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Case studies in documenting the process of organizational change for community organization purposes Audain, Michael James 1965

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CASE STUDIES IN DOCUMENTING THE PROCESS  OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FOR COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION PURPOSES by MICHAEL JAMES AUDAIN ROBERT JAMES MYERS JOHN VICTOR BELKNAP Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of S o c i a l Work 1965 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t fr e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of th i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School of Social Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date R p r W 3^>; IS~ i v ABSTRACT This study i s an i n i t i a l and exploratory venture toward examining organizational change as i t applies to the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare i n Greater Vancouver. S p e c i f i c a l l y the formulation for docu-menting change as outlined i n the proposal of the Area Development Project of the Greater Vancouver Area was used i n three separate case studies. The study has concerned i t s e l f with documenting the process of organizational change (both planned and unplanned), rather than analyzing the e f f e c t organizational change has had upon services and/or agencies. The f i r s t case study deals with three s o c i a l actions i n i t i a t e d i n 1964 by the Society of Women Only, a group of deserted women i n the Vancouver Area. In each action process the organization was attempting to create change i n governmental systems of a mutual support and s o c i a l control nature. The change processes were documented from t h e i r inception but not to th e i r conclusions. The structured organizational change documented i n the second case study occurred i n I 9 6 I . At that time two di v i s i o n s of the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver, the Groupxvork and Recreation Di v i s i o n and the Family and Child Welfare Div i s i o n were combined. The combined div i s i o n s became the Welfare and Recreation Council. The whole change process was documented from i t s inception i n i 9 6 0 u n t i l the change was assessed by a specia l committee i n January - March 1965* The t h i r d case study considers the documentation of organizational change being attempted i n a geographic area known as Sunrise Park i n the c i t y of Vancouver. The purpose of this change process has been to V . formulate plans for action by the health, recreation, education and welfare agencies towards solving problems that exist or may exist as a r e s u l t of the introduction of a large public housing project into the area. The case study deals with change process i n i t s i n i t i a l stages as the organizational change i n the period under study was only just beginning. Each writer has concluded his case study by making a number of c r i t i c a l observations concerning the u t i l i t y of the selected model for the development of both theory and practice i n the f i e l d of community organi zation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The preparation of this thesis has required assistance from many sources* In particular the writers are indebted to Mr. William Nicholls who as faculty advisor suggested the i n t i a l thesis subject and gave clarity and guidance throughout the writing of the thesis. Mr* Audain wishes to acknowledge the assist-ance of the executive and membership of the Society of Women Only, together with professional persons associated with the organization, for their co-operation and assistance. Messrs. Belknap and Myers express their gratitude to the staff members of the Social Planning Section and Research Department of the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area who contributed freely of their knowledge and time. The kind co-operation of a l l individual and agency representatives who were interviewed i s also acknowledged. i i PART I PART II TABLE OF CONTENTS Page GENERAL INTRODUCTION Significance and Scope of the Study, review of the methodology General THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ONLY Chapter 1, Introduction; Chapter 2, History of the Society of Women Only; Chapter 3i Change i n the Administration of S o c i a l Allowances: Analysis of the Action Process; Chapter 4, Change i n the Administration of Family Courts, Analysis of the Action Process; Chapter 5i Change i n Divorce L e g i s l a t i o n : Analysis of the Action Process;Chapter 6, Observations on the Model PART III THE WELFARE AND RECREATION COUNCIL 62 Scope of Study, Background Description before the change occurred, S o c i a l Planning Setting Before and After the Formulation of the Welfare and Recreation Council, Emerging Concepts of Planning, 1965? Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Goal Determination, Action Deter-mination, Action Implementation, Outcome Evaluation, Comment on the Model Used PART IV Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Appendix D. Appendix E. Appendix F. Appendix G THE SUNRISE PARK AREA 117 Chapter 1, Introduction; Chapter 2, History of Si g n i f i c a n t Events that Lead up to the Sunrise Park Development; Chapter 3j Characteristics of Sunrise Park; Chapter 4, Skeena Terrace Housing Project; Chapter 5» Sunrise Park Area Organizational Develop-ment; Chapter 6, Sunrise Park Resources Council; Chapter 7 i the Sunrise Park Resources Council; Chapter 8 , C r i t i q u e . Letter from Dr. Joseph C. Lagey, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington D.C. Proposal for Study of the Process of Organizational Change i n the Area Development Project, June,1964 The Society of Women Only - Objectives Mrs. Bentley's June B r i e f A B r i e f on S o c i a l Allowances - Society of Women Only Welfare and Recreation Council, Chronology and Nature of Work Items, May 1961 - January I965 A Model for Concerted Intervention to Achieve Maximum Impact on Complex S o c i a l Problems i i i Appendix H. Map Showing the Development of the Local Area Approach Appendix I. Interview Schedule Appendix J. Bibliography TABLES AND CHARTS Page Table A. Analysis of the Executive Committees' Minutes Family and Child Welfare and Recreation and Group Work Divisions, January - October,i960 84 Table B. Marital status of the head of families l i v i n g i n Skeena Terrace, excluding senior c i t i z e n s , as of March 15, 1965 147 Table C. Source of income of the heads of families l i v i n g i n Skeena Terrace, excluding Senior Citizens, as of March 15, 1965 147 Table D. Percentage and number of children by age group i n Skeena Terrace as of March 15, 19°5 150 Table E. Showing d i s t r i b u t i o n of Children to family size ... 150 Figure 1 S o c i a l Planning Sections - 1938 67 Figure 2 S o c i a l Planning Sections - 1939-40 67 Figure 3 Soc i a l Planning Sections - 1946 68 Figure 4 Soc i a l Planning Sections 1958 68 Figure 5 Soc i a l Planning Sections i960 74 Figure 6 S o c i a l Planning Sections 1962 74 Figure 7 Skeena Housing Project Plan 145 PART I GENERAL INTRODUCTION S i g n i f i c a n c e and Scope of the Study There has been a r e l a t i v e l y small amount of study p e r t a i n i n g to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s to s o c i a l welfare s i t u a t i o n s i n North America. The study of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change as i t r e l a t e s to business and i n d u s t r y has been much more extensive. One of the e a r l i e s t students of change was Fr e d e r i c k W. Taylor"*" who attempted to introduce a " t h i r d f o r c e " i n i n d u s t r y between labour and manage-2 3 ment. Studies by Morrison, Marrow and French, are now considered c l a s s i c works as they r e l a t e to i n d u s t r y . There i s considerable knowledge and theory r e s u l t i n g from these and other students of change. The School of I n d u s t r i a l Management at the Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology and the Boston U n i v e r s i t y , Human R e l a t i o n s Center have also made s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s toward broadening the theory and knowledge of change process i n business and i n d u s t r y . In a d d i t i o n , a great deal of study has been undertaken i n r e l a t i o n to group dynamics and how change occurs w i t h i n groups. S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s such as Max Weber, T a l c o t t Parsons, Kurt Lewin, T a y l o r , F r e d e r i c k W. "The P r i n c i p l e s of S c i e n t i f i c Management" Harper, New York, 1 9 1 1 . Morrison, E l t i n g e , "A Case Study of Innovation" Engineering & Science  Magazine, A p r i l , 1950 'Marrow, A l f r e d S. & French, John R.R. J r . "Changing a Stereotype i n Industry", J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues, V o l . 2, No. 1 , 19^5« - 2 -Robert Merton, are pioneers i n th i s f i e l d and have given impetus to the pursuit of change theory as i t pertains to s o c i a l organizations of a l l kinds. In the s o c i a l welfare f i e l d , beginnings have been made only recently and are gaining momentum i n several centers i n North America. Selected enquiries made by the authors have indicated that s t a r t s are being made i n the United States at the Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology and at Harvard i n studying organizational change i n eleven juvenile delinquency projects i n major c i t i e s i n the United States. The authors attempted a survey of various i n d i v i d u a l s who were known to have some knowledge of organizational change research. One such person was Dr. J.C. Lagey of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, D.C. Dr. Lagey was u n t i l recently the Research Director of the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area and took part i n the preparation of the research design of the research model proposed by that organization's Area Development Project. Dr. Lagey's reply"*" (see Appendix A) suggests that recently the Mobilization for Youth project i n New York City has appointed a hi s t o r i a n to record p o l i c y changes and the background reasons for these changes as the history of the project develops. In the area of systematic recording of organizational change, Lagey, Joseph C , Extracts from a l e t t e r dated January 12, 19&5» i n reply to enquiries by the authors of th i s t h e s i s . - 3 -v e r y l i t t l e s t u d y has been u n d e r t a k e n . T h e r e has been a d e a r t h o f m a t e r i a l on t h i s s u b j e c t . I n f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t f r o m the i n d i v i d u a l s who d e s i g n e d t h e A r e a Deve lopment model^" r e g a r d i n g a t t e m p t s b e i n g made t o w a r d r e c o r d i n g change s u p p o r t t h i s f a c t . I n a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y i t h a s been assumed t h a t methods o f r e c o r d i n g change a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and t o t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r whose w o r k becomes r e l a t e d t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e s i t u a t i o n s . I n most i n s t a n c e s where change has been r e c o r d e d , the method has been t o v i e w the change " b e f o r e " and " a f t e r " . There a r e few examples known to t h e w r i t e r s where t h e r e c o r d i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change has been d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e p r o c e s s t h a t t r a n s p i r e s . L i t t l e s t u d y has been done on r e c o r d i n g the p r o c e d u r e s t h a t t a k e p l a c e between the i n c e p t i o n and the c o n c l u s i o n o f the change s i t u a t i o n . I n u t i l i z i n g a s p e c i f i c method - an a n a l y t i c a l m o d e l - the w r i t e r s have a t t e m p t e d to document the " w h o l e " p r o c e s s . The d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f the p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r f o r b o t h o p e r a t i o n a l and t h e o r e t i c a l r e a s o n s . The V a n c o u v e r A r e a Deve lopment P r o j e c t ' s p r o p o s a l i n d i c a t e s an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t p r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s I n A p r i l , 1964, s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l w o r k i n g i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n p o s i t i o n s were convened t o p r e p a r e a p r o p o s a l t o s t u d y a s p e c t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e . The p r o p o s a l was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a method and f ramework f o r e x a m i n i n g a n t i c i p a t e d changes o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l n a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the A r e a Development P r o j e c t o f t h e Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a . - k -would react i n a manner conducive to service improvement i f they were i n regular receipt of documented data on the state of the various change processes i n which they were engaged."'' Floyd Mann has indicated how such feedback can induce changes i n the behaviour of an i n d i v i d u a l or group i n an organizational s e t t i n g : Information about the functioning of a system may i n t r o -duce a need for change. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true when the new data are seen as objective and at variance with common perceptions and expectations. Change processes organized around objective, new s o c i a l facts about one's own organizational s i t u a t i o n have more force for change than those organized around general p r i n c i p l e s about human behaviour. The more meaningful and relevant the  material, the greater the l i k e l i h o o d of change.2 Although not operating i n conjunction with a s p e c i f i c development 3 project, change agents can make use of documented information con-cerning a change process. By using such data, they can better understand the dynamics of structure and function and thus relate to the c l i e n t organization i n a more ef f e c t i v e manner. In t h i s way, the h i s t o r i c a l background necessary for e f f e c t i v e service can be more rea d i l y ascer-tained. Case data related to the process of organizational change can Area Development Project, Proposal for Study of the Process of  Organizational Change i n the Area Development Project, I96W. 2 Mann, Floyd C , "Studying and Creating Change" The Planning of Chanfce, ed. Warren G. Bennis, Kenneth D. Benne, and Robert Chin; Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1961. p 613. 3 The term "change agent" refers to a professional f a c i l i t a t o r of change. See Ronald L i p p i t , Jeanne Watson, and Bruce Westley, The Dynamics of  Planned Change, Harcourt, Brace and World, New York, 1958, pp 11 - 14. - 5 -also make a contribution to the development of applied s o c i a l science theory. When s u f f i c i e n t studies have been c o l l e c t e d i n a manner sat i s f a c t o r y for comparative analysis, hypotheses can be tested and th e o r e t i c a l inferences drawn. Eventually, as research on the kinds of change related to s o c i a l welfare i s developed and methodology improved, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w i l l be established to chart the expansion of knowledge i n t h i s f i e l d . This study has been an i n i t i a l and exploratory venture toward examining organizational change as i t applies to the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare i n Greater Vancouver. The formulation for documenting change as outlined by the Area Development Project has been used i n three separate case studies. This formulation was outlined i n the design document (see Appendix B ) . As much as possible, the p a r t i c u l a r method of application has been outlined i n pages f i v e and s i x of t h i s document. The study has concerned i t s e l f with documenting the process of organizational change (both planned and unplanned), rather than analyzing the impact organizational change has had upon services and/or agencies. The scope of the study has encompassed a view of organizations engaged i n some aspect of s o c i a l welfare. The study project has three separate case studies and the pertinent circumstances of each have been outlined i n t h e i r respective chapters. General Review of Methodology One of the e a r l i e r tasks was to develop c r i t e r i a for the selection of cases for study. The c r i t e r i a established were: ( l ) A c c e s s i b i l i t y for e f f e c t i v e contact and analysis; (2) That the study could be done - 6 -within the period available to the writer; (3) That changes and phases were f a i r l y c l e a r l y observable; (4) That the subject had some p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the writer. Following t h i s , a l i s t was developed of twenty-seven case situations where organizational change was taking place. This l i s t was compiled with the assistance of members of the s t a f f of the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Community Chest and Councils. Each of the writers selected one case for study. The factual material r e l a t i n g to each case was gathered from a variety of sources. T y p i c a l l y , these sources included minutes and relevant correspondence pertaining to the case; and various key informants and part i c i p a n t s i n the organization. The techniques used i n gaining the fact u a l material were: interviews conducted with various key in d i v i d u a l s ; a survey of written material; and observations of groups within the organization and of the organization i t s e l f . While a common approach to the documentation of the cases had been agreed upon by the writers, the unique and d i f f e r e n t character of each study required that the exact plan for the gathering and record-ing of pertinent data be l e f t to the i n d i v i d u a l researcher. The writers did not necessarily follow the exact sequence of phases as outlined i n the Area Development Project model through to i t s e n t i r e t y . In the following sections, each of which outlines one case, explanation has been given about procedures followed. The primary research question was: "Can the Area Development Project framework be regarded as a useful t o o l i n documenting the process of organizational change in specific cases?" A secondary question was: "In these specific cases under study, what i f any questions about organizational change process does this framework f a i l to answer?" PART I I CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s as outlined In the general i n t r o -duction to the research project: to explore the documentation of the process of organizational change f o r community organization purposes u t i l i z i n g the model proposed by Vancouver's Area Development Project. Introduction to the Case Study The case study w i l l concern i t s e l f with the Society of Women Only, a group of deserted wives i n the Vancouver area, who, i n February, 1964, organized themselves to pursue a programme of s o c i a l action.^" The members of t h i s group are mainly consumers of s o c i a l welfare services and, as such, are frequently considered to have been so rendered dependent on, yet alienated from, the community, that s e l f -motivated organization i s un l i k e l y . In fact, t h i s i s the only case known to the writer wherein deserted wives have organized under t h e i r own auspices for the good of themselves and t h e i r children. Although th i s case may be somewhat unique, i t i s of relevance to community organization, the l i t e r a t u r e of which i s increasingly showing i n t e r e s t i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l change being effected through 2 the e f f o r t s of v i t a l l y concerned and-'involved c i t i z e n s . S o c i a l action i s defined as " e f f o r t to bring about change or prevent change i n current s o c i a l practices or situations, through education, propaganda, persuasion or pressure on behalf of objectives believed by the s o c i a l a c t i o n i s t s to be s o c i a l l y desirable" i n Dunham, Arthur, Community Welfare Organization, Crowell, New York, 1958, p«52. The New York Project, Mobilization for Youth i s based on such a premise. - 9 -The study focussed on the intra-organizational process the Society of Women Only underwent during i t s f i r s t year of attempting to create various changes i n the extra-organizational sphere. A f t e r an o u t l i n i n g of the history of the group i n d i c a t i n g the basic programme development of the organization i n a time sequence, three main change actions were documented using the Area Development Project's model as a framework for analysis. A chapter each was devoted to change actions i n respect to: 1) the administration of s o c i a l allowances; 2) the administration of family courts; and, 3) divorce l e g i s l a t i o n . In each action, change was desired not i n the group i t s e l f but i n governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s and the action processes deal with transactions of an i n t e r -group nature. Conceivably, the model could have been used to document other types of change actions, e.g., the enlistment of professional assistance for group development. However, i t was considered important, as far as possible, to document planned rather than unplanned change. In t h i s connection, the writer was of the opinion that the three change actions selected were the least pragmatic. The study w i l l conclude with a chapter presenting a number of observations on the u t i l i t y of the model for the documentation of organizational change. Methodological Approach The case study has dealt with the development of the Society of Women Only over approximately one year, from t h e i r f i r s t meeting held on February 27, 1964, to thei r f i r s t annual meeting held on March 4th, 1965. Data was col l e c t e d on a retrospective basis from January 6, 1965, to March 4, 1965. Ten interviews l a s t i n g a t o t a l of seventeen hours were conducted with the six p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e r s of the group. In addition - 10 -three interviews l a s t i n g six hours were held with three professional persons who had been related to the organization i n the course of the year. Interview questions with the professional people were mainly those of the model's headings; however, interviews with members of the group tended to be unstructured. The writer also attended two general meetings of the group where he had an opportunity to observe i n t e r a c t i o n and to talk informally with about ten other members of the Society of Women Only. Two occasions where members of the group made presentations to the community were also attended. Written material including minutes of executive, general, and b r i e f committee meetings were placed at the di s -posal of the writer, as were correspondence, documents, b r i e f s , notes and press c l i p p i n g s . A l l relevant data from interviews and written material was noted on cards, cross checked, and consolidated under the general headings of the Area Development Project model. However, i t must be stressed that the data has been organized and arranged under the model's headings s o l e l y on the personal judgement of the writer. Permission was granted to use actual names of members of the Society of Women Only. The analysis has been subjected to neither the evaluation of the group i t s e l f nor of professional persons who have i n some capacity been connected with the group, although considerable assistance i n the development of a study method was given to the writer by the thesis supervisor. F i n a l l y , i t must be noted that data w i l l not be constantly supported by reference to unpublished material unless i t i s thought to be p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary by the writer, for instance, when elaborating on controversial matters or where a reasonable amount of documentation exists i n the organization's records. CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ONLY The f i r s t meeting of the Society of Women Only was held on February 2?, 1964. I t was c a l l e d by a resident of Burnaby, Mrs. Pearly Bentley. A deserted mother of three small children, she had been l i v i n g on s o c i a l assistance for several years due to d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining maintenance payments from her husband. In early February 1964, Mrs. Bentley appeared on a morning t e l e v i s i o n programme to describe her pligh t and to make an appeal for other women i n a s i m i l a r position to j o i n with her i n a programme of s o c i a l action. The response by telephone was such that she was en-couraged to c a l l a meeting to form a group to work for her cause. The f i r s t meeting was held i n a Burnaby church h a l l . I t was attended by about forty women and widely reported i n the press. Many complaints about the inadequacy of s o c i a l assistance p o l i c i e s and the lack of e f f e c t i v e enforcenmt of the Wives' and Children's Maintenance  Act were voiced. On the strength of the support she was receiving, Mrs. Bentley went alone to V i c t o r i a on March 3, 1964, to make representations to the P r o v i n c i a l Government for changes i n the administration of legislation r e l a t i n g to desertion. She met with the L i b e r a l and the New Democratic Party caucuses, as well as with Highways Minister, P.A. Gaglardi. Mrs. Bentley apparently received sympathetic hearings. Gordon Dowding, M.L.A. (N.D.P.- Burnaby), attended the second meeting of the group on March 5th, as did Miss Beatrice Sanderson, Y.W.C.A. s o c i a l worker. Mr. Dowding gave the women l e g a l advice while - 12 -Miss Sanderson helped them to develop and formalize t h e i r organi-zation. A panel discussion on the problems of desertion was held at the t h i r d meeting on A p r i l 2nd. Miss Sanderson, Mr. Dowding and Mr. Weber of New Westminster were among the speakers. A set of objectives were adopted by the group;"*" and a number of by-laws were presented for consideration. An executive committee was also elected. At an open meeting on May ?th, Mr. T.C. Bowen-Colthurst of the Attorney-General's Department addressed the group. By now, the Society of Women Only had decided that i t would aim for changes i n the divorce laws, as well as i n the administration of s o c i a l assistance and Family Court l e g i s l a t i o n . To this end, a number of p e t i t i o n sheets c a l l i n g for revision of divorce l e g i s l a t i o n were ci r c u l a t e d i n the l a t t e r part of May. The group was now receiving wide attention. In June i t claimed eighty-five members i n d i f f e r e n t parts of B r i t i s h Columbia. Corres-pondence was being exchanged with other areas i n Canada. On June l ? t h , eight panelists discussed divorce. A l e t t e r -writing campaign on t h i s subject was i n i t i a t e d to the press. Mrs. Bentley, i n the company of Mrs. Doris Ried, Membership Chairman, v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a again on June 22nd. She took with her a three page b r i e f which c a l l e d for widespread changes i n s o c i a l welfare 2 services, i n the laws respecting maintenance, and for divorce reform. Appendix C Appendix D - 13 -On t h i s occasion they met with Education Minister Peterson and rep-resentatives of the Department of the Attorney-General and the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. A comprehensive b r i e f dealing with s o c i a l assistance was started i n July by the education and b r i e f s committees under the d i r e c t i o n of Mrs. P h i l l i s Ruddell. The preparation of t h i s b r i e f took at least six committee meetings and much work was involved including reading past b r i e f s , f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with l e g i s l a t i o n and practices, and consultation with a number of professional persons. Miss Sanderson moved away from Vancouver i n June and thus M t the group without a professional enabler. However, during the summer, Mrs. Bentley c a l l e d on many community leaders and agency executives. In September, Mrs. Bentley was hospitalized and subsequently resigned from the group. She was succeeded as President by the Vice-President, Mrs. Doreen Kaiser. The group became formally incorporated under the Societies Act i n August, thus ending an involved e f f o r t to formulate a constitution and by-laws which had been commenced by Mr. Dowding i n March, and f i n a l l y resolved with the help of Mr. Wally Beck, a Vancouver lawyer. Also i n August a number of members tr a v e l l e d to Penticton to e s t a b l i s h a group there. They received a good reception and were success-f u l i n organizing about twelve deserted wives. In September, the pro-gramme of public education continued with another panel on aspects of desertion. The b r i e f on s o c i a l assistance was f i n a l l y completed i n la t e October; and on November 11, Mrs. Euddell and Mrs. E l l a Conners,Secretary, - I n -formally presented i t to Soci a l Welfare Minister B l a c k . T h e y had a long discussion with Mr. Black and department o f f i c i a l s ; but according to the women, no action was promised. On January 1 2 , I9S3, Mrs. Ruddell appeared before Vancouver City Council to urge better enforcement of Family Court l e g i s l a t i o n . The Chief Probation O f f i c e r , Mr. Gordon Stevens, also spoke. The matter was then turned over to the Council's health and welfare committee. A start had been made on a Family Court b r i e f i n September, however the matter was postponed u n t i l the completion of the s o c i a l assistance b r i e f . On February 1 6 , 1 9 6 5 * Mrs. Kaiser spoke i n a panel discussion at the convention of the Provi n c i a l Council of Women i n V i c t o r i a . She created a concern about the eff e c t s of desertion i n thi s body and was asked to accompany the executive members of the Pr o v i n c i a l Council of Women when they made t h e i r annual presentation to the cabinet. In March 1 9 6 5 1 reaction to the s o c i a l assistance b r i e f was s t i l l being received; however the Family Court Brief i s now being prepared. By the end of 1 9 6 5 » * n e Society of Women Only hopes to have presented a b r i e f on divorce i n Ottawa. Appendix E CHAPTER 3 CHANGE IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SOCIAL ALLOWANCES: ANALYSIS OF THE ACTION PROCESS The action process engaged i n by the Society of Women Only i n re l a t i o n to d i f f i c u l t y encountered i n l i v i n g adequately on s o c i a l assistance w i l l be analysed within the framework of the Area Development Project's model. 1. Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a. Who i d e n t i f i e d the problem? i . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problem of l i v i n g adequately on s o c i a l assistance was f i r s t made by Mrs. Bentley. In fact , she f e l t that i t was desperation about her continuing existence on s o c i a l assistance that prompted her to engage i n the p u b l i c i t y which l e d to the founding of the Society of Women Only. Mrs. Bentley stated that she was p a r t i c u l a r l y distressed when she learned that one of her three sons had been r i d i c u l e d at school for his patched clothing. Although she said that she had been concerned about the problem for three to four years, i t was only i n February 1964 that she became determined to no longer accept a passive r o l e . i i . The problem also emerged d i r e c t l y out of the experiences of many of the women who attended the f i r s t meetings of the organi-zation. They came to the meetings because they had problems i n common, one of which was maintaining a sa t i s f a c t o r y standard of l i v i n g for themselves and t h e i r children while i n receipt of s o c i a l assistance. Miss Sanderson, the Y.W.C.A. s o c i a l worker who - 16 -helped the group from i t s early stages, stressed that the women did not only want higher s o c i a l allowances. They wanted to get off s o c i a l assistance and thereby raise t h e i r conception of them-selves as worthwhile people; however, Miss Sanderson stated, that due to t h e i r lack of education, the lack of a government medical scheme, and the high cost of day care for t h e i r children, many women found i t ac t u a l l y more advantageous to l i v e on s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance, "although they r e a l i z e d that i t was no good for them as people."'*' The B r i e f on S o c i a l Allowances, which was prepared by the society, contained two complete statements by members of the group which served to d e t a i l the way i n which l i v i n g on s o c i a l 2 assistance was f o r c i b l y seen as being a severe problem, b. How was i t i d e n t i f i e d ? i . The problem was f i r s t brought to the attention of the community by Mrs. Bentley when she engaged i n certain actions which led to the founding of the Society of Women Only. Early i n February, 1964, she wrote a number of l e t t e r s to the press to describe her p l i g h t . This resulted i n her being asked to appear on Mr. Brad Keen's morning show on CHAN-TV. After her interview, Mrs. Bentley received many 'phone c a l l s from women who said they were i n a sim i l a r desperate p o s i t i o n . About ten days l a t e r , on February 2?» 1964, Mrs. Bentley arranged the f i r s t meeting of the group. i i . The problem was also i d e n t i f i e d during meetings of the group. In Interview with Miss Sanderson, February 27, 1965* Appendix E - 17 -f a c t , most of the programmes of the early meetings were simply devoted to women describing t h e i r p l i g h t . Discontent with the s o c i a l welfare services was voiced. i i i . The objectives of the Society of Women Only, prepared by Mrs. Bentley, assisted by Mrs. Olive McRae, Mrs. E l l a Conners, Lawyer Gordon Dowding, M.L.A., and s o c i a l worker Miss Beatrice Sanderson, were adopted by the group at th e i r fourth meeting. The statement served to formally i d e n t i f y the problems that were f e l t to face the group. High on the l i s t were those concerning s o c i a l assistance: !• To better the home l i f e and upbringing of children of deserted mothers through improved welfare f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l arrangements. 2 . To remove the s o c i a l stigma which an uninformed society has placed upon deserted women l i v i n g on s o c i a l welfare, i n order that these women may take the i r r i g h t f u l place i n society. 6. To bring about a re-assessment of welfare payments i n terms of the present day cost of l i v i n g , and that a r e a l i s t i c basis of payment be found for those mothers who are able to earn a small sum each month through part-time work.l c. How was the extent and nature of the problem v e r i f i e d ? i . The problem was v e r i f i e d mainly by various professional persons with whom the group had contact at an early stage. I t i s apparent that Miss Sanderson was of p a r t i c u l a r help. She spoke i n a panel discussion at the t h i r d meeting of the group known as Mothers Only, located i n the Vancouver's L i t t l e Mountain Housing Project, who had prepared a b r i e f c a l l i n g for higher s o c i a l assistance rates i n 1961. 'Appendix C - 1 8 -Miss Sanderson also informed the group that the l e v e l of s o c i a l allowances was recognized as being a severe problem by other groups i n the community, such as the B.C. Association of S o c i a l Workers. Members of the Society of Women Only also learned from t h e i r s o c i a l workers that people working i n the f i e l d of public assistance were aware of the problem but seemed incapable of doing much about it."*" i i . In addition, the problem was v e r i f i e d by the large volume of phone c a l l s and correspondence received by the group i n i t s early stages. Letters were received from a l l over B r i t i s h Columbia, i n d i c a t i n g that the problem was not l o c a l , but of a p r o v i n c i a l and deeply f e l t nature. 2 . Goal Determination a. What type of change was planned? i . The Society of Women Only was anxious to obtain increased s o c i a l allowances, including an immediate increase of at least 20% with an annual review, more permissive grants to meet i n d i v i d u a l needs, a higher l e v e l of allowable earnings, and permission for a deserted mother to keep support payments from a husband equivalent to the 2 amount she i s allowed to earn. i i . The group wanted to obtain an increase i n the number of q u a l i -f i e d s o c i a l workers employed i n public welfare agencies i n order to provide more i n d i v i d u a l counselling.^ Interview with Mrs. Bentley, January 1 8 , 1 9 6 5 Society of Women Only, A B r i e f on S o c i a l Bfllowances, October, 1 9 6 4 , p p . 4 - 6 . Appendix E ^Ibi d . , p.6 Appendix E - 1 9 -i i i . The Society of Women Only also wanted to ef f e c t change by having a l l welfare o f f i c e s e stablish a free l e g a l a i d department to help deserted wives and mothers."*" b. Who suggested i t and how was i t suggested? i . I t appears that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the type of changes desired came mainly from the members of the Society of Women Only 2 themselves. Miss Sanderson confirms t h i s conclusion. Their d i f f i -c u l ty i n l i v i n g on the present l e v e l of s o c i a l allowances d i r e c t l y l e d them to advocate an increase i n these allowances; i n addition, i n a b i l i t y to obtain competent l e g a l advice resulted i n t h e i r placing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h i s service i n the government department that administered t h e i r income. At f i r s t the women simply put forward suggestions for change at meetings, but l a t e r a representative committee spent considerable time i n defining exactly the kind of changes the group was interested i n — this was during the deliberations of the committee charged with the task of preparing the b r i e f on s o c i a l assistance. i i . Professional people also played a role i n suggesting changes i n the administration of s o c i a l assistance. Mr. Ronald Hawkes, President, B.C. Association of Soc i a l Workers, and Mr. Edward Sopp, Unit Director, Vancouver City S o c i a l Service Department, were p a r t i c u l a r l y helpful i n suggesting the kind of changes i n which the society might be interested. These two s o c i a l workers assisted the work of the b r i e f committee. I t i s understood that Mr. Hawkes, p a r t i c u l a r l y , was to Ibid., p. 7 « Appendix E Interview with Miss Sanderson, February 2 7 , 1 9 ° 5 - 20 -some degree responsible for the recommendation included i n the br i e f that the number of q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers i n public welfare agencies needs to be increased. c. Who i s seen as the target(s) for change? It i s clear that the P r o v i n c i a l Government was seen as being the target for change by the Society of Women Only and i t s b r i e f committee; although i n the very early stages of organization, Mr. Gordon Dowding indicated that some members of the group were under the impression that change could be effected by simply convincing t h e i r l o c a l M.L.A.'*" Within the cabinet, the group f e l t that both Premier W.A.C. Bennett and the Minister of S o c i a l Welfare, Hon. Wesley Black, were the key figures to influence i f a change i n the administration of s o c i a l allowances was to be brought about. d. What was the estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the  target to change? . Apparently the members of the Society of Women Only were very optimistic that change would be forthcoming on the part of the Pr o v i n c i a l Government. This f e e l i n g was shared by Mrs. Bentley and most of the members of the group. They established no time l i m i t nor did they expect very r a d i c a l change; however, they demonstrated a firm b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t y of concerned and organized c i t i z e n s to aff e c t the p o l i c i e s of government. Both Miss Sanderson and Mr. Dowding indicated that they f e l t the women were too optimistic and would, i n fact , be soon disappointed when they r e a l i z e d the d i f f i -c u l t i e s of e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l action. In view of t h i s , these Interview with Mr. Dowding, February 1 7 , 1 9 6 4 - 21 -professional people attempted to help the members plan on: a long term basis. The group estimated the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the target to change, not on the basis of experience or advice, but on the basis of t h e i r own dedication to do something about the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement for mutual support i n the society i n which they were l i v i n g . Action Determination a. What action-decisions were made to bring about  the desired change? Who made them? i . The Society of Women Only decided to engage i n a process of persuasion. They would attempt to convince the target of the necess-i t y of making the proposed changes. This method of bringing about change was f i r s t decided upon and used by Mrs. Bentley acting more as a c i t i z e n than as a representative of an organization; however, i t was l a t e r adopted and employed by the group as a whole. i i . I t was also decided to encourage t h i r d party intervention. The society hoped to create an awareness of the need for change i n i n f l u e n t i a l groups such as Members of the Legislature, clergy, s o c i a l workers, and women's organizations. I t was suggested to the society by both Miss Sanderson and Mr. Dowding, that i f these groups could be mobilized to exert pressure on the P r o v i n c i a l Government, change would be more l i k e l y . i i i . A decision was also made to engage i n a programme of p u b l i c i t y and public education so that the community would come to understand the deserted mother's p l i g h t and would thus support the Government i n making changes i n the administration of s o c i a l assistance. The need for such a programme was recognized at an early stage by Mrs. - 22 -Bentley and other executive o f f i c e r s . b. What were the possible alternative outcomes of each of these action decisions? The a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes of the group's decisions regarding action determination are self-evident. The P r o v i n c i a l Government would either respond to a programme of persuasion and create change or i t would ignore representations made by the group. In the same manner, community groups would either be motivated to take action i n respect to needs of deserted families or they would remain disinterested. Likewise, the public would show some change i n the way welfare recipients are viewed or they would remain apathetic i f not h o s t i l e . In making a choice of d i f f e r e n t action-decisions, the members of the Society of Women Only had l i t t l e to lose but much to gain. c. What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l  forces involved, i . e . on part of target and on part of  change agent? As indicated i n commenting on the estimation of the vulner-a b i l i t y of the target to change (2.d.), the members of the society were confident that some change could be obtained and to thi s end they made the i r action-decisions i n the b e l i e f that such methods would produce success. It i s not known what was seen as an expected outcome on the part of the target. Action Implementation a. Who became involved? i . Members of the Society of Women Only, p a r t i c u l a r l y the b r i e f and education committees. i i . Professional persons. i i i . Community groups. - 23 -i v . The general public v. The target b. How were they involved? Members of the Society of Women Only, using professional consultants, attempted to persuade the target to i n i t i a t e change, while at the same time attempting to influence the community groups and the public to pressure the target for such change. c. What methods were actu a l l y used? In an analysis of the methods actu a l l y used to induce change, i t i s necessary to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by Mrs. Bentley acting as a representative of the Society of Women Only but without the endorsation of the members and plans carried out by executive o f f i c e r s sanctioned by the group. Mrs. Bentley v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a on two occassions to attempt to persuade the Pro v i n c i a l Government to improve the administration of s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance. On March 5, 1964, she was unsuccessful i n obtaining an i n t e r -view with a representative of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and so she contented herself with addressing the L i b e r a l and New Democratic Party caucuses and ta l k i n g informally with Highways Minister P.A. Gaglardi. It i s understood from Mrs. Bentley that problems related to s o c i a l assistance were among the issues that were discussed."*" Mrs. Bentley v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a again on June 22, 1964, this time i n Interview with Mrs. Bentley, January 18, 1965 - 24 -the company of Mrs. Doris Ried, Membership Chairman. Mrs. Bentley took with her a three page b r i e f which argued for changes i n family court proceedings and i n divorce laws as well as i n s o c i a l welfare services."*' It must be noted, however, that t h i s b r i e f was composed by Mrs. Bentley with some help from Mrs. Ried's brother and i s therefore not considered to be s t r i c t l y representative of the think-2 ing of the society. In any event, the b r i e f was presented to Education Minister L e s l i e Peterson and discussed with Mr. Peterson, Deputy Welfare Minister Ray Rickinson, and Deputy Attorney-General Gilbert Kennedy. During the summer months, Mrs. Bentley discussed the p l i g h t of the deserted mother on s o c i a l assistance with a number of heads of s o c i a l agencies, clergy, and community workers i n an attempt to urge them to lend support to the Society of Women Only. While Mrs. Bentley was occupied i n the above-mentioned a c t i v i -t i e s other members of the society decided to implement a c a r e f u l l y planned change action using the following methods: i . Preparation of a b r i e f . The idea of using b r i e f s to present th e i r concerns to government was suggested to the group i n i t s early stages by Mr. Dowding. During June, i t was decided at a meeting that the f i r s t b r i e f would concentrate on the d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i v i n g on s o c i a l assistance, since many members were being acutely distressed by this problem. To prepare the b r i e f , a j o i n t meeting of the education and Appendix D Interview with Mrs. Ruddell, March 3 , 1 9 6 5 - 25 -b r i e f committees was held under the chairmanship of Mrs. Ruddell on July 23rd, 1964. Miss Sanderson was present and helped the members to l i s t a l l the d i f f e r e n t kinds of proposals that should be made to government. At a subsequent committee meeting on July 30, 1964, Mr. Ronald Hawkes, President, B.C. Association of S o c i a l Workers, attended to help the committee to focus on the types of recommendations that i t would be appropriate to make and on a suitable rationale for change. He also suggested that quotations be used from previous b r i e f s on s o c i a l allowances made by such groups as the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area and the B.C. Association of S o c i a l Workers. Between meetings, members of the committee f a m i l i a r -i z e d themselves with pertinent l e g i s l a t i o n and with other reports and b r i e f s r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l assistance; however, the following quotation from the minutes of the August 20, 1964, meeting indicates the manner i n which the group viewed their work: It i s our finding that we, as people who have l i v e d on s o c i a l assistance, should be the most appropriate group to prepare this b r i e f . . . . Therefore, our own b r i e f should concentrate on the actual experience of members. The b r i e f w i l l be put down i n as simple and uncomplicated way as possible. We w i l l simply state case h i s t o r i e s and recommendations.1 The committee completed the b r i e f i n late September a f t e r having received additional help i n arranging t h e i r material from Mrs. Betsy McDonald, Community Development O f f i c e r , Vancouver Times, and from Mr. Edward Sopp, who assisted the committee i n the capacity of a professional s o c i a l worker feather than as Unit Director, Vancouver City Society of Women Only, Minutes of S o c i a l Assistance B r i e f Committee, August 20, 1964 - 26 -S o c i a l Service Department. i i . Presentation of the b r i e f Acting on the advice of Mr. Hawkes, the b r i e f was forwarded to S o c i a l Welfare Minister Wesley Black i n October with an accompany-ing l e t t e r requesting an interview to discuss the recommendation. This interview was granted. On November 18, 1964, Mrs. Euddell and Mrs. E l l a Conners, Secretary, spent two hours with Mr. Black, Deputy Welfare Minister Ray Rickinson, and Deputy Attorney-General Dr. G i l b e r t Kennedy i n V i c t o r i a . i i i . D i s t r i b u t i o n of b r i e f to community The b r i e f was dis t r i b u t e d to the press before the meeting with the Minister. This resulted i n half column a r t i c l e s i n Vancouver news-papers and mention on radio and t e l e v i s i o n . After the meeting with Mr. Black, b r i e f s were also sent to p o l i t i c i a n s , church leaders, and s o c i a l agencies. About t h i r t y copies were so di s t r i b u t e d , the action being designed to a l e r t the community concerning the d i f f i c u l t i e s being encountered by deserted f a n i l i e s on s o c i a l assistance, d. What was the reaction of the target? Mrs. Bentley claims that her meetings with Education Minister L e s l i e Peterson on June 22, 1964, resulted i n the payment of ten d o l l a r s per school c h i l d i n September to families on s o c i a l assistance for text book rentals and supplies."'" This claim has, however, not been confirmed by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. Mrs. Conners kept a stenographic record of the discussion on the s o c i a l assistance b r i e f with Welfare Minister Wesley Black. The Interview with Mrs. Bentley, January 22, 1965 - 27 -notes indicate that the representations of the Society, of Women Only were accorded a f r i e n d l y reception. Recommendation One, c a l l i n g for an increase i n s o c i a l allowances,was taken under consideration. After the interview, Deputy Welfare Minister Ray Rickinson stated to the press that he did not agree with the b r i e f ' s claim that families on s o c i a l assistance were l i v i n g i n a state of poverty, but that the request for an increase i n s o c i a l allowances would be referred to a departmental committee under James Sadler.^ Mrs. Conner's notes indicated that Mr. Black said that Recommendation Two, c a l l i n g for an increase i n the number of s o c i a l workers available for family counselling, had already been put into e f f e c t as thirty-nine new workers had recently been taken on by the Department of Soc i a l Welfare. Deputy Attorney-General G i l b e r t Kennedy dealt with Recommendation Three which c a l l e d for the establis h -ment of free l e g a l a i d centres. He maintained that such l e g a l aid i s already being provided by the Law Society of B r i t i s h Columbia and that recent changes i n the administration of the Family Court w i l l allow probation o f f i c e r s to give increased assistance of thi s kind to deserted wives. Mr. Black terminated the interview by warning the Society of Women Only not to become involved with any p a r t i c u l a r p o l i -t i c a l party. Outcome Evaluation a. What was the actual outcome? To t h i s date, i t appears that the P r o v i n c i a l Government has not seen f i t to implement any of the s p e c i f i c recommendations made i n the society's b r i e f on s o c i a l allowances. It has been pointed out that i t Macalpine, Ian, "Deserted Wives to Get Hearing" Vancouver Sun, November 19, 1964 - 2 8 -i s not known to what degree, i f any, Mrs. Bentley's representations played i n the decision to grant a supplementary allowance for school supplies. However, i t i s thought that the action-decision to d i s -tribute the b r i e f to the community i n order to encourage t h i r d party intervention has produced r e s u l t s . A number of community leaders have expressed support fo r the organization as i s indicated by the following quotations from correspondence: I would l i k e to congratulate you on the excellent work put into this b r i e f , and to advise that I am passing i t along to Alderman B i r d who has been discussing t h i s whole s i t u a t i o n . . . . - Mayor William Rathie of Vancouver (December 1 0 , 1 9 6 4 ) I w i l l do what I can to help your organization meet some of i t s objectives during the coming session of the Legislature. I am very well aware of the t e r r i b l e problems that deserted mothers face and I agree with you that action i s needed very badly. - R.J. Perrault, M.L.A. L i b e r a l Leader (January 1 9 , 1 9 6 5 ) Did appreciate receiving a copy of the objectives of the Society of Women Only and also a copy of the b r i e f on s o c i a l allowances. The l a t t e r was excellent and well documented. - Mrs. Catherine C o l l i e r , Vancouver Children's Aid Society (November 1 3 , 1 9 6 4 ) I think the views of the New Democratic Party are well known to your members and at the next session i n January our M.L.A.s w i l l again be pressing the government for the type of improvements outlined i n your b r i e f . - R.M. Strachan, Leader, New Democratic Party (November 5 i 1 9 6 4 ) With regard to your b r i e f , I s h a l l do my best. - Hon. P.A. Gaglardi, Minister of Highways (January 1 8 , 1 9 6 5 ) - 29 -An i n t e r e s t i n the problems of deserted families on s o c i a l a s s i s t -ance was created i n the P r o v i n c i a l Council of Women on t h e i r receipt of the b r i e f . This led to an i n v i t a t i o n to Mrs. Kaiser, President of the Society of Women Only, to address t h e i r annual convention i n V i c t o r i a on February 16, 19&5, a n c * to accompany the P r o v i n c i a l Council of Women's delegation to the p r o v i n c i a l cabinet the next day. As a result of the inte r p r e t a t i o n of the needs of deserted families made by the society, other groups i n the community may be more prepared to press the government to i n s t i t u t e changes that may be necessary. b. What were the discrepancies between expected outcome  and actual outcome? As indicated i n sections 2 d. and 3 c., the Society of Women Only was confident that some change could be effected i n the admini-s t r a t i o n of s o c i a l assistance l e g i s l a t i o n . No assessment was made of the expected outcome as seen by the target for change. At the time of writing, i t i s evident that the outcome of the change action has not as yet met the expectations of the society which has been acting as a change agent. Considerable discrepancy, therefore, s t i l l exists between the expected outcome and the actual outcome, other than i n the area of stimulating t h i r d party intervention. c. Did the change induced meet the o r i g i n a l need for change? As no apparent change has yet taken place on the part of the target, i t i s obvious that the o r i g i n a l need for change has not as yet been met. However, i t must be noted that the Society of Women Only does not - 30 -regard the change action as having been completed. They r e a l i z e that a target as complex as a p r o v i n c i a l government acts slowly and i s u n l i k e l y to i n i t i a t e change simply due to action undertaken by a group such as their own. The organization continues to work for change i n s o c i a l allowances by persuasion, t h i r d party i n t e r -vention, and public education. I t may be that as the members of the group continue i n t h e i r e f f o r t to e f f e c t change, d i f f e r e n t t a c t i c s w i l l be adopted; however, the e s s e n t i a l process w i l l prob-ably continue u n t i l the o r i g i n a l need for change has been met. d. What was the cost of the change on the part of the target? Since the target, i n t h i s case the P r o v i n c i a l Government, has not as yet effected s i g n i f i c a n t change, no estimation of costs can be made. SUMMARY In this chapter, documentation revealed that problem i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n was made both by an i n d i v i d u a l and by members of the Society of Women Only from personal experiences, i n meetings,, and i n the development of objectives for the group. V e r i f i c a t i o n was by professional persons and correspondence. Improvement i n s o c i a l allowances, increased welfare s t a f f and l e g a l a i d were the changes planned on the suggestion of the deserted women and t h e i r professional consultants. The society was optimistic that they could e f f e c t such changes i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government, the target. Persuasion, t h i r d party intervention, and public education were - 31 -s e l e c t e d as a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s to b r i n g about change. The methods a c t u a l l y used in c l u d e d v i s i t s to the L e g i s l a t u r e , preparation of a b r i e f and i t s subsequent pre s e n t a t i o n to the M i n i s t e r of S o c i a l Welfare and d i s t r i b u t i o n to the community. By March 19&5» the target i t s e l f seemed to have f a i l e d to respond to the a c t i o n process, although some concern had been created i n the community. However, the change a c t i o n was not considered to have been completed. CHAPTER 4 CHANGE IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF FAMILY COURTS: ANALYSIS OF THE ACTION PROCESS The action process engaged i n by the Society of Women Only i n r e l a t i o n to d i f f i c u l t y encountered i n securing maintenance pay-ments from th e i r husbands through the family courts w i l l be analysed within the framework of the Area Development Project's model. 1. Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a. Who i d e n t i f i e d the problem? i . Mrs. Bentley i d e n t i f i e d the problem several years ago. She claims that personal d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the operation of the family courts provided part of the motivation for her action i n founding the Society for Women Only. She f e l t that the courts were not firm enough i n enforcing maintenance orders made i n her favour. i i . Many of the women who attended the early meetings of the organization spent considerable time i n i d e n t i f y i n g problems related to family courts as being one of t h e i r main reasons for attendance. They expressed considerable h o s t i l i t y towards both t h e i r husbands and what they considered to be the unjust operation Q of the family courts. A newspaper reported some of the proceedings of the f i r s t meeting under the headline "40 Deserted Women Unite to N a i l 'Stinker Husbands'": Forty distraught women declared war on their dead beat husbands Thursday night. In an emotional meeting, held i n a Burnaby church h a l l , the women told of th e i r struggle to raise children without any f i n a n c i a l support from t h e i r husbands. The new group, Women Only, w i l l attempt to inform the - 33 -pr o v i n c i a l government of every loophole i n the act by which husbands avoid support to the families they have deserted. Mrs. Bentley said, "our husbands are running around l i v i n g on steak and caviar while we are eating sardines and beans."! b. How was i t i d e n t i f i e d ? Mrs. Bentley and the other women who attended the early meetings informally i d e n t i f i e d the problem as being to some degree responsible f o r their underprivileged condition. Mrs. Bentley stated t h i s view on t e l e v i s i o n and to the press; while t h i s theme was frequently commented upon during the meetings of the group, as members elaborated on t h e i r experiences with d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i n -s t i t u t i o n s . This problem was formally i d e n t i f i e d by being incorporated i n the objectives of the Society of Women Only: 3. To force errant fathers, through the agency of the law courts, to accept t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , at l e a s t as far as c h i l d maintenance i s concerned. The great majority of women prefer to work and to make the i r own way i n l i f e . They are, however, generally lacking i n any form of tr a i n i n g or ex-perience which would enable them to earn more than a minimum wage, and the f i n a n c i a l burden which children represent does not permit an adequate standard of l i v i n g to be maintained.2 c. How was the extent and nature of the problem v e r i f i e d ? The extent and nature of the problem was v e r i f i e d both by professional persons with whom the group came into contact and by Farrow, Moira, "40 Deserted Women Unite to Na i l 'Stinker Husbands' " Vancouver Sun, February 28, 1964 2 Appendix C - 3k -considerable correspondence and researching on the part of the membership. Mr. Gordon Dowding, M.L.A., attended four of the early meetings of the association. He was thus able to give considerable information and advice of a l e g a l nature and thereby c l a r i f y the nature of the problem that confronted members of the association. Miss Sanderson was at the same time able to broaden the perspective of the women and encouraged them to consider the f i n a n c i a l problems of desertion i n r e l a t i o n to the decay of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l institutions. 2. Goal Determination a. What type of change was planned? i . The members of the organization were anxious to obtain s t r i c t e r enforcement of the Wives' and Children's Maintenance Act. In par t i c u -l a r they wished to have judges be less lenient with husbands who f a i l to make maintenance payments when ordered to do so by the family courts. Many of the women f e e l that deserting husbands are contemptuous of family courts as they are apparently seldom sentenced to j a i l terms when they default i n maintenance payments and, i n addition, perjury actions are rarely undertaken against them. i i . The Society of Women Only also desired to see the administration of the family courts improved by establishing "investigations centres" throughout the province attached to the courts so that the whereabouts and income of absconding husbands might be more readily established. Members claim that at present the onus i s often placed on the deserted wife to inform the court of the location of her husband so that a summons can be served or maintenance order enforced. The group feels that o f f i c e r s of the family courts either lack the resources or are - 35 -unwilling to bring the deserting spouse before the court. In addition, i t i s believed that police forces are generally lax i n acting on warrants issued by family courts. i i i . Another change that the Society of Women Only has been anxious to see effected i s for more l e g a l a i d to be provided for deserted wives. They claim that when they contact the family court, they usually are completely ignorant of the i r rights and, at the same time cannot afford a lawyer. As a r e s u l t , although the crown prosecutor ac|s on th e i r behalf, members f e e l that they are at a considerable disadvantage i n comparison to those deserted women who are i n a f i n a n c i a l position which allows them to employ the i r own counsel. i v . F i n a l l y , the Society of Women Only has gone on record p u b l i c a l l y as favouring more co-operation between public welfare departments and family courts i n the i n t e r e s t of the deserted wife and her family.^" Members complain that at times s o c i a l assistance w i l l not be granted u n t i l an attempt has been made to enforce a maintenance order of the court on a husband - i n the meantime, the family can lack for funds. In other instances, the public welfare agency i s hesitant to grant assistance when a husband defaults on a monthly payment. b. Who suggested i t and how was i t suggested? The changes proposed were mainly suggested by members of the Society of Women Only and arose d i r e c t l y out of th e i r own experiences with the problems of desertion. However, i t i s apparent that Mr. Gordon Dowding was responsible for suggesting the need for Mrs. Ruddell quoted i n Vancouver Sun, January 13, 19&5 - 3 6 -"investigations centers". He t o l d a meeting of the group on March 4 , 1 9 6 4 , about a programme of the Ontario Government which emphasizes locat i n g the absconding husband and suggested that the organization work to establish "investigations centers" i n t h i s province. A comprehensive programme of proposed changes i n the administration of the family courts as yet has not been composed by the Society of Women Only, i n the same way as had been done for changes related to s o c i a l assistance; however, i t was understood that such a task was being undertaken at the time of writing. c. Who i s seen as the target(s) for change? The following were seen as being targets for change: i . The P r o v i n c i a l Government, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Attorney-General, Hon. Robert Bonner. i i . Various family courts throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y the judges and administrative s t a f f . d. What was the estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the  target to change? As was indicated when analysing the action process i n respect to the administration of s o c i a l allowances, the women were from the st a r t generally optimistic that some sort of change could be effected by a group such as t h e i r own, even though most of them had l i t t l e i f any organizational experience. They f e l t that the targets would respond i n some measure to t h e i r change actions. Action Determination a. What action-decisions were made of ways to bring about  the desired change? Who made them? i . Mrs. Bentley, and l a t e r the society, decided to engage i n a process of persuasion. They would attempt to convince the targets - 37 -of the necessity of making what were considered to be necessary changes i n the administration of family courts. The appropriateness of t h i s action-decision was never agreed upon formally, but simply taken as being the natural type of action to be prosecuted by a group i n a disadvantaged p o s i t i o n . i i . Third party intervention was also to be a way to bring about desired change. Members envisioned that i n f l u e n t i a l community leaders or bodies might encourage government to act. i i i . A general programme of public education was also planned. Many of the deserted wives f e l t that the public at large was ignorant of the f a i l i n g s of the family courts and thus needed to be informed so that an atmosphere conducive to change would be created i n the community. b. What were the possible alternative outcomes of each  of these action decisions? The possible alternative outcomes of each of the action decisions appeared f a i r l y simple to the women: either the targets could be persuaded to i n s t i t u t e changes or the si t u a t i o n would remain s t a t i c , either community leaders would intervene on their behalf or they would refuse to act, and either the public would respond to the presentation of information and grievances concerning the family courts or people would remain disinterested. As was pointed out when dealing with t h i s section of the model related to the alternative outcomes of action decisions on s o c i a l assistance, the deserted women f e l t that their s i t u a t i o n could deteriorate no further - therefore, they would have nothing to lose by banding together to take any kind - 38 -of action that they might consider appropriate. It should be noted, however, that some women f e l t that t h e i r husbands might r e t a l i a t e for engaging i n a programme of s o c i a l action designed to improve the system of enforcement of maintenance orders made by the family courts. In fact, one press story reported that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police would be present at the f i r s t meeting due to threaten-ing telephone calls."'' However, to the writer's knowledge, no member has received r e t a l i a t i o n from a deserted spouse for p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Society of Women Only. c. What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l  forces involved, i . e . on the part of target and on the  change agent? As has been previously stated, the members of the Society of Women Only were confident that some type of change would occur because of th e i r e f f o r t s ; however, there has been no formal a r t i c u -l a t i o n of the type of change that they expect to see within a certain time l i m i t . It i s not known what was seen as an expected outcome by the target. Action Implementation a. Who became involved? i . Members of the Society of Women Only. i i . Professional persons. i i i . Community leaders and groups. i v . Vancouver City Council. v. The targets. New Westminster Columbian, February 27* 19Sk - 39 -b. How were they involved? Members of the Society of Women Only attempted to persuade the target to i n i t i a t e change, while at the same time attempting to convince community leaders and groups, the general public, and the Vancouver City Council to pressure for such change. c. What methods were actu a l l y used? Again, as when documenting the change process related to a concern about s o c i a l assistance, i t i s necessary to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by Mrs. Bentley, acting as a repre-sentative of the society but without the complete knowledge and endorsation of the membership, and a c t i v i t i e s l a t e r c a r r i e d out by executive members but on the basis of more group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and approval. Mrs. Bentley was very vocal i n her condemnation of family courts when she v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a on March 3, 1964; however, she did not meet with i n f l u e n t i a l c i v i l servants or the Attorney-General on thi s v i s i t . She did, however, have an opportunity to try to stimu-l a t e some action to remedy the problem i n the opposition p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . When she v i s i t e d V i c t o r i a again on June 22, 1964, she had an opportunity to discuss problems related to family courts with the Deputy Attorney-General Dr. Gi l b e r t Kennedy. The b r i e f she took with her commented on some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by deserted wives i n t h e i r contact with the family courts but made no s p e c i f i c recommendation as to how the s i t u a t i o n should be improved. Mrs. Bentley was involved i n much press, radio, and t e l e v i s i o n p u b l i c i t y during the Spring of 1964. She endeavoured to inform the public about the inadequacies of current family court practices by r e l a t i n g - h o -lder own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a s w e l l a s some o f t h o s e o f o t h e r members o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e h a d f o u n d e d . D u r i n g t h e summer she e s t a b l i s h e d p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h a number o f e x e c u t i v e s o f s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , c l e r g y , a n d c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s i n o r d e r t o a c q u a i n t them w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s f a c i n g t h e y o u n g g r o u p . U n l i k e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Women O n l y a s a w h o l e h a s n o t a s y e t made a d i r e c t a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t t o c h a n g e , a l t h o u g h on May 7» 1964, M r . T.C. B o w e n - C o l t h u r s t , D e p a r t m e n t a l S o l i c i t o r f o r t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s D e p a r t m e n t a t t e n d e d a m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Women O n l y a t w h i c h a n e x c h a n g e o f v i e w s a b o u t t h e f a m i l y c o u r t s t o o k p l a c e . A t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g t h e b r i e f c o m m i t t e e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p r e p a r i n g a b r i e f on t h i s s u b j e c t f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l R o b e r t B o n n e r l a t e r i n t h e y e a r , a n e x p l o r a t o r y m e e t i n g h a v i n g b e e n h e l d i n S e p t e m b e r 1964 a t w h i c h t i m e t h e C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r o f t h e V a n c o u v e r F a m i l y a n d C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t , M r. G o r d o n S t e v e n s , a t t e n d e d . Members o f t h e g r o u p , ho\-;ever, h a v e n o t r e m a i n e d s i l e n t a b o u t w h a t t h e y f e e l t o be t h e i n j u s t i c e s o f t h e f a m i l y c o u r t s . I n f a c t , t h e y h a v e t a k e n e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y a f f o r d e d them t o s p e a k a t m e e t i n g s , i n p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s , a n d on r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n . A n e x a m p l e o f t h e k i n d o f p u b l i c i t y t h e y hare b e e n f o c u s s i n g on t h e p r o b l e m was a r e c e n t a r t i c l e i n t h e T o r o n t o G l o b e  a n d M a i l w h i c h e x p l a i n e d t h e s t a n d s t h e S o c i e t y o f Women O n l y a r e t a k i n g , g i v i n g c a s e examples."*' I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e g r o u p W o r t h , R u t h , " D e s e r t e d W i v e s L o b b y i n B.C. f o r D i v o r c e R e f o r m " T o r o n t o G l o b e a n d M a i l , F e b r u a r y 13, 1965 - 41 -i n r e s p e c t t o c h a n g e s r e q u i r e d i n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e f a m i l y -c o u r t s h a s b e e n p u t f o r w a r d b e f o r e s u c h b o d i e s a s t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l o f Women. G o r d a m D o w d i n g M . L . A . t o o k u p t h e p l a t f o r m o f t h e s o c i e t y j u s t a f t e r i t was f o u n d e d b y m a k i n g a s p e e c h i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e o n M a r c h 2, 1964, c a l l i n g o n t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o s e t up-a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n b r a n c h t o l o c a t e d e s e r t i n g h u s b a n d s . On J a n u a r y 12, 1965, M r s . R u d d e l l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f Women O n l y a d d r e s s e d t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l a n d r e q u e s t e d t h a t i t t a k e a c t i o n t o s e e t h a t t h e f a m i l y c o u r t s b e c o m e m o r e e f f e c t i v e i n e n -f o r c i n g m a i n t e n a n c e p a y m e n t s s o t h a t t h e s u p p o r t o f d e s e r t e d w i v e s i s n o t o n l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e t a x p a y e r . T h e C i t y C o u n c i l was n o t v i e w e d a s a t a r g e t f o r c h a n g e a s s u c h , b u t r a t h e r i t was a n t i c i -p a t e d t h a t t h i s b o d y c o u l d u s e i t s p o w e r t o i n t e r v e n e a n d i m p r o v e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r F a m i l y a n d C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t . M r . G o r d o n S t e v e n s , C h i e f P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r e x p l a i n e d t o t h e C o u n c i l a t t h e same t i m e t h a t h i s c o u r t was h a n d i c a p p e d t h r o u g h a l a c k o f s t a f f t o g i v e t h e b e s t q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e . M r s . R u d d e l l , a t t h e t i m e , a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s f r o m a l d e r m e n a n d e m p h a s i z e d t h a t m o r e i n v e s t i -g a t o r s n e e d t o b e e m p l o y e d , d . W h a t was t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e t a r g e t ? T h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e a p p a r e n t r e a c t i o n f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t ; t h i s i s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h i s t a r g e t h a s n o t b e e n f u l l y e n g a g e d i n a n y c h a n g e p r o c e s s a s y e t . O f t h e many f a m i l y c o u r t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , o n l y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r c o u r t h a s r e a l l y b e e n i n v o l v e d i n a V a n c o u v e r S u n , M a r c h 3, 1964 - 42 -change process* Here, the Chief Probation O f f i c e r has reacted most favourably to representations made by the society. The writer thinks that Mr. Gordon Stevens values the work of the group insofar as i t w i l l stimulate governmental bodies to give more support to his department so that service to the deserted family can be improved. 5 . Outcome Evaluation a. What was the actual outcome? Mrs. Bentley was of the opinion that the appointment of a second f u l l - t i m e family court judge for Vancouver was p a r t i a l l y due to her v i s i t to V i c t o r i a on March 3 i 1 9 6 4 . This has been denied by Mr. Gordon Stevens, the Chief Probation Officer."'" The Society of Women Only also took some cre d i t for the establishment of a c o l l e c t i o n s department i n the Vancouver Family and Children's Court as well as for increased co-operation i n accounting procedures between the Vancouver Family and Children's Court and the Vancouver C i t y Social Service Department which ensures a deserted wife continuity of income regardless of whether the husband makes maintenance payments regularly or not. However, i n an interview, the Chief Probation O f f i c e r claimed that these innovations had no connection with any s o c i a l action programme undertaken by the society. Nevertheless, Mr. Stevens thought that the organization has played an important role i n interpreting the needs of the Family Court to City Council. In fa c t , he stated that Mrs. Ruddell's presentation at City Council l e d to a v i s i t by the c i v i c health and welfare committee on February 13» 19651 to discuss possible changes and expansion of service. Mr. Stevens r e c a l l e d that t h i s was the f i r s t occasion i n at least Interview with Mr. Stevens, January 1 2 , 1965 - 43 -sixteen years that a c i v i c committee had v i s i t e d the court.''" On March 1 0 , 1965» an amendment to the Wives' and Children's  Maintenance Act was introduced into the l e g i s l a t u r e by Attorney-General Robert Bonner. The ef f e c t of the amendment w i l l be to provide for an automatic garnishee on a husband's wages when a deserted woman obtains a maintenance order. This w i l l save the wife considerable 2 expense and delay. Members of the Society of Women Only f e l t that this change could be to some extent attributed to the i r actions, although i t was not thought that they ever s p e c i f i c a l l y recommended such an amendment. b. What were the discrepancies between expected outcome  and actual outcome? Members of the Society of Women Only were confident that changes i n the administration of the family courts would eventually occur as a result of the process they engaged i n as an organization. But i n March, 1 9 6 5 , they believed that, although the group has already been responsible for some minor changes, much more e f f o r t w i l l be required before anything approaching the major changes that they are seeking occurs. Yet, they did not generally f e e l that the actual outcome, so far, i n the change process, varied widely from th e i r o r i g i n a l expectations. c. Did the change induced meet the o r i g i n a l need for change? The change induced so far cannot be considered to have met the o r i g i n a l need for change as deserted wives s t i l l apparently believe that the family courts require much strengthening. However, the Interview with Mr. Stevens, January 1 2 , 1965 Vancouver Sun, March 1 1 , 1965 - kk -change that has occurred during the past year has served to encourage members of t he society to the r e a l i z a t i o n that change i s indeed possible. They are now i n the f i r s t stage of preparing a comprehensive b r i e f on the subject of the l e g a l redress open to deserted wives for presentation to the Pr o v i n c i a l Government and believe that the process to ef f e c t organizational change i s l i k e l y to continue for some years. d. What was the cost of the change on the part of the target? Mr. Stevens, Chief Probation O f f i c e r , stated when interviewed that changes recently made i n hi s department, whether due to the work of the Society of Women Only or not, have been made without change i n costs• I t i s f e l t that the amendment to the Wives' and Children's  Maintenance Act introduced recently by the Attorney-General i s also u n l i k e l y to e n t a i l any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n costs. It has, of course, been noted that i t i s not known to what degree the Society of Women Only was responsible for the introduction of this amendment. SUMMARY In t h i s chapter, documentation revealed that problem i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n was made informally by Mrs. Bentley and members of the Society of Women Only i n meetings and formally i n the development of objectives for the group. V e r i f i c a t i o n was made by professional persons. S t r i c t e r enforcement of exis t i n g family court legislation, the establishment of "inves t i g a t i o n centers", and additional l e g a l aid were the changes planned on the suggestion of the deserted women - h5 -and t h e i r l e g a l consultant. The group was optimistic that changes could be effected i n the targets, the P r o v i n c i a l Government and the family courts of the province. Campaigns of persuasion, t h i r d party intervention, and public education were the action-decisions selected to bring about change. The methods ac t u a l l y used included v i s i t s to the l e g i s l a t u r e by Mrs. Bentley, p u b l i c i t y i n the press and on radio and t e l e v i s i o n , and a presentation to the Vancouver City Council. By March, 19651 some changes i n the administration of the Vancouver Family and Children's Court had occurred, possibly i n response to the action process i n i t i a t e d by the Society of Women Only. Change had also occurred on the part of the P r o v i n c i a l Government; however, i t i s not as yet known to what degree the society was i n s t r u -mental i n these changes. The change process was not considered to have been completed. CHAPTER 5 CHANGE IN DIVORCE LEGISLATION: ANALYSIS OF THE ACTION PROCESS The action process engaged i n by the Society of Women Only i n r e l a t i o n to d i f f i c u l t y encountered i n i n i t i a t i n g and engaging i n divorce proceedings w i l l be analysed within the framework of the Area Development Project's model. 1. Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a. Who i d e n t i f i e d the problem? It appears that, unlike i n the cases of problems with s o c i a l assistance and the administration of family courts, problems r e l a t i n g to divorce were not i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d by Mrs. Bentley. Rather i t seems that attention was focussed on divorce l e g i s l a t i o n by a minority of the women who attended the early meetings of the association. b. How was i t i d e n t i f i e d ? During the early meetings of the Society of Women Only, most of the programme was devoted to i n d i v i d u a l women t e l l i n g the meeting about th e i r own s p e c i f i c problems and concerns, amidst emotional outbreaks and a good deal of v e n t i l a t i o n of h o s t i l i t y against absent husbands. Mrs. Conners, a deserted mother of three, stated that a f t e r reading about the f i r s t meeting i n the press, she made arrangements with a fr i e n d to attend the March 5, 1964, meeting because of a conviction that the divorce laws need r e v i s i o n . At the meeting she says that she i n i t i a t e d considerable discussion on the subject."*" I t was Interview with Mrs. Conners, January 29, 1965 - 47 -discovered that f r u s t r a t i o n and resentment against what the women considered to be antiquated divorce laws was widely spread and so the members decided to incorporate the problem into the objectives of the society: 4. To enable the deserted mother to obtain a divorce a f t e r a reasonable period of time. Many women have been separated for as long as ten years, and throughout this time the children have been deprived of the guidance of a father. Because of the present divorce laws, many women are prevented from re-marrying and are thus forced to l i v e on s o c i a l welfare.1 c. How was the extent and nature of the problem v e r i f i e d ? While i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problem emerged primarily from the personal experiences of the members of the Society of Women Only, the problem was v e r i f i e d at an early stage for the group by professional persons, p a r t i c u l a r l y Gordon Dowding, a lawyer, and Beatrice Sanderson, s o c i a l worker. On A p r i l 2, 1964, Mr. Dowding gave the society a talk explaining the history of the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage and present l e g i s l a t i o n regulating the i n s t i t u t i o n i n Canada. Miss Sanderson suggested that a change i n the divorce laws would be an appropriate goal of s o c i a l action for a group such as the Society of Women Only. 2. Goal Determination a. What type of change was planned? Members of the Society of Women Only were generally interested i n seeing that l e g i s l a t i o n respecting divorce i s changed so as to widen the grounds for divorce. Although, so far the group has not formally i d e n t i f i e d just what grounds they f e e l should pertain for a termination of marriage, and i t i s believed that there i s Appendix C - 48 -a certain.amount of divergence of opinion on t h i s matter, the writer believes members of the organization are p r a c t i c a l l y unanimous i n desiring that grounds other than adultery be incorporated into divorce l e g i s l a t i o n . Other grounds for divorce that members have t o l d the writer that they would l i k e to see authorized include desertion, cruelty, alcoholism, and mental i l l n e s s . b. Who suggested i t and how was i t suggested? Individual members of the group both suggested and agreed that changes need to be effected i n the divorce laws at meetings of the association. No one committee has been convened to study the problem and recommend proposed changes for approval by the group as was done i n the case of s o c i a l assistance. c. Who i s seen as the target for change? It i s unclear exactly who or what body was seen as the target for change. A number of members, Mrs. Bentley being among them, believed that the Attorney-General Robert Bonner has the power to widen the grounds for divorce; however, many other members advised the writer that the Federal Minister of Justice should be the target for the group's a c t i v i -1 txes. d. What was the estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the  target to change? Members have been l e s s optimistic about the effectiveness of s o c i a l action i n respect to this problem, than i n respect to s o c i a l The B r i t i s h North America Act, Section 91» Sub-section 26, reserves "Marriage and Divorce" to the exclusive l e g i s l a t i v e authority of the Parliament of Canada; although Section 92, Sub-section 12, gives the P r o v i n c i a l Legislatures power to make laws respecting "The Solemniz-ation of Marriage i n the Province." - 49 -assistance and the administration of the family courts. They believe that as a small group of c i t i z e n s , they can play only a li m i t e d role i n changing t h i s complicated l e g i s l a t i o n i n which many other community organizations have an i n t e r e s t . Also some of the members who believe action must be i n i t i a t e d i n Ottawa have indicated they are conscious that the Province of Quebec might well be a factor which w i l l mitigate against early changes i n federal l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g to divorce. The Society of Women Only has not been hopeful that change w i l l occur i n the near future. Action Determination a. What action-decisions were made of ways to bring about  the desired change? Who made them? i . During the summer of 1964 the executive committee of the Society of Women Only decided that the group would attempt to persuade the appropriate l e v e l of government to change the divorce laws. As i n the cases of persuasion processes related to s o c i a l assistance and the administration of the family courts, the group intended to prepare a b r i e f for presentation to government which would emphasize the necessity of change. i i . The group, early i n i t s work, decided that i t would be necessary to engage i n a programme of public education and p u b l i c i t y respecting the inadequacies of present divorce l e g i s l a t i o n . The members hoped, that by focussing public attention on thi s subject, l e g i s l a t i v e bodies would be encouraged to act. b. What were the possible alternative outcomes of each of  these action decisions? i . Government would either respond to the group's programme of - 50 -persuasion and take the Society of Women Ofaly's viewpoint into consideration when enacting l e g i s l a t i o n , or, for various reasons, government might consider i t expedient to disregard representations made by the group. i i . The society's programme of public education and p u b l i c i t y would serve either as an ef f e c t i v e means of bringing the subject of divorce l e g i s l a t i o n before the community i n a manner that would evoke a favourable response, or by simply creating controversy, the group might act u a l l y retard desired changes i n divorce laws. c. What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l  forces involved, i . e . , on the part of the target and on  part of change agent? As has been indicated previously, the Society of Women Only was not greatly optimistic that their e f f o r t s alone would produce any change i n divorce l e g i s l a t i o n . Nevertheless, they were con-cerned that as c i t i z e n s of a " r i s k population" i n respect to divorce, they had a specia l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to point out the need for change to government and the community. Since the target has not been engaged i n the process of organizational change, i t i s not possible to make an assessment of expected outcome. Action -Implementation a. Who became involved? i . Members of the Society of Women Only. i i . Professional persons. i i i . The general public. b. How were they involved? Members of the Society of Women Only, with the help of - 51 -professional persons, attempted to inform and influence the general public concerning needed changes i n divorce l e g i s l a t i o n , so that public support would follow any approach to government, c. What methods were act u a l l y used? i . Two public panel discussions on the subject of divorce were sponsored by the Society of Women Only. The f i r s t was held on June 1 7 , 1 9 6 4 , and attended by about one hundred persons. The panelists were lawyer Mr. Jack McGiven; Mr. J. Taylor, a United Church Minister; Mr. Edward Sopp, s o c i a l worker; Miss Norma C h r i s t i e , lawyer; Mr. David Bushell, an American lawyer; Father Paris, of the Roman Catholic e c c l e s i a s t i c a l matrimony trib u n a l ; and two members of the Society of Women Only, Mrs. Olive McRae and Mrs. E l l a Conners. The second meeting on divorce was held on September 2 9 , 1 9 6 4 . This time the speakers were : Dr. A.N. McTaggart, c h i l d psychologist; Dr. S. M i l l s , psychologist; Mr. Edward Sopp, s o c i a l worker and Mr. W. Beck, lawyer. Both d i s -cussions were well reported i n the press and resulted i n radio and t e l e v i s i o n interviews. i i . At an executive meeting of the Society of Women Only on May 2 5 , 1 9 6 4 , i t was decided to conduct a survey to discover i f the public was s a t i s f i e d with the present divorce laws. Each member was given a number of long sheets of paper on which respondents to the survey would write t h e i r name and address and indicate, "yes" or "no" to the following questions: 1) Do you f e e l that the present divorce laws of Canada are inadequate and that there i s a need for a change i n these laws? 2) Do you f e e l that the divorce - 52 -laws should be p r o v i n c i a l i z e d ? " 1 ' By the end o f June, over 1,500 persons had si g n e d the sheets, about 95$ o f whom i n d i c a t e d "yes" 2 answers. Members of the group have i n d i c a t e d to the w r i t e r t h a t they p l a n to a t t a c h these survey sheets to the b r i e f on d i v o r c e laws t h a t w i l l be prepared. i i i . When a d e l e g a t i o n from the S o c i e t y of Women Only i n Vancouver went to P e n t i c t o n i n l a t e August 1964 to or g a n i z e a group there, the P e n t i c t o n women were asked to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e p a r i n g a b r i e f d e a l i n g w i t h d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n , w h i l e the Vancouver group worked on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and f a m i l y c o u r t b r i e f s . However, the P e n t i c t o n group was unable to get t h i s p r o j e c t s t a r t e d . Mrs. K a i s e r , P r e s i d e n t o f the S o c i e t y of Women Only t o l d the w r i t e r r e c e n t l y t h a t t h i s b r i e f w i l l be prepared i n Vancouver i n the summer of 1965* She s t a t e s t h a t i t w i l l subsequently be presented 3 i n Ottawa. Thus f a r no approach has been made to government a s k i n g f o r a change i n the law, except i n the b r i e f Mrs. B e n t l e y p e r s o n a l l y composed and which she took to V i c t o r i a on June 22, 1964. The b r i e f s t r e s s e d the need f o r d i v o r c e reform, d. What was the r e a c t i o n of the t a r g e t ? I t appears tha t the t a r g e t , whether seen as being the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l government, has not as yet been i n v o l v e d i n the change pro c e s s ; t h e r e f o r e , no statement can be made conc e r n i n g the t a r g e t ' s r e a c t i o n . "*"A sample of these survey s h e e t s was shown to the w r i t e r . 2 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mrs. Conners, February 1, 1965 3mt erview with Mrs. K a i s e r , March 4, 1965 Appendix D - 53 -Outcome Evaluation a. What was the actual outcome? Although i t i s clear that the Society of Women Only does not consider that any f i n a l outcome has been reached, i t can be said that a change process has been i n i t i a t e d i n that an attempt to influence public opinion through panel discussions was made and support for changes i n divorce l e g i s l a t i o n s o l i c i t e d from the public by way of "survey sheets". The group has, i n addition, committed i t s e l f to prepare a b r i e f for presentation to government. b. What were the discrepancies between expected outcome  and actual outcome? Even though no re a l outcome i s considered to have been reached, indeed, the change process i s hardly started, i t can be noted that there was an expectation i n the Society of Women Only that by the end of 1 9 6 4 , a comprehensive b r i e f on divorce would have been prepared for presentation to government.'*' c. Did the change induced meet the o r i g i n a l need for change? The change so far induced, i f any, has not met the o r i g i n a l need for change. The Society of Women Only s t i l l feels that the grounds for divorce need to be broadened, as i t did early i n 1 9 6 4 . Mrs. Kaiser, President of the group, states that the Society of Women Only w i l l occupy i t s e l f mainly with attempting to change the divorce laws as soon as a b r i e f on the administration of the 2 family courts has been presented to the p r o v i n c i a l government. The minutes to the September 1 0 , 1 9 6 4 , general meeting indicated that the Penticton group was expected to have completed the b r i e f by the end of October. Interview with Mrs. Kaiser, March 4 , 1 9 6 5 . - 54 -SUMMARY In this chapter, documentation revealed that problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was made informally by a number of members of the Society of Women Only during early meetings and formally i n development of objectives for the group. Grounds for the granting of divorce other than adultery was the change planned on the suggestion of the deserted women. The group was not very optimistic that they could e f f e c t change i n the target, seen as being the P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Government. Campaigns of persuasion and public education were the action-decisions selected to bring about change. The methods actually used included the c i r c u l a t i o n of a p e t i t i o n and public panel discussions. By March, 19&5, the targets had not been engaged i n the action process and no change was evident. However, the change action was considered to have just begun. CHAPTER 6 OBSERVATIONS ON THE MODEL This section w i l l deal with a number of c r i t i c a l observa-tions concerning the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the Area Development Project's model for the purposes of documenting organizational change. As indicated i n Chapter One, these observations have not been considered to constitute an evaluation but simply opinions arrived at by the writer a f t e r having employed the model to document three change actions undertaken by the society. Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n The model lacks a place f o r a clear statement of the problem as perceived by those who i d e n t i f y it."*" This point could be remedied by incorporating an additional heading or sub-heading into the model's framework which would ensure that a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the problem i s made as a basis for examining the process intended to induce change. The model could be improved by making provision for consider-ably more information about the way i n which the organization relates to the i d e n t i f i e d problem. For instance, i t would be important to know how many people i n the organization were affected by the problem and the degree of i n t e n s i t y that these people f e l t about the i d e n t i -f i e d problem. Of c r u c i a l importance, from the point of p o s s i b i l i t i e s concerning action i n respect to the problem, would be information In applying the model, the writer found i t necessary to make such a statement before he was able to give consideration to " l . a . Who i d e n t i -f i e d the problem." - % -about the way i n which the i d e n t i f i e d problem i s related to other problems. For example, the Society of Women Only had considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between problems concerning s o c i a l assistance and problems concerning desertion; i n fact, during the early stages of the group, they took action p r a c t i c a l l y simultaneously i n respect to these problems to such an extent that the writer wondered i f the enforced d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by the model did not lead to some d i s t o r t i o n of the actual process. Access The writer found that problems of equal a c c e s s a b i l i t y to change agent and target produced d i f f i c u l t y i n applying the model. For example, data was lacking to document f u l l y 3c. (What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l forces involved, i . e . , on the part of the target and on the part of change agent?) and 4.d. (What was the reaction of the target?). It i s possible that due to the unique nature of the cases involving p o l i t i c a l decision makers, that problems of a c c e s s a b i l i t y were aggravated; however i t i s probable that equal access w i l l generally be d i f f i c u l t to achieve when v i t a l issues are involved. Action Implementation This part of the model tended to be somewhat ambiguous. For instance, the writer had d i f f i c u l t y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between 4.b. (How were they involved?) and k.c. (What methods were ac t u a l l y used?) As an improvement Warren's concept of system linkage could be used i n 4.b. to demonstrate the manner i n which the participants were involved i n the action implementation."*" Warren, Roland, The Community i n America, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1963, p.252 - 57 -The model could p r o f i t a b l y enlarge on the action imple-mentation part of the process since this section would be most consequential f o r the outcome evaluation which follows. A c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n could be developed to record more e f f e c t i v e l y the trans-actions which took place between target and change agent so that s u f f i c i e n t data would be available to make some evaluation of the effectiveness of participants i n the use of the methods employed. In the case of the Society of Women Only's presentation to Welfare Minister Wesley Black, i t would be salutary to have documented j within the framework of the model, enough material so that an assessment could eventually be made of the quality of the approach to the Minister. Retrospection D i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n using the model on a retro-spective basis. This was because the writer was obliged to rely heavily on data collected i n interviews with the events under study sometimes having taken place as long as a year ago. Many of the interviewers had trouble i n r e c a l l i n g sections of the action process v i t a l to accurate documentation, such as "expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p l e forces involved." In addition, when cross-checking interview data, the writer found that, as Pauline Young predicted, some informants "are not too unsophisticated to modify facts by conscious v o l i t i o n , nor are they too innocent to l i e . " ' * In the case Young, Pauline, S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Research, Prentice H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s - New Jersey, 1956, p.208 - 58 -of the Society of Women Only, d i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n e l i c i t i n g information r e l a t i n g to process i n comparison with performance, possibly because the group i t s e l f had paid l i t t l e attention to the manner i n which i t was attempting to e f f e c t organizational change. Length of the Process In the three applications of the model made by the writer, i t was apparent i n each case that the action process was not con-sidered to have concluded. This meant that the l a s t section, "Outcome evaluation!' tends to be of a tentative nature and lack conclusiveness. The various action processes outlined could have been further divided into sub-processes and each subjected to an application of the model i f t h i s would have been f e l t more useful for documentation purposes. For example, the presentation to City Council i n Chapter Four could have been selected as a unit for i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The model should perhaps be employed for more compact change actions or features should be b u i l t i n to f a c i l i t a t e consideration of a continuing process. Community Action Consideration needs to be given to the appropriateness of the Area Development Project's model when applied to organizations con-cerned with e f f e c t i n g organizational change on a community basis. For example, the "community action system" proposed by Warren serves to delineate the dynamic aspects of structure and process by analys-ing a community change action stressing changing relationships between involved groups using systems theory.^" ^"Warren, Roland, The Community i n America, Rand McNally, New York 1963, pp. 312-523 - 59 -This model, i f applied to the case material of the thesis, might have served to indicate how the Society of Women Only f i t t e d into the pattern of systems operating i n the community, rather than i s o l a t i n g i t for the purposes of study. Thelen's model of "group growth and community development" relates an organization's attempts to produce change i n the community to actions being engaged i n by other groups and i s pre-dicted, i n the same manner as Warren's model, on the need to achieve linkage with other systems.'*' However, i t i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t due to the attention i t gives to the movement of a desire for change from the mind "of a single i n d i v i d u a l , through the formation of an organization, and ( i d e a l l y ) through interorganizational co-operation, 2 to assimilation into the culture of the community". I f this model were to be applied to the action processes of the Society of Women Only, a de f i n i t e movement could be deliniated and s u f f i c i e n t emphasis given to Mrs. Bentley's c r i t i c a l role as the i n i t i a t o r of change. Bureacratic Development The writer i s of the opinion that the l e v e l of bureacratic development of the organizations being studied w i l l have a bearing on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the proposed model. For example, the Society of Women Only i s r e l a t i v e l y without formal structure and thus transactions engaged i n by the group tended to be frequently "*"Thelen, Herbert A. , Dynamics of Groups at Work, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 195^, pp. 360-365 2 Mial, H. Curtis, "Models of Community Action" Community Development National Training Laboratories, Washington, 1961, p.88, - 60 -unplanned and impulsive - whereas the model appeared to pre-suppose an involved planning process. As a r e s u l t , the writer found i t necessary at times to consider the p r o b a b i l i t y of arrange-ments, which i n fact'may not have been recognized as such by the organization. A d i f f e r e n t kind of model might have to be developed to more adequately meet the needs of researchers interested i n documenting change processes engaged i n by r e l a t i v e l y unsophisti-cated c i t i z e n s ' organizations. Su b j e c t i v i t y A certain amount of s u b j e c t i v i t y can be expected when change processes are analysed within the framework of the model as i t w i l l be incumbent on the researcher to be discriminating i n the selection of material for documentation. Nevertheless, this problem can be overcome by the employment of competent research personnel and the v e r i f i c a t i o n of data by means of the operational feedback envisioned i n the Area Development Project's proposal. Background The extent to which provision of background material on the case i s necessary, such as the history i n Chapter Two of t h i s study, i s a function of the f a m i l i a r i t y with the case that can be attributed to the reader. The model i t s e l f does not document a l l the information about a group that would, for instance, be of i n t e r e s t to a change agent; i t only analyses a selected action process. General U t i l i t y The model proposed by the Area Development Project possibly could be developed into a useful tool f o r the documentation of organizational change providing i t i s strengthened to meet some of - 61 -the objections raised i n t h i s chapter. Inevitably i t s u t i l i t y w i l l probably be li m i t e d when research i s centred on organizations which enter into transactions on mainly an unplanned rather than planned basis. Nevertheless, even when the model i s used to document change actions of a group such as the Society of Women Only; i n spite of obvious imperfections, the Area Development Project's model produces an i n t e l l i g i b l e document r i c h i n a n a l y t i c a l perspectives. PART III Case Study: The Welfare & Recreation Council Scope of Study I t has been the purpose of t h i s study to explore ways i n which the process of organizational change can be analyzed and documented. This has been done by examining s p e c i f i c organizational changes of a s t r u c t u r a l nature occurring within the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, B r i t i s h Columbia. The changes of importance to t h i s study occurred primarily i n the Welfare and Recreation Council but were related to other observable changes taking place i n the functions and structure of the parent S o c i a l Planning body. Nature of Exploration The nature of t h i s exploration has been to document a case study of organizational change: 1. To submit the change process i t s e l f to analysis. 2. To do t h i s by use of a model or frame of reference for conducting the analysis. 3 . As a result of using t h i s model to determine how useful i t can be as a guide for documenting the change process. The model used was a proposal for the study of the process of organizational change developed for the Area Development Project i n Vancouver.^" "*"Proposal for study of the process of organizational change i n the Area Development Project. Area Development Project, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, June,1964,(in the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . - 63 -There were two major sections i n t h i s study which for these purposes are indicated as follows: The Retrospective Aspects of the Change Process In r e l a t i o n to the model th i s encompassed the f i r s t four stages, 1) problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , 2) goal determination, 3) action determination, and k) action implementation. These parts of the process had already occurred at the time of t h i s study. The Active Aspects of the Change Process In r e l a t i o n to the model th i s encompassed the f i n a l or evaluative stage of change. This part of the process occurred after the amalgamation of the two d i v i s i o n s and i n e f f e c t was not concluded at the time of t h i s study. Background Description Before the Change Occurred Soc i a l planning i n Vancouver has been carried on as an i n t e g r a l part of the Community Chest and Councils. The i n i t i a l meeting of s o c i a l agencies i n Vancouver took place i n 1930 when a Council of S o c i a l Agencies was formed. The following year, 1931, t h i s body became known as the Welfare Federation. Although i t was formed p r i -marily to find a more e f f i c i e n t method of r a i s i n g finances for the member organizations, recommendations were ma.de for the establishment of a planning body as well."'" Since i t s inception the structure through which s o c i a l planning has been carried out has changed many times. In the beginning s o c i a l planning operated under an executive committee which functioned as a board of directors with the senior o f f i c e r as chairman. As o r i g i n a l l y Jackson, F. Ivor, A History of the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, i 9 6 0 , ( i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . - 64 -set up the member agencies of the council were divided into four d i v i s i o n s whose functions for some years were confined to dealing with application f o r membership and certain c o n s t i t u t i o n a l duties. Standing committees whose chairmen were appointed at the Annual Meeting and who reported d i r e c t l y to the executive committee, carried on the work of the council. In 1938 the committees known as Family Welfare, Child Welfare and Spare Time A c t i v i t i e s became separate div i s i o n s and only certain ad hoc committees and those concerned with central services became d i r e c t l y responsible to the executive com-mittee.'*' This structure remained u n t i l 1946 when the Chest and 2 Councils were combined. In 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 a growing conciousness of s o c i a l group work came to the fore i n Vancouver? As group work became recognized as a s p e c i a l i z e d branch of s o c i a l work, a Group Work Council developed within the d i v i s i o n known at that time as Spare Time A c t i v i t i e s . Subsequent to t h i s the d i v i s i o n became known as the Group Work Di v i s i o n . In 1958, because of t h i s d i v i s i o n ' s growing concern with k recreation, the name Recreation and Group Work Di v i s i o n was adopted. As stated e a r l i e r a number of divisions grew out of standing "*Tbid. , p.4. 2 I b i d . , p.7 5 I b i d . , p.6 3 Minutes of the Membership meetings of the Recreation and Group Work Di v i s i o n , 1 9 5 8 , S o c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area (in.the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . - 6 5 -committees, consequently the Family Welfare and Child Welfare di v i s i o n s developed separately. In 1 9 4 6 a committee reviewed the organizational structure of the S o c i a l Planning Council. A major recommendation of t h i s committee was that i n keeping with current s o c i a l work thinking, the Family Welfare and Child Welfare divisions should be combined under the name Family and Child Welfare Division.'*' Although there have been many div i s i o n s developed f o r various reasons over the years i n the So c i a l Planning Council, the main concern here has been with the divisions that grew into what became known as the Welfare and Recreation Council. These developments can be seen i n figures 1 - 4 i n c l u s i v e . Focus of t h i s Study The structured organizational change documented here-in occurred i n 1 9 6 l . At that time the two d i v i s i o n s of the S o c i a l Planning Section, the Family and Child Welfare D i v i s i o n and the 2 Recreation and Group Work Di v i s i o n were combined. The combined di v i s i o n s became a council known as the Welfare and Recreation Council. The time when t h i s documentation was undertaken was i n the period from February 1 9 6 5 to A p r i l 1 9 6 5 . Application of Study Procedure 1. In Retrospective Aspect of Change Process The information gathered was confined to the headings and questions which were outlined i n the Area Development Project proposal. Jackson, op.cit., p . 1 0 6 2 Minutes of the Welfare and Recreation Council Meeting, A p r i l 1 9 6 1 , S o c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, (in the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . - 66 -To do this the recorder r e l i e d to a large extent on the minutes of the meetings from the Family and Child Welfare and the Recreation and Group Work d i v i s i o n s held the two years previous to the change,. The minutes from the Welfare and Recreation Council and i t s annual reports from 196l to 1964, the minutes of the Committee on Integration of the two di v i s i o n s , and the executive minutes of the Socia l Planning Body were also used extensively. A number of personal interviews were also conducted. In these interviews the model was followed closely i n i t s exact sequence as a basis for questions. Individuals chosen as interview informants were selected because they were known to have had direct involvement i n the change process that was studied. In an attempt to obtain a cross-section of information the recorder interviewed the following informants: two volunteers, one from each of the previous d i v i s i o n s , one of whom was a member of the new council; two agency administrators, one from each of the previous d i v i s i o n s , both of whom were members of the new council; a planning associate assigned to one of the previous divisions and l a t e r assigned to the new council; a repre-sentative from the School of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, who was a member of one d i v i s i o n and also became a member of the new council, and the director of the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Community Chest and Councilso The information gathered from these two approaches was combined and documented within the framework of the model chosen. The recorder was not ac t i v e l y involved i n any part of the change process i n t h i s section of the study. - 67 -Figure 1 1938 - Sections Relating to t h i s Study Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver ^Family Welfare " "y/J)± vision'Ojv^ //7///////'////y//. S o c i a l Planning Section C h i l d Welfare % j D i v i s i on/////.' Other Divisions not related to t h i s study Figure 2 1939 - 40 - Sections Relating to t h i s Study Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver / /' i i y ' Wei fare ^ i ^ D i v i s i o n ^ M S o c i a l Planning Section -il'd Welfare '•Divisipn^Vv ^Spare'' Time;:;<':;;';^ .^ A c t i v i t i e s with^;^, :^Qrjp^p^qr^ J^c^i6^ Other Divs. not related to t h i s study - 68 -Figure 5 1946 - Sections Relating to t h i s Study Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver So c i a l Planning Section ^ajai j^an^CnSl i^^Welfare..^ > D i v i s i o n ' :^  Group, ..Work Division:. Other Divisions not related to thi s study Figure 4 1958 - Sections Relating to th i s Study Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver S o c i a l Planning Section ^ a i ^ l y ^ l n d ^ W e l f a r e s^s. Di v i s i on^ \\>. JNX \Recreatibh" and \;\Oroup Work'\.>^  \Division\\\\ N Other Divisions not related to th i s study - 69 -2. In the Active Aspects of the Change Process Part of the information i n t h i s section was obtained from the annual reports of the Welfare and Recreation Council for the years 1962, 1963, and 1964 and from the same people interviewed i n the retrospective aspects of the change process. The remainder of the information was gained from a special committee which was established to make a preliminary assessment of the Welfare and Recreation Council. In A p r i l 1964 on i n s t r u c t i o n from the Council Governing Committee a meeting of the table o f f i c e r s was convened to determine terms of reference for an assessment of the Welfare and Recreation Council. I t was decided to confine the committee to a small number of people as they would only be making a preliminary study. In the s e l e c t i o n of committee members both their agency or organization background e.g. public agency, private agency and broad community, and t h e i r present position i n the community were considered.^" The recorder had the opportunity to meet with t h i s committee as a non-participant observer. The minutes of these meetings, the material used and the report produced by the committee, along with interviews with committee members were the sources of information for documenting the evaluation stage of the change process. The information was organized within the framework of the model chosen. Limitations of this Study Interviewees, even though conscientious, may suffer from 2 f a u l t y perception and faulty memory. In this study the retrospective "^An assessment of the Operation of the Welfare and Recreation Council, March, 1965, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, p . l . C i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) p Young, Pauline V., S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Research (Prentice-Ha l l Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, 1963) p. 208 - 70 -aspect of the change process examined by interviews must r e l y on the r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the interviewees. Although the interviewer attempted to be as objective as possible i n following the model throughout a l l of the interviews, the fact that interviewers often approach t h e i r respondents with a prepared set of expectations as to how the l a t t e r w i l l answer certain questions must also be noted. The interviewer usually develops these expectations i n the course of the interview on the basis of early or incomplete response. With the l i m i t e d number of interviewees, despite the attempt to obtain a cross-section of opinion, biases may possibly exist i n t h e i r responses i n the interviews. The interviewer explained at the beginning of each interview his desire to obtain the thoughts and feelings of the informants as they were at the time of the change and not as they were at the time of this study. In t h i s study interviews were used to supplement information gathered from minutes and other sources. It i s generally necessary to inspect a number of records before the items recorded can be thought of as having a high degree 2 of v a l i d i t y . In this study a number of records recording the same aspects of change were available to document the retrospective aspects of change. The active aspects of change were not as well documented as there was only one recorded source i n most instances. The committee i t s e l f was considered to be conducting a preliminary study only and did not bring i n any resource people to examine the subject i n further d e t a i l . In most instances the minutes used could be considered a Ib i d . , p.209 2 I b i d . , p . l 8 l - 71 -primary source of material as they were recorded f i r s t hand at the time of the meetings. In some cases however the minutes include speakers who are r e f e r r i n g to previous events and therefore may con-tain inaccuracies and value judgements. The possible l i m i t a t i o n s of the model as a tool for docu-menting organizetional change w i l l be recorded at the end of this study. S o c i a l Planning Setting Before and After the Formation of  Welfare and Recreation Council The s t r u c t u r a l change which brought the two divisons, Family and Child Welfare, and Recreation and Group Work under one council occurred within the o v e r a l l structure of the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Community Chest and Councils. This change appears to have been influenced by two main factors. F i r s t l y , changes i n the p o l i c i e s of s o c i a l planning as i t related to the o v e r a l l structure and secondly by another change i n the S o c i a l Planning Section involving the form-ation of a Health Council. Background of Concept of Planning The Chest and Councils began as an amalgamation of organizations primarily for fund r a i s i n g purposes. As the number of agencies i n -creased i t became necessary to co-ordinate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s through the Council of S o c i a l Agencies which l a t e r developed into the S o c i a l Planning Section, fhrough the years the Vancouver S o c i a l Planning Council along with other welfare councils, had reached the point where simple co-ordination was no longer meeting the planning needs of the c i t y and long term planning was required.^" "^Minutes of the S o c i a l Planning Executive, March 1 9 5 9 , Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, (in the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . - 72 -Since i t s inception i n 1946 the S o c i a l Planning Executive had frequently examined, evaluated, and altered i t s organizational structure i n r e l a t i o n to i t s effectiveness i n carrying out the community planning operation. Studies on structure were completed i n 19^8, 1954, 1955, 1957, and 1959, a l l of which resulted i n a number of changes considered to be adequate at the time."*" In I960 s o c i a l planning could be seen as being carried out through a federation of agencies and focussed on common problems. As indicated i n figure 5 there were five main d i v i s i o n s . The repre-sentation i n these divisions was mainly that of agency delegates. These delegates decided programme p r i o r i t i e s . The S o c i a l Planning Executive carried the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for city-wide planning. Line of Communication i 9 6 0 The structure at this time was characterized by the involve-ment of several l e v e l s i n the handling of any type of problem. The l i n e of communication ran from the Board of Directors of the Community Chest and Councils through the S o c i a l Planning Executive to the various d i v i s i o n s and planning units and then to the agencies which were members of p a r t i c u l a r u n i t s . An agency requesting a study had to take i t to the top l e v e l of structure, the Board- of the Community Chest and Councils. The board would send i t to the S o c i a l Planning Executive for consider-ation. I f the S o c i a l Planning Executive approved the matter for study i t would be referred to the d i v i s i o n or d i v i s i o n s which S o c i a l Planning decided to be best q u a l i f i e d to carry i t through. The d i v i s i o n would consider i t and f i t i t into i t s work load at the e a r l i e s t possible date ^"Report of the Committee on Structure to the S o c i a l Planning Section, September, 1 9 6 l , Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, (in the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . - 73 -depending upon the p r i o r i t y of the p a r t i c u l a r project. A committee to study the proposal would be made up of agency personnel plus people i n the community best q u a l i f i e d to contribute to the process. When the study was completed i t would be sent back to the d i v i s i o n for approval. I f approved i t would be sent to the So c i a l Planning Executive for consideration. On approval at t h i s l e v e l i t was returned to the Board of the Community Chest and Councils once again and i f the board passed i t , i t would revert back to the d i v i s i o n for implementation. D i v i s i o n Authority I960 The d i v i s i o n s under t h i s arrangement had no authority to proceed on th e i r own and were completely under the control of the Soci a l Planning Executive. Correspondingly, the So c i a l Planning Executive although the senior policy committee for the whole planning operation was nevertheless spending i t s time reviewing studies and proposals of the f i v e divisions before r e f e r r i n g them to the Board of the Community Chest and Councils and were unable to carry out the o v e r a l l planning function they desired. Factors A f f e c t i n g Change Further changes i n s o c i a l planning i n Vancouver were stimu-lated by the c i t i z e n s survey report i n I960 which included a number of recommendations for planning."*" A great deal of information was also becoming available which indicated a review of planning and Report to the Board of Directors of the Special Committee Established to Review the Findings of the Citizens Survey Committee on Health and Welfare, September, 196l, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, p.l4 (in the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) - 74 -Figure 5 i960 - Sections Relating to t h i s Study Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver Soci a l Planning Section Health D i v i s i o n Guidance of Handicapped Di v i s i o n Family and ; Child Welfare ^ Div i s i on^ ;-> Recreation V s \ and Group Work ^. D i v i s i o n ^ Committee on Welfare of the Aged Figure 6 1962 - Sections Relating to t h i s Study Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver Soci a l Planning Section v ;-\ Welfare and s ' v s \ . % „ v . Recreation ^ ? C o u n c i l Health Council T Division for Guidance of Handicapped 1 Welfare of Aged Committee - 75 -substantial changes i n structure within s o c i a l planning was occurring i n many North American c i t i e s . At the same time negotiations were taking place to combine the Health D i v i s i o n of the Section with the Greater Vancouver Health League under one Health Council within the S o c i a l Planning Section. The Health League representatives were i n s i s t a n t on the t i t l e "Health Council" as one which would have status i n the community."*" The Health Council would have a greater degree of authority and independence that hitherto accorded the d i v i s i o n s within the S o c i a l Planning Section and would be allowed to make community statements irregardless of Community Chest and Councils' Board approval. S t r u c t u r a l Design i n 1961 In l i g h t of these happenings as well as the forming of the Welfare and Recreation Council a committee on structure was established 2 i n the summer of 1961. The committee was to work out the reorgani-zation of the S o c i a l Planning Section incorporating provisions for the Health Council and to bring i n recommendations on structure by-law amendments. The acceptance of these recommendations on structure amendments changed s o c i a l planning a great deal from the s i t u a t i o n i n i960 outlined previously. Under the new structure the previous f i v e d i v i s i o n s became two councils, the Welfare and Recreation Council and the Health Council, plus a d i v i s i o n for the Guidance of the Handicapped and a committee for the Welfare of the Aged as seen i n Figure 6. D i v i s i o n Authority 1961 The councils and d i v i s i o n s had considerably more autonomy than Minutes of Welfare and Recreation Council, l o c . c i t . , May, 196l Report of the Committee on Structure, l o c . c i t . , 1961 - 76 -i n the past. Under the new structure there would be a d i r e c t l i n e of access to and from the Board of Directors of the Community Chest and Councils and the planning u n i t s . A l l business was to be conducted within the four sub-sections; a l l committees were to be under t h e i r auspices and a l l action and s o c i a l planning formulated by them. They would be autonomous i n a l l matters concerning t h e i r own f i e l d of i n t e r e s t . A request for a study could be received d i r e c t l y from an agency or the Board of the Community Chest and Councils. The Council or D i v i s i o n Executive could consider i t and on approval f i t i t into the work load of the council, e s t a b l i s h a committee to make the study and upon completion and approval of the study could return i t d i r e c t l y to the Board of the Community Chest and Councils. I f , however, i t was judged to have implications for other units of s o c i a l planning, i t could be considered by the S o c i a l Planning Executive before i t was presented to the board. The stated purpose of the S o c i a l Planning Executive was co-ordination and communication between the sections. I t would i n i t i a t e studies only under sp e c i a l circumstances. This meant that the councils and d i v i s i o n s would do a larger proportion of the work previously done by the S o c i a l Planning Executive. Under th i s structure the planning units would also be responsible for implementation of the various projects. Other Factors i n the Change i n S o c i a l Planning In September 1961 the s p e c i a l committee established to review the findings of the c i t i z e n s survey were accepted and implemented i n the S o c i a l Planning Section. To further c l a r i f y the s o c i a l planning s i t u a t i o n , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t here to note a few that were not - 77 -implemented. The c i t i z e n s report recommended:"'" 1. That the council streamline i t s present structure by converting the present functional d i v i s i o n s to conference groups for the purposes of developing communication, advising on studies under consideration and giving technical assistance where needed. 2 . That the council appoint study committees on an ad hoc basis to function d i r e c t l y under the S o c i a l Planning Section. 3 . That necessary continuing projects and a c t i v i t i e s be established under standing committees reporting d i r e c t l y to the S o c i a l Planning Section or organized councils within the Planning Section, depending on the s i t u a t i o n . The committee reviewing these recommendations agreed with t h e i r objectives but did not agree.with the " l i n e s " suggested by the report for achieving these objectives. They were rejected for the following 2 reasons. I t was considered that the groups, organizations and i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n planning at that time would not be pre-pared to accept nor should they be asked to accept the conversion of functional d i v i s i o n s to conference groups, with planning being carried out by ad hoc committees. The d i r e c t i o n i n which planning was evolving was the development of semi-autonomous councils. In the development of these councils there would be elements of streamlining. Study would be done with a view to Report of C i t i z e n s ' Survey Report Committee, l o c . c i t . , p.15 2 I b i d . , p.16 - 78 -eliminating l e v e l s of review wherever t h i s was feasible and would not threaten to i n t e r f e r e with the co-ordinating function of the S o c i a l Planning Executive Committee and the Broad p o l i c y concerns of the Board of Directors of the Community Chest and Councils. Emerging Concepts of Planning 19&5 The o v e r a l l concept of planning i n Vancouver appeared to be changing again from the s i t u a t i o n outlined i n 1961 to a problem centred approach based upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of community needs and the provision of services to meet these needs. The council was beginning to move from being f i e l d of service based toward the form-ation of community councils i n a s p e c i f i c geographic area. I t was hoped that t h i s approach would find a solution to a problem as a whole rather than to a l l e v i a t e only one or two aspects of the problem. This w i l l be dealt with further i n the evaluation section of this study. The foregoing information has been for purposes of introducing the process of amalgamation in v o l v i n g the Recreation and Group Work and Family and Child Welfare Divi s i o n s . The documenting of t h i s s t r u c t u r a l change using the Area Development Project model follows: Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n A. Who I d e n t i f i e d the Problem? The problem of having two separate d i v i s i o n s , one for Family and Child Welfare and one f o r Group Work and Recreation was i d e n t i f i e d by a number of people at various times. That there was a problem appears to have become the opinion of many people and neither the minutes nor the interviewers were able to shed any l i g h t on the chronological order of who i d e n t i f i e d the problem. The recorder has - 79 -not attempted to rank the people i n any s p e c i f i c order. The S o c i a l Planning Council s t a f f members who were assigned to the two d i v i s i o n s saw the e x i s t i n g structure as a problem. This was done before the s t a f f person from the Family and Child Welfare Di v i s i o n l e f t the council i n i960. The S o c i a l Planning Executive was also aware of the problem. Both the volunteers and the agency repre-sentatives i n the two divisions were instrumental i n seeing the need for change. The report of the C i t i z e n s Committee on the Community Chest and Councils also pointed out among other things that the So c i a l Planning Council should make every e f f o r t to streamline i t s structure to make more e f f i c i e n t use of the time of s t a f f and volunteers."* B. How was i t i d e n t i f i e d ? The chronological order i n t h i s section was also d i f f i c u l t to determine and the recorder has once again chosen the order i n the situations where i t was not possible to determine i t exactly. The general philosophy of planning i n Vancouver i n i960 which apparently has been influenced by the s i t u a t i o n throughout Worth America manifested i t s e l f i n people's b e l i e f i n the u n i f i c a t i o n , co-ordination and integration of services. Within t h i s general framework a number of s i g n i f i c a n t things were occuning i n Vancouver. Among these were a Co-Ordination of Services Project, a proposed expansion of planning programme to include work on youth services, a Joint Family Services Project involving the Neighbourhood Houses and the Family 2 Service Bureau and a beginning look at the Area Development Project. ^"Ibid., p. 1U Minutes of the meeting of Joint Committee on Integration,January,1961. S o c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest & Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area ( i n f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . - 80 -A l l of these projects were i n d i c a t i n g the need fo r better integration of services and pointed up the fact that a look or study could not be confined to one d i v i s i o n only. At the same time there was not only a lack of co-ordination of services but a lack of co-ordinated planning as well* In conjunction with t h i s informal discussions between the s t a f f members of the two d i v i s i o n s uncovered further problems which they f e l t were being precipitated by the two divisions being separated. From a s t a f f i n g point of view time was being l o s t through the increased overlapping and duplicating of the areas of work. In order that many matters of common i n t e r e s t could be discussed at i n d i v i d u a l d i v i s i o n meetings, lengthy conferences were ncessary between the s t a f f executive secretaries. Another factor to be considered was the juvenile delinquency programme. I t was of int e r e s t to both d i v i s i o n s and looking at i t separately or setting up a j o i n t committee did not appear to be adequate solutions at the time. With these thoughts i n mind the way the S o c i a l Planning Section talked about s p e c i f i c issues brought i t s desire for needed change to other people's attention. While t h i s was occurring the agencies were also i d e n t i f y i n g problems with the existing structure. A number of agencies found themselves members of one d i v i s i o n but extremely interested i n what was occurring i n the other d i v i s i o n . An example of t h i s was the Joint Family Services Project where the Family Services Bureau and the Neighbourhood Houses although working together on this project were i n separate d i v i s i o n s within the S o c i a l Planning Section. The agency personnel were then beginning to meet i n a "shadow" t h i r d d i v i s i o n . - 81 -The matter was discussed informally with the S o c i a l Planning Executive who suggested a meeting of representatives from the two d i v i s i o n s concerned to discuss the matter further. A number of other general feelings about the separated d i v i s i o n structure were also brought to l i g h t when the Assessment Committee met i n 1965. These included: the fact that the agencies were not getting the r e s u l t s from the studies that they wanted; problems did not f a l l neatly into d i v i s i o n a l categories and a r t i f i c i a l d i v i s i o n s were not meeting the needs of t h e i r members or the community; there was undue time consumed i n just keeping the d i v i s i o n a l apparatus i n motion, t h i s was true p a r t i c u l a r l y of s t a f f , e.g. minutes, agendas, reports, for two d i v i s i o n s , but also was true for volunteer time. The other main area concerned the over a l l s o c i a l planning structure as outlined e a r l i e r i n t h i s recording. The lack of authority for the divisions to proceed and the corresponding hindrance to the S o c i a l Planning Executive, as well as the desire for more autonomy emphasized by the negotiations with the Health League - a l l played an important part i n i d e n t i f y i n g the problem. Whether or not a l l of the problems i d e n t i f i e d were a r e s u l t of having two separate d i v i -sions i t was believed at the time that this caused a number of the d i f f i c u l t i e s and a change was needed. While i t appears very l i k e l y that discussions about the need for change would have proceeded anyway, there i s no doubt that the process was accelerated by the resignation of Mr. E.F. Watson as the s t a f f person with the Family and Child Welfare D i v i s i o n . With a new appointment to be made to s t a f f the Family andChild Welfare Di v i s i o n i t appeared to be the most propitious time to give f u l l - 82 -consideration to the various ways i n which a more e f f e c t i v e organizational structure involving the two d i v i s i o n s might be established.^" C. How was the extent and nature of the problem v e r i f i e d ? The formal stage of problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n began with a meeting of representatives from the two d i v i s i o n s on November 17, i960, to discuss the extent and nature of the problem. The meeting was composed of f i v e members from the Family andCbild Welfare D i v i s i o n , f i v e members from the Recreation and Group Work Di v i s i o n plus Mr. B.A. Robinson, s t a f f person fo r the d i v i s i o n , and Mr. E.D. H i l l , Director of S o c i a l Planning. The problem was discussed informally with most of the points raised i n the previous section of t h i s record being discussed. Mr. Robinson also supplied an analysis of the executive committee minutes of the two d i v i s i o n s covering the dates from January to October i960 i n c l u s i v e . This analysis indicated the overlapping of agenda subjects, the subjects that were only con-sidered by one but could have benefitted by broader consideration and the subjects considered separately by both d i v i s i o n s . This can be seen i n table 1. I t was shown that the f i r s t two categories comprised 35% of the subjects discussed. The discussion at t h i s meeting i n d i -cated a need for change but i t was f e l t that more research should be done on the matter and that a committee should examine the material on structure from other councils. "^Minutes of the meeting of Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n , March,1961, So c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area ( i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . Minutes of the meeting of JointCommittee on Integration,November,i960, S o c i a l Planning Section,Community Chest & Councils of Greater Vancouver (in the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) - 83 -On January 24, 196l, the committee met to consider the problem further."*" Considered at t h i s time was a summary prepared by s t a f f of the various forms of planning organizations operating at that time i n Health and Welfare Councils across Canada and i n the United States. Further study was also given to the agenda breakdown which the s t a f f had prepared for the previous meeting. The points that had been discussed informally, namely the Co-ordin-ation of Services Project, the Joint Family Services Project and the problems around juvenile delinquency and services to youth were now discussed on a formal basis by the committee. A report of t h i s meeting along with further background material pointing up the need for change was sent to the two d i v i s i o n s . This further material prpeared by s t a f f included a short summary of s o c i a l planning i n Vancouver beginning at 1964 i n d i c a t i n g some of the changes that had occurred over the years. Special emphasis was placed on the report of the 1959 sub-committee on s o c i a l planning structure which found the d i v i s i o n s to be "agency" and " f i e l d of 2 service" minded and not s u f f i c i e n t l y community planning minded. The problem was further v e r i f i e d i n separate discussion at f u l l meetings of the two div i s i o n s concerned using a l l of the material that had been previously prepared by s t a f f . Minutes of the meeting of the Joint Committee on Integration, l o c . c i t . , January, 1961 2 Report of Sub-Committee on Structure, 1959, S o c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver Area, ( i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) - 84 -Table A. Analysis of the Executive Committe'es'  Minutes, Family and Child Welfare and  Recreation and Group Work Divisions  January - October, i960 Considered by Both Executive Committees - B.C. Govt. Report of Juvenile Delinquency Board - Y.W.C.A. Baynes House - Urban Redevelopment - Joint Family Service Future Planning Committee - Report on City Council Committee on S o c i a l Problems - Report on C i t i z e n s ' Survey Study - S o c i a l Planning Executive Statement on Integrated Planning Specialized to Recreation and Group Work Di v i s i o n - Degree Course i n Recreation,U.B.C. - Major's Youth Committee Fund, Use of School Gymnasiums - Review of Vancouver G i r l s Club Association - City Council's Appropriation of False Creek Park. - Day Camp Standards - Boards of Trade B r i e f on Shaughnessy Golf Course Considered by one but could have benefitted by broader consideration - Kool City Club - Volunteer Bureau - Recruiting, Training, placement of Volun-teers - Special Programme for Blind Children - Recreation Needs of Cedar Cottage Area - North Shore Neighbourhood House Area Study - Recreation Services for Children i n New Residential Areas - Recreation Services for Teenagers i n Renfrew Area - Child Care Centre Specialized to Family and Child Welfare D i v i s i o n - Maximum Allowable Earning Capacity of S o c i a l Assistance Recipients - Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowances Future - Development of Community-wide housekeeper service - Trends i n Day Care Service - Catholic Family Services House-keeper budget - Emergency Shelter Committee - 85 -2 . Goal Determination A. What type of change (po l i c y , s t r u c t u r a l , etc.) was planned? After i d e n t i f y i n g and v e r i f y i n g the problem and the need for change the next step was to decide the type of change necessary. As stated e a r l i e r an evaluation of the s t r u c t u r a l arrangements was carried out with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the examination of the organizational structure of other Community Welfare Councils i n Canada and the United States. I t was decided that a r a d i c a l change i n structure did not appear to be the solution to the p a r t i c u l a r problems of the Vancouver Council."'" However, a d e f i n i t e need for the component parts of the planning operation to be related more clo s e l y one to the other was considered necessary. For the reasons outlined e a r l i e r the Family and Child Welfare D i v i s i o n and the Recreation and Group Work Divisbn appeared to have the greatest need for more co-ordination. Therefore a s t r u c t u r a l change which would involve joining the two divisions together under one council was proposed. This would be an integration of two d i v i s i o n s within the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n a l structure of the S o c i a l Planning Section. At the same time a considerable change i n policy was also provided for i n the plans. A greater degree of autonomy and independ-ence of action was planned for the new council and the S o c i a l Planning Executive was to become a co-ordinating integrating body. There would be a broadening of emphasis to include community i d e n t i f i e d needs i n addition to agency i d e n t i f i e d needs. The o v e r a l l p o l i c y of s o c i a l Minutes of the meeting of Recreation and Group Work Di v i s i o n , l o c . c i t . , March I 9 6 I . - 86 -planning would remain f i e l d of service based and the focus would s t i l l mainly be on meeting needs through adjustment of ex i s t i n g agency services. What are the cost considerations of the Various alternatives? From the interviews and the minutes i t does not appear as i f cost consideration i n terms of money was taken much into account i n planning a change. There apparently was some discussion about saving money but the general consensus seemed to be that there would be l i t t l e difference f i n a n c i a l l y . I t was the other factors considered which appeared to make change necessary. I t was hoped that the saving would be i n the cost of s t a f f and volunteers' time which previously had been necessary to keep two div i s i o n s running. Other aspects of cost were recorded under the heading "Factors Against Change". B. Who iuggested i t and how was i t suggested? The same people who i d e n t i f i e d the problem suggested the type of s t r u c t u r a l change needed. These included the s o c i a l planning s t a f f assigned to the two d i v i s i o n s , the volunteers and agency representatives of the two d i v i s i o n s , previous committees on s o c i a l planning structure, the report of the c i t i z e n s ' survey and the S o c i a l Planning Executive. As i n the "who" part of problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h i s section was d i f f i c u l t to determine exactly. I t appeared as i f the idea of integration of the two di v i s i o n s occurred at the same time as the problems inherent i n having separate d i v i s i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d . The o r i g i n of the po l i c y changes were somewhat more complicated. The informants indicated a considerable amount of pressure came from - 87 -the S o c i a l Planning Executive apparently p a r t l y as a re s u l t of t h e i r examination of other councils throughout North America. The Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n also made four conditions re-garding the type of policy changes planned. The p r i n c i p a l force i n obtaining the p o l i c y change which resulted i n more d i v i s i o n a l autonomy was the Health League. Although the members of the two div i s i o n s were also desirous of more autonomy and a sub-committee on structure had seen the need for streamlining the s o c i a l planning operation. Autonomy apparently was incorporated i n the Welfare and Recreation Council as a direct r e s u l t of the S o c i a l Planning Section's negotiations with the Health League. The plan was suggested informally i n the beginning to the S o c i a l Planning Executive who then decided to c a l l a formal meeting to place the plan before the d i v i s i o n s . C. Who i s seen as the target f o r change? The target for change was the existing structure which provided for two separate d i v i s i o n s and the o v e r a l l s o c i a l planning structure with i t s lack of autonomy i n the various d i v i s i o n s . The s p e c i f i c people involved were the membership of the two d i v i s i o n s , the S o c i a l Planning Executive and i n the f i n a l analysis the Board of the Community Chest and Councils. Since one of the recommendations of the Group Work and Recreation D i v i s i o n had been that the integrated Executive Committee have planning as i t s p r i n c i p a l function another target for change would presumably be the rel a t i o n s h i p of the agencies to the new council. However, t h i s did not seem to have been discussed at the time. A secondary target for change was the services provided i n the broad sense, with the hope of achieving better co-ordhation - 88 -and integration. D. What was the estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the  target to change? It was believed at the time that the target was very vulnerable to change. This was mostly a d i r e c t result of many of the reasons given as i n d i c a t i n g a need for change. Tba s i t u a t i o n i n other councils throughout North America, the Co-Ordination of Services Project, Joint Family Service Project, juvenile delinquency problem and Area Development Project a l l helped create a favourable climate for change. The c i t i z e n s survey, the report of the 1959 sub-committee on structure and again the experience of the nego-. t i a t i o n s with the Health League also made the target more vulnerable to change. Informal discussion and l a t e r general meetings with the membership of the d i v i s i o n s indicated a readiness on the part of most people for change. Both the d i v i s i o n s and the S o c i a l Planning Executive were desirous of the d i v i s i o n s having more autonomy to enable both sections to better carry out t h e i r duties. Despite t h i s favourable atmosphere a number of factors against change and conditions subject to endorsement of change were brought forth. Factors Against Change Among the factors against integration discussed at the committee meeting of January 2k, 196l, were the d i f f i c u l t i e s the agencies would have i n associating themselves with an integrated d i v i s i o n , the problem of handling agenda items which require s p e c i a l i s t consideration and the p r a c t i c a l problems of combining - 89 -two active ongoing operations. A motion was made for the retention of the div i s i o n s the way they were but providing for j o i n t meetings of executives to consider mutual problems. There was no seconder.^" A further point was raised by the Recreation and Group Work Di v i s i o n at i t s meeting to discuss integration. The question was asked: i f there were reasons why the d i v i s i o n structure was no longer sound what was to be gained by combining two div i s i o n s ? I t appeared to be a compromise i n planning at the lower l e v e l without es s e n t i a l re-consideration of comprehensive s o c i a l planning. I t was stated that i n theory integration would eliminate much duplication, but i n practice every person s i t t i n g on the Joint Executive Committee would have to have an increased breadth of knowledge to f i t i n t o the larger s e t t i n g . The Recreation and Group Work Di v i s i o n made i t s endorsement 2 of the planned change subject to the following conditions. a) That the integrated divisions be under the d i r e c t i o n of one executive s t a f f person with other s t a f f as required i n an assistant capacity. b) That the educational function of the d i v i s i o n as presently structured be preserved. c) That the integrated executive committee have planning as i t s p r i n c i p l e function with l e s s emphasis being Minutes of the meeting of the Joint Committee on Integration, l o c . c i t . January 1961 2 Minutes of the meeting of Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n , l o c . c i t . March I96I - 90 -placed on i t s use i n solving problems, d) That sub-committees necessary to handle sp e c i a l i z e d areas of work on an ad hoc rather than a standing committee basis be established. Action Determination A. What action decisions were made of ways to bring about  the desired change? Who made them? After informal discussion among the s o c i a l planning s t a f f assigned to each of the d i v i s i o n s , among the volunteers, and among agency representatives i t was decided to take t h e i r thoughts to the S o c i a l Planning Executive to test out reaction to them. The decision was made by the S o c i a l Planning Executive to c a l l a meeting of representatives of the two d i v i s i o n s to discuss the possible change further. The people attending this meeting would then decide i f the s i t u a t i o n merited further study. It was also decided by the s t a f f i n the S o c i a l Planning Section that a further way to bring about the desired change would be to prepare material on the agendas of the two d i v i s i o n s along with an analysis of other s t r u c t u r a l designs for s o c i a l planning i n North America. It was r e a l i z e d that i f the decision were reached to i n t e -grate the two d i v i s i o n s , further deliberations would follow regarding a number of other problems. These would include terms of reference for the new body, a name, membership and an exact structure. Since these decisions could not be made u n t i l some aspects of action implementation were carried out they w i l l be recorded as a part of the section of the model dealing with t h i s subject. - 91 -B. What were the possible alternative outcomes of each of  these action decisions? The outcome of each decision to take the matter further for discussion, whether i t be informally to the S o c i a l Planning Executive or formally to the two d i v i s i o n s , could have resulted i n r e j e c t i o n of the proposals. Each area may have f e l t the reasons for change were not v a l i d or i f accepting the need for change might not have agreed with the proposed type of change. As indicated e a r l i e r there was some opposition to change which had to be overcome. The Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n did make four conditions to t h e i r endorsing change which have already been recorded. This section also seemed to be an appropriate place to record the few things that people thought might be l o s t by integrat-ing the two d i v i s i o n s . There does not appear to have been a great deal of concern about what the d i v i s i o n s might lose at the time, i f so i t appears to have been completely outweighed by the hoped-for gains. However, the agencies did wonder where they would be able to express themselves and discuss their own unique professional concerns i f the d i v i s i o n s joined. I t was thought that the existing structure permitted more time to consider s p e c i a l i z e d problems and fostered agency p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n co-ordination of services. The concern for the loss of the educational role played by the divisions was evident i n the fact that the Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n recommended that t h i s role not be l o s t i n the new body. C. What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l  focus involved? There appeared to be a general f e e l i n g of optimism both i n - 9 2 -the membership of the two di v i s i o n s and i n the o v e r a l l s o c i a l planning structure that the proposed change would be b e n e f i c i a l and a better job would be done as a r e s u l t . I t was hoped that the new authority of the d i v i s i o n s to proceed on t h e i r own would provide a broader and more e f f i c i e n t approach to solving problems. The change would eliminate the unnecessary duplication of professional and volunteer e f f o r t . Besides curing the problem inherent i n overlapping agendas i t would gave better consideration to those questions that should have been considered by both d i v i s i o n s previously. I t was believed that a j o i n t council with greater autonomy would enable much fas t e r imple-mentation of action programmes. Part of the d i f f i c u l t i e s caused because a problem would not f i t i n t o one d i v i s i o n would be eliminated and a great deal of time would be saved i n not having to process everything through l e v e l s of structure. The S o c i a l Planning Executive would be freed from reviewing each study before i t s going to the Board of the Community Chest and Councils and thus could proceed with an integrating and co-ordinating function. The above recorded items seemed to be the thoughts of a l l of the various parties involved i n the proposed change. There was, however, another area i n which the expected outcome was viewed d i f f e r e n t l y by the agencies i n the community and the S o c i a l Planning Body. Many of the agencies hoped for better integration and co-ordination of services but did not expect a loss of contact for consultation with the s t a f f person with whom they had been involved i n the two d i v i s i o n structure. The S o c i a l Planning Section however - 93 -saw the new structure as having a p a r t i c u l a r role i n making studies of s o c i a l problems, i n determining the nature of needs i n the community, i n making recommendations f o r the solution of these needs and i n carrying through an implementation of recommend-ations. Apparently i t was believed that the div i s i o n s had become too agency-orientated and not enough " f i e l d of service" or "planning" orientated."* I t was openly hoped by s o c i a l planning that the new council would change this somewhat and begin to eliminate the idea of the So c i a l Planning Section being a "hand maiden" to the agencies. Action Implementation A. Who became involved? The people involved i n the action implementation p a r a l l e l very c l o s e l y the same people outlined i n the f i r s t three parts of the record. Most of the implementation was carried through by the two d i v i s i o n s making use of a committee established from the two bodies to work out integration. The S o c i a l Planning Executive and the Board of the Community Chest and Councils were also involved i n the f i n a l implementation. The 1961 report of the S o c i a l Planning Structure Committee played an important role i n determining the f i n a l action to be taken. B. How were they involved? The divisions were involved i n a direct way i n making the decisions necessary i n implementing the desired change. The s o c i a l planning s t a f f were also d i r e c t l y involved with the membership of the Ibid. - 9k -d i v i s i o n s . The S o c i a l Planning Structure Committee was involved i n d i r e c t l y i n that t h e i r recommendations for the whole S o c i a l Planning Section had a bearing on the terms of reference and structure of the Welfare and Recreation Council. C. What methods were actu a l l y used? The recorder has decided that the best way to document the change under th i s heading was to follow the chronological order of events outlining the methods used beginning with the f i r s t joint meeting of November 17, I960. On November 17» I 9 6 0 , a meeting arranged by the S o c i a l Planning Executive between f i v e representatives from each of the two divisions was held to discuss informally the idea of integrating the two divisions."*" There was some agreement that there seemed to be need for some kind of integration and a s p e c i a l committee was set up to investigate the matter further. The committee met on January 24, 196l, and considered further material on structure and workload 2 provided by s t a f f . The committee decided that the two d i v i s i o n s should amalgamate and an integrated executive be set up for one year. This was accom-plished by the establishment of a j o i n t nominating committee from the e x i s t i n g executives to nominate approximately t h i r t y members to the new integrated Executive Committee. A chairman was also to be nominated. Those members of the existing d i v i s i o n executives who would be l e f t out of the newly formed executive would be asked to Minutes of the meeting.of Joint Committee on Integration., l o c . c i t , November i960 2 Minutes of the meeting of Joint Committee on Integration, l o c . c i t . , January, 1961 - 95 -accept project assignments. Special sub-committees would be formed to deal with those agenda items which required s p e c i a l i z e d consideration. This proposal was to be brought before the Executive Committees of the two d i v i s i o n s and i f agreed to, the integrated Executive Committee was to be established following the annual meetings of the two d i v i s i o n s scheduled i n March. The second meeting of the D i v i s i o n Integration Committee was held on March 21, 1961."* At this meeting the exact nature of the integrated body and the time schedule for the integration process were examined. The membership of the new planning body would be a combination of the two e x i s t i n g memberships. A maximum of t h i r t y and a minimum of twenty persons would be elected to the new executive committee. A nominating committee was established with a meeting planned for early A p r i l so that the l i s t of nominees could be c i r c u l a t e d to give s u f f i c i e n t time before the inaugural meeting. The date for the f i r s t meeting of the integrated body was set for A p r i l 26, 196l. Two s t a f f members would be appointed to the new body, one acting as executive secretary and the other i n an assistant capacity. I t was hoped eventually to have a t h i r d person so that a l l three basic areas of work would be represented, i . e . families and children, recreation, and corrections. In terms of the representation of the new body to the S o c i a l Planning Executive the pattern for representation was being estab-Minutes of the meeting of Joint Committee on Integration,(^loc . c i t . K March 196l, S o c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area ( i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) - 96 -l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e H e a l t h C o u n c i l n e g o t i a t i o n s , i . e . s i x r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s t o the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g E x e c u t i v e whose name w o u l d l i k e l y be changed t o C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l . I t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e new e x e c u t i v e meet i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e i n a u g u r a l m e e t i n g c o u l d be c a l l e d t h e t a b l e o f f i c e r s w o u l d have to p l a n t h e a g e n d a . The b a s i c p r o p o s a l t h a t t h e two d i v i s i o n s be i n t e g r a t e d f o r a p e r i o d o f one y e a r was e n d o r s e d by the e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e s o f b o t h d i v i s i o n s . A s p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d t h e R e c r e a t i o n a n d G r o u p Work D i v i s i o n made i t s endorsement s u b j e c t t o f o u r c o n d i t i o n s . A u t h o r -i z a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m the d i v i s i o n s a t t h e i r a n n u a l M e e t i n g s , M a r c h 28, 1961, and M a r c h 29» 1961, to have t h e i n c u m b e n t e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e s c o n t i n u e i n o f f i c e u n t i l the i n t e g r a t i o n was o f f i c i a l l y e f f e c t e d . 1 The c o m m i t t e e a g r e e d t h a t t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e new body w o u l d be on t h e agenda o f t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g as w o u l d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f naming t h e new b o d y . The s e c o n d m e e t i n g w o u l d be u s e d t o t r a n s f e r u n f i n i s h e d b u s i n e s s f r o m the e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n s . On A p r i l 28, 196l, the f i r s t m e e t i n g o f the i n t e g r a t e d 2 d i v i s i o n s was h e l d . The r e p o r t o f t h e n o m i n a t i n g c o m m i t t e e was a c c e p t e d and t h e p e o p l e l i s t e d were e l e c t e d a s the E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e new b o d y . A name f o r t h e new c o u n c i l was d i s c u s s e d b u t no c o n c l u s i o n s were r e a c h e d and i t was d e c i d e d t o d i s c u s s i t f u r t h e r w i t h i n t h e new E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e . M i n u t e s o f m e e t i n g o f W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l , l o c . c i t . A p r i l , 1961 2 I b i d . - 97 -The meeting of the new Executive Committee was held on May 23, 196l."* At t h i s meeting the name Welfare and Recreation Council was adopted as the name for the new body. At th i s meeting also a table o f f i c e r s committee was established, arrangements were made for the s i x delegates required from the council to the So c i a l Planning Executive and i n i t i a l discussion about terms of reference was begun. Sheets were also distributed which l i s t e d items referred to the new council by both d i v i s i o n s and by the S o c i a l Planning Executive. The items were broken down into categories i n d i c a t i n g the need for immediate attention, for attention but not on an urgent basis, and items which required future action. The next meeting of the Executive Committee of the new 2 Council was held June 13, 1961. Discussion was carried on regarding the determination of work load as a follow-up to the previous meeting. This was the only part of the meeting which could be considered a part of implementing the organizational change. The remainder of the meeting was devoted to consideration of studies carr i e d over from the two d i v i s i o n s . At the September 196l meeting of the Welfare and Recreation Council draft terms of reference prepared by council s t a f f were received by the committee.'' I t was decided this document would Minutes of the Executive Committee of Welfare and Recreation Council, May 23, 1961. S o c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, ( i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . 2 Minutes of the Executive Committee of the Welfare and Recreation Council, l o c . c i t . June 13,1961. ^Minutes of the Meeting of the Welfare and Recreation Council, l o c . c i t . September, 1961. provide s u f f i c i e n t d i r e c t i o n u n t i l such time as the recommendations of the s t r u c t u r e committee of the S o c i a l Planning Executive would be forthcoming. At the meeting of October 31? 1961, the report of the S o c i a l Planning S t r u c t u r e Committee was discussed e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e d to the f i n a l steps i n implementing the change from the two d i v i s i o n s to the new Welfare and Recreation C o u n c i l . 1 The c o u n c i l would now have d i r e c t access to the Executive Committee of the Community Chest Board of D i r e c t o r s , g i v i n g the c o u n c i l more autonomy, st a t u s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The repres e n t a t i o n being made to the S o c i a l Planning Executive by the c o u n c i l s would be reduced to one. The c o u n c i l could choose between d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c requests f o r help or d e a l i n g w i t h only l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s or i t could undertake a combin-a t i o n of both. The main job of the S o c i a l Planning Executive would be i n c o - o r d i n a t i n g , i n t e g r a t i n g and ge n e r a l l y g r a p p l i n g with the o v e r a l l job of planning. At t h i s meeting job d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the Associate D i r e c t o r of Planning and the A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of Planning were d i s t r i b u t e d . The d e s c r i p t i o n s were i n l i n e with the new s t r u c t u r e . Whereas the o l d d i v i s i o n s were s t a f f e d w i t h "executive s e c r e t a r i e s " the new arrangements would be more f l e x i b l e w i t h a senio r planning person and a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r s as r e q u i r e d . This would el i m i n a t e the k i n d of gap that had occurred when Mr. Watson l e f t the one d i v i s i o n and als o would allow people to move up i n t o the s e n i o r p o s i t i o n who were Minutes of the meeting of Welfare and Recreation C o u n c i l , l o c . c i t . September, 196l. - 99 -f a m i l i a r with the operation. I t was hoped that there would be three s t a f f positions i n the Welfare and Recreation Council, each s k i l l e d i n a s p e c i f i c f i e l d , i . e . Family and Children's Services, Recreation and Group Work and Correctional Services. A l l three would be s o c i a l planners and any one po s i t i o n could be the senior p o s i t i o n . On November 2 2 , 1 9 ° 1 » the general meeting of the Community Chest and Councils accepted the changes i n the constitution r e s u l t i n g from the structure committee's recommendations."* D. What was the reaction of the target? The reaction during the time of action implementation was much the same as i t was projected i t would be at the time of the goal determination. By the time implementation occurred everyone apparently had been conditioned to the impending change. Part of the reason for the lack of i n i t i a l reaction was probably due to the fact that a l l of the ramifications of the change were not experienced i n the beginning stages. Outcome Evaluation A. What was the actual outcome? Factors A f f e c t i n g the Outcome When the council was formed i n 1961 i t was agreed to evaluate i t s new role i n one year. However, a number of factors did not allow t h i s to happen and the recorder decided they should be recorded here Minutes of the Annual Meeting, November 2 3 , 1 9 6 1 , Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, ( i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . - 100 -as background information to the actual outcome. The f i r s t year of the Welfare and Recreation Council was one of "marking time" due mostly to the loss of personnel, both s t a f f and volunteer, but due also to the fact that any new body and i t s members does not possess an i d e n t i t y simply because some-one has written terms of reference, appointed a committee and delegated them with authority to a c t . 1 With amalgamation, the work load at Governing Committee meetings was greatly increased because of the carry-over from both d i v i s i o n s . More e f f e c t i v e methods of handling this increased load had to be devised. Small committees were established to assess each request for consultation or planning opinion, to see that a l l available information was at hand to f a c i l i t a t e the Governing Committee i n reaching early decisions. The P r i o r i t i e s Establishment Committee also had consider-able bearing on the functioning of the new Council. I t was found necessary by the chairman of the Board of Directors of the Community Chest and Councils to ask that a moratorium be declared on the work of a l l councils to allow s t a f f s u f f i c i e n t time to prepare papers from which the P r i o r i t i e s E s tablishing Committee . 2 would work. The moratorium was declared o f f i c i a l l y from December 1, 1962 u n t i l January 15, 1965. This was not found to be enough Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Welfare and Recreation Council, 1963-4, S o c i a l Planning Section, Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver Area ( i n the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e ) . 2 I b i d . - 101 -time and an extension was necessary. This resulted i n a great deal of compromise during which time the council dealt only with immediate emergencies i n order to make the establishment of p r i o r i t i e s possible. Just how s i g n i f i c a n t the moratorium was to the outcome of the change was d i f f i c u l t to ascertain. The agencies thought the function of the council began to change a f t e r the moratorium. Nevertheless i t did appear that the need for further changes i d e n t i f i e d by the Assessment Committee were i d e n t i f i e d more slowly because of the time spent by the council helping to establish p r i o r i t i e s . In A p r i l 1964 a special meeting of the table o f f i c e r s was convened to develop a plan to carry out the o r i g i n a l need for assessment of the new council. A special committee to carry out a "preliminary assessment" which might provide a s t a r t i n g point for further study i f indicated, was appointed."* The meetings of this committee were held nine times over a ten week period from January 25, 1965 u n t i l March 29, 1965.2 Since t h i s report occurred four years a f t e r the amalgamation i t must be noted that a number of changes had taken place since that time. In evaluating the actual outcome of the change i t was d i f f i -c u l t to establish whether these changes were a r e s u l t of the amalga-mation or a result of a combination of other influences which occurred over the four year period. The Assessment Committee also had t h i s d i f f i c u l t y and i t An Assessment of the Operation of the Welfare and Recreation Council, l o c . c i t . March 1965, p.2. 2 I b i d . , p.5* - 1 0 2 -became necessary for them to examine the council throughout i t s four years of operation. The s i t u a t i o n at the time of the evalu-ation was considered i n l i g h t of these four years. As a non-participant observer the recorder noted the following main themes that came out i n the committee meetings: the o v e r a l l concepts of s o c i a l planning, the structure of S o c i a l Planning Bodies, the amount of work involved i n making a change, the number of outside influences that were a factor i n the change, and the general lack of knowledge of the community about s o c i a l planning. The committee i t s e l f was not i n a position to understand c l e a r l y such things as "agency centred" versus "problem centred" planning. In order to proceed the committee had to make some p o s i t i o n a l statements to give them a base for evaluation. Appendix "F" contained i n t h i s study was developed by the planning s t a f f for the purposes of the evaluation committee. In the analysis to follow, the "actual outcome" has recorded the i n i t i a l outcome during the f i r s t two years a f t e r the Welfare and Recreation Council was formed. The observations and judgements have been those of the Assessment Committee. By the time of the work of the Assessment Committee four years a f t e r the change was effected, the committee found additional outcomes and important new developments had occurred. These had the e f f e c t of bringing about a number of discrepancies from the i n i t i a l "actual outcome". For t h i s reason the recording of "discrepancies between the expected outcome and the actual outcome" r e f l e c t the s i t u a t i o n as seen i n the more recent history of the Welfare and Recreation Council. - 10? -A. What was the a c t u a l outcome? The f i r s t outcome of the planned change was the formation of an amalgamated body known as the Welfare and Recreation C o u n c i l . This new body appeared to have been able to f u l f i l l many of the expected outcomes as o r i g i n a l l y seen by the forces wanting change. Although there was s t i l l some d u p l i c a t i o n of voluntary and s t a f f e f f o r t a great deal of t h i s d u p l i c a t i o n was e l i m i n a t e d . The new s t r u c t u r e of the S o c i a l Planning Executive freed i t from reviewing each study, and a great deal of time was saved i n not having to process everything through l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r e . The new s t r u c t u r e provided f o r a broader approach to the s o l v i n g of problems, f o r example, j u v e n i l e delinquency and urban d i s l o c a t i o n . I t brought together and encouraged c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a wider range of community s e r v i c e agencies. In r e l a t i o n s h i p to the r e v i s i o n of the s o c i a l planning s t r u c t u r e the new c o u n c i l allowed more independence of a c t i o n and the autonomy necessary to proceed with greater status i n planning. I t a l s o enabled f a s t e r implementation of a c t i o n programmes. Planning remained b a s i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the f e d e r a t i o n of agencies with some gre a t e r allowance f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of community volunteers. There was, however, some broadening of emphaas to i n c l u d e community i d e n t i f i e d needs i n a d d i t i o n to agency i d e n t i f i e d needs. The a c t u a l outcome i n the f i r s t two years a l s o i n c l u d e d the beginning stages of what the Eva l u a t i o n Committee i d e n t i f i e d as emerging problems. The new c o u n c i l reduced the concentration on s p e c i a l i z e d concerns compared to what had been p o s s i b l e i n the two d i v i s i o n s . This i n c l u d e d such areas as adoption and r e c r e a t i o n - 104 -needs of teenagers. In the two divisions there had been a greater degree of agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and involvement i n the Community Chest and Councils. With a d i v i s i o n secretary the agencies were more able to turn to a s p e c i f i c person for consultation about p a r t i c u l a r problems. This was not provided to the same degree as before i n the new job descriptions for the assistant and associate planners. Bringing the d i v i s i o n s together apparently did not have the e f f e c t of broadening the planning base to enable consideration of l a r g e r aspects of major problems facing the community. The new structure, as shown by appendix "F", gave major attention to agency i n i t i a t e d " c r i s i s planning" around problems perceived to be of di r e c t concern to the agencies. Thus planning remained t i e d closely to the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s of voluntary agencies and correspondingly there was l i t t l e evidence to show awareness of or reaction to broader community problems. Although problems of scope of planning had been i d e n t i f i e d and to some extent been discussed p r i o r to the change i n 1961, i t has been d i f f i c u l t to ascertain from recorded minutes or from the interviewees whether the change had been intended to bring about a means of approaching anything other than agency-centred concerns. B. What were the discrepancies between the expected outcome  and the actual outcome? In the i n i t i a l stages covering the period 1961 - 62 the expected outcome and the actual outcome were very close together. However at the time of the evaluation by the spec i a l committee the outcome was very dif f e r e n t from what had been expected. - 105 -The Assessment Committee found that the Welfare and Recreation Council was functioning very d i f f e r e n t l y from the o r i g i n a l terms of reference outlined when the council was formed. The council was structured to comprehend two broad f i e l d s and was finding i t s e l f i n four or f i v e . The considerable s h i f t i n council operations from "agency planning" to more "comprehensive welfare" or "problem centred" planning that had taken place over the four years i s r e a d i l y ascernable i n appendix "F". Planning a c t i v i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r agencies moved from a high of nine ongoing studies i n 1962 to no studies i n November 1964. S o c i a l welfare planning projects of a more comprehensive nature moved from one study i n 1962 to s i x studies i n March 1965. The council had become more and more " f i e l d of service" oriented and appeared to be moving towards the formation of community councils on a geographic basis. Some of these l o c a l area councils had already begun and included Woodland Park, Fraserview Youth Services Association and Sunrise Park. The welfare councils i n a number of other c i t i e s i n North America were also adopting t h i s approach and apparently had some influence on the thinking of the S o c i a l Planning Section i n Vancouver. The Area Development Project was also attempting to provide an integrated programme of s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work, health and community organization services for a selected group of multi-problem families i n one area of the c i t y . In the proposal for the Area Development Project neighbourhood development services i t was stated "decentralized planning f o r integrated, co-ordinated, compre-- 106 -hensive public and private services was needed i n neighbourhoods where there was a preponderence of troubled families and where s o c i a l problems of a broader nature e x i s t . 1 According to the Assessment Committee by 1965 the Welfare and Recreation Council had developed i t s major emphasis on community oriented s o c i a l planning. This had involved a problem-centred approach based upon the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of community needs and the provision of services to meet these needs. The objectivces of this approach had been seen to involve the provision and development of services aimed at solution of the problem. As one important result of t h i s approach i t was anticipated the S o c i a l Planning Section would be i n a better position to indicate to agencies where services f i t into an o v e r a l l plan. Advantages of New Approach as I d e n t i f i e d by the Committee The problem-centred approach" was seen by the Assessment Committee to be an appropriate way to bring about comprehensive s o c i a l welfare planning. Consideration of a l l aspects of community problems and t h e i r relationship one to another would be emphasized. Planning would focus on needs and services and enable more f l e x i b l e use of existing resources and the l o g i c a l development of new resources. Lay c i t i z e n s would be able to have a greater voice i n planning for community services than was previously possible. More volunteers would be involved giving s o c i a l planning a larger say i n matters of implementation and eliminating the power of the agencies to veto plans. Proposal for the Area Development Project Neighbourhood Development Services, Area Development Project, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area. (In the f i l e s of the central o f f i c e . ) - 107 -Agency personnel both professional and volunteer would be able to pa r t i c i p a t e i n planning a c t i v i t i e s with a broader base of concern than th e i r own agency i n t e r e s t s . This approach also allowed a great number of non-administrative personnel of agencies to be drawn into planning a c t i v i t i e s . Included i n t h i s would be workers providing service i n l o c a l areas whose experience and contribution could be most s i g n i f i c a n t . The agencies were not involved i n planning to the degree they had been i n the d i v i s i o n a l structure at the time of t h i s recording. However, i f the new approach was followed i t appears l i k e l y that they would once again become very involved on an area or s p e c i f i c problem basis rather than a d i v i s i o n a l one. Disadvantages of the New Approach as I d e n t i f i e d by  the Assessment Committee A number of disadvantages of this new approach were also i d e n t i f i e d by the Assessment Committee. The amount of consultative services available to the agencies would be further cut down to the point of being almost non-existent. This l e f t the agencies i n some-what of a dilemma. This problem was more noticable because of the fact the agencies had become accustomed to having someone to turn to for consultation. At the time of t h i s recording there was nothing provided to f i l l the gap that had occurred when the council moved from an agency consultative and co-ordinator role to a comprehensive planning role with a problem-centred approach. The agencies believed that the o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r a l change and the new approach that seemed to erainate from i t had resulted i n a loss i n th e i r own control and autonomy. - 108 -The new approach also did not provide adequately for studies i n s p e c i a l areas or for working i n these s p e c i a l areas. These areas could include one parent families, day care, and the setting of standards for c h i l d care. C. Did the change induced meet the o r i g i n a l need for change? The change did meet many of the o r i g i n a l needs as outlined i n the "actual outcome" section of the record. However, i n l i g h t of the change i n focus of the Welfare and Recreation Council over the four years a f t e r amalgamation i t appeared the o r i g i n a l change was only a p a r t i a l step i n what could be considered as part of a broader change i n the whole structure of s o c i a l plaining. The Assessment Committee concluded that an assessment of the operations of the Welfare and Recreation Council should constitute a segment of the review of the t o t a l s o c i a l planning structure. The nature of the problems facing the Welfare and Recreation Council suggested that i t was neither feasible nor desirable to evaluate council operations unrelated to the t o t a l planning structure. Much of the report of the Assessment Committee concerned i t s e l f with i d e n t i f y i n g current problems of the Welfare and Recreation Council. The recorder gave some consideration to recording the observations i n the report under "problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " and using the model once again to document the beginning stages of a new organizational change. However, since many of the Assessment Committee's observ-ations were r e l a t i n g to the council as i t was i n the period January to March 1965 the writer decided to use this f i n a l section of the - 109 -o r i g i n a l model to record the committee's findings. Two central questions emerged i n the committee meetings and showed themselves to be the dominent concern.* 1. Is there need to c l a r i f y a current conception of the appropriate breadth, scope, and nature of planning i n which the Community Chest & Councils should be engaged? 2.. Do the e x i s t i n g structure and d i v i s i o n of functions between varying segments of the S o c i a l Planning Section provide the best possible means for carrying out appropriate planning? A number of points r e l a t i n g to these central questions were i d e n t i f i e d which impinge on the operation of the Welfare and 2 Recreation Council. The present operation of the Welfare and Recreation Council i s not being, and probably cannot be, maintained within the bounds of structure and function as currently defined. A s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t has occurred i n planning a c t i v i t y of the Welfare and Recreation Council from agency-centred planning to problem-centred planning. (The development of the Local Area Approach i s a key i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s s h i f t . ) At the same time there are ongoing demands on the Council to maintain agency-centred planning. An Assessment of the Operation of the Welfare and Recreation Council, l o c . c i t . March, 1 9 6 5 , p«3« 2 I b i d . - 1 1 0 -Taking into consideration the s h i f t i n the Welfare and Recreation Council's planning focus, i s there currently adequate opportunity for agency involvement i n the planning process? With the move away from agency-focussed planning, what provision i s now being made for consultative service to agencies? What should be the d i v i s i o n of function and the nature of relationship between Local Area Councils and the Welfare and Recreation Council? Does the Welfare and Recreation Council (and S o c i a l Planning Section generally) adequately provide for appropriate involvement of government bodies? What should be the appropriate relationships between the Welfare and Recreation Council, within the S o c i a l Banning Section, and other Planning groups, e.g. physical, educational? What should be the relationship between the Welfare and Recreation Council and the Research Department of the Community Chest and Councils i f problem-centred and long range planning i s to be given greater emphais i n the future? In r e l a t i o n to the present d i v i s i o n of function between the units of S o c i a l Planning and the S o c i a l Planning Executive: Is the Welfare and Recreation Council assuming tasks which would be carried more appropriately by the So c i a l Planning Executive? - What constitutes an appropriate degree of autonomy for a Council, as Councils are now structured? Is the d i v i s i o n of S o c i a l Planning by functional - I l l -g r o u p s , e . g . W e l f a r e a n d R e c r e a t i o n , H e a l t h , e t c . s t i l l v a l i d ? D . C o s t o n p a r t o f t h e t a r g e t I t was d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r t h e s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e o f two d i v i s i o n s b e c o m i n g o n e c o u n c i l was a n e c e s s a r y f i r s t s t e p t o t a k i n g w h a t may t u r n o u t t o b e a m u c h l a r g e r s t e p . T h e i n t e r v i e w e e s s a w t h i s l a r g e r s t e p a s b e i n g t h e c o m p l e t e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f T h e C o m m u n i t y C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l s . W h e t h e r t h e o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s f r o m o t h e r c i t i e s ( m a n y o f w h i c h w e r e p r e s e n t b e f o r e t h e c h a n g e ) t h e P r i o r i t i e s D e t e r m i n a t i o n P r o j e c t a n d t h e g r o w t h o f a r e a c o u n c i l s w o u l d h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e s e p a r a t e d i v i s i o n s i n t h e same way i t a p p a r e n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e W e l f a r e a n d R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l h a s n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s . Some i n f o r m a n t s t h o u g h t t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e o v e r a l l s o c i a l p l a n n i n g s t r u c t u r e i n 196l i n f l u e n c e d t h e f o c u s o f t h e W e l f a r e a n d R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l a n d i t c o u l d h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e c h a n g e s w o u l d h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e s e p a r a t e d i v i s i o n s , F a m i l y a n d C h i l d W e l f a r e a n d G r o u p W o r k a n d R e c r e a t i o n i n t h e same m a n n e r . I t was t h e o p i n i o n o f some i n t e r v i e w e e s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e t h a t h a d r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e W e l f a r e a n d R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l w a s a c o m p r o m i s e i n p l a n n i n g w h i c h may h a v e c a u s e d p r o b l e m s a m o r e c o m p l e t e c h a n g e w o u l d n o t h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d . T h e s e i n t e r v i e w e e s s a w o n e o f t h e m a i n r e s u l t s o f t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n a s b e i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e a g e n c i e s f r o m t h e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . I t s e e m e d t o t h e m t h a t a g e n c i e s w o u l d b e c o m e i n v o l v e d o n c e a g a i n w h e n p l a n n i n g b e c a m e c o n -- 112 -centrated upon a problem centred apea approach. Agencies would become involved i n planning for p a r t i c u l a r geographic areas es p e c i a l l y around s p e c i f i c problems where t h e i r i n t e r e s t and capacity to serve lay. They could once again play a valuable part i n s o c i a l planning as well as benefiting from contact with people concerned with related problems i n the same geographic area. This, of course, would not eliminate the problem of agency consultation. However, other methods of handling this problem could probably be devised. In the main agencies would be l e f t with the s i t u a t i o n of looking a f t e r t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r problems either i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n groups. As a consequence they would not look to the S o c i a l Planning Section to f i l l t h i s r o l e . Further i n order that they might be involved i n comprehensive s o c i a l planning agencies would have to be kept better informed than was the case at the time of t h i s recording and t h e i r important role i n area planning would have to be i d e n t i f i e d and recognized. Through-out the study of t h i s s t r u c t u r a l change i t appeared few people under-stood the function and duties of the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Community Chest and Councils i n Vancouver. Coupled with this there was l i t t l e known about what to expect from planning i n t h i s community. Many informants stated t h i s problem would have to be remedied before implementing a new planning approach. The Assessment Committee's report shows planning being done by the Welfare and Recreation Council was very d i f f e r e n t from what was done by the separate divisions just over four years ago. As stated by the committee's report the present a c t i v i t i e s of the council can no longer take place within the present structure. The - 113 -recommendations of the Assessment Committee i n t h i s regard was "THAT the So c i a l Planning Executive be requested to take immediate steps to assess the effectiveness of the present s o c i a l planning structure i n the l i g h t of today's planning needs." Comment on the Model Used One of the operational problems inherent i n the use of a model i s that the actual occurences do not necessarily happen i n the sequence set out i n the model. This case study could serve to demonstrate t h i s point. An attempt was made to structure the gathered information under the headings outlined i n the model. In so doing the chronology became confusing because the events did not occur i n the sequence of the model. For example, many aspects of the t h i r d section of the model, "action determination" occurred chronologically at the same time as some parts of the f i r s t section of the model, "problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " and "goal determination". One can usually see more than one phase of change going on at the same time."'" Following the sequence of the model made i t necessary to move backward and forward i n time and i n the writer's opinion tended to confuse the issue. The recorder believed that a time sequence record incorporating the Area Development Project model would have been a better way to document this p a r t i c u l a r case. A beginning stage i n doing t h i s would be the recording of a short h i s t o r i c a l background proceeding the organizational change. This would be followed by a chronological recording of the meetings and events which lead up to and included the organizational change and i t s evaluation. Most aspects of the L i p p i t t , Eonald, Watson, Jeanne, and Westley, Bruce, The Dynamics  of Planned Change (Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York,'58,pJ^O 114 -Area Development Project model, e.g. who i d e n t i f i e d the problem, what was the goal determination, what action decisions were made, would s t i l l be incorporated i n the documentation but would be recorded i n a h i s t o r i c a l sequence. In this manner a clear concise understanding of the order of the events as well as the people and change involved would be a v a i l a b l e . A number of p r a c t i c a l problems were encountered i n c l a s s i f y -ing information c o l l e c t e d under the s p e c i f i c headings of the model. Although an attempt was made to avoid needless r e p e t i t i o n i t was found that the continuity of most sections was greatly affected i f some r e p e t i t i o n was not included. The recorder used the model as an outline framework for the interviews but the interviewees found the questions repetitious and somewhat confusing. Considerable in t e r p r e t a t i o n by the interviewer was usually required i n each section. This problem may have been p a r t i a l l y overcome i f the interviews had been more non-structured but t h i s was not attempted. There was also some p a r t i c u l a r short comings of the way i n which the headings needed some c l a r i f i c a t i o n and additions. Nowhere i n the model was the question "what i s the problem?" asked. Therefore i t became necessary to write an introduction o u t l i n i n g what the problem was before the model i t s e l f was applied. The model did not make any allowances f o r the h i s t o r i c a l background leading to the change i t s e l f . Nor did i t adequately provide an opportunity to record the outside influences which had d i r e c t bearing on the organi-zational change. This necessitated the i n c l u s i o n of a few sub-headings for c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Where i t was d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y which - 115 -section s p e c i f i c information should be recorded under i t was c l a s s i f i e d at the discretion of the researcher. In t h i s case a much longer introduction than should be required with the use of a model was necessary to lead into the actual case study. In t h i s case study the model was applied to the o v e r a l l process of change. However i t did appear possible that the whole model could have been used a number of times to document each part of the change process. In the opinion of the researcher the record would have become more confusing and d i f f i c u l t to understand i f t h i s had been done. The model would appear to be of more value i f used to document a d e f i n i t e planned change involving a small number of people, for example, a person using i t for c l i n i c a l purposes operationally. This apparently was to be one of i t s main uses i n the Area Development Project. As i s the case with most models, t h i s model would appear to be a useful method of getting a l l the necessary information recorded and would help eliminate the overlooking of important data. In the case studied, although part of the change was planned a great deal of i t was unplanned. Many people, influenced by a variety of factors, were involved. Consequently most parts of the model involved a great many factors and influences which were d i f f i -c u l t to record accurately. Nevertheless models have been found to be h e l p f u l i n reviewing descriptions of change i n persons, groups, organizations, and communities i n terms of sequence of phases.* Ibid. p.130 - 116 -Most of t h i s recording was done i n retrospect. Despite the fact that the model tended to confuse the time sequence of the change process i t was a useful to o l i n analysing the organi-zat i o n a l change. In this same regard i t would very l i k e l y be valuable i n analysing a h i s t o r i c a l record to categorize a l l the aspects of the change process. PART IV CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Purpose and Scope of Study The purpose of the case study detailed i n t h i s section i s to record or document organizational change that has occurred and attempt, as a r e s u l t , to set down something of the process of change that took place. The case study deals with some attempts that have been made and are presently being made i n a section of Vancouver City known as the Sunrise Park Area. These e f f o r t s are being made by various welfare agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the c i t y , spearheaded by the Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver towards organizing methods aimed at contributing to the enhancement and general well-being, from an educational, recre-a t i o n a l , health and welfare standpoint, of the people i n that area. I t i s hoped that by undertaking this task some contribution w i l l be made to the understanding and knowledge that has been accumulating recently on the subject of change theory, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t applies to Community Organization p r a c t i c e . The study w i l l be comprised of a descriptive account of the circumstances and events that have transpired where i t i s considered process can be c l e a r l y observed and described. The organizational processes are s t i l l i n various stages of development and involve implications of change that are broad and not e x p l i c i t . I t i s f o r th i s reason that the study was l i m i t e d to a narrow segment of the change process and action. As well, i t has been recognized that change and the process of change are by nature dynamic. - 118 -The period under study was from October 1, 1964, through to February 28, 1965, but i n order to give t h i s "frozen segment" some degree of relatedness to a broader perspective some of the h i s t o r i c a l background w i l l be given that i s considered s i g n i f i c a n t to t h i s period. B. Recording Model This study was a chapter of the larger study which undertook to study the recording of organizational change and attempted to examine the relevancy and usefulness of the model (see appendix "B") proposed for use by the Area Development Project. This project was sponsored by the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area as a p r a c t i c a l method of documenting change. I t then, i n the main, tested the Sunrise Park Area development within the context of th i s model. More than t h i s , the study attempted to describe the occurrence of s o c i a l change by recording i t systematically. The study further attempted to record change with-i n the l i m i t s of a model and thus conceptualizes some of the process of change. The u t i l i z a t i o n of recording for these purposes i s not novel. Recording i n s o c i a l work has many functions and can be put to many di f f e r e n t uses. I t offers i t s e l f as a t o o l for learning; for improvement of future action tasks; i t i s a means whereby a con-tinuum and sequence of techniques ca be adopted; i t i s a method of accounting for performance; a way of a s s i s t i n g toward objective observation and evaluation; an a i d toward o b j e c t i f y i n g and defining practice; a method of developing s k i l l s of analysis and i n t e r p r e t -ation and perhaps f i n a l l y , of building or increasing knowledge. - 119 -Arthur Dunham states, "A record i s a document or other auditory or v i s u a l product, intended to be used primarily as a working tool by an organization or i n d i v i d u a l , and which performs one or more of the following functions: 1) i t gives an account of something which has taken place; 2) i t i d e n t i f i e s some person, group, or thing, 3) i t contains factual descriptions, analyses, i n s t r u c t i o n s , directions, opinions, recommendations, or suggestions; k) i t sets forth plans for the f u t u r e . " 1 There i s no such thing as a model record. There are no formulations or recording equations that w i l l make a case study i n e v i t a b l y clear and accessible to a f u l l and complete understanding of what has transpired or what elements were operationally decisive i n the t o t a l process. Records should be written to su i t the study, not the study geared to some th e o r e t i c a l pattern. A record i s f i n a l l y the sum t o t a l of the observations and the perceptions of the person making the examination which are strengthened as to r e l i a b i l i t y by the element of o b j e c t i v i t y . This sum t o t a l of a study .is not complete nor entire for the observer i s impeded by his own powers or lacks of perception, the l i m i t a t i o n s of his i n t r i n s i c knowledge and the bias that he brings to his study. He i s handicapped by the loss of or undiscovered facts; by the variables and t h e i r pertinence to the process; by the lack of absolutes and the means to make v a l i d comparisons and Dunham, Arthur, Community Welfare Organization: P r i n c i p l e s and  Practice (Thomas Crowell Company, New York, 1962) p.303 - 120 -r e l i a b i l i t y judgments. The analyst must hinge his findings on information, knowledge and opinions of others and upon what i s not recorded as well as what i s recorded i n various documents that pertain to the change. Systematic recording has d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s but also very useful applications for i t i s a means by which some o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n can be achieved. A record model i s e s s e n t i a l l y a conceptual scheme. A model for recording has h e u r i s t i c value i n that i t serves to stimulate i n v e s t i g a t i o n and discovery. A rationale for using a model i n t h i s study, aside from testing the proposed Area Development Project model, can be best summed up by Homans who wrote, "Any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , no matter how crude, provided only that i t i s used regularly, forces us to take up one thing at a time and consider systematically the rel a t i o n s of that thing to others. This i s one of the roads that lead to generalization".* C A n a l y t i c a l Model: The model as proposed by the Area Development Project i s an a n a l y t i c a l model. I t would conform to the d e f i n i t i o n of Robert Chin - "An a n a l y t i c a l model i s a constructed s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of some part of r e a l i t y that retains only those features regarded as essential 2 for r e l a t i n g s i m i l a r processes whenever and wherever they occur." Homans, George C , The Human Group (New York; Harcourt, Brace; 1950) p.kk-k5. 2 Chin, Robert, "The U t i l i t y of System Model and Developmental Models for P r a c t i t i o n e r s " , The Planning of Change, Readings i n the Applied  Behavioural Sciences", (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 196l .) - 121 -I t i s a model by reason of the fact that i t i s a grouping of conceptual views that pertain, by their relationships, to change, to maturation development and d i r e c t i o n and to the behaviour of the organization under study. The conceptual views - problem i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n ; goal determination; action determination; action imple-mentation; and outcome evaluation, - allow f o r observational " f i x e s " or sightings within each concept. Thus, for example, under "problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " one broad conceptual view would be that s o c i a l problems are of such a nature and essence that they are recognizable, definable and can be described as to the i r extent, thus being v e r i -f i a b l e . Or again, under a sighting of "action determination" there are concepts upon which s k i l l s and knowledge are b u i l t into s o c i a l work which allow for action to be decided upon, triggered, and followed to a d e f i n i t e goal. There are further concepts that make i t possible to place expectations as to the outcome of any action by means of analyzing the several alternatives; the p r i n c i p a l forces involved i n the action; the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the organization, i t s performance i n the past, and so fo r t h . The Area Development model i s a n a l y t i c a l i n that i t i s devised i n such a way as to lend i t s e l f to the discovery of process ... a diagnostic view of result s ... and relates to action. Further than t h i s , the model i s a concrete one for i t deals p a r t i c u l a r l y and i n the main with actual circumstances. In b r i e f , a concrete a n a l y t i c a l model can be said to be a st r u c t u r a l frame of conceptual factors which are i n t r i n s i c to, and e f f e c t i v e of, an occurrence of process by t h e i r relatedness within an a r b i t r a r i l y set period of time and within defined boundaries that allow for universal analysis within the " d e f i n i t i o n set". The value - 122 -of using such a model for study i s perhaps best summed up i n a quotation by Hagen. He states that, "An e x p l i c i t l y defined a n a l y t i c a l model helps the the o r i s t to recognize what factors are being taken into account and what relationships among them are assumed and hence to know the basis of his conclusions. The advantages are ones of both exclusion and i n c l u s i o n . A model lessens the danger of overlooking the i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of change of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . " 1 D. Method of Study: Several methods of study have been u t i l i z e d . In the main the approach has been to study the history of the s i t u a t i o n retro-spectively i n order to place the period under study i n sequence of time and related to various occurrences. This has been accomplished by the examination of meeting minutes and other written documents. Information was gained also by interviews with key informants who had some direct relationship or involvement with the change process. As well as t h i s , the observer was himself d i r e c t l y involved as a par t i c i p a n t i n the process. While this fact should have the effe c t of widening the f i e l d s of v i s i o n i t w i l l necessarily lessen the o b j e c t i v i t y that comes from perceiving such processes from a detached uninvolved viewpoint devoid of personal investment i n the r e s u l t s . Comment should as well be made that t h i s study dealt with Hagen, E., Chapter on "Theory of S o c i a l Change", unpublished manu-s c r i p t mentioned i n a r t i c l e by Robert Chin. "The U t i l i t y of System Models and Developmental Models for P r a c t i t i o n e r s " , contained i n "The Planning of Change" Readings i n the Applied Behavioural Sciences, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1961 - 123 -human events and with people who i n the main are presently p r a c t i s i n g i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work. The study thus may r e f l e c t i n part upon the aspirations and hopes, - the strengths and weak-nesses, - the successes and f a i l u r e s of these people i n tryi n g to f u l f i l l t heir functions as s o c i a l workers among the frustrations and strugglings i n and with an imperfect society. These people s h a l l be l e f t nameless, yet th e i r i d e n t i t i e s may be revealed through th e i r various tasks, e f f o r t s and positions i n the t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n of s o c i a l welfare i n Vancouver C i t y . I t i s not the purpose or intention of t h i s study to point out human foi b l e s or f a i l u r e s . I f this study does reveal these i t i s hoped that they w i l l serve not as a mark of personal f r a i l t y but rather as a tribute to the e f f o r t s of these people i n carrying out work (for the most part beyond t h e i r regular work) that by i t s very nature i s d i f f i c u l t and at times impossible to perform. CHAPTER 2 HISTORY OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS THAT LED UP TO THE SUNRISE PARK AREA DEVELOPMENTS In February, 1 9 6 4 , a meeting was c a l l e d by the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Welfare and Recreation Council of the Community Chest And Councils. To t h i s meeting were i n v i t e d agency representatives as well as interested people who possessed knowledge, s k i l l s or int e r e s t i n t h i s area. The meeting was c a l l e d as the result of concern expressed over the health, recreation and welfare needs and services i n Sunrise Park. Out of t h i s meeting began some organizational e f f o r t s with which this study w i l l deal i n depth. It was necessary to record and examine some of the s i g n i f i c a n t events that preceded t h i s organizational occurrence i n order that sub-sequent actions i n the Sunrise Park A rea Development could be more f u l l y understood and the problems more c l e a r l y perceived. A. Vancouver City Institutes Public Housing Programme The f i r s t of these s i g n i f i c a n t events began when the City of Vancouver chose the s i t e for i t s f i r s t large low-rental public housing project i n the Sunrise Park Area. Pr i o r to this several smaller public housing projects were established; namely, L i t t l e Mountain i n 1954, and shortly afterwards, Orchard Park. This i n t e r e s t i n the City of Vancouver for public housing i s coupled with i t s i n t e r e s t i n Urban Renewal. The National Housing Act of 1954 empowered the c i t i e s of Canada to enter into arrangements with the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Governments and borrow funds from Central Housing and Mortgage Corporation, a Federal Crown agency for the contruction of public housing. - 125 -In 194-7, Dr. L.C. Marsh of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia undertook to do a study of the need for an urban renewal programme. This study was published i n 1950.1 Dr. Marsh i n the preface of his study f i r s t spelled out the concept of such a large housing project such as Skeena Terrace. He said, "the economy of a multiple dwelling, large scale project, which alone w i l l reduce construction and operating costs, as well as meet the population requirements with more ample open space. There i s no case for patchwork replacement, nor for piecemeal and doubtful renovation." 2 In 1955 the Technical Planning Board of the Ci t y of Vancouver proposed to the City Council that a study of redevelop-ment be undertaken. This study began i n July, 19$6 with Federal, P r o v i n c i a l and City representation forming a technical committee. 3 This Redevelopment Study was completed i n December, 1957, and was approved i n p r i n c i p l e by Ci t y Council i n February, 1958. This study proposed a twenty-year plan for c i t y renewal and that a st a r t be made i n the form of housing projects at Skeena and at McLean Park i n order that the blighted section of the Ci t y (Strathcona Area) might be cleared and renewed. This report recognized some of the s o c i a l implications Marsh, L.C. Rebuilding a Neighbourhood, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Research Publications, Vancouver, 1950. 2 o p . c i t . page x ^Vancouver Redevelopment Study, Proposed by the City of Vancouver Planning Department for the Housing Research Committee, December, 1957 - 1 2 6 -that must be considered i n urban renewal and the displacement of people. I t said i n part, "Relocation involves human problems and i t s success depends on how these are handled. The task of finding a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation for the displaced, informing people of thei r l e g a l r i g h t s , ensuring that no unwarranted di s t r e s s i s caused, ....etc."* Further, they state, "The common b e l i e f that substandard housing conditions are created by people may raise doubts as to the value of rehousing former residents of b l i g h t area .... redevelopment i s not proposed primarily i n order to r e h a b i l i t a t e people by improv-ing t h e i r housing conditions...." Again they state, "That there w i l l be a carry-over of some s o c i a l problems into the reconstructed area i s inevitable and i t i s most important, therefore,that the actual relocation programme and the management of the housing projcects 2 receive c a r e f u l and s k i l l e d d i r e c t i o n . " Opinions have been expressed by some that considerations were only given to the wiping out of bl i g h t and that t h i s was moti-vated by economic considerations supported by business and r e a l estate i n t e r e s t s . These c r i t i c s state that the sole reason Skeena Terrace s i t e was chosen was because i t was city-owned waste land. At any rate, Skeena Terrace Housing Project planning was begun i n i 9 6 0 and was o f f i c i a l l y opened October 1 , 1 9 6 2 , and f u l l y occupied by January, 1 9 6 3 . I t off e r s accommodation for 1 6 5 families op c i t . Vancouver Redevelopment Study, 1 9 5 7 , p«9 2 I b i d . p.52 - 127 -and 69 married and single senior c i t i z e n s . This study w i l l deal more f u l l y with some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of th i s project l a t e r . The significance of the project upon th i s study i s that l i t t l e or no evidence i s available that indicates that the choice of the s i t e was considered with a view to the s o c i a l and economic needs of the tenants and of the neighbourhood as a whole. B. P.B.C. School of Social Work Involvement Another s i g n i f i c a n t event which had some bearing and influence upon the organizational process under study came as a result of a decision by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia's School of S o c i a l Work to place a student i n the Sunrise Park Area as a part of his studies i n pursuit of a Master's degree i n s o c i a l work. This decision was made i n 1963 as a consequence of the School's desire to esta b l i s h a d e f i n i t e sequence for the teaching of Community Organization method, thus adding to the other two exi s t i n g sequences of Case Work and Group Work. This student, Mr. Clarence MacKenzie, was placed i n the Skeena Terrace Housing Project as his f i e l d placement (a practice course that i s carried along with the the o r e t i c a l studies at the school). This arrangement was under the auspices and with the co-operation of the Vancouver Housing Authority, the administrative body for the management of the public housing projects i n the c i t y . The purpose of his assignment was to study the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sunrise Park Area and examine and document how they relate and are affected by the introduction of a public housing development within i t s midst; to study how the various s o c i a l services are altered; how the relationships and s o c i a l functioning of the tenants of such a housing development - 1 2 8 -may be improved, etc. MacKenzie because of the nature of his assignment, and with his acquired knowledge of some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the housing project and the Sunrise Park Area, became a very v i t a l source of information and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . His knowledge and his opinions were u t i l i z e d extensively when i n February, 1964, the Welfare and Recreation Council of the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Community Chest and Councils c a l l e d together agency represent-atives to determine the needs and resources of Sunrise Park and the housing project. MacKenzie*s contribution to a group thesis, "Neighbourhood Analysis i n Vancouver"*'" also has contributed a wealth of information and acted as a l o c i of facts f o r the ongoing study presently i n process. MacKenzie, i n e f f e c t , tended to awaken the concern that many people f e l t that among other things "the tenants of the housing project have s p e c i a l needs which are not overcome by the provision of good housing alone" and "...that many agencies were not aware of 2 the needs i n the area..." He pointed to the need for positive s o c i a l planning and neighbourhood development and i n t h i s respect suggested three factors should be considered, "a) increased recreation f a c i l i t i e s ; b) encouragement; and c) leadership." MacKenzie, i n his thesis, pointed to the need for the services of a f u l l time s o c i a l worker. A worker that, "should be able to perform A l l a r d i c e , Ethel; MacKenzie, Clarence; Rowe, Francis; Ziegler,Herbert; Neighbourhood Analysis i n Vancouver, Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964, 2 i b i d . p 1 3 8 - 1 3 9 3 i b i d . p 149 - 1 2 9 -i n any of the methods of s o c i a l work, s o c i a l casework, s o c i a l group work and community organization. As a s o c i a l (caseworker he should be able to give emergency casework service and make e f f e c t -ive r e f e r r a l s to the community health, welfare and recreational agencies; as a s o c i a l group worker to work with the established groups on the project and help with the development of new programmes; as a community organization wonker to help with the integration of the housing project into the community and to attempt to deyelop new resources to meet the needs of the tenants." 1 C. Neighbourhood House Concern and Actions A further event of significance to the organizational process under study was the concern f e l t and expressed by the Alexandra Neighbourhood House over the planning for public housing i n the c i t y . This concern was expressed i n the main to the S o c i a l 2 Planning Section of Community Chest and Councils. On October 1 7 , 1 9 6 l , a l e t t e r was sent to the planning section expressing concern that as no evident planning for provisions for f a c i l i t i e s or means of meeting welfare and recreational needs of the tenants existed that Community Chest and Councils take immediate action to have t h i s omission remedied. The l e t t e r points out further that there seems to be no op.cit., Neighbourhood Analysis i n Vancouver, p.151 2 The Community Chest and Councils' f i l e e n t i t l e d , "Study of Skeena Terrace Housing Project" was fr e e l y and rea d i l y made available to the writer. - 130 -firm commitment that welfare planning w i l l be brought into the redevelopment areas and suggests that the C i t y of Vancouver be brought into any action i n i t i a t e d by the Chest and Councils. On November 10, 196l, the S o c i a l Planning Section i n a return l e t t e r stated that they f e l t that various community organi-zations should be involved and that action should take place i n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways with the end r e s u l t of involving City Council who could represent the problem to the Federal a u t h o r i t i e s . The Council f i l e indicates further that some u n o f f i c i a l overture was made by the alderman responsible for the City S o c i a l Service Department to Alexandra House to take the necessary steps to have a Neighbourhood House established at Skeena Terrace as soon as possible under the auspices of Alexandra House. This prompted the Planning Section to request a formal proposal which was forthcoming on September 25, 19&2, and stated i n part "Information based on the best a u t h o r i t i e s available to us, and experience gained from nearly every housing development of t h i s kind i n North America indicates that the provision of new housing to replace slums i s not enough. Families i n some public housing developments find themselves bereft of some or a l l of the community resources of t h e i r former neighbourhoods. Despite the gains i n l i g h t , a i r , and cleanliness, the separateness of some projects sets t h e i r occupants apart from the normal l i f e of the community, stigmatizing them and further aggravating the s o c i a l problems within the group." The formal proposal made was to; 1) establish a r e l a t i o n -ship between the proposed Neighbourhood House and other private - 131 -agencies seeking to serve the project - using the e f f e c t i v e service arrangement that exists between Alexandra Neighbourhood House and Family Service Agency as a model; 2) to provide for the services of a detached s o c i a l worker to work with tenants and housing administration and l o c a l agencies and services with the eventual establishment of a neighbourhood house f a c i l i t y ; 3) a suite or suites of rooms reserved for the neighbourhood centre to be used as a common room; k) that the s t a f f , i . e . part time stenographer and f u l l time detached worker be supplied and administered by Alexandra House; 5) that s t a f f be engaged and working before the f i r s t a r r i v a l of tenants due October 1, 1962; 6) that this service be financed i n the usual manner with Community Chest providing the major share of budget. On November 27, 1962, the Governing Committee of the Council established that the Chest and Councils had a special concern meriting s p e c i a l attention to providing service to public housing developments. They recommended that: 1) A service research project under the leadership of Alexandra House be established i n the Skeena Housing Development with the major focus on determining the nature and extent of the s o c i a l welfare needs of the tenants and the most e f f e c t i v e way of meeting them. 2) That the scope of the project be as broad as possfole, taking into account the o v e r a l l s o c i a l welfare needs of the residents of the housing development and the surrounding community. 3) That research consultation be obtained from appropriate and available resources. - 132 -k) That a Special Committee be established by the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Community Chest and Councils to secure p a r t i c i p a t i o n of public and voluntary au t h o r i t i e s to arrange for financing and f a c i l i t i e s , to determine basic p o l i c y of operation of the study, to conduct evaluation of the project and to recommend on the future development of services. On January 8, 1963, City Council passed a resolution as follows: "That arrangements be made to study the Skeena Street Housing Development to determine the s o c i a l and welfare needs of the residents and the most e f f e c t i v e ways of meeting them, and the Board of Administration, i n consultation with the So c i a l Welfare Policy Committee or such other committee that may be appointed, recommend such steps as are necessary under the circumstances." On January 30, 1963, an outline for a "Redevelopment Study i n Skeena Housing Project" was developed by the Community Chest and Councils as follows: Proposal: That a redevelopment study be undertaken i n Skeena Terrace with the purpose of:-1) Stimulating the development of se l f - h e l p and community development programmes within the project. 2) Assessing the value of these a c t i v i t i e s i n contributing to the s o c i a l betterment of the residents and the s t a b i l i t y of the housing project. 3) Determining the needs of the residents for health and welfare services and the most e f f e c t i v e ways of meeting them. Auspices: That the study be set up for one year under the - 133 -j o i n t auspices of the City of Vancouver and the Community Chest and Councils. Direction and Control; That the study be directed by a committee made up as follows: 2 aldermen, 1 representative each from the Housing Authority, the Board of Parks and Public Recreation, Metropolitan Health Committee, School Board, Alexandra Community A c t i v i t i e s Board, and 2 from the Community Chest and Councils Board. This committee to be responsible to the City Council. That the c6mmittee be responsible for p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n , reviewing findings, and making reports and recommendations on the basis of the experience of the project. Project Programme: That the study be c a r r i e d out by a person experienced i n community organization group work who would work with the residents i n ways such as the following: 1) A s s i s t i n the reception of families into the project. 2) Aid the residents i n establishing self-help and community development a c t i v i t i e s , such as day care services for children, home-making project, teenagers* and senior c i t i z e n s ' programmes. 3) Provide r e f e r r a l to community health and welfare services. k) Co-ordinate the a c t i v i t i e s of public and voluntary community services serving residents of the housing project. Supervision of Project Worker: Under Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department with consultation from a technical cmmittee - 134 -consisting of the Administrator from the City S o c i a l Service Department, the Secretary Manager of the Vancouver Housing Authority, a member of the Redevelopment Consultative Committee, and a s t a f f member of the Planning Council of Community Chest and Councils. Research consultation i s to be provided by the Research D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Councils. Research Evaluation: That the Community Chest and Councils provide research services including: 1) The setting up of appropriate record keeping procedures i n order to report back to the committee at the end of the year on the most urgent needs of the residents. 2) An evaluation as to how e f f e c t i v e l y , and at what cost, these needs have been met. 3) A report on any improvement of the arates of delinquency, school dropouts, s o c i a l allowance recipients, i l l n e s s and unemployment. This whole subject was closed when on A p r i l 1, 1963, Commissioner Sutton Brown, of the City Board of Administration reported to the Chairman of the Civ i c Government Committee, presented exhibits for consideration. These were: l ) That a meeting on February 11, 1963, of a sub-committee of the Standing Committee on C i v i c Government provided minutes that resolved that a committee be struck to deal with a proposal pertaining to the need for the employment of a " l i a i s o n counsellor" being employed by the Vancouver Housing Authority for a twelve-month period. - 135 -2) The draft proposal as required by the above resolution stemming from the February 11, 19&3i meeting. 3) A resolution from the Vancouver Housing Authority which read as follows: "Now, therefore be i t resolved that the Vancouver Housing Authority i s not i n agreement with the City Council resolution to set up the specia l study and i s of the opinion that such welfare problems as may aris e should continue to be directed through normal welfare programmes." The r e s u l t s of t h i s meeting and the exhibits presented allowed the standing committee to concur that no further substantive action take place. The report that Commissioner Sutton Brown made suggested that with regard and respect to the views of the Vancouver Housing Authority i n r e l a t i o n to the employing of a l i a i s o n counsellor that project managers would continue to refer tenants with problems to the appropriate agencies. There was the suggestion that a small sub-committee be struck composed of the Secretary-Manager of the Housing Authority, the Administrator of the S o c i a l Service Department, a member of the Redevelopment Consultative Committee, and the Director of Community Chest and Councils, and be held with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to co-ordinate any assistance or service offered by other agency. It was further suggested that a report had been proposed by the Planning Department which spoke of the provision of physical f a c i l i t i e s for recreational needs of the tenants and that t h i s report - 136 -should be submitted to a national study that was being undertaken by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation. D. Community Chest & Councils of Greater Vancouver Area Approach In the autumn of 1963, a youth programme for boys aged s i x years to ten years who were exhibiting some a n t i - s o c i a l tendencies or hehaviour was discontinued by the Y.W.C.A. i n the Woodland Park Area of Vancouver. This programme had been previously dropped by the Y.M.C.A. due to budgetary considerations and the Y.W.C.A. stepped i n to f i l l the vacuum as i t was recognized to be a very worthwhile service. The discontinuance of t h i s programme, which was recognized as valuable by the l o c a l community, caused a c r i s i s and the impact was f e l t by Community Chest and Councils. This impact was i n the form of l e t t e r s and phone c a l l s from the schools, the public health a u t h o r i t i e s and some of the parents. Some of these responses were highly-charged and quite persuasive i n content. The Welfare and Recreation Council of the S o c i a l Planning Section had recognized for some time that responding to this kind of "bush f i r e " on a piecemeal basis was "shotgun planning". In recognizing the weaknesses of t h i s type of planning, esp e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to a service inventory and p r i o r i t y study that was then being undertaken by the Chest, i t was decided to adopt a new approach. This new approach, which was c a l l e d "A Model for Concerted Intervention to Achieve Maximum Impact on Complex S o c i a l Problems" (see AppendixG ) had, as i t s t i t l e implies, the means by which e f f e c t i v e action which would re l a t e to l o c a l problems could be concentrated. The approach was to divide the c i t y into a r b i t r a r i l y - 137 -set geographic areas which thus allowed for p r i o r i t y s e l e ction i n o v e r a l l planning for services with appropriate l o c a l structuring; detailed and research and analysis i n depth; speedy analysis of emergent needs enabling more rea d i l y the i n i t i a t i o n of short-term programmes; the p o s s i b i l i t y for the establishing of more concrete goals and f i n a l l y a better p o s s i b i l i t y for concerted and integrated action. This approach was adopted i n November, 19&3, and was u t i l i z e d i n studying the problems a r i s i n g i n Woodland Park. The model as i t related to the Woodland Park Study materialized i n that study's stated purpose:"*" "This study was undertaken so that basic physical and s o c i a l data about the Woodland Park Area might be c o l l e c t e d , analyzed and prepared i n a format usable by both the community i t s e l f and the agencies which serve i t . Such data was seen as the basis for planning on either: A short term basis to a s s i s t i n the meeting of immediate and urgent needs of the Area, and/or A long term basis to a s s i s t i n the orderly development of services to the Area, with a view to obtaining maximum impact upon the s o c i a l problems of the Area." This area approach i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t to the study being dealt with here. Much of the basic plan and process i n the case study p a r a l l e l s t h i s model. E. Summary of S i g n i f i c a n t Events The foregoing has given some of the s i g n i f i c a n t history "*"A Study of the Woodland Park Area (Prepared unddr the auspices of the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area,Feb.19&5) - 138 -preceding the organizational change that occurred i n Sunrise Park. The events c i t e d were not given i n any p a r t i c u l a r sequence as to degrees of importance or sig n i f i c a n c e . There were undoubtedly other events which have not been set down which could have offered themselves as being important but with which the observer i s not cognizant. In t h i s regard there no doubt have been i n d i v i d u a l s and organizations not here recorded who have i n some manner or means represented themselves to the change process. The events c i t e d have been selected for they appear to have a discoverable relationship with the events which subsequently occurred. - 139 -CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNRISE PARK F i r s t a very b r i e f description w i l l be given of the Sunrise Park Area where t h i s study was undertaken. The name of the area, Sunrise Park, i s only a convenient t i t l e that i s taken from the name of a small c i t y park i n the approximate geographic centre of Census Tract 10 (196l census). I t i s a name that i s not commonly u t i l i z e d by the c i t i z e n s of the area as a means of i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r l o c a l e . The people i n fact describe themselves as l i v i n g i n the East End of Vancouver. The Sunrise Park name i s used as an o f f i c i a l description by the Community Chest and Councils i n t h e i r area development plan (see AppendixH ) and i s also commonly used by c i t y agencies. Sunrise Park Area geographically i s bounded on the South by Ninth Avenue; on the North by Adanac Avenue; on the West by Renfrew Street; and on the East by Boundary Road. In the 196l Canadian Census 1 the population i s given as 7 , 846 . I t i s i n the main a r e s i d e n t i a l area with only small shops and businesses estab-l i s h e d along the boundaries which are thoroughfares. The residents could be said to be quite stable i n the mobility sense. Dwellings occupied for a period of fi v e years or A l l s t a t i s t i c s are from the 196l Census of Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s (C.T.22), unless otherwise acknowledged. - i4o -more constitute 77 percent as compared to the rest of the c i t y , which has a percentile average of only 45.18 percent. Of the 2,290 households, 2,005 or 87.55 percent are owner-occupied, while 12.45 percent are rented accommodations. (These figures do not include Skeena Terrace Housing Project which has a population f l u c t u a t i n g between 800 and 950.) The population of the area i s predominantly of B r i t i s h o r i g i n , although over the l a s t ten years from 1951 to 1961 there has been a marked drop from 69.01 percent to 58.48 percent. At the same time there has been an increase of people with I t a l i a n o r i g i n . This i s due to the growing I t a l i a n population i n the adjacent neighbourhood where there i s a heavy concentration of I t a l i a n people. This ethnic grouping i s now spreading out into the Sunrise Park Area. The population i n the main are Protestant, though again there i s an increasing Roman Catholic population. The only e x i s t i n g churches i n the area are the Four Square Gospel Church and chapel accommodation within the Beulah Gardens Senior Citizens Housing, a Baptist Church-sponsored low rental scheme. There would seem to be a f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n of age groupings, though i n the study area a younger population seems evident. In Vancouver City the male population over 45 amounts to 36.71 percent and the female 37.11 percent, while i n the Sunrise Park the percentage are male 31*05 percent and female 29.03 percent. The population of people under 20 years i n Vancouver was broken down to males, 30.57 percent, and females, 28.82 percent; while i n - 141 -Sunrise Park males constitute 36.11 percent and females 34.44 percent. The income average i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than for the rest of the c i t y as shown by the 1961 census report. Of the male and female labour force i n the Sunrise Park Area, 4l.4 percent earn over $4,000 per year as compared to 38.5 percent i n the City of Vancouver. Of the male labour force, 56.4 percent i n Sunrise Park are earning over $4,000 while i n Vancouver C i t y the percentage i s 54.6 percent. I t should be noted that these figures would subs t a n t i a l l y change when the s t a t i s t i c s of Skeena Terrace are added. The area i s served by two elementary schools - S i r Matthew Begbie and the Annex. The population of these schools i s 1,170. The high school children attend the'Vancouver Technical School. (Prior to the housing project the school population was 83O. The increase i n the two elementary schools alone was 340.) The educational appreciation as measured i n the census shows a marked difference. In Sunrise Park 21.55 percent of those pupils attending school are at the secondary l e v e l and only 2.72 percent attend u n i v e r s i t y . In the c i t y as a whole, comparable figures are 26.6 percent and 7«03 percent respectively. The area has two parks operated by the Board of Parks and Public Recreation. These are Sunrise Park and Adanac Park. The Hastings Community Centre i s situated just out of the area and i s approximately two miles from the geographic centre of the study o - 142 -area. The centre operates a comprehensive programme for a l l ages. The Broadway Y.M.C.A. i s adjacent to the area, but again i s about two miles from the centre of the area. MacKenzie i n his neighbourhood analysis states, "The recreational services and f a c i l i t i e s would appear to leave more u n f u l f i l l e d needs than either of the other types of service agencies"' ( i . e . health and welfare). The Health and S o c i a l Welfare services are supplied by both voluntary and governmental agencies as they are i n the rest of the c i t y . MacKenzie states that, "The health needs seemed to be cared for adequately i n the wide services offered by the Metropolitan Health Services of Greater Vancouver, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Welfare, the City S o c i a l Service Department and the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses. The s o c i a l welfare resources i n the area are very 2 l i m i t e d and the needs very great." A l l a r d i c e , Ethel; MacKenzie, Clarence; Eowe, Francis; Ziegler,Herbert; Neighbourhood Analysis i n Vancouver, Master of S o c i a l Work thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964, p.139 2 i b i d . p.138 - 143 -CHAPTER k SKEENA TERRACE HOUSING PROJECT It has been argued that the existence of Skeena Terrace, the largest housing development i n Vancouver City, has by i t s very size and location become a "red herring" to the prophets of gloom who predict a l l manner of disastrous consequence. I t has been argued as well that this housing project i s a very r e a l and growing menace to the s o c i a l order of the c i t y . There are those who l a b e l i t a ghetto for the economic or s o c i a l l y disadvantaged c i t i z e n or a modern modification of the 19th Century poor house. There are also those who claim that this i s the solution to the erradication of the slums with a l l i t s s o c i a l e v i l s as well as the answer to the impoverished i n the c i t y who have had to s u f f e r the i l l s of inadequate l i v i n g conditions as part and parcel of th e i r dependency upon the community for support. It i s not the intention of t h i s study to analyze and evaluate the pros and cons of t h i s subject, or to of f e r any judgment. It i s necessary to describe t h i s project b r i e f l y i n order to place i t i n i t s proper relationship as a "part of r e a l i t y " to the process of change to be studied. Skeena Terrace Housing Project as was mentioned e a r l i e r was opened and f u l l y occupied by January, 1963, providing accommodation for 165 families and 69 married and single e l d e r l y people. This housing project, which i s situated on one side by Skeena Street, encompasses approximately two c i t y blocks. I t i s an integrated complex of buildings within t h i s area and i s terraced to meld with - 3 M -the contour of the slope upon which i t i s b u i l t . The large s i x -storey high-rise apartment building stands predominant among the family two-storey row houses and apartment blocks. (See figure 7.) The project i s under the management of the Vancouver Housing Authority, responsible to the government of the City of Vancouver through a governing and policy-making Board of Management. Skeena, as i n other projects, has a project manager and a small maintenance s t a f f . The project manager i s responsible for the administrative duties of admitting new tenants who have been screened and approved by the authority. He i s as well struck with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of assuring that the general "housekeeping" and upkeep of the t o t a l project i s maintained to good standards. He also must c o l l e c t the rent payments and amend the leases from time to time as the incomes of the tenants change. He i s responsible f o r the general content and well-being of the tenants and must give adequate warning to tenants whose hehaviour threatens the general good order of the project. His power to enforce general good conduct rests.with his duty to report any behaviour that he considers i s not conducive to good order to the authority and warn the tenants and further to recommend the e v i c t i o n of any tenant who does not abide and amend such behaviour. An unwritten 'but i m p l i c i t duty rests upon the manager to work out such arrangements between tenants as to enhance harmony and good relationships. He must also work out p o l i c y which allows f o r equitable sharing of such tenant r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as C A S S IA R LAYOUT AND ADOtESSES S K C E N A S T R I C T tOO^IMft COM, F . P 4/5 8 P R O J E C T V A M C O U V t a B . C . - 146 -maintaining i n good condition and cleanliness the general shared properties of tenants such as cleaning hallways, walkways, laundry rooms, etc. The manager thus has many roles beside the basic landlord r o l e . He must be a person with abundant and ready common sense with an understanding and knowledge of human behaviour and a general and balanced perception that allows him to weigh and judge the con-sequences of po l i c y as i t a f f e c t s the l i v e s of those who l i v e there more by economic necessity than choice. The people i n Skeena are as varied and diverse as perhaps can be seen i n any neighbourhood. They are not, however, a repre-sentative cross-section of the general population of the c i t y i n several very important ways, and i t follows as a self-evident con-sequence that the neighbourhood (Skeena Terrace) i s not a repre-sentative. cross-secTtion. The main reason they reside at Skeena Terrace i f , of course, because of th e i r economic status. They are also resident here because i n the main t h e i r previous accommodation was of s u f f i c i e n t low standard that i t was either razed under the renewal programme or condemned and subject to destruction. Thus, as we s h a l l see, these residents have no natural roots i n the neighbourhood. The families and the i r children have a l l had to form e n t i r e l y new relationships with t h e i r neighbours and the schools, peer groups, doctors, nurses, s o c i a l workers, etc. As can be seen i n Table B, there i s a high proportion of single-parent families - 50.51 percent i n t h i s t o t a l population of 8l6 men, women and c h i l d r e n . 1 I t goes without saying that a l l of the ^The s t a t i s t i c s on page 14-7 were obtained from Vancouver Housing Authority i n d i v i d u a l lease f i l e s . - 1 4 7 -TABLE B Mar i t a l status of the head of families l i v i n g i n Skeena Terrace, excluding senior c i t i z e n s , as of March 15, 1965. MARITAL STATUS NUMBER PERCENTAGE Married, l i v i n g ' with spouse 80 48.49 Separated 67 40.61 Divorced 10 6.06 Widowed 8 4 .84 TOTAL: 165 100.00 TABLE C Source of income of the heads of families l i v i n g i n Skeena Terrace, excluding Senior Ci t i z e n s , as of March 15, 1965 SOURCE OF INCOME NUMBER PERCENTAGE Soc i a l Assistance 9 1 55.16 Unemployment Ins. 3 1.81 Pension* 5 3.03 Support from Spouse 4 2 . 4 2 Employment 62 37.58 TOTAL: 165 100.00 Includes Workmen's Compensation, Disabled Person's Allowance, War Pensions, etc. - 148 -p o t e n t i a l i s here for problems stemming from families so constituted. Table B reveals that 46.72 percent of the families have undergone at l e a s t one rupturous breakup, and i t i s c e r t a i n that many of these families have had numerous separations and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s with a l l the unhappy and damaging eff e c t s accruing to the children and the wife's parental r o l e . Thus, bitterness and hate, a lack of trust, loneliness, fear, confusion, despair, and uncertainty, g u i l t , damaged confidences, and defeat are a l l a part of the wife's personality. More often than not these negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are also transmitted to the children. These damaged perspectives are further charged by the low economic l e v e l at which these families must e x i s t . Table C shows that 62.42 percent of the families must depend on other than t h e i r own means for support. Of the 37«58 percent who are self-supporting an undetermined number are working at seasonal or marginal jobs. Thus, to the personality problems these many tenants have i s added the grave burden of economic uncertainty and of trying to manage on the inadequate s o c i a l assistance or other marginal income they receive. The discrepancy or distance between population represent-ativeness becomes even greater when one adds the elements of s o c i a l i l l s that i n f e c t many of these families. These i l l s run the gamut of known s o c i a l problems, and although no f u l l analysis has been made, they include alcoholism, mental i l l n e s s , i l l e g i t i m a c y , poor health standards, delinquency, low academic and vocational s k i l l s etc. The project has by i t s nature become a dense, concentrated community bringing together a complex of problems that have never - 149 -e f f e c t i v e l y been controlled or solved i n the broader community. When Skeena Terrace i s viewed i n r e l a t i o n to i t s children a l l indicators point to a potent and dangerous s i t u a t i o n . In the City of Vancouver the percentage of the population, male and female under twenty years i s 29.2 percent, and i n the Sunrise Park i t i s 35*3 percent, while i n the Skeena Terrace the figure i s 62.1 percent. (See Table D) Of the 571 children l i v i n g i n Skeena Terrace, 74.25 percent are under ten years of age. The children not yet school age are 226 i n number, or 39«59 percent. (36l children came from 130 families with 4 children or l e s s , or an average of 2.8 children per family. 210 children came from 35 families with f i v e to ten children, an average of s i x children per family.) The mean average of children per family i s 3«5. (See Table E) This small but problem-riven community i s characterized by a mass apathy. Many of the people have l i t t l e sense of personal worth and even l e s s personal endowment, and as a result there i s a general lack of community purpose and communal investment. There have been numerous attempts by the tenants to organize community a c t i v i t i e s and p r a c t i c a l l y every attempt has f a i l e d a f t e r a very short duration. Three elements seem to permeate through these aborted attempts at organizing a c t i v i t i e s . These are lack of leadership, representative support, and a very low p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t i o . Only two organizations seem to have any capacity to endure -that i s , the Senior Citizens Club and the teenage club. These two groups can be said to owe t h e i r l i f e and v i t a l i t y i n the main to one person i n each s i t u a t i o n . These two people take the brunt of - 150 -TABLE B" Percentage and number of children by age group i n Skeena Terrace as of March 15, 1965 AGE GROUP NUMBER PERCENTAGE 1 mo - 5 yrs. 226 59.59 5 y r s . l mo - lOyrs 198 34.66 10 yrs.lmo - 15yrs. 101 17.69 15 y r s . l mo - 20yrs 46 8.06 TOTAL 571 100.00 J TABLE B Showing d i s t r i b u t i o n of children to family size FAMILY SIZE BY CHILDREN NO. OF FAMILIES 1 NO. OF CHILDREN 0 - 1 -1 c h i l d 6 6 2 children 46 92 3 11 45 135 4 II 32 128 5 tt 14 70 6 tt 12 72 7 tt 6 42 8 ti 2 16 9 tt - -10 it 1 10 TOTAL: 1 164 571 , - 1 5 1 -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with l i t t l e co-operation or support from the rest of the tenants. Organizations that have been attempted and have f a i l e d include a Mothers Club, a tot spot, a newspaper, and an adult s o c i a l club. The opinion has been expressed by some that the organizers of such a c t i v i t i e s which have f a i l e d are generally characterized by t h e i r poor housekeeping standards and general family mismanagement. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that has been noted i s that a good deal of r i v a l r y exists between the adults and the children. This was seen to be pronounced i n the r e l a t i o n -ships that existed between the teen group and the mothers group. This i s perhaps not to be unexpected i n a community which has so many one-parent families where the mother has the t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon her to perform a l l roles of both mother and father. What i s probably manifesting i t s e l f i s a type of mass immaturity and mass apathy that runs epidemic causing a general fever of jealousy and r i v a l r y and escapism. One would anticipate, from such a community of tenants, a marked h o s t i l i t y between themselves and the landlord (Vancouver Housing Authority) i n the person of the project manager. This i s far from the case, i n fa c t . On the whole the tenants look to the manager as a sounding board for their troubles and an a r b i t r a t o r for t h e i r squabbles. There has been no attempt to form a tenants' association, a common device i n housing projects, for the general enhancement of the tenant community. This f a i l u r e can l e g i t i -mately be ascribed to the general detachment and apathy of the - 152 -tenants and to no overt encouragement by the Housing Authority. It i s to be noted that the project i s p a r t i c u l a r l y deficient i n space and f a c i l i t i e s for any organized a c t i v i t i e s within i t s boundaries. A s t r i k i n g example of t h i s are the small plots of ground i n front of the apartments designed for flower gardens. I t would require a fu l l - t i m e guard to defend the p l o t , a master gardener and a patient and tolerant saint to bring flowers to f u l l bloom. Perhaps the most elusive but most pungent feature of Skeena Terrace i s that the expectations placed upon these tenants i s that they can magically change their accustomed behaviour, t h e i r ways of l i v i n g and their attitudes to conform to a middle-class standard. This expectation i s c l e a r l y evident i n the use of materials i n the construction, the general layout and design of the scheme and the prevalent attitudes and views that are present by the majority of observers and policy-makers. The tenants are expected to l i v e harmoniously i n dense proximity. They are expected to be able to co-operatively j o i n together and c o l l e c t i v e l y schedule t h e i r time for washing machines, clean the common hallways, keep the general grounds i n order and t h e i r apartments spic and span. I t i s amazing that some tenants are able to meet these expectations with a modicum of success. CHAPTER 5 SUNRISE PARK AREA ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The Welfare and Recreation Council of the Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver c a l l e d a meeting of representatives of various agencies involved with the education, recreation, health, welfare and po l i c e i n g aspects i n the Sunrise Park Area. This meeting was c a l l e d on February 21, 1964. I t was c a l l e d i n response to "the numerous expressions of concern received by the Welfare and Recreation Council i n r e l a t i o n to apparent inadequacies i n services i n the area i d e n t i f i e d as the Sunrise Park Area.""'' The purpose of c a l l i n g t h i s group of agency representatives together was to attempt to c l a r i f y the problems that existed and "discuss possible courses of action aimed at sol u t i o n . The meeting was well attended by 26 people representing 18 agencies, organizations and City Departments. Each organization gave an account of t h e i r respective programmes, their concerns i n the area, and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s or lacks i n dealing with some of the problems. In the main the meeting dwelt with s p e c i f i c and general problems as expressed by the representatives of the various agencies; the needs that arose as a result of these problems and a variety of suggested means of containing or managing these problems. Some of the problems i d e n t i f i e d were inadequate agency budgets; lack of agency programmes and service integration and co-ordination; agencies not f u l f i l l i n g their designated service roles; Minutes of the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Welfare and Recreation Council meeting held at the Broadway, Y.M.C.A., February 21, 1964. - 154 -lack of s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f to cope with needs; heavy case loads; i n s u f f i c i e n t f a c i l i t i e s ; overcrowded school f a c i l i t i e s and student mobility; lack of s u f f i c i e n t play space i n schools and parks; increased vandalism; d i f f i c u l t y i n making r e f e r r a l s to appropriate agency for appropriate action; increased population; large prop-ortion and concentration of one-parent families i n Housing Project as well as aged people; i n s u f f i c i e n t leadership. Some of the courses of action that were suggested were implied by the problems expressed. It i s hoteworthy that i n the main most of the problems i n the view of those at the meeting stemmed from the introduction of Skeena Terrace Housing to the area. The meeting not only recognized this but their suggested actions were i n the main directed at or dealing with the Housing Project. This meeting appointed a sub-committee to assess the inform-ation received and to make recommendations as to possible ways i n which evident needs that were expressed might be more e f f e c t i v e l y met. The next meeting was held on June 19, 1964, with the purpose of receiving and considering the recommendations of the sub-committee appointed i n February. The findings of th i s sub-committee can be summarized as follows: 1. There exists a need for co-ordination between service agencies. 2 . A sp e c i a l s i t u a t i o n exists i n r e l a t i o n to the determination of needs and the providing of services due to the introduction of Skeena Terrace Housing. 3. Mor information i s required including information - 155 -about needs and resources i n the Housing P r o j e c t , and the community and i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two areas. k. Immediate needs e x i s t and should re c e i v e immediate a t t e n t i o n . These were inadequate r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s i n the v i c i n i t y of the Housing P r o j e c t and inadequate s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t -a t i v e s e r v i c e s . The recommendations that t h i s sub-committee made were narrowed and s p e c i f i c to t h e i r f i n d i n g s . The recommendations, i n summary, c a l l e d f o r : 1. The establishment of a s t r u c t u r e that could co-ordinate and develop s e r v i c e s . 2 . A comprehensive s o c i a l needs study from which would evolve a plan f o r meeting immediate and long-range goals. 3 . An AreaWorker to be employed. k. A c t i o n i n meeting the immediate needs a) by informing the Board of Parks and P u b l i c Recreation of the apparent inadequacies and suggesting more playground space adjacent to the Housing P r o j e c t was necessary as w e l l as an expansion of the summer playground programmes; b) i n t e n s i f y i n g s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i v e s e r v i c e by asking the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department to give high p r i o r i t y to the s o c i a l a s s istance cases i n the area. I t was f u r t h e r recommended that the other agencies develop f a m i l y -- 156 -focused group work programmes aimed at developing more ef f e c t i v e s o c i a l r elationships. It was also recommended that City Council and the Chest and Councils c a l l a series of meetings at the top l e v e l to consider a co-operative approach toward meeting the s o c i a l needs. A good deal of discussion arose over the v a l i d i t y of the findings i n r e l a t i o n to the inadequacies that were pronounced by the sub-committee. The discussion appeared to take the form of agencies defending themselves as they perceived the findings r e l a t i n g to d e f i c i e n c i e s stemming from t h e i r own services. The discussions and the r e s u l t i n g questioning of v a l i d i t y of the findings were not resolved, but redirected toward a consideration of the aspect of co-ordination. The meeting supported and adopted the Area Council recom-mendations and a sub-committee was given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s e t t i n g up such a Council. The matter of a needs study was referred to t h i s Area Council. The recommendation regarding the Area Worker was deferred. In regard to the recommendations for immediate action, i t was decided to have the Welfare and Recreation Council and the Sunrise Park Area Council (not yet formed) make appropriate repre-sentations to the Park Board and the City Council for necessary implementation. On July Ik, 1 9 6 4 , the sub-committee formed at the June meeting met to consider the task of forming an Area Council and finding a chairman for such a council. The sub-committee examined - 157 -various ways of s e t t i n g up such a council. The type of council which appeared to have general appeal was one made up of lay people (representatives of community organizations, etc.) with an Advisory Committee composed of professional people. The meeting f e l t that i t was most appropriate to begin with a Resources Council made up of professionals. The reason for t h i s decision was that i t was considered that the s i t u a t i o n at the moment was such that a "lay council" could not be developed. They also considered that t h i s was more within the role of the proposed Area Worker to develop. The meeting saw the terms of reference for such a Resources Council as being those l a i d down i n Recommendation 1 . of the June meeting; i . e . "To consider co-ordination of welfare and recreation services, public and private, and to work towards the development of more adequate resources and services i n the area." They decided that the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies represented at the two "Area meetings" would be a basis for such a Resources Committee. They also saw the need for an Advisory or Executive body and set up a proposed slate of people to serve on t h i s Executive Committee. The sub-committee agreed to make known the r e s u l t s of t h e i r deliberations to the Welfare and Recreation Council and ask that a meeting of the Executive Committee be c a l l e d i n September. The next meeting was a c t u a l l y c a l l e d on October 1 , 1 9 6 4 , and i t i s at t h i s date that case study s h a l l begin. - 158 -CHAPTER 6 SUNRISE PARK AREA RESOURCES COUNCIL (A Case Study i n Organizational Change) A. Introduction to the Case Study "The best guarantee of the e t h i c a l operation of s o c i a l engineers i s that t h e i r basic t r a i n i n g be focused i n a methodology of planned change which unites the norms of democratic operation, relevant understandings of change processes, and s o c i a l structures, and s k i l l s i n stimulating, inducing and s t a b i l i z i n g changes i n persons and groups." Kenneth Benne In examining and analyzing a case study as many angles and facets of the case remain hidden and obscure as are revealed. The attempt, to t h i s point, has been to illuminate some of the circumstances, situations and systems that have been a part of the change process which i s under study. I t has been an attempt to bring " d e f i n i t i o n " to the image of the Sunrise Park organizational process as i t were by focusing our "surveyor's theodolite" upon a " f i e l d of v i s i o n " . To carry the analogy further, the f i e l d of view contains a variety of contours and landmarks (the various events and s i t u a t i o n s already set down), some towards the periphery of the scope being dim and obscure while some closer to the f o c a l centre are more sharp and discernable. The cross-hairs now converge upon Benne, Kenneth D., "Democratic Ethics i n S o c i a l Engineering", Progressive Education, Volume 26, No.7, May, 1?A9 - 159 -the point of the study - "The Sunrise Park Area Resources Council". In presenting the case study for analysis, i t seemed desirable to f i r s t set down the events that occurred during the time under study - that i s , from October 1, 1964, to February 28, 1965* The sig n i f i c a n c e of these events and how they pertained to process has then been documented within the framework offered by the "Area Development Model". That i s to say that when and as they applied the change processes were viewed from the vantage point of the several abstractions which were given i n the model. These abstractions are: problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , goal determination, action determination, action implementation, and outcome evaluation. - 1 6 0 -B . T h e C a s e S t u d y " S u n r i s e P a r k A r e a E e s o u r c e s C o u n c i l " . " A v a l i d i d e a l i s a g e n u i n e a n d a t t a i n a b l e g o o d p r o p o s e d a s a g o a l f o r a c t i o n a n d c a p a b l e o f u n i t i n g a n d d i r e c t i n g t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e g r o u p t o w h i c h i t i s a d d r e s s e d i n t h e j u s t a n d e f f e c t i v e p u r s u i t o f t h e g o o d i t r e p r e s e n t s . " A r t h u r E . M u r p h y 1 T h e d i s c o v e r y o f w h a t i s t h e v a l i d i d e a l i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e p e o p l e who a r e a n d h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e t h a t was h e r e s t u d i e d m u s t r e m a i n a m a t t e r o f s p e c u l a t i o n a n d c o n j e c t u r e . I t r e s t s w i t h i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e many p e o p l e i n v o l v e d a n d m u s t b e s u b j e c t t o a l l t h e v a r i a n c i e s o f m o t i v a t i o n , a n d o f i n v o l v e m e n t i t s e l f . T h e i d e a l i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n w h i c h c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t s b r e a d t h t h e a s p i r a t i o n s a n d h o p e s , t h e b e l i e f s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t t e m p t s s p e c u l a t i o n a n d b e g s a n a n s w e r f o r i t r e s t s a t t h e v e r y r o o t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e . S u c h a n i d e a l w i l l d e f y a g r e e m e n t a n d p e r h a p s m u s t r e m a i n t e n t a t i v e f o r t o l e n d i t s t a t u s may d e n y i t u n i v e r s a l i t y . T e m p t a t i o n , i f a l l o w e d t o r e i g n , m i g h t b r i n g f o r t h a n i d e a l s u c h a s t h i s : t h a t man a s a n i n d i v i d u a l a n d a s a c o m m u n i t y h a s t h e a b i l i t y a n d t h e d e s i r e t o c h a n g e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t w i l l l e a d t o a g r e a t e r e n h a n c e m e n t o f s e l f a n d t h a t h e c a n a c h i e v e t h i s f u l f i l l -m e n t b y h i s c r e a t i v e n e s s , h i s s e n s e o f d i s c o v e r y a n d t h e s u p p o r t h e M u r p h y , A r t h u r E . , " T h e U s e s o f R e a s o n " , M a c M i l l a n C o m p a n y , 1 9 4 - 3 , p . 2 6 5 - 161 -derives from the e f f i c a c i o u s arrangement of the forces and services which he has devised to meet his needs within his dynamic and constantly changing environment. It well may be that there i s no constant other than the constancy of change i t s e l f . I t i s i n the attainment of an i d e a l with which thiB case study deals. The attainment of a goal i d e a l and proposals and methods for such attainment depends upon the various d i s c i p l i n e s and the p a r t i c u l a r knowledge and s k i l l s that are the possessions of the participants i n t h i s study. The a t t a i n -ment r e l i e s as well upon the application of t h i s complex of d i s c i -p l i n e s , knowledge, and s k i l l s - not upon one man but upon many. The Executive Committee of the Sunrise Park Area Eesources Council held i t s f i r s t meeting on October 1, 1964. The agencies represented on t h i s committee were the Vancouver Metropolitan Health Department; Vancouver City S o c i a l Service Department; Vancouver City P o l i c e ; Family Service Agency; Neighbourhood Services Association; Welfare and Eecreation Council; and the Parks Board. At t h i s meeting a general review of progress was made along with a summary of the organizational steps taken. I t was pointed out that with reference to one of the immediate action goals -providing more recreational services - the Parks Board had expanded t h e i r summer programme i n the area. In viewing the plan of action, three points were discussed: i . e . an area study; co-ordination of services, and an area worker. It was considered that an Area Study should be undertaken as soon as possible i n order that long range planning can be carried - 162 -out. The Community Chest and Councils" representative pointed out that with t h e i r experience i n the Woodland Park Study, i t was seen that i s o l a t e d area studies were of only l i m i t e d value. They had decided that an "Overview Study" should be c a r r i e d out i n i t i a l l y . This would allow for smaller areas to be studied i n r e l a t i o n to the o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n . I t was pointed out that some readily available information could be gleaned from agency s t a t i s t i c s and from Mr. McKenzie 1s the s i s . The discussion centering around co-ordination of services and developing more adequate resources and services brought the most d i r e c t involvement. In p o l l i n g the various representatives at the meeting, each expressed a desire to extend his service responsi-b i l i t i e s further i n the area, but each admitted l i m i t a t i o n s because of budget and s t a f f . One of the members who was p a r t i c u l a r l y con-cerned over the lack of leadership and community involvement suggested that immediate steps be taken to determine opinions as to services and lacks from the l o c a l c i t i z e n . Action was seen to be necessary immediately aimed at strength-ening and developing the teenage group i n Skeena Terrace. Some members voiced the strong opinion that some agency should be able to take t h i s programme over at once. The meeting turned then to a rather random consideration of the need for and duties of an area worker. There was a suggestion that a student worker from the School of S o c i a l Work could temporarily f i l l t h i s need, but this was turned back when the role of student placements was interpreted. This issue of an area worker was once again tabled. - 163 -A permanent chairman was s t i l l being sought by the temporary chairman. On October 16, 1964, the acting chairman of the Executive Committee c a l l e d four members together as an Ad Hoc Committee i n order to proceed with a "spot" survey i n the Sunrise Park Area to determine some consensus of opinion as to the resources-and problems that exist i n the area. Various known key informants were selected and members were asigned to interview these people. This move was i n i t i a t e d as i t was f e l t that there had been a good deal of exagger-ation of the e x i s t i n g problems whereas the presumtpion was that the problems that did exist were poorly defined and not p r e c i s e l y located as to o r i g i n and severity. The agreed-upon questions that were to be posed were: a) What were the problems that key informants recognized as existing i n the area? b) What resources existed that i n the informants' estimation could manage or correct these problems? c) What other steps could they suggest for the general improvement i n the area, p a r t i c u l a r l y as to improved or new services? d) I f services were f e l t to be i n e f f e c t i v e , what was the reason and what were possible solutions? This inv e s t i g a t i o n was carri e d out and the information c o l l a t e d i n a meeting of the survey members oh November 17» 1964. The findings were presented to the Executive Committee on November 26, 1964. - 164 -The findings of this survey were of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . The opinions gained from the key informants indicated that there was considerable doubt expressed as to whether any s i g n i f i c a n t problem existed i n the area. When minor problems were recognized (often when the p o s s i b i l i t i e s were suggested by the interviewees) the extent and nature of the problems d i f f e r e d measurably. There was, however, unanimous opinion concerning the lack of recreational f a c i l i t i e s and programmes. Every person interviewed, with one exception, lacked knowledge of the services of the health and welfare agencies and therefore could make no comment as to t h e i r effectiveness. The welfare agencies best known were the Children's Aid Society and the Vancouver City S o c i a l Service Department. Most of the s p e c i f i c problems and concerns centred around Skeena Terrace. Some persons interviewed considered that the tenants of the housing project i s o l a t e d themselves from the rest of the community. They considered that recre-a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s were inadequate and leadership lacking, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the teenage and adult groups. Concern was expressed over the apparently i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y revealed by the adolescents, and one person predicted a marked increase i n i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s among teen-agers. The young children from the housing project were seen to lack proper supervisors. People i n the community were said to caution t h e i r children away from the housing project because of the preponder-ence of s o c i a l assistance families and the numbers of men l o a f i n g around were seen to be a pote n t i a l danger to t h e i r youngsters. Concern was expressed that the various health, recreational and welfare agencies were separated i n the i r approach to common problems. Some informants - 165 -were not s a t i s f i e d with the way t h e i r problem r e f e r r a l s to agencies were handled, p a r t i c u l a r l y when they never received any reports back. This same group of informants expressed confusion as to who were the appropriate r e f e r r a l agencies. V i r t u a l l y none of the informants had knowledge of the extent of health and welfare services. Some of the solutions offered were more park and super-vised recreational f a c i l i t i e s ; a community centre; a neighbourhood house; a programme to change poor parental attitudes; more sharing of information between health, welfare and recreational agencies, clergy and parents. The Sunrise Park Resources Council was c a l l e d into meeting on December 11, 1964, to consider recommendations by the Ad Hoc Committee and receive t h e i r report. The recommendations made with respect to short and long range planning were discussed and accepted. The short term planning recommendations were: 1) That ways and means be explored to provide trans-portation of people to existing recreation f a c i l i t i e s which are located outside the Sunrise Park Area. 2 ) To develop a l o c a l Community Council with the purpose of a s s i s t i n g the meeting of emerging needs; providing leadership; and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n long range planning. 5) To approach the Park Board i n an e f f o r t to secure s a t e l i t e recreational programmes i n the area. It was agreed that development of a l o c a l Community Council - 166 -was seen as most important. The meeting f e l t that the composition of t h i s Council should be representative of the l o c a l community. The long-range planning recommendations were: 1) That a further study be made with regard to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l problems and the evaluation of present health, welfare and recreation services i n t h i s area. 2) That an e f f o r t be made to bring together at the highest administrative l e v e l on the l o c a l area and t o t a l c i t y basis, public welfare and voluntary agencies to promote co-ordination of health, welfare and recreation services. A chairman was appointed to head up the Executive Committee. A l l of these recommendations were approved by the Council and a committee of three was struck to begin work towards the formation of the Community Council. This committee consisted of a represent-ative from the Vancouver Association of Neighbourhood Services (Chairman); a representative from the City S o c i a l Service Department; the student placed at Skeena Terrace; and a s t a f f member from the Welfare and Recreation Council acting as a consultant. Early i n January the student representative met with the chairman of the committee to set out plans for organizing a l o c a l Community Council. At that time i t was decided that the most desirable representation on such a Council would consist i n the main of "grass roots" people who 1) have i n the past demonstrated some a b i l i t y to take action on behalf of their neighbourhood; - 167 -2) have expressed some inte r e s t i n the community as well as concern for the present s i t u a t i o n . 3) are presently l i v i n g i n the area. It was decided that the most appropriate approach would be to gather a group of eight or ten such c i t i z e n s together and explain the concerns and findings of the Resources Council, the d e s i r a b i l i t y of forming a Community Council and possible means of forming such a group. It was also decided that should t h i s i n i t i a l group show i n t e r e s t and ''pick up" on the suggestions, that they be encouraged to form an Ad Hoc Committee to, 1) investigate the f e a s i b i l i t y of such a plan, 2) work out ways and means of carrying such a plan forward, 3) set up a tentative constitution and k) plan for and carry out a meeting of c i t i z e n s to set the Council i n motion. This plan for an Ad Hoc Committee was formulated for two reasons. One was that i t was f e l t that i n order to e f f e c t any changes of a long-range nature that would be of benefit to the community, the impetus must come from an involvement from the people of the area. The reason was reached because i t was f e l t that any important changes would bring l i t t l e r e s u l t s i f they were imposed from outside. I t was further f e l t that the people themselves were the best group to decide what defici e n c i e s and problems existed and what were the best means of meeting and solving these problems. A further reason was that an Ad Hoc Committee offered l i t t l e r i s k i n - 168 -t h a t i f the community was n o t r e a d y t o move a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s f a i l e d , i t w o u l d n o t s e r i o u s l y impede any f u r t h e r e f f o r t s i n t h e f u t u r e . The Community O r g a n i z a t i o n s t u d e n t was g i v e n t h e a s s i g n -ment t o work t o w a r d s c o m p i l i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y names f o r s u c h an Ad Hoc C o m m i t t e e . T h i s a s s i g n m e n t was begun by g a i n i n g a s com-p l e t e a l i s t as p o s s i b l e o f a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e a r e a o r had some commitment o r programme o r v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r e a e x c l u s i v e o f t h e c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A t o t a l o f 31 s u c h k e y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were l o c a t e d . Out o f t h i s l i s t a number o f p e o p l e were c o n t a c t e d who were e x e c u t i v e members o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p u r p o s e o f what was b e i n g a t t e m p t e d was e x p l a i n e d and t h e s e k e y i n f o r m a n t s were a s k e d t o s u p p l y one o r s e v e r a l names o f p e o p l e who had i n t h e p a s t shown i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r e a and had t a k e n some a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n o r g e n e r a l l y i n the c o m m u n i t y . A t o t a l o f Ik k e y i n f o r m a n t s were c o n t a c t e d by s e l e c t i n g t h o s e g r o u p s whom the Community O r g a n i z a t i o n s t u d e n t f e l t w o u l d be c l o s e s t t o t h e " c e n t r e o f g r a v i t y " o f t h e a r e a and who had the most d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a r e a . These k e y i n f o r m a n t s s u g g e s t e d 28 names o f p e o p l e t h e y w o u l d recommend as b e i n g p o t e n t i a l l y a c t i v e a n d i n t e r e s t e d . A m e e t i n g was c a l l e d o f the s u b - c o m m i t t e e e a r l y i n F e b r u a r y , 1965, f o r the p u r p o s e o f r e p o r t i n g p r o g r e s s and t a k i n g f u r t h e r a c t i o n . T h i s m e e t i n g was d i v i d e d i n t h a t some members i n t e r p r e t e d t h e m e a n i n g o f the December m i n u t e s t o mean t h a t a l o c a l C o u n c i l s h o u l d be f o r m e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i l e o t h e r members f e l t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h o u l d come f r o m t h e g r a s s r o o t s - 169 -l e v e l . The general purposes of such a l o c a l Council were an area of divided opinion. It was f i n a l l y decided that the Community Organization student and the Chairman should prepare a written plan that could be studied then accepted or rejected by the sub-committee. This plan has now been formulated and awaits a further meeting of the sub-committee. CHAPTER 7 SUNRISE PARK AREA RESOURCES COUNCIL THE MODEL APPLIED TO THE CASE STUDY A. Introduction The Area Development Project model i s a working model i n that i t has been developed as a tool to determine the processes and methods that are requisite to the carrying out of the intended purpose of the project. The purpose of t h i s project i s to demon-strate the f e a s i b i l i t y of "an integrated e f f o r t to r e h a b i l i t a t e multi-problem families and to study the changes required to i n t e -grate a wide variety of services under one administration." 1 The project more d e f i n i t e l y aims to provide under one administrator an integrated programme of health, welfare and recreation services for a selected group of multi-problem families i n one p a r t i c u l a r area of the c i t y . In the application of t h i s model to the study of Sunrise Park Area Resources Committee, the purpose was to test out the value of the model as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l . The study was dependent i n the main for t h i s testing upon the r e s u l t s of the interviews that were held with some of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . This method of gaining inform-ation was i n conformity with the research planning of the Area Development Project, where i t i s proposed that i n the analysis of " i n t e r n a l " problems the s t a f f w i l l be u t i l i z e d extensively as determinors. In order that some o v e r a l l view can be shown, the model was applied to the t o t a l organizational change process i n "A Plan for An Area Development Project"; A paper prepared by Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area. May,1964. - 171 -general terms (the period February, 1964 - February, 1965) and then applied p a r t i c u l a r l y to the period October 1, 1964 to February 1965. The conceptual schema w i l l be followed i n the sequence provided i n the Area Development Project plan as i s seen i n Appendix B. The main concept factors are a) Problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; b) Goal determination; c) Action determination; d) Action implementation; e) Outcome evaluation. The schedule upon which the interviews were conducted i s seen i n Appendix I. L i p p i t , i n his book "The Dynamics of Planned Change","'" d i f f e r e n t i a t e s three d i f f e r e n t types of sequences for i n i t i a t i n g change. The f i r s t i s when a change agent perceives a need for help i n a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t system and t r i e s to stimulate the system's awareness of i t s needs. The second i s when a c l i e n t system and the change agent are brought together by a t h i r d system related i n some way to both the c l i e n t system and the change agent and aware of the c l i e n t system's need for help. The t h i r d way i s when a c l i e n t system becomes aware i t s e l f of i t s own malfunction and seeks outside he l p . In this case study i t seemed apparent that there was a complex of i n i t i a t i n g methods due to the corresponding complex of L i p p i t , Ronald; "The Dynamics of Planned Change"; Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. (New York, 1#58) pp 14?-174. - 172 -i n i t i a t i n g methods due to the corresponding complex of systems and sub-systems and change agents which existed. Thus i f the target for change was the "structure complex for services" system and the change agent was the Planning Section of the Community Chest and Councils and the goal or action task was co-ordination of services, the f i r s t type of initiation suggested by L i p p i t seems appropriate. I f , however, the c l i e n t system was the tenant group at Skeena Terrace housing and the change agent was the l o c a l council with the Eesources Council being aware of the apparent d i f f i c u l t i e s the second type of i n i t i a t i o n was closer to the s i t u a t i o n . In an examination of the t o t a l organizational change that has so far occurred and by reason of the statements of the majority of the participants i n t h i s study, the Welfare and Recreation Council was seen as the paramount, prime change agent. A change agent i s defined as a person or group who attempts to effect change. It i s to be recognized that the change agent was i n this p a r t i c u l a r study, a complex of i n d i v i d u a l s which from time to time and i n a varying extent,altered i t s composition, corresponding to the p a r t i c u l a r relationships that existed at a given moment. The composition of the change agent was then f l u i d as well as being a complex of members. This did not, however, a l t e r the fact that the recognized and prime change agent was the Welfare and Recreation Council. In consideration of the nature of the case being studied and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the examination of the processes that occurred, i t was essential that problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n be made and established. This corresponds to the f i r s t concept of the Area Development Project's model - Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . - 173 -B. Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n It i s relevant to make several comments about the nature and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the case before the direct application of the problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n concept i s discussed. One factor which was very evident i n th i s study was that there had not been a "crisis'-' s i t u a t i o n which had had an impact of the type which caused any pronounced stress, disequilibrium or disruption. While i t was true that the positioning of the housing project i n Sunrise Park Area could be said to be a c r i s i s , i t must, however, be l e f t to debate whether or not t h i s was so. The fact that the common term "dumped" was used by many people to describe the positioning of the project suggests some cause for i t to be c l a s s i f i e d a " c r i s i s " . A feature which was related to the non-crisis fact and important i n viewing the organizational change that i s preceeding i n that the changes conform to what could be c a l l e d a preventive approach. In the main and at t h i s juncture the changes that have occurred are "promotion" and "prevention" focussed rather than "treatment" focussed toward some p a r t i c u l a r or s p e c i f i c problem. I t must be conceded, however, that several organizational moves have been taken with a s p e c i f i c application to ameliorating or managing a p a r t i c u l a r problem s i t u a t i o n . Kurt Lewin had indicated that he observed three phases within a change process. "A successful change includes three aspects: unfreezing the present l e v e l ; moving to the new l e v e l ; - 174 -and freezing group l i f e on the new l e v e l . " * Ronald L i p p i t has expanded Lewin's three phases to f i v e general phases of change process: "1. Development of a need for change ("unfreezing"); 2. Establishment of a change r e l a t i o n -ship; 3« Working toward change ("moving"); 4. Generalization and s t a b i l i z i n g of change ("freezing"); and 5» Achieving a 2 terminal r e l a t i o n s h i p . " This p a r t i c u l a r model has relevance to our study for we are dealing i n p a r t i c u l a r with L i p p i t ' s t h i r d phase (working toward change). L i p p i t further sub-divides t h i s t h i r d stage i n t o , "a) The c l a r i f i c a t i o n or diagnosis of the c l i e n t system's problem; b) The examination of al t e r n a t i v e routes and goals; establishing goals and intentions of action, and c) The 3 transformation of intentions into actual e f f o r t s . " I t i s relevant to t h i s study to recognize these model concepts for they reveal an important facet of the study which i s not included i n the Area Development model. One phase, the "un-freezing" process or stimulating of awareness was a v i t a l factor i n the case under study. This phase, although preliminary to actual change, i n the Sunrise Park Case involved a considerable amount of time and e f f o r t . At the time of t h i s study, t h i s phase has not been completed. It i s i n recognition of t h i s deficiency i n the model that the scheduled interviews was expanded i n an e f f o r t to reveal expressed concerns and s p e c i f i c problem recognition. In other words Lewin, Kurt; "Frontiers i n Group Dynamics"; Human Relations, V o l . 1 , 1947, p.34. 2 L i p p i t ; op.cit. p.130 5 i b i d . p.136 - 175 -what were people aware of that was considered a problem. In the area of problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the persons interviewed saw the problems i n r e l a t i o n to the p a r t i c u l a r type of work or agency they represented. Thus the p r a c t i t i o n e r s whose p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l work method was r e c r e a t i o n or group work viewed the problem i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r approach. The same was true of the medical workers, the case workers, community planners, e t c . Every interviewee acknowledged that the housing p r o j e c t "sparked" the concern. I t was a l s o g e n e r a l l y stated that there was a " s y n t h e s i z i n g " of concern brought about by meetings and d i s c u s s i o n s . A number of l i n e workers were aware of the problems posed by a housing p r o j e c t from what they had heard about such p r o j e c t s i n other c i t i e s and they recognized the p o t e n t i a l problems i n t h i s c i t y when c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l s were not b u i l t i n . ]'•• One s o c i a l planner summed i t up by saying that various •feignals" were rec e i v e d by the Chest and Councils and t h i s plus h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l "ear to the ground" s i g n i f i e d a growing concern that was i n the process of s y n t h e s i z i n g i t s e l f towards expression i n st r e n g t h . Most re p r e s e n t a t i v e s went through an i n t e r n a l examination of t h e i r agency fun c t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l f u n c t i o n s asking the question; "What can we do to meet the problem p o t e n t i a l s inherent i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? " Some agencies a c t u a l l y voiced t h i s concern to various other agencies and to the Chest and C o u n c i l s . The Alexandra Neighbourhood House was one of these. - 176 -I t i s to be expected that these concerns did not c r y s t a l i z e at once i n such a non-crisis s i t u a t i o n . This i s perhaps i n part due to a phenomena akin to "ripeness" i n the practice of law. This i s to suggest that a s i t u a t i o n i n i t s ferment stage must reach a certain degree of potency (ripeness) before i t i s prudent and opportune to take action. Thus i n the case of Sunrise Park the s i t u a t i o n was for a long time i n a state of mild ferment. In other words, i t had not become r i p e . There was common agreement that the placing of Skeena Terrace i n a neighbourhood with ohly l i m i t e d resources was the prime problem. It was seen as a multi-faceted problem. This was determined by the way people explained the problem. People viewed the housing project and described i t as a problem because i t concentrates and compacts a large group of people who a l l have problems. Some described the tenants not as having problems but having unmet needs. Others stated that the problem was that some agencies wished to abstract the housing project from the surrounding communities and deal with i t exclusive of the neighbourhood. Others, meanwhile, took the pos i t i o n that i f one viewed the project just as another number of homes there need be no concern, for integration would naturally occur. This group was seen to be trying to cover up or disguise the problem. There was a group who viewed Skeena Terrace as a problem because i t placed undue s t r a i n on already l i m i t e d services, e s p e c i a l l y recreational services and f a c i l i t i e s . This group contained a segment who f e l t the problem was that services being provided were not being provided i n the most e f f i c i e n t and ef f e c t i v e way. Lack of co-ordin-- 177 -ation and integration of services was the problem to t h i s group. This same group f e l t agency s t a f f i n g was not adequate to meet the needs of the tenants. Another group of people, especially those responsible for planning and providing services viewed the problem of Skeena Terrace as a disruption that distorted and disturbed established p r i o r i t y systems such as school f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f i n g needs, budget a l l o c a t i o n s , etc. Within the s o c i a l planning agency one problem was that i n order to meet such a s i t u a t i o n as t h i s , the structure of the agency was recognized as being not s u f f i c i e n t to cope appropriately. This i s to say that the Planning Section of the Chest was being pulled two ways. This section remains responsible to opiate as a functional d i v i s i o n - a d i v i s i o n responsibly concerned for the s p e c i f i c recreation and welfare needs and services of the general community. In dealing with a s i t u a t i o n such as presented by Skeena Terrace i t must not only be concerned with the s p e c i f i c problems but must as well be concerned with general needs and services i n a s p e c i f i c area. In summary, and i n general terms, the problem was how to provide for the assimilation of the tenants of Skeena Terrace into the neighbourhood and gain acceptance of them by the neighbourhood when by nsture and circumstances they were i n the main problem ridden, deprived and dependent people who needed a concentrated, integrated health, education, recreation, and welfare service approach supplied by a complex of i n d i v i d u a l agencies i n an area already l i m i t e d by i t s f a c i l i t i e s and means. The problem was i d e n t i f i e d i n this general sense through the - 178 -f i r s t general meeting on February 21, 1964, and given formal c l a r i f i -cation by the sub-committee appointed at that time. This sub-committee carried out this c l a r i f i c a t i o n and substantiation by assessing the information received at th i s f i r s t meeting and by making recommendations at the June 19th meeting. At t h i s time the extent and nature of the problem was enunciated and formally accepted by the larger body. The problem s i t u a t i o n was narrowed, made more s p e c i f i c and passed over for action to a more d e f i n i t i v e group with more appropriate sanction but broader auspices - the Executive Committee. The aspects of the problem changed from a s o c i a l problem concern to that of task performance and process. Thus with the formation of a body (the Resources Council) d i r e c t i o n a l l y disposed towards problem management and solution; the Executive Council which was established, was given the necessary sanction to address i t s e l f to s p e c i f i c performance ro l e s . In the October, 1964 meeting, the problem that was i d e n t i f i e d was i n the nature of task formation, s t r u c t u r a l innovations necessary to carry out tasks, and appropriate process determination. In the main the problem was to v e r i f y and substantiate the problem concern by t e s t i n g i t s v a l i d i t y against a sampling of people representative and involved d i r e c t l y i n the community and to discover ways and means of managing, and eliminating the major problem. The problem was to formulate a plan that could be seen and leg i t i m a t e l y accepted as providing an organizational framework through which the larger problem(s) could be addressed through study and action on various facets of the major problem. The necessity for further study i n depth of the housing project - 179 ? and the environs was again reit e r a t e d and impressed once more upon the Community Chest and Councils. The 'spot" survey set out to v e r i f y the extent and nature of the major concerns and served i t s purpose well i n that i t was determined from the people l i v i n g i n the area that the housing project and i t s inhabitants were the f o c a l point for concern and that services were not adequate. A further need was recognized i n this spot survey. This was that there should be someone assigned to t h i s area who by reason of his location and function could make personal observations. The problem of establishing some organizational framework was seen to require some d i r e c t involvement by the people i n the area, some support and d i r e c t i o n from the agencies serving the area and some legitimate auspices from the established community body whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s for s o c i a l planning. This problem became the primary problem for the sub-committee and was subsequently formulated by the Executive Committee. - 180 -C. Goal Determination One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of applying a conceptual model to a change process i s that i n f a c t o r i z i n g and f r a c t i o n a l i z i n g the t o t a l process, the tendency i s to view the whole as being made up of d e f i n i t e and recognizable parts which have an orderly sequence. This i s seldom i f ever the case. L i p p i t comments upon th i s fact i n observing that changes often do not follow i n an orderly sequential way. He states, "Most change processes probably proceed by a kind of c y c l i c motion, s t a r t i n g over and over again as one set of problems i s solved and a new set i s encountered; hence the d i f f e r e n t phases become mixcei up and the f i n a l objective may be achieved by a process which seems rather muddled to the observer who i s looking for a clear-cut developmental sequence."* This diffusiveness of sequence presents a very r e a l d i f f i -c u lty i n d i v i d i n g c l e a r l y one phase of a model from another. In attempting to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the Goal Determination stages, i t i s necessary to set a quite a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n which does not i n r e a l i t y e x i s t . This i s , of course, the case i n each of the conceptual stages i n the model. To t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s added a further observable phenomena which m u l t i p l i e s the confusion. This i s the fa c t , that i n a change process such as i s the case under study where many ind i v i d u a l s and groups are involved, each representative i n d i v i d u a l or group carries with him h i s own system, his own insights and perceptions, and his own means of communication, etc., each d i f f e r e n t from other repre-sentatives. Thus when the s o c i a l planner begins to become involved and operative i n the change process his platform or base i s d i f f e r e n t L i p p i t ; op. c i t . p.130 - 181 -than that of the case worker or the group worker. His role performance i s d i f f e r e n t though perhaps not d i v i s i v e l y so, as are his role expectations and objectives, etc. In addition to th i s i f the change (as i t does i n t h i s case) implicates or involves his agency's functions, his own " s e l f system" i s challenged toward change. It seems necessary therefore i n discussing the Goal Determi-nation stage to discuss i t with a view of the role r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the change agent. In th i s case the change agent has already been established as the Welfare and Recreation Council of the Community Chest and Councils. I t s role as l a i d down by the Council as i t i s explained i n the terms of reference of the Chest and Cou n c i l s 1 i s , a) to promote mutual understanding, appreciation of and use of the welfare and recreation resources of member and co-operating organizations; b) to provide a common meeting ground where organizations and interested i n d i v i d u a l s may work together on solving problems and the development of improved services; c) to provide to a l l participants i n the Council the opportunity of keeping up to date on needs, trends and standards i n the f i e l d ; d) to consider matters referred to i t by the S o c i a l Planning Executive Committee; e) to consider and take appropriate action on matters within i t s delegated f i e l d of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; f) to bring to the attention of the So c i a l Planning Executive Committee, through reports and recommendations, matters Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area Terms of Reference for the Welfare and Recreation Council of S o c i a l Planning Section, July 196l - 182 -requiring i t s attention and action; g) to co-operate with other units of the S o c i a l Planning Section i n planning and carrying out j o i n t projects of mutual i n t e r e s t . The broad goal undertaken by the Sunrise Park Area Resources group was twofold i n purpose, that of p o l i c y change and s t r u c t u r a l change directed towards problem solution. The goal then was to i d e n t i f y the current and emerging health, welfare and recreation needs and the development of appropriate strategy directed toward the carrying of these plans over into action. This involved the aspect of p o l i c y change. The s t r u c t u r a l change of a problem-solving nature involved an approach (the l o c a l council) which would endeavour to determine the causes and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the problem and a r r i v e at p a r t i c u l a r measures which could o f f e r solutions. Cost considerations were not s p e c i f i c a l l y included i n the o v e r a l l considerations of determining goal. I t could be said, however, that there was an i m p l i c i t consideration i n the choice of goals that were chosen. The participants i n t h i s process were mostly people at the mid-management l e v e l i n t h e i r agencies. The suggestion was made by several of the participants that cost considerations were unexpressed but beneath the surface of the decisions and plans. I t i s clear that the change agent suggested the goals by lending the weight of experiences gained i n the Woodland Park organization. The knowledge of t h i s experience was transmitted to some of the committee members by others who knew first-hand about t h i s project. Thus a Resources Council, and short and long-term planning and a f u l l study were included i n the Sunrise Park Area development. - 18? -Several of the people interviewed characterized the process of goal determination as undergoing several stages. There was f i r s t a very diffuse understanding of goals which emanated from the i n i t i a l l y d i f f u s e concerns. After awareness began to b u i l d , the participants decided something had to be done and the goal became service oriented; i . e . , "how do we provide the services that we needed and what are the best services?" This phase was "talked out" as the group considered available resources and funds. There was then a switch towards the goal of changing p o l i c y . When poli c y considerations were to the fore the search was on for some representative source who could support t h i s mid-management group. This then resulted i n the move to organize and e l i c i t the support from a l o c a l community council. The broad target for change was seen to be the tenant group l i v i n g within the housing project. Secondary targets included (mostly by implication) were the Vancouver Housing Authority; City S o c i a l Service Department and the Ci|y Council. One interviewee indicated that the Housing Authority stood high on the l i s t of secondary targets because i t was thought that they i n i t i a t e d the problem and therefore had some di r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards taking action. This same person was uncertain as to whether or not the Authority was a r e a l i s t i c target. The substantive evidence for the tenant group being the prime target was the recurring expression of need for an area worker and the fact that a community council became one of the goals. The v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the target was not given any measure of estimation. The goal determination i n the case under study f e l l more - 184 -within L i p p i t ' s proposition that the determination of goals exists as a linkage between " i n s i g h t " and action and a leverage point at which the process of goals begin. L i p p i t states, " i n one sense the leverage point i t s e l f i s the goal, a l i m i t e d and immediate objective which the agent and c l i e n t must achieve as the f i r s t step i n t h e i r actual process of change." 1 In October the Executive Committee began to narrow goal considerations to service consideration such as co-ordination and development of resources and programme considerations with regard to the teenage group i n the housing project. Later the Ad Hoc committee was appointed to do some a n t i -cipatory testing i n seeking out neighbourhood opinion. This offered the Executive Committee and the Ad Hoc committee the oppor-tunity to seek out various means and modes of approach. I t offered to the Ad Hoc committee the opportunity to "play i t safe" and practise 2 techniques without "playing for keeps" as L i p p i t suggested. It was through t h i s approach which was rather by nature than design that the Ad Hoc committee determined i t s prime goal as the development of a community c o u n c i l . This committee saw the necessity for s t r u c t u r a l changes when i t established i t s goal as the formation of a community council. This goal had been previously suggested i n a nebulus way by both the executive and resources councils. The v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the target, i n t h i s case mainly the neighbourhood was not estimated. I t was, however, suggested that i f the appropriate approach was made the L i p p i t ; o p . c i t . p 200 "Lippit; op. c i t . p 205 - 185 -target would be amendable to the anticipated changes required. The participants who were interviewed a l l stated that they considered the Sunrise Park Area Development had not r e a l l y moved past the Goal Determination stage. Reasons given to sub-stantiate t h i s conclusion were several. One was that the committees were i n the main only looking at and dealing with short range emergency manipulation. That l i t t l e consideration has been given to root causes. One view that was expressed was that by nature the s i t u a t i o n i n Sunrise Park was s u p e r f i c i a l i n that the concern i s with a set of problems that have arisen out of a very deliberate manipulation of the environment. This was i n contrast to the siuation exposed i n the Woodland Park study where there were found to be deeply embedded a s o c i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l mileu that makes change exceptionally d i f f i c u l t . * Another view given as explanation of why the change process has not moved further was that upon a deeper prob.ec; the committee came to an unexpressed conclusion that action was r e a l l y beyond the capacity of the group. They concluded that because of the fact that they were a mid-management group their capacity for action lay with those below and above them and they did not set goals nor spread them-selves to involve either l e v e l . They conclude also that action should come about i n the realm of p o l i c y . The rationale was that as the project was born of p o l i c y , the development process must return to p o l i c y f o r change. In other words, this was not a op c i t . A Study of the Woodland Park Area. p.2. - 186 -problem that evolved out of a natural community undergoing natural growth where a return can be made to the community for requesting sanction for action. The proposition, put forward was that because of the recognized incapacity that was a part of t h i s group, they turned to the c i t i z e n l e v e l where i t i s possible to i n i t i a t e change by i n s t i t u t i n g " s e l f help" programmes. The conclusion was that greater success could be expected from this approach. D. Action Determination In spite of the comments of the interviewees that process had not r e a l l y moved much beyond the Problem I d e n t i f i c a t i o n phase, they suggested that some action decisions were made. They pointed to the decision made that there should be an ongoing council i n the area representative of a l l the agencies and organizations providing service. This decision was made as i t was seen as a vehicle through which change could be effected and lend support, guidance and knowledge to the community council. The other action determined was to mobilize the community by the formation and u t i l i z a t i o n of a l o c a l council. In the case under study the action decision was to test out the problems i d e n t i f i e d by the professional group and to begin an approach that would eventually mobilize the community into a s e l f -determining, s e l f directed, action group who could take appropriate measures for t h e i r own general enhancement. Alternative outcomes were not considered other than the outcome r e s u l t i n g from several approaches. Outcome expectations were not weighed nor considered. - 187 -E. Action Implementation It i s generally recognized by a l l the representatives interviewed and by the observer that this phase had not been reached. An implementation of action took place i n t e r n a l l y and involved formation of structure and design. Those so far involved have been a small professional group and the change agent as repre-sented by s t a f f members of the Welfare and Recreation Council. F. Outcome Evaluation This.stage, as well, has not been approached or reached i n either the o v e r a l l organization for change or within the case study period. CHAPTER 8 CRITIQUE "Theories for which there are no models might be said to be "merely theories". Theories for which models can be b u i l t or are b u i l t may be said to be useful or operational." Martin B. Leeb* A. The Meaning of Process The primary question toward which t h i s thesis has been addressed was, "Can the Area Development Project model be regarded as a useful t o o l i n documenting the process of organizational change?" To judge the usefulness of the model i t i s necessary to set down the several meanings of change process. Kurt Lewin described change process as a certain action 2 that occurs within a certain frequency within a given period. Murray Ross defines process as, "the conscious or uncon-scious, voluntary or involuntary, movement from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a problem (or objective) to solution of the problem or a t t a i n -3 ment of the objective i n the community." In Lewin's d e f i n i t i o n process, i n a sense, means a continu-ous action, or operation, or series of changes taking place i n a d e f i n i t e manner. In Ross's d e f i n i t i o n purpose becomes a factor Loeb, Martin B. "The Backdrop for So c i a l Research; Theory Making and Model-Building"; (Social Science Theory & S o c i a l Work Research) National Association of S o c i a l Workers, (New York, I 9 6 0 ) p.5« 2 Lewin, Kurt; "Problems of Group Dynamics and the Integration of the S o c i a l Sciences"; Journal of Human Relations, Vol.1, 1947* Ross, Murray, "Community Organization, Theory and P r i n c i p l e s " ; (Harper & Brothers, New York, 1955) p.39-- 189 -and the meaning of process implies that i t i s a systematic series of actions directed toward some end. B. The Usefulness of the Model i n the Case Study In the application of the model and i n the valuation of i t as a t o o l , Lewin's d e f i n i t i o n has more relevance. Generally speaking the model used i n t h i s study has been useful as a t o o l for documenting the process of organizational change as i t provided an orderly arrangement which allowed for more precise description of the process that occurred. It also provided for the simultaneous inspection and evaluation of the many factors and variables r e l a t i n g to the organizational change as they were viewed within the model concepts. The model also established the "whole" of the process of the organizational change and s t r u c t u r a l l y described the accumu-l a t i o n of events and actions that occurred to construct the whole. The model had usefulness i n that i t opened the way to the tabulation of s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the form and order that they occurred. I t also documented and c o d i f i e d the methods that were u t i l i z e d i n moving towards change and opened these methods to examination as to t h e i r appropriateness and v a l i d i t y i n the l i g h t of outcome and r e s u l t s . In the documenting of the t o t a l process of organizational change the model tended to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of introducing i r r e l e v a n t assumptions or postulates which had doubtful o r i g i n s . G. Limitations of Model to the Case Study The Area Development Project model design i s seen as one which t y p i f i e s the method of problem solving (although the t h e o r e t i c a l - 190 -basis for the model has not been stated or c l a r i f i e d ) . I t i s not an analogue of change process, unless one ascribes problem solution as being synonymous to change process. In a sense, as Loeb suggests, "the model structures the problem".* I t i s f o r this reason that the model imposed some l i m i t a t i o n s to the model's usefulness for recording the process of change i n the p a r t i c u l a r study which was undertaken here. The Area Development Project model as applied to the case study did not recognize the fact that every organizational system has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c patterns of growth and development. Thus, i t l e f t out the very v i t a l aspect of the h i s t o r i c a l side of the case study. I t did not include a consideration of the question of how the problems developed and the factors of i n t e r n a l and external awareness or past successes and f a i l u r e s . These l i m i t a t i o n s i n the model might not be as v i t a l i n i t s operational u t i l i z a t i o n i n the Area Development Project as i t was i n the Sunrise Park Area case. In the Area Development Project the history of the project i s available and the model would be u t i l i z e d on an ongoing basis as a tool for determining change process within the actual structure and functioning of the Project. The model as applied to the case study has treated the case i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n from external systems undergoing simultaneous", change. There was no opportunity within the design to give consider-ation to what happened to the i n t e r n a l dynamics of the organization or the tenants' group or other targets when an external change force was introduced. Important sequences of a cause and effe c t nature Loeb; op.c i t . p.4. - 191 -were thus not open to view. An estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the target to change was c a l l e d f o r but the emphasis was upon s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to change. Thus the targets' attitudes and how they related to the targets' recog-nized needs was an aspect that was l o s t . Judgments as to the targets' readiness, capacity and motivation to change were also not a part of the model's consideration. In the case study, the Area Development Project model was e f f e c t i v e and could be well u t i l i z e d only " a f t e r the f a c t " of the change had occurred. Only the i n i t i a l phases of the change process outlined i n the model were c l e a r l y apparent i n the case study - i . e . problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and goal determination. Therefore the model was applicable only to the point the organizational change had reached at the time of study. It seemed apparent to the writer that within each major phase of the change process of the model the other phases were apparent i n a more minute manner, much i n the way of microcosms within a cosmos. This observation was not substantiated but i n support of this proposition i t would seem to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of change that at every point of decision i n a change process a new problem complex was born. The Model seemed inadequate to denote the dynamics of the process of change and to descriibe and follow the progressive yet f l u c t u a t i n g nature of the case. The factor of time i n r e l a t i o n to the sequence was also seen to be a shortcoming i n the application of the model to the case study. This could possibly be a consideration that would be included i n the - 192 -"outcome evaluation" phase which was not reached i n the model's application to the case study. In the phase of "outcome evaluation" a further deficiency i s apparent i n that d i r e c t i o n of change was not a consideration. Other considerations such as weighing the merits of various methods and the measuring and describing of various techniques to bring about change are not contained within the scope of the outcome evaluation phase. The Area Development Project model was d e f i c i e n t i n i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the case study i n that i t did not o f f e r the possi-b i l i t y of examining the interdependency of the organization or system undergoing change with other systems and i t s environment. H. Curtis Mial states that there seems to be no one uni-v e r s a l l y appropriate model due to the fact that action i s a f l u i d thing shaped by l o c a l circumstances. He states that i n designing an adequate system one needs to think, "simultaneously of four i n t e r a c t i n g systems; the personality system of the i n d i v i d u a l acting; the s o c i a l system of various organizations; the s o c i a l system of the community; and the c u l t u r a l system which shapes the other systems."""" This view has important implications for the u t i l i z a t i o n of the Area Development Project model i n the case study but may not be as important i n the application of the model i n the project i t s e l f . The l i m i t a t i o n s that were evident i n the model's application to the case study need not and probably w i l l not impede i t s usefulness i n """Mial, H. Curtis; "Models of Community Action", (Four Forces i n Community Development, National Training Laboratories, National Education Association, Washington, D.C, 196l) p.91 - 193 -t h e p r o j e c t i t s e l f . One c a n n o t b u t w o n d e r w h e t h e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o f u l l y u t i l i z e t h e m o d e l when i t i s a p p l i e d t o a n i n c o m p l e t e d c h a n g e p r o c e s s a s was a p p a r e n t i n t h e c a s e s t u d y w i l l n o t a l s o be t h e c a s e i n t h e p r o j e c t . T h a t i s t o s a y , w i l l t h e i m p u l s e c o m p o n e n t s o f c h a n g e t h a t a r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s a n d t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s t o e a c h o t h e r be e v i n c e d o r w i l l t h e y be o b s c u r e d when t h e c h a n g e i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d . The m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f i c u l t y p o s e d by t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t m o d e l , a n d p e r h a p s b y a l l m o d e l s , i s how t o e n s u r e b a l a n c e d p e r c e p t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e o b s e r v e r , t h e r e c o r d e r and t h e a n a l y s t . T h u s , how c a n a m o d e l e n s u r e t h a t t h e d y n a m i c n a t u r e a n d t h e t o t a l s o c i a l s p h e r e o f a c t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s k e p t " p r e s e n t " i n t h e r e s t r i c t e d a n d r e m o v e d c o n t e x t o f p r o c e s s a n d c h a n g e r e l a t i o n s h i p ; y e t how c a n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s t o t a l s p h e r e o f e x i s t e n c e be k e p t f r o m d o m i n a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p so t h a t an o b s e r v e r o r a n a l y s t may be f r e e t o p e r c e i v e a n d e x p l o r e t h e v a r i o u s i d e a s a n d p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n . DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION. AND WELFARE W E L F A R E ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON. D.C. 20201 APPENDIX A OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONER January 12, 1965 s \ \ Mr. R. J. Myers Dear Mr. Myers: In reply to your letter of December 21 asking for information on recording organizational change, I regret to inform you that, insofar as I am aware, there are no established procedures for doing this as yet. Mobilization For Youth in New York City has had a historian attached to the staff for the purpose of indicating the policy changes which occur in the history of the project as well as the background reasons for these changes. The reasons cited usually are in terms of sociological factors rather than an actual de-tailing of the give and take of staff and board discussion of policies. Miss Beverly Ayres, Director of Research of the Area Development Project, has, I believe, the names of the persons at MIT and at Harvard who have received a grant from the President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency to make a study of organizational change in the 11 large Juvenile Delinquency projects in the major c i t i e s \ of the United States. I do not know how far advanced they are in developing a methodology for recording process within institutional structures. The question to which you address yourself is without doubt one of the major issues in welfare research. At present there are very few people working on this problem. However, Dr. Eleanor Sheldon of the Russell Sage Foundation w i l l be looking at organizational change from a national scale, seeking to identify indicators which represent or measure organizational change. As you probably realize, you have chosen one of the most d i f f i c u l t areas for study, description and measurement. You are to be con-gratulated on your aspirations and w i l l reserve for later Judgment any evaluation of your achievements in this area. I regret that I cannot be of greater assistance to you in this matter. In the event I do learn of anything more I shall make such knowledge available to you. ' Sincerely yours, Joseph C. Lagey, Ph.D. Head, Study Section on Economic Dependency 1 APPENDIX B / PROPOSAL FOR STUDY OF THE PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IH THE AREA DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Area Development P r o j e c t Community Chest and C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area June, 1964. INTRODUCTION: - 1 -The attached p r o p o s a l has been prepared by the s t a f f of the Area Development P r o j e c t , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the f o l l o w i n g persons: Dr.John Crane, P r o f e s s o r , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota School of S o c i a l Work. Mr.John F'ornataro, P r o f e s s o r , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work. Dr.Joseph Gayton, S e n i o r Medical Health O f f i c e r , M e t r o p o l i t a n Board of H e a l t h , Vancouver. Dr.Ludwig Geismar, P r o f e s s o r , Rutgers State U n i v e r s i t y . Mr.Douglas Grant, C h i e f , Research D i v i s i o n , Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a . Dr.Melvin Herman, C h i e f , Work Programs, M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Youth, New York. Dr.Joseph C.Lagey, Head, S e c t i o n on Prevention and Reduction of Chronic Dependency, Department of H e a l t h , Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C. Mr.Jack S h i r l e y , Woods, Gordon $ Co., Management C o n s u l t a n t s , Toronto, O n t a r i o . S t a f f from Community Chest and C o u n c i l s : Mr.C.Howard N a p h t a l i , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r M r . E . D . H i l l , D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l anning. Mr.D.L.Scrivener, Finance D i r e c t o r . Mr.R.C.Nann, C o o r d i n a t o r of S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s , S o c i a l Planning S e c t i o n . We are indebted to the Canadian C o u n c i l on Urban and Regional Research f o r making a v a i l a b l e a grant to b r i n g together a panel of c o n s u l t a n t s f o r a two-day p e r i o d i n A p r i l 1964, to a s s i s t i n f o r m u l a t i n g the plan f o r study. Without t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e t h i s p r o p o s a l would not have been p o s s i b l e . - 2 -PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h program i s to study the process  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i n the Area Development P r o j e c t . This demonstration p r o j e c t i n s o c i a l welfare i s an e f f o r t to provide under one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n an i n t e g r a t e d program of h e a l t h , welfare and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r a s e l e c t e d group of mu1ti-problem f a m i l i e s i n one area of the c i t y . ' 1 ' At the present time, many of these s e r v i c e s are being p r o v i d e d through a number of separate government departments and v o l u n t a r y agencies. Five s o c i a l workers, assigned from two p u b l i c and three p r i v a t e agencies, w i l l p r o v i d e s e r v i c e to an experimental group of 100 m u l t i -problem f a m i l i e s . Each f a m i l y s o c i a l worker w i l l c a r r y out as many s o c i a l work f u n c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by the f a m i l y as p o s s i b l e . T h e i r work w i l l be c l o s e l y c o o r d i n a t e d with the p u b l i c h e a l t h agency, with community workers attached to the p r o j e c t , and with other d i s c i p l i n e s , such as h e a l t h and ed u c a t i o n . This experiment i n i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e i s unique i n Vancouver, and indeed, i n North America. A primary aim of t h i s demonstration p r o j e c t i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t approaches i n t o the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e of the community. To do so w i l l r e q u i r e an understanding of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e processes and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes that take p l a c e during the demonstration phase, s i n c e i t i s expected that the process of i n t e g r a t i n g a wide v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s under one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l b r i n g about changes i n the v a r i o u s groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with the p r o j e c t . It i s towards t h i s end that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h program i s d i r e c t e d . 1. See Appendix A f o r d e s c r i p t i o n of p r o j e c t . - 3 -SIGNIFICANCE There has been very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l w elfare on the s u b j e c t of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. I t i s obvious that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i s t a k i n g p l a c e c o n s t a n t l y i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e , as i t i s i n other i n s t i t u t i o n a l systems, but a l l o f the experts c o n s u l t e d i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s p r o p o s a l were agreed that our body of knowledge i n t h i s area i s extremely scanty. In p a r t i c u l a r i t was f e l t that we know very l i t t l e about the s p e c i a l r o l e f o r s o c i a l welfare o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s o c i a l workers i n i n d u c i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. 1 * The r e s e a r c h study o u t l i n e d i n t h i s p r o p o s a l w i l l have both o p e r a t i o n a l and t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . From the o p e r a t i o n a l s i d e one of the most important aims of the Area Development P r o j e c t i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of p r o j e c t approaches i n t o the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e of the community. In the course of dev e l o p i n g t h i s p r o j e c t , a survey was made of s p e c i a l programs f o r mu11i-prob 1 em f a m i l i e s throughout North America. * The r e s u l t s of t h i s survey t e s t i f i e d to the f a c t that many programs began without c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g how f i n d i n g s might be implemented, and i n only a few i n s t a n c e s can i t be s a i d that p r o j e c t s have brought about s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the e x i s t i n g welfare s t r u c t u r e . I f the experimental p e r i o d o f the Area Development P r o j e c t e s t a b l i s h e s that t h i s method of p r o v i d i n g i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e i s more e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g with the multi-problem f a m i l i e s , i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the community as a whole w i l l r e q u i r e an understanding of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l 1. One beginning e f f o r t at s t u d y i n g t h i s s u b j e c t i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Youth p r o j e c t i n New York c i t y , where an o b s e r v e r ( t r a i n e d i n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ) i s stu d y i n g the processes of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change by i n t e r v i e w i n g key persons, a t t e n d i n g meetings, reviewing w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s e t c . The study o u t l i n e d i n t h i s p r o p o s a l would make use of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , 2. Lagey, Joseph C. and Beverly Ayres, Community Treatment Programs f o r  Multi-Problem F a m i l i e s , Community Chest r, C o u n c i l s of the Greater Vancouver Area, 1962. - 4 -changes .which were necessary to make the experimental p r o j e c t work. In a d d i t i o n , the study w i l l aim to demonstrate whether or not t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , no matter how s u c c e s s f u l i n terms of treatment w i t h i n the p r o j e c t , i s a p p l i c a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y and f i n a n c i a l l y i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e network. From the t h e o r e t i c a l s i d e , i t i s planned that the re s e a r c h program o u t l i n e d w i l l make a be g i n n i n g e f f o r t at developing a typology of the kinds o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change r e l e v a n t to s o c i a l w e l f a r e , as well as of the methods (forms of i n t e r v e n t i o n ) of b r i n g i n g about these changes. The study w i l l attempt to c l a s s i f y both d e s i r a b l e modes of change i n given circumstances as w e l l as the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of change methods i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s hoped that a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n can be made to the methodology of stu d y i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. It i s hoped that t h i s r e s e a r c h study w i l l have important 1 i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r implementing necessary change i n the s o c i a l welfare s t r u c t u r e of other communities i n Canada. - 5 -METHODOLOGY  Process: The b a s i c process f o l l o w e d w i l l be the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of a s e r i e s of case s t u d i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change e f f o r t s as they take p l a c e i n the p r o j e c t . Each case study w i l l r e l a t e to a problem a r i s i n g out of p r o j e c t o p e r a t i o n s i n g i v i n g i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e to f a m i l i e s . Problems s t u d i e d w i l l be those that r e q u i r e some kind of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. A d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i l l be made between changes necessary to make an i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t work, and changes necessary to improve the general l e v e l of s e r v i c e s i n the community, r e g a r d l e s s of the p r o j e c t . P r i o r i t y would be given to the study o f the f i r s t l e v e l , or the " i n t e r n a l " problems. Study of " e x t e r n a l " problems would be decided on a s e l e c t i v e b a s i s , and might r e l a t e to " p o l i t i c a l " c o n s i d -e r a t i o n s , as determined by the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r and/or the Governing Committee. The process f o l l o w e d w i l l be the documentation of key p o i n t s i n the process intended to induce change, problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , goal d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a c t i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a c t i o n implementation, and outcome e v a l u a t i o n . A model f o r study f o l l o w s : 1. Problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a. Who i d e n t i f i e d the problem? b. How was i t i d e n t i f i e d ? c. How was the extent and nature of the problem v e r i f i e d ? ( i . e . by whom and with whom). 2. Goal d e t e r m i n a t i o n a. What type of change ( p o l i c y , s t r u c t u r a l etc.) was planned? What are the cost c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the va r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s ? b. Who suggested i t and how was i t suggested? c. Who i s seen as the t a r g e t ( s ) f o r change? d. What was the estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the t a r g e t to change? 3. A c t i o n determination a. What a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s were made of ways to b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change? Who made them? b. What were the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes of each of these a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s ? c. What were the expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , i . e . on p a r t of t a r g e t and on part of change agent. 4. Act i o n implementation a. Who became i n v o l v e d ? b. How were they i n v o l v e d ? c. What methods were a c t u a l l y used? d. What was the r e a c t i o n of the t a r g e t ? 5. Outcome e v a l u a t i o n a. What was the a c t u a l outcome? b. What were the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between expected outcome and a c t u a l outcome? c. Did the change induced meet the o r i g i n a l need f o r change? d. What was the cost of the change on the p a r t of the t a r g e t ? Problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s the emergence of a problem from the opera t i o n s of the p r o j e c t . A problem might be i d e n t i f i e d by any part of the p r o j e c t structure,'*, such as the f a m i l i e s served, the fa m i l y workers, the community worker, the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r , the resea r c h s t a f f , the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies, the Agency Advisory Committee, the Governing Committee e t c . V e r i f i c a t i o n o f the problem i s the next step, and would be p r i m a r i l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r . This would i n v o l v e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the problem, v e r i f i c a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n 1. See Appendix A, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e chart at end of d e s c r i p t i o n of p r o j e c t . on the extent of the problem, and determination of reasons f o r the problem f o r example, i f the problem i n v o l v e s a present p o l i c y i n e f f e c t i n a p a r t i c u l a r agency, i s i t due to red tape, shortage of f a c t s , bad experience, e t c ? At t h i s p o i n t a d e c i s i o n needs to be made about proceeding f u r t h e r , that i s , i s the problem o£ s u f f i c i e n t extent or importance that an e f f o r t to induce change i s warranted? Having i d e n t i f i e d and v e r i f i e d the problem, and v a l i d a t e d the need f o r change, the next step i s to set f o r t h some o p e r a t i o n a l goals (goal d e t e r m i n a t i o n ) . This would i n v o l v e : (a) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the kinds of change i n d i c a t e d , such as m o d i f i c a t i o n of p o l i c y , a l t e r a t i o n s i n s t r u c t u r e , development of new r e s o u r c e s , e t c . An important f a c t o r here would be an a n a l y s i s of the cost c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the various a l t e r n a t i v e s : (b) determination of the t a r g e t ( s ) of change, which could i n v o l v e any of the four kinds of dynamic systems; i n d i v i d u a l , group, o r g a n i z a t i o n and community; and (c) an estimate of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the t a r g e t to the kinds of change i n d i c a t e d . For example, i t might be decided that f o r v a l i d reasons at a c e r t a i n p o i n t i n time the t a r g e t would be u n l i k e l y to change, and the change e f f o r t dropped. However, the " v a l i d reasons" should be recorded and t e s t e d f o r V a l i d i t y as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n the l i g h t of subsequent events. Thus, ex p e c t a t i o n s and r e a l i t i e s could be compared. Following upon determination of o p e r a t i o n a l goals i s the process of a c t i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n . This i n v o l v e s the s e t t i n g f o r t h of one or more " a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s " , or steps to be taken to b r i n g about the d e s i r e d change(s). The s t e p s , or methods, s e l e c t e d would range over a wide gamut of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , such as d i r e c t two-person n e g o t i a t i o n , p e r s u a t i o n of an i n f l u e n t i a l group, p u b l i c meetings, t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n of cost analysis^ m a t e r i a l , e t c . 1. L i p p i t t , Ronald (and o t h e r s ) , Dynamics of Planned Change, New York, Horf-OMJi-t R r o n n £ W n v« 1. A T n ^ 1 n C_Q - 8 -In studying t h i s phase of the change process, i t i s seen as c r u c i a l to document (a) who made these " a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s " , and t h e i r views of the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes; and (b) the range of expected outcomes as seen by the p r i n c i p a l f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , i n c l u d i n g both the t a r g e t ( s ) i n v o l v e d and those making the a c t i o n - d e c i s i o n s . It i s f e l t that a n a l y s i s of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between "expected" and " a c t u a l " outcomes w i l l be a key to f u l l e r understanding of the process of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change. Having determined the a c t i o n s to be taken, the next phase i n v o l v e s a c t i o n implementation. Documentation i s needed here on what persons and systems were i n v o l v e d , the way i n which they were i n v o l v e d , the a c t u a l methods used, and the r e a c t i o n of t a r g e t ( s ) to the i n v o l v e -ment . The f i n a l phase concerns outcome e v a l u a t i o n . F i r s t , the a c t u a l outcome must be e s t a b l i s h e d , which may range from reaching s t a t e d o p e r a t i o n a l g o a l s , to new outcomes not envisaged at the beginning, to no change at a l l . It has been suggested that i t may be as i l l u m i n a t i n g to study " f a i l u r e s " and " s u c c e s s e s " . An extremely important p a r t of t h i s aspect of study w i l l be an examination of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the expected outcome(s) as expressed by the v a r i o u s f o r c e s i n v o l v e d , and the a c t u a l outcome. Who i s g e t t i n g " h i t s " on e x p e c t a t i o n s of outcome, and i n what kinds of case study examples" Other areas of a n a l y s i s would i n c l u d e : an assessment of the sources of r e s i s t a n c e to change; the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the v a r i o u s a c t i o n methods used; the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the change induced to the o r i g i n a l need f o r change; and the cost of the change on the part of the t a r g e t . Method. The r e s e a r c h e r would have primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r data c o l l e c t i o n on c r i t i c a l p o i n t s i n the change process f o r each case study. - 9 -His b a s i c document f o r r e c o r d i n g would be a case l o g , f o l l o w i n g the p o i n t s i n the model o u t l i n e . Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the log would be v a r i e d and would i n c l u d e : (a) personal i n t e r v i e w s with a wide range of persons such as p r o j e c t s t a f f , p r o j e c t committee members, agency and Chest s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s , persons from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , e t c . (b) group d i s c u s s i o n s i n v o l v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e persons: (c) o b s e r v a t i o n of f o r m a l l y organized groups, such as Workers' Seminar, Agency Advisory Group, Governing Committee, Area C o u n c i l s , Chest Board of D i r e c t o r s , e t c ; and (d) p e r u s a l of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s such as minutes of meetings, correspondence, e t c . The r e s e a r c h e r would be f r e e to decide upon which i n t e r v i e w s to h o l d , which meetings to attend and which documents to read, as he deems a p p r o p r i a t e to the c o l l e c t i o n of data f o r each case study. Agendas of a l l p r o j e c t meetings would be made a v a i l a b l e i n advance to the r e s e a r c h e r to a i d i n h i s d e c i s i o n s about attendance. It i s suggested that he might wish to set up semi-monthly or monthly i n t e r v i e w s with key persons i n the agencies d i r e c t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p r o j e t t , as a means of s e c u r i n g more continuous feedback of t h e i r views on the change e f f o r t s t a k i n g p l a c e . A coded i n t e r v i e w r e c o r d i n g form w i l l be developed, using the model o u t l i n e as a base, to be modified with experience. In a d d i t i o n , the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r w i l l a l s o keep a case log on each change e f f o r t , s i m i l a r i n format to that of the r e s e a r c h e r , but u s i n g only those sources of i n f o r m a t i o n o r d i n a r i l y a v a i l a b l e . The d i r e c t o r has been keeping a d a i l y l o g 1 ' of a l l contacts with i n d i v i d u a l s ' and groups s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of the p r o j e c t i n November, 1963, However, i t was f e l t that t h i s kind of log would be more u s e f u l i f organized around each change e f f o r t (or problem s o l v i n g process) than on a day by day b a s i s . The primary purpose of t h i s case l o g would be as an admini-s t r a t i v e t o o l f o r the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r , but i t would be a v a i l a b l e to the 1. See Appendix B - 10 -r e s e a r c h e r as a source of documentation. As the s e r i e s of case s t u d i e s accumulate, the re s e a r c h e r w i l l conduct an ongoing a n a l y s i s of the v a r i o u s steps of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change, with a view towards developing a typology of both the kinds of change sought and the methods of i n t e r v e n t i o n used i n b r i n g i n g about change. Out of t h i s a n a l y s i s should come as w e l l some p r a c t i c a l o p e r a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r the implementation o f p r o j e c t approaches i n t o the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e of the community. It has been s t r e s s e d by our c o n s u l t a n t s that the r e s u l t s or f i n d i n g s of t h i s research study should not await the end of the three year experimental p e r i o d , but that there be continuous feedback of experience during the course of the p r o j e c t . Some of t h i s i s b u i l t i n to the very design of the study, i n that the change agents (mainly p r o j e c t committees and s t a f f ) w i l l be f o r c e d to be more e x p l i c i t about o u t l i n i n g the var i o u s steps i n the change process, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r estimates of a l t e r n a t i v e and expected outcomes of each of the a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s made. The case log kept by the p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t o o l i s , i n a r e a l sense, a case record of the community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , and should ensure some feedback during the l i f e of the demonstration p r o j e c t . A second means of " l e a r n i n g as we go along" w i l l be the use of review s e s s i o n s with each change e f f o r t . The general model f o r these s e s s i o n s would be: to c a l l together the p r i n c i p a l persons i n v o l / e d i n that p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s ; to have the r e s e a r c h e r review the o r i r nal problem, the goals that were determined, the var i o u s a c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s which were o u t l i n e d , the range of expected outcome, and the a c t u a l outcome; and to throw the meeting open f o r general d i s c u s s i o n of what had happened. The r e s e a r c h e r would take only the r o l e o f o v e r a l l reviewer", without i d e n t i f y i n g any person with any aspect of the pr o c e s s . - 11 -The use of review s e s s i o n s would be at the d i s c r e t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r , who would arrange them as a p p r o p r i a t e to the change process being s t u d i e d . Some might i n v o l v e only one or two persons and not r e q u i r e a more formal meeting. G e n e r a l l y , review s e s s i o n s would be h e l d at the end of the change process, but t h i s would be contingent on the time span i n v o l v e d . Where a change e f f o r t spread over s e v e r a l month's time, more frequent review sessions might be a p p r o p r i a t e at d i f f e r e n t stages i n the process, again to ensure continuous feedback of experience. Such review s e s s i o n s would be v a l u a b l e not only to the r e s e a r c h e r i n understanding the dynamics of change, but a l s o should be extremely u s e f u l to a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the change e f f o r t both those who were i n s t i t u t i n g change and those who were t a r g e t s of change. The l e a r n i n g experience p r o v i d e d by these s e s s i o n s should have an impact on the way i n which the next change e f f o r t proceeds and, i n f a c t , should be a s u b j e c t f o r study by the r e s e a r c h e r . In a d d i t i o n to the c o l l e c t i o n of case s t u d i e s of change d i r e c t l y i n v o l v i n g the p r o j e c t and other agencies, the r e s e a r c h e r should keep informed on changes t a k i n g p l a c e o u t s i d e of the case s t u d i e s themselves. This would i n c l u d e changes i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies and a s s o c i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , with some n o t a t i o n as to whether experience with the p r o j e c t had played a p a r t i n the change, as w e l l as changes i n government p o l i c i e s such as c i t y c o u n c i l , p r o v i n c i a l department of w e l f a r e , or f e d e r a l welfare d e c i s i o n s , r u l i n g c r laws which might be i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g the course of the p r o j e c t . A d d i t i o n a l data would be c o l l e c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r through the use of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s administered to r e l e v a n t persons about t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards and o p i n i o n s of, the p r o j e c t i n the i n i t i a l phase, 1 . at mid-term and at the c o n c l u s i o n of the p r o j e c t . T~. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e developed by a p r o j e c t i n B r i s t o l , E n g l a n d , aimed at the a t t i t u d e s of .Executive Committee members, would provide a model f o r d e s i g n i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . This q u e s t i o n n a i r e was suggested by Dr.John Spencer, of the School of S o c i a l Work, Toronto, who worked with the B r i s t o l n r o i e c t . - 12 -S t r u c t u r e : The r e s e a r c h team f o r t h i s study would be composed of a h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r , and a c l e r i c a l person. It i s suggested that the re s e a r c h e r should be a person with a d i f f e r e n t academic o r i e n t a t i o n from the s t a f f o f the demonstration p r o j e c t , p r e f e r a b l y from the f i e l d s of p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l s o c i o l o g y , or c u l t u r a l anthropology. The r e s e a r c h e r would be r e s p o n s i b l e to the Governing Committee of the Area Development P r o j e c t , to permit an optimum balance between the need f o r freedom of i n q u i r y ( P r o j e c t s t a f f members being among the s u b j e c t s of i n q u i r y ) and the need f o r some p o l i c y c o n t r o l s . He would not be under the d i r e c t i o n of e i t h e r the P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r or the Research D i r e c t o r , but the P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r would have the r i g h t of appeal to the Governing Committee i f there were any undue i n t r u s i o n upon the ongoing a c t i v i t i e s of the p r o j e c t . The r e s e a r c h e r would be a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t i n the a f f a i r s of the p r o j e c t , and would have no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any a c t i o n s taken by the p r o j e c t . It should be made e n t i r e l y c l e a r that although he i s obse r v i n g the p r o j e c t , he i s not a pa r t o f the s t a f f . He would operate on the b a s i s of " p r i v i l e g e d communication" with s t a f f committees, agency personnel and any other persons or groups he might contact i n the course of h i s i n q u i r i e s . It would seem a d v i s a b l e that the r e s e a r c h e r not be t / i e d too c l o s e l y to p r o j e c t s t a f f , that i s , share the same o f f i c e , eat with them e t c . as there i s the danger that an o b j e c t i v e assessment of the r o l e of s t a f f might be impaired. The r e s e a r c h e r would be expected to arrange f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n and f i e l d v i s i t s , where appropriate,, f o r the purpose of keeping c u r r e n t with any developments i n the f i e l d of st u d y i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l change. - 13 -F i n a l l y , the r e s e a r c h e r would be expected to prepare the r e s u l t s of the study f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n a form which would reach thos i n p o s i t i o n s to use the knowledge gained. Any p u b l i c a t i o n s by the r e s e a r c h e r would i n d i c a t e the source of f i n a n c i a l support f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h study. In p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , due regard would be given to the p r o t e c t i o n of i d e n t i t y , that i s , r e p o r t s would not r e l a t e to any s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e or any p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . APPENDIX C T H E S O C I E T Y O F W O M E N  O N L Y THE OBJECTIVES 1. To better the home l i f e and upbringing of children of deserted mothers through improved welfare f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l arrangements. 2. To remove the s o c i a l stigma which an uninformed society has placed upon deserted women l i v i n g on s o c i a l welfare, i n order that these women may take thaeir r i g h t f u l place i n society. 3 . To force errant fathers, through the agency of the law courts, to accept t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , at l e a s t i nsofar as c h i l d maintenance i s con-cerned. The great majority of women prefer to work and to make the i r own way i n l i f e . They are, however, generally lacking i n any form of t r a i n i n g or experience which would enable them to earn more than a minimum wage, and the f i n a n c i a l burden which children represent does not permit an adequate standard of l i v i n g to be maintained. k. To enable the deserted mother to obtain a divorce a f t e r a reasonable period of time. Many women have been separated for as long as ten years, and throughout this time the children have been deprived of the guidance of a father. Because of the present divorce laws, many women are prevented from re-marrying and are thus forced to l i v e on s o c i a l welfare. 5. To remain free of any p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n or influence, and to so conduct ourselves when i n contact with p o l i t i c a l parties as to ensure this freedom. 6. To bring about a re-assessment of welfare payments i n terms of the present day cost of l i v i n g , and that a r e a l i s t i c basis of payment be found for those mothers who are able to earn a small sum each month through part-time work. We are, as we have presented ourselves, a group of very determined women. We are determined because we have come to learn by b i t t e r f i r s t -hand experience that the s o c i a l services of t h i s Province, as they are presently constituted, are archaic i n formulation, negative i n approach and hopelessly inadequate i n a p p l i c a t i o n . We are concerned because we are aware not only of the many problems we face today, but of the increasing burden of s o c i a l i l l s being c a r r i e d into the future through public apathy and i n e f f e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . The r e s u l t of the present lack of foresight at government l e v e l and of public i n t e r e s t can best be gauged by reference to relevant s t a t i s t i c s where i t w i l l be noted that B r i t i s h Columbia has the highest incidence of alcoholism, divorce, separation and drug addiction. In addition to t h i s , and as would be anticipated, B r i t i s h Columbia i s well below the national average i n f a c i l i t i e s for education, for the care of retarded children and s o c i a l welfare. APPENDIX D MRS,BENTLEY'S JUNE  BRIEF Why Our Organization E x i s t s Our organization was born of the necessity to r e l i e v e the arduous conditions under which deserted mothers and t h e i r children are forced to e x i s t . Our immediate goal i s to cause a long overdue re-appraisal of s o c i a l welfare services as they apply to women i n our posi t i o n . Our Problem Primarily, our problem i s one of f i n a n c i a l support, but added to this i s the lack of c h i l d care and c o u n c i l l i n g ( s i c ) f a c i l i t i e s of which women i n our position are so very much i n need. Where we Stand with the So c i a l Welfare Services A deserted mother with children may receive a maximum of $ 1 ^ 7 . 0 0 per month. In addition to th i s she may earn at part time work a maxi-mum of $ 2 1 . 0 0 per month. She may not allow a c h i l d to work while she herself i s earning $ 2 1 . 0 0 per month. Any revenue she may receive above these stipulated amounts, from whatever service, i s deducted from the s o c i a l welfare cheque. It i s r e a l l y unnecessary to comment on these figures. I t would be naive indeed to suppose that a deserted mother could maintain even a marginal standard of l i v i n g f o r her children and herself on this sum of money. I f the intentions of such a meager allowance was to induce the incentive to get o f f s o c i a l welfare, i t has f a i l e d rather badly. The result has been untaled ( s i c ) hardship, anxiety, and resentment. Many deserted mothers l i v e i n a constant atmosphere of defeat and hope-lessness. I f you would teach people to s t r i v e to better themselves, you do not st a r t by destroying their self-respect. The fa c t s must be accepted as they are. There exists at present i n thi s province an ever-growing body of women and children, when they are l i t t l e more than second class c i t i z e n s , and this i s supposed to be a province of wealth, i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l , and great progress. Many wives, owing to the lack of c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s are free only to work part time. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to find a part time job which pays as l i t t l e as $ 2 1 . 0 0 per month. As a r e s u l t , these women are prevented from working, and i n any case, $ 2 1 . 0 0 per month i s a rather i n s i g n i f i c a n t figure. For those women who are able to work f u l l time, as the majority of women prefer to do, the problem of c h i l d care i s so expensive and d i f f i c u l t that the benefit of a f u l l time wage i s lar g e l y negated. I t i s a fact that most women prefer to work and make their own way i n l i f e . They must be assisted to do so by means of c h i l d maintenance from the deserting fathers; by adequate day time c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s , and; by a r e a l i s t i c provision for f i n a n c i a l welfare. - Where we Stand with the Law The law makes provision f o r the support by the deserting father, of the mother and children. The problem here i s one of application of the law. At the present time, the p r i n c i p l e of the law regarding maintenance - 2 -Appendix D, Cont'd... i s e a s i l y defeated by a deserting father, who need only plead poverty i n order to be r e l i e v e d of this duty. The Court does not attempt v e r i -f i c a t i o n , nor does the Court lay down requirements which a deserting father i s obliged to meet. As i f often the case, the deserting father leaves the province or moves to the U.S., attempts to trace his whereabouts are c a r r i e d out i n a manner not conducive to success. Should the father be located, proceedings for support must be car r i e d out l o c a l l y and the attendant expenses to the mother i n v a r i a b l y rule this out. I t i s imperative that the existing l e g i s l a t i o n be u t i l i z e d to the f u l l and strengthen where necessary to ensure adequate c h i l d maintenance by the fathers. This requirement i s ca r r i e d out with commendable success i n other countries. Our Position on Divorce Reform This province, following the rest of Canada, admits of only one ground for divorce and that i s adultery. I t has become an accepted fact among progressive Western Countries that adultery i s neither the sole cause of family break-up nor i s i t the greatest cause. For this reason, the Societies of these countries have broadened t h e i r divorce l e g i s l a t i o n i n terms of modern day l i v i n g . While we do not endorse the wide-open divorce l e g i s l a t i o n current i n the United States and Sweden, we would point out that English law, upon which l e g a l system our own i s patterned, presently recognizes three grounds for divorce and has two more grounds presently i n the course of l e g i s l a t i o n . As an instance of the abuse to which our present divorce l e g i s l a t i o n leads, i t has become an established fact that many couples entre into unlawful arrangements, i . e . to f a l s i f y documents and perjure themselves i n order to obtain a divorce. An attitude of mind which would attempt to curb and lower the divorce rate by r e s t r i c t i v e and punitive measures has no place i n modern thinking. The high divorce rate i s endeemic (s i c ) to our commercial society, i n which m a t e r i a l i s t i c requirements have over-ridden common sense and d i s -torted our sense of values. The causes leading up to divorce must be considered quite apart from the l e g a l conditions by which divorce may be obtained. I l l n e s s , s o c i a l or otherwise, cannot be cured i n ignorance of i t s cause, neither w i l l i t cause to exist through neglect. Many wives and mothers have been deserted for anything up tto ten years. During t h i s time many have had the opportunity to re-marry, which would not have been of inestimable value to the children involved, but would have removed the mother from dependency on s o c i a l welfare. However, they have been barred from re-marrying by the e x i s t i n g archaic divorce laws. SUMMARY: We submit that while there i s no c u r e - a l l for the position i n which deserted mothers f i n d themselves, a great deal can be done to a l l e v i a t e the more obnoxious conditions under which they l i v e . We set out as follows the basic requirements. 1. That a r e a l i s t i c figure be set as a required contribution towards c h i l d maintenance by a deserting father, and that Appendix D, Cont'd.. - 3 -the Courts be so directed as to ensure that this contribution i s forthcoming. 2 . That the disbursement of s o c i a l welfare funds to deserted mothers be adjusted to match the a c t u a l i t i e s of present day l i v i n g , and that a r e a l i s t i c attitude towards monies derived from part time work or other sources be sought. 3. That t h i s province work towards a r a t i o n a l and humane divorce l e g i s l a t i o n , and which i s based on the facts of l i f e as they are known to exi s t . k. That f a c i l i t i e s be developed and provided i n the areas of c h i l d care and teenage guidance. APPENDIX E A BRIEF ON SOCIAL ALLOWANCES F o r P r e s e n t a t i o n t o The Honourable Wesley B l a c k M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, The S o c i e t y o f Women Only G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, O c t o b e r , I96U BRIEF COMMITTEE (Mrs.) P h i l l i s Ruddell - Chairman (Mrs.) E l l a Connors (Mrs.) Doreen D. Kaiser (Mrs.) Sylvia Empey The,Society,of. Women,Only Greater Vancouver Area October, I96U » INTRODUCTION The Society of Women Only i s made up of a number of women from a l l walks of l i f e but a l l with one purpose i n mind to better our present conditions and the future welfare of our children. Our group was formed i n hopes that.through standing together we would be able to bring about some of the changes that we f e e l are necessary so that we may provide a better future f o r ourselves and fo r our children. We f i n d ourselves either separated or deserted with l i t t l e or no support from husbands to a s s i s t i n r a i s i n g f a m i l i e s . Many members receive s o c i a l assistance. F i n a n c i a l l y , we are i n two groups, as follows: 1. TO,7^ of our members receive s o c i a l assistance with l i t t l e or no support, 2. 29.3# of our members are working with l i t t l e or no support. In t h i s b r i e f we w i l l point out, through our own personal experiences and the study of the Social Assistance Act and the Interpretation Act, that the provisions i n the Social Assistance Act are not being carried out i n the way we believe that they were intended. In some instances the provisions are not being f u l l y employed. Quoting from Chapter 360, Social Assistance Act: "Purpose 3. Social assistance may be granted out of funds appropriated by the Legislature for the purpose to in d i v i d u a l s , whether adult or minor, or to f a m i l i e s , who through mental or physical i l l n e s s or other exigency are unable to provide i n whole or i n part by t h e i r own e f f o r t s , through other security measures, or from income and other resources, necessities es s e n t i a l TO MAINTAIN OR ASSIST IN MAINTAINING A REASONABLY NORMAL AND HEALTHY EXISTENCE." ..... 2 Prom our own actual experiences, we can state that the present Social Assistance allowances do not permit us to lead normal and healthy-lives. Social Assistance to us means POVERTY. In the United States and Canada poverty exists when a family of four persons earns below $3,000 per annum. The present Social Assistance rate for four persons in British Columbia i s $1,764, or one half poverty rate. Poverty leads to malnutrition, school drop-outs and an i n a b i l i t y to help oneself. These conditions cause mental anguish and undue hardships, and in some cases lead to crime. Therefore we, of the Society of Women Only, present to the Government of British Columbia this brief in a simple and uncomplicated way, according to the best of our a b i l i t y . We present what we consider sensible, r e a l i s t i c suggestions and recommendations which we fe e l , based on our own personal experiences, w i l l bring about improvement in the health and welfare services of British Columbia. - 3 -RBCOM«DATIONS The Society of Women Only begs your consideration to the following recommendations: 1. Increase Social Assistance Allowances. 2. Increase the number of Social Workers to provide adequate individual counselling. 3. Establish a Legal Aid Centre to provide free legal aid to deserted wives and mothers. COMMENTS We, of the•Society of Women Only, are deeply concerned about the ever-increasing cost of l i v i n g , the increasing number of deserting fathers, and the general breakdown of moral standards in existence today. We comment on our recommendations, as follows: i 1. Increase Social Assistance Allowances (a) We recommend that the cost of l i v i n g be reviewed annually and social ": assistance allowances be adjusted accordingly to keep i n l i n e with the increasing cost of l i v i n g . After careful study of the "Vancouver Board of Trade Consumer Price Index,"dated June, 1 9 6 4 , and the "Review of Adequacy of Social Allowances,"dated November, 1 9 6 3 , by the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver Area, Social Planning Section, we fe e l that an increase of at least 2 0 $ be granted, : and in some groups the increase should be higher on a percentage . basis, t© help us face the ever-increasing cost of l i v i n g . (b) There i s a need for a l i s t of permissive grants, and exemptions which can be applied to meet individual family needs, e.g., dietary extra's, prenatal extras, clothing extras, house damage and repair extras, etc. At present, grants may be obtained for the above, but they are too low and too cumbersome i n administration. We find that each i s handled in a different manner. (c) We recommend that the earning allowances be raised to a more r e a l i s t i c and sensible level. The present allowances tend to take away the - 5 -i n c e n t i v e of the welfare r e c i p i e n t s to improve t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s due to •  the f a c t tha t the earning power i s so low that i n most cases t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n and b a b y s i t t i n g take up more than they can earn . (d) In the case of separated f a m i l i e s , the mother should be allowed to keep the support payments from the f a t h e r e q u i v a l e n t to the amount she i s a l lowed to earn , without t h i s sum b e i n g deducted from her s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cheque. We have found that a f a m i l i a r phrase among the f a t h e r s i s , "Why should I send you money when the government o n l y takes i t o f f your s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cheque? The government has more money than I . Let them support y o u , " We suggest that i f the f a t h e r i s al lowed to f e e l he i s c o n t r i b u t i n g towards the welfare of h i s f a m i l y there would be more f a t h e r s support ing t h e i r f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the cases where f a t h e r s work p a r t - t i m e , or where they have remarried and have a d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n to support . Mothers a l s o s t a t e , "Why should I t r y to ' chase 1 my husband when you (the, government) only take away any support money he may c o n t r i b u t e ? " This p o i n t s up the f a c t that there i s a need f o r a f r e e L e g a l A i d Centre to p r o v i d e l e g a l a i d to deserted wives and mothers (our Recommendation #3). (e) We recommend that the b r i e f prepared by the Welfare and Recreat ion C o u n c i l Report of the Committee to "Review the Adequacy of S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e s , " by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l of Greater Vancouver Area S o c i a l Planning Sect ion of November 1963, be given c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . They found that there was s t i l l a gap of 10$ i n 1963, and we beg that the present government take this gap into consideration as well as consider the time elapsed since this brief was prepared (Appendix 1 ) . Increase the Number of Social Workers to Provide Adequate  Individual Counselling. (a) We suggest that you look into the action that i s being taken by the Burnaby Welfare Department. There they have a Mr. Karpoff who i s a social worker> working within the Welfare Department. Mr. Karpoff handles a l l cases of desertion that come into the Burnaby Welfare Department. Through his actions many families are reunited. It i s our feeling that, someone of Mr. Karpoff's capacity should be within the framework of a l l Welfare Departments (Appendix 2 ) . (b) We recommend that you give due consideration to the brief that was prepared by the British Columbia Association of Social Workers, February, 1964. We would l i k e to draw your attention particularly to Recommendation #1, and we quote: "Increase the social work staff giving direct service to people by a minimum of 30$. This would necessitate appropriate Increases i n supervision and other personnel." (c) We f e e l that only f u l l y qualified social workers should be in a position to interview applicants for social assistance. Again, we would l i k e to draw your attention to a brief, the "Mothers Only" Brief of February, 1963, and we quote; - 7 -Item 2 of Recommendation $2 "Each Public Welfare Worker be relieved of c l e r i c a l and related duties by a competent Clerical Staff, to permit f u l l use of her/his capacities as a Social Worker." Item 3 of Recommendation #2. "Each Social Worker be responsible for a l l the members of an entire family." Item h of Recommendation #2 "Each worker make regular home v i s i t s for the purpose of: i ) determining the proper use of welfare funds, i i ) recognizing the problems existing in the homes and to permit counselling or help of the same, i i i ) promoting restoration and/or rehabilitation of the individual." 3. Establish a Legal Aid Centre to Provide Free Legal Aid to  Deserted Wives and Mothers. After careful consideration to the multiple problems being faced by the members of bur organization, we have come to the conclusion that the deserted wives and mothers are desparately in need of free legal aid. In many instances women have been forced into situations because of the lack of legal aid available to them. We fee l that many women on welfare today could have avoided the p i t f a l l s brought on by inadequate legal knowledge and counselling. Therefore we recommend: (a) That a Legal Aid Centre be set up within a l l Welfare Departments. (b) That the Welfare Department engage a qualified lawyer who w i l l be able to give free, legal aid to a l l welfare recipients. (c) This Legal Aid Centre should be responsible for giving aid i n locating deserting fathers. We find that a great number of the problems which arise are caused by the lack of information regardingprocedures in Family Court. Therefore, we feel that this Legal Aid Centre w i l l be an enormous help ln providing the deserted mother with the proper information and guidance as to the proceedings which she w i l l have to follow when she goes to Family Court. We would l i k e to add here that we w i l l endeavour to follow this brief with another brief dealing with the -laxness of the present Family Court administration. Again, we ask you to give our brief your.serious consideration. The Society of Women Only i s mainly concerned with the deserted wives and their children. We would l i k e to quote Mrs. Katherine R. Collier of the Children's Aid Society, who said: "Is i t well with the child? For, i f i t i s well with the child, the well being of our community, the well being of our nation, and of the World can be assured." WELFARE AND RECREATION COUNCIL APPENDIX E Review of Council Operations  Chronology and Nature of Work Items, May 196l - Jan. 1965 AGENCY PLANNING (directed at special problems of agencies, i.e. reviews, evalua-tion, "planning opinions", etc.) SPECIALIZED WELFARE  PLANNING (directed at specific problems i n special areas, e.g. family and child welfare, group work, health, handicapped, aged.) COMPREHENSIVE  WELFARE PLANNING (directed at a l l "welfare 1 1 needs in the community, i.e. p r i o r i -ties study, local area approach, area development project.) North Shore Neighbourhood House  Area Study (Rec. & Grpwk.) ^Boys Club_of Vancouver - Swimming Pool_in Fraserview_Unlt TRec. & Grpwk.) Boys Club of Vancouver - Re-Location of Kiview Unit (Sept. '61) Follow-up £n_Recreation Services for 16-21 year_olds Study_ (Rec. & Grpwk.) Cedar Cottage Area - Rec. Needs Study Elizabeth Fry_ Society Application for ^erabership_in Chest (Nov. '6l) Big Brothers of Vancouver - Staff  Expansion (Dec. »6l) Catholic Family Services Homemaker/  Housekeeper Services (April '62) (Rec. & Grpwk.) Standards of Practice for Vol. Leisure Time Agencies (Rec. & Grpwk.) South Main_Rec_!_ Assoc._(Kool City_ Club) (Rec. & Grpwk.) Adequacy of Social Allowances Study  Follow-up (F. & C. Welfare) (Oct. '6D Cedar Cottage Area Rec. Needs Study (Nov. »6l) Brief to Royal Commission on Health -Joint Family_Services Evaluation (Rec. & Grpwk.) W. & R. Council contribution (Nov. '6l) B i l l C-84 - Submission to Div. for  Guidance of Handicapped re Prov.  Rules and Regulations (Nov. '6l) Priorities Determination Project (April '62) Children's Foundation - Staff  Adjustments (May '62) Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood House -Personnel and Service Re-Organization  ; (June '62) Second Mile Club - Future Financing (Sept. '62) Children's Foundation - Establish- ment of Halfway House (Sept. '62) Alex. Neigh. House - Extension of  Services to Skeena Terrace Housing  Project (Sept. '62) North Van. Mem. C.C. Assessment of  Small Groups Programme (Sept. '62) ^North_Shore_Neigh^ House ^  P r£J£ ci to_Servi£e_Mission Indian Reserve "(Sept. '62) Y.W.C.A. Van. East Branch - Services  to Boys & Teenagers (March '63) Assessment of Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Programmes (Oct. '62) Note: Pri o r i t i e s Determination  Project Moratorium on Council Activities (Nov. 1962 - Jan. 1963) Our Lady of Mercy Home - New  Programme (May '63) N o r t h Shore N e i g h . House - New  B u i l d i n g P l a n ( A p r i l '64) Mental Health Services to Children  and Adolescents - Position of Council (Dec. '63) Need for Day Care Services -Strathcona Area (Feb. '64) Area Services Development -Woodland Park (Jan. '64) Development of Local Area Approach (March '64) Area Services Development -Sunrise Park (April '64) Joint Meetings_with Poli^-^Pj".* re_^ Juvenile Delinquency Pre-vention (April '64) Cedar Cottage Neigh. House - New  Fa c i l i t y Plans (June '64) Kiwassa Gi r l s Club_-_Personnel Problems_&_Future Prog^ (July '64) Big Brothers of B.C., Van.  Staff Expansion (Nov. '64) Br. Study of Day Care Needs in Greater Vancouver Area (May '64) Conservation & Acquisition of Out-door Recreation Resources (Joint Committee with Health Council) (Jan. '65) Area Services Development - L i t t l e Mountain, Riley Park (Jan. '65) KEY: Final Report Made on Work Assignment Completed (underlined) No_Final_Report or_Official Completion_-_inactive (dotted underline) Active Work Item (not underlined) ~ ~ * Discontinued at Request of Agency APPENDIX G COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCILS OF THE GREATER VANCOUVER AREA A LOCAL AREA APPROACH A MODEL FOR CONCERTED INTERVENTION TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM IMPACT ON COMPLEX SOCIAL PROBLEMS A Local Area Approach would consist of "Dividing urban areas i n t o agreed upon geographical units for the purpose of concerted intervention by the community's change agents": D e f i n i t i o n of"Agreed Upon Geographical Units" Would represent a subdivision of the urban area i n t o l o c a l areas whose boundaries would be recognized by the majority of change agents for purposes of intervening on a concerted basis. D e f i n i t i o n of"Concerted Intervention i n a Local Area" A process i n which a number of change agents combine t h e i r e f f o r t s to effect planned change i n a designated geographical area. Two perspectives are possible: a) Concerted intervention employing the three methods of s o c i a l work (work with i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and communities) i n an integrated manner. b) Concerted' Intervention combining integrated s o c i a l work methods with those of other change agents i n the community (public health, physical planning, education). D e f i n i t i o n of"Change Agents" A l l those i n s t i t u t i o n s d i r e c t l y involved i n the process of s o c i a l intervention and the e f f e c t i n g of change - including those concerned with research, planning and direct service provision, (Direct service provision consists of direct services to i n d i v i d u a l s , to groups and to communities.) The Local Area Approach would involve the following functions: 1. Determination of agreed upon geographical units ( l o c a l areas). 2. Selection of l o c a l areas for p r i o r i t y intervention. 3. Development of appropriate l o c a l planning structures. U. Analysis of the immediate needs of the area and i n i t i a t i o n of short-term programs. £. Detailed research and analysis of the s o c i a l characteristics of the area, i t s people, i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , etc., to reveal i t s major s o c i a l problems, and i t s strengths and weaknesses. 6. The establishment of goals for desirable changes. 7. The design of concerted action programs and procedures to achieve these goals. - 2 -8, Implementation of program procedures. 9. Evaluation of concerted intervention r e s u l t s . (Then feed back to 6.) These functions are not necessarily carried out i n chronological order but form part of a process i n which, for example, research, the formulation of goals and beginning implementation may a l l be occurring at the same time. Such a process could be i n i t i a t e d by involving l o c a l area residents and groups r i g h t from the beginning i n gaining information about the area. H xiaMaddV APPENDIX I INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I Problem Identification 1. What concern brought your agency into involvement vdth the Sunrise Park Area Organization? 2 . Did you have any personal concern in your professional capacity? 3. What do you consider identified the problem? - Was i t one agency or person or a complex of agencies? 4* How was the problem identified? 5. Was the extent of the problem verified? If so, how? 6. Was the nature of the problem identified? If so, how? II Goal Determination 1. What type of change was planned? Was i t policy, structure, etc? Were considerations of cost taken into account? 2 . Do you consider that the suggested change related to the concerns expressed? 3. Who suggested the change? Agencies, representatives, individuals, community representatives? How was the change suggested? 4* Who was seen as the prime target for change? Were there any secondary targets? 5. What was your estimate of the vulnerability of the target to change? APPENDIX J BIBLIOGRAPHY I REPORTS, PAMPHLETS, COLLECTIONS City of Vancouver Planning Department, Vancouver Redevelopment Study Vancouver, December, 1957. Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Study of Skeena Terrace Housing Project, F i l e . Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Sunrise Park Area Development, F i l e Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area,Minutes of Regular Meetings of Welfare and Recreation Council, June I 9 6 I -January 1965 Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Minutes of Meetings of Group Work and Recreation D i v i s i o n , 1959 - 196l. Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Minutes of Meetings of Family and Child Welfare D i v i s i o n , 1959 - 1961. Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Minutes of Meetings of Committee on Integration of Recreation and Groupwork and Family and Child Welfare Divisions, i960 - 196l Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, A Study of  the Woodland Park Area, February 1965 Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Terms of Reference for the So c i a l Planning Section, Welfare and Recreation Council, July 1961. Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, A Plan  for an Area Development Project, May, 1964. Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Report to  the Board of Directors of the Special Committee Established to  Review the Findings of the Citizens Survey Committee on Health and Welfare, September, 196l. Community Chest and Councils of the Greater V ancouver Area, Welfare and Recreation Council, Annual Report - I962-63 Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Welfare and Recreation Council, Annual Report, 1965-4 Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Report of  the Special Committee on Assessment of Welfare and Recreation  Council, 1965 Jackson, F. Ivor, A History of the Community Chest and Councils of the  Greater Vancouver Area, Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, i960 Loeb, Martin B. The Backdrop for S o c i a l Research, National Association  of Social Workers, New York, i960 Marsh, Leonard C , Rebuilding a Neighbourhood, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Research Publications, Vancouver, 1950. Society of Women Only, Minutes of General Meetings, A p r i l 1964,March 1965 Society of Women Only, Minutes of Executive Meetings,April 1964,March 1965 - 2 -Bibliography Cont'd. Society of Women Only, Scrapbook, February 1964 - March 1965« Society of Women Only, A Br i e f on So c i a l Allowances, Vancouver,October,64. II BOOKS Bennis, Warren G.; Benne, Kenneth D.; and Chin, Robert; The Planning  of Change, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1961 Dunham, Arthur, Community Welfare Organization, P r i n c i p l e s and Practice Crowell, New York, 1962. Homans, George C , The Human Group, Harcourt - Brace, New York, 1900 L i p p i t t , Ronald; Watson, Jeanne; and Westley, Bruce, The Dynamics of Planned Change, Harcourt-Brace, New York, I 9 6 I Ross, Murray, Community Welfare Organization, Theory and P r i n c i p l e s , Harper & Row, New York, 1955 Murphy, Arthur, E., The Uses of Reason, MacMillan, Toronto,1943 Thelen, Herbert A., The Dynamics of Groups at Work, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1954 Warren, Roland L., The Community i n America, Rand McNally, Chicago,1963 Young, Pauline, S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveyc and Research, Prentice H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1956. III ARTICLES,JOURNALS Benne, Kenneth D., "Democratic Ethics i n S o c i a l Engineering", Progressive  Education, v o l . 26 (May 1949). Lewin, Kurt, "Frontiers i n Group Dynamics," Journal of Human Relations vol.1 (1947) M i a l , H. Curtis, "Models of Community Action" Community Developmnt, National Training Laboratories, National Training Laboratories, National Education Association, Washington D.C, I 9 6 I . IV THESES A l l a r d i c e , Ethel; MacKenzie, Clarence; Rowe, Francis; Ziegler, Herbert; Neighbourhood Analysis i n Vancouver, Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 Brown, J.S.; Kowaga, D.; Peters, R.E.; Public Housing and Welfare Services Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963 Wheeler, Michael, Evaluating the Need for Low-R ental Housing, Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955-

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