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Study of enrolments and financing of provincial technical and vocational training in Alberta , 1956-1965 Campbell, Donald Leslie 1968

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A STUDY OF ENROLMENTS AND FINANCING OF PROVINCIAL TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN ALBERTA 1956-1965 by DONALD L. CAMPBELL B. Com., University of Alberta, 1950 B. E d . 1 , University of Alberta, 196k A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (Adult Education) in the Faculty of EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to ;the'~lre~q,uired standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1968 c In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the "Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. The F a c u l t y of Education Department of Adult Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ^2*uJ<J /f . /f^f' i i ABSTRACT Cybernation is a term used in a nev context to identify a new era. It is a term that is associated with technical development and productivity. The implications that cybernation bring with it are two-fold for the discipline of education. The first task that falls to education is the development of understanding and the identification of values that wi l l enable mankind to benefit from his surroundings. Secondly, men must be trained to work the new machines. It is in connection with the second task of education that this thesis addresses itself. In Alberta, government-directed institutions of training have developed over the years in order to train apprentices, technicians and to provide other vocational training programmes. An outline of the development of each of these levels of training is presented including a tabulation of the number of people who participated in the different levels of training. The summary that is made herein of the number of people trained is in response to the question: What number of people are being trained and what is the per capita cost? The question is not unique to Alberta. It is suspected, however, that: answers are not readily available and a review of the literature bears this out. Technical and vocational training has a history of nearly fifty years in Alberta. The gradual development of facilities through periods of economic cris is , pressures from enrolment, and Federal financial assistance is outlined before the detailed examination of enrolments and costs is presented for the decade commencing in 1956. The number of apprentices in training in 1956 was 2,195- By the year 1965 the number had increased to ^,572. In relative terms the increase was from 1.9 per one thousand population to 3.1. A similar increase was evident in the training of technicians. In 1956 the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology trained 303 technicians. By 1965 the number of technicians in training had increased to 1,701. Of this number, 950 were trained at the new Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. The relative change as measured per one thousand population was from 0.26 to 1.1. The number of persons in other vocational training and non-technical training programmes also increased. The enrolment of 2,379 in 1956 increased to U9 76 in 1965- The relative numbers in training increased from 2.1 per one thousand population to 3.^ . An examination of the financing of apprenticeship, technical, and vocational training reveals that an expenditure by the Province in 1956 of $2Ul.35 was required to train each apprentice. However, the net cost to the Province after reimbursements and adjustments, was $lU8.63 for each apprentice. In 1965 these figures had increased to $328.39 and $191.88 respectively. The expenditure and cost of training each techni-cian in 1956 was $903.71 and $721.U3 increasing to $1,U6U.25 and $750.75 by 1965« In 1965 the expenditure on each technician at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was $1,989-13 and the cost $1,062.70. For other vocational trainees the expenditure made by the Province in 1956 amounted to $1^3.18 and the cost amounted to $98.35- This had changed by 1965 to a Provincial expenditure of $388.72 and a net cost of $116.82. The capital expenditure in the form of site, construction, furnishings and equipment for students at a l l levels of training, over the ten—year period 1956 to 1965, was $21+1.01. The capital cost was $93.06. The completion of this study for Alberta creates the need for comparisons. The reference points for enrolments and for costs have been established herein, but these must mark the beginning and not the end. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A thesis i s rarel y the resu l t of the ef f o r t of only one person. Many people contribute to the creation of the document and the knowledge on which i t s 'contents are "built. This thesis i s no exception and to a l l those who participated i n various ways I wish to express my appreciation. To include the names of those to whom I am indebted would add nothing to the s i n c e r i t y of my appreciation and, therefore, I s h a l l not attempt to i d e n t i f y each person i n d i v i d u a l l y . There must be acknowledge-ment, however, of the encouragement given, the stimulating advice, and the influence of the teachings of my advisor, Dr. Coolie Verner. There must also be recognition of the many s a c r i f i c e s made by my wife, Olive, during the period required to complete the thesis. To both, I am especially grateful. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of Study 1 Limitations 3 Definitions of Terms 3 Review of the Literature 5 International Studies 6 British Studies 7 United States Studies 9 Canadian Studies 16 Alberta 18 II. APPRENTICESHIP 21 Introduction 21 Preparation for Examination 21 Recommendation for Training 22 Apprenticeship Act 22 Purpose 22 Designated Trades 22 Local Advisory Committees 23 Provincial Advisory Committees 23 Apprenticeship Board 2k Training Centres 2k Facilities 2k Distribution 25 Trade School Proposal 25 v i i CHAPTER PAGE Re v i s i o n 26 Department of Labour 27 In-School T r a i n i n g 27 Length of Designation 27 Length of In-School T r a i n i n g 27 Schedule 28 Entrance Requirements'" 28 Education 28 Age 28 Q u a l i f i c a t i o n 30 T r a i n i n g Allowances 30 T u i t i o n 30 Amount of Allowances 31 Enrolment 31 Transfer of T r a i n i n g Courses 33 C l a r i f i c a t i o n of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C e r t a i n Trades . . . 3*+ Pre-Apprentice Classes 3^  Centres f o r T r a i n i n g i n 1965 35 Changes i n Enrolment 36 Number i n T r a i n i n g and Number Regis t e r e d 36 Operatio n a l Costs 36 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 38 Reimbursement 38 Expenditure Items . . 0^ D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f Terms 0^ Changes i n Costs 0^ v i i i CHAPTER P A G E Summary of Chapter ^0 I I I . TECHNICAL INSTITUTES AND TECHNICIANS k2 Introduction ^2 P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e ^2 Courses ^2 Site 3^ Early Prerequisites 3^ The Depression Period '^3 Recent Developments hk Divisions New Buildings hh Advisory Committees 1+5 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . . h5 1 Federal-Provincial Financing 6^ I n s t i t u t e Opening ^6 Divisions hi Technicians ^7 Standards hi Admission Requirements ^8 Apprentice Division Evening Division 9^ Objectives 9^ Length 9^ Financing 50 Fees 50 Evening Course Fees 52 i x CHAPTER PAGE Correspondence Course Fees 52 A p p r e n t i c e s h i p Costs 53 E n r o l m e n t — T e c h n i c i a n s , S . A . I . T 53 Changes i n Enrolment 55 E f f e c t of New I n s t i t u t e 56 E n r o l m e n t — N o n - T e c h n i c a l , S . A . I . T 56 Changes i n Enrolment 58 E f f e c t of New I n s t i t u t e 58 Correspondence 58 Night C l a s s e s 6l T o t a l Enrolment 63 E n r o l m e n t — T e c h n i c i a n s , N . A . I . T 63 Changes i n Enrolment 63 E n r o l m e n t — N o n - T e c h n i c a l , N . A . I . T 63 Changes i n Enrolment 67 Night C lasses 67 T o t a l Enrolment. 67 O p e r a t i o n a l C o s t s — S . A. I. T 67 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 70 Reimbursement 70 Changes i n Costs 71 O p e r a t i o n a l C o s t s — N . A. I. T 71 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 71 Reimbursement 73 Changes i n Costs 73 Summary of Chapter 7^  X CHAPTER PAGE I V . VOCATIONAL TRAINING TT I n t r o d u c t i o n TT The Depress ion P e r i o d TT Youth T r a i n i n g Agreement T8 A g r i c u l t u r a l Short Course T8 F o r e s t r y T8 Household and S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s T8 A g r i c u l t u r e T8 I n d u s t r i a l and Commercial T8 War Emergency T r a i n i n g T9 F a c i l i t i e s T9 Grants T9 Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . . T9 V e t e r a n s ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 80 Courses 80 Post-War T r a i n i n g 80 C i v i l i a n s 8l I n d u s t r y ' s Needs 8l The Needs o f the I n d i v i d u a l 8l The V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g Agreement No. 2 . . 82 ftp O p e r a t i o n a l Aspects KJC-C a p i t a l 8 2 Amendment 83 S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s Agreement 83 O p e r a t i o n a l Aspects 83 Amendment 8U xi CHAPTER PAGE Technical and Vocational Training Agreement 8 ^ Operational Aspects 8 ^ Programmes 8 ^ Capital 87 Admission to Training and Fees 8 ? Training Allowances 8 ^ U.I.C. Benefits 8 8 Transportation 8 8 Schedule 8 8 QQ Liaison Enrolment 89 Centres for Training 9^  Changes in Enrolment 95 Operational Costs 95 Administration 95 Reimbursement . . • 101 Fees 1 0 1 Changes in Costs Summary of Chapter 102 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1 0 5 Summary 105 Conclusion I l l BIBLIOGRAPHY 113 APPENDIX A. Tables of Expenditures and Costs 120 APPENDIX Bo Sources of Information 126 xi i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. In-School Training Period Per Year of Apprenticeship—1965 29 II. Apprenticeship Enrolment 32 III. Registered Apprentices and Total Enrolment 37 IV. Operational Costs of Apprenticeship Training 39 V. Institute of Technology Fees—1956 • 51 VI. Institute of Technology Fees—1965 51 VII. Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Technician Enrolments 5k VIII. Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Non-Technical Enrolments 57 IX. Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Correspondence Course Enrolments ^0 X. Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Night Class Enrolments 62 XI. Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Total Enrolment and Instructor-Student Ratio 6k XII. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology—Technician Enrolments 65 XIII. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology—Non-Technical Enrolments 66 XIV. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology—Night Class Enrolments 68 XV. Northern Alberta Institute of Technology—Total Enrolment . 68 x i i i TABLE PAGE XVI. Operational Costs of the Southern Alberta I n s t i t u t e of Technology 69 XVII. Operational Costs of the Northern Alberta I n s t i t u t e of Technology 72 XVIII. Vocational T r a i n i n g — T o t a l Enrolment 90 XIX. Vocational T r a i n i n g — S p e c i a l Unemployed Courses Enrolment . 92 XX. Operational Costs of Vocational Training . . . 96 XXI. Trainee Enrolment Per 1000 Population 1°T XXII. Total Trainee Enrolment 108 XXIII. Estimated Population of Alberta 1956 to 1965 1 09 XXIV. Expenditure and Cost Per Trainee 1 1 0 XXV. Total Operational Expenditures and Reimbursements 1 2 1 XXVI. Net Operational Cost 1 2 2 XXVII. Total Capital Expenditures and Reimbursements on Sites and Construction 123 XXVIII. Total Capital Expenditures and Reimbursements on Furnishings and Equipment l 2 ^ XXIX. Net Capital Cost 1 2 5 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. PURPOSE OF STUDY The society in which we live is in a constant state of change. We have passed through the periods of time when man's nomadic pursuits slowly gave way to the development of agricultural practices. Agri-cultural practices utilized the land for the cultivation of food and the creation of clothing and shelter. In time, agriculture was com-plemented by trade, commerce and specialization. The application of man's ingenuity and creativity produced an atmosphere of'industriali-zation in the community, which gradually became the predominant milieu. The crass, barren mechanizations of the industrial era are now being replaced by aesthetic, quasi-independent devices and the pace of change quickens. The procession moves another step onward as we become aware of the era of cybernation. The implications of the encroachment of cybernation are all-embracing and complex. They challenge the tenets of philosophy by changing the relationship of man to his environment, and of economics by making i t possible for the first time in human history to produce enough to provide the basic needs of a l l men. They revolutionize the field of medicine through the creation of new tools for probing and repairing the human body and new medicinal materials for consumption and treatment. In engineering, nuclear physics alone has changed the complex of engineering as have the computer and elec-tronics. The implications of the encroachment of cybernation expand the concepts of law arising from the invasion of privacy, to the inter-national relations of space exploration. The greatest task in 2 integrating cybernation falls to the discipline of education, and the challenge is effective now. Education has a dual assignment. Through education and training, men must develop s k i l l and knowledge and understanding to direct and control the powerful effects of cybernation. Education and training must also develop individual creativity and aesthetic and humanistic values in order to enjoy the benefits of cybernation. Canada is on the threshold of the cybernation era which justifies an examination of technical and vocational training programmes. The purpose of this thesis is to study the development of technical and vocational institutions in the Province of Alberta and to examine the enrolment and the financial cost of operating each identi-fied division. The study will deal with three divisions of technical and vocational training. 1. Apprenticeship. The study will present an outline of the historical development of apprenticeship in the Province, beginning with the legislation in 19*44 that established the Apprenticeship Act. The enrolment of apprentices in classes for training will be tabulated. The cost in public provincial funds will be determined. 2. Technical. An historical outline of the development of the technical institutes will be presented and an identification of the training of technicians will be examined. The enrolment of technicians and the enrolment of non-technicians in the institute facilities will be presented. The cost in public provincial funds of operating the f a c i l i -ties will be obtained. 3. Vocational. The historical development of the adult training, provided to meet specific needs of the individual and of the economy, will be presented. The enrolment in current activities in vocational training will be summarized and the cost in public provincial funds will be presented. The study will present relative changes in participation and financial support over the period examined and will provide a base in the year I965 for comparisons for future studies. II. LIMITATIONS The data presented in this thesis are limited to the ten-year period 195& to I965. The programmes of training recorded are only those with which the Provincial Department of Education has had a responsi-bility either for curriculum or financial administration and with which the Federal Government has shared in the cost, under the authority of the Vocational Training Co-ordination Act, 1944 and the Technical and Vocational Training Assistance Act, 1961. They do not include training provided in the secondary school, nor training in agricultural colleges. University education is not included except in the case of individuals assisted through vocational training. III. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS It is important to clearly distinguish the categories of training considered in each of the three divisions of the thesis. The following definitions of terms will apply throughout. Apprentice—a person who enters into a formal contract of service with an employer, whereby he is to receive from or through his employer instruction in the trade, and from or through the Government supplementary classroom instruction. "*" "'""The Apprenticeship Act," Chapter 14, Province of Alberta (Edmonton: Queen's Printer [1944, C. 10, S. 1], 1944). Apprenticeship—the execution of the terms of the contract entered into by the apprentice with an employer. Technical Training—a post-secondary school programme of instruction extending over a minimum period of 2,400 hours and con-sisting of a curriculum containing 10 per cent to 15 per cent of the total instructional time in related general education courses; 15 per cent to 20 per cent in auxiliary and supporting technical courses; 10 per cent to 30 per cent in mathematics and basic science courses; and 35 per cent to 60 per cent in technical specialty courses. Technician—a person who completes technical training in a technical institute wherein he is trained in specialized theoretical knowledge coupled with a specific degree of practical s k i l l such as to enable him to translate the creative ideas of the professional engineer or scientist into practical processes, machines or structures. The technician functions somewhere between the level of creativeness of the professional, and the level of productive s k i l l of the tradesman. Vocational Training—a' programme which provides vocational training assistance to the individual. The assistance may be in the form of counselling assistance, financial assistance or instruction in preparation for occupational competency. It is described as any form of instruction, the purpose of which is to prepare a person for gainful 3 employment or to increase his s k i l l or proficiency therein. "Manpower Training Branch Report," Twelfth Meeting of the National Technical and Vocational Training Advisory'Council (Ottawa: 1 9 6 6 ) . 3 Canada Department of Labour, Technical and Vocational Training  Agreement (Ottawa: Department of Labour, 1 9 6 l ) . 5 IV. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Recognition of the changing technological and social and economic conditions in the decade from 195& prompted numerous enquiries into the relationship between such changes and the demand for technically and vocationally trained personnel. The literature reviewed includes observations and studies of the effects on workers of technological change; the new demands for trained personnel; and the ability of the educational system to provide for both the quantitative and qualitative needs of the work force in the period under review. A major defect, however, in the literature reviewed was the omission of specific information on enrolment in courses of training that could be directly related to the three levels of training that have been distinguished in this thesis. Reference was made in the literature reviewed to engineering and scientific students and to students in junior colleges. No clearly defined limits of the studies or the pro-grammes of the students were provided, which would enable a distinction being made between a student seeking professional preparation, a student seeking technician preparation and the vocational student. No specific enrolment figures for these actual groups were available. Determination of the cost of technical training, apprenticeship and of vocational training was also lacking in the literature. Informa-tion recorded on the cost of training was confined to national and state averages. A clear statement of the composition of the student body used to determine average cost figures was not available. The review of the literature results in three conclusions: First the present literature provides inadequate information on technical and vocational training enrolments and costs; second, i t provides only general 6 guides on the quantitative a b i l i t y of the educational system to provide trained manpower; f i n a l l y , i t accentuates the need for studies of specific enrolment and specific costs of training technicians, appren-tices and other vocationally prepared persons. International Studies. On the international scene, reports by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development consider the need for technically trained persons. These and other reports con-sistently point out the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered in this phase of the problem dealing with the determination of need. The United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization point out in an early study that comparatively l i t t l e large-scale work had been done in calculating the need for technically trained personnel, with the possible exceptions of the United Kingdom, the United States and the Netherlands. The report also warned that estimating such needs was liable to grave error. In the report of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, the above observation is supported by the state-ment that few member nations had adequate figures on future manpower requirements and this also was the case with respect to current manpower supply."' The value of these observations on the international scene must be considered on the basis of a lack of international standards, both with regard to the collection of data and also with regard to the definition of technical personnel. However, the information that is UNESCO, Education in a Technological Society, Tensions and Technology Series (Paris: United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization, 1952)> p. 18. •^O.EoE.C, Forecasting (Paris: Organization for European Economic Cooperation, i960), p. 7. 7 available can be used to create a setting within which relative compari-sons can be made,, A further report of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, while pointing out the limited information avail-able from the seventeen member countries participating in the study, was able to show that in 1955> on the basis of each 100,000 persons of the population aged fifteen to twenty-four, technical diplomas were awarded to 103 in Belgium, 108 in West Germany, 120 in France, 42 in Italy, 137 in the Netherlands, 121 in Great Britain and 124 in Sweden. The infor-mation for Canada was not available.^ British Studies. In Great Britain the 1956 report, in Technical  Education by the Ministry of Education, dealt with the output of technical manpower but emphasized the fact that comparisons were difficult due to the differences in years, the differences in standards, and the differences in the meaning of terms. The validity of many of the figures was also considered. The report presented data of techni-cally trained manpower in relationship to the total population and showed that Great Britain trained 164 per million of the population in 195^ 5 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics trained 326 per million of the population in 1955» Western Europe trained 67 per million of the population in 1953. A recommendation of five to six technicians for every engineer was included in the considerations of the report, but i t was pointed out that the enrolment in 1956 in the secondary school system was divided between the grammar school, the technical school, and the modern school, in the proportions of 20 per cent, O.E.E.C., The Problem of Scientific and Technical Manpower in  Western Europe, Canada and the United States (Paris: Organization for European Economic Cooperation, 1957)» P« 12. 8 7 5 per cent and 75 per cent respectively. One explanation of the disproportionate enrolment of 5 P e r cent in technical training was that the graduating Sixth Form boys had very vague knowledge of technical work to help them in choosing a career and were confused about the levels of performance of technical personnel. Nor could parents help because they knew so l i t t l e about present-day educational opportuni-g ties. In his history of the development of technical education, Argles concluded his report with the observation that future progress will be most affected by the shortage at present and the prospective future shortage of technically trained and competent personnel. How-ever, Argles fails to present actual numbers to support this observa-9 tion. The most recent and far-reaching report on technical education in the United Kingdom was the report of the Committee on Higher  Education, more commonly referred to as the Robbins Report of 1963. The report of the Committee on Higher Education considered, without distinction, both the technical and professional manpower needs and, on this basis, dealt with enrolment, grants, women entering the labour market, adult education and expenditures. Again, in the case of the Committee on Higher Education the enrolments in the three levels of training distinguished in this thesis were not identified.^ Technical Education, by the Ministry of Education, Great Britain (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1956). Oxford University, Technology and the Sixth Form Boy (Oxford: Oxford University, Department of Education, 1963), p. 28. ^Michael Argles, South Kensington to Robbins (London: Longmans Green and Co. Ltd., 1964), p. 140. "^Lionel C. Robbins, Committee on Higher Education (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1963), p. 273. 9 United States Studies. The greatest amount of available literature on technical and vocational training has come from the United States, and certainly the most recent studies are available from the United States. However, a very early study completed in 1931 by the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education notes many of the same concerns that are being dealt with today. The demand for techni-cally trained persons at that time exceeded the supply by a ratio of 2:1 and i t was found within industry that the ratio of technical 11 institute men to college men was approximately 2.7*1. Because of the changing complex of society and the significance of technology, the President of the United States, in 1962, ordered a thorough study be made of the existing situation with respect to technical and vocational training programmes, particularly those assisted with Federal funds. The resulting Report of the Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education, Education for a_ Changing World of Work, was the most intensive study in the United States and was similar in its intent to the Robbins Report in England. The report states that i t is estimated from two to four technicians will be required for each engineer or scientist by 1970. On this basis, there will also be required five million additional craftsmen between i960 and 1970, and the shift in employment emphasis will result in the need for eight million service workers between i960 and 1970. The out-of-school enrolment in vocational training for the age group twenty to sixty-four years in i960 was two million and this enrol-ment will increase at the rate of 2.3 per cent yearly. However, the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, Summary  Report of the Study of Technical Institutes (Lancaster, Penn.: The Lancaster Press Inc., 1931)j pp. 14-26. 10 report points out that further sophistication of industry, new occupa-tional areas being created, and apparent critical shortages of skilled personnel a l l point to the need for a larger portion of the work force being served by vocational training programmes. The present 2 per cent enroled seems inadequate, but the report notes the difficulty of evaluating the present effort when there are no data on which to base 12 comparisons. Harris reports that from a study of the National Science Foundation the need for technicians would double between I960 and 1970, resulting in a demand for 68,000 new technicians yearly for industry plus 24,000 technicians yearly for government. Harris also proposes that the ratio of technicians to professionals varies with the vocation; with medicine at 2 to 5«1» space programme 2 to 3:1', and architecture as 13 high as 10 to 1. A study by the National Science Foundation, reported in the Technician Education Yearbook, records that there were 875*000 technicians employed in i960 and estimates this figure will rise to one million in 1963 and 1.6 million by 1970. Based on these figures, i t is estimated that 69»600 technicians must be trained each year. In 1962, only 40,000 full-time two-year enrolees were in training in public-supported institutions. The above observation is based on the 1962 actual ratio of 0.7*1 technicians to engineers and scientists. Based on the suggested desirable ratio of 2:1, the number of technicians to be trained each year would be approximately 200,000. The yearbook also pointed out that the expansion of technician training will probably also 12 Education for a Changing World of Work, Report of the Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education (Washington: U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1963), p. 15« 13 Norman C. Harris, Technical Education in the Junior Colleges (Washington: American Association of Junior Colleges, 1964), pp. 28 and 105. 14 expand the need for training skilled craftsmen. The need for basic vocational training at the lower level of educationally-prepared adults is dramatically presented in a report on the hearings before the Committee on Education and Labour. The report points out in I960, that of the 115 million persons eighteen years of age and older in the United States, 10 per cent had completed less than six years of schooling. This educational limitation imposes a severe barrier to retraining and new job opportunities.''"^ Johnstone and Rivera, in their very recent findings, report that of the adult population, which is defined as anyone over twenty-one or who is married or the head of a household, and would on this basis consist of approximately 114 million people, a l i t t l e more than one person in every five engaged in some form of adult learning. Of those, 33 per cent were engaged in some form of vocational learning. Johnstone also found that previous educational standing was the biggest single factor that influenced participation."^ A significant statement was recorded in the report by the Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, wherein i t was noted that only 7 per cent of the lower socio-economic and concomitantly lower educational group participated actively in further education or training courses. In the higher socio-economic and higher educational group, 43 per cent were active in some form of education. The report suggests that the present equivalent sk i l l level of machines 14 Technical Education Yearbook (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Prakken Publications Inc., 1963)» pp. 66, 159-"^Adult Basic Education, Hearings before the Committee on Education and Labor (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1962), p. 9. "^John W. C. Johnstone and R. J. Rivera, Volunteers for Learning (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1965)> pp. 1-19• is rising more rapidly than the s k i l l or educational level of humans. This fact, and the fact that fewer of the low educational or s k i l l level workers participate in courses of learning, will result in a loss of potential manpower and will create a poverty-stricken class in the 17 midst of plenty. As reported in Research on Apprenticeship, a number of research studies on apprenticeship have been completed in various industries and separate states. In Oregon, the supply of automotive mechanics in 1959 was limited, and more was recommended to be done to encourage employers to train a larger number. In the tool and die industry, employers were training only 60 per cent of the apprentices necessary to replace losses from the trade through deaths and retire-ments. In addition to replacements for deaths and retirements, a study of the construction industry estimated 1.2 million new craftsmen will be required in the decade from I960 to 1970. In Wisconsin, there was found to be no steady increase in apprentice enrolments through the period 1927 to 1953. A further study of apprentices in the construc-tion industry revealed that half of those who were apprenticed dropped 18 out before completing their training. Venn, in his findings, added to the earlier report, Education for a Changing World of Work, the estimate that only 300,000 to 400,000 skilled persons were available in 1964, while the demand by 1970 would be for just over five million. Again, i t was pointed out that 520,000 skilled workers must be added 17 'Robert Theobald, J. W. C. Johnstone and J. Weinberg, Perspective on Automation (Boston: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964), pp. 4, 28. 18 Research on Apprenticeship (East Lansing: Office of Research and Publications, College of Education, Michigan State University, 1962), p. 30. to the labour force each year to attain this goal, but only 60,000 apprentices completed their training in the year 1960."'"^  MacLean, in his study, gave recognition to the elements of change in the community that create the need for continuous training. The elements were the changing population, the technological changes, the occupational changes and changing social mores, attitudes and customs. Also noted was the change in state expenditures on education, based on a national average, which in 1915 was equal to 12.6 per cent of state expenditures 20 and in 1949 only 9«4 per cent. Melvin Barlow makes the observation that with respect to research in vocational education and training, the field has been starved for so long that data on which to base evaluative reviews are meagre. Similarly, Swanson has noted that thoroughly reliable data have not been collected, and Brandon concludes that there 21 have been almost no studies of the economics of vocational training. The significance of these observations is self-evident. Data on the cost of training individuals at the different technical, tradesman and general vocational levels are as seriously lacking as similar information was on enrolment. Studies that dealt with costs of training lacked relationship and noted wide variances in "^Grant Venn, Man, Education and Work (Washington: American Council on Education, 1964), p. 22. 20 Malcolm S. MacLean and D. W. Dobson, "Educational Needs Emerging from the Changing Demands of Society," The Public Junior  College (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1956), p. 26. 21 Melvin L. Barlow, "A Platform for Vocational Education in the Future," Vocational Education (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, I965), p. 289; J. Chester Swanson and E. G. Kramer, "Vocational Education Beyond the High School," Vocational Education, p. 197, George L. Brandon and R. N. Evans, "Research in Vocational Education," Vocational Education, p. 266. cost figures. It was noted in one publication that the average cost of providing vocational rehabilitation in 1948 was approximately $400 per 22 person. No definition of vocational rehabilitation was given. The California State Department of Employment and State Department of Education provide training under the terms of the Manpower Development and Training Act. Two reports, one by Tolly and the other a combined report by the California Departments of Employment and Education, outline the form of training provided. The training is designed to meet the vocational training needs of the individual. It was estimated the cost per trainee in 1964 was $492. In addition to the $492 cost for training, an amount of $682 was paid to the trainee for a living allow-ance. These two sums resulted in a total training cost of $1,178 per 23 trainee. Further information on the cost of training was provided in the report by McLure, in which i t was recorded that in 1959 the operating costs of a comprehensive type junior college in Illinois were $800 for a full-time vocational student. This compared to $700 for a full-time college transfer student in the same junior college. In 1965> these costs had increased by 18 per cent. Further, i t was estimated that the capital cost in I960 per full-time student was $3,000. McLure also suggested these figures were close to the national averages ^^Mary L. Ely :(ed.), Handbook of Adult Education in the United  States (New York: Bureau of Publications Teachers College, Columbia University, 1948), p. 14. 2^G. Tolly, "Adult Training and Retraining in the U. S.," Technical Education and Industrial Training, Vol. 5» No. 7» July 1963 (London: Archer Bros., 1963); Retraining in California (Sacramento: California State Department of Employment and State Department of Education, 1964), p. 308. estimated for the period 19&5 to 1970. However, Henninger pointed out one of the difficulties in obtaining a clear picture of educational costs in his findings in which he noted the computed cost per student for technical instruction in 1959 varied by States across the nation from $212 to as much as $1,440, with the State of New York showing the cost per student for technical training to be $758 in 1956, and $728 in 1957, increasing again to $749 in 1958.2^ A study in 1956 by Medsker, on financing the junior college, noted that insufficient data were available to determine the amount of State support for junior college programmes. Exceptions were in the States of California, Texas, and Missouri. The significance of Medsker's findings was to support the observation that accurate information on costs of training was not available insofar as technical and vocational training was provided 26 in junior colleges. The most recent study in the United States deals with the relationship of Federal funds to State and local funds. The study reports that State expenditure for apprentice training was $2.26 for each one dollar of Federal funds. The local expenditure on the same basis was $3.33. For certain industrial training in the Area Technical, programmes, the State expenditure was only fifty-two cents for each Federal dollar spent and the local expenditure was only eighty 24 W. P. McLure, "Rationale for Organizing, Administering, and Financing Vocational Education," Vocational Education (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education,'I965), p. 240. Ross G. Henninger, The Technical Institute in America (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1959), pp. 116-121. 26 Leland L. Medsker, "Financing Public Junior College Operation," The Public Junior College (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1956), pp. 251-257. cents. Such information revealed nothing about the cost of training individuals in programmes of training at the different levels of instruction. Canadian Studies. Canadian studies in technical and vocational training indicate a similarity of problems in research that were noted earlier. These were a lack of reliable data, and variations in terms used. Perhaps the most comprehensive study was the 1957 Manpower  Training Report; Canada. One of the f i r s t observations of the report was that, even though f u l l cooperation with outside agents had been obtained, i t had not been found possible to compile a comprehensive report on Canada's manpower. It could report, however, that in 1956 there were 6,000 persons enroled in technical training; 7,000 in short-term vocational courses; and 10,000 in apprenticeships. An examination of the electrical and electronic industry in Canada indicated that many of the companies would like to employ three or four technicians for each engineer, and a l l the companies surveyed indicated a demand for more highly skilled workers. The significance from a training point of view is emphasized by the finding that in 1956 nearly 35 Ver cent of a l l tradesmen had been trained outside Canada. The total expendi-ture on vocational education in Canada in 1956 was reported as 28 $50,000,000, but no further breakdown of this amount was shown. 27 Education for a Changing World of Work, Report of the Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education (Washington: U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1963), p. 207. 2^Manpower Training Report: Canada, Research Programme on the Training of Skilled Manpower 1-9B (Ottawa: Department of Labour Canada, 1957), I, 9-12; IV, 8; V, 5. A study of apprenticeship training in Manitoba was completed in 1955, and part of the conclusion stressed the need to study the dropouts from apprenticeship and to increase the effort to stimulate and develop a 29 greater interest in apprenticeship. Two studies directed at financing training both stress the difficulty encountered in determining the statistics and figures on which to base comment. Cowan concluded that the most noteworthy fact revealed by an examination of expendi-tures in British Columbia in 1962 was the lack of a general pattern and consistency over the twelve-year period studied. The findings of his study indicated a decreasing proportion of expenditure on adult education, but the definition of adult education excluded vocational 30 training. A survey, completed in 1958 by the Canada Department of Labour, indicated there were 1,800 engineers graduated in 1956, meaning there should also have been from 2,700 to 3,600 technicians graduated i f the ratio of approximately 2:1 was to be met. The number of technicians that were graduated in 1956 was less than 400. One of the conclusions of that report was to urge the completion of an inventory of the work force in order to be able to best meet the nation's needs 31 in skilled manpower. A study in Ontario points out the inadequacy of the existing apprenticeship scheme in that Province and confirms the many suggestions that the lack of research greatly affects the Research on Apprenticeship, op. cit., p. 9« -^ °E. F. Sheffield, "Financing Adult Education in Canada," Food  for Thought, Vol. XVI, No. 8, 1956 (Ottawa: Canadian Association for Adult Education, 1956); John Cowan, "Public Financing of Adult Educa-tion, 1950/51-1961/62," The Journal of Education of the Faculty of. Education, No. 10, April (Vancouver: The University"of British Columbia, 1964), p. 75. H/Janted . . . More Experts, Canada Department of Labour (Ottawa: 1958), pp. 1-54. evaluation of existing efforts at training. The study focusses on the suggestion that education and training is a form of capital investment and that increased expenditures will be required. The Saskatchewan study similarly stresses the need for increased expenditure on con-32 tinuing education. Yearly vocational enrolment for the period 1959 to 1963 in Canada is presented by Porter, who shows the figures per ten thousand persons in the labour force calculated. This indicates a steady yearly increase from 1959 of 21 per ten thousand of the labour force to 2 3 , 28, 34, and 48 in each year respectively to 1963. Porter also presents enrolments in Institutes of Technology, indicating 14,100 enroled in 1963, then compared that figure with the total enrolment in 33 Canadian universities for the same year which stood at 158,400. It should be recognized that not every graduate from University will require two technicians to work with him on the job; nor will this ratio of technicians to university graduates be available. Marsh points out in his study of a very small sample of high school graduates on Vancouver Island that 15 per cent elect to pursue professional 34 studies and 22 per cent elect to pursue technical studies. Alberta. In 1959, the report of the Royal Commission on Educa-tion in Alberta was completed. The report noted that changes brought 32 J. R. Simonett, Report of the Select Committee on Manpower  Training (Toronto: Ontario Legislative Assembly, I 9 6 3 ) , pp. 35-71? John Archer, Report of Saskatchewan Committee on Continuing Education (Regina: Committee" of the Minister: of Education, 1963), p. 15. 33 A. Porter, "Priorities in the Education of Skilled Manpower," (paper read at the Canadian Education Association Forty-second Convention, New Brunswick, September 24, I 9 6 5 ) . 34 Leonard Marsh, A Regional College for Vancouver Island (Vancouver: Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia, 1966), p. 53. about by technology and by the shifts of population from rural to urban concentrations would create an increased need for higher technical and s k i l l training of manpower. The report pointed out that notwithstanding commendable developments in comprehensive schools, the Institute of Technology, apprenticeship and vocational training centres, the out-of-school service compared to the regular school service was relatively inaccessible both geographically and financially in meeting this new 35 need. The concern for identifying the need was again expressed in I965 by Steinberg who recommended research that would provide data about the Province's demand for labour, information that is not avail-able at present. Also recommended was an inventory of the Province's sources of manpower training, as well as the number of persons being trained for the economy. However, Steinberg concludes, "there is neither summation, nor analysis of the total training provisions for the labour force in the province." This same conclusion can be drawn with respect to a l l the literature on enrolments and financing available for review. The very great and the very diversified accumulation of data found in the studies of technical and vocational education would seem to be justification for repeating the statement of Sir Joseph Stamp, made some years ago: 3 5 Report of the Royal Commission on Education in Alberta 1959 (Edmonton: Provincial Department of Education, 1959), p. 15^ • 6^ C. Steinberg, Toward a Research Program into Alberta Manpower  Resources and Resource Allocation (Edmonton: Alberta Bureau of Statistics, Department of Industry and Development, I965), p. 21. 20 The Government are very keen on amassing statistics. They collect them, add them, raise them to the Nth power, take the cube root and prepare wonderful diagrams. But you must never forget that every one of these figures comes in the first instance from the village watchman, who puts down what he damn pleases.37 George E. Arnstein, "The Technological Content of Vocational Education," Vocational Education (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1965), p. 42. CHAPTER II APPRENTICESHIP I. INTRODUCTION In 1936, the Province of Alberta passed the Tradesman-'s Qualifications Act. The terms of the Tradesman's Qualifications Act prohibited anyone, except in certain emergency situations, from engaging in any trade to which the Act applied unless that person held a subsisting certificate of proficiency in the trade. To obtain a certificate of proficiency, a tradesman was required to be examined and to successfully pass the requirements of examination and competency in the trade. Preparation for Examination. Preparation for the examination for a certificate of proficiency was done by apprenticing to a journey-man. By this means, a period of experience in the trade was undertaken by the learner under the guidance and teaching of a qualified craftsman. Two difficulties were inherent in the system. Apprenticeship in many cases became only a lengthy time-serving process with no assurance that the skilled craftsman with whom the apprentice served could or would teach the learner the knowledge and s k i l l required of the trade. The second difficulty, with broader implications for competency, was the lack of uniform standards to which the apprentice was required to perform. The system of apprenticeship whereby the knowledge and practices of one generation of tradesmen is passed on to the next provided l i t t l e opportunity for acquiring new techniques and procedures and for rapid 22 adjustment to new products and their use. Recommendation for Training. The Subcommittee on Industry of the Alberta Post-War Reconstruction Committee, in 1944, noted the experience of the labour force under the wartime conditions of training for mass production, and partly recognizing the limitations; imposed by the time-serving apprenticeship means of qualifying for journeyman status, urged the Government of Alberta to provide a means of training apprentices that would overcome these problems. II. APPRENTICESHIP ACT The Alberta Apprenticeship Act was passed in October 1944, and became effective in January 1945. The administrative organization necessary for carrying out the requirements of the Act was begun by the establishment of the Apprenticeship Branch within the Department of Industries and Labour in April 1945. Purpose. The purpose of the Apprenticeship Act was to provide registration of apprentices in designated trades and to assure that registered apprentices received the instruction in the trade that was required by the terms of the Act. Designated Trades. In 1945, seven trades were designated. To be designated meant a trade or branch of a trade was named by the Minister, with the approval of the Lieutenant Governor in Council, as a trade coming within the terms of the Apprenticeship Act. The trades designated in 1945 were: bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, painters, plasterers, plumbers, and sheet metal workers. 23 Local Advisory Committees. The Apprenticeship Act provided for the establishment of advisory committees in any area of the Province where an apprentice was working in a designated trade. The advisory committee consisted of five members who were appointed by the Provincial Apprenticeship Board. The duties of the advisory committee, known as the Local Advisory Committee, included hearing complaints of employees, employers, and apprentices, relating to enforcement of the Act and other matters per-taining to the general training of apprentices. The Local Advisory Committee could also make recommendations to the Provincial Apprentice-ship Board. Provincial Advisory Committees. In addition to the Local Advisory Committees, there could also be established Provincial Advisory Committees for any designated trade or group of trades. The Provincial Advisory Committee consisted of five members, with an equal number of employer and employee members, and an official of the Provincial Depart-ment of Industries and Labour. The duties of the Provincial Advisory Committee included making regulations for the designated trade with respect to matters of age of apprentices, length of apprenticeship, and the number of apprentices that could be employed by each employer. The advisory committees were to advise on the content of training courses given in school and set the standards of proficiency to be. attained at the conclusion of each year of training. As well, they could set the standard of competency required for journeyman qualification and they could participate in setting examinations to assure the attainment of the standards. In 1945» both Local Advisory Committees and Provincial Advisory 24 Committees had been established in each of the following trades: bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, painters, plasterers, plumbers, and sheet metal workers. Apprenticeship Board. The Apprenticeship Act required the establishment of a Provincial Apprenticeship Board. The Board con-sisted of not more than five members appointed by the Lieutenant Governor in Council, with one member being a representative of labour, and one member being a representative of industry. The duty of the Provincial Apprenticeship Board was to advise the Minister on a l l matters pertaining to apprenticeship. The Apprenticeship Board was created in 1945. III. TRAINING CENTRES The basic purpose of the Apprenticeship Act was to assure the provision of training to apprentices, including a period of time of in-school training for each year of apprenticeship. Facilities. In 1945, the Canadian Vocational Training Centres, which had earlier been established throughout the Province for the training of persons for the armed services and for war industries, were now being used ,to retrain veterans for employment in the civilian labour force. The training facilities in the Canadian Vocational Training Centres .were, made available for the training of the apprentices. As the veterans completed their retraining, the need for Canadian Vocational Training Centres diminished and each was closed in turn, until in 1949 only the Canadian Vocational Training Centre in Calgary and the Canadian Vocational Training Centre in Edmonton remained. 25 Apprenticeship training continued in the Canadian Vocational Training Centre, Calgary, and was later expanded into the facilities of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, where training was provided for motor mechanics and auto body apprentices. Distribution. Each year the number of registered apprentices and the number of designated trades increased. In 1956, there were 2,195 registered apprentices enroled in training in twelve designated trades. The in-school training was provided at the Canadian Voca-tional Training Centre for apprentices registered in bricklaying, plastering, painting and decorating, plumbing, steamfitting, and welding. In-school training in auto body mechanics, carpentry, elec-trical, motor mechanics, refrigeration, and sheet metal was given in the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, Calgary. In the space of one year, 1957 > the number of registered apprentices enroled in training had increased to 2,610. The facilities at both the Canadian Vocational Training Centre and the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art were being used to capacity. At this time i t was known that the Canadian Vocational Training Centre was to be closed. The closure of this Centre and the continuing increase in registered apprentices made i t imperative that new facilities be obtained i f a curtailment of training of apprentices was to be avoided. IV. TRADE SCHOOL PROPOSAL Early in 1958, the proposal was made to construct a multipurpose trade school in Edmonton to provide facilities for the training of registered apprentices in motor mechanics, welding, and those trades being taught in the Canadian Vocational Training Centre, Calgary. Because 50 per cent of a l l apprentices resided in the northern half of the Province, Edmonton was selected as the location of the new school. Revision. The original proposal to provide a Trade School for the training of apprentices was expanded to a proposal to construct a Technical Institute, similar in principle to the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in Calgary. To be included in the new Institute was a division for apprenticeship training. The construction of this division of the training facilities for apprentices was given priority in the overall project in recognition of the continued increasing registration of apprentices. In 196l, when construction of the new facilities, to be called the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as N.A.I.T.) was started, there were 3,783 registered apprentices as compared to 2,610 in 1957. In 19&3, when the training facilities of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were available to the apprentices, i t was possible to enrol in the two training centres, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology and the renamed Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (referred to as S.A.I.T.), a total of 4,408 apprentices in twenty-one trades. Registration of apprentices continued to increase in 1965 and there were 4,512 apprentices enroled in training. There were twenty-two trades in which training was given and four new trades in the process of being established. The new trades being established were: appliance serviceman, glassworker, iron worker, and partsman. V. DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 27 In I960, the Provincial Department of Industries and Labour was reorganized into two new departments. The new departments were the Department of Industry and Development, and the Department of Labour. The Apprenticeship Branch became a branch of the Department of Labour. VI. IN-SCHOOL TRAINING The Apprenticeship Act and the execution of the intent of the Act has given structure to the process of developing competent crafts-men in the various trades designated. A significant part of that structure has been the in-school training that has complemented the on-the-job training. Length of Designation. Apprenticeship in each designated trade was, by regulation, assigned a specific period of time in which the apprenticeship was to be completed. The following trades, in 1965, required four years of apprenticeship: bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, plasterers, plumbers, steamfitters, motor mechanics, auto body mechanics, sheet metal mechanics, radio, refrigeration, machinists, heavy duty mechanics, tilesetters, and appliance service-men. The following trades, in 1965, required three years of apprentice-ship: gasfitters, welders, lathers, cooks, and bakers. In 1965, the trade of sheet metal mechanic required four years and nine months, and the trade of painter and decorator required three years and six months. Length of In-School Training. For most trades, apprentices were required to attend in-school classes for eight weeks each year. The length of in-school training classes and the distribution of in-school training periods throughout the years of apprenticeship could be altered by the Apprenticeship Board in order to provide the basic preparation required for satisfactory performance on the job or to provide sufficient time for the intricacies of the trade to be presented. Ini-school training could also be discontinued, as in the case of millwrights and lathers, when circumstances made in-school training impractical. When in-school training was not provided, emphasis was then placed on the on-the-job phase of training. Schedule. In the years between 1945 and 1965» the periods of in-school training for designated trades had changed several times. The schedule of required in-school training in each trade in 19^ 5 was as outlined in Table I. VII. ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS The regulations pursuant to the Apprenticeship Act set out the educational requirements and other qualifications of persons who could become apprentices. The regulations were so stated that they avoided being prohibitive to an individual. Education. The educational requirements, where stated, were grade nine or its equivalent. The equivalency could be determined by the Apprenticeship Board. Age. The Apprenticeship Act set the minimum age at which a person could become an apprentice at sixteen years. There was no maximum age stated, except in the trades of plastering and bricklaying where the maximum age was twenty-one. Because of the strenuous nature 29 ' TABLE I IN-SCHOOL TRAINING'PERIOD'PER ..YEAR OF, APPRENTICESHIP-H965 Trade 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year Auto Body Mechanics 5 5 5 4: Appliance Servicemen 8 8 8 8 Bakers 8 8 8 Bricklayers 8 8** 8 Carpenters 8 8 8 8 Cooks 8 8 8 Electrical 8 8 8 8 Gasfitting 3 3 Heavy Duty Mechanics 6 6 6 6 Lathers 4 pending Machinists 8 8 8 8 Millwrights discontinued Motor Mechanics 8 8 6 6 Painter and Decorator 4 8 8 Plasterers 4 6 Plumbers 6 6 6 6 Radio 8 8 8 8 Refrigeration 8 8 8 8 Sheet Metal 10 8 6 8 Steamfitters 6 6 6 6 Tilesetters 4 4 4 4 Welders 6 6 4 *A11 in-school training periods shown in weeks **Bricklayers attend only three periods of in-school training in the four years of apprenticeship. of the work in bricklaying and plastering and the heavy lifting required, young men were preferred for these trades. Applicants for apprenticeship in bricklaying and plastering, who were over the age of twenty-one, had to be approved by the Provincial Advisory Committee for that trade. The Provincial Advisory Committee for the trade could approve an applicant whose age was over twenty-one. VIII. QUALIFICATION Upon completion of the required period of apprenticeship and upon successful completion of the in-school training, an apprentice, by examination under the terms of the Tradesman's Qualification Act, may attain the status of Journeyman. Further training and upgrading of journeymen was then the responsibility of the individual journey-man or his employer. IX. TRAINING ALLOWANCES During the period of apprenticeship, the costs of training and of administering the terms of the Apprenticeship Act were shared by the Federal Government at the rate of 50 per cent of Provincial expenditures on approved costs. Since 1964, the cost of administering the Tradesman's Qualification Act has also been shared by the Federal Government at the rate of 50 per cent of Provincial expenditures on approved costs. Tuition. The Provincial Government, by regulation, required that the registered apprentice leave his place of work during the period of his apprenticeship and attend in-school classes. While attending in-school classes the apprentice was off the job and might not receive pay from his employer during the period of his absence. The apprentice, who was required to travel to the centre at which training was provided and obtain sustenance, was subjected to a cost. However, there was no tuition or other fee required from the apprentice for the training. Amount of Allowances. To assist in offsetting the financial commitment to which the apprentice was subjected during the period of his in-school training, the Government provided an allowance to each apprentice in training. The amount of the allowance was $12 per week for single apprentices, and $15 per week for married apprentices. Reimbursement for the cost of travel from the home, city, town or village of the apprentice to the city of the training centre and return, was also provided. Employers might, at their discretion, continue payment of f u l l or partial wages to the apprentice while he was in training. X. ENROLMENT Training for apprentices in 195& was provided in two centres, both of them in Calgary. The Canadian Vocational Training Centre at the Old Airport site provided training for bricklayers, plasterers, painting and decorating, plumbing, steamfitting, and welding. A total of 794 apprentices were trained in the Centre in 1956. Training for the balance of the trades was provided at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art. Apprentices trained were those in auto body, carpentry, electrical, motor mechanics, refrig-eration, and sheet metal. In 1956, a total of 1,401 apprentices were : trained in the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, as shown in Table II. TABLE II APPRENTICESHIP ENROLMENT Trade 1956 1957 1958 1 9 5 9 I960 1961 1 9 6 2 1963 1964 1 9 6 5 Auto Body Mechanics 157 190 195 198 229 216 2 0 1 215 222 265 Bricklaying 31 49 * 32 31 43 26 4 5 30 4 3 Carpentry 108 149 1 8 9 215 238 201 180 198 155 I83 Electrical 352 420 460 520 521 557 5 8 2 631 858 983 Motor Mechanics 65O 751 807 839 874 942 940 994 1256 1274 Painting and Decorating 4 4 35 * 48 66 57 41 5 3 55 4 3 Plastering 48 31 * 47 32 19 15 21 16 1 3 Plumbing 350 3 3 ^ * 432 4 4 3 476 410 517 449 402 Refrigeration 1 1 14 30 33 42 35 36 Sheet Metal 1 3 4 164 180 210 228 233 195 261 193 243 Steamfitting 76 62 * 102 89 121 91 148 151 84 Welding 245 389 * 567 544 461 372 399 364 4 5 0 Machinists 36 42 4 4 53 44 5 3 59 65 83 Cooks 12 30 24 25 30 38 43 4 9 Lathers 5 4 10 Heavy Duty Mechanics 10 27 75 115 152 178 185 Gasfitting * 175 160 215 279 511 129 30 Millwrights 3 Bakers 9 25 Tilesetting 17 19 Radio and T.V. 46 68 81 80 120 104 1341** Pre-apprentices 50 4 4 50 48 Total 2195 2610 3232 3474 3622 3783 3694 4408 4395 4 5 7 2 Yearly percentage change from previous year + 1 3 . 5 +18.9 + 2 3 . 8 + 7 . 4 + 4 . 2 + 4 . 4 - 2 . 4 + 1 9 . 3 - 0 . 3 + 4 . 0 *Separate enrolment not available. **Total enrolment for programmes marked (*). 33 In the year 1957, training for machinists was included in the training provided by the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, and in 1958 cooking and lathers were added. The training for lathers, however, was discontinued in i960 because of a lack of enrolment and i t was not until 1965 that a class was again held. The trade of gas-fitting was also designated in 1958 and training for gasfitters was provided at the Canadian Vocational Training Centre. Most plumbers and many steamfitters take additional training in gasfitting in order to be qualified for employment in both occupations. This accounts for the heavy i n i t i a l enrolment in gasfitting, which in 1959 amounted to 175. In 1959, heavy duty mechanics (diesel) were provided training for the fi r s t time and this training was given at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art. Millwrights were provided formal training at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in i960. Only three apprentices enroled in I960, and none in the years following. Alternative on-the-job training was provided in place of the formal programme because of the nature of the work done in the trade. Also in I960, training was resumed in radio servicing at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, having previously been discontinued in 1954. Transfer of Training Courses. In 1961, the name of the Pro-vincial Institute of Technology and Art was changed to the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. In 1962, the Canadian Vocational Training Centre in Calgary which had operated on leased property from the City of Calgary was closed. The buildings were made available to the City and the 3k equipment either moved to the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology or disposed of through the Alberta Provincial Marketing Board. The courses of training that had been carried out in the Centre were transferred to the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, and to the newly opened Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Apprenticeship training was now available in both the southern and northern parts of the Province in the cities of Calgary and Edmonton. Certain trades with relatively low enrolment were offered in only one centre. These trades, in 1964, were as follows: bricklaying, painting and decorating, plastering, steamfitting, lathing, gasfitting, baking and tilesetting. The above courses were provided only at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Refrigerationiwas provided only at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. Clarification of Identification of Certain Trades. Over the period indicated, 1956-65, some slight variation in.the names of trades appeared in the published material. Development and special training in the electrical field had necessitated designating the following trades: electrical, electrical communications, electrical construction and electrical power. Enrolment in these four trades was totalled and is shown under the title of electrical in Table II. Welding-pre-employment, factory woodworking, photo-physics, and commercial sign writing are not apprenticeship trades under the Alberta Apprenticeship Act. Enrolment for the courses appears in the apprenticeship figures of the published material, but is not'included in Table II. Pre-apprentice Classes. In each of the years 1962, 1963, 1964 and I965, special classes had been provided and designated pre-apprenticeship classes. Training was .given in selected trade matters, and those persons who successfully completed the training would receive credit for the training on their apprenticeship i f they proceeded into a formal apprenticeship agreement. The persons enroled in pre-apprentice courses, however, were not apprentices. They have been shown separately but included in the total figures for apprentice-ship in 1962, 1963, 1964 and 1965. It was intended that they become apprentices and the cost of their training was included in the total cost of apprenticeship training. Centres for Training in 1965. In 1965, the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology provided training in auto body, carpentry, electrical, motor mechanics, plumbing, refrigeration, sheet metal, welding, machinists, cooks, heavy duty, mechanics, and radio. A total of 1,864 apprentices were trained in this centre in 1965. In 1965, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology provided training in auto body, bricklaying, carpentry, electrical, motor mechanics, painting and decorating, plastering, plumbing, sheet metal, steamfitting, gasfitting, radio, baking,, and tilesetting. A total of 2,663 apprentices were trained in this centre in I965. In 1965, for the f i r s t time, apprentices were trained in the Lethbridge Junior College, Lethbridge^ Training was provided in electrical, motor mechanics and welding. A total of 31 apprentices were trained in Lethbridge in 1965. Earlier, in 1958, training in welding was provided to 31 apprentices at the Fairview School of Agriculture, Fairview. Due to a fire in the school, no further training was provided at Fairview until I 9 6 5 . In 1965, training was again provided in motor mechanics and welding to 32 apprentices at the Alberta Agricultural and Vocational College, Fairview, the name having been changed in 1963 from Fairview School of Agriculture. Changes in Enrolment. The total increase in apprentice enrolment for training between the years 1956 and 1965 was 108.2 per cent for an average of 10.8 per cent per year. Exceptions occurred in 1962 and 1964 when decreases were experienced. The economic recession in 1958 and the subsequent increase in unemployment which persisted until 1962 was reflected in the lower rate of increase for training between 1958 and 1962, as compared with the material increases between 1956 and 1958. However in 1963> when the Northern Alberta Institute of Tech-nology was opened and more training space was available, a larger number of apprentices were placed in training. Number in Training and Number Registered. The relationship of the number of apprentices who receive training and the total number of apprentices registered, as shown in Table III, is significant only in showing a gradual increase in the percentage of registered apprentices who receive training. The cause of changes in the relationship may be due to changes in response to training or may be due to changes in the rate of cancellations and dropouts from apprenticeship. This has not been examined. XI. OPERATIONAL COSTS The apprenticeship programme was the means of assuring that the apprentice received training in the trade. The cost of providing the training was borne by the government of the Province through the departments concerned. TABLE III REGISTERED APPRENTICES AND TOTAL ENROLMENT 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1961+ 1965 Total Registered 3876 1+266 1+1+62 1+789 1*777 1+782 5153 5066 5293 6055 Total in Training 2195 26IQ 3232 31+71+ 3622 3783 369I+ 1+1+08 1+395 1+572 Per- cent in Training 56.6 61.1 72.1+ 72.5 75.8 79.1 71.6 87.O 83.0 75.5 38 Administration. Administration of the Apprenticeship Act was the responsibility of the Department of Industries and Labour. Under the terms of the Act, each apprentice was required to attend formal training classes during various periods of the apprenticeship indenture. The Department of Industries and Labour provided the required training through an arrangement whereby the apprentice was trained in facilities operated by the Department of Education. The appropriation required to finance the training for apprentices was approved by the Department of Industries and Labour, and included in the Accounts of the Department of Education. Therefore, although the responsibility for the training of apprentices rests with the Department of Industries and Labour, the expenditure of funds and the subsequent accounting of reimbursements for such training was maintained by Canadian Vocational Training. In 1964, this procedure was changed and, in 1964 and 1965, the accounting for apprentice training was transferred to the accounting office of the Department of Labour. Reimbursement. All amounts shown in Table IV, for expenditures and reimbursements on apprentice training, are to the nearest dollar. Reimbursements, under the terms of the Apprenticeship Agreement, were made by the Government of Canada at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures. Expenditures were accounted and claims for reimbursement were made periodically throughout the fiscal year by the accounting office of Canadian Vocational Training. Reimbursements were made by the Government of Canada from time to time on the basis of claims audited and approved. Because of the time involved, the total reimbursement for each year differs in amount from 50 per cent of TABLE IV OPERATIONAL COSTS OF APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Expenditures Canadian Vocational Training: $529,783 634,561' 790,973 '891,324 973,632 1,037,641 1,072,642 1,040,166 Department of Labour 1,311,660 1,501,403 Totals $529,783 634,561 790,973 891,324 973,632 1,037,641 1,072,642 1,040,166 1,311,660 1.501,403 Reimbursement Canadian Vocational Training $203,529 260,392 323,694 432,125 440,779 452,977 472,250 472,777 Department of Labour 634,078 624,094 Net Prov. Operating $326,254 374,169 467,279 459,199 532,853 584,664 600,392 567,389 677,582 877,309 Cost 40 Provincial expenditures for the same year. Expenditure Items. Expenditures for apprenticeship training include the cost.of salaries and wages of instructors, the cost of materials and supplies used in training, and administrative costs. Differentiation of Terms. In the consideration of financing apprenticeship training, a differentiation was maintained between expenditure and cost. Expenditure in this situation was defined as the total outlay, both external to provincial accounting and internal with regard to training. Cost was defined as the net external outlay of the Province after adjusting expenditures for reimbursements from the Government of Canada under the terms of the Federal-Provincial Apprenticeship Agreement. Changes in Costs. Between the years 1956 and 1965, the total overall increase in the net Provincial operating cost for training apprentices was 168.9 per cent for an average yearly increase of 16.8 per cent. Exceptions to the average yearly increase of 16.8 per cent occurred in 1959 when a decrease was recorded and in I963 when a decrease was also recorded. XII. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER In 1944 the Apprenticeship Act was established in the Province. The administration of the Act required the establishment of an Apprenticeship Board and Provincial and Local Advisory Committees. Working through this form of organization the Department of Labour designated certain trades, setting the length of apprenticeship and the training to be provided. Classes were held in Canadian Vocational 41 Training Centres and in the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. After 1962 classes were also held at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Apprentices were required to have grade nine education or its equivalent and be sixteen years of age or over. During the period of training in school, each received financial assistance in the form of an allowance and remission of fees. Enrolment increased steadily from 1956 to I965 with enrolments of 2,195 and 4,572 respectively. The expenditure and the cost of training the increasing number of apprentices also changed. In 1956 an amount of $529,783 was expended and in I965 an amount of $1,501,403. The cost of training changed from $326,254 in 1956 to $877,309 in 1965. CHAPTER III TECHNICAL INSTITUTES AND TECHNICIANS I. INTRODUCTION Historically, the introduction of technical training to Alberta was clouded by a strange mixture of circumstances emanating from the enthusiasm of the residents of Calgary and the conservatism of a Royal Commission. In 1914, a Royal Commission appointed to consider the establishment of a university in Calgary, recommended instead the establishment of an Institute of Technology and Art. Provincial Institute. On October 1, 1916, shop space and staff were made available, and the operation identified as the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art was begun. However, almost immediately the space was expropriated to provide urgently needed accommodation for a rehabilitation centre for injured veterans of the fi r s t World War. In 1921, the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art moved to a new campus with an enrolment of 636 persons and a clearer identi-fication of purpose and programme. The distinguishing feature of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art lay in the nature of its courses which were to be vocational and semi-professional in character. The Provincial Institute of Technology and Art could not grant degrees. Courses. The early course titles reflected the expectations of the Institute and the limitations imposed by the Government as a result of the recommendations of the Royal Commission. The names "Steam Engineering"'and "Electrical Engineering" implied semi-professionalism, while at the same time "Tractor Engineering" as much as stated "no degree." 43 Site. In 1921 the Government purchased 123 acres of land for $63,000. The first permanent buildings of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art were erected in 1921. The first courses offered in the new buildings were: electrical engineering, steam engineering, tractor engineering, motor mechanics, telegraphy, battery and ignition, and correspondence courses in steam, and in mining. Correspondence courses in mining were offered until 1955 when they were discontinued because of a lack of enrolment. Early Prerequisites. From the early beginnings, the courses offered at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art placed emphasis on mathematics, science and English. The courses were divided in terms of content between theory as emphasized by the study of mathematics, science, English, and practical shop work. There were no specific prerequisites stated for admission to a course of training, but applicants did have to satisfy the instructors on staff that their competence in mathematics and English was sufficiently high to enable them to progress in the semi-professional level of training offered at the Institute. Generally, the educational level of the students was grade eight. The Depression Period. Progress and development at the Provincial Institute of Technology and--Art reached a plateau in 1929, and i t was not until a severe economic depression had run its course in the history of Canada, and a second all-encompassing world war had come to an end, that the formation of technical training took another step forward. As had happened over twenty years earlier, the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in 1940 was again moved from its quarters by the exigency of the war. This time, however, i t clearly retained its identity although the courses of the Institute were directed to contributing to increased war production. II. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS From the vantage point of the present, i t can be seen that one of the most significant periods in the development of technical training was the year 1946. In that year, the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art returned to the Institute site in north Calgary and replaced and replenished the equipment and shops and classrooms that were needed to offer programmes that were distinct in their intent of being technical and semi-professional. Divisions. Divisions within the Provincial Institute of Tech-nology and Art were established in 1946. The divisions were the Technology Division, Cultural Division, Trade Training Division, Evening Courses, Correspondence Division, and a division for training Industrial Arts teachers. Prerequisites for entry were raised in the Technology Division and prerequisites were established as one of the distinguishing elements for training in the other divisions. New Buildings. In 1948, classes were established for the training of apprentices. Enrolment increased not only from the addi-tion of the apprentices, but in a l l other divisions of training established within the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art. To accommodate the increasing enrolment many new buildings were built between the years 1948 and 1963• New shops and classrooms were provided for auto body, automotives and construction training. A new science wing was built. A three-story building to house electronics, radio, art, drafting, and food services was completed in 1958. In 196l a new building for training in diesel, welding, and power plant engineering was erected, and in 1963 a students* activity centre was built. Advisory Committees. For the purpose of establishing technical courses that were in keeping with the needs of industry as identified by industry, advisory committees were established in each distinct technical area. The advisory committee members were recognized, com-petent men in their respective fields, and contributed greatly to the level and quality of the content that was taught in the respective courses. The same principle of advice from industry was effected through advisory groups in other non-technical courses. Identification. Between 1956 and 1961, continued growth affected a l l aspects of the operation of the Provincial Institute' of Technology and Art and the calibre and content of technical courses. Industry was increasing the demand for persons well trained in mathematics and science, and who had a broad preparation in theory coupled with a broad capability in the practical. The demand from industry was increasing for persons who could function effectively in the labour economy between the theoretically-oriented professional engineer and the skilled, trade-competent craftsman. Such was the generally accepted identification of the technician. IV. FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FINANCING 46 A new Federal-Provincial Technical and Vocational Training Agreement was signed between the Province of Alberta and the Federal Government and came into effect April 1, 196l. Section 7 of the new Technical and Vocational Training Agreement provided for Federal sharing in expenditures made by the Province on capital expenditures incurred for approved training facilities for a l l technical, voca-tional and apprenticeship training programmes. The rate of sharing by the Federal Government was 50 per cent of the capital expenditure incurred by the Province on training facilities, plus an additional 25 per cent of the capital expenditure incurred by the Province until the Federal contribution at the 75 per cent rate reached an amount of $47,521,920 for the Province. This was an amount equal to $480 for each person in the age group fifteen to nineteen years of age inclu-sive, residing in the Province as determined by the 1961 Census of Canada. The availability of capital financial assistance through the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement made possible and desirable the immediate and complete construction of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. V. INSTITUTE OPENING It was a tribute to the construction industry of the Province, as well as the planners of the Institute, that the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was able to accept the f i r s t apprentice class for training on October 1, 1962. The apprenticeship training section of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was officially opened on November 28, 1962. The official opening of the entire Institute took place on May 27, 1963. Divisions. Following the pattern of the established Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was divided into four divisions. These were: the Tech-nology Division, the Apprenticeship Division, the Business and Vocational Division, and the Evening Division. Prerequisites were established for admission to courses in the Technology Division that were similar to those at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology for the same or equivalent courses. VI. TECHNICIANS Technician training was intended to be a post-high school programme of further preparation for occupational competence. Strong emphasis was placed on science, mathematics, and on the ability to communicate according to the requirements of the occupational field in which the technology f e l l , and to the practical requirements associated with the technology. Standards. By 1965, the desirability of establishing national , standards of qualification and a clear definition of a technician had been recognized by the Committee on Technological Education of the National Technical and Vocational Training Advisory Council. Agreement was reached that qualification for the designation "technician" would be successful completion of 2,400 hours of post-secondary school instruction. Post-secondary was determined to be after eleven years of regular school attendance, meaning grade eleven. VII. ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS 48 At both the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, admission to technical courses was based on the requirement of matriculation standing, or depending on the course, a high school diploma. One hundred selected high school subject credits were required to qualify for matripulation. Qualifi-cation for a high school diploma also required one hundred credits, but the selection of subjects permitted for study was broader. Twelve years of secondary school attendancej meaning grade twelve, were required in order to acquire one hundred subject credits or a high school diploma. Therefore, technical courses requiring an Alberta high school diploma or matriculation for admission required only It,800' hours of study after grade twelve to qualify as a technical programme. Technical and non-technical courses are distinguished on the basis of the required prerequisites and the length of post-secondary training. Non-technical courses are those which require less than a high school diploma for admission or are less than 2,400 hours in length after grade eleven in Alberta. To provide the opportunity to any capable person to participate in the training provided by the Institutes, admission requirements were stated in the form that preference would be given to those who had the prerequisites noted. Thereby, no one of proven ability was denied the opportunity to enrol i f he could benefit from the training. VIII. APPRENTICE DIVISION The Apprenticeship Division of the Institutes provided training in the respective trades for registered apprentices only. The 49 registered apprentices were directed to training by the Apprenticeship Branch of the Provincial Department of Labour. The apprentice was required, by the conditions of his contract of apprenticeship, to attend training classes for a period of eight weeks in each of his four years of apprenticeship. Variation in the length of training and the fre*-quency of enrolment was found in certain trades. IX. EVENING DIVISION Evening courses had been provided on a continuous basis at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology since the year 1937» except for a short period during the depression when they were discontinued for financial reasons. The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology provided evening classes in 1963 and continued to expand enrolment and courses in 1964 and I965. Objectives. The broadly stated objectives of the Evening Course Divisions at both the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were: 1. To instruct persons who were employed in business and industry in theoretical and technical aspects of their work; 2. To instruct persons who may change to new jobs, in the basic requirements of such jobs; 3 . To assist those who wished to improve the use of their ^ leisure time and to better understand their surroundings. Length. The courses offered in the Evening Divisions were as varied as the requests. Courses were offered on a schedule of two-hour classes for two evenings per week or on a schedule of three-hour classes ^"Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Annual Calendar  Evening Courses 1965 (Calgary: Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, 1965), p. 11. for one evening per week. Variations of these basic schedules were effected in accordance with the content of the training and the circum-stances of the class members. At the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, the length of courses ranged from 36 hours to 150 hours, with one course of 30 hours offered. The courses of 72 hours' duration made up 68 per cent of the courses offered. The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology offered courses in the Evening Division ranging from 18 hours' duration to 150 hours' duration, with one course of 6 hours being offered. The combined courses of 60 hours' duration and 72 hours' duration made up 33 per cent of the total courses offered. X. FINANCING The training, both technical and non-technical, that is provided by the Institutes of Technology in Calgary and in Edmonton was financed in the fi r s t instance directly from Provincial Government funds through the administration of the Department of Education, and in the matter of capital expenditures, through the Department of Public Works. Fees. The fee structure of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1956 and in 1965 are presented in Tables V and VI. The tuition fee was unchanged over the period. The increase in amount resulted from an increase in associated costs. An examination of the fee schedule revealed that the tool deposit, as a deposit, was refundable at the completion of the training period. The Student Association fee was collected at the time of registration for the Student Association and not for the Government. The $2 insurance 51 TABLE V INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY FEES—1956 Short Day Regular Day Courses 8 or 10 month Courses Ten Weeks Welding Course, including over or less, or Three Welding Ten Weeks 300 hours Weeks Registration $ 5 $ 5 $ 5 $ 5 Tuition ho 25- 13 h3 Tool deposit 5 5 5 5 Laboratory or Shop fee 5 5 2 2 Students' Association 10 10. 2 2 Insurance 1 1 1 1 Totals $66 $51 $28 $58 TABLE VI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY FEES'--1965 8-9 Mo. Course Regular Short_ Including Day Course Welding Welding Courses Ten Wks. Three Wks.—Six Wks. Registration $ 5 $ 5 $ 5 $ 5 $ 5 Tuition ho 25 13 U3 86 Tool Deposit 5 5 5 5 5 Laboratory fee 5 5 2 2 2 Students' Association 17 17 2.' 2 2 Insurance and Misc. 2 2 2 2 2 Totals $7^ $59 $29. $59 $102 premium was collected for a private insurance company for a policy covering the student against accidents and injury while attending school. The money was not paid to the Government. The fees from each registered student amounted to $50 in the case of courses which in-cluded welding in their offering, and $35 for regular day courses without welding. These amounts applied to courses that were technical and to courses that were non-technical. The fees for short courses of ten weeks' duration or less were $20. Welding, being a more costly course of training to offer because of the materials used, commanded fees,' respectively, of $50 and $93 for a three-week or a six-week, course.: Money collected from fees by the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and by the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were returned to the General Revenue Account of the Provincial Government. Evening Course Fees. Evening course fees were set on the basis that a l l evening courses would be self-supporting with respect to direct costs. A minimum enrolment of fifteen persons was required for a course to be offered, and the fee was determined from the cost of providing the particular course in relation to the minimum number to be enroled. The fees collected for evening class enrolment were directed to the General Revenue Account of the Provincial Government. Correspondence Course Fees. Correspondence course fees were $15 for the practical mathematics course and $15» $25» $40, and $50 for the fourth, third, second, and fi r s t class steam engineering courses. The fees collected from correspondence course enrolment were directed to the General Revenue Account of the Provincial Govern-ment. 53 Apprenticeship Costs. Apprentices do not pay fees. The costs of instructional staff, material and supplies, building alterations and equipment for apprenticeship training, were provided" in.the fi r s t instance through the Department of Education. The costs of operating that part of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology that was applicable to the apprenticeship programme were charged to apprenticeship training by the Department of Education on behalf of the Provincial Department of Labour. Subsequently, reimbursement was claimed by the Department of Education under the terms of the Federal-Provincial Apprenticeship Agreement at the rate of 50 per cent of Provincial expenditures occurred in the training of registered apprentices. XI. ENROLMENT—TECHNICIANS, S.A.I.T. Reference to Table VII shows that nine courses of training for technicians were provided in 1956 for a total enrolment of 303 persons. A new course in land surveying was offered for the fi r s t time in 1958, with an i n i t i a l enrolment of fifty-six. New emphasis was placed on aeronautical engineering in 1958, resulting in an increase in enrolment in aeronautical engineering and a corresponding decrease in enrolment in aircraft maintenance, a non-technical course. In 1959, the opening of the East Block provided additional instructional area, which was reflected in the increased enrolment in electronics and in refrigeration and air conditioning. To meet the demand of industry, the course in petroleum tech-nology was provided in I960, and an i n i t i a l enrolment of twenty-two persons was recorded. TABLE VII SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—TECHNICIAN ENROLMENTS 1956 1957 1958 1959 i960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Aeronautical Engineering 16 18 69 67 53 55 57 61 55 59 Industrial Laboratory 42 53 5k 60 64 91 94 112 94 94 Architectural 22 29 3k 42 36 41 40 41 26 32 Construction 15 14 14 23 55 51 22 33 42 40 Drafting 79 78 35 63 57 61 81 89 47 37 Electrical 39 47 51 49 51 5k 59 59 56 43 Electronics 67 74 85 111 136 160 171 176 176 158 Mechanical 13 5 11 19 25 29 38 38 32 24 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 10 6 7 16 16 16 14 26 24 26 Land Surveying 56 57 60 44 41 k5 48 46 Petroleum Technology 22 46 45 47 60 68 Merchandising Administration 31 53 74 87 87 Chemical Research 17 12 18 10 Power Plant Engineering 17 34 26 27 Totals 303 324 416 507 575 679 749 847 791 751 Yearly percentage change from previous year +6.9 +28„3 +21.8 +13.4 +18.0 +10.3 +13.0 -7.0 -5.3 55 In 1961, merchandising administration was fir s t offered with an enrolment of thirty-one. The value of this course was evident in the substantial increase in enrolment in each of the following years. Two new courses, chemical research, and power plant engineering, were made available through the facilities of the Institute in 1962. The course in refrigeration and air conditioning was revised with new emphasis being placed on air conditioning. The new emphasis on air conditioning was reflected in a slight increase in enrolment in 19&3 in refrigeration and air conditioning. A slight drop in total enrolment in 1964 was accounted for by the opening in Edmonton of the new Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. The availability of the new facilities in the northern part of the Province caused only slight decreases in certain courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, leaving their enrol-ment s t i l l comparable with the previous year, 1963. The courses of construction, land surveying, petroleum technology, and chemical research, showed slight increases'. In 1965> the name of the Industrial laboratory course was changed to "Chemical Technology." The enrolment was not affected by the change in t i t l e . All technician courses were offered within the buildings of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in Calgary. Changes in Enrolment. The overall increase in enrolment between the years 1956 and 1965 was I56.I per cent for an average of 15.6 per cent per year. The high increase of 28.3 per cent in 1958 was, in part, due to the change in emphasis in aeronautical engineering which materially increased enrolment in the technical course. The opening 56" of the new facilities in the East Block in 1959 permitted accommodation of a larger number of persons than the normal yearly increase. Effect of New Institute. The decline in 1964 was attributed to the opening of the new Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton. Those persons living in the northern part of the Province could enrol in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton in preference to the more distant Southern Alberta Institute of Tech-nology in Calgary. Essentially, this same factor was evident in the continued decline in enrolment at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in the year 1965. XII. ENROLMENT—NON-TECHNICAL, S.A.I.T. In 1956, there were 53? persons enroled in non-technical courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, including those enroled in the College of Art. Enrolment in dining-room service, as shown in Table VIII, included those persons reported enroled in food service training, and waitresses. In 1964, food service training was discontinued and only dining-room service training was listed. A special carpentry course was provided fifteen persons from the North-west Territories in 1956 and was not repeated. New emphasis on the technical course of aeronautical engineering in 1958 resulted in a marked reduction in enrolment in the non-technical aircraft maintenance course in the same year. The expansion of the petroleum industry in the Province increased the demand for operators and mechanics of heavy diesel equipment which was reflected in the substantial increase in enrolment in diesel mechanics in 1958. New building space completed in 1958 accommodated the increased enrolments. TABLE VIII SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—NON-TECHNICAL ENROLMENTS 1956 1957 1958 1959 ' I960 1961 1962 .1963 1964 1965 Aircraft Maintenance 60 57 14 33 36 42 38 46 44 44 Agricultural Mechanics 65 67 64 65 61 70 82 70 71 73 Art 70 90 110 145 169 172 153 155 172 205 Automotive Service 46 42 41 47 59 55 56 63 60 55 Commercial Radio Operator 21 16 22 41 41 41 48 41 27 30 Diesel Mechanics 15 18 52 52 51 65 52 44 37 36 Dining-Room Service 15 21 31 40 32 42 60 19 30 22 Dressmaking 65 61 71 86 100 148 155 152 154 154 Industrial Arts 30 28 23 28 37 54 50 67 56 40 Welding 135 131 162 201 207 232 175 136 138 90 Special Carpentry 15 Commercial Cooking 20 32 41 Metal Craft 14 Totals 537 531 590 738 793 921 869 813 821 804 Yearly percentage change from previous year -1.1 +11.1 +25.0 +7.4 +16.1 -5.9 -6.8 +0.9 -2.1 A new course in commercial cooking was provided in I963 with an in i t i a l enrolment of twenty persons. The provision of the more com-prehensive commercial cooking course resulted in a decreased enrolment in the dining-room service course. The commercial cooking course replaced the food service training course, the enrolment of which had been included in the dining-room service enrolment figure. In I965, a new course in metal craft was provided at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and an i n i t i a l enrolment of fourteen was recorded. All of the non-technical courses offered were conducted within the buildings of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Calgary. Changes in Enrolment. The overall increase in enrolment between 1956 and 1965 is 49.7 per cent for an average of 4.9 per cent per year. An examination of the individual years, however, reveals substantial increases in enrolment in 1958, 1959, I960 and 1961, but an almost continual decline from I96I to I965. Effect of New Institute. The opening of the new Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton in 1964 had no affect on enrolment in non-technical courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1964. Similar non-technical courses were not avail-able at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in its opening year. In 1965, courses similar to diesel mechanics, dining-room service, dressmaking, and commercial cooking were available in Edmonton, but enrolment in these courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology were not materially reduced. Correspondence. Two courses by correspondence were offered in 59 1956 through the facilities of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Calgary. The courses were practical mathematics and steam. The title "steam" was changed to steam engineering in 1958 and again in 1962 to power plant engineering. In 19&3, the name was power plant engineering technology and, finally in 1964, i t was changed once again to "steam engineering." Enrolment figures shown in Table IX for the steam engineering correspondence course varied from year to year with no pattern and no apparent explanation for the fluctuations. In 1962, a full-day technician course was provided at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in power plant engineering. Enrolment in the full-day technician course in 1962, however, was only seventeen and in 1963 enrolment was thirty-four, and in 1964 enrolment was twenty-six. Establishment of the technician course, therefore, did not in itself account for the material decrease in enrolment in the correspondence course of steam engineering in 1963 and 1964.' Enrolment in practical mathematics showed a gradual decline from the high of 427 in 1957, except for a similar high enrolment in 1962, to a low of 343 in I965. The figures for courses completed are for both practical mathematics courses completed and steam engineering courses completed in each year. There was no time limit set on the completion of courses and, therefore, the relationship between course completions and enrol-ment figures was not direct. However, an examination of the total enrolment for the years 1956 to 1963, the last year for which course completion figures were available, and of the total figure for course completions for the years 1956 to I963 showed total enrolment to be TABLE IX SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—CORRESPONDENCE COURSE ENROLMENTS 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964- 196^ Practical Mathematics 96 !+27 39^ 383 383 352 1+27 363 31+5 343 Steam Engineering 5^0 577 490 497 H27 6U5 7 2 1 593 591 640 Totals 636 lQOU QQk 880 810 997 1148 956 936 983 Courses Completed Cboth subjects) 71 108 166 171 l 6 l 235 277 2U0 N.A. N.A. 61 7,315 and total completions to be 1,429. This was a 19.6 per cent rate of completion. When a three-year time-period was allowed to complete a correspondence course, and examination of enrolment figures for three-year periods commencing in 1956 compared with completion figures every three years hence, i t revealed a rate of completion of 22.4 per cent, 24.3 per cent and 29.2 per cent in each of the periods. Night Classes. In 1956, there were 1,771 persons enroled in thirty-seven different courses, and there were 753 certificates issued to persons completing courses which would indicate a rate of completion of 42.5 per cent. In 1965, there were 2,776 persons enroled in fi f t y -seven different courses, and there were 1,052 certificates issued to persons completing courses, which would give a rate of completion of 37.8 per cent. An examination of the variation in enrolment from year to year, as shown in Table X, would indicate a slight decline in 1958. Because night class enrolment was essentially working adults, the decline may reflect the economic recession evident in 1958. A decline in enrol-ment in 1963 was recorded, which was similar to the trend shown in enrolment in correspondence courses and non-technical courses held at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. An increase in enrolment in night classes in 1964 was followed again in 1965 by a decrease. The total increase in enrolment between the years 1956 and I965 was 56.7 per cent for a yearly average of 5«6 per cent. The rate of completion of night classes as indicated by the number of persons who received certificates ranged from a high of 45.2 per cent in the year 1959 to a low of 32.3 per cent in the year 1961. TABLE X SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—NIGHT CLASS ENROLMENTS 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Enrolments 1771 2019 1956 2171 2319 2522 2689 2313 2876 2801 Yearly percentage change from previous year + 14 -3.2 +10.9 + 6.8 +8.7 +6.6 -16.2 +24.3 -2.6 Courses 37 45 44 42 42 48 53 54; 64 57 Certificates issued 753 802 855 983 789 817 882 896 1049 1052 Completion rate 42.5 39.8 43.7 45.2 34.0 32.3 32.8 38.7 36.I 37.5 ON 63 The average completion rate for the ten-year period from 1956 to 1965 was 38.2 per cent. Total Enrolment. Table XI summarizes the total enrolment in the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and includes those who were enroled in technical, non-technical, and night classes from 1956 to 1965. The number of persons enroled in 1956 was 2,6ll, and in 1965 the number was 4,356. The enrolment of apprentices when added to the above enrolments increased the total enrolment to 4,012 in 1956 and 6,202 in 1965. XIII. ENROLMENT—TECHNICIANS, N.A.I.T. In 1964, the newly opened Northern Alberta Institute of TechU nology enroled 543 persons in fifteen technical courses. Five additional courses were provided in 1965, making in total twenty courses. The total enrolment in a l l courses in 1965, as shown in Table XII, was 950. Changes in Enrolment. In 1965, with the single exception of medical technology, a l l courses with enrolment in 1964 showed an increase in enrolment in I965. The increase in total enrolment from the year 1964 to the year I965 was 74.9 Vev cent. XIV. ENROLMENT—NON-TECHNICAL, N.A.I.T. Table XIII shows there were eight non-technical courses provided by the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1964. The total enrolment in the eight courses was 192. In 1965, there were twelve non-technical courses provided, and TABLE XI SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—TOTAL ENROLMENT AND INSTRUCTOR-STUDENT RATIO 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Technical 303 324 416 507 575 679 749 847 791 751 Non-technical 537 531 590 738 793 921 869 813 821 804 Night Classes 1771 2019 1956 2171 2319 2522 2689 2313 2876 - 2801 Sub-totals 2611 2874 2962 3416 3687 4122 4307 3973 4488 4356 Apprentices 1401 1710 1891 2071 2257 2391 2530 2465 1822 1846 Totals 4012 4584 4853 5487 5944 6513 6837 6438 63IO 6202 65 TABLE XII NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—TECHNICIAN ENROLMENTS 1964 1965 Air Conditioning and Refrigeration 15 32 Architectural 31 57 Business Administration 50 80 Chemical Laboratory h5 90 Civi l Technology 27 51 Dental Mechanic 6 Dental Technician 13 19 Distributive Technology 25 Drafting 1+8 58 Electronics 101 177 Exploration 22 Forestry 1+8 Gas Technology 21 33 Industrial Electrical 23 38 Industrial Production 17 25 Instrumentation • 21 29 Materials Technology 23 33 Medical Technology 58 53 Medical X-ray 50 68 Secretarial 6 Totals 543 950 66 TABLE X I I I NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—NON-TECHNICAL ENROLMENTS 196k 1965 Banking 1 9 12 Commercial Cooking 16 36 Data Proce s s i n g 1 2 20 Dental A s s i s t a n t kl 32 D i e t a r y S e r v i c e s 15 Factory Woodworking Ik Heavy Duty Equipment 20 3 2 O f f i c e Machine Repair 12 9 Pre-employment* 1+6 h5 Waiter-Waitress 18 Photography 26 1+8 Sewing 61+ T o t a l s 192 3^ 5 *The term "Pre-employment" covers a l l courses o f f e r e d i n 1964 and 1965 i n pre-employment c o n s t r u c t i o n , mechanics, welding and r a d i o , grouped together to avoid confusion w i t h a p p r e n t i c e s h i p courses of the same name. 67 the total enrolment in 1965 was 345. Courses in 1964 and 1965 in pre-employment construction, mechanics, welding, and radio, are grouped in Table XIII, under the designation "pre-employment" to avoid confusing them with apprenticeship courses of the same name. Changes in Enrolment. The increase in enrolment from the year 1964 to the year I965 was 7 9 • 6 per cent. Night Classes. Night classes were provided for the fi r s t time in I 9 6 5 . Enrolment is shown in Table XIV (p. 6 8 ) . An enrolment of 2,281 was recorded for the year I965. There were 105 different courses provided. All courses were held within the facilities of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Total Enrolment. Table XV (p. 68) summarizes the total enrolment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in technical, non-technical, and night classes for 1964 and 1965. The enrolment was 735 and 3 ,576 in the respective years. The enrolment of apprentices was 1,591 in 1963, in 1964 apprentice enrolment was 2 ,573, and in 1965 i t was 2 , 6 6 3 . The apprenticeship, enrolment, when added, increased the total enrolment to 1 ,591, 3 , 3 0 8 and 6 ,239 in the years 1963, 1964 and 1965, respectively. XV. OPERATIONAL COSTS—S.A.I.T. The expenditures and reimbursements for technician and non-technical training and for the operation of the correspondence courses and night classes at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Calgary, are summarized in totals in Table XVI (p. 6 9 ) . It was not possible from the information available to separate the costs TABLE XIV NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY— NIGHT CLASS ENROLMENTS 1965 Enrolment 228l Courses 105 TABLE XV NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY— TOTAL ENROLMENT 1963" 1964 "• 1965 Technical 5k3 950 Non-technical 192 3^ 5 Night Classes 2281 Sub-totals 735 3576 Apprentices 1591 2573 2663 Totals 1591 3308 6239 TABLE XVI OPERATIONAL COSTS OF THE SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 1956 1957 1958 1959 i960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 E x p e n d i t u r e s Dept . o f E d u c a t i o n $ 517,323 $ 575,^16 $ 682,071 $ 870,962 $ 995,704 $1,133,694 $1,284,694 $1,382,171 $1,590,000 $1,803,318 D e p t . o f P u b l i c Works H e a t i n g P l a n t S d u c . B u i l d i n g M a i n t e n a n c e S . A . I . T . 17,860 175,430 48,511 12,600 221,286 13,324 239,107 11,143 299,380 30,770 384,105 30,579 396,4l4 21,565 423,965 5,424 429,330 451,296 468,600 T o t a l s $ 759,124 $ 809,302 $ 934,502 $1,181,485 $1,410,579 $1,560,687 $1,730,224 $1,816,925 $2,041,296 $2,276,918 Reimbursements and Fees D e p t . o f E d u c a t i o n $ 77,400 $ 77,400 $ 109,710 $ 109,710 $ 138,916 $ 167,024 $ 330,911 $ 504,302 $ 582,998 $ 620,858 F i f t y p e r c e n t o f : f e e s s a l e o f m a t e r i a l 32,498 15,708 37,899 12,128 44,397 18,471 51,260 19,997 55,243 20,906 65,580 22,212 69,398 24,069 67,140 22,714 206,386 22,999 233,689 23,215 Dept o f P u b l i c Works 27,510 32,584 18,500 18,500 23,300 26,800 88,460 181,582 199,711 231,735 T o t a l s $ ' 153,116 $ 160,011 $ 191,078 $ 199,467 $ 238,365 $ 281,616 $ 512,838 $ 775,738 $1,012,094 $1,109,497 Net P r o v i n c i a l O p e r a t i n g Cos t $ 606,008 $ 649,291 $ 71*3,1*24 $ 982,018 $1,172,214 $1,279,071 $1,217,386 $1,041,187 $1,029,202 $1,167,421 ON NO 70 applicable to each level of training. Expenditure for the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology was defined as the total outlay, both external to Provincial accounting and internal. Cost was defined as the net outlay external to Provincial accounting after adjusting expenditures for internal interdepartmental transfers, reimbursements from the Government of Canada and income from fees and sale of materials. Administration. Expenditures for salaries, materials and supplies, and administrative expenses were accounted by the accounting office of the Department of Education. The expenditures for main-tenance, alterations and repairs were accounted by the accounting office of the Department of Public Works. Maintenance, alteration and repair expenditures were allocated to different buildings which constituted parts of the total Southern Alberta Institute of Technology complex, but were expenditures of maintaining the entire complex. In 196k, the office of accounting of the Department of Public Works allocated a l l maintenance, alteration and repair expenditures to the designation, Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. Reimbursement. Reimbursements from the Government of Canada for approved Provincial expenditures were recorded in the accounts of the Department of Education as Canadian Vocational Training and Vocational Training: Institute of Technology. Other reimbursements also recorded under Vocational Training in Public Accounts were not applicable to the Institutes of Technology and were not included in the summary. Sale of materials and technical school fees, both as recorded in the Public Accounts of the Department of Education, were 71 income accounts of the Institutes of Technology, and 50 per cent of such income was included. Under the terms of the Technical and Voca-tional Training Agreement, income earned by training operations was shareable with the Government of Canada at the same rate as expendi-tures were shared by the Government of Canada. Changes in Costs. The overall increase in expenditure between the years 1956 and 1965 was 199*9 per cent, for an average yearly increase of 19-9 per cent. The overall increase in reimbursements and fees between the years 1956 and 1965 was 624.6 per cent, for an average of 62.4 per cent yearly. The overall increase in the net Provincial operating cost of providing training for technicians, non-technical, correspondence and night classes in the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, which includes the College of Art, between the years 1956 and 1965 was 92.6 per cent for a yearly average increase of 9.2 per cent. XVI. OPERATIONAL COSTS—N.A.I.T. All amounts shown in Table XVII were taken to the nearest dollar and the table summarizes the expenditures and reimbursements for technician and non-technical, and night classes for the years from 1961 to 1965. It was not possible from the information available to separate the costs applicable to each level of training. Administration. Expenditures for the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were made from two different sources. Expenditures on salaries, materials and supplies, and administrative costs were accounted by the office of accounting of the Department of Education. Expenditures 72 TABLE XVTI OPERATIONAL COSTS OF THE NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 1963 1964 1965 Expenditures Department of Education $427,478 $1,328,708 $1,926,669 Department of Public Works 100,703 396,385 649,264 Total $580,771* $1,725,093 $2,575,933 Reimbursements and Fees Department of Education $136,576 $429,388 $525,995 Fifty percent of: fees 390 200,163 294,864 sale of material 1,898 15,316 22,432 cafeteria 29,718 51,^9 Department of Public Works 13,3^6 149,722 299,983 Total $152,210 $824,307 $1,194,723 Net Provincial Operating Cost $428,561 $900,786 $1,381,210 *includes minor expenditures 0 f 1961 and 1962 73 on maintenance, alterations and repairs were made and accounted by the office of accounting of the Department of Public Works. During the planning stage and period of early construction of the Institute, the expenditures of both the Department of Education and the Department of Public Works were minimal. In the summary, as shown in Table XVII (p. 7 2), the expenditures of the Department of Public Works and of the Department of Education for I96I and 1962 were totalled with the expenditures of I963 and shown as a single total of expenditures. Reimbursement. Reimbursements from the Government of Canada were recorded in the Public Accounts of the Department of Education under the heading Vocational Training, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Other reimbursements appearing in the same Public Accounts section were not applicable to the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology and were not included in the summary, as shown in Table XVII (p. 72). The Department of Education Public Accounts also included income from fees and from sale of material and income from the cafeteria at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Fifty per cent of such income was returned to the Government of Canada in accordance with the terms of the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement. The remaining 50 per cent was included in the reimbursements and fees, as shown in Table XVII. Reimbursement recorded by the Provincial Department of Public Works in the Public Accounts consisted of reimbursement from the Government of Canada for approved expenditures. The amount appeared in the Department of Public Works Public Accounts under the heading Vocational Training, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Changes in Costs. The overall increase in expenditures for the 74 Northern Alberta Institute of Technology for the years 1963, which includes the expenditures of 1961 and 1962, and the year I965 is 34-3.5 per cent, for an annual average increase of 3^ .3 per cent. The overall increase in reimbursements and fees between the years I963 and 1965 was 688.2 per cent, for an annual average increase of 68.8 per cent. The overall increase in net Provincial operating cost of providing training to technicians and non-technical trainees in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology between the years 1963 and I965 was 221.1 per cent, for an average annual increase of 22.1 per cent. It must be noted in a l l cases that the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology had rapidly developed its operations from its opening in 1963 to the year 1965. XVII. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER On October 1, 1916 the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art was established in Calgary. The Institute was moved in 1921 when the Government purchased 123 acres of land for $63,000 and permanent buildings were erected on the present site. The growth of the Institute has been steady over the years reflecting the ever-increasing enrolment in a l l divisions of the Institute. By 1958 the heavy enrolment of apprentices had given rise to the need for new training facilities in Edmonton. The design of the new facilities however, recognized the increasing number of technicians being trained and the growing demand from industry for technical institute graduates. A second Institute was built. The second Institute of Technology in the Province admitted the fi r s t class of apprentices for training on October 1, 1962. The Apprentice Trade Division of the Northern Alberta Institute of Tech-nology officially opened on November 28, 1962 and on May 27, 1963 the completed Institute was officially opened. Admission requirements to technical programmes and the estab-lishment of a standard for technician training were developed over the years. In 1965 the Committee on Technological Education of the National Technical and Vocational Training Advisory Council defined the quali-fication for the designation "technician" as successful completion of 2,400 hours of post-secondary instruction. Recognizing the standard for the designation of technician, an examination of the enrolment at the Institutes in the decade from 1956 to 1965 shows there were 303 technicians in training in 1956, and 1,701 technicians in training in 1965. In the same period there were 537 non-technical trainees in training in the Institutes in 1956 and 1,149 in training in 1965. Enrolments in night classes increased from 1,771 in 1956 to 5,082 in I965 and correspondence course enrolments increased from 636 to 983 between 1956 and I965. The cost to the Province of operating the Institutes is the total expenditure adjusted for reimbursements, interdepartmental trans-fers, income from fees and from the sale of materials. In 1956 the total expenditure made on the operation of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology was $759,124. Reimbursements and other income in that year amounted to $153,116 and therefore the cost in 1956 was $606,008. The total expenditure in 1965 was $2,276,918 and reimburse-ment and other income was $1,109,497. The cost of operation in I965 was $1,167,421. In 1965 the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology had expenditures of $2,575,933 and reimbursements and other income of $1,194,723. The cost of operation of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was $1,381,210. CHAPTER IV VOCATIONAL TRAINING I. INTRODUCTION Vocational Training was the term used to describe a variety of tr a i n i n g programmes offered d i r e c t l y under the administration of the Division of Vocational Education of the Department of Education. The Depression Period. Late i n the year 1937, formal recogni-tion was given to the needs of large numbers of unemployed youth to participate i n a programme of self-development that would stop the erosion of purpose, morale, and s k i l l that was affecting so many as a result of the economic and concomitant s o c i a l depression of the times. An agreement, to make available a programme of t r a i n i n g , was signed between the Federal Department of Labour and the Pr o v i n c i a l Department of Education, wherein the costs of the programme would be shared between the two levels of government. The Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Agree-ment became the f i r s t of a series of such agreements that became of utmost significance i n contributing to the development of vocational t r a i n i n g i n Alberta. F i r s t born i n the r e l a t i v e quiet of an economic depression, voca-t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was reared h a s t i l y to maturity i n the fie r c e turmoil of war. During t h i s period and before the expiration of the term of the o r i g i n a l agreement between the Federal Department of Labour and the Pro v i n c i a l Department of Education, a new Dominion-Provincial Agreement was signed under the name of "War Emergency Training." 78 I I . YOUTH TRAINING AGREEMENT The Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Agreement of 1937 was designed to provide t r a i n i n g i n f i v e p r o j e c t s . A g r i c u l t u r a l Short Course. The f i r s t project was to restore morale, e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l contacts, provide ph y s i c a l reconditioning and teach aspects of farm l i f e and home c r a f t to young people. This a c t i v i t y met with considerable success, and twenty-seven courses were conducted i n centres throughout the Province. Forestry. The second project was one f o r t r a i n i n g young men i n elementary f o r e s t r y work and was c a r r i e d out i n a f o r e s t r y camp estab-l i s h e d for the purpose. The course was of seven months' duration. Household and Special Services. A project to t r a i n selected g i r l s to become competent housemaids was the t h i r d project and also the one that proved to be the most successful i n terms of subsequent placement i n employment following the t r a i n i n g period. A g r i c u l t u r e . The fourth project was one designed to provide a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g to both farm youth and boys from the c i t y , for employment and e f f e c t i v e performance on farms of grain r a i s i n g , stock r a i s i n g , fur farming, poultry farming, or other s p e c i a l t y crops. I n d u s t r i a l and Commercial. The f i n a l project was one that proved to be successful i n i t s beginning and that u l t i m a t e l y developed and expanded. Known as "Occupational Training," the project was designed to accept the a p p l i c a t i o n of youths and through the use of vocational guidance and observation of work, to provide t r a i n i n g best suited to the 79 needs and c a p a b i l i t i e s of the person. I I I . WAR EMERGENCY TRAINING These early projects of youth t r a i n i n g , successful as they were, continued but were soon subsumed by the needs of the war e f f o r t . The Youth Training Agreement was overshadowed by the War Emergency Training Agreement signed early i n 19^0, and classes of t r a i n i n g i n aero engine, radio servicemen, a i r frame mechanics, motor mechanics, wireless operators, and others began to make t h e i r appearance. F a c i l i t i e s . F a c i l i t i e s for t r a i n i n g required the leasing of existing technical schools and the equipment contained i n them. The Ins t i t u t e of Technology and Art i n Calgary, the Teachers' Normal School i n Edmonton, buildings of Exhibition Associations were a l l acquired, altered,, .equipped and u t i l i z e d to provide t r a i n i n g space for the increasing numbers of men and women being prepared for the armed services and for industry's expanded programme of production. Grants. Assisted by the terms of the Dominion-Provincial agree-ments, students were also enroled i n the University i n courses i n medicine, dentistry, education, and certain technical courses, and received grants to enable them to complete t h e i r preparation i n profes-sions i n which noticeable shortages existed. IV. CANADIAN VOCATIONAL TRAINING In 1944, the t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y carried out under the terms of the Dominion-Provincial agreement for t r a i n i n g , was given the designation "Canadian Vocational Training." In the same year there were indications 80 that the job of training for the armed services and for war production operations was drawing to a close. Veterans' Rehabilitation. The end of the war emergency marked the beginning of a new phase of training. The new phase of training was to be the rehabilitation of veterans into a civilian economy. The economy was then undergoing a period of increased production of civilian goods and services, and the task of absorbing large numbers of workers returning to Canada's labour force was made easier by the fact that they were being trained for the employment available. Courses. The year 19^ 6 was the year of peak activity of Canadian Vocational Training. Contained in an area of 350,000 square feet in centres throughout the Province, about 7,000 persons received training in a wide variety of subjects, including such courses as motor mechanics, merchandising, retail selling and saddle making. Admissions to highly specialized courses that were not available locally were also arranged by the offices of Canadian Vocational Training, for veterans approved for rehabilitation training. The extremes of ballet dancer, pilot and mortician were included in the lengthy l i s t of courses of training made available through the service provided by Canadian Vocational Training. V. POST-WAR TRAINING By the year 1950, the surge of training provided for the rehabili-tation of veterans had passed. Training facilities were now available, for the training of apprentices in designated trades and to an increasing extent for the training of unemployed persons and physically disabled persons. The precedent set by Canadian Vocational Training in training 81 selected veterans in any occupational f ield, became the basis of functioning of Canadian Vocational Training in its new role. A person accepted for training would be trained at any time and in any course i f he was deemed capable of benefitting from the training. If a sufficient number of people were to be trained in the subject, a class would be established for them. If only an individual was to be trained, the appropriate course would be located, admission obtained, and supervision of training would be provided. Civilians. In 1950, there were 2,000 civilian persons trained through the facilities of Canadian Vocational Training in the training centres in Edmonton and Calgary, and the temporarily established centres in other smaller towns and cities throughout the Province. By the year 1956, the pattern of providing training for persons temporarily unem-ployed and for persons contending with physical or serious socio-economic handicaps, had been well established. Industry's Needs. Through the period from 1956 to 1965, the practice of providing training to persons and groups in need of such vocational assistance was continued, and a broader concept in the field of vocational training added. Recognition was given to the needs of industry. In those instances where shortages of trained personnel existed, efforts were made to relieve the problem by establishing train-ing programmes and preparing persons in the requirements of the job, so they might be available to f i l l the vacancies. The Needs of the Individual. Thus, the role of vocational training developed as one of providing training to meet a need. The need might have been evinced by the individual, by a group of persons 82 with a common goal, or by commerce or industry. The need might also have been an outgrowth of social change and required action to be initiated by vocational training. To maintain the flexibil ity required to be able to deal effectively and promptly with expressed and identified needs, vocational training developed without the same degree of institu-tionalization as other bodies within the Province which were also involved with training. Prerequisites, admission requirements, fees, attendance requirements, attainment standards, age limits, and other regulatory considerations were secondary to the recognition of the need of the individual to do immediately that which he was motivated to do and which there was reason to believe he had the ability to do. VI. THE VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL TRAINING AGREEMENT NO. 2 The Vocational and Technical Training Agreement No. 2 was signed as an agreement between the Federal Department of Labour and the Provin-cial Department of Education, to be effective April 1, 1957, and succeeded the former Vocational Training Agreement which had expired. Operational Aspects. The new Agreement provided for Federal sharing of approved Provincial expenditures at the rate of 50 per cent of operational costs to a maximum Federal contribution of $180,100 for the first two years of the Agreement; $214,800 for the third year; and $249,600 in each of the final two years. Capital. The amount allotted for capital expenditure was deter-mined by formula. The formula was based' on the percentage of persons between the ages'of fifteen years and nineteen years of age, resident in the Province,, and of the persons' of the same age .group resident in a l l 83 the provinces. The numbers would be as determined in the 1956 census. This percentage was the percentage used to determine the portion of $25,000,000 that was to be allotted to the Province. The amount allotted to Alberta was $1,737,300. The Federal Government therefore agreed to share in the capital expenditures of the Province at the rate of 50 per cent, to a maximum amount of $1,737,300. Amendment. On January 11, 196l, the Vocational and Technical Training Agreement No. 2 was amended, whereby the Federal Government, through the amended terms of the Agreement, would provide 75 per cent of the capital expenditures of the Province, but with the maximum amount of Federal funds remaining at $1,737,300. VII. SPECIAL VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROJECTS AGREEMENT A Special Vocational Training Projects Agreement was signed between the Federal Department of Labour and the Provincial Department of Education to be effective from April 1, 1959 to March 31, 1964, and succeeded the Vocational Training Agreement that expired. Operational Aspects. The new Agreement was also to provide for Federal financial sharing in approved Provincial expenditures on projects described in the Agreement as: Vocational Correspondence Courses; Training for Federal Government Departments; Assistance to Students; Training of Service Tradesmen; Training of Unemployed Workers; Training in Primary Industries; Training of Foremen and Supervisors; Training of Disabled Persons. The percentage of Federal financial sharing was 100 per cent for projects of Training for Federal Government Departments and for Training of Service Tradesmen. The remaining projects were assisted 84 by Federal financial assistance at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures. Amendment. Effective April 1, I960, the Special Vocational Training Projects Agreement was amended to provide 75 per cent Federal financial sharing in approved Provincial expenditures for Training of Unemployed Workers. VIII. TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING AGREEMENT Before the term of the Vocational and Technical Training Agreement No. 2 had expired, and before the term of the Special Vocational Training Projects Agreement had expired, a new Technical and Vocational Training Agreement was signed between the Federal Department of Labour and the Provincial Department of Education. The new Technical and Vocational Training Agreement came into effect on April 1, 196l, and was for a six-year period, to expire March 31» 1967. Operational Aspects. The Technical and Vocational Training Agreement provided for Federal financial and other assistance to ten programmes of training, specifically identified in the terms of the Agreement; and for Federal financial assistance for capital expenditures on technical and vocational training facil it ies. Programmes. The ten programmes identified in the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement were: Vocational High School Training Programme-.-Federal financial assistance was provided at the rate of 50 per cent of Provincial expendi-tures on high schools offering vocational courses for one-half the school time. The annual total allotment of Federal financial assistance for 85 this programme was limited to $3 ,000 ,000 distributed among the provinces on the basis of the percentage of the number of persons age fifteen to age nineteen in the province, to the total number of persons of that age group in a l l provinces. Technician Training Programme—Federal financial assistance was provided at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures without limit, for training at the post-high school technician level. Trade and Other Occupational Training Programme—Federal financial assistance at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures without limit, was provided for pre-employment training for persons over compulsory school leaving age. Training Programme in Cooperation with Industry—Federal financial assistance was provided for programmes of training within industry that retrained employees or upgraded employees who were affected by techno-logical change. The Federal financial assistance was at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures, and,for certain programmes of upgrading, i t was at the rate of 75 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures. Federal financial assistance was without limit. Programme for the Training of Unemployed—Federal financial assistance for the programme of training unemployed workers was at the rate of 75 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures on training, and 90 per cent of approved allowances paid unemployed workers while in training. Both rates were without limit. The training provided might be in any subject that would increase occupational competency. Programme for the Training of the Disabled—The training provided disabled persons might be in any subject that would increase occupational competency, and the Federal financial assistance provided was at the rate 86 o f 50 per cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , w i thout l i m i t . Programme f o r the T r a i n i n g o f T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l Teachers — T h i s programme a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r the t r a i n i n g o f v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n i n d u s t r y , v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , or i n s t i t u t e s . The F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d was at the r a t e o f 50 per cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , w i thout l i m i t . T r a i n i n g Programme f o r F e d e r a l Departments and Agenc ies—The F e d e r a l Government would re imburse the P r o v i n c e 100 per cent o f the cost o f p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g to members o f the Armed S e r v i c e s or f o r p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g f o r employment i n a F e d e r a l Government department or agency. T r a i n i n g was o n l y p r o v i d e d at the request o f the F e d e r a l Government. Student A i d — F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o the P r o v i n c e f o r g rants made by the P r o v i n c e t o s tudents at u n i v e r s i t y and nurses i n t r a i n -i n g was p r o v i d e d at the r a t e o f 50 per cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , sub jec t t o a l i m i t o f f i n a n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n determined by the F e d e r a l Government. Manpower Requirements and T r a i n i n g R e s e a r c h — F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was p r o v i d e d at the r a t e o f 50 per cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , w i thout l i m i t , f o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s undertaken i n the P r o v i n c e which were des igned to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and manpower requ i rements . In a d d i t i o n t o the ten programmes o f the T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Agreement, as o u t l i n e d , p r o v i s i o n was a l s o made f o r F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r the cost of p r e p a r i n g , r e v i s i n g , p r i n t i n g and s e r v i c i n g of correspondence courses . The F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was at the r a t e o f 50 per cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l expend i tures and was wi thout l i m i t , except t h a t , as i n the case o f a l l programmes, the 87 monies were appropriated by Parliament. Capital. Provision was made under the terms of the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement for Federal financial assistance for approved Provincial expenditures on capital including buildings and equipment. Federal financial assistance was 75 per cent of approved Provincial capital expenditures to a limit which was that amount equal to an amount of $480 for each person age fifteen to age nineteen resid-ing in the Province according to the 1961 census. Thereafter, the rate of Federal financial assistance was 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures, except for alterations to premises and purchase of equip-ment for the training of unemployed workers. IX. ADMISSION TO TRAINING AND FEES Persons who were accepted for training by Vocational Training under the terms of the Trade and Other Occupational Training Programme, or the Programme for the Training of Unemployed, or the Programme for the Train-ing of the Disabled, were admitted to training classes without charge for tuition fee, or registration fee. The books, supplies, and tools required during the period of training were also provided. At the dis-cretion of the Province, however, fees might be charged for courses of training. The income thus received from such fees was shareable with the Federal Government at the same rate as the Federal Government shared in the cost of operating the programme as set out in the terms of the Federal-Provincial Training Agreement in effect. Training Allowances. Each trainee's need for direct financial assistance during the period of training was assessed and an allowance 88 was provided, the amount of which was dependent on the responsibilities and obligations of the individual. U.I.C. Benefits. If an unemployed worker was eligible to receive unemployment insurance benefit payments while in training, he was required to do so and could not receive a Provincial allowance, except that he might receive a partial allowance which when combined with his unemployment insurance benefits would be equal to the amount of the ful l Provincial allowance he would otherwise have received. Transportation. The cost of transportation was provided to trainees from their place of residence to the city in which training was undertaken, and in the case of disabled persons an allowance for daily transportation was provided where special transportation arrangements had to be made because of disability. Schedule. In most cases individuals were admitted to training at any time. The exceptions to this practice were when no further training space was available or in those cases where persons were placed in established courses of schools which operated on a term basis. X. LIAISON In matters of vocational training, liaison was maintained with the National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission, Department of Veterans' Affairs, University of Alberta, Workmen's Compensation Board, National Research Council, and the Provincial Depart-ments of Agriculture, Welfare, and Health, and other public and private agencies, as well as associations of industry and organizations of workers. 89 X I . ENROLMENT I n 1956, courses under the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g were p r o v i d e d i n the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , C a l g a r y , and i n the N u r s i n g Aide S c h o o l , C a l g a r y , and i n the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , Edmonton. I n a d d i t i o n t o these P r o v i n c i a l l y operated c e n t r e s , t r a i n i n g was a l s o o b t a i n e d from other P r o v i n c i a l l y operated i n s t i t u t i o n s : p r o p r i e t a r y s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , and by the e s t a b l i s h -ment o f s p e c i a l and u s u a l l y temporary f a c i l i t i e s i n i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and community c e n t r e s . A t o t a l o f 1,842 persons r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n 1956, as i n d i c a t e d i n the summary i n Table X V I I I . The category o f " o t h e r s " shown i n Table X V I I I , c o n s i s t e d o f a wide range o f courses o f t r a i n i n g undertaken i n s e l e c t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o p r i e t a r y s c h o o l s by i n d i v i d u a l s or s m a l l groups. The courses were such t h a t t h e r e was no c o n t i n u i t y from year t o y e a r , and no s i g n i f i c a n t number i n any one course from year t o y e a r . In 1956, these courses i n c l u d e d a p p l i a n c e r e p a i r , watch r e p a i r , shoe r e p a i r , t h e a t r e p r o j e c t i o n -i s t , p r i n t i n g , and cabinet making. Many o f the persons t r a i n e d i n these courses were d i s a b l e d persons . A programme o f r u r a l w e l d i n g was i n s t i t u t e d i n 1957, which p r o v i d e d t r a i n i n g t o 409 farmers f o r w e l d i n g on t h e i r own farm p r o p e r t y . I t i n e r a n t i n s t r u c t o r s moved the f a c i l i t i e s from centre t o c e n t r e throughout the P r o v i n c e . A second N u r s i n g Aide S c h o o l was opened i n Edmonton i n 1958. The i n c r e a s e d t r a i n i n g space made i t p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e enrolment of n u r s i n g a ides from 276 t o 455 and, h e n c e f o r t h , t o accommodate a h i g h e r enrolment . TABLE XVIII VOCATIONAL TRAINING—TOTAL ENROLMENT 1956" 1957 1958 .1959. I960 .1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Bartering 8 1 ' 2 11 9 17 36 49 Beauty Culture l 5 4 14 20 57 45 85 83 126 Commercial 81 37 54 68 129 135 158 163 221 372 Nursing Aides 273 276 455 578 580 604 635 625 570 585 Welding 77 30 24 47 19 118 200 88 71 170 Supervisory and Management 820 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 230 735 990 1620 832 Forestry 20 19 20 94 137 151 233 158 186 235 Rural Electrification 55Q 828 897 686 Wheeled Vehicle Mechanics N.A. N.A. 76 110 79 18 Others 12 50 77 72 28 28 37 74 35 39 Rural Welding 409 400 8l4 763 802 735 705 578 478 Special Unemployed 565 643 4l8 Dairying 17 22 22 465 Vocational Preparatory 180 178 300 442 Fire Officers 43 100 92 83 130 110 171 Tractor Maintenance 64 163 Equipment Operators 58 Vocational .Teacher Training 72 76 84 Totals 1842 1654 2057 2527 2439 3069 3488 3407 4ll4 3827 Yearly percentage change • from previous year r,11.3# +24.3$ +22.8$ -3.6$ +25.8$ +13.6$ -2.3$ +20.7$ -7.4$ 91 In I960, the programme of rural electrification was discontinued because the immediate need for such large-scale training in newly electri-fied , rural areas of the Province had "been met. In order to provide training to the large number of unemployed persons resulting from the economic recession of 1958, special classes were established in i960 utilizing available space in the high schools of the City of Edmonton after regular school hours. The courses of training provided were as outlined in Table XIX. Enrolment was 565 in i960, and 643 and 4l8 the following years. A course in dairying was again instituted in i960 in Edmonton, designed to be offered every second year. The special equipment and facilities required for such training were limited and thus the number was limited to twenty-two enroled in each course. In 196l, the severe shortage of specially trained pipeline welders required that additional training courses be provided in that subject. Pipeline welding accounted for the sharp increase in welding in that year, bringing the enrolment to 118. Resulting from an examination of the academic difficulties encountered by the large number of persons in the special unemployed classes, a programme of upgrading of mathematics, English, and science was started under the t i t le of Vocational Preparatory training. One hundred and eighty persons enroled in the course the first year it was held in 196l. Increased enrolment was experienced each succeeding year. Pipeline welding courses were again held in both Edmonton and Calgary in specially established centres in 1962. The increased facilities permitted more persons to enrol, which was reflected in the second substantial increase in welding in the two years, 196l and 1962. 92 The Canadian Vocational Training Centre in Calgary was closed in 1962, thus "bringing to an end the course for wheeled vehicle mechanics. This course was not transferred to any other institution. A lack of staff and a shortage of suitable facilities necessitated discontinuing the special unemployed classes in 1963. TABLE XIX VOCATIONAL TRAINING—SPEC IAL UNEMPLOYED COURSES—ENROLMENT i960 1961 1962 Automotive 72 100 78 Remedial English 62 29 26 Blueprint Reading 65 1+0 32 Carpentry 55 80 16 Drafting 38 53 Electrical 31 he 25 Plumbing 29 20 Steamfitting 13 22 Trade Math 11 17 Typing 1+6 86 83 Welding 35 121 29 Basic Electronics 27 Business Machines 21 Diesel 50 Machinist 10 Baking 1 26 Bookkeeping 59 Bricklaying 1 Gasfitting 1 Retail Cashiering 20 Bookkeeping and Typing 50 Totals 565 61+3 1+18 A programme for training fire officers was included in the pro-grammes of vocational training in the year 1959» although not included as a shareable training course with the Federal Technical and Vocational Training Branch of the Department of Labour, Ottawa, until 1963. Enrolment in 1965 was 171. The training was carried out using special 93 f a c i l i t i e s at V e r m i l i o n and Calgary. The extensive expansion of v o c a t i o n a l high schools,' r e s u l t i n g from the c a p i t a l expenditures p r o v i s i o n s of the T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Agreement signed i n 196l, made i t necessary to e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i a l programme of pr e p a r a t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l teachers t o s t a f f the schools being b u i l t throughout the Province. A v o c a t i o n a l teacher t r a i n -i n g programme was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1963 i n cooperation w i t h the F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a . Enrolment i n the f i r s t year was seventy-two. In a d d i t i o n t o the seventy-two men enroled from A l b e r t a , there were twelve men enroled from Saskatchewan by agreement w i t h the Province of Saskatchewan. On completion of t h e i r t r a i n i n g , the twelve men returned t o Saskatchewan. They are not in c l u d e d i n the number shown enroled i n 1963. The enrolment f i g u r e of seven t y - s i x v o c a t i o n a l teachers shown f o r 1964 incl u d e s f i f t e e n men who were i n an extended programme of v o c a t i o n a l guidance f o r teachers. In 1965, the enrolment of e i g h t y - f o u r v o c a t i o n a l teachers i n c l u d e d twelve men who were i n the extended v o c a t i o n a l guidance course. In 1964, the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f unoccupied classrooms i n newly constructed c i t y v o c a t i o n a l high schools i n Calgary permitted an expansion of enrolment i n v o c a t i o n a l preparatory courses. The f a c i l i t i e s of the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Centre, Edmonton, which were expanded t e m p o r a r i l y i n 1961 to accommodate an increased enrolment i n commercial, were abandoned i n 1964 and the pro-gramme moved to the new f a c i l i t i e s at the Northern A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e of Technology. The new f a c i l i t i e s at the I n s t i t u t e a l s o permitted Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g to increase enrolment i n ba r b e r i n g , beauty c u l t u r e , and i n v o c a t i o n a l preparatory courses. Enrolments increased t o highs of 94 49, 126, and 465 respectively by 1965. A programme of training in small business management was begun in 1964 eliciting an immediate response from a number of communities throughout the Province. The activity was reflected in an increased enrolment in supervisory and management training in the year 1964, when a maximum enrolment of 1,620 was recorded. Also in 1964, a course in tractor maintenance was begun, wherein itinerant instructors moved the training facilities from community to community throughout the Province in a similar manner to the instruction provided for rural welding. A limited number of communities were included the first year, but enrolment in 1965 was 163. Lack of staff in 1965 resulted in a decrease in the number of participants in supervisory training programmes. In the same year, how-ever, enrolment in small business management courses increased over the previous year. In 1965, the course for equipment operators was first made available in Edmonton, with an enrolment of fifty-eight persons. Centres for Training. The courses of barbering, beauty culture, commercial, nursing aide, welding, supervisory and management training, vocational preparatory, and equipment operators were provided in both Edmonton and Calgary in various facil it ies. Forestry training was provided at Kananaskis Forest Experimental Station and at the Hinton Forestry School, Hinton. Wheeled vehicle mechanics' training was given only in Calgary. The fire officers' training was provided at Vermilion and Calgary. Special unemployed classes and dairying were available only in Edmonton. Supervisory training, rural electrification, rural welding, and tractor maintenance, were provided in numerous communities throughout 95 the Province. Barbering, beauty culture, commercial, welding, voca-tional preparatory, equipment operators, and "others" were provided in Edmonton and Calgary as noted, and as the need was evidenced, in the larger population centres throughout the Province. Changes in Enrolment. The total overall increase in enrolment between 1956 and 1965 was 107.7 per cent, for an average of 10.7 per cent per year. Variance from the average of 10.7 per cent was extreme each year except 1962. The termination or reduction of courses with substantial enrolment in 1957, I960, 1963 and 1965, accounted for the marked variance from the average in those years. XII. OPERATIONAL COSTS The operational costs for the activity of vocational training from 1956 to 1965 were summarized in Table XX under the headings of Expenditures, and Reimbursement and Fees. Expenditures were identified for Canadian Vocational Training, the Department of Lands and Forests, the Department of Health, the Department of Public Works, and the Department of the Provincial Secretary. Reimbursements and Fees were shown under the subheadings of Canadian Vocational Training, the Depart-ment of Health, the Department of Public Works, and the additional subheading of Other Federal Departments. The relationship of Expenditures and of Reimbursement and Fees established the Net Provincial Operating Cost. Administration. Expenditures under the subheading Canadian Voca-tional Training, in Table XX (pp. 96, 97), included the expenditures of TABLE XX OPERATIONAL COSTS OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING 1956 1957 1958 1959 i960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Exnenditures Canadian Voc. Training, $ 257,243 $ 280,077 $ 276,867 $ 324,679 $ 388,805 $ 412,823 $ 491,738 $ 566,154 $ 687,719 $1,000,630 Dept. of Lands and Forests 6,498 7,803 8,935 13,352 26,730 31,520 42,893 49,137 54,959 88,686 Dept. c f Health 26,837 38,047 100,868 266,804 314,205 319,237 358,919 353,371 334,355 370,795 Dept. of Public Works 7,065 8,086 9,212 14,991 21,847 11,113 27 , 6 8 4 27,538 Dept. of the Prov. Secretary 5,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 Totals $ 290,578 $ 325,927 $ 393,735 $ 617,921 $ 745,952 $ 848,571 $ 922,397 $ 979,775 $1 ,104,717 $ 1 , 4 8 7 , 6 4 9 Reimbursement and Fees Canadian Voc. Training $ 84,438 $ 78,813 $ 29,148 $ 106,420 $ 126,292 $ 150,279 $ 251,330 $ 292,135 $ 397,400- $ 638,132 F i f t y per cent of: fees sale of materials 141 455 4,007 1,705 5,593 2,100 1,494 1,947 1,844 2,048 2,420 1,964 5,566 3,170 2,6l6 . 5,519 2,622 VO ON TABLE XX (continued) 1956 1957 1958 1959 i960 196.1 1962 1963 1964 1965 Dept. of Health sale of supplies $ 91,039 6,363 $ 77,660 10,411 $ 125,660 2,318 $ 147,404 2,601 $ 193,021 3,421 $ 148,639 ' 5,491 $ 118,880 4,956 $ 33,959 5,244 Other Federal Departments 2,138 4,605 6,458 5,822 7,182 7,419 Reimbursement and F ees Dept. of Public Works 12 Sub-totals $ 84,579 $ 79,268 $ 130,557 $ 201,789 $ 260,002 $ 308,680 $ 458,698 $ 459,617 $ 534,204 $ 692,907 interdepartmental Transfer 26,837 38,047 69,752 122,543 140,351 121,677 178,695 197,490 220,590 347,666 Totals $ 111,416 $ 117,315 $ 200,309 $ 324,332 $ 400,353 $ 430,357 $ 637,393 $ 657,107 $ 754,794 $1,040,573 Net Provincial Operating Cost $ 179,162 $ 208,612 $ 193,426 $ 293,589 * 345,599 $ 418,214 $ 285,004 $ 322,668 $ 349,923- $ 447,076 vo 98 the Canadian Vocational Training Centre, Calgary, from 1956 to its closure in 1962, excepting the expenditures of the Canadian Vocational Training Centre that were applicable to the training of apprentices. Also included were the expenditures of the Nursing Aide Training School for 1956 and 195T- The expenditures of the Canadian Vocational Training Centre, Edmonton, were included in the totals shown for Canadian Voca-tional Training expenditures as well as the expenditures occurring from the establishment of short-term, itinerant, and temporary classes established in various places throughout the Province from time to time as the need for such classes was made known. Expenditures shown under the heading, Canadian Vocational Training, included the costs of providing maintenance, alterations and repairs of buildings. The expenditures also included rents for temporary facilities as well as expenditure on salaries and wages, materials and supplies, and administrative expenses. Included in the expenditures of Canadian Vocational Training were living allowances, including transportation costs,where applicable, paid to unemployed persons and other eligible trainees. Living allowances and transportation costs were also included in the expenditures of the Department of Health from 1958 to 1965. In each year, except 1964 and 1965» the expenditures of Canadian Vocational Training were adjusted by the subtraction of the expenditure on apprentice training. In the years 1956 to 1959 inclusive, the Canadian Vocational Training expenditures were further adjusted by the subtraction of the expenditure for students' grants. The expenditures for forestry training were recorded in the accounts of the Department of Lands and Forests from 1956 to 1965. 99 Application for the inclusion of these expenditures under the terms of the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement was made in 1964. In 1956 and 1957, the total expenditure for the training of nursing aides was ini t ia l ly made by Canadian Vocational Training. An amount was then paid to Canadian Vocational Training by the Department of Health for the training of a certain category of nursing aide. The amount involved was paid to Canadian Vocational Training by interdepart-mental transfer, which was an internal transfer from one department within the Government to another. In 1958, the Department of Health began the operation and administration of the nursing aide programme. Canadian Vocational Training continued to be responsible for training only those persons who were eligible for training under the terms of the Technical and Voca-tional Training Agreement. For expediency, a l l payments for nursing aide training were made in the first instance by the Department of Health, and payment for that portion of total expenditure for which Canadian Vocational Training was responsible was made by interdepartmental transfer. The amounts of the interdepartmental transfer are shown in Table XX (pp. 96, 97). In 1956 and 1957 the Department of Health made the interdepart-mental transfer to Canadian Vocational Training. In a l l subsequent years the transfer was made by Canadian Vocational Training to the Department of Health. The amounts of the interdepartmental transfer have been included in Table XX in.order to show the total expenditures and at the same time provide the correct Net Provincial Operating Cost figure. In the years 1956 and 1957, the expenditure on maintenance, alterations and repair of buildings was included in the expenditures of Canadian Vocational Training. In 1958, the Department of Health assumed 100 responsibility for the operation of the Nursing Aide School in Calgary and opened the School in Edmonton. The maintenance, alterations and repair for the schools then became the responsibility of the Department of Public Works. The expenditures for maintenance, alterations and repair for both of the Nursing Aide Schools were recorded under the account of Nursing Aide School, Calgary, by the Department of Public Works until 196U when a separate account was opened for the Nursing Aide School, Edmonton. In the summary of expenditures, as shown in Table XX, the amount spent for alterations and repairs to the Forestry School in the years 1961 and 1962 was included in the total expenditure of the Department of Public Works. Training expenditures for the fire officers' training course were first made by the Department of the Provincial Secretary as part of the total activity of the Office of the Provincial Fire Commissioner. Expenditures,, specifically applicable to the training of fire officers, were not identified, and the expenditures shown in the summary in Table XX for the years 1956 to 1962 inclusive, were estimates only, made by the Office of the Provincial Fire Commissioner. In 1963, the actual expen-ditures made for the training provided to fire officers were included in the total expenditures of vocational training, as was the case in the years 196U and 1965. The statements of Canadian Vocational Training in the Public Accounts included an expenditure for students' grants made during the years 1956 to 1959 inclusive. In i960, the accounting of students' grants was assumed by the office of accounting of the Department of Education. Students' grants were made available to students attending university and were not included as an expenditure of Canadian 101 V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . I n 1963, a c c o u n t i n g f o r a programme o f t r a i n i n g o f armed s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l was a s s u m e d . The t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d was f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e b e n e f i t o f t h e F e d e r a l Government a n d , as s u c h , t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s made f o r . t h e t r a i n i n g w e r e r e i m b u r s e d b y t h e Government o f Canada i n f u l l . T h i s f o r m o f t r a i n i n g f o r armed s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l was an e x p e d i e n t f o r t h e Government o f C a n a d a . The number o f armed s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l t r a i n e d were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e number o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e P r o v i n c e , a n d t h e e x p e n d i t u r e on t h e t r a i n i n g was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e summary. R e i m b u r s e m e n t . R e i m b u r s e m e n t i n 1956 a n d 1957 f r o m t h e Government o f C a n a d a , shown i n T a b l e XX u n d e r t h e s u b h e a d i n g o f C a n a d i a n V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , was f o r a l l a p p r o v e d P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s on t r a i n i n g . I n 1958 a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y e a c h y e a r t o 1965» r e i m b u r s e m e n t t o C a n a d i a n V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g was f o r a l l a p p r o v e d P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s on t r a i n i n g e x c e p t t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h made f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f n u r s i n g a i d e s . R e i m b u r s e m e n t b y t h e Government o f Canada t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f n u r s i n g a i d e s was i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e X X , f r o m 1958 t o 1965 i n c l u s i v e , u n d e r t h e s u b h e a d i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h . The D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a l s o a d m i t t e d t o t h e n u r s i n g a i d e t r a i n i n g programme a number o f p e r s o n s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e P r o v i n c e . The c o s t o f t r a i n i n g s u c h p e r s o n s was p a i d f o r b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C i t i z e n -s h i p a n d I m m i g r a t i o n o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s . The amount t h u s p a i d was r e c o r d e d as r e i m b u r s e m e n t f r o m O t h e r F e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t s i n T a b l e X X . F e e s . F e e s were f i r s t c o l l e c t e d f o r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s i n 1959 when 102 a five dollar registration fee was levied on rural welding participants in Canadian Vocational Training courses in an attempt to stabilize the attendance on courses. Fees for the same purpose were levied on other courses after 1959 and included fees for welding, small business manage-ment courses, supervisory training, pipeline welding, and tractor maintenance courses. Under the terms of the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement, income earned by training operations was shareable with the Government of Canada at the same rate as expenditures were shared by the Government of Canada. It was not possible to determine what portion of the income from fees and sale of materials might have been shareable with the Government of Canada at rates other than 50 per cent. A l l income recorded, there-fore, was shared at 50 per cent in the summary presented in Table XX. Changes in Costs. The overall increase in expenditures for vocational training between the years 1956 and 1965 was 464- per cent, for an annual average increase of 46.4 per cent. The overall increase in reimbursement and fees for the ten-year period from 1956 to 1965 was 1,130.2 per cent, for an average increase of 113-per cent per year. The overall increase in the net Provincial operating cost for providing vocational training amounted to 149.5' per cent. Averaged over the ten-year period, this amounted to l4.9 per cent per year between 1956 and 1965. XIII. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER In recognition of the detrimental effects on youth of the economic depression of the 1930's an agreement to share the costs of providing 103 training was signed between the Federal and Provincial Governments in 1937- The agreement was called the Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Agreement. The first Dominion-Provincial Training Agreement was quickly-followed by other similar agreements to provide for the needs of the war, and later for training the returning veterans in programmes of rehabilitation. In 19^0 the War Emergency Training Agreement was signed and in 19^4 the Vocational Training Agreement was signed. The activity carried out under the terms of the Federal-Provincial agreements was given the designation, Canadian Vocational Training. By 1950 the rehabilitation training of veterans had been completed and the training effort was directed to the needs of the unemployed, the disabled, and the increasing needs of industry for trained workers. A series of agreements between the Federal and Provincial Govern-ments followed, that encouraged the development of training facilities and the presentation of training programmes. In 1957 the Vocational and Technical Training Agreement No. 2 was signed which provided for assistance with capital expansion. Two years later, in 1959, the Special Vocational Training Projects Agreement was signed which extended Federal participation in cost sharing of the operational costs of training programmes. In 196l the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement was signed. The Technical and Vocational Training Agreement provided extended operational and capital financial assistance from the Federal Government for approved Provincial technical and vocational projects of training. The courses of training offered by Canadian Vocational Training dealt with a wide selection of subject matter. Enrolment varied from year to year because of the nature of the programming. In 1956 enrolment 104 in Canadian Vocational Training courses was 1,842. In 1965 enrolment had increased to 3,827-The cost to the Province of providing Canadian Vocational Train-ing programmes, "based on expenditures of $290,578 in 1956 with . reimbursements of $111,4l6, was $179,162. In 1965 the expenditures were $1,487,649 with reimbursements of $1,040,573. The cost in 1965 was $447,076. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I. SUMMARY The oldest technical institute in Canada is the proud claim of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. Established in 1916 i t grew slowly through its uncertain early years of operation until i t located permanently on 123 acres of land in northwest Calgary in the year 1921. In 1940, the facilities of the Technical Institute were loaned to the Canadian Government for use in training men to take their place in the armed services. The year 1946, however, saw the return of the Institute to Provincial administration. At that time a rejuvenation of buildings and equipment was the beginning of a continuous expansion programme which has permitted the training of men and women in a variety of post-secondary school programmes. In 1944, the Apprenticeship Act of Alberta was passed. During the years to follow, the training of apprentices became an integral part of the development of the technical institute and of the Canadian Vocational Training Centres throughout the Province. However, by 1949» only two Canadian Vocational Training Centres remained, and apprenticeship train-ing was concentrated in the Canadian Vocational Training Centre in Calgary and the Technical Institute. By 1957, the enrolment of appren-tices and of technicians f i l led the training facilities to capacity. A new trade training centre was required and it was proposed to be built in Edmonton. The concept of a trade training centre, however, was expanded and in 1962 the first phase of Alberta's second Institute of Technology was opened.' By 1964, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was in 106 ful l operation, providing training to both apprentices and technicians. During this same period of time Canadian Vocational Training continued to provide training in various temporary centres throughout the Province. The courses were designed to offer training to meet the specific needs of individuals. First introduced to Alberta in 1937 under the terms of the Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Agreement, this form of vocational training contributed in turn to the training of Alberta youth, war emergency programmes, veterans' rehabilitation, apprentice-ship, and the training of unemployed and disabled persons. Growth of facilities and improvement of service have character-ized technical and vocational training in Alberta during the period 1956 to 1965. The enrolment of persons in training has shown significant change in the ten years. Actual enrolment of apprentices in training in Alberta in 1956 was 2,195, increasing to 3,783 in 1961 and 4,572 in 1965. The enrolment summarized in Table XXI shows a steady increase in each of the years, from 1.9 per one thousand population in 1956 to 2.8 per one thousand population in 196l, and 3.1 per one thousand population in 1965. The total enrolment of technicians in training in 1956 was 303, increasing to 679 in 1961 and to 1,701 in 1965. Technician training also increased in each of the years noted in terms of one thousand population, from 0.26 in 1956 to 0.50 in 1961 and to 1.1 in 1965. Vocational training and non-technical trainees, but excluding night class enrolments, totalled 2,379 in 1956, increasing to 3,990 in 196l and 4,976 in 1965. The number in vocational training courses, per one thousand population, changed from 2.1 in 1956 to 3.0 in 196l and 3.4 in 1965. 10? If the number of persons participating in night school classes are added to the vocational training and non-technical numbers, the enrolment in 1956 becomes 4,150. In 196l, the enrolment is 6,512 and in 1965 the enrolment becomes 10,058. TABLE XXI": TRAINEE ENROLMENT PER 1,000 POPULATION":" 1956 1961 1965 Per 1,000 Population Apprentices 2,195 3,783 4,572 1.9 2.8 3.1 Technicians 303 679 1,701 0.26 0.51 1.1 Vocational Training 2,379 3,990 4,976 2.1 3.0 3.4 Night Classes 1,771 2,522 5,082 Total: 1956 Total: 196l Total: 1963 6,648 10,974 16,331 5.9 8.2 11.2 Total enrolment in a l l training of apprenticeship, technician, non-technical and vocational, but excluding correspondence course enrol-ment, is summarized in Table XXII. The total enrolment in 1956 is 6 ,648, increasing to 10,974 in 196l, and further increasing to 16,331 in 1965-The total number enroled in training per one thousand population in 1956 equals 5^9, and 8.2 in 196l, increasing to 11.2 in 1965. The estimated population of Alberta on which the relative enrolments are based is shown in Table XXIII (p. 109). TABLE XXII TOTAL TRAINEE ENROLMENT 1956 1957 1958 1959 i960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Apprenticeship 2195 2610 3232 3kjh 3622 3783 3694 4408 4395 4572 Southern AlBerta Institute of Technology- 2611 2871+ 2962 3I+16 3687 1+122 4307 3973 4488 4356 Northern Alberta Institute of Technology 735 3576 Vocational Training 181+2 1654 2057 2527 21+39 3069 3488 3407 4ll4 3827 Totals 661+8 7138 8251 9417 9748 10974 11489 11788 13732 16331 109 The total Provincial expenditure for operations for a l l pro-grammes in 1956 was $1,579,485, increasing to $3,460,38? in 196l, and to $7,841,903 in 1965. Reference to Table XXV (Appendix A, p. 121), shows that in the same period the total reimbursement received by the Province increased from $468,06l in 1956 to $1,164,950 in l'96l, and $3,973,887 in 1965. The net Provincial operating cost for a l l programmes, therefore. TABLE XXIII ESTIMATED POPULATION OF ALBERTA 1956 TO 1965* 1956 1,123,116** 1957 1,123,116 1958 1,160,000 1959 1,233,000 i960 1,273,000 1961 1,313,000*** 1962 1,364,000 1963 1,400,000 1964 1,427,000 1965 1,448,000 *Source: 'Public Accounts of the Province of Alberta, Annual 1956-65. **corrected to Canada census 1956. • ***not corrected to Canada census 196l. was $1,111,424 in 1956 and $2,281,949 in 196l, increasing to $3,868,016 in 1965. These costs are summarized in Table XXVI (Appendix A, p. 122). The expenditure required to train an apprentice in 1956 was $241.35. The actual cost of the training was- $148.63. The expenditure required in 1965 was $328.39 and the actual cost was $191.88. The expenditure required to train a technician or non-technical trainee in the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1956 was $903.71. The actual cost of the training was $721.43. In 1965, the 110 expenditure required was $1,464.25 and the actual cost was $750.75-Similar training provided at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1965 required $1,989.13 for expenditure, while the actual cost was $1,062.70. The expenditures and costs of training technicians, specifically, were not available but would approximate very closely the expenditures and costs of training the combined technician and non-technical group. The expenditures and costs for vocational training per person in 1956 amounted to $143.18 for expenditures, and a cost of $98.35. In 1965, the expenditure required was $388.72, while the actual cost was $116.82. Expenditures and costs per trainee are set out in Table XXIV. TABLE XXIV EXPENDITURE AND COST PER TRAINEE Expenditure No. Per Cost No. Per Apprenticeship 1956 $ 529,783 1961 1,037.641 1965 1,501,403 2195 3783 4572 $ 241.35 274.29 328.39 $ 326,254 584,664 877,309 2195 3783 4572 $ 148.63 154.55 191.88 Technicians and Non-Technical Trainees in S. A.I.T. 1956 759,124 1961 1,560,687 1965 2,276,918 840 1600 1555 903.71 975.43 1,464.25 606,008 1,279,071 1,167,421 840 1600 1555 721.43 799-42 750.75 Technicians, and Non-Technical Trainees in N.A.I.T. 1965 2,575,933 1295 1,989.13 1,376,210 1295 1,062.70 Vocational Training 1956 263,741 1961 848,571 1965 1,487,649 1842 3069 3827 143.18 276.49 388,72 179,162 4i8,2i4 447,076 1842 3069 3827 98.35 136.27 116.82 I l l The P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f c a p i t a l f o r s i t e and c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e t e n - y e a r p e r i o d , 1956 t o 1965, as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e X X V I I (p. 123), amounted t o $18,945,522. The P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f c a p i t a l f o r f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment f o r t h e same t e n - y e a r p e r i o d , 1956 t o 1965, amounted t o $6,485,179 as shown i n T a b l e X X V I I I (p. 124). The t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e f o r s i t e , c o n s t r u c t i o n , f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment amounted t o $25,430,701. I n t h e same p e r i o d , t h e reimbursement f o r s i t e and c o n s t r u c t i o n amounted t o $11,398,723, and f o r f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment t o $4,212,562, f o r a t o t a l o f $15,611,285. The t o t a l n e t P r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l c o s t o v e r t h e p e r i o d 1956 t o 1965 was $9,8l9,4l6, as shown i n T a b l e XXIX (p. 125). S i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f e x p e n d i t u r e s and r e i m b u r s e m e n t s f o r c a p i t a l have been a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e f i v e y e a r s between i960 and 1965, and can be a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and e q u i p p i n g o f t h e N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y i n Edmonton. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e t o t a l e n r o l m e n t i n a l l programmes o v e r t h e . t e n -y e a r p e r i o d , t h e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s t u d e n t was $24l.01, and t h e c a p i t a l c o s t p e r s t u d e n t was $93.06. I I . CONCLUSION The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e p e r i o d under r e v i e w c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s a c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h i n f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g and an i n c r e a s i n g number o f p e r s o n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a l l l e v e l s o f t r a i n i n g . T h i s s t u d y has e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t 1,701 t e c h n i c i a n s were i n t r a i n i n g i n 1965- I t has a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t $1,464.25 i s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e t r a i n i n g f o r e a ch t e c h n i c i a n . The s t u d y has f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e were 4,572 a p p r e n t i c e s i n t r a i n i n g i n 1965 and t h a t $328.39 i s r e q u i r e d t o 112 provide t r a i n i n g f o r each apprentice. The number o f other persons i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses i n 19&5 w a s 4,975s w i t h each r e q u i r i n g $388.72 f o r t r a i n i n g . I t does not, however, provide the answer t o whether or not these f i g u r e s are adequate. How many t r a i n e d people are r e q u i r e d and how much should the cost be? These are the questions t h a t remain unanswered. These are the unknowns that must be c l a r i f i e d . The t o t a l number i n t r a i n i n g i n 19&5 °f H-2 per one thousand p o p u l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s study, w i l l be a base t o which subsequent s t u d i e s can r e l a t e . Studies of a s i m i l a r nature should be undertaken i n other provinces f o r comparison purposes. Such studies i n t o t a l might then c o n t r i b u t e i n some way t o the establishment of the need f o r t r a i n i n g at v a r i o us l e v e l s and, secondly, f o r the establishment o f a cost f i g u r e f o r t r a i n i n g which i s r e a l i s t i c i n terms of expenditure and adequate t o meet i n d u s t r y ' s demands f o r t r a i n e d personnel i n a changing t e c h n o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g . BIBLIOGRAPHY •114 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Adult Basic Education. Hearings before the Committee on Education and Labor. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962. 4l6 pp. Annual Report. Ottawa: Canada Department of Labour. 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"Adult T r a i n i n g and R e t r a i n i n g i n the U.S.A.," Technical Education and Industrial Training3 V o l . V, No. 7, J u l y 1963. London: Archer Bros. United States Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s . " S c i e n t i f i c and Technica l Personnel i n Industry 1961." Prepared f o r N a t i o n a l Science Founda-t i o n . Washington: 1964. 84 pp. Wales, B. E. "The Development of Adult Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." . Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Oregon State C o l l e g e , 1958. Wanted . . . More Experts! Ottawa: Canada Department of Labour, 1958. 54 pp. 119 Willis , Benjamin C. "Vocational Education in the Years Ahead," American Vocational Journal, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. Washington: February 1963. C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Hanson, E. "Population and Income Developments Alberta, Western Canada and Canada." Paper prepared for the Alberta Department of Education, Minister's Conference, 1966. . "Population Projections and Labour Force Data Alberta." Paper prepared for the Alberta Department of Education, Minister's Conference, 1966. Porter, A. "Priorities in the Education of Skilled Manpower." Paper read at the Canadian Education Association Forty-second Convention, New Brunswick, September 2k, 1965 • Williams, C. B. "Construction Manpower in Alberta: An Overview." A summary of investigations conducted between June 1 and September 30, 1966 on behalf of the Alberta Bureau of Statistics, Department of Industry and Development, 1966. APPENDIX A TABLES OF EXPENDITURES AND COSTS TABIS 2XV TOTAL OPSSATIOMAL ESR35D1TUHSS AMD HSBSmSMEOTS 1956 1957 1953 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Expsnditures • Apprenticeship $ 529,783 $ 634,561 $ 790,973 $ 391,324 $ 973,632 $1,037,641 $1,072,642 $1,040,166 $1,311,660 $1,501,403 Southern Alberta Inst, of Teeimology 759,124 809,302 934,502 1,181,485 1,410,579 1,560,687 1,730,224 1,816,925 2,041,296 2,276,918 Northern Alberta Inst, of Technology 13,483 39,102 528,181 1,725,093 2,575,933 Vocational Training 290,578 325,927 393,735 617,921 745,952 848,571 922,397 979,775 1,104,717 1,487,649 Totals $1,579,485 $1 ,769,790 $2,119,210 $2,690,730 $3,130,163 $3,460,367 $3,764,365 $4,365,047 $6,182,766 $7,841,903 Jiexshnr s emont s Apprenticeship $ 203,529 $ 260,392 $ 323,694 $ 432,125 $ 440,779 $ 452,977 $ 472,250 $ 472,777 $ 634,078 $ 624,094 Southern Aibarta Inst, of Technology 153,116 160,011 191,078 199,467 238,365 231,616 512,833 775,738 1,012,094 1,109,497 northern Alberta Inst, of Technology 152,210 824,307 1,199,723 Vocational Training 111,416 117,315 200,309 324,332 400,353 430,357 637,393 657,107 •754,794 1,040,573 Totals $ 468,061 $ 537,718 $ 715,031 $ 955,924 $1,079,497 $1,164,950 $1,622,481 $2,057,832 $3,225,273 $3,973,837 ro TABLE XXVI NET OPERATIONAL COST 1956 1957 1953 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 p p r e n t i c e s h i p $ 326,254 $ 374,169 $ 467,279 $ 459,199 $ 532,853 "$ 584,664 $ 600,392 $ 567,389 $ 677,582 $ 877.309 i u t h e r n A l b e r t a i s t . o f T e c h n o l o g y 606,008 649,291 743,424 932,018 1,172,214 1,279,071 1,217,386 1,041,187 1,029,202 1,167,421 o r t h e r n A l b e r t a i s t . o f T e c h n o l o g y 428,561 900,736 1,376,210 j c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g 179,162 208,612 193,426 293,539 345,599 418,214 285,004 322,668 349,923 447,076 T o t a l s $1,111,424 $1,232,072 $1,404,129 $1,734,806 $2,050,666 $2,281,949 $2,102,782 $2,359,805 $2,957,493 $3,868,016 I ro ro TABLE XXVII TOTAL CAPITAL EXPENDITURES AND RELMBURSEMENTS ON SITES AND CONSTRUCTION 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Totals Sxpenditures Education Building $ 329,416 $ 119,953 $1,973,094 $1,338,584 116,486 $ 240,983 $ 861,786 $ 575,347 $ 247,691 $ 114,833 Provincial Inst, of Technology 51,845 Vursing Aide Sdmonton 54,059 390 .•"orestry School 136,852 14,360 597 tf.A.I.T. 200,539 1,950,384 8,978,890 523,101 1,067,564 \.V.C. Tort McMurray 44,300 ?ire O f f i c e r s ' School, Vermilion 4,418 $ 381,261 $ 119,953 $2,027,153 $1,338,974 $ 253,333 $ 455,932 $2,812,767 $9,554,237 $ 770,792 $1,231,115 $18,945,522 Reimbursements Provincial Inst. Dalgary $ 641,403 $ 757,329 $ 56,310 $ 6,683 $ 667,397 $ • 80,865 $ 557,805 $ 37,765 S.A.I.T. Sdmonton 32,335 6,086,273 2,311,548 158,082 forestry School Hinton 1,625 ?ire O f f i c e r s ' School, Vermilion 3,303 $ 641,403 $ 757,329 $ 56,310 $ 6,683 $ 699,732 $6,167,133 $2,869,353 $ 200,775 $11,398,723 Net P r o v i n c i a l C a p i t a l Cost f o r S i t e and Construction $ 381,261 $ 119,953 $1,385,750 $ 581,645 $ 197,028 $ 449,249 $2,113,035 $3,337,099 $2,093,561 $1,030,340 $ 7,546,799 Denotes c r e d i t balance. TABIE XXVIII TOTAL CAPITAL EXPENDITURES AND REIMBURSEMENTS ON FURNISHINGS AND EQUIPMENT 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Totals Expenditures Education Building $ 4,634 $ 36,192 $ 168,240 $ 365,156 $ 111 ,252 $ 117,676 $ 219,963 $ 157,072 $ 432,890 $ 55,956 Provincial Inst. of Technology 101 ,395 Nursing Aide Edmonton 21,530 2,217 46 83 629 Nursing Aide Calgary 931 333 138 127 126 179 480 Heating Plant 185 182 74 379 627 C.V.T. Calgary 2,348 Forestry School Hinton 11,513 15,061 732 N.A.I.T. 6 W 1,900 ,226 2,128,742 597,879 Fire Officers' School, Vermilion 29,373 $ 106,029 $ 36,192 $ 190,701 $ 367,891 $ 125,479 $ 132,938 $ 221,687 $2,058,051 $2,561,894 $ 684,317 $6,485,179 Reimbursements Canadian Vocational Training $ 2,360 $ 1,804 Provincial Inst. of Technology $ 12,853 $ 1 7 1 , 5 a $ 53,205 $ 12,095 $ 106 ,642 $ 135,904 $ 342 ,019 $ 74,291 N.A.I.T. 211,153 2,482,548 584,117 Fire Officers' School, Vermilion 22,030 $ 2,360 $ 1,804 $ 12,853 $ 171,541 $ 53,205 $ 12,095 $ 106,642 $ 347,057 $2,824,567 $ 680,438 $4 ,212 ,562 Net Provincial Capital Cost for Furnishing and Equipment $ 103,669 $ 34 ,388 $ 177,848 $ 196,350 $ 72 ,274 $ 120,843 $ 115,045 $1,710,994 $ 262,673 $. 3,879 $2,272,617 Denotes credit balance. TABLE XXIX NET CAPITAL COST 1956 1957 195S 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 Totals 197,028 $ 449,249 $2,113,035 $3,387,099 $2,098,561 $1,030,340 $7,546,799 72,274 120,843 115,045 1,710,994 262,673 3,879 2,272,617 $ 484,930 $ 154,341 $1,563,598 $ 777,995 $ 269,302 $ 570,092 $2,228,080 $5,098,093 $2,361,234* $1,034,219 $9,819,416 Denotes credit balance Net P r o v i n c i a l Capital Cost f o r Sit e and Construction $ 331,261 $ Wet Provincial C a p i t a l Cost f o r Furnishings and Eouipment 103,669 119,953 $1,385,750 $ 581,645 $ 34,388 177,848 196,350 (—1 ro APPENDIX B SOURCES OF INFORMATION 127 Sources of Information on Enrolments. Enrolment figures for apprentices were taken from the annual report of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology for the years 1956 to 1965- Enrolment figures for apprentices trained at the Canadian Vocational Centre were taken from the annual report of the Division of Vocational Education for the years 1956 to 1963. The enrolment figures for apprentices trained at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were taken from the annual report of the Division of Vocational Education for the year 1964 and from the annual report of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology for 1963 and 1965. Expenditure figures for apprenticeship training and reimburse-ments for approved Provincial expenditures on apprenticeship training were taken from the statements covering the operations of Canadian Vocational Training in the Public Accounts of the Province of Alberta for the years 1956 to 1959, inclusive. From i960 to 1963, inclusive, expenditure figures and reimbursements were from the statements of Vocational Training in the Public Accounts, and for the years 1964 and 1965 expenditures for apprentice training and reimbursements from the Government of Canada were taken from the statements of the Department of Labour in Public Accounts of the Province of Alberta. Enrolment figures for a l l courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology for the years 1956 to 1965 were taken from the annual report of the Institute. The enrolment figures for a l l courses at the Northern Alberta Institute of.Technology in 1964 and 1965, were taken from the annual report of that Institute. The enrolment figures for persons trained in the Canadian Voca-tional Training Centres in Edmonton and Calgary, and in temporary 128 t r a i n i n g centres e s t a b l i s h e d from time t o time throughout the Province,' and the v o c a t i o n a l teacher t r a i n i n g programme, were taken from the annual report of the D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education f o r the years 1956 t o I965. The enrolment f i g u r e s f o r persons t r a i n e d i n nur s i n g aide t r a i n i n g f o r the years 1956 t o 1965 were from the o f f i c e of the D i r e c t o r of Medical Services of the Department o f Health. F o r e s t r y enrolment f i g u r e s were provided by the o f f i c e of the D i r e c t o r o f the D i v i s i o n of F o r e s t r y , Department of Lands and F o r e s t s . The t o t a l f i g u r e s shown under f o r e s t r y i n c l u d e d the b a s i c ranger course, f i s h and w i l d - l i f e , t r e e s c a l e r , f i r e c o n t r o l , f i r e overhead, f i r e crew, towerman, advanced f o r e s t r y , executive t r a i n i n g and R.C.A.F. f i r e c o n t r o l . Enrolment f i g u r e s f o r the f i r e o f f i c e r s ' t r a i n i n g course were from the o f f i c e o f the P r o v i n c i a l F i r e Commissioner, Department of the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , f o r the years 1959 to 1965. Sources of Information on Expenditures. Expenditures f o r Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g were recorded i n the statements o f Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n the P u b l i c Accounts of the Province of A l b e r t a from 1956 t o 1959- From i960 t o 1964, the expenditures were recorded i n the statements of V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , and i n 1965 the accounts of V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the accounts of the Department of Education and the expenditures were recorded i n the statements of the Department of Educa-t i o n i n the P u b l i c Accounts o f the Province. The expenditures f o r the t r a i n i n g c a r r i e d out by the Department of Lands and Forests were recorded i n the statements o f the Department of Lands and Forests i n P u b l i c Accounts from 1956 t o 1965. Included i n the expenditures from i960 t o 1965 was an expenditure f o r the t r a i n i n g of 129 j u n i o r f o r e s t wardens, a group not i n c l u d e d i n the enrolment of forestry-t r a i n e e s . The expenditure f o r j u n i o r f o r e s t wardens was not l a r g e , but i t was not p o s s i b l e t o separate i t from the t o t a l expenditure f i g u r e s recorded. The Department of Health expenditures on nursing aide t r a i n i n g were recorded i n statements of the Department of Health i n P u b l i c Accounts from 1958 to 1965. The Department of P u b l i c Works' expenditures i n c l u d e d expenditures f o r nursing aide schools and i n 1961 and 1962 a l s o i n c l u d e d expenditures f o r the F o r e s t r y T r a i n i n g School, Hinton. These expenditures were found i n statements of the Department of P u b l i c Works i n P u b l i c Accounts. Expenditures f o r the t r a i n i n g f o r f i r e o f f i c e r s , recorded under the subheading of the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary i n Table XX (pp. 96, 97), were from the o f f i c e of the P r o v i n c i a l F i r e Commissioner. Reimbursements were recorded f o r Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g from 1956 t o 1964 i n statements of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n P u b l i c Accounts, and i n 19^5 i n statements of the Department of Education i n P u b l i c Accounts. Reimbursements f o r the Department of Health and f o r the Department of P u b l i c Works were found i n statements of the Department of Health and of P u b l i c Works, respec-t i v e l y . The s a l e of m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d e d i n reimbursements i n Table XX, were recorded i n the statements of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g from 1956 t o 196h i n c l u s i v e , and from the Department of Education i n 1965. Income from s a l e of s u p p l i e s was from the statements of the Department of Health from 1958 t o 1965 i n c l u s i v e . Fees were recorded i n s t a t e -ments of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g from 1959 t o 1964 and i n statements of the Department of Education i n 1965 i n 130 P u b l i c Accounts. Reimbursements, under the subheading Other Federal Departments, i n Table XX (pp. 96, 97)', were found in'statement's' of the Department of H e a l t h , P u b l i c "Accounts f o r the years i960 t o 1965 i n c l u s i v e . C a p i t a l Costs. C a p i t a l expenditures on s i t e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n and on f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment are made by the Department of P u b l i c Works and are, a c c o r d i n g l y , recorded i n the accounts of the Department of P u b l i c Works. The expenditures on s i t e s , c o n s t r u c t i o n , f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment f o r the various schools and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s are recorded f o r each, as l i s t e d i n the statements of the Department of P u b l i c Works i n P u b l i c Accounts f o r the years 1956 t o 1965- i n c l u s i v e . Reimbursements are s i m i l a r l y designated by school and other f a c i l i t y , and are recorded i n the statements of the Department of P u b l i c Works i n P u b l i c Accounts f o r the years 1956 t o 1965 i n c l u s i v e . Reim-bursements by the Government of Canada are made on claims submitted, audited and approved f o r payment. There i s a time lapse i n t h i s procedure, t h e r e f o r e the reimbursements i n any one year do not r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o the expenditures of that year. In 1964, the amount of reimbursement r e c e i v e d from the Government of Canada exceeded the expenditure by the Province i n the same year. The surplus r e s u l t s from an expenditure of $3,332,686, and i n the same year reimbursements r e c e i v e d from the Government of Canada amounted i n t o t a l to $5,693,920. The Department of P u b l i c Works records i n the statements of account . an amount f o r refund on s a l e s t a x on b u i l d i n g s under construc-t i o n . The refund i s made f o r a l l b u i l d i n g s under c o n s t r u c t i o n , and that p o r t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o the b u i l d i n g of t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i s not i d e n t i f i e d . No amount from t h i s source of 1 3 1 reimbursement has been i n c l u d e d i n the summaries of c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . Th is r e s u l t s i n the net P r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l cost f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n b e i n g h igher than i t o therwise would be i f the reimbursement on s a l e s t a x c o u l d be i n c l u d e d . P r o v i s i o n f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n on b u i l d i n g s and e q u i p -ment i s made f o r a l l Government b u i l d i n g s and equipment, and t h a t p o r t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i s not i d e n t i f i e d except f o r a s m a l l sum i n each o f the years 1956 t o 196l i n the accounts of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g . No amount f o r d e p r e c i -a t i o n has been i n c l u d e d i n the summaries o f c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e , nor shown as a cost o f o p e r a t i o n . Th is r e s u l t s i n a lower t o t a l P r o v i n c i a l expendi ture f o r t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g than would be ob ta ined i f an amount f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n was i n c l u d e d . 

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