UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Myth and meaning in the three novels of Hugh Maclennan Gilley, Robert Keith 1967

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MYTH AND MEANING IN THREE NOVELS OF HUGH MACLENNAN  by  ROBERT KEITH GILLEY B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s i n the Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  April,  1967  In  presenting  for  an a d v a n c e d  that  thesis  thesis  degree  the: L i b r a r y  study.  for  at  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y o f  y h a l l make  I f u r t h e r agree  Department or  this  it  that  requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia,  freely available for  permission  the  I  reference  for extensive  and  copying  of  scholarly  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  by t h e Head o f my  or  representatives.  understood  by h i s  p u b l i c a t i o n of  wi t h o u t my w r i t t e n  this  thesis  for  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada  Columbia  It  is  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  that not  agree  this  copying  be a l l o w e d  Abstract  The purpose of t h i s e s s a y i s to determine Hugh MacLennan has  the use to which  put h i s knowledge of c l a s s i c a l  e s p e c i a l l y myth, i n w r i t i n g t h r e e o f h i s n o v e l s . first to  The n o v e l s are  c o n s i d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and are then r e l a t e d to one  i n d i c a t e the development  technique and  literature, elements  another  o f t h e i r s t r u c t u r e s and themes, MacLennan's  thought.  The f i r s t  c h a p t e r shows MacLennan's a f f i n i t y  for classical  i n d i c a t e s the g e n e r a l c r i t i c a l awareness o f c l a s s i c a l  i n h i s n o v e l s , and a l s o shows how mythic a n a l y s i s i s o f  use i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the n o v e l s .  C e n t r a l to MacLennan's use o f  c l a s s i c a l myth i s Homer's Odyssey, of  literature,  and  the b a s i c p l o t and c h a r a c t e r s  the Greek e p i c are d e s c r i b e d , i n d i c a t i n g what MacLennan chooses  from the c l a s s i c  f o r h i s own  purposes.  The importance o f myth, as  such, i s c o n s i d e r e d , and i t i s suggested t h a t MacLennan h i m s e l f has attempted  to w r i t e a "myth" a p p r o p r i a t e to modern Canada.  The second c h a p t e r i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Barometer i n d i c a t i n g mythic p a r a l l e l s and r e l e v a n t s t r u c t u r e s o f The  Rising, imagery.  p l o t s t r u c t u r e i s examined and i s compared to the mythoi or  a r c h e t y p a l p l o t s suggested by Northrop F r y e i n Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m . The n o v e l i s shown to be a comic-romance i n which  the romantic  hero i s dominant, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an i r o n i c hero p r e s e n t . main theme appears as a s e a r c h f o r n a t i o n a l  The  identity.  The t h i r d c h a p t e r i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Each Man's Son, a g a i n i n d i c a t i n g mythic  p a r a l l e l s and r e l e v a n t s t r u c t u r e s o f  imagery.  Examination of the p l o t s t r u c t u r e r e v e a l s a growing s t r e s s on the  ii  i r o n i c h e r o and an u n s t r e s s i n g  of the romantic h e r o .  appears as a more p e r s o n a l s e a r c h f o r  The theme  identity.  The f o u r t h c h a p t e r i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t , a g a i n i n d i c a t i n g m y t h i c p a r a l l e l s and r e l e v a n t Here,  the i r o n i c hero comes to f u l l  imagery.  dominance over the r o m a n t i c .  The theme has become almost e n t i r e l y a p e r s o n a l s e a r c h f o r i n t e r n a l identity. conflict larger  It  is  shown how,  i n t h i s n o v e l , MacLennan r e s o l v e s  e x p l o r e d i n the o t h e r two n o v e l s by submerging i t  (basically mystical)  1  how h i s  in a  pattern.  The f i f t h c h a p t e r shows how MacLennan s techniques have d e v e l o p e d ,  the  and themes  final religio-philosophic resolution  is  r e l a t e d to c l a s s i c a l humanism ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the p h i l o s o p h y o f Heraclitus),  and how h i s  the modern w o r l d .  use of myth i s  r e l e v a n t and v a l u a b l e  I t becomes c l e a r t h a t  the  f a r t h e r MacLennan  moves from a d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l myth, c l o s e r he moves to c r e a t i n g a meaningful myth of h i s is  r e l a t e d to o t h e r modern w r i t e r s and i s  stream o f modern thought, literature Period.  f o l l o w i n g a major theme i n  He comes to a s y n t h e s i s of c l a s s i c a l i n an a f f i r m a t i v e  the  own.  MacLennan  shown to be i n a main  t h a t has been p a r t i c u l a r l y important s i n c e  which r e s u l t s  to  philosophy.  western the  Victorian  and C h r i s t i a n  thought  Table o f Contents  Page Chapter One:  Myth and Humanism  Chapter Two:  Barometer R i s i n g : The N a t i o n a l Romance  Chapter Three:  Chapter F o u r :  Chapter F i v e :  Bibliography  Each Man's Son: The Growing Irony The Watch That Ends The N i g h t : The Comic S y n t h e s i s The E t e r n a l Quest  1  20  47  70 103  117  Chapter One:  Myth and Humanism  To most people today a "myth" i s something u n b e l i e v a b l e , a fanciful  s t o r y n o t to be taken s e r i o u s l y .  "Myths" a r e n o t always  i n a c c o r d w i t h t a n g i b l e f a c t s , and, t h e r e f o r e , to the mind t r a i n e d to have f a i t h i n l i t t l e but t h a t which can be  scientifically  measured and v a l i d a t e d , myths have n e i t h e r importance nor v a l u e . Such people may b e l i e v e i n myths themselves but would be horrified and  to have them c a l l e d  t h a t , f o r myths are o f the a n c i e n t  pagan w o r l d , products of p r i m i t i v e , u n e n l i g h t e n e d thought. There a r e o t h e r s , however, who  Hugh MacLennan i s o f t h i s group.  take myths s e r i o u s l y , and  He u t i l i z e s a n c i e n t myth i n h i s  n o v e l s f o r both s t r u c t u r a l and thematic purposes, c l a s s i c a l and modern p h i l o s o p h y w i t h c l a s s i c a l , C h r i s t i a n myth i n an e f f e c t i v e  synthesis.  combining  C e l t i c and  He b e g i n s , i n h i s f i r s t  n o v e l , by o v e r t l y u s i n g a well-known myth as h i s model, but he g r a d u a l l y develops away from t h i s p r a c t i c e i n l a t e r n o v e l s , submerging  the myth and m o d e r n i z i n g i t , m a n i p u l a t i n g i t more to  serve h i s a r t i s t i c  purposes.  The myth remains, b u t , as i t becomes  l e s s e v i d e n t on the s u r f a c e , i t becomes more e f f e c t i v e as a v e h i c l e of a r t i s t i c expression. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of MacLennan's work from t h i s p o i n t o f view proves that myth i s most e f f e c t i v e when i t p r o v i d e s no more than what i s n e c e s s a r y i n a way of an h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary p e r s p e c t i v e -- say, a d e s c r i p t i o n of r e l e v a n t antecedent e v e n t s , of the c u r r e n t c r i s i s , and o f the d e s i r e d outcome--to g i v e meaning, s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  ". -  -  2  and urgency  to some i n d i v i d u a l or s o c i a l  C e r t a i n l y MacLennan succeeds  --by  effort.^  i n f u s i n g h i s c l a s s i c a l know-  ledge i n t o the i n d i v i d u a l n o v e l s - - i n c r e a t i n g a g e n e r a l  mythic  s t r u c t u r e which i n c l u d e s a l l h i s n o v e l s , and which i s o f r e a l importance  to the i n d i v i d u a l reader and  t o g e t h e r , the n o v e l s comprise a s i n g l e major theme:  the s o c i e t y .  a s i g n i f i c a n t whole.  Considered They  develop  the search of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r h i s  i d e n t i t y , h i s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r , the quest f o r a u n i f i e d of the i n d i v i d u a l man,  h i s n a t i o n , and Everyman.  The  r e s o l v e s t h i s theme i n a b l e n d i n g of C h r i s t i a n and  vision  author  classical  thought, w i t h myth a c t i n g as the t a n g i b l e c o r r e l a t i v e of h i s ideas.  He  i s of a r a r e breed, a t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y n o v e l i s t  committed to the c l a s s i c a l  fully  tradition.  In both essays and n o v e l s , MacLennan has made h i s commitment c l e a r , s t r e s s i n g the l a s t i n g v a l u e of the t r a d i t i o n , and  i t s philosophy.  For example, i n h i s essay "The  T r a d i t i o n and E d u c a t i o n " , MacLennan defends  i t s literature Classical  the c l a s s i c a l  liberal  a r t s e d u c a t i o n , and h i s attachment to the t r a d i t i o n i s e v i d e n t i n h i s a t t a c k on S i r W i l l i a m Dawson f o r what he b e l i e v e s was Dawson's n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the development of M c G i l l University.  He c a l l s Dawson a "fundamental C a l v i n i s t " whose  "main reason f o r opposing  the a r t s was  not h i s b e l i e f  t h a t they  l-Henry A. Murray, "The P o s s i b l e Nature of a 'Mythology to Come," i n Myth and Mythmaking, ed. H. A. Murray (New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1960), p. 337.  were i m p r a c t i c a l , but h i s c o n v i c t i o n that they were  wicked."  The obvious i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t Dawson's own a t t i t u d e s were "wicked"  to the e x t e n t t h a t i n opposing the a r t s he was opposing  the g r e a t humanist of  t r a d i t i o n passed down from the golden age  Greece. I t would seem that the a d m i r a t i o n MacLennan h o l d s f o r the  humanist youth.  t r a d i t i o n i s one t h a t was i n s t i l l e d  i n him from h i s  D e s c r i b i n g h i s f a t h e r , he says,  He was a d o c t o r who spent much of h i s e a r l i e r l i f e i n a v e r y h a r d p r a c t i c e i n a Cape Breton mining town, but thanks to h i s c l a s s i c a l i n t e r e s t s he was n o t i s o l a t e d t h e r e . He r e a d L a t i n and Greek f o r p l e a s u r e ; he read the p h i l o s o p h e r s . . . . He was democratic i n h i s human d e a l i n g s ; n o t f a m i l i a r , n o t a glad-hander, n o t a winner o f f r i e n d s and an i n f l u e n c e r o f people . . . , 3  I t can be seen from the q u a l i t i e s MacLennan a t t r i b u t e s  to h i s  f a t h e r t h a t to him the c l a s s i c s mean freedom, an escape i s o l a t i o n , a mental imprison. a genuine  freedom  from  t h a t makes the mind i m p o s s i b l e to  These g r e a t works o f the past a l s o appear  to s t i m u l a t e  r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s , f o r t h e i r worth as i n d i v i d u a l  human b e i n g s .  The c l a s s i c s a r e u s e f u l as a moral  guide.  Not o n l y does MacLennan take h i s g e n e r a l system o f v a l u e s from the c l a s s i c a l  p h i l o s o p h e r s and poets:  he seems a l s o to  have i d e n t i f i e d h i s n a t i v e l a n d - - i f n o t the whole o f Canada, a t l e a s t h i s n a t i v e r e g i o n - - w i t h t h a t o f the c l a s s i c a l  2Scotchman's Return and Other Essays M a c m i l l a n , 1960), p. 68. 3  Ibid.,  p. 64.  (Toronto:  writers,  p a r t i c u l a r l y Homer.  In Nova S c o t i a ,  as i n Greece, the people l i v e d i n s m a l l communities w i t h i n s i g h t and sound o f the sea. T h e i r ears and eyes were nouri s h e d by sea-sounds and sea-images. Homer's r o s e - f i n g e r e d dawn r i s i n g over the loud-sounding sea, h i s men i n s m a l l boats b a c k i n g water i n the f o g as they l i s t e n e d to the t e l l t a l e r o a r o f b r e a k e r s on a leeward shore, h i s helmsmen on c l e a r n i g h t s t a k i n g t h e i r course from A r c t u r u s or the stormy r i s e o f O r i o n , S c y l l a d i v i n g f o r prey from the c l i f f , Charybd i s s u c k i n g down s m a l l boats i n t o h e r w h i r l p o o l and spewing them up a g a i n i n a w e l t e r o f b o i l i n g sand, the bones of the! drowned r o l l i n g f o r ages through the depths o f the sea -these images and c o u n t l e s s o t h e r s from the o l d p o e t i c l i t e r a t u r e o f Greece seemed to d e s c r i b e the environment o f Nova S c o t i a more a c c u r a t e l y than a n y t h i n g w r i t t e n s i n c e the b i r t h of C h r i s t . 4 T h i s i n c l i n a t i o n to see h i s homeland i n terms of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , combined w i t h a g e n e r a l a d m i r a t i o n f o r c l a s s i c a l thought,  i n e v i t a b l y introduces into h i s novels c l a s s i c a l  ments both m y t h i c a l and importance  p h i l o s o p h i c a l which are o f extreme  to the n o v e l s ' s t r u c t u r e and meaning.  There  i s general c r i t i c a l  uses c l a s s i c a l mythic  agreement that Hugh MacLennan  p a t t e r n s i n h i s n o v e l s both as  d e v i c e s and f o r thematic purposes. the f i r s t  to i n d i c a t e c r i t i c a l  MacLennan's work:  structure.  structural  Hugo McPherson was  interest  one  of  i n t h i s a s p e c t of  "Barometer R i s i n g and Two  Solitudes,  f i r s t n o v e l s , have an almost c l a s s i c a l c l a r i t y and of  ele-  the  simplicity  Each, on m u l t i p l e l e v e l s , d e a l s w i t h the theme  ^"Husband and W i f e , " T h i r t y and Three M a c m i l l a n , 1954), p. 14  (Toronto:  of r e b i r t h  A few years a f t e r t h i s , McPherson  h i s view to say o f Barometer  expanded  R i s i n g that " t h i s s t o r y says  t h i n g s about Canada which take on the v a l i d i t y o f p a r a b l e , " " and he l i k e n s the s t o r y to the Greek myth i n which Perseus b a t t l e s the Gorgon.  L a t e r , George Woodcock made a deeper  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the n o v e l s i n an a r t i c l e "A N a t i o n ' s Odyssey."  He makes i t c l e a r  significantly  entitled  that  MacLennan not merely e s t a b l i s h e s i n Barometer R i s i n g a Homeric p l o t o f the wanderer r e t u r n i n g to a m y s t e r i o u s l y changed homeland. He a l s o uses f o r the f i r s t time a group of symbolic c h a r a c t e r s which w i l l r e c u r i n l a t e r permutat i o n s i n h i s l a t e r n o v e l s ; the r e t u r n i n g wanderer, the w a i t i n g woman, the f a t h e r l e s s c h i l d , the wise d o c t o r --sometimes transformed i n t o the wise o l d man, and the p r i m i t i v e , v i o l e n t , but e s s e n t i a l l y good g i a n t . ? With Woodcock's a n a l y s i s , c r i t i c i s m has begun to p i e r c e simple borrowings from the c l a s s i c s , beyond to p e r c e i v e what a r e c l e a r l y  beyond  surface analogies,  the a r c h e t y p e s w i t h i n .  While  Paul Goetsch r e c o g n i z e s i n Barometer R i s i n g "a technique o f m y s t i f i c a t i o n l o o s e l y p a t t e r n e d on the account o f Ulysses' r e t u r n of Ithaca,"^ i n Each Man's Son.  Woodcock sees another mythic Both c r i t i c s  structure  speak o f mythic elements i n  The Novels o f Hugh MacLennan," (Summer 1953), p. 186.  Queen's Q u a r t e r l y ,  LX  ^ " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Barometer R i s i n g & Stewart, 1958), p. x.  (Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d  ^Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 10 (Autumn 1961), p. 9. ^"Too Long to the C o u r t l y Muses," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 10 (Autumn 1961), p. 21  The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t  --Goetsch,  f o r instance seeing  i n the n o v e l a " p r o x i m i t y to myth and a l l e g o r i c forms o f o r d e r . " *  *  *  Most c r i t i c s agree t h a t myth and l i t e r a t u r e are o f the same f a m i l y o f human e x p r e s s i o n . word  'myth' means s t o r y :  As R i c h a r d Chase says, "the  a myth i s a t a l e , a n a r r a t i v e , or a  poem; myth i s l i t e r a t u r e and must be c o n s i d e r e d as an a e s t h e t i c c r e a t i o n of the human i m a g i n a t i o n . " ^ l i t e r a t u r e of a s p e c i a l n a t u r e . the n a t u r a l w i t h being  I t i s " l i t e r a t u r e which s u f f u s e s  p r e t e r n a t u r a l e f f i c a c y , " the p r e t e r n a t u r a l  " t h a t which i s m a g i c a l ,  Mysterious,  Myth, o f c o u r s e , i s  the Powerful,  Extraordinary."10  the Uncanny, the Wonderful, the  the T e r r i b l e , the Dangerous, the  I n myth, man expresses h i s awe a t the wonder  of the u n i v e r s e , i t s g r e a t n a t u r a l c y c l e s , i t s o p p o s i t i o n s of j o y and s u f f e r i n g ,  l i f e and death.  f o r the t i n g e o f awe s u r r o u n d i n g  T h i s may  partly  account  the c l a s s i c a l myths  themselves,  combined w i t h the r e s p e c t due them simply because o f t h e i r antiquity. In the western world,  c e r t a i n c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the more v e n e r a b l e myths, and, as Northrop  Frye  classical  indicates,  When ever we f i n d e x p l i c i t m y t h o l o g i z i n g i n l i t e r a t u r e , or a w r i t e r t r y i n g to i n d i c a t e what myths he i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  ^Quest f o r Myth (Baton Rouge, L a . , L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U. P r e s s , 1949), p. 73. l O i b i d . , p. 78.  - 7. -  i n t e r e s t e d i n , we should t r e a t t h i s as c o n f i r m a t o r y or supp o r t i n g evidence f o r our study of the genres and conventions he i s u s i n g . H In c h o o s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r myth, the w r i t e r i s d o i n g so w i t h particular intent;  t h a t i s , the myth he chooses has a c e r t a i n  meaning f o r him which he hopes i s shared w i t h the r e a d e r .  The  c o n v e n t i o n s which l e a d to a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g between the w r i t e r and h i s reader may  v a r y from age  to age,  but t h e r e  seem to be c e r t a i n c o n v e n t i o n s of a t t a c h i n g meaning to myth which have v a r i e d s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e . classical  S t o i c s and  the humanists of the Renaissance  i n t e r p r e t myth on the a l l e g o r i c a l  l e v e l , attempting  the myths to the l e v e l o f t h e i r own and  For example, the  i t i s most o f t e n t h i s l e v e l we  e x p l i c i t l y uses myth.  intellectual see when an  inclined  to  "to r a i s e  preoccupations," 2 x  author  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e the myths are  taken  "to be i n g e n i o u s l y symbolized concepts o f the nature of the u n i v e r s e or b e a u t i f u l v e i l s c o n c e a l i n g profound moral Hugh MacLennan, a humanist and  something  principles."  of a modern s t o i c ,  e x p l i c i t l y uses myth w i t h c o n s c i o u s purpose  as a framework on  which to hang h i s " i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s . "  But myth has  v a l u e beyond t h i s , f o r a l i v e or v i t a l myth i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s t a t e , s i t u a t i o n , or event ( p a s t , c u r r e n t or f u t u r e ) which, a t i t s lowest, i s  " M y t h , F i c t i o n , and Displacement," F a b l e s o f I d e n t i t y York, H a r c o u r t , Brace, 1963), pp. 34-35 x±  (New  l ^ c h a s e , Quest f o r Myth, p. 1 3  Ibid.,  p.  2.  1.  - 8.  -  a c c e p t e d by i t s c a r r i e r s as s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d ( c r e d i b l e , s a t i s f y i n g ) , o r , a t i t s h i g h e s t , i s embraced as 'the n e a r e s t approach to a b s o l u t e t r u t h t h a t can be s t a t e d . ' 1 ^ And to the modern c r i t i c there myth than even t h i s ,  f o r the  of  t r u t h embodied i n myths i s not  that c o n t a i n e d i n " i n g e n i o u s l y t h a t expressed  i s more to an a u t h o r ' s use  symbolized c o n c e p t s , "  only  but a l s o  i n the a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s which emerge  spontaneously  t from the w r i t e r s mind, a r c h e t y p e s which need not be ally  intention-  symbolic. In the view of  imagery of a work of  the a r c h e t y p a l c r i t i c , an a n a l y s i s l i t e r a t u r e can r e v e a l p a t t e r n s  c o r r e s p o n d w i t h c e r t a i n a r c h e t y p a l myths.  of  the  which  In F r y e ' s words,  myth i s the c e n t r a l i n f o r m i n g power that g i v e s a r c h e t y p a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the r i t u a l and a r c h e t y p a l n a r r a t i v e to the oracle. Hence the myth is_ the a r c h e t y p e , though i t might be c o n v e n i e n t to say myth o n l y when r e f e r r i n g to n a r r a t i v e , and archetype when speaking of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 1 5 The s i n g l e at  the  image focuses the r e a d e r ' s  same time as i t  e l o p e d by the  focuses h i s  sum of a l l  the imagery,  The p a t t e r n devand,  the c r i t i c can  the s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s a t work i n the n a r r a t i v e .  As these p r i n c i p l e s are the same as --where  emotion.  interest  the images has the same e f f e c t ,  by a n a l y z i n g the s t r u c t u r e of determine  intellectual  they are i s o l a t e d - -  those working i n myth  the myth r e v e a l s  l ^ M u r r a y , Myth and Mythmaking,  p.  an a r c h e t y p a l  337  15"Hie Archetypes of L i t e r a t u r e , " F a b l e s ,  p.  15  p a t t e r n which i n t u r n y i e l d s a deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e to the n a r r a t i v e o f both an i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional An  nature.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the author's e x p l i c i t use o f myth  on the one hand and the p a t t e r n s o f imagery on the o t h e r leads to v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o both MacLennan's n o v e l s .  the form and meaning o f  Not o n l y i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  i n d i v i d u a l n o v e l s enhanced but, by comparing the r e s u l t s o f the separate a n a l y s e s , a s i g n i f i c a n t be d i s c e r n e d r u n n i n g through  path o f development can  the body o f h i s work.  n o v e l s to a n a l y z e i n t h i s way a r e Barometer R i s i n g ,  The b e s t the f i r s t  p u b l i s h e d n o v e l (1941), Each Man's Son, the b e s t middle (1951), and The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t , the l a t e s t (1959).  novel  novel  S t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between these  n o v e l s do much to i n d i c a t e MacLennan's major themes and h i s development o f these themes.  H i s thematic  interests vary  the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l i n n e r c o n f l i c t o f s o c i a l change, and to develop  from  to the l e v e l  these themes he uses methods  v a r y i n g from o m n i s c i e n t d i d a c t i c i s m to imagery t h a t speaks for i t s e l f .  As a means of a r t i s t i c  e x p r e s s i o n , the imagery,  of c o u r s e , i s most e f f e c t i v e , and the p a t t e r n s o f imagery a r e most s i g n i f i c a n t .  Frye i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n i t s a r c h e t y p a l  phase, l i t e r a t u r e i m i t a t e s n a t u r e as a c y c l i c a l  p r o c e s s , and  i m i t a t e s a l s o a v i s i o n o f s o c i a l d e s i r e , n o t expressed as a c y c l e but as a d i a l e c t i c  illustrating  the f u l f i l m e n t o f  d e s i r e and the o b s t a c l e s i n the way o f t h a t f u l f i l m e n t .  -  "Archetypal  criticism,  rhythms or p a t t e r n s , and  the r e l a t i v e  erent  10.  t h e r e f o r e , r e s t s on two  one  cyclical,  s t r e s s e s MacLennan puts on  types of o r g a n i z i n g  a t t i t u d e s towards man This leads  the other  and  finally  patterns  organizing  dialectic,"l^ these two  diff-  r e v e a l s h i s changing  society. to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of MacLennan's  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development o f a n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . As  Joseph Campbell p o i n t s out,  myth . . . and, the  "the  hence, l i t e r a t u r e has  i n d i v i d u a l , both e m o t i o n a l l y  l o c a l organization."17 local organization there can be no just  t h i s aspect  Pacey had  paramount f u n c t i o n of a l l  and  always been to engage intellectually,  i n MacLennan's case, we  to i n c l u d e  may  i n the expand  the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  doubt that he has of h i s w r i t i n g .  been v e r y  And  interested in  Whereas i n 1945  Desmond  expressed doubts that a r e a l l y n a t i o n a l n o v e l  then be w r i t t e n , a year l a t e r MacLennan was  the  could  saying,  Canada i s i n search of h e r s e l f today. She i s b a d l y i n need o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , not o n l y to h e r s e l f by one of her own, but to the r e s t of the w o r l d as w e l l . I t i s through the l i t e r a ture of a c o u n t r y t h a t the w o r l d comes to know h e r . And there are Canadians w r i t i n g i n Canada today who are e q u i p p i n g thems e l v e s f o r the t a s k . ™ Pacey had it  had  Barometer R i s i n g to c o n s i d e r  and  evidently  to be more r e g i o n a l than n a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , and  1  ^Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m  (New  felt  MacLennan  York, Atheneum, 1966), p.  •^The Masks of God: P r i m i t i v e Mythology M a c m i l l a n , 1959), p. 467.  106  (Toronto,  18"Canada Between C o v e r s , " Saturday Review of L i t e r a t u r e , XXIX, 36 (Sept. 7, 1946), pp. 5-6  has nowhere d i s p u t e d t h i s . to say t h a t i n Barometer significant, flict  later  R i s i n g "the p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t i s  f i n a l l y , as an image o f a l a r g e r , symbolic con-  of s o c i a l  t h i s n o v e l was  f o r c e s or a t t i t u d e s . M a c L e n n a n ' s i n t e n t i n to p o r t r a y a c o n f l i c t o f n a t i o n a l  n a t i o n a l scope; i f he was may  Even so, Hugo McPherson was  not e n t i r e l y  importance,  s u c c e s s f u l , the cause  have been l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , and a comparison of  later  n o v e l s i n d i c a t e s a movement away from r e g i o n a l i s m toward, i n fact,  the c r e a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l image, a myth w i t h which a l l  Canadians can  identify.  Mythology and l i t e r a t u r e , as they a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f more than " i n g e n i o u s l y symbolized c o n c e p t s , " are a l s o more than simply a means o f engaging the i n d i v i d u a l i n the s o c i a l organization. of  Myth c o n t a i n s much more than a c o n v e n t i o n a l code  s o c i a l mores or the d e f i n i t i o n of a s o c i a l norm:  i t is  a p o e t i c , supernormal imag^, c o n c e i v e d , l i k e a l l p o e t r y , i n depth, but s u c e p t i b l e of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on v a r i o u s l e v e l s . The s h a l l o w e s t minds see i n i t the l o c a l scenery; the deepe s t , the f o r e g r o u n d of the v o i d ; and between are a l l the stages o f the Way from the e t h n i c to the elementary i d e a , the l o c a l to the u n i v e r s a l b e i n g , which i s Everyman, as he both knows and i s a f r a i d to know.^ The importance o f t h i s statement i n r e l a t i o n  to the develop-  ment o f MacLennan's thought cannot be o v e r s t r e s s e d .  While he  uses c l a s s i c a l myth as an e s s e n t i a l source f o r n a r r a t i v e  "The Novels o f Hugh MacLennan," p. Campbell, P r i m i t i v e Mythology,  p.  186 472.  frameworks and background d e t a i l s , as he d e v e l o p s , he becomes l e s s and  l e s s concerned w i t h the s u p e r f i c i a l d e c o r a t i o n s they  c o n t a i n , and more and more concerned w i t h the deeper logical,  p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e .  to e x e m p l i f y f o r MacLennan a way  of  t h a t the t a l e o f the wandering hero,  of c e n t r a l importance  Myth comes  life.  L e a d i n g a n a l y s t s o f myth, such as Joseph agree  psycho-  Campbell,  the quest myth, i s  i n most, i f not a l l m y t h o l o g i e s ,  s i m i l a r l y , most l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s would agree w i t h  and,  Northrop  Frye i n i d e n t i f y i n g "the c e n t r a l myth o f l i t e r a t u r e ,  in its  n a r r a t i v e a s p e c t , w i t h the quest myth."21  drawing  Campbell,  upon p s y c h o l o g i c a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d a t a , c o n s i d e r s the  quest  myth to be a " m a g n i f i c a t i o n of the formula r e p r e s e n t e d i n the rites  of passage:  separation-initiation-return,"22  simply, a movement o f withdrawal return.  The  o  r  j  m 0  re  (from normal s o c i e t y ) and  formula i s a t the core of man's e x p e r i e n c e o f  h i s c o n d i t i o n , and  the myth i s an i d e a l e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t  e x p e r i e n c e because i t b e s t e x e m p l i f i e s the n a t u r a l movements of the w o r l d man  inhabits.  s e i z e s on the fundamental  As Frye p o i n t s out, the "myth element o f d e s i g n o f f e r e d by  --the c y c l e , as we have i t d a i l y i n the sun and  2  1 " A r c h e t y p e s , " F a b l e s , p.  nature  yearly  18  22jhe Hero w i t h a Thousand Faces 1949), p. 30.  (New  York:  Pantheon,  i n the life, of  s e a s o n s - - and a s s i m i l a t e s death,  the  and .  the  r e b i r t h . "23  s t r u c t u r e man c o n t i n u a l l y  imitates  the r i t e s  structure  e  perceives  i n m i n i a t u r e the  of passage - - t h e  s t r u c t u r e of  c y c l e of days and seasons and of human l i f e death  Th  (and r e b i r t h ) , so does the  reduced to two s t e p s .  The f i r s t  the n a t u r a l from b i r t h  to  quest myth. can be  s t e p of the q u e s t i n g hero  i n t o a s t a t e of withdrawal or detachment  (separation);  is  he  from the normal w o r l d , weighed down by an i n c r e a s -  i n g sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . clarifies  his  ured i n the  difficulties,  process  u r a t i o n , he f i n d s able  As  coming of  The p a t t e r n o f the myth, as has been mentioned,  retreats  of  of the e x t e r n a l w o r l d and w i t h i n h i m s e l f .  the c y c l i c s t r u c t u r e of age--  to the human c y c l e  . . Jby analogyj  quest myth i s  i n the motions  it  In h i s  eradicates  (initiation).  peace from h i s  to a c c o m p l i s h the  the  them, and i s  Ideally, previous  second s t e p ,  the normal w o r l d to teach  detached s t a t e ,  the hero  transfig-  through  transfig-  t r o u b l e s and  is  to r e t u r n r e v i t a l i z e d  l e s s o n he has l e a r n e d of  renewal of a balanced p e r s o n a l i t y and p o s i t i v e l y  to  the  directed  life.  In o t h e r words,  the hero breaks away from h i s o r d i n a r y l i f e ,  suffers  trials  various  of h i m s e l f - -  --thereby gaining increased  and r e t u r n s to put t h i s  23"Myth, F i c t i o n ,  knowledge  self-knowledge  and D i s p l a c e m e n t , " F a b l e s ,  p.  to use  32.  in  r e s t o r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g balance and o r d e r i n s o c i e t y . Mythology  and l i t e r a t u r e o f a l l ages and a l l c u l t u r e s  are f u l l o f t a l e s o f the q u e s t i n g h e r o .  The f a m i l i a r  myths abound i n examples, the t a l e s o f Prometheus, Perseus, and Odysseus to name o n l y a few.  Quest  Greek  Theseus,  stories  also  c o n s t i t u t e a major p a r t o f the Roman (e.g., Aeneid) and -s i g n i f i c a n t l y , c o n s i d e r i n g MacLennan's S c o t t i s h Celtic  (e.g., C u c h a l a i n ) m y t h o l o g i e s .  heritage-  Primary to t h i s  study,  however, i s Homer's Odyssey, f o r there a r e numerous e x p l i c i t p a r a l l e l s w i t h Homer's e p i c quest t a l e i n MacLennan's work. The n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the Odyssey i s t y p i c a l o f the quest s t o r y , b e i n g a c y c l i c a l cycle.  form based on the n a t u r a l  I t i s o f t h a t type o f quest c a l l e d  "centripetal,"  t h a t i s , a quest to reach home, the o r i g i n o f the j o u r n e y . Having departed from h i s home, I t h a c a , and gone to do b a t t l e a t Troy (recounted i n the I l i a d ) ,  Odysseus s e t s o f f to r e t u r n  to I t h a c a but encounters g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s , s u f f e r , b a r r i e r s he must overcome  ;  t r i a l s he must  He i s withdrawn from the  normal world a l l the way to the dark and m y s t e r i o u s w o r l d , but f i n a l l y  succeeds  i n h i s endeavours,  home and i s r e u n i t e d w i t h h i s w i f e and son.  under-  regains h i s  The p a t t e r n o f the  n a r r a t i v e i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f many o t h e r q u e s t s , but t h i s myth c o n t a i n s c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e s which s p e c i f i c a l l y r e c u r i n MacLennan's n o v e l s .  P r e c e d i n g the s t o r y , there i s a l o n g ,  b i t t e r and p a r t i c u l a r l y d e v a s t a t i n g war between two major powers  MacLennan draws on t h i s f o r both h i s t o r i c a l and m e t a p h o r i c a l parallels.  During the s t o r y , s u i t o r s tempt the hero's w i f e  to be u n f a i t h f u l and f o r s a k e h i s memory, w h i l e the hero's son emerges as one a b l e l a t e r f a t h e r ' s realm: consideration. the hero  to assume r e s p o n s i b l e command o f h i s  t h i s p a t t e r n i s used i n a l l the n o v e l s under After  the s t o r y , f u r t h e r t r i a l s a r e i n s t o r e f o r  ( p r o p h e s i e d by the ghost o f T e i r e s i a s ) :  n o v e l s end on such a p r o p h e t i c n o t e .  a l l three  And another  important  f a c t o r r e l a t i n g the Odyssey and MacLennan's n o v e l s i s the nature of the c h a r a c t e r s . As the quest myth i s , a f t e r a l l ,  the j o u r n e y o f a man,  who i s i n p a r t c o n t r o l l e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s and i n p a r t  controls  them, the c h a r a c t e r o f Odysseus i s o f extreme importance development o f the n a r r a t i v e .  to the  H i s nature i s somewhat a m b i v a l e n t :  a t times he i s g e n t l e , c o o l and serene, a t o t h e r s v i o l e n t and ferocious  (when j u s t i c e must be done).  He i s , i n f a c t , v e r y  s i m i l a r i n c h a r a c t e r to h i s patron goddess, Athene, the goddess of wisdom and prudent w a r f a r e , a l t h o u g h Odysseus i s an e m i n e n t l y masculine example o f the q u a l i t i e s  they share.  The G r e c i a n  S t o i c s and the E p i c u r e a n Romans, such as Horace, c o n s i d e r e d Odysseus a noble example o f manly v i r t u e . commentators n o t i c e d  They and o t h e r a n c i e n t  that "Odysseus was the f i r s t  Greek to adopt  the p r i n c i p l e o f 'Nothing i n e x c e s s , which w i t h i t s complementary 1  p r i n c i p l e o f 'Know t h y s e l f  1  produced  so much o f what was b e s t i n  - 16. -  Greek thought and a r t . " ^ a n i s t s can be expected and  What was important  to these a n c i e n t hum-  to have some a p p e a l to modern  humanists,  t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the case w i t h MacLennan. L i k e A l f r e d , L o r d Tennyson, a V i c t o r i a n humanist who was  drawn to the Odyssey ("Ulysses", 1842; "To U l y s s e s " , 1888) and a man  w i t h whom MacLennan has some a f f i n i t y ,  the Canadian has a  sympathy w i t h the Odysseus f i g u r e t h a t seems to become a matter of s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  As o f t e n happens when an author works  out i n h i s w r i t i n g s what amounts to an i n t e n s e emotional  experience,  both the w r i t e r h i m s e l f and h i s chosen hero-symbol may be d r a s t i c a l l y changed. F o r the w r i t e r i t c a n be a means o f s e l f d i s c o v e r y , s e l f encouragement, and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . F o r the m y t h i c a l hero who i s the p a r t n e r o f t h i s i m a g i n a t i v e empathy, the e f f e c t may be an e n t i r e l y new mutation i n h i s e v o l u t i o n . 2 5 These " d r a s t i c changes", however, a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n f i n e d to the more s u p e r f i c i a l a s p e c t s o f the f i g u r e and h i s journey, and r a r e l y have any a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on the broader o u t l i n e s o f the quest hero o r the b a s i c p a t t e r n o f the myth.  MacLennan n e g l e c t s  the shrewd and cunning s i d e o f Odysseus' nature and a c c e n t u a t e s the g e n t l e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g stubborn single-mindedness,  side.  He a l s o s t r e s s e s  Odysseus'  o c c a s i o n a l l y a l t e r i n g i t to a b l i n d  and o b s e s s i v e , i f n a i v e and i d e a l i s t i c , w i l l  to do the r i g h t  thing.  ^W. B. S t a n f o r d , The U l y s s e s Theme (Oxford: B l a c k w e l l and Mott, 1963), p. 35 2  2 5  Ibid.,  p. 6  Basil,  -  17.  -  Another of Homer's c h a r a c t e r s who i n MacLennan's n o v e l s  counterpart  i s Odysseus' w i f e , Penelope.  d e p i c t s her as g e n t l e but  Homer  s t r o n g , r e t i c e n t but f i r m , and  a l l wise, wise w i t h an i n t e l l i g e n c e and not  has\lear  seek s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n .  understanding  above  which  P a t i e n t l y she awaits her husband's  r e t u r n , f e n d i n g o f f the p e r s i s t e n t s u i t o r s w i t h one managing her much-disturbed household w i t h  hand,  the o t h e r .  MacLennan  g e n e r a l l y h a n d l e s t h i s b a s i c p i c t u r e of her c h a r a c t e r w i t h modification. found left  He  little  deals s i m i l a r l y with a d d i t i o n a l characters  i n the Odyssey.  Eumaeus, Odysseus' f a i t h f u l  servant,  i n I t h a c a d u r i n g the journey but i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e - i n s t a t i n g  the hero to h i s r i g h t f u l  p o s i t i o n , appears i n v a r i o u s  So does Telemachus, the hero's son, his  do  f a i t h f u l and  obedient  to  strong  and  f a t h e r ' s wishes, y e t independent enough to be  self-reliant  and h o l d promise f o r the f u t u r e .  Penelope - - a r r o g a n t , numerous g u i s e s . and maiden-- who h e l p him to be  greedy and  The  suitors  s e l f i s h - - are presented  C i r c e , Calypso  and Nausicaa  appear under many names.  And  Olympian a n t a g o n i s t , Poseidon,  earth-shaker  in  eventually  f i n a l l y , not  seen as human c h a r a c t e r s i n MacLennan's n o v e l s i n e x o r a b l e f o r c e s , are the gods:  but  as  Odysseus' c h i e f and  l o r d of the  Odysseus' c h i e f a i d , Athene, patron of wisdom and w a r f a r e ; beyond even these,  of  - - w i t c h , nymph  both h i n d e r Odysseus i n h i s quest and  on h i s way,  invisible,  forms.  sea; and  that i n e l u c t a b l e f o r c e to which even the gods  themselves must submit, d i v i n e d e s t i n y , m o i r a , p e r s o n i f i e d as  Fate.  -  18.  -  Other t h i n g s i n Homer's e p i c a l s o appear i n MacLennan's work; f o r example, both w r i t e r s use the sea as a major image. Homer's sea i s a t once dangerous and b e n e f i c i a l :  i t carries  Odysseus away from home, f r u s t r a t i n g h i s r e t u r n , k i l l i n g h i s men and t h r e a t e n i n g him; but e v e n t u a l l y i t c a r r i e s him home a g r e a t e r man than he was b e f o r e . this very  little.  MacLennan's sea d i f f e r s  I n Homer's sea there a r e i s l a n d s o f r e f u g e ,  a g a i n u s u a l l y o f an ambivalent n a t u r e : the L o t o s - e a t e r s ,  there i s the land o f  p a r a d i s a l but s e l f - d e f e a t i n g ; C i r c e ' s i s l a n d ,  t h r e a t e n i n g y e t h e l p f u l ; Calypso's but  from  i s l a n d , a s e n s u a l Eden  l a c k i n g the rewards o f community, o f s o c i e t y ; and f i n a l l y  I t h a c a i t s e l f , r e p r e s e n t i n g home and f a m i l y , the o n l y  place  where Odysseus can f i n d l a s t i n g contentment.  I n the world o f  MacLennan's n o v e l s  These images a r e  such i s l a n d s a l s o appear.  o n l y two o f numerous The world literature,  parallels.  o f the Odyssey, the whole world  i s woven i n t o MacLennan's world  of c l a s s i c a l  so t i g h t l y  that  the two w o r l d s , c l a s s i c a l and modern, sometimes become i n d i s tinguishable.  The d i v i d i n g  i s e x t r e m e l y hard  to draw.  l i n e between myth and s o c i a l r e a l i s m Although MacLennan w r i t e s i n a  " r e a l i s t i c " mode, the e x p l i c i t borrowings from myth f o r the purposes o f s t r u c t u r i n g and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , and the e x p r e s s i o n of i d e a l s drawn from c l a s s i c a l  thought, combined w i t h a d i s t i n c t  sense o f the p r e t e r n a t u r a l , pervade the n o v e l s w i t h an atmosphere that i s not " r e a l i s t i c " ,  an atmosphere that says t h i s i s myth.  Hugh MacLennan i s a mythmaker, a w r i t e r composing f o r and  h i s readers a pattern  i n h i s s o c i e t y and  i n the  Seen as a whole, the  that defines  philosophy.  a basic c o n f l i c t  i n d i v i d u a l s who  comprise t h i s  p a t t e r n a l s o p r o v i d e s an e v e n t u a l  to t h a t c o n f l i c t , a r e s o l u t i o n that  himself both society. resolution  i s f i r m l y set i n c l a s s i c a l  Chapter Two: Barometer R i s i n g : The N a t i o n a l Romance  Hugh MacLennan's f i r s t n o v e l , Barometer R i s i n g , i s explicitly begins  p a t t e r n e d on Homer's Odyssey.  Greek e p i c  i n media r e s , Odysseus r e t u r n i n g to I t h a c a  j o u r n e y i n g f o r nine years R i s i n g a l s o begins the quest, The  The  from the war  a t Troy.  Barometer  i n media r e s , even c l o s e r to the c l i m a x  f o r N e i l Macrae has  the F i r s t World War  of  a l r e a d y come back to H a l i f a x .  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of I t h a c a w i t h H a l i f a x and  an important  after  i s c l e a r l y intended.  the T r o j a n w i t h  A l s o , i n both n a r r a t i v e s ,  f e a t u r e of the q u e s t . i s as y e t unconcluded; Odysseus  must d e a l w i t h  the s u i t o r s who  C o l o n e l Wain and h i s a l l i e s  v a s t l y outnumber him,  Neil  has  to overcome.  C o l o n e l G e o f f r e y Wain, an i s o l a t e d example of N e i l ' s enemies, i s "an ambitious In t h i s he  man  c o n f i d e n t i n h i s own  i s not u n l i k e N e i l , w i t h  N e i l ' s ambition  f o r h i s f e l l o w man.  possibilities"  power and  confidence  from the past and (66).  rejoin  g l o r y without  the  regard  A g a i n not u n l i k e N e i l , Wain i s "pervaded  by a q u i e t and unquestioned pulled a d r i f t  the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t , where  i s p r i m a r i l y to c l e a r h i s name and  community, Wain seeks p e r s o n a l  ability."!  But  t h a t the present  that h i s f u t u r e h e l d u n l i m i t e d  the v i s i o n s the two men  f u t u r e are r a d i c a l l y d i s s i m i l a r .  had  have of  the  Wain e n v i s i o n s a m i l i t a n t ,  ••-Hugh MacLennan, Barometer R i s i n g (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1958), p. 27. A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from the n o v e l are from t h i s e d i t i o n and are f o l l o w e d by page r e f e r e n c e s i n parentheses.  regimented, a u t h o r i t a r i a n s o c i e t y c e n t e r e d on England, a and  d i f f e r e n t k i n d of Empire more a l o n g r i g i d  f a c t , he  foresees a f a s c i s t s t a t e .  i s c l e a r l y opposed to Wain's; he  Roman l i n e s .  sees an independent n a t i o n gone b e f o r e .  N e i l i s an i d e a l i s t i c democrat, Wain i s a s e l f i s h , a u t o c r a t , c o l d and a r r o g a n t , a l t h o u g h  and  there i s a  s u i t o r s of the Odyssey.  i n d i f f e r e n t power he r a d i a t e d  proudly  He has  Too  put from  Here l i e s h i s a f f i n i t y w i t h  the  c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r power, too  of t h e i r i n e v i t a b l e v i c t o r y , both f a t e by  grasping  f o r c e to much e v i d e n t use, a p a r t  maintaining h i s inheritance.  Where  "discrepancy  the mediocre r e c o r d of h i s achievement" (26).  n e i t h e r h i s a b i l i t y nor  In  N e i l ' s v i s i o n i s h a z i e r but  c r e a t i n g a f r e e s o c i e t y s u p e r i o r to what has  between the sense of r u t h l e s s and  new  sure  the s u i t o r s and Wain tempt  swaggering through t h e i r worlds,  unaware t h a t  t h e i r mistaken b e l i e f s are s e l f - d e f e a t i n g . As h i s name i m p l i e s , C o l o n e l Wain i s d e s t i n e d to wane. Because of the d i s p a r i t y , apparent and c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n e x e r t e d by N e i l (the s u i t o r s ) ,  r e a l , between the  (Odysseus) and Wain  the hero must c o n s i d e r d i s c r e t i o n the b e t t e r  p a r t of v a l o u r and  remain hidden.  L i k e Odysseus, N e i l  appears i n h i s n a t i v e community i n a g u i s e i n f e r i o r rightful  position:  first  to h i s  Odysseus i s dressed as a beggar; N e i l  l i k e a tramp, p o o r l y dressed and  i n need o f a shave, " i n England  he would have been l a b e l l e d a gentleman who Circumstances keep N e i l ,  looks  had  l o s t c a s t e " (3).  l i k e Odysseus, a s t r a n g e r i s o l a t e d i n a  - 22. -  community he knows w e l l ,  " r e c o g n i z e d by no-one" ( 5 ) .  i s o l a t i o n has been h i s l o t s i n c e he departed from the war,  f o r "army r o u t i n e had  existence (93). to  . . .  This  the scene  g i v e n p l a c e to a phantasmal  i n which n o t h i n g had been r e a l but  In terms of the Homeric work, the i s o l a t e d  loneliness" l i f e i s equal  the b u l k o f Odysseus' j o u r n e y , t h a t time f o l l o w i n g the T r o j a n  War,  and much o f Odysseus' e x i s t e n c e i s l i t e r a l l y  specifically  t h a t spent  i n the underworld.  "phantasmal,"  This c l e a r l y  connects  w i t h N e i l ' s f e e l i n g t h a t "he might as w e l l be dead as the he was,  s i n c e the c h i e f l o s s i n death was  communicate" (45). cannot  He  is s t i l l  the a b i l i t y  to  i n a s t a t e of detachment  and  i n the p l a c e he knew as home" ( 7 ) , u n t i l he has  a b l e "to square a time N e i l  some a c c o u n t s "  (108), as he  says he must.  i s Penelope who  differs  first  r e c o g n i z e s N e i l , and here  from the e p i c , where i t i s Telemachus who  father,  to been For  i s f o r c e d to w a i t h e l p l e s s l y and watch, "conscious of  wanting to get back to Penelope more than a n y t h i n g e l s e "  his  way  f u l f i l l h i s "simple d e s i r e f o r an acknowledged r i g h t  e x i s t here  It  of  (199).  the n o v e l first  recognizes  Odysseus.  Penelope Wain shares many q u a l i t i e s w i t h her model, Homer's wise Penelope.  She has an i n n e r c o o l n e s s , "a m e r c i f u l power  w i t h i n h e r s e l f t h a t enabled her to s p i l l c o o l water over her b r a i n and make i t l u c i d  i n moments of c r i s i s "  Odysseus' w i f e a c t s w e l l a t c r i t i c a l  moments.  (85), and Both  certainly  Penelopes  have a s e r e n i t y t h a t a l l o w s them to cope w i t h f r u s t r a t i o n , Homer's  -.23.  w i t h the irksome f a t h e r and  -  s u i t o r s , MacLennan's w i t h her  i n s u f f e r a b l e aunt, M a r i a .  domineering  Furthermore,  MacLennan's  words d e s c r i b i n g Penny Wain might j u s t as e a s i l y be used d e s c r i b e her Homeric c o u n t e r p a r t : absorbed and  and  i n repose  to  "her face seemed  p r i v a t e , " w h i l e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n "her face opened  d i s c l o s e d a sympathetic  and comprehensive mind" (10).  These pensive and c o n t r o l l e d minds, however, are not f o r e v e r serene;  the c o n s t a n t a s s a u l t s of the s u i t o r s have opened a  c h i n k i n Penelope's  armour and have s l i g h t l y weakened her r e s o l v e ,  w h i l e , b e f o r e N e i l ' s appearance, Penny has an " i n c r e a s i n g of her v u l n e r a b i l i t y " fact  (20).  T h i s does not d e t r a c t from  sense  the  t h a t both women have s u c c e s s f u l l y kept the s u i t o r s f o r  t h e i r a f f e c t i o n s a t bay, with her ship design.  Penelope w i t h her famous loom, Penny  And  this a b i l i t y  to cope w i t h  an  e x t r a o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n i s d o u b t l e s s what causes Angus Murray to compliment Penny by c a l l i n g her finally  to say,  " p r e t t y shrewd" (17), and  "Wise Penelope!  Neil  That's what Odysseus s a i d to  \  h i s w i f e when he got home" (219). The r o l e of Eumaeus, Odysseus' f a i t h f u l p l a y e d i n Barometer R i s i n g by A l e c MacKenzie. all life  t h a t i s good - - l o y a l t y , honesty,  harmony w i t h n a t u r e : He  i s a man  is  Alec represents  p a t i e n c e - - i n the o l d  of Nova S c o t i a , j u s t as Eumaeus does i n I t h a c a .  come from the l a n d , and has  one.  swineherd,  A l e c has  l e a r n e d h i s v a l u e s by working i n  h i s has been a hard  of the domestic  l i f e but a  fulfilling  breed, as N e i l r e c o g n i z e s , f o r  - 24.  "his  walk had  -  the melancholy rhythm of a ruminant a n i m a l "  "he h e l d the words i n h i s mouth as (46).  L i k e Eumaeus, A l e c  i s not  exhibits  depend on i n t e l l i g e n c e , and  i n r e - i n s t a t i n g N e i l (Odysseus) to h i s  position.  As N e i l n o t e s , "Alec and he  r o o t s ; now  i t was  almost as  cud"  o v e r l y i n t e l l i g e n t but  those homely v i r t u e s which do not i s instrumental  though they were a  and  rightful  stemmed from the same  i f A l e c were about to h e l p  him  v i n d i c a t e h i s f a t h e r f o r years of h u m i l i a t i o n s u f f e r e d a t hands of the Wains" (131).  N e i l i s to r e s t o r e h i s  honour, as Odysseus r e s t o r e s N e i l himself on a quest.  t h a t of L a e r t e s  sometimes r e c o g n i z e s  When he  i s most alone and  "a d i s t o r t e d image of h i m s e l f  A f t e r the e x p l o s i o n , for  revenge on C o l o n e l Wain, he  i n h i s e x i l e was in had  a f t e r he has  the  despondent, he  never saw  recognizes  f u t u r e he would always be a b l e  best a n a l y s t o f h i s own through Penny Wain and  i n the  quest  many myriads the  light"  (88).  t h a t the  "bitterness  to t e l l h i m s e l f  past"  (200).  that  N e i l i s not  him  he the  s i t u a t i o n , however, f o r i t i s l a r g e l y Angus Murray t h a t MacLennan makes e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t e s h i s place  in  pattern.  Penny t e l l s us and  Lilliput  No m a t t e r what happened to  statements about N e i l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and the  has  worked o f f h i s v i o l e n t d e s i r e  quite extinguished.  s u r v i v e d worse t h i n g s  Odyssey.  h i s r o l e as a wanderer  as a G u l l i v e r i n t h i s  swarmed underneath and  the  father's  i n the  wrenching the r o o f s o f f houses to d i s c o v e r how of creatures  he  t h a t N e i l i s "impetuous, . . . e x p l o s i v e  o b l i v i o u s to what other  people might be  t h i n k i n g " (113).  Here,  - 25.  MacLennan i s a c c e n t u a t i n g the v i o l e n t s i d e o f the Odysseus f i g u r e ' s n a t u r e , because  i t s u i t s h i s purpose  to do so. I f  N e i l were as shrewd as Odysseus, and had h i s f o r e s i g h t , he would know e x a c t l y what he was g o i n g to do and where i t would him.  T h i s , MacLennan does n o t d e s i r e , f o r he wishes  h i s hero's f u t u r e i n doubt a t the end o f the n o v e l .  lead  to leave N e i l must  be the man t h a t Penny knows i s " c a r e l e s s and impetuous and o v e r - c o n f i d e n t o f h i s own a b i l i t y  to shape the w o r l d a c c o r d i n g  to h i s own d e s i g n " (106), f o r he r e p r e s e n t s Canada?s f u t u r e . Penny may be bothered a l i t t l e by h i s b l i n d i d e a l i s m , but she a l s o sees him as "the o n l y eager human b e i n g she had ever known" (106), and she i s drawn to t h i s v i t a l , It  positive  eagerness.  i s "wise" Penelope who f i n a l l y makes c l e a r the b a s i c h e r o i c  quality i n Neil:  "By nature he would f i g h t  a c h i e v e a human s i g n i f i c a n c e  i n d e f i n i t e l y to  i n an age where the products o f  human i n g e n u i t y make mockery o f the men who had c r e a t e d them. He would f i g h t because courage"  (216).  n o t h i n g y e t had been too b i g f o r h i s  S i m i l a r l y , Angus t e l l s us much o f the h e r o ,  and h i s p l a c e i n the quest p a t t e r n when he speaks  Neil  of himself:  So, l i k e the wanderer, the sun gone down, darkness be over me, my r e s t a stone - - t h a t ' s your Nova S c o t i a n , i f you've the eye to see i t . Wanderers. Looking a l l over the c o n t i n e n t f o r a future. But they always come back. That's the p o i n t to remember, they always come back to the r o o t s . ( 1 3 6 ) Nova S c o t i a n s --and the c u l t u r e h e r o , N e i l Macrae, e p i t o m i z e s Nova S c o t i a n s - - f o l l o w the path o f the c e n t r i p e t a l quest back to t h e i r o r i g i n s .  This p a t t e r n r e c u r s t r a g i c a l l y i n Each Man's S_  - 26. -  but i n t h i s n o v e l the c y c l e i s comic, as Angus p o i n t s out when he  says, "I've seen a man t h a t ' s r i s e n from the dead" (137).  MacLennan has begun to blend the c l a s s i c a l and the C h r i s t i a n : N e i l Macrae has become n o t o n l y an Odyssean c u l t u r e hero, but something o f a messiah as w e l l . N e i l i s a s o c i a l messiah r a t h e r than a r e l i g i o u s one, and, although  the C h r i s t i a n messiah i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h a lamb, N e i l  i s a s s o c i a t e d with o t h e r a n i m a l s .  h i s r e - i n s t a t e m e n t , he imagines  Before  h i m s e l f as "a f i s h on the end  of a hook" ( 7 ) , and t h i s image o f the trapped animal  i s picked  >  up l a t e r when Penny i s t h i n k i n g o f N e i l ' s s i t u a t i o n .  As she  t h i n k s , h e r a t t e n t i o n i s r e p e a t e d l y drawn to a c a t which "had finally  t a n g l e d h i m s e l f i n e x t r i c a b l y i n the b a l l o f wool, and  w i t h b a f f l e d and desperate  d i g n i t y was t r y i n g to get f r e e "  L a t e r , he " r o l l e d over, c l a w i n g f r a n t i c a l l y .  (106).  Whenever he e x t r i c a t e d  h i m s e l f from one loop he i n v o l v e d h i m s e l f i n a n o t h e r "  (107).  This may remind the reader o f a r e f e r e n c e much e a r l i e r i n the n o v e l to N e i l ' s b e i n g l i k e an "animal bunched f o r a s p r i n g " ( 2 ) . The animal b e s t known f o r bunching  itself  of the c a t f a m i l y ( l i o n s and t i g e r s ) .  i s the c a t , o r members  These animals have  such  noble c a r r i a g e and a r e so e x p r e s s i v e o f power and s t r e n g t h both m a n i f e s t and h i d d e n heroes.  t h a t they a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  N e i l i s seen as a c a t , which, though domestic, has an  independent,  unmanageable n a t u r e .  He may be trapped, but t h a t  w i l l not s t o p h i s f i g h t i n g to get f r e e . As Northrop Frye i n d i c a t e s , In the comic v i s i o n the animal w o r l d i s a community of dome s t i c a t e d a n i m a l s , u s u a l l y a f l o c k o f sheep, or a lamb, or one o f the g e n t l e r b i r d s , u s u a l l y a dove. The a r c h e t y p e o f p a s t o r a l images. I n the t r a g i c v i s i o n the animal w o r l d i s seen i n terms o f b e a s t s and b i r d s of prey, wolves, v u l t u r e s , s e r p e n t s , dragons and the l i k e . 2 Such a d i v i s i o n o f animal imagery does appear i n Barometer Rising.  A l e c MacKenzie  i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a domestic a n i m a l ,  a "ruminant a n i m a l " which chews i t s cud. the  While N e i l  represents  more a c t i v e a s p e c t o f the comic v i s i o n i n the novel, A l e c  r e p r e s e n t s the more g e n t l e . vision,  too.  There i s , o f c o u r s e , a t r a g i c  N e i l speaks o f "the hyenas  a r o u n d " (110) Penny, and, a f t e r  o f the f a m i l y p r o w l i n g  the e x p l o s i o n , he i s i r r i t a t e d  by the f a l l i n g snow, f o r i t i s "as though the f l a k e s had been a swarm o f f l i e s "  (197).  These images  of c a r r i o n - e a t e r s  circling  a dying or dead animal h e l p to c r e a t e a mood o f death, i m p l y i n g a : n o r t a l l y wounded c i t y , a d y i n g or dead s o c i e t y .  This had  been h i n t e d a t b e f o r e i n N e i l ' s f e e l i n g t h a t , i f he t o r e the r o o f s from the c i t y houses, he ntfoiit d i s c o v e r myriads o f c r e a t u r e s swarming underneath  (88).  The i m p r e s s i o n i s o f maggots or  te:rmites e a t i n g a t a r o t t e n c o r e . Barometer  Animal imagery i s important i n  R i s i n g , but n a t u r e imagery i s o f even g r e a t e r importance.  I t i s through images  o f n a t u r e t h a t MacLennan p o r t r a y s  many o f the opposing f o r c e s a t work i n the n o v e l .  "Archetypes o f L i t e r a t u r e , " F a b l e s , pp.  Particularly  20-21  -  28.  -  important are images o f water - - s p r i n g s , r i v e r s , and the sea. These waters a r e a t work both o u t s i d e and lor Neil,  i n s i d e the c h a r a c t e r s ,  the sea can be an image o f i s o l a t i o n , and i t takes  o n l y a t h i n breeze from the sea to make "him f e e l s o l i t a r y " (3).  Penny, s i t t i n g a l o n e , f e e l s  entirely  "as though a stone  had been plunged i n t o the pool o f h e r mind u n t i l her memories were s u r g i n g l i k e  t r o u b l e d w a t e r s " and  and a sense o f l o s s " (14).  "she ached w i t h  But the waters are e m o t i o n a l l y  ambivalent, f o r the memories become p l e a s a n t ones and recollects  loneliness  t h a t "as she walked  she  alone i t had been p o s s i b l e to  imagine an aeon o f t r a n q u i l l i t y broadening out l i k e a sea under the s k y " (14).  W.  H. Auden has made an i n t e r e s t i n g  and  u s e f u l a n a l y s i s o f t h i s type o f image, and concludes t h a t  the  "Sky as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h water Na.ture."  3  peace may  [equals}  Penny's t r a n q u i l l i t y o f sea under sky suggests  that  be found when s p i r i t and nature are i n harmony.  But  the waters are r a r e l y , i f e v e r , s t i l l . r e c o l l e c t i o n of t r a n q u i l l i t y , "how  S p i r i t as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h  Shortly a f t e r her  Penny q u i v e r s a t the thought o f  h e l p l e s s h e r e x i s t e n c e had been i n the c u r r e n t o f f o r c e s  she had been a b l e n e i t h e r to p r e d i c t nor c o n t r o l " (15).  A  sense o f c u r r e n t s or t i d e s , u n c o n t r o l l a b l e , sometimes a p p e a r i n g m a l i g n a n t , sometimes benign, o f t e n b l i n d and m i n d l e s s , i s v e r y s t r o n g throughout  the n o v e l .  The Enchafed F l o o d (New  Young Roddie Wain, watching  York:  Random House, 1950),  the  p.  75.  29.  troop s h i p Olympic  go h u l l - d o w n over the h o r i z o n , suddenly  feels  empty and a l o n e . The waves b r e a k i n g l i g h t l y on the smooth iStones o f the shore were l i k e an u n e a r t h l y l a u g h t e r , and t h e i r sound was c o n s t a n t and a l l - p e r v a d i n g , w i p i n g out the r e a l i t y o f what he had j u s t seen and f i l l i n g h i s mind w i t h an unreasonable sense of disenchantment. (56) Roddie has been u n s e t t l e d by a t a s t e o f the i n e x o r a b l e powers of n a t u r e , the slow, l e v e l l i n g the mighty waters h o l d  f o r c e s o f change to which  Olympic must e v e n t u a l l y f a l l . peace,  too.  But the  of the room, the t a b l e s and c h a i r s and  and  "the w a l l s  the p i c t u r e o f the  the sea, f l o w i n g a g a i n s t h i s e y e b a l l s  ebbing away w i t h a motion but h i s thoughts, and And  shifting  To the drunken Angus Murray, t i r e d  a f r a i d o f a r e a l i t y which appears u g l y and f u t i l e ,  dead duck surged l i k e  even  and  so steady i t d e s t r o y e d e v e r y t h i n g  from those i t removed the p a i n " (134).  to Penny, a f t e r h e r eye o p e r a t i o n , when the e x p l o d i n g ,  r a p i d l y changing w o r l d seems to have become too much to bear, "through the w e l l i n g waters . . .  no  l o n g e r seemed o f much importance"  has become as N e i l now now,  o f h e r e x h a u s t i o n . . . the (175-76).  future  Penny  has, concerned o n l y w i t h the here  the f i g h t a t hand.  and  By the time she and N e i l s e t o f f t o g e t h e r  a.: the end o f the n o v e l , she i s ready to go on r e g a r d l e s s , to accept that "titanic  "she was  forces"  i n the c u r r e n t now"  (216).  (215), i n the g r i p of  The b a s i c o p p o s i t i o n i m p l i e d  and  s t a t e d i n these images i s one o f f l u x to s t a s i s , o f motion r e s t , and MacLennan's sympathies S i m i l a r o p p o s i t i o n s appear  seem to be w i t h the  to  flux.  i n o t h e r n a t u r e images, and  images of  - 30.  the g e n e r a l  setting.  I t becomes e v i d e n t novel  -  that there  made, and there  i n the v e r y f i r s t  paragraph o f  the  i s an o p p o s i t i o n between nature and the manis a strong suggestion,  between l i g h t and d a r k n e s s .  too,  o f an o p p o s i t i o n  The n a r r a t o r s a y s ,  "In the west  the w i n t e r sky was b r i l l i a n t and c l o u d s massing under the  sun  were t a k i n g on c o l o u r , but smoke hung low i n the s t r e e t s " The l i g h t - d a r k n e s s o p p o s i t i o n becomes s t r o n g e r when N e i l  (1). is  seen l o o k i n g west to watch the s u n s e t , a "shedding b l a z e o f crowning the c o n t i n e n t " east;  (4),  w h i l e darkness moves  i n from the  " i t s p i l l e d over from the l a n d and lapped the  massive  s i d e s of the g r a v i n g - d o c k and the h u l l s of v e s s e l s r i d i n g  at  anchor;  .  i t advanced westward from the h i d d e n sea;  was behind i t " ( 9 ) . to the c i t y ;  of  s h i p y a r d s can be seen "the  long s k e l e t o n  time a s s o c i a t e d  Once a g a i n  this  Significantly,  sunsets are g l o r i o u s l y p o s i t i v e  the  is  there  with darkness.  to C o l o n e l Wain they seem n e g a t i v e .  w i t h a vague sense of d i s t a s t e  attention  In the Wain  i s a sense o f d e a t h ,  and N e i l Macrae,  fog  of a s h i p under c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  k e e l b u r i e d i n the n i g h t " ( 9 ) .  while  .  the s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e  minimized and d r i v e n inward to the man-made.  l y i n g with i t s  and .  The e n c r o a c h i n g darkness f o r c e s  consciousness  glory  to the n a r r a t o r He notes  "glow o f sunset r e e k i n g over  the sheds and s p i l l i n g on the f l a t water o f the h a r b o u r "  (62).  One reason f o r Wain's d i s t a s t e may be due to MacLennan's use sunsets to appear p r o p h e t i c of change.  Wain, of c o u r s e ,  of  stands  for  the s t a t u s quo.  The  the Tuesday evening d e s c r i b e s Bedford  evening  Wain watches the sunset  p r i o r to the e x p l o s i o n , the n a r r a t o r  B a s i n as  "walled by d a r k n e s s . " The  l i g h t s of the s h i p s i n the B a s i n f l i c k e r f i r e f l i e s motionless is  "reeking,  i n the v o i d . "  l i k e a scene p r i o r to c r e a t i o n .  The  riding  " l i k e a swarm o f dark, m o t i o n l e s s  void  Meanwhile, " i n the f a r west  t a e r e remained, l i k e a t i n y i s l a n d b u r n i n g w i t h a d i s t a n t f i r e , a s l i v e r of c l o u d s t i l l sun" .  (75).  A little  r e f l e c t i n g the glow from the  l a t e r , N e i l n o t i c e s the  . . to the ground . . . and  shook l o o s e one their d r i f t  by one  to the s e a " (79).  a motion toward^ the e a s t ,  "darkness descended  s p l i n t e r e d clouds  from the  i n the west  t u r m o i l of the sunset  the e a r t h was  face of the waters. was  And And  began  toward the dark v o i d of Bedford  without  the face of the deep.  and  S p l i n t e r s of l i g h t have begun  The whole scene i s pervaded by a sense of imminent "^nd  sunken  form, and v o i d ; and  Basin.  genesis:  darkness was  upon  the S p i r i t of God moved upon the  God  s a i d , L e t there be  light:  and  there  light." It  i s immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s  " p r o p h e t i c " scene that  N e i l has h i s v i s i o n of the sun moving a c r o s s a l l Canada, a vision full  of the knowledge of e t e r n a l change.  the St. Lawrence R i v e r he  (and by e x t e n s i o n  Thinking  of  i t s whole watershed),  imagines " a l l the time the deep water poured seaward under  the i c e . "  The  p r a i r i e s he  t h i n k s of as  over which the wind passed i n a f i r m and  "endless  plains . . .  continuous  flux  . . .  1  - 32.  -  over the wheat seeds f r o z e n i n t o the a l l u v i a l e a r t h . " the e a r t h , being a l l u v i a l , Of  the  i s subject  towering Rockies, "the  to the  sense o f the mutable i s s t r o n g :  f o r the o n l y  t h i n g constant  beginning.  j u s t as  subject  stability  i s an  i s change.  dominates the a c t i o n i n the n o v e l , of the c h a r a c t e r s .  f o r c e s of change.  peaks were gleaming o b e l i s k s "  (79), o b e l i s k s o l d e r than Egypt's but 'Che  c o n t r o l l i n g the  sun,  the power of l i g h t , i s Opposed to t h i s ,  or power of darkness, i s l i n k e d to the e a s t .  the  s t a b l e but  s o c i e t y of H a l i f a x , f o r e v e r  progress.  Like  i n the house was  the house, H a l i f a x h e r s e l f , "her  represents  recognizes  sees the house  s p i r i t of darkness.  back to the c o n t i n e n t  and  to the Old Country . . . would l i e here i n a l l weathers  unchangeably the same, and her (32).  repre-  toward England,  Penny Wain  evil  night  entrenched  ever changed" and  i n c u b u s " (18), an o p p r e s s i v e ,  he:r face  The  the  east  t u r n i n g i t s eyes e a s t  i : ; i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the o l d Wain house.  as; "an  The  decadent, w h i l e the west  f u t u r e , o f f e r i n g change and  t h a t "nothing  i n e v i t a b l e as  light.  g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the west.  past,  the  of the Odyssey as a model i n d i c a t e s  In Barometer R i s i n g , the  the  destinies  i f N e i l i s to triumph, so i s the c h i e f f o r c e  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h him,  sents  erosion.  illusion,  MacLennan makes t h i s v e r y c l e a r from  H i s obvious use  And,  to  I n e x o r a b l e change  a.t once to the reader t h a t N e i l ' s triumph i s as Odysseus'.  Even  But  b e l l s would r i n g i n the  the b e l l s r i n g i n v a i n , f o r the c i t y has  darkness"  isolated  - 33.  itself  too c o m p l e t e l y  nature: its  it  is  -  from North American s o c i e t y and from  a " c l e a r i n g i n the f o r e s t  back to the western w i l d e r n e s s ,  one of i t s like  f r o n t i n g the sea"  ignoring i t .  It  s m a l l p a r t s , Wain's Wharf, which has an  "the gateway to a c o l o n i a l  fort."  It  is  is  like  entrance  solid,  yet  it  manages "to g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n that a t some time i n i t s i t had been b e s i e g e d " (57). constantly The c i t y  a fort,  cage" (197).  Its  and because of  inhabitants  Any n o b i l i t y i t has  is  it  is  are imprisoned by t h e i r own w i l l . borrowed from  bad weather" destroyed,  change,  from the west which b r i n g the odour of  and i g n o r e d the (177).  fact It  is  the e s t a b l i s h e d  of the  that  the  place  .  .  . like a  "east wind always  spruce  tonic" brought  not u n t i l the c i t y has been  largely  a t t i t u d e s d i s r u p t e d and b r o k e n ,  " i n s t e a d o f b e i n g p u l l e d eastward by B r i t a i n , " H a l i f a x , w i t h the r e s t of Canada,  ignore.  a l s o a "diminutive  a " f a l s e n o b i l i t y " (141)  t r e e s making "the atmosphere (49),  this,  chooses to  The c i t y has b l i n d l y i g n o r e d the winds o f  i g n o r e d the winds  past  the c i t y has been  under s e i g e from the v e r y nature i t  is  the s u n .  In f a c t ,  (139),  "would h e r s e l f  decay and g i v e her a new b i r t h "  that  joining  pull Britain clear  of  (201).  Only one p a r t of the o l d Wain p r o p e r t y has any p o s i t i v e the o n l y p a r t that with i t s l a n d of  Penny has any r e a l a f f e c t i o n  summer house and lime t r e e s r e m i n i s c e n t the s u n .  Here l i e s a patch of  light  for, of  the the  in a field  val  garden tropics, of  - 34.  darkness.  -  Here, a l t h o u g h the season  i s deep w i n t e r w i t h  the  sun a t i t s lowest r e a c h south, the w i n t e r s u n l i g h t i s prophetically The  " l i k e a net thrown over the f r o z e n garden"  (106).  sun has c a s t i t s net and w i l l r e t u r n f o r i t s c a t c h .  The  sun w i l l r e t u r n to r e v i v e the c i t y a f t e r the e x p l o s i o n j u s t as i t w i l l r e t u r n to r e v i v e and now  "silent  daylight  r e s t o r e the w i n t e r w i l d e r n e s s ,  and empty i n the hush b e f o r e snow, and  l i k e a r u i n e d house" (71).  filled  with  But b e f o r e the sun r e t u r n s  the c i t y must e x p e r i e n c e u t t e r darkness, which i t does on  the  n i g h t f o l l o w i n g the e x p l o s i o n , "the d a r k e s t n i g h t anyone i n H a l i f a x c o u l d remember" (177). f o r c e s opposed throughout  The e x p l o s i o n i s where the g r e a t  the n o v e l meet.  The  time d e p i c t e d i n  the n o v e l , i t s p r e s e n t , i s t h a t moment from which can be viewed the past and  the o l d s o c i e t y  ( s t a b l e , decadent,  the f u t u r e w i t h i t s promise of a new  society  w a r l i k e ) , and  (active,  fresh,  peaceful). The Mont Blanc, f i l l e d w i t h e x p l o s i v e s which are a of  the o l d s o c i e t y , explodes  that s o c i e t y .  The  to r e s u l t  product  i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of  e x p l o s i o n i s b l i n d i n i t s s e l e c t i o n of  v i c t i m s , b l i n d as nature i s b l i n d .  Jim and Mary F r a s e r ,  two  g e n t l e , humane, p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r s , are k i l l e d h o r r i b l y , Mary's head s e t t l i n g While  i n death  " l i k e a c u t flower on i t s s t a l k "  the n e g a t i v e C o l o n e l Wain i s k i l l e d , so i s the  A l e c MacKenzie. e x p l o s i o n world  (156)  positive  Both these c h a r a c t e r s e p i t o m i z e the o l d , pre- Wain, the e s t a b l i s h e d c i t y  s o c i e t y ; MacKenzie,  the simple r u r a l s o c i e t y doomed to e x t i n c t i o n .  MacKenzie, s u f f e r s  - 35.  his  i n j u r i e s s a v i n g the l i f e  of h i s son, who  p a r t of the f u t u r e s o c i e t y . a fort  -  The  shattered c i t y  i s seen i n m i l i t a r y images:  working to salvage  lives  on to become  that was  once  a b a t t l e g r o u n d , where  something from the mess appear " l i k e  va.nguard of an a t t a c k i n g army stopped  the  i n i t s t r a c k s " (195);  the harbour i s " l i k e a s i m i t a r w i t h broken edges" (195); a f t e r the snow, the c i t y seems "a white s h i e l d sharp-edged s t a r s " (213). edge, n a t u r e ' s  men  and,  . . . under  Though man's weapons have l o s t  have n o t .  But  the weapons are d i s c a r d e d .  the g r e a t c o n f l i c t  i s over  the their  and  H a l i f a x ' s v a l u e as a weapon i n  f o r e i g n wars i s l a r g e l y d i m i n i s h e d .  The  o l d H a l i f a x has  fallen  as s u r e l y as the empires of the Near E a s t e r n and A f r i c a n d e s e r t s to  l i e hidden  i n the  " p r i m a l s o l i t u d e of snow d r i f t i n g  sand over  the r u i n s " (197).  mistakes:  " E v e r y t h i n g was  Nature i s a l r e a d y c o v e r i n g man's b u r i e d under shimmering snow so  d e l i c a t e l y c l e a n t h a t i t seemed as to c o n c e a l But  like  though nature had  conspired  the m i s b e g o t t e n e f f e c t s of human i n g e n u i t y "  there i s a sense, too, t h a t some g i a n t f o r c e has  (213).  deliberately  c r e a t e d the d i s a s t e r , f o r the c i t y appears as i f "punched i n by a colossal f i s t "  (201).  The  fist  F r a n k e n s t e i n monster generated breeding of  by man's greed  f o r c e s g r e a t e r than he can c o n t r o l .  f o r power, T h i s i s another  the p r e t e r n a t u r a l elements i n the n o v e l , and  suggestion for  i s that of some t i t a n i c  of MacLennan's c l a s s i c i s m .  perhaps  another  On one hand, the  suitors  Penny's a f f e c t i o n s ( C o l o n e l Wain and  are d e s t r o y e d ,  and,  example  the  where Odysseus i s a i d e d by  establishment) the hand o f Athene,  N e i l i s a i d e d by the hand of Fortune or chance.  On the o t h e r  hand, combined w i t h the g e n e r a l f e e l i n g of d e s t i n y throughout  the  n o v e l , t h i s f i n a l blow transcends c o i n c i d e n c e (which i t would be c a l l e d , were the n o v e l " r e a l i s t i c " ) and assumes the nature o f necessity.  The e x p l o s i o n then becomes a d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n ,  as a punishment f o r man's h u b r i s , or simply an  sent  inevitable  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of moira, F a t e , a r e s t o r a t i o n o f balance i n s o c i e t y and n a t u r e . The e x p l o s i o n over --the r e t r i b u t i o n exacted, the of o p p o s i t e s s e t t l e d , w i t h the power of l i g h t  conflict  triumphant--  the  hero s e t s f o r t h from the scene of b a t t l e to r e s t o r e harmony to the community.  In t h i s , N e i l p a r a l l e l s  e p i c quest, the A e n e i d .  the hero o f V i r g i l ' s  The hero of the Roman work, Aeneas,  f o l l o w s a path s i m i l a r to t h a t o f Odysseus, but the g o a l of h i s quest i s to found a new N e i l passes through b i t t e r them.  prime  c i t y and s t a t e .  L i k e Aeneas,  times, but he i s not d e f e a t e d by  MacLennan makes the p a r a l l e l between the A e n e i d  Barometer R i s i n g c l e a r when he has N e i l  and  think,  F o r s a n e t haec o l i m meminisse i n v a b i t ^ s i c j . Only one who had e x p e r i e n c e d u l t i m a t e t h i n g s c o u l d comprehend the g r e a t n e s s o f t h a t l i n e . (200)4 L i k e Aeneas, N e i l and,  f e e l s i t i s h i s d e s t i n y to found a new  l i k e Odysseus, he has  further t r i a l s  to undergo.  city, The  ^•"Perhaps one day t h i s too w i l l be p l e a s a n t to remember." A e n e i d , Book I , 203.  s t a r s are i n h i s f a v o u r .  As N e i l and  their child  the f u t u r e i s c o n t a i n e d ) , an image  ( i n the c h i l d  of the s t a r s h i n t s a t the f u t u r e . O r i o n a t t h e i r backs was O r i o n the hunter,  The 'Bear hung over  as i s noted arm  The  soon reach h i s z e n i t h and  bear hangs d i r e c t l y over  the B a s i n ,  and,  to the f u t u r e .  i n a n c i e n t western m y t h o l o g i e s ,  d i r e c t i o n of p a r a d i s e .  westward i s the  C e r t a i n l y i t i s to the west t h a t Penny  t u r n t h e i r faces to c a t c h on the breeze  s m e l l of balsam" (219).  The  a i r is clearing,  tremor of a r i s i n g wind" (219). as the d e s t i n i e s o f both N e i l and  The  quest  "the f r e s h  the barometer  r i s i n g as the weather improves, and N e i l hears  "the  slight  i s not y e t  Canada are not y e t  finished, realized.  s p i r i t has been born, and N e i l must plunge i n t o  "a.nomalous l a n d . . . s p r a w l i n g waste . . . empty t r a c t primordial silences," this mark, t h i s f u t u r e " (79). before  "unborn m i g h t i n e s s , Neil calls  remains.  to i t s b i r t h .  But  this  this  of  question  the n a t i o n "unborn"  the e x p l o s i o n , the c a t a c l y s m which may  equivalent  Basin,  i n the p r o p h e t i c " g e n e s i s " scene, s t r e t c h e s "a l o n g  Traditionally,  But a new  the  r e p r e s e n t i n g the o l d , war-breeding s o c i e t y  to the n o r t h w e s t " (75), p o i n t i n g the way  and N e i l  find  mounting toward h i s z e n i t h " (216).  f i g h t i n g to the death i n Europe, w i l l then d e c l i n e .  Penny s e t f o r t h to  be  considered  the q u e s t i o n mark, the f u t u r e ,  N e i l does not know e x a c t l y what he  i s going  to do  ( n e i t h e r does Canada), but, whatever i t i s , i t w i l l be h i s  - 38. -  independent d e c i s i o n and a c t . Throughout  the n o v e l there i s a heavy s t r e s s on the  process of change i n nature and s o c i e t y . at  one  Many o f the c h a r a c t e r s  time or another express t h e i r awareness o f changes  occurring.  For example, Roddie Wain i s made aware o f change,  g;ently when he watches the Olympic  s a i l away, h a r s h l y when he  l e a r n s o f the deaths o f Jim and Mary F r a s e r , a l e s s o n which i s "the  abrupt and r u t h l e s s impingement o f the unseen and  i n c a l c u l a b l e i n t o h i s own of  life"  c o u r s e , Penny r e c o g n i z e s t h a t  (187).  the  More d e e p l y than  "the r i g i d automatic l i f e  h e r f a m i l y ' s h i e r a r c h y had been blown wide a p a r t " (191). change may  occur i n two d i f f e r e n t ways or f o r two  reasons^ undetermined  Roddie, of Such  different  and undeterminable chance, or d e t e r m i n i n g  and d e t e r m i n a b l e d e s t i n y . "Nothing matters i n the w o r l d but chance" Jim  F r a s e r , and h i s and Mary's deaths would seem to r e - e n f o r c e  t h i s view. self  Less ready to a c c e p t t h i s , N e i l Macrae f i n d s him-  " t r y i n g to r e s i s t  the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t chance and  terous a c c i d e n t had complete  c o n t r o l of h i s l i f e "  chance has a c e r t a i n , even a major, chance might  (134).  That "One  l e a d him to another w i t h no b i n d i n g l i n k but a  a f u t u r e which  past" (7).  prepos-  c o n t r o l he cannot deny.  p e c u l i a r t e n a c i t y which made him determined for  (127), says  to preserve h i m s e l f  gave no promise o f b e i n g s u p e r i o r to the  But h i s t e n a c i o u s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to c a r r y on, h i s  deep-seated w i l l  to s u r v i v e , i s not the o n l y t h r e a d to grasp, f o r  - 39. -  "not even . . .  evidence  l i f e was p r o b l e m a t i c degradation (134).  as a f l y ' s .  him t h a t h i s  Rather i t seemed the f i n a l  o f war that i t c o u l d make a man's l i f e appear s o "  N e i l r e c o g n i z e s , as C o l o n e l Wain to h i s disadvantage  does not, but  was a b l e to convince  t h a t "war was now n e i t h e r a game nor a p r o f e s s i o n ,  something he c o u l d n ' t  c o n t r o l o r u n d e r s t a n d " (133).  Neil  sees man i n the g r i p o f u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f o r c e s t h a t he h i m s e l f has  unleashed, f o r c e s that transcend  are working out a p a t t e r n .  chance and a c c i d e n t , and  A man c o u l d determine t h i s  pattern,  i f he c o u l d o n l y step back f a r enough t o see i t i n p e r s e c t i v e . I t i s Angus Murray who best glimpses these their  p a t t e r n s , where N e i l  f o r c e s and comprehends  cannot.  Angus i s an anomaly i n the Homeric p a t t e r n o f Barometer Rising. be  His c l o s e s t counterpart  i n the Odyssey would seem to  Theoclymenus, the prophet who j o i n s Telemachus on h i s r e t u r n  to I t h a c a .  But the p a r a l l e l i s tenuous a t b e s t .  Granted, h i s  r o l e i s p a r t l y p r o p h e t i c , but he adds much more to the n o v e l than t h i s . thoroughly  H i s r o l e i s a t once thoroughly  modern and  classical.  He i s , l i k e N e i l Macrae, an o u t s i d e r , an e x i l e from the entrenched s o c i e t y , engaged i n a quest p l a c e i n the w o r l d .  He i s a man o f s u p e r i o r powers, a d o c t o r  w i t h a broad e d u c a t i o n experienced has  to f i n d a p u r p o s e f u l  and profound understanding,  a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y .  who has  The s o l i t u d e o f h i s e x i l e  produced the courage and endurance to stand a l o n e , but the  - 40.  loneliness i s s t i l l he  -  p a i n f u l to him.  In t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y  i s something o f an a n t i - h e r o , the l o n e l y , d i s s a t i s f i e d  i n t e l l e c t u a l c u t i n the P r u f r o c k p a t t e r n . character allows him  This a s p e c t  He  e q u i v a l e n t of the Chorus i n c l a s s i c a l  Greek drama, the  of the enduring Although he  human v a l u e s above and  i s a rough modern  a l s o h i s r o l e to withdraw o c c a s i o n a l l y and  this  He has  voice  beyond the s t o r y  plays a major part i n working out  perspective.  of h i s  to stand a l o o f much of the time, commenting  c o o l l y on the c h a r a c t e r s and a c t i o n .  in  terms,  itself.  the p l o t , i t i s  put the whole n a r r a t i v e  a number of q u a l i t i e s  t h a t s u i t him  task. Being  by  p r o f e s s i o n a surgeon, Angus i s not one  f o r g e t d e t a i l s or leave loose ends hanging. this aspect  The  to  best example of  of h i s r o l e i s h i s o b t a i n i n g A l e c M a c K e n z i e s . s i g n e d 1  statement of N e i l ' s innocence, which the impetuous N e i l f o r g o t t e n i n the heat of the c r i s i s . --he  for  l i s t s a few o f h i s f a v o r i t e s :  Nichomachaean E t h i c s , R a s h d a l l ' s  has  A l s o , being widely Plato's Republic,  read  the  Theory of Good and E v i l ,  Horace,  C a t u l l u s , Thucydides, Shakespeare and M i l t o n - - and  being able  understand and a p p r e c i a t e what he has  the  i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s t a n c e to be He: stands as he  wholly  epicurean,  and  He  says he  necessary  o b j e c t i v e about the a c t i o n .  i n n e i t h e r camp, n e i t h e r the o l d nor  i n d i c a t e s when he  extremes" (208).  fairly  read, he has  to  the  i s "caught between . . .  new, two  i s f i n a l l y a s t o i c , a b l e to endure, and  exponent of t h i s l i f e and  o f the v i r t u e s of  an  the  -  golden mean.  He  but h i s s o r t i e s his  i s v e r y human--  i n t o the dark s i d e of h i s nature  are a p a r t of  quest.  the i n d i v i d u a l .  t h i n g s more i n terms of the u n i v e r s a l than  Before  the e x p l o s i o n , he  prophesies  f a l l of the o l d , e s t a b l i s h e d world, the t i t l e s  c l a s s i c a l works o f l i t e r a t u r e r i n g i n h i s mind l i k e childhood had  -  i s by no means f a u l t l e s s --he  Angus c o n s i d e r s  and  41.  t h a t he admires making "a  from a c a t h e d r a l which the years The  forgotten ancients  knows them.  R e f l e c t i n g on the  (193)  process  century  going  a u t h o r stands  of  i t s implica-  to be a  of t h i s a l t e r n a t i o n between boredom and p r o v i d e s no  i n spite  of change, he asks h i m s e l f ,  a l l the r e s t of the t w e n t i e t h  He  are  Later i n  the n o v e l , Angus p h i l o s o p h i z e s on the e x p l o s i o n and  continuance  poignant  MacLennan i s c l e a r l y  i n d i c a t i n g h i s sympathies through t h i s c h a r a c t e r .  "Was  great  of the t e c h n i c a l era  i n h i s mind to d i s c a r d e d r e l i g i o n , but,  e v e r y t h i n g , Angus i s g l a d he  tions.  of the  the remembrance of a b e l l heard i n  b l i n d l y emptied" (139).  equivalent  the d e c l i n e  f i n a l answer.  But  violence?"  from where the  omniscient  a t the time of w r i t i n g , the answer i s o b v i o u s l y  "Yes!" and he can expect h i s readers R e f l e c t i n g on the i d e a of coherent  to share  t h i s knowledge.  p a t t e r n s a t work i n the  u n i v e r s e , Murray t h i n k s , "the death o f an i n d i v i d u a l was i n s i g n i f i c a n t event u n l e s s  an  i t c o u l d be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h a p a t t e r n  p o s s e s s i n g a wider meaning" (207).  He  sees no  p a t t e r n i n the  - 42.  H a l i f a x e x p l o s i o n , although t h a t i s there i s the one still  too c l o s e to see  author's own  he  -  senses one  MacLennan s u p p l i e s .  i t . He  makes him  What puts him  is s t i l l  and  caught i n h i s  c o u l d o n l y know the meaning  longer reached a f t e r  (143).  paradox t h a t to f i n d h i m s e l f a man  Neil  like Neil, purpose. the  understanding,  seeks j u s t i c e f o r the maligned and  v a l u e s are h u m a n i s t i c  l i g h t , and  these he  by now  shrewd and  point  profound.  freedom f o r the caged; h i s  to r e g a i n h i s honour and  does.  a t l a s t has  summertime of l i f e  the  and he w i l l not be f a l s e to them.  i s on a quest And  must  reach.  Angus i s g e n t l e and He  the torment of hope"  the r e s u l t of the s u c c e s s f u l quest and  which both Angus and  and  such as A l b e r t Camus'  of peace when he no  lose himself,  the  s o l i d l y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y  i s h i s f e e l i n g t h a t "a man  This i s the  one  Even Angus i s  a man  so l i k e o t h e r modern a n t i - h e r o e s  L'etranger,  The  i s a p e r c e p t i v e man,  c h i e f spokesman, but he  time.  i s there.  He  He,  realize his  passes through the darkness i n t o  a v i s i o n of h i s f u t u r e , a  settled  i n a place t r u l y h i s home (211-12).  become c l e a r t h a t Angus has many of Odysseus'  I t has  qualities  t h a t N e i l does not have, and N e i l many that Angus l a c k s . Together they make a whole Odysseus, and humanist i d e a l s MacLennan v a l u e s  exemplify  so h i g h l y .  the  classical  By u s i n g Homer's  Odyssey as a model f o r h i s n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , MacLennan adds some of the weight of the g r e a t e p i c ' s r e p u t a t i o n  - 43.  to h i s own  s t o r y and,  -  more important,  supplies a h i s t o r i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e which makes the H a l i f a x e x p l o s i o n more i n Canadian h i s t o r y . the s h a t t e r e d Troy.  significant  H a l i f a x i s both the r e s t o r e d I t h a c a Angus Murray i s the r e t u r n e d  and  Odysseus a t  peace i n h i s home; N e i l Macrae i s the r e t u r n e d Odysseus r e u n i t e d w i t h h i s Penelope, the Odysseus who  has  f u r t h e r quests,  Aeneas who  But  the a n c i e n t  has  i s to r a i s e a new  deeper meaning than I t can be  city.  seen, u s i n g Northrop F r y e ' s c r i t e r i a ,  romance.  c o n f l i c t , " and  quest  pattern  this.  Barometer R i s i n g c o n s i s t s of a b l e n d i n g o f two comedy and  and  The a r c h e t y p a l  generic  that plots,  theme of romance i s "argon or  the n o v e l i s l a r g e l y comprised o f such  conflict.  The a r c h e t y p a l theme of comedy i s " a n a g n o r i s i s or r e c o g n i t i o n of a new  born s o c i e t y r i s i n g i n triumph around a somewhat  m y s t e r i o u s hero and h i s b r i d e , " 5 and this.  The movement i n the n o v e l  the n o v e l c l e a r l y  "from a s o c i e t y c o n t r o l l e d by  h a b i t , r i t u a l bondage, a r b i t r a r y law and a s o c i e t y c o n t r o l l e d by youth and o f comedy.  promises  the o l d e r c h a r a c t e r s  pragmatic f r e e d o m "  0  to  is typical  At the same time, i n romance,  the o p p o s i t e poles of the c y c l e s of nature are a s s i m i l a t e d to the o p p o s i t i o n of the hero and h i s enemy. The enemy i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w i n t e r , darkness, c o n f u s i o n , s t e r i l i t y , moribund  Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m 6  Ibid.,  p.  196.  (New  York:  Atheneum, 1966), p.  192.  - 44. l i f e , and o l d age, and the hero w i t h s p r i n g , dawn, o r d e r , f e r t i l i t y , v i g o r , and youth.1 Such a d i a l e c t i c of f o r c e s i s c l e a r l y drawn i n the n o v e l . novel  stands c l o s e r to the  i d e a l of romance than to the  The  ideal  of comedy; hence i t i s a comic-romance. On  the  l e v e l of the i n d i v i d u a l , that of the hero  N e i l Macrae (and a u t h o r and  the  to some extent  Angus Murray), and  of  himself, the  reader,  the quest-romance i s a search of the . . . d e s i r i n g s e l f f o r a f u l f i l l m e n t t h a t w i l l d e l i v e r i t from the a n x i e t i e s of r e a l i t y but w i l l s t i l l c o n t a i n that r e a l i t y . The a n t a g o n i s t s of the quests are o f t e n s i n i s t e r f i g u r e s . . . t h a t c l e a r l y have a parental o r i g i n . 8  The  antagonists  i n Barometer R i s i n g are epitomized  Wain, the hero's u n c l e figures,  and  too, have a place  "wise o l d man."  foster father. i n the n o v e l  Colonel  redeemed  parental  i n such f i g u r e s as  This r o l e i s taken by Angus Murray, and  feminine c o u n t e r p a r t , a potential bride  "the  . . . who  sits  On a more g e n e r a l  q u i e t l y a t home w a i t i n g  i n t o the  188.  8  Ibid.,  p.  193.  9  Ibid.,  p.  195.  first,  the  "This myth i s o f t e n  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f l o o d , the r e g u l a r symbol of the  p.  for  l e v e l , of the s i x i s o l a t a b l e  myth of the b i r t h or r e b i r t h of the h e r o .  Ibid.,  his  come back to her,"9 i s  phases of romance, Barometer R i s i n g f a l l s  7  the  s y b i l l i n e wise-mother f i g u r e , o f t e n  the hero to f i n i s h h i s wanderings and Penny Wain.  But  by  beginning  - 45.  and the end of manifestation disaster  is  the c y c l e , " 1 0  -  the  o f cosmic d i s a s t e r .  f l o o d archetype b e i n g one In t h i s n o v e l ,  the e x p l o s i o n which comes from the  the d i s a s t e r ,  the t r e a s u r e s  the  sea.  cosmic Following  p r e v i o u s l y h i d d e n are r e v e a l e d and  the b u r i e d seed begins to grow; i n such a romance, the source  of wealth  or h u m a n . " conflict a.nd the rising  X i  is  potential  f e r t i l i t y or new l i f e ,  vegetable  The d i s a s t e r marks the p i v o t a l p o i n t of  between the powers of  powers of s t e r i l i t y ,  fertility,  "real  the  o l d age and d a r k n e s s ,  youth and l i g h t ,  w i t h the  latter  victorious. This c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  shows t h a t MacLennan i s  the n o v e l ' s a r c h e t y p a l  e x p r e s s i n g a p a t t e r n which i s  of change on both the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l  levels.  deaths and r e b i r t h s of N e i l Macrae and H a l i f a x are to the death and r e b i r t h o f Canadian s o c i e t y , consciousness.  The c h i l d i s now r i d of i t s  may grow to a d u l t h o o d without beneficent  parents:  As the  time scheme i n the n o v e l i n d i c a t e s ending l a t e r a t n i g h t - -  p.  198.  Hlbid.,  p.  198.  of Canadian  the new s o c i e t y has cast.i o f f  The new-born s o c i e t y has not y e t  Ibid.,  analogous self-  parents and  f e a r of them, accompanied by  back.  l u  prophetic The symbolic  sinister  t i e s and moves forward w i t h the g r e a t western  evening,  significance  there  its  its  colonial  t r a d i t i o n s at  its  t r u l y r i s e n i n triumph. --beginning in early  i s a p e r i o d of  darkness  - 46.  left  to v e n t u r e through b e f o r e  -  the dawn.  It  is  still  winter,  /  and the s p r i n g i s as  the sun w i l l  f a r ahead.  return.  throughout the n o v e l , belongs  to Canada.  But t h a t s p r i n g w i l l  This i s  the p o s i t i v e  fate  come as  sure  t h a t works  the p o s i t i v e d e s t i n y the a u t h o r imagines  Chapter Each Man's Son:  Three: The Growing Irony  Each Man's Son, p u b l i s h e d t e n years a f t e r Barometer R i s i n g , i s a n o v e l o f more s u b t l e and complex s t r u c t u r e than those precede (Two .  it.  Because i n the two immediately  S o l i t u d e s , 1945,  and The P r e c i p i c e ,  that  preceding novels  1948)  "everything else  . . i s e v e n t u a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e d to the e l a b o r a t i o n o f the  national  theme, they a r e the l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l o f MacLennan's n o v e l s ,  i n human u n d e r s t a d i n g and formal Cohesion a l i k e . " !  As Edmund  W i l s o n says, when MacLennan i s c o n s c i o u s l y a c t i n g as the " s e c r e t a r y of  society,"  one f e e l s that i n h i s e a r n e s t and ambitious attempt to cover h i s l a r g e s e l f - a s s i g n m e n t he sometimes embarks upon themes which he b e l i e v e s to be s o c i a l l y important but which do n o t r e a l l y much e x c i t e h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . 2 Where, i n Two S o l i t u d e s , MacLennan t r i e s d e f i n e the s o c i a l l y important Canadian and,  perhaps  too h a r d to  French-English c o n f l i c t ,  i n The P r e c i p i c e , the American-Canadian c o n f l i c t , the  r e s u l t s are rather f l a t ,  f o r c e d and u n c o n v i n c i n g , w h i l e , i n  Each Man's Son, he r e t u r n s to e x p r e s s i n g a b a s i c p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t such as appears  i n Barometer R i s i n g .  To do t h i s , he r e t u r n s to  h i s r o o t s i n Cape B r e t o n I s l a n d , Nova S c o t i a , r e t u r n s from a world he has i d e a s about  to examine the world he knows.  The r e s u l t i s ,  as Woodcock says, a " t e n s e l y c o n s t r u c t e d and w e l l u n i f i e d book,  1G. Woodcock, "A N a t i o n ' s Odyssey," p. 11. 2  "0  Canada,"- The New Y o r k e r , Nov. 14,  1964,  p. 100.  -  48.  i n which the balance of theme and m y t h i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s r e established.  The  p a t t e r n s t h a t develop are a t once i n t e n s e l y  p e r s o n a l and d e s c r i p t i v e o f a c r i t i c a l n a t i o n a l consciousness. enhanced by, and and  The  t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the  i n t e n s i t y o f the n o v e l i s much  to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t o r i g i n a t e s i n , the  i m p l i c i t mythic  elements and  the accompanying sense  explicit of the  preternatural. In Each Man's Son, MacLennan once a g a i n draws upon Homer's Odyssey f o r one Although  o f the two b a s i c p l o t s t h a t comprise  the author  i n t r o d u c e s important  the n o v e l .  changes i n t o the p a t t e r n ,  the s t o r y of A r c h i e MacNeil  is s t i l l  Odysseus s e e k i n g h i s home.  A r c h i e ' s h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s are made  very c l e a r :  he  i s the " b r a v e s t man  the s t o r y of a wandering  i n Cape B r e t o n , " ^  u n p r e d i c t a b l e " (25), "a hero whom nobody understood admired" (24).  As a young man  he  t h e i r whole l i v e s (105).  "to the c a t  I am not one  t h e i r son,  "live  of them"  "gone out i n t o  done t h i s i n o r d e r to c r e a t e a new  f o r h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y .  "Nations's  He belongs  l i k e oxes and cows . . .  (17), and he has  J  everyone  i s q u i c k to boast t h a t w h i l e some people  He has, as h i s w i f e t e l l s  world"  and  He  Odyssey," p.  and  "had moved w i t h the s u r e ,  r e c k l e s s grace of a w i l d a n i m a l " (41). f a m i l y " (93) and  "fierce  goes f o r t h and does b a t t l e ,  the life until,  14.  ^Hugh MacLennan, Each Man's Son (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1965), p. 21. A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from the n o v e l a r e from t h i s e d i t i o n and a r e f o l l o w e d by page r e f e r e n c e s i n parentheses.  - 49. "the f i g h t s  -  . . . o v e r , " he seeks to r e t u r n "to a p l a c e where  people would l i k e him"  (207), h i s home, the o r i g i n o f h i s quest.  H i s c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e from Homer's Odysseus i s t h a t he i s not successful i n f u l f i l l i n g or a t home. f e r o c i o u s and  He r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one p h y s i c a l l y mighty  intellectual qualities to f a i l u r e .  the purpose  o f h i s quest, e i t h e r  abroad  s i d e o f Odysseus, the  s i d e , and,  l a c k i n g any o f the  t h a t c o u l d e f f e c t a b a l a n c e , he  i s doomed  In f a i l i n g , he b r i n g s down h i s Penelope w i t h  him.  M o l l i e MacNeil shares a number o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h Burner's Penelope. landscape and Greece,  I f we  remember MacLennan's o p i n i o n that  people o f Nova S c o t i a resemble  those o f Homeric  the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f M o l l i e ' s  "so s t r a i g h t i t was  the  nose,  almost G r e c i a n " (127), i s seen to r e v e a l  an i n t e n t i o n a l p a r a l l e l .  L i k e Penelope, M o l l i e i s f o r years  faithful  to her absent husband, p a t i e n t l y w a i t i n g and working,  Penelope  does a t h e r loom, a t "a frame w i t h a p a r t i a l l y  rug mounted on i t "  (23).  She,  too, i s tempted by a  The  finished  suitor  (Camire) to f o r s a k e her husband, and begins to y i e l d j u s t b e f o r e h e r husband r e t u r n s .  as  slightly  p a r a l l e l i s minimal but i s  there. The  l e a d i n g f i g u r e i n the o t h e r b a s i c p l o t , D a n i e l A i n s l i e ,  is: a l s o p o r t r a y e d as a h e r o i c f i g u r e , but a hero v e r y  different  from A r c h i e M a c N e i l .  views  A l a n MacNeil, a p e r c e p t i v e boy,  A i n s l i e as " h a r d l y a man everyone  at a l l .  e l s e he knew" (51).  He was  The Doctor, f a r above  "Above" i s a r e v e a l i n g word, f o r  - 50. -  A i n s l i e works and f e e l s h a p p i e s t above the town.  i n the h o s p i t a l h i g h on a h i l l  Here he has been dubbed "the Regius P r o f e s s o r "  (58), p a r t l y because o f h i s "hobby" o f r e a d i n g the Greek c l a s s i c s , and p a r t l y because o f h i s s t a t u r e i n the h o s p i t a l . Here he i s second o n l y to Dr. Dougald MacKenzie who i s d e s c r i b e d as  "a t r i b a l god" (121).  On one l e v e l he i s an a r t i s t :  he  compares h i m s e l f to "a c o n c e r t p i a n i s t " (169) and the h o s p i t a l is  the "world where h i s s k i l l had made him m a s t e r " (49).  another  l e v e l he i s a s a i n t :  " I f t o t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a h e a l i n g  t a s k i s a form o f h o l i n e s s , the two d o c t o r s were s a i n t s " (120).  On  And on a t h i r d  { A i n s l i e and Doucettej  l e v e l he i s something o f a  w i z a r d , a person w i t h niagic a t h i s command, f o r he f e e l s s u p e r s t i t i o u s l y c o n f i d e n t o f h i s own powers" (117).  "almost  He f e e l s  t h i s so s t r o n g l y t h a t Dr. MacKenzie i s d r i v e n to demand o f him, "Why n o t admit once i n a w h i l e  t h a t you're human?" (60)  A r c h i e MacNeil i s the hero o f brute  Where  p h y s i c a l power, A i n s l i e  i s the  hero o f the mental powers, and both heroes a r e engaged i n quests to e r a d i c a t e mysterious r e a l enemy. having  Ainslie  enemies.  f i n a l l y r e c o g n i z e s h i s , but o n l y a f t e r  fought many s u b s t i t u t e s .  even r e c o g n i z e  A r c h i e never r e c o g n i z e s h i s  F o r a l o n g time he does not  t h a t he i s on a quest, although  h i s setting himself  the t a s k o f t r a n s l a t i n g "the whole o f the Odyssey that y e a r " (34) is  evidence  enough.  He makes the g r e a t c l a s s i c  a b a r r i e r to overcome, not r e a l i z i n g  quest myth  itself  t h a t he r e a l l y wishes to  emulate Odysseus, and i t i s h i s w i f e , Margaret, who sees that the  t r a n s l a t i o n i s an "academic g i a n t " Both heroes f i g h t go w e l l . there  " g i a n t s , " and f o r n e i t h e r does the  Reminiscent of N e i l Macrae on h i s  i s a "sadness i n A r c h i e ' s eyes .  had t h a t too,  (160).  .  r e t u r n to H a l i f a x ,  . Even f e r o c i o u s  look i n t h e i r eyes when they were s i c k " (97).  has eyes that  "looked l i k e  animals  Ainslie,  those of a wounded a n i m a l "  "an animal who had been chased f o r m i l e s and knows he has farther  to r u n " (36).  of h i m s e l f  This i s  comparison of h i m s e l f all  connected  (59),  which i s  This p o i n t s  to the  fact  things,  what D a n i e l w i l l  dreamer i s  the "rock  struggle  is  basically the keys  when he speaks of M a r g a r e t ; "She has them too" (66).  l e a r n on h i s  that a "man's t r o u b l e  quest,  it's  dreamers.  One of  This  what he dreams" (60).  i n danger of becoming "a l a t t e r - d a y Job"  The Cape B r e t o n I s l a n d e r s as g r e a t  is  and you must a c c e p t  what he does or d o e s n ' t do,  his  "Was d e f i a n c e  and D r . MacKenzie g i v e s one of  to v i c t o r y i n the s t r u g g l e accepted  to  past of h i s whole r a c e " (200).  that A i n s l i e ' s  psychological,  still  slow down nor  The r o c k o f Sisyphus  i n them a l l , b u r i e d deep i n the  (65),  conception  linked, i n turn,  to the m y t h i c a l S i s y p h u s .  t h a t remained?" he a s k s .  internal,  to A i n s l i e ' s  " i n a t r e a d m i l l which he c o u l d n e i t h e r  escape by jumping o f f "  battle  is isn't  The  (60).  o f H i g h l a n d stodk are p o r t r a y e d  their  traits  is a v i v i d  which works c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r s u p e r s t i t i o u s  imagination  n a t u r e to  perceive  ) s p i r i t s a t work i n the w o r l d . incline  toward m e l a n c h o l y ,  Their s u p e r s i t i t i o u s  imaginations  "a p r i m i t i v e sadness" (105),  typified  i n Angus the Barraman s t r i v i n g appease the gods" (113).  to become "gloomy enough to  A i n s l i e h i m s e l f shares  this  melancholy,  c o n c e i v i n g of God as the " a l l - s e e i n g A n c i e n t of Days who the same time damns men that "underneath (201).  and  l o v e s them," and he becomes aware  a l l h i s troubles . . . lay this ancient curse"  These people  f e a r the a n c i e n t c u r s e --on  l e v e l , O r i g i n a l S i n - - f o r which they must s u f f e r . w i t c h , Mrs. whill  MacCuish, prophesies  to come t r u e , M o l l i e  f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Camire.  paying w i t h her l i f e  t h a t Mrs.  c u r s e which hobbles itself"  (201).  fighting,  As the o l d  The  MacCuish r e p r e s e n t s , b e l i e f i n the  the s p i r i t and  The H i g h l a n d men  they do no t r e a l i z e (  no amount of b r u t e f o r c e w i l l Barometer R i s i n g , the way  l e a d s "to a f e a r of love  d e f y the curse by d r i n k i n g and fighting  the r e a l A r c h i e  t h a t t h i s i s inadequate,  that  d e f e a t an enemy i n the mind.  of v i o l e n c e i s the o l d way,  w i t h the o l d w o r l d .  Here, too, O r i o n the hunter  the o l d v i o l e n t way,  and  f o r a Homeric p a r a l l e l ,  prophecy  f o r her  i d o l i z i n g g r e a t p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h and g r e a t  But  "You  ( s e x u a l i n f i d e l i t y ) , but the whole  power i n the legendary G i a n t M a c A s k i l l and MacNeil.  Christian  But what she r e a l l y pays f o r i s not what  Mrs. MacCuish b e l i e v e s i t to be perverted b e l i e f  the  i n a warning to M o l l i e ,  pay f o r i t when h i m s e l f comes home" (27).  appears  at  As i n  associated  i s symbolic  of  i s l i n k e d w i t h G i a n t M a c A s k i l l and, the C y c l o p s .  Homer's Odysseus d e f e a t e d  the Cyclops w i t h the powers of the mind, through a c l e v e r r u s e . A r c h i e MacNeil  knows o n l y the t a c t i c s of the Cyclops h i m s e l f .  - 53.  D a n i e l A i n s l i e has a t  -  l e a s t the c a p a c i t y to d e f e a t h i s  But the odds are a g a i n s t a l l those who s u f f e r curse,  innocent The b a s i c  enemy.  from the  ancient  though they may be. innocence and h e l p l e s s n e s s of the simple H i g h l a n d e r s  i s made c l e a r i n the animal imagery.  Mollie,  for instance,  shown as g e n t l e and v u l n e r a b l e , her eyes h a v i n g "the  eager  loving-kindness  Alan,  witnessing  of a d e e r ' s  the v i o l e n t  eyes" (127).  deaths  Similarly,  o f h i s mother and Camire,  stops  " l i k e a fawn caught i n the h e a d l i g h t o f a t r a i n " (212). image c o n t a i n s a double o p p o s i t i o n - - t h e meek and the  is  The  powerful,  the n a t u r a l and the man-made-- as w e l l as a sense o f an enormous destructive  force  i n motion which cannot be s t o p p e d .  c l e v e r Camire cannot e s c a p e . some progress w i t h M o l l i e ,  While Camire i s  had-finally  found something to eat"  downstairs,  Camire f i r s t  f o r t h across  the room,  [givesjmouselike used as w e l l ,  f i n a l l y making  A l a n u p s t a i r s watches a mouse  i l l u m i n a t e d i n the m o o n l i g h t , and he i s  when he f i n d s A r c h i e i s  reacts  "glad because  (209).  appears  to h i s a t t a c k " l i k e a f o x , " but  too s t r o n g f o r him he d a r t s "back and t r y i n g to f i n d a place to h i d e as he  squeaks o f  t e r r o r " (212).  Other animals are  to p r o j e c t the g e n t l e melancholy o f the H i g h l a n d e r s ,  the c r y o f a s e a - b i r d l o s t i n the fog"  C r e a t u r e s o f the a i r e n t e r when he i s  the mouse  When A r c h i e  as i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a G a e l i c song which sounds p l a i n t i v e as  Even the  elated,  he f e e l s  into  "as s o f t and (28).  the d e s c r i p t i o n o f A i n s l i e ,  "his s p i r i t r i s e  like a bird in  too: the  - 54. -  sky"  (129); when he i s depressed, he f e e l s  "as though h i s  had h u r l e d i t s e l f a g a i n s t the window o f h i s l i f e bat and broken the g l a s s , " and f e e l s h i s s p i r i t bat over a dark and s i n i s t e r l a n d s c a p e "  spirit  l i k e a wounded flicker "like a  (201).  On the o t h e r hand, Margaret and h e r f a m i l y , not b e i n g o f Highland  s t o c k , do not share  t h i s melancholy.  They a r e l e s s  h e l p l e s s because they a r e n o t plagued by the a n c i e n t  curse.  Margaret's mother l i v e s " l i k e a queen bee" (45), which the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h e r f a m i l y as a t i g h t - k n i t ,  re-enforces  i n d u s t r i o u s group.  Margaret h e r s e l f i s d e s c r i b e d a t one p o i n t as "warm, s a t i s f i e d and  r e l a x e d as a c a t " (89), but t h i s i s t r u e o n l y p a r t o f the  time.  She a l s o has h e r f r u s t r a t i o n s  to h e r husband's s e l f - i m p o s e d p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and a n x i e t i e s , l a r g e l y due  isolation.  --qualities  Her q u a l i t i e s o f  she shares w i t h  Odysseus'  w a i t i n g w i f e - - g i v e h e r the s t r e n g t h to endure u n t i l D a n i e l r e t u r n s and g i v e s h i m s e l f  fully  to h e r .  Margaret g i v e s i s o f a woman h a p p i e s t and whose independent nature  The g e n e r a l  impression  i n h e r domestic  surroundings  g i v e s h e r the s t r e n g t h to endure  isolation. On a more g e n e r a l important  l e v e l i n the n o v e l , animal imagery i s  to the development o f both mood and meaning.  a s l e e p , Dr. A i n s l i e r e c o l l e c t s wilderness,  a boyhood experience  Half-  i n the  and p a r t i c u l a r l y v i v i d i n h i s memory a r e the images  of a s t a g w i t h  "a s c a r on i t s r i g h t  shoulder  dead hawk w i t h  i t s eyes pecked o u t "  (72).  from combat" and "a  These memories a r e  - 55.  c l e a r examples battle,  -  of how the s t r o n g ,  and even the s w i f t  t o o , may s u f f e r  and deadly p r e d a t o r may d i e  Elsewhere,  the d o c t o r , h a v i n g j u s t  courageous  than men, i s watched by a c a t  ironic  courageous  are a c c u s i n g .  and a s s o c i a t e d  Just after  of  "the u l t i m a t e  solitude"  v i s i o n when he imagines eyes,  to s t i m u l a t e  (86).  One i s  him,  thoughts,  The c a t ' s eyes Ainslie  i n him a  feeling  God, "a t i g h t - s k i n n e d dog w i t h  green  r i p p l i n g under i t s  tawny  reminded of Psalm x x i i , v e r s e 16,  "dogs  sword; my d a r l i n g from the  for A i n s l i e feels  in his  spoken an  This t i e s i n w i t h A i n s l i e ' s  have compassed me," and v e r s e 20,  psalm b e g i n s ,  ignobly.  He has  with c a t s .  s t a n d i n g b e f o r e him w i t h muscles  h i d e " (173-74).  the  (85).  b e i n g s t a r e d a t by the c a t ,  hears a dog h o w l i n g , which h e l p s  in  s a i d that women are f a r more  t r u t h , f o r he has not i n c l u d e d h i s wife  and she i s  injury  " D e l i v e r my s o u l  power of the d o g . "  from the  And i t  is  important  "My God, my God, why h a s t thou f o r s a k e n me?" f o r s a k e n , and i s ,  " l o o k i n g f o r a God" (176).  as Mackenzie p o i n t s  H i s search i s  out  largely misdirected  and the consequences of i t s m i s d i r e c t i o n are foreshadowed image accompanying A i n s l i e ' s e l a t i o n a t in Alan,  an image of f a r - o f f g u l l s  there can be h e a r d "a r a t t l e (131),  sounds  to  i n an  finding a substitute  screaming i n the  fog  of wings and a scrape o f  son  while  claws"  implying death.  Animal metaphors used to d e s c r i b e i n c r e a t i n g mood and i n d i c a t i n g the  the landscape are  presence  o f opposing  The image of Cape B r e t o n I s l a n d h a v i n g a "shape  like  effective forces.  the claws of a  lobster"  (50)  succeeds on two  whole scene being the i n h a b i t a n t s sea-creature,  levels.  submerged i n the  There i s a sense of  sea and  the  a l s o a sense t h a t  of t h i s land are h e l d i n the claws of a  predatory  imprisoned i n the v i s e - g r i p of some g i g a n t i c ,  mysterious f o r c e .  The  image of a f r i g h t e n i n g s e a - c r e a t u r e  is  s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d to the Broughton coal-mine, which i s d e s c r i b e as having g a l l e r i e s " l i k e The  the  f e e l i n g of the mine being  re-enforced  by  t e n t a c l e s of an o c t o p u s "  p a r t of a g i a n t organism i s  the image of a c o l l i e r y  a column of b l a c k ants that had g i g a n t i c . p l a n t and  died  p a r t i n Each Man's Son instance)  culminating  minutes of h i s l i f e , The  novel  there"  forward on  crawled up (18).  the  Giants and  the Cyclops,  begins w i t h the image of a g i a n t  the sea  that the  s t a l k of a  i n the  seeming "of more than human s i z e "  like  "The  (215).  that s e t s  late afternoon  sun"  shadow of the " g i a n t " l i e s a c r o s s  sea p l a y s an important r o l e i n the n o v e l .  the  sea i s connected w i t h a s t a t e of innocence.  a "sense of i r r e p a r a b l e l o s s " (45), h i s y o u t h when he went to sea,  the  and  recalls  On  (15) .  It  the  sea,  one  level  Ainslie, feeling  r e c o l l e c t s the good days of the  sense of freedom he  Then, the "whole w o r l d had He  final  t h a t of a g i a n t r e s t i n g on h i s elbows  the  h i s f u t u r e " (46) .  for  shadow of a promontory l a y  for  experienced.  like  p l a y an i n t e g r a l  i n the p i c t u r e of A r c h i e ,  w i t h the back of h i s neck to the i s notable  t r a i n t h a t "looked  (Giant M a c A s k i l l  tone f o r the whole work:  (18).  seemed too small  t h i s time of h i s youth twice  then to hold again,  - 57.  both times when he i s t a l k i n g  to A l a n (167 and  183),  he i s pushing h i s a m b i t i o n s .  On another  the sea i s used  level  on whom  as an image of u n c o n t r o l l a b l e and c o n s t a n t change.  Having  j u s t operated on A l a n and d e l i v e r e d him from death,  Ainslie  s i t s on a wharf, t r y i n g  to get a g r i p on h i s emotions:  the n o i s e of waves ebbing back and f o r t h around filled own  a l l space," and "he knew h i s mind was  rhythms and h i s body was  later,  trying  the f o o t of the c l i f f ,  pounding  out of c o n t r o l " (170) .  retreated,  and  overcome by h i s emotions,  the t i d e s .  and f i g h t s  i n the  darkness  When A i n s l i e i s  to c o n t r o l them, the  the first  tide  L a t e r , when he makes c l e a r e r h i s f e e l i n g s - - h i s  turns and begins to r i s e a g a i n .  " l o n g diminuendo of the wave [travels] t r a i n rumbling  of h i s mother--  At the same time the  away down the c o a s t l i k e  through a v a l l e y "  the rumbing t r a i n t h a t b r i n g s A r c h i e home. resentment  little  They are l i k e  m i s p l a c e d a d u l a t i o n of h i s f a t h e r and resentment  a freight  A  The rhythms he senses deep w i t h i n  rhythmic c y c l e s of the waves and  the t i d e  with i t s  snored i n a g a i n w i t h  h i m s e l f are as o l d and m y s t e r i o u s as the sea.  ebbing.  the p i l i n g s  "Ground s w e l l s snored sombrely  p r i m e v a l rhythm" (174).  is  . .  to c l a r i f y h i s f e e l i n g s , A i n s l i e a g a i n becomes  aware of the sea: at  ".  (175),  foreshadowing  In e x p r e s s i n g h i s  of h i s mother f o r t h i n k i n g i t more important to eat  than to l e a r n and f o r l a c k i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s w i l l power, he  expresses  the source of h i s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , which i s i t s e l f a major reason f o r the c a t a s t r o p h i c r e s u l t s of A r c h i e ' s r e t u r n .  His  elevation  of  the course  l e a r n i n g over love i s a key f a c t o r  of  events.  There i s of  another  the n o v e l , w h i c h ,  the s e a ,  i n determining  important image i n the opening paragraph  l i n k e d to that of  provides a c l u e  the  "giant's"  to the n o v e l ' s c e n t r a l  shadow on  theme:  "Facing  the sun over the water was a s e c o n d - q u a r t e r moon, white i n c o b a l t mass of sentences i s  the sky" (15).  a cluster  Given i n these two  opening  of images which are of g r e a t  importance.  W. H . Auden's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of such images, a p p l i e d to image i n Barometer R i s i n g , i s  the  even more a p p l i c a b l e  one  to these  in  Each Man's Son: Sky as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h water (equals) S p i r i t as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h n a t u r e . ' What comes from the sky i s a s p i r i t u a l . . . visitation. What l i e s h i d d e n i n the water i s the unknown powers of n a t u r e . Day and Sun [equal]  Consciousness  and the P a t e r n a l P r i n c i p l e  The g i a n t ' s shadow l i e s on the s e a ,  masking the unknown powers  nature but by no means n u l l i f y i n g them. back to the  sun,  to the  benevolent f a t h e r . sky w i t h i t ,  is  F a c i n g the  the  spirit,  sea  l i e s with  sun, and harmoniously s h a r i n g it  soon appears  to c r e a t e the  tides.  i n the  The sky,  pp.  75-76.  the  novel, region  principle)  p r i n c i p l e ) , works i n harmony w i t h the  T h e Enchafed F l o o d ,  his  (reason) and the  i n which are blended the sun (masculine  and the moon (feminine  5  of c o n s c i o u s n e s s  the moon, w h i c h , as  works c l o s e l y w i t h the of  light  The g i a n t  of  sea,  - 59. r e g i o n of n a t u r e ' s powers, and a l l of these are opposed to the g i a n t , whose f l a n k s are the bankheads of the c o l l i e r i e s which loom " l i k e monuments i n a g i g a n t i c cemetery"  (50), and whose  bowels are the mines, which A i n s l i e c a l l s "a c o r r u p t i o n " in  the core of Cape Breton I s l a n d .  may  be d i s t i l l e d  paragraph  the essence of the b a s i c o p p o s i t i o n of  f o r c e s i n the n o v e l : the h e i g h t s and  From the opening  (70)  n a t u r a l and u n n a t u r a l ; l i g h t and  the depths; harmony and  darkness;  imbalance.  L i k e Barometer R i s i n g , Each Man's Son begins a t sunset. Once again, an o p p o s i t i o n i s s e t up between l i g h t and between the g l o r i o u s s e t t i n g  sun of June t i n t i n g  darkness,  the c l o u d s  and "below the c l o u d s the e a r t h . . . darkening f a s t "  (26).  the b r i g h t c l o u d s move eastward,  and  Margaret A i n s l i e  and f e e l s an i n c r e a s i n g  of  loneliness,  dark.  stands watching  As  the darkness grows, sense  the same l o n e l i n e s s her husband f e e l s i n the  A l s o , because  i n the A i n s l i e garden both l i g h t and a i r  coming from the west a r e f r e s h , n e i t h e r having c r o s s e d a s i n g l e colliery, unnatural. itself,  an o p p o s i t i o n appears between the n a t u r a l and I n s e p a r a b l e from the c o l l i e r y  d e s c r i b e d i n n e g a t i v e terms:  the  i s the town of  Broughton  there i s a c o n s t r i c t i n g  "narrow main s t r e e t , " bordered by "lamp-posts  crooked and  raw,"  b e a r i n g i n c a n d e s c e n t l i g h t s which make "the pavement look b l u e and naked," w h i l e the s t r e e t i s "swarming w i t h a i m l e s s p e o p l e " (42).  These people know l i t t l e  of the l i g h t ,  most of whom spend " t h e i r days underground  the men  especially,  i n the dark" (48).  - 60. -  Opposed to the town proper i s the h o s p i t a l which  stands " l i k e a  l i g h t h o u s e over the whole town" (48), "the b e s t and s a f e s t p l a c e i n the w o r l d " ( 5 3 ) . The c o n f l i c t o f l i g h t and darkness i s a l s o and made i n t e r n a l . loneliness.  To Margaret,  individualized  the darkness r e p r e s e n t s  To D a n i e l , i t r e p r e s e n t s many t h i n g s .  w i t h MacKenzie about g u i l t , he f i n d s  Having  spoken  the a n c i e n t c u r s e and i t s accompanying  " h i m s e l f s t a r i n g i n t o the t o t a l darkness.  His  s i n ? " (67) He s t a r e s i n t o the darkness and longs " f o r the s i g h t of something  distinct"  (68).  What he i s l o o k i n g i n t o i s the  darkness o f h i s own mind, n o t h i s s i n , as he guesses, but that p a r t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y he does n o t understand. for  He longs both  "a f o r e s t i n t o which a man c o u l d d i s a p p e a r and l o s e h i m s e l f "  (68) and f o r a woman to mother him. escape  His yearning i s r e a l l y f o r  to the innocence o f c h i l d h o o d , away from h i s s e l f - i n f l i c t e d  problems.  He dreams o f h i s boyhood, and h i s dream b r i n g s peace  of mind and an image o f a " r o s y - f i n g e r e d dawn" such as one f i n d s i n Homer.  But t h i s does n o t , cannot, l a s t ,  the p a s t , which e l u d e s r e c a p t u r e .  f o r the dream i s o f  He i s i n t e l l i g e n t enough to  come to r e c o g n i z e t h a t he must probe h i s i n n e r darkness to r e a c h the l i g h t . ready.  But i t takes time and e x p e r i e n c e , and he i s not y e t  He steps toward  and share the p a t i e n t ' s  i t when he t h i n k s , fear.  "to go i n t o the dark  . . To become everybody  mother, c h i l d , and o l d man-- to become everyone d o c t o r " (165).  --father,  i n o r d e r to be a  The s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l must know  the darkness which i s himself.  i n everyman i n o r d e r to h e a l others and  A f t e r he hears M a c K e n z i e ' s r e v e l a t i o n about h i s  and mother, A i n s l i e s t a r e s  "out to a b l i n k of l i g h t  no more than a f a i n t  presence  b e g i n n i n g to see  t r u t h about h i m s e l f ,  to go,  the  as evidenced by h i s  A l a n and h i m s e l f ,  the way o f h i s a m b i t i o n to reveals  the of  rushes  He i s  but has some  distance  c o n f u s i o n of M o l l i e and h i s  mother,  that n o t h i n g w i l l stand  "help" A l a n .  "off i n t o  and going "out i n t o  scene t h a t the  east,  in  L a t e r , when Margaret  to him the e x t e n t to which he has a l i e n a t e d M o l l i e ,  thoughtlessly aside  i n the  i n the darkness" (176).  and the a s s e r t i o n  father  is  the  the n i g h t , " b r u s h i n g Margaret  the darkness" (198).  turning point i n h i s  t r u t h b e f o r e he makes an u t t e r  harm has been l o n g done,  he  and f o r c e s  This  life.  initiates  He has a v i s i o n  f o o l of h i m s e l f .  But the  are i n motion which he  cannot c o n t r o l . If place  the h o s p i t a l h i g h on the h i l l  i n the w o r l d , " a k i n d of p e a c e f u l  deep under the h i l l  is  "the b e s t and s a f e s t  paradise,  are something v e r y d i f f e r e n t .  l e a v i n g the h o s p i t a l a t one p o i n t ,  The heaven on the h i l l  A l s o a t work here i s  the sea and the c o l l i e r y , man-made h e l l  Ainslie,  The sulphurous  reminds one of f i r e and brimstone w i t h t h e i r u s u a l  h e l l underneath.  mines  s m e l l s "a w h i f f of s a l t  and of s u l p h u r from the c o l l i e r y " (86).  of h e l l and torment.  the  is  smell  associations  opposed to  tries  the  an o p p o s i t i o n between  the n a t u r a l and the man-made.  i s what A r c h i e  water  This  to escape from, but he  s i m p l y moves to another i n T r e n t o n , where  "the a i r was  like  - 62. c o t t o n wool t h a t had been dipped i n h o t d i s h w a t e r " (132). Archie,  accustomed to the c o o l climes  beaten by the h e l l i s h heat of New The  cool, clean northern  Daniel A i n s l i e the d o c t o r  of the n o r t h ,  i s finally  Jersey.  a i r i s a p o s i t i v e element to  c h i e f l y because of i t s a n t i s e p t i c n a t u r e .  A talk  has w i t h a p a t i e n t r e v e a l s h i s b i a s , f o r the "quest  w i t h the p a t i e n t had taken h i s mind out of Cape Breton to a dark grey coast  so c l e a n and pure that men, whose crops must r i s e out  of c o r r u p t i o n ,  could  s c a r c e l y grow a v e g e t a b l e on i t " (76).  His  a t t r a c t i o n to a land which i s so pure t h a t i t i s i n h o s p i t a b l e to l i f e and h o s t i l e to human h a b i t a t i o n i s r e v e a l i n g of a b a s i c ambivalence i n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . on h i s way w i t h people, r e v e r e s Even so, f o r a l l h i s a d m i r a t i o n is  often happiest  Louisburg, sun,  The doctor,  who p r i d e s  himself  t h a t which i s a l i e n and inhuman. for clarity  when h i s mind c l o u d s .  and p u r i t y , A i n s l i e  For instance, a t  when the f o g comes i n from the sea, b l o t t i n g out the  A i n s l i e grows e l a t e d t h i n k i n g of how he can "adopt" A l a n and  shape h i s l i f e :  "Nothing was v i s i b l e i n the f o g .  happiness grew" (130). mental f o g clouds  And h i s  As the f o g obscures the sun, A i n s l i e s 1  h i s reason, g i v i n g r e i g n to h i s i r r a t i o n a l and  dangerous d e s i r e s w i t h o u t h i s having t o acknowledge i t . There i s , i n the n o v e l , the  sun which can d i s p e l l  the  l i g h t of the moon.  the moonlight, light,  another k i n d of l i g h t from that of  the darkness and g i v e a g e n t l e i l l u m i n a t i o n ;  Near the end of the n o v e l ,  t r y i n g to s o r t out h i s problems.  the whole w o r l d --even the mighty sea--  A i n s l i e walks i n  I n the mooni s a t peace.  -  D a n i e l looks  63.  -  i n t o a brook s p a r k l i n g w i t h m o o n l i g h t ,  and has a  sudden,  c l e a r and b r i l l i a n t v i s i o n of h i m s e l f as he r e a l l y  This i s  the moment of t r u t h .  along, waiting.  But the moon has been there  time,  like a h i l l  i n a semi-conscious  out to c a r e s s i t ,  "a f e a r l e s s c l a r i t y , " and "her  of snow under the moon" (46). state,  a woman's h i p as golden as  Margaret" (59).  all  Margaret A i n s l i e i s more than once d e s c r i b e d  i n l u n a r terms; h e r eyes have white body i s  is.  Another  D a n i e l A i n s l i e sees "the curve of  the h a r v e s t moon, but when he  the c o l o u r changed to white and i t He reaches  f o r the  fecund but f i n d s  reached  was it  chaste.  The m a t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e , t h a t which he r e j e c t s i n h i s mother, Mollie,  and i n M a r g a r e t , hovers  the n o v e l u n t i l i t has  the i n f l u e n c e  of the  of h i s nature  (his  (his mother).  sun ( h i s  at  the end.  l i g h t of day ( h i s  father),  unconscious)  and the  rejecting influence  Ainslie  reason)  under  the n i g h t  side  o f the moon  But n a t u r e seeks a b a l a n c e .  The moon c o n t r o l s As the n o v e l opens, the g i a n t  i n the background throughout  f i n a l l y asserts i t s e l f  t r i e d to l i v e merely by the  in  the  the tide  t i d e s of both the sea and the i s moving i n ,  lapping at  personality.  the base o f  promontory, "breaking not many yards from J A l a n ' s j  f e e t " (15).  The t i d e moves up, and A l a n and h i s mother see  sudden lump of water a r c h out of  the s e a ,  shadow of the g i a n t ' s  shoulders,  its  so t h a t  them l i k e dark h o r s e s w i t h streaming  it  manes" (18).  [comes] a t  "a  l u r c h forward i n t o  c r e s t whipped by the  the  breeze white  The wave tumbles A l a n ' s sand c a s t l e but leaves him  - 64. a white  conch s h e l l ,  a shell  t h a t can "remember  c o n t a i n s the " o l d e s t sound i n the w o r l d "  the s e a , " t h a t  (20).  The s h e l l  speaks  w i t h the v o i c e of the sea of the g r e a t e t e r n a l c y c l e s of nature, the c y c l e s of l i f e , of  death and r e b i r t h ,  d e s t r u c t i o n and r e s u r r e c t i o n .  of apocalypse  As A l a n ' s  sand  and  renewal,  c a s t l e f a l l s to  the f l o o d of the sea, so must the r e c l i n i n g g i a n t and a l l the g i a n t r e p r e s e n t s --the o l d , v i o l e n t , b a r b a r i c ways and the ancient curse that i s t h e i r power.  source-- f a l l  and y i e l d  to a new  The n a t u r e of t h a t power i s foreshadowed i n the beauty of  the s h e l l and the way  i n which A l a n i s immediately  forgetting his fallen  sand  drawn to i t ,  castle.  L a t e r i n the n o v e l , MacLennan makes c l e a r i n A i n s l i e s 1  words to A l a n t h a t the powers of the sea (nature) and the sky ( s p i r i t ) a r e b e s t u n i t e d : "The sea, A l a n , i s the m i g h t i e s t t h i n g we know.  The sky i s the most changeable  and m y s t e r i o u s . "  He speaks of the g r e a t c l i p p e r s h i p F l y i n g Cloud, between sea and sky, and says, "Think t h a t - - i t was  like  have g i v e n the world  of  Ainslie,  like  one h e r o i c i n d i v i d u a l .  f o l l o w i n g i d e a s of t h e i r  e v e r y t h i n g we v a l u e " (183).  own,  I t i s clear  c o n c e i v e s of h i m s e l f i n t h i s r o l e , but, i n the t u r m o i l  his frustration,  ambitions  of one man,  says, " I n d i v i d u a l men,  that A i n s l i e  of h a n d l i n g a s h i p  sail  t u r n i n g y o u r s e l f i n t o a f o r c e of n a t u r e ! " (183)  T h i s can be done by the genius As A i n s l i e  setting  f e e l he cannot a t t a i n i t ,  on to A l a n . having  thus pushing h i s  Dr. MacKenaie has seen the p o t e n t i a l i n  t o l d him, "with hands l i k e y o u r s , w i t h the  flair  you have, you c o u l d become one of the g r e a t surgeons o f w o r l d " (70).  The surgeon, l i k e the s e a - c a p t a i n ,  between sea and s k y , u s i n g h i s  sets  the  sail  d e l i c a t e l y c o - o r d i n a t e d body and  mind to s t r i k e a balance which t u r n s him i n t o a h e a l i n g f o r c e . And the g r e a t surgeons, Ainslie  lives,  p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the time i n which  are making important advances i n s u r g i c a l techniques  d i s c o v e r i n g new and b e t t e r ways to h e a l . discoverer,  Ainslie  is  such a  not l i k e the wise o l d D r . Mackenzie whose "mind was  one which understood r a t h e r than d i s c o v e r e d " (61). must undergo h i s  But A i n s l i e  quest i n t o darkness before he can a c h i e v e  heroic greatness,  b e f o r e he can r e a l i z e h i s  destiny.  The melancholy C e l t s o f Cape B r e t o n g e n e r a l l y f e e l d e s t i n y works a g a i n s t against all"  them; they f e e l  that  "the l u c k must have been  them, a s u p e r s t i t i o n which more or l e s s s a t i s f i e d  (140),  including A i n s l i e .  the a n c i e n t c u r s e ,  fate  them  T r u l y , w h i l e they s u f f e r under  does work a g a i n s t  d i s c o v e r s a son i n A l a n , he t h i n k s ,  them.  When A i n s l i e  " i t had not been a c c i d e n t  which had caused Doucette to c a l l him to L o u i s b u r g that day" (125).  But what he f e e l s  f a t e working i n h i s  interest  is  o n l y the s t i r r i n g of h i s own misbegotten d e s i r e .  I f fate  is  work h e r e , fate  it  is  t h a t decrees  Archie MacNeil.  the o p p o s i t e o f what A i n s l i e the f a l l  imagines,  o f the g i a n t a n d , hence,  The Cape B r e t o n g i a n t s ,  A r c h i e M a c N e i l , must f a l l giants,  is  it  is  the f a l l  at the of  G i a n t M a c A s k i l l and  as s u r e l y as the legendary C e l t i c  F i n n McCool and F i n n G a l l ,  and t h e i r c l a s s i c a l c o u n t e r -  -  66.  p a r t s , the T i t a n s ( i n c l u d i n g the C y c l o p s ) , have f a l l e n .  As  Zeus and H i s Olympians t o p p l e d the T i t a n s , Odysseus the and  S a i n t P a t r i c k the F i n n s , so w i l l  the g i a n t s of Cape One  final  Cyclops,  the power of love t o p p l e  Breton.  image i s c e n t r a l l y important  o f the stream, brook or s p r i n g .  When A i n s l i e  A l a n , a sense of w e l l - b e i n g r i s e s i n him water i n the s p r i n g " (120).  to the n o v e l , t h a t is first  "like a r i l l  drawn to of  There i s a r e a l s p r i n g on  p r o p e r t y , which i s s i g n i f i c a n t  fresh  Ainslie's  to t h i s d o c t o r of S c o t t i s h  heritage, for W e l l s , s p r i n g s , streams, and pools have been a c c r e d i t e d w i t h h e a l i n g powers wherever man has had a i l m e n t s to cure and S c o t l a n d w i t h i t s numerous mountains and glens was famed more than many o t h e r lands f o r h e a l i n g waters. Long b e f o r e the C h r i s t i a n e r a , s p r i n g s endowed w i t h m a g i c a l v i r t u e were regarded as b r i n g e r s of h e a l t h from the h e a r t of the earth.6 These waters suggest, as do o t h e r water images, renewal rebirth.  What D a n i e l A i n s l i e  b a l a n c e d , h e a l t h y mind and climaxes  f i n a l l y achieves  spirit  and  is a well-  i n t h a t moment of epiphany which  the development of h i s c h a r a c t e r .  He  descends i n t o  the  dark depths of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , sees there the e x t e n t of the a n c i e n t c u r s e , and d e s o l a t e landscape, his l i f e  feels his s p i r i t  flicker  as he contemplates  i n a w o r l d where nothingness  l i k e a bat over a  the u t t e r f u t i l i t y  of  i s the u l t i m a t e t r u t h .  Then,  With a slow movement, as i f coming out o f a deep s l e e p , A i n s l i e s a t up and looked a t the sky. With l o n g i n g f o r continuance brimming i n h i s b l o o d , he had looked ahead on h i s  Mary Banks, B r i t i s h Calendar Customs, c i t e d i n F. M. M c N e i l l , The S i l v e r Bough (Glasgow: W. MacLennan, 1957), p.  66.  days and seen t o t a l emptiness. He had reached h i s c o r e . And there he had stopped. He got to h i s f e e t and looked down a t the brook. In that moment he made the d i s c o v e r y that he was ready to go on w i t h l i f e . (201-02) He reaches h i s c o r e , where l i e s h i s w i l l of  the f u t u r e .  torment o f hope. of not  life,  to l i v e  He reaches that peace found o n l y beyond  the  He sees i n the brook the c u r r e n t o f time and  e v e r - f r e s h , f o r e v e r renewing i t s e l f .  like Lister,  regardless  He knows he i s  O s i e r or Dougald MacKenzie, not one o f the  " b e a t i , secure i n t h e i r age and i n themselves" (203), but h i s v e r y d i f f e r e n c e makes him c a p a b l e o f even g r e a t e r t h i n g s ; he need but s e a r c h .  He i s s t i l l Unsure, but he has l e a r n e d the  v a l u e of l o v e , and may clear is  now  i n the n o v e l ' s f i n a l  emptied, A i n s l i e ' s  Barometer  develop h i s p o t e n t i a l .  image where, w h i l e MacKenzie's  i s untouched.  Rising, Daniel A i n s l i e  Murray's  glass  L i k e N e i l Macrae, i n  is left  f u t u r e , but h i s a t t i t u d e i s d i f f e r e n t Macrae's.  This i s  l o o k i n g toward the  from the more romantic  The Cape Breton d o c t o r ' s a t t i t u d e i s , l i k e Dr. Angus i n Barometer  R i s i n g , much more i r o n i c  than r o m a n t i c .  There a r e , i n Each Man's Son, obvious elements o f romance: the in  theme i s c h i e f l y argon or c o n f l i c t ;  the c h a r a c t e r s are c a s t  t y p i c a l r o l e s o f h e r o , w a i t i n g w i f e , wise o l d man  parent.  and  sinister  A l s o t y p i c a l o f romance i s the heavy r e l i a n c e on the  quest myth:  there a r e two quests i n the n o v e l .  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e from Barometer  But here  lies  R i s i n g , i n which the  quest myth i s a l s o c e n t r a l to the u n f o l d i n g of the s t o r y .  In the  - 68. -  l a t t e r novel,  the use o f the myth i s merely a comic one. I n  Each Man's Son, however, w h i l e A i n s l i e makes a comic quest, one that f u l f i l l s  i t s aims and suggests the appearance o f a new  s o c i e t y , a quest w i t h i n a g r e a t e r t i o n beyond the n o v e l , A r c h i e ' s not  o n l y f a i l s to f u l f i l l  the hero and h i s w i f e .  quest which extends by i m p l i c a -  quest i s t r a g i c , a quest  i t s aims but ends i n the d e s t r u c t i o n o f  Beyond t h i s p a t t e r n ,  quests a r e l i n k e d together  that  the two separate  w i t h i n a g r e a t e r mythic c y c l e , the  death o f the o l d gods and the r i s e o f the new. working behind the development o f the n o v e l  And f i n a l l y ,  as a whole i s t h a t  same f o r c e a t work i n Barometer R i s i n g , moira, n e c e s s i t y , the i n t e r n a l balancing he  o f the a n c i e n t  reaction. and  c o n d i t i o n of l i f e .  The o l d j e a l o u s god,  c u r s e , has r e p r e s s e d  man's n a t u r e , f o r c i n g a  One r e a c t i o n puts too much s t r e s s on p h y s i c a l f o r c e  i d o l i z e s v i o l e n t f i g h t i n g strength,  i n e v i t a b l y r e s t o r e d and the hero process.  The other  but a balance i s  ( A r c h i e ) i s crushed i n the  r e a c t i o n i s to the o p p o s i t e  extreme, p u t t i n g  too much s t r e s s on the mental powers and denying the f l e s h , but here, too, balance i s r e s t o r e d . discovers  Ainslie  i s fortunate  i n t h a t he  f o r h i m s e l f how to escape the f a t e o f the o l d gods,  to c a s t a s i d e hope and f e a r , and simply  to l o v e .  A i n s l i e becomes  l i k e A l b e r t Camus' Sisyphus, j o y f u l i n the face o f h i s absurd f a t e , a t once a c c e p t i n g i t w i t h h i s sheer w i l l balancing  point  i t w i t h s t o i c a l endurance and d e f y i n g to s u r v i v e .  He has found the d e l i c a t e  t h a t i s the E p i c u r e a n  golden mean.  I n love i s  the b a l a n c e r e s t o r e d , as n e c e s s i t y demands: and  sea,  sun and moon, sky  p a t e r n a l and m a t e r n a l , s p i r i t u a l and n a t u r a l , are  r e s o l v e d i n harmony. The  novel  to A i n s l i e ,  ends w i t h  to A l a n and  this in sight.  The  to Canada i t s e l f  destiny  is s t i l l  unrealized.  L i k e Barometer R i s i n g , t h i s n o v e l begins a t sunset the depths of n i g h t . early f a l l ,  just  The  "heart of d a r k n e s s " s t i l l  for  the c h a r a c t e r s  Alan,  the  Sisyphus.  He has  the s p i r i t u a l son of He  quest to make. passed on;  ahead f o r these people, the new i n the  War.  god has  s t o r y of a few  Daniel  i s Telemachus, son  But  son  of  the  regardless  of  l e s s o n of of the  love  trials  r i s e n above the o l d .  i n d i v i d u a l men,  MacLennan has  made a prophecy o f the d e s t i n y i n s t o r e f o r h i s n a t i o n , and prophecy i s o p t i m i s t i c .  in  Telemachus, son of Odysseus the wise,  been l e a r n e d and w i l l be  Once a g a i n ,  of the F i r s t World  i s a l s o Odysseus h i m s e l f ,  h i s own  ends i n  the f u t u r e i s c o n t a i n e d  i s each man's son.  but more than t h i s he  has  But  p h y s i c a l son of A r c h i e and  Odysseus the mighty, and  ends i n  l i e s ahead f o r the n a t i o n , i f not  i n the n o v e l .  A i n s l i e ; c l e a r l y he  and  I t begins i n e a r l y summer and  p r i o r to the b e g i n n i n g  promised  the  Chapter Four: The Watch That Ends the N i g h t : The Comic S y n t h e s i s  The v e r y t i t l e an important day,  o f The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t  o p p o s i t i o n between l i g h t and darkness,  s i m i l a r to t h a t found  p o i n t s to  n i g h t and  i n Barometer R i s i n g and Each Man's Son.  In t h i s n o v e l , the c o n f l i c t o f f o r c e s i s examined to a depth o n l y hinted at before.  The c o n f l i c t  i s focused on the c e n t r a l  c h a r a c t e r o f the n o v e l , George Stewart,  and i s worked out i n the  development o f h i s c h a r a c t e r . When the n o v e l b e g i n s , George i s a t peace. late winter.  The time  l i g h t and darkness,  i s sunset,  The season i s  s t a n d i n g between day and n i g h t ,  t h a t time when the u n i v e r s e seems m y s t e r i o u s l y  to h o l d i t s b r e a t h .  As George says, the "pale t w i l i g h t  the c i t y e r a s e d time:  bathing  i t c a l l e d me back to the Montreal  once had been one o f the t r u e w i n t e r c i t i e s  which  o f the w o r l d . "  It  c a l l s him back t o the days when he " f e l t young and c l e a n and u n t r o u b l e d , " a time live  t h a t "was gone now t h a t we were l e a r n i n g to  l i k e New Y o r k e r s . " !  simple  The o p p o s i t i o n i s g i v e n here between a  past and a c o m p l i c a t e d ,  s o p h i s t i c a t e d present.  An o p p o s i t i o n  a l s o appears between w i l d e r n e s s and c i t y , n a t u r a l and man-made, when George looks a t "the c l e a n , n o r t h e r n t w i l i g h t f e e l i n g and  relaxed" (7).  George l i k e s  easy  to l e t h i s mind escape from the  b u s t l e o f the c i t y , and f i n d s t h i s e a s i e s t a t dusk and a t dawn, f o r he f e e l s t h a t n o t h i n g i s " q u i t e l i k e  the s i l e n c e o f a n o r t h e r n  iRugh MacLennan, The Watch t h a t Ends the Night (New York: New American L i b r a r y , 1960), p. 7. A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from the n o v e l a r e from t h i s e d i t i o n and a r e f o l l o w e d by page r e f e r e n c e s i n parentheses.  c i t y a t dawn on a w i n t e r morning" ( 7 ) . To George, the w i n t e r w i l d e r n e s s contrasted with  i s a positive  world  the modern c i t y which n e g a t i v e l y r e f l e c t s the  i n f l u e n c e o f man's i n v e n t i o n s on h i s l i f e . rush-hour t r a f f i c  Looking a t the  (he p r e f e r s to w a l k ) , he says,  "Sherbrooke  S t r e e t looked l i k e an army i n r e t i r e m e n t " (21).  Shortly after  t h i s , he coments on another  "like a dentist'  drill  the telephone  political  work o f t e c h n o l o g y :  s n a r l e d a t me" (36).  Man-made t h i n g s ,  i d e o l o g i e s as w e l l as machines, a r e o f t e n g i v e n  negative a t t r i b u t e s . get out o f c o n t r o l .  George i s bothered  by the way such  things  He sees man b l i t h e l y s e t t i n g f o r c e s i n  motion which a l l too o f t e n assume a m i n d l e s s momentum o f t h e i r own, sometimes t h r e a t e n i n g to d e s t r o y him u t t e r l y .  But, t o  George, where man has n o t meddled, the w o r l d remains  uncorrupt.  He i s r e f r e s h e d by the c o l d w i n t e r a i r which has "come down from the germless,  sinless  l a n d " (24).  D a n i e l A i n s l i e o f Each Man's Son. harsh, uncorrupt  In t h i s , George i s l i k e Where A i n s l i e approves o f the  Newfoundland landscape,  George r e m i n i s c e s  p o s i t i v e l y about a boyhood canoe t r i p on the Great Lakes where "the days were a s t r i n g e n t and the n i g h t s were c o l d " (51). finally  states h i s feeling e x p l i c i t l y ,  He  describing a "beautiful,  c o l d s k i e r ' s morning i n the innocent n o r t h l a n d , " which leads him to  say, "to be young . . . to be innocent o f l i f e  . . . were  v e r y heaven.'" (318) George's f e e l i n g s toward the w i l d e r n e s s a r e , however, ambivalent.  While i t serves as a place o f escape from the c i t y  and o f i s o l a t i o n  from the busy confused world, i t i s a l s o  f r i g h t e n i n g i n i t s greatness.  Canoeing  on a s i l e n t  rather  lake w i t h  Jerome M a r t e l l , George becomes aware that "the s i l e n c e went a thousand m i l e s to Hudson Bay"  (149).  L a t e r , George s i t s  i n s i l e n c e s t a r i n g a t the landscape which s t a r e d back: form and c o l o u r and l i g h t and shade, u s e l e s s to farmers, some o f the o l d e s t rock i n the world c r o p p i n g out of i t , dark green and l i g h t green, a n c i e n t , m i n d l e s s , from e v e r l a s t i n g to everl a s t i n g without any purpose anyone c o u l d p o s s i b l y understand, but t h e r e . (247) As he says o u t r i g h t ,  "Jerome l o v e d the s t a r k grandeur  L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d which evoked called  out i n me,  a response i n him  of the  i t has  f o r I p r e f e r a g e n t l e r l a n d where f l o w e r s  and  f r u i t s grow" (252).  his  l i k i n g , a garden  his  one y o u t h f u l summer w i t h C a t h e r i n e .  A g e n t l e r p a s t o r a l l a n d i s more to  l a n d such as the " a r c a d i a " he enjoyed i n He yearns f o r t h i s  i d y l l i c Eden, l o s t when he became aware o f h i s p h y s i c a l " I f c h i l d h o o d i s a garden," he says, "The  desire: then  A paradise  i t i s , a l o s s he mourns u n t i l he reaches h i s t r u e manhood  near the end o f the n o v e l . his  lost  gates c l o s e d on us  and ever a f t e r w a r d s we were on the o u t s i d e " (58). lost  never  dream, but, unable  as an escape,  to f i n d  A r e t u r n to t h i s  garden world i s  to f u l f i l l h i s dream, he uses i n the c o l d , b a r r e n s i l e n c e  the w i l d e r n e s s  temporary  peace. George's f i n d i n g peace i n w i n t e r c o l d and s i l e n c e and  the  w i l d e r n e s s , or w h i l e the c i t y s l e e p s , t e l l s us much about h i s character.  He  f i n d s peace without people, without t h e i r n o i s e ,  b u s t l e and c o n f u s i o n .  H i s form o f peace i s the p a r t i a l ,  inadequate  - 73. -  peace of a r e c l u s e , a peace found i n i s o l a t i o n from the human community i n a d e n i a l of h i s p l a c e i n the l i f e  of mankind.  Such  a peace he enjoys when the n o v e l opens, but i t i s q u i c k l y s h a t t e r e d by a telephone the window and  call  from Jerome.  sees the e n c r o a c h i n g  down over the snow w i t h i t s s q u i r r e l  George looks out  "darkness  visibly  t r a c k s " (11).  flooding  The  gentle  George f e e l s as h e l p l e s s as a s q u i r r e l a t the mercy of f o r c e s g r e a t e r than he can understand.  Night has  begun.  N i g h t , to George, means c o n f u s i o n and the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s , he remembers w a l k i n g a f t e r midnight: blowing  "The moon had  scraps o f paper and  terror.  Recollecting  the M o n t r e a l  sunk and a r i s i n g wind  d u s t " (124).  was  In t h i s dark  r e m i n i s c e n t of the dark and dingy n i g h t scene of T. S. " P r e l u d e s " , George has a v i s i o n of the abyss, in his l i f e : I saw  the bottom h o l e of my  then - - i t i s one  see-- my himself: and  " I t was  own  worthlessness."  He  "I s t a r e d a l l the way  Eliot's  nothingness  l i f e up to t h a t time.  glimpses  the darkness  within  down t h a t b l e a k , empty s t r e e t  seemed to be s t a r i n g i n t o the r e c e s s e s of my  night " f u l l  scene,  of the most t e r r i b l e t h i n g s anyone can  Much l a t e r i n the n o v e l and  in  the  streets  i n h i s l i f e , he  own  imagines  soul"  (125).  Catherine's  of p a i n , of f e a r , of tumbling down unknown t u n n e l s  the e n d l e s s d a r k "  " o n l y the f e a r f u l n i g h t and darkness  (318).  And  f o r C a t h e r i n e ' s f u t u r e he  t u n n e l w i t h n o t h i n g a t the end" c o n t a i n chaos, meaningless  t h i s w o r l d of darkness  people are " l o s t  like  (320).  sees The  c o n f u s i o n , and i n shadows moving  - 74. -  p e r i l o u s l y over a c r u s t c o v e r i n g the v o i d : (265), one s t e p falling  to drown i n the dark.  George nears  f e e l s he i s going to l o s e C a t h e r i n e .  from  t h i s p o i n t when he  With C a t h e r i n e i n h o s p i t a l  c l o s e to d y i n g , George d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f a l o n e i n bed, s h i v e r i n g with fear, while  "the darkness  descended and the ocean r o s e "  (332). The  image o f the ocean i s used o f t e n i n The Watch That  Ends the Night and i n many d i f f e r e n t ways.  Most important, the  ocean i s used as an image o f the mind and o f time. e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e s to the ocean l i n k s both George f e e l s  The past i s an ocean t o be r e v i v e d i n the  ocean o f the c h a r a c t e r s ' memories. George.  fully  the mind and time:  t h a t Jerome " w i l l b r i n g up a l l the ocean out o f  the p a s t " (30).  to  One o f the  T h i s ocean i s f r i g h t e n i n g  As he says when he has d e c i d e d to commit h i m s e l f  to l o v i n g C a t h e r i n e , "Now I , too, was a t sea and I  thought  o f t h a t v a s t r e s e r v o i r o f emotions and memories o f  which every f r a g i l e human l i f e a Mindinao  floats until  the depth becomes  j^sicj Deep so profound he cannot plumb i t " (296).  ocean o f the mind t h r e a t e n s even t h a t f r a g i l e c o n s c i o u s which appears  self  on the s u r f a c e , t h r e a t e n s i t l i k e  the e x t e r n a l  ocean o f time o r the sea o f h i s t o r y which r i s e s  to f l o o d the  w o r l d w i t h v i o l e n c e and d e s t r u c t i o n .  During the Second World  War, George says, h i s " p r i v a t e l i f e almost  drowned i n what  seemed to be the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the w o r l d i t s e l f " But  Th  (296).  t h i s ocean can be b e n e f i c e n t , t o o ; f o r example, i t can h e a l  an i n j u r y as bad C a t h e r i n e ' s l o s s o f Jerome:  Catherine's  "love f o r Jerome had gone down l i k e a wounded l i v i n g t h i n g to  the f l o o r o f the sea and time had covered i t , the deep  t i m e " (301).  The use o f the sea as a metaphor f o r time i s a l s o  sometimes s p e c i f i c a l l y focused on the passage o f a day or o f a person's rising  life.  in full  George d e s c r i b e s one "August morning . . .  t i d e " (51).  George h i s f i r s t  Elsewhere,  when C a t h e r i n e  offers  s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e , he sees h e r "as q u i e t l y  r e s t l e s s as a q u i e t s e a " (75), but he denies h e r and h i s own desire.  He i s a f r a i d .  Much l a t e r , however, s i t t i n g  C a t h e r i n e a f t e r t h e i r r e u n i o n , he senses in  the t i d e o f h e r l i f e , " and he f e e l s The  is  "her b r e a t h i n g  presence  " l i k e a man come home" (129).  g r e a t t i d a l ocean i s a s s o c i a t e d i n t h i s n o v e l , as i t  i n Each Man's Son, w i t h the moon.  f o r c e throughout and  with  the mind.  The moon i s a c o n t r o l l i n g  n a t u r e , i n f l u e n c i n g the ocean, the human body  Images o f the moon appear a t many  important  moments i n the n o v e l , when emotion i s a t i t s h i g h e s t . young George and C a t h e r i n e a r e b l i s s f u l l y  When the  i n l o v e , the s i g n i f i c a n t l y  "moonless n i g h t s were as s o f t as warm m i l k " (62 , i t a l i c s  mine).  T h i s g i v e s a sense o f an i n n o c e n t c h i l d a t i t s mother's b r e a s t , warmed by a mother's h e a t . and C a t h e r i n e e x p e r i e n c e h u n t e r ' s moon."  The t i d e s o f d e s i r e r i s e , and George  their f i r s t  kiss  "on the n i g h t o f a  The moon stood over the l a k e , and "there i t  hung w i t h a r i n g g l i t t e r i n g about i t and dominated the w o r l d " (63).  The h u n t e r ' s moon reminds one o f the goddess Diana,  the chaste  h u n t r e s s , e s p e c i a l l y as C a t h e r i n e i s s t i l l  chaste.  As the  "hunter's moon s t a r e d down," George n o t i c e d t h a t " f a r out i n the channel were the r i d i n g l i g h t s o f a moving s h i p " ( 6 4 ) . There i s a h i n t here o f a j o u r n e y by water - - a c r o s s the ocean of  time and the unconscious-- and t h a t such moments as t h i s a r e  f l e e t i n g , c a r r i e d away q u i c k l y by the c u r r e n t .  And so i t  happens: "The moon c o n t i n u e d to s t a r e down on us . . . u n t i l a t l a s t a wandering  c l o u d covered the moon and the lake gave a  s h i v e r and went d a r k " (66). the lake i s darkened, fulfilled  a little  The moon i s h i d d e n from the c o u p l e ,  g i v i n g a sense o f f o r e b o d i n g which i s  l a t e r when George s p o i l s  their  relationship.  The weather has changed f o r the worse when the couple meets a g a i n ; George has l o s t h i s innocence but i s s t i l l of  h i s childhood.  not free  He denies the t i d a l demands o f the f l e s h - - i s  a f r a i d o f them-- and a t the same time denies h i m s e l f the r i g h t to  Catherine.  Years l a t e r , when George i s about  to meet h i s  love a g a i n , there i s a p r o p h e t i c "hunter's moon over the c i t y " (123).  Having met C a t h e r i n e , he n o t i c e s moonlight  the darkened windows o f a c h u r c h " (131).  "flicker off  The r e l i g i o n the church  r e p r e s e n t s i s dead to him, but the moon c o n t i n u e s to a s s e r t itself.  The moon i s f o r e v e r p r e s e n t , i f n o t i n the sky, i n the  c h a r a c t e r o f C a t h e r i n e , f o r she, l i k e Margaret A i n s l i e  i n Each  Man's Son, i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i n l u n a r terms. When, i n t h e i r youth, George and C a t h e r i n e walk i n the moonlight,  George t h i n k s "of h e r as a whiteness  o f the dusk"  (58).  L a t e r , when Jerome i s d e p a r t i n g f o r Spain, he sees her  as "serene, life,  p a l e and b e a u t i f u l " (261).  i n her  j u s t p r i o r to the l a s t embolism which p r e c i p i t a t e s the  climax, George notes  C a t h e r i n e ' s " s m a l l curved f a c e p a l e ,  (311), h i n t i n g of a waning moon. and wanes l i k e to  Later s t i l l  the moon.  C a t h e r i n e ' s very  And she s i l e n t l y  George which he does n o t see u n t i l v e r y  calm"  l i f e waxes  offers  something  l a t e i n the n o v e l .  F i n a l l y a t peace w i t h h i m s e l f , George says, "my s o u l was l i k e a landscape w i t h water when the f o g goes and the moon comes out all  the promontories  long l a s t a c c e p t s  a r e c l e a r and s t i l l "  (346) .  George a t  the moon, f u l l y a c c e p t s C a t h e r i n e , and f i n a l l y  sees h e r as she r e a l l y i s ; of h e r f a c e , he says, " L i g h t was i n it.  L i g h t came out of i t . L i g h t came from h e r c o n s t a n t l y i n t o me"  (348) .  But, i f C a t h e r i n e on one l e v e l r e p r e s e n t s the powers of  the moon (the m a t e r n a l mysterious  p r i n c i p l e and the m i s t r e s s of the  powers of n a t u r e ) , she a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a g r e a t d e a l  more. The f i r s t  time young George sees C a t h e r i n e i n the n o v e l ,  "she was a l l d r e s s e d i n g r e e n "  (50), and he l a t e r says  that  "green was her c o l o u r a t t h a t supreme moment of my y o u t h " ( 5 2 ) . Later i n l i f e ,  George d e s c r i b e s C a t h e r i n e ' s p a i n t i n g which i s  c l o s e s t to a s e l f - p o r t r a i t : "simply a l l the young g i r l s  i t i s of a young g i r l ,  there ever were l o s t i n a spectrum of  s p r i n g and knowing themselves a l o n e . f l o w e r on a s t a l k " (308) .  featureless,  The head drooped l i k e a  These a s s o c i a t i o n s of C a t h e r i n e w i t h  nature do n o t stand a l o n e .  F o r i n s t a n c e , the seasons  f o l l o w h e r e a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h George.  seem to  About to deny  C a t h e r i n e and l e a v e h e r f o r a long time, George says he " c o u l d almost hear  the v o i c e o f w i n t e r " (74).  And w i n t e r does come;  " I n d i a n Summer was over, and w i t h i t my time i n A r c a d i a " ( 6 7 ) . The  p a s t o r a l Eden, the summer he has spent w i t h C a t h e r i n e , i s  over, but George does n o t want to a c c e p t i t s p a s s i n g ; hence, he fails  C a t h e r i n e by b e i n g too f e a r f u l  He has l o s t h i s c h i l d h o o d innocence maturity.  to respond  to h e r advance.  but i s a long way from  He denies n a t u r e , f o r which nature  he d e r i v e s a m a s o c h i s t i c p l e a s u r e from  punishes him, and  the punishment:  "the  wind t e a r i n g my h a i r and the r a i n l a s h i n g my face were g r a t e f u l " (76).  Many years l a t e r , when he and C a t h e r i n e a r e m a r r i e d ,  George r e t u r n s to a p a r t i a l acceptance t h a t happiness it  o f nature.  He e x p l a i n s  " d i d n o t come t o C a t h e r i n e and me i n a rush; r a t h e  grew l i k e summer weather a f t e r a c o o l s p r i n g i n a n o r t h e r n  l a n d " (300), and t h a t t o g e t h e r they "grew i n t i m a t e w i t h the seasons"  (301).  George's d e s c r i p t i o n o f C a t h e r i n e ' s i n f l u e n c e  reminds one o f Jerome s a y i n g "the f i r s t  two years w i t h h e r  the world opened up l i k e a r o s e " (157).  This c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n  of  p a r a l l e l s the  C a t h e r i n e w i t h nature and the seasons  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the year i n MacLennan's essay,  "Portrait of a  Year": i n May . . . she e n t e r e d l i k e a supple g i r l o f p e r f e c t deportment, yet one who knew what she wanted and how to get i t , and the most d e l i c a t e shades o f green became h e r w e l l .  -  79.  . . . i n September . . . the bones of her face showed f i n e aristocratic. By October she was a g r e a t lady knowing her l i f e had been so f u l l she c o u l d a f f o r d to be serene, wise, t h o u g h t f u l and remembering. This p e r s o n i f i e d year speaks to the a u t h o r , s a y i n g , w i t h me  and  be my  love and we  This i s what C a t h e r i n e and  w i l l a l l the  offers f i r s t  then to George a g a i n .  and  "Come l i v e  pleasures  prove.  to George, then to Jerome,  MacLennan's d e s c r i p t i o n of a  year's  passage, h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the c y c l e of the seasons, bears a c l o s e resemblance to the broad o u t l i n e s of character.  She  artist,  i s "ambitious,"  she  i n her c o r e " (249) Her  and  i s green i n youth, and  (26), and  she ages g r a c e f u l l y .  " r u t h l e s s , " and  "strangely  s i g n i f i c a n t l y she both " l o v e s  i s a p e r f e c t i o n i s t a t i t , an a r t i s t  of the  She  gardening" garden.  i s of a r i s t o c r a t i c b e a r i n g ;  c o u l d t h i n k of C a t h e r i n e  year, her  as  queen-like"  time i s l i m i t e d , and her  a larger cycle. which i s "her on r e g a r d l e s s .  But her  (26).  and  in fact,  Like  the  l i f e moves i n c y c l e s w i t h i n  i n e f f a b l e , unconquerable s p i r i t ,  s t r e n g t h , her  that  essence, her mystery" (26), c a r r i e s  A f t e r each scrape w i t h  death she  revives.  It is  not c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t George, going  to the h o s p i t a l to' f i n d  Catherine  the c a b - d r i v e r  was  i s recovering,  almost over and  As  solitary  face i s f i n e - f e a t u r e d , "heart-shaped, l a r g e grey eyes  s e n s i t i v e mouth" (26). "you  Catherine's  i s t o l d by  t h a t s p r i n g , she was  Scotchman's Re t u r n , pp.  259-60  "that  coming f o r s u r e "  that  winter (3'32).  an  - 80. -  When he does 1 e a r n that C a t h e r i n e w i l l  l i v e , he suddenly becomes  aware t h a t the seasons a r e changing, w i n t e r y i e l d i n g to s p r i n g . (346) of the  Catherine's ' s p i r i t , l i k e  unconquerable tidal  t h a t o f n a t u r e , i s the seed  l i f e w i t h i n her.  Her f a t e i s l i k e  that of  s e a , the changing moon, the s e a s o n a l v e g e t a t i o n , and  is reflected  i n h e r heart-shaped f a c e .  George comments t h a t  a "rheumatic h e a r t i s f a t e p a l p a b l e and u n a v o i d a b l e " ( 8 ) , and, during Catherine's l a s t  embolism, he says t h a t "the image o f h e r  f a c e " haunted him and that "the f e e l i n g o f h e r body melted mine so warm and c l o s e t h a t the n i g h t throbbed" (296).  into  The  t h r o b b i n g o f h e r h e a r t becomes a t h r o b b i n g i n the n i g h t ,  pulsing  as the moon, m i s t r e s s o f the n i g h t and the t i d e s , s l o w l y p u l s e s , as the y e a r l y seasons but he w i l l  pulse.  George i s haunted by i t , f e a r s i t ,  l e a r n to a c c e p t i t .  The moon s h i n e s over more c h a r a c t e r s than George and C a t h e r i n e . Jerome i s born i n i t s l i g h t ,  i f not a c t u a l l y , c e r t a i n l y  symbolically.  D e s c r i b i n g h i s mother's murder, Jerome says he "saw moonlight p o u r i n g i n t o the k i t c h e n i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e s h a f t s " (167). F o l l o w i n g the murder, he runs out i n t o the moonlight, and l a t e r ,  afraid,  as he escapes down-river i n h i s canoe ( s t i l l t h r e a t e n e d  by h i s mother's m u r d e r e r ) ,  "the moon was enormous i n the wide  g r e e n l y - s h i n i n g s k y " (174). and s y m b o l i c a l l y Jerome s t i l l  There i s sense o f submersion h e r e , i s submerged, f o r he has n o t y e t  been born. Jerome's n a t u r a l mother c o u l d have stepped s t r a i g h t out a  myth.  Her r e a l name i s obscure, but the "men c a l l e d h e r 'Anna'  or'Mrs. Anna'" (162).  The name "Anna" has been g i v e n to  numerous goddesses i n a n c i e n t m y t h o l o g i e s , and the word  itself  descends from an Indo-European r o o t the meaning o f which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "mother".  The goddess named Anna or h a v i n g  v a r i a t i o n s o f t h a t name (e.g., Roman Anna Perenna o r Greek Urana) is  g e n e r a l l y an e a r t h goddess or mother goddess l i n k e d to  c r e a t i o n and f e r t i l i t y . and  She i s , however, a l s o l i n k e d to death  d e s t r u c t i o n , f o r i t i s o f h e r d u a l nature to both g i v e and  take away.  As the mother e a r t h g i v e s l i f e  summer, she takes i t i n f a l l whole year ( L a t i n annus: as  the mother o f a l l  and w i n t e r :  year).  chaos to take form as the e a r t h .  she i s a goddess o f the  She i s g e n e r a l l y worshipped  things, l i k e  Olympian C r e a t i o n Myth, a r i s i n g  i n s p r i n g and  the Mother E a r t h o f the  ( m y s t e r i o u s l y unengendered) from Jerome's mother, Anna,  closely  resembles such a goddess; no-one i n the l o g g i n g camp knows where she  has come from.  She speaks l i t t l e .  She i s a " s h o r t , square,  powerful woman" (162), a s t a t u r e reminding one o f p r i m i t i v e c l a y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the mother goddess. woman" i n the camp" (163).  She i s "the p r i n c i p a l  She has a simple and p r i m i t i v e n a t u r e ,  s p o r a d i c a l l y and i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y g i v i n g h e r s e x u a l to  favours  the men o f the camp, and i s tough and r u t h l e s s i n demanding  s a t i s f a c t i o n from these men.  She r e p r e s e n t s the h a r s h , b r u t a l but  b a s i c and n e c e s s a r y powers o f n a t u r e .  She i s the g r e a t mother.  Jerome's a d o p t i v e mother i s a new k i n d o f woman to him.  Of  - 82. -  the two M a r t e l l ' s , woman was  the s t r o n g e r . . . y e t  u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t from h i s mother.  and g e n t l e and mystery,  "the woman was  still  she was  s t r o n g " (193).  She was She  civilized,  She  is s t i l l  Christianized.  lack  little  the mother goddess, but the goddess  Where Jerome's n a t u r a l mother i s "as  p o s s e s s i v e as a female bear w i t h a cub" " l i k e a g e n t l e b i r d " (189).  (163), Mrs M a r t e l l i s  The c o n t r a s t i s l i k e  c o n t r a s t between w i l d e r n e s s and garden. between the n a t u r a l and  s o f t , warm  does not  however, f o r she i s d e s c r i b e d as a "strange  p e r s o n " (189).  this  George's  It is like  the man-made i d e a l :  the c o n t r a s t  w h i l e Anna i s  c o n t e n t w i t h , and r e i g n s i n , the p r i m i t i v e , ambivalent w i l d e r n e s s , a l a n d both h a r s h and b e a u t i f u l , Mrs. M a r t e l l l i v e s  in a  and c a s t s her thoughts  visualizes  as an A r c a d i a n garden  to f a r - o f f England which she  city  of C h r i s t i a n Eden on e a r t h , "the most  b e a u t i f u l and wonderful  c o u n t r y i n the w o r l d , and  the k i n g l i v e s "  Jerome d i s c o v e r s , l i k e N e i l Macrae i n  (199).  i t ' s where  Barometer R i s i n g , t h a t t h i s p a s t o r a l p a r a d i s e does not  exist,  t h a t the r e a l w o r l d i s h a r s h e r than a c o l o n i a l ' s dreams would have i t . While  Jerome's n a t u r a l mother i s the o r i g i n a l ,  primitive  mother o f d u a l n a t u r e , then, h i s a d o p t i v e mother i s the more human mother.  When C a t h e r i n e m a r r i e s Jerome, she  over t h i s g e n t l e , p r o t e c t i n g r o l e . this,  protective, takes  But she g i v e s him more than  f o r she b r i n g s to him her o t h e r mythic a t t r i b u t e s , her  a f f i n i t y w i t h n a t u r e and  the moon.  What Robert  Graves c a l l s  the  - 83. -  White Goddess, t h a t i s ,  the moon goddess, takes three major  forms, r e p r e s e n t i n g the three major phases the moon passes through; maiden  (newly waxing), nymph ( l a t e waxing, f u l l , and newly  waning), and crone ( l a t e waning and d a r k ) . of  these forms.  chaste l i k e  When George f i r s t  C a t h e r i n e takes two  knows h e r , she i s a maiden,  the goddess Diana. During t h i s time, she matures,  e v i d e n t i n George's d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e r "coming out o f the lake when she was e i g h t e e n w i t h the summer water streaming o f f h e r s h o u l d e r s and t h i g h s " (44), an image p a r a l l e l Aphrodite r i s i n g  to that o f  from the sea (the b i r t h o f Venus).  Aphrodite  r e p r e s e n t s the moon goddess i n h e r nymph phase, the p o s i t i v e nymph, she o f s p r i n g and summer, o f f e r t i l i t y  and c r e a t i o n .  But  there i s another a s p e c t o f the nymph; she o f the waning moon, who r draws toward the cone, she o f darkness and death.  Like  Circe  A  of and  the S i r e n s i n the Odyssey, she should be approached w a r i l y o n l y by one w i t h knowledge o f h e r d u a l n a t u r e .  Blackwell c l e a r l y f i l l s  t h i s r o l e f o r Jerome.  love f o r Jerome makes h e r a p o s i t i v e f i g u r e ,  Norah  On one hand h e r l e a d i n g George to  d e s c r i b e h e r as "a f l o w e r which had opened a f t e r a long (257).  But t h i s same b l i n d  frost"  love a l s o makes h e r a n e g a t i v e  f i g u r e , f o r i t leads h e r to d e s e r t h e r husband and causes much unhappiness.  Her nature t r u l y does c o n t a i n a "black w e l l , " as  George notes when he sees h e r on board s h i p w i t h Jerome, bound for  Spain:  " t h a t woman's head had come by s t e a l t h , had come under  the  t e r r i b l e compulsion o f the d e s t r u c t i v e power w i t h i n h e r "  - 84.  (264). who  She  -  i s t h a t form o f nymph - - i n f a c t , a nymphomaniac--  i s l e d to her d e s t r u c t i o n by her own  the hero w i t h h e r .  Her  fate,  d e s i r e , and would  l i k e her v o i c e , i s C o r d e l i a ' s  (112), t r a g i c , absurd and out of her c o n t r o l . dark phase or crone  Finally,  i n f l u e n c e on h i s young l i f e , who,  dead and itself  stands  i f the  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by any c h a r a c t e r i n the  n o v e l , i t i s George's Aunt Agnes, the dominant and  Man's Son,  take  baleful  l i k e Mrs. MacCuish i n Each  f o r the s t a t i c and n e g a t i v e f o r c e s of the o l d ,  r o t t e n world.  On a more a b s t r a c t l e v e l ,  i t i s death  t h a t i s the dark phase, the enemy George f e a r s and  Jerome  fights. Jerome i s a f i g h t e r and o s t e n s i b l y the most h e r o i c f i g u r e in  the n o v e l .  He  i s , as Woodcock p o i n t s out,  though not t e c h n i c a l l y the hero . . . a f i g u r e i n the h e r o i c mould, the wanderer and the g i a n t and .the medicine man a l l i n one, an energumen i n the t h i r t i e s , a man of sorrows and s a i n t l y wisdom i n the f i f t i e s , who seems f o r most of the n o v e l too f a r above common c l a y to be e i t h e r t r u e or t o l e r a b l e u n l e s s we a c c e p t him as myth incarnate."^ From the b e g i n n i n g , Jerome f i t s mythical hero.  i n t o the p a t t e r n of the  H i s o r i g i n s are obscure; h i s mother i s a most  m y s t e r i o u s woman and h i s f a t h e r i s unknown. his  birthplace,  l o n e l i n e s s " (158).  3  As a c h i l d , he  an o l d s a i l o r who  "Nation's  i s unsure of  the f i r s t home he knows b e i n g a "primeval  (160), of which he says, "I've never  f i g u r e s ; one,  He  Odyssey," p.  seen a n y t h i n g l i k e i t f o r  i s t u t o r e d by two  prophetically  16  forest"  "tried  strange to make him  - 85. -  promise t h a t when he grew up he would take to the s e a " (162), and  the other a "red-headed g i a n t [who} was a l s o a master  crafts-  man" (163) and who b u i l d s him the canoe that w i l l c a r r y him down-river. he .  A f t e r the murder o f h i s mother, he escapes by canoe:  "began to move f a s t on a r i v e r wide, f i r m , s i l v e r and a l i v e . . u t t e r l y alone f o r the f i r s t  him  time i n h i s l i f e ,  down under t h a t wide open sky through the f o r e s t to the open  sea which he knew was a t i t s end" (174). sea and escaped the g r e a t e s t  threat  Having reached the  to h i s l i f e  (the E n g i n e e r  who murdered h i s mother), he i s adopted by the g e n t l e This  follows  almost e x a c t l y  the Hero, the b a s i c m o t i f s  the a r c h e t y p a l o f which a r e :  b i r t h which can be a v i r g i n or m o d i f i e d unknown), 2.  Myth o f the B i r t h o f  virgin birth  i n f a n t e x i l e or exposure on the waters  by  simple f o l k , 4.  his  "true" estate  (father (water-birth:  rescue and f o s t e r a g e  a p r o s p e c t , u l t i m a t e l y , o f ascendance to ( o f t e n as the beloved o f the moon goddess:  compare Perseus, Theseus).^  At night,  Jerome i s "submerged" ( s t i l l  i n a symbolic p r e n a t a l  under the "wide g r e e n l y  up  Martells.  1. a noble or d i v i n e  compare Greek Perseus, Hebrew Moses), 3.  the  bearing  l i g h t o f dawn s w e l l s  s h i n i n g sky."  f o l l o w i n g the r i v e r , state)  But, as he nears the ocean,  " i n t o a cool c o n f l a g r a t i o n that  flushed  i n t o the wide and r e a l sky as the e n t i r e world opened up"  (178).  A t t h i s moment, waking from s l e e p , Jerome i s t r u l y born  ^ J . Campbell, The Masks o f God'; O c c i d e n t a l ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) , ^ . 73-74.  Mythology  - 86. -  i n t o t h i s world. it  I t i s important  t h a t , a t h i s symbolic  birth,  i s the r i s i n g sun that wakes him from s l e e p , "a t u r m o i l o f  g o l d l i k e a tremendous excitement i n t o the f o r e s t and "excitement  i n heaven p o u r i n g i t s arrows  f l a s h i n g them o f f the stream"  (179).  The  i n heaven" h i n t s i£ h i s " d i v i n e " n a t u r e , and  arrows o f the r i s i n g sun remind  one  god o f the sun and a famous a r c h e r .  the  o f the Greek god A p o l l o , C l e a r l y Jerome can be  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the sun, as C a t h e r i n e i s w i t h the moon. powerful and times all  dynamic, a source of power and  life  "more l i k e a f o r c e of nature than a man"  He i s  to o t h e r s , and a t  (140).  Jerome i s  these t h i n g s and more. Jerome i s a l s o a q u e s t i n g Odysseus f i g u r e ,  perhaps  although  l e s s o b v i o u s l y than e i t h e r N e i l Macrae o f Barometer  R i s i n g or A r c h i e MacNeil o f Each Man's Son. goes to a g r e a t war  i n the e a s t and  to t h i s  who  p o i n t a man  C h r i s t i a n B i b l e , who (202), i n the "war  L i k e Odysseus, he  t h e r e becomes u n s e t t l e d .  f e r v e n t l y b e l i e v e d i n the t r u t h o f the  "thought  o f h i m s e l f as a s o l d i e r o f  to end a l l wars " he ;  loses h i s f a i t h .  t h r u s t i n t o a w o r l d i n which he can f i n d no a b s o l u t e s . e n t e r s on a quest to f i n d i d e a l s  God" He i s He  to r e p l a c e those he has  where they l i e i s h i s t r u e home, a p l a c e o f peace and the " C i t y o f God".  Up  lost;  contentment,  H i s e x p e r i e n c e i n the s h e l l - h o l e , the hours  spent w i t h h i s dead "enemy", have turned him a g a i n s t the god  he  once b e l i e v e d i n , and h i s r e a c t i o n takes the form o f an i d e a l i s t i c humanism.  At t h i s  time, he i d e n t i f i e s  the g o a l o f h i s  quest w i t h  the crowning g l o r y of c l a s s i c a l Greece, a  non-  C h r i s t i a n humanist's s u b s t i t u t e f o r the C i t y of God, top of a h i l l  --Athens perhaps.  b e a u t i f u l , and  i t was  a great  I t was  privilege  D a n i e l A i n s l i e of Each Man's Son, guilt  f o r having  turned a g a i n s t  himself into a l i f e  white and  "a c i t y  on  i t was  to e n t e r i t " (227).  Like  l a b o u r i n g under a burden of  the god  o f h i s youth, he  of e x p i a t i o n f o r h i s " s i n s " ,  sacrificing  h i m s e l f on the a l t a r of humanity.  As he  immortality  turns h i s enormous s t r e n g t h , of  i s mankind" (254).  both body and around him, he  George, "The  p e r s o n a l i t y , a g a i n s t whatever enemies he  p a r t i c u l a r l y s i c k n e s s , death and  t h i n k s does not  says,  He  tells  throws  "a w a r r i o r  stand w i t h him  ...  anything  in his fight.  He  In h i s more obstreperous  Ha-ha i n the midst of the trumpets" (129).  He  only  finds or anybody  i s , as  Catherine  moments he  says  is a special  kind  of w a r r i o r , as Adam B l o r e , the c y n i c a l s c u l p t o r , makes c l e a r to George: He's an i d e a l i s t , and he has ten times more energy than a normal man. Push a man l i k e him o u t s i d e your camp and what does he do? Nine times out of ten he t r i e s to break i n and capture i t . (122) He has  the might and  i d e a l i s m makes him the t h i r t i e s . to  h i s departure  f i r s t war. is  He  of Homer's Odysseus, but  unable to f u l f i l l l a c k s wisdom.  the aims of h i s quest  Hence, the whole p e r i o d  f o r Spain f i n a l l y becomes an e x t e n s i o n  That he  d e s c r i b e d as  determination  is s t i l l  "a g e n e r a l  f i g h t i n g a war  blind during  prior of  the  becomes c l e a r when he  pondering a tough d e c i s i o n " (218).  His  - 88. -  l a c k o f wisdom causes him t o be too e a s i l y e x c i t e d , and when he i s e x c i t e d and s t i r r e d he o f t e n r e v e r t s " t o the p r i m i t i v e " He moves through  life  w i l d l y a t h i s enemies.  " l i k e a s l e e p w a l k e r " (248), s t r i k i n g out But h i s e x t e r n a l enemies a r e r e a l l y o n l y  p r o j e c t i o n s o f h i s enemies w i t h i n . "I don't  (231)*  know who I am" (158).  can he complete h i s quest.  Jerome h i m s e l f t e l l s  George,  And o n l y when he l e a r n s who he i s  L i k e Dr. A i n s l i e  i n Each Man's Son,  Jerome i s l o o k i n g f o r a God, one t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y h i s humanist ideals. his  F o r a l l h i s admirable  works i n M o n t r e a l , he cannot  l o n g i n g , and s e t s out on another  from home, one t h a t begins  quest, t h i s  i n Spain, c a r r i e s  time  He t e l l s  t h a t d u r i n g t h i s f i n a l , more t r u l y Odyssean quest, wanted was to come home" (12).  t r u l y away  him through  R u s s i a and China, and f i n a l l y back to M o n t r e a l .  satisfy  France, George  " a l l I ever  I t i s d u r i n g t h i s journey t h a t he  g a i n s the wisdom o f Odysseus; when he r e t u r n s , George notes t h a t he has a c q u i r e d an "obscure wisdom," an "obscure  power" (349).  In d e a l i n g w i t h the Odysseus f i g u r e i n t h i s n o v e l , MacLennan uses o n l y the bare bones o f the p a t t e r n , r a d i c a l l y changing many o f i t s p a r t s . Penelope,  C a t h e r i n e i s the w a i t i n g w i f e ,  o n l y d u r i n g the I l i a d s e c t i o n o f the c y c l e .  i s on h i s f i n a l  When Jerome  quest and i s taken f o r dead (as Odysseus i s o f t e n  a s s e r t e d to b e ) , C a t h e r i n e a c c e p t s the evidence and r e m a r r i e s not long a f t e r .  Oddly enough, she m a r r i e s  the v e r y man who i s  s y m b o l i c a l l y h e r husband's son. As George says, f o r a time i n the t h i r t i e s , when I was s p i r i t u a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y fatherless  (9) . . . I had come to t h i n k o f Jerome as a p r o t e c t o r ,  - 89. -  almost as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the f a t h e r I never had except i n the b i o l o g i c a l sense. (140) On t h i s  level,  George i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Telemachus.  This  Telemachus not o n l y m a r r i e s the w i f e of h i s " f a t h e r " ; he m a r r i e s his  own  "mother", f o r , as Jerome t e l l s him,  for  safety against l i f e "  mother s u b s t i t u t e she f u l f i l l e d  (343).  "You m a r r i e d h e r  Here, C a t h e r i n e a c t s as a  to the immature George, and Jerome admits  the same r o l e f o r him b e f o r e h i s f i n a l  quest.  that The  p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p are extremely s u b t l e and complex i n t h i s n o v e l , and, when viewed r e s o l v e themselves  simply a t t h i s  i n incest.  however, i n much the same way Son, and  l e v e l , almost seem to  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c o n f u s e d , they are c o m p l i c a t e d i n Each Man's  they r e s o l v e themselves  p o s i t i v e l y when the o t h e r major  q u e s t i n g h e r o , George Stewart h i m s e l f , i s more c l o s e l y examined. George, l i k e Jerome, i s a man his  youth and seeks a replacement.  p h i l o s o p h y o f humanism. i s more s k e p t i c a l about because  he  has  He,  too, i s drawn to a  the a t t a i n m e n t o f humanist  l a c k s f a i t h i n h i m s e l f and  He  He has  goals, partly  projects t h i s lack of  little  r e s p e c t f o r mankind as  i s o l a t e s h i m s e l f from humanity, becoming an  o b s e r v e r , and he seeks escape and f r i g h t e n i n g i n the w o r l d . s a t i s f y him:  l o s t the r e l i g i o n o f  But, u n l i k e the i d e a l i s t Jerome, George  c o n f i d e n c e on to o t h e r men. a whole.  who  he s t i l l  insecure, feeling  from what he f i n d s j u s t too c o n f u s i n g But h i s p h i l o s o p h y does not  seeks something  b e t t e r ; he i s a f r a i d  "no more s u c c e s s f u l than the o l d Greek  pushed b o u l d e r s up the h i l l  "objective"  and  who  knowing they would tumble down the  - 90.  moment they reached l i k e Sisyphus.  He  the t o p " ( 6 ) . i s a person  had been born clumsy and had He  -  L i k e D a n i e l A i n s l i e , he  "who  wished he was  animal: ox"  Jerome, i n f a c t , i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as  he has a " b u l l d o g jaw"  (126).  a man.  He a l s o has  a t one  time r e l a x e s on time s n i f f s  an "the  "the  ears "shaped l i k e a  faun's"  the sense of h i s b e i n g something more  George, however, i s i d e n t i f i e d and  w i t h the g e n t l e r , more h e l p l e s s animals s u r v i v e on s c r a p s . of i t .  He  He would l i k e  than  i d e n t i f i e s himself  like  the s q u i r r e l s which  to be a hero but i s i n c a p a b l e  i s aware of h i s i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t but can determine  no  to r e s o l v e i t . Although  Jerome admits  t h a t i t "gets damned l o n e l y  the c u r r e n t a l l the t i m e " (226), he has c u r r e n t of h i s times and he does.  the s t r e n g t h and  I n s t e a d , he  tries  i s o l a t e d observer.  the courage,  to get out of i t , And  bucking  the s t r e n g t h to f i g h t  the  Nevertheless, h i s f i g h t i n g  a v a i l s him n o t h i n g but f u r t h e r f r u s t r a t i o n . both  an  A l l t h i s r e - e n f o r c e s the powerful, p r i m i t i v e s i d e of  Jerome's c h a r a c t e r and  way  like  (14), and a " c o n s t i t u t i o n l i k e  (15); he i s a " s t a l l i o n " ( 1 2 6 ) who  l i k e an a n i m a l " (150).  (63).  attacks h i s fate  s o f a l i k e a r e s t i n g a n i m a l " (133), and another air  and  grown up w i t h o u t much courage"  s h r i n k s from h i s f a t e , u n l i k e Jerome who  a powerful a n i m a l .  a hero,  feels  George,  does not f i g h t  the c u r r e n t .  to stand to one  t h i s a v a i l s him n o t h i n g .  lacking  s i d e as  Neither  an  trying  to t u r n the c u r r e n t nor t r y i n g to a v o i d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t are s u c c e s s f u l methods of c o p i n g w i t h what i s u l t i m a t e l y the c u r r e n t of time.  The  quests of both Jerome and  George are f a t e d to  fail  w h i l e they adopt  such extreme measures.  George f e e l s  t h a t a form o f f a t e i s a t work around  him,  t h a t some g i a n t f o r c e i s changing the face of the w o r l d .  The  m e l t i n g g l a c i e r s of the f a r n o r t h a r e but one example of  this  slow, i n e x o r a b l e change.  H i s knowledge of change i s connected  to h i s awareness o f time and h i s f e a r of i n e v i t a b l e death. he c o n s i d e r s the beauty o f a w i n t e r ' s day, he i s reminded  As of h i s  "youth and o f the time b e f o r e the g l a c i e r s began to m e l t " (24). As he has grown o l d e r , he has o f a f a t e which  l o s t h i s innocence, becoming aware  t h r e a t e n s him. • And,  as t h e r e are g r e a t ,  u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f o r c e s a£ work changing n a t u r e , so t h e r e are  forces  a t work i n s o c i e t y , processes beyond the c o n t r o l o f i n d i v i d u a l men.  George sees t h i s as p a r t o f the e f f e c t o f modern technology  on p o l i t i c s and p o l i t i c i a n s the man-made):  (an o p p o s i t i o n between nature and  "The c a p i t a l c i t i e s where they worked had become  c o l o s s a l Univac machines g r i n d i n g out more s t a t i s t i c a l l y - b a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n a month than any t r a i n e d mind c o u l d comprehend i n a l i f e t i m e " (39).  He a l s o sees p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i t s e l f  c o n f l i c t ) as e s s e n t i a l l y i r r a t i o n a l and a i m l e s s .  He  most i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s e s are l i k e g i g a n t i c mystery obscure and a b s o l u t e l y i r r a t i o n a l  (man-made  feels  "that  p l a y s i n which  p a s s i o n s are handled by  politicians,  and viewed by the p u b l i c , i n a form o f r i t u a l a k i n to p r i m i t i v e religious rites" i n r e l i g i o n and technology and  (288).  People, h a v i n g turned a s i d e from  faith  love of n a t u r e , have s u b s t i t u t e d a b l i n d f a i t h i n political  i d e o l o g y and a love o f the m a t e r i a l products  of  t h e i r technology.  But n e c e s s i t y demands a b a l a n c e , and  wheel of f a t e r o l l s onward.  On a more i n d i v i d u a l  n o v e l opens, George says, "I thought  l e v e l , as  w i f e " (6).  But  the  I had come to terms w i t h  m y s e l f and w i t h the p e c u l i a r f a t e which c o n t r o l l e d me my  the  owing to  i t l a t e r becomes c l e a r t h a t he has come  nowhere near r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n or contentment, as he h i m s e l f makes very clear:' F a t e , I thought. Who i s e q u a l to i t ? For to be equal to f a t e i s to be equal to the knowledge t h a t e v e r y t h i n g we have done, a c h i e v e d , endured and been proud and ashamed o f i s n o t h i n g . So I thought, a l o n e as I had never been a l o n e . (318) He  i s r e a c h i n g i n t o h i s darkness, n e a r i n g the p o i n t a t which  A i n s l i e had a v i s i o n of h i s t r u e nature quest i s l e a d i n g him little  longer.  i n t o the darkness.  i n Each Man's Son. But  His  George must w a i t a  He needs h e l p .  H i s f e a r of h i s f a t e i s l i n k e d to h i s f e a r of n i g h t , c o n f u s i o n and a f e a r of l i f e full  death, which, as Jerome p o i n t s out to him,  i n i t s e n t i r e t y , a f e a r of a c c e p t i n g the burden o f  r e s p o n s i b l i l i t y f o r l i v i n g and  c a r r i e s with i t .  (343)  the s o l i t u d e the  To be born i n t o t h i s w o r l d ,  responsibility to be  s e p a r a t e d from one's mother, i s a f r i g h t e n i n g e x p e r i e n c e gists c a l l  i t the " b i r t h trauma").  i s s u e d from the f o r e s t had now  "The  (271).  to t h i s  canoe i n which  taken him out i n t o the ocean.  A canoe i n an ocean, a t n i g h t , w i t h a h u r r i c a n e r i s i n g . M y s e l f , Everyone"  (psycholo-  George p o i n t s d i r e c t l y  when he d e s c r i b e s Jerome's symbolic b i r t h : he had  is really  Another b i r t h i s needed, the  Jerome, birth  symbolized i n the " r i t e s o f passage," an i n i t i a t i o n or b i r t h i n t o manhood. rebirth,  Without the m a t u r i t y gained i n such a  the i n d i v i d u a l must l i v e  i n t e r r o r such as  George  d e s c r i b e s , whenever he d i s c o v e r s t h a t what he b e l i e v e d to be h i s i d e n t i t y i s no more than a t i n y canoe a t the mercy o f an ocean. Sharkfilled, p l a n k t o n - f i l l e d , r e f r a c t o r o f l i g h t , t e r r i b l e and m y s t e r i o u s , f o r years t h i s ocean has seemed to slumber beneath the t i n y i d e n t i t y i t r e c e i v e d from the dark r i v e r . Now the ocean r i s e s and the t h i n g s w i t h i n i t become visible. L i t t l e man, what now? The ocean r i s e s , a l l frames d i s a p p e a r from around the p i c t u r e s , there i s no form, no sense, n o t h i n g but chaos i n the darkness o f the ocean storm. (321) The i n d i v i d u a l i s submerged i n the d e s t r u c t i v e element, taken back once more i n t o the womb o f the g r e a t mother, back i n t o the void.  There he must face h i m s e l f , a l l of h i m s e l f , the love and  the h a t e , the hope and the f e a r , f o r the "shark i n the ocean be i n v i s i b l e , but he i s t h e r e . of the u n c o n s c i o u s " (304). human s t r u g g l e . be done.  So a l s o i s the f e a r i n the ocean  The man  l e a r n s "the n a t u r e o f the  W i t h i n , not w i t h o u t .  But w i t h i n " (321).  may  Without t h e r e i s n o t h i n g to  He l e a r n s , as Jerome l e a r n s , t h a t  one  cannot d e f e a t the i n t e r n a l c u r r e n t no m a t t e r how much one bucks it,  and, as George  l e a r n s , t h a t one cannot a v o i d the c u r r e n t , f o r  there i s a t l a s t no escape.  George  l e a r n s , as Jerome has, t h a t  he must a c c e p t the ocean o f h i s own mind and the s u r g i n g ocean o f time.  As Jerome t e l l s him, he must s i n k to the bottom o f the  ocean and c r a w l i n s i d e the s h e l l o f death: i n s i d e of death and d i e y o u r s e l f . must l o s e i t to y o u r s e l f "  (342).  "You must c r a w l  You must l o s e your l i f e .  You  Only then can he l i v e w i t h o u t  - 94. -  fear. A man in  i s c a s t out alone i n t o t h i s w o r l d ,  the s o l i t u d e of h i s i n d i v i d u a l s e l f .  this solitude: p r o t e c t and  "Love c o n s i s t s i n t h i s ,  touch and  Only  f a t e d to remain love can  t h a t two  g r e e t each o t h e r " (290).  must t r a n s c e n d the s e l f ,  the ego,  " ' I t comes - - t o pass.  (293).  individual  11  That i s , i t comes, i n order to i n the ocean o f  pass" time  " r o l l e d over them as though they had never been" (293).  But a l s o , as the maturer George sees, the "past was now  to l o v e , one  As Jerome's f o s t e r - p a r e n t s have  Mr. M a r t e l l and h i s w i f e are caught  which has  But,  of the g r e a t e r mind of a l l mankind (Everyman), of  time past, present and e t e r n a l . seen,  solitudes  r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h i s i s but a  s m a l l t h i n g a f l o a t on a g r e a t e r ocean - - o f the unconscious,  breach  not dead but  the present flowed over i t , as the f u t u r e would f l o w over  the p r e s e n t " (349).  Although  swallowed i n time, the M a r t e l l s are  i n e r a d i c a b l y a p a r t o f i t , as i s every man matter  how  insignificant.  A man  who  has ever l i v e d ,  makes h i s mark simply by b e i n g  a l i v e , by b e i n g a p a r t of and c a r r y i n g on the process of itself.  no  life  A l l make t h e i r mark; Jerome, George, C a t h e r i n e , Everyman.  As George f i n a l l y remarks of C a t h e r i n e , "What i f the ocean o f overwhelmed her?  I t overwhelms us a l l "  f a t e , George a l s o l e a r n s how  (350).  to t r a n s c e n d i t .  In a c c e p t i n g h i s He  learns that  Vthe human bondage i s a l s o the human l i b e r t y " (322), and the acceptance  of a l l t h i n g s - - d e s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as  death as w e l l as b i r t h - -  i s the f u l l  acceptance  time  of  that i n  creation,  life:  the l a s t p o s s i b l e harmony, the o n l y one there can be, which i s a w i l l to l i v e , l o v e , grow and be g r a t e f u l , the determinat i o n to endure a l l t h i n g s , s u f f e r a l l t h i n g s , hope a l l t h i n g s , b e l i e v e a l l t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y f o r what our a n c e s t o r s c a l l e d the g l o r y of God. To s t r u g g l e and work f o r t h a t , a t the end, i s a l l there i s l e f t . (321) Jerome, r e t u r n i n g home l i k e underworld, the Jerome i s no He has  the wise Odysseus from  the  land o f the dead, b r i n g s wisdom to George.  longer a q u e s t i n g  become a "wise o l d man",  h e r o : he  has  f u l f i l l e d his  a redeemed p a r e n t a l  w i l l h e l p h i s "son", George, to a t t a i n h i s g o a l . Odysseus, George i s Telemachus, and i s Hermes, patron  god  As  quest.  figure,  who  Jerome i s  as George i s Odysseus, Jerome  o f the Odyssey.  At  the end  of the  novel,  Jerome i s many t h i n g s ; a wise Odysseus, a f r i e n d l y Hermes, a resurrected "returned He  returns  along,  the  sun-hero, a humanist C h r i s t , the epitome of Everyman  from the dead" (306)  to teach  to teach what C a t h e r i n e l e s s o n the moon and  has  nature  the  l e s s o n of l i f e  renewed.  been s i l e n t l y o f f e r i n g a l l teach,  the concept of l i f e i n death and death i n l i f e , of the f a c t t h a t no matter how many i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s and years pass away, there w i l l be more years and l i v e s , and t h a t the r i t u a l s o f both are e t e r n a l . - ' The  l e s s o n i s t h a t the s p i r i t o f l i f e  i s unconquerable.  This i s b a s i c a l l y the same l e s s o n Odysseus l e a r n s i n the Homeric c y c l e , and reveals greater  a profound examination of the Homeric myth  depths i n The  Watch that Ends the N i g h t .  MacLennan, Scotchman's Return, p.  72.  "The  patron god o f the I l i a d of  i s A p o l l o , god o f the l i g h t w o r l d and  the e x c e l l e n c e o f heroes."6  Jerome M a r t e l l  i s c l e a r l y born  i n t o the " r e a l " world under the a u s p i c e s o f j u s t such a mythic d i e t y , and s h i n e s by h i s l i g h t up  to h i s d e p a r t u r e  f o r Spain.  throughout  the years o f b a t t l e  "In the Odyssey, on the o t h e r hand,  the patron o f Odysseus's voyage i s . . . Hermes, guide o f s o u l s to the underworld,  the patron, a l s o ,  o f r e b i r t h and the l o r d o f  the knowledges beyond death, which may be known to h i s i n i t i a t e s even i n l i f e . " 7 is  Jerome has no such a i d , but George h a s , and i t  the changed, r e - b o r n Jerome h i m s e l f .  G i l b e r t Murray has noted  s p e c i f i c s o l a r and l u n a r a n a l o g i e s i n the Odyssey --which i s o n l y n a t u r a l i n a quest-romance, as Frye i n d i c a t e s Criticism,  p. 188-- Odysseus b e i n g s o l a r  i n t o darkness  (a sun-hero who  recedes  and r e t u r n s ) and Penelope l u n a r ( a t h e r loom she  weaves and unweaves l i k e and  i n Anatomy o f  the moon going through  i t s phases).  C a t h e r i n e have been i d e n t i f i e d i n a s i m i l a r way.  leads to a f u r t h e r  Jerome  But t h i s  i n s i g h t on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l ;  t h a t the inward t u r n i n g o f the mind (symbolized by the sunset) should c u l m i n a t e i n a r e a l i z a t i o n o f an i d e n t i t y i n esse o f the i n d i v i d u a l (microcosm) and the u n i v e r s e (macrocosm), which, when a c h i e v e d , would b r i n g t o g e t h e r i n one order o f a c t and r e a l i z a t i o n the p r i n c i p l e s o f e t e r n i t y and time, sun and moon, male and female.8  "Campbell,  O c c i d e n t a l Mythology, p. 162  ?Ibid. 8  Ibid.,  pp. 163-64.  T h i s i s what takes p l a c e i m p l i c i t l y i n the Odyssey, and both i m p l i c i t l y and e x p l i c i t l y i n The Watch that Ends the N i g h t . The m a s c u l i n e , h e r o i c age d e p i c t e d i n the I l i a d  i s too  o n e - s i d e d , and Odysseus' quest i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t the mighty male hero can g a i n the knowledge to r e s t o r e the balance i n s o c i e t y and n a t u r e .  T h i s p a t t e r n has been seen a t work i n  Each Man's Son, and i s e q u a l l y a t work i n The Watch t h a t Ends the Night.  During the age o f r a t i o n a l i s m , men e s t a b l i s h e d a d e i s t i c  r e l i g i o n o f the One Engineer and a cosmology o f a m e c h a n i s t i c universe  (designed and o i l e d by the omnipotent  the s c i e n c e o f machines almost e f f e c t i v e l y completed  Engineer), elevating  to the p o i n t o f s a n c t i t y .  This  the d i v i s i o n o f God from n a t u r e , n a t u r e  from man and man from God, i s o l a t i n g man i n an a l i e n and l o n e l y w o r l d o f h i s own making.  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , prompted the Romantic  r e a c t i o n , but i t i s a r e a c t i o n t h a t never r e a l l y reached  the common  man, who c o n t i n u e d , and c o n t i n u e s , to b e l i e v e i n an u l t i m a t e s a l v a t i o n to be c o n f e r r e d by technology. significant  In t h i s novel, i t i s  t h a t i n the w i l d e r n e s s camp o f Jerome's c h i l d h o o d ,  where t h i n g s a r e reduced  to t h e i r b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s , i t i s the  Engineer who, "Of a l l the l o n e l y men i n the camp," i s the " l o n e l i e s t of and  them a l l " (167).  And i t i s he who murders Anna  s e p a r a t e s Jerome (epitome  s t a r t s him on h i s quest.  (Earth-Mother),  o f Everyman) from h i s mother and  The masculine hero, unbalanced,  alienated  from female n a t u r e , v e n t u r e s out i n t o the ocean and the n i g h t , there e v e n t u a l l y to f i n d the t r u t h about h i m s e l f and r e t u r n ,  -  98.  humbler and w i s e r , h a v i n g l e a r n e d the nature of the  delicate  balance of reason and emotion, c o n s c i o u s and unconscious, male and  female.  T h i s p a r t of the r e s o l u t i o n of The Watch t h a t Ends  the N i g h t , w h i l e r e s e m b l i n g profound  and  i s even more  universal.  MacLennan extends conflict  t h a t of Each Man's Son,  h i s scope to r e s o l v e what George c a l l s  "between the s p i r i t and  the human c o n d i t i o n " (27).  the  He  r e s o l v e s i t by a c c e p t i n g the humanist Greek view, which, as Campbell says, suggests an i n d e f i n a b l e c i r c u m s c r i p t i o n , w i t h i n the bounds of which both the gods and men work t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l w i l l s , ever i n danger of v i o l a t i n g the u n d e f i n e d bounds and b e i n g s t r u c k down,\yet w i t h p l a y enough - - w i t h i n l i m i t s ^ - - to a c h i e v e a comely r e a l i z a t i o n of ends humanly c o n c e i v e d . 9  \  This i s the o u t l o o k of c l a s s i c a l humanism, i n which MacLennan f i n d s many of h i s b a s i c t r u t h s .  D i v i n e d e s t i n y moves i n g r e a t  c y c l e s tof c r e a t i o n , d e s t r u c t i o n and c r e a t i o n , b i r t h , death rebirth.  The  ocean of time surges and ebbs, each  chaos b e i n g s u p p l a n t e d by a g e n e s i s , and w i t h i n these c y c l e s (of the day, time, the age is  a "good and  and o f e t e r n i t y ) , faithful  succeeding  the i n d i v i d u a l  caught  the month, the y e a r , the the man  who  and  life-  accepts h i s f a t e ,  who  s e r v a n t . . . f a i t h f u l over a few t h i n g s , "  becomes " r u l e r over many" and e n t e r s " i n t o the j o y o f the L o r d " (350: and  from Matthew 25:  there i s l i g h t .  Or,  21).  i n the words of Psalm v. of Isaac Watts,  from which MacLennan takes h i s  9lbid.,  p.  180.  Thus, chaos and n i g h t a r e ended,  title,  I  - 99. -  Before the h i l l s i n o r d e r stood, Or e a r t h r e c e i v e d h e r frame, From E v e r l a s t i n g Thou a r t God, To e n d l e s s years the same. A thousand ages i n Thy s i g h t Are l i k e an evening gone; Short as the watch t h a t ends the n i g h t Before the r i s i n g sun. Time, l i k e an e v e r - r o l l i n g stream, Bears a l l i t s sons away; They f l y f o r g o t t e n , as a dream Dies a t the opening day. The f i n a l  tone o f the n o v e l i s a r e l i g i o u s one, s y n t h e s i z i n g both  c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n  thought.  As i n Barometer R i s i n g and Each Man's Son, i n t h i s n o v e l MacLennan has blended the elements  o f romance and comedy.  The  main body o f the n o v e l i s concerned w i t h quest and c o n f l i c t : is  the s t o r y o f two heroes  t h e i r enemies.  i t  --the mighty and the meek-- b a t t l i n g  They win t h e i r b a t t l e s when they r e a l i z e  that the  f i g h t i s i n t e r n a l r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l , t h a t the "enemy" i s a very r e a l psychological fact social evil  to be a c c e p t e d r a t h e r than some a b s t r a c t  t o be e x t e r m i n a t e d .  When they r e c o g n i z e t h e i r  to Everyman, they a r e a b l e t o take t h e i r Jerome the mighty  relation  places i n s o c i e t y :  but now humble hero s e t s o f f to share h i s wisdom  w i t h the w o r l d ; George, the meek, i n h e r i t s  the e a r t h .  So the  n o v e l ends w i t h a v i s i o n o f a s o c i e t y i n which a l l men a r e u n i t e d , a s o c i e t y which extends beyond n a t i o n a l boundaries the w o r l d .  to encompass  The s o c i e t y does n o t y e t e x i s t , but, as i n the o t h e r  n o v e l s , i t i s a v i s i o n o f the f u t u r e .  T h i s i s a comic  resolution,  - 100.  f o r i n comedy, as Northrop Frye says, i s the h o p e f u l of the end o f s o c i a l e f f o r t  "vision  . . . the f r e e human s o c i e t y .  And MacLennan's r e s o l u t i o n i s s o l i d l y based on the c l a s s i c a l tenet t h a t human freedom i s i n human bondage, y i e l d i n g a comedy i n which, as i n tragedy,  "the a b s o l u t e b e g i n n i n g . . . i s  the c o n d i t i o n o f freedom, the a b s o l u t e end the r e c o g n i t i o n o f necessity."11  In The Watch that Ends the N i g h t , MacLennan p o r t r a y s  the grave and c o n s t a n t i n human s u f f e r i n g and i n human j o y , which, leads - - o r may l e a d - - to an e x p e r i e n c e that i s regarded by those t h a t have known i t as the apogee o f t h e i r l i v e s , and which i s y e t i n e f f a b l e . And t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . . . i s the u l t i m a t e aim o f a l l r e l i g i o n , the u l t i m a t e r e f e r e n c e o f a l l 1 7 myth and r i t e . Human s u f f e r i n g and human j o y a r e r e s o l v e d i n a paradox; as George says, Where wast Declare, So, f o r an To have i t darkness o f s e l f t i f u l experience  earth?  thou when I l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n o f the i f thou hast u n d e r s t a n d i n g . i n s t a n t , you may have that u n d e r s t a n d i n g . , to f e e l the movement o f l i g h t f l o o d the --even f o r an i n s t a n t - - i s the most beauanyone can ever know. (322)  The g r e a t quest c y c l e ends j o y f u l l y w i t h the symbolic r e b i r t h o f the hero, who i s f i n a l l y mature, who has l e f t  the p r o t e c t i v e  mother and can now be a r e a l husband to h i s w i f e . George's e x p e r i e n c e o f epiphany  occurs l a t e a t n i g h t :  once  a g a i n MacLennan p l a c e s the c l i m a x o f h i s n o v e l a t the "heart o f  iOpables o f I d e n t i t y , p. 18 F . von S c h l e g e l , c i t e d i n M i c h a e l Grant, Myths o f the Greeks and Romans (New York: Mentor, 1962), p. 165. i X  12campbell,  P r i m i t i v e Mythology, p. 54.  darkness".  101.  -  George walks out i n t o the n i g h t to f i n d  seems no l o n g e r dark or t h r e a t e n i n g .  The darkness w i t h i n him,  by b e i n g accepted, has been p a r a d o x i c a l l y d i s p e l l e d . is  still  But George p r o v i d e s an e p i l o g u e ,  the pheasants  appear  flamboyant,  C a t h e r i n e a r e happy and c o n t e n t .  (347) .  The s q u i r r e l s f o r a g e ,  S p r i n g comes, and C a t h e r i n e --as n a t u r e blossoms,  Summer passes and C a t h e r i n e s h i n e s t r a n q u i l l y .  approaches  paramount.  Autumn  The sense of nature as a s a c r e d mystery  I n t h i s evening of t h e i r  life  together, George a t  f u l l y appreciates, without anxiety, that "the early  a good day h o l d s w i t h i n i t s e l f  than the promise  the dawn and the morning no l e s s  the new day f o r Canada and the world,  can be seen i n the c h a r a c t e r of S a l l y ,  George,  evening  of the n i g h t " (301) .  The dawn, h e r a l d i n g  Catherine,  so does  and George speaks of " t h e c a t h e d r a l hush of a Quebec  I n d i a n Summer" (349) .  last  for,  and g e n t l e George and a r t i s t i c  r e t u r n s to h e r a r t and h e r gardening she.  my  the p r e c i s e j o u r n a l i s t , he f e e l s i t i s a s t o r y out of which  t h e reader " s h o u l d be l e d f a c t u a l l y "  of  The climax  reached and, as George says, " I c o u l d end here because  s t o r y i s t o l d " (347) .  is  that i t  child  of Jerome and  the sun, the moon and nature, and f o s t e r - c h i l d of  the average man i n whom the elements  a r e now w e l l - m i x e d .  S a l l y ' s blonde head i s "as f r e s h as the dawn . . . as golden as the sun on a s i n g l e c l o u d i n the s k y " (318). room f o r the m y s t e r i o u s  S a l l y has "much  t h i n g " (331), the same s p i r i t of l i f e  found i n C a t h e r i n e , and she i s both cool-headed and e n t h u s i a s t i c ,  - 102.  young and wise. of a boy"  (331)  -  N e i t h e r she nor A l a n Royce, the "great she  plans to marry, i s plagued by the a n x i e t y  or weltschtnenz which burdened t h e i r  parents' generation.  r e p r e s e n t the f u t u r e ; together they w i l l b u i l d a revitalized  world.  bear  a new  They  Canada and  Chapter F i v e :  The E t e r n a l  Quest  Hugh MacLennan i s a humanist, a r e l i g i o u s humanist, makes i t h i s task to r e d e f i n e and r e a s s e r t  who  those h u m a n i s t i c  v a l u e s which have descended from the c l a s s i c s .  He i s i n a main  stream o f modern l i t e r a r y endeavour, a t t e m p t i n g both to d i s c o v e r and to s t a b i l i z e a system o f v a l u e s i n an age i n which systems are f a i l i n g .  One  traditional  o f h i s reasons f o r c o n s c i o u s l y u s i n g  myths as p a t t e r n s f o r h i s work i s that they a r e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n i v e r s a l s , g i v i n g a s t a b l e base of t r a d i t i o n and c o n v e n t i o n from which to view modern man's predicament.  The  predicament  MacLennan sees i s one which has been o f c e n t r a l importance i n literature  f o r the past c e n t u r y — t h e s e a r c h of the s e n s i t i v e  individual for a real identity.  Modern man  l o s t h i s sense o f  i d e n t i t y when he l o s t any t a n g i b l e e x t e r n a l or i n t e r n a l a b s o l u t e s a g a i n s t which he c o u l d measure h i m s e l f , a l o s s t h a t strong c o n f l i c t i n g On one  created  desires.  level,  between an outworn,  the predicament can be seen i n the c o n f l i c t dogmatic r e l i g i o n  C h r i s t i a n i t y ) and a new,  vaguer  ( p u r i t a n , Old  Testament  (because as y e t u n d e f i n e d ) but  p o s i t i v e and humane p h i l o s o p h y , a c o n f l i c t amply demonstrated i n Each Man's Son.  B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , i t i s the same c o n f l i c t o f  "Hebraism" and " H e l l e n i s m " determined by Matthew A r n o l d i n C u l t u r e and Anarchy.  And MacLennan's thought bears  to t h a t o f o t h e r V i c t o r i a n t h i n k e r s .  resemblance  For i n s t a n c e , the  o p p o s i t i o n he d e s c r i b e s i s f i n a l l y b e s t c o n s i d e r e d as an o p p o s i t i o n between f l u x and s t a s i s , motion and r e s t , c a l l i n g  to mind the  - 104.  work of Walter change and Motion  -  P a t e r , i n which "Motion  i s i d e n t i f i e d with  those i d e o l o g i e s which have made change t h e i r  stock.  i s thus H e r a c l i t e a n i s m , E p i c u r e a n i s m , H e l l e n i s m , " ^  r e s t i s i d e n t i f i e d with C h r i s t i a n i t y . MacLennan's, one  In P a t e r ' s s t o r i e s , as i n  i s c o n s t a n t l y " c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the odyssey  the immutable young o u t c a s t . . . the e x i l e s e a r c h i n g time and A list  space  examples are P a t e r ' s  Hardy's Jude, Conrad's Jim, Joyce's  Dedalus,  and  D a n i e l A i n s l i e , Jerome M a r t e l l and George Stewart. c h a r a c t e r s are engaged i n quests of some k i n d , and and  Marius,  and  A l l these i t is significant  The Watch t h a t Ends  d i f f e r e n t kinds o f wanderer.  An e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s i s found i n MacLennan's use of myth. MacLennan i s a w r i t e r who novels being r e a l i s t i c and events  d e a l s w i t h modern h i s t o r y , h i s  i n t h a t they a r e b u i l t around a c t u a l  i n r e c e n t Canadian h i s t o r y  Novel  scenes  (the H a l i f a x e x p l o s i o n , the  Cape B r e t o n c o a l mines, the Great D e p r e s s i o n ) . makes c l e a r , the l i t e r a r y  As Northrop  Frye  artist  U. C. Knoepflmacher, R e l i g i o u s Humanism and the V i c t o r i a n ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U. P r e s s , 1965), p. 162. 2  Ibid.,  p.  170.  2  certainly  MacLennan's N e i l Macrae and Angus Murray, A r c h i e MacNeil  there are r e c u r r e n t l y two  present."  twentieth century  f i c t i o n would be v e r y l o n g ; obvious  t h a t i n Barometer R i s i n g , Each Man's Son,  of  through  f o r the i n h e r i t a n c e denied him by h i s own  of such c h a r a c t e r s i n n i n e t e e n t h and  the Night  and  - 105.  f i n d s i n c r e a s i n g l y t h a t he can d e a l w i t h h i s t o r y o n l y to the e x t e n t t h a t h i s t o r y s u p p l i e s him w i t h , or a f f o r d s a p r e t e x t f o r , the comic, t r a g i c , romantic or i r o n i c myths t h a t he actually uses. 3  MacLennan, i n t h i s sense, mythic  patterns.  rewrites h i s t o r y i n accord with h i s  He g i v e s h i s t o r y s i g n i f i c a n t meaning, l i k e  the m e t a h i s t o r i a n s , w r i t i n g romantic h i s t o r i c a l myths based on a quest o r p i l g r i m a g e to a C i t y of God or a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y . . . comic h i s t o r i c a l myths of progress through e v o l u t i o n o r r e v o l u t i o n . . . t r a g i c myths of d e c l i n e and f a l l , l i k e the works o f Gibbon and Spengler . . . i r o n i c myths o f r e c u r r e n c e or c a s u a l c a t a s t r o p h e .4MacLennan i n c l u d e s a l l these h i s t o r i c a l myths i n h i s n o v e l s , s t r e s s i n g d i f f e r e n t myths from n o v e l to n o v e l i n a c l e a r l y developing pattern. The main bodies are concerned  with  the comic v i s i o n  o f the three n o v e l s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  the c o n f l i c t o f two main f o r c e s o r world  ( i d e n t i f i e d with  ( i d e n t i f i e d with s t a s i s ) . d i v i d e d i n t o romantic  f l u x ) and the t r a g i c  visions;  vision  Each o f these v i s i o n s can be f u r t h e r  and i r o n i c s t r u c t u r e s , each o f which i s  r e p r e s e n t e d by a c h a r a c t e r .  The i n d i v i d u a l n o v e l s are s t r u c t e r e d  on t h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n , each one b e i n g a d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the p a t t e r n :  I.  Comic v i s i o n A.  3  Romantic  F a b l e s , p. 5 3 .  ^Ibid,  p  . 54.  - 106. -  1.  The c h a r a c t e r s a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h f l u x .  2.  Their world i s p o s i t i v e , a c t i v e , evolving.  3.  There i s a sense o f d e s t i n y moving toward an end.  B.  II.  p r o g r e s s i v e and  Ironic 1.  The c h a r a c t e r s are s t i l l  2.  T h e i r w o r l d i s p o s i t i v e but c o n t e m p l a t i v e , r e p e t i t i o u s and r e v o l v i n g .  3.  There i s a sense of d e s t i n y moving i n e t e r n a l  Tragic A.  i d e n t i f i e d with f l u x .  Vision Romantic  1.  The c h a r a c t e r s a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s t a s i s .  2.  T h e i r w o r l d i s p o s i t i v e but s t a t i c and  3.  There i s a sense o f d e s t i n y moving i n e t e r n a l  B.  imprisoning. cycles.  Ironic 1.  The c h a r a c t e r s are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  stasis.  2.  T h e i r w o r l d i s n e g a t i v e , s t a t i c and  3.  There i s a sense o f d e s t i n y moving toward an end.  The c o n f l i c t o f f l u x and s t a s i s , o f comic and t r a g i c unchanged  cycles.  imprisoning.  remains  throughout the three n o v e l s , and the r e s o l u t i o n s a r e  c o n s t a n t l y comic.  But the s t r e s s e s on the romantic and  p l o t s change from Barometer  ironic  R i s i n g through to The Watch that Ends  the N i g h t , the emphasis moving from romantic to i r o n i c . In Barometer the comic v i s i o n .  R i s i n g , N e i l Macrae i s the romantic hero of  H i s w o r l d i s based i n modern western man's sense  -  of and of  107.  -  participation in history; i t is basically  future-oriented  thus i m p l i c i t l y m e s s i a n i c , the h e r o i c N e i l b e i n g a messiah,  something  prepared to l e a d h i s people to a promised  Angus Murray i s the i r o n i c hero o f the comic v i s i o n . is  of a more c l a s s i c a l nature  land.  H i s world  (based on h i s r e a d i n g o f the  c l a s s i c s ) i n which h i s t o r y i s s u b o r d i n a t e d to a m e t a h i s t o r y o f g r e a t r e p e t i t i o u s c y c l e s o f d e s t r u c t i o n and c r e a t i o n ; i t i s b a s i c a l l y p r e s e n t - o r i e n t e d and not m e s s i a n i c , the Angus w i l l i n g of  to l i v e out h i s l i f e  i n peace.  satisfied  In the t r a g i c  vision  the n o v e l , A l e c MacKenzie r e p r e s e n t s the p o s i t i v e w o r l d , the  romantic,  ' A r c a d i a n ' w o r l d , crushed by the wheel o f d e s t i n y .  C o l o n e l Wain r e p r e s e n t s the n e g a t i v e w o r l d i r o n i c a l l y d e s t r o y e d . In  Each Man's Son,  romantic and i r o n i c  the s t r e s s MacLennan p l a c e s on the  p l o t s has s h i f t e d .  Mrs. MacCuish r e p r e s e n t s  the n e g a t i v e w o r l d which i s i r o n i c a l l y i n the process of b e i n g destroyed. v i s i o n who of  A r c h i e MacNeil i s the romantic hero o f the must s u f f e r the same f a t e .  The c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  the i r o n i c w o r l d and comic v i s i o n i s Dr. MacKenzie.  eye o f t h i s wise o l d man, romantic hero a definite,  D a n i e l A i n s l i e begins as an  " h e r o i c " end) and ends as a b a l a n c e d hero  a messiah  Under the unbalanced  ( i n d i c a t e d by h i s concern w i t h i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t  by h i s acceptance o f a l i f e w i t h o u t hope). of  tragic  (indicated  I f t h e r e i s any  hint  i n the n o v e l , i t i s a t l a s t d i r e c t e d toward A l a n  M a c N e i l , but the h i n t i s muted by the l i g h t o f A i n s l i e ' s "conversion".  to  Although i n Barometer R i s i n g the romantic  plot  - 108. -  outweighed  the i r o n i c ,  i n Each Man*s Son the s t r e s s i s b e g i n n i n g  to r e v e r s e . By the time MacLennan comes to w r i t e The Watch that Ends the N i g h t (or p o s s i b l y d u r i n g the w r i t i n g ) , h i s a t t i t u d e s have changed  to the degree that the f i n a l s t r e s s i s almost c o m p l e t e l y  on the i r o n i c h e r o .  Both Jerome and George b e g i n as romantic  heroes o f the comic v i s i o n . figure,  Jerome, b e i n g the s t r o n g e s t romance  f o l l o w s the path of the t r a g i c romance i n t o death, but  i s m i r a c u l o u s l y r e s u r r e c t e d , and r e t u r n s as a hero o f the world.  George a l s o f o l l o w s the romantic p l o t l i n e but becomes  an i r o n i c hero a t the end o f the n o v e l . is  ironic  f o l l o w e d to i t s c o n c l u s i o n  Blackwell.  The t r a g i c  The tragic-romance p l o t  (death) i n the c h a r a c t e r of Norah  i r o n i c world i s seen i n the process of  decay i n George Stewart's Aunt Agnes and the g h o s t l y S i r Rupert Irons.  There i s a h i n t of progress i n S a l l y and A l a n Royce (as  i n the A l a n of Each Man's Son), but the o v e r - r i d i n g i m p r e s s i o n i s not romantic but i r o n i c , not m e s s i a n i c but In Barometer  cyclic.  R i s i n g , a cosmic b a t t l e i s i n p r o g r e s s , i n which  l i g h t and dark, f l u x and s t a s i s , good and e v i l , contend f o r v i c t o r y , and e v o l u t i o n a r y or l i n e a r r a t h e r than r e v o l u t i o n a r y or c y c l i c movement i s s t r e s s e d . but the c y c l i c  With Each Man's Son the b a t t l e c o n t i n u e s ,  p h i l o s o p h y has become more dominant.  In The Watch  t h a t Ends the N i g h t , the b a t t l e ends, and the p r e v i o u s l y contending powers are r e s o l v e d i p a paradox.  MacLennan has  the t r a d i t i o n a l J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n way  turned away from  o f l o o k i n g a t time and the  -  cosmos, a l i n e a r ,  109.  f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d way,  and has embraced a  t r u l y c l a s s i c a l o u t l o o k v e r y s i m i l a r to t h a t o f H e r a c l i t u s , a philosophy of process. u n i v e r s e to be f i r e ,  H e r a c l i t u s took the b a s i c element o f the  f o r i t i s the element which i s always  changing and y e t somehow always the same.  As f i r e  i s the  o f l i g h t , MacLennan's s t r e s s on l i g h t and r a d i a n c e a t the o f The Watch t h a t Ends the Night s t r i k e s a f a m i l i a r note.  source end Also,  H e r a c l i t u s a c c e p t e d s t r i f e as b a s i c to the u n i v e r s a l o r d e r ; t h a t i s , he c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y the e t e r n a l u n d e r l y i n g t e n s i o n of opposites.  The  p a r a l l e l w i t h MacLennan i s o b v i o u s .  Finally,  H e r a c l i t u s i d e n t i f i e d God w i t h the u n i v e r s a l process i t s e l f , is directly  p a r a l l e l w i t h MacLennan's b e l i e f t h a t man  which  should  r e v e r e the u n i v e r s a l mystery  o f the e t e r n a l c y c l e .  Setting  himself s o l i d l y i n c l a s s i c a l  p h i l o s o p h y , MacLennan r e s o l v e s the  c o n f l i c t between good and e v i l by a c c e p t i n g them both w i t h i n a l a r g e r scheme.  The c h a r a c t e r s i n The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t  longer prophesy  an h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n to some vague form o f  Utopian s t a t e .  The dream o f a past golden age, one  o f youth,  innocence and s i m p l i c i t y - - A l e c MacKenzie's r u r a l w o r l d , A i n s l i e ' s youth and  Dr.  i n the Margaree v a l l e y , George Stewart's " A r c a d i a " - -  the dream o f a f u t u r e golden age,  innocence and  no  one  o f renewed youth,  s i m p l i c i t y --the f u t u r e o f N e i l Macrae, Penny  and Jean, A l a n MacNeil's  f u t u r e , the romantic  George  Stewart's  dream o f peace i n i s o l a t i o n - - are f i n a l l y c a s t a s i d e i n The Watch  i t h a t Ends the N i g h t , and are r e p l a c e d w i t h a p h i l o s o p h y - c u m - r e l i g i o n  - 110.  of the here-and-now.  The  -  quest f o r a p e r s o n a l i n t e r n a l  identity,  o v e r t l y e x t e r n a l i z e d i n Barometer R i s i n g to r e p r e s e n t the n a t i o n , drawn inward is  i n Each Man's Son but s t i l l h a v i n g n a t i o n a l  overtones,  f i n a l l y concluded i n The Watch t h a t Ends the Night where i t  becomes almost e n t i r e l y i n t e r n a l .  And,  p a r a d o x i c a l l y , where  MacLennan's p o r t r a y a l o f the quest i s most i n t e r n a l , analogy  the  to be drawn between i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s and  (and the world) i s most e f f e c t i v e .  MacLennan has  the u n i v e r s a l i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n the  the n a t i o n  learned that  individual.  MacLennan takes the quest myth s e r i o u s l y , which i s not s u r p r i s i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g the depth and e x t e n t o f h i s own quest f o r s e l f - d i s c o v e r y and  self-realization.  p e r s o n a l l y the myth i s used,  the more i n t e n s e i s i t s e f f e c t  profound  i t s implications.  the more and  Where the use o f Homer's Odyssey as  a s t r u c t u r a l framework i s s p e l l e d out, and the i n d i v i d u a l hero and  And  personal  the p a r a l l e l between  the n a t i o n i s made almost  too o b v i o u s ,  as i n Barometer R i s i n g , much of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s l o s t . the mythic and  social  As  p a r a l l e l s are blended more s u b t l y i n t o  the  background --more i n Each Man's Son and almost c o m p l e t e l y i n The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t - - the i m p l i c i t analogy In Barometer R i s i n g , the Homeric p a r a l l e l to c o n t r i b u t e r e l a t i v e l y  little  i s more powerful. finally  to the thematic whole.  appears An  analogy can be seen to e x i s t between the c l a s s i c a l myth and historical  s i t u a t i o n , and  d i s c o v e r i n g i t and  the  the author must be g i v e n c r e d i t f o r  f o r modernizing  the Homeric s t o r y .  But  the  )  - 111. -  a r c h e t y p a l quest myth (myth o f the human c y c l e ) , o f which the Odyssey i s one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , by b e i n g used so o v e r t l y , appears  somewhat c o n t r i v e d , and the c h a r a c t e r s , p l a y i n g out what  are too o b v i o u s l y " r o l e s " to be i n d i v i d u a l  l i v e s , are rather  f l a t and uhengaging; r a t h e r than people, they seem more pawns i n the hands o f t h e i r o m n i s c i e n t c r e a t o r . ^  like  More e f f e c t i v e  are the two o t h e r k i n d s o f myth t h a t MacLennan uses: myths  finally  nature  (myths o f the n a t u r a l c y c l e ) - - i n t h i s n o v e l , the s o l a r and  v e g e t a t i o n c y c l e s - - and the J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n myths o f Genesis and Resurrection conveyed  (the d i v i n e or transcendent c y c l e ) .  chiefly  through  the imagery,  p o e t i c a l l y more e f f e c t i v e .  These myths a r e  and b e i n g l e s s o v e r t a r e  The author's use o f the Odyssey i n  t h i s novel i s s i m i l a r i n e f f e c t  to the d i d a c t i c passages  which  o c c a s i o n a l l y o c c u r ; the r e a d e r becomes aware o f the n a r r a t o r i n t r u d i n g i n t o the a r t i s t i c w o r l d o f the n o v e l and the a r t i s t i c u n i t y o f t h a t world i s d i s t u r b e d . In Each Man's Son, the e x p l i c i t mythic  parallels  and C e l t i c ) a r e made l e s s o b v i o u s , w i t h the r e s u l t become more e f f e c t i v e .  This world m a i n t a i n s  the n a r r a t o r v e r y r a r e l y i n t r u d i n g . l o a d , n a t u r e myths ( s o l a r ,  that  (Homeric they  its artistic  The imagery  bears  l u n a r and o c e a n i c ) combining  unity,  the h e a v i e s t w i t h a myth  of the death o f the gods t o c r e a t e an i n t e n s e , s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g mood  -"This weakness o f Barometer R i s i n g becomes c l e a r i f the n o v e l i s compared w i t h James Joyce's U l y s s e s . Joyce a l s o uses the s t r u c t u r e o f the Odyssey, but h i s c h a r a c t e r s a r e c l e a r l y i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r own r i g h t .  and  to develop the theme to i t s n a t u r a l c o n c l u s i o n . The Watch that Ends the Night concludes  personal  quest.  Here the mythic p a r a l l e l s are  most e f f e c t i v e .  The author has  Homer to the quest the human quest  the  archetype  turned  itself.  author's  least overt  and  from an open reworking o f The  three b a s i c myths of  or c y c l e , the n a t u r a l c y c l e and  c y c l e are s u b t l y interwoven to the extent  the  transcendent  that they become  almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e and h a r d l y n o t i c e a b l e as myths.  One  senses i n the c u l t u r e - h e r o Jerome M a r t e l l the f r u s t r a t i o n of s e a r c h , and  i n the  less heroic  (and  thus more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e )  George Stewart the d e s p a i r of f i n d i n g any truth.  And  one  finds l i t t l e  difficulty  r e s o l u t i o n as b e l i e v a b l e and v a l u a b l e . blends  the c l a s s i c a l and  the two. and  f i n a l and  satisfying  i n accepting  the  final  In the n o v e l , MacLennan  the C h r i s t i a n to a r r i v e a t a s y n t h e s i s  Odysseus the human wanderer and  Jesus the messiah and  the  of  r e s u r r e c t e d sun-hero,  r e s u r r e c t e d man-god are s y n t h e s i z e d i n  Jerome M a r t e l l to become n e i t h e r w a r r i o r nor messiah but a wise old  man.  By making the n a r r a t o r a c h a r a c t e r  author avoids  the  problem o f u p s e t t i n g the a r t i s t i c  i n t r u s i o n s of an o m n i s c i e n t appears too d i d a c t i c and teacher  n a r r a t o r , and,  u n i t y with  not understand, he h i m s e l f h a v i n g  who  the  i s a f r a i d h i s audience w i l l  difficulties.  In t h i s  way  speak to a wide audience, i n c l u d i n g those who  never have c o n s i d e r e d  the  i f George sometimes  even p a t r o n i z i n g , i t i s the f a u l t of  (the j o u r n a l i s t ) i n him,  MacLennan can  i n the s t o r y , the  such r e l i g i o u s - p h i l o s o p h i c a l  might  problems b e f o r e .  - 113. -  He can and does f u l f i l l h i s purpose o f i l l u m i n a t i n g , d e f i n i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s age, and o f c r e a t i n g , f o r today's r a p i d l y changing and thus unsure s o c i e t y , an independent system o f o r d e r o f h i s own. Hugh MacLennan i s a c l a s s i c a l  s c h o l a r , a j o u r n a l i s t and a  teacher o f E n g l i s h who w r i t e s n o v e l s .  L i k e another  intellectual  n o v e l i s t , Aldous Huxley, he has one f o o t i n the w o r l d o f a r t and the in  o t h e r i n the w o r l d o f t e a c h i n g .  Both w r i t e r s take time out  t h e i r n o v e l s to make d i d a c t i c a s i d e s i n which they r e l a t e the  g r e a t wide w o r l d o f h i s t o r y , p o l i t i c s ,  s c i e n c e , p h i l o s o p h y and  religion  to the s t o r i e s  they a r e t e l l i n g .  This i s a time-  honoured  p r a c t i c e i n the n o v e l , descending from w r i t e r s  like  Henry F i e l d i n g and George E l i o t , and which, a l t h o u g h perhaps out to  of fashion a t present, i s s t i l l v i a b l e .  Both w r i t e r s  seek  e x p l a i n the age to i t s e l f and to p r o v i d e a system o f v a l u e s ,  u s i n g e v e r y method a t t h e i r command.  Both men come to r e s t i n a  humanism c l o s e t o t h a t o f the c l a s s i c a l resolution  Greeks:  Huxley's  ( i n I s l a n d ) i s o v e r t l y r e l i g i o u s and s t r e s s e s the  o r i e n t a l p o i n t o f view; MacLennan's r e s o l u t i o n  ( i n The Watch t h a t  Ends the N i g h t ) i s a l s o r e l i g i o u s but s t r e s s e s the o c c i d e n t a l of  view.  Both r e s o l u t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y the same.  MacLennan's f i n a l v i s i o n o f the end o f s o c i a l e f f o r t of  point  no end, a s o c i e t y unconnected w i t h s p e c i f i c  political  i s that  ideology  Joseph Campbell i n d i c a t e s , throughout The Masks o f God,  - 114.  -  --Marxism, f o r example, i s thrown a s i d e —  f o r such i d e o l o g i e s  are e v o l u t i o n a r y or m e s s i a n i c - a p o c a l y p t i c , p e r s p e c t i v e and transcends  participation.  h i s t o r y , and  e n v i s i o n s i s one  i n which the i n d i v i d u a l and  in  Everyman,  and a l l humanity, are u n i t e d i n the knowledge  t h a t they cannot d e f e a t as a p a r t of l i f e . despair.  historical  MacLennan o f f e r s a view which  the i d e a l s o c i e t y he  which i d e o l o g i e s are n o t h i n g , the s o l i t a r y man  b e i n g based on  s u f f e r i n g and  This philosophy  death but must a c c e p t  i s not a p h i l o s o p h y  of  them existential  I t i s beyond such d e s p a i r , which MacLennan sees as  d e s p a i r of the  " l o s t generation",  p a r t i c u l a r l y exemplified i n  l i t e r a t u r e by  the Hemingway hero (e.g., Jake Barnes, Robert  N i c k Adams).  MacLennan attempts to d i s p e l l  the myth of  i n d i c a t i n g i t s inadequacy i n such f i g u r e s as the f i g h t e r A r c h i e MacNeil, o n l y to death, and  whose g a l l a n t and  C i v i l War  despair,  courageous f i g h t  leads  does not  but r e t u r n s from h i s  involvement there w i t h a profound and a f f i r m a t i v e o f humanism.  Jordan,  unsuccessful  the committed Jerome M a r t e l l , who  d i e " h e r o i c a l l y " i n the Spanish  the  philosophy  In The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t , MacLennan  attempts to e x p l a i n and  go beyond what S a l l y c a l l s  "those  a p p a l l i n g a d o l e s c e n t he-men l i k e Hemingway" (22), f o r such he-men are men  without  women, o v e r l y masculine "heroes" who  balance  i n a world where the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e i s d e s p a i r .  t h a t i n c l a s s i c a l Greek humanism the o r i e n t a l and p o i n t s of view were u n i t e d .  lack  the o c c i d e n t a l  -  115.  I n s t e a d , he p o i n t s to the mythic c o n j u n c t i o n of sun and moon, masculine  and  feminine,  s t r e s s i n g the example the moon  A i n s l i e , C a t h e r i n e ) g i v e s to men. " o p t i m i s t i c view of l i f e cyclically, by a new  notes  Such l u n a r myths a f f o r d  i n general:  e v e r y t h i n g takes  place  MacLennan i s p a r t of a great modern movement  the p h i l o s o p h y of the e t e r n a l r e t u r n .  t h a t , " i t i s o n l y i n the c y c l i c a l  Mircea E l i a d e  t h e o r i e s of modern  t h a t the meaning of the a r c h a i c myth of e t e r n a l r e p t i t i o n its  full  implications."  8  turned toward c y c l i c c o n c e p t i o n s  and  Toynbee.  e t e r n a l r e p e t i t i o n as the core concept  r e l a t i v e l y simple  d e p i c t s the c o n f l i c t  Ibid.,  p.  Writers  i n their philosophies.  i n Each Man s Son 1  The  "a ("a  transition  i n The Watch t h a t Ends the Night, which  "between the s p i r i t of Everyman and Everyman's  ^Mircea E l i a d e , The Myth of the E t e r n a l Re t u r n (New B o l l i n g e r , 1954), p. 102. 8  Science,  the myth of  i n Barometer R i s i n g (what he c a l l s  t a l e " ) , he continues  p i e c e " ) , and concludes  9  Theory.  B. Yeats, James Joyce, and Aldous Huxley use  quest MacLennan begins  realizes  of the u n i v e r s e i n , f o r  example, such t h i n g s as the E x p a n s i o n - C o n t r a c t i o n l i k e W.  times  This p o i n t of view appears i n p h i l o s o p h e r s  l i k e N i e t z s c h e and h i s t o r i a n s l i k e Spengler too, has  an  death i s i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w e d by r e s u r r e c t i o n , c a t a c l y s m  Creation."^  revivifying  (Margaret  York:  146.  ^ s i g n i f i c a n t l y , Toynbee uses an image v e r y l i k e one of MacLennan's i n The Watch: "The c o l l e c t i v e unconscious underl i e s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t r i d e s on i t l i k e a c o c k l e s h e l l f l o a t i n g p r e c a r i o u s l y on a bottomless and s h o r e l e s s ocean." C i v i l i z a t i o n on T r i a l (New York: Oxford U. P r e s s , 1948), p. 255.  human c o n d i t i o n , " 1 0 to  a c o n f l i c t which i s never-ending.  d i s c o v e r peace d i s c o v e r s peace i n the f a c t  The  quest  t h a t the quest  is  never ended. MacLennan o f f e r s to  the n a t i o n and  t h i s philosophy  to the w o r l d :  to h i s i n d i v i d u a l  that l i f e  itself  i s a quest,  the i n d i v i d u a l , f o r the r a c e , f o r the s p i r i t  of l i f e  he  portrayed  p r o v i d e s as an example h i s p e r s o n a l  c o n t i n u i n g quest  quest  of h i s f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s .  reader  itself,  for and  i n the  As a Canadian, he  asks, Is i t p o s s i b l e f o r so few people to meet the c h a l l e n g e of t h i s v a s t n e s s and mystery, of t h i s v a r i e t y o f the l a n d where we l i v e  .  Is i t u n r e a l to b e l i e v e that people can love an e t e r n a l q u e s t i o n mark? Or does the q u e s t i o n mark, perhaps, answer t h a t l a t t e r query? For s u r e l y i t i s t r u e that so long as the f a t e of a person or a n a t i o n i s s t i l l i n doubt, t h a t person or n a t i o n i s a l i v e and r e a l . H He  says t h i s of the n a t i o n .  1960)  pp.  He means i t f o r the w o r l d .  "The S t o r y o f a N o v e l , " 36-39.  Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 3  T h e R i v e r s of Canada (New 1962), p. 170. x i  York:  Charles  (Winter  S c r i b n e r ' s Sons  BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  Primary Sources  MacLennan, Hugh. Barometer Stewart, 1958. .  Rising.  Toronto:  "Canada Between C o v e r s . "  XXIV, 36  Saturday Review o f L i t e r a t u r e ,  (Sept. 7, 1946), pp. 5-6,  .  Cross-Country.  .  Each Man's Son.  McClelland &  Toronto:  28-30.  Collins,  Toronto:  1949.  M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart,  . " F i c t i o n i n the Age of S c i e n c e . " The Western Review, V I , 4 (Autumn 1952), pp. 325-34. . "The F u t u r e Trend i n the N o v e l . " Bookman, XXIV (Sept. 1948), pp. 3-5. . "The Older Quest." pp. 120-26.  Humanities  Canadian Author and  D a l h o u s i e Review, XXXV (Summer  . The R i v e r s of Canada. Sons, 1962. .  1965.  New  York:  1955),  Charles Scribner's  Scotchman's Return and Other E s s a y s .  Toronto:  Macmillan,  I960. .  "The S t o r y o f a N o v e l . "  Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 3 (Winter  1960), pp. 35-39. .  T h i r t y and Three.  .  The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t .  Library  o f World L i t e r a t u r e , B.  1.  Toronto:  Secondary  Macmillan, New  1954.  York:  New  American  1960.  Sources  General: Auden, W. H. The Enchafed F l o o d . New York: Random House, 1950. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero With a Thousand Faces. New York: Pantheon, 1949. . The Masks o f God: M a c M i l l a n , 1959.  Primitive  Mythology.  Toronto:  -  118.  . The Masks of God: M a c m i l l a n , 1962.  O r i e n t a l Mythology.  . The Masks o f God: M a c m i l l a n , 1964.  O c c i d e n t a l Mythology.  Camus, A l b e r t . New York:  Toronto:  Toronto:  The Myth o f S i s y p h u s , Trans, J u s t i n O'Brien. A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1959.  Chase, R i c h a r d . Quest f o r Myth. S t a t e U. P r e s s , 1949.  Baton Rouge, L a . :  Louisiana  Cohen, J . M. and Cohen M. J . The Penguin D i c t i o n a r y o f Q u o t a t i o n s . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Penguin, 1960. Frye, Northrop. 1966.  Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m .  New  York:  Atheneum,  . " C o n c l u s i o n . " L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f Canada, ed., C a r l F. K l i n c k . Toronto: U. of Toronto P r e s s , 1965, pp. 821-849. •  Fables of I d e n t i t y .  New  York:  H a r c o u r t , Brace, 1963,  Grant, M i c h a e l . Myths o f the Greeks and Romans. New New American L i b r a r y of World L i t e r a t u r e , 1962. Graves, Robert. 1948.  The White Goddess. )  Toronto:  York:  Random House,  Homer. The Odyssey, t r a n s , Robert F i t z g e r a l d . N. Y.: Doubleday, 1963.  Garden  Jones, W. T. A H i s t o r y of Western P h i l o s o p h y . H a r c o u r t , Brace, 1952.  New  City,  York:  Knoepflmacher, U. C. R e l i g i o u s Humanism and the V i c t o r i a n Novel. P r i n c e t o n , N. J . : P r i n c e t o n U. P r e s s , 1965. M a c N e i l l , F. M.  The S i l v e r Bough.  Glasgow:  W. MacLennan, 1957.  Murray, Henry A. "The P o s s i b l e Nature o f a 'Mythology' to Come." Myth and Mythmaking, ed., H. A. Murray. New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1960. Pacey, Desmond. " F i c t i o n (1920-1940)." L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of Canada, ed., C a r l F. K l i n c k . Toronto: U. o f Toronto P r e s s , 1965, pp. 658-693. S t a n f o r d , W. B. The U l y s s e s Theme. & Mott, 1963.  Oxford:  Basil.  Blackwell  -  119.  Toynbee, A r n o l d . C i v i l i z a t i o n on T r i a l . U. P r e s s , 1948. 2.  New  York:  Oxford  On Hugh MacLennan: D a n i e l l s , Roy. "Poetry and F i c t i o n . " The C u l t u r e o f Contemporary Canada, ed., J u l i a n Parks. I t h a c a , N. C o r n e l l U. P r e s s , 1957. R e l a t e s MacLennan to g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l scene.  Y.:  Goetsch, P a u l . Das Romanwerk Hugh MacLennans: e i n e S t u d i e zum l i t j c i r i s c h e n N a t i o n a l i s m u s i n Kanada. Hamburg: G r u y t e r , 1961. A g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f MacLennan's n o v e l s from Barometer R i s i n g to The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t , c o n s i d e r i n g them as an e x p r e s s i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m . Contains the most complete b i b l i o g r a p h y of MacLennan's work and work on MacLennan to be found anywhere. . "Too Long to the C o u r t l y Muses." Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 10 (Autumn 1961), pp. 19-31. A c r i t i c a l a r t i c l e which r e l a t e s MacLennan to the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , u s i n g a Jungian p o i n t o f view. Hicks, G r a n v i l l e . " N o v e l i s t s i n the F i f t i e s . " Saturday Review of L i t e r a t u r e , 42 (Oct. 24, 1959), pp. 18-20. P l a c e s MacLennan i n the main stream of contemporary n o v e l writing. Lucas, A l e c . " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " Each Man's Son. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1965. A p e r c e p t i v e look a t the n o v e l , f o c u s i n g on MacLennan's approach to C a l v i n i s m . McPherson, Hugo. " F i c t i o n (1940-60)." L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of Canada, ed., C a r l F. K l i n c k . Toronto: U. of Toronto P r e s s , 1965, pp. 694-722. P l a c e s MacLennan i n the g e n e r a l stream of Canadian n o v e l writing. Necessarily rather s u p e r f i c i a l . Sometimes q u i t e m i s l e a d i n g ; e.g., " . . . someone remarks t h a t she [ C a t h e r i n e , i n The. Watch t h a t Ends the NightT) i s a symbol of 'our s i c k c i v i l i z a t i o n ' . " . " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " Barometer R i s i n g . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1958. An e x c e l l e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n to the n o v e l . T e l l s the average reader enough to keep h i s i n t e r e s t without b e i n g h e a v i l y academic.  - 120.  . "The Novels of Hugh MacLennan." Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , LX (Summer 1953), pp. 189-98. The themes and forms of MacLennan's f i r s t f o u r n o v e l s a r e examined i n r e l a t i o n to each o t h e r . New, W i l l i a m H. "The A p p r e n t i c e s h i p of D i s c o v e r y . " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 29 (Summer 1966), pp. 18-33. A comparison o f Mordecai R i c h l e r ' s The A p p r e n t i c e s h i p o f Duddy K r a v i t z and MacLennan's The Watch t h a t Ends the N i g h t , s t r e s s i n g the thematic s i m i l a r i t i e s . Pacey, Desmond. C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n Canada, r e v . and e n l . Toronto: Ryerson, 1961. Short and to the p o i n t . Sets MacLennan's work i n p e r s p e c t i v e , a l o n g s i d e o t h e r Canadian n o v e l i s t s ' , e.g., Morley C a l l a g h a n and Mordecai R i c h l e r . . "The Novel i n Canada." Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , L I I (Autumn 1945), pp. 322-32. An e a r l y look a t MacLennan's w r i t i n g which has now been g e n e r a l l y superseded. Phelps, A. L. Canadian W r i t e r s . Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1951, pp. 77-84. Rather too simple i n approach and treatment to be o f much v a l u e to the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c . S u t h e r l a n d , Ronald. "Twin S o l i t u d e s . " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 31 (Winter 1967), pp. 5-24. A comparison o f E n g l i s h and French Canadian n o v e l s w i t h some i n t e r e s t i n g comments on Hugh MacLennan. Tallman, Warren. "Wolf i n the Snow: P a r t One, Four Windows on to Landscapes." Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 5 (Summer 1960), pp. 7-20. A b r i e f look a t the dramatic c o n f l i c t s a t work i n Each Man's Son, comparing the n o v e l w i t h f o u r o t h e r modern Canadian n o v e l s . . "Wolf i n the Snow: Part Two, The House Repossessed." Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 6 (Autumn 1960), pp. 41-48. The c o n c l u s i o n to the two part essay. Heaviest stress i s put on R i c h l e r ' s The A p p r e n t i c e s h i p of Duddy K r a v i t z . Thomas, C l a r a . Canadian N o v e l i s t s . Toronto: Longmans, Green, 1946, pp. 87-88. The l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n about MacLennan i s m o s t l y biographical.  - 121.  Watters, R. E. "Hugh MacLennan and the N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r . " As A Man Thinks . . . , ed., E. M o r r i s o n and W. Robbins. Toronto: Gage, 1953, pp. 228-43. W i l s o n , Edmund. "0 Canada." The New Yorker (Nov. 14, 1964). Republished i n book form w i t h i t s companion p i e c e s , New York: F a r r a r , Straus and G i r o u x , 1965. An i n t e r e s t i n g and o f t e n v a l u a b l e e x a m i n a t i o n o f MacLennan's n o v e l s . Woodcock, George. "Hugh MacLennan." N o r t h e r n Review, 3 (Apr.-May 1950), pp. 2-10. One o f the f i r s t r e a l l y p e r c e p t i v e looks a t MacLennan's work, p l a c i n g him i n Canadian and w o r l d l i t e r a t u r e . . "A N a t i o n ' s Odyssey. Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , 10 (Autumn 1961), pp. 7-18. R e l a t e s MacLennan's work to c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . 11  Contains the g e r m i n a l i d e a s which gave r i s e to t h i s  thesis.  Reviews Barometer Andrews, G. C.  Rising  Canadian Forum, 21 (Dec. 1941), p. 282.  Saturday Review o f L i t e r a t u r e , Southron, J . S.  New  24 (Oct. 25, 1941), p. 21.  York Times  (Oct. 5, 1941), p. 32.  Each Man's Son Allen,  Thomas.  Ballantyne,  New  York Times  Murray.  Smith, H a r r i s o n .  (Apr. 15, 1951), p. 5.  Commonweal, 54 (Apr. 20, 1951), p. 46.  Saturday Review o f L i t e r a t u r e , 34  (Jan. 9,  P. 11.  The Watch that Ends the Night Fowke, E d i t h .  Canadian Forum, 39  (Jan. 1959), p. 66.  Hicks, G r a n v i l l e . Saturday Review o f L i t e r a t u r e , (Feb. 28, 1959), p. 15. O'Hearn, W a l t e r .  New  York Times  42  (Feb. 15, 1959), p. 4.  1951)  - 122.  Woodcock, George. "Odysseus Ever R e t u r n i n g . " 2 ( S p r i n g 1959), pp. 77-79.  Tamarack  Review,  

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