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Slovenian translations of Pushkin's poetry and prose , 1853-1901 Cernetic, Dragan Marijan 1968

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SLOVENIAN TRANSLATIONS OF PUSHKIN'S POETRY AND PROSE ( 1853 - 1901 )  by DRAGAN MARIJAN CERNETIC B. A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  In the Department of S l a v o n i c Studies  We accept t h i s required  THE  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, that  I agree  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  Study.  I further  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  copying of t h i s  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h ils r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department of  April  copying  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d  permission.  SLAVONIC STUDIES  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada Date  It i s understood t h a t  29th 1968  Columbia  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s study i s to present i n a c o n c i s e form i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the extent and of Slovenian t r a n s l a t i o n s The  author has  of Pushkin's  investigated  poetry and  as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e  prose. the  renderings of a l l the known S l o v e n i a n t r a n s l a t o r s who  quality  of Pushki  were a c t i v e during the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h  century. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n  has been focused on  the  authorship of the p u b l i s h e d t r a n s l a t i o n s , c o l l e c t i o n of f u l l bibliographical  data and e v a l u a t i o n of the  quality  of the S l o v e n i a n r e n d e r i n g s . A b r i e f survey of the contents of the will  show b r o a d l y how Chapter  the author has  chapters  approached t h i s task.  I p r o v i d e s a short d e s c r i p t i v e  history  of t r a n s l a t i o n , explores i n general terms the t r a d i t i o n a l and customary approach to t r a n s l a t i o n and reviews commonly accepted governing  the  c r i t e r i a and agreed upon p r i n c i p l e s  t r a n s l a t i o n . Furthermore, a b r i e f  comparative  e v a l u a t i o n of e x i s t i n g resemblances and d i v e r s i t i e s of the Russian  and S l o v e n i a n languages has been i n c l u d e d .  Chapter Slovene-Russian  II p r o v i d e s a h i s t o r i c a l review of the  c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s , which date back to the  s i x t e e n t h century, and then d i s c u s s e s the  socio-cultural  development o f the Slovenian n a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, t a k i n g e s p e c i a l l y i n t o account the i n f l u e n c e o f the S l a v o p h i l e s and Russophiles Slovenian  on the development o f the  literature. Chapter I I I i s devoted to the examination o f  the e x i s t i n g Slovenian renderings  o f Pushkin's poetry and  prose;  o f t h e i r authors,  i t provides short sketches  analyses  the a v a i l a b l e b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l data, compares some o f the renderings with the o r i g i n a l t e x t s , examines t h e i r and  language  attempts t o assess t h e i r p o e t i c f a i l i n g s o r m e r i t s .  F i n a l l y , added i s a l i s t  o f a r t i c l e s about Pushkin and  t r a n s l a t i o n s which appeared i n the Slovenian  periodical  publications. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e t o express  my extreme  indebtedness  to P r o f e s s o r A. W. Waiman f o r h i s generous and i n v a l u a b l e advice given i n every phase o f t h i s study on matters o f form and s t y l e ; t o P r o f e s s o r V. Revutsky f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e ; to P r o f e s s o r B. Czaykowsky f o r h i s k i n d encouragement i n the years p a s t , and f i n a l l y , t o my wife and daughter, whose p a t i e n c e and t o l e r a n c e s u s t a i n e d me through the many hours of p r e p a r a t i o n and t y p i n g o f t h i s  thesis.  PREFACE  " Pushkin has l i k e n e d t r a n s l a t o r s to horses changed at the posthouses greatest  reward  of c i v i l i z a t i o n . The  I can think of i s that students  may use my work as a pony." V. Nabokov, Eugene O n i e g i n , v o l . I , p. x.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT PREFACE CHAPTER I  II  III  SHORT DESCRIPTIVE HISTORY OF THE FIELD KNOWN AS TRANSLATION  1  On the T r a n s l a t i o n o f Poetry  9  B a s i c L i n g u i s t i c D i f f e r e n c e s between the Russian and the S l o v e n i a n Languages  14  SLOVENIAN CULTURAL CONTACTS WITH RUSSIA  18  The S o c i o - C u l t u r a l L i f e i n S l o v e n i a During the Late Nineteenth Century  28  The Russophile O r i e n t a t i o n o f the Slovenian L i t e r a t i . . . .  32  SLOVENIAN TRANSLATIONS OF PUSHKIN'S POETRY AND PROSE ( 1853 - 1901 )  41  Pushkin's  41  Background  Pushkin and the Slovenes  48  M i k l o s i c Franc v  50  Z a k e l j Anton  53  V e s e l Ivan  ( Vesnin )  57  V e s e l Ivan  ( Koseski )  68  Mencinger Janez  73  Askerc Anton  78  Jurcic Josip.....  83  IV  P l e t e r s n i k Maks  84  S t i f t a r Franc  86  Ternovec  90  Bogdan  Strekelj Karel  92  L e v s t i k Fran  94  J . K - j ( Kogej )  96  P i n t a r Ivan  97  F. G. ( G e s t r i n )  99  - r ( anon. )  103  J . H. ( anon. )  104  Z. D. ( Dokler )  105  - o ( anon. )  108  Hostnik M a r t i n  110  Prijatelj  113  Ivan  Medved Anton  115  Kette D r a g o t i n  118  G r e g o r c i c Simon.  121  CONCLUSION  123  TREATISES AND ARTICLES PUBLISHED UNTIL 1937  129  BIBLIOGRAPHY  133  INDEX OF SLOVENIAN RENDERINGS FROM PUSHKIN ( 1853 - 1901 )  i -iv  1  C H A P T E R  ONE  SHORT DESCRIPTIVE HISTORY OF THE  CREATIVE  FIELD KNOWN AS TRANSLATION  The  immediate  d i s c u s s the h i s t o r y  o b j e c t i v e of the f i r s t  chapter i s to  and p r i n c i p l e s of the t r a n s l a t i o n process  as our main t o p i c s t r i v e s to examine the r e n d e r i n g of Pushkin's poetry by a number of S l o v e n i a n t r a n s l a t o r s their native  language.  Language being a t o o l f o r communication its  into  fundamental  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s one which we  can c a l l  of t r a n s m i s s i b i l i t y . I t i s the l a t t e r on which is contingent, e s p e c i a l l y  has among that  translation  i f one adopts the view that lan=  guage as such i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of man's thought.  For many c e n t u r i e s thoughts and concepts passed from one people to another by way  of t r a n s l a t i o n .  Consequently, the f u n c t i o n of t r a n s l a t i o n i s the b u i l d i n g of c u l t u r a l b r i d g e s between peoples and t h e r e f o r e i t can be regarded as one of the p i l l a r s of world c i v i l i z a t i o n . Since the beginning of time the m u l t i t u d e of tongues has been accompanied  by the e x i s t e n c e of t r a n s l a t i o n . Along with the  o r i g i n a l thought, t r a n s l a t i o n has helped create new which the t r a n s l a t o r s  values  have r e l e a s e d from the vacuum c r e a t e d  by the i n s u l a r nature of a given tongue.  2  It was which gave the all  the  the first  symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e of  impulse to t r a n s l a t i o n . P r a c t i c a l l y  r e l i g i o u s s c r i p t u r e s of the major r e l i g i o n s have  i n the past been t r a n s l a t e d . We Holy S c r i p t u r e s i n t o 1202 has  religion  f i n d that s e c t i o n s  have been at one  tament i n t o 285. in transmitting word of man  i n t o 228  languages and  T r a n s l a t i o n by the word of God,  the  time or another rendered  languages. In i t s e n t i r e form, the Old  been t r a n s l a t e d 1  of  Testament  the New  Tes=  analogy served not but  which found i t s highest  only  a l s o i n p a s s i n g on l e v e l i n the  the  form of  literature. Although the  t r a n s l a t i o n s of the  i n t o a modern language are of comparatively they n e v e r t h e l e s s enable us f a r - o f f epochs. Now  earliest  texts 2  recentdate,  to construe a mental image of  modern man  can  read i n h i s  native  language about the dawn of mankind i n t r a n s l a t e d works r e l i g i o n , p h i l o s o p h y , astronomy, mathematics, and  f i n a l l y , h i s t o r y . Furthermore, through the  1 Eugene A. Nida, "The T r a n s l a t i o n Babel, IX, ( 1963 ), p.3.  on  aesthetics, translator  of R e l i g i o u s  Texts"  Strangely enough Nida, i n one of h i s e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s , " P r i n c i p l e s of T r a n s l a t i o n as E x e m p l i f i e d by B i b l e T r a n s l a t i n g ", On T r a n s l a t i o n , Reuben A r t h u r Brower, ed. , Cambridge, Harvard" U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959 , p. 11., quotes that the S c r i p t u r e s , at l e a s t i n p a r t , have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o 1109 languages, of which 210 possess the e n t i r e B i b l e and 271 more the New Testament. 2 The upon the  o l d e s t specimen of Babylonian L i t e r a t u r e i n s c r i b e d s t e l e of King Gudaca dated at about 4000 B.C.  3  the authors o f o l d p o e t r y , t a l e s speak to us once  legends, f a b l e s and f a i r y  again.  Of a l l the l i b e r a l  a r t s , l i t e r a t u r e i s regarded  as the o l d e s t and through c e n t u r i e s past c i v i l i z a t i o n  from o b l i v i o n . No doubt, the a r t of  w r i t i n g had been invented civilizations.  i t helped preserve  i n various  forms by d i f f e r e n t  I t appears, however, that the best  was developed by the ancient  system  Semites as i t became the  b a s i s o f the Indo-European, Mongolo-Tartar and Malay alphabets. Although i n t e r p r e t e r s were f i r s t mentioned i n h i e r o g l y p h i c s , which o r i g i n a t e d i n the Upper N i l e during  region  the r e i g n o f pharaoh Neferirka-Re around 2500 B.C.,  t r a n s l a t i o n of p u r e l y  l i t e r a r y t e x t s emerged to a greater  degree i n the p o s t - H e l l e n i c p e r i o d when Greek  literature  found i t s way to Rome. I t i s r e l a t i v e to t h i s p e r i o d  that  such Romans as L i v i u s Andronicus, the s o l d i e r - p o e t Ennius, Plautus,  Terence and C a t t u l u s went on r e c o r d as the trans=  l a t o r s o f the Odyssey, the p l a y s o f E u r i p i d e s , the Greek comedy and the works o f Sappho. The year 476 A.D., when the l a s t emperor o f Rome was dethroned, i s g e n e r a l l y  considered  the h i s t o r i c a l t u r n i n g p o i n t , at which the o l d Roman power d e f i n i t e l y faded and the dawn o f a new e r a began. I f the known h i s t o r y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n  i s any  guide, i t would be reasonable to suppose that an a c c e l e r a t e d exchange o f i d e a s , i d e a l s , and knowledge came about between nations  soon a f t e r the m i g r a t i o n  of the peoples reached  4  i t s t e r m i n a l p o i n t . Since the Ten Commandments had passed the t e s t of time, C h r i s t i a n i t y by then was to g l o r y . The Church, which a political  w e l l on i t s way  i n medieval Europe  soon became  i n s t i t u t i o n , must be c o n s i d e r e d the g r e a t e s t  s i n g l e f o r c e i n the l i t e r a t u r e of that e r a . By analogy, c a l l i g r a p h y and t r a n s l a t i o n became a c t i v i t i e s of prime importance  i n the monasteries. Thus, one can r e a d i l y  agree  with the commonly h e l d view that such monastic orders as the B e n e d i c t i n e s were f o r some f i v e hundred years the bearers of c u l t u r e i n Europe. The modern age may  be s a i d to have begun i n the  middle of the f i f t e e n t h century with Gutenberg's  invention  of p r i n t i n g . Speaking on the s u b j e c t , Gothe s a i d : "Die Buchdruckerkunst i s t e i n Factum, von dem e i n zweiter T e i l der Welt-und-Kunstgeschichte d a t i e r t , welcher von dem e r s t e n ganz v e r s c h i e d e n i s t . " ... 3 It i s small wonder, t h e r e f o r e , that the great poet made such a statement, i f one  i s to c o n s i d e r that now  i t was  p o s s i b l e s e c u r e l y to preserve and r a p i d l y to t r a n s m i t the knowledge of mankind. With Gutenberg's  " Open Sesame ",  s c i e n c e as w e l l as the l i b e r a l a r t s came i n t o f u l l  bloom.  To t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n v e n t i o n , furthermore, must be con= ceded a d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e on the development  of trans=  l a t i o n , f o r i t gave b i r t h to an i n v i s i b l e army of t r a n s l a t o r s  3  Aloys Ruppel, Die Technik Gutenbergs ( B e r l i n , 1940 ), p. 206":  und i h r e V o r s c h r i f t e n ,  5  who  t o i l e d t i r e l e s s l y , although they were not to reap the  glory. In c o n c l u d i n g these b r i e f notes on the  history  of t r a n s l a t i o n , i t seems a d v i s a b l e a l s o to d i s c u s s c e r t a i n commonly adopted views on the p r i n c i p l e s of t r a n s l a t i o n i n general and e s p e c i a l l y  those p e r t a i n i n g  to p o e t r y .  I f a t r a n s l a t i o n i s found that reads as i f i t were the o r i g i n a l , i t must be presumed that the has succeeded sounds,  translator  i n r e n d e r i n g the l i t e r a r y value embodying the  thoughts, images, emotions  and elegance of the  o r i g i n a l . T h i s widely accepted d o c t r i n e on t r a n s l a t i o n i n i t s e l f conforms to the p r i n c i p l e of e q u i v a l e n t e f f e c t regarded by Dr. Rieu as: "... s i g n i f y i n g that the t r a n s l a t i o n i s best which comes nearest to c r e a t i n g i n i t s audience the same impression as was made by the o r i g i n a l on i t s contemporaries." 4 There remains translations  little  doubt  depends on f a i t h f u l n e s s  that q u a l i t y  in literary  to the o r i g i n a l . Although  a t r a n s l a t i o n i d e a l l y should render the idea and the form of the model, the very nature of two even s y n t a c t i c a l l y q u i t e s i m i l a r languages w i l l defeat an attempt  at l i t e r a l r e n d e r i n g .  4 E. V. Rieu, " T r a n s l a t i o n ", C a s s e l ' s E n c y c l o p a e d i a of L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . 1, ( 1953 ), p. 555.  6  As P r o f e s s o r Brower o f Harvard has so a p t l y remarked: "In some two thousand years o f study by some of the best minds i n the western world, a few good t h i n g s , but only a few, have been s a i d about the making o f l i t e r a t u r e . " S It  i s , t h e r e f o r e , not s u r p r i s i n g that the c e n t u r i e s o l d  debate  as to how to t r a n s l a t e has not as y e t succeeded i n  b r i n g i n g about  a s e n s i b l e and p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n to the  problem. The very a r t or c r a f t of t r a n s l a t i o n ,  whichever  i t may be, has been questioned by many c r i t i c s . critics  were o f l i t t l e help f o r i t i s now w e l l  Such established  that t r a n s l a t o r s have helped the growth of l i t e r a t u r e as much as authors and c e r t a i n l y more than t h e i r  critics.  Before going on to look at the c o n t r o v e r s i a l codes of t r a n s l a t i o n the c r e a t i v e approach of  o f the author versus that  the t r a n s l a t o r should be b r i e f l y  examined.  Whereas the author, g i f t e d with u l t i m a t e f e e l i n g for  h i s n a t i v e tongue,  appears  to be c o n s c i o u s l y or sub=  c o n s c i o u s l y guided by h i s genius i n the c r e a t i o n o f l i t e r a r y art,  the t r a n s l a t o r i n h i s endeavour to render the o r i g i n a l  i n t o another language  i s u n t i r i n g l y s t r i v i n g to d i s t i n g u i s h  terms o f e x p r e s s i o n from the purported content and the form from the substance. I f the hypothesis i s accepted, that the  5 1959  R. A. Brower ( e d . ) , On T r a n s l a t i o n , ) , p. 4.  ( Cambridge,  7  substance  o f the content deals with animate and inanimate  o b j e c t s , i . e . with the r e a l i t y o f the world around us, and that the form o f the content helps i n d e r i v i n g an image, then the substance  of the term may be regarded  as being a  s i g n a l which, by e v o k i n g ' a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n , gives impetus to the process o f communication. In  summary, the t r a n s l a t o r , when compared with  the author, i s burdened with the problem of i n t e r - r e l a t i n g the terms and c o n t e n t s , the two b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s necessary for of  communication to be e f f e c t i v e , not only i n the language the o r i g i n a l , but a l s o i n h i s own. I t i s by reason of  tremendous complexity  that the c r a f t of t r a n s l a t i o n ,  t h e r e f o r e , has had many p r a c t i t i o n e r s compared with the a r t of  t r a n s l a t i o n , which has but few masters. Since the a c t i v i t y o f t r a n s l a t i n g l i t e r a t u r e has  been f o r c e n t u r i e s g e n e r a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as s u b s i d i a r y a r t , and has consequently not been able to achieve the d i g n i t y u s u a l l y accorded one  to o r i g i n a l a u t h o r s h i p , to t h i s date not  genius a c c r e d i t e d i n the f i e l d  g u i s t i c s has found  o f l i t e r a t u r e or l i n =  i t worth while to produce a t r e a t i s e  with the aim to c o d i f y a peremptory s e t o f g u i d i n g prin= c i p l e s f o r t r a n s l a t o r s . I t may be that t h i s cannot be achieved. Should  the l a t t e r be the case, then the c o n c l u s i o n  could be drawn that a l i t e r a r y t r a n s l a t i o n must not be b e t t e r than the model, nor can i t be e q u i v a l e n t i n p e r f e c t i o n to  the o r i g i n a l . The theory advocating l i t e r a l  translations  8  and  f a i t h f u l n e s s to form, which p r e v a i l e d during  ages, must by n e c e s s i t y give way hered to over the past  three  to the theory  the middle  commonly  c e n t u r i e s where meaning  be p r e f e r a b l e  to form. The  more v a l i d i t y  i f i t i s taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n that  e a r l y as the  first  century  Demosthenes, commented that he rendering,  but  should  l a t t e r p r i n c i p l e , no doubt,  B.C.  has  as  C i c e r o , while t r a n s l a t i n g d i d not  aim  at a  i n s t e a d t r i e d to reproduce i n the  bined whole " the meaning and  ad=  literal 11  com=  the f o r c e of Demosthenes'  i n d i v i d u a l words.^ Perhaps A.F.  T y t l e r , professor  of u n i v e r s a l  h i s t o r y , i n h i s work on t r a n s l a t i o n , came c l o s e s t to l a s t mentioned maxim when he general  sets down the  following  laws of t r a n s l a t i o n :  1. That the t r a n s l a t i o n should t r a n s c r i p t of the  give a complete  ideas of the o r i g i n a l work.  2. That the s t y l e and manner of w r i t i n g should of the same c h a r a c t e r  as that of the  3. That the t r a n s l a t i o n should of the o r i g i n a l  6 1958  the  original.  have a l l the  composition.'  be  ease  7  A. B. »EflOPOB,BBEflEHME B TEOPHIO nEPEBOflA, ( MOCKBA, ), p. 27.  7 A. F. T y t l e r , Essay on the P r i n c i p l e s of T r a n s l a t i o n , ( London, 1907 ), p. 9.  9  ON THE  TRANSLATION OF POETRY  It can be s t a t e d that a l l of us, being members of  the human species and s u b j e c t to consciousness, r e a c t  to our mental and p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Consequently, day we  engage i n the c o u n t l e s s , but common a c t i v i t y  e v a l u a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , we a meal and  i n v a r i a b l y we  p l e a s a n t , how  every  of  complete a given task or  say or think how  finish  p l e a s a n t or  good or bad our experience was.  We may  un= go  even f u r t h e r i n our r e a c t i o n and c o n s i d e r the reason. s h o r t , we  evaluate and more o f t e n than not analyse  In  our  experiences. Among others we  read a given work of  literature  and r e a c t i n some manner. F i n d i n g i t very i n t e r e s t i n g  and  p l e a s u r e - e v o k i n g , we probably w i l l recommend i t to someone e l s e . I f , however, such a work d i s a p p o i n t s us, we o f t e n do not bother to f i n i s h our way  to completing  by e v a l u a t i n g and  reading i t . Thus, we  quite are on  a c y c l e by e x p e r i e n c i n g , by r e a c t i n g ,  f i n a l l y , by a c t i n g again.  The purpose of these i l l u s t r a t i o n s  i s to p o i n t  out that even the most c a s u a l reader of p o e t r y , whether i n its  o r i g i n a l form or i n t r a n s l a t i o n , w i l l f i r s t  make some  o b s e r v a t i o n s , then apply some c r i t e r i a to h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n the forming  of judgement, and  f i n a l l y draw  some q u a l i t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s . Poetry i s an a r t e x p r e s s i n g the beauty and n i f i c a n c e of l i f e  itself,  sig=  i t i s a communication of intense  10  f e e l i n g through only of r e l a t i v e  the media of words. The importance,  theme of a poem i s  but the f e e l i n g which i t evokes  would appear to be the primary purpose of p o e t r y , as i t i s shared by the poet  and reader a l i k e . Although  such p o e t i c  devices as v e r s e , rhyme, meter and p a t t e r n s of sound  and  rhythm are the poet's necessary t o o l s , i t i s h i s tone with which he d e s c r i b e s h i s i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g . As reading poetry i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l t a s k , i t should be f o l l o w e d by i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  judgement.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e s the meaning of the poem. What i s the poet t r y i n g to say? What i s h i s i n t e n t i o n ? What f e e l i n g s a r i s e from the thematic experience? Where are the c l u e s to these questions? The mood and the tone of the poem may  provide  the answer. Judgement, on the other hand, i n v o l v e s the exami* n a t i o n of the theme of the poem from the p o i n t of view of i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n communicating a message and  evoking  feelings. The very nature of a given poem, u n i v e r s a l l y deemed worthy of t r a n s l a t i o n , i m p l i e s that i t contains i d e a s , which have not yet been expressed reader's  i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the  language. C o n s i d e r i n g that t r a n s l a t i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l business  or  political  task, one prose  w r i t i n g s i n t o another  language i s a  can a p p r e c i a t e that t r a n s l a t i n g  i s a most d i f f i c u l t  difficult  l i t e r a r y works i n  undertaking and surpassed i n  complexity only by the t r a n s l a t i o n of v e r s e . No wonder then,  11  if  i t i s s a i d that  difficult  a perfect  verse t r a n s l a t i o n  to achieve as the p e r f e c t  i s as  grace o f the b a l l e r i n a  whose hands and f e e t are t i e d . I t was i n the year 1771 that A. P. Sumarokov, a great poet and p r o l i f i c German, wrote of  translator  the f o l l o w i n g  from French, L a t i n , and  epistle pertaining  to the a r t  translation: "ROCEM C K A X y , KAKOfl nOXBAJlEH n E P E B O / U HMEET B CJ10TE BCflK PA3J1HMME H A P O f l . HTO OMEHb XOPOUJO HA AA3UKE 4>PAHqy3CKOM, TO M02KET B TOMHOCTU BblTb CKAPEflHO HA P Y C C K O M . HE MHH, n E P E B O f l f l , MTO CKJlAfl B TBOPUE T O T O B ; TBOPE14 flAPyET MblCJlb, HO HE flAPyET CJIOB. B CRPSTKEHUE PEMEtf ETO Tbl HE BflABAflCfl M CBOflCTBEHHO CEBE CJIOBAMU yKPAUIAtfCS . HA MTO C T E n E H b B CTEIIEHb nOCJIEflOBATb EMy? CTynAPl JiMUJb T E M n y T E M n OBJiACTb nAtt yMy. Tbl CUM, KAK TBOfl TBOPEI4 nUCbMOM CBOMM HH CJ1ABEH, flOCTHrHEUJb RO HETO M ByflEUIb CAM C HUM P A B E H . XOTb n E P E f l TOEOtf B TPH nyflA J1EKCHK0H, HE MHH, MTOB riOMOlUb flAJl TEBE BEJIMKy OH, KOJlb PEMU H CJ10BA nOCTABHUlb BE3 nOPflflKA; M By RET n E P E B O f l TBOPi HEKAfl 3ATA/1KA, KOTOPyiO HUKTO HE OTTA/JAET B B E K ; TO flAPOM, MTO CJ10BA BCE TOMHO Tb! H A P E K . KOniA riEPEBOflHTb 3AX0MEUlb EECnOPOMHO, HE T O , - - T B 0 P I 4 0 B MHE JWX 51BM H CHJiy T O M H O . " 8  If a t r a n s l a t o r faithful  o f p o e t r y wishes  to remain  to the poet's o r i g i n a l i t y , he should to a c e r t a i n  degree, suppress h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y indubitable  anonymity  and t r y f o r an  i n r e n d e r i n g a t r a n s l a t i o n . Y e t , he  must have the l i b e r t y to take i n t o account the m e n t a l i t y and the t a s t e  o f the n a t i v e reader f o r whom he i s t r a n s l a t i n g .  8 K). J\. J1EBHH M A . B. <J>E^OPOB ( E f l . ) , PyCCKHE nHCATEJIH 0" nEPEBOflE XVIII - XX BB. , (JlEHI/IHrPAfl,'. 1960) , p. 53.  12  Sometimes, i n order to b r i n g out the meaning of a s t a n z a , i t may  be necessary f o r the t r a n s l a t o r to r e c a s t the  syntax u t t e r l y even though the two  languages may  be q u i t e  s i m i l a r s y n t a c t i c a l l y . Long p r a c t i c a l experience i n trans= l a t i n g poetry tends f u r t h e r to develop the i n t u i t i v e power i n the t r a n s l a t o r , who  thus f i n d s i t e a s i e r to communicate  with the n a t i v e reader r a t h e r than merely present him with a r e p r o d u c t i o n of the s h e l l o f the o r i g i n a l . It- i s i n t e r s t i n g to note that the n i n e t e e n t h century S l o v e n i a , dominated  as i t was  by A u s t r i a , had  a r e l a t i v e l y high number of i n t e l l e c t u a l s who s p e c i a l importance  attached  to the t r a n s l a t i o n of f o r e i g n prose as  w e l l as p o e t r y i n t o t h e i r n a t i v e tongue, f o r i t became e a r l y apparent to them that t r a n s l a t i o n was  a most e f f e c t i v e  means of e s t a b l i s h i n g the v e r n a c u l a r as a l i t e r a r y  language.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, too many u n q u a l i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s engaged on impulse :in t r a n s l a t i n g not only from German, which they no doubt had mastered  i n s c h o o l , but  a l s o from Russian. Taking i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n that during h i s e n t i r e c r e a t i v e p e r i o d the great Russian poet Pushkin devoted s u b s t a n t i a l a t t e n t i o n and energy to t r a n s l a t e c l a s s i c a l contemporary  poetry and prose i n t o h i s n a t i v e  and  language,^  9 Pushkin t r a n s l a t e d from the l i t e r a r y works of such o l d Greek poets as Anakreont, the L a t i n poets Horace and J u v e n a l , the I t a l i a n s A r i o s t o and A l f i e r i , the E n g l i s h w r i t e r s Byron, Shakespeare, C o l e r i d g e and the French w r i t e r V o l t a i r e .  13  one wonders why the n i n e t e e n t h century Slovenian of Pushkin's  translators  poetry and prose n e g l e c t e d to study the great  master's own approach to the conventions No doubt they would have found  of t r a n s l a t i o n .  that Pushkin p r e f e r r e d f r e e  t r a n s l a t i o n to a l i t e r a l one as he f e l t  that the former i s  b e t t e r s u i t e d to p r e s e r v i n g the l o c a l c o l o u r and the n a t i o n a l - h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o r i g i n a l . ^ In viewing  the p r o l i f i c a c t i v i t y o f the n i n e t e e n t h  century Slovenian t r a n s l a t o r s , p e r t a i n i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y to the renderings o f Russian  l i t e r a t u r e i n t o the v e r n a c u l a r , one  can see that notwithstanding  some e x c e p t i o n s , the m a j o r i t y  d i d not take the time to weigh the o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l i n t h e i r mind, gain the necessary  knowledge o f Russian, and to  s u b j e c t t h e i r renderings to sounder values and p r i n c i p l e s . Many t r a n s l a t o r s , as i t w i l l be demonstrated l a t e r , i n t h e i r z e a l to p u b l i s h , were r a t h e r ignorant o f the Russian and moreover, they n e g l e c t e d to develop  language,  the contemporary  q u a l i t i e s o f t h e i r own Slovenian tongue. It may be that p r o f e s s i o n a l j e a l o u s y , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and even s e l f - c o n c e i t were t h r o t t l i n g the badly needed c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t Slovenian l i t e r a r y  10  i n nineteenth  circles.  J1EBHH $ <DE,qOPOB, Op. c i t . , p . 153.  century  14  BASIC LINGUISTIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN AND  THE  SLOVENIAN LANGUAGES  Although b e l o n g i n g to the S l a v i c group of  languages,  Russian and S l o v e n i a n d i f f e r from each other i n many r e s p e c t s , and, with the e x c e p t i o n of the s o - c a l l e d  root-words,  s i m i l a r i t i e s between themare r a t h e r l i m i t e d . The  f i r s t p o i n t to be noted  between the C y r i l l i c  i s the d i f f e r e n c e  alphabet of Russian and the  Latin  alphabet used by the Slovenes. F o r t u n a t e l y , however, both languages  have adequate p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  alphabets f o r e x p r e s s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y S l a v i c sounds such as: )K : z_, M_ : c, and  i n the case of the Russian U[  the S l o v e n i a n s<c, where recourse i s had to d i a c r i t i c signs r a t h e r than the c l u m s i e r s t r u c t u r e of the P o l i s h s z c z . Speaking  of the S l o v e n i a n l i t e r a r y  language,  must c a l l  a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t , u n l i k e the  language,  i t has  Russian  the s o - c a l l e d f r e e accent f e a t u r e only i n  a l i m i t e d number of words under i n f l e c t i o n e.g. pec oce  - o c e t a , moz The  one  - moza, t e l e  - peci,  - teleta etc.  S l o v e n i a n language makes use of the f o l l o w i n g  vowels: a, e, e,  i ^ o, o, u. I t should be noted that the  v o c a l i c r , as i n v r t , p r t , vrba e t c . , i s a l s o performing f u n c t i o n of a vowel and t h e r e f o r e can be s t r e s s e d .  the  15  The  S l o v e n i a n vowels are regarded  to be long  when s t r e s s e d . When u n s t r e s s e d , or s t r e s s e d with the grave accent, they are s h o r t . In S l o v e n i a n the f o l l o w i n g s t r e s s markers are used: A  7  ..  x  - c i r c u m f l e x . Long, stressed^vowels, e.g. v e s l o , voda, potok, zena. - acute. Long, s t r e s s e d vowels, e.g. mera, m i s l i t i , kralj reka. ' - grave. Short, s t r e s s e d vowels, e.g. morda, zjdVj_, megla, pes• While  the acute and the grave s t r e s s markers can  be p l a c e d over any vowel, the c i r c u m f l e x one may be p l a c e d only over e and o. Short s t r e s s e d vowels occur only i n f i n a l or s i n g l e s y l l a b l e s e.g. seznam, zdaj , whereas we f i n d the long s t r e s s e d vowels at the beginning or i n the middle of a word. As even the f o r t y odd S l o v e n i a n d i a l e c t s  vary  t h e i r s t r e s s e s e.g. motka : matika,  i t i s o f great  importance  that the c o r r e c t s t r e s s i s observed  i n the l i t e r a r y  The  consonants  language.  i n - S l o v e n i a n , as i n Russian, are  subject to r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n and a l l f i n a l are v o i c e l e s s e.g. sneg : snek. Of i n t e r e s t  consonants  i s a l s o the  consonant 1_, which i s pronounced as our E n g l i s h w i n c e r t a i n cases when i t i s found i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n or before consonant;  e.g. sem d a l : sem daw, bolha  another  : bowha. I t should  be noted, however, that" t h i s hard 1_ must not a l t e r the preceding vowel e.g. h o t e l  : hotew, and not be pronounced  as i n some S l o v e n i a n d i a l e c t s u with zero, e.g. h o t e l  : hotu#.  16  S i m i l a r l y , the l a b i o d e n t a l v, when i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n or i n the i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n preceding a consonant, i s pronounced as our E n g l i s h b i l a b i a l w e.g. prav  : praw, v z e t i  : wzeti.  F i n a l l y , i t should be mentioned that the i n f l e c t i o n o f the Slovenian language, u n l i k e Russian and the m a j o r i t y o f other modern languages,  still  makes use of  the grammatical dual e.g.: Nom. Sing.  Pesnik p i s e  Nom. Dual  Pesnika p i s e t a - The two poets  Nom. P l u r .  Pesniki pisejo  The  - The poet  Slovenian l i t e r a r y  - The poets  i s writing are w r i t i n g  are w r i t i n g  language evolved from a  multitude of d i a l e c t s , the core o f which were from the g e o g r a p h i c a l regions known as Dolenjska, Kranjska and S t y r i a . The s i x t e e n t h century o r i g i n a t o r s o f Slovenian l i t e r a t u r e Primoz Trubar, J u r i j Dalmatin wrote i n t h e i r n a t i v e Dolenjsko  and Adam Bohoric  d i a l e c t . A century  later  Sebastian K r e l j i n j e c t e d i n t o h i s w r i t i n g s v e r n a c u l a r p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f the Kranjsko  r e g i o n . At the t u r n of the  e i g h t e e n t h century, however, the w r i t e r s J u r i j J a p e l j , Blaz V  Kumerdej, Anton L i n h a r t , V a l e n t i n Vodnik, Matevz  Ravnikar,  and the famous l i n g u i s t J e r n e j K o p i t a r r e p l a c e d i n the Slovenian l i t e r a r y  language the then s t i l l  prevalent  Dolenjsko word forms e.g. gospud, snej g, mej sto , kej , nejmam e t c . , with Kranjsko word forms e.g. gospod, sneg, mesto, k a j , nimam e t c .  17  The w r i t e r s and poets Miha K a s t e l i c , Janez Urban J a r n i k , France Presern and other authors to  the f i r s t  Slovenian l i t e r a r y  contributing  almanac Kranjska C b e l i c a ,  which i n i t s y e a r l y volumes ( 1830, 1848  Cigler,  1831,  1832,  1834  and  ) p u b l i s h e d n a t i v e prose and p o e t r y , have set the  standards f o r a u n i f i e d l i t e r a r y  language. These standards  c a l l e d f o r p u r e l y n a t i v e forms to govern the  literary  language. By the mid n i n e t e e n t h century, the members of the literary  c i r c l e " Young Slovenians " Luka Svetec, Franc  Cegnar, M a t i j a C i g a l e and Fran L e v s t i k brought  about  the  s u b s t i t u t i o n of the c o n j u n c t i o n da f o r the c o l l o q u i a l r e p l a c e d i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s the l e t t e r then denoted V  dolzen  e f o r i _ , which  the S l o v e n i a n diphthong e.g. pevec  until  : pevic,  v : d o l z i n , and s u b s t i t u t e d the s u p e r l a t i v e naj f o r  nar e.g. n a j l e p s i  : narlepsi.  Although the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e  i s absent i n both  Russian and S l o v e n i a n , the demonstrative a r t i c l e latter  de,  language  sometimes performs  definite article.  In comparison  i n the  the f u n c t i o n of the  with the S l o v e n i a n language,  i n which the c o p u l a t i v e verb " to be " i s a c t i v e l y  used  e.g. on j_e u c i t e l j , the Russian, o m i t t i n g t h i s i n the present tense, w i l l say: OH yMHTEJIb. To conclude, we may that the S l o v e n i a n language sound of the Russian bl.  p o i n t out  does not have the e q u i v a l e n t  18  C H A P T E R  TWO  SLOVENIAN CULTURAL CONTACTS WITH RUSSIA  Whereas i t i s p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e f o r the development o f the mature  literatures  making up the mutual h e r i t a g e o f western c u l t u r e during the Reformation,  the same cannot be s a i d o f Slovenian  literature. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the Slovenian c u l t u r a l n u c l e i w i l l  show that c e r t a i n  Slovenian  humanists and s c h o l a r s o f that p e r i o d d i d take p a r t i n n e a r l y a l l the more important  h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l  developments i n Western and E a s t e r n Europe. To  i l l u s t r a t e t h i s a s s e r t i o n one can name, f o r  example, Georges d ' E s c l a v o n i e , who i n 1403 was to  appointed  the c h a i r o f philosophy at the U n i v e r s i t y o f P a r i s .  At the U n i v e r s i t y o f Vienna h e l d a c h a i r i n 1388 Lenart of K r a n j . Among the l a s t S c h o l a s t i c s during the f i f t e e n t h century i n Vienna were Mihael and Gregor o f Kranj and Andrej  o f L j u b l j a n a . T h e i r S l o v e n i a n a d v e r s a r i e s were the  prominent humanists Matvz Cerdonis, a p r i n t e r i n Padua, the p h i l o s o p h e r M a t i j a Hvale, Pavel O b e r s t e i n e r ,  Brikcij  Preprost and the j u r i s t M a r t i n Pegius, the f i r s t  translator  i n t o German of J u s t i n i a n ' s Corpus i u r i s , The  first  i n Vienna.  Slovene, who i n the s i x t e e n t h century  19  had  contact with Russia and her people, was  Ziga H e r b e r s t e i n of Vipava  ( 1486  - 1566  Sigismund  ). As the court  emissary of the Holy Roman emperor, M a x i m i l i a n I. of A u s t r i a ( 1459 of  - 1519  ), H e r b e r s t e i n made more than f i f t y  journeys  a d i p l o m a t i c nature a l l over the then known world. Following his o f f i c i a l v i s i t s  years 1516  - 1518  and  1526  - 1527,  to Russia i n the  H e r b e r s t e i n , who  was  a  keen observer of the l a n d , the people, t h e i r customs and languages, wrote the f i r s t  geography of E a s t e r n Europe. I t  contained a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of Moscow and the between S i b e r i a , the A r c t i c and the Black His book Rerum Moscoviticarum p u b l i s h e d i n 1549  Sea.  commentarii  1557.  was  i n Vienna.1 H e r b e r s t e i n t r a n s l a t e d h i s  L a t i n v e r s i o n s h o r t l y afterwards, and under the Moscovia,  territory  h i s book was  title  p u b l i s h e d i n the German language i n  Since then, t h i s book has been r e p r i n t e d i n Germany  alone on e i g h t o c c a s i o n s , three r e p r i n t s appeared t r a n s l a t i o n and s e v e r a l i n the I t a l i a n  in.Czech  language.  Acknowledging H e r b e r s t e i n ' s v a l u a b l e work which acquainted Western Europe with the l a n d , the people and  the  c u l t u r e of R u s s i a , some two hundred years l a t e r t h i s book was  r e p r i n t e d i n i t s o r i g i n a l L a t i n form by order of Empress  Catherine the  Great.  1 J . Cankar et a l . , S l o v e n s k i b i j o g r a f s k i l e k s i k o n , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1926 ), v o l . I., p. 314.  20  It  i s r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g to note that H e r b e r s t e i n  h i m s e l f t r a n s l a t e d h i s book i n t o German during a time when the L a t i n language s t i l l e s p e c i a l l y , i f we  p r e v a i l e d i n German l i t e r a t u r e ; and  c o n s i d e r that the German language came  i n t o general use i n the school system some hundred  years  a f t e r h i s death. The f i r s t  Slovenian t r a n s l a t i o n of Rerum Moscovi=  ticarum commentarii was p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e z a p i s k i i n 1951.2  Moskovski  I t appeared i n p r i n t as an a n n i v e r s a r y  e d i t i o n commemorating the l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y o f H e r b e r s t e i n and that of h i s contemporary  Primoz Trubar ( 1505  whose Abecedarium was p u b l i s h e d i n 1550 Slovenian  ) ,  first  reader. It  can be s t a t e d that H e r b e r s t e i n " s  o r i e n t a t i o n was cultural  as the  - 1586  Slavic  based not only on h i s h i s t o r i c a l  and s o c i o -  i n t e r e s t s , but r a t h e r on h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the  l i n g u i s t i c and e t h n i c i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of the S l a v s . That H e r b e r s t e i n was  proud of h i s S l o v e n i a n o r i g i n and o f h i s  mother tongue, which no doubt served him w e l l i n communicating with the Eastern Slavs whom he encountered on h i s journeys, his  own  comments give testimony:  "Da zw Wippach hab i c h Teutsch wnd Windisch, b a i d Sprachen g e l e r n n e t . Die Windisch hat mir v i l l muee i n meiner Jugendt gemacht. V i l l zuenamen muessen hoeren: S c l a f K h a d r o t z wnd d e r g l e i c h e n . Dennoch hat mich niembt von der Sprach a b t r e i b e n mugen, des mir hernach i n v i l l Sachen genutzt h a t . " 3 1  1 1  1  See footnotes on page 21  21  Russia was  not again d e a l t  i n Slovenian l i t e r a t u r e u n t i l  with or mentioned  the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h  when the l i n g u i s t Blaz Kumerdej ( 1738  - 1805  century,  ) wrote i n  German the t r e a t i s e Uber d i e Sprachkunde der Slaven Russen, which he i n 1781 of Sciences  und  d e l i v e r e d to the Russian Academy  i n St. Petersburg.^  V a l e n t i n Vodnik ( 1758  - 1819  ) , who  in his  day h e l d the p o s i t i o n of the most favored Slovenian  own  poet,  wrote i n the newspaper L j u b l j a n s k e novice of May  29,  an a r t i c l e g l o r i f y i n g the a r r i v a l of the Russian  army i n  L j u b l j a n a . The  article  was  scene f o r Vodnik's e m o t i o n - f i l l e d  s e t , when under the comand of General  Kashin and  1799  the  p r i n c e s Mavorov and V o l k o n s k i , i n p u r s u i t of the army of Napoleon, f o r the f i r s t  time  i n h i s t o r y Russian  soldiers  set f o o t on the t e r r i t o r y of S l o v e n i a . By quoting an  excerpt from h i s a r t i c l e one  can  show that the importance of h i s w r i t i n g l i e s not i n h i s account  of events, but r a t h e r i n Vodnik's attempt to  arouse  i n the n a t i v e s the s p i r i t of n a t i o n a l i s m and p r i d e i n t h e i r  r  2 B. K r e f t , "Fragmenti o s l o v e n s k o - r u s k i h s t i k i h " , S l a v i s t i c n a r e v i j a, XI. L e t n i k , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1958 ), p. 3  Cankar, ep_. c i t . , p.  314.  4  Cankar, op_. c i t . , p.  584.  90.  22  S l a v i c o r i g i n . The impact o f Vodnik's p a t r i o t i s m i s f e l t in  these  lines:  "Ena nova perkazen j e za nas Krajnce, de so n a s i s t a r i b r a t j e p e r s l i nas ne l i o b i s k a t i , temuc t u d i pred sovraznikam b r a n i t . Pred p o l d r u g i tavzent l e t m i so p e r v i S l o v e n c i v te nase k r a j e p e r s l i , o n i so b i l i od Rusov i n u drugih Slovencov roda; od t i g a p r i d e r a z l o c i k , zakaj mi lahko zastopimo r u s o v s k i j e z i k ; oni so namrec S l o v e n c i , i n u k o r e n i n a , od k a t i r e so n a s i o c a k i r o j e n i . ... Zdaj vidimo z ocmi, kakisne mogocne i n u v e l i k e b r a t e mi po s v e t i imamo, k a t e r i so nas S l o v e n s k i j e z i k v s e l e j c i s t o h r a n i l i . P r o t i l e t i m se imamo b l i = z a t i , k a d e r k o l i cemo j e z i k c i s t i t i . Pa se t u d i od n j i h u c i t i , kader j e t r e b a dezelo pred sovraznikam branit..." 5 In in  f a c t , Vodnik here i n s t i l l e d  ideas which  later,  the n i n e t e e n t h century, were embodied i n the S l o v e n i a n  Russophile and S l a v o p h i l e movements. Since the l e s s o n i n n a t i o n a l i s m l a s t e d as long as the Slovenians showed i n t e r e s t , the aforementioned  event  was again reviewed i n the mid-nineteenth century, when the Slovenes were once again p r o f e s s i n g great f r i e n d s h i p f o r " Mother Russia " i n a f r e n z y o f r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the a b s o l u t i s t i c r u l e o f Bach.  5  K r e f t , op. c i t . , p. 92.  In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n the above quoted excerpt reads: "A new v i s i o n i s f o r us C a r n i o l i a n s , that our o l d b r o t h e r s came not only to v i s i t us, but a l s o to defend us from enemies. F i f t e e n c e n t u r i e s ago the f i r s t Slovenes came to these regions of ours. They were o f Russian and other S l a v i c o r i g i n s . T h i s i s the reason why we can e a s i l y understand the Russian language. For they are Slovenes and the roots from which our f o r e f a t h e r s were born« We can now see how powerful and great b r o t h e r s we have i n the world, who kept our S l a v i c language pure. We should t u r n to them whenever we wish to p u r i f y our language, and l e a r n from them how to defent our land from the enemy."  23  In the book Celska k r o n i k a , p u b l i s h e d i n the S l o v e n i a n p r i e s t and w r i t e r of h i s t o r i c a l I g n a c i j Orozen ( 1819  - 1900  novels  ) gave a d e t a i l e d review  the Russian m i l i t a r y campaign of 1799  I of Russia  ( 1777  - 1825  the  attended  visit  ) when,  together with Emperor of A u s t r i a F r a n c i s I ( 1768 he i n 1821  of  in Slovenia.  A f u r t h e r worthy of mention event was of Tsar Aleksand-r  1854,  - 1835  ),  the Congress of the Holy A l l i a n c e i n  L j u b l j a n a . As the a l l i e d powers met  i n conference  to decide  the permanent form of the European Holy A l l i a n c e , formed nominally to support C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s of government, r e a l l y to suppress  popular movements, t h i s event  i n general  and the crowned p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , obtained a s e n s a t i o n a l coverage i n the S l o v e n i a n press of the Furthermore, t h i s event 1923 was  day.  served the w r i t e f l v a n Tavcar  ( 1851  ) as a theme f o r h i s novel " Izza kongresa ", which p u b l i s h e d i n f e u i l l e t o n form i n the b e l l e t r i s t i c j o u r n a l  L j u b l j a n s k i zvon  from 1905  Although  - 1908.  the famous l i n g u i s t  K a r a d z i c , J e r n e j K o p i t a r ( 1780 1  6  - 1844  and mentor of  Vuk  ) , d i s c a r d e d the  S l a v o p h i l e o r i e n t a t i o n , then p r e v a l e n t among the young Slovenian i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , as f a l s e and  instead  propagated  h i s i d e a of A u s t r o - S l a v i s m , he n e v e r t h e l e s s under the  6 L. L e g i s a ( ed.), Zgodovina slovenskega s l o v s t v a , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1963 ), v o l . IV., pp. 222 - 223.  -  24  i n f l u e n c e o f Dobrovsky showed a p a s s i o n a t e i n t e r e s t f o r the Russian language  and l i t e r a t u r e .  Very p r o d u c t i v e i n the f i e l d  of l i n g u i s t i c s ,  K o p i t a r , who s i n c e 1823 occupied the o f f i c e o f the censor of  Slavic literatures  of  S l a v i c languages  i n A u s t r i a , was promoting  the study  and pressed f o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f a German  U k r a i n i a n d i c t i o n a r y . He p r e v a i l e d upon Bishop Snigursky to  e s t a b l i s h i n G a l i c i a a S l a v i c p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g  centre as w e l l as to open at the T h e o l o g i c a l Academy o f Przemysl a department f o r the study of the U k r a i n i a n and Church  S l a v o n i c languages. In  of  1811 K o p i t a r met i n Vienna with the members  the Russian Academy o f Sciences N i k o l a i N. N o v o s i l c o v  ( 1761 - 1836 ) and Peter I . Koppen ( 1793 - 1864 ) . The l a t t e r , f o l l o w i n g h i s second v i s i t with K o p i t a r i n 1836, acquainted h i s f e l l o w academicians  i n S t . Petersburg with  K o p i t a r ' s book G l a g o l i t a C l o z i a n u s , which was p u b l i s h e d that same year i n Vienna. W r i t t e n i n Latin, t h i s book r e p r e s e n t s one o f K o p i t a r ' s more important c o n t r i b u t i o n s to s t u d i e s i n the field  of S l a v i c l i n g u i s t i c s .  In i t he researches the Old -  S l o v e n i a n manuscript known as the F r e i s i n g Leaves, w r i t t e n i n L a t i n c h a r a c t e r s and c o n t a i n i n g p r a y e r s , c o n f e s s i o n s and h o m i l i e s , b e l i e v e d to date from approximately 980 A.D. It  i s known that K o p i t a r r e g u l a r l y communicated with such  25  outstanding i n d i v i d u a l s as Hanka, Palacky, S a f a r i k , K o l l a r , Linde, Humboldt, F r . S c h l e g e l , J . Grimm, M i c k i e w i c z , Adelung, Pogodin and the l i n g u i s t Aleksander  Vostokov, who,  s e v e r a l years before K o p i t a r ' s G l a g o l i t a Clozianus^ pub° l i s h e d h i s own t r e a t i s e concerning  the F r e i s i n g  manuscripts.  K o p i t a r ' s contemporary M a t i j a Cop ( 1800 - 1849 ) , a speaker  o f n i n e t e e n languages,  knew w e l l that the key to  the type o f s o c i e t y which e x i s t s i n any  foreign-dominated  country i s the extent and the system o f i t s e d u c a t i o n . In h i s boundless  p a t r i o t i s m , t h e r e f o r e , he as a teacher aimed  at i n j e c t i n g  i n t o the l e t h a r g i c Slovenian masses the s p i r i t  of the language and the l i t e r a t u r e which the other  Slavic  n a t i o n s had to o f f e r . While i n s t r u c t i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y of Lvov from 1822  - 1827 Cop c o l l e c t e d an e x t e n s i v e l i b r a r y of P o l i s h ,  Czech, Slovak, U k r a i n i a n and Russian books. These he brought to L j u b l j a n a where he worked as a l i b r a r i a n u n t i l h i s un= t i m e l y death by drowning. I t should be mentioned here that i n Cop's c o l l e c t i o n s s e v e r a l o f Pushkin's  works i n verse  and prose were found, and that the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether his, c l o s e s t f r i e n d France foremost  Presern  ( 1800 - 1849 ) , the  S l o v e n i a n poet, had the o p p o r t u n i t y to study h i s  great Russian contemporary  Pushkin.  In the year 1841 the famed Russian p h i l o l o g i s t I. Sreznevski  ( 1812 - 1880 ) v i s i t e d S l o v e n i a . He met i n  26  Vienna w i t h J e r n e j K o p i t a r and with the poet and from Russian Stanko Vraz  ( 1810  - 1851  translator  ) . In L j u b l j a n a  Sreznevski met  with France Presern and the l i n g u i s t  Metelko  - 1860  ( 1789  ). While  Franc  t r a v e l l i n g through S l o v e n i a  he met with the poet Urban J a r n i k  ( 1784  - 1844  ) , the  S l a v o p h i l e Jakob Zupan and the l i n g u i s t M a t i j a Majar Ziljski of  ( 1809  - 1892  ) , who  l a t e r , d u r i n g the  the Russophile i d e a , p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t  mar  f o r the use of the  expansion  Russian gram=  Slovenes.  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of Sreznevski's v i s i t a t t e n t i o n of S l o v e n i a n l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s was  the  henceforth  o r i e n t e d towards R u s s i a . It was  i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century that Wes=  t e r n Europe became more c l o s e l y acquainted with Russian l i t e r a t u r e . The  s p i r i t of Russia was  first  i n t r o d u c e d to  England by John Bowring's Russian Anthology, of which the first  volume was His  in  1820  p u b l i s h e d i n 1821  1828  in  1823.  contemporary, K a r l F r i e d r i c h Borg, p u b l i s h e d  his f i r s t ,  and i n 1823,  poetry under the t i t l e In  and the second  h i s second volume of Russian  P o e t i s c h e Erzeugnisse der Russen.  Otto Goetz f o l l o w e d with h i s Stimmen des r u s s i s c h e n  Volkes. I r r e s p e c t i v e of the b i t i n g c r i t i c i s m , by the Russian poet and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c 1837  ) i n the sentence:  summarized  A. Bestuzev  ( 1797  ... "PycCKHE U B E T b l n O T E P f l J I H TAM  HE  -  27  TOJlbKO 3AnAX, HO  RAKE M CAMblfl UBET CBOtf!" Emil Dupre 7  Saint-Maur's Anthologie be  m e n t i o n e d h e r e as The  russe,  de  l a M e l t i e r e , E.  F.  B o d e n s t e d t , A.  by  a score  de  o f t r a n s l a t o r s from  Rolstone,  Loulay,  V i e d e r t , A.  H.  Russian,  L. V i a r d o t ,  D e l a v e a u , F.  B o l t z , G.  L.  the  Ch.  Moreau  Lebenstein,  P a t u c c i , B.  Linde  others. By  analogy the  Slavic nation  W e s t e r n E u r o p e , namely t h e to  of c u l t u r a l  non-Slavic  i d e n t i t y , have a l s o  achievements  i n the  to  to r e t a i n kept  S l a v i c as w e l l  as  countries. They i n e v i t a b l y came t o t h e  relatively  young n a t i v e  without w e l l literature.  translators  conclusion  could and  century  had  an  § <J>E,aOPOB, op.  the  even g r e a t e r  than f o r mediocre authors, still  not  147.  their  a f f o r d to  do  foreign  Slovenes  in  the  need f o r good  e s p e c i a l l y since  in i t s infancy.  c i t . , p.  that  contemporary  C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t seems t h a t  l a n g u a g e was  J1EBMH  literature  translated classical  early nineteenth  literary  located nearest  Slovenes, attempting  foster their national  abreast  7  should  well.  f o r example E. Mengden, Wm.  and  i n 1823,  a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d c u r t a i n - r a i s e r s were i n  West s o o n f o l l o w e d  and  published  de  their  28  THE  SOC10-CULTURAL LIFE IN SLOVENIA  DURING THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY  The p o l i t i c a l ,  s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l development  of the Slovenian n a t i o n s t a r t e d with the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r n a t i v e language during the p e r i o d o f enlightenment i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century and romanticism nineteenth  i n the e a r l y  century. The most w e s t e r l y group o f the South S l a v i c  peoples, the Slovenes, who during the middle their p o l i t i c a l  ages had l o s t  and economic independence to the neigh=  bouring A u s t r i a n s , were f o r c e n t u r i e s kept  isolated  from  the other S l a v i c n a t i o n s , a f a c t which n o t i c e a b l y delayed t h e i r c u l t u r a l growth. Suddenly, owing to the c o l l a p s e of the f e u d a l system, and d e s p i t e the lack of a n a t i v e h e r i t a g e , S l o v e n i a experienced  literary  the b i r t h of n a t i o n a l i s m .  Lacking c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s , S l o v e n i a remained during the n i n e t e e n t h century l a r g e l y a p r i m i t i v e , noni n d u s t r i a l country. The economy, based p r i m a r i l y on a g r i c u l ture and on a r t i s a n type of i n d u s t r y , c o u l d h a r d l y compete with the other more e n t e r p r i s i n g domains of the Habsburg monarchy. S l o v e n i a remaining  subjected to the Habsburg r u l e  w e l l i n t o the twentieth century, and having maintained  only  s p o r a d i c contacts with the s t r o n g e r S l a v i c nations such as  29  the C r o a t s , the Serbs, the Czechs,  the Poles  and the  Russians, was a prime t a r g e t o f the germanizing  attempts  of the Habsburg monarchy. In the process o f a s s i m i l a t i n g the e t h n i c fragments,  by s e p a r a t i n g them, A u s t r i a  divided  S l o v e n i a i n t o s i x a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s , each with i t s separate D i e t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the Slovenes, i n a l l the D i e t s the German element commanded  a m a j o r i t y . The l o c a l  a u t h o r i t y , on the other hand, was l e f t with the S l o v e n i a n Germanophiles. The p o p u l a t i o n o f n i n e t e e n t h century S l o v e n i a was not very homogenous. Although  the u r b a n i z a t i o n o f the  country was g r a d u a l l y p r o g r e s s i n g , the Slovenes a predominantly  r u r a l people  remained  and t h e i r s e c u l a r i z a t i o n  gained  ground only s l o w l y . The i r o n r u l e , imposed on S l o v e n i a f o l l o w i n g the r e v o l u t i o n i n 1848, assured German c o n t r o l over the school system. Yet the people, whose South S l a v i c n a t i o n a l i s m was aroused during the French r e v o l u t i o n and the Napoleonic germanization  conquest  i n the Balkans, continued to r e s i s t  and, by e m p h a t i c a l l y r e t a i n i n g t h e i r n a t i v e  language and c u l t u r e , remained The  Slovenes.  Slovenes, l a c k i n g a n a t i v e a r i s t o c r a c y and  b o u r g e o i s i e , responded  f a v o r a b l y to the l e a d e r s h i p o f a  s m a l l , l a r g e l y V i e n n a - t r a i n e d group of i n t e l l e c t u a l s , which f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes romanticism  c o n s t i t u t e d during the p e r i o d o f  i n the t h i r t i e s , and the p e r i o d of romantic-  30  r e a l i s m i n the s i x t i e s , the n a t i o n a l i s t i c  socio-political  e l i t e of S l o v e n i a . Thus i t t r a n s p i r e d that the S l o v e n i a n n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement came to r e s t with the r u r a l whose sons and daughters  formed the n i n e t e e n t h century  " Young S l o v e n i a n " i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , and who the great i n f l u e n c e of a p a t r i o t i c lower Perhaps one  people,  l i v e d under  clergy.  can b e t t e r understand  the phenomenally  n a t i o n a l i s t i c standpoint taken by the S l o v e n i a n p o p u l a t i o n , i f one  c o n s i d e r s that t h e i r p a t r i o t i c c l e r g y , according to  Dr. J . Rogac, were guided by the f o l l o w i n g thought: "Mati me je r o d i l a Slovenca, drzava s p r e j e l a A v s t r i j c a , cerkev k r s t i l a k a t o l i c a n a , p o s v e t i l a t u d i duhovnika; Nemca v s e b i - njega se ne zavedam ne pred Bogom, ne pred l j u d m i . " 8 The political  a s p i r a t i o n s of the Slovenes  freedom i n the mid-nineteenth  to a t t a i n  their  century, however,  were impeded by the formation of two p o l i t i c a l l y opposed camps of l e a d e r s . On the one hand, the c o n s e r v a t i v e elements i d e n t i f i e d with movement of the " S t a r i S l o v e n c i "; on the other hand, the l i b e r a l i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , who the core of the  11  Mladi S l o v e n c i ", brought  formed  the S l o v e n i a n  p o l i t i c a l program i n t o c o n f u s i o n . Whereas the c o n s e r v a t i v e s  8 1860  J . Rogac, Narodnost i n s l o v e n s t v o , ( L j u b l j a n a , ) , p. 55.  In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n the above quoted excerpt reads: Mother bore me as a Slovene, the s t a t e accepted me as an A u s t r i a n , the church b a p t i z e d me as a C a t h o l i c , ordained me a l s o as a p r i e s t ; As a German I do not p e r c e i v e myself before God or before people.  31  moved c a u t i o u s l y and, by employing appeasement  techniques,  t r i e d to come to a s t a t u s quo arrangement with the Dual Monarchy,  and f u r t h e r , were q u i t e content  to accept an  e q u a l i t y s t a t u s of a l l e t h n i c groups w i t h i n the monarchy, the l i b e r a l s demanded nothing l e s s than the p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic independence f o r S l o v e n i a . While the former adopted Palacky's  idea of a S l a v i c f e d e r a t i o n  w i t h i n the Habsburg monarchy, the l a t t e r supported idea of a u n i v e r s a l S l a v i c s t a t e , which was  Kollar's  to be l e d by  R u s s i a , or e l s e , advocated the formation of a South S l a v i c s t a t e , i n which S l o v e n i a would f i n d i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e . In other words, the camp of the Young-Slovenes was  charac=  t e r i z e d as a n a t i o n a l l i b e r a l movement to emancipate  Slavdom.  The Young-Slovenes became the heralds of a new p e r i o d of S l o v e n i a n l i t e r a t u r e known as r o m a n t i c - r e a l i s m , which before the t u r n of the n i n e t e e n t h century became the c a t a l y s t f o r the emergence  of the very p r o d u c t i v e  literary  movement, the " Slovenian modern *'. A number of Young-Slovenes, who were very i n the f i e l d o f j o u r n a l i s m , launched r e s s i v e newspapers Slovenec Narod  ( 1865  such p o l i t i c a l l y  as: Naprej ( 1863 ), T r i g l a v  ) , S l o v e n s k i Gospodar  active  ( 1867  prog=  ( 1865 ),  ), S l o v e n s k i  ( 1868 ) and the h u m o r i s t i c j o u r n a l P a v l i h a ( 1870 ).  In these p u b l i c a t i o n s the l i b e r a l s m e r c i l e s s l y attacked the c o n s e r v a t i v e s f o r t h e i r p a s s i v i t y and the Slovenian Germanophiles f o r t h e i r b l i n d s e r v i t u d e .  32  THE RUSSOPHILE ORIENTATION OF THE SLOVENIAN LITERATI  The epoch of a c t i v i t y of the " Young Slovenes l i k e w i s e marked the beginning i n g e n e r a l , and a Russophile  of a P a n - S l a v i c o r i e n t a t i o n tendency i n p a r t i c u l a r , among  a s i g n i f i c a n t number of p a t r i o t i c writer, literary c r i t i c  "  Slovenes.  and founder  Such were the  of the " Young Slovenes  "  Fran L e v s t i k ( 1831 - 1887 ) , the w r i t e r s J o s i p J u r c i c ( 1844  - 1881 ) , J o s i p S t r i t a r  Zarnik  ( 1837  Trstenjak liberal  ( 1836  - 1923 ) and V a l e n t i n  - 1888 ), the p a t r i o t i c p r i e s t  ( 1817  Davorin  - 1890 ), the leader of the Slovenian  camp J o s i p Vosnjak ( 1834  - 1911 ) , and along  many o t h e r s , Anton Tomsic, the e d i t o r of the f i r s t p o l i t i c a l newspaper  with  Slovenian  S l o v e n s k i Narod.^  Perhaps the f o l l o w i n g excerpt  from an a r t i c l e ,  whose w r i t e r remains unknown, and which was p u b l i s h e d i n the S l o v e n s k i Narod, could help to i l l u s t r a t e the Russophile leanings p r e v a i l i n g among the young Slovenian  nationalists:  "Za b a r b a r s t v o se ne morem n a v d u s i t i ! n i p e l Gothe, marvec Lermontov. Ce smo t o r e j navduseni za napre= dek R u s i j e , nismo tega napredka v e s e l i , k e r ^ b i mor= da p r i n a s a l moc n j e n i d i n a s t i j i , temuc: 'boze cara h r a n i ' se p r i nas i n o s t r a n i h S l o v a n i h g l a s i : 'boze daj bratovskemu nam narodu ruskemu s r e c o , boze ohra= n i najkrepkejega s i n a Slave'. Kakor nemska, temna  9 P u b l i s h e d three times weekly. The f i r s t number of the S l o v e n s k i Narod was p u b l i s h e d on A p r i l 2nd. 1868 i n Maribor.  33  j e t u d i nasa s l o v a n s k a p r i h o d n o s t i n n i h c e j e ne more ze zdaj v i d e t i . Ko b i pa n e s r e c a p r i s l a A v s t r i j i od ravno t i s t e g a naroda k t e r e g a j e do zdaj i m e l a za prvega l j u b l j e n c a , t a c a s bode pac vsak Slovenec p r e j r a j e p o s t a l Rus nego P r u s s . K a j t i S l o v a n i smo i n hocemo o s t a t i . ... In ker se lahko kot S l o v a n i opiramo na vse s l o v a n s t v o , zato nocemo narodne s m r t i u m r e t i . To j e nasa p o l i t i k a . Ko b i t e ne i m e l i , b i p o s t a l i gnoj G e r m a n i j i i n I t a l i j i . T o r e j z i v e l a dusevna i n p o l i t i c n a vzajamnost s l o v a n s k a ! " 10 v  v  To c o u n t e r a c t such s e n t i m e n t a l t h i n k i n g o f the non-Russian S l a v o p h i l e s , the R u s s i a n j o u r n a l fOJIOC pub = l i s h e d i n 1869  an a r t i c l e , i n which i t was  s t a t e d t h a t the  power o f R u s s i a would not c o l l a p s e i n the event t h a t the West and the South S l a v s became germanized. The  article  10 I . P r i j a t e l j , S l o v e n s k a k u l t u r n o - p o l i t i c n a i n sTovstvena zgodovina 1848 - 1896, ( L j u b l j a n a , 1958 ) , v o l . ~ T l I , p. 173. In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n the quoted e x c e r p t reads: 'I do not f e e l i n s p i r e d by b a r b a r i s m ! ' commented not Gothe, but Ler= montov. I f , t h e r e f o r e , we are enthused by the p r o g r e s s of R u s s i a , we do not r e j o i c e at the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t such prog= r e s s would s t r e n g t h e n her d y n a s t y , but i n s t e a d : 'God save the t s a r ' we, the a l i e n S l a v s , r e a d : 'God g i v e our b r o t h e r l y R u s s i a n n a t i o n good f o r t u n e , God save the most v i g o r o u s son o f G l o r y ! ' ... As dark as the f u t u r e o f the Germans, i s a l s o the f u t u r e of the S l a v s , and p r e s e n t l y no one can f o r e s e e i t . Should m i s f o r t u n e b e f a l l A u s t r i a from the v e r y same n a t i o n which she up to now regarded as her f a v o u r i t e , t h e n , i n d e e d , every Slovene would become r a t h e r a R u s s i a n than a P r u s s i a n . For S l a v s we a r e , and such we remain. S i n c e we as S l a v s can r e l y on Slavdom, we do not w i s h to d i e a n a t i o n ' s death. Such i s our p o l i t i c a l program. For i f we d i d not have the same, Germany and I t a l y would c o n s i d e r us a heap o f dung. T h e r e f o r e , l o n g l i v e the s p i r i t u a l and the p o l i t i c a l s o l i d a r i t y o f the S l a v s !  34  f u r t h e r o f f e r e d a l i e n S l a v o p h i l e s the advice to f o r g e t  their  v a i n dreams about a u n i v e r s a l S l a v i c s t a t e , f o r Russia would never expand her borders beyond the r i v e r s Pruth and Danube. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, many of the e a r l y South  and  West S l a v i c S l a v o p h i l e s were imbued with a s t r o n g love f o r Russia and f a i t h i n her great d e s t i n y . In such a frame of mind they propounded the idea of Russian  superiority.  Thus, c o n s i d e r i n g the i n f l u e n c e which romantic sentimentalism had on the m a j o r i t y of the mid-nineteenth century R u s s o p h i l e s , Hans Kohn wrote: "Though the few c r i t i c a l minds among the e a r l y S l a v o p h i l e s were p a i n f u l l y aware how f a r from p e r f e c t Russia a c t u a l l y was, they were ready to take the undisputed 'fundamental' p e r f e c t i o n of Russia f o r an a c t u a l i t y . " 12 The Russophile thought  gained momentum w i t h i n  the c i r c l e of the " Young Slovenes " a f t e r the year i n which the Moscow S l a v o p h i l e s founded  1858,  t h e i r S l a v i c Bene=  v o i e n t Committee. I t reached i t s c u l m i n a t i o n between the years 1861  and 1875, while the foundation was  noted h i s t o r i a n M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h Pogodin whose H i s t o r y , p u b l i s h e d i n 1838,  11 12 p.  P r i j a t e l j , op_. c i t . , p.  headed by the  ( 1800  - 1875  contains the f o l l o w i n g  172.  H. Kohn, The Twentieth Century, 101.  ( New  York, 1949  ),  13 M.B. P e t r o v i c h , The Emergence of Russian Panslavism 1856 - 1870, ( New York~7 1956 ) , p.TT23^  ),  1 3  35  rather arbitrary  statement:  "The time of European n a t i o n s i s p a s t , t h e i r s t r e n g t h runs out. ... Now the f u t u r e belongs to the Slavs who w i l l serve mankind." 14 Whereas the S l o v e n i a n Russophiles were and  influenced particularly  Slavic  Benevolent  supported  by the Kiev and the Moscow  Committees, the Serbian Russophiles  found  t h e i r mentor i n the St. Petersburg f o u n d a t i o n . The e x p l i c i t purpose of these foundations was e x t e n s i o n of moral and f i n a n c i a l support to v a r i o u s institutions  of the Balkan Slavs as w e l l as the  of s c h o l a r s h i p s to South S l a v i c  the  cultural  distribution  students g a i n i n g t h e i r edu=  c a t i o n i n R u s s i a . I t i s w e l l known t h a t , with the help of these f o u n d a t i o n s , a s i g n i f i c a n t number of Slovenes  had  the  o p p o r t u n i t y to study i n R u s s i a . One ( 1809  - 1892  of them was ), who  the l i n g u i s t M a t i j a Majar  Ziljski  upon h i s r e t u r n became an ardent  ad=  vocate of the much contested and u l t i m a t e l y defeated " Illyrian literary  " p r i n c i p l e , which suggested  language should develop  i t s own  that the Slovenian w r i t t e n forms  based  on the v e r n a c u l a r and the vocabulary  used  and e q u a l l y understood  by the Slovenes  universally as w e l l as  the C r o a t s . In h i s Russophile z e a l , Majar wrote i n the Cyrillic  s c r i p t the book Zbornik narodnih pesmi, zagadok i ^  poslovic ilirsko-slovenskih  14  Kohn, op. c i t . , p.  103.  i n e k o l i k o h r v a t s k i h , which he  36  in  1869  submitted to the Imperial S o c i e t y of N a t u r a l Sciences  i n Moscow.15 In  the year 1867  Majar, while a t t e n d i n g the  ethnographic e x h i b i t i o n i n Moscow, donated d i s p l a y a complete  f o r a permanent  set of C a r i n t h i a n n a t i o n a l costumes.  For the Slovenes 1867  Slavic  l e a r n i n g Russian Majar wrote i n  a Russian grammar. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t s opening  chapter  contained a d e t a i l e d t r e a t i s e on such t o p i c s as Russian c u l t u r e , l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r y and economics. The with enthusiasm  about  by a b o l i s h i n g serfdom t u r a l and economic The to  the s i z e and the might of Russia which, i n 1861,  entered a new  - 1895  epoch of cul=  progress.16 S l o v e n i a n s c h o l a r to t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n  the a c t i v i t y of the Russian l i t e r a t i was  ( 1845 and  first  author w r i t e s  ) . A prominent  Dr. Fran C e l e s t i n  prose w r i t e r and l i t e r a r y  critic,  i n c i d e n t a l l y one of the o u t s t a n d i n g S l o v e n i a n R u s s o p h i l e s ,  C e l e s t i n s t u d i e d c l a s s i c a l p h i l o l o g y at the U n i v e r s i t y of Vienna. Upon graduating he obtained a s c h o l a r s h i p from of  the S l a v i c Benevolent  Committees and i n 1869  s t u d i e s i n R u s s i a . From 1870  to 1872  i n V l a d i m i r and Kharkov. From 1876  15  K r e f t , op_. c i t . , p.  96.  16  K r e f t , op_. c i t . , p.  97.  resumed h i s  C e l e s t i n was  teaching  u n t i l he d i e d i n  B e l e s t i n taught Russian l i t e r a t u r e and language  one  1895  i n Zagreb.  37  In 1875  C e l e s t i n wrote i n German the book Russland  s e i t Aufhebung der L e i b e i g e n s c h a f t . A number of C e l e s t i n ' s essays, i n which he p o r t r a y e d i n d i v i d u a l Russian w r i t e r s and p o e t s , were p u b l i s h e d as f o l l o w s : " L e t t e r s from Russia " ( 1870  ), " The R a d i c a l Currents i n Russia  " Gogol " ( 1884 ( 1885  ), " Pushkin  ), " B e l i n s k y " ( 1866  " Katkov " ( 1887  " ( 1884  11  ( 1887  ) , " Lermontov "  ), " Aksakov " ( 1866  ) and " Dostoevsky  11  ),  ( 1883  ),  ).  In c l o s i n g i t should be mentioned that true to h i s Russophile z e a l C e l e s t i n went on r e c o r d as one of the ear= liest into  t r a n s l a t o r s of numerous S l o v e n i a n and Croat poems Russian. Davorin Hostnik, who  Krutorogov,  wrote under the pseudonym  s t u d i e d Romance languages  i n Russia i n 1880  i n Vienna. He  arrived  where he s e t t l e d permanently. While  t e a c h i n g i n B o r i s o g l e b s k , and  l a t e r i n Rylsk, Hostnik  kept  f o r a number of years i n c l o s e contact with h i s n a t i v e S l o v e n i a and remained a most a c t i v e R u s s o p h i l e - o r i e n t e d w r i t e r . From Russia Hostnik c o l l a b o r a t e d with Franc Pod= gornik's j o u r n a l S l o v e n s k i s v e t , and from a l l h i s w r i t i n g s and t r a n s l a t i o n s r a d i a t e d an i n t e n s e love f o r h i s S l o v e n i a n homeland. Hostnik, the R u s s o p h i l e , however, was s i d e d , because h i s t a l e n t was p i l e d and,  i n 1897  not one-  spontaneous. Thus, he com=  p u b l i s h e d , a Russian-Slovenian  dictionary  38  to  w h i c h was  years  later,  appended a s h o r t R u s s i a n  grammar. O n l y  i n 1900,  published Hostnik's  i n S l o v e n i a was  Slovenian-Russian dictionary grammar o f t h e  Slovenian  Previous under the  title,  Fifty  Languages  ".18  of  the  classical  " Pushkin  the  translated  Finally,  of  t h e most p r o l i f i c ,  and  life  into  and  the  Russian  although  prose  17 F. S i m o n i c , S l o v e n s k a 1903/05 ) , v o l . I , pp. 154  and  the  Hostnik least  poetry  in  into  b i b l i o g r a f i j a, - 155.  land  Fran author  i n Vienna, A u s t r i a ' s  the p o l i t i c a l  D a v o r i n M.  an  published i n Russian  Imperial Court  Slovenes  his people.  of Pushkin's  reads:  n o v e l M a r t i n Krpan, i n which the  of  lators  he  depicting  and  denounces t h e  towards the  translated  Furthermore,  numerous a r t i c l e s  satirically policy  language.1?  which  Slovenian people  Levstik's  appended a s h o r t  to t h a t , Davorin M a r t i n Hostnik wrote  essay  journals  t o w h i c h he  three  backwardness  emerged as  competent,  one  trans=  Slovenian.  ( Ljubljana,  PyMHOPi PyCCKO-CJIOBHHCKHfl CJTOBAPb. COCTABM.fl M . M . Natisnola "Goriska Tiskarna" A. G a b r s c e k , m.8. X + 378 s t r . + s l o v n i c a (s p o s e b n i m naslovom): Kratka s l o v n i c a ruskega j e z i k a . S e s t a v i l M . M . H o s t n i k . 85 + ( I I ) s t r .  XOCTHMK. r O P H U A , 1897.  Slovensko-ruski s l q v a r . S e s t a v i l M.M. Hostnik. Izdalo Petr. Slav, dobrodelno drustvo. G o r i c a . N a t i s n i l a "Goriska T i s k a r n a " A . G a b r s c e k , 1901, m.8. XIV + ( I I ) + 388 ( I I I ) + grammatika (s p o s e b n i m n a s l o v o m ) : fPAMMATHKA c n O B H H C K A f O A3WKA. COCTABMJ1 M . M . XOCTHHK, nPEnOflABATEJIb THMHA3HH. 1900. 279 + (8) C T P . 18 M. H o s t n i k , " P u s k i n v p e t d e s e t e r i h j e z i k i h " L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 19/1899, 5, pp. 327 - 328.  39  In keeping with the theme, which i l l u s t r a t e s the Russophile o r i e n t a t i o n of some o f the " Young S l o v e n i a n " camp f o l l o w e r s , one can i n support p o i n t out the then p r e v a i l i n g tendency  among the S l o v e n i a n w r i t e r s to adopt  c e r t a i n romantic-sentimental sounding Russian pseudonyms, some o f which I take the l i b e r t y to l i s t here: Ivan S a v e l j e v Cankar Ivan ( 1876 - 1918 ) , A l e k s i j Dezelanov  - Gorenec Leopold  - G l a z e r Janko ( 1893 ) ,  ( 1840 - 1871 ) , Podkrimski -  Govekar Fran ( 1871 - 1949 ) , Simeon Pomolov - Simon Gregorcic  ( 1856 - 1917 ) , Krutorogov  ( 1853 - ? ), Samo V a s i l j e v  - Hostnik M. Davorin  - Kersnik Janko J r . ( 1881 ) ,  M i h a j l M i h a j l o v - Kette D r a g o t i n ( 1876 - 1899 ) , Severjev K r i z a j J e r n e j ( 1838 - 1890 ) , Ivan Ivanov  - Lah Ivan  ( 1881 - 1931 ) , Roman Romanov - L e v s t i k V l a d i m i r ( 1886 1957  ) , J a r o s l a v - Mesko Ksaver  M a j s t e r Rudolf Ljudovik 1901  ( 1874 - 1964 ) , Vojanov -  ( 1875 - 1934 ) , S i l v i n Sardenko - Merhar  ( 1878 - 1942 ) , I g o r j e v i c  ) , Petruska - P e t e r l i n Radivoj  Semenovic - P r i j a t e l j Ljudmila  Ivan  - Murn J o s i p  ( 1879 -  ( 1879 - 1938 ) , Semen  ( 1875 - 1937 ) , Natasa  - Poljanec  ( 1874 - 1948 ) , A l e k s e j N i k o l a j e v - Zupancic Oton  ( 1878 - 1949 ) e t c . As the m a j o r i t y o f these w r i t e r s l i v e d and c r e a t e d during the l i t e r a r y p e r i o d known as romantic r e a l i s m , and were unhappy with the A u s t r i a n c e n s o r s h i p looming over heads, one can r e a d i l y understand t h e i r thus manifested  their  40  rebellious s p i r i t ,  and accept as v a l i d  the statement made  by the famed c r i t i c o f German romanticism A r n o l d Ruge t h a t : "Romanticism i s rooted i n the torment o f the world and so one w i l l f i n d a people the more romantic and e l e g i a c , the more unhappy i t s c o n d i t i o n i s . " 19  19 1951  A. Hauser, The S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f A r t , ( London, ) , v o l . 2., p. oTT.  41  C H A P T E R  T H R E E  SLOVENIAN TRANSLATIONS OF PUSHKIN'S POETRY DURING THE YEARS 1853 - 1901  PUSHKIN'S BACKGROUND Aleksandr  -  Sergeevich Pushkin was born i n 1799  of an a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l y i n Moscow. Under the i n f l u e n c e of h i s f a t h e r and u n c l e , both admirers o f French  literature,  and guided by h i s French t u t o r s , Pushkin mastered  the French  language and at the tender age o f twelve read V o l t a i r e , Rousseau and M o l i e r e . With the love f o r h i s n a t i v e tongue young Pushkin was  i n s p i r e d by h i s grandmother and p a r t i c u l a r l y by h i s  devoted nurse, the good-natured A r i n a Rodionovna,  who knew  how to b r i g h t e n Aleksander's formative years by n a r r a t i n g f a i r y t a l e s and s i n g i n g o f o l d f o l k  songs.  With a h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e group of t h i r t y young Russian n o b l e s , Pushkin attended from the age of twelve  till  seventeen the p r e p a r a t o r y Lyceum f o r a d i p l o m a t i c c a r e e r at Tsarskoe S e l o . There Pushkin became a student o f p h i l o s o p h y , h i s t o r y , l i t e r a t u r e and languages. But not a l l of h i s time was devoted to s e r i o u s academic  e d u c a t i o n . Pushkin, a  somewhat impulsive i n d i v i d u a l , soon came under the sway of h i s y o u t h f u l companions and t h e i r l u s t  f o r pleasure.  42  Appointed i n 1817  to the C i v i l  S e r v i c e , Pushkin  found h i m s e l f duty-wise more or l e s s i d l e , and  consequently  devoted much of h i s time to w r i t i n g of poetry and to l e a d i n g an amorous l i f e .  Pushkin became a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d with the  then most l i b e r a l l y minded " Arzamas " l i t e r a r y  society.  By b o l d l y r i d i c u l i n g the Russian a u t o c r a t i c system with h i s s a t i r i c a l p o e t r y , Pushkin managed to provoke to  the p o i n t where he was  the  authorities  e x i l e d to Southern R u s s i a .  Dismissed from the C i v i l  S e r v i c e i n 1824,  Pushkin,  together with h i s f a i t h f u l nurse A r i n a , continued h i s e x i l e on h i s f a t h e r ' s Mikhaylovskoe was  compelled to s i t out the Decembrist's In  1826,  resumed h i s l i f e  1831  revolt.  f o l l o w i n g h i s s i x years of e x i l e ,  Pushkin  i n Moscow and S t . Petersburg s o c i e t y ,  although he remained In  e s t a t e near Pskov. Here he  s u b j e c t e d to c l o s e p o l i c e  surveillance.  he married the b e a u t i f u l Natalya Nikolaevna. Seven  years l a t e r , i n 1837,  Pushkin d i e d i n St. Petersburg  f o l l o w i n g a duel with h i s wife's admirer and i n t r i g u e young o f f i c e r of the Guards Baron In n a s c i t u r , non  1  sowing  d'Anthes.  keeping with the o l d L a t i n phrase " Poeta fit  which without r e s e r v a t i o n a p p l i e s to  A poet i s born and not made.  43  Pushkin, i t i s f e l t necessary to enlarge upon the theme d e a l i n g with h i s l i t e r a r y  growth.  Pushkin's genius came to l i g h t r e l a t i v e l y i n h i s youth. For i t was Lyceum, and w h i l e s t i l l wrote about  early  during the years he spent at the i n s p i r e d by V o l t a i r e , that he  150 p i e c e s of v e r s e , mostly of the H e l l e n i c  2 type. In 1815,  the g r e a t l y admired  Russian ode-writer  Derzhavin attended a p u b l i c examination of the Lyceum student i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e . He was k i n ' s r e c i t a l of h i s own  overwhelmed by Push=  composition " Reminiscences  Tsarskoe Selo ". With Derzhavin's remark:" Let him  of  remain  a poet ", made on t h i s o c c a s i o n , young Pushkin became widely accepted as Russia's coming p o e t .  3  Using the theme from n a t i o n a l f o l k l o r e  Pushkin  composed f i v e years l a t e r the f a i r y poem " Ruslan Ludmila ". The r e a d i n g p u b l i c , who utmost enthusiasm,  and  r e c e i v e d h i s poem with  acclaimed Pushkin a master  of Russian,  versification. While e x i l e d to K i s h i n y o v i n B e s s a r a b i a , and during h i s journey through the Caucasus and the Pushkin s t u d i e d the E n g l i s h language  and became g r e a t l y  2 1917  N. J a r i n t z o v , Russian Poets and Poems, ( New ), p. 68.  3  I b i d . , p.  71.  Crimea,  York,  44  i n s p i r e d by Byron's poetry which d e f i e d the t r a d i t i o n s of h i s day. S t i l l  under Byron's s p e l l , the young poet  wrote the 800-line t a l e i n verse " The P r i s o n e r of the Caucasus ", where the poet f o r the f i r s t  time turned h i s  a t t e n t i o n s e r i o u s l y to the theme of a woman's l o v e . I n s p i r e d by h i s s h o r t - l i v e d met when he b r i e f l y  j o i n e d a band of g y p s i e s , Pushkin  wrote the dramatic poem " The Gypsies the poet his  visit  love f o r a g i r l he  lashes out at degenerate  ". With t h i s poem  c i v i l i z a t i o n . Following  to the o l d T a r t a r c i t y of B a k h c h i s a r a i i n the  Crimea, and u s i n g the very romantic g r e a t , but unreturned  theme of the Khan's  love f o r a young c a p t i v e C h r i s t i a n  p r i n c e s s , Pushkin wrote the poem " The Fountain of B a k h c h i s a r a i ". I t was i n e x i l e that the young poet wrote the f i r s t  chapter of h i s novel i n verse " E v g e n i i Onyegin ",  the h i s t o r i c a l  drama " B o r i s Godunov " and a number of  lyrics. On the Mikhaylovskoe  e s t a t e Pushkin continued with  h i s work on " E v g e n i i Onyegin ", which he e v e n t u a l l y com= p l e t e d i n 1831. A f t e r spending of h i s l i f e i n e x i l e ,  s i x l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t i v e years  Pushkin e s t a b l i s h e d h i s primacy  as  Russia's g r e a t e s t poet. A prolific  author, Pushkin upon r e j o i n i n g S t .  Petersburg s o c i e t y continued to w r i t e poetry u n t i l h i s untimely death, although i n h i s l a s t years he showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r prose, i . e . " The Captain's Daughter " and  45  " The Queen of Spades ". In connection with the t o p i c of t h i s t h e s i s , of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t are Pushkin's poems: " The Elegy " ( 1820 ) ,  11  The Waggon o f L i f e " ( 1823 ) , " The Prophet "  ( 1826 ) , " The Winter Road " ( 1826 ) ,  11  ( 1828 ) , " The three Springs " ( 1827 ) ,  The Upas-tree " 11  The Poet "  ( 1827 ) , " Presentiment " ( 1828 ) , " A Winter's Morning ( 1829 ) , " T o  11  the S l a n d e r e r s of R u s s i a " ( 1831 ) ,  " The Cloud " ( 1835 ) , and the three of h i s four t r a g e d i e s i n v e r s e , namely " The Stone Guest  little  " ( 1830 ) ,  " The M i s e r l y Knight " ( 1830 ) and " A Feast at the Time of Plague " ( 1830 ) . Pushkin's d i v e r s i f i e d  l i t e r a r y works i n verse  and prose found a sympathetic r e c e p t i o n not only i n R u s s i a but i n non-Russian  c o u n t r i e s as w e l l . The q u e s t i o n , whether  Pushkin's l i t e r a r y genius can be o b j e c t i v e l y measured, remains unanswered, f o r not only i s i t s u f f i c i e n t to analyse Pushkin's p o e t i c a r t i s t r y , but i n t o account must a l s o be taken the d i s p a r i n g t a s t e s of s e v e r a l generations of n a t i v e and f o r e i g n readers of h i s works. Should one, however, judge Pushkin by h i s p o p u l a r i t y with the present-day Russian as w e l l as the non-Russian reading p u b l i c , then one w i l l r e c o g n i z e i n him the immortal poet. I t i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , strange r e p e a t e d l y to f i n d s c h o l a r l y r e f e r e n c e s p o i n t i n g out that Pushkin's genius i n f l u e n c e d to a great extent such renowned poets and w r i t e r s  46  as Lermontov, Tyutchev, Bunin, A.K. Blok, Goncharov, Turgenev,  T o l s t o i , L.N.  Tolstoi,  E s e n i n , and the f o r e i g n e r s  Ivan  Vazov, the founding s p i r i t of B u l g a r i a n prose, and the German poet Rainer Maria R i l k e , who  found i n s p i r a t i o n i n  the c h a r a c t e r of Pimen from " B o r i s Godunov ". S i m i l a r l y , Pushkin's theme from h i s poem " The Gypsies " gave in= s p i r a t i o n to Prosper Merimee's " Carmen ", while the short s t o r y " The Shot " i n f l u e n c e d Alexandre Dumas. As a poet and humanist  Pushkin, the master  of  Russian p o e t r y and prose, occupies a w e l l deserved p l a c e i n the pantheon  of world l i t e r a t u r e . Deeply g r i e v e d over  Pushkin's premature  death, h i s p u p i l and admirer M i k h a i l  Y u r i e v i c h Lermontov wrote " On the Death of a Poet  a very a p p r o p r i a t e necrology ":  HOST, HEBOJlbHUK MECTH, nAJI OKJIEBETAHHblfl MOJlBOfl, C CBUHUOM B TPyflU H WAWflOfl, MECTM, noHHKHyB rop^oio TJIABOM . . .  "nOTHB  3AM0J1KJ1W 3ByKM /IMBHblX IIECEH" Pushkin's p o p u l a r i t y i n the world of today has been amply demonstrated  by the events which took p l a c e i n  the year 1937, when h a r d l y a s i n g l e country f a i l e d to commemorate the hundredth  a n n i v e r s a r y of the death of the  great Russian poet. His i m m o r t a l i t y as a poet i s f u r t h e r demonstrated  by the f a c t  that the year 1937  found Pushkin  t r a n s l a t e d i n t o 84 languages. France alone over the years recorded about 170 t r a n s l a t i o n s from Pushkin, and i t i s t h e r e f o r e not surprising-when one l e a r n s that " The Captain's  47  Daughter  f o r example, between the years 1853 and 1937,  was p u b l i s h e d  i n French on twenty-seven  It should  occasions.  be added that the South Slavs  turned  to Russian l i t e r a t u r e when Pushkin was already w e l l known and  that they have continued  to admire Pushkin's  poetry  i n t r a n s l a t i o n ever s i n c e . In c l o s i n g , we must mention, that Pushkin's l i f e has been s t u d i e d i n s t r i k i n g d e t a i l by Russian as w e l l as f o r e i g n s c h o l a r s  and that voluminous  have been w r i t t e n about h i s l i t e r a r y work.  treatises  48  PUSHKIN AND  THE  SLOVENES  Even a c u r s o r y glance at the catalogue found  i n Pushkin's p r i v a t e l i b r a r y f o l l o w i n g h i s death,  show that the great poet had and  of books,* will  i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n s e v e r a l West  South S l a v i c books. Although  h i s i n t e r e s t was  directed  p r i m a r i l y towards the Serbs and t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e , as seen from h i s " Songs of the Western Slavs ", he was  i n p o s s e s s i o n of a S l o v e n i a n d i c t i o n a r y and a grammar.^ S i m i l a r l y , i n S l o v e n i a the f i r s t  of  Pushkin's  Godunov , M  Brothers and  nevertheless  " Der  poems " The  " The  Gypsies  Russian  Fountain of Bakhchisaray ", " P o l t a v a ", " The  originals ", " B o r i s  Robber  ", as w e l l as the German t r a n s l a t i o n s " Graf N u l i n " Berggefangene ", were i n the p o s s e s s i o n of Pushkin's  contemporary, the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s e v e r a l years  M a t i j a Cop,  who  lived  i n Russia.*'  4 MOflSAJIEBCKHfl, KATAJIOT nyilJKHHCKOtf 5HBJ1MOTEKM B BbtnyCKAX AKAflEMUMECKOrO H3,qAHHfl fiyillKHH M Ef~0 C O B P E M E H H H K H. KHUTH HA HHOCTPAHHblX S 3 U K A X . pp. 296 - 2~977~  5 B. K r e f t , " Fragmenti o s l o v e n s k o - r u s k i h s t i k i h ", S l a v i s t i c n a r e v i j a, XI. L e t n i k , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1958 ), p. 94. Refers t o : T h e o r e t i s c h - p r a k t i s c h e Slowenische fiir Deutsche. Von Anton Johann Murko. G r a t z , 1832. besednik. 6  Sprachlehre  Slovensko-Nemshki i n Nemshko-Slovenski r o z h n i S l o s h i l Anton Janes Murko. V G r a d z i , 1833.  K r e f t , op_. c i t . , p.  93.  49  Whereas P u s h k i n ' s translation the  Croats  a p p e a r e d even d u r i n g had  Spades " and their as  the  opportunity  recorded  as  Popovic  only  In a l l f a i r n e s s noted  t h a t the year  introduction " Delibash the in  title the  " had  L j u b l j a n a weekly  " Slovenska  the  ) has Fish  and  literary  Matica  Stanko Vraz  Slovenes  and  of  had  into  respectively, their  b r i n g about t h e  poetry  first  Russischen  Illyrisches historian,  published  first  i n German t r a n s l a t i o n  dem  1907  be  i n S l o v e n i a f o r h i s poem  Blatt  and  des  as  Fran  T a l e o f the  i n 1853,  under  Puschkin."  early  chairman of  t o 1914,  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t " The  ", w h i c h was  lifetime,  t o them, however, i t s h o u l d  Aus  " from  Serbian  1853.  been p u b l i s h e d  " Deli-Bascha.  in  ", w h i c h were r e n d e r e d  d i d not  of Pushkin's  The  1942  1853  in  prose  the poet's  the m i d - f o r t i e s , the  translation  and  t o r e a d h i s " Queen  " A Winter Evening  n a t i v e t o n g u e by  early  poetry  as  1838."'  the  Ilesic  ( 1871  Fisherman  became t h e  and  first  o  Slovenian  translation  r e n d e r i n g was in by  a Slovenian  from P u s h k i n .  p u b l i s h e d under the reader v  This  title  first  " Ribar  Slovenian i n Riba  f o r h i g h - s c h o o l s , w h i c h was  v  P r o f e s s o r M i k l o s i c and  published  i n Vienna  in  11  compiled 9 1853.  7 A u t h o r unknown. " D e l i - B a s c h a . Aus dem R u s s i s c h e n des P u s c h k i n . " , I l l y r i s c h e s B l a t t zum N u t z e n und V e r g n u g e n , L a i b a c h , No. 43, 27. O k t . 1838. 8  Kreft,  o_p_. c i t . ,  p.  95.  9 Dr. F. M i k l o l i c , S l o v e n s k o b e r i l o za p e t i do osmi g i m n a z i j a l n i r a z r e d , ( Dunaj , 1853 ) , pp. 59 - (5T.  -  50  MIKLOSIC FRANC ( 1813 - 1891 )  Even though some doubt may e x i s t as to the true authorship o f the f i r s t  Slovenian r e n d e r i n g from Pushkin,  the presence o f markedly S t y r i a n vocabulary features i n the  translated version  of " The Tale  the F i s h " seems to p o i n t  of the Fisherman and  to P r o f e s s o r  M i k l o s i c as the  originator. As is hardly  a t r a n s l a t o r o f t h i s t a l e i n verse M i k l o s i c  i n s p i r i n g . I t seems that h i s only  aim was to  f a m i l i a r i z e the h i g h - s c h o o l students with Pushkin's mastery i n adapting the w e l l known m o t i f s from the.Brothers Grimm to the s p i r i t  of Russian f o l k - p o e t r y .  that t h i s v e r s i o n printed since  S u f f i c e i t to say  o f the t a l e i n verse has not been re=  i n any other S l o v e n i a n p u b l i c a t i o n .  Nevertheless M i k l o s i c deserves some f u r t h e r com= mentary. The son of a merchant, M i k l o s i c was born i n the S t y r i a n v i l l a g e Radomerscak. He s t u d i e d Philology.  In 1849 Franc M i k l o s i c was appointed  of p h i l o l o g y University  J u r i s p r u d e n c e and professor  and f i v e years l a t e r became r e c t o r o f the  o f Vienna. Widely acknowledged as a f i r s t  M i k l o s i c published  rate  38 books and 108 t r e a t i s e s , p r i m a r i l y  concerning l i n g u i s t i c s . Among h i s outstanding to t h i s f i e l d  scholar,  contributions  of s t u d i e s we f i n d one. of the r i c h e s t S l a v i c  51  etymological  d i c t i o n a r i e s and  a comparative grammar of  the  S l a v i c languages i n four v o l u m e s . ^ Since we  must l i m i t ourselves  by M i k l o s i c t r a n s l a t e d t a l e i n verse i t may  to the  " Ribar  purportedly  in riba  be of i n t e r e s t to quote the opening l i n e s of  o r i g i n a l and Pushkin:  " the  of the t r a n s l a t e d v e r s i o n :  "5KMJ1 CTAPHK CO CBOEK) CTAPyXOtf y CAMOTO CHHETO MOPA;  OHH B BETXOfi 3EMJ13HKE POBHO TPMHUATb J1ET H TPM rOflA. CTAPHK J10BHJ1 HEBOflOM PblEy, CTApyxA npa/iA CBOIO n p j w y . " ...  Miklosic:  "Nekdaj z i v e l j e s svojo s t a r o zeno §ibar p r i k r a j u morja s i v e g a ; Z i v e l a s t a v ubogi s v o j i b a j t i Ze p o l n i h t r i d e s e t i n l e t a t r i . L o v i l je v morju r i b e s i v i s t a r c e k , In zena p r e d l a v b a j t i noc i n dan." A comparison shows that the accentual  the o r i g i n a l , which allows to be most e f f e c t i v e , has  a r i s i n g and been r e p l a c e d  falling  ...  verse  intonation  i n the t r a n s l a t e d  10 Von  Etymologisches Worterbuch der s l o v e n i s c h e n Franz M i k l o s i c h . Wien, 1886.  Von  Vergleichende Grammatik der s l a v i s c h e n Sprachen.. Franz M i k l o s i c h . Wien, 185T"- 1883. IV Bande.  I. Vergleichende (16J +518 s. I I . Vergleichende 1875., (24) + I I I . Vergleichende (16) +582 s. IV. Vergleichende 1874., (12) +  of  Sprachen.  Lautlehre der s l a v i s c h e n Sprachen.1852., Zweite AusgaFe: 1879., (5) + 598 s. Stammbildungslehre der s l a v i s c h e n Sprachen. 504 s. Formenlehre der s l a v i s c h e n Sprachen.1856., Zweite AusgaSeT 1876., (4) + 896 s. Syntax der s l a v i s c h e n Sprachen.1868 896 s. I w e i t e r Abdruck: 1883. , (4) + 895 s.  52  v e r s i o n with a s y l l a b i c - a c c e n t u a l one. Pushkin's nonrhyming l i n e with three has  been r e p l a c e d  stresses  and a t r o c h a i c  clausula  by the t r a n s l a t o r . Instead, the Slovenian  v e r s i o n has the f i x e d m e t r i c a l  form of iambic pentameters,  which tends to suppress the melodic i n t o n a t i o n needed. Thus the emphasized f o r c e of the meter has to a large degree destroyed the f r e e flowing f o l k - i n s p i r e d rhythm o f the o r i g i n a l .  I t should be noted, however, that  the  i n h i s rendering  t r a n s l a t o r imitates  the non-rhyming  l i n e s o f the o r i g i n a l , and that h i s l i n e s c o n s i s t of ten and  eleven s y l l a b l e s as compared to Pushkin's nine to ten  f i x e d s y l l a b l e s per l i n e . The  t r a n s l a t o r appears to have had a d e f e c t i v e  knowledge of Russian, as he f o r no other apparent reason, much too o f t e n m i s t r a n s l a t e d  some b a s i c words.  We see that Pushkin's CTAPHK has been unwisely replaced  by r i b a r , CHHETO by s i v e g a , which means grey, and  not b l u e , ignored  as i n the o r i g i n a l . Worst o f a l l ,  the t r a n s l a t o r  the semantic value o f the Russian a d j e c t i v e BETXOfl,  meaning i n the context o f the o r i g i n a l  " o l d , ramshackle  or d i l a p i d a t e d ", and t r a n s l a t e s t h i s word ubogi, meaning poor. As  inaccurate  as t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n may be, i t may  w e l l have been e f f e c t i v e i n t u r n i n g the a t t e n t i o n of s e v e r a l generations o f students to Pushkin and to Russian  literature.  53  ZAKELJ ANTON ( 1816  - 1868  )  v  Anton Z a k e l j , who  used a d e r i v a t i v e of h i s b i r t h =  p l a c e Ledine, a v i l l a g e above I d r i a , f o r h i s pseudonym Rodoljub  L e d i n s k i , developed  i n t o one  Slovenian Russophiles when s t i l l  of the  a member of the  c i r c l e of s e m i n a r i s t s i n L j u b l j a n a , which was a c t i v e i n the year  earliest Russian  particularly  1841.  As e a r l y as 1852  the L j u b l j a n a weekly  Novice  v  p u b l i s h e d i n i t s 42nd number Z a k e l j ' s f i r s t t r a n s l a t i o n from Russian, the poem " Damnation " b y E.T. Rozen. v Zakelj's f i r s t was  and only t r a n s l a t i o n from  Pushkin  the poem " EPOWy JIM 51 BflOJIb yJlHU, UiyMHblX ", which  p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e  " Misli  i n z e l j a " i n 1855  was in  Novice.11 Although  Z a k e l j was  i n h i s day regarded as a  r e l a t i v e l y g i f t e d composer of S l o v e n i a n l y r i c a l his to  t r a n s m i s s i o n of Pushkin's be almost  poetry,  theme of death turned out  devoid of p o e t i c q u a l i t i e s .  A comparison of h i s r e n d e r i n g , with that of Pushkin's  original, will  i l l u s t r a t e how  Z a k e l j ' s unfortunate  l i t e r a l n e s s hindered the comprehension of the n a t i v e reader. 11 Rodoljub L e d i n s k i , " M i s l i i n z e l j a ", Kmetijske i n rokodelske n o v i c e , L j u b l j a n a , 13/1855, No. 81, p. 324.  54  Pushkin:  "EPOTKy JIM 51 BflOJlb yjlMU UiyMHblX, BXOJKy Jib BO MHOrOJIIOflHblfl X P A M , CMJKy Jib ME)K lOHOtUEPi BE3yMHblX, 51 nPEJAAIOCb MOMM MEMTAM.  (  Stanza 1 )  rjlSHKy Jib HA yEflMHEHHbltf, 51 MblCJllO: n A T P M A P X J1EC0B f l E P E X M B E T MOW BEK 3AEBEHHb!fl , KAK FIEPEJKMJl OH BEK OTU.OB .  (  3 )  MJ1AJ4EHUA Jib MHJlOrO J1ACKAK), y)KE 51 JjyMAK): n P O C T M ! • T E B E 51 MECTO y C T y n A K ) : MHE BPEM51 T J l E T b , T E B E U B E C T M .  (  4 )  flEHb K A X f l b l R , KAWflyiO rOflMHy nPMBblK 51 Rymtt n P O B O K f l A T b , r P f l ^ y i U E M CMEPTM TOflOBmUHy ME)K MX CTAPA51Cb y T A J J A T b .  (  5 )  M XOTb BECMyBCTBEHHOMy TEJiy PABHO nOBCIOfly M C T J I E B A T b , HO EJIMKE K MMJIOMy n P E f l E J i y MHE BCE B XOTEJIOCb f l O M M B A T b . "  (  7 )  In the f rst i stanza of this soliloquy, Pushkin introduces himself as a contemplating character, who no matter where he may go, finds himself out of place as his mind i s i n f a l l i b l y preoccupied with the theme of death. Zakelj:  "Naj hodim ze po ul'cah sumnih, Naj idem v mnogoljudni hram, Al naj sedim sred druzb brezumnih, Le lastnim mislim se rad vdam. tyaj vidim kje dob starodavni, Ze mislim: 'patriarh lesov! Prezivel bos moj vek tezavni, Kot s i prezivel vek dedov'. Kdar ljubo detesce milujem, 'Qj dete zdravstvuj!' - mislim koj 'Zivljenja mesto t i spraznujem; Moj cas je s t l e t i , - cvesti t v o j ' . In s l e d n j i dan, i n slednje leto Sim vajen misel razmisljat', Kak svojo smert b i razodeto Zmed n j i h s i mogel i z c i s l a t ' ?  55  Vem, ravnotero j e , naj s t l i j e Brezcutno t r u p l o t u a l tarn; Pa vendar v sercu z e l j a k l i j e : Doma se v l e c i k mertvecam;" v  Z a k e l j ' s opening s t a n z a , on the other hand, i s somewhat m i s l e a d i n g  i n terms o f meaning f o r he i n t r o d u c e s ,  by u s i n g the monosyllable  naj f o r the Russian  JTM, an i n d i =  v i d u a l , who wherever he may go, i s s u b j e c t to day-dreaming. Z a k e l j ' s superfluous word r a d , l i t e r a l l y meaning " g l a d l y ", incorrectly i m p l i e s that the c h a r a c t e r i n q u e s t i o n had a choice o f thought and that he c o n s c i o u s l y e l e c t e d to think about death. v Much more problematic adoption  i s Zakelj's  frequent  o f Russianism e.g. mnogoljudni, dob, l e s o v ,  zdravstvuj , and i z c i s l a t , a d i r e c t  loan from  HCMHCJIflTb,  which, i n c i d e n t a l l y , does not even appear i n the Russian o r i g i n a l . Needless to say, the n a t i v e reader had no idea of the meaning o f t h i s a l i e n word, although context  i n Zakelj's  i t was to mean " yrAflATb rOflOBUiMHy ". Quite unacceptable  more, are Z a k e l j ' s grotesqe  to the n a t i v e reader,  further=  l i n e s e.g. " moj cas j e s t l e t i -  c v e s t i t v o j ", " sim vajen m i s e l r a z m i s l j a t ", and e s p e c i a l l y , " doma se v l e c i k mertvecam ", which l i t e r a l l y means " at home to l i e among the corpses  ".  Z a k e l j , i n w r i t i n g the f i r s t  of the aforementioned l i n e s , which i s supposed to t r a n s m i t , i n accordance with the o r i g i n a l , the idea that f o r the poet i t was time to moulder - f o r the c h i l d to bloom, probably  wished  56  to  remain c l o s e to TJIETb and  UBECTH of the o r i g i n a l . His  d i s t o r t i o n of the Slovenian words e q u i v a l e n t i n meaning, tleti least,  in c v e t e t i , into s t l e t i  and c v e s t i , i s to say  inexcusable. " riPHBHK 9i wmtt  nPOBCWVTb  by " sim vajen m i s e l r a z m i s l j a t ' ", and  Zakelj t r a n s l a t e s thus manages to  miss the r e a l meaning of Pushkin's l i n e w i t h i n the of  context  the s t a n z a : " I have grown accustomed to seeing out each  day,  each y e a r , with a p a r t i n g thought, t r y i n g to guess  among them the a n n i v e r s a r y of my r a z m i s l j a t ' " , we  may  add  coming death ". " M i s e l  , has no meaning at a l l as  c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s phrase i s completely Slovenian  the  a l i e n to the  language. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t Pushkin  the seventh to  the  i n the l a s t two  lines  of  stanza g e n t l y and with f e e l i n g i m p l i e s the wish  come to r e s t i n a p l a c e that i s dear to him,  Zakelj's  l i n e " doma se v l e c i k mrtvecam " sounds s h o c k i n g l y  un=  p o l i s h e d , d e f i n i t e l y out of p l a c e and o u t r i g h t b a n a l . v  We  f i n d that Zakelj has  adopted the iambic  meter measure of the o r i g i n a l and t h a t he has  tetra=  closely  i m i t a t e d Pushkin's a l t e r n a t i n g rhyme e.g. bcbc, of the  first  stanza and, with the e x c e p t i o n of u s i n g again the bcbc rhyme i n the f o u r t h stanza of h i s r e n d e r i n g , the abab rhyme of the original  couplets. In view of the f a c t that i n h i s rendering Zakelj  57  kept so c l o s e to the e x t e r n a l form of the o r i g i n a l , burdened h i s verses one  i s astonished  and  even with u n c a l l e d f o r Russianisms,  to f i n d c e r t a i n Russian words mistrans=  l a t e d , or r e p l a c e d by words which have a d i f f e r e n t meaning. Pushkin's yEflMHEHHblF), meaning " s o l i t a r y  ",  Zakelj t r a n s l a t e s by s t a r o d a v n i , meaning " ancient  ",  although he c o u l d have used the c o r r e c t term samotni. S i m i l a r l y , two  l i n e s l a t e r , he t r a n s l a t e s  3A5BEHHblM,  a r c h a i c f o r 3 A E b l T b l f l , meaning " f o r g o t t e n •", by which implies the meaning " f u l l of hardships  tezavni, ".  Taking i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n poor p o e t i c q u a l i t y v  of Z a k e l j ' s r e n d e r i n g ,  as demonstrated above, i t comes as  no s u r p r i s e , that the e d i t o r of the anthology of Russian p o e t r y ,  first  Ivan V e s e l  Slovenian  - V e s n i n , found  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s l a t i o n unworthy of i n c l u s i o n i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n , and  that Z a k e l j ' s only rendering  from Pushkin  sank r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y i n t o o b l i v i o n . VESEL IVAN - VESNIN ( 1840  The for in  Slovenia's 1901  - 1900  )  p r i n c i p a l c o l l e c t o r , e d i t o r and first  anthology of Russian p o e t r y ,  under the t i t l e Ruska a n t o l o g i j a v  prevodih}^ Ivan V e s e l  translator  - Vesnin was,  published  slovenskih  according  to  Professor  12 I. V e s e l et A. Askerc ( ed. ), Ruska a n t o l o g i j a v s l o v e n s k i h p r e v o d i h , ( G o r i c a , 1901 }  58  Ivan P r i j a t e l j ,  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n t r o d u c i n g Pushkin's "I  poetry to the  7  Slovenes.  Ivan V e s e l , a p r i e s t and one  of the most prominent  S l a v o p h i l e s of h i s day, devoted h i m s e l f almost to  t r a n s l a t i n g Russian l i t e r a t u r e Still  exclusively  into his native  a s e m i n a r i s t , V e s e l came under the sway of  the f i r s t notable S l o v e n i a n t r a n s l a t o r of Russian Anton Z a k e l j , who  literature  presented him with the book of Russian  poetry C E B P H b l E LjBETbl HA  1832  FOR.  Young V e s e l taught h i m s e l f Russian his  language.  - a f a s h i o n at  time f o r those students with any k i n d of p a s s i o n f o r  Slavdom. Using the pseudonym V e s n i n , Ivan V e s e l t r a n s l a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y from the works of Pushkin, Vyazemsky, Kozlov, K r y l o v , D e l v i g , Polonsky  and o t h e r s . For example, h i s trans=  l a t i o n s , such as " Izmael-Bej  " by Lermontov, were p u b l i s h e d  i n the poetry c o l l e c t i o n Cvetje i z domacih i n tuj i h logov, ^ and the rendering of Gogol's " The  Inspector-General " i n the  d r a m a t u r g i c a l j o u r n a l Slovenska T a l i j a . A s  to Ivan V e s e l ' s  13 I. P r i j a t e l j , " Puskin v s l o v e n s k i h prevodih ", Zbornik znanstvenih i n poucnih s p i s o v , I I I zvezek, ( L i u b l j a n a , 1901 ), p. 63. 14 Anton J a n e z i c ( e d . ) , " Izmael-Bej. Vzhodna povest. ", V r u s c i n i z l o z i l Mihael Lermontov. P o s l o v e n i l Janez Vesnin ( V e s e l ). Cvetje i z domacih i n tuj i h logov, ( Celovec, 1864 ), 14. zvezek, p. 88. 15 Ivan V e s e l ( p r e v . ) , " R e v i z o r . Komedija v p e t i h d e j a n j i h . ", r u s k i s p i s a l N i k o l a j V a s i l j e v i c Gogol. Slovenska T a l i j a. Z b i r k a dramaticnih d e l i n i g e r . ( L j u b l j a n a , 1884 T~, zvezek 52b, p. 135.  59  t r a n s l a t i o n s from Pushkin, i t should be mentioned that 17 of  h i s renderings were i n c l u d e d i n the V e s e l - Askerc  anthology o f Russian p o e t r y . Pushkin's narrowly p a t r i o t i c poem " To the Slanderers o f Russia  11  , which he composed i n 1831 i n  connection with the u p r i s i n g o f P o l i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s and the consequent  i n t e r v e n t i o n o f R u s s i a , was the second o f  V e s e l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s from Under the t i t l e  Pushkin. " Obrekovalcem Ruske ", V e s e l ' s  r e n d e r i n g was p u b l i s h e d i n 1863 i n the l i t e r a r y  journal  Slovenska l i p a . ^  I t i s to be noted that t h i s  by V e s e l appeared  i n p r i n t two years sooner than h i s  r e n d e r i n g o f Pushkin's Prijatelj  translation  " Caucasus ", which P r o f e s s o r Ivan  e r r o n e o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d to have been V e s e l ' s  encounter with Pushkin's  poetry.^  Together with Ivan V e s e l ' s renderings from " The Prophet  first  ", " To the Sea ", " G u a d a l q u i v i r  Pushkin:  , " The  Song o f Georgia " and " Elegy ", the poem " To the Slanderers of  Russia " was i n c l u d e d i n a m i n i a t u r e anthology o f trans=  l a t i o n s under the heading  " Severni c v e t i ", which was  p u b l i s h e d i n the o f f i c i a l  l i t e r a r y c h r o n i c l e o f the " Sloven=  ska Matica " f o r the year  1870.  18  16 Ivan V e s e l , " Obrekovalcem Ruske ", Slovenska 4/1863, p. 8. 17  P r i j a t e l j , op. c i t . , p. 64.  18 1870  E. Costa ( ed. ) , L e t o p i s Matice Slovenske, ) , pp. 163 - 168.  lipa,  ( Ljubljana,  60  C o n s i d e r i n g that t h i s poem represents one of V e s e l - Vesnin's b e t t e r r e n d e r i n g s , an attempt made to analyze the f i r s t Pushkin  i n the former  had advocated  w i l l be  and the f o u r t h stanzas, where  r e f e r s to those French deputies who  m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n a g a i n s t R u s s i a , and i n  the l a t t e r , to Russia's past encounter with Napoleon. Pushkin:  " 0 MEM UiyMMTE Bbl, HAPOflHblE BMTHH? 3AMEM AHA<DEM0R T P 0 3 M T E Bbl POCCMH? MTO B03MyTHJ10 B A C ? BOJ1HEHM51 JlMTBbl? O C T A B b T E : 3TO CnOP CJIAB5IH MEXfly C O E O K ) , flOMAUIHHtf, CTAPbltf CnOP, y * B3BEUJEHHblW CyflEOlO, B O n P O C , KOTOPOTO H E PA3PEU1MTE B b l . . . . 3A MTO )K? O T B E T C T B Y M T E 3A TO J I H , MTO HA PA3BAJ1HHAX nblJIAIOmEPi MOCKBbl Mbl HE nPH3HAJlH HAr/lOfl BOJ1H TOTO, UOJX KEM J4POJKAJ1H Bbl? 3A TO J i b , MTO B BE3/JHy nOBAJlWJlH Mbl T3RrOTEK)lll.l/ltf HA.Q UAPCTBAMU O M U P M HAUIEtf KPOBblO HCKynMJIH EBPOnbl BOJlbHOCTb, MECTb H M H P ? . . . "  Vesel:  "Zakaj g o v o r n i k i hrumite i n p r o t i t e ? Kaj s v e t i r u s k i z e m l j i zdaj tako g r o z i t e ? Kaj je zmotilo vas? a l p o l j s k i v p o r i mar? P u s t i t e : to medsobna je slovanska s v a j a , Domaca s v a j a , k i od s t a r i h l e t o s t a j a ; Te r a z p r t i j e ne r a z r e ^ i t e n i k d a r . ... Zakaj? odgovorite mi: Ker ga na r a z v a l i n i Moskve plameneci P r i z n a l i nismo tak h i t e c i , Pod k t e r i m s t e se t r e s l i v i ? Zato, ker v brezdno smo z v a l i l i S i l n o tezeco nad drzavami posast? In z naso k r v j o p r i d o b i l i P r o s t o s t E v r o p i , mir i n c a s t ? . . . " A comparison of s t y l e i n which these verses  were w r i t t e n w i l l  show that Ivan V e s e l - Vesnin has  r e t a i n e d the d e l i b e r a t e m a t t e r - o f - f a c t conciseness of the  61  o r i g i n a l , which tends to emphasize the importance o f the poet's message to the c r i t i c s of Russia  f o l l o w i n g the  P o l i s h r e b e l l i o n , namely, those French d e p u t i e s , who i n Parliament made p r o - P o l i s h speeches demanding armed reta= l i a t i o n against  Russia's meddling i n P o l i s h i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s .  Ivan V e s e l  constructed  i n iambic meter o f v a r y i n g  f e e t , which i s the measure of  the o r i g i n a l . With the exception quoted stanza  s u c c e s s f u l l y h i s rendering  of l i n e seven i n the second  by V e s e l e.g. " In z naso k r v j o p r i d o b i l i ",  where the n a t u r a l word s t r e s s e s are c o n s i s t e n t with the m e t r i c a l s t r e s s e s of an amphibrachic tetrameter  l i n e , and  where the t r a n s l a t o r i n f r i n g e d f o r the sake of the rhythmic demand by s u b j e c t i n g some strong  s y l l a b l e s under n a t u r a l  s t r e s s to a r t i f i c i a l  s t r e s s i n g e.g. " In z naso k r v j o  pridobili  rendering  ", V e s e l ' s  has a c o n s i s t e n t  rhythm.  F a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t l y the t r a n s l a t o r a l s o  imitates  Pushkin's combination o f feminine and masculine rhymes, and  rhymed l i n e endings, e.g. aabccb. V e s e l was p a r t i c u l a r l y  s u c c e s s f u l i n i m i t a t i n g Pushkin's i n v e r t e d word-order, e.g. " Prostost  E v r o p i , mir i n cast ", which does not c l a s h with  the c o n s t r u c t i o n found i n the o r i g i n a l :  " EBPOnbl BOJlbHOCTb,  MECTb H MHP ". It should  be noted that i n Vesel's  rendering o f  t h i s poem Russianisms have been avoided, and that f o r the most p a r t , h i s technique i s s k i l l e d .  62  P r i o r to the p u b l i c a t i o n of the  aforementioned  poem, V e s e l - Vesnin t r a n s l a t e d i n t o S l o v e n i a n the poem " A Winter  Evening  ". I t was  p u b l i s h e d under the  V Zimski vecer " i n the j o u r n a l Slovenska This V e s e l ' s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1873 of  lipa in  t r a n s l a t i o n from Pushkin was i n the j o u r n a l Zora, i n the  Russian poetry i n 1901  title 1862.  again anthology  and i n the American immigrant 19  newspaper Glas naroda i n One  1917.  of V e s e l - Vesnin's p o e t i c a l l y  t a t i v e renderings from Pushkin was 20 p u b l i s h e d i n 1865. of  The  first  Pushkin:  Vesel:  the poem " Caucasus ",  stanza of the o r i g i n a l  the t r a n s l a t e d v e r s i o n i s quoted  i l l u s t r a t i n g some q u a l i t a t i v e  less quali=  and  f o r the purpose of  shortcomings:  "KABKA3 nOflO MHOK). OflHH B BblWHHE CTOK) HAA CHETAMM y KPA5) CTPEMHHHbl, OPEJ1, C O T f l A J l E H H O f l nOflHJRBIIJHCb BEPUIMHbl, nAPMT H E n O f l B W K H O CO MHOK) HAPABHE. OTCEJ1E BI/1>Ky n O T O K O B POTKflEHbE M nEPBOE TP03HblX OBBAJIOB flBMJKEHbE." ... "Kavkaz je pod mano. Jaz sem t u v v i s a v i s t o j i m nad snegovi na k r a j u strmine. Le o r e l , k i d v i g n i l se z d a l j n e v r s i n e , z menoj nepremicno naravnost se s t a v i . Tu vidim z d a j , k j e se p o t o k i r o d i j o i n v i d i m , kak g r o z n i r a z p a d i s t r m i j o . " ...  19 Ivan Ve§el, " Zimski vecer ", Slovenska l i p a , 3/1862 , p. 8; Zora. Casopis za zabavo, znanost i n umetnost., 1873, No. 16, p. 242; Glas naroda. L i s t s l o v e n s k i h delavcev v Ameriki.', New York: 1917, l e t n i k 25, No. 38. 20 Ivan V e s e l , " Kavkaz ", S l o v e n s k i G l a s n i k , Celovec: 8/1865, XI/6, p. 161.  63  G e n e r a l l y , Ivan V e s e l managed a c c u r a t e l y to d e p i c t the m a j e s t i c nature of the Caucasian  mountains,  which were m a s t e r f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n the poem by V e s e l , furthermore, s u c c e s s f u l l y adopted  Pushkin.  i n his rendering  the e x t e r n a l form of the o r i g i n a l , such as the measure of s i x amphibrachic  four foot l i n e s , the feminine rhyme  and the rhythm, which c o i n c i d e s with the n a t u r a l  stress  of the words. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, V e s e l , by i m i t a t i n g to excess the syntax and the vocabulary of the  original,  offends the ear of a n a t i v e reader. Pushkin's phrase, f o r example:  11  nAPUT HEnOflBHWHO CO MHOtf HAPABHE ", V e s e l trans =  l a t e s by " z menoj nepremicno naravnost se s t a v i ", which has no meaning at a l l ,  although i t appears  that the trans=  l a t o r by r e f e r r i n g e a r l i e r to the " eagle " had i n mind to say: " ... l i v e s motionless i n the clouds a l o n g s i d e with me  ". In any event, the word naravnost, as used i n the  context by V e s e l , i n S l o v e n i a n means " s t r a i g h t  forward "  and does not have the meaning " a l o n g s i d e ", which i s to be found i n the o r i g i n a l . The term v r s i n e , borrowed from the o r i g i n a l , i s i l l - c o n c e i v e d f o r the t r a n s l a t o r c o u l d have p e r f e c t l y w e l l used the common n a t i v e word v i s i n e , which rhymes adequately with strmine. I t comes, however, as a s u r p r i s e that V e s e l , who  had a r e l a t i v e l y sound knowledge  of Russian, m i s i n t e r p r e t e d 0EBAJ1, meaning " avalanche  ",  64  by u s i n g the term razpad, l i t e r a l l y  " decay,  r u i n ", which  he e r r o n o u s l y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the proper S l o v e n i a n word prepad, meaning " p r e c i p i c e ", although t h i s term  itself  does not correspond with the Russian Q5BAJ1, which he should have t r a n s l a t e d by  lavina.  V e s e l ' s subsequent  t r a n s l a t i o n s from  p o e t r y , namely " The D e v i l s ", " The Two  Pushkin's  Ravens *', and  t, 11  The  in  Cloud ", were p u b l i s h e d under t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  1873  i n the j o u r n a l Zora, and again i n 1917,  American immigrant In  titles  i n the  newspaper Glas naroda.^1  the V e s e l - Askerc anthology of Russian verse  i n t r a n s l a t i o n were i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g seventeen  of  V e s e l ' s renderings from Pushkin: " The Angel ", " May 1828  ", " The Drowned Man  ", " To the Sea *', " Exegi  monumentum ", " G u a d a l q u i v i r ", " I have o u t l i v e d desires  ... ", " To Ovid ", " A  Tolstoi  *', " The  " Caucasus ", of  11  Prophet Elegy ",  R u s s i a " and " The  Winter Evening  ", " The 11  26th  M  .  , " To  Song of Georgia ",  The D e v i l s  Cloud  11  my  , " To the Slanderers  2 2  21 Ivan V e s e l , " B e s i ", Zora. Casopis za zabavo, znanost i n umetnost., 1'873, No. 17, pp. 257 - 258 ; Glas naroda. L i s t s l o v e n s k i h delavcev v A m e r i k i . , New York: 1917, l e t n i k 25, No. 55. 242; pp. 22  Ivan V e s e l , " K r o k a r j a ", Zora,1873, No. Glas naroda, New York, 1917, No. 37.  16, pp.  Ivan V e s e l , " Crna Megla ", Zora, 1873, No. 18, 273 '- 274; Glas naroda, New York~7 1917, No. 38. V e s e l et Askerc, op_. c i t . , pp.  26 - 72.  241 -  65  P r o f e s s o r P r i j a t e l j was somewhat c r i t i c a l o f the language used by V e s e l i n r e n d e r i n g the poem " The Prophet as t h e t r a n s l a t o r o c c a s i o n a l l y departed from what i s taken to be the s t a n d a r d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f words i n p r o d u c i n g a s p e c i f i c e f f e c t , e.g.: Pushkin: Vesel:  "  . . . H BblPBAJl rPEWHUfl MOtf 5R3WK H nPA3/lH0CJ10BHHPI, H Jiy KABbltf.  . . . "  " ...In g r e s n i j e z i k mi i z d r l , K i j e g o v o r i l t a k l o k a v o . ... " P r i j a t e l j , on the o t h e r hand, p r a i s e d V e s e l ' s  t r a n s l a t i o n o f the poem " To the Sea ". I n t h i s r e n d e r i n g V e s e l succeeded t o grasp and t o t r a n s m i t Pushkin's  spon=  taneous o v e r f l o w o f f e e l i n g s . E s p e c i a l l y a p p e a l i n g t o t h e r e a d e r i s V e s e l ' s sweetness o f speech sounds i n the opening stanza: Pushkin:  "nPOmAfl, CBOBOflHAfl  Vesel:  "Svobodno m o r j e , b o d i zdravo! P o s l e d n j i c pred menoj v a l i s V a l o v j e grozno, temnoplavo, V ponosu krasnem mi b l e s c i s . " ...  CTMXH5I! B nOCJlEflHHfi P A 3 nEPE,£|0 MHOfl Tbl KATHUlb BOJIHb! rOJlYEblE H BJIElUEUlb rOPflOK) K P A C O f i . " . . .  S t y l i s t i c a l l y weaker, however, i s s t a n z a Pushkin:  ...  Vesel:  ... " I n c a k a l s i . . . b i l sem okovan; Moj duh j e se drugod se g n a l ; Z mogocno s t r a s t j o ocarovan Na bregu milem sem o s t a l . " ...  "Tb! JKAAJl, Tbl 3 B A J 1 . . . 5 1 BblJl O K O B A H ; BOTIHE PBAJlACb /JYUJA M051: MOryMEW CTPACTblO OMAPOBAH, y BEPETOB OCTAJICfl 5 1 . . . " ...  seven:  ",  66  Thoroughly d e l i g h t f u l  i s V e s e l ' s r e n d e r i n g of  Pushkin's " HOHHOtf 3E<?>HP ", which was p u b l i s h e d under the title  " G u a d a l k v i v i r " on s e v e r a l occasions and which we  quote i n i t s e n t i r e t y : Pushkin"  J  "HOMHOfl 3E<DHP C T P y H T 3<t>HP. UiyMUT BEWHT TBAflAJlKBUBHP. BOT B30UJJ1A JiyHA 3J1ATA3, TMUIE. . . H y . . .TMTAPbl 3BOH BOT HCnAHKA MOJlOflAfl ODEPJlACfl HA BAJ1K0H. HOHHOfl 3E4>MP C T P y H T 3<t>HP. UiyMUT, BE)KMT TBA/IAX1KBHBHP . CKHHb MAHTHJlbtO, AHI~E.fl MMJlblM, M flBHCb KAK flPKUt* flEHb! C K B 0 3 b MyryHHbiE nEPH/ibi HOJKKy /JHBHyiO n P O f l E H b l HOHHOtf 3E<J>HP CTPYHT 3<J>HP. UiyMUT, BEXHT TBA^AJIKBHBMP .  Vesel:  "Lehak z e f i r Pihlj,a nemir, Sumi Bezi Guadalkvivir. G l e j , i z s l a j e luna z l a t a , T i h o ; c u j ; g i t a r e glas ...  23 Ivan V e s e l , " G u a d a l k v i v i r ", L e t o p i s Matice Slovenske, ( L j u b l j a n a , 1870 ), p. 167; Zbornik znanstvenih i n pquCnih s p i s o v , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1901 ), I I I . Zvezek, p. 66; Koledar DruZbe sv. C i r i l a i n Metoda, £ L j u b l j ana, 1904 ), L e t n i k 16/17 , pp. 30 - 31; Slovenec. P o l i t i c n i l i s t . ( L j u b l j a n a , 65/1937 ), No. 31, p. 9.  67  ... Na balkon Spanjolka mlada Je o p r l a se t a cas. Lehak z e f i r P i h l j a nemir, Sumi Bezi Guadalkvivir. Spusti p l a s c , moj angelj s l a d k i , In kot jasen dan s i j a j ! Vidim naj t a hipec k r a t k i T i nozico skoz d r z a j ! Lehak z e f i r P i h l j a nemir, Sumi Bezi Guadalkvivir." Doubtless V e s e l  - Vesnin's work as t r a n s l a t o r of  Pushkin's poetry i n t o Slovenian wider frame of r e f e r e n c e  i s most important i n the  of t h i s t h e s i s . One  must admit  that h i s many renderings from Russian were g e n e r a l l y high p o e t i c q u a l i t y . It was P r i j a t e l j honored the i n 1901,  by  saying:  f o r t h i s reason that  of  Professor  translator in his treatise written  " Ivan V e s e l  ni postal  samostojen  p e s n i k , a l i p o s t a l je i z v r s t e n i n t e r p r e t r u s k i h pesnikov, p o s t a l j e tolmac, dostojen i z v i r n i k o v , p o s t a l i n o s t a l je v v do danes n a j o d l i c n e j s i s l o v e n s k i  24  P r i j a t e l j , o_p_. c i t . , pp.  pesnik-prelagatelj."  24  63 - 6 4 .  In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n the above quoted excerpt reads: " Ivan V e s e l d i d not become an o r i g i n a l p o e t i z e r , but he became an e x c e l l e n t i n t e r p r e t e r of Russian p o e t s . Worthy of h i s models, he became and remained to t h i s day Slovenia's most e x q u i s i t e p o e t - t r a n s l a t o r . "  68  In c o n c l u s i o n , we as w e l l as the Russian S l o v e n i a n poet  quote the o r i g i n a l  eulogy  t r a n s l a t i o n of i t , which the eminent  Simon G r e g o r c i c  ( 1844  - 1906  ) dedicated  to h i s f r i e n d , b r o t h e r p r i e s t and p r o l i f i c t r a n s l a t o r of Russian  literature  Ivan V e s e l - Vesnin:25  "Imel n i hcere i n imel n i s i n a pac, pac! saj tu njegova je rodbina, tu polno k r a s n i h r u s k i h mu o t r o k " ... " y HETO HE BblJlO HH flOMEPM HH CblHA H BCE KE OCTAJIACb CEMbfl MHOrOMUCJIEHHblX KPACHBblX P y C C K H X ETO  IVAN VESEL - KOSESKI ( 1798  - 1884  flETEPV*  )  The p a t r i a r c h of the S l o v e n i a n Russophiles Trdina  ( 1830  - 1905  ), regarded  Ivan V e s e l , who  Janez  adopted  the pseudonym K o s e s k i , which i s a d e r i v a t i v e of h i s b i r t h = p l a c e Kosez, near L j u b l j a n a , a poet  equal to the  great  Presern. I t appears, however, that T r d i n a , i n p r a i s i n g K o s e s k i , d i d not take i n t o account the f a c t that p l a i n country people  reading h i s poetry  i n the Novice complained  about the p u b l i c a t i o n of v e r s e s , which no one stand: " Kaj nam  25  podajate  V e s e l et Askerc,  could under=  pesmi, k i j i h nihce ne razume? "  o_p_. c i t . , appendix.  26 F. Derganc, " Janez T r d i n a . A v t o b i o g r a f s k a pisma. " L j u b l j a n s k i zvon, ( L j u b l j a n a , 1905 ), p. 590. In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n the above quoted excerpt reads: " Why are you p r e s e n t i n g v e r s e s , which no one can understand. "  ...  69  It  f o l l o w s , that V e s e l - Koseski's t r a n s l a t i o n s  from Pushkin met to a large degree with the same f a t e . In t o t a l he rendered i n t o S l o v e n i a n f i v e o f Pushkin's com= p o s i t i o n s : " The T a l e o f the Fisherman 11  and the F i s h ",  The T a l e of Tsar S a l t a n ", " The T a l e of the Dead P r i n c e s s ",  " The P r i s o n e r o f the Caucasus  " and " The Fountain of  Bakhchisaray ", a l l of which were p u b l i s h e d under respective Slovenian t i t l e s  their  i n the L j u b l j a n a j o u r n a l Novice  i n 1869 and i n a m i n i a t u r e anthology o f Koseski's verses 27 Razne d e l a i n 1870. Although many of the S l o v e n i a n t r a n s l a t o r s o f Pushkin's poetry and prose have on o c c a s i o n i m i t a t e d literally  the vocabulary and the syntax of the o r i g i n a l ,  27 Jovan V e s e l , " Rusko-puskinovih petero v slovenskem j e z i k u svobodno p e t i h po Ivanu Koseskim. R i b i c i n z l a t a r i b a ", Novice gospodarske, o b r t n i s k e i n narodne, 27/1869, No. 2, pp~! 12 - 1 3 . Jovan V e s e l , " Car S a l t a n i n knez Gvidon ", Novice, 27/1869, No. 16, p. 125; No. 17, pp. 133 - 134; No. 18, pp. 141 - 142; No. 19, pp. 149 - 150; No. 20, pp. 157 158; No. 22, pp. 174 - 176. Jovan V e s e l , " Mertva carevna i n sedmero v i t e z o v ", Novice, 27/1869, No. 7; .pp. 54 - 55 ; No. 8, pp. 62 - 63; No. 9, pp. 70 - 71. Jovan V e s e l , " Kavkazki v j e t n i k ", Novice, 27/1869, No. 4, pp. 28 - 30; No. 5, pp. 38 - 40. Jovan V e s e l , " B a k c i s a r a j s k i vodomet ", Novice, 27/1869, No. 11, p. 86; No. 12, p. 94; No. 13, pp. 101 102; No. 14, pp. 110 - 111. Jovan V e s e l , " Rusko-Puskinovih petero ", Razne d e l a . ( Zalozba Slovenske M a t i c e , L j u b l j a n a , 1870 ) , pp. 125 - 133.  70  in t h e i r f a l s e b e l i e f that Pushkin's s t y l e would thus be r e t a i n e d , only a few ventured i n t o e x p l o r i n g stylistic  the  o p p o r t u n i t i e s which t h e i r n a t i v e language  had  to o f f e r . From only a minute i l l u s t r a t i o n , which opening l i n e s of Koseski's v i t e z o v " o f f e r , one who  the  " Mertva carevna i n sedmero  can see  that the " G l o r i f i e d  showed a tendency to d i s r e g a r d the set  " poet,  Slovenian  phraseology, rendered a v e r s i f i c a t i o n completely  v o i d of  p o e t i c s t y l e . In f a c t , he turns the s t y l e , common i n h i s n a t i v e language, i n t o a f a r c e . This comes not i f one  considers  Russian,  that Koseski,  l a c k i n g the knowledge of  used as h i s model German  renderings.  Pushkin:  "UAPb C UAPMUEK) nPOCTHJlCfl, B nyTb-AOPory CHAPWJICA; H UAPMUA y OKHA CEJ1A XflATb ETC- OflHA. " ...  Koseski:  "Car s c a r i c o p o s l o v i se, Tuje v k r a j e z a v e r t i se; Ona v oknu pase mar Kdaj de p r i d e m i l i c a r . " Though Koseski,  d e r i n g the a l t e r n a t i n g feminine  l i n e s , Koseski  and masculine rhyme.  the measure of t r o c h a i c four f o o t  succeeded i n i m i t a t i n g f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t l y  c o i n i n g words i n t o phrases, e.g. " Ona  avail  i m i t a t e d i n h i s ren=  the rhythm of the o r i g i n a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  and  ...  as i t appears, d i d not  h i m s e l f of the Russian o r i g i n a l , he  By adopting  as a s u r p r i s e  v oknu mase mar  h i s choice  of  " Tuje v k r a j e z a v e r t i se "  ", seems anything  but  i n good t a s t e ,  71  i n f a c t , these phrases  sound absurd and one can h a r d l y  b e l i e v e that Koseski's z a v e r t i se, l i t e r a l l y meaning " to turn around i n a c i r c l e ", transmits the meaning " to equip o n e s e l f f o r the journey ", as the o r i g i n a l " B nyTbflOPOry  CHAPflflHJlCfl  " suggests. On the other hand, Koseski's  phrase pase mar i s only an abased e q u i v a l e n t o f the c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n p a s t i lenobo, meaning " to laze or to l o a f ", and as such c l a s h e s u n p l e a s a n t l y with the suggested meaning o f the o r i g i n a l " she s a t at the window alone to wait f o r him ". It t r a n s p i r e s , that the unpolished s t y l e o f the language i n Koseski's r e n d e r i n g reminds one l i t t l e , all,  o f the Grimm b r o t h e r ' s " Schneewittchen  Pushkin has so m a s t e r f u l l y adapted  i f at  " m o t i f , which  i n t o a Russian  folk-tale.  V e s e l - Koseski's r e n d e r i n g abounds with super= f l u o u s q u a l i f y i n g verses o f the t r a n s l a t o r ' s own  composition,  which i n c r e a s e d the l e n g t h o f the t r a n s l a t e d v e r s i o n by some 440  l i n e s , as compared with Pushkin's  Pushkin's  o r i g i n a l . For example,  simple v e r s e s , which c h a r a c t e r i z e the p r i n c e s s , e.g.  "  HO  UAPEBHA  '*  EEJIOJIHUA,  MOJIOflAfl,  THXOMOJ1KOM  MEPHOEPOBA,  v e r b o s i t y turns  HPABy  PACU.BETA51  KPOTKOTO  1 1  ,  TAKOTO  into: "Po l e p o t i j e s l o v e l a , Po razumu glas imela, B i v s i serca rahla vsa, Pa preudarka b i s t r i g a . ...  and  ", Koseski's  72  ... B e l o l i c n a , cernooka, Krasna h c i piemen i s t o k a , V s i g a znanstva mik i n s l a s t , Tudi mozkim - hlopna p a s t ! "  ...  V e s e l - Koseski's t r a n s g r e s s i o n in. ending  the  r e n d e r i n g of t h i s t a l e with the i n s i p i d verse " Tudi j a z sim zraven b i l , mnogo v i n a v g e r l o z l i l ! Pushkin's RA yew  much more r e f i n e d " 9\ TAM  0EM0MHJ1. ", was  iz naprstnika j e s t i  EblJl, M E J 1 , HMBO nn/1,  h a r s h l y c r i t i c i s e d by  e s p e c i a l l y , as the Slovenes a p p r o p r i a t e phrase  ", as opposed to  Ivan  Prijatelj,  have t h e i r n a t i v e and q u i t e  " t u d i j a z sem  b i l zraven i n d o b i l  in i z reseta p i t i  sem  ", with which a f o l k -  t a l e commonly ends. Summarizing the weak s t y l e of Koseski's from Pushkin,  renderings  Ivan P r i j a t e l j w r i t e s : " ... vsak s t i h  prica,  da je p r e v a j a l s slovarjem v r o k i , besedo za besedo; i n vse, kar je p e l , je p e l s l o v a r , a n i k d a r Koseskega s r c e .  28  "^9  P r i j a t e l j , op_. c i t . , pp. 69 - 70.  In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n the above quoted phrase reads: " I. too have been t h e r e , have eaten from a thimble and drank from a. s i e v e ". 29  Prijatelj,  op. c i t . , p.  69.  In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n the above quoted excerpt reads: " ... every verse bears witness that he t r a n s l a t e d with a d i c t i o n a r y i n h i s hand, word by word, and e v e r y t h i n g that he v e r s i f i e d , was v e r s i f i e d by the d i c t i o n a r y and not by Koseski's heart ".  73  MENCINGER JANEZ ( 1838  Mencinger, who  - 1912  )  s t u d i e d c l a s s i c a l p h i l o l o g y and  j u r i s p r u d e n c e , became a prominent Slovenian n o v e l i s t satirist. literature in  and  I t i s known that Mencinger's i n t e r e s t i n Russian l e d him  to l e a r n Russian when s t i l l  the law o f f i c e of the noted  articling  Slovenian p a t r i o t  amateur poet Dr. Jakob Razlag  and  ( 1826  - 1880  ) i n Krsko.  A great S l a v o p h i l e and one  of the  founding  members of the " Young Slovenes  ", Janez Mencinger  regarded  " Mother Russia " as the p r o t e c t o r of Slavdom. Nationa= listically  i n c l i n e d , Mencinger wrote under the anagramatic  pen name Nejaz Nemcigern, which a l l u d e s to " I do not  like  the Germans ". I t f o l l o w s , that he a v i d l y read  and  p a s s i o n a t e l y propagated  literature.  the reading of Russian  Thus enthused, Mencinger t r a n s l a t e d i n t o S l o v e n i a n eleven poems from Pushkin. Under t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e Slovenian  titles  the f o l l o w i n g ten of h i s renderings were i n c l u d e d i n the S l o v e n i a n anthology Thought Outside and  of Russian p o e t r y : " When I Roam i n  the C i t y  11  , " Truth ", " The N i g h t i n g a l e  the Rose ", " The Upas-tree  Dimmed '*, " Gold and  S t e e l ",  Three Springs ", " Echo ", and  11  ", " The  L i g h t of Day  has  Message to S i b e r i a ", " The " The  Rabble  ".  3 0  30 V e s e l et Askerc, op. c i t . , " P o k o n a l i s c u ", p. 63; " Resnica ", p. 26; Slavec ", p. 43;'" Ancar ", pp. 51 - 52; " U g a s n i l o dneva je s v e t i l o ", pp. 27 - 29; " Z l a t o i n j e k l o ", p. 45; " P o s l a n i c a v S i b i r i j o ", p. 44; " T r i j e v i r i ", p. 44; " Jek ", p. 62; " G l o t a ", pp. 52 - 54. 11  74  His r e n d e r i n g of the poem " When I Roam i n Thought Outside  the C i t y " was  S l o v e n s k i narod i n In 1873,  again p u b l i s h e d i n the newspaper  1901. the t r a n s l a t o r ' s mentor Dr.  p u b l i s h e d a c o l l e c t i o n of Czech, Croat, P o l i s h ,  Razlag, Serbian,  B u l g a r i a n and Russian poetry t i t l e d Pesmarica, i n which he i n c l u d e d the second S l o v e n i a n r e n d e r i n g of Pushkin's poem " To the Slanderers  of Russia " by Mencinger.~*1  Whereas the c i t e d opening l i n e s of V e s e l - Vesnin's r e n d e r i n g of t h i s poem show the t r a n s l a t o r ' s d i s p o s i t i o n towards at l e a s t some abandonment of the e x t e r n a l form of 32 the model,  Mencinger tends l o y a l l y to c l i n g to the  "Zakaj v i , narodov b e s e d n i k i , k r i c i t e ? Cemu s p r o k l e t j e m s v e t i R u s i j i g r o z i t e ? Kaj vas j e premotilo? V s t a j a L i t v e mar? M i r u j t e ; to doma£ med Slave je n a r o d i In s t a r p r e p i r , u 2 e p r e t e h t a n po o s o d i , Pras'anje, k i ga v i ne r a z r e s i t e n i k d a r . "  original:  ...  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see Mencinger i g n o r i n g the f a c t that the l a r g e l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d Slovenian p u b l i c of h i s day was  reading  unable to a s s o c i a t e the term  with Poland, whereas Vesnin's  s e n s i t i v i t y in this  r e s u l t e d i n h i s u s i n g the commonly accepted  Litva respect  term P o l j ska  instead.  31 D r . J . R. Razlag, Pesmarica.( V Gradcu, 1868 ); V d r u g i c i n pomnozeno na s v e t l o d a l Dr. J . R. Razlag, odvetnik v L j . , ( Maribor, 1872-73 ), p. 197. v  32  Please see page  60.  75  A l t h o u g h V e s n i n ' s rhythm even-flowing, while Mencinger's dary  stress,  relatively Still,  thus weakening  close  a certain  characterizes  the s y l l a b l e ,  on  secon=  b o t h came  stiffness  inferiority  Mencinger's  and  Prijatelj  in his treatise  stylistic  of this  values  maintains that:  poem " Echo  illustrates "PEBET JIH  3BEPb  i n these  B JlECy  " V celoti  krajih  ", r i c h  Mencinger's  TPyBUT JIH POT,  inherent  two  p a r t i c u l a r poem, P r o f e s s o r  za V e s e l o v i m , na n e k a t e r i h The  original.  version.  of poetic  renderings  some d e g r e e  heavily  o f the  Slovenian  Pushkin:  relies  and more  to the r h y t h m i c cadence  Speaking  zaostaja  i s stronger  pa ga  prevod  nadkriljuje.  in parallelism,  ability  as a  to  translator:  rxiyxoM,  rPEMHT JIM T P O M ,  nOET JIM flEBA 3A XOJIMOM HA BCJIKMM 3 B y K CBOR 0TKJ1MK B B03/jyXE nyCTOM poflMiu Tbi B,qpyr. Tbl BHEMJIEUlb TPOXOTy TPOMOB  M  r j i A c y BypM M BAJIOB, M KPMKy CEJIbCKMX f l A C T y X O B M QIJIEUJb OTBET; TEBE X HET OT3UBA... TAKOB M Tbl, n 0 3 T ! "  33  Prijatelj,  op_. c i t . ,  p.  71.  In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n t h e above q u o t e d e x c e r p t whole t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i s i n f e r i o r t o V e s e l ' s some p l a c e s i t i s s u p e r i o r . "  r e a d s : " On t h e although i n  76  Mencinger:  "Ce r j o v e zver skoz g l u h i l o g , ce grom b u c i , ce t r o b i r o g , ce v h r i b u deva p o j e , - mnog rodis odklik v z r a k o v i h p r a z n i h za p r i l o g na s l e d n j i v i k . Poslusas t r e s k a n j e gromov, sumenje b u r j e i n v a l o v , p a s t i r j e v v r i s c ; - na s l e d n j i zov t i dais odvet. Odziva t e b i n i . . . Takov si  ti,  poet!"  From the onset i t becomes c l e a r that the trans= l a t o r , who a l l e g e d l y had a sound knowledge o f Russian, was not f a m i l i a r with Russian idioms. I t so f o l l o w s Mencinger  blindly  that  i m i t a t e d the o r i g i n a l word by word and  e r r o n e o u s l y t r a n s l a t e d B JlECy fJiyxOM, which w i t h i n the context o f the stanza means " i n the impenetrable f o r e s t ", by g l u h i l o g , meaning " deaf f o r e s t " f o r i t appears  that  he d i d not r e a l i z e that the Russian term r n y x o t f , which i s e q u i v a l e n t i n meaning to the S l o v e n i a n g l u h i , i s here used i d i o m a t i c a l l y and a c q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t meaning. Mencinger,  i n order to f o l l o w the count o f  s y l l a b l e s found i n the model, q u i t e improperly formed zrak, meaning " a i r ", the p l u r a l •Slovenian and, f u r t h e r , adopted odvet and takov. I t appears and l i n g u i s t i c  limitations  from  zrakovi nonexistent i n  such Russianisms  that some o f these i n Mencinger's  as zov,  stylistic  r e n d e r i n g tend to  weaken the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f the g i s t of the poem as one has some d i f f i c u l t y  to see i n the t a n g l e o f words the poet  d e p l o r i n g the f a c t that h i s poetry f i n d s no echo.  77  It seems as i f Mencinger rendered  t h i s poem r a t h e r  m e c h a n i c a l l y by paying more a t t e n t i o n to keeping w i t h i n the rhythmic  cadence and the rhyming s t r u c t u r e o f the o r i g i n a l ,  than to r e c a s t i n g the poem i n t o a s t y l i s t i c a l l y  more  acceptable Slovenian form. C o n s i d e r i n g the o v e r a l l p o e t i c value of h i s other t r a n s l a t i o n s from Pushkin, to  r e i n c a r n a t e Pushkin  one r e g r e t s that Mencinger  i n the s p i r i t  failed  o f the Slovenian tongue,  as he, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f e a r e d to abandon the s h e l l o f h i s models and f e l t s a f e r i n i m i t a t i n g p r o f u s e l y the Russian vocabulary  and s t y l e . C e r t a i n l y , h i s innovations i n Slovenian  vocabulary  d i s c r e d i t e d Mencinger's renderings even more than  his  borrowings. The  t r a n s l a t o r , one assumes, must be at l e a s t  master o f h i s own language. Since he must observe codes of p o e t i c s t y l e , idiom, syntax  the f i x e d  and phraseology of  the n a t i v e language and, i f he must t r a n s g r e s s i n rendering a readable v e r s e , i t i s the Russian must s u f f e r .  s t y l e and idioms  that  78  ASKERC ANTON ( 1856  Born  - 1912  i n t o a peasant  )  f a m i l y i n the S t y r i a n  village  Globoko, Askerc became one of S l o v e n i a ' s f a v o u r i t e p o e t s . He s t u d i e d theology and served seventeen years as a p r i e s t i n v a r i o u s S t y r i a n p a r i s h e s . Due  to h i s p r o f e s s e d sympathy  f o r the S l a v o p h i l e movement, and the f r e e - t h i n k i n g governing h i s l i t e r a r y work, Askerc was  spirit  perpetually i n  c o n f l i c t with h i s s u p e r i o r , the Bishop of Lavant, i n Maribor. Consequently  Askerc gave up h i s p r i e s t h o o d c a r e e r , found  employment as a r c h i v i s t with the c i t y of L j u b l j a n a devoted h i s l i f e was  to l i t e r a t u r e . The  and  genre of h i s w r i t i n g s  s o c i o - p a t r i o t i c and s h a r p l y a n t i - A u s t r i a n . A compulsive  t r a v e l l e r , Askerc i n 1801  St. P e t e r s b u r g , Moscow and K i e v , and to the Crimea 1903,  and the Caucasus.  i n 1902,  visited  made a t r i p  Upon h i s r e t u r n home i n  Askerc wrote the poem " Young Pushkin's Monument ".  from which a q u o t a t i o n of the opening translation illustrates  l i n e s i n A.  Sirotinin's  the author's admiration of Russia's  g r e a t e s t poet:-*4 " C K B 0 3 b TbMy BETBEfl nPOBUJlCfl C0J1HI4A JWM, H TOMHO TEHHtf, C BblCOTbl CJ1ETEBIUHR, MEJIO TBOE nPMBETJIMBO U E J i y E T . ETO Tbl MyEUIb JIACKOBblPi n P H B E T , Tbl MyBCTByEUIb, HA/4 pycbio y T P O B C T A . n O . " ...  34 Askerc Anton, " Spomenik mladega Puskina. Carskoe s e l o . " Iz popotnega dnevnika. C e t r t i zbornik p o e z i j , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1904 ), I I . , p. 33. Russian r e n d e r i n g by A . S i r o t i n i n p u b l i s h e d i n CJIABflHCKHE  H3BECTH3,  CflE.,  1907,  HO.  5.  79  Motivated by h i s Russian f r i e n d A. S i r o t i n i n , Askerc t r a n s l a t e d i n t o h i s n a t i v e language  about 170  Russian poems. Anton Askerc, who p a r t i c u l a r l y admired the works of Saltykov - Shchedrin, t r a n s l a t e d from  Pushkin,  u n f o r t u n a t e l y , only h i s poem " The Tale o f the Fisherman and the F i s h ". His  r e n d e r i n g , the t h i r d S l o v e n i a n v e r s i o n of  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r poem, was p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e o ribicu in ribici  " i n a Carinthian Catholic  " Bajka  literary  j o u r n a l i n 1889, and again i n 1901, i n the V e s e l - Askerc Slovenian anthology o f Russian p o e t r y . ^ 3  Askerc, a very t a l e n t e d poet, has m a s t e r f u l l y subordinated h i s t r a n s l a t i o n to the melodic f e a t u r e and the i n v e r t e d verse s t y l e of the S l o v e n i a n f o l k - p o e t r y . At  the same time he managed to h o l d to the o r i g i n a l  literally.  fairly  Although the t r a n s l a t o r d i d not i m i t a t e the  measure o f h i s model, he n e v e r t h e l e s s succeeded  i n preserving  the rhythmic impulses common i n f r e e v e r s i f i c a t i o n , and i n r e g u l a t i n g the tempo o f h i s l i n e s by using an a l t e r n a t i o n of  even-flowing iambic and the more e x p r e s s i v e amphibrachic  meter.  35 Anton Askerc, " Bajka o r i b i c u i n r i b i c i ", Slovenske V e c e r n i c e , ( Celovec, 1889 ) , No. 43, pp. 66 - 71. V e s e l et Askerc, op_. c i t . , p. 64.  80  The  opening of the t h i r d Slovenian  the poem " The  Fisherman and  Askerc, reads as  version  of  the F i s h ", rendered by Anton  follows:  " Z i v e l je starcek s s t a r o j zenoj s v o j o j $a bregu k r a j s i n j e g a morja. Z i v e l a tarn v s t a r i s t a b a j t i Bas t r i i n t r i d e s e t £e l e t . Na r i b j o l o v je s t a r c e k h o d i l z mrezoj , A starica p r e l a je p r e j o s v o j o . Pa vrze on v morje neki dan sak, A sak mu zajme l e samega b l a t a ;  Ko v drugic spusti v globocino  A sak  mu  zajme l e trave morske;  sak, -  Ko v tretji£ spusti v globoSino sak, -  G l e j , sak zdaj mu zajme pa - r i b i c o z l a t o , Da, r i b i c o z l a t o , ne vsakdanjo!" ... The  f r e e - f l o w i n g rhythmic c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s  v e r s i o n by Askerc, i n c o n t r a s t  to the  rhythm c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the rendering f u n c t i o n a l l y d e p i c t s the c h a r a c t e r whose p o v e r t y , s i m p l i c i t y and  f i x e d measure  and  by M i k l o s i c , ^ 3  of Pushkin's  fisherman,  b a s i c honesty clashes  with  the greediness d i s p l a y e d by h i s obdurate and i n s a t i a b l e w i f e . Thus Askerc managed s u c c e s s f u l l y to transmit moral i m p l i e d  i n the  the  original.  Whereas M i k l o s i c d i r e c t s the reader of h i s v e r s i o n to assume the r o l e of a l i s t e n e r , Askerc, with h i s  stylis=  t i c a l l y warmer p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  reader's  aims at e l i c i t i n g  the  spontaneous i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the p e r s o n a l i t y of Fisherman, whose l i f e  i s governed by the  four c a r d i n a l  v i r t u e s : prudence, f o r t i t u d e , temperance and  36  Please  see page  51.  the  justice.  81  Indicative that  of R u s s o p h i l e l e a n i n g s i s h i s view  the Slovenes ought  language height  to read Russian l i t e r a t u r e  o f the o r i g i n a l . A s k e r c , i n l i n e s which  o f enthusiasm,  poem, from which  glorified  are quoted  11  PyCCKMM 513WK " :  3  mark the  the Russian language  in a  stanzas 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 as  they were p u b l i s h e d i n K o r n i l o v ' s title  i n the  t r a n s l a t i o n under the  7  " n P E K P A C H b l t f , EPATCKHtf HAW A3blK CJIABflHCKMM! MHJ1A MHE 3ByMHb!X CJIOB TBOMX BOJ1HA, T E B E HABCTPEMy B TJiyBUHE CEPflEMHOPI n O E T P O f l H A f l , TEnJIAfl CTPYHA. 0 MCnOJlHH - n E B E U , fl3blK HAU1 P y C C K M t f l HE Tbl JIM MHE - BCEX 5i3blKOB MMJIEFi, HE TOBOPMJ1A Jib MATb M05R CO MHOK) MEJIOJJMEM CJIAflMAFIIIIEK) T B O E M ! Tbl - AP<t>A, nOTPflCAuJAfl C E P f l U E , MTPAET HA T E B E ^YUIA MO A , M My3blKA n033MM MOI~yMEtf 3ByMMT BOTATOP1 riECHEtf EblTMfl . POJ4HOPI HAH! B O T A T b l P b , fl3blK CJIABflHCKMtf , BPAT CTAPWMtf, COTJIACMIlJbC5\ Jib C T A T b PABOM? H E T , Tbl HE 3AKyEUlb CEES1 B OKOBbl HE nOMMPMTbCSl flOBJIECTM CO 3J10M! BOBEK HE CTAHEUib Tbl PABOM TMPAHOB! POX/JEHHbltf C B E T O M , K CBETY Tbl 3 0 B E I i l b , rJIAUIATAR MCTMHbl, I1EBE14 CBOEOflbl, M3 r P 0 3 H O f l TbMbl Tbl K COJlHqy HAC B E f l E W b ! "  . . .  37 AHTOH AI11KEPI4, " PyCCKMR fl3UK ". nEPEBOfl CO CJIOBEHCKOTO B . KOPHMJIOBA. nOSTbl IPrOCJIABMM 19 - 20 B B . ( M O C K B A : M3,QATEJ1bCTBO ' Xy,QO)KECTBEHHASl JIMTEPATyPA' , 1963 ) , p. 142.  82  As a poet and t r a n s l a t o r , Anton Askerc, whose n a t i o n a l i s t i c sentiment  amounted to o u t r i g h t p a s s i o n ,  d e l i g h t e d the S l o v e n i a n reading p u b l i c with a poetry of  v i g o r , p a s s i o n , scorn and i m a g i n a t i o n . His  1890 in  full  first  under the t i t l e  1896,  c o l l e c t i o n of poems was Balade  published i n  i n romance. Six years  Askerc p u b l i s h e d a new  later,  collection titled  i n epske p o e z i j e . In the year 1900  Lirske  Askerc i n t r o d u c e d  h i m s e l f to h i s readers as a w r i t e r of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e s i n verse by p u b l i s h i n g h i s Nove p o e z i j e . We pass  from these o b s e r v a t i o n s to the  first  c o l l e c t i o n of Russian p o e t r y i n S l o v e n i a n t r a n s l a t i o n , which Askerc, f o l l o w i n g the death of the i n i t i a t o r of t h i s anthology  Ivan V e s e l - V e s n i n , p u b l i s h e d under the  Ruska a n t o l o g i j a v s l o v e n s k i h p r e v o d i h . i n 1901.  title  In h i s  c a p a c i t y as the e d i t o r of t h i s anthology, Askerc presented S l o v e n i a with an assortment  of Russian l y r i c s  c o v e r i n g the  p e r i o d from Derzhavin to Balmont, i n c l u d i n g 35 poems by Pushkin.  83  JURCIC JOSIP ( 1844  The  - 1881  noted p u b l i c i s t and p r o l i f i c n o v e l i s t J o s i p  J u r c i c emerged as Slovenia's prose. He  )  first  t r a n s l a t o r of Pushkin's  t r a n s l a t e d the romantic novel  " Dubrovski ", i n  which the author b u i l t h i s p l o t against the background of a realistically  d e p i c t e d Russian  r e i g n of Catherine  serfdom era during  II.  His rendering was  published  paper S l o v e n s k i Narpd.38 According did  i n 1870  to.Dr.  i n the news=  Prijatelj,  not succeed i n t r a n s m i t t i n g Pushkin's marvelous  of w r i t i n g even though he rendered frame and  q u i t e adequately  the p l o t of the n o v e l . One  style the  n o v e l i s t , preserved  i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n the u n i t y of Pushkin's o r i g i n a l  to  Jurcic  must admit, however,  that J u r c i c , being h i m s e l f an experienced  all  the  the c h a r a c t e r s , a c t i o n s , s i t u a t i o n s and  i n which  language r e l a t e  a s i n g l e o b j e c t i v e , namely the love of the daughter of  a s e l f - w i l l e d f e u d a l l o r d f o r a noble b r i g a n d , who  i s deter=  mined to avenge h i s f a t h e r ' s r u i n . It i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of J u r c i c , a p r o g r e s s i v e w r i t e r , that he chose to produce h i s v e r s i o n i n a r a t h e r f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n , which r e s u l t e d i n a d e l i g h t f u l l y Slovenian  38 1870  readable  composition.  J . J . , " Dubrovski ", S l o v e n s k i Narod, ( Maribor, ), No. 84 et a l .  84  PLETERSNIK MAKS ( 1840  The epic and  " The  first  Lay  educator  of  Igor's  literary  journal  and  Pushkin's over  the  Pushkin:  noted  translated  the  letter  Waggon o f L i f e  Russian  lexicographer  two  of  Pushkin's  - s -, h i s  " and  " were p u b l i s h e d i n 1874  One care,  " t h e  o f the  language.  only with  t h e poems " The  Barbarian  Raid  Maks P l e t e r s n i k ,  Signed  )  Slovenian translator  poems i n t o h i s n a t i v e  of  - 1923  " The  i n the  renderings  Painter -  semi-monthly  Zora.^®  must  t h a t he  agree  t h a t the  successfully  translator  conveyed  treated with  to h i s  theme, namely t h a t m e d i o c r i t y n e v e r everlasting  classical  readers triumphs  art:  "XyflOXHHK-BAPBAP KMCTbK) COHHOtf KAPTHHy TEHHfl MEPHHT M CBOtf PHCyHOK EE33AKOHHbltf HA/1 HEW BECCMblCJIEHHO MEPTHT. HO KPACKH My?K^blE, C J1ETAMH, CnAflAIOT BETXOtf MEUiyEM; C03flAHbE TEHHfl nPEfl HAMH BblXO^MT C nPEWHEfi KPACOTOtf. TAK MCME3AI0T 3ABJiyJK^EHb51 C H3MYMEHHOW .qyiUM MOEfl, M BO3HHKA10T B HEPI BM^EHbfl flEPBOHAHAJlbHblX, MHCTblX /JHEH . "  39 Maks P l e t e r s n i k , " Pesem o v o j s k i I g o r j e v i . P o s l o = v e n j e n a i z s t a r o r u s k e g a ", Program des K. K. Gymnaziums zu C i l l i , ( C e l j e , 1865 ) , pp. 3 - 10. 40 - s -, " Dve P u s k i n o v i . Voz z i v l j e n j a . Z o r a , ( M a r i b o r , 3/1874 ) , No. 14, p. 209.  Prerojenje  ",  85  Pletersnik:  " U m e t n i k - s k a z a s copom h l a d n o Premaze s l i k o m o j s t e r s k o , In s v o j e r i s a n j e neskladno Nacrta t j e brezmiselno. Pa scasoma t e b a r v e t u j e S podobe se o d l u s c ' i j o ; Spet m o j s t r a d e l o o b c u d u j e V k r a s o t i p r e j s n i nam oko. Tako i z duse u t r u j e n e I z g i b l j e j o z d a j zmote me; V n j e j s p e t podobe n e s k a l j e n e N e k d a n j i h v z d i g a j o se d n i . "  By foot  iambic  shell  adopting  Pushkin's  measure, the  q u a t r a i n form and  translator  i m i t a t e d the  o f t h e poem. However, P u s h k i n ' s  and  turns  own  fashioning. This rendering  tation  o f s p e e c h , P l e t e r s n i k has  of a d a c t y l i c  w h i c h does n o t  appear  i n the  rhymes a l t e r n a t e o n l y w i t h utrujene imposes versus  brezmiselno, masculine  rhymes. The  rhyming  of  : n e s k a l j e n e , however, i s somewhat awkward as i t an u n n a t u r a l  the  stress  on  correct accentuation Pletersnik's  word t r a n s l a t i o n , interpreting through  of h i s  i n i t s adap=  :  o r i g i n a l , where  feminine  expressions  r e s e t i n phrases  mojstersko  four-  external  picturesque  is significant  rhyme, e.g.  the  can  Pushkin  images  i n the  the p e n u l t i m a t e  o f t h e word, e . g .  r e n d e r i n g , which serve  as p r o o f  o f the  i s not  utrujene.  a word  by  of the p o s s i b i l i t y  q u i t e adequately spirit  syllable  by  expressing  Slovenian  of  thoughts  language.  86  STIFTAR FRANC  ( 1846  - 1913  )  v Stiftar scholarship and  who  F r a n c , who  p r o v i d e d by  subsequently  the  taught  studied i n Russia Slavic  the  " Pisma o r u s k i  literary  journal  " The  Stiftar Peasant  works  translated  a continuing feuilleton  into  using in  t h a t he  a work i n p r o s e ,  the v o c a b u l a r y  a style  S l o v e n i a n the  befitting  short  r e n d e r i n g was  Belkin's story  published  i n s e v e r a l c o n s e c u t i v e numbers  t h e newrspaper S l o v e n s k i N a r o d  language  ", were p u b l i s h e d i n  i n p r o s e , namely t h e  Gentlewoman ". H i s  Considering  articles,  Zora.  From P u s h k i n ' s tales,  high-school,  literature..His  literaturi  a  Committe,  i n a St. Petersburg  wrote e x t e n s i v e l y about R u s s i a n entitled  Benevolent  on  and  i n 1875 rendered t h a t he  and  syntax  o f the  the  intellectual  as  of  .^ into his native had  the  freedom  Slovenian he was,  of  language  his  translation  V  t u r n e d out to r e t a i n  t o be  of a very poor q u a l i t y .  at a l l c o s t the Rather  than  style  search  p r e s s i o n s , he  adopted  grammatically  misconstructed  were c o m p l e t e l y  V  alien  Stiftar  of h i s Russian  source.  for appropriate native  numerous R u s s i a n i s m s ,  to the  endeavored  and  n a t i v e words i n t o  ex=  often forms,  S l o v e n i a n language of h i s  which day.  v  41 F.M. S t i f t a r , , " G o s p i c a - k m e t i c a . N o v e l a A. P u s k i n o v a . " P o s l o v e n i l F.M. S t i f t a r . , S l o v e n s k i N a r o d , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1875 ) , No. 63 - 67.  87  How Russian  close  source,  Stiftar's  rendering  is illustrated  by  the  parallels  following  the  brief  passages: Pushkin:  "... B ByflHH XOflHJl OH B n/IHCOBOPi O P T K E , HO nPA3/(HHKAM HAflEBAJl ClOPTyK M3 CYKHA J40MAUIHEM PABOTbl. ... ... CAM 3AnMCblBAJl PACXOfl H HHMETO HE MMTAJ1, KPOME ' CEHATCKHX BEflOMOCTEtf • . ..."  v  Stiftar:  "... 0 d e l a v n i k i h j e h o d i l v p l i s o v e j k u r t k i , v p r a z n i k i h j e o b l a c i l j o p i c i z sukna domacega d e l a . ... ... Z a p i s o v a l s t r o s k e i n n i c d r u z e g a c i t a l razen 'senatskih novin'. ..." I t must be  construction literary  d i d not  may  ",  he  expect,  f a u l t y was  coat the  of  that the  Stiftar's  Slovenian  Instead  of  iz pli^a,  Russian  sentence standarized  translating B meaning  c l o t h that  r e a d e r was  not  should  plush one  familiar. Similarly,  t r a n s l a t i o n o f ClOPTyK H3  had  "  t e r m s , w i t h w h i c h , as  cyKHA flOMAUIHEft  j o p i c i z s u k n a domacega d e l a , meaning  phrase  tkanega  the  native  Stiftar's  PABOTbl by  day.  v suknjicu  adopted the  out  agree w i t h  language of h i s  nUHCOBOPi KyPTKE by jacket  pointed  been m a n u f a c t u r e d  "  frock  at home ".  have b e e n t r a n s l a t e d by  j opic  Correctly  i z doma  sukna. V  Throughout such as: mednika  imenje  Stiftar's  ( HMEHHE ) , b e s i l  ( MEflHHKA ) , k r a s o v i c a m  ( flOCTOHHCTB ) , v e l i c j a BAHHE ) , o t c a  rendering se  je  one ( OH  finds  BECMJlCfl ) ,  ( KPACABH14AM ) ,  ( BEJIHHHfl ) , o b r a z u j e j o  ( OTUA ) , z n a c i t e l n e j a  Russianisms  dostojinstva ( 0BPA30=  ( 3HAMHTEJlbHblM  ),  88  pozvolite ( n 0 3 B 0 J l b T E ) , bezpokojila  prosvecenje ( nPOCBEIHEHME  je ( BECnOKOMJIO EE ) ,  jo  uznati ( Y3HATb ) ,  naslaSdenja ( HACJIAJKAEHHfl ) , m o l c l i v e j a blagorazumji  BJIArOPA3yMHM ) e t c . To  half  of these Since  to  imitate  original, and  alien  and  generally retained  participial  p h r a s e s , be one  and  Pushkin's equality  general  PABHOflyiUHO of rights  known r e a s o n ,  by  a number  furthermore,  Stiftar  translated  " having  i n common w i t h  i . e . " he  c o u l d not  of h i s neighbour's  term  has  Stiftar  Anglomania  f o r some  translated  o f the  Pushkin's  that the was  misunder=  cook i s g o i n g  to c e l e b r a t e  zena  danes  pri njih  ". W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s s e n t e n c e  at a l l .  ".  un=  not been f a m i l i a r w i t h  " kuharjeva  c o u l d mean " t o s a v e ,  the  bring  HMEHHHHW4A. S i n c e a c c u r a c y  i . e . " the w i f e  sense  of  i n t o v s e l u Aposovem. I t a p p e a r s  h e r name-day ", by  e t c . , makes no  transitional  oppositional  meaning  nothing  phrase,  of h i s v i r t u e s ,  stood phrase,  to f i n d  f a r as  i n the  adverbial,  B CEJ1E nPHJiy HUHE, S t i f t a r ,  meaning o f t h e R u s s i a n one  went so  independent,  ravnopravno,  indifferently  turns  translator,  which  the  inaccuracies.  ", w h i c h has  Pushkin's  resuje  least,  found  i n his negligence  meaning o f t h e o r i g i n a l h i m s e l f t o speak  they  the  is surprised  F o r example,  today  the  Stiftar  even the p u n c t u a t i o n sequence  mistranslations  not  say  terms.  in his translation  or p a r e n t h e t i c a l ,  the  ( M0J1MAJ1MBEE ) ,  reader was u n a b l e t o guess t h e meaning o f n o t even  native one  (  ),  to d e l i v e r ,  the  term r e s u j e ,  to rescue, to s o l v e "  89  Stiftar's  Completely  f o r e i g n to  occasional  i m i t a t i o n o f the  s t r u c t i o n where t h e sense.  It follows,  preposition that  " p r i njegovi  instead  by  meaning:  hcerki  d a u g h t e r had  Although still  made o c c a s i o n a l  formed e.g.  the  from t h e  rek-si,  root  use  he  burdened h i s  an  of  not  imela  English  language  etc.,the respect.  was  more o r  r e n d e r e d by  participle, i n the  Quite  i t ought t o be  less worthless,  soon f o r g o t t e n .  version Ivan  day  infinitive, greatly  unnecessarily sounding  zapravivsi, pustivsi, izgubivsi,  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  however, a new  ",  ".  s t y l e o f w r i t i n g w i t h numerous d u l l  and  but  t r a n s l a t o r has  prezivevsi, zablisknivsi etc.  published  ",  in Stiftar's  adverbial  zamislivsi,  again  translated  governess  vozivsi,  was  posessive y flOMEPH ETC*  have  p e r f e c t i v e verb  in this  con=  anglesko v z g o j i t e l j i c o  w o r d s , e.g.  rendering  in a  madama A n g l i c a n k a  the  stopiv-si  over-extended himself  should  Slovenian  o f the  biv-si,  language i s  Russian sentence  y i s used  je b i l a  " njegova hcerka je  " his  Slovenian  P u s h k i n ' s p h r a s e , e.g.  EblJIA MAflAM AHTJIHMAHKA, S t i f t a r by  the  of Pushkin's  Pintar.  said that  that  i t was  Stiftar's never  Eight  years  later,  " The  P e a s a n t Gentlewoman  "  90  TERNOVEC  BOGDAN  Speaking  ( 1843 - 1913 )  of Slovenian  renderings  from Pushkin  T e r n o v e c , who w r o t e u n d e r t h e pseudonym L a m u r s k i , Prijatelj  has a p t l y  'Slovanskem s v e t u  vv stalisca  A  1  remarked: " 0 p r e v o d i h b i ne smel g o v o r i t i  11  literarnoumetniskega  the one-time p u p i l  of the great  S l a v o p h i l e J a n e z T r d i n a , T e r n o v e c , who  the author  The B l a c k  and  Lamurskega v  2  j u d g e became a n o t e d being  Professor  ". Nevertheless,  Slovenian  z  by  public  f i g u r e , must be m e n t i o n e d as  of Slovenian  renderings  Shawl ", " The Two Ravens  the three  stanzas  as a c o u n t y  ",  of Pushkin's  poems  The Mermaid  11  11  known as " The Songs o f G e o r g i a  ,  "  43 from t h e poem " The P r i s o n e r o f t h e C a u c a s u s ". Unfortunately, or 42  a qualified Prijatelj,  Ternovec, not being  translator,  but merely  himself  a poet  a passion-driven  op_. c i t . , p . 83.  In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n t h e above q u o t e d e x c e r p t r e a d s : I s h o u l d n o t speak o f L a m u r s k i ' s r e n d e r i n g s , p u b l i s h e d i n the ' S l o v a n s k i s v e t ' , f r o m and a r t i s t i c - l i t e r a r y p o i n t o f view. 43 L a m u r s k i , " C r n i z a v o j . Po S t . V r a z u . " , 6/1877 ) , No. 3, p . 33.  Zora,  ( Maribor,  L a m u r s k i , " C r n a s a l ", S l o v a n s k i s v e t , ( T r s t , 1891 ) , No. 23, p p . 366 - 367; " UlOTJlAHflCKA nECrTfl ^, i b i d . , ( 1892 ) , No. 9, p.' 129; " HEPKECKA3 nECHfl ", i b i d . , ( 1892 ) , No. 10, p. 146; " R u s a l k a ", i b i d . , ( 1892 )7~Ro. 8, pp.116:- 117; " Rusalka , i b i d . , ( Dunaj , 1896 ) , No. 10, p . 146. -  11  91  R u s s o p h i l e , showed l i t t l e his  language s t y l e .  concern f o r the c o r r e c t n e s s  I n s t e a d , Ternovec - Lamurski used h i s  Slovenian  renderings  pretation  o f t h e o r i g i n a l s , w h i c h were f o r t h i s  published  s i d e by s i d e w i t h h i s S l o v e n i a n  even  further,  cription opening as  of  as a s o r t  o f a p p r o x i m a t i o n and  t h e s e were a c c o m p a n i e d  of Lamurski's Slovenian stanza of h i s rendering  inter=  reason  version.  by a C y r i l l i c  text.  F o r example,  " Songs  of Georgia  Going trans= the " reads  follows:  Pushkin:  "B  P E K E EEWHT rPEMyHHtf BAJ1: B TOPAX BE3M0J1BHE HOMHOE; KA3AK yCTAJlblfl 3 A f l P E M A J l , CKJlOHflCb HA KOnitE C T A J l b H O E . HE C f l H , K A 3 A K : BO TbME HOMHOH MEMEHEU XOflHT 3A P E K O f l " . . .  Lamurski:  "Grme b e z i po r e k i v a l ; T i h o t a nocna vse z a s t i r a ; Upehan j e k a z a k z a s p a l , Na k o p j e s v o j e se o p i r a . Ne s p i , k a z a k : n o c n o j temoj C e c e n e c h o d i za r e k d j " ...  JIAMyPCKM:  " T P M E BEJKM nO P E K H BAJ1 THXOTA HOMHA BCE 3ACTHPA y n E X A H j E KA3AK 3 A C n A J l , HA KOnbE C B O i E CE O r i H P A . HE C~!H, K A 3 A K : HOMHOW TEMOPI MEMEHEI4 XOHH 3A P E K O P i " . . .  arbitrary temoj  Lamurski  i s t o be  stresses  and  and k o p a j e z a r n o j  necessary prepositions. Russianisms spesite  incorrect  above  Next  a l l f o r using  case forms, e.g. nocnoj  se d o b d j , where he  such as: s t a n i c a  ( CflEUIHTE )  criticized  left  out the  t o h i s u n w a r r a n t e d use o f ( CTAHHUU ) , p e v i c e  e t c . , his rendering  ( nEBHLJbl  i s m a r r e d by t h e  ),  92  misconstructed of  the c o r r e c t grammatical Lamurski's  as p o e t i c a l l y renderings such  form  translations  i n s p i r i n g . Mostly  exert  c a n h a r d l y be  translations  literally  Although  noting  paraphrased, h i s  novel  before  and as  i n any o t h e r  respect,  c o u l d have h a r d l y been e x p e c t e d  to  i n f l u e n c e on t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c o f h i s d a y .  STREKELJ KAREL  Pushkin's  instead  regarded  b r i n g out l i t t l e o f the d e s i r e d e f f e c t ,  a lasting  published  BJJAMA,  vlekoc.  are s c a r c e l y noteworthy. V a l u e l e s s  Lamurski's  of  form o f v l av c e/, from  gerundive  ( 1859 - 1912 )  the f i r s t i n verse  complete " Evgeni  Slovenian Onegin  the t u r n o f the century,  t h a t , c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , a sample  rendering  " was n o t  i t i s worth  fragment  32 o f t h e s i x t h  from  " Evgeni  O n e g i n ", namely s t a n z a  chapter,  rendered  by P r o f e s s o r K a r e l S t r e k e l j , was p u b l i s h e d as  e a r l y as 1880. The r e n d e r i n g o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a n z a by v S t r e k e l j was q u o t e d i n J o z e f B a b n i k ' s a r t i c l e " R u s k i p e s n i k v  Puskin  ", and r e a d s  as f o l l o w s :  "Tu nam l e z i . Na lepem c e l i Pozna se t r u d , p o k o j s l a d a k !  44 J . Babnik, " Ruski pesnik Puskin ( L j u b l j a n a , 13/1880 ) , p . 131.  ", S l o v e n s k i  Narod,  93  S r d c e mu s t r e l a j e p r o d r l a ; K r v i vre i z n j e g a tok gorak! P r e d enim d v i g a l e se hipom Te p r s i s i l n e so m o c i . S o v r a s t v o , up, l j u b e z e n , z e l j e ; z'ivo v z i l a h v r e l a k r i ! Sedaj j e , k a k o r v p u s t e j h i s i , Temotno, t i h o , m r z l o v s e . Z a p r t e so s e d a j v s e d u r i , In okna se k o t snek b e l e ; Gospod o d s e l j e ! Kdo ve kam To r a z o d e t i zna Bog sam." ...  One Professor  wonders as  S t r e k e l j , who  t o why  serious  demonstrated h i s  dering  a superb  translation, left  rather  left  field  generally mediocre  the  driven  by  like  t a l e n t i n ren=  such g i f t  untapped,  of t r a n s l a t i o n to others,  good i n t e n t i o n s  who  but  were  t h o u g h t h e y were  of  ability. Considering v  Professor as w e l l  individuals  time  S t r e k e l j ' s rendering  as  stylistically It  Pushkin's  the  seems as  four-foot  dered verses versational  close  beyond  i f the  i n which  i t was  is poetically highly  language.  the  polished  reproach.  t r a n s l a t o r retained with  iambic measure, which b r i n g s to  published,  inflection  of  the  the  Slovenian  ease ren= con=  94  LEVSTIK FRAN  ( 1831  - 1887  )  Pushkin's p o e t i c expression Two  Ravens  ballad  composed by  w h i c h he purest  ", w h i c h he  S i r Walter  transposed  Slovenian  and  Scott  a Russian  poet,  L e v s t i k , who  published  zvon, which  i n 1883  i n the  o f the  and  found  in  the  the  simple,  versatile  literary  critic  name K a l i p e r . poem " The  literary  g e n e r a l l y : c a r r i e d only  ),  classically  by  and  w r o t e u n d e r t h e pen rendering  - 1832  setting,  p r o s a i s t , dramatist  The  laconic Scottish  ( 1771  harmonious r e n d e r i n g  Levstik's was  into  from t h e  s e n s e o f t h e word i t s echo i n the  crystal-clear  Fran  adapted  i n t h e poem, "  Two  Ravens  journal Ljubljanski  original  literary  compositions.^ Pushkin:  "BOPOH K BOPOHy J1ETHT, BOPOH BOPOHY KPHMMT: BOPOH. rt\E B HAM OTOBEj"ATb? KAK Bb! HAM 0 TOM "IPOBEflATb? BOPOH BOPOHy B OTBET: 3HAK), EyflET HAM OEEfl; B MHCTOM nonE nOfl PAKHTOR EOTATblPb J1EXHT yBHTblR . KEM yBUT H OTMETO, 3HAET COKOJI JIHUlb ETO, KOBblJlKA BOPOHAfl, flA X035WKA MOJIOflAfl. COKOJ1 B POUjy yJlETEJI, HA KOBHJiKy HE^pyr CEJ1, H X03J1MKA JKflET MHJIOTO HE yBHTOTO, )KHBOrO."  45 F r a n L e v s t i k , " Dva v r a n a ", L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n . Lepo= s l o v e n i n z n a n s t v e n i l i s t . ( L j u b l j a n a , 3/1883 ) , No. 8, p. 544.  "  95  Levstik:  "K v r a n u c r n i v r a n l e t i , Vranu c r n i vran k r i c i : Vran! k j e najdeva k o s i l o ? Kje k o s i l o i n g o s t i l o ? Vranu odgovarja vran: K o s i l bodes v e s ta dan; V cistern p o l j i p r i r a k i t i Gospodar u b i t l e 2 i t i ! Kdo u b i l , z a k a j , kako? Sokol ve k o n j i c " ve i z  njega samo; Crni grada, Ve gospa njegova mlada. Sokol z l e t e l v gaj v e s e l , Konj m o r i l c a n a s e v z e l ; Z i v e g a gospa j u n a k a , M r t v e g a doma ne c a k a . " Fran foot  Levstik  adopted without  t r o c h a i c measure o f t h e o r i g i n a l .  t o compose h i s v e r s i o n Slovenian  n a t u r a l word It only  this  right,  spirit  a word o r d e r  t h e rhythm p e r f e c t l y t o a g r e e w i t h t h e  accentuation. i s t o be r e g r e t t e d  that  Levstik  s i n g l e poem from P u s h k i n . B e i n g  translated  a poet  i n h i s own  L e v s t i k may have had i n mind t o d e m o n s t r a t e  Slovenian translator other  takes  o f the  construction  many u n q u a l i f i e d t r a n s l a t o r s o f P u s h k i n ' s p o e t r y  the  the f o u r -  He t o o k t h e l i b e r t y  i n the grammatical  l a n g u a g e by c h o o s i n g  which p e r m i t t e d  difficulty  language  rendering,  tools  f o r correct  expression.  hand, however, L e v s t i k may have i m p l i e d  In  that the  i s mature enough t o o f f e r a s e r i o u s  the necessary  a poet  to the  to recreate  the a r t i s t r y  any e v e n t , we s h o u l d  published  o f another  add t h a t  i n the e x c l u s i v e  that i t poet.  Levstik's  journal  On  superb  L j u b l j anski  96  z v o n , was veniti  p r e c e d e d by  ruske p e s n i ,  prelozena balada." following to  editor's  K  kaze n a s l e d n j a , In  free  R u s s i a n poems i n t o  - j  [ KOGEJ  which the  in  1894  S l o v e n i a n by  i n the  literary  Considering Slavophiles extracts that  he  t o Dr.  of h i s  was  the  that  day,  mistranslated, of  e.g.  the  46 J. K ( Gorica, 47  of  a certain J .  Undertaker  one  of  the  K  - j , and  op_.  in was  published  l e s s known  Slovenian  Kogej, t r a n s l a t e d Polevoi,  i t is  partial  and  P.N.  the  above t r a n s l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g  KPAWEHHblE fPOEbl by  CTOJ1 by  ",  assumed,  is  pobarvane  3A~IPAWHBATb by  klop,  instead  krste,  prasati,  zadovol jnost,  instead  instead  of miza  c i t . , p.  85.  quite  terms were  of  the  etc.^  - j , " R a k v a r ", S l o v a n s k a k n j i z n i c a , v o l . 1894 ) , pp. 25 - 36^  Prijatelj,  how  ghost-stories,  even t h o u g h c e r t a i n R u s s i a n  okrasene k r s t e ,  v e s e l j e,  " The  world  o f p r e c e n i t i , yflOBOJIbCTBHE by correct  The  from P u s h k i n shows  b r i e f comment, K o g e j ' s v e r s i o n  translated  "  Slovenian."  namely J .  author of  Prijatelj's  i z PuSkina  p e r i o d i c a l S l o v a n s k a knj i % n i c a . ^  from D o s t o y e v s k i  adequately  instead  dovrseno  slo=  ]  author s a t i r i z e s into  " Kako j e  t r a n s l a t i o n t h i s reads:  P u s h k i n ' s work i n p r o s e  rendered  remark:  p e r f e c t l y rendered b a l l a d  translate  J.  the  15,  97  PINTAR IVAN  The lated  ( 1854  - 1897  Slovenian  )  journalist  s e v e r a l works o f L e r m o n t o v ,  and A . J . Maksimov, r e n d e r e d i n t o tales  11  The  Shot  ", " The  I v a n P i n t a r , who Turgenev,  Slovenian  As rendering  one  o f " The  journalistic naturalness the motive "  BblCTPEJl  "  Narod  c a n see Shot  wording of s t y l e  the  in feuilleton  generally  excerpt of  Pintar's  translator's  agrees with Pushkin's  the tone w i t h which  original  form i n  in 1883.^  from t h e b r i e f  o f the postponement "  Pushkin's prose  ", q u o t e d h e r e , t h e  and  Tolstoi  P e a s a n t Gentlewoman " and  " D u b r o v s k i ". These were p u b l i s h e d t h e newspaper S l o v e n s k i  L.N.  trans=  of vengeance.  he  developed  Thus,  i n the  has:  ...  KA3AJ10Cb, 3 T O O T O P M A J I O E T O ; HO KPAWHEtf MEPE SI P A 3 A J4BA B H E M X E J I A H H E CO MHOK) O E f c S l C H H T b C S l ; HO 51 H3BETAJ1 TAKHX C J i y M A E B , H CHJlbBHO OT MEH51 OT= 3AMETHJ1  CTynmicsi.  c TEX  nop  TOBAPWKAX, M nPEXHME nPEKPATHJlHCb .  B U M / I C S I si c H U M TO/ibKO OTKPOBEHHblE  PA3rOBOPb!  npn HA111H  PACCE51HHHE >KMTEJ1M CTOJlHUb! HE HMEIOT nOH51TM51 0 BnEMATJlEHHSlX, CTOJlb H3BECTHHX WHTEJ1SIM HJ1W r O P C Q K O B , H A f l P H M E P O B OXHJJAHUH nOMTO= BOTO flHSl: BO B T O P H M K H nSlTHUqy nOJIKOBASI HAU1A  MHOTUX flEPEBEHb  48 I v a n P i n t a r , " S t r e l ", S l o v e n s k i n a r o d , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1883 ) , No. 1 - 4; B o j a r s k a h C i k o t kmetsko d e k l e ", ibid., ( 1883 ) , No. 5 - 6; " D u b r o v s k i ", i b i d . , ( 1883 ) , 11  ft6T~250 - 276.  98  KAHUEJiflPHfl BblBAJIA nOJIHA 0<t>HU,EPAMH: KTO XRAS] flEHET, KTO n U C b M A , KTO T A 3 E T . nAKETb! OBHKHOBEHHO TYT >KE PACnEHATblBAJIHCb, HOBOCTH COOBUJAJlUCb, H KAH14EJ151PMS1 nPEflCTABJlflJIA KAPTMHY CAMYK) OKHBJIEHHYK). CHJlbBHO nojiyMAJi r m c b M A , AJJPECOBAHHHE B HAW n o / i K , n OBblKHOBEHHO TYT  )KE HAXOflUJICfl .  ..."  I v a n P i n t a r t r a n s l a t e d t h e above p a s s a g e by: ... V i d e l o se j e , da mi j e t o z a m e r i l i n i z n j e = govega v e d e n j a s p o z n a l sem, da b i se r a d z mano o tern n e k a j p o g o v o r i l . A l i j a z sem se i z o g i b a l v s a k e p r i l o z n o s t i ; on, o p a z i v s i t o , j e l se me j e t u d i i z o g i b a t i . Od z d a j v i d e l sem ga samo v d r u z b i s v o j i h p r i j a t e l j e v i n n a j i n e p r i j a z n o s t i b i l o j e konec. S r e c n i p r e b i v a l c i s t o l i c , k i imajo polno v e s e l i c , ne m o r e j o s i m i s l i t i , kako se v e s e l e po m a l i h m e s t i h i n s e l i h p r i h o d a p o s t e . Vsako sredo i n y s a k p e t e k b i l a ^e p o l k o v a p i s a r n a n a p o l n e n a s c a s t n i k i . Ta p r i c a k o v a l j e d e n a r j a , o n i k a k e g a p i s m a a l i c a s o p i s a . H i t r o o d p r l i smo z a v i t k e i n p i s m a , i n p r i p o v e d o v a l i smo n o v i c e d r u g druzemu. V p i s a r n i b i l o j e j a k o z i v o . S i l v i j e v a p i s m a p r i h a j a l a so v p o s t n e j v r e c i na^ega p o l k a , t e d a j j e t u d i on t a k r a t p r i h a l a j po n j e . ..."  1  Pintar sentence context  i n h i s rendering  construction  used  a more  and o c c a s i o n a l l y d i v e r t e d  o f the o r i g i n a l .  Unfortunately,  i n some p l a c e s  p a s s a g e s , e.g. " . . .  EMY EblJlO OKOJ10 TPHflUATH  EOJlbUIEK) MACTWO BOEHHblE,  RA POMAHbl,  EAHKOMETY, . . . S MOJIMAJI,  (TO,  HT0 4>PAHl4Y3bl HA3HBAI0T  • ••  *3 "t C •  speech, e.g. " T i c a l i  ...KAK noTyna  riMTM J1ET,  BYflET r/iA3A,  b o n n e t de p o l i c e ) ;  p a s s a g e s by u s i n g smo  con=  l e a v i n g o u t whole  Furthermore, the t r a n s l a t o r o f t e n some o f t h e o r i g i n a l  from t h e  however, he  densed the r e n d e r i n g  rocnoi^MHy  individualistic  ...  YTOflHO  ...C  rAJiyHOM  OH EE H A f l E J l ,  simplified  native  figures of  vedno v s v o j i h s t a n o v a n j i h  in k  99  nam  n i z a h a j a l nikdo brez uniforme  bil  j e tako  izurjen,  da t i j e i z b i l  g l a v e . " e t c . , thus d i v e r g i n g "  ", and " V  from  Mbi coBUPAJincb ,qpyr y ^ p y r A ,  HE BHJJAJ1H HMMETO ", and  11  s kroglo jabolko raz  Pushkin's  r^E,  streljanji  original:  KPOME CBOHX Myi-mMPOB,  HCKyCCTBO, RO KOETO  flOCTUr  OH,  BblJlO HEUMOBEPHO, H ECJ1H B OH Bb!3BAJlCfl nyJlEtf CBHTb TPyiliy C <l>yPA?KKM  KOrO  EblJlO, HUKTO B B HAIUEM HOJIKy HE yCyMHUJlCfl  B TO HM  nOflCTABHTb EMy CBOEW rOJIOBbl." e t c . Ivan P i n t a r ' s language  style,  as u s e d  however, a f a r c r y from of B e l k i n  d r y and m a t t e r - o f - f a c t newspaper i n h i s two r e m a i n i n g  t h e warm p e r s o n a l t o n e  than d e s c r i p t i v e  Slovenian reader only a minimal the works i n p r o s e by  [ GESTRIN  During Fran G e s t r i n as w e l l  devoted  and as s u c h  Ksaverij,  Pushkin.  ]  - 1893 ) , whose  original  and p r o s a i s t  compositions  s i g n e d w i t h the  G o r n i k , Osamelec, S k a l a r or Svoboda,  a g r e a t d e a l o f h i s energy  F r e n c h , German, C z e c h , In v i e w  speaking,  gave t h e  t h e 1880's t h e S l o v e n i a n p o e t  ( 1865  inflection  opportunity to appreciate  as t r a n s l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y  pseudonyms  and  the n a r r a t o r . H i s r e n d e r i n g s , g e n e r a l l y  a r e b a r e l y more  F. G.  renderings i s ,  Polish  o f the f a c t  to t r a n s l a t i n g  from  and R u s s i a n . that  the r e n d e r i n g o f Pushkin's  100  poem " I Have O u t l i v e d my initials  F.  G.,  Gestrin.  This  Desires  " was  i t i s assumed t h a t  particular  signed  with  i t s a u t h o r was  rendering  was  published  the  Fran in  1886  49 in  the  literary  and  Here one in his treatise the  question,  have  been  as  political should  " Pu^kin t o who  mention that  the  author of t h i s  PreobraSenski, the  rendering  5  to a Fran The  data  a n a l y s i s o f the latter,  ( 1840  f a c t , no  who  other  left  rendering  open  could  however, b r o u g h t  - 1890  record  ), a school  of ever  zvon, U S i t e l j s k i t o v a r i s ,  never wrote  Govekar Franc  f o r the  treatise  t o be  Novice  By  regarded  analogy, as  the  had,  from  educational  and  light  teacher  that as  a  Russian.  articles  and  j o u r n a l Slovan,  translation.  i s not  to  translating  L j u b l j anski  here d i s c u s s e d  w r o t e the  available biographical  occasionally published  the  ",  hand, a t t r i b u t e d t h i s  A l t h o u g h he  N a r o d , he  Prijatelj,  Govekar. "*"  o f the  Govekar  matter of  Professor  v slovenskih prevodih  '* nyillKHH y CJIOBEHUEB ", on  Franc  Slovan.  5 0  Professor  writing  journal  in  Slovenski  which  carried  i t follows,  that  author.  49 F. G., " Pesem A. S. P u s k i n a ", S l o v a n . I l u s t r o v a n l e p o s l o v n i l i s t , ( L j u b l j a n a , 3/1886 ) No. 14, p. 213. 50  Prijatelj,  cp_. c i t . , p .  78.  51 3. H. nPEOBPA)KEHCKl/!Fl, nyiUKHH y CJIOBEHUEB ", EEJlfPAflCKHFi nyiDKHHCKHW CEOPHHK, ( EEJlTPAfl, 1937 ) , p. 11  129.  101  Similarly, ( 1871 since was  only  the  time  fifteen  here,  of  the  years  Be t h a t quoted  son,  ) , must be  - 1949 at  his  as  noted w r i t e r  excluded  as  publication  Fran  a possible of  this  Govekar  translator  rendering,  he  old.  it  may,  poetically,  Pushkin:  the  the  leaves  rendering much t o  discussed  be  and  desired:  "51 nEPEJKHJl CBOM JKEJIAHbfl, 51 PA3JII0EMJ1 CBOH MEM Tbl; OCTAJIMCb MHE OflHM C T P A M H b 5 l , nno^bi  CEPAEHHOW  nycTOTbi.  HOR BYP51MH CYflbBbl WECTOKOW yB51Jl UBETyillMW MOW BEHEU, XMBy riEMAJIbHblW, OflMHOKOW, M XJW nPM/JET JIM MOW KOHEI4? T A K , n 0 3 ^ H M M XJIAflOM nOPAWEHHblW KAK ByPM CJIblllJEH 3MMHMW C B M C T , 0/4MH - HA B E T K E OBHAXEHHOW TPEnEUlET 3An0.3flAJIblW J I M C T ! " Gestrin:  "Prezivel svoja kopernenja, R a z l j u b i l m i s l i sem s v o j e : O s t a l a so mi l e t r p l e n j a , Praznote p l o d o v i srcne'. 7  V i h a r usode je togoten C v e t o c i v e n e c moj r a z d e l ! Otoz'en cakam i n s a m o t e n : K d a j k o n e c m e n i bo p r i s d l ? Od m r a z a p o z n e g a o m a m l j e n , Ko s l i s a t i j e b u r j e svist, Tako na v e j i c i o s a m l j e n Trepece zapozneli l i s t . "  The literally, of  words  to  translator,  erred the  by  who  subjecting  four-foot  imitated his his  word  i a m b i c measure  source  order of  and  the  quite choice  original.  102  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the his  verse  forced srcne  naturalness  s u f f e r s . One  finds  e t c . , which svoje, This  constructed  clashes plodovi,  m e a s u r e , where t h e  one  fault  their  srcne  rendering,  in a better  natural  with  rhythmic  accentuation  Le  could  Even t h i s  with  and  intonation  sem  sanje  svoja  cas  je  o s t a l a so mi  razl jubil be  can  rather  avoided,  survive has  hastily  follows,  f o r long not  and  and  illustrated  here:  ,  f  -  rodil."  constructed  example  intonation,  agreement  that,  misli,  t r p l e n j a and Russianisms  standing  ohladil such  f o r MEMTbl,  as can  sanje.  that that  as  with  ohladil;  sem  furthermore,shows  c o r r e c t l y r e n d e r e d by It  it  be  trochaic  hrepenenja,  o f words h r e p e n e n j a w i t h  and  a  easily  se t r p l e n j a ,  a more n a t u r a l l y f l o w i n g  rodil,  have been  i f b a s e d on  K i v pustem s r c u  rhyming  accentuation:  etc.  - * - / / - / - - „ / - -  the  plodovi,  rhythm, i . e . s t r e s s cadence, agrees  Tihe  in  Gestrin's  natural  feels,  fashion  "Prezivel  preserves  with  scheme i n  p r e z i v e l , svoje,  s t r e s s i n g o f w o r d s , e.g.  prezivel,  the  also  o f the  Gestrin's due  been r e p u b l i s h e d  to  rendering  did  not  i t s poor q u a l i t y of s t y l e  since.  103  - r  [ anon. ]  An unknown a u t h o r , - r , rendered  into  " The C a p t a i n ' s in  1883  Slovenian  i n the S l o v e n s k i  in  works  the  r e n d e r i n g was  letter novel  published  Narod.^  that  by P u s h k i n  only with  Pushkin's h i s t o r i c a l  D a u g h t e r ". T h i s  Considering prose  signed  Pintar's renderings  were p u b l i s h e d  i n that  of several same  year  t h e S l o v e n s k i N a r o d , t h e a s s u m p t i o n has been made t h a t  Pintar  c o u l d have been a l s o t h e a u t h o r  mentioned  rendering.  On t h e o t h e r  o f t h e above  hand, the author  of this  v rendering  may  have been S t i f t a r ,  somebody  else. Professor P r i j a t e l j ,  that  the language  refined  than  style  t h e one  the f a c t  a d o p t e d on t h e i r  rendering  face value.  of certain  meaning  intended  o f the o p i n i o n  i s much more 53  o f t h e v e r s i o n by  passages  rendered,  - r , " Stotnikova ) , No. 84 - 110.  53  Prijatelj,  diverges  p.  77.  been  central from t h e  T h u s , f o r example,-  h c i ", S l o v e n s k i  op. c i t . ,  as i f t h e y  m e a n i n g , have  Consequently, the  i n the o r i g i n a l .  52 1883  - r, lies  words, which read  y e t have a d i f f e r e n t  meaning  matter  P i n t a r shows i n h i s r e n d e r i n g s .  t h a t many R u s s i a n  were S l o v e n i a n ,  or f o r that  f o r one, was  of this  The main weakness in  Dokler,  Narod,  r  ( Ljubljana,  104  translated  by " . . . g l e j ,  kako pometa  This passage should (veter) p r s i c  Prijatelj  f o r omitting  neglecting  to p a r a l l e l  this  read  " powder  meaning  "...glej,  proverbs  i n his translation general Andrej  s t o r y , namely  in  first  K a r l o v i s h . On t h e w h o l e ,  be c o n s i d e r e d  the bi-weekly Since  in  "  the i n i t i a l s newspaper  t o have been one  the second  1891, b o t h  a d d , however,  Pikova  i n i t s day.  rendering  short  ", w h i c h t h e a u t h o r  J . H., was p u b l i s h e d  Slovenian only  rendering  three  versions w i l l  that  o f Pushkin's  i n 1888  Edinost.^  " came i n t o b e i n g  the year  should  Slovenian  " The Queen o f Spades  only with  o f Spades  and f o r  [ anon. ]  The  signed  particu=  the German-coloured  of the b e t t e r t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Pushkin's prose  J . H.  ",  kako mete  the t r a n s l a t o r  the Russian  r e n d e r i n g must  " dust  "  snow ".  criticizes  to render  speech o f the Russian however,  (veter) prah  correctly  ", meaning  Ivan larly  " ...BWUIb KAK OH CMETAET nOPOlliy  Pushkin's phrase  later,  namely  be d i s c u s s e d h e r e .  the i d e n t i t y  dama ", who s i g n e d  years  o f " The Queen  o f the author o f  and h i d b e h i n d  the i n i t i a l s  has n e v e r been e s t a b l i s h e d .  54 J . H., " P i k o v a No. 37 - 47.  dama ", E d i n o s t ,  We  ( Trst,  1888 ) ,  J . H.,  105  Z. D. [ DOKLER ]  Signed  only with  the i n i t i a l s  Slovenian v e r s i o n o f Pushkin's published  " The Queen o f Spades " was  i n 1891 i n t h e newspaper S l o v e n s k i Both  poor  quality.  difficulty  I t seems as i f t h e i r  that  the t r a n s l a t o r s  reading t h e i r product,  critical  of their  Dokler. His s u p e r f i c i a l  example, D o k l e r ' s  that  conclude  Professor P r i j a t e l j as  the second  r e n d e r i n g abounds syntax  was  translators.^ Slovenian the i n i t i a l s  i t s a u t h o r was a c e r t a i n  o f the Russian  of their  inadequate  " P i k dama ", was s i g n e d w i t h  Z. D., i t i s assumed t h a t  i n imitations  one must  shortcomings  In v i e w o f t h e f a c t entitled  style  i n q u e s t i o n had a v e r y  knowledge o f R u s s i a n . C o n s e q u e n t l y ,  and  r e s p e c t i v e a u t h o r s had  t o w r i t e i n the S l o v e n i a n language  Furthermore,  version,  Narod.^  r e n d e r i n g s , d i s c u s s e d h e r e , were o f a v e r y  day.  extremely  Z. D., t h e s e c o n d  Z.  i n Russianisms  o f the o r i g i n a l . For  r e n d e r i n g opens as f o l l o w s :  " I g r a l i smo na k a r t e p^ri g v a r d i j s k e m c a s t n i k u Narumovu. D o l g a z i m s k a n o c j e p r e s l a , ne da b i o p a z i l i . K v e c e r j i smo s e d l i ob p e t i h v j u t r o . Tern, k i so p r i i g r i d o b i l i , j e j e d d o b r o d i s a l a , o s t a l i ....  55 1891  Z. D., " P i k dama ", S l o v e n s k i N a r o d , ) , p p . 214 - 220.  56  Prijatelj,  op_. c i t . ,  p p . 78 - 81.  ( Ljubljana,  106  so z a m i s l j e n i s e d e l i p r e d p r a z n i m i k u v e r t i , N o , sampanjec j e j e l d e l o v a t i , r a z g o v o r se j e o z i v i l i n v s i s o s e ga s casoma u d e l e z i l i . - Kako s e t i j e g o d i l i , S u r i n ? u p r a s a g o s p o d a r . - Z g u b i l sem po n a v a d i ; p r i z n a t i moram, da imam n e s r e c o ; i g r a l sem ' m i r a n d o l o ' , n i k o l i se n i s e m r a z b u r i l , z n i c e m u r me ne m o r e l v z n e m i r i t i , v e n d e r v s e l e j zgubim. - A l i se t i n i k o l i n i s i d a l z a p e l j a t i , n i s i n i k o l i s t a v i l n a ' r a t o ' ? D i v i m se t v o j i v s t r a j n o s t i . ..." v  Dokler first  paragraph,  failed  correctly  to translate  even t h e  f o r example, by o m i t t i n g t o r e n d e r  O^HAJKjAW, and u s i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y t h e p r e p o s i t i o n n a i n the phrase  " igrali  smo n a k a r t e ".  If Dokler's phrase  pred praznimi  any g u i d e ,  translated  poantuje  than  kuverti  one c a n e a s i l y  ", meaning imagine  and i n n o v a t i o n s , e . g . b a b u s k a  ( nOHTMPyET from  ( BETAJ1 ) , d j e d u s k i  The  passages Pushkin:  ",  how b a d l y he  ( EAsyiUKA ) ,  nOHTEP ) , meaning  " gambler ",  ( .flE^yiUKE ) , p o z v a t i  r e n d e r i n g o f " The Queen o f Spades  anonymous J . H., however, was o n l y s l i g h t l y Dokler's  " envelopes  t h e e n t i r e p i e c e . The r e n d e r i n g abounds i n  Russianisms  begalo  r e n d e r i n g o f Pushkin's  "...CMflEJlH nEPEfl fiyCTblMH CBOUMH OPMBOPAMU " i n t o  "...sedeli is  meaningless  v e r s i o n as t h e i r  translations  ( n03BATb )  " by t h e  better  o f the here  than quoted  illustrate: " . . . O^HAXJAU nPH flBOPE OHA nPOHTPAJIA HA CJ10BO TEPUOry OPJIEAHCKOMy MTO-TO OMEHb MHOTO. ..."  107  J.  H.:  "...Enkrat j e p r i dvoru z a i g r a l a , i n to z b e s e d o p o t r d i l a , v o j v o d i O r l e a n s k e m u bas z e l o mnogo. ..."  Dokler:  "...Nekoc j e ona p r i d v o r u na ime v o j v o d e Orleanskega z a i g r a l a precej v e l i k o vsoto. Professor  both  translators  Whereas J . H. " on c r e d i t clause  correctly  misunderstood  at l e a s t  ", by  by  inserting  t h a t " she  J.  "...nekak  "...nekakov  dvornik  Of c o u r s e , arrived  a t a wrong  SASyillKHHA as  hero,  who  above  example,  which  J . H.  compared  grandmother's  court  Since  with  RO,Q ..."  ..." both  translators  o f the Russian  i d i o m VOJX  implies that his grandfather,  like  refers  sizable  nOMHK), EbUl  could expect,  c o u l d remember, was  feared h i s wife  a  s t a r e matere.  babuskin.  interpretation  flBOPEUKOro,  f a r as T o m s k i  courtier,  as one  ucitelj  lost  of Orleans."  " . . .nOKOPiHblW AEflyiUKA, CKOJlbKO BA5YI11KHHA flBOPEUKOrO. ..."  Dokler:  qualifying  ", D o k l e r m i s l e a d h i s  Pushkin:  pridvorni  meaning, i . e .  t h e somewhat awkward  incorrectly writing  that  i d i o m HA CJIOBO.  a l l u d e d to the c o r r e c t  o f money i n t h e name o f t h e duke  H.:  maintained  the Russian  " i n to z besedo p o t r d i l a  readers sum  Prijatelj  ..."  fire.  a sort As  illustrated  t o some k i n d o f  D o k l e r , who  o f hen-pecked  refers  by t h e  grandmother's t o some k i n d o f  teacher.  these  two  renderings  w h a t s o e v e r t h e y were s o o n f o r g o t t e n .  had no  literary  value  108  - o  [ anon. ]  Pushkin's History  an  a u t h o r , who  In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y Jenko,  who  " Russian C i r c l e activities  the  Zgodovina  ", was  author of t h i s  i n h i s day was  " in Ljubljana,  d u r i n g the  rendered  s i g n e d o n l y w i t h the  and  into letter  r e n d e r i n g was  the c h a i r m a n  The  of  - o.  Dr. the  o f whose R u s s o p h i l e  1890's P r o f e s s o r I v a n H r i b a r w r o t e  i n h i s book M o j i s p o m i n i . "  n o v e l i n p r o s e , namely "  o f t h e Pugachov R e b e l l i o n  S l o v e n i a n by  Ljudevit  historical  The  Pugacovljevega  r e n d e r i n g by  punta  ", was  - o,  entitled  p u b l i s h e d i n the  58 newspaper S l o v e n s k i Narod In t h e t r e a t i s e where P r o f e s s o r P r i j a t e l j rendering,  in  " Puskin v slovenskih prevodih devoted  t h e a l l e g a t i o n was  have b e e n w e l l  1890.  one  paragraph  made t h a t  acquainted with Russian:  57 1928  " neznani iz  must  - o ni  vsakega  "39  I v a n H r i b a r , Moj i s p o m i n i , ).  ( Ljubljana: V  58 - o, " Z g o d o v i n a P u g a c o v l j e v e g a p u n t a N a r o d , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1890 ) , No. 33 - 79. 59  this  the t r a n s l a t o r  z a c e t n i k , on ne p r e v a j a za v a j o , t o se v i d i stavka.  to  ",  Prijatelj,  op_. c i t . , p .  samozalozbi,  ", S l o v e n s k i  82.  In f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n t h e above q u o t e d e x c e r p t r e a d s : The unknown - o i s n o t a n o v i c e , he does n o t t r a n s l a t e t o p r a c t i c e , w h i c h i s s e e n from e a c h o f h i s s e n t e n c e s .  109  The less  a u t h o r was  concerned,  less  versed, or i n t e n t i o n a l l y  w i t h the s t y l e  according  t o Dr. P r i j a t e l j ,  struction  to the cast  o f h i s own l a n g u a g e  subjected h i s sentence  KJlAHflJlCfl  "...  Pugacev mej tem, ko so ga p e l j a l i  etc.  Furthermore,  e.g.  the t r a n s l a t o r  i n Slovenian certain  mestne, i n s t e a d  razpihovali Similarly, meaning  only  and w r o t e se j e p r i k l a n j a l  R u s s i a n terms and p h r a s e s ,  of krajevne, r a z v e l i ,  i n accordance  with  instead of  " riAJIAMH PA3BE5U1H n E n E J l  ", and " COBEPUIEHHOE CnOKOflCTBO "  B e s i d e s , whatever the t r a n s l a t o r ' s  mitting  Cossacks  faulty  importance  style  of writing,  Pugachov, who  in rebellion  calm  one a t t a c h e s t o one must  o f the n o v e l , i n which the hero  Emilyan  i s not  " perfect  on t h e w h o l e , h i s r e n d e r i n g d i d s u c c e e d  the p l o t  illiterate  ".  " PABEHCTBO " i s n o t r a v n o s t , b u t e n a k o s t ,  " equality  that,  ..."  superficially  z a v r s e n o p o m i r j e n j e , b u t p o p o l n m i r , meaning  nize  con=  o f the Russian o r i g i n a l , e.g.  "...nyrAMOB, nOKA ETC- BE3J1M,  approximated  f o r he,  recog= i n trans=  i s the  i n 1773 l e d t h e U r a l  against Catherine II of Russia.  ".  110  HOSTNIK MARTIN  One activities Hostnik,  ( 1853  o f the  - ? )  foremost  S l o v e n i a n R u s s o p h i l e s , whose  were d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r  has  poem " The  translated  Song o f O l e g  svet  in  t h e Wise ". E n t i t l e d  1895.  Considering  i n Russia  to p o p u l a r i z e the may  be  tempted  profuse also  use  that Martin Hostnik,  stands  s i n c e 1880, Russian  to f i n d  o f the  published  had  and  a rational  vocabulary  that a f t e r  an  touch  with  h i s m o t h e r t o n g u e . One  projecting the  one  and  latter's  Hostnik  journal  the  role  u s u a l l y wrote  and  worked  for  had  as  tried  Slovenes,  one  Hostnik's  absence o f was  fifteen  more o r  less  out  c o u l d assume t h a t , i n  must be  only t r a n s l a t o r  himself into  o  i n his rendering. It  l a n g u a g e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  Nevertheless, the  who  r e s p e c t , h i s knowledge s t a g n a t e d  Slovenian  being  lived  excuse  from h i s n a t i v e l a n d , H o s t n i k  the  i n the  among t h e  years  particular  " Pesen  furthermore,  language  Russian  to reason,  Pushkin's  6 0  u n d e r t h e pseudonym K r u t o r o g o v , teacher  Martin  i n t o h i s n a t i v e language  vescem O l e g u ", h i s r e n d e r i n g was Slovanski  I I , namely  on  the  Koseski's  h e l p l e s s n e s s when c o n f r o n t e d by  for  by understood  alien  60 M. H o s t n i k , " P e s e n o vescem O l e g u ", A.S. S l o v a n s k i s v e t , ( T r s t , 8/1895 ) , No. 5, pp. 43  of  time.  who,  of his reader,  this  level  given c r e d i t  of Pushkin  of  terms,  Puskina., -44.  Ill  and who  found  i t wise  rendering with In  and  necessary  a b r i e f Russian  an  attempt  method o f t r a n s l a t i n g ,  t o complement h i s  - Slovenian vocabulary.  to i l l u s t r a t e we  quote  Hostnik*s  stanzas  1,  style  2 and  and  7:  "Kak dnes p r i g o t a v l j a se V e S c i O l e g Na mest k nerazumnim Hozarom. N j i h s e l a i n n j i v e , za b u j n i n a b e g , N a m e n i l j e mecem, p o z a r o m . V oklepu cargrajskem z druzino s p e ^ i , In v e r n e g a k o n j a po p o l j u p o d i . N a p r o t i i z l e s a , k j e r v s e j e temno, Navdihneni ide kudesnik; P o k o r e n P e r u n u j e s t a r e c samo, Zavetov bodocnosti v e s t n i k ; V m o l i t v a h , g a d a n j i h p r o z i v s i ves v e k ; I k modremu s t a r c u se b l i z a O l e g . ... T v o j k o n j se o p a s n i h t r u d o v ne b o j i ; Pokoren gospodovej v o l j i , A l j m i r e n pod s t r e l o on v r a l j o s t o j i , A l j d i v j a po b i t v e n e m polji. N i h l a d n i t i s e c a ne b r i g a t a ga: No smrt t i od k o n j a s p r e j m e s s v o j e g a . " By  imitating  the amphibrachic feminine  the e x t e r n a l  measure, the  rhyme s e q u e n c e , t h e  intonation,  and  every  Hostnik presented  line,  transcription In than  volhvi,  literally  Hostnik's Russian  102  and  little and  more t h a n the  zavetov,  each  and  o f h i s model. finds  vesci,  gadanjih,  val, kinzal,  and  a Slovenian  idioms  r e n d e r i n g one  e.g.  falling  paraphrasing Pushkin's  e x p r e s s i o n s , e.g.:  obmancivi  masculine  scheme o f r a i s i n g  line  nabeg, kudesnik,  vojitelju,  o f h i s model,  alternating  o f the v o c a b u l a r y  some f i f t y  sela, bujni  by  form  ...  scede,  no  less  nerazumnim,  vragov, pobeditelja,  112  opasnih  trudov, bitvenem Although  of  view c o m p l e t e l y  Hostnik's  aim  was  S l o v e n i a n , but closeness  this  polji,  r e n d e r i n g i s from  worthless, not  to transpose  S l o v e n i a n and  Hypothetically  Pushkin's  literature  continue  i n the This  be  Ljubljana.  difficult  a given reader  of  fifty  encouraged, the  him  reader  to enjoy  c o u l d be  of  Russian  that Hostnik  o f the  was  further substantiated instrumental i n arranging  book s t o r e i n t h e y e a r fiftieth  1887,  Somewhat l a t e r ,  inciden=  a n n i v e r s a r y of Pushkin's  t h e m a i l i n g o f some h u n d r e d c o p i e s o f P u s h k i n ' s  followed.  too  may  original.  a St. Petersburg the y e a r  striking  t o s e e k some a d v a n c e knowledge  hypothesis  t h e known f a c t  tally  the  many o f h i s r e a d e r s  R u s s i a n , which u l t i m a t e l y would enable  with  into  r e n d e r i n g w o u l d s o o n have l e a r n e d some  would h e l p f u l l y  point  languages.  R u s s i a n would not  R u s s i a n w o r d s . Thus s t i m u l a t e d and  by  work  to h i s reader  a t a s k . With the h e l p o f a d i c t i o n a r y , Hostnik's  artistic  t o assume t h a t  the R u s s i a n  speaking,  that learning  an  i t a l l o w s one  i n s t e a d t o p o i n t out  o f the  have r e a l i s e d  seca e t c .  works  the m a i l i n g o f a d d i t i o n a l  death,  to copies  6 1  61 M. H o s t n i k , " P u s k i n v p e t d e s e t e r i h j e z i k i h ", L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , ( L j u b l j a n a , 19/1899 ) , No. 5, pp. 328.  327  -  113  PRIJATELJ  As grandeur, first  i tbefits  a literary  S l o v e n i a n t r e a t i s e , which  role  Tyutchevv others,  critic  of P r i j a t e l j ' s  Pushkin,  analyzed  of Russian  who p r o f u s e l y t r a n s l a t e d  rendered  into  Daughter  we a r e h e r e  6 2  Professor  novel  " The  and t h e poem " The T h r e e S p r i n g s  concerned  only with  c e n t u r y , we must add t h a t P r i j a t e l j , Pushkin's  him i n  t h e works o f  historical  O n e g i n ",64 w h i c h was s u r p a s s e d composed by M i l e K l o p c i c h a l f  i n verse  later,  " Evgeni  o n l y by a new v e r s i o n  a century  later. ^ 6  62 A.S. P u s k i n , " K a p i t a n o v a h c i . Z g o d o v i n s k a n o v e l a ", P o s l o v e n i l Semen Semenovic ( I v a n P r i j a t e l j ) , S l o v a n s k a k n j i £ n i c a , ( G o r i c a , 1896 ) , v o l . 55 - 66. 63 Ivan P r i j a t e l j , " T r i j e 3/1899 ) , No. 7, p . 165.  vrelci  .  the t u r n o f the  some t e n y e a r s  novel  M  6  h i s above m e n t i o n e d  r e n d e r i n g s , w h i c h were p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e  translated  known  Nadson, S o l o g u b and  S l o v e n i a n Pushkin's  ",  to f i n d  literature. from  o f the  the then  one i s p l e a s e d  T o l s t o y , Koltsov, Polonsky,  Captain's Although  from  of a translator  Prijatelj,  two  ( 1875 - 1937 )  and c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t he was t h e a u t h o r  translations the  IVAN  ", S l o v e n k a ,  ( Trst,  64 I v a n P r i j a t e l j ( p r e v . ) , " E v g e n i j O n j e g i n . Roman v v e r z i h ", P r e v o d i i z s v e t o v n e k n j i z e y n o s t i , v o l . 5, ( S l o v e n s k a M a t i c a : L j u b l j a n a , 1909 ) . 65 P u s k i n A.S., " E v g e n i j O n j e g i n Poslovenil K l o p c i c , K l a s j e , v o l . 43, ( L j u b l j a n a , 1967 ) .  Mile  114  Prijatelj, classical  philology  s e q u e n t l y he worked Vatroslav culture  Jagic.  the son o f a merchant,  at the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i e n n a .  Sub=  as a l i b r a r i a n  linguist  Profoundly  and l i t e r a t u r e ,  St.  Petersburg  his  return  librarian  and t a u g h t  life,  i n Moscow. Upon  1918, he worked Russian  as a  i n the V i e n n a  as i n t h e O r i e n t a l Academy.  Following  the f o r m a t i o n o f the Yugoslav  Prijatelj  was  at  i n Russian  t r a v e l l e d i n 1903 t o  the next y e a r  i n 1905, and t i l l  E x p o r t Academy as w e l l  f o r t h e famed  interested  Prijatelj  and s p e n t  i n Vienna  studied  appointed professor  state  of Slavic  i n 1918,  literatures  the U n i v e r s i t y of L j u b l j a n a . It  ground  i s s e l f - e v i d e n t that  Ivan P r i j a t e l j ' s  and keen i n t e r e s t i n l i t e r a t u r e  qualified  translator, especiallly,  task with  serious  made him a w e l l  as he u n d e r t o o k t h i s  d e t e r m i n a t i o n , which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by  t h e supreme  of  t h e poem " The T h r e e S p r i n g s  Pushkin:  back=  poetic  q u a l i t y o f the f o l l o w i n g  rendering  ":  " B CTEnM MHPCKOPI, nEMAJIbHOR H BE35PEJKHOR, TAHHCTBEHHO nPOBWIHCb TPH KJI10MA: KJ1I0M I0HOCTH--KJ1I0M EblCTPblW H MSTEXHblW - KHriHT, EEJKHT, CBEPKA51 H X y P M A ; KACTAJlbCKHtf KJ1I0M BOJ1HOK) BflOXHOBEHbfl B CTEI1H MHPCKOW H3THAHHMKOB f l O H T ; nOCJlE^HHW KJ1I0M - XOJIO^HWW KJ1I0M 3 A B B E H b 5 i : OH CJIAIHE BCEX )KAP CEPflUA y T O J I M T . "  115  Prijatelj:  "V b r e z k o n c n i , z a l o s t n i s v e t a p l a n j a v i i z zemlje t r i j e t a j n i v i r i v r o : Mladosti v i r , v i r b i s t r i i n v i h r a v i k i p i , b e z i , sumlja ljubko. Z navdusenja v a l o v i v r e l e c drugi izgnance v s t e p i s v e t n i n a p o j i . I n t r e t j i v i r - p o z a b e v i r pa v t u g i v s e h s r c plamen s s l a d k o s t j o p o g a s i . "  Although P r i j a t e l j five-foot  iambic  the  identical  The  construction  correct  r h y t h m , he w i s e l y  style,  o f h i s word o r d e r  transmitted  speaks  i n the Slovenian  became an a r t i s t i c  f o r those Pushkin's  The a liberal Slovenia  two  found  paraphrasing.  i n the o r i g i n a l ,  c e n t r a l idea  in Prijatelj's  end i n i t s e l f .  i na l l  rendering  Pushkin  p a r t i c u l a r rendering  As s u c h , i t was  widely  as a model t r a n s l a t i o n f o r many  a s p i r i n g t r a n s l a t o r of Russian  MEDVED ANTON  11  literal  i s b a s e d on t h e most  tongue. This  regarded worthy o f s e r v i n g  as  preserving  clarity. One may s a y t h a t  an  abandoned  thus  and e v e n t h o u g h he s u b s t i t u t e d c e r t a i n  nevertheless  its  i n h i s rendering the  measure o f t h e o r i g i n a l ,  images o f h i s own f a s h i o n i n g he  retained  poetry.  ( 1869 - 1910 )  priest  and p o e t A n t o n Medved, who was known  and a p a r t i s a n o f t h e l i t e r a r y  movement  Modern ", t r a n s l a t e d i n t o h i s n a t i v e  poems from L e r m o n t o v and t h r e e  poems from  language  Pushkin.  116  Only " The Amulet  " were  a supplementary journal later  h i s r e n d e r i n g s " The B l a c k Shawl " and originally  publication  Edinost.  6 6  o f the  They were  i n the anthology  p u b l i s h e d i n 1898  i n Slovenka,  political-cultural  again published three years  of Russian poetry.  o f t h e poem " MTO B HMEHU T E B E  His rendering  MOEM ", however,  remained  in  68 manuscript  until  1909.  Medved, who of the o r i g i n a l  adopted  i n his rendering entitled  remained  generally  interest  is particularly  translator  sets  the f o u r - f o o t  very close  the tone  to Pushkin's  the opening  trochaic  " Talisman imagery.  s t a n z a , where  f o r a continuous melodic  c l o s e l y akin to that of h i s source: Pushkin: " T A M r f l E MOPE BEMHO n/lElUET HA nyCTMHHUE CKAJlbl, rRE JiyHA TEn/IEE BJlElilET B CJlAflKHtf MAC BEMEPHEtf M r J l W . " Medved:  measure ", Of  the intonation  ...  " K j e r p l e s o c e morje b i j e Ob s k a l o v j e v j e d n o m e r , Kjer t o p l e j e luna s i j e V s l a d k i c a s m e g l a z v e c e r . " ... v  66 No.  A n t o n Medved, " C r n i s a l ", S l o v e n k a , ( T r s t , 2/1898 ) , 23, p . 532; " T a l i s m a n ", i b i d . , No. 21, p . 494. V  67 V e s e l - A s k e r c , op_. c i t . , " T a l i s m a n ", pp. 42 - 43.  v  " Crni  s a l ", pp. 29 - 30;  68 A n t o n Medved, " In k a j t i j e do mojega imena P o e z i j e , v o l . I I , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1909 ) , p . 140.  t  ",  117  Considering of p o e t r y , i t appears dering  several  t h a t Medved was s t r a n g e , t h a t he  Russianisms  and  ( MOTHJlA ) , n a s l a j a j e  and  t h a n b o r r o w from  difficult composed Pushkin: Medved:  to t r a n s l a t e , some l i n e s ...  translating to r e t a i n  stress to  and  certain  Pushkin  fashioning  z i d mi  sklical  freely  by  altering  amphibrachic  o f the  one  translator  i n s u c h words as  v gosti  e.g.:  the  some o f t h e  lines  arbitrarily  t o be  Russian poet  Pushkin.  rhyming  e v e n more  altering  the  natural vecer  vecer.  G e n e r a l l y , Medved's r e n d e r i n g s f a i l e d t h e demand f o r an a r t i s t i c  of  i n order  zame, d o z i v e l , p r o s n j e and  zame, d o z i v e l , p r o s n j e and  ...  liberty  the m a s c u l i n e  is inclined  ...  nekdaj,  a l r e a d y taken  m e t r e and  terms,  literally,  nesramen p o t r k a s k r i v a j . "  A n t o n Medved has  the  source  paraphrase  o f h i s own  scheme o f t h e o r i g i n a l , critical  B l a c k Shawl ", however, Medved,  "OflHAXflb! fl C03BAJ1 BECEJlblX r O C T E f l ; KO MHE n O C T y n A J I C f l ~IPE3PEHHblW E B P E f l ; "  Kar  such  ( BOCTOK ) , m o g i l a  the o r i g i n a l  ... " P r i j a t e l j e  As  i n h i s ren=  laskaje etc.  In r e n d e r i n g " The rather  adopted  composer  c o n s t r u c t e d neologisms  ( MycyJlbMAH ) , i z t o k  a s : musulman  a competent  interpretation  of the  to  satisfy  great  118  KETTE DRAGOTIN  One  ( 1876  - 1899  )  a s s o c i a t e s the poet  Dragotin  u n d e r t h e pseudonym M i h a j l o v M i h a e l , w i t h movement " S l o v e n i a n Modern ".  I t was  into  rhyme and  Slovenian poetry  the  f o r m s . Orphaned w h i l e of  poetical  later  lated  a high-school  i n L j u b l j a n a , Kette  s e v e r a l Russian  Pushkin,  Slovenes  prevodih  from R u s s i a n Rose ",  i n the V e s e l i n 1901. the  form " Cvetke  editing  died  legacy  he  of  i n Novo Mesto  of  trans=  language.  Angel  " and  ", was  from  " The  Flower  posthumously  Ruska a n t o l o g i j a v s l o v e n s k i h reason,  Askerc,  above m e n t i o n e d  Ivan V e s e l title  and  were t h r e e poems  Flower  apparent o f the  original  ( Vesnin  " Cvetka  ) in  " into  who  con=  anthology 1900, its plural  ".  Kette's  published  student  " The  - Askerc  F o r no  the death  changed K e t t e ' s  entitled  sonnet  Even t h o u g h  a rich  poems i n t o h i s n a t i v e  namely " The  tinued with following  Kette  studied Russian  r e n d e r i n g o f t h e poem, " The  published  new  works.  Among h i s r e n d e r i n g s  His  of twenty-three.  to the  introduced  certain  age  wrote  literary  K e t t e who  a small c h i l d ,  left  When s t i l l and  the  still  t u b e r c u l o s i s at the  d i e d young, Kette  free  K e t t e , who  remaining  " Roza " and i n the  two  " Angelj  almanac o f t h e  renderings  from  ", were f o r t h e S o c i e t y o f the  Pushkin, first Slavic  time  ".  119  69 apostles " The his  C y r i l and M e t h o d i u s f o r t h e y e a r 1904. K e t t e ' s r e n d e r i n g s o f t h e poems " The Rose "  Flower  " were p a r t i c u l a r l y  verses run s u r p r i s i n g l y  successful.  Kette:  it rjXE  HAlilA P03A, J\py3bn MOM? yBfl/lA P03A, j-MTSl 3APM. HE TOBOPM: TAK BflHET MJlA/JOCTb! HE TOBOPM: BOT )KH3HM PAflOCTb! UBETKy CKA>KM: HPOCTM, XAHEK)! M HA JlMJlEtO HAM yKAJKMl"  adopted  "kje nasa r o z a , Ljubi moii? Uvela rota Tukaj l e z i . Ne g o v o r i : Tak m l a d o s t g i n e , Ne g o v o r i : Tak r a d o s t m i n e , C v e t k u d e j tarn: Adijo, m i l i , In na c v e t l i l i j Pokazi nam!"  i n his rendering  i a m b i c measure o f t h e o r i g i n a l , follow  exactly  scheme o f t h e  the a l t e r n a t i n g  and  two-foot  h i s rhyming  combinations rhyme  original.  word by word, i n h i s v e r s i o n fidelity  P u s h k i n ' s words Still, a comparison  the  f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e  Whereas K e t t e t r a n s l a t e d  shows l e s s  former,  smoothly:  Pushkin:  Kette  In the  and  o f t h e poem " The  t o t h e m o d e l , f o r he  i n the s p i r i t he  t h e above poem  followed  o f images t o be  sought  almost  Flower to  ",  he  recreate  o f the S l o v e n i a n language. h i s source c l o s e l y  enough f o r  of value:  69 D r a g o t i n K e t t e , " D r a g o t i n a K e t t e j a se n e n a t i s n j e n i p r e v o d i r u s k i h p e s m i , 'Roza', ' A n g e l j ' . " K o l e d a r D r u z b e s v . C i r i l a i n M e t o d a , ( C e l o v e c , 16-17/1904 ) , pp. 36 - 37.  120  " U B E T O K 3ACOXIUMW, B E 3 y X A H H b l H , 3ABb!Tb!tf B KHHTE BUXy A; M BOT y)KE MEMTOK) CTPAHHOfl flytUA HAnOJlHMJlACb M051:  Pushkin:  CUE UBEJI? KOTJ4A? KAKOtf BECHOIO? H flOHrO Jib UBEJI? M COPBAH KEM, My>KOPI, 3HAKOMOM JIH PYKOK)? H nOJ10>KEH CIOJIA 3AMEM? HA nAMflTb HEJKHOrO Jib CBMJJ,AHb5l, MJ1M PA3JiyKM POKOBOR, mib o,anHOKoro ryjiJiHbsi B TMU1M nOJIEW, B TEHM J1ECHOM? M )KMB JIM TOT, M TA JKMB'A JIH? H HblHME rj\E MX yTOJIOK? MJIM y>KE OHM yB51JlM, KAK CEM HEBEflOMUM UBETOK? Kette:  " U s e h l a c v e t k a t u se s k r i v a V s p o m i n s k i k n j i g i p r e d menoj, - I n g l e j , ze f a n t a z i j a z i v a P r e v z e l a v s a j e p o g l e d moj. K a t e r a pomlad t e j e v s k l i l a ? In k j e i n k d a j ? In v k n j i g o t u Cegava r o k a t e s h r a n i l a ? In o h r a n i l a t e cemu? V spomin l i d r a z e g a p r i h o d a , V lo£itve z a l n e l i spomin? V s p o m i n samotnega s p r e h o d a Sred p o l j s k i h , l o g o v i h t i s i n ? In z i v l i on, l i ona z i v a ? Kje srecna i n v e s e l a sta? Morda k o t c v e t k a l j u b e z n i v a Umrla, ovenela s t a . " Although  with  the o r i g i n a l ,  Kette's  there  i s a close  one c a n o b s e r v e  correspondence  a greater divergence i n  e x p r e s s i o n s , which, n e v e r t h e l e s s , b r i n g about the  same i m a g i n a r y has  i n form  effect  a magnificent  as t h o s e  lyric  of Pushkin,  quality.  f o r h i s rendering  121  GREGORCIC SIMON  ( 1844 - 1906 )  The  highly  p o p u l a r S l o v e n i a n p o e t , whose s e n t i m e n t a l  and m e l o d i o u s  lyrics  earned  " goriski translated Mme.  Kern  Morning for  s l a v c e k ", meaning from  ". These  epithet  N i g h t i n g a l e ", ", " To  MTHOBEHbE ) " and " A W i n t e r  t h r e e r e n d e r i n g s by G r e g o r c i c were p u b l i s h e d  t i m e by h i s b r o t h e r - p r i e s t  Anton  A?kerc i n  o f t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  example o f h i s  7 0  One remarkable of  " The G o r i z i a  P u s h k i n t h e poems " The A v a l a n c h e  ( 9\ nOMHK) MyflHOE  the f i r s t  1901.  him t h e c o m p l i m e n t a r y  ability  to translate  t h e poem " A W i n t e r M o r n i n g  Pushkin's  description  with  a marvelous  will  illustrate  Pushkin's Pushkin:  i s h i s matchless rendering ", where G r e g o r c i c t r e a t e d  o f a sunny w i n t e r ' s m o r n i n g  poetic how w e l l  t o u c h . The f o l l o w i n g  scene  opening  stanza  G r e g o r c i c p e r c e i v e d and t r a n s p o s e d  evocative thoughts: "MOP03 H COJ1HI4E; flEHb MyQECHblPI! ElUE Tbl flPEMJIEIIIb, flPyr nPEJIECTHWtf nOPA, KPACABM14A, nPOCHHCb: OTKPOfi COMKHyTH HETOtf B30PU HABCTPEMy CEBEPHOW ABPOPbl, 3BE3/IOK) CEBEPA 51BMCb!" ...  70 V e s e l - A s k e r c , o p . c i t . , " A. K e r n o v i ", p p . 38 - 39; " S n e z e n i p l a z ", p p . 56 - 57; " Zimsko j u t r o ", p p . 57 58.  122  Gregorcic:  "Mraz!..solnce!..jutro divno jasnol In t i s e d r e m l j e l , b i t j e k r a s n o ? P r e k r a s n a , v s t a t i bode £ a s ! O c i mi n e z n e s p e t o t v o r i , In s e v e r n i p o k a z i z o r i Kot z v e z d a s e v e r n a o b r a z . " ...  It the if the  i s known t h a t G r e g o r c i c s t u d i e d t h e C z e c h and  Serbo-Croat  languages,  and when he a c q u a i n t e d aforementioned  himself with  poem i n d e p t h  metaphorical  line  f o r he i n t e r p r e t e d  Nevertheless,  Pushkin's  " OTKPOtf COMKHYTb! HETOW B30PU ", s t a n d i n g  sentence,  though c l e a r l y  S l o v e n i a n language,  flair  h i s rendering the rhythmic  count  of syllables  found  i n the o r i g i n a l ,  remains feminine  identical  transposed  " o c i mi nezne s p e t  With a t r u e poet's in  Russian.  " OTKPOfl TJ1A3A, OMHHCb OT nPHflTHOFO CHA ", by t h e l e s s  poetic the  been e s t a b l i s h e d  r e n d e r i n g shows t h a t G r e g o r c i c s t u d i e d  the o r i g i n a l  for  b u t i t has never  closely  o t v o r i ".  G r e g o r c i c has p r e s e r v e d  cadence o f t h e o r i g i n a l . H i s  f o l l o w s t h e number o f s y l l a b l e s  the iambic  and t h e r h y m i n g  and m a s c u l i n e  i n the s p i r i t o f  endings  tetrameter structure scheme o f a l t e r n a t i n g  corresponds  with  Pushkin's  r h y m i n g . The m a s t e r f u l l y composed r e n d e r i n g by G r e g o r c i c entails  a l l o f Pushkin's  wintery  nature. Although  the  soft  faithful  e x a l t a t i o n s o f the beauty  the t r a n s l a t i o n  and s e n t i m e n t a l t o n e to the o r i g i n a l  o f the  has n o t been w r i t t e n i n  o f i t s m o d e l , i t r e m a i n s most  i n detail  as w e l l as i n s p i r i t .  123  C H A P T E R  F O U R  CONCLUSION  If  one  considers that,  a c c o r d i n g to the  statistical 71  data c o l l e c t e d Pushkin  had  languages  by  as  follows:  ( 1826  ( 1828  ) , Czech  Danish  ( 1843  of  the  chronologically  German  ( 1830  ( 1823  ( 1826  ), English  ( 1849  came i n t o b e i n g  study here  translators  presented  of Pushkin's  were f o l l o w e r s o f t h e R u s s o p h i l e  order of l i f e bring  aim  appears  with  an  which the  and  Italian ),  i t follows translation  the F i s h late.  shows t h a t  the  works i n v e r s e  ",  principal and  prose  S l a v o p h i l e movements.  t o have b e e n t o i n s p i r e  almost  ),  ( 1837  relatively  and  1899,  numerous  ),  ) , Dutch  ) , then  T a l e of the Fisherman  i n 1853,  contemporaries  ( 1835  in  ( 1825  ( 1826  S l o v e n i a n r e n d e r i n g , namely t h e  " The  Their primary  into  ) , Swedish  ), Serbian  ), Anglo-American  The Slovenian  Draganov o f S t . P e t e r s b u r g  ), Polish  first  Pushkin's  published  D.  been t r a n s l a t e d  French  that  P.  metaphysical  their  l o n g i n g f o r an  i d e a o f Slavdom was  expected  l i t e r a t u r e , w h i c h was  always  to  about. Thus R u s s i a n  connected  with  the  life  o f t h e p e o p l e , was  closely  embraced by  71 M. H o s t n i k , " P u s k i n v p e t d e s e t e r i h j e z i k i h ", L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , ( L j u b l j a n a , 19/1899 ) , No. 5, p .  the  327.  124  politically  awaking  medium t o b r i n g of belonging  Slovenian patriots  into  t o one  t h e i r midst o f the  new  great  as  an  ideas  opportune  and  communities  a  sense  of  Slavic  people. Bearing Russian it  l i t e r a t u r e brought  i s not  surprising  eloquent  lyric  contacts  o f the  nineteenth II,  i n mind t h a t  the  with  c e n t u r y , w h i c h we  offered  historical  Slovenes  o f L e r m o n t o v and  Slovenes  for their  Pushkin.  the  The  to the  discussed b r i e f l y  in  meagre mid-  chapter  Slovenian nation  growing sense of  of  vitality,  drawn t o  Russia p r i o r  the A u s t r i a - d o m i n a t e d support  richness  t o e a c h g e n e r a t i o n new  t o see  poetry  the p e c u l i a r  little  national  pride. This second h a l f  gap,  however, had  o f the n i n e t e e n t h  number o f t r a n s l a t o r s Although biased of  from R u s s i a n  poorly versed  them d e v o t e d  their  i n the  interest  a l l the n e c e s s a r y  who  put  artistry  individuals lation  translators  satisfied  ideplogically  art of t r a n s l a t i n g , to t r a n s l a t i n g  politics.  d i d make an h o n e s t  with  were  from  acceptable  As  Pushkin.  some i n d i v i d u a l s ,  the  attempt  study  merely paraphrasing  the  who and  shows, some  at r e n d e r i n g  i n t h e i r day,  *  a number  q u a l i t i e s of a serious t r a n s l a t o r ,  before  from P u s h k i n  the  emerged i n S l o v e n i a .  F o r t u n a t e l y , however, t h e r e were a l s o had  during  c e n t u r y , when a s i g n i f i c a n t  the m a j o r i t y of these  and  been b r i d g e d  others  o r i g i n a l into  a  trans=  seemed Slovenian.  125  If  one  c o n s i d e r s the m u l t i t u d e o f r e n d e r i n g s  Pushkin p u b l i s h e d i n the second c e n t u r y , one that up  period  regrets  the  fact  to Pushkin's  definition  Although the  first  Slovenian thought  that  of the n i n e t e e n t h  S l o v e n i a produced  o n l y a s m a l l number o f t r a n s l a t o r s of a translator:  nOMTOBblE JIOIDAflH nPOCBEIUEHHfl  of  half  this  composite  translation,  that  further  ",  study  who  during lived  " nEPEBOJUHHK -  7 2  t e r m i n a t e s w i t h the  anthology  publication  of Russian poetry i n  p u b l i s h e d i n 1901,  interest  from  i t must n o t  in translating  be  Pushkin's  works d i m i n i s h e d . The Pushkin,  Lermontov, Gogol,  Chekhov and  as  the e a r l i e r If  s t u d y , one  i t stands  Dostoevsky,  authors, carried  to reason, surpass  one  were t o c o n t i n u e b e y o n d t h e  their  quality  inevitably  greatly  have t o c a l l  improved  translators  limits  attention  r e n d e r i n g s o f such  of Pushkin's  p o e t r y and  of to  this the  modern  prose  T i n e D e b e l j a k , Rado B o r d o n , M i l e K l o p c i c , V e r a  72  Tolstoy, on  the  of  Slovenian renderings discussed here.  would  artistically Slovenian  Turgenev,  many o t h e r R u s s i a n  work, w h i c h , of  twentieth century Slovenian t r a n s l a t o r s  as  Brncic,  Bozo  10. A. J1EBHH § A. B. OEflOPOB , (PEA.) , PYCCKME RHCATEJIH  P_ nEPEBOflE  XVIII  - XX  3B,  ( HEHMHTPAfl, 1960  ) , p.  * "The t r a n s l a t o r i s t h e m a i l - e x p r e s s pony enlightenment."  of  157.  126  Vodusek, Oton Z u p a n c i c , V l a d o  Borstnik, Vladimir Levstik,  Ivan H r i b a r , J o s i p Vidmar, Joze U d o v i c An recent found  example o f t h e h i g h p o e t i c  S l o v e n i a n renderings of Pushkin's i n t h e two  poem " I L o v e d t h e o t h e r by „,  and  v.v  Klopcic.  quality  ", one  by  v e r s i o n s of  t h e renowned p o e t  t h e most c a p a b l e t r a n s l a t o r  o f more  p o e t r y , i s to  simultaneously translated  You  several others.  be the  Zupancic,  from R u s s i a n , M i l e  74  Pushkin:  " f l BAC JH0BI4J1: JllOBOBb EUJE, EblTb MCOKET, B flyilJE MOEfl yrACJIA HE COBCEM; HO nyCTb OHA BAC SOJlbUIE HE TPEBOTKUT; fl HE XOMy nEMAJlHTb BAC HHMEM. fl BAC JH0BW1 SE3MOJ1BHO, EE3HA/4E)KHO, TO POSOCTbK), TO PEBHOCTblO TOMHM; fl BAC JH0BHJ1 TAK HCKPEHHO, TAK HEJKHO, KAK JXhft BAM EOT J1I0EHMOPI EWTb ^PyTHM."  Zupancic:  " L j u b i l sem v a s : mogoce v mo^i d u s i se n i u g a s n i l ves l j u b e z n i z a r , v e n d a r n a j n i c p o k o j a vam ne r u s i , z n i c e m e r b e g a l vas ne bom n i k d a r . L j u b i l sem vas m o l c e , b r e z v s a k e n a d e , poln p l a h o s t i i n ljubosumnja muk, l j u b i l sem vas z mocjo l j u b e z n i m l a d e , kot Bog d a j , da b i l j u b i l vas kdo d r u g . "  Klopcic:  " L j u b i l . sem v a s : l j u b e z e n m o r e b i t i g l o b o k o v d u s i t l i mi se v e s c a s , v e n d a r m i r u ne smem vam v e c k a l i t i , z n i c i m e r nocem X a l o s t i t i v a s . L j u b i l sem vas z d a j p l a h o , z d a j o g n j e n o , b r e z n a d e , b r e z b e s e d e v mraku muk, tako prenezno i n tako i s k r e n o , k o t Bog d a j , da b i l j u b i l vas kdo d r u g . " v  73 Oton Z u p a n c i c , " L j u b i l sem ( L j u b l j a n a , 1937 ) , p . 101. 74 M i l e K l o p c i c , " L j u b i l sem ( L j u b l j a n a , 1937 ) , p. 17.  vas vas  ", L j u b l j a n s k i ", L j u b l j a n s k i  zvon, zvon,  127  Both r e n d e r i n g s o f the  hundredth a n n i v e r s a r y o f the  Russian  poet,  in  i t s h o u l d be  t h e numerous r e n d e r i n g s 1901,  j o u r n a l s and  were i n a c c e s s i b l e of time, prose  pantheon years  poetry  to the  to  scattered i n a multitude  of  n e w s p a p e r s , and  and  o f Pushkin  1967.  w h i c h as  reading p u b l i c after renderings  have  found  i n a s i x volume a n t h o l o g y  1950  great  published prior  t h e modern S l o v e n i a n  and  o f the  mentioned t h a t , u n l i k e  from P u s h k i n  w h i c h were f o u n d  periodicals,  death  i n commemoration  1937.  In c l o s i n g ,  year  were p u b l i s h e d  their  such  a brief  o f almost  the  period  the  entire  Slovenian  p u b l i s h e d between  the  7 5  75 P u s k i n , A.S., " Pesmi ". I z b r a l i n p r e v e d e l M i l e K l o p c i c , I z b r a n o d e l o A.S. P u s k i n a , v o l . I , ( D r z a v n a z a l o z b a S l o v e n i j e " : L j u b l j a n a , 1950 ) . P u s k i n , A.S., " P o v e s t i : Zamorec P e t r a V e l i k e g a , B e l k i n o v e p o v e s t i , D u b r o v s k i , P i k o v a dama i n d r u g o ". P r e v e d e l V l a d i m i r L e v s t i k , I z b r a n o d e l o A.S. Puskina, v o l . I I , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1949 T. Puskin, A.S., " P o v e s t i , c l a n k i , pisma: Egiptovske n o c i , S t o t n i k o v a h c i , P o t o v a n j e v A r z r u m i n d r u g o ". P r e v e d l a M i l e K l o p c i c i n V l a d i m i r L e v s t i k , Izbrano delo A.S. P u S k i n a , v o l . I l l , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1951 ) . V  P u s k i n , A.S., " Drame: B o r i s Godunov, S k o p i v i t e z , K a m e n i t i g o s t , M o z a r t i n S a l i e r i , G o s t i j a v c a s u kuge i t d . ". P r e v e d e l J o s i p V i d m a r , I z b r a n o d e l o A.S. P u s k i n a , v o l . IV, ( L j u b l j a n a , 1959 ) . ...continued  128  P u s k i n , A.S., " P e s n i t v e i n p r a v l j i c e : B a h c i s a r a j s k a j a fontana, C i g a n i , Grof N u l i n , Poltava, Bronasti jezdec, P r a v l j i c a o carju Saltanu, P r a v l j i c a o r i b i c u i n r i b i c i , P r a v l j i c a o z l a t e m p e t e l i n c k u i t d . ". P r e v e d l i M i l e K l o p c i c , J o z e U d o v i c , T i t V i d m a r i n O t o n Zupancic', I z b r a n o d e l o A.S. P u s k i n a , v o l . V, ( L j u b l j a n a , 1959 ) . v  P u s k i n , A.S., " J e v g e n i j O n j e g i n . Roman v v e r z i h ". P r e v e d e l M i l e K l o p c i c , I z b r a n o d e l o A.S. P u s k i n a , v o l . V I , ( L j u b l j a n a , 1967 ) .  129  TREATISES AND  1.  ARTICLES PUBLISHED UNTIL  1937  B a d a l i c J o s i p , "Prevodenje Puskinovih d e l a kot J u g o s l o v e n a " . R u s k i A r h i v , X L / X L I I , 1937, 178  - 189  2.  Babnik J o z e f , "Ruski p e s n i k 13/1880, 127 - 131.  P u s k i n " . S l o v e n s k i Narod,  3.  B a h t i n N i k o l a j , "Puskinov konec". Prev. Vera S e r m a z a n o v a , L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 57/1937, 69 - 73.  4.  Bahtin N i k o l a j , "Puskinova k r o n o l o g i j a " . Prev. Vera B r n c i c - S e r m a z a n o v a , L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 57/1937, 5/5, 289 - 293.  5.  Bern A l ' f r e d L j u d v i g o v i c , " P u s k i n T i n e D e b e l j a k , Dom i n S v e t , 70 - 74.  6.  B e r k o p e c 0., " P u s k i n o v o z i v l j e n j e " . 57/1937, 1/2, 1 - 27.  7.  B o r k o B o z i d a r , "V P u s k i n o v o I . , 28.  8.  Borko B o z i d a r , " I z g r a d i v a o P u s k i n u " . 18/1937, X I I I . , 7.  9.  B o r k o B o z i d a r , "Spominu A l e k s a n d r a S e r g e j e v i c a P u s k i n a " . J u t r o , 18/1937, 34, 7.  Brncic1/2,  - Dramatik". P o s l o v e n i l 50/1937-38, 1/2,  leto".  Ljublj anski Jutro,  zvon,  18/1937,  Jutro.  10.  B o r k o B o z i d a r , " S t o l e t n i c a s m r t i A.S. P u s k i n a " . M i s e l i n d e l o , 3/1937, 2/3, 83 - 84.  11.  Borko B o z i d a r , " S r e c a n j e s Puskinom". Z i v l j e n j e 11/1937, X X I / 6 , 86 - 87.  12.  Borko B o z i d a r , " P u s k i n v p r e v o d u J u t r o , 18/1937, 7, 87.  13.  Bucar  14.  Bunc S t a n k o , " A . S . P u s k i n " . L i t e r a r n i o b r a z k s t o l e t n i c i s m r t i . Z i v l j e n j e i n s v e t , 11/1937, X X I / 6 , 81 - 85; P r o s v e t a , 30/1957, 44 - 45.  Otona  i n svet,  Zupancica".  V i k t o r , " A l e k s a n d e r S e r g e j e v i c P u s k i n " . Dom i n s v e t , 8/1895, 15, 449 - 450; 16, 481 - 483. v  130  15.  C e l e s t i n Fran, "Aleksander Sergejevic Puskin". S l o v a n , 1/1884, No. 29 - 41.  16.  D e b e l j a k A n t o n , "Kako so P u s k i n a p o k o p a l i " . v Z i v l j e n j e i n s v e t , 11/1937, XXI/6, 92 - 93.  17.  D e b e l j a k A n t o n , "Ob s t o l e t n i c i P u s k i n o v e S l o v e n e c , 65/1937, 31, 9.  18.  D e b e l j a k A n t o n , " P r o b l e m A.S. P u s k i n a " . Dom 50/1937-38, 1/2, 42 - 66.  19.  Debeljak T i n e , "Puskinova p r a v l j i c a o r i b i c u i n r i b i c i " . N j e n a p r o b l e m a t i k a i n n j e n pomen z a P u s k i n a f o l k l o r i s t a . S l o v e n s k i j e z i k , 3/1940, 123 - 150.  20.  F r a n c e v V l a d i m i r A n d r e j e v i c , "Razvojne p o t i Puskinovega g e n i j a " . P r e v . Borko B o z i d a r , L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 57/1937, 1/2, 27 - 35.  21.  G l o n a r J o z a , " J e v g e n i j O n j e g i n " . P r e l o z i l d r . Ivan P r i j a t e l j . K r i t i k a . Prevodi i z svetovne k n j i = z e v n o s t i , V I . , L j u b l j a n a , S l o v e n s k a M a t i c a , 1909.  22.  G r a h o r I v o , " A l e k s a n d e r S. P u s k i n " , 26. maja 1799 29. j a n u a r j a 1837. Modra p t i c a , 8/1936-37, 2, 65 - 69.  23.  H o s t n i k M a r t i n , "K p e t d e s e t l e t n i c i s m r t i P u s k i n a " . S l o v a n , 4/1887, 4, 55 - 59; S l o v e n s k i N a r o d , 20/1887, 23, 1 - 3.  24.  Hostnik Martin, "Puskin v p e t d e s e t e r i h j e z i k i h " . L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 19/1899, 5, 327 - 328.  25.  K a z i m i r o v i c Radovan, " P u s k i n u S r b a , H r v a t a V e n a e , 10/1924-25, 1, 36 - 43. ( c i r . )  26.  K l o p c i c M i l e , " S t o l e t n i c a smrti v e l i k e g a ruskega p e s n i k a P u s k i n a " . P r o s v e t a , 30/1937, 35, 4; Z o r a , 1/1937, 1, 10 - 11.  27.  Kosovel Stanko, " T r a g e d i j a Puskinove s m r t i " . U c i t e l j s k i l i s t , 6/1925, 2, 15 - 16; 3, 22 - 23; 4, 31 - 32.  28.  Kozak J u s , "Nekaj m i n u t s P u s k i n o m " . L j u b l j a n s k i 56/1937, 1/2, 1 - 5.  V.  smrti". i n svet,  i Slovenaca".  zvon,  131  29.  Kreft  Bratko, "Puskin kot dramatik. 0 delu Boris Godunov". L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 57/1937, 1/2, 19 - 26; 3/4, 113 - 119~~  30.  Kreft  Bratko, "Puskin u slovenackoj k n j i z e v n o s t i " . R u s k i A r h i v , X L / X L I I , 1937, 199 - 208.  31.  L u n a c a r s k i j A n a t o l i j V a s i l j e v i c , "0 P u s k i n u - k r i t i k u " . Prevela V e r a Brncic-Sermazanova, L j u b l j a n s k i zvon, 57/1937, 1/2, 64 - 69; 3/4, 170 - 175.  32.  M a r t e l a n c V l a d i m i r , "A.S. P u s k i n 1799 S o d o b n o s t , 5/1937, 1/2, 5 - 13.  33.  N. N., "Der g e f e i e r t e k r a i n i s c h e D i c h t e r K o s e s k i " . L a i b a c h e r T a g b l a t t , 2/1869, 10.  34.  N. N., " P u s k i n i s l o v e n a c k i j e z i k " . Sa s l o v e n a c k o g V . J . P . , P i j e m o n t , 1/1911, 2, 92. ( c i r . )  35.  P. N., " P u s k i n , p e s n i k s l o v a n s t v a " . P r i j a t e l j , 11/1937, 3, 88 - 90.  36.  P. N., " P u s k i n . Ob s t o l e t n i c i n j e g o v e s m r t i " . i n s v e t , 11/1937, XXI/6, 88 - 91.  37.  P r e o b r a z e n s k i j N i k o l a j , "Pred Puskinovo o b l e t n i c o . Novi v i r i , r a z p r a v e , z i v l j e n j e p i s i " . L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 53/1933, 12, 736 - 743.  38.  nPEOBPAJKEHCKHW 3. H., "nyilJKMH y CJIOBEHUEB". nyUIKHHCKHE) CEOPHHK, 1937, 119 - 148.  39.  P r i j a t e l j Ivan, " S l o v e n s k i prevod J e v g e n i j a Onjegina". Odgovor na k r i t i k o G l o n a r j a . L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 30/1910, 4, 243 - 246.  40.  P r i j a t e l j I v a n , " P u s k i n o v e s l a v n o s t i na D u n a j u " . 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L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , 41/1921, 5, 310  V. - 311.  133  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS A r r o w s m i t h , W. e t a l . , ( e d . ) , The C r a f t T r a n s l a t i o n , A u s t i n , The U n i v e r s i t y 1961. B e l l o c , H., On T r a n s l a t i o n , 1931.  and C o n t e x t o f o f Texas P r e s s ,  O x f o r d , The C l a r e n d o n  Press,  B i b l i o g r a f i j a r a s p r a v a , c l a n a k a i ^ knj i z e v n i h radova, Zagreb, Izdanje i naklada jugoslavenskog l e k s i k o g r a f s k o g z a v o d a , 1963. Brower, R. A., ( e d . ) , On T r a n s l a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959.  Cambridge,  Cankar, J . e t a l . , ( e d . ) , S l o v e n s k i b i j o g r a f s k i 8 v o l s . , L j u b l j a n a , 1925 - 1959. C a u e r , P., D i e Kunst 1914.  des U b e r s e t z e n s ,  Costa, E., (ed.), Letopis Matice 1870.  Hribar,  History  leksikon,  5 Auflage,  Slovenske,  <DE,HOPOB, A. B., BBE.QEHHE B TEOPHIO nEPEBOflA, MOCKBA, 195IT; H a u s e r , A., The S o c i a l R o u t l e d g e , 1951.  Harvard  Berlin,  Ljubljana, M3/4AHHE  flPyrOE,  o f A r t , v o l . 2, L o n d o n ,  I . , M o j i s p o m i n i , L j u b l j a n a , 1928.  Janez, S t . , P r e g l e d zgodovine j u g o s l o v a n s k i h k n j i z e v n o s t i , v o l . I , M a r i b o r , O b z o r j e , 1953. J a n e z i c , A., C v e t j e i z domacih C e l o v e c , 1864. J a r i n t z o v , N., R u s s i a n P o e t s G r e e n 5 Co., 1917.  i n t u j i h l o g o v , v o l . 14,  and Poems, New Y o r k ,  Longmans,  134  Kohn, H., The 1949.  Twentieth Century,  New  York, Macmillan  K0PHHJ10B, B., nOSTbt lOrOCJIABHH 19 - 20 BB., XyflOWECTBEHHAfl JIHTEPATyPA, 1963.  "  Co.,  MOCKBA,  L a v r i n , J . , P u s h k i n and R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e , The E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1947.  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Slovenska b i b l i o g r a f i j a ,  v v Slebinger,, J . , S l o v e n s k i c a s n i k i L j u b l j a n a , 1937.  ihre  v o l . I.,  Ljubljana,  v  in casopisi  1797  T h i e m e , K. e t a l . , B e i t r a g e z u r G e s c h i c h t e des Band I . , Munchen, I s a r V e r l a g , 1956. TOMAUIEBCKHH, E.,  1860.  -  Dolmetschens,  O CTHXE CTATbH, JIEHMHrPA/1, nPHEOtf,  T y t l e r , A. F. , E s s a y L o n d o n , 1907.  on t h e P r i n c i p l e s  1956.  1929.  o f T r a n s l a t i o n , Dent  V e s e l , I . " A s k e r c , A., Ruska a n t o l o g i j a v s l o v e n s k i h p r e v o d i h , G o r i c a , 1901.  §  Co.  135  ARTICLES A s k e r c , A., "Spomenik m l a d e g a P u s k i n a " . C a r s k o e s e l o . Iz popotnega dnevnika, E e t r t i zbornik p o e z i j , 2 zvezek, Ljubljana, 1904. C e l e s t i n , F., " A l e k s a n d e r S e r g e j e v i c P u s k i n " , S l o v a n . P o l i t i c e n i n l e p o s l o v e n l i s t , no. 29 - 41, L j u b l j a n a , 1884. D e r g a n c , F., " J a n e z T r d i n a . A v t o b i o g r a f s k a L j u b l j a n s k i z v o n , L j u b l j a n a , 1905.  pisma",  H o s t n i k , M., " P u s k i n v p e t d e s e t e r i h j e z i k i h " , z v o n , no. 5, L j u b l j a n a , 19/1899.  L j u b l j anski  K r e f t , B., " F r a g m e n t i o s l o v e n s k o - r u s k i h s t i k i h " , r e v i j a, X I . L e t n i k , L j u b l j a n a , 1958. K r e f t , B., " P u s k i n u s l o v e n a c k o j X L / X L I I , B e o g r a d , 1937.  knjizevnosti",  Slavisticna  Ruski  Nida,  Arhiv,  E. A., "The T r a n s l a t i o n o f R e l i g i o u s T e x t s " , B a b e l , v o l . IX, 1963. ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f T r a n s l a t i o n . L a n g e n s c h e i d t K. Co., B e r l i n ) n P E O E P A X E H C K H t f , 3. H . , " n y i U K H H Y C J I O B E H U E B " , EEJIfPAJJCKHM nyillKHHCKMPI C E O P H H K ,  EEJirPAJl,  1937.  P r i j a t e l j , I., "Puskin v s l o v e n s k i h prevodih", Zbornik z n a n s t v e n i h i n poucnih s p i s o v , I I I . Zvezek, L j u b l j a n a , Slovenska Matica, 1901. R i e u , E. V., " T r a n s l a t i o n " , C a s s e l s E n c y c l o p a e d i a L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . I , 1953. 1  of  i  INDEX OF  SLOVENIAN RENDERINGS FROM PUSHKIN  AHTEJI - A n g e l j , 1901, - A n g e l j , 1904, AHMAP - A n c a r , 1901,  ( 1853  - 1901  )  ( V e s e l - V e s n i n ) , p . 64. ( K e t t e ) , p . 118, 119. ( Mencinger  ) , p.  73.  BAPWUJHfl-KPECTbflHKA - G o s p i c a - k m e t i c a , 1875 , ( S t i f t a r ) , p . 86. - B o j a r s k a h c i k o t kmetsko d e k l e , 1883, ( P i n t a r ) , p . 97. EAXMMCAPAMCKMM <t>OHTAH - B a k c i s a r a j s k i vodomet, 1869, p . 69.  ( Vesel-Koseski  ),  EECW - B e s i , 1873,  ( Vesel-Vesnin  ) , p.  64.  BPoxy JIH A Bfloxib yjiMU uiyMHwx - M i s l i i n z e l j a , 1855, ( Z a k e l j ) , p . 53. BOPOH K BOPOHy J1ETMT - K r o k a r j a , 1873, ( V e s e l - V e s n i n ) , p . 64. - Dva v r a n a , 1883, ( L e v s t i k ) , p . 94. - S o t l a n d s k a pesem, 1892, ( T e r n o v e c - L a m u r s k i ) , p . v  B CTEFIM MMPCKOM [ TPM KJ1I0MA ] - T r i j e v i r i , 1901, ( M e n c i n g e r ) , p . 73. - T r i j e v r e l c i , 1899 ( P r i j a t e l j ) , p . 113, BblCTPEJI - Strel,  1883  ( P i n t a r ) , p.  97.  rPOBOBUIMK - R a k v a r , 1894 , ( Kogej /jyBPOBCKMM - Dubrovski, - Dubrovski,  1870, 1883,  ) , p.  96.  ( J u r c i c ) , p. ( P i n t a r ) , p.  83. 97.  EBTEHMM OHETMH - Fragment o f , 1880, ( S t r e k e l j ) , p . 92. - E v g e n i j O n j e g i n , 1909, ( P r i j a t e l j ) , p . v  113.  90.  ii  3HMHHM BEMEP - Zimski vecer,  1862,  ( Vesel-Vesnin  3HMHEE YTPO - Zimsko j u t r o ,  1901,  ( G r e g o r c i c ) , p.  30J10TO H BYJIAT - Zlato in jeklo, MCTHHA - Resnica,  1901,  1901,  ( Mencinger  ( Mencinger  HCTOPM3 n y r A M E B A - Zgodovina Pugacovljevega p . 108.  ) , p.  punta,  ) , p.  62.  121.  ) , p.  73.  73. 1890,  ( -o  ),  KABKA3CKHW nJIEHHHK - K a v k a z k i v j e t n i k , 1869, ( V e s e l - K o s e s k i ) , p . - F r a g m e n t : MEPKECKA51 n E C H f l , 1892, ( T e r n o v e c L a m u r s k i ) , p. 90. K A B K A 3 UORO MHOK) - K a v k a z , 1865,  ( Vesel-Vesnin  KAnMTAHCKAJI flOMKA - S t o t n i k o v a h c i , 1883, - K a p i t a n o v a h c i , 1896,  MAS  1870,  2 6 - T O 1828 r . - M a j a 26, 1828,  62.  ( - r ) , p. 103. ( P r i j a t e l j ) , p.  KJ1EBETHMKAM POCCMH - O b r e k o v a l c e m Ruske, 1863, - K l e v e t n i k a m R u s i j e , 1873, K MOPK) - Morju,  ) , p.  113.  ( V e s e l - V e s n i n ) , p . 59. ( M e n c i n g e r ) , p . 74.  ( Vesel-Vesnin 1901,  69.  ) , p.  59.  ( Vesel-Vesnin  ) , p.  64.  KC-naA 3A rOPOAOM 3A,QyMMHB 51 BPOJKY - P o k o p a l i s c u , 1901, HE  ( Mencinger  n O f l , K P A C A B H U A , nPH MHE - G r u z i n s k a p e s e n , 1870,  OBHflHIO ( K ) - K Ovidiju,  1901,  HOMHOCT 3E<DMP - Gvadalkvivir,  ( Vesel-Vesnin  ( Vesel-Vesnin  1870,  ) , p.  ) , p.  ( Vesel-Vesnin  73. ) , p. 64.  ) , p.  59.  59.  iii  0BBAJ1 - Snezeni  plaz,  1901, ( G r e g o r c i c ) , p . 121.  nECHb 0 BEIUEM OJIETE - P e s e n o vescem O l e g u ,  1895, ( H o s t n i k  ) , p . 110.  nHKOBAfl J1AMA - P i k o v a dama, 1888, ( J . H. ) , p , 104. - P i k dama, 1891, ( Z. D. ) , p . 104. nOTACJIO JJHEBHOE CBETMJIO - U g a s n i l o dneva j e s v e t i l o , p. 73. nOCJIAHHE B CHBHPb - Poslanica v S i b i r i j o ,  1901, ( M e n c i n g e r ) ,  1901, ( M e n c i n g e r ) , p . 73.  nPOPOK - Prerok,  1870, ( V e s e l - V e s n i n  ) , p . 59.  P03A - R o z a , 1904, ( K e t t e  ) , p . 118.  PyCAJlKA - R u s a l k a , 1892, ( T e r n o v e c - L a m u r s k i ) , p . 90. CKA3KA O MEPTBOfl I4APEBHE - M e r t v a c a r e v n a i n sedmero v i t e z o v , 1869, ( V e s e l K o s e s k i ) , p . 69. CKA3KA O PWBAKE H PblBKE - R i b a r i n r i b a , 1853, ( anon. ) , p . 49. - R i b i c i n z l a t a r i b a , 1869, ( V e s e l - K o s e s k i ) , p . 69. - B a j k a o r i b i c u i n r i b i c i , 1889, ( A s k e r c ) , p . 79. CKA3KA O U.APE CAJ1TAHE - C a r S a l t a n i n knez G v i d o n , p . 69.  1869, ( V e s e l - K o s e s k i ) ,  COJIOBEfl kl P03A - S l a v e c , 1901, ( M e n c i n g e r ) , p . 73. TAJIHCMAH - Talisman,  1898, ( Medved ) , p . 116.  TEJ1ETA KH3HM T Voz z i v l j e n j a ,  1874, ( P l e t e r s n i k  ) , p . 84.  iv  TOJICTOMy fl. H. - T o s l t o j u , 1901, ( V e s e l - V e s n i n TYMA  ) , p . 64.  y  - C r n a m e g l a , 1873, ( V e s e l - V e s n i n  ) , p . 64.  yronjiEHHHK - U t o p l j e n e c , 1901, ( V e s e l - V e s n i n ) , p . 64. XYflCOKHWC-BAPBAP - P r e r o j e n j e , 1874, ( P l e t e r s n i k ) , p . 84. U.BETOK - Cvetke,  1901, ( K e t t e  ) , p . 118.  MEPHAfl UlAJlb - C r n i z a v o j , 1877, ( Po S t . V r a z u ) , p . 90. - C r n a s a l , 1891, ( T e r n o v e c - L a m u r s k i ) , p . 90. - C r n i s a l , 1898, ( Medved ) , p . 116. MEPHb - G l o t a , 1901, ( M e n c i n g e r ) , p . 73. MTO B HMEHH TEBE MOEM? - I n k a j t i j e do mojega imena, 1909, ( Medved ) , p . 116. SJIETHfl - Elegija,  1870, ( V e s e l - V e s n i n  ) , p . 59.  3XO - J e k , 1901, ( M e n c i n g e r ) , p . 73. fl HAMflTHHK CEBE B 0 3 ^ B H r - Spomenik, 1901, ( V e s e l - V e s n i n  ) , p . 64.  fl nEPEWMJI CBOy JKEJlAHbfl - P r e z i v e l s v o j e sem z e l e n j e , 1901, ( V e s e l - V e s n i n ) , p. 64. - P r e z i v e l s v o j a k o p e r n e n j a , 1886, ( F . G. ) , p . 100. fl nOMHK) MyflHOE MTHOBEHbE - A. K e r n o v i , 1901, ( G r e g o r c i c  ) , p . 121.  ERRATA  Page:  2  13  / recentdate  12  22  / to t r a n s l a t e /  14  4  21  12  / comand /  45  19  / disparing /  58  9  / CEBPHWE /  5  / CY/1EOK) / CY/lbBOlO  60  Line:  (quote)  /  / themare /  recent  date  to t r a n s l a t i n g  them a r e command disparate CEBEPHWE  

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