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A phonological grammar of a dialect of Ilokano Olaya, Norma Peralta 1967

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A PHONOLOGICAL GRAMMAR OF A DIALECT OF ILOKANO  by  NORMA P. OLAYA P.N.C.G.,' P h i l i p p i n e Normal C o l l e g e , 1951 B.S.E.E., P h i l i p p i n e Normal C o l l e g e , 1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department o f C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1967  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree  t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. thesis  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my  Department or by h ]h: r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s  It  i s understood t h a t  copying  f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  NORMA PERALTA OLAYA  Department of  CLASSICS  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  this  August 9. 1967  A PHONOLOGICAL GRAMMAR OP A DIALECT OP ILOKANO Abstract C u r r e n t l i n g u i s t i c s views grammar as a n i n t e g r a t e d syntactic-semantic-phonological as g e n e r a t i v e , structure, and  1  d e s c r i p t i o n o f a language;  t h a t i s , t h a t sentences have a d e f i n i t e  t h a t t h e r e a r e a n i n f i n i t e number o f s e n t e n c e s ,  that," t h e r e f o r e , a grammar cannot be a l i s t o f elements,  but i n s t e a d a f i n i t e s e t o f e x p l i c i t r u l e s w h i c h c a n a u t o m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n a s t r u c t u r e t o an i n f i n i t e s e t of sentences. The  p r e s e n t t h e s i s - a p h o n o l o g i c a l grammar o f t h e c u l t i v a t e d  d i a l e c t o f I l o k a n o as spoken i n t h e town p r o p e r o f Bayombong, Nueva V i z c a y a - has aimed t o r e f l e c t t h e s e modem concepts o f a grammar i n b o t h i t s c o n t e n t and methodology.  I t suggests  a methodology f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sound p a t t e r n o f a given d i a l e c t .  As t o c o n t e n t ,  the r e s u l t s of t h i s study  s h o u l d be u s e f u l as b a s i s f o r a c o n t r a s t i v e phonology o f I l o k a n o and E n g l i s h , o r t h e o t h e r P h i l i p p i n e languages and d i a l e c t s , w i t h t h e end i n view o f c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a n e f f e c t i v e second-language t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l u m The (1) and  construction.  s t u d y has t h e f o l l o w i n g s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s : C h a p t e r 1 c o v e r s g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s on I l o k a n o  i t s d i a l e c t s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f I l o k a n o t o t h e  o t h e r P h i l i p p i n e languages and d i a l e c t s .  Chapter 2 Includes  p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n s on c o n t e n t and p r o c e d u r e o f t h e d e s criptive (2)  analyses. The s t u d y o p e r a t e s on t h e taxonomic and e x p l a n a -  tory levels of l i n g u i s t i c science.  The taxonomic l e v e l i s  V  a c h i e v e d by the e t i c and the emic a n a l y s e s i n Chapters 3 and k.  The  explanatory l e v e l i s r e f l e c t e d i n Chapter 5  -  i n the p h o n o l o g i c a l grammar w h i c h i s a system of 3k (23 m e n t a l and 11  seg-  suprasegmental) emic u n i t s o f t h e I l o k a n o  d i a l e c t , and a s e t of kZ unordered s t r u c t u r e - a s s i g n i n g r e w r i t e r u l e s (32  p h o n e t i c r u l e s and 10  morphophonemic r u l e s )  w h i c h enumerate I l o k a n o u t t e r a n c e s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . T h i s f e a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y may s t a t e d i n terms of the outputs of each l e v e l , the  be  relation-  s h i p s of w h i c h have been s c h e m a t i c a l l y shown as f o l l o w s : Taxonomic L e v e l  Explanatory Level kZ  3k Phones (3)  Phonemes  P h o n o l o g i c a l Rules  F o r the d e s c r i p t i v e methodology and  procedure  employed i n t h i s s t u d y , the w r i t e r has t a k e n cues from linguists:  two  (a) from Kenneth L. P i k e , h i s tagmemic t h e o r y  w h i c h b a s i c a l l y assumes t h a t any u n i t of p u r p o s i v e human b e h a v i o r i s w e l l - d e f i n e d i f and o n l y i f one d e s c r i b e s i t i n r e f e r e n c e t o (1) tion.  c o n t r a s t , (2)  v a r i a t i o n , and  (3)  distribu-  T h i s t r i m o d a l t h e o r y o f a n a l y s i s has been b r i e f l y  s t a t e d , thus: Unit =  Contrast Variation Distribution;  (b) from Noam A. Chomsky, h i s g e n e r a t i v e grammar t h e o r y w h i c h has been b r i e f l y s t a t e d i n the f i r s t paragraph o f t h i s  vi 5.  a b s t r a c t and d i s c u s s e d a t c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h i n C h a p t e r (*0  The a n a l y s i s o f t h e stream o f speech a t t h e end  o f C h a p t e r k g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s some g e n e r a l  concepts  i n l i n g u i s t i c s as a p p l i e d t o I l o k a n o . C (5) The t r i m o d a l scheme, U = V, i s o p e r a t i v e a t D  both t h e taxonomic and e x p l a n a t o r y l e v e l s o f t h i s  research.  The d e t a i l e d e t i c a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y  articula-  t o r y d e l i n e a t e s t h e raw m a t e r i a l s o f speech - t h e kl e t i c u n i t s o f t h e I l o k a n o d i a l e c t , e x t r a c t e d from t h e p h o n e t i c d a t a , t h e corpus o f u t t e r a n c e s p r e s e n t e d  i n C h a p t e r 2.  By  the c r i t e r i o n o f p h o n e t i c resemblance and by t h e CVD-formula employed i n t h e process o f phonemization  - Chapter k - the  kl e t i c u n i t s have been reduced t o 3^ emic u n i t s . (6)  The p a t t e r n s o f o c c u r r e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e  emic u n i t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s . Each r u l e i s o f t h e form: X  ^ Y.  W i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f i t s o r g a n i z e d d a t a , f a c t s and information,' t h i s t h e s i s a s s e r t s : (1)  That t h e phonemes / e , o, f , v , h / - o c c u r r i n g i n  S p a n i s h o r E n g l i s h l o a n words w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t l y used by the I l o k a n o s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y - have become a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e phonemic system o f t h e I l o k a n o d i a l e c t ; (2)  That t h e b a s i c s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e o f I l o k a n o has  f o r i t s u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n , CV(C) and n o t V o r CV; and,(3)  That t h e l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n a t t h e e x p l a n a -  t o r y l e v e l o f t h e r e s e a r c h i s g e n e r a t i v e , s i n c e t h e phono-  vii l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the I l o k a n o d i a l e c t can "best be a c c o u n t e d f o r , not by an i n v e n t o r y of elements,' but  by v  a system of r u l e s - i t s g e n e r a t i v e p h o n o l o g i c a l grammar.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Among those to whom the writer i s g r a t e f u l f o r guidance and assistance i n the preparation of this thesis are her professors: Robert J . Gregg, by whose tremendous knowledge and a b i l i t y her Interest i n phonology was stimulated; Ruth E. McConnell, who introduced her to transformational-generative  grammar, and by whose creative teaching  this student was encouraged to write the phonological grammar of her Ilokano d i a l e c t ; and, Frederick Bowers, i n whose graduate seminar she gained further orientation and insight into the transformational-generative grammar theory.  She  i s also g r a t e f u l f o r the ideas shared by Professors Kenneth L. Pike and Noam A. Chomsky.  These l i n g u i s t s have promptly  answered her inquiries into t h e i r theories of language and l i n g u i s t i c s which pervade this t h e s i s . For f i n a n c i a l assistance i n connection with the Colombo Plan scholarship granted her, the writer should l i k e to record her indebtedness to the External A i d O f f i c e of the Government of Canada, as well as to the National Economic Council, and the Bureau of Public Schools of the Department of Education, Republic of the P h i l i p p i n e s . Without this a i d the degree course and research study would, i n the f i r s t place, have been impossible. For her orientation, t r a i n i n g , and experience i n the teaching of English as a second language, as well as i n textbook writing, both of which provided background f o r l i n g u i s t i c s  iii and  i n which l i n g u i s t i c s In turn finds p r a c t i c a l application,  she i s very g r a t e f u l to Miss Fe Manza, Mrs. E s t e l a F. Daguio, and Mrs. Trinidad S. Marino, a l l of the Bureau of Public Schools• She f e e l s deeply obliged to the o f f i c i a l s and s t a f f of the UBC International House, the Housing  Administration  O f f i c e , and the Office of the Dean of Women, f o r providing her a home away from home. A s p e c i a l word of thanks i s due to her parents and s i s t e r s , and to the families and friends who have shown great concern about her well-being while she was preparing the manuscript.  N. P. 0.  CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  i i  ABSTRACT  iv  LIST OP FIGURES AND TABLES  xii  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  The Ilokano Language . . . . . . . . . . .  1  1.2  Purpose and Importance of the Study  6  1.3  Review of Related Studies  1. k  2  . . . . . . . .  7 9  Scope and Delimitation . . . . . . . . . .  1.5  Definitions of Terms Used  1.6  Theoretical Framework  1.7  Methodology and Procedure  . •  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12 16 18  METHODOLOGICAL PRELIMINARIES  20  2.1  The Organs of Speech  20  2.2  Types of Speech Sounds . . . . . . . . . .  21  2.21  How Vocoids are Described and C l a s s i f i e d .  23  2.22  How Contoids are Described and C l a s s i f i e d .  29  2.3  The S y l l a b l e : I t s Function and Structure .  31  2, k 2.5 3  . . .  Transcription Signs and Symbols  39  Phonetic Data  THE SOUNDS OF SPEECH:  35  A PHONETIC ANALYSIS  3.1  Phonetic Charts  44  3.11  The Segmental Sounds  4-5  3.12  The Suprasegmental Features  . . . . . . .  4-5  ix CHAPTER 3.2  The Segments i n D e t a i l . . . . . . . . .  3.21  Vocoids  3.211  The Fronfc Vocoids:[i, I, e, a] . . . . .  . 47  3.212  The Central Vocoids: [a, a] . . . . . .  .  57  3.213  The Back Vocoids: [u, U, o]  .  60  3.22  Vocoid Chains  3.221  The Fronting Vocoid Chains  70  3.222  The Retracting Vocoid Chains . . . . . . .  77  3.23  Contoids , . .'  82  . . . . . . . . .' . . . .  . . . . . . . .  .  46  . i..  46  69  .  ;  3.23I Plosives: [p, b, t , d, k, g , q ] . . . . . 82 3a.232  Nasals: [m, n, n] . . . . . . . . . . .  3.233 L a t e r a l : [ l ] . . . . . . .  .' . . . . . .  .  93  .  97  3.234 Alveolar Flap: [ r ] . . . . . .  98 100  3.235 Fricatives: [ f , v,' s, h, n]  . . . .' . . .' . . 105  3.24  Contoid Clusters . . . .  3.241  Prevocalic, I n i t i a l Contoid Clusters . . . 110  3.242  Prevocalic, Medial Contoid Clusters  . • . 115  3.243  Postvocalic, P i n a l Contoid Clusters  • . . 121  3.'3  The Supfcasegments i n D e t a i l  3.31  Stress and Rhythm  ' 3.32  . . . . . . .  123  . . . . . . . . . . . .  123 129  Length  3.33  Juncture, P i t c h and Intonation  3.331  Juncture . . . . . . . . . . .  3.332  Pitch and Intonation  . . . . . .  131 131 . 132  X  CHAPTER 4  137  PHONEMIC ANALYSIS 4.1  Rationale f o r Phonemizatlon . . . .  . . .  4.2  Determining the Set of Phonemes . . . . .  139  4.21  The Phoneme Concept . . . . . . . . . . .  139  4.22  Analytic Procedure: Pike's Tagmemic Theory  4.221  . . .  CONTRAST* ;i . . . . . . . . .  4.2211 Vowels. . . . .' . . . . - . . . . 1  . . . .  147  . . . .  151  Contrasts i n a l l dimensions  (b)  Contrasts i n tongue height . . . .  (c)  Contrasts i n tongue advancement . . . . .  .  152  . .  154  . . . . . . . . . .  (9&ic^oice versus Breath  . . . . . . . .  155 155  (b)  Contrasts i n Point of A r t i c u l a t i o n .  160  (c)  Contrasts i n Manner of A r t i c u l a t i o n .  167  4.2213 Suprasegmental Prosodemes . . . . . . . .  4.222  14-1 144  (a)  4.2212 Consonants  138  174  (a)  Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  175  (b)  Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  176  (c)  Pitch, Intonation and Juncture (PIJ)  1^8  VARIATION and DISTRIBUTION: Phonotactics and Morphophonemics  4.2221 Phonotactics  . . .'  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  (a)  Diphthongs  (b)  Consonant Clusters  181 182 182  . . . . . . . .  186  xl CHAPTER  5  (c)  Vowels . . . . . . . .  •  (d)  Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . .  190  (e)  Tonemes  195  (f)  Junctonemes  (g)  Stronemes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . 1  !  !  188  196  .  197  4.2222 Morphophonemics . . . . . . . .* . . . . .  199  . . . . . . . . . . . .  (a)  Phoneme Addition . . . . . . . . . .  (b)  Phoneme Deletion . . . . . . . . . .  (c)  Phoneme Substitution  204  H)  (1) A s s i m i l a t i o n  204  . . . . . . . . .  200 203  205  (2)  Dissimilation . . . . . . . . .  (3)  Gradation  . . . . . . . . . . .  206  (4)  Reduplication . . . . . . . . .  208  4.'3  The Stream of Speech  .• - . . . . . . .' .  4.'31  Corpus  . .' . .  4.32  Concepts  . . . . . . . . . .  209  4.33  Analysis  . . . .' . .  211  . . . . . . .  ;  :  . . . . . . . . .  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 5.1  Summary . • . . .  5.2  Conclusions  BIBLIOGRAPHY  209 209  216 . . • . . . . . .  . . . . . . . .  .' .  216 237  241  LIST OP FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURE 1  PAGE Map of the Bhilippin.es showing Ilokanospeaking areas  2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2  Cross section of the head showing the organs most d i r e c t l y involved i n the production of speech-sounds  . . . . . . . . . .  . . • •• • •  22  3  The Eight Basic Cardinal Vowels  4  The Central Vocoid Triangle  . . . . . . . . . .  26  5  Vocoid Matrix  . . . . . .  28  6  Contoid Matrix  . . . . . . . . . . .  31  7  Ilokano Vocoids  . . . .  44  8  Ilokano Vocoid Chains  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44  9  Ilokano Contolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45  . . . . . .  10  Ilokano Vowel Pattern  11  Ilokano Consonant Pattern  ...  24  . ...  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...  . ...  . .  150 172  TABLE 1  Philippine Languages  2  The Stream of Speech Analyzed  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4 211  CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  Ii  ABSTRACT  iv  LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES  viii  CHAPTER 1  2  PAGE INTRODUCTION . . .  1  1.1  The Ilokano Language  1  1.2  Purpose and Importance of the Study . .  6  1.3  Review of Related Studies  7  1.4  Scope and Delimitation  1.5  Definitions of Terms Used  12  1.6  Theoretical Framework .  16  1.7  Methodology and Procedure . . . . . . .  18  .  9  METHODOLOGICAL PRELIMINARIES  .  2.1  The Organs of Speech  20  2.2  Types of Speech Sounds  21  2.21 How Vocoids are Described and C l a s s i f i e d  3  20  23  2.22  How Contoids are Described and C l a s s i f i e d 29  2.3  The S y l l a b l e : I t s Function and Structure  31  2.4  Transcription Signs and Symbols  35  2.5  Phonetic Data  . . . .  39  . ; . .  THE SOUNDS OF SPEECH : A PHONETIC ANALYSIS. .  43  3.1  44  Phonetic Charts  3.11 The Segmental Sounds . . . . . . . . . .  45  3.12  45  The Suprasegmental Features  . . . . . .  X  CHAPTER  PAGE 3.2  The Segments i n D e t a i l  46  3.21  Vocoids  46  3.211  The Front Vocoids. . . . .* • Z •  3.212  The Central Vocoids  3.213  The Back Vocoids  3.22  Vocoid Chains  3.221  The Fronting Vocoid Chains  i *  47 57  . . . . .  60 69 70  3.222 The Retracting Vocoid Chains . . . . . . .  77  3.23  Contoids .  82  3.231  Plosives . . . . .  82  3.232 Nasalss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  93  3.233 L a t e r a l  97  . . .  3.234 Alveolar Flap  98  3.235 F r i c a t i v e s  100  3.236 Semlvouelds  104  3.24  Contoid Clusters . . ; . . . . . . .  ... .  105  3.241  Prevocalic, I n i t i a l Contoid Clusters . . .  110  3.242  Prevocalic, Medial Contoid Clusters  3.243  Postvocalic, F i n a l Contoid Clusters .. . .  121  3.3  The Suprasegments i n D e t a i l  123  3 .'31  Stress and Rhythm  . . . . . . . . . . . .  123  3.32  Length  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  129  3.33  Juncture, P i t c h and Intonation  3.331  Juncture . . . . . .' . . <. . • . • • . . .  :  3.332 P i t c h and Intonation  . . . 115  . . . . . .  131 101  132  xi CHAPTER 4  PAGE .  137  . . . . . . .  138  PHONEMIC ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . 4.1  Rationale f o r Phonemization  4.2  Determining the Set of Phoneme  4.21  The Phoneme Concept  4.22  Analytic Procedure: P i k e ^ Tagmemic Theory  4.221  . .  139  .  139  . . . . . . . . . .  . .  141  . . . . . . . . .  • .  144  . . . . .  147  . . . . . . . . . .  CONTRAST . . . . . :  4.2211 Vowels . . . 4.2212 Consonants . . 4 . 2 2 1 3 Suprasegmental Prosodemes  4.222  . . . . . . . . .  155  . . . . . . . .  174 175  (a)  Stress  .  (b)  Length  176  (c)  P i t c h , Intonation and Juncture (PIJ).  178  VARIATION and DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . .  181  4.2221 Phonotactics  182  4.2222 Morphophonemics  5  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  199  4.3  The Stream of Speech . . . .  209  4.31  Corpus . . . . . . .  209  4.32  Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  209  4.33  Analysis .  211  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 5.1  Summary  5.2  Conclusions  BIBLIOGRAPHY  • . . . . . . . . . . • .' . . . . . . a . . . . . .'• . . . • . • .  216 216 2|2 241  Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1*1  The Ilokano Language  The Ilokano language, l i k e a l l the other Philippine languages and d i a l e c t s , belongs to the Indonesian branch of the Malayo-Polynesian l i n g u i s t i c family.  1  By typological 2  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i t i s an agglutinative language. Ilokano i s the t h i r d major Philippine language.  The  National Census of I 9 6 0 l i s t s 3,158,560 native speakers d i s tributed throughout the country, the majority of whom l i v e i n the four provinces where i t i s the native tongue, namely, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, and La Union; and In the areas where Ilokanos have heavily immigrated - Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva E c l j a , Pangaslnan, Tarlac, Zambales, and Manila.  3  1  Jose V i l l a Panganiban, *The Family of Philippine Languages and D i a l e c t s , Inclosure to B u l l e t i n No. 137. s. 1957. Bureau of Public Schools, Department of Education, Manila: BPS, 1957. P. If Charles F. Hockett, A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s , New York: Macmillan, 1958, p. 595; Leonard Bloomfield, Language, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961, p. 7 1 . 1  2  Ilokano makes extensive use of a f f i x e s to s i g n a l grammatical meaning. For d e t a i l s on types of l i n g u i s t i c structure, see Edward Sapir, Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1921, Chap. 6.  3  Bureau of the Census and S t a t i s t i c s , Philippine National Census of I960 (Summary Report), Manila: BCS, 1962, p. 15. See also F i g ; 1 and Table 1 of t h i s t h e s i s .  2  Ilocos Norte  Abra Ilocos Sur — Isabela — La Union Nueva V i z c a y a  h-  —  Cagayan  —  Mountain P r o v i n c e  Pig. 1 Map showing  Pangaslnan Nueva E c i j a Zambales — Tarlac — —  of the P h i l i p p i n e s the Ilokano-speaking areas.  3 Although is  a distinct  t h e I l o k a n o spoken i n each o f these  dialectal  variant  of t h e language - e s p e c i a l l y  i n p h o n o l o g y , a n d t o some e x t e n t i n v o c a b u l a r y ligibility  rather widely separated  with f a c i l i t y It  i s the informed  gical dialectal  speakers  themselves.-  observation of the w r i t e r that i n i s a n "immigrant language"  phonolo-  v a r i a t i o n c a n be a f u n c t i o n o f i t s c o e x i s t e n c e  w i t h t h e n a t i v e language o r languages. t h e two n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s ,  help Ilokano preserve the f o r e i g n [e,  intel-  l o c a l i t i e s can use i t  a s a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n among  t h e r e g i o n s where I l o k a n o  instance,  - mutual  b e t w e e n them i s o f s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t  coming f r o m  places  I n Nueva V i z c a y a , f o r  Gadang a n d I s i n a y , t e n d t o  ( S p a n i s h o r E n g l i s h ) sounds  o, f , VJ i n i t s p h o n e t i c c o d e .  These sounds a r e i n t h e  phonemic s y s t e m s o f t h e two n a t i v e t o n g u e s ,  t h u s : Gadang p h o n -  emes / e / a n d / f / , a s i n i p e f u / q i pS f u q / ' t o b e g i n ' ,  nefuffuk  /ne  f u f f i k / 'knocked o n t o ' ,  a n d t h e I s i n a y phonemes / e / , / o / ,  and  / v / , a s i n mamvevoy /mam  v § voy/ 'to p l a y ' .  spoken i n the p r o v i n c e o f Pangasinan,  The I l o k a n o  o n t h e o t h e r hand, h a s  a s s i m i l a t e d t h e t e n s e schwa / © / o f t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e , has  lost  i t s f o r e i g n £e3-sound, w h i c h i s n o t i n t h e  phonemic c o d e . for  T h u s , most I l o k a n o s  example, g e r r a / g l r r a q /  i n Pangasinan  and  Pangasinan  would s a y ,  'war' n o t / g g r r a q / ; amen /q& m i n /  •amen' n o t / q f i men/ w h i c h d o e s n o t t h e r e f o r e c o n t r a s t w i t h a m l n /q&  min/ ' a l l ' ;  a g e s k w e l a / q a g i s kwfi l a q / 'go t o s c h o o l * n o t  / q a g e s kw& l a q / .  4 Table 1.  Philippine Languages (A P a r t i a l L i s t )  THE PHILIPPINES Number of -islands: 7,107 Land area: 115t000 sq. miles Total population (as of I 9 6 0 census): 27,087.685 THE EIGHT MAJOR PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES Total No. of Speakers Percentage (I960 Census)  Tagalog  6,529,882 5,694,072  24.1 21.0  Ilokano  3,158,560  11.7  Hiligaynon  2,817,314  10.4  Bikol  2,108,837  7.8  Samar-Leyte  1,488,668  5.5  Pampango  875.531  3.2  Pangasinan  666,003  2.5  C ebuano  IER PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES Apayao Ata Bagobo Bajao Blla-an Bontok Bukidnon Chavacano Davaweno Dumagat  Gadang Ibanag Ifugao Igorot Ilongot Isinay Ivatan Kalamian Kalinga Ke-ney  Kulaman Magindanao Mandaya Mangguangan Mangyan Manobo Maranao Negrito-Aeta Palawan Samal  Sambal Sanggil Subanon Tagabili Tagakaolo Tagbanua Tausug Tinggian Tiruray Yakan  H.Otley Beyer, " L i s t of Philippine Languages and Dialects," 1942. (Mimeographed.)  Another i n t e r e s t i n g observation about Ilokano i s the phenomenon which l i n g u i s t s c a l l "hybrid message" b i l i n g u a l or m u l t i l i n g u a l - such as the utterances  combined  of Ilokano and English, f o r Instance: naohangean [na 'tyeln dyan] ' i t was changed fllnushna  [ f l l 'nas naq]  lyeschedulen  1  'he flushed i t *  £ql yes *ke dyU len] 'schedule i t now*  mayad-adjust to [ma yad qad 'dyas toq] ' h e ' l l become adjusted* or those of Ilokano and Spanish, f o r example: asekasuek £qa se kas 'swek] 'I pay attention to* from hacer caso de 'to pay attention to* alamanuen £qa l a man *nwen] 'to shake hands with* from a l a mano 'near a t hand* The l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon just c i t e d has s i g n i f i c a n t implications f o r Ilokano morphophonological structure, which are summed up i n what Sapir said about how languages influence each other.  He wrote:  "The borrowing of foreign words always entails t h e i r phonetic modification. There are sure to be foreign sounds or accentual p e c u l i a r i t i e s that do not f i t the native phonetic habits. They are then so changed as to do as l i t t l e violence as possible to these habits. Frequently, we have phone11c compromis es."5 1  5  Sapir, o£. o i t . y p. 197.  6 lv2  Purpose and  Importance of the  This  t h e s i s attempts t o e s t a b l i s h the  prosodemes o f a d i a l e c t restrictions the  of Ilokano,  of c o m b i n a b i l i t y  phonological  Specifically,  patterns  the  of the  which the  study w i l l  and  Study phonemes  to d e l i n e a t e  and the  emlc u n i t s - i . e., emic u n i t s e n t e r  seek answers t o the  into.  following  questions: (a)  What a r e Ilokano  the  emic u n i t s o f t h e c u l t i v a t e d  d i a l e c t as  s p o k e n i n Bayombong, N u e v a  Vizcaya:  (b)  1)  s e g m e n t a l phonemes?  2)  s u p r a s e g m e n t a l prosodemes?  What p h o n o l o g i c a l between the  patterns  emlc u n i t s d o e s t h e  With I t s d e t a i l e d analyses how  the  sified,  i n d i v i d u a l s o u n d s and how  patterns,  and  linguistic should Ilokano the  with  and  the  Ilokano  and  dialect  i t s descriptions  features are  d i s t r i b u t e i n permitted  and  other  as a b a s i s f o r a  s p e a k e r s , and  (3)  the study  contrastive analysis  i n turn serve  l e a r n i n g of Ilokano  as as  clas-  phonological  l a n g u a g e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y E n g l i s h and  instructional materials  of  produced and  p r i n c i p l e s involved;' the r e s u l t s of t h i s u s e f u l (1)  permit?  g e n e r o u s examples i l l u s t r a t i n g  r e s u l t s of which w i l l  paring  and  be  they vary  of occurence r e l a t i o n s  (2)  as  i n E n g l i s h and  sourcenmaterialflfor the  a s e c o n d language."  Tagalog,  basis f o r Tagalog  of  pre-  for teaching  7 1.3  Review o f R e l a t e d S t u d i e s  Two  d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s and  have d e a l t dialects  p a r t l y w i t h the  of  a master's  phonological  thesis  analysis  of d i f f e r e n t  Ilokano.  6 Constantino  wrote a  complete g e n e r a t i v e  phrase s t r u c t u r e , grammatical transformations, phonemics - of Nueva E c i j a . cludes  a  the The  I l o k a n o d i a l e c t as  grammar o f r u l e s and  the  phonemes, as 3 vowels: 16  /a  consonants:  i  The  the  grammar i n -  phonological  string  structure  phonemic  analysis  u/ / p t k b d g c m n n  a word a c c e n t :  A  morpho-  follows:  h s  an  a generative  rules.  -  s p o k e n i n S a n t o Domingo,  d i a l e c t c o n s i s t i n g o f 15  2 transformational 25  revealed  and  morphophonemic component o f  phonemic a n a l y s i s and  grammar  1  r w  y/  /•/  emphatic s t r e s s :  /*/  3  junctures:  a  s y l l a b l e boundary:  / [ /  contrastive analysis  /#/  of  /Jj/ /-/ the  ^  [?3  or  £.]  f o r m and d i s t r i b u t i o n  6 E r n e s t o A n d r e s C o n s t a n t i n o , A G e n e r a t i v e Grammar o f a D i a l e c t o f I l o c a n o . ( U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , J u n e 1959. 200 pp.)  7  Ibid.,  pp.  182-198.  8 of English and Iloko Sibayan.  9  8  segmental phonemes was made by  As a basis f o r contrast he established the  following segmental phonemes of the La Union-Baguio C i t y dialect:  10  16 consonants:  / p t k ? b d g s h m n n  5 vowels:  /l  1  r y w/  e a a u/  7 diphthongs:  / i y ©y ay uy iw aw uw/.  11 HcKaughan and Forster  developed a pedagogical  grammar f o r Ilokano based on the La Union d i a l e c t .  The  f i r s t group of lessons includes very b r i e f descriptions of the phonemes.  The d i a l e c t has 19 segmental phonemes,  / p t k b d g m n n s  j l r w y i a a  u/, and a suprasegment-  a l phonemic stress, /'/. No phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the 8 The word forms, Iloko, Ilocano, and Ilokano, have been used by d i f f e r e n t writers i n refering to the language; the l a s t two only to the native speaker. In l i n e with the Philippine national orthography, however, the form, Ilokano, Is used i n the present study to r e f e r either to the language or to the native speaker.  9  Bonifacio P a d l l l a Sibayan, English and Iloko Segmental Phonemes. (Unpublished Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , The University of Michigan, 1961, 188 pp.)  10  11  I b i d . / pp.  100-101.  Howard McKaughan and Jannette Forster, Ilocano: An Intensive Language Course. (Published M. A.' thesis, Cornell University, June, 1952), Grand Forks, N.D.: Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , 1957, PP. 1-8.  9 text material i s given. pointing  o u t how  s y s t e m s , i t has of l i n g u i s t i c  While t h i s  dialects little  of Ilokano  study  is helpful  differ  In t h e i r  t o o f f e r to the present  procedures,  like  study  in phonemic i n terms  p h o n e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n and  phon-  emlzation. The  t h r e e s t u d i e s , on t h e w h o l e , c a n  only serve  emphasize the  i n c r e a s i n g importance of s c i e n t i f i c  that are both  comprehensive and  deep - o f t h e  systems of a m u l t i d i a l e c t a l language l i k e  1;4  to  analyses  -  phonological  Ilokano.  Scope and D e l i m i t a t i o n  Modern s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t s advocate c r i p t i o n - i . e.,  t h a t the  t h e grammar - o f a l a n g u a g e be 12 w i t h i n a wide scope. Chomsky, K a t z a n d P o s t a l , s e v e r a l others, share  the concept  t h a t "an  des-  considered  13  and  integrated linguis-  tic  d e s c r i p t i o n of a n a t u r a l language c o n s i s t s of t h r e e com"14 ponents: s y n t a c t i c , semantic, and p h o n o l o g i c a l . " Studies  12 Noam Chomsky, A s p e c t s o f t h e T h e o r y o f S y n t a x , C a m b r i d g e : The MIT P r e s s , 1965, p . 16; " C u r r e n t I s s u e s _ i n L i n g u i s t i c T h e o r y , " I n K a t z a n d F o d o r , The S t r u c t u r e o f L a n g u a g e . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1964, p p . 118.  13  50-  -  J e r o l d J . K a t z a n d P a u l M. P o s t a l , A n I n t e g r a t e d T h e o r y o f L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n s . H e s e a r c h Monograph No. C a m b r i d g e : The MIT P r e s s , 1964. 14 I b i d . ' , pp. 11-29.  26,  10 y i e l d i n g such a comprehensive and integrated body of knowledge about any one language could well be the occupation of many generations of l i n g u i s t s .  This trend i n l i n g u i s t i c research  has, however, been o p t i m i s t i c a l l y encouraging especially f o r English and Russian. 15 Constantino  Por Ilokano, the grammar written by  i s a bold step i n the right d i r e c t i o n .  The present study deals mainly with the description of the phonological component of a projected grammar of another d i a l e c t of Ilokano.  I t covers both the taxonomic  and explanatory levels of l i n g u i s t i c study as distinguished by Saumjan,  thus;  "... l i n g u i s t i c science i s concerned above a l l with an exact description and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of observable f a c t s . .".. That i s the taxonomic l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c science. But l i n g u i s t i c s goes beyond a mere description and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of observable facts; i t sets i t s e l f the task of revealing the underlying immanent relations among elements inaccess i b l e to d i r e c t observation. That i s the explanatory l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c science." '' 1  The writer's interpretation of the above scheme i s r e f l e c t e d i n the scope of her research.  The taxonomic  l e v e l embraces the phonetic and phonemic analyses i n  15 S. K. Saumjan, Discussion on the paper of Henning Spang-HanssenV "Mathematical L i n g u i s t i c s - A Trend i n Name or i n Pact?"; read at the Ninth International Congress of L i n g u i s t s . Published In Horace G. Lunt, (ed.) Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of L i n g u i s t s . The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964, pp. 61-71. 17 Ibid., p. 70. 1  !  11 Chapters 3 and 4 .  Chapter 5 r e f l e c t s the explanatory  l e v e l of the research - the phonological grammar which i s a system of unordered rewrite rules underlying the structure of the c u l t i v a t e d Ilokano d i a l e c t as spoken In the town proper of Bayombong, p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l of Nueva Vlzcaya. I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e to consider that the Nueva Vlzcaya Ilokano i s an admixture of a l l the other d i a l e c t s mentioned i n Sec. 1.1. !  This fact renders I t d i f f i c u l t to base the  descriptive statements and generalizations on l i n g u i s t i c features and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that can be ascribed to a l l speakers of the d i a l e c t i n question.  In view of t h i s l i m i -  t a t i o n , the descriptive analysis w i l l inevitably be based on the writer's I d i o l e c t which i s representative of the c u l t l 18 vated speech i n the area.'  However, i n order to allow f o r  the inherent d i v e r s i t y of d i f f e r e n t speakers, and also to f o r e s t a l l accusations of being prescriptive rather than descriptive, the statements and examples i n t h i s study w i l l , ' 18 Since the writer i s the investigator-informant, facts about her i d i o l e c t might be mentioned here f o r the sake of the reader.' She was born to the La Unlon-Pangasinan variety of Ilokano, which i s her home d i a l e c t ; grew up and attended elementary and high schools i n Bayombong, Nueva Vlzcaya where she learned the Gadang language; and, taught f o r ten years i n the towns where Gadang and Isinay are the native languages. Besides Ilokano and Gadang, she speaks Tagalog, Pangasinan, Pampango, Isinay, English, and has a f a i r knowledge of Japanese, Spanish, and French.  12 wherever f e a s i b l e , be general enough as to admit variations of structures and systems. Languages d i f f e r i n many respects, therefore, i t i s to be expected that most of the English glosses given with the examples are not the exact semantic equivalents of the word forms c i t e d ; they only serve to i d e n t i f y or describe, not define.  1.5  D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms Used  Por the sake of brevity and conciseness, the following terms and concepts are defined and interpreted as to  19 t h e i r pertinence to t h i s study. Grammar. The term grammar i s used i n t h i s thesis i n Its modern concept: that i s , i t i s a system of rules which characterizes the native speaker-hearer's  competence (his  knowledge of his language) and performance (his actual use of the language i n concrete s i t u a t i o n s ) .  Grammar can be  s p e c i f i c a l l y defined i n terms of i t s three components, namel y , syntactic, semantic, and phonological. A phonological grammar of a given language or d i a l e c t ;  19  Based on the works by: Chomsky, op. c i t . ; Bernard Bloch, "A Set of Postulates f o r Phonemic Analysis," Language, 24:1:3-46; Charles C. Fries and Kenneth L. Pike, "Coexistent Phonemic Systems," Language; 25:29-50; Mario P e l , Glossary of L i n g u i s t i c Terminology, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1966.  13 therefore, refers  t o the system of r u l e s  characterizing  t h e n a t i v e s p e a k e r - h e a r e r ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e phonemic o f h i s l a n g u a g e and h i s u s e o f t h a t  code  i n actual  code  speech  situations. Dialect.  A s u b d i v i s i o n of a language spoken  given geographical area, d i f f e r i n g official  s t a n d a r d form of the language  the l e v e l s lary,  sufficiently  o f the language  i n one  in a  from the  or a l l  (pronunciation, syntax, vocabu-  a n d i d i o m a t i c u s e o f words) t o be v i e w e d a s a  entity,  of  yet not s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t  distinct  from the o t h e r d i a l e c t s  o f t h e l a n g u a g e t o be r e g a r d e d a s a s e p a r a t e l a n g u a g e . linguistic lar  studies,  the term d i a l e c t  Is n o t used i n i t s popu-  p e j o r a t i v e sense of "vulgar, uneducated,  rustic  foreign,  individual;  i d e a l minimum phonemic s y s t e m o f  h i s personal variety  A speech sound  ldlophone ; and  o f t h e community  i n a given i d i o l e c t  Is c a l l e d  t h e phoneme, a n i d l o p h o n e m e . A c l a s s  Phonology. The  third  o r phones,  of  idiodialect.  (2)  parti-  the d e s c r i p t i o n  o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l s o f s p e e c h - t h e v o c a l  and  tional units,  an  component o f a grammar o f a  c u l a r l a n g u a g e o r d i a l e c t w h i c h d e a l s w i t h (1) and a n a l y s i s  one  language  l e c t s w i t h t h e same p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m c o n s t i t u t e s a  sounds  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e phones I n t o f u n c -  t h e phonemes, a n d  i n t u r n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of  t h e phonemes I n t o p e r m i t t e d ^ s e q u e n c e s is  or  speech." I d i o l e c t . The  system.  In  or patterns.  the province of P h o n e t i c s , the second,  Phonemics.  The  first  Ik  The productive forms, e t i c and emic. are used quite extensively i n t h i s t h e s i s , thus: e t i c (from phonetic) to r e f e r to the non-functional  units and processes, while emic  (from phonemic), to the functional and d i s t i n c t i v e units and processes.  Some of the following terms may not be con-  ventional to professional l i n g u i s t s , but i n any case they are here Included and defined i n the sense that they are used i n t h i s study: Unit of:  Non-functional  Functional  or E t i c  or Emic  or A l l o -  phone  phoneme  allophone  tone  toneme  allotone  stress  strone  stroneme  allostrone  juncture  junctone  junctoneme allojunctone  form  morph  morpheme  allomorph  meaning  seme  sememe  alloseme  sound ton-1  /•pitch ^•intonation  Variant  Phoneme. The minimal bundle of relevant sound features c a l l e d d i s t i n c t i v e features or contrastive components d i s t i n g uishing one utterance  from another.  A phoneme i s not a sound;  i t i s a class of sounds actualized or r e a l i z e d i n a d i f f e r e n t way i n any given p o s i t i o n or environment by i t s representative the allophone. Prosodeme. A prosodeme i s an emic suprasegmental feature i n the sense that a phoneme i s an emic segmental u n i t .  15 Phonemic P a t t e r n . T h e phonemic p a t t e r n o f a consists  o f (1)  its finite  set of distinctive  c o n t r a s t i v e components u s e d t o i d e n t i f y finite  s e t o f phonemes, a n d (3)  language  features or  i t s phonemes, (2)  its finite  s e t of rules f o r  g r o u p i n g t h e phonemes i n t o s e q u e n c e s .  The s e t o f r u l e s ,  the a r b i t r a r y s t r u c t u r a l arrangements,  which a language  es o n i t s phonemes makes l t d i s t i n c t  its  from o t h e r  i . e. impos-  languages.  T h u s , I l o k a n o a n d E n g l i s h s h a r e t h e phonemes, /m, p , s , t / , b u t due t o t h e d i s t i n c t  phonemic p a t t e r n o f e i t h e r  language,  t h e s e phonemes f u n c t i o n a n d a r e a r r a n g e d d i f f e r e n t l y In  E n g l i s h they can f u n c t i o n i n a c l u s t e r , as i n glimpsed  /glimpst/; as  i n each.  i n I l o k a n o , however, t h e y must combine w i t h  I n impusot  vowels,  / q i m p u s 6 t / 'weaned'.  Utterance. A s t r e t c h of meaningful  speech put f o r t h  b y a s i n g l e p e r s o n b e f o r e a n d a f t e r w h i c h t h e r e i s maximum silence  by t h a t p e r s o n .  A n u t t e r a n c e may be a m o n o s y l l a b i c  word o r a l o n g complex s e n t e n c e .  F o r example, t h e s i n g l e  u t t e r a n c e , Umay n g a t a d i a y u b l n g ?  / q u mSy n a t a d y a y q u b i n /  'Will the c h i l d the f o l l o w i n g  p r o b a b l y come? * becomes t h r e e u t t e r a n c e s i n  situation:  Speaker  1:  Umay n g a t a . . .  Speaker  2:  Play?  Speaker  1:  Ublng.  Segment. A f r a c t i o n o f a n u t t e r a n c e b e t w e e n a n y two Immediately  successive change-points.  that define the l i m i t s  The change-points  o f a segment a r e c h a n g e - p o i n t s i n  t  16 the a r t i c u l a t i o n organs.  na  f  taq].  Segmental  called  the  and Suprasegmental  the roof  begin  itself.  Units. Linguistic  units  c l e a r l y f o l l o w each o t h e r i n the stream of speech segmental  a series  or l i n e a r .  Those which  of s e v e r a l segmental  of a r t i c u l a t i o n  clearly  F o r example, t h e  To a v o i d  on them a r e  supraseg-  positions  t o o much v e r b o s i t y ,  phonemes a n d  t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two  while the t o n -  suprasegmental.  general discussions at least, w i l l segmental  over  o f t h e phonemes i n u b l n g /^qu-^bin/, i n t h e  sample u t t e r a n c e a b o v e , a r e s e g m e n t a l ,  ernes s u p e r p o s e d  are  extend  groupings are c a l l e d  mental, n o n l i n e a r or p r o s o d i c .  first  against  the lowered p o s i t i o n of t h e velum  end a t t h e same t i m e s a s t h e segment  which  different  I n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e segment,  p o s i t i o n o f t h e back o f t h e tongue  o f t h e mouth, a n d and  o r g a n o r o f two  T h u s , [ n ] i s a segment i n t h e u t t e r a n c e Umay n g a t a  [ q U mal raised  of a speech  t h e t e r m phoneme, i n be t a k e n t o r e f e r  suprasegmental  prosodemes.  to both  Distinc-  a r e o n l y made where s p e c i f i c a l l y  neces-  sary.  1.6  The  20 Theoretical  Framework  p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g the present study  20 B a s e d on t h e v i e w s o f s e v e r a l l i n g u i s t s . For d e t a i l s , s e e : Noam Chomsky, o n . c i t . ; M o r r i s H a l l e , The S o u n d P a t t e r n  17 i s contained i n certain assumptions about the nature of l i n g u i s t i c structure and l i n g u i s t i c pattern.  These assump-  tions are stated i n terms of formal conditions which the phonological analyses and descriptions must s a t i s f y . (1)  In phonology, speech events are represented as  sequences of segments and as interlocking suprasegments. (2)  Every segment or suprasegment can be uniqaely  i d e n t i f i e d as a phoneme i n the language by a feature ( a r t i culatory, auditory, or acoustic), or a combination of f e a t ures, of sound known as d i s t i n c t i v e features or contrastive components. (3)  A borrowed sound i s considered assimilated  into the native phonemic system when the loan i s i n common use by native speakers of the language. (4)  Phonology i s non-autonomous.  Some pnonetic  processes depend on syntactic and morphological structures f o r t h e i r interpretation. (5)  Any one language code has a phonemic pattern  which i s analyzable and stateable.  of Russian. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1959, PP. 20-41; R. Jakobson, C. G. M. Pant, and M. Halle, Preliminaries to Speech Analysis. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1965, pp. 1-15; Bernard Bloch, op. c l t . . Kenneth L. Pike, •Grammatical Prerequisites to Phonemic Analysis,' Language. 3:3:155-172; C. C. Pries and K. L. Pike, op_. c i t . et passim. :  18  1£7  Methodology  Linguists differ  and  Procedure  c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m one a n o t h e r i n  t h e i r methods o f s t u d y i n g a l a n g u a g e . units,  l e v e l s , and d i r e c t i o n o f a n a l y s i s a n d  s c h o o l of thought advocates  The  segments) and The tion will t h e raw  be  t h e n t o wholes  task w i l l  phonology  supra-  rules). classifica-  of Ilokano.  t o d e s c r i b e how  o f sound  be t o i d e n t i f y  Given  simply i n a r t i c u l a t o r y  a c o u s t i c parameters p i t c h and  The  dominate i n t h i s  r e a s o n t h a t many a s p e c t s o f s p e e c h terms  o f sound  intonation w i l l ,  segments o r phones  the r e c u r r i n g speech  they are produced.  culatory phonetics w i l l  principles  study f o r the  the v a r i a n t  ditions)  etic units  functional units,  A f t e r t h e emic u n i t s  of  length,  arti-  simple  than i n a c o u s t i c terms.  s u c h as s t r e s s ,  easily The  juncture,  however, be c o n s i d e r e d .  into invariant  involves  of the d i a l e c t  l i s h e d , g e n e r a l statements about  classify-  (under c e r t a i n  t h e phonemes a n d  con-  prosodemes. have been e s t a b -  their basic  -  sounds  c a n be d e s c r i b e d more  The n e x t s t e p i s p h o n e m i z a t i o n which ing  sound.  m a t e r i a l o f speech - t h e sample s e t o f m e a n i n g f u l  the f i r s t  and  or  and  p r o c e d u r e o f s e g m e n t a t i o n and  employed i n t h i s  one  to sentence,  (segments  (generalizations  u t t e r a n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d as s t r i n g s  and  description,  t o b o t h methods: i t p r o -  (utterances) to parts  taxonomic  linguistic  e., f r o m s e n t e n c e t o  present study i s oriented  from wholes  of  p r o c e e d i n g from sound  w h i l e a n o t h e r moves conversely,'• i .  ceeds  I n terms  patterns or  19 regularities The  of co-occurrence r e l a t i o n s are  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w i l l be  stated  i n the  formulated.  form of  1  phonolo-  g i c a l rules.' I n sum, in this  study.' (a)  the  t h e a n a l y t i c - s y n t h e t i c method w i l l steps  a r e as  d e s c r i b i n g the  each r e c u r r e n t (b)  (c)  data) i n t o  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  i n t o the  "ernes" o f  the  production  of  Stating generalities -  r u l e s - about the  (b) and  Classifying  Ilokano d i a l e c t ;  patterns  of  emic  d e s c r i p t i v e procedure i n a l l the  particularly  etic  unit;  Generalization:  phonological The  (the phonetic  Segmenting  P h o n e m i z a t l o n o r Phonemic A n a l y s i s :  etic units  employed  follows:  Segmentation or Phonetic A n a l y s i s :  sample I l o k a n o u t t e r a n c e s  u n i t s / and  the  The  be  ( c ) , employs t h e  the  combinability.  three  trimodal  and/  steps;  theory  of  analysis/  Unit a  which i s d i s c u s s e d  at  length  Contrast Variation Distribution  i n Sec/  4.23  of t h i s  thesis.  Chapter 2 METHODOLOGICAL PRELIMINARIES Certain r e f e r e n t i a l frames which are basic to the understanding of the detailed phonetic and phonemic analyses and descriptions of Ilokano require discussion i n this chapter.  These include (1) the organs of speech, (2) the types  of speech sounds and the ways i n which they are c l a s s i f i e d and described; (3) the s y l l a b l e , (4-) t r a n s c r i p t i o n signs and symbols, and (5) the phonetic data. 2.1  The Organs o f Speech  The primacy of a r t i c u l a t o r y phonetics i n this study of Ilokano speech sounds supposes an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the organs of the body d i r e c t l y involved i n phonatlon, the so-called "organs of speech." Generally, speech sounds are produced with the outgoing breath stream.  The perceived differences i n speech  sounds while one i s speaking are the r e s u l t and correlate of the control and modification of the outgoing lung a i r In various ways at one or more points In the vocal t r a c t . The speech organs which control and modify the egressive breath stream are either movable or stationary. The movable parts, c a l l e d a r t i c u l a t o r s , include the l i p s , tongue, velum, uvula, vocal bands, and of course the lower jaw.  A r t i c u l a t i o n s involving the tongue can be s p e c i f i c a l -  21 ly  described  blade/ the or  i n terms  front/  teeth, soft  back,  its  s u b d i v i s i o n s / namely,  and r o o t .  alveolar  palate/  of  ridge  and  the  The s t a t i o n a r y  o r gum r i d g e /  back w a l l  on the  next  page shows  as  four  resonance chambers:  the  the  pharynx,  vocal  bands  2  »  and is  order  ments  to  these a r t i c u l a t o r y  larynx.  lowest  a  oral  it  analyze  of  considered  velum  pharynx.  Fig. 2  structures  as  well  cavity, the  articulation.'  For the  symbolize the  production.  mere a b s t r a c t i o n s  i n which each purpose  into discrete  from such q u a n t i z a t i o n as  palate/  Sounds  segmented  and  include  cavity/ nasal  continuum o f sounds  may b e  parts  The l a r y n x c o n t a i n i n g  place  of Speech  involved i n its  resulting  of  is  of the  imperceptibly into another.  description/ in  the  Types  2  Speech merges  the  hard  tip/  are; of  the  of  elements  articulatory  The sound  unit  move-  segments  therefore/  to  be  physical  phenomenon  is  segmented  speech; The stream  of speech  of  Ilokano  to  be  21 and  classified into (1)  lated  Contolds,  w i t h complete  ing a i r  stream  21  two m a i n  is  types:  those speech  stop  or audible  obstructed  at  one  sounds  which are  friction. o r more  The  points  articuoutgoin  the  d>  The terms v o c o i d and c o n t o i d used i n r e c e n t p h o n e t i c l i t e r a t u r e t o d e s i g n a t e the p h o n e t i c types as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the vowel-consonant phonemic categories, a r e due p r i m a r i l y t o K e n n e t h L . P i k e . See h i s Phonemics: A. T e c h n i q u e f o r R e d u c i n g l a n g u a g e s t o W r i t i n g / ' A n n A r b o r : T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s / 1 9 6 4 , p p / 131 1 4 / 2 4 .  22 F i g . 2.'  C r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e head  showing t h e organs most d i r e c t l y in t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f  O r a l C a v i t y (Mouth)  involved 2 speech-sounds.  Nasal Cavity'  Velum (Soft Palate)  Hard P a l a t e  Alveoles  (Gumridge)  pips  Tongue 1. T i p 2. B l a d e 3. F r o n t 4. Back 5. Root Trachea  R o b e r t J . Gregg, A S t u d e n t s Manual o f F r e n c h P r o n u n c i a t i o n . T o r o n t o : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada, L t d , i 9 6 0 , p. 5. (Reproduced w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r . ) 1  23 vocal t r a c t either by stopping the passage of a i r completel y or by f o r c i n g i t into narrow channels producing  audible  friction. (2)  Vocoids, sounds produced with the  continuous  stream of a i r passing through resonance chambers, - e. g., through the larynx and f i n a l l y out through the o r a l or nasal cavity - r e l a t i v e l y unimpeded and without producing audible f r i c t i o n . Intermediate contoids.  any  Vocoids function as s y l l a b l e n u c l e i . between the two types are the semi-  These are vocoids patterning as contoids.  They  are not s y l l a b i c . A sequence of two vocoids produced with a single emission of the voice i s a vocoid chain. 2?21  23  How Vocoids are Described and C l a s s i f i e d  A vocoid d e s c r i p t i o n i s based mainly on auditory judgments of sound relationships.  Since there i s no  contact of the tongue with the roof of the mouth, only the l i p shape can be described by v i s u a l or t a c t i l e means. Differences i n the degrees of tongue elevation and tongue advancement are so minute that i t i s impossible to assess them quite accurately.  I t i s not f e a s i b l e to say, f o r  instance, that a given Ilokano vocoid i s produced with the  23  The term vocoid chain i s used at the s t r i c t l y phonetic l e v e l i n t h i s study - i n p a r a l l e l terminology with vocoid and contoid. Diphthong w i l l be used to r e f e r to the same sound sequences at the phonemic l e v e l .  24 back o f t h e tongue r a i s e d t o w i t h i n 4 m i l l i m e t e r s o f t h e velum. A f i n e r d e s c r i p t i o n of vocoids reference  to the phonetic  can be a c h i e v e d by-  g r i d which l i n g u i s t s c a l l the  24 C a r d i n a l Vowel S c a l e .  I t c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of e i g h t  b a s i c vowels o f known f o r m a t i o n and a c o u s t i c  qualities,  independent o f t h e vowel sounds of any p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e . "The s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e e i g h t c a r d i n a l  vowels i s based upon  t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t no two o f them a r e so n e a r each o t h e r as  25 t o be i n c a p a b l e  o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g words."  These vowels  and t h e i r p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e shown on a t r a p e z i u m below.  F i g / ' 3.  24  The E i g h t B a s i c C a r d i n a l Vowels  A s t a n d a r d and i n v a r i a b l e s c a l e d e v i s e d by D a n i e l Jones,- a B r i t i s h l i n g u i s t / and adopted by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n . * See D a n i e l J o n e s , An O u t l i n e of E n g l i s h P h o n e t i c s , Cambridge: W. H e f f n e r and S o n s / L t d . , I960, ppT 3 1 - 3 9 .  25 T h e t r a p e z i u m may be t a k e n a s a representation left  o f t h e human mouth, w i t h t h e l i p s  and t h e pharynx t o the r i g h t .  relative  conventionalized  positions  t o the  The dots r e p r e s e n t  the  o f t h e tongue i n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e  27 vox?els. is  I n t h e c a r d i n a l v o c o i d s £ i ] and [ u ]  r a i s e d as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e  to the palate  t h e tongue without  fric-  t i o n b e i n g p r o d u c e d , a n d f o r C [ a ] , i t i s b r o u g h t as. l o w a s possible with s l i g h t three that  sounds d e f i n e  r a i s i n g a t t h e extreme back.  These  what a r e known a s t h e v o w e l l i m i t s  -  i s , i f t h e t o n g u e were r a i s e d e v e n a f r a c t i o n o f a n  i n c h h i g h e r than c [ i ] o r c£u], o r r e t r a c t e d f a r t h e r t h a n c£a]» t h e s o u n d s p r o d u c e d w o u l d be f r i c a t i v e  cCi]>[y],  Thus,  Cct3>C^] w h i c h ,  c  back  contolds.  a s i n y e t ; C [ u ] > [ w ] , a s i n wet; a n d f o r typographical  convenience, i s w r i t t e n  28 [jR]*  a  s  i n "the F r e n c h word a r b r e Close,  h a l f - c l o s e , half-open,  degrees o f tongue e l e v a t i o n the  c£i3  [aRbS]  'tree*.  a n d open r e f e r t o t h e  ( s e e F i g , 5).  S t a r t i n g from  p o s i t i o n , t h e f r o n t o f t h e tongue i s lowered  I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , The P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n . London: U n i v e r s i t y College, 1965.  25 26  of  Ibid.,  "  p . i+.  I b i d . , p , 5, this thesis.  (See v a l u e s  o f t h e vowels on p .  27  27  F o r c o n s i s t e n c y and b r e v i t y , t h e c a r d i n a l vowels w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be c a l l e d c a r d i n a l v o c o i d s , a n d w r i t t e n a s C [ i ] , C [ e ] , c[e], C [ a ] , C ( > ] C [ o ] , and c [ u ] . a  28  c[ ],  R. J . G r e g g , op,, c i t . , p .  f  52.  26  gradually at a u d i t o r i l y equidistant points the values  f o r c[e, e , a ] .  Prom t h e c[a] p o s i t i o n , t h e  tongue i s r a i s e d a l s o a t e q u i d i s t a n t p o i n t s t h e v a l u e s g i v e n t o C[o,  representing  representing  o, • u ] ,  V o c o i d s s i t u a t e d on t h e l i n e i - a o r n e a r t o i t a r e c a l l e d f r o n t v o c o i d s , and those I n advance o f i t ,  i n t h e l i n e a-u o r s l i g h t l y  t h e b a c k v o c o i d s . The t e r m c e n t r a l i n d i -  cates that the highest  p o i n t of t h e tongue i s i n the  center  o f t h e m o u t h , midway b e t w e e n f r o n t a n d b a c k . A t r i a n g u l a r area representing the r e g i o n of the c e n t r a l vocoid i s drawn s e p a r a t i n g t h e f r o n t v o c o i d s  from the back  T h e a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s a r e shown b e l o w .  F i g . 4.  The C e n t r a l V o c o i d  Triangle  types vocoids.  27 The values of the d i f f e r e n t cardinal vocoids may be i l l u s t r a t e d from d i f f e r e n t types of English i n which the vocoid types are found; [si:] c [ i ] see C[e]  day.  c[e]  29  (General)  [de:]  (Scottish)  [set]  (Northern B r i t i s h English)  Ct>]  back  [bak]  (Northern B r i t i s h English)  c[a]  half  [ha:f]  (Southern B r i t i s h English)  c[o]  hot  [hot]  (Scottish)  c[o]  coat  [ko:t]  (Scottish)  C[u]  too  [tu:]  (General)  c[a]  about  [ 3 »baUt]  (General)  Ilokano vocoid a r t i c u l a t i o n s are to be described and c l a s s i f i e d according to four c r i t e r i a , namely: (1)  tongue height - close, h a l f - c l o s e , half-open, open;  (2)  tongue advancement - front, central, back;  (3)  tenseness or laxness; and  (4)  l i p p o s i t i o n - spread, neutral, rounded. A l l Ilokano vocoids are of the o r a l type.  Therefore,  the p o s i t i o n of the velum - 1." e., raised f o r o r a l vocoids, lowered f o r nasalized vocoids - i s not d i s t i n c t i v e .  Tense-  ness and laxness are not d i s t i n c t i v e either - may be safel y ignored.  29 pp. 8-9.  International Phonetic Association, o£. c i t . ,  28  The lip-tongue p o s i t i o n a l relationship i s summed up i n the p r i n c i p l e of normal vowel opposition or b i p o l a r i t y : 1. e., the front vocoid series [ i , e, e,  a] and [ a ] of the  back series are pronounced with l i p s spread or open and pulled back, whereas i n the three other back vocoids [l>, o, u], the l i p s are rounded i n varying degrees and are pushed forward. The relationships between the features of tongue height and tongue advancement are shown as a matrix, thus:  Front Central  F i g . 5.  Vocoid Matrix  29  2,22  How Contolds are Described and C l a s s i f i e d  For the a r t i c u l a t o r y description of Ilokano  contoids,  two factors are to be considered, namely, (1) point of a r t i c u l a t i o n , and (2) manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n .  The presence  or absence of* vocal band v i b r a t i o n characterized as voiced or voiceless (breathed), respectively, iSwalso taken into account. Point of a r t i c u l a t i o n refers to the place of contact or near contact of an a r t i c u l a t o r with another a r t i c u l a t o r , or with a stationary part (Sec. 211).  The following l i n g -  u i s t i c terms are used to describe the a r t i c u l a t o r y s t r u c tures involved i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r speech function: L i n g u i s t i c Terms  Structures  Involved  B i l a b i a l (or l a b i a l )  both l i p s  Labio-dental  lower l i p , upper teeth  Dental  tongue t i p and rim, upper teeth  Alveolar  tongue blade, or t i p and blade, alveolar ridge or gum ridge  Retroflex  tongue t i p , hard palate  Palatal  tongue back, hard palate  Velar  tongue back, soft palate  Uvular  tongue back, extreme back of velum known as the uvula  Glottal  vocal bands  30  Manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n r e f e r s t o the degree of obst r u c t i o n - r a n g i n g from complete c l o s u r e t o s l i g h t  narrow-  i n g - made by the speech organs a t the p o i n t of a r t i c u l a tion.  I n terms of manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n , the Ilokano  .contoids a r e t o be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g types, enumerated  i n d e c r e a s i n g degrees of c l o s u r e : Plosive Nasal Lateral Flap Fricative Semivocoid  These c o n t o i d types a r e d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n S e c . 3 . 2 2 a l o n g w i t h the speech segments which c o n s t i t u t e them. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two dimensions of c o n t o i d a r t i c u l a t i o n can be regarded as a m a t r i x i n which the columns  r e p r e s e n t the p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n , and the  rows, the manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n .  A p a i r i n g o f the  v o i c e d (v) and breathed (b) v a r i e t i e s of the c o n t o i d s appear a t the p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n . The c o n t o i d s of I l o k a n o a r e t o be charted and desc r i b e d i n terms of the m a t r i x shown i n F i g . 6.  31 P i g . 6. Labial  Contoid  Matrix;:  Labio-  Dental  &  Dental  Alveolar  Velar  Glottal  Plosive Nasal Lateral Flap Fricative Semivocoid  2.3 The  The  S y l l a b l e : I t s F u n c t i o n and  Structure  s y l l a b l e , a p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t , i s the b a s i c  framework w i t h i n which the r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i b i l i t i e s of occurence of phones and stated.  Thus, Ilokano  as the semivowels /w/  phonemes can  be  phonemes of ambivalent s t a t u s such and  /y/ may  be c a t e g o r i z e d as e i t h e r  consonants o r vowels depending upon how  they p a t t e r n  other consonants o r vowels i n the s y l l a b l e . s i n c e Ilokano  pos-  with  Furthermore,  has a s y l l a b l e - t i m e d rhythm, a s a t i s f a c t o r y  d e s c r i p t i o n of the suprasegmental f e a t u r e of s t r e s s  can  be made w i t h r e s p e c t to the s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e of word forms. "The  s y l l a b l e , " E i n a r Haugen s t a t e s , " i s the  smallest  u n i t of r e c u r r e n t phonemic sequences" which c o n s i s t s of  32 "an i r r e d u c i b l e minimum which we may c a l l the nucleus and an optional remainder which we may c a l l margin.  Margins  i n turn may either precede or follow the nucleus... Each of the constituents of the s y l l a b l e consists of one or more phonemes, with vowels usually occupying the peak, the 30 consonants the margins." In t h i s study, the pre-nuclear margin and the postnuclear margin are - adopting the terms invented by C. F. Hockett - referred to as onset and coda, respectively. Many l i n g u i s t s speak of the nucleus as the "peak of sonority" i n the s y l l a b l e , and of the vowels - being more sonorous than consonants - as the s y l l a b l e n u c l e i . The main function of a vowel, therefore, i s s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n , and a consonant that of i n i t i a t i n g and terminating a s y l l a ble. the  For example, the s i x vowels, /a u u i o e/, represent s i x s y l l a b l e s i n the Ilokano word aggurgurlgoren /qag  gur gu r i go ren/ 'He has a fever  now.'  By Hockett's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s y l l a b l e systems, Ilokano i s of "the onset-peak type... i n that every s y l l a b l e includes both an onset and a peak; l t may or may not include 32 also a coda." This writer takes I t that the obligatory 30  Einar Haugen, "The S y l l a b l e i n L i n g u i s t i c Descript i o n , " i n Morris Halle, and others, (eds.), For Roman Jakobson; Essays. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1955» PP. 216-21?.  51  32  Charles F. Hockett, op. c i t . , p. 85. Ibid., p. 9 9 .  33  onset includes the glottal stop, / q / , because although printwise a syllable begins with an orthographic symbol representing a vowel, e. g . , a in ala 'get', phonetically, there is a glottal obstruction (symbolized by [q]) preceding the articulation of the vocoid - i . e., [qa].  This  prevocalic glottal obstruction can be perceived by slightly pressing the fingers on the "Adam's apple" while a r t i culating i , e, a, o, u, thus*, [ q i ] , [qe], [qa], [qo], [qu]. To Haugen and Hockett, the coda is optional.  The  writer, however, believes that for Ilokano i t is only the syllables i n i n i t i a l and medial positions which "may or may not Include also a coda;" in final position, the syllable ending with an orthographic symbol representing a vowel sound, e. g . , - l a in ala, is closed by a glottal stop. postulates a post-vocalic-glottal-stop  She  coda in such final  syllables, since this is clearly perceptible in ala ['qa lotqjt and comes out equally clearly when a suffix is added, e. g., i n alaen [qa ' l a qen] 'to get'.  Other examples w i l l  further illustrate the concept of the glottal-stop onset and coda, thus: al-o  / q a l qoq/  'pestle*  tal-o  /tal  q6q/  •lift'  alto  /qfil toq/  •alto'  agaltoak  /qa gal t6 qak/ ' I ' l l sing alto'  agaltoka  /qa gal td kaq/ 'You'll sing alto'  34  Although the glottal stop, / q / , is not reflected in the conventional orthography, i t is structurally relevant to the Ilokano syllable system, and w i l l be so indicated i n this study. Ilokano exhibits the following syllable structures:  cv  ubing  /gu bin/  •child*  CVG  nganga  /na njiq/  'open mouth  CCV  blusa  / b M saq/  'blouse'  GGVG  trenta  /trSn taq/  'thirty'  CVCC  komiks  /kd miks/  'comics'  cV  waya  /wa yfiq/  •spare time'  CcV  lualo  /lwfi loq/  •prayer*  cVC  wang-it  /w^n, q i t /  •head shake'  CVv  nguy-a  /nuv, qfiq/  •agony*  cVv  duyaw  /du y£w/  'yellow•  CcVv  ruay  /rway/  •abundance'  CCcV  empleado  /qem plya"' doq/ •employee'  CCcVC  nasaprian  /na sap pryfin/ •rain-sprihkled'  1  In summary, the syllable.structures (SS) of Ilokano can be briefly described using the following rules: Onset Nucleus Coda SS Rule 1: S ^  *  (C)(C)C  V  (c)(c)  SS Rule 2:  »  (c)(c)c  V  c(c)  S,  SS Rule 3*. Sdn<)  »  '(c)c  c  V  35 Where:  C =  Consonant  V = Vowel  3  33  c  = S emi c ons onant  V  =  {IV  Semivowel Syllable i n i n i t i a l or medial position Syllable i n final position Syllable, with a diphthong, in I n i t i a l , medial, or final position  2;4-  Transcription Signs and Symbols  The phonetic and phonemic transcriptions in this thesis make use of the conventional symbols of the International Phonetic Association, with some additions used by  34 many British and American phoneticians today.  It w i l l be  noted, however, that some of the signs and symbols have been modified to suit the grammar of the Ilokano dialect under study, as well as for typographical convenience.  Thus, the  33  Por the phonemic interpretations of /w/ and / y / as c or v, see Sec. 4.2511 of this thesis. 3%  International Phonetic Association, o £ . c i t . , pp. 7-14; A. C. Gimson, An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold (Publishers), L t d . , 1962, ppi: v i i - i x x James Carrell and William R. Tiffany, Phonetics: Theory and Application to Speech Improvement. New York: McGraw-Hill, I960, p. x v i i .  36 symbols, C ] » C a ] . and C°]» which have t h e q u a l i t i e s of e  c£"&],  <3C"£••].  and C [ D T | , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e used i n t h i s study s i n c e ,  i n I l o k a n o , t h e r e i s no c o n t r a s t I n v o l v e d , e i t h e r p h o n e t i c a l l y o r phonemically, between C ] and C&]; between Ca] and C* ®]. e  and between Co] and C ] « 3  Ci]  and [v]»  T  n  e  1  symbols C l ] and Cu]  stand f o r  respectively.  Segmental Symbols  Symbol  Example  Ci]  ima  C 'qi:.maq]  'hand'  Ci]  bltbit  Cblt.'bit]  'load'  Ce]  verde  C'ver.deq]  'green'  Ca]  petpet  [p8t.'pat]  'grasp'  Ca]  bado  ['ba: .doq]  'dress'  Ca]  bato  [ba.*toq]  'stone'  Co]  bo l a  C'bo:.laq]  •ball'  Cu]  buok  [bU. «qok]  'hair'  Cu]  ulo  C'qu:. l o q ]  'head'  CP]  Papag  C'pa: .pog]  'bamboo bench'  Ct]  tatang  ['ta:.tan]  'father'  M  kuko  CkU.«koq]  'fingernail'  Cb]  babal  [ba.'ba:.qlq]  'girl'  Cd]  dagidl  Cda.gl.'diq]  'those  Cs]  gaget  Cga.'get]  'diligence  Cm]  mameg  .[ma.*meg]  1  1  'oppression'  37 nanang  C 'na: .nan]  'mother*  ngangaw  Cna.*nau]  'palate'  al-al  C^al.*qal]  •panting'  Cf]  fino  ['fi:.noq]  •fine'  Cv]  votos  C'vo:.tos]  'votes'  [s]  saludsod  [sa.lUd.'sod]  •question'  Ch]  husto  [hHs.«toq]  •right'  Cfi]  kolehlo  Cko.*le:.Gyoqf)  'college'  Ci]  lalaki  [la.'la:.klq]  'boy'  Cr]  rlro  C'ri:.roq]  'confusion'  Cw]  mi  C wal]  •rattan•  Cy]  yuyem  C *yu:.yem]  •cloudy'  Cn]  ,  Suprasegmental and Other Modifying Signs and Symbols Symbol C'0  Description Phonetic stress (before the  Example daydlay Cdql.'dyal] 'that'  stressed s y l l a b l e ) /V  Phonemic stress (above the  /day dyfiy/  vowel of the stressed syllable) C*]  P a l a t a l i z a t i o n (above the contoid)  CO  Length: the sound represented  [dal.'dyal]  l n l t [ ' q l : . n l t ] 'sun'  by the preceding l e t t e r i s  ut-ot [qUt:.'qot] 'pain'  long  dakkel Cdak.'kel] «big«  Note: Consonant length i s r e a l i z e d as gemination.  38  L>]  Very high p i t c h  [3]  High p i t c h  level  level  Nakapinpintas j  [2] Normal p i t c h l e v e l  L^noka % i n 3 p l n t s ]  [1]  'It's very b e a u t i f u l ! '  Low p i t c h  2  a  level  L e v e l i n t o n a t i o n and  Ngem, [ n e m j ] 'But,...'  s h o r t pause F a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n and  Rising  I n t o n a t i o n and  Rising-falling and  C  3  intonation  beautiful?'  Ay, wen, ["^qal ' w e A £ ] 2  Agpayso? [ q a g . p a l . 2  'Is l t t r u e  l o n g pause  'soq^J]  (or...)?'  luto  [*lu: .toq]  /1H t o q /  S l a s h e s t o e n c l o s e emic transcriptions  CD  1  Brackets t o enclose e t i c transcriptions  /'/  2  •Oh, yes ( S u r e , i t i s ) . '  l o n g pause  Falling-rising and  intonation  beautiful.'  Napintas? [ n a . ' p l n . ^ t a s ^ ] 'It's  l o n g pause  143  2  'It's  l o n g pause  'pin.Has^J  Napintas. [ na.  S i n g l e d o t t o mark s y l l a b l e boundary i n e t i c  trans-  c r i p t i o n s ; r e p l a c e d by a l e t t e r space i n emic transcriptions  # # Crossed bars t o enclose morphemes  #luto# + #-ek# •cook*  *I»  'cook*  39  * / / Asterisked barred slashes  */lutoek/  [lU.'to:.qek]  'cook i t I '  to enclose hypothetical word forms ^  "becomes *  /pen pen/ > [pem 'pen] 'stack*  ^  "comes from*  */lutoek/<#luto# + #-ek#  -—^  "is rewritten as" or /n/  "is represented by" /  > [m]/  "in the context (or environment)"  ^  j Braces to enclose a set:  C .  _ ]  "Choose only the item(s) that apply each time." ( )  Parentheses: "items enclosed are optional"  [...]  "the rest of the items i n the syllable -unit"  <f> @  "native Ilokano word form" "loan word form" 2.5  ®kafe [ka.'feq]  'coffee'  Phonetic Data  This section Includes a corpus of utterances occurlng in Ilokano from which a l l the recurring speech sounds may be picked out and specified, and on which statements about the distributional relationships among the features of the sounds are based.  The corpus as a sample of the language -  more specifically, of the Ilokano dialect i n question - is admittedly restricted, i . e.,  i t is not exhaustive enough  t o i n c l u d e a l l p o s s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d e t a i l s o f each speech sound.  T h i s l i m i t a t i o n , however, i s n o t r e a s o n  enough t o c o n s i d e r t h e subsequent g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n v a l i d . The gaps i n t h e corpus w i l l be f i l l e d i n by t h e c o p i o u s examples i n t e r s p e r s e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s .  Moreover, t h e  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e t o be t a k e n t o a p p l y t o t h e d i a l e c t as a whole and n o t t o t h e corpus a l o n e .  35 T i Amlan k e n t i I n l t A g s i n s i n n u n g b a t t i amian k e n t i i n i t no a n i a k a d a kwada nga dua t i n a p i g p i g s a , i d l h u s t o nga sumungad t i maysa nga v i a h e r o nga adda naimeng nga kagay na nga k a s l a kapa t i reyna.'  N a g t u l a g da nga no a n i a kadakwada t i a g b a l l i g i nga  mangpauksob i t i v i a h e r o i t i kagay n a , i s u t i makuna nga n a p i g pigsa.  Saan a nabayag, nagpug-ay t i amian i t i n a k a p i g p i g s a ,  k e t u r a y l a nga naguy-oy t i d i l a n a .  Ngem, no kasano t i p i g s a  t i panagpug-ay n a , ad-adda pay nga i n k a y e t k e t a f i r m e t i v i a h e r o t i kagay na i t i b a g i na; k e t kamaudiianan na, s a a n nan nga i n t u l o y  t i nagpug-ay.  Nagtalna ket nagpaliiw.  "Mapauksob  n g a t a t i i n i t d a y d i a y v i a h e r o ? " s i n a l u d s o d na i t i b a g i na,r I d i kuan, l i m g a k t i i n i t . naguksob t i v i a h e r o .  Nadagaang t i a l d a w , k e t dagus a  Anansa n g a r u d , i n k a p i l i t a n nga inannugot  t i amian nga n a p i g p i g s a t i i n l t ngem i t i i s u . '  35  An I l o k a n o t r a n s l a t i o n o f "The N o r t h w i n d and t h e Sun," I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , pj>. c i t . , p. 2 0 . I t has been c o n s i d e r a b l y m o d i f i e d and augmented t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e speech sounds o c c u r i n g i n t h e I l o k a n o d i a l e c t .  41  % it  cjam'myan  The N o r t h w i n d  il a a m ' m y a n ken h  Arguing  t h e northwind  cjartnya:  if  which  viho  kacla'kwa:da  and t h e s u n  rja dwa: t i napicjpig's&cj |  o f them  just then  two t h e s t r o n g e r  approach  t h e one  traveler,  cjadda  n a ' c j i : rne-Q QO- k a g a i ' n a q j  had  warm  cloak  rja k a s ! a ' k a : p a t i  h i s t h a t i s l i k e cape o f  nacj'fcujlag dacj | r j a n o a a n ' n y a : k a d a ' k w a : det |  Vegnacj^  queen.  Agreed  they t h a t i f which  o f them  * i rja m a r j p a q u k ' s o b a i h v y a ' f i e i r o ^  2  ti  'cji'.mtj  h v s rocj r j a & v ' m a : r j a d t i m a x ' s a : r j a vyahe'.^ocjj  when rja  and t h e Sun  qag'smsinnurj'bat  no  cjjdi  1 2 , 1 k s n t i 'cjUhit  1  (jagbal'lr.gicj  the s u c c e s s f u l  t o make undress  the traveler  the  k a g a i 'nscj J c j i ' s u : ki m a w ' n e q rja napxqpicj sacj 1  cloak  aa  h i s , he t  i  1  the said  1  naba'yaql nacjpvg'cjai t i cjam'myan qiti  l o n g time  blew  the northwind  2  ket 'qu'.rai'la-, na n a j u i ' c j o i h d i : l a and  until  dangle  saqan  stronger.  Z  nacj jJ\,,  1  aifci  Not l  4  5  X  nakapigpig'sacj  very strong  I no i rjemj n o kasaVio Kasa'n  Z  t h e tongue h i s . B u t ,  1  2  i f hovj^ver  il pxg'sac| t i pctnagpugcjai'naqj c^adcjad da: pax rja the s t r e n g t h t h e b l o w i n g  qzrjkaystUdt  firm©  Cja  huddled up j  his t i  firmly  1  the t r a v e l e r  1  2  h i s and  ti  continued  the blowing.  i  2 nannaq|  sacjanVjan  rja  n o t anymore he 2  1  A  i  1  nagpugqai^  2  ^agtal'nacj k©t nacjpct'li-.  Kept s t i l l  and  *  7.  observed. 2  3  U cji:ni-t dcudyax \zya'Re.roq|  - mapacjuk'sob  "Gan make undress p r o b a b l y t h e s u n t h a t  ,2  1  'na: cji  the cloak h i s t  finally  qxrVtu:loi  that  vya'Pie . r o c j j t x kacjai  ba'gi-, na| k©t kamacj-ud'dya-. body  a l l t h e more  1  1  traveler?" 2  Z  ainalvjclsod n a : ejitx bagi r\dcj ^ cjidi'kwQ-.nl linVgak asked  he 1  to  self  h i s . Then  2  shone out  1  "•  ti 'eji:rnl|^ nadacja:cjarj *i cjal'dev| kst'dU^VS rja the s u n .  Warm  t h e day 1  naq\j|c5ob undressed i  2  ti vya'fie:r<ac|^ cjanan'sa*. t-jaVcucl | the t r a v e l e r .  (  2  and Immediately  1  Therefore,  2  1  2  c^irjkapi'livlan «]a cjman'nu:goi ti cjarn'myanl obliged  1  admitted Z  that stronger  i  the  1  the sun  northwind  1 than  he..  Chapter 3 THE SOUNDS OP SPEECH : A PHONETIC ANALYSIS Speech, i t must be re-emphasized, is a continuum of different articulations produced by the vocal organs; the division of this continuum into discrete segments and suprasegments is an abstraction, an a r t i f i c i a l process, nevertheless, a sine qua non in linguistics.  As Nadel  aptly puts i t , "If scientific insight is insight into the order of things, observation must be directed towards breaking up the continuum of data into units - units which can be manipulated or ordered i n a fashion more systematic than the ambiguous and fortuitous ordering inherent i n naive observa36  tion."  It i s , however, only the record of the speech event  that can be segmented and manipulated. This chapter is concerned with a detailed phonetic description of the raw materials of speech - the different segmental sounds and suprasegmental features - extracted from the corpus of utterances recorded in Sectiohxi2.5 of this thesis. The phonemization procedures in the next chapter w i l l reveal that not a l l of the etic units enumerated and described here w i l l ultimately prove to be separate emic units of the dialect. 36  F. S. Nadel, The Foundations of Social Anthropology. London: Cohen and West, L t d . , 1 9 5 1 . P. 7 5 .  44  Fig;  9.  1  Labial  Plosive  A Chart of Ilokano Contolds  Labio-  Dental &  Dental  Alveolar  Ct]  M  Nasal  M  M  Ca]  M  Cn]  Lateral  Ci]  Flap  Cr]  Cf]  Fricative  Glottal  Velar  [q]  Cs]  Ch]  Cs]  Ch]  Cv]  Semivocoid 1  3»12  Cy]  [w]  The Suprasegmental F e a t u r e s  Length:  Cq  1 : n  It]  C qccm. myan] Stress:  'sun' * northwind'  C'da.gUs]  'immediately  £ sU.*mu.nad]  'to"approach *  Cna.plg.plg.*saq] ' s t r o n g e r '  1  46  r  2 , 2  1  [ql.dl  Pitch, Intonation,  r  & Juncture;  2  «kwa:n  1  j_  11m.'gak t i «qi:.nltj,j  'Then the sun shone out.*  1  yma.pa.qUk.*sob na.ta t i ' q i ; . n i t d a l . d y a l vya.'ne: .roq'p ]  'Can the sun make the  t r a v e l e r take o f f h i s c l o a k ? '  3.2  THE SEGMENTS IN DETAIL  3.21  Vocoids  A l l the vocoids o f Ilokano, l i k e those o f French, a r e pure and simple, I . e., they do not have the d i p h t h o n g a l q u a l i t y of the E n g l i s h v o c o i d s .  The f o l l o w i n g a r e examples  compared i n terms of C [ i 3 : Ilokano:  blit  [bl.'qit]  ' f o r a moment*  French:  vlte  [vit]  *fast*  English:  beat  [biyt]  (Standard E n g l i s h )  V o c o i d l e n g t h and s t r e s s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d .  The  s t r e n g t h o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n m o d i f i e s the q u a n t i t y of [ i , e , a , o , u ] . In  f a c t , some l i n g u i s t s use the term, s t r e n g t h , as a portman-  t e a u form of s t r e s s p l u s l e n g t h . co-occurence,  C o n s i d e r i n g the s t r e s s - l e n g t h  a t l e a s t i n n o n - f i n a l s y l l a b l e s i n Ilokano, the  l e n g t h symbol, [ : ] ,  c  a  n  D  e  s a f e l y l e f t out i n the examples  fol-  lowing each v o c o i d d e s c r i p t i o n . The  treatment  of each Ilokano v o c o i d i n c l u d e s an a r t i -  c u l a t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n and an assessment o f q u a l i t y i n terms of the C a r d i n a l Vowel S c a l e , and examples of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l ures i n u t t e r a n c e and s y l l a b l e .  feat-  4-7 3.211 3.2111  The Front Vocoids:  [ i , I, e, a]  [i]  [ i ] is the closest of the Ilokano front vocoids. It is articulated with the front of the tongue slightlybacked and raised to a height just below the close front position of c [ i ] ; the teeth nearly in occlusion; and, with the lips spread and drawn back.  This speech sound may be  classified as a close, front, tense, rounded vocoid. The Ilokano £ i ] occurs only i n stressed syllables, 37 in a l l positions. [ i ] in i n i t i a l syllable: bllang^  [•bi.lon]  •number'  dlla  ['di.laqj  'tongue'  gita  ['gi.taqQ C  'venom'  init  ['qi.nlt]  'sun*  kilo  [•ki.loq]  •kilogram'  lipay  [•li.pal]  'a leguminous vine*  mikl  ['ml.klq]  'noodle'  nlpa  C'ni.paq]  •a species of palm'  ngina  ['ni.naq]  'price; value'  pilaw  C'pi.laU]  'blemish'  rimas  ['rl.mas]  •breadfruit'  slka  [•si.kaq]  'dysentery'  tlbung  ['ti.bUn]  •vibration'  37 A l l positions means i n i t i a l l y , medially, and finally in the utterances. The examples are arranged according to the indicated  &8 [ i ] i n medial s y l l a b l e : ibingay  [ql.'bi.nal]  'to share with'  ad iff!  [qa.'di.glq],  •post'  sagiden  [sa."gl.den]  'to  ahitan  [qa.'ni.tan]  'to shave'  pit-ingan  [plt.'qi.nan]  'to chip o f f  akikid  [qa.'ki.kld]  'narrow  u i i la  [qU.'li.laq]  'orphan'  kamiring  [ka.'mi.rln]  •nettle rash'  manipud  [ma.'ni.pUd]  'start from'  napintas  [na.'pin.tas]  'beautiful'  barikes  [ba.'ri.kes]  'belt; g i r d l e '  kusilap  [kU.'si.lap]  'pout»  batibat  [ba.*ti.bat]  'nightmare'  kawitan  [ka.'Vi.tan]  'rooster*  touch'  1  ] i n final syllable: ubing  [qU.'bin]  'child'  diding  [dl.'din]  •wall'  rugl  [rU.'giq]  'beginning*  suil  [sU.'qil]  'pry or lever*  bakl  [ba.'kiq]  'chicken coop'  nagalis  [na.ga.'lis]  *slippery*  position of occurrence of the sound i n the utterance, e. g., i f the sound i n question i s Indicated as occurring i n u t t e r ance f i n a l , the utterances are enumerated according to the alphabetical order of t h e i r f i n a l s y l l a b l e s .  49 ikumit  [ql.kU.»mit]  'to  dandani  [dan.da.*niq]  'almost*  kupin  [kU.»pin]  •fold*  tagari  [ta.ga.'rlq]  •talk, p r a t t l e *  pus i t  [pU.«sit]  •squid'  pating  [pa.'tln]  'whale*  awit  [qa.'wit]  •load'  3.2112 The  entrust*  [I]  c l o s e , f r o n t , semi-tense , v o c o i d , [ i ] ,  duced w i t h the tongue t i p n e a r e r to c e n t e r than to f r o n t , and  r a i s e d j u s t above the h a l f - c l o s e p o s i t i o n of c [ e ] ; l i p  and  tongue muscles are r e l a t i v e l y l a x compared w i t h the  ten-  sion for [ i ] . [i] [i]  occurs i n u n s t r e s s e d  in Initial  syllables i n a l l positions,  syllable:  blgat  [bl.'gat]  'morning  dildiLan  [dll.'di.lon]  •to l i c k ,  gita  [ g l .ta;q]  ' o i l y t a s t e of n u t s '  ited  [ql.'ted]  •give*  kiklt  [kl.'kit]  'ear f i n g e r '  libas  [ll.'bas]  •a s p e c i e s  mi l a t  [ml.«lat]  •grime *  pilaw  [pi.«laU]  •pool of stagnant water'  rikep  [ri,'kep]  •shutter'  slka  [si.'kaq]  'you*  tiritir  [tl.'ri.tlr]  ' t w i s t , wring*  wlngiwing  [wi.'ni.wln]  •to shake the head i n d i s s e n t *  1  lap'  of f l o w e r i n g  vine'  50 [ i ] i n medial s y l l a b l e : rabii  [ra.bl.»qiq]  agadiwara  [qa.ga.dl.»wa.raq]  rugitan  [rU.gl.'tan]  'to s o i l '  nakiro  [na.kl.'roq]  •disorderly, confusing'  aglibak  [qag.H.'bak]  •to r e f r a i n from divulging  maminsan  [ma.mln.'san]  'once•  aniniwan  [qa.nl.'ni.wani]  ' shadow •  kanginaan  [ka.nl.'na.qan]  'the most expensive'  kupinen  [kU.pl.'nen]  'to f o l d '  karison  [ka.rl.'son]  •cart pulled by an  kasinsin  [ka.sin.'sin]  •cousin'  kutingi  [kU.tl.«niq]  'the smallest of a l i t t e r *  siwlwidawld  [sl.wl.wl.*da. wld]  •night' 'diffuse fragrance'  ox'  'empty-handed *  [] i n f i n a l s y l l a b l e : tagibi  [ta.'gi.blq]  'foster c h i l d *  padl  [•pa.dlq]  •priest *  aggidigid  [qag.gl.'di.gld]  sull  ['su.qll]  'a kind of hoe*  lalaki  [la.'la.klq]  •boy,  sabali  [sa.'ba.llq]  •another  amin  ['qa.mln]  'all'  agani  [qa.'ga.nlq]  'harvester'  angin  ['qa.nln]  •wind'  'to rub against a post'  man' 1  51 palpit  [pa.»qi.plt]  'carpenter's  saririt  [sav'rl.rlt]  'sagacity'  nakusim  [na.•ku.slm]  •fastidious  kamatis  [ka.•ma.tls]  'tomato*  kawiwit  [ka.'wi.wlt]  'to  3.2113  and  above  humped t o w a r d than  of the  retracted. occurs  the the  tongue front  f o r cCe],  that  food'  clasp with  Ilokano vocoid  p o s i t i o n l o w e r and more c e n t e r e d  just  in  the  legs  [e]  Articulation tongue  vise'  and  height  of  the  the  This half-open,  i n both stressed  than  f o r c[£].  mouth,* t h e  lips  [e]  spread  front,  that  for  for  i n stressed  . ©Belo  initial  and o n l y s l i g h t l y tense  vocoid  syllables; in a l l  syllable:  C'be.loqJ  •short  @fecha  ['fet.tyaq]  'date•  ©gerra  C'ger.raq]  •war*  ©hefe  C»he.feq]  •chief  C *ken]  •and  ©kendi  C'ken.dlq]  •candy*  ©Leah  C•le.qaq]  'a g i r l * s  C'met]  •also'  C'me.dyas]  •stockings *  ken  met ©medias  is  .jaw o p e n w i d e r  positions.! Ce]  a  c[e],<  The tongue  spread,  and unstressed  calls  for  Isabelo'  1  1  name*  52 ®Nena  [ 'ne.naq]  'a g i r l ' s name*  ©pecho  ['pet.tyoq]  'chicken breast'  ©reses  ['re.ses]  •recess'  ©selyo  ['sel.lyoq]  'stamp, seal'  ©tela  C'te.laq]  •fabric'  ©verde  [*ver.deq]  •green'  wenno  ['wen.noq]  'or'  ©yerro  ['yer.roq]  'galvanized iron roofing'  [e] i n stressed medial syllable: @kobeta  [ko.'be.taq]  'toilet'  ©kandela  [kan.'de.laq]  'candle*  ©Falguera  [fal. 'ge.raq]  'a family name'  ©ahente  [qcu *nen.teq]  •agent'  ©bangkete  [barj.'ke.teq]  'banquet'  ©blslkleta  [bl.slk.'kle.taq]  ©America  [qa.'me.rl.kaq]  ©chlnelas  [ t y l . ' n e . las ]  ' s Uppers '  ©supero  [sU.'pe.roq]  'soup bowl'  ©sirena  [sl.'re.naq]  "sirenf nymph  ©kasera  [ka.'s e.r aq]  'landlord; tenant *  ©kafetera  [ka.fe.'te.raq]  ©S evero  [se.'ve.roq]  i  'bicycle' 'America'  1  'coffee pot* 'a boy's name'  [e] i n stressed final syllable: rebbeng  [reb.'ben]  'responsibility'  baddek  [bad.»dek]  'step, tread'  53 raem  [ra. •qem]  •respect'  @kaf e  [ka. •feq]  •coffee'  agek  [<la. •gek]  'kiss'  ©kahel  [ka. •fiel]  •a variety of oranges'  baket  [ba. •ket]  •old woman  ules  [<lU. •les]  'blanket'  simek  [ s i . •mek]  •utterance, conversation'  buneng  [bU.  •bolo'  tengnged  [ten .«ned]  •neck*  reppet  [rep .•pet]  •bundle'  gargaret  [gar .ga.'ret]  'belongings  pisel  [ p l . sel]  •pressure (hand)'  art em  [qar, .'tern]  'pickle'  tawen  [ta.' 'wen]  •year; age'  kuyemyem  [kU.yem.*yem]  1  r  1  cloudy  1  1  [e] i n unstressed i n i t i a l syllable: bengngat  [ben.. •nat]  •accent i n s p e a k i n g  derraas  [ d e r . •ra.qas]  'precipice  emma  [qem. •maq]  •meekness'  ftetteng  [ g e t . •ten]  •scissors'  kebba  [ k e b . 'baq]  •breathlessness•  leppas  [ l e p . •pas]  'completion'  melmel  [ m e l . •mel]  •mouthful  nengneng  [neij.  'stupid'  ngernger  [ n e r . •Her]  •snarl, growl'  1  1  54  peggad  [peg.'gad]  'danger'  rebba  [reb.'baq]  •wreckage'  seldan  [sel.'dan]  •large water j a r *  tengnga  [ten. 'jaq]  •middle, c e n t e r '  wenno  [wen. *noq]  'or'  [yeg.'yeg]  ' tremble'  [e]  i n unstressed medial s y l l a b l e : [not.ben. 'berj]  agdeppa  [qccg.dep. 'paq] 'to e x t e n d the arms s l d e w i s e  paggelgelan  [pag^gel.ge.'Ian]  kagkadked  [qag.ked.*ked]  ' t h i c k , close-woven'  i  nabenfebeng  'starch s t r a i n e r *  'to r e s i s t payment'  isaleksek  [ql.sa.lek.'sek]  dumenden  [dU.men.'den]  'to move t o a g i v e n p o i n t  paheknek  [pa.nek.'nek]  'proof  dengngepen  [ d e i j . i j e . 'pen]  'to a p p l y h o t compress'  agpessa  [ q a g . p e s . * s a q ] 'to h a t c h  iremrem  [ql.rem.'rem]  salensenan  [sd.len.se.'nan] 'to o v e r b u r d e n d n  agteddak  [ q a g . t e d . ' d a k ] 'to b u r s t a b s c e s s e s '  ayek-ek  [qa.yek.'qek]  [e]  i n unstressed f i n a l  'to s t u f f  1  1  'to submerge' 1  'audible laughter'  syllable:  plnakbet  [ p i Aiak.bet]  'a k i n d of v e g e t a b l e r e c i p e  sardeng  [ •sar.deij]  'stop'  laeng  ['la.qeri]  'only'  1  1  55 ©Cleofe  ['klyo.feq]  'a g i r l ' s name'  ©asoge  [qa.'so.geq]  •mercury'  ©ehe  ['qe.neq]  'axle'  barikes  [ba.'ri.kes]  'belt'  uleg  ['qu.leg]  »snake'  timek  ['ti.mek]  'voice'  ['si.neq]  'movie, cinema'  anges  ['qa.nes]  •breath•  ipes  [*qi.pes]  'cockroach'  bareng  ['ba.ren]  • i f perhaps'  awisen  [qa.•wi.sen]  'to  ©bote  ['bo.teq]  'bottle'  ©lyave  [•lya.veq]  'key; wrench'  [qa.'ga.wen]  'to r i n g , t o resound*  ['kal.lyeq]  'street'  ©sine  agaweng ©kalye  3.'2114  The  invite'  [a]  I l o k a n o [ a ] , t h e openest o f t h e f r o n t v o c o i d s , i s  s l i g h t l y centered.  I t i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h jaws and l i p s w i d e -  l y open, and w i t h no p a r t o f t h e tongue coming i n c o n t a c t w i t h the upper m o l a r s . T h i s open, f r o n t , l a x v o c o i d occurs i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e in a l l positions. [a] i n i n i t i a l  syllable:  agum  ['qa.gttm]  'greed,  covetousness'  banga  ['ba.iiaq]  'earthen p o t '  56 daniw  ['da.niu]  ' l y r i c poem'  galip  [ 'ga.llp]  'slice'  kayo  [«ka.yoq]  •tree*  langka  [ 'larj.kaq]  «jackfruit'  mangga  ['marj.gaq]  'mango'  nanam  ['na.nam]  •taste'  ngalug  ['na.lUg]  •purslane (Portulaca  payong  [«pa.yog]  'umbrella*  ramay  ['ra.mal]  'finger*  sangi  ['sa.nlq]  'molar tooth'  tabo  [*ta. boq]  'a kind of dipper'  vale  ['va.leq]  •credit coupon'  was ay  [•wa.sal]  'axe'  yaman  ['ya.kan]  'thanks'  i] i n medial syllable: naata  [not. 'qa.taq]  'unripe *  abaga  [qa.'ba.gaq]  'shoulders'  ladawan  [lav'da.wan]  'picture'  sagaba  [sa.'gaibaq]  •sufferings•  akaba  [qa.'ka.baq]  'wide, broad'  balayang  [ba^'la^yan]  •a variety of banana'  kamakam  [ka.'ma.kam]  'overtake'  kanawa  [ka.'na.waq]  'defense *  sungani  [sU.'na.nlq]  'contrary, oppos i t e '  lapayag  [la.'pa.yog]  •ear'  57 arasaw  [qa. 'ralsaU]  •rice washing'  lansangan  [ l a n . 'sa.nan]  'street'  kawayan  [ka.'wa.yan]  'bamboo'  bayabas  [ba.*ya.bas]  'guava'  1  a] i n f i n a l s y l l a b l e : tay-ak  [tal.'qak]  'meadow'  saba  [sa.'baq]  'banana'  adda  [qad.'daq]  •there i s , there are'  daga  [da.'gaq]  •earth, land'  saka  [s .«kaq]  •to redeem mortgaged property  galad  [ga.'lad]  'rank, a b i l i t y  raman  [ra.'man]  'taste, f l a v o r '  baknang  [bak. 'narj]  'wealth; a wealthy person'  sanga  [s .'naq]  'branch*  tinapa  [tl.na.'paq]  'smoked f i s h '  nadaras  [na.da.'ras]  'quick'  rasa  [r .*saq]  •large edible crab'  mata  [ma.'taq]  'eye'  lawag  [la.'wag]  'light'  laya  [la.'yaq]  'ginger'  3.212 3.2121  a  a  a  The Central Vocoids:  1  [©. a]  [9]  The Ilokano [d]»  a central, lax vocoid, i s a r t i c u l a t e d  with neutral l i p and tongue positions, i . e., the tongue, with  58 i t s r i m i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e upper m o l a r s , i s midway "between t h e h e i g h t f o r c[S]  and c [ e ] .  I n t h e p h o n e t i c con-  t e x t o f t h e v e l a r c o n t o i d s , [ k , g, r p , however, t h e tongue may be s l i g h t l y more r a i s e d and r e t r a c t e d , e. g., t h e m e d i a l and f i n a l s y l l a b l e s o f g e t t e n g e k [g©t.ta.*nak3 ' I c u t i t . ' G e n e r a l l y , t h e I l o k a n o schwa, [©]', i s produced w i t h t h e l e a s t e f f o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f any o f t h e v o c o i d s . t h e r e a r e some I l o k a n o speakers tive  Although,  who pronounce i t w i t h r e l a -  tenseness. The v o c o i d ,  substitutes freely for [e] i n a l l  p o s i t i o n s o n l y i n n a t i v e I l o k a n o word forms, never i n l o a n words.  38  3.2122  [] a  This normally short vocoid i s a r t i c u l a t e d with l i p s and  jaws more open t h a n t h a t f o r  that f o r [ a ] ,  and more c l o s e t h a n  A s h i f t from [ a ] t o [ a ] b r i n g s t h e r i m o f t h e  tongue i n n e a r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e upper m o l a r s ,  [ a ] may be  c l a s s i f i e d as a half-open, l a x , c e n t r a l v o c o i d . I n I l o k a n o , [ a ] occurs i n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i n a l l positions. [a] i ni n i t i a l  syllable:  al-al  [qal.'qal]  babawi  [ba.'ba.wlqj  38  'laborious breathing 'repentance  1  1  Examples o f l o a n words a r e marked @ i n Sec. of t h i s t h e s i s . ~"  3.113  59  dalayap  [da.'la.yap]  'lemon•  gandat  [gan.'dat]  'intention*  kalapaw  [ka.la.'paU]  •a hovel'  lastiko  [las.tl.'koq]  'rubber band'  mamati  [ma.'ma.tlq]  'to believe*  nalaka  [na.la.'kaq]  'cheap, easy*  nganngani  [ijan. 'na.nlq]  'almost•  papaya  [pa.'pa.yaq]  'papaya'  rangkap  [rag.'kap]  'donation'  sardam  [sar.'dam]  'evening *  tayab  [ta.'yab]  'flight'  wagwag  [wag.'wag]  •a variety of r i c e '  yantangay  [yan.'ta.gal]  'whereas *  t] i n medial syllable: aalunusen  [qa.qa.lU.'nu. sen]  ababa  [qa.ba.'baq]  'short'  adayo  [qa.da.'yoq]  •far, distant'  agama  [qa.ga.'maq]  'father and child*  dakami  [da.ka.'miq]  'we»  kulalanti  [kU.la.lan.»tiq]  manmano  [man.ma.'noq]  'few'  panateng  [pa.na.'terj]  'cold, catarrh'  sangapulo  [sa.na.'pu.loq]  sapata  [sa.pa.taq]  'oath'  karatay  [ka.ra.'tal]  'knapsack'  *can be eaten  'firefly'  'ten'  60 pasaray  [pa.sa.'ral]  'sometimes'  natalna  [ n e t . t a l . *naq]  'peaceful'  wayawaya  [wa.ya.wa.'yaq]  [a]  in final  liberty'  syllable:  baak  [ 'ba.qak]  'aged'  baribar  [ba. •ri.bar]  •crosswise'  dadag  [ 'da.dag]  • r i p e n i n g pods  adelfa  [<la. • d e l . f a q ]  'a f l o w e r i n g s h r u b '  sagad  [ ' s a .gad]  'broom *  raha  [ ' r a .naq]  •a Moro  saka  [ ' s a .kaq]  •foot'  dalan  ['da . l a n ]  ' r o a d , way*  apaman  [ q a . ' p a .man]  •as s o o n a s '  ganat  [ 'ga .nat]  'hurry*  gangat  ['ga. • n a t ]  'kindle'  kapas  [«ka,•pas]  'cotton'  nabara  [ n a . 'ha.raq]  'red-hot•  agbasa  [qag. . 'ba.saq]  •to  katawa  [ka.  kawayan  [ka.  3;'213 3.2131 The vocoid.  'freedom,  1  1  legumes'  chieftain'  read'  ta.waq]  'laughter'  wa.yan]  •bamboo'  The Back V o c o i d s :  of  [u;- U,' o ]  [u]  I l o k a n o [ u ] i s a c l o s e , back, t e n s e ,  In i t s articulation  the l i p s  rounded  a r e almost puckered;  61 the  jaws a r e p a r t e d a b o u t t h e same d e g r e e a s f o r [ i ] ; a n d  the tongue i s r a i s e d as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e p a l a t e without producing f r i c t i o n .  The q u a l i t y I s t h a t o f c [ u ] .  The I l o k a n o [ u ] o c c u r s i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i n a l l positions. [u] i n i n i t i a l bulo dulang guyod kudil lugan muging nupay  syllable:  c c  •bu.loq]  •a v a r i e t y o f bamboo  'du.lozj]  •a l o w t a b l e  [•gu.yod] [' k u . d l l ]  «pull«  •lu.gan]  'ride;  'mu.glrj]  'forehead *  •nu.pal]  •although'  c c c  sukat  [•pu.kaU] [• r u . p a q ] [• s u . k a t ]  turog  •tu.rog]  pukaw rupa  umok yuyem [u] i n m e d i a l  c  [•qu.mok] [•yu.yem]  1  1  •skin' vehicle  1  'loss' 'face' 'measurement• 'sleep' 'nest' 'overcast  (weather)'  syllable:  abungot  [qa.'bu.not]  a head  baduya  [ba.'du.yaq]  banana o r r i c e  dagudug  [dU.'gu.dUg]  northeast wind'  agkurang  [qag. 'ku.ratj]  insufficient«  kulukol  [kU.'lu.kol]  auger'  wear' fritters'  62  maldumuaum  [ma.ql .dU.'mu.dUm]  pantmot  [pa.•nu.not]  'thought'  anguyob  [<la. *nai.yob]  'blowpipe'  malapunos  [ m a . l a . ' p u . n o s ] ' t o be f l o o d e d '  murumor  [mU.'ru.mor]  'seedling'  asukar  [qa.'su.kar]  'sugar'  patupat  [pa.'tu.pat]  ' r i c e pudding wrapped  'to f a l l  prone'  i n p l a i t e d palm l e a v e s ' inaudl  [ql.na.'qu.dlq]  ayuyang  [qa.'yti.yan]  'younger s i b l i n g ' 'resort'  [u] i n f i n a l syllable: abut  [qa.'but]  'hole'  adu  [qa. duq]  •many*  gugut  [gU.'gut]  •gum ( o f t h e t e e t h ) •  parlkut  [pa.rl.*kut]  •problem,  salup  [sa.'lup]  •a measure o f c a p a c i t y  f  difficulty*  equal t o three l i t e r s • mamutmut  [ma.mUt. 'mut]  •comprehend t h o r o u g h l y  danum  [da.'num]  •water'  bang us  [ba.'nus]  'milkfish'  putput  [put.'put]  'sound o f horns  ngarud  [na.»rud]  'therefore'  isu  [ql.'suq]  'he, s h e , i t  sag-ut  [sag.'qUt]  'cotton yarn'  yubyub  [yUb.«yub]  'sound o f c o n f l a g r a t i o n *  1  (cars)'  1  63 3.2132  [u]  F o r Ilokano [u],  the tongue i s r e l a x e d from the c l o s e  p o s i t i o n of [ u ] and i s advanced from t r u e back.  There i s no  f i r m c o n t a c t made between the tongue and the upper m o l a r s . The l i p s a r e l o o s e l y rounded.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of [u] [u]  [ u ] i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t between [ i ] and [ i ] .  with  has the  q u a l i t y o f a r e l a x e d , lowered and c e n t r a l i z e d c [ u ] .  I t may  be c l a s s i f i e d as a c l o s e , back, semi-tense, rounded v o c o i d . The I l o k a n o [u]  occurs i n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i n a l l  positions. [u]  in initial  syllable:  buok  [bU. •qok]  'hair'  dukot  [dU. 'kot]  'anxiety*  gubal  Lsu. »bal]  •coarseness *  husto  [hUs .•toq]  'right,  kulot  [kU. • l o t ]  'curly  [ l U p .«poq]  'thigh'  mulumog  [mU. •lu.mog]  •gargle*  nutnot  [nUt .••not]  'thumbsucking *  ngurungor  Cgu. •ru.nor]  'cutthroat *  pungdol  [pun,. ' t o t ]  *stump of a t r e e *  rurod  [ r U . •rod]  'anger, resentment*  sulisog  [sU. •li.sog]  •temptation'  tuwato yubuyob  :  [tu. •wa.toq] [yu. •bu.yob]  correct' (hair)'  'dragonfly' 'sound of the bellows*  64 [ll] i n medial s y l l a b l e : tlmbukel  [tlm.bU.»kel]  'round'  sldunget  [sI.dU.»net]  'serious looks'  gunguna  [gUrj.gU.'naq] 'reward, gain'  llkudan  [ll.kU.'dan]  'to turn one's back to'  lulunan  [lU.lU.'nan]  'the soft part of a child's cranium'  tamudo  [ta.mU.'doq]  'index f i n g e r '  klnuna  [kl.nU.«naq]  'said'  bungunen  [bU.nU.'nen]  'to wrap up'  allpuffpog,  [qa.11.pUg.'pog] 'whirlwind'  sumaruno  [sU.ma.rU.*noq]  blsukol  [bl.sU.'kol]  'a kind of mollusk'  batulang  •[ba.tU. *la^]  'a large cage f o r enclos-  'follow'  Ing bayungubong  [ba.yU.'nu.borj]  j  chicken'  'diarrhea*  [u] i n f i n a l s y l l a b l e : libut  C'li.bUt]  •procession'  agpidut  [qag.'pi.dUt]  'to pick up'  umigup  [qU.'ml.gUp]  •ibo s i p '  irakus  [ql.'ra.kUs]  'to t i e to a tree or post*  alus  ['qa.aus]  'second hand (garment)'  imut  [ 'ql.mUt]  'avaricious, stingy'  inut  ['ql.nUt]  «a l i t t l e at a time'  pingud  ['pi.nUd]  'one-eared'  65 ipus  [•qi.pUs]  «tail»  agparut  [qag.'pa.rUt]  'to  uproot'  sumusup  [sU.'mu.sUp]  'to  suck; t o i p u f f a t a c i g a r  gutung  [ 'gu.tUrj]  'hidden r o c k s , stones•  laud  ['la.qUd]  'west'  aguvus  [qa.'gu.yUs]  •to d o f f one's  3.2133  shirt'  [o]  The Ilokano [ o ] i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h the back of the tongue r a i s e d between the h a l f - o p e n and h a l f - c l o s e  positions;  w i t h no c o n t a c t being made between the tongue and the upper molars.  I t has medium l i p rounding.  a r a i s e d C[0].  I t s q u a l i t y i s that o f  T h i s speech sound may be d e s c r i b e d as a h a l f -  open, back, semi-lax* rounded v o c o i d . In  Ilokano, the v o c o i d [ o ] (1) v a r i e s f r e e l y w i t h [ u ]  except i n l o a n word forms; (2) normally occurs i n s t r e s s e d f i n a l s y l l a b l e s ; and*  (3) occurs a l s o i n u n s t r e s s e d  final  syllables. [o] i n stressed i n i t i a l  syllable:  ©bo l a  [•bo.lccq]  'ball'  ©dose  ['do.seq]  'twelve'  ©goma  ['go.maq]  'rubber  ©kola  C'ko.laq]  •paste, g l u e '  ©lola  ['lo.laq]  'grandmother'  ©Moro  ['mo.roq]  'Moor, Mohammedan'  1  66 no  [*noq]  ' i f ; i n case that*  ©oras  ['qo.ras]  1  ©poso  ['po.soq]  •artesian w e l l '  ©rosas  ['ro.sas]  •pink'  ©solo  ['so.loq]  •alone  @tono  ['to.noq]  'tune  @votos  [ vo.tos]  1  @yoyo  [ 'yoyyoci]  'yoyo*  !  time; hour'  1  1  votes  1  [o] i n stressed medial s y l l a b l e : ©mabolo  [ma.'bo.loq]  'a species of f r u i t t  ©adobo  [qa.*do.boq]  'pickled pork*  ©Alfonso  [qal.'fon.soq] 'a boy's name*  ©pagoda  [pa.'go.daq]  'a Chinese e d i f i c e '  ©makopa  [ma.'ko.paq]  •a kind of f r u i t '  ©Dolores  [do.'lo.res]  'a g i r l ' s name'  ©kamote  [ka.'mo.teq]  'sweet potato'  ©anonas.  [qa.'no.nas]  'custard apple'  ©laoya  [la.*qo.yaq]  'stew'  ©kapote  [ka.'po.teq]  'raincoat'  ©parokia  [pa.'ro.kyaq]  'parish'  ©Tesoro  [te.'so.roq]  'a family name'  ©pastores  [pas.'to.res]  'shepherd'  ©chayote  [tya.'yo.teq]  'a kind of vegetable'  67[o] i n stressed f i n a l syllable sabot  [ s a . •bot]  •coconut  kubbb  [kUb .'boq]  •humpbacked'  angdod  [qarj .«dod]  'stench, o f f e n s i v e odor'  sumakdo  [sU.mak.'doq]  •to draw w a t e r '  gulgol  [gUl . gol]  'shampoo'  sago  [ s a . •goq]  'arrowroot'  taho  [ t a . »hoq]  'ginger a l e '  sukog  [ s U . »kog]  'mold,  littuko  [ l i t ,tU.'koq]  •rattan f r u i t *  3kolor  [ko. •lor]  'color'  tallo  [tal . loq]  'three'  isakmol  [ q l . s 3ak.'moi]  'to p u t i n t h e mouth'  ammo  [qam .'moq]  'knowledge'  manok  [ma. 'nok]  •chicken  kasano  [ka.£sa.'noq]  'how'  ngongoy  [no. •nol]  •whimpering'  dungngo  [ d u g .«noq]  •love, a f f e c t i o n '  sab-ong  [ s a b .«'qog]  •dowry'  rag-o  [ r a g . • *qoq]  •delight*  tumapog  [tU.ma.'pog]  •to jump i n t o t h e w a t e r '  dapo  [ d a . 'Poq]  •ashes•  pur ok  [pU. •rok] 1  •group; h a m l e t  diro  [ d l . roq]  •honey*  !  f  shell'  shape'  1  1  68 bugsot  [bUg.'sot]  'agony  suso  [sU.'soq]  'a k i n d o f f r e s h water  llbtong  [llb.'toij]  'pond'  bato  [ba.'toq]  'stone'  paryok  [par.'yok]  'a l a r g e f r y i n g pan'  bagyo  [bag.'gyoq]  'storm'  [o] i n unstressed f i n a l  1  syllable:  tabo  ['ta.boq]  'dipper'  bado  ['ba.doq]  'dress'  Rufo  ['ru.foq]  'a boy's name'  pugo  ['pu.goq]  'quail'  iho  ['qi.hoq]  lukbt  ['lu.kot]  'roll'  bilog  ['bi.log]  *a s m a l l b o a t '  damo  ['da.moq]  ' f i r s t time*  banor  ['ba.nor]  ' d r i e d meat'  alingo  [qa.'li.noq]  'wild boar'  ®tipo  ['ti.poq]  'type'  ©sero  ['se.roq]  'zero'  'son'  kusot  ['ku.sot]  batog  ['ba.tog]  'row*  [relfl.'yi.e.voq3  'relieve'  ['ka.yoq]  'tree'  ©relievo kayo  'sawdust'  snail'  69 3122  Vocoid Chains  A, vocoid chain was defined e a r l i e r as a s y l l a b i c consisting of a continually changing blend of one pure vocoid which i s the s y l l a b i c center, plus a semivocoid 38  which i s the nonsyllabic o f f g l i d e . In describing this type of Ilokano speech sound, two sub-types are to be distinguished: (1)  Fronting vocoid chains, those s y l l a b l e s which  have as t h e i r center one of a large choice of vocoids followed by a close-front off glide.' Thus/ the movement from s y l l a b i c to o f f g l i d e i s either forward or upward and forward, as i n [ a l ] i n way [wal] (2)  • r a t t a n j and, 1  Retracting vocoid chains, those with close-  back off glides,- i .  e./ the movement from s y l l a b i c to o f f -  g l i d e i s either backward or upward and backward, e/ g., the [au]  i n waw [wall] •thirst.*;  38  To account f o r s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s at the phonetic l e v e l of analysis i n this study, the nonsyllabic o f f g l i d e Is to be represented by the vocoid characters, [ i , I, u, u ] . The semivowels, /w/ and /y// w i l l be used to represent the o f f g l i d e s at the phonemic l e v e l / Some l i n g u i s t i c analysts indicate the nonsyllabic element by the d i a c r i t i c , [ „ ] / beneath the vocoid character, e/' g./ pay [paly s t l l l * . But since no two i n d i v i d u a l vocoids can occur i n sequence without an i n t e r v o c a l i c contoid including the g l o t t a l stop/ [q], no misinterpretation arises i f the nonsyllabic o f f g l i d e i s l e f t unmarked, and the vocoid chain i s then read o f f as a digraph or single phonetic e n t i t y / and not as a d i s s y l l a b i c form/ [•pa.qlq]. t  J  70 3.221  3.2211  The F r o n t i n g V o c o i d  Chains  [ i i ]  The [ i i ] c h a i n o f I l o k a n o "begins w i t h t h e tongue and jaw i n t h e p o s i t i o n s f o r [ i ] and g l i d e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f [l]*  t h e r e b e i n g a v e r y s l i g h t c l o s i n g movement o f t h e  l o w e r jaw. T h i s speech sound o c c u r s v e r y r a r e l y and o n l y i n i t i a l l y as t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e o f a r e d u p l i c a t i o n , t h u s : iy-iyegko  [«qll.ql.'yeg.koq] 'I'm b r i n g i n g i t '  I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h e resonance g l i d e i s i n d u c e d by t h e s e m i c o n t o i d [ y ] o f t h e r o o t morpheme, [ y e g ] ' b r i n g . '  71 3.2212  [ei]  The I l o k a n o [ e i ] r e s u l t s from a r a p i d movement upward f r o m t h e h a l f - o p e n tongue humping f o r [ e ] toward the f r o n t v o c o i d [ i ] , a l t h o u g h t h e tongue p r o b a b l y n e v e r r e a c h e s a p o i n t q u i t e as h i g h as i t does f o r [ i ] . T h i s v o c o i d c h a i n has a l o w f r e q u e n c y  o f occurence.  Immigrants from I l o c o s N o r t e s u b s t i t u t e [ e i ] f o r [ a l ] , dayta  deyta  ['dei.taq]  'that*  daytoy  deytoy  ['dei.tol]  'this*  mays a  meysa  [Ulmel.saq]  'one*  thus:  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above p h o n e t i c c o n t e x t s , [ e i ] o c c u r s o n l y I n t h e f o l l o w i n g word forms: Leyte  ['lei.teq]  'name o f a p r o v i n c e '  ©Reynaldo  ['rei.nal.doq]  'a boy's name'  ©reyna  ['rei.naq]  'queen'  tapey  [ta.'pei]  ' r i c e wine'  ©Bassey  [bccs.'sei]  'name o f a town'  ©Ghristo Eey [ k r i s . t o . ' r e i ] ' C h r i s t t h e K i n g '  3.2213  [al]  The resonance s h i f t o f [ a l ] proceeds from t h e Ilokano open-front [ a ] t o the vocoid q u a l i t y of [ i ] . g l i d e i s much more e x t e n s i v e t h a n t h a t o f [ e i ] . change from a n e u t r a l t o a l o o s e l y spread  The  The l i p s  position.  This v o c o i d c h a i n g e n e r a l l y occurs i n s t r e s s e d f i n a l syllables.  72 [al]  i n stressed f i n a l  syllable:  nam-ay  [nam.'qal]  'ease, c o m f o r t '  labay  [la.'bal]  'a m i x t u r e o f b r o t h and cooked r i c e '  biday  [bl.'dal]  *a v a r i e t y o f m i n t  [la.'kal]  ' o l d man'  balay  [ba.'lal]  'house'  umay  [qU.'mal]  'come'  Isinay  [ql.sl.'nal]  'a n a t i v e  langay  [la. nal]  'romp and f r o l i c '  Paypay  [pal.'pal]  turay  [tU.'ral]  'rule*  klssay  [kls.'sal]  'decrease'  patay  [pa.'tal]  'death'  naruay  [nar.'rwal]  'abundant'  lakay  *  3.2214 Por  !  [  a  plant'  language'  i  'fan' authority'  l ]  I l o k a n o [al]» t h e tongue g l i d e b e g i n s a t a  c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n j u s t below h a l f - o p e n l e v e l and moves I n the d i r e c t i o n o f [ i ] /  Por the i n i t i a l resonance, the l i p s  a r e shaped s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r [ a ] , b u t have a tendency t o s p r e a d f o r t h e second. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l relationship of [ a l ] with [ a l ] i s  s i m i l a r t o t h a t between [ a ] and [ a ] , i . e., [ a l ] o c c u r s i n stressed  s y l l a b l e s , and [ a l ] . e l s e w h e r e .  73 [ a l ] i n i n i t i a l position: ay-ayam  [ q a l . 'qa.yam]  ' p l a y , game'  bay-am  [b I.'qam]  •leave i t a l o n e '  dayta  [d I.'taq]  'that*  gayyem  [gal. yem]  'friend'  kaybaan  [kal.ba.*qan]  • f a i r y o f t h e mound'  lay«asan  [lal.'qa.son]  'to reduce h o r s e f e e d '  mays a  [mal.'saq]  'one'  ngay  [gai]  'an i n t e r r o g a t i v e adverb*  naynay  [nal.'nal]  'frequently'  pay-us  [ p a l . qus]  'a v a r i e t y o f r i c e '  ray-aben  [ral.'qa.ben]  •to t e a r garment by p u l l i n g '  say-open  [sal.*qu.pen]  •to  tay-ak  [tal.'qak]  'meadow *  way  [wal]  'rattan'  a  t t  !  !  smell'  [ a l ] i n medial s y l l a b l e : nakaay-ay-ay [ n a . k a . q a l . q a l •*qal] balaybay  [ba.lal. bal]  agpayso  [ q a g . p a l . 'soq] 'true *  narayray  [na.ral.'ral]  f  'woeful'  ' l a u n d r y on t h e c l o t h e s l i n e *  'bright, burning'  [al] In flnalysyllable: 'beside•  abay  ['qa.bal]  klday  ['ki.dal]  pagay  [»pa.gal]  'rice  Mabuhay  [m .'bu.Eal]  'Long l i v e J '  a  'eyebrows' (unthreshed)'  74 yakay  C'ya.kal]  •to d r i v e i n t o a h e r d  Pilay  [•pi.lal]  •lame•  ramay  ['ra.malj  'finger'  anay  ['qa.nal]  'termite  ['bi.gal]  •share'  apay  ['qa.pal]  'why*  aray  ['qa.ral]  'row,  wasay  ['wa.sal]  •axe'  patay  C'pa.tal]  •stand, support'  away  ['qa.wal]  •outskirts'  3i2215  1  1  line'  [ai]  The g l i d e of [ d l ] "begins from the c[a] p o s i t i o n and moves i n the d i r e c t i o n of the p o s i t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Ilokano  [i]. The  f r o n t i n g v o c o i d c h a i n , [ & l ] , occurs only i n the  morpheme tapey ['ta.pal] ' r i c e wine.'  I t i s pronounced [ e i ]  by some Ilokano speakers, hence, C'ta.pei],  3.2216 The  [ol]  Ilokano [ o l ] f e a t u r e s a resonance  glide  from  the h a l f - o p e n back [ o ] t o the f r o n t - v o c o i d p o s i t i o n f o r [ i ] . The  l i p s a r e open rounded f o r the f i r s t resonancej  t o n e u t r a l f o r the second.  changing  J u s t as i t s pure v o c o i d counter-  p a r t , [ o ] , i s pronounced as [ t i ] , so i s [ o l ] r e a l i z e d as [ i l l ] , by a few c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t i v e speakers.  75 [ol] has a more restricted phonetic context than the pure-vocoid [o], i . e.y l t does not normally occur i n i t i a l l y and medially.  In reduplications, the u-o  sequential pattern operates, e. g . , aguy-oy Cqq.gUI.'qoll •to dangle.  1  For some speakers, however, the i n i t i a l  element of the f i r s t chain is phonetically realized as [o], hence, [qa.gol.'qol].  This variation is quite accept-  able . [ol] i n stressed f i n a l syllable: naraboy  [na.ra.'bol]  aglusdoy  [qag.lUs.'dol] 'to droop'  tangkoy  [tag.'kol]  'a gourd-like vegetable•  agsalloy  [qag.sal. lol]  'to exhaust energy*  apjonnoy  [qa.gon.'nol]  •to moan*  langoy  [la.'gol]  •swim*  pul-oy  [pUl.'qol]  'breeze'  agsuysoy  [qag.sUT. 'sol] 'to ravel or fray'  kastoy  [kas.'tol]  f  • f r a i l (body)'  •like this'  )l] i n unstressed f i n a l syllable: baboy  [ 'ba.bol]  dalayudoy  [da.la.'yu.dol] •pulp'  guyugoy  [gU.'yu.gol]  'enticement'  sarakoy  [sa.'ra.kol]  'to buy i n gross without  •pig'  choosing' tuloy  ['tu.lol]  'continuation'  76  uyaoy  [qU.'ya.qol]  'to d a n g l e '  agsalayusoy  [ q a g . s a . l a . ' y u . s o l ] ' s a i d o f wind o r  w a t e r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h permeable m a t e r i a l s '  3.2217  [Ul]  The I l o k a n o v o c o i d  chain,[ui],  g l i d e s from a tongue  p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t used f o r [u]t  towards t h e f r o n t  p o s i t i o n f o r [i]  The l i p s  exactly opposite i t .  remain  s l i g h t l y rounded d u r i n g t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f b o t h elements of t h e c h a i n .  The Cl]  i n t h i s c h a i n i s , t h e r e f o r e , some-  what abnormal,' i . e., i t i s produced w i t h t h e tongue and l i p s both f r o n t e d . [ui]  p a r t i c i p a t e s as t h e f i r s t c h a i n i n a r e d u p l i -  c a t i o n , thus: buyboy  [bUI.«bol]  'a k i n d o f g r a s s '  nakuykoy  [na.kUI.'kol]  'scraped  naluyloy  [na.lUI.'lol]  •oily'  panuynuyan  [pa.nUI.'nu.yan] 'to condescend'to*  aguy-oy  [qa.gUI.'qol]  puypoy  [pUI.'pol]  agruyroy  [ q a g . r U I . * r o l ] • t o wear o u t •  agsuysoy  C q a g . s U I . ' s o l ] 'to r a v e l o r f r a y '  tuytoy  [tUI .,'tol]  'to  together'  dangle'  •caudal f i n o f a f i s h '  'a k i n d o f c r u e t f o r h o l d Ing winde, o i l , e t c . J  77 3.2218  [ul]  The abnormal t o n g u e - l i p c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h e o f f g l i d e resonance f o r t h e I l o k a n o c h a i n , [ u i ] , i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t described f o r [ u i ] .  Of c o u r s e , i n [ u i ] , t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e  t e n s e n e s s ; t h e tongue i s c l o s e r t o t h e p a l a t e ; and t h e l i p s a r e rounded d u r i n g t h e o n g l i d e and t h e o f f g l i d e r e s o n a n c e s . A stronger s t r e s s i s concentrated  on t h e o n g l i d e .  An i n s i g n i f i c a n t number o f n a t i v e speakers r e p l a c e [ o l ] o r [ U l ] by [ u i ] , a l t h o u g h  t h i s i s l i m i t e d t o such word  forms a s : nakapuv  [na.Jl'ka.pui]  'weak'  lruy  ['qi.rui]  'a v a r i e t y o f r i c e '  kasuy  [kcc.'sui]  1  3.222  The l e t r a c t i n g V o c o i d  cashew  Chains  78 3.2221 She The  [iu]  I l o k a n o [ i u ] i s s y m m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o [ u i ] .  s t r e s s and l e n g t h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g l i d e i s concen-  t r a t e d on the i n i t i a t i n g element, [ i ] .  The tongue and l i p  p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e o n g l i d e a r e , t h e r e f o r e , those f o r [ i ] , b u t the l i p s move t o t h e p o s i t i o n f o r [ u ] , w i t h i n - r o u n d i n g r a t h e r than puckered. [ i u ] normally occurs i n f i n a l s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , u s u a l l y as t h e second pomponent o f a r e d u p l i c a t i o n , t h u s : klwklw  [klU.'kiu]  ' t a i l of a f i s h '  llwllw  [llU.'liu]  'fishing  nglwngiw  [nlU.'niu]  'upper l i p '  riwriw  [rlU.'riu]  'thousands'  slwsiw  [slU.'siu]  'sauce'  tackle'  Other c o n t e x t s which a r e n o t r e d u p l i c a t i o n s a r e the f o l l o w i n g : tlliw  [tl.'liu]  'to c a t c h '  klsslw  [kls.'siu]  'epilepsy'  tlwatiw  [tl.wct.'tiu]  'pendulum'  3.2222  [lU]  A s h i f t t o a lower v o c o i d - c h a i n q u a l i t y from t h e s y m m e t r i c a l l y opposed [ u i ] and [ i u ] produces t h e c o r r e s p o n d ing  o p p o s i t e s [ u i ] and [ i u ] . Por t h e o n g l i d e o f t h e I l o k a n o v o c o i d c h a i n ,  the tongue and l i p p o s i t i o n s a r e those f o r [ i ] .  [iu],  The tongue  79  p o s i t i o n h e l d constant,' the l i p s move t o the p o s i t i o n f o r [u]/  The s t r e s s of a r t i c u l a t i o n f a l l s on [ i ] which i s  s l i g h t l y lengthened,  1  [ i u ] occurs i n u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s / u s u a l l y but not always the f i r s t component of a r e d u p l i c a t i o n . [ I U ] i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e (see a l s o Sec.  3.2221):  glwgjwangan  [ g l U . g l . *wa.nctn]  lw-lwa  [qlU,•qi.waq]  kiwklwaren  [klU.kl.*wa,ren]  liwliwa  [lIU/11.'waq]  'consolation'  nlwnlwen  [nlU,*ni,wen]  'to squander  ngiwnglwat  [ n l U . ' n i . w a t ] 'mouths•  plwplwlren  [pIU.pl.'wi.ren] 'distortingothe  siwsiwan  [slU/'si.wan]  [IU] i n f i n a l  •making a gap*  'slices  1  ' s t i r r i n g to mix  1  lips*  'sauce*  syllable:  palliw  [pai'li/qlU]  'observation'  lllw  [•qi.liu]  •homesickness *  danlw  [•da.niu]  ' l y r i c poem*  maatiw  [mai qa.tiu]  'to be d e f e a t e d *  3.2223  1  !,  [aU]  A r t i c u l a t i o n of t h i s r e t r a c t i n g vocoid chain proceeds from the r e l a t i v e l y more s t a b l e resonance of [ a ] and g l i d e s o f f toward the c l o s e d p o s i t i o n f o r [ u ] .  Just  as i n the case o f a l l the o t h e r v o c o i d c h a i n s , the f i r s t element has c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e of a r t i c u l a t i o n /  80 [aU"3  occurs only i n stressed s y l l a b l e s , thus:  pan-aw  [pan.*qaU]  •cogon grass'  narabaw  [na.ra.*bau]  •shallow'  aldaw  [qal.'daU]  'day'  kalgaw  [kal. gaU]  'dry season'  pukkaw  [pUk.»kaU]  'shout'  ullaw  [qUl.'lalj]  'kite'  agslkmaw  [qag.slk.'malj] •to take a bait  nanawnaw  [na.naU.'nau]  'dissolved'  ngangaw  [jja.'nau]  •palate'  kalapaw  [ka.la.'pau]  'hovel'  puraw  [pU.»raU]  'white'  p i saw  [pi.«saU]  •splash'  aglataw  [qag.la.*tau]  'to f l o a t '  agsawaww  [qag.sa.*wau]  •to vent  uyaw  [qU.'yaU]  •criticism, s c o f f  3.'2224  f  (fish)'  1  [au]  The resonance s h i f t of Ilokano [aU] begins at a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n and moves i n the position f o r [u].  Por the  i n i t i a t i n g resonance the l i p s and tongue are neutral, but the l i p s are s l i g h t l y rounded f o r the o f f g l i d e [ifj. This l a x vocoid chain occurs i n unstressed s y l l a b l e s . [aU] i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e : aw-awagan  [qaU.qa.'wa.gan] ' i s c a l l i n g '  baw-ing  [baU.'qiij]  'swerve'  daw-as  [daU.'qas]  'a b r i e f stopover*  81 gawgaw  [gaU. •gaU]  •starch'  kawkaw  [kaU. •kau]  'dip f i n g e r i n w a t e r '  lawlaw  [ l a U . 'laU]  'surroundings'  nawnawen  [ n u . 'na.wen]  'to d i s s o l v e '  paw-it  [paU. • q i t ]  •parcel'  raw-akan  [ r U . 'qa.kanj  •to p u l v e r i z e '  sawsawan  [ s u . 'sa.wan]  "sauce'  tawwatawwa  CtaU.wa.'taU.waq]  a  a  a  'castor o i l plant  aU] i n f i n a l s y l l a b l e ? 1  igaaw  [ql.'ga.qaU]  ' f a i r weather'  kabaw  [«ka.b u]  'forgetful'  pudaw  [•pu.daU]  ' l i g h t complexion'  naagaw  [na.'qa.gaU]  'snatched'  pukaw  C'pu.kaU]  'loss'  ulaw  C'qu.laU]  'dizziness *  kumaw  [*ku.m u]  'deadly dragon'  panaw  ['pa.naU]  'departure*  bangaw  E'ba.naU]  •large housefly'  sapaw  ['sa.paU]  'shade, s h e l t e r '  araraw  [qa.'ra.raUj  •lamentation'  basisaw  [ba. 'sl.saU]  'bladder•  bulalayaw  [ b U . l a . ' l a . y a U ] 'rainbow'  a  a  82  3.23  Contolds  C o n t o i d s , as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , a r e a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b r e a t h s t r e a m r a n g i n g from a complete s t o p t o a s l i g h t n a r r o w i n g  which  produces a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n - a t one o r more p o i n t s i n t h e speech t r a c t as i t passes outward from t h e l u n g s .  In this  s e c t i o n * t h e I l o k a n o c o n t o i d s a r e a n a l y z e d i n ;some d e t a i l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p l a c e a t w h i c h t h e o b s t r u c t i o n i s made and how i t i s made.  This Includes v o i c i n g or lack of i t .  The sequence o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : Stops Plosives  p  b  t  d  k g  q  Continuants Nasals  m  Lateral  1  Flap  r  Fricatives  f  v  Semivocoids  w  y  3.231  n rj  s  h  n  Plosives  A complete p l o s i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s t a g e s : t h e onset o r i m p l o s i o n s t a g e , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e speech organs i n v o l v e d move c l o s e t o g e t h e r t o o b s t r u c t the outgoing lung a i r ;  t h e h o l d o r compression s t a g e ,  d u r i n g which t h e a i r i s compressed behind t h e c l o s u r e ; and* t h e r e l e a s e o r e x p l o s i o n , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e organs  83 forming air  t h e o b s t r u c t i o n p a r t r a p i d l y a l l o w i n g t h e compressed  39  t o escape a b r u p t l y . I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t I l o k a n o p l o s i v e s a r e never  a s p i r a t e d u n l i k e those o f E n g l i s h w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y a s p i r a t _ ed i n i n i t i a l  p o s i t i o n at least i n strongly stressed s y l l a b l e s .  Furthermore, a l l the p l o s i v e s a r e a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h the s o f t p a l a t e r a i s e d and t h e n a s a l r e s o n a t o r shut o f f . ' Other g e n e r a l features of the Ilokano p l o s i v e s are the f o l l o w i n g : (a)  There i s no a u d i b l e r e l e a s e p r e c e d i n g  other  p l o s i v e s , e. g., padto [ p a d . ' t o q ] 'prophesy'; u b b i n g [ q U b . ' b i g ] 'children.' ybO)  When f o l l o w e d by a homorganic n a s a l c o n t o i d ,  a p l o s i v e r e l e a s e i s n a s a l , e. g.y pudno [pUd.*noq] ' t r u e ' ; i r i k e p mo [ q l . r l . ' k e p . m o q ] (c)  'close i t . '  I n t h e sequence o f a homorganic d e n t a l [ t ] o r [ d ]  p l u s [ l ] , t h e r e l e a s e o f a i r i s l a t e r a l , i . e., one o r b o t h s i d e s o f t h e tongue a r e l o w e r e d t o a l l o w t h e a i r t o escape. Such l a t e r a l r e l e a s e o c c u r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n m a i k a t l o [mal .kat .'tloq] ' t h i r d ' £ and ^ a d l e s [ p a d . ' d i e s ] ' p r e d i c t i o n . ' (d)  B i l a b i a l , d e n t a l and v e l a r p l o s i v e s a r e o f t e n  p a l a t a l i z e d when f o l l o w e d by t h e s e m i - c o n t o i d ,  [ y ] , e. g.,  pyek [ p y e k ] ' c h i c k ' , t y a n [t'yan] 'tummy*; kyosko [k'yos.'koq] 'kiosk'; blag [byag] ' l i f e ' * daydlay [ d a l . ' d y a l ] 'that'; bagyo [ b q g . ' g y o q l  39  'storm.'  A. C. Gimson, op_. c l t . , 1  p.  1^5.  84  (e)  P o s t v o c a l i c I l o k a n o p l o s i v e s t e n d t o be gem-  m i n a t e d when f o l l o w e d by t h e a l v e o l a r sounds, [ r , l ] , i n a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , as shown I n t h e f o l l o w i n g examples: [pl]  suplad  [sUp. • l a d ]  •wooden s h o v e l '  [bl]  sublat  [sUb.' • b l a t ]  • exchange•  [pr]  apro  [q.ap.'•proq]  •bile'  [br]  sobra  [ s o b . •braq]  'extra'  [tl]  itlog  [ q i t . •tlog]  'egg'  [dl]  padles  [pad. •dies]  •prediction'  [tr]  katre  [ k a t . •treq]  'bed'  M  Pedro  [ ped.•droq]  'Peter'  Ckl]  saklot  [sak. •klot]  'laps'  [gl]  slglot  [ s l g . •glot]  'knot'  [kr]  takrot  [tcxk. • k r o t ]  'coward'  [gr]  sagrapen  [ s a g . •gra.pen] 'negative  3.^2311 B i l a b i a l P l o s i v e s  recompense'  [py b ]  Complete o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e g r e s s i v e a i r s t r e a m i s made by t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e l i p s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e r a i s i n g o f t h e velum s h u t t i n g o f f t h e n a s a l  resonator.  W h i l e t h e a i r i s t h u s b e i n g compressed b e h i n d t h e b i l a b i a l c l o s u r e V t h e v o c a l bands a r e h e l d wide a p a r t f o r [ p ] , b u t a r e made t o v i b r a t e d u r i n g t h e compression s t a g e f o r [ b ] giving i t i t s voiced quality.' L a b i a l i z a t i o n i s a s p e c i a l f e a t u r e i n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f [ p ] and [ b ] , i . e., t h e l i p p o s i t i o n i s c o n d i t i o n e d by t h a t o f t h e a d j a c e n t v o c o i d :  thus,  85  t h e r e i s a n t i c i p a t o r y l i p s p r e a d i n g f o r [ p ] and r o u n d i n g f o r [ b ] i n pabo ['pa.boq] ' t u r k e y . ' [ p ] and [ b ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : pilid  [•pi.lid]  •wheel'  pekkel  [pek.'kel]  'knead'  pala  ['pa.laq]  'shovel'  [«po,loq]  'polo s h i r t '  pulo  ['pu.loq]  'ten'  bilid  ['bi.lld]  'border o r r i m '  bekkel  [bek.'kel]  •strangle'  bala  C'ba.laq]  •bullet'  bola  [•bo.laq]  'ball'  bulo  ['bu.loq]  'a v a r i e t y o f bamboo'  )] and [ b ] i n m e d i a l p o s i t i o n sipnget  [sip.-'net]  'darkness»  reppet  [rep.'pet]  'bundle'  tapno  [tap.'noq]  •so t h a t '  kopa  ['ko.paq]  'tumbler,  tupra  [tUp.'praq]  •sputum'  agibtur  [qa.glb.'tur]  'to endure*  rebbeng  [reb.'beg]  'responsibility *  rabnisen  [rab.'ni.sen]  'to  lobo  [ 'lo.boq]  •balloon*  tubngar  [tub.»nar]  •contradiction  goblet'  snatch'  1  [p] and [ b ] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : sirlp  [•si.rlp]  'peep, peek'  ulep  ['qu.lep]  'cloud'  naatap  [na.'qa.tap]  'untamed*  narukop  [na.rU.*kop]  'easily torn'  takup  [t .'kop]  'patchwork*  sirib  ['si.rib]  •wisdom*  agdaleb  [qag.da.'leb]  •to f a l l  isarab  [ql.'sa.rab]  •to  ungngob  [qUg.'gob]  'noseless'  kalub  [ka.'lub]  •lid'  a  3/2312 D e n t a l P l o s i v e s  sear  prone* 1  [ t , d] 1  F o r t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f [ t ] and [ d ] , t h e main o b s t r u c t i o n t o t h e b r e a t h s t r e a m i s formed by a^complete c l o s u r e made between t h e t i p and r i m o f t h e tongue and t h e f r o n t and s i d e t e e t h .  D u r i n g t h e h o l d o r compression  s t a g e , t h e v o c a l bands a r e open f o r [ t ] , b u t a r e made t o v i b r a t e producing  the v o i c i n g f o r [ d ] .  J u s t l i k e t h e case f o r [ p ] and [ b ] , t h e l i p p o s i t i o n i s c o n d i t i o n e d by t h a t o f t h e a d j a c e n t  sounds, e. g.,  s p r e a d l i p s f o r [ t ] i n l t l [ q l . ' t i q ] 'the'; a n t i c i p a t o r y l i p r o u n d i n g f o r [ t ] i n t o [ t o q ] ' l a t e r ' ; and t w a l y a [*twal.*lyaq]  'towel.'  8? A sudden s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e l i n g u a - d e n t a l c l o s u r e a l l o w s t h e a i r stream t o escape w i t h f o r c e , u n l e s s i t has been b l o c k e d by a second c l o s u r e and channeled elsewhere i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e c o n t o i d f o l l o w i n g i t - i . e., b e h i n d the a l v e o l a r r i d g e as f o r [ k ] i n kudkod [kUd.'kod] • s c r a t c h * ; forward  o f t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e as f o r [ p ] I n kepkep [ k e p . ' k e p ]  •hug*; o r d i v e r t e d t h r o u g h t h e nose by t h e l o w e r i n g o f t h e s o f t p a l a t e as f o r [IJ] i n ngetnget [ ^ e t . ' r j e t ] 'gnaw*. The  d e n t a l p l o s i v e s occur i n a l l p o s i t i o n s .  [ t ] and [ d ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : timek  [*ti.mek]  'voice'  tengnga  [teg.*naq]  •middle»  tallo  [tctl.loq]  •three•  tolda  [tol.»daq]  •canvass s h e d  tuldek  [tUI.«dek]  •period  dila  C'di.laq]  ' tongue'  deppa  [dep.'paq]  'fathom'  dalan  [•da.Ion]  'path, way'  Domingo  [ d o . •mirj.goq]  •Sunday'  dulang  ['du.lag]  'low t a b l e '  1  1  88  [ t ] and [ d ] i n m e d i a l p o s i t i o n : bitla  [bit.'laq]  'speech'  ketdi  [ket.'diq]  1  patneng  [ p a t . 'nerj]  ' n a t i v e , d e n i z e n by b i r t h '  votos  ['vo.tos]  'votes'  puto  ['pu.toq]  ' r i c e pudding'  biddut  [bid.'dut]  •mistake'  beddal  [bed.«dal]  'rude person*  pad t o  [pad.'toq]  'prophesy'  boda  ['bo.daq]  •wedding  pudno  [pUd.*noq]  'true'  rather'  1  [ t ] and [ d ] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : ikit  ['qi.klt]  'aunt'  baket  [b .'ket]  • o l d woman'  igat  ['qi.gat]  'eel'  karot  [ka.'rot]  'a w i l d e d i b l e  libut  ['li.bUt]  •procession'  ifiid  [•qi.gld]  'edge, b o r d e r '  baked  [b .'ked]  'brawn'  igad  ['qi.gad]  'grater'  rukod  [rU.«kod]  'measurement  ngarud  [ r j a . 'rud]  'therefore'  a  a  1  19 3.2313  Velar Plosives  [ k , g]  A complete o b s t r u c t i o n t o t h e b r e a t h stream i s formed by a c l o s u r e made between t h e back of t h e tongue and the s o f t p a l a t e o r velum.  The l u n g a i r i s compressed b e h i n d  the v e l a r c l o s u r e , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e v o c a l bands a r e wide open f o r [ k ] , but a r e s e t i n v i b r a t i o n p r o d u c i n g t h e voicing for [g].  L a b i a l i z a t i o n f o r [ k ] and [ g ] i s c o n d i t i o n e d  by t h a t of a d j a c e n t sounds, i . e l , t h e r e i s a n t i c i p a t o r y l i p r o u n d i n g f o r t h e p l o s i v e s b e f o r e back v o c o i d s and t h e s e m i c o n t o i d [ w ] , e. g., kukwa ['ku.kwaq] 'one's b e l o n g i n g s ' ; and a n t i c i p a t o r y l i p s p r e a d i n g f o r t h e p l o s i v e s b e f o r e f r o n t vocoids,  e. g., g i g i r [ ' g l . g l r l  'apprehension.'  Advancement o r r e t r a c t i o n of t h e l i n g u a - v e l a r i s i n d u c e d by t h e a d j a c e n t v o c o i d s . f r o n t vocoids*  closure  Thus, b e f o r e o r a f t e r  t h e [ k , g ] c l o s u r e s a r e n e a r p a l a t a l , whereas  i n t h e c o n t e x t o f back v o c o i d s , i s correspondingly  retracted.  e s p e c i a l l y [ u ] , the  contact  The compressed l u n g a i r i s  r e l e a s e d w i t h f o r c e upon t h e sudden s e p a r a t i o n of t h e l i n g u a v e l a r c l o s u r e , otherwise the r e l e a s e Is n a s a l , p a l a t a l or lateral. Ilokano  v e l a r p l o s i v e s occur i n a l l p o s i t i o n s :  [ k ] and [ g ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : klta  [«ki.t q]  'look'  kebba  [keb.'baq]  'convulsive r e s p i r a t i o n '  karit  ['ka.rlt]  'impudence'  koreo  [ko.re.'yoq]  'mail'  kura  ['ku.raq]  'clergy'  a  Rita  C'gi.tccq.j  'venom  gebba  [igeb.'baq]  'to burn c l a y *  garlt  ['ga.rlt]  'stripe'  Gorlo  ['gor.ryoq]  'a boy's nickname'  gura  [ 'gu.rccq.]  'hatred'  1  [k] and [g] In medial position: lklt  ['qi.klt]  'aunt'  sekka  [sek.*kaq]  'clay'  sako  ['sa.koq]  'sack'  tokwa  n*to.kwaq3  'bean cake'  ruklt  [rU.'kit3  ' t i l l the s o i l '  igld  [ qi.gld]  'edge'  segga  [seg.'gaq3  'anxiety'  sago  [scc»'goq3  'arrowroot*  toga  [ to.gaq3  'gown, t o g a '  ruglt  [rU.'git3  'dirt'  ,  f  [k3 and [g3 i n f i n a l position: irik  [ql.'rik3  'unhusked r i c e '  pusek  [pU.'sek3  'compactness'  slak  [syak3  batok  [«ba.tok3  'dive'  Taruc  ['ta.rUk3  'a f a m i l y name'  'I'  9*  arig  ['qa.rlg]  ' l i k e , as i f  pus eg  ['pu.seg]  'navel'  siag  ['syag]  'swerve'  batog  ['ba.tog]  •row o r f i l e '  Tayug  [t .*yug]  •name o f a town'  3.2314  a  Glottal Plosive  In the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the p l o s i v e * [ q ] , the breath s t r e a m i s c o m p l e t e l y o b s t r u c t e d by t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e v o c a l bands.'  The h o l d o r c o m p r e s s i o n s t a g e o f i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n  c o n s i s t s o f s i l e n c e , w h i c h i s p e r c e i v e d a u d i t o r i l y by t h e sudden s t o p o f t h e p r e c e d i n g sound o r by t h e sudden  onset  of t h e f o l l o w i n g sound. [ q ] f u n c t i o n s as a s y l l a b l e onset when t h e i n i t i a l o r t h o g r a p h i c symbol o f t h e s y l l a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a v o c o i d , e. g., aldaw  C q q l . 'daU]  'day'; rang-ay [ r a n . . ' q a l l  'progress';  and as a s y l l a b l e coda when t h e f i n a l o r t h o g r a p h i c symbol r e p r e s e n t s a v o c o i d , e. g., bado ['ba.doq] ' d r e s s * . Thus, i n c o n v e n t i o n a l o r t h o g r a p h y , sented, although ' . l i n g u i s t i c a l l y ,  [ q ] i s not repre-  i t f u n c t i o n s as e i t h e r  of the  c o n t o i d s i n t h e CVC s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n , e. g., adda [qad.daq] 'there i s ' (see a l s o S e c .  2.3).  A s i g n i f i c a n t number o f I l o k a n o speakers s u b s t i t u t e [ q ] f o r [ p , t , k ] i n s y l l a b l e final» u t t e r a n c e m e d i a l  position.  Examples: slpnget  [slp.'r^et]  >  [slq.'net]  'darkness*  lutlot  [lUt.'lot]  >  [lUq.'lot]  «mire«  bukbok  [bUk.'bok]  >  [bUq.'bok]  'wood b o r e r '  92 A few immigrants from I l o c o s N o r t e s u b s t i t u t e [ q ] f o r [ p , t , kO i n u t t e r a n c e f i n a l p o s i t i o n . P o r taep  [tou'qep]  >  met  [met]  badok  ['ba.dok] >  ">  [ta.'qeq]  'chaff  [meq]  'also'  ['ba.doq]  'my  example:  dress'  LJ i n I n i t i a l position; Hot  ['qi.lot]  'massage *  ellek  [qel."lek]  'mute w i t h  awan  [qa.'wan]  'nothing'  oras  ['qo.ras]  'time, h o u r '  urat  [qU.'rat]  'nerve*  crying*  [ q ] i n medial p o s i t i o n : pait  [pa.'qit]  'bitterness'  raem  [ra.'qem]  'respect'  saan  [ s a . 'qan]  •no'  buot  ['bu.qot]  •mold,  sag-ut  [sag.'qut]  'yarn'  mildew'  [q] i n f i n a l position: bagl  [ba.'giq]  'body'  bote  ['bo.teq]  'bottle'  sika  [sl.'kaq]  'you*  slko  ['si.koq]  'elbow*  adu  [qa.*duq]  'many'  3.232  Nasals  [mv n* n ]  I l o k a n o n a s a l c o n t o i d s a r e a r t i c u l a t e d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h e p l o s i v e s , except f o r two f e a t u r e s : (1) f o r t h e n a s a l s , t h e velum i s l o w e r e d a l l o w i n g t h e l u n g a i r t o escape t h r o u g h t h e nose; and (2)) t h e n a s a l s a r e always v o i c e d , so t h e r e i s no v o i c e - b r e a t h o p p o s i t i o n . U n l i k e those o f E n g l i s h * I l o k a n o n a s a l c o n t o i d s a r e always n o n s y l l a b i c . 3.2321  The  B i l a b i a l Nasal  [m]  speech sound [m] r e s u l t s from a complete b i l a b i a l  c l o s u r e as f o r [ p , b ] and a l o w e r i n g o f t h e velum w h i c h g i v e s the outgoing breath stream a predominantly [m] i n i n i t i a l misa met  position: ['mi.saq] [met]  •mass ( c h u r c h ) ' 'also  1  mata  [ma.'taq]  •eye  mo  [moq]  'your'  mula  ['mu.laq]  •plant  [m] i n m e d i a l  n a s a l resonance.  1  position:  rimas  [ ' r i .mas]  •breadfruit'  kemmeg  [kern.*meg]  'pounce *  raman  [ra.'man]  'taste'  lomo  ['lo.moq]  'loin'  lumut  ['lu.mUt]  •moss'  Cm] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : siim  [si.«qim]  'spy  i s em  ['qi.sem]  •smile•  uram  ['qu.rom]  • o o n f l a g r a t i on  naluom  [na.lU. qom]  •ripe•  danum  [da.'num]  •water'  3.2322  f  Dental Nasal  1  [n]  The I l o k a n o [ n ] i s r e a l i z e d w i t h a l i n g u a - d e n t a l o b s t r u c t i o n as f o r [ t , d ] and a l o w e r e d velum.  The l i p  p o s i t i o n i s c o n d i t i o n e d by t h a t o f t h e a d j a c e n t e. g., t h e l i p s a r e s l i g h t l y rounded i n no ] n o q ]  vocoids, 'if;  n e u t r a l i n na [ n a q ] ' h i s , h e r , i t s ' ; and s p r e a d i n n i [ n i q ] 'prenominal a r t i c l e (used w i t h p r o p e r names).' I n Ilokano, t h i s contoid i s normally given a dental rather t h a n an a l v e o l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n . [ n ] f r e q u e n t l y a s s i m i l a t e s to the f o l l o w i n g b i l a b i a l or v e l a r contoid,  thus:  penpen  [pen.'pen]  >  [pem.'pen]  'stacks'  banban  [bani'ban]  >  [bam'ban]  'bamboo strips'  saanman  [sa.qan.'man] >  [sa.qam.'man] •why n o t '  kenka  [ken.'kaq]  [ken.'kaq]  gingined  [ g l n . g l . ' n e d ] ~? [ g l i j . g l . ' n e d ] ' e a r t h -  >  'to y o u '  quake '  96 [n]  in initial  position:  nipa  [ 'ni.pccq]  'a s p e c i e s of swamp palm  nepnep  [nep.'nep]  'rainy days'  nak em  ['na.kem]  'idea'  Norma  ['nor.maq]  'a g i r l ' s name'  nupay  ['nu.pal]  'although'  [n]  i n medial position:  anlniwan  [qa.nl.'nl.wan]  bennek  [ben.'nek]  'a s p e c i e s of e d i b l e c l a m '  annad  [qan.'nad]  'caution'  cono  ['ko.noq]  •rice m i l l '  buntog  [bUn.'tog]  •sluggish'  [n]  i n final  'shadow'  position:  kupin  [kU.'pln]  baen  [ba.'qen]  'sneeze'  uban  ['qu.ban]  •white h a i r '  duron  [dU.'ron]  'push'  arun  [qa.'run]  'kindling material*  3.2323 Por  •fold'  Velar Nasal  t h e n a s a l c o n t o i d , L^Jt  a complete o r a l c l o s u r e  i s formed between t h e back o f the tongue and t h e s o f t p a l a t e resembling that f o r the p l o s i v e s [ k , g ] .  W i t h the tongue  and velum i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , t h e v o i c e d b r e a t h s t r e a m i s  96 emitted through t h e n a s a l c a v i t y .  L i p position i s deter-  mined by t h a t o f t h e p r e c e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g v o c o i d , i . e., s p r e a d and withdrawn l i p s , as i n nglwat [ ' n i . w a t ]  'mouth ; 1  s l i g h t l y s p r e a d , as i n t e n g n g e l [ t e g . ' g e l ] ' h o l d ' ; rounded i n ungngo [qUg.*noq] ' k i s s . ' I n I l o k a n o , t h e n a s a l c o n t o i d , Cg]»  o c c u r s p r e - and  post-vocalic i n a l l positions. [np  i nI n i t i a l position:  ngipen  ['gl.pen]  'tooth'  ngem  [ 'gem]  'but'  ngata  [ga.'taq]  * perhaps *  ngoak  [ 'no.qok]  'cry  ngudel  [gU.'del]  'dullness  of t h e water (knife)'  [r-j] i n m e d i a l p o s i t i o n : singin  ['si.gin]  'twin'  dengngep  [deg.'''nep]  'hot compress•  dangaw  ['da.gaU]  •stinkbug'  agngungot  [qag.gUt.'rjot] 'to gnaw'  dungngo  [dUrj.-'goq]  [IJ] i n f i n a l  'affection'  position:  gusing  [gU.'sig]  'harelip'  slleng  [si.'leg]  'glitter'  nanang  [ 'na.nag]  'mother'  alsong  [qal.*sog]  •mortar'  gutung  [ 'gu.tUn.]  'hidden r o c k s *  buffalo'  3.233 L a t e r a l The  Ilokano [ l ] ,  [l] :  an a l v e o l a r l a t e r a l , i s a r t i c u l a t e d  w i t h a complete v e l o - p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e s h u t t i n g o f f  the  n a s a l r e s o n a t o r * and w i t h a p a r t i a l c l o s u r e between the 3  tongue margins o r r i m and  the upper t e e t h .  W i t h the  tongue  i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , the v o i c e d b r e a t h stream i s r e l e a s e d , c a p i n g l a t e r a l l y on b o t h s s i d e s of the l i n g u a - a l v e o l a r  es-  con-  t a c t ." [ l ] i s s l i g h t l y d e v o l c e d a f t e r the v o i c e l e s s  bilabial,  a l v e o l a r , and v e l a r p l o s i v e s , f o r example: plaka  C'pla.kaq.]  'turntable  itlog  [qlt.'tlog]  'egg'  aklo  [qok.'kloq]  1  'laddie'  o  The  a c t u a l l p o i n t of c o n t a c t of the tongue f o r [ l ]  i s a n t i c i p a t e d by the p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n of the f o l -  33  lowing contoid.  Thus, [ l ] i s d e n t a l i z e d  i n paltat  [ p a l . ' t a t ] ' c a t f i s h * ; p a l a t a l i z e d i n kalye [ k q l . ' l y e q l •street'; v e l a r i z e d In talged [ta*.*ged] 'reliance.* [ l ] i n i n i t i a l position: lima  [ll.'maq]  'five*  letteg  [let.'teg]  'boil,  lasag  [la.'sag]  'flesh'  33  furuncle'  These v a r i a n t a r t i c u l a t i o n s w i l l not be marked elsewhere throughout the t h e s i s i n the p h o n e t i c n o t a t i o n s .  98  lola  ['lo.laq]  'grandmother'  lunes  [lU.«nes]  •tarnish*  [ l ] i n medial p o s i t i o n : killo  .[kll.'loq]  •crooked'  belnas  [ b e l l * *nas]  'rinse'  kalding  [kal.'dlg]  'goat'  soldado  [sol.'da.doq]  •soldier  bulsek  [bul.«sek]  'blind'  1  L] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : kudil  ['ku.dll]  •skin'  bukel  [bU.'kel]  •seed'  adal  ['qa.dal]  'learning  isakmol  [ql.'sak.mol]  'to mouth  asul  [qa.'sul]  'blue'  3/234 A l v e o l a r F l a p  [r]  The n a s a l r e s o n a t o r i s c o m p l e t e l y shut o f f by the v e l o - p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e .  The tongue t i p i s r a i s e d up  toward, b u t n o t t o u c h i n g , t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e .  The back  margins o f t h e tongue t o u c h t h e upper molars - t h i s makes a h o l l o w a t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e tongue i n t o w h i c h t h e b r e a t h stream i s c h a n n e l l e d and t h e n e m i t t e d through t h e a l v e o l l n g u a l contact.  The I l o k a n o [ r ] i s u s u a l l y produced w i t h  a s i n g l e f l a p , i . e., t h e tongue t i p taps o n l y once a g a i n s t the a l v e o l a r r i d g e , as i n p e r a [ ' p e . r q q l  'cent.'  I n the  case o f g e m i n a t i o n , however, t h e [ r ] i s produced w i t h a  99 l i n g u a l r o l l ; 1.  e., a r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n of f o u r o r more  taps by the t i p of the tongue on the a l v e o l a r r i d g e . rolling  of the [ r ] i s p e r c e p t i b l e i n p e r r e s  'lemon j u i c e  1  but not i n p e r a above.  The  [per.'res]  Other examples a r e :  kirriit  [klr.'ri.qlt]  'dried  gerret  [ger.'ret]  'slice'  karra  [kar.'raq]  ' s p i n n i n g awry of tops  torre  [ 'tor.req]  'tower*  gurrood  [gUr.'ro.qod]  'thunder'  Lip  fruit'  p o s i t i o n f o r [ r ] depends upon t h a t of the a d j a -  c e n t v o c o i d * t h u s , the l i p s a r e s p r e a d f o r the f i r s t [ r ] and t h e n rounded f o r the second i n r i r o [ ' r i . r o q ] [r] i n i n i t i a l position: rigat  ['ri.gat]  'difficulty'  regta  [reg.'taq]  'righteousness  rakit  ['ra.klt]  'raft'  rosal  [ro.'sal]  'gardenia'  rusat  ['ru.sat]  'start'  [ r ] i n medial p o s i t i o n : slrlb  ['si.rlb]  'wisdom'  verde  ['ver.deq]  •green'  korona  [ko.'ro.naq]  1  kurang  [ 'ku.rajj]  'insufficient'  crown'  'confusion.'  100 [r] i n f i n a l position: bangir  ['ba.glr]  •the o t h e r s i d e '  taer  [ta.*qer]  'elegance'  agungar  [qa.'gu.gar]  'to r e v i v e *  kasaor  [ka.'sa.qor]  'east w i n d '  kurikur  [kU.'ri.kUr]  ' earpick'  3;&35 F r i c a t i v e s  [ f ? v* s* h,  h]  F r i c a t i v e contoid articulations involve a p a r t i a l o b s t r u c t i o n made by two speech organs brought s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e t o g e t h e r f o r the o u t g o i n g b r e a t h stream t o produce audible f r i c t i o n .  The f r i c t i o n may  be v o i c e d o r b r e a t h e d .  The velum i s r a i s e d and the n a s a l r e s o n a t o r shut o f f .  3.2351 L a b i o - D e n t a l F r i c a t i v e s ;  [ f , v]  A p a r t i a l o b s t r u c t i o n t o the a i r stream i s formed between the i n n e r s u r f a c e of the l o w e r l i p and the edge of the upper t e e t h ,  ;  The  f r i c t i o n i s v o i c e l e s s or breathed f o r  [ f ] and i s v o i c e d f o r [ v ] . The a c t u a l p o i n t of l a b i o d e n t a l c o n t a c t v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n of the a d j a c e n t v o c o i d s .  Thus, t h e c o n t a c t on the  l o w e r l i p tends t o be more f r o n t e d i n veses ['ve.'ses] ' t i m e s ' t h a n i n voses ['vo.ses] ' v o i c e . ' [ f ] and [ v ] o c c u r o n l y i n l o a n words, i n i n i t i a l and m e d i a l p o s i t i o n s , never s y l l a b l e f i n a l o r word f i n a l .  101 [f]  and [v]  i n i n i t i a l position  fino  [»fi.noq]  'fine»  f eria  [*fer.ryaq]  'holiday  falda  ['fal.daq]  »skirt»  forma  ['for.maqj  •form, shape'  fundo  [»fun.doq]  •firnd'  vislta  [vl.*sl.taqj  'visitor'  verde  [*ver.deq]  'green'  vapor  [va.»por]  •boat, s h i p '  votante  [vo.*tan.teq]  •voter'  fair'  f] and [ v ]In m e d i a l p o s i t i o n : Teoflla  ['tyo.fl.laq]  'a g i r l ' s name'  Kafe  [ka.'feq]  •coffee'  Josefa  [ho.'se.faaq]  'a g i r l ' s name'  Rufo  ['ru.foq]  •a boy's name'  servisio  [ser.*vi.syoq]  'service'  S everino  [ s e . v e . ' r i . n o q ] 'a boy's name*  lavandera  [ l a . v a n . • d e . r a q ] •laundry woman*  Navotas  [na.'vo.tas]  3.2352  'name o f a town*  Dental F r i c a t i v e [ s ]  F o r the Ilokano [ s j , the upper and t h e lower t e e t h a r e i n near o c c l u s i o n . the upper s i d e t e e t h .  The s i d e margins o f the tongue touch T h i s forms a narrow groove i n the  c e n t e r o f t h e tongue i n t o which the b r e a t h stream i s chan-  102 n e l e d and f o r c e d through the d e n t a l p o i n t of near o c c l u s i o n , producing a h i s s i n g f r i c a t i v e  sound.  L i p position for [ s ]  depends upon t h a t of the a d j a c e n t v o c o i d , e. g., the l i p s a r e rounded f o r the f i r s t i n susIk [ ' s u . s l k ]  [ s ] and then spread f o r the second  'dispute.  1  t i v e c o n t o i d without a v o i c e d [s] i n i n i t i a l  [ s ] i s the o n l y Ilokano counterpart.  position:  slit  [sl.'qit]  'thorn'  sellag  [sei.'lag]  'moonlight *  sao  [scc.'qoq]  'word, u t t e r a n c e *  Soledad  [so.le.'dad]  »a g i r l * s name*  Suka  [sU.'kaq]  •vinegar*  [ s ] i n medial  position:  rissik  [rls.»sik]  •spark'  kessen  [ k e s . 'sen]  'shrinkage*  kasla  [kas.*aq]  • l i k e , same as *  kosina  [ko.'sl.nctq]  »kitchen«  kuspag  [kUs.'pag]  •arrogance'  5] I n f i n a l  position:  arbis  [qar.'fels]  •shower  anges  [ 'qa.rjes]  •breath  agas  [ 'qa.gas]  •medicine'  bulos  ['bu.los]  •astray  dalus  [da. »lus]  •cleanliness'  ;  1  1  1  frica.  103  3.2353  Glottal Fricatives  [hi- h]  I l o k a n o has bothhthe v o i c e l e s s [ h ] and t h e v o i c e d [ f i ] g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e contoids.  1  [ h ] occurs o n l y i n s y l l a b l e  i n i t i a l , prevocalic position.  I t i s produced by t h e pas-  sage o f a s t r o n g v o i c e l e s s b r e a t h stream t h r o u g h t h e open g l o t t i s - t h e opening between t h e v o c a l bands.' A c t u a l l y , t h e f r i c t i o n i s produced i n t h e o r a l c a v i t y r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e g l o t t i s , - and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g v o c o i d .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n makes f o r t h e d i f f e r -  ent p a t t e r n s o f resonance f o r [ h ] i n [ h i ] , [ h e ] , [ h a ] , [ h o ] , and [hu].* Since a l l vocoids are voiced, the v o i c e l e s s [ h ] becomes v o i c e d [ n ] i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n because i t partakes The  of the voiced q u a l i t y of the adjacent  vocoids.  p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f [ f i ] , t h e r e f o r e , seems t o be accompanied  by v o c a l band v i b r a t i o n ;  [h] i n I n i t i a l  1  position:  hlstorla  [his•»tor.ryaq]  'history'  hefe  [•he.feq]  'chief  harana  [ha.'ra.naq]  'serenade*  Jorge  ['hor.heq]  'a boy's name'  husto  [hUs.'toqc]  'right'  104 [n]  i n medial  position:  ahlt  [»qa.nlt]  kahel  •shave*  [kai'nel]  green oranges  kaha  [•ka.h'aqj  »box*  Bohol  [bo.«nol]  *name o f a p r o v i n c e *  3.236  Semivocoids  [w, y ]  Prom an a r t i c u l a t o r y s t a n d p o i n t t h e s e m i v o c o i d s / [w] and  [ y ] / d i f f e r from t h e c o n s t r i c t i v e c o n t o i d s i n t h e degree  of o r a l s t r i c t u r e present.' are  treated  I n t h i s s e c t i o n / however, they  as c o n t o i d s mainly because they f u n c t i o n and  d i s t r i b u t e as such - i / e./ as s y l l a b l e margins r a t h e r than syllable nuclei/ cipate  [w] and [ y ] i n i t i a t e s y l l a b l e s and p a r t i -  as t h e second o r t h i r d member o f a p r e v o c a l i c  contoid  cluster/ 3 ^236l k  L a b i o - v e l a r Semivocoid  In the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f [w], v o c a l bands v i b r a t e , f o r [ u ] and g l i d e s vocoid/  t h e velum i s r a i s e d , t h e  and t h e tongue assumes t h e p o s i t i o n  rapidly  Lip position  [w]  t o the p o s i t i o n  o f the f o l l o w i n g  f o r [w] depends upon t h a t o f t h e a d j a -  cent v o c o i d / e.' g.y t h e l i p s a r e s l i g h t l y rounded i n t h e f i r s t [w] and then spread i n t h e second/ i n wawek [wa. *wek] * i n s e r t a dagger i n a wound. * 1  [w] i s d e v o i c e d a f t e r [ t j and  [ k ] ^ as i n twalya [ t w a l . * l y a q ] *towel*; kwlntas [*kwin.tas] *necklace*/  105 [w] I n i n i t i a l and m e d i a l p o s i t i o n s : wlnglwlng  [wl.'ni.wln]  'shake head i n d i s s e n t '  welwel  [wel.*wel]  'slothful'  watlwat  [wa.'ti.wat]  'long d i s t a n c e '  3.2362  P a l a t a l Semivocoid  [y]  F o r t h e v o i c e d p a l a t a l s e m l v o c o i d [ y ] , t h e tongue assumes t h e p o s i t i o n f o r [ i ] and g l i d e s i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e p o s i t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g v o c o i d .  [ y ] i s d e v o i c e d when i t  follows the voiceless plosives, [ p , t , k ] , i n a contoid cluster.  B e f o r e [ y ] * [ t , d, k, g, n, n, l ] a r e p a l a t a l i z e d ,  [ y ] i n i n i j b l a l and m e d i a l p o s i t i o n s : yegyeg  [yeg.*yeg]  'tremble*  yakayak  [ya.'ka.ycck]  'sieve*  yubuyub  [yU.'bu.yUb]  *sound o f t h e b e l l o w s *  3.24  Contoid Clusters  A sequence o f two o r more c o n t o i d s w i t h o u t a n i n t e r vening vocoid or s y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n constitutes a contoid cluster.  I n t h e i n d i g e n o u s p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f I l o k a n o ,  t h e r e were no c o n t o i d c l u s t e r s a p a r t from t h e sequence o f i n i t i a l p l o s i v e s , [ p , t , k, b, d ] p l u s a s e m l v o c o i d [ w ] o r [ y ] , and t h e g e m i n a t i o n o f p l o s i v e s f o l l o w e d by [ l , r , w, y ] . [gwj ,chowjever, r e p r e s e n t s a " h o l e " o r case v i d e i n t h e system.  106; The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t : puak  [«pwak]  'caudal f i n '  tuad  ['twad]  •a l o n g f i s h n e t '  kuak  ['kwak]  'mine  buaya  ['bwa.yaq]  'crocodile *  dua  [»dwaq]  'two'  piek  ['pyek]  'chick'  tian  [ •t'yan]  'tummy'  kiad  ['kyad]  •walk w i t h abdomen p r o t r u d i n g '  blag  C'byag]  'life'  diay  C'dyal]  'that'  giak  ['gyak]  'a k i n d o f h o r n e t '  aplat  [qap.'plat]  'aphid'  apro  [qap.'proq]  'bile'  tapuak  [tap.'pwak]  'dive'  lupias  [lUp.»pyas]  'overflow'  bitla  [bit.«tlaq]  •speech, d i s c o u r s e *  pastreken  [pas.tre.»ken] •to l e t i n '  bituen  [bit.«twen]  'star'  patiem  [pat.'tyern]  'believe i t '  aklo  [qak.'kloq]  'laddie'  takrot  [tak.»krot]  'coward'  sikuan  [slk.'kwan]  'a.native s p o o l '  takiapj  [tak.'^yag]  'arm'  1  gu  10£ ablat  [qctb. « b l a t ]  •lash'  sabrak  [sab.'brak]  •discourtesy  subual  [sUb.'bwal]  •shoots,  gabion  [ g a b . ' b y on]  'grub  padles  [pad.'dies]  •prediction'  kudrep  [kUd.»drep]  'dimness'  kadua  [kad.'dwaq]  'companion,  gidiat  [ g l d . »<fyat]  'difference'  siglot  [slg.'glot]  •knot'  madigra  [ma.'dig.graq]  •to  taguab  [tag.*gwab]  'lean-to  bagvo  [bag.'gyoq]  'storm'  Thus, trated most  above,  does  old people,  following  (1)  contoid clustering, not  fit  and the  phenomena  the  other  native  resistance  in their  An intrusive vocoid  to  1  suckers•  hoe'  be  partner  scared' roof  than  the  types  phonetic it  is  illus-  habits  of  shown by  the  pronunciation of loan words:  between >  the  clusters:  plato  ['pla.toq]  [pa.'la.toq]  prinslpe  ['prin.sl.peq]  trabaho  [tra.'ba.hoq]  klase  ['kla.seq]  braso  ['bra.soq] > [ba.'ra.soqQ  Andres  [qan.«dres]>[flan.de.'res]  'plate'  > [pi.'rin.sl.peq] > [ta.ra.'ba.hoq]  > [ka.'la.seq]  'class;  'prince' 'sork' kind'  *arm' 'Andrew'  108  (2)  A p r o s t h e t i c v o c o i d i n t r o d u c e d b e f o r e the s - c l u s t e r s  o c c u r i n g i n i t i a l l y i n E n g l i s h l o a n words: ispellng  [qls.'pe.lln]  'spelling'  lsplker  [qls.'pi.ker]  'speaker'  istambay  [qls.torn.'bal]  eskeleton  [qes.'ke.le.ton]  The to  by'  'skeleton'  p r o s t h e t i c v o c o i d phenomenon may  t h e i n f l u e n c e of S p a n i s h  for  'stand  be a t t r i b u t e d  l o a n words i n the I l o k a n o l e x i c o n ,  example:  (3)  estas ion  [qes.tcc.syon]  espeslal  [qes,pe.'syal]  'special'  eskoba  [qes.'ko.baq]  'shoe b r u s h '  The  e l i s i o n of e i t h e r element i n a c o n t o i d c l u s t e r ,  as i n the f o l l o w i n g few report post  cases:  [re.'pot]  (office)  oompadre The  'stateion'  [*pos]  [kom.'pa.req]  'report' 'post' 'one's c h i l d ' s  f i r s t and t h i r d phenomena a r e d e v i a n t  r e a l i z a t i o n s t h a t can s a f e l y be Ignored  godfather' phonetic  s i n c e t h e y do  not  f o l l o w t h e s n o r m a l p a t t e r n w h i c h has become f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h ed.  And  s i n c e S p a n i s h and E n g l i s h l o a n words a r e i n common  use by a g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the n a t i v e speakers of I l o k a n o , many f o r e i g n sounds and sound p a t t e r n s have become a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the n a t i v e p h o n o l o g i c a l system.  I n cases where the a s s i -  m i l a t i o n e n t a i l e d g r o s s v i o l a t i o n of the n a t i v e p h o n e t i c h a b i t s ,  109;  p h o n e t i c compromises were o f t e n made, such a s t h e g e m i n a t i o n of t h e p l o s i v e s i n i t i a t i n g m e d i a l c l u s t e r s i n S p a n i s h  loan  words, e. g.: kopra  ['ko.praqj > [kop.'praq]  •copra  katre  ['ka.treq] >  •bed'  lakre  ['la.kreq] > ['lak.kreq]  • s e a l i n g wax'  libro  ['li.broq]  'book'  [kat.'treq]  > [llb.'broq]  1  eroplano [qe.ro.'pia.noq]>[qe.rop.'pia.noq] 'airplane' tabla  ['ta.blaq] > [tab.'blaq]  'board, s l a b '  regla  [•re.glaq] > [reg.'glaq]  'foot  ruler'  Thus, t h e r e a r e t h r e e c o n t o i d c l u s t e r t y p e s p e r m i t t e d i n t h e sound p a t t e r n o f I l o k a n o .  They a r e : 40  P r e v o c a l i c , I n i t i a l C l u s t e r s (IK) C  1 2 C  V  Prevocalic, Medial Clusters  (MK)  CV.C-^V or  cvc .c c (c )v 1  1  2  3  P o s t v o c a l i c , P i n a l C l u s t e r s (FK) -  40. Where:  v e  i°  2  I , M, P = I n i t i a l , M e d i a l , F i n a l , r e s p e c t i v e l y , K = Contoid C l u s t e r .  110 3.241  Prevocalic,- I n i t i a l Contoid C l u s t e r s  In Ilokano, prevocalic i n i t i a l clusters are l i m i t e d t o two c o n t o i d s , hence t h e p a t t e r n • IK  *  C,C~V-.  w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by f o u r p h o n e t i c P.  IK  n  >  C.  -*  k,  b, g» f  IK,  >  C-  P.  +  C  2 [1]  +  C  2 [r]  +  C  +  C  4  Urn  "  .41 rules:-  t , k,"  . ' d, D  St  f  P.  t , k,"  b, d, IK.  >  C.  S»  m, n,  2  M  f , v, _.s, h  P.  t , k,  b. d, IK,  m, n, >  C  1, r ,  J  2 [y]  f , v, • s  E x c e p t i o n : The c o n t o i d , [ q ] , a g l o t t a l s t o p , does not e n t e r i n t o c l u s t e r s of any t y p e .  Ill The  f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h e IK r u l e s : T&  1  [ p i ] plegls  [kl]  ['ple.gls]  'fold, plait'  plasa  ['pla.saq]  'plaza,  pluma  ['plu.maq]  'plume, w r i t i n g pen*  klima  ['kli.mccq]  square'  'climate*  Clemente [ k l e . ' m e n . t e q ] *a boy's name'  [bl]  [gl]  klase  ['kla.seq]  'class, kind'  kloro  ['klo.roq]  'chlorine'  blangko  ['blan.koq]  'blank'  bloke  ['bloikeq]  'block'  blusa  ['blu.saq]  'blouse'  Gllcerla [gll.'ser.ryaq] Glenda  [ 'glen.dcxq]  g l a d i o l a [glgd.'dyo.lno1  [fl]  IK  2  [pr]  *a g i r l ' s name' 'a g i r l ' s name' 'gladiola'  gloria  ['glor.ryaq]  'glory'  glu  [*gluq]  'glue'  flete  ['fle.teq]  'fare'  flan  ['flan]  'cus t a r d '  florera  [flo.'re.raq]  'flower vase'  primo  ['pri.moq]  'cousin'  presio  ['pre.syoq]  'price'  praktis  [prcck. ' t i s ]  'practice,  pronto  ['pron.toq]  'ready'  tripa  ['tri.paq]  'tripe, entrails*  trese  ['tre.seq]  'thirteen'  exercise'  112  [kr]  [br]  [dr]  [gr]  [fr]  trahe  tra.neq]  •gown  troso  tro.soq]  • l o g o f wood'  1  trumpeta [ trUm.'pe.taq]  'trumpet'  krlsls  [ kri.sls]  'crisis'  krema  [ kre.maq]  'cream•  kraker  [ kra.ker]  * cracker'  kroslng  [ kro.sln]  •crossing'  krus  [ krus]  •cross'  briliamte  b r l 1 . ' l y a n . t e q ] 'diamond'  Brenda  bren.daq]  'a g i r l ' s name'  braso  bra.soq]  •arm'  brocha  b r o t ,'t'yaq]  'painter's brush'  bruha  bru.naq]  'witch'  dril  dril]  •strong c l o t h '  drama(  dra.maq]  'drama, p l a y '  drowlng  [ dro.wln]  •drawing'  gris  [ gris]  'gray'  greko  gre.koq]  •Greek'  grado  gra.doq]  •grade *  groto  gro.toq]  'grotto•  grupo  gru.poq]  •group'  frito  fri.toq]  'fried'  f reno  fre.noq]  'brake, c o n t r o l '  franko  fran.koq]  'frank'  Fronda  fron.daq]  'a f a m i l y name'  frutas  fru.tas]  'fruit(s)»  113 puede  pwe.deq]  •can, may  pwak]  •caudal f i n , t a i l *  twal.lyaq]  •towel'  1  puak  c  [tw]  tualia  ['  [kw]  kuintas  •necklace'  kuetes  ['k w i n . t a s ] ['•kwe.tes]  kuarta  [  'kwar.taq]  •money*  buis  [  •bwis]  'tax'  buenas  [  'bwe.nas]  •good l u c k '  bua  [  'bwaq]  •betel (areca) n u t '  due t o  [  •dwe.toq]  'duet«  dua  [  'dwaq]  'two'  guantes  [  •gwan.tes]  'gloves'  guapo  [  'gwa.pbq]  •handsome'  muebles  [  'mweb.bles]  'furniture•  muelye  [  •mwel.lyeq]  'metal s p r i n g '  nueve  [  •nwe.veq]  'nine'  nuang  [  •nwan]  'water b u f f a l o '  fuera  [  •fwe.raq]  •besides'  fuersa  [  •fwer.saq]  •force, strength'  vuelo  [  'vwe.loq]  'swift motion'  vuelta  [  »vwe.l.taq]  •turn  suitik  [»swi.tlk]  'cheat'  sueldo  [  'swel.doq]  »salary  suako  [  'swa.koq]  'cigar pipe'  hues  [  •Ewes]  'judge•  Hueves  [  'nwe.ves]  'Thursday•  Juan  [  'nwan]  •John'  [bw]  [dw]  [mw]  [nw]  Cfw]  [vw]  [sw]  [hw]  'fireworks'  1  1  114 Cpy]  Cty]  C&]  Cby]  CdV]  Cmy]  Piek  [«pyek]  'chick'  pia  C'pyaq]  'health'  Pio  L pyoq]  *a boy's name'  chismis  [ * t y l s . 'mis]  'gossip'  cheke  C'Sye.keq]  'cheque'  tian  C'tyan]  •tummy'  Choleng  C•tyo.len]  'a g i r l ' s  kiet  C 'k*yet]  •crouch'  kiad  C 'Icyad] 'walk w i t h abdomen proferud:  kiosko  ['kyos.koq]  •kiosk'  bienes  C'bye.nes]  'property'  biang  ['byan]  'care, c o n c e r n '  dies  C'dyes]  'dime* t e n '  diaya  C'dya.yaq]  'offer'  Dios  [*dyos]  'God'  m l e n t r a s ['myen.tras] Mierkoles  CnV]  Ciy]  Cry]  f  nickname'  •while'  f'myer.ko.lesl  'Wednesdav'•  Nieves  ['nye.ves]  'a g i r l ' s name'  nipg  C'hyog]  'coconut'  ngiaw  C'|yau]  'meow'  lievo  C'lye.voq]  'carry'  liave  ['lya.veq]  'key'  rienda  C'ryen.daq]  'reins (horse)'  riat  C *ryat]  • s l i t on c l o t h e s  riuma  C Tyu.maq]  'rheumatism'  1  115 [fy] r-  [vy]  [sy]  3;242  f i a m b r e r a [ f y a m . 'bre.rctql •dinner  pail*  fiar  [ fyar]  •trust'  fiesta  [ «fyes.t<xq]  •feast, holiday'  Viernes  ['vyer.nes]  •Friday*  vlahe  ['vya.heq]  ' t r a v e l , voyage'  violinr  [ vyo.lIn]  'violin'  viuda  ['vyu.dccq]  •widow'  siete  ['sye.teg]  's even'  slam  [«syam]  'nine'  sludut  ['syu.dUt]  'peevishness•  f  f  P r e v o c a l i c , Medial Contoid C l u s t e r s  The m e d i a l c l u s t e r s r e f e r r e d t o a r e those sequences of two o r t h r e e c o n t o i d s o c c u r i n g i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e s y l l a b l e boundary, ( . ) . I l o k a n o has no p o s t v o c a l i c m e d i a l c l u s t e r s - i . e., o c c u r i n g b e f o r e a s y l l a b l e boundary except f o r t h e l o a n word, e k s t r a [»qeks.trctq] ' e x t r a .  1  Therefore, MK  >  - V C ( ) . 0 ^ 2 ( 0 )VX  C ^ 2 j . i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s always a pre-boundary C, w h i c h may o r may n o t be t h e f i r s t element o f a F o r example, compare  -VC-jCC-jCgV-  kopra  ['kop.praq]  katre  [kat.'treq]  to  gemination.  'coconut, 'bed'  -VC.C^gVkompra  ['kom.praq]  sastre  [ 'sas.treq]  'buy' 'tailor'  copra'  116 .C^CgC^ i s a m a r g i n a l sequence p a t t e r n ;  i s always  a s e m i v o c o i d , [w] o r C y ] . The r u l e s f o r t h e I l o k a n o m e d i a l c o n t o i d  clusters  (MK) a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o r t h e i n i t i a l c o n t o i d IK-^ g 3 v  clusters,  There a r e , however, a few e x c e p t i o n s and  addi-  t i o n s , thus: MK  1  IK 1 IK  3  MK  IK  except  C-, [ f ] "but i n c l u d i n g [ t , d ]  except  C-, [ v , h ]  2  3  but  IK  including  C, £g,  h]  Three a d d i t i o n a l r u l e s t o account f o r  i n the  •^1^2^3 c l u s t e r p a t t e r n a r e as f o l l o w s :  MK  5  MK  6  >  Q  MK  ?  >  C  1  x  [p]  +  C  2  [l]  +  C  3  [y]  [p]  +  C  2  [r] +  C  3  [w]  Por t h e MK r u l e s t h e f o l l o w i n g examples a r e adduced: MK-^  [ p i ] supplemento kuplat  [sUp.pie.'men.toq] 'supplement* [kUp.'plat]  'peel o f f *  templaen [tern.'pla.qen]  'to moderate'  [tl]  kapitlo  [ka.'pit.tloq]  ' t h i r d degree c o u s i n '  [kl]  buklis  [bUkAlis]  •greedy'  buklen  [bUk.'klen]  •to form i n t o a whole'  biklat  [bik.klat]  'cobra'  saklot  [sok.'klot]  •laps'  subli  [sUb.'bliq]  'return'  sable  [sab.'bleq]  •saber, c u t l a s s *  ablat  [qab.'blat]  •lash'  nablo  [nab.'bloq]  'maimed'  [dl]  padles  [ p a d ."dies]  'prediction'  Csi]  paglen  [Pag.'glen]  •to p r o h i b i t '  [bl]  reglamento  [pr]  [reg.glrr.. 'men . t o q ] ' r e g u l a t i o n '  piglat  [pig.'glat]  'scar'  siglot  [slg.'glot]  'knot'  sapri  [sap.'priq]  ' r a i n passing through interstices'  repres entante [reo.ore.s en. tan.tea1 1  •representative'  [tr]  tupra  [tUp.'praq]  •sputum'  apro  [qap.'proq]  'bile'  P a t r i c i o fbrr/t. ' t r i . s v o a l • P a t r i c k ' matrera  [mat.'tre.taq]  'shrewd woman'  kontra  ['kon.traq]  'inimical, against'  maestro  [ma.'qes.troq]  1  male t e a c h e r '  [kr]  [or]  [dr]  konkreto [kon.'kre.toql  'concrete'  napokray [na.'-pok.kra.il  'friable,  bukros  [bUk.«kros]  ' c o r p u l e n t , obese'  Abril  [qab.'bril]  'April'  sobre  [sob.'breq]  'envelope *  sobra  [sob.'braq]  'extra'  crumbly'  masabrot [ma.sdb.'brot]  'can compensate f o r *  padrino  [pad.'dri.noq]  'godfather'  madre  [mad.'dreq]  •nun'  A l e j a n d r o [qa.le.'han.drool 'Alexander' [gr]  ingreso  [qln.'gre.soq]  'submit, d e p o s i t '  ingrata  [qln.'gra.taq]  'ingrate'  logro  ['log.groq]  'profit'  [fr]  Alfredo  [qal.'fre.doq]  'Alfred'  [pw]  tapwak  [tap.'pwak]  'dive'  [tw]  bituen  [bit.'twen]  'star'  batuag  [bat.'twag]  ' t i l t e d , seesaw'  akoen  [qak.'kwen]  •to admit g r a c i o u s l y '  eskwela  [qes.'kwe.laq]  'school'  sanikua  [sa.nl.'kwaq]  'property'  [bw]  rubuat  [rUb.«bwat]  •preparation t o leave'  [dw]  kadua  [kad.'dwaq]  'partner} c ompani on'  [gw]  agua  ['qa.gwaq]  'perfume'  taguan  [tag.'gwan]  'oar'  [!kw]i'  ;  [mw]  [nw]  ammoen  [qam.'mwen]  •to know, f i n d out  rumuar  [rUm.'mwar]  •to e x i t '  an-anoen [qan.qan. nwen] f  banuar [nw]  [ban.'nwar]  •Epy]  [ty]  O]  'hero *  sangoanan [son.'nwa.ncin] ' i n f r o n t o f dungngoen [dUn.'nwen]  [sw]  •How?'  'to l o v e '  passuit  [pas.'swit]  'whistle'  assuang  [qas.»swan]  'witch'  apien  [qap.'pyen]  •to c u t o b l i q u e l y '  kopia  [»ko.pyaq]  'copy'  limpio  ['lim.pyoq]  •clean, neat'  koche  [kot.«£yeq]  'car'  achara  [ q a t . 'tfya.raq]  •pickles'  ancho  [ 'qan.tfyoq]  1  pakiaw  [pok.'kyaU]  'gross p u r c h a s e '  width, breadth'  E u s t a q u i i D [ y U s . »ta.k"yoq] 'a boy's name'  [^] [ay]  [gy]  [my]  a b - a b l e n [qab.qab.'byen]  'to v i l l i f y '  kamblo  [kam.'byoq]  'gearshift'  daydiay  [dal.'d"yal]  'that'  Hudio  [hUd.'d'yoq]  •Jew'  pagyanan f Pag.gya. nan]  'location*  bagyo  [bag.'gyoq]  'storm*  amianan  [qam.'mya.nan]  'north'  premio  [prem.'myoq]  'prize'  1  120  MO  [&]  [^]  baniera banias  [ban.'riye.raq] [ban.'nyas]  •bathtub iguana  panio  [pan.*nyoq]  •handkerchief'  sangyo  [son.'nyoq]  'shrew•  kalye  [kal.'lyeq]  'street•  al-alya  [qal.qal.•iyaq] 'ghost•  repolyo  [re. 'pol.l'yoq]  •cabbage  parla  [par.'ryaq]  'bitter melon'  pariok  [par.*fyok]  'large frying pan'  rosario  [ro.*sar.ryoq]  'rosary'  1  1  1  1  infierno [qln. *fyeriinoq] ' h e l l ' conflansa [kon.'fyan.saq]'confidence,  [vy]  [sy]  [hy] MK5 [ P i y ]  trust'  Noviembre [no.'vyem.breq] 'November' novlo  ['no.vyoq]  'fiance'  pasear  [pas.'syar]  'stroll'  pasion  [pas.'syon]  ' p a s s i o n ( L e n t e n hymns)'  r e l i h i o n [re.II.'hvon]  'religion'  empleado [qem.'plya.doq] 'employee' empleo  [qem.'piyoq]  •employment'  M&6 [ p r y ] n a s a p r i a n [ n a . s a p . ' p r y a n ] ' b e s p r i n k l e d '  MK  7  [try]  Industrla [qln.'dus.tryaq] 'industry'  [bry]  nabriat  [hcxB. ' b r y a t ]  [dry]  Adriano  [ q a d . ' d r y a . n o q ] "a boy's name'  [prw] aproan  [qap.'prwan]  'torn'  'add b i l e t o '  121  3/243  P o s t v o c a l i c , F i n a l Contoid Clusters  (FK)  F i n a l c l u s t e r s a r e v e r y r e s t r i c t e d i n occurence 1.  e.,  o n l y i n E n g l i s h l o a n words - i n the I l o k a n o  g i c a l system.  I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t most of the  phonolo-  English  l o a n words i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r have been I l o k a n i z e d . The i n Ilokano  sequential pattern f o r f i n a l contoid clusters is FK  >  -VC-jCg  w h i c h i s p h o n e t i c a l l y r e a l i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s :  k }  FK-j^  n  C  +  C  ?  +  c  2  [r]  +  C,  [s]  +  C  [s]  J r  FK  2  FK  3  FK^  -—>  C  >  C  >  C  1  x  X  [I]  2  [k]  t d  [t]  122.  The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h e f o u r EK r u l e s : FK  X  [ k s ] Felixa-  ['fe.llks]  'a boy's name'  komiks  ['ko.mlks]  'comics'  Alex  ['qa.leks]  'a boy's name'  kyuteks  ['kyu.teks]  'nail polish  [ns]  b i n s (pork and) [ ' b i n s ]  'beans'  C 3  hangs  ['bans]  'a type o f h a i r d o '  ['nars]  'nurse'  ns  [rs] nars FK  2  [ n k ] Frank [rk]  FK^  1  pork ( b a r r e l ) ['pork]  FK^ [ s t ]  'Frank' 'pork'  ['bart]  'a boy's nickname*  ekspert  [ '<feks.part]  * expert'  erport  ['qer.port]  'airport'  report  [re.'port]  'report *  kard  ['kard]  'card *  [ r t ] Bert  [rd]  ['frank]  b l a k b o r d [ b l a k . 'bord[J.  'blackboard'  post ( O f f i c e )  'post'  ['post]  1231  3 23 The  THE  SUPRASEGMENTS IN DETAIL  p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s of I l o k a n o t h a t has so f a r  "been p r e s e n t e d  d e a l s l a r g e l y w i t h the sounds of speech as  i n d i v i d u a l l i n e a r segments and s e p a r a b l e u n i t s .  Since  speech i s a dynamic continuum r a t h e r t h a n a s t r i n g of s t a t i c i n d i v i d u a l sounds, i t i s i m p o r t a n t way  t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the  i n w h i c h the d i s c r e t e phones a r e grouped t o g e t h e r i n  actual discourse.  Thus, i n the f o l l o w i n g s u b s e c t i o n s  will  be d e s c r i b e d the u n i f y i n g f e a t u r e s of the speech continuum: t h e s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s of s t r e s s , l e n g t h , j u n c t u r e , and p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n .  These extend over s t r e t c h e s of many  l i n e a r segments, hence some l i n g u i s t s c a l l them p l u r i s e g mental f e a t u r e s . Suprasegmental f e a t u r e s i n I l o k a n o a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o the phenomena of s t r e s s , l e n g t h , and p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n j u n c t u r e t y i n g i n v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n . Along with t h e i r u n i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e , a l l three features w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of t h e degree of prominence each g i v e s t o a s y l l a b l e i n comparison w i t h o t h e r s y l l a b l e s i n the  linear  sequence. 3. 31 !  S t r e s s and Rhythm  S t r e s s r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t b r e a t h e f f o r t  and  the l o u d n e s s w i t h which a sound o r s y l l a b l e i s a r t i c u l a t e d . I t i s a f e a t u r e of a c c e n t  or prominence.  a r e e i t h e r s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d (')  Ilokano  syllables  o r weakly s t r e s s e d (unmarked).  :i2> Thus, i n t h e p o l y s y l l a b i c agllllnnemangan the  word, f o r example:  [ q q g . l l . 'lin.nem.me. 'nan]  'play h i d e and seek'  t h i r d and l a s t s y l l a b l e s a r e g i v e n prominence by t h e s t r o n g  stress,  t h e o t h e r s s u b o r d i n a t e d by weak  stress.  Subsequent examples w i l l show t h a t t h e s t r e s s p a t t e r n of I l o k a n o i s f i x e d , I n t h e sense t h a t t h e s t r o n g s t r e s s always f a l l s on a p a r t i c u l a r strong stress f a l l s (1)  regularly:  ['tu.doq]  'rain'  slpit ['si.pit]  'tongs'  bayad [ • ba. yqd]  ' payment' ;  on t h e me&lsgl s y l l a b l e i n t h e p o l y s y l l a b i c kawayan  [ka.'wa.yan]  nalabaslt  [na.lcc. ' b a . s l t ]  bullalayaw fbUI.lq.'la.yqU] (3)  Thus, t h e  on t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e i n t h e d i s s y l l a b i c forms tudo  (2)  s y l l a b l e o f any g i v e n word.^  forms  'bamboo' 'red* 'rainbow';  on t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e i n t h e d i s s y l l a b i c and  polysyllabic  forms adu  [qq.'duq]  'many'  aluten  [qa.lU.'ten]  'firebrand'  kulalantl  [kU.la.lan.«tiq]  'firefly'.  But  t h e s t r e s s i s f r e e and dynamic, i n t h e sense t h a t i t i s  not  t i e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r  s y l l a b l e I n t h e p r o c e s s o f mor-  p h o l o g i c a l expansion using a f f i x e s . I l o k a n o , as p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , i s a g g l u t i n a t i v e , i.  e., i t makes g r a m m a t i c a l use o f many a f f i x e s .  Thus, t h e  12.5 a n a l y s i s of i t s s t r e s s p a t t e r n s s t a r t s w i t h the base o r r o o t morphemes and proceeds t o the word forms w i t h bound morphemes, the a f f i x e s : p r e f i x , i n f i x , and s u f f i x . ing i n t o morphological  Delv-  d e t a i l s , such as d e f i n i n g the  types  of the bound morphemes, i s beyond the scope of t h i s a n a l y s i s . I t m e r e l y aims t o demonstrate the s t r e s s dynamics of  Ilokano  a t t h e morpheme l e v e l , t h u s : 42 Stress Pattern 'xx o'xx x'xo ox'xo  Example  bilang  ['bi.lan]  •count•  agbllang  [qag.•bi.lan]  •to count  bilangen  [bl.'la.nen]  •to count ( v . t . ) *  ibilangan  [ql.bl.*la.nan]  'to count  (v.i.)'  f o r someone' o'xo'xo  agblnnllangan  [qag.'bln.nl.'la.nan] •to count f o r each o t h e r '  oo * xo * xo  agbibinnllangan  [qag.bl.'bin.nl.'la.nan] 'to count f o r one  oo'xo'xo  maklbinnilangan  another'  [ma.kl.'bin.nl.'la.nan]  'to j o i n I n the m u t u a l c o u n t i n g ' oo'xo'xoo  makiblnnilanganen  [ma.kl.'bin.ni.'la.na.nen]  'to j o i n i n the m u t u a l c o u n t i n g *xx o 'xx  42  pudot  ['pu.dot]  'heat*  napudot  [na.'pu.dot]  'hot'  now'  Where: x:,:= s y l l a b l e of the base morpheme. o = s y l l a b l e of the bound morpheme o r a f f i x . t . s t r e s s mark b e f o r e the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e ,  OQ'XK ooo'xx ox'xo oox'xo oo'xo'xo  napudpudot  [na.pUd.'pu.dot]  nakapudpudot  [na.ka.pUd.'pu.dot]  kapudutan  [ka.pU.'du.tan]  kapudpudutan  [ka.pUd.pU.'du.tan] 'while s t i l l  maki p l n n u d u t a n  'hotter' 'very hot'  'hottest' hot'  [ma.kl.'pin.nU.'du.tan] ' i d i o m - t o f a n t h e embers'  x'xx ox'xx oox'xx xx'xo  palilw  [pa.'li.qlU]  agpalllw  [ q a g . p a . ' l i . q l U ] 'to observe  agpalpaliiw  [qag.pal.pa.'11.qlU]  palllwen  [pa.H.'qi.wen]  o'xo'xxo a g p l n n a l l l w e n  'observation'  ' i s observing*  *to observe  pagpalpalllwan  (v.t.)'  [qag.'pin.na.'li.ql.wen] 'to observe each o t h e r  o'oxx'xo  (v.i.)'  now'  [pag.'pal.pa.II.'qi.wan] 'time a l l o t e d t o o b s e r v a t i o n '  oo'xo'xx  agplpinnalliw  [qag.pi.'pin.na.'11.qlU] ' t o o b s e r v e one a n o t h e r '  ooo'xoo'xx  maklpagpinpinnaliiw  [ma.kl.pag.'pin.pin.na.'li.qlU]  'uncalled f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an x'x  observation'  ayat  [qa.'yat]  'love'  ox'x  naayat  [na.qa.'yat]  'loving'  xx«o  ayaten  [qa.ya.'ten]  'to l o v e '  nakaay-ayat  [na.ka.'qal.qa.*yat] 'lovely'  oox'x  panagayat  [ p a . n a . g a . * y a t ] 'way  oxx'o  pagayatan  [pa.ga.ya.'tan] ' l i k i n g ,  oo'ox'x  oo'ooox'x  of  loving' desire'  m a k i l n n a y a n - a y a t [ m a . k l . 'qin.na.32aa.qa. ' y a t ] ' t o be i n l o v e  with'  12?  x'x ox'x oxx'o o•xox o 1  lemmeng  [lem.'men] ' i n h i d i n g *  ilemmeng  [ql.lem.'men]  llemmengan  [ql.lem.me.'nan]  aglinnemmengan  [qag.'lin.nem.me.'nan]  'to h i d e ' 'to h i d e from'  'to h i d e from each o t h e r ' ox'oox'o  aglilinnemmengan  [ q c c g . l l . 'lin.nem.me. 'nan] 'to p l a y hide-and-seek'  oo'xoox'oo  makilinlinnemmenganen  [ma.kl.'lin.lin.nem.me.'na.nen]  ' i s now p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the game of h i d e - a n d - s e e k ' The p h o n e t i c s t r e s s p a t t e r n s of I l o k a n o may be  summarized  43 as f o l l o w s : Stress Pattern  Example  Word Forms w i t h One S t r o n g S t r e s s (a)  Ultimate x'x  (b)  sandi  [san.'diq] 'substitute'  xx'x  balinsuek  [ b a . l l n . ' s w e k ] 'upside down'  xxx'x  batlkuleng  [ba.tl.kU.'len] 'gizzard'  sagad  ['sa.gad] 'broom'  apigod  [qa.'pi.god] 'left-handed'  talimudaw  [ta.ll.'mu.daU] 'vertigo'  alumplpinig  [ q a . l U m . p l . ' p i . n i g ] 'wasp'  Penultimate 'xx x'xx xx'xx xxx'xx  i+3 D i s r e g a r d i n g the morpheme t y p e - base o r a f f i x t o which t h e s y l l a b l e s b e l o n g . S t r e s s i s the p e r t i n e n t a s p e c t i n q u e s t i o n . Each "x" r e p r e s e n t s a s y l l a b l e .  128 (c)  Antepenultimate x'xxx  karlssabong;  [ka.*ris.sa.bon] 'young f r u i t  xxx xxx 1  agparintumengen  1  [qag.pa.rln.'tu.me.nen]  •to kneel kown now  9  44 Word Forms with Two Stresses (a)  Pre-ultimate xx'xx'x  nakaay-ayat  x'xxx'x  agllnnemmengan  xx'xxx'x xx'xxxx'x (b)  makiinnayan-ayat  Pre-penultimate x * xx * xx  agblnnilangan  xx'xx'xx  maklblnnllangan  x xxx xx  pagpalpaliiwan  l  (c)  agllnllnnemmengan  ,  xxx'xxx'xx  makipagplnplnnalliw  xx'xxxx'xx  maklllnlinnemmenganen  Pre-antepenultimate x^x'xxx xx'xx'xxx  agplnnalllwen makiblnbinnllanganen  Rhythm results from the occurrence and recurrence of strongly stressed and weakly stressed s y l l a b l e s i n utterances 44  For the phonetic transcriptions and glosses, r e f e r to pages 124 through 126.  129  longer than the word. In Ilokano,- the syllable stress found at the word level generally retains i t s isolate-word identity in connected speech. Por example, Palliwen no saan a napudot t i aglilinnemmengan. [pa.ll.'qi.wen no sa.'qan qa na.'pu.dot t i q a g . l l . ' l i n . nem.me.'nanj  'Observe i t i t is not too hot to play hide-  and-seek.' 3.32  Length  The suprasegmental feature of length/ [:], is associated with the duration of articulation of sounds or syllables. This duration or length of sounds is also called their quantity./ In Ilokano, length is a feature of prominence which is a complex of stress and length i t s e l f - at least in an open syllable occurring i n i t i a l l y and medially.  Thus, the f i r s t  syllable is longer and, therefore, more prominent in plto [*pi:.toq] 'pipette than i t is in pito [pl.'toq] 'seven.' 1  A syllable in f i n a l position/ however, is always short, whether or not i t is strongly stressed.  It takes as much time  to pronounce [toq] as i t does ['toq] in the examples above. Other examples illustrate the point further. Compare:  bagl [»ba:.glq] 'share' and bagl [ba.'giq] 'body'} basa C'ba:.saq] 'read' and basa [ba.*saq] wet'. ,  1.39  C o n t o i d l e n g t h I s r e a l i z e d as g e m i n a t i o n .  The onset  i n t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t c o n t o i d o f a geminate i s f o l l o w e d "by a h o l d o r tenue , and t h e n , w i t h a renewed momentum a c r o s s t h e s y l l a b l e boundary, t h e second c o n t o i d i s r e a l i z e d as t h e r e l e a s e o r coda, b l e n d i n g as i t were, w i t h t h e n e x t speech sound.  P o r example,  tukkol  [tUk:.ol] >  [tUk.'kol]  'break, snap'  labba  [lab:.aq]  ^  [lab.*baq]  'large basket'  serrek  [ser:.ek]  *y [ s e r . ' r e k ]  'entrance*  S y l l a b l e - f i n a l c o n t o i d s a r e l o n g when f o l l o w e d by a g l o t t a l stop, [ q ] , thus: nalap-it  [na.'lap:.qlt]  •pliable t  ud-od  [qUdi.«qod]  'bargain t  nasanHlt  [na.'sam:.qlt]  •sweet'  bin-ig  ['bin:.qlg]  'purely, e x c l u s i v e l y *  sang-aw  [son:.»qaU]  'breath'  bal-et  [bal:.'qet]  'between i  agkir-in  [qag.klr:.'qin]  'to move s l i g h t l y '  pes-akan  [pes:.'qa.kan]  'to soak y a r n o r c l o t h *  V o c o i d s a r e g e n e r a l l y l e n g t h e n e d a t t h e end o f quest i o n s or statements.  T h i s phenomenon o f v o c o i d  lengthening  i s Induced by t h e s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e o f i n t o n a t i o n . However, i t c a n be a f u n c t i o n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l  speaker's  u n i q u e speech h a b i t s o r i d i o l e c t , and may thus be t a k e n as an  idiophone.  3."33  J u n c t u r e , P i t c h and  3.331  Intonation  Juncture  From a p h o n e t i c p o i n t of v i e w speech i s seldom d i v i d e d i n t o words.  I n o v e r l y c a r e f u l speech, Mapan ka i d i a y .  (you) t h e r e .  "Go  i s u t t e r e d i n i t s i s o l a t e - w o r d forms, [mcc.'pan  1  k a q l . ' d y a l j ] ; when s a i d i n a n a t u r a l manner, however, i t i s r e a l i z e d as [ m a . • p a n k a l ' d y a l ] . due  The  phenomenon of b l e n d i n g ,  t o a s s i m i l a t i o n [ u k ] and e l i s i o n [ k a q l ] > [ k a l ] . i s  obvious.  P h o n e t i c a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , the sounds i n the whole  u t t e r a n c e f o l l o w each o t h e r w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n ; t h e r e i s n o t h i n g whatever of an a r t i c u l a t o r y or a c o u s t i c n a t u r e w h i c h corresponds,  p r i n t w l s e , t o the w h i t e space between words.  A g a i n , t h i s demonstrates the concept of speech as a continuum, and of w r i t i n g as an i n a c c u r a t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of s p e e c h . The way  i n which s y l l a b l e s blend together i n context-  u a l speech i s here r e f e r r e d t o as .juncture. As a d e m a r c a t i n g d e v i c e , i n Ilokano t h a t i s , t h i s suprasegmental f e a t u r e i s observed a t the end of a c e r t a i n span of s y l l a b l e s ; i t s u n i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e b e i n g coterminous w i t h i n t o n a t i o n .  In fact,  g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l o n g w i t h p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n a r e brought t o b e a r upon j u n c t u r e placement i n I l o k a n o . The  I l o k a n o d i a l e c t i n q u e s t i o n has o n l y two  phones o r j u n c t o n e s : a n o n - t e r m i n a l  junctone [J]  juncture  which i s  a q b r i e f : p&use r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d comma i n c o n v e n t i o n a l o r t h o g r a p h y ; and a t e r m i n a l  by a  junctone  132. [||]»  w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a l o n g e r pause marking the  sentence.  The  tone, [+],  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of E n g l i s h , w h i c h i s  and  d i a l e c t does not  d i s t i n c t i v e i n such p a i r s [•nal+trelt] [a+'nelm] 3.332  'nitrate*  'a name' P i t c h and  of  have the i n t e r n a l p l u s  a junc-  perceptible  as: and  and  end  ['naltH-relt]  [anelm]  'an  'night  rate'  aim'.  Intonation  P i t c h , as an a c o u s t i c parameter of speech, has  been  d e t e r m i n e d by a c o u s t i c p h o n e t i c s as the number or f r e q u e n c y of sound waves per second.  L o w - p i t c h e d sounds have r e l a t i v e -  l y low  f r e q u e n c y , and  a perceived r i s e i n p i t c h i s a  of the  i n c r e a s e i n the number of sound waves per  correlate  second.  Some l i n g u i s t s d e s c r i b e p i t c h i n terms of l e v e l s , c a l l e d p i t c h l e v e l s (PL). p h o n e t i c and  These may  be i n d i c a t e d  phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ,  speech.  thus:  Pitch Level  Symbol  Very High  4  High  3  Normal  2  Low  1  Pitch l e v e l k i s characterized Only the n a t u r a l  the p i t c h phones [PL-^  2  3]  by numbers i n b o t h  by emphatic and  emotional  speech i n I l o k a n o w h i c h makes use w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the  of  present  discussion. P i t c h v a r i a t i o n s g i v e a s y l l a b l e prominence more e f f e c -  133 t i v e l y t h a n s t r e s s does.  Thus, t h e s y l l a b l e [ p i n ] i n  napintas [na.'pin.tas] "beautiful 1  when s a i d on a monotone  1  even w i t h exaggerated s t r e s s , [ x ' x x ] , i s n o t as prominent as when t h e s t r e s s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p i t c h change, e. g., 1 2  1  [na.'pin.tas].'  However, p i t c h prominence a t t h e morpheme  l e v e l may be l o s t i n connected speech w h i l e s t r e s s i s more s t a b l e and t h e l a t t e r i s always on a s y l l a b l e w i t h a p o t e n t i a l change o f p i t c h . P i t c h v a r i a t i o n s d u r i n g speech - a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two  o r more o f t h e p i t c h phones - c o n s t i t u t e what i s c a l l e d  a terminal  contour or i n t o n a t i o n .  '  I n t o n a t i o n may be i n d i -  c a t e d by t h e symbol [if ] , [ ^ ] , o r [ J ] ,  depending upon whether  the p i t c h r i s e s , f a l l s o f f , o r remains l e v e l ; and by t h e circumflex  [^] o r [>^] f o r s u b t l e p i t c h changes: r i s i n g - f a l l -  ing or f a l l i n g - r i s i n g . S i n c e j u n c t u r e t i e s i n v e r y c l o s e l y , and i s c o t e r m i n o u s , with intonation,  b o t h suprasegmentals s h a r e t h e same symbols,  thus: Symbol  Juncture S h o r t pause  «„ „  „  n  [ | fj '^ ]  Long pause  Intonation Sustained or l e v e l Falling Rising  1  Ris i n g - f a i l i n g  § 1  Falling-rising  134  The same example as t h e one g i v e n e a r l i e r - expanded o r reduced - may be used t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e combined s u p r a 45  segmental f e a t u r e s o f j u n c t u r e , p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n . (a)  2 ]_ Mapan k a i d i a y . [ma. 'pankql ."dyal^]  'Go t h e r e . '  (b)  Mapan k a .  [ma.'pan.kaq^]  'You go.*  Mapan k a . . .  2 , [ma.'pan.kaqI]  'You go...'  (d)  Idiay...  2 , [ql.'dyall]  'To...'  (e)  Mapan k a i d i a y . . . [ma.'pan.kal.'dyal'j] 'You go t o . . . '  (c)  (f)  Idiay?  1 3 [ql.'dyal^]  (g)  Idiay.  2 1 , [ql.'dyall] 2  (h) (i)  (j)  / x  (k)  3  'Where?' 'There.'  2  Idiay?  [ql.'dyal/J] ' ( D i d you say) There?" 2 1 3 * Mapan k a i d i a y ? r m q . ' p a n . k q l . ' d y a l \ T 1 'You a r e g o i n g t h e r e ? o r 'You a r e g o i n g where?' k a d i ^46 Mapan k a \ V idiay? "•ngata ngatg j  _ -, 3 [mq.'pan.kq.kq.'dl . q l . ' d y a l ^ P ] » 'Are y o u g o i n g there?« 9  r 3 An Mapan k a i d i a y ? [_ma. ' p a n . k q l . 'dyal /T) 2  1  'Are y o u g o i n g t h e r e ?  45  Each p i t c h phone i s t o be r e a d as e x t e n d i n g up t o the n e x t p i t c h phone, e. g., t h e p i t c h phone [ 2 ] i n example (a) extends from [mq] t o [ k q l ] ; t h e p i t c h s h i f t s t o [ 1 ] I n [ d y a l ] , 46  The s t r u c t u r e words k a d i and n g a t a [ n q . ' t a q ] s i g n a l a q u e s t i o n ; man ['man], a r e q u e s t .  'perhaps'  135 x  (!)  r  Ma pan k a i d i a y , saan k a d i ?  2 1 , [ma.'pan.kal.'dyal|  2 3 ^7 s a . 'qan.ka. 'diqT] 'You're g o i n g there,, a r e n ' t you?' (m)  Napan k a , saan? [na.'pan.kaq | s a . ' q a n f ] 'You went, d i d n ' t you?'  (n)  2 1 , I d i a y , d i kadi? [ql.'dyal[ or  (o)  2 1 Idiay, d l kadi? [ q l . ' d y a l l  (p)  Mapan k a man i d i a y ?  k  2 3 . dl.ka.'diqT]'There, i s n ' t i t ? 2 1 . dl.ka.'diqll'There, isn't i t ?  [m .'pan.ka.'man.ql.'dyal^] a  'Could you p l e a s e go t h e r e ? ' (q)  Mapan k a i d i a y eskwela m i , wen. _2 3 [ma.'pan.kal.'dyal .qes.'kwe.la.'mi J  l 3 2 „ 2 3 * 'wen/y o r ['wen » T ]  •Go t o our s c h o o l , w i l l you?' (ri);  Wen, mapan kami amin;  [ 'wen ^ m a . 'pan.ka.ml.  'qa.mlnp  'Yes, w e ' l l a l l go:'  47  Tag q u e s t i o n s i n I l o k a n o d i s r e g a r d agreement i n p e r s o n , number, gender, and t e n s e . Thus, any o f t h e u t t e r a n c e s a t t h e l e f t (below) c a n mean any o f those a t t h e r i g h t : : Saan k a d i ? ^ ("'Is i t (he, she)? Di kadi? I - J I s n ' t i t ( h e , she)? Saan? ( 1 A r e ( a r e n ' t ) you ( t h e y , . . . ) ? ' \J)o (Did) you ( t h e y , . . . ) ? ' J  9  ' W i l l (Could) you?'  136' (s)  n l J u a n , n i R o s a r l o , n i Ramon, k e n s i a k .  1 2  [nl.'hwanl  ,1  2  .1  2 . 2  n i . r o . 'sar .ryoq | nl.ra.'mon  1  ,  ken.'syakj"]  •John, R o s a r l o , Ramon, and I . ' (t)  Maysa, dwa, t a l l o , uppat. l 2 i 1 2i 1 2 i 2 1 I [ m a l . saq J • dwaq j t a l . l o q I qUp.' pat IJ n  1  'One,  1  two, t h r e e , f o u r . '  The combined suprasegmental f e a t u r e s o f p i t c h , i n t o n a t i o n and j u n c t u r e ( P I J ) may be summed up i n t h e f o l l o w i n g patterns: Communication Situation  P I J Pattern  Examples  Statement o f f a c t  C J^]  Command  C ^]  Request  [323^]  (p)  [2 | ]  ( c ) (d) (d)  21  ( ) a  (s) (*")  ()  21  a  Hesitation, uncertainty, o r i n t e r r u p t e d speech Series  or  Yes-No q u e s t i o n s  f  [2l|l2f]  (s) ( t )  [232Al  V  or  (h) ( i ) ( j ) (k)  [213^] Echo q u e s t i o n s Tag q u e s t i o n s  [ 3^]  (f) (i)  [2l|23^1 ]}  (1) (m) (n) (o) (q)  2  or  [2l|32.4]  Chapter 4  PHONEMIC ANALYSIS  The phonetic analysis in the preceding chapter has specified the total range of speech sounds or phones largely the idiophones of the writer - in the cultivated Ilokano dialect of Bayombong, Nueva Vlzcaya.  A brief  inventory of the phones reveals: 9 vocoids, 19 contoids, 12 vocoid chains, 89 contoid c l u s t e r s 2 strones, 2 junctones, 4 pitch phones or tones, and 5 terminal contours, not to mention the potential modifications of segments in context, such, for instance, as those of [ l ] which may be: labialized  [ l ] as in luag  dentalized  [l]  w  [«l wag]  »froth'  w  as in paltat [ p q l . ' t a t l  palatalized [if]  as in liad  [ »lfyad]  velarized  as in pllko  ['pi*.koq]  [*]  t]_  'catfish' e a n  backward'  'bend'  No attempt has, however, been made to account for such extralingulstic factors as rate of speaking, physical and psychological state,' and the l i k e , which may be brought to bear upon the actual or potential phonetic differences and variability of the speech sounds.  To delve into such  phonetic minutiae would yield data too unwieldy to be treated by the present attempt at a scientific description of the sound pattern of Ilokano.  ^•Q-  Rationale for Phonemlzatlon  Most l i n g u i s t s  concur i n the "belief that " i t i s  h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t one  e v e r makes e x a c t l y t h e  g r o u p o f s p e e c h movements t w i c e  same  i n a l i f e t i m e , and  i f  one  48 d o e s , i t i s t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o c h a n c e r a t h e r t h a n t o Moreoverj  ;  no  phonetic  account f o r a l l the t o i r e o f e v e n one The o f how  t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s a d e q u a t e enough t o  f l u c t u a n t speech sounds i n the  phonetic  a n a l y s i s can answer o n l y the 1  a n a c c o u n t o f w h i c h o r how l i n g u i s t i c a l l y relevant  question  i t does not  give  many o f s u c h s p e e c h s o u n d s  i n communication.  This  are  limitation  w i t h t h e i n f i n i t e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e phones i n  a d i a l e c t , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , a n t h e r e f o r e , the and  reper-  i n d i v i d u a l speaker.  s p e e c h sounds a r e r e a l i z e d , but  together  law."  constant  idiolect,  emphasizes,  importance of a study of only the  speech u n i t s .  mlzatlon," which, a c c o r d i n g  This  relevant  i s the f u n c t i o n of  "Phone-  t o Malmberg, " i m p l i e s the  reduc-  t i o n o f a n u n l i m i t e d number o f v a r i a n t s [ t h e p h o n e s ] t o l i m i t e d number o f i n v a r i a n t s [ t h e phonemes]...' The t h e number, t h e s i m p l e r t h a t i n any  science,'  1  t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , and  A d e s c r i p t i o n which characterizes a  48  smaller  which supposes a  number, s u p p o s e d t h a t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s e q u a l l y ive...  smaller  i t i s undeniable  a d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h needs a  amount o f d a t a i s s u p e r i o r t o one  a  larger  exhaust-  linguistic  W i l l i a m F r a n c i s Mackey* Language T e a c h i n g A n a l y s i s . London: Longmans, Green & Co. L t d . , 1 9 6 5 1 P« 48. 1  1  139 system by means o f 40 phonemes i s c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n p r i n -  49 c i p l e j ' s u p e r i o r t o one w h i c h uses 100 o r 150." 4.2  Determining the Set of Phonemes  I t i s the t a s k o f t h i s s e c t i o n t o answer the (1)  ing questions:  follow-  what i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e and  r e l e v a n t ; ; and what i s not,' among the speech sounds s e t up on the b a s i s o f a r t i c u l a t o r y p h o n e t i c s ? and (2)  how a r e  these  d i s t i n c t i v e and r e l e v a n t u n i t s t o be s p e c i f i e d ? 4.21  The Phoneme Concept  A p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e would be a d e l i n e a t i o n o f what i s sought f o r - the phoneme.' L i n g u i s t s have d i f f e r e n t views on what phonemes a r e : some r e g a r d them as p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n i t s ; o t h e r s as p h y s i c a l r e a l i t i e s ; w h i l e t o s t i l l o t h e r s , t h e y a r e b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l The  realities.  f o l l o w i n g a r e a few o f the d i f f e r e n t concepts o f t h e  phoneme; "a f a m i l y o f sounds i n a g i v e n language w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d i n c h a r a c t e r and a r e used i n such a way t h a t no member ever o c c u r s i n a word i n t h e same p h o n e t i c c o n t e x t as any o t h e r member." -Jones  49  B e r t i l Malmberg, S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s and Human Communication.' New Y o r k : Academic P r e s s I n c . , 1963, PP. 83-84.  50  D a n i e l J o n e s , The H i s t o r y and Meaning o f t h e Term "Phoneme". London: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c A s s o -  c i a t i o n , 1957, P. 14. !  140 "a f u n c t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t i n t h e r i g i d l y d e f i n e d p a t t e r n o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f sounds p e c u l i a r t o a language. ... has no s i n g l e n e s s o f r e f e r e n c e . " -Sapir51 "a minimum u n i t o f d i s t i n c t i v e sound f e a t u r e ... The phonemes o f a language a r e n o t sounds, b u t m e r e l y f e a t u r e s o f sounds w h i c h t h e s p e a k e r s have been t r a i n e d t o produce and r e c o g n i z e i n t h e c u r r e n t o f a c t u a l speech s o u n d . " ^ B l o o m f i e l d - ^ "the phonemes o f a language a r e t h e elements w h i c h s t a n d i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r i n t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f t h e language. ... a phoneme i n a g i v e n language i s d e f i n e d o n l y i n terms o f i t s d i f f e r e n c e s from t h e o t h e r phonemes o f t h e same language."  -Hockett53  "a u n i t , a r u b r i c , a bundle o f sound f e a t u r e s , o r a point of contrast. ... a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f e a t u r e s o f sound ( e . g., s t o p a r t i c u l a t i o n , b i l a b i a l p o s i t i o n , and v o i c i n g i n /b/, o r h i g h and f r o n t tongue p o s i t i o n and absence o f l i p - r o u n d i n g i n / i / ) w h i c h r e n d e r one phoneme d i s t i n c t from a n o t h e r , and w h i c h a r e t h e r e f o r e known as d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . " -Hall54 " a l l phonemes denote n o t h i n g b u t mere o t h e r n e s s . ... ...'are b u n d l e s o f c o n c u r r e n t f e a t u r e s . " -Jakobson and  Halle55  However v a r i e d t h e views a r e , a t l e a s t t h r e e p i v o t a l concepts c a n be d e r i v e d from them, i .  e., a phoneme i s a  u n i t r e p r e s e n t i n g a c l a s s o f sounds, i t i s c o n t r a s t i v e , and i t s o c c u r e n c e must be worked o u t w i t h i n a g i v e n language.  51  W. Freeman T w a d d e l l , "On D e f i n i n g t h e Phoneme," i n M a r t i n J o o s , Readings i n L i n g u i s t i c s ; t h e development o f d e s c r i p t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s i n A m e r i c a s i n c e 1925. Washington: A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l o f L e a r n e d S o c i e t i e s , 1957» P. 59• I b i d . ; p. 62.  53 54  C . F . H o c k e t t , p p . c i t . , p.  26.  R o b e r t A. H a l l , J r . , I n t r o d u c t o r y L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: C h i l t o n Books, 1964, p. 79.  55  Roman Jakobson and M o r r i s H a l l e , Fundamentals o f Language. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1956, pp. 5, 11.  141 4.22 The  A n a l y t i c Procedure: l i n g u i s t s ' concepts  P i k e ' s Tagmemic Theory  of the phoneme a r e  as v a r i e d as t h e i r methods o f i d e n t i f y i n g i t .  probably  A compara-  t i v e methodology, t o g e t h e r w i t h the t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g each method, belongs  t o t h e p r o v i n c e of t h e p h i l 0 s o p h y of l a n g -  uage and t h e r e f o r e need not be attempted  here.  The p r e s e n t s t u d y t a k e s a cue from P i k e ' s tagmemic t h e o r y of d e t e r m i n i n g the n a t u r e of a u n i t o f r e l e v a n t human b e h a v i o r , such as l i n g u i s t i c  behavior.  "Any u n i t of p u r p o s i v e human b e h a v i o r , " P i k e s a y s , " i s w e l l - d e f i n e d i f and o n l y i f one d e s c r i b e s i t i n r e f e r e n c e t o (a) c o n t r a s t (and r e s u l t i n g  identification),  (b) range o f v a r i a t i o n ( w i t h i t s e s s e n t i a l p h y s i c a l manif e s t a t i o n ) , and  (c) d i s t r i b u t i o n ( i n c l a s s , i n h i e r a r c h i -  56 c a l sequence, and i n s y s t e m i c m a t r i x . ) " The  t r i m o d a l t h e o r y o f a n a l y s i s g i v e n above may  stated b r i e f l y ,  be  thus: Contrast Unit  =  Variation  57 Distribution.  56 Kenneth L. P i k e , "On S y s t e m s o f G r a m m a t i c a l S t r u c t u r e , " i n Horace G. L u n t , (ed..,),., P r o c e e d i n g s o f the N i n t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of L i n g u i s t s , The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964, p. 14-5.  57  See a l s o , Kenneth L. P i k e , Language i n R e l a t i o n t o  "I  142.  Pike further characterizes  the three  components  of a n a l y s i s as f o l l o w s : "Contrast:  One does n o t know what an i t e m i s u n t i l  one knows what i t i s n o t . ... Once items a r e thus s e p a r a t e d o f f from o t h e r s ,  the c o n t r a s t i v e features  i n further  envi-  vonments sometimes a l l o w f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f items even under c o n d i t i o n s  where one o f two members o f a  contrast  does n o t o c c u r . V a r i a t i o n : The m a n i f e s t a t i o n  - or r e a l i z a t i o n - of  the u n i t could vary s u b s t a n t i a l l y , leading t o e t i c v a r i a n t s , or a l l o u n i t s . Distribution: A well-defined a c l a s s of u n i t s appropriate  u n i t i s a member o f  to a particular s l o t i n a  58  construction." A t t h e phonemic l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e s p e c i f i c u n i t i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e phoneme.  The phonemes o f  the I l o k a n o d i a l e c t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d using the formula: C U  =  V D  a U n i f i e d Theory o f t h e S t r u c t u r e o f Human B e h a v i o r , G l e n d a l e , C a l i f . , Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s , 1954, V o l . I , C h a p t e r 3» 58  Op. c i t .  •7  143 where: U = emic U n i t  ( t h e phoneme)  C = Contrast  (What the phoneme i s o r , more imp o r t a n t , what i t i s n o t i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r phonemes i n the language.)  V = Variation  (What a r e i t s v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s or  allophones?)  D = D i s t r i b u t i o n (Where does each a l l o p h o n e or p o t e n t i a l l y  actually  occur?)  I t was mentioned elsewhere t h a t t h i s s t u d y employs t h e taxonomic p r o c e d u r e of segmentation  and  classification.  I n any c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s c i e n c e , c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o r items a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , and o t h e r s a r e subsumed, o r i n some cases, are eventually disregarded. classification.  T h i s i s the p r i n c i p l e of  I n the process of phonemization,  the w r i t e r -  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of e t i c u n i t s - assumes a phonemic norm,  59  and r e l e g a t e s the o t h e r u n i t s t o t h e s t a t u s of v a r i a n t s  60  or allophones.  Thus, by t h e c r i t e r i o n of p h o n e t i c  similarity,  she assumes / i / , /e/, / a / , /o/, and / u / as the phonemic norms f o r the n i n e e t i c segments, [ i , i ] , [e,©], [ a , ctj» Co],  and  [ u , u ] , r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and / h / as t h a t f o r [ h ] and [ n ] .  The  59 pp. 62,  P o r d e t a i l s about phonemic norm, see P i k e , Bhonemlos. 244.  88, 60  A l l o p h o n e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r under V a r i a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n , S e c t i o n 4.222 of t h i s t h e s i s .  t e n t a t i v e phonemes - I . e., t h e phonemic norms t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e o t h e r segments and suprasegments - a r e t h e n e s t a b l i s h e d as emic u n i t s of the I l o k a n o d i a l e c t u s i n g the t r i m o d a l scheme, Contrast Unit =  Variation Distribution  4.'221  CONTRAST  C o n t r a s t , ' as a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , i n v o l v e s s t a t e m e n t s about i d e n t l f i c a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s , i . e.y what the emic u n i t I s . ;  e. g.,  1 1  / t / i s a voiceless dental stop."  S i n c e s t a t e m e n t s of  61 t h i s t y p e have been p r o v i d e d I n the p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s ,  the  phonemic a n a l y s i s i s more concerned about f i n d i n g what the emic u n i t i s not,- e. g., t h a t /o/ i s not / u / .  Thus, emphasis  i s p l a c e d on o p p o s i t i o n s o r c o n t r a s t s w h i c h w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s of the c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s o r components - a l s o known as d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s - of each phoneme.  61 62  62  In fact,  C h a p t e r 3«  I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t the f e a t u r e approach adopted i n t h i s s t u d y u t i l i z e s a r t i c u l a t o r y f e a t u r e s , and n o t t h o s e i n v o l v i n g a r t i c u l a t o r y - a c o u s t i c c o r r e l a t e s / known as the J a k o b s o n i a n d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s (Jakobson, F a n t and H a l l e , P r e l i m l n a r 1 esy 1965) * To a v o i d confusion,- t h e r e f o r e , the term components - r a t h e r t h a n d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s - w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be used. 1  145 Hockett says:  63  The s o l e f u n c t i o n o f sound I n language i s t o keep utterances apart; The p h o n o l o g i c a l system o f a l a n g uage i s t h e r e f o r e n o t s o much a " s e t o f sounds" as i t i s a network o f d i f f e r e n c e s between sounds... t h e elements o f a p h o n o l o g i c a l system cannot be d e f i n e d p o s i t i v e l y i n terms o f what they " a r e " , b u t o n l y negat i v e l y i n terms o f what they a r e n o t , what they contrast with. 1  What, f o r i n s t a n c e , makes f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between 1  the f o l l o w i n g utterances? Umay t a n t o k l t a e n .  /qu may t a n t o k i t& q e n / 'We'll come and s e e i t . ' !  Umay danto k l t a e n .  /qu may dan t o k i ta" q e n / ' T h e y ' l l come and s e e i t . '  Umay kan t o k l t a e n . '  /qu may k a n t o k i t f i q e n / • I ' l l come and s e e you.''  Umay s a n t o k l t a e n . '  /qu may s a n t o k l t a q e n / ' H e ' l l come, and t h e n w e ' l l s e e i t . '  The  s c h e m a t i c diagram on t h e n e x t page may be a n o v e r -  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , ' b u t i t s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e p r i n c i p l e s and procedures,' i .  4  e.y t h a t a t e n t a t i v e phoneme, s a y / t / ,  derives  i t s f u n c t i o n , ' and hence i t s i d e n t i t y a s a phoneme i n t h e I l o kano d i a l e c t , ' from b e i n g i n c o n t r a s t i n one o r more f e a t u r e s w i t h o t h e r phonemes i n t h e d i a l e c t : e. g.y w i t h / d / i n v o i c ing,' w i t h / k / i n p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ,  63  C. F.' H o c k e t t ,  3  and w i t h / s / i n b o t h  OJD. c i t . , p. 24. 1  146 p o i n t and manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . '  The f o l l o w i n g c o m p o n e n t i a l  a n a l y s i s shows t h e c o n t r a s t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Phonemes  Dimensions of Contrast  /a/  breath  breath  Components  Voicing  breath  P o i n t of Art.'  dental  Manner of A r t . '  M  /a/  /t/  StOTD  «>  *  -vs-  voice dental  -vs-  stop  —  velar  -vs-  alveolar  stop  -vs-  fricative  Viewed i n t h i s , . l i g h t / a phoneme - such as / t / - i s a p o i n t 1ft a network o f f u n c t i o n a l c o n t r a s t s i n t h e system of I l o k a n o /  phonological  thus:  p  t —  k  '^s d I n i t s passage from phone t o phoneme t h r o u g h c o n t r a s t , ' each t e n t a t i v e phoneme i s s u b j e c t e d  t o a commutation t e s t -  a t e s t w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e c o n t r a s t i v e s u b s t i t u t i n g o f sounds i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y o r r e i f y them as phonemes/  The d e v i c e s  used f o r s u c h a t e s t i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : (1)  M i n i m a l p a i r s : A m i n i m a l p a i r i s a s e t o t two  words t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n , a d d i t i o n / o r s u b t r a c t i o n o f one s e g ment o f w h i c h makes f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning/ e. g./ ml /miq/ 'our' vs mo /moq/  'your ; 1  147 (2)  Minimal t r i p l e t s  (also quadruplet or q u i n t u p l e t ) :  i n v o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h r e e i t e m s , e. g., n i / n i q / 'the ( p r e n o m i n a l ) vs na /naq/ ' h i s , h e r / i t s ' vs no /noq/ 1  p o s s i b l y , vs t h e e x p r e s s i o n (3)  'if,  ne /neq/ 'here i t i s ; '  Subminimal p a i r s : two items so d i f f e r i n g i n  s i m i l a r ( n o t i d e n t i c a l , as i n t h e case o f m i n i m a l p a i r s ) environments.  F o r example; t h e subminimal p a i r , v i a h e / v y a heq/  'tasavel* vs b l a l a /byiS' l a q / 'a k i n d o f f i s h ' , ' c a n r e i f y / v / and  /b/ as s e p a r a t e phonemes i n t h e I l o k a n o d i a l e c t . 4.2211  Vowels  Another componential a n a l y s i s w i l l r e v e a l that  Ilokano  vowel phonemes d i f f e r i n e i t h e r o r b o t h o f t h e dimensions o f c o n t r a s t : tongue h e i g h t and tongue advancement.  Since a l l the  vowels a r e n o r m a l v o w e l s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t l i p p o s i t i o n i s a u t o m a t i c , n o n - d i s t i n c t i v e i n I l o k a n o , and t h e r e f o r e need n o t be i n c l u d e d as one o f t h e dimensions o f c o n t r a s t . Examples: t a / t a q / 'we' vs t l / t i q / 'the' vs t o / t o q /  'later'  Componential a n a l y s i s : Phonemes A/ Dimensions of C o n t r a s t  /a/ Components  —  Tongue h t .  close  Tongue adv. ( L i p pos.)  /of  -vs-  open  -vs-  half-open  front  front  -vs-  back  (spread!  (neutral]  (rounded)  148 H i s t o r i c a l l y / t h e I l o k a n o vowel system i n v o l v e d a three-way c o n t r a s t i n tongue Close  height:  /!/  /u/  /•/  /a/  /a/  /a/  -vsHalf-open -vsOpen  and a three-way c o n t r a s t i n tongue Front  Central  -vs-  /I/ -  /!/  advancement:  79/  _vs-  Back • /u/  /a/  /u/  hence, t h e vowel p a t t e r n : /u/  A/  7a/  /a/  I t i s assumed i n t h i s t h e s i s (Sec. 1.6) t h a t a b o r rowed sound i s a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e n a t i v e phonemic system  1:49 when t h e l o a n i s i n common use by n a t i v e speakers o f t h e language.  Thus, w i t h t h e i n f l u x i n t o t h e I l o k a n o l e x i c o n  o f q u i t e a number o f f o r e i g n words - m o s t l y S p a n i s h w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t l y used by t h e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , t h e phonenes / e / and / o / have become a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e I l o k a n o phonemic code. The l i s t below g i v e s o n l y a l i m i t e d s a m p l i n g o f t h e v a s t number o f S p a n i s h l o a n s i n t h e I l o k a n o d i a l e c t : asenso  /qa sen s o q /  •promotion  bolero  /bo le' r o q /  'a s h o r t j a c k e t *  dosena  /do s e n a q /  •dozen'  espeho  /qes pe' hoq/  •mirror*  fresko  /fres koq/  'fresh'  Guerrero  /ger r e r o q /  'a f a m i l y name'  Jos e'  /ho se'q/  •Joseph'  huego  /hwe goq/  'game, gambling*  Isabelo  / q i s a be l o q /  'a boy's name'  koreo  /ko r e y o q /  'mail, l e t t e r '  Leon  / l e yon/  •a boy's name'  melon  /me I o n /  'cantaloupe *  Noviembre  /no vyem b r e q /  'November'  onse  /qSn s e q /  'eleven'  pareho  /pa re" hoq/  •the same, s i m i l a r '  relo  /re  • c l o c k , time p i e c e '  Soledad  /so l e dacl./  !  l 5 q /  1  •a g i r l ' s name'  15Q torpe  / t o r peq/  'stupid*  uso  /qu s o q /  'usage/ custom'  voses  /vo s e s /  'voice'  welga  /wel gaq/  ' s t r i k e (of workers)'  yerro  /yer roq/  'galvanized i r o n sheet'  1  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, p r o b a b l y f o r s o c i a l and psychol o g i c a l reasons language"  - S p a n i s h b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d as a " p r e s t i g e  by many F i l i p i n o s - t h e / e / even g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d  t h e n a t i v e t e n s e schwa/ / 9 / / r e l e g a t i n g t h e l a t t e r t o t h e s t a t u s o f a n allophone*/ a t l e a s t a f r e e v a r i a n t , o f / e / . F o r example/ many I l o k a n o s g e n e r a l l y pronounce t h e o r t h o g r a p h i c e as / e / i n s t e a d o f /B/  i n such n a t i v e I l o k a n o words a s :  buteng  /bu t e n /  <  emma  /qem m&q/ <  [bU.'tan]  'fear'  [q9m.*maq]  'meekness*  k e t t e l e n / k e t t e l e h / c C k a t . t s . ' I a n ] 'to pluck ( f l o w e r s , e t c . ) ' O b v i o u s l y , t h e s u p e r s t r a t u m i n f l u e n c e reshaped digenous I l o k a n o vowel p a t t e r n (see page 147) i n t o : - u  F i g 2 10  I l o k a n o Vowel P a t t e r n  the i n -  151 The f o l l o w i n g commutation t e s t s f o r c o n t r a s t s s e r v e t o i d e n t i f y and r e i f y t h e v o w e l phonemes shown i n F i g u r e 10: 4/2211 (a) C o n t r a s t s i n a l l dimensions Hi  M  Ell  /q£ l i q /  •a n i c k n a m e  all  /qfi l i q /  'stain  oil  /qo l i q /  •vinyl'  ull  /qu< l i q /  'ascent'  'town'  liq/  1  1  bilang  /bl lan/  'number'  Belo  /be' l o q /  'a boy's nickname'  bala  /ba l a q /  'bullet'  bo l a  /bo l a q /  'ball'  bulo  /bu! l o q /  'a v a r i e t y o f bamboo'  dildil  /dil dfl/  •lick, lap'  deldel  /del  'smear  daldal  /daL d a l /  dollar  /doi  duldol  / d u l d'ol/  !  d'SV  1  'prattle'  lyar/ 'dollar* •insistence'  152.  4/2211 (b)  C o n t r a s t s i n tongue h e i g h t A/  /e/ inna  / q l n riaq/ 'mothers  siko  / s i koq/  silo  / s i l o q / ' l a s s o ' vs C e l o /se l o q / 'a boy's nickname'  il-11  / q i l q i l / 'whimper' vs e l - e l / q e l q e l / 'groove/  silya  / s i l l y a q / ' c h a i r ' vs s e l y o / s e i l y o q / 'stamp, s e a l '  1  vs enna /qen naq/  'elbow' vs seko /se k o q /  s ims im / s i m s i m / ' t a s t e ' vs s ems em /sem  ' s a l t water'  'dry'  sem/  line'  'annoyance*  /u/  /o/ k u r a /ku! r a q / ' c l e r g y ' vs Cora /ko r a q / 'a g i r l ' s nickname' p u l o /pu l o q / ' t e n ' vs p o l o / p o i l o q / 'polo  shirt'  1  puso /pu s o q / ' h e a r t ' vs poso /p6 s o q / ' a r t e s i a n w e l l ' tudo / t u doq/ ' r a i n ' vs todo / t o doq/ ' a l l ' tuyo / t u y o q /  ' r i c e b r a n ' vs toyo /t6 yoq/  gumi /gu. m i q /  ' c o t t o n b a l l ' vs goma /go maq/  lumut / l u mut/ 1  'moss' vs lomo / l o moq/  'soy  'rubber'  'loin'  l u t o / l u ! t o q / 'cooking' vs l o t e / l o t e q / ' l o t , u r a y /qu; r a y / ' w a i t ' vs oras /q'S yuvem /yu yem/  r a s / 'hour,  ' c l o u d y ' vs yoyo /yo yoq/  sauce'  lant'  time'  'yoyo (a t o y ) ' .  15? /e/  /a/ e l - e l / q e l q e l / 'groove, l i n e ' vs a l - a l / q a l q & l / ' p a n t i n g ' ispel  / q i s p e l / ' o b s t r u c t i o n i n t h e t h r o a t ' vs /qls  ispal  p£l/ 'defense'  Peggy /pe g i q / *a g i r l ' s name' vs p a g l /pa"< g i q / 'ray f i s h ' pekpek /pek pek/ ' f u l l y s t u f f e d ' vs pakpak /pak pak/ 'a k i n d of  rattle'  sepsep /sep s ep/ 'gnat' vs sapsap /sap s a p / 'a k i n d of f i s h ' !  /o/  /a/ apo /qa poq/ ' l o r d ' vs apa /qa paq/  'quarrel'  aso /qa s o q / 'dog* vs a s a /qa s a q / 'whet,  hone'  asok /qa s o k / 'smoke' vs asak /qa s a k / 'pass t h r o u g h t h i c k e t s ' baro /ba r o q / 'young man' vs b a r a /ba r a q / ' l u n g s ' no /n oq/ ' i f vs na /rfaq/ ' h i s , !  Pio  /pyo'q/ ' P i u s ' vs p i a /pyaq/  her, i t s ' 'health'  s i k o / s i k o q / 'elbow' vs s l k a / s i k a q / ' d y s e n t e r y ' to / t o q / ' l a t e r '  vs t a / t a q / 'our, we'  oras /qo r a s / 'time,* h o u r ' vs a r a s /qa r a s / 'mouth d i s e a s e of  children'  154 4/2211 ( c ) C o n t r a s t s i n tongue advancement -  //  /!/ adi  /qa d i q / ' r e f u s a l / d i s l i k e  u  vs adu /qa duq/ 'many'  1  H o / q i l o q / ' t o i l e t paper' vs u l o /qu l o q / 'head' H o g / q i l o g / 'creek' v s u l o g /qu l o g /  'descent*  ima / q i maq/ 'hand* v s uma /qu. maq/ ' i m p a t i e n c e ; 1  surfeit'  l n i t /q'i' n i t / 'sun' v s i n u t / q i n u t / 'a l i t t l e a t a t i m e ' i t a n g / q i t a n / 'a k i n d o f f e r n ' vs utang /qui t a n /  'debt'  p i d i t / p i d i t / ' e a r l o b e ' v s p l d u t / p i d u t / 'a t h i n g p i c k e d up' s l k a / s i ka'q/ 'you' vs suka / s u k a q / ' v i n e g a r ' t i m i d / t i m i d / ' c h i n ' v s timud / t i mud/ 'heed'  /e/  —  /o/  d i e s / d y e s / 'dime' v s D i o s / d y 5 s / 'God' k o t y e / k o t t y e q / ' c a r ' vs k o t y o / k o t t y o q / ' s l i p p e r shoe* Hemy / r e m i q / 'a g i r l ' s name' vs Romy / r o m i q / 'a boy's name' saem / s a qem/ ' i n t e n s e p a i n * vs saom / s a qom/ 'your word' seda /s'e' d a q / ' s i l k ' v s soda /s o d a q / 'soda* !  t u l e n g /tu! l e u / 'deaf* vs t u l o n g /tu! lonj?f ' h e l p '  The f r o n t - v e r s u s - b a c k c o n t r a s t does n o t o c c u r a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l i n t h e I l o k a n o vowel p a t t e r n .  155 4 .£212  Consonants  E a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i t was s c h e m a t i c a l l y shown t h a t jjust l i k e t h e v o w e l s , each I l o k a n o  consonant  phoneme i s a bundle o f p h o n o l o g i c a l components o r d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s ; t h a t consonants c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r i n two main d i m e n s i o n s : p o i n t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n and manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ; t h a t v o i c i n g i s a t h i r d  dimen-  s i o n o f c o n t r a s t among s t o p s and f r i c a t i v e s ; and t h a t by a t l e a s t one o f i t s components/ a consonant i s s e t o f f from e v e r y o t h e r consonant i n t h e system.  1  W i t h a v i e w t o e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e e n t i r e consonant p a t t e r n o f Ilokano,  1  t h e subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s  will  f u r t h e r i d e n t i f y each o f t h e phonemes as a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e i n a n i n t e r l o c k i n g network o f c o n t r a s t s . One t e c h n i q u e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e phonemes i s t o group them i n t o s e r i e s o r bundles i n w h i c h one p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e i s k e p t c o n s t a n t , and others,' v a r i a b l e .  A  p a r a l l e l s e r i e s o f o p p o s i t i o n s o r c o n t r a s t s based on t h e same f e a t u r e i s c a l l e d c o r r e l a t i o n /  4 .£212  (a) V o i c e v e r s u s B r e a t h  I l o k a n o has a c o r r e l a t i o n o f v o i c e between some s t o p s and f r i c a t i v e s - /p t k f / vs /b d g v / - t h u s :  156 Stop  Breath  {  p  {  b  64  Fric  Stop  Voice  Fric  v  The f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l p a i r s w i l l e s t a b l i s h t h e f u n c t i o n a l contrast or c o r r e l a t i o n of voice: /p/  /b/ apa /qa paq/ 'wafer' vs aba /qa b a q / 'a k i n d o f d e s i d u o u s p l a n t apay /qa pay/ 'why  1  vs abay /qa bay/ ' b e s i d e '  apog /qa pog/ ' l i m e ' vs abog /q& bog/ ' d r i v e away' a t a p /qa t a p / 'wedge' vs a t a b /qa t a b / ' f l o o d t i d e ' pagay /pa g a y / ' r i c e p l a n t ' vs bagay /ba g a y / ' f i t t i n g ' pa l a /pa l a q / ' s h o v e l ' vs ha l a /ha" l a q / ' b u l l e t ' p a r a /pa r a q / 'stop* vs b a r a /bk r a q / 'heat' p a r o t /pa r o t / 'uproot' vs b a r o t /bS r o t / 'wire* patang /pa t a n / ' c o n v e r s a t i o n ' vs batang /ba t£n/ 'one's t u r n ' payat /pa y a t / ' s t e p ' vs bayat /ba y a t / ' w h i l e '  64  Note t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n o f c o n t r a s t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n I s i n d i c a t e d by means o f heavy l i n e s ; t h e broken l i n e s m e r e l y show p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between phonemes i n t h e t o t a l phoneme p a t t e r n t h a t i s t o be e v o l v e d .  1  15?  P P  a t a  y / P t a y / 'death' vs b a t a y /ba t a y / 'step a  ladder'  / P q'ot/ 'awareness' vs buot /bu q o t / 'mildew'  u o t  u  siri£ / s i r i p / 'peek' v s s i r i b / s i r i b / 'wisdom' t a e  P / t a qep/ ' r i c e c h a f f o r h u l l ' v s t a e b / t a q e V 'contemporary'  A/ /a/  baket /ba k i t / ' o l d woman' vs baked /ba k e d / 'brawn' batanfi /  b a  t a n / 'one's t u r n ' v s badang /ba dan/ ' l a r g e b o l o '  b a v a t /ba y a t / ' d u r a t i o n ' vs bayad / b l y a d / 'payment' bukot /bu k o t / 'back' vs bukod /bu k o d / 'by o r f o r o n e s e l f i g a t /qt g a t / ' e e l ' vs i g a d /qi  gad/ ' g r a t e r *  i t a / q i t a q / 'now' vs i d a / q i daq/ 'them' i t l / q i t i q / ' t h e ' vs i d i / q i d£q/ ' b e f o r e ' P i l i t /p£ l i t /  ' i n s i s t e n c e ' vs p i l i d /pf l i d /  'wheel'  s i l e t / s i l e t / ' s m a l l i n t e s t i n e s ' vs s i l e d / s i l i d / 'room' t a / t a q / 'we ( d u a l ) ' v s da /daq/ 'they' tawa / t a waq/  'window' vs dawa /da waq/  ' f r u i t of r i c e p l a n t '  t u k o t / t u k o t / 'bottom' vs t u k o d / t u k o d / 'fathom, measure' te  PP^ : Aep p e l / ' r e s t r a i n t ' v s d e p p e l /dep pSl/ 'thumbmark' ]  158  A/  /g/ batok /"ba t o k / ' d i v e * vs batog /ba t o g / 'row' bennek /ben nek/ 'mollusk'  vs benneg /ben neg/ ' a i s l e  1  b e t t e k / b e t t e k / 'a bundle o f r i c e ' vs b e t t e g / b e t t e g / 'distinction' kapas /ka p a s / ' c o t t o n ' vs gapas /ga p a s / ' h a r v e s t ' kawat /ka wat/ 'anchor' vs gawat /ga wat/ 'famine' k i t a / k J t a q / ' k i n d , c l a s s ' vs g i t a /g£ taq/'venom' kunnot /kun n o t / 'suck' vs gunnot /gun n o t / ' f i b r o u s t i s s u e k u r a /ku r a q / ' c l e r g y ' vs g u r a /gu  1  raq/'hatred'  k u r i k o r /ku r i k o r / ' e a r p i c k ' vs g u r l g o r /gu r l g o r / ' f e v e r ' n a r u k i t /na r u k£t/ ' c u l t i v a t e d ' vs n a r u g i t / n a r r u g i t / ' d i r t y ' s u k a t / s u k a t / 'measurement' vs sugat /su. g a t / 'wound' t a k t a k . / t a k t a k / ' d e l a y ' vs tagtag_ / t a g t a g / 'shake'  /f/  /v/  f a l d a / f a " l d a q / ' s k i r t ' vs V a l d a  (pas t i l i a s de) / v a l daq/  •tablets f o r sore t h r o a t ' f i n o / f f n o q / ' f i n e ' vs v i n o /v£ noq/ 'wine' C l e o f e / k l y S f e q / 'a g i r l ' s name' vs H a v e / l y a v e q / 'key'  159 f a l s o / f a l s o q / ' d e f e c t i v e ' vs v a l s e / v a l s e q / ' w a l t z ' f e c h a / f e t t y a q / 'date* vs v e c h i n / v e t t y i n / 'a brand o f sodium  glutamate'  f e r i a / f e r r y a q / ' f a i r , c a r n i v a l * vs v e r d e / v e r d e q / 'green* f i e s t a /fyes t a q / ' f e a s t , h o l i d a y * vs VIernes  /vySr n e s /  •Friday' f u e r a /fwe r a q / ' b e s i d e s , e x c e p t ' vs v u e l o /vwe l o q / ' f l i g h t ' i n f i e r n o / q i n f y e r n o q / ' h e l l ' vs Noviembre /no vyem b r e q / 'November' R u f i n o / r u f i n o q / 'a boy's name' v s Gavlno /ga v i n o q / •a boy's name'  4.2212 (b) C o n t r a s t s i n P o i n t o f A r t i c u l a t i o n Along t h i s dimension,  I l o k a n o has i n i t s s t o p s  a four-way - a l t h o u g h n o t o v e r - a l l - c o n t r a s t i n v o l v i n g bilabial-dental-velar-glottal position.  The s t o p s and  n a s a l s e x h i b i t a l a b i a l - d e n t a l - v e l a r bundle o f c o r r e l a t i o n s , thus: p  ^  •  i ' b • i •  m  k  t 1  '  ' d i  i  i  n '  q  i  . t g i i i  n  I n t h e semiconsonants, t h e r e i s o f course a twoway c o n t r a s t - b i l a b i a l and a l v e o l a r :  160 There i s a three-way c o n t r a s t between b r e a t h t i v e s , i . e., l a b i o d e n t a l - a l v e o l a r - v e l a r . The  frica-  fricatives  i n t r o d u c e a d i o r a m i c p a t t e r n of c o n t r a s t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the s t o p s ,  thus:  65.:  f t  m  n  w  U n l i k e the v o w e l s , the consonants do not themselves t o f o r m u l a t i o n i n o v e r l y neat pattern.  lend  symmetrical  F o r example, t h e l a c k of p a r a l l e l o p p o s i t i o n  between / q / and a f r i c a t i v e o r a v o i c e d c o r r e l a t e l e a v e s  65  The " d i a g o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s " i n p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n between s t o p s and f r i c a t i v e s - /p t k b/ vs / f s h v/ a r e a l s o t h e c o r r e l a t e s i n "manner". To a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l be e x e m p l i f i e d under the l a t t e r c a t e gory.  161  a linguistic system.  h o l e o r case v i d e i n the I l o k a n o consonant  T h i s phenomenon can be c o n s i d e r e d a  linguistic  u n i v e r s a l , f o r , as Edward S a p i r s a i d , no language forms a w a t e r t i g h t system, and we s h o u l d be s u s p i c i o u s i f ,too p r e t t y a p i c t u r e r e s u l t s from t h e phonemic a n a l y s i s of a phonetically assymetrical situation. A d o p t i n g the term i n s o c i o m e t r i c s , t h e s t o p , / q / , may be c o n s i d e r e d an " i s o l a t e "  glottal  i n t h e whole  p a t t e r n , i . e., i t c o n t r a s t s w i t h o n l y one phoneme, /k/. To f u l l y e s t a b l i s h i t s i d e n t i t y , i t w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r b r e a t h s t o p s - /p t k/ vs / q / .  The use of m i n i m a l t r i p l e t s , m i n i m a l p a i r s and subminimal p a i r s w i l l e s t a b l i s h c o r r e l a t i o n s a l o n g t h e p o i n t - d i m e n s i o n of c o n t r a s t , t h u s :  /p/ pay /pay/ ' y e t , s t i l l  / / t  1  /k/  vs t a y / t a y / 'the; we' vs kay  / k a y / 'you' sapsap /sap s a p / *a k i n d o f f i s h ' vs s a t s a t / s a t s a t / /''rip ( c l o t h e s ) * vs saksak /sak s a k / ' s t a b ' s i p s i p a n / s i p s i pan/ 'to s i p ' vs s l t s l t a n / s i t s i t a n / 'to d r a i n * vs s i k s l k a n / s i k s i k a n / *to remove t h e s c a l e s of a f i s h *  162 /d/  /b/  /g/  sabsab / s a b s a b / ' v o r a c i o u s e a t i n g  1  vs sadsad / s a d siad/  'aground' vs sagsag / s a g s a g /  'ruined'  bawbaw /baw baw/ ' t o p l e s s , r o o f l e s s * vs dawdaw /daw daw/ 'extended p a r t ' vs gawgaw /gaw gaw/ ' s t a r c h *  /m/  /y  /n/  lmama / q i ma maq/ * t o chew something w i t h b e t e l n u t * vs l n a n a / q i n a h a q / * r e s t * v s lnganga / q i na n a q / 'to open t h e mouth' semsem /sem sem/ 'annoyance' v s sensen / s e n s e n / 'compress* vs sengseng / s e n s e n / ' s t u f f *  /p/  / t /  p e l p e l / p e l p e l / ' s t u f f e d mouth' v s t e l t e l / t e l t i l / pulong /pu I o n / 'assembly' vs t u l o n g Aft I o n /  'nape'  'help'  purong /pu r 5 n / 'a k i n d o f f i s h ' vs t u r o n g / t u r o n / ' t r e n d ' p u t o t /pu t o t / 'progeny' vs t u t o t / t u t o t / ' r e s i n , sap* r l k e p / r i k e p / ' s h u t t e r ' vs r i k e t / r i k i t / ' d i f f i c u l t y *  A/  /k/  a r y e t / q a r y e t / ' a s c a r l s ' vs a r y e k / q a r y e k / ' t i c k l e ' t a / t a q / 'we, t h e two o f u s * vs k a / k a q / *you*  tabo /ta boq/ 'dipper* vs kabo /k£ boq/ 'corporal' t a l i /ta l i q / 'rope' vs k a l i /ka l i q / 'hawk' tapa /ta paq/ 'dried meat' vs kapa /ka paq/ 'cape' A/  /q/  amak /qa mak/ 'my father' vs ama /qa maq/ 'father' baket /ba ket/ 'old woman' vs baet /ba qet/ 'between/ bukot /bit kot/ 'back' vs buot /bu qot/ 'mildew, mold' k i l o /k£ loq/ 'kilogram' vs l l o / q i loq/ ' t o i l e t paper' kapa /ka paq/ 'cape' vs apa /qa paq/ 'wafer' tako /ta koq/ 'dipper' vs tap /ta qoq/ 'person? /t/  /q/  bato /ba toq/ 'stone' vs bao /ba qoq/ ' r a t ' rangtay /ran tay/ 'bridge' vs rang-ay /ran qay/ 'progress' sangit /sa a i t / 'cry* vs sangi /sa niq/ 'molars' tasa /ta saq/ 'cup' vs asa /qa saq/ 'hone, whet' tayab /ta yab/ ' f l i g h t ' vs ayab /qa yab/ ' c a l l ' tidda / t i d daq/ 'remainder' vs idda /qid daq/ 'bed' tubo /tu boq/ 'sprout, shoot' vs ubo /qu boq/ 'leak' /p/.  / / q  paypa^ /pay pay/ 'fan' vs ay-ay /qay qay/ ' p i t y ' sapad /s& pad/ 'bunch of bananas' vs saad /sa qad/ 's tatus' sapo /sa poq/ 'ointment' vs sao /sa qoq/ 'word'  164  /t /  /s/  f l a n s a / f y a n s a q / ' b a i l ' vs s l a n s l /syan s i q / ' s p a t u l a * f l n o /ft n o q / , ' f i n e ' vs s i n o / s i n o q / 'who' f u e r t e /fwer t e q / ' s t r o n g * vs s u e r t e /swer t e q / ' l u c k y ' Hufo / r u f o q / 'a boy's name* vs Ruso / r u s o q /  /s/  'Russian'  /h/  a s l /qa s i q / 'compassion' vs a h i t /q£ h i t /  'shave*  L i s a / i f s a q / 'a g i r l ' s name' vs l i h a /l£ h a q / 'sandpaper' mason /ma s o n / 'mason' vs mohon /mo hon/ 'landmark' r a s a / r a s a q / 'race o f man' vs r a h a / r a h a q / ' c h i e f t a i n ' Sues /swes/ 'Suez C a n a l ' v s hues /hwe"s/ 'judge' /b/  /d/  bagas /ba g5s/ ' r i c e * vs dagas /da g5s/ ' s t o p o v e r ' banag /ba n a g / 'outcome' vs danag /&& n a g / 'worry' b a r a /ba' r a q / 'heat' vs d a r a /da r a q / ' b l o o d ' !  bua /bwaq/ 'areca n u t ' vs dua /dw5q/ 'two' k u r a b /ku r a b / 'a b i g b i t e ' vs k u r a d / k f i r a d / 'ringworm*  /d/ —  /g/  a d a l /qa d a l / ' l e a r n i n g ' v s a g a l /q£ g a l / ' c o m p l a i n t ' ;  a l l n e d n e d /qa l i ned ried/ ' u t t e r d a r k n e s s ' vs a l l n e g n e g /qa l i neg n e g / 'depths'  165 bangad /ba nad/ 'stubborn' vs bangag /ba nag/ 'low pitched' betted /bet ted/ 'cramps' vs betteg /bet teg/ ' d i s t i n c t ' dapo /da pSq/ 'ashes' vs gapo /ga poq/ 'reason* cause' dita /di tSq/ 'there' vs gita /gi taq/ ' o i l y taste of nuts' tulad /tu lad/ 'imitate' vs tulag /tu lag/ 'agreement' turod /tu rod/ ' h i l l ' vs turog /tu rog/ 'sleep' udaod /qu da qod/ 'bow ( v i o l i n ) ' vs ugaog /qu ga qog/ •weeping' umadaw /qu m&' daw/ 'to borrow f i r e from a neighbor' vs umagaw /qu ma gaw/ 'to snatch away' /m/  / / n  ammong. /qam mon/ ' p i l e , heap' vs annong /qan nSn/ 'burden' amag. /qa mag/ 'mold, mildew' vs anag. /q5 nag/ 'implication' ayam /qa yarn/ 'chicken t i c k ' vs ayan /qa ySn/ 'place' damag /da mag/ 'news' vs danag /da" nag/ 'worry' manang /mC nan/ ' s i s t e r ' vs nanang /nS. nan/ 'mother' matay. /ma tay/ ' w i l l die' vs natay /na tay/ 'died' mo /mSq/ 'your' vs no /n6q/ 'if» /n/  /n/  aneo /qa nep/ 'diligence' vs angep /qa nep/ 'fog* bulan /bu lan/ 'moon' vs bulang /bu lan/ 'cockfighting' na /naq/ 'his,' her, i t s ' vs nga /naq/ »a ligature' nepneo /nep nep/ 'rainy days' vs ngepngeo /nep nep/ 'darkness' tunaw /tfi naw/ 'dissolve' vs tungaw /tfi naw/ ' i t c h bug'  166  /w/awan /qa wan/ ' n o t h i n g  1  -/y/  vs ayan /qa y a n / 'where*  nawaya /na wa y a q / 'at l i b e r t y ; s p a c i o u s ' vs nayaya /na y a y a q / 'dissuaded' wakawakan /wa k a wa k a n / 'to s p r i n k l e w i t h powder' vs !  yakayakan /ya k a y a k a n / ' s i e v e *  4;2212 ( c ) C o n t r a s t s i n Manner o f A r t i c u l a t i o n I l o k a n o has a six-way c o n t r a s t i n t h i s thus: Stops &  Fricatives  Nasals  Lateral  Flap  Semivowels  w  dimension,  167 Two two  a s p e c t s of the p a t t e r n s h o u l d be n o t e d .  First,  p o t e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e  series  a r e not u t i l i z e d , s i n c e I l o k a n o l a c k s the d e n t a l and voiced f r i c a t i v e s , t h e r e a r e two  / z / and  /*jj*/, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  s e t s of c o r r e l a t i o n , i . e.,  s h v/, and  s a l c o r r e l a t i o n , /b d g/ vs /m  n/.  The and  Secondly,  the s t o p - f r i c a -  t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , /p t k b/ vs ff n  the  stop-na-  f o l l o w i n g l i s t of m i n i m a l p a i r s , m i n i m a l t r i p l e t s , -  subminimal p a i r s w i l l f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h the emic  of the  velar  status  consonants: /p/  /ff p i a n o /pya  noq/  'piano' vs f l a n s a / f y a n s a q /  p u e r t a /pwer t a q / p i k o /pf koq/ p i l i /pi  'bail'  ' e n t r a n c e ' vs f u e r t e / f w e r t e q /  ' p i c k ax' vs f i h o / f f hoq/  l i q / 'choice'  'strong'  'sure, c e r t a i n '  vs f l l a / f l l a q / ' f i l e ,  line'  p r i s o / p r f soq/  ' p r i s o n e r ' vs f r l t o / f r f t o q /  punto /pun  ' i n t o n a t i o n , twang' vs fundo / f u n doq/  a l a t /qa  toq/  l a t / ' f i s h b a s k e t ' vs a l a s /qa  'fried' 'fund'  l a s / 'indecency'  168 b a t a /ba t a q / 'bathrobe' vs basa /ba s a q / k u t i t /ku. t i t /  'read'  'rump' vs k u s i t /ku s i t / ' d e c e i t '  t a r a / t a r a q / 'an a r o m a t i c p l a n t ' vs s a r a / s a r a q / tanga / t a naq/  ' s t u p i d ' vs sanga / s a naq/  t a t a / t a t a q / ' u n c l e ' vs t a s a / t a s a q / tawar / t a war/  'antler'  'branch'  'cup'  ' b a r g a i n ' vs sawar / s a war/  'search'  A/ A/ kaka /ka kaq/  ' e l d e r s i b l i n g ' vs kaha /ka haq/  Kiko / k i koq/  'a boy's name' vs i h o  / q i hoq/  'box, 'son'  k o l a /ko l a q / 'paste' vs h o i en /h'6 l e n / 'marbles !  k u e t e s /kwe  !  t e s / ' f i r e w o r k s ' vs hueteng /hwe  piko /pf koq/  ' p i c k a x ' vs f i h o / f a ' hoq/  pikon /pf kon/  ' f o l d ' vs b i h o n /bf hon/  case'  (toy)'  ten/  'raffle'  'certain, sure' 'rice sticks'  /V  A/ b a r a /ba r a q / 'heat' vs v a r a /va r a q / 'a v a r i a b l e u n i t o f l e n g t h , about 2.8 b i e n e s /bye n e s /  feet'  ' r e a l e s t a t e p r o p e r t y * vs V i e r n e s  /vyer nes/ 'Friday* b i s i l /bf s i l /  * g r a v e l * vs v i s t a / v i s t a q /  'view'  169  /V  /m/ agob /qa gob/ ' s m e l l o f o l d r i c e ' vs agora /qa gom/ 'covet' ayab /qa y a b / ' c a l l ' vs ayam /qa yam/ ' c h i c k e n t i c k ' b a l o / b 5 l o q / 'widow(er)' vs malo /m§, l o q / 'wooden c l u b  1  b a t a y /ba t a y / ' s u p p o r t ' vs matay /ma t a y / ' t o d i e ' bayo /bH y o q / 'pounding' vs Mayo /ma y o q / 'May' buyot /bu y o t / ' t r o o p s ' vs muyot /mu y o t / ' c r a z e ' b e r b e r / b e r b e r / ' d r a f t ' vs mermer /mer mer/ 'dust shower' l a b e s / l a b e s / 'beyond' vs lames / l a mes/ ' f i s h '  /d/  /n/ a g a d i /qa ga d i q / 'two c o n s e c u t i v e s i b l i n g s ' vs a g a n i /qa ga n i q / ' h a r v e s t e r ' da / d a q / 'they, t h e i r ' vs na  /riaq/ ' h i s , h e r , i t s '  i n d a y o n / q i n da y o n / 'swing' vs innayon / q i n na y o n / /'added t o ' /g/  agot /qa g o t / 'ointment' vs angot /qa n o t / ' s m e l l ' ;  Pia-g /hyag/  ' l i f e ' vs b i a n g /byan/  'care, concern'  170 b u l o g /bu I 6 g / ' u n c a s t r a t e d male a n i m a l /bu log./ ' l e a f  1  vs bulong  1  g e r g e r / g e r g e r / 'grooved l i n e ' vs n g e r n g e r / n e r n e r / 'snarl' k u l u g e n / k u l u g e n / 'to shake' vs k u l u n g e n / k u l u n e n / 'to  fence i n '  /m/  /w/ ama /qa maq/ 'my f a t h e r ' vs awa /qa waq/ 'a l a r g e m i l k :  fish'  ameng /qa men/ 'miser' vs aweng /qa wen/ 'resonance* ima /qf maq/ 'hand' vs i w a / q l waq/ ' s l i c e ' 1  kammet /kam met/ 'a h a n d f u l ' vs kawwet /kaw w e t / 'cockspur*  /n/  A/ a g n i s n i s /qag n i s nl's/  ' t o wipe w i t h a r a g ' vs a g l i s l i s  /qag l i s l i s / 'to t u c k up one's s l e e v e s o r s k i r t ' agnutnot /qag n u t n o t / ' t o thumbsuck' vs a g l u t l o t /qag l u t l o t / ' t o become muddy' nana /na n a q / 'pus' v s l a n a / l a ' n a q / ' o i l * nawnawen /naw n& wen/ ' t o d i s s o l v e ' vs lawlawen /law l a wen/ ' t o s u r r o u n d '  171 nlwniw /nlw n l w / ' v e r t i g o ' vs l f w l l w / l i w l a w / ' f i s h i n g r o d ' nungnungan /nun nu n a n / ' t o f a v o r ' vs l u n g l u n g a n /lug.  l u nan/ 'kitchen u t e n s i l s '  /!/ /r/ labong / l a hog./ ' l o o s e ' vs rabong / r a bon7 'bamboo s h o o t ' l a em la  / l a qem/  'house p r o p e r ' vs raem / r a qem/  m e s / l a me's/ ' f i s h ' vs rames / r a mes/  'respect'  'disrespect'  J-asl / l a s l q / ' d a n d r u f f vs r a s l / r a s l q / ' q u a l i t y o f being f r a g i l e ' l i a l i / l i y a l i q / 'sway' vs r i a r i / r i ya r i q / 'male c i c a d a ' ;  n a l a y l a y /na l a y l a y / ' w i l t e d ' vs n a r a y r a y /na r a y r a y / 'burning/ s p a r k l i n g ' s a l a /sa l a q / 'dance' vs s a r a /sac r a q / 'horns' !  /r/  /y/ r a g r a g / r a g r a g / ' r u i n ' vs yagyag /yag y a g / ' i n s u l t ' r e p r e p / r e p r e p / 'crowd' vs yepyep /yep yep/ ' q u i e t ' r u k u r o k / r u ku r o k / ' e r o s i o n ' vs yukuyok /yu k u yok/ 1  'sieve' wara /wa r a q / ' l i t t e r ' vs waya /wa y a q / 'spare t i m e '  172  P i g , 11.  I l o k a n o Consonant P a t t e r n (A Summary)  n  1  r  y  173 4.2213 Suprasegmental The  Prosodemes  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of o v e r l a p p i n g o r i n t e r l o c k i n g  of s u p r a s e g m e n t a l f e a t u r e s a r e u n l i m i t e d .  However, j u s t  as i n the case of t h e e t i c a n a l y s i s (Sec. 3*3)» the f e a t u r e s a r e here t r e a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n o r d e r t o  estab-  l i s h - o r n o t e s t a b l i s h - t h e i r i d e n t i t y as prosodemes. From the w e l t e r of e t i c d a t a , the w r i t e r assumes t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s as emic norms t o be e s t a b l i s h e d as separate  prosodemes t h r o u g h c o n t r a s t :  Dimensions o f C o n t r a s t A.  Features  S t r e s s (x = s y l l a b l e )  Length:  Pitch,  / x ' x / vs  /'xx/  Vowel  /V/  vs /V:/  Consonant  /c/  vs /cc/  / l /  vs /3/  /2/  vs /3/  /3/  vs / V  /2/  vs / l /  4/  vs  /I/  vs  Intonation  and J u n c t u r e  (PIJ)  r/\/  174 4/2213 (a)  Stress  On pages 127 and the e t i c s t r e s s p a t t e r n s  128  o f t h i s t h e s i s i s a summary o f  of Ilokano.*  i s concerned n o t about s u c h p a t t e r n s  The  present a n a l y s i s  per s e , but whether  o r n o t s t r e s s i s a n emic u n i t a t a l l i n the l a n g u a g e . the emic s t r e s s o r stroneme i s e s t a b l i s h e d , patterns of Sec.  Once  the stroneme  can l i k e w i s e be e s t a b l i s h e d - t h i s i s the domain  4.222, V a r i a t i o n !and D i s t r i b u t i o n . Thus, o n l y  :  two-way c o n t r a s t strong  of s t r e s s - i .  the  e.', weak (unmarked) v e r s u s  (') - w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . That I l o k a n o has a weak-strong c o n t r a s t  i n stress  i s e v i d e n c e d by the f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l p a i r s : agraman /qag  ra! man/  anayen /qa na yen/  ' i n c l u d i n g ' v s /qag  r a man/  'to t a s t e *  *to be consumed by t e r m i t e s ' v s  /qa na.-yen/ 'to make complete o r r s u f f i c i e n t ' ayam  /q& yam/  ' p l a y , game' v s /qa  bawang /ba; wan/ d a t a /da  1  ' g a r l i c * v s /ba wlln/  ' e a s t ' vs /da  i t a y a / q i t a yaq/ 1  liq/  kayo /ka yoq/ !  p i l a w /p£  law/  sanga /s& naq/  yaq/  'chicken t i c k *  'ravine'  t a q / 'supine p o s i t i o n ' v s /da  daya /da yaq/  k a l i /ka  yam/  t a q / 'the two  ' t r e e * v s /ka yoq/  us'  'gathering'  *to r e c e i v e * v s / q i t a yaq/  ' d i t c h ' v s /ka l i q /  of  *to  bet'  'hawk' 'you  ' b l e m i s h ' v s / p i iaw/  (plural)' 'pool of s t a g n a n t w a t e r '  ' l a r v a of c l o t h e s moth* vs / s a naq/  'branch*  175 suso / s u s o q / ' b r e a s t ' vs / s u s'S'q/ a k i n d o f s n a i l ' f  t a y a b / t 5 ' y a b / 'earthen p o t ' vs / t a yfib/  4.2213 (1)  (b)  'flight'  Length  Vowel L e n g t h  In Ilokano, v o c a l i c length i s phonetic  and a u t o m a t i c ,  i.  e.-,' i t c o - o c c u r s w i t h s t r e s s a t l e a s t i n an open s y l l a b l e .  The  contrast i n the f o l l o w i n g minimal p a i r s i s a f u n c t i o n of  t h e s t r e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e vowel l e n g t h i s c o - o c c u r r e n t : badang  ['ba': .dog]  /b& d a n / ' h e l p ' vs  [ba.'dan] /ba d a n / ' l a r g e b o l o ' bara  ['ba:.raq] /ba r a q / 'heat' vs [ b a . ' r a q ] /ba r a q /  gita  'lungs*  L S i * • t a q ] / g i t a q / 'venom' vs 1  [ g l . ' t a q ] / g i t a q / ' o i l y taste of nuts' sika  [ ' s i : . k a q ] / s i k a q / ' d y s e n t e r y ' vs [sl.'kaq] / s i k a q / 'you'  tudo  ['tu:.doq] / t u d o q / ' r a i n ' vs [tU.'doq] / t u doq/ 'point'  tugot  ['tu:.got] / t u got/  ' b r i n g * vs  [tU.'got] / t u g5t/ ' f o o t p r i n t ' The  f o l l o w i n g examples i n w h i c h t h e vowel i n b o t h  the w e a k l y - and t h e s t r o n g l y - s t r e s s e d c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s i s l e n g t h e n e d , w i l l f u r t h e r prove t h a t vowel l e n g t h i s m e r e l y a phonetic  - even i d i o s y n c r a t i c - r e a l i z a t i o n :  176 «V:  V:  ['ba:.dan] o r [»ba:.da:n] /ba dan/ ['gi:.taq]  or ['gi:.ta:q]  /gi" t a q / 'venom  ['tu:.doq] o r ['tu:.do:q] / t u doq/ V  V  'help'  'rain'  'V:  [ba.'dan]  or [ba.'da:n] /ba dan/  [gl.'taq]  or [ g l . ' t a : q ] / g i t a q / ' o i l y t a s t e of  [tU. doq]  or [tU.«do:q] / t u doq/  if  'large bolo' nuts'  'point'  Therefore,' vowel l e n g t h , whether o r n o t i t c o - o c c u r s w i t h s t r e s s , ' i s not phonemic i n I l o k a n o , s i n c e i t does not c o n s t i t u t e a meaningful or f u n c t i o n a l c o n t r a s t . r a l i z a t i o n can be s t a t e d ' i n the  (2)  T h i s gene-  rule:  C ons onant L e n g t h :  I l o k a n o consonants have a two-way c o n t r a s t i n l e n g t h . A p h o n e t i c a l l y l o n g consonant, [ C : ] , becomes o r i s i n t e r p r e t e d p h o n e m i c a l l y as geminate - i . ' e., a sequence of  two  phonemes, the consonant f o l l o w e d by i t s e l f , /CC/  - since I t  c o n t r a s t s w i t h a s i n g l e consonant, /G/.'  stated:  [C:]  >  /CC/  vs  Briefly /C/  177 The  f o l l o w i n g l i s t of m i n i m a l p a i r s w i l l  justify  the phonemic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l o n g consonants as geminates in  Ilokano: /C/  amo  v s /GC/  /qa moq/ 'boss' vs ammo /qam m'oq/  'knowledge'  b a l a /ba- l a q / ' b u l l e t ' v s b a l l a / b a l l a q / ' l u n a t i c ' Ida / q l daq/ i k a n / q i kan/  'them' vs i d d a / q i d daq/  'bed'  ' f i s h ' vs ikkan / q i k kah/  'give*  i t a / q i t a q / *now' v s i t t a / q i t t a q / 'unhusked k e r n e l o f r i c e mixed w i t h husked r i c e * l a b a / l a baq/  ' l a u n d r y ' v s l a b b a / l a b baq/  m l k i /ml k i q / 'noodles' v s m l k k i /mik 1  naganak /na g a nak/  'large basket'  k i q / 'fastidiousness'  'gave b i r t h ' v s nagannak /na gan  nak/  'parents•  4.&213 (c) The  P i t c h ? I n t o n a t i o n and J u n c t u r e ( P U )  c o n t r a s t i n P I J i s a c o n t r a s t o f combinations  o r bundles o f t h e i r f e a t u r e s , s i n c e t h e s e a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s or co-occurrent. dles  L i n g u i s t s c a l l s u c h c o m b i n a t i o n s o r bun-  'contour p a t t e r n s . '  However, t h e c o n t r a s t s  intended  h e r e a r e v e e r e d not t o the p a t t e r n s per s e but t o the  indi-  v i d u a l t e n t a t i v e prosodemes t h a t compose them. Thus,' w h i l e i t i s true,' and  r e l e v a n t , t h a t /21^/ v s  (see (1) below) a r e c o n t r a s t i v e p a t t e r n p a i r s / i t i s  1?8 more r e l e v a n t a t t h i s s t a g e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g  t h e prosodemes,  t o c o n s i d e r t h e o p p o s i t i o n i n terms o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l component f e a t u r e s - / l / vs /3/ and / ] , / vs / [ / - a l t h o u g h n o t disregarding the g e s t a l t .  The p i t c h l e v e l , A A  i s i n this  case h e l d constant,- and c a n i n t u r n be e s t a b l i s h e d as an emic p i t c h o r toneme u s i n g t h e m i n i m a l p a i r , / 2 l V vs (see  (2) b e l o w ) .  /31\l/,  Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h o u l d a p p l y t o t h e  o t h e r p a t t e r n s as w e l l .  I t i s another i n s i g h t i n t o the  v i a b l e p r i n c i p l e t h a t an emic u n i t , be i t a segmental phoneme o r a s u p r a s e g m e n t a l prosoderne, i s a p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e i n t e r l o c k i n g network o f c o n t r a s t s . i n the opposition:  Thus, the i n d i v i d u a l  features  contrasted are: (1)  A4/ v s  /23T/  A / vs /3/  4/ (2)  A l J , / vs  (3)  A3f/  vs  (4)  /22|/  vs  /3l|/  /2>/t  /2li/  vs  /22|/  vs  A3t/  4/  A / vs /3/ /3/ v s A / A / vs A / /| / vs  (5)  i n an  /I / vs  /J,/ A/  / 2 / vs / 3 /  179 The f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a s t i v e u t t e r a n c e p a i r s s e r v e t o r e i f y t h e emic s t a t u s o f t h e t e n t a t i v e s u p r a s e g m e n t a l ...66 prosodernes enumerated above:  (1)  /2lj/ 2  Adda.  /23f/  vs  1  /qad d a q ^ /  Awan.  Ditoy,  3^ .  2 'There i s . '  vs  Adda? /qad d a q j /  'Is t h e r e ? ' o r 'Did you s a y ( e c h o ) , 'There i s ? ' /•qa wan^/ ' N o t h i n g . ' vs  Awan?  '(echo) N o t h i n g ? '  2  1-.  /di toyl/  'Here.'  /qa wan^/  3,  2  vs  Ditoy?  A  /di toyj/  '(echo) H e r e ? ' Juan.  /nwanj/  'John ( i s my name).' o r 'John (you a r e  called).'  vs  Juan? /nwan^/  'John ( y o u a r e c a l l e d ) . '  /2  1>  'No.*'  vs  '(echo) J o h n ?  2  Saan.  / s a qan^/  Wen.  or '(tag question) I s n ' t i t ? ' 2,1 i 2 3A / w e n l / 'Yes.' vs Wen? /wenj/  3#  1  or  A  Saan? / s a q a n j / '(echo) No?  #  1  '(echo) Y e s ? ' o r  ' ( t a g q u e s t i o n ) Y e s , you a g r e e , don't you?' o r 'Yes, w i l l you?'  (2) Awan.  /2l|/  vs  2 wan^/ 1 /qa  66  /3l|/ ' N o t h i n g . ' vs  3  1.  Awan? /qa wianj^/ 'Nothing?'  S h o r t u t t e r a n c e s which a r e p o t e n t i a l sentences have been a r b i t r a r i l y chosen because t h e y demonstrate f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s more c l e a r l y and e a s i l y t h a n do l o n g ones.  180 Ditpjr.  2 1 I / d i toyj,/  Wen.  /wen|/  (3)  /23|/  Ditoy?  vs  'Here.'  •Yes.'  vs  vs  3 1 Ditoy? / d i t o y j /  Wen?  /w'enj/  'Here?'  'Yes, w i l l you?'  /2^/  / ^ i "toyf/  '(echo) H e r e ? '  vs  Ditoy? / d i toyf/  •(Where, oh, where) H e r e ? '  (4) A  d  d  /22 J/ a  vs / 2 l J /  2 2, j «•» /qad d a q | /  'There i s a ...»  2 1 vs Adda, /qad d a q j /  'There i s . ' 2 JI I Juan ... /hwan / 'John ... (your surname, p l e a s e ) ' 2 ,1, J u a n , /hwanl/ ^  e n  (5)  'ilt-  /wen|/  /22J/  Adda ...  vs  'John.'  'Yes  (but)'  vs  Wen. /wenj,/ 'Yes.'  /23f/  2 /qad d a q j /  'Is t h e r e ? ' 2 2> i Awan ... /qa wan [/  'There i s a ...'  vs  Adda?  /qad daqj/  'There i s no ...'  vs  Awan?  2 3, /qa waVrf/  'Nothing?' o r ' I s n ' t t h e r e a n y ? ' 2 2; D i t o y ... / d i t o y ) / 'At t h i s ...» vs D i t o y ? •Here?'  vs  2 3 / d i toyf/  181 4.222  VARIATION and DISTRIBUTION : P h o n o t a c t l c s and Morphophonemics  Each o f the I l o k a n o phonemes and prosodemes e s t a b l i s h e d through c o n t r a s t i s f u r t h e r s p e c i f i e d by d e s c r i b i n g ^•ts v a r i a t i o n s , i y e.y i t s v a r i e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s c a l l e d a l l o p h o n e s o r "allodemes",' as w e l l as i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , w h i c h means the c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h the a l i o s o c c u r o r the p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h they a r e found w i t h r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r and t o o t h e r elements i n the stream o f speech.  A  s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r such d e s c r i p t i o n s would be an enumeration o f the phonemes and prosodemes a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d , f o r det a i l s of w h i c h r e f e r e n c e i s made t o Sec. 4.221. ;  The  emic  u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d through c o n t r a s t a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 5 vowels: 18 consonants:  / i , e, a, o, u/ /p, t , k, q,  b, d,- g, m, n, n,'  f , s, h, v, 1, r , w,' y/ 4 tonemes:  / l , 2,'  2 junctonernes:  /|,  2 stronemes:  /',  3 i n t o n a t i o n contours:  3,-  4/  J| ( s y m b o l i z e d as ^  or ^  )/  (unmarked)/ /|»^  »f /  I n Sec. 4.2212 (b) a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e examples showing  c o n t r a s t between /p,' t , k/ vs / q / , t h e r e b y  establish-  ing  them as s e p a r a t e phonemes o f the I l o k a n o d i a l e c t .  An  a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e phonemes, however, r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s  182 i n w h i c h t h e emic c o n t r a s t i s suspended - i .  e., t h e phon-  eme / q / i s a t t h e same t i m e an a l l o p h o n e o f t h e phonemes /p,  t,- k/.  T h i s s u s p e n s i o n o f emic o p p o s i t i o n i s o f t e n  c a l l e d n e u t r a l i z a t i o n / b u t a more a p t term f o r such l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon i s T r u b e t z k o y ' s "Aufhebung".*  I t will  be n o t e d t h a t t h e Aufhebung p r i n c i p l e a p p l i e s t o c e r t a i n phonemes as w e l l as prosodemes. C l o s e l y t i e d i n w i t h t h e concepts o f v a r i a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e those of phonotactlcs  and morphophonemics.  P h o n o t a o t i c s has been d e f i n e d as t h a t a r e a o f emic d e s c r i p t i o n which provides general  statements about  permitted  sequences o r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f phonemes and prosodemes i n short utterances/  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s be-  tween t h e emic shapes r e p r e s e n t i n g morphophonemics.  morphemes i s t h e t a s k o f  A r a t i o n a l e f o r i n c l u d i n g such d e s c r i p -  t i o n i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n a c t u a l speech I l o k a n o change shape due t o s e v e r a l c o m p l i c a t i n g o r otherwise.'  Phonotactic  morphemes  factors, linguistic  and morphophonemic d e s c r i p t i o n s  of t h e s t r u c t u r e o f I l o k a n o a r e s t a t e d i n t h e form o f r e write rules/ 4.2221  Phonotactlcs  4/2221 (a) Diphthongs The s t r u c t u r e o f an I l o k a n o  s y l l a b l e containing a  **From aufheben, a German word, meaning 'to suspend.'  183 d i p h t h o n g i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e r u l e :  Since Ilokano  has o n l y f i v e vowel phonemes, /i» e»  a, o, u / e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h c o n t r a s t , o n l y t h e s e vowels J  can be e m i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  as d i p h t h o n g  onglides.'  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e p a t t e r n s o f Ilokano  - described  i n Sec. 2,3 - t h e s t a t u s , f u n c t i o n , and !  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f /w/ and / y / may be d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : (1)  /w/ and /y/ a r e semivowels (v) when t h e y f u n c t i o n as d i p h t h o n g o f f g l i d e s ;  (2)  /w/ and / y / a r e semiconsonants ( c ) i n prevocalic or prediphthongal p o s i t i o n , and when t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e as t h e l a s t member o f a consonant c l u s t e r .  The  f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f /w/ and / y / i s some-  what a r b i t r a r y , y e t a n o t - q u i t e - e x a c t  d e f i n i t i o n which  i s w o r k a b l e enough i s b e t t e r t h a n none.' A t any r a t e , t h e a m b i v a l e n t s t a t u s o f t h e s e phonemes - i .  e., t h e y s t r u c -  t u r e w i t h b o t h consonants and vowels - can be R e s o l v e d f o r and w i t h i n a g i v e n language.  only  L e t t h i s be f o r I l o k a n o .  184 Two s e t s o f o r d e r e d r e w r i t e r u l e s convey t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s more c l e a r l y , namelyJ  (1)  /w/  o r / y / i s a semivowel (v) i f i t f u n c t i o n s  as an o f f g l i d e o f a d i p h t h o n g (Vv) -  Sd  .  >  CVv  (i)  • i f fJ / / p , t , k, \  1  D,  . . . /  (ii)  J  (iii)  ?/w/ v  ~~>|  Vy/ /  Examples: ->  /w/  a  / /  tillw  CI-  / /  (iv)  a A  o  vu / / t iliw/  baw-lnfi /baw q i n /  'catch' 'swerve*  185  v -— >  /y/  A  /  a  J  o kU  reyna  (2)  /w/  /rey naq/  'queen  1  daytoy /day toy/  * this  kasuy  'cashew  /ka suy/  1  1  or /y/ i s a semiconsonant (c) i n prevocalic  or predlphthongal position: (d)  fir  *  i?J  J/  ((C) /(C)(C)cv[ (v) l  ^  |/p, t , k, 1  ° v  "  *l  —->J  b, ...  (/l,  '/w/  (ii)  /1  I  e, a,-]  I o, u/  /  (i)  (ill)  J  /  (IV i (iv)  vy/  /  •A/ /  /_-  / (v)  Vy/  /  /  186 Examples:  CCcVC  o  >  /w/  /  isibroan / q i s i b brwah/'to inaugurate something f o r '  CvVv  ruay  /rway/ 'abundance*  cVC  awlt  /qa wit/ 'load  cV  walo  /wa l'Sq/ • e i g h t  CcV(C)  /swel doq/  c  CcW c  V  C  cV CcV(C)  1  1  ilualoan / q i lwa lwan/ 'top sueldo  CCcVC  /_  ->  Salary  /y/  /  1  /.  empleok  /qem plyok/ »my employment  diay  /dyay/  layus  / l a yus/ 'flood'  yelo  /ye l o q / ' i c e '  1  agsyudsyudut  4 ; 2 2 2 1  (b)  'that'  /qag syud syu dut/ / i s being peeved*  Consonant Clusters  The rules underlying the s t r u c t u r a l patterns of cont o i d clusters have been set up i n Sec. 3.24, s p e c i f i c a l l y pages 108 through 121.  The same rules apply to the conso-  nant clusters.' Without recapitulating the detailed e t i c descriptions, the rules are here re-stated emically,  thusj  187 I n i t i a l Clusters (IK)/ Prgvocalic  r/P, k, / P . - *A 1"  >  b  g, • + C  f  /!/  2  • /p, t, k,' !  IK  2  b,- d/ g,  >  r IK  3  1  >  A  cs  H  ezcept  v+ C  2  /w/  +  C  n - y/. f  IK^  >  /y/  2  Medial Clusters MK-L  >  MK  2  >  MK  3  >  >  IK-L except C-L / f / , but including C-jVt.d/,  >  MKc  MK,  >  C1  ->  C  ->  C  1  1  1  + C  b,  2  /r/+ C  3  /y/  d/J  /p/  +  C  2  /l/ +  C  3  /p/  +  C  2  /r/ +  C  3  /y/ /w/'  188 Ci  1  Pinal Clusters (PK)y Postvocalic  FK,  CT  >  1  1  \ n / r / )  1  r+  c  ? /s/ 2  —> i i ,r c  ^2  PK^  >  C  1  FK^  >  C  X  4/2221 (c)  /r/  /s/  +  +  2  c  C  C  2  /  k  /  a ft/  Vowels  Of the nine Ilokano vocoids charted from the corpus of phonetic data, (Fig. 7), only five proved to be phonemes of the dialect, (Pig. 10). [ l t 3 »  The four others,  cu o], are subsumed as positional variants or a l l o -  phones, since they are in non-contrastive distribution i.  e.,  either in complementary distribution or in free  variation - with their respective phonemic norms.  Details  of such distributional relationships have been presented in the etic descriptions on pages 46 through 68 of this thesis.  In the present emic description, however, they  w i l l be considered briefly, giving a few illustrative examples of each.  189 Variation: Phoneme  Allophone  /!/  [i]  Distribution:  Stressed s y l l a b l e , all  [i]  [e]  /si l i q / ['si:.liq] 'pepper'  positions.  Unstressed s y l l a b l e , all  /e/  Example  C o n d i t i o n s o f Occurrence  /si lid/ [si.'lid]  positions.  Everywhere - i . e.,  /hi  f e q / ['he:.feq] 'chief  s t r e s s e d and u n s t r e s s ed s y l l a b l e s - a l l positions . [9]  I n free v a r i a t i o n with  /bek  [e],  [bek.ke.'len]  except i n l o a n  words.  /a/  [a]  ke l e n /  [bak.ke. 'lan] 'to  strangle'  Stressed s y l l a b l e ,  /nan  na n i q /  all  [nan.'na:.niq]  positions.  'almost' [a]  /o/  [o]  Unstressed s y l l a b l e ,  /na g a n / ['na:.gan]  all  •name'  positions,  Everywhere, a l l  /ma bo l o q /  positions.  [ma.'bo:.loq] 'a k i n d o f f r u i t ' /ko  l o r / [ko.'lor]  'color' /so l o q / [ ' s o : . l o q ] 'alone'  190  Phoneme  Variation:  Distribution:  Allophone  C o n d i t i o n s o f Occurrence  [u]«  Example  In free v a r i a t i o n with  Co],  except i n l o a n words.  (See  Morphophonemics, Sec. 42222 (c) ( 3 ) , G r a d a t i o n , R u l e s 1 and /u/  r i LUJ  2.)  Stressed  syllable,  /su k a t / ['su:.kat] •measurement  a l l positions.  1  /qa s u k a r / [qa.'su: .kar] 'sugar /qa duq/ [qa . 'duq] •many* Unstressed s y l l a b l e ,  / s u mti sup/  a l l positions.  [sU.'mu:.sUp] 'to p u f f a t a c i g a r '  4.2221 (d)  Consonants  There a r e 18 consonant phonemes out of the 19 c o n t o i d s . /P/  [P]  Everywhere,  i.  e.,  /pa pen/ ['pa:.pen]  p r e - and p o s t - v o c a l i c , 'young c o c o n u t ' a l l positions.  /qa t e p / [ q a . ' t e p ] 'roof  *A case of Aufhebung. i n S e c t i o n 3.211.  See a l s o t h e e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s  1  191 Variation* Phoneme  Allophone [q]*  Distribution: Conditions of Occurrence In free v a r i a t i o n with  /sip  [p] as s y l l a b l e coda i n  [sip.'net]  medial position before  [slq.'net]  the s y l l a b l e onsets,  'darkness'  [s. A/  [t]  / t u t o t / [*tu:.tot]  positions.  'resin'  In free v a r i a t i o n with  /qa gat qa gas/  [ t ] as s y l l a b l e coda i n  [qa.gat.»qa:.gas]  medial position before  [qa.gaq. 'qa: .gas]  the s y l l a b l e onsets,  ' I t smells l i k e  [q» b, d, g,' 1, r ] . A/  medicine.'  Everywhere,  Ai  a l l positions.'  [kl.ll.kl.'lik] 'my  [q>  n£t/  g].  Everywhere, all  [q>  Example  11 k i I f k /  armpit  In free v a r i a t i o n with  /sak moi/  [ k ] as s y l l a b l e coda i n  [sak.'moi]  medial position before  [saq.'moi]  the s y l l a b l e onsets,'  'mouthful'  1  [b, d, m, n, 1/ r ] . J  A/  [q]  Everywhere, all  *Aufhebung  positions.  /qal q o q / [qal.'qoq] •pestle'  192  Variation! Phoneme  Allophone  /b/  Distribution* Example  Conditions of Occurrence  /ba bSq/ [ba.*baq]  Everywhere,  •down*  a l l positions,  /si r i b / C ' s i : . r i b ] •wisdom* /d/  Cd]  /dfi don/ C 'du: .don]  Everywhere/ a l l positions.  •grasshopper* /tu r i d / CtU.*red] •courage*  /g/  Everywhere/  /gu g6t/ CgU^'got] 'gums*  all  /b£ leg/ C'bi:.leg]  positions.  * power * /m/  Cm]  Everywhere, all  /n/  Cm>  Cn]  /mu ma lSm/ [mU.ma.'lem]  positions.  Before  bilabial  •late afternoon* /pen pen/ Cpem.*pen]  stops/ [p, b ] .  •stacks*  Before velar  * earthquake *  stops, [ k / g ] .  / g i n g i n€d/ C g l n . g l . ' n e d ]  Elsewhere,  /na ga nan/ C^a.'ga:.nan]  all  positions.  Everywhere, a l l positions.  •to name* /na naq/  1  Cncu'naq]  •open mouthed*  /nway  C 'nwan] •water b u f f a l o *  »Aufhebung/  193 Variation* Phoneme Allophone /f/  Cf]  Distribution* Example  Conditions of Occurrence  / f f noq/ [ * f i : . n o q ]  Prevocalic only,  •fine  a l l positions.  /•/  Cv]  1  Pre-semiconsonantal,  /qlf  medial only, as the  Cqlf.*fwe:.raq]  f i r s t C of a c l u s t e r .  *to cast aside*  Prevocalic only,  /nwl vaq/ / v i s ka yaq/  fwe r a q /  C *nwe:.vaq]CvIs.'ka:.yaq]  a l l positions.  •name of a province* /s/  Cs]  /su s i k / C'su:.slk]  Everywhere a l l positions.  •altercation* /*da:.kes/ [*da:.kes] •bad*  /h/  Ch]  Prevocalic only,  /hus tbq/ [hUs.'toq]  i n i t i a l position. Cn]  •right; enough*  Pre-semiconsonantal and i n t e r v o c a l i c only;! I n i t i a l and medial positions.  1  /re 11 hyon/ [re.ll.*hyon] *religion* /ha l o ha l o q / Cha.lo.»ha:.loq] 'assorted  A/  Everywhere, a l l positions.  sherbet*  / l a q l loq/ Cla.'qi:.loq] *cajole* / q i la" q i l / [ q l . »la: . q l l ] •wobble *  194 Variation:  Distribution:  Phoneme  Allophone  Conditions  /r/  [r]  Everywhere, all  of Occurrence  Example / r i  roq/  [»ri:.roq]  'confusion'  positions. /qu  per/  C'qu:.per]  •soak  /w/  [w]  Prevocalic,  a l l  tions;  member o f  a  last  consonant  Diphthong after  Cu]  after  /y/  Cy]  cluster.  or  [a].  a l l posi-  tions;  member o f  a  consonant  'stab /lwag/  deep*  Qlwag]'froth'  l i w /  /t& l a w /  Prevocalic, last  w  [tl.'liu]  'catch'  Ci]«  offglide  [ i ] , [a],  / w a w e k / C tx» ' w e k ]  / t i  offglide  stressed  Diphthong  posi-  1  cluster.  ['ta:.laU]  'departure' / y u yem/  ['yu:.yem]  'cloudy' /nyog/  ['nyog]  'coconut'  ci>  Diphthong after  offglide  stressed  /ka  [u].  suy/  [ka.'sui] •cashew'  Ci]  Diphthong  offglide  after  [a],  [ u ] ,  or  /suy [o].  [sUI.'sol] 'fray,  ^Aufhebung  soy/  ravel'  195 4.2221 (e)  Tonemes  variation: Toneme  Allotone  /2/  [2]  Distribution: C o n d i t i o n s o f Occurrence  Example  I n i t i a l p i t c h l e v e l of most u t t e r a n c e s .  Maysa, d u a , ...  Before or a f t e r [ l ] , i n  [ m a l . ' s a q 'dwaqj  utterance p r e - f i n a l , signals a series.  _2  1  2  1_  or  l 2 1 2_ |_mal. 'saq 'dwaqj r  'One, two, ...' [l]  A f t e r [2],  i n utterance  f i n a l , signals a state-  'There i s . '  ment . A f t e r [3],  /3/  /4/  [3]  [4]  Adda, [qad.'daq]  i n utterance  f i n a l , s i g n a l s a ques-  [qad.'daq]  tion.  •Is t h e r e ? '  A f t e r [2],  utterance  terminal, signals a  [qad.«5aq]  question.  •Is there?»  B e f o r e [2],  near u t t e r -  ance f i n a l , s i g n a l s a statement w i t h emphasis o r s t r o n g emotion. A f t e r [2], [3]/  o r sometimes  signals a question.  4  2  [qad.'daq] •There i s . ' (Look!) «  2  4  [qad.'daq] 'Is t h e r e ? '  196 Distribution:  Variation: Toneme  Allotone  4/  C|]  A, ft] C\tl  Example  C o n d i t i o n s of Occurrence A f t e r [2l], s i g n a l s a  [ q a d . 'daq^]  statement.  'There i s . '  A f t e r [23] o r [ 2 4 ] ,  [qad.'laqf]  signals a question.  'Is  A f t e r [231], s i g n a l s  [ q a d . 'daq^]  a question.  •Is  A f t e r [213], s i g n a l s  [qad.'daq^p  a question.  'Is  A f t e r [31], s i g n a l s  [ q a d . 'daqj,]  a question.  'Is  2  2  there?'  3 1  there?'  13A  there?'  there?'  4.2221 ( f ) Junctonemes Junctoneme /)/  Allojjunctone [|]  A f t e r two i d e n t i c a l  pitch  l e v e l s , e. g., [22], s i g nals a r e l a t i v e l y short pause, l e v e l t o n e , and i n -  [ q a d . 'daq |]  complete s t a t e m e n t .  'There i s a ...'  ^Aufhebung x /\/ i s equivalent to [T].  v s /\/\  \_\f\ i n the c o n t e x t [31>^]  197 Variation: Junctoneme  Aliojunctone  /||/  Distribution: C o n d i t i o n s o f Occurrence A f t e r [21],  [|]  [f]  Example  signals a  complete s t a t e m e n t and  [q.ad. daq^]  a l o n g t e r m i n a l pause.  'There i s . '  A f t e r [23]  or [13],  T  sig-  n a l s a complete s e n t e n c e [qad.'ciaq^] and a l o n g t e r m i n a l pause. 'Is t h e r e ? *  4.2221 (g) Stroneme /*/  Stronemes  Aliostrone [*]  An I l o k a n o has a t  / / (unmarked) [  l e a s t one s t r o n g s t r e s s ,  ]  a t most two, i n t h e f o l l o w 67 ing d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns:  One S t r o n g S t r e s s , [ ' ] : (x)(x)(x)'x (x)(x)(x)'xx  [ba.tl.kU.'len] 'giblet' [na.ka.pUd.'pu:.dot] 'It's very hot.'  (x) ( x ) x ' x x x  [na.ka.pUd.-'pu: .do.ten] ' I t ' s v e r y hot  67  now.'  The symbol x = s y l l a b l e ; t h e p a r e n t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s o p t i o n a l o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e s y l l a b l e . I n t h e s p e c i f i c examples g i v e n h e r e , however, x i s o b l i g a t o r y .  198  Variation: Stroneme  Distribution:  A l i o s t r o n e C o n d i t i o n s of Occurrence Two  Example  S t r o n g S t r e s s e s , [* ' ] :  xx'xx'x  [na.ka.'al.qa.'yat]  (x)x'xxx'x  'lovely'  [ma.kl.'qin.na.yan.qa.'yat] 'to be i n l o v e w i t h someone'  (x)x'xx'xx  [ma.kl.'bin.nl.'la:.nan]  •to j o i n i n the m u t u a l c o u n t i n g ' (x)(x)x'xxx'xx [ma.kl.pag.'pin.pin.na.'lis.qiu]  'uncalled  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n observing' xx'xxxx'xx [ma.kl.'lin.lln.nem.me.'na:.nen] 'He's  p l a y i n g hide-and-seek  now.'  (x)x'xx'xxx [ma.kl.'bin.bln.nl.'la:.na.nen] has  'He  j o i n e d i n the mutual c o u n t i n g . '  There a r e two i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s about the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r e s s i n I l o k a n o .  F i r s t , t h e r e has t o be  a t l e a s t one o b l i g a t o r y s y l l a b l e b e f o r e the s t r e s s e d a n t e p e n u l t i m a t e s y l l a b l e , e. g., [ x A x x x ] .  I l o k a n o does n o t  superpose s t r e s s a t the b e g i n n i n g of a t h r e e - s y l l a b l e word, i n the way ['xxx].  t h a t E n g l i s h does, e. g., p o s s i b l e [ p a : . s l . b l ] f  S e c o n d l y , I n the p a t t e r n s w i t h two s t r e s s e s , t h e r e  199 has t o he a n o b l i g a t o r y s y l l a b l e b e f o r e t h e f i r s t  strong  s tress Of t h e s u p r a s e g m e n t a l s , s t r e s s i s t h e p r i m a r y f e a t u r e i n a c h i e v i n g a p a t t e r n o f prominence i n t h e word, t h e other features t y i n g i n very c l o s e l y .  >  S y l l a b l e Prominence For  Thus, f o r I l o k a n o :  + [str]  +  /'Length } J V P I J  I  J  example: Stress:  [ x 'x x ]  [na.'pu.dotQ  'It's hot.'  plus Length:  [ x 'x: x ]  [na. pu:.dot]  ' I t i s hot.'  [na.'pu: . d o t ^ ]  ' I t i s hot.'  1 2 plus P I J :  4.2222  f  1  [ x 'x: .x^]  Morphophonemics  A l i n k o r t r a n s d u c e r between t h e s y n t a c t i c and t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l components o f a grammar i s morphophonemics r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o s y s t e m a t i c phonemics  i n Chomsky's  68 g e n e r a t i v e - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar. t i o n a l i s t s , s y s t e m a t i c phonemics  To t h e t r a n s f o r m a -  i s second t o t h e l a s t  s t a g e i n t h e grammar o f a language - t h e l a s t b e i n g s y s t e m a t i c p h o n e t i c s w h i c h d e s c r i b e s how s e n t e n c e s a r e a c t u a l l y produced and p h o n e t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e n a t i v e s p e a k e r .  68  See Noam Chomsky, A s p e c t s o f t h e Theory o f S y n t a x , pp. 15-18; " C u r r e n t I S S U E S i n L i n g u i s t i c Theory," I n K a t z and F o d o r , op_. c i t . , pp. 85-90.  200 In t h i s phonological  grammar o f I l o k a n o , morpho-  phonemics d e a l s w i t h t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e phonemic s t r u c t u r e o f morphemes. representation The  I t also describes  how t h e phonemic  o f each morpheme i s p h o n e t i c a l l y r e a l i z e d .  morphophonemic changes i n I l o k a n o may t a k e t h e  form o f one, o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f any, o f t h e f o l l o w i n g processes: (a)  Phoneme a d d i t i o n  (b)  Phoneme d e l e t i o n  (c)  Phoneme s u b s t i t u t i o n as a r e s u l t o f : (1)  assimilation  (2)  dissimilation  (3)  gradation  (4)  reduplication  4.2222 (a) Phoneme A d d i t i o n The  phenomenon o f phoneme a d d i t i o n i n I l o k a n o may  be e x p l a i n e d  u s i n g t h e examples below.  1)  I n the f i r s t  example, /sum b r e k / , t h e i n t r u s i v e /b/, b e i n g a b i l a b i a l s t o p , i s a l i a i s o n between t h e b i l a b i a l n a s a l , /m/,  t o the  a l v e o l a r f l a p , / r / . The f a c t t h a t /b/ i s n o n - n a s a l l i k e / r / f a c i l i t a t e s t h e t r a n s i t i o n from /m/ t o / r / .  2)  The  same may be s a i d f o r t h e a l v e o l a r / n / l i n k i n g t h e o r a l , / a / , t o t h e d e n t a l , / d / . A c t u a l l y t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d has a semblance o f r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n .  The i n t r u s i v e / n /  can l i k e w i s e be i n t e r p r e t e d as a phenomenon o f phoneme  201  s u b s t i t u t i o n ( s e e d i s c u s s i o n about d i s s i m i l a t i o n ) .  3) The  a d d i t i o n o f consonants by g e m i n a t i o n i s induced by t h e s h i f t o f s t r e s s t o t h e s y l l a b l e i n which t h e second member o f t h e geminate o c c u r s .  T h i s has r e f e r e n c e t o g r a d a t i o n as ex-  p l a i n e d i n S e c . 4.2222 ( c ) .  Morpheme (1)  Hypothetical Form £*)  Phonemic Representation  Phonetic Realization  I n t r u s i v e /b/:  #s errek# e n t r a n c e 1  + #-um-#  1  >^/sumerrek/  > /sum r e k / /sum b r e k / — > [sUm.'brek] 'to e n t e r '  (2)  I n t r u s i v e /n/:  #madi# 'won't' + #-ak# ' I '  >Vmadiak/  ^ /man d y f i k / — > [man.'dyak] 'I won't.'  (3)  Other i n t r u s i v e consonants:  /p/ #tupi# 'hem' +  #-am# 'you' — — >  */tupiam/  > / t u p pyam/ — ^ [tUp.'pyam] 'Xou hem i t . '  / t / #luto# 'cook' + #-ek# ' I '  >*/lutoek/ — — >  / l u t twSk/  > [lUt.'twek] 'I cook i t . '  202  Morphemes A/  Hypothetical Form (*)  Phonemic Representation  Phonetic Realization  #lako# ' s a l e *  'to s e l l to»  + #-an# ' t o ' — > * / l a k o a n / — > / l a k kwan/ — > /b/ #ab£# ' i n s u l t '  'to i n s u l t '  + #-en# ' t o ' — > #/abien/  — > /qab byen/ — > [qexb. 'byen]  / d / #adu# 'abundant' + #-an# ' o f — > #/aduan/  'well o f f — > /qad dwSn/ — > [qad.'dwan]  / g / #rugl# ' s t a r t ' + #-am# 'you' —y  [lak.'kwan]  'You s t a r t i t . ' * / r u g i a m / — > / r u g gyam/ — > [rUg.'gyam]  /m/ #sim8# 'knot'  'to knot'  + #-en# ' t o ' — > * / s i m o e n / — > / s i m mwen/ — > / n / #ani# ' h a r v e s t '  [slm.'mwen] 'to h a r v e s t '  + #-en# ' t o ' — > * / a n i e n / — >  /qan n y e n / — > [qctn. 'nyen]  / n / #sahgo# ' f r o n t '  'where t o f a c e '  + #-an# ' a t * — > */sangoan/ — > / s a n awan/—> [san.'nwan] / l / #gulo# ' c o n f u s i o n '  'to c o n f u s e '  + #-en# ' t o ' — > * / g u l o e n / — > / g u l lweh/ — > / r / #buro# ' p r e s e r v e '  [gUl.'lwen] 'You p r e s e r v e i t . '  + #teem# *you' — > */buroem/ —>- / b u r rwem/—> [bUr.'rwem] ft/  #kafe# ' c o f f e e '  'to d r i n k as c o f f e e '  + #-en# ' t o ' — > * / k a f e e n / — > / k a f f y i n / — > [ k a f . ' f y e n ] / s / #kaasi# ' p i t y ' + #-an# ' t o ' — £  *Aaasian/  — ^  /ka qas s y a n / — ^ [ka.qas.'syan]  'to p i t y '  203 4/2222 (b) Phoneme D e l e t i o n I n I l o k a n o , morphophonemic change i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l o s s o f phonemes - vowels as w e l l as c o n s o n a n t s . The l o s s o f m e d i a l vowels i s c a l l e d syncope.  I t w i l l he  n o t e d t h a t t h e vowel t h a t i s u s u a l l y syncopated i s / e / , p o s s i b l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t tends t o become weakened and reduced t o the s t a t u s o f schwa, /d/, and f i n a l l y  lost.  I n some word forms, t h e consonants a d j a c e n t t o / e / a r e a l s o lost. Hypothetical Form (*)  Morphemes (1)  Phonemic Representation  Phonetic Realization  Loss o f / e / i  #arem#  #/aremen/ — > / q a r men/ --^ [qar.'men]  •courtship*  •to c o u r t '  #kapet#  + #-en# -->  •hold'  I  #pateg#  |  */kapeten/—>  /kap t e n /  'to h o l d ' * / p a t e g e n / ~ > / p a t gen/  'endearment'''  (2)  [pat.'gen] 'to endear*  #rikep# + #-an# — > * / r i k e p a n / ~ > / r i k pan/ — > 'shutter'  [keep.'ten]  [rlk.'pan]  'to shut (do.©r) t o '  Loss o f / e l / , /en/, / r e / , /er/, /ed/, and /ep/:  # k e l l e b # 'cover'  'to seek c o v e r '  + #-um-# ' t o ' --> ^ / k u m e l l e b / — > /kum l e b / --> [kUm.'leb] #pennSk# ' s a t i s f a c t i o n '  'to be s a t i s f i e d '  + #ma-# 'to be' — > ^/mapennek/—^ /map neW  — > [map.'nek]  204  II  Morphemes  Hypothetical Form (*)  Phonemic Representation  #serrek# ' e n t r a n c e '  Phonetic Realization  'xfhere t o e n t e r '  + #an# ' a t ' — > # / s e r r e k a n / — > / s e r k a n / — » [ s e r . ' k a n ] #serrek# ' e n t r a n c e '  'to e n t e r  1  + #-um-# ' t o ' — > */sumerrek/ — > -/sum r e k / — > [sUm. ' r e k ] #tedda# ' l e f t - o v e r *  'to be l e f t - o v e r '  + #ma-# ' t o be' — ^ */matedda/ — > /mat d a q / — > [mat.'daq] #lepp5s# ' f i n i s h '  'to be f i n i s h e d '  + #ma-# ' t o be' — > */maleppas/ — > /mal p a s / — > [ m a l . ' p a s ]  4iII22 ( o ) Phoneme (1)  Substitution  A s s i m i l a t i o n : Two d i f f e r e n t a d j a c e n t phonemes  become more l i k e each o t h e r .  When t h e f i r s t phoneme i n t h e  s e r i e s changes t o become s i m i l a r t o t h e one t h a t f o l l o w s i t , i.  e., phoneme A a s s i m i l a t e s  d e s c r i b e d as r e g r e s s i v e  t o phoneme B, t h e p r o c e s s i s  a s s i m i l a t i o n ; the reverse process  i s c a l l e d progressive a s s i m i l a t i o n .  A l l phenomena o f a s s i -  m i l a t i o n i n Ilokano a r e of the regressive (la) Alveolar  type.  /n/> b i l a b i a l /m/, a s s i m i l a t e s  #banban# — > /banban/  > /bam ban/  t o b i l a b i a l s /p,b/:  > [bam.'ban] ' t h i n  bamboo s t r i p s used f o r t y i n g ' #penpen# — y /penpen/  ^ /pem pen/  > [pem.'pen] ' s t a c k '  205 (lb)  A l v e o l a r /n/> v e l a r /n/, a s s i m i l a t e s t o v e l a r s / k , g/:  #gunguna# — > /gunguna/ — £ /gun g u n a q / — » [gUn.gU.'naq] 'gain' #kenka# — > /kenka/ — > /ken k a q / — > [ k e n . ' k a q ] 'to y o u ' (lc)  B i l a b i a l /p/> a l v e o l a r / r / , a s s i m i l a t e s t o a l v e o l a r /n/:  #ma-# + #pennek#  > /mapennek/  >  By d e l e t i o n : /map nek/ — [ m a p . ' n e k ] By a s s i m i l a t i o n : /mar nek/ — > [mar.'nek]  (2)  Dissimilation:  become d i s s i m i l a r .  Two i d e n t i c a l a d j a c e n t phonemes  T h i s i s t h e r e v e r s e process o f a s s i m i l a -  tion. (2a)  D i s s i m i l a t i o n as t o v o i c i n g : /d/> / t / b e f o r e / g / :  #asideg# 'near' + #-an# ' t o ' — > / a s i d e g a n /  —>  By syncope: / q a u s i d gan/ — >  [qa.sld.'gan]  By d i s s i m i l a t i o n : /qa s i t gan/ — > [ q a . s l t . ' g a n ] 'to go near t o * (2b)  D i s s i m i l a t i o n as t o point-manner o f a r t i c u l a t i o n : -  d e n t a l - s t o p + d e n t a l s s f c o p /dd/> a l v e o l a r - n a s a l + d e n t a l - s t o p /nd/: #madl# 'won't' + #-ak# ' I ' — > /madiak/ — > By phoneme a d d i t i o n : /mad dy5k/ — > [mad.'dyak] By d i s s i m i l a t i o n : /man dyfik/ — > [man.'dyak] 'I won't.'  206  (3)  Gradation:  The s u b s t i t u t i o n o f phonemes - i . e.,  vowel change - due t o s h i f t o f s t r e s s i s a p r o c e s s c a l l e d gradation.  I n I l o k a n o , the vowels t h a t g e n e r a l l y undergo  s u c h change a r e : /o/ w h i c h becomes / u / o r a semiconsonant /w/; and, / i / o r / e / w h i c h becomes a semiconsonant / y / .  This type  o f morphophonemic change and t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e i t can be e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r r u l e s :  G r a d a t i o n R u l e 1: /-ak\ -am  -em  Examples: #al£mon# + #-ek# — >  /alimonek/  'swallow' ' I '  /qa l i mu nek/  > ^ [qa.H.'mu: .nek] 'I swallow i t . '  #pftor# + #-am# — >  /puoram/  'fire'  /pu qu ram/  'you  >  [ p U . 'qu: .ram] 'You burn i t . '  #baot# + #-en# — > 'lash'  'to'  /baoten/  --—y  /ba qu t e n /  > [ b a . ' q u : . t e n ] 'to l a s h '  207 G r a d a t i o n Rule 2:  /o/ /  /C  a  A-alA  r-CF -  >  -am  /i^ / u / / /C, a •C  -fin  C +,  -Ik  k.u  -em k-enj  Examples: #apoy# + #een# — > /apoyen/ — ^ 'fire'  'to'  /qa pu y e n / — > [qcupU. 'yen] 'to cook  #bungon# + #-en# — > /bungonen/ 'wrapper' #liko'd#  'to*  (rice)'  —>  /bu n u n i n /  > [bU.nU.'nen] 'to wrap up'  #-an# — > / l i k o d a n / — >  'back'  'to'  / l i k u d a n / — > [ l l . k U . ' d a n ] 'to t u r n one's back t o *  G r a d a t i o n Rule 3$  l/GVG^^/J  l/e/J  > /y/ / /cvc c 1  1  +  r-ak% -fim -an  4-Ik  G r a d a t i o n Rule 4: f/o/") f/CVC, C /-) J f/ J I 1 /u/J l/CVC! •» C / J ? 2  >  /w/ / /CV^C, 1  2  69  CTC-, Consonant g e m i n a t e s . P o r examples i n g R u l e s 3 and 4, s e e S e c . 4.2222 ( a ) ( 3 ) . =  69  -em *v-*W  illustrat-  208 (4)  Reduplication:  A m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s where-  by t h e r e i s a r e p e t i t i o n o f a r a d i c a l element i s r e f e r r e d t o as r e d u p l i c a t i o n .  I n Ilokano,  the r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s  e i t h e r p a r t i a l , i . e., o n l y t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e o f t h e r a d i c a l element i s r e p e a t e d , o r f u l l , i n w h i c h t h e e n t i r e r a d i c a l element i s r e d u p l i c a t e d .  No phoneme s u b s t i t u t i o n  r e s u l t s from a p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n t h e language.  The  I l o k a n o vowel / o / becomes / u / i n t h e f i r s t r a d i c a l element of a f u l l r e d u p l i c a t i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g r u l e  describes  such morphophonemic change:  /of  ^j/  /CVC  /  >  / u / / /CVC ,_,  .Q/  Examples: #ag# + # l u t o # — > / a g l u t o l u t o / — > /qag l u t u lu. t o q / 2  •to*  'cook* —y  #baboy#  —>  [ q a g . l U . t U . l u : . t o q ] 'to p l a y c o o k i n g ' f  /baboybaboy/ — > /ba buy ba boy/ — > [ b a . b U I . ' b a : . b o l ] ' p i l l bug'  #kulog#  2  ~ > /kulogkulog/ — > /ku lug k u l o g /  —>  [ k U . l U g . k U . ' l o g ] 'a game o f d i c e ' * 2 #surot# — >  /surotsurot/  — > /su r u t s u s o t / [sU.rUt.'su:.rot]  —> 'trailer'  /CVC o  209 4/3  The Stream  of  Speech  70 4.31  Corpus  'Second  year  Malkadua  nga  my  now  here Vancouver,  tawen k o n d i t o y V a n c o u v e r ,  isn't i t ?  saan k a d i ?  [ m a l k a d ' d w a : n a t a wenkondl * t o l v a n 'ku: v e r | s a q a n k a 1  Thank Dios  you  1  f o r generous  t i agngina i t i  nahushusto  a i d your to the n g a badang yo i t i  'dyostlqog'niJnaqltlnahUs'hustonabadan'yo:|  4.32  Philippines.  Filipinas.  qltlflll'pi:nasQ  of the stream of speech i n the next  pages aims t o i l l u s t r a t e g r a p h i c a l l y enumerated  below.  The  such graphic a r t i c u l a t o r y a n a l y s i s lar  diq^  Concepts  The a n a l y s i s  linguistics  1  five  the g e n e r a l concepts i n  information derived i s i n a way  from  roughly simi-  t o t h a t w h i c h a s p e c t r o g r a m , sonagram, kymogram, o r 71  oscillogram i n instrumental phonetics  would  yield  about  the corpus of u t t e r a n c e s above.  70 The c o r p u s i n c l u d e s a l l t h e 34 emic u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d chapter. A l l o w f o r a m a r g i n o f e r r o r s i n c e one c a n n o t t r a n s c r i b e f a i t h f u l l y a l l the p h o n e t i c events of a c t u a l speech. in  this  71  F o r an adequate  and d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f i n s t r u m e n t s  1  210 The graphic analysis shows that: a.  The ongoing stream of a meaningful utterance i s  a complex, ever-changing  continuum of d i f f e r e n t sound f e a t -  ures ; b.  Each utterance can be uniquely, although inade-  quately, represented as a f i n i t e set of discrete emic elements occurring i n succession or simultaneously; c.  A segmental phoneme represents one or more phon-  e t i c features; d.  A suprasegmental prosodeme extends over a series  of segmental groupings; e.  Sounds i n context are modified i n various ways  because of t h e i r influence on one another, e. g«, [ n ] > [ n ] before [ k ] ; f.  Borrowed sounds tend to be altered to conform  to the native phonetic habits, and to the native phonemic code, e, g.V [vgei^kuwvr] > [vctn'ku: .ver]; g.  Phonetics i s closely related, i s a prerequisite,  to phonemics.  One cannot be dogmatic about the phonemes  of a language or d i a l e c t unless one i s conversant with i t s phonetic structure and arrangement.  used i n acoustic phonetics, see C. Gunnar M. Fant, "Modern Instruments and Methods f o r Acoustic Studies of Speech," Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Linguists, Oslo: Oslo University Press, 1958, pp. 282-3o"2.  211  4.3  Analysis T a b l e 2„  The Stream o f Speech A n a l y z e d  EMIC Sup Seg J. 2 "UNITS S e g t a l : m |w . ETIC FEATURES* Close Half-close Half-open Open 8  Stop Bilabial Dental Velar Glottal  +b  +v +v  +b  +b  Fricative Labio-Dental Dental Glottal Nasal Bilabial Alveolar Velar Lateral Alveolar Flap Alveolar Poll  \ Semi^f  tpal  lof v  11  pal  Labialized Dentalized Palatalized Velarized ".' Lengthened * E v e r y symbol a t t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h e presence of an e t i c f e a t u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r vowels: h = f r o n t , + ss c e n t r a l / -j = back; f o r consonants: v = v o i c e , b = b r e a t h .  212  EMIC Sup: UNITS Seg: n  d  i  t o  *  y  v  a  1  n  2  *  k .u  1  v  ETIC FEAT. Close Half-close Half-open Open Stop Bilabial Dental Velar Glottal Fric Lab-Dent Dental . Glottal Nasal Bilabial Alveolar Velar Lateral Alveolar Flap Alveolar bil rt.  Semi  pal bil pal  Lab»lized Dentailzed Pal»lized Velar!zed Lengthened  •fv  +b  +b  +v  +v  e  r  1  s  a  ^|^  a  •  n  213  EMIC SupJ. UNITS Seg.:,  2 k  a  d  i  q  2  d  1  y  o  s  t  1  q . a  2  g  ETIC FEAT. Close Half-close Half-open Open Stop . Bilabial Dental +b Velar Glottal Frlc Lab-Dent Dental Glottal Nasal Bilabial Alveolar Velar Lateral Alveolar Flap Alveolar •bil Semi  pal •bil ^pal-  Lab»lized Dentailzed Pal'llzed Velarized Lengthened  +v  +v  +b +v  n  -  1  n  a  q  214  EMIC Sup:. UNITS ,Seg:, ETIC FEAT.  |  2 q  i  t  1 1. n  u  h  u  2 s .t  1  Close Half-close Half-open Open Stop 3ilabial Dental Velar Glottal Fric Lab-Dent Dental Glottal Nasal Bilabial Alveolar Velar Lateral Alveolar Flap Alveolar  Semi pal Lab"lized Dentalized Pal lized Velarized Lengthened 1  +b  +b  +v  +b  +v  t 215  EMIC Sups. UNITS Segs.  a  a  y  o  q  1  q  2 * 1  i  t  i  f  i  .1  i  p  ETIC FEAT. Close Half-close Half-open + Open  .4  Stop Bilabial Dental Velar Glottal Pric Lab-Dent Dental Glottal Nasal Bilabial Alveolar Velar Lateral Alveolar Flap Alveolar /bil  ( % a l Semij  (bil  ^palL a b ' l i zed Dentalized Pal lized Velarized Lengthened 8  +b  +b  i  n  a  s  Chapter 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 5.1  Summary  The l i n g u i s t i c data described and c l a s s i f i e d at the taxonomic l e v e l of this research - i . e.  t  the e t i c and emic  analyses i n the preceding chapters - w i l l now, by way of summary, be considered at a higher l e v e l of abstraction: the explanatory  level.  The l a t t e r characterizes the r e l a t i o n -  ships or patterns of combinability of the emic units by means of a system of rewrite r u l e s .  The output of each l e v e l of  description may be schematically shown i n the order of t h e i r degree of abstraction, thus: Taxonomic l e v e l :  Explanatory  level:  describes and c l a s s i f i e s  reveals the underlying  e t i c units  emic units  patterns of relationships  Phones  Phonemes  Phonological Rules  The rationale f o r the f i n a l scheme of description derives from the r e a l i z a t i o n  that a t o t a l i t y does not con-  s i s t of things but of relationships, and, that language which i s a t o t a l i t y or g e s t a l t - i s essentially activity.  a rules-based  This ties i n with the modern concept of a grammar,  namely, that i t .Is a theory of a language - a system of rules which e x p l i c i t l y characterizes a native speaker-hearer's competence and performance i n his language.  217 Returning now to the two problems previously stated which t h i s study purports to seek answers f o r , namely: Problem 1:  What are the emic units of the cultivated Ilokano d i a l e c t as spoken i n Bayombong, Nueva Vlzcaya?  The d i a l e c t distinguishes a t o t a l number of t h i r t y four emic units, summarized as follows: Segmental Phonemes -  /  Five (5) Vowels:  / i  u  Eighteen (18) Consonants: /p  1  S  m  n  w-  y/  218  Suprasegmental Prosodernes Pour (4) P i t c h Levels or Tonemes /4/  Extra High  /3/  High  /2/  Normal  /!/  Low  Three (3) Intonation Contours /|/  Level Intonation  4/  F a l l i n g intonation  /^/  Rising intonation  Two (2) Junctonemes / /  Pre-terminal short pause  Two (2) Stronemes  Problem 2:  /V  Strong stress  / /  (Unmarked) Weak stress  What phonological patterns of occurrence r e l a t i o n s between the emic units does the d i a l e c t permit?  The phonological grammar i s the answer.  The underlying  patterns of r e l a t i v e occurrence of t h e l l i n g u i s t i c units are stated i n the form of e x p l i c i t rewrite r u l e s .  The grammar i s  a f i n i t e set of - 1. e.y only 42 - unordered rules that generate an i n f i n i t e number of combinable phonological elements i n the Ilokano d i a l e c t . r i e s , namely;  Such rules are grouped into two catego-  219 Group A , Phonetic R u l e s , s t a t e s tution  o f phonemes  with  respect  to  the  stated  phonetic contexts;  Group B , Morphophonemic R u l e s , s t a t e s constitution  o f morphemes  The f o l l o w i n g constitutes  the ^  /  is  with  a  respect  f i n i t e set  metalanguage  of  "is  represented  "is  rewritten  " i n the  the  context  unit  or  units  /  /  emic u n i t  or  units  £  ^  a  [...[}  or  "choose  one a n d the  only  of  "optional -  include the  "the  partly  p h o n o l o g i c a l grammar:  application  where  contexts.  (environment)"  etic  )  phonemic  as"  ]  (  stated  and  of symbols which  by"  [  set:  to  the  consti-  one  on a  given  rule" item or  items  applicable" rest  of the  items  belonging i n  the  syllable" C  C o n t o i d (or  Consonant)  V  Vocoid  Vowel)  c  Semicontold (or  v  Semivocoid  Af  Affix:  (or  -ak.  Semiconsonant)  (or Semivowel) -am,  -an,  The p h o n o l o g i c a l grammar o f under finite  s t u d y has number  been  constructed  o f phonemic d a t a ,  the  with plus  -ek,  -em.  dialect these as  the  of  -en  Ilokano  given:  f i n i t e set  of  the  220 symbols,* plus a working knowledge of the basic characteri s t i c s of a good grammar, namely: (a) Descriptive adequacy 1  a grammar i s d e s c r i p t i v e l y adequate to the extent that i t s s t r u c t u r a l descriptions correspond to the i n t r i n s i c competence and l i n g u i s t i c i n t u i t i o n of the native speaker; and; (b) S i m p l i c i t y , economy and generality - i d e n t i f i e d with fewer symbol tokens used i n each descriptive statement or r u l e to generate an i n f i n i t e number of l i n g u i s t i c forms. A l l the statements about the structure of r e l a t i v e occurrence, i . e., of d i s t r i b u t i o n , apply within the domain of the s y l l a b l e .  Thus, the elements enclosed i n square  brackets, [ ], or slashes, / /$ In the case of morphophonemic r u l e s , represent the structure of a single s y l l a b l e .  The  rules underlying the s y l l a b l e structures (SS) of Ilokano have been stated as follows:  ,[(C)C(c)V] SS Rule 1:  S„  SS Rule 2:  S,  SS Rule 3:  {ml  ^  •[(C)C(c)VC] > -l [C(c)VC(C)]  ->  Sd  if J  CC(c)V(C)]  [|  jw]  221 Every rule  is  of  the  form  X For  >  Y.  example:  f['c  A/ —-> [i] A  To o b v i a t e and  statements,  number Thus, schema a  the  the  the  A/t  [»Cc  -schemata:  72  (C)]  l i m i t l e s s p r o l i f e r a t i o n of  writer  imposes  four  specific  rule  rules  or statement  symbols  a restriction  on  the  generality.  or statements,  i n modern l i n g u i s t i c t e r m i n o l o g y ,  single general  (c)]  C»c  e m p l o y e d b y w o r k i n g t o w a r d a maximum for  (v)]  are  coalesced  correspondingly  /-•C(c)7  r  called into  called  v,  n, --> [i] / [{ , J_ <{}>] o  Almost a l l of the phonological in  the  general  similarly  V•  grammar  72  of  rewrite the  rules  w h i c h make u p  Ilokano dialect  form of schemata,  and are  are  c  the  constructed  therefore  to  be  Interpreted.  F o r the o p e r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t s , schema and schemata, c r e d i t I s d u e t o P r o f e s s o r Noam C h o m s k y ! R e c a l l e d f r o m t h e l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n s In h i s class i n Advanced Phonology at the I966 S u m m e r L i n g u i s t i c I n s t i t u t e o f t h e L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y / of America, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Los Angeles (UCLA).  222 I t w i l l be noted that even at this abstract explanC atory l e v e l of description, the trimodal scheme, U = V, D i s s t i l l operative.  CONTRAST The A.  DISTRIBUTION  VARIATION  erne  i n the context  has the a l i o  Phonetic Rules (PR)t [i] / C « c ( o ) _ ( { } ) ] %  (i)  v  PR 1:  / i /  > [I] /  [C(o)_({ })]  (ii)  V  [e] / [(')C(c).  (i) ®  PR 2:  /e/  >  [a] / [ O C l c ) ,  [a] PR 3:  / [(«)(C)C(c)  (ii)  ({ })]^j V  <U  / a / -> [a] / [C(c)  ([*})]  (ii)  223  PR. *H / o /  > [ o ] / C(«)(C)C(c)  [ u ] / C«(C)C(o)  r  PR  5:  /u/  (|  ({  (i)  })]  (i)  })]  ->  W  [c(c)_<{ * }] C  3  (ii)  [cv_]  (1)  *cpy<c_v({>]  >  (ii)  PB 6s /p/ - —  i*y [ c v _ i { J \ ( o ]  [  s  » (iv)  224  (1)  [t]A_yr})]  (ii).  (  k. ._]C_(f J){ }(c)]J 3  i  V  (iii)  [o-tb,^  1*1/ [cv  3C< disi  (iv);  225  PR 9t /q/  > [q]/  [_<}>] / [cv  PR  10:  /b/  > [b]/J  [  /[cv PR  11:  /a/  >  [d]A  ] V({ })] V  ]  [_v(Q)] _][_({  /[cv FR 12:  /g/  >  r  1)( }(C)]  [ r ] ' lev.  ]  [g]/J[_V({ })] V  k..._][_({  Ml [ r ]  })(c)V({ })] c  226  (i)  PR 13: /m/  > [a]// [  (ii)  V(  (iii)  (i)  /[CV_([s])]  M/{[_v(0)]  (n)  (iii) PR 14: / n /  ><  [[*]/  c c v _ i { ^ } . . . ]  >]/  Ccv_X^}...]  (iv)  J  (v)  227  ,[cv_({  PR i5» / y — >  [»]/<[  })>]  PO-  v({ }>] v  ([1] .[  PR  16:  /f/  )V(C)]  (  > [f]/  .[...  PR 17: /s/  -> [ s ] / J [  ][  cv(c)] J  V({ ])] V  MI...  i  (°>v-(Q)r  M / L_v({ }>] v  PR 18: /h/  ->  [  1  cV(C)]  [...¥][ V(C)]  228 PR 191 M  > [v]/  [  (c)V(C)]  (i)  (i)  PR 20: / ! /  > [1]/J[  V({ })] V  1  T3 p t k b d  (ii)  TJ_ _Yrc v V ' (cV> p icv t k" b" d" c  f[t,k,-v (i)  PR 21: / r /  > [r]/J[  V({ })] V  (li)  (iii)  t k b d  t k" b" d~  229  W / [. ..c][(cU({ })]< f  r  PR 2 2 : /w/ — - >  ^[u]/  v  (i)  C'C[i]_]  (ii)  W cQ{j>  (iii)  if—]  (i)  [[i]/ PR 2 3 : / y /  [»C[u]_]  (ii)  ->  Ci]/  [cl [ a ] Co] £u]  (iii)  230  The schemata  / [ov  and  ],  / [..._i_{X))] c  may be further coalesced Into more involved schemata i n order to account f o r the observed r e g u l a r i t i e s i n many of the rules, thereby achieving greater generality.  >[p,t,k, \  / A l l C»s except  / [cv_]  y \ t>,d,g,  ]  f , v, h/  / A l l C«s/  ... ]  / A l l C«s except  Thus;  [Ptt.k,  y 4  b.d.g,  ^  •  / [...  ][_(  Icfb]  lev' C l  q,v,h/  ,...  y  J  231  rC  Xf  \]  \  d[_]  (ID  (4)  73 PR 24s  /2/ - •-> C 2 ] ^  PR 25:  /3/  PR 26:  3  -> [ 3 ] .->  2  [i]J  1  ]  c  (ill)  _]  1  (iv)  ,  c  (i)  (II)  (4) PR 27:  /4/  >  [>]/ <  3 2  [_ ^  r  ] —3  (Iii)  '  (iv)  73 A n e x c e p t i o n t o PR 24 t h r o u g h 32.: U n l i k e i n t h e c a s e of the segmentals - where the items enclosed i n square brackets r e p r e s e n t a s i n g l e s y l l a b l e - the suprasegmental symbols between t h e b r a c k e t s a r e t h o s e s u p e r p o s e d on one o r more s y l l a b l e s .  232 PR 28  s 4/  > [|]  / [21  ]  (i)  (i)  / [231_]  (il)  Ctl / C 2 1 3 _ ]  (iii)  [4] PR 29:  A/  >  / C31_]  PR 30s  /I/  [|] / D  - — >  (iv)  J  33  (i)  22 11  v  1|] / C 2 1 _ ] PR 31:  /||/  (1)  >• [f] /  (2)31  (ii) J  233  .[(x)(x)(x)  ,/V  (i)  x(x)(x)]  » [•]/ .[(x)(x)x  (x)(x)xx  x(x)(x)]  (ii)  J  PR 32:2  v / _„_> [ y [  ]  Unmarked i n the context above.  B.  (iii)  Morphophonemic R u l e s (MR):  MR 1 - Phoneme Addition by Gemination:  ,/<$/ /  VCA  •  /C / / , 2  /cv/ /  y /C C / 2  2  J'/CJ7  2  / /  2  c+Af/  (1).  VC/  J  MR 2 - Phoneme Deletion, /e(C)/:  i/ /= V —->  MR 2 a :  2  Deleted /  C / / l l' C  V  c  /C +Af/ 3  (i)  234 MR 2b:  / e C / ^ / / C u / /mJL/ 2  1  /  Deleted  MR 2 c : / e C // 2  /C^C/ «  /c vc/ 2  /ma-/ / C ^ ./ /c 2 vc/  Deleted ^  /ma-C]/  -  /CgVC/  MR 3 - Phoneme S u b s t i t u t i o n  MR 3a - Assimilations /m/  /n/  /CV.  >  /CV  235 MR 3b - Gradation*  MR 3^(1):  MR 3*>(2) :  /c_Q/ -  /o/  /u/  /  /C a / /C ' / /CAf/  /o/  /  /CJ  / / c -0 7 i^  /u/  / / c | «a / / c  Vcf/ MR 3b(3)«  c  / /dBf /  A  2  /  /.cv/ /c_l.c/i 1  /y/ /  Awe-,/  /Cj^JlAf/  2  236  /*/cv/ /c MB 3b(4):  /  cA  1  2  0'/ /cv/  /w/  /  /c^Cg/J  /cvc^  A  x  (iv)  Aif/  MH 3c - R e d u p l i c a t i o n :  /o/  /  /CV/ A  ["j/  /u/  /  /cv/ /c  Q/  >  /cv/  AoQ/  (i)  237  5.2  Conclusions  Within the l i m i t s of the organized data and facts arrived a t ? at the taxonomic and explanatory levels of this research/ i t i s possible, by way of conclusion;' to make the following assertions: l.  1  That, the phonetic or phonemic data and facts  are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and important only to the extent that generalizations about t h e i r r e l a t i o n a l occurrences i n the d i a l e c t are e x p l i c i t l y stated; 2.  That, the phonological grammar constructed f o r  the cultivated Ilokano d i a l e c t as spoken i n Bayombong/ Nueva Vizcaya i s generative/ i / e// predictive i n that i t projects an i n f i n i t e number of potential combinations  of the 3 4 emic  u n i t s / beyond those a c t u a l l y represented i n the corpus; 3/  That/ concomitant with the i n f l u x of loans which  i s evident i n the every day speech of the Ilokanos represented i n this study/ borrowed sounds/ such as /e, o  9  f / v, h//  have become assimilated into the native phonemic system; 4,'  That/ syntactic and morphological structures are  inevitably involved i n phonology - there Is no s t r i c t separ a t i o n of l e v e l s /  The dynamics of stress i n the d i a l e c t  r e s u l t i n g from morphological expansion using a f f i x e s i s one concrete instance of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of phonology and morphology.  A l l the suprasegmental  prosodemes f o r that matter  238 depended on higher l e v e l grammatical considerations f o r t h e i r interpretation* 5. ' That;/ every utterance i n the d i a l e c t can be uniquely represented as a sequence of phones - segments or suprasegments - which are i n turn represented by a sequence of phonemes each of which can be regarded as a token or abbreviation f o r a set of phonetic features,  ;  The features  are d i s t i n c t i v e or contrastive i n the d i a l e c t , setting utterances apart, thereby making communication possible. 1  An analysis of the stream of speech bears t h i s out even more s u c c i n c t l y ; 6.  That, a d i a l e c t has a phonemic system that i s 1  unique and adequate i n i t s e l f and f o r i t s users.  Thus, the  Ilokano d i a l e c t i n t h i s study has i t s own phonemic code, s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from any of those of the d i a l e c t s studied by Sibayan/ Constantino, and McKaughan and Porster. There Is no essential difference, however, i n the s y l l a b l e structure of the Ilokano d i a l e c t s /  On this point  the w r i t e r begs to d i f f e r with Drs." Sibayan and Constantino i n that they established V as a s y l l a b l e type i n Ilokano. This view seems to be orthography-based  or printbound.  example/ what they l i s t and transcribe as /a ma/  For  'father /  and /a/ 'a l i g a t u r e * , are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y CV(C)/ /qa  1  maq/  and /qaq// respectively, since the g l o t t a l stop i s a phoneme; The writer begs also to disagree with Dr. Constantino who  says that i n Ilokano/ s y l l a b l e boundary, which he symbo-  239 l i z e d as /-/, i s phonemic since i t i s unpredictable - i . e., either before or a f t e r C i n the -VCV- sequence type - and that i t has the allophones of a g l o t t a l stop, [ ? ] , before a vowel, and a prolongation, indicated by [.], of the f i n a l consonant before a consonant.  He indicates the s y l l a b l e  boundary i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n when i t occurs a f t e r the consonant i n -VCV- sequences.  1  For example:  blr-1  /blr-iy  [birti]  •crack  maysa  /maysa/  [may.sa]  •one*  sabung  /sabung/  [sabunB  'flower  sab-ung  /sab-un/  [sabtun]  'laps'  1  1  Considering the s t r u c t u r a l patterns of the Ilokano s y l l a b l e (Sec. 2 . 3 3 of this t h e s i s ) , the g l o t t a l stop, /q/, i s a phoneme by the principles of i d e n t i t y of function i.  e., /q/ i d e n t i f i e s with ft/ or /b/ - and by the p r i n c i p l e  of pattern congruity - i .  e., i n the CVC CVC sequence.  For  example: rangtay /ran tay/ 'bridge' vs rang-ay /ran qay/ 'progress* uttot /qut t o t / *break wind' vs ut-ot /qut qot/ •pain* sabong /s£ bon/ •flower,* vs sab-ong /sab qo"n/ *dowry* !  This view, of course, disregards the Aufhebung p r i n c i p l e 1  whereby /q/ may become a free variant of /p,t,k/ (Sec. 4.222).* One might say;- f o r the sake of a r g u m e n t t h a t s y l l a b l e boundary i s phonemic since i t patterns and functions l i k e the consonant /b/ i n /s& hon/ vs /sab qon/i  The decision  240  i n favor of such argument i s untenable because s y l l a b l e boundary i s suprasegmental, i . e., i t can be i d e n t i f i e d only i n terms of several segmental unitsy while /b/ i s segmental.  1  Methodologically speaking," segments cannot be subsumed with suprasegmentslin one and the same phoneme.F i n a l l y , that this research study has aimed at 1  comprehensiveness  of coverage and depth of a n a l y s i s .  The  w r i t e r / however, i s prepared to accept the p o s s i b i l i t y that i n both content and methodology the study may well have f a i l e d to get at some c r u c i a l d e t a i l s .  Gaps are i n e v i t a b l e .  Perhaps the day w i l l come when the type of metalanguage that has been employed i n this grammar w i l l be i n s u f f i c i e n t to resolve deeper questions concerning the phonological structure of the Ilokano d i a l e c t .  This can be expected  considering the present trend i n the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to the study of language, whereby new phenomena are revealed and better concepts and methodologies  developed.  The statements above r e f l e c t the attitude that at any time the writer must be prepared to modify her theory i . ' eiV the grammar - and evolve a more viable one which gives a precise s t r u c t u r a l delineation of a l l phonological phenomena i n the d i a l e c t .  As Robins has said;' " l i n g u i s t i c s  as a branch of scholarship cannot afford to remain unaltered f o r any length of time."  Language i s dynamic and the think-  ing of students of language must be equally dynamic.  *  *  *  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  242  A.  BOOKS  Bach, Emmon, 1964. An Introduction to Transformational Grammars. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Bloomfield, Leonard, 1933. and Company.'  Language. New York: Henry Holt  C a r r e l l , James, and William„R. T i f f a n y , I960,. Phonetics: Theory and Application to Speech Improvement. New York: McGraw-Hill. Chomsky, Noam, 1957. Mouton and Co/  Syntactic Structures. The Hague:  .• 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax/ Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. Fodor, J.: A., and J . J . Katz (eds.), 1964. The. Structure of Language: Readings i n the Philosophy of Language. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Gimson,' A. D., 1962. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of E n g l i s h . London: Edward Arnold Pub. L t d . Gregg, Robert J/y I 9 6 0 . A Students Manual of French Pronunciation. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada, Limited. 1  Cohen, A., 1952/ The Phonemes of E n g l i s h . tinus Nyhoff.  The Hague: Mar-  Gleason, H. A./ J r . , I96I. An Introduction to Descriptive L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. !  H a l l i Robert A/, J r . , 1964. Introductory L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Chilton Books. H a l l e / Morris, 1959. Mouton and Co.  The Sound Pattern of Russian. The Hague:  H i l l , Archibald A.y 1958. Introduction to L i n g u i s t i c Structures : From Sound to Sentence i n EngTTsh. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co. 5  Hjemslev/ L o i s , 1953. Prolegomena to a Theory of Language, ( t r / F.' J / W h i t f i e l d ) . Baltimore T l J A L Memoir No. 7 ) .  243  Hockett;• Charles F.y 1958. A Course i n Modem L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: The Macmillan Co. Jakobson, Roman, and Morris Halle, 1956. Fundamentals of Language. The Hague: Mouton and Co. m  _  ^ ,' C. Gunnar M. Fant, and Morris Halle, 1965. Preliminaries to Speech Analysis: The D i s t i n c t i v e Features and Their Correlates. Cambridge,' Mass.; The MIT Press. 1  mmmmm  i  Jones, Daniel,' 1950.' The Phoneme: Its Nature and Use. Cambridge: W. Heffner & Sons, Ltd. .1 I957.' The History and Meaning of the Term "Phoneme." L"ondon: International Phonetic Association.  i960. An Outline of English Phonetics. Cambridge: W. Heffner & Sons,- Ltd. Katz, Jerold J.y and Paul M. Postal, .1964. An Integrated Theory of L i n g u i s t i c Descriptions. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Mackey, William Francis, 1965. Language Teaching Analysis. London: Longmans, Green & Co.', Ltd. McKaughan, Howard,' and Forster, Jannette, 1953. Ilooano: An Intensive Course. Grand Forks, N. D.: Summer I n s t i tute of L i n g u i s t i c s . 1  Malmberg, B e r t i l , 1963. Structural L i n g u i s t i c s and Human Communication. New York: Academic Press, Inc. Martinet, Andre/ 1949. Phonology as Functional Phonetics. London: Oxford University Press.'  ,' i960. Elements of General L i n g u i s t i c s . London: Faber and Faber, Ltd. Nadel, F.' S., 1951. The Foundations of S o c i a l Anthropology. London: Cohen and West,' Ltd.Pel,- Mario, 1966J Glossary of L i n g u i s t i c Terminology. New York: Doubleday and Co. Pike, Kenneth Lee, 1943. Phonetics: a c r i t i c a l analysis of phonetic theory and a technic f o r the p r a c t i c a l descript i o n of sounds. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. (University of Michigan Publications i n Language and Literature, V o l . 21.) 1  244 194?.' Phonemlcs; a technique for reducing languages to writing. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. (University of Michigan Publications i n Linguistics, V o l . 3.) 1954. . Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior. Vol.' l 7 Glendale, California: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Robins,. R. H., 1964. General Linguistics: An Introductory Survey. London: Longmans, Green and Co., Ltd. Sapir, Edward, 1921. Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech.' New York: Harcourt , Brace, and World,' Inc. r  Saussure, Ferdinand de, 1959. Course in General Linguistics. New York: Philosophical Library.  B.  PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT AND LEARNED SOCIETIES  Bureau of the Census and Statistics, 1962. Census of I960. Manila: BCS.  Philippine National  International Phonetic Association, I965. The Principles of the International Phonetic Association. London: University College. Joos, Martin (ed.), 1957.'' Readings i n Linguistics. Washington, D. C : American Council of Learned Societies. Lunt, Horace G. (ed.),' 1964. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Linguists. The Hague: Mouton & Co. Panganiban, Jose V i l l a / 1957. "The Family of Philippine Languages," Bureau of Public Schools Bulletin No. 37, s.1957. Manila: Bureau of Public Schools.  C.  PERIODICALS  Bloch, Bernard. "A Set of Postulates for Phonemic Analysis," Language 24, pp. 3-46. Bloomfield, L . "A Set of Postulates for the Science of Language," Language 2, pp. 153-164. (Reprinted i n Joos, 1957).  245 Chomsky; N. "Some Methodological Remarks on Generative Grammar," Word 17, pp. 219-239. , and Morris Halle. "Some Controversial Questions in Phonological Theory." Journal of Linguistics, 1, pp. 97214. Pries, Charles C.y and Kenneth L . Pike, "Co-existent Phonemic Systems, " Language 25, pp. 29-50. 5  Halle, Morris. "The Strategy of Phonemics," pp. 197-209.  Word 10,  1  , "Phonology in Generative Grammar," Word 18, pp. 5472". (Reprinted i n Fodor and Katz (1964), pp/ 334-352. Harris/ Zellig S. "Distributional Structure," Word 10, pp. 46-62. (Reprinted in Fodor and Katz (1964-)/ pp.' 33-49. 1  Haugen, Einar. "The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing," Language 26/ pp/ 210-231.' "The Phoneme in Bilingual Description," Language Learning 7/ PP. 17-23. Hockett., C.z F . "Linguistic Elements and Their Relations," Language 37* PP. 29-53. /  "A System of Descriptive Phonology," pp. 3-21/  Language 18,  Pike, Kenneth L . "Grammatical Prerequisites to Phonemic Analysis," Language 3/ PP- 155-172.' Sapir, Edward. "Sound Patterns in Language," Language 1, pp/37-51. (Reprinted in Selected Writings of Edward Sapir; ed/ D. G. Mandelbaum/ California, 195971 Stockwell, R. P. "The Place of Intonation in a Generative Grammar of English," Language 36, pp. 360-367. Twaddell, W. F . "On Defining the Phoneme," Language/ Monograph No. 16/ 1935. (Reprinted i n Joos (ed.J, 1957. 1  D.  ESSAYS AND ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS  Chomsky, Noam. "Current Issues in Linguistic Theory," In Fodor and Katz (1964), pp. 50-118.  246 Chomsky, N., M. Halle, and F. Lukoff,. "On Accent and Juncture i n English," i n For Roman Jakobson: Essays, eds. M. Halle, H. Lunt, H. McLean. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1956, pp. 6580. 1  Fant, C. Gunnar M.y "Modern Instruments and Methods f o r Acoustic Studies of Speech," i n Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Linguists, ed. Eva Sivertsen. Oslo: Oslo University Press, 1958, pp. 282-362. ;  Halle, Morris, "On the Bases of Phonology," i n The Structure of Language, eds. J . A. Fodor and XJ. Katz, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964, pp. 324-333. Haugen, Einar:,,, "The S y l l a b l e i n L i n g u i s t i c Description," i n For Roman Jakobson, eds. M. Halle and others, 1956,  pp.~ZT3-22l.  Hanssen, H. Spang, "Mathematical L i n g u i s t i c s - A Trend i n Name or i n Fact?" i n Proceedings. ed. H. G. Lunt, 1965,  pp. 61-71.  J^rgensen, E l i Fischer, "The Commutation Test and Its Application to Phonemic Analyses," i n For Roman Jakobson. eds. M. Halle and others, 1956, pp. l 4 0 ^ 1 3 l . Pike, Kenneth L., "On Systems of Grammatical Structure," Proceedings, ed. H. G. Lunt,-* 1964, pp. 145-154. i n  P i l c h , Herbert, "Phonetics, Phonemics, and Metaphonemics;" Proceedings. ed. H. G. Lunt, 1965, pp. 900-904. 1  i n  Rischel, Jjrfrgen, "Stress, Juncture and S y l l a b i f i c a t i o n i n Phonemic Description," i n Proceedings, ed. H. G. Lunt,  1964, pp. 85-93.  Saumjan, S. K., "Concerning the Logical Basis of L i n g u i s t i c Theory," i n Proceedings, ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, pp. 155160. Discussion i n session, "Mathematical L i n g u i s t i c s A Trend i n Name or i n Fact?" i n Proceedings. ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, p. 70/ Thompson, Laurence C.y "Pattern Fringe and the Evaluation of Phonological Analyses," i n Proceedings. ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, pp. 94-100. Truby, H. M., "Pleniphonetic Transcription i n Phonetic Analysis," i n Proceedings, ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, pp. 101-107.  247  E.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS  Beyer, H. Otley. "List of Philippine Languages and Dialects," Mimeographed, 1942. Constantino, Ernesto Andres, A Generative Grammar of a Dialect of Ilocano. Unpublished Ph. D. d i s s e r t a T i o n , Indiana University, 1959. Microfilmed. 1  Slbayan,' Bonifacio Padilla, English and Iloco Segmental Phonemes. Unpublished Ph.* D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1961. Microfilmed. *  Vt  *  

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