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Case studies in documenting the process of organizational change for community organization purposes Audain, Michael James 1965

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CASE STUDIES IN DOCUMENTING THE PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FOR COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION PURPOSES  by  MICHAEL JAMES AUDAIN ROBERT JAMES MYERS JOHN VICTOR BELKNAP  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  A c c e p t e d a s conforming t o the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1965 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree t h a t  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  School of S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada.  Date  RprW  3^>  ;  IS~  permission.  iv ABSTRACT T h i s study i s an i n i t i a l and e x p l o r a t o r y venture examining  toward  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change as i t a p p l i e s to the f i e l d o f s o c i a l  welfare i n Greater Vancouver.  S p e c i f i c a l l y the f o r m u l a t i o n f o r docu-  menting change as o u t l i n e d i n the p r o p o s a l of the Area Development P r o j e c t o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area was used i n three separate case  studies. The  study has concerned i t s e l f w i t h documenting the process o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change (both planned and unplanned),  r a t h e r than a n a l y z i n g  the e f f e c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change has had upon s e r v i c e s and/or a g e n c i e s . The  f i r s t case study d e a l s with three s o c i a l a c t i o n s i n i t i a t e d  i n 1 9 6 4 by the S o c i e t y o f Women Only, a group o f d e s e r t e d women i n the Vancouver Area. to  In each a c t i o n process the o r g a n i z a t i o n was attempting  c r e a t e change i n governmental  control nature.  systems of a mutual support and s o c i a l  The change processes were documented from  their  i n c e p t i o n but not to t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s . The s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change documented i n the second case study o c c u r r e d i n  I96I.  A t that time two d i v i s i o n s o f the S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, the Groupxvork and R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n and the Family and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n were combined. Recreation Council.  The combined d i v i s i o n s became the Welfare and  The whole change process was documented from i t s  i n c e p t i o n i n i 9 6 0 u n t i l the change was assessed by a s p e c i a l committee i n January - March 1 9 6 5 * The  t h i r d case study c o n s i d e r s the documentation  change being attempted c i t y o f Vancouver.  of organizational  i n a geographic a r e a known as S u n r i s e Park i n the  The purpose  o f t h i s change process has been to  V.  formulate plans f o r a c t i o n by the h e a l t h ,  r e c r e a t i o n , education and  w e l f a r e agencies towards s o l v i n g problems that e x i s t or may  e x i s t as  a r e s u l t of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a l a r g e p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t the a r e a .  into  The case study d e a l s w i t h change process i n i t s i n i t i a l  stages as the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  change i n the p e r i o d under study  was  only j u s t b e g i n n i n g . Each w r i t e r has concluded h i s case study by making a number o f critical  o b s e r v a t i o n s concerning the u t i l i t y  of the s e l e c t e d model f o r  the development of both theory and p r a c t i c e i n the f i e l d organi zation.  of  community  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The preparation of this thesis has required assistance from many sources* In particular the writers are indebted to Mr. William Nicholls who as faculty advisor suggested the i n t i a l thesis subject and gave c l a r i t y and guidance throughout the writing of the thesis. Mr* Audain wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the executive and membership of the Society of Women Only, together with professional persons associated with the organization, for their cooperation and assistance. Messrs. Belknap and Myers express their gratitude to the staff members of the Social Planning Section and Research Department of the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area who contributed freely of their knowledge and time. The kind co-operation of a l l individual and agency representatives who were interviewed i s also acknowledged.  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PART I  GENERAL INTRODUCTION S i g n i f i c a n c e and Scope o f the Study, review of the methodology  PART I I  General  THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ONLY Chapter 1, I n t r o d u c t i o n ; Chapter 2, H i s t o r y o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only; Chapter 3 i Change i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S o c i a l Allowances: A n a l y s i s of the A c t i o n Process; Chapter 4, Change i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Family C o u r t s , A n a l y s i s o f the A c t i o n P r o c e s s ; Chapter 5 i Change i n Divorce L e g i s l a t i o n : A n a l y s i s o f the A c t i o n Process;Chapter 6, Observations on the Model  PART I I I  62  THE WELFARE AND RECREATION COUNCIL Scope o f Study, Background D e s c r i p t i o n before the change o c c u r r e d , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e t t i n g Before and A f t e r the Formulation o f the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , Emerging Concepts o f P l a n n i n g , 1965? Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Goal Determination, A c t i o n Determ i n a t i o n , A c t i o n Implementation, Outcome E v a l u a t i o n , Comment on the Model Used  PART IV  THE SUNRISE PARK AREA  117  Chapter 1, I n t r o d u c t i o n ; Chapter 2, H i s t o r y o f S i g n i f i c a n t Events that Lead up to the S u n r i s e Park Development; Chapter 3j C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S u n r i s e Park; Chapter 4, Skeena Terrace Housing P r o j e c t ; Chapter 5» S u n r i s e Park Area O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Development; Chapter 6, S u n r i s e Park Resources C o u n c i l ; Chapter 7 i the S u n r i s e Park Resources C o u n c i l ; Chapter 8 , C r i t i q u e . Appendix A.  L e t t e r from Dr. Joseph C. Lagey, Department o f Health, E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , Washington D.C.  Appendix B.  P r o p o s a l f o r Study o f the Process o f O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Change i n the Area Development P r o j e c t , June,1964  Appendix C.  The S o c i e t y o f Women Only - O b j e c t i v e s  Appendix D.  Mrs. B e n t l e y ' s June B r i e f  Appendix E .  A B r i e f on S o c i a l Allowances - S o c i e t y o f Women Only  Appendix F.  Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , Chronology and Nature of Work Items, May 1961 - January I965  Appendix G  A Model f o r Concerted I n t e r v e n t i o n to Achieve Maximum Impact on Complex S o c i a l Problems  iii Appendix H.  Map Showing the Development o f the L o c a l Area Approach  Appendix I .  Interview Schedule  Appendix J .  Bibliography  TABLES AND CHARTS Page Table A.  Table B.  Table C.  Table D.  A n a l y s i s o f the E x e c u t i v e Committees' Minutes Family and C h i l d Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n s , January - October,i960  84  M a r i t a l s t a t u s o f the head o f f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n Skeena T e r r a c e , e x c l u d i n g s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , as of March 15, 1965  147  Source of income o f the heads o f f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n Skeena T e r r a c e , e x c l u d i n g S e n i o r C i t i z e n s , as of March 15, 1965  147  Percentage and number o f c h i l d r e n by age group i n Skeena Terrace as of March 15, 19°5  150  Table E.  Showing d i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n to f a m i l y s i z e ... 150  Figure 1  S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n s - 1938  67  Figure 2  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n s - 1939-40  67  Figure 3  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n s - 1946  68  Figure 4  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n s 1958  68  Figure 5  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n s i960  74  Figure 6  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n s 1962  74  Figure 7  Skeena Housing P r o j e c t Plan  145  PART I GENERAL INTRODUCTION S i g n i f i c a n c e and Scope o f the Study There has been a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount o f study p e r t a i n i n g to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s to s o c i a l w e l f a r e s i t u a t i o n s i n North America.  The study o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s  to b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y has been much more e x t e n s i v e .  One o f the  e a r l i e s t s t u d e n t s o f change was F r e d e r i c k W. Taylor"*" who  attempted  to i n t r o d u c e a " t h i r d f o r c e " i n i n d u s t r y between l a b o u r and management.  S t u d i e s by M o r r i s o n ,  2  Marrow and F r e n c h ,  c l a s s i c works a s they r e l a t e t o i n d u s t r y .  3  a r e now c o n s i d e r e d  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  knowledge and t h e o r y r e s u l t i n g from these and o t h e r s t u d e n t s o f change. The S c h o o l o f I n d u s t r i a l Management a t the M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f Technology  and t h e Boston U n i v e r s i t y , Human R e l a t i o n s  Center have a l s o made s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s toward  broadening  the t h e o r y and knowledge o f change p r o c e s s i n b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y . I n a d d i t i o n , a g r e a t d e a l o f study has been undertaken i n r e l a t i o n t o group dynamics and how change o c c u r s w i t h i n  groups.  S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s such as Max Weber, T a l c o t t P a r s o n s , K u r t L e w i n ,  T a y l o r , F r e d e r i c k W. "The P r i n c i p l e s o f S c i e n t i f i c Management" Harper, New York, 1 9 1 1 . M o r r i s o n , E l t i n g e , "A Case Study o f I n n o v a t i o n " E n g i n e e r i n g & S c i e n c e Magazine, A p r i l , 1950 'Marrow, A l f r e d S. & F r e n c h , John R.R. J r . "Changing a S t e r e o t y p e i n I n d u s t r y " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , V o l . 2, No. 1, 19^5«  -  Robert Merton, a r e p i o n e e r s  2  -  i n t h i s f i e l d and have given impetus to  the p u r s u i t o f change theory as i t p e r t a i n s to s o c i a l  organizations  of a l l kinds. In the s o c i a l welfare  f i e l d , beginnings have been made only  r e c e n t l y and are g a i n i n g momentum i n s e v e r a l c e n t e r s i n North America. S e l e c t e d e n q u i r i e s made by the authors have i n d i c a t e d that s t a r t s a r e being made i n the United S t a t e s a t the Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e o f Technology and a t Harvard i n s t u d y i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i n eleven j u v e n i l e delinquency The  p r o j e c t s i n major c i t i e s i n the U n i t e d  States.  authors attempted a survey o f v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s who were  known to have some knowledge o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change r e s e a r c h . such person was Dr. J.C. Lagey of the Department o f Health, and Welfare, Washington, D.C.  One  Education,  Dr. Lagey was u n t i l r e c e n t l y the  Research D i r e c t o r o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area and took p a r t i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h  design  of the r e s e a r c h model proposed by that o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s Area Development Project. Dr. Lagey's reply"*" (see Appendix A) suggests that r e c e n t l y the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Youth p r o j e c t i n New York C i t y has appointed  a  h i s t o r i a n to r e c o r d p o l i c y changes and the background reasons f o r these changes as the h i s t o r y o f the p r o j e c t develops. In the area o f systematic  r e c o r d i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change,  Lagey, Joseph C , E x t r a c t s from a l e t t e r dated January r e p l y to e n q u i r i e s by the authors of t h i s t h e s i s .  12, 19&5»  i  n  -  very l i t t l e  3  -  s t u d y has been u n d e r t a k e n .  m a t e r i a l on t h i s  subject.  There  I n f o r m a t i o n sought  h a s been a d e a r t h from the  individuals  who d e s i g n e d t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t model^" r e g a r d i n g a t t e m p t s made t o w a r d r e c o r d i n g change particular are  study i t  support t h i s  theoretical  e x a m p l e s known to  s t u d y has been between  where c h a n g e  t o v i e w the change  has been  and to  this change  the  t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change  in  situations.  I n most i n s t a n c e s  change  In approaching  considerations,  p r a c t i t i o n e r whose w o r k becomes r e l a t e d  has been  being  h a s b e e n assumed t h a t m e t h o d s o f r e c o r d i n g  important for t h e i r  social welfare  fact.  of  "before"  t h e w r i t e r s where  has been  recorded,  and " a f t e r " .  the r e c o r d i n g of  d i r e c t e d toward the process  utilizing  a specific  attempted  t o document  c o n c l u s i o n of the  that  "whole"  The d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e of i n t e r e s t  to the  operational  and t h e o r e t i c a l  few  take  Little place  situation.  the w r i t e r s  In  have  process.  process  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change  community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r  Project's proposal indicates  are  organizational  change  method - a n a n a l y t i c a l m o d e l the  method  that t r a n s p i r e s .  done on r e c o r d i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e s  the i n c e p t i o n and the  There  the  reasons.  for  is  both  The V a n c o u v e r A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t  an e x p e c t a t i o n  that  project  participants  I n A p r i l , 1964, s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l w o r k i n g i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n p o s i t i o n s were c o n v e n e d t o p r e p a r e a p r o p o s a l to study a s p e c t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. The p r o p o s a l was i n t e n d e d to p r o v i d e a method and framework f o r e x a m i n i n g a n t i c i p a t e d c h a n g e s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l n a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t o f t h e Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s o f t h e Greater Vancouver A r e a .  -  k  would r e a c t i n a manner conducive  t o s e r v i c e improvement i f they were  i n r e g u l a r r e c e i p t of documented data on the s t a t e of the v a r i o u s change processes i n which they were engaged."'' such feedback  F l o y d Mann has i n d i c a t e d  how  can induce changes i n the behaviour of an i n d i v i d u a l  or  group i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g : Information about the f u n c t i o n i n g of a system may i n t r o duce a need f o r change. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true when the new data are seen as o b j e c t i v e and a t v a r i a n c e w i t h common p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . Change processes o r g a n i z e d around o b j e c t i v e , new s o c i a l f a c t s about one's own o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n have more f o r c e f o r change than those o r g a n i z e d around g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s about human behaviour. The more meaningful and r e l e v a n t the m a t e r i a l , the g r e a t e r the l i k e l i h o o d of change.2 Although not o p e r a t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s p e c i f i c  development  3 p r o j e c t , change agents  can make use of documented i n f o r m a t i o n con-  c e r n i n g a change p r o c e s s .  By u s i n g such data, they can b e t t e r understand  the dynamics of s t r u c t u r e and  f u n c t i o n and thus r e l a t e to the  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a more e f f e c t i v e manner.  In t h i s way,  the  client  historical  background necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e can be more r e a d i l y a s c e r tained. Case data r e l a t e d to the process of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change can  Area Development P r o j e c t , P r o p o s a l f o r Study of the Process of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Change i n the Area Development P r o j e c t , I96W. 2 Mann, F l o y d C , "Studying and C r e a t i n g Change" The P l a n n i n g o f Chanfce, ed. Warren G. Bennis, Kenneth D. Benne, and Robert Chin; H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1961. p 613. 3  The term "change agent" r e f e r s to a p r o f e s s i o n a l f a c i l i t a t o r of change. See Ronald L i p p i t , Jeanne Watson, and Bruce Westley, The Dynamics of Planned Change, Harcourt, Brace and World, New York, 1958, pp 11 - 14.  -  5  -  a l s o make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development of a p p l i e d s o c i a l theory.  science  When s u f f i c i e n t s t u d i e s have been c o l l e c t e d i n a manner  s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r comparative a n a l y s i s , hypotheses can be t e s t e d and theoretical inferences  drawn.  E v e n t u a l l y , as r e s e a r c h  change r e l a t e d to s o c i a l welfare classifications will in  this  on the kinds o f  i s developed and methodology improved,  be e s t a b l i s h e d to chart the expansion of knowledge  field. T h i s study has been an i n i t i a l and e x p l o r a t o r y  venture toward  examining o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change as i t a p p l i e s to the f i e l d o f s o c i a l welfare  i n Greater The  Vancouver.  formulation  f o r documenting change as o u t l i n e d by the Area  Development P r o j e c t has been used i n three separate case s t u d i e s .  This  formulation  As  was o u t l i n e d i n the design  document (see Appendix B ) .  much as p o s s i b l e , the p a r t i c u l a r method o f a p p l i c a t i o n has been o u t l i n e d i n pages f i v e and s i x o f t h i s document. The  study has concerned i t s e l f with documenting the process o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change (both planned and unplanned), r a t h e r than the impact o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change has had upon s e r v i c e s and/or The  analyzing  agencies.  scope o f the study has encompassed a view of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  engaged i n some aspect  of s o c i a l w e l f a r e .  The study p r o j e c t has three  separate case s t u d i e s and the p e r t i n e n t circumstances of each have been outlined i n t h e i r respective chapters. General Review o f Methodology One o f the e a r l i e r tasks was to develop c r i t e r i a of cases f o r study. for  e f f e c t i v e contact  The c r i t e r i a  e s t a b l i s h e d were:  f o r the s e l e c t i o n  (l) Accessibility  and a n a l y s i s ; ( 2 ) That the study could be done  within  6 -  the p e r i o d a v a i l a b l e to the w r i t e r ;  phases were f a i r l y  c l e a r l y observable;  (4)  (3)  That changes and  That the s u b j e c t had  some p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the w r i t e r . Following  this, a l i s t  was developed o f twenty-seven case  s i t u a t i o n s where o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change was t a k i n g p l a c e .  This  list  was compiled w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of members of the s t a f f o f the S o c i a l Planning  S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s .  Each o f the  w r i t e r s s e l e c t e d one case f o r study. The  f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g to each case was gathered from  a v a r i e t y of sources.  T y p i c a l l y , these sources i n c l u d e d minutes and  r e l e v a n t correspondence p e r t a i n i n g to the case; and v a r i o u s key informants and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The interviews  techniques used i n g a i n i n g the f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l were: conducted w i t h v a r i o u s key i n d i v i d u a l s ;  m a t e r i a l ; and o b s e r v a t i o n s organization  a survey o f w r i t t e n  o f groups w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and o f the  itself.  While a common approach to the documentation o f the cases had been agreed upon by the w r i t e r s , the unique and d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r of each study r e q u i r e d that the exact ing  of p e r t i n e n t data be l e f t  did  not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w the exact  plan f o r the g a t h e r i n g  to the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r .  and r e c o r d The w r i t e r s  sequence o f phases as o u t l i n e d i n  the Area Development P r o j e c t model through to i t s e n t i r e t y .  In the  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , each of which o u t l i n e s one case, e x p l a n a t i o n has been given about procedures The  primary r e s e a r c h  followed. question  was:  "Can the Area Development  P r o j e c t framework be regarded as a u s e f u l t o o l i n documenting the  process of organizational change i n s p e c i f i c cases?" question was:  A secondary  "In these specific cases under study, what i f any  questions about organizational change process does this framework f a i l to answer?"  PART I I CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose o f the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s as o u t l i n e d I n the g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n to the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t :  to explore the documentation o f the  process o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change f o r community o r g a n i z a t i o n purposes u t i l i z i n g the model proposed by Vancouver's Area Development  Project.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Case Study The case study w i l l concern i t s e l f with the S o c i e t y o f Women Only, a group o f d e s e r t e d wives i n the Vancouver a r e a , who, i n February, 1964, o r g a n i z e d themselves to pursue a programme o f s o c i a l action.^" The members of t h i s group are mainly consumers o f s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s and, as such, are f r e q u e n t l y considered to have been so rendered dependent  on, y e t a l i e n a t e d from, the community, that  motivated o r g a n i z a t i o n i s u n l i k e l y .  self-  In f a c t , t h i s i s the only case  known to the w r i t e r wherein d e s e r t e d wives have o r g a n i z e d under own a u s p i c e s f o r the good o f themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  their  Although  t h i s case may be somewhat unique, i t i s o f r e l e v a n c e to community o r g a n i z a t i o n , the l i t e r a t u r e of which i s i n c r e a s i n g l y showing  interest  i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l change being e f f e c t e d through the  e f f o r t s o f v i t a l l y concerned and-'involved c i t i z e n s .  2  S o c i a l a c t i o n i s d e f i n e d as " e f f o r t to b r i n g about change o r prevent change i n c u r r e n t s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s or s i t u a t i o n s , through e d u c a t i o n , propaganda, p e r s u a s i o n o r p r e s s u r e on b e h a l f o f o b j e c t i v e s b e l i e v e d by the s o c i a l a c t i o n i s t s to be s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e " i n Dunham, A r t h u r , Community Welfare O r g a n i z a t i o n , C r o w e l l , New York, 1958, p«52. The New York P r o j e c t , M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Youth i s based on such a premise.  - 9The  study focussed  on the i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l process the  S o c i e t y o f Women Only underwent d u r i n g i t s f i r s t year o f attempting to c r e a t e v a r i o u s changes i n the e x t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l sphere.  After  an o u t l i n i n g o f the h i s t o r y o f the group i n d i c a t i n g the b a s i c programme development o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a time sequence, three main change a c t i o n s were documented u s i n g a framework f o r a n a l y s i s . in  respect  to:  administration  the Area Development P r o j e c t ' s model as  A chapter each was devoted t o change a c t i o n s  1) the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of family courts;  of s o c i a l allowances;  and,  2) the  3) d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n .  a c t i o n , change was d e s i r e d not i n the group i t s e l f  In each  but i n governmental  i n s t i t u t i o n s and the a c t i o n processes deal w i t h t r a n s a c t i o n s o f an i n t e r group n a t u r e . other  Conceivably,  the model c o u l d have been used to document  types o f change a c t i o n s , e.g.,  assistance  f o r group development.  the enlistment  of professional  However, i t was considered  important,  as f a r as p o s s i b l e , t o document planned r a t h e r than unplanned change. In t h i s connection,  the w r i t e r was o f the o p i n i o n  a c t i o n s s e l e c t e d were the l e a s t pragmatic. w i t h a chapter p r e s e n t i n g  that t h e three  The study w i l l  a number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  change  conclude  on the u t i l i t y of  the model f o r the documentation o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. Methodological The  Approach  case study has d e a l t w i t h the development o f the S o c i e t y o f  Women Only over approximately one year, from t h e i r f i r s t meeting h e l d on February 27, 1964, to t h e i r f i r s t annual meeting h e l d on March  4th,  1965. Data was c o l l e c t e d on a r e t r o s p e c t i v e b a s i s from January 6, 1965, to March 4, 1965. Ten i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h the  l a s t i n g a t o t a l o f seventeen hours  s i x p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e r s o f the group.  In a d d i t i o n  - 10 three i n t e r v i e w s l a s t i n g s i x hours were h e l d w i t h three p r o f e s s i o n a l persons who had been r e l a t e d to the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the course o f the year.  Interview  questions  of the model's headings;  with the p r o f e s s i o n a l people were mainly those however, i n t e r v i e w s with members o f the group  tended to be u n s t r u c t u r e d .  The w r i t e r a l s o attended  of the group where he had an o p p o r t u n i t y  two g e n e r a l meetings  to observe i n t e r a c t i o n and to  t a l k i n f o r m a l l y w i t h about ten other members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only. Two o c c a s i o n s where members of the group made p r e s e n t a t i o n s community were a l s o attended. executive,  to the  W r i t t e n m a t e r i a l i n c l u d i n g minutes o f  g e n e r a l , and b r i e f committee meetings were p l a c e d a t the d i s -  p o s a l o f the w r i t e r , as were correspondence, documents, b r i e f s , notes and press c l i p p i n g s . A l l r e l e v a n t data  from i n t e r v i e w s and w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l was noted  on cards, c r o s s checked, and c o n s o l i d a t e d under the g e n e r a l headings o f the Area Development P r o j e c t model. the data has been organized on the p e r s o n a l  However, i t must be s t r e s s e d that  and arranged under the model's headings s o l e l y  judgement o f the w r i t e r .  Permission  was granted  a c t u a l names o f members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only. been s u b j e c t e d  to use  The a n a l y s i s has  to n e i t h e r the e v a l u a t i o n o f the group i t s e l f nor o f  p r o f e s s i o n a l persons who have i n some c a p a c i t y been connected with the group, although c o n s i d e r a b l e  a s s i s t a n c e i n the development o f a study  method was given to the w r i t e r by the t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r . F i n a l l y , i t must be noted t h a t data w i l l not be c o n s t a n t l y supported by r e f e r e n c e  to unpublished  m a t e r i a l u n l e s s i t i s thought to  be p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary by the w r i t e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , when e l a b o r a t i n g on c o n t r o v e r s i a l matters or where a reasonable e x i s t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  records.  amount o f documentation  CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ONLY The f i r s t meeting of the S o c i e t y of Women Only was February 2 ? , Bentley.  1964.  I t was  h e l d on  c a l l e d by a r e s i d e n t o f Burnaby, Mrs. P e a r l y  A deserted mother of t h r e e small c h i l d r e n , she had been l i v i n g  on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s due to d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g maintenance  payments from her husband.  In e a r l y February 1964,  Mrs. B e n t l e y appeared on a morning  t e l e v i s i o n programme to d e s c r i b e her p l i g h t and to make an appeal f o r other women i n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n to j o i n with her i n a programme of social action.  The response by telephone was  such that she was  en-  couraged to c a l l a meeting to form a group to work f o r her cause. The f i r s t meeting was h e l d i n a Burnaby  church h a l l .  I t was  attended by about f o r t y women and w i d e l y r e p o r t e d i n the p r e s s .  Many  complaints about the inadequacy of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p o l i c i e s and the l a c k of e f f e c t i v e enforcenmt o f the Wives' and C h i l d r e n ' s  Maintenance  Act were v o i c e d . On the s t r e n g t h of the support she was went alone to V i c t o r i a on March 3,  1964,  r e c e i v i n g , Mrs. B e n t l e y  to make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s to  the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g to d e s e r t i o n .  She met  with the L i b e r a l and the New  P a r t y caucuses, as w e l l as w i t h Highways M i n i s t e r , P.A.  Democratic  Gaglardi.  Mrs.  Bentley a p p a r e n t l y r e c e i v e d sympathetic h e a r i n g s . Gordon Dowding, M.L.A. (N.D.P.- Burnaby), attended the second meeting of the group on March 5th, as d i d Miss B e a t r i c e Y.W.C.A. s o c i a l worker.  Sanderson,  Mr. Dowding gave the women l e g a l a d v i c e while  - 12 Miss Sanderson helped  -  them to develop and  formalize their  organi-  zation. A panel  d i s c u s s i o n on the problems of d e s e r t i o n was  the t h i r d meeting on A p r i l 2nd. Weber of New  Miss Sanderson, Mr.  Westminster were among the speakers.  were adopted by the group;"*" for consideration.  An  and  executive  At an open meeting on May the Attorney-General's By now, aim  Dowding and  also elected.  ? t h , Mr.  Bowen-Colthurst of  T.C.  group.  decided  that i t would  f o r changes i n the d i v o r c e laws, as w e l l as i n the  were c i r c u l a t e d The  sheets  c a l l i n g for revision  now  of d i v o r c e  a  legislation  May. In June i t claimed  p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Corres-  being exchanged w i t h other areas i n Canada.  On June l ? t h , e i g h t panelists d i s c u s s e d d i v o r c e . w r i t i n g campaign on t h i s s u b j e c t was Mrs.  administration  To t h i s end,  r e c e i v i n g wide a t t e n t i o n .  e i g h t y - f i v e members i n d i f f e r e n t pondence was  Court l e g i s l a t i o n .  i n the l a t t e r p a r t of  group was  presented  committee was  the S o c i e t y of Women Only had  number of p e t i t i o n  Mr.  A set of o b j e c t i v e s  a number of by-laws were  Department addressed the  of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and Family  h e l d at  Bentley,  i n i t i a t e d to the  i n the company of Mrs.  Chairman, v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a  letter-  press.  D o r i s Ried, Membership  again on June 22nd.  three page b r i e f which c a l l e d  A  She  took w i t h her a  f o r widespread changes i n s o c i a l  welfare 2  s e r v i c e s , i n the laws r e s p e c t i n g maintenance, and  Appendix C Appendix D  f o r d i v o r c e reform.  - 13 On t h i s o c c a s i o n they met  with E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r Peterson and  rep-  r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Department of the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l and the Department of S o c i a l  Welfare.  A comprehensive b r i e f d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was  started  i n J u l y by the education and b r i e f s committees under the d i r e c t i o n of Mrs. P h i l l i s R u d d e l l .  The p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s b r i e f took a t l e a s t s i x  committee meetings and much work was briefs,  i n v o l v e d i n c l u d i n g r e a d i n g past  f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h l e g i s l a t i o n and p r a c t i c e s , and c o n s u l t a t i o n  w i t h a number of p r o f e s s i o n a l  persons.  Miss Sanderson moved away from Vancouver i n June and thus M t group without a p r o f e s s i o n a l e n a b l e r .  However, d u r i n g the summer, Mrs.  Bentley c a l l e d on many community l e a d e r s and agency e x e c u t i v e s . September, Mrs. the group.  Bentley was  She was  h o s p i t a l i z e d and subsequently  succeeded  the  In  r e s i g n e d from  as P r e s i d e n t by the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , Mrs.  Doreen K a i s e r . The group became f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d under the S o c i e t i e s Act i n August, thus ending an i n v o l v e d e f f o r t to formulate a c o n s t i t u t i o n and by-laws which had been commenced by Mr.  Dowding i n March, and  finally  r e s o l v e d with the h e l p of Mr. Wally Beck, a Vancouver lawyer. A l s o i n August a number of members t r a v e l l e d to P e n t i c t o n to e s t a b l i s h a group t h e r e .  They r e c e i v e d a good r e c e p t i o n and were success-  f u l i n o r g a n i z i n g about twelve d e s e r t e d wives.  In September, the pro-  gramme of p u b l i c education continued with another panel on a s p e c t s of desertion. The October;  b r i e f on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was  finally  completed  and on November 11, Mrs. E u d d e l l and Mrs. E l l a  i n late  Conners,Secretary,  - I n f o r m a l l y presented i t to S o c i a l Welfare M i n i s t e r B l a c k . T h e y l o n g d i s c u s s i o n with Mr. Black and department o f f i c i a l s ;  had a  but a c c o r d i n g  to the women, no a c t i o n was promised. On January 1 2 , I9S3,  Mrs. R u d d e l l appeared b e f o r e Vancouver C i t y  C o u n c i l to urge b e t t e r enforcement  o f Family Court l e g i s l a t i o n .  C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r , Mr. Gordon Stevens, a l s o spoke.  The  The matter was  then turned over to the C o u n c i l ' s h e a l t h and w e l f a r e committee.  A start  had been made on a Family Court b r i e f i n September, however the matter was  postponed  u n t i l the completion of the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e b r i e f .  On February 1 6 , 1 9 6 5 * Mrs. K a i s e r spoke i n a panel d i s c u s s i o n a t the convention o f the P r o v i n c i a l c r e a t e d a concern about  C o u n c i l o f Women i n V i c t o r i a .  the e f f e c t s  She  o f d e s e r t i o n i n t h i s body and was  asked t o accompany the e x e c u t i v e members o f the P r o v i n c i a l  Council of  Women when they made t h e i r annual p r e s e n t a t i o n to the c a b i n e t . In March 1 9 6 5 1 r e a c t i o n to the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e b r i e f was s t i l l being r e c e i v e d ; however the Family Court B r i e f i s now b e i n g prepared. By the end o f 1 9 6 5 » *  n  e  S o c i e t y of Women Only hopes to have presented a  b r i e f on d i v o r c e i n Ottawa.  Appendix E  CHAPTER 3 CHANGE IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SOCIAL ALLOWANCES: ACTION PROCESS The relation  ANALYSIS OF THE  a c t i o n process engaged i n by the S o c i e t y o f Women Only i n  t o d i f f i c u l t y encountered i n l i v i n g adequately on s o c i a l  a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be analysed  w i t h i n the framework o f the Area Development  P r o j e c t ' s model. 1.  Problem  Identification  a.  Who i d e n t i f i e d the problem?  i.  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problem o f l i v i n g adequately on  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was f i r s t made by Mrs. B e n t l e y . felt  that i t was desperation  s o c i a l assistance  about her c o n t i n u i n g  I n f a c t , she e x i s t e n c e on  that prompted her to engage i n the p u b l i c i t y  which l e d to the founding of the S o c i e t y o f Women Only. Mrs. Bentley  s t a t e d that she was p a r t i c u l a r l y  l e a r n e d t h a t one o f her three f o r h i s patched c l o t h i n g .  d i s t r e s s e d when she  sons had been r i d i c u l e d a t s c h o o l  Although she s a i d  concerned about the problem f o r three  that she had been  to f o u r years, i t was only  i n February 1964 that she became determined to no longer a passive ii.  accept  role.  The problem a l s o emerged d i r e c t l y out o f the experiences o f  many o f the women who attended the f i r s t meetings of the o r g a n i zation.  They came to the meetings because they had problems i n  common, one o f which was m a i n t a i n i n g  a satisfactory  standard o f  l i v i n g f o r themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n w h i l e i n r e c e i p t o f s o c i a l assistance.  Miss Sanderson, the Y.W.C.A. s o c i a l worker who  - 16 h e l p e d the group from i t s e a r l y stages, s t r e s s e d that the women did  not only want higher s o c i a l allowances.  off  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and thereby r a i s e t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f them-  s e l v e s as worthwhile due  people;  They wanted to get  however, Miss Sanderson  stated,  that  t o t h e i r l a c k of e d u c a t i o n , the l a c k o f a government medical  scheme, and the h i g h c o s t o f day care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , many women found i t a c t u a l l y more advantageous t o l i v e on s o c i a l  assist-  ance, "although they r e a l i z e d that i t was no good f o r them as people."'*'  The B r i e f on S o c i a l Allowances, which was prepared by  the s o c i e t y , c o n t a i n e d two complete  statements by members of the  group which s e r v e d to d e t a i l the way i n which l i v i n g on s o c i a l  2 a s s i s t a n c e was f o r c i b l y seen as being a severe problem, b.  How was i t i d e n t i f i e d ?  i.  The problem  was f i r s t brought  to the a t t e n t i o n of the community  by Mrs. Bentley when she engaged i n c e r t a i n a c t i o n s which l e d to the founding of the S o c i e t y of Women Only.  E a r l y i n February, 1964, she  wrote a number o f l e t t e r s to the p r e s s to d e s c r i b e her p l i g h t .  This  r e s u l t e d i n her b e i n g asked to appear on Mr. Brad Keen's morning show on CHAN-TV.  A f t e r her i n t e r v i e w , Mrs. B e n t l e y r e c e i v e d many  'phone c a l l s from women who s a i d they were i n a s i m i l a r position.  desperate  About t e n days l a t e r , on February 2?» 1964, Mrs. Bentley  arranged the f i r s t meeting of the group. ii.  The problem was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g meetings o f the group. In  I n t e r v i e w with Miss Sanderson, Appendix E  February  27, 1965*  - 17 f a c t , most of the programmes o f the e a r l y meetings were simply devoted to women d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r p l i g h t .  D i s c o n t e n t w i t h the  s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s was v o i c e d . iii.  The o b j e c t i v e s o f the S o c i e t y of Women Only, prepared by  Mrs. B e n t l e y , a s s i s t e d by Mrs. O l i v e McRae, Mrs. E l l a  Conners,  Lawyer Gordon Dowding, M.L.A., and s o c i a l worker Miss B e a t r i c e Sanderson, were adopted by the group a t t h e i r f o u r t h meeting. statement served t o f o r m a l l y i d e n t i f y to face the group.  the problems that were  The felt  High on the l i s t were those c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l  assistance: !•  To b e t t e r the home l i f e and u p b r i n g i n g of c h i l d r e n of deserted mothers through improved w e l f a r e f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l arrangements.  2.  To remove the s o c i a l stigma which an uninformed s o c i e t y has p l a c e d upon deserted women l i v i n g on s o c i a l w e l f a r e , i n o r d e r that these women may take t h e i r r i g h t f u l place i n society.  6.  To b r i n g about a re-assessment of w e l f a r e payments i n terms o f the p r e s e n t day cost o f l i v i n g , and t h a t a r e a l i s t i c b a s i s of payment be found f o r those mothers who a r e able to earn a s m a l l sum each month through p a r t - t i m e work.l  c.  How was the extent and nature o f the problem  verified?  i.  The problem was v e r i f i e d mainly by v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l persons  w i t h whom the group had c o n t a c t a t an e a r l y stage. that Miss Sanderson was of p a r t i c u l a r  help.  I t i s apparent  She spoke i n a panel  d i s c u s s i o n a t the t h i r d meeting o f the group known as Mothers Only, l o c a t e d i n the Vancouver's L i t t l e Mountain Housing P r o j e c t , who had prepared a b r i e f c a l l i n g f o r h i g h e r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s i n 1961.  'Appendix C  -  Miss Sanderson a l s o informed allowances in  -  18  the group that the l e v e l o f s o c i a l  was r e c o g n i z e d as being a severe problem by other groups  the community, such as the B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers.  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only a l s o l e a r n e d from t h e i r  social  workers that people working i n the f i e l d o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e were aware of the problem but seemed i n c a p a b l e o f doing much about it."*" ii.  I n a d d i t i o n , the problem was v e r i f i e d by the l a r g e volume o f  phone c a l l s and correspondence stages.  r e c e i v e d by the group i n i t s e a r l y  L e t t e r s were r e c e i v e d from a l l over B r i t i s h Columbia,  i n d i c a t i n g that the problem was not l o c a l , but o f a p r o v i n c i a l and deeply f e l t 2.  Goal  nature.  Determination  a.  What type o f change was planned?  i.  The S o c i e t y o f Women Only was anxious  to o b t a i n i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l  allowances, i n c l u d i n g an immediate i n c r e a s e o f a t l e a s t 20% with an annual  review, more p e r m i s s i v e grants t o meet i n d i v i d u a l needs, a  h i g h e r l e v e l o f a l l o w a b l e e a r n i n g s , and p e r m i s s i o n f o r a deserted mother t o keep support payments from a husband e q u i v a l e n t to the 2  amount she i s allowed t o earn. ii.  The group wanted t o o b t a i n an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f q u a l i -  f i e d s o c i a l workers employed i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e agencies i n order to p r o v i d e more i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . ^  Interview with Mrs.  B e n t l e y , January  18, 1965  S o c i e t y o f Women Only, A B r i e f on S o c i a l Bfllowances, October, 4-6. Appendix E ^ I b i d . , p . 6 Appendix E  1964,pp.  -  iii.  1 9  -  The S o c i e t y o f Women Only a l s o wanted to e f f e c t change by  having a l l welfare to help deserted  o f f i c e s e s t a b l i s h a f r e e l e g a l a i d department  wives and mothers."*"  b.  Who suggested i t and how was i t suggested?  i.  I t appears t h a t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the type o f changes  d e s i r e d came mainly from the members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only 2  themselves.  Miss Sanderson confirms t h i s c o n c l u s i o n .  c u l t y i n l i v i n g on the present  i n a b i l i t y to o b t a i n competent l e g a l advice  administered  diffi-  l e v e l o f s o c i a l allowances d i r e c t l y  l e d them to advocate an i n c r e a s e i n these allowances;  responsibility  Their  i n addition,  resulted i n their placing  f o r t h i s s e r v i c e i n the government department that  t h e i r income.  At f i r s t  the women simply  put forward suggestions f o r change  at meetings, but l a t e r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  committee spent  considerable  time i n d e f i n i n g e x a c t l y the k i n d o f changes the group was i n t e r e s t e d in — the ii.  t h i s was d u r i n g task o f p r e p a r i n g  the b r i e f on s o c i a l  assistance.  P r o f e s s i o n a l people a l s o played a r o l e i n suggesting  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n B.C.  the d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f the committee charged with  of social assistance.  changes i n  Mr. Ronald Hawkes, P r e s i d e n t ,  A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, and Mr.  Edward Sopp, U n i t D i r e c t o r ,  Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, were p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i n suggesting interested. committee.  the k i n d o f changes i n which the s o c i e t y might be These two s o c i a l workers a s s i s t e d the work o f the  I t i s understood t h a t Mr. Hawkes, p a r t i c u l a r l y , was to  I b i d . , p. 7 « Interview  brief  Appendix E  w i t h Miss Sanderson, February 2 7 , 1 9 ° 5  -  some degree r e s p o n s i b l e  20 -  f o r the recommendation i n c l u d e d i n the  b r i e f that the number o f q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers i n p u b l i c  welfare  agencies needs t o be i n c r e a s e d . c.  Who i s seen as the t a r g e t ( s ) f o r change? I t i s c l e a r t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government was seen as being  the  t a r g e t f o r change by the S o c i e t y o f Women Only and i t s b r i e f  committee; although i n the very  e a r l y stages o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , Mr.  Gordon Dowding i n d i c a t e d that some members o f the group were under the impression  that change c o u l d be e f f e c t e d by simply  t h e i r l o c a l M.L.A.'*"  Within  the c a b i n e t ,  convincing  the group f e l t  that both  Premier W.A.C. Bennett and the M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , Hon. Wesley Black, were the key f i g u r e s to i n f l u e n c e i f a change i n the administration d.  o f s o c i a l allowances was to be brought about.  What was the estimate o f the v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f the t a r g e t to change? . Apparently the members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only were very  o p t i m i s t i c that change would be forthcoming on the p a r t o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government.  T h i s f e e l i n g was shared by Mrs. Bentley and  most o f the members o f the group. nor  They e s t a b l i s h e d no time l i m i t  d i d they expect very r a d i c a l change;  however, they demonstrated  a f i r m b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t y of concerned and organized a f f e c t the p o l i c i e s o f government. Dowding i n d i c a t e d that they f e l t  c i t i z e n s to  Both M i s s Sanderson and Mr.  the women were too o p t i m i s t i c and  would, i n f a c t , be soon d i s a p p o i n t e d  when they r e a l i z e d the d i f f i -  c u l t i e s of e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l a c t i o n .  In view o f t h i s ,  Interview  with Mr. Dowding, February 1 7 , 1 9 6 4  these  - 21 p r o f e s s i o n a l people attempted to help the members p l a n on: a l o n g term basis.  The  group estimated the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the t a r g e t to change,  not on the b a s i s of experience or a d v i c e , but on the b a s i s of own  dedication  their  to do something about the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement  f o r mutual support i n the s o c i e t y i n which they were l i v i n g . A c t i o n Determination a.  What a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s were made to b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change? Who made them?  i.  The  S o c i e t y of Women Only decided  persuasion.  They would attempt to convince the t a r g e t of the necess-  i t y of making the proposed changes. change was  first  decided  ii.  l a t e r adopted and  I t was  a l s o decided  T h i s method of b r i n g i n g about  upon and used by Mrs.  as a c i t i z e n than as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i t was  to engage i n a process o f  Bentley  a c t i n g more  of an o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  however,  employed by the group as a whole. to encourage t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n .  The  s o c i e t y hoped to c r e a t e an awareness of the need f o r change i n i n f l u e n t i a l groups such as Members of the L e g i s l a t u r e , c l e r g y , s o c i a l workers, and women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s . by both Miss Sanderson and Mr. mobilized  to exert pressure  I t was  suggested to the  society  Dowding, that i f these groups could  be  on the P r o v i n c i a l Government, change would  be more l i k e l y . iii. and  A d e c i s i o n was p u b l i c education  the deserted  a l s o made to engage i n a programme of p u b l i c i t y so t h a t the community would come to understand  mother's p l i g h t and would thus support the Government  i n making changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n need f o r such a programme was  recognized  of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  The  at an e a r l y stage by  Mrs.  - 22 Bentley b.  and other  executive  officers.  What were the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes o f each o f these a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s ? The  a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes o f the group's d e c i s i o n s  a c t i o n determination  are s e l f - e v i d e n t .  The P r o v i n c i a l Government  would e i t h e r respond t o a programme o f p e r s u a s i o n or i t would ignore  representations  regarding  and c r e a t e  made by the group.  change  In the same  manner, community groups would e i t h e r be motivated to take a c t i o n i n respect  to needs o f deserted  Likewise,  f a m i l i e s or they would remain d i s i n t e r e s t e d .  the p u b l i c would show some change i n the way welfare  are viewed or they would remain a p a t h e t i c  recipients  i f not h o s t i l e .  In making a c h o i c e o f d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s , the members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only had l i t t l e c.  to l o s e but much to g a i n .  What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , i . e . on p a r t of t a r g e t and on p a r t o f change agent? As i n d i c a t e d i n commenting on the e s t i m a t i o n  o f the v u l n e r -  a b i l i t y o f the t a r g e t t o change ( 2 . d . ) , the members o f the s o c i e t y were confident  that some change could be obtained  and to t h i s end they made  t h e i r a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s i n the b e l i e f that such methods would produce success.  I t i s not known what was seen as an expected outcome on the  p a r t o f the t a r g e t . Action  Implementation  a.  Who became i n v o l v e d ?  i.  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only, p a r t i c u l a r l y the b r i e f and  education  committees.  ii.  P r o f e s s i o n a l persons.  iii.  Community groups.  - 23 iv.  The g e n e r a l p u b l i c  v.  The t a r g e t  b.  How were they  involved?  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only, u s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s , attempted to persuade the t a r g e t to i n i t i a t e change, while a t the same time attempting  to i n f l u e n c e the community groups  and the p u b l i c to pressure the t a r g e t f o r such change. c.  What methods were a c t u a l l y used? In an a n a l y s i s o f the methods a c t u a l l y used to induce  it  i s necessary  by Mrs.  change,  to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between a c t i v i t i e s undertaken  Bentley a c t i n g as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the S o c i e t y o f Women  Only but without  the e n d o r s a t i o n o f the members and plans  out by e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s s a n c t i o n e d by the group.  Mrs.  carried Bentley  v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a on two o c c a s s i o n s to attempt to persuade the P r o v i n c i a l Government to improve the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s o c i a l ance.  assist-  On March 5, 1964, she was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g an i n t e r -  view w i t h a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Department o f S o c i a l Welfare and so she contented h e r s e l f w i t h a d d r e s s i n g the L i b e r a l and New Democratic P a r t y caucuses and t a l k i n g i n f o r m a l l y with Highways M i n i s t e r P.A. Gaglardi.  I t i s understood  from Mrs.  Bentley that problems r e l a t e d  to s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e were among the i s s u e s t h a t were discussed."*" Mrs.  Bentley v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a a g a i n on June 22, 1964, t h i s time i n  Interview with Mrs.  B e n t l e y , January  18, 1965  -  24  -  the company of Mrs. D o r i s R i e d , Membership Chairman. took w i t h her a three page b r i e f which argued  Mrs. B e n t l e y  f o r changes i n f a m i l y  c o u r t proceedings and i n d i v o r c e laws as w e l l as i n s o c i a l welfare services."*'  I t must be noted, however, that t h i s b r i e f was composed  by Mrs. Bentley with some help from Mrs. Ried's b r o t h e r and i s t h e r e f o r e not c o n s i d e r e d to be s t r i c t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t h i n k 2  i n g o f the s o c i e t y .  In any event, the b r i e f was presented to  E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r L e s l i e Peterson and d i s c u s s e d with Mr. Peterson, Deputy Welfare M i n i s t e r Ray R i c k i n s o n , and Deputy A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l Gilbert  Kennedy.  the p l i g h t  During the summer months, Mrs. Bentley d i s c u s s e d  of the d e s e r t e d mother on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h a number  of heads o f s o c i a l agencies, c l e r g y , and community workers i n an attempt  to urge them to l e n d support to the S o c i e t y o f Women Only. While Mrs. B e n t l e y was occupied i n the above-mentioned  activi-  t i e s other members o f the s o c i e t y decided to implement a c a r e f u l l y planned i.  change a c t i o n u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g methods:  Preparation of a b r i e f .  concerns  The i d e a o f u s i n g b r i e f s  to government was suggested  by Mr. Dowding.  to present  to the group i n i t s e a r l y  their  stages  During June, i t was decided a t a meeting that the  f i r s t b r i e f would concentrate on the d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i v i n g on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , s i n c e many members were being a c u t e l y d i s t r e s s e d by t h i s problem.  To prepare  the b r i e f , a j o i n t meeting o f the education and  Appendix D I n t e r v i e w with Mrs. R u d d e l l , March 3 , 1 9 6 5  - 25 b r i e f committees was  h e l d under the chairmanship  on J u l y 23rd, 1964.  Miss Sanderson was  of Mrs.  Ruddell  present and helped  the  members to l i s t a l l the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of p r o p o s a l s t h a t should be made to government. 1964,  At a subsequent committee meeting on J u l y  Mr. Ronald Hawkes, P r e s i d e n t , B.C.  30,  A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers,  attended to help the committee to focus on the types of recommendations that i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e to make and on a s u i t a b l e r a t i o n a l e f o r change.  He a l s o suggested  t h a t q u o t a t i o n s be used from p r e v i o u s b r i e f s  on s o c i a l allowances made by such groups as the Community Chest  and  C o u n c i l s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area and the B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers. i z e d themselves  Between meetings,  members of the committee  familiar-  w i t h p e r t i n e n t l e g i s l a t i o n and w i t h other r e p o r t s and  b r i e f s r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; from the minutes of the August 20,  1964,  however, the f o l l o w i n g quotation meeting i n d i c a t e s the manner  i n which the group viewed t h e i r work: I t i s our f i n d i n g t h a t we, as people who have l i v e d on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , should be the most a p p r o p r i a t e group to prepare t h i s b r i e f . . . . T h e r e f o r e , our own b r i e f should concentrate on the a c t u a l experience of members. The b r i e f w i l l be put down i n as simple and uncomplicated way as p o s s i b l e . We w i l l simply s t a t e case h i s t o r i e s and recommendations.1 The  committee completed  the b r i e f i n l a t e September a f t e r  having  r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l help i n a r r a n g i n g t h e i r m a t e r i a l from Mrs. McDonald, Community Development O f f i c e r , Vancouver Times, and Mr.  Edward Sopp, who  Betsy from  a s s i s t e d the committee i n the c a p a c i t y of a  p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker feather than as U n i t D i r e c t o r , Vancouver C i t y  S o c i e t y of Women Only, Minutes August 20, 1964  of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e B r i e f Committee,  - 26 S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department. ii.  P r e s e n t a t i o n of the b r i e f A c t i n g on the a d v i c e of Mr.  Hawkes, the b r i e f was  forwarded  to S o c i a l Welfare M i n i s t e r Wesley Black i n October with an accompanyi n g l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g an i n t e r v i e w to d i s c u s s the recommendation. This i n t e r v i e w was  granted.  On November 18,  1964,  Mrs. E u d d e l l and  Mrs. E l l a Conners, S e c r e t a r y , spent two hours w i t h Mr.  B l a c k , Deputy  Welfare M i n i s t e r Ray R i c k i n s o n , and Deputy A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  Dr.  G i l b e r t Kennedy i n V i c t o r i a . iii.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of b r i e f to community The b r i e f was  the M i n i s t e r .  d i s t r i b u t e d to the p r e s s b e f o r e the meeting w i t h  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n h a l f column a r t i c l e s i n Vancouver news-  papers and mention on r a d i o and  television.  A f t e r the meeting with  B l a c k , b r i e f s were a l s o sent to p o l i t i c i a n s , church l e a d e r s , and agencies.  encountered What was Mrs.  social  About t h i r t y copies were so d i s t r i b u t e d , the a c t i o n being  designed to a l e r t  d.  Mr.  the community concerning the d i f f i c u l t i e s  being  by deserted f a n i l i e s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , the r e a c t i o n of the t a r g e t ? Bentley claims t h a t her meetings w i t h E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r  L e s l i e Peterson on June 22,  1964,  r e s u l t e d i n the payment of ten  d o l l a r s per s c h o o l c h i l d i n September to f a m i l i e s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t e x t book r e n t a l s and supplies."'" T h i s c l a i m has, however, not been confirmed by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. Mrs. Conners kept a stenographic r e c o r d of the d i s c u s s i o n on the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e b r i e f w i t h Welfare M i n i s t e r Wesley B l a c k .  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mrs. B e n t l e y , January  22,  1965  The  -  27 -  notes i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were accorded a f r i e n d l y r e c e p t i o n .  o f the Society, o f Women Only  Recommendation One,  c a l l i n g f o r an  i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l allowances,was taken under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . i n t e r v i e w , Deputy Welfare M i n i s t e r Ray R i c k i n s o n  A f t e r the  s t a t e d to the  press  that he d i d not agree with the b r i e f ' s c l a i m t h a t f a m i l i e s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e were l i v i n g i n a s t a t e o f poverty, but that the request  for  an i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l allowances would be r e f e r r e d to a departmental committee under James S a d l e r . ^  Mrs.  Conner's notes i n d i c a t e d that Mr.  B l a c k s a i d that Recommendation Two, c a l l i n g f o r an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f s o c i a l workers a v a i l a b l e f o r f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , had a l r e a d y been put i n t o e f f e c t as t h i r t y - n i n e new workers had r e c e n t l y been taken on by the Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e .  Deputy A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l G i l b e r t  Kennedy d e a l t w i t h Recommendation Three which c a l l e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h ment o f f r e e l e g a l a i d c e n t r e s . a l r e a d y being p r o v i d e d  He maintained t h a t such l e g a l a i d i s  by the Law S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and that  r e c e n t changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n probation deserted  o f the Family Court w i l l  allow  o f f i c e r s to g i v e i n c r e a s e d a s s i s t a n c e o f t h i s k i n d to wives.  Mr. Black terminated the i n t e r v i e w by warning the  S o c i e t y o f Women Only not to become i n v o l v e d with any p a r t i c u l a r p o l i tical  party.  Outcome E v a l u a t i o n a.  What was the a c t u a l outcome? To t h i s date, i t appears t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government has not  seen f i t t o implement any o f the s p e c i f i c recommendations made i n the s o c i e t y ' s b r i e f on s o c i a l allowances.  I t has been pointed  Macalpine, Ian, "Deserted Wives to Get Hearing" November 19, 1964  out t h a t i t  Vancouver Sun,  -  28  -  i s not known to what degree, i f any, played  i n the d e c i s i o n to grant  supplies.  Mrs.  Bentley's  representations  a supplementary allowance f o r s c h o o l  However, i t i s thought that the a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n to d i s -  t r i b u t e the b r i e f to the community i n order i n t e r v e n t i o n has  produced r e s u l t s .  to encourage t h i r d  A number of community  leaders  have expressed support f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n as i s i n d i c a t e d by f o l l o w i n g quotations  party  the  from correspondence:  I would l i k e to c o n g r a t u l a t e you on the e x c e l l e n t work put i n t o t h i s b r i e f , and to advise that I am p a s s i n g i t along to Alderman B i r d who has been d i s c u s s i n g t h i s whole s i t u a t i o n . . . . - Mayor W i l l i a m Rathie of Vancouver (December 1 0 , 1 9 6 4 ) I w i l l do what I can to help your o r g a n i z a t i o n meet some o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s during the coming s e s s i o n of the L e g i s l a t u r e . I am very w e l l aware of the t e r r i b l e problems t h a t deserted mothers face and I agree w i t h you t h a t a c t i o n i s needed very badly. - R.J. P e r r a u l t , M.L.A. L i b e r a l Leader (January 1 9 , 1 9 6 5 ) Did a p p r e c i a t e r e c e i v i n g a copy of the o b j e c t i v e s of the S o c i e t y of Women Only and a l s o a copy of the b r i e f on s o c i a l allowances. The l a t t e r was e x c e l l e n t and w e l l documented. - Mrs. Catherine C o l l i e r , Vancouver Children's Aid Society (November 1 3 , 1 9 6 4 ) I t h i n k the views o f the New Democratic P a r t y are w e l l known to your members and at the next s e s s i o n i n January our M.L.A.s w i l l again be p r e s s i n g the government f o r the type of improvements o u t l i n e d i n your b r i e f . - R.M. Strachan, Leader, New Democratic Party (November 5 i 1 9 6 4 ) With regard  to your b r i e f , I s h a l l do my  best.  - Hon. P.A. G a g l a r d i , M i n i s t e r of Highways (January 1 8 , 1 9 6 5 )  - 29 An i n t e r e s t i n the problems of deserted  f a m i l i e s on s o c i a l  assist-  ance was c r e a t e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l o f Women on t h e i r r e c e i p t of the b r i e f .  T h i s l e d to an i n v i t a t i o n to Mrs. K a i s e r ,  President  of the S o c i e t y o f Women Only, to address t h e i r annual convention i n V i c t o r i a on February 16, 19&5, C o u n c i l o f Women's d e l e g a t i o n  a n c  * to accompany the P r o v i n c i a l  to the p r o v i n c i a l cabinet  the next day.  As a r e s u l t o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the needs o f deserted f a m i l i e s made by the s o c i e t y , other groups i n the community may be more prepared to p r e s s be b.  the government to i n s t i t u t e changes that may  necessary. What were the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between expected outcome and a c t u a l outcome? As i n d i c a t e d i n s e c t i o n s 2 d. and 3 c., the S o c i e t y o f Women  Only was c o n f i d e n t  t h a t some change could be e f f e c t e d i n the admini-  s t r a t i o n of s o c i a l assistance l e g i s l a t i o n .  No assessment was made o f  the expected outcome as seen b y the t a r g e t f o r change. w r i t i n g , i t i s evident  A t the time o f  that the outcome o f the change a c t i o n has not  as y e t met the e x p e c t a t i o n s  o f the s o c i e t y which has been a c t i n g as a  change agent.  discrepancy,  Considerable  therefore, s t i l l  exists  between the expected outcome and the a c t u a l outcome, other  than i n the  area o f s t i m u l a t i n g t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n . c.  D i d the change induced meet the o r i g i n a l need f o r change? As no apparent change has y e t taken p l a c e on the p a r t o f the  t a r g e t , i t i s obvious that the o r i g i n a l need f o r change has not as y e t been met. However, i t must be noted that the S o c i e t y o f Women Only does not  - 30 regard  the change a c t i o n as having been completed.  They r e a l i z e  that a t a r g e t as complex as a p r o v i n c i a l government a c t s s l o w l y and i s u n l i k e l y to i n i t i a t e change simply by a group such as t h e i r own.  The  due  o r g a n i z a t i o n continues  f o r change i n s o c i a l allowances by p e r s u a s i o n , v e n t i o n , and p u b l i c education. the group continue  d.  What was  I t may  to work  t h i r d party  inter-  be t h a t as the members o f  i n t h e i r e f f o r t to e f f e c t change, d i f f e r e n t  t a c t i c s w i l l be adopted; a b l y continue  to a c t i o n undertaken  however, the e s s e n t i a l process w i l l prob-  u n t i l the o r i g i n a l need f o r change has been the c o s t of the change on the p a r t of the  met.  target?  Since the t a r g e t , i n t h i s case the P r o v i n c i a l Government, not as yet e f f e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t change, no e s t i m a t i o n of c o s t s  has can  be made. SUMMARY In t h i s chapter, f i c a t i o n was  documentation r e v e a l e d that problem i d e n t i -  made both by an i n d i v i d u a l and by members of the S o c i e t y o f  Women Only from p e r s o n a l experiences, of o b j e c t i v e s f o r the group. and  i n meetings,, and i n the development  V e r i f i c a t i o n was  by p r o f e s s i o n a l persons  correspondence. Improvement i n s o c i a l allowances,  increased welfare  l e g a l a i d were the changes planned on the suggestion women and  their professional consultants.  The  of the  staff  and  deserted  s o c i e t y was o p t i m i s t i c  that they c o u l d e f f e c t such changes i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government, the target. Persuasion,  t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n , and p u b l i c education  were  - 31 s e l e c t e d as a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s a c t u a l l y used i n c l u d e d  to b r i n g about change.  The methods  v i s i t s to the L e g i s l a t u r e , p r e p a r a t i o n  b r i e f and i t s subsequent p r e s e n t a t i o n  of a  to the M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e  and d i s t r i b u t i o n t o the community. By March 19&5» the t a r g e t i t s e l f seemed t o have f a i l e d t o respond to the a c t i o n p r o c e s s , a l t h o u g h some concern had been i n the community. been completed.  created  However, the change a c t i o n was not c o n s i d e r e d to have  CHAPTER 4 CHANGE IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF FAMILY COURTS: ANALYSIS OF THE ACTION PROCESS The  a c t i o n process engaged i n by the S o c i e t y o f Women Only  i n r e l a t i o n to d i f f i c u l t y  encountered i n s e c u r i n g maintenance pay-  ments from t h e i r husbands through the f a m i l y c o u r t s w i l l be analysed w i t h i n the framework o f the Area Development P r o j e c t ' s model. 1.  Problem  Identification  a.  Who i d e n t i f i e d the problem?  i.  Mrs. Bentley i d e n t i f i e d the problem s e v e r a l years ago. She  c l a i m s that p e r s o n a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the o p e r a t i o n o f the f a m i l y c o u r t s p r o v i d e d p a r t o f the m o t i v a t i o n f o r her a c t i o n i n founding  the S o c i e t y f o r Women Only.  She f e l t  that the c o u r t s  were not f i r m enough i n e n f o r c i n g maintenance orders made i n her favour. ii.  Many o f the women who attended  the e a r l y meetings o f the  o r g a n i z a t i o n spent c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n i d e n t i f y i n g problems related  to f a m i l y c o u r t s as being one o f t h e i r main reasons f o r  attendance.  They expressed  considerable h o s t i l i t y  towards both  t h e i r husbands and what they c o n s i d e r e d to be the u n j u s t o p e r a t i o n Q  of the f a m i l y c o u r t s .  A newspaper r e p o r t e d some o f the proceedings  of the f i r s t meeting under the headline "40 Deserted Women Unite to N a i l  ' S t i n k e r Husbands'": F o r t y d i s t r a u g h t women d e c l a r e d war on t h e i r dead beat husbands Thursday n i g h t . In an emotional meeting, h e l d i n a Burnaby church h a l l , the women t o l d o f t h e i r s t r u g g l e to r a i s e c h i l d r e n without any f i n a n c i a l support from t h e i r husbands. The new group, Women Only, w i l l attempt t o inform the  - 33 p r o v i n c i a l government o f every l o o p h o l e i n the a c t by which husbands a v o i d support to the f a m i l i e s they have d e s e r t e d . Mrs. B e n t l e y s a i d , "our husbands a r e running around l i v i n g on steak and c a v i a r while we are e a t i n g s a r d i n e s and beans."! b.  How was i t i d e n t i f i e d ? Mrs. B e n t l e y and the other women who attended the e a r l y  meetings i n f o r m a l l y i d e n t i f i e d the problem as being to some degree responsible f o r their underprivileged condition. s t a t e d t h i s view on t e l e v i s i o n and to the p r e s s ; was  Mrs.  Bentley  while t h i s theme  f r e q u e n t l y commented upon during the meetings o f the group, as  members e l a b o r a t e d on t h e i r experiences w i t h d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i n stitutions. T h i s problem was f o r m a l l y i d e n t i f i e d by being i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the o b j e c t i v e s o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only: 3.  c.  To f o r c e e r r a n t f a t h e r s , through the agency o f the law c o u r t s , to accept t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , at l e a s t as f a r as c h i l d maintenance i s concerned. The great m a j o r i t y o f women p r e f e r to work and t o make t h e i r own way i n l i f e . They are, however, g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g i n any form o f t r a i n i n g or exp e r i e n c e which would enable them to earn more than a minimum wage, and the f i n a n c i a l burden which c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t does not permit an adequate standard of l i v i n g to be maintained.2  How was the extent and nature o f the problem v e r i f i e d ? The  extent and nature o f the problem was v e r i f i e d both by  p r o f e s s i o n a l persons w i t h whom the group came i n t o c o n t a c t and by  Farrow, Moira, "40 Deserted Women U n i t e t o N a i l Vancouver Sun, February 28, 1964  2  Appendix C  ' S t i n k e r Husbands' "  - 3k considerable  correspondence and r e s e a r c h i n g  membership.  Mr. Gordon Dowding, M.L.A., attended four o f the e a r l y  meetings of the a s s o c i a t i o n . information  and advice  on the p a r t o f the  He was thus able  to give  considerable  of a l e g a l nature and thereby c l a r i f y the  nature of the problem that confronted  members o f the a s s o c i a t i o n .  Miss Sanderson was a t the same time able  to broaden the p e r s p e c t i v e  of the women and encouraged them to c o n s i d e r  the f i n a n c i a l problems  of d e s e r t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the decay o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l 2.  Goal Determination  a.  What type of change was planned?  i.  The members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n were anxious to o b t a i n  enforcement o f the Wives' and C h i l d r e n ' s Maintenance A c t . lar  institutions.  stricter In p a r t i c u -  they wished to have judges be l e s s l e n i e n t with husbands who  to make maintenance payments when ordered to do so by the f a m i l y  fail courts.  Many of the women f e e l t h a t d e s e r t i n g husbands are contemptuous o f f a m i l y c o u r t s as they a r e a p p a r e n t l y  seldom sentenced to j a i l  terms  when they d e f a u l t i n maintenance payments and, i n a d d i t i o n , p e r j u r y a c t i o n s are r a r e l y undertaken a g a i n s t ii.  them.  The S o c i e t y o f Women Only a l s o d e s i r e d to see the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of the f a m i l y c o u r t s improved by e s t a b l i s h i n g " i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c e n t r e s " throughout the province and  attached  income o f absconding husbands might be more r e a d i l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  Members c l a i m that a t present wife  to the c o u r t s so t h a t the whereabouts  to inform  the onus i s o f t e n p l a c e d  on the deserted  the c o u r t of the l o c a t i o n o f her husband so that a  summons can be served  or maintenance order  enforced.  The group f e e l s  that o f f i c e r s o f the f a m i l y c o u r t s e i t h e r l a c k the resources  or are  - 35 u n w i l l i n g to b r i n g the d e s e r t i n g spouse before  the c o u r t .  In  a d d i t i o n , i t i s believed that p o l i c e forces are generally l a x i n a c t i n g on warrants i s s u e d by f a m i l y iii.  courts.  Another change that the S o c i e t y o f Women Only has been anxious  to see e f f e c t e d i s f o r more l e g a l a i d to be provided wives.  They c l a i m that when they contact  u s u a l l y are completely ignorant cannot a f f o r d a lawyer. ac|s  the f a m i l y c o u r t ,  As a r e s u l t , although the crown  prosecutor  on t h e i r b e h a l f , members f e e l t h a t they are a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e  f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n which allows iv.  women who are i n a  them t o employ t h e i r own c o u n s e l .  F i n a l l y , the S o c i e t y o f Women Only has gone on r e c o r d  as f a v o u r i n g more co-operation  between p u b l i c welfare  f a m i l y c o u r t s i n the i n t e r e s t o f the deserted  family.^"  order  publically  departments  wife and her  Members complain that a t times s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w i l l not  be granted u n t i l an attempt has been made to enforce  a maintenance  o f the c o u r t on a husband - i n the meantime, the f a m i l y can l a c k  f o r funds. to grant b.  they  o f t h e i r r i g h t s and, a t the same time  disadvantage i n comparison to those deserted  and  f o r deserted  In other i n s t a n c e s ,  the p u b l i c welfare  agency i s h e s i t a n t  a s s i s t a n c e when a husband d e f a u l t s on a monthly payment.  Who suggested i t and how was i t suggested? The  changes proposed were mainly suggested by members o f the  S o c i e t y o f Women Only and arose d i r e c t l y out o f t h e i r own experiences w i t h the problems o f d e s e r t i o n . Gordon Dowding was r e s p o n s i b l e  Mrs.  Ruddell  However, i t i s apparent t h a t Mr.  f o r suggesting  the need f o r  quoted i n Vancouver Sun, January 13, 19&5  -  "investigations centers". March 4 , 1 9 6 4 ,  36  He  -  t o l d a meeting of the group  about a programme of the Ontario  emphasizes l o c a t i n g the absconding husband and  on  Government which suggested that  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n work to e s t a b l i s h " i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c e n t e r s " i n t h i s province.  A comprehensive programme of proposed changes i n the  administration  of the f a m i l y c o u r t s as yet has not been composed  by the S o c i e t y of Women Only, i n the same way changes r e l a t e d to s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; that such a task was c.  Who  understood  being undertaken at the time of w r i t i n g .  The  f o l l o w i n g were seen as being  t a r g e t s f o r change:  P r o v i n c i a l Government, p a r t i c u l a r l y the  Hon.  Robert Bonner.  ii.  Various  administrative  staff.  What was the estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of t a r g e t to change? As was  respect  Attorney-General,  f a m i l y c o u r t s throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the judges and d.  however, i t was  i s seen as the t a r g e t ( s ) f o r change? The  i.  as had been done f o r  the  i n d i c a t e d when a n a l y s i n g the a c t i o n process i n  to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f s o c i a l allowances, the women were  from the s t a r t g e n e r a l l y o p t i m i s t i c that some s o r t of change c o u l d be had  e f f e c t e d by a group such as t h e i r own, l i t t l e i f any  even though most of them  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l experience.  They f e l t  that  the  t a r g e t s would respond i n some measure to t h e i r change a c t i o n s . Action  Determination  a.  What a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s were made o f ways to b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change? Who made them?  i.  Mrs.  Bentley,  and  process of p e r s u a s i o n .  l a t e r the s o c i e t y , decided  to engage i n a  They would attempt to convince the  targets  -  37 -  o f the n e c e s s i t y of making what were considered changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of f a m i l y c o u r t s .  to be necessary The  appropriateness  of t h i s a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n was never agreed upon f o r m a l l y , but simply taken as being  the n a t u r a l type of a c t i o n to be prosecuted by a  group i n a disadvantaged p o s i t i o n . ii.  T h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n was a l s o to be a way to b r i n g about  d e s i r e d change.  Members e n v i s i o n e d  that i n f l u e n t i a l  community  l e a d e r s or bodies might encourage government to a c t . iii.  A general programme o f p u b l i c education  of the deserted  was a l s o planned. Many  wives f e l t t h a t the p u b l i c a t l a r g e was i g n o r a n t o f  the f a i l i n g s o f the f a m i l y c o u r t s and thus needed to be informed so that an atmosphere conducive to change would be c r e a t e d i n the community. b.  What were the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes o f each of these a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s ? The p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes of each of the a c t i o n  d e c i s i o n s appeared f a i r l y  simple to the women:  e i t h e r the t a r g e t s  c o u l d be persuaded to i n s t i t u t e changes o r the s i t u a t i o n would remain s t a t i c , e i t h e r community l e a d e r s would i n t e r v e n e  on t h e i r b e h a l f o r  they would r e f u s e t o a c t , and e i t h e r the p u b l i c would respond to the presentation  of information  and grievances  concerning  c o u r t s o r people would remain d i s i n t e r e s t e d .  the f a m i l y  As was p o i n t e d  out when  d e a l i n g with t h i s s e c t i o n o f the model r e l a t e d to the a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes o f a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , the deserted women felt  that t h e i r s i t u a t i o n could  they would have nothing  d e t e r i o r a t e no f u r t h e r - t h e r e f o r e ,  to l o s e by banding together  to take any k i n d  - 38 of a c t i o n that they might c o n s i d e r a p p r o p r i a t e .  I t should  be noted,  however, that some women f e l t t h a t t h e i r husbands might r e t a l i a t e f o r engaging i n a programme o f s o c i a l a c t i o n designed to improve the system o f enforcement o f maintenance orders made by the f a m i l y courts.  In f a c t , one press  story reported  Mounted P o l i c e would be present i n g telephone calls."'' has  that the Royal Canadian  a t the f i r s t meeting due to t h r e a t e n -  However, to the w r i t e r ' s knowledge, no member  r e c e i v e d r e t a l i a t i o n from a deserted  spouse f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  the S o c i e t y of Women Only. c.  What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , i . e . on the p a r t o f t a r g e t and on the change agent? As has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , the members o f the S o c i e t y o f  Women Only were c o n f i d e n t because of t h e i r e f f o r t s ;  that some type o f change would occur however, there has been no formal  articu-  l a t i o n o f the type o f change that they expect t o see w i t h i n a c e r t a i n time l i m i t . the  I t i s not known what was seen as an expected outcome by  target.  Action  Implementation  a.  Who became  involved?  i.  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only.  ii.  P r o f e s s i o n a l persons.  iii.  Community l e a d e r s and groups.  iv.  Vancouver C i t y  v.  Council.  The t a r g e t s .  New Westminster Columbian, February 27* 19Sk  - 39 b.  How were they  involved?  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only attempted to persuade the t a r g e t to i n i t i a t e change, while at the same time attempting to convince  community l e a d e r s and groups, the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , and the  Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l to p r e s s u r e f o r such change. c.  What methods were a c t u a l l y used? Again, as when documenting the change process r e l a t e d to a  concern  about s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , i t i s necessary  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  between a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by Mrs. Bentley, a c t i n g as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the s o c i e t y but without  the complete knowledge and  e n d o r s a t i o n o f the membership, and a c t i v i t i e s l a t e r c a r r i e d out by executive members but on the b a s i s of more group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and approval.  Mrs. Bentley was very v o c a l i n her condemnation o f f a m i l y  c o u r t s when she v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a on March 3, 1964; not meet with i n f l u e n t i a l c i v i l this v i s i t .  however, she d i d  servants or the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  on  She d i d , however, have an o p p o r t u n i t y to t r y to stimu-  l a t e some a c t i o n to remedy the problem i n the o p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c a l parties.  When she v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a again on June 22, 1964, she had  an o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s problems r e l a t e d to f a m i l y c o u r t s with the Deputy A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  Dr. G i l b e r t Kennedy.  The b r i e f she took with  her commented on some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by deserted wives i n t h e i r c o n t a c t with the f a m i l y c o u r t s but made no s p e c i f i c recommendation as to how the s i t u a t i o n should be improved. Bentley was i n v o l v e d i n much p r e s s , r a d i o , and t e l e v i s i o n d u r i n g the S p r i n g o f 1964. about the inadequacies  Mrs. publicity  She endeavoured to inform the p u b l i c  o f c u r r e n t f a m i l y c o u r t p r a c t i c e s by r e l a t i n g  -holder o w n p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a s w e l l  a s some o f t h o s e  members o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e h a d f o u n d e d . she  established  social  clergy,  them w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s  social  facing  i n the process  t h e young  Government  Bowen-Colthurst,  exchange  o f views  of writing  process  a meeting about  thebrief  meeting  Robert  h a v i n g been  Probation  Officer  Solicitor  committee on t h i s  Bonner l a t e r  related to  remained  about what they  courts.  focussing Mail  In fact,  An example  on t h e problem which  taking,  giving  Worth, Toronto  Ruth, Globe  M r . T.C.  f o r the Attorney-General's  courts took p l a c e .  a t which A tthe  o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n t h e subject f o r submission to i n theyear,  Members o f t h e g r o u p ,  they  them t o speak a t m e e t i n g s , television.  o n M a y 7» 1964,  an e x p l o r a t o r y time  the Chief  o f t h eVancouver Family and C h i l d r e n ' s Court, Mr.  attended.  silent  to influence the  h e l d i n S e p t e m b e r 1964 a t w h i c h  Gordon Stevens,  and  change  o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Women O n l y  the family  of preparing a brief  Attorney-General  attempt  t o change, a l t h o u g h  Departmental  Department attended  family  to acquaint  group.  of organizational  h a s n o t a s y e t made a d i r e c t  Provincial  time  and community l e a d e r s i n o r d e r  a s s i s t a n c e , t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Women O n l y a s  a whole  an  t h e summer  p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h a number o f e x e c u t i v e s o f  agencies,  Unlike  During  of other  feel  every  have n o t of the  opportunity afforded  i npanel  discussions,  and on r a d i o and  of thekind  of publicity  they  was a r e c e n t a r t i c l e  examples."*'  "Deserted and M a i l ,  t o be t h e i n j u s t i c e s  have t a k e n  explained the stands case  ho\-;ever,  hare  been  i n theToronto  Globe  t h e S o c i e t y o f Women O n l y a r e  In addition,  theposition  W i v e s L o b b y i n B.C. f o r D i v o r c e F e b r u a r y 13, 1965  o f t h e group  Reform"  - 41 in  respect  courts  has  Council the  to  been  of  society  just  to  not  the  see  that  viewed that  the as  1964,  payments  body  Stevens,  give  the  gators  What  to  was  Government;  be  the  from  this  been is  change  Of  the  many  Sun,  the  of  deserting of  City  Council  and  become  that of  the  the as  its  power  service.  speech  in to  of  the set  of  up-  The  that  it  to  through  a at  from  the  antici-  Court.  Mr.  Council  the  more  was  improve  lack  that  enwives  was  and  the  take  Council  Children's  emphasized  it  in  City  rather  Ruddell,  Women  deserted  intervene and  of  effective  explained  Mrs.  platform  requested  but  to  Family  Provincial  Society  support  such,  and  the  more  handicapped  aldermen  a  taxpayer.  Officer  was  the  family-  husbands.  Ruddell  courts  the  the  government  Mrs.  of  l i t t l e  probably  any  Vancouver  on  use  of  up  of  of  at  staff  time, investi-  employed,  in  administration  took  Vancouver  reaction  has  M.L.A.  as  calling  so  court  quality  bodies  making  Probation  his  questions  There  engaged  Chief  best  need  the  such  by  change  could  of  that  for  effectiveness  founded  locate  family  target  this  time  to 1965,  the  administration  same  was  responsibility  a  the  before  Vancouver  maintenance  answered  d.  January  only  Gordon  to  it  12,  pated  the  after  o n M a r c h 2,  addressed  in  Gordam Dowding  On  forcing  the  forward  branch  action  not  required  investigation  Only  is  put  Women.  legislature an  changes  process  family  the  the  apparent because as  1964  reaction this  target  has  Provincial  not  been  fully  yet.  courts  Vancouver  M a r c h 3,  target?  throughout  court  has  the  really  province, been  only  involved  the in  a  change process*  42  -  Here, the C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r has r e a c t e d most  f a v o u r a b l y to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by the s o c i e t y . that Mr.  writer thinks  Gordon Stevens values the work of the group i n s o f a r as i t w i l l  s t i m u l a t e governmental bodies  to give more support  so that s e r v i c e to the deserted 5.  The  f a m i l y can be  to h i s department  improved.  Outcome E v a l u a t i o n a.  What was Mrs.  the a c t u a l outcome? Bentley was  of the o p i n i o n that the appointment of a second  f u l l - t i m e f a m i l y court judge f o r Vancouver was to  V i c t o r i a on March 3 i  1964.  the C h i e f P r o b a t i o n Officer."'" c r e d i t f o r the establishment  p a r t i a l l y due  T h i s has been denied by Mr.  to her  visit  Gordon Stevens,  The S o c i e t y of Women Only a l s o took some of a c o l l e c t i o n s department i n the Vancouver  Family and  C h i l d r e n ' s Court as w e l l as f o r i n c r e a s e d c o - o p e r a t i o n i n  accounting  procedures between the Vancouver Family and C h i l d r e n ' s  and  Court  the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department which ensures a  deserted wife c o n t i n u i t y of income r e g a r d l e s s of whether the husband makes maintenance payments r e g u l a r l y or not. the C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r claimed connection with any Nevertheless,  Mr.  However, i n an i n t e r v i e w ,  that these i n n o v a t i o n s had  s o c i a l a c t i o n programme undertaken by the s o c i e t y .  Stevens thought that the o r g a n i z a t i o n has played  important  r o l e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the needs of the Family Court  Council.  In f a c t , he s t a t e d t h a t Mrs.  Ruddell's  Mr.  19651  to d i s c u s s p o s s i b l e changes and  Stevens r e c a l l e d that t h i s was  Interview with Mr.  to C i t y  committee on  expansion of s e r v i c e .  the f i r s t o c c a s i o n i n at l e a s t  Stevens, January 1 2 ,  1965  an  p r e s e n t a t i o n at C i t y  C o u n c i l l e d to a v i s i t by the c i v i c h e a l t h and welfare February 13»  no  - 43 s i x t e e n years that a c i v i c committee had v i s i t e d the court.''" On March 1 0 , 1965» an amendment to the Wives' and C h i l d r e n ' s Maintenance Act was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o General Robert  Bonner.  f o r an automatic  The e f f e c t  the l e g i s l a t u r e  by A t t o r n e y -  o f the amendment w i l l be to provide  garnishee on a husband's wages when a deserted woman  o b t a i n s a maintenance o r d e r .  T h i s w i l l save the wife c o n s i d e r a b l e  2 expense and d e l a y .  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only  t h i s change c o u l d be to some extent a t t r i b u t e d although i t was not thought  f e l t that  to t h e i r a c t i o n s ,  that they ever s p e c i f i c a l l y recommended  such an amendment. b. What were the discrepancies between expected and a c t u a l outcome?  outcome  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only were c o n f i d e n t that changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the f a m i l y c o u r t s would e v e n t u a l l y occur as a r e s u l t  o f the process  they engaged i n as an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  But i n March, 1 9 6 5 , they b e l i e v e d t h a t , although  the group has a l r e a d y  been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some minor changes, much more e f f o r t w i l l be r e q u i r e d before anything approaching seeking o c c u r s .  the major changes t h a t they are  Yet, they d i d not g e n e r a l l y f e e l that the a c t u a l  outcome, so f a r , i n the change process, v a r i e d widely from  their  o r i g i n a l expectations. c.  D i d the change induced meet the o r i g i n a l need f o r change? The  change induced so f a r cannot be c o n s i d e r e d to have met the  o r i g i n a l need f o r change as deserted wives s t i l l a p p a r e n t l y b e l i e v e t h a t the f a m i l y c o u r t s r e q u i r e much s t r e n g t h e n i n g .  Interview with Mr. Stevens,  January  Vancouver Sun, March 1 1 , 1 9 6 5  1 2 , 1965  However, the  - kk change that has occurred  during the past year has served to  encourage members o f t he s o c i e t y to the r e a l i z a t i o n that change i s indeed  possible.  They are now i n the f i r s t  stage o f p r e p a r i n g  a comprehensive b r i e f on the s u b j e c t o f the l e g a l redress open to deserted wives f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n b e l i e v e that the process to continue d.  to the P r o v i n c i a l  Government and  to e f f e c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i s l i k e l y  f o r some y e a r s .  What was the c o s t o f the change on the p a r t o f the t a r g e t ? Mr.  Stevens, C h i e f P r o b a t i o n  Officer,  s t a t e d when  interviewed  t h a t changes r e c e n t l y made i n h i s department, whether due to the work of the S o c i e t y o f Women Only or not, have been made without change i n costs• I t i s f e l t t h a t the amendment to the Wives' and C h i l d r e n ' s Maintenance A c t i n t r o d u c e d  r e c e n t l y by the Attorney-General  u n l i k e l y to e n t a i l any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n c o s t s . course,  i s also  I t has, o f  been noted that i t i s not known to what degree the S o c i e t y  of Women Only was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s amendment. SUMMARY In t h i s chapter,  documentation r e v e a l e d t h a t problem i d e n t i -  f i c a t i o n was made i n f o r m a l l y by Mrs. Bentley  and members o f the  S o c i e t y o f Women Only i n meetings and f o r m a l l y i n the development of o b j e c t i v e s f o r the group.  V e r i f i c a t i o n was made by p r o f e s s i o n a l  persons. S t r i c t e r enforcement o f e x i s t i n g the establishment  f a m i l y court l e g i s l a t i o n ,  o f " i n v e s t i g a t i o n c e n t e r s " , and a d d i t i o n a l l e g a l  a i d were the changes planned on the suggestion  o f the deserted women  - h5 and  t h e i r l e g a l consultant.  The group was o p t i m i s t i c that changes  could be e f f e c t e d i n the t a r g e t s , the P r o v i n c i a l Government and the f a m i l y c o u r t s o f the p r o v i n c e . Campaigns o f persuasion, p u b l i c education change.  t h i r d party i n t e r v e n t i o n , and  were the a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s s e l e c t e d to b r i n g about  The methods a c t u a l l y used i n c l u d e d v i s i t s to the l e g i s l a t u r e  by Mrs. Bentley,  p u b l i c i t y i n the press and on r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n ,  and a p r e s e n t a t i o n  to the Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l .  By March, 19651 some changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n Vancouver Family and C h i l d r e n ' s Court had o c c u r r e d ,  o f the  possibly i n  response to the a c t i o n process i n i t i a t e d by the S o c i e t y of Women Only. Change had a l s o occurred  on the p a r t o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government;  however, i t i s not as y e t known to what degree the s o c i e t y was i n s t r u mental i n these changes. have been completed.  The change process was not considered to  CHAPTER 5 CHANGE IN DIVORCE LEGISLATION:  The in  ANALYSIS OF THE ACTION PROCESS  a c t i o n process engaged i n by the S o c i e t y o f Women Only  r e l a t i o n to d i f f i c u l t y encountered i n i n i t i a t i n g and engaging i n  d i v o r c e proceedings w i l l be analysed  w i t h i n the framework o f the  Area Development P r o j e c t ' s model. 1.  Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a.  Who i d e n t i f i e d the problem? I t appears t h a t , u n l i k e i n the cases o f problems w i t h  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of family  problems r e l a t i n g to d i v o r c e were not i n i t i a l l y Mrs.  Bentley.  courts,  i d e n t i f i e d by  Rather i t seems t h a t a t t e n t i o n was focussed on  d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n by a m i n o r i t y  o f the women who attended the  e a r l y meetings o f the a s s o c i a t i o n . b.  How was i t i d e n t i f i e d ? During the e a r l y meetings o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only,  most o f the programme was devoted to i n d i v i d u a l women t e l l i n g the meeting about t h e i r own s p e c i f i c problems and concerns, amidst emotional outbreaks and a good deal o f v e n t i l a t i o n o f h o s t i l i t y a g a i n s t absent husbands. mother o f t h r e e ,  she made arrangements with a f r i e n d to  the March 5, 1964, meeting because o f a c o n v i c t i o n that  the d i v o r c e laws need r e v i s i o n . she  Conners, a deserted  s t a t e d t h a t a f t e r reading about the f i r s t  meeting i n the p r e s s , attend  Mrs.  i n i t i a t e d considerable  Interview  w i t h Mrs.  A t the meeting she says that  d i s c u s s i o n on the subject."*"  Conners, January 29, 1965  I t was  - 47 discovered  that f r u s t r a t i o n  women considered and  and resentment a g a i n s t what the  to be a n t i q u a t e d  so the members decided  d i v o r c e laws was widely  to i n c o r p o r a t e  spread  the problem i n t o the  o b j e c t i v e s o f the s o c i e t y : 4.  c.  To enable the deserted mother t o o b t a i n a d i v o r c e a f t e r a reasonable p e r i o d of time. Many women have been separated f o r as long as ten y e a r s , and throughout t h i s time the c h i l d r e n have been deprived of the guidance o f a f a t h e r . Because o f the present d i v o r c e laws, many women are prevented from r e marrying and are thus f o r c e d to l i v e on s o c i a l welfare.1  How was the extent and nature o f the problem While i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  the p e r s o n a l  experiences  verified?  o f the problem emerged p r i m a r i l y from  o f the members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women  Only, the problem was v e r i f i e d a t an e a r l y stage f o r the group by p r o f e s s i o n a l persons, p a r t i c u l a r l y B e a t r i c e Sanderson, s o c i a l worker.  Gordon Dowding, a lawyer, and On A p r i l 2, 1964, Mr. Dowding  gave the s o c i e t y a t a l k e x p l a i n i n g the h i s t o r y o f the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage and present i n Canada.  l e g i s l a t i o n r e g u l a t i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n  Miss Sanderson suggested that a change i n the divorce  laws would be an a p p r o p r i a t e  g o a l o f s o c i a l a c t i o n f o r a group  such as the S o c i e t y o f Women Only. 2.  Goal Determination a.  What type o f change was planned? Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only were g e n e r a l l y i n t e r e s t e d  i n seeing t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n r e s p e c t i n g d i v o r c e i s changed so as to widen the grounds f o r d i v o r c e . not  formally i d e n t i f i e d  for a termination Appendix C  Although, so f a r the group has  j u s t what grounds they f e e l should  pertain  o f marriage, and i t i s b e l i e v e d that there i s  -  48  -  a certain.amount of divergence of o p i n i o n on t h i s matter, the  writer  b e l i e v e s members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n are p r a c t i c a l l y unanimous i n d e s i r i n g t h a t grounds other legislation.  than a d u l t e r y be i n c o r p o r a t e d  into  Other grounds f o r d i v o r c e that members have t o l d  w r i t e r t h a t they would l i k e to see a u t h o r i z e d  include  divorce the  desertion,  c r u e l t y , a l c o h o l i s m , and mental i l l n e s s . b.  Who  suggested i t and  how  was  i t suggested?  I n d i v i d u a l members of the group both suggested and  agreed that  changes need to be e f f e c t e d i n the d i v o r c e laws at meetings of association. and  No  one  c.  committee has been convened to study the problem  recommend proposed changes f o r approval  the case of s o c i a l Who  the  by  the group as was  done i n  assistance.  i s seen as the t a r g e t f o r change? It i s unclear  f o r change.  e x a c t l y who  or what body was  A number of members, Mrs.  Bentley  t h a t the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l Robert Bonner has for divorce;  seen as the  being  target  among them, b e l i e v e d  the power to widen the grounds  however, many other members a d v i s e d  the w r i t e r that  the  F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e should be the t a r g e t f o r the group's a c t i v i 1  txes. d. What was the estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of t a r g e t to change?  the  Members have been l e s s o p t i m i s t i c about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o c i a l a c t i o n i n respect  to t h i s problem, than i n respect  to  social  The B r i t i s h North America A c t , S e c t i o n 91» S u b - s e c t i o n 26, reserves "Marriage and D i v o r c e " to the e x c l u s i v e l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y o f the Parliament of Canada; although S e c t i o n 92, Sub-section 12, g i v e s the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s power to make laws r e s p e c t i n g "The Solemniza t i o n of Marriage i n the P r o v i n c e . "  -  49 -  a s s i s t a n c e and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f the f a m i l y c o u r t s .  They  b e l i e v e that as a s m a l l group o f c i t i z e n s , they can p l a y only a l i m i t e d r o l e i n changing t h i s complicated many other  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s  l e g i s l a t i o n i n which  have an i n t e r e s t .  A l s o some o f  the members who b e l i e v e a c t i o n must be i n i t i a t e d i n Ottawa have i n d i c a t e d they are  conscious t h a t the Province  be a f a c t o r which w i l l m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g to d i v o r c e . been h o p e f u l  of Quebec might w e l l  e a r l y changes i n f e d e r a l  The S o c i e t y o f Women Only has not  that change w i l l occur i n the near f u t u r e .  A c t i o n Determination a.  What a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s were made o f ways to b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change? Who made them?  i.  During the summer o f 1964 the executive  of Women Only decided appropriate  committee o f the  that the group would attempt to persuade the  l e v e l o f government to change the d i v o r c e laws.  the cases o f p e r s u a s i o n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Society  As i n  processes r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and  o f the f a m i l y c o u r t s , the group intended to  prepare a b r i e f f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n  to government which would emphasize  the n e c e s s i t y of change. ii.  The group, e a r l y i n i t s work, decided  t h a t i t would be necessary  to engage i n a programme o f p u b l i c education the inadequacies o f present  and p u b l i c i t y  divorce l e g i s l a t i o n .  respecting  The members hoped,  t h a t by f o c u s s i n g p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t , l e g i s l a t i v e bodies would be encouraged to a c t . b.  What were the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes o f each o f these a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s ?  i.  Government would e i t h e r respond to the group's programme o f  - 50 persuasion  and take the S o c i e t y o f Women Ofaly's viewpoint i n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n when enacting government might c o n s i d e r  l e g i s l a t i o n , or, f o r v a r i o u s  i t expedient to d i s r e g a r d  reasons,  representations  made by the group. ii.  The s o c i e t y ' s programme of p u b l i c education  and p u b l i c i t y  would serve e i t h e r as an e f f e c t i v e means o f b r i n g i n g the subject of d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n before evoke a favourable  the community i n a manner t h a t would  response, o r by simply  c r e a t i n g controversy, the  group might a c t u a l l y r e t a r d d e s i r e d changes i n d i v o r c e c.  laws.  What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , i . e . , on the part o f the t a r g e t and on p a r t o f change agent? As has been i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the S o c i e t y o f Women Only  was  n o t g r e a t l y o p t i m i s t i c that t h e i r e f f o r t s alone would produce  any  change i n d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n .  Nevertheless,  cerned that as c i t i z e n s o f a " r i s k p o p u l a t i o n "  they were con-  i n respect  to d i v o r c e ,  they had a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p o i n t out the need f o r change to government and the community. Since  the t a r g e t has not been engaged i n the process o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change, i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o make an assessment o f expected outcome. A c t i o n -Implementation a.  Who became  i.  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only.  ii. iii. b.  involved?  P r o f e s s i o n a l persons. The g e n e r a l How were they  public. involved?  Members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only, with the help o f  - 51 p r o f e s s i o n a l persons, attempted to inform and i n f l u e n c e the general p u b l i c concerning so t h a t p u b l i c support  needed changes i n d i v o r c e  legislation,  would f o l l o w any approach to government,  c.  What methods were a c t u a l l y used?  i.  Two p u b l i c panel d i s c u s s i o n s on the s u b j e c t o f d i v o r c e were  sponsored by the S o c i e t y o f Women Only. June 1 7 , 1 9 6 4 , and attended  The f i r s t was h e l d on  by about one hundred persons.  p a n e l i s t s were lawyer Mr. Jack McGiven; Church M i n i s t e r ; Christie,  lawyer;  Mr. J . T a y l o r , a United  Mr. Edward Sopp, s o c i a l worker;  Miss Norma  Mr. David B u s h e l l , an American lawyer;  P a r i s , o f the Roman C a t h o l i c e c c l e s i a s t i c a l matrimony and  two members o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only, Mrs.  and Mrs.  E l l a Conners.  The  Father  tribunal;  O l i v e McRae  The second meeting on d i v o r c e was h e l d  on September 2 9 , 1 9 6 4 . T h i s time the speakers were : McTaggart, c h i l d p s y c h o l o g i s t ;  Dr. A.N.  Dr. S. M i l l s , p s y c h o l o g i s t ; Mr.  Edward Sopp, s o c i a l worker and Mr. W. Beck, lawyer.  Both d i s -  c u s s i o n s were w e l l r e p o r t e d i n the press and r e s u l t e d i n r a d i o and television ii. 25,  interviews.  A t an executive meeting o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only on May 1 9 6 4 , i t was decided  to conduct a survey to d i s c o v e r i f the  p u b l i c was s a t i s f i e d with the present was  given a number o f long sheets  d i v o r c e laws.  Each member  of paper on which respondents  to the survey would w r i t e t h e i r name and address and i n d i c a t e , "yes" o r "no" the present  to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :  1)  Do you f e e l that  d i v o r c e laws o f Canada are inadequate and that there i s  a need f o r a change i n these laws?  2)  Do you f e e l that the d i v o r c e  - 52 laws should  be p r o v i n c i a l i z e d ? " ' 1  persons had s i g n e d  1,500  By t h e e n d o f J u n e , o v e r  a b o u t 95$ o f whom i n d i c a t e d  the sheets,  "yes"  2 answers.  Members o f t h e g r o u p have i n d i c a t e d t o t h e w r i t e r  they p l a n  to attach  laws t h a t w i l l i i i .  When a d e l e g a t i o n  Penticton  a brief  that  1964. d.  brief  o f Women O n l y i n V a n c o u v e r  to organize  l e g i s l a t i o n , while and f a m i l y  court  will  She s t a t e s  a group  o f Women O n l y  there,  for  preparing  the Vancouver  briefs.  to g e t t h i s p r o j e c t  However, t h e  started. told  group  Mrs.  the w r i t e r  be p r e p a r e d i n V a n c o u v e r i n t h e  that  i t will  s u b s e q u e n t l y be p r e s e n t e d  T h u s f a r no a p p r o a c h h a s been made t o government  f o r a c h a n g e i n t h e law,  personally  on d i v o r c e  t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of theSociety  this  1965* 3  Ottawa.  asking  divorce  g r o u p was u n a b l e  summer o f  in  A u g u s t 1964  assistance  President  recently  the Society  women were a s k e d  w o r k e d on s o c i a l  Kaiser,  from  i n late  dealing with  Penticton  sheets to the b r i e f  be p r e p a r e d .  went t o P e n t i c t o n the  these survey  that  except i n the b r i e f  composed a n d w h i c h s h e t o o k t o V i c t o r i a  The b r i e f  stressed  t h e need  for divorce  Mrs.  Bentley  o n June  22,  reform,  What was t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e t a r g e t ? It  federal  appears  that  or provincial  the  change p r o c e s s ;  the  target's  the t a r g e t , whether seen a s b e i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t , h a s n o t a s y e t been i n v o l v e d i n  therefore,  no s t a t e m e n t  c a n be made  reaction.  "*"A sample o f t h e s e  s u r v e y s h e e t s was shown t o t h e w r i t e r .  2 Interview  w i t h Mrs.  3mt e r v i e w w i t h M r s . Appendix D  C o n n e r s , F e b r u a r y 1, Kaiser,  M a r c h 4,  1965  1965  concerning  -  53 -  Outcome E v a l u a t i o n a.  What was the a c t u a l outcome? Although i t i s c l e a r that the S o c i e t y o f Women Only does  not c o n s i d e r  that any f i n a l outcome has been reached, i t can be  s a i d that a change process  has been i n i t i a t e d i n that an attempt to  i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n through panel d i s c u s s i o n s was made and support  f o r changes i n d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n s o l i c i t e d from the  p u b l i c by way o f "survey sheets".  The group has, i n a d d i t i o n ,  committed i t s e l f t o prepare a b r i e f f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n b.  to government.  What were the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between expected outcome and a c t u a l outcome? Even though no r e a l outcome i s considered  reached, indeed,  the change process  to have been  i s h a r d l y s t a r t e d , i t can be  noted t h a t there was an e x p e c t a t i o n i n the S o c i e t y o f Women Only that by the end o f 1 9 6 4 , a comprehensive b r i e f on d i v o r c e would have been prepared f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to government.'*' c.  D i d the change induced The  meet the o r i g i n a l need f o r change?  change so f a r induced, i f any, has not met the o r i g i n a l  need f o r change.  The S o c i e t y o f Women Only s t i l l  f e e l s t h a t the  grounds f o r d i v o r c e need to be broadened, as i t d i d e a r l y i n 1 9 6 4 . Mrs.  K a i s e r , P r e s i d e n t o f the group, s t a t e s that the S o c i e t y o f  Women Only w i l l occupy i t s e l f mainly with attempting  to change  the d i v o r c e laws as soon as a b r i e f on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the 2  f a m i l y c o u r t s has been presented  to the p r o v i n c i a l government.  The minutes to the September 1 0 , 1 9 6 4 , general meeting i n d i c a t e d that the P e n t i c t o n group was expected t o have completed the b r i e f by the end o f October. Interview  with Mrs. K a i s e r , March 4 , 1 9 6 5 .  - 54 -  SUMMARY  In t h i s chapter, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was  documentation r e v e a l e d  t h a t problem  made i n f o r m a l l y by a number of members of  S o c i e t y of Women Only d u r i n g e a r l y meetings and  the  formally i n  development of o b j e c t i v e s f o r the group. Grounds f o r the g r a n t i n g of d i v o r c e other was  the change planned on the suggestion  The  group was  not  than a d u l t e r y  of the deserted women.  very o p t i m i s t i c that they could e f f e c t change  i n the t a r g e t , seen as being Campaigns of p e r s u a s i o n  the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Government. and p u b l i c education  d e c i s i o n s s e l e c t e d to b r i n g about change.  The  used i n c l u d e d the c i r c u l a t i o n of a p e t i t i o n and  were the a c t i o n -  methods a c t u a l l y p u b l i c panel  discussions. By March, 1 9 & 5 , the t a r g e t s had not been engaged i n the a c t i o n process and a c t i o n was  no change was  considered  evident.  to have j u s t begun.  However, the  change  CHAPTER 6 OBSERVATIONS ON THE MODEL  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l deal w i t h a number of c r i t i c a l t i o n s concerning  observa-  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the Area Development P r o j e c t ' s  model f o r the purposes o f documenting o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter One, these observations to c o n s t i t u t e an e v a l u a t i o n but simply  have not been  opinions  As  considered  a r r i v e d a t by the  w r i t e r a f t e r having employed the model to document three change a c t i o n s undertaken by the s o c i e t y . Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n The  model l a c k s a place f o r a c l e a r statement o f the problem  as p e r c e i v e d  by those who i d e n t i f y it."*"  T h i s p o i n t could be  remedied by i n c o r p o r a t i n g an a d d i t i o n a l heading or sub-heading i n t o the model's framework which would ensure that a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the problem i s made as a b a s i s f o r examining the process intended to induce change. The  model c o u l d be improved by making p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n s i d e r -  a b l y more i n f o r m a t i o n  about the way i n which the o r g a n i z a t i o n  to the i d e n t i f i e d problem.  relates  For i n s t a n c e , i t would be important to  know how many people i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n were a f f e c t e d by the problem and  the degree of i n t e n s i t y that these people f e l t about the i d e n t i -  f i e d problem. concerning  Of c r u c i a l importance, from the p o i n t o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s  a c t i o n i n respect  to the problem, would be  information  In a p p l y i n g the model, the w r i t e r found i t necessary to make such a statement before he was able t o g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n to " l . a . Who i d e n t i f i e d the problem."  - % about the way i n which the i d e n t i f i e d problem i s r e l a t e d to other problems.  For example,  the S o c i e t y of Women Only had  difficulty  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between problems concerning s o c i a l  a s s i s t a n c e and problems concerning d e s e r t i o n ;  considerable  i n f a c t , during  the  e a r l y stages o f the group, they took a c t i o n p r a c t i c a l l y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n respect  to these problems to such an extent that the w r i t e r  wondered i f the e n f o r c e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by the model d i d not l e a d to some d i s t o r t i o n of the a c t u a l p r o c e s s . Access The w r i t e r found that problems o f equal a c c e s s a b i l i t y to change agent and t a r g e t produced d i f f i c u l t y For example,  i n applying  the model.  data was l a c k i n g to document f u l l y 3c. (What were the  expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , i . e . , on the p a r t of the t a r g e t and on the p a r t of change agent?) and (What was  the r e a c t i o n o f the t a r g e t ? ) .  4.d.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t due to  the unique nature of the cases i n v o l v i n g p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n makers, that problems of a c c e s s a b i l i t y were aggravated;  however i t i s  probable that equal a c c e s s w i l l g e n e r a l l y be d i f f i c u l t to achieve when v i t a l i s s u e s a r e i n v o l v e d . Action  Implementation T h i s p a r t o f the model tended to be somewhat ambiguous.  i n s t a n c e , the w r i t e r had d i f f i c u l t y (How were they i n v o l v e d ? ) and k.c.  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between  For 4.b.  (What methods were a c t u a l l y used?)  As an improvement Warren's concept of system l i n k a g e could be used i n 4.b.  to demonstrate the manner i n which the p a r t i c i p a n t s were  i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i o n implementation."*"  Warren, Roland, The Community i n America, Rand McNally, Chicago,  1963, p.252  - 57 The model c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y enlarge mentation p a r t o f the process consequential  on the a c t i o n  imple-  s i n c e t h i s s e c t i o n would be most  f o r the outcome e v a l u a t i o n which f o l l o w s .  A classi-  f i c a t i o n could be developed to r e c o r d more e f f e c t i v e l y the t r a n s a c t i o n s which took place between t a r g e t and change agent so that s u f f i c i e n t data would be a v a i l a b l e to make some e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the use o f the methods employed. In the case o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only's p r e s e n t a t i o n  to Welfare  M i n i s t e r Wesley Black, i t would be s a l u t a r y to have documented j  w i t h i n the framework of the model, enough m a t e r i a l so that an assessment could e v e n t u a l l y be made of the q u a l i t y of the approach to the M i n i s t e r . Retrospection D i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n u s i n g the model on a r e t r o spective basis.  T h i s was because the w r i t e r was o b l i g e d t o r e l y  h e a v i l y on data c o l l e c t e d i n i n t e r v i e w s with the events under study sometimes having taken place as l o n g as a year ago.  Many o f the  i n t e r v i e w e r s had t r o u b l e i n r e c a l l i n g s e c t i o n s o f the a c t i o n vital  to accurate  documentation, such as "expected outcomes as seen  by the p r i n c i p l e f o r c e s i n v o l v e d . " i n t e r v i e w data,  In a d d i t i o n , when  cross-checking  the w r i t e r found t h a t , as P a u l i n e Young p r e d i c t e d ,  some informants " a r e not too u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d conscious  process  v o l i t i o n , nor are they too innocent  to modify f a c t s by to l i e . " ' *  In the case  Young, P a u l i n e , S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Research, P r e n t i c e H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s - New J e r s e y , 1956, p.208  - 58 of the S o c i e t y of Women Only, d i f f i c u l t y was e l i c i t i n g information  encountered i n  r e l a t i n g to process i n comparison w i t h  performance, p o s s i b l y because the group i t s e l f had a t t e n t i o n to the manner i n which i t was organizational  paid  attempting to  little  effect  change.  Length of the Process In the three a p p l i c a t i o n s of the model made by the i t was  apparent i n each case that the a c t i o n process was  sidered  to have concluded.  T h i s meant that the l a s t  "Outcome evaluation!' tends to be conclusiveness.  The  writer, not  con-  section,  of a t e n t a t i v e nature and  lack  v a r i o u s a c t i o n processes o u t l i n e d c o u l d have  been f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o sub-processes and  each s u b j e c t e d  to  an  a p p l i c a t i o n of the model i f t h i s would have been f e l t more u s e f u l for  documentation purposes.  For  example, the p r e s e n t a t i o n  to C i t y  C o u n c i l i n Chapter Four c o u l d have been s e l e c t e d as a u n i t f o r investigation.  The  model should perhaps be  compact change a c t i o n s or f e a t u r e s consideration  of a c o n t i n u i n g  employed f o r more  should be b u i l t  i n to  facilitate  process.  Community A c t i o n Consideration  needs to be given  to the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of  Area Development P r o j e c t ' s model when a p p l i e d  to o r g a n i z a t i o n s  the  con-  cerned w i t h e f f e c t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change on a community b a s i s . For  example, the "community a c t i o n system" proposed by Warren serves  to d e l i n e a t e the ing  dynamic aspects of s t r u c t u r e and  process by  analys-  a community change a c t i o n s t r e s s i n g changing r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between i n v o l v e d groups u s i n g ^"Warren, Roland, The  1963,  pp. 312-523  systems theory.^"  Community i n America, Rand McNally, New  York  - 59 T h i s model, i f a p p l i e d to the case m a t e r i a l o f the t h e s i s , might have served  t o i n d i c a t e how the S o c i e t y o f Women Only  fitted  i n t o the p a t t e r n o f systems o p e r a t i n g i n the community, r a t h e r than i s o l a t i n g i t f o r the purposes o f study. Thelen's model o f "group growth and community development" r e l a t e s an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  attempts to produce change i n the  community to a c t i o n s being engaged i n by other  groups and i s pre-  d i c t e d , i n the same manner as Warren's model, on the need to achieve l i n k a g e with other due  systems.'*'  However, i t i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t  t o the a t t e n t i o n i t g i v e s to the movement o f a d e s i r e f o r change  from the mind "of a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l , through the formation o r g a n i z a t i o n , and ( i d e a l l y ) through i n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  o f an  co-operation,  2  to a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o the c u l t u r e o f the community".  I f t h i s model  were to be a p p l i e d to the a c t i o n processes o f the S o c i e t y o f Women Only, a d e f i n i t e movement could be d e l i n i a t e d and s u f f i c i e n t emphasis given  t o Mrs.  Bentley's  c r i t i c a l r o l e as the i n i t i a t o r o f  change. Bureacratic The  Development w r i t e r i s o f the o p i n i o n  development o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s  that the l e v e l o f b u r e a c r a t i c  being  s t u d i e d w i l l have a b e a r i n g  on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the proposed model.  F o r example, the  S o c i e t y o f Women Only i s r e l a t i v e l y without formal  s t r u c t u r e and  thus t r a n s a c t i o n s engaged i n by the group tended to be f r e q u e n t l y "*"Thelen, Herbert A. , Dynamics of Groups a t Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 195^, pp. 360-365 2  M i a l , H. C u r t i s , "Models o f Community A c t i o n " Community Development N a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g L a b o r a t o r i e s , Washington, 1961, p.88,  -  60  -  unplanned and i m p u l s i v e - whereas the model appeared suppose an i n v o l v e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  to p r e -  As a r e s u l t , the w r i t e r  found i t necessary at times to c o n s i d e r the p r o b a b i l i t y of arrangements, which i n fact'may not have been r e c o g n i z e d as such by the organization.  A d i f f e r e n t k i n d of model might have to be  developed  to more adequately meet the needs of r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n documenting change processes engaged i n by r e l a t i v e l y u n s o p h i s t i cated c i t i z e n s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Subjectivity A c e r t a i n amount of s u b j e c t i v i t y can be expected when change processes are analysed w i t h i n the framework of the model as i t w i l l be incumbent on the r e s e a r c h e r to be d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n the of m a t e r i a l f o r documentation.  selection  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s problem can be  overcome by the employment of competent r e s e a r c h personnel and  the  v e r i f i c a t i o n of data by means of the o p e r a t i o n a l feedback e n v i s i o n e d i n the Area Development P r o j e c t ' s p r o p o s a l . Background The extent to which p r o v i s i o n of background m a t e r i a l on the case i s necessary, such as the h i s t o r y i n Chapter Two  of t h i s  i s a f u n c t i o n of the f a m i l i a r i t y with the case that can be to  the reader.  study,  attributed  The model i t s e l f does not document a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n  about a group t h a t would, f o r i n s t a n c e , be of i n t e r e s t to a change agent;  i t only a n a l y s e s a s e l e c t e d a c t i o n p r o c e s s .  General  Utility The model proposed  could be developed  by the Area Development P r o j e c t p o s s i b l y  i n t o a u s e f u l t o o l f o r the documentation of  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change p r o v i d i n g i t i s strengthened to meet some of  -  61  -  the o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h i s chapter. w i l l probably  Inevitably i t s u t i l i t y  be l i m i t e d when r e s e a r c h i s centred on o r g a n i z a t i o n s  which enter i n t o t r a n s a c t i o n s on mainly an unplanned r a t h e r than planned b a s i s .  Nevertheless,  even when the model i s used to document  change a c t i o n s of a group such as the S o c i e t y of Women Only; i n s p i t e of obvious i m p e r f e c t i o n s , produces an i n t e l l i g i b l e  the Area Development P r o j e c t ' s model document r i c h i n a n a l y t i c a l  perspectives.  PART I I I  Case Study:  The Welfare & R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l  Scope of Study I t has been the purpose  of t h i s study to explore ways i n  which the process of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change can be analyzed and documented.  T h i s has been done by examining  specific  organizational  changes of a s t r u c t u r a l nature o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area, B r i t i s h Columbia. changes of importance  The  to t h i s study occurred p r i m a r i l y i n the  Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l but were r e l a t e d to other observable changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the f u n c t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e of the parent S o c i a l Planning body. Nature  of E x p l o r a t i o n The nature of t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n has been to document a case  study of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change: 1.  To submit  2.  To do t h i s by use of a model or frame of r e f e r e n c e for  3.  the change process i t s e l f  to a n a l y s i s .  conducting the a n a l y s i s .  As a r e s u l t of u s i n g t h i s model to determine  how  u s e f u l i t can be as a guide f o r documenting the change p r o c e s s . The model used was of  a p r o p o s a l f o r the study of the process  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change developed  f o r the Area Development P r o j e c t  i n Vancouver.^" "*"Proposal f o r study of the process of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i n the Area Development P r o j e c t . Area Development P r o j e c t , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area, June,1964,(in the f i l e s of the central office).  - 63 There were two major s e c t i o n s i n t h i s study which f o r these purposes  are i n d i c a t e d as  follows:  The R e t r o s p e c t i v e A s p e c t s of the Change Process In r e l a t i o n to the model t h i s encompassed the f i r s t stages, 1)  problem  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , 2)  d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and k)  goal d e t e r m i n a t i o n , 3)  a c t i o n implementation.  four action  These p a r t s of the  p r o c e s s had a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d a t the time of t h i s  study.  The A c t i v e Aspects of the Change Process In r e l a t i o n to the model t h i s encompassed the f i n a l or e v a l u a t i v e stage of change. the amalgamation of the two at the time of t h i s  T h i s p a r t of the process o c c u r r e d a f t e r d i v i s i o n s and i n e f f e c t was  not  concluded  study.  Background D e s c r i p t i o n Before the Change Occurred S o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver has been c a r r i e d on as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s .  The i n i t i a l meeting  s o c i a l agencies i n Vancouver took p l a c e i n 1930 S o c i a l Agencies was  formed.  The  when a C o u n c i l of  f o l l o w i n g year, 1931,  became known as the Welfare F e d e r a t i o n .  of  t h i s body  Although i t was  formed p r i -  m a r i l y to f i n d a more e f f i c i e n t method of r a i s i n g f i n a n c e s f o r the member o r g a n i z a t i o n s , recommendations were ma.de f o r the establishment of a p l a n n i n g body as well."'" Since i t s i n c e p t i o n the s t r u c t u r e through which s o c i a l p l a n n i n g has been c a r r i e d out has changed many times.  In the beginning  social  p l a n n i n g operated under an e x e c u t i v e committee which f u n c t i o n e d as a board of d i r e c t o r s w i t h the s e n i o r o f f i c e r as chairman.  As  originally  Jackson, F. I v o r , A H i s t o r y of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area, i 9 6 0 , ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) .  - 64 set up  -  the member agencies of the  c o u n c i l were d i v i d e d  into  d i v i s i o n s whose f u n c t i o n s f o r some years were c o n f i n e d to with a p p l i c a t i o n  f o r membership and  certain  on  who  r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y to the  the work of the  Welfare, C h i l d Welfare and d i v i s i o n s and central  the  Annual  e x e c u t i v e committee, committees known as  hoc  committees and  carried Family  those concerned w i t h  became d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the  This structure  duties.  Spare Time A c t i v i t i e s became separate  only c e r t a i n ad  services  mittee.'*'  In 1938  council.  dealing  constitutional  Standing committees whose chairmen were appointed at the Meeting and  four  remained u n t i l 1946  e x e c u t i v e com-  when the  Chest  and  2  C o u n c i l s were combined. In 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 a growing conciousness of s o c i a l group work came to the  fore i n Vancouver?  As  group work became r e c o g n i z e d as  a  s p e c i a l i z e d branch of s o c i a l work, a Group Work C o u n c i l developed w i t h i n the  d i v i s i o n known at that  Subsequent to t h i s the In 1958,  Division.  time as Spare Time A c t i v i t i e s .  d i v i s i o n became known as  the  Group Work  because of t h i s d i v i s i o n ' s growing concern with k  r e c r e a t i o n , the name R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n was adopted. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r a number of d i v i s i o n s grew out of standing  "*Tbid. ,  p.4.  2  Ibid.,  p.7  5  Ibid.,  p.63  Minutes of the Membership meetings of the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n , 1 9 5 8 , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area ( i n . t h e f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) .  -  committees,  65  -  consequently the Family Welfare and C h i l d Welfare  d i v i s i o n s developed s e p a r a t e l y .  In 1 9 4 6 a committee reviewed  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l . recommendation of t h i s committee was  the  A major  that i n keeping with c u r r e n t  s o c i a l work t h i n k i n g , the Family Welfare and C h i l d Welfare  divisions  should be combined under the name Family and C h i l d Welfare Division.'*' Although there have been many d i v i s i o n s developed f o r v a r i o u s reasons over the y e a r s i n the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l , the main concern here has been w i t h the d i v i s i o n s t h a t grew i n t o what became known as the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l . be seen i n f i g u r e s 1 - 4 Focus o f t h i s  These developments can  inclusive.  Study  The s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change documented h e r e - i n occurred i n 1 9 6 l .  A t t h a t time the two d i v i s i o n s o f the S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , the Family and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n and  the  2  R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n were combined.  The  combined  d i v i s i o n s became a c o u n c i l known as the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l . The time when t h i s documentation  was  undertaken was  i n the  p e r i o d from February 1 9 6 5 to A p r i l 1 9 6 5 . A p p l i c a t i o n o f Study 1.  Procedure  In R e t r o s p e c t i v e Aspect of Change Process The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered was  c o n f i n e d to the headings  and  q u e s t i o n s which were o u t l i n e d i n the Area Development P r o j e c t p r o p o s a l .  Jackson, o p . c i t . , p . 1 0 6 2  Minutes of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l Meeting, A p r i l 1 9 6 1 , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area, ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) .  - 66 To do t h i s the r e c o r d e r r e l i e d to a l a r g e extent of the meetings from the Family  on the minutes  and C h i l d Welfare and the  and Group Work d i v i s i o n s h e l d the two years p r e v i o u s  Recreation  to the change,.  The minutes from the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l and i t s annual r e p o r t s from 196l  to 1964, the minutes o f the Committee on  I n t e g r a t i o n o f the two d i v i s i o n s , and the executive minutes o f the S o c i a l Planning Body were a l s o used e x t e n s i v e l y . A number o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were a l s o conducted. these i n t e r v i e w s the model was f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y i n i t s exact as a b a s i s f o r q u e s t i o n s .  I n d i v i d u a l s chosen as i n t e r v i e w  In sequence  informants  were s e l e c t e d because they were known to have had d i r e c t involvement i n the change process  that was s t u d i e d .  In an attempt to o b t a i n a  c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n the r e c o r d e r i n t e r v i e w e d the f o l l o w i n g informants:  two v o l u n t e e r s , one from each o f the p r e v i o u s  divisions,  one  o f whom was a member o f the new c o u n c i l ; two agency a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  one  from each o f the p r e v i o u s  of the new c o u n c i l ; previous  d i v i s i o n s , both o f whom were members  a planning associate assigned  d i v i s i o n s and l a t e r a s s i g n e d  s e n t a t i v e from the School  to one o f the  to the new c o u n c i l ;  a repre-  of S o c i a l Work a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, who was a member o f one d i v i s i o n and a l s o became a member of the new c o u n c i l , and the d i r e c t o r o f the S o c i a l Planning  Section  o f the Community Chest and Councilso The  i n f o r m a t i o n gathered  from these  two approaches was  combined and documented w i t h i n the framework o f the model chosen. The  r e c o r d e r was not a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n any p a r t o f the change  process  i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f the study.  - 67 -  Figure 1 1938  - S e c t i o n s R e l a t i n g to t h i s Study  Community Chest and C o u n c i l of G r e a t e r Vancouver  S o c i a l Planning Section  ^Family Welfare " " /J)± vision'Ojv^ //7///////'////y /. y  Other D i v i s i o n s not r e l a t e d to t h i s study  C h i l d Welfare % j D i v i s i on/////.'  /  Figure 2 1939 - 40  - S e c t i o n s R e l a t i n g to t h i s Study  Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver  S o c i a l Planning Section  ' i i y ' Wei f a r e ^i^Division^M //  -il'd Welfare '•Divisipn^Vv  ^Spare'' Time;;<';;';^^. A c t i v i t i e s with^;^, :^Qrjp^p^qr^J^c^i6^ :  :  Other D i v s . not r e l a t e d to t h i s study  - 68 -  Figure 5 1946 - S e c t i o n s R e l a t i n g to t h i s Study  Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver  S o c i a l Planning Section  ^ajaij^an^CnSl i^^Welfare..^ > Division '  :^ Group, ..Work Division:.  Other D i v i s i o n s not r e l a t e d to t h i s study  Figure 4  1958 - S e c t i o n s R e l a t i n g to t h i s Study Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f Greater Vancouver  S o c i a l Planning Section  \Recreatibh" and ^ai^ly^lnd^Welfare \;\Oroup Work'\.>^ s^s. D i v i s i on^\\>.JNX \Division\\\\ N  Other D i v i s i o n s not r e l a t e d to t h i s study  - 69 2.  In the A c t i v e Aspects  of the Change Process  Part of the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s s e c t i o n was the annual r e p o r t s of the Welfare years 1962,  1963,  and 1964  and  obtained  from  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l f o r the  from the same people i n t e r v i e w e d i n  the r e t r o s p e c t i v e aspects of the change p r o c e s s . The  remainder of the i n f o r m a t i o n was  committee which was the Welfare  gained  from a s p e c i a l  e s t a b l i s h e d to make a p r e l i m i n a r y assessment of In A p r i l 1964  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l .  on  instruction  from the C o u n c i l Governing Committee a meeting of the t a b l e o f f i c e r s was  convened to determine terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r an assessment of  the Welfare  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l .  I t was  committee to a s m a l l number of people a p r e l i m i n a r y study.  decided to c o n f i n e  the  as they would only be making  In the s e l e c t i o n of committee members both  t h e i r agency or o r g a n i z a t i o n background e.g. p u b l i c agency, p r i v a t e agency and broad  community, and t h e i r present p o s i t i o n i n the community  were considered.^" The  r e c o r d e r had  the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet with t h i s committee  as a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t observer.  The minutes o f these meetings, the  m a t e r i a l used and the r e p o r t produced by the committee, a l o n g  with  i n t e r v i e w s with committee members were the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r documenting the e v a l u a t i o n stage of the change p r o c e s s . was  The  information  organized w i t h i n the framework of the model chosen.  L i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s Study Interviewees, f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n and  even though c o n s c i e n t i o u s , may  2  f a u l t y memory.  s u f f e r from  In t h i s study the r e t r o s p e c t i v e  ^"An assessment of the Operation of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , March, 1965, Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area, p . l . C i n the f i l e s o f the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) p Young, P a u l i n e V., S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Research ( P r e n t i c e H a l l Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1963) p. 208  - 70 aspect  of the change process  examined by i n t e r v i e w s must r e l y  the r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the i n t e r v i e w e e s .  on  Although the i n t e r v i e w e r  attempted to be as o b j e c t i v e as p o s s i b l e i n f o l l o w i n g the model throughout a l l of the i n t e r v i e w s , the f a c t that i n t e r v i e w e r s o f t e n approach t h e i r respondents with a prepared to how The  set of e x p e c t a t i o n s  the l a t t e r w i l l answer c e r t a i n questions must a l s o be  as  noted.  i n t e r v i e w e r u s u a l l y develops these e x p e c t a t i o n s i n the course  the i n t e r v i e w on the b a s i s of e a r l y or incomplete With the l i m i t e d number of i n t e r v i e w e e s , to o b t a i n a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of o p i n i o n , b i a s e s may t h e i r responses i n the i n t e r v i e w s . beginning  The  d e s p i t e the attempt possibly exist i n  i n t e r v i e w e r e x p l a i n e d at  the  as they were at the time of the change  and not as they were at the time of t h i s In t h i s study  study.  i n t e r v i e w s were used to supplement  from minutes and  other  the items recorded  information  sources.  I t i s g e n e r a l l y necessary before  response.  of each i n t e r v i e w h i s d e s i r e to o b t a i n the thoughts and  f e e l i n g s of the informants  gathered  of  to i n s p e c t a number of  can be thought of as having  records  a h i g h degree  2  of v a l i d i t y . aspects  In t h i s study a number of r e c o r d s r e c o r d i n g the same  of change were a v a i l a b l e to document the r e t r o s p e c t i v e aspects  of change.  The  as there was i t s e l f was  a c t i v e aspects  only one  considered  d i d not b r i n g i n any  recorded  of change were not as w e l l documented source  to be conducting  i n most i n s t a n c e s . a p r e l i m i n a r y study  The  committee  only  and  resource people to examine the s u b j e c t i n f u r t h e r  detail. In most i n s t a n c e s the minutes used c o u l d be considered I b i d . , p.209 2  Ibid.,  p.l8l  a  - 71 primary  source of m a t e r i a l as they were recorded f i r s t hand at  the time of the meetings. speakers who  In some cases however the minutes i n c l u d e  are r e f e r r i n g to p r e v i o u s events and  t h e r e f o r e may  con-  t a i n i n a c c u r a c i e s and value judgements. The p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s of the model as a t o o l f o r documenting o r g a n i z e t i o n a l change w i l l be recorded a t the end of t h i s study. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e t t i n g Before and A f t e r the Formation Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l The  s t r u c t u r a l change which brought the two  of  d i v i s o n s , Family  and C h i l d Welfare, and R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work under one  council  o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s .  This change appears to have  been i n f l u e n c e d by two main f a c t o r s .  F i r s t l y , changes i n the  policies  of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as i t r e l a t e d to the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e and  secondly  by another  change i n the S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n i n v o l v i n g the form-  a t i o n of a H e a l t h C o u n c i l . Background of Concept of P l a n n i n g The  Chest and C o u n c i l s began as an amalgamation of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  p r i m a r i l y f o r fund r a i s i n g purposes. creased i t became necessary  As the number of agencies i n -  to c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s  the C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Agencies which l a t e r developed Planning Section,  i n t o the S o c i a l  fhrough the years the Vancouver S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  C o u n c i l along with other w e l f a r e c o u n c i l s , had reached simple  through  c o - o r d i n a t i o n was  the p o i n t where  no longer meeting the p l a n n i n g needs o f the  c i t y and l o n g term p l a n n i n g was  required.^"  "^Minutes of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e , March 1 9 5 9 , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, ( i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) .  -  72  -  S i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1 9 4 6 the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e had  f r e q u e n t l y examined, e v a l u a t e d , and a l t e r e d i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n to i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c a r r y i n g out the community p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n .  S t u d i e s on s t r u c t u r e were completed  i n 1 9 ^ 8 , 1 9 5 4 , 1 9 5 5 , 1 9 5 7 , and 1 9 5 9 , a l l of which r e s u l t e d i n a number o f changes c o n s i d e r e d to be adequate a t the time."*" In I960 s o c i a l p l a n n i n g could be seen as being c a r r i e d out through  a f e d e r a t i o n of agencies and focussed on common problems.  As i n d i c a t e d i n f i g u r e 5 there were f i v e main d i v i s i o n s . s e n t a t i o n i n these d i v i s i o n s was mainly  that of agency d e l e g a t e s .  These delegates decided programme p r i o r i t i e s . E x e c u t i v e c a r r i e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y L i n e of Communication The  The r e p r e -  The S o c i a l  Planning  f o r city-wide planning.  i960  s t r u c t u r e a t t h i s time was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the i n v o l v e -  ment o f s e v e r a l l e v e l s i n the h a n d l i n g of any type o f problem.  The  l i n e o f communication ran from the Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s through  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e to the v a r i o u s  d i v i s i o n s and p l a n n i n g u n i t s and then to the agencies which were members of p a r t i c u l a r u n i t s .  An agency r e q u e s t i n g a study had to take i t to  the top l e v e l o f s t r u c t u r e , the Board- of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s . The board would send i t to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e f o r c o n s i d e r ation. it  I f the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e approved the matter  f o r study  would be r e f e r r e d to the d i v i s i o n or d i v i s i o n s which S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  decided to be best q u a l i f i e d  to c a r r y i t through.  The d i v i s i o n would  c o n s i d e r i t and f i t i t i n t o i t s work l o a d a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e date  ^"Report o f the Committee on S t r u c t u r e to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , September, 1 9 6 l , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area, ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) .  -  73  -  depending upon the p r i o r i t y o f the p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t .  A committee  to study the p r o p o s a l would be made up of agency personnel p l u s people i n the community best q u a l i f i e d to c o n t r i b u t e to the p r o c e s s . When the study was completed i t would be sent back to the d i v i s i o n for approval.  I f approved i t would be sent to the S o c i a l  Executive for consideration.  Planning  On approval a t t h i s l e v e l i t was  r e t u r n e d to the Board of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s once again and i f the board passed i t ,  i t would r e v e r t back to the d i v i s i o n f o r  implementation. D i v i s i o n A u t h o r i t y I960 The proceed  d i v i s i o n s under t h i s arrangement had no a u t h o r i t y to  on t h e i r own and were completely under the c o n t r o l o f the  S o c i a l Planning E x e c u t i v e . E x e c u t i v e although  Correspondingly,  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  the s e n i o r p o l i c y committee f o r the whole  p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n was n e v e r t h e l e s s spending  i t s time  reviewing  s t u d i e s and p r o p o s a l s o f the f i v e d i v i s i o n s before r e f e r r i n g them to the Board of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s and were unable to c a r r y out the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n they d e s i r e d . F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Change F u r t h e r changes i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver were stimul a t e d by the c i t i z e n s survey r e p o r t i n I960 which i n c l u d e d a number of recommendations f o r planning."*"  A great d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n was  a l s o becoming a v a i l a b l e which i n d i c a t e d a review o f p l a n n i n g and  Report to the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the S p e c i a l Committee E s t a b l i s h e d to Review the F i n d i n g s of the C i t i z e n s Survey Committee on Health and Welfare, September, 196l, Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, p . l 4 ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e )  -  74  -  Figure 5  i960 - S e c t i o n s R e l a t i n g to t h i s Study  Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver S o c i a l Planning Section  Health Division  Guidance of Handicapped Division  Family and ; C h i l d Welfare ^ Div i s i on^;->  Recreation V \ and Group Work ^. D i v i s i o n ^ s  Committee on Welfare of the Aged  Figure 6 1962  - S e c t i o n s R e l a t i n g to t h i s Study  Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver S o c i a l Planning Section  T v -\ Welfare and 'vs\. „v. Recreation ^?Council ;  s  %  Health Council  Division for Guidance o f Handicapped  1 Welfare o f Aged Committee  - 75 s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n many North American c i t i e s . taking place Greater  was  occurring  At the same time n e g o t i a t i o n s were  to combine the Health D i v i s i o n o f the S e c t i o n w i t h the  Vancouver Health League under one  S o c i a l Planning  Section.  The  Health Council within  Health League r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  i n s i s t a n t on the t i t l e "Health  C o u n c i l " as one  i n the community."*"  C o u n c i l would have a g r e a t e r  The  Health  the  were  which would have s t a t u s degree  of a u t h o r i t y and independence t h a t h i t h e r t o accorded the d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  S e c t i o n and would be allowed to make  community statements i r r e g a r d l e s s of Community Chest and Board  Councils'  approval.  S t r u c t u r a l Design i n  1961  In l i g h t of these happenings as w e l l as the forming of Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n  C o u n c i l a committee on s t r u c t u r e was  the  established  2  i n the summer of 1961.  The  z a t i o n of the S o c i a l Planning the Health  C o u n c i l and  law amendments.  The  committee was  to b r i n g i n recommendations on s t r u c t u r e  acceptance of these recommendations on  i960 o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y .  the Health and  reorgani-  Section incorporating provisions for  amendments changed s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  d i v i s i o n s became two  to work out the  a great  Under the new  structure  deal from the s i t u a t i o n i n  s t r u c t u r e the p r e v i o u s  c o u n c i l s , the Welfare and  Recreation  five  Council  and  C o u n c i l , p l u s a d i v i s i o n f o r the Guidance of the Handicapped  a committee f o r the Welfare of the Aged as seen i n F i g u r e  Division Authority The  by-  6.  1961  c o u n c i l s and  d i v i s i o n s had  Minutes of Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n  c o n s i d e r a b l y more autonomy than  C o u n c i l , l o c . c i t . , May,  Report of the Committee on S t r u c t u r e , l o c . c i t . ,  1961  196l  - 76 i n the p a s t .  Under the new  s t r u c t u r e there would be a d i r e c t l i n e of  access to and  from the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Community Chest  C o u n c i l s and the p l a n n i n g u n i t s .  A l l business was  to be  and  conducted  w i t h i n the f o u r s u b - s e c t i o n s ; a l l committees were to be under t h e i r a u s p i c e s and a l l a c t i o n and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g formulated by them. would be autonomous i n a l l matters interest.  concerning t h e i r own  field  They  of  A request f o r a study could be r e c e i v e d d i r e c t l y from an  agency or the Board of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s .  The  Council  or D i v i s i o n E x e c u t i v e c o u l d c o n s i d e r i t and on a p p r o v a l f i t i t i n t o the work l o a d of the c o u n c i l , e s t a b l i s h a committee to make the and upon completion  and approval of the study could r e t u r n i t d i r e c t l y  to the Board of the Community Chest was it  judged  study  and C o u n c i l s .  I f , however, i t  to have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r other u n i t s o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ,  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e b e f o r e i t was  presented to the The  board.  s t a t e d purpose of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e was  o r d i n a t i o n and communication between the s e c t i o n s . s t u d i e s only under s p e c i a l circumstances.  co-  I t would i n i t i a t e  T h i s meant that the c o u n c i l s  and d i v i s i o n s would do a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the work p r e v i o u s l y done by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e .  Under t h i s s t r u c t u r e the p l a n n i n g  u n i t s would a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementation  of the v a r i o u s  projects. Other F a c t o r s i n the Change i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g In September 1961  the s p e c i a l committee e s t a b l i s h e d to  review  the f i n d i n g s of the c i t i z e n s survey were accepted and implemented i n the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n .  To f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  s i t u a t i o n , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t here to note a few that were not  - 77 implemented. 1.  The That  -  c i t i z e n s r e p o r t recommended:"'" the c o u n c i l s t r e a m l i n e i t s present s t r u c t u r e  by c o n v e r t i n g the present f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s to conference  groups f o r the purposes of  developing  communication, a d v i s i n g on s t u d i e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n and g i v i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e where needed. 2.  That the c o u n c i l appoint study committees on an ad  hoc  b a s i s to f u n c t i o n d i r e c t l y under the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Section. 3.  That necessary c o n t i n u i n g p r o j e c t s and  activities  be  e s t a b l i s h e d under s t a n d i n g committees r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n or o r g a n i z e d c o u n c i l s w i t h i n the P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , depending on the The  situation.  committee r e v i e w i n g these recommendations agreed with  o b j e c t i v e s but d i d not agree.with f o r a c h i e v i n g these o b j e c t i v e s .  the " l i n e s " suggested  their  by the r e p o r t  They were r e j e c t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g  2  reasons.  I t was  c o n s i d e r e d that the groups, o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p l a n n i n g at t h a t time would not be p r e pared  to accept nor should they be asked to accept the c o n v e r s i o n of  f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s to conference out by ad hoc The  d i r e c t i o n i n which p l a n n i n g was  Ibid.,  of C i t i z e n s ' Survey Report p.16  e v o l v i n g was  the development  In the development of these c o u n c i l s there  would be elements o f s t r e a m l i n i n g .  2  carried  committees.  of semi-autonomous c o u n c i l s .  Report  groups, w i t h p l a n n i n g being  Study would be done with a view to  Committee, l o c . c i t . ,  p.15  - 78 e l i m i n a t i n g l e v e l s of review wherever t h i s was  f e a s i b l e and would  not t h r e a t e n to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the c o - o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n o f the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e Committee and the Broad p o l i c y concerns o f the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s . Emerging Concepts o f P l a n n i n g  19&5  The o v e r a l l concept of p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver appeared to be changing again from the s i t u a t i o n o u t l i n e d i n 1961  to a problem  c e n t r e d approach based upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of community needs and the p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s to meet these needs.  The c o u n c i l was  beginning to move from b e i n g f i e l d of s e r v i c e based toward the forma t i o n o f community c o u n c i l s i n a s p e c i f i c geographic a r e a .  I t was  hoped t h a t t h i s approach would f i n d a s o l u t i o n to a problem as a whole r a t h e r than to a l l e v i a t e o n l y one or two a s p e c t s of the problem. T h i s w i l l be d e a l t with f u r t h e r i n the e v a l u a t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h i s study. The f o r e g o i n g i n f o r m a t i o n has been f o r purposes o f i n t r o d u c i n g the p r o c e s s of amalgamation  i n v o l v i n g the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work  and Family and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n s .  The documenting o f t h i s  s t r u c t u r a l change u s i n g the Area Development Problem  Identification  A.  I d e n t i f i e d the Problem?  Who  P r o j e c t model f o l l o w s :  The problem of having two separate d i v i s i o n s , one f o r Family and C h i l d Welfare and one f o r Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n was by a number of people a t v a r i o u s times.  identified  That there was a problem  appears to have become the o p i n i o n of many people and n e i t h e r the minutes nor the i n t e r v i e w e r s were a b l e to shed any l i g h t on the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r o f who  i d e n t i f i e d the problem.  The r e c o r d e r has  - 79 not attempted to rank the people i n any s p e c i f i c  order.  The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l s t a f f members who to was  the two  d i v i s i o n s saw  the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e as a problem.  done before the s t a f f person  Division left  a l s o aware of the problem.  for  change.  from the Family and C h i l d  the c o u n c i l i n i960.  s e n t a t i v e s i n the two The  were assigned This  Welfare  The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e  Both the v o l u n t e e r s and  was  the agency r e p r e -  d i v i s i o n s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s e e i n g the need  r e p o r t of the C i t i z e n s Committee on the Community  Chest and C o u n c i l s a l s o p o i n t e d out among o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l should make every e f f o r t to s t r e a m l i n e i t s s t r u c t u r e to make more e f f i c i e n t use of the time of s t a f f  and  volunteers."* B.  How  was  i t identified?  The  c h r o n o l o g i c a l order i n t h i s s e c t i o n was  also d i f f i c u l t  to  determine and the r e c o r d e r has once again chosen the order i n the s i t u a t i o n s where i t was  not p o s s i b l e to determine i t e x a c t l y .  The g e n e r a l philosophy of p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver i n i960 which a p p a r e n t l y has been i n f l u e n c e d by the s i t u a t i o n throughout  Worth  America manifested i t s e l f i n people's b e l i e f i n the u n i f i c a t i o n , o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of s e r v i c e s .  co-  W i t h i n t h i s g e n e r a l framework  a number of s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g s were occuning i n Vancouver.  Among these  were a Co-Ordination of S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , a proposed expansion p l a n n i n g programme to i n c l u d e work on youth s e r v i c e s , a J o i n t  of Family  S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g the Neighbourhood Houses and the Family 2  S e r v i c e Bureau and a beginning l o o k at the Area Development P r o j e c t .  ^"Ibid., p. 1U Minutes of the meeting of J o i n t Committee on Integration,January,1961. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , Community Chest & C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area ( i n f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) .  -  80  -  A l l of these p r o j e c t s were i n d i c a t i n g the need f o r b e t t e r i n t e g r a t i o n of s e r v i c e s and p o i n t e d up the f a c t that a l o o k or study could not c o n f i n e d to one  d i v i s i o n only.  At the same time there was  be  not only a  l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s but a l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g as w e l l * In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s between the s t a f f members of the two  d i v i s i o n s uncovered  they f e l t were being precipitated by the two From a s t a f f i n g p o i n t o f view time was  f u r t h e r problems which divisions b e i n g separated.  being l o s t through the i n c r e a s e d  o v e r l a p p i n g and d u p l i c a t i n g of the areas of work.  In order t h a t many  matters of common i n t e r e s t could be d i s c u s s e d a t i n d i v i d u a l meetings,  division  lengthy conferences were ncessary between the s t a f f executive  secretaries.  Another f a c t o r to be c o n s i d e r e d was  delinquency programme.  I t was  the j u v e n i l e  of i n t e r e s t t o both d i v i s i o n s and l o o k i n g  at i t s e p a r a t e l y or s e t t i n g up a j o i n t committee d i d not appear to be adequate s o l u t i o n s a t the time.  With these thoughts  i n mind the  way  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n t a l k e d about s p e c i f i c i s s u e s brought i t s d e s i r e f o r needed change t o other people's While  t h i s was  o c c u r r i n g the agencies were a l s o  problems with the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e . themselves was  attention.  members of one  identifying  A number of agencies  found  d i v i s i o n but extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n what  o c c u r r i n g i n the other d i v i s i o n .  An example o f t h i s was  Family S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t where the Family S e r v i c e s Bureau and  the J o i n t the  Neighbourhood Houses although working together on t h i s p r o j e c t were i n separate d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n . p e r s o n n e l were then beginning t o meet  The  i n a "shadow" t h i r d  agency division.  - 81 The Planning the two  matter was  Executive  who  discussed  i n f o r m a l l y w i t h the S o c i a l  suggested a meeting of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  d i v i s i o n s concerned to d i s c u s s the matter f u r t h e r .  of other g e n e r a l  f e e l i n g s about the separated  division  A number  structure  were a l s o brought to l i g h t when the Assessment Committee met 1965.  These i n c l u d e d :  the  f a c t that the a g e n c i e s were not  the r e s u l t s from the s t u d i e s that they wanted; f a l l n e a t l y i n t o d i v i s i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s and  in getting  problems d i d  artificial  from  not  d i v i s i o n s were  not meeting the needs of t h e i r members or the community;  there  was  undue time consumed i n j u s t keeping the d i v i s i o n a l apparatus i n motion, t h i s was for  two  true p a r t i c u l a r l y of s t a f f , e.g. minutes, agendas, r e p o r t s , d i v i s i o n s , but The  a l s o was  true f o r v o l u n t e e r  other main area concerned the over a l l s o c i a l  s t r u c t u r e as o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s r e c o r d i n g . for  time.  the d i v i s i o n s to proceed and  S o c i a l Planning  Executive,  The  planning  l a c k of a u t h o r i t y  the corresponding hindrance to  the  as w e l l as the d e s i r e f o r more autonomy  emphasized by the n e g o t i a t i o n s with the Health  League - a l l played  an important p a r t i n i d e n t i f y i n g the problem.  Whether or not a l l of  the problems i d e n t i f i e d were a r e s u l t of having two  separate  divi-  s i o n s i t was  b e l i e v e d at the time t h a t t h i s caused a number of  difficulties  and  a change was  needed.  While i t appears very l i k e l y for  a c c e l e r a t e d by the r e s i g n a t i o n of Mr.  s t a f f person w i t h the Family and new  that d i s c u s s i o n s about the need  change would have proceeded anyway, there i s no doubt t h a t  process was  the  the  E.F. Watson as  C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n .  appointment to be made to s t a f f the Family a n d C h i l d  With a  Welfare  D i v i s i o n i t appeared to be the most p r o p i t i o u s time to g i v e  full  the  - 82 c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the v a r i o u s ways i n which a more e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n v o l v i n g the two  d i v i s i o n s might be  established.^" C.  How  was  the extent and nature  of the problem v e r i f i e d ?  The  formal stage of problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n began w i t h a  meeting of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the two i960, to d i s c u s s the extent and nature was  d i v i s i o n s on November of the problem.  The  17, meeting  composed of f i v e members from the Family andCbild Welfare D i v i s i o n ,  f i v e members from the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n p l u s B.A.  Robinson, s t a f f person f o r the d i v i s i o n , and Mr.  D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g .  The  problem was  with most of the p o i n t s r a i s e d i n the previous r e c o r d being d i s c u s s e d . the executive  E.D.  Mr.  Hill,  discussed informally s e c t i o n of  this  Mr. Robinson a l s o s u p p l i e d an a n a l y s i s o f  committee minutes o f the two  d i v i s i o n s covering  dates from January to October i960 i n c l u s i v e .  the  This analysis i n d i c a t e d  the o v e r l a p p i n g of agenda s u b j e c t s , the s u b j e c t s that were only cons i d e r e d by one  but c o u l d have b e n e f i t t e d by broader c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  the s u b j e c t s considered seen i n t a b l e 1.  s e p a r a t e l y by both d i v i s i o n s .  I t was  shown t h a t the f i r s t two  35% of the s u b j e c t s d i s c u s s e d .  The  cated a need f o r change but i t was done on the matter and  T h i s can  be  c a t e g o r i e s comprised  d i s c u s s i o n a t t h i s meeting i n d i f e l t that more r e s e a r c h should  be  t h a t a committee should examine the m a t e r i a l  on s t r u c t u r e from other c o u n c i l s .  "^Minutes of the meeting of R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n , March,1961, S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) . Minutes of the meeting of JointCommittee on Integration,November,i960, S o c i a l Planning Section,Community Chest & C o u n c i l s of Greater Vancouver ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e )  - 83 On January 24, 196l, problem further."*"  Considered a t t h i s time was a summary prepared  by s t a f f o f the v a r i o u s at  the committee met to c o n s i d e r the  forms o f p l a n n i n g  organizations  t h a t time i n H e a l t h and Welfare C o u n c i l s a c r o s s Canada and i n  the U n i t e d  States.  Further  study was a l s o given  to the agenda  breakdown which the s t a f f had prepared f o r the previous The  operating  meeting.  p o i n t s that had been d i s c u s s e d i n f o r m a l l y , namely the Co-ordin-  a t i o n o f S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , the J o i n t Family S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t and the problems around j u v e n i l e delinquency and s e r v i c e s to youth were now d i s c u s s e d  on a formal b a s i s by the committee.  A r e p o r t o f t h i s meeting along w i t h f u r t h e r background m a t e r i a l p o i n t i n g up the need f o r change was sent to the two d i v i s i o n s . T h i s f u r t h e r m a t e r i a l prpeared by s t a f f i n c l u d e d a short summary o f s o c i a l planning  i n Vancouver b e g i n n i n g a t 1964 i n d i c a t i n g some o f the  changes t h a t had o c c u r r e d  over the y e a r s .  p l a c e d on the r e p o r t of the 1959  S p e c i a l emphasis was  sub-committee on s o c i a l  planning  s t r u c t u r e which found the d i v i s i o n s to be "agency" and " f i e l d o f  2 s e r v i c e " minded and not s u f f i c i e n t l y community p l a n n i n g The  minded.  problem was f u r t h e r v e r i f i e d i n separate d i s c u s s i o n a t  f u l l meetings o f the two d i v i s i o n s concerned u s i n g a l l of the m a t e r i a l t h a t had been p r e v i o u s l y prepared by s t a f f .  Minutes o f the meeting of the J o i n t Committee on I n t e g r a t i o n , January, 1961  loc.cit.,  2  Report o f Sub-Committee on S t r u c t u r e , 1959, S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f Greater Vancouver Area, ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e )  -  Table A.  84  -  A n a l y s i s of the E x e c u t i v e Committe'es' Minutes, Family and C h i l d Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n s January - October, i960  Considered by Both E x e c u t i v e Committees  Considered by one but could have b e n e f i t t e d by broader consideration  - B.C. Govt. Report of J u v e n i l e Delinquency Board  - K o o l C i t y Club  - Y.W.C.A. Baynes House - Urban  Redevelopment  - J o i n t Family S e r v i c e Future P l a n n i n g Committee - Report on C i t y C o u n c i l Committee on S o c i a l Problems - Report on C i t i z e n s ' Survey Study - S o c i a l Planning E x e c u t i v e Statement on I n t e g r a t e d P l a n n i n g  - V o l u n t e e r Bureau - R e c r u i t i n g , T r a i n i n g , placement of Volunteers - S p e c i a l Programme f o r B l i n d Children - R e c r e a t i o n Needs o f Cedar Cottage Area - North Shore Neighbourhood House Area Study - Recreation Services f o r Children i n New R e s i d e n t i a l Areas - R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s f o r Teenagers i n Renfrew Area - C h i l d Care Centre  S p e c i a l i z e d to R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n  S p e c i a l i z e d to F a m i l y and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n  - Degree Course i n Recreation,U.B.C.  - Maximum A l l o w a b l e E a r n i n g Capacity of S o c i a l Assistance Recipients  - Major's Youth Committee Fund, Use of S c h o o l Gymnasiums - Review o f Vancouver G i r l s Club Association - C i t y C o u n c i l ' s A p p r o p r i a t i o n of F a l s e Creek Park.  of S o c i a l Allowances  - Development of Community-wide housekeeper s e r v i c e - Trends i n Day Care S e r v i c e  - Day Camp Standards - Boards o f Trade B r i e f on G o l f Course  - Adequacy Future  Shaughnessy  - C a t h o l i c Family S e r v i c e s Housekeeper budget - Emergency S h e l t e r Committee  - 85 2.  Goal Determination  A.  What type of change ( p o l i c y , s t r u c t u r a l , e t c . ) A f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g and  change the next step was stated  e a r l i e r an  v e r i f y i n g the  to decide the  e v a l u a t i o n of the  Canada and  structure  d i d not  type of change n e c e s s a r y .  outlined  to the  I t was  appear to be  other was  involve  j o i n i n g the  proposed.  two  the  solution  to the  However, a d e f i n i t e need f o r  For  the  reasons the  g r e a t e s t need  together under one  integration  of two  council  ence of a c t i o n was  plans.  was  divisions within  the  of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n .  same time a c o n s i d e r a b l e change i n p o l i c y was  p r o v i d e d f o r i n the  E x e c u t i v e was  r e l a t e d more  C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n and  divisions  T h i s would be an  the  particular  T h e r e f o r e a s t r u c t u r a l change which would  t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n a l structure At  the  a r a d i c a l change  Group Work D i v i s b n appeared to have the  f o r more c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  be  decided that  c o n s i d e r e d necessary.  e a r l i e r the Family and  R e c r e a t i o n and  As  was  examination of  component p a r t s of the p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n to be  c l o s e l y one  need f o r  s t r u c t u r a l arrangements  problems of the Vancouver Council."'" the  the  of o t h e r Community Welfare C o u n c i l s i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  i n structure  planned?  problem and  c a r r i e d out w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the organizational  was  also  A g r e a t e r degree of autonomy and  planned f o r the  new  council  and  to become a c o - o r d i n a t i n g i n t e g r a t i n g  independ-  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g body.  There would  a broadening of emphasis to i n c l u d e community i d e n t i f i e d needs i n  addition  to agency i d e n t i f i e d needs.  The  Minutes of the meeting of R e c r e a t i o n and March I 9 6 I .  o v e r a l l p o l i c y of s o c i a l  Group Work D i v i s i o n , l o c . c i t . ,  -  86  -  p l a n n i n g would remain f i e l d o f s e r v i c e based and the focus would s t i l l mainly be on meeting needs through adjustment o f e x i s t i n g agency services. What are the c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the V a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s ? From the i n t e r v i e w s and the minutes i t does not appear as i f c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n terms o f money was taken much i n t o account i n p l a n n i n g a change.  There a p p a r e n t l y was some d i s c u s s i o n about s a v i n g  money but the g e n e r a l consensus seemed to be t h a t there would be l i t t l e difference financially.  I t was the other f a c t o r s considered  which appeared to make change necessary.  I t was hoped that the  s a v i n g would be i n the c o s t o f s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s ' time which p r e v i o u s l y had been necessary  to keep two d i v i s i o n s running.  a s p e c t s o f c o s t were recorded under the heading  Other  "Factors Against  Change". B.  Who i u g g e s t e d i t and how was i t suggested? The  of  same people who i d e n t i f i e d the problem suggested  s t r u c t u r a l change needed.  the type  These i n c l u d e d the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  staff  a s s i g n e d to the two d i v i s i o n s , the v o l u n t e e r s and agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  the two d i v i s i o n s , p r e v i o u s committees on s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e ,  the r e p o r t o f the c i t i z e n s ' survey and the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e . As i n the "who" p a r t o f problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h i s s e c t i o n was d i f f i c u l t  to determine e x a c t l y .  I t appeared as i f the i d e a o f  i n t e g r a t i o n o f the two d i v i s i o n s occurred a t the same time as the problems i n h e r e n t i n having separate d i v i s i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d . The  o r i g i n o f the p o l i c y changes were somewhat more complicated.  The informants i n d i c a t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of pressure came from  -  87  -  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e a p p a r e n t l y p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r examination  of other c o u n c i l s throughout  North America. The  R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n a l s o made four c o n d i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the type of p o l i c y changes planned. The p r i n c i p a l f o r c e i n o b t a i n i n g the p o l i c y change which r e s u l t e d i n more d i v i s i o n a l autonomy was the H e a l t h League. Although  the members of the two d i v i s i o n s were a l s o d e s i r o u s  of more autonomy and a sub-committee on s t r u c t u r e had seen the need for  s t r e a m l i n i n g the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n .  was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the Welfare  Autonomy a p p a r e n t l y  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l as a d i r e c t  r e s u l t of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n ' s n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the Health League. The p l a n was suggested  i n f o r m a l l y i n the beginning to the  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e who then decided to c a l l a formal meeting to C.  p l a c e the p l a n before the d i v i s i o n s . Who  i s seen as the t a r g e t f o r change? The t a r g e t f o r change was the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e which  p r o v i d e d f o r two separate d i v i s i o n s and the o v e r a l l s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e w i t h i t s l a c k of autonomy i n the v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s . s p e c i f i c people i n v o l v e d were the membership  o f the two d i v i s i o n s ,  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e and i n the f i n a l the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s . of  The  a n a l y s i s the Board o f  Since one of the recommendations  the Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n had been that the i n t e g r a t e d  E x e c u t i v e Committee have p l a n n i n g as i t s p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n another t a r g e t f o r change would presumably be the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the agencies to  the new c o u n c i l .  at  the time.  in  the broad  However,  A secondary  t h i s d i d not seem to have been d i s c u s s e d  t a r g e t f o r change was the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d  sense, with the hope of a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r c o - o r d h a t i o n  -  88  -  and i n t e g r a t i o n . D.  What was the estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of t a r g e t to change? I t was  vulnerable the  the  b e l i e v e d at the time that the t a r g e t was  to change.  T h i s was  very  mostly a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f many of  reasons given as i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r change.  Tba s i t u a t i o n  i n other c o u n c i l s throughout North America, the C o - O r d i n a t i o n of S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , J o i n t Family S e r v i c e P r o j e c t , j u v e n i l e delinquency problem and Area Development P r o j e c t a l l helped c r e a t e a climate  f o r change.  The  favourable  c i t i z e n s survey, the r e p o r t of the  sub-committee on s t r u c t u r e and  again  1959  the experience of the nego-.  t i a t i o n s w i t h the Health League a l s o made the t a r g e t more  vulnerable  to change. Informal d i s c u s s i o n and  l a t e r g e n e r a l meetings w i t h  membership of the d i v i s i o n s i n d i c a t e d a r e a d i n e s s most people f o r change. Executive  were d e s i r o u s  Both the d i v i s i o n s and  against  t h i s favourable  change and  on the p a r t  the S o c i a l  of  Planning  of the d i v i s i o n s having more autonomy to  enable both s e c t i o n s to b e t t e r c a r r y out Despite  the  their duties.  atmosphere a number of f a c t o r s  conditions subject  to endorsement of change were  brought f o r t h . F a c t o r s Against Among the  Change factors against i n t e g r a t i o n discussed  committee meeting of January 2k,  196l,  s p e c i a l i s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  the  were the d i f f i c u l t i e s  agencies would have i n a s s o c i a t i n g themselves w i t h an d i v i s i o n , the problem of handling  at  the  integrated  agenda items which r e q u i r e  the p r a c t i c a l problems of combining  - 89 two  a c t i v e ongoing o p e r a t i o n s .  A motion was made f o r the r e t e n t i o n  of the d i v i s i o n s the way they were but p r o v i d i n g f o r j o i n t meetings of executives  to c o n s i d e r mutual problems.  A f u r t h e r p o i n t was r a i s e d by the R e c r e a t i o n at i t s meeting to d i s c u s s i n t e g r a t i o n .  There was no seconder.^" and Group Work D i v i s i o n  The q u e s t i o n  was asked: i f  there were reasons why the d i v i s i o n s t r u c t u r e was no longer what was to be gained by combining two d i v i s i o n s ?  sound  I t appeared to be  a compromise i n p l a n n i n g a t the lower l e v e l without e s s e n t i a l r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f comprehensive s o c i a l p l a n n i n g .  I t was s t a t e d  that  i n theory i n t e g r a t i o n would e l i m i n a t e much d u p l i c a t i o n , but i n p r a c t i c e every person s i t t i n g on the J o i n t E x e c u t i v e  Committee would  have to have an i n c r e a s e d breadth o f knowledge to f i t i n t o the larger setting. The  Recreation  and Group Work D i v i s i o n made i t s endorsement  2 o f the planned change s u b j e c t t o the f o l l o w i n g a)  conditions.  That the i n t e g r a t e d d i v i s i o n s be under the d i r e c t i o n of one executive  s t a f f person w i t h other s t a f f as  r e q u i r e d i n an a s s i s t a n t c a p a c i t y . b)  That the e d u c a t i o n a l  f u n c t i o n o f the d i v i s i o n as  p r e s e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d be c)  preserved.  That the i n t e g r a t e d executive  committee have  as i t s p r i n c i p l e f u n c t i o n with l e s s emphasis  planning being  Minutes o f the meeting o f the J o i n t Committee on I n t e g r a t i o n , l o c . c i t . January 1961 2  Minutes of the meeting of R e c r e a t i o n March I96I  and Group Work D i v i s i o n , l o c . c i t .  -  placed d)  90  -  on i t s use i n s o l v i n g problems,  That sub-committees necessary to handle s p e c i a l i z e d areas of work on an ad hoc committee b a s i s be  Action A.  r a t h e r than a  standing  established.  Determination  What a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s were made of ways to b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change? Who made them? After informal  d i s c u s s i o n among the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  a s s i g n e d to each of the d i v i s i o n s , among the v o l u n t e e r s , agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  i t was  and among  decided to take t h e i r thoughts to  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e to t e s t out r e a c t i o n to them. was  staff  The  the  decision  made by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e to c a l l a meeting o f  representatives further.  The  of the  two  d i v i s i o n s to d i s c u s s  people a t t e n d i n g  the p o s s i b l e change  t h i s meeting would then decide i f  the s i t u a t i o n m e r i t e d f u r t h e r study. I t was Section be  a l s o decided by the  that a f u r t h e r way  s t a f f i n the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  to b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change would  to prepare m a t e r i a l on the agendas of the  two  d i v i s i o n s along  w i t h an a n a l y s i s of other s t r u c t u r a l designs f o r s o c i a l  planning  i n North America. I t was grate  the  two  r e a l i z e d that i f the d e c i s i o n were reached to i n t e d i v i s i o n s , f u r t h e r d e l i b e r a t i o n s would f o l l o w  a number of other problems. f o r the new  These would i n c l u d e  body, a name, membership and  an  terms of  regarding reference  exact s t r u c t u r e .  Since  these d e c i s i o n s could not be made u n t i l some aspects of a c t i o n implementation were c a r r i e d out the  they w i l l be r e c o r d e d as a p a r t  s e c t i o n of the model d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t .  of  - 91 B.  What were the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes of each of these a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s ? The  outcome of each d e c i s i o n to take the matter f u r t h e r f o r  d i s c u s s i o n , whether i t be i n f o r m a l l y to the S o c i a l E x e c u t i v e or f o r m a l l y to the two r e j e c t i o n of the p r o p o s a l s .  Planning  d i v i s i o n s , c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n  Each area may  have f e l t the  reasons  f o r change were not v a l i d or i f a c c e p t i n g the need f o r change might not have agreed w i t h the proposed type o f change. e a r l i e r there was The  As i n d i c a t e d  some o p p o s i t i o n to change which had  to be overcome.  R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n d i d make four c o n d i t i o n s to  t h e i r endorsing change which have a l r e a d y been  recorded.  T h i s s e c t i o n a l s o seemed to be an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e to r e c o r d the few t h i n g s t h a t people i n g the two  divisions.  thought might be l o s t by i n t e g r a t -  There does not appear to have been a great  d e a l of concern about what the d i v i s i o n s might l o s e at the time, i f so i t appears to have been completely gains.  However, the agencies  to express themselves and  outweighed by the hoped-for  d i d wonder where they would be  d i s c u s s t h e i r own  concerns i f the d i v i s i o n s j o i n e d .  I t was  able  unique p r o f e s s i o n a l  thought t h a t the  existing  s t r u c t u r e p e r m i t t e d more time to c o n s i d e r s p e c i a l i z e d problems and f o s t e r e d agency p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . concern was  f o r the l o s s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e p l a y e d by the  divisions  e v i d e n t i n the f a c t t h a t the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n  recommended t h a t t h i s r o l e not be l o s t i n the new C.  The  What were the expected focus i n v o l v e d ?  outcomes as seen by the  body. principal  There appeared to be a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g of optimism both i n  -  -  92  the membership of the two d i v i s i o n s and i n the o v e r a l l  social  p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e that the proposed change would be b e n e f i c i a l and a b e t t e r job would be done as a r e s u l t . I t was  hoped t h a t the new  a u t h o r i t y of the d i v i s i o n s to  proceed on t h e i r own would p r o v i d e a broader and more e f f i c i e n t approach to s o l v i n g problems.  The change would e l i m i n a t e the  unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o l u n t e e r e f f o r t . Besides c u r i n g the problem  i n h e r e n t i n o v e r l a p p i n g agendas i t would  gave b e t t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n to those questions that should have been c o n s i d e r e d by both d i v i s i o n s p r e v i o u s l y .  I t was  b e l i e v e d that a  j o i n t c o u n c i l w i t h g r e a t e r autonomy would enable much f a s t e r implementation o f a c t i o n programmes.  P a r t o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s  caused  because a problem would not f i t i n t o one d i v i s i o n would be e l i m i n a t e d and a g r e a t d e a l of time would be saved i n not having to process e v e r y t h i n g through l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r e .  The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  E x e c u t i v e would be f r e e d from r e v i e w i n g each study b e f o r e i t s going to the Board o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s and thus c o u l d proceed with an i n t e g r a t i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n . The above recorded items seemed to be the thoughts o f a l l o f the v a r i o u s p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the proposed change.  There  however, another a r e a i n which the expected outcome was  viewed  was,  d i f f e r e n t l y by the agencies i n the community and the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Body.  Many of the agencies hoped f o r b e t t e r i n t e g r a t i o n and co-  o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s but d i d not expect a l o s s of c o n t a c t f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n with the s t a f f person w i t h whom they had been i n v o l v e d i n the two d i v i s i o n s t r u c t u r e .  The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n however  - 93 saw the new s t r u c t u r e as having a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e i n making s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l problems, i n determining the nature o f needs i n the community, i n making recommendations f o r the s o l u t i o n o f these needs and i n c a r r y i n g through an implementation ations.  o f recommend-  Apparently i t was b e l i e v e d that the d i v i s i o n s had become  too a g e n c y - o r i e n t a t e d and not enough " f i e l d of s e r v i c e " or " p l a n n i n g " orientated."*  I t was openly hoped by s o c i a l p l a n n i n g t h a t the new  c o u n c i l would change t h i s somewhat and begin to e l i m i n a t e the i d e a of  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n being a "hand maiden" to the a g e n c i e s .  Action  Implementation  A.  became i n v o l v e d ?  Who  The people i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i o n implementation  parallel  very c l o s e l y the same people o u t l i n e d i n the f i r s t three p a r t s o f the r e c o r d .  Most o f the implementation  was c a r r i e d through by the  two d i v i s i o n s making use o f a committee e s t a b l i s h e d from the two b o d i e s to work out i n t e g r a t i o n .  The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e and  the Board of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s were a l s o i n v o l v e d i n the f i n a l implementation.  The 1961 r e p o r t of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  S t r u c t u r e Committee p l a y e d an important r o l e i n determining the final B.  a c t i o n to be taken.  How were they i n v o l v e d ? The d i v i s i o n s were i n v o l v e d i n a d i r e c t way i n making the  d e c i s i o n s necessary i n implementing  the d e s i r e d change.  The s o c i a l  p l a n n i n g s t a f f were a l s o d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the membership o f the  Ibid.  - 9k divisions.  The  -  S o c i a l Planning  S t r u c t u r e Committee was  involved  i n d i r e c t l y i n t h a t t h e i r recommendations f o r the whole S o c i a l S e c t i o n had  a bearing  on the terms of r e f e r e n c e  Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C.  and  structure of  the  Council.  What methods were a c t u a l l y used? The  recorder  has  decided  change under t h i s heading was  t h a t the best way  to document the  to f o l l o w the c h r o n o l o g i c a l order  events o u t l i n i n g the methods used beginning with the f i r s t meeting of November 17, On November 17» Executive was  Planning  I960,  a meeting arranged by the S o c i a l from each of the two  h e l d to d i s c u s s i n f o r m a l l y the i d e a of i n t e g r a t i n g the There was  a s p e c i a l committee was  i n v e s t i g a t e the matter f u r t h e r .  The  and  considered  Planning  divisions two  some agreement that there seemed to be need  f o r some k i n d of i n t e g r a t i o n and  196l,  joint  I960.  between f i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  divisions."*"  of  committee met  s e t up  on January  f u r t h e r m a t e r i a l on s t r u c t u r e and  to  24,  workload  2 provided  by  The and  staff. committee decided  an i n t e g r a t e d executive  p l i s h e d by the establishment the e x i s t i n g e x e c u t i v e s the new  be  s e t up  d i v i s i o n s should  f o r one  year.  amalgamate  T h i s was  of a j o i n t nominating committee from  Committee.  A chairman was  a l s o to be  Those members of the e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n e x e c u t i v e s  would be l e f t out  accom-  to nominate approximately t h i r t y members to  integrated Executive  nominated.  t h a t the two  of the newly formed executive  who  would be asked to  Minutes of the meeting.of J o i n t Committee on Integration., November i960 2 Minutes of the meeting of J o i n t Committee on I n t e g r a t i o n , January, 1961  loc.cit,  loc.cit.,  - 95 a c c e p t p r o j e c t assignments.  S p e c i a l sub-committees would  be  formed to deal w i t h those agenda items which r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l i z e d consideration.  This proposal  was  E x e c u t i v e Committees of the two  d i v i s i o n s and  i n t e g r a t e d E x e c u t i v e Committee was annual meetings of the two The  to be brought before  the  i f agreed t o ,  the  to be e s t a b l i s h e d f o l l o w i n g  the  d i v i s i o n s scheduled i n March.  second meeting of the D i v i s i o n I n t e g r a t i o n Committee  h e l d on March 21,  1961."*  At t h i s meeting the  exact nature of  was  the  i n t e g r a t e d body and  the time schedule f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n process  were examined.  membership of the new  The  a combination of the and  two  e x i s t i n g memberships.  a minimum of twenty persons would be  executive  committee.  planning  body would be  A maximum of  e l e c t e d to the  A nominating committee was  of nominees  c o u l d be c i r c u l a t e d to give s u f f i c i e n t time b e f o r e the The  inaugural  date f o r the f i r s t meeting of the i n t e g r a t e d body  s e t f o r A p r i l 26,  196l.  the new  a c t i n g as executive  body, one  an a s s i s t a n t c a p a c i t y .  Two  f a m i l i e s and  was  s t a f f members would be appointed to  I t was  s e c r e t a r y and  hoped e v e n t u a l l y  the other i n  to have a  person so that a l l three b a s i c areas o f work would be i.e.  new  e s t a b l i s h e d with  a meeting planned f o r e a r l y A p r i l so that the l i s t  meeting.  thirty  c h i l d r e n , r e c r e a t i o n , and  In terms of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e the p a t t e r n  third  represented,  corrections.  of the new  for representation  body to the S o c i a l was  b e i n g estab-  Minutes o f the meeting o f J o i n t Committee on Integration,(^loc . c i t . K March 196l, S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area ( i n the f i l e s o f the c e n t r a l o f f i c e )  - 96 l i s h e d through the H e a l t h C o u n c i l n e g o t i a t i o n s , atives  i.e.  six  represent-  t o t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e whose name w o u l d l i k e l y  changed to C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l .  It  was a l s o  suggested  be  that  t h e new e x e c u t i v e meet i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e i n a u g u r a l m e e t i n g c o u l d be c a l l e d t h e t a b l e The b a s i c  o f f i c e r s w o u l d have to p l a n t h e  proposal that  the  two d i v i s i o n s be i n t e g r a t e d  a p e r i o d o f one y e a r was e n d o r s e d by t h e e x e c u t i v e divisions.  committees  for of both  A s p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d t h e R e c r e a t i o n a n d G r o u p Work  D i v i s i o n made i t s  endorsement  s u b j e c t to f o u r c o n d i t i o n s .  i z a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e d i v i s i o n s a t M a r c h 28, 1961, committees effected.  agenda.  a n d M a r c h 29» 1961,  continue i n o f f i c e u n t i l  Author-  t h e i r annual M e e t i n g s ,  t o have t h e i n c u m b e n t  executive  t h e i n t e g r a t i o n was o f f i c i a l l y  1  The c o m m i t t e e a g r e e d t h a t  t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e new  body w o u l d be on t h e a g e n d a o f t h e  f i r s t m e e t i n g as would  necessity  The s e c o n d m e e t i n g w o u l d be u s e d  to  o f n a m i n g t h e new b o d y .  transfer  unfinished business  On A p r i l  28, 196l, t h e  from the  existing  f i r s t meeting of  the  the  divisions. integrated  2 d i v i s i o n s was h e l d .  The r e p o r t o f t h e n o m i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e was  a c c e p t e d and the p e o p l e l i s t e d were e l e c t e d as o f t h e new b o d y .  the E x e c u t i v e Committee  A name f o r t h e new c o u n c i l was d i s c u s s e d b u t no  c o n c l u s i o n s were r e a c h e d a n d i t was d e c i d e d t o d i s c u s s i t  further  w i t h i n t h e new E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e .  M i n u t e s o f m e e t i n g o f W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , April, 1961 2  Ibid.  loc.  cit.  - 97 The meeting of the new E x e c u t i v e Committee was h e l d on May  23, 196l."*  A t t h i s meeting the name Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n  C o u n c i l was adopted as the name f o r the new body.  A t t h i s meeting  a l s o a t a b l e o f f i c e r s committee was e s t a b l i s h e d , arrangements were made f o r the s i x d e l e g a t e s r e q u i r e d from the c o u n c i l to the S o c i a l Planning E x e c u t i v e and i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n about terms o f r e f e r e n c e was begun.  Sheets were a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d which l i s t e d items r e f e r r e d  to the new c o u n c i l by both d i v i s i o n s and by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Executive.  The items were broken down i n t o c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t i n g  the need f o r immediate  a t t e n t i o n , f o r a t t e n t i o n but not on an urgent  b a s i s , and items which r e q u i r e d f u t u r e a c t i o n . The next meeting o f the E x e c u t i v e Committee o f the new  2 C o u n c i l was h e l d June 13, 1961.  D i s c u s s i o n was c a r r i e d on regarding  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f work l o a d as a follow-up to the p r e v i o u s meeting. T h i s was the only p a r t of the meeting which could be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f implementing the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change.  The remainder of  the meeting was devoted to c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s t u d i e s c a r r i e d over from the two d i v i s i o n s . At the September 196l meeting of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l d r a f t terms o f r e f e r e n c e prepared by c o u n c i l s t a f f were r e c e i v e d by the committee.''  I t was decided t h i s document would  Minutes of the E x e c u t i v e Committee o f Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , May 23, 1961. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , ( i n the f i l e s o f the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) .  2 Minutes of the E x e c u t i v e Committee of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , l o c . c i t . June 13,1961. ^Minutes o f the Meeting o f the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , September, 1961.  loc.cit.  p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t d i r e c t i o n u n t i l such time as t h e recommendations of t h e s t r u c t u r e committee o f t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e be  would  forthcoming. A t t h e m e e t i n g o f October 31? 1961,  t h e r e p o r t o f the S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g S t r u c t u r e Committee was d i s c u s s e d e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e d to the f i n a l s t e p s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g the change from t h e two d i v i s i o n s to t h e new W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l .  1  The c o u n c i l would now  have d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f the Community Chest Board o f D i r e c t o r s , g i v i n g the c o u n c i l more autonomy, s t a t u s and identification.  The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b e i n g made t o t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  E x e c u t i v e by the c o u n c i l s would be reduced t o one. The c o u n c i l c o u l d choose between d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t s  f o r help or  d e a l i n g w i t h o n l y l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s o r i t c o u l d undertake a combina t i o n of both.  The main j o b of t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e would be  i n c o - o r d i n a t i n g , i n t e g r a t i n g and g e n e r a l l y g r a p p l i n g w i t h the o v e r a l l job o f p l a n n i n g . At t h i s meeting j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h e A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g and t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g were d i s t r i b u t e d . The  d e s c r i p t i o n s were i n l i n e w i t h the new s t r u c t u r e .  Whereas the  o l d d i v i s i o n s were s t a f f e d w i t h " e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r i e s " t h e new arrangements would be more f l e x i b l e w i t h a s e n i o r p l a n n i n g and a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r s as r e q u i r e d .  person  T h i s would e l i m i n a t e the k i n d  o f gap t h a t had o c c u r r e d when Mr. Watson l e f t the one d i v i s i o n and a l s o would a l l o w people to move up i n t o the s e n i o r p o s i t i o n who were  M i n u t e s o f t h e m e e t i n g o f W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , l o c . c i t . September, 1 9 6 l .  -  99  f a m i l i a r with the o p e r a t i o n .  -  I t was  three s t a f f p o s i t i o n s i n the Welfare skilled  in a specific  hoped that there would be and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , each  f i e l d , i . e . Family and  Children's Services,  R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work and C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s . would be s o c i a l planners and any  A l l three  one p o s i t i o n c o u l d be the s e n i o r  position. On November 2 2 ,  19°1»  Chest and C o u n c i l s accepted  the general meeting of the Community the changes i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n  resulting  from the s t r u c t u r e committee's recommendations."* D.  What was The  the r e a c t i o n of the t a r g e t ?  r e a c t i o n d u r i n g the time of a c t i o n implementation  much the same as i t was goal determination.  p r o j e c t e d i t would be at the time of the  By the time implementation  occurred  a p p a r e n t l y had been c o n d i t i o n e d to the impending change. reason  was  f o r the l a c k of i n i t i a l  r e a c t i o n was  probably  due  everyone P a r t of the to the  fact  t h a t a l l of the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the change were not experienced i n the b e g i n n i n g  stages.  Outcome E v a l u a t i o n A.  What was  the a c t u a l outcome?  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the Outcome When the c o u n c i l was i t s new  r o l e i n one year.  t h i s to happen and  formed i n 1961  i t was  agreed  to  evaluate  However, a number of f a c t o r s d i d not  allow  the r e c o r d e r decided they should be recorded here  Minutes o f the Annual Meeting, November 2 3 , 1 9 6 1 , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l office).  - 100 as background i n f o r m a t i o n to the a c t u a l outcome. The one  f i r s t year of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l  of "marking time" due mostly to the l o s s of p e r s o n n e l ,  s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r , but  due  was both  a l s o to the f a c t that any new  body  and i t s members does not possess an i d e n t i t y simply because someone  has w r i t t e n terms of r e f e r e n c e , appointed  delegated  them w i t h a u t h o r i t y to a c t .  1  a committee  and  With amalgamation, the  work l o a d a t Governing Committee meetings was because of the c a r r y - o v e r from both d i v i s i o n s . methods of handling t h i s i n c r e a s e d l o a d had  greatly increased More e f f e c t i v e  to be d e v i s e d .  committees were e s t a b l i s h e d to assess each request  Small  for consultation  or p l a n n i n g o p i n i o n , to see that a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n was  at  hand to f a c i l i t a t e the Governing Committee i n r e a c h i n g e a r l y decisions. The  P r i o r i t i e s Establishment  Committee a l s o had  able b e a r i n g on the f u n c t i o n i n g of the new necessary  Council.  consider-  I t was  found  by the chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s o f the  Community Chest and  C o u n c i l s to ask that a moratorium be  declared  on the work of a l l c o u n c i l s to allow s t a f f s u f f i c i e n t time to prepare papers from which the P r i o r i t i e s E s t a b l i s h i n g Committee . 2 would work. 1,  1962  The moratorium was  u n t i l January 15,  1965.  declared o f f i c i a l l y T h i s was  not  from December  found to be enough  Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , 1963-4, S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f Greater Vancouver Area ( i n the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e ) . 2  Ibid.  - 101 time and an e x t e n s i o n was  necessary.  This resulted i n a  great  d e a l of compromise during which time the c o u n c i l d e a l t o n l y w i t h immediate emergencies i n order  to make the establishment  of p r i o r i t i e s  possible. J u s t how change was  s i g n i f i c a n t the moratorium was  difficult  to a s c e r t a i n .  The  to the outcome of  agencies thought the  of the c o u n c i l began to change a f t e r the moratorium.  the  function  Nevertheless i t  d i d appear that the need f o r f u r t h e r changes i d e n t i f i e d by  the  Assessment Committee were i d e n t i f i e d more s l o w l y because of  the  time spent by the c o u n c i l h e l p i n g to e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s . In A p r i l 1964  a s p e c i a l meeting of the t a b l e o f f i c e r s  convened to develop a p l a n to c a r r y out assessment of the new  council.  the o r i g i n a l need f o r  A s p e c i a l committee to c a r r y out  " p r e l i m i n a r y assessment" which might provide f u r t h e r study i f i n d i c a t e d , was  appointed."*  a s t a r t i n g point The  1965  u n t i l March 29,  1965.  this  from January  2  Since t h i s r e p o r t o c c u r r e d  f o u r y e a r s a f t e r the amalgamation  i t must be noted that a number of changes had time.  a  for  meetings of  committee were h e l d nine times over a ten week p e r i o d 25,  was  taken place s i n c e  In e v a l u a t i n g the a c t u a l outcome of the change i t was  that  diffi-  c u l t to e s t a b l i s h whether these changes were a r e s u l t of the amalgamation or a r e s u l t o f a combination of other i n f l u e n c e s which occurred  over the f o u r year p e r i o d .  The Assessment Committee a l s o had  t h i s d i f f i c u l t y and i t  An Assessment of the Operation of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n l o c . c i t . March 1965, p.2.  2  Ibid.,  p.5*  Council,  became necessary  10  f o r them to examine the c o u n c i l throughout i t s  four years of o p e r a t i o n . a t i o n was  2-  The  s i t u a t i o n at the time of the e v a l u -  c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t of these four y e a r s .  As a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t observer  the r e c o r d e r noted  main themes t h a t came out i n the committee meetings: concepts  the f o l l o w i n g  the  overall  of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , the s t r u c t u r e of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  Bodies,  the amount of work i n v o l v e d i n making a change, the number of o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s that were a f a c t o r i n the change, and of  the g e n e r a l l a c k  knowledge of the community about s o c i a l p l a n n i n g .  i t s e l f was  not i n a p o s i t i o n to understand  the committee had  In order to  to make some p o s i t i o n a l statements to give  them a base f o r e v a l u a t i o n . developed  committee  c l e a r l y such t h i n g s as  "agency c e n t r e d " versus "problem c e n t r e d " p l a n n i n g . proceed  The  Appendix "F" contained i n t h i s study  was  by the p l a n n i n g s t a f f f o r the purposes of the e v a l u a t i o n  committee. In the a n a l y s i s to f o l l o w , the " a c t u a l outcome" has the i n i t i a l  outcome d u r i n g the f i r s t  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l was  formed.  two years a f t e r the The  o b s e r v a t i o n s and  have been those of the Assessment Committee. of  recorded  Welfare judgements  By the time of the work  the Assessment Committee f o u r years a f t e r the change was e f f e c t e d ,  the committee found a d d i t i o n a l outcomes and important had o c c u r r e d .  These had  new  developments  the e f f e c t of b r i n g i n g about a number of  d i s c r e p a n c i e s from the i n i t i a l " a c t u a l outcome".  For t h i s reason  r e c o r d i n g of " d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the expected  outcome and  the  a c t u a l outcome" r e f l e c t the s i t u a t i o n as seen i n the more r e c e n t h i s t o r y of the Welfare  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l .  the  -  A.  10?  -  What was the a c t u a l outcome? The f i r s t outcome o f the planned change was the f o r m a t i o n  o f an amalgamated body known as the W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l . T h i s new body appeared to have been able to f u l f i l l many of the expected outcomes as o r i g i n a l l y seen by the f o r c e s wanting change. Although  t h e r e was s t i l l some d u p l i c a t i o n o f v o l u n t a r y and  s t a f f e f f o r t a g r e a t d e a l of t h i s d u p l i c a t i o n was e l i m i n a t e d .  The  new s t r u c t u r e o f the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e f r e e d i t from r e v i e w i n g each s t u d y , and a g r e a t d e a l o f time was saved i n not having to process everything through l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r e .  The new  s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e d f o r a b r o a d e r approach t o the s o l v i n g of problems, for  example, j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y  and urban d i s l o c a t i o n .  I t brought  t o g e t h e r and encouraged c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a w i d e r range o f community service  agencies. I n r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e r e v i s i o n of the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  s t r u c t u r e the new c o u n c i l a l l o w e d more independence of a c t i o n and the autonomy n e c e s s a r y I t a l s o enabled  to proceed w i t h g r e a t e r s t a t u s i n p l a n n i n g .  f a s t e r implementation  of a c t i o n programmes.  Planning  remained b a s i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the f e d e r a t i o n of a g e n c i e s w i t h some g r e a t e r allowance  f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f community v o l u n t e e r s .  There was, however, some b r o a d e n i n g o f emphaas to i n c l u d e community i d e n t i f i e d needs i n a d d i t i o n to agency i d e n t i f i e d needs. The a c t u a l outcome i n the f i r s t two y e a r s a l s o i n c l u d e d the b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s o f what t h e E v a l u a t i o n Committee i d e n t i f i e d as emerging problems.  The new c o u n c i l reduced the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on  s p e c i a l i z e d concerns compared t o what had been p o s s i b l e i n the two divisions.  T h i s i n c l u d e d such a r e a s as a d o p t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n  - 104 needs of teenagers.  In the two  d i v i s i o n s there had been a g r e a t e r  degree of agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and involvement Chest and C o u n c i l s .  With a d i v i s i o n s e c r e t a r y the agencies were  more able to t u r n to a s p e c i f i c person p a r t i c u l a r problems. before i n the new  i n the Community  T h i s was  f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n about  not p r o v i d e d  to the same degree as  job d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the a s s i s t a n t and a s s o c i a t e  planners. B r i n g i n g the d i v i s i o n s together a p p a r e n t l y d i d not have the e f f e c t of broadening  the p l a n n i n g base to enable  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  l a r g e r aspects of major problems f a c i n g the community.  The  new  s t r u c t u r e , as shown by appendix "F", gave major a t t e n t i o n to agency initiated  " c r i s i s p l a n n i n g " around problems p e r c e i v e d to be of  d i r e c t concern to  to the a g e n c i e s .  Thus p l a n n i n g remained t i e d  the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s of v o l u n t a r y agencies and  there was  little  evidence  community problems.  closely  correspondingly  to show awareness of or r e a c t i o n to  Although  broader  problems of scope of p l a n n i n g had been  i d e n t i f i e d and to some extent been d i s c u s s e d p r i o r to the change i n 1961,  i t has been d i f f i c u l t  to a s c e r t a i n from recorded minutes or  from the i n t e r v i e w e e s whether the change had been intended about a means of approaching  anything other than  to b r i n g  agency-centred  concerns. B.  What were the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the expected and the a c t u a l outcome? In the i n i t i a l stages c o v e r i n g the p e r i o d 1961  expected  outcome  - 62  the  outcome and the a c t u a l outcome were very c l o s e t o g e t h e r .  However at the time of the e v a l u a t i o n by the s p e c i a l committee outcome was  very d i f f e r e n t  from what had been  expected.  the  - 105 The Recreation  Assessment Committee found that the Welfare C o u n c i l was  c o u n c i l was  s t r u c t u r e d to comprehend two The  from "agency p l a n n i n g "  or "problem c e n t r e d "  the  o u t l i n e d when the c o u n c i l was  f i n d i n g i t s e l f i n four or f i v e . operations  and  f u n c t i o n i n g very d i f f e r e n t l y from  o r i g i n a l terms of reference The  -  planning  formed.  broad f i e l d s and  considerable  s h i f t i n council  to more "comprehensive  t h a t had  welfare"  taken p l a c e over the  y e a r s i s r e a d i l y ascernable i n appendix "F".  Planning  to no  s t u d i e s i n November 1964.  S o c i a l welfare  p r o j e c t s of a more comprehensive nature moved from one 1962  to s i x s t u d i e s i n March The  c o u n c i l had  begun and  planning study i n  become more and more " f i e l d of s e r v i c e "  c o u n c i l s on a geographic b a s i s . already  formation of community  Some o f these l o c a l area  councils  i n c l u d e d Woodland Park, F r a s e r v i e w Youth  S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n and S u n r i s e  Park.  The  welfare councils i n a  number o f other c i t i e s i n North America were a l s o adopting approach and  studies  1965.  o r i e n t e d and appeared to be moving towards the  had  four  activities  s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r agencies moved from a high of nine ongoing i n 1962  was  apparently  had  this  some i n f l u e n c e on the t h i n k i n g of  the  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n i n Vancouver. The  Area Development P r o j e c t was  a l s o attempting to p r o v i d e  an i n t e g r a t e d programme of s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work, h e a l t h and  community o r g a n i z a t i o n  problem f a m i l i e s i n one  s e r v i c e s f o r a s e l e c t e d group of m u l t i -  area of the c i t y .  In the p r o p o s a l  f o r the  Area Development P r o j e c t neighbourhood development s e r v i c e s i t stated "decentralized planning  f o r integrated, co-ordinated,  was  compre-  - 106 hensive p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s was needed i n neighbourhoods where there was a preponderence o f t r o u b l e d f a m i l i e s and where s o c i a l problems of a broader nature e x i s t .  1  According to the Assessment Committee  by 1965  the Welfare  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l had developed i t s major emphasis on community oriented s o c i a l planning.  T h i s had i n v o l v e d a problem-centred  approach based upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of community needs and the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s to meet these needs.  The objectivces of t h i s  approach had been seen to i n v o l v e the p r o v i s i o n and development o f s e r v i c e s aimed at s o l u t i o n of the problem.  As one important r e s u l t  of t h i s approach i t was a n t i c i p a t e d the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n would be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to i n d i c a t e to agencies where s e r v i c e s fit  i n t o an o v e r a l l p l a n .  Advantages of New Approach as I d e n t i f i e d by the  Committee  The problem-centred approach" was seen by the Assessment Committee  to be an a p p r o p r i a t e way  s o c i a l welfare planning.  to b r i n g about comprehensive  C o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l a s p e c t s of community  problems and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p one to another would be emphasized. P l a n n i n g would focus on needs and s e r v i c e s and enable more f l e x i b l e use of e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s and the l o g i c a l development of new  resources.  Lay c i t i z e n s would be able to have a g r e a t e r v o i c e i n p l a n n i n g f o r community s e r v i c e s than was p r e v i o u s l y p o s s i b l e .  More v o l u n t e e r s  would be i n v o l v e d g i v i n g s o c i a l planning a l a r g e r say i n matters of implementation and e l i m i n a t i n g the power of the agencies to veto p l a n s .  P r o p o s a l f o r the Area Development P r o j e c t Neighbourhood Development S e r v i c e s , Area Development P r o j e c t , Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area. (In the f i l e s of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e . )  - 107 Agency p e r s o n n e l both p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o l u n t e e r would be able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a broader base o f concern than t h e i r own  agency i n t e r e s t s .  T h i s approach  a l s o allowed  a g r e a t number of n o n - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l of agencies to be drawn i n t o p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  Included i n t h i s would be workers  p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e i n l o c a l areas whose experience and could be most s i g n i f i c a n t . p l a n n i n g to the degree  The agencies were not i n v o l v e d i n  they had been i n the d i v i s i o n a l  at the time of t h i s r e c o r d i n g . f o l l o w e d i t appears  However, i f the new  structure  approach  was  l i k e l y t h a t they would once again become very  i n v o l v e d on an a r e a or s p e c i f i c problem divisional  contribution  b a s i s r a t h e r than a  one.  Disadvantages of the New Approach as I d e n t i f i e d by the Assessment Committee A number of disadvantages of t h i s new i d e n t i f i e d by the Assessment Committee.  approach were a l s o  The amount of c o n s u l t a t i v e  s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the agencies would be f u r t h e r cut down to the p o i n t of b e i n g almost n o n - e x i s t e n t . what of a dilemma.  T h i s problem  T h i s l e f t the agencies i n some-  was more n o t i c a b l e because of the  f a c t the agencies had become accustomed to having someone to t u r n to f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . p r o v i d e d to f i l l  At the time of t h i s r e c o r d i n g there was  the gap  nothing  that had o c c u r r e d when the c o u n c i l moved  from an agency c o n s u l t a t i v e and c o - o r d i n a t o r r o l e to a comprehensive p l a n n i n g r o l e w i t h a problem-centred  approach.  t h a t the o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r a l change and the new  The agencies b e l i e v e d approach  to erainate from i t had r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s i n t h e i r own autonomy.  that seemed  control  and  - 108 The  new approach a l s o d i d not provide  adequately f o r s t u d i e s  i n s p e c i a l areas or f o r working i n these s p e c i a l a r e a s . c o u l d i n c l u d e one parent standards f o r c h i l d C.  f a m i l i e s , day care, and the s e t t i n g o f  care.  D i d the change induced The  These areas  meet the o r i g i n a l need f o r change?  change d i d meet many of the o r i g i n a l needs as o u t l i n e d i n  the " a c t u a l outcome" s e c t i o n o f the r e c o r d .  However, i n l i g h t o f  the change i n focus o f the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n  C o u n c i l over the  f o u r y e a r s a f t e r amalgamation i t appeared the o r i g i n a l change was only a p a r t i a l step i n what could be c o n s i d e r e d  as p a r t o f a broader  change i n the whole s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l plaining.  The Assessment  Committee concluded t h a t an assessment o f the o p e r a t i o n s Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n  C o u n c i l should  review of the t o t a l s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  c o n s t i t u t e a segment o f the  structure.  problems f a c i n g the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n it  The nature of the  C o u n c i l suggested that  was n e i t h e r f e a s i b l e nor d e s i r a b l e to evaluate  unrelated  to the t o t a l p l a n n i n g  o f the  council  operations  structure.  Much o f the r e p o r t of the Assessment Committee concerned i t s e l f with i d e n t i f y i n g c u r r e n t problems of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n Council.  The r e c o r d e r gave some c o n s i d e r a t i o n to r e c o r d i n g the  observations  i n the r e p o r t under "problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " and u s i n g  the model once a g a i n t o document the beginning  stages of a new  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. However, s i n c e many of the Assessment Committee's observa t i o n s were r e l a t i n g to the c o u n c i l as i t was i n the p e r i o d January to March 1965 the w r i t e r decided  to use t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n o f the  - 109  -  o r i g i n a l model to r e c o r d the committee's f i n d i n g s . Two  c e n t r a l questions emerged i n the committee meetings  and showed themselves to be the dominent 1.  concern.*  Is there need to c l a r i f y a c u r r e n t conception the a p p r o p r i a t e breadth,  of  scope, and nature of p l a n n i n g  i n which the Community Chest & C o u n c i l s should  be  engaged? 2..  Do  the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e and  d i v i s i o n of f u n c t i o n s  between v a r y i n g segments of the S o c i a l  Planning  S e c t i o n provide the best p o s s i b l e means f o r c a r r y i n g out a p p r o p r i a t e  planning?  A number of p o i n t s r e l a t i n g to these c e n t r a l questions were i d e n t i f i e d which impinge on the o p e r a t i o n o f the Welfare  and  2 Recreation Council. The present o p e r a t i o n of the Welfare i s not b e i n g , and probably  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l  cannot be, maintained  within  the bounds of s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n as c u r r e n t l y d e f i n e d . A s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t has occurred i n p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y of the Welfare  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l from  p l a n n i n g to problem-centred  planning.  agency-centred (The  development  of the L o c a l Area Approach i s a key i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s shift.)  At the same time there are ongoing demands on  C o u n c i l to maintain agency-centred  An Assessment of the Operation l o c . c i t . March, 1 9 6 5 , p«3« 2  Ibid.  the  planning.  of the Welfare  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l ,  -  110  -  Taking i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the s h i f t i n the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l ' s p l a n n i n g f o c u s , i s there c u r r e n t l y adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r agency i n the p l a n n i n g process? agency-focussed  involvement  With the move away from  p l a n n i n g , what p r o v i s i o n i s now being  made f o r c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e to agencies? What should be the d i v i s i o n o f f u n c t i o n and the nature of r e l a t i o n s h i p between L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s and the Welfare  and R e c r e a t i o n  Does the Welfare  Council?  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l (and S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n g e n e r a l l y ) adequately a p p r o p r i a t e involvement  of government  provide f o r bodies?  What should be the a p p r o p r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Welfare  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , w i t h i n the S o c i a l Banning  S e c t i o n , and other P l a n n i n g groups, e.g. p h y s i c a l , educational? What should be the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l and the Research Department o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s i f problem-centred  and l o n g  range p l a n n i n g i s to be given g r e a t e r emphais i n the f u t u r e ? In r e l a t i o n to the present d i v i s i o n o f f u n c t i o n between the u n i t s o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  Executive:  Is the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l assuming tasks which would be c a r r i e d more a p p r o p r i a t e l y by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e ? -  What c o n s t i t u t e s an a p p r o p r i a t e degree of autonomy f o r a C o u n c i l , as C o u n c i l s a r e now s t r u c t u r e d ? I s the d i v i s i o n o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g by f u n c t i o n a l  -  groups, etc. D.  Cost  on p a r t  It two  was  divisions  taking saw  what  this  existing The  the  the  difficult  larger  step  as  Priorities  to  be  being  and  a  Councils.  (many  of  which  Determination  separate  apparently  affected  the  Welfare  overall the  social  Welfare  that  these  Family  assess.  planning  and  Child  Health,  were  Welfare  and  the  present and  the  growth  thought  in  196l  and i t  affected  of  the  Section  change)  area way  it  Council  has  not  changes  in  the  could  been  have  separate  Group Work and  councils  same  the  of  influences  influenced  the  to  the  the of  of  interviewees  Planning  before  in  step  The  outside  and R e c r e a t i o n  Council  have  step.  Social  change  first  elimination  divisions  structure  would  structural  necessary  Whether  informants  Recreation  changes  and  Some  the  Project  the  a  complete  within  affected  to  was  the  much l a r g e r  the  have  possible  and R e c r e a t i o n ,  whether  council  structure  Chest  cities  assess  one  out  divisional  Welfare valid?  to  becoming  -  target  turn  other  would  of  may  Community  from  e.g.  s t i l l  I l l  been  the  focus  of  possible  divisions,  Recreation  in  the  same  manner. It change  that  Council a  more  saw of  was  the  had a  of  some  interviewees  the  compromise  in  planning  the  would  of in  agencies  agencies  opinion  resulted  complete  one the  was  change main  would  results  from become  the  formation  not of  planning  involved  which  have  the  of  the  may  function. again  It  when  the  organizational  Welfare  have  encountered.  amalgamation  once  that  as  and  caused These being  seemed planning  Recreation  problems interviewees  the  to  separation  them  that  became  con-  - 112 c e n t r a t e d upon a problem c e n t r e d apea approach.  Agencies  become i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r p a r t i c u l a r geographic  areas  e s p e c i a l l y around s p e c i f i c problems where t h e i r i n t e r e s t c a p a c i t y to serve l a y .  would  and  They c o u l d once again p l a y a v a l u a b l e p a r t  i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as w e l l as b e n e f i t i n g from c o n t a c t w i t h concerned  with r e l a t e d problems i n the same geographic  people  area.  T h i s , of course, would not e l i m i n a t e the problem of agency consultation.  However, other methods of h a n d l i n g t h i s problem  could probably be d e v i s e d .  In the main agencies would be l e f t  the s i t u a t i o n of l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n groups.  with  p a r t i c u l a r problems e i t h e r  As a consequence they would not l o o k  to the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n to f i l l  this  role.  F u r t h e r i n o r d e r that they might be i n v o l v e d i n comprehensive s o c i a l p l a n n i n g agencies would have to be kept b e t t e r informed  than  was  role  the case at the time of t h i s r e c o r d i n g and  t h e i r important  i n a r e a p l a n n i n g would have to be i d e n t i f i e d and r e c o g n i z e d .  Through-  out the study of t h i s s t r u c t u r a l change i t appeared few people stood the f u n c t i o n and  d u t i e s of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the  Community Chest and C o u n c i l s i n Vancouver. was  l i t t l e known about what to expect  Many informants  under-  Coupled w i t h t h i s  there  from p l a n n i n g i n t h i s community.  s t a t e d t h i s problem would have to be remedied before  implementing a new  p l a n n i n g approach.  The Assessment Committee's r e p o r t shows p l a n n i n g b e i n g done by the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l was was  very d i f f e r e n t from what  done by the separate d i v i s i o n s j u s t over four years ago.  As  s t a t e d by the committee's r e p o r t the present a c t i v i t i e s of the c o u n c i l can no l o n g e r take p l a c e w i t h i n the present s t r u c t u r e .  The  - 113 recommendations of the Assessment Committee i n t h i s regard was "THAT the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e be requested to take immediate steps to assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the present s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e i n the l i g h t of today's p l a n n i n g needs." Comment on the Model Used One o f the o p e r a t i o n a l problems i n h e r e n t i n the use o f a model i s that the a c t u a l occurences do not n e c e s s a r i l y happen i n the  sequence s e t out i n the model.  demonstrate t h i s p o i n t .  This case study could serve to  An attempt was made to s t r u c t u r e the  gathered i n f o r m a t i o n under the headings o u t l i n e d i n the model. so  doing the chronology became c o n f u s i n g because the events d i d not  occur i n the sequence of the model. the  In  For example, many a s p e c t s o f  t h i r d s e c t i o n of the model, " a c t i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n " o c c u r r e d  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y a t the same time as some p a r t s of the f i r s t  section  of the model, "problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " and " g o a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n " . One can u s u a l l y see more than one phase of change going on at the same time."'"  F o l l o w i n g the sequence of the model made i t necessary  to move backward and forward i n time and i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n tended to confuse the i s s u e . The r e c o r d e r b e l i e v e d that a time sequence r e c o r d i n c o r p o r a t i n g the  Area Development P r o j e c t model would have been a b e t t e r way to  document t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case.  A beginning stage i n doing t h i s would  be the r e c o r d i n g of a short h i s t o r i c a l background proceeding the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change.  This would be f o l l o w e d by a c h r o n o l o g i c a l  r e c o r d i n g o f the meetings and events which l e a d up to and i n c l u d e d the  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change and i t s e v a l u a t i o n .  Most a s p e c t s o f the  L i p p i t t , Eonald, Watson, Jeanne, and Westley, Bruce, The Dynamics of Planned Change (Harcourt, Brace and World, I n c . , New York,'58,pJ^O  114 Area Development P r o j e c t model, e.g. what was  the g o a l determination,  who  i d e n t i f i e d the problem,  what a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s were made,  would s t i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the documentation but would be recorded i n a h i s t o r i c a l sequence. understanding  In t h i s manner a c l e a r concise  of the order of the events as w e l l as the people  and  change i n v o l v e d would be a v a i l a b l e . A number of p r a c t i c a l problems were encountered i n c l a s s i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d under the s p e c i f i c headings of the model. Although an attempt was  made to a v o i d needless  found that the c o n t i n u i t y of most s e c t i o n s was some r e p e t i t i o n was  not i n c l u d e d .  The  r e p e t i t i o u s and  T h i s problem may  found  Considerable  u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d i n each  have been p a r t i a l l y overcome i f the  i n t e r v i e w s had been more n o n - s t r u c t u r e d There was  the i n t e r v i e w e e s  somewhat c o n f u s i n g .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the i n t e r v i e w e r was section.  greatly affected i f  r e c o r d e r used the model as  an o u t l i n e framework f o r the i n t e r v i e w s but the questions  r e p e t i t i o n i t was  but  t h i s was  not  attempted.  a l s o some p a r t i c u l a r short comings of the  way  i n which the headings needed some c l a r i f i c a t i o n and a d d i t i o n s . Nowhere i n the model was Therefore  the q u e s t i o n "what i s the problem?" asked.  i t became necessary  the problem was  before  to w r i t e an i n t r o d u c t i o n o u t l i n i n g what  the model i t s e l f was  applied.  The model d i d  not make any allowances f o r the h i s t o r i c a l background l e a d i n g to the change i t s e l f .  Nor  d i d i t adequately  p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y  to  r e c o r d the o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s which had d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change.  T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d the i n c l u s i o n of a few  headings f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  Where i t was  difficult  sub-  to c l a s s i f y which  - 115 section s p e c i f i c information  should be recorded  c l a s s i f i e d at the d i s c r e t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r .  under i t  was  In t h i s case a  much l o n g e r i n t r o d u c t i o n than should be r e q u i r e d with the use a model was  necessary to l e a d i n t o the a c t u a l case study.  In t h i s case study the model was process  of  of change.  a p p l i e d to the  overall  However i t d i d appear p o s s i b l e t h a t the whole  model c o u l d have been used a number of times to document each p a r t of the change p r o c e s s .  In the o p i n i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r  would have become more c o n f u s i n g and  the  record  d i f f i c u l t to understand i f  t h i s had been done. The model would appear to be of more value i f used to document a d e f i n i t e planned change i n v o l v i n g a small number of people, f o r example, a person u s i n g i t f o r c l i n i c a l purposes o p e r a t i o n a l l y . apparently Project.  was  to be one  of i t s main uses i n the Area Development  As i s the case with most models, t h i s model would appear  to be a u s e f u l method of g e t t i n g a l l the necessary recorded  This  information  and would help e l i m i n a t e the o v e r l o o k i n g of important  data. In the case s t u d i e d , although p a r t of the change was a great  deal of i t was  unplanned.  v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s , were i n v o l v e d .  planned  Many people, i n f l u e n c e d by Consequently most p a r t s of  model i n v o l v e d a great many f a c t o r s and i n f l u e n c e s which were c u l t to r e c o r d a c c u r a t e l y . be h e l p f u l i n reviewing o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and  Ibid.  p.130  a  Nevertheless  the diffi-  models have been found to  d e s c r i p t i o n s of change i n persons, groups,  communities i n terms of sequence of phases.*  - 116 Most of t h i s r e c o r d i n g was done i n r e t r o s p e c t .  Despite  the f a c t t h a t the model tended to confuse the time sequence o f the change process z a t i o n a l change.  i t was a u s e f u l t o o l i n a n a l y s i n g the o r g a n i In t h i s same regard i t would very l i k e l y be  v a l u a b l e i n a n a l y s i n g a h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d to c a t e g o r i z e a l l the aspects  o f the change  process.  PART IV CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  A. Purpose and Scope o f Study The purpose  o f the case study d e t a i l e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s  to r e c o r d or document o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change that has o c c u r r e d and attempt, as a r e s u l t , to s e t down something change t h a t took p l a c e .  o f the process o f  The case study d e a l s w i t h some  attempts  that have been made and are p r e s e n t l y being made i n a s e c t i o n o f Vancouver C i t y known as the S u n r i s e Park Area.  These e f f o r t s are  b e i n g made by v a r i o u s welfare agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the c i t y , spearheaded  by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r  Vancouver towards o r g a n i z i n g methods aimed a t c o n t r i b u t i n g to the enhancement and g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g , from an e d u c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s t a n d p o i n t , o f the people i n that area.  I t i s hoped t h a t by undertaking t h i s task some c o n t r i b u t i o n  w i l l be made to the understanding and knowledge that has been accumulating r e c e n t l y on the s u b j e c t of change theory, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t a p p l i e s to Community O r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e . The  study w i l l be comprised  o f a d e s c r i p t i v e account  o f the  circumstances and events t h a t have t r a n s p i r e d where i t i s c o n s i d e r e d p r o c e s s can be c l e a r l y observed and d e s c r i b e d .  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  p r o c e s s e s are s t i l l i n v a r i o u s stages o f development and i n v o l v e i m p l i c a t i o n s of change t h a t are broad and not e x p l i c i t .  It i s for  t h i s reason that the study was l i m i t e d to a narrow segment o f the change process and a c t i o n .  As w e l l , i t has been r e c o g n i z e d that  change and the process of change a r e by nature dynamic.  - 118 The p e r i o d under study was from October 1, to February 28, 1965,  1964,  through  but i n o r d e r t o give t h i s " f r o z e n segment"  some degree o f r e l a t e d n e s s to a broader p e r s p e c t i v e some o f the h i s t o r i c a l background w i l l be g i v e n that i s c o n s i d e r e d  significant  to t h i s p e r i o d . B.  Recording Model T h i s study was a chapter of the l a r g e r study which undertook  to study the r e c o r d i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change and attempted to examine the r e l e v a n c y and u s e f u l n e s s of the model (see appendix "B") proposed f o r use by the Area Development  Project.  This p r o j e c t  was sponsored by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area as a p r a c t i c a l method o f documenting  change.  then, i n the main, t e s t e d the S u n r i s e Park A r e a development the context o f t h i s model.  It within  More than t h i s , the study attempted  to d e s c r i b e the occurrence o f s o c i a l change by r e c o r d i n g i t systematically.  The study f u r t h e r attempted to r e c o r d change w i t h -  i n the l i m i t s of a model and thus c o n c e p t u a l i z e s some of the process of  change. The u t i l i z a t i o n of r e c o r d i n g f o r these purposes i s not n o v e l .  Recording i n s o c i a l work has many f u n c t i o n s and can be put to many d i f f e r e n t uses.  I t o f f e r s i t s e l f as a t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g ;  improvement o f f u t u r e a c t i o n t a s k s ;  for  i t i s a means whereby a con-  tinuum and sequence of techniques ca be adopted;  i t i s a method  of a c c o u n t i n g f o r performance; a way of a s s i s t i n g toward o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n ;  an a i d toward o b j e c t i f y i n g and d e f i n i n g  p r a c t i c e ; a method o f d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s of a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and perhaps f i n a l l y , o f b u i l d i n g or i n c r e a s i n g  knowledge.  - 119  -  A r t h u r Dunham s t a t e s , "A r e c o r d i s a document or other a u d i t o r y or v i s u a l product, i n t e n d e d to be used p r i m a r i l y as a working t o o l by an o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i n d i v i d u a l , and which performs one  or more of the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : 1) i t g i v e s an account  of something which has taken p l a c e ; group, o r t h i n g ,  3)  2)  i t i d e n t i f i e s some person,  i t contains f a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , analyses,  i n s t r u c t i o n s , d i r e c t i o n s , o p i n i o n s , recommendations, or suggestions; k)  i t s e t s f o r t h plans f o r the f u t u r e . "  1  There i s no such t h i n g as a model r e c o r d . f o r m u l a t i o n s or r e c o r d i n g equations  There a r e no  that w i l l make a case  i n e v i t a b l y c l e a r and a c c e s s i b l e to a f u l l and complete  study  understanding  o f what has t r a n s p i r e d or what elements were o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e c i s i v e i n the t o t a l p r o c e s s . not the study geared  Records should be w r i t t e n to s u i t t o some t h e o r e t i c a l p a t t e r n .  the study,  A record i s  f i n a l l y the sum t o t a l o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s and the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the person making the examination  which are strengthened  as to  r e l i a b i l i t y by the element of o b j e c t i v i t y . T h i s sum t o t a l of a study .is not complete nor e n t i r e f o r the observer i s impeded by h i s own powers or l a c k s o f p e r c e p t i o n , the l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s i n t r i n s i c knowledge and the b i a s that he b r i n g s to h i s study. facts;  He i s handicapped by the l o s s o f o r undiscovered  by the v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r p e r t i n e n c e to the process;  by  the l a c k o f a b s o l u t e s and the means to make v a l i d comparisons and  Dunham, A r t h u r , Community Welfare O r g a n i z a t i o n : P r i n c i p l e s and Practice (Thomas C r o w e l l Company, New York, 1 9 6 2 ) p.303  - 120 reliability  judgments.  The a n a l y s t must hinge h i s f i n d i n g s on  i n f o r m a t i o n , knowledge and o p i n i o n s o f others and upon what i s not recorded as w e l l as what i s recorded i n v a r i o u s documents t h a t p e r t a i n to the change. Systematic  r e c o r d i n g has d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s but a l s o very  u s e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i t i s a means by which some o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n can be achieved.  A r e c o r d model i s e s s e n t i a l l y a conceptual  scheme.  A model f o r r e c o r d i n g has h e u r i s t i c value i n t h a t i t serves to s t i m u l a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y .  A r a t i o n a l e f o r using a  model i n t h i s study, a s i d e from t e s t i n g the proposed A r e a Development P r o j e c t model, can be best summed up by Homans who wrote, "Any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , no matter how crude, provided only that i t i s used r e g u l a r l y , f o r c e s us to take up one t h i n g a t a time and c o n s i d e r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the r e l a t i o n s of t h a t t h i n g t o o t h e r s .  T h i s i s one  of the roads that l e a d to g e n e r a l i z a t i o n " . * C A n a l y t i c a l Model: The model as proposed by the Area Development P r o j e c t i s an a n a l y t i c a l model.  I t would conform to the d e f i n i t i o n of Robert  Chin - "An a n a l y t i c a l model i s a c o n s t r u c t e d s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f some p a r t o f r e a l i t y t h a t r e t a i n s only those f e a t u r e s regarded  as e s s e n t i a l  for  occur."  r e l a t i n g s i m i l a r processes  whenever and wherever they  Homans, George C , The Human Group (New York; p.kk-k5.  Harcourt,  Brace;  2  1950)  2 C h i n , Robert, "The U t i l i t y of System Model and Developmental Models f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r s " , The P l a n n i n g of Change, Readings i n the A p p l i e d B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s " , ( H o l t , Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1 9 6 l . )  - 121 I t i s a model by reason o f the f a c t t h a t i t i s a grouping o f conceptual  views t h a t p e r t a i n , by t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , to change,  to maturation development and d i r e c t i o n and to the behaviour o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n under study.  The conceptual  f i c a t i o n ; g o a l determination;  views - problem  a c t i o n determination;  identi-  a c t i o n imple-  mentation; and outcome e v a l u a t i o n , - allow f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l or s i g h t i n g s w i t h i n each concept.  "fixes"  Thus, f o r example, under "problem  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " one broad conceptual  view would be t h a t  social  problems are o f such a nature and essence that they are r e c o g n i z a b l e , d e f i n a b l e and can be d e s c r i b e d fiable.  as to t h e i r extent,  thus being  veri-  Or again, under a s i g h t i n g of " a c t i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n "  there  are concepts upon which s k i l l s and knowledge a r e b u i l t i n t o s o c i a l work which a l l o w followed  f o r a c t i o n t o be decided upon, t r i g g e r e d , and  to a d e f i n i t e g o a l .  There are f u r t h e r concepts t h a t make  i t p o s s i b l e to p l a c e e x p e c t a t i o n s  as to the outcome o f any a c t i o n  by means o f a n a l y z i n g the s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s ; the p r i n c i p a l f o r c e s i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i o n ;  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s  performance i n the p a s t , and so f o r t h . The  Area Development model i s a n a l y t i c a l i n that i t i s devised  i n such a way as to l e n d i t s e l f  to the d i s c o v e r y  of process ... a  d i a g n o s t i c view o f r e s u l t s ... and r e l a t e s to a c t i o n . t h i s , the model i s a concrete  Further  than  one f o r i t d e a l s p a r t i c u l a r l y and i n  the main w i t h a c t u a l circumstances. In b r i e f , a concrete  a n a l y t i c a l model can be s a i d to be a  s t r u c t u r a l frame o f conceptual  f a c t o r s which a r e i n t r i n s i c  e f f e c t i v e o f , an occurrence o f process by t h e i r r e l a t e d n e s s  t o , and within  an a r b i t r a r i l y s e t p e r i o d o f time and w i t h i n d e f i n e d boundaries t h a t allow  f o r u n i v e r s a l a n a l y s i s w i t h i n the " d e f i n i t i o n s e t " .  The value  - 122 o f u s i n g such a model f o r study i s perhaps best summed up i n a q u o t a t i o n by Hagen.  He s t a t e s t h a t , "An e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d  a n a l y t i c a l model helps the t h e o r i s t to r e c o g n i z e what f a c t o r s are b e i n g taken i n t o account and what r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them a r e assumed and hence to know the b a s i s o f h i s c o n c l u s i o n s . advantages are ones o f both e x c l u s i o n and i n c l u s i o n .  The  A model  l e s s e n s the danger o f o v e r l o o k i n g the i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of change of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . " D.  1  Method o f Study: S e v e r a l methods of study have been u t i l i z e d .  In the main  the approach has been to study the h i s t o r y o f the s i t u a t i o n  retro-  s p e c t i v e l y i n order to p l a c e the p e r i o d under study i n sequence of time and r e l a t e d to v a r i o u s o c c u r r e n c e s . by the examination  T h i s has been  accomplished  of meeting minutes and other w r i t t e n documents.  Information was gained a l s o by i n t e r v i e w s w i t h key informants who had some d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p or involvement  w i t h the change p r o c e s s .  As w e l l as t h i s , the observer was h i m s e l f d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p r o c e s s . of widening  While  t h i s f a c t should have the e f f e c t  the f i e l d s o f v i s i o n i t w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y l e s s e n the  o b j e c t i v i t y t h a t comes from p e r c e i v i n g such processes from a detached u n i n v o l v e d viewpoint  devoid of p e r s o n a l investment  i n the r e s u l t s .  Comment should as w e l l be made that t h i s study d e a l t with  Hagen, E., Chapter on "Theory o f S o c i a l Change", unpublished manus c r i p t mentioned i n a r t i c l e by Robert Chin. "The U t i l i t y o f System Models and Developmental Models f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r s " , contained i n "The Planning of Change" Readings i n the A p p l i e d B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s , H o l t , Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1961  - 123 human events and w i t h people who practising  i n the f i e l d  i n the main are p r e s e n t l y  of s o c i a l work.  The study thus may  reflect  i n p a r t upon the a s p i r a t i o n s and hopes, - the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, - the successes and f a i l u r e s of these people i n t r y i n g fulfill  t h e i r f u n c t i o n s as s o c i a l workers among the  to  frustrations  and s t r u g g l i n g s i n and w i t h an i m p e r f e c t s o c i e t y . These people s h a l l be l e f t nameless, may in  yet t h e i r  identities  be r e v e a l e d through t h e i r v a r i o u s t a s k s , e f f o r t s and p o s i t i o n s the t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n Vancouver C i t y .  not the purpose or f a i l u r e s .  It i s  or i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s study to p o i n t out human f o i b l e s  I f t h i s study does r e v e a l these i t i s hoped that they  w i l l serve not as a mark of p e r s o n a l f r a i l t y  but r a t h e r as a  tribute  to the e f f o r t s of these people i n c a r r y i n g out work ( f o r the most p a r t beyond t h e i r r e g u l a r work) t h a t by i t s very nature i s d i f f i c u l t and at times i m p o s s i b l e to perform.  CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT LED UP THE SUNRISE PARK AREA DEVELOPMENTS  In  February, 1 9 6 4 ,  a meeting was  TO  c a l l e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  S e c t i o n of the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l of the Community Chest And  Councils.  To t h i s meeting were i n v i t e d agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s as  w e l l as i n t e r e s t e d people who in  t h i s area.  possessed knowledge, s k i l l s or i n t e r e s t  The meeting was  c a l l e d as the r e s u l t of concern expressed  over the h e a l t h , r e c r e a t i o n and w e l f a r e needs and s e r v i c e s i n S u n r i s e Park.  Out of t h i s meeting began some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s with which  t h i s study w i l l d e a l i n depth. I t was  necessary to r e c o r d and examine some of the s i g n i f i c a n t  events that preceded t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l occurrence i n order that  sub-  sequent a c t i o n s i n the S u n r i s e Park A e a Development c o u l d be more r  f u l l y understood and the problems more c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d . A.  Vancouver C i t y I n s t i t u t e s P u b l i c Housing The  first  Programme  o f these s i g n i f i c a n t events began when the C i t y of  Vancouver chose the s i t e f o r i t s f i r s t l a r g e l o w - r e n t a l p u b l i c p r o j e c t i n the S u n r i s e Park A r e a . housing p r o j e c t s were e s t a b l i s h e d ;  housing  P r i o r to t h i s s e v e r a l s m a l l e r p u b l i c namely, L i t t l e Mountain  and s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , Orchard Park.  in  1954,  T h i s i n t e r e s t i n the C i t y o f  Vancouver f o r p u b l i c housing i s coupled w i t h i t s i n t e r e s t i n Urban Renewal.  The N a t i o n a l Housing A c t of 1954  empowered the c i t i e s o f  Canada to e n t e r i n t o arrangements with the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments and borrow funds from C e n t r a l Housing and Mortgage C o r p o r a t i o n , a F e d e r a l Crown agency f o r the c o n t r u c t i o n o f p u b l i c housing.  - 125 In 194-7, Dr. L.C. Marsh of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia undertook to do a study o f the need f o r an urban renewal programme.  T h i s study was p u b l i s h e d i n 1950.  Dr. Marsh i n the  1  p r e f a c e o f h i s study f i r s t s p e l l e d out the concept of such a l a r g e housing p r o j e c t such as Skeena T e r r a c e .  He s a i d , " t h e  economy o f a m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g , l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t , which alone w i l l reduce c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , as w e l l as meet the p o p u l a t i o n requirements w i t h more ample open space. case f o r patchwork renovation."  There i s no  replacement, nor f o r piecemeal and d o u b t f u l  2  In 1955 the T e c h n i c a l Planning Board o f the C i t y o f Vancouver proposed to the C i t y C o u n c i l that a study o f r e d e v e l o p ment be undertaken.  T h i s study began i n J u l y , 19$6 w i t h F e d e r a l ,  P r o v i n c i a l and C i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  forming a t e c h n i c a l committee.  3 T h i s Redevelopment  Study  was completed i n December, 1957, and  was approved i n p r i n c i p l e by C i t y C o u n c i l i n February, 1958.  This  study proposed a twenty-year p l a n f o r c i t y renewal and that a s t a r t be made i n the form o f housing p r o j e c t s a t Skeena and a t McLean Park i n order that the b l i g h t e d s e c t i o n of the C i t y (Strathcona Area) might be c l e a r e d and renewed. T h i s r e p o r t recognized  some o f the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s  Marsh, L.C. R e b u i l d i n g a Neighbourhood, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Research P u b l i c a t i o n s , Vancouver, 1950.  2  o p . c i t . page x  ^Vancouver Redevelopment Study, Proposed by the C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department f o r the Housing Research Committee, December,  1957  -  126  -  t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d i n urban renewal and the displacement o f people.  I t s a i d i n p a r t , " R e l o c a t i o n i n v o l v e s human problems and  i t s success depends on how these are handled.  The t a s k o f f i n d i n g  a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation f o r the d i s p l a c e d , i n f o r m i n g people o f t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s , ensuring that no unwarranted d i s t r e s s i s caused, ....etc."*  F u r t h e r , they s t a t e , "The common b e l i e f t h a t  substandard  housing c o n d i t i o n s are c r e a t e d by people may r a i s e doubts as to the value o f rehousing former r e s i d e n t s of b l i g h t a r e a .... redevelopment i s not proposed p r i m a r i l y i n order to r e h a b i l i t a t e people by improving  t h e i r housing c o n d i t i o n s . . . . "  Again they s t a t e , "That there  w i l l be a c a r r y - o v e r o f some s o c i a l problems i n t o the r e c o n s t r u c t e d a r e a i s i n e v i t a b l e and i t i s most important, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the a c t u a l r e l o c a t i o n programme and the management o f the housing projcects 2  r e c e i v e c a r e f u l and s k i l l e d  direction."  Opinions have been expressed by some t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were only given t o the w i p i n g out of b l i g h t and t h a t t h i s was motivated by economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s supported by b u s i n e s s and r e a l estate i n t e r e s t s .  These c r i t i c s s t a t e t h a t the sole reason Skeena  T e r r a c e s i t e was chosen was because i t was city-owned waste l a n d . At any r a t e , Skeena T e r r a c e Housing  P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g was  begun i n i 9 6 0 and was o f f i c i a l l y opened October 1 , 1 9 6 2 , and f u l l y o c c u p i e d by January, 1 9 6 3 .  I t o f f e r s accommodation f o r 1 6 5 f a m i l i e s  op c i t . Vancouver Redevelopment Study, 1 9 5 7 , p « 9 2  I b i d . p.52  - 127 and 69 m a r r i e d and s i n g l e s e n i o r c i t i z e n s .  T h i s study w i l l d e a l  more f u l l y with some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s p r o j e c t The  later.  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the p r o j e c t upon t h i s study i s t h a t l i t t l e or  no evidence i s a v a i l a b l e that i n d i c a t e s that the choice o f the s i t e was c o n s i d e r e d w i t h a view to the s o c i a l and economic needs o f the tenants and o f the neighbourhood B.  as a whole.  P.B.C. School of S o c i a l Work Another  Involvement  s i g n i f i c a n t event which had some b e a r i n g and  i n f l u e n c e upon the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l process under study came as a result  o f a d e c i s i o n by the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's  S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work to p l a c e a student i n the S u n r i s e Park Area as a p a r t o f h i s s t u d i e s i n p u r s u i t of a Master's work.  degree i n s o c i a l  T h i s d e c i s i o n was made i n 1963 as a consequence of the  School's d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h a d e f i n i t e sequence f o r the t e a c h i n g of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n method, thus adding to the other two e x i s t i n g sequences of Case Work and Group Work. Mr.  T h i s student,  Clarence MacKenzie, was p l a c e d i n the Skeena T e r r a c e  P r o j e c t as h i s f i e l d placement  Housing  (a p r a c t i c e course t h a t i s c a r r i e d  a l o n g w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s a t the s c h o o l ) .  T h i s arrangement  was under the a u s p i c e s and with the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body f o r the management o f the p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s i n the c i t y .  The purpose  o f h i s assignment  was to study the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the S u n r i s e Park Area and examine and document how they r e l a t e and are a f f e c t e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a p u b l i c housing development w i t h i n i t s midst; various s o c i a l services are altered;  to study how the  how the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g of the tenants of such a housing development  -  may  128  -  be improved, e t c . MacKenzie because of the nature of h i s assignment,  and  with h i s a c q u i r e d knowledge of some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the housing  p r o j e c t and the S u n r i s e Park Area, became a very  source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  H i s knowledge and  o p i n i o n s were u t i l i z e d e x t e n s i v e l y when i n February, Welfare  vital  1964,  his  the  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f  the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s c a l l e d t o g e t h e r agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to determine the needs and resources of S u n r i s e Park and housing  project.  MacKenzie*s c o n t r i b u t i o n to a group t h e s i s ,  "Neighbourhood A n a l y s i s i n Vancouver"*'" wealth  the  a l s o has c o n t r i b u t e d a  of i n f o r m a t i o n and acted as a l o c i  of f a c t s f o r the ongoing  study p r e s e n t l y i n p r o c e s s . MacKenzie, i n e f f e c t , tended to awaken the concern many people  felt  that among other t h i n g s "the  that  tenants of the  housing  p r o j e c t have s p e c i a l needs which are not overcome by the p r o v i s i o n of  good housing a l o n e " and " . . . t h a t many agencies  were not aware of  2  the needs i n the a r e a . . . "  He p o i n t e d to the need f o r p o s i t i v e  s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and neighbourhood development and i n t h i s suggested  three f a c t o r s should be c o n s i d e r e d , "a)  recreation f a c i l i t i e s ;  b) encouragement; and  respect  increased  c) l e a d e r s h i p . "  MacKenzie, i n h i s t h e s i s , p o i n t e d to the need f o r the s e r v i c e s of a full  time s o c i a l worker.  A worker t h a t , "should be able to  perform  A l l a r d i c e , E t h e l ; MacKenzie, C l a r e n c e ; Rowe, F r a n c i s ; Z i e g l e r , H e r b e r t ; Neighbourhood A n a l y s i s i n Vancouver, Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964, 2  ibid.  p 138-139  3  ibid.  p  149  -  1 2 9  -  i n any o f the methods o f s o c i a l work, s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work and community o r g a n i z a t i o n .  As a s o c i a l (caseworker he  should be able to give emergency casework s e r v i c e and make e f f e c t ive  r e f e r r a l s to the community h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l  agencies;  as a s o c i a l group worker to work w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d  groups on the p r o j e c t and help with the development o f new programmes;  as a community o r g a n i z a t i o n wonker to help with the  i n t e g r a t i o n of the housing p r o j e c t i n t o the community and to attempt to C.  deyelop new r e s o u r c e s to meet the needs o f the t e n a n t s . "  1  Neighbourhood House Concern and A c t i o n s A f u r t h e r event  of s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  p r o c e s s under study was the concern  f e l t and expressed by the  Alexandra Neighbourhood House over the p l a n n i n g f o r p u b l i c housing i n the c i t y . T h i s concern was expressed  i n the main to the S o c i a l 2  P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of Community Chest and C o u n c i l s . 196l,  On October 1 7 ,  a l e t t e r was sent to the p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n e x p r e s s i n g  t h a t as no evident p l a n n i n g f o r p r o v i s i o n s f o r f a c i l i t i e s of  concern or means  meeting w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f the tenants e x i s t e d  t h a t Community Chest and C o u n c i l s take immediate a c t i o n to have t h i s omission  remedied.  The l e t t e r p o i n t s out f u r t h e r that there seems to be no  o p . c i t . , Neighbourhood A n a l y s i s i n Vancouver, p.151 2  The Community Chest and C o u n c i l s ' f i l e e n t i t l e d , "Study o f Skeena T e r r a c e Housing P r o j e c t " was f r e e l y and r e a d i l y made a v a i l a b l e to the writer.  - 130 f i r m commitment t h a t welfare redevelopment areas and brought i n t o any  -  planning  w i l l be brought i n t o  suggests that the C i t y of Vancouver be  a c t i o n i n i t i a t e d by the Chest and  On November 10,  the  196l,  the S o c i a l Planning  r e t u r n l e t t e r s t a t e d that they f e l t z a t i o n s should be i n v o l v e d and  that v a r i o u s  Councils. Section i n a  community  that a c t i o n should  organi-  take p l a c e i n  a number of d i f f e r e n t ways w i t h the end r e s u l t of i n v o l v i n g C i t y C o u n c i l who The o v e r t u r e was  could represent  the problem to the F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  C o u n c i l f i l e i n d i c a t e s f u r t h e r that some u n o f f i c i a l made by  the alderman r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the C i t y S o c i a l  S e r v i c e Department to A l e x a n d r a House to take the necessary  steps  to have a Neighbourhood House e s t a b l i s h e d at Skeena T e r r a c e  as  soon as p o s s i b l e under the a u s p i c e s T h i s prompted the Planning p r o p o s a l which was in  of A l e x a n d r a House. Section  to request  forthcoming on September 25,  19&2,  a  formal  and  stated  p a r t "Information based on the best a u t h o r i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to  us, and  experience gained from n e a r l y every housing development o f  t h i s k i n d i n North America i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of housing to r e p l a c e  slums i s not  enough.  new  F a m i l i e s i n some p u b l i c  housing developments f i n d themselves b e r e f t of some or a l l of community resources  of t h e i r former neighbourhoods.  gains i n l i g h t , a i r , and  community, s t i g m a t i z i n g them and  The  the  c l e a n l i n e s s , the separateness o f some  p r o j e c t s s e t s t h e i r occupants apart  problems w i t h i n the  Despite  the  from the normal l i f e  further aggravating  the  of  the  social  group."  formal p r o p o s a l  made was  to; 1)  establish a  s h i p between the proposed Neighbourhood House and  other  relationprivate  - 131  -  agencies seeking to serve the p r o j e c t - u s i n g the  effective  s e r v i c e arrangement t h a t e x i s t s between Alexandra Neighbourhood House and Family S e r v i c e Agency as a model; s e r v i c e s of a detached  2)  to p r o v i d e f o r the  s o c i a l worker to work w i t h tenants and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l o c a l agencies and  s e r v i c e s w i t h the  establishment of a neighbourhood house f a c i l i t y ;  3)  housing  eventual  a s u i t e or  s u i t e s of rooms r e s e r v e d f o r the neighbourhood centre to be used a common room; k) full  time detached  House; 5) of  t h a t the s t a f f , i . e . p a r t time stenographer worker be s u p p l i e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d by  1962;  6)  and  Alexandra  that s t a f f be engaged and working before the f i r s t  tenants due October 1,  as  arrival  that t h i s s e r v i c e be f i n a n c e d i n  the u s u a l manner w i t h Community Chest p r o v i d i n g the major share of  budget. On November 27,  1962,  the Governing  Committee of the C o u n c i l  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the Chest and C o u n c i l s had a s p e c i a l concern m e r i t i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e to p u b l i c housing  developments.  They recommended t h a t : 1)  A s e r v i c e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t under the l e a d e r s h i p of  A l e x a n d r a House be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Skeena Housing the major focus on determining the nature and  Development w i t h  extent of the  w e l f a r e needs of the tenants and the most e f f e c t i v e way  social  of meeting  them. 2)  That  the scope of the p r o j e c t be as broad as possfole,  t a k i n g i n t o account of  the o v e r a l l s o c i a l w e l f a r e needs of the r e s i d e n t s  the housing development and the surrounding 3)  community.  That r e s e a r c h c o n s u l t a t i o n be obtained from a p p r o p r i a t e  and a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s .  - 132 k)  That a S p e c i a l Committee be e s t a b l i s h e d by the  S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s to secure p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s to arrange for of  f i n a n c i n g and f a c i l i t i e s ,  to determine b a s i c p o l i c y of o p e r a t i o n  the study, to conduct e v a l u a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and to recommend  on the f u t u r e development  of s e r v i c e s .  On January 8, 1963, follows:  "That arrangements  C i t y C o u n c i l passed a r e s o l u t i o n as be made to study the Skeena S t r e e t  Housing Development to determine the s o c i a l and w e l f a r e needs o f the  r e s i d e n t s and the most e f f e c t i v e ways o f meeting them, and the  Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the S o c i a l Welfare P o l i c y Committee or such o t h e r committee t h a t may  be appointed,  recommend such s t e p s as are necessary under the circumstances." On January 30, 1963,  an o u t l i n e f o r a "Redevelopment  Study i n Skeena Housing P r o j e c t " was  developed by the Community  Chest and C o u n c i l s as f o l l o w s : Proposal:  That a redevelopment  study be undertaken i n  Skeena T e r r a c e w i t h the purpose o f : 1)  S t i m u l a t i n g the development community development  2)  of s e l f - h e l p  and  programmes w i t h i n the p r o j e c t .  A s s e s s i n g the value o f these a c t i v i t i e s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s o c i a l betterment of the r e s i d e n t s and the s t a b i l i t y o f the housing p r o j e c t .  3)  Determining the needs o f the r e s i d e n t s f o r h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and the most e f f e c t i v e ways o f meeting them.  Auspices:  That the study be s e t up f o r one y e a r under the  - 133 j o i n t auspices and  of the C i t y of Vancouver and  the Community Chest  Councils. D i r e c t i o n and  Control;  committee made up as f o l l o w s :  That the study be d i r e c t e d by 2 aldermen, 1 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  from the Housing A u t h o r i t y , the Board of Parks and P u b l i c Metropolitan  Health  a  each  Recreation,  Committee, School Board, Alexandra Community  A c t i v i t i e s Board, and  2 from the Community Chest and  T h i s committee to be r e s p o n s i b l e  C o u n c i l s Board.  to the C i t y C o u n c i l .  That the c6mmittee be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n , reviewing  f i n d i n g s , and making r e p o r t s and  b a s i s of the experience  the  of the p r o j e c t .  P r o j e c t Programme: person experienced  recommendations on  That the study be c a r r i e d out by a  i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n group work who  work with the r e s i d e n t s i n ways such as the  would  following:  1)  A s s i s t i n the r e c e p t i o n of f a m i l i e s i n t o the p r o j e c t .  2)  A i d the r e s i d e n t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g s e l f - h e l p and community development a c t i v i t i e s , such as day  care  s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n , home-making p r o j e c t , teenagers* and 3)  s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' programmes.  Provide  r e f e r r a l to community h e a l t h and  welfare  services. k)  Co-ordinate  the a c t i v i t i e s of p u b l i c and  voluntary  community s e r v i c e s s e r v i n g r e s i d e n t s of the  housing  project. S u p e r v i s i o n of P r o j e c t Worker: S e r v i c e Department with  Under Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l  c o n s u l t a t i o n from a t e c h n i c a l cmmittee  - 134 c o n s i s t i n g of the A d m i n i s t r a t o r  from the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e  Department, the S e c r e t a r y Manager of the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , a member o f the Redevelopment C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee, and a s t a f f member o f the Planning  C o u n c i l o f Community Chest and C o u n c i l s .  Research c o n s u l t a t i o n i s to be p r o v i d e d by t h e Research D i v i s i o n o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s . Research E v a l u a t i o n : provide  That the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s  research services i n c l u d i n g : 1)  The s e t t i n g up o f a p p r o p r i a t e  r e c o r d keeping procedures  i n order to r e p o r t back to the committee a t the end o f the y e a r on the most urgent needs o f the r e s i d e n t s . 2)  An e v a l u a t i o n as to how e f f e c t i v e l y , and a t what c o s t , these needs have been met.  3)  A r e p o r t on any improvement o f the arates of  delinquency,  s c h o o l dropouts, s o c i a l allowance r e c i p i e n t s , and  illness  unemployment.  T h i s whole s u b j e c t was c l o s e d when on A p r i l 1, 1963, Commissioner Sutton  Brown, of the C i t y Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  to the Chairman o f the C i v i c Government Committee, presented for consideration. l)  reported  exhibits  These were:  That a meeting on February 11, 1963, o f a sub-committee of the Standing  Committee on C i v i c Government  provided  minutes t h a t r e s o l v e d t h a t a committee be s t r u c k to d e a l w i t h a proposal  p e r t a i n i n g to the need f o r the employment  of a " l i a i s o n c o u n s e l l o r " being employed by the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y f o r a twelve-month p e r i o d .  - 135 -  2)  The d r a f t p r o p o s a l  as r e q u i r e d by the above  r e s o l u t i o n stemming from the February 11, 19&3i meeting. 3)  A r e s o l u t i o n from the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y which read as f o l l o w s :  "Now, t h e r e f o r e be i t  r e s o l v e d that the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y i s not i n agreement with the C i t y C o u n c i l r e s o l u t i o n to s e t up  the s p e c i a l study and i s of the o p i n i o n t h a t such  welfare  problems as may a r i s e should  d i r e c t e d through normal welfare The allowed  continue  to be  programmes."  r e s u l t s of t h i s meeting and the e x h i b i t s  presented  the s t a n d i n g committee to concur that no f u r t h e r  substantive  a c t i o n take p l a c e . The  r e p o r t t h a t Commissioner Sutton  Brown made suggested  that w i t h regard and r e s p e c t to the views o f the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y i n r e l a t i o n to the employing o f a l i a i s o n c o u n s e l l o r that p r o j e c t managers would continue the a p p r o p r i a t e  agencies.  to r e f e r tenants with problems to  There was the suggestion  that a s m a l l  sub-committee be s t r u c k composed o f the Secretary-Manager o f the Housing A u t h o r i t y , the A d m i n i s t r a t o r  o f the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department,  a member o f the Redevelopment C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee, and the D i r e c t o r of Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , and be held with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to c o - o r d i n a t e  any a s s i s t a n c e or s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by other  agency.  I t was f u r t h e r suggested that a r e p o r t had been proposed by the Planning  Department which spoke of the p r o v i s i o n o f p h y s i c a l  f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f the tenants  and that t h i s r e p o r t  - 136 should be submitted  to a n a t i o n a l study t h a t was being undertaken  by C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . D.  Community Chest & C o u n c i l s o f Greater Vancouver Area Approach In the autumn of 1963, a youth programme f o r boys aged  s i x y e a r s t o ten years who were e x h i b i t i n g some a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies o r hehaviour was d i s c o n t i n u e d by the Y.W.C.A. i n the Woodland Park Area o f Vancouver.  T h i s programme had been p r e v i o u s l y  dropped by the Y.M.C.A. due t o budgetary Y.W.C.A. stepped i n to f i l l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and the  the vacuum as i t was r e c o g n i z e d to be  a very worthwhile s e r v i c e . The  d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h i s programme, which was r e c o g n i z e d  as v a l u a b l e by the l o c a l community, caused a c r i s i s and the was  f e l t by Community Chest and C o u n c i l s .  impact  T h i s impact was i n the  form o f l e t t e r s and phone c a l l s from the s c h o o l s , the p u b l i c h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s and some of the p a r e n t s .  Some o f these responses  were  h i g h l y - c h a r g e d and q u i t e p e r s u a s i v e i n c o n t e n t . The Welfare  and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l o f the S o c i a l Planning  S e c t i o n had r e c o g n i z e d f o r some time of "bush f i r e " on a piecemeal  that responding  to t h i s k i n d  b a s i s was "shotgun p l a n n i n g " .  In  r e c o g n i z i n g the weaknesses o f t h i s type o f p l a n n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o a s e r v i c e i n v e n t o r y and p r i o r i t y study that was then b e i n g undertaken by the Chest, i t was decided to adopt a new approach. T h i s new approach, which was c a l l e d "A Model f o r Concerted I n t e r v e n t i o n to Achieve Maximum Impact on Complex S o c i a l Problems" (see AppendixG ) had,  as i t s t i t l e i m p l i e s , the means by which  e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n which would r e l a t e to l o c a l problems c o u l d be concentrated.  The approach was to d i v i d e the c i t y i n t o  arbitrarily  - 137 s e t geographic areas which thus allowed f o r p r i o r i t y  selection  i n o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g f o r s e r v i c e s with a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l  structuring;  d e t a i l e d and r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s i n depth; speedy a n a l y s i s o f emergent needs e n a b l i n g more r e a d i l y the i n i t i a t i o n o f short-term programmes;  the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the e s t a b l i s h i n g of more concrete  g o a l s and f i n a l l y a b e t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y f o r c o n c e r t e d and  integrated  action. T h i s approach was  adopted i n November, 19&3,  and  was  u t i l i z e d i n s t u d y i n g the problems a r i s i n g i n Woodland Park.  The  model as i t r e l a t e d to the Woodland Park Study m a t e r i a l i z e d i n t h a t study's s t a t e d  purpose:"*"  " T h i s study was data about  undertaken  so that b a s i c p h y s i c a l and  social  the Woodland Park Area might be c o l l e c t e d , analyzed and  prepared i n a format usable by both the community i t s e l f and  the  agencies which serve i t . Such data was  seen as the b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g on  A s h o r t term b a s i s to a s s i s t i n the meeting  either:  of immediate  and urgent needs of the Area, and/or A l o n g term b a s i s to a s s i s t i n the o r d e r l y development of s e r v i c e s to the Area, with a view to o b t a i n i n g maximum impact upon the s o c i a l problems of the Area." T h i s area approach b e i n g d e a l t with here.  i s particularly significant  to the study  Much of the b a s i c p l a n and process i n the  case study p a r a l l e l s t h i s model. E.  Summary of S i g n i f i c a n t The  Events  f o r e g o i n g has given some of the s i g n i f i c a n t  history  "*"A Study of the Woodland Park Area (Prepared unddr the a u s p i c e s of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area,Feb.19&5)  - 138 p r e c e d i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change t h a t o c c u r r e d i n S u n r i s e Park.  The events c i t e d were not g i v e n i n any p a r t i c u l a r sequence  as t o degrees of importance or s i g n i f i c a n c e .  There were undoubtedly  other events which have not been s e t down which could have o f f e r e d themselves as b e i n g important cognizant.  but with which the observer i s not  In t h i s regard there no doubt have been i n d i v i d u a l s  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s not here recorded who have i n some manner or means represented themselves to the change p r o c e s s .  The events  c i t e d have been s e l e c t e d f o r they appear to have a d i s c o v e r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the events which subsequently  occurred.  - 139 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNRISE PARK F i r s t a very b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l be given o f the S u n r i s e Park Area where t h i s study was undertaken. the area, Sunrise Park, i s o n l y a convenient  The name o f  t i t l e t h a t i s taken  from the name o f a small c i t y park i n the approximate centre o f Census T r a c t 10 (196l census).  geographic  I t i s a name t h a t i s  not commonly u t i l i z e d by the c i t i z e n s of the area as a means o f identifying  their locale.  The people  i n f a c t d e s c r i b e themselves  as l i v i n g i n the E a s t End of Vancouver.  The S u n r i s e Park name i s  used as an o f f i c i a l d e s c r i p t i o n by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s i n t h e i r area development p l a n (see AppendixH ) and i s a l s o commonly used by c i t y  agencies.  S u n r i s e Park Area g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s bounded on the South by N i n t h Avenue; on the North by Adanac Avenue;  on the West by  Renfrew S t r e e t ; and on the E a s t by Boundary Road. Canadian Census  1  the p o p u l a t i o n i s given as 7 , 8 4 6 .  In the 196l I t i s i n the  main a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a with o n l y s m a l l shops and businesses l i s h e d along the boundaries The  estab-  which are thoroughfares.  r e s i d e n t s could be s a i d to be q u i t e s t a b l e i n the  m o b i l i t y sense.  Dwellings  occupied  f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e years o r  A l l s t a t i s t i c s a r e from the 196l Census of Canada, Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s (C.T.22), u n l e s s otherwise acknowledged.  - i4o more c o n s t i t u t e 77 percent as compared to the r e s t o f the c i t y , which has a p e r c e n t i l e average of only 45.18 p e r c e n t . 2,290 households,  Of the  2,005 or 87.55 percent are owner-occupied, while  12.45 percent a r e rented accommodations. (These  f i g u r e s do not  i n c l u d e Skeena T e r r a c e Housing P r o j e c t which has a p o p u l a t i o n f l u c t u a t i n g between 800 and 950.) The p o p u l a t i o n o f the a r e a i s predominantly o r i g i n , although over the l a s t  of B r i t i s h  t e n years from 1951 to 1961 there  has been a marked drop from 69.01 percent t o 58.48 p e r c e n t . the same time there has been an i n c r e a s e of people with origin.  At  Italian  T h i s i s due to the growing I t a l i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the  adjacent neighbourhood where there i s a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f I t a l i a n people.  T h i s ethnic grouping i s now s p r e a d i n g out i n t o  the S u n r i s e Park Area. The p o p u l a t i o n i n the main are P r o t e s t a n t , though again there i s an i n c r e a s i n g Roman C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n . e x i s t i n g churches and  The only  i n the a r e a a r e the Four Square Gospel  chapel accommodation w i t h i n the Beulah Gardens S e n i o r  Church Citizens  Housing, a B a p t i s t Church-sponsored low r e n t a l scheme. There would seem to be a f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f age groupings, though i n the study area a younger p o p u l a t i o n seems e v i d e n t . In Vancouver C i t y the male p o p u l a t i o n over 45 amounts to 36.71 percent and the female 37.11 percent, w h i l e i n the S u n r i s e Park the percentage  a r e male 31*05 percent and female 29.03 percent.  The p o p u l a t i o n o f people under 20 years i n Vancouver was broken down to males, 30.57 percent, and females,  28.82 percent; while i n  - 141  -  S u n r i s e Park males c o n s t i t u t e 36.11  percent and females 34.44  percent. The income average i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than f o r the r e s t of the c i t y as shown by the 1961 census r e p o r t . the male and female  labour f o r c e i n the S u n r i s e Park Area,  Of  4l.4  percent earn over $4,000 per year as compared to 38.5 percent i n the C i t y of Vancouver.  Of the male labour f o r c e , 56.4 percent i n  S u n r i s e Park are e a r n i n g over $4,000 while i n Vancouver C i t y the percentage  i s 54.6  percent.  I t should be noted that these  figures  would s u b s t a n t i a l l y change when the s t a t i s t i c s of Skeena Terrace are added. The a r e a i s served by two Begbie The  and the Annex.  elementary  schools - S i r Matthew  The p o p u l a t i o n of these s c h o o l s i s 1,170.  high s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a t t e n d the'Vancouver T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l .  ( P r i o r to the housing p r o j e c t the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n was i n c r e a s e i n the two The  elementary  schools alone was  83O.  The  340.)  e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r e c i a t i o n as measured i n the census  shows a marked d i f f e r e n c e . In S u n r i s e Park 21.55 s c h o o l are at the secondary university.  percent of those p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g  l e v e l and o n l y 2.72  percent a t t e n d  In the c i t y as a whole, comparable f i g u r e s are  percent and 7«03 percent  26.6  respectively.  The area has two parks operated by the Board of Parks Public Recreation.  These are S u n r i s e Park and Adanac Park.  and  The  Hastings Community Centre i s s i t u a t e d j u s t out of the area and i s approximately  two m i l e s from the geographic  c e n t r e of the  study  o  - 142  -  area.  The  centre operates a comprehensive programme f o r a l l  ages.  The Broadway Y.M.C.A. i s adjacent to the a r e a , but  again  i s about two m i l e s from the c e n t r e of the a r e a . MacKenzie i n h i s neighbourhood a n a l y s i s s t a t e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and  "The  f a c i l i t i e s would appear to l e a v e more  u n f u l f i l l e d needs than e i t h e r of the other types of s e r v i c e agencies"' ( i . e . h e a l t h and w e l f a r e ) . The H e a l t h and S o c i a l Welfare  s e r v i c e s are s u p p l i e d by  both  v o l u n t a r y and governmental agencies as they are i n the r e s t o f the city.  MacKenzie s t a t e s t h a t , "The  f o r adequately  h e a l t h needs seemed to be  cared  i n the wide s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n  H e a l t h S e r v i c e s of G r e a t e r Vancouver, the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f Welfare,  the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the V i c t o r i a n  Order of Nurses.  The  s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s i n the area are very 2  l i m i t e d and the needs very g r e a t . "  A l l a r d i c e , E t h e l ; MacKenzie, Clarence; Eowe, F r a n c i s ; Z i e g l e r , H e r b e r t ; Neighbourhood A n a l y s i s i n Vancouver, Master of S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964, p.139 2  ibid.  p.138  - 143  -  CHAPTER k SKEENA TERRACE HOUSING PROJECT  I t has been argued  that the e x i s t e n c e  of Skeena T e r r a c e ,  the l a r g e s t housing development i n Vancouver C i t y , has by i t s very s i z e and l o c a t i o n become a " r e d h e r r i n g " to the prophets of gloom who  p r e d i c t a l l manner of d i s a s t r o u s consequence.  I t has been  argued as w e l l t h a t t h i s housing p r o j e c t i s a very r e a l and menace to the s o c i a l order of the c i t y .  growing  There are those who  label  i t a ghetto f o r the economic or s o c i a l l y disadvantaged c i t i z e n or a modern m o d i f i c a t i o n of the 1 9 t h Century poor house. a l s o those who  There  are  c l a i m that t h i s i s the s o l u t i o n to the e r r a d i c a t i o n  of the slums w i t h a l l i t s s o c i a l e v i l s as w e l l as the answer to the impoverished i n the c i t y who  have had to s u f f e r the i l l s  of inadequate  l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s as p a r t and p a r c e l of t h e i r dependency upon the community f o r support. I t i s not the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s study to analyze and e v a l u a t e the pros and cons of t h i s s u b j e c t , or to o f f e r any I t i s necessary to d e s c r i b e it  judgment.  t h i s p r o j e c t b r i e f l y i n o r d e r to place  i n i t s proper r e l a t i o n s h i p as a " p a r t of r e a l i t y " to the process  of change to be  studied.  Skeena T e r r a c e Housing P r o j e c t as was  mentioned e a r l i e r  opened and f u l l y occupied by January, 1963, p r o v i d i n g  was  accommodation  f o r 165 f a m i l i e s and 69 married and s i n g l e e l d e r l y people.  This  housing p r o j e c t , which i s s i t u a t e d on one s i d e by Skeena S t r e e t , encompasses approximately two  c i t y blocks.  I t i s an i n t e g r a t e d  complex of b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t h i s area and i s t e r r a c e d to meld with  - 3M  -  the contour of the slope upon which i t i s b u i l t .  The l a r g e s i x -  s t o r e y h i g h - r i s e apartment b u i l d i n g stands predominant among the f a m i l y two-storey  7.)  row houses and apartment b l o c k s . (See f i g u r e  The p r o j e c t i s under the management of the Vancouver  Housing  A u t h o r i t y , r e s p o n s i b l e to the government of the C i t y of Vancouver through a governing and p o l i c y - m a k i n g Board of Management.  Skeena,  as i n other p r o j e c t s , has a p r o j e c t manager and a s m a l l maintenance staff. The p r o j e c t manager i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s of a d m i t t i n g new by the a u t h o r i t y .  tenants who  have been screened and  He i s as w e l l s t r u c k w i t h the  of a s s u r i n g t h a t the g e n e r a l "housekeeping" p r o j e c t i s maintained  to good standards.  approved  responsibility  and upkeep of the  total  He a l s o must c o l l e c t  the  r e n t payments and amend the l e a s e s from time to time as the incomes of the tenants change.  He i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g e n e r a l content  and w e l l - b e i n g of the tenants and must g i v e adequate warning to tenants whose hehaviour  t h r e a t e n s the g e n e r a l good order of the  project. His power to enforce g e n e r a l good conduct  rests.with his  duty to r e p o r t any behaviour t h a t he c o n s i d e r s i s not  conducive  to good order to the a u t h o r i t y and warn the tenants and f u r t h e r to recommend the e v i c t i o n of any tenant who such behaviour.  does not abide and amend  An unwritten 'but i m p l i c i t  duty r e s t s upon the  manager to work out such arrangements between tenants as to enhance harmony and good r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  He must a l s o work out p o l i c y which  a l l o w s f o r e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g of such tenant r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as  C A S S IA R  LAYOUT  tOO^IMft COM,  AND  SKCENA F.P4/5 8 VAMCOUVt  ADOtESSES STRICT PROJECT a  B. C .  - 146 -  maintaining  i n good c o n d i t i o n and c l e a n l i n e s s the g e n e r a l  p r o p e r t i e s o f t e n a n t s such as c l e a n i n g hallways, walkways,  shared laundry  rooms, e t c . The manager thus has many r o l e s beside role.  the b a s i c l a n d l o r d  He must be a person w i t h abundant and ready common sense  w i t h an understanding and knowledge of human behaviour and a general and  balanced p e r c e p t i o n  that a l l o w s  him to weigh and judge the con-  sequences o f p o l i c y as i t a f f e c t s the l i v e s o f those who l i v e more by economic n e c e s s i t y than The  there  choice.  people i n Skeena a r e as v a r i e d and d i v e r s e as perhaps  can be seen i n any neighbourhood.  They a r e not, however, a r e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the general p o p u l a t i o n  o f the c i t y i n  s e v e r a l very important ways, and i t f o l l o w s as a s e l f - e v i d e n t consequence t h a t the neighbourhood (Skeena T e r r a c e ) i s not a r e p r e sentative. cross-secTtion. Terrace  The main reason they r e s i d e a t Skeena  i f , of course, because o f t h e i r economic s t a t u s .  a l s o r e s i d e n t here because i n the main t h e i r previous was o f s u f f i c i e n t low standard  accommodation  t h a t i t was e i t h e r razed under the  renewal programme or condemned and s u b j e c t to d e s t r u c t i o n . as we s h a l l see, neighbourhood.  They are  Thus,  these r e s i d e n t s have no n a t u r a l r o o t s i n the The f a m i l i e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n have a l l had to form  e n t i r e l y new r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r neighbours and the s c h o o l s , peer groups, d o c t o r s , nurses, s o c i a l workers, e t c . As can be seen i n Table B, there i s a high p r o p o r t i o n o f single-parent  f a m i l i e s - 50.51 percent  8l6 men, women and c h i l d r e n .  1  i n t h i s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of  I t goes without saying t h a t a l l o f the  ^The s t a t i s t i c s on page 14-7 were obtained Authority i n d i v i d u a l lease f i l e s .  from Vancouver Housing  -  TABLE B  -  M a r i t a l s t a t u s of the head of f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n Skeena T e r r a c e , e x c l u d i n g s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , as o f March 15, 1965.  NUMBER  PERCENTAGE  Married, l i v i n g with spouse  80  48.49  Separated  67  40.61  Divorced  10  6.06  8  4.84  165  100.00  MARITAL STATUS  '  147  Widowed TOTAL:  TABLE C  Source o f income o f the heads o f f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n Skeena T e r r a c e , e x c l u d i n g S e n i o r C i t i z e n s , as of March 15, 1965  SOURCE OF INCOME Social Assistance  NUMBER  91  PERCENTAGE  55.16  Unemployment I n s .  3  1.81  Pension*  5  3.03  Support from Spouse  4  2.42  62  37.58  165  100.00  Employment TOTAL:  Includes Workmen's Compensation, D i s a b l e d Person's Allowance, War Pensions, e t c .  - 148 p o t e n t i a l i s here  f o r problems stemming from f a m i l i e s so c o n s t i t u t e d .  Table B r e v e a l s that 46.72 percent of the f a m i l i e s have undergone at  l e a s t one rupturous breakup, and i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t many of these  f a m i l i e s have had numerous s e p a r a t i o n s and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s with a l l the unhappy and damaging e f f e c t s a c c r u i n g to the c h i l d r e n and wife's parental r o l e .  the  Thus, b i t t e r n e s s and hate, a l a c k of t r u s t ,  l o n e l i n e s s , f e a r , c o n f u s i o n , d e s p a i r , and u n c e r t a i n t y , g u i l t , damaged c o n f i d e n c e s , and defeat are a l l a p a r t o f the w i f e ' s personality.  More o f t e n than not these negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are  a l s o t r a n s m i t t e d to the  children.  These damaged p e r s p e c t i v e s are f u r t h e r charged economic l e v e l at which these f a m i l i e s must e x i s t .  by the  Table C shows  t h a t 62.42 percent of the f a m i l i e s must depend on other than own  means f o r support.  Of the 37«58 percent who  low  their  are s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g  an undetermined number are working at seasonal or marginal  jobs.  Thus, to the p e r s o n a l i t y problems these many tenants have i s added the grave burden of economic u n c e r t a i n t y and of t r y i n g to manage on the inadequate  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or other marginal income they  receive. The d i s c r e p a n c y or d i s t a n c e between p o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s becomes even g r e a t e r when one adds the elements of s o c i a l ills of  t h a t i n f e c t many of these f a m i l i e s .  These i l l s  run the gamut  known s o c i a l problems, and although no f u l l a n a l y s i s has been  made, they i n c l u d e a l c o h o l i s m , mental i l l n e s s , i l l e g i t i m a c y , poor h e a l t h standards, delinquency, etc.  low academic and v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s  The p r o j e c t has by i t s nature become a dense, concentrated  community b r i n g i n g together a complex of problems that have never  - 149  -  e f f e c t i v e l y been c o n t r o l l e d or s o l v e d i n the broader  community.  When Skeena Terrace i s viewed i n r e l a t i o n to i t s c h i l d r e n a l l i n d i c a t o r s p o i n t to a potent and dangerous s i t u a t i o n . C i t y of Vancouver the percentage under twenty years i s 29.2  In the  of the p o p u l a t i o n , male and  female  p e r c e n t , and i n the S u n r i s e Park i t i s  35*3 p e r c e n t , while i n the Skeena Terrace the f i g u r e i s 62.1 (See Table D)  Of the 571  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n Skeena T e r r a c e , 74.25  percent are under ten years of age. age are 226 130  c h i l d r e n not yet s c h o o l  i n number, or 39«59 p e r c e n t .  210  (36l c h i l d r e n came from  of s i x c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y . )  c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y i s 3«5.  (See Table  T h i s s m a l l but problem-riven by a mass apathy.  of 2.8  children  c h i l d r e n came from 35 f a m i l i e s with f i v e to ten  c h i l d r e n , an average of  The  f a m i l i e s w i t h 4 c h i l d r e n or l e s s , or an average  per f a m i l y .  percent.  The mean average  E)  community i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  Many of the people have l i t t l e  sense of p e r s o n a l  worth and even l e s s p e r s o n a l endowment, and as a r e s u l t there i s a g e n e r a l l a c k of community purpose and communal investment. have been numerous attempts  There  by the tenants to organize community  a c t i v i t i e s and p r a c t i c a l l y every attempt  has f a i l e d a f t e r a very  short duration.  Three elements seem to permeate through  a b o r t e d attempts  at organizing a c t i v i t i e s .  these  These are l a c k o f  l e a d e r s h i p , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e support, and a very low  participation  ratio. Only two  o r g a n i z a t i o n s seem to have any c a p a c i t y to endure -  t h a t i s , the S e n i o r C i t i z e n s Club and the teenage c l u b . groups can be s a i d to owe  their l i f e  one person i n each s i t u a t i o n .  These  two  and v i t a l i t y i n the main to  These two people  take the brunt of  - 150 -  TABLE B"  Percentage and number o f c h i l d r e n by age group i n Skeena T e r r a c e as o f March 15,  1965  AGE GROUP  NUMBER  PERCENTAGE  1 mo - 5 y r s .  226  59.59  5 y r s . l mo - l O y r s  198  34.66  10 yrs.lmo - 15yrs.  101  17.69  15 y r s . l mo - 20yrs  46  8.06  571  100.00  TOTAL  J  TABLE B  Showing d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h i l d r e n t o f a m i l y size 1  FAMILY SIZE BY CHILDREN  NO. OF FAMILIES  -  NO. OF CHILDREN  1  -  6  6  2 children  46  92  3  11  45  135  4  II  32  128  5  tt  14  70  6  tt  12  72  7  tt  6  42  8  ti  2  16  9  tt  -  -  10  it  1  10  164  571  0  1 child  TOTAL: 1  ,  -  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with l i t t l e  151  -  c o - o p e r a t i o n or support from the  r e s t of the t e n a n t s . O r g a n i z a t i o n s that have been attempted and have  failed  i n c l u d e a Mothers Club, a t o t spot, a newspaper, and an a d u l t social  club. The o p i n i o n has been expressed by some t h a t the  o r g a n i z e r s of such a c t i v i t i e s which have f a i l e d are g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r poor housekeeping standards and g e n e r a l f a m i l y mismanagement.  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  that has been  noted i s t h a t a good deal of r i v a l r y e x i s t s between the a d u l t s and the c h i l d r e n .  T h i s was  seen to be pronounced i n the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s that e x i s t e d between the teen group and the mothers group. T h i s i s perhaps not to be unexpected i n a community which has so many one-parent f a m i l i e s where the mother has the t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon her to perform a l l r o l e s of both mother and father.  What i s probably m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f  i s a type of mass  immaturity and mass apathy t h a t runs epidemic c a u s i n g a g e n e r a l f e v e r of j e a l o u s y and r i v a l r y and escapism. One would a n t i c i p a t e , from such a community o f t e n a n t s , a marked h o s t i l i t y between themselves and the l a n d l o r d  (Vancouver  Housing A u t h o r i t y ) i n the person of the p r o j e c t manager. far  from the case, i n f a c t .  This i s  On the whole the tenants l o o k to the  manager as a sounding board f o r t h e i r t r o u b l e s and an a r b i t r a t o r for  t h e i r squabbles.  There has been no attempt to form a tenants'  a s s o c i a t i o n , a common device i n housing p r o j e c t s , f o r the g e n e r a l enhancement o f the tenant community.  This f a i l u r e can l e g i t i -  mately be a s c r i b e d to the g e n e r a l detachment  and apathy of the  - 152 tenants and to no o v e r t encouragement by the Housing A u t h o r i t y . I t i s to be noted  that the p r o j e c t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  f o r any  deficient  i n space and  facilities  organized a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n i t s  boundaries.  A s t r i k i n g example of t h i s are the s m a l l p l o t s of ground  i n f r o n t of the apartments designed  f o r flower gardens.  r e q u i r e a f u l l - t i m e guard to defend  the p l o t , a master gardener and  a p a t i e n t and  I t would  t o l e r a n t s a i n t to b r i n g flowers to f u l l bloom.  Perhaps the most e l u s i v e but most pungent f e a t u r e of Skeena Terrace i s t h a t the e x p e c t a t i o n s p l a c e d upon these  tenants  i s t h a t they can m a g i c a l l y change t h e i r accustomed behaviour, ways of l i v i n g and standard.  their  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to conform to a m i d d l e - c l a s s  T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s c l e a r l y evident i n the use o f m a t e r i a l s  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n , the g e n e r a l l a y o u t and the p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e s and  design of the scheme and  views that are present by the majority  of observers and policy-makers. harmoniously i n dense p r o x i m i t y .  The  tenants are expected  They are expected  to be able to  c o - o p e r a t i v e l y j o i n together and c o l l e c t i v e l y schedule  t h e i r time  f o r washing machines, c l e a n the common hallways, keep the grounds i n order and  t h e i r apartments s p i c and  span.  to l i v e  general  I t i s amazing  t h a t some tenants are able to meet these e x p e c t a t i o n s with a modicum of  success.  CHAPTER 5 SUNRISE PARK AREA ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT  The Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of G r e a t e r Vancouver c a l l e d a meeting of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v a r i o u s agencies i n v o l v e d w i t h the e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , w e l f a r e and p o l i c e i n g aspects i n the S u n r i s e Park Area. was c a l l e d on February 21, 1964.  health,  T h i s meeting  I t was c a l l e d i n response to "the  numerous e x p r e s s i o n s of concern r e c e i v e d by the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l i n r e l a t i o n to apparent i n a d e q u a c i e s i n s e r v i c e s i n the area i d e n t i f i e d as the S u n r i s e Park Area.""''  The purpose o f c a l l i n g  t h i s group o f agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s together was to attempt to c l a r i f y the problems t h a t e x i s t e d and "discuss p o s s i b l e courses o f a c t i o n aimed a t s o l u t i o n . The meeting was w e l l attended by 26 people r e p r e s e n t i n g 18 a g e n c i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and C i t y Departments.  Each  organization  gave an account o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e programmes, t h e i r concerns i n the a r e a , and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s or l a c k s i n d e a l i n g with some o f the problems.  In the main the meeting dwelt w i t h s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l  problems as expressed by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the v a r i o u s agencies; the needs t h a t arose as a r e s u l t o f these problems and a v a r i e t y o f suggested means o f c o n t a i n i n g o r managing these  problems.  Some o f the problems i d e n t i f i e d were inadequate agency budgets;  l a c k of agency programmes and s e r v i c e i n t e g r a t i o n and co-  ordination;  agencies not f u l f i l l i n g  t h e i r designated s e r v i c e  roles;  Minutes o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l meeting h e l d a t the Broadway, Y.M.C.A., February 21, 1964.  - 154 l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f to cope with needs; heavy case l o a d s ; insufficient facilities; mobility;  overcrowded s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s  l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t p l a y space i n s c h o o l s  i n c r e a s e d vandalism;  and student  and parks;  d i f f i c u l t y i n making r e f e r r a l s to a p p r o p r i a t e  agency f o r a p p r o p r i a t e  action;  increased population;  l a r g e prop-  o r t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n  o f one-parent f a m i l i e s i n Housing P r o j e c t  as w e l l as aged people;  insufficient  leadership.  Some of the courses o f a c t i o n that were suggested were i m p l i e d by the problems expressed.  I t i s hoteworthy t h a t i n the main  most of the problems i n the view of those a t the meeting stemmed from the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Skeena Terrace meeting not only recognized in  Housing to the a r e a .  The  t h i s but t h e i r suggested a c t i o n s were  the main d i r e c t e d a t or d e a l i n g with the Housing P r o j e c t . T h i s meeting appointed a sub-committee to assess the inform-  a t i o n r e c e i v e d and t o make recommendations as to p o s s i b l e ways i n which evident The  needs t h a t were expressed might be more e f f e c t i v e l y met. next meeting was h e l d on June 1 9 , 1964, w i t h the purpose  of r e c e i v i n g and c o n s i d e r i n g the recommendations of the sub-committee appointed i n February. The  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s sub-committee can be summarized as  1.  There e x i s t s a need f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n between  follows:  service 2.  agencies.  A s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n r e l a t i o n to the determination  of needs and the p r o v i d i n g o f  s e r v i c e s due to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Skeena  Terrace  Housing. 3.  Mor i n f o r m a t i o n  i s required i n c l u d i n g  information  - 155 about needs and r e s o u r c e s i n the Housing P r o j e c t , and the community and i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two a r e a s . k.  Immediate needs e x i s t and s h o u l d r e c e i v e attention.  immediate  These were inadequate r e c r e a t i o n a l  f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f the Housing P r o j e c t and inadequate s o c i a l ative  rehabilit-  services.  The recommendations  t h a t t h i s sub-committee made were  narrowed and s p e c i f i c t o t h e i r f i n d i n g s . The recommendations, 1.  i n summary, c a l l e d f o r :  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s t r u c t u r e t h a t c o u l d c o o r d i n a t e and develop s e r v i c e s .  2.  A comprehensive s o c i a l needs s t u d y from which would e v o l v e a p l a n f o r meeting immediate and long-range g o a l s .  3.  An AreaWorker  k.  A c t i o n i n meeting t h e immediate needs a) by  t o be employed.  i n f o r m i n g the Board o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n of t h e apparent i n a d e q u a c i e s and s u g g e s t i n g more p l a y g r o u n d space a d j a c e n t to the Housing P r o j e c t was n e c e s s a r y as w e l l as an e x p a n s i o n o f the summer p l a y g r o u n d programmes;  b)  intensifying  social  r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e by a s k i n g the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department  t o g i v e h i g h p r i o r i t y to the  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s i n the a r e a .  I t was f u r t h e r  recommended t h a t the o t h e r a g e n c i e s develop f a m i l y -  -  156  -  focused group work programmes aimed at developing more e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t was  a l s o recommended that C i t y C o u n c i l  and  the Chest and C o u n c i l s c a l l a s e r i e s of meetings a t the top l e v e l to c o n s i d e r a  co-operative  approach toward meeting the s o c i a l needs. A good deal of d i s c u s s i o n arose over the v a l i d i t y of the f i n d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to the inadequacies the sub-committee. agencies  defending  The  t h a t were pronounced by  d i s c u s s i o n appeared to take the form of  themselves as they p e r c e i v e d the f i n d i n g s  r e l a t i n g to d e f i c i e n c i e s stemming from t h e i r own  services.  The  d i s c u s s i o n s and the r e s u l t i n g q u e s t i o n i n g of v a l i d i t y of the f i n d i n g s were not r e s o l v e d , but o f the aspect  r e d i r e c t e d toward a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  The meeting supported  and adopted the Area C o u n c i l recom-  mendations and a sub-committee was s e t t i n g up such a C o u n c i l . to t h i s Area C o u n c i l . was  The  The  given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  matter of a needs study was  referred  recommendation r e g a r d i n g the Area Worker  deferred. In regard to the recommendations f o r immediate a c t i o n , i t  was  decided to have the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l and  S u n r i s e Park Area C o u n c i l (not yet formed) make a p p r o p r i a t e s e n t a t i o n s to the Park Board and  the C i t y C o u n c i l f o r  the repre-  necessary  implementation. On J u l y Ik, meeting met  1964,  the sub-committee formed at the June  to c o n s i d e r the t a s k of forming an Area C o u n c i l and  f i n d i n g a chairman f o r such a c o u n c i l .  The  sub-committee examined  - 157  -  v a r i o u s ways o f s e t t i n g up such a c o u n c i l . which appeared to have g e n e r a l appeal was  The type of c o u n c i l one made up of l a y people  ( r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e t c . )  w i t h an A d v i s o r y  Committee composed of p r o f e s s i o n a l people. The meeting f e l t t h a t i t was most a p p r o p r i a t e to begin with a Resources C o u n c i l made up o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s . d e c i s i o n was was  t h a t i t was  The reason f o r t h i s  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the s i t u a t i o n a t the moment  such that a " l a y c o u n c i l " c o u l d not be developed.  They a l s o  c o n s i d e r e d that t h i s was more w i t h i n the r o l e of the proposed Area Worker to develop. The meeting saw  the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r such a Resources  C o u n c i l as being those l a i d meeting;  down i n Recommendation 1.  o f the June  i . e . "To c o n s i d e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n of w e l f a r e and  s e r v i c e s , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , and to work towards more adequate  recreation  the development  r e s o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a . "  of  They decided  t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies r e p r e s e n t e d a t the two "Area meetings" would be a b a s i s f o r such a Resources Committee.  They a l s o saw  need f o r an A d v i s o r y or E x e c u t i v e body and s e t up a proposed of  the  slate  people to serve on t h i s E x e c u t i v e Committee. The sub-committee agreed to make known the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r  d e l i b e r a t i o n s to the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l and ask that a meeting of the E x e c u t i v e Committee be c a l l e d i n September. The next meeting was a c t u a l l y c a l l e d on October 1, and i t i s at t h i s date that case study s h a l l b e g i n .  1964,  - 158  -  CHAPTER 6 SUNRISE PARK AREA RESOURCES COUNCIL (A Case Study i n O r g a n i z a t i o n a l  A.  Introduction "The  Change)  to the Case Study  best guarantee of the e t h i c a l o p e r a t i o n  engineers i s t h a t t h e i r b a s i c t r a i n i n g be focused  of  i n a methodology  of planned change which u n i t e s the norms of democratic r e l e v a n t understandings of change processes, and  s k i l l s i n stimulating, inducing  persons and  and  social  operation,  social structures,  and s t a b i l i z i n g changes i n  groups." Kenneth Benne  In examining and  a n a l y z i n g a case study as many angles  and  f a c e t s of the case remain hidden and  The  attempt, to t h i s p o i n t , has been to i l l u m i n a t e some of  circumstances, s i t u a t i o n s and  obscure as are  revealed. the  systems that have been a p a r t of  change process which i s under study.  the  I t has been an attempt to  b r i n g " d e f i n i t i o n " to the image of the S u n r i s e  Park o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  p r o c e s s as i t were by f o c u s i n g our "surveyor's t h e o d o l i t e " upon a " f i e l d of v i s i o n " . To c a r r y the analogy f u r t h e r , the f i e l d of view a v a r i e t y of contours and s i t u a t i o n s already scope b e i n g  dim and  are more sharp and  landmarks (the v a r i o u s events  s e t down), some towards the p e r i p h e r y  contains and of  obscure while some c l o s e r to the f o c a l discernable.  The  cross-hairs now  the centre  converge upon  Benne, Kenneth D., "Democratic E t h i c s i n S o c i a l E n g i n e e r i n g " , P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n , Volume 26, No.7, May, 1?A9  - 159 the  p o i n t o f the study - "The S u n r i s e Park Area Resources  Council".  In p r e s e n t i n g the case study f o r a n a l y s i s , i t seemed d e s i r a b l e to f i r s t  s e t down the events t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the  time under study - that i s , from October 1, 1964, to February 28, 1965*  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these events and how they p e r t a i n e d to  p r o c e s s has then been documented w i t h i n the framework o f f e r e d by the  "Area Development Model".  That i s to say t h a t when and as they  a p p l i e d the change processes were viewed from the vantage p o i n t o f the  s e v e r a l a b s t r a c t i o n s which were g i v e n i n the model.  abstractions are:  These  problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , g o a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a c t i o n  d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a c t i o n implementation, and outcome e v a l u a t i o n .  -  B.  The  Case  as  a  goal  activity  valid for  of  effective  -  Study "Sunrise  "A  160  ideal  action  the  is  and  group  pursuit  Park Area Eesources  of  a  genuine  capable  to  which  the  good  and  of  it i t  attainable  uniting  is  Council".  and  addressed  good  directing in  the  the  people  that It  was  who  here  rests  subject  discovery are  to  a l l  the the  The  ideal  its  breadth  the  participants.  rests  at  is  in  tentative  as  ability a  It  an  ideal  for  to  lend  ment  by  Murphy, p . 265  the  it  man a s  desire  to of  creativeness,  Arthur E . ,  "The  a  the  to  self his  Uses  and  and  in  deny  the  that of  the  1  minds  of  and  and must  change conjecture. be  involvement  which and  itself.  contains  within  principles  an answer  for  of  it  change. and  it  reign,  sense  of  of  begs  perhaps  might as  bring a  direction he  can  remain  forth  an  ideal  community  has  that  lead  achieve  discovery  Reason",  must  universality.  i n d i v i d u a l and  change  Murphy  speculation  beliefs  agreement may  in  involved  and  of  E.  organizational  simplification  hopes,  defy  an  of  motivation,  process  allowed  the  people  speculation  status  ideal  in  matter  many  of  and  valid  involved  the  the  will  i f  enhancement  his  of  of  the  remain a  tempts  root  that  is  probability  Such  and  greater  must  and  represents."  been  aspirations  very  this:  have  variancies  Temptation, such  what  minds  a l l  the  the  and  studied  within  of  the  just  Arthur  The  proposed  and  MacMillan  will this  the  the to  f u l f i l l -  support  Company,194-3,  he  - 161 d e r i v e s from the e f f i c a c i o u s arrangement of the f o r c e s and s e r v i c e s which he has devised to meet h i s needs w i t h i n h i s dynamic and c o n s t a n t l y changing I t w e l l may constancy  environment.  be that there i s no constant other than  of change i t s e l f .  I t i s i n the attainment  with which t h i B case study d e a l s .  The  attainment  and p r o p o s a l s and methods f o r such attainment  o f an  the  ideal  of a g o a l i d e a l  depends upon the  v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s and the p a r t i c u l a r knowledge and s k i l l s  that  are the p o s s e s s i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study.  attain-  The  ment r e l i e s as w e l l upon the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s complex of p l i n e s , knowledge, and s k i l l s - not upon one man  disci-  but upon many.  The E x e c u t i v e Committee of the S u n r i s e Park Area C o u n c i l h e l d i t s f i r s t meeting on October 1, 1964.  The  Eesources  agencies  r e p r e s e n t e d on t h i s committee were the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Department;  Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department;  Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e ; Services Association;  Family S e r v i c e Agency;  Neighbourhood  Welfare and E e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l ; and  the  Parks  Board. At t h i s meeting a g e n e r a l review of progress was w i t h a summary of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l steps taken. out that with r e f e r e n c e to one  I t was  made along pointed  of the immediate a c t i o n g o a l s -  p r o v i d i n g more r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s - the Parks Board had  expanded  t h e i r summer programme i n the a r e a . In viewing the p l a n of a c t i o n , three p o i n t s were d i s c u s s e d : i.e.  an area study; c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , and an area worker. I t was  c o n s i d e r e d that an Area Study should be undertaken  as soon as p o s s i b l e i n order that l o n g range p l a n n i n g can be  carried  - 162 out.  The  Community Chest and C o u n c i l s " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o i n t e d  out that with t h e i r experience  i n the Woodland Park Study, i t was  seen that i s o l a t e d area s t u d i e s were of only l i m i t e d v a l u e . had  decided  that an "Overview Study" should be c a r r i e d out  T h i s would a l l o w f o r s m a l l e r areas overall situation.  I t was  They initially.  to be s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n to the  p o i n t e d out t h a t some r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e  i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be gleaned  from agency s t a t i s t i c s and  from  Mr.  McKenzie s t h e s i s . 1  The  d i s c u s s i o n c e n t e r i n g around c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s  and developing more adequate resources and s e r v i c e s brought most d i r e c t involvement.  In p o l l i n g the v a r i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s at  the meeting, each expressed  a d e s i r e to extend h i s s e r v i c e r e s p o n s i -  b i l i t i e s f u r t h e r i n the area, but each admitted of budget and cerned  staff.  One  the  of the members who  over the l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p and  was  l i m i t a t i o n s because p a r t i c u l a r l y con-  community involvement suggested  t h a t immediate steps be taken to determine o p i n i o n s as to s e r v i c e s and l a c k s from the l o c a l A c t i o n was ening and  developing  citizen. seen to be necessary  immediately aimed at s t r e n g t h -  the teenage group i n Skeena T e r r a c e .  Some  members v o i c e d the s t r o n g o p i n i o n that some agency should be able to take t h i s programme over a t once. The meeting turned then to a r a t h e r random c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the need f o r and  d u t i e s of an a r e a worker.  There was  a  suggestion  t h a t a student worker from the School of S o c i a l Work c o u l d fill  t h i s need, but t h i s was  placements was again  tabled.  interpreted.  turned back when the r o l e of  temporarily student  T h i s i s s u e of an area worker was  once  - 163 A permanent chairman was  s t i l l being sought by  the  temporary chairman. On October 16,  1964,  the a c t i n g chairman of the E x e c u t i v e  Committee c a l l e d f o u r members together as an Ad Hoc  Committee i n  order to proceed with a " s p o t " survey i n the S u n r i s e Park Area to determine some consensus of o p i n i o n as to the resources-and t h a t e x i s t i n the a r e a .  V a r i o u s known key informants were s e l e c t e d  and members were asigned to i n t e r v i e w these p e o p l e . i n i t i a t e d as i t was  felt  problems  T h i s move was  that there had been a good d e a l o f exagger-  a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g problems whereas the presumtpion was  that the  problems that d i d e x i s t were p o o r l y d e f i n e d and not p r e c i s e l y l o c a t e d as to o r i g i n and  severity.  The agreed-upon q u e s t i o n s that were to be posed were: a)  What were the problems that key r e c o g n i z e d as e x i s t i n g i n the  b)  informants  area?  What r e s o u r c e s e x i s t e d that i n the  informants'  e s t i m a t i o n could manage or c o r r e c t these problems? c)  What other s t e p s c o u l d they suggest  f o r the g e n e r a l  improvement i n the a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y as to improved or new d)  services?  I f s e r v i c e s were f e l t  to be i n e f f e c t i v e , what  was  the reason and what were p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s ? T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  c a r r i e d out and  the i n f o r m a t i o n  c o l l a t e d i n a meeting of the survey members oh November 17» The  26,  f i n d i n g s were presented  1964.  1964.  to the E x e c u t i v e Committee on November  - 164 The  f i n d i n g s of t h i s survey were o f p a r t i c u l a r  interest.  The o p i n i o n s gained from the key informants i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was c o n s i d e r a b l e doubt expressed as to whether any s i g n i f i c a n t problem  e x i s t e d i n the a r e a .  When minor problems were r e c o g n i z e d  ( o f t e n when the p o s s i b i l i t i e s were suggested by the i n t e r v i e w e e s ) the extent and nature o f the problems d i f f e r e d measurably. was,  There  however, unanimous o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g the l a c k of r e c r e a t i o n a l  f a c i l i t i e s and programmes.  Every person i n t e r v i e w e d , w i t h one  e x c e p t i o n , l a c k e d knowledge of the s e r v i c e s of the h e a l t h and welfare a g e n c i e s and t h e r e f o r e could make no comment as to t h e i r  effectiveness.  The w e l f a r e agencies best known were the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y and the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department.  Most o f the s p e c i f i c  problems and concerns c e n t r e d around Skeena T e r r a c e .  Some persons  i n t e r v i e w e d c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the tenants of the housing p r o j e c t themselves  from the r e s t of the community.  They c o n s i d e r e d that r e c r e -  a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s were inadequate and l e a d e r s h i p l a c k i n g , f o r the teenage  and a d u l t groups.  isolated  particularly  Concern was expressed over the  a p p a r e n t l y i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e v e a l e d by the a d o l e s c e n t s , and one person p r e d i c t e d a marked i n c r e a s e i n i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s among teenagers.  The young c h i l d r e n from the housing p r o j e c t were seen to  l a c k proper s u p e r v i s o r s .  People i n the community were s a i d to c a u t i o n  t h e i r c h i l d r e n away from the housing p r o j e c t because o f the preponderence of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s and the numbers of men l o a f i n g around  were seen to be a p o t e n t i a l danger to t h e i r youngsters.  Concern  was expressed that the v a r i o u s h e a l t h , r e c r e a t i o n a l and w e l f a r e agencies were separated i n t h e i r approach  t o common problems.  Some informants  - 165 were not s a t i s f i e d with the way were handled, back. who  t h e i r problem r e f e r r a l s to  p a r t i c u l a r l y when they never r e c e i v e d any  T h i s same group of informants  expressed  were the a p p r o p r i a t e r e f e r r a l agencies.  the informants  agencies  reports  c o n f u s i o n as to  V i r t u a l l y none of  had knowledge of the extent of h e a l t h and  welfare  services. Some of the s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d were more park and vised recreational f a c i l i t i e s ; house;  a community c e n t r e ; a neighbourhood  a programme to change poor p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s ;  s h a r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n between a g e n c i e s , c l e r g y and The  more  h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l  parents.  S u n r i s e Park Resources C o u n c i l was  on December 11,  super-  1964,  c a l l e d i n t o meeting  to c o n s i d e r recommendations by the Ad  Committee and r e c e i v e t h e i r r e p o r t .  The  Hoc  recommendations made  w i t h r e s p e c t to s h o r t and long range p l a n n i n g were d i s c u s s e d  and  accepted. The  s h o r t term p l a n n i n g recommendations were:  1)  That ways and means be explored to provide t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of people  to e x i s t i n g r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  which are l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the S u n r i s e Park A r e a . 2)  To develop  a l o c a l Community C o u n c i l with  the  purpose of a s s i s t i n g the meeting of emerging needs; p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p ; and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n l o n g range p l a n n i n g . 5)  To approach the Park Board i n an e f f o r t to  secure  s a t e l i t e r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes i n the a r e a . I t was  agreed  t h a t development of a l o c a l Community C o u n c i l  - 166 was  seen as most important.  The meeting f e l t t h a t the composition  of t h i s C o u n c i l should be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the l o c a l community. The  long-range p l a n n i n g  1)  That a f u r t h e r study be made w i t h regard identification o f present in this  2)  recommendations were: to the  o f s o c i a l problems and the e v a l u a t i o n  h e a l t h , welfare and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s  area.  That an e f f o r t be made t o b r i n g together  a t the  h i g h e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l on the l o c a l area and t o t a l c i t y b a s i s , p u b l i c welfare  and v o l u n t a r y  a g e n c i e s to promote c o - o r d i n a t i o n of h e a l t h , and  welfare  recreation services.  A chairman was appointed  to head up the E x e c u t i v e  Committee.  A l l o f these recommendations were approved by the C o u n c i l and a committee of three was s t r u c k to begin work towards the formation of the Community C o u n c i l .  T h i s committee c o n s i s t e d o f a r e p r e s e n t -  a t i v e from the Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n o f Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s (Chairman); the student  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department; p l a c e d a t Skeena T e r r a c e ; and a s t a f f member from the  Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n  C o u n c i l a c t i n g as a c o n s u l t a n t .  E a r l y i n January the student  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e met with the  chairman o f the committee to s e t out plans f o r o r g a n i z i n g a l o c a l Community C o u n c i l .  A t t h a t time i t was decided  that the most d e s i r a b l e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on such a C o u n c i l would c o n s i s t i n the main of "grass r o o t s " people who 1)  have i n the past demonstrated some a b i l i t y to take a c t i o n on b e h a l f of t h e i r neighbourhood;  - 167 2)  have expressed some i n t e r e s t i n the community  as  w e l l as concern f o r the present s i t u a t i o n . 3)  are p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g i n the  I t was  decided  area.  t h a t the most a p p r o p r i a t e  approach would  be to gather a group of e i g h t or ten such c i t i z e n s together  and  e x p l a i n the concerns and  the  f i n d i n g s of the Resources C o u n c i l ,  d e s i r a b i l i t y of forming a Community C o u n c i l and p o s s i b l e means o f forming such a group. I t was i n t e r e s t and  a l s o decided  ''pick up"  to form an Ad Hoc  that should  t h i s i n i t i a l group show  on the suggestions,  t h a t they be  encouraged  Committee t o ,  1)  i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y of such a p l a n ,  2)  work out ways and means of c a r r y i n g such a p l a n forward,  3)  s e t up a t e n t a t i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n and  k)  plan  f o r and  c a r r y out a meeting of  citizens  to s e t the C o u n c i l i n motion. T h i s plan f o r an Ad Hoc reasons.  One  was  t h a t i t was  Committee was  felt  formulated  that i n order  for  two  to e f f e c t any  changes of a long-range nature t h a t would be of b e n e f i t to  the  community, the impetus must come from an involvement from the people of the area.  The  reason was  reached because i t was  important changes would b r i n g l i t t l e from o u t s i d e .  I t was  further f e l t  felt  that  any  r e s u l t s i f they were imposed  t h a t the people themselves were  the best group to decide what d e f i c i e n c i e s and problems e x i s t e d what were the best means of meeting and f u r t h e r reason was  t h a t an Ad Hoc  s o l v i n g these problems.  Committee o f f e r e d l i t t l e  and A  risk in  - 168 that  if  efforts in  the  t h e c o m m u n i t y was n o t r e a d y t o move a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a i l e d , i t w o u l d not s e r i o u s l y impede any f u r t h e r  efforts  future. The Community O r g a n i z a t i o n s t u d e n t  was g i v e n t h e  assign-  ment t o w o r k t o w a r d s c o m p i l i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y names f o r s u c h a n Ad Hoc C o m m i t t e e . plete that  This assignment  was begun b y g a i n i n g a s  a l i s t as p o s s i b l e of a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  com-  associations  e x i s t e d i n t h e a r e a o r h a d some commitment o r programme  vested interest  i n the area  e x c l u s i v e of the  A t o t a l o f 31 s u c h k e y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e  civic  or  organizations.  located.  Out o f t h i s l i s t a number o f p e o p l e w e r e c o n t a c t e d who w e r e e x e c u t i v e members o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  The p u r p o s e  what was b e i n g a t t e m p t e d was e x p l a i n e d a n d t h e s e k e y  of  informants  w e r e a s k e d t o s u p p l y one o r s e v e r a l names o f p e o p l e who h a d i n  the  past  in  shown i n t e r e s t  i n t h e a r e a a n d h a d t a k e n some a c t i v e  t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n o r g e n e r a l l y i n the c o m m u n i t y . k e y i n f o r m a n t s were c o n t a c t e d Community O r g a n i z a t i o n s t u d e n t of g r a v i t y " of the a r e a .  by s e l e c t i n g felt  w o u l d be c l o s e s t  These k e y i n f o r m a n t s s u g g e s t e d  to the  28 names o f p e o p l e  the  and  "centre  T h i s m e e t i n g was d i v i d e d i n t h a t  s h o u l d be f o r m e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s felt  representation  early i n February,  and t a k i n g  some members  t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e December m i n u t e s t o mean t h a t  they  interested.  sub-committee  f o r the purpose of r e p o r t i n g p r o g r e s s  o t h e r members  Ik  t h e a r e a a n d who had t h e most d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n  A m e e t i n g was c a l l e d o f  action.  A t o t a l of  t h o s e g r o u p s whom t h e  w o u l d recommend a s b e i n g p o t e n t i a l l y a c t i v e  1965,  role  further interpreted  a local  Council  of l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i l e  s h o u l d come f r o m t h e g r a s s  roots  - 169 level.  The g e n e r a l purposes o f such a l o c a l C o u n c i l were an area  of divided opinion. I t was f i n a l l y decided  t h a t the Community  Organization  student and the Chairman should prepare a w r i t t e n p l a n that c o u l d be s t u d i e d then accepted  or r e j e c t e d by the sub-committee.  p l a n has now been formulated sub-committee.  This  and awaits a f u r t h e r meeting o f the  CHAPTER 7 SUNRISE PARK AREA RESOURCES COUNCIL THE A.  MODEL APPLIED TO THE  CASE STUDY  Introduction The  Area Development P r o j e c t model i s a working model  i n t h a t i t has been developed as a t o o l to determine the  processes  and methods that are r e q u i s i t e to the c a r r y i n g out of the purpose of the p r o j e c t .  The  intended  purpose of t h i s p r o j e c t i s to demon-  s t r a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y of "an i n t e g r a t e d e f f o r t to r e h a b i l i t a t e multi-problem f a m i l i e s and  to study the changes r e q u i r e d  grate a wide v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s under one  administration."  p r o j e c t more d e f i n i t e l y aims to provide  under one  i n t e g r a t e d programme of h e a l t h , welfare  and  The  1  administrator  an  recreation services for  a s e l e c t e d group of multi-problem f a m i l i e s i n one of the  to i n t e -  p a r t i c u l a r area  city. In the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s model to the study of  Park Area Resources Committee, the purpose was of the model as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l .  The  to t e s t out  study was  a t i o n was  i n conformity  value  that were  T h i s method of g a i n i n g  w i t h the research planning  the  dependent i n the  main f o r t h i s t e s t i n g upon the r e s u l t s of the i n t e r v i e w s h e l d with some of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Sunrise  inform-  of the Area  Development P r o j e c t , where i t i s proposed t h a t i n the a n a l y s i s of " i n t e r n a l " problems the s t a f f w i l l be u t i l i z e d e x t e n s i v e l y determinors. model was  In order  as  that some o v e r a l l view can be shown, the  a p p l i e d to the t o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change process i n  "A Plan f o r An Area Development P r o j e c t " ; A paper prepared by Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver A r e a . May,1964.  - 171 g e n e r a l terms (the p e r i o d February, 1964 - February, 1965) and then a p p l i e d p a r t i c u l a r l y  to the p e r i o d October 1, 1964 to February  1965. The c o n c e p t u a l schema w i l l be f o l l o w e d i n the sequence p r o v i d e d i n the Area Development Appendix B.  P r o j e c t p l a n as i s seen i n  The main concept f a c t o r s are  a)  Problem  identification;  b)  Goal d e t e r m i n a t i o n ;  c)  Action determination;  d)  A c t i o n implementation;  e)  Outcome e v a l u a t i o n .  The schedule upon which the i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i s seen i n Appendix I . L i p p i t , i n h i s book "The Dynamics o f Planned Change","'" differentiates change.  three d i f f e r e n t  types o f sequences f o r i n i t i a t i n g  The f i r s t i s when a change agent p e r c e i v e s a need f o r  help i n a p a r t i c u l a r awareness  c l i e n t system and t r i e s t o s t i m u l a t e the system's  o f i t s needs.  The second i s when a c l i e n t system and the  change agent are brought t o g e t h e r by a t h i r d system r e l a t e d i n some way to both the c l i e n t system and the change agent and aware of the c l i e n t system's need f o r h e l p .  The t h i r d way i s when a c l i e n t  system becomes aware i t s e l f o f i t s own m a l f u n c t i o n and seeks o u t s i d e he l p . In t h i s case study i t seemed apparent t h a t there was a complex  o f i n i t i a t i n g methods due t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g complex o f  L i p p i t , Ronald; "The Dynamics of Planned Change"; & World, I n c . (New York, 1#58) pp 14?-174.  Harcourt, Brace  - 172 i n i t i a t i n g methods due  to the c o r r e s p o n d i n g complex o f systems  and sub-systems and change agents which e x i s t e d . t a r g e t f o r change was  Thus i f the  the " s t r u c t u r e complex f o r s e r v i c e s "  and the change agent was  the P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Community  Chest and C o u n c i l s and the g o a l o r a c t i o n t a s k was of  s e r v i c e s , the f i r s t  appropriate. at  system  co-ordination  type o f i n i t i a t i o n suggested by L i p p i t seems  I f , however, the c l i e n t system was  the tenant  Skeena Terrace housing and the change agent was  group  the l o c a l  c o u n c i l with the Eesources C o u n c i l being aware of the apparent d i f f i c u l t i e s the second type of i n i t i a t i o n was  c l o s e r to the  situation. In  an examination of the t o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change that  has so f a r o c c u r r e d and by reason of the statements of the m a j o r i t y of was  the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study, the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l seen as the paramount, prime change agent.  d e f i n e d as a person or group who  A change agent i s  attempts to e f f e c t change.  I t i s to be r e c o g n i z e d that the change agent was  i n this  p a r t i c u l a r study, a complex of i n d i v i d u a l s which from time to time and i n a v a r y i n g e x t e n t , a l t e r e d i t s composition, c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t e d a t a g i v e n moment. composition of the change agent was complex o f members.  The  then f l u i d as w e l l as being a  T h i s d i d not, however, a l t e r the f a c t that the  r e c o g n i z e d and prime change agent was  the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n  Council. In  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the nature of the case being s t u d i e d  and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the examination of the processes t h a t o c c u r r e d , it  was  e s s e n t i a l t h a t problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n be made and  established.  T h i s corresponds to the f i r s t concept of the Area Development P r o j e c t ' s model - Problem  Identification.  - 173 B.  Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n I t i s r e l e v a n t to make s e v e r a l comments about the nature  and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the case before  the d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f  the problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n concept i s d i s c u s s e d . One f a c t o r which was very evident i n t h i s study was that there had not been a "crisis'-' s i t u a t i o n which had had an impact o f the type which caused any pronounced s t r e s s , d i s e q u i l i b r i u m o r disruption.  While i t was true that the p o s i t i o n i n g o f the housing  project i n Sunrise however, be l e f t  Park Area c o u l d be s a i d to be a c r i s i s ,  i t must,  to debate whether or not t h i s was s o . The f a c t  t h a t the common term "dumped" was used by many people to d e s c r i b e the p o s i t i o n i n g of the p r o j e c t suggests some cause f o r i t to be classified a "crisis". A f e a t u r e which was r e l a t e d to the n o n - c r i s i s f a c t and important i n v i e w i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change t h a t i s preceeding in  that the changes conform t o what could be c a l l e d a p r e v e n t i v e  approach. occurred  In the main and a t t h i s juncture are "promotion" and " p r e v e n t i o n "  "treatment" focussed  the changes that have  focussed  rather  than  toward some p a r t i c u l a r or s p e c i f i c problem. I t  must be conceded, however, that s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l moves have been taken w i t h a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n t o a m e l i o r a t i n g  or managing  a p a r t i c u l a r problem s i t u a t i o n . Kurt Lewin had i n d i c a t e d that he observed three phases w i t h i n a change p r o c e s s . aspects:  unfreezing  "A s u c c e s s f u l change i n c l u d e s  the present  level;  three  moving to the new l e v e l ;  - 174  and  f r e e z i n g group l i f e  -  on the new  level."*  Ronald L i p p i t has expanded Lewin's three phases to f i v e g e n e r a l phases of change p r o c e s s : f o r change ("unfreezing"); ship; and  3«  2.  "1.  Development o f a need  Establishment o f a change  Working toward change ("moving");  s t a b i l i z i n g of change ( " f r e e z i n g " ) ;  4.  and 5»  relation-  Generalization Achieving  a  2 terminal r e l a t i o n s h i p . " our  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r model has relevance  to  study f o r we a r e d e a l i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h L i p p i t ' s t h i r d  phase (working toward change).  L i p p i t further sub-divides  this  t h i r d stage i n t o , "a)  The c l a r i f i c a t i o n or d i a g n o s i s  system's problem;  The examination of a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s and  goals;  b)  o f the c l i e n t  e s t a b l i s h i n g goals and i n t e n t i o n s of a c t i o n , and c) 3  transformation  The  of intentions i n t o actual e f f o r t s . "  I t i s r e l e v a n t to t h i s study to recognize  these model  concepts f o r they r e v e a l an important f a c e t of the study which i s not i n c l u d e d i n the Area Development model.  One phase, the "un-  f r e e z i n g " process or s t i m u l a t i n g of awareness was a v i t a l i n the case under study.  T h i s phase, although p r e l i m i n a r y to  a c t u a l change, i n the S u n r i s e amount of time and e f f o r t .  factor  Park Case i n v o l v e d a  considerable  At the time of t h i s study, t h i s phase  has not been completed. I t i s i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s d e f i c i e n c y i n the model that the scheduled i n t e r v i e w s was expanded i n an e f f o r t to r e v e a l expressed concerns and s p e c i f i c problem r e c o g n i t i o n . Lewin, Kurt; " F r o n t i e r s i n Group Dynamics"; V o l . 1 , 1947, p.34. 2 L i p p i t ; o p . c i t . p.130 5  ibid.  p.136  In other words  Human R e l a t i o n s ,  - 175 what were people aware of t h a t was c o n s i d e r e d  a problem.  I n the a r e a o f problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the persons i n t e r v i e w e d saw the problems i n r e l a t i o n to the p a r t i c u l a r type of work or agency they r e p r e s e n t e d .  Thus the p r a c t i t i o n e r s whose  p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l work method was r e c r e a t i o n o r group work viewed the problem i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r approach.  The same  was t r u e o f the m e d i c a l workers, the case w o r k e r s , community planners, e t c . Every i n t e r v i e w e e acknowledged t h a t the h o u s i n g p r o j e c t " s p a r k e d " the c o n c e r n .  I t was a l s o g e n e r a l l y stated t h a t t h e r e was  a " s y n t h e s i z i n g " o f concern brought about by meetings and d i s c u s s i o n s . A number o f l i n e workers were aware o f the problems posed by a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t from what they had heard about such p r o j e c t s i n o t h e r c i t i e s and they r e c o g n i z e d  the p o t e n t i a l problems i n t h i s  c i t y when c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l s were not b u i l t i n . ]'••  One s o c i a l p l a n n e r summed i t up by s a y i n g t h a t  various  •feignals" were r e c e i v e d by t h e Chest and C o u n c i l s and t h i s p l u s h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l " e a r to the ground" s i g n i f i e d a growing concern t h a t was i n the p r o c e s s of s y n t h e s i z i n g i t s e l f towards e x p r e s s i o n i n strength. Most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s went through an i n t e r n a l e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e i r agency f u n c t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l f u n c t i o n s a s k i n g the question;  "What can we do t o meet the problem p o t e n t i a l s i n h e r e n t  in this situation?"  Some a g e n c i e s a c t u a l l y v o i c e d t h i s concern t o  v a r i o u s o t h e r a g e n c i e s and t o the Chest and C o u n c i l s . Neighbourhood House was one o f t h e s e .  The A l e x a n d r a  - 176 I t i s to be expected t h a t these concerns d i d not at  once i n such a n o n - c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n .  crystalize  T h i s i s perhaps i n p a r t  due to a phenomena a k i n to " r i p e n e s s " i n the p r a c t i c e o f law.  This  i s to suggest that a s i t u a t i o n i n i t s ferment stage must reach a c e r t a i n degree of potency ( r i p e n e s s ) before i t i s prudent and opportune to take a c t i o n . s i t u a t i o n was  Thus i n the case o f S u n r i s e Park the  f o r a l o n g time i n a s t a t e of m i l d ferment.  In other  words, i t had not become r i p e . There was  common agreement  that the p l a c i n g of Skeena Terrace  i n a neighbourhood w i t h ohly l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s was I t was way  seen as a m u l t i - f a c e t e d problem.  T h i s was  the prime problem. determined by the  people e x p l a i n e d the problem. People viewed the housing p r o j e c t and d e s c r i b e d i t as a  problem because i t c o n c e n t r a t e s and compacts a l a r g e group of people who  a l l have problems.  Some d e s c r i b e d the tenants not as having  problems but having unmet needs.  Others s t a t e d that the problem  was  t h a t some a g e n c i e s wished to a b s t r a c t the housing p r o j e c t from  the  surrounding communities and d e a l w i t h i t e x c l u s i v e o f the  neighbourhood.  Others, meanwhile, took the p o s i t i o n that i f one  viewed the p r o j e c t j u s t as another number of homes there need be no concern, f o r i n t e g r a t i o n would n a t u r a l l y o c c u r .  T h i s group  was  seen to be t r y i n g to cover up or d i s g u i s e the problem. There was  a group who  viewed Skeena T e r r a c e as a problem  because i t p l a c e d undue s t r a i n on a l r e a d y l i m i t e d s e r v i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . who  felt  especially  T h i s group c o n t a i n e d a segment  the problem was t h a t s e r v i c e s b e i n g p r o v i d e d were not being  p r o v i d e d i n the most e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e way.  Lack o f c o - o r d i n -  - 177  -  a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of s e r v i c e s was  the problem to t h i s group.  T h i s same group f e l t agency s t a f f i n g was needs o f the  not adequate to meet the  tenants.  Another group of people, e s p e c i a l l y those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g and p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s viewed the problem of Skeena Terrace as a d i s r u p t i o n t h a t d i s t o r t e d and  disturbed established p r i o r i t y  systems such as s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s ,  s t a f f i n g needs, budget a l l o c a t i o n s ,  etc.  W i t h i n the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g agency one problem was  t h a t i n order  to meet such a s i t u a t i o n as t h i s , the s t r u c t u r e o f the agency r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g not s u f f i c i e n t to cope a p p r o p r i a t e l y . to  say that the P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n of the Chest was  ways.  was  This i s  being p u l l e d  two  T h i s s e c t i o n remains r e s p o n s i b l e to o p i a t e as a f u n c t i o n a l  division  - a d i v i s i o n r e s p o n s i b l y concerned  f o r the  specific  r e c r e a t i o n and w e l f a r e needs and s e r v i c e s of the g e n e r a l community. In d e a l i n g w i t h a s i t u a t i o n such as presented by Skeena T e r r a c e i t must not o n l y be concerned w e l l be concerned  with the s p e c i f i c problems but must as  w i t h g e n e r a l needs and s e r v i c e s i n a s p e c i f i c  area. In summary, and i n g e n e r a l terms, the problem was  how  to  p r o v i d e f o r the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the tenants of Skeena Terrace the neighbourhood and g a i n acceptance when by nsture and circumstances  into  of them by the neighbourhood  they were i n the main problem r i d d e n ,  d e p r i v e d and dependent people who  needed a concentrated, i n t e g r a t e d  h e a l t h , education, r e c r e a t i o n , and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e approach s u p p l i e d by a complex of i n d i v i d u a l agencies i n an a r e a a l r e a d y l i m i t e d its  by  f a c i l i t i e s and means. The problem was  i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s g e n e r a l sense through  the  - 178 first  g e n e r a l meeting on February 21, 1964, and given formal  c a t i o n by the sub-committee appointed a t t h a t time.  clarifi-  T h i s sub-committee  c a r r i e d out t h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n and s u b s t a n t i a t i o n by a s s e s s i n g t h e information received at this f i r s t at  the June 19th meeting.  meeting and by making recommendations  A t t h i s time the extent and nature o f the  problem was enunciated and f o r m a l l y accepted by the l a r g e r body. The problem s i t u a t i o n was narrowed, made more s p e c i f i c and passed over f o r a c t i o n to a more d e f i n i t i v e group w i t h more a p p r o p r i a t e s a n c t i o n but broader a u s p i c e s - the E x e c u t i v e Committee. of  The aspects  the problem changed from a s o c i a l problem concern to t h a t o f task  performance and p r o c e s s .  Thus w i t h the formation o f a body (the  Resources C o u n c i l ) d i r e c t i o n a l l y disposed towards problem management and  solution;  the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l which was e s t a b l i s h e d , was given  the necessary s a n c t i o n to address i t s e l f to s p e c i f i c performance r o l e s . In  the October,  1964 meeting, the problem t h a t was i d e n t i f i e d  was i n the nature o f task formation, s t r u c t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n s necessary to  c a r r y out t a s k s , and a p p r o p r i a t e process d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  In the  main the problem was to v e r i f y and s u b s t a n t i a t e the problem  concern  by t e s t i n g i t s v a l i d i t y a g a i n s t a sampling o f people r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y i n the community and to d i s c o v e r ways and means of  managing, and e l i m i n a t i n g the major problem. The problem was to formulate a p l a n t h a t could be seen and  l e g i t i m a t e l y accepted as p r o v i d i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework which the l a r g e r problem(s)  c o u l d be addressed  through  through study and a c t i o n  on v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f the major problem. The n e c e s s i t y f o r f u r t h e r study i n depth of the housing p r o j e c t  - 179 ? and  the environs was  again r e i t e r a t e d and impressed  the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s .  The  'spot" survey s e t out to  v e r i f y the extent and nature of the major concerns purpose w e l l i n t h a t i t was  determined  once more upon  and  from the people  served i t s living in  the area that the housing p r o j e c t and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s were the f o c a l p o i n t f o r concern and f u r t h e r need was  t h a t s e r v i c e s were not adequate.  r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s spot survey.  there should be someone a s s i g n e d to t h i s a r e a who l o c a t i o n and  T h i s was  A  that  by reason of h i s  f u n c t i o n c o u l d make p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s .  The problem of e s t a b l i s h i n g some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework was  seen to r e q u i r e some d i r e c t involvement  by the people i n the  a r e a , some support and d i r e c t i o n from the agencies s e r v i n g the a r e a and some l e g i t i m a t e a u s p i c e s from the e s t a b l i s h e d community body whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g .  T h i s problem  became the primary problem f o r the sub-committee and was formulated by the E x e c u t i v e Committee.  subsequently  - 180 C.  Goal  Determination  One  of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of a p p l y i n g a conceptual model to  a change process i s t h a t i n f a c t o r i z i n g and f r a c t i o n a l i z i n g the t o t a l p r o c e s s , the tendency  i s to view the whole as being made up  of d e f i n i t e and r e c o g n i z a b l e p a r t s which have an o r d e r l y sequence. T h i s i s seldom i f ever the case.  L i p p i t comments upon t h i s  fact  i n o b s e r v i n g that changes o f t e n do not f o l l o w i n an o r d e r l y sequential way.  He  s t a t e s , "Most change processes probably proceed by a k i n d  of c y c l i c motion, s t a r t i n g over and over a g a i n as one s e t of problems i s s o l v e d and a new  s e t i s encountered;  hence the d i f f e r e n t  become mixcei up and the f i n a l o b j e c t i v e may  be achieved by a process  which seems r a t h e r muddled to the observer who c l e a r - c u t developmental  i s looking for a  sequence."*  T h i s d i f f u s i v e n e s s of sequence p r e s e n t s a very r e a l culty i n dividing  phases  diffi-  c l e a r l y one phase of a model from another.  In  attempting to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  and  the Goal Determination s t a g e s , i t i s necessary to set a q u i t e arbitrary  d i v i s i o n which does not i n r e a l i t y e x i s t .  This i s , of  course, the case i n each of the c o n c e p t u a l stages i n the model. To t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s added a f u r t h e r observable phenomena which m u l t i p l i e s  the c o n f u s i o n .  T h i s i s the f a c t , t h a t i n a change  p r o c e s s such as i s the case under study where many i n d i v i d u a l s groups are i n v o l v e d , each r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h him h i s own own  system, h i s own  insights  carries  and p e r c e p t i o n s , and h i s  means of communication, e t c . , each d i f f e r e n t  sentatives.  or group  and  from other r e p r e -  Thus when the s o c i a l planner begins to become i n v o l v e d  and o p e r a t i v e i n the change p r o c e s s h i s p l a t f o r m or base i s d i f f e r e n t Lippit;  op. c i t . p.130  - 181 than t h a t of the case worker or the group worker.  His role  performance i s d i f f e r e n t though perhaps not d i v i s i v e l y so, as are his if  r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and o b j e c t i v e s , e t c . the change (as i t does i n t h i s case)  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s  i m p l i c a t e s or i n v o l v e s h i s  agency's f u n c t i o n s , h i s own " s e l f system" i s c h a l l e n g e d  toward  change. It  seems necessary  n a t i o n stage  t h e r e f o r e i n d i s c u s s i n g the Goal Determi-  to d i s c u s s i t with a view o f the r o l e  of the change agent.  responsibilities  In t h i s case the change agent has a l r e a d y  been e s t a b l i s h e d as the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s .  I t s r o l e as l a i d  down by the C o u n c i l as i t i s  e x p l a i n e d i n the terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f the Chest and C o u n c i l s i s , 1  a)  to promote mutual understanding,  a p p r e c i a t i o n of and use  of the welfare and r e c r e a t i o n resources  o f member and co-  operating organizations; b)  to p r o v i d e a common meeting ground where o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s may work together on s o l v i n g problems and  c)  the development o f improved s e r v i c e s ;  to p r o v i d e  to a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the C o u n c i l the o p p o r t u n i t y  of keeping up to date on needs, trends and standards  i n the  field; d)  to c o n s i d e r matters r e f e r r e d to i t by t h e S o c i a l Executive  e)  Committee;  to c o n s i d e r and take a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n on matters w i t h i n i t s delegated  f)  Planning  field  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ;  to b r i n g to the a t t e n t i o n of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  Executive  Committee, through r e p o r t s and recommendations, matters Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area Terms o f Reference f o r the Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , J u l y 196l  - 182 r e q u i r i n g i t s a t t e n t i o n and a c t i o n ; g)  to co-operate w i t h other u n i t s of the S o c i a l Planning i n p l a n n i n g and The  group was  c a r r y i n g out  j o i n t p r o j e c t s of mutual i n t e r e s t .  broad g o a l undertaken by the S u n r i s e Park Area Resources twofold  i n purpose, t h a t of p o l i c y change and s t r u c t u r a l  change d i r e c t e d towards problem s o l u t i o n . i d e n t i f y the c u r r e n t and needs and  The  g o a l then was  the development of a p p r o p r i a t e  of p o l i c y change.  to  emerging h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n s t r a t e g y d i r e c t e d toward  the c a r r y i n g of these plans over i n t o a c t i o n . aspect  Section  The  This involved  the  s t r u c t u r a l change of a problem-  s o l v i n g nature i n v o l v e d an approach (the l o c a l c o u n c i l ) which would endeavour to determine the causes and and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the problem  a r r i v e at p a r t i c u l a r measures which could o f f e r s o l u t i o n s . Cost c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were not s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the  o v e r a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of determining t h a t there was were chosen.  goal.  I t could be  s a i d , however,  an i m p l i c i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the choice of g o a l s The  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s process  the mid-management l e v e l i n t h e i r agencies.  that  were mostly people a t  The  suggestion  was  made  by s e v e r a l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were unexpressed but beneath the s u r f a c e o f the d e c i s i o n s and  plans.  I t i s c l e a r t h a t the change agent suggested the goals by the weight of experiences The  gained  knowledge of t h i s experience  committee members by others who Thus a Resources C o u n c i l , and  lending  i n the Woodland Park o r g a n i z a t i o n . was  t r a n s m i t t e d to some of  the  knew f i r s t - h a n d about t h i s p r o j e c t .  s h o r t and long-term p l a n n i n g and a  study were i n c l u d e d i n the S u n r i s e Park Area development.  full  - 18? S e v e r a l of the people i n t e r v i e w e d c h a r a c t e r i z e d the of  g o a l determination as undergoing  first  a very d i f f u s e understanding  the i n i t i a l l y  d i f f u s e concerns.  s e v e r a l stages.  process  There  was  of goals which emanated from  A f t e r awareness began to b u i l d ,  the p a r t i c i p a n t s decided something had to be done and the g o a l became s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d ;  i . e . , "how  do we p r o v i d e the s e r v i c e s  t h a t we needed and what are the best s e r v i c e s ? "  T h i s phase  was  " t a l k e d out" as the group c o n s i d e r e d a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and  funds.  There was  When  then a s w i t c h towards the goal of changing  policy.  p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were to the f o r e the search was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e source who  c o u l d support  t h i s mid-management group.  T h i s then r e s u l t e d i n the move to organize and e l i c i t from a l o c a l community The broad  on f o r some  the  support  council.  t a r g e t f o r change was  l i v i n g w i t h i n the housing p r o j e c t .  seen to be the tenant group  Secondary t a r g e t s i n c l u d e d  (mostly by i m p l i c a t i o n ) were the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y ; C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and the Ci|y C o u n c i l .  One  interviewee  i n d i c a t e d that the Housing A u t h o r i t y stood h i g h on the l i s t secondary  t a r g e t s because i t was  thought  t h a t they i n i t i a t e d  of the  problem and t h e r e f o r e had some d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards t a k i n g action.  T h i s same person was  A u t h o r i t y was The t a r g e t was  u n c e r t a i n as to whether or not  a r e a l i s t i c target.  s u b s t a n t i v e evidence  f o r the tenant group being the prime  the r e c u r r i n g e x p r e s s i o n o f need f o r an area worker and  the f a c t that a community c o u n c i l became one v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the t a r g e t was The  the  o f the g o a l s .  The  not g i v e n any measure of e s t i m a t i o n .  g o a l determination i n the case under study f e l l more  - 184 w i t h i n L i p p i t ' s p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t the determination  of goals e x i s t s  as a l i n k a g e between " i n s i g h t " and a c t i o n and a leverage at which the process the leverage  o f goals b e g i n .  point  L i p p i t s t a t e s , " i n one sense  p o i n t i t s e l f i s the g o a l , a l i m i t e d and immediate  o b j e c t i v e which the agent and c l i e n t must achieve step i n t h e i r a c t u a l process  o f change."  In October the E x e c u t i v e  as the f i r s t  1  Committee began to narrow g o a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s to s e r v i c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n such as c o - o r d i n a t i o n and development o f resources  and programme c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i t h  regard  to the teenage group i n the housing p r o j e c t . L a t e r the Ad Hoc committee was appointed c i p a t o r y t e s t i n g i n seeking o f f e r e d the E x e c u t i v e  to do some a n t i -  out neighbourhood o p i n i o n .  This  Committee and the Ad Hoc committee the oppor-  t u n i t y to seek out v a r i o u s means and modes o f approach. to the Ad Hoc committee the o p p o r t u n i t y  I t offered  to " p l a y i t s a f e " and p r a c t i s e  2 techniques  without " p l a y i n g f o r keeps" as L i p p i t  suggested.  I t was through t h i s approach which was r a t h e r by nature than design  that the Ad Hoc committee determined i t s prime g o a l as the  development of a community c o u n c i l . This committee saw the n e c e s s i t y f o r s t r u c t u r a l changes when it  e s t a b l i s h e d i t s goal as the formation  o f a community c o u n c i l . T h i s  g o a l had been p r e v i o u s l y suggested i n a nebulus way by both the executive  and resources  councils.  The v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f the t a r g e t ,  i n t h i s case mainly the neighbourhood was not estimated. however, suggested t h a t i f the a p p r o p r i a t e Lippit; op.cit.  p 200  " L i p p i t ; op. c i t . p 205  I t was,  approach was made the  - 185 t a r g e t would be amendable to the a n t i c i p a t e d changes r e q u i r e d . The  p a r t i c i p a n t s who  they c o n s i d e r e d moved past  were i n t e r v i e w e d  the S u n r i s e  a l l stated that  Park A r e a Development had  the Goal D e t e r m i n a t i o n stage.  s t a n t i a t e t h i s c o n c l u s i o n were s e v e r a l .  not  Reasons given One  was  really  to sub-  t h a t the  committees  were i n the main o n l y l o o k i n g at and  d e a l i n g w i t h short  emergency m a n i p u l a t i o n .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been  to r o o t causes. the  One  That l i t t l e  view that was  s i t u a t i o n i n Sunrise  Park was  expressed was  of the  t h a t by  environment.  T h i s was  given  nature  s u p e r f i c i a l i n t h a t the  i s w i t h a set of problems t h a t have a r i s e n out manipulation  range  of a very  concern deliberate  i n c o n t r a s t to  the  s i u a t i o n exposed i n the Woodland Park study where there were found to be  deeply embedded a s o c i o l o g i c a l and  t h a t makes change e x c e p t i o n a l l y  not moved f u r t h e r was  of why  the change process  t h a t upon a deeper prob.ec; the  came to an unexpressed c o n c l u s i o n the c a p a c i t y of the  mileu  difficult.*  Another view given as e x p l a n a t i o n has  cultural  that a c t i o n was  committee  r e a l l y beyond  group.  They concluded that because of the  f a c t t h a t they were a  mid-management group t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i o n l a y w i t h those below and  above them and  they d i d not  s e l v e s to i n v o l v e e i t h e r l e v e l . should  They conclude a l s o that a c t i o n  come about i n the realm o f p o l i c y .  as the p r o j e c t was  The  r a t i o n a l e was  that  born of p o l i c y , the development process must  r e t u r n to p o l i c y f o r change.  op  set g o a l s nor spread them-  In other words, t h i s was  c i t . A Study of the Woodland Park A r e a .  p.2.  not  a  - 186 problem t h a t evolved  out of a n a t u r a l community undergoing n a t u r a l  growth where a r e t u r n can be made to the community f o r sanction for a c t i o n . of the recognized turned  The  p r o p o s i t i o n , put  to the c i t i z e n l e v e l where i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n i t i a t e change  greater  The  c o n c l u s i o n was  A c t i o n Determination  had not  t h a t process  r e a l l y moved much beyond the Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n phase,  they suggested t h a t some a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s were made. to the d e c i s i o n made t h a t there representative  service.  should  T h i s d e c i s i o n was  made as i t was  the community by  organizations  pointed  providing  seen as a v e h i c l e through  l e n d support, guidance  knowledge to the community c o u n c i l . to m o b i l i z e  They  be an ongoing c o u n c i l i n the  of a l l the agencies and  which change c o u l d be e f f e c t e d and  was  that  success c o u l d be expected from t h i s approach.  In s p i t e of the comments of the i n t e r v i e w e e s  area  t h a t because  a p a r t of t h i s group, they  i n c a p a c i t y t h a t was  by i n s t i t u t i n g " s e l f h e l p " programmes.  D.  forward was  requesting  The  and  other a c t i o n determined  the formation  and u t i l i z a t i o n  of  a local council. In the case under study the a c t i o n d e c i s i o n was the problems i d e n t i f i e d by the p r o f e s s i o n a l group and approach that would e v e n t u a l l y m o b i l i z e  to t e s t  out  to begin  an  the community i n t o a  self-  determining, s e l f d i r e c t e d , a c t i o n group who  could take  measures f o r t h e i r own  A l t e r n a t i v e outcomes  were not  considered  approaches.  general  enhancement.  appropriate  other than the outcome r e s u l t i n g from s e v e r a l  Outcome expectations  were not weighed nor  considered.  - 187 E.  Action  Implementation  I t i s generally recognized interviewed reached.  and  by a l l the  by the observer t h a t t h i s phase had not  of s t r u c t u r e and  design.  have been a s m a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l group and  F.  been  An implementation of a c t i o n took p l a c e i n t e r n a l l y  i n v o l v e d formation  sented by  representatives  Those so f a r i n v o l v e d  the  s t a f f members of the Welfare and  and  change agent as  Recreation  repre-  Council.  Outcome E v a l u a t i o n This.stage,  as w e l l , has  e i t h e r the o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n period.  not been approached or reached i n f o r change or w i t h i n the case study  CHAPTER 8 CRITIQUE  "Theories f o r which t h e r e are no models might be s a i d to be "merely t h e o r i e s " . T h e o r i e s f o r which models can be b u i l t or are b u i l t may be s a i d to be u s e f u l or o p e r a t i o n a l . " M a r t i n B. Leeb* A.  The Meaning o f Process The primary question toward which t h i s t h e s i s has been  addressed was, "Can the Area Development P r o j e c t model be regarded as a u s e f u l t o o l i n documenting the process o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change?"  To judge the u s e f u l n e s s o f the model i t i s necessary  to s e t down the s e v e r a l meanings of change p r o c e s s . Kurt Lewin d e s c r i b e d change process as a c e r t a i n a c t i o n  2 that occurs w i t h i n a c e r t a i n frequency w i t h i n a given p e r i o d . Murray Ross d e f i n e s process as, "the conscious or uncons c i o u s , v o l u n t a r y or i n v o l u n t a r y , movement from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a problem (or o b j e c t i v e ) to s o l u t i o n of the problem or a t t a i n -  3 ment of the o b j e c t i v e i n the community." In Lewin's d e f i n i t i o n p r o c e s s , i n a sense, means a c o n t i n u ous a c t i o n , or o p e r a t i o n , or s e r i e s of changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n a d e f i n i t e manner.  In Ross's d e f i n i t i o n purpose becomes a f a c t o r  Loeb, M a r t i n B. "The Backdrop f o r S o c i a l Research; Theory Making and M o d e l - B u i l d i n g " ; ( S o c i a l S c i e n c e Theory & S o c i a l Work Research) N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, (New York, I 9 6 0 ) p.5«  2 Lewin, Kurt; "Problems o f Group Dynamics and the I n t e g r a t i o n o f the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s " ; J o u r n a l of Human R e l a t i o n s , V o l . 1 , 1947* Ross, Murray, "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n , Theory and P r i n c i p l e s " ; (Harper & B r o t h e r s , New York, 1955) p.39-  and  189  the meaning of process i m p l i e s that i t i s a systematic  of a c t i o n s d i r e c t e d toward some B.  -  The  Usefulness  end.  of the Model i n the Case Study  In the a p p l i c a t i o n of the model and as a t o o l , Lewin's d e f i n i t i o n has more Generally  series  i n the v a l u a t i o n of i t  relevance.  speaking the model used i n t h i s study has  been  u s e f u l as a t o o l f o r documenting the process of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change as i t p r o v i d e d  an o r d e r l y arrangement which a l l o w e d f o r more  p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n of the process that o c c u r r e d . f o r the simultaneous i n s p e c t i o n and and  It also  provided  e v a l u a t i o n of the many f a c t o r s  v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change as they were  viewed w i t h i n the model concepts. The  model a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d the "whole" of the process of  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change and l a t i o n of events and The  s t r u c t u r a l l y described  a c t i o n s t h a t occurred  model had u s e f u l n e s s  to c o n s t r u c t  the whole.  i n that i t opened the way  t a b u l a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the form and occurred.  the accumu-  I t a l s o documented and  order  to  the  t h a t they  c o d i f i e d the methods t h a t were  u t i l i z e d i n moving towards change and examination as to t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  opened these methods to and  v a l i d i t y i n the  light  of outcome and r e s u l t s . In the documenting of the t o t a l process of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change the model tended to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t r o d u c i n g i r r e l e v a n t assumptions or p o s t u l a t e s which had G.  doubtful o r i g i n s .  L i m i t a t i o n s of Model to the Case Study The Area Development P r o j e c t model design  i s seen as  which t y p i f i e s the method of problem s o l v i n g (although  one  the t h e o r e t i c a l  - 190 -  b a s i s f o r the model has not been s t a t e d or c l a r i f i e d ) . an analogue o f change process, as b e i n g  I t i s not  u n l e s s one a s c r i b e s problem s o l u t i o n  synonymous to change p r o c e s s .  "the model s t r u c t u r e s the problem".*  I n a sense, as Loeb suggests, I t i s f o r t h i s reason that  the model imposed some l i m i t a t i o n s to the model's u s e f u l n e s s f o r recording  the process of change i n the p a r t i c u l a r study which was  undertaken here.  The Area Development P r o j e c t model as a p p l i e d to  the case study d i d not recognize  the f a c t that every o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  system has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s of growth and development. Thus, it  l e f t out the very v i t a l aspect  study.  of the h i s t o r i c a l s i d e o f the case  I t d i d not i n c l u d e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n  o f how  the problems developed and the f a c t o r s o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l awareness or past  successes and f a i l u r e s .  These l i m i t a t i o n s i n the model might not be as v i t a l i n i t s o p e r a t i o n a l u t i l i z a t i o n i n the Area Development P r o j e c t as i t was i n the S u n r i s e  Park Area case.  I n the Area Development P r o j e c t the  h i s t o r y of the p r o j e c t i s a v a i l a b l e and the model would be u t i l i z e d on an ongoing b a s i s as a t o o l f o r determining change p r o c e s s w i t h i n the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n g of the P r o j e c t . The model as a p p l i e d t o the case study has t r e a t e d the case i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n from e x t e r n a l systems undergoing simultaneous", change.  There was no o p p o r t u n i t y  w i t h i n the design  to g i v e  consider-  a t i o n t o what happened to the i n t e r n a l dynamics of the o r g a n i z a t i o n or the tenants' was i n t r o d u c e d .  Loeb;  group o r other  t a r g e t s when an e x t e r n a l change f o r c e  Important sequences o f a cause and e f f e c t nature  op.cit. p.4.  - 191 were thus not open to view. An  estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the t a r g e t to change  c a l l e d f o r but the emphasis was the t a r g e t s ' a t t i t u d e s and n i z e d needs was  an aspect  targets' readiness,  how  upon s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to change. they r e l a t e d to the t a r g e t s '  t h a t was  c a p a c i t y and  lost.  Judgments as to  motivation  was Thus  recog-  the  to change were a l s o  not  a p a r t of the model's c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In the case study, the Area Development P r o j e c t model e f f e c t i v e and change had  was  c o u l d be w e l l u t i l i z e d only " a f t e r the f a c t " of  occurred.  the  Only the i n i t i a l phases of the change process  o u t l i n e d i n the model were c l e a r l y apparent i n the case study - i . e . problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and was  goal determination.  Therefore  a p p l i c a b l e only to the p o i n t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change  the model had  reached at the time of study. I t seemed apparent to the w r i t e r t h a t w i t h i n each major phase of the  change process of the model the other phases were apparent  i n a more minute manner, much i n the way cosmos.  This o b s e r v a t i o n  was  not  of microcosms w i t h i n a  substantiated  but i n support o f  t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i t would seem to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of change that at every p o i n t of d e c i s i o n i n a change process a new was  problem complex  born. The  Model seemed inadequate to denote the dynamics of  p r o c e s s of change and  to descriibe and  f l u c t u a t i n g nature of the The  f o l l o w the p r o g r e s s i v e  the yet  case.  f a c t o r o f time i n r e l a t i o n to the sequence was  a l s o seen  to be a shortcoming i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the model to the case study. T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t would be i n c l u d e d i n the  - 192  -  "outcome e v a l u a t i o n " phase which was a p p l i c a t i o n to the  not reached i n the model's  case study.  In the phase of "outcome e v a l u a t i o n " a f u r t h e r d e f i c i e n c y i s apparent i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n of change was Other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and  such as weighing the m e r i t s  the measuring and  change are not  not a  d e s c r i b i n g of v a r i o u s  contained  within  consideration. of v a r i o u s methods  techniques to b r i n g about  the scope o f the outcome e v a l u a t i o n  phase. The  Area Development P r o j e c t model was  deficient i n i t s  a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the case study i n t h a t i t d i d not o f f e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of examining the interdependency of the o r g a n i z a t i o n or system undergoing change w i t h other  systems and i t s environment.  H. C u r t i s M i a l s t a t e s t h a t there seems to be no one v e r s a l l y appropriate  model due  to the f a c t that a c t i o n i s a  t h i n g shaped by l o c a l circumstances. an adequate system one i n t e r a c t i n g systems;  uni-  He  states that i n  needs to t h i n k , "simultaneously  fluid  designing of  four  the p e r s o n a l i t y system of the i n d i v i d u a l  a c t i n g ; the s o c i a l system of v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; system of the community; and  the  social  the c u l t u r a l system which shapes the  other systems."""" This view has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n the Area Development P r o j e c t model i n the case study but may as important i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the model i n the p r o j e c t The  l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t were evident  case study need not  not  of be  itself.  i n the model's a p p l i c a t i o n to  and probably w i l l not impede i t s u s e f u l n e s s  """Mial, H. C u r t i s ; "Models of Community A c t i o n " , (Four F o r c e s i n Community Development, N a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g L a b o r a t o r i e s , N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington, D.C, 196l) p.91  the in  - 193 the p r o j e c t  itself.  One c a n n o t  of  not being able  an  i n c o m p l e t e d change process  not  also  to f u l l y  be t h e c a s e  components o f change of  utilize  i n the project. that  or will  the experience  t h e m o d e l when i t i s a p p l i e d  a s was a p p a r e n t That  i n the case  interrelatedness  t h e y be o b s c u r e d  to  study  i s to say, w i l l  are inherent i n the nature  t h e change p r o c e s s and t h e i r  evinced  b u t wonder whether  will  the impulse  o f t h e dynamics  t o each  o t h e r be  when t h e c h a n g e i s o n l y  partially  completed. The Project  how  social  difficulty  by t h e A r e a  b y a l l m o d e l s , i s how  can a model ensure  sphere  restricted  yet  how  of action  that  t h e dynamic  of the organization  Development  to ensure  nature  balanced  i s kept  and the t o t a l "present" i n  and removed c o n t e x t o f p r o c e s s and change  can the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s t o t a l  dominating  posed  on t h e p a r t o f t h e o b s e r v e r , t h e r e c o r d e r and t h e a n a l y s t .  the  to  fundamental  model, and perhaps  perception Thus,  most  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  so t h a t  sphere  relationship;  o f e x i s t e n c e be k e p t  an o b s e r v e r o r a n a l y s t  p e r c e i v e and explore the v a r i o u s i d e a s and p a t t e r n s o f  may  be  action.  from free  APPENDIX A DEPARTMENT OF  HEALTH, EDUCATION. AND  WELFARE  WELFARE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON. D.C. 20201 OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONER  January 1 2 , 1 9 6 5  Mr. R. J . Myers  Dear Mr. Myers: In reply to your l e t t e r of December 21 asking for information on recording organizational change, I regret to inform you that, insofar as I am aware, there are no established procedures for doing this as yet. Mobilization For Youth i n New York C i t y has had a h i s t o r i a n attached to the s t a f f for the purpose of indicating the policy changes which occur i n the history of the project as well as the background reasons for these changes. The reasons cited usually are i n terms of s o c i o l o g i c a l factors rather than an actual det a i l i n g of the give and take of s t a f f and board discussion of policies.  s  \  \  Miss Beverly Ayres, Director of Research of the Area Development Project, has, I believe, the names of the persons at MIT and at Harvard who have received a grant from the President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency to make a study of organizational change i n the 11 large Juvenile Delinquency projects i n the major c i t i e s \ of the United States. I do not know how far advanced they are i n developing a methodology for recording process within i n s t i t u t i o n a l structures. The question to which you address yourself i s without doubt one of the major issues i n welfare research. At present there are very few people working on this problem. However, Dr. Eleanor Sheldon of the Russell Sage Foundation w i l l be looking at organizational change from a national scale, seeking to i d e n t i f y indicators which represent or measure organizational change. As you probably r e a l i z e , you have chosen one of the most d i f f i c u l t areas for study, description and measurement. You are to be congratulated on your aspirations and w i l l reserve for later Judgment any evaluation of your achievements i n this area. I regret that I cannot be of greater assistance to you i n this matter. In the event I do learn of anything more I s h a l l make such knowledge available to you. ' Sincerely yours,  Joseph C. Lagey, Ph.D. Head, Study Section on Economic Dependency  1  APPENDIX B  /  PROPOSAL  FOR STUDY  ORGANIZATIONAL  OF THE PROCESS OF  CHANGE IH THE  AREA DEVELOPMENT  Area Community  Chest  Development  and C o u n c i l s June,  PROJECT  Project  o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver 1964.  Area  -  1 -  INTRODUCTION: The the  Area  attached  proposal  Development  has  been p r e p a r e d  by  P r o j e c t , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with  the  staff  the  of  following  persons: Dr.John  Crane,  P r o f e s s o r , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Social  Mr.John  F'ornataro,  of  P r o f e s s o r , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work.  Dr.Joseph  Gayton, S e n i o r M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r , Board of H e a l t h , Vancouver.  Dr.Ludwig  Geismar,  Mr.Douglas  School Work.  Professor,  Rutgers  Metropolitan  State U n i v e r s i t y .  G r a n t , C h i e f , R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n , Department C o r r e c t i o n s , Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a .  of  Dr.Melvin  Herman, C h i e f , Work P r o g r a m s ,  Dr.Joseph  C.Lagey, Head, S e c t i o n on P r e v e n t i o n and Reduction o f C h r o n i c Dependency, Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare, Washington, D.C.  Mr.Jack  Shirley,  Woods, Gordon  $ Co.,  Toronto, Staff  from  Community  Chest  Research  are  Management  Consultants,  Ontario.  Councils:  Mr.C.Howard N a p h t a l i , E x e c u t i v e  Director  Mr.E.D.Hill,  Planning.  D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l  Mr.D.L.Scrivener,  We  and  M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Youth, New York.  Finance  Director.  Mr.R.C.Nann, C o o r d i n a t o r Social  of S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s , Planning Section.  indebted  C o u n c i l on  f o r making  to  the  available  Canadian a grant  Urban  to b r i n g t o g e t h e r  and  a panel  consultants  f o r a two-day p e r i o d i n A p r i l  1964,  to  formulating  the  their  assistance  proposal  would  plan not  f o r study.  Without  have been p o s s i b l e .  Regional  assist  in this  of  -  2 -  PURPOSE The of  purpose  organizational  demonstration one  project  area  are  being  and  voluntary  agencies, problem social will  social  be c l o s e l y  unique  project.  1.  This  to provide welfare  of mu1ti-problem  under  and  families in  t i m e , many o f t h e s e government  services  departments  attached  phase,  of services  i n the various  carry  o u t as many  I t i s towards  worker w i l l  by t h e f a m i l y  as p o s s i b l e .  the p u b l i c h e a l t h  This  demonstration  i t i s expected  project  that  this  See A p p e n d i x  A for description  of p r o j e c t .  o f the  during the  the p r o c e s s will  of i n t e g r a t i n g  bring  associated  particular  directed.  structure  o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  take p l a c e  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s end t h a t  service i s  i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n  service  u n d e r one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  this  disciplines,  America.  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g that  other  work  with  i n integrated  i n t o the s o c i a l  changes  Their  agency,  and w i t h  experiment  i n North  require  groups  private  social  approaches  since  and t h r e e  o f 100 m u l t i -  t o the p r o j e c t ,  aim o f t h i s  two p u b l i c  group  and i n d e e d ,  project  from  t o an e x p e r i m e n t a l  with  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  variety  changes  required  To do so w i l l  demonstration a wide  family  and e d u c a t i o n .  A primary  processes  service  Each  i n Vancouver,  community.  of health,  of separate  assigned  coordinated  workers  successful  group  a number  workers,  functions  as h e a l t h  program  the p r o c e s s  Project.  i s an e f f o r t  At t h e p r e s e n t  through  provide  families. work  Development  welfare  f o r a selected  i s to study  agencies.  will  community such  in social  1  Five  program  i n the Area  of the city.' ' provided  research  an i n t e g r a t e d  services  one  is  change  administration  recreation  of  of this  about  with the  research  program  -  3 -  SIGNIFICANCE There welfare  has been  on t h e s u b j e c t  organizational as  very  change  i t i s i n other  little  research  of organizational i s taking  place  institutional  i n the f i e l d  change.  constantly  I t i s obvious in social  i n preparing  this  knowledge  i n this  i s extremely  scanty.  felt  we know v e r y  little  the s p e c i a l r o l e  that  welfare  organizations  that  welfare,  systems, but a l l o f the experts  consulted  area  of social  proposal  about  and s o c i a l  were  workers  agreed  that  o u r body o f  In p a r t i c u l a r i t was  i n inducing  for social organizational  change. * 1  The  research  operational one  o f t h e most  that  America.  implemented,  in  this  dealing  community  1.  2.  *  approaches  In t h e c o u r s e  about  Development  the s o c i a l  of developing  o f the Area  survey  both  Project  project,  testified  the  a survey  t o the f a c t  c a n i t be s a i d  service  is  throughout  how f i n d i n g s  Development  side  structure  Project  might  that  i n the e x i s t i n g welfare  integrated  require  have  service  this  conceptualizing  changes  the multi-problem  as a whole w i l l  will  From t h e o p e r a t i o n a l  a few i n s t a n c e s  significant period  proposal  f o r m u 1 1 i - p r o b 1 em f a m i l i e s  method o f p r o v i d i n g with  into  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s  and i n o n l y  the experimental  that  in this  o f the Area  many p r o g r a m s began w i t h o u t  have b r o u g h t If  of project  aims  made o f s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s  North  be  important  t h e community.  was  outlined  and t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  introduction of  study  projects structure.  establishes  i s more e f f e c t i v e  f a m i l i e s , i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  One b e g i n n i n g e f f o r t at s t u d y i n g t h i s s u b j e c t i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Y o u t h p r o j e c t i n New York c i t y , where an o b s e r v e r ( t r a i n e d i n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ) i s studying the processes of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change by i n t e r v i e w i n g key p e r s o n s , a t t e n d i n g m e e t i n g s , r e v i e w i n g w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s e t c . The s t u d y o u t l i n e d i n t h i s p r o p o s a l would make use o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , Lagey, J o s e p h C. and B e v e r l y A y r e s , Community T r e a t m e n t Programs f o r M u l t i - P r o b l e m F a m i l i e s , Community C h e s t r, C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , 1962.  -  changes .which were n e c e s s a r y addition, of  the study  will  t o make t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  aim t o d e m o n s t r a t e  s e r v i c e s , no m a t t e r how s u c c e s s f u l  project, social  i s applicable  service  well  change of  The s t u d y  i n given  (forms  will  i s hoped  implications structure  application  w i t h i n the  i n the l a r g e r  that  the  research  at d e v e l o p i n g  relevant  to s o c i a l  both  a typology  welfare,  of bringing  about  desirable  as t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l  situations.  contribution  that  effort  to c l a s s i f y  as w e l l  In a d d i t i o n ,  as these  modes o f  effectiveness i t i s hoped  can be made t o t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f  change. this  f o r implementing  of other  change  attempt  i n various  organizational It  and f i n a n c i a l l y  of intervention)  circumstances  a substantial  studying  of treatment  i t i s planned  make a b e g i n n i n g  of organizational  change methods  that  1  will  as o f t h e methods  changes.  work. In  network.  program o u t l i n e d the kinds  project  whether o r not t h i s  i n terms  administratively  From t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s i d e ,  of  4 -  communities  research necessary  study  will  change  i n Canada.  have  important  i n the s o c i a l  welfare  -  5 -  METHODOLOGY Process: The of  basic  a series  take p l a c e arising  o f case  Problems  organizational  the or  studies  out o f p r o j e c t  necessary  followed  t o make  studied  level  study  in giving be t h o s e  Priority  as d e t e r m i n e d  project  of services  would  change  will  Study  e f f o r t s as t h e y  r e l a t e to a problem  integrated  that  require  s e r v i c e to some k i n d o f  be made between  t o the study  of "external"  and might  by t h e p r o j e c t  changes  work, and changes n e c e s s a r y t o  i n t h e community,  be g i v e n  on a s e l e c t i v e b a s i s ,  erations,  be t h e c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s  A differentiation will  the " i n t e r n a l " problems.  decided  case  will  an i n t e g r a t e d  the general  project.  Each  operations  change.  will  of organizational  i n the p r o j e c t .  families.  improve  process  relate director  regardless  o f the f i r s t  of level,  p r o b l e m s would be  to " p o l i t i c a l " and/or  consid-  the Governing  Committee. The the  process  process intended  determination, evaluation. 1.  followed  to induce  action  A model  change, problem  f o r study  identification  a.  Who  identified  b.  How  was  i t identified?  c.  How  was  the extent  a.  action  o f key p o i n t s i n  identification,  implementation,  goal  and outcome  follows:  Problem  Goal  be t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n  determination,  whom and w i t h 2.  will  the problem?  and n a t u r e  o f the problem  verified?(i.e.  by  whom).  determination What  type  o f change  What  are the cost  ( p o l i c y , s t r u c t u r a l e t c . ) was  considerations  b.  Who  suggested  c.  Who  i s seen  d.  What was t h e e s t i m a t e change?  o f the v a r i o u s  planned?  alternatives?  i t and how was i t s u g g e s t e d ?  as t h e t a r g e t ( s )  f o r change?  o f the v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f the t a r g e t to  3.  Action  determination  a.  action-decisions  What  desired b.  What were action  c.  a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes  involved,  of target  i . e . on p a r t  as s e e n by t h e p r i n c i p a l  How were t h e y  c.  What methods were a c t u a l l y u s e d ?  d.  What was t h e r e a c t i o n  became  Outcome  of the target?  evaluation  b.  What were t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s  D i d t h e change  d.  What was t h e c o s t identification  induced  between  involves  t h e emergence  such  Committee  might  clarification  See A p p e n d i x of p r o j e c t .  Advisory  o f the problem  by any p a r t the f a m i l y  Committee, t h e i s the next  o f the p r o j e c t  o f the problem,  A, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  served,  from t h e  d i r e c t o r , the research  t h e Agency  Verification  o f the t a r g e t ?  be i d e n t i f i e d  worker, the p r o j e c t  etc.  f o r change?  o f a problem  as t h e f a m i l i e s  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies,  involve  outcome and  need  on t h e p a r t  would be p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  would  expected  the o r i g i n a l  A problem  structure,'*,  t h e community  meet  o f t h e change  o f the p r o j e c t .  the p r o j e c t  outcome?  outcome?  c.  Governing  agent.  involved?  What was t h e a c t u a l  staff,  o f change  involved?  a.  workers,  and on p a r t  forces  implementation  b.  operations  o f each o f these  decisions? outcomes  actual  1.  the p o s s i b l e  Who  Problem  about t h e  made them?  a.  5.  and  Who  What were t h e e x p e c t e d  4. A c t i o n  of  change?  were made o f ways t o b r i n g  structure  verification chart  director. of  step, This  information  at end o f d e s c r i p t i o n  on  the  for  extent  of  example,  particular  the  i f the  problem  etc?  At  proceeding  further,  importance  that  Having  an  that  kinds  of  change  structure,  here  would  be  alternatives: involve  any  the  target  decided would "valid  that  be  four  kinds  for v a l i d  could  change  be of  1.  Ronald  problem,  at  and  subsequent  and  An  of  estimate  validated  the  goals  of  the  important o f the  factor  various could  i n d i v i d u a l , group,  of  For  the  v u l n e r a b i l i t y of  example, i n time  effort  events.  or  change, w h i c h  systems;  tested  extent  of p o l i c y , a l t e r a t i o n s  etc.  change  made about  identification  a certain point the  be  bad  some o p e r a t i o n a l  (a)  indicated.  recorded  upon  determination  or  This steps  or  such  cost  R r o n n  of  i t might the  be  target  d r o p p e d . However,  for Validity  as  far  Thus, e x p e c t a t i o n s  as  involves  to be  £  the  taken  the  as  and  meetings,  others),  W n v« 1. A  T n ^  to  bring would  third  i s the  about range  the over  negotiation, party  process or  more  desired a wide  persuation  gamut of  intervention,  etc.  Dynamics o f 1 n C_Q  goals  s e t t i n g f o r t h o f one  d i r e c t two-person  analysis^ material,  (and  operational  methods, s e l e c t e d  group, p u b l i c  of  an  facts,  warranted?  target(s)  dynamic (c)  to  considerations  the  problem  compared.  steps,  preparation  Horf-OMJi-t  and  c h a n g e , and  light  of p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  of  is  of  sufficient  modification  of  reasons  should  be  of  determination.  Lippitt,  the  kinds  community;  the  influential  as  determination  "action-decisions",  an  involve:  cost  analysis  and  c h a n g e ( s ) . The  such  o£  forth  of  i n the  action  would  set  an  Following of  i s to  the  resources,  reasons"  realities  change  f o r the  policy in effect in a  needs  problem  o f new  u n l i k e l y to  possible  a decision  verified  reasons  shortage  development  (b)  to  This  of  a present tape,  induce  step  indicated,  o f the  organization  red  point  and  next  determination).  to  to  identified  f o r change, the  determination  i s , i s the  effort  (goal  in  this  and  involves  a g e n c y , i s i t due  experience,  need  problem,  Planned  Change, New  York,  - 8 In crucial views  studying  this  to document  (a) who  o f the p o s s i b l e  expected  outcomes as  both  target(s)  It  the  is felt  "actual"  that  involves persons the  seen  and  actual  by  "action-decisions",  the p r i n c i p a l and  those  be  a key  to  making  fuller  (b) t h e  forces  and  range  involved,  the  o f the d i s c r e p a n c i e s  as  their of  including  action-decisions.  between  "expected"  understanding  o f the  and  process  change.  determined  action  change p r o c e s s , i t i s seen  made t h e s e  involved  analysis  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  of the  a l t e r n a t i v e o u t c o m e s ; and  outcomes w i l l  Having  phase  the  actions  implementation.  and  taken,  Documentation  s y s t e m s were i n v o l v e d , methods u s e d ,  t o be  the  the way  reaction  the n e x t  i s needed  i n which  they  of t a r g e t ( s )  phase  here  on  were  involved,  to  the  what  involve-  ment . The  final  outcome must operational no  change  to  study  this the  established,  which  may  outcomes n o t  at a l l .  I t has  been  and  expected  o u t c o m e ( s ) as  outcome.  Who  what k i n d s o f case an  o f the  range  an  that  by  o f the  various  sources action  induced  t o the  original  the part  o f the  target.  Other  i t may  actual  stated  be  as i l l u m i n a t i n g  important  o f the  part  discrepancies forces  of between  involved,  and  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f outcome, areas  of a n a l y s i s  of r e s i s t a n c e  methods u s e d ; need  the  at the b e g i n n i n g , to  the v a r i o u s  i s g e t t i n g " h i t s " on  First,  reaching  extremely  examination  examples"  from  envisaged  An  expressed  study  assessment  effectiveness change  be  evaluation.  suggested  "successes".  aspect of study w i l l  change on  outcome  t o new  "failures"  include:  the  concerns  goals,  the a c t u a l in  be  phase  t o change;  the  and  would the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  f o r change; and  the  cost  of  the  Method. The on  critical  r e s e a r c h e r would have p r i m a r y points  i n the  change p r o c e s s  responsibility f o r each  case  f o r data study.  collection  - 9 His  basic  points be  document  i n the model  varied  and  of persons Chest  for recording  would  such  staff  outline.  and  Sources  include:  as p r o j e c t  would be  e t c . (b)  o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the  staff,  project  group  from  discussions  (c) o b s e r v a t i o n o f f o r m a l l y  Seminar,  Agency A d v i s o r y Group, G o v e r n i n g  such be  Board  as m i n u t e s  free  attend  would  and  be  of meetings,  which  documents  about  directly  feedback  A coded  interview  outline  as  a base,  In  addition,  on  each  change  recording t o be  but u s i n g o n l y t h o s e director and it  has  groups  the  similar  that  around  each  change e f f o r t  strative 1.  See  The  tool  kind  primary  B  r e s e a r c h e r would meetings  to the  of a l l p r o j e c t  that  he  on  the be  might  meetings  wish  persons  change  efforts  developed,  to  i n the  a means o f s e c u r i n g  director  a daily  will  also  to that  log ' 1  agencies  more  taking  u s i n g the  place.  model  keep  o f the p r o j e c t  (or problem  purpose  o f the r e s e a r c h e r ,  director,  available.  case but  i n November,  more u s e f u l  solving  of t h i s  a case l o g  of a l l contacts with  o f l o g would be  f o r the p r o j e c t  Appendix  Agendas  i n format  inception  felt  basis.  which  sources of i n f o r m a t i o n o r d i n a r i l y  was  day  this  The  modified with experience.  been k e e p i n g  since  materials  deems a p p r o p r i a t e to  as  form w i l l  the p r o j e c t  effort,  Workers'  of written  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h key  views  as  t o the r e s e a r c h e r t o a i d i n h i s  i n the p r o j e t t ,  of t h e i r  such  Councils,  etc.  It i s suggested  o r monthly  participating  continuous  i n advance  and  government  Area  i n t e r v i e w s to h o l d ,  attendance.  semi-monthly  Committee,  (d) p e r u s a l  study.  range  involving appropriate  correspondence,  case  a wide  members, agency  o r g a n i z e d groups,  to r e a d , as he  o f d a t a f o r each  made a v a i l a b l e  decisions up  e t c ; and  t o d e c i d e upon which  collection  set  of Directors,  committee  the  l o g would  other organizations,  persons:  Chest  log, following  (a) p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  v o l u n t e e r s , persons  representatives,  a case  individuals'  1963,  However,  i f organized  p r o c e s s ) than l o g would be  i t would be  The  as  on an  a day  by  admini-  available  to  the  researcher  as a s o u r c e  As conduct  the s e r i e s  an o n g o i n g  change, w i t h change  sought  change.  the  social  findings year  analysis  of this  research  design  of alternative  decisions  made.  administrative organization  tool  the d e m o n s t r a t i o n  approaches  into  i n that  feedback  Some o f t h i s  t h e change  agents  l o g kept  and s h o u l d  outcomes o f e a c h  by t h e p r o j e c t sense,  ensure  a case  of  is built in (mainly  i n t h e change p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  and e x p e c t e d  each  change  be: t o c a l l process;  about their  o f the a c t i o n  director  as an  r e c o r d o f t h e community  some f e e d b a c k  effort.  together  t o have  as we  t h e range  outcome; and t o throw  go a l o n g "  during  the l i f e  open  f o r these invol/ed i n  the o r i r n a l  action  alternatives  outcome, and t h e a c t u a l  f o r general  happened. The r e s e a r c h e r would  take  only  without  with  any a s p e c t  any p e r s o n  persons  the v a r i o u s  be t h e use o f  model  the r e s e a r c h e r review  of expected  the meeting  will  The g e n e r a l  the p r i n c i p a l  t h a t were d e t e r m i n e d ,  w h i c h were o u t l i n e d ,  identifying  t h e end o f t h e t h r e e  be f o r c e d t o be more e x p l i c i t  means o f " l e a r n i n g  the goals  the r e s u l t s o r  project.  sessions with  particular  practical  of project  t h e r e be c o n t i n u o u s  will  i s , i n a real  process,  would  steps  The c a s e  A second  the kinds o f  i n b r i n g i n g about  come as w e l l some  of the p r o j e c t .  and s t a f f )  estimates  problem,  o f both  used  s h o u l d not await  o f the study,  the v a r i o u s  that  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  a typology  implementation  study  the course  committees  sessions  should  p e r i o d , but that  during  the very  review  steps  will  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e community.  outlining  of  developing  g u i d e l i n e s f o r the  experimental  project  o f the v a r i o u s  the r e s e a r c h e r  has been s t r e s s e d by o u r c o n s u l t a n t s t h a t  experience to  s t u d i e s accumulate,  and t h e methods o f i n t e r v e n t i o n  service  It  o f case  towards  Out o f t h i s  operational  of documentation.  analysis  a view  10 -  the r o l e  d i s c u s s i o n o f what had ofoverall  reviewer",  of the p r o c e s s .  -  The  use  of review  who  would  arrange  Some might meeting.  Generally,  Where a change  again  but  to  ensure  to  a l l the  were i n s t i t u t i n g learning the  be  a subject  way  i n which  In directly keep  in  the  or  initiated  This  would  include  federal welfare the  course  data  towards  and  valuable  change  end  time  of  span  more  stages  formal the  involved.  frequent  i n the  not  only  to  the  also should  be  process,  effort  those  both  have  should  proceeds  and,  researcher  extremely  sessions  of  case  other  an  who The impact  in fact,  city  studies of  agencies,  outside  should  the  o f the  change  researcher  case  in participating  some n o t a t i o n i n the  as  council,  studies agencies  to w h e t h e r  change,  as  well  provincial cr  should  and  experience as  changes  department  laws which might  of be  the p r o j e c t .  would be  collected  administered  opinions  the  the  change.  decisions, ruling of  at  were t a r g e t s o f  changes  a part as  studied.  r e q u i r e a more  held on  being  researcher.  taking place  such  researcher,  experience.  effort  collection  played  policies  during  these  p r o j e c t and  of questionnaires  attitudes  the  the  changes  Additional use  by  on  p r o j e c t had  welfare,  the  change  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , with  government  of  who  the  i n v o l v i n g the  associated  those  next  not  different  change, but  by  a d d i t i o n to  informed  at  would be  provided  f o r study  themselves.  with  change and  and  s e v e r a l month's t i m e ,  feedback  of  o f the  change p r o c e s s  would be  appropriate  dynamics  the  persons  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  experience  on  to  discretion  contingent  over  sessions  the  two  sessions  spread  continuous  review  or  would be  be  at t h e  appropriate  one  this  might  understanding  useful  would be  review  effort  sessions  Such in  them as  i n v o l v e only  change p r o c e s s ,  review  sessions  -  11  of,  the  to  by  the  researcher  r e l e v a n t persons  p r o j e c t i n the  through  about  initial  their  phase,  1.  a t m i d - t e r m and a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the p r o j e c t . T~. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d by a p r o j e c t i n B r i s t o l , E n g l a n d , aimed at t h e a t t i t u d e s o f . E x e c u t i v e Committee members, would p r o v i d e a model f o r d e s i g n i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s u g g e s t e d by D r . J o h n S p e n c e r , o f the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, T o r o n t o , who worked w i t h the B r i s t o l n r o i e c t .  -  12 -  Structure: The  research  team  qualified  professional  suggested  that  f o r t h i s study  researcher,  the researcher  academic o r i e n t a t i o n  from  from t h e f i e l d s  industrial  sociology,  The of  the Area  the  need  the  subjects  should  be a p e r s o n  science,  Project,  of inquiry  of inquiry)  of  Research appeal  Director,  to p e r m i t (Project  and t h e need  upon t h e o n g o i n g The  Committee  activities  researcher  a different project,  public  administration,  Committee  an optimum b a l a n c e  between  staff  members b e i n g  f o r some p o l i c y  but the P r o j e c t  to the Governing  Iti s  to the Governing  He would n o t be u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f e i t h e r the  with  of a highly  anthropology.  would be r e s p o n s i b l e  Development  person.  o f the demonstration  of p o l i t i c a l  or c u l t u r a l  researcher  f o r freedom  and a c l e r i c a l  the s t a f f  preferably  would be composed  i f there  controls.  the P r o j e c t  Director  D i r e c t o r or  would have t h e r i g h t  were  any undue  intrusion  o f the p r o j e c t .  would be a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t  i n the a f f a i r s  the  project,  and would have no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any a c t i o n s  the  project.  It should  observing on  be made e n t i r e l y c l e a r t h a t  the p r o j e c t ,  the b a s i s  personnel  he i s n o t a p a r t  and any o t h e r p e r s o n s  t/ied with the  them e t c .  role of staff The  and with  as t h e r e  field  might  researcher  visits,  any d e v e l o p m e n t s  staff,  that  i s the danger be  staff  he might that  that  t a k e n by  he i s  He would  operate  committees,  contact  agency  i n the course  the researcher  i s , share  of  n o t be  t h e same o f f i c e , e a t  an o b j e c t i v e  assessment of  impaired.  would  where  o r groups  seem a d v i s a b l e  too c l o s e l y to p r o j e c t  although  o f the s t a f f .  of " p r i v i l e g e d communication" with  o f h i s i n q u i r i e s . I t would  among  be e x p e c t e d  appropriate,,  i n the f i e l d  to arrange  f o r the purpose  of studying  for consultation of keeping  institutional  current  change.  - 13 Finally, results in  o f the study  positions  researcher  would  study.  would  given  not  relate  for publication  t o use t h e knowledge  research be  t h e r e s e a r c h e r would  indicate  be e x p e c t e d  i n a form which would  gained.  the source  to p r e p a r e  support  In p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , to the p r o t e c t i o n  t o any  specific  reach  Any p u b l i c a t i o n s  of f i n a n c i a l  of i d e n t i t y ,  that  the thos  by t h e  for this  due  regard  i s , r e p o r t s would  i n s t a n c e o r any p a r t i c u l a r  individual.  APPENDIX C THE  S O C I E T Y  OF  WOMEN  O N L Y THE  OBJECTIVES  1.  To b e t t e r the home l i f e and u p b r i n g i n g of c h i l d r e n of deserted mothers through improved welfare f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l arrangements.  2.  To remove the s o c i a l stigma which an uninformed s o c i e t y has p l a c e d upon deserted women l i v i n g on s o c i a l w e l f a r e , i n order that these women may take thaeir r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n s o c i e t y .  3.  To f o r c e e r r a n t f a t h e r s , through the agency of the law c o u r t s , to accept t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , at l e a s t i n s o f a r as c h i l d maintenance i s concerned. The g r e a t m a j o r i t y of women p r e f e r to work and to make t h e i r own way i n l i f e . They are, however, g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g i n any form of t r a i n i n g or experience which would enable them to earn more than a minimum wage, and the f i n a n c i a l burden which c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t does not permit an adequate standard of l i v i n g to be maintained.  k.  To enable the d e s e r t e d mother to o b t a i n a d i v o r c e a f t e r a reasonable p e r i o d of time. Many women have been separated f o r as l o n g as ten y e a r s , and throughout t h i s time the c h i l d r e n have been deprived of the guidance of a f a t h e r . Because o f the present d i v o r c e laws, many women are prevented from re-marrying and are thus f o r c e d to l i v e on s o c i a l welfare.  5.  To remain f r e e of any p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n or i n f l u e n c e , and to so conduct o u r s e l v e s when i n c o n t a c t with p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s as to ensure t h i s freedom.  6.  To b r i n g about a re-assessment of w e l f a r e payments i n terms of the present day c o s t of l i v i n g , and t h a t a r e a l i s t i c b a s i s of payment be found f o r those mothers who are a b l e to earn a s m a l l sum each month through part-time work.  We a r e , as we have presented o u r s e l v e s , a group of very determined women. We are determined because we have come to l e a r n by b i t t e r f i r s t hand experience that the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s of t h i s P r o v i n c e , as they are p r e s e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d , are a r c h a i c i n f o r m u l a t i o n , negative i n approach and h o p e l e s s l y inadequate i n a p p l i c a t i o n . We are concerned because we are aware not only of the many problems we face today, but of the i n c r e a s i n g burden of s o c i a l i l l s being c a r r i e d i n t o the f u t u r e through p u b l i c apathy and i n e f f e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . The r e s u l t of the present l a c k of f o r e s i g h t at government l e v e l and o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t can best be gauged by r e f e r e n c e to r e l e v a n t s t a t i s t i c s where i t w i l l be noted t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia has the highest i n c i d e n c e of a l c o h o l i s m , d i v o r c e , s e p a r a t i o n and drug a d d i c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , and as would be a n t i c i p a t e d , B r i t i s h Columbia i s w e l l below the n a t i o n a l average i n f a c i l i t i e s f o r education, f o r the c a r e of r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and s o c i a l welfare.  APPENDIX D  MRS,BENTLEY'S JUNE BRIEF Why Our O r g a n i z a t i o n E x i s t s Our o r g a n i z a t i o n was born o f the n e c e s s i t y to r e l i e v e the arduous c o n d i t i o n s under which deserted mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n are f o r c e d to e x i s t . Our immediate g o a l i s t o cause a l o n g overdue r e - a p p r a i s a l of s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s as they apply to women i n our p o s i t i o n . Our Problem P r i m a r i l y , our problem i s one o f f i n a n c i a l support, but added to t h i s i s the l a c k of c h i l d care and c o u n c i l l i n g ( s i c ) f a c i l i t i e s o f which women i n our p o s i t i o n are so very much i n need. Where we Stand w i t h the S o c i a l Welfare S e r v i c e s A d e s e r t e d mother w i t h c h i l d r e n may r e c e i v e a maximum o f $ 1 ^ 7 . 0 0 per month. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s she may earn a t p a r t time work a maximum o f $ 2 1 . 0 0 p e r month. She may not a l l o w a c h i l d to work while she h e r s e l f i s e a r n i n g $ 2 1 . 0 0 p e r month. Any revenue she may r e c e i v e above these s t i p u l a t e d amounts, from whatever s e r v i c e , i s deducted from the s o c i a l w e l f a r e cheque. I t i s r e a l l y unnecessary to comment on these f i g u r e s . I t would be naive indeed to suppose t h a t a d e s e r t e d mother c o u l d m a i n t a i n even a m a r g i n a l standard o f l i v i n g f o r her c h i l d r e n and h e r s e l f on t h i s sum of money. I f the i n t e n t i o n s of such a meager allowance was to induce the i n c e n t i v e to g e t o f f s o c i a l w e l f a r e , i t has f a i l e d r a t h e r badly. The r e s u l t has been u n t a l e d ( s i c ) h a r d s h i p , a n x i e t y , and resentment. Many d e s e r t e d mothers l i v e i n a constant atmosphere o f defeat and hopelessness. I f you would teach people t o s t r i v e t o b e t t e r themselves, you do not s t a r t by d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r s e l f - r e s p e c t . The f a c t s must be accepted as they a r e . There e x i s t s a t present i n t h i s p r o v i n c e an evergrowing body of women and c h i l d r e n , when they are l i t t l e more than second c l a s s c i t i z e n s , and t h i s i s supposed to be a p r o v i n c e o f wealth, i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l , and great p r o g r e s s . Many wives, owing t o the l a c k of c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s a r e f r e e only to work p a r t time. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a p a r t time job which pays as l i t t l e as $ 2 1 . 0 0 p e r month. As a r e s u l t , these women a r e prevented from working, and i n any case, $ 2 1 . 0 0 p e r month i s a r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t figure. For those women who a r e able t o work f u l l time, as the m a j o r i t y of women p r e f e r to do, the problem o f c h i l d care i s so expensive and d i f f i c u l t that the b e n e f i t of a f u l l time wage i s l a r g e l y negated. I t i s a f a c t t h a t most women p r e f e r to work and make t h e i r own way i n l i f e . They must be a s s i s t e d t o do so by means o f c h i l d maintenance from the d e s e r t i n g f a t h e r s ; by adequate day time c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s , and; by a r e a l i s t i c p r o v i s i o n f o r f i n a n c i a l w e l f a r e . -  Where we Stand w i t h the Law  The law makes p r o v i s i o n f o r the support by the d e s e r t i n g f a t h e r , o f the mother and c h i l d r e n . The problem here i s one o f a p p l i c a t i o n of the law. A t the present time, the p r i n c i p l e of the law r e g a r d i n g maintenance  -  Appendix D,  2  -  Cont'd...  i s e a s i l y defeated by a d e s e r t i n g f a t h e r , who need only p l e a d poverty i n order to be r e l i e v e d of this duty. The Court does not attempt v e r i f i c a t i o n , nor does the Court l a y down requirements which a d e s e r t i n g f a t h e r i s o b l i g e d to meet. As i f o f t e n the case, the d e s e r t i n g f a t h e r l e a v e s the p r o v i n c e or moves to the U.S., attempts to trace h i s whereabouts are c a r r i e d out i n a manner not conducive to success. Should the f a t h e r be l o c a t e d , proceedings f o r support must be c a r r i e d out l o c a l l y and the attendant expenses to the mother i n v a r i a b l y r u l e t h i s out. I t i s imperative t h a t the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n be u t i l i z e d to the f u l l and strengthen where necessary to ensure adequate c h i l d maintenance by the f a t h e r s . This requirement i s c a r r i e d out with commendable success i n other c o u n t r i e s . Our  P o s i t i o n on Divorce  Reform  T h i s p r o v i n c e , f o l l o w i n g the r e s t of Canada, admits of only one ground f o r d i v o r c e and that i s a d u l t e r y . I t has become an accepted f a c t among p r o g r e s s i v e Western C o u n t r i e s that a d u l t e r y i s n e i t h e r the s o l e cause of f a m i l y break-up nor i s i t the g r e a t e s t cause. For t h i s reason, the S o c i e t i e s of these c o u n t r i e s have broadened t h e i r d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n i n terms of modern day l i v i n g . While we do not endorse the wide-open d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n c u r r e n t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Sweden, we would p o i n t out t h a t E n g l i s h law, upon which l e g a l system our own i s p a t t e r n e d , p r e s e n t l y r e c o g n i z e s three grounds f o r d i v o r c e and has two more grounds p r e s e n t l y i n the course of l e g i s l a t i o n . As an i n s t a n c e o f the abuse to which our present d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n l e a d s , i t has become an e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t that many couples entre i n t o unlawful arrangements, i . e . to f a l s i f y documents and p e r j u r e themselves i n order to o b t a i n a d i v o r c e . An a t t i t u d e of mind which would attempt to curb and lower the d i v o r c e r a t e by r e s t r i c t i v e and p u n i t i v e measures has no p l a c e i n modern t h i n k i n g . The high d i v o r c e r a t e i s endeemic ( s i c ) to our commercial s o c i e t y , i n which m a t e r i a l i s t i c requirements have o v e r - r i d d e n common sense and d i s t o r t e d our sense of v a l u e s . The causes l e a d i n g up to d i v o r c e must be c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e apart from the l e g a l c o n d i t i o n s by which d i v o r c e may be obtained. Illness, social or otherwise, cannot be cured i n ignorance of i t s cause, n e i t h e r w i l l i t cause to e x i s t through n e g l e c t . Many wives and mothers have been deserted f o r anything up tto ten y e a r s . During t h i s time many have had the o p p o r t u n i t y to re-marry, which would not have been of i n e s t i m a b l e value to the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d , but would have removed the mother from dependency on s o c i a l w e l f a r e . However, they have been barred from re-marrying by the e x i s t i n g a r c h a i c d i v o r c e laws. SUMMARY: We submit that w h i l e there i s no c u r e - a l l f o r the p o s i t i o n i n which deserted mothers f i n d themselves, a great d e a l can be done to a l l e v i a t e the more obnoxious c o n d i t i o n s under which they l i v e . We set out as f o l l o w s the b a s i c requirements. 1.  That a r e a l i s t i c f i g u r e be s e t as a r e q u i r e d c o n t r i b u t i o n towards c h i l d maintenance by a d e s e r t i n g f a t h e r , and t h a t  -  3  -  Appendix D, Cont'd.. the Courts be so d i r e c t e d as to ensure that c o n t r i b u t i o n i s forthcoming.  this  2.  That the disbursement o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e funds to d e s e r t e d mothers be a d j u s t e d to match the a c t u a l i t i e s of present day l i v i n g , and t h a t a r e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards monies d e r i v e d from p a r t time work o r o t h e r sources be sought.  3.  That t h i s p r o v i n c e work towards a r a t i o n a l and humane d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n , and which i s based on the f a c t s o f l i f e as they are known to e x i s t .  k.  That f a c i l i t i e s be developed and p r o v i d e d i n the areas of c h i l d care and teenage guidance.  APPENDIX E  A B R I E F ON S O C I A L ALLOWANCES  For P r e s e n t a t i o n t o The H o n o u r a b l e W e s l e y B l a c k M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l Welfare P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  The  S o c i e t y o f Women O n l y  Greater Vancouver  October,  I96U  Area,  BRIEF COMMITTEE  (Mrs.) P h i l l i s Ruddell  -  Chairman  (Mrs.) E l l a Connors (Mrs.) Doreen D. Kaiser (Mrs.) S y l v i a Empey  The,Society,of. Women,Only Greater Vancouver Area  October, I96U  »  INTRODUCTION The Society of Women Only i s made up of a number of women from a l l  walks o f l i f e but a l l with one purpose i n mind  to b e t t e r our present  c o n d i t i o n s and the f u t u r e welfare o f our c h i l d r e n . Our group was formed i n hopes that.through  standing together we  would be able to b r i n g about some o f the changes that we f e e l are necessary so that we may provide a b e t t e r future f o r ourselves and f o r our c h i l d r e n . We f i n d ourselves e i t h e r separated o r deserted with l i t t l e o r no support from husbands t o a s s i s t i n r a i s i n g f a m i l i e s . Many members receive s o c i a l assistance. 1.  F i n a n c i a l l y , we are i n two groups, as f o l l o w s : TO,7^ o f our members r e c e i v e s o c i a l assistance w i t h l i t t l e o r no support,  2.  29.3# of our members are working with l i t t l e o r no support.  In t h i s b r i e f we w i l l point out, through our own personal experiences and the study o f the S o c i a l Assistance Act and the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A c t , t h a t the p r o v i s i o n s i n the S o c i a l Assistance Act are not being c a r r i e d out i n the way we b e l i e v e that they were intended.  In some instances  the  p r o v i s i o n s are not being f u l l y employed. Quoting from Chapter 360, S o c i a l Assistance A c t : "Purpose 3. S o c i a l assistance may be granted out o f funds appropriated by the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r the purpose t o i n d i v i d u a l s , whether a d u l t or minor, o r to f a m i l i e s , who through mental o r p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s o r other exigency are unable to provide i n whole o r i n p a r t by t h e i r own e f f o r t s , through other s e c u r i t y measures, o r from income and other resources, n e c e s s i t i e s e s s e n t i a l TO MAINTAIN OR ASSIST IN MAINTAINING A REASONABLY NORMAL AND HEALTHY EXISTENCE."  ..... 2 Prom our own actual experiences, we can state that the present Social Assistance allowances do not permit us to lead normal and healthylives.  Social Assistance to us means POVERTY.  In the United States and  Canada poverty e x i s t s when a family of four persons earns below $3,000 per annum.  The present Social Assistance rate f o r four persons i n B r i t i s h  Columbia i s $1,764, or one h a l f poverty rate.  Poverty leads to malnutrition,  school drop-outs and an i n a b i l i t y to help oneself.  These conditions cause  mental anguish and undue hardships, and i n some cases lead to crime.  Therefore we, of the Society of Women Only, present to the Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h i s b r i e f i n a simple and uncomplicated according to the best of our a b i l i t y .  way,  We present what we consider sensible,  r e a l i s t i c suggestions and recommendations which we f e e l , based on our own personal experiences, w i l l b r i n g about improvement i n the health and welfare services of B r i t i s h Columbia.  -  3  -  RBCOM«DATIONS  The Society of Women Only begs your consideration to the following recommendations: 1.  Increase Social Assistance Allowances.  2.  Increase the number of Social Workers to provide adequate individual counselling.  3.  Establish a Legal Aid Centre to provide free legal aid to deserted wives and mothers.  COMMENTS We, of the•Society of Women Only, are deeply concerned about the ever-increasing cost of l i v i n g , the increasing number of deserting fathers, and the general breakdown of moral standards i n existence today. i  on our recommendations, as f o l l o w s : 1.  We comment  Increase S o c i a l Assistance Allowances (a) We recommend that the cost of l i v i n g be reviewed annually and s o c i a l ": assistance allowances be adjusted accordingly to keep i n l i n e with the increasing cost of l i v i n g .  A f t e r c a r e f u l study of the "Vancouver  Board o f Trade Consumer Price Index,"dated June, 1 9 6 4 , and the "Review of Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowances,"dated November, 1 9 6 3 , by the Community Chest and Council o f Greater Vancouver Area, Social Planning :  Section, we f e e l that an increase of at l e a s t 2 0 $ be granted,  and i n some groups the increase should be higher on a percentage . b a s i s , t© help us face the ever-increasing cost of l i v i n g .  (b) There i s a need f o r a l i s t o f permissive  grants, and exemptions which  can be applied to meet i n d i v i d u a l family needs, e.g., d i e t a r y extra's, prenatal extras, c l o t h i n g extras, house damage and repair extras, e t c . At present, grants may be obtained f o r the above, but they are too low and too cumbersome i n administration.  We f i n d that each i s  handled i n a d i f f e r e n t manner.  (c) We recommend that the earning allowances be r a i s e d to a more r e a l i s t i c and sensible l e v e l .  The present allowances tend to take away the  - 5i n c e n t i v e o f the w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s t o improve t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s due t o •• t h e f a c t t h a t the e a r n i n g power i s  so low t h a t i n most c a s e s  trans-  p o r t a t i o n and b a b y s i t t i n g take up more than t h e y can e a r n .  (d)  In the c a s e o f s e p a r a t e d  f a m i l i e s , the mother  s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o keep  the s u p p o r t payments f r o m the f a t h e r e q u i v a l e n t t o the amount she allowed to e a r n ,  w i t h o u t t h i s sum b e i n g deducted from her  a s s i s t a n c e cheque. fathers  is,  social  We have found t h a t a f a m i l i a r phrase among the  "Why s h o u l d I send you money when the government o n l y t a k e s  i t o f f your s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cheque? than I .  is  L e t them s u p p o r t y o u , "  The government has more money  We suggest  t h a t i f the f a t h e r  is  a l l o w e d t o f e e l he i s c o n t r i b u t i n g towards the w e l f a r e o f h i s f a m i l y t h e r e would be more f a t h e r s the c a s e s where f a t h e r s  supporting t h e i r f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n  work p a r t - t i m e ,  and have a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n to s u p p o r t . should I t r y to  'chase  1  o r where t h e y have Mothers a l s o  remarried  state,  my husband when you (the, government)  "Why o n l y take  away any s u p p o r t money he may c o n t r i b u t e ? " T h i s p o i n t s up the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r a f r e e L e g a l A i d C e n t r e t o p r o v i d e l e g a l a i d t o d e s e r t e d wives and mothers  (our  Recommendation #3).  (e)  We recommend t h a t the b r i e f p r e p a r e d b y the W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l R e p o r t o f the Committee t o  "Review t h e Adequacy o f S o c i a l  A l l o w a n c e s , " b y the Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f November 1963, consideration.  be g i v e n c a r e f u l  They f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was s t i l l a gap o f 10$ i n  1963,  and we beg that the present government take t h i s gap into  consideration  as well as consider the time elapsed  prepared  (Appendix  since t h i s b r i e f was  1).  Increase the Number of Social Workers to Provide Adequate Individual Counselling. (a) We  suggest that you look i n t o the action that i s being taken by the  Burnaby Welfare Department.  There they have a Mr. Karpoff who  s o c i a l worker> working within the Welfare Department.  Mr.  is a  Karpoff  handles a l l cases of desertion that come into the Burnaby Welfare Department.  Through h i s actions many f a m i l i e s are reunited.  our f e e l i n g that, someone of Mr.  It i s  Karpoff's capacity should be within  the framework of a l l Welfare Departments (Appendix  2).  (b) We recommend that you give due consideration to the b r i e f that  was  prepared by the B r i t i s h Columbia Association of Social Workers, February, 1964.  We would l i k e to draw your attention p a r t i c u l a r l y to  Recommendation #1,  and we quote:  "Increase the s o c i a l work s t a f f giving d i r e c t service to people by a minimum of 30$. This would necessitate appropriate Increases i n supervision and other personnel." (c) We f e e l that only f u l l y q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers should be i n a position  to interview applicants f o r s o c i a l assistance.  Again, we  would l i k e to draw your attention to a b r i e f , the "Mothers Only" B r i e f of February, 1963,  and we quote;  -  7 -  Item 2 of Recommendation $2 "Each Public Welfare Worker be r e l i e v e d of c l e r i c a l and r e l a t e d duties by a competent C l e r i c a l S t a f f , to permit f u l l use of her/his c a p a c i t i e s as a Social Worker." Item 3 of Recommendation #2. "Each Social Worker be responsible f o r a l l the members of an e n t i r e family." Item h of Recommendation #2 "Each worker make regular home v i s i t s f o r the purpose o f : i ) determining the proper use of welfare funds, i i ) recognizing the problems e x i s t i n g i n the homes and to permit counselling or help of the same, i i i ) promoting r e s t o r a t i o n and/or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . " 3.  E s t a b l i s h a Legal A i d Centre to Provide Free Legal Aid to Deserted Wives and Mothers. A f t e r c a r e f u l consideration to the multiple problems being faced by  the members o f bur organization, we have come to the conclusion that the deserted wives and mothers are desparately i n need of free l e g a l aid.  In many  instances women have been forced into situations because of the lack of l e g a l aid a v a i l a b l e to them.  We f e e l that many women on welfare today could have  avoided the p i t f a l l s brought on by inadequate l e g a l knowledge and counselling. Therefore we recommend: (a) That a Legal Aid Centre be set up within a l l Welfare Departments. (b) That the Welfare Department engage a q u a l i f i e d lawyer who w i l l be able to give free, l e g a l a i d to a l l welfare r e c i p i e n t s . (c) This Legal A i d Centre should be responsible for giving a i d i n l o c a t i n g deserting fathers.  We f i n d that a great number of the problems which arise are caused by the l a c k of information regardingprocedures i n Family Court.  Therefore,  we f e e l that t h i s Legal A i d Centre w i l l be an enormous help l n providing the deserted mother with the proper information and guidance as to the proceedings which she w i l l have to follow when she goes to Family Court.  We would l i k e to  add here that we w i l l endeavour to follow t h i s b r i e f with another b r i e f dealing with the -laxness of the present Family Court administration.  Again, we ask you to give our b r i e f your.serious consideration.  The  Society of Women Only i s mainly concerned with the deserted wives and t h e i r children.  We would l i k e to quote Mrs. Katherine R. C o l l i e r of the Children's  Aid Society, who  said:  "Is i t w e l l with the child? For, i f i t i s w e l l with the c h i l d , the w e l l being of our community, the w e l l being of our nation, and of the World can be assured."  WELFARE AND RECREATION COUNCIL APPENDIX E  Review of Council Operations Chronology and Nature of Work Items, May 196l - Jan. 1965  AGENCY PLANNING (directed at s p e c i a l problems of agencies, i . e . reviews, evaluation, "planning opinions", etc.)  (directed at s p e c i f i c problems i n s p e c i a l areas, e.g. family and c h i l d welfare, group work, health, handicapped, aged.)  North Shore Neighbourhood House Area Study (Rec. & Grpwk.)  Follow-up £n_Recreation Services f o r 16-21 year_olds Study_ (Rec. & Grpwk.)  ^Boys Club_of Vancouver - Swimming Pool_in Fraserview_Unlt TRec. & Grpwk.)  Cedar Cottage Area - Rec. Needs Study (Rec. & Grpwk.)  Boys Club of Vancouver - Re-Location of Kiview Unit (Sept. '61)  COMPREHENSIVE WELFARE PLANNING  SPECIALIZED WELFARE PLANNING  (directed at a l l "welfare needs i n the community, i . e . p r i o r i t i e s study, l o c a l area approach, area development project.) 11  Standards of Practice f o r V o l . Leisure Time Agencies (Rec. & Grpwk.) South Main_Rec_ _ Assoc._(Kool City_ Club) (Rec. & Grpwk.) !  Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowances Study Follow-up (F. & C. Welfare) (Oct. '6D Elizabeth Fry_ Society Application for ^erabership_in Chest (Nov. '6l)  Joint Family_Services Evaluation (Rec. & Grpwk.)  Cedar Cottage Area Rec. Needs Study (Nov. »6l) B r i e f to Royal Commission on Health W. & R. Council contribution (Nov. '6l) B i l l C-84 - Submission to Div. f o r Guidance of Handicapped re Prov. Rules and Regulations (Nov. '6l)  Big Brothers of Vancouver - S t a f f Expansion (Dec. »6l) Catholic Family Services Homemaker/ Housekeeper Services ( A p r i l '62)  P r i o r i t i e s Determination Project ( A p r i l '62)  Children's Foundation - Staff Adjustments (May '62) Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House Personnel and Service Re-Organization (June '62) ;  Second Mile Club - Future Financing (Sept. '62) Children's Foundation - E s t a b l i s h ment of Halfway House (Sept. '62) Alex. Neigh. House - Extension of Services to Skeena Terrace Housing Project (Sept. '62)  Assessment of Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Programmes (Oct. '62)  North Van. Mem. C.C. Assessment of Small Groups Programme (Sept. '62)  Note:  P r i o r i t i e s Determination Project Moratorium on Council A c t i v i t i e s (Nov. 1962 - Jan. 1963)  ^North_Shore_Neigh^ House ^ P £ J £ i to_Servi£e_Mission Indian Reserve "(Sept. '62) r  c  Y.W.C.A. Van. East Branch - Services to Boys & Teenagers (March '63)  Our Lady of Mercy Home - New Programme (May '63) Mental Health Services to Children and Adolescents - Position of Council (Dec. '63)  N o r t h S h o r e N e i g h . H o u s e - New B u i l d i n g P l a n ( A p r i l '64)  Need for Day Care Services Strathcona Area (Feb. '64)  Area Services Development Woodland Park (Jan. '64) Development of Local Area Approach (March '64) Area Services Development Sunrise Park ( A p r i l '64) Joint Meetings_with P o l i ^ - ^ P j " . * re_^ Juvenile Delinquency Prevention ( A p r i l '64)  Cedar Cottage Neigh. House - New F a c i l i t y Plans (June '64) Kiwassa G i r l s Club_-_Personnel Problems_&_Future Prog^ (July '64) Big Brothers of B.C., Van. Br. S t a f f Expansion (Nov. '64) KEY:  Study of Day Care Needs i n Greater Vancouver Area (May '64) Conservation & Acquisition of Outdoor Recreation Resources (Joint Committee with Health Council) (Jan. '65)  F i n a l Report Made on Work Assignment Completed (underlined) No_Final_Report o r _ O f f i c i a l Completion_-_inactive (dotted underline) Active Work Item (not underlined) ~ ~ * Discontinued at Request of Agency  Area Services Development - L i t t l e Mountain, Riley Park (Jan. '65)  APPENDIX G COMMUNITY CHEST AND  COUNCILS OF THE GREATER VANCOUVER AREA A LOCAL AREA APPROACH  A MODEL FOR CONCERTED INTERVENTION TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM IMPACT ON COMPLEX SOCIAL PROBLEMS A Local Area Approach would c o n s i s t of " D i v i d i n g urban areas i n t o agreed upon geographical u n i t s f o r the purpose of concerted i n t e r v e n t i o n by the community's change agents": D e f i n i t i o n of"Agreed Upon Geographical Units" Would represent a s u b d i v i s i o n of the urban area i n t o l o c a l areas whose boundaries would be recognized by the m a j o r i t y of change agents f o r purposes of i n t e r v e n i n g on a concerted b a s i s . D e f i n i t i o n of"Concerted I n t e r v e n t i o n i n a Local Area" A process i n which a number of change agents combine t h e i r e f f o r t s to e f f e c t planned change i n a designated geographical area. Two perspectives are p o s s i b l e : a)  Concerted i n t e r v e n t i o n employing the three methods of s o c i a l work (work w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and communities) i n an integrated manner.  b)  Concerted' I n t e r v e n t i o n combining integrated s o c i a l work methods w i t h those of other change agents i n the community (public health, p h y s i c a l planning, education).  D e f i n i t i o n of"Change Agents" A l l those i n s t i t u t i o n s d i r e c t l y involved i n the process of s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n and the e f f e c t i n g of change - i n c l u d i n g those concerned w i t h research, planning and d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , (Direct s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n c o n s i s t s of d i r e c t services t o i n d i v i d u a l s , to groups and to communities.) The L o c a l Area Approach would involve the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : 1.  Determination of agreed upon geographical u n i t s ( l o c a l areas).  2.  S e l e c t i o n of l o c a l areas f o r p r i o r i t y i n t e r v e n t i o n .  3.  Development of appropriate  U.  A n a l y s i s of the immediate needs of the area and i n i t i a t i o n of short-term programs.  £.  Detailed research and a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area, i t s people, i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , e t c . , to r e v e a l i t s major s o c i a l problems, and i t s strengths and weaknesses.  6.  The establishment of goals f o r d e s i r a b l e changes.  7.  The design of concerted a c t i o n programs and procedures to achieve these goals.  l o c a l planning  structures.  -  2  -  8,  Implementation of program procedures.  9.  E v a l u a t i o n of concerted i n t e r v e n t i o n r e s u l t s . (Then feed back t o 6.)  These f u n c t i o n s are not n e c e s s a r i l y c a r r i e d out i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order but form part of a process i n which, f o r example, research, the f o r m u l a t i o n of goals and beginning implementation may a l l be o c c u r r i n g at the same time. Such a process could be i n i t i a t e d by i n v o l v i n g l o c a l area r e s i d e n t s and groups r i g h t from the beginning i n gaining i n f o r m a t i o n about the area.  H xiaMaddV  APPENDIX I INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I  Problem Identification 1. What concern brought your agency into involvement vdth the Sunrise Park Area Organization? 2.  Did you have any personal concern i n your professional capacity?  3.  What do you consider identified the problem? - Was i t one agency or person or a complex of agencies?  4*  How was the problem identified?  5.  Was the extent of the problem verified?  6. Was the nature of the problem identified?  I f so, how? I f so, how?  II Goal Determination 1. What type of change was planned? Was i t policy, structure, etc? Were considerations of cost taken into account? 2.  Do you consider that the suggested change related to the concerns expressed?  3.  Who suggested the change? Agencies, representatives, individuals, community representatives? How was the change suggested?  4* Who was seen as the prime target for change? Were there any secondary targets? 5.  What was your estimate of the vulnerability of the target to change?  APPENDIX J BIBLIOGRAPHY I  REPORTS, PAMPHLETS, COLLECTIONS  C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver Redevelopment Study Vancouver, December, 1957. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, Study o f Skeena Terrace Housing P r o j e c t , F i l e . Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, S u n r i s e Park Area Development, F i l e Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area,Minutes o f Regular Meetings o f Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , June I 9 6 I January 1965 Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, Minutes o f Meetings o f Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n , 1959 - 196l. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, Minutes o f Meetings o f Family and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , 1959 - 1961. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, Minutes o f Meetings o f Committee on I n t e g r a t i o n of R e c r e a t i o n and Groupwork and Family and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n s , i960 - 196l Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area, A Study o f the Woodland Park Area, February 1965 Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, Terms o f Reference f o r the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , J u l y 1961. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of t h e Greater Vancouver Area, f o r an Area Development P r o j e c t , May, 1964.  A Plan  Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, Report to the Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f the S p e c i a l Committee E s t a b l i s h e d to Review the F i n d i n g s o f the C i t i z e n s Survey Committee on H e a l t h and Welfare, September, 196l. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater V n c o u v e r Area, Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , Annual Report - I962-63 a  Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , Annual Report, 1965-4 Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, Report o f the S p e c i a l Committee on Assessment o f Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , 1965 Jackson, F. Ivor, A H i s t o r y of the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f the Greater Vancouver Area, i960 Loeb, M a r t i n B. The Backdrop f o r S o c i a l Research, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, New York, i960 Marsh, Leonard C , R e b u i l d i n g a Neighbourhood, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Research P u b l i c a t i o n s , Vancouver, 1950. S o c i e t y o f Women Only, Minutes o f General Meetings, A p r i l 1964,March 1965 S o c i e t y of Women Only, Minutes o f E x e c u t i v e M e e t i n g s , A p r i l 1964,March 1965  - 2B i b l i o g r a p h y Cont'd. S o c i e t y o f Women Only, Scrapbook, February 1964 - March 1965« S o c i e t y o f Women Only, A B r i e f on S o c i a l Allowances, Vancouver,October,64. II  BOOKS  Bennis, Warren G.; Benne, Kenneth D.; and C h i n , Robert; The P l a n n i n g of Change, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, New York, 1961 Dunham, A r t h u r , Community Welfare O r g a n i z a t i o n , P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e C r o w e l l , New York, 1962. Homans, George C , The Human Group, Harcourt - Brace, New York, 1900 L i p p i t t , Ronald; Watson, Jeanne; and Westley, Bruce, The Dynamics o f Planned Change, Harcourt-Brace, New York, I 9 6 I Ross, Murray, Community Welfare O r g a n i z a t i o n , Theory and P r i n c i p l e s , Harper & Row, New York, 1955 Murphy, A r t h u r , E., The Uses o f Reason, M a c M i l l a n , Toronto,1943 Thelen, Herbert A., The Dynamics o f Groups a t Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1954 Warren, Roland L., The Community i n America, Rand McNally, Chicago,1963 Young, P a u l i n e , S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveyc and Research, P r e n t i c e Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1956. III  Hall,  ARTICLES,JOURNALS  Benne, Kenneth D., "Democratic E t h i c s i n S o c i a l E n g i n e e r i n g " , P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 26 (May 1949). Lewin, K u r t , " F r o n t i e r s i n Group Dynamics,"  vol.1  J o u r n a l o f Human R e l a t i o n s  (1947)  M i a l , H. C u r t i s , "Models o f Community A c t i o n " Community Developmnt, National Training Laboratories, National Training Laboratories, N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington D . C , I 9 6 I . IV  THESES  A l l a r d i c e , E t h e l ; MacKenzie, C l a r e n c e ; Rowe, F r a n c i s ; Z i e g l e r , Herbert; Neighbourhood A n a l y s i s i n Vancouver, Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 Brown, J.S.; Kowaga, D.; P e t e r s , R.E.; P u b l i c Housing and Welfare S e r v i c e s Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963 Wheeler, M i c h a e l , E v a l u a t i n g the Need f o r Low-R ntal Housing, Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955e  

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