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Thucydides' portrait of Kleon Boundy, Deane Floyd 1966

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THUCYDIDES' PORTRAIT OF KLEON  by  DEANE FLOYD BOUNDY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1961  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of CLASSICS We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May, 1966  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the  requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h . Columbia,  I agree that the Library shall make it  for reference and study.  freely  available  I further agree that permission for ex-  tensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is  •understood that copying or publication of this thesis for finan^ c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  CC/) SS, ' C S  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  ABSTRACT  I t i s P r o f e s s o r A. G.  Woodhead who  r e c a l l s that, since  time o f the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y h i s t o r i a n George G r o t e , s c h o l a r s have d i v i d e d t h e m s e l v e s  i n t o p r o - K l e o n and  Thucydidean  anti-Kleon  camps, w i t h t h e l a t t e r g r o u p more t h a n h o l d i n g i t s own. the purpose  the  It is  o f t h i s s t u d y t o j o i n f o r c e s w i t h t h e p r o - K l e o n camp,and  to r e h a b i l i t a t e Kleon. K l e o n has n e s i a n War;  always h e l d i n t e r e s t f o r students of the  t h e e v i d e n c e about him b o t h i n T h u c y d i d e s  Pelopon-  and i n t h e  o t h e r a n c i e n t s o u r c e s i s a l m o s t c o n s i s t e n t l y d e r o g a t o r y , and on d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e s t h e s t u d e n t c a n  yet  barely  r e s i s t a murmur o f d i s s e n t f r o m t h e p e r s i s t e n t c o n d e m n a t i o n t h e man  receives.  T h i s study seeks to f i n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n  forthis  d i s s e n t , and t o r e s t o r e K l e o n t o a p l a c e o f r e s p e c t and  integ-  rity. I t i s n o t my and u n o r t h o d o x him  aim t o redeem K l e o n f r o m c h a r g e s o f  manners.  The  c o m i c p o e t s d i d n o t f a s t e n upon  so r e a d i l y w i t h o u t r e a s o n .  What t h i s s t u d y s e e k s i s t o r e -  s t o r e K l e o n * s s t a t u s as a p o l i t i c i a n , war  coarseness  s t a t e s m a n , and e n e r g e t i c  leader. To do t h i s , i t has been n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e w i t h c a r e a l l  t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e a n c i e n t s o u r c e s , and, w i t h e q u a l c a r e , t o evaluate i t .  I have s t u d i e d , f i r s t ,  Thucydides  1  t h e demagogue, n o t e d t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f t h a t  portrait portrait,  of  iii  and  searched  has  been a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t T h u c y d i d e s h a s t r e a t e d K l e o n u n -  fairly,  f o r t h e i r causes and t h e i r meaning.  a n d h a s condemned h i m w i t h o u t  The r e s u l t  j u s t cause.  I have  turned, i n t h e second 1 p l a c e , t o the o t h e r a n c i e n t t h a t i s , a s i d e from A r i s t o p h a n e s . evidence  H e r e we s e e t h a t a l l t h e  l o o k s back t o T h u c y d i d e s and t h e a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c  tradition,  except  f o r s h a f t s o f l i g h t h e r e and t h e r e t h a t ,  i f not flatteringof Kleon, vue  d'oeil.  Aristophanes,  a t l e a s t do n o t condemn h i m a  F i n a l l y , I have c o n s u l t e d t h e comic p o e t t o f i n d t h a t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e dema-  g o g u e , w h i l e l a u d a b l e a s comedy, i s u n t e n a b l e Ah  evidence,  examination  as h i s t o r y .  and a n a l y s i s o f t h e e v i d e n c e  forces the  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t o n l y Thucydides i s r e l i a b l e as a source f o r appraising the character of Kleon; question the h i s t o r i a n ' s The  e v e n s o , we may c a l l  into  judgements.  conclusion of the study,  therefore, i s clearly  s t a t e d : . K l e o n was a w i s e r and more i n t e l l i g e n t  statesman,  w i t h a b e t t e r r e p u t a t i o n a n d more j u s t e n t i t l e m e n t t o fame and h o n o u r , t h a n o u r p r i n c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s l e a d u s t o s u p pose.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION . . .. . . . . . .  • .. 1  Chapter I.  THUGIX-IDES' PORTRAIT OF KLEON  3  II.  THE EVIDENCE OF LATER SOURCES. . . . .38  III.  ARISTOPHANES' PORTRAIT OF KLEON. . . .45  IV.  EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION  . 79  Introduction I t i s the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y t o r e h a b i l i t a t e K l e o n ; to  seek to uncover, beneath the s t a r k l y etched p o r t r a i t of  K l e o n , another f i g u r e , more commendable, more n o b l e , than t h a t p r e s e n t e d by the h i s t o r i a n ; to c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n Thucydides' to  a p p r a i s a l o f the demagogue as u n j u s t and b i a s s e d  t h e p o i n t o f d i s t o r t i n g the t r u e f i g u r e o f the man*  Whether  t h a t d e r o g a t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was d e l i b e r a t e , o r the uncons c i o u s r e s u l t of an e m b i t t e r e d mind, may not f i n a l l y  be  de-  t e r m i n e d , but t h a t Thucydides p r e s e n t e d and s e t f o r p o s t e r i t y an u n f a i r judgement w i l l be argued. t h a t K l e o n was  a man  T h i s study w i l l not deny  o f v i o l e n t temper and f i e r c e  political  c o n v i c t i o n s , a b i t t e r speaker, coarse i n h a b i t s and i n speech perhaps,  and l a c k i n g i n the f i n e graces o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  Athenian c u l t u r e .  What w i l l be argued i s t h a t Thucydides  has  u n f a i r l y p o r t r a y e d K l e o n , i n a d d i t i o n , as a war-monger, c o r r u p t , l a c k i n g i n both p o l i t i c a l  i n s i g h t and p o l i t i c a l  i n d e e d , the cause o f the w h o l e s a l e degeneration Athens a f t e r the death o f P e r i k l e s . Thucydides  honesty,  and c o l l a p s e o f  These are charges t h a t  makes i n a l l s e r i o u s n e s s , and t h a t the poet  Aristo-  phanes, whose works w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d , expands and i n t e n s i f i e s w i t h a l l the r i d i c u l e and i n d e c e n c y t h a t the comic drama c o u l d a l l o w . T h i s s t u d y w i l l seek, f u r t h e r m o r e , t o d e l i v e r K l e o n his  l o n g - s t a n d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a v i l l a i n  from and  a rogue, t o c o r r e c t the u n c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s about him t h a t are found i n g e n e r a l works o f a l l k i n d s .  Por i n s t a n c e , Rogers  - 2w r i t e s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e Knights: seller,  "Cleon, a leather-  s o n o f C l e a e n e t u s , was a m o s t p e r s u a s i v e o r a t o r ,  full  of  r e s o u r c e , b u t c o r r u p t and r a p a c i o u s beyond o t h e r s . . . . "  in  a comment o n P y l o s , R o g e r s w r i t e s :  statesman,  " B u t C l e o n , who was no  demanded s u c h t e r m s a s were r e a l l y o u t o f t h e S p a r t a n s *  p o w e r t o g r a n t . ...,."* writes:  Again,  "Having  P h i l i p Myers, i n h i s H i s t o r y o f Greece,  a r r i v e d a t Pylons, C l e o n , n o t b y g o o d g e n e r a l -  s h i p , b u t t h r o u g h g o o d f o r t u n e , a c t u a l l y d i d a c c o m p l i s h what o a s t o n i s h e d t h e whole H e l l e n i c w o r l d , h i m s e l f p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e d . " Such d i s p a r a g i n g l e g a c i e s from Thucydides  are legion i n general  h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s , and i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s pel  some o f t h e m y t h s t h a t h a v e h o v e r e d  study to d i s -  over Kleon*s grave f o r  more t h a n two m i l l e n i a . The  f i r s t p a r t o f the study w i l l  evidence of Thucydides;  then i t w i l l  be an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e be n e c e s s a r y t o t u r n t o an  evaluation of the ostensibly corroborating material of A r i s t o p h a n e s , and t o s u r v e y t h e comic t r a d i t i o n on K l e o n , i n o r d e r t o r e l a t e i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e , ^ i f any, t o the evidence of Thucydides. F i n a l l y , t h i s study w i l l  seek  t o e x p l a i n why T h u c y d i d e s ,  h i s t o r i a n whose i n t e g r i t y and p o w e r a r e e n d o r s e d  an  by a l l s t u d e n t s ,  c o u l d t r e a t K l e o n a s he h a s t r e a t e d him..  A r i s t o p h a n e s , Comedies, t r a n s l a t e d by B.B.Rogers(Loeb C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y . L o n d o n and C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1 9 4 0 ) ,  I,pp.l20-121.  2. P. M e y e r s , H i s t o r y o f G r e e c e  (Boston,1895),p.314.  CHAPTER ONE  Thucydides*  P o r t r a i t o f Kleon  Thucydides' H i s t o r y leaves no doubt t h a t the h i s t o r i a n viewed Kleon as a contemptible  and unworthy f e l l o w .  He i s i n -  troduced to the reader as "the most v i o l e n t man a t Athens."^ He i s given a r a t h e r g r a t u i t o u s second i n t r o d u c t i o n a t the time of the Pylos i n c i d e n t , with a reminder 2 est influence"  with the m u l t i t u d e .  o f h i s "having the g r e a t -  The repeated  7ri©avcoraToq , p l a c e d as i t i s the second  superlative  time with emphasis,  i s a pregnant  e p i t h e t ; indeed, a c c o r d i n g to A. G. Woodhead, i t 3 "lends to the d e s c r i p t i o n oT)p,aY<*>Y°S a s i n i s t e r f l a v o u r . . . . "  He  supports war,  the h i s t o r i a n says, f o r i n peace "he would be  more manifest i n h i s v i l l a i n i e s and l e s s c r e d i t e d i n h i s calum4 nies." He i s , i n a word, the type o f man whom wise men are 5 better r i d of.  The condemnation could not be more e x p l i c i t .  A. ¥. Gomme, c e r t a i n l y , i s r i g h t when he says, " i f Kleon was i n f a c t a v u l g a r demagogue and most mischievous  politician,  i t was the h i s t o r i a n ' s duty to represent him as one."  This  1.  111,36,6.  2.  IV, 21,3.  3.  A. G. Woodhead, Mnemo syne. XIII ( i 9 6 0 ) , p. 311.  4.  V,16,l ( t r a n s . C. P. Smith).  5.  IV,28,5.  6.  A. W. Gomme, More Essays i n Greek H i s t o r y and L i t e r a t u r e  (Oxford, 1962),p.112.  -  4  -  study w i l l not c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n Kleon's l a c k of decorum; i t w i l l d i s p u t e the l a b e l "mischievous p o l i t i c i a n . "  I n order  to do so, I s h a l l examine the three episodes i n which Kleon appears i n the H i s t o r y :  M y t i l e n e , P y l o s , and Amphipolis.  S i g n i f i c a n t i n the study of Thucydides' treatment of the demagogue Kleon are the h i s t o r i a n ' s o l i g a r c h i c and democratic p o l i t i c a l sympathies.  anti-  M. P. McGregor, i n arguing  the o l i g a r c h i c sentiments of Thucydides, speaks*: of the h i s t o r 7 i a n ' s " n a t u r a l a n t i p a t h y to democracy."  I n one of the  few  passages of the H i s t o r y i n which Thucydides r e v e a l s h i s p e r sonal views, he says of the moderate o l i g a r c h y of the F i v e Thousand e s t a b l i s h e d i n 411/0, "During the f i r s t p e r i o d the Athenians appear to have enjoyed the best government they ever had, at l e a s t i n my time; f o r there was i n g of the few and the many."  a moderate blend-  Thucydides was  bitterly  con-  demnatory of the democracy as i t developed a f t e r P e r i k l e s , ^ and the H i s t o r y , indeed, becomes i n p a r t a drama of s e l e c t e d  11,65  7.  M. F. McGregor, Phoenix. X (1956),p.100.  8.  VIII,97,2  9.  Woodhead has examined Thucydides' phraseology i n  ( t r a n s . C, F. Smith).  to demonstrate  t h i s (pp.294-295).  - 5 i n c i d e n t s i n t e n d e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e how t h e d o w n f a l l was t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s tem. ^  And, w h i l e  1  o f Athens  o f the democratic sys-  Thucydides does n o t mention him by name,there  was no d o u b t i n t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s m i n d t h a t K l e o n was one o f t h e principal  c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e s y s t e m t h a t he f e l t u l t i m a t e l y d e -  stroyed h i s beloved Athens.  I n examining the p o r t r a i t o f Kleon,  t h e r e f o r e , we s h o u l d b e a r i n m i n d t h a t he i s d e s c r i b e d son o f q u i t e a n t i t h e t i c a l c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l The  first  sympathies.  episode r e l e v a n t t o t h e study i s t h e debate  cerning Mytilene. war.  by a p e r -  Mytilene  con-  had r e v o l t e d i n t h e t h i r d year o f the  The r e v o l t was s u c c e s s f u l l y c r u s h e d and t h e A t h e n i a n a s -  sembly under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f K l e o n c a r r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g m o t i o n : t o p u t t o death n o t o n l y t h e p r i s o n e r s a t Athens, b u t t h e whole a d u l t male p o p u l a t i o n women a n d c h i l d r e n .  1 1  o f M y t i l e n e , a n d t o make s l a v e s o f t h e Kleon f i r s t  a p p e a r s i n t h e H i s t o r y at t h e  p o i n t when a s e c o n d d e b a t e i s c a l l e d t o r e c o n s i d e r  10.  A. H. M. J o n e s  ( A t h e n i a n D e m o c r a c y [New l o r k ,  argues t h a t Thucydides r e v e a l s h i s condemnation by h i s s p e c i f i c took place  the motion. Kleon  1958])  o f t h e democracy  s e l e c t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f c e r t a i n i n c i d e n t s t h a t  i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e war ( e s p e c i a l l y p p . 6 4 - 6 5 ) .  P i n l e y , on t h e o t h e r hand, ( T h u c y d i d e s  [Cambridge, Mass.,  more c a u t i o u s l y a d m i t s o n l y t h a t t h e H i s t o r y becomes a  J . H. 1942])  confirmation  o f t h e p r o p h e c y o f P e r i k l e s t h a t i t w o u l d be A t h e n s ' e r r o r s w o u l d d e s t r o y her ( p . 1 4 2 ) . 11.  111,36,2.  I f o l l o w the view of Jones.  that  - 6 is  s u p p o r t i n g h i s m o t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s d a y , a n d on i n t r o -  d u c i n g h i m T h u c y d i d e s d e s c r i b e s h i m as p i a i o T a T o c ; and  rep 6iiytcp niOavcoraroc;  n o t o n l y because  .  TOOV  7toXtrc5v  The i n t r o d u c t i o n s a r e s t r i k i n g ,  i t i s T h u c y d i d e s ' normal method t o l e a v e 12  the  r e a d e r t o make h i s own j u d g m e n t s ,  b u t because  of the  d e c i d e d l y d i s p a r a g i n g t o n e o f t h e words u s e d . Woodhead u n 13 e q u i v o c a l l y r a t e s them "smear w o r d s , "  and t h e y a r e " v i o l e n t 14  i n p r e j u d i c e , " a c c o r d i n g t o L. P e a r s o n .  A. W. Gomme, who  i s more c o n s e r v a t i v e i n h i s r e m a r k s , a d m i t s t h a t t h e y a n ticipate  the evidence.  "There a r e l e s s c o l o u r f u l  phrases  T h u c y d i d e s m i g h t have u s e d t o e x p r e s s t h e f a c t t h a t K l e o n r e x v f l net*  k]%rc£i picj. laxucrs 7tpo<5 TO 7r£i'6eiv  b y c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f words,  theh i s t o r i a n  ."*"  But,  conditions the  r e a d e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o K l e o n b e f o r e t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y o f independent assessment.  Hence t h e i n s i g h t o f Woodhead's  q u e s t i o n , " W i t h o u t them s h o u l d we i n f a c t r e g a r d t h e s p e e c h 16 i n the l i g h t Thucydides r e q u i r e s ? " Would t h e r e a d e r be v  as l i k e l y t o d e s c r i b e K l e o n ' s a d d r e s s a s a " v o l c a n i c 12. the  tirade"?  T h u c y d i d e s h a s no i n t r o d u c t o r y comment o n N i k i a s i n  P y l o s d e b a t e , when K l e o n i s e x p r e s s l y condemned  (IV,27).  13.  Woodhead, p . 2 9 8 .  14.  I n a b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o K l e o n , T.A.P.A.. L X X V T I I  (1947),p.53. 15.  Woodhead,p.298.  16.  Woodhead, p . 2 9 8 .  17.  P i n l e y , p.171.  - 7 While there i s no doubt Thucydides i n t e n d s , to a great extent, both speeches to i n d i c a t e that decadence  that he be-  l i e v e d f o l l o w e d the death of P e r i k l e s , one may see how the h i s t o r i a n shows approval o f Diodotos' p o s i t i o n and condemn a t i o n of Kleon's.  I t q u i c k l y becomes apparent t h a t , where-  as the n a r r a t i v e s t a t e s that a second debate was h e l d because of a r e v u l s i o n of f e e l i n g at the c r u e l t y of the motion, 18 the  c e n t r a l theme of the debate has to do not with sentiments 19  but with p l a i n , expedient, i m p e r i a l p o l i c y : the  what i s to be  p r i n c i p a l method of m a i n t a i n i n g subject peoples i n obed-  ience? Diodotos wants to f o r e s t a l l r e v o l t by more v i g i l a n t 20 21 administration; Kleon wants to f o r e s t a l l r e v o l t through f e a r . Thucydides c r i t i c i z e s Kleon's arguments f i r s t by demonstrating t h a t , the motion having been r e j e c t e d , none o f Kleon's p r o 22 p h e c i e s come to pass.  L a t e r , when Skione r e v o l t e d , the  extreme p e n a l t y was voted and executed, y e t Mende soon wards also d e s e r t e d A t h e n s . ^ 2  18.  111,48,1.  19.  111,44,3.  20.  111,46,4.  21.  111,40,8.  22.  111,39,7.  23.  But see Kleon's promise i n 111,40,8.  after-  - 8 -  A g a i n i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e debate i t i s D i o d o t o s who r e c a l l s P e r i k l e s i n h i s t h e s i s o f ebfiovkia 24  and i n h i s p l e a f o r  the g r e a t e s t l i b e r t y o f debate.  I t i s Diodotos who, l i k e  P e r i k l e s , f i g h t s a g a i n s t imprudent  anger o f t h e p e o p l e , K l e o n  who s u p p o r t s i t s use, f o r t h e making o f d e c i s i o n s .  Thucydides  endorses t h e s t r e n g t h s o f D i o d o t o s ' speech, w h i l e i n K l e o n ' s 2 he shows . "a v e i l e d d i s a p p r o v a l o f t h e excesses o f i m p e r i a l i s m . " On t h e o t h e r hand K l e o n seems to reecho P e r i k l e s i n phraseology.  Thus 11,63,2 ( P e r i k l e s ) , abc; rupavvt'&a yap nbr\  exefe aurtiv, r\v AaPeTv p,ev a S i n o v Sonet e l v a t , e7riHt'v6uvov OUH  , may be compared w i t h 111,37,5 ( K l e o n ) ,  kitIHivSuvooc,  fjYeTcr9e Ic; upaq n a i ouw Ic;  Xcxptv p,aXaHr^ecr©ai,  rr\v apx^v  acpeTvat 6e  0 6  TTJV  TCEV  c;up,u.d*xa>v  0"KO7rouvTec; o n -rupavvt'Sa exere  ....  Echoes o c c u r a g a i n when K l e o n d e c l a r e s h i m s e l f f a i t h f u l t o  24.  Compare 11,40,2 w i t h 111,42,2.  25.  J a c q u e l i n e de R o m i l l y , Thucydides  and A t h e n i a n Im-  p e r i a l i s m , t r a n s . P h i l i p ) Thody ( O x f o r d , 1963), p. 192.  Mme, de  R o m i l l y w r i t e s , " I n the two e p i s o d e s of M y t i l e n e and P y l o s , as we have seen, Thucydides  expresses t h e same v e i l e d d i s a p p r o v a l  on t h e excesses o f i m p e r i a l i s m . I t must be added t h a t t h i s s p i r i t o f censure accounts f o r e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t says - o r does n o t s a y - about Cleon."  Thucydides  -  one  point  of view  Tfj yY<x>w,x\ abroq  7caue00at  P e r i k l e s had said  • •.»»  the a l t e r n a t i v e  'EY"> P-ev ouv o a u T o q eip,t  (III,38,1), .  eip,i  9 -  to  (11,61,2),  6  kyoj \xev  F u r t h e r , when K l e o n i r o n i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s  v i g o r o u s r u l e , he s a y s  (111,40,4),  r\  xr\c, apxr\<; nai I K TOU anivSuvou av6paYa6i'£eo*0ai  P e r i k l e s had s a i d  (11,63,2),  6e6ta)<5 artpaTPOCvvxi furthermore, that where, e i t h e r classical  the verb  fact,  These v e r b a l  ev T $ 7tapovTi  avbpayaQxierai  i n Thucydides  era(in  et TIC, nai robe  .  • I t i s significant,  avbpayaQiteaQai  i s n o t found  o r i n any o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e  Aristotle  uses  else-  of the  i t ; see L . S . J . , L e x i c o n , s . v . ) .  c o r r e l a t i o n s have a d i s t i n c t  importance i n 26  the a n a l y s i s o f Thucydides' treatment  of Kleon.  writes,  s u c h echoes  " I n Thutcydides' c a r e f u l  style  A. Andrewes c a n n o t be  27 accidental, nor i s their reminds  us o f a n o t h e r  i n t e n t i o n i n doubt."  source that  A. W. Gomme  d e p i c t s K l e o n as t h e i m i t a t o r 28  of P e r i k l e s ,  that i s , Aristophanes.  I n the M y t i l e n e a n de-  b a t e , t h e n , K l e o n b e c o m e s t h e i m i t a t o r , t a k i n g up f o r v i o l e n t M  ;  and  ( i n comparison)  trivial  purposes  the phrases  i n which  p e r i k l e s had d i s p l a y e d h i s steady i n s i g h t i n t o the l a r g e s t i s " " 9 ' ' sues." T h u c y d i d e s t h u s moves f r o m c r i t i c i s m o f p o l i c y t o V !  2  26.  Mme. de R o m i l l y d e n i e s t h i s .  F o r h e r arguments s e e  pp.164-166. 27.  A. Andrewes, "The M y t i l e n e D e b a t e , " P h o e n i x , XVI  (1962), p.75. 28. II  A. W. Gomme, A H i s t o r i c a l  ( O x f o r d , 1956), 29.  p.311.  Andrewes, p . 7 5 .  Commentary on T h u c y d i d e s .  r i d i c u l e o f p e r s o n , i n o r d e r t o p o r t r a y K l e o n as he sees him. Hence t h e i n t e n t o f t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y comment i s c l a r i f i e d by an a n a l y s i s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e speeches. l i k e d Kleon. same view.  Thucydides  dis-  He sought, f i r s t , t o c o n d i t i o n t h e r e a d e r to t h e Then, by disparagement  through r i d i c u l e , and i l -  l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e weakness o f h i s argument, t h e h i s t o r i a n sought t o e n f o r c e t h e judgement. Evidence i s n o t l a c k i n g , however, t o demonstrate t h e strengths of Kleon's p o l i c y .  Athens was a t war.  ready s u f f e r e d g r e a t h u r t and h u m i l i a t i o n .  She had a l -  She had been sub-  j e c t e d t o t h e s y s t e m a t i c i n v a s i o n and r a v a g i n g o f A t t i c a by 30 the P e l o p o n n e s i a n s ; she had been s e r i o u s l y weakened by an 31 epidemic.  A Spartan f l e e t under A l k i d a s had been roaming  the Aegean.  Now M y t i l e n e , a c i t y o f s i g n i f i c a n t power and  p o s i t i o n , had r e v o l t e d .  She was an i s l a n d b e l o n g i n g n a t u r a l l y  to  t h e A t h e n i a n Empire, from which no one c o u l d detach h e r 32 a g a i n s t h e r own w i l l , p o s s e s s i n g a f l e e t t h a t was p r e c i o u s 30.  11,19,2.  11,23,1.  31.  111,13,3.  32.  As K l e o n p o i n t s o u t w i t h f o r c e , 111,39,2  for  Athens  and no l e s s so f o r Sparta.  Her  defection  35 would mean s e r i o u s l o s s of n a v a l support. was  the l a c k o f p r o v o c a t i o n .  leged position i n the empire, o p p r e s s i o n or e x t o r t i o n . admits  F i n a l l y there  M y t i l e n e had h e l d a p r i v i and had i n no way  Indeed,  suffered  the speaker at  Olympia  t h a t i n the p a s t the Mytileneans have been t r e a t e d 36  with marked honour.  Furthermore,  had Athens intended  aggression a g a i n s t M y t i l e n e , she would s u r e l y have taken a c t i o n e a r l i e r , at a time when M y t i l e n e would have been l e s s l i k e l y to f i n d sympathetic  support, and Athens h e r s e l f more 37  able to r e a l i z e her i n t e n t . s e c u r i t y of M y t i l e n e .  The war had i n c r e a s e d the  l e t the arguments they b r i n g f o r de-  f e c t i o n seem to r e s t on t h e i r sense o f need f o r a c q u i r i n g s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e . of  A f t e r Grote has analyzed the  the Mytilenean envoys, he comments, "We  speech  see the p l a i n  con-  f e s s i o n t h a t the Mytileneans had no reason whatever to comp l a i n of the conduct of Athens towards them. f a c t h e l p s us to e x p l a i n . . . the barbarous  T h i s important  resolution  taken  by the Athenians a f t e r i t s [the r e b e l l i o n ' s ! s u p p r e s s i o n . " * ^ 33. As the Mytileneans w e l l know, 111,11,4. 34.  As the Mytileneans are quick to p o i n t out,111,13,7.  35.  As the Mytileneans know, 111,13,6; and Kleon's words  (111,^39,8) are:  rrjq  eneira  7rpocro6ou,  bt'f\v  tcocuou-ev,  TO Xoi7tov  OTeprioeo'ee,...  36.  111,9,2.  And Kleon's reproach o f t h e i r . i n g r a t i t u d e  ^111^39,2): auTovouot' vno T]p,cov.... ei  ^37. 111,11^6: ]xr\ 6 7roXep,o<5 o 6 e 38.  Te  o l H O U V T e c ; .KCCI  ou^y,evTot  exi  TTOXU  Ttu-cJju.evoi ec; xa Y ' O V  e6oKOup,ev  npcbra 6UVT)0T)VCXI,  narearx],...  George Grote, H i s t o r y of Greece  (London, 1888),V, p.149.  - 12 The pressure of events, t h e r e f o r e , together with the l a c k of j u s t i f i a b l e reasons f o r r e b e l l i o n , n a t u r a l l y caused an i n tense r e a c t i o n among the Athenians, and the p o l i c y o f Kleon i n the l i g h t o f the context can be a p p r e c i a t e d ; and, indeed, i n terms o f war, i t was j u s t i f i e d .  Any a p p r e c i a t i o n of K l e o n s 1  p o s i t i o n , however, the reader may w e l l miss a l t o g e t h e r , f o r Thucydides g i v e s no c r e d i t t o the demagogue at a l l .  Indeed, the  h i s t o r i a n seems to be i n t e n t upon having the reader regard Kleon as n a t u r a l l y bad i n supporting such a c r u e l and monstrous motion,  and Diodotos good i n c o u n t e r i n g i t .  But i t i s j u s t as  u n f a i r to regard Kleon's p o s i t i o n as inhuman as i t i s f a l s e to regard Diodotos' as humane.  The n a r r a t i v e s t a t e s that«the  reason f o r the debate was the repentance of the crowd, y e t Diodotos makes no mention of t h i s i n h i s spe.ech.  One i s  tempted to ask whether indeed the r e v u l s i o n o f f e e l i n g was as i n t e n s e as Thucydides makes out, e s p e c i a l l y i n view o f the s l i m margin o f v i c t o r y .  D i d Thucydides  exaggerate  the emotional  r e a c t i o n o f the people i n o r d e r to i n t e n s i f y the i m p l i e d moral judgment upon Kleon?  The speech o f Diodotos i s termed " i c y "  by F i n l e y , ^ and the words knei-neia it  iityre otxrq) nksov  (III,48,1) s t r i k e i t s mood.  veTpavTec; \xr\r' l e t i n every way  i s a g a i n s t Kleon that the whole episode i s presented, not  o n l y a g a i n s t h i s p o l i c y , but a g a i n s t h i s person.  39.  F i n l e y , p.177.  The evidence  - 13 i s clear:  Thucydides sought, by c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f words  and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f n a r r a t i v e , to disparage Kleon, and to present him i n the worst p o s s i b l e Inasmuch as an assessment  light.  of Kleon i n the Mytilenean  episode depends upon an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s p e c t i v e speeches, i t may w e l l be asked here whether the speeches bear r e l a t i o n to anything a c t u a l l y s a i d by the r e a l speakers, whether the speeches do r e f l e c t the true p o r t r a i t of the speaker, and what r o l e the Mytilenean debate p l a y s i n Thucydides' work.  Thucydides speaks o f the d i f f i c u l t y he  had i n r e c a l l i n g with s t r i c t accuracy the words a c t u a l l y spoken on the p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n .  He sets down the speeches,  then, "As I thought each speaker would most f i t t i n g l y  speak  about the p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n , keeping as c l o s e as I could 40 to the general sense o f what was a c t u a l l y s a i d . "  r  While  c e r t a i n of the speeches o f the H i s t o r y discourage too simple acceptance of t h i s p r i n c i p l e , I b e l i e v e t h a t the guarantee to p r e s e n t f a aXT)0aic; ^exOevra  i s v a l i d enough to ensure  that the speeches do r e f l e c t the general l i n e o f the speaker's argument, w h i l e , at the same time, the l i b e r t y of rrjcj c;up,7rct0T]cj YVCDp,T]c; allows Thucydides to use the speeches to r e f l e c t and 40.  I f o l l o w Andrewes' t r a n s l a t i o n here, Phoenix.  XVT(1962), p.66.  The t e x t reads: o>cj b'av e&onouv ep-oi enacrroi  7tepi' rcov a i e i 7rapovTcov r a 6eovra yiaWiar*.eiTreTv, eyyuTaTa r^c, ^uuTtaan,? yvawi^  TCDV  CL\TI0COCJ  exopevcp o n  Xex©£VTa>v,.. (1,22,1 ).  - 14 e i t h e r approve o r condemn i d e a s t h a t he b e l i e v e d were i n 41 v o l v e d i n the t e n s i o n of the event.  We may  b e l i e v e , then,  t h a t K l e o n and Diodotos a c t u a l l y d i d p r e s e n t t h e s e speeches, t h a t t h e y d i d argue a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s , and we may  l o o k i n the  speeches f o r a r e f l e c t i o n o f i d e a s t h a t Thucydides thought . , . .. 42. And, from an a n a l y s i s o f were i n v o l v e d a t the time. ' . J  these speeches, as we have seen, i t , i s demonstrable t h a t Thucydides i n t e n d e d to undermine whatever i n t e g r i t y l a y i n K l e o n ' s p o s i t i o n , and to d i s c r e d i t i n every way p o s s i b l e both  41.  This p o s i t i o n I f o l l o w w i t h A. Andrewes, pp.64-67.  Other s c h o l a r s are l e s s convinced to the speeches.  of any g e n e r a l a u t h e n t i c i t y  Jones b e l i e v e s t h a t the speeches are i n  e f f e c t "Thucydides' own  o p i n i o n of empire" (p.67);; F.  E.  Adcock (Thucydides and h i s H i s t o r y fCamb. England, 19633) d i s t r u s t s the speeches and c l a i m s t h a t the h i s t o r i a n wrote as f r e e l y as he wished 42.  As Mme.  (p.30). de R o m i l l y s t a t e s :  "But i f Thucydides made  a p o i n t of b r i n g i n g t h i s unknown opponent [ D i o d o t o s 3 i n t o the f u l l g l a r e of the l i g h t of h i s t o r y , i t was  because he wanted to  use him i n order to condemn c e r t a i n i d e a s and show the v a l i d i t y o f o t h e r s " (p. 160).  Compare a l s o F i n l e y , p..l68.  the demagogue and h i s p o l i c y . The n e x t e p i s o d e i n which K l e o n appears i s t h a t of Sphakteria.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t problem, f o r  here Thucydides i s d e a l i n g w i t h a c t i o n s not words. an a n a l y s i s o f the a f f a i r r e v e a l s t h a t Thucydides 1  represents Kleon:  Once a g a i n unfairly  i  he d i s t o r t s the n a r r a t i v e t o p r e s e n t K l e o n  i n the worst p a s s i b l e  light.  Demosthenes, w h i l e s a i l i n g around the Feloponnese w i t h the A t h e n i a n f l e e t on i t s way t o K e r k y r a , proposed the  forti-  f i c a t i o n o f P y l o s as a f o r t f o r r e b e l Messenians t o occupy.  The  g e n e r a l s o b j e c t e d , but a chance storm came on and bore the s h i p s i n t o the harbour of P y l o s . f o r t i f y the p l a c e .  Demosthenes then p r e s s e d them t o  The A t h e n i a n s , i n s i x days, completed a  w a l l on the s i d e toward the l a n d , and a t such o t h e r p o i n t s as were n e c e s s a r y .  The P e l o p o n n e s i a n s e v e n t u a l l y responded to the  move, p l a c i n g a S p a r t a n h o p l i t e f o r c e on the s m a l l i s l a n d o f S p h a k t e r i a as p a r t of t h e i r o f f e n s i v e strategy..  But the Spar-  t a n s were d e f e a t e d on both l a n d and s e a , and the A t h e n i a n f l e e t c u t o f f and i s o l a t e d from the mainland the S p a r t i a t e s on S p h a k t e r i a , t o the number o f 420 h o p l i t e s , w i t h a t t e n d a n t h e l o t s . S p a r t a n c o n s t e r n a t i o n was g r e a t enough t o c a l l f o r an a r m i s t i c e  43.  Compare the remark o f Woodhead, "A good p o l i c y i s  damned i n h i s ^ T h u c y d i d e s ' J eyes when i t i s i n hands l i k e t h o s e o f CIeon...?"  (p.296).  Mme.  de R o m i l l y w r i t e s , " I t must be  added t h a t t h i s s p i r i t of censure accounts f o r e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t Thucydides says - or does n o t say - about Cleon" (p.192).  - 16 -  at P y l o s and t o sue f o r peace w i t h Athens. The A t h e n i a n s , however, under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f K l e o n , were i n t e n t upon r e a l i z i n g t h e utmost o f t h i s f o r t u n e , and v i r t u a l l y r e j e c t e d t h e peace o f f e r by making c l a i m s f o r the r e t u r n o f N i s a i a , P e g a i , T r o i z e n and A c h a i a , p l a c e s t h a t had n o t been l o s t i n the war, but had been surrendered t o S p a r t a by t h e terms of the peace t r e a t y w i t h S p a r t a i n 446, concluded when Athens was i n a d i f f i c u l t b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n . The  Spartans  asked f o r a committee t o d i s c u s s the p o i n t s , 44  but K l e o n " v i o l e n t l y a s s a i l e d them," t i r e d to Sparta.  upon which t h e y r e -  The p e a c e - o f f e r c o l l a p s e d , t h e a r m i s t i c e  was withdrawn, and war c o n t i n u e d . There i s no doubt t h a t Thucydides a g a i n wishes t o condemn K l e o n .  The h i s t o r i a n d e p l o r e d t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e  p e a c e - o f f e r , and he blamed K l e o n as l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 45  it. The whole episode i s c o l o u r e d w i t h h o s t i l i t y towards Kleon. There i s a second i n t r o d u c t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n o f the ' demagogue. 46 The repeated e p i t h e t mOavcorarocj reminds t h e  KXecov be evrau0a br\  44.  IV,22,2s  45.  IV,21,3.  46.  Noted by Woodhead, p. 311, and Gomme, I I , p.461.  TTOAUC;  IveneiTo.  - 17 r e a d e r o f the v i o l e n c e o f the a f f a i r o f M y t i l e n e , and t h e f o r c e o f the word i s i n t e n s i f i e d by i t s emphatic Woodhead remarks t h a t  7U © a v o y r a T o c ;  position.  47  i s used o n l y of. K l e o n and  o f Athenagoras, "a man whom he [ T h u c y d i d e s ]  r e g a r d s as o f the  48 same stamp." I t i s , however, i n an a n a l y s i s o f the s i n g l e speech o f V  the e p i s o d e , by the Spartan embassy, t h a t the r e a d e r may see 49 Thucydides  1  judgment o f the event.  The Spartans base t h e i r  appeal f o r peace upon a warning o f two dangers, good f o r t u n e (IV,18,3-5)  and immoderate hopes ( I V , 1 7 , 5 ) .  By the emphasis  o f p r e c i s e l y t h e s e two i d e a s Thucydides h i m s e l f o r g a n i z e s h i s account o f the whole a f f a i r :  the A t h e n i a n s have been  l u c k y and t h e y have not been a b l e t o moderate t h e i r d e s i r e s . Thucydides i s c a r e f u l t o demonstrate how the success o f P y l o s was  e f f e c t e d through chance o c c u r r e n c e s :  bad weather  held  up the f l e e t , c r e a t i n g the o c c a s i o n f o r the s o l d i e r s t o f o r t i f y the p l a c e ( I V , 3 , 1 ) : nara. TUXT)V x P'U ' ^.TCIyev6]i£vo<; EI  47. cw  )V  ; at  IV,21,3: avrip 6Tip,aY^YO<3 waT'exeTvov TOV XPOVOV  r $ n:Xr\Qei  mOavcDTaroc;  48.  Woodhead, p.298.  49.  Mme- de R o m i l l y comments on the f a c t t h a t K l e o n i s  not r e p r e s e n t e d by a speech.  She w r i t e s , "Then, as now, t h e  speaker t o whom no one r e p l i e s i s the spokesman o f wisdom" (p. 173).  -  18  -  the time t h e Spartans were by chance c e l e b r a t i n g a f e s t i v a l (IV,5,1):  01 6e eop-nyv r i v a  eruxov  the chance a r r i v a l o f two Messenian 7tapaY£vop,evot  ; the Lakedaimonians  ships ( I V , 9 , 1 ) :  of  eruxov  had n e g l e c t e d t o b l o c k up  the h a r b o u r s ' mouths ( I V , 1 3 , 4 ) : o u r e , r o u e ; 'ianXovc; e r u x o v 7 t o i i i o a v r e c j  ; t h e r e was  ayovrec;  a bievor)QT]Oav,  cpdp<;ai  . f i n a l l y t h e r e was t h e  chance i n i t i a l success o f the A t h e n i a n s ( I V , 1 4 , 3 ) : r ^ Ttapouofl ruxn  abq erci T t A e T o r o v £7re!;eX6eTv  .  T h i s good  f o r t u n e e x a l t s Athens t o t h e d e s i r e f o r more and more a g a i n . She r e j e c t s t h e Spartan p r o p o s a l s because she i s i n f l a m e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e t o get more ( I V , 2 1 , 2 ) : r o u 6e nXeovoc, c o p e y o v r o • she r e j e c t s them a second  f a t a l flaw ( l V , 4 1 , 4 ) o i :  time because o f t h e same  6e p,ei£ovcDV r e  cupeyovro  ;  f i n a l l y , when Thucydides r e c a l l s t h i s p e r s i s t e n t r e f u s a l o f a p e a c e f u l s e t t l e m e n t l a t e r , he cannot p r e v e n t h i m s e l f from once a g a i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e reasons t h a t brought i t about Hence t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the arguments  (V, 1 4 , 1 . ) . .  put f o r w a r d by t h e Spartans and t h e i d e a s w i t h i n t h e n a r r a t i o n o f events s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t t h e s i n g l e speech a s c r i b e d to t h e Spartans embodies Thucydides' own i d e a s . A g a i n , a s t u d y o f Thucydidean p h r a s e o l o g y r e v e a l s t h e c a r e f u l p r o c e s s i o n o f 'goo>d' words a t t r i b u t e d to the Spartans.: ^up-Pacrt cj, Kara r j c u x i a v , o n aAXriXoucj  f  av  Ttei'Gaxnv  w h i l e the p h r a s e o l o g y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h K l e o n and  Athens under K l e o n ' s sway c a r r i e s t h e 'worst' c o n n o t a t i o n s : r o u 7c\\eovoc; i p e y o v r o ,  7toAuc; e v e u e t r o  .  The Spartans  f i n a l l y withdraw because the A t h e n i a n s r e f u s e t o a c t u-eTpi'oic;  ; however,  Thucydides omits to s t a t e f o r  whom, t h u s b e g u i l i n g t h e r e a d e r i n t o while, i n fact,  cm  sympathy  with  expressing a merely Spartan p o i n t  Sparta, of view.  Indeed, Thucydides n e g l e c t s a l t o g e t h e r to p o i n t out the  strength of Kleon s position. 1  But by c a l l i n g  into  q u e s t i o n the v a l u e o f the Spartan o f f e r , K l e o n m a n i f e s t s shrewd i n s i g h t  t h a t was  The S p a r t a n t h r e a t * HivSuveueiv  later  t o be p r o v e d sound  t h a t t h e y would  enough.  rcapa yv(X)]xr\v 6 i a -  51 and have  e t e r n a l h a t r e d f o r Athens i f 52  she r e f u s e d t h e p r o f f e r e d f r i e n d s h i p came t o n o t h i n g . The p r o m i s e t h a t t h i s c e r e and l a s t i n g  f r i e n d s h i p would be e s p e c i a l l y  i s proved of l i t t l e  f o l l o w i n g t h e p e a c e o f 421. 421 •  i n d i c a t e o f how «  rip-cov yap it  nai  little j »  sin-  w o r t h by t h e e v e n t s  Again, the events f o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e were t h e words * 53 r\ -L • 1  uu-orv r a u r a keyovrwv  ....  Certainly  i s hazardous to a p p r o p r i a t e the consequences o f the  p e a c e o f 421 50.  t o a p e a c e t r e a t y o f 425,  I t i s interesting  H i s t o r y of Greece ITTI y,8Tpi'otq  b u t , when we  t o n o t i c e how  (London, 1 9 0 6 ) , p.311,  J . B.  recall  Bury,  i s wooed by  , "But the r e c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r e a s o n a b l e  p r o p o s a l s met...." 51.  IV,19,4  52.  Compare IV,41,3-4;  53.  IV,20,4  IV,108,7;  IV,117,1;  V,15,22-23.  20  -  the Athenian predicament t h a t f o l l o w e d 421,  when we  recall  the  54 Athenian surrender  of her best bargaining  f a i l u r e - whether or not her own  card  and the  Spartan  f a u l t - to r e c i p r o c a t e , when  we bear i n mind that even Thucydides h i m s e l f confessed the f a i l u r e of the peace-compact i n 421, i t i s u n f a i r to deny that i n the s i m i l a r context  of 425 Kleon showed wisdom and  i n i n s i s t i n g upon a more r i g i d Athenian p o s i t i o n . Kleon's l e a d e r s h i p at the assembly i n 425 statesmanship whatsoever was by the h i s t o r i a n , and Thucydides had  had  competency  And  yet,  that  any i n t e g r i t y or  e n t i r e l y r e j e c t e d or overlooked  i t i s c l e a r from the r e c o r d  o n l y one purpose:  that  to condemn Kleon's whole  position. U l t i m a t e l y , however, the Athenian advantage m i s c a r r i e d . The  blockade soon became as f u l l of hardship  f o r the  besiegers  55 as f o r the besieged. as w e l l as impatient were being v i c t o r y was  The  f l e e t began to grow s i c k i n body  and d i s s a t i s f i e d i n mind.  s e c r e t l y p r o v i s i o n e d and  what had  The  Spartans  seemed a g l o r i o u s  degenerating i n t o a h u m i l i a t i n g predicament.  Winter could w e l l reverse  the whole s i t u a t i o n .  Messengers  coming from the scene warned of the p o s s i b l e outcome, and was  a r e v e r s a l of f e e l i n g at the l o s t o p p o r t u n i t y  p u b l i c o p i n i o n t u r n i n g against Kleon.  f o r peace,  Kleon charged that  r e p o r t s were unfounded, whereupon the envoys advised commissioners be sent to v e r i f y the f a c t , Kleon along 54.  The  r e t u r n of the S p a r t i a t e s  55.  IV,29,2.  (V,24,2).  there  that with  the  - 21 Theagenes b e i n g named. of  K l e o n t h e n , however, changed h i s l i n e  approach and c l a i m e d t h a t the n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n was t o s a i l  at once and t a k e t h e i s l a n d , and i f he were g e n e r a l he would 56 do t h a t .  N i k i a s , under p r e s s u r e o f a t t a c k , r e t a l i a t e d by 57  o f f e r i n g him t h e command.  K l e o n accepted t h e command, and  c l a i m e d t h a t he would w i t h i n twenty days e i t h e r b r i n g t h e Spartans back t o Athens a l i v e o r k i l l them on t h e s p o t .  The  scene i s then concluded w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g words: A t t h i s v a i n t a l k o f h i s t h e r e was a b u r s t o f l a u g h t e r on t h e p a r t o f t h e A t h e n i a n s , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e s e n s i b l e men among them were g l a d , f o r t h e y r e f l e c t e d t h a t t h e y were bound to o b t a i n one o f two good t h i n g s - e i t h e r t h e y would be r i d o f K l e o n , which t h e y p r e f e r r e d , or i f t h e y were d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h i g g he would subdue t h e Lacedaemonians f o r them. The whole n a r r a t i v e i s t u r g i d w i t h comment h o s t i l e t o K l e o n , w i t h t h e h i s t o r i a n i n t e n t upon s e t t i n g K l e o n i n t h e worst p o s s i b l e l i g h t , as a w i l d and r e c k l e s s b o a s t e r .  But  a g a i n evidence may be brought t o q u e s t i o n Thucydides'  judge-  ments, and t o p o i n t t o u n f a i r t r e a t m e n t . I n t h e f i r s t 59 p l a c e , as Woodhead has n o t e d , Thucydides' i n i t i a l a t t a c k 60 on K l e o n i s based p r i m a r i l y on mind-reading. The h i s t o r i a n 56.  IV,27,5.  57.  IV,27-28.  58.  IV,28,5 ( t r a n s . C. F. S m i t h ) .  59.  Woodhead, p.313.  60.  As a l s o i s t h e d e r o g a t o r y account o f K l e o n i n  - 22 w r i t e s , "But K l e o n , knowing t h a t t h e i r s u s p i c i o n s were d i r e c t 61 ed a g a i n s t him..." and " r e a l i z i n g now t h a t he would... be 62 o b l i g e d t o b r i n g the same r e p o r t as the messengers...."  •  With the known evidence o f Thucydides' h o s t i l i t y a g a i n s t K l e o n , o f what v a l u e are these mind-reading o b s e r v a t i o n s ? D i d really exist?  wotyia.  A g a i n , the evidence of l a t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s  t h a t K l e o n would n o t have been " o b l i g e d " s i m p l y to r e p o r t as the messengers d i d , but would have been ready to take a c t i o n i n the predicament. 63 IV,27,4,  l e t , as the n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u e s i n  the h i s t o r i a n succeeds i n c a s t i n g a grim r e f l e c -  t i o n upon the p e r s o n o f Kleon., The more s e r i o u s anomaly i n the n a r r a t i v e , however, i s the h i s t o r i a n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n (IV,28,5) of "the A t h e n i a n people who  are supposed to have enjoyed the e x c e l l e n t j o k e o f p u t t i n g  an incompetent man  a g a i n s t h i s own w i l l a t the head of t h i s  e n t e r p r i s e , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y might amuse themselves w i t h 64 h i s blunders."  But the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l e v i t y o f  such a c t i o n stands i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the examples o f the democracy a t work, and i s i n c o n s o n a n t w i t h the proven i n t e g r i t y 61.  IV,27,3 ( t r a n s . G. F. S m i t h ) .  62.  IV,27,4 ( t r a n s . C. F. S m i t h ) .  63.  f| TccuTa Aeyetv oTcj bie$aK\ev  r{ r a v a v n ' a ei7ta>v  tyeuSric; cpavnceaOai,... 64.  G r o t e , p.254.  Grote i s i n a c c u r a t e h e r e .  The j o k e  c e n t r e d upon K l e o n ' s promise and c o n f i d e n c e o f v i c t o r y .  Never-  t h e l e s s i n t h i s c a u s t i c sentence Grote w e l l b r i n g s to l i g h t the mood o f mocking and v i r u l e n t h o s t i l i t y t h a t Thucydides f e l t v i n c e d was both K l e o n ' s d e s e r t and h i s l o t on t h i s o c c a s i o n .  con-  - 23 o f the A t h e n i a n demos. 65  * Woodhead comments, "The aaxppovec;  may w e l l have been happy to p l a y ducks and drakes w i t h an Athenian f l e e t : stake....  n o t so the  Srjuoc;  whose l i v e s were a t  They demanded and e x a c t e d r e s p o n s i b l e a d m i n i -  s t r a t i o n , and were themselves p r e p a r e d to serve on the same 66 terms."  I f the people had been d i s p o s e d to conduct  their  p u b l i c b u s i n e s s upon such whims and f a n c i e s as are here  im-  p l i e d , t h e y would have made a v e r y d i f f e r e n t f i g u r e from t h a t which t h e i r achievements  present.  The evidence  strongly  suggests t h a t Thucydides has exaggerated the r e p o r t i n o r d e r to make K l e o n c o n t e m p t i b l e , but i n d o i n g so has made the 67 A t h e n i a n people l o o k r i d i c u l o u s . A g a i n the c o n n o t a t i o n of the words used by the h i s t o r i a n succeeds i n i n d i c a t i n g where h i s sympathies l a y . c o n n o t a t i o n s o f a p p r o v a l i n the words YVcup,T),  r e f e r r i n g to men  who  acocppoveq  There are ,  kkrcic,  .  p  a p p a r e n t l y took v a s t p l e a s u r e  i n the p r o s p e c t o f a d i s a s t e r t h a t would c e r t a i n l y have i n v o l v e d many o t h e r s b e s i d e s K l e o n . through such words, as 65.  yeXcxtc,,  Kleon h i m s e l f - i s  KOUCpoXoYia.  ridiculed  Throughout  The work of A. H. M. J o n e s , A t h e n i a n Democracy,  i s i n l a r g e measure an attempt to show the g e n e r a l i n t e g r i t y and s t r e n g t h o f the A t h e n i a n democracy. 66.  Woodhead, p.315; he perhaps  exaggerates.  67.  See G r o t e , pp.255-256, f o r an i m a g i n a t i v e p o r -  t r a y a l o f what might have happened i n the assembly on t h a t day.  - 24 17,27-28 Thucydides draws with r e l i s h on v o c a b u l a r y charged with disparagement and c r i t i c i s m o f Kleon-\, making obvious h i s complete contempt of the o r a t o r . However, i n any comparison o f Kleon with h i s p o l i t i c a l adversaries  i t i s Kleon who i s to be commended, f o r , what-  ever the j u s t n e s s of the r e j e c t i o n of the p e a c e - o f f e r , the d i e had been cast f o r a vigorous  war-po>licy, and the neces-  s i t y f o r the capture o f the i s l a n d .  But i n t h i s  context,  i  Kleon*s p o l i t i c a l a d v e r s a r i e s  emerge as t i m i d and c a r e l e s s  68^ • of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ,  -seeking  o n l y to t u r n the e x i s t i n g d i s -  appointment and dilemma i n t o an o p p o r t u n i t y p a r t y opponent, whatever the c o s t . an easy matter, i f the generals nevertheless,  of r u i n i n g a  The taunt " t h a t i t was 69  were men"  must have stung;  Kleon was i n the r i g h t to c r i t i c i z e the l a c k of  response o f N i k i a s and the other g e n e r a l s .  And the l a t t e r  must r e c e i v e the severest censure i n f o r c i n g a p o l i t i c a l enemy i n t o the supreme command against h i s own p r o t e s t , ready to r i s k the l i v e s of many s o l d i e r s and the d e s t i n i e s of the s t a t e i n order to s a t i s f y themselves i n b r i n g i n g him 68.  P l u t a r c h s t a t e s t h a t on t h i s occasion N i k i a s was  overcome by sheer cowardice and f e a r of f a i l u r e , N i k i a s . ••1  8,1.  is  The biographer a l s o quotes Aristophanes'  sneer i n the  Birds, Heavens, t h i s i s no time f o r us to doze Or d i t h e r about, l i k e our f r i e n d N i c i a s .' (638-639, t r a n s l a t i o n by Ian S c o t t - K i l v e r t [The Penguin Classics, 69.  I960]). IV,27,5.  - 25 i n t o d i s g r a c e and r u i n .  Yet t h e i r s e n t i m e n t s are i m p l i -  c i t l y endorsed by the h i s t o r i a n .  A l t h o u g h Thucydides  i n f o r m s us t h a t the A t h e n i a n s were somewhat i n c l i n e d to mount an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t P y l o s ( I V , 2 7 , 4 ) , and t h a t N i k i a s was to l e a d i t ( I V , 2 8 , 3 ) , the r e a d i n e s s w i t h which the l a t t e r was p r e p a r e d t o r e l i n q u i s h h i s command suggests t h a t , had K l e o n n o t a c c e p t e d the c h a l l e n g e and gone f o r w a r d w i t h Demosthenes, N i k i a s and h i s f r i e n d s c o u l d w e l l have l a i d a s i d e the e n t e r p r i s e and reopened n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r i  peace under c i r c u m s t a n c e s most disadvantageous f o r Athens. But K l e o n , t h r o u g h h i s v i g o u r and courage, saved Athens from d e f a u l t and proceeded to the most i m p o r t a n t success o f Athens throughout t h e whole war.  For t h i s  Thucydides  a t t r i b u t e s t o him not o n l y no c r e d i t whatever, but i n f a c t the most s t i n g i n g  abuse.  K l e o n proceeded t o P y l o s , and t h e v i c t o r y was summated.  Grote w r i t e s , "The  con-  events of S p h a k t e r i a . . .  d i s c r e d i t e d the m i l i t a r y prowess o f S p a r t a i n the eyes o f 70 a l l Greece."  But the judgement of Thucydides i s s t u d i e d  to a s s u r e t h a t the e s t i m a t i o n of K l e o n w i l l n o t r i s e . Woodhead s t a t e s i t s u c c i n c t l y , "Thucydides cannot a v o i d r e p o r t i n g t h a t the UTtooxscn ? ccTceprj t u r n i t sour by adding  but he can and does  HaiVep p,avta)6T)c;  70.  G r o t e , p.263.  71.  Woodhead, p.314.  ."^  - 26 The achievement, however, f a r from b e i n g t h e boast o f a madman, was, a t the l e a s t , the r e s u l t o f a r e a s o n a b l e calculation.  The i n t e r v a l o f twenty days was n o t e x t r a v a -  g a n t l y s m a l l , c o n s i d e r i n g the p r o x i m i t y o f P y l o s , and the a t t a c k on so s m a l l an i s L _ a n d c o u l d n o t occupy more than one o r two days.  K l e o n brought w i t h him f r e s h r e i n f o r c e -  ments, and s e l e c t e d Demosthenes, an e n t e r p r i s i n g and exp e r i e n c e d l e a d e r , as h i s c o l l e a g u e .  The promise  indicated  a r e a s o n a b l e and modest a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the f u t u r e .  And  w h i l e undoubtedly the m i l i t a r y success a g a i n s t S p h a k t e r i a belongs t o Demosthenes, y e t , had K l e o n n o t s t o o d up i n t h e assembly and d e f i e d the gloomy p r e d i c t i o n s of t h e envoys, Demosthenes might never have been r e i n f o r c e d n o r p u t i n a p o s i t i o n to take the i s l a n d . The n e x t episode i n which K l e o n i s i n v o l v e d and t h e r e f o r e t o which we must c a s t our a t t e n t i o n i s t h e A m p h i p o l i t a n engagement. A new t u r n i n the events of the war took p l a c e when Brasidas along with a force c o n s i s t i n g mainly of h o p l i t e s marched n o r t h to the C h a l k i d i c p e n i n s u l a .  T h i s v e n t u r e came  as a response t o the i n v i t a t i o n o f |?erdikkas and the O l y n t h i a n s , who f e a r e d more A t h e n i a n successes i n Thrace. B r a s i d a s , through sheer b r i l l i a n c e o f p e r s o n a l i t y , t a c t , d i p l o m a c y , and e n t e r p r i s e , had managed t o pass through T h e s s a l y , and had o c c u p i e d Akanthos  i n 424.  Akanthos  was  an A n d r i a n c o l o n y , and i t s a c t i o n l e d t o the adhesion o f two o t h e r A n d r i a n c o l o n i e s , S t a g e i r o s (IV,88,2) and A r g i l o s  - 27 (IV,103,4).  A r g i l o s , jealous of Amphipolis, aided Brasidas  i n t a k i n g A m p h i p o l i s , which he d i d b e f o r e Thucydides, was w i t h the f l e e t a t Thasos, c o u l d r e s i s t .  who  Thucydides  managed t o save o n l y E i o n , a t the mouth o f the  Strymon.  B r a s i d a s then roamed the C h a l k i d i k e , and took p o s s e s s i o n o f the d i s t r i c t o f Akte-and o f Torone (424/3).  Later  Skione and Mende r e v o l t e d and i n v i t e d B r a s i d a s t o p r o v i d e supporti  The war had thus moved i n t o the C h a l k i d i c a r e a ,  and i t was t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h a t K l e o n t u r n e d h i s energies. The successes of B r a s i d a s encouraged A r m i s t i c e o f 423.  the s i g n i n g of the  The p e a c e - p a r t y a t Athens was anxious t o  conclude a peace, and S p a r t a was p a r t i c u l a r l y ready a t t h i s time when the f a v o u r a b l e C h a l k i d i c e n t e r p r i s e might g i v e her more b a r g a i n i n g powers than she had had a y e a r p r e v i o u s l y . But the r e v o l t of Skione and Mende r u p t u r e d any p o s s i b i l i t y o f peace, and a t the end o f the y e a r p u b l i c f e e l i n g i n Athens had changed, and the i n f l u e n c e o f K l e o n was  s t r o n g enough t o  support a campaign d i r e c t l y t o t h e C h a l k i d i c p e n i n s u l a . The r e s u l t was t h e , b a t t l e of A m p h i p o l i s i n which both K l e o n and B r a s i d a s were k i l l e d .  The death of B r a s i d a s and the r e -  moval o f o p p o s i t i o n t o N i k i a s l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n o f peace i n 421. A g a i n , w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s n a r r a t i v e ,  Thucydides  d i r e c t s b i t t e r a t t a c k upon K l e o n . The e v i d e n c e , once more,, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the h i s t o r i a n ' s c r i t i c i s m i s u n j u s t .  Upon  the death of the two l e a d e r s , Thucydides concludes the a c -  count t h u s : But when the A t h e n i a n s had met d e f e a t a t A m p h i p o l i s a l s o and b o t h K l e o n and B r a s i d a s had been k i l l e d t h e men who on e i t h e r s i d e had been most opposed t o pejace, the one because o f h i s success and the r e p u t a t i o n he had d e r i v e d from the war, t h e o t h e r because he thought i f q u i e t were r e s t o r e d he would be more m a n i f e s t i n h i s v i l l a i n i e s and l e s s c r e d i t e d i n h i s calumnies - then..... 2  The f i r s t q u e s t i o n Thucydides r a i s e s i s whether, i n f a c t , 73 K l e o n d i d have any r e a l i n t e r e s t i n f o s t e r i n g the war. 74 K l e o n h i m s e l f was not a m i l i t a r y l e a d e r , and both Grote and Gomme 75 r e c a l l Phokion's words76 t h a t remind us t h a t  72.  V , 1 6 , l ( t r a n s l . C. P. S m i t h ) .  73.  Gomme (Comm., I l l , p.660) p o i n t s out t h a t the  m o t i v e s Thucydides a t t r i b u t e s t o K l e o n f o r wanting the war to go on a r e , i n the time o f A r i s t o p h a n e s (Peace,  605-611),  v e r y l i k e those a t t r i b u t e d t o P e r i k l e s f o r s t a r t i n g  it.  74.  G r o t e , p.368.  75.  Gomme, Comm. , I I I , p.,660.  76.  P l u t a r c h , Phok. ,16,2: eya^e HCU raura ei6ejbcj o n  7roXepou yev ovroq ey^ oov, eiptyvric; be yevovevi)^  au epou  apc;eicj.  Compare a l s o Thucydides, VI,33-36, where Athenagoras i s pportrayed as an u l t r a - p a c i f i c demagogue. t h a t would g i v e power t o Hermokrates (VI,38,3).  He f e a r e d a war  and h i s l i k e , :  - 29 war  r a i s e d up l e a d e r s who would most l i k e l y overshadow t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f t h e demagogue.  I t would be i n time o f peace,  when h i s i n f l u e n c e would be more p o w e r f u l and prominent, t h a t t h e demagogue would be l e s s s u b j e c t t o c r i t i c i s m and less vulnerable  to incrimination.  Furthermore, evidence  i n d i c a t e s t h a t K l e o n had n o t been always w a r l i k e .  Plutarch  r e p o r t s t h a t K l e o n commenced h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r as an opponent o f P e r i k l e s , when t h e l a t t e r was u r g i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y 77 and wisdom o f b e g i n n i n g t h e Pelopomesian War. At t h e same time, even i f K l e o n had v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e war, the f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t an e n e r g e t i c w a r l i k e p o l i c y a t t h i s t i m e , when B r a s i d a s  was moving un-  checked through C h a l k i d i k e , was t h e soundest and b e s t p o l i c y f o r Athens t o pursue.  Gomme n o t e s t h a t t h i s was t h e p o l i c y 78 common t o a l l p a r t i e s and persons a t Athens. I n the summer o f 423 N i k i a s and N i k o s t r a t o s had campaigned w i t h 79 success a t Mende and S k i o n e , and N i k i a s l a t e r p r e t e n d e d , at l e a s t , to/have been i n f a v o u r o f a c t i o n a g a i n s t 80 Chalkidike. Judged i n terms o f P e r i k l e s ' e x h o r t a t i o n s ,  77.  P l u t a r c h , P e r i k l e s . 33-35.  78.  Gomme, More E s s a y s , p.113.  79.  17,129-130.  80.  71,10,5.  - 30 K l e o n ' s p o l i c y was ^a" l o g i c a l p l a n o f a c t i o n .  81  Perikles  urged a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e war t h a t t h e A t h e n i a n s were t o s t a n d i n r i g o r o u s defence o f t h e c i t y , and t o keep a f i r m 82 hand upon t h e i r a l l i e s .  I f any blame s h o u l d be l a i d , i t  should f a l l to N i k i a s f o r not i n t e r f e r i n g immediately a f t e r B r a s i d a s f i r s t broke i n t o  Thrace.  Again t h e w a r - p o l i c y o f K l e o n , and h i s sound judgement i n u r g i n g i t , may be defended by an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p e a c e - p o l i c y of N i k i a s at t h i s time.  The p e a c e - p a r t y i n  Athens c a r r i e d t h e v o t e f o r an a r m i s t i c e w i t h S p a r t a i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h S p a r t a would a r r e s t t h e p r o g r e s s of  B r a s i d a s i n Thrace, a l s o w i t h t h e f u r t h e r e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t 83  t h i s a r m i s t i c e would mature i n t o peace..  But K l e o n c o u l d  w e l l have r e a l i z e d t h a t any f a i t h i n Spartan a b i l i t y to cont r o l B r a s i d a s when he was i n t h e f u l l f l o w e r o f success unopposed was p r e c a r i o u s . And t h e i n s t i n c t proved t r u e .  The  o n l y way t o stop B r a s i d a s and expect a r e p o s s e s s i o n o f C h a l k i d i k e was by an e n e r g e t i c e x p e d i t i o n t o t h e scene.  The  w a r - p o l i c y was d i r e c t l y i n a c c o r d w i t h P e r i k l e a n s t r a t e g y and a l s o founded on a j u s t e r e s t i m a t e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n than the p e a c e - p o l i c y o f N i k i a s . 81.  Gomme, More E s s a y s , p.107 w r i t e s , "Kleon then  f o l l o w e d t h e main l i n e s o f s t r a t e g y l a i d down by P e r i k l e s . " F i n l e y * s statement (Thucydides, p . 3 5 ) , "That he [Thucydides^ owed h i s e x i l e t o t h e abandonment o f the l a t t e r ' s d e f e n s i v e s t r a t e g y , " i s h a r d t o understand. 82.  11,13,2. '  8.3.  IV,117,1.  [Perikles']  - 31 But a g a i n t h e r e i s no h i n t i n t h e H i s t o r y o f any a c clamation of Kleon.  He i s condemned as a warmonger, "because  he thought i f q u i e t were r e s t o r e d he would be more m a n i f e s t i n h i s v i l l a i n i e s and l e s s c r e d i t e d i n h i s calumnies." words are h a r s h and u n f a i r t o K l e o n , and Grote  The  pronounces  them " c a r e l e s s i n r e g a r d t o t r u t h and the i n s t r u c t i o n o f 84 h i s readers...." They are one more c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a t r e a t m e n t o f K l e o n t h a t Gomme says suggests " a s t r o n g b i a s , a h a t r e d and contempt f o r K l e o n which has n o t been j U S t i fi C  f i e d by T h u c y d i d e s  1  own n a r r a t i v e . "  However, a p a r t from t h e open c r i t i c i s m o f K l e o n ' s war p i o l i c y , Thucydides f i l l s the n a r r a t i v e o f the episode w i t h d e r o g a t o r y comment toward Kleonycomment t h a t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f a c t s as Thucydides g i v e s them, o r , a t t h e l e a s t , d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n c i l e w i t h them.  K l e o n i s commis-  s i o n e d t o C h a l k i d i k e and l e a v e s i n the l a t e summer o f 422. He succeeds i n r e c a p t u r i n g Torone, a c o n s i d e r a b l e v i c t o r y t h a t Gomme equates i n m e r i t w i t h t h a t o f B r a s i d a s over 86 Amphipolis.  I n the Thucydidean  success i s s i m p l y noted and l e f t .  account, however, t h e K l e o n then s a i l e d  around  from Torone t o A m p h i p o l i s , and e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f a t E i o n , to a w a i t the T h r a c i a n m e r c e n a r i e s .  The n a r r a t i v e then says  84.  G r o t e , V, p.371.  85.  Gomme, More E s s a y s , p. 115.  86.  Gomme, More E s s a y s , p.114.  t h a t K l e o n was  compelled t o move because of the r e s t l e s s 87  ness o f h i s t r o o p s , any l o n g d e l a y .  y e t t h e r e has been no mention o f  Woodhead argues t h a t K l e o n ' s move at  t h a t t i m e , b e f o r e the T h r a c i a n r e i n f o r c e m e n t s were o b t a i n ed, was d e f e n s i b l e r e g a r d l e s s of what the p r e s s u r e was  or  88  was n o t from the t r o o p s .  The t r o o p s then began to d i s -  cuss the q u a l i t y of K l e o n ' s l e a d e r s h i p , becoming apprehens i v e o f the weakness and incompetence o f t h e i r commander 89 as a g a i n s t the s k i l l and v a l o u r opposed t o them.  Yet  t h e r e i s no mention anywhere i n the t e x t t o suggest  either  t h a t the A t h e n i a n s had a p a r t i c u l a r f e a r o f B r a s i d a s o r t h a t K l e o n was h i t h e r t o g u i l t y o f l a c k o f i n t e l l i g e n c e o r cowardice. The A t h e n i a n s had met B r a s i d a s b e f o r e and w i t h s u c c e s s , and the n a r r a t i v e i n f a c t suggests t h a t the hop— l i t e s , r a t h e r than r e l u c t a n t to move, were f u l l o f energy 90 to a c t , and f u l l o f c o n f i d e n c e .  K l e o n , i n the e x p e d i -  t i o n thus f a r , had shown marked v i g o u r and i n i t i a t i v e . Thucydides c o n t i n u e s t h a t "the temper o f the g e n e r a l was what i t had been a t P y l o s , h i s success on t h a t o c c a 91 s i o n h a v i n g g i v e n him c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s capsacity." 87.  V,7,l.  88.  Woodhead, p.307.  89.  V,7,2.  90.  V,7,2.  91.  V,7,3: vtai expncraTo T$ Tpo7rcp cfwep vtai k<;  nuAov euTuxTlcraq eniareuoe  rt  cppoveTv.  TT\V  - 33 But i f K l e o n had been so f i l l e d w i t h a r r o g a n t s i n c e P y l o s , i t i s strange  92  t h a t he had commanded no s i g -  n i f i c a n t e x p e d i t i o n s i n c e then.  More l i k e l y he was r e -  l u c t a n t t o a c c e p t t h e command t o A m p h i p o l i s , been t o S p h a k t e r i a .  confidence  as he had  Thucydides, however, p i c t u r e s K l e o n  as f u l l o f confidence  as soon as he moves, i n s p i t e o f the  e a r l i e r statement t h a t he was c a u t i o u s enough t o send f o r 93 reinforcements  and t o a w a i t them a t E i o n .  of arrogance c o n t i n u e s  The i m p r e s s i o n  as t h e h i s t o r i a n r e p o r t s t h a t "he  had no e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t anybody would come a g a i n s t him f o r b a t t l e . " 94 Yet Woodhead reminds us95 t h a t h e r e , as 96 elsewhere,  Thucydides shows h i m s e l f t o be a remarkable  mind-reader.  What was Thucydides' source o f i n f o r m a t i o n ?  "A few p r i s o n e r s , eager t o blame t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e  on t h e i r  dead g e n e r a l ?  D i s g r u n t l e d h o p l i t e s , c a s t i n g back i n t h e i r 97 memories n i n e t e e n o r more y e a r s l a t e r ? " 92.  See Gomme (Comm., I l l , p.639) f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n  of t h e meaning o f r $ rp6n<^> . Gomme c o n c l u d e s ,  " I am  d o u b t f u l whether Thucydides had made c l e a r t o h i m s e l f what was wrong w i t h K l e o n ' s s t r a t e g y . " 93.  V,6,3.  Compare a l s o V,10,3.  94.  V,7,3.  95.  Woodhead, p.308.  96.  V,7,2.  97.  Woodhead, p.308.  - 34 There are more i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e n a r r a t i v e . Thucydides c l a i m s t h a t K l e o n r e g r e t t e d n o t h a v i n g up s i e g e - e n g i n e s ,  brought  y e t the n a r r a t i v e r e p o r t s i t was n o t  K l e o n ' s i d e a a t a l l t o make the reconnaissance..  The move  was f o r c e d by the r e s t l e s s n e s s o f t h e s o l d i e r s .  Again,  i n V,8,2-3, B r a s i d a s ' p o s i t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d as a d i f f i c u l t one t h a t demands a strategem, whereas i n V,8,4 he i s shown t o have the advantage.  Furthermore, whereas  B r a s i d a s s t a t e s t h a t the r i g h t wing t h a t had exposed i t s 98 flank  99 would n o t s t a n d , i t does i n f a c t s t a n d ,  out comment from Thucydides.  with-  Hence i n the l i g h t o f these  d i s c r e p a n c i e s Gomme a s k s , "Has Thucydides made c l e a r t o h i m s e l f what was wrong i n K l e o n ' s s t r a t e g y ? " ^ 1  And y e t ,  i n s p i t e o f the o b s c u r i t i e s , Thucydides seems q u i t e c l e a r what was i n the minds o f t h e g e n e r a l s . With r e s p e c t to the b a t t l e i t s e l f , the n a r r a t i v e r e v e a l s t h e s u p e r i o r g e n e r a l s h i p o f B r a s i d a s , and K l e o n o u t witted.  What was the n a t u r e  t h i c k o f the b a t t l e ?  of Kleon's behaviour i n the  I t i s obvious t h a t Thucydides a g a i n  i n t e n d s t o condemn him, and have him marked as a coward. He w r i t e s , " K l e o n , i n d e e d ,  99. 100.  as he had n o t i n t e n d e d  V,10,8. Gomme, More E s s a y s , p.116.  from the  -  first and  -  to stand h i s ground, f l e d  slain  by  6i£voe?To  a Myrkinian  p.evetv  a t once and  t a r g e t e e r . "^^^  surely refers  commander.  However,  ground.  But K l e o n ,  gone o f f w i t h t h e l e f t  TCDCLXOV OU  back t o t h e p o l i c y  eu0uc; cp£uytov  anxious  overtaken  ic;  But  of  , his strategy i s c l e a r l y meant t o  comdemn, i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s t r o o p s , who  not  was  06 pou\o]o,£voq p a x t t biaya>viaaaQai  V,10,3,  as  35  t h o u g h he  were s t a n d i n g  was  w i n g , b u t had  to get  their  away,  stayed with  had  the  102  rear,  f o r t h e M y r k i n i o i were a l l w i t h t h e  then,  d i d Kleon  did  he  was  killed  die?  D i d he  w i t h d r a w b e c a u s e he by  a Myrkinian  latter.  s i m p l y d e s e r t and  had  ordered  How,  flee,  or  a withdrawal?  t a r g e t e e r , and,  He  " f o r a l l that  103  we  know, he Kleon  fails.  was  s t r u c k i n the  is killed  chest."  i n the b a t t l e ,  Y e t when i t i s t o l d  t h a t the  and  the e x p e d i t i o n  t r o o p s were t h e  best  104  and  the best-armed h o p l i t e s  their  i n Athens,  s c o r n f u l murmurs a g a i n s t K l e o n  ted  any  error,  d e s p i s i n g him  was  not  s t r o n g , and  reinforcements,  hoplites  were n o t V,10,9  102.  V,8,4.  103. 104.  commit-  prudence i n  i t becomes a p p a r e n t  o n l y u n j u s t toward Kleon (transl.  began  f o r h i s b a c k w a r d n e s s when he  C.  Gomme, More E s s a y s , V,8,2.  b e f o r e he had  o n l y showing r e a s o n a b l e  awaiting  101.  that they  F.  Smith).  p.118.  that  the  b u t were  as  - 36 great a cause of the t o t a l f a i l u r e o f the e x p e d i t i o n as any m i l i t a r y incompetence  o f the commander.  The whole  e x p e d i t i o n undoubtedly was enfeebled from the beginning because  o f the h o s t i l i t y o f the h o p l i t e s .  curacy o f Thucydides  1  As to the ac-  p o r t r a i t o f Kleon a t Amphipolis,  Gomme w r i t e s , "With the evidence o f Thucydides' b i a s bef o r e us, and c o n s i d e r i n g the u n c e r t a i n t y o f any r e p o r t of t h i s k i n d from the middle o f a confused b a t t l e which ended i n a h u m i l i a t i n g d e f e a t , I would not be c e r t a i n t h a t he was,  on t h i s o c c a s i o n , s u f f i c i e n t l y awake to h i s own 105  p r i n c i p l e s of work, 1,22,3." S c h o l a r s have noted the animosity and p r e j u d i c e d i s p l a y e d i n the Amphipolitan episode and accounted f o r them by the b e l i e f t h a t the e x i l e Thucydides  s u f f e r e d through  h i s f a i l u r e to r e l i e v e the c i t y was p r o b a b l y moved by 106 Kleon h i m s e l f . himself gives i t , fault.  But the evidence, even as Thucydides i n d i c a t e s t h a t the h i s t o r i a n was a t  For according to Thucydides h i s appointment i n  the Thracian r e g i o n was to Amphip>olis,  and not e s p e c i a l -  107 l y to Thasos,  f o r he had been sent along as j o i n t  105.  Gomme, Comm.. I l l ,  p.652.  106.  Grote (p.266) d e r i v e s the evidence from  M a r k e l l i n o s , V i t a , 26. Gomme, Comm., I I I , p..661, accepts the p o s s i b i l i t y without c i t i n g any evidence, as does A. Andrewes, Phoenix, p.80, dence. 107.  IV, 104,4; ,V,26,5.  again c i t i n g no e v i -  -  37  -  commander w i t h E u k l e s o f the whole T h r a c i a n d i s t r i c t .  Both  Thucydides and E u k l e s must have known o f B r a s i d a s ' successes a t Akanthos and S t a g e i r o s ; t h e y would have known the s e n t i ments o f A n d r i a n A r g i l o s , a town whose t e r r i t o r y bordered on the Strymon, whose p e o p l e were d i s a f f e c t e d toward Athens. l e t w i t h such foreknowledge, the one l e a v e s the b r i d g e , the 108 o n l y access t o the c i t y , under a f e e b l e guard,  and i s  caught unprepared, the o t h e r i s h a l f a day's t r a v e l o f f a t Thasos, out o f a l l p o s s i b l e a r e a o f danger. "We  Grote w r i t e s ,  may be sure t h a t the absence of Thucydides w i t h h i s f l e e t  a t Thasos was one e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n i n the p l o t l a i d by 109 B r a s i d a s w i t h the A r g i l i a n s . "  Grote c o n t i n u e s , "When  I c o n s i d e r the immense v a l u e o f A m p h i p o l i s t o Athens, comb i n e d w i t h the conduct whereby i t was l o s t , I cannot t h i n k t h a t t h e r e was a s i n g l e A t h e n i a n , o r a s i n g l e Greek,  who  would deem the p e n a l t y o f banishment too s e v e r e .  108.  IV,103,5.  109.  G r o t e , V,p.332.  Thucydides h i m s e l f , ano st  See a l s o the v e r y words o f  IV,105,1-2: 6  TTJc; Sacou TCBV vea>v potfOetav  Bpacu&ac; 6e6ia>c, nai  ...  r[Tce{yexo  TT]V  7rpoHaracrxeTv,  Suvatro, rr\v 7toA.iv, u-ri acptnvoupevou aurou.  110.  G r o t e , V, pp.333-334.  The t r u t h of t h i s statement  i s w e l l e x e m p l i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t a f t e r the death of K l e o n i n 422, and the removal of h i s i n f l u e n c e , t h e r e was no move whatever to r e v e r s e the m i s f o r t u n e o f the h i s t o r i a n .  One  may  wonder how P i n l e y j u s t i f i e s the statement ( T h u c y d i d e s , p . 3 2 ) , "When t h e r e f o r e he  [Thucydides] l o s t A m p h i p o l i s and was p r o m p t l y  e x i l e d , i t seems almost c e r t a i n t h a t he was made a scapegoat f o r Cleon's own l o s s e s a t Delium."  CHAPTER TWO  The Evidence o f Other  Sources  B e f o r e we a n a l y s e and compare w i t h t h i s p o r t r a i t by Thucydides  t h e o n l y o t h e r contemporary s o u r c e , A r i s t o p h a n e s ,  i t w i l l be i n f o r m a t i v e t o s e t f o r t h t h e evidence from o t h e r a n c i e n t sources on K l e o n , namely, Diodoros Sike.los, A r i s t o t l e and P l u t a r c h .  Diodoros i s n o t r a t e d h i g h l y as a c r i t i c a l  h i s t o r i a n , n e v e r t h e l e s s h i s evidence i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n supp l y i n g a l e s s condemnatory account o f K l e o n than t h a t o f Thucydides.  L i k e t h e l a t t e r , Diodoros f i r s t names K l e o n  i n r e l a t i o n to t h e M y t i l e n e a n i n c i d e n t ( X I I , 5 5 , 8 ) , and the judgement upon K l e o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e same l i g h t . d e s c r i b e d as c r u e l o f temper and v i o l e n t .  He i s  The n a r r a t i v e o f  P y l o s i s t r e a t e d o n l y i n summary f a s h i o n ( X I I , 6 3 ) ; t h e p r o p o s a l s o f peace by S p a r t a a r e p r e s e n t e d , but r e j e c t e d by the A t h e n i a n p e o p l e , w i t h o u t a mention o f K l e o n . i s announced (XII,63,3-4)  Then i t  s i m p l y t h a t t h e Spartans s u r -  rendered and t h a t t h e y were l e d p r i s o n e r s to Athens by t h e demagogue K l e o n , now s t r a t e g o s . Next i t i s r e c o r d e d (XII,73,2) t h a t i n 422 t h e A t h e n i a n s a p p o i n t e d K l e o n a g a i n as s t r a t e g o s , and t h a t t h e y e n t r u s t e d t o him t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n t o Thrace. i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Thucydides. laid  The account  The demagogue took Torone,  siege t o E i o n , and made the approach t o A m p h i p o l i s .  - 39 -  j,  However, i n the b a t t l e and death of Kleon, there i s a notable divergence from Thucydides.  Quite c o n t r a r y to  the evidence of the H i s t o r y , Diodoros s t a t e s t h a t the b a t t l e was  fought b r a v e l y by both s i d e s , t h a t f o r some time  the outcome remained u n c e r t a i n and that the opposing l e a d e r s v i e d i n every way  to consummate v i c t o r y by h u r l i n g them-  s e l v e s i n t o b a t t l e with conspicuous energy (XII,74,1-2). With respect to the death of the demagogue, Diodoros, a f t e r having r e p o r t e d that B r a s i d a s f e l l h e r o i c a l l y i n combat, a f f i r m s that Kleon s u f f e r e d l i k e w i s e , and with equal v a l o u r . He has no mention whatever of the f l i g h t of Kleon, but s t a t e s t h a t , a f t e r the death of the two l e a d e r s , the two sides continued i n b a t t l e u n t i l the Spartans p r e v a i l e d . Hence, i n s p i t e of the a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n * t h a t 1  Diodoros has c l e a r l y used, there i s a d i s t i n c t l y more honourable v e r s i o n of Kleon than that of Thucydides. The witness of A r i s t o t l e i s much l e s s f a v o u r a b l e .  In  the Ath. P o l . (28,1), A r i s t o t l e a f f i r m s t h a t at Athens the p u b l i c government d e t e r i o r a t e d g r e a t l y a f t e r the death of P e r i k l e s , with a c l e a r a l l u s i o n to Kleon, of whom there i s g i v e n , f u r t h e r on, a condemnatory d e s c r i p t i o n (28,3); a f t e r the death of P e r i k l e s he l e d to r u i n the people through h i s w i l d leadership); from the beginning of h i s p e r i o d of i n f l u e n c e  1.  I r e f e r to Diodoros' u n c r i t i c a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n of  the main stream of t r a d i t i o n about Kleon t h a t harks back to Thucydides.  - 40 he y e l l e d and h u r l e d i n s u l t s from the Berna; he spoke i n the Assembly with h i s cloak g i r t up about him, while others o  spoke with decarun. bours an a r i s t o c r a t i c  There i s no doubt t h a t A r i s t o t l e harsympathy, and h i s d e p r e c a t i o n of  the demagogue i s t y p i c a l of c r i t i c i s m t h a t i s f a m i l i a r from both Thucydides and Aristophanes. P l u t a r c h i s j u s t as r e a l i s t i c about Kleon's f a u l t s , but i s d i s t i n c t l y more f a v o u r a b l e to him.  The a l l u s i o n s to the  demagogue are concentrated almost e n t i r e l y i n the biography of N i k i a s .  A f t e r n o t i n g the impudence and i n s o l e n c e of  Kleon (2,2), the author informs us t h a t he had achieved a p o s i t i o n of power by "pampering the people and f i n d i n g jobs g for a l l . "  The biographer a l l u d e s to the power of the  demagogue to sway the Athenian masses (3,2); he speaks of Kleon's i n t o l e r a b l e arrogance and a u d a c i t y (8,3), and  states  t h a t i t was he who  "broke down a l l the conventions of de4 cent behaviour i n the Assembly." 2.  M. L. P a l a d i n i , " C o n s i d e r a z i o n i s u l l e P o n t i d e l l a  S t o r i a d i Cleone," H i s t o r i a , VII (1958), p. 53, notes, " I n o l t r e 1'affermazione che Cleone *per primo  1  g r i d o ed  i n s u l t o d a l l a t r i b u n a , s i t r o v a anche presso l o S c o l i a s t a d i Luciano ( S c h o l . L u c i a n . , Tinv30, p.115 3. 4.  See a l s o P l u t a r c h , Mor.,  Rabe).."  807a*  P l u t a r c h has the same r e p o r t as t h a t c i t e d by  P a l a d i n i from the S c h o l i a s t on L u c i a n (see note l ) : he who  f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d shouting and abuse (8,3).  I t was Plutarch  continues that Kleon had the h a b i t of s l a p p i n g h i s t h i g h ,  - 41 The  same c r i t i c i s m had been made by A r i s t o t l e .  I t i s not  p o s s i b l e to say d e f i n i t e l y t h a t A r i s t o t l e l i e s behind P l u t a r c h ' s account, but t h e r e seems to have been a t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d y #established t h a t P l u t a r c h  accepts.  I n c h a p t e r s 7 and 8 P l u t a r c h r e c o r d s the i n c i d e n t s of P y l o s and S p h a k t e r i a .  The  Spartan peace-embassy i s  r e j e c t e d , c h i e f l y because of K l e o n (7,1-2).  But  while  K l e o n ' s v i o l e n c e i n r e j e c t i n g the peace o f f e r s , i n the Thucydidean account, i s r e p r e s e n t e d  m e r e l y as a c o n s i s -  t e n t p a r t of the b e h a v i o u r o f the demagogue, i n P l u t a r c h Kleon's r e f u s a l i s motivated  a t l e a s t p a r t l y by h i s  h a t r e d of and p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n to N i k i a s . ed N i k i a s as h i s n a t u r a l enemy and i t was him c o o p e r a t i n g  "He  because he  so e a g e r l y w i t h the Spartans t h a t he  suaded the A t h e n i a n s to r e f u s e t h e i r o f f e r " ( 7 , 2 ) . t e r 7, 2-6  f o l l o w s Thucydides:  regardsaw perChap-  the i n d i g n a t i o n of the  p e o p l e a g a i n s t K l e o n f o r the d i f f i c u l t y t h a t P y l o s had  be-  come; the charges a g a i n s t N i k i a s , the predicament of K l e o n and h i s s p i r i t e d response.  The  biographer  does not h e s i -  t a t e to r e p o r t the embarrassment o f K l e o n , h i s temper, his vanity, his  throwing  noucpoAOYia  , but i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  open h i s d r e s s and s t r i d i n g up and down the p l a t -  form as he spoke.  He  charges t h a t K l e o n ' s h a b i t s p r o -  duced among the p o l i t i c i a n s an i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a d i s regard f o r p r o p r i e t y that before  long were to throw the a f -  f a i r s of, Athens i n t o chaos ( 8 , 3 ) . p a r a l l e l made by the b i o g r a p h e r K l e o n i n T i b e r i u s Gracchus  2,2.  There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  between Gaius Gracchus and  - 42 of  the whole a f f a i r Kleon i s f a r l e s s maligned  than by Thucydides; " s e n s i b l e men" reu^eoOai  by P l u t a r c h  there are no amused r e f l e c t i o n s  Aoyt^oiievotc; 6uoTv aya@o?v rou  by  erepou  (IV,28,5), but the most censorious remark i s ,  "The Athenians were more i n c l i n e d to laugh than to b e l i e v e . " In  the s t o r y of the a c t u a l campaign at P y l o s (8,1),  again P l u t a r c h ' s v e r s i o n i s the l e s s d i s c r e d i t i n g .  The  ac-  count reads, "However, t h i s time he had good f o r t u n e , served as general most s u c c e s s f u l l y along with Demosthenes, and w i t h i n the time which he had of war, who  s p e c i f i e d brought home as p r i s o n e r s  t h e i r arms surrendered, a l l the Spartans on S p h a c t e r i a  had not f a l l e n i n b a t t l e . "  The f u l f i l m e n t - of the  v i c t o r y i s r e p o r t e d without i r o n y , indeed the emphasis l i e s on the shame of N i k i a s .  F i n a l l y , i n agreement with  Thucydides  ( V , 1 6 , l ) , P l u t a r c h remarks t h a t Kleon and Brasidas were, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the two war  most opposed to the peace, and t h a t the  concealed the e v i l p r a c t i c e s of Kleon and gave him  the  7 o p p o r t u n i t y to p e r p e t r a t e great i n j u s t i c e s .  As to h i s  death, the biographer mentions simply t h a t both persons were k i l l e d i n the b a t t l e of Amphipolis  5  »  ~  N i k i a s . 7,4:  j*  p,aAAov r\  (9,3), a r e p o r t t h a t  roTcj 6'A0T]vaioic; e7ttiA.ee yeAacrai  ~  Tttarevdai.  6.  Nikias,, 8,1,  7.  Nikias,  9,3.  T r a n s i t by B. P e r r i n .  y,sxa  - 43 seems t o approach t h e noncommittal v e r s i o n o f D i o d o r o s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the o m i s s i o n o f K l e o n ' s f l i g h t d u r i n g t h e battle. The tone o f the r e l e v a n t passage o f P l u t a r c h ' s M o r a l i a i s condemnatory.  P l u t a r c h r e p o r t s an o c c a s i o n  when t h e Assembly was suspended by K l e o n ' s i n s o l e n c e and 8 fickleness.  K l e o n i s mentioned as an example o f t h e  f o l l y and vehemence by which a p e r s o n may, by h i m s e l f , subdue t h e c i t y (Mor., 805c-d).  K l e o n i s urged t o p u t  a s i d e h i s l o n g i n g f o r w e a l t h , t h e mania f o r c r e a t i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s , h i s s p i r i t o f envy and wickedness, f o r he was h o s t i l e toward the. honest, b u t ready t o pander t o t h e mult i t u d e f o r f a v o u r , and a l l i e d w i t h t h e worst a g a i n s t t h e b e s t (Mor., 806f-807a).  K l e o n i s a t t a c k e d because, i n  b e i n g a v i d f o r g l o r y and power, he wishes t o be g e n e r a l , yet  he i s n o t e l i g i b l e  812e).  e i t h e r i n nature or t r a i n i n g  (Mor.  t  K l e o n and h i s f o l l o w e r s are l i k e drone, bees w i t h  s t i n g s (Mor., 818c).^  8.  Mor.,799d.  The same i n c i d e n t i s r e p o r t e d i n  N i k i a s , 7,7, and P a l a d i n i n o t e s t h a t t h e S c h o l i a s t on L u c i a n (Tim., 30) a t t r i b u t e s t o Theopompos a s i m i l a r  anec-  d o t e , "esposto i n maniera s i m i l i s s i m a a P l u t a r c o " ( p . 5 5 ) . Theopompos, averse t o t h e A t h e n i a n democracy, may have supp l i e d P l u t a r c h w i t h much o f h i s m a t e r i a l . 9.  As i n P l a t o , R e p u b l i c  t  552c-d.  - 44 Hence the p o r t r a i t of K l e o n s u f f e r s i n emphasis acc o r d i n g t o the a n t i - d e m o i c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n .  Nevertheless,  i t i s c l e a r t h a t P l u t a r c h has a l s o looked to o t h e r  sources  f o r h i s c o m p i l a t i o n s , and i t may be seen t h a t the t r a d i t i o n formed by Thucydides and darkened by  Aristophanes  and the comics has elements here and t h e r e , i n which the condemnation o f K l e o n , i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e n e d .  It is  our t a s k now t o t u r n to t h e o t h e r major source,  Aristophanes.  CHAPTER THREE  Aristophanes  1  P o r t r a i t o f K l e o n , and t h e Comic T r a d i t i o n *  The f a c t t h a t A r i s t o p h a n e s ' p o r t r a i t o f K l e o n i s g e n e r a l l y consonant w i t h t h a t o f Thucydides i s enough f o r Gomme, who w r i t e s , "When the p i c t u r e s drawn, i n dependently, by two men, both c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , o f such v e r y d i f f e r e n t temper and i n t e r e s t s as Thucydides and A r i s t o p h a n e s , agree o r complement each o t h e r , t h e r e i s e v e r y reason t o suppose t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t the t r u t h . "  1  On the o t h e r hand Grote c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y o f the evidence o f e i t h e r when he w r i t e s , " I t i s through t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n [ r e f e r r i n g t o the p o r t r a i t o f K l e o n i n the K n i g h t s o f A r i s t o p h a n e s ] t h a t K l e o n has been t r a n s m i t t e d t o p o s t e r i t y , c r u c i f i e d by a p o e t who admits hims e l f t o have a p e r s o n a l grudge a g a i n s t him, j u s t as he has been commemorated i n the. p r o s e o f an h i s t o r i a n whose 2 banishment he had proposed." The t a s k o f t h i s c h a p t e r 1.  A. W. Gomme, "Thucydides and K l e o n : the Second  B a t t l e o f A m p h i p o l i s , " H e l l e n i k a . X I I I (1954), p . l . 2.  G r o t e , V, p.392.  See p.36; note 106.  Aside  from the f a c t t h a t s c h o l a r s appear t o b e l i e v e t h a t K l e o n may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h i s t o r i a n ' s e x i l e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s the v a l i d i t y o f the evidence a v a i l a b l e .  - 46 w i l l be to examine the A r i s t o p h a n i c p o r t r a i t of Kleon, and to explore the questions why  and with what v a l i d i t y  Aristophanes p o r t r a y e d Kleon as he d i d . The f i r s t p l a y the poet gave to the p u b l i c was  per-  Q  formed i n the beginning of the year 427. 4 The Banqueters. i t was  I t was  The fragments remaining  called  indicate that  a s a t i r e on the i n t r i g u e and s l o t h of the youths of  the day.  This i s the f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of a theme t h a t  runs r i g h t through Aristophanes, the censure of the ing  c h a r a c t e r of the Athenian youth..  man"  I t was  the "bad young  from whom the p l a y drew i t s v i g o u r and who  centre of the a c t i o n .  was  "But," he s a i d , "he  t h i n g s t h a t I wanted him l e a r n e d how  to l e a r n .  tradi-  learned none of those  Instead of doing so, he  to d r i n k , to sing i n t o p s y - t u r v y manner, to love  nothing but Syracusan  cookery,  the p l e a s u r e s of the S y b a r i t e s  and bumpers of Chian wine from Laconian 3.  the  His f a t h e r had a p p r e n t i c e d him to  l e a r n e d masters with the i n t e n t of a d i s c i p l i n e d and t i o n a l education.  degenerat-  cups."  B. B. Rogers, The Comedies o f " A r i s t o p h a n e s , I n t r o -  d u c t i o n to Acharnians, I(London, 1910), p»v. 4.  The p l a y i s a l l u d e d to i n the Clouds. 528-532.  L i n e 529, 6 acocppoov re x<^ xaTa7ruYcov a p i a r ' fiHOuaaT^v , r e f e r s to c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y . 5.  Theodorus Kock, Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta  ( L i p z i g , 1880), I , p.446, f r . 216. M.  C r o i s e t , Aristophanes  p.33.  T r a n s l a t i o n quoted from  and the P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s at Athens,  - 47 His  son had a l s o become i n i t i a t e d i n r h e t o r i c and i n sharp  p r a c t i c e , and from t h e r e became a sycophant and p u b l i c den u n c i a t o r , who had grown r i c h on t h r e a t s and calumny.  He  had a c q u i r e d a l l t h e v i c e s o f t h a t p r o f e s s i o n , and boasted of  b e i n g gambler, d r u n k a r d , debauchee, t r e a t i n g h i s own  father with cynical insolence.  From these fragments may  be seen t h e young p o e t ' s f i r s t a t t a c k a g a i n s t the p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s , t h a t i s , those persons who were b e g i n n i n g t o t r a n s f o r m p o l i t i c s i n t o a l u c r a t i v e t r a d e i n Athens, and who were, i n t h e poet's eyes, h a s t e n i n g a moral deg e n e r a t i o n through t h e i r p e r v e r s e n e s s .  A r i s t o p h a n e s saw 7  i t as a r e a l s e r v i c e t o the democracy t o c h a s t i s e them. p  The Banqueters was f o l l o w e d , i n 426, performed a t t h e c i t y f e s t i v a l o f Dionysos.  by t h e B a b y l o n i a n s , I t was a p o l i -  t i c a l s a t i r e o f a much b i t t e r e r , much b o l d e r and f a r more p e r s o n a l k i n d than t h e f i r s t p l a y .  I t was w r i t t e n under the  shadow o f t h e M y t i l e n e a n a f f a i r , a f t e r punishment had been debated b e f o r e t h e p o p u l a r assembly f o r t h e second t i m e , and the s e v e r i t y o f K l e o n ' s p r o p o s a l had been r e v e r s e d by a 6.  Kock, f r . 198-225.  7.  A c h a r n i ans 641-642.  8.  Rogers, I , A c h a r n i a n s , p.57.  T  See ^ i n e s 378-382.  - 48 slender m a j o r i t y .  There may w e l l have been i n Athens a t  the time f e e l i n g s among some s e c t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e t h a t exc e s s i v e burdens had been l a i d upon many o f t h e a l l i e s . .  And  t h e r e must have been some t r u t h i n t h e c l a i m t h a t i t was the p o l i t i c i a n s o f t h e day who made these burdens h e a v i e r through t h e i r s e v e r i t y .  The p o l i t i c i a n s were charged w i t h  e x a c t i n g monies and c r u s h i n g those who r e f u s e d to buy them off.  Much o f t h i s k i n d o f t a l k would be f a l s e , b u t some  t r u e , and such t r u t h as t h e r e was i n i t s u f f i c e d t o make p e o p l e who were r e s t l e s s and d i s c o n t e n t e d out q u e s t i o n .  accept i t w i t h -  And so i t came about t h a t t h e e n t i r e r e -  s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t h a t was a t t r i b u t a b l e t o them i n p a r t , b u t i n p a r t o n l y , was p l a c e d upon t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e p e o p l e , and e s p e c i a l l y , by t h e p l a y w r i g h t , upon Kleon..  Hence t h e p o e t A r i s t o p h a n e s  selected Kleon to  become t h e t a r g e t and -butt o f a t t a c k i n t h e p l a y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y d e t a i l e d knowledge about t h e B a b y l o n i a n s i s meagre.  The f i r s t p i e c e o f evidence i s t h a t g i v e n by  the poet h i m s e l f . Aristophanes  I n the parabasis of the Acharnians,  b o a s t s o f t h e s e r v i c e he has rendered t h e  p e o p l e i n h i s e a r l i e r comedy.  He says t h a t he t a u g h t them 9  to d i s t r u s t t h e h o l l o w f l a t t e r y o f t h e o r a t o r s ,  and he  c l a i m s he has done g r e a t s e r v i c e to the c i t y by f o r c i n g t h e  9.  A c h a r n i a n s , 634.  - 49 p e o p l e t o see the o p p r e s s i o n t o which t h e y were s u b j e c t ing  the a l l i e s under the g u i s e o f democracy. ^ 1  Aristo-  phanes b o a s t s i n h i s r o l e o f c r i t i c of A t h e n i a n t y r a n n y o v e r the a l l i e s .  The S c h o l i a s t on A c h a r n i a n s , 378,  notes  t h a t i n the B a b y l o n i a n s A r i s t o p h a n e s "made f u n o f the m a g i s t r a t e s , o f those chosen by l o t as w e l l as those were e l e c t e d , and o f Cleon a l s o . " the a t t a c k was  c e r t a i n l y Kleon.  who  The main v i c t i m i n  1 1  The i n f l u e n c e of the  demagogue a t t h i s time p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d the y o u t h f u l p o e t , who  saw K l e o n as the man  who  was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  a l l the e v i l s from which A t h e n i a n democracy appeared to be s u f f e r i n g .  To the p o e t , K l e o n became the p e r s o n i f i c a -  t i o n of these e v i l s , and he was to f e e l c o n v i n c e d t h a t , by o v e r t h r o w i n g the one, he would get r i d of the o t h e r . Because of h i s open a t t a c k on the A t h e n i a n p o l i c y and the A t h e n i a n p e o p l e , the poet was  charged by K l e o n 12  w i t h s c o f f i n g at h i s c o u n t r y and i n s u l t i n g the p e o p l e . I t was no.doubt a t the door o f K l e o n t h a t the poet  had  l a i d a l l the h o r r o r s of the. p o l i c y he condemned; however, i n p r i n c i p l e , t h i s p o l i c y had been approved by the people 10.  Acharnians.  11.  S c h o l . A c h a r n i a n s , l i n e 378.  Croiset, Aristophanes, 12.  642.  p>41.  A c h a r n i a n s . 630-631.  Transl.  from  - 50 themselves, and t h e y must have been o f f e n d e d .  The p l a y  d i d not win a p r i z e , and r e a c t i o n must have been s t r o n g enough f o r K l e o n t o be c o n v i n c e d he c o u l d get h i s aggressor punished. The n a t u r e of the a t t a c k i s i n d i s p u t e .  The o n l y e v i -  dence i s what A r i s t o p h a n e s g i v e s i n the A c h a r n i a n s ; Aye and I know what I m y s e l f endured At Cleon's hands f o r l a s t y e a r ' s Comedy, How t o the C o u n c i l - h o u s e he h a l e d me o f f , And s l a n g e d , and l i e d , and s l a n d e r e d , and betongued Roaring Cycloborus-wisj^ t i l l I w e l l nigh Was done to d e a t h , ... F u r t h e r on, D i k a i o p o l i s  me,  adds:  Nor now can Cleon s l a n d e r me because, With s t r a n g e r s p r e s e n t , I defame the S t a t e . 'Tis the Lenaea, and we're a l l ^ a l o n e ; No s t r a n g e r s y e t have come;.... The evidence o f the a n c i e n t commentators does not g i v e any more i n f o r m a t i o n , except t h a t the s c h o l i a s t on A c h a r n i a n s  t  377, adds t h a t K l e o n brought a s u i t impugning the genuine-  13.  The p l a y was performed at the Great D i o n y s i a , a t  the time when the a l l i e s brought t h e i r annual t r i b u t e to Athens.  They would not f a i l to a t t e n d  the season ( A c h a r n i a n s , 643-644).  the c e l e b r a t i o n s o f  Hence here was a p l a y ,  c r i t i c i z i n g the o p p r e s s i o n p r a c t i s e d by Athens, enacted i n the v e r y presence of the p e o p l e who,  i t was b o l d l y c l a i m e d ,  were b e i n g oppressed. 14.  L i n e s 377-382, t r a n s . B.B.Rogers, A r i s t o p h a n e s  (London and Camb. Mass., 1940). 15.  502-504, t r a n s . B. B.  Rogers.  ness o f t h e p o e t ' s c i t i z e n s h i p .  T h i s second s u i t , however,  i s n o t l i k e l y contemporaneous w i t h t h e f i r s t , and p r o b a b l y 16 o c c u r r e d a f t e r the appearance o f t h e K n i g h t s .  Aristophanes  was s e r i o u s l y alarmed a t t h e a c c u s a t i o n , but a c q u i t t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t i c e t h a t i n t h e year f o l l o w i n g , 425, A r i s t o p h a n e s , a s i d e from a few s a t i r i c a l a l l u s i o n s , a t t a c k e d n e i t h e r K l e o n p e r s o n a l l y , n o r t h e demagogues as a c l a s s . At t h e Lenaean f e s t i v a l o f t h a t y e a r he brought out t h e A c h a r n i ans. an ardent d e c l a r a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f peace..  There  are o n l y a few a l l u s i o n s t o K l e o n ' s m i s f o r t u n e s and v i c e s . There i s p r o b a b l y a r e f e r e n c e t o him i n t h e warning n o t t o t r u s t those who b e t r a y by f l a t t e r y , c a j o l e r y , a d u l a t i o n and 17 lies.  There i s a l s o no doubt an a l l u s i o n t o K l e o n and h i s  f o l l o w e r s when i t i s s a i d o f t h e o l d t h a t t h e y a r e mocked by s t r i p l i n g o r a t o r s , who p r o s e c u t e them i n t h e t r i b u n a l w i t h t h e i r " p e r t f o r e n s i c s k i l l , g r a p p l i n g us w i t h w r i t s and 18 w a r r a n t s , h o l d i n g up our age t o s c o r n . " e v i d e n t l y i n c l u d e d among t h e  av6pe<;  rrovripot  Men l i k e K l e o n a r e those who  16.  See p>.58 below.  17.  A c h a r n i a n s , 635.  18.  A c h a r n i a n s , 680-682, t r a n s . B. B. Rogers.  19.  A c h a r n i a n s , 699.  - 52 p>rosecute t h e b e n e f a c t o r s of t h e c o u n t r y . At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y , D i k a i o p o l i s d e c l a r e s his  j o y o f t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r when, thanks t o t h e k n i g h t s , 20  K l e o n was compelled t o "vomit" up f i v e t a l e n t s .  The  explanation of t h i s reference i s probably that i n that year K l e o n had proposed  a reduction of contributions f o r  some o f t h e a l l i e s , a p r o p o s a l r e j e c t e d by t h e k n i g h t s . The i l l - w i s h e r s o f K l e o n c l a i m e d he had r e c e i v e d money to make t h e p r o p o s a l , and g l o r i e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t he had 21 to r e t u r n i t .  A f u r t h e r t a u n t a t K l e o n by D i k a i o p o l i s  ( A c h a r n i a n s , 659-664) suggests t h a t , whatever t h e e a r l i e r charge had been, A r i s t o p h a n e s now f e l t s u f f i c i e n t l y a s sured o f h i s p o s i t i o n t o renew h i s a t t a c k on h i s a d v e r s a r y . I n t h e A c h a r n i a n s , however, i t i s n o t K l e o n who i s p r i m a r i l y under a t t a c k , but t h e i n s t i g a t o r o f t h e war, P e r i k l e s .  Ac-  c o r d i n g t o t h e p o e t , P e r i k l e s had .begun t h e war because 22 "the M e g a r i a n s . . . s t o l e . . . . two o f A s p a s i a ' s h u s s i e s . " A r i s t o p h a n e s p r o b a b l y cared nought about t h e t r u t h o r f a l s i t y o f t h e rumour. However, he was always ready t o 20. A c h a r n i a n s , 6-7. 21.  T h i s i s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C r o i s e t , pp.52-53,  whom I f o l l o w .  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S c h o l i a s t on l i n e 6,  Theopompos r e p o r t s an a c t u a l s u i t brought by t h e k n i g h t s against Kleon.  B. B. Rogers a c c e p t s t h e l i n e s as t r u e , The  Comedies o f A r i s t o p h a n e s (London, 1910), I , p>3. 22.  A c h a r n i a n s . 523-537.  T r a n s l . by B. B. Rogers.  -  53  -  c a p i t a l i z e on g o s s i p and, by h i s a t t a c k , he his  expressed  c o n v i c t i o n s t h a t the war had begun because of p e t t y  i n c i d e n t s t h a t a competent statesman s h o u l d have been above,;; The p o e t renews h i s war upon the demagogical p a r t y and i t s l e a d e r s w i t h f r e s h v i o l e n c e i n the K n i g h t s , formed at the Lenaean f e s t i v a l of the y e a r 424, t a c k was  a l r e a d y forming  per-  The  at-  i n the mind of the poet as  he  has the chorus of the A c h a r n i a n s say: No debate.' Thee we hate Worse than Cleon's s e l f , whose s k i n I ' l l erelonggo Cut to shoes For the worthy K n i g h t s to use. I t i s i n the p a r a b a s i s o f the Wasp s, however, performed two y e a r s a f t e r the K n i g h t s , t h a t A r i s t o p h a n e s  records  the b a t t l e t h a t he s e t h i m s e l f to wage a g a i n s t K l e o n i n the K n i g h t s .  He was  to be a second H e r a k l e s  i n t e n t on  r i d d i n g the l a n d of the monsters and p r o d i g i e s t h a t were infesting i t . was  The  f i r s t l a b o u r of t h i s A t t i c  Herakles  to a t t a c k the a l l - p o w e r f u l demagogue K l e o n .  came i n the mood of a H e r a c l e s 24 w i t h the m i g h t i e s t f o e s . " The K n i g h t s was  f o r t h to g r a p p l e a t once  w r i t t e n a t the time when the demagogue's  success a t S p h a k t e r i a had celebrity.  "He  l i f t e d him i n t o p u b l i c a c c l a i m  It,was e x h i b i t e d at the f i r s t D i o n y s i a  23.  Acharnians,  24.  See Wasp;s, 1029-1037.  since  300-301, Rogers' t r a n s l a t i o n .  and  - 54 K l e o n ' s triumphant r e t u r n w i t h the Spartan c a p t i v e s .  He  was no doubt p r e s e n t a t t h e performance. K l e o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d as a man whose power l i e s  solely  i n a n t i c i p a t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g a l l t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e 25 multitude.  As soon as another p o l i t i c i a n o f t h e same  stamp dares t o a p p l y the same system o f government w i t h s t i l l g r e a t e r impudence and v u l g a r i t y , t h a t p o l i t i c i a n i s bound t o oust K l e o n .  P o l i t i c a l men o f whom K l e o n i s t h e  consummate type have n o t h i n g i n common w i t h the honest and the educated, but are r e c r u i t e d from t h e wretches o f f t h e 26 s t r e e t , t h e i g n o r a n t and l i c e n t i o u s .  A g o r a k r i t o s , who  i s l i t t l e more than a savage c a r i c a t u r e o f K l e o n , c a l l e d upon t o speak, s o l i c i t s Ye Gods o f k n a v e r y , S k i t a l s , and Phenaces, And ye B e r e s c e t h s , C o b a l s , Mothon, and Thou Agora, whence my y o u t h f u l t r a i n i n g came, Now g i v e me boldnessgftiid a ready tongue And shameless v o i c e .' The S a u s a g e - S e l l e r summons t o h i s a i d a l l t h e powers o f Impudence and T r i c k e r y , t h e powers o f F r i v o l i t y ,  Folly,  C h e a t i n g , and Drunken Wantonness. The demagogue i s a t t a c k e d , a g a i n , because o f h i s raucous, b r a w l i n g v o i c e . 25.  Thucydides  He i s g i v e n the name  2' Paphlagon,.  has r e p r e s e n t e d K l e o n s i m i l a r l y , as one  whose r o l e i t i s t o encourage the p e o p l e to f o l l o w i t s own impulse ( I V , 2 1 , 3 ) .  Thucydides  uses t h e same v e r b  ev.TiYe.of  A l k i b i a d e s (VI,15,2). 26.  K n i g h t s . 180-181; 185-187; 191-193.  27.  K n i g h t s . 634-638, Rogers.  2 8  •  7Tacp\a£a>  :  t o s p l u t t e r , f r e t , fume, c h a f e .  H i s v o i c e i s l i k e n e d t o t h e r o a r of the K y k l o b o r o s .  29  He i s s k i l l e d i n c u r r y i n g f a v o u r l i k e a dog t h a t fawns 30 on h i s master.  He i s s k i l l e d i n d u l l i n g t h e minds o f  the p e o p l e , b e f o r e he p l i e s h i s t r a d e o f b r i b e r y and ex31 tortion.  He i s s k i l l e d i n o r a t o r y based on f r a u d u l e n t 32  deception. A r i s t o p h a n e s a l s o a t t a c k s the v i o l e n c e and t h e c r u e l t y o f t h e demagogue, always ready t o b r i n g f a l s e charges, t o e x t o r t , t o b l a c k m a i l , t o b u l l y , t o i n d i c t an opponent as 33 a traitor.  E v e r y base q u a l i t y i s a t t r i b u t e d t o him: i n -  t r i g u e r (74-75); c h e a t e r (803, 8 0 9 ) ; t h i e f (137, 205, 10821083); r a c k e t e e r (248-249); 1147,  robber (296, 370, 444, 1127,  1252); p e r j u r e r (298); v i l l a i n and abomination  (304);  s l a n d e r e r ( 6 , 45, 6 4 ) ; d i s t u r b e r o f a l l the p u b l i c l i f e (303-308);  c o n t r i v e r o f p l o t s and f r a u d s (315-318); im-  pudent (324-325, 389-399); wicked and shameless c h a r l a t a n (331-332);  coward (390); i n f o r m e r (437); o b s t i n a t e war-  monger (792-6); b o a s t e r (903); d e c e i v i n g hound-fox " s t e a l t h i l y snapping, t h e c r a f t y , the s w i f t , t h e t r i c k y marauder" (1067-1068). The poet c o n s t a n t l y a t t a c k s the greed o f K l e o n . brought t h e h a r v e s t o f P y l o s back t o Athens (393-394),  He has a  29.  K n i g h t s . 137.  30.  K n i g h t s . 48.  31.  K n i g h t s . 61-63.  32.  K n i g h t s , 210; 343; 351-2; 385; 395-396.  33.  K n i g h t s , 67-68; 278-279; 284; 290; 294; 300.,  - 56 h a r v e s t t h a t he  i n t e n d s to use  demagogue i s a l s o , c h a r g e d with both  the  Mytilene.  f o r h i s own  with  profit.  corruption i n  s u r r e n d e r o f P o t i d a e a and  According to the poet Kleon  The  connection  the surrender received ten  of  talents  34 from  Potidaea.  He  Mytilene.^ Aristophanes of Athenian  a l l e g e d l y r e c e i v e d another  also  r u l e over  charges  that Kleon  a l l Hellas,  bribe  from  champions a p o l i c y  a p o l i c y t h a t would  be  36 e s p e c i a l l y repugnant to the poet's Panhellenism. Sausage-Seller r e t o r t s that Kleon's f o r Athenian  benefit  but  not  be  the p e o p l e , 37 aware o f h i s f r a u d s .  34.  K n i g h t s . 438: ere 6'ex  noTi&cuaq exovr' eu  .  from  R o g e r s , The  other source.  ( n o t e on K n i g h t s . 4 3 8 ) ,  T h e r e i s no  suggests  i n g a d e n u n c i a t i o n , m a d e by K l e o n according  to t h e A t h e n i a n s ,  the i n h a b i t a n t s . 35.  T h e r e had  evidence  Comedies o f  t h a t the poet  will  ot6a  of t h i s  affair  Aristophanes i s merely  echo-  a g a i n s t t h e g e n e r a l s who  come to t e r m s too been a c h a r g e  leniently  had, with  of b r i b e r y .  P a l a d i n i demonstrates t h a t there i s confusion  about t h e whole t r a d i t i o n on L u c i a n  not  s n a t c h more money  d i s t r a c t e d by t h e war,  oexa ToAavra any  p o l i c y i s geared  t h a t K l e o n may  f o r himself, while  The  (Tim.,  what A r i s t o p h a n e s  30)  (p.59).  accuses  charges  he  Apparently  the  Kleon of r e c e i v i n g r e c e i v e d from  Scholiast  from  Mytilene  Potidaea.  36.  K n i g h t s , 797-798: i'vet y' 'EAAiyvcov ap^fl 7ravTa)v.  37.  K n i g h t s , 801-803.  Compare T h u c y d i d e s ,  V,16,l.  - 57 The poet i n d i c a t e s t h a t K l e o n was c e r t a i n l y n o t isolated p o l i t i c a l l y . has enemies: (1051).  KoAbioi  He has f r i e n d s (850-854); he a l s o (1020),  KcjovoiTrec;  (1038),  KOpSvai  A c c o r d i n g t o A r i s t o p h a n e s , K l e o n made use o f t h e  u n c e r t a i n t y and h e i g h t e n e d apprehension of t h e t i m e s by c o n t i n u a l l y r e s o r t i n g t o t h e use o f o r a c l e s t o support h i s s t a t e m e n t s , and more e a s i l y h o l d h i s i n f l u e n c e : And he chants o r a c l e s , t i l l t h e dazed o l d man Goes Sibyl-mad; t h e n * when he sees him mooning, He p l i e s h i s t r a d e . K l e o n i s charged w i t h b r i n g i n g t h e c i t y t o r u i n because of the " o r a c l e - c h a n t s which you h a t c h " ( 8 1 7 ) .  Through-  out t h e p l a y t h e r e are a l s o r e f e r e n c e s t o how much K l e o n fawns upon and c u r r i e s f a v o u r w i t h t h e judges  (50-51,  255, 8 0 0 ) , as w e l l as numerous h i n t s r e g a r d i n g h i s mania f o r law s u i t s (746, 750, 979, 1256). From t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y t o i t s end t h e poet s u s t a i n s a b i t t e r , r u t h l e s s a t t a c k upon t h e demagogue. Even t h e most h e a r t y s u p p o r t e r s o f A r i s t o p h a n e s ' condemn a t i o n o f t h e demagogue agree t h a t t h e p o r t r a i t i s o n l y a 39 caricature, __  ,  while C r o i s e t states t h a t the poet's Kleon  •  38. suspense  Thucydides r e p o r t s t h a t t h e war brought and abnormal e x c i t e m e n t (11,8,1-2).  itoXXa, p-ev Xoria  eXeyero,  noXXa, 6e  anxious  He s a y s , n a i  XP^C^O^OYOI  f|5ov .....  39.  Thus B. B. Rogers, The Comedies o f A r i s t o p h a n e s ,  I, p.xxxvi.  A. ¥. Gomme, More E s s a y s , w r i t e s , " A c t u a l l y  there i s l e s s character-drawing a l t o g e t h e r i n the Knights than i n any o t h e r p l a y , ,and no c h a r a c t e r i s s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y t r e a t e d " (p>85).  - 58 is  " a monstrous composite  of v i c e and impudence, a s o r t  of  m y t h o l o g i c a l monster.  He i s e m p h a t i c a l l y not a human  being, and f o r t h i s v e r y reason he cannot r e a l l y be the 40 p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f a c l a s s o f r e a l men." What was Kleon's response to t h i s d e r i s i o n ? Wasp s,  performed  The  two years a f t e r the K n i g h t s , i n 422,  may g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n .  The chorus  says:  Some there are who s a i d t h a t I was r e c o n c i l e d i n amity, When upon me Cleon p r e s s e d , and made me smart with i n j u r y , C u r r y i n g and tanning me: then as the s t r i p e s f e l l h e a v i l y Th o u t s i d e r s laughed to see the s p o r t , and hear me squalling l u s t i l y , Caring not a whit f o r me, but o n l y l o o k i n g m e r r i l y , To know i f squeezed and pressed I chanced to drop some small buffoonery. Seeing t h i s , I p l a y e d the ap« a l i t t l e b i t undoubtedly. So then, a f t e r a l l , t h e ^ i n e - p o l e proved u n f a i t h f u l to the Vine. 1  W. J . M. S t a r k i e b e l i e v e s there i s a r e f e r e n c e here to the charge of ^evi'a  t h a t the S c h o l i a s t on Ach.,378, probably  i n c o r r e c t l y , a l l e g e s was brought by Kleon a g a i n s t A r i s t o 42 phanes a f t e r the Babylonians.  S t a r k i e notes, " I t i s j u s t  p o s s i b l e t h a t i t [the charge o f ^evi'a  Jwas brought  after  the E q u i t e s , on the ground t h a t Aristophanes was an Aeginetan." 40.  C r o i s e t , p. 83.  41.  Wasp>s. 1284-1291, Rogers.  42.  W. J . M. S t a r k i e , The Wasps o f Aristophanes  (London and New York, 1897), p>379..  For K l e o n ' s attack on  the poet a f t e r the Babylonians see pp. 49-51 above. 43.  Ibid.  43  - 59 Hence Kleon was  f a r from crushed by the savage a t t a c k , and  promptly brought the poet to h i s knees f o r h i s abuse. However, Kleon's charge, i f i t was  indeed l a i d , must  have f a i l e d , f o r i n 422 the poet's a t t a c k s on the demagogue are renewed i n the Wasp s.  The theme of the p l a y i s the mania  f o r law s u i t s f o s t e r e d by the demagogues. upon K l e o n .  The corrupted j u d i c i a l  The attack focuses  system at Athens i s  i n c a r n a t e d i n P h i l o k l e o n , the e c c e n t r i c o l d man. i s the wise son who  wishes to reform him.  Bdelykleon  The demagogue i s  a t t a c k e d as the great promoter of l a w s u i t s , of jurymen, of pay f o r them.  and  P h i l o k l e o n appeals to him f o r help (197);  the jurymen give to the demagogue t h e i r patronage, even  though  he i s an i r a s c i b l e accuser (242-243); he i s the great bawler and brawler who  b i t e s a l l but the judges, who  state:  at us, and us o n l y , to n i b b l e forbears, And sweeps o f f the f l i e s t h a t annoy us, and s t i l l a v i g i l a n t hand f o r our d i g n i t y cares.^4  with  He defends and p r o t e c t s the d i k a s t s , and sweeps away any op>pon'ents. Kleon, as  KUCDV  Ku6a©T]vat euq  , attends to the burlesque  l a w s u i t a g a i n s t the dog Labes, the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the 45 s t r a t e g o s Laches.  Kleon i s demonstrated to be f u l l of  44.  Wasps. 596-597, Rogers.  45.  Wasps. 895-1000.  Kleon was  of the deme Kydathenaion. .f  and was kyoj  •'! •  c a l l e d or c a l l e d h i m s e l f "watch-dog f o r the Demos,"  p,sv eip/ 6  HUCDV,  rtpo  cou yap  anvcxt  (Knights,  1023).  -  60  -  greed (914), and a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d t h i e f (928).  The psoet  r e c a l l s h i s encounter w i t h K l e o n ( i n t h e K n i g h t s ) ; In the very f r o n t of h i s bold career w i t h the j a g - t o o t h e d Monster he c l o s e d i n f i g h t , Though o u t o f i t s f i e r c e eyes f l a s h e d and flamed the g l a r e o f Cynna's d e t e s t a b l e l i g h t , And a hundred h o r r i b l e sycophants' tongues ^ were t w i n i n g and f l i c k e r i n g over i t s head. K l e o n surpasses  a l l o t h e r s as a r a c k e t e e r and robber  (1227);  he crushes opponents by h i s v o c i f e r a t i o n s , and i s q u i c k t o t h r e a t e n e x t e r m i n a t i o n , r u i n and e x i l e (1228-1230); he i s greedy to have supreme power, and t o throw t h e c i t y i n t o a t u r m o i l (1234-1235); he i s a f o x y d e c e i v e r and h o s t i l e t o the good (1240-1241).  He h o l d s f o r t h i n t h e assembly " I n 47  tone and accents l i k e a scaMed p i g . "  He i s h a b i t u a l l y  c o r r u p t i n g the a l l i e s with thundering  t h r e a t s (669-671);  he belongs t o the c a t e g o r y o f " b i g t a l k e r s " (  CTop,cpa£ovTctc;  , 721). I n substance t h e a t t a c k s i n the Wasps a g a i n s t  Kleon  s i m p l y repeat the p r o c e s s i o n o f steady abuse and r e v i l i n g a l r e a d y f o r m u l a t e d i n the K n i g h t s , w h i l e d o u b t l e s s t h e p o e t avenges h i m s e l f f o r the unknown maltreatment and t h r e a t s t h a t K l e o n d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t him f o l l o w i n g t h e Knights. C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y p l a c e d between t h e K n i g h t s and t h e Wasps i s the Clouds, w r i t t e n a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e year 424, 46.  Wasps. 1031-1033, Rogers.  47.  Wasps, 36 : exouca  cpcovriv  Ep.7re7tpriu.evf]<; toe,.  - 61 and g i v i n g evidence o f t h e p o e t ' s i n t e n t i o n t e m p o r a r i l y to h o l d a l o o f from p o l i t i c s ;  i n the p l a y there i s l i t t l e  mention o f t h e war o r o f t h e statesmen o f t h e day.  How-  ever, t h e p o e t cannot a b s t a i n from a t t a c k i n g K l e o n upon 48 his  e l e c t i o n as s t r a t e g o s .  and he appeals t o t h e p e o p l e  to g e t r i d o f t h i s " r o b b e r " as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e , by p u t t i n g h i s neck i n t h e p i l l o r y .  When t h e t a n n e r o f  l e a t h e r , Paphlagon, t h e enemy o f t h e gods, was e l e c t e d , there occurred  an e c l i p s e o f the moon and an e c l i p s e o f 48 the sun, as t h e p r o t e s t o f nature.. The  theme o f t h e Clouds, however, i s n o t p o l i t i c a l  s a t i r e , but t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n A t h e n i a n  character  wrought by t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h y and rhetoric.  Through p h i l o s o p h y  young p e o p l e s t u d i e d a  thousand u s e l e s s t h i n g s , i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g p a r t i n a c t i v e life.  Through i t t h e y l e a r n e d t o doubt t r a d i t i o n s and  question morality.  And t h e p e r s o n who bore t h e brunt  of a t t a c k , as t h e p r i n c i p a l type o f s o p h i s t , was S d k r a t e s , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as u n f a i r and as i n a c c u r a t e as t h e p o e t ' s a d o p t i o n o f K l e o n t o bear t h e a t t a c k on t h e whole c l a s s 49 o f demagogues. 48.  Clouds. 581-594, Rogers..  49.  W. W. M e r r y , A r i s t o p h a n e s ;  The Clouds  (Oxford,  1879), w r i t e s , "And i n t h e 'Clouds' t h e r e l a t i o n o f S o c r a t e s to t h e S o p h i s t s i s w i l f u l l y o r i g n o r a n t l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d ; so t h a t t h e p i c t u r e o f him as t h e i r 'fugleman* i s , consequently,  notoriously unfair" (p.vii).  - 62 I n t h e v e r y year i n which A r i s t o p h a n e s had produced the Wasps, i n t h e summer o f 422, K l e o n f e l l under t h e w a l l s of A m p h i p o l i s i n Thrace.  H i s death a s s u r e d t h e emergence  o f t h e p e a c e - p a r t y o f which N i k i a s was then t h e l e a d e r . I n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r peace was concluded. and produced treaty.  A r i s t o p h a n e s wrote  t h e Peace d u r i n g t h e days j u s t p r e c e d i n g t h e  The i n e x p r e s s i b l e d e l i g h t o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n  o f A t t i c a resounds throughout t h e p l a y .  There i s a r e t r o -  s p e c t i v e judgement upon K l e o n and upon t h e p o l i c y o f t h e demagogues.  Abuse c e n t r e s upon K l e o n i m m e d i a t e l y i n t h e  opening scenes. 48).  He i s t h e "dung-eating" b e e t l e ( crnaTocpctYOc; ,  He i s t h e distu>rber o f H e l l a s , t h e p e s t l e o f t h e 50  Athenians.  Now t h a t he has gone ( 2 7 2 ) , a l o n g w i t h the  S p a r t a n p e s t l e (281-282), t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o h i n d e r t h e coming o f peace: Now, men o f H e l l a s , now t h e hour has come To throw away our t r o u b l e s and o u r wars, And, ere another p e s t l e r i s e t o stop u s , To p u l l o u t Peace, t h e j o y o f a l l mankind. But K l e o n i s ready t o b l o c k t h e way o f Peace w i t h h i s f u s 52 s i n g and h i s f u r y .  He i s among t h e " p u b l i c speakers" who  have " p i t c h f o r k e d " out t h e Goddess w i t h t h e i r y e l l s and c r i e s , who have vexed and h a r a s s e d t h e a l l i e s , as w e l l as accused them o f b e i n g p a r t i s a n s o f B r a s i d a s ( 6 3 5 - 6 4 l ) . 5 0  »  Peace. 269-270, an echo o f K n i g h t s , 9 8 4 , where  Kleon i s c a l l e d  6oT5ui;  and  ropuvT) .  51.  Peace, 292-295, Rogers.  52.  Peace, 313-315.  Paphlagon,  Aristophanes r e c a l l s the t i t l e  see K n i g h t s , 919 and 1030,  - 63 And the f e l l o w most to blame f o r the s l a n d e r i n g s t h a t were d e s t r o y i n g the c i t y and f o r the prevalence o f b r i b e r y was "a tanner" (644-650).  The poet's a t t a c k on the demagogue  culminates with the f o l l o w i n g : Knave and slave while y e t amongst us, Wrangler, j a n g l e r , f a l s e accuser* T r o u b l e r , muddler, a l l - c o n f u s e r . • The Peace f o r c e f u l l y r e f l e c t s some of the l o f t y moral sentiments t h a t had made Aristophanes hate the war.  He  had considered i t as a n t i - H e l l e n i c , as having been begun and prolonged f o r the s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s o f a few men.  To  h i s mind Kleon was the p e s t l e , "The tanner f e l l o w that d i s 54 turbed a l l H e l l a s . "  And so the r e s t o r a t i o n o f peace  becomes a v e r i t a b l e f e s t i v a l of H e l l e n i c brotherhood and deserves to be c e l e b r a t e d i n hymns of j o y (291).  The war  had a l t e r e d the c h a r a c t e r of Athens; when i t took the r u r a l democracy from the farms, i t gave them v i c i o u s and s e r v i l e 55 h a b i t s , and "the f e l l o w most to blame was a tanner."  To  the poet, Kleon was the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f i g u r e of the corr u p t e r s of the Athenian s p i r i t , and Kleon h i m s e l f the a r c h corrupter.  The poet b e l i e v e d t h a t , thanks to the peace and  53.  Peace, 652-655, Rogers.  54.  Peace, 269-270.  55.  Peace, 647.  Rogers'  transl.  See l i n e s 631-647 f o r the poet's ac-  count of the degenerating i n f l u e n c e on the r u r a l f o l k  caused  by the o r a t o r s , through whom " d i s t r a c t e d H e l l a s came unobserved to wrack and r u i n . "  -  64 -  t o K l e o n ' s death, t h e A t h e n i a n s p i r i t would be r e s t o r e d t o i t s former v i g o u r . A f t e r k l e o n ' s death, and t h e peace o f N i k i a s , some y e a r s passei b e f o r e t h e next e x t a n t p l a y by t h e p o e t , t h e B i—r d— s ,\ was produced. <  —  I t was e x h i b i t e d i n 415.  The p l a y  i s a c r i t i c i s m o f t h e moral c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c i t y , and o f i t s p r o p e n s i t y to s u s p i c i o n s and t o l i t i g a t i o n .  There i s  no d i r e c t mention o f o r a l l u s i o n t o K l e o n i n t h e p l a y . The next and f i n a l p l a y i n which t h e r e i s any r e f e r e n c e to K l e o n i s t h e F r o g s , w r i t t e n under t h e shadow o f t h e condemnation o f t h e e i g h t g e n e r a l s a f t e r A r g i n o u s a i (406) and e x h i b i t e d a t t h e Lenaean f e s t i v a l , J a n u a r y , 405. I t s s a t i r e a g a i n aimed a t t h e moral c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c i t y , and the persons o f t h e demagogues. a l l u s i o n s to Kleon.  There a r e two contemptuous  The scene i s l a i d i n Hades w h i t h e r  the god Dionysos goes, i n t h e a t t i r e o f H e r a k l e s , a l o n g w i t h h i s s l a v e X a n t h i a s , f o r t h e purpose o f b r i n g i n g t o e a r t h the deceased poet E u r i p i d e s .  X a n t h i a s i s r e p r e s e n t e d as  a c t i n g w i t h v i o l e n c e and i n s u l t towards two h o s t e s s e s o f e a t i n g - h o u s e s , consuming t h e i r substance, r o b b i n g them, r e f u s i n g t o pay when c a l l e d upon, and even t h r e a t e n i n g t h e i r l i v e s w i t h a drawn sword.  The women, h a v i n g no o t h e r  r e d r e s s l e f t , announce t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n o f c a l l i n g , t h e one upon h e r p r o t e c t o r K l e o n , t h e o t h e r on H y p e r b o l o s , f o r t h e purpose o f b r i n g i n g t h e o f f e n d e r t o j u s t i c e b e f o r e t h e dikastery.  K l e o n i s c o n f i d e n t l y expected t o t w i s t and  wring out (  SKTrnvtstreet  ) the f a c t s (577-578) and b r i n g  an a c c u s a t i o n . The above, then, i s the p o r t r a i t of Kleon according to the poet Aristophanes.  As has been s t a t e d b e f o r e , i t  i s not the purpose of t h i s study to c o n t r a d i c t those charges t h a t , i n essence, l i e at the base of Aristophanes* comic a t t a c k , namely, Kleon's b i t t e r and u n r e f i n e d and t u r b u l e n t manners, h i s v i o l e n t u t t e r a n c e and behaviour.  He was  unorthodox  o b v i o u s l y one whose prominence and 56  i d i o s y n c r a s i e s were ready m a t e r i a l f o r comic w i t . What t h i s study seeks i s to r e s t o r e Kleon's s t a t u s as a political  l e a d e r , as a statesman, a man  of g r e a t e r com-  petence, energy, i n t e g r i t y , i n s i g h t and wisdom than h i s contemporary  sources admit.  The examination of the por-  t r a i t by Thucydides has sought to i n d i c a t e that the evidence of the h i s t o r i a n i s u n f a i r l y condemnatory. What now  i s the v a l i d i t y of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Kleon  by Aristophanes, a source t h a t r e a d i l y admits noXXa * 57 XavQavst , a source that r e l i e s on comic  y'r\]iS.q  exaggeration and d i s t o r t i o n f o r i t s e f f e c t s , on u n r e a l and i m p o s s i b l e events, " t y p i c a l " persons and V i c t o r Ehrenberg i s emphatic  56.  topics.  when he w r i t e s , "One  As P l u t a r c h p o i n t s out, N i k i a s , 7.  essential  Kleon had  a l r e a d y become a comic f i g u r e before Aristophanes began to w r i t e . 57.  Peace,  618.  -  -66  p o i n t , f r e q u e n t l y overlooked, i s t h a t the s i t u a t i o n on the stage, which i s n a t u r a l l y p a r t of the p l o t , must not be used as evidence f o r h i s t o r i c a l  facts."  58  C e r t a i n l y Aristophanes was p r i n c i p a l l y bent on e n t e r tainment.  Did the poet have a f u r t h e r purpose  t h i s , a more s e r i o u s purpose, advocate f o r peace?  besides  as reformer and censor, and  The poet's counsels, i f counsels' they  were, went unheeded.  He attacked a l l the popular l e a d e r s  of the day - Kleon, Hyperbolos, Peisander, Kleophon, but he drove no one from power.  Kleon, when the poet's abuse  became indecent, promptly brought the poet to h i s knees. I f the poet's goal was  to reform he  failed.  At the same time i t i s wrong to regard Aristophanes simply as a j e s t e r .  He wrote comedy, but h i s comedy was  always meant to be r e g e n e r a t i v e .  C r o i s e t notes,  "$he  instrument by which the poet probed the popular d i s c o n t e n t was  t h a t most e f f e c t i v e of a l l means when s k i l f u l l y used -  59 a laugh."  The poet used the laugh to s t i m u l a t e c r i t i c i s m  and arouse d i s c o n t e n t at what he saw as e v i l s . while not simply a j e s t e r , Aristophanes' was  Nevertheless,  w r i t i n g comedy,  and not c r i t i c a l essays, and even the poet's most ardent 58.  V. Ehrenberg,  The People of Aristophanes  (Oxford,  1951), p.39. 59.  C r o i s e t , p.xv.  a r t i s t has views of h i s own, be more than clownery."  Ehrenberg w r i t e s , "A g r e a t and the p i c t u r e he p a i n t s w i l l  (p.9).  modern supporters and adherents of his judgements of Kleon admit the e s s e n t i a l d i s t o r t i o n i n e v i t a b l e i n comic e f fects.  6 0  There were i n v e n t i o n , exaggeration.  60.  capricious  a l s o , i n the background,  Cf. B. B. Rogers,  description cature."  There was  d i s t o r t i o n , and  reality  The Comedies. I,p.xxxvi, "The  of Cleon i n the Knights i s avowedly a mere c a r i -  M. L. P a l a d i n i  (p.65) c a l l s the poet's treatment  of Kleon "a t h e a t r i c a l cartoon" ( " l a sua commedia e una caricatura teatrale").  C r o i s e t warns of the deceptive  q u a l i t y of the poet's humour, and speaks of the mistaken of the f u n c t i o n monitory.  of Greek comedy as c h i e f l y c e n s o r i a l  idea  and  Hence "these p l a y s have been regarded as a t r u s t -  worthy source of i n f o r m a t i o n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  the f a c t s of  Greek h i s t o r y ,  So serious  biography, and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  an  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a form of l i t e r a t u r e of which the primary i n t e n t i o n must always be entertainment and amusement i n e v i t a b l y obscured the poet's e l u s i v e humor" (p>.xiv). t h i s mistaken d i s p o s i t i o n , C r o i s e t a statement of f a c t , a c a r i c a t u r e document."  And because  of  continues, "A j e s t became a portrait, a satire a  A. TV. Gomme, More Essays, who  accepts the  A r i s t o p h a n i c p o r t r a i t of Kleon as b a s i c a l l y v a l i d , warns that Aristophanes was p r i m a r i l y p l a y s must be t r e a t e d  a comic d r a m a t i s t , and that h i s  as drama, not h i s t o r y ( e s p e c i a l l y p.87).  to  p r o v i d e the c o n t r a s t with the u n r e a l f a n t a s y of the  play.  Tragedy had a f a m i l i a r s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n i t s w e l l -  known themes.  Comedy needed an analdgous  That s t a r t i n g p o i n t was tical"  starting point.  the p u l s a t i n g r e a l i t y of the  l i f e of the Athenian c i t i z e n .  "poli-  There was no other  source that sprang so d i r e c t l y from r e a l i t y as comedy. i s important to see the l i m i t s of t h i s r e a l i t y .  It  The c o n d i -  t i o n s of Athenian l i f e were d e s c r i b e d i n comedy i n two ways, now  with i n t e n t i o n a l d i s t o r t i o n i n deteriorem, now  as a r e f l e c t i o n of r e a l i t y .  simply  Ehrenberg warns of the  of  determining i n comedy where r e a l i t y ends and  or  f a n t a s y begins.  problem  caricature  61 Furthermore,  while there i s r e a l i t y  i n the a c t i o n and p l o t of the comic drama there i s a l s o  con-  6^2 s i d e r a b l e l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l i t y to p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  Indeed  stage p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n the comic drama, merge i n t o "types."' And i n the wake of acceptance of these "types" as s t r i c t  and  accurate c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s there have s u f f e r e d Kleon, as the Paphlagonian  i n the K n i g h t s , Sokrates i n the Clouds,  E u r i p i d e s i n the  and  Thesmophoriazousai.  Apart from the poet's c o n v e n t i o n a l s t o c k - i n - t r a d e of d i s t o r t i o n and f a n t a s y , h i s mind was  61.  E s p e c i a l l y p.39.  62.  I t i s Ehrenberg who  c o n t i n u a l l y f e d by  argues t h i s p o s i t i o n ,  and  N, whose o p i n i o n s I accept and f o l l o w , pp.39-41. 63.  "They have much l e s s i n d i v i d u a l i t y than the  m y t h i c a l men  and women of tragedy..." (Ehrenberg, p . 4 0 ) .  - 69 g o s s i p , t h e g o s s i p o>f t h e s t r e e t s , t h e g o s s i p o f t h e 64 city's political  clubs*  I t was t h e p e r s o n a l s l a n d e r s  h u r l e d back and f o r t h t h a t s u p p l i e d ammunition f o r t h e poet.  A r i s t o p h a n e s ' v i e w s , a g a i n , were f a s h i o n e d by  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o l i g a r c h s , n o t so much by the o l i g a r c h i c t h e o r i s t s as by t h e y o u t h f u l company o f t h e a r i s t o c r a c y . They r e p e a t e d t h e t a l k o f t h e t h e o r i s t s w i t h t h e v i v a c i o u s ness and exaggerated  f a n c i e s o f youth.  They d e l i g h t e d i n  a l l t h e s c a n d a l and r i d i c u l e t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e raw m a t e r i a l out o f which was formed much o f t h e i n s u l t and abuse h u r l ed a t K l e o n . There a r e , however, o>ther f a c t o r s t h a t would have i n c r e a s e d A r i s t o p h a n e s ' d e s i r e and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o d i s t o r t the p i c t u r e o f K l e o n .  He was h o s t i l e t o t h e demagogme f o r  p e r s o n a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l reasons.  He had q u a r r e l l e d  with Kleon a f t e r the e x h i b i t i o n of the Babylonians. i t y was i n t e n s i f i e d a f t e r t h e Knights..  Hostil-  Prom t h e evidence o f  the p l a y s t h e r e must have been a p e r s i s t e n t u n d e r c u r r e n t o f personal h o s t i l i t y  and a n i m o s i t y .  I n t h e second p l a c e t h e r e was t h e poet's n a t u r a l p r e 65 d i l e c t i o n f o r t h e c o u n t r y and t h e r u r a l l i f e . 64.  Although  See A. W. Gomme, More E s s a y s , foor a h i n t a t  Aristophanes' t a l e n t f o r converting the gossip o f the s t r e e t s i n t o m a t e r i a l f o r drama (p.87). 65.  A. W. Gomme, More E s s a y s , r e j e c t s t h e v i e w  t h a t A r i s t o p h a n e s wrote f o r t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n  (pp.70-91);  he would n o t , I t h i n k , deny t h e p o e t ' s genuine l o v e f o r t h e country.  - 70 he belonged to the c i t y deme o f Eydathenaion, Aristophanes had l i v e d i n the country, and i t i s c l e a r from h i s p l a y s that he knew and l o v e d the r u r a l l i f e . formed  He i s w e l l i n -  about the ways o f the farmer; he knows the names o f  t r e e s , o f p l a n t s , o f the b i r d s , and of t o o l s .  He knows the  season when the grapes s w e l l and t u r n golden.  He speaks  with a l o y e and l i v e l y a p p r e c i a t i o n o f nature.  To A r i s t o -  phanes, Kleon must have appeared tout au c o n t r a i r e .  The  demagogue was v e r y p>robably brought up i n the P e i r a e u s ' 66 throngs,  and c e r t a i n l y was a s t r a n g e r to the l i g h t graces  of A t t i c c u l t u r e .  H i s clamours, h i s v i o l e n t g e s t u r e s , the  i n s u l t s he heaped upon h i s opponents - a l l these t r a i t s combined to make him one upon whom Aristophanes c o u l d make p e r s i s t e n t warfare as the v e r y a n t i t h e s i s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e o f the r u r a l democracy o f Athens. T h i s democratic s e c t i o n o f the people was v u l n e r a b l e to ambitious men who knew how to g a i n the g o o d w i l l o f the •masses.  And Athens, i n the Peloponnesian War, had become  a t h e a t r e o f a c t i o n e x c e p t i o n a l l y s u i t e d to p o l i t i c i a n s . I t was one o f these young men, Kleon, whom Aristophanes found as a t a r g e t f o r i n c e s s a n t war.  Kleon was seen by  the poet as the root o f the moral c r i s i s which was g r i p p i n g the Athenian c h a r a c t e r .  The p o l i c y o f the demagogues,  a c c o r d i n g to the poet, had changed the Athenian Gone was the f r e e and expansive nature, the gay,  66.  K n i g h t s . 1324 .  spirit. vivacious,  - 71 merry-making s p i r i t of Athens, gone were the " o l d days" of A r i s t e i d e s and M i l t i a d e s , and the cause of t h i s  was  "a t a n n e r . " ^ 6  Aristophanes also saw Kleon as the embodiment of the t h r u s t of the P e i r a e u s toward expansion and a z e a l t h a t was  conquest,  e n t i r e l y f o r e i g n to the people of the  and i t s t r a d i t i o n s .  soil  The poet's pan^Hellenism would f i g h t  tooth and n a i l a g a i n s t the a l l e g e d KItlonian p o l i c y of Athenian r u l e over the r e s t of H e l l a s .  "My  aim,"  says the  Paphlagonian to Demos i n the K n i g h t s , " i s to make you r u l e 68 over a l l the Greeks." that the.Greeks  To the poet i t was u n f o r g i v a b l e  should engage i n i n t e r n e c i n e war,  the Athenian people should a l l o w t h e i r k i n d l y ,  or t h a t  amiable,  and s p r i g h t l y natures to be s p o i l e d by s e l f i s h demagogues. These p e r s o n a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l a n i m o s i t i e s could not h e l p but d r i v e the poet to a more b i t t e r and more i n t e n s i v e h o s t i l i t y a g a i n s t the demagogue. F u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s g i v e us pause i n e v a l u a t i n g the A r i s t o p h a n i c p o r t r a i t of Kleon.  There i s the poet's  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Sokrates i n the Clouds. at p a i n s to demonstrate  how  W.  ¥. Merry i s  s i g n a l l y inaccurate i s A r i s t o -  phanes i n terms of the c h a r a c t e r of Sokrates known from 69 other sources.  There i s r e a l i t y i n the bare f e e t  67.  Peace, 647:  68.  Knights, 797:  69.  Merry, p . v i i .  raxJxa tva  and  b'r\v 6 6p25v $\)poort<x>XT}c,. r'  'EAAiyvaov apc;n  See p.61  above, note  TTCXVTCDV.  49.  -  the argumentative tortion.  72  -  s u b t l e t y , but the r e s t i s fancy and  With such an analogy, according to Grote,  dis"We  are not warranted i n t r e a t i n g the p o r t r a i t of Kleon as a l i k e n e s s , except on p o i n t s where there i s c o r r o b o r a t i v e evidence." Grote has a l s o p o i n t e d out that the d i f f e r e n t ments accumulated  indict-  by Aristophanes are not easy to r e c o n c i l e 71  one with another. who  S u r e l y i t i s t r u e to say t h a t , f o r one  c a r r i e s on p e c u l a t i o n f o r h i s own p r o f i t , i t would be  an unwise p o l i c y to become conspicuous as a r u t h l e s s agg r e s s o r a g a i n s t such a c t i o n s i n o t h e r s .  I f Kleon were i n -  c l i n e d to brigandage h i m s e l f , he would not be l i k e l y to make h i m s e l f prominent  as a s l a n d e r e r of the innocent.  I t may  also be claimed t h a t the q u a l i t i e s of v i o l e n t temper, f i e r c e political  a n t i p a t h i e s , coarse i n v e c t i v e , are nothing but  the q u a l i t i e s t h a t i d e n t i f y every type of e n e r g e t i c o p p o s i tion.  J u s t as the e l d e r Cato was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by P l u t a r c h  as "the u n i v e r s a l b i t e r , whom Persephone was 72 to admit i n t o Hades a f t e r h i s death," ' represented f o r p o s t e r i t y as a man  a f r a i d even  so Kleon has been  of n a t i v e acrimony of  temper, a powerful t a l e n t f o r i n v e c t i v e .  But what propor-  t i o n of cases were j u s t or calumnious, there i s no means of d e c i d i n g .  "To l a s h the wicked i s not o n l y no blame,  70.  Grote, V, p.393.  71.  I b i d . , p.  72.  P l u t a r c h , Cato, 1.3,  394. quoted from Grote, p.  395.  - 73 but i s even a matter of honour to the good," observes 73 Aristophanes,  but Kleon has seldom been allowed the  b e n e f i t of the o b s e r v a t i o n . A f u r t h e r p o i n t to bear i n mind i n e v a l u a t i n g A r i s tophanes  1  p o r t r a i t of Kleon i s t h a t , before the demagogue  became p r e y to the former's w i t , he had a l r e a d y become, because  of h i s p o l i t i c a l prominence and  p a r t of a comic t r a d i t i o n .  idiosyncrasies,  Hermippos, e l d e r  contemporary  of A r i s t o p h a n e s , and a b i t t e r opponent of P e r i k l e s , 74 a l r e a d y s e l e c t e d Kleon f o r the comic t h e a t r e . S c h o l i a s t on K n i g h t s , 1304, known poet who  r e p o r t s a fragment  had  The of an un-  r e f e r s to the c o r r u p t i o n of Kleon and to  the s u c c e s s i o n of Hyperbolos.  In Wasps, 1034,  S c h o l i a s t c i t e s Pherekrates, who  the  r e f e r s to the v o i c e of  Kleon, c l e a r as a r a g i n g t o r r e n t .  In the Peace,  313,  where Kleon i s c a l l e d Gerberus, the S c h o l i a s t records that the same name was  given to him by the comic poet  75 Plato.  In the S c h o l i a s t on Frogs, 320 there i s a r e f e r 76  ence to a passage  by Hermippos,  seems to a l l u d e to Kleon, who  the f i r s t v e r s e of which  grows i n importance day by  day, because of the h a t r e d he has s t i r r e d i n P e r i k l e s . 73.  Knights,  1271  74.  Plutarch, Perikles,  75.  P l a t o , fragment  33,8.  216 Kock:  that the comic p l a y -  wright P l a t o had attacked Kleon i s confirmed by a f u r t h e r fragment 76.  (107 K o c k ) . Hermippos, fragment  42 Kock.  - 74 These t r a c e s , although s l i g h t , i n d i c a t e that Kleon had a l r e a d y become a comic t r a d i t i o n t h a t Aristophanes had a p p r o p r i a t e d , e x p l o i t e d and expanded. T h i s comic t r a d i t i o n , as M. P a l a d i n i p o i n t s out i n her 77 study o f the a n c i e n t sources on Kleon,  demonstrates  that 78  a n c i e n t comedy was b a s i c a l l y opposed to the c u r r e n t democracy. I t s c r i t i c i s m s were s i m i l a r to those o f the De R e p u b l i c a Atheniensium,  an o l i g a r c h i c t r a c t wrongly a t t r i b u t e d to Xeno-  79 phon.  I n t h i s work can be seen the k i n d o f a t t a c k that  Aristophanes and the e n t i r e comic t r a d i t i o n used a g a i n s t 80 Kleon and h i s time. 77.  I t was the t r a d i t i o n of the  comic  M. L. P a l a d i n i , " C o n s i d e r a z i o n i s u l l e P o n t i d e l l a  S t o r i a d i Cleone." 78.  She w r i t e s , "Cio conferma naturalmehte  commedia a n t i c a ebbe un neto atteggiamento  che t u t t a l a  d i opposizione a l i a  democrazia v i g e n t e " (p.68). 79.  I t s date i s u n c e r t a i n , but i t was very l i k e l y  to Aristophanes.  available  A f t e r an exhaustive study o f the t e x t , and  a f t e r much debate, Gomme s e t t l e s f o r a date between 420-415 (A. ¥. Gomme, "The O l d O l i g a r c h " , Harv. Stud. C l a s s . P h i l . . Vol.. 1(1940), pp.211-245). c i r c a 425-24 i s unsound.  Suppl.  Gomme argues that M e r i t t ' s date of  For M e r i t t ' s case see B. D. M e r i t t  Documents on Athenian T r i b u t e (Camb. Mass., 1937), pp. 40-42. 80. freedom  The state c o n t r o l l e d by the poor and the v u l g a r ; o f speech granted i n p u b l i c to anyone; the love o f  the masses f o r the o f f i c e s from which are d e r i v e d p r o f i t and p e r s o n a l advantage  (1,2,3); the v u l g a r and the poor given  p r e f e r e n c e over the a r i s t o c r a t s ( 4 ) ; the ignorance, d i s o r d e r ,  - 75  -  poets to h u r l abuse, i n t h i s h o s t i l e v e i n , at a l l o p p o s i tion,  as d i d K r a t i n o s , who  a tumult  o f p l a u d i t s and  obstructed h i s course,  "flowed  through the p l a i n s  cheering;  And  'mid  s w e e p i n g on a l l t h a t  w i t h a s w i r l f r o m t h e i r s t a t i o n s he  t o r e them, O a k s , r i v a l s ,  and p l a n e s ;  And  away on h i s f l o o d  81 u p r o o t e d and p r o s t a t e he b o r e them."  During  o f K r a t i n o s ' p e r i o d ( 4 5 0 - 4 4 0 ) , comedy was  the  height  aggressively  82 active, e s p e c i a l l y against Perikles.  vileness, immorality, the  equal  6'av  and  The  l a c k of education  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l t o speak and dx; £XPT)v a u T o u q  TIC,  ]ir\ e a v  Keyeiv .  VLT)6e p o u X e u e i  1 1 , 6 5 , and  inevitable  v u l g a r i t y o f t h e m a s s e s , and  to govern (6, k^  "ar]^  I t seems t h a t  ( 6 ) ; the  bias);  c o u n c i l and  the  ignorance  t h e i r l a c k of refinement  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by madmen i n t h e  ei7roi  Compare T h u c y d i d e s ,  aristocratic  s e l f - i n t e r e s t of the v u l g a r  on  o f t h e masses ( 5 ) ;  ixdvrac;  Woodhead's c r i t i c i s m , p . 2 9 4 .  Thucydides i s r e f l e c t i n g a t y p i c a l  attacks  and  (7);  assembly ( 9 ) ;  the  the  tendency of the people to e n r i c h themselves, e s p e c i a l l y i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e , w h i l e the r i c h are impoverished 81.  Knights,  82.  Compare P l u t a r c h , P e r i k l e s , where t h e  on t h e  526-528, R o g e r s . comics  shape o f h i s h e a d ( 3 ) , on h i s n i c k n a m e O l y m p i o s  on h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A s p a s i a t h a t the  (13).  (24,9-10).  Plutarch  comic p o e t s have a t r o c i o u s l y m i s r e p r e s e n t e d  jest (8,4),  claims him  (16,1-2).  - 76  -  P e r i k l e s were so b i t t e r t h a t the attempt to outlaw the a c t i v i t y of the comic p l a y w r i g h t s ,  h i n t e d at i n the  De  83 Republica  Atheniensium,  does not appear u n b e l i e v a b l e .  This s t i n g i n g abuse, ^already a t r a d i t i o n before phanes, was  adopted by him  as he f o l l o w e d the s p i r i t  political  o p p o s i t i o n set by h i s comic f o r b e a r s .  beginning  of comedy, b i t t e r r a i l i n g  l e a d e r s was  p a r t of a convention.  the impetus and  Aristo-  against T h i s may  of  From the  political not undermine  f o r c e of the poet's attack on Kleon,  but  i t does help us to p l a c e i t i n p e r s p e c t i v e . F i n a l l y , before we i t may  summarize the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  be s a i d t h a t any prominent person was  a t t a c k by the poets: Aristophanes  P e r i k l e s , Aspasia,  vulnerable  Sokrates,  to  Euripides.  i n the Peace a l l e g e d t h a t P e r i k l e s , i n order  to escape a charge of embezzlement, "blew up the Peloponn e s i a n War" peril  and  i n v o l v e d h i s country  as made h i s own  i n such confusion  and  a i d and guidance i n d i s p e n s a b l e to  her;  e s p e c i a l l y t h a t he passed the decree against the Megarians 84 by which the war  "was  set ablaze."  Tet we  a l l e g a t i o n against P e r i k l e s i s not t r u e . attacked P e r i k l e s and  OUH  KoopcpSeTv 6 ' a u  eaxriv  bodied  this  Paladini, 84.  this  comic w r i t e r s him.  not b l i g h t e d because of i t .  nai xanax; Keyeiv  (2,18). u-r)  The  exhausted t h e i r powers a g a i n s t  But P e r i k l e s ' s t a t u r e was 83.  are sure  noap^Seiv  p.72. Peace. 587-603.  rov  psv  &T)uov  E f f o r t s to t r a c e the law t h a t have not been s u c c e s s f u l .  em. See  - 77 In t u r n i n g , then, to the d i f f i c u l t task of e v a l u a t i n g Aristophanes as a source f o r the h i s t o r i c a l Kleon, we may say:  Aristophanes was a comic d r a m a t i s t , an a r t i s t .  Gos-  s i p , exaggeration, d i s t o r t i o n , were handmaids to h i s dramatic art.  We know that i t was the p e r i l o u s f o r t u n e of any promi-  nent person to f a l l v i c t i m to comic a t t a c k s . independent  We know from  evidence of Sokrates, and indeed o f P e r i k l e s ,  that there was another t r u e r p o r t r a i t of these men than comedy allowed.  We know that the poet was a n t i p a t h e t i c  to Kleon f o r p e r s o n a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l reasons.  We  d e t e c t i n t e r n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i f Kleon was indeed as A r i s t o phanes p o r t r a y s him.  We know that Aristophanes i n h e r i t e d a •t  comic convention accustomed to the w i l d e s t and most v i t u p e r a t i v e language  possible.  In the l i g h t of the above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t may be p r o p e r l y urged t h a t Aristophanes cannot be regarded as a v a l i d h i s t o r i c a l source f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the p o r t r a i t o f Kleon, e s p e c i a l l y not f o r support of t h a t evidence of Thucydides  that i t i s the p o i n t of t h i s paper to c o r r e c t .  We agree with F i n l e y that i t was the profoundest of Greek a b i l i t i e s both to convey the g e n e r i c without  falsifying  85 the unique,  85.  and also to p o r t r a y c h a r a c t e r s with c l e a r  F i n l e y , p.67.  - 78 g e n e r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e while at the same time not  losing  86 t h e i r r e a l i t y as c r e a t u r e s of f l e s h and blood. we  And  should say t h a t i n the case of Aristophanes i t i s the  greatness of h i s genius t h a t creates the i l l u s i o n s (a) t h a t he has not f a l s i f i e d the unique Kleon, and the c h a r a c t e r represented as Kleon was of f l e s h and blood.  86.  Pinley,  p.61.  (b) t h a t  i n f a c t a creature  CHAPTEE  FOUR  E v a l u a t i o n and Conclusion:  Why d i d  Thucydides t r e a t Kleon thus?  E a r l i e r i t was s a i d t h a t " t h i s study w i l l  seek to  e x p l a i n why Thucydides, an h i s t o r i a n whose i n t e g r i t y and power are endorsed by a l l students, he has."  Why, indeed?  could t r e a t Kleon as  There have already been set f o r t h  grounds f o r b e l i e v i n g there was an embittered ship between the two men.  relation-  This h o s t i l i t y was p r o b a b l y  based upon p o l i t i c a l a n t i p a t h i e s , v e r y l i k e l y upon c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l a n t i p a t h i e s ( l i k e Aristophanes, doubtless  blamed Kleon f o r causing  tion),''" and,  Thucydides  s o c i a l and moral d e t e r i o r a -  i f we are to b e l i e v e t h a t Kleon was i n v o l v e d  i n the punishment o f e x i l e upon the h i s t o r i a n , probably upon p e r s o n a l  antipathy.  But i n s p i t e o f these f a c t o r s ,  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e t h a t Thucydides would d e l i b e r a t e l y v i t i a t e the i n t e g r i t y o f h i s H i s t o r y to s a t i s f y h i s animosities.  A. W. Gomme seems to suggest that at times 2  Thucydides was not aware o f the b i a s he f e l t against Kleon. Andrewes b e l i e v e s t h a t p e r s o n a l 1.  enmity may have played  The Corcyrean r e v o l u t i o n was intended  the r e s u l t of the " v i o l e n c e " o f the Mytilene 2.  to exemplify  debate.  A. W. Gomme, More Essays, pp.118-119.  a part  - 80 i n Thucydides' treatment of Kleon, but he b e l i e v e s there i s "more than that...."'* A c o n t r i b u t i o n to understanding what t h a t "more" i s may  be gained from F. M.  Cornford's t h e s i s that  Thucydides t r e a t s Kleon not so much as a h i s t o r i c a l p e r son as a t r a g i - c o m i c f i g u r e i n a t r a g i c drama, wrought 4 about.the downfall of Athens. We have seen t h a t Ehrenberg s t a t e s that i n comic drama the p e r s o n a l i t i e s 5 are l e s s persons than types.  In Thucydides, a c c o r d i n g  to Cornford, Kleon i s l e s s a person than an embodiment of t r a g i c flaws that were to l e a d Athens i n e x o r a b l y to destruction. Cornford argues that Thucydides never understood the o r i g i n of the war because h i s mind was  f i l l e d with p r e -  conceptions that shaped the events he witnessed i n t o a g c e r t a i n form.  Thucydides sees h i s t o r y shaped by f o r c e s  and p a s s i o n s that overtake people's c h a r a c t e r s , and  this  b a s i c p r e s u p p o s i t i o n leads Thucydides to p o r t r a y Kleon as he does.  Cornford r e j e c t s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the  h i s t o r i a n d i s l i k e d Kleon p e r s o n a l l y to the p o i n t that he 3.  Andrewes, Phoenix,  4.  F. M.  p.80.  Cornford, Thucydides M y t h i s t o r i c u s  (London,  1907), e s p e c i a l l y pp. 79-173. 5.  See p.68  above.  6.  Cornford notes t h a t Thucydides wrote i n order  that no one would need to ask the o r i g i n of the war yet "We  are s t i l l  (1,23,5),  t r o u b l e d by the q u e s t i o n which he thought  no one would ever have to ask"  (p.3).  - 81 was prepared d e l i b e r a t e l y to d i s t o r t evidence to condemn Kleon.  Rather Kleon i s t r e a t e d as he i s because of a  c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e o f design t h a t , i n Thucydides' understanding, the war took.  This p r i n c i p l e of design becomes  c l e a r i n the n a r r a t i v e of P y l o s .  The account of P y l o s i s  set f o r t h by Thucydides i n such a way  t h a t i t appears the  h i s t o r i a n r e a l l y b e l i e v e d "Fortune" took a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the whole a f f a i r .  And Thucydides was p r e d i s p o s e d  to see Tyche at work i n t h i s i n c i d e n t because he b e l i e v e d i t had overtaken Kleon and was  l e a d i n g Athens to d e s t r u c -  t i o n through Kleon's l e a d e r s h i p .  Why  d i d Kleon appear i n  the H i s t o r y o n l y three times, when he must have been the l e a d e r of the war-party?  I t i s because he i s the c h a r a c t e r  of a drama to i l l u s t r a t e how Covetousness ruin.  Insolence ( a t M y t i l e n e ) ,  (at P y l o s ) and P r i d e (at Amphipolis) b r i n g  These three f o r c e s r e f l e c t the s t r u c t u r e of c h a r a c t e r -  i z a t i o n , c r i s i s and catastrophe of the t r a g i c drama.  The  p l o t of the war i s t r a g i c , but Kleon i s not to be a t r a g i c figure.  Hence Kleon's l i t t l e p e r s o n a l drama i s d e l i b e r a t e l y  spoilt:  "Laughter s e i z e d the Athenians at h i s w i l d words."  7.  Mme.  de R o m i l l y (p.174) r e f e r s to Thucydides'  emphasis and exaggeration o f the element of chance i n the Pylos i n c i d e n t .  A. W. Gomme (Comm., III.p.488)  i n g l y notes " C e r t a i n l y the word T U Y X a v e t v I cannot accept Gomme's statement that  condescend-  occurs f r e q u e n t l y . "  TUYXavsiv  may mean  merely contemporaneity; there i s always i m p l i e d chance c o i n c i d e n c e . 8.  Thucydides, IV,28,5, quoted from Cornford, p.125.  - 82 According to Cornford, Thucydides assembly i n such a way was  r e p r e s e n t s the Athenian  f o r dramatic cause and e f f e c t .  It  e s s e n t i a l to remove Kleon from t r a g i c rank to t r a g i -  comedy. Cornford argues that the s t o r y of Kleon i s p a t t e r n e d upon dramatized legend.  He i s allowed no  individuality,  no p a s t h i s t o r y , no atmosphere, no i r r e l e v a n t He enters the s t o r y a b r u p t l y from nowhere. f i x e s h i s type, as though on a p l a y - b i l l *  relations.  A s i n g l e phrase Kleon the most  9 v i o l e n t of the c i t i z e n s . he was  Then Kleon vanishes - although  the l e a d e r and main spokesman of the war p a r t y /  to reappear before S p h a k t e r i a . Amphipolis.  Then he i s wrecked at  Cornford, i n f a c t , b e l i e v e s that both P e r i k l e s  and A l k i b i a d e s are t r e a t e d i n p r e c i s e l y the same s t a r k , dramatic f a s h i o n . Although Cornford's hypothesis i s r e j e c t e d by many s c h o l a r s , h i s study i s prompted by a r e a l i z a t i o n of d i s crepancies i n the Hi s t o r y , one of which i t i s the work of t h i s paper to examine and Kleon.  correct, namely,the p o r t r a i t of  Cornford's a n a l y s i s aids the student to understand  Thucydides*  treatment of Kleon, and also r e l i e v e s the  h i s t o r i a n of such i n e v i t a b l e judgements as " p r e j u d i c e d " and"biassed."  Cornford says, " I t i s evident t h a t Thucy-  dides saw him  [Kleon] not p u r e l y , or even p r i m a r i l y as an  9.  We have noted above, page 6, the comments of  s c h o l a r s on t h i s unusual i n t r o d u c t i o n of Kleon. (p,125) a l s o answers Mme. the omission of a response  Cornford  de Romilly's query (p.173) about by Kleon to the Spartan peace  - 83 h i s t o r i c person, but as a type of c h a r a c t e r . "  1 0  This  t y p i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r has been noted b e f o r e , with r e s p e c t to Aristophanes, where i t i s again the h i s t o r i c a l Kleon who  suffers. ' ' 1  1  While Cornford's g e n e r a l t h e s i s  may  have to be r e j e c t e d , i t i s c e r t a i n that dramatic f a c t o r s  did  p l a y a p a r t i n Thucydides' o r g a n i z a t i o n of the H i s t o r y ,  and i t i s not i m p o s s i b l e t h a t dramatic f a c t o r s helped to 12 shape h i s treatment of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the H i s t o r y . To the q u e s t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , why Kleon has  received  such treatment at the hands of the h i s t o r i a n , f i r s t we r e c a l l what has a l r e a d y been s a i d , "Whether that derogatory r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was of  d e l i b e r a t e , or the unconscious  an embittered mind, may  result  not f i n a l l y be solved....."  N e v e r t h e l e s s , we f e e l t h a t almost c e r t a i n l y p o l i t i c a l  and  s o c i a l f a c t o r s were i n v o l v e d , most probably p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , and v e r y l i k e l y dramatic. In  t h i s study, we have not sought to r e f u t e Kleon's  l a c k of refinement or unorthodox  ways; what we have i n t e n d -  ed i s to r e h a b i l i t a t e Kleon's i n t e g r i t y as a statesman, embassy a f t e r S p h a k t e r i a .  as  ^~  10.  Cornford, p«„126.  11.  P i n l e y speaks of the a b s o r p t i o n of the times with  ideas and a b s t r a c t i o n s r a t h e r than with persons (pp>.63-67). Thucydides i n h e r i t e d the s o p h i s t i c i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of "the long-standing Greek concern f o r the t y p i c a l " 12.  (p.62).  T h i s t h e s i s need not j e o p a r d i z e Thucydides' i n -  t e g r i t y as an h i s t o r i a n , i t simply b r i n g s to l i g h t  another  i n g r e d i e n t t h a t help>ed shape h i s mental thought and experience.  - 84 a p o l i t i c i a n , as a man and a c t i o n .  foresight,  We b e l i e v e t h a t our a n a l y s i s of Thucydides  has demonstrated sequent  of competent i n s i g h t ,  Kleon's i n t e g r i t y , and t h a t our  sub-  study of other a v a i l a b l e evidence, as w e l l as  an e v a l u a t i o n of Aristophanes' p o r t r a i t , has r e v e a l e d the weaknesses of these sources as v a l i d h i s t o r i c a l dence.  evi-  Where l a t e r sources condemn Kleon, they have  been seen to f o l l o w an a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c stream that c r i t i c a l l y f o l l o w s Thucydides.  Where the comic  un-  sources  condemn Kleon, they have been seen to f o l l o w a conventiona l p a t t e r n of a t t a c k t h a t renders t h e i r work, at the l e a s t , p r e c a r i o u s f o r use as h i s t o r y .  In the f i n a l  a n a l y s i s , t h e r e f o r e , we are thrown back upon Thucydides as the s i n g l e r e l i a b l e source f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the person of Kleon. case.  And,  i f t h i s i s so, we are prep>ared to r e s t our  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ancient  Authorities  Aristophanes, Comedies,  edited, t r a n s l a t e d  B. B. Rogers, 2 v o l s . Aristophanes,  and explained by  (London, 1910).  Comedies, t r a n s l a t e d by B. B.. Rogers, I (Loeb  C l a s s i c a l L i b r a r y . Cambridge, Mass., 1940). A r i s t o t l e , The Athenian C o n s t i t u t i o n ,  e d i t e d by P. G. Kenyon  (Oxford, 1920). Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta. e d i t e d by Theodorus Kock, 3 v o l s . ( L e i p z i g , 1880). 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