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Study of enrolments and financing of provincial technical and vocational training in Alberta , 1956-1965 Campbell, Donald Leslie 1968

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A STUDY OF ENROLMENTS AND FINANCING OF PROVINCIAL TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN ALBERTA 1956-1965 by DONALD L. CAMPBELL B. Com., University of Alberta, 1950 B. E d . , University of Alberta, 196k 1  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (Adult Education) in the Faculty of EDUCATION  We accept this thesis as conforming to ;the'~lre~q,uired standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1968  c  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e requirements Columbia,  f o r an advanced degree at The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h .  I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  available  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  g r a n t e d by t h e "Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r financial  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  The F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date ^2*uJ<J  /f .  /f^f'  ii ABSTRACT Cybernation is a term used in a nev context to identify a new era.  It is a term that is associated with technical development and  productivity.  The implications that cybernation bring with it are two-  fold for the discipline of education.  The first task that falls to  education is the development of understanding and the identification of values that w i l l enable mankind to benefit from his surroundings. Secondly, men must be trained to work the new machines.  It is in  connection with the second task of education that this thesis addresses itself.  In Alberta, government-directed institutions of training have  developed over the years in order to train apprentices, technicians and to provide other vocational training programmes.  An outline of the  development of each of these levels of training is presented including a tabulation of the number of people who participated in the different levels of training.  The summary that is made herein of the number of  people trained is in response to the question:  What number of people  are being trained and what is the per capita cost? unique to Alberta.  The question is not  It is suspected, however, that: answers are not  readily available and a review of the literature bears this out. Technical and vocational training has a history of nearly fifty years in Alberta.  The gradual development of f a c i l i t i e s through periods  of economic c r i s i s , pressures from enrolment, and Federal financial assistance is outlined before the detailed examination of enrolments and costs is presented for the decade commencing in 1956. The number of apprentices in training in 1956 was 2,195had increased to ^,572.  By the year 1965 the number  In relative terms the increase was from 1.9 per  one thousand population to 3.1. A similar increase was evident in the training of technicians.  In 1956 the Southern Alberta Institute of  Technology trained 303 technicians.  By 1965 the number of technicians  in training had increased to 1,701.  Of this number, 950 were trained  at the new Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.  The relative  change as measured per one thousand population was from 0.26 to 1.1. The number of persons in other vocational training and non-technical training programmes also increased. increased to U 976 in 19659  The enrolment of 2,379 in 1956  The relative numbers in training increased  from 2.1 per one thousand population to 3.^. An examination of the financing of apprenticeship, technical, and vocational training  reveals that an expenditure by the Province in 1956  of $2Ul.35 was required to train each apprentice.  However, the net cost  to the Province after reimbursements and adjustments, was $lU8.63 for each apprentice.  In 1965 these figures had increased to $328.39 and  $191.88 respectively.  The expenditure and cost of training each techni-  cian in 1956 was $903.71 and $721.U3 increasing to $1,U6U.25 and $750.75 by 1965«  In 1965 the expenditure on each technician at the Northern  Alberta Institute of Technology was $1,989-13 and the cost $1,062.70. For other vocational trainees the expenditure made by the Province in 1956 amounted to $1^3.18 and the cost amounted to $98.35- This had changed by 1965 to a Provincial expenditure of $388.72 and a net cost of  $116.82. The capital expenditure in the form of site, construction, furnishings and equipment for students at a l l levels of training, over the ten—year period 1956 to 1965, was $21+1.01. The capital cost was  $93.06.  The completion of this study for Alberta creates the need for comparisons.  The reference points for enrolments and for costs have  been established herein, but these must mark the beginning and not the end.  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A t h e s i s i s r a r e l y the r e s u l t o f the e f f o r t o f only one person. Many people contribute t o the creation o f the document and the knowledge on which i t s 'contents are "built.  This t h e s i s i s no exception  and t o a l l those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n various ways I wish t o express my appreciation. To include the names of those t o whom I am indebted would add nothing t o the s i n c e r i t y o f my appreciation and, t h e r e f o r e , I s h a l l not attempt t o i d e n t i f y each person i n d i v i d u a l l y .  There must be acknowledge-  ment, however, o f the encouragement given, the s t i m u l a t i n g advice, and the influence o f the teachings of my advisor, Dr. Coolie Verner.  There  must also be r e c o g n i t i o n o f the many s a c r i f i c e s made by my w i f e , O l i v e , during the period required t o complete the t h e s i s . especially grateful.  To both, I am  vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  II.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose of Study  1  Limitations  3  Definitions of Terms  3  Review of the Literature  5  International Studies  6  British Studies  7  United States Studies  9  Canadian Studies  16  Alberta  18  APPRENTICESHIP  21  Introduction  21  Preparation for Examination  21  Recommendation for Training  22  Apprenticeship Act  22  Purpose  22  Designated Trades  22  Local Advisory Committees  23  Provincial Advisory Committees  23  Apprenticeship Board Training Centres  2k 2k  Facilities  2k  Distribution  25  Trade School Proposal  25  vii CHAPTER  PAGE Revision  26  Department o f Labour  27  In-School Training  27  Length o f D e s i g n a t i o n  27  Length o f In-School T r a i n i n g  27  Schedule  28  E n t r a n c e Requirements'"  28  Education  28  Age  28  Qualification  30  T r a i n i n g Allowances  30  Tuition  30  Amount o f A l l o w a n c e s  31  Enrolment Transfer  31 o f T r a i n i n g Courses  33  C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f C e r t a i n Trades  ...  3*+  Pre-Apprentice Classes  3^  C e n t r e s f o r T r a i n i n g i n 1965  35  Changes i n Enrolment  36  Number i n T r a i n i n g and Number R e g i s t e r e d  36  Operational  Costs  36  Administration  38  Reimbursement  38  E x p e n d i t u r e Items Differentiation Changes i n Costs  o f Terms  . .  ^0 ^0 ^0  viii CHAPTER  P A G E  Summary of Chapter III.  ^0  TECHNICAL INSTITUTES AND TECHNICIANS  k2 ^2  Introduction Provincial Institute  ^2  Courses  ^2  Site  ^3  Early Prerequisites  ^3  The Depression Period  '^3 hk  Recent Developments Divisions New B u i l d i n g s  hh  Advisory Committees  1+5  Identification 1  . .  h5  F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Financing  ^6  I n s t i t u t e Opening  ^6  Divisions  hi  Technicians  ^7  Standards  hi  Admission Requirements  ^8  Apprentice D i v i s i o n Evening D i v i s i o n  ^9  Objectives  ^9  Length  ^9  Financing  50  Fees  50  Evening Course Fees  52  ix CHAPTER  PAGE Correspondence Course Fees  52  A p p r e n t i c e s h i p Costs  53  Enrolment—Technicians, S.A.I.T  53  Changes i n Enrolment  55  E f f e c t o f New I n s t i t u t e  56  Enrolment—Non-Technical, S.A.I.T  56  Changes i n Enrolment  58  E f f e c t o f New I n s t i t u t e  58  Correspondence  58  Night Classes  6l  T o t a l Enrolment  63  Enrolment—Technicians, N.A.I.T Changes i n Enrolment Enrolment—Non-Technical, N.A.I.T  63 63 63  Changes i n Enrolment  67  Night Classes  67  T o t a l Enrolment.  67  O p e r a t i o n a l C o s t s — S . A. I. T  67  Administration  70  Reimbursement  70  Changes i n C o s t s  71  O p e r a t i o n a l C o s t s — N . A. I. T  71  Administration  71  Reimbursement  73  Changes i n C o s t s  73  Summary o f Chapter  7^  X CHAPTER IV.  PAGE  VOCATIONAL TRAINING  TT  Introduction  TT  The D e p r e s s i o n P e r i o d  TT  Youth T r a i n i n g Agreement  T8  A g r i c u l t u r a l S h o r t Course  T8  Forestry  T8  Household and S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s  T8  Agriculture  T8  I n d u s t r i a l and Commercial  T8  War Emergency T r a i n i n g  T9  Facilities  T9  Grants  T9  Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Veterans'  . .  Rehabilitation  T9 80  Courses  80  Post-War T r a i n i n g  80  Civilians  8l  I n d u s t r y ' s Needs  8l  The Needs o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l  8l  The V o c a t i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l T r a i n i n g Agreement No. 2  . .  82 ftp  O p e r a t i o n a l Aspects  KJC  -  Capital  8 2  Amendment  83  Special Vocational Training Projects  Agreement  83  Operational Aspects  83  Amendment  8U  xi CHAPTER  PAGE Technical and Vocational Training Agreement  8  ^  Operational Aspects  8  ^  Programmes  8  ^  Capital  8  7  Admission to Training and Fees Training Allowances  8  8  ? ^  U.I.C. Benefits  8  8  Transportation  8  8  Schedule  8  8  QQ Liaison Enrolment  8  9  Centres for Training  9^  Changes in Enrolment  95  Operational Costs  95  Administration  95  Reimbursement  . . •  Fees  101 1  0  1  Changes in Costs Summary of Chapter V.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary Conclusion  BIBLIOGRAPHY  102 1 0  5  105 Ill 113  APPENDIX A.  Tables of Expenditures and Costs  120  APPENDIX Bo  Sources of Information  126  xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.  II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.  PAGE In-School Training Period Per Year of Apprenticeship—1965  29  Apprenticeship Enrolment  32  Registered Apprentices and Total Enrolment  37  Operational Costs of Apprenticeship Training  39  Institute of Technology Fees—1956  •  Institute of Technology Fees—1965  66  Northern Alberta Institute of Technology—Night Class Enrolments  XV.  65  Northern Alberta Institute of Technology—Non-Technical Enrolments  XIV.  6k  Northern Alberta Institute of Technology—Technician Enrolments  XIII.  62  Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Total Enrolment and Instructor-Student Ratio  XII.  ^0  Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Night Class Enrolments  XI.  57  Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Correspondence Course Enrolments  X.  5k  Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Non-Technical Enrolments  IX.  51  Southern Alberta Institute of Technology—Technician Enrolments  VIII.  51  Northern Alberta Institute of Technology—Total Enrolment .  68 68  xiii TABLE XVI.  PAGE Operational Costs of the Southern A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e of Technology  XVII.  69  Operational Costs of the Northern A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e of Technology  XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII.  72  Vocational T r a i n i n g — T o t a l Enrolment  90  Vocational T r a i n i n g — S p e c i a l Unemployed Courses Enrolment .  92  Operational Costs of Vocational T r a i n i n g  96  . . .  Trainee Enrolment Per 1000 Population  1°T  T o t a l Trainee Enrolment  108  Estimated Population of A l b e r t a 1956 t o 1965  10  Expenditure and Cost Per Trainee  1 1 0  T o t a l Operational Expenditures  1 2  and Reimbursements  Net Operational Cost T o t a l C a p i t a l Expenditures  Total C a p i t a l Expenditures and Equipment  XXIX.  Net C a p i t a l Cost  1  1 2 2  and Reimbursements on S i t e s  and Construction XXVIII.  9  13 2  and Reimbursements on Furnishings l  ^  2  1 2  5  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I.  PURPOSE OF STUDY  The society in which we live is in a constant state of change. We have passed through the periods of time when man's nomadic pursuits slowly gave way to the development of agricultural practices. Agricultural practices utilized the land for the cultivation of food and the creation of clothing and shelter.  In time, agriculture was com-  plemented by trade, commerce and specialization.  The application of  man's ingenuity and creativity produced an atmosphere of'industrialization in the community, which gradually became the predominant milieu. The crass, barren mechanizations  of the industrial era are now being  replaced by aesthetic, quasi-independent quickens.  devices and the pace of change  The procession moves another step onward as we become aware  of the era of cybernation.  The implications of the encroachment of  cybernation are all-embracing and complex.  They challenge the tenets  of philosophy by changing the relationship of man to his environment, and of economics by making i t possible for the f i r s t time in human history to produce enough to provide the basic needs of a l l men. They revolutionize the f i e l d of medicine through the creation of new tools for probing and repairing the human body and new medicinal materials for consumption and treatment.  In engineering, nuclear physics alone  has changed the complex of engineering as have the computer and electronics.  The implications of the encroachment of cybernation expand  the concepts of law arising from the invasion of privacy, to the international relations of space exploration. The greatest task i n  2 integrating cybernation f a l l s to the discipline of education, and the challenge is effective  now.  Education has a dual assignment.  Through education and training,  men must develop s k i l l and knowledge and understanding to direct and control the powerful effects of cybernation.  Education and training  must also develop individual creativity and aesthetic and humanistic values in order to enjoy the benefits of cybernation.  Canada is on the  threshold of the cybernation era which justifies an examination of technical and vocational training programmes. The purpose of this thesis is to study the development of technical and vocational institutions in the Province of Alberta and to examine the enrolment and the financial cost of operating each identified division.  The study w i l l deal with three divisions of technical  and vocational training. 1.  Apprenticeship.  The study w i l l present an outline of the  historical development of apprenticeship in the Province, beginning with the legislation in 19*44 that established the Apprenticeship Act.  The  enrolment of apprentices in classes for training w i l l be tabulated. The cost in public provincial funds w i l l be determined. 2.  Technical. An historical outline of the development of the  technical institutes w i l l be presented and an identification of the training of technicians w i l l be examined.  The enrolment of technicians  and the enrolment of non-technicians in the institute f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be presented.  The cost in public provincial funds of operating the f a c i l i -  ties w i l l be obtained. 3.  Vocational. The historical development of the adult training,  provided to meet specific needs of the individual and of the economy, w i l l be presented.  The enrolment in current activities in vocational  training w i l l be summarized and the cost in public provincial funds w i l l be presented. The study w i l l present relative changes in participation and financial support over the period examined and w i l l provide a base in the year I965 for comparisons for future studies. II.  LIMITATIONS  The data presented in this thesis are limited to the ten-year period  195&  to  I965.  The programmes of training recorded are only those  with which the Provincial Department of Education has had a responsib i l i t y either for curriculum or financial administration and with which the Federal Government has shared in the cost, under the authority of the Vocational Training Co-ordination Act, 1944 Vocational Training Assistance Act, 1961.  and the Technical and  They do not include training  provided in the secondary school, nor training in agricultural colleges. University education is not included except in the case of individuals assisted through vocational training. III.  DEFINITIONS OF TERMS  It is important to clearly distinguish the categories of training considered in each of the three divisions of the thesis. The following definitions of terms w i l l apply throughout. Apprentice—a person who enters into a formal contract of service with an employer, whereby he is to receive from or through his employer instruction in the trade, and from or through the Government supplementary classroom instruction. "*"  "'""The Apprenticeship Act," Chapter 14, Province of Alberta (Edmonton: Queen's Printer C. S.  [1944,  10,  1], 1944).  Apprenticeship—the  execution of the terms of the contract  entered into by the apprentice with an employer. Technical Training—a post-secondary school programme of instruction extending over a minimum period of 2,400 hours and consisting of a curriculum containing 10 per cent to 15 per cent of the total instructional time in related general education courses; 1 5 per cent to 20 per cent i n auxiliary and supporting technical courses; 10 per cent to 3 0 per cent i n mathematics and basic science courses; and 3 5 per cent to 60 per cent in technical specialty courses. Technician—a person who completes technical training in a technical institute wherein he i s trained in specialized theoretical knowledge coupled with a specific degree of practical s k i l l such as to enable him to translate the creative ideas of the professional engineer or scientist into practical processes, machines or structures. The technician functions somewhere between the level of creativeness of the professional, and the level of productive s k i l l of the tradesman. Vocational Training—a' programme which provides vocational training assistance to the individual.  The assistance may be in the  form of counselling assistance, financial assistance or instruction in preparation for occupational competency.  It i s described as any form  of instruction, the purpose of which i s to prepare a person for gainful 3  employment or to increase his s k i l l or proficiency therein.  "Manpower Training Branch Report," Twelfth Meeting of the National Technical and Vocational Training Advisory'Council (Ottawa: 1966).  3  Canada Department of Labour, Technical and Vocational Training Agreement (Ottawa: Department of Labour, 1 9 6 l ) .  5 IV.  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Recognition of the changing technological and social and economic conditions i n the decade from 195& prompted numerous enquiries into the relationship between such changes and the demand for technically and vocationally trained personnel.  The literature reviewed includes  observations and studies of the effects on workers of technological change; the new demands for trained personnel; and the ability of the educational system to provide for both the quantitative and qualitative needs of the work force in the period under review. A major defect, however, in the literature reviewed was the omission of specific information on enrolment in courses of training that could be directly related to the three levels of training that have been distinguished in this thesis.  Reference was made in the literature  reviewed to engineering and scientific students and to students in junior colleges.  No clearly defined limits of the studies or the pro-  grammes of the students were provided, which would enable a distinction being made between a student seeking professional preparation, a student seeking technician preparation and the vocational student.  No specific  enrolment figures for these actual groups were available. Determination of the cost of technical training, apprenticeship and of vocational training was also lacking in the literature.  Informa-  tion recorded on the cost of training was confined to national and state averages.  A clear statement of the composition of the student body used  to determine average cost figures was not available. The review of the literature results in three conclusions:  First  the present literature provides inadequate information on technical and vocational training enrolments and costs; second, i t provides only general  6 guides on the quantitative a b i l i t y of the educational system to provide trained manpower; f i n a l l y , i t accentuates the need f o r studies of s p e c i f i c enrolment and s p e c i f i c costs of t r a i n i n g technicians, apprent i c e s and other vocationally prepared  International Studies.  persons.  On the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scene, reports by  the Organization f o r Economic Cooperation and Development consider the need f o r t e c h n i c a l l y trained persons.  These and other reports con-  s i s t e n t l y point out the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered  i n t h i s phase of the  problem dealing with the determination of need.  The United Nations  Educational, S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Organization point out i n an early study that comparatively l i t t l e large-scale work had been done i n c a l c u l a t i n g the need f o r t e c h n i c a l l y trained personnel, with the possible exceptions of the United Kingdom, the United States and the Netherlands.  The report also warned that estimating such needs was  l i a b l e to grave error.  In the report of the Organization f o r European  Economic Cooperation, the above observation i s supported by the statement that few member nations had adequate figures on future manpower requirements supply."'  and t h i s also was  the case with respect to current manpower  The value of these observations on the international scene  must be considered on the basis of a lack of international standards, both with regard to the c o l l e c t i o n of data and also with regard to the d e f i n i t i o n of technical personnel.  However, the information that i s  UNESCO, Education i n a Technological Society, Tensions and Technology Series ( P a r i s : United Nations Educational, S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Organization, 195 )> p. 18. 2  •^O.EoE.C, Forecasting ( P a r i s : Economic Cooperation, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 7.  Organization f o r European  7 available can be used to create a setting within which relative comparisons can be made,, A further report of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, while pointing out the limited information available from the seventeen member countries participating in the study, was able to show that in  1955>  on the basis of each  100,000  persons of the  population aged fifteen to twenty-four, technical diplomas were awarded to 103 in Belgium, 108 in West Germany, 120 in France, 42 in Italy, 137 in the Netherlands, 121 in Great Britain and 124 in Sweden. The information for Canada was not available.^ British Studies.  In Great Britain the 1956  report, in Technical  Education by the Ministry of Education, dealt with the output of technical manpower but emphasized the fact that comparisons were d i f f i c u l t due to the differences in years, the differences in standards, and the differences in the meaning of terms. the figures was also considered.  The validity of many of  The report presented data of techni-  cally trained manpower in relationship to the total population and showed that Great Britain trained 164 per million of the population in 195^5  the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics trained 326 per million  of the population in  1955»  the population in 1953.  Western Europe trained  67  per million of  A recommendation of five to six technicians  for every engineer was included in the considerations of the report, but i t was pointed out that the enrolment in 1956  in the secondary  school system was divided between the grammar school, the technical school, and the modern school, in the proportions of 20 per cent,  O.E.E.C., The Problem of Scientific and Technical Manpower in Western Europe, Canada and the United States (Paris: Organization for European Economic Cooperation, 1957)» P« 12.  8 7 5 per cent and 75 per cent respectively. One explanation of the disproportionate enrolment of 5 P  e r  cent in technical training was that  the graduating Sixth Form boys had very vague knowledge of technical work to help them in choosing a career and were confused about the levels of performance of technical personnel.  Nor could parents help  because they knew so l i t t l e about present-day educational opportunig ties.  In his history of the development of technical education,  Argles concluded his report with the observation that future progress w i l l be most affected by the shortage at present and the prospective future shortage of technically trained and competent personnel. However, Argles f a i l s to present actual numbers to support this observa9 tion.  The most recent and far-reaching report on technical education  in the United Kingdom was the report of the Committee on Higher Education, more commonly referred to as the Robbins Report of 1963. The report of the Committee on Higher Education considered, without distinction, both the technical and professional manpower needs and, on this basis, dealt with enrolment, grants, women entering the labour market, adult education and expenditures.  Again, in the case of the  Committee on Higher Education the enrolments in the three levels of training distinguished in this thesis were not i d e n t i f i e d . ^ Technical Education, by the Ministry of Education, Great Britain (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1956). Oxford University, Technology and the Sixth Form Boy (Oxford: Oxford University, Department of Education, 1963), p. 28. ^Michael Argles, South Kensington to Robbins (London: Longmans Green and Co. Ltd., 1964), p. 140. "^Lionel C. Robbins, Committee on Higher Education (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1963), p. 273.  9 United States Studies.  The greatest amount of available  literature on technical and vocational training has come from the United States, and certainly the most recent studies are available from the United States.  However, a very early study completed in 1931 by the  Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education notes many of the same concerns that are being dealt with today.  The demand for techni-  cally trained persons at that time exceeded the supply by a ratio of 2:1 and i t was found within industry that the ratio of technical  11 institute men to college men was approximately 2.7*1.  Because of the  changing complex of society and the significance of technology, the President of the United States, in 1962, ordered a thorough study be made of the existing situation with respect to technical and vocational training programmes, particularly those assisted with Federal funds. The resulting Report of the Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education, Education for a_ Changing World of Work, was the most intensive study in the United States and was similar in i t s intent to the Robbins Report in England.  The report states that i t is estimated from two to  four technicians w i l l be required for each engineer or scientist by 1970.  On this basis, there w i l l also be required five million additional  craftsmen between i960 and 1970, and the shift in employment emphasis w i l l result in the need for eight million service workers between i960 and 1970.  The out-of-school enrolment in vocational training for the age  group twenty to sixty-four years in i960 was two million and this enrolment w i l l increase at the rate of 2.3 per cent yearly.  However, the  Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, Summary Report of the Study of Technical Institutes (Lancaster, Penn.: The Lancaster Press Inc., 1931)j pp. 14-26.  10 report points out that further sophistication of industry, new occupational areas being created, and apparent c r i t i c a l shortages of skilled personnel a l l point to the need for a larger portion of the work force being served by vocational training programmes.  The present 2 per cent  enroled seems inadequate, but the report notes the difficulty of evaluating the present effort when there are no data on which to base  12 comparisons.  Harris reports that from a study of the National Science  Foundation the need for technicians would double between resulting in a demand for  68,000  I960  and  1970,  new technicians yearly for industry  plus 24,000 technicians yearly for government.  Harris also proposes  that the ratio of technicians to professionals varies with the vocation; with medicine at 2 to 5«1»  space programme 2 to 3:1', and architecture as  13 high as 10 to 1.  A study by the National Science Foundation, reported  in the Technician Education Yearbook, records that there were technicians employed in million in 1963 estimated that  i960  and estimates this figure w i l l rise to one  and 1.6 million by 1970.  69»600  875*000  Based on these figures, i t is  technicians must be trained each year.  In  1962,  only 40,000 full-time two-year enrolees were in training in publicsupported institutions. actual ratio of 0.7*1  The above observation is based on the  technicians to engineers and scientists.  on the suggested desirable ratio of 2:1,  1962 Based  the number of technicians to  be trained each year would be approximately  200,000.  The yearbook also  pointed out that the expansion of technician training w i l l probably also  12  Education for a Changing World of Work, Report of the Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education (Washington: U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1963), p. 15« 13 Norman C. Harris, Technical Education in the Junior Colleges (Washington: American Association of Junior Colleges, 1964), pp. 28 and 105.  expand the need for training skilled craftsmen.  14  The need for basic  vocational training at the lower level of educationally-prepared adults is dramatically presented in a report on the hearings before the Committee on Education and Labour.  The report points out in I960,  that of the 115 million persons eighteen years of age and older in the United States, 10 per cent had completed less than six years of schooling.  This educational limitation imposes a severe barrier to  retraining and new job opportunities.''"^ Johnstone and Rivera, in their very recent findings, report that of the adult population, which i s defined as anyone over twenty-one or who is married or the head of a household, and would on this basis consist of approximately 114 million people, a l i t t l e more than one person in every five engaged in some form of adult learning. Of those, 33 per cent were engaged i n some form of vocational learning. Johnstone also found that previous educational standing was the biggest single factor that influenced participation."^  A significant statement was recorded in the report  by the Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, wherein i t was noted that only 7 per cent of the lower socio-economic and concomitantly lower educational group participated actively in further education or training courses.  In the higher socio-economic and higher  educational group, 43 per cent were active in some form of education. The report suggests that the present equivalent s k i l l level of machines  14 Technical Education Yearbook (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Publications Inc., 1963)» pp. 66, 159-  Prakken  "^Adult Basic Education, Hearings before the Committee on Education and Labor (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1962), p. 9. "^John W. C. Johnstone and R. J. Rivera, Volunteers for Learning (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1965)> pp. 1-19•  is rising more rapidly than the s k i l l or educational level of humans. This fact, and the fact that fewer of the low educational or s k i l l level workers participate in courses of learning, w i l l result in a loss of potential manpower and w i l l create a poverty-stricken class in the 17 midst of plenty.  As reported in Research on Apprenticeship, a number  of research studies on apprenticeship have been completed in various industries and separate states. In Oregon, the supply of automotive mechanics in 1959 was limited, and more was recommended to be done to encourage employers to train a larger number.  In the tool and die  industry, employers were training only 60 per cent of the apprentices necessary to replace losses from the trade through deaths and retirements.  In addition to replacements for deaths and retirements, a study  of the construction industry estimated 1.2 million new craftsmen w i l l be required in the decade from I960 to 1970.  In Wisconsin, there was  found to be no steady increase in apprentice enrolments through the period 1927 to 1953.  A further study of apprentices in the construc-  tion industry revealed that half of those who were apprenticed dropped 18 out before completing their training.  Venn, in his findings, added  to the earlier report, Education for a Changing World of Work, the estimate that only 300,000 to 400,000 skilled persons were available in 1964, while the demand by 1970 would be for just over five million. Again, i t was pointed out that 520,000 skilled workers must be added 17 'Robert Theobald, J. W. C. Johnstone and J. Weinberg, Perspective on Automation (Boston: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964), pp. 4, 28. 18 Research on Apprenticeship (East Lansing: Office of Research and Publications, College of Education, Michigan State University, 1962), p. 30.  to the labour force each year to attain this goal, but only 60,000 apprentices completed their training in the year 1960."'"^ MacLean, in his study, gave recognition to the elements of change in the community that create the need for continuous training.  The elements were the  changing population, the technological changes, the occupational changes and changing social mores, attitudes and customs. Also noted was the change in state expenditures on education, based on a national average, which in 1915 was equal to 12.6 per cent of state expenditures 20 and in 1949 only 9«4 per cent.  Melvin Barlow makes the observation  that with respect to research in vocational education and training, the f i e l d has been starved for so long that data on which to base evaluative reviews are meagre. Similarly, Swanson has noted that thoroughly reliable data have not been collected, and Brandon concludes that there 21 have been almost no studies of the economics of vocational training. The significance of these observations is self-evident. Data on the cost of training individuals at the different technical, tradesman and general vocational levels are as seriously lacking as similar information was on enrolment.  Studies that dealt  with costs of training lacked relationship and noted wide variances in "^Grant Venn, Man, Education and Work (Washington: American Council on Education, 1964), p. 22. 20 Malcolm S. MacLean and D. W. Dobson, "Educational Needs Emerging from the Changing Demands of Society," The Public Junior College (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1956), p. 26. 21 Melvin L. Barlow, "A Platform for Vocational Education in the Future," Vocational Education (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, I965), p. 289; J. Chester Swanson and E. G. Kramer, "Vocational Education Beyond the High School," Vocational Education, p. 197, George L. Brandon and R. N. Evans, "Research in Vocational Education," Vocational Education, p. 266.  cost figures.  It was noted in one publication that the average cost of  providing vocational rehabilitation in 1948 was approximately $400 per 22 person.  No definition of vocational rehabilitation was given.  The  California State Department of Employment and State Department of Education provide training under the terms of the Manpower Development and Training Act.  Two reports, one by Tolly and the other a combined  report by the California Departments of Employment and outline the form of training provided.  Education,  The training is designed to meet  the vocational training needs of the individual. It was estimated the cost per trainee in 1964 was $492.  In addition to the $492 cost for  training, an amount of $682 was paid to the trainee for a living allowance.  These two sums resulted in a total training cost of $1,178 per 23  trainee.  Further information on the cost of training was  provided  in the report by McLure, in which i t was recorded that in 1959 the operating costs of a comprehensive type junior college in I l l i n o i s were $800 for a full-time vocational student.  This compared to $700 for a  full-time college transfer student in the same junior college. these costs had increased by 18 per cent.  In 1965>  Further, i t was estimated  that the capital cost in I960 per full-time student was $3,000. McLure also suggested these figures were close to the national averages ^^Mary L. Ely (ed.), Handbook of Adult Education in the United States (New York: Bureau of Publications Teachers College, Columbia University, 1948), p. 14. :  ^G. Tolly, "Adult Training and Retraining in the U. S.," Technical Education and Industrial Training, Vol. 5» No. 7» July 1963 (London: Archer Bros., 1963); Retraining in California (Sacramento: California State Department of Employment and State Department of Education, 1964), p. 308. 2  estimated for the period 19&5  to 1970.  However, Henninger pointed out  one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s in obtaining a clear picture of educational costs in his findings in which he noted the computed cost per student for technical instruction in 1959 from $212  varied by States across the nation  to as much as $1,440, with the State of New York showing the  cost per student for technical training to be  1957,  increasing again to  $749  in  1958. ^ 2  $758  in  A study in  1956, 1956  and  $728  in  by Medsker,  on financing the junior college, noted that insufficient data were available to determine the amount of State support for junior college programmes. Missouri.  Exceptions were in the States of California, Texas, and  The significance of Medsker's findings was to support the  observation that accurate information on costs of training was not available insofar as technical and vocational training was provided  26 in junior colleges.  The most recent study in the United States  deals with the relationship of Federal funds to State and local funds. The study reports that State expenditure for apprentice training was  $2.26  for each one dollar of Federal funds.  The local expenditure on  the same basis was $3.33. For certain industrial training in the Area Technical, programmes, the State expenditure was only fifty-two cents for each Federal dollar spent and the local expenditure was only eighty 24 W. P. McLure, "Rationale for Organizing, Administering, and Financing Vocational Education," Vocational Education (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education,'I965), p. 240. Ross G. Henninger, The Technical Institute in America (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1959), pp. 116-121.  26 Leland L. Medsker, "Financing Public Junior College Operation," The Public Junior College (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1956), pp. 251-257.  cents.  Such information revealed nothing about the cost of training  individuals in programmes of training at the different levels of instruction. Canadian Studies.  Canadian studies in technical and vocational  training indicate a similarity of problems in research that were noted earlier. used.  These were a lack of reliable data, and variations in terms  Perhaps the most comprehensive study was the 1957 Manpower  Training Report;  Canada.  One of the f i r s t observations of the report  was that, even though f u l l cooperation with outside agents had been obtained, i t had not been found possible to compile a comprehensive report on Canada's manpower. It could report, however, that in 1956 there were 6,000 persons enroled in technical training; 7,000 in shortterm vocational courses; and 10,000 in apprenticeships.  An examination  of the electrical and electronic industry in Canada indicated that many of the companies would like to employ three or four technicians for each engineer, and a l l the companies surveyed indicated a demand for more highly skilled workers.  The significance from a training point  of view is emphasized by the finding that in 1956 nearly 35 V  cent  er  of a l l tradesmen had been trained outside Canada. The total expenditure on vocational education in Canada in 1956 was reported as 28 $50,000,000, but no further breakdown of this amount was shown. 27 Education for a Changing World of Work, Report of the Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education (Washington: U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1963), p. 207. ^Manpower Training Report: Canada, Research Programme on the Training of Skilled Manpower 1-9B (Ottawa: Department of Labour Canada, 1957), I, 9-12; IV, 8; V, 5. 2  A study of apprenticeship training in Manitoba was completed in 1955, and part of the conclusion stressed the need to study the dropouts from apprenticeship and to increase the effort to stimulate and develop a 29  greater interest in apprenticeship.  Two studies directed at  financing training both stress the difficulty encountered in determining the statistics and figures on which to base comment. Cowan concluded that the most noteworthy fact revealed by an examination of expenditures in British Columbia in 1962 was the lack of a general pattern and consistency over the twelve-year period studied.  The findings of his  study indicated a decreasing proportion of expenditure on adult education, but the definition of adult education excluded vocational 30 training.  A survey, completed in 1958 by the Canada Department of  Labour, indicated there were 1,800  engineers graduated in 1956, meaning  there should also have been from 2,700 to 3,600 technicians graduated i f the ratio of approximately 2:1 was to be met.  The number of  technicians that were graduated in 1956 was less than 400.  One of the  conclusions of that report was to urge the completion of an inventory of the work force in order to be able to best meet the nation's needs 31 in skilled manpower.  A study in Ontario points out the inadequacy of  the existing apprenticeship scheme in that Province and confirms the many suggestions that the lack of research greatly affects the Research on Apprenticeship, op. c i t . , p. 9« -^°E. F. Sheffield, "Financing Adult Education in Canada," Food for Thought, Vol. XVI, No. 8, 1956 (Ottawa: Canadian Association for Adult Education, 1956); John Cowan, "Public Financing of Adult Education, 1950/51-1961/62," The Journal of Education of the Faculty of. Education, No. 10, April (Vancouver: The University"of British Columbia, 1964), p. 75. H/Janted . . . More Experts, Canada Department of Labour (Ottawa: 1958), pp. 1-54.  evaluation of existing efforts at training. The study focusses on the suggestion that education and training is a form of capital investment and that increased expenditures w i l l be required.  The Saskatchewan  study similarly stresses the need for increased expenditure on con32  tinuing education.  Yearly vocational enrolment for the period 1959  to 1963 in Canada i s presented by Porter, who shows the figures per ten thousand persons i n the labour force calculated.  This indicates a  steady yearly increase from 1959 of 21 per ten thousand of the labour force to 2 3 , 28, 3 4 , and 48 in each year respectively to 1963.  Porter  also presents enrolments in Institutes of Technology, indicating 14,100 enroled i n 1963, then compared that figure with the total enrolment in 33 Canadian universities for the same year which stood at 158,400.  It  should be recognized that not every graduate from University w i l l require two technicians to work with him on the job; nor w i l l this ratio of technicians to university graduates be available. Marsh points out in his study of a very small sample of high school graduates on Vancouver Island that 15 per cent elect to pursue professional studies and 22 per cent elect to pursue technical studies. Alberta.  34  In 1959, the report of the Royal Commission on Educa-  tion in Alberta was completed.  The report noted that changes brought  32 J. R. Simonett, Report of the Select Committee on Manpower Training (Toronto: Ontario Legislative Assembly, I 9 6 3 ) , pp. 35-71? John Archer, Report of Saskatchewan Committee on Continuing Education (Regina: Committee" of the Minister: of Education, 1963), p. 15. 33 A. Porter, "Priorities in the Education of Skilled Manpower," (paper read at the Canadian Education Association Forty-second Convention, New Brunswick, September 24, I 9 6 5 ) . 34 Leonard Marsh, A Regional College for Vancouver Island (Vancouver: Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia,  1966), p. 53.  about by technology and by the shifts of population from rural to urban concentrations would create an increased need for higher technical and s k i l l training of manpower. The report pointed out that notwithstanding commendable developments in comprehensive schools, the Institute of Technology, apprenticeship and vocational training centres, the out-ofschool service compared to the regular school service was relatively inaccessible both geographically and financially in meeting this new 35  need.  The concern for identifying the need was again expressed in  I965 by Steinberg who recommended research that would provide data about the Province's demand for labour, information that is not available at present.  Also recommended was an inventory of the Province's  sources of manpower training, as well as the number of persons being trained for the economy. However, Steinberg concludes, "there is neither summation, nor analysis of the total training provisions for the labour force in the province."  This same conclusion can be  drawn with respect to a l l the literature on enrolments and financing available for review. The very great and the very diversified accumulation of data found in the studies of technical and vocational education  would seem  to be justification for repeating the statement of Sir Joseph Stamp, made some years ago:  35  Report of the (Edmonton: Provincial ^6 C. Steinberg, Resources and Resource Statistics, Department  Royal Commission on Education in Alberta Department of Education, 1959), p. 15^ •  1959  Toward a Research Program into Alberta Manpower Allocation (Edmonton: Alberta Bureau of of Industry and Development, I965), p. 21.  20  The Government are very keen on amassing statistics. They collect them, add them, raise them to the Nth power, take the cube root and prepare wonderful diagrams. But you must never forget that every one of these figures comes in the f i r s t instance from the village watchman, who puts down what he damn pleases.37  George E. Arnstein, "The Technological Content of Vocational Education," Vocational Education (Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1965), p. 42.  CHAPTER II APPRENTICESHIP I. In 1936,  INTRODUCTION  the Province of Alberta passed the Tradesman-'s  Qualifications Act.  The terms of the Tradesman's Qualifications Act  prohibited anyone, except in certain emergency situations, from engaging in any trade to which the Act applied unless that person held a subsisting certificate of proficiency in the trade.  To obtain a  certificate of proficiency, a tradesman was required to be examined and to successfully pass the requirements of examination and competency in the trade. Preparation for Examination.  Preparation for the examination  for a certificate of proficiency was done by apprenticing to a journeyman.  By this means, a period of experience in the trade was undertaken  by the learner under the guidance and teaching of a qualified craftsman. Two d i f f i c u l t i e s were inherent in the system.  Apprenticeship in  many cases became only a lengthy time-serving process with no assurance that the skilled craftsman with whom the apprentice served could or would teach the learner the knowledge and s k i l l required of the trade. The second difficulty, with broader implications for competency, was the lack of uniform standards to which the apprentice was required to perform. The system of apprenticeship whereby the knowledge and practices of one generation of tradesmen is passed on to the next provided l i t t l e opportunity for acquiring new techniques and procedures and for rapid  22 adjustment to new products and their use. Recommendation for Training. The Subcommittee on Industry of the Alberta Post-War Reconstruction Committee, in 1944, noted the experience of the labour force under the wartime conditions of training for mass production, and partly recognizing the limitations imposed by ;  the time-serving apprenticeship means of qualifying for journeyman status, urged the Government of Alberta to provide a means of training apprentices that would overcome these problems. II.  APPRENTICESHIP ACT  The Alberta Apprenticeship Act was passed in October 1944, and became effective in January 1945.  The administrative organization  necessary for carrying out the requirements of the Act was begun by the establishment of the Apprenticeship Branch within the Department of Industries and Labour in April 1945. Purpose.  The purpose of the Apprenticeship Act was to provide  registration of apprentices in designated trades and to assure that registered apprentices received the instruction in the trade that was required by the terms of the Act. Designated Trades.  In 1945, seven trades were designated.  To  be designated meant a trade or branch of a trade was named by the Minister, with the approval of the Lieutenant Governor in Council, as a trade coming within the terms of the Apprenticeship Act. designated in 1945 were:  The trades  bricklayers, carpenters, electricians,  painters, plasterers, plumbers, and sheet metal workers.  23 Local Advisory Committees.  The Apprenticeship Act provided for  the establishment of advisory committees in any area of the Province where an apprentice was working in a designated trade.  The advisory  committee consisted of five members who were appointed by the Provincial Apprenticeship Board. The duties of the advisory committee, known as the Local Advisory Committee, included hearing complaints of employees, employers, and apprentices, relating to enforcement of the Act and other matters pertaining to the general training of apprentices.  The Local Advisory  Committee could also make recommendations to the Provincial Apprenticeship Board. Provincial Advisory Committees.  In addition to the Local  Advisory Committees, there could also be established Provincial Advisory Committees for any designated trade or group of trades.  The Provincial  Advisory Committee consisted of five members, with an equal number of employer and employee members, and an o f f i c i a l of the Provincial Department of Industries and Labour. The duties of the Provincial Advisory Committee included making regulations for the designated trade with respect to matters of age of apprentices, length of apprenticeship, and the number of apprentices that could be employed by each employer.  The advisory committees were  to advise on the content of training courses given in school and set the standards of proficiency to be. attained at the conclusion of each year of training.  As well, they could set the standard of competency required  for journeyman qualification and they could participate in setting examinations to assure the attainment of the standards. In 1945» both Local Advisory Committees and Provincial Advisory  24 Committees had been established in each of the following trades: bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, painters, plasterers, plumbers, and sheet metal workers. Apprenticeship Board.  The Apprenticeship Act required the  establishment of a Provincial Apprenticeship Board.  The Board con-  sisted of not more than five members appointed by the Lieutenant Governor in Council, with one member being a representative of labour, and one member being a representative of industry. The duty of the Provincial Apprenticeship Board was to advise the Minister on a l l matters pertaining to apprenticeship. The Apprenticeship Board was created in 1945. III.  TRAINING CENTRES  The basic purpose of the Apprenticeship Act was to assure the provision of training to apprentices, including a period of time of in-school training for each year of apprenticeship. Facilities.  In 1945, the Canadian Vocational Training Centres,  which had earlier been established throughout the Province for the training of persons for the armed services and for war industries, were now being used ,to retrain veterans for employment in the c i v i l i a n labour force.  The training f a c i l i t i e s in the Canadian Vocational  Training Centres .were, made available for the training of the apprentices. As the veterans completed their retraining, the need for Canadian Vocational Training Centres diminished and each was closed in turn, until in 1949 only the Canadian Vocational Training Centre i n Calgary and the Canadian Vocational Training Centre i n Edmonton remained.  25 Apprenticeship training continued in the Canadian Vocational Training Centre, Calgary, and was later expanded into the f a c i l i t i e s of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, where training was provided for motor mechanics and auto body apprentices. Distribution.  Each year the number of registered apprentices  and the number of designated trades increased.  In 1956, there were  2,195 registered apprentices enroled in training in twelve designated trades.  The in-school training was provided at the Canadian Voca-  tional Training Centre for apprentices registered in bricklaying, plastering, painting and decorating, plumbing, steamfitting, and welding.  In-school training in auto body mechanics, carpentry, elec-  t r i c a l , motor mechanics, refrigeration, and sheet metal was given in the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, Calgary. In the space of one year, 1957 > the number of registered apprentices enroled in training had increased to 2,610. The f a c i l i t i e s at both the Canadian Vocational Training Centre and the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art were being used to capacity. At this time i t was known that the Canadian Vocational Training Centre was to be closed. The closure of this Centre and the continuing increase in registered apprentices made i t imperative that new f a c i l i t i e s be obtained i f a curtailment of training of apprentices was to be avoided. IV.  TRADE SCHOOL PROPOSAL  Early in 1958, the proposal was made to construct a multipurpose trade school in Edmonton to provide f a c i l i t i e s for the training of registered apprentices in motor mechanics, welding, and those trades being taught in the Canadian Vocational Training Centre, Calgary.  Because 50 per cent of a l l apprentices resided in the northern half of the Province, Edmonton was selected as the location of the new school. Revision.  The original proposal to provide a Trade School for  the training of apprentices was expanded to a proposal to construct a Technical Institute, similar in principle to the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in Calgary.  To be included in the new Institute  was a division for apprenticeship training.  The construction of this  division of the training f a c i l i t i e s for apprentices was given priority in the overall project in recognition of the continued increasing registration of apprentices. In 196l, when construction of the new f a c i l i t i e s , to be called the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as N.A.I.T.) was started, there were 3,783 registered apprentices as compared to 2,610 in 1957.  In 19&3, when the training f a c i l i t i e s of  the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were available to the apprentices, i t was possible to enrol in the two training centres, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology and the renamed Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (referred to as S.A.I.T.), a total of 4,408 apprentices in twenty-one trades. Registration of apprentices continued to increase in 1965 and there were 4,512 apprentices enroled in training.  There were twenty-  two trades i n which training was given and four new trades in the process of being established. The new trades being established were: appliance serviceman, glassworker, iron worker, and partsman.  27 V.  DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR  In I960, the Provincial Department of Industries and Labour was reorganized into two new departments.  The new departments were the  Department of Industry and Development, and the Department of Labour. The Apprenticeship Branch became a branch of the Department of Labour. VI.  IN-SCHOOL TRAINING  The Apprenticeship Act and the execution of the intent of the Act has given structure to the process of developing competent craftsmen i n the various trades designated.  A significant part of that  structure has been the in-school training that has complemented the on-the-job training. Length of Designation.  Apprenticeship in each designated trade  was, by regulation, assigned a specific period of time in which the apprenticeship was to be completed.  The following trades, in 1965,  required four years of apprenticeship:  bricklayers, carpenters,  electricians, plasterers, plumbers, steamfitters, motor mechanics, auto body mechanics, sheet metal mechanics, radio, refrigeration, machinists, heavy duty mechanics, tilesetters, and appliance servicemen. ship:  The following trades, in 1965, required three years of apprenticegasfitters, welders, lathers, cooks, and bakers.  In 1965, the  trade of sheet metal mechanic required four years and nine months, and the trade of painter and decorator required three years and six months. Length of In-School Training. For most trades, apprentices were required to attend in-school classes for eight weeks each year.  The length of in-school training classes and the distribution of i n school training periods throughout the years of apprenticeship could be altered by the Apprenticeship Board in order to provide the basic preparation required for satisfactory performance on the job or to provide sufficient time for the intricacies of the trade to be presented.  Ini-school training could also be discontinued, as in the  case of millwrights and lathers, when circumstances made in-school training impractical.  When in-school training was not provided,  emphasis was then placed on the on-the-job phase of training. Schedule.  In the years between 1945 and 1965» the periods of  in-school training for designated trades had changed several times. The schedule of required in-school training i n each trade in 19^5 was as outlined in Table I. VII.  ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS  The regulations pursuant to the Apprenticeship Act set out the educational requirements and other qualifications of persons who could become apprentices.  The regulations were so stated that they  avoided being prohibitive to an individual. Education.  The educational requirements, where stated, were  grade nine or i t s equivalent. The equivalency could be determined by the Apprenticeship Board. Age.  The Apprenticeship Act set the minimum age at which a  person could become an apprentice at sixteen years.  There was no  maximum age stated, except in the trades of plastering and bricklaying where the maximum age was twenty-one.  Because of the strenuous nature  29 ' TABLE I IN-SCHOOL TRAINING'PERIOD'PER ..YEAR OF, APPRENTICESHIP-H965 Trade  1st Year  2nd Year  3rd Year  4th Year  Auto Body Mechanics  5  5  5  4  Appliance Servicemen  8  8  8  8  Bakers  8  8  8  Bricklayers  8  Carpenters  8  8  8  Cooks  8  8  8  Electrical  8  8  8  Gasfitting  3  Heavy Duty Mechanics  6  6  Lathers  4  pending  Machinists  8  8  Millwrights  8**  :  8 8  8  3  6  6  8  8  6  discontinued  Motor Mechanics  8  8  6  Painter and Decorator  4  8  8  Plasterers  4  Plumbers  6  6  6  6 6  Radio  8  8  8  8  Refrigeration  8  8  8  8  10  8  8  Steamfitters  6  6  6 6  Tilesetters  4  4  4  4  Welders  6  6  4  Sheet Metal  6  *A11 in-school training periods shown in weeks **Bricklayers attend only three periods of in-school training in the four years of apprenticeship.  of the work in bricklaying and plastering and the heavy l i f t i n g required, young men were preferred for these trades.  Applicants for  apprenticeship in bricklaying and plastering, who were over the age of twenty-one, had to be approved by the Provincial Advisory Committee for that trade.  The Provincial Advisory Committee for the trade could  approve an applicant whose age was over twenty-one. VIII.  QUALIFICATION  Upon completion of the required period of apprenticeship and upon successful completion of the in-school training, an apprentice, by examination under the terms of the Tradesman's Qualification Act, may attain the status of Journeyman.  Further training and upgrading  of journeymen was then the responsibility of the individual journeyman or his employer. IX.  TRAINING ALLOWANCES  During the period of apprenticeship, the costs of training and of administering the terms of the Apprenticeship Act were shared by the Federal Government at the rate of 50 per cent of Provincial expenditures on approved costs.  Since 1964, the cost of administering  the Tradesman's Qualification Act has also been shared by the Federal Government at the rate of 50 per cent of Provincial expenditures on approved costs. Tuition.  The Provincial Government, by regulation, required  that the registered apprentice leave his place of work during the period of his apprenticeship and attend in-school classes. While attending in-school classes the apprentice was off the job and might  not receive pay from his employer during the period of his absence. The apprentice, who was required to travel to the centre at which training was provided and obtain sustenance, was subjected to a cost.  However,  there was no tuition or other fee required from the apprentice for the training. Amount of Allowances.  To assist in offsetting the financial  commitment to which the apprentice was subjected during the period of his in-school training, the Government provided an allowance to each apprentice in training.  The amount of the allowance was $12 per week  for single apprentices, and $15 per week for married apprentices. Reimbursement for the cost of travel from the home, city, town or village of the apprentice to the city of the training centre and return, was also provided.  Employers might, at their discretion, continue  payment of f u l l or partial wages to the apprentice while he was in training. X. ENROLMENT Training for apprentices in 195& was provided in two centres, both of them in Calgary.  The Canadian Vocational Training Centre at  the Old Airport site provided training for bricklayers, plasterers, painting and decorating, plumbing, steamfitting, and welding.  A  total of 7 9 4 apprentices were trained in the Centre in 1956. Training for the balance of the trades was provided at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art.  Apprentices trained were  those in auto body, carpentry, electrical, motor mechanics, refrigeration, and sheet metal.  In 1956, a total of 1,401 apprentices were :  trained in the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, as shown i n Table I I .  TABLE II APPRENTICESHIP ENROLMENT Trade Auto Body Mechanics Bricklaying Carpentry Electrical Motor Mechanics Painting and Decorating Plastering Plumbing Refrigeration Sheet Metal Steamfitting Welding Machinists Cooks Lathers Heavy Duty Mechanics Gasfitting Millwrights Bakers Tilesetting Radio and T.V.  1956 157 31  108 352  65O 44  48 350  1958  1959  I960  190 49  195  149 420  229 31  189  198 32 215 520  1957  751 35 31 33^  134  164  76 245  62 389 36  *  460 807  * * *  1  180  * *  42 12 5  *  839 48 47 432 1 210 102 567 44 30 4 10 175  1961  521  216 43 201 557  874  942  66 32 443  57 19  238  14 228 89 544  476 30 233 121 461 44  Yearly percentage change from previous year  1963  1964  1965  201 26  215 45 198  222 30  265 43  631 994  155 858 1256  I83 983  1274  53 21  55 16  43 13  517  180 582  940 41 15  410  372  148 399  449 35 193 151 364  33 195 91  42 261  24  25  53 30  59 38  65 43  27 160  75 215  115 279  152 511  178  53  129  402 36  243 84 450  83 49 10 185 30  3  46  1341**  68  Pre-apprentices Total  1962  2195  +13.5  2610  +18.9  81  80  9 17 120  50  44  50  48  4395  4572  -0.3  + 4.0  3232  3474  3622  3783  3694  + 23.8  +7.4  + 4.2  + 4.4  -2.4  *Separate enrolment not available. **Total enrolment for programmes marked (*).  4408 +19.3  25 19  104  33 In the year 1957, training for machinists was included in the training provided by the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, and in 1958 cooking and lathers were added.  The training for lathers,  however, was discontinued in i960 because of a lack of enrolment and i t was not until 1965 that a class was again held.  The trade of gas-  f i t t i n g was also designated in 1958 and training for gasfitters was provided at the Canadian Vocational Training Centre.  Most plumbers  and many steamfitters take additional training in gasfitting in order to be qualified for employment in both occupations.  This accounts for  the heavy i n i t i a l enrolment in gasfitting, which in 1959 amounted to 175. In 1959, heavy duty mechanics (diesel) were provided training for the f i r s t time and this training was given at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art. Millwrights were provided formal training at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in i960.  Only three apprentices  enroled in I960, and none in the years following. Alternative onthe-job training was provided in place of the formal programme because of the nature of the work done in the trade.  Also in I960,  training was resumed in radio servicing at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, having previously been discontinued in 1954. Transfer of Training Courses.  In 1961, the name of the Pro-  vincial Institute of Technology and Art was changed to the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. In 1962, the Canadian Vocational Training Centre in Calgary which had operated on leased property from the City of Calgary was closed.  The buildings were made available to the City and the  3k equipment either moved to the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology or disposed of through the Alberta Provincial Marketing Board.  The  courses of training that had been carried out in the Centre were transferred to the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, and to the newly opened Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.  Apprenticeship  training was now available in both the southern and northern parts of the Province in the cities of Calgary and Edmonton.  Certain trades  with relatively low enrolment were offered in only one centre. trades, in 1964, were as follows:  These  bricklaying, painting and decorating,  plastering, steamfitting, lathing, gasfitting, baking and tilesetting. The above courses were provided only at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.  Refrigerationiwas provided only at the Southern Alberta  Institute of Technology. Clarification of Identification of Certain Trades.  Over the  period indicated, 1956-65, some slight variation in.the names of trades appeared in the published material.  Development and special training  in the electrical f i e l d had necessitated designating the following trades:  electrical, electrical communications, electrical construction  and electrical power. Enrolment in these four trades was totalled and is shown under the t i t l e of electrical in Table II. Welding-preemployment, factory woodworking, photo-physics, and commercial sign writing are not apprenticeship trades under the Alberta Apprenticeship Act.  Enrolment for the courses appears in the apprenticeship figures  of the published material, but is not'included in Table II. Pre-apprentice Classes.  In each of the years 1962, 1963,  and I965, special classes had been provided and designated  1964  pre-apprenticeship classes. Training was .given in selected trade matters, and those persons who successfully completed the training would receive credit for the training on their apprenticeship i f they proceeded into a formal apprenticeship agreement.  The persons enroled  in pre-apprentice courses, however, were not apprentices.  They have  been shown separately but included in the total figures for apprenticeship in 1962, 1963, 1964 and 1965.  It was intended that they become  apprentices and the cost of their training was included in the total cost of apprenticeship training. Centres for Training in 1965.  In 1965, the Southern Alberta  Institute of Technology provided training in auto body, carpentry, electrical, motor mechanics, plumbing, refrigeration, sheet metal, welding, machinists, cooks, heavy duty, mechanics, and radio. A total of 1,864 apprentices were trained in this centre in 1965. In 1965, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology provided training in auto body, bricklaying, carpentry, electrical, motor mechanics, painting and decorating, plastering, plumbing, sheet metal, steamfitting, gasfitting, radio, baking,, and tilesetting. 2,663 apprentices were trained in this centre in  A total of  I965.  In 1965, for the f i r s t time, apprentices were trained in the Lethbridge Junior College, Lethbridge^ electrical, motor mechanics and welding. were trained in Lethbridge in 1965.  Training was provided in A total of 31 apprentices  Earlier, in 1958, training in  welding was provided to 31 apprentices at the Fairview School of Agriculture, Fairview.  Due to a f i r e in the school, no further  training was provided at Fairview until  I965.  In 1965, training was  again provided in motor mechanics and welding to 32 apprentices at  the Alberta Agricultural and Vocational College, Fairview, the name having been changed in 1963 from Fairview School of Agriculture. Changes in Enrolment.  The total increase in apprentice enrolment  for training between the years 1956 and 1965 was 108.2 per cent for an average of 10.8 per cent per year.  Exceptions occurred in 1962  1964 when decreases were experienced.  and  The economic recession in 1958  and the subsequent increase in unemployment which persisted until 1962 was reflected in the lower rate of increase for training between 1958 and 1962, as compared with the material increases between 1956 and 1958.  However in 1963> when the Northern Alberta Institute of Tech-  nology was opened and more training space was available, a larger number of apprentices were placed in training. Number in Training and Number Registered.  The relationship of  the number of apprentices who receive training and the total number of apprentices registered, as shown in Table III, is significant only in showing a gradual increase in the percentage of registered apprentices who receive training.  The cause of changes in the relationship may be  due to changes in response to training or may be due to changes in the rate of cancellations and dropouts from apprenticeship.  This has not  been examined. XI.  OPERATIONAL COSTS  The apprenticeship programme was the means of assuring that the apprentice received training in the trade.  The cost of providing the  training was borne by the government of the Province through the departments concerned.  TABLE III REGISTERED APPRENTICES AND TOTAL ENROLMENT 1956  1957  1958  1959  I960  1961  1962  1963  1961+  1965  Total Registered  3876  1+266  1+1+62  1+789  1*777  1+782  5153  5066  5293  6055  Total in Training  2195  26IQ  3232  31+71+  3622  3783  369I+  1+1+08  1+395  1+572  Per- cent in Training  56.6  61.1  72.1+  72.5  75.8  79.1  71.6  87.O  83.0  75.5  38 Administration.  Administration of the Apprenticeship Act was  the responsibility of the Department of Industries and Labour. Under the terms of the Act, each apprentice was required to attend formal training classes during various periods of the apprenticeship indenture. The Department of Industries and Labour provided the required training through an arrangement whereby the apprentice was trained in f a c i l i t i e s operated by the Department of Education.  The appropriation required to  finance the training for apprentices was approved by the Department of Industries and Labour, and included in the Accounts of the Department of Education.  Therefore, although the responsibility for the training  of apprentices rests with the Department of Industries and Labour, the expenditure of funds and the subsequent accounting of reimbursements for such training was maintained by Canadian Vocational Training. In 1964, this procedure was changed and, in 1964 and 1965, the accounting for apprentice training was transferred to the accounting office of the Department of Labour. Reimbursement.  A l l amounts shown in Table IV, for expenditures  and reimbursements on apprentice training, are to the nearest dollar. Reimbursements, under the terms of the Apprenticeship Agreement, were made by the Government of Canada at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures.  Expenditures were accounted and claims for  reimbursement were made periodically throughout the f i s c a l year by the accounting office of Canadian Vocational Training. Reimbursements were made by the Government of Canada from time to time on the basis of claims audited and approved.  Because of the time involved, the total  reimbursement for each year differs in amount from 50 per cent of  TABLE IV OPERATIONAL COSTS OF APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING 1956  1957  1958  1959  I960  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  1,311,660  1,501,403  1,072,642 1,040,166 1,311,660  1.501,403  Expenditures Canadian Vocational Training:  $529,783 634,561' 790,973 '891,324 973,632 1,037,641  1,072,642 1,040,166  Department of Labour Totals Reimbursement  $529,783 634,561 790,973 891,324 973,632 1,037,641  Canadian Vocational Training Department of Labour Net Prov. Operating Cost  $203,529 260,392 323,694 432,125 440,779  $326,254 374,169 467,279 459,199 532,853  452,977  584,664  472,250  600,392  472,777  567,389  634,078  624,094  677,582  877,309  40 Provincial expenditures for the same year. Expenditure Items.  Expenditures for apprenticeship training  include the cost.of salaries and wages of instructors, the cost of materials and supplies used in training, and administrative costs. Differentiation of Terms.  In the consideration of financing  apprenticeship training, a differentiation was maintained between expenditure and cost.  Expenditure in this situation was defined as  the total outlay, both external to provincial accounting and internal with regard to training.  Cost was defined as the net external outlay  of the Province after adjusting expenditures for reimbursements from the Government of Canada under the terms of the Federal-Provincial Apprenticeship Agreement. Changes in Costs.  Between the years 1956 and 1965, the total  overall increase in the net Provincial operating cost for training apprentices was 168.9 per cent for an average yearly increase of 16.8 per cent.  Exceptions to the average yearly increase of 16.8  per cent occurred in 1959 when a decrease was recorded and in I963 when a decrease was also recorded. XII.  SUMMARY OF CHAPTER  In 1944 the Apprenticeship Act was established i n the Province. The administration of the Act required the establishment of an Apprenticeship Board and Provincial and Local Advisory Committees. Working through this form of organization the Department of Labour designated certain trades, setting the length of apprenticeship and the training to be provided.  Classes were held in Canadian Vocational  41 Training Centres and in the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. After 1962 classes were also held at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.  Apprentices were required to have grade nine education  or i t s equivalent and be sixteen years of age or over.  During the  period of training in school, each received financial assistance in the form of an allowance and remission of fees. Enrolment increased steadily from 1956 to I965 with enrolments of 2,195 and 4,572 respectively.  The expenditure and the cost of  training the increasing number of apprentices also changed.  In 1956  an amount of $529,783 was expended and in I965 an amount of $1,501,403. The cost of training changed from $326,254 in 1956 to $877,309 in 1965.  CHAPTER III TECHNICAL INSTITUTES AND TECHNICIANS I.  INTRODUCTION  Historically, the introduction of technical training to Alberta was clouded by a strange mixture of circumstances emanating from the enthusiasm of the residents of Calgary and the conservatism of a Royal Commission.  In 1914, a Royal Commission appointed to consider the  establishment of a university in Calgary, recommended instead the establishment of an Institute of Technology and Art. Provincial Institute.  On October 1, 1916, shop space and staff  were made available, and the operation identified as the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art was begun. However, almost  immediately  the space was expropriated to provide urgently needed accommodation for a rehabilitation centre for injured veterans of the f i r s t World War. In 1921, the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art moved to a new campus with an enrolment of 636 persons and a clearer identification of purpose and programme.  The distinguishing feature of the  Provincial Institute of Technology and Art lay in the nature of i t s courses which were to be vocational and semi-professional in character. The Provincial Institute of Technology and Art could not grant degrees. Courses.  The early course titles reflected the expectations of  the Institute and the limitations imposed by the Government as a result of the recommendations of the Royal Commission.  The names "Steam  Engineering"'and "Electrical Engineering" implied semi-professionalism, while at the same time "Tractor Engineering" as much as stated "no degree."  43 Site.  In 1921 the Government purchased 123 acres of land for  $63,000. The f i r s t permanent buildings of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art were erected i n 1921. the new buildings were:  The f i r s t courses offered in  electrical engineering, steam engineering,  tractor engineering, motor mechanics, telegraphy, battery and ignition, and correspondence courses in steam, and in mining.  Correspondence  courses in mining were offered until 1955 when they were discontinued because of a lack of enrolment. Early Prerequisites.  From the early beginnings, the courses  offered at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art placed emphasis on mathematics, science and English.  The courses were divided  in terms of content between theory as emphasized by the study of mathematics, science, English, and practical shop work.  There were  no specific prerequisites stated for admission to a course of training, but applicants did have to satisfy the instructors on staff that their competence in mathematics and English was sufficiently high to enable them to progress i n the semi-professional level of training offered at the Institute.  Generally, the educational level of the students was  grade eight. The Depression Period. Progress and development at the Provincial Institute of Technology and--Art reached a plateau in 1929, and i t was not until a severe economic depression had run i t s course in the history of Canada, and a second all-encompassing world war had come to an end, that the formation of technical training took another step forward. As had happened over twenty years earlier, the Provincial  Institute of Technology and Art in 1940 was again moved from i t s quarters by the exigency of the war.  This time, however, i t clearly  retained i t s identity although the courses of the Institute were directed to contributing to increased war production. II.  RECENT DEVELOPMENTS  From the vantage point of the present, i t can be seen that one of the most significant periods in the development of technical training was the year 1946.  In that year, the Provincial Institute of  Technology and Art returned to the Institute site in north Calgary and replaced and replenished the equipment and shops and classrooms that were needed to offer programmes that were distinct in their intent of being technical and semi-professional. Divisions.  Divisions within the Provincial Institute of Tech-  nology and Art were established in 1946.  The divisions were the  Technology Division, Cultural Division, Trade Training Division, Evening Courses, Correspondence Division, and a division for training Industrial Arts teachers.  Prerequisites for entry were raised in the  Technology Division and prerequisites were established as one of the distinguishing elements for training in the other divisions. New Buildings.  In 1948, classes were established for the  training of apprentices.  Enrolment increased not only from the addi-  tion of the apprentices, but in a l l other divisions of training established within the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art. To accommodate the increasing enrolment many new buildings were built between the years  1948  and  1963• New shops and classrooms were  provided for auto body, automotives and construction training. A new science wing was built.  A three-story building to house electronics,  radio, art, drafting, and food services was completed in 1958.  In 1 9 6 l  a new building for training in diesel, welding, and power plant engineering was erected, and in 1963 a students* activity centre was built. Advisory Committees.  For the purpose of establishing technical  courses that were in keeping with the needs of industry as identified by industry, advisory committees were established in each distinct technical area.  The advisory committee members were recognized, com-  petent men in their respective fields, and contributed greatly to the level and quality of the content that was taught in the respective courses. The same principle of advice from industry was effected through advisory groups in other non-technical Identification.  courses.  Between 1956 and 1961, continued growth  affected a l l aspects of the operation of the Provincial Institute' of Technology and Art and the calibre and content of technical courses. Industry was increasing the demand for persons well trained in mathematics and science, and who had a broad preparation in theory coupled with a broad capability in the practical.  The demand from  industry was increasing for persons who could function effectively in the labour economy between the theoretically-oriented professional engineer and the skilled, trade-competent craftsman. generally accepted identification of the technician.  Such was  the  46 IV.  FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FINANCING  A new Federal-Provincial Technical and Vocational Training Agreement was signed between the Province of Alberta and the Federal Government and came into effect April 1, 196l.  Section 7 of the  new  Technical and Vocational Training Agreement provided for Federal sharing in expenditures made by the Province on capital expenditures incurred for approved training f a c i l i t i e s for a l l technical, vocational and apprenticeship training programmes.  The rate of sharing  by the Federal Government was 50 per cent of the capital expenditure incurred by the Province on training f a c i l i t i e s , plus an additional 25 per cent of the capital expenditure incurred by the Province until the Federal contribution at the 75 per cent rate reached an amount of $47,521,920 for the Province.  This was an amount equal to $480 for  each person in the age group fifteen to nineteen years of age inclusive, residing in the Province as determined by the 1961 Census of Canada. The availability of capital financial assistance through the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement made possible and desirable the immediate and complete construction of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. V.  INSTITUTE OPENING  It was a tribute to the construction industry of the Province, as well as the planners of the Institute, that the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was able to accept the f i r s t apprentice class for training on October 1, 1962.  The apprenticeship training section  of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was o f f i c i a l l y opened  on November 28, 1962.  The o f f i c i a l opening of the entire Institute  took place on May 27, 1963. Divisions.  Following the pattern of the established Southern  Alberta Institute of Technology, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was divided into four divisions.  These were:  the Tech-  nology Division, the Apprenticeship Division, the Business and Vocational Division, and the Evening Division.  Prerequisites were  established for admission to courses in the Technology Division that were similar to those at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology for the same or equivalent courses. VI.  TECHNICIANS  Technician training was intended to be a post-high school programme of further preparation for occupational competence.  Strong  emphasis was placed on science, mathematics, and on the ability to communicate according to the requirements of the occupational f i e l d in which the technology f e l l , and to the practical requirements associated with the technology. Standards.  By 1965, the desirability of establishing national ,  standards of qualification and a clear definition of a technician had been recognized by the Committee on Technological Education of the National Technical and Vocational Training Advisory Council.  Agreement  was reached that qualification for the designation "technician" would be successful completion of 2,400 hours of post-secondary school instruction.  Post-secondary was determined to be after eleven years  of regular school attendance, meaning grade eleven.  48 VII.  ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS  At both the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, admission to technical courses was based on the requirement of matriculation standing, or depending on the course, a high school diploma.  One hundred selected high school  subject credits were required to qualify for matripulation.  Qualifi-  cation for a high school diploma also required one hundred credits, but the selection of subjects permitted for study was broader.  Twelve  years of secondary school attendancej meaning grade twelve, were required in order to acquire one hundred subject credits or a high school diploma. Therefore, technical courses requiring an Alberta high school diploma or matriculation for admission required only It,800' hours of study after grade twelve to qualify as a technical programme. Technical and non-technical courses are distinguished on the basis of the required prerequisites and the length of post-secondary training.  Non-technical courses are those which require less than a  high school diploma for admission or are less than 2,400 hours in length after grade eleven in Alberta. To provide the opportunity to any capable person to participate in the training provided by the Institutes, admission requirements were stated in the form that preference would be given to those who had the prerequisites noted.  Thereby, no one of proven ability was denied the  opportunity to enrol i f he could benefit from the training. VIII.  APPRENTICE DIVISION  The Apprenticeship Division of the Institutes provided training in the respective trades for registered apprentices only.  The  49 registered apprentices were directed to training by the Apprenticeship Branch of the Provincial Department of Labour.  The apprentice was  required, by the conditions of his contract of apprenticeship, to attend training classes for a period of eight weeks in each of his four years of apprenticeship.  Variation in the length of training and the fre*-  quency of enrolment was found in certain trades. IX.  EVENING DIVISION  Evening courses had been provided on a continuous basis at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology since the year 1937» except for a short period during the depression when they were discontinued for financial reasons.  The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology  provided evening classes in 1963 and continued to expand enrolment and courses in 1964 and I965. Objectives.  The broadly stated objectives of the Evening Course  Divisions at both the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were: 1. 2. 3.  To instruct persons who were employed in business and industry in theoretical and technical aspects of their work; To instruct persons who may change to new jobs, in the basic requirements of such jobs; To assist those who wished to improve the use of their ^ leisure time and to better understand their surroundings.  Length.  The courses offered in the Evening Divisions were as  varied as the requests. Courses were offered on a schedule of two-hour classes for two evenings per week or on a schedule of three-hour classes  ^"Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Annual Calendar Evening Courses 1965 (Calgary: Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, 1965), p. 11.  for one evening per week. Variations of these basic schedules were effected in accordance with the content of the training and the circumstances of the class members. At the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, the length of courses ranged from 36 hours to 150 hours, with one course of 30 hours offered.  The courses of 72 hours' duration made up 68 per cent of the  courses offered. The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology offered courses in the Evening Division ranging from 18 hours' duration to 150 hours' duration, with one course of 6 hours being offered.  The combined  courses of 60 hours' duration and 72 hours' duration made up 33 per cent of the total courses offered. X. FINANCING The training, both technical and non-technical, that i s provided by the Institutes of Technology in Calgary and in Edmonton was financed in the f i r s t instance directly from Provincial Government funds through the administration of the Department of Education, and in the matter of capital expenditures, through the Department of Public Works. Fees.  The fee structure of the Southern Alberta Institute of  Technology in 1956 and in 1965 are presented in Tables V and VI. The tuition fee was unchanged over the period. amount resulted from an increase in associated costs.  The increase i n An examination of  the fee schedule revealed that the tool deposit, as a deposit, was refundable at the completion of the training period.  The Student  Association fee was collected at the time of registration for the Student Association and not for the Government. The $2 insurance  51 TABLE V INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY FEES—1956  8 or 10 month Course, including Welding Registration  Regular Day Courses over Ten Weeks  $5  Tuition  Short Day Courses Ten Weeks or less, or 300 hours  $5  ho  25-  Welding Three Weeks  $5  $5  13  h3  Tool deposit  5  5  5  5  Laboratory or Shop fee  5  5  2  2  10  10.  2  2  1  1  1  1  $66  $51  $28  $58  Students' Association Insurance Totals  TABLE VI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY FEES'--1965 8-9 Mo. Course Including Welding  Regular Day Courses  Short_ Course Ten Wks.  $5  $5  $5  $5  $5  ho  25  13  U3  86  Tool Deposit  5  5  5  5  5  Laboratory fee  5  5  2  2  2  17  17  2.'  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  $7^  $59  Registration Tuition  Students' Association Insurance and Misc. Totals  $29.  Welding Three Wks.—Six Wks.  $59  $102  premium was collected for a private insurance company for a policy covering the student against accidents and injury while attending school.  The money was not paid to the Government. The fees from each  registered student amounted to $50 i n the case of courses which i n cluded welding in their offering, and $35 for regular day courses without welding.  These amounts applied to courses that were technical  and to courses that were non-technical. The fees for short courses of ten weeks' duration or less were $20.  Welding, being a more costly course of training to offer because  of the materials used, commanded fees,' respectively, of $50 and $93 for a three-week or a six-week, course.: Money collected from fees by the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and by the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were returned to the General Revenue Account of the Provincial Government. Evening Course Fees.  Evening course fees were set on the  basis that a l l evening courses would be self-supporting with respect to direct costs.  A minimum enrolment of fifteen persons was required  for a course to be offered, and the fee was determined from the cost of providing the particular course in relation to the minimum number to be enroled. The fees collected for evening class enrolment were directed to the General Revenue Account of the Provincial Government. Correspondence Course Fees.  Correspondence course fees were  $15 for the practical mathematics course and $15» $25» $40, and $50 for the fourth, third, second, and f i r s t class steam engineering courses.  The fees collected from correspondence course enrolment  were directed to the General Revenue Account of the Provincial Government.  53 Apprenticeship Costs.  Apprentices do not pay fees.  The costs of  instructional staff, material and supplies, building alterations and equipment for apprenticeship training, were provided" in.the f i r s t instance through the Department of Education.  The costs of operating  that part of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology that was applicable to the apprenticeship programme were charged to apprenticeship training by the Department of Education on behalf of the Provincial Department of Labour.  Subsequently, reimbursement was claimed by the Department  of Education under the terms of the Federal-Provincial Apprenticeship Agreement at the rate of 50 per cent of Provincial expenditures occurred in the training of registered apprentices. XI.  ENROLMENT—TECHNICIANS, S.A.I.T.  Reference to Table VII shows that nine courses of training for technicians were provided in 1956 for a total enrolment of 303 persons. A new course in land surveying was offered for the f i r s t time in 1958, with an i n i t i a l enrolment of f i f t y - s i x .  New emphasis was placed on  aeronautical engineering in 1958, resulting in an increase in enrolment in aeronautical engineering and a corresponding decrease in enrolment in aircraft maintenance, a non-technical course. In 1959, the opening of the East Block provided additional instructional area, which was reflected in the increased enrolment in electronics and in refrigeration and air conditioning. To meet the demand of industry, the course in petroleum technology was provided in I960, and an i n i t i a l enrolment of twenty-two persons was recorded.  TABLE VII SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—TECHNICIAN ENROLMENTS 1956  1957  1958  1959  i960  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  Aeronautical Engineering  16  18  69  67  55  42  53  5k  60  57 94  61  Industrial Laboratory  53 64  112  55 94  59 94  Architectural  22  29  3k  42  36  40  41  26  32  Construction  15  14  14  23  55  22  33  42  40  Drafting  79  78  35  63  57  51 61  81  89  47  37  Electrical  39  47  51  49  51  5k  59  59  56  43  Electronics  67  74  111  136  160  171  176  176  158  Mechanical  13  5  85 11  19  25  29  38  38  32  24  Refrigeration and Air Conditioning  10  6  7  16  16  16  14  26  24  26  56  57  60  44  41  k5  48  46  22  46  45  47  60  68  31  53  74  Chemical Research  17  12  87 18  87 10  Power Plant Engineering  17  34  26  27  Land Surveying Petroleum  Technology  Merchandising Administration  Totals Yearly percentage change from previous year  303  91 41  324  416  507  575  679  749  847  791  751  +6.9  +28„3  +21.8  +13.4  +18.0  +10.3  +13.0  -7.0  -5.3  55 In 1961, merchandising administration was f i r s t offered with an enrolment of thirty-one.  The value of this course was evident in the  substantial increase in enrolment in each of the following years. Two new courses, chemical research, and power plant engineering, were made available through the f a c i l i t i e s of the Institute in 1962. The course i n refrigeration and air conditioning was revised with new emphasis being placed on air conditioning.  The new emphasis on air  conditioning was reflected in a slight increase in enrolment in 19&3 in refrigeration and air conditioning. A slight drop in total enrolment in 1964 was accounted for by the opening in Edmonton of the new Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.  The availability of the new f a c i l i t i e s in the northern  part of the Province caused only slight decreases in certain courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, leaving their enrolment s t i l l comparable with the previous year, 1963. The courses of construction, land surveying, petroleum technology, and chemical research, showed slight increases'. In 1965> the name of the Industrial laboratory course was changed to "Chemical Technology."  The enrolment was not affected by the change  in t i t l e . A l l technician courses were offered within the buildings of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in Calgary. Changes in Enrolment.  The overall increase in enrolment between  the years 1956 and 1965 was I56.I per cent for an average of 15.6 per cent per year.  The high increase of 28.3 per cent in 1958 was, in  part, due to the change in emphasis in aeronautical engineering which materially increased enrolment in the technical course.  The opening  56" of the new f a c i l i t i e s in the East Block in 1959 permitted accommodation of a larger number of persons than the normal yearly increase. Effect of New Institute.  The decline in 1964 was attributed to  the opening of the new Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton.  Those persons living in the northern part of the Province  could enrol in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton in preference to the more distant Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in Calgary. Essentially, this same factor was evident in the continued decline in enrolment at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in the year 1965. XII.  ENROLMENT—NON-TECHNICAL, S.A.I.T.  In 1956, there were 53? persons enroled in non-technical courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, including those enroled in the College of Art. Enrolment in dining-room service, as shown in Table VIII, included those persons reported enroled in food service training, and waitresses.  In 1964, food service training was  discontinued and only dining-room service training was listed.  A  special carpentry course was provided fifteen persons from the Northwest Territories in 1956 and was not repeated. New emphasis on the technical course of aeronautical engineering in 1958 resulted in a marked reduction in enrolment in the non-technical aircraft maintenance course in the same year.  The expansion of the  petroleum industry in the Province increased the demand for operators and mechanics of heavy diesel equipment which was reflected in the substantial increase in enrolment in diesel mechanics in 1958.  New  building space completed in 1958 accommodated the increased enrolments.  TABLE VIII SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—NON-TECHNICAL ENROLMENTS  1962  1956  1957  1958  1959  ' I960  1961  Aircraft Maintenance  60  57  14  33  36  42  38  46  44  44  Agricultural Mechanics  65  67  64  65  61  70  82  70  71  73  Art  70  90  110  145  169  172  155  172  205  Automotive Service  46  42  41  47  59  55  153 56  63  60  55  Commercial Radio Operator  21  16  22  41  41  41  48  41  27  30  Diesel Mechanics  15  18  52  52  51  65  52  44  37  36  Dining-Room Service  15  31  40  32  42  60  19  30  Dressmaking  65  21 61  71  86  100  148  155  152  154  22 154  Industrial Arts  30  28  23  28  37  54  50  56  40  135  131  162  201  207  232  175  67 136  138  90  20  32  41  Welding Special Carpentry  .1963  1964  15  Commercial Cooking Metal Craft Totals Yearly percentage change from previous year  1965  14 537  531 -1.1  590 +11.1  738  +25.0  793  +7.4  921  +16.1  869  813  821  804  -5.9  -6.8  +0.9  -2.1  A new course i n commercial cooking was provided in i n i t i a l enrolment of twenty persons.  I963  with an  The provision of the more com-  prehensive commercial cooking course resulted in a decreased enrolment in the dining-room service course. The commercial cooking course replaced the food service training course, the enrolment of which had been included in the dining-room service enrolment figure.  In I965,  a new course in metal craft was provided at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and an i n i t i a l enrolment of fourteen was recorded. A l l of the non-technical courses offered were conducted within the  buildings of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Calgary. Changes in Enrolment.  The overall increase in enrolment between  1956 and 1965 i s 49.7 per cent for an average of 4.9 per cent per year. An examination of the individual years, however, reveals substantial increases in enrolment i n 1958, 1959, I960 and 1961,  but an almost  continual decline from I96I to I965. Effect of New Institute.  The opening of the new Northern  Alberta Institute of Technology in Edmonton in 1964 had no affect on enrolment in non-technical courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1964. Similar non-technical courses were not available at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in i t s opening year.  In 1965, courses similar to diesel mechanics, dining-room  service, dressmaking, and commercial cooking were available in Edmonton, but  enrolment i n these courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of  Technology were not materially reduced. Correspondence.  Two courses by correspondence were offered in  59 1956 through the f a c i l i t i e s of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Calgary.  The courses were practical mathematics and steam.  The t i t l e "steam" was changed to steam engineering in 1958 and again in 1962 to power plant engineering. In 19&3, the name was power plant engineering technology and, finally in 1964, i t was changed once again to "steam engineering." Enrolment figures shown in Table IX for the steam engineering correspondence course varied from year to year with no pattern and no apparent explanation for the fluctuations.  In 1962, a full-day  technician course was provided at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in power plant engineering. Enrolment i n the full-day technician course in 1962, however, was only seventeen and in 1963 enrolment was thirty-four, and in 1964 enrolment was twenty-six. Establishment of the technician course, therefore, did not in i t s e l f account for the material decrease in enrolment in the correspondence course of steam engineering in  1963  and  1964.'  Enrolment in practical mathematics showed a gradual decline from the high of 427 in 1957, except for a similar high enrolment in 1962,  to a low of 343 in I965. The figures for courses completed  are for both practical  mathematics courses completed and steam engineering courses completed in each year.  There was no time limit set on the completion of courses  and, therefore, the relationship between course completions and enrolment figures was not direct.  However, an examination of the total  enrolment for the years 1956 to 1963, the last year for which course completion figures were available, and of the total figure for course completions for the years  1956  to  I963  showed total enrolment to be  TABLE IX SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—CORRESPONDENCE COURSE ENROLMENTS  Practical Mathematics Steam Engineering Totals Courses Completed Cboth subjects)  1956  1957  1958  1959  I960  1961  1962  1963  1964-  196^  96  !+27  39^  383  383  352  1+27  363  31+5  343  5^0  577  490  497  H27  6U5  721  593  591  640  636  lQOU  QQk  880  810  997  1148  956  936  983  71  108  166  171  l6l  235  277  2U0  N.A.  N.A.  61 7,315  and total completions to be 1,429.  of completion.  This was a 19.6 per cent rate  When a three-year time-period was allowed to complete a  correspondence course, and examination of enrolment figures for threeyear periods commencing in 1956 compared with completion figures every three years hence, i t revealed a rate of completion of 22.4 per cent, 24.3 per cent and 29.2 per cent in each of the periods. Night Classes. In 1956, there were 1,771 persons enroled i n thirty-seven different courses, and there were 753 certificates issued to persons completing courses which would indicate a rate of completion of 42.5 per cent.  In 1965, there were 2,776 persons enroled in f i f t y -  seven different courses, and there were 1,052 certificates issued to persons completing courses, which would give a rate of completion of 37.8 per cent. An examination of the variation in enrolment from year to year, as shown in Table X, would indicate a slight decline in 1958. Because night class enrolment was essentially working adults, the decline may reflect the economic recession evident in 1958. A decline in enrolment in 1963 was recorded, which was similar to the trend shown in enrolment in correspondence courses and non-technical courses held at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.  An increase in enrolment  in night classes in 1964 was followed again in 1965 by a decrease. The total increase in enrolment between the years 1956 and I965 was 56.7 per cent for a yearly average of 5«6 per cent. The rate of completion of night classes as indicated by the number of persons who received certificates ranged from a high of 45.2 per cent in the year 1959 to a low of 32.3 per cent in the year 1961.  TABLE X SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—NIGHT CLASS ENROLMENTS  Enrolments  1956  1957  1958  1959  I960  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  1771  2019  1956  2171  2319  2522  2689  2313  2876  2801  + 14  -3.2  +10.9  + 6.8  +8.7  +6.6  -16.2  +24.3  -2.6  37  45  44  42  42  48  53  64  57  753  802  855  983  789  817  882  896  1049  1052  42.5  39.8  43.7  45.2  34.0  32.3  32.8  38.7  36.I  37.5  Yearly percentage change from previous year Courses Certificates issued Completion rate  54;  ON  63 The average completion rate for the ten-year period from 1956 to 1965 was 38.2 per cent. Total Enrolment.  Table XI summarizes the total enrolment in the  Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and includes those who were enroled in technical, non-technical, and night classes from 1956 to 1965.  The number of persons enroled in 1956 was 2,6ll, and in 1965 the  number was 4,356. The enrolment of apprentices when added to the above enrolments increased the total enrolment to 4,012 in 1956 and 6,202 in 1965. XIII.  ENROLMENT—TECHNICIANS, N.A.I.T.  In 1964, the newly opened Northern Alberta Institute of TechU nology enroled 543 persons in fifteen technical courses.  Five  additional courses were provided in 1965, making in total twenty courses. The total enrolment in a l l courses in 1965, as shown in Table XII, was 950. Changes in Enrolment.  In 1965, with the single exception of  medical technology, a l l courses with enrolment in 1964 showed an increase in enrolment in I965.  The increase in total enrolment from the year 1964  to the year I965 was 74.9 V XIV.  ev  cent.  ENROLMENT—NON-TECHNICAL, N.A.I.T.  Table XIII shows there were eight non-technical courses provided by the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1964.  The total  enrolment in the eight courses was 192. In 1965, there were twelve non-technical courses provided, and  TABLE XI SOUTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—TOTAL ENROLMENT AND INSTRUCTOR-STUDENT RATIO 1956  1957  1958  1959  I960  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  Technical  303  324  416  507  575  679  749  847  791  Non-technical  537  531  590  738  793  921  869  813  821  751 804  Night Classes  1771  2019  1956  2171  2319  2522  2689  2313  2876  - 2801  2611  2874  2962  3416  3687  4122  4307  3973  4488  4356  1401  1710  1891  2071  2257  2391  2530  2465  1822  1846  4012  4584  4853  5487  5944  6513  6837  6438  63IO  6202  Sub-totals Apprentices Totals  65  TABLE XII NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—TECHNICIAN ENROLMENTS  1964  1965 32  Business Administration  15 31 50  57 80  Chemical Laboratory  h5  90  C i v i l Technology  27  51 6  13  19  1+8  25 58  Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Architectural  Dental Mechanic Dental Technician Distributive Technology Drafting  101  177 22 1+8  Gas Technology  21  33  Industrial Electrical  23  38  Industrial Production  17  25  Instrumentation •  21  29  Materials Technology  23  33  Medical Technology  58  Medical X-ray  50  53 68  Electronics Exploration Forestry  6  Secretarial Totals  543  950  66  TABLE X I I I NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY—NON-TECHNICAL ENROLMENTS 196k  1965  Banking  19  12  Commercial Cooking  16  36  Data P r o c e s s i n g  12  Dental A s s i s t a n t  kl  20 32  Dietary Services  15  F a c t o r y Woodworking  Ik  Heavy Duty Equipment  20  O f f i c e Machine R e p a i r  12  9  Pre-employment*  1+6  h5  18  Waiter-Waitress Photography  32  26  1+8 61+  Sewing Totals  192  3^5  *The term "Pre-employment" c o v e r s a l l c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n 1964 and 1965 i n pre-employment c o n s t r u c t i o n , mechanics, w e l d i n g and r a d i o , grouped t o g e t h e r t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h a p p r e n t i c e s h i p courses o f the same name.  67  the total enrolment in 1965 was 345.  Courses in 1964 and 1965 in pre-  employment construction, mechanics, welding, and radio, are grouped in Table XIII, under the designation "pre-employment" to avoid confusing them with apprenticeship courses of the same name. Changes in Enrolment.  The increase in enrolment from the year  1964 to the year I965 was 7 9 • 6 per cent.  Night Classes. in  I965.  Night classes were provided for the f i r s t time  Enrolment is shown in Table XIV (p. 6 8 ) .  2,281 was recorded for the year I965. provided.  An enrolment of  There were 105 different courses  A l l courses were held within the f a c i l i t i e s of the Northern  Alberta Institute of Technology. Total Enrolment.  Table XV (p. 68) summarizes the total enrolment  in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in technical, nontechnical, and night classes for 1964 and 1965.  The enrolment was 735  and 3 , 5 7 6 in the respective years. The enrolment of apprentices was 1,591 in 1963, in 1964 apprentice enrolment was 2 , 5 7 3 , and in 1965 i t was 2 , 6 6 3 .  The apprenticeship, enrolment, when added, increased the  total enrolment to 1 , 5 9 1 , 3 , 3 0 8 and 6,239 in the years 1963,  1964  and  1965, respectively. XV.  OPERATIONAL COSTS—S.A.I.T.  The expenditures and reimbursements for technician and nontechnical training and for the operation of the correspondence courses and night classes at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, Calgary, are summarized in totals in Table XVI (p. 6 9 ) .  It was not  possible from the information available to separate the costs  TABLE XIV NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY— NIGHT CLASS ENROLMENTS  1965 Enrolment  228l  Courses  105  TABLE XV NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY— TOTAL ENROLMENT  1963" Technical Non-technical Night Classes  53 192  950 3^5 2281  735  3576  1591  2573  2663  1591  3308  6239  k  Sub-totals Apprentices Totals  1964 "• 1965  TABLE X V I OPERATIONAL COSTS OF THE SOUTHERN ALBERTA I N S T I T U T E OF TECHNOLOGY 1956  1958  1957  i960  1959  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  995,704  $1,133,694  $1,284,694  $1,382,171  $1,590,000  $1,803,318  30,770 384,105  30,579 396,4l4  21,565 423,965  5,424 429,330 451,296  468,600  Expenditures Dept. o f Education  $  Dept. o f P u b l i c Works Heating Plant Sduc. B u i l d i n g Maintenance S.A.I.T. Totals  517,323  $  17,860 175,430 48,511  $  575,^16  $  682,071  $  13,324 239,107  12,600 221,286  870,962  $  11,143 299,380  759,124  $  809,302  $  934,502  $1,181,485  77,400  $  77,400  $  109,710  $  $1,410,579  $1,560,687  $1,730,224  $1,816,925  $2,041,296  $2,276,918  $  $  $  $  $  Reimbursements a n d Fees Dept. o f Education  $  109,710  $  138,916  167,024  330,911  504,302  582,998  620,858  F i f t y per cent o f : fees sale of material  32,498 15,708  37,899 12,128  44,397 18,471  51,260 19,997  55,243 20,906  65,580 22,212  69,398 24,069  67,140 22,714  206,386 22,999  233,689 23,215  Dept o f P u b l i c Works  27,510  32,584  18,500  18,500  23,300  26,800  88,460  181,582  199,711  231,735  775,738  $1,012,094  $1,109,497  $1,041,187  $1,029,202  $1,167,421  Totals Net P r o v i n c i a l Operating Cost  $ '153,116  $  160,011  $  191,078  $  199,467  $  606,008  $  649,291  $  7 *3, *24  $  982,018  $1,172,214  $  1  1  238,365  $  281,616  $1,279,071  $  512,838  $1,217,386  $  ON NO  70 applicable to each level of training. Expenditure for the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology was defined as the total outlay, both external to Provincial accounting internal.  and  Cost was defined as the net outlay external to Provincial  accounting after adjusting expenditures for internal interdepartmental transfers, reimbursements from the Government of Canada and income from fees and sale of materials. Administration.  Expenditures for salaries, materials and  supplies, and administrative expenses were accounted by the accounting office of the Department of Education.  The expenditures for main-  tenance, alterations and repairs were accounted by the accounting office of the Department of Public Works. Maintenance, alteration and repair expenditures were allocated to different buildings which constituted parts of the total Southern Alberta Institute of Technology complex, but were expenditures of maintaining the entire complex.  In 196k,  the  office of accounting of the Department of Public Works allocated a l l maintenance, alteration and repair expenditures to the designation, Southern Alberta Institute of Technology. Reimbursement.  Reimbursements from the Government of Canada  for approved Provincial expenditures were recorded in the accounts of the Department of Education as Canadian Vocational Training and Vocational Training:  Institute of Technology.  Other reimbursements  also recorded under Vocational Training in Public Accounts were not applicable to the Institutes of Technology and were not included in the summary. Sale of materials and technical school fees, both as recorded in the Public Accounts of the Department of Education, were  71 income accounts of the Institutes of Technology, and 50 per cent of such income was included.  Under the terms of the Technical and Voca-  tional Training Agreement, income earned by training operations was shareable with the Government of Canada at the same rate as expenditures were shared by the Government of Canada. Changes in Costs.  The overall increase in expenditure between  the years 1956 and 1965 was 199*9 per cent, for an average yearly increase of 19-9 per cent.  The overall increase in reimbursements  and fees between the years 1956 and 1965 was 624.6 per cent, for an average of 62.4 per cent yearly.  The overall increase in the net  Provincial operating cost of providing training for technicians, nontechnical, correspondence and night classes in the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology, which includes the College of Art, between the years 1956 and 1965 was 92.6 per cent for a yearly average increase of 9.2 per cent. XVI.  OPERATIONAL COSTS—N.A.I.T.  A l l amounts shown in Table XVII were taken to the nearest dollar and the table summarizes the expenditures  and reimbursements for  technician and non-technical, and night classes for the years from 1961 to 1965.  It was not possible from the information available to  separate the costs applicable to each level of training. Administration.  Expenditures for the Northern Alberta Institute  of Technology were made from two different sources.  Expenditures on  salaries, materials and supplies, and administrative costs were accounted by the office of accounting of the Department of Education.  Expenditures  72  TABLE XVTI OPERATIONAL COSTS OF THE NORTHERN ALBERTA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 1963  1964  1965  Department of Education  $427,478  $1,328,708  $1,926,669  Department of Public Works  100,703  396,385  649,264  $1,725,093  $2,575,933  $136,576  $429,388  $525,995  390  200,163  294,864  1,898  15,316  22,432  29,718  51,^9  13,3^6  149,722  299,983  $152,210  $824,307  $1,194,723  $428,561  $900,786  $1,381,210  Expenditures  Total  $580,771*  Reimbursements and Fees Department of Education F i f t y percent of: fees sale of material cafeteria Department of Public Works Total Net Provincial Operating Cost  *includes minor expenditures 0 f 1961 and 1962  73 on maintenance, alterations and repairs were made and accounted by the office of accounting of the Department of Public Works.  During the  planning stage and period of early construction of the Institute, the expenditures of both the Department of Education and the Department of Public Works were minimal.  In the summary, as shown in Table XVII  (p. 7 ), the expenditures of the Department of Public Works and of the 2  Department of Education for I96I and 1962 were totalled with the expenditures of I963 and shown as a single total of expenditures. Reimbursement.  Reimbursements from the Government of Canada  were recorded in the Public Accounts of the Department of Education under the heading Vocational Training, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.  Other reimbursements appearing in the same Public Accounts  section were not applicable to the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology and were not included in the summary, as shown in Table XVII (p. 72).  The Department of Education Public Accounts also included  income from fees and from sale of material and income from the cafeteria at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology.  Fifty per cent of such  income was returned to the Government of Canada in accordance with the terms of the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement. The remaining 50 per cent was included in the reimbursements and fees, as shown in Table XVII.  Reimbursement recorded by the Provincial Department of  Public Works in the Public Accounts consisted of reimbursement from the Government of Canada for approved expenditures. The amount appeared in the Department of Public Works Public Accounts under the heading Vocational Training, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Changes in Costs. The overall increase in expenditures for the  74 Northern Alberta Institute of Technology for the years 1963, which includes the expenditures of 1961 and 1962, and the year I965 is 34-3.5 per cent, for an annual average increase of 3^.3 per cent.  The overall  increase in reimbursements and fees between the years I963 and 1965 688.2 per cent, for an annual average increase of 68.8 per cent.  was  The  overall increase in net Provincial operating cost of providing training to technicians and non-technical trainees in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology between the years 1963 and I965 was 221.1 per cent, for an average annual increase of 22.1 per cent.  It must be noted  in a l l cases that the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology had rapidly developed i t s operations from i t s opening in 1963 to the year  1965. XVII.  SUMMARY OF CHAPTER  On October 1, 1916 the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art was established in Calgary. The Institute was moved in 1921 when the Government purchased 123 acres of land for $63,000 and permanent buildings were erected on the present site.  The growth of the Institute  has been steady over the years reflecting the ever-increasing enrolment in a l l divisions of the Institute.  By 1958 the heavy enrolment of  apprentices had given rise to the need for new training f a c i l i t i e s in Edmonton.  The design of the new f a c i l i t i e s however, recognized the  increasing number of technicians being trained and the growing demand from industry for technical institute graduates.  A second Institute  was built. The second Institute of Technology in the Province admitted the f i r s t class of apprentices for training on October 1, 1962.  The  Apprentice Trade Division of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology o f f i c i a l l y opened on November 28, 1962 and on May 27, 1963 the completed Institute was o f f i c i a l l y opened. Admission requirements to technical programmes and the establishment of a standard for technician training were developed over the years.  In 1965 the Committee on Technological Education of the National  Technical and Vocational Training Advisory Council defined the qualification for the designation "technician" as successful completion of 2,400 hours of post-secondary instruction.  Recognizing the standard  for the designation of technician, an examination of the enrolment at the Institutes in the decade from 1956 to 1965 shows there were 303 technicians in training i n 1956, and 1,701 technicians in training in 1965.  In the same period there were 537 non-technical trainees in  training in the Institutes in 1956 and 1,149 in training in 1965. Enrolments in night classes increased from 1,771 in 1956 to 5,082 i n I965 and correspondence course enrolments increased from 636 to 983 between 1956 and I965. The cost to the Province of operating the Institutes i s the total expenditure adjusted for reimbursements, interdepartmental fers, income from fees and from the sale of materials.  trans-  In 1956 the  total expenditure made on the operation of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology was $759,124.  Reimbursements and other income  in that year amounted to $153,116 and therefore the cost in 1956 was $606,008.  The total expenditure in 1965 was $2,276,918 and reimburse-  ment and other income was $1,109,497. was $1,167,421.  The cost of operation in I965  In 1965 the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology  had expenditures of $2,575,933 and reimbursements and other income of  $1,194,723.  The cost of operation of the Northern Alberta Institute of  Technology was $1,381,210.  CHAPTER IV VOCATIONAL TRAINING I.  INTRODUCTION  Vocational T r a i n i n g was the term used t o describe a v a r i e t y of t r a i n i n g programmes o f f e r e d d i r e c t l y under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the D i v i s i o n of Vocational Education of the Department of Education. The Depression Period.  Late i n the year 1937, formal recogni-  t i o n was given to the needs o f large numbers o f unemployed youth t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a programme of self-development  that would stop the  erosion of purpose, morale, and s k i l l that was a f f e c t i n g so many as a r e s u l t of the economic and concomitant  s o c i a l depression of the times.  An agreement, t o make a v a i l a b l e a programme of t r a i n i n g , was signed between the Federal Department of Labour and the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education, wherein the costs of the programme would be shared between the two l e v e l s o f government.  The Dominion-Provincial Youth T r a i n i n g Agree-  ment became the f i r s t of a s e r i e s o f such agreements that became o f utmost s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the development of v o c a t i o n a l training i n Alberta. F i r s t born i n the r e l a t i v e quiet of an economic depression, vocat i o n a l t r a i n i n g was reared h a s t i l y t o maturity i n the f i e r c e t u r m o i l of war.  During t h i s period and before the e x p i r a t i o n of the term of the  o r i g i n a l agreement between the Federal Department of Labour and the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education, a new Dominion-Provincial Agreement was signed under the name of "War Emergency T r a i n i n g . "  78 II.  The  YOUTH TRAINING AGREEMENT  D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Youth T r a i n i n g Agreement o f 1937  designed t o provide t r a i n i n g i n f i v e  A g r i c u l t u r a l Short Course.  t e a c h a s p e c t s o f farm l i f e met in  with considerable centres  The  first  to  restore  provide p h y s i c a l reconditioning This  and  activity  twenty-seven c o u r s e s were conducted  Province.  second p r o j e c t was  elementary f o r e s t r y work and  was  l i s h e d f o r the purpose.  course was  Household and  p r o j e c t was  home c r a f t t o young p e o p l e .  s u c c e s s , and  throughout the  Forestry.  and  projects.  The  morale, e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l c o n t a c t s ,  was  The  one  c a r r i e d out  Special Services.  t o become competent housemaids was  f o r t r a i n i n g young men  in  i n a f o r e s t r y camp e s t a b -  o f seven months'  duration.  A project to t r a i n s e l e c t e d  the t h i r d p r o j e c t  and  a l s o the  girls  one  t h a t proved t o be the most s u c c e s s f u l i n terms o f subsequent placement in  employment f o l l o w i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d .  Agriculture.  The  f o u r t h p r o j e c t was  a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g t o both farm youth and employment and  e f f e c t i v e performance on  one  designed t o provide  boys from the  t o be  Commercial.  The  s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s b e g i n n i n g and  f i n a l p r o j e c t was  crops.  one  Known as " O c c u p a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , " the p r o j e c t was  accept the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f youths and observation  that  t h a t u l t i m a t e l y developed  expanded.  guidance and  for  farms o f g r a i n r a i s i n g , s t o c k  r a i s i n g , f u r f a r m i n g , p o u l t r y f a r m i n g , or o t h e r s p e c i a l t y  I n d u s t r i a l and  city,  through the use  of  proved  and  designed to  vocational  o f work, t o p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g b e s t  suited to  the  79 needs and c a p a b i l i t i e s of the person. III.  WAR  EMERGENCY TRAINING  These e a r l y p r o j e c t s of youth t r a i n i n g , s u c c e s s f u l as they were, continued but were soon subsumed by the needs of the war e f f o r t .  The  Youth T r a i n i n g Agreement was overshadowed by the War Emergency T r a i n i n g Agreement signed e a r l y i n 19^0,  and classes of t r a i n i n g i n aero engine,  radio servicemen, a i r frame mechanics, motor mechanics, w i r e l e s s operators, and others began to make t h e i r appearance. Facilities.  F a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g required the l e a s i n g of  e x i s t i n g t e c h n i c a l schools and the equipment contained i n them.  The  I n s t i t u t e of Technology and Art i n Calgary, the Teachers' Normal School i n Edmonton, b u i l d i n g s of E x h i b i t i o n Associations were a l l acquired, altered,, .equipped and u t i l i z e d t o provide t r a i n i n g space f o r the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of men and women being prepared f o r the armed services and f o r industry's expanded programme of production. Grants.  A s s i s t e d by the terms of the Dominion-Provincial agree-  ments, students were also enroled i n the U n i v e r s i t y i n courses i n medicine, d e n t i s t r y , education, and c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l courses, and received grants to enable them to complete t h e i r preparation i n professions i n which noticeable shortages e x i s t e d . IV. In 1944,  CANADIAN VOCATIONAL TRAINING  the t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d out under the terms of the  Dominion-Provincial agreement f o r t r a i n i n g , was given the designation "Canadian Vocational T r a i n i n g . " In the same year there were i n d i c a t i o n s  80 that the job of training for the armed services and for war production operations was drawing to a close. Veterans' Rehabilitation.  The end of the war emergency marked  the beginning of a new phase of training.  The new phase of training was  to be the rehabilitation of veterans into a civilian economy.  The  economy was then undergoing a period of increased production of c i v i l i a n goods and services, and the task of absorbing large numbers of workers returning to Canada's labour force was made easier by the fact that they were being trained for the employment available. Courses.  The year 19^6 was the year of peak activity of Canadian  Vocational Training.  Contained in an area of 350,000 square feet in  centres throughout the Province, about 7,000 persons received training in a wide variety of subjects, including such courses as motor mechanics, merchandising, r e t a i l selling and saddle making.  Admissions to highly  specialized courses that were not available locally were also arranged by the offices of Canadian Vocational Training, for veterans approved for rehabilitation training.  The extremes of ballet dancer, pilot and  mortician were included in the lengthy l i s t of courses of training made available through the service provided by Canadian Vocational Training. V.  POST-WAR TRAINING  By the year 1950, the surge of training provided for the rehabilitation of veterans had passed.  Training f a c i l i t i e s were now available,  for the training of apprentices in designated trades and to an increasing extent for the training of unemployed persons and physically disabled persons.  The precedent set by Canadian Vocational Training in training  81 selected veterans in any occupational f i e l d , became the basis of functioning of Canadian Vocational Training in its new role.  A person  accepted for training would be trained at any time and in any course i f he was deemed capable of benefitting from the training.  If a sufficient  number of people were to be trained in the subject, a class would be established for them.  If only an individual was to be trained, the  appropriate course would be located, admission obtained, and supervision of training would be provided. Civilians.  In 1950, there were 2,000 civilian persons trained  through the f a c i l i t i e s of Canadian Vocational Training in the training centres in Edmonton and Calgary, and the temporarily established centres in other smaller towns and cities throughout the Province.  By the year  1956, the pattern of providing training for persons temporarily unemployed and for persons contending with physical or serious socio-economic handicaps, had been well established. Industry's Needs.  Through the period from 1956 to 1965, the  practice of providing training to persons and groups in need of such vocational assistance was continued, and a broader concept in the field of vocational training added. industry.  Recognition was given to the needs of  In those instances where shortages of trained personnel  existed, efforts were made to relieve the problem by establishing training programmes and preparing persons in the requirements of the job, so they might be available to f i l l the vacancies. The Needs of the Individual.  Thus, the role of vocational  training developed as one of providing training to meet a need. The need might have been evinced by the individual, by a group of persons  82 with a common goal, or by commerce or industry.  The need might also  have been an outgrowth of social change and required action to be initiated by vocational training.  To maintain the f l e x i b i l i t y required  to be able to deal effectively and promptly with expressed and identified needs, vocational training developed without the same degree of institutionalization as other bodies within the Province which were also involved with training.  Prerequisites, admission requirements, fees,  attendance requirements, attainment standards, age limits, and other regulatory considerations were secondary to the recognition of the need of the individual to do immediately that which he was motivated to do and which there was reason to believe he had the ability to do. VI.  THE VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL TRAINING AGREEMENT NO. 2  The Vocational and Technical Training Agreement No. 2 was signed as an agreement between the Federal Department of Labour and the Provincial Department of Education, to be effective April 1, 1957, and succeeded the former Vocational Training Agreement which had expired. Operational Aspects.  The new Agreement provided for Federal  sharing of approved Provincial expenditures at the rate of 50 per cent of operational costs to a maximum Federal contribution of $180,100 for the first two years of the Agreement; $214,800 for the third year; and $249,600 in each of the final two years. Capital. mined by formula.  The amount allotted for capital expenditure was deterThe formula was based' on the percentage of persons  between the ages'of fifteen years and nineteen years of age, resident in the Province,, and of the persons' of the same age .group resident in a l l  83 the provinces.  The numbers would be as determined in the 1956 census.  This percentage was the percentage used to determine the portion of $25,000,000 that was to be allotted to the Province. to Alberta was $1,737,300.  The amount allotted  The Federal Government therefore agreed to  share in the capital expenditures of the Province at the rate of 50 per cent, to a maximum amount of $1,737,300. Amendment.  On January 11, 196l, the Vocational and Technical  Training Agreement No. 2 was amended, whereby the Federal Government, through the amended terms of the Agreement, would provide 75 per cent of the capital expenditures of the Province, but with the maximum amount of Federal funds remaining at $1,737,300. VII.  SPECIAL VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROJECTS AGREEMENT  A Special Vocational Training Projects Agreement was signed between the Federal Department of Labour and the Provincial Department of Education to be effective from April 1, 1959 to March 31, 1964, and succeeded the Vocational Training Agreement that expired. Operational Aspects.  The new Agreement was also to provide for  Federal financial sharing in approved Provincial expenditures on projects described in the Agreement as: Vocational Correspondence Courses; Training for Federal Government Departments; Assistance to Students; Training of Service Tradesmen; Training of Unemployed Workers; Training in Primary Industries; Training of Foremen and Supervisors; Training of Disabled Persons.  The percentage of Federal financial sharing was 100  per cent for projects of Training for Federal Government Departments and for Training of Service Tradesmen.  The remaining projects were assisted  84 by Federal financial assistance at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures. Amendment.  Effective April 1, I960, the Special Vocational  Training Projects Agreement was amended to provide 75 per cent Federal financial sharing in approved Provincial expenditures for Training of Unemployed Workers. VIII.  TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING AGREEMENT  Before the term of the Vocational and Technical Training Agreement No. 2 had expired, and before the term of the Special Vocational Training Projects Agreement had expired, a new Technical and Vocational Training Agreement was signed between the Federal Department of Labour and the Provincial Department of Education.  The new Technical and Vocational  Training Agreement came into effect on April 1, 196l, and was for a sixyear period, to expire March 31» 1967. Operational Aspects.  The Technical and Vocational Training  Agreement provided for Federal financial and other assistance to ten programmes of training, specifically identified in the terms of the Agreement; and for Federal financial assistance for capital expenditures on technical and vocational training Programmes.  facilities.  The ten programmes identified in the Technical and  Vocational Training Agreement were: Vocational High School Training Programme-.-Federal financial assistance was provided at the rate of 50 per cent of Provincial expenditures on high schools offering vocational courses for one-half the school time.  The annual total allotment of Federal financial assistance for  85 this programme was limited to $ 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 distributed among the provinces on the basis of the percentage of the number of persons age fifteen to age nineteen in the province, to the total number of persons of that age group in a l l provinces. Technician Training Programme—Federal financial assistance was provided at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures without l i m i t , for training at the post-high school technician level. Trade and Other Occupational Training Programme—Federal financial assistance at the rate of 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures without l i m i t , was provided for pre-employment training for persons over compulsory school leaving age. Training Programme in Cooperation with Industry—Federal financial assistance was provided for programmes of training within industry that retrained employees or upgraded employees who were affected by technological change.  The Federal financial assistance was at the rate of 50  per cent of approved Provincial expenditures, and,for certain programmes of upgrading, i t was at the rate of 75 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures.  Federal financial assistance was without limit.  Programme for the Training of Unemployed—Federal financial assistance for the programme of training unemployed workers was at the rate of 75 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures on training, and 90 per cent of approved allowances paid unemployed workers while in training.  Both rates were without limit.  The training provided might be  in any subject that would increase occupational competency. Programme for the Training of the Disabled—The training provided disabled persons might be in any subject that would increase occupational competency, and the Federal financial assistance provided was at the rate  86 o f 50 p e r cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , w i t h o u t  limit.  Programme f o r t h e T r a i n i n g o f T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l Teachers — T h i s programme a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n i n d u s t r y , or i n s t i t u t e s .  vocational schools,  The F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d was at t h e r a t e  o f 50 p e r cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , w i t h o u t  limit.  T r a i n i n g Programme f o r F e d e r a l Departments and A g e n c i e s — T h e F e d e r a l Government would r e i m b u r s e t h e P r o v i n c e 100  per cent o f t h e cost  o f p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g t o members o f t h e Armed S e r v i c e s or f o r  providing  t r a i n i n g f o r employment i n a F e d e r a l Government department or  agency.  T r a i n i n g was o n l y p r o v i d e d at t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e F e d e r a l Government. Student A i d — F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e P r o v i n c e  for  g r a n t s made by t h e P r o v i n c e t o s t u d e n t s a t u n i v e r s i t y and n u r s e s i n t r a i n i n g was p r o v i d e d at the r a t e o f 50 p e r cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l expenditures,  s u b j e c t t o a l i m i t o f f i n a n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n d e t e r m i n e d by  t h e F e d e r a l Government. Manpower Requirements and T r a i n i n g R e s e a r c h — F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was p r o v i d e d at t h e r a t e o f 50 p e r cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l expenditures, without l i m i t ,  f o r research p r o j e c t s undertaken i n the  P r o v i n c e w h i c h were d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e n programmes o f t h e T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Agreement, as o u t l i n e d , p r o v i s i o n was a l s o made f o r F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e c o s t o f p r e p a r i n g , r e v i s i n g , p r i n t i n g and s e r v i c i n g o f correspondence c o u r s e s .  The F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e  was a t t h e r a t e o f 50 p e r cent o f approved P r o v i n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s  and  was w i t h o u t l i m i t , except t h a t , as i n t h e case o f a l l programmes, t h e  87 monies were appropriated by Parliament. Capital.  Provision was made under the terms of the Technical and  Vocational Training Agreement for Federal financial assistance for approved Provincial expenditures on capital including buildings and equipment.  Federal financial assistance was 75 per cent of approved  Provincial capital expenditures to a limit which was that amount equal to an amount of $480 for each person age fifteen to age nineteen residing in the Province according to the 1961 census.  Thereafter, the rate  of Federal financial assistance was 50 per cent of approved Provincial expenditures, except for alterations to premises and purchase of equipment for the training of unemployed workers. IX.  ADMISSION TO TRAINING AND FEES  Persons who were accepted for training by Vocational Training under the terms of the Trade and Other Occupational Training Programme, or the Programme for the Training of Unemployed, or the Programme for the Training of the Disabled, were admitted to training classes without charge for tuition fee, or registration fee.  The books, supplies, and tools  required during the period of training were also provided.  At the dis-  cretion of the Province, however, fees might be charged for courses of training.  The income  thus received from such fees  was shareable with  the Federal Government at the same rate as the Federal Government shared in the cost of operating the programme as set out in the terms of the Federal-Provincial Training Agreement in effect. Training Allowances.  Each trainee's need for direct financial  assistance during the period of training was assessed and an allowance  88 was provided, the amount of which was dependent on the responsibilities and obligations of the individual. U.I.C. Benefits.  If an unemployed worker was eligible to receive  unemployment insurance benefit payments while in training, he was required to do so and could not receive a Provincial allowance, except that he might receive a partial allowance which when combined with his unemployment insurance benefits would be equal to the amount of the f u l l Provincial allowance he would otherwise have received. Transportation.  The cost of transportation was provided to  trainees from their place of residence to the city in which training was undertaken, and in the case of disabled persons an allowance for daily transportation was provided where special transportation arrangements had to be made because of disability. Schedule. any time.  In most cases individuals were admitted to training at  The exceptions to this practice were when no further training  space was available or in those cases where persons were placed in established courses of schools which operated on a term basis. X.  LIAISON  In matters of vocational training, liaison was maintained with the National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission, Department of Veterans' Affairs, University of Alberta, Workmen's Compensation Board, National Research Council, and the Provincial Departments of Agriculture, Welfare, and Health, and other public and private agencies, as well as associations of industry and organizations of workers.  89 XI.  ENROLMENT  I n 1956, c o u r s e s under t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l  train-  i n g were p r o v i d e d i n the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , and i n the N u r s i n g A i d e S c h o o l , C a l g a r y , T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , Edmonton. centres,  Calgary,  and i n t h e Canadian V o c a t i o n a l  In a d d i t i o n to these P r o v i n c i a l l y  operated  t r a i n i n g was a l s o o b t a i n e d from o t h e r P r o v i n c i a l l y o p e r a t e d  institutions:  proprietary schools,  universities,  ment o f s p e c i a l and u s u a l l y temporary f a c i l i t i e s establishments  and community  and by t h e  establish-  in industrial  centres.  A t o t a l o f 1,842 persons r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n 1956, as i n the summary i n Table  XVIII.  The c a t e g o r y o f " o t h e r s "  shown i n T a b l e X V I I I , c o n s i s t e d o f a wide  range o f c o u r s e s o f t r a i n i n g u n d e r t a k e n i n s e l e c t e d  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  p r o p r i e t a r y s c h o o l s by i n d i v i d u a l s or s m a l l g r o u p s .  The c o u r s e s were  such t h a t t h e r e was no c o n t i n u i t y from y e a r t o y e a r , and no number i n any one course  from y e a r t o y e a r .  i s t , p r i n t i n g , and c a b i n e t making.  significant  In 1956, t h e s e c o u r s e s  i n c l u d e d a p p l i a n c e r e p a i r , watch r e p a i r , shoe r e p a i r , t h e a t r e  c o u r s e s were d i s a b l e d  indicated  projection-  Many o f t h e persons t r a i n e d i n t h e s e  persons.  A programme o f r u r a l w e l d i n g was i n s t i t u t e d i n 1957, w h i c h p r o v i d e d t r a i n i n g t o 409 farmers f o r w e l d i n g on t h e i r own farm p r o p e r t y . I t i n e r a n t i n s t r u c t o r s moved t h e f a c i l i t i e s throughout t h e  from c e n t r e t o  centre  Province.  A second N u r s i n g A i d e S c h o o l was opened i n Edmonton i n 1958. i n c r e a s e d t r a i n i n g space made i t p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e n u r s i n g a i d e s from 276 t o 455 a n d , h e n c e f o r t h , enrolment.  enrolment  t o accommodate  The  of  a higher  TABLE XVIII VOCATIONAL TRAINING—TOTAL ENROLMENT  1956" Bartering Beauty Culture Commercial Nursing Aides Welding Supervisory and Management Forestry Rural Electrification Wheeled Vehicle Mechanics Others Rural Welding Special Unemployed Dairying Vocational Preparatory Fire Officers Tractor Maintenance Equipment Operators Vocational .Teacher Training Totals Yearly percentage change • from previous year  1957  1958  5 37 276  4 54 455 24  8 l  81 273 77  820 20 55Q  N.A.  12  30 N.A.  19 828  N.A. 50  409  N.A.  20 897 76 77 400  .1959.  1 14  68 578 47  N.A.  94 686  110  72 8l4  43  1842  1654  I960  ' 2 20 129 580 19  N.A. 137  79 28 763 565 17  100  2527  2439  r,11.3# +24.3$ +22.8$  -3.6$  2057  .1961 11 57  1962  1963  1964  1965  151  9 45 158 635 200 735 233  17 85 163 625 88 990 158  36 83 221 570 71 1620 186  49 126 372 585 170 832  18 28 802  735  37  74 705  35 578  39 478  300 130  22 442 110  465  72  76  3407  4ll4  135  604 118  230  643  180 92  3069  4l8 22 178 83  3488  +25.8$ +13.6$  64  235  171 163 58 84  3827  -2.3$ +20.7$ -7.4$  91 In I960, the programme of rural electrification was discontinued because the immediate need for such large-scale training in newly electrified , rural areas of the Province had "been met. In order to provide training to the large number of unemployed persons resulting from the economic recession of 1958, special classes were established in i960 u t i l i z i n g available space in the high schools of the City of Edmonton after regular school hours.  The courses of  training provided were as outlined in Table XIX. Enrolment was 565 in i960, and 643 and 4l8 the following years. A course in dairying was again instituted in i960 in Edmonton, designed to be offered every second year.  The special equipment and  f a c i l i t i e s required for such training were limited and thus the number was limited to twenty-two enroled in each course. In 196l, the severe shortage of specially trained pipeline welders required that additional training courses be provided in that subject.  Pipeline welding accounted for the sharp increase in welding  in that year, bringing the enrolment to 118. Resulting from an examination of the academic difficulties encountered by the large number of persons in the special unemployed classes, a programme of upgrading of mathematics, English, and science was started under the t i t l e of Vocational Preparatory training. One hundred and eighty persons enroled in the course the first year i t was held in 196l.  Increased enrolment was experienced each succeeding year.  Pipeline welding courses were again held in both Edmonton and Calgary in specially established centres in 1962.  The increased  f a c i l i t i e s permitted more persons to enrol, which was reflected in the second substantial increase in welding in the two years, 196l and 1962.  92 The Canadian Vocational Training Centre in Calgary was closed in 1962, thus "bringing to an end the course for wheeled vehicle mechanics. This course was not transferred to any other  institution.  A lack of staff and a shortage of suitable f a c i l i t i e s necessitated discontinuing the special unemployed classes in 1963.  TABLE XIX VOCATIONAL TRAINING—SPEC IAL UNEMPLOYED COURSES—ENROLMENT  i960  1961  1962  Automotive Remedial English Blueprint Reading Carpentry Drafting Electrical Plumbing Steamfitting Trade Math Typing Welding Basic Electronics Business Machines Diesel Machinist Baking Bookkeeping Bricklaying Gasfitting Retail Cashiering Bookkeeping and Typing  72 62 65 55 38  100 29 1+0  29  20 22 17 86 121  78 26 32 16 53 25  Totals  565  31  13 11 1+6  35 27 21 50 10  80 he  1 59 1 1 20 61+3  83 29  26  50 1+18  A programme for training fire officers was included in the programmes of vocational training in the year 1959» although not included as a shareable training course with the Federal Technical and Vocational Training Branch of the Department of Labour, Ottawa, until 1963. Enrolment in 1965 was 171. The training was carried out using special  93  f a c i l i t i e s a t V e r m i l i o n and C a l g a r y . The  e x t e n s i v e expansion  o f v o c a t i o n a l high schools,' r e s u l t i n g  from t h e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Agreement s i g n e d i n 196l,  made i t n e c e s s a r y  to establish a  s p e c i a l programme o f p r e p a r a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l t e a c h e r s t o s t a f f t h e schools being b u i l t throughout t h e Province. ing  A v o c a t i o n a l teacher  train-  programme was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1963 i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e F a c u l t y o f  Education, U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a . seventy-two.  Enrolment i n t h e f i r s t y e a r was  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e seventy-two men e n r o l e d from A l b e r t a ,  t h e r e were t w e l v e men e n r o l e d from Saskatchewan by agreement w i t h t h e P r o v i n c e o f Saskatchewan.  On c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g , t h e t w e l v e  men r e t u r n e d t o Saskatchewan. e n r o l e d i n 1963.  They a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e number shown  The enrolment f i g u r e o f s e v e n t y - s i x v o c a t i o n a l t e a c h e r s  shown f o r 1964 i n c l u d e s f i f t e e n men who were i n an extended programme o f v o c a t i o n a l guidance f o r t e a c h e r s .  I n 1965, t h e enrolment o f e i g h t y - f o u r  v o c a t i o n a l t e a c h e r s i n c l u d e d t w e l v e men who were i n t h e extended v o c a t i o n a l guidance  course.  In 1964, t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f unoccupied  classrooms  i n newly  c o n s t r u c t e d c i t y v o c a t i o n a l h i g h s c h o o l s i n C a l g a r y p e r m i t t e d an expansion o f enrolment i n v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y The  courses.  f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C e n t r e ,  Edmonton, w h i c h were expanded t e m p o r a r i l y i n 1961 t o accommodate an i n c r e a s e d enrolment i n commercial,  were abandoned i n 1964 and t h e p r o -  gramme moved t o t h e new f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e o f Technology.  The new f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e I n s t i t u t e a l s o p e r m i t t e d Canadian  V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g t o i n c r e a s e enrolment i n b a r b e r i n g , b e a u t y c u l t u r e , and i n v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s .  Enrolments i n c r e a s e d t o h i g h s o f  94  49, 126, and 465 respectively by 1965. A programme of training in small business management was begun in 1964 eliciting an immediate response from a number of communities throughout the Province.  The activity was reflected in an increased  enrolment in supervisory and management training in the year 1964, when a maximum enrolment of 1,620 was recorded. Also in 1964, a course in tractor maintenance was begun, wherein itinerant instructors moved the training f a c i l i t i e s from community to community throughout the Province in a similar manner to the instruction provided for rural welding.  A limited number of communities were  included the first year, but enrolment in 1965 was 163. Lack of staff in 1965 resulted in a decrease in the number of participants in supervisory training programmes.  In the same year, how-  ever, enrolment in small business management courses increased over the previous year. In 1965, the course for equipment operators was first made available in Edmonton, with an enrolment of fifty-eight Centres for Training.  persons.  The courses of barbering, beauty culture,  commercial, nursing aide, welding, supervisory and management training, vocational preparatory, and equipment operators were provided in both Edmonton and Calgary in various f a c i l i t i e s .  Forestry training was  provided at Kananaskis Forest Experimental Station and at the Hinton Forestry School, Hinton. only in Calgary.  Wheeled vehicle mechanics' training was given  The fire officers' training was provided at Vermilion  and Calgary.  Special unemployed classes and dairying were available only  in Edmonton.  Supervisory training, rural electrification, rural welding,  and tractor maintenance, were provided in numerous communities throughout  95 the Province.  Barbering, beauty culture, commercial, welding, voca-  tional preparatory, equipment operators, and "others" were provided in Edmonton and Calgary as noted, and as the need was evidenced, in the larger population centres throughout the Province. Changes in Enrolment.  The total overall increase in enrolment  between 1956 and 1965 was 107.7 per cent, for an average of 10.7 per cent per year. Variance from the average of 10.7 per cent was extreme each year except 1962.  The termination or reduction of courses with substantial  enrolment in 1957, I960, 1963 and 1965, accounted for the marked variance from the average in those years. XII.  OPERATIONAL COSTS  The operational costs for the activity of vocational training from 1956 to 1965 were summarized in Table XX under the headings of Expenditures, and Reimbursement and Fees.  Expenditures were identified  for Canadian Vocational Training, the Department of Lands and Forests, the Department of Health, the Department of Public Works, and the Department of the Provincial Secretary.  Reimbursements and Fees were  shown under the subheadings of Canadian Vocational Training, the Department of Health, the Department of Public Works, and the additional subheading of Other Federal Departments. The relationship of Expenditures and of Reimbursement and Fees established the Net Provincial Operating Cost. Administration.  Expenditures under the subheading Canadian Voca-  tional Training, in Table XX (pp. 96, 97), included the expenditures of  TABLE XX OPERATIONAL 1956  1958  1957  COSTS OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING i960  1959  1961  1962  1964  1963  1965  Exnenditures Canadian Voc. Training,  $  Dept. o f Lands and F o r e s t s Dept. c f Health  257,243  $  280,077  $  276,867  $  $  388,805  $  412,823  $  491,738  $  566,154  $  687,719  $1,000,630  6,498  7,803  8,935  13,352  26,730  31,520  42,893  49,137  54,959  88,686  26,837  38,047  100,868  266,804  314,205  319,237  358,919  353,371  334,355  370,795  7,065  8,086  9,212  14,991  21,847  11,113  27,684  27,538  5,000  7,000  7,000  7,000  Dept. o f P u b l i c Works Dept. o f the Prov. S e c r e t a r y Totals  324,679  $ 290,578  $  325,927  $  393,735  $  617,921  $  $  78,813  $  29,148  $  106,420  $  745,952  $  848,571  $  922,397  $  979,775  $1,104,717  $1,487,649  $  150,279  $  251,330  $  292,135  $  $  Reimbursement and Fees Canadian Voc. Training F i f t y p e r cent o f : fees sale of materials  $  84,438  141  455  4,007  1,705 5,593  126,292  2,100 1,494  1,947 1,844  2,048 2,420  1,964 5,566  397,400-  638,132  3,170 2,6l6 .  5,519 2,622  VO ON  TABLE XX (continued)  1956  1958  1957  Dept. of Health sale of supplies  $  91,039 6,363  i960  1959  $  77,660 10,411  $ 125,660 2,318  Other Federal Departments  2,138  1962  196.1  $ 147,404  2,601  $ 193,021 3,421  1965  $ 148,639  $ 118,880  ' 5,491  4,956  33,959 5,244  5,822  7,182  7,419  6,458  4,605  1964  1963  $  Reimbursement and F ees Dept. of Public Works Sub-totals interdepartmental Transfer Totals Net P r o v i n c i a l Operating Cost  12  $  79,268  $ 130,557  $ 201,789  $ 260,002  $ 308,680  $ 458,698  26,837  38,047  69,752  122,543  140,351  121,677  178,695  197,490  220,590  347,666  $ 111,416  $ 117,315  $ 200,309  $  324,332  $  400,353  $ 430,357  $  637,393  $ 657,107  $ 754,794  $1,040,573  $ 179,162  $ 208,612  $ 193,426  $ 293,589  *  345,599  $ 418,214  $ 285,004  $ 322,668  $ 349,923-  $  84,579  $  $  459,617  $  534,204  $  692,907  447,076  vo  98 the Canadian Vocational Training Centre, Calgary, from 1956 to its closure in 1962, excepting the expenditures of the Canadian Vocational Training Centre that were applicable to the training of apprentices. Also included were the expenditures of the Nursing Aide Training School for 1956 and 195T-  The expenditures of the Canadian Vocational Training  Centre, Edmonton, were included in the totals shown for Canadian Vocational Training expenditures as well as the expenditures occurring from the establishment of short-term, itinerant, and temporary classes established in various places throughout the Province from time to time as the need for such classes was made known. Expenditures shown under the heading, Canadian Vocational Training, included the costs of providing maintenance, alterations and repairs of buildings.  The expenditures also included rents for temporary f a c i l i t i e s  as well as expenditure on salaries and wages, materials and supplies, and administrative expenses. Included in the expenditures of Canadian Vocational Training were living allowances, including transportation costs,where applicable, paid to unemployed persons and other eligible trainees.  Living allowances  and transportation costs were also included in the expenditures of the Department of Health from 1958 to 1965. In each year, except 1964 and 1965» the expenditures of Canadian Vocational Training were adjusted by the subtraction of the expenditure on apprentice training.  In the years 1956 to 1959 inclusive, the  Canadian Vocational Training expenditures were further adjusted by the subtraction of the expenditure for students' grants. The expenditures for forestry training were recorded in the accounts of the Department of Lands and Forests from 1956 to 1965.  99  Application for the inclusion of these expenditures under the terms of the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement was made in 1964. In 1956 and 1957, the total expenditure for the training of nursing aides was i n i t i a l l y made by Canadian Vocational Training.  An  amount was then paid to Canadian Vocational Training by the Department of Health for the training of a certain category of nursing aide.  The  amount involved was paid to Canadian Vocational Training by interdepartmental transfer, which was an internal transfer from one department within the Government to another. In 1958, the Department of Health began the operation and administration of the nursing aide programme.  Canadian Vocational  Training continued to be responsible for training only those persons who were eligible for training under the terms of the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement.  For expediency, a l l payments for nursing aide  training were made in the first instance by the Department of Health, and payment for that portion of total expenditure for which Canadian Vocational Training was responsible was made by interdepartmental transfer. The amounts of the interdepartmental transfer are shown in Table XX (pp. 96, 97).  In 1956 and 1957 the Department of Health made the interdepart-  mental transfer to Canadian Vocational Training.  In a l l subsequent years  the transfer was made by Canadian Vocational Training to the Department of Health.  The amounts of the interdepartmental transfer have been  included in Table XX in.order to show the total expenditures and at the same time provide the correct Net Provincial Operating Cost figure. In the years 1956 and 1957, the expenditure on maintenance, alterations and repair of buildings was included in the expenditures of Canadian Vocational Training.  In 1958, the Department of Health assumed  100  responsibility for the operation of the Nursing Aide School in Calgary and opened the School in Edmonton.  The maintenance, alterations and  repair for the schools then became the responsibility of the Department of Public Works.  The expenditures for maintenance, alterations and  repair for both of the Nursing Aide Schools were recorded under the account of Nursing Aide School, Calgary, by the Department of Public Works until 196U when a separate account was opened for the Nursing Aide School, Edmonton.  In the summary of expenditures, as shown in Table XX,  the amount spent for alterations and repairs to the Forestry School in the years 1961 and 1962 was included in the total expenditure of the Department of Public Works. Training expenditures for the fire officers' training course were first made by the Department of the Provincial Secretary as part of the total activity of the Office of the Provincial Fire Commissioner. Expenditures,, specifically applicable to the training of fire officers, were not identified, and the expenditures shown in the summary in Table XX for the years 1956 to 1962 inclusive, were estimates only, made by the Office of the Provincial Fire Commissioner.  In 1963, the actual expen-  ditures made for the training provided to fire officers were included in the total expenditures of vocational training, as was the case in the years 196U and 1965. The statements of Canadian Vocational Training in the Public Accounts included an expenditure for students' grants made during the years 1956 to 1959 inclusive.  In i960, the accounting of students'  grants was assumed by the office of accounting of the Department of Education.  Students' grants were made available to students attending  university and were not included as an expenditure of Canadian  101 Vocational Training. I n 1963, p e r s o n n e l was benefit  of the  accounting for  assumed.  a programme o f t r a i n i n g o f a r m e d  The t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d was  F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a n d , as  for the  such, the  form of t r a i n i n g f o r  t h e Government o f Canada. were n o t  armed s e r v i c e  and t h e  Canada i n  The number o f a r m e d s e r v i c e  expenditure  made full.  p e r s o n n e l was a n e x p e d i e n t  i n c l u d e d i n t h e number o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n s  Province,  exclusive  expenditures  f o r . t h e t r a i n i n g were r e i m b u r s e d by t h e Government o f This  service  personnel  available  on t h e t r a i n i n g was n o t  to  for  trained the  included in  the  summary.  Reimbursement. of  Canada,  Training,  1958  R e i m b u r s e m e n t i n 1956  shown i n T a b l e XX u n d e r t h e was  for  each y e a r t o  V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g was  except the expenditures  training  of nursing aides.  training cost  Canadian V o c a t i o n a l  reimbursement  on t r a i n i n g . to  o f t h e Department  The D e p a r t m e n t  i n c l u s i v e , under the  subheading  of t r a i n i n g such persons  s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n o r t h e Department t h u s p a i d was r e c o r d e d a s r e i m b u r s e m e n t  of Northern A f f a i r s .  to  included Department  from o u t s i d e t h e P r o v i n c e .  was p a i d f o r b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t  the  Canada  of Health also admitted to the nursing  programme a number o f p e r s o n s  on  o f H e a l t h made f o r  Reimbursement by t h e Government o f  t o 1965  In  Canadian  o f H e a l t h f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f n u r s i n g a i d e s was  X X , f r o m 1958  of Health.  1965»  Government  f o r a l l approved P r o v i n c i a l expenditures  training  i n Table  subheading of  from the  a l l approved P r o v i n c i a l expenditures  and s u b s e q u e n t l y  the Department  a n d 1957  aide The  of C i t i z e n The  amount  from Other F e d e r a l Departments  in  Table XX.  Fees.  Fees were f i r s t  collected  f o r t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s i n 1959  when  102  a five dollar registration fee was levied on rural welding participants in Canadian Vocational Training courses in an attempt to stabilize the attendance on courses.  Fees for the same purpose were levied on other  courses after 1959 and included fees for welding, small business management courses, supervisory training, pipeline welding, and tractor maintenance courses. Under the terms of the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement, income earned by training operations was shareable with the Government of Canada at the same rate as expenditures were shared by the Government of Canada.  It was not possible to determine what portion of the income from  fees and sale of materials might have been shareable with the Government of Canada at rates other than 50 per cent.  A l l income recorded, there-  fore, was shared at 50 per cent in the summary presented in Table XX. Changes in Costs.  The overall increase in expenditures for  vocational training between the years 1956 and 1965 was 464- per cent, for an annual average increase of 46.4 per cent.  The overall increase in  reimbursement and fees for the ten-year period from 1956 to 1965 was 1,130.2 per cent, for an average increase of 113-per cent per year.  The  overall increase in the net Provincial operating cost for providing vocational training amounted to 149.5' per cent.  Averaged over the ten-  year period, this amounted to l4.9 per cent per year between 1956 and  1965. XIII.  SUMMARY OF CHAPTER  In recognition of the detrimental effects on youth of the economic depression of the 1930's an agreement to share the costs of providing  103 training was signed between the Federal and Provincial Governments in 1937-  The agreement was called the Dominion-Provincial Youth Training  Agreement.  The first Dominion-Provincial Training Agreement was quickly-  followed by other similar agreements to provide for the needs of the war, and later for training the returning veterans in programmes of rehabilitation.  In 19^0 the War Emergency Training Agreement was signed  and in 19^4 the Vocational Training Agreement was signed.  The activity  carried out under the terms of the Federal-Provincial agreements was given the designation,  Canadian Vocational Training.  By 1950 the rehabilitation training of veterans had been completed and the training effort was directed to the needs of the unemployed, the disabled, and the increasing needs of industry for trained workers. A series of agreements between the Federal and Provincial Governments followed, that encouraged the development of training f a c i l i t i e s and the presentation of training programmes.  In 1957 the Vocational and  Technical Training Agreement No. 2 was signed which provided for assistance with capital expansion.  Two years later, in 1959, the Special  Vocational Training Projects Agreement was signed which extended Federal participation in cost sharing of the operational costs of training programmes. signed.  In 196l the Technical and Vocational Training Agreement was  The Technical and Vocational Training Agreement provided  extended operational and capital financial assistance from the Federal Government for approved Provincial technical and vocational projects of training. The courses of training offered by Canadian Vocational Training dealt with a wide selection of subject matter.  Enrolment varied from  year to year because of the nature of the programming.  In 1956 enrolment  104  in Canadian Vocational Training courses was 1,842.  In 1965 enrolment  had increased to 3,827The cost to the Province of providing Canadian Vocational Training programmes, "based on expenditures of $290,578 in 1956 with . reimbursements of $111,4l6, was $179,162. In 1965 the expenditures were $1,487,649 with reimbursements of $1,040,573. $447,076.  The cost in 1965 was  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I.  SUMMARY  The oldest technical institute in Canada is the proud claim of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.  Established in 1916 i t grew  slowly through its uncertain early years of operation until i t located permanently on 123 acres of land in northwest Calgary in the year 1921. In 1940, the facilities of the Technical Institute were loaned to the Canadian Government for use in training men to take their place in the armed services.  The year  1946, however, saw the return of the Institute  to Provincial administration.  At that time a rejuvenation of buildings  and equipment was the beginning of a continuous expansion programme which has permitted the training of men and women in a variety of postsecondary school programmes. In 1944, the Apprenticeship Act of Alberta was passed.  During the  years to follow, the training of apprentices became an integral part of the development of the technical institute and of the Canadian Vocational Training Centres throughout the Province.  However, by 1949» only two  Canadian Vocational Training Centres remained, and apprenticeship training was concentrated in the Canadian Vocational Training Centre in Calgary and the Technical Institute.  By 1957, the enrolment of appren-  tices and of technicians f i l l e d the training facilities to capacity.  A  new trade training centre was required and it was proposed to be built in Edmonton.  The concept of a trade training centre, however, was expanded  and in 1962 the first phase of Alberta's second Institute of Technology was opened.' By 1964, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology was in  106 f u l l operation, providing training to both apprentices and technicians. During this same period of time Canadian Vocational Training continued to provide training in various temporary centres throughout the Province.  The courses were designed to offer training to meet the  specific needs of individuals.  First introduced to Alberta in 1937 under  the terms of the Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Agreement, this form of vocational training contributed in turn to the training of Alberta youth, war emergency programmes, veterans' rehabilitation, apprenticeship, and the training of unemployed and disabled persons. Growth of f a c i l i t i e s and improvement of service have characterized technical and vocational training in Alberta during the period 1956 to 1965. The enrolment of persons in training has shown significant change in the ten years.  Actual enrolment of apprentices in training in Alberta  in 1956 was 2,195, increasing to 3,783 in 1961 and 4,572 in 1965. The enrolment summarized in Table XXI shows a steady increase in each of the years, from 1.9 per one thousand population in 1956 to 2.8 per one thousand population in 196l, and 3.1 per one thousand population in 1965.  The total enrolment of technicians in training in 1956 was 303,  increasing to 679 in 1961 and to 1,701 in 1965.  Technician training  also increased in each of the years noted in terms of one thousand population, from 0.26 in 1956 to 0.50 in 1961 and to 1.1 in 1965. Vocational training and non-technical trainees, but excluding night class enrolments, totalled 2,379 in 1956, increasing to 3,990 in 196l and 4,976 in 1965.  The number in vocational training courses, per  one thousand population, changed from 2.1 in 1956 to 3.0 in 196l and  3.4 in 1965.  10? If the number of persons participating in night school classes are added to the vocational training and non-technical numbers, the enrolment in 1956 becomes 4,150.  In 196l, the enrolment is 6,512 and in  1965 the enrolment becomes 10,058.  TABLE XXI": TRAINEE ENROLMENT PER 1,000 POPULATION":"  1956 Apprentices  Technicians  2,195  1961  3,783  Per 1,000 Population  4,572  1.9 2.8 3.1  1,701  0.26 0.51 1.1  4,976  2.1 3.0 3.4  303  679 Vocational Training  1965  2,379  Night Classes  1,771  Total: 1956 Total: 196l Total: 1963  6,648  3,990 2,522 10,974  5,082  16,331  5.9 8.2 11.2  Total enrolment in a l l training of apprenticeship, technician, non-technical and vocational, but excluding correspondence course enrolment, is summarized in Table XXII.  The total enrolment in 1956 is 6,648,  increasing to 10,974 in 196l, and further increasing to 16,331 in 1965The total number enroled in training per one thousand population in 1956 equals 5^9, and 8.2 in 196l, increasing to 11.2 in 1965.  The estimated  population of Alberta on which the relative enrolments are based is shown in Table XXIII (p. 109).  TABLE XXII TOTAL TRAINEE ENROLMENT 1956  1957  1958  1959  i960  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  Apprenticeship  2195  2610  3232  3kjh  3622  3783  3694  4408  4395  4572  Southern AlBerta Institute of Technology-  2611  2871+  2962  3I+16  3687  1+122  4307  3973  4488  4356  735  3576  Northern Alberta Institute of Technology Vocational Training Totals  181+2  1654  2057  2527  21+39  3069  3488  3407  4ll4  3827  661+8  7138  8251  9417  9748  10974  11489  11788  13732  16331  109 The total Provincial expenditure  for operations for a l l pro-  grammes in 1956 was $1,579,485, increasing to $3,460,38? in 196l, and to $7,841,903 in 1965. Reference to Table XXV (Appendix A, p. 121), shows that in the same period the total reimbursement received by the Province increased from $468,06l in 1956 to $1,164,950 in l'96l, and $3,973,887 i n 1965. The net Provincial operating cost for a l l programmes, therefore.  TABLE XXIII ESTIMATED POPULATION OF ALBERTA 1956 TO 1965* 1956  1,123,116**  1957  1,123,116  1958  1,160,000  1959 i960  1,233,000  1961  1,313,000***  1962  1,364,000  1963  1,400,000  1964  1,427,000  1965  1,448,000  1,273,000  *Source: 'Public Accounts of the Province of Alberta, Annual 1956-65. **corrected to Canada census 1956. • ***not corrected to Canada census 196l. was $1,111,424 in 1956 and $2,281,949 in 196l, increasing to $3,868,016 in 1965. These costs are summarized in Table XXVI (Appendix A, p. 122). The expenditure required to train an apprentice in 1956 was $241.35. The actual cost of the training was- $148.63. The expenditure required in 1965 was $328.39 and the actual cost was $191.88. The expenditure required to train a technician or non-technical trainee i n the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology i n 1956 was $903.71. The actual cost of the training was $721.43. In 1965, the  110 expenditure required was $1,464.25 and the actual cost was $750.75Similar training provided at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1965 required $1,989.13 for expenditure, while the actual cost was $1,062.70. The expenditures and costs of training technicians,  specifically,  were not available but would approximate very closely the expenditures and costs of training the combined technician and non-technical group. The expenditures and costs for vocational training per person in 1956 amounted to $143.18 for expenditures, and a cost of $98.35. In 1965, the expenditure required was $388.72, while the actual cost was $116.82.  Expenditures and costs per trainee are set out in Table XXIV.  TABLE XXIV EXPENDITURE AND COST PER TRAINEE Expenditure  No.  $ 529,783 1,037.641 1,501,403  2195 3783 4572  Per  Cost  No.  Per  Apprenticeship 1956 1961 1965  $  241.35 $ 326,254 2195 584,664 3783 274.29 328.39 877,309 4572  $ 148.63 154.55 191.88  Technicians and Non-Technical Trainees in S. A.I.T. 1956 1961 1965  759,124 1,560,687 2,276,918  840 1600 1555  903.71 975.43 1,464.25  606,008 840 1,279,071 1600 1,167,421 1555  721.43 799-42 750.75  Technicians, and Non-Technical Trainees in N.A.I.T. 1965  2,575,933  1295  1,989.13  1,376,210  1295  1,062.70  1842 3069 3827  143.18 276.49 388,72  179,162 4i8,2i4 447,076  1842 3069 3827  98.35 136.27 116.82  Vocational Training 1956 1961 1965  263,741 848,571 1,487,649  Ill The P r o v i n c i a l  e x p e n d i t u r e o f c a p i t a l f o r s i t e and  f o r t h e t e n - y e a r p e r i o d , 1956 (p.  123), a m o u n t e d  to  t o 1965,  $18,945,522.  construction  as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e X X V I I  The P r o v i n c i a l  expenditure of c a p i t a l  f o r f u r n i s h i n g s a n d e q u i p m e n t f o r t h e same t e n - y e a r p e r i o d , 1956 amounted t o  $6,485,179  expenditure f o r s i t e , to  $25,430,701.  construction to  124).  1965,  The t o t a l amounted  I n t h e same p e r i o d , t h e r e i m b u r s e m e n t f o r s i t e a n d  $11,398,723,  for a total of  and f o r f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment  $15,611,285. 1956  over t h e p e r i o d  Table XXIX (p.  (p.  c o n s t r u c t i o n , f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment  amounted t o  $4,212,562,  c a p i t a l cost  a s shown i n T a b l e X X V I I I  to  to  1965  The t o t a l n e t was  $9,8l9,4l6,  Provincial a s shown i n  125).  S i x t y - f o u r p e r cent o f e x p e n d i t u r e s and r e i m b u r s e m e n t s f o r c a p i t a l have been accounted f o r i n t h e f i v e y e a r s between and  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d  largely to the construction  i960  1965,  and  and e q u i p p i n g  of the  N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y i n Edmonton. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e t o t a l e n r o l m e n t i n a l l programmes y e a r p e r i o d , t h e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e p e r s t u d e n t was capital  II.  indicates a continued  growth i n f a c i l i t i e s  1,701  a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t for  each t e c h n i c i a n .  4,572  apprentices  and t h e  CONCLUSION  presented f o r t h e p e r i o d under review  number o f p e r s o n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g has e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t  $24l.01,  the.ten-  $93.06.  c o s t p e r s t u d e n t was  The i n f o r m a t i o n  over  for training  i n a l l levels  $1,464.25  a n d an  of training.  t e c h n i c i a n s were i n t r a i n i n g  clearly  This  i n 1965-  i s required t o provide  increasing study I t has  the training  The s t u d y h a s f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e  in training  in  1965  and t h a t  $328.39  were  i s required to  112 p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g f o r each a p p r e n t i c e . v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses i n 19&5  $388.72 f o r t r a i n i n g .  w  a  The number o f o t h e r persons i n s  4,975 w i t h each r e q u i r i n g  I t does n o t , however, p r o v i d e t h e answer t o  whether o r n o t t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e adequate. r e q u i r e d and how much s h o u l d t h e c o s t be? remain unanswered.  s  How many t r a i n e d p e o p l e a r e These a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t  These a r e t h e unknowns t h a t must be c l a r i f i e d .  The t o t a l number i n t r a i n i n g i n 19&5 °f H-2  p e r one thousand  p o p u l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s s t u d y , w i l l be a base t o w h i c h subsequent s t u d i e s can r e l a t e .  S t u d i e s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e s h o u l d be undertaken i n  o t h e r p r o v i n c e s f o r comparison purposes.  Such s t u d i e s i n t o t a l might  then c o n t r i b u t e i n some way t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e need f o r t r a i n i n g at v a r i o u s l e v e l s and, s e c o n d l y , f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o s t f i g u r e f o r t r a i n i n g w h i c h i s r e a l i s t i c i n terms o f e x p e n d i t u r e and adequate t o meet i n d u s t r y ' s demands f o r t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l i n a changing t e c h n o l o g i c a l setting.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  •114 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  BOOKS  Adult Basic Education. Hearings before the Committee on Education and Labor. 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Resources of Scientific and Technical area. Paris: O.E.C.D., 1963. 293 pp. Organization for European Economic Co-operation. O . E . E . C . , I960. 141 pp. .  and  Labour Force Statistics.  Personnel  in the O.E.C.D.  Forecasting.  Paris: O . E . E . C , 1954.  Paris: 88 pp.  . The Problem of Scientific and Technical Manpower in Western Europe Canada and the United States. Paris: O . E . E . C , 1957220 pp. 3  Oxford University. Technology and the Sixth Form Boy. University, Department of Education, 1963. 85 pp. Porter, John. The Vertical Press, 1965. 626 pp.  Mosaic.  Oxford: Oxford  Toronto: University of Toronto  Public Accounts of the Province of Alberta. (1956 to 1965 inclusive) Edmonton: Office of the Queen's Printer. Report of the Royal Commission on Education in Alberta 1959. Provincial Department of Education, 1959- 451 pp.  Edmonton:  116 Robbins, L. C. Higher Education ery Office, 1963. 335 pp.  Report.  London: Her Majesty's  Station-  Simonett, J . R. Report of the Select Committee on Manpower Training. Toronto: Ontario Legislative Assembly, 1963. 126 pp. Technician Education Yearbook. tions Inc. , 1963. 180 pp.  Ann Arbor, Michigan: Prakken Publica-  UNESCO. An International Bibliography of Technical and Vocational Education. Paris: United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization, 1959. 72 pp. . Education in a Technological Society. Tensions and Technology Series. Paris: United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization, 1952. 73 pp. Venn, Grant. Man, Education and Work. Washington: American Council on Education, 1964. 184 pp. Verner C. (ed.). Community and Adult Education. Washington: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962. 33 pp. . (ed.). Participants in Adult Education. Washington: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1965. 44 pp. Z i e l , H. R. (ed.). Education and Productive Gage Limited, 1965- 217 pp. B.  Society.  Toronto: W. J .  PUBLICATIONS OF GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND UNPUBLISHED THESES  American Vocational Journal. 1964, pp..6-9.•  Vol. XXXIX, No. 1. Washington: January  Archer, John. Report of Saskatchewan Committee on Continuing Committee of the Minister of Education, Regina, 1963.  Education.  Beere, R. H. "Some Aspects of Business Education in Canada with Particular Reference to Alberta." Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Alberta, 1962. Boulkind, Mabel. "Vocational Training Facilities for Women in Montreal." Unpublished Master's thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 1938. Cairns, V. B. "A Study of Adult Education in Saskatchewan with Reference to the Canadian Scene." Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 1950. Cowan, John. "Public Financing of Adult Education 1950/51-1961/62," Journal of Education of the Faculty of Education. No. 10. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia, April 1964.  117 C r o c k e r , Olga L. " i s B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n Edmonton Meeting the Needs o f B u s i n e s s ? " U n p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a ,  1962.  Croteau, P.  T.  Education,  "Adult E d u c a t i o n i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , "  V o l . X, June  1938.  Journal of  Development of Industrial  Education in Japan. I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n i n Japan S e r i e s I . Japanese N a t i o n a l Commission f o r UNESCO. Tokyo: M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 195962 pp.  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . Census o f the Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961.  of Canada, 1961.  Ottawa:  Office  Hedley, H. W. "A Study o f t h e E d u c a t i o n o f I l l i t e r a t e s i n t h e Canadian Army." U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ,  19^6.  Henson, Guy. " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n Nova S c o t i a , " Learning for Living, No. 6. T o r o n t o : Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1954. Keppel, F r a n c i s .  " V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n : A Promise f o r Tomorrow," Journal, V o l . XXXIX, No. 2. Washington:  fi  American Vocational 1964.  February  Lampard, Dorothy.  "The  Reading A b i l i t i e s  Research, March 1955.  Educational  of Adults,"  Alberta  Journal of  M c D i l l , Wm. A l e x . " A p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n Canada and the Northwestern Border States." U n p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , Colorado A g r i c u l t u r a l and M e c h a n i c a l C o l l e g e , 1948.  Manpower Training  Report: Canada.  o f S k i l l e d Manpower, 1-9B.  1957.  MDTA Business Education Education. Ottenheimer,  Research Programme on the T r a i n i n g Ottawa: Department o f Labour, Canada,  Projects.  Sacramento:  C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Department o f  1965-  G e r a l d R.  " L e i s u r e , R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and E d u c a t i o n , " September-October 1966. Toronto: Canadian Association for Adult Education, 1966.  Continuous Learning,  P a r s e y , J . M. Canada."  "The  H i s t o r y and S t a t u s of Correspondence E d u c a t i o n i n  U n p u b l i s h e d Master's  Research on Apprenticeship.  t h e s i s , The  U n i v e r s i t y of. Manitoba,  East L a n s i n g : O f f i c e o f Research  and  P u b l i c a t i o n , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ,  Retraining  in California. C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Department o f E d u c a t i o n C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Department o f Employment. Sacramento: 1964.  1962. and  1950.  118 S h e f f i e l d , E. F. " F i n a n c i n g A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n Canada," Food for Thought V o l . X V I , No. 8, 1956. Ottawa: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1956. 3  Simon, Frank. "A H i s t o r y o f t h e A l b e r t a P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e o f Technology and A r t . " U n p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1962. S m i t h , C o l i n H. " F e d e r a l C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s and t o C e r t a i n A g e n c i e s o f C u l t u r a l D i f f u s i o n : An A n a l y t i c a l Survey o f Developments i n Canada from 1920-1960." U n p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i960. S o c i e t y f o r t h e Promotion o f E n g i n e e r i n g E d u c a t i o n . Summary Report of the Study of Teohnioal Institutes. L a n c a s t e r , P e n n s y l v a n i a : The L a n c a s t e r P r e s s I n c . , 1931. 39 pp. Southern A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e o f Technology. Annual Calendar Evening Courses 1965. C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a : Southern A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, 1965Summary Report: Education for a Changing World of Work. P a n e l o f C o n s u l t a n t s on V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . Washington: Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , 1963. 24 pp. Survey of Adult Education 1957-58. Catalogue No. 81-207 Annual. Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , 1961. 71 pp.  Ottawa:  Technical Education by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , Great B r i t a i n . Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1956.  London:  Theobald, R o b e r t , John W. C. Johnstone and J a c k Weinburg. Perspective on Automation. Notes and Essays on E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , No. k3. B o s t o n : Center f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1964. Thomas, A l a n M. " B a s i c T r a i n i n g , " Food for Thought, V o l . X V I I I , No. 5, 1958. T o r o n t o : Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1958. T o l l y , G. " A d u l t T r a i n i n g and R e t r a i n i n g i n t h e U.S.A.," Technical Education and Industrial Training V o l . V, No. 7, J u l y 1963. London: A r c h e r B r o s . 3  U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s . " S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l P e r s o n n e l i n I n d u s t r y 1961." P r e p a r e d f o r N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e Foundation. Washington: 1964. 84 pp. Wales, B. E. "The Development o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia." . U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Oregon S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1958. Wanted . . . More Experts! 54 pp.  Ottawa: Canada Department o f Labour, 1958.  119 W i l l i s , Benjamin C. "Vocational Education in the Years Ahead," American Vocational Journal, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2. Washington: February 1963. C.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS  Hanson, E. "Population and Income Developments Alberta, Western Canada and Canada." Paper prepared for the Alberta Department of Education, Minister's Conference, 1966. . "Population Projections and Labour Force Data Alberta." Paper prepared for the Alberta Department of Education, Minister's Conference, 1966. Porter, A. "Priorities in the Education of Skilled Manpower." Paper read at the Canadian Education Association Forty-second Convention, New Brunswick, September 2k, 1965 • Williams, C. B. "Construction Manpower in Alberta: An Overview." A summary of investigations conducted between June 1 and September 30, 1966 on behalf of the Alberta Bureau of Statistics, Department of Industry and Development, 1966.  APPENDIX A TABLES OF EXPENDITURES AND COSTS  TABIS 2XV TOTAL OPSSATIOMAL ESR35D1TUHSS AMD HSBSmSMEOTS  1956  1957  1953  1959  I960  1961  $  Southern A l b e r t a I n s t , o f Teeimology  529,783  $  759,124  1965  $ 790,973  $ 391,324  $ 973,632  $1,037,641  $1,072,642  $1,040,166  $1,311,660  $1,501,403  809,302  934,502  1,181,485  1,410,579  1,560,687  1,730,224  1,816,925  2,041,296  2,276,918  13,483  39,102  528,181  1,725,093  2,575,933  325,927  393,735  617,921  745,952  848,571  922,397  979,775  1,104,717  1,487,649  $1  ,769,790  $2,119,210  $2,690,730  $3,130,163  $3,460,367  $3,764,365  $4,365,047  $6,182,766  $7,841,903  $  260,392  $ 323,694  $ 432,125  $ 440,779  $ 452,977  $ 472,250  $ 472,777  $ 634,078  $  160,011  191,078  199,467  238,365  231,616  512,833  775,738  1,012,094  1,109,497  152,210  824,307  1,199,723  290,578  Training  Totals  1964  634,561  Northern A l b e r t a I n s t , o f Technology Vocational  1963  •  Expsnditures Apprenticeship  1962  $1,579,485  Jiexshnr s emont s Apprenticeship  $  Southern A i b a r t a I n s t , o f Technology  203,529 153,116  northern A l b e r t a I n s t , o f Technology Vocational  111,416  Training  Totals  $  468,061  $  624,094  117,315  200,309  324,332  400,353  430,357  637,393  657,107  •754,794  1,040,573  537,718  $ 715,031  $ 955,924  $1,079,497  $1,164,950  $1,622,481  $2,057,832  $3,225,273  $3,973,837  ro  TABLE  XXVI  NET OPERATIONAL COST  pprenticeship iuthern Alberta i s t . of Technology  1956  1957  1953  1959  $ 326,254  $ 374,169  $ 467,279  $ 459,199  606,008  649,291  743,424  932,018  1962  1963  1964  1965  $ 532,853 "$ 584,664  $ 600,392  $ 567,389  $ 677,582  $ 877.309  1,279,071  1,217,386  1,041,187  1,029,202  1,167,421  428,561  900,736  1,376,210  I960  1,172,214  1961  orthern Alberta i s t . of Technology jcational  Training  Totals  179,162  208,612  193,426  293,539  345,599  418,214  285,004  322,668  349,923  447,076  $1,111,424  $1,232,072  $1,404,129  $1,734,806  $2,050,666  $2,281,949  $2,102,782  $2,359,805  $2,957,493  $3,868,016  I  ro ro  TABLE XXVII TOTAL CAPITAL EXPENDITURES AND RELMBURSEMENTS ON SITES AND CONSTRUCTION  1956  1958  1957  1959  1961  I960  1962  1963  1964  575,347 $  247,691 $ 114,833  1965  Totals  Sxpenditures Education B u i l d i n g Provincial Inst, of Technology  $ 329,416  116,486 $ 240,983  $ 119,953 $1,973,094 $1,338,584  $ 861,786 $  51,845  Vursing Aide Sdmonton  390  54,059  136,852  .•"orestry S c h o o l tf.A.I.T.  14,360  597  200,539  1,950,384  523,101  8,978,890  1,067,564  \.V.C. Tort McMurray  44,300  ?ire Officers' School, V e r m i l i o n  4,418 $ 381,261 $ 119,953 $2,027,153  $1,338,974  $ 253,333  $ 455,932  $2,812,767  $9,554,237  $  770,792 $1,231,115  $18,945,522  Reimbursements Provincial Inst. Dalgary  $ 641,403  $ 757,329 $  56,310 $  6,683  S.A.I.T. Sdmonton  $ 667,397 $ • 80,865 $ 557,805 $ 32,335  6,086,273  37,765 158,082  2,311,548  f o r e s t r y School Hinton  1,625  ?ire Officers' School, V e r m i l i o n  3,303 $  Net P r o v i n c i a l C a p i t a l Cost f o r S i t e and Construction $ 381,261  Denotes c r e d i t b a l a n c e .  641,403 $  $ 119,953 $1,385,750  757,329 $  $ 581,645  56,310 $  6,683  $ 197,028 $ 449,249  $ 699,732 $6,167,133  $2,113,035  $3,337,099  200,775  $11,398,723  $2,093,561 $1,030,340  $ 7,546,799  $2,869,353  $  TABIE XXVIII TOTAL CAPITAL EXPENDITURES AND REIMBURSEMENTS ON FURNISHINGS AND EQUIPMENT 1956  1957  1958  1959  1961  I960  1962  1963  1964  1965  Totals  Expenditures Education Building  $  Provincial Inst. of Technology Nursing Aide  4,634  $  36,192  $  168,240  $  365,156  $  111,252  $  117,676  $  219,963  $  157,072  $  432,890  $  55,956  101,395 21,530  Edmonton  2,217  46  333  138  127  182  74  379  15,061  732  83  629  179  480  Nursing Aide 931  Calgary  185  Heating Plant  126 627  2,348  C.V.T. Calgary Forestry School  11,513  Hinton N.A.I.T. F i r e Officers' School, Vermilion  $  106,029  $  36,192  $  2,360  $  1,804  6W  1,900,226  2,128,742  597,879  $  190,701  $  367,891  $  125,479  $  132,938  $  221,687  $2,058,051  $2,561,894  $  29,373 684,317  $  12,853  $  171,5a  $  53,205  $  12,095  $  106,642  $  $  $  74,291  $6,485,179  Reimbursements Canadian Vocational Training Provincial Inst. of Technology N.A.I.T.  135,904  342,019  211,153  2,482,548  584,117  347,057  $2,824,567  $  22,030 680,438  $4,212,562  $  $.  3,879  $2,272,617  F i r e Officers' School, Vermilion $  2,360  $  Net Provincial Capital Cost f o r Furnishing and Equipment $ 103,669  $  Denotes credit balance.  1,804 $  34,388  $  12,853  $  171,541  $  53,205  $  12,095  $  106,642  $  177,848  $  196,350  $  72,274  $  120,843  $  115,045  $1,710,994  262,673  TABLE XXIX NET CAPITAL COST  1956  1957  195S  1959  I960  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  Totals  Net P r o v i n c i a l C a p i t a l Cost f o r S i t e and C o n s t r u c t i o n $  331,261 $ 119,953 $1,385,750 $ 581,645 $ 197,028 $ 449,249 $2,113,035 $3,387,099 $2,098,561 $1,030,340 $7,546,799  Wet P r o v i n c i a l C a p i t a l Cost f o r F u r n i s h i n g s and Eouipment  103,669  3,879  2,272,617  $ 484,930 $ 154,341 $1,563,598 $ 777,995 $ 269,302 $ 570,092 $2,228,080 $5,098,093 $2,361,234* $1,034,219  $9,819,416  34,388  177,848  196,350  72,274  120,843  115,045  1,710,994  262,673  Denotes c r e d i t balance  (— 1  ro  APPENDIX B SOURCES OF INFORMATION  127 Sources of Information on Enrolments.  Enrolment figures for  apprentices were taken from the annual report of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology for the years 1956 to 1965-  Enrolment figures  for apprentices trained at the Canadian Vocational Centre were taken from the annual report of the Division of Vocational Education for the years 1956 to 1963.  The enrolment figures for apprentices trained at  the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology were taken from the annual report of the Division of Vocational Education for the year 1964 and from the annual report of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology for 1963 and 1965. Expenditure figures for apprenticeship training and reimbursements for approved Provincial expenditures on apprenticeship training were taken from the statements covering the operations of Canadian Vocational Training in the Public Accounts of the Province of Alberta for the years 1956 to 1959, inclusive.  From i960 to 1963, inclusive,  expenditure figures and reimbursements were from the statements of Vocational Training in the Public Accounts, and for the years 1964 and 1965 expenditures for apprentice training and reimbursements from the Government of Canada were taken from the statements of the Department of Labour in Public Accounts of the Province of Alberta. Enrolment figures for a l l courses at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology for the years 1956 to 1965 were taken from the annual report of the Institute.  The enrolment figures for a l l courses at  the Northern Alberta Institute of.Technology in 1964 and 1965, were taken from the annual report of that Institute. The enrolment figures for persons trained in the Canadian Vocational Training Centres in Edmonton and Calgary, and in temporary  128 t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s e s t a b l i s h e d from t i m e t o t i m e throughout  the Province,'  and t h e v o c a t i o n a l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programme, were t a k e n from t h e annual r e p o r t o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e y e a r s 1956 t o I965.  The enrolment  f i g u r e s f o r persons t r a i n e d i n n u r s i n g a i d e t r a i n i n g  f o r t h e y e a r s 1956 t o 1965 were from t h e o f f i c e o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s o f t h e Department o f H e a l t h . F o r e s t r y enrolment  f i g u r e s were p r o v i d e d by t h e o f f i c e o f t h e  D i r e c t o r o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f F o r e s t r y , Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s . The t o t a l f i g u r e s shown under f o r e s t r y i n c l u d e d t h e b a s i c r a n g e r f i s h and w i l d - l i f e ,  t r e e s c a l e r , f i r e c o n t r o l , f i r e overhead,  course,  fire  crew,  towerman, advanced f o r e s t r y , e x e c u t i v e t r a i n i n g and R.C.A.F. f i r e control. Enrolment f i g u r e s f o r t h e f i r e o f f i c e r s ' t r a i n i n g course were from t h e o f f i c e o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l F i r e Commissioner, Department o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , f o r t h e y e a r s 1959 t o 1965.  Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n on E x p e n d i t u r e s .  E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r Canadian  V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g were r e c o r d e d i n t h e statements o f Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n t h e P u b l i c Accounts  1959-  From  o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a from 1956 t o  i960 t o 1964, t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s were r e c o r d e d i n t h e statements  of V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , and i n 1965 t h e accounts o f V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e accounts o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s were r e c o r d e d i n t h e statements o f t h e Department o f Educat i o n i n t h e P u b l i c Accounts  o f the Province.  The e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g c a r r i e d out by t h e Department of Lands and F o r e s t s were r e c o r d e d i n t h e statements o f t h e Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s i n P u b l i c Accounts e x p e n d i t u r e s from  from 1956 t o 1965.  Included i n the  i960 t o 1965 was an e x p e n d i t u r e f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f  129 j u n i o r f o r e s t wardens, a group not i n c l u d e d i n t h e enrolment trainees.  The  e x p e n d i t u r e f o r j u n i o r f o r e s t wardens was  of forestry-  not l a r g e , but  i t was not p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e i t from t h e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e  figures  recorded. The Department o f H e a l t h e x p e n d i t u r e s on n u r s i n g a i d e t r a i n i n g were r e c o r d e d i n statements o f t h e Department o f H e a l t h i n P u b l i c Accounts  from 1958  t o 1965.  The Department o f P u b l i c Works' e x p e n d i t u r e s  i n c l u d e d e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r n u r s i n g a i d e s c h o o l s and i n 1961  and 1962  included expenditures f o r the F o r e s t r y T r a i n i n g School, Hinton.  also  These  e x p e n d i t u r e s were found i n statements o f t h e Department o f P u b l i c Works in Public  Accounts.  E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g f o r f i r e o f f i c e r s , r e c o r d e d under t h e subheading (pp. 96,  o f t h e Department o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y i n T a b l e  XX  97), were from t h e o f f i c e o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l F i r e Commissioner.  Reimbursements were r e c o r d e d f o r Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g from 1956  t o 1964  i n statements  o f Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and  V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n P u b l i c A c c o u n t s , and i n 19^5 Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n P u b l i c Accounts.  i n statements o f t h e  Reimbursements f o r t h e  Department o f H e a l t h and f o r t h e Department o f P u b l i c Works were found i n statements o f t h e Department o f H e a l t h and o f P u b l i c Works, r e s p e c tively.  The  s a l e o f m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d e d i n reimbursements i n T a b l e  XX,  were r e c o r d e d i n t h e statements o f Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g from 1956  t o 196h  i n c l u s i v e , and from t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n  Income from s a l e o f s u p p l i e s was o f H e a l t h from 1958  t o 1965  1965.  from t h e statements o f t h e Department  inclusive.  Fees were r e c o r d e d i n s t a t e -  ments o f Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g from 1959  t o 1964  and i n statements  o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n 1965  in  130 P u b l i c Accounts.  Reimbursements, under t h e subheading  Departments, i n T a b l e XX (pp. 96,  Other F e d e r a l  97)', were found in'statement's' o f t h e  Department o f H e a l t h , P u b l i c "Accounts  f o r t h e y e a r s i960 t o  1965  inclusive.  C a p i t a l Costs.  C a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s on s i t e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n  and on f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment are made by t h e Department o f P u b l i c Works and a r e , a c c o r d i n g l y , r e c o r d e d i n t h e accounts o f t h e Department of  P u b l i c Works.  The  e x p e n d i t u r e s on s i t e s , c o n s t r u c t i o n , f u r n i s h i n g s  and equipment f o r t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s  are  r e c o r d e d f o r e a c h , as l i s t e d i n the statements o f t h e Department o f P u b l i c Works i n P u b l i c Accounts  f o r t h e y e a r s 1956  t o 1965-  inclusive.  Reimbursements are s i m i l a r l y d e s i g n a t e d by s c h o o l and o t h e r f a c i l i t y , and are r e c o r d e d i n t h e statements Works i n P u b l i c Accounts  f o r t h e y e a r s 1956  o f t h e Department o f P u b l i c t o 1965  inclusive.  Reim-  bursements by t h e Government o f Canada are made on c l a i m s s u b m i t t e d , a u d i t e d and approved f o r payment.  There i s a t i m e l a p s e i n t h i s  p r o c e d u r e , t h e r e f o r e t h e reimbursements i n any one y e a r do not d i r e c t l y t o the expenditures of t h a t year.  I n 1964,  relate  t h e amount o f  reimbursement r e c e i v e d from t h e Government o f Canada exceeded t h e e x p e n d i t u r e by t h e P r o v i n c e i n t h e same y e a r .  The  surplus results  from  an e x p e n d i t u r e o f $3,332,686, and i n t h e same y e a r reimbursements r e c e i v e d from t h e Government o f Canada amounted i n t o t a l t o $5,693,920. The Department o f P u b l i c Works r e c o r d s i n t h e statements  of  account . an amount f o r r e f u n d on s a l e s t a x on b u i l d i n g s under c o n s t r u c tion.  The r e f u n d i s made f o r a l l b u i l d i n g s under c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t h a t  p o r t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g facilities  i s not i d e n t i f i e d .  No amount from t h i s source o f  131  reimbursement has been i n c l u d e d i n t h e summaries o f c a p i t a l  expenditures.  T h i s r e s u l t s i n t h e net P r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l c o s t f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n b e i n g h i g h e r t h a n i t o t h e r w i s e would be i f t h e reimbursement on s a l e s t a x c o u l d be i n c l u d e d .  P r o v i s i o n f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n on b u i l d i n g s and e q u i p -  ment i s made f o r a l l Government b u i l d i n g s and equipment, and t h a t p o r t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i s  not  i d e n t i f i e d except f o r a s m a l l sum i n each o f t h e y e a r s 1956 t o 196l i n t h e accounts o f Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g .  No amount f o r  depreci-  a t i o n has been i n c l u d e d i n t h e summaries o f c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e , shown as a c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n . expenditure if  This r e s u l t s i n a lower t o t a l  nor  Provincial  f o r t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g t h a n would be o b t a i n e d  an amount f o r d e p r e c i a t i o n was i n c l u d e d .  

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