed s t i m u l a t e d the i n t e r e s t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and increased t h e i r sympathy f o r other viewp o i n t s . J a n i s and King (226) reported t h a t the f a c t o r s i n r o l e - p l a y i n g found most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r o p i n i o n change were "amount of i m p r o v i s a t i o n " and "degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h own performance". J a n i s and King a l s o found t h a t overt v e r b a l -i z a t i o n induced by r o l e - p l a y i n g tended to augment the e f f e c t i v e -ness of a persuasive communication. Brunner (60) concludes by remarking t h a t more research i s needed to determine what types of people, kinds of t o p i c s , purposes and s i t u a t i o n s lend them-se l v e s t o i t s e f f e c t i v e use, and t o determine more p r e c i s e l y j u s t what are the s i g n i f i c a n t or e f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n r o l e -p l a y i n g . 46 (9) E x h i b i t s : -Perhaps a few words d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g e x h i b i t s and museums would be i n o r d e r h e r e . By " e x h i b i t " we w i l l mean a c a r e f u l arrangement of m a t e r i a l s , u s u a l l y t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l , des igned t o i n f o r m the observers about a sub jec t o f e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f -i c a n c e . A museum, on the o t h e r hand, should c o n s i s t o f o b j e c t s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r the s tudents t o t o u c h , f e e l , l i f t , and study i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e l e a r n i n g and make i t more permanent. Derryberry (115 ) i n r e p o r t i n g on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h e a l t h e x h i b i t s a t the New York W o r l d ' s F a i r (1939) and San F r a n c i s c o W o r l d ' s F a i r (1940) made some s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s v i z . -P a n e l s o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , graphs , and t a b l e s u s u a l l y f a i l t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n or get the message a c r o s s . A l s o p a n e l s t h a t presented a s i n g l e s t a t i s t i c a l f a c t were most l i k e l y t o be u n -ders tood though not remembered. A l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l f a c t s are o f t e n e f f e c t i v e m o t i v a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s , common p r o f e s s i o n a l words may be m i s l e a d i n g t o the p u b l i c ; e . g . t h e r a p e u t i c , neph-r i t i s . Even e x p e r t l y des igned e x h i b i t s may impart m i s i n f o r m -a t i o n . T e s t s were d i s c o v e r e d t o be a good e d u c a t i o n a l dev ice t o accompany the e x h i b i t s ; e . g . 35,000 people a t the New York f a i r and 70,000 people a t the San F r a n c i s c o f a i r took a shor t t e s t a t the e x h i b i t s and demanded the c o r r e c t answers . An e x h i b i t o f w h i t e r a t s was p l a c e d i n each s c h o o l i n Winston County, M i s s i s s i p p i and a l s o i n a p u b l i c s t o r e window i n L o u i s v i l l e . The e x h i b i t was des igned t o show the advantages, 47 emphasize the acceptance and use of b e t t e r n u t r i t i o n a l h a b i t s f o r humans. Garland (155) r e p o r t e d t h i s research and noted of 204 persons i n t e r v i e w e d , one h a l f the women and almost one h a l f the men had heard of the e x h i b i t . T h i r t y percent of the women and t w e n t y - f i v e percent of the men knew why the experiment had been conducted. Eighteen percent of the women and nine percent of the men who had heard of the experiment s a i d they had made some changes i n food h a b i t s as a r e s u l t . More than t w e n t y - f i v e percent of the mothers w i t h school c h i l d r e n reported changes i n the c h i l d r e n ' s food h a b i t s as a r e s u l t of the e x h i b i t . The gr e a t e s t number of changes was reported by persons i n the higher e d u c a t i o n a l groups. E l l i o t t (132) found t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an e x h i b i t was increased about twenty-seven percent when i t was r e i n f o r c e d w i t h a v i s u a l medium such as a d v e r t i s i n g , and s i x t y percent when i t was r e i n f o r c e d w i t h a u d i t o r y a d v e r t i s i n g such as r a d i o , and a s i x t y - s e v e n percent increase when the e x h i b i t was r e i n f o r c e d w i t h a combination of v i s u a l - a u d i t o r y media such as poster and r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g . Raudabaugh and Cooke (339) made a study of the e f f e c t i v e -ness of an e x h i b i t and reported t h a t of the 228 f a m i l i e s i n t e r -viewed n i n e t y - f o u r percent planned t o adopt some of the recommended p r a c t i c e s , and of the 80 ,000 people who attended the e x h i b i t throughout 30 counties of Iowa, e i g h t y percent adopted an average of three new p r a c t i c e s per f a m i l y . 48 There i s l i t t l e doubt regarding the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and p o p u l a r i t y of e x h i b i t s as teaching d e v i c e s . Schlup (358") makes a review of some of the e x h i b i t s t h a t have not been reported f o r research purposes and notes the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s . A farm and home l a b o r - s a v i n g e x h i b i t i n Wisconsin had 60 ,000 v i s i t o r s i n 1945 and more than 7 ,000 signed requests f o r plans and b l u e p r i n t s of the shown de v i c e s . A r u r a l progress e x h i b i t toured Michigan i n January, February and March of 1946 and 1947 and r e c e i v e d 150,000 v i s i t o r s i n the 114 day showings. No b u l l e t i n s were given away here, but blanks were provided f o r o r d e r i n g them, and an average of one b u l l e t i n per v i s i t o r was ordered. In Indiana an e x h i b i t t r a i n made f i f t y - s i x stops i n f i f t y - t w o counties and had 66,415 v i s i t o r s . I n Minnesota 153,000 people v i s i t e d a farm l a b o r saving and s a f e t y e x h i b i t i n f o r t y - f o u r county showings, and requests were made f o r 41,000 b u l l e t i n s , pamphlets and p l a n s . In Montana 35,594 people v i s i t e d a l a b o r - s a v i n g e x h i b i t i n forty-two counties and requested 1,679 b l u e p r i n t s of k i t c h e n p l a n s . During 1947 i n South C a r o l i n a 73,000 people v i s i t e d a farm and home l a b o r -saving e x h i b i t i n f o r t y - t h r e e c o u n t i e s . In Tennessee i n 1947, 25,000 people v i s i t e d a r u r a l progress l a b o r - s a v i n g e x h i b i t d u r i n g t w e n t y - f i v e one day stops. A l a b o r - s a v i n g e x h i b i t i n V i r g i n i a was v i s i t e d by 29,000 people i n t h i r t y - n i n e counties, and 52,773 people v i s i t e d a s p e c i a l 4 H Club e x h i b i t t r a i n i n M i s s i s s i p p i i n 1947 when i t made f i f t y - e i g h t stops. In A p r i l , 1946, a farm and home devices e x h i b i t t r a i n toured New York 49 State, making about f o r t y stops, and was v i s i t e d by about 6 5 , 0 0 0 people. 50 A. I l l u s t r a t i v e Devices 2 . V i s u a l b. Two Dimensionalt Non P r o j e c t e d C i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , b u l l e t i n s , pamphlets, l e a f l e t s and news s t o r i e s , although v i s u a l , two dimensional and non p r o j e c t e d , w i l l not be considered here but l a t e r , along w i t h " D i f f u s i o n , D i s t r i b u t e d " d e v i c e s . F i n d i n g s of research based on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i r e c t m a i l or requested m a i l i n g l i s t , p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l have a l s o been i n c l u d e d , along w i t h the bulk of the research d e a l i n g w i t h p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , i n the treatment of D i f f u s i o n devices. I t i s r e a l i z e d , however, th a t these are, i n e f f e c t , very s i m i l a r t o "handouts" and could have been considered under t h i s category. C l i n t o n (82) observed t h a t although the p r i n t e d page does not possess the warmth and impact of the human v o i c e , as do r a d i o , f i l m s and TV, i t does have l a c k of movement, which he considers i t s p r i n c i p l e a s s e t . The p r i n t e d p i c t u r e s and p r i n t e d words can be s t u d i e d , d i s c u s s e d , cut out, f i l e d , passed around or read at a more convenient time. I t i s s e l e c t i v e of i t s audience and demands an a c t i v e mind. (5) Correspondence Courses As o u t l i n e d by the United S t a t e s Bureau of Education (418) i n 1920, the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o r r e s -pondence courses i s the method of study: constant, w r i t t e n e f f o r t s by the student,and c o r r e c t i o n . b y the teacher, and not posta-L t r a n s m i s s i o n alone. 51 B i t t n e r (38) p o i n t s out i n "Adult Education i n A c t i o n " t h a t there i s a tendency away from the elaborate s y l l a b i c and s p e c i a l textbooks and toward simpler o u t l i n e s and t e x t s used i n u n i v e r s i t i e s . A l s o there i s a tendency t o adjust i n s t r u c t i o n more c l o s e l y t o the needs of each student. In ge n e r a l , c o r r e s -pondence i n s t r u c t i o n has freshness and v i t a l i t y . B i t t n e r g i v e s some i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e s regarding correspondence courses t h a t tend t o r e f u t e the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e i r m o r t a l i t y r a t e i s h i g h . I f you e l i m i n a t e those who only send i n one re p o r t and those who only r e g i s t e r and a l l the other r e a l l y n o n - s t a r t e r s , the percentage of students who once s t a r t e d go ahead and complete the course averages, among s e v e r a l t a b u l a t i o n s , at about 68%. Hughes* (214) study revealed t h a t there was a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between course completion and having t o meet a dea d l i n e : f o r example -(1) 75% of those r e p o r t i n g t h a t they had t o meet a deadline were s u c c e s s f u l . (2) 56.6% of the group who d i d not have t o meet a deadline were s u c c e s s f u l . (3) 80% of those who e n r o l l e d from one to s i x months ahead of the deadline were s u c c e s s f u l , whereas only 64«3% of those who had more than a year t o meet t h e i r deadline were s u c c e s s f u l . (214) A l s o he found t h a t the purpose f o r which the student e n r o l l e d had a marked e f f e c t on h i s prospects of s u c c e s s f u l completion. 52 It has been discovered that t h i s w i l l range a l l the way from 79.5% successful f o r Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n to 55.1% successful f o r Professional - vocational improvement. Again, Hughes reported that a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the amount of college work a student has had and the p r o b a b i l i t y of h i s successful completion: f o r example « i n the group i n d i c a t i n g some college credit but no degree, 65.8% were successful, whereas 76.1% of the degree holders were successful. He also reported that 59% of the group with no p r i o r correspondence study was successful, whereas 78% of those with p r i o r experience were successful. In b r i e f , Hughes research indicated that good work and study habits were the most important f a c t o r s i n the successful completion of correspondence courses. Smith (374), some years e a r l i e r had reported much the same information as Hughes, but i n a more general way, when he stated that the evidence indicated those adults with higher educational t r a i n i n g carry through t h e i r courses more frequently than do those with l e s s formal schooling. And, even more broadly, that there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p on one hand, to the educational i n t e r e s t and capacity of the student and, on the other, to the purpose which the student has i n h i s study to the completion of the courses taken. A review of the research completed by Larson (257) and of that reported by B i t t n e r (38) and Hosmer (208) shows that correspondence courses and residence study are f a i r l y equal i n effectiveness, as measured i n grades obtained. Certainly there 53 i s nothing t o i n d i c a t e any c o n s i s t e n t appreciable d i f f e r e n c e i n standards between the two methods. There are some i n d i c a t i o n s of s u p e r i o r i t y f o r the correspondence courses but these are probably a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the student t h a t enabled him t o become a s u c c e s s f u l correspondence course student• Between 1942 and 1959 the United S t a t e s Armed Forces I n s t i t u t e had e n r o l l e d 4 ,506,000 correspondence course students, and 466,000 i n 195&* alone. Bradt ( 4 5 ) , working on behalf of the U.S. Armed Forces, s t u d i e d the reasons f o r "drop-outs" from these USAFI courses, and h i s r e p o r t of August, 1954 showed t h a t there were three main reasons f o r enrollment: general i n t e r e s t , s c h o o l - r e l a t e d reasons and c a r e e r - r e l a t e d reasons. More than h a l f of the e n r o l l e e s i n d i c a t e d no i n t e r e s t i n o b t a i n i n g c r e d i t f o r the courses. He showed t h a t correspondence and s e l f - t e a c h i n g courses are made more e f f e c t i v e by student c o u n s e l l i n g and w i t h a more r e a l i s t i c g e a r i n g of the student's course program to h i s needs, a b i l i t i e s , and a v a i l a b l e time. Di Vesta (120) reported some i n t e r e s t i n g research i n 1954, i n which three s t y l e s of p r e s e n t a t i o n of a correspondence course were s t u d i e d f o r t h e i r r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s , as measured by an achievement examination. The three s t y l e s were not found t o be d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , nor d i d they seem t o a f f e c t the r e t e n t i o n of the achievement l e v e l . Also h i s f i n d i n g s regarding the w r i t i n g of examinations are 54 noteworthy, as f o l l o w s . Students who wrote an "open book" examination had higher f i n a l and r e t e n t i o n examination (30 days l a t e r ) scores than d i d those students who wrote the " c l o s e d book" examination. Although the "open book" students took s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s e s over the 30 day p e r i o d , t h e i r r e t e n t i o n score was s t i l l h igher than the " c l o s e d book" students, who almost maintained t h e i r o r i g i n a l achievement l e v e l . (6) Study Guides Tucker (412) made a study t o determine how u s e f u l the study guides were to the United S t a t e s Armed Forces I n s t i t u t e (USAFI) correspondence courses, and reported as f o l l o w s : -(1) 75% of the e n r o l l e e s b e l i e v e d t h a t study guides were u s e f u l and increased t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n c o n t i n u i n g the course. (2) 14% f e l t t h a t the s t y l e was too t e r s e , too b r i e f . (3) About 1/3 of the students wanted more exp l a n a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p o i n t s . (4) The m o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t o f a study guide was greater f o r those w i t h l e s s education. (5) Regarding an " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t h a t provided general o r i e n t a t i o n t o the course by supplying background i n f o r m a t i o n , about 40% r a t e d i t very u s e f u l , 50% f a i r l y u s e f u l , and 6% considered i t not u s e f u l . There was a d e f i n i t e tendency f o r students w i t h l e s s education to place a higher value on the I n t r o d u c t i o n . 55 (6) About 2/3 of the e n r o l l e e s r a t e d Study Notes as very u s e f u l , and most of the r e s t r a t e d them as f a i r l y u s e f u l . There was some tendency f o r those w i t h l e s s education t o r a t e the value of Study Notes h i g h e r . (7) There was general agreement t h a t the Study Guide provided helped the students prepare f o r the end-of-the-course t e s t . About i reported t h a t i t helped a l o t , and 45% t h a t i t helped somewhat. (412) Course O u t l i n e s Bradt*s (44) p u b l i c a t i o n regarding the use and e f f e c t -iveness of USAFI I n s t r u c t o r s * Course O u t l i n e s s t a t e d t h a t those who have used them wish t o have them continued. The most frequent c r i t i c i s m concerns the time t a b l e , since the a c t u a l number of c l a s s hours i s often much l e s s than t h a t f o r which the o u t l i n e s were designed. They are f e l t t o be of primary b e n e f i t t o inexperienced teachers, and many i n s t r u c t o r s wish t o see more teaching a i d s and suggestions i n c l u d e d i n them. (S) The Poster The poster i s designed t o t e l l i t s s t o r y at a glance, and i t may use p i c t u r e s , cartoons, graphs, diagrams o r maps. The U.S. O f f i c e of Fac t s and Fi g u r e s Graphics D i v i s i o n i n 1942 (320) r e p o r t e d t h a t war posters t h a t make a pu r e l y emotional appeal are by f a r the b e s t . No matter how b e a u t i f u l the a r t work, how s t r i k i n g the c o l o u r s , how c l e v e r the i d e a , unless the war poster appeals t o a b a s i c human emotion i n both p i c t u r e and t e x t , i t i s not l i k e l y t o make a deep impression. War posters 56 t h a t are symbolic do not a t t r a c t a great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n and f a i l t o arouse enthusiasm. Often they are misunderstood. A poster should be a p i c t u r e - a t r u e and l i t e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n photographic d e t a i l of people and o b j e c t s as they are, (though not n e c e s s a r i l y a photograph), and as they look t o the m i l l i o n s of average people who make up the pop u l a t i o n of the country. These f i n d i n g s , though based on "war" posters c e r t a i n l y have broader and more general a p p l i c a t i o n . (10) P i c t u r e s There i s l i t t l e research a v a i l a b l e on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s or " f l a t " p i c t u r e s as a teaching d e v i c e . However, s e v e r a l reviews of the research have been prepared by Dale and others (108), (109), I b i s o n (220) (non-adult), Spaulding (378) and the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s D i v i s i o n of Communications (421). From a c a r e f u l review of the research and an experiment w i t h newly l i t e r a t e a d u l t s i n L a t i n America, Spaulding (377) s t a t e d t h a t an i l l u s t r a t i o n should be presented i n terms of the past experience of the intended audience; i t should be kept simple, i t should be i n c o l o r , and captions should be used t o g e n e r a l i z e , modify, r e l a t e , and extend the meaning of the i l l u s t r a t i o n . As p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n , v i s u a l two dimensional non-pr o j e c t e d a i d s , the research p e r t a i n i n g t o the l e g i b i l i t y of type forms has been reviewed and some of i t presented here f o r guidance w i t h reference t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of teaching d e v i c e s . 57 T i n k e r and Paterson (407) i n 1946, and e a r l i e r , T i nker (404) reported t h a t l e t t e r s and words i n c a p i t a l s are read at g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s than those i n corresponding lower case. However, Breland and Breland (48) found t h a t under normal reading con-d i t i o n s , p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n lower case i s more l e g i b l e than m a t e r i a l i n c a p i t a l s . A l s o T i n k e r and Paterson (4O5) found t h a t under reading c o n d i t i o n s lower case p r i n t i s read much f a s t e r than p r i n t i n c a p i t a l s and s l i g h t l y f a s t e r than m a t e r i a l i n i t a l i c s . T i nker (4O4) a l s o noted t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n dist a n c e f o r reading words and u n r e l a t e d l e t t e r s i n lower case are g r e a t e r than i n the case of c a p i t a l s . Tinker and Paterson (406) i n another study reported t h a t readers g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r type arrangements w i t h moderate v a r i a t i o n s i n the type forms used. Photographs and p i c t u r e s have many uses, as Schlup (358) r e p o r t s ; they can be used t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n , arouse i n t e r e s t , motivate, develop a t t i t u d e s , develop a p p r e c i a t i o n , introduce new su b j e c t s , and e x p l a i n and i l l u s t r a t e s p e c i f i c steps i n doing a j o b . They can t e l l a graphic s t o r y when used w i t h c i r c u l a r s and b u l l e t i n s , press a r t i c l e s and r e p o r t s . They l i g h t e n the t e x t , and when w e l l composed form a va l u a b l e supplement t o the w r i t t e n word. Buswell (63) s t u d i e d the nature of eye movements of 200 i n d i v i d u a l s as they looked at 55 p i c t u r e s of v a r i o u s types and reported t h a t the d i r e c t i o n s given p r i o r t o l o o k i n g at a p i c t u r e have a marked i n f l u e n c e upon the character of p e r c e p t i o n . 5* Brandt (46) c o n t r i b u t e d the f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the i n i t i a l f i x a t i o n s of the eyes tended t o f a l l t o the l e f t and above the center of the p i c t u r e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t content of an i l l u s t r a t i o n should be organized so as not t o oppose eye-movement tendencies, but r a t h e r t o place the most s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s of an i l l u s t r a t i o n i n the center or upper l e f t of the p i c t u r e . G a l l u p (154) noted the f o l l o w i n g : - people w i l l not take time or t r o u b l e t o f i g u r e out a p i c t u r e , t h e r e f o r e i t should be taken i n at a glance. Modern a r t , symbols or sketches are not as e a s i l y understood as a c t u a l p i c t u r e s . Photographs, or a r t , photographic i n d e t a i l , w i l l stop twice as many people as an advertisement without photographs or such a r t . P i c t u r e s r e l e v a n t t o the s t o r y are more e f f e c t i v e than those which are not. Photographs t h a t p i c t u r e people i n a s i t u a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n a c t i o n , are b e t t e r than people depicted "alone" or " s t i l l " . R eal or a c t u a l backgrounds add m a t e r i a l l y t o i n t e r e s t . P i c t u r e s t h a t show people expressing some observable emotion such as a woman waving and s m i l i n g , are b e t t e r than "dead pan" p i c t u r e s . And l a s t l y , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s important: - i f you want t o stop the maximum number of women of 35 years of age, use p i c t u r e s of women of about the same age. (12) Graphics Since the e a r l y s t u d i e s on the most e f f e c t i v e forms of graphic p r e s e n t a t i o n were completed (102), ( 103) , (104) , (130) , ( 4 2 9 ) , and (446) , very l i t t l e p e r t i n e n t research a p p l i c a b l e t o a d u l t education has been r e p o r t e d . 59 Speaking g e n e r a l l y , Schlup (353) mentions t h a t Extension S e r v i c e makes wide use of c h a r t s and graphs, c h i e f l y to analyse a problem or s i t u a t i o n and t o c l a r i f y and give emphasis to o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . They help t o focus the audience's a t t e n t i o n and are a great value i n h e l p i n g a person t o present m a t e r i a l i n an o r d e r l y and l o g i c a l way. He p o i n t s out t h a t the best charts are s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o be e a s i l y read by everybody i n the room and emphasize a s i n g l e i d e a . They should be simple i n design and contain a l i m i t e d amount of i n f o r m a t i o n . He s t a t e s t h a t graphs are e f f e c t i v e f o r making comparisons, f o r c o n t r a s t s or f o r p r e s e n t i n g complicated f a c t s . A good graph r e q u i r e s l i t t l e e x p l a n a t i o n and t e l l s i t s s t o r y q u i c k l y . Washburne's (446) research showed t h a t : -(1) Simple v i s u a l p a t t e r n s w i t h few data tend t o produce more s p e c i f i c r e c a l l . More general r e c a l l r e s u l t s from p r e s e n t i n g more data i n more complex v i s u a l p a t t e r n s . (2) Bar graphs are best f o r complex or s l i g h t l y complex s t a t i c comparisons. (3) Pictographs are best f o r simple comparisons. (4) L i n e graphs are best f o r dynamic comparisons. (5) S t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s are best f o r s p e c i f i c comparisons. (6) Round numbers, and not too many of them, are best f o r conveying s p e c i f i c amounts. (446) 60 About 27 years l a t e r Peterson and Schramm (329) concluded some research which i n d i c a t e d t h a t : -(1) Accuracy of estimate drops w i t h an increase i n the number of dimensions i n the graphic form, i . e . area forms such as bar graphs are read more a c c u r a t e l y than volume forms such as the c y l i n d e r . (2) Accuracy of estimate drops w i t h an increase i n the number of elements i n c l u d e d i n a s i n g l e p r e s e n t a t i o n . (3) Accuracy i n reading graphs i s r e l a t e d t o age, education and t r a i n i n g or experience i n the use of graphs. (4) In e s t i m a t i n g p a r t s of a whole, the l a r g e s t part tends t o be underestimated w h i l e the mid d l e - s i z e d p a r t s tend t o be overestimated. (5) A c i r c u l a r graph i s a su p e r i o r way of i l l u s -t r a t i n g p a r t s of a whole. E e l s (130) made a p a r t i c u l a r study of the c i r c u l a r graph and h i s f i n d i n g s agreed w i t h those of Peterson and Schramm (329)• A g r i s e a r c h of November 1955 (9) reviews the research p e r t a i n i n g t o graphs and summarized the f i n d i n g s as f o l l o w s : -(1) Accuracy of estimates drops w i t h an increase i n the number of dimensions i n the graphic form, i . e . , area forms such as the bar graph are read more a c c u r a t e l y than volume forms such as the c y l i n d e r . (2) Accuracy of estimates drops w i t h an increase i n the number of elements i n c l u d e d i n a s i n g l e p r e s e n t a t i o n . (3) Accuracy i n reading graphs i s r e l a t e d t o age, education and t r a i n i n g o r experience i n the use of graphs. 61 (4) Simple v i s u a l p a t t e r n s w i t h few data tend t o produce more s p e c i f i c r e c a l l . (5) A c i r c l e graph i s a s u p e r i o r way of i l l u s -t r a t i n g p a r t s o f a whole. (6) In e s t i m a t i n g p a r t s of a whole, the l a r g e s t p a r t tends t o be underestimated w h i l e the m i d d l e -s i z e d p a r t s t e n d t o be o v e r e s t i m a t e d . (9) The a r t i c l e r e p o r t s t h a t s t u d i e s show the s i m p l e r the v i s u a l p a t t e r n , the more s p e c i f i c the r e c a l l , and more g e n e r a l r e c a l l r e s u l t s from a complex v i s u a l p a t t e r n and numerous da t a . Both l o g i c a l and v i s u a l f a c t o r s i n the grouping of q u a n t i t a t i v e m a t e r i a l a f f e c t r e c a l l . L o g i c a l f a c t o r s , - the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f data, seem t o have t h e i r g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on the r e c a l l o f r e l a t i v e amounts; v i s u a l f a c t o r s , - the g r a p h i c forms and d e s i g n s , seem to a f f e c t the r e c a l l o f s p e c i f i c amounts. A c h a r t i s a l s o presented which shows what type of graph i s best s u i t e d f o r s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s or requirements. I t i s an attempt t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r the o p i n i o n o f r e s e a r c h e r s i n g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and i s reproduced here f o r convenience, (p. 62) 62 TABLE I Chart P r e s e n t a t i o n of Recommended Graph Forms To Show S i n g l e bar M u l t i p l e bar C^c^e or P i e Li n e Graph Cosmo-graph 'Pictograph lAfriole and i t s part-S.. V X v/ X V 9 • Simple comparisons 9 • V 9 • 9 • V M u l t i p l e comparisons X V X ? X 9 • Trends X V X V 7 X 9 « Frequencies X V X X X Key: V ~ recommended ? = p o s s i b l e X a not recommended (9) 63 Peterson (328) made a study of the use of graphs as teaching m a t e r i a l i n the U.S. A i r Force, and reported the f o l l o w i n g : -(1) The t i t l e should be made complete and u s e f u l , i t should t e l l what, where, by whom, e t c . (2) I f the graph cannot be l a b e l l e d , supply a good key and place i t at or near the top of the graph. (3) Make any l a b e l s used easy t o read. (4) Do not run g r i d l i n e s i n t o l a b e l s . (5) Place a l a b e l on the p a r t i t names, and i f t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e , use an arrow. (6) The type s i z e o f a l a b e l should never f a l l below 8 p o i n t . (7) The placement and d i r e c t i o n of s c a l e s f o l l o w d i r e c t l y from mathematics usage. P o s i t i v e Negative •«- -» P o s i t i v e Negative (8) Begin a l l s c a l e s at zero. (9) I f range of s c a l e i s too lo n g , break i t . (10) I f some data, say f o r a month or a year, are mi s s i n g , leave a space and e x p l a i n i n a f o o t n o t e . (11) A graph w i t h only a few bars should be h o r i z o n t a l - i f i t has many bars, i t should be v e r t i c a l . (12) I f there are only a few bars the space between them should be the s i z e of the bar. (13) I f there are many bars the space between them can be s l i g h t l y l e s s than the width of a bar. (14) I f bars need not be arranged i n a time or other f i x e d sequence, arrange them i n e i t h e r ascending or descending order. (15) Be l o g i c a l , run a l t i t u d e l i n e s v e r t i c a l l y and d i s t a n c e l i n e s h o r i z o n t a l l y . (16) Data l i n e s must be h e a v i e s t , base l i n e s next h e a v i e s t , and g r i d l i n e s the l i g h t e s t . (17) In pictographs the p i c t u r e must be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . (18) The p i c t o g r a p h symbol should be capable of enlargement or r e d u c t i o n without d i s t o r t i o n . (19) I f d i f f e r e n t symbols are used, be sure the d i f f e r e n c e i s obvious and c l e a r . (20) I n d i c a t e q u a n t i t i e s by numbers, not s i z e of symbol. (21) E x p l a i n the amount a symbol represents. (22) Avoid f r a c t i o n s w i t h p i c t o g r a p h s . (23) Pictographs should only be used when exact numbers are not important. (328) I t should be noted t h a t Vernon (435) made a comprehen-s i v e review of research on graphic p r e s e n t a t i o n i n England i n 1952, and pointed out f o u r c o n d i t i o n s under which graphic and p i c t o r i a l a i d s are e f f e c t i v e . These he l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : -65 (1) Readers r e q u i r e s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g t o enable them t o understand most graphic m a t e r i a l s p r o p e r l y . (2) Diagrams do not always i n s u r e b e t t e r under-standing or r e t e n t i o n than do t a b l e s of f i g u r e s . (3) D i f f e r e n t s o r t s of data and r e l a t i o n s h i p s may r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of f i g u r e s . (4) P i c t o r i a l and graphic p r e s e n t a t i o n i s u s u a l l y understood b e t t e r when supplemented w i t h v e r b a l explan-a t i o n . These g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s have been su b s t a n t i a t e d by the research. (435) Saul and others (355) on behalf of the U.S. Navy, made an extensive review of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t t o the design and use of e f f e c t i v e graphic t r a i n i n g a i d s . They reviewed 240 references and found t h a t many of the r e p o r t s were c o n t r a d i c t -ory and i n c o n s i s t e n t . There was general agreement on p o i n t s such as! (1) Photographs should have a c l e a r - c u t center of i n t e r e s t , possess c l a r i t y , sharpness and strong c o n t r a s t and be f r e e from f a l s e impressions. (2) C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l designs are d i f f i c u l t to read. (3) Too many c o l o r s d e t r a c t , but c o l o r s p r o p e r l y used can f e a t u r e or emphasize p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s . (4) Graphic a i d s , as most other a i d s , need an explanatory i n t r o d u c t i o n . 66 (5) Captions must be p r o p e r l y placed, p r i n t e d i n l a r g e enough l e t t e r s and serve a teaching f u n c t i o n . (6) P i c t o r i a l graphs are more e a s i l y understood than the conventional l i n e o r bar type. P i e graphs are not recommended. (7) Graphs help i n t e l l i g e n t people understand the w r i t t e n t e x t ; however, the l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t are not helped by them. (8) Layout i s important t o graphic a i d s . Good graphics should possess balance, u n i t y , harmony, emphasis, rhythm, proper l e t t e r i n g and proper c o l o r . (355) There was general agreement a l s o on the f a c t t h a t the e f f e c t -i veness of graphic a i d s depends on the i n s t r u c t o r , - the s e l e c t i o n should be proper, the group prepared, the use of the a i d i n the t e a c h i n g l o c a t i o n be t r i e d and the use of the a i d be previewed. (13) Comic S t r i p s The United S t a t e s Armed Forces Information and Education O f f i c e (20) made two s t u d i e s t o evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of comic books as a t e a c h i n g device and from the f i r s t study reported there was no evidence t h a t the men who r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n " M i l i t a r y Courtesy" by l e c t u r e and comic book lea r n e d b e t t e r than the men who r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n by l e c t u r e and a f i e l d manual, or by only a l e c t u r e . However the second study of t h i s s e r i e s a year l a t e r i n which copies of the comic 67 book were l e f t i n the lounge showed some d i f f e r e n t f i n d i n g s . Although few men picked up the comic books, there were s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n knowledge by both f a s t and slow l e a r n e r s when they read the book. I t was noted t h a t of a l l those who read the comic book i t was only the b e t t e r educated men who r e t a i n e d more. (15J Technamation D i s p l a y s Technamation d i s p l a y s are devices t h a t use a method of ap p l y i n g transparent p l a s t i c s t o s t i l l p i c t u r e s so t h a t they appear t o move when or d i n a r y l i g h t , p r o j e c t e d through a r e -v o l v i n g d i s c of p o l a r i z e d p l a s t i c , i s thrown on them. Motion can be c o n t r o l l e d so a c c u r a t e l y t h a t a technamated cutaway drawing of a j e t engine shows the f u e l f l o w i n g i n and burning, the t u r b i n e s and gears t u r n i n g and gases r u s h i n g out the r e a r , a l l i n the exact t i m i n g of a r e a l engine. The U.S. Government i s u s i n g a technamation device t o teach employees the working of the underground s i l o s and f u e l system f o r the T i t a n m i s s i l e . The f a c t o r s t h a t determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a technamation device would seem t o be i t s s u i t a b i l i t y i n s i t u a t i o n s where items such as s a f e t y , s e c u r i t y and cost have t o be considered i n r e l a t i o n t o whether or not i t i s the best p o s s i b l e device t o e i t h e r a s s i s t the p r e s e n t a t i o n and teaching of i n f o r m a t i o n a l knowledge, o r where performance must be measured and or improved. A review of recent developments i n technamation d i s p l a y s was reported by Time Magazine i n A p r i l 1961 (4O3J. 6a E l e c t r o n i c Education A new and very i n t e r e s t i n g teaching device i s described by T r o t t e r (410) i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " E l e c t r o n i c Education", p u b l i s h e d i n the d a i l y newspaper, the Vancouver Sun, on 17 October, 1964. I t i s mentioned here as i t would appear to have tremendous p o t e n t i a l use i n a d u l t education. Dr. T r o t t e r , chairman of the board of General Telephone and E l e c t r o n i c s L a b o r a t o r i e s L t d . , e x p l a i n s t h a t one e x c e l l e n t teacher can now i n s t r u c t an e n t i r e county, s t a t e or province through two-way telephone c i r c u i t s , f o r as the teacher w r i t e s notes and draws diagrams these are t r a n s f e r r e d t o a type of blackboard by telephone; - and the c i r c u i t s are much l e s s c o s t l y than closed c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n systems. 69 A. I l l u s t r a t i v e Devices 2. V i s u a l c» Two dimentional* - P r o j e c t e d (1) Opaque and transparent or overhead p r o j e c t i o n s No research was found t h a t d e a l t w i t h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of opaque and overhead p r o j e c t i o n s as teaching devices i n a d u l t education. However i t can be seen t h a t the opaque p r o j e c t i o n i s , f o r the most p a r t , i n e f f e c t , j u s t an extended use of graphics, p o s t e r s e t c . ; and transparent or overhead p r o j e c t i o n s , although more e a s i l y used and capable of wider a p p l i c a t i o n and greater f l e x i b i l i t y , have much the same r e s u l t s as the f i l m s t r i p and s l i d e p r o j e c t i o n s , - and these two are examined at some l e n g t h a l i t t l e f u r t h e r on i n t h i s paper. This tremendous advantage of wide a p p l i c a t i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d v i v i d l y i n an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by Brann (47) t h a t appeared i n the N a t i o n a l Observer on 23 November, I 9 6 4 , e n t i t l e d " P i t t ' s Amazing P r o f e s s o r Peterson Teaches E n g l i s h With A P r o j e c t o r " . (2) F i l m As C l i n t o n (82) pointed out, f i l m s s t a r t e d w i t h p i c t u r e s then added words - whereas the "press" s t a r t e d w i t h words, then added p i c t u r e s . F i l m makes an immediate mass appeal. P l a t o n i c e l y s t a t e d the case when he s a i d , "The i m i t a t i o n of l i f e holds the widest appeal to c h i l d r e n and t o the attendants of c h i l d r e n and t o the v u l g a r mass". Carpenter and G r e e n h i l l (73) e x p l a i n i t by 70 saying the showing of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v i t e s suspension of s e l f and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . This then b r i n g s i n t o p l a y submerged impulses which are repressed under t e n s i o n . The l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n as represented by the f i l m , can be s t r e n g t h -ened w i t h words, but i t r e a l l y does not need them as i t s appeal a n t i d a t e s speech. U n t i l f a i r l y r e c e n t l y most of the research c a r r i e d out i n the f i e l d of t e a c h i n g devices was done w i t h reference t o e d u c a t i o n a l motion p i c t u r e s . A thorough research on f i l m was p u b l i s h e d by Hoban and VanOrmer (204) i n 1950. Other reviews o f research on the use of f i l m as a teaching device were noted p r e v i o u s l y as f o l l o w s , A l l e n ( 14) , Dale (109) , Dale (108), McClusky (279) , and Stenius ( 3 8 5 ) . Most of the e a r l y research c a r r i e d out on the e f f e c t i v e -ness of f i l m as a t e a c h i n g device was based on work w i t h school students, - see Arnspiger ( 2 4 ) , C o n s i t t ( 8 7 ) , Holaday and Stoddard (181), Knowlton and T i t o n ( 2 4 9 ) , Merchant ( 2 8 6 ) , Watkins (447) , Weber ( 4 4 9 ) , and Wise (461) . However t h i s work d i d show t h a t f i l m s can teach f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y over a wide range of subject matter content, ages, a b i l i t i e s and c o n d i t i o n s of use. Hovland and others (210) i n working w i t h about 2000 s o l d i e r s i n 1949 proved t h a t f i l m s are q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l i n imparting f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n to a d u l t s , although not an e f f e c t i v e device f o r i n f l u e n c i n g motivations or modifying b a s i c a t t i t u d e s . 71 VanderMeer (427) completed a study on the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n s t r u c t i o n by (1) f i l m s e x c l u s i v e l y , (2) f i l m s p l u s study guides and (3) standard l e c t u r e method and found t h a t f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes the three methods were of almost equal e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F i l m has been a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e device f o r the teaching of perceptual motor s k i l l s . Research by McClusky and McClusky (281), Brown and Messersmith ( 5 6 ) , Lockhart (264) , and Priebe and Burton (334) a l l proved t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n of a motor s k i l l by f i l m was as e f f e c t i v e as by conventional methods. VanderMeer (424) reported on the r e s u l t s of t r a i n i n g l a t h e operators by means of e i g h t U.S. O f f i c e of Education f i l m s and s t a t e d t h a t the use of f i l m s cut the working time, r e s u l t e d i n a r e d u c t i o n of the t r i a l - a n d e r r o r l e a r n i n g time, and produced more f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on machine o p e r a t i o n . He concluded t h a t f i l m s are probably more e f f e c t i v e i n teaching the more complex s k i l l s than t e a c h i n g the simple ones. About seven years l a t e r VanderMeer and Cogswell (428) reported on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of u s i n g f i l m t o t r a i n servicemen i n the use and maintenance of the 16 mm sound p r o j e c t o r . They s t a t e d t h a t the attempt was very s u c c e s s f u l and t h a t a t t i t u d e s were i n f l u e n c e d i n favour of f i l m o b j e c t i v e s , and the t r a i n e e s were favourably disposed toward the f i l m approach to l e a r n i n g . A l s o i t was found t h a t two f i l m showings were b e t t e r than one. Hoban (201) reported a study by Beck and Lumsdaine which compared the t e a c h i n g of the assembly and disassembly of 72 a p o r t a b l e r a d a r s t a t i o n w i t h a f i l m and w i t h a competent i n s t r u c t o r u s i n g a s c a l e model. Although the two groups r e q u i r e d about the same l e n g t h o f time t o perform the oper-a t i o n s when t e s t e d , the i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded t h a t the f i l m i n s t r u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d teamwork and e f f i c i e n c y . In t h i s same p u b l i c a t i o n Hoban r e p o r t e d on the comparative t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the s l i d e f i l m and the motion p i c t u r e and s a i d t h a t the motion p i c t u r e appeared t o be s l i g h t l y s u p e r i o r i n t e a c h i n g although t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the two media as measured by the t e s t s . Roshal (352) i n v e s t i g a t e d the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t r a i n i n g f i l m designed t o teach a s k i l l i s i n c r e a s e d as the f i l m approaches r e a l i s m and r e p o r t e d t h a t the f i l m w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g a s k i l l i f the t a s k ( i n t h i s case knot t y i n g ) i s p o r t r a y e d from the viewing angle o f the l e a r n e r as he w i l l perform the a c t . A l s o he proved t h a t a f i l m which shows the motions i n v o l v e d i n a perceptual-motor t a s k r e q u i r i n g continuous motion i s more e f f e c t i v e than a s e r i e s o f s t a t i c p i c t u r e s . Jaspen (227), (228) made two s t u d i e s o f the e f f e c t s on t r a i n i n g men by u s i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l f i l m v a r i a b l e s . In study one, he used seventeen d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f a t r a i n i n g f i l m and i n study two, f o u r t e e n d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s . The r e s u l t s can be l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : -(1) R e p e t i t i o n o f the demonstration of a t a s k w i l l add t o e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a g i v e n f i l m . 73 (2) I t i s p o s s i b l e t o have too many or too few words i n the n a r r a t i o n . Medium v e r b a l i z a t i o n , about 100 words per minute, was found most e f f e c t i v e . (3) Showing common e r r o r s t o be avoided i n c r e a s e s the i n s t r u c t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a f i l m . (4) The use of t e c h n i c a l nomenclature does not appear t o f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n i n g of an assembly process. (5) The i n c l u s i o n of "How-it-works" sequence d i d not c o n t r i b u t e t o l e a r n i n g . (6) Having the audience perform the task as i t i s shown on the screen i s an e f f e c t i v e procedure i f the r a t e of development i s slow enough t o permit the l e a r n e r t o view the f i l m and perform the tas k without too much l o s s of a t t e n t i o n t o e i t h e r . (7) Rapid compact treatment ( s u c c i n c t treatment) i s i n e f f e c t i v e . The r a t e of development must be co-ordinated w i t h the t r a i n e e s r a t e of l e a r n i n g . Ash and Jaspen (27) again proved t h a t second and t h i r d r e p e t i t i o n s of a f i l m demonstrating a s k i l l was very e f f e c t i v e i n terms of t r a i n e e s performance and speed of s k i l l a f t e r seeing the f i l m . Harby (184) and Murnin and others (304) used the d a y l i g h t p r o j e c t i o n of r e p e t i t i v e f i l m loops i n the te a c h i n g of a t h l e t i c s k i l l s . They found t h a t a repeated motion-picture demonstration was at l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as a l i v e i n s t r u c t o r ' s demonstration but t h a t l i v e i n s t r u c t i o n was s u p e r i o r when 74 i n d i v i d u a l coaching was added. H i r s c h ' s (197) work emphasized these r e s u l t s when he showed t h a t r e p e t i t i v e f i l m loops taught r i f l e marksmanship s k i l l s t o Army Trainees as w e l l as d i d the u s u a l l e c t u r e - d e m o n s t r a t i o n - a p p l i c a t i o n method. D u v a l l (124) compared the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n s t r u c t i n g Servicemen i n t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g courses by sound motion p i c t u r e s and by s l i d e s p l u s tapes and by conventional f a c e - t o - f a c e i n s t r u c t i o n . He reported t h a t there was an i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t r a i n e e ' s scores on a l l three methods. Brody's (53) work i n I960 showed t h a t r e l a t i v e l y complex and complete pe r c e p t u a l motor s k i l l s can be taught by f i l m without the a i d of any other i n s t r u c t i o n . This would not preclude the n e c e s s i t y of p r a c t i c e on o p e r a t i o n a l equipment e.g. motor car f o r d r i v i n g s k i l l s , but the p r a c t i c e time on the equipment can be reduced. Zuckerman (466) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of commentary v a r i a t i o n s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s on perceptual-motor t a s k s . He r e p o r t e d t h a t a medium l e v e l of v e r b a l i z a t i o n (89 - 125 words per minute) was best and t h a t the use of the second person pronoun and the imperative mood were most e f f e c t i v e . The t h i r d person pas s i v e e.g., "a loop i s formed", was l e a s t e f f e c t i v e . The most e f f e c t i v e phase r e l a t i o n s h i p was where sound l e d the p i c t u r e . Cogswell (83) found t h a t a three-dimensional f i l m on the assembly of the breech block of a 40 mm a n t i - a i r c r a f t gun was no more e f f e c t i v e i n teaching the assembly s k i l l than a two-dimensional f i l m . I t can be recommended then t h a t the average f a c t u a l o r m o t o r - s k i l l t r a i n i n g f i l m need not be 75 s t e r e o s c o p i c as the added expense of the technique i s not j u s t i f i e d by any increment i n l e a r n i n g . I t would seem t h a t monocular cues f o r depth pe r c e p t i o n are s u f f i c i e n t f o r l e a r n i n g t h i s k i n d of task e f f e c t i v e l y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h r e e -dimensional f i l m s are val u a b l e i n t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s where judgement of depth i s an e s s e n t i a l cue t o l e a r n i n g . Wiese (453) reported t h a t f i l m s taught a d u l t i l l i t e r a t e s w i t h much l e s s supplementary help than conventional methods re q u i r e d and P e l l (326) records the s u c c e s s f u l use of f i l m s i n Workers education. An unfounded c r i t i c i s m of i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s i s t h a t l e a r n i n g from them i s " p a s s i v e " and i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h i n k i n g and the development of concepts and i n f e r e n c e s . There i s some evidence t o the c o n t r a r y . Vernon's (436) study of the e f f e c t i v e -ness of a sound f i l m and s i l e n t f i l m s t r i p i n teaching B r i t i s h seamen t r a i n e e s t o take soundings showed t h a t the f i l m and f i l m -s t r i p produced a g r e a t e r gain i n the "comprehension" scores than i n the "memory f o r d e t a i l " scores. There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f i l m s are, to some extent, p a s s i v e l y viewed as S i l l a r s (368) w r i t e s t h a t when used as an ad u l t education medium, motion p i c t u r e impressions should not be p a s s i v e l y r e c e i v e d . . . but should be a s s i m i l a t e d c r i t i c a l l y . . . by purposeful and i n t e l l i g e n t l y guided d i s c u s s i o n . Brooker (54) made a survey of 500 businesses and i n d u s t r i e s on t h e i r use of t r a i n i n g f i l m s and reported the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . 76 (1) F i l m s speeded up t r a i n i n g without any l o s s i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . (2) F i l m s made classwork more i n t e r e s t i n g and r e s u l t e d i n l e s s absenteeism. (3) F i l m s made on the u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e l e v e l were used s u c c e s s f u l l y on lower grade l e v e l s . (4) F i l m s are not good i n and of themselves. They are good only i f w e l l made and w e l l used. Over-optimism i s cautioned a g a i n s t . (5) There was evidence t h a t f i l m viewers thought they knew more than they d i d and on the other hand they had learned some t h i n g s on a nonverbal l e v e l they could not express. (54) Hague (180) reported some eq u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s as the r e s u l t of a survey made of 112 Department s t o r e s and 15 S p e c i a l t y s t o r e s p l u s 44 i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t r a i n i n g d i r e c t o r s of these s t o r e s . His f i n d i n g s are as f o l l o w s . Motion p i c t u r e s are of proven value i n fcetail t r a i n i n g , -(1) To arouse emotions, such as f e e l i n g s of l o y a l t y t o the s t o r e , or p r i d e i n a jo b . (2) To i n f l u e n c e employee a t t i t u d e f o r example, t o courteous treatment of customers. (3) To provide b a s i c background i n f o r m a t i o n , such as the ch a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of merchandise, how i t should be used, handled and cared f o r , i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n f e a t u r e s and other s e l l i n g p o i n t s . (4) For job i n s t r u c t i o n i n both s e l l i n g and n o n - s e l l i n g c a t e g o r i e s . (5) Motion p i c t u r e s are a u t h o r i t a t i v e . They can teach people who would not respond t o an i n s t r u c t o r e.g. experienced salespeople resent attempts t o give them a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g but more r e a d i l y accept t r a i n i n g from a f i l m . Business Screen (62) a l s o records an e f f e c t i v e use of f i l m s 77 f o r an i n d u s t r i a l i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program. Haas (178) •writes t h a t the d i r e c t o r of r e t a i l t r a i n i n g f o r Montgomery-Ward & Co. s t a t e s t h a t when t r a i n i n g f i l m s are used (1) Employees l e a r n 35% more. (2) Employees remember 35% l o n g e r . (3) F i l m s g i v e employees conf idence i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o work s u c c e s s f u l l y and t h u s b u i l d m o r a l e . (4) I n any o r g a n i z a t i o n everyone must "see a l i k e " and "do a l i k e " i n the maintenance o f s tandards and o n l y f i l m can make t r a i n i n g u n i f o r m . (5) F i l m s make i t p o s s i b l e t o meet w o r k i n g and t r a i n i n g s tandards i n l e s s t ime thus s a v i n g t ime and money. Haas a l s o s t a t e s t h a t B . A . Augenbaugh found t h a t the r a t i o o f r e t e n t i o n has been as h i g h as 9 t o 1 f o r the f i l m group over the word group when d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , expos-i t i o n or argumentat ion are presented as the s u b j e c t m a t t e r . One t e s t employed t e x t book study versus p i c t u r e s of the same s u b j e c t and i t was found t h a t where i t u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d 10 days t o cover the work u s i n g the t e x t book the same s u b j e c t c o u l d be " c o v e r e d " by f i l m i n 15 minutes and the t r a i n e e s l e a r n e d more and r e t a i n e d i t l o n g e r . Haas adds one p r i n c i p l e t o those a l r e a d y noted f o r e f f e c t i v e f i l m t e a c h i n g , - i t must be p e r s o n -a l i z e d . H i s o t h e r p o i n t s have been brought o u t , d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and surveys but can be s t a t e d a g a i n : - F i l m t r a i n i n g (1) Must be s i m p l e . (2) Must be p r a c t i c a l . (3) Must be e d u c a t i o n a l . (4) Must be i n t e r e s t i n g . (5) Must f i t the b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n . (6) must have management s u p p o r t . (7) Must be e f f e c t i v e . 78 Long (265) summarizes eleven s t u d i e s i n r e p o r t i n g t h a t the use of f i l m as compared t o the l e c t u r e method of i n s t r u c t i o n shows: - (1) The s u p e r i o r i t y of f i l m i n a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n , (2) The s u p e r i o r i t y of the f i l m i s f u r t h e r evidenced when as much as 3 t o 4 months have elapsed between the i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g and the f i n a l t e s t . (3) In a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n the c o l o r f i l m i s as s u p e r i o r t o black and white f i l m as b l ack and white f i l m i s to the l e c t u r e method of i n s t r u c t i o n . Vandemeer's (426) f i n d i n g s d i d not e n t i r e l y agree w i t h Long's. In comparing the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of black and white f i l m w i t h c o l o u r f i l m he showed each v e r s i o n of a f i l m t o 250 t r a i n e e s and t e s t e d f o r r e s u l t s . He reported t h a t there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the amount of l e a r n i n g but t h a t r e t e n t i o n was g r e a t e r from co l o u r f i l m . Although colour f i l m i s l i k e d b e t t e r the subject matter content was much more important i n determining whether or not the f i l m was " l i k e d " , than i f i t was black and white or coloured. He a l s o noted t h a t the t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a f i l m i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o how w e l l i t i s l i k e d by the viewers but concluded t h a t there was not enough d i f f e r e n c e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o j u s t i f y the i n c r e a s e d cost of c o l o r . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of r e p e t i t i v e showings of i n s t r u c -t i o n a l f i l m has been stud i e d and reported on by s e v e r a l researchers, already noted as f o l l o w s - VanderMeer and Cogswell (428), Jaspen (228) , and Ash and Jaspen (27)• McTavish (284) s t a t e s t h a t the f i r s t r e p e t i t i o n r e s u l t e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l increments i n l e a r n i n g and three showings f a i l e d t o add 79 m a t e r i a l l y or s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the l e a r n i n g e f f e c t e d by two showings. Four showings r e s u l t e d i n an even smaller increment, or i n two cases a s l i g h t decrement over three showings. Carpenter's (71) f i n d i n g s do not e n t i r e l y agree w i t h those of McTavish ( 2 8 4 ) . He reported t h a t the second showing increased l e a r n i n g 35% over the f i r s t showing and the t h i r d showing caused an increase of 7.4% over the second showing. The f o u r t h showing r e s u l t e d i n an increase of 1.1% over the 3rd showing. To add t o the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , Nelson and VanderMeer (312) found t h a t f o r an assembly t a s k , i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g through as many as s i x r e p e t i t i o n s has been observed and t h a t the l i m i t of r e p e t i t i o n s as an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g device i s not known. H i r s c h (196) r e p o r t s t h a t a second showing of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m w i l l reassure the t r a i n e e s , - as w e l l as a i d r e t e n t i o n . Jackson (223) compared the teaching e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f f i l m s and kinescopes and reported t h a t when a kinescope or t r a i n i n g f i l m i s described as a kinescope, l e a r n i n g increases s i g n i f i c a n t l y and tha t s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s occur w i t h kinescope i n black and white or i n c o l o u r . About three years l a t e r , i n 1955, Hurst (217) d i d much the same research and reported t h a t the kinescope had l o s t i t s novel e f f e c t and t h a t t r a i n e e s l e a r n e d about the same amount from a f i l m whether they were t o l d i t was a kinescope or f i l m . G r e e n h i l l and Tyo (173) reviewed the i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m production, u t i l i z a t i o n and research i n Great B r i t a i n , Canada and A u s t r a l i a and re p o r t as f o l l o w s : - ( l ) The sequence of p i c t u r e s i n f i l m s t r i p s should be a b s o l u t e l y l o g i c a l and human i n t e r e s t should be intro d u c e d whenever p o s s i b l e . (2) A s i l e n t motion p i c t u r e w i t h teacher commentary i s most e f f e c t i v e . (3) Classes taught by f i l m s t r i p s obtained b e t t e r scores than those taught by the us u a l l e c t u r e method. (4) Not only the " r e g u l a r " c l a s s e s but those who had seen the f i l m s t r i p obtained h i g h e r marks i f they had seen the motion p i c t u r e f i l m . (5) Two c l a s s e s which had no ordin a r y ( l e c t u r e ) i n s t r u c t i o n but which saw the f i l m twice i n f i f t y minutes were about as informed, on a paper t e s t , as those c l a s s e s which had r e c e i v e d three f u l l p e r i o d s of normal i n s t r u c t i o n from weak i n s t r u c t o r s . (6) E i t h e r f i l m or f i l m s t r i p can be used p r o f i t a b l y and both are worth-w h i l e when time a l l o w s . Furthermore they can compensate e i t h e r f o r weakness i n the i n s t r u c t o r o r f o r a r a t h e r poor l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the c l a s s . Ash and C a r l t o n (26) i n v e s t i g a t e d the value of note-t a k i n g during f i l m l e a r n i n g and reported t h a t groups seeing a f i l m without t a k i n g notes answered a higher percentage of t e s t questions c o r r e c t l y than d i d groups whose members took notes. The note-ta k i n g seemed to a c t u a l l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h l e a r n i n g . There were f o u r groups considered i n t h i s study: - "no f i l m " , " f i l m & notes", " f i l m , notes and review" and " f i l m only", and the three u s i n g the f i l m were a l l s u p e r i o r t o the "no f i l m " group• Some i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s were produced by Ash (25) as a r e s u l t of a study he made i n t o the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of 81 massed v e r s u s spaced f i l m p r e s e n t a t i o n s . He r e p o r t e d t h a t t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s u s i n g f i l m may l a s t as l o n g as an hour and s t i l l r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g and t h a t l o n g massed f i l m s e s s i o n s had not been shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s e f f e c t i v e than shor t spaced s e s s i o n s . The t r a i n e e s d i d not seem t o f i n d l o n g f i l m s e s s i o n s l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g than s h o r t spaced s e s s i o n s and the l e a r n i n g accomplished seems t o be r e l a t i v e l y independent o f expressed i n t e r e s t . Brenner , W a l t e r and K u r t z (49 ) , and K u r t z , Wal ter and Brenner (254) completed s t u d i e s as t o the e f f e c t s o f i n s e r t e d q u e s t i o n s and statements on f i l m l e a r n i n g . These s t u d i e s concluded t h a t the f i l m repeated o r the f i l m w i t h i n s e r t e d q u e s t i o n s or the f i l m w i t h p e r s i s t e n t statements were a l l s u p e r i o r t o the o r i g i n a l f i l m shown o n l y once . A l s o t h a t showing the o r i g i n a l f i l m t w i c e i s a l s o about as e f f e c t i v e as i n s e r t i n g q u e s t i o n s o r r e i n f o r c i n g s ta tements . VanderMeer (425) , r e p o r t e d on the e f f e c t s o f p r a c t i c e i n f i l m - v i e w i n g as a f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g from i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s . The f i n d i n g s were s i g n i f i c a n t and suggest t h a t e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d toward the development o f s k i l l i n l e a r n i n g from f i l m s should meet w i t h i m p r e s s i v e r e s u l t s . V i n c e n t , Ash and G r e e n h i l l (438) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g of v a r y i n g the t o t a l amount of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n a f i l m o f g i v e n l e n g t h , and the l e n g t h o f t ime a l l o t t e d to conveying a f i x e d amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n . They 82 r e p o r t e d t h a t g e n e r a l l y a longer f i l m w i t h a l i g h t concentration of f a c t s was the most e f f e c t i v e f o r l e a r n i n g . Zuckerman (467) i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t music made t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s and reported t h a t there was no good evidence of the value of music. Al s o there was no general agreement about the value of music i n expressing c e r t a i n emotional expressions but t h a t i t v a r i e d w i t h groups. He c i t e s one research which s t a t e s music can make the three great c o n t r i b u t i o n s of u n i t y , atmosphere and enhancement of dramatic v a l u e s . S h e t t e l and others (365) i n v e s t i g a t e d the use of s p e c i a l f i l m s as p o s s i b l e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r or supplements t o expensive and cumbersome mobile t r a i n i n g devices and reported t h a t f i l m e d l e c t u r e s could be used t o supplement, and i n some cases r e p l a c e , the t r a i n i n g d e v i c e s . A l s o i t was shown t h a t f i l m e d l e c t u r e s could be used as p e r i o d i c reviews. Working on behalf of the U.S. Naval S p e c i a l Devices Centre at the Pennsylvania State C o l l e g e , Mercer (293) i n v e s t -i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l from i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s and the use of o p t i c a l e f f e c t s (fades, wipes and d i s s o l v e s ) i n such f i l m s , and a l s o the f i l m l i t e r a c y of such o p t i c a l e f f e c t s . He reported t h a t : -1. The noted o p t i c a l e f f e c t s d i d not a i d f a c t u a l l e a r n i n g . 2 . F i l m viewers attached no s p e c i f i c meaning t o s p e c i f i c o p t i c a l e f f e c t s . 83 3» Other cues i n the p i c t u r e and sound t r a c k were the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g o p t i c a l e f f e c t s t o i n d i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n s . 4» Producers of f i l m s were found to be i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r use of o p t i c a l e f f e c t s . (293) I t was recommended i n the i n t e r e s t s of economy tha t o p t i c a l e f f e c t s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s be e l i m i n a t e d or g r e a t l y reduced i n number. T r a n s i t i o n s should be i n d i c a t e d by t i t l e s o r statements i n the commentary. Lathrop and Norford (261) examined the p o s s i b l e c o n t r i -b u tions of f i l m i n t r o d u c t i o n s and summaries to l e a r n i n g from i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s and reported t h a t both c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e and i n f a c t , an i n t r o d u c t i o n i n one case had an adverse e f f e c t . Neu (313) i n q u i r e d i n t o the e f f e c t of a t t e n t i o n g a i n i n g devices on film-mediated l e a r n i n g and found there was no evidence t h a t r e l e v a n t a t t e n t i o n - g a i n i n g devices added t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of f i l m s and there was evidence t h a t non-relevant a t t e n t i o n - g a i n i n g devices (e.g. bathing beauty) a c t u a l l y d e t r a c t e d from the t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the f i l m s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between e f f e c t i v e -ness of sound and v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g d e v i c e s . The a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l the a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g devices was p r a c t i c a l l y independent of l e a r n i n g . Northrup (319) determined how the content of f i l m s could be organized and how the o r g a n i z a t i o n a f f e c t s l e a r n i n g . H i s r e s u l t s showed t h a t adding o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l t o a 84 l o o s e l y organized f i l m a i d s i n s t r u c t i o n , and the men b e n e f i t t i n g most from t h i s " o r g a n i z a t i o n " were those i n the lower h a l f of the c l a s s . I t was a l s o revealed t h a t too much d e t a i l e d out-l i n i n g f o r an already w e l l organized f i l m may a c t u a l l y decrease i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Kimble and Wulff (241) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o see whether or not b u i l t - i n - g u i d e s which a l e r t e d the viewers t o important inform-a t i o n would a s s i s t l e a r n i n g . They found t h a t the guidance procedure was s u p e r i o r f o r both the i n t e l l i g e n t and l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t viewers. Such guidance clues could be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g f i l m or could be provided i n p r o p e r l y spaced review s e s s i o n s . Carpenter, Smith and VanOrmer (74) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of p o i n t i n g out p o s s i b l e e r r o r s , the r a t e of development and the use of t e c h n i c a l nomenclature, i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s . They reported t h a t f i l m s i n c l u d i n g an e r r o r sequence produced b e t t e r l e a r n i n g and t h a t slow development was c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r to f a s t development. The omission of nomenclature seemed to be favourable t o l e a r n i n g when the nomenclature i t s e l f i s not an o b j e c t i v e of the i n s t r u c t i o n . S t e i n (384) examined the e f f e c t of a p r e - f i l m t e s t on l e a r n i n g from an e d u c a t i o n a l sound motion p i c t u r e and showed t h a t a p r e - f i l m t e s t which has i d e n t i c a l , ordered items, w i t h complete knowledge of r e s u l t s , immediately f o l l o w e d by a f i l m w i l l r e s u l t i n more l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n than when a f i l m alone i s shown once, or twice i n immediate succession. 35 M i l e s and Spain (297) reviewed the research i n the use of A u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s i n the Armed S e r v i c e s , i n World War I I , w i t h the view of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o general education. T h e i r s t u d i e s supported the contention t h a t f i l m s can and do a f f e c t emotional a t t i t u d e s i n the d i r e c t i o n predetermined t o be d e s i r a b l e and t h a t such a t t i t u d e s tend t o p e r s i s t f o r a con-s i d e r a b l e time. They a l s o showed t h a t f i l m s d e f i n i t e l y i n c r e a s e d f a c t u a l knowledge and such knowledge remained w i t h the t r a i n e e s f o r a considerable p e r i o d of time. They reported t h a t the Se r v i c e i n s t r u c t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t the use of movies and f i l m s t r i p s shortened t r a i n i n g time, r e s u l t e d i n greater l e a r n i n g , and st i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n . T h e i r review revealed the comparison o f l e a r n i n g s d e r i v e d from (1) a t r a i n i n g f i l m (2) studying from a w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d manual and (3) an organized l e c t u r e u s i n g 19 l a n t e r n s l i d e s . Both the su p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r s e c t i o n s of the movie group d i d s i g n i f -i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the other two groups, both immediately and when t e s t e d again a f t e r two months. A l s o , l e a r n i n g increased when the i n s t r u c t o r preceded the f i l m w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n . M i l e s and Spain, i n the same p u b l i c a t i o n , r e p o r t a survey of, S e r v i c e i n s t r u c t o r s 1 o p i n i o n s of 159 motion p i c t u r e s and 45 s l i d e f i l m s . Although t h i s i s not research, the study made by the T r a i n i n g A i d s D i v i s i o n of the Bureau of Naval Personnel i n 1945 was s u f f i c i e n t l y wide i n scope and thorough t o warrant consider-a t i o n . There were 3441 i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s of f i l m s and 457 86 r a t i n g s of .slide f i l m s . The more important of the I n s t r u c t o r o p i n i o n s concerning the general e f f e c t i v e n e s s of appropriate use of f i l m s and s l i d e f i l m s can be summarized as f o l l o w s : -(1) Navy i n s t r u c t o r s t h i n k t r a i n i n g f i l m s c o n s t i t u t e an e f f e c t i v e p a r t of the t r a i n i n g program. (2) Motion p i c t u r e s are considered more va l u a b l e i n t r a i n i n g than s l i d e f i l m s . (3) F i l m s can be s u c c e s s f u l l y used t o present h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s i n a c l e a r and understandable manner. (4) Navy i n s t r u c t o r s b e l i e v e t h a t men l e a r n more, remember longer and show more i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g when f i l m s are used than when t r a d i t i o n a l methods are employed. (5) F i l m s tend t o standardize t r a i n i n g , shorten t r a i n i n g time and make i n s t r u c t i o n more p r a c t i c a l . (297) Although i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t f i l m s can modify m o t i v a t i o n s , i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s and opinions i f they are designed t o s t i m u l a t e or r e i n f o r c e e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s of the audience, i t i s pointed out by H a r r i s (187) t h a t there i s l i t t l e evidence t h a t f i l m s can make changes i f they are contrary t o the e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s , p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e , or s o c i a l environment of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the audience. Standohar and Smith (381) i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n of l e c t u r e supplements t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an a t t i t u d e f i l m and reported t h a t the Airmen t r a i n e e s who heard one of the l e c t u r e s w i t h the f i l m expressed more favourable opinions concerning m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e than those who had seen the &7 movie without a l e c t u r e . Supplemental l e c t u r e s provide a means f o r making more e f f e c t i v e use of f i l m s which are already p e r t -i n e n t t o a given a t t i t u d e . French (145) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t i v e -ness of a movie i n changing a t t i t u d e s i n a m i l i t a r y audience. He reported t h a t a f a c t u a l t e s t , measuring understanding and memory, showed t h a t the average s e r v i c e man had absorbed more than 1/3 of the f i l m d e t a i l s and t h a t o f f i c e r groups absorbed about 2/3 . A l s o t h a t measurements of a t t i t u d e change before and a f t e r the f i l m i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t change had been achieved. I t should be kept i n mind th a t Hovland and others (210) showed t h a t f i l m s alone are not an e f f e c t i v e instrument f o r i n f l u e n c i n g motivations or modifying b a s i c a t t i t u d e s . Fowlkes (143) i n r e p o r t i n g the work of Ahlgren and others, showed t h a t the use of a f i l m w i t h a c a r e f u l l y prepared manual can a p p r e c i a b l y change a t t i t u d e s and, to a l e s s e r degree a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o a community improvement program. In pursuing the e f f e c t of f i l m s upon mot i v a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s , Lashley and Watson (259) found t h a t although a f i l m on venereal disease had no measurable e f f e c t on subsequent sexual behaviour of the audience i t d i d i n f l u e n c e viewers who had contracted a venereal disease, to seek immediate treatment. Ramseyer's (337) study of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s w i t h documentary f i l m s i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g l y t h a t a motion p i c t u r e can i n f l u e n c e s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s i f the a t t i t u d e t o be changed i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the content of the f i l m and i f the f i l m conforms t o the s o c i a l norms of the audience. I f the f i l m 88 t r i e s t o promote an a t t i t u d e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the s o c i a l norm, i t may r e s u l t i n a "boomerang" e f f e c t , a c t u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g the e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e i n s t e a d of changing i t . This r e s u l t was seen i n the study by Cooper and Dinerman (90) i n which a f i l m intended t o have a s p e c i f i c e f f e c t on an audience a c t u a l l y had the opposite e f f e c t . A study by Wilner (456) found t h a t Southerners viewing the f i l m , "Home of the Brave" were not persuaded t o change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the Negro, but a c t u a l l y had t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s r e i n f o r c e d . This f a c t was a l s o demonstrated i n a study w i t h p o l i t i c a l cartoons by Cooper and Jahoda ( 9 1 ) . K i s h i e r (244) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t t h a t audience a t t i t u d e toward, and audience i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h , the main character of a f i l m had upon l e a r n i n g . Using the f i l m , "Keys of the Kingdom", whose s t a r r i n g r o l e i s t h a t of a Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t , K i s h l e r found t h a t the f i l m had more e f f e c t upon the t o l e r a n c e a t t i t u d e of those who o r i g i n a l l y h e l d the r o l e of Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t i n high regard than those who h e l d i t i n low regard. S t e i n (383) reported t h a t mental h e a l t h f i l m s could be used i n a program of mental therapy. The l e a s t w e l l - a d j u s t e d showed the gre a t e s t emotional involvement w i t h the f i l m s , and those who had problems s i m i l a r to the problems discussed i n the f i l m s seemed t o r e a c t more s t r o n g l y and remember the f i l m s l o n g e r . F e a r i n g (139) found t h a t f i l m s on venereal disease and m a l a r i a d i s c i p l i n e were e f f e c t i v e i n changing the a t t i t u d e s of Naval Trainees i n the d i r e c t i o n advocated by the f i l m s . 39 I t would seem from the evidence t h a t an audience has a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o accept an a t t i t u d e or o p i n i o n which i n f l u e n c e s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the communication. Ramseyer (337) shows t h a t the r e a c t i o n s of students t o f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l s u b j e c t s was r e l a t e d t o the occupation of t h e i r parents. Hovland and others (210) found t h a t m i l i t a r y t r a i n e e s who were predisposed t o accept c e r t a i n opinions p r i o r to a f i l m showing tended t o h o l d these same opinions nine weeks a f t e r the f i l m , although when t e s t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the showing, t h e i r o p i n i o n f e l l i n t o no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n . G r e e n h i l l and McNiven (172) discovered a r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g from a f i l m and the degree t o which the viewer perceives the f i l m t o be of use t o him, which K i s h l e r ' s (244) research reemphasizes. Hoban's (198), (199) two s t u d i e s conclude t h a t audience involvement i n an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s i s determined more by a s p i r a t i o n than present s t a t u s , although r e a c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o audience s t a t u s . Some impedance of communication i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t w i t h the upper-status l e v e l of an audience when the f i l m presented values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l o w e r - s t a t u s l e v e l . Lange (255) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of u s i n g f i l m s along w i t h group d i s c u s s i o n s , as a means of p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and reported t h a t the f i l m s r e s u l t e d i n a broadening of viewpoint i n d e a l i n g w i t h l e a d e r s h i p problems. The t r a i n e e s a l s o gained experience i n a n a l y z i n g problems and expressed the f e e l i n g of g a i n i n g confidence i n t h e i r judgement. These t r a i n e e s a l s o showed g r e a t e r improvement i n the q u a l i t y of 90 t h e i r s o l u t i o n s to l e a d e r s h i p problems. They were a l s o b e t t e r judges of who the top l e a d e r s i n t h e i r c l a s s were. Johnson (231) showed t h a t f i l m s can e f f e c t i v e l y be used i n t r a i n i n g s t a f f members i n a community o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a b e t t e r under-standing of human r e l a t i o n s . S i l l a r s (368) noted t h a t f i l m used as an ad u l t education device "should be f o l l o w e d by purposeful and i n t e l l i g e n t l y guided d i s c u s s i o n as a p r a c t i c a l means of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the formation of a t t i t u d e s and p o l i c i e s which guide us i n d e a l i n g w i t h a l l aspects of our environment". Ress (344) s t a t e s t h a t since n o n - t h e a t r i c a l , documentary f i l m s are not made to be used as a stimulus f o r a d u l t education d i s c u s s i o n groups, t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r t h i s purpose i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the s k i l l of the l e a d e r i n so usi n g them as t o give the d i s c u s s i o n a focu s . Auerbach (29) a l s o warns t h a t where there i s a growing use of f i l m s as a source of content or means of i n t r o d u c i n g content i n parent education or p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , the f i l m s themselves can increase the te n s i o n s and anxiousness of an audience. Gruenberg (176) s a i d much the same t h i n g eighteen years p r e v i o u s l y when he pointed out t h a t the use of methods (such as f i l m ) where the m a t e r i a l cannot be adapted t o the known r e s i s t a n c e of parents, t o t h e i r needs, o r t o t h e i r i n i t i a l l e v e l of understanding, r e s u l t s i n e r r o r s and misunderstandings. However i t should a l s o be observed t h a t i n t r y i n g t o determine the e f f e c t of chronic and s i t u a t i o n a l a n x i e t y on how much a student would l e a r n from i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s , A l l i s o n and Ash 91 (16) found t h a t students who re c e i v e d anxiety-producing i n -s t r u c t i o n s made higher scores than those who r e c e i v e d a n x i e t y -r e l i e v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . I n answer t o Auerbach and Gruenberg, Brim (50) p o i n t s out t h a t there are no counter-arguments t o these d e f e c t s i n the use of media (such as f i l m ) except the one t h a t there has not been any s c i e n t i f i c demonstration t h a t t h i s more than any other method, i n c r e a s e s p a r e n t a l a n x i e t y , mis-i n f o r m a t i o n and the r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n of i d e a s . I t may be s t a t e d again t h a t Hovland*s (209) compre-hensive review of s t u d i e s of communication media e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d i c a t e s t h a t an o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , ( r a d i o , l e c t u r e or other such t y p e ) , i s more e f f e c t i v e i n changing o p i n i o n than i s p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l ; and we can add h i s remarks here t h a t f i l m s seem t o be about equal t o an i n s t r u c t o r i n b r i n g i n g about gains i n f a c t u a l knowledge and concepts. One of the most extensive uses of f i l m s i n an experimental a d u l t education p r o j e c t was t h a t made by the Ogdens (321) , (322) , and t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s d i d not c o n t r a d i c t any p r e v i o u s l y mentioned i n t h i s paper. They summarized t h a t there was no sure way t o s e l e c t f i l m s f o r a d u l t education except through the eyes of the p a r t i c u l a r audience w i t h which the p i c t u r e i s t o be used. Studies g e n e r a l l y show t h a t adding f i l m s t o usual t e a c h i n g methods b r i n g s about i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g . F i l m s communicate the i n f o r m a t i o n they c o n t a i n and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i s f e l t more i n r e t e n t i o n than i n immediate r e c a l l . They 92 u s u a l l y do not teach by i m p l i c a t i o n but by s t i m u l a t i n g other l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s such as d i s c u s s i o n s , v o l u n t a r y reading, i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and a r t work. As shown p r e v i o u s l y f i l m s are about equal t o , and i n some cases b e t t e r than s u p e r i o r i n -s t r u c t o r s not using f i l m s , i n communicating f a c t s and demon-s t r a t i n g concepts. Hoban and VanOrmer (204) were mentioned as c o n t r i b u t i n g the most comprehensive a n a l y s i s of teaching devices up t o 1950. The m a j o r i t y of t h e i r research references have al r e a d y been reviewed i n t h i s r e p o r t , however some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s noted. A f t e r p r e s e n t i n g a l l the many strengths and uses of f i l m , the authors remark t h a t f i l m s , of course, cannot repl a c e the i n s t r u c t o r i n matters of p r o v i d i n g m o t i v a t i o n , answering questions and p r o v i d i n g the personal r e l a t i o n s h i p . In other words the i n s t r u c t o r must s t r u c t u r e the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r the p a r t i c u l a r group i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g process. Job A i d . - F i l m : - A job a i d i s a c a r e f u l l y prepared f i l m which a worker can watch w h i l e he i s performing an assigned t a s k . I t can be re-run as o f t e n as d e s i r e d . Hoehn and Lumsdaine (205) i n v e s t i g a t e d the use of the job a i d f i l m i n t r a i n i n g a man t o do a job i n a mechanical yet s a t i s f a c t o r y way, without g i v i n g him an adequate t e c h n i c a l background and p r e l i m i n a r y t r a i n i n g . They reporte d t h a t airmen could perform l o n g and e x a c t i n g bench-check operations without previous i n s t r u c t i o n by u s i n g a job a i d f i l m . I t i s so c a l l e d "job a i d " 93 because i t i s a help on the job r a t h e r than during t r a i n i n g . I t s use reduces t r a i n i n g time, f a c i l i t a t e s the employment of lower s k i l l e d men and i n c r e a s e s the r e l i a b i l i t y of human performance• Although not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t e a c h i n g device, the f a c t o r s " s e a t i n g arrangement" and "amount of l i g h t " should be taken i n t o account when c o n s i d e r i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of f i l m s . In 1943 the S o c i e t y of Motion P i c t u r e Engineers recommended t h a t the maximum d i s t a n c e f o r viewing was s i x screen widths. Other p e r t i n e n t research on these f a c t o r s has been reported by the N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n (308), Gibson (159), and Ash and Jaspen (28). C r i l e (96) records a p u b l i c a t i o n of the United States Naval T r a i n i n g Device Center, P o r t Washington, New York. I t represents a summary of s i x t y - f i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m research r e p o r t s and, whereas most of these i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t s have already been reviewed here, the summarized p u b l i c a t i o n i s reproduced t o ensure t h a t nothing has been i n a d v e r t e n t l y omitted. Much of t h i s research a l s o has d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o t e l e v i s i o n use and should be reviewed again i n t h a t category. 1. E f f e c t i v e n e s s - F i l m s are at l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as other comparable means of i n s t r u c t i o n . F i l m s alone can be used to teach f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . 2. M o t o r - s k i l l s - M o t o r - s k i l l s t h a t are at l e a s t as complex as ope r a t i n g a sound motion p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r or performing gymnastic s k i l l s can be taught by means of 94 f i l m a l o n e . An i n s t r u c t o r can i n c r e a s e h i s e f f e c t i v e -ness by u s i n g f i l m l o o p s t o t e a c h a s k i l l t o groups w h i l e he devotes h i s time t o coaching i n d i v i d u a l s . D a y l i g h t viewing o f f i l m s i s very e f f e c t i v e . Optimum viewi n g occurs w i t h i n 12 screen widths and 30 degrees from the c e n t e r l i n e . 3. Mental Hygiene - In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g e f f e c t i v e f o r t e a c h i n g s k i l l s and f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s u i t a b l e f i l m s can be used t o improve p e r s o n a l adjustment. 4« S p e c i f i c F i l m s - S p e c i f i c content i n f i l m s i s r e q u i r e d to meet s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . F i l m s w i t h broad s u p e r f i c i a l content aimed a t a g e n e r a l i z e d audience are l i k e l y t o be l e s s e f f e c t i v e than f i l m s w i t h w e l l s p e c i f i e d content aimed a t an audience of known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 5* S p e c i f i c Audience - F i l m s should be prepared f o r a s p e c i f i c audience. °» P u r p o s e f u l Use - Use f i l m s t o t e a c h . F i l m s are l i k e l y t o be more e f f e c t i v e i f they are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m , and i f they are r e l a t e d t o c a r e f u l l y f o r m u l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . 7» C o n s i s t e n t Use - People l e a r n t o l e a r n from f i l m s . When f i l m s are used as f i l l - i n , f o r entertainment, o r i f the content does not appear t o the t r a i n e e t o be p e r t i n e n t t o the course being s t u d i e d , t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be l e s s l e a r n i n g than would otherwise be the case. 95 3« E v a l u a t i o n - F i l m s should be evaluated u s i n g a f i l m a n a l y s i s form. 9* Dramatic F i l m s - A s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d e x p o s i t o r y or documentary approach i n f i l m s w i l l be as e f f e c t i v e or more e f f e c t i v e f o r teaching i n f o r m a t i o n than a f i l m t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s dramatized sequences e s p e c i a l l y i f these are e l a b o r a t e l y staged. 10 . P e r c e i v e d usefulness - Fi l m s t h a t are perceived by students t o co n t a i n u s e f u l m a t e r i a l w i l l provide the gr e a t e s t amount of l e a r n i n g . 11• A t t i t u d e Changes - A c a r e f u l l y prepared f i l m may change an a t t i t u d e . 12. Cost of F i l m - I n most c i t i e s f i l m s can be prepared l o c a l l y and r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e l y i n a few weeks by n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel. 13• Camera Angle - Show a performance on the screen the way the l e a r n e r would see i t i f he were doing the job h i m s e l f . 14* Rates of Development - The r a t e of development of a f i l m should be slow enough t o permit the l e a r n e r s t o grasp the m a t e r i a l as i t i s shown. 15* S u c c i n c t Treatment - Pr e s e n t i n g only the bare e s s e n t i a l s or r a p i d coverage of subject matter may be very i n e f f e c t i v e . 16. Show e r r o r s - Learning performance s k i l l s from f i l m s w i l l be increased i f you show common e r r o r s and how t o avoid them. 96 17* R e p e t i t i o n - Organize a f i l m so t h a t important sequence or concepts are repeated. R e p e t i t i o n of f i l m s , or p a r t s w i t h i n a f i l m , i s nne of the most e f f e c t i v e means f o r i n c r e a s i n g l e a r n i n g t o a r e q u i r e d l e v e l . 18. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l O u t l i n e - Films which t r e a t d i s c r e t e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l appear t o be improved by the use of an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o u t l i n e i n t i t l e s and commentary. 19* I n t r o d u c t i o n s - Present r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n and t e l l the viewer what he i s expected to l e a r n from the f i l m . 20. Summary - Summarize the important p o i n t s i n the f i l m i n a c l e a r concise manner. Summaries probably do not s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve l e a r n i n g unless they are complete enough t o serve as a r e p e t i t i o n and review. 21. V i s u a l P o t e n t i a l i t i e s - Take advantage of the a b i l i t y of the motion p i c t u r e medium t o show motion, t o speed up and slow down motion, to telescope and otherwise c o n t r o l t i m i n g of events and processes, to bridge space, and t o organize events and a c t i o n s . The v i s u a l s and commentary i n a f i l m should r e i n f o r c e each other. 22. Picture-commentary R e l a t i o n s h i p - The commentary of a t y p i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a l f i l m appears t o teach more than only the p i c t u r e s of t h a t same f i l m when l e a r n i n g i s measured by v e r b a l t e s t s . This does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the commentary has g r e a t e r inherent e f f e c t -iveness than p i c t u r e s ; i t may mean t h a t producers are 97 c u r r e n t l y r e l y i n g more h e a v i l y on commentary than on p i c t u r e s or on the optimum i n t e g r a t i o n o f the two. With f i l m s designed to t e a c h performance s k i l l s , where l e a r n i n g i s measured, by non-verbal t e s t s , the p i c t u r e appears to c a r r y the main t e a c h i n g burden. 23• C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Ideas - Ideas or concepts should be presented at a r a t e a p p r o p r i a t e to the a b i l i t y of the audience t o comprehend them. 24* Commentary - The number o f words (per minute o f f i l m ) i n the commentary has a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g . Care should be taken not t o "pack" the sound t r a c k . A p p l i c a t i o n o f r e a d a b i l i t y formulas to improve a commentary may not do so. 25• Use o f P e r s o n a l Pronouns - Use d i r e c t forms of address (im p e r a t i v e o r second person) i n f i l m commentaries. A v o i d the p a s s i v e v o i c e . 26. Nomenclature - I n t r o d u c t i o n of new names or t e c h n i c a l terms i n a f i l m imposes an a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g burden on l e a r n e r s , and may impede the l e a r n i n g o f a performance s k i l l • 27• Comparative E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f T r a i n i n g A i d s - No d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n the t r a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of cutaways, mockups, and t r a n s p a r e n c i e s used i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequences. 28. S p e c i a l E f f e c t s - S p e c i a l e f f e c t s used as a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g d e v i c e s have no p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on l e a r n i n g . 29• O p t i c a l E f f e c t s - A f i l m i n which such o p t i c a l e f f e c t s as fades, wipes, and d i s s o l v e s have been replaced by-s t r a i g h t cuts, teaches j u s t as e f f e c t i v e l y as a f i l m which uses these e f f e c t s . 3 0 . Stereoscopic F i l m s - I n the one experiment conducted, the a d d i t i o n of s t e r e o s c o p i c v i s i o n d i d not increase the l e a r n i n g of a motor s k i l l performance. For t e a c h i n g a complex motor s k i l l a three-dimensional model may be b e t t e r than a two-dimensional a i d . 31• Color - Experimentation has not yet demonstrated any general o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g as a r e s u l t of u s i n g c o l o r i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s . 3 2 . Music - P r e l i m i n a r y experimentation suggests t h a t music does not add t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an i n f o r m a t i o n a l f i l m . 33• P r e t e s t i n g - S c r i p t s , w o r k p r i n t s , demonstrations, and f i n a l p r i n t s can be evaluated q u i c k l y using the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e method of f i l m e v a l u a t i o n which r e q u i r e s a group of t r a i n e e s t o estimate t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . A f i l m a n a l y s i s form should be used f o r preproduction eval*= u a t i o n on f i l m s . Audience r e a c t i o n s t o f i l m s can be economically obtained u s i n g i n f r a r e d photography. 34• F i l m Loops - Short f i l m l oops which can be repeated continuously as many times as d e s i r e d , appear to be a good way of teaching d i f f i c u l t s k i l l s . 99 35- P a r t i c i p a t i o n - L e a r n i n g w i l l i n c r e a s e i f the viewer p r a c t i c e s a s k i l l w h i l e i t i s presented on the screen, p r o v i d e d the f i l m develops slowly enough, o r p r o v i d e d p e r i o d s of time are allowed which permit the l e a r n e r t o p r a c t i c e without m i s s i n g new m a t e r i a l shown on the s c r e e n . 3 6 . Dramatic Sequences - I n c o r p o r a t i o n o f dramatic sequences such as comedy, s i n g i n g commercials, o r e l a b o r a t e l y staged s e t t i n g s i n f i l m s t o t e a c h f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l not improve the f i l m . 37• Filmograohs - Filmographs which i n c o r p o r a t e s t i l l s hots r a t h e r than motion may be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e f o r some purposes and be l e s s expensive than motion p i c t u r e s . 3 8 . V i s u a l Recordings - F i l m s may be produced to make a v i s u a l r e c o r d i n g of a t a s k t h a t may be d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e w i t h words a l o n e . 39* Research F i n d i n g s - Research f i n d i n g s should be a p p l i e d t o t r a i n i n g f i l m p r o d u c t i o n . 40. Inexpensive F i l m s - Because c o l o r , o p t i c a l e f f e c t s and dramatic e f f e c t s have l i t t l e t o do w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l e a r n i n g from f i l m s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e them. F i l m s prepared i n t h i s manner can be made i n e x p e n s i v e l y and can be produced q u i c k l y . 41• P r o t a g o n i s t - In a f i l m intended t o change a t t i t u d e s i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the p r o t a g o n i s t o r 100 commentator c l e a r l y . I t i s even more i m p o r t a n t t h a t he be a p r e s t i g e j f i g u r e c l o s e t o t h e a u d i e n c e ' s r e f e r e n c e group• 1+2. L e t t h e f i l m do t h e i n s t r u c t i o n - Good f i l m s can be used as t h e s o l e means f o r t e a c h i n g some k i n d s o f f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l and performance s k i l l s . Where t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n makes i t a d v i s a b l e , t a k e advantage o f t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . 43 • I n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n from f i l m s - T e l l t h e v i e w e r s f i r m l y , t h a t t h e y a re e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n from t h e f i l m . 44* I n c r e a s e t h e amount o f l e a r n i n g - L e a r n i n g can be i n c r e a s e d by r e p e t i t i v e showings, p r e t e s t i n g , p o s t -t e s t i n g w i t h knowledge o f r e s u l t s , and i n t r o d u c i n g t h e f i l m and s t a t i n g t h e purpose and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e showing. 45* Use o f Study Guides - A b i l i t y t o l e a r n from f i l m s i mproves w i t h p r a c t i c e i n l e a r n i n g f r om f i l m s . T r a i n e e s w i l l l e a r n more i f p r i n t e d s t u d y g u i d e s a r e used b e f o r e and a f t e r f i l m v i e w i n g . 4 ° . D i s t r a c t i o n s - N o t e - t a k i n g s h o u l d n o t be encouraged d u r i n g t h e average f i l m showing because i t i n t e r f e r e s w i t h a t t e n t i o n and hence l e a r n i n g . 47. Use f i l m l o o p s i n t h e p r a c t i c e a r e a - One showing o f a f i l m d e a l i n g w i t h a complex s k i l l may be i n s u f f i c i e n t . Show a f i l m i n t h e p r a c t i c e a r e a so t h a t t h e s t u d e n t can e a s i l y r e f e r t o t h e f i l m model as o f t e n as n e c e s s a r y . 101 This can be accomplished by r e a r p r o j e c t i o n of f i l m loops on d a y l i g h t screens i n the work area. Students should s i t w i t h i n 12 screen widths and w i t h i n 30 degrees of the centre l i n e . 4 8 . Use mental p r a c t i c e - Men can p a r t i a l l y l e a r n t o do a s k i l l by watching a f i l m and imagining t h a t they are performing the s k i l l and by going through the s k i l l "mentally", even though they do not have the equipment a v a i l a b l e . F i l m s can provide a model f o r guided "mental" p r a c t i c e . 49• Length of F i l m Sessions - F i l m viewing sessions of i n f o r m a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l can extend t o at l e a s t 1 hour without r e d u c t i o n i n t r a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 5 0 . Evaluate F i l m Showings - Do not assume t h a t l e a r n i n g has occurred as a r e s u l t of showing a f i l m . Evaluate the e f f e c t of a f i l m by g i v i n g a t e s t . 51* P r i n c i p l e s - E x p l a i n the p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n when i t may be necessary f o r a t r a i n e e t o g e n e r a l i z e h i s l e a r n i n g t o a d i f f e r e n t but r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n . (96) In summing up the use of f i l m s , Barnouw (31) s t a t e s t h a t when a f i l m succeeds i n channeling i n n e r d r i v e s toward new ideas and a c t i o n s , i t i s seldom through i t s own impact alone but through the f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s e t s i n motion. This was s t a t e d even more s t r o n g l y by DeFleur and Larsen (114) when they noted t h a t i n s u c c e s s f u l communication the audience must be no bystander, but the c h i e f a c t o r . This of course j u s t 102 echoes what S i l l a r s (368} wrote some ten years p r e v i o u s l y . An e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e concerning the use of motion p i c t u r e s i n a d u l t education was w r i t t e n by Razik (340J and i t appears i n Adult Education, January, 1965 • He d i s c u s s e s some of the research m a t e r i a l reviewed i n t h i s t h e s i s and suggests t h a t maybe not enough use i s being made of f i l m as an important teaching device. (3) F i l m s t r i p and s l i d e p r o j e c t i o n s These are u s u a l l y considered together as they have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. They are s t i l l p i c t u r e s or p r o j e c t i o n s ; the subject matter i s o f t e n a v a i l a b l e i n both media, and the production procedures are s i m i l a r . The s l i d e f i l m or f i l m s t r i p i s nothing more than a l o g i c a l l y arranged s e r i e s of s t i l l p i c t u r e s on a s t r i p of 35 nun f i l m . F i l m s t r i p s and s l i d e s are among the most economical of t e a c h i n g devices; t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as compared w i t h the more expensive motion p i c t u r e has f r e q u e n t l y been s t u d i e d . E a r l y s t u d i e s by Brown (55), James (225), McClusky (280) and McClusky and McClusky (281), (already r e f e r r e d t o ) , comparing f i l m s t r i p s and s l i d e s w i t h the s i l e n t motion p i c t u r e found t h a t the p r o j e c t e d s t i l l p i c t u r e s were about as e f f e c t i v e i n t e aching f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n as s i l e n t motion p i c t u r e s . The s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h f i l m s made s e v e r a l other references t o f i l m s t r i p s f o r comparison purposes, and may be r e f e r r e d t o . Carson (77) records a study made by the S c o t t i s h E d u c a t i o n a l F i l m A s s o c i a t i o n i n which lo n g and abbreviated 103 v e r s i o n s of a f i l m s t r i p on American cowboys were compared w i t h a sound f i l m on the same su b j e c t . As measured by a 40 item t r u e - f a l s e and m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t e s t , the two f i l m - s t r i p groups were g r e a t l y s u p e r i o r t o the sound f i l m group i n l e a r n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and concepts. Vernon's (436) experiments i n teaching B r i t i s h seamen to understand and l e a r n t o take soundings w i t h a l e a d l i n e found the f i l m s t r i p and f i l m t o be about equal i n value, w i t h a great advantage to the method t h a t combined the two d e v i c e s . Gibson ( 159) , as reported e a r l i e r i n the M i l e s and Spain (297) review of research compared a group i n s t r u c t e d through f i l m s w i t h a l e c t u r e group f o r which the l e c t u r e s were organized around a s e r i e s of 19 s l i d e s and w i t h a group t h a t read a w e l l - w r i t t e n and w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d booklet on the A i r - T r a i n i n g subject of p o s i t i o n f i r i n g . The f i l m group learn e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a c t s , the l e c t u r e and manual groups were about equal. Heidgerken (191) found no d i f f e r e n c e s among f i l m s t r i p s , motion p i c t u r e s , and f i l m s t r i p s combined w i t h motion p i c t u r e s i n teaching c e r t a i n p a r t s of a course on nursing a r t s . Hovland and others (210) compared the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an Army t r a i n i n g f i l m on map reading w i t h an Army f i l m s t r i p t h a t presented the same content and reported t h a t t e s t i n g i n d i c a t e d the t r a i n e e s learned s l i g h t l y , but not r e l i a b l y , m o r e from the f i l m s t r i p . L asser (260) compared the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a f i l m -s t r i p w i t h a f i l m i n teaching a simple performance task of r e p a i r i n g a broken sash cord i n a window. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found except f o r one sub-operation on which 104 the f i l m group d i d much b e t t e r , presumably because the f i l m had c o n t i n u i t y . On s e v e r a l operations n e i t h e r medium was e f f e c t i v e . As recorded e a r l i e r , Torkelson (4O8) i n a comparison of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of mock-ups, t r a i n i n g manual i l l u s t r a t i o n s alone, cutaways, and p r o j e c t e d black-and-white and colored t r a n s -parencies as devices i n tea c h i n g found t h a t although the t h r e e -dimensional mock-ups and cutaways produced s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g , the d i f f e r e n c e s were so small i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r high cost t h a t t h e i r general use appeared to be u n j u s t i f i e d . Kale and G r o s s l i g h t (233) i n v e s t i g a t e d the l e a r n i n g of Russian vocabulary under s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , t h a t i n c l u d e d p i c t u r e s p l u s t i t l e s versus t i t l e s o n l y , motion versus s t i l l p i c t u r e s , and sound versus s i l e n t p i c t u r e s . They found t h a t p i c t u r e s of an object or act were an a i d t o l e a r n i n g vocabulary, t h a t s t i l l p i c t u r e s were as e f f e c t i v e as moving p i c t u r e s and t h a t the pr o n u n c i a t i o n of the words by a n a r r a t o r seemed t o i n h i b i t l e a r n i n g t o w r i t e the words. Zukerman (468) showed how a pre-production f i l m s t r i p of the o u t l i n e f o r a t r a i n i n g f i l m could be used t o p r e d i c t the l e a r n i n g t h a t would r e s u l t from the completed f i l m . The UNESCO (415) r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "The Healthy V i l l a g e " concerning a v i s u a l education experiment i n West China, showed t h a t a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s are e f f e c t i v e i n teaching h e a l t h p r i n c i p l e s to a p a r t i a l l y l i t e r a t e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . F i l m s t r i p s and s l i d e s were considered the most e f f e c t i v e means used i n reaching l a r g e numbers of people and i n making the deepest and most l a s t i n g 105 impression. The comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s of captions on s l i d e s was reviewed by Butts (64) and he reported t h a t d e c l a r a t i v e and imperative captions were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r to i n t e r r o g a t i v e captions i n h e l p i n g students l e a r n and r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . K e r r i s o n (240) t e l l s us t h a t f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s p r o p e r l y used have made union meetings more i n t e r e s t i n g and p r o f i t a b l e . Browser (58) d e c l a r e s s l i d e f i l m s t o be the best and most inexpensive a i d f o r group t r a i n i n g i n s e l l i n g . Callahan (65) and Edwards (129) both conclude t h a t f i l m s t r i p s are l e s s expensive and more f l e x i b l e than motion p i c t u r e s . Hague (180) i n w r i t i n g on the use of t e a c h i n g devices i n the t r a i n i n g of department and s p e c i a l t y s t o r e personnel r e p o r t s t h a t f o r c e r t a i n types of t r a i n i n g , namely those where an operation i s t o be taught or where the i n s t r u c t o r needs t o i n t e r p o l a t e , the s l i d e f i l m has d e f i n i t e advantages over the motion p i c t u r e . He s t a t e s t h a t where a t t i t u d e t r a i n i n g i s the o b j e c t i v e or where movement and expression are important, the motion p i c t u r e i s by f a r the best medium. McGuigan and Grubb (283) on be h a l f of the U.S. Army, i n v e s t i g a t e d s e v e r a l methods of t e a c h i n g contour i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and reported t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e device f o r classroom use was t o p i c t u r i n g the t e r r a i n f e a t u r e s on two-dimensional s l i d e s w i t h contour l i n e s as represented on 3-dimensional r e l i e f maps. Hovland and others (210) r e p o r t yet another e f f e c t i v e use of s l i d e f i l m s . I t was found t h a t the l e a r n i n g of a phonetic alphabet was f a c i l i t a t e d when Army t r a i n e e s shouted the c o r r e c t word as a l e t t e r was 106 p r o j e c t e d from the f i l m s t r i p on t o a screen. M i l e s and Spain (297) i n t h e i r review of a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s i n the Armed Se r v i c e s reported t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s and t r a i n i n g - a i d o f f i c e r s had confidence i n s l i d e f i l m s as a major a i d i n t e a c h i n g . S l i d e f i l m s are not used t o a gr e a t e r extent because of a l a c k of experience i n t h e i r use, and, i n some cases, because of t h e i r i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y . They could be made more e f f e c t i v e by c o n t a i n i n g frames at the beginning t h a t o f f e r e d suggestions to i n s t r u c t o r s , and review and quiz frames at the c o n c l u s i o n . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a teaching device i s a v a l i d c o n s i d e r a t i o n only i f the device i s a c t u a l l y used, t h e r e f o r e the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g frequency of use and those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h amount of use are of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s paper. M i k h a i l (296) made a study of the v a r i a t i o n s i n the current use of s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s by v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e teachers i n Wisconsin. He i n v e s t i g a t e d the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the e f f e c t i v e use of these a i d s , and determined what f a c t o r s were r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t o r use or non-use of s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s . The f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g frequency of use were as f o l l o w s : -(1) Convenient l o c a t i o n of equipment f o r i n s t r u c t o r s . (2) S i z e of s l i d e and f i l m s t r i p l i b r a r y , - a b i g one was used more. (3) Confidence i n t h e i r value as a teac h i n g d e v i c e . (4) Courses taken i n a u d i o - v i s u a l methods. (5) L o c a l production, - i f they could be made l o c a l l y , t h e i r use was h i g h . 107 (6) I n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g had a high frequency of use c o r r e l a t i o n . (7) E f f o r t s to keep up w i t h new in f o r m a t i o n had a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h high frequency of use. (296) The f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the amount of use of s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s : -(1) Age of i n s t r u c t o r , - o l d e r i n s t r u c t o r s used a l a r g e r number of these a i d s . (2) Longer teaching experience was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h higher t o t a l use. (3) I n s t r u c t o r s who had a good s i z e d s l i d e and f i l m s t r i p l i b r a r y a l s o had a higher t o t a l use. (4) I n s t r u c t o r s w i t h funds t o spend on v i s u a l a i d s had a higher t o t a l use. (5) Acceptance of recommended procedures i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h higher t o t a l use. (296) On the b a s i s of t h e i r review of the research on f i l m -s t r i p s and s l i d e s , Hoban and VanOrmer (204) concluded t h a t the s u p e r i o r i t y of the motion p i c t u r e probably r e s u l t e d from the gr e a t e r a d a p t a b i l i t y of movies f o r p o r t r a y i n g i n t e r - a c t i n g events, whereas the s u p e r i o r i t y of the f i l m s t r i p was probably due t o the slower r a t e of development used i n the a c t u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f i l m s t r i p t o the audience. (5) T e l e v i s i o n To introduce t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h E d u c a t i o n a l TV i t i s h e l p f u l i f we now review V e r n e r f s (433) remarks on the 108 s u b j e c t . He s t a t e d t h a t , -U n s t r u c t u r e d and unsupervised, t e l e v i e w i n g i s o b v i o u s l y not a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , even though l e a r n i n g may r e s u l t . T e l e v i e w i n g becomes a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o n l y when i t i n c l u d e s an a g e n t - l e a r n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o g i v e the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s some d i r e c t i o n . Such r e l a t i o n s h i p may o f t e n be so minimal t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n needs t o d e s i g n ways o f c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o enhance the q u a l i t y o f t e l e v i s i o n as an e d u c a t i o n a l method. (433, p. 32) - o r d e v i c e . One way i n which t h i s device has strengthened i t s use i s by combining w i t h correspondence study. Rock, Duva and Murray (348), (349) appear t o have been the f i r s t t o r e p o r t any r e s e a r c h based on the use o f t e l e v i s i o n f o r t e a c h i n g a d u l t s . T h e i r f i n d i n g s (348), which were based on the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h t h r e e groups of men, each about 100 s t r o n g , were t h a t : -(1) TV can be used e f f e c t i v e l y f o r conveying i n f o r m a t i o n t o w i d e l y separated groups. (2) 50$ o f the men l e a r n e d more and 25$ o f the men l e a r n e d as much as groups g i v e n t r a d i t i o n a l classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . (3) The Naval A i r R e s e r v i s t s used i n the study were i n f a v o u r of TV i n s t r u c t i o n s . (4) The kinescopes, or TV r e c o r d i n g s , are e f f e c t i v e when l a t e r used as sound moving p i c t u r e s . F o r 94$ o f the o f f i c e r s , kinescope was as e f f e c t i v e as TV and f o r e n l i s t e d p e r s onnel i t was as e f f e c t i v e i n 73$ o f the comparisons. Kinescope was b e t t e r than the l o c a l i n s t r u c t o r i n 3/4 o f the comparisons made. (348). 109 In t h e i r second study, (349) th a t i n v o l v e d eight one-hour lessons t e l e c a s t at weekly i n t e r v a l s t o 3000 Array F i e l d Forces R e s e r v i s t s from the S p e c i a l Devices Center t o 10 s t a t i o n s i n the east and north c e n t r a l s t a t e s , i t was found t h a t : -(1) TV i n s t r u c t i o n i s an e f f e c t i v e means of t r a i n i n g l a r g e groups of men i n widely separated groups. (2) The R e s e r v i s t s not only l e a r n e d but remembered most of what they had learned 4 t o 6 weeks l a t e r . (3) TV i n s t r u c t i o n i s h i g h l y acceptable as 70$ of the o f f i c e r s and 60$ of the e n l i s t e d personnel st a t e d a preference f o r i t . (4) The amount of gai n on t e s t items i s r e l a t e d t o the e x p l i c i t n e s s of treatment of the t o p i c . S k e t c h i l y t r e a t e d m a t e r i a l caused poorer scores a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n as i t caused confusion. (5) The most e f f e c t i v e type of TV p r e s e n t a t i o n was: -a. N a r r a t i o n w i t h meaning-conveying f i l m . b. Drama w i t h some form of n a r r a t i o n . c. Less e f f e c t i v e were N a r r a t i o n and Drama. (349) 110 There has been a d i s t i n c t increase i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l use of TV i n the past t e n years and p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e Kumata (253) reported h i s review of i n s t r u c t i o n a l TV i n 1956* At t h a t time he st a t e d t h a t as f a r as i n f o r m a t i o n a l gain i s concerned no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s seemed t o e x i s t between c o n v e n t i o n a l l y taught and TV taught students. The Iowa State College A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service (221) t e l e c a s t a s e r i e s of 9 t h i r t y - m i n u t e shows which demon-s t r a t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a cotton dress and although i t was not r e q u i r e d , 3 ,004 e n r o l l e d f o r the s e r i e s . The shows were programmed at 2:30 P.M. Wednesday and F r i d a y s . More than h a l f the e n r o l l e e s l i v e d i n town and 76% of the town women had not p a r t i c i p a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n Extension work, whereas only 30% of the farm women were "new" to E x t e n s i o n . T h i r t y - s i x percent of the women completed t h e i r dress. The s e r i e s was considered very h e l p f u l by 58%, h e l p f u l by 37% and not h e l p f u l by 5%. Of those who made a dress 93% s a i d i t f i t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , and 99% s a i d the general appearance was s a t i s f a c t o r y . There was l i t t l e a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the r e s u l t s of f o u r teaching methods t e s t e d : t e l e v i s i o n o n l y , t e l e v i s i o n p l u s home economist a s s i s t a n c e , t e l e v i s i o n p l u s b u l l e t i n , o r t e l e v i s i o n p l u s b u l l e t i n p l u s home economist h e l p . Wilson and Moe (460) and P o l l o c k and Meloche (332) a l s o found TV h i g h l y . e f f e c t i v e i n teaching sewing p r a c t i c e s to women. Husband (218), M i l l i s at Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y (298) and Stromberg (390) a l l found t h a t the adul t home TV I l l audience achieved higher grades i n psychology courses than d i d the r e g u l a r on-campus students. M i l l i s (298) reported t h a t 10,000 t o 30,000 s e t s were tuned i n to the program 9 :00 to 9:30 A.M. weekdays and of the 289 who r e g i s t e r e d f o r the course 209 completed and 46 withdrew. The median score of the TV students was 67% whereas t h a t of the campus students t a k i n g the same course was 54%« The great amount of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l which was r e q u i r e d of the t e l e - s t u d e n t s was very w e l l done. T h e i r age range was from 19 to over 50. As reported by C l i n t o n (82) i n 1957-58, there was a t o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n of 7,239 f o r the t e l e c o u r s e s given over Channel 11, the E d u c a t i o n a l TV s t a t i o n i n Chicago, - of which 1511 were t a k i n g the courses f o r c r e d i t . Of the t o t a l number r e g i s t e r e d f o r the second semester 71% completed the courses. There was constant s u p e r v i s i o n by the e d u c a t i o n a l agent f o r those r e g i s t e r e d , and f o r those t a k i n g the course f o r c r e d i t , papers had to be completed and exams w r i t t e n . Another good example of E d u c a t i o n a l TV i s the C o n t i n e n t a l Classroom. This c o n s i s t e d of p h y s i c s and chemistry l e c t u r e s sponsored by s e v e r a l c o r p o r a t i o n s such as the Ford Foundation and c a r r i e d over the N.B.C. commercial network at 6 A.M. I t was the f i r s t network e d u c a t i o n a l TV c l a s s and was recognized by 350 c o l l e g e s i n 47 S t a t e s . I f an a d u l t wished t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the academic work of the Classroom he could r e g i s t e r w i t h any one of the 350 c o l l e g e s t h a t recognizes i t f o r c r e d i t purposes and the r e g i s t r a n t s came under the constant s u p e r v i s i o n 112 by the c o l l e g e concerned. The U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland i n comparing the work of i t s r e g u l a r students t o tha t of i t s TV students found the TV,students t o be 60% s u p e r i o r . I t may be of i n t e r e s t t o note t h a t i n March 1957, t h i r t y - s e v e n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s were o f f e r i n g c o l l e g e c r e d i t courses over TV, - w i t h homework being completed and forwarded by m a i l t o the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r marking and r e t u r n . In most cases the student was r e q u i r e d to go t o the campus f o r the f i n a l examination. In 1955 the American C o u n c i l on Education estimated t h a t 12,000 students pa i d fees f o r TV courses. Shimberg (366) r e p o r t i n g on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e l e -v i s i o n i n teaching home nur s i n g s t a t e d t h a t the N a t i o n a l American Red Cross found t e l e v i s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n to be as e f f e c t i v e as classroom i n s t r u c t i o n i n teaching f a c t s about home nu r s i n g and i n promoting an understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n the care of the s i c k . Those taught by TV d i d almost as w e l l on the performance t e s t as those taught i n the c l a s s -room although they had about one h a l f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l time. The a t t i t u d e of those who viewed the t e l e v i s i o n programs r e g u l a r l y was overwhelmingly favourable toward t h i s method of i n s t r u c t i o n . Tannenbaum (396) found t h a t c l o s e d - c i r c u i t TV l e c t u r e -demonstration i n p e r i o d o n t i c s t o p r a c t i s i n g d e n t i s t s i n s i x s t a t e s was h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e as compared w i t h a c o n t r o l group and a group th a t s t u d i e d only a manual. 113 As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y the U.S. Armed Forces has sponsored a great amount of research p e r t a i n i n g t o teaching devices and TV has had i t s share of a t t e n t i o n . Important research has been c a r r i e d out on behalf of the Armed Forces by Desiderato and others (116), Kanner and others (235)* (234) , and Runyon and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (354)* Kanner and others (235) examined the comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s of TV and the Army's usu a l type of b a s i c t r a i n i n g . Fourteen hours of i n s t r u c t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s taught i n the f i r s t e i g h t weeks of Army b a s i c t r a i n i n g , were s e l e c t e d and p a r a l l e l t e l e v i s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n was prepared and g i v e n . A l l the u s u a l s t a n d a r d i z i n g p recautions, such as matching, were observed; and t e s t s were given to about 12,000 b a s i c t r a i n e e s used i n the research. I t was found t h a t TV i n s t r u c t i o n i s at l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n and more e f f e c t i v e f o r lower-aptitude groups. T e l e v i s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s o i s remembered at l e a s t as w e l l as r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n and k i n e -scope (TV recordings) i n s t r u c t i o n i s as e f f e c t i v e as r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n . A t e s t performance f o r groups r e c e i v i n g one kinescope review was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than scores obtained immediately a f t e r the i n i t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n , and the t e s t scores f o r low-aptitude t r a i n e e s r e c e i v i n g one kinescope review approached those of h i gh-aptitude groups f o l l o w i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . Other s t u d i e s were conducted f o r the m i l i t a r y by Rock and others (346) , ( 3 4 7 ) , Boehm ( 4 3 ) , A l l e n ( 13) , Dowell (122) 114 and Frank ( 144); and by the U.S. Army S i g n a l Center (417), and i n every i n s t a n c e i t was found t h a t TV i n s t r u c t i o n was at l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as r e g u l a r classroom i n s t r u c t i o n i n teaching m i l i t a r y - t r a i n i n g s u b j e c t s . Dowell (122) a l s o showed th a t TV was even more e f f e c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g about a t t i t u d i n a l changes and i n the disse m i n a t i o n of pure i n f o r m a t i o n than i n the teaching of a s k i l l . F r i t z and others (146) made a comprehensive survey of t e l e v i s i o n u t i l i z a t i o n i n Army t r a i n i n g , reviewing the l i t e r -ature (100 references) and i n t e r p r e t i n g previous f i n d i n g s i n terms of d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o Army t r a i n i n g problems. T h e i r conclusions were as f o l l o w s : -(1) T e l e v i s i o n can be advantageously i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the Army T r a i n i n g Program. (2) Q u a l i f i e d o f f i c e r s u s i n g a c a r e f u l l y prepared check l i s t can determine which t r a i n i n g lends i t s e l f to t e l e v i s i o n . (3) M i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g can be achieved w i t h commercially a v a i l a b l e TV equipment. (4) T r a i n i n g a i d s designed f o r demonstrational purposes are u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to TV. (5) The advantages of m a g n i f i c a t i o n and close-up views make TV teaching e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e . (6) The m a t e r i a l s on hand can be used, there i s no need f o r s p e c i a l equipment. 115 (7) One TV camera i s s a t i s f a c t o r y but two would make the teaching s i t u a t i o n more r e l i a b l e and f l e x i b l e . (8) Kinescope recordings are most u s e f u l i n t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r s , d u p l i c a t i n g l essons and dissem i n a t i n g new developments r a p i d l y . (9) 'Qualified i n s t r u c t o r s can e a s i l y be taught t o be s u i t a b l e TV i n s t r u c t o r s . (10) TV Teacher T r a i n i n g can be accomplished i n a r e l a t i v e l y short time i f the persons i n v o l v e d have had previous teacher t r a i n i n g . (146) C r i l e (96) r e p o r t s a summary of i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e l e -v i s i o n research r e p o r t s made by the United S t a t e s Naval T r a i n i n g Device Center and i n t e g r a t i n g the f i n d i n g s of v a r i o u s s t u d i e s made f o r t h i s body. Many of these items have already been noted but t h e i r value i s not l o s t i n the r e p e t i t i o n . (1) A TV program can be at l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as comparable means of i n s t r u c t i o n . (2) TV i n s t r u c t i o n i s w e l l l i k e d . Well prepared programs were h i g h l y acceptable a f t e r an 8 week p e r i o d of TV t r a i n i n g . (3) TV i s a f e a s i b l e and e f f e c t i v e means f o r i n s t r u c t i n g w idely separated groups. (4) Most learned m a t e r i a l was r e t a i n e d over a s i x week p e r i o d . (5) A l l grades of personnel lea r n e d from TV programs. 116 (6) There was a n o v e l t y e f f e c t noted. In 1950 t r a i n e e s s a i d t h a t the TV i n s t r u c t i o n they r e c e i v e d was more e f f e c t i v e than the average t r a i n i n g f i l m . T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n was c a r e f u l l y prepared, s k i l l f u l l y presented and the t r a i n e e s t r i e d to l e a r n . (7) M a t e r i a l t h a t was e x p l i c i t l y covered was w e l l l e a r n e d . S k e t c h i l y t r e a t e d m a t e r i a l was not l e a r n e d . (8) Learning occurred when s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n was presented. L i t t l e l e a r n i n g occurred from dramatic or s i t u a t i o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . (9) A c r i t e r i a check l i s t has been developed t o determine courses of i n s t r u c t i o n which are s u i t e d f o r t e l e v i s i n g . (10) One TV camera w i l l f u l f i l l most m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g needs but f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y , two cameras are more d e s i r a b l e . (11) Q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s can be t r a i n e d t o teach by t e l e v i s i o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y short time. (12) E f f e c t i v e TV t e a c h i n g has been c a r r i e d out i n a l a r g e number of subject areas. (13) F i l m s are e f f e c t i v e on TV. (14) F i l m r e c ordings of TV programs (kinescopes) are very s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g even though the p i c t u r e q u a l i t y may be poor. (15) Kinescopes were recommended f o r t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r s , d u p l i c a t i n g l e s s o n s , d i s s e m i n a t i n g new developments and as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s . 117 (16) Unless i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o the subject being taught, c o l o u r does not increase the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e l e v i s i o n t e a c h i n g , (17) T r a i n i n g devices may be t e l e v i s e d t o a l a r g e r group than can normally see them. Thirty-one p r i n c i p l e s f o r improving v i s i b i l i t y have been noted - see Jackson (224)• (18) TV expense and labour can be more e a s i l y j u s t i f i e d when the t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s dangerous or mass t r a i n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l . (19) Dramatic treatments brought about l e s s l e a r n i n g than other types of treatment. (20) P o l l s have shown a d e f i n i t e acceptance of " a t t i t u d e " type programs d e a l i n g w i t h book reviews, s o c i a l problems, h i s t o r y and the l i k e . (96) Another i n t e r e s t i n g research study was made f o r the United S t a t e s Navy by Jackson (224) who t e s t e d 105 t r a i n i n g devices f o r t h e i r v i s i b i l i t y on TV and reported 31 p r i n c i p l e s of v i s u a l design t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e i r c l a r i t y as a TV p i c t u r e . These are l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : -(1) The f i g u r e or p r i n c i p a l p a r t t o be seen should be organized i n a h o r i z o n t a l movement from l e f t t o r i g h t . (2) Three h o r i z o n t a l planes of o r g a n i z a t i o n give the best v i s i b i l i t y . (3) Radial-type o r g a n i z a t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e . C i r c u l a r or o v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n should be avoided. 118 ) V e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n should be avoided. ) Simple o r g a n i z a t i o n i s b e s t . ) Moving p a r t s should operate s l o w l y . } A l i g h t f i g u r e on a dark background i s best. ) A f i g u r e should extend over 2/3 of background. ) The device should have a border of about 1/3 of the t o t a l area. ) D u l l l i g h t gray tones against d u l l dark grays give the best c o n t r a s t . ) Where s e v e r a l c o n t r a s t s are needed i t i s best t o work from dark t o l i g h t , to dark to l i g h t e t c . ) Avoid e i t h e r too great or too l i t t l e c o n t r a s t i n gray shades. ) Avoid glazed or r e f l e c t i n g s u r f a c e s . ) Avoid t r a n s l u c e n t m a t e r i a l s . ) Rough surfaced wood and paper give the best v i s i b i l i t y . ) Transparent g l a s s or p l a s t i c g i v e s an i l l u s i o n of transparency. ) D u l l or t a r n i s h e d brass g i v e s an i l l u s i o n of metal. ) Very l a r g e or very small devices can be used e q u a l l y w e l l . ) Height t o width r a t i o s should be from 3 X 4 t o 4 X 4» ) D e t a i l must be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t o t a l s i z e of device. ) Small devices should be designed so that the hand w i l l not hide them. ) Height of l e t t e r s and numbers should be Height-of-device 119 (23) Width of l e t t e r s and numbers should be Width of device (24) Stroke width o f l e t t e r s and numbers should be about width o f d e v i c e 100 (25) L e t t e r s and numbers should be separated by approximately one s t r o k e width. (26) Above 4 r u l e s should be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r d e t a i l wherever p o s s i b l e . (27) L e t t e r s , numbers, e t c . should be l i g h t a g a i n s t dark background. (28) Three dimensional o b j e c t s should be surrounded only by a i r . (29) C h a r t s should be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r cutaways. (30) L i g h t y e l l o w a g a i n s t r e d o r dark bl u e g i v e s good c o n t r a s t , (31) L i g h t y e l l o w surrounded by a i r i s e x c e l l e n t f o r 3-dimensional d e v i c e s . (224) Jackson concluded by sugges t i n g t h a t TV c o n t r i b u t e s t h r e e main advantages t o mass t r a i n i n g : -1. P o s i t i o n , - the TV camera can view an o b j e c t from many angles uncommon t o the human eye. From above, at a d i s t a n c e , e t c . 2. A m p l i f i c a t i o n , - The TV camera can enla r g e a smal l o b j e c t o r d e t a i l s o f any o b j e c t . Reverse i s t r u e , i . e . l a r g e o b j e c t s can be made s m a l l . 3. O r g a n i z a t i o n , - The TV camera can f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on o b j e c t s o r d e t a i l s and e l i m i n a t e extraneous o b j e c t s which may d e t r a c t o r d i s t r a c t . 120 Further i n f o r m a t i o n i s given here of some research mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , completed by Ash and Jaspen (28), as t h e i r r e p o r t on the optimum p h y s i c a l viewing c o n d i t i o n s f o r a re a r p r o j e c t i o n d a y l i g h t screen has d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o e f f e c t i v e viewing of t e l e v i s i o n . They found t h a t the optimum area f o r viewing was w i t h i n 30 degrees of each side of a center l i n e drawn perpendicular t o the plane of the screen and 12 screen widths deep. In t h i s optimum area performance i s b e t t e r under c o n d i t i o n s of d a y l i g h t ; outside the optimum area performance i s b e t t e r under c o n d i t i o n s of darkness. I n c r e a s i n g the distance from the screen r e s u l t s i n sharper l o s s i n performance than i n c r e a s i n g the angle of view, and the r e l a t i v e l o s s i s gr e a t e r under d a y l i g h t viewing c o n d i t i o n s than under darkness. Warner and Bowers (445) reported some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s from the use of open-channel t e l e v i s i o n i n post-graduate medical education. Four TV c l i n i c s were t r a n s m i t t e d by open-channel TV from S a l t Lake County General H o s p i t a l . Three hundred and forty-two p h y s i c i a n s p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h over one h a l f l o c a t e d outside S a l t Lake county. There was greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p h y s i c i a n s who l i v e d at a distance from the medical school and new f a c t s were obtained by 74% of those viewing one or more of the c l i n i c s . S i x t y - s i x percent of those viewing the c l i n i c s f e l t they were the p r e f e r a b l e form of post-graduate medical education and the r u r a l seminars and the courses given at the medical center were l i s t e d as second choice by 30% of the p h y s i c i a n s i n t e r v i e w e d . 121 To show i t s v e r s a t i l i t y as a teaching device and i n con t r a s t w i t h the previous study, the work completed by E s c h l e r , D e l l and Alexander (135) showing the e f f e c t i v e use of TV i n g i v i n g a short course (5 h a l f - h o u r lessons) i n d a i r y c a t t l e f e e d i n g i s c i t e d . Two thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven e n r o l l e d , before and a f t e r quizzes given, personal i n t e r v i e w s h e l d and the mean knowledge score on a 28 item quiz improved from 45 t o 59$. C o l l i c a n (84) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of teaching by TV compared t o teac h i n g by the use of an Extension b u l l e t i n and reported t h a t the group viewing the TV program had a gr e a t e r change i n knowledge than d i d those reading a b u l l e t i n . F u l t o n and Timken (149) , made an e v a l u a t i o n o f the opinions of teachers regarding the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a t e l e v i s e d , modern o r i e n t e d mathematics i n - s e r v i c e course. I t was reported t h a t the teachers considered the TV d i s c u s s i o n method su p e r i o r t o any other type of p r e s e n t a t i o n . They p a r t i c u l a r l y favoured the small group d i s c u s s i o n s f o l l o w i n g each t e l e c a s t . The school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l s o considered the TV d i s c u s s i o n s t o be very worthwhile and they would encourage t h e i r teachers t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n f u t u r e o f f e r i n g s . Evans (137) r e p o r t e d a study she made on education by t e l e v i s i o n i n l a t e r m a t u r i t y . She s t a t e d t h a t over h a l f of the o l d e r people interviewed watched the u n i v e r s i t y education channel and the most p r e f e r r e d f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t were welfare 73$, current events 68$, h e a l t h 66$ and music 65$. They f e l t t h a t 122 the programs should be e n t e r t a i n i n g as w e l l as educ a t i o n a l and the types of p r e s e n t a t i o n most d e s i r e d were panel d i s c u s s i o n s , i l l u s t r a t e d l e c t u r e s , i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s and demonstrations. C r i l e , R e i s t and T a i t (100) r e p o r t i n g on the use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Extension t e l e v i s i o n i n Lancaster and Lebabon counties Pa., found t h a t more than 2/3 of both men and women who watched the extension TV programs given by the county extension agents found the in f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l . Of those who s a i d the programs were u s e f u l , 1/5 of the men and 2/5 of the women had used some of the in f o r m a t i o n presented. Mathews and Ueland (289) i n examining how consumers got in f o r m a t i o n i n L o u i s v i l l e saw t h a t one or more persons i n more than 21,000 households had seen the "Market Basket Show", a consumer marketing i n f o r m a t i o n t e l e v i s i o n program. About 7 i n 10 s a i d they r e c e i v e d "some" or "very much" b e n e f i t from the show and about 3 out of 4 remembered r e c e i v i n g some h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . Reporting on TV coverage i n Vermont, W i l l i a m s (455) found t h a t the Extension s e r v i c e TV Program "Across the Fence" had been watched by 53% of the farm households, 42% of the non-farm households and 37% of the urban households, - an estimated t o t a l of between 20,000 t o 25,000 f a m i l i e s or 50 ,000 people i n the t e l e c a s t area. Gordy (165) reported t h a t county extension agents throughout the United S t a t e s have s t e a d i l y increased t h e i r use of TV broadcasts f o r extension t e a c h i n g as f o l l o w s 123 1953 - 4,653 t e l e c a s t s , 1954 - 14,071 t e l e c a s t s , 1955 -15,135 t e l e c a s t s , 1956 -15,837 t e l e c a s t s . J u s t as C r i l e (99) recommended t r a i n i n g i n r a d i o broadcasting f o r the county Extension agents a c t i v e i n t h i s media so Jones i n 1962 (232) evaluated A g r i c u l t u r a l and Home Economics programming by extension personnel on TV s t a t i o n s s e r v i n g Ohio. He surveyed data from 25 TV S t a t i o n s w i t h i n Ohio and 7 TV s t a t i o n s across the s t a t e border but s e r v i n g l a r g e areas of Ohio, and recorded t h a t 11 s t a t i o n s s a i d the agents needed t r a i n i n g i n TV p r e s e n t a t i o n techniques i n general, 10 s p e c i f -i c a l l y i n p u b l i c speaking, grammar, d i c t i o n , p r o n u n c i a t i o n e t c . , 20 i n u s i n g v i s u a l a i d s and 5 i n choice of c l o t h i n g , grooming e t c . Three are reported as needing t r a i n i n g i n news w r i t i n g f o r TV, 11 i n photography f o r TV and 15 i n s e l e c t i n g subject matter f o r the audience they are t r y i n g t o reach. There have been many s t u d i e s made of the r a p i d growth of TV viewing and the r e l a t e d viewing h a b i t s of the audience. Some of these s t u d i e s w i l l be examined here to give a b e t t e r under-standing of the f a c t o r s t o be considered and t o c o n t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n toward the p o s s i b l e more e f f e c t i v e use of TV as a t e a c h i n g device. C r i l e , R e i s t and T a i t * s (100) work was w i t h open-country f a m i l i e s ; v i l l a g e , town and c i t y f a m i l i e s were not i n c l u d e d . (1) TV sets were owned by about l / 4 of those whose occupation was farming and by more than 1/2 of those not farmers and by 41% of a l l open country r e s i d e n t s . 124 (2) P a t t e r n of vi e w i n g was much the same f o r weekdays, and Sundays except on Sunday the a f t e r n o o n v i e w i n g s t a r t e d e a r l i e r . Few men and women watched b e f o r e l a t e a f t e r n o o n on weekdays and 1 PM on Sundays. (3) The p a t t e r n i s much the same f o r men and women except more women watch TV at almost every hour. The h i g h e s t percentage watch between 8 PM and 9 PM. (4) The time o f the day i s more important than the day of the week f o r e x t e n s i o n watching. The bes t time i s 6 to 8 PM, and the 2nd ch o i c e i s 12 noon. (5) TV had l i t t l e e f f e c t on newspaper r e a d i n g and attendance at meetings but i t d i d reduce the r a d i o l i s t e n i n g time. T h i s comparison i s f o r the t o t a l use o f these media and not e x c l u s i v e l y e x t e n s i o n . E x t e n s i o n r a d i o i n L a n c a s t e r and Lebanon c o u n t i e s l o s t r e l a t i v e l y few l i s t e n e r s t o TV as compared with t o t a l r a d i o . (100) The A g r i s e a r c h s e r i e s (7) have made a gre a t d e a l o f TV r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r easy r e f e r e n c e . A g r i s e a r c h f o r J u l y 1955 (11) r e p o r t s f i g u r e s t h a t i n d i c a t e the ve r y r a p i d growth o f TV i n the U.S. as f o l l o w s : - TV owners per 100 f a m i l i e s i n 1948 was 1.4 whereas i n 1954 the number had i n c r e a s e d t o 76 p e r c e n t , ( l l ) T h i s r e p o r t a l s o showed t h a t : -(1) ^About 9 out of 10 TV s e t s can be expected t o be tuned i n f o r about 4 hours every weekday evening. (2) Normally 67 t o 75% o f the members of TV f a m i l i e s w i l l view TV f o r about 2 hours d u r i n g an average weekday evening. (3) The average TV f a n spends about 12 hours a week watching TV on weekday evenings. 125 (4) Monday through F r i d a y , husbands and wives spend the most evening time watching TV (13 p l u s h o urs); c h i l d r e n under 10 the l e a s t (7*7 hours); w h i l e teen-age c h i l d r e n and young a d u l t s occupy a middle p o s i t i o n w i t h 10 t o 12 hours. (5) TV owners who buy sets some time a f t e r TV becomes a v a i l a b l e are l e s s devoted t o TV than the e a r l i e r buyers. (11) A g r i s e a r c h f o r August 1955 (6) summarized research to show t h a t : -(1) Members of TV f a m i l i e s a d just home r o u t i n e s t o allow f o r t e l e v i s i o n and f o r other l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . 2) V i s i t i n g and e n t e r t a i n i n g f r i e n d s decreases i n TV homes. 3) When a TV set i s brought i n t o a home, movie attendance and magazine reading drop at f i r s t then i n c r e a s e . (4) Housewives are the most a v i d daytime and evening TV f a n s . (5) Except f o r weekday mornings, r a d i o l i s t e n i n g tends t o decrease i n i t i a l l y i n TV homes and then to i n c r e a s e . (6) F a c t o r s other than upkeep costs e x p l a i n why the lower c l a s s f a m i l i e s own r e l a t i v e l y fewer TV s e t s . (6) The two preceding r e p o r t s (6) and (11) were based on the seven i n i t i a l s t u d i e s i n the Videotown s e r i e s . Videotown a c t u a l l y i s New Brunswick, New Jersey, an urban center w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of about 4 0 , 0 0 0 , being 30 m i l e s southwest of New York c i t y and used as a l a b o r a t o r y f o r the study of the growth and impact of t e l e v i s i o n by the A d v e r t i s i n g f i r m Cunningham and Walsh, Inc., Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. In December 1956 A g r i s e a r c h (10) s t a t e d t h a t TV owners per 100 f a m i l i e s had r i s e n t o 87.7 and added t h a t i n a community which i s approaching s a t u r a t i o n i n t e l e v i s i o n growth, and m a t u r i t y i n viewing h a b i t s , -1) More than 90% of the "homes w i l l have TV s e t s . 2) About 9 out of 10 TV se t s can be expected t o be tuned i n f o r about 4 hours on an average weekday evening. 126 (3) G e n e r a l l y , about 75% of the members of TV f a m i l i e s w i l l view TV f o r a l i t t l e more than 2 hours during an average weekday evening. (4) The average TV viewer w i l l spend about 11 hours a week watching TV on weekday evenings. (5) Monday through F r i d a y evenings, husbands, wives, and grown-up c h i l d r e n w i l l spend about 3«5 hours each evening i n TV viewing; c h i l d r e n 10 - 18 w i l l view f o r l e s s than 3 hours; and c h i l d r e n under 10 w i l l view f o r a l i t t l e more than 2 hours. (10) A g r i s e a r c h f o r January 1957 (8) continued i t s review of the Videotown s e r i e s and r e p o r t s what happens to homelife, movie attendance, reading h a b i t s and r a d i o l i s t e n i n g a f t e r nine years w i t h t e l e v i s i o n , - assuming t h a t the community i s approaching s a t u r a t i o n w i t h TV. In the average TV home, most of the f a m i l y w i l l view TV on a weekday evening, a smaller p r o p o r t i o n w i l l view d u r i n g the afternoons, and r e l a t i v e l y few w i l l view during weekday mornings. Housewives i n TV homes w i l l account f o r most of the morning and afternoon viewing, and add t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n a l weight to evening viewing. Radio l i s t e n i n g i n TV homes w i l l tend t o be h i g h l y l i m i t e d during weekday evenings. Morning r a d i o l i s t e n i n g i n TV homes w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y u n a f f e c t e d by the competition of TV. On an average weekday morning, more people w i l l l i s t e n t o r a d i o than view TV; however, more time w i l l be spent i n viewing TV. V i s i t i n g and e n t e r t a i n i n g w i l l tend t o increase dur i n g the i n i t i a l stages of TV growth, decrease as TV becomes e s t a b l i s h e d , and in c r e a s e again as TV s a t u r a t i o n i s approached. U s u a l l y , newspaper reading w i l l not be a f f e c t e d by the competition of TV. On the average, p r o g r e s s i v e l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s of the higher socio-economic s t a t u s people w i l l be TV owners. As a p a t t e r n , l a r g e r f a m i l i e s buy TV sets e a r l i e r , the average s i z e f a m i l i e s buy them l a t e r , w h i l e the smaller f a m i l i e s w i l l h o l d . (8) Bertrand and Bates i n December 1958 (35) made a study of TV use i n r u r a l L o u i s i a n a and reported t h a t , -127 (1) On -weekdays the peak viewing p e r i o d f o r r u r a l men i s 7 t o 10 PM. Between 8 and 9 PM as many as 90% of men inte r v i e w e d from TV homes were watching t h e i r s e t . (2) On Saturdays more men use t h e i r s e t s between noon and 6 PM and fewer women view TV on Saturday afternoons than during the week. (3) More men use TV on Sunday afternoons than on weekdays or Saturday afternoons but fewer watch on Sunday evening than on weekdays or Saturday evening. Women f o l l o w much the same p a t t e r n but not t o the same degree. (4) R u r a l men's choice of programs - 1 s t Sports, 2nd Comedy, Rura l women's choice of programs 1 s t Comedy, 2nd Mystery. (5) About 3/5 r u r a l a d u l t s r e g u l a r l y view a g r i c u l t u r a l programs. (6) The f a v o u r i t e times to view a g r i c u l t u r a l programs: 1s t 6 t o 8 PM, 2nd noon hour. (7) TV has d r a s t i c a l l y reduced the time r u r a l people devoted t o r a d i o , movies and r e a d i n g . (8) Economic f a c t o r s are the main reasons f o r the m a j o r i t y of r u r a l non-TV owners. (35) C r i l e (96) reviewed the i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t , as reported by Broadcasting, T e l e c a s t i n g , i n January 1957, (52) t h a t an August 1956 survey showed a more r a p i d growth of TV households outside m e t r o p o l i t a n areas than i n s i d e . A f a i r l y l a r g e amount of research has been completed on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of kinescope recordings of l i v e TV 128 programs. Some of these, already noted, - Hurst (217), Husband (218) , Jackson (223) , Kanner and others (235) , Rock and others (346) and Tannenbaum (396) and some others, - Stover and Tear (389) , U l r i c h (414) and Dumazedier (123), a l l found the kine-scope recordings of a TV program to be at l e a s t as e f f e c t i v e as regular i n s t r u c t i o n , and i n some cases superior to such i n s t r u c t i o n . From the research r e s u l t s reviewed i t appears that l i v e TV, kinescopes, and conventional f i l m s are about equivalent from a teaching point of view, and F r i t z and others (146), and Rock and others (347) , found that adult students were generally favourably i n c l i n e d toward TV i n s t r u c t i o n . Tadros (394) conducted an investigation into the impact of TV upon the maturing process of the adult and reported some rather disappointing r e s u l t s . He reviewed 39 studies of empirical, pertinent research and reported that TV viewing apparently does l i t t l e or nothing f o r , or i s i n i m i c a l to, (1) the promotion of adult growth i n knowledge; p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n creative i n t e r e s t s and constructive a c t i v i t i e s . (2) growth into s o c i o - c e n t r i c i t y . (3) grasp of r e a l i t y (4) growth into r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and independence. (394) I t i s concluded that TV i s capable of helping adult viewers to mature but i t does not make a substantial contrib-ution to the maturing process. The majority of adult viewers 129 w i l l not develop t h e i r m a turity as long as t h e i r main i n t e r e s t i s TV entertainment programs, which c o n s t i t u t e the bulk of TV f a r e . In 1962 the U.S. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Ed u c a t i o n a l Broadcasters published the r e s u l t s of a survey of the needs of education f o r T e l e v i s i o n Channel A l l o c a t i o n s (307)• I t reported t h a t since 1952 the Federal Communications Commission had reserved some 275 TV channels of the e x i s t i n g 2200 f o r the use of ed u c a t i o n a l TV and t h a t only 62 were i n o p e r a t i o n . I t recommended t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l TV s e r v i c e should be expanded:-(1) To provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g education at every stage of l i f e . (2) To help overcome the d e f i c i t i n teachers and extreme shortages i n some d i s c i p l i n e s . (3) To make c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the community at l a r g e f o r c o n t i n u i n g and s p e c i a l education programs. (4) To f a c i l i t a t e the cooperation among st a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and c o l l e g e s f o r the use of c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l resources. (5) As the l i m i t e d space i n the TV spectrum may be f i l l e d before the necessary f a c i l i t i e s and technique f o r TV i n s t r u c t i o n can be i d e a l l y developed. (307) Mayer w r i t i n g i n The Saturday Evening Post, September 1963, (290) s t a t e s t h a t there are TV sets today i n the great m a j o r i t y of American schools, though only i n a small m i n o r i t y 130 of the classrooms. He reported t h a t almost 80 c i t i e s had t h e i r own ed u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s w i t h New York State alone expecting t o have 27 t r a n s m i t t e r s operating w i t h i n a few years. In 1962 U.S. Congress appropriated $32 m i l l i o n f o r matching grants t o S t a t e s , C i t i e s and ed u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which were i n t e r e s t e d i n p u t t i n g up ed u c a t i o n a l TV f a c i l i t i e s . Lyon's A r t i c l e (274) on 27 October, 1964, i n the Vancouver Sun r e p o r t s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n i s now a v a i l a b l e t o 100 m i l l i o n Americans through 84 non-commercial channels, and i n a d d i t i o n there are 182 closed c i r c u i t school systems i n operation w i t h some l i n k i n g as many as 100 schools. In the U.S. i n I963 there were 229,857 c l a s s e s taught by t e l e v i s i o n . I n i 9 6 0 Schramm (3°0) noted t h a t a d u l t education audiences are very important keys to edu c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n success. He s t a t e d t h a t the education of a d u l t s h i g h l y motivated t o l e a r n presents a unique opportunity f o r TV and when costs f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e i t may show t h a t a d u l t c r e d i t courses such as those o f f e r e d i n Chicago may " c a r r y " the edu c a t i o n a l TV s t a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l TV in, Canada Development of edu c a t i o n a l TV i n Canada has run up against a host of problems which th r e a t e n t o block f u r t h e r progress. Creery (95) reviews the s i t u a t i o n i n two a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n f o r the Vancouver newspaper, "The Province", on the 18 and 19 June, 1964. Most of the d i f f i c u l t i e s stem from the f a c t 131 t h a t whereas the major producer of e d u c a t i o n a l broadcasts on both TV and r a d i o i s the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, education i t s e l f i s the most j e a l o u s l y guarded of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Some of the provinces, p a r t i c u l a r l y Quebec, want a degree of c o n t r o l over ed u c a t i o n a l programs th a t the CBC i s r e l u c t a n t t o grant. The Corporation, w h i l e acknowledging the Provinces* r i g h t s t o c o n t r o l over e d u c a t i o n a l content, i n s i s t s on r e t a i n i n g c o n t r o l over production standards. Up t o now, f e d e r a l p o l i c y has been to refuse l i c e n s e s t o a p p l i c a t i o n s from P r o v i n c i a l governments or t h e i r agencies and while not i n any s t a t u t e , the p o l i c y has been f o l l o w e d since court d e c i s i o n s i n the 1930s decreed t h a t broadcasting i s i n the area of f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . The C.B.C. i s a l s o deeply concerned w i t h the extent t o which i t i s j u s t i f i e d i n spending money out of the Corporation*s budget, - which i s more than t w o - t h i r d s f e d e r a l t a x money, on p r o v i n c i a l education programs. The problem i s heightened by the f a c t t h a t some provinces get more than others, depending on how ambitious they have been i n launching e d u c a t i o n a l TV. Dr. Stewart, p r e s i d e n t of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education and a former p r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , foresees the need, not f a r i n the f u t u r e , f o r a com-prehensive d a i l y schedule of e d u c a t i o n a l programming. I t would i n c l u d e courses f o r elementary and secondary schools, u n i v e r s i t y courses, a d u l t education courses and programs which serve not as 132 a c r e d i t course i n themselves, but as an "enriching" element to s p e c i f i c courses or i n a general educational way. There has been some discussion i n interested c i r c l e s of e s t a b l i s h i n g a C.B.C. educational network, but the idea f l i e s immediately into the problem of p r o v i n c i a l educational j u r i s d i c t i o n . The Board of Broadcast Governors has taken some steps to encourage educational TV i n that i t has reserved an u l t r a -high frequency channel f o r the metropolitan educational Telev i s i o n Association of Toronto. Also i t has sought to encourage private stations by allowing them to count educational programs as 100% Canadian, to meet the 55% Canadian content rule, even i f they come from abroad. Eventually, the problem of channel r e s t r i c t i o n s may be overcome by ultra-high frequency (U H F) which w i l l o f f e r many more channels than the present very high frequency (V.H F) system. Canada lags behind the U.S. here again because i t does not have a regulation of the American type requiring new TV sets produced a f t e r 1 January 1965 to be equipped to pick up U H F. One of the major problems i s getting down the unit cost of educational TV, and t h i s can probably be achieved only by i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l agreement to use the same courses. I f such agreement i s not reached, the l i k e l y outcome would be the importation of educational TV from the United States where the economics of scale have already been r e a l i z e d . 133 The nature of the e d u c a t i o n a l TV problem may soon be r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d by the p e r f e c t i o n of TV tape which can be f e d i n t o s e t s t o reduce t r a n s m i s s i o n c o s t s . The e x p l o i t a t i o n of the v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s would r e q u i r e an immense amount of planning and co-operation which has h a r d l y begun. Even i f agreement were reached on content, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to get>,the r i g h t program to the r i g h t group at the r i g h t time, although t h i s should be somewhat e a s i e r i n the f i e l d of a d u l t education than i n the l i k e of h i g h school academic courses. John A r n e t t , the education r e p o r t e r f o r the d a i l y news-paper, The Vancouver Sun, adds to our knowledge of the Canadian E d u c a t i o n a l TV s i t u a t i o n by h i s two a r t i c l e s on the 9 t h February, (21) and 11th February, 1965 ( 2 2 ) . He g i v e s a good account of how the c i t y of Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia i s u s i n g TV i n t h i s 1964-65 school year as a r e g u l a r means of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r i t s grade 8 and grade 9 p u p i l s . T h i s , of course, i s not Adult education, but some of the outcomes are recognized as being v a l i d , of d i r e c t value, and r e a d i l y usable i n the a d u l t s i t u a t i o n : -(1) The teachers i n v o l v e d i n the TV programming a l l agree t h a t i t has improved t h e i r teaching 100 percent. The teachers s t a t e they are very c r i t i c a l of one another's t e a c h i n g , - "as soon as a c l a s s i s over, we get each other's r e a c t i o n t o i t and we are p r e t t y frank i n c r i t i c i z i n g one another.". 134 (2) Some teachers f e l t concern t h a t they were l o s i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l rapport between teacher and student. (3) Some teachers s t a t e d i t was d i f f i c u l t to know i f you were " r e g i s t e r i n g " w i t h the students. (4) Some students found i t d i f f i c u l t t o concentrate when a teacher spoke f o r long periods without using v i s u a l a i d s . (5) Students s t a t e d t h a t i n t e r e s t was roused by the d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view presented by the teacher who taught the TV l e s s o n and the teacher who l e d the smal l e r d i s c u s s i o n group t h a t f o l l o w e d . (6) The d i s c u s s i o n groups t h a t f o l l o w the TV p r e s e n t a t i o n have t o be sm a l l enough t o give everybody the opportunity t o speak. (7) I t was concluded t h a t TV w i l l never replace the teacher i n the classroom. As a teaching device i t i s e x c e l l e n t but behind i t a l l stands a good teacher. I f anything i t can only make the good teacher b e t t e r . (22) In t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n mention can be made of a study published by Barrow (32) under the t i t l e , "Proposed Theory For The E f f e c t Of E d u c a t i o n a l T e l e v i s i o n " . He proposes t h i s theory and as f a r as p o s s i b l e t e s t s i t against e x i s t i n g experimental s t u d i e s . I t i s a good review of communication theory, very i n t e r e s t i n g and p e r t i n e n t to our knowledge of ed u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n . 135 B. Re-In f o r c i n g Devices 1. P r a c t i c e A c t u a l a r t i c l e or sim u l a t o r or operative mockup. As Gagne (150) p o i n t s out there are two kinds of u t i l i z -a t i o n of t r a i n i n g devices, - performance improvement and performance measurement. Both uses may be made of a s i n g l e piece of equipment, o r they may be kept separate w i t h d i f f e r e n t equipment. In t h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h p r a c t i c e we w i l l only consider the f i r s t use, - performance improvement. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of importance i n the device used f o r improving performance i s the amount of t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g to an o p e r a t i o n a l t a s k . The degree of s i m u l a t i o n i s a secondary c o n s i d e r a t i o n , although there are many occasions i n which the a c t u a l equipment r a t h e r than a s u b s t i t u t e device i s used as a t r a i n i n g device e.g. the r i f l e . The problem of e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g i s not one of making the task s i m i l a r , but r a t h e r of arranging the c o n d i t i o n s of p r a c t i c e i n such a way t h a t e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s are most e a s i l y l e a r n e d . S k i l l t r a i n i n g devices provide m o t i v a t i o n and r e i n f o r c e -ment i n t h e i r instantaneous knowledge of r e s u l t s . T h e i r design can i n c o r p o r a t e p r o v i s i o n s which increase the p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence of response i f a s p e c i f i c response i s e s s e n t i a l , or may have g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e i f only f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h p r i n c i p l e s i s sought. The si m u l a t o r u s u a l l y has a high degree of resemblance to the o p e r a t i o n a l equipment i n i t s d i s p l a y , c o n t r o l s , and the 136 way one a f f e c t s the other, - and t h i s i s recommended by Newton (316) . The most common use of s i m u l a t o r s i s t h a t of p r o f -i c i e n c y measurement, - which we w i l l examine a l i t t l e l a t e r . U s u a l l y the degree of p r e c i s i o n i n s i m u l a t i o n i s increased only by a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e increase i n c o s t . Adams, and others, (2) checked the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a c o c k p i t procedure t r a i n e r and found t h a t good performance i n the t r a i n e r does not assure good performance i n a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n . Teaching the process need not r e q u i r e the response p r e c i s i o n of the a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n ; i t may prove more e f f e c t i v e t o s a c r i f i c e exact s i m u l a t i o n s i n order t o emphasize the c r i t i c a l aspects of a given t a s k . Games tha t teach are o f t e n used by business, i n d u s t r y and the Armed Ser v i c e s (133) , (345)• We are a l l aware of Army manoeuvres and Naval f l e e t e x e r c i s e s which are war games i n e f f e c t . Most of these games are played on a make-believe b a s i s i n s p e c i a l l y b u i l t game rooms i n which a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s can be simulated. This method was t e s t e d (243) f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s by the United States A i r Force and the r e s u l t s were fav o u r a b l e . Those who had taken p a r t i n an o p e r a t i o n a l game f o r f i v e hours d i d c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r during t h e i r t r a i n i n g than those who had not taken part i n the game. P o s i t i v e t r a n s f e r was noted and was c r e d i t e d t o the s i m i l a r i t y of the game and the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . 137 Two other s t u d i e s (142), (324)* conducted f o r the U.S. A i r Force showed t h a t a f l i g h t s i m u l a t o r used f o r p i l o t t r a i n i n g was very e f f e c t i v e i n b r i n g i n g about performance improvement i n f l y i n g procedures. A type of s e l f - t u t o r i n g game device was t e s t e d by Hatch (188). The a i d was t o help p i l o t s r e c a l l a l a r g e body of necessary job i n f o r m a t i o n and i t proved q u i t e e f f e c t i v e . P l a y e r s improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t s whereas non-players d i d not. 138 B. R e - I n f o r c i n g Devices 2. D r i l l a. Reading machines There are three b a s i c types of devices t h a t are g e n e r a l l y used f o r i n c r e a s i n g r e a d i n g e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e -ness and these are: -1. The Tachistoscope, - a machine which combines a s l i d e p r o j e c t o r and a camera-type s h u t t e r which can f l a s h l i n e s of p r i n t on a screen at a c o n t r o l l a b l e r a t e . 2. The reading pacer, - a machine t h a t covers and then exposes p r i n t d i r e c t l y t o a subject at a c o n t r o l l a b l e r a t e . I t i s sometimes c a l l e d a reading r a t e c o n t r o l l e r . 3» Reading f i l m , - p r i n t i s p r o j e c t e d on a screen from a f i l m i n a motion p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r . The p r i n t i s p r o j e c t e d on the screen and then removed at a r a t e e s t a b l i s h e d during the production of the f i l m . Each of these devices can be used t o increase the speed and comprehension of reading program p a r t i c i p a n t s over t h e i r previous reading performance l e v e l . Smith and Tate (376) found there was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between an increase i n reading speed and time spent i n a reading course. The improvement as measured by reading t e s t s was not n e a r l y as great as was shown on the reading r a t e c o n t r o l l e r , however some p r o p o r t i o n of the i n d i c a t e d speed gain d i d t r a n s f e r w i t h l i t t l e l o s s i n comprehension. Manolakes (285) studied the e f f e c t of not u s i n g a t a c h i s t o s c o p e i n a reading improvement course and spending the 139 saved i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i n a broader program of t r a i n i n g i n vocabulary and comprehension s k i l l s . The c o n t r o l group then w i t h t a c h i s t o s c o p e , r e a d i n g r a t e c o n t r o l l e r and book study made a gain about one h a l f t h a t of the experimental group th a t d i d not use the t a c h i s t o s c o p e . Other apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s are noted. Thompson (401) reported t h a t a book-centered, 21 hour reading i n s t r u c t i o n course f o r a d u l t s can r e s u l t i n reading speeds t h a t are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the speeds a t t a i n e d by machine-centered i n s t r u c t i o n . Although he s t a t e s t h a t subjects i n a machine-centered short course devote a considerable p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r time (1) g e t t i n g accustomed t o the machine and (2) "weaning" themselves away from the machine at the end of the course, and adds t h a t w i t h a few more hours a machine-centered course might show up considerably b e t t e r . Schwartz (362) , on the other hand reported q u i t e favour-ably on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of reading t r a i n i n g given i n the U.S. Naval p r e - f l i g h t school t h a t made good use of the reading r a t e c o n t r o l l e r . Of the twenty-one hours f o r the complete course, seven were used f o r a c t u a l reading p r a c t i c e , - p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h t h i s d e vice. At the end of the course the average student d i s p l a y e d an 88% increase i n speed f o r reading f i c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l and a f t e r t e n weeks of no f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n , an average of 90% of t h i s improvement was r e t a i n e d . A l s o the reading speed f o r t e c h n i c a l m a t e r i a l showed an average increase of 104% and once again 90% of t h i s increased speed was r e t a i n e d a f t e r ten weeks. 140 B. Re-Inforcing Devices 3• Performance a. Teaching machines and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n * As the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a teaching machine i s the inherent programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , very o f t e n the wider term of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s used f o r a l l methods of programmed automated teaching, whether or not a machine i s i n v o l v e d . I t i s evident t h a t without an agent i t i s r e a l l y a mass communication source t h a t can be used f o r s e l f education whereas i n the hands of an agent i t becomes a teaching d e v i c e . Although "teaching machines" have gained prominence only i n the l a s t few years Lumsdaine and Glaser (273) r e p o r t t h a t workable models i n v a r i o u s forms have been i n existance since 1924 and as e a r l y as 1862 a patent was i s s u e d f o r one. Qarr (76) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e on " S e l f - I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices" i n 1959 and reported at t h a t time t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d was growing so f a s t i t was hard t o keep up w i t h i t . His f i n d i n g s were th a t there was three major c l a s s e s of v a r i a b l e s which i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l e a r n i n g by means of s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices and these are (1) the c h a r a c t e r x s t i e s of the device (2) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the program (3) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r . He s t a t e d t h a t much a t t e n t i o n i s given t o programming on the arrangement of m a t e r i a l s t o be learned i n proper sequence which maximizes the r a t e of l e a r n i n g and degree of r e t e n t i o n , and of course t h i s i s 141 s t i l l t r u e * He p o i n t s out t h a t the concept of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s must s t i l l be considered w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to the l e a r n e r ' s background and i n t e l l i g e n c e ; and h i s aptitude and i n t e r e s t s w i t h respect t o the subject matter w i l l very probably i n f l u e n c e the program i n the matter of r e p e t i t i o n , sequence and stepping. He concluded by s t a t i n g t h a t more research i s needed t o determine c o r r e l a t i o n between I.Q. and achievement f o r s u b j e c t s using t e a c h i n g machines. Galanter (152) p o i n t s out t h a t there i s evidence t h a t P . I . provides a means su p e r i o r t o conventional teaching f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of academic s k i l l s and pure mastery of content w i t h a r e t e n t i o n l e v e l at l e a s t equal to t h a t of conventional t e a c h i n g . In I960 Bryan and Rigney ( 6 l ) made a review of "the cu r r e n t trends i n automated t u t o r i n g " on b e half of the U.S. Navy and reported t h a t the t e a c h i n g machines as p r e s e n t l y developed would only supplement conventional methods and t h a t completely automated t r a i n i n g would be u n r e a l i s t i c at t h a t time. Silverman's (369) review of automated te a c h i n g theory and research i n i 9 6 0 i s i n t e r e s t i n g and important but does not give any i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of P . I . He does p o i n t out the importance of a n a l y s i n g e x a c t l y what i s t o be learned and then the need f o r measuring very a c c u r a t e l y what has been learned, before attempting t o make a comparison between programmed and conventional i n s t r u c t i o n . 142 I r i o n and B r i g g s (222) reported on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an automatic device used i n the U.S. A i r Force f o r teaching subject matter and noted t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e modes of p r e s e n t a t i o n were quiz and mod i f i e d q u i z , i n t h a t order. The former provided immediate i n d i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t and the l a t t e r provided immediate feedback only i f the t r a i n e e chose the c o r r e c t answer. The Renner Company (343) devised a device c a l l e d the Study Card Set S y n t h e t i c S i m u l a t o r . Rather than use a "gimicked" guided m i s s e l f o r t r a i n i n g purposes i t introduces paper problems f o r s o l v i n g , r e q u i r e s step by step t e s t i n g , provides f o r immediate r e i n f o r c i n g at time of t e s t i n g , simulates a c t u a l experience, g i v e s immediate feedback of in f o r m a t i o n and s e l f - s c o r i n g i f d e s i r e d . The r e p o r t s from the U.S. Naval T r a i n i n g Device Center i n d i c a t e t h a t students who used the T r a i n e r - T e s t e r were s u p e r i o r t o students who used equipment only i n both B a s i c E l e c t r o n i c s and Advanced Radar T r a i n i n g . Mowry, Webb and Garvin (302) concluded a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s i n A i r T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g on behalf of the U.S. Navy i n 1955 and reported, among other t h i n g s , on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a type of teaching machine c a l l e d a classroom communicator. They found t h a t i t d i d f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h a t i t d i d improve student l e a r n i n g as measured by an examination. I t was not determined t o what degree the increased l e a r n i n g was due t o the novelty of the dev i c e . The students approved of 1 4 3 the use of the device and the i n s t r u c t o r s d i d not, - perhaps because of f a u l t y equipment and improper p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i t s use. T a i t ( 3 9 5 ) made a comparison of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n versus l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n as means of t r a i n i n g newly h i r e d county extension personnel i n the subject of r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g . Tests given a f t e r one day showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r both groups but the gains f o r the program i n s t r u c t e d group were considerably g r e a t e r . In I 9 6 0 the U.S. A i r Force ( 2 9 1 ) summarizing i t s experience on the use of a te a c h i n g machine f o r i t s SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) system s t a t e d t h a t the SAGE s t a f f ' s i n i t i a l enthusiasm f o r u s i n g a te a c h i n g machine f o r on-the-job t r a i n i n g was sustained over a 1 6 month per i o d d e s p i t e the observed implementation problems. A year l a t e r Benson and Kapstein ( 3 4 ) r e p o r t i n g on some research they completed f o r the U.S. A i r Force s t a t e d t h a t the automated te a c h i n g of b a s i c e l e c t r o n i c s , i n the f i r s t t e s t and wit h completely u n t r i e d m a t e r i a l s , taught as w e l l as an experienced l i v e i n s t r u c t o r and added th a t a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n of t r a i n i n g time seems w e l l w i t h i n reach. Only about one i n fo u r or f i v e s t u d i e s of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s has used a d u l t s so as yet there are some assumptions made tha t are based on research w i t h non ad u l t p o p u l a t i o n s . 144 Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has been t r i e d and has r e s u l t e d i n l e a r n i n g at every l e v e l from preschool, A l t e r , Eigen and King (17), and Gl a s e r , Taber and others ( l 6 l ) to graduate p r o f e s s i o n a l school, F e r s t e r (140), and Green (I7l)« I t has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h slow l e a r n e r s , Smith and Quackenbush (373) , and Stolurow (388), and on mature, s u p e r i o r students, Jensen ( 2 3 0 ) . I t has been used t o teach package and b i l l i n g c l e r k s , H i c k l e y and Anwyll ( 193) , e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n s , Benson and Kopstein (34) and computor operators, Hughes (215) . The l a s t three were, of course, a d u l t s t u d i e s . Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y t o teach a great v a r i e t y of subject matter and a great v a r i e t y of behaviours, - among them, r o t e l e a r n i n g , Gotkin and G o l d s t e i n (167), p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e l e a r n i n g , B l y t h and others (41) , the a p p l i c a t i o n of formulas, K e i s l a r (238), c o n s t r u c t i o n of deductive l o g i c a l p r o o f s , Evans ( 1 3 ° ) , formation of concepts, Gagne and Brown (151), d i r e c t e d reading course, Reed and Hayman (342), t r o u b l e shooting i n e l e c t r o n i c w i r i n g , Cantor and Brown ( 6 6 ) , and reading a radar screen, Arnoult ( 2 3 ) . The l a s t two were a d u l t s t u d i e s . Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has been used to teach a l l or p a r t of the b a s i c subject matter of a course, o r t o supplement the main part of a course as i n Klaus and Lumsdaine (247) who t e s t e d the method as a supplement t o Harvey White's physics l e c t u r e s on the C o n t i n e n t a l Classroom TV program. I t has been used i n the classrooms and at home. I t has been used c a s u a l l y 145 and without assignment or s u p e r v i s i o n and s t i l l produced d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t s . Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the form of t e a c h i n g machines, f l a s h cards, programmed t e x t s , -both h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l , - and both v i s u a l l y and o r a l l y . I t has been used e f f e c t i v e l y as programmed f i l m s , (see Roshal (353) and h i s work with 4200 n a v a l r e c r u i t s ) . I t has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n many d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s - w i t h and without branching, w i t h d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f cues and prompts, with d i f f e r e n t amounts of r e p e t i t i o n , w i t h d i f f e r e n t s i z e of step, o v e r t and c o v e r t responses, c o n s t r u c t e d o r s e l e c t e d responses, and w i t h d i f f e r e n t k i n d s and amounts of r e i n f o r c e m e n t . C l a s s -room l e c t u r e s and t e l e v i s i o n c l a s s e s have been "programmed" and i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g has r e s u l t e d , Roe and o t h e r s (350); Gropper and Lumsdaine (174)• Schramm ( 3 6 l ) r e p o r t s t h a t eleven U.S. Naval Reserve o f f i c e r s devoted 70 hours d u r i n g t e n days t o f u l l time study o f the Russian language, working through a program, then moving to a study o f grammar and of a tape r e c o r d i n g when they f i n i s h e d the program. On the b a s i s of t e s t s , t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r e s t i mated t h a t these o f f i c e r s l e a r n e d about as much i n t e n days as they would have l e a r n e d i n one and o n e - h a l f semesters of a c o l l e g e course. And i n an E n g l i s h study, Knight and T i l l e y (248) r e p o r t e d t h a t R.A.F. cadets, taught w i t h a t e a c h i n g machine, l e a r n e d to a g i v e n c r i t e r i o n about twice as q u i c k l y as a c o n v e n t i o n a l l y taught c l a s s . 146 Hughes and McNamara (216) making a study f o r the I.B.M. company reported t h a t a c l a s s of computer programmers completed t h e i r course work i n about h a l f the time, using programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , as was needed f o r conventional c l a s s methods. Again, Hickey and Laidlaw ( 194) , r e p o r t i n g on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n a U.S. Navy Supply O f f i c e r s course, s t a t e d t h a t the Supply Corps School students who used the adjunct program saved 56% of usual homework time and 17% of usual o v e r a l l study time i n reaching performance c r i t e r i o n . I n a d d i t i o n the i n s t r u c t o r ' s l e c t u r e hours were reduced 54% and the a t t i t u d e was g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e . Holt and V a l e n t i n e (207) i n v e s t i g a t e d the use of a programmed s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n course i n b a s i c e l e c t r i c i t y f o r the B e l l Telephone L a b o r a t o r i e s and reported that the time taken t o complete the t r a i n i n g course was about the same f o r both the "programmed" group and the c o n v e n t i o n a l l y taught group but that the p r o f i c i e n c y of the program-taught group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r as measured by examinations immediately a f t e r the course and again s i x months l a t e r . Smith (375) on behalf of the U.S. A i r Force Academy, made a comparison of teaching elementary s t a t i s t i c s by the conventional classroom method as compared w i t h the use of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and reported t h a t there was no s i g n i f -i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the two groups although the programmed group r e q u i r e d l e s s time. A l s o there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i n t e r e s t i n the groups. 147 Teaching Machines, Inc. (398) r e p o r t the Sandia Corporation's i n t e r e s t i n g cost f i g u r e s on teaching by programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . To teach Russian t o t h e i r employees i n conventional c l a s s e s cost $57.15 per completion; to teach i t by P.I. cost $ 2 0 . 1 9 . Algebra taught c o n v e n t i o n a l l y cost $20.50 per completion; the cost t o teach i t by program was $16.79« The cost of i n s t r u c t o r ' s s a l a r i e s was approximately the same f o r e i t h e r way of t e a c h i n g but w i t h programs the i n s t r u c t o r s could handle more students and obtained a higher percentage of completions. In view of the f i n d i n g s thus f a r s e v e r a l t e n t a t i v e statements may be made about programmed l e a r n i n g . I t c e r t -a i n l y can be e f f e c t i v e as Krumboltz and Weisman (252) showed t h a t students have learned s u c c e s s f u l l y from i t . Holland (206) proved t h a t P . I . can reduce student e r r o r and t h a t proper a n a l y s i s f o l l o w e d by s u i t a b l e r e v i s i o n of the m a t e r i a l can decrease e r r o r s even f u r t h e r d u r i n g the l e a r n i n g process. Lysaught (275) showed t h a t P.I. tends t o l e v e l the d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t i e s among students; w h i l e a l l students exposed to the program may show achievement, the gain seems to be more conspicuous among the lower p o r t i o n of the c l a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n . Eigen (131) pointed out t h a t i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g time may vary widely w i t h P.I. since students work at t h e i r own speeds. L i t t l e (263) warns t h a t p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l success may decrease because slow l e a r n e r s and 148 others may perform b e t t e r on P . I . than would have been i n d i c a t e d by previous behaviour on other ways of l e a r n i n g . And i n a d d i t i o n , B l y t h (40) notes t h a t m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n may increase because of the s t u d e n t s 1 immediate knowledge of success; which i s not u s u a l l y forthcoming i n other, conventional forms of i n s t r u c t i o n . 149 B» Re-Inforcing; Devices 3• Performance. -b. S k i l l t e s t s * The research d e a l i n g w i t h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the a c t u a l a r t i c l e , or simulator o r o p e r a t i o n a l mock-up, as a teach i n g device was reviewed and evaluated i n two previous s e c t i o n s , - (1) I l l u s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s , v i s u a l and three dimensional (2) Re-In f o r c i n g d e v i c e s , p r a c t i c e . However i t should be noted again, here, t h a t Gagne' (150) pointed out the most common use of the s i m u l a t o r , or o p e r a t i o n a l equipment i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , i s t o measure performance or t e s t s k i l l . The other use, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , i s t o improve performance. Again, both uses can be made of the same piece of equipment or device, eg., a r i f l e ; f o r as Gagne' s a i d "what d i s t i n g u i s h e s a t r a i n i n g device i s not i t s appearance or c o n s t r u c t i o n but r a t h e r how and f o r what purpose i t i s used." He a l s o showed t h a t i f a device i s used f o r s k i l l t e s t s i t must have the important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of (1) r e l i a b i l i t y and (2) v a l i d i t y . 150 C. Environmental Devices P h y s i c a l * - a l l c o n t r o l l a b l e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the meeting p l a c e . a. Colour Colour w i l l be d e a l t w i t h as a separate e n t i t y and i n more d e t a i l f u r t h e r on i n t h i s t h e s i s but f o r now i t w i l l be discussed as a c o n t r o l l a b l e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y i n the p h y s i c a l environment of the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . A c o l o u r can be p l e a s i n g or r e p e l l i n g depending on what other c o l o u r ( s ) i t i s combined w i t h . McClendon (277) r e p o r t s t h a t i t can c o n t r i b u t e t o emotional disturbance and f a t i g u e as one quarter of the b o d i l y energy i s consumed i n r e t i n a l a c t i v i t y and where c o l o u r schemes are poor, the r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e d eye s t r a i n causes f a t i g u e and emotional s t r a i n . Mason (288) made some important observations and recommendations regarding the use of colour f o r c e r t a i n types of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and other s t u d i e s have been made i n the use of co l o u r e.g., as an a i d t o sa f e t y and e f f i c i e n c y i n i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s ( 4 H ) « b. L i g h t i n g I t i s r e a d i l y seen t h a t an adequate amount of l i g h t i s u s u a l l y important f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g t o take p l a c e . This r e l a t i o n between i l l u m i n a t i o n and v i s i o n has of t e n been stud i e d and r e p o r t e d . Among these s t u d i e s are those of Crouch (101), 151 Hibben ( 192) , Weston (451) , Guth and others (177), and Seagers ( 3 6 3 ) . In s t u d i e s of t h i s nature the modifying f a c t o r of age i s u s u a l l y considered, Hibben (192) p o i n t s out tha t indoor tasks are performed under a wide and sometimes c o n s t a n t l y changing b r i g h t n e s s . The new l i g h t sources are not i n h e r e n t l y troublesome but c a l l f o r sup e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e i n usage. He adds t h a t the p a r t n e r s h i p of l i g h t and v i s i o n i n v o l v e s the question of age f o r although at 20 years the p u p i l diameter i s approximately 8 mm, at 60 years p l u s , the diameter may be reduced t o about t§ mm. Thus a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n g should be designed f o r the average of e l d e r l y people and w i t h the increase of con t r a s t b r i g h t n e s s , smaller o b j e c t s can be seen. The background bri g h t n e s s should be one-half t h a t of the task and a l l g l a r e and b r i g h t l i g h t s t h a t may be exposed should be e l i m i n a t e d from view. Weston (451) found a considerable decrement i n v i s u a l performance (combined speed and accuracy) w i t h age. Older observers a t t a i n e d a g r e a t e r improvement i n performance w i t h increased i l l u m i n a t i o n than d i d the younger observers. However, even w i t h the highest i l l u m i n a t i o n (500 foot-candles) the o l d e r group was unable t o achieve the same performance as the younger group d i d w i t h the lowest i l l u m i n a t i o n (5 f o o t - c a n d l e s ) . I t should be noted however t h a t Weston fs t e s t i n v o l v e d "quickness of perception", eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n and manual d e x t e r i t y and these l a s t two f a c t o r s may l i m i t the performance more than v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . 152 Guth, Eastman and M c N e l i s (177) made a thorough study of the l i g h t i n g requirements f o r o l d e r workers u s i n g 100 t y p i c a l o f f i c e and l a b o r a t o r y employees aged 17 to 65 y e a r s . A l l those w i t h p a t h o l o g i c a l and u n c o r r e c t a b l e o p t i c a l eye d e f e c t s were excluded. They r e p o r t e d t h a t the decrease i n v i s i b i l i t y i s gradual up t o the age of about 45, a f t e r which the change becomes more pronounced and t h a t each age group i . e . , the 20s, 30s, 40s e t c . , has a f a i r l y constant and equal decrease f o r a l l f o o t candle l e v e l s . The o b s e r v a t i o n was a l s o made t h a t the l i g h t i n g requirements i n c r e a s e move markedly from age 45 t o 50 and t h a t a l l except the o l d e s t group (6I-65 y e a r s ) r e q u i r e d about the same percentage i l l u m i n a t i o n f o r a g i v e n improvement i n v i s i b i l i t y . Higher f o o t candles c o n t r i b u t e t o b e t t e r s e e i n g and as age p r o g r e s s e s t h i s f a c t o r becomes more important. Seagers* (363) p u b l i c a t i o n i s a v e r y u s e f u l manual f o r the educator. The chapter headings a r e : V i s u a l Development i n the Growing C h i l d , Anatomy and P h y s i o l o g y o f the Eye, Eye Care and P r o t e c t i o n , The P h y s i c s of L i g h t , L i g h t and Seeing, Environmental Recommendations. There i s a l s o a g l o s s a r y of terms used as w e l l as an annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y and a ready r e f e r e n c e t a b l e showing recommended l e v e l s o f i l l u m i n a t i o n f o r a l l probable i n s t r u c t i o n a l areas and l e a r n i n g environments, c. Temperature Very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been r e p o r t e d on the e f f e c t o f temperature i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Mayo (292) d i d 153 i n v e s t i g a t e the i n f l u e n c e of summer heat on the achievement o f Naval A i r t r a i n e e s performing sedentary t a s k s . Two matched groups of 404 men each were used; one group s t u d i e d i n an a i r c o n d i t i o n e d b u i l d i n g maintained at a mean temperature of 71«3° and the o t h e r group s t u d i e d i n a b u i l d i n g w i t h an exhaust f a n only and a mean temperature of 82°F. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n the achievement o f the two groups although the group working i n the h i g h e r temperature thought t h e i r l e a r n i n g was i m p a i r e d . The groups had a mean age of " s l i g h t l y over 20" thus we do not know whether the r e s u l t s would apply t o o l d e r s t u d e n t s . 154 C. Environmental Devices 2 . Organi zational The organization^, of the educational environment appears to be heading f o r many changes. Although c e r t a i n l y not research, MacPherson (276) , gave an i n t e r e s t i n g insight when addressing a symposium on school design at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia i n January 1965• He spoke of the future school, - not planned around a blackboard, and with learning areas suited to the basic teachings of each d i s c i p l i n e . King (242) at the same symposium, said that the formal box-like class room with i t s row of desks i s on i t s way out. In i t s place w i l l come lecture theatres, seminar rooms, and possibly i n d i v i d u a l study areas f o r students. He added that we can expect to have team teaching i n lecture theatres holding well over 100 students which could be followed by more informal lectures i n smaller rooms. He stated that windowless rooms are being t r i e d to see i f there i s any increase i n e f f e c t i v e -ness due to lack of d i s t r a c t i o n , and, i n elementary schools, there are some classrooms f i t t e d with carpets where children are encouraged to s i t on the f l o o r and work, - once again i n an e f f o r t to f i n d the most e f f e c t i v e way f o r education to take place. In October 1964 Trotter (410) spoke of other devices and ways of education which would r a d i c a l l y change the educational environment. As mentioned previously, he said that one excellent teacher can now i n s t r u c t an entire county, 155 state or province through a two way telephone c i r c u i t . He reported that i t i s now possible f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to write notes and draw diagrams that are transferred to a "blackboard" by telephone - and these telephone c i r c u i t s are much l e s s costly than closed c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n systems. Trotter continued to say that the present school buildings could be used to educate elementary and secondary students from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. and the same buildings could be used f o r junior colleges from 3 p.m. to 8 p.m. This means the colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s would double t h e i r capacity because they would only have to teach two undergraduate years and post graduate courses. "The most popular and f a m i l i a r pattern of organization i n adult education i s the meeting or class", (434) - or group. There are several f a c t o r s that must be considered i n r e l a t i o n to the effectiveness of a group as a teaching device. The effectiveness of a group i s c e r t a i n l y modified by i t s size and the size i n turn i s determined by "attendance". Marsh and Coleman (287) found that attendance i s rel a t e d to educational l e v e l and increases with education. C r i l e (97) l i s t e d other f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g attendance i n r u r a l areas, v i z . , - income, size of farm, distance to the place of meeting. Shoptaw (367) found that r u r a l f a m i l i e s w i l l attend educational meetings i f they are planned to in t e r e s t a l l members of the family, that continuance on a long term basis encourages p a r t i c i p a t i o n and that distance influences 156 attendance. He recommended the use of churches, community-buildings and country stores rather than consolidated schools as t h i s resulted i n reduced t r a v e l l i n g distance and encouraged neighbourhood s p i r i t . C r i l e (97) reported that the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the meeting related to prompt s t a r t i n g , regular attendance, participant i n t e r e s t i n the subject, willingness to take part i n discussions, readiness to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and adequately trained leadership. The popular use of meetings or groups i n adult education seems to be j u s t i f i e d by the findings of Wilson and Gallup (459) and Rohrer (351) . a. Group Size Brim (50) made quite a thorough study of the e f f e c t of size on the functioning of groups i n parent education and h i s findings are reviewed. He points out that Cheavens (80) affirms that group discussion i s a superior means f o r reaching a solution to any s p e c i f i c c h i l d - r e a r i n g problem presented by a member. Eckert (125) narrowed t h i s down by stating that the evidence i s quite conclusive that the best thinking occurs i n small groups; probably a group of f i v e i s an i d e a l s i z e . Brim adds that there i s considerable evidence on group versus i n d i v i d u a l problem - solving, as presented by Lorge and others (268), i n d i c a t i n g that t h i s statement and t h i s general point of view are not necessarily true. Brim observes that the superiority of group or i n d i v i d u a l problem - solving depends on a large number of variables such as the l e v e l of s k i l l of the group members and the type of problem. 157 There are several other differences noted between educators as to what i s the most desirable size of a group. Kawin (237) suggests a group of 25 i s i d e a l . Grossman (175) says 20 to 30 i s good. Gol l e r (164) states that the range may be from 8 to 22 with about 15 being the most desirable. Cheavens (80) indicates that between 15 and 25 i s usually thought to be i d e a l . It i s d i f f i c u l t to say whether the r e l a t i v e l y small differences noted are s u f f i c i e n t to con-s t i t u t e disagreement. Terrien (399) made a very i n t e r e s t i n g contribution to t h i s consideration of group s i z e . Basing h i s work on Bossard*s "Law of Family Interaction" he pointed out that with two people there i s only one l i n e of communication but that as family (or group) members are added the l i n e s of communication between any two people increase f a s t e r than the number of members. The formula f o r t h i s process i s r = n(n-l) where r a number of relationships which i s to be determined, n = the number of persons i n the group, (n-l) stands f o r a l l other persons i n the group who may be contacted by a given i n d i v i d u a l , the 2 by which the whole i s divided i s necessary because each l i n e connects two persons. Using t h i s formula i t can be determined that i n a group of 100 people there are 4950 p o t e n t i a l two person contacts. With 200 people — 19,900 two person contacts and so on. In a 2 person group, 1 person w i l l have 100% p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportunity, 158 3 person group, 1 person w i l l have 67% p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportunity 4 person group, 1 person w i l l have 50% p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportunity 5 person group, 1 person w i l l have 40% p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportunity 6 person group, 1 person w i l l have 33% p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportunity 7 person group, 1 person w i l l have 28.6% p a r t i c i p a t i o n opportunity I t i s s o c i o l o g i c a l axiom t h a t , as the s i z e of the group in c r e a s e s i t moves away from i n t r i n s i c e v a l u a t i o n of the i n d i v -i d u a l s i n v o l v e d and from government by empathy. Members evaluate each other by an e x t r i n s i c b a s i s - judging them by the s e r v i c e s they can perform r a t h e r than f o r what they are as humans. Group c o n t r o l i s i n c r e a s i n g l y f o r m a l i z e d , - r u l e s are s u b s t i t u t e d f o r understanding and communication becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t as the l e s s e r i n d i v i d u a l i s ever f u r t h e r from the source of power. Bass and Norton (33) report e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s on group s i z e and i t s e f f e c t on l e a d e r l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s . They noted t h a t when l e a d e r l e s s d i s c u s s i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was s t u d i e d i n groups of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n the mean l e a d e r s h i p assessment earned by p a r t i c i p a n t s as the groups st u d i e d became l a r g e r i n s i z e . A l s o t h a t maximum s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n the absolute sense occurred i n d i s c u s s i o n groups of 6. R e l a t i v e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n tended t o increase d i r e c t l y w i t h an increase i n d i s c u s s i o n group s i z e . Observer agreement a l s o reached a maximum w i t h d i s c u s s i o n groups of 6 and tended t o d e c l i n e as group s i z e was a l t e r e d i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n . They 159 added that consistancy of l e a d e r s h i p behaviour was at a minimum i n d i s c u s s i o n groups of 2 . Beyond th a t p o i n t no systematic trends were c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e f o r b e h a v i o r a l consistency i n r e l a t i o n to group s i z e . The s e a t i n g behaviour of l a r g e groups was s t u d i e d by Kennedy and K l e i n (239) and s e v e r a l observations were noted and conclusions made. Interviews w i t h delegates suggested t h a t those i n d i v i d u a l s who are most i n t e n s e l y committed to small groups as the i d e a l medium f o r human problem s o l v i n g and l e a r n i n g tended to have a set a g a i n s t the " l a r g e theory s e s s i o n s " before experiencing them. Other observations noted t h a t might w e l l i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the meeting f o r the group p a r t i c i p a n t s are v i z . , the order of a r r i v a l at the l e c t u r e s - e a r l y or l a t e , the degree of post-meeting s a t i s f a c t i o n expressed, the amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and, what seemed to be the most important o b s e r v a t i o n , - the t o t a l movement score or v a r i a b i l i t y i n choice of seat. This l a s t i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the s h i f t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l over a s e r i e s of meetings. Schellenberg*s (357) study of group s i z e as a f a c t o r i n the success of academic d i s c u s s i o n groups reported a c o n s i s t e n t and s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g of an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between group s i z e and p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n . A second important discovery was the d i f f e r e n c e between the p e r s p e c t i v e of i n s t r u c t o r s and students. I n s t r u c t o r s are more i n c l i n e d than students t o show s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l a r g e r groups. Also there 160 was l i m i t e d evidence presented t o i n d i c a t e t h a t s m a l l e r groups showed s l i g h t l y h i g h e r academic achievement than d i d l a r g e r groups. Gibb's (157) work showed t h a t p r o d u c t i v i t y appears t o var y i n v e r s e l y w i t h group s i z e and examines the e f f e c t s o f group s i z e and t h r e a t r e d u c t i o n upon c r e a t i v i t y i n a problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n . Hare (185) examined the e f f e c t of group s i z e on consensus, i n t e r a c t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n and found these a l l h i g h e r i n groups of 5 than i n groups o f 12. He a l s o noted t h a t as the group becomes l a r g e r than 12 the t r e n d toward f r a c t i o n a l ! s m should become more apparent.-S l a t e r ' s (372) study o f c o n t r a s t i n g c o r r e l a t e s o f group s i z e found t h a t groups l a r g e r than 4 were never f e l t t o be too s m a l l and groups s m a l l e r than 6 were never f e l t t o be too l a r g e . The s i z e of 5 was seen as the group s i z e which, from the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' viewpoint, was most e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h an i n t e l l e c t u a l t a s k , - t h a t o t h e r than a p h y s i c a l o r manual o p e r a t i o n . T a y l o r and Faust (397) found t h a t groups o f f o u r are slower on concentrated problems than groups of two, but f a s t e r on a b s t r a c t problems. Whereas, Z i l l e r (465) showed t h a t accuracy i n d e c i s i o n making i s b e t t e r i n groups o f s i x than i n groups of 2 or 3 persons. In I 9 6 I Davis (111) r e p o r t e d some r e s e a r c h based on a study of group l o s s o r drop outs from Great Book d i s c u s s i o n 161 groups, t a k i n g i n t o account such f a c t o r s as s i z e of group and age or s e n i o r i t y of the groups. The group s i z e s studied were 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-24 and 25 or more; and the s e n i o r i t y of: the groups observed were from the f i r s t year through f o u r t h or more. This study however showed no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n . There i s a tendency f o r the l a r g e r groups to have higher r e t e n t i o n r a t e s i n the second and t h i r d year but i n the most se n i o r groups there i s no t r e n d , and one cannot conclude t h a t e i t h e r l a r g e or small groups are more s u c c e s s f u l . Beginners have hig h e r drop out r a t e s when contrasted w i t h advanced members. I t appears t h a t s e n i o r i t y and s i z e are not very important f o r the s u r v i v a l of Great Book groups, - except as both are r e l a t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l propensity f o r newcomers to have a greater l o s s r a t e . S t o g d i l l (387) reported t h a t w i t h i n the group, perform-ance, i n t e r a c t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y of s u p e r i o r s exert a d i r e c t e f f e c t upon the performance and i n t e r a c t i o n s of subordinates. The l e a d e r s h i p process may be more smoothly maintained i n a s t r a t i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n than i n a primary group. In a primary group l e a d e r s h i p i s subject t o the b u f f e t s of f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n . The behaviour of one member of a group i s l i k e l y t o have an immediate and d i r e c t e f f e c t upon the behaviour of other members of the group. In a s t r a t i f i e d organ-i z a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n s are l i k e l y t o be more h i g h l y f o r m a l i z e d . Counterbalancing e f f e c t s are observed i n l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s 162 as w e l l as i n s m a l l ones but t h e l a r g e appear t o m a i n t a i n a more s t a b l e system o f i n t e r a c t i o n s and t o be l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o i n t e r a c t i o n a l t e n s i o n s . 163 b. Arrangement of l e a r n e r s Carp (69) r e p o r t s how i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group can be arranged or organized by the teacher t o b r i n g about c e r t a i n r e s u l t s or e f f e c t s . I f the group i s l a r g e these described o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be more important and a p p l i c a b l e , ( l j Reaction Team! - Sometimes i t i s a d v i s a b l e , i f a present-a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be r a t h e r complex, to s e l e c t a few members to act as audience or group r e a c t i o n spokesmen. With both the teacher and audience or group agreed i n advance, i t i s the p r i v i l e g e of these spokesmen t o i n t e r r u p t the speaker whenever a p o i n t being made needs f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o r e l a b o r a t i o n . This r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g use or i t might hinder r a t h e r than help the communication process. As a v a r i a t i o n , " q u i z z cards" can be w r i t t e n as the pr e s e n t a t i o n proceeds and these can be handed i n f o r s y n t h e s i s , combination and answering at the end of the t a l k . (2) Observation Team: - This lends i t s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l t o the d r a m a t i z a t i o n of an i n c i d e n t or demonstration of a s k i l l . Other v i s u a l or audio p r e s e n t a t i o n s , such as f i l m s , s l i d e s , r e c o r d i n g s , e t c . , are a l s o e x c e l l e n t . The group then, e i t h e r as i n d i v i d u a l s or i n smaller groups, i s asked t o repo r t o b s e r v a t i o n s . When i t i s considered d e s i r a b l e t o view the i n c i d e n t from v a r i o u s p o i n t s of view, the separate smaller groups can be so i n s t r u c t e d . The coordinated r e p o r t then f o r the e n t i r e group can be prepared by c o l l a t i n g the w r i t t e n observations or having a b r i e f "buzz s e s s i o n " . 164 (3) L i s t e n i n g Teams: - This i s a u s e f u l device i n which the group i s d i v i d e d i n t o l i s t e n i n g teams by the teacher eg., those on the r i g h t side of the room form one team, those i n the center another, and those on the l e f t , a t h i r d . Each team l i s t e n s f o r p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s . For example one team might l i s t e n f o r " p o i n t s r e q u i r i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n " . A second team could l i s t e n f o r " t h i n g s we question or disagree w i t h " . A t h i r d team could l i s t e n f o r " t h i n g s we ought to do something about". (4) Thread Man: - This i s another o r g a n i z a t i o n a l device t h a t can be used w i t h i n a group, p a r t i c u l a r l y where the group i s to meet f o r a number of times. Schmitt and Svenson (359) describe t h i s a c t i v i t y by p o i n t i n g out the thread man f u n c t i o n i s to b r i n g ideas and experiences i n t o focus. The i n d i v i d u a l , c o - o r d i n a t o r , master-of-ceremonies, chairman, - p e r s o n i f i e s the o v e r - a l l u n i t y and purposefulness of the program. He u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e s the purpose and plan of the program at the outset and t h e r e a f t e r p o i n t s up the r e l a t i o n s h i p of experiences to each other and t o the l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s ; and he may a l s o summarize. 165 I I D i f f u s i o n Devices A. D i s t r i b u t e d As C l i n t o n (82) pointed out, of a l l the d i f f u s i o n devices, v i z . , the p r i n t e d page, f i l m , r a d i o and recordings, and t e l e v i s i o n ; the p r i n t e d page i s the only one t h a t does not have the human v o i c e . I t may be noted again here t h a t although the devices eg., f i l m , r a d i o and TV do possess the warmth and impact of the human v o i c e , the l a c k of movement i s the p r i n c i p a l asset of the p r i n t e d page. The p r i n t e d p i c t u r e s and p r i n t e d words can be s t u d i e d , discussed, cut out, f i l e d , passed around, or read at a more convenient time. I t i s s e l e c t i v e of i t s audience and demands an a c t i v e mind. Brim (50) s t a t e s t h a t one of the strongest arguments i n favour of the use of d i f f u s i o n devices i s t h a t they have the lowest cost per c a p i t a of d e l i v e r i n g u n i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . A l s o as they are able t o reach i n t o the home and i n f l u e n c e a d u l t s who do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i s c u s s i o n groups or attend l e c t u r e s they are more l i k e l y t o reach those not otherwise contacted. An aspect of d i f f u s i o n devices t h a t has r e c e i v e d and i s s t i l l r e c e i v i n g c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n from a d u l t educators concerns the i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l of the communication, assessed i n such manner as the "reading a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d t o understand the pamphlet". I n 1955, the U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare (419) c a l l e d t o the a t t e n t i o n o f parent educators t h a t 166 the mothers o f n e a r l y s i x t e e n m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n under f i v e y e a r s of age i n c l u d e d n e a r l y f i v e m i l l i o n w i t h a grammar scho o l e d u c a t i o n , or l e s s , and nine m i l l i o n , who had completed onl y one t o f o u r y e a r s of h i g h s c h o o l . I t f o l l o w s t h a t u s e r s o f mass media must make t h e i r m a t e r i a l r e a d i l y understandable. Two s t u d i e s completed i n 1934 show the p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l o f t h a t time t o have a h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l . Witmer Ts (462) r e s e a r c h showed the m a t e r i a l then was probably too d i f f i c u l t f o r more than h a l f of the parent c l i e n t e l e and Ojemann's (323) work i n d i c a t e d some t h r e e q u a r t e r s of the m a t e r i a l sampled r e q u i r e d a b i l i t y beyond h i g h s c h o o l . T h i s tendency seems t o have changed as t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s of a t r e n d toward s i m p l i c i t y . A Study by Weng (450) i n 1952 analyzed some 75 n a t i o n a l and s t a t e pamphlets and the a n a l y s i s o f the r e a d i n g l e v e l o f a subsample of 44 pamphlets showed 80% to be a t the 7th or 8 t h grade l e v e l and the remaining 20% a t the 9 t h o r 10th grade or above. T h i s d e s i g n i n g of the media f o r the r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f the u s e r s , o r r e a d a b i l i t y , was f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y researched by Gray and Leary ( 1 7 0 ) . They found t h a t c l a r i t y and smoothness o f s t y l e made a w r i t t e n work more readable and more e n j o y a b l e . They a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i n t e r e s t and s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n c o u l d overcome such handicaps as l o n g i n v o l v e d sentences, unusual p o l y s y l l a b i c words and a heavy s t y l e . M o r r i s s and Holverson (301) found t h a t i f the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l d e a l t with f a m i l i a r concepts, s u b j e c t s or scenes, 167 the a d u l t students read and enjoyed w r i t i n g of a more d i f f i c u l t l e v e l than they would otherwise f i n i s h . T h e i r c u l t u r a l con-d i t i o n i n g i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r acceptance of the w r i t i n g . Lorge (267) s a i d much the same t h i n g when he reported t h a t people not only tend t o read what they already know about, a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , but because of t h e i r i n t e r e s t , the meaning they give the t e x t grows out of t h e i r own back-ground of experience and knowledge. Carpenter (75) reported t h a t the content of p u b l i c a t i o n s appears t o be the most important f a c t o r f o r r u r a l audiences. He made an elaborate comparison of the acceptance of a 64 page booklet and a 4 page l e a f l e t on the same subject, by 200 Wisconsin farmers and found the booklet p r e f e r r e d by 47*2% and the l e a f l e t by 36%; 16.8% being undecided. There was no r e l a t i o n of choice t o economics, tenure, education or age. For example, although those who were high school graduates or b e t t e r p r e f e r r e d the booklet, so d i d those w i t h l e s s than high school experience, and those w i t h some high school education favoured the l e a f l e t . In 1959 the U.S. A i r Force (416) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e a d a b i l i t y of i t s l i t e r a t u r e and took a c t i o n t o determine the r e a d a b i l i t y index of some of i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s . A few years p r e v i o u s l y , K l a r e , Mabry and Gustafson (246) analyzed the r e a d a b i l i t y of a standard A i r Force study guide and found t h a t when r e a d a b i l i t y was increased (as measured by a standard formula) there was an increase i n immediate r e t e n t i o n and 168 reading speed. Also the more readable study guides were judged t o be more i n t e r e s t i n g , and the use of personal r a t h e r than impersonal words d i d not increase the i n t e r e s t i n g n e s s of the guide. Mowry, Webb and Garvin ( 3 0 2 ) , i n t h e i r study mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e a d a b i l i t y of some of the naval p u b l i c a t i o n s . In one school most of the analyzed m a t e r i a l was at the 10 to 12 grade l e v e l but much was at the U n i v e r s i t y l e v e l whereas the reading l e v e l of 26% of the t r a i n e e s u s i n g these m a t e r i a l s was below the grade 10 l e v e l , 53% was below the grade 11 l e v e l , 97% was below the grade 12 l e v e l and 99% was below the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . At another school only 12% of i t s t r a i n e e s could read at the analyzed l e v e l of the m a t e r i a l . In g e n e r a l , they found t h a t 88% to 97% of the assigned reading m a t e r i a l was "over the head" of the t r a i n e e s i n three Naval A i r Technical T r a i n i n g Schools. Standlee and F a t t u (380) p o i n t out t h a t the U.S. Navy should no l o n g e r accept f o u r t h grade reading a b i l i t y as an i n d i c a t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y and the c a p a b i l i t y to read o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s he w i l l encounter i n the Navy. They analyzed e i g h t navy p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r r e a d a b i l i t y and, u s i n g the F l e s h formulas, r a t e d them from 6 t h grade to c o l l e g e l e v e l i n degree of d i f f i c u l t y and human i n t e r e s t l e v e l . Twenty-one years a f t e r h i s work, mentioned p r e v i o u s l y (170), Gray reviewed the research r e l a t i n g t o the reading a b i l i t y of a d u l t s (169) , and found the average a b i l i t y about equal t o the average a b i l i t y of p u p i l s i n the e a r l y p a r t of n i n t h grade. 169 Cowing (94) made a study of changes i n the r e a d a b i l i t y of s t a t e p u b l i c a t i o n s between 1943 and I960. His a n a l y s i s was based on samples of 111 p u b l i c a t i o n s being d i s t r i b u t e d i n 1943 and 112 t h a t were a v a i l a b l e i n I960. The % s c o r i n g at the d e s i r e d 6th t o 9th grade comprehension l e v e l advanced from 49 t o 71 and the average sentence l e n g t h dropped from 20 t o 16 words w i t h the average s y l l a b l e count f a l l i n g from 153 t o 146 per 100 words. On the matter of human i n t e r e s t the % i n the " i n t e r e s t i n g " or " h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g " category advanced from 5 t o 31%» However 40% continued t o score i n the d u l l category although t h i s was a decrease from the e a r l i e r f i g u r e of 69%. Many s t u d i e s have been pursued i n an attempt to determine the usefulness of d i s t r i b u t e d d i f f u s i o n devices as i t i s a matter of record t h a t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i s the most used of a l l a d u l t education devices. Wilson and Gallup (459) found t h a t b u l l e t i n ' s i n f l u e n c e d the adoption of 8.6% of the p r a c t i c e s s t u d i e d and A b e l l , Larson and Dickerson (1) found t h a t farm papers and b u l l e t i n s were p r e f e r r e d by farmers i n Schuyler County, New York, to other sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . C h i l d e r s and others (81) made a survey of 55 of Oklahoma^ 77 county agents to o b t a i n t h e i r opinions concerning the u n d e r s t a n d a b i l i t y and usefulness of the Oklahoma A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental S t a t i o n b u l l e t i n s . T h e i r study showed t h a t more a t t e n t i o n should be given to c l a r i t y i n t a b l e s and to p r o v i d i n g p l e n t i f u l subheads. A l s o i t seemed c l e a r t h a t agents (and perhaps b u l l e t i n authors) need to be more f u l l y advised of the purpose 170 of experimental s t a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n s and t h e i r (agents) r e l a t i o n t o extension c i r c u l a r s . Frutchey (147) i n v e s t i g a t e d the recognized needs of the p u b l i c f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and attempted t o determine the use made of popular p u b l i c a t i o n s i s s u e d by the Vermont Extension S e r v i c e . He reported t h a t people are apt t o read short easy-to-read p u b l i c a t i o n s on t o p i c s t h a t i n t e r e s t them. I f people ask f o r a p u b l i c a t i o n they are more l i k e l y t o read i t than i f i t i s sent to them unrequested. But i f they do r e c e i v e an unrequested p u b l i c a t i o n they w i l l u s u a l l y l o o k i t over and i f i t i n t e r e s t s them they w i l l read i t . Readership can be f o r e c a s t by knowing the i n t e r e s t s of people. Readers questions i n d i c a t e the needs they are aware of but not t h e i r unknown needs. He a l s o stated t h a t the p u b l i c i s i n t e r e s t e d i n g a i n i n g a b e t t e r understanding of problems as w e l l as l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s . He concluded t h a t a m a i l survey i s a p r a c t i c a l method of " t a k i n g a r e a d i n g " of readership and the use of p u b l i c a t i o n s . In 1927 Wilson (45^) t r i e d t o o b t a i n suggestions from farmers on how to make extension b u l l e t i n s more u s e f u l however most of the 1035 farmers s a i d they knew so l i t t l e about the technique they could not make c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s . Since t h a t time however the t r e n d i n p u b l i c a t i o n s has been toward the short b u l l e t i n or l e a f l e t . Wilson and Gallup (459) noted t h a t since 1930 county extension agents have g r a d u a l l y increased the emphasis placed upon b u l l e t i n s and c i r c u l a r s . 171 Brown (57) made an e v a l u a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension s p e c i a l i s t n e w s l e t t e r s as a means of disseminating i n f o r m a t i o n to county extension agents i n Texas. He reported t h a t the agents r e l y h e a v i l y on the s p e c i a l i s t s 1 n e w s l e t t e r s f o r the l a t e s t f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f i e l d of a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics. Also t h a t s p e c i a l i s t s 1 n e w s l e t t e r s are important l i n k s i n g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to the f i e l d through agents 1 newspaper columns and r a d i o programs. A l l f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y were s t r o n g l y i n favour of more and b e t t e r n e w s l e t t e r s . Goss (166) i n v e s t i g a t e d the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l news i n the Vermont press from 18 January t o 13 March 1954 and found t h a t the d a i l y and weekly newspapers want short s t o r i e s from 100 t o 300 words. Extension s e r v i c e m a t e r i a l r a t e d a high percentage of use, - 75% of the a g r i c u l t u r a l news i n the weeklies and 43% i n the d a i l i e s . Economic news was w e l l used as were animal pathology s t o r i e s . S t o r i e s w i t h a l o c a l angle got good acceptance, - e s p e c i a l l y w i t h w e e k l i e s . The d a i l y papers use spot news more f r e q u e n t l y than they use inf o r m a t i o n s t o r i e s . He observed t h a t the extension s t o r i e s p r i n t e d r e c e i v e d wide d i s t r i b u t i o n . M u l t i p l y i n g column inches p r i n t e d and newspapers c i r c u l a t e d , almost 78 ,000,000 inches of extension m a t e r i a l was sent out i n d a i l i e s and n e a r l y 1 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 inches i n weeklies, d u r i n g the eigh t weeks. T r o l d a h l and Lewis (409) conducted an e v a l u a t i o n of reader i n t e r e s t i n a d a i r y n e w s l e t t e r t h a t i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o 172 addresses on a requested m a i l i n g l i s t . They reported t h a t about h a l f the respondents read the ne w s l e t t e r without f a i l and over h a l f mentioned they had found ideas i n i t they could use. Two t h i r d s l i s t i t as one of t h e i r sources of d a i l y i n f o r m a t i o n and a quarter name i t as t h e i r primary source. Ninety one percent consider i t e i t h e r "almost always or always - r e l i a b l e " . In H a l l and Delany's (182) study of the use made of C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y ' s Extension B u l l e t i n , "Reupholstering C h a i r s With Foam Rubber", they found t h a t over h a l f the women who sent f o r the b u l l e t i n never used any other. Also t h e i r most frequent suggestion f o r making C o r n e l l B u l l e t i n s more u s e f u l was to p u b l i c i z e them more. Although twenty-three percent sent f o r the b u l l e t i n f o r i n f o r m a t i o n only, 10% used i t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y . And women wit h l e s s s c h o o l i n g used the b u l l e t i n t o the same extent and i n the same way as reported by women w i t h more s c h o o l i n g . Venne (430) explored d i r e c t m a i l announcements as a way t o expand the audience f o r extension work i n 67 of Wisconsin's 71 c o u n t i e s : f o u r p r i m a r i l y urban counties not being used. He reported a response of from 10 t o 15% can be expected and i t can be assumed t h a t some of those who d i d not respond already had adequate access t o p u b l i c a t i o n s . D i r e c t m a i l announcements w i l l perform a s e r v i c e f o r about 75% of the respondents. Although 9% of the respondents are very a c t i v e i n extension work, n e a r l y 60% are i n the "seldom o r never a c t i v e " 173 or "no r e c o r d " category. I t was shown th a t the f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the 10 t o 15% r e t u r n are (1) type of p u b l i c a t i o n o f f e r e d (2) number of p u b l i c a t i o n s o f f e r e d (3) design of the card (4) t i m i n g of the card. Also noted was t h a t d i r e c t m a i l announcements should be confined t o l i s t i n g popular type p u b l i c a t i o n s , easy t o i n t e r p r e t and use by the average farmer and homemaker, - r a t h e r than t e c h n i c a l or research p u b l i c a t i o n s . He found t h a t a good general r u l e might be to l i m i t the number of p u b l i c a t i o n s l i s t e d on one card t o 10 w i t h a concise d e s c r i p t i o n o f each i n c l u d e d . F i n a l l y , the w i n t e r months are probably the best months f o r m a i l i n g , but f u r t h e r research i s needed on t h i s subject before a d e f i n i t e c onclusion can be drawn. I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t the f i n d i n g s of research concerning the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i r e c t m a i l , or requested m a i l i n g l i s t , p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l should probably be reviewed along w i t h "handouts", i n the V i s u a l , Two Dimensional, non-projected s e c t i o n ; however indulgence i s requested as i t was considered to f a c i l i t a t e a more compact and comprehensive treatment i f they could be considered along w i t h the bulk of the research d e a l i n g w i t h p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n t h i s review of D i f f u s i o n , d i s t r i b u t e d devices. Who reads general c i r c u l a t i o n magazines? A study by P o l i t z (331) gives us some i n f o r m a t i o n on the audiences of such magazines as Reader's Digest, Saturday Evening Post, L i f e and Look. 174 G e n e r a l l y , people w i t h more education get and read more magazines. About 6/8 of the c o l l e g e educated po p u l a t i o n were "exposed" t o one or more i s s u e s of the set of f o u r , whereas about 3/8 of the l e s s than high school graduates were exposed. This study a l s o pointed out tha t the higher s o c i o -economic groups not only have a gre a t e r chance of being exposed, but are more l i k e l y to look i n t o i s s u e s s e v e r a l times than are lower socio-economic groups. For example, the c o l l e g e educated make up s l i g h t l y l e s s than o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n but make up b e t t e r than one-fourth of the audience of the f o u r magazines combined, and c o n t r i b u t e n e a r l y t w o - f i f t h s of the "reading days" of the f o u r combined. The l e s s than high school educated make up s l i g h t l y more than one-half of the t o t a l a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , make up j u s t under two f i f t h s of the audience of f o u r , and c o n t r i b u t e j u s t a shade more than one f o u r t h of the "reading days". With e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s r i s i n g i t i s to be noted that every a d d i t i o n of 1,000,000 persons to the c o l l e g e educated groups would provide an increase of between 300,000 and 400,000 i n readers of these f o u r magazines on the b a s i s of present r e l a t i o n s h i p s . On 3 October 1964, a Vancouver d a i l y newspaper, The Province (335) reported a new d i f f u s i o n device demonstrated the previous day i n Japan. In b r i e f i t showed t h a t an e n t i r e newspaper can be t r a n s m i t t e d t o a su b s c r i b e r ' s home by u l t r a -h i g h frequency broadcast. The demonstration i n Tokyo used a 175 t r a n s m i t t e d s i g n a l from the newspaper o f f i c e t h a t was picked up by a r a d i o r e c e i v e r 4 m i l e s away, scanned and p r i n t e d on chem i c a l l y s e n s i t i z e d paper at 300 words per minute, complete w i t h photographs. This device would seem t o have wide p o t e n t i a l use i n a d u l t education and i t s development w i l l be watched w i t h i n t e r e s t . 176 I I * D i f f u s i o n Devices B. E x t e n s i o n s : -Open c i r c u i t TV, r a d i o and r e c o r d i n g , motion p i c t u r e s . Research p e r t a i n i n g t o these extension, d i f f u s i o n devices was reviewed p r e v i o u s l y when r a d i o was discussed as a mechanical, audio, i l l u s t r a t i v e device, and motion p i c t u r e s and closed c i r c u i t TV were considered as two dimensional, p r o j e c t e d , v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s . When these were pre-v i o u s l y reviewed i t was w i t h reference t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices i n a d u l t education i n the t o t a l sense and a l l p e r t i n e n t research was examined and reported from t h i s i n c l u s i v e p o i n t of view. Using TV as an example, the t o t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of TV was considered when i t was introduced as a two dimensional, p r o j e c t e d , v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i v e device and not j u s t i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n a c l o s e d c i r c u i t viewing s i t u a t i o n . The extension, d i f f u s i o n devices can a l s o be used as supplementary e d u c a t i o n a l devices, as i n the case of the C i t i z e n Forum programs on the CBC T e l e v i s i o n network, where sma l l d i s c u s s i o n groups are b u i l t around the t e l e v i s e d programs. A study completed by Cook (89) may be reviewed here. His r e p o r t , c a l l e d " T e l - l e c t u r e w was p r i n t e d i n Adult Leadership, May 1963 and described an extended use of TV t h a t could w e l l have wide a p p l i c a t i o n t o a d u l t education. He shows T e l - l e c t u r e as a f a i r l y e f f e c t i v e way of p r e s e n t i n g speakers s i t u a t e d i n one l o c a t i o n , by t e l e v i s i o n t o audiences assembled i n another, 177 w i t h the opportunity t o ask questions of the speaker and t o r e c e i v e an immediate and spontaneous r e p l y . Basing h i s study on a T e l - l e c t u r e attended by 100 people at La Crosse State College he found t h a t a l l respondents f e l t the T e l - l e c t u r e t o be e i t h e r a "Very E f f e c t i v e " or " E f f e c t i v e " method of teaching and l e a r n i n g . S i x t y - s i x percentage of the respondents f e l t the T e l - l e c t u r e was "As E f f e c t i v e " as a l e c t u r e " i n person" and 25% f e l t i t t o be "Less E f f e c t i v e " . Cook recommends that the T e l - l e c t u r e should not be used to replace the i n d i v i d u a l l e c t u r e r who can reasonably attend a group; but i t should c e r t a i n l y be considered as a means of b r i n g i n g t o a small group or to an i s o l a t e d community, good s k i l f u l , g i f t e d teachers or l e c t u r e r s who might otherwise never p e r s o n a l l y reach such groups. C l i n t o n (82) t e l l s us t h a t l i v e TV introduces something never seen i n f i l m s : - r e a l time. The e f f e c t i s t o e s t a b l i s h a person-to-person r e l a t i o n s h i p . The f e e l i n g of r e a l i t y i s conveyed by the c l o s e t o l i f e s i z e heads on the screen and the n a t u r a l distance between the audience and the show. I t g i v e s an a c t o r the opportunity t o create r e a l c o n t i n u i t y . Each of the f o u r d i f f u s i o n devices, - the p r i n t e d page, r a d i o and r e c o r d i n g s , TV, and motion p i c t u r e s or f i l m , has a tendency to become i n v o l v e d i n the a f f a i r s of one or a l l of the other t h r e e . I t should be noted again t h a t r a d i o and TV are devices f o r a d u l t education only when they are organized f o r t h i s 178 purpose. Of the two, TV has made the greatest advancement as an e d u c a t i o n a l device, - perhaps as a r e s u l t of the experience gained through t h i r t y years of r a d i o programming. TV, the newest of the d i f f u s i o n devices, has become the meeting ground f o r the other media. Radio cannot s e i z e the eye and i s t h e r e f o r e the one mass medium or d i f f u s i o n device t h a t can serve an a c t i v e audience. Anderson (19) uncovered some i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s regarding d i f f u s i o n devices when he studi e d the problems r e s u l t i n g from f r i n g e m i g r a t i o n (the m i g r a t i o n of c i t y workers t o the suburbs or f r i n g e of the c i t y ) . He found t h a t ( l ) Farm and part-time farm f a m i l i e s concentrate t h e i r l i s t e n i n g to one r a d i o s t a t i o n , while non-farm f a m i l i e s d i v e r s i f y t h e i r l i s t e n i n g t o i n c l u d e s e v e r a l s t a t i o n s . (2) The me t r o p o l i t a n d a i l y which reaches the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of farm f a m i l i e s i s f a r exceeded i n c i r c u l a t i o n by a second m e t r o p o l i t a n d a i l y i n reaching p a r t -time farmers and non-farmers. (3 ) L o c a l weekly newspapers are much more e f f e c t i v e i n reaching farmers and part-time farmers than i n reaching non farmers. (4 ) The more extensive communic-a t i o n s , such as mimeographed m a t e r i a l , c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , and " d o - i t - y o u r s e l f " b u l l e t i n s , are about e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n reaching the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of the three (farmers, part-time farmers and non-farmers) open-country p o p u l a t i o n groupings. (5 ) Announcements given i n two types of communications channels, 179 such as me t r o p o l i t a n d a i l i e s and ra d i o s t a t i o n s , o r r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n news programs, reach n e a r l y a l l of the po p u l a t i o n . ( 6 ) The l o c a l weekly newspaper reaches the population around the community i n which i t i s p u b l i s h e d . ( 1 9 ) Long, Hughes J r . , and Bowers ( 2 6 6 ) made a study of how the farmers i n a tobacco cooperative i n K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee, got t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and reported t h a t out of the 224 members, 63 r e c e i v e d t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n from newspapers, 51 got t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n from neighbours, 41 from the r a d i o , 22 got t h e i r s from o f f i c e personnel, 16 members got t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n from the " a u c t i o n f l o o r " , and l e s s e r numbers elsewhere. They a l s o found t h a t w i t h i n any given l e v e l - o f -education group the tobacco growers who used the newspapers as t h e i r p r i n c i p a l source of in f o r m a t i o n about the tobacco cooperative had a higher score (answered more questions c o r r e c t l y ) than d i d growers who r e l i e d p r i n c i p a l l y upon neighbours f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . Dickerson (118) made a very d e t a i l e d study of in f o r m a t i o n sources used by 278 men farmers i n Schuyler County, New York. One of the val u a b l e r e p o r t s she published shows the l e v e l of adoption of new farm p r a c t i c e s from the in f o r m a t i o n source, - as f o l l o w s : 180 Information Sources L e v e l of adoption Low Medium High Farm Papers 79% (51) 90% (63) 86% (64) Radio 72% (46) 79% (55) 69% (51) Neighbours, f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s 68% (43) '64% (45) 62% (46) P r i n t e d Extension, news, c i r c u l a r s Farm bureau 59% (38) 65% (45) 81% (60) Newspapers 43% (27) 46% (32) 3^% (28) O r a l Extension ( t a l k w i t h Country agent, Extension meetings, demon-s t r a t i o n s ) 34% (22) 44% (31) 59% (44) Salesmen and Dealers 29% (19) 27% (10) 41% (30) Other a g r i c u l t u r a l Agencies e.g. S o i l Conservation S e r v i c e 25% (22) 41% (29) 5&*% (43) (118) The low, medium and high l e v e l s of adoption are determined by the r a t i o of approved p r a c t i c e s f o l l o w e d t o the approved p r a c t i c e s a p p l i c a b l e , eg. 64 farmers or 23% were i n the low range of 0 to . 3 , 70 farmers or 25% were i n the medium range of .4 to .6 and 74 farmers or 27% were i n the high range of .7 and over. Seventy farmers or 25% were excluded because t h e i r operations d i d not r e q u i r e adoption of the p r a c t i c e s i n quest i o n . An i l l u s t r a t i o n may be i n order here: - u s i n g f i r s t f i g u r e s i n each case; there were 64 farmers i n the low l e v e l of adoption group and of t h i s group 51 or 79% used farm papers as an i n f o r m a t i o n source. Although m u l t i p l e answers were counted and the t r e n d i s not sharp, there are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t high adopters tended t o s p e c i f y more of the more t e c h n i c a l and more p r o f e s s i o n a l sources. (118) This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n 181 p r i n t e d and o r a l extension and f o r "other a g r i c u l t u r a l agencies" such as S o i l Conservation S e r v i c e , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Adjustment A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A b e l l , Larson and Dickerson (1) reviewed the research p e r t a i n i n g t o sources of i n f o r m a t i o n used by farmers and found t h a t the Schuyler County study and t h i r t e e n others completed between 1947 and 1956 a l l more or l e s s agreed and i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w i n g o v e r a l l t rends: -(1) Farm papers rank f i r s t or n e a r l y f i r s t among farmers as p r e f e r r e d (usual) sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . (2) Neighbours, f r i e n d s , and r e l a t i v e s i s most o f t e n i n second or t h i r d p l a c e . I n the Schuyler study i t ranked f o u r t h . (3) Radio ranks t h i r d t o s i x t h i n most of the s t u d i e s but i n t h i s (Schuyler) study i t was t h i r d . (4) P r i n t e d extension (Farm Bureau News, c i r c u l a r s , C o r n e l l b u l l e t i n s ) , which t i e s f o r f i r s t place i n the Schuyler study, ranked lower i n most of the o t h e r s . (5) O r a l extension ( t a l k s with county agent, extension meetings, (demonstrations) ranks below p r i n t e d extension i n most of the s t u d i e s but was named " h e l p f u l " by more than h a l f of the farmers i n the Schuyler study. (6) Salesmen and d e a l e r s and other a g r i c u l t u r a l agencies rank low i n n e a r l y a l l of the s t u d i e s . (1) Damon (110) completed a study i n 1957 on the e f f e c t i v e -ness of v a r i o u s ( p r a c t i c e s ) devices i n di s s e m i n a t i n g infoiranation about p u b l i c school a d u l t education i n C a l i f o r n i a . He sent out 182 two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , one t o 162 Adult School A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the second t o 2591 e n r o l l e e s i n 27 Adult schools; 138 or 85.18% a d m i n i s t r a t o r s completed and returned t h e i r forms. A comparison of the processed r e s u l t s i s i n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e . PERCENTAGE OF SCHOOLS REPORTING VARIOUS INFORMATIONAL MEDIA USED 1. Newspaper s t o r i e s and p i c t u r e s 93.48 2 . Schedules and other p r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n 92.03 3 . Dependence on word-of-mouth p u b l i c i t y - 70.29 4 . L e t t e r s or postcards i n the m a i l 65.22 5 . L e t t e r s sent home w i t h day school c h i l d r e n 39.13 6 . Announcements at meetings 36.96 7. D i s p l a y s 23.91 8. Talks on Adult education 23.91 9 . P o s t e r s 19.56 1 0 . Radio 18.11 11 . T e l e v i s i o n 3.62 PERCENTAGE OF ADULT!.STUDENTS INDICATING VARIOUS SOURCES OF ADULT EDUCATION INFORMATION  Word-of-mouth 35.93% 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 2 . A d u l t school schedule or l e a f l e t Newspaper L e t t e r or postcard i n the m a i l L e t t e r brought home by day school c h i l d Talk on a d u l t education 25.05 17.91 10.65 3 .82 2.97 2.28 9 . D i s p l a y on a d u l t education Announcement at a meeting Radio 1.08 .66 10 . T e l e v i s i o n .54 11 . P o s t e r .42 183 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s t h i n k newspapers, p r i n t e d schedules and word-of-mouth p u b l i c i t y work be s t . Schedules are the most expensive t o use c o s t i n g $1 .13 per u n i t of average d a i l y attendance compared t o $.18 or l e s s f o r other d e v i c e s . Newspaper p u b l i c i t y reaches o l d e r persons more than younger persons and women more than men. Word-of-mouth p u b l i c i t y tends t o reach new students more than those p r e v i o u s l y e n r o l l e d and a l s o younger a d u l t s . Schedules appear t o work b e t t e r i n reaching a d u l t s p r e v i o u s l y e n r o l l e d and persons above age 25• Some conclusions were made, as f o l l o w s : -(1) Favourable word-of-mouth p u b l i c i t y from s a t i s f i e d students and others who recommend the school b r i n g s more students t o ad u l t c l a s s e s than does any d i f f u s i o n device or p u b l i c i z i n g medium. (2) Newspapers, p r i n t e d schedules and d i r e c t m a i l contacts a t t r a c t a f a i r l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the students. (3) Announcements, t a l k s , l e t t e r s c a r r i e d by day school c h i l d r e n , d i s p l a y s , p o s t e r s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n reach only a small p r o p o r t i o n of the students who e n r o l l f o r a d u l t education c l a s s e s . (110) P o r t e r and Wilson (333) made an e v a l u a t i o n study of a consumer marketing program t h a t had been conducted by r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n and newspapers i n the S t . Joseph, M i s s o u r i area. Of the 246 persons contacted who d i d most of the food buying f o r t h e i r households, 88% had been exposed t o the p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n during the t e s t week. 184 79% had been exposed v i a one medium, 18 v i a two, and 3% a l l 3 72% were contacted by some arrangement i n v o l v i n g newspapers 28% by t e l e v i s i o n 15% by r a d i o Something might be s a i d about the p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s t h a t e x i s t f o r d i f f u s i o n devices, i n a d d i t i o n to the ever present need f o r " r e a d a b i l i t y " t h a t has already been discussed q u i t e f u l l y . The problem of informing the p u b l i c i s not simple. The p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s are r e i n f o r c e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s , -past experiences, perceptions, expectations, i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y and so on. The p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s must be appraised i n the l i g h t of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s . As Hyman and Sheatsley (219) p o i n t out the p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s t o communication merely impede the supply of i n f o r m a t i o n . In order t o increase p u b l i c knowledge i t i s necessary t o present more in f o r m a t i o n and t h a t the mass audience be exposed t o i t and t h a t i t absorb the i n f o r m a t i o n . Studies by N a f z i g e r , Engstrom and MacLean, J r . , (306) and Myren (305) , and others, p o i n t t o d e f i n i t e p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s t o communication on t o p i c s of general i n t e r e s t t o the p u b l i c . T h e i r f i n d i n g s were as f o l l o w s : -(1) Media c o n t a i n i n g general i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c are not always a v a i l a b l e , and not always a c c e s s i b l e . (2) There may not be enough r e p e t i t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . (3) Much general i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c may not appear i n the more popular media. 185 (4) The general p u b l i c may not possess the v e r b a l or other s k i l l s needed f o r f o l l o w i n g and understanding the p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n presented, (See previous discourse on " r e a d a b i l i t y " i n D i s t r i b u t e d , D i f f u s i o n D e v i c e s ) . In a d d i t i o n i t was noted t h a t e f f e c t i v e communication of i n f o r m a t i o n depends on: -(1) The time and space devoted to pr e s e n t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n . (2) The biases and d i s t o r t i o n s inherent i n the p a r t i c u l a r device or medium. (3) E d i t o r i a l or communicator i n t e r e s t and o b j e c t i v i t y . 186 Some A M i t i o n a l Learner C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s That A f f e c t the Use of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r must be kept i n mind when co n s i d e r i n g the e f f e c t i v e use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l communic-a t i o n s and teaching d e v i c e s . I t i s now u s u a l l y agreed th a t Carpenter (72) s t a t e d an acceptable p o s i t i o n regarding i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices g e n e r a l l y when he s a i d t h a t the e f f e c t s of f i l m i n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s , depends more upon the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p e r c e i v e r s , i n d i v i d u a l s and audiences, than upon the elemental v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the f i l m s themselves. With f u r t h e r reference t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r Hovland and others (210) found th a t l i k e s and d i s l i k e s of a f i l m are r e l a t e d t o the f i l m ' s i n f l u e n c e on o p i n i o n s . On the other hand Ash ( 2 5 ) , Heidgerken (191), Twyford (413) and VanderMeer (426) found l i t t l e or no r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r e s t i n f i l m s and the i n f o r m a t i o n gained from them. In the study of l i k i n g and l e a r n i n g from educational t e l e v i s i o n programs, M e r r i l l (294) found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . There i s evidence from a number of s t u d i e s (158), (210) , (295) , and (436) t h a t persons of high i n t e l l i g e n c e u s u a l l y l e a r n more from f i l m s than those of medium or low i n t e l l i g e n c e , although i n some cases those of lower i n t e l l i g e n c e appear t o make a gr e a t e r increment i n l e a r n i n g but not enough t o surpass the l e a r n i n g of the average or s u p e r i o r students. 187 Hoban and VanOrmer (204) r e p o r t t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y of a f i l m depends not only on i t s subject matter but a l s o on the l e a r n e r ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e , t r a i n i n g , or previous knowledge of the s u b j e c t . There i s some evidence t h a t experience i n viewing f i l m s or " f i l m l i t e r a c y " developes w i t h increased viewing of and l e a r n i n g from f i l m s , and t h i s f a c t o r may increase the viewer's a b i l i t y to l e a r n from the f i l m s . This i s supported by r e p o r t s from the A u s t r a l i a n Commonwealth O f f i c e of Education (86), and VanderMeer (427) . Nelson and VanderMeer (311) reported on the r e s u l t s of modifying the spoken commentary of an animated f i l m f o r the l e v e l of the l e a r n e r audience and s t a t e d t h a t a l l s i m p l i f i e d commentaries were c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p e r i o r t o the o r i g i n a l commentary (but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) , and t h a t the best had the s h o r t e s t sentences and the most personal pronouns. \ CHAPTER IV COLOR AS AN INFLUENCE IM DEVICE EFFECTIVENESS Color has been given separate c o n s i d e r a t i o n here f o r although research i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the e f f e c t of c o l o r has d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n to most teaching devices, the research and f i n d i n g s w i t h few exceptions (265) , (426) i n f i l m , and (277), (288), (411) i n c o l o r as a c o n t r o l l a b l e environmental f a c i l i t y , have been q u i t e w e l l d i v i d e d between human preferences f o r c o l o r s , i n many aspects, and the e f f e c t -iveness of d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s i n a d v e r t i s i n g copy. A review of the research under both these general headings w i l l be giuen here. Most of t h i s research i n f o r m a t i o n was found i n two A g r i s e a r c h r e p o r t s , December 1955 (4) and March, 1956 ( 5 ) . C o l o r Preferences A teacher competes f o r group a t t e n t i o n and i t would appear prudent f o r him t o arrange t h i n g s so t h a t h i s b i t of i n f o r m a t i o n has an advantage over other b i t s . As the c o l o r of m a t e r i a l or device p r e s e n t a t i o n i s one of the f a c t o r s t h a t can be manipulated i t i s important f o r teachers t o know which c o l o r or combination of c o l o r s i s most e f f e c t i v e f o r the p a r t i c u l a r m a t e r i a l intended f o r a p a r t i c u l a r audience. Of the many t h i n g s t h a t w i l l a f f e c t the understanding 189 of our m a t e r i a l the f i r s t w i l l be exposure. I f the group's a t t e n t i o n i s not caught by our m a t e r i a l , we l o s e our chance of exposing them t o i t . C o l o r f u l t h i n g s a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n and i f the group we want t o reach p r e f e r s the c o l o r or c o l o r s we use, we increase the chances f o r exposure. Color preference has s t i m u l a t e d research f o r many years. In 1867 Jastrow (229) reported the r e s u l t s of a study of. 1 preference f o r s i n g l e c o l o r s and f o r c o l o r combinations. He reported t h a t : (1) Blue was chosen by about 1/4 of the subjects and red by-about 1/8 of the s u b j e c t s . (4500 persons at the World's Columbian E x p o s i t i o n ) . (2) The l e a s t p r e f e r r e d c o l o r s were orange and i t s shades toward yellow and red. (3) The darker c o l o r s were p r e f e r r e d over the l i g h t e r . (4) There was a decided preference f o r the primary c o l o r s as opposed t o the intermediate c o l o r s . (5) No combination of c o l o r s was as decided a f a v o u r i t e as-was blue among the s i n g l e c o l o r s . (6) The three most p r e f e r r e d combinations, i n order, were: red w i t h v i o l e t , red with b l u e , and blue w i t h v i o l e t . (7) The c o l o r combinations most g e n e r a l l y avoided were orange w i t h green, orange w i t h v i o l e t , and l i g h t e r orange wi t h l i g h t e r b l u e . (229) In 1922, Garth (156) r e p o r t e d a very i n t e r e s t i n g study of the c o l o r preferences of 559 f u l l - b l o o d e d Indians, 56O whites and 176 people of mixed blood. R a c i a l Color Preferences Rank Indians Mixed Bloods Whites 1 Red Blue Blue 2 Blue Red Green 3 V i o l e t V i o l e t Red 4 Green White V i o l e t 5 Orange Green Orange 6 Yellow Orange Yellow 7 White Yellow White (I56) 190 In another e a r l y study Luckeisch (270) found t h a t the c o l o r s whose dominant hues were near the end of the spectrum ( b l u e - v i o l e t ) were p r e f e r r e d by more people and t h a t the order of preference from high to low was: blue, red, pu r p l e , green, orange and ye l l o w . Other research was c a r r i e d out l a t e r by Dorcus (121), Walton and others (442) and S t . George (3&6). For the sake of convenience or easy reference, the c o l o r preferences of both men and women, as reported by the mentioned research, (4) i s presented here i n chart form. COLOR PREFERENCES OF MEN AND WOMEN Jasl ;row Garth Dorcus Men Women Men " Women Men Women Blue Red Blue Blue Blue Blue and and Red Green Orange V i o l e t i t s i t s Green Orange V i o l e t Green r e l a t e d V i o l e t V i o l e t Green Red Colors Orange Red Red Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Walton and others Men Women Blue Red Red V i o l e t Green Blue V i o l e t Green Orange Yellow Yellow Orange S t . George Men Blue Green Red Orange Yellow V i o l e t Women Blue Green Red Yellow Orange V i o l e t (4) The f i n d i n g s from two other surveys, one i n A g r i c u l t u r e (12) and the other i n Home Economics (379) , suggest t h a t men p r e f e r green while women p r e f e r r e d . When a l l the research i s considered c e r t a i n r e g u l a r i t i e s can be noted: -(1) Both men and women appear t o be fond of bl u e . 191 (2) V i o l e t appears t o f a l l at the middle of the preference range f o r both groups, r a t i n g s l i g h t l y higher with women. (3) Red appears to be a gre a t e r f a v o u r i t e w i t h women. (4) Green tends to be at the upper end of the preference range and yellow and orange at the lower end of the range f o r both men and women. (4) In general then: -(1) For both men and women, blue and red tend t o be the more h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d c o l o r s , while yellow and orange tend t o be the l e s s h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d . (2) The darker c o l o r s tend t o be p r e f e r r e d over the l i g h t e r c o l o r s . (3) Combination of the more h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d c o l o r s tend to be more a t t r a c t i v e than combinations u s i n g c o l o r s of high and low preference. (4) School c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s do not d i f f e r g r e a t l y i n t h e i r c o l o r preferences. (5) The c o l o r preferences of women tend t o vary more than those of men. (6) S o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , environment, and other f a c t o r s help to determine c o l o r preferences. (4) In d e c i d i n g the c o l o r of the educ a t i o n a l device or m a t e r i a l some c o n s i d e r a t i o n should a l s o be made f o r the n a t i o n -a l i t y of the people t o be i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . As pointed out i n Time Magazine, 20 September 1963 (402) , although purple i s a noble shade i n Japan i t represents death 192 i n Burma. And i n Formosa, red i s considered a very l u c k y c o l o r despite the p o l i t i c a l connotations. These are only two examples of many t h a t could be noted. The Use of Color i n A d v e r t i s i n g and Communicating Generally In some e a r l y research Nelson (309) found t h a t : -(1) More colored than uncolored ads were remembered by 27 people, 5 remembered the same number of black and white as c o l o r e d ads and 4 remembered more black and white ads. (2) Colored ads were r e c a l l e d a t o t a l of 233 times, uncolored ones 142 times - an advantage of 66% i n favour of c o l o r . (3) Taking i n t o account the " g e n e r a l " mentions, col o r e d ads were r e c a l l e d a t o t a l of 262 times, uncolored 182 times, - an advantage of 44% i n favour of c o l o r . (4) Using p r e v a i l i n g ad r a t e s f o r black and white and f o u r -c o l o r , the a d d i t i o n a l cost f o r c o l o r can be j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s of added r e c a l l . (309) Warner and Franzen (444) made a comparative study of the impact of 'four-color and black and white ads u s i n g one of each as a p a i r f o r comparison of r e s u l t s f o r i n t e r e s t and impact. They reported: -(1) In most cases, the colored member of a p a i r had the advantage i n both i n t e r e s t and impact v a l u e . (2) The advantage of c o l o r appeared to be greater i n the case of impact. (3) In i n t e r e s t value, c o l o r u s u a l l y - but not always -outweighed such f a c t o r s as t e x t , appeal, e t c . 193 (4) For impact, the d i f f e r e n c e s were u s u a l l y l a r g e r f o r l i k e comparisons, - c o l o r w i t h c o l o r , and black and white w i t h black and white, - and smaller f o r u n l i k e comparisons. The i n v e s t -i g a t o r s noted t h a t i n view of the added cost of c o l o r a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of purpose i n r e l a t i o n to the cost might curb u n c r i t i c a l use of expensive p r e s e n t a t i o n s . (444) Nixon*s (318) study showed t h a t : -(1) Color i s i n f e r i o r i n a t t e n t i o n power. Even i n a t t r a c t i n g i n i t i a l a t t e n t i o n , i t i s not n e a r l y as e f f e c t i v e as p i c t u r e s of people. (2) Color i s more e f f e c t i v e than black and white i n a t t r a c t i n g i n i t i a l a t t e n t i o n , but i t l o s e s t h i s advantage r a p i d l y . A f t e r 10 seconds, the black and white competitor becomes s l i g h t l y s u p e r i o r i n g e t t i n g a t t e n t i o n . (3) Color has a considerable e f f e c t i n i n c r e a s i n g memory of t h a t which appears i n c o l o r . (318) He urged t h a t c o l o r should not be too b l i n d l y accepted as a potent a t t e n t i o n device and t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s or n o v e l t y or change may be more b a s i c a t t e n t i o n f a c t o r s . He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t c o l o r e d ads among other c o l o r e d ads need not expect to p r o f i t e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of e x t r a a t t e n t i o n . This l a s t p o i n t appears to be c o n t r a d i c t e d by Nelson's (309) f i n d i n g of g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n impact between color e d ads or between bl a c k and white than between c o l o r and b l a c k and white. Two McGraw - H i l l , (213) and (18), s t u d i e s showed t h a t , without exception, two-color ads were b e t t e r read than black 194 and white i n every i n d u s t r i a l product group. However i t was observed t h a t adding c o l o r to an ad does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y b r i n g gains i n r e a d e r s h i p . Many black and white ads surpassed two-color ads w i t h i n the same product group because of such f a c t o r s as more e f f e c t i v e copy and i l l u s t r a t i o n . E f f e c t i v e use of c o l o r , however, appeared t o be of d e f i n i t e help i n promoting readership. A f u r t h e r McGraw - H i l l (422) a n a l y s i s of 946 ads f o r v i s i b i l i t y and f o r the frequency w i t h which f i v e standard c o l o r s were used i s summarized i n the next c h a r t . V i s i b i l i t y r a t i n g s are based on blue = 100, and frequency of use i s based on 946 ads = 100%. Color V i s i b i l i t y and Frequency of Use Color V i s i b i l i t y Frequency of Use Orange Il"8" 16 .4% Yellow 113 10.3% Green 103 7.5% Red 102 55.8% Blue 100 10% (422) An obvious i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t the more v i s i b l e c o l o r s are not the ones th a t are most o f t e n used. McGraw-Hill (439) then i n v e s t i g a t e d i f the increased cost i n the use of c o l o r p a i d f o r i t s e l f i n greater v i s i b i l i t y or exposure. A survey based on IO63 s i n g l e and double-page ads appearing i n f i v e i s s u e s of a McGraw-Hill p u b l i c a t i o n produced the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t a b l e . For purposes of comparison, the average percent of readers who r e c a l l e d seeing a single-page, black and white ad and the cost of a single-page, b l a c k and white ad were assigned a base r a t i n g of 100. 195 A l l comparisons were i n terms of an increase over the base f i g u r e . Color V i s i b i l i t y and Cost Comparisons Percent Increase S i z e and Type of Ad V i s i b i l i t y Cost Single-page black and white Base Base Single-page two c o l o r 34 13 Double-page black and white 132 100 Double-page two c o l o r 180 127 (439) I t seems c l e a r t h a t readers r e c a l l two-color ads b e t t e r than black and white, whether s i n g l e or double page. In terms of cost, a 13% increase f o r a single-page, two-color ad w i l l i n crease v i s i b i l i t y by 34%. S i m i l a r l y , f o r double pages, an inc r e a s e of 127% i n cost by u s i n g two c o l o r s i n c r e a s e s v i s i b i l i t y by 180%, However a d e c i s i o n t o use c o l o r can be complicated by the f a c t t h a t cost i s measured i n d o l l a r s and v i s i b i l i t y i n readers. For example a 100% increase i n cost may represent a jump from $300 t o $600, while a 200% increase i n readers may represent a jump from 10 t o 30 readers. The question then becomes, - "Are 20 e x t r a readers worth $300 e x t r a d o l l a r s ? " Perhaps the most common use of c o l o r i n p r i n t e d work i s to combine colored paper and colored i n k . The r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t may or may not be p l e a s i n g , but s t r i c t l y on l e g i b i l i t y , Hackl (179) u s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , ranked the v a r i o u s c o l o r combinations as f o l l o w s : -1. Black on Yellow 5« Black on White 9 . White on Black 2 . Green on White 6 . Yellow on Black 10 , Red on Yellow 3 . Blue on White 7» White on Red 11 , Green on Red 4 . White on Blue 8 . White on Grange 12 , Red on Green (179) 196 The p a r t i c u l a r shade of any c o l o r i s , of course, an important v a r i a b l e . Important too, i s the f a c t t h a t l e g i b i l i t y i s only one of the f a c t o r s determining the e f f e c t i v e use of c o l o r . Warden and Flynn (443) confirmed an o l d b e l i e f t h a t darker c o l o r s tend t o make t h i n g s look h e a v i e r and sm a l l e r , and l i g h t e r c o l o r s tend t o make t h i n g s look l i g h t e r and l a r g e r . Most of these research f i n d i n g s , although p e r t a i n i n g d i r e c t l y t o a d v e r t i s i n g , have a p p l i c a t i o n to many of the devices used i n the teaching of a d u l t s , whether the device i s three dimensional, p r i n t e d , or p r o j e c t e d , or other. The use of c o l o r i s accepted as an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n teaching when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t teaching depends on communicating and communicating r e l i e s on b i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n and "exposure" o r the " e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the a d v e r t i s i n g " . These discussed a d v e r t i s i n g research r e s u l t s (5) are c o l l e c t e d and presented here f o r easy reference: -(1) Other f a c t o r s being equal, people tend to remember colore d o b j e c t s b e t t e r than uncolored o b j e c t s . (2) P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n c o l o r tends to get higher readership than s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l i n black and white. (3) For l i k e content, c o l o r i s more e f f e c t i v e than b l a c k and white i n a t t r a c t i n g i n i t i a l a t t e n t i o n . (4) Orange and y e l l o w tend t o be h i g h l y v i s i b l e c o l o r s ; green, red, and blue tend t o have low v i s i b i l i t y . (5) Red i s the most f r e q u e n t l y used c o l o r although i t i s the next t o lowest i n v i s i b i l i t y . (6) The most h i g h l y l e g i b l e c o l o r combinations are i n order, b l ack on ye l l o w , green on white, blue on white, white on blue, b l a c k on white. (7) The l e a s t l e g i b l e c o l o r combinations are red on yel l o w , green on red, and red on green. (8) Darker c o l o r s tend t o make t h i n g s look heavier and s m a l l e r . (9) L i g h t e r c o l o r s tend t o make t h i n g s look l i g h t e r and l a r g e r . (5) CHAPTER V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS There has been much research completed i n the l a s t t h i r t y years th a t compares the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e v e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices i n a d u l t education. Some of t h i s v a l u a b l e and appreciated research was reviewed p r e v i o u s l y when d e a l i n g w i t h the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the D i f f u s i o n Devices, - the d i s t r i b u t e d ( a l l t y p e s ) , and rad i o and TV. Other comparisons made by Gibson (159)> C o l l i c a n (84) and T a i t (395) p o i n t up the comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e v e r a l teaching d e v i c e s ; but a d d i t i o n a l comparisons w i l l be made again here i n the Summary s e c t i o n f o r they do i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of many of the devices and b r i n g us, i n a n a t u r a l way, to a p o i n t where g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are i n order. In 1932, Hearne (190) i n v e s t i g a t e d the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the i n f l u e n c e s of the meeting as a means of extension t e a c h i n g , i n the f i e l d of a g r i c u l t u r e . He used a po p u l a t i o n of 893 a d u l t s at 32 meetings and the r e s u l t s reported were as f o l l o w s : 198 INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS PRESENTATION METHODS ON ADOPTION OF PRACTICES P r e s e n t a t i o n Method % of Farmers Exposed Who Were Influenced P r a c t i c e s Changed per Farm A t t r i b u t e d to Meeting ( a l l farms) F i n a l Index 2/ Index 1/ Percent Index 1/ Percent Lecture & S l i d e f i l m 148 $6.6 163 .88 155 Lecture & Chart 123 47.2 161 .87 142 Lecture & L o c a l Leader 117 44 • 8 139 .75 128 Lecture & D i s c u s s i o n 117 44* 8 126 .68 121 Lecture Only- 100 38.3 100 .54 100 A l l Meeting 46.I .73 ;i9o) In each case the f i g u r e f o r the l e c t u r e - o n l y method was considered 100 and the index f o r each of the other methods was c a l c u l a t e d from t h i s . The f i n a l index, 2/, was c a l c u l a t e d by adding the index f o r percentage of farmers i n f l u e n c e d t o the index f o r p r a c t i c e s changed per farm. The r e s u l t i n g sum f o r each method was d i v i d e d by sum of the i n d i c e s f o r the l e c t u r e only method i . e . 200, a f t e r m u l t i p l y i n g by 100. I t i s apparent t h a t the l e c t u r e - o n l y method of p r e s e n t a t i o n was the weakest of the f i v e s t u d i e d . S c h a f f t e r , (356) i n r e p o r t i n g on the t r a i n i n g of young women f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , determined t h a t although many teachers i n women's s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g schools s i n g l e d out v i s u a l a i d s f o r s p e c i f i c approval, even more of them approved a combination of v a r i o u s teaching methods u s u a l l y i n c l u d i n g 199 v i s u a l a i d s . She recorded s e v e r a l proposals, as f o l l o w s : -(1) V a r i e d methods of i n s t r u c t i o n to meet group needs, s t r e s s i n g a p p l i c a t o r y phases and performance t e s t i n g . (2) A combination of l e c t u r e s and f i l m . (3) The i n t e n s i f i e d t r a i n i n g method making use of v i s u a l a i d s , teacher demonstrations and f i e l d t r i p s . (4) The c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n between f i l m s and classroom work; the l e c t u r e method; and student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . (5) The method of p r e s e n t a t i o n , the l i b e r a l use of conferences, the constant emphasis on morale and l e a d e r s h i p , the valuable experiences which evolved from group l i v i n g , the a c t i v e program of h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s have c o n t r i b u t e d many spl e n d i d ideas which may be i n c l u d e d i n c i v i l i a n school programs. (356) As reported p r e v i o u s l y , Torkelson (408) found t h a t w i t h students of su p e r i o r a b i l i t y there was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a mock-up, a cutaway and a s e r i e s of charts and w i t h groups of average a b i l i t y the mock-up was favoured over manual i l l u s t r a t i o n s and t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . As reviewed e a r l i e r , Swanson (,393) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t r a i n i n g a i d s designed f o r use i n mobile t r a i n i n g detachments and employed by i n s t r u c t o r s i n conjunction w i t h a l e c t u r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The devices used and stu d i e d were operating mock-ups, non-operating mock-ups, cutaway mock-ups, animated panels, c h a r t s , and symbolic diagrams. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study showed th a t there was no appreciable d i f f e r e n c e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s among the v a r i o u s 200 t r a i n i n g a i d s employed. However, the r e s u l t s a l s o suggested t h a t simple and cheap t r a i n i n g a i d s used w i t h a w e l l prepared l e c t u r e may be as e f f e c t i v e as complex or expensive ones. Two years l a t e r , Swanson and Aukes (392) made an e v a l u a t i o n of t r a i n i n g devices used i n the teaching of B-47 F u e l , H y d r a u l i c and Rudder Power C o n t r o l Systems to A i r Force personnel, and, once again, the study f a i l e d t o show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s among the v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g a i d s i n v o l v e d , i n terms of t e s t scores immediately a f t e r the l e c t u r e and 6 to 8 weeks l a t e r . In 1954 Newman and Highland (315) made an experimental comparison of f o u r methods of teaching a f i v e - d a y course i n " P r i n c i p l e s of Radio" and reported t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n by F i l m and TV could reduce i n s t r u c t i o n a l time by about 20%. They added t h a t a subject might be taught f o r 1 or 2 hours per day by f i l m but i t i s d o u b t f u l i f 8 hours per day of i n s t r u c t i o n could be given by f i l m , - due to r e s u l t a n t f a t i g u e and eye s t r a i n . More important they noted t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n seems to depend l a r g e l y on f a c t o r s t h a t are i n t e r n a l to a p a r t i c u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than being dependent on the method of p r e s e n t a t i o n . The U.S. A i r Force reported a s i m i l a r study i n 1956 conducted by the same two gentlemen, Newman and Highland (314) . This time matched c l a s s e s were taught a 5 day course i n P r i n c i p l e s of Radio by: 201 (1) I n s t r u c t o r s r a t e d above average i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l a b i l i t y , or (2) Workbook and tape re c o r d i n g s , or (3) Mimeographed notebook, or (4) Tape recordings and s l i d e s . The post course examination showed no appreciable d i f f e r e n c e among the c l a s s e s taught by a mass media method and t h a t taught by an i n s t r u c t o r . Bodenhamer (42) studied the e f f e c t of p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i v e speeches w i t h and without the use of v i s u a l a i d s to v o l u n t a r y adult audiences and reported the f o l l o w i n g . (1) Adult audiences l e a r n e d more from speeches supplemented w i t h v i s u a l a i d s . (2) There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the increase i n l e a r n i n g derived from v i s u a l s between lower age groups, and higher age groups. (3) A d u l t s of higher l e v e l s of education b e n e f i t e d more than a d u l t s of lower l e v e l s of education from the use of v i s u a l s . (4) A d u l t audiences presented an i n f o r m a t i v e speech w i t h v i s u a l a i d s p e r c e i v e d the v i s u a l a i d s as i n c r e a s i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the speech to a higher degree than a d u l t audiences presented the speech without v i s u a l s . (5,) Increase i n e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t v i s u a l s add to the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a speech. (42) The use and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices i n a d u l t education must be, to some extent, conditioned by the needs and b i a s e s of the group. There have been s e v e r a l 202 research s t u d i e s reported which i n d i c a t e t h a t what an observer or student perceives i s not s o l e l y determined by h i s p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s as perception i n v o l v e s the needs of a person, h i s b i a s e s , h i s a t t i t u d e s , h i s whole being. Communicators and teachers must r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r messages w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t of needs and b i a s e s . Levine, Chein and Murphy (262) i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t a s t a t e of b o d i l y need can a l t e r the pe r c e p t i o n of the environment when they showed t h a t hungry people perceive more food items i n response t o ambiguous s t i m u l i than do people who are not hungry. Another i n t e r e s t i n g research work, completed by Bruner and Goodman ( 5 9 ) , which has not been v a l i d a t e d f o r a d u l t s but which may have some a p p l i c -a t i o n , could be reviewed here. They found t h a t c h i l d r e n tended to estimate a l l coins t o be l a r g e r than they r e a l l y were. The s i z e of the over-estimates increased s u c c e s s i v e l y f o r n i c k e l s , dimes and q u a r t e r s , but dropped somewhat f o r h a l f - d o l l a r s . Another group of c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d to estimate the s i z e of cardboard d i s c s i n s t e a d of coins and i n t h i s case there were p r a c t i c a l l y no overestimates. I t was a l s o found t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h l e s s money, from poorer homes, made l a r g e r overestimates of c o i n s i z e than d i d the r i c h c h i l d r e n . Again r i c h c h i l d r e n overestimated only the s i z e of the h a l f - d o l l a r whereas poorer c h i l d r e n tended to estimate a l l coins l a r g e r than they r e a l l y were. In another study i n the same theme Cooper (92) examined a communication - persuasion s i t u a t i o n and demonstrated t h a t 203 when a communicator sends a message, he w i l l l i k e l y i n j e c t h i s own bi a s e s i n t o i t . He reported t h a t the communicator's (or teacher's) message contains i n f o r m a t i o n about the way i n which he has thought of the event and, i n a d d i t i o n , p r o t e c t s h i s own s e l f or ego. The r e c e i v e r (or student) perceives messages according t o h i s ego needs. The messages (or in f o r m a t i o n b i t s or education) t h a t f i t s the r e c e i v e r ' s ego needs are perceived as "good" whi l e those t h a t do not are evaluated as "poor". The r e c e i v e r (or student) needs t o accept, r e j e c t , or i n t e r c e p t i n order t o p r o t e c t h i s ego. Assuming t h a t we know tha t students w i l l i n t e r p r e t i n f o r m a t i o n according t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l motives, we s t i l l do not know f o r sure which needs and motives are r e l e v a n t . S u c c e s s f u l teaching may be a question of f i r s t a s s e s s i n g the re l e v a n t needs and motives of students (or r e c e i v e r s ) and then designing communications, - the teaching s i t u a t i o n complete w i t h devices, to f i t i n such a way as t o r e s u l t i n a " t r u e " or the best p o s s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the event. This type of teaching i s not easy. No matter how we view the t a s k , the s i t u a t i o n i s c l e a r : - people perceive what they need. In review, i t may be mentioned here t h a t the 120 research s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g to teaching devices, reported i n the "Encyclopedia of Educational, Research" by Hoban, Finn and Dale (202), and a l s o the extensive review of p e r t i n e n t research reported i n "The A^V B i b l i o g r a p h y " by McClusky (278), support 204 the c l a i m t h a t teaching devices, when p r o p e r l y used i n the teaching s i t u a t i o n , can accomplish the f o l l o w i n g ; - (202, p. 84) (1) They supply a concrete b a s i s f o r conceptual t h i n k i n g and hence reduce meaningless word-responses of students. (2) They have a high degree of i n t e r e s t f o r students. (3) They make l e a r n i n g more permanent. (4) They o f f e r a r e a l i t y of experience which s t i m u l a t e s s e l f - a c t i v i t y on the part of p u p i l s . (5) They develop a c o n t i n u i t y of thought; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of motion p i c t u r e s . (6) They c o n t r i b u t e t o growth of meaning and hence to vocabulary development. (7) They provide experiences not e a s i l y obtained through other m a t e r i a l s and c o n t r i b u t e to the e f f i c i e n c y , depth, and v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g . (202, p. 84) These p o i n t s represent the d i s t i l l a t i o n of a vast amount of research by many i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The governing p r i n c i p l e f o r the use of a p a r t i c u l a r teaching device should be t h a t i t i s b e t t e r than any other device or m a t e r i a l f o r t h a t s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n ; i f i t i s not b e t t e r , i t s use i s not j u s t i f i e d . As Brunner (60) s a i d , "Most authors agree t h a t a d u l t education can be s u c c e s s f u l l y conducted using any a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d (device) or combination of a i d s , and t h a t the question of e f f e c t i v e n e s s must take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the h a b i t s and y a b i l i t i e s , ( i n c l u d i n g needs and b i a s e s , as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y ) of the p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h regard t o the technique" (and d e v i c e ) . In conclusion i t can be s a i d t h a t m t h i s review of the research p e r t a i n i n g t o the use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l c d e v i c e s i n a d u l t education we have seen t h a t the j u d i c i o u s use of these devices can improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of most tea c h i n g 205 s i t u a t i o n s , - whether imparting knowledge or conveying a s k i l l or b r i n g i n g about a d e s i r e d change i n a t t i t u d e . I t was shown t h a t much more and b e t t e r use could and should be made of f i l m and TV i n the teaching process. Also t h a t care must be e x e r c i s e d to ensure th a t the m a t e r i a l used f u l f i l s the requirements of " r e a d a b i l i t y " and " l e n g t h " f o r the group concerned, and t h a t the f a c t o r of c o l o r i s always con-s i d e r e d as a c o n t r o l l a b l e component of the device, - whether p r i n t e d matter, or other, i n the o v e r a l l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The s i z e of the group i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g process was shown to be an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a d e f i n i t e f a c t o r t h a t can modify the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l e a r n i n g t h a t can occur. The theory behind the e f f e c t i v e use of a three dimensional i n s t r u c t i o n a l device or mock-up turned out to be r a t h e r more complicated than i t seemed at f i r s t encounter. I t was shown t o depend on the teaching o b j e c t i v e , - whether the p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n knowledge, or the measurement ~ of performance to a c r i t e r i a , o r the improvement of performance f o r u l t i m a t e t r a n s f e r to the a c t u a l equipment. I t was found t h a t there i s s t i l l a l a r g e segment of the North American po p u l a t i o n t h a t can be reached more e a s i l y by r a d i o than any other medium. Al s o , the e f f e c t of a w e l l designed and a d v e r t i s e d " e x h i b i t " or " r e s u l t demonstration" can make very s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to adu l t education. 206 Some s u r p r i s e was experienced i n f i n d i n g the tremendous amount of research on programmed i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t had been completed i n recent years, and the promising, wide-ranging a p p l i c a t i o n of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n t o such a v a r i e t y of teach i n g s i t u a t i o n s . A l s o the advances t h a t have been noted i n s l e e p - l e a r n i n g are qu i t e remarkable. I t would seem t h a t the device reported as "tecknamation d i s p l a y " w i l l probably enjoy some degree of p o p u l a r i t y i n the near f u t u r e as i t i s r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive and very e f f e c t i v e . 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Verner, C " I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods i n Adult Education", Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 29: 3 ; 262-68, June, 1959. 435. Vernon, M.D. "Pr e s e n t i n g Information i n Diagrams", A u d i o - V i s u a l Communication Review. I : 147-58, 1953' 436. Vernon, P.E. "An Experiment on the Value of the F i l m and F i l m - S t r i p i n the I n s t r u c t i o n of A d u l t s " , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Ed u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 16: 149-62, 1946. 248 437. Vernon, P.E. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n Into The I n t e l l i g -i b i l i t y of E d u c a t i o n a l Broadcasts. The B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation, Audience Research Department, 1950. 438. Vincent, W.S., Ash, P., and G r e e n h i l l , L.P. R e l a t i o n -ship of Length and Fact Frequency to E f f e c t i v e n e s s  of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Motion P i c t u r e s . SDC 269 - 7 - 7 . P o r t Washington, New York: U.S. Naval S p e c i a l Devices Center, 1949* 439. " V i s i b i l i t y and Cost Comparison on B a s i s of 1063 F u l l and Double Pages". Data Sheet No. 3010. New York: McGraw-Hill P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1947. 440. V r i s , T. A Comparison of P r i n c i p l e T r a i n i n g and S p e c i f i c T r a i n i n g Using Several Types of T r a i n i n g  Devices. T e c h n i c a l Report SDC 269-7-102. P o r t Washington, New York; O f f i c e of Naval Research, S p e c i a l Devices Center, 1955* 441 . W a l l , W.D. "Broadcasting f o r the Backward", Times Edu c a t i o n a l Supplement. 1792: 603; September 2, 1949. 442. Walton, W.E., G u i l f o r d , R.B., and G u i l f o r d , J.P. "Color Preferences of 1279 U n i v e r s i t y Students", American J o u r n a l of Psychology. 4 5 : 322-28, A p r i l , 1933. 443. Warden, C.J., and Flynn, E.L. "The E f f e c t of Color on Apparent S i z e and Weight", American J o u r n a l  of Psychology. 37: 398-401, J u l y , 1926. 444. Warner, L., and Franzen, R. "Value of Color i n A d v e r t i s i n g " , J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology. 3 1 : 260-70, June, 1947. 445 . Warner, R.S., and Bowers, J.Z. "The Use of Open-Channel T e l e v i s i o n i n Post Graduate Medical Education", The J o u r n a l of Medical Education. 29: 27-33, October, 1954. 446. Washburne, J.N. "An Experimental Study of Various Graphs, Tabular and Textual Methods of P r e s e n t i n g Q u a n t i t a t i v e M a t e r i a l s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  Psychology. 18: 361-76, 465-76, 1927. 447 . Watkins, R.K. "The Learning Value of Some Motion P i c t u r e s i n High School Physics and General Science as an I l l u s t r a t i o n of a S i m p l i f i e d Technique i n E d u c a t i o n a l Experimentation", E d u c a t i o n a l Screen. 10 : 135-37, 156-57; 1931. 249 448. Webb, W.B., and Wallon, E . J . Research P r o j e c t No. NM 001-108-100 Report No. 11, Comprehension by  Heading Versus Hearing. U.S. Naval School of A v i a t i o n Medicine, U.S. Naval A i r S t a t i o n , Pensacola, F l o r i d a , January 19, 1956. 449• Weber, J . J . Comparative E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Some V i s u a l  A i d s i n Seventh Grade I n s t r u c t i o n . E ducational Screen, 1922. 131 p. 450. Weng, L. "A Study of Lay P u b l i c a t i o n s on C h i l d Feeding", J o u r n a l of American D i e t e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 28: 927 -32, 1952. 451* Weston, H.C. I l l u m i n a t i o n and the V a r i a t i o n of V i s u a l  Performance With Age. Proceedings of the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Commission on I l l u m i n a t i o n , Stockholm, V o l . 2, 1951. 452. Whitney, J . " M i r r o r of Your Mind". An a r t i c l e i n the d a i l y newspaper, The Province (Vancouver, B.C.), 1 October, 1964. 453» Wiese, M. Teaching Reading to Adult I l l i t e r a t e s ( Through F i l m s . Tenth Yearbook, Claremont College Reading Conference. Claremont, C a l i f o r n i a : Claremont College L i b r a r y , 1945* p. 93-5• 454' Wilhelm, L.A., and S i c e r , J.W. A Report of the Purdue  P o u l t r y School of the A i r . La Fayette, Indiana. Purdue U n i v e r s i t y of A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension, 1943* 455- W i l l i a m s , L.R. Vermont (Across The Fence) TV Survey. B u r l i n g t o n , Vermont A g r i c u l t u r a l College Extension, 1956. 456. W i l n e r , D. A t t i t u d e as a Determinant of Perception i n the Mass Media of Communication: Reactions t o the Motion P i c t u r e , "Home of the Brave". Doctor's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1950. 457« Wilson, L. " T r a i n i n g Young Adult Leaders i n P u b l i c A f f a i r s " , Adult Leadership. 6: 8; 206-208 and 223, February, 1958. 4 5 8 . Wilson, M.C. D i s t r i b u t i o n of B u l l e t i n s and T h e i r Use  By Farmers*. Extension" Service C i r c u l a r No. 78. U.S. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , May, 1928. 250 459. Wilson, M.C, and Ga l l u p , G. Extension Teaching Methods. Federal Extension S e r v i c e C i r c u l a r No. 495. Washington, D.C; U.S. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , August, 1955* 460. Wilson, M.C, and Moe, E.O. E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Tele-v i s i o n i n Teaching Sewing P r a c t i c e s . Extension Se r v i c e C i r c u l a r No. 466. U.S. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1951. 461. Wise, H.A. Motion P i c t u r e s as an A i d i n Teaching American H i s t o r y . Yale U n i v e r s i t y , 1939* 187 p. 462. Witmer, H.L. The F i e l d of Parent Education: A Survey from the Viewpoint of Research. New York: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Parent Education, 1934* 463. Worcester, D.A. "Memory by V i s u a l and Auditory P r e s e n t a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. 16: 18-27, January, 1925. 464. Zander, A.F. "Role P l a y i n g : A Technique f o r T r a i n i n g the N e c e s s a r i l y Dominating Leader", S o c i a t r y :  J o u r n a l of Group and Intergroup Therapy. 1: 2; 225-35, 1947. 465 . Z i l l e r , R.C. "A Determinant of the Q u a l i t y and S t a b i l i t y of Group D e c i s i o n s " , Sociometry. 2 0 : 165-73, 1957. 466. Zuckerman, J.V. Commentary V a r i a t i o n s : L e v e l of V e r b a l i z a t i o n . P e r s o n a l Reference, and Phase R e l a t i o n s m I n s t r u c t i o n a l F i l m s on P e r c e p t u a l - Motor Tasks. T e c h n i c a l Report SDC 269-7-4 . P o r t Washington, New York: U.S. Naval S p e c i a l Devices Center, 1949* 467. Zuckerman, J.V. Music i n Motion P i c t u r e s : Review of L i t e r a t u r e w i t h I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r I n s t r u c t i o n a l  F i l m s . SDC 2 6 9 - 7 - 2 . Port Washington, New York: U.S. Naval S p e c i a l Devices Center, 1949. 4 6 8 . ZUCKERMAN, J.V. " P r e d i c t i n g F i l m Learning by Pre-Release T e s t i n g " , A u d i o - V i s u a l Communication  Review. 2: 49-56, 1954. 251 Appendix I . The Family Tree of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices ( f i g u r e 3 ) , i s a graphic p r e s e n t a t i o n of the suggested typology i l l u s t r a t i n g the device d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o r g a n i z a t i o n . Family Tree of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices L i v e Mechan- Three Two Dimen- Two i c a l Dimen- si o n a l Dimensional s i o n a l Non-Projected Projected Group Size Arrange-ment of Learners Re-Inforcing Practice D r i l l Perform- Physical Organ-ance i z a t i o n a l Environmental D i s t r i b u t e d Extension In s t r u c t i o n a l Devices f o r Individuals and Groups I n s t r u c t i o n a l D i f f u s i o n Devices The FIGURE 3. Teacher 253 Appendix I I The chart shown as f i g u r e 4 i s presented to a s s i s t i n c l a s s i f y i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l devices according t o t h e i r degree of a b s t r a c t i o n or concreteness and w i t h reference to the r e l a t i v e amount of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o s s i b l e i n l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n use. A Chart to A s s i s t i n C l a s s i f y i n g the Effectiveness of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Devices According to t h e i r Degree of Abstraction or Concreteness and with Reference to the Relative Amount of Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n Possible i n Learning S i t u a t i o n Use. Degree of Device Abstraction Degree of P a r t i c i p a t i o n or Sense Involvement of the Student. Abstract: only learned symbolic reference to learning experience. Semi-Abstract Somewhat removed, -communication has some r e l a t i o n to d i r e c t experience Simulated d i r e c t experience Di r e c t concrete Experience Passive: minimum f a c u l t y involvement. No provision f o r any student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . ""Words only i n generalizations -witnbvt r e f e r -ence toX. p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g - l e a r n ^ ing s i t u a t i o n . Radio. Lecture:-words r e l a t -i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r ,,1 earning s^Jjualjion. Lecture with graphic a i d s ; words with reference to i l l u s t r a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Lecture with reference to a specimen representing the le a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Lecture accom-panying the r e a l learning s i t u a t i o n . Limited involvement of senses pos s i b l e . Some pro v i s i o n made f o r student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . books:-a prescribed text Lecture wim® question period Technamation * d i s p l a y . Film Demonstrations and E x h i b i t s Limited sense involve-ment provided f o r a l l or most students. correspondence courses Arrangement of Learners to f a c i l i t a t e understanding Programm^dTg^ i n s t r u c t i o n ^ F i e l d t r i p s and Practice to C r i t e r i o n Opportunity provided f o r extensive and sustained sense involvement. X Group discussion Group d i s -cussion based on common d i r e c t experience Simb3§ted perforsiaiice or dry run. Use of ^ Mockup. Use of a c t u a l equipment i n c o n t r o l l e d s l e a r m n g s i t u a t i o n . F u l l sense p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n learning s i t u a t i o n . Maximum . f a c u l t y involvement. X X X Role playing Performance i n r e a l l i f e x . s i t u a t i o n onv\ a c t u a l equipment. o BT U o c o H +> 21 H O H -P U CS PH <H O <D CD U « | a> Degree of Device Concreteness X These represent combination of abstraction and p a r t i c i p a t i o n which are l o g i c a l l y impossible. 255 The chart ( f i g u r e 4) i s an adaptation of tha t suggested by C l i n t o n (82). He e n t i t l e d h i s "A Scale f o r C l a s s i f y i n g E d ucational Techniques According t o Degree of A b s t r a c t i o n From D i r e c t Experience of Content and Degree of P a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Student i n the Learning Experience." Much of what he s a i d w i t h reference t o "techniques" i s r e a d i l y a p p l i c a b l e to " d e v i c e s " . The extent and d u r a t i o n of overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l e a r n i n g experience where a device or devices i s / a r e used depends t o a degree upon i n d i v i d u a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Some l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s make no demands upon the student; others r e q u i r e l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l l p o s s i b l e devices may be arranged m an a r b i t r a r y scale according to the degree of overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n permitted or r e q u i r e d or inherent, i n the use of the device. An " a b s t r a c t i o n s c a l e " may be regarded as a continuum along which devices may be l o c a t e d w i t h respect to the p o l a r i d e a l s of concrete and a b s t r a c t , according t o the degree of removal from r e a l i t y or the symbolism inherent i n the use of the device. In f i g u r e 4 the v e r t i c a l dimension represents an a r b i t r a r y s c a l e of overt p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o s s i b l e i n the device use f o r a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , modified to permit i n c l u s i o n of those aspects of the device which tend t o f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t -i f i c a t i o n or ego involvement. The h o r i z o n t a l dimension represents a succession of f i v e p o i n t s along the concrete - a b s t r a c t continuum. The 256 chart provides a means of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which d i s c r i m i n a t e s among devices according t o those aspects of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n which are operable because of the inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the device and are, t h e r e f o r e , w i t h i n the c o n t r o l of the teacher, or agent, and agency. A r e s o l u t i o n of the two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , degree of concreteness and degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n or ego involvement gives a measure of the degree of device e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and t h i s was, b a s i c a l l y , Hoban's (27) o r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n ( f i g u r e 1 ) . He stated t h a t the value of a teaching device i s a f u n c t i o n of i t s degree of r e a l i t y , of the nature and extent of the l e a r n e r ' s experience, of the o b j e c t i v e s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and of the i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t u r i t y of the l e a r n e r . He g e n e r a l i z e d on the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the v a r i o u s teaching devices by saying i t i s i n d i r e c t r a t i o to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s stage of l e a r n i n g and development. 

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