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A phonological grammar of a dialect of Ilokano Olaya, Norma Peralta 1967

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A PHONOLOGICAL GRAMMAR OF A DIALECT OF ILOKANO by NORMA P. OLAYA P.N.C.G.,' P h i l i p p i n e Normal C o l l e g e , 1951 B.S.E.E., P h i l i p p i n e Normal C o l l e g e , 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1967 In p re sen t i ng t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r re ference and Study. I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion fo r ex ten s i ve copying of t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h ]h: r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t he s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n pe rmi s s i on . NORMA PERALTA OLAYA Department of CLASSICS  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August 9. 1967 A PHONOLOGICAL GRAMMAR OP A DIALECT OP ILOKANO A b s t r a c t Current l i n g u i s t i c s views grammar as an i n t e g r a t e d s y n t a c t i c - s e m a n t i c - p h o n o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of a language; as g e n e r a t i v e , that i s , that sentences have a d e f i n i t e s t r u c t u r e , 1 t h a t there are an i n f i n i t e number of sentences, and that," t h e r e f o r e , a grammar cannot be a l i s t of elements, but i n s t e a d a f i n i t e s e t of e x p l i c i t r u l e s which can auto-m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n a s t r u c t u r e to an i n f i n i t e s et of sentences. The present t h e s i s - a phono l o g i c a l grammar of the c u l t i v a t e d d i a l e c t of Ilokano as spoken i n the town proper of Bayombong, Nueva Vizc a y a - has aimed to r e f l e c t these modem concepts of a grammar i n both i t s content and methodology. I t suggests a methodology f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of the sound p a t t e r n of a given d i a l e c t . As to content, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study should be u s e f u l as basis f o r a c o n t r a s t i v e phonology of Ilokano and E n g l i s h , or the other P h i l i p p i n e languages and d i a l e c t s , w i t h the end i n view of c o n t r i b u t i n g to an e f f e c -t i v e second-language teaching and cur r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n . The study has the f o l l o w i n g s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s : (1) Chapter 1 covers general d i s c u s s i o n s on Ilokano and i t s d i a l e c t s , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of Ilokano t o the other P h i l i p p i n e languages and d i a l e c t s . Chapter 2 Includes p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n s on content and procedure of the des-c r i p t i v e a n alyses. (2) The study operates on the taxonomic and explana-t o r y l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c s c i e n c e . The taxonomic l e v e l i s V achieved by the e t i c and the emic analyses i n Chapters 3 and k. The explanatory l e v e l i s r e f l e c t e d i n Chapter 5 -i n the phonological grammar which i s a system of 3k (23 seg-mental and 11 suprasegmental) emic u n i t s of the Ilokano d i a l e c t , and a set of kZ unordered s t r u c t u r e - a s s i g n i n g r e -w r i t e r u l e s (32 phonetic r u l e s and 10 morphophonemic r u l e s ) which enumerate Ilokano utterances and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . This f e a t u r e of the study may be s t a t e d i n terms of the outputs of each l e v e l , the r e l a t i o n -s hips of which have been s c h e m a t i c a l l y shown as f o l l o w s : Taxonomic L e v e l Explanatory L e v e l Phones 3k Phonemes kZ P h o n o l o g i c a l Rules (3) For the d e s c r i p t i v e methodology and procedure employed i n t h i s study, the w r i t e r has taken cues from two l i n g u i s t s : (a) from Kenneth L. P i k e , h i s tagmemic theory which b a s i c a l l y assumes that any u n i t of purposive human behavior i s w e l l - d e f i n e d i f and only i f one describes i t i n reference to (1) c o n t r a s t , (2) v a r i a t i o n , and (3) d i s t r i b u -t i o n . This t r i m o d a l theory of a n a l y s i s has been b r i e f l y s t a t e d , thus: Contrast U n i t = V a r i a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n ; (b) from Noam A. Chomsky, h i s generative grammar theory which has been b r i e f l y s t a t e d i n the f i r s t paragraph of t h i s v i a b s t r a c t and discussed a t considerable l e n g t h i n Chapter 5. (*0 The a n a l y s i s of the stream of speech a t the end of Chapter k g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s some general concepts i n l i n g u i s t i c s as a p p l i e d to Ilokano. C (5) The t r i m o d a l scheme, U = V, i s operative a t D both the taxonomic and explanatory l e v e l s of t h i s research. The d e t a i l e d e t i c a n a l y s i s which i s predominantly a r t i c u l a -t o r y d e l i n e a t e s the raw m a t e r i a l s of speech - the kl e t i c u n i t s of the Ilokano d i a l e c t , extracted from the phonetic data, the corpus of utterances presented i n Chapter 2. By the c r i t e r i o n of phonetic resemblance and by the CVD-formula employed i n the process of phonemization - Chapter k - the kl e t i c u n i t s have been reduced to 3^  emic u n i t s . (6) The patterns of occurrence r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the emic u n i t s are described i n terms of the phono l o g i c a l r u l e s . Each r u l e i s of the form: X ^ Y. Wit h i n the l i m i t s of i t s organized data, f a c t s and information,' t h i s t h e s i s a s s e r t s : (1) That the phonemes /e, o, f , v, h/ - oc c u r r i n g i n Spanish or E n g l i s h loan words which are c u r r e n t l y used by the Ilokanos represented i n t h i s study - have become a s s i m i -l a t e d i n t o the phonemic system of the Ilokano d i a l e c t ; (2) That the b a s i c s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e of Ilokano has f o r i t s u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n , CV(C) and not V or CV; and,-(3) That the l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n a t the explana-t o r y l e v e l of the research i s gen e r a t i v e , s i n c e the phono-v i i l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the Ilokano d i a l e c t can "best be accounted f o r , not by an inventory of elements,' but by v a system of r u l e s - i t s generative phonological grammar. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Among those to whom the writer is grateful for guidance and assistance in the preparation of this thesis are her professors: Robert J . Gregg, by whose tremendous knowledge and a b i l i t y her Interest in phonology was stimu-lated; Ruth E. McConnell, who introduced her to transfor-mational-generative grammar, and by whose creative teaching this student was encouraged to write the phonological gram-mar of her Ilokano dialect; and, Frederick Bowers, in whose graduate seminar she gained further orientation and insight into the transformational-generative grammar theory. She is also grateful for the ideas shared by Professors Kenneth L. Pike and Noam A. Chomsky. These linguists have promptly answered her inquiries into their theories of language and linguistics which pervade this thesis. For financial assistance in connection with the Colombo Plan scholarship granted her, the writer should like to record her indebtedness to the External Aid Office of the Government of Canada, as well as to the National Economic Council, and the Bureau of Public Schools of the Department of Education, Republic of the Philippines. Without this aid the degree course and research study would, in the f i r s t place, have been impossible. For her orientation, training, and experience i n the teaching of English as a second language, as well as in text-book writing, both of which provided background for linguistics i i i and in which linguistics In turn finds practical application, she is very grateful to Miss Fe Manza, Mrs. Estela F. Daguio, and Mrs. Trinidad S. Marino, a l l of the Bureau of Public Schools• She feels deeply obliged to the o f f i c i a l s and staff of the UBC International House, the Housing Administration Office, and the Office of the Dean of Women, for providing her a home away from home. A special word of thanks is due to her parents and sisters, and to the families and friends who have shown great concern about her well-being while she was preparing the manuscript. N. P. 0. CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i i ABSTRACT iv LIST OP FIGURES AND TABLES x i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The Ilokano Language . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Purpose and Importance of the Study . . . 6 1.3 Review of Related Studies . . . . . . . . 7 1. k Scope and Delimitation . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.5 Definitions of Terms Used . • 12 1.6 Theoretical Framework . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.7 Methodology and Procedure . . . . . . . . 18 2 METHODOLOGICAL PRELIMINARIES 20 2.1 The Organs of Speech 20 2.2 Types of Speech Sounds . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.21 How Vocoids are Described and Classified . 23 2.22 How Contoids are Described and Classified. 29 2.3 The Syllable: Its Function and Structure . 31 2, k Transcription Signs and Symbols 35 2.5 Phonetic Data 39 3 THE SOUNDS OF SPEECH: A PHONETIC ANALYSIS 3.1 Phonetic Charts 44 3.11 The Segmental Sounds 4-5 3.12 The Suprasegmental Features . . . . . . . 4-5 ix CHAPTER 3.2 The Segments in Detail . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.21 Vocoids . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . i . . 46 3.211 The Fronfc Vocoids:[i, I, e, a] . . . . . . 47 3.212 The Central Vocoids: [a, a] . . . . . . . 57 3.213 The Back Vocoids: [u, U, o] . 60 3.22 Vocoid Chains . . . . . . . . . 69 3.221 The Fronting Vocoid Chains 70 3.222 The Retracting Vocoid Chains . . . . . . . 77 3.23 Contoids ,; . .' 82 3.23I Plosives: [p, b, t, d, k, g , q] . . . . . 82 3a.232 Nasals: [m, n, n] . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 3.233 Lateral: [ l ] . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . 97 3.234 Alveolar Flap: [ r ] . . . . . . 98 3.235 Fricatives: [ f , v,' s, h, n] 100 3.24 Contoid Clusters . . . . . . . .' . . .' . . 105 3.241 Prevocalic, I n i t i a l Contoid Clusters . . . 110 3.242 Prevocalic, Medial Contoid Clusters . • . 115 3.243 Postvocalic, Pinal Contoid Clusters • . . 121 3.'3 The Supfcasegments in Detail . . . . . . . 123 3.31 Stress and Rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 ' 3.32 Length 129 3.33 Juncture, Pitch and Intonation . . . . . . 131 3.331 Juncture . . . . . . . . . . . 131 3.332 Pitch and Intonation . 132 X CHAPTER 4 PHONEMIC ANALYSIS 137 4.1 Rationale for Phonemizatlon . . . . . . . 138 4.2 Determining the Set of Phonemes . . . . . 139 4.21 The Phoneme Concept . . . . . . . . . . . 139 4.22 Analytic Procedure: Pike's Tagmemic Theory . . . 14-1 4.221 CONTRAST* ;i . . . . . . . . . 144 4.2211 Vowels. . . . .' . . . . -1 . . . . . . . . 147 (a) Contrasts in a l l dimensions . . . . 151 (b) Contrasts in tongue height . . . . . 152 (c) Contrasts in tongue advancement . . 154 4.2212 Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 ( 9 & i c ^ o i c e versus Breath . . . . . . . . 155 (b) Contrasts in Point of Articulation . 160 (c) Contrasts in Manner of Articulation. 167 4.2213 Suprasegmental Prosodemes . . . . . . . . 174 (a) Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 (b) Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 (c) Pitch, Intonation and Juncture (PIJ) 1^ 8 4.222 VARIATION and DISTRIBUTION: Phonotactics and Morphophonemics . . .' 181 4.2221 Phonotactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 (a) Diphthongs 182 (b) Consonant Clusters . . . . . . . . 186 x l CHAPTER (c) Vowels . . . . . . . . • 188 (d) Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 (e) Tonemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 (f) Junctonemes . . . . . . .1 .! . . . .! 196 (g) Stronemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 4.2222 Morphophonemics . . . . . . . .* . . . . . 199 (a) Phoneme Addition . . . . . . . . . . 200 (b) Phoneme Deletion . . . . . . . . . . 203 (c) Phoneme Substitution 204 H) (1) Assimilation . . . . . . . . . 204 (2) Dissimilation . . . . . . . . . 205 (3) Gradation . . . . . . . . . . . 206 (4) Reduplication . . . . . . . . . 208 4.'3 The Stream of Speech .• - . . . . . . .' . 209 4.'31 Corpus . .' . .; .: . . . . . . 209 4.32 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . 209 4.33 Analysis . . . .' . . . . . . . . . . . 211 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 216 5.1 Summary . • . . . . . • . . . . . . .' . 216 5.2 Conclusions . . . . . . . . 237 BIBLIOGRAPHY 241 LIST OP FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURE PAGE 1 Map of the Bhilippin.es showing Ilokano-speaking areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Cross section of the head showing the organs most directly involved in the production of speech-sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . • •• • • 22 3 The Eight Basic Cardinal Vowels . . . 24 4 The Central Vocoid Triangle . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 Vocoid Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6 Contoid Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7 Ilokano Vocoids . . . . 44 8 Ilokano Vocoid Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 9 Ilokano Contolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 10 Ilokano Vowel Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 11 Ilokano Consonant Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . 172 TABLE 1 Philippine Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 The Stream of Speech Analyzed . . . . . . . . . 211 CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I i ABSTRACT i v LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES v i i i CHAPTER PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION . . . 1 1.1 The Ilokano Language 1 1.2 Purpose and Importance of the Study . . 6 1.3 Review of Related Studies . 7 1.4 Scope and Delimitation 9 1.5 Definitions of Terms Used 12 1.6 Theoretical Framework . 16 1.7 Methodology and Procedure . . . . . . . 18 2 METHODOLOGICAL PRELIMINARIES . 20 2.1 The Organs of Speech 20 2.2 Types of Speech Sounds 21 2.21 How Vocoids are Described and Classified 23 2.22 How Contoids are Described and Classified 29 2.3 The Syllable: Its Function and Structure 31 2.4 Transcription Signs and Symbols . . . . 35 2.5 Phonetic Data . ; . . 39 3 THE SOUNDS OF SPEECH : A PHONETIC ANALYSIS. . 43 3.1 Phonetic Charts 44 3.11 The Segmental Sounds . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.12 The Suprasegmental Features . . . . . . 45 X CHAPTER PAGE 3.2 The Segments i n Detail 46 3.21 Vocoids 46 3.211 The Front Vocoids. . . . .* • Z • i * 47 3.212 The Central Vocoids . . . . . 57 3.213 The Back Vocoids 60 3.22 Vocoid Chains 69 3.221 The Fronting Vocoid Chains 70 3.222 The Retracting Vocoid Chains . . . . . . . 77 3.23 Contoids . 82 3.231 Plosives . . . . . 82 3.232 Nasalss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 3.233 Lateral . . . 97 3.234 Alveolar Flap 98 3.235 Fricatives 100 3.236 Semlvouelds 104 3.24 Contoid Clusters . . ;: . . . . . . . ... . 105 3.241 Prevocalic, I n i t i a l Contoid Clusters . . . 110 3.242 Prevocalic, Medial Contoid Clusters . . . 115 3.243 Postvocalic, Final Contoid Clusters .. . . 121 3.3 The Suprasegments in Detail 123 3 .'31 Stress and Rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 3.32 Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 3.33 Juncture, Pitch and Intonation . . . . . . 131 3.331 Juncture . . . . . .' . .< . . • . • • . . . 101 3.332 Pitch and Intonation 132 x i CHAPTER PAGE 4 PHONEMIC ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . 137 4.1 Rationale for Phonemization . . . . . . . 138 4.2 Determining the Set of Phoneme . . 139 4.21 The Phoneme Concept . . . . . . . . . . . 139 4.22 Analytic Procedure: P i k e ^ Tagmemic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 4.221 CONTRAST . .: . . . . . . . . . . . . • . 144 4.2211 Vowels . . . . . . . . 147 4.2212 Consonants . . . . . . . . . . . 155 4 .2213 Suprasegmental Prosodemes . . . . . . . . 174 (a) Stress . 175 (b) Length 176 (c) Pitch, Intonation and Juncture (PIJ). 178 4.222 VARIATION and DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . 181 4.2221 Phonotactics 182 4.2222 Morphophonemics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 4.3 The Stream of Speech . . . . 209 4 .31 Corpus . . . . . . . 209 4.32 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 4.33 Analysis . . . . . . .J . . . . . . . . . 211 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 216 5 . 1 Summary • . . . . . . . . . . • .' . . . . 2 1 6 5.2 Conclusions . .a. . . . . .'• . . . • . • . 2|2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 241 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1*1 The Ilokano Language The Ilokano language, like a l l the other Philippine languages and dialects, belongs to the Indonesian branch of 1 the Malayo-Polynesian linguistic family. By typological 2 classification, i t is an agglutinative language. Ilokano is the third major Philippine language. The National Census of I960 l i s t s 3,158,560 native speakers dis-tributed throughout the country, the majority of whom live i n the four provinces where i t i s the native tongue, namely, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, and La Union; and In the areas where Ilokanos have heavily immigrated - Mountain Province, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Eclja, 3 Pangaslnan, Tarlac, Zambales, and Manila. 1 Jose V i l l a Panganiban, *The Family of Philippine Languages and Dialects, 1 Inclosure to Bulletin No. 137. s. 1957. Bureau of Public Schools, Department of Education, Manila: BPS, 1957. P. If Charles F. Hockett, A Course i n  Modern Linguistics, New York: Macmillan, 1958, p. 595; Leonard Bloomfield, Language, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961, p. 71. 2 Ilokano makes extensive use of affixes to signal grammatical meaning. For details on types of linguistic structure, see Edward Sapir, Language: An Introduction to  the Study of Speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1921, Chap. 6. 3 Bureau of the Census and Statistics, Philippine  National Census of I960 (Summary Report), Manila: BCS, 1962, p. 15. See also Fig; 1 and Table 1 of this thesis. 2 I l o c o s N o r t e h-Abra I l o c o s Sur — I s a b e l a — La Union Nueva V i z c a y a Pangaslnan Nueva E c i j a Zambales — T a r l a c — — — Cagayan — Mountain P r o v i n c e Pig. 1 Map of the P h i l i p p i n e s showing the Ilokano-speaking a r e a s . 3 Although the Ilokano spoken i n each of these p l a c e s i s a d i s t i n c t d i a l e c t a l v a r i a n t of the language - e s p e c i a l l y i n phonology, and t o some extent i n voc a b u l a r y - mutual i n t e l -l i g i b i l i t y between them i s of such a degree t h a t speakers coming from r a t h e r w i d e l y separated l o c a l i t i e s can use i t w i t h f a c i l i t y as a means of communication among themselves.-I t i s the informed o b s e r v a t i o n of the w r i t e r t h a t i n the r e g i o n s where Ilokano i s an "immigrant language" phonolo-g i c a l d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n can be a f u n c t i o n of i t s c o e x i s t e n c e w i t h the n a t i v e language o r languages. I n Nueva V i z c a y a , f o r i n s t a n c e , the two n a t i v e languages, Gadang and I s i n a y , tend t o h e l p Ilokano p r e s e r v e the f o r e i g n (Spanish o r E n g l i s h ) sounds [ e , o, f , VJ i n i t s p h o n e t i c code. These sounds a r e i n the phonemic systems of the two n a t i v e tongues, thus: Gadang phon-emes /e/ and / f / , as i n i p e f u / q i pS f u q / 'to begin', n e f u f f u k /ne f u f f i k / 'knocked onto', and the I s i n a y phonemes /e/, /o/, and /v/, as i n mamvevoy /mam v§ voy/ 'to p l a y ' . The Ilokano spoken i n the p r o v i n c e of Pangasinan, on the oth e r hand, has a s s i m i l a t e d the tense schwa /©/ of the n a t i v e language, and has l o s t i t s f o r e i g n £e3-sound, which i s not i n the Pangasinan phonemic code. Thus, most Ilokanos i n Pangasinan would say, f o r example, g e r r a / g l r r a q / 'war' not /ggr r a q / ; amen /q& min/ •amen' not /qfi men/ which does not t h e r e f o r e c o n t r a s t w i t h amln /q& min/ ' a l l ' ; ageskwela /qa g i s kwfi l a q / 'go t o s c h o o l * not /qa ges kw& l a q / . 4 Table 1. Philippine Languages (A Partial List) THE PHILIPPINES Number of -islands: 7,107 Land area: 115t000 sq. miles Total population (as of I960 census): 27,087.685 THE EIGHT MAJOR PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES Total No. of Speakers (I960 Census) Percentage C ebuano 6,529,882 24.1 Tagalog 5,694,072 21.0 Ilokano 3,158,560 11.7 Hiligaynon 2,817,314 10.4 Bikol 2,108,837 7.8 Samar-Leyte 1,488,668 5.5 Pampango 875.531 3.2 Pangasinan 666,003 2.5 IER PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES Apayao Gadang Kulaman Sambal Ata Ibanag Magindanao Sanggil Bagobo Ifugao Mandaya Subanon Bajao Igorot Mangguangan Tagabili Blla-an Ilongot Mangyan Tagakaolo Bontok Isinay Manobo Tagbanua Bukidnon Ivatan Maranao Tausug Chavacano Kalamian Negrito-Aeta Tinggian Davaweno Kalinga Palawan Tiruray Dumagat Ke-ney Samal Yakan H.Otley Beyer, "List of Philippine Languages and Dialects," 1942. (Mimeographed.) Another interesting observation about Ilokano i s the phenomenon which linguists c a l l "hybrid message" -bilingual or multilingual - such as the utterances combined of Ilokano and English, for Instance: naohangean [na 'tyeln dyan] ' i t was changed1  fllnushna [ f l l 'nas naq] 'he flushed i t * lyeschedulen £ql yes *ke dyU len] 'schedule i t now* mayad-adjust to [ma yad qad 'dyas toq] 'he'll become adjusted* or those of Ilokano and Spanish, for example: asekasuek £qa se kas 'swek] 'I pay attention to* from hacer caso de 'to pay attention to* alamanuen £qa l a man *nwen] 'to shake hands with* from a l a mano 'near at hand* The linguistic phenomenon just cited has significant implications for Ilokano morphophonological structure, which are summed up in what Sapir said about how languages influence each other. He wrote: "The borrowing of foreign words always entails their phonetic modification. 1 There are sure to be foreign sounds or accentual peculiarities that do not f i t the native phonetic habits. They are then so changed as to do as l i t t l e violence as possible to these habits. Frequently, we have phone11c compromis es."5 5 Sapir, o£. oit.y p. 197. 6 lv2 Purpose and Importance of the Study T h i s t h e s i s attempts t o e s t a b l i s h the phonemes and prosodemes of a d i a l e c t of Ilokano, and to d e l i n e a t e the r e s t r i c t i o n s of c o m b i n a b i l i t y of the emlc u n i t s - i . e., the p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s which the emic u n i t s e n t e r i n t o . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the study w i l l seek answers to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : (a) What ar e the emic u n i t s of the c u l t i v a t e d Ilokano d i a l e c t as spoken i n Bayombong, Nueva V i z c a y a : 1) segmental phonemes? 2) suprasegmental prosodemes? (b) What p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s of occurence r e l a t i o n s between the emlc u n i t s does the d i a l e c t permit? With I t s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s e s and i t s d e s c r i p t i o n s of how the i n d i v i d u a l sounds and f e a t u r e s a r e produced and c l a s -s i f i e d , how they v a r y and d i s t r i b u t e i n p e r m i t t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s , and w i t h the generous examples i l l u s t r a t i n g the l i n g u i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s involved;' the r e s u l t s of t h i s study sh o u l d be u s e f u l (1) as a b a s i s f o r a c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s of Ilokano and o t h e r languages, p a r t i c u l a r l y E n g l i s h and T agalog, the r e s u l t s of which w i l l i n t u r n serve (2) as b a s i s f o r p r e -p a r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n E n g l i s h and Tagalog f o r Ilokano speakers, and (3) as s o u r c e n m a t e r i a l f l f o r the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g of Ilokano as a second language." 7 1.3 Review of R e l a t e d Studies Two d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s and a master's t h e s i s have d e a l t p a r t l y w i t h the p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s of I l o k a n o . 6 C o n s t a n t i n o wrote a complete g e n e r a t i v e grammar -phrase s t r u c t u r e , grammatical t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , and morpho-phonemics - of the Ilokano d i a l e c t as spoken i n Santo Domingo, Nueva E c i j a . The morphophonemic component of the grammar i n -cludes a phonemic a n a l y s i s and a g e n e r a t i v e p h o n o l o g i c a l grammar of the d i a l e c t c o n s i s t i n g of 15 s t r i n g s t r u c t u r e r u l e s and 2 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s . The phonemic a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d 25 phonemes, as f o l l o w s : 3 vowels: /a i u/ 16 consonants: / p t k b d g c m n n h s 1 r w y/ a word accen t : /•/ an emphatic s t r e s s : /*/ 3 j u n c t u r e s : / [ / /#/ / J j / a s y l l a b l e boundary: /-/ ^ [?3 o r £.] A c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s of the form and d i s t r i b u t i o n 6 E r n e s t o Andres C o n s t a n t i n o , A G e n e r a t i v e Grammar  of a D i a l e c t of I l o c a n o . (Unpublished Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , June 1959. 200 pp.) 7 I b i d . , pp. 182-198. 8 8 of English and Iloko segmental phonemes was made by 9 Sibayan. As a basis for contrast he established the following segmental phonemes of the La Union-Baguio City 10 dialect: 16 consonants: / p t k ? b d g s h m n n 1 r y w/ 5 vowels: / l e a a u/ 7 diphthongs: / i y ©y ay uy iw aw uw/. 11 HcKaughan and Forster developed a pedagogical grammar for Ilokano based on the La Union dialect. The f i r s t group of lessons includes very brief descriptions of the phonemes. The dialect has 19 segmental phonemes, / p t k b d g m n n s j l r w y i a a u/, and a suprasegment-a l phonemic stress, /'/. No phonetic transcription of the 8 The word forms, Iloko, Ilocano, and Ilokano, have been used by different writers i n refering to the language; the last two only to the native speaker. In line with the Philippine national orthography, however, the form, Ilokano, Is used i n the present study to refer either to the language or to the native speaker. 9 Bonifacio Padllla Sibayan, English and Iloko Segmental  Phonemes. (Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, The University of Michigan, 1961, 188 pp.) 10 Ibid./ pp. 100-101. 11 Howard McKaughan and Jannette Forster, Ilocano: An  Intensive Language Course. (Published M. A.' thesis, Cornell University, June, 1952), Grand Forks, N.D.: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1957, PP. 1-8. 9 t e x t m a t e r i a l i s g i v e n . While t h i s study i s h e l p f u l i n p o i n t i n g out how d i a l e c t s of Ilokano d i f f e r In t h e i r phonemic systems, i t has l i t t l e t o o f f e r t o the present study i n terms of l i n g u i s t i c procedures, l i k e p honetic d e s c r i p t i o n and phon-e m l z a t i o n . The t h r e e s t u d i e s , on the whole, can o n l y serve t o emphasize the i n c r e a s i n g importance of s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s e s -t h a t a r e both comprehensive and deep - of the p h o n o l o g i c a l systems of a m u l t i d i a l e c t a l language l i k e I l o k a n o . 1 ; 4 Scope and D e l i m i t a t i o n Modern s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t s advocate t h a t the des-c r i p t i o n - i . e., the grammar - of a language be c o n s i d e r e d 12 13 w i t h i n a wide scope. Chomsky, K a t z and P o s t a l , and s e v e r a l o t h e r s , share the concept t h a t "an i n t e g r a t e d l i n g u i s -t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of a n a t u r a l language c o n s i s t s of t h r e e com-"14 ponents: s y n t a c t i c , semantic, and p h o n o l o g i c a l . " S t u d i e s 12 Noam Chomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Cambridge: The MIT P r e s s , 1965, p. 16; "Current Issues_ i n L i n g u i s t i c Theory," I n K a t z and Fodor, The S t r u c t u r e  of Language. New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I nc., 1964, pp. 50-118. 13 -J e r o l d J . Katz and P a u l M. P o s t a l , An I n t e g r a t e d Theory of L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n s . Hesearch Monograph No. 26, Cambridge: The MIT P r e s s , 1964. 14 Ibid.', pp. 11-29. 10 yielding such a comprehensive and integrated body of knowledge about any one language could well be the occupation of many generations of linguists. This trend in linguistic research has, however, been optimistically encouraging especially for English and Russian. Por Ilokano, the grammar written by 15 Constantino is a bold step i n the right direction. The present study deals mainly with the description of the phonological component of a projected grammar of another dialect of Ilokano. It covers both the taxonomic and explanatory levels of linguistic study as distinguished by Saumjan, thus; "... linguistic science is concerned above a l l with an exact description and classification of observable facts. .".. That is the taxonomic level of lin g u i s t i c science. But linguistics goes beyond a mere description and classification of observable facts; i t sets i t s e l f the task of revealing the underlying immanent relations among elements inacces-sible to direct observation. That is the explanatory level of linguistic science." 1'' The writer's interpretation of the above scheme is reflected i n the scope of her research. The taxonomic level embraces the phonetic and phonemic analyses in 15 S.1 K. Saumjan,! Discussion on the paper of Henning Spang-HanssenV "Mathematical Linguistics - A Trend i n Name or i n Pact?"; read at the Ninth International Congress of Linguists. Published In Horace G. Lunt, (ed.) Proceedings  of the Ninth International Congress of Linguists. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964, pp. 61-71. 17 Ibid., p. 70. 11 Chapters 3 and 4 . Chapter 5 reflects the explanatory level of the research - the phonological grammar which i s a system of unordered rewrite rules underlying the struc-ture of the cultivated Ilokano dialect as spoken In the town proper of Bayombong, provincial capital of Nueva Vlzcaya. It is instructive to consider that the Nueva Vlzcaya Ilokano is an admixture of a l l the other dialects mentioned i n Sec.! 1.1. This fact renders It d i f f i c u l t to base the descriptive statements and generalizations on linguistic features and characteristics that can be ascribed to a l l speakers of the dialect i n question. In view of this l i m i -tation, the descriptive analysis w i l l inevitably be based on the writer's Idiolect which is representative of the c u l t l -18 vated speech in the area.' However, in order to allow for the inherent diversity of different speakers, and also to fore s t a l l accusations of being prescriptive rather than descriptive, the statements and examples i n this study w i l l , ' 18 Since the writer is the investigator-informant, facts about her idiolect might be mentioned here for the sake of the reader.' She was born to the La Unlon-Pangasinan variety of Ilokano, which is her home dialect; grew up and attended elementary and high schools i n Bayombong, Nueva Vlzcaya where she learned the Gadang language; and, taught for ten years in the towns where Gadang and Isinay are the native languages. Besides Ilokano and Gadang, she speaks Tagalog, Pangasinan, Pampango, Isinay, English, and has a f a i r knowledge of Japanese, Spanish, and French. 12 wherever feasible, be general enough as to admit variations of structures and systems. Languages di f f e r in many respects, therefore, i t is to be expected that most of the English glosses given with the examples are not the exact semantic equivalents of the word forms cited; they only serve to identify or describe, not define. 1.5 Definitions of Terms Used Por the sake of brevity and conciseness, the follow-ing terms and concepts are defined and interpreted as to 19 their pertinence to this study. Grammar. The term grammar is used in this thesis in Its modern concept: that i s , i t is a system of rules which characterizes the native speaker-hearer's competence (his knowledge of his language) and performance (his actual use of the language i n concrete situations). Grammar can be specifically defined in terms of i t s three components, name-ly, syntactic, semantic, and phonological. A phonological grammar of a given language or dialect; 19 Based on the works by: Chomsky, op. c i t . ; Bernard Bloch, "A Set of Postulates for Phonemic Analysis," Language, 24:1:3-46; Charles C. Fries and Kenneth L. Pike, "Coexistent Phonemic Systems," Language; 25:29-50; Mario Pel, Glossary  of Linguistic Terminology, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1966. 13 t h e r e f o r e , r e f e r s t o the system of r u l e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the n a t i v e speaker-hearer's knowledge of the phonemic code of h i s language and h i s use of t h a t code i n a c t u a l speech s i t u a t i o n s . D i a l e c t . A s u b d i v i s i o n of a language spoken i n a g i v e n g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , d i f f e r i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y from the o f f i c i a l s t a n d a r d form of the language i n one or a l l of the l e v e l s of the language ( p r o n u n c i a t i o n , syntax, vocabu-l a r y , and i d i o m a t i c use of words) t o be viewed as a d i s t i n c t e n t i t y , yet not s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r d i a l e c t s of the language to be regarded as a separate language. I n l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s , the term d i a l e c t Is not used i n i t s popu-l a r p e j o r a t i v e sense of " v u l g a r , uneducated, f o r e i g n , or r u s t i c speech." I d i o l e c t . The i d e a l minimum phonemic system of one i n d i v i d u a l ; h i s p e r s o n a l v a r i e t y of the community language system. A speech sound i n a g i v e n i d i o l e c t Is c a l l e d an ldlophone; and the phoneme, an idlophoneme. A c l a s s of i d i o -l e c t s w i t h the same p h o n o l o g i c a l system c o n s t i t u t e s a d i a l e c t . Phonology. The t h i r d component of a grammar of a p a r t i -c u l a r language o r d i a l e c t which d e a l s w i t h (1) the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the raw m a t e r i a l s o f speech - the v o c a l sounds o r phones, and (2) the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the phones Into f u n c -t i o n a l u n i t s , the phonemes, and i n t u r n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the phonemes Into p e r m i t t e d ^sequences o r p a t t e r n s . The f i r s t i s the p r o v i n c e of P h o n e t i c s , the second, Phonemics. Ik The productive forms, etic and emic. are used quite extensively i n this thesis, thus: etic (from phonetic) to refer to the non-functional units and processes, while emic (from phonemic), to the functional and distinctive units and processes. Some of the following terms may not be con-ventional to professional linguists, but i n any case they are here Included and defined in the sense that they are used i n this study: Unit of: Non-functional Functional Variant or Etic or Emic or Al l o -sound phone phoneme allophone /•pitch ton-1 tone toneme allotone ^•intonation stress strone stroneme allostrone juncture junctone junctoneme allojunctone form morph morpheme allomorph meaning seme sememe alloseme Phoneme. The minimal bundle of relevant sound features called distinctive features or contrastive components disting-uishing one utterance from another. A phoneme is not a sound; i t i s a class of sounds actualized or realized in a different way i n any given position or environment by i t s representative the allophone. Prosodeme. A prosodeme i s an emic suprasegmental feature i n the sense that a phoneme is an emic segmental unit. 15 Phonemic P a t t e r n . The phonemic p a t t e r n of a language c o n s i s t s of (1) i t s f i n i t e s e t of d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o r c o n t r a s t i v e components used t o i d e n t i f y i t s phonemes, (2) i t s f i n i t e s e t of phonemes, and (3) i t s f i n i t e s e t of r u l e s f o r grouping the phonemes i n t o sequences. The s e t of r u l e s , i . e. t the a r b i t r a r y s t r u c t u r a l arrangements, which a language impos-es on i t s phonemes makes l t d i s t i n c t from o t h e r languages. Thus, Ilokano and E n g l i s h share the phonemes, /m, p, s, t / , but due t o the d i s t i n c t phonemic p a t t e r n of e i t h e r language, these phonemes f u n c t i o n and a r e arranged d i f f e r e n t l y i n each. I n E n g l i s h they can f u n c t i o n i n a c l u s t e r , as i n glimpsed / g l i m p s t / ; i n Ilokano, however, they must combine w i t h vowels, as I n impusot /qim pu s 6 t / 'weaned'. U t t e r a n c e . A s t r e t c h of meaningful speech put f o r t h by a s i n g l e person b e f o r e and a f t e r which t h e r e i s maximum s i l e n c e by t h a t person. An u t t e r a n c e may be a mo n o s y l l a b i c word o r a long complex sentence. F o r example, the s i n g l e u t t e r a n c e , Umay ngata d i a y ublng? /qu mSy na t a dyay qu b i n / ' W i l l the c h i l d p r obably come? * becomes three u t t e r a n c e s i n the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n : Speaker 1: Umay ngata... Speaker 2: P l a y ? Speaker 1: Ublng. Segment. A f r a c t i o n of an u t t e r a n c e between any two Immediately s u c c e s s i v e change-points. The change-points t h a t d e f i n e the l i m i t s of a segment a r e change-points i n 16 the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a speech organ o r of two d i f f e r e n t organs. Thus, [ n ] i s a segment i n the u t t e r a n c e Umay ngata [qU mal na f t a q ] . I n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the segment, the r a i s e d p o s i t i o n of the back of the tongue a g a i n s t the r o o f of the mouth, and the lowered p o s i t i o n of the velum b e g i n and end a t the same times as the segment i t s e l f . Segmental and Suprasegmental U n i t s . L i n g u i s t i c u n i t s which c l e a r l y f o l l o w each other i n the stream of speech a r e c a l l e d segmental or l i n e a r . Those which c l e a r l y extend over a s e r i e s of s e v e r a l segmental groupings are c a l l e d supraseg-mental, n o n l i n e a r or p r o s o d i c . For example, the p o s i t i o n s of a r t i c u l a t i o n of the phonemes i n ublng /^qu-^bin/, i n the f i r s t sample u t t e r a n c e above, a r e segmental, w h i l e the t o n -ernes superposed on them a r e suprasegmental. To a v o i d too much v e r b o s i t y , the term phoneme, i n g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s a t l e a s t , w i l l be taken to r e f e r t o both segmental phonemes and suprasegmental prosodemes. D i s t i n c -t i o n s between the two a r e o n l y made where s p e c i f i c a l l y neces-s a r y . 20 1 . 6 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework The p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y u n d e r l y i n g the present study 20 Based on the views of s e v e r a l l i n g u i s t s . For d e t a i l s , see: Noam Chomsky, on. c i t . ; M o r r i s H a l l e , The Sound P a t t e r n 17 i s contained i n certain assumptions about the nature of linguistic structure and linguistic pattern. These assump-tions are stated in terms of formal conditions which the phonological analyses and descriptions must satisfy. (1) In phonology, speech events are represented as sequences of segments and as interlocking suprasegments. (2) Every segment or suprasegment can be uniqaely identified as a phoneme i n the language by a feature ( a r t i -culatory, auditory, or acoustic), or a combination of feat-ures, of sound known as distinctive features or contrastive components. (3) A borrowed sound is considered assimilated into the native phonemic system when the loan is i n common use by native speakers of the language. (4) Phonology i s non-autonomous. Some pnonetic processes depend on syntactic and morphological structures for their interpretation. (5) Any one language code has a phonemic pattern which i s analyzable and stateable. of Russian. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1959, PP. 20-41; R. Jakobson, C. G. M. Pant, and M.: Halle, Preliminaries to  Speech Analysis. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1965, pp. 1-15; Bernard Bloch, op. c l t . . Kenneth L. Pike, •Grammatical Prerequisites to Phonemic Analysis,' Language. 3:3:155-172; C. C. Pries and K. L. Pike, op_. c i t . et passim. 18 1£7 Methodology and Procedure L i n g u i s t s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from one another i n t h e i r methods of s t u d y i n g a language. I n terms of l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s , l e v e l s , and d i r e c t i o n of a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n , one s c h o o l of thought advocates proceeding from sound to sentence, w h i l e another moves conversely,'• i . e., from sentence to sound. The present study i s o r i e n t e d t o both methods: i t pro-ceeds from wholes ( u t t e r a n c e s ) t o p a r t s (segments and supra-segments) and then t o wholes ( g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s or r u l e s ) . The taxonomic procedure of segmentation and c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n w i l l be employed i n t h i s phonology of I l o k a n o . Given the raw m a t e r i a l of speech - the sample s e t of meaningful u t t e r a n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d as s t r i n g s of sound segments or phones -the f i r s t t a sk w i l l be t o i d e n t i f y the r e c u r r i n g speech sounds and t o d e s c r i b e how they a r e produced. The p r i n c i p l e s of a r t i -c u l a t o r y phonetics w i l l dominate i n t h i s study f o r the simple reason t h a t many aspects of speech can be d e s c r i b e d more e a s i l y and simply i n a r t i c u l a t o r y terms than i n a c o u s t i c terms. The a c o u s t i c parameters of sound such as s t r e s s , l e n g t h , j u n c t u r e , p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n w i l l , however, be c o n s i d e r e d . The next s t e p i s phonemization which i n v o l v e s c l a s s i f y -i n g the v a r i a n t e t i c u n i t s i n t o i n v a r i a n t (under c e r t a i n con-d i t i o n s ) f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s , the phonemes and prosodemes. A f t e r the emic u n i t s of the d i a l e c t have been estab-l i s h e d , g e n e r a l statements about t h e i r b a s i c p a t t e r n s or 19 r e g u l a r i t i e s of co-occurrence r e l a t i o n s a r e formulated. 1 The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w i l l be s t a t e d i n the form of phonolo-g i c a l r u l e s . ' In sum, the a n a l y t i c - s y n t h e t i c method w i l l be employed i n t h i s study.' The steps a r e as f o l l o w s : (a) Segmentation or Phonetic A n a l y s i s : Segmenting the sample Ilokano u t t e r a n c e s (the phonetic data) i n t o e t i c u n i t s / and d e s c r i b i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o d u c t i o n of each r e c u r r e n t u n i t ; (b) Phonemizatlon or Phonemic A n a l y s i s : C l a s s i f y i n g the e t i c u n i t s i n t o the "ernes" of the Ilokano d i a l e c t ; and/ (c) G e n e r a l i z a t i o n : S t a t i n g g e n e r a l i t i e s - the p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s - about the p a t t e r n s of emic c o m b i n a b i l i t y . The d e s c r i p t i v e procedure i n a l l the t h r e e s t e p s ; p a r t i c u l a r l y (b) and ( c ) , employs the t r i m o d a l theory of a n a l y s i s / Contrast Unit a Variation Distribution which i s d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h i n Sec/ 4.23 of t h i s t h e s i s . Chapter 2 METHODOLOGICAL PRELIMINARIES Certain referential frames which are basic to the understanding of the detailed phonetic and phonemic analyses and descriptions of Ilokano require discussion i n this chap-ter. These include (1) the organs of speech, (2) the types of speech sounds and the ways in which they are classified and described; (3) the syllable, (4-) transcription signs and symbols, and (5) the phonetic data. 2 . 1 The Organs o f Speech The primacy of articulatory phonetics in this study of Ilokano speech sounds supposes an identification of the organs of the body directly involved in phonatlon, the so-called "organs of speech." Generally, speech sounds are produced with the out-going breath stream. The perceived differences in speech sounds while one is speaking are the result and correlate of the control and modification of the outgoing lung a i r In various ways at one or more points In the vocal tract. The speech organs which control and modify the egressive breath stream are either movable or stationary. The movable parts, called articulators, include the l i p s , tongue, velum, uvula, vocal bands, and of course the lower jaw. Articulations involving the tongue can be specifical-21 l y d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f i t s s u b d i v i s i o n s / n a m e l y , t i p / b l a d e / f r o n t / b a c k , a n d r o o t . T h e s t a t i o n a r y p a r t s i n c l u d e t h e t e e t h , a l v e o l a r r i d g e o r gum r i d g e / h a r d p a l a t e / v e l u m o r s o f t p a l a t e / a n d t h e b a c k w a l l o f t h e p h a r y n x . F i g . 2 o n t h e n e x t p a g e s h o w s t h e s e a r t i c u l a t o r y s t r u c t u r e s a s w e l l a s t h e f o u r r e s o n a n c e c h a m b e r s : o r a l c a v i t y / n a s a l c a v i t y , t h e p h a r y n x , a n d t h e l a r y n x . T h e l a r y n x c o n t a i n i n g t h e v o c a l b a n d s i s t h e l o w e s t p l a c e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . ' 2 » 2 T y p e s o f S p e e c h S o u n d s S p e e c h i s a c o n t i n u u m o f s o u n d s i n w h i c h e a c h u n i t m e r g e s i m p e r c e p t i b l y i n t o a n o t h e r . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e s c r i p t i o n / i t may b e s e g m e n t e d i n t o d i s c r e t e e l e m e n t s i n o r d e r t o a n a l y z e a n d s y m b o l i z e t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y m o v e -m e n t s i n v o l v e d i n i t s p r o d u c t i o n . T h e s o u n d s e g m e n t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m s u c h q u a n t i z a t i o n a r e ; t h e r e f o r e / t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a s m e r e a b s t r a c t i o n s o f t h e p h y s i c a l p h e n o m e n o n o f s p e e c h ; T h e s t r e a m o f s p e e c h o f I l o k a n o i s t o b e s e g m e n t e d 21 a n d c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t w o m a i n t y p e s : (1) C o n t o l d s , t h o s e s p e e c h s o u n d s w h i c h a r e a r t i c u -l a t e d w i t h c o m p l e t e s t o p o r a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n . T h e o u t g o -i n g a i r s t r e a m i s o b s t r u c t e d a t one o r m o r e p o i n t s i n t h e 21 d> T h e t e r m s v o c o i d a n d c o n t o i d u s e d i n r e c e n t p h o n e t i c l i t e r a t u r e t o d e s i g n a t e t h e p h o n e t i c t y p e s a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e v o w e l - c o n s o n a n t p h o n e m i c c a t e g o r i e s , a r e d u e p r i m a r i l y t o K e n n e t h L . P i k e . S e e h i s P h o n e m i c s : A. T e c h n i q u e f o r R e d u c i n g l a n g u a g e s t o W r i t i n g / ' A n n A r b o r : T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s / 1964,pp / 131 1 4 / 2 4 . 22 F i g . 2.' Cross s e c t i o n of the head showing the organs most d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d 2 in the production of speech-sounds. Oral C a v i t y (Mouth) Nasal Cavity' Velum (Soft P a l a t e ) Hard P a l a t e A l v e o l e s (Gumridge) pips Tongue 1. Tip 2. Blade 3. Front 4. Back 5. Root Trachea Robert J . Gregg, A Students 1 Manual of French P r o n u n c i a t i o n . Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada, L t d , i 9 6 0 , p. 5. (Reproduced w i t h permission of the author.) 23 vocal tract either by stopping the passage of a i r complete-l y or by forcing i t into narrow channels producing audible f r i c t i o n . (2) Vocoids, sounds produced with the continuous stream of a i r passing through resonance chambers, - e. g., through the larynx and f i n a l l y out through the oral or nasal cavity - relatively unimpeded and without producing any audible f r i c t i o n . Vocoids function as syllable nuclei. Intermediate between the two types are the semi-contoids. These are vocoids patterning as contoids. They are not syllabic. A sequence of two vocoids produced with a single 23 emission of the voice is a vocoid chain. 2 ? 2 1 How Vocoids are Described and Classified A vocoid description i s based mainly on auditory judgments of sound relationships. Since there is no contact of the tongue with the roof of the mouth, only the l i p shape can be described by visual or tactile means. Differences i n the degrees of tongue elevation and tongue advancement are so minute that i t is impossible to assess them quite accurately. It is not feasible to say, for instance, that a given Ilokano vocoid is produced with the 23 The term vocoid chain i s used at the s t r i c t l y phonetic level i n this study - in parallel terminology with vocoid and contoid. Diphthong w i l l be used to refer to the same sound sequences at the phonemic level. 24 back of the tongue r a i s e d to w i t h i n 4 m i l l i m e t e r s of the velum. A f i n e r d e s c r i p t i o n of vocoids can be achieved by-reference to the phonetic g r i d which l i n g u i s t s c a l l the 24 C a r d i n a l Vowel S c a l e . I t c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of eight b a s i c vowels of known formation and a c o u s t i c q u a l i t i e s , independent of the vowel sounds of any p a r t i c u l a r language. "The s e l e c t i o n of these eight c a r d i n a l vowels i s based upon the p r i n c i p l e t h a t no two of them are so near each other as 25 to be incapable of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g words." These vowels and t h e i r p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are shown on a trapezium below. Fig/' 3. The E i g h t B a s i c C a r d i n a l Vowels 24 A standard and i n v a r i a b l e s c a l e devised by D a n i e l Jones,- a B r i t i s h l i n g u i s t / and adopted by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Association.* See D a n i e l Jones, An O u t l i n e of E n g l i s h  Phonetics, Cambridge: W. Heffner and Sons/ L t d . , I960, ppT 31-39. 25 The trapezium may be taken as a c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the human mouth, w i t h the l i p s t o the l e f t and the pharynx t o the r i g h t . The dots r e p r e s e n t the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of the tongue i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the 27 vox?els. I n the c a r d i n a l v o c o i d s £i] and [ u ] the tongue i s r a i s e d as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o the p a l a t e without f r i c -t i o n being produced, and f o r C [ a ] , i t i s brought as. low as p o s s i b l e w i t h s l i g h t r a i s i n g a t the extreme back. These thr e e sounds d e f i n e what a r e known as the vowel l i m i t s -t h a t i s , i f the tongue were r a i s e d even a f r a c t i o n of an i n c h h i g h e r than c [ i ] or c£u], or r e t r a c t e d f a r t h e r back than c£a]» the sounds produced would be f r i c a t i v e c o n t o l d s . Thus, c C i]>[y], as i n y e t ; C [ u ] > [ w ] , as i n wet; and cCct3>C ]^ which, f o r t y p o g r a p h i c a l convenience, i s w r i t t e n 28 [jR]* a s i n "the French word a r b r e [aRbS] ' t r e e * . C l o s e , h a l f - c l o s e , h a l f - o p e n , and open r e f e r t o the degrees of tongue e l e v a t i o n (see F i g , 5). S t a r t i n g from the c£i3 p o s i t i o n , the f r o n t of the tongue i s lowered I n t e r n a t i o n a l P honetic A s s o c i a t i o n , The P r i n c i p l e s of the  I n t e r n a t i o n a l P honetic A s s o c i a t i o n . London: U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , 1965. 25 I b i d . , p. i+. 26 " I b i d . , p, 5, (See valu e s of the vowels on p. 27 of t h i s t h e s i s . 27 F o r c o n s i s t e n c y and b r e v i t y , the c a r d i n a l vowels w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be c a l l e d c a r d i n a l v o c o i d s , and w r i t t e n as C [ i ] , C [ e ] , c[e], C [ a ] , c[ a], C ( > ] f C [ o ] , and c[u]. 28 R. J . Gregg, op,, c i t . , p. 52. 26 g r a d u a l l y a t a u d i t o r i l y e q u i d i s t a n t p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e v a l u e s f o r c[e, e , a ] . Prom th e c[a] p o s i t i o n , t h e tongue i s r a i s e d a l s o a t e q u i d i s t a n t p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e v a l u e s g i v e n t o C[o, o, • u ] , V o c o i d s s i t u a t e d on t h e l i n e i - a o r n e a r t o i t a r e c a l l e d f r o n t v o c o i d s , and t h o s e i n t h e l i n e a-u o r s l i g h t l y I n advance o f i t , t h e back v o c o i d s . The term c e n t r a l i n d i -c a t e s t h a t t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t o f t h e tongue i s i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e mouth, midway between f r o n t and back. A t r i a n g u l a r a r e a r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e g i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l v o c o i d t y p e s i s drawn s e p a r a t i n g t h e f r o n t v o c o i d s from t h e back v o c o i d s . The a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s a r e shown below. F i g . 4. The C e n t r a l V o c o i d T r i a n g l e 27 The values of the different cardinal vocoids may be illustrated from different types of English in which 29 the vocoid types are found; c[i] see [ s i : ] (General) C[e] day. [de:] (Scottish) c[e] [set] (Northern British English) C t > ] back [bak] (Northern British English) c[a] half [ha:f] (Southern British English) c[o] hot [hot] (Scottish) c[o] coat [ko:t] (Scottish) C[u] too [tu:] (General) c[a] about [ 3 »baUt] (General) Ilokano vocoid articulations are to be described and classified according to four c r i t e r i a , namely: (1) tongue height - close, half-close, half-open, open; (2) tongue advancement - front, central, back; (3) tenseness or laxness; and (4) l i p position - spread, neutral, rounded. A l l Ilokano vocoids are of the oral type. Therefore, the position of the velum - 1." e., raised for oral vocoids, lowered for nasalized vocoids - is not distinctive. Tense-ness and laxness are not distinctive either - may be safe-ly ignored. 29 International Phonetic Association, o£. c i t . , pp. 8-9. 28 The lip-tongue positional relationship i s summed up i n the principle of normal vowel opposition or bipolarity: 1. e., the front vocoid series [ i , e, e, a] and [a] of the back series are pronounced with lips spread or open and pulled back, whereas i n the three other back vocoids [l>, o, u], the lips are rounded in varying degrees and are pushed forward. The relationships between the features of tongue height and tongue advancement are shown as a matrix, thus: Front Central Fig. 5. Vocoid Matrix 29 2,22 How Contolds are Described and Classified For the articulatory description of Ilokano contoids, two factors are to be considered, namely, (1) point of articulation, and (2) manner of articulation. The presence or absence of* vocal band vibration characterized as voiced or voiceless (breathed), respectively, iSwalso taken into account. Point of articulation refers to the place of contact or near contact of an articulator with another articulator, or with a stationary part (Sec. 211). The following l i n g -u i s t i c terms are used to describe the articulatory struc-tures involved i n relation to their speech function: Linguistic Terms Structures Involved Bi l a b i a l (or labial) both lips Labio-dental lower l i p , upper teeth Dental tongue tip and rim, upper teeth Alveolar tongue blade, or t i p and blade, alveolar ridge or gum ridge Retroflex tongue t i p , hard palate Palatal tongue back, hard palate Velar tongue back, soft palate Uvular tongue back, extreme back of velum known as the uvula Glottal vocal bands 3 0 Manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n refers to the degree of obs-t r u c t i o n - ranging from complete closure to s l i g h t narrow-ing - made by the speech organs at the point of a r t i c u l a -t i o n . In terms of manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n , the Ilokano .contoids are to be c l a s s i f i e d into the following types, enumerated i n decreasing degrees of closure: Plosive Nasal L a t e r a l Flap F r i c a t i v e Semivocoid These contoid types are described i n d e t a i l i n Sec. 3 . 2 2 along with the speech segments which constitute them. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two dimensions of contoid a r t i c u l a t i o n can be regarded as a matrix i n which the columns represent the point of a r t i c u l a t i o n , and the rows, the manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n . A pair i n g of the voiced (v) and breathed (b) v a r i e t i e s of the contoids appear at the point of i n t e r s e c t i o n . The contoids of Ilokano are to be charted and des-cribed i n terms of the matrix shown i n F i g . 6. 31 P i g . 6. Contoid Matrix;: L a b i a l Labio-Dental Dental & Alveolar Velar G l o t t a l Plosive Nasal L a t e r a l Flap F r i c a t i v e Semivocoid 2.3 The S y l l a b l e : Its Function and Structure The s y l l a b l e , a phonological unit, i s the basic framework within which the r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n and pos-s i b i l i t i e s of occurence of phones and phonemes can be stated. Thus, Ilokano phonemes of ambivalent status such as the semivowels /w/ and /y/ may be categorized as either consonants or vowels depending upon how they pattern with other consonants or vowels i n the s y l l a b l e . Furthermore, since Ilokano has a syllable-timed rhythm, a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n of the suprasegmental feature of stress can be made with respect to the s y l l a b l e structure of word forms. "The s y l l a b l e , " Einar Haugen states, " i s the smallest unit of recurrent phonemic sequences" which consists of 32 "an irreducible minimum which we may c a l l the nucleus and an optional remainder which we may c a l l margin. Margins in turn may either precede or follow the nucleus... Each of the constituents of the syllable consists of one or more phonemes, with vowels usually occupying the peak, the 30 consonants the margins." In this study, the pre-nuclear margin and the post-nuclear margin are - adopting the terms invented by C. F. Hockett - referred to as onset and coda, respectively. Many linguists speak of the nucleus as the "peak of sonority" i n the syllable, and of the vowels - being more sonorous than consonants - as the syllable nuclei. The main function of a vowel, therefore, i s syllabification, and a consonant that of i n i t i a t i n g and terminating a s y l l a -ble. For example, the six vowels, /a u u i o e/, represent the six syllables i n the Ilokano word aggurgurlgoren /qag gur gu r i go ren/ 'He has a fever now.' By Hockett's classification of syllable systems, Ilokano i s of "the onset-peak type... i n that every syllable includes both an onset and a peak; l t may or may not include 32 also a coda." This writer takes It that the obligatory 30 Einar Haugen, "The Syllable in Linguistic Descrip-tion," i n Morris Halle, and others, (eds.), For Roman  Jakobson; Essays. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1955» PP. 216-21?. 51 Charles F. Hockett, op. c i t . , p. 85. 32 Ibid., p. 9 9 . 33 onset includes the glottal stop, / q / , because although printwise a syllable begins with an orthographic symbol representing a vowel, e. g. , a in ala 'get', phonetically, ing the articulation of the vocoid - i . e., [qa]. This prevocalic glottal obstruction can be perceived by slight-ly pressing the fingers on the "Adam's apple" while a r t i -culating i , e, a, o, u, thus*, [qi ] , [qe], [qa], [qo], [qu]. To Haugen and Hockett, the coda is optional. The writer, however, believes that for Ilokano i t is only the syllables in i n i t i a l and medial positions which "may or may not Include also a coda;" in final position, the syllable ending with an orthographic symbol representing a vowel sound, e. g. , - la in ala, is closed by a glottal stop. She postulates a post-vocalic-glottal-stop coda in such final syllables, since this is clearly perceptible in ala ['qa lotqjt and comes out equally clearly when a suffix is added, e. g., in alaen [qa 'la qen] 'to get'. Other examples wi l l further illustrate the concept of the glottal-stop onset and coda, thus: there is a glottal obstruction (symbolized by [q]) preced-al-o /qal qoq/ 'pestle* tal-o / t a l q 6 q / • l i f t ' alto /qfil toq/ •alto' agaltoak /qa gal t6 qak/ ' I ' l l sing alto' agaltoka /qa gal td kaq/ 'You'll sing alto' 34 Although the glottal stop, / q / , is not reflected in the conventional orthography, i t is structurally relevant to the Ilokano syllable system, and wi l l be so indicated in this study. Ilokano exhibits the following syllable structures: cv ubing /gu bin/ •child* CVG nganga /na njiq/ 'open mouth1 CCV blusa / b M saq/ 'blouse' GGVG trenta /trSn taq/ 'thirty' CVCC komiks /kd miks/ 'comics' cV waya /wa yfiq/ •spare time' CcV lualo /lwfi loq/ •prayer* cVC wang-it /w^n, q i t / •head shake' CVv nguy-a /nuv, qfiq/ •agony* cVv duyaw /du y£w/ 'yellow• CcVv ruay /rway/ •abundance' CCcV empleado /qem plya"' doq/ •employee' CCcVC nasaprian /na sap pryfin/ •rain-sprihkled' In summary, the syllable.structures (SS) of Ilokano can be briefly described using the following rules: Onset Nucleus Coda SS Rule 1: S ^ * (C)(C)C V SS Rule 2: S, » SS Rule 3*. Sdn<) » (c)(c)c '(c)c c V V (c)(c) c(c) 35 Consonant Vowel 33 S emi c ons onant Semivowel Syllable in i n i t i a l or medial position Syllable in final position Syllable, with a diphthong, in Ini t ia l , medial, or final position 2;4- Transcription Signs and Symbols The phonetic and phonemic transcriptions in this thesis make use of the conventional symbols of the Inter-national Phonetic Association, with some additions used by 34 many British and American phoneticians today. It wi l l be noted, however, that some of the signs and symbols have been modified to suit the grammar of the Ilokano dialect under study, as well as for typographical convenience. Thus, the 33 Por the phonemic interpretations of /w/ and /y / as c or v, see Sec. 4.2511 of this thesis. 3% International Phonetic Association, o£. c i t . , pp. 7-14; A. C. Gimson, An Introduction to the Pronuncia-tion of English. London: Edward Arnold (Publishers), Ltd . , 1962, ppi: vi i- ixx James Carrell and William R. Tiffany, Phonetics: Theory and Application to Speech Improvement. New York: McGraw-Hill, I960, p. xv i i . Where: C = V = c = V = 3{IV 36 symbols, C e]» Ca]. and C°]» which have the q u a l i t i e s of <3C"£••]. c£"&], and C [ D T | , respectively, are used i n t h i s study since, i n Ilokano, there i s no contrast Involved, either phonetical-l y or phonemically, between C e ] and C&]; between Ca] and C*1®]. and between Co] and C 3]« T n e symbols C l ] and Cu] stand f o r C i ] and [v]» respectively. Segmental Symbols Symbol Example C i ] ima C 'qi:.maq] 'hand' Ci ] b l t b i t C b l t . ' b i t ] 'load' Ce] verde C'ver.deq] 'green' Ca] petpet [ p 8 t . ' p a t ] 'grasp' Ca] bado ['ba: .doq] 'dress' Ca] bato [ba.*toq] 'stone' Co] bo l a C'bo:.laq] • b a l l ' Cu] buok [bU. «qok] 'hair' Cu] ulo C'qu:. loq] 'head' CP ] Papag C'pa: .pog] 'bamboo bench' Ct] tatang ['ta:.tan] 'father' M kuko CkU.«koq] ' f i n g e r n a i l ' Cb] babal [ba.'ba:.qlq] ' g i r l ' Cd] dagidl Cda.gl.'diq] 'those 1 Cs] gaget Cga.'get] 'diligence 1 Cm] mameg .[ma.*meg] 'oppression' 37 Cn] nanang C 'na: .nan] 'mother* ngangaw Cna.*nau] 'palate' a l - a l C^al.*qal] •panting' Cf] f i n o ['fi:.noq] •fine' Cv] votos C'vo:.tos] 'votes' [ s ] saludsod [sa.lUd.'sod] •question' Ch] husto [hHs.«toq] •right' Cfi] kolehlo Cko.*le:.Gyoqf) 'college' C i ] l a l a k i [ l a . ' l a : . k l q ] 'boy' Cr] r l r o C'ri:.roq] 'confusion' Cw] mi C ,wal] •rattan• Cy] yuyem C *yu:.yem] •cloudy' Suprasegmental and Other Modifying Signs and Symbols Symbol Description Example C'0 Phonetic stress (before the daydlay Cdql.'dyal] 'that' stressed syllable) / V Phonemic stress (above the /day dyfiy/ vowel of the stressed syllable) C*] Palatalization (above the contoid) [dal.'dyal] C O Length: the sound represented l n l t ['ql:.nlt] 'sun' by the preceding letter is ut-ot [qUt:.'qot] 'pain' long dakkel Cdak.'kel] «big« Note: Consonant length is realized as gemination. 38 L>] [3] [2] [1] 143 C 3 /'/ CD # # Very hi g h p i t c h l e v e l High p i t c h l e v e l Normal p i t c h l e v e l Low p i t c h l e v e l L e v e l i n t o n a t i o n and short pause F a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n and long pause R i s i n g I n t o n a t i o n and long pause R i s i n g - f a l l i n g i n t o n a t i o n and long pause F a l l i n g - r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n and long pause Brackets t o enclose e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n s Slashes to enclose emic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s S i n g l e dot to mark s y l l a b l e boundary i n e t i c t r a n s -c r i p t i o n s ; replaced by a l e t t e r space i n emic trans-c r i p t i o n s Crossed bars to enclose morphemes Nakapinpintas j L^noka % i n 3 p l n 2 t a s ] ' I t ' s very b e a u t i f u l ! ' Ngem, [nemj] 'But,...' Napintas. [ 2 n a . 'pin.Has^ J ' I t ' s b e a u t i f u l . ' Napintas? [ 2 n a . ' p l n . ^ t a s ^ ] ' I t ' s b e a u t i f u l ? ' Ay, wen, ["^qal 2'weA£] •Oh, yes (Sure, i t i s ) . ' Agpayso? [ 2 q a g . p a l . 1 'soq^ J] 'Is l t true ( o r . . . ) ? ' l u t o [*lu: .toq] 'cook* /1H t o q / #luto# + #-ek# •cook* *I» 39 */lutoek/ [lU.'to:.qek] 'cook i t I' /pen pen/ > [pem 'pen] 'stack* */lutoek/<#luto# + #-ek# / n / > [m]/ C . _ ] * / / Asterisked barred slashes to enclose hypothetical word forms ^ "becomes * ^ "comes from* -—^ "is rewritten as" or "is represented by" / "in the context (or environment)" ^ j Braces to enclose a set: "Choose only the item(s) that apply each time." ( ) Parentheses: "items enclosed are optional" [...] "the rest of the items in the syllable -unit" <f> "native Ilokano word form" @ "loan word form" ®kafe [ka.'feq] 'coffee' 2.5 Phonetic Data This section Includes a corpus of utterances occurlng in Ilokano from which a l l the recurring speech sounds may be picked out and specified, and on which statements about the distributional relationships among the features of the sounds are based. The corpus as a sample of the language -more specifically, of the Ilokano dialect in question - is admittedly restricted, i . e., i t is not exhaustive enough to i n c l u d e a l l p o s s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d e t a i l s of each speech sound. This l i m i t a t i o n , however, i s not reason enough to consider the subsequent g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n v a l i d . The gaps i n the corpus w i l l be f i l l e d i n by the copious examples i n t e r s p e r s e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n s . Moreover, the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are to be taken to apply to the d i a l e c t as a whole and not to the corpus alone. 35 T i Amlan ken t i I n l t Agsinsinnungbat t i amian ken t i i n i t no a n i a kada-kwada nga dua t i napigpigsa, i d l husto nga sumungad t i maysa nga viahero nga adda naimeng nga kagay na nga k a s l a kapa t i reyna.' Nagtulag da nga no a n i a kadakwada t i a g b a l l i g i nga mangpauksob i t i v i ahero i t i kagay na, i s u t i makuna nga napig-p i g s a . Saan a nabayag, nagpug-ay t i amian i t i nakapigpigsa, ket uray l a nga naguy-oy t i d i l a na. Ngem, no kasano t i pigsa t i panagpug-ay na, ad-adda pay nga inkayetket a firme t i v i a -hero t i kagay na i t i bagi na; ket kamaudiianan na, saan nan nga i n t u l o y t i nagpug-ay. Nagtalna ket n a g p a l i i w . "Mapauksob ngata t i i n i t daydiay v i a h e r o ? " sinaludsod na i t i bagi na,r I d i kuan, limgak t i i n i t . Nadagaang t i aldaw, ket dagus a naguksob t i v i a h e r o . Anansa ngarud, i n k a p i l i t a n nga inannugot t i amian nga napigpigsa t i i n l t ngem i t i i s u . ' 35 An Ilokano t r a n s l a t i o n of "The Northwind and the Sun," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic A s s o c i a t i o n , pj>. c i t . , p. 20. I t has been con s i d e r a b l y modified and augmented t o i n c l u d e a l l the speech sounds occuring i n the Ilokano d i a l e c t . 41 % 1 2 , 1 it c j a m ' m y a n k s n t i ' c j U h i t The Northwind and the Sun qag'smsinnurj'bat il a a m ' m y a n ken h ' c j i ' . m t j Arguing the northwind and the sun no c jar tnya : k a c l a ' k w a : d a r j a d w a : t i n a p i c j p i g ' s & c j | i f which of them two the stronger c j jd i h v s rocj rja & v ' m a : r j a d t i m ax 's a : rja vyahe'.^ocjj when j u s t then approach the one t r a v e l e r , rja c j a d d a na'cji : rne-Q QO- k a g a i 'naqj rja k a s ! a ' k a : p a t i viho had warm cloak h i s that i s l i k e cape of V e g n a c j ^ nacj'fcujlag dacj | rja no aan 'nya : k a d a ' k w a : det | queen. Agreed they t h a t i f which of them 2 1 * i t i ( jagbal ' l r .g ic j rja m a r j p a q u k ' s o b a i h v y a ' f i e i r o ^ a i f c i the s u c c e s s f u l to make undress the t r a v e l e r the k a g a i 'nscj J c j i ' s u : ki m a w ' n e q rja napxqpicj sacj 1 s a q a n cloak h i s , he the s a i d s t r o n g e r . Not t i 1 Z 1 l 4 5 X a a n a b a ' y a q l n a c j p v g ' c j a i t i c j a m ' m y a n q i t i nakapigpig 'sacj long time blew the northwind very strong 2 1 \ Z I 1 i 2 nacj j , rjemj no Ka sa ' n and u n t i l dangle the tongue h i s . But, i f hovj^ver ket 'qu'.rai'la-, na n a j u i ' c j o i hdi:la j J , em kasaVio il pxg'sac| t i pctnagpugcjai'naqj c^ adcjad da: pax rja the s t r e n g t h the blowing h i s a l l the more th a t q z r j k a y s t U d t Cja f i r m © t i vya'Pie 1. r o c j j t x k a c j a i 'na: cji huddled up f i r m l y the t r a v e l e r the cloak h i s t j 1 2 2 ba'gi-, na| k©t kamacj-ud'dya-. n a n n a q | sacjanVjan r j a body h i s and f i n a l l y not anymore he i 2 1 A 1 i 2 qxrVtu:loi t i nagpugqai^ ^agtal'nacj k©t nacjpct'li-. continued the blowing. Kept s t i l l and observed. 7. * 2 3 - mapacjuk'sob U cji:ni-t dcudyax \zya'Re.roq| "Gan make undress probably the sun that t r a v e l e r ? " 1 ,2 1 1 Z 2 ainalvjclsod n a : ejitx bagi r\dcj ^  cjidi'kwQ-.nl linVgak asked he to s e l f h i s . Then shone out 1 2 1 "• ti 'eji:rnl|^  nadacja:cjarj *i cjal'dev| kst'dU^ VS rja the sun. Warm the day and Immediately 1 2 naq\j|c5ob ti vya'fie:r<ac|^  cjanan'sa*. t-jaVcucl | undressed the t r a v e l e r . Therefore, i ( 2 1 2 1 2 c^irjkapi'livlan «]a cjman'nu:goi ti cjarn'myanl o b l i g e d admitted the northwind 1 Z i 1 1 that stronger the sun than he.. Chapter 3 THE SOUNDS OP SPEECH : A PHONETIC ANALYSIS Speech, i t must be re-emphasized, is a continuum of different articulations produced by the vocal organs; the division of this continuum into discrete segments and suprasegments is an abstraction, an ar t i f i c ia l process, nevertheless, a sine qua non in linguistics. As Nadel aptly puts i t , "If scientific insight is insight into the order of things, observation must be directed towards break-ing up the continuum of data into units - units which can be manipulated or ordered in a fashion more systematic than the ambiguous and fortuitous ordering inherent in naive observa-36 tion." It i s , however, only the record of the speech event that can be segmented and manipulated. This chapter is concerned with a detailed phonetic description of the raw materials of speech - the different segmental sounds and suprasegmental features - extracted from the corpus of utterances recorded in Sectiohxi2.5 of this thesis. The phonemization procedures in the next chapter wi l l reveal that not a l l of the etic units enumerated and described here wi l l ultimately prove to be separate emic units of the dialect. 36 F. S. Nadel, The Foundations of Social Anthropology. London: Cohen and West, Ltd . , 1951. P. 75. 44 Fig; 1 9 . A Chart of Ilokano Contolds L a b i a l Labio-Dental Dental & Alveolar Velar G l o t t a l Plosive M M Ct] Ca] M Cs] [q] Nasal M Cn] L a t e r a l Ci] Flap Cr] F r i c a t i v e Cf] Cv] Cs] Ch] Ch] Semivocoid 1 [w] Cy] 3»12 The Suprasegmental Features Length: C q 1 : n I t ] 'sun' C qccm. myan] * northwind' Stress: C'da.gUs] 'immediately 1 £ sU.*mu.nad] 'to"approach * Cna.plg.plg.*saq] 'stronger' 46 Pitch, Intonation, r 1 2 , 2 1 j _ [ q l . d l «kwa:n 11m.'gak t i «qi:.nltj ,j 'Then the sun shone out.* r2 1 & Juncture; yma.pa.qUk.*sob na.ta t i ' q i ; . n i t dal.dyal vya.'ne: .roq'p ] 'Can the sun make the travel e r take o f f his cloak?' 3.2 THE SEGMENTS IN DETAIL 3.21 Vocoids A l l the vocoids of Ilokano, l i k e those of French, are pure and simple, I. e., they do not have the diphthongal q u a l i t y of the English vocoids. The following are examples compared i n terms of C[i3: Ilokano: b l i t [ b l . ' q i t ] 'for a moment* French: v l t e [ v i t ] *fast* English: beat [ b i y t ] (Standard English) Vocoid length and stress are i n t e r r e l a t e d . The strength of pronunciation modifies the quantity of [i,e,a,o,u]. In f a c t , some l i n g u i s t s use the term, strength, as a portman-teau form of stress plus length. Considering the stress-length co-occurence, at least i n non-final s y l l a b l e s i n Ilokano, the length symbol, [:], c a n D e s a f e l y l e f t out i n the examples f o l -lowing each vocoid d e s c r i p t i o n . The treatment of each Ilokano vocoid includes an a r t i -culatory description and an assessment of q u a l i t y i n terms of the Cardinal Vowel Scale, and examples of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l f e a t -ures i n utterance and s y l l a b l e . 4-7 3.211 The Front Vocoids: [ i , I, e, a] 3.2111 [ i ] [ i ] is the closest of the Ilokano front vocoids. It is articulated with the front of the tongue slightly-backed and raised to a height just below the close front position of c[i]; the teeth nearly in occlusion; and, with the lips spread and drawn back. This speech sound may be classified as a close, front, tense, rounded vocoid. The Ilokano £ i ] occurs only in stressed syllables, 37 in a l l positions. [ i ] in i n i t i a l syllable: bllang^ [•bi.lon] •number' dl la ['di.laqj 'tongue' gita ['gi.taqQ C 'venom' ini t [ 'qi.nlt] 'sun* kilo [•ki.loq] •kilogram' lipay [•l i .pal] 'a leguminous vine* mikl ['ml.klq] 'noodle' nlpa C'ni.paq] •a species of palm' ngina ['ni.naq] 'price; value' pilaw C'pi.laU] 'blemish' rimas ['rl.mas] •breadfruit' slka [•si.kaq] 'dysentery' tlbung ['ti.bUn] •vibration' 37 A l l positions means in i t ia l ly , medially, and finally in the utterances. The examples are arranged according to the indicated &8 [ i ] in medial syllable: ibingay [ql.'bi.nal] 'to share with' ad iff! [qa.'di.glq], •post' sagiden [sa."gl.den] 'to touch' ahitan [qa.'ni.tan] 'to shave' pit-ingan [plt.'qi.nan] 'to chip o f f akikid [qa.'ki.kld] 'narrow1 u i i l a [qU.'li.laq] 'orphan' kamiring [ka.'mi.rln] •nettle rash' manipud [ma.'ni.pUd] 'start from' napintas [na.'pin.tas] 'beautiful' barikes [ba.'ri.kes] 'belt; girdle' kusilap [kU.'si.lap] 'pout» batibat [ba.*ti.bat] 'nightmare' kawitan [ka.'Vi.tan] 'rooster* ] in f i n a l syllable: ubing [qU.'bin] 'child' diding [dl.'din] •wall' rugl [rU.'giq] 'beginning* s u i l [sU.'qil] 'pry or lever* bakl [ba.'kiq] 'chicken coop' nagalis [na.ga.'lis] *slippery* position of occurrence of the sound in the utterance, e. g., i f the sound in question is Indicated as occurring in utter-ance f i n a l , the utterances are enumerated according to the alphabetical order of their f i n a l syllables. 49 ikumit [ql.kU.»mit] 'to entrust* dandani [dan.da.*niq] 'almost* kupin [kU.»pin] •fold* tagari [ta.ga.'rlq] •talk, p r a t t l e * pus i t [pU.«sit] •squid' pating [pa.'tln] 'whale* awit [qa.'wit] •load' 3.2112 [ I ] The close, front, semi-tense , vocoid, [ i ] , duced with the tongue t i p nearer to center than to front, and raised just above the h a l f - c l o s e p o s i t i o n of c[e]; l i p and tongue muscles are r e l a t i v e l y lax compared with the ten-sion f o r [ i ] . [ i ] occurs i n unstressed s y l l a b l e s i n a l l positions, [ i ] i n I n i t i a l s y l l a b l e : blgat [bl.'gat] 'morning1 d i l d i L a n [ d l l . ' d i . l o n ] •to l i c k , lap' g i t a [ g l .ta;q] ' o i l y taste of nuts' i t e d [ q l . ' t e d ] •give* k i k l t [ k l . ' k i t ] 'ear f i n g e r ' l i b a s [ l l . ' b a s ] •a species of flowering vine' mi l a t [ml.«lat] •grime * pilaw [pi.«laU] •pool of stagnant water' rikep [ r i , ' k e p ] •shutter' slk a [si.'kaq] 'you* t i r i t i r [ t l . ' r i . t l r ] 'twist, wring* wlngiwing [wi.'ni.wln] •to shake the head i n dissent* 50 [ i ] i n medial syllable: rabii [ra.bl.»qiq] •night' agadiwara [qa.ga.dl.»wa. raq] 'diffuse fragrance' rugitan [rU.gl.'tan] 'to s o i l ' nakiro [na.kl.'roq] •disorderly, confusing' aglibak [qag . H .'bak] •to refrain from divulging maminsan [ma.mln.'san] 'once• aniniwan [qa.nl.'ni.wan i] ' shadow • kanginaan [ka.nl.'na.qan] 'the most expensive' kupinen [kU.pl.'nen] 'to fold' karison [ka.rl.'son] •cart pulled by an ox' kasinsin [ka.sin.'sin] •cousin' kutingi [kU.tl.«niq] 'the smallest of a l i t t e r * siwlwidawld [sl.wl.wl.*da. wld] 'empty-handed * [] i n f i n a l syllable: tagibi [ta.'gi.blq] 'foster child* padl [•pa.dlq] •priest * aggidigid [qag.gl.'di.gld] 'to rub against a post' s u l l ['su.qll] 'a kind of hoe* lalak i [la.'la.klq] •boy, man' sabali [sa.'ba.llq] •another1 amin ['qa.mln] ' a l l ' agani [qa.'ga.nlq] 'harvester' angin ['qa.nln] •wind' 51 p a l p i t [ p a . » q i . p l t ] ' c a r p e n t e r ' s v i s e ' s a r i r i t [ s a v ' r l . r l t ] ' s a g a c i t y ' n a k u s i m [ n a . • k u . s l m ] • f a s t i d i o u s i n f o o d ' k a m a t i s [ k a . • m a . t l s ] ' t o m a t o * k a w i w i t [ k a . ' w i . w l t ] ' t o c l a s p w i t h t h e l e g s 3.2113 [ e ] A r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e I l o k a n o v o c o i d [ e ] c a l l s f o r a t o n g u e p o s i t i o n l o w e r a n d m o r e c e n t e r e d t h a n t h a t f o r c[e],< a n d j u s t a b o v e t h e t o n g u e h e i g h t f o r c[£]. T h e t o n g u e i s humped t o w a r d t h e f r o n t o f t h e mouth ,* t h e .jaw o p e n w i d e r t h a n t h a t f o r cCe], a n d t h e l i p s s p r e a d a n d o n l y s l i g h t l y r e t r a c t e d . T h i s h a l f - o p e n , f r o n t , s p r e a d , t e n s e v o c o i d o c c u r s i n b o t h s t r e s s e d a n d u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s ; i n a l l p o s i t i o n s . ! Ce] i n s t r e s s e d i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e : . © B e l o C ' b e . l o q J • s h o r t f o r I s a b e l o ' @ f e c h a [ ' f e t . t y a q ] ' d a t e • © g e r r a C ' g e r . r a q ] • w a r * © h e f e C » h e . f e q ] • c h i e f 1 k e n C * k e n ] • a n d 1 © k e n d i C ' k e n . d l q ] • c a n d y * © L e a h C • l e . q a q ] ' a g i r l * s name* m e t C 'me t ] • a l s o ' © m e d i a s C ' m e . d y a s ] • s t o c k i n g s * 52 ®Nena [ 'ne.naq] 'a g ir l ' s name* ©pecho ['pet.tyoq] 'chicken breast' ©reses ['re.ses] •recess' ©selyo ['sel.lyoq] 'stamp, seal' ©te la C'te.laq] •fabric' ©verde [*ver.deq] •green' wenno ['wen.noq] 'or' ©yerro ['yer.roq] 'galvanized iron roofing' [e] in stressed medial syllable: @kobeta [ko.'be.taq] 'toilet' [kan.'de.laq] 'candle* [fal. i'ge.raq] 'a family name' [qcu *nen.teq] ©kandela ©Falguera ©ahente ©bangkete © b l s l k l e t a ©America ©chlnelas ©supero ©sirena ©kasera ©kafetera ©S evero •agent' [barj.'ke.teq] 'banquet' [bl.slk.'kle.taq] 'bicycle' [qa.'me.rl.kaq] 'America' [tyl . 'ne. las ] ' s Uppers ' [sU.'pe.roq] 'soup bowl' [sl.'re.naq] "sirenf nymph1 [ka.'s e.r aq] 'landlord; tenant * [ka.fe.'te.raq] 'coffee pot* [se.'ve.roq] 'a boy's name' [e] in stressed final syllable: rebbeng [reb.'ben] 'responsibility' baddek [bad.»dek] 'step, tread' 53 raem [ra. •qem] •respect' @kaf e [ka. •feq] •coffee' agek [<la. •gek] 'kiss' ©kahel [ka. •fiel] •a variety of oranges' baket [ba. •ket] •old woman1 ules [<lU. •les] 'blanket' simek [ s i . •mek] •utterance, conversation' buneng [bU. •bolo' tengnged [ten .«ned] •neck* reppet [rep .•pet] •bundle' gargaret [gar .ga.'ret] 'belongings 1 pisel [p l . rsel] •pressure (hand)' art em [qar, .'tern] 'pickle' tawen [ta.' 'wen] •year; age' kuyemyem [kU.yem.*yem] 1 cloudy1 [e] in unstressed i n i t i a l syllable: bengngat derraas  emma ftetteng kebba  leppas  melmel  nengneng  ngernger [ben.. •nat] •accent i n speaking [ d e r . •ra.qas] ' p r e c i p i c e 1 [qem. •maq] •meekness' [ g e t . •ten] • s c i s s o r s ' [keb. 'baq] •breathlessness• [ l e p . •pas] 'completion' [mel. •mel] •mouthful 1 [neij. ' s t u p i d ' [ n e r . •Her] • s n a r l , growl' 54 peggad [peg.'gad] 'danger' rebba [reb.'baq] •wreckage' seldan [ s e l . ' d a n ] •large water j a r * tengnga [ t e n . 'jaq] •middle, center' wenno [wen. *noq] 'or' [yeg.'yeg] ' tremble' [ e ] i n unstressed medial s y l l a b l e : nabenfebeng [not.ben. 'berj] ' t h i c k , close-woven' i agdeppa [qccg.dep. 'paq] 'to extend the arms s l d e w i s e 1 paggelgelan [pag^gel.ge.'Ian] 'starch s t r a i n e r * kagkadked [qag.ked.*ked] 'to r e s i s t payment' i s a l e k s e k [ q l . s a . l e k . ' s e k ] 'to s t u f f dumenden [dU.men.'den] 'to move to a g i v e n po i n t paheknek [pa.nek.'nek] 'proof 1 dengngepen [deij.ije. 'pen] 'to apply hot compress' agpessa [qag.pes.*saq] 'to h a t c h 1 iremrem [ql.rem.'rem] 'to submerge' salensenan [sd.len.se.'nan] 'to overburdendn 1 agteddak [qag.ted.'dak] 'to burst abscesses' ayek-ek [qa.yek.'qek] 'audible l a u g h t e r ' [ e ] i n unstressed f i n a l s y l l a b l e : plnakbet [ p i Aiak.bet] 'a k i n d of vegetable r e c i p e 1  sardeng [ •sar.deij] 'stop' laeng ['la.qeri] 'only' 55 ©Cleofe ['klyo.feq] 'a g i r l ' s name' ©asoge [qa.'so.geq] •mercury' ©ehe ['qe.neq] 'axle' b a r i k e s [ b a . ' r i . k e s ] ' b e l t ' u l e g ['qu.leg] »snake' timek ['ti.mek] 'voice' ©sine ['si.neq] 'movie, cinema' anges ['qa.nes] •breath• ipes [*qi.pes] 'cockroach' bareng ['ba.ren] • i f perhaps' awisen [qa.•wi.sen] 'to i n v i t e ' ©bote ['bo.teq] ' b o t t l e ' ©lyave [•lya.veq] 'key; wrench' agaweng [qa.'ga.wen] 'to r i n g , t o resound* ©kalye [' k a l . l y e q ] ' s t r e e t ' 3.'2114 [ a ] The Ilokano [ a ] , the openest of the f r o n t vocoids, i s s l i g h t l y centered. I t i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h jaws and l i p s wide-l y open, and w i t h no part of the tongue coming i n contact w i t h the upper molars. This open, f r o n t , l a x v o c o i d occurs i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e i n a l l p o s i t i o n s . [ a ] i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e : agum ['qa.gttm] 'greed, covetousness' banga ['ba.iiaq] 'earthen pot' 56 daniw ['da.niu] ' lyric poem' galip [ 'ga.llp] 'slice' kayo [«ka.yoq] •tree* langka [ 'larj.kaq] «jackfrui t ' mangga ['marj.gaq] 'mango' nanam ['na.nam] •taste' ngalug ['na.lUg] •purslane (Portulaca payong [«pa .yog] 'umbrella* ramay ['ra.mal] 'finger* sangi ['sa.nlq] 'molar tooth' tabo [*ta. boq] 'a kind of dipper' vale ['va.leq] •credit coupon' was ay [•wa.sal] 'axe' yaman ['ya.kan] 'thanks' i] in medial syllable: naata [not. 'qa.taq] 'unripe * abaga [qa.'ba.gaq] 'shoulders' ladawan [lav'da.wan] 'picture' sagaba [sa.'gaibaq] •sufferings• akaba [qa.'ka.baq] 'wide, broad' balayang [ba^'la^yan] •a variety of banana' kamakam [ka.'ma.kam] 'overtake' kanawa [ka.'na.waq] 'defense * sungani [sU.'na.nlq] 'contrary, oppos ite' lapayag [la.'pa.yog] •ear' 57 arasaw [qa. 'ralsaU] •rice washing' lansangan [lan. 'sa.nan] 'street' kawayan [ka.'wa.yan] 'bamboo' 1 bayabas [ba.*ya.bas] 'guava' a] i n f i n a l syllable: tay-ak [tal.'qak] 'meadow' saba [sa.'baq] 'banana' adda [qad.'daq] •there i s , there are' daga [da.'gaq] •earth, land' saka [s a.«kaq] •to redeem mortgaged property galad [ga.'lad] 'rank, a b i l i t y 1 raman [ra.'man] 'taste, flavor' baknang [bak. 'narj] 'wealth; a wealthy person' sanga [s a.'naq] 'branch* tinapa [tl.na.'paq] 'smoked f i s h ' nadaras [na.da.'ras] 'quick' rasa [r a.*saq] •large edible crab' mata [ma.'taq] 'eye' lawag [la.'wag] 'light' laya [la.'yaq] 'ginger' 3.212 The Central Vocoids: [©. a] 3.2121 [ 9 ] The Ilokano [d]» a central, lax vocoid, is articulated with neutral l i p and tongue positions, i . e., the tongue, with 58 i t s r i m i n c l o s e contact w i t h the upper molars, i s midway "between the height f o r c[S] and c[e]. I n the phonetic con-t e x t of the v e l a r c o n t o i d s , [ k , g, r p , however, the tongue may be s l i g h t l y more r a i s e d and r e t r a c t e d , e. g., the medial and f i n a l s y l l a b l e s of gettengek [g©t.ta.*nak3 'I cut i t . ' G e n e r a l l y , the Ilokano schwa, [©]', i s produced w i t h the l e a s t e f f o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of any of the vocoids. Although, there are some Ilokano speakers who pronounce i t w i t h r e l a -t i v e tenseness. The v o c o i d , s u b s t i t u t e s f r e e l y f o r [ e ] i n a l l p o s i t i o n s only i n n a t i v e Ilokano word forms, never i n loan 38 words. 3.2122 [ a] This normally short v o c o i d i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h l i p s and jaws more open than t h a t f o r and more clo s e than that f o r [ a ] , A s h i f t from [ a ] t o [ a ] brings the rim of the tongue i n near contact w i t h the upper molars, [ a ] may be c l a s s i f i e d as a half-open, l a x , c e n t r a l v o c o i d . I n Ilokano, [ a ] occurs i n unstressed s y l l a b l e s i n a l l p o s i t i o n s . [ a ] i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e : a l - a l [ q a l . ' q a l ] 'laborious b r e a t h i n g 1 babawi [ba.'ba.wlqj 'repentance 1 38 Examples of lo a n words are marked @ i n Sec. 3.113 of t h i s t h e s i s . ~" 59 dalayap [da.'la.yap] 'lemon• gandat [gan.'dat] 'intention* kalapaw [ka.la.'paU] •a hovel' lastiko [las.tl . 'koq] 'rubber band' mamati [ma.'ma.tlq] 'to believe* nalaka [na.la.'kaq] 'cheap, easy* nganngani [ijan. 'na.nlq] 'almost• papaya [pa.'pa.yaq] 'papaya' rangkap [rag.'kap] 'donation' sardam [sar.'dam] 'evening * tayab [ta.'yab] 'flight' wagwag [wag.'wag] •a variety of r ice' yantangay [yan.'ta.gal] 'whereas * t] in medial syllable: aalunusen [qa.qa.lU.'nu. sen] *can be eaten ababa [qa.ba.'baq] 'short' adayo [qa.da.'yoq] •far, distant' agama [qa.ga.'maq] 'father and child* dakami [da.ka.'miq] 'we» kulalanti [ k U . l a . l a n . » t i q ] ' f irefly' manmano [man.ma.'noq] 'few' panateng [pa.na.'terj] 'cold, catarrh' sangapulo [sa.na.'pu.loq] 'ten' sapata [sa.pa.taq] 'oath' karatay [ka.ra.'tal] 'knapsack' 60 pasaray [ p a . s a . ' r a l ] 'sometimes' n a t a l n a [ n e t . t a l . *naq] ' p e a c e f u l ' wayawaya [wa.ya.wa.'yaq] 'freedom, l i b e r t y ' [ a ] i n f i n a l s y l l a b l e : baak [ 'ba .qak] 'aged' b a r i b a r [ b a . • r i . b a r ] •crosswise' dadag [ 'da .dag] • r i p e n i n g pods of legumes' a d e l f a [<la. • d e l . f a q ] 'a f l o w e r i n g shrub' sagad ['sa .gad] 'broom * raha [ 'ra .naq] •a Moro c h i e f t a i n ' saka ['sa .kaq] • f o o t ' d a l a n ['da .lan] 'road, way* apaman [ q a . ' pa .man] •as soon a s ' ganat [ 'ga .nat] 'hurry* gangat ['ga. •nat] ' k i n d l e ' kapas [«ka, •pas] 'cotton' nabara [ n a . 'ha.raq] 'red-hot• agbasa [qag. . 'ba.saq] •to r e a d ' katawa [ k a . 1 ta.waq] 'l a u g h t e r ' kawayan [ k a . 1 wa.yan] •bamboo' 3;'213 The Back V o c o i d s : [u;- U,' o] 3.2131 [ u ] The Ilokano [ u ] i s a c l o s e , back, tense, rounded v o c o i d . I n i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n the l i p s a r e almost puckered; 61 t h e jaws a r e p a r t e d about t h e same degree as f o r [ i ] ; and t h e tongue i s r a i s e d as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e p a l a t e w i t h o u t p r o d u c i n g f r i c t i o n . The q u a l i t y I s t h a t o f c [ u ] . The I l o k a n o [ u ] o c c u r s i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i n a l l p o s i t i o n s . [ u ] i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e : b u l o c •bu.loq] •a v a r i e t y o f bamboo 1 d u l a n g c 'du.lozj] •a low t a b l e 1 guyod [ •gu.yod] «pull« k u d i l [ ' k u . d l l ] • s k i n ' l u g a n c • l u . g a n ] ' r i d e ; v e h i c l e 1 muging c 'mu.glrj] ' f o r e h e a d * nupay c •nu.pal] • a l t h o u g h ' pukaw [ •pu.kaU] ' l o s s ' r u p a [ •ru.paq] ' f a c e ' s u k a t [ • s u . k a t ] 'measurement• t u r o g c • t u . r o g ] ' s l e e p ' umok [ •qu.mok] 'n e s t ' yuyem [ •yu.yem] ' o v e r c a s t ( w e a t h e r ) ' [u] i n m e d i a l s y l l a b l e : abungot [ q a . ' b u . n o t ] baduya  dagudug  agkurang k u l u k o l [ba.'du.yaq] [dU.'gu.dUg] [ q a g . ' k u . r a t j ] [ k U . ' l u . k o l ] a head wear' banana o r r i c e f r i t t e r s ' n o r t h e a s t w i n d ' insufficient« au g e r ' 62 maldumuaum pantmot anguyob malapunos murumor asukar patupat i n a u d l  ayuyang [ u ] i n f i n a l abut adu gugut p a r l k u t salup mamutmut  danum bang us putput  ngarud  i s u  sag-ut  yubyub [ma.ql .dU.'mu.dUm] 'to f a l l prone' [pa.•nu.not] 'thought' [<la. *nai.yob] 'blowpipe' [ma.la.'pu.nos]'to be floo d e d ' [mU.'ru.mor] 'seedling' [qa.'su.kar] 'sugar' [pa.'tu.pat] ' r i c e pudding wrapped i n p l a i t e d palm l e a v e s ' [ql.na.'qu.dlq] 'younger s i b l i n g ' [qa.'yti.yan] ' r e s o r t ' s y l l a b l e : [qa.'but] [qa. fduq] [gU.'gut] [ p a . r l . * k u t ] [ s a . ' l u p ] [ma.mUt. 'mut] [da.'num] [ba.'nus] [put.'put] [na.»rud] [ q l . ' s u q ] [sag.'qUt] [yUb.«yub] 'hole' •many* •gum (of the t e e t h ) • •problem, d i f f i c u l t y * •a measure of c a p a c i t y equal t o three l i t e r s • •comprehend thoroughly 1 •water' ' m i l k f i s h ' 'sound of horns ( c a r s ) ' ' therefore' 'he, she, i t 1 'cotton yarn' 'sound of c o n f l a g r a t i o n * 63 3.2132 [u] For Ilokano [u], the tongue i s relaxed from the close p o s i t i o n of [u] and i s advanced from true back. There i s no fir m contact made between the tongue and the upper molars. The l i p s are loosely rounded. The rel a t i o n s h i p of [u] with [u] i s s i m i l a r to that between [ i ] and [ i ] . [u] has the qu a l i t y of a relaxed, lowered and centralized c[u]. I t may be c l a s s i f i e d as a close, back, semi-tense, rounded vocoid. The Ilokano [u] occurs i n unstressed s y l l a b l e s i n a l l p o s itions. [u] i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e : buok [bU. •qok] 'hair' dukot [dU. 'kot] 'anxiety* gubal Lsu. »bal] •coarseness * husto [hUs .•toq] 'right, correct' kulot [kU. •lot] 'curly ( h a i r ) ' [lUp .«poq] 'thigh' mulumog [mU. •lu.mog] •gargle* nutnot [nUt .••not] 'thumbsucking * ngurungor Cgu. •ru.nor] 'cutthroat * pungdol [pun, . 'tot] *stump of a tree* rurod [rU. •rod] 'anger, resentment* suliso g [sU. : •li.sog] •temptation' tuwato [tu. •wa.toq] 'dragonfly' yubuyob [yu. •bu.yob] 'sound of the bellows* 64 [ll] i n medial syllable: tlmbukel [tlm.bU.»kel] 'round' sldunget [sI.dU.»net] 'serious looks' gunguna [gUrj.gU.'naq] 'reward, gain' llkudan [ll.kU.'dan] 'to turn one's back to' lulunan [lU.lU.'nan] tamudo klnuna bungunen allpuffpog, sumaruno blsukol batulang 'the soft part of a child's cranium' 'index finger' 'said' j 'to wrap up' [qa.11.pUg.'pog] 'whirlwind' [sU.ma.rU.*noq] 'follow' [bl.sU.'kol] 'a kind of mollusk' •[ba.tU. *la^] 'a large cage for enclos-[ta.mU.'doq] [kl.nU.«naq] [bU.nU.'nen] Ing chicken' bayungubong [ba.yU.'nu.borj] 'diarrhea* [u] i n f i n a l syllable: libut C'li.bUt] •procession' agpidut [qag.'pi.dUt] 'to pick up' umigup [qU.'ml.gUp] •ibo sip' irakus [ql.'ra.kUs] 'to t i e to a tree or post* alus ['qa.aus] 'second hand (garment)' imut [ 'ql.mUt] 'avaricious, stingy' inut ['ql.nUt] «a l i t t l e at a time' pingud ['pi.nUd] 'one-eared' 65 ipus [•qi.pUs] «tail» agparut [qag.'pa.rUt] 'to uproot' sumusup [sU.'mu.sUp] 'to suck; to i p u f f at a cigar gutung [ 'gu.tUrj] 'hidden rocks, stones• laud ['la.qUd] 'west' aguvus [qa.'gu.yUs] •to doff one's s h i r t ' 3.2133 [o] The Ilokano [o] i s a r t i c u l a t e d with the back of the tongue raised between the half-open and half-c l o s e positions; with no contact being made between the tongue and the upper molars. I t has medium l i p rounding. Its q u a l i t y i s that of a raised C[0]. This speech sound may be described as a h a l f -open, back, semi-lax* rounded vocoid. In Ilokano, the vocoid [o] (1) varies f r e e l y with [u] except i n loan word forms; (2) normally occurs i n stressed f i n a l s y l l a b l e s ; and* (3) occurs also i n unstressed f i n a l s y l l a b l e s . [o] i n stressed i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e : ©bo l a [•bo.lccq] ' b a l l ' ©dose ['do.seq] 'twelve' ©goma ['go.maq] 'rubber 1 ©kola C'ko.laq] •paste, glue' ©lola ['lo.laq] 'grandmother' ©Moro ['mo.roq] 'Moor, Mohammedan' 66 no [*noq] ' i f ; i n case that* ©oras ['qo.ras] 1time; hour' ©poso ['po.soq] •artesian well' ©rosas ['ro.sas] •pink' ©solo ['so.loq] •alone1 @tono ['to.noq] 'tune1 @votos [ !vo.tos] 1votes 1 @yoyo [ 'yoyyoci] 'yoyo* [o] i n stressed medial syllable: ©mabolo [ma.'bo.loq] 'a species of fr u i t t ©adobo [qa.*do.boq] 'pickled pork* ©Alfonso [qal.'fon.soq] 'a boy's name* ©pagoda [pa.'go.daq] 'a Chinese edifice' ©makopa [ma.'ko.paq] •a kind of f r u i t ' ©Dolores [do.'lo.res] 'a g i r l ' s name' ©kamote [ka.'mo.teq] 'sweet potato' ©anonas. [qa.'no.nas] 'custard apple' ©laoya [la.*qo.yaq] 'stew' ©kapote [ka.'po.teq] 'raincoat' ©parokia [pa.'ro.kyaq] 'parish' ©Tesoro [te.'so.roq] 'a family name' ©pastores [pas.'to.res] 'shepherd' ©chayote [tya.'yo.teq] 'a kind of vegetable' 67-[ o ] i n s t r e s s e d f i n a l s y l l a b l e sabot [ s a . •bot] kubbb [kUb .'boq] angdod [qarj .«dod] sumakdo [sU.mak.'doq] g u l g o l [ g U l . ! g o l ] sago [ s a . •goq] taho [ t a . »hoq] sukog [sU. »kog] l i t t u k o [ l i t ,tU.'koq] 3kolor [ko. • l o r ] t a l l o [ t a l . f l o q ] isakmol [ q l . s 3ak.'moi] ammo [qam .'moq] manok [ma. 'nok] kasano [ka.£ sa.'noq] ngongoy [no. •nol] dungngo [dug .«noq] sab-ong [sab. «'qog] rag-o [ r a g . • *qoq] tumapog [tU.ma.'pog] dapo [da . 'Poq] pur ok [pU. •rok] 1 d i r o [ d l . roq] •coconut s h e l l ' •humpbacked' 'stench, o f f e n s i v e odor' •to draw water' 'shampoo' 'arrowroot' 'ginger a l e ' 'mold, shape' • r a t t a n f r u i t * ' c o l o r ' 'three' 'to put i n the mouth' 'knowledge' •chicken 1 'how' •whimpering' •love, a f f e c t i o n ' •dowry' • d e l i g h t * •to jump i n t o the water' •ashes• •group; hamlet 1 •honey* 68 bugsot [bUg.'sot] 'agony 1 suso [sU.'soq] 'a k i n d of f r e s h water s n a i l ' l l b t o n g [ l l b . ' t o i j ] 'pond' bato [ba.'toq] 'stone' paryok [par.'yok] 'a la r g e f r y i n g pan' bagyo [bag.'gyoq] 'storm' [ o ] i n unstressed f i n a l s y l l a b l e : tabo ['ta.boq] 'dipper' bado ['ba.doq] 'dress' Rufo ['ru.foq] 'a boy's name' pugo ['pu.goq] ' q u a i l ' iho ['qi.hoq] 'son' lu k b t [ ' l u . k o t ] ' r o l l ' b i l o g [ ' b i . l o g ] *a s m a l l boat' damo ['da.moq] ' f i r s t time* banor ['ba.nor] 'dried meat' a l i n g o [ q a . ' l i . n o q ] 'wild boar' ®tipo ['ti.poq] 'type' ©sero ['se.roq] 'zero' kusot ['ku.sot] 'sawdust' batog ['ba.tog] 'row* ©relievo [relfl.'yi.e.voq3 ' r e l i e v e ' kayo ['ka.yoq] 't r e e ' 69 3122 Vocoid Chains A, vocoid chain was defined earlier as a syllabic consisting of a continually changing blend of one pure vocoid which is the syllabic center, plus a semivocoid 38 which is the nonsyllabic offglide. In describing this type of Ilokano speech sound, two sub-types are to be distinguished: (1) Fronting vocoid chains, those syllables which have as their center one of a large choice of vocoids followed by a close-front off glide.' Thus/ the movement from syllabic to offglide is either forward or upward and forward, as in [al] in way [wal] •rattan 1j and, (2) Retracting vocoid chains, those with close-back off glides,- i . e./ the movement from syllabic to off-glide is either backward or upward and backward, e/ g., the [au] i n waw [wall] •thirst.*; 38 To account for specific details at the phonetic level of analysis in this study, the nonsyllabic offglide Is to be represented by the vocoid characters, [ i , I, u, u ] . The semivowels, /w/ and /y// w i l l be used to represent the offglides at the phonemic le v e l / Some linguistic analysts indicate the nonsyllabic element by the d i a c r i t i c , [„]/ beneath the vocoid character, e/' g./ pay [paly t s t l l l * . But since no two individual vo-coids can occur in sequence without an intervocalic contoid including the glottal stop/ [q], J no misinterpretation arises i f the nonsyllabic offglide is l e f t unmarked, and the vocoid chain is then read off as a digraph or single phonetic entity/ and not as a dissyllabic form/ [•pa.qlq]. 70 3.221 The F r o n t i n g Vocoid Chains 3.2211 [ i i ] The [ i i ] c hain of Ilokano "begins w i t h the tongue and jaw i n the p o s i t i o n s f o r [ i ] and g l i d e s i n the d i r e c t i o n of [ l ] * there being a very s l i g h t c l o s i n g movement of the lower jaw. This speech sound occurs very r a r e l y and only i n i t i a l l y as the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of a r e d u p l i c a t i o n , thus: i y - i y e g k o [«qll.ql.'yeg.koq] 'I'm b r i n g i n g i t ' I t w i l l be noted that the resonance g l i d e i s induced by the semicontoid [ y ] of the root morpheme, [yeg] ' b r i n g . ' 71 3 .2212 [ e i ] The Ilokano [ e i ] r e s u l t s from a r a p i d movement upward from the half-open tongue humping f o r [ e ] toward the f r o n t v o c o i d [ i ] , although the tongue probably never reaches a p o i n t q u i t e as high as i t does f o r [ i ] . T h is v o c o i d c h a i n has a low frequency of occurence. Immigrants from I l o c o s Norte s u b s t i t u t e [ e i ] f o r [ a l ] , thus: dayta deyta ['dei.taq] 'that* daytoy deytoy [ ' d e i . t o l ] ' t h i s * mays a meysa [Ulmel.saq] 'one* I n a d d i t i o n t o the above phonetic contexts, [ e i ] occurs only In the f o l l o w i n g word forms: Leyte [ ' l e i . t e q ] 'name of a province' ©Reynaldo ['rei.nal.doq] 'a boy's name' ©reyna ['rei.naq] 'queen' tapey [ t a . ' p e i ] ' r i c e wine' ©Bassey [bccs.'sei] 'name of a town' ©Ghristo Eey [ k r i s . t o . ' r e i ] ' C h r i s t the K i n g ' 3 .2213 [ a l ] The resonance s h i f t of [ a l ] proceeds from the Ilokano open-front [ a ] t o the vocoid q u a l i t y of [ i ] . The g l i d e i s much more extensive than that of [ e i ] . The l i p s change from a n e u t r a l to a l o o s e l y spread p o s i t i o n . This v o c o i d chain g e n e r a l l y occurs i n s t r e s s e d f i n a l s y l l a b l e s . 72 [ a l ] in stressed f i n a l syllable: nam-ay [nam.'qal] 'ease, comfort' labay [ l a . ' b a l ] 'a mixture of b r o t h and cooked r i c e ' biday [ b l . ' d a l ] *a v a r i e t y of mint p l a n t ' lakay * [ l a . ' k a l ] 'old man' balay [ b a . ' l a l ] 'house' umay [qU.'mal] 'come' I s i n a y [ q l . s l . ' n a l ] 'a n a t i v e language' i langay [ l a . ! n a l ] 'romp and f r o l i c ' Paypay [ p a l . ' p a l ] 'fan' turay [ t U . ' r a l ] ' r u l e * a u t h o r i t y ' k l s s a y [ k l s . ' s a l ] 'decrease' patay [ p a . ' t a l ] 'death' naruay [ n a r . ' r w a l ] 'abundant' 3.2214 [ a l ] Por Ilokano [al]» the tongue g l i d e begins a t a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n j u s t below half-open l e v e l and moves In the d i r e c t i o n of [ i ] / Por the i n i t i a l resonance, the l i p s are shaped s i m i l a r to that described f o r [ a ] , but have a tendency t o spread f o r the second. The d i s t r i b u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of [ a l ] w i t h [ a l ] i s s i m i l a r t o tha t between [ a ] and [ a ] , i . e., [ a l ] occurs i n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , and [ a l ] . elsewhere. 73 [ a l ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : ay-ayam [ q a l . 'qa.yam] bay-am [b aI.'qam] dayta [ d t t I . ' t a q ] gayyem [gal. !yem] kaybaan [kal.ba.*qan] lay«asan [ l a l . ' q a . s o n ] mays a [mal.'saq] ngay [ g a i ] naynay [ n a l . ' n a l ] pay-us [ p a l . !qus] ray-aben [ral.'qa.ben] say-open [sal.*qu.pen] tay-ak [ t a l . ' q a k ] way [wal] [ a l ] i n medial s y l l a b l e : nakaay-ay-ay [na.ka.qal.qal balaybay [ b a . l a l . f b a l ] agpayso [qag.pal. 'soq] narayray [ n a . r a l . ' r a l ] [ a l ] I n f l n a l y s y l l a b l e : abay ['qa.bal] k l d a y [ ' k i . d a l ] pagay [»pa.gal] Mabuhay [m a.'bu.Eal] 'play, game' •leave i t alone' 'that* ' f r i e n d ' • f a i r y of the mound' 'to reduce horse feed' 'one' 'an i n t e r r o g a t i v e adverb* 'fr e q u e n t l y ' 'a v a r i e t y of r i c e ' •to t e a r garment by p u l l i n g ' •to s m e l l ' 'meadow * ' r a t t a n ' •*qal] 'woeful' 'laundry on the c l o t h e s l i n e * 'true * ' b r i g h t , burning' 'beside• 'eyebrows' ' r i c e (unthreshed)' 'Long l i v e J ' 74 yakay C'ya.kal] •to drive into a herd 1 P i l a y [ • p i . l a l ] •lame• ramay ['ra.malj 'finger' anay ['qa.nal] 'termite 1 ['bi.gal] •share' apay ['qa.pal] 'why* aray ['qa.ral] 'row, l i n e ' wasay ['wa.sal] •axe' patay C'pa.tal] •stand, support' away ['qa.wal] •outskirts' 3i2215 [ai] The gl i d e of [dl] "begins from the c[a] position and moves i n the d i r e c t i o n of the pos i t i o n associated with Ilokano [ i ] . The fronting vocoid chain, [ & l ] , occurs only i n the morpheme tapey ['ta.pal] 'rice wine.' I t i s pronounced [ e i ] by some Ilokano speakers, hence, C'ta.pei], 3.2216 [ o l ] The Ilokano [ o l ] features a resonance glide from the half-open back [o] to the front-vocoid p o s i t i o n f o r [ i ] . The l i p s are open rounded f o r the f i r s t resonancej changing to neutral f o r the second. Just as i t s pure vocoid counter-part, [ o ] , i s pronounced as [ti] , so i s [ o l ] r e a l i z e d as [ i l l ] , by a few conservative native speakers. 75 [ol] has a more restricted phonetic context than the pure-vocoid [o], i . e.y l t does not normally occur in i t ia l ly and medially. In reduplications, the u-o sequential pattern operates, e. g. , aguy-oy Cqq.gUI.'qoll •to dangle.1 For some speakers, however, the i n i t i a l element of the first chain is phonetically realized as [o], hence, [qa.gol.'qol]. This variation is quite accept-able . [ol] in stressed final syllable: naraboy [na.ra.'bol] • fra i l (body)' aglusdoy [qag.lUs.'dol] 'to droop' tangkoy [tag.'kol] 'a gourd-like vegetable• agsalloy [qag.sal . f lol] 'to exhaust energy* apjonnoy [qa.gon.'nol] •to moan* langoy [la.'gol] •swim* pul-oy [pUl.'qol] 'breeze' agsuysoy [qag.sUT. 'sol] 'to ravel or fray' kastoy [kas.'tol] •like this' )l] in unstressed final syllable: baboy [ 'ba.bol] •pig' dalayudoy [da.la.'yu.dol] •pulp' guyugoy [gU.'yu.gol] 'enticement' sarakoy [sa.'ra.kol] 'to buy in gross without choosing' tuloy ['tu.lol] 'continuation' 76 uyaoy [qU.'ya.qol] 'to dangle' agsalayusoy [qag.sa.la.'yu.sol] ' s a i d of wind or water passing through permeable m a t e r i a l s ' 3 .2217 [Ul] The Ilokano v o c o i d chain,[ui], g l i d e s from a tongue p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o th a t used f o r [u]t towards the f r o n t p o s i t i o n f o r [i] e x a c t l y opposite i t . The l i p s remain s l i g h t l y rounded during the a r t i c u l a t i o n of both elements of the cha i n . The Cl] i n t h i s c h a in i s , t h e r e f o r e , some-what abnormal,' i . e., i t i s produced w i t h the tongue and l i p s both f r o n t e d . [ui] p a r t i c i p a t e s as the f i r s t chain i n a r e d u p l i -c a t i o n , thus: buyboy [bUI.«bol] 'a k i n d of grass' nakuykoy [na.kUI.'kol] 'scraped together' n a l u y l o y [ n a . l U I . ' l o l ] • o i l y ' panuynuyan [pa.nUI.'nu.yan] 'to condescend'to* aguy-oy [qa.gUI.'qol] 'to dangle' puypoy [pUI.'pol] •caudal f i n of a f i s h ' agruyroy [ q a g . r U I . * r o l ] • to wear out• agsuysoy Cqag.sUI.'sol] 'to r a v e l or f r a y ' tuytoy [ t U I .,'tol] 'a k i n d of cruet f o r hold Ing winde, o i l , e t c . J 77 3 . 2 2 1 8 [ u l ] The abnormal t o n g u e - l i p c o r r e l a t i o n i n the o f f g l i d e resonance f o r the Ilokano c h a i n , [ u i ] , i s s i m i l a r t o that described f o r [ u i ] . Of course, i n [ u i ] , there i s r e l a t i v e tenseness; the tongue i s c l o s e r to the p a l a t e ; and the l i p s are rounded during the onglide and the o f f g l i d e resonances. A stronger s t r e s s i s concentrated on the o n g l i d e . An i n s i g n i f i c a n t number of n a t i v e speakers repl a c e [ o l ] or [ U l ] by [ u i ] , although t h i s i s l i m i t e d to such word forms as: kasuy nakapuv l r u y [na.Jl'ka.pui] [ ' q i . r u i ] [kcc.'sui] 1cashew 'weak' 'a v a r i e t y of r i c e ' 3 . 2 2 2 The l e t r a c t i n g Vocoid Chains 78 3.2221 [iu] She Ilokano [ i u ] i s symmetrically opposed to [ u i ] . The s t r e s s and leng t h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g l i d e i s concen-t r a t e d on the i n i t i a t i n g element, [ i ] . The tongue and l i p p o s i t i o n s f o r the onglide are, t h e r e f o r e , those f o r [ i ] , but the l i p s move to the p o s i t i o n f o r [ u ] , w i t h in-rounding r a t h e r than puckered. [ i u ] normally occurs i n f i n a l s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , u s u a l l y as the second pomponent of a r e d u p l i c a t i o n , thus: klwklw l l w l l w nglwngiw r i w r i w slwsiw Other contexts which are not r e d u p l i c a t i o n s are the f o l l o w i n g : t l l i w [ t l . ' l i u ] 'to c a t c h ' k l s s l w [ k l s . ' s i u ] ' e pilepsy' t l w a t i w [ t l . w c t . ' t i u ] 'pendulum' 3.2222 [ l U ] A s h i f t to a lower vocoid-chain q u a l i t y from the symmetrically opposed [ u i ] and [ i u ] produces the correspond-in g opposites [ u i ] and [ i u ] . Por the onglide of the Ilokano vocoid chain, [ i u ] , the tongue and l i p p o s i t i o n s are those f o r [ i ] . The tongue [ k l U . ' k i u ] ' t a i l of a f i s h ' [ l l U . ' l i u ] ' f i s h i n g t a c k l e ' [ n l U . ' n i u ] 'upper l i p ' [ r l U . ' r i u ] 'thousands' [ s l U . ' s i u ] 'sauce' 79 p o s i t i o n held constant,' the l i p s move to the position f o r [ u ] / The stress of a r t i c u l a t i o n f a l l s on [ i ] which i s s l i g h t l y lengthened, 1 [ i u ] occurs i n unstressed s y l l a b l e s / usually but not always the f i r s t component of a reduplication. [IU] i n i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e (see also Sec. 3 . 2 2 2 1 ) : glwgjwangan [ g l U . g l . *wa.nctn] •making a gap* [qlU,•qi.waq] ' s l i c e s 1 [klU.kl.*wa,ren] ' s t i r r i n g to mix 1 [lIU / 11 .'waq] 'consolation' [nlU,*ni,wen] 'to squander 1 [nlU.'ni.wat] 'mouths• [pIU.pl.'wi.ren] 'distortingothe l i p s * [slU/'si.wan] 'sauce* lw-lwa kiwklwaren liwliwa nlwnlwen  ngiwnglwat  plwplwlren siwsiwan [IU] i n f i n a l s y l l a b l e : palliw  l l l w  danlw maatiw [ p a i ' l i / q l U ] [ • q i . l i u ] [•da.niu] [mai ! ,qa.tiu] 'observation' •homesickness * ' l y r i c poem* 'to be defeated* 3 .2223 [aU] A r t i c u l a t i o n of t h i s r e t r a c t i n g vocoid chain proceeds from the r e l a t i v e l y more stable resonance of [a] and glides o f f toward the closed p o s i t i o n f o r [ u ] . Just as i n the case of a l l the other vocoid chains, the f i r s t element has considerable l a t i t u d e of a r t i c u l a t i o n / 80 [aU"3 occurs only in stressed syllables, thus: pan-aw [pan.*qaU] •cogon grass' narabaw [na.ra.*bau] •shallow' aldaw [qal.'daU] 'day' kalgaw [kal. fgaU] 'dry season' pukkaw [pUk.»kaU] 'shout' ullaw [qUl.'lalj] 'kite' agslkmaw [qag.slk.'malj] •to take a bait (fish)' nanawnaw [na.naU.'nau] 'dissolved' ngangaw [jja.'nau] •palate' kalapaw [ka.la.'pau] 'hovel' puraw [pU.»raU] 'white' pi saw [pi.«saU] •splash' aglataw [qag.la.*tau] 'to float' agsawaww [qag.sa.*wau] •to vent 1 uyaw [qU.'yaU] •criticism, s c o f f 3.'2224 [au] The resonance shift of Ilokano [aU] begins at a central position and moves in the position for [u]. Por the ini t i a t i n g resonance the lips and tongue are neutral, but the lips are slightly rounded for the offglide [ifj. This lax vocoid chain occurs in unstressed syllables. [aU] i n i n i t i a l syllable: aw-awagan [qaU.qa.'wa.gan] 'is calling' baw-ing [baU.'qiij] 'swerve' daw-as [daU.'qas] 'a brief stopover* 81 gawgaw [gaU. •gaU] •st a r c h ' kawkaw [kaU. •kau] 'dip f i n g e r i n water' lawlaw [ l a U . 'laU] 'surroundings' nawnawen [ n a u . 'na.wen] 'to d i s s o l v e ' paw-it [paU. • q i t ] • p a r c e l ' raw-akan [ r a U . 'qa.kanj •to p u l v e r i z e ' sawsawan [ s a u . 'sa.wan] "sauce' tawwatawwa CtaU.wa.'taU.waq] 'castor o i l p l a n t aU] i n f i n a l s y l l a b l e 1 ? igaaw [ql.'ga.qaU] ' f a i r weather' kabaw [«ka.bau] ' f o r g e t f u l ' pudaw [•pu.daU] ' l i g h t complexion' naagaw [na.'qa.gaU] 'snatched' pukaw C'pu.kaU] ' l o s s ' ulaw C'qu.laU] 'd i z z i n e s s * kumaw [*ku.mau] 'deadly dragon' panaw ['pa.naU] 'departure* bangaw E'ba.naU] •large h o u s e f l y ' sapaw ['sa.paU] 'shade, s h e l t e r ' araraw [qa.'ra.raUj •lamentation' basisaw [b a . 'sl.saU] 'bladder• bulalayaw [bU.la.'la.yaU] 'rainbow' 82 3 . 2 3 Contolds Contoids, as discussed e a r l i e r , are a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of o b s t r u c t i o n of the breath stream -ranging from a complete stop to a s l i g h t narrowing which produces a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n - a t one or more points i n the speech t r a c t as i t passes outward from the lungs. I n t h i s s e c t i o n * the Ilokano contoids are analyzed i n ;some d e t a i l according to the place a t which the o b s t r u c t i o n i s made and how i t i s made. This Includes v o i c i n g or l a c k of i t . The sequence of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : Stops P l o s i v e s p b t d k g q Continuants Nasals m n rj L a t e r a l 1 F l a p r F r i c a t i v e s f v s h n Semivocoids w y 3 .231 P l o s i v e s A complete p l o s i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s of three stages: the onset or implosion stage, during which the speech organs i n v o l v e d move c l o s e together to obstruct the outgoing lung a i r ; the hold or compression stage, during which the a i r i s compressed behind the c l o s u r e ; and* the r e l e a s e or e x p l o s i o n , during which the organs 83 forming the o b s t r u c t i o n part r a p i d l y a l l o w i n g the compressed 39 a i r t o escape a b r u p t l y . I t w i l l be noted that Ilokano p l o s i v e s are never a s p i r a t e d u n l i k e those of E n g l i s h which are g e n e r a l l y a s p i r a t _ ed i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n a t l e a s t i n s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . Furthermore, a l l the p l o s i v e s are a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h the s o f t p a l a t e r a i s e d and the n a s a l resonator shut off.' Other general features of the Ilokano p l o s i v e s are the f o l l o w i n g : (a) There i s no a u d i b l e r e l e a s e preceding other p l o s i v e s , e. g., padto [pad.'toq] 'prophesy'; ubbing [qUb.'big] ' c h i l d r e n . ' ybO) When fo l l o w e d by a homorganic n a s a l c o n t o i d , a p l o s i v e r e l e a s e i s n a s a l , e. g.y pudno [pUd.*noq] 'true'; i r i k e p mo [ql.rl.'kep.moq] 'close i t . ' (c) I n the sequence of a homorganic d e n t a l [ t ] or [ d ] plus [ l ] , the r e l e a s e of a i r i s l a t e r a l , i . e., one or both s i d e s of the tongue are lowered t o a l l o w the a i r t o escape. Such l a t e r a l r e l e a s e occurs, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n maikatlo [mal .kat .'tloq] ' t h i r d ' £ and ^adles [pad. 'dies] ' p r e d i c t i o n . ' (d) B i l a b i a l , d e n t a l and v e l a r p l o s i v e s are o f t e n p a l a t a l i z e d when fo l l o w e d by the semi-contoid, [ y ] , e. g., pyek [pyek] 'chick', tyan [t'yan] 'tummy*; kyosko [k'yos.'koq] 'kiosk'; blag [byag] ' l i f e ' * daydlay [ d a l . ' d y a l ] 'that'; bagyo [bqg.'gyoql 'storm.' 39 A. C.1 Gimson, op_. c l t . , p. 1^5. 84 (e) P o s t v o c a l i c Ilokano p l o s i v e s tend t o be gem-minated when fo l l o w e d by the a l v e o l a r sounds, [ r , l ] , i n a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , as shown I n the f o l l o w i n g examples: [ p l ] suplad [sUp. •lad] •wooden s h o v e l ' [ b l ] s u b l a t [sUb.' • b l a t ] • exchange• [ p r ] apro [q.ap.' •proq] • b i l e ' [ b r ] sobra [sob. •braq] 'e x t r a ' [ t l ] i t l o g [ q i t . • t l o g ] 'egg' [ d l ] padles [pad. •dies] • p r e d i c t i o n ' [ t r ] k a t r e [ k a t . •treq] 'bed' M Pedro [ ped. •droq] 'Peter' Ckl] s a k l o t [ s a k . • k l o t ] ' l a p s ' [ g l ] s l g l o t [ s l g . • g l o t ] 'knot' [ k r ] t a k r o t [tcxk. • k r o t ] 'coward' [ g r ] sagrapen [ s a g . •gra.pen] 'negative recompense' 3.^ 2311 B i l a b i a l P l o s i v e s [py b] Complete o b s t r u c t i o n of the egressive a i r stream i s made by the c l o s u r e of the l i p s simultaneously w i t h the r a i s i n g of the velum s h u t t i n g o f f the n a s a l resonator. While the a i r i s thus being compressed behind the b i l a b i a l closureV the v o c a l bands are he l d wide apart f o r [ p ] , but are made to v i b r a t e during the compression stage f o r [ b ] g i v i n g i t i t s v o i c e d q u a l i t y . ' L a b i a l i z a t i o n i s a s p e c i a l f e a t u r e i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of [ p ] and [ b ] , i . e., the l i p p o s i t i o n i s conditioned by that of the adjacent vocoid: thus, 85 there i s a n t i c i p a t o r y l i p spreading f o r [ p ] and rounding f o r [ b ] i n pabo ['pa.boq] 'turkey.' [ p ] and [ b ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : p i l i d [ • p i . l i d ] •wheel' pekkel [ p e k . ' k e l ] 'knead' p a l a ['pa.laq] 'shovel' [«po,loq] 'polo s h i r t ' pulo ['pu.loq] 'ten' b i l i d [ ' b i . l l d ] 'border or r i m ' bekkel [ b e k . ' k e l ] • s t r a n g l e ' b a l a C'ba.laq] • b u l l e t ' b o l a [•bo.laq] ' b a l l ' bulo ['bu.loq] 'a v a r i e t y of bamboo' )] and [ b ] i n medial p o s i t i o n sipnget [sip.-'net] 'darkness» reppet [ r e p . ' p e t ] 'bundle' tapno [tap.'noq] •so t h a t ' kopa ['ko.paq] 'tumbler, g o b l e t ' tupra [tUp.'praq] •sputum' a g i b t u r [ q a . g l b . ' t u r ] 'to endure* rebbeng [reb.'beg] ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y * r a b nisen [ r a b . ' n i . s e n ] 'to snatch' lobo [ 'lo.boq] •balloon* tubngar [tub.»nar] • c o n t r a d i c t i o n 1 [p] and [ b ] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : s i r l p [ • s i . r l p ] 'peep, peek' ulep ['qu.lep] 'cloud' naatap [na.'qa.tap] 'untamed* narukop [na.rU.*kop] ' e a s i l y t o r n ' takup [ t a . ' k o p ] 'patchwork* s i r i b [ ' s i . r i b ] •wisdom* agdaleb [qag.da.'leb] •to f a l l prone* i s a r a b [ q l . ' s a . r a b ] •to sear1 ungngob [qUg.'gob] 'noseless' kalub [ k a . ' l u b ] • l i d ' 3/2312 Dental P l o s i v e s [ t , 1 d] For the a r t i c u l a t i o n of [ t ] and [ d ] , the main o b s t r u c t i o n to the breath stream i s formed by a^complete c l o s u r e made between the t i p and r i m of the tongue and the f r o n t and s i d e t e e t h . During the hold or compression stage, the v o c a l bands are open f o r [ t ] , but are made to v i b r a t e producing the v o i c i n g f o r [ d ] . J u s t l i k e the case f o r [ p ] and [ b ] , the l i p p o s i -t i o n i s conditioned by tha t of the adjacent sounds, e. g., spread l i p s f o r [ t ] i n l t l [ q l . ' t i q ] 'the'; a n t i c i p a t o r y l i p rounding f o r [ t ] i n to [ t o q ] ' l a t e r ' ; and twalya [*twal.*lyaq] 'towel.' 8? A sudden se p a r a t i o n of the l i n g u a - d e n t a l c l o s u r e allows the a i r stream to escape w i t h f o r c e , unless i t has been blocked by a second c l o s u r e and channeled elsewhere i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the con t o i d f o l l o w i n g i t - i . e., behind the a l v e o l a r r i d g e as f o r [ k ] i n kudkod [kUd.'kod] •s c r a t c h * ; forward of the a l v e o l a r r i d g e as f o r [ p ] In kepkep [kep.'kep] •hug*; or d i v e r t e d through the nose by the lowering of the s o f t p a l a t e as f o r [IJ] i n ngetnget [^et.'rjet] 'gnaw*. The d e n t a l p l o s i v e s occur i n a l l p o s i t i o n s . [ t ] and [ d ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : timek [*ti.mek] 'voice' tengnga [teg.*naq] •middle» t a l l o [ t c t l . l o q ] •three• t o l d a [tol.»daq] •canvass shed 1 tuldek [tUI.«dek] •pe r i o d 1 d i l a C'di.laq] ' tongue' deppa [dep.'paq] 'fathom' dalan [•da.Ion] 'path, way' Domingo [do. •mirj.goq] •Sunday' dulang ['du.lag] 'low t a b l e ' 88 [ t ] and [ d ] i n medial p o s i t i o n : b i t l a [ b i t . ' l a q ] 'speech' k e t d i [ k e t . ' d i q ] 1 r a t h e r ' patneng [ p a t . 'nerj] 'native, denizen by b i r t h ' votos ['vo.tos] 'votes' puto ['pu.toq] ' r i c e pudding' biddut [ b i d . ' d u t ] •mistake' beddal [bed.«dal] 'rude person* pad to [pad.'toq] 'prophesy' boda ['bo.daq] •wedding 1 pudno [pUd.*noq] 'true' [ t ] and [ d ] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : i k i t [ ' q i . k l t ] 'aunt' baket [ b a . ' k e t ] •old woman' i g a t [ ' qi.gat] ' e e l ' k a r o t [ k a . ' r o t ] 'a w i l d e d i b l e l i b u t [ ' l i . b U t ] •procession' i f i i d [ • q i . g l d ] 'edge, border' baked [b a.'ked] 'brawn' igad ['qi.gad] 'grater' rukod [rU.«kod] 'measurement1 ngarud [rja. 'rud] 'therefore' 19 3.2313 V e l a r P l o s i v e s [ k , g] A complete o b s t r u c t i o n to the breath stream i s formed by a c l o s u r e made between the back of the tongue and the s o f t p a l a t e or velum. The lung a i r i s compressed behind the v e l a r c l o s u r e , during which the v o c a l bands are wide open f o r [ k ] , but are s e t i n v i b r a t i o n producing the v o i c i n g f o r [ g ] . L a b i a l i z a t i o n f o r [ k ] and [ g ] i s conditioned by that of adjacent sounds, i . e l , there i s a n t i c i p a t o r y l i p rounding f o r the p l o s i v e s before back vocoids and the semi-con t o i d [w], e. g., kukwa ['ku.kwaq] 'one's belongings'; and a n t i c i p a t o r y l i p spreading f o r the p l o s i v e s before f r o n t vocoids, e. g., g i g i r [ ' g l . g l r l 'apprehension.' Advancement or r e t r a c t i o n of the l i n g u a - v e l a r c l o s u r e i s induced by the adjacent vocoids. Thus, before or a f t e r f r o n t vocoids* the [ k , g] closu r e s are near p a l a t a l , whereas i n the context of back vocoids, e s p e c i a l l y [ u ] , the contact i s correspondingly r e t r a c t e d . The compressed lung a i r i s re l e a s e d w i t h f o r c e upon the sudden s e p a r a t i o n of the l i n g u a -v e l a r c l o s u r e , otherwise the r e l e a s e Is n a s a l , p a l a t a l or l a t e r a l . Ilokano v e l a r p l o s i v e s occur i n a l l p o s i t i o n s : [ k ] and [ g ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : k l t a [«ki.t aq] 'look' kebba [keb.'baq] 'convulsive r e s p i r a t i o n ' k a r i t [ ' k a . r l t ] 'impudence' koreo [ko.re.'yoq] 'mail' kura ['ku.raq] ' c l e r g y ' Rita C'gi.tccq.j 'venom1 gebba [igeb.'baq] 'to burn clay* g a r l t ['ga.rlt] 'stripe' Gorlo ['gor.ryoq] 'a boy's nickname' gura [ 'gu.rccq.] 'hatred' [k] and [g] In medial position: l k l t [ ' q i . k l t ] 'aunt' sekka [sek.*kaq] 'clay' sako ['sa.koq] 'sack' tokwa n*to.kwaq3 'bean cake' r u k l t [rU.'kit3 ' t i l l the s o i l ' i g l d [ , q i . g l d ] 'edge' segga [seg.'gaq3 'anxiety' sago [scc»'goq3 'arrowroot* toga [ fto.gaq3 'gown, toga' r u g l t [rU.'git3 ' d i r t ' [k3 and [g3 i n f i n a l position: i r i k [ q l . ' r i k 3 'unhusked r i c e ' pusek [pU.'sek3 'compactness' slak [syak3 'I' batok [«ba.tok3 'dive' Taruc ['ta.rUk3 'a family name' 9 * a r i g ['qa.rlg] ' l i k e , as i f pus eg ['pu.seg] 'navel' s i a g ['syag] 'swerve' batog ['ba.tog] •row or f i l e ' Tayug [ t a . * y u g ] •name of a town' 3.2314 G l o t t a l P l o s i v e I n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the p l o s i v e * [ q ] , the breath stream i s completely obstructed by the c l o s u r e of the v o c a l bands.' The ho l d or compression stage of i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s of s i l e n c e , which i s perceived a u d i t o r i l y by the sudden stop of the preceding sound or by the sudden onset of the f o l l o w i n g sound. [ q ] f u n c t i o n s as a s y l l a b l e onset when the i n i t i a l o rthographic symbol of the s y l l a b l e represents a vo c o i d , e. g., aldaw Cqql. 'daU] 'day'; rang-ay [ran..'qall 'progress'; and as a s y l l a b l e coda when the f i n a l orthographic symbol represents a v o c o i d , e. g., bado ['ba.doq] 'dress*. Thus, i n conventional orthography, [ q ] i s not r e p r e -sented, although ' . l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , i t f u n c t i o n s as e i t h e r of the contoids i n the CVC s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n , e. g., adda [qad.daq] 'there i s ' (see a l s o Sec. 2.3). A s i g n i f i c a n t number of Ilokano speakers s u b s t i t u t e [ q ] f o r [ p , t , k ] i n s y l l a b l e final» utterance medial p o s i t i o n . Examples: slpnget [ s l p . ' r ^ e t ] > [ s l q . ' n e t ] 'darkness* l u t l o t [ l U t . ' l o t ] > [ l U q . ' l o t ] «mire« bukbok [bUk.'bok] > [bUq.'bok] 'wood borer' 92 A few immigrants from I l o c o s Norte s u b s t i t u t e [ q ] f o r [ p , t , kO i n utterance f i n a l p o s i t i o n . Por example: taep [tou'qep] > [ta.'qeq] ' c h a f f met [met] "> [meq] ' a l s o ' badok ['ba.dok] > ['ba.doq] 'my dress' LJ i n I n i t i a l position; H o t [ ' q i . l o t ] 'massage * e l l e k [ q e l . " l e k ] 'mute w i t h c r y i n g * awan [qa.'wan] 'nothing' oras ['qo.ras] 'time, hour' ur a t [ q U.'rat] 'nerve* [ q ] i n medial p o s i t i o n : p a i t [ p a . ' q i t ] ' b i t t e r n e s s ' raem [ra.'qem] 'respect' saan [ s a . 'qan] •no' buot ['bu.qot] •mold, mildew' sag-ut [sag.'qut] 'yarn' [q] i n f i n a l position: bagl [ b a . ' g i q ] 'body' bote ['bo.teq] ' b o t t l e ' s i k a [ s l . ' k a q ] 'you* s l k o ['si.koq] 'elbow* adu [qa.*duq] 'many' 3.232 Nasals [mv n* n] Ilokano n a s a l contoids are a r t i c u l a t e d i n a manner s i m i l a r to the p l o s i v e s , except f o r two f e a t u r e s : (1) f o r the n a s a l s , the velum i s lowered a l l o w i n g the lung a i r t o escape through the nose; and (2)) the nasals are always v o i c e d , so there i s no voi c e - b r e a t h o p p o s i t i o n . U n l i k e those of E n g l i s h * Ilokano n a s a l contoids are always n o n s y l l a b i c . 3.2321 B i l a b i a l Nasal [m] The speech sound [m] r e s u l t s from a complete b i l a b i a l c l o s u r e as f o r [ p , b] and a lowering of the velum which gives the outgoing breath stream a predominantly n a s a l resonance. [m] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : misa ['mi.saq] met [met] mata [ma.'taq] mo [moq] mula ['mu.laq] [m] i n medial p o s i t i o n : •mass (church)' ' a l s o 1 •eye 1 'your' •plant rimas [ ' r i .mas] • b r e a d f r u i t ' kemmeg [kern.*meg] 'pounce * raman [ra.'man] ' t a s t e ' lomo ['lo.moq] ' l o i n ' lumut ['lu.mUt] •moss' Cm] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : s i i m [si.«qim] 'spy 1 i s em ['qi.sem] •smile• uram ['qu.rom] •oonflagrat i on naluom [na.lU. fqom] • r i p e • danum [da.'num] •water' 3.2322 D e n t a l Nasal [ n ] The Ilokano [ n ] i s r e a l i z e d w i t h a l i n g u a - d e n t a l o b s t r u c t i o n as f o r [ t , d] and a lowered velum. The l i p p o s i t i o n i s conditioned by that of the adjacent vocoids, e. g., the l i p s are s l i g h t l y rounded i n no ]noq] ' i f ; n e u t r a l i n na [naq] ' h i s , her, i t s ' ; and spread i n n i [ n i q ] 'prenominal a r t i c l e (used w i t h proper names).' I n Ilokano, t h i s c o n t o i d i s normally given a d e n t a l r a t h e r than an a l v e o l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n . [ n ] f r e q u e n t l y a s s i m i l a t e s to the f o l l o w i n g b i l a -b i a l or v e l a r c o n t o i d , thus: penpen [pen.'pen] > [pem.'pen] 'stacks' banban [bani'ban] > [bam'ban] 'bamboo s t r i p s ' saanman [sa.qan.'man] > [sa.qam.'man] •why not' kenka [ken.'kaq] > [ken.'kaq] 'to you' gingined [ g l n . g l . ' n e d ] ~? [ g l i j . g l . ' n e d ] 'earth-quake ' 96 [ n ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : n i p a [ 'ni.pccq] 'a species of swamp palm nepnep [nep.'nep] 'rainy days' nak em ['na.kem] 'idea' Norma ['nor.maq] 'a g i r l ' s name' nupay ['nu.pal] 'although' [ n ] i n medial p o s i t i o n : anlniwan [qa.nl.'nl.wan] 'shadow' [ben.'nek] 'a species of e d i b l e clam' bennek annad cono buntog [qan.'nad] ['ko.noq] [bUn.'tog] 'caution' • r i c e m i l l ' • s l u g g i s h ' [ n ] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : kupin [kU.'pln] baen [ba.'qen] uban ['qu.ban] duron [dU.'ron] arun [qa.'run] • f o l d ' 'sneeze' •white h a i r ' 'push' ' k i n d l i n g m a t e r i a l * 3.2323 V e l a r Nasal Por the n a s a l contoid, L^ Jt a complete o r a l c l o s u r e i s formed between the back of the tongue and the s o f t p a l a t e resembling t h a t f o r the p l o s i v e s [ k , g ] . With the tongue and velum i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , the v o i c e d breath stream i s 96 emitted through the n a s a l c a v i t y . L i p p o s i t i o n i s d e t e r -mined by that of the preceding or f o l l o w i n g v o c o i d , i . e., spread and withdrawn l i p s , as i n nglwat ['ni.wat] 'mouth 1; s l i g h t l y spread, as i n tengngel [ t e g . ' g e l ] 'hold'; rounded i n ungngo [qUg.*noq] ' k i s s . ' I n I lokano, the n a s a l c o n t o i d , Cg]» occurs pre- and p o s t - v o c a l i c i n a l l p o s i t i o n s . [np i n I n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : ['gl.pen] [ 'gem] [ga.'taq] [ 'no.qok] [gU.'del] ngipen ngem ngata ngoak ngudel [r-j] i n medial p o s i t i o n : s i n g i n  dengngep ['si.gin] dangaw agngungot dungngo [deg.'''nep] ['da.gaU] [qag.gUt.'rjot] 'to gnaw' [dUrj.-'goq] ' a f f e c t i o n ' 'tooth' 'but' * perhaps * 'cry of the water b u f f a l o ' 'dullness ( k n i f e ) ' 'twin' 'hot compress• •stinkbug' [ IJ] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : gusing  s l l e n g  nanang  alsong  gutung [gU.'sig] [ s i . ' l e g ] [ 'na.nag] [qal.*sog] [ 'gu.tUn.] ' h a r e l i p ' ' g l i t t e r ' 'mother' •mortar' 'hidden rocks * 3.233 L a t e r a l [ l ] The Ilokano [ l ] , : an a l v e o l a r l a t e r a l , i s a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a complete velo-pharyngeal c l o s u r e s h u t t i n g o f f the n a s a l resonator* 3 and w i t h a p a r t i a l c l o s u r e between the tongue margins or r i m and the upper t e e t h . With the tongue i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , the v o i c e d breath stream i s r e l e a s e d , es-caping l a t e r a l l y on bothssides of the l i n g u a - a l v e o l a r con-t a c t ." [ l ] i s s l i g h t l y devolced a f t e r the v o i c e l e s s b i l a b i a l , a l v e o l a r , and v e l a r p l o s i v e s , f o r example: plaka C'pla.kaq.] ' t u r n t a b l e 1 i t l o g [ q l t . ' t l o g ] 'egg' a k l o [qok.'kloq] ' l a d d i e ' o The a c t u a l l p o i n t of contact of the tongue f o r [ l ] i s a n t i c i p a t e d by the p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n of the f o l -33 lowing c o n t o i d . Thus, [ l ] i s d e n t a l i z e d i n p a l t a t [ p a l . ' t a t ] ' c a t f i s h * ; p a l a t a l i z e d i n k a lye [ k q l . ' l y e q l • s t r e e t ' ; v e l a r i z e d In t a l g e d [ta*.*ged] ' r e l i a n c e . * [ l ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : l i m a [ l l . ' m a q ] ' f i v e * l e t t e g [ l e t . ' t e g ] ' b o i l , f u r u n c l e ' lasag [ l a . ' s a g ] ' f l e s h ' 33 These v a r i a n t a r t i c u l a t i o n s w i l l not be marked elsewhere throughout the t h e s i s i n the phonetic n o t a t i o n s . l o l a lunes 98 [ ' l o . l a q ] [lU.«nes] 'grandmother' • t a r n i s h * [ l ] i n medial p o s i t i o n : k i l l o . [ k l l . ' l o q ] •crooked' belnas [ b e l l * *nas] ' r i n s e ' k a l d i n g [ k a l . ' d l g ] 'goat' soldado [sol.'da.doq] • s o l d i e r 1 bulsek [bul.«sek] ' b l i n d ' L] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : k u d i l [ ' k u . d l l ] • s k i n ' bukel [bU.'kel] •seed' a d a l ['qa.dal] 'learning isakmol [ql.'sak.mol] 'to mouth a s u l [ q a . ' s u l ] 'blue' 3/234 A l v e o l a r F l a p [ r ] The n a s a l resonator i s completely shut o f f by the velo-pharyngeal c l o s u r e . The tongue t i p i s r a i s e d up toward, but not touching, the a l v e o l a r r i d g e . The back margins of the tongue touch the upper molars - t h i s makes a hollow a t the center of the tongue i n t o which the breath stream i s channelled and then emitted through the a l v e o -l l n g u a l c o ntact. The Ilokano [ r ] i s u s u a l l y produced w i t h a s i n g l e f l a p , i . e., the tongue t i p taps only once a g a i n s t the a l v e o l a r r i d g e , as i n pera ['pe.rqql 'cent.' I n the case of gemination, however, the [ r ] i s produced w i t h a 99 l i n g u a l r o l l ; 1. e., a r a p i d succession of f o u r or more taps by the t i p of the tongue on the a l v e o l a r r i d g e . The r o l l i n g of the [ r ] i s p e r c e p t i b l e i n perres [ p e r . ' r e s ] 'lemon j u i c e 1 but not i n pera above. Other examples are: k i r r i i t [ k l r . ' r i . q l t ] ' d ried f r u i t ' g e r r e t [ g e r . ' r e t ] ' s l i c e ' k a r r a [ k a r . ' r a q ] 'spinning awry of tops t o r r e [ 'tor.req] 'tower* gurrood [gUr.'ro.qod] 'thunder' L i p p o s i t i o n f o r [ r ] depends upon that of the a d j a -cent vocoid* thus, the l i p s are spread f o r the f i r s t [ r ] and then rounded f o r the second i n r i r o [ ' r i . r o q ] 'confusion.' [ r ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : r i g a t [ ' r i . g a t ] ' d i f f i c u l t y ' r e g t a [ r e g . ' t a q ] 'righteousness r a k i t [ ' r a . k l t ] ' r a f t ' r o s a l [ r o . ' s a l ] 'gardenia' rusat ['ru.sat] ' s t a r t ' [ r ] i n medial p o s i t i o n : s l r l b [ ' s i . r l b ] ['ver.deq] [ko.'ro.naq] [ 'ku.rajj] verde korona kurang 'wisdom' •green' 1crown' ' i n s u f f i c i e n t ' 100 [ r ] i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n : bangir ['ba.glr] •the other s i d e ' t a e r [ t a . * q e r ] 'elegance' agungar [qa.'gu.gar] 'to r e v i v e * kasaor [ka.'sa.qor] 'east wind' k u r i k u r [ k U . ' r i . k U r ] ' e a r p i c k ' 3;&35 F r i c a t i v e s [ f ? v* s* h, h] F r i c a t i v e c o n t o i d a r t i c u l a t i o n s i n v o l v e a p a r t i a l o b s t r u c t i o n made by two speech organs brought s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e together f o r the outgoing breath stream to produce a u d i b l e f r i c t i o n . The f r i c t i o n may be v o i c e d or breathed. The velum i s r a i s e d and the n a s a l resonator shut o f f . 3.;2351 Labio-Dental F r i c a t i v e s [ f , v ] A p a r t i a l o b s t r u c t i o n to the a i r stream i s formed between the i n n e r surface of the lower l i p and the edge of the upper teeth, ; The f r i c t i o n i s v o i c e l e s s or breathed f o r [ f ] and i s v o i c e d f o r [ v ] . The a c t u a l p o i n t of l a b i o -d e n t a l contact v a r i e s according to the p o i n t of a r t i c u l a -t i o n of the adjacent v o c o i d s . Thus, the contact on the lower l i p tends t o be more f r o n t e d i n veses ['ve.'ses] 'times' than i n voses ['vo.ses] 'voice.' [ f ] and [ v ] occur only i n loan words, i n i n i t i a l and medial p o s i t i o n s , never s y l l a b l e f i n a l or word f i n a l . 101 [f] and [v] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n fi n o [»fi.noq] 'fine» f e r i a [*fer.ryaq] 'holiday f a i r ' f a lda ['fal.daq] »skirt» forma ['for.maqj •form, shape' fundo [»fun.doq] •firnd' v i s l t a [ v l . * s l . t a q j ' v i s i t o r ' verde [*ver.deq] 'green' vapor [va.»por] •boat, ship' votante [vo.*tan.teq] •voter' f] and [ v ] In medial position: T e o f l l a [ ' t y o . f l . l a q ] 'a g i r l ' s name' Kafe [ka.'feq] •coffee' Josefa [ho.'se.faaq] 'a g i r l ' s name' Rufo ['ru.foq] •a boy's name' s e r v i s i o [ser.*vi.syoq] 'service' S everino [se.ve.'ri.noq] 'a boy's name* lavandera [la.van.•de.raq] •laundry woman* Navotas [na.'vo.tas] 'name of a town* 3.2352 Dental F r i c a t i v e [ s ] For the Ilokano [ s j , the upper and the lower teeth are i n near occlusion. The side margins of the tongue touch the upper side teeth. This forms a narrow groove i n the center of the tongue into which the breath stream i s chan-102 neled and forced through the dental point of near occlusion, producing a his s i n g f r i c a t i v e sound. L i p pos i t i o n f o r [ s ] depends upon that of the adjacent vocoid, e. g., the l i p s are rounded f o r the f i r s t [ s ] and then spread f o r the second i n susIk ['su.slk] 'dispute. 1 [ s ] i s the only Ilokano f r i c a . t i v e contoid without a voiced counterpart. [ s ] i n i n i t i a l p o s i t ion: s l i t s e l l a g sao Soledad [ s l . ' q i t ] [ s e i . ' l a g ] [scc.'qoq] [so.le.'dad] [sU.'kaq] Suka [ s ] i n medial position: 'thorn' 'moonlight * 'word, utterance* »a g i r l * s name* •vinegar* r i s s i k [rls.»sik] •spark' kessen [kes. 'sen] 'shrinkage* kasla [kas.*aq] • l i k e , same as * kosina [ko.'sl.nctq] »kitchen« kuspag [kUs.'pag] •arrogance' 5] In f i n a l p o s i t i o n : arbis [qar.'fels] •shower1 anges [ 'qa.rjes] •breath 1 agas [ 'qa.gas] •medicine' bulos ['bu.los] •astray 1 dalus [da.;»lus] •cleanliness' 103 3.2353 G l o t t a l F r i c a t i v e s [ h i - h] Ilokano has bothhthe v o i c e l e s s [ h ] and the voi c e d [ f i ] g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e contoids. 1 [ h ] occurs only i n s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l , p r e v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n . I t i s produced by the pas-sage of a strong v o i c e l e s s breath stream through the open g l o t t i s - the opening between the v o c a l bands.' A c t u a l l y , the f r i c t i o n i s produced i n the o r a l c a v i t y r a t h e r than a t the g l o t t i s , - and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g v o c o i d . This s i t u a t i o n makes f o r the d i f f e r -ent patterns of resonance f o r [ h ] i n [ h i ] , [ h e ] , [ h a ] , [ h o ] , and [hu].* Since a l l vocoids are v o i c e d , the v o i c e l e s s [ h ] becomes v o i c e d [ n ] i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n because i t partakes of the voi c e d q u a l i t y of the adjacent vocoids. The p r o n u n c i a t i o n of [ f i ] , t h e r e f o r e , seems to be accompanied by v o c a l band v i b r a t i o n ; 1 [ h ] i n I n i t i a l p o s i t i o n : h l s t o r l a [his•»tor.ryaq] ' h i s t o r y ' [•he.feq] ' c h i e f [ha.'ra.naq] 'serenade* ['hor.heq] 'a boy's name' [hUs.'toqc] ' r i g h t ' hefe harana Jorge husto 104 [n] i n medial position: a h l t [»qa.nlt] kahel [ k a i ' n e l ] kaha [•ka.h'aqj Bohol [bo.«nol] •shave* »box* *name of a province* green oranges 3.236 Semivocoids [w, y] Prom an a r t i c u l a t o r y standpoint the semivocoids/ [w] and [ y ] / d i f f e r from the c o n s t r i c t i v e contoids i n the degree of o r a l s t r i c t u r e present.' In t h i s s e c t i o n / however, they are treated as contoids mainly because they function and d i s t r i b u t e as such - i / e./ as s y l l a b l e margins rather than s y l l a b l e n u c l e i / [w] and [y] i n i t i a t e s y l l a b l e s and p a r t i -cipate as the second or t h i r d member of a prevocalic contoid c l u s t e r / 3k^236l Labio-velar Semivocoid [w] In the a r t i c u l a t i o n of [w], the velum i s raised, the vocal bands vibrate, and the tongue assumes the pos i t i o n f o r [u] and glides r a p i d l y to the position of the following vocoid/ L i p position f o r [w] depends upon that of the adja-cent vocoid/ e.' g.y the l i p s are s l i g h t l y rounded i n the f i r s t [w] and then spread i n the second/ i n wawek [wa. *wek] * in s e r t a dagger i n a wound.1* [w] i s devoiced a f t e r [ t j and [ k ] ^ as i n twalya [twal.*lyaq] *towel*; kwlntas [*kwin.tas] *necklace*/ 105 [w] I n i n i t i a l and medial p o s i t i o n s : wlnglwlng [ w l . ' n i . w l n ] 'shake head i n d i s s e n t ' welwel [wel.*wel] ' s l o t h f u l ' watlwat [wa.'ti.wat] 'long d i s t a n c e ' 3 . 2 3 6 2 P a l a t a l Semivocoid [ y ] For the v o i c e d p a l a t a l semlvocoid [ y ] , the tongue assumes the p o s i t i o n f o r [ i ] and g l i d e s immediately to the p o s i t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g v o c o i d . [ y ] i s devoiced when i t f o l l o w s the v o i c e l e s s p l o s i v e s , [ p , t , k ] , i n a co n t o i d c l u s t e r . Before [ y ] * [ t , d, k, g, n, n, l ] are p a l a t a l i z e d , [ y ] i n i n i j b l a l and medial p o s i t i o n s : yegyeg [yeg.*yeg] 'tremble* yakayak [ya.'ka.ycck] 'sieve* yubuyub [yU.'bu.yUb] *sound of the bellows* 3 . 2 4 Contoid C l u s t e r s A sequence of two or more contoids without an i n t e r -vening v o c o i d or s y l l a b l e d i v i s i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a co n t o i d c l u s t e r . I n the indigenous p h o n o l o g i c a l system of Ilokano, there were no co n t o i d c l u s t e r s apart from the sequence of i n i t i a l p l o s i v e s , [ p , t , k, b, d] plus a semlvocoid [w] or [ y ] , and the gemination of p l o s i v e s f o l l o w e d by [ l , r , w, y ] . [gwj ,chowjever, represents a "hole" or case v i d e i n the system. 106; The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t : puak [«pwak] 'caudal f i n ' tuad ['twad] •a long f i s h net' kuak ['kwak] 'mine 1 buaya ['bwa.yaq] 'c r o c o d i l e * dua [»dwaq] 'two' gu piek ['pyek] 'chick' t i a n [ •t'yan] 'tummy' k i a d ['kyad] •walk w i t h abdomen p r o t r u d i n g ' blag C'byag] ' l i f e ' d i a y C'dyal] 'that' g i a k ['gyak] 'a k i n d of hornet' a p l a t [ q a p . ' p l a t ] 'aphid' apro [qap.'proq] ' b i l e ' tapuak [tap.'pwak] 'dive' l u p i a s [lUp.»pyas] 'overflow' b i t l a [bit.«tlaq] •speech, discourse* pastreken [pas.tre.»ken] •to l e t i n ' b i t u e n [bit.«twen] ' s t a r ' patiem [pat.'tyern] 'believe i t ' a k l o [qak.'kloq] ' l a d d i e ' t a k r o t [tak.»krot] 'coward' sikuan [slk.'kwan] 'a.native s p o o l ' takiapj [tak.'^yag] 'arm' 10£ a b l a t [ q c t b . « b l a t ] • l a s h ' s a b r a k [ s a b . ' b r a k ] • d i s c o u r t e s y 1 s u b u a l [ s U b . ' b w a l ] • s h o o t s , s u c k e r s • g a b i o n [ g a b . ' b y o n ] ' g r u b h o e ' p a d l e s [ p a d . ' d i e s ] • p r e d i c t i o n ' k u d r e p [ k U d . » d r e p ] ' d i m n e s s ' k a d u a [ k a d . ' d w a q ] ' c o m p a n i o n , p a r t n e r g i d i a t [ g l d . » < f y a t ] ' d i f f e r e n c e ' s i g l o t [ s l g . ' g l o t ] • k n o t ' m a d i g r a [ m a . ' d i g . g r a q ] • t o be s c a r e d ' t a g u a b [ t a g . * g w a b ] ' l e a n - t o r o o f b a g v o [ b a g . ' g y o q ] ' s t o r m ' T h u s , c o n t o i d c l u s t e r i n g , o t h e r t h a n t h e t y p e s i l l u s -t r a t e d a b o v e , d o e s n o t f i t t h e n a t i v e p h o n e t i c h a b i t s o f m o s t o l d p e o p l e , a n d t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o i t i s s h o w n b y t h e f o l l o w i n g p h e n o m e n a i n t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f l o a n w o r d s : (1) A n i n t r u s i v e v o c o i d b e t w e e n t h e c l u s t e r s : p l a t o [ ' p l a . t o q ] > [ p a . ' l a . t o q ] ' p l a t e ' p r i n s l p e [ ' p r i n . s l . p e q ] > [ p i . ' r i n . s l . p e q ] ' p r i n c e ' t r a b a h o [ t r a . ' b a . h o q ] > [ t a . r a . ' b a . h o q ] ' s o r k ' k l a s e [ ' k l a . s e q ] > [ k a . ' l a . s e q ] ' c l a s s ; k i n d ' b r a s o [ ' b r a . s o q ] > [ b a . ' r a . s o q Q * a r m ' A n d r e s [ q a n . « d r e s ] > [ f l a n . d e . ' r e s ] ' A n d r e w ' 108 (2) A p r o s t h e t i c vocoid introduced before the s - c l u s t e r s occuring i n i t i a l l y i n E n g l i s h l o a n words: i s p e l l n g [ q l s . ' p e . l l n ] ' s p e l l i n g ' l s p l k e r [ q l s . ' p i . k e r ] 'speaker' istambay [ q l s . t o r n . ' b a l ] 'stand by' eskeleton [qes.'ke.le.ton] 'skeleton' The p r o s t h e t i c vocoid phenomenon may be a t t r i b u t e d to the i n f l u e n c e of Spanish l o a n words i n the Ilokano l e x i c o n , f o r example: estas i o n [qes.tcc.syon] ' s t a t e i o n ' e s p e s l a l [qes,pe.'syal] ' s p e c i a l ' eskoba [qes.'ko.baq] 'shoe brush' (3) The e l i s i o n of e i t h e r element i n a c o n t o i d c l u s t e r , as i n the f o l l o w i n g few cases: r e p o r t [ r e . ' p o t ] 'report' post ( o f f i c e ) [*pos] 'post' oompadre [kom.'pa.req] 'one's c h i l d ' s godfather' The f i r s t and t h i r d phenomena are deviant phonetic r e a l i z a t i o n s t h a t can s a f e l y be Ignored s i n c e they do not f o l l o w thesnormal p a t t e r n which has become f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h -ed. And s i n c e Spanish and E n g l i s h loan words are i n common use by a great m a j o r i t y of the n a t i v e speakers of Ilokano, many f o r e i g n sounds and sound patterns have become a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the n a t i v e p h o n o l o g i c a l system. I n cases where the a s s i -m i l a t i o n e n t a i l e d gross v i o l a t i o n of the n a t i v e phonetic h a b i t s , 1 0 9 ; •copra 1 •bed' •s e a l i n g wax' 'book' phonetic compromises were o f t e n made, such as the gemination of the p l o s i v e s i n i t i a t i n g medial c l u s t e r s i n Spanish loan words, e. g.: kopra ['ko.praqj > [kop.'praq] k a t r e ['ka.treq] > [ k a t . ' t r e q ] l a k r e ['la.kreq] > ['lak.kreq] l i b r o [ ' l i . b r o q ] > [ l l b . ' b r o q ] eroplano [qe.ro.'pia.noq]>[qe.rop.'pia.noq] ' a i r p l a n e ' t a b l a ['ta.blaq] > [t a b . ' b l a q ] 'board, s l a b ' r e g l a [•re.glaq] > [r e g . ' g l a q ] 'foot r u l e r ' Thus, there are three c o n t o i d c l u s t e r types permitted i n the sound p a t t e r n of Ilokano. They are: 40 P r e v o c a l i c , I n i t i a l C l u s t e r s (IK) C 1 C 2 V -P r e v o c a l i c , Medial C l u s t e r s (MK) CV.C-^V or cvc 1 . c 1 c 2 (c 3 )v P o s t v o c a l i c , P i n a l C l u s t e r s (FK) - v e i ° 2 40. Where: I , M, P = I n i t i a l , M e d i a l , F i n a l , r e s p e c t i v e l y , K = Contoid C l u s t e r . 110 3.241 Prevocalic,- I n i t i a l Contoid C l u s t e r s I n Ilokano, p r e v o c a l i c i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s are l i m i t e d t o two c o n t o i d s , hence the p a t t e r n • IK * C,C~V-. .41 which i s represented by four phonetic r u l e s : -IK n IK, IK. IK, > C. > C-> C. > C P . k, -* b, g» + C 2 [ 1 ] f Urn 4 " P . t , k," . D' d, S t + C 2 [ r ] f P . t , k," b, d, S » m, n, + C 2 M f , v, _.s, h P . t , k, b. d, m, n, [ y ] 1, J + C 2 r , f , v, • s Exception: The c o n t o i d , [ q ] , a g l o t t a l s top, does not enter i n t o c l u s t e r s of any type. I l l The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e the IK r u l e s : T&1 [ p i ] p l e g l s [ ' p l e . g l s ] ' f o l d , p l a i t ' p l a s a ['pla.saq] 'plaza, square' pluma ['plu.maq] 'plume, w r i t i n g pen* [ k l ] k l i m a ['kli.mccq] 'climate* Clemente [kle.'men.teq] *a boy's name' k l a s e ['kla.seq] ' c l a s s , k i n d ' k l o r o ['klo.roq] ' c h l o r i n e ' [ b l ] blangko ['blan.koq] 'blank' bloke [ ' b l o i k e q ] 'block' b l u s a ['blu.saq] 'blouse' [ g l ] G l l c e r l a [ g l l . ' s e r . r y a q ] *a g i r l ' s name' Glenda [ 'glen.dcxq] 'a g i r l ' s name' g l a d i o l a [glgd.'dyo.lno1 ' g l a d i o l a ' g l o r i a ['glor.ryaq] 'glory' g l u [*gluq] 'glue' [ f l ] f l e t e [ ' f l e . t e q ] ' f a r e ' f l a n [ ' f l a n ] 'cus t a r d ' f l o r e r a [ f l o . ' r e . r a q ] 'flower vase' I K 2 [ p r ] primo ['pri.moq] 'cousin' p r e s i o ['pre.syoq] ' p r i c e ' p r a k t i s [prcck. ' t i s ] ' p r a c t i c e , e x e r c i s e ' pronto ['pron.toq] 'ready' t r i p a [ ' t r i . p a q ] ' t r i p e , e n t r a i l s * t r e s e ['tre.seq] ' t h i r t e e n ' 112 [ g r ] [ f r ] trahe t r o s o trumpeta [ [ k r ] k r l s l s [ krema [ kraker [ k r o s l n g [ krus [ [ b r ] b r i l i a m t e Brenda braso brocha bruha [ d r ] d r i l drama( drowlng [ g r i s [ greko  grado  groto  grupo f r i t o f reno franko Fronda f r u t a s •gown1 •log of wood' tra.neq] tro.soq] trUm.'pe.taq] 'trumpet' k r i . s l s ] ' c r i s i s ' kre.maq] k r a . k e r ] k r o . s l n ] k r u s ] 'cream• * crac k e r ' • c r o s s i n g ' •cross' b r l 1 . ' l y a n . t e q ] 'diamond' bren.daq] 'a g i r l ' s name' bra.soq] brot ,'t'yaq] bru.naq] d r i l ] dra.maq] dro.wln] g r i s ] gre.koq] gra.doq] gro.toq] gru.poq] f r i . t o q ] fre.noq] fran.koq] fron.daq] f r u . t a s ] •arm' 'painter's brush' 'witch' •strong c l o t h ' 'drama, p l a y ' •drawing' 'gray' •Greek' •grade * 'grotto• •group' ' f r i e d ' 'brake, c o n t r o l ' 'frank' 'a f a m i l y name' 'fruit(s)» 113 puede pwe.deq] •can, may1 puak c pwak] •caudal f i n , t a i l * [ tw] t u a l i a [' t w a l . l y a q ] •towel' [kw] kuin t a s [' kwin.tas] •necklace' kuetes [' •kwe.tes] 'fi r e w o r k s ' k u a r t a [ 'kwar.taq] •money* [bw] buis [ •bwis] 'tax' buenas [ 'bwe.nas] •good l u c k ' bua [ 'bwaq] •be t e l (areca) nut' [dw] due to [ •dwe.toq] 'duet« dua [ 'dwaq] 'two' guantes [ •gwan.tes] 'gloves' guapo [ 'gwa.pbq] •handsome' [mw] muebles [ 'mweb.bles] ' f u r n i t u r e • muelye [ •mwel.lyeq] 'metal s p r i n g ' [nw] nueve [ •nwe.veq] 'nine' nuang [ •nwan] 'water b u f f a l o ' Cfw] f u e r a [ •fwe.raq] •besides' f u e r s a [ •fwer.saq] •force, s t r e n g t h ' [vw] vuelo [ 'vwe.loq] ' s w i f t motion' v u e l t a [ »vwe.l.taq] • t u r n 1 [sw] s u i t i k [»swi.tlk] 'cheat' sueldo [ 'swel.doq] »salary1 suako [ 'swa.koq] 'ciga r p ipe' [hw] hues [ •Ewes] 'judge• Hueves [ 'nwe.ves] 'Thursday• Juan [ 'nwan] •John' 114 Cpy] Piek [«pyek] 'chick' p i a C'pyaq] 'health' P i o L fpyoq] *a boy's name' Cty] chismis [ * t y l s . 'mis] 'gossip' cheke C'Sye.keq] 'cheque' t i a n C'tyan] •tummy' Choleng C•tyo.len] 'a g i r l ' s nickname' C & ] k i e t C 'k*yet] •crouch' k i a d C 'Icyad] 'walk w i t h abdomen proferud: kiosko ['kyos.koq] •kiosk' Cby] bienes C'bye.nes] 'property' biang ['byan] 'care, concern' CdV] d i e s C'dyes] 'dime* t e n ' diaya C'dya.yaq] ' o f f e r ' Dios [*dyos] 'God' Cmy] mlentras ['myen.tras] •while' Mierkoles f'myer.ko . l es l 'Wednesdav'• CnV] Nieves ['nye.ves] 'a g i r l ' s name' nipg C'hyog] 'coconut' ngiaw C'|yau] 'meow' Ciy] l i e v o C'lye.voq] 'carry' l i a v e ['lya.veq] 'key' Cry] r i e n d a C'ryen.daq] 'reins ( h o r s e ) ' r i a t C * r y a t ] • s l i t on c l o t h e s 1 riuma C Tyu.maq] 'rheumatism' 115 [ f y ] fiambrera [fyam. 'bre.rctql •dinner p a i l * r - f i a r [ f f y a r ] • t r u s t ' f i e s t a [ «fyes.t<xq] •f e a s t , h o l i d a y ' [ v y ] Viernes ['vyer.nes] •Friday* vlahe ['vya.heq] ' t r a v e l , voyage' v i o l i n r [ f v y o . l I n ] ' v i o l i n ' v iuda ['vyu.dccq] •widow' [ s y ] s i e t e ['sye.teg] 's even' slam [«syam] 'nine' sl u d u t ['syu.dUt] 'peevishness• 3;242 P r e v o c a l i c , Medial Contoid C l u s t e r s The medial c l u s t e r s r e f e r r e d to are those sequences of two or three contoids occuring immediately a f t e r the s y l l a b l e boundary, (.). Ilokano has no p o s t v o c a l i c medial c l u s t e r s - i . e., occuring before a s y l l a b l e boundary -except f o r the lo a n word, e k s t r a [»qeks.trctq] ' e x t r a . 1 Therefore, MK > -VC( X) . 0 ^ 2 ( 0 )V-C^2j. i n d i c a t e s that there i s always a pre-boundary C, which may or may not be the f i r s t element of a gemination. For example, compare kopra k a t r e to kompra s a s t r e -VC-jCC-jCgV-['kop.praq] 'coconut, copra' [ k a t . ' t r e q ] 'bed' -VC.C^gV-['kom.praq] 'buy' [ ' s a s . t r e q ] ' t a i l o r ' 116 .C^CgC^ i s a marginal sequence p a t t e r n ; i s always a semivocoid, [w] or Cy]. The r u l e s f o r the Ilokano medial co n t o i d c l u s t e r s (MK) are s i m i l a r to those f o r the i n i t i a l c o n toid c l u s t e r s , IK-^ g 3 v There are, however, a few exceptions and a d d i -t i o n s , thus: MK 1 IK 1 except C-, [ f ] "but i n c l u d i n g [ t , d ] I K 2 3 IK 3 except C-, [ v , h] MK IK but i n c l u d i n g C, £g, h] Three a d d i t i o n a l r u l e s to account f o r i n the •^1^2^3 c l u s t e r p a t t e r n are as f o l l o w s : MK 5 MK6 > Q1 [ p ] + C 2 [ l ] + C 3 [ y ] MK? > C x [ p ] + C 2 [ r ] + C 3 [w] Por the MK r u l e s the f o l l o w i n g examples are adduced: MK-^  [ p i ] supplemento [sUp.pie.'men.toq] 'supplement* kup l a t [kUp.'plat] 'peel o f f * templaen [tern.'pla.qen] 'to moderate' [ t l ] k a p i t l o [ k a . ' p i t . t l o q ] ' t h i r d degree c o u s i n ' [ k l ] b u k l i s [ b U k A l i s ] •greedy' buklen [bUk.'klen] •to form i n t o a whole' b i k l a t [ b i k . k l a t ] 'cobra' s a k l o t [ s o k . ' k l o t ] •laps' [ b l ] s u b l i [ s U b . ' b l i q ] 'r e t u r n ' sable [sab.'bleq] •saber, c u t l a s s * a b l a t [ q a b . ' b l a t ] • l a s h ' nablo [nab.'bloq] 'maimed' [ d l ] padles [pad ."dies] ' p r e d i c t i o n ' Csi] paglen [Pag.'glen] •to p r o h i b i t ' reglamento [reg.glrr.. 'men .toq] ' r e g u l a t i o n ' p i g l a t [ p i g . ' g l a t ] 'scar' s i g l o t [ s l g . ' g l o t ] 'knot' [ p r ] s a p r i [ s a p . ' p r i q ] ' r a i n passing through i n t e r s t i c e s ' repres entante [reo.ore.s en. 1 tan.tea1 • r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' tupra [tUp.'praq] •sputum' apro [qap.'proq] ' b i l e ' [ t r ] P a t r i c i o f b r r/t. ' t r i . s v o a l • P a t r i c k ' matrera [mat.'tre.taq] 'shrewd woman' kontra ['kon.traq] ' i n i m i c a l , a g a i n s t ' maestro [ma.'qes.troq] 1 male teacher' [ k r ] konkreto [ k o n . ' k r e . t o q l 'concrete' napokray [na.'-pok.kra.il ' f r i a b l e , crumbly' bukros [bUk.«kros] 'corpulent, obese' [ o r ] A b r i l [ q a b . ' b r i l ] ' A p r i l ' sobre [sob.'breq] 'envelope * sobra [sob.'braq] 'extra' masabrot [ma.sdb.'brot] 'can compensate f o r * [ d r ] padrino [pad.'dri.noq] 'godfather' madre [mad.'dreq] •nun' Alejandro [qa.le.'han.drool 'Alexander' [ g r ] ingreso [qln.'gre.soq] 'submit, d e p o s i t ' i n g r a t a [ q l n . ' g r a . t a q ] ' i n g r a t e ' l o g r o ['log.groq] ' p r o f i t ' [ f r ] A l f r e d o [ q a l . ' f r e . d o q ] ' A l f r e d ' [pw] tapwak [tap.'pwak] 'dive' [tw] b i t u e n [ b i t . ' t w e n ] ' s t a r ' batuag [bat.'twag] ' t i l t e d , seesaw' [!kw]i'; akoen [qak.'kwen] •to admit g r a c i o u s l y ' eskwela [qes.'kwe.laq] 'school' sanikua [sa.nl.'kwaq] 'property' [bw] rubuat [rUb.«bwat] •preparation t o leave' [dw] kadua [kad.'dwaq] 'partner} c ompani on' [gw] agua ['qa.gwaq] 'perfume' taguan [tag.'gwan] 'oar' [mw] ammoen [qam.'mwen] •to know, f i n d out rumuar [rUm.'mwar] •to e x i t ' [nw] an-anoen [qan.qan. fnwen] •How?' banuar [ban.'nwar] 'hero * [nw] sangoanan [son.'nwa.ncin] ' i n f r o n t o f dungngoen [dUn.'nwen] 'to l o v e ' [sw] p a s s u i t [ p a s . ' s w i t ] ' w h i s t l e ' assuang [qas.»swan] 'witch' •Epy] apien [qap.'pyen] •to cut o b l i q u e l y ' k o pia [»ko.pyaq] 'copy' l i m p i o ['lim.pyoq] •clean, neat' [ t y ] koche [kot.«£yeq] 'car' achara [ q a t . 'tfya.raq] • p i c k l e s ' ancho [ 'qan.tfyoq] 1 w i d t h , breadth' O ] pakiaw [pok.'kyaU] 'gross purchase' Eustaquii D [yUs. »ta.k"yoq] 'a boy's name' [^] ab-ablen [qab.qab.'byen] 'to v i l l i f y ' kamblo [kam.'byoq] ' g e a r s h i f t ' [ay] daydiay [dal.'d"yal] 'that' Hudio [hUd.'d'yoq] •Jew' [gy] pagyanan f Pag.gya. 1nan] ' l o c a t i o n * bagyo [bag.'gyoq] 'storm* [my] amianan [qam.'mya.nan] 'north' premio [prem.'myoq] ' p r i z e ' 120 M O baniera [ban.'riye.raq] •bathtub1 banias [ban.'nyas] 1 iguana1 panio [pan.*nyoq] •handkerchief' sangyo [son.'nyoq] 'shrew• [ & ] kalye [kal. ' lyeq] 'street• al-alya [qal.qal.•iyaq] 'ghost• repolyo [re. 'pol.l'yoq] •cabbage1 parla [par.'ryaq] 'bitter melon' pariok [par.*fyok] 'large frying pan' rosario [ro.*sar.ryoq] 'rosary' [^] infierno [qln. *fyeriinoq] ' h e l l ' conflansa [kon.'fyan.saq]'confidence, t r u s t ' [ v y ] Noviembre [no.'vyem.breq] 'November' novlo ['no.vyoq] ' f i a n c e ' [ s y ] pasear [pas.'syar] ' s t r o l l ' pasion [pas.'syon] 'passion (Lenten hymns)' [hy] r e l i h i o n [ r e . I I . ' h v o n ] ' r e l i g i o n ' M K 5 [ P i y ] empleado [qem.'plya.doq] 'employee' empleo [qem.'piyoq] •employment' M&6 [ p r y ] nasaprian [na.sap.'pryan] 'besprinkled' [ t r y ] I n d u s t r l a [ q l n . ' d u s . t r y a q ] ' i n d u s t r y ' [ b r y ] n a b r i a t [hcxB. 'bryat] 'torn' [ d r y ] Adriano [qad.'drya.noq] "a boy's name' MK7 [prw] aproan [qap.'prwan] 'add b i l e t o ' 121 3/243 P o s t v o c a l i c , F i n a l Contoid C l u s t e r s (FK) F i n a l c l u s t e r s are very r e s t r i c t e d i n occurence -1. e., only i n E n g l i s h l o a n words - i n the Ilokano phonolo-g i c a l system. I t w i l l be noted that most of the E n g l i s h l o a n words i n which they occur have been I l o k a n i z e d . The s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n f o r f i n a l c o n t o i d c l u s t e r s i n Ilokano i s FK > -VC-jCg which i s p h o n e t i c a l l y r e a l i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s : k FK-j^  } C n J r + C ? [ s ] FK 2 - — > C X [I] + c 2 [ k ] F K 3 > C x [ r ] + C, t d FK^ > C1 [ s ] + C 2 [ t ] 122. The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e the four EK r u l e s : F K X [ k s ] Felixa- [ ' f e . l l k s ] komiks ['ko.mlks] A l e x ['qa.leks] kyuteks ['kyu.teks] Cns3 hangs ['bans] [rs] nars ['nars] 'a boy's name' 'comics' 'a boy's name' ' n a i l p o l i s h 1 [ n s ] bins (pork and) ['bins] 'beans' 'a type of h a i r d o ' 'nurse' FK 2 [nk] Frank ['frank] 'Frank' [ r k ] pork ( b a r r e l ) ['pork] 'pork' FK^ [ r t ] Bert ['bart] ekspert [ '<feks.part] erport ['qer.port] report [ r e . ' p o r t ] [ r d ] kard ['kard] blakbord [ b l a k . 'bord[J. 'a boy's nickname* * expert' ' a i r p o r t ' 'report * 'card * 'blackboard' FK^ [ s t ] post ( O f f i c e ) ['post] 'post' 1231 3 23 THE SUPRASEGMENTS IN DETAIL The phonetic a n a l y s i s of Ilokano that has so f a r "been presented deals l a r g e l y w i t h the sounds of speech as i n d i v i d u a l l i n e a r segments and separable u n i t s . Since speech i s a dynamic continuum r a t h e r than a s t r i n g of s t a t i c i n d i v i d u a l sounds, i t i s important t o take i n t o account the way i n which the d i s c r e t e phones are grouped together i n a c t u a l d i s c o u r s e . Thus, i n the f o l l o w i n g subsections w i l l be d escribed the u n i f y i n g features of the speech continuum: the suprasegmental features of s t r e s s , l e n g t h , juncture, and p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n . These extend over s t r e t c h e s of many l i n e a r segments, hence some l i n g u i s t s c a l l them p l u r i s e g -mental f e a t u r e s . Suprasegmental features i n Ilokano are r e s t r i c t e d to the phenomena of s t r e s s , l e n g t h , and p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n -juncture t y i n g i n very c l o s e l y w i t h p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n . Along w i t h t h e i r u n i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e , a l l three features w i l l be considered i n terms of the degree of prominence each gives to a s y l l a b l e i n comparison w i t h other s y l l a b l e s i n the l i n e a r sequence. 3.!31 S t r e s s and Rhythm S t r e s s r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i v e l y great breath e f f o r t and the loudness w i t h which a sound or s y l l a b l e i s a r t i c u l a t e d . I t i s a f e a t u r e of accent or prominence. Ilokano s y l l a b l e s are e i t h e r s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d (') or weakly s t r e s s e d (unmarked). :i2> Thus, i n the p o l y s y l l a b i c word, f o r example: agllllnnemangan [ q q g . l l . 'lin.nem.me. 'nan] 'play hide and seek' the t h i r d and l a s t s y l l a b l e s are gi v e n prominence by the strong s t r e s s , the others subordinated by weak s t r e s s . Subsequent examples w i l l show that the s t r e s s p a t t e r n of Ilokano i s f i x e d , I n the sense that the strong s t r e s s always f a l l s on a p a r t i c u l a r s y l l a b l e of any gi v e n word.^ Thus, the strong s t r e s s f a l l s r e g u l a r l y : (1) on the f i r s t s y l l a b l e i n the d i s s y l l a b i c forms tudo ['tu.doq] ' r a i n ' s l p i t [ ' s i . p i t ] 'tongs' bayad [ • ba. yqd] ' payment' ; (2) on the me&lsgl s y l l a b l e i n the p o l y s y l l a b i c forms kawayan [ka.'wa.yan] 'bamboo' n a l a b a s l t [na.lcc. ' b a . s l t ] 'red* b u l l a l a y a w fbUI.lq.'la.yqU] 'rainbow'; (3) on the l a s t s y l l a b l e i n the d i s s y l l a b i c and p o l y s y l l a b i c forms adu [qq.'duq] 'many' a l u t e n [qa.lU.'ten] ' f i r e b r a n d ' k u l a l a n t l [kU.la.lan.«tiq] ' f i r e f l y ' . But the s t r e s s i s f r e e and dynamic, i n the sense that i t i s not t i e d to any p a r t i c u l a r s y l l a b l e I n the process of mor-p h o l o g i c a l expansion using a f f i x e s . I lokano, as pointed out e a r l i e r , i s a g g l u t i n a t i v e , i . e., i t makes grammatical use of many a f f i x e s . Thus, the 12.5 a n a l y s i s of i t s s t r e s s patterns s t a r t s w i t h the base or root morphemes and proceeds to the word forms w i t h bound morphemes, the a f f i x e s : p r e f i x , i n f i x , and s u f f i x . Delv-i n g i n t o morphological d e t a i l s , such as d e f i n i n g the types of the bound morphemes, i s beyond the scope of t h i s a n a l y s i s . I t merely aims to demonstrate the s t r e s s dynamics of Ilokano a t the morpheme l e v e l , thus: S t r e s s P a t t e r n 'xx o'xx x'xo ox'xo o'xo'xo oo * xo * xo oo'xo'xo oo'xo'xoo *xx o 'xx 42 b i l a n g  a g bllang  b i l a n g e n  i b i l a n g a n agblnnllangan a g b i b i n n l l a n g a n maklbinnilangan •count• •to count ( v . i . ) ' •to count ( v . t . ) * Example [ ' b i . l a n ] [ q a g . • b i . l a n ] [ b l . ' l a . n e n ] [ q l . b l . * l a . n a n ] 'to count f o r someone' [qag.'bln.nl.'la.nan] •to count f o r each other' [ q a g . b l . ' b i n . n l . ' l a . n a n ] 'to count f o r one another' [ma.kl.'bin.nl.'la.nan] 'to j o i n In the mutual counting' makiblnnilanganen [ma.kl.'bin.ni.'la.na.nen] 'to j o i n i n the mutual counting now' pudot ['pu.dot] 'heat* napudot [na.'pu.dot] 'hot' 42 Where: x:,:= o = t . s y l l a b l e of the base morpheme. s y l l a b l e of the bound morpheme or a f f i x . s t r e s s mark before the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , OQ'XK napudpudot [na.pUd.'pu.dot] ' h o t t e r ' ooo'xx nakapudpudot [na.ka.pUd.'pu.dot] 'very h o t ' ox'xo kapudutan [ka.pU.'du.tan] ' h o t t e s t ' oox'xo kapudpudutan [ka.pUd.pU.'du.tan] ' w h i l e s t i l l h o t ' oo'xo'xo maki p l n n u d u t a n [ m a . k l . ' p i n . n U . ' d u . t a n ] ' i d i o m - t o f a n t h e embers' x'xx p a l i l w [ p a . ' l i . q l U ] ' o b s e r v a t i o n ' ox'xx a g p a l l l w [ q a g . p a . ' l i . q l U ] ' to o b s e r v e ( v . i . ) ' oox'xx a g p a l p a l i i w [qag.pal.pa.'11.qlU] ' i s o b s e r v i n g * xx'xo p a l l l w e n [ p a . H . ' q i . w e n ] *to observe ( v . t . ) ' o'xo'xxo a g p l n n a l l l w e n [ q a g . ' p i n . n a . ' l i . q l . w e n ] 'to o b s e r v e each o t h e r now' o'oxx'xo p a g p a l p a l l l w a n [ p a g . ' p a l . p a . I I . ' q i . w a n ] 'time a l l o t e d t o o b s e r v a t i o n ' oo'xo'xx a g p l p i n n a l l i w [ q a g . p i . ' p i n . n a . ' 1 1 . q l U ] 'to observe one a n o t h e r ' ooo'xoo'xx m a k l p a g p i n p i n n a l i i w [ m a . k l . p a g . ' p i n . p i n . n a . ' l i . q l U ] ' u n c a l l e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n o b s e r v a t i o n ' x'x a y a t [ q a . ' y a t ] ' l o v e ' ox'x naayat [ n a . q a . ' y a t ] ' l o v i n g ' xx«o a y a t e n [ q a . y a . ' t e n ] 'to l o v e ' oo'ox'x nakaay-ayat [ n a . k a . ' q a l . q a . * y a t ] ' l o v e l y ' oox'x panagayat [ p a . n a . g a . * y a t ] 'way of l o v i n g ' oxx'o pagayatan [ p a . g a . y a . ' t a n ] ' l i k i n g , d e s i r e ' oo'ooox'x m a k i l n n a y a n - a y a t [ m a . k l . 'qin.na .32aa.qa. ' y a t ] 'to be i n l o v e w i t h ' 12? x'x lemmeng ox'x ilemmeng oxx'o llemmengan o•xox 1o aglinnemmengan ox'oox'o aglilinnemmengan [lem.'men] ' i n h i d i n g * [ql.lem.'men] 'to h i d e ' [ql.lem.me.'nan] 'to hide from' [qag.'lin.nem.me.'nan] 'to hide from each other' [ q c c g . l l . 'lin.nem.me. 'nan] 'to play hide-and-seek' oo'xoox'oo makilinlinnemmenganen [ma.kl.'lin.lin.nem.me.'na.nen] ' i s now p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the game of hide-and-seek' The phonetic s t r e s s patterns of Ilokano may be summarized 43 as f o l l o w s : S t r e s s P a t t e r n Example Word Forms w i t h One Strong S t r e s s (a) U l t i m a t e x'x xx'x xxx'x (b) Penultimate sandi balinsuek b a t l k u l e n g 'xx x'xx xx'xx xxx'xx sagad apigod talimudaw  a l u m p l p i n i g [san.'diq] ' s u b s t i t u t e ' [ba.lln.'swek] 'upside down' [ b a . t l . k U . ' l e n ] ' g i z z a r d ' ['sa.gad] 'broom' [qa.'pi.god] 'left-handed' [ta.ll.'mu.daU] ' v e r t i g o ' [qa.lUm.pl.'pi.nig] 'wasp' i+3 D i s r e g a r d i n g the morpheme type - base or a f f i x -to which the s y l l a b l e s belong. S t r e s s i s the p e r t i n e n t aspect i n q u e s t i o n . Each "x" represents a s y l l a b l e . 128 (c) Antepenultimate x'xxx karlssabong; [ka.*ris.sa.bon] 'young f r u i t 1 xxx1xxx agparintumengen [qag.pa.rln.'tu.me.nen] •to kneel kown now9 44 Word Forms with Two Stresses (a) Pre-ultimate xx'xx'x nakaay-ayat x'xxx'x agllnnemmengan xx'xxx'x agllnllnnemmengan xx'xxxx'x makiinnayan-ayat (b) Pre-penultimate x * xx * xx agblnnilangan xx'xx'xx maklblnnllangan x lxxx ,xx pagpalpaliiwan xxx'xxx'xx makipagplnplnnalliw xx'xxxx'xx maklllnlinnemmenganen (c) Pre-antepenultimate x^x'xxx agplnnalllwen xx'xx'xxx makiblnbinnllanganen Rhythm results from the occurrence and recurrence of strongly stressed and weakly stressed syllables in utterances 44 For the phonetic transcriptions and glosses, refer to pages 124 through 126. 129 longer than the word. In Ilokano,- the syllable stress found at the word level generally retains its isolate-word identity in connected speech. Por example, Palliwen no saan a napudot t i aglilinnemmengan. [pa.ll.'qi.wen no sa.'qan qa na.'pu.dot t i qag.ll.'lin. nem.me.'nanj 'Observe i t i t is not too hot to play hide-and-seek.' 3.32 Length The suprasegmental feature of length/ [:], is associ-ated with the duration of articulation of sounds or syllables. This duration or length of sounds is also called their quan-tity./ In Ilokano, length is a feature of prominence which is a complex of stress and length itself - at least in an open syllable occurring in i t i a l l y and medially. Thus, the fi r s t syllable is longer and, therefore, more prominent in plto [*pi:.toq] 'pipette1 than i t is in pito [pl.'toq] 'seven.' A syllable in final position/ however, is always short, whether or not i t is strongly stressed. It takes as much time to pronounce [toq] as i t does ['toq] in the examples above. Other examples illustrate the point further. Compare: bagl [»ba:.glq] 'share' and bagl [ba.'giq] 'body'} basa C'ba:.saq] 'read' and basa [ba.*saq] ,wet'. 1.39 Contoid l e n g t h Is r e a l i z e d as gemination. The onset i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the f i r s t c o n t o i d of a geminate i s fol l o w e d "by a ho l d or tenue, and then, w i t h a renewed momen-tum across the s y l l a b l e boundary, the second contoid i s r e a l i z e d as the r e l e a s e or coda, blending as i t were, w i t h the next speech sound. Por example, t u k k o l [ t U k : . o l ] > [ t U k . ' k o l ] 'break, snap' labba [ l a b : . a q ] ^ [lab.*baq] 'large basket' serrek [ s e r : . e k ] *y [ s e r . ' r e k ] 'entrance* S y l l a b l e - f i n a l contoids are long when fol l o w e d by a g l o t t a l stop, [ q ] , thus: n a l a p - i t [ n a . ' l a p : . q l t ] • p l i a b l e t ud-od [qUdi.«qod] 'bargain t nasanHlt [na.'sam:.qlt] •sweet' b i n - i g ['bin:.qlg] 'purely, e x c l u s i v e l y * sang-aw [son:.»qaU] 'breath' b a l - e t [ b a l : . ' q e t ] 'between i a g k i r - i n [ q a g . k l r : . ' q i n ] 'to move s l i g h t l y ' pes-akan [pes:.'qa.kan] 'to soak yarn or c l o t h * Vocoids are g e n e r a l l y lengthened at the end of ques-t i o n s or statements. This phenomenon of vocoid lengthening i s Induced by the suprasegmental fe a t u r e of i n t o n a t i o n . However, i t can be a f u n c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l speaker's unique speech h a b i t s or i d i o l e c t , and may thus be taken as an idiophone. 3."33 Juncture, P i t c h and I n t o n a t i o n 3.331 Juncture From a phonetic point of view speech i s seldom d i v i d e d i n t o words. I n o v e r l y c a r e f u l speech, Mapan ka i d i a y . "Go (you) t h e r e . 1 i s u t t e r e d i n i t s i s o l a t e - w o r d forms, [mcc.'pan ka q l . ' d y a l j ] ; when s a i d i n a n a t u r a l manner, however, i t i s r e a l i z e d as [ma.•pankal'dyal]. The phenomenon of blending, due t o a s s i m i l a t i o n [uk] and e l i s i o n [ k a q l ] > [ k a l ] . i s obvious. P h o n e t i c a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , the sounds i n the whole utterance f o l l o w each other without i n t e r r u p t i o n ; there i s nothing whatever of an a r t i c u l a t o r y or a c o u s t i c nature which corresponds, p r i n t w l s e , to the white space between words. Again, t h i s demonstrates the concept of speech as a continuum, and of w r i t i n g as an i n a c c u r a t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n of speech. The way i n which s y l l a b l e s blend together i n context-u a l speech i s here r e f e r r e d to as .juncture. As a demarcating de v i c e , i n Ilokano t h a t i s , t h i s suprasegmental f e a t u r e i s observed a t the end of a c e r t a i n span of s y l l a b l e s ; i t s u n i -f y i n g i n f l u e n c e being coterminous w i t h i n t o n a t i o n . I n f a c t , grammatical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s along w i t h p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n are brought to bear upon juncture placement i n Ilokano. The Ilokano d i a l e c t i n question has only two juncture phones or junctones: a non-terminal junctone [J] which i s aqbr i e f : p&use roughly equivalent t o that represented by a comma i n conventional orthography; and a t e r m i n a l junctone 132. [||]» which represents a longer pause marking the end of a sentence. The d i a l e c t does not have the i n t e r n a l plus junc-tone, [+], c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of E n g l i s h , which i s p e r c e p t i b l e and d i s t i n c t i v e i n such p a i r s as: [ • n a l + t r e l t ] ' n i t r a t e * and ['naltH-relt] 'night r a t e ' [a+'nelm] 'a name' and [ a n e l m ] 'an aim'. 3.332 P i t c h and I n t o n a t i o n P i t c h , as an a c o u s t i c parameter of speech, has been determined by a c o u s t i c phonetics as the number or frequency of sound waves per second. Low-pitched sounds have r e l a t i v e -l y low frequency, and a perceived r i s e i n p i t c h i s a c o r r e l a t e of the i n crease i n the number of sound waves per second. Some l i n g u i s t s describe p i t c h i n terms of l e v e l s , c a l l e d p i t c h l e v e l s (PL). These may be i n d i c a t e d by numbers i n both phonetic and phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s , thus: P i t c h L e v e l Symbol Very High 4 High 3 Normal 2 Low 1 P i t c h l e v e l k i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emphatic and emotional speech. Only the n a t u r a l speech i n Ilokano which makes use of the p i t c h phones [PL-^ 2 3] w i l l be considered i n the present d i s c u s s i o n . P i t c h v a r i a t i o n s g i v e a s y l l a b l e prominence more e f f e c -133 t i v e l y than s t r e s s does. Thus, the s y l l a b l e [ p i n ] i n napintas [ n a . ' p i n . t a s ] 1 " b e a u t i f u l 1 when s a i d on a monotone even w i t h exaggerated s t r e s s , [ x ' x x ] , i s not as prominent as when the s t r e s s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p i t c h change, e. g., 1 2 1 [na.'pin.tas].' However, p i t c h prominence a t the morpheme l e v e l may be l o s t i n connected speech while s t r e s s i s more s t a b l e and the l a t t e r i s always on a s y l l a b l e w i t h a poten-t i a l change of p i t c h . P i t c h v a r i a t i o n s during speech - a combination of two or more of the p i t c h phones - c o n s t i t u t e what i s c a l l e d ' a t e r m i n a l contour or i n t o n a t i o n . I n t o n a t i o n may be i n d i -cated by the symbol [if ] , [ ^ ] , or [ J ] , depending upon whether the p i t c h r i s e s , f a l l s o f f , or remains l e v e l ; and by the c i r c u m f l e x [^] or [>^] f o r s u b t l e p i t c h changes: r i s i n g - f a l l -i n g or f a l l i n g - r i s i n g . Since juncture t i e s i n very c l o s e l y , and i s coterminous, w i t h i n t o n a t i o n , both suprasegmentals share the same symbols, thus: Symbol Juncture «„ n „ „ I n t o n a t i o n Short pause Long pause [ | fj Sustained or l e v e l ' ^  ] F a l l i n g R i s i n g 1 R i s i n g - f a i l i n g § 1 F a l l i n g - r i s i n g 134 The same example as the one g i v e n e a r l i e r - expanded or reduced - may be used to i l l u s t r a t e the combined supra-45 segmental features of juncture, p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n . 2 ]_ (a) Mapan ka i d i a y . [ma. 'pankql ."dyal^] 'Go th e r e . ' (b) Mapan ka. [ma.'pan.kaq^] 'You go.* 2 , (c) Mapan ka... [ma.'pan.kaqI] 'You go...' 2 , (d) I d i a y . . . [ q l . ' d y a l l ] 'To...' (e) Mapan ka i d i a y . . . [ma.'pan.kal.'dyal'j] 'You go t o . . . ' 1 3 ( f ) I d i a y ? [ q l . ' d y a l ^ ] 'Where?' 2 1 , (g) I d i a y . [ q l . ' d y a l l ] 'There.' 2 3 2 (h) I d i a y ? [ q l . ' d y a l / J ] '(Did you say) There?" 2 1 3 * ( i ) Mapan ka i d i a y ? r m q . ' p a n . k q l . ' d y a l \ T 1 'You are going there? or 'You are going where?' k a d i ^46 _9 -, 3 ngatg ( j ) Mapan ka\ V i d i a y ? [mq.'pan.kq.kq.'dl .ql . ' d y a l ^ P ] "•ngata j » 'Are you going there?« / x r 2 3 1 An (k) Mapan ka i d i a y ? [_ma. 'pan.kql. 'dyal /T) 'Are you going there? 45 Each p i t c h phone i s to be read as extending up t o the next p i t c h phone, e. g., the p i t c h phone [ 2 ] i n example (a) extends from [mq] to [ k q l ] ; the p i t c h s h i f t s to [ 1 ] In [ d y a l ] , 46 The s t r u c t u r e words k a d i and ngata [nq.'taq] 'perhaps' s i g n a l a question; man ['man], a request. 135 x r 2 1 , (!) Ma pan ka i d i a y , saan kadi? [ma.'pan.kal.'dyal| 2 3 - ^7 sa. 'qan.ka. 'diqT] 'You're going there,, aren't you?' (m) Napan ka, saan? [na.'pan.kaq | sa.'qanf] 'You went, d i d n ' t you?' 2 1 , 2 3 . (n) I d i a y , d i kadi? [ q l . ' d y a l [ dl.ka.'diqT]'There, i s n ' t i t ? or 2 1 k 2 1 . (o) I d i a y , d l kadi? [ q l . ' d y a l l d l . k a . ' d i q l l ' T h e r e , i s n ' t i t ? (p) Mapan ka man i d i a y ? [m a.'pan.ka.'man.ql.'dyal^] 'Could you please go there?' (q) Mapan ka i d i a y eskwela mi, wen. _2 3 l 3 2 „ 2 3 * [ma.'pan.kal.'dyal .qes.'kwe.la.'mi J 'wen/y or ['wen » T ] •Go to our s c h o o l , w i l l you?' (ri); Wen, mapan kami amin; [ 'wen ^ ma. 'pan.ka.ml. 'qa.mlnp 'Yes, w e ' l l a l l go:' 47 Tag questions i n Ilokano d i s r e g a r d agreement i n person, number, gender, and tense. Thus, any of the utterances a t the l e f t (below) can mean any of those at the r i g h t : : Saan kadi? ^  ("'Is i t (he, she)? Di kadi? I - J I s n ' t i t (he, she)? Saan? ( 1 Are (aren't) you (they,...)? ' J \J)o (Did) you (they, . . . ) ? ' 9 ' W i l l (Could) you?' 136' (s) n l Juan, n i R o s a r l o , n i Ramon, ken s i a k . 1 2 , 1 2 . 1 2 . 2 1 , [ n l . ' h w a n l n i .ro. 'sar .ryoq | nl.ra.'mon ken.'syakj"] •John, R o s a r l o , Ramon, and I . ' (t) Maysa, dwa, t a l l o , uppat. nl 2 i 1 2 i 1 2 i 2 1 I [ m a l . 1 saq J • dwaq j t a l . 1 l o q I qUp.' pat IJ 'One, two, thr e e , f o u r . ' The combined suprasegmental features of p i t c h , i n t o n -a t i o n and juncture (PIJ) may be summed up i n the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s : Communication P I J P a t t e r n Examples S i t u a t i o n Statement of f a c t C21J ]^ ( a) (s) (*") Command C21^] (a) Request [323^] (p) H e s i t a t i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y , or i n t e r r u p t e d speech [2 | ] (c) (d) (d) S e r i e s or f (s) ( t ) [ 2 l | l 2 f ] Yes-No questions [232Al or V (h) ( i ) ( j ) (k) [213^] Echo questions [ 23^] ( f ) ( i ) Tag questions [2l|23^1 or ]} (1) (m) (n) (o) (q) [2l|32.4] Chapter 4 PHONEMIC ANALYSIS The phonetic analysis in the preceding chapter has specified the total range of speech sounds or phones -largely the idiophones of the writer - in the cultivated Ilokano dialect of Bayombong, Nueva Vlzcaya. A brief inventory of the phones reveals: 9 vocoids, 19 contoids, 12 vocoid chains, 89 contoid c l u s t e r s2 strones, 2 junc-tones, 4 pitch phones or tones, and 5 terminal contours, not to mention the potential modifications of segments in context, such, for instance, as those of [ l ] which may be: labialized [ l w ] as in luag [ « l w w a g ] »froth' dentalized [ l ] as in paltat [pql . ' tatl 'catfish' palatalized [if] as in liad [ »lfyad] t ] _ e a n backward' velarized [*] as in pllko ['pi*.koq] 'bend' No attempt has, however, been made to account for such extralingulstic factors as rate of speaking, physical and psychological state,' and the l ike, which may be brought to bear upon the actual or potential phonetic differences and variability of the speech sounds. To delve into such phonetic minutiae would yield data too unwieldy to be treat-ed by the present attempt at a scientific description of the sound pattern of Ilokano. ^•Q- Rationale for Phonemlzatlon Most l i n g u i s t s c o n c u r i n t h e " b e l i e f t h a t " i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t one e v e r makes e x a c t l y t h e same group o f speech movements t w i c e i n a l i f e t i m e , and i f one 48 does, i t i s t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o chance r a t h e r t h a n t o law." M o r e o v e r j ; no p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s adequate enough t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l t h e f l u c t u a n t speech sounds i n t h e r e p e r -t o i r e o f even one i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r . The p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s can answer o n l y t h e q u e s t i o n o f how speech sounds a r e r e a l i z e d , 1 b u t i t does n o t g i v e a n a c c o u n t o f w h i c h o r how many o f s u c h speech sounds a r e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y r e l e v a n t i n communication. T h i s l i m i t a t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i n f i n i t e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e phones i n a d i a l e c t , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , an i d i o l e c t , emphasizes, t h e r e f o r e , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a s t u d y o f o n l y t h e r e l e v a n t and c o n s t a n t speech u n i t s . T h i s i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f "Phone-mlzatlon," w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o Malmberg, " i m p l i e s t h e r e d u c -t i o n o f a n u n l i m i t e d number o f v a r i a n t s [ t h e phones] t o a l i m i t e d number o f i n v a r i a n t s [ t h e phonemes]...' The s m a l l e r t h e number, t h e s i m p l e r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , and i t i s u n d e n i a b l e t h a t i n any science,' 1 a d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h needs a s m a l l e r amount o f d a t a i s s u p e r i o r t o one w h i c h supposes a l a r g e r number, supposed t h a t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s e q u a l l y e x h a u s t -i v e . . . A d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s a l i n g u i s t i c 48 W i l l i a m F r a n c i s Mackey*1 Language Teaching A n a l y s i s . London: Longmans, Green & Co.1 L t d . , 1 9 6 51 P« 48. 139 system by means of 40 phonemes i s consequently, i n p r i n -49 c i p l e j ' s u p e r i o r to one which uses 100 or 150." 4.2 Determining the Set of Phonemes I t i s the task of t h i s s e c t i o n to answer the f o l l o w -i n g questions: (1) what i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e and relevant;; and what i s not,' among the speech sounds set up on the b a s i s of a r t i c u l a t o r y phonetics? and (2) how are these d i s t i n c t i v e and re l e v a n t u n i t s to be s p e c i f i e d ? 4.21 The Phoneme Concept A p o i n t of departure would be a d e l i n e a t i o n of what i s sought f o r - the phoneme.' L i n g u i s t s have d i f f e r e n t views on what phonemes are: some regard them as psycholo-g i c a l u n i t s ; others as p h y s i c a l r e a l i t i e s ; w h i l e to s t i l l o t h ers, they are both p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l r e a l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g are a few of the d i f f e r e n t concepts of the phoneme; "a f a m i l y of sounds i n a given language which are r e l a t e d i n character and are used i n such a way t h a t no member ever occurs i n a word i n the same phonetic context as any other member." -Jones 49 B e r t i l Malmberg, S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s and Human Communication.' New York: Academic Press Inc., 1963, PP. 83-84. 50 D a n i e l Jones, The H i s t o r y and Meaning of the  Term "Phoneme". London: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Asso-c i a t i o n , 1957,! P. 14. 140 "a f u n c t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t i n the r i g i d l y d e f i n e d p a t t e r n or c o n f i g u r a t i o n of sounds p e c u l i a r to a language. ... has no singleness of reference." -Sapir51 "a minimum u n i t of d i s t i n c t i v e sound fea t u r e ... The phonemes of a language are not sounds, but merely features of sounds which the speakers have been t r a i n e d to produce and recognize i n the cur-r e n t of a c t u a l speech sound."^Bloomfield-^ "the phonemes of a language are the elements which stand i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each other i n the phono l o g i c a l system of the language. ... a phoneme i n a given language i s defined only i n terms of i t s d i f f e r e n c e s from the other phonemes of the same language." -Hockett53 "a u n i t , a r u b r i c , a bundle of sound f e a t u r e s , or a po i n t of c o n t r a s t . ... a combination of features of sound (e. g., stop a r t i c u l a t i o n , b i l a b i a l p o s i t i o n , and v o i c i n g i n /b/, or high and f r o n t tongue p o s i t i o n and absence of l i p - r o u n d i n g i n / i / ) which render one phoneme d i s t i n c t from another, and which are th e r e f o r e known as d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . " -Hall54 " a l l phonemes denote nothing but mere otherness. ... ...'are bundles of concurrent f e a t u r e s . " -Jakobson and Halle55 However v a r i e d the views a r e , a t l e a s t three p i v o t a l concepts can be de r i v e d from them, i . e., a phoneme i s a u n i t r e p r e s e n t i n g a c l a s s of sounds, i t i s c o n t r a s t i v e , and i t s occurence must be worked out w i t h i n a given language. 51 W. Freeman Twaddell, "On D e f i n i n g the Phoneme," i n M a r t i n Joos, Readings i n L i n g u i s t i c s ; the development  of d e s c r i p t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s i n America s i n c e 1925. Washington: American C o u n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s , 1957» P. 59• I b i d . ; p. 62. 53 C . F . Hockett, pp. c i t . , p. 26. 54 Robert A. H a l l , J r . , I n t r o d u c t o r y L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: C h i l t o n Books, 1964, p. 79. 55 Roman Jakobson and Morris H a l l e , Fundamentals of Language. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1956, pp. 5, 11. 141 4.22 A n a l y t i c Procedure: Pike's Tagmemic Theory The l i n g u i s t s ' concepts of the phoneme are probably as v a r i e d as t h e i r methods of i d e n t i f y i n g i t . A compara-t i v e methodology, together w i t h the theory underlying each method, belongs to the province of the phil0sophy of l a n g -uage and t h e r e f o r e need not be attempted here. The present study takes a cue from Pike's tagmemic theory of determining the nature of a u n i t of r e l e v a n t human behavior, such as l i n g u i s t i c behavior. "Any u n i t of purposive human behavior," P i k e says, " i s w e l l - d e f i n e d i f and only i f one describes i t i n r e f e -rence t o (a) c o n t r a s t (and r e s u l t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) , (b) range of v a r i a t i o n (with i t s e s s e n t i a l p h y s i c a l mani-f e s t a t i o n ) , and (c) d i s t r i b u t i o n ( i n c l a s s , i n h i e r a r c h i -56 c a l sequence, and i n systemic m a t r i x . ) " The t r i m o d a l theory of a n a l y s i s g i v e n above may be s t a t e d b r i e f l y , thus: Contrast U n i t = V a r i a t i o n 57 D i s t r i b u t i o n . 56 Kenneth L. P i k e , "On Systemsof Grammatical S t r u c -t u r e , " i n Horace G. Lunt, (ed..,),., Proceedings of the N i n t h  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of L i n g u i s t s , The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964, p. 14-5. 57 -See a l s o , Kenneth L. P i k e , Language i n R e l a t i o n to "I 142. P i k e f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e s the three components of a n a l y s i s as f o l l o w s : "Contrast: One does not know what an item i s u n t i l one knows what i t i s not. ... Once items are thus separated o f f from others, the c o n t r a s t i v e features i n f u r t h e r e n v i -vonments sometimes a l l o w f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of items even under co n d i t i o n s where one of two members of a contrast does not occur. V a r i a t i o n : The m a n i f e s t a t i o n - or r e a l i z a t i o n - of the u n i t could vary s u b s t a n t i a l l y , l e a d i n g t o e t i c v a r i a n t s , or a l l o u n i t s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : A w e l l - d e f i n e d u n i t i s a member of a c l a s s of u n i t s appropriate to a p a r t i c u l a r s l o t i n a 58 c o n s t r u c t i o n . " A t the phonemic l e v e l of a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study, the s p e c i f i c u n i t i s , of course, the phoneme. The phonemes of the Ilokano d i a l e c t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be determined using the formula: C U = V D a U n i f i e d Theory of the S t r u c t u r e of Human Behavior, Glen-d a l e , C a l i f . , Summer I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , 1954, V o l . I , Chapter 3» 58 Op. c i t . •7 143 where: U = emic U n i t (the phoneme) C = Contrast (What the phoneme i s or, more im-po r t a n t , what i t i s not i n r e l a t i o n t o other phonemes i n the language.) V = V a r i a t i o n (What are i t s various manifestations or allophones?) D = D i s t r i b u t i o n (Where does each allophone a c t u a l l y or p o t e n t i a l l y occur?) I t was mentioned elsewhere that t h i s study employs the taxonomic procedure of segmentation and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n any c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s c i e n c e , c e r t a i n features or items are taken i n t o account, and others are subsumed, or i n some cases, are e v e n t u a l l y disregarded. This i s the p r i n c i p l e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n the process of phonemization, the w r i t e r -confronted w i t h a v a r i e t y of e t i c u n i t s - assumes a phonemic 59 norm, and r e l e g a t e s the other u n i t s t o the s t a t u s of v a r i a n t s 60 or allophones. Thus, by the c r i t e r i o n of phonetic s i m i l a r i t y , she assumes / i / , /e/, /a/, /o/, and /u/ as the phonemic norms f o r the nine e t i c segments, [ i , i ] , [e,©], [ a , ctj» Co], and [ u , u ] , r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and /h/ as that f o r [ h ] and [ n ] . The 59 Por d e t a i l s about phonemic norm, see P i k e , Bhonemlos. pp. 62, 88, 244. 60 Allophones w i l l be discussed f u r t h e r under V a r i a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n , S e c t i o n 4.222 of t h i s t h e s i s . t e n t a t i v e phonemes - I . e., the phonemic norms together w i t h the other segments and suprasegments - are then e s t a b l i s h e d as emic u n i t s of the Ilokano d i a l e c t using the t r i m o d a l scheme, Contrast U n i t = V a r i a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n 4.'221 C O N T R A S T Contrast,' as a l r e a d y pointed out, i n v o l v e s statements about i d e n t l f i c a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s , i . ; e.y what the emic u n i t I s . e. g., 1 1 / t / i s a v o i c e l e s s d e n t a l stop." Since statements of 61 t h i s type have been provided In the phonetic a n a l y s i s , the phonemic a n a l y s i s i s more concerned about f i n d i n g what the emic u n i t i s not,- e. g., t h a t /o/ i s not /u/. Thus, emphasis i s placed on oppositions or c o n t r a s t s which w i l l be determined on the b a s i s of the c o n t r a s t i v e features or components - a l s o 62 known as d i s t i n c t i v e features - of each phoneme. I n f a c t , 61 Chapter 3« 62 I t w i l l be noted t h a t the f e a t u r e approach adopted i n t h i s study u t i l i z e s a r t i c u l a t o r y features, 1 and not those i n v o l v i n g a r t i c u l a t o r y - a c o u s t i c c o r r e l a t e s / known as the Jakobsonian d i s t i n c t i v e features (Jakobson, Fant and H a l l e , P r e l i m l n a r 1 esy 1965) * To a v o i d confusion,- t h e r e f o r e , the term components - r a t h e r than d i s t i n c t i v e features - w i l l henceforth be used. 145 63 Hockett says: The s o l e f u n c t i o n of sound I n language i s to keep utterances apart; 1 The phono l o g i c a l system of a la n g -uage i s th e r e f o r e not so much a "set of sounds" as i t i s a network of d i f f e r e n c e s between sounds... the elements of a phonological system cannot be defined p o s i t i v e l y i n terms of what they "are", but only nega-t i v e l y i n terms of what they are not, what they con-t r a s t w i t h . What,1 f o r i n s t a n c e , makes f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between the f o l l o w i n g utterances? Umay tanto k l t a e n . /qu may tan t o k i t& qen/ 'We'll come and see i t . ! ' Umay danto k l t a e n . /qu may dan to k i ta" qen/ 'T h e y ' l l come and see i t . ' Umay kan to kltaen.' /qu may kan t o k i t f i qen/ • I ' l l come and see you.'' Umay santo kltaen.' /qu may san to k l t a qen/ ' H e ' l l come, and then w e ' l l see i t . ' The schematic diagram on the next page may be an over-s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , ' but i t serves to i l l u s t r a t e p r i n c i p l e s and procedures,' i . 4 e.y t h a t a t e n t a t i v e phoneme, say / t / , d e r i v e s i t s function,' and hence i t s i d e n t i t y as a phoneme i n the I l o -kano d i a l e c t , ' from being i n c o n t r a s t i n one or more features w i t h other phonemes i n the d i a l e c t : e. g.y w i t h /d/ i n v o i c -ing,' w i t h /k/ i n p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n , 3 and w i t h / s / i n both 63 C. F.' Hockett, OJD.1 c i t . , p. 24. 146 p o i n t and manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n . ' The f o l l o w i n g componential a n a l y s i s shows the c o n t r a s t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s : Phonemes / t / / a / M /a/ Dimensions of Contrast Components V o i c i n g breath -vs- v o i c e breath breath P o i n t of Art.' d e n t a l d e n t a l -vs- v e l a r -vs- a l v e o l a r Manner of Art.' StOTD «> * — stop stop -vs- f r i c a t i v e Viewed i n t h i s , . l i g h t / a phoneme - such as / t / - i s a p o i n t 1ft a network of f u n c t i o n a l c o n t r a s t s i n the phon o l o g i c a l system of I l o k a n o / thus: p t — k ' ^ s d I n i t s passage from phone to phoneme through contrast,' each t e n t a t i v e phoneme i s subjected t o a commutation t e s t -a t e s t which i n v o l v e s the c o n t r a s t i v e s u b s t i t u t i n g of sounds i n order t o i d e n t i f y or r e i f y them as phonemes/ The devices used f o r such a t e s t i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : (1) Minimal p a i r s : A minimal p a i r i s a s e t ot two words the s u b s t i t u t i o n , a d d i t i o n / or s u b t r a c t i o n of one seg-ment of which makes f o r a d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning/ e. g./ ml /miq/ 'our' vs mo /moq/ 'your 1; 147 (2) Minimal t r i p l e t s ( a l s o quadruplet or q u i n t u p l e t ) : i n v o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n three items, e. g., n i / n i q / 'the (prenominal) 1 vs na /naq/ ' h i s , h e r / i t s ' vs no /noq/ ' i f , p o s s i b l y , vs the expression ne /neq/ 'here i t i s ; ' (3) Subminimal p a i r s : two items so d i f f e r i n g i n s i m i l a r (not i d e n t i c a l , as i n the case of minimal p a i r s ) en-vironments. For example; the subminimal p a i r , viahe /vya heq/ 'tasavel* vs b l a l a /byiS' l a q / 'a k i n d of f i s h ' , ' can r e i f y /v/ and /b/ as separate phonemes i n the Ilokano d i a l e c t . 4.2211 Vowels Another componential a n a l y s i s w i l l r e v e a l that Ilokano vowel phonemes d i f f e r i n e i t h e r or both of the dimensions of c o n t r a s t : tongue height and tongue advancement. Since a l l the vowels are normal vowels, i t f o l l o w s that l i p p o s i t i o n i s automatic, n o n - d i s t i n c t i v e i n Ilokano, and t h e r e f o r e need not be inc l u d e d as one of the dimensions of c o n t r a s t . Examples: t a / t a q / 'we' vs t l / t i q / 'the' vs to / t o q / ' l a t e r ' Componential a n a l y s i s : Phonemes A / / a / /of Dimensions of Contrast Components — Tongue h t . c l o s e -vs- open -vs- half-open Tongue adv. f r o n t f r o n t -vs- back ( L i p pos.) (spread! (neutral] (rounded) 148 H i s t o r i c a l l y / the Ilokano vowel system i n v o l v e d a three-way c o n t r a s t i n tongue height: Close -vs-Half-open -vs-Open / ! / /•/ / a / /u/ / a / / a / and a three-way c o n t r a s t i n tongue advancement: Front / I / --vs- C e n t r a l - 79/ -_vs- Back • /u/ / ! / / a / /u/ hence, the vowel p a t t e r n : A / /u/ 7a/ / a / I t i s assumed i n t h i s t h e s i s (Sec. 1.6) that a bor-rowed sound i s a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the n a t i v e phonemic system 1:49 when the l o a n i s i n common use by n a t i v e speakers of the language. Thus, w i t h the i n f l u x i n t o the Ilokano l e x i c o n of q u i t e a number of f o r e i g n words - mostly Spanish -which are c u r r e n t l y used by the n a t i v e speakers, the phon-enes /e/ and /o/ have become a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the Ilokano phonemic code. The l i s t below gives only a l i m i t e d sampling of the vast number of Spanish loans i n the Ilokano d i a l e c t : asenso /qa sen soq/ •promotion 1 bolero /bo le' r o q / 'a short jack e t * dosena /do se naq/ •dozen' espeho /qes pe' hoq/ •mirror* f r e s k o / f r e s koq/ ' f r e s h ' Guerrero /ger r e r o q / 'a f a m i l y name' Jos!e' /ho se'q/ •Joseph' huego /hwe goq/ 'game, gambling* Isabelo / q i sa be l o q / 'a boy's name' koreo /ko r e yoq/ 'mail, l e t t e r ' Leon / l e yon/ •a boy's name' melon /me Ion/ 'cantaloupe * Noviembre /no vyem breq/ 'November' onse /qSn seq/ 'eleven' pareho /pa re" hoq/ •the same, s i m i l a r ' r e l o / r e l 5 q / •clock, time p i e c e ' Soledad /so l e dacl./ •a g i r l ' s name' 15Q torpe / t o r peq/ 'stup i d * uso /qu soq/ 'usage/ custom' voses /vo1 s e s / 'voice' welga /wel gaq/ ' s t r i k e (of workers)' y e r r o /yer ro q / 'galvanized i r o n sheet' I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, probably f o r s o c i a l and psycho-l o g i c a l reasons - Spanish being considered as a " p r e s t i g e language" by many F i l i p i n o s - the /e/ even g r a d u a l l y replaced the n a t i v e tense schwa/ /9// r e l e g a t i n g the l a t t e r to the st a t u s of an allophone*/ a t l e a s t a f r e e v a r i a n t , of /e/. For example/ many Ilokanos g e n e r a l l y pronounce the orthographic e as /e/ i n s t e a d of /B/ i n such n a t i v e Ilokano words as: buteng /bu t e n / < [bU . ' t a n ] ' f e a r ' emma /qem m&q/ < [q9m.*maq] 'meekness* k e t t e l e n /ket t e leh / c C k a t . t s .'Ian] 'to pluck ( f l o w e r s , e t c . ) ' Obviously, the superstratum i n f l u e n c e reshaped the i n -digenous Ilokano vowel p a t t e r n (see page 147) i n t o : - u F i g 2 10 Ilokano Vowel P a t t e r n 151 The f o l l o w i n g commutation t e s t s f o r c o n t r a s t s serve t o i d e n t i f y and r e i f y the vowel phonemes shown i n Fi g u r e 10: 4/2211 (a) Contrasts i n a l l dimensions -H i M l i q / 'town' E l l /q£ l i q / •a nickname 1 a l l / q f i l i q / ' s t a i n 1 o i l /qo l i q / • v i n y l ' u l l /qu< l i q / 'ascent' b i l a n g / b l l a n / 'number' Belo /be' l o q / 'a boy's nickname' b a l a /ba! l a q / ' b u l l e t ' bo l a /bo l a q / ' b a l l ' bulo /bu! l o q / 'a v a r i e t y of bamboo' d i l d i l / d i l d f l / • l i c k , l a p ' d e l d e l / d e l d ' S V 'smear 1 d a l d a l /daL d a l / ' p r a t t l e ' d o l l a r / d o i l y a r / ' d o l l a r * d u l d o l / d u l d'ol/ • i n s i s t e n c e ' 152. 4/2211 (b) Contrasts i n tongue height -A / /e/ inna / q l n riaq/ 'mothers 1 vs enna /qen naq/ ' s a l t water' s i k o / s i koq/ 'elbow' vs seko /se koq/ 'dry' s i l o / s i l o q / ' l a s s o ' vs Celo /se l o q / 'a boy's nickname' i l - 1 1 / q i l q i l / 'whimper' vs e l - e l / q e l q e l / 'groove/ l i n e ' s i l y a / s i l l y a q / ' c h a i r ' vs s e l y o / s e i l y o q / 'stamp, s e a l ' s ims im /sim sim/ ' t a s t e ' vs s ems em /sem sem/ 'annoyance* /u/ /o/ kura /ku! r a q / 'cl e r g y ' vs Cora /ko r a q / 'a g i r l ' s nickname' pulo /pu1 l o q / 'ten' vs polo / p o i l o q / 'polo s h i r t ' puso /pu soq/ 'heart' vs poso /p6 soq/ ' a r t e s i a n w e l l ' tudo / t u doq/ ' r a i n ' vs todo / t o doq/ ' a l l ' tuyo / t u yoq/ ' r i c e bran' vs toyo /t6 yoq/ 'soy sauce' gumi /gu. miq/ 'cotton b a l l ' vs goma /go maq/ 'rubber' lumut / l u 1 mut/ 'moss' vs lomo / l o moq/ ' l o i n ' l u t o / l u ! t o q / 'cooking' vs l o t e / l o t e q / ' l o t , l a n t ' uray /qu; r a y / 'wait' vs oras /q'S r a s / 'hour, time' yuvem /yu yem/ 'cloudy' vs yoyo /yo yoq/ 'yoyo (a t o y ) ' . 15? / e / / a / e l - e l / q e l q e l / 'groove, l i n e ' vs a l - a l / q a l q & l / 'panting' i s p e l / q i s p e l / ' o b s t r u c t i o n i n the t h r o a t ' vs i s p a l / q l s p£l/ 'defense' Peggy /pe g i q / *a g i r l ' s name' vs pagl /pa"< g i q / 'ray f i s h ' pekpek /pek pek/ ' f u l l y s t u f f e d ' vs pakpak /pak pak/ 'a k i n d of r a t t l e ' sepsep /sep s!ep/ 'gnat' vs sapsap /sap sap/ 'a k i n d of f i s h ' /o/ / a / apo /qa poq/ ' l o r d ' vs apa /qa paq/ ' q u a r r e l ' aso /qa soq/ 'dog* vs asa /qa saq/ 'whet, hone' asok /qa sok/ 'smoke' vs asak /qa sak/ 'pass through t h i c k e t s ' baro /ba r o q / 'young man' vs bara /ba r a q / 'lungs' no /n!oq/ ' i f vs na /rfaq/ ' h i s , her, i t s ' P i o /pyo'q/ 'Pius' vs p i a /pyaq/ 'health' s i k o / s i koq/ 'elbow' vs s l k a / s i kaq/ 'dysentery' to / t o q / ' l a t e r ' vs t a / t a q / 'our, we' oras /qo r a s / 'time,* hour' vs aras /qa r a s / 'mouth disease of c h i l d r e n ' 154 4/2211 (c) Contrasts i n tongue advancement -/!/ /u/ a d i /qa d i q / ' r e f u s a l / d i s l i k e 1 vs adu /qa duq/ 'many' H o / q i l o q / ' t o i l e t paper' vs u l o /qu l o q / 'head' H o g / q i l o g / 'creek' vs ulog /qu l o g / 'descent* ima / q i maq/ 'hand* vs uma /qu.1 maq/ 'impatience; s u r f e i t ' l n i t /q'i' n i t / 'sun' vs i n u t / q i nut/ 'a l i t t l e a t a time' i t a n g / q i t a n / 'a k i n d of f e r n ' vs utang /qui t a n / 'debt' p i d i t / p i d i t / 'earlobe' vs pld u t / p i dut/ 'a t h i n g picked up' s l k a / s i ka'q/ 'you' vs suka /su kaq/ 'vinegar' t i m i d / t i mid/ 'chin' vs timud / t i mud/ 'heed' /e/ — /o/ d i e s /dyes/ 'dime' vs Dios /dy5s/ 'God' kotye /kot t y e q / 'car' vs kotyo /kot tyoq/ ' s l i p p e r shoe* Hemy / r e miq/ 'a g i r l ' s name' vs Romy / r o miq/ 'a boy's name' saem /sa qem/ 'intense pain* vs saom /sa qom/ 'your word' seda /s'e' daq/ ' s i l k ' vs soda /s!o daq/ 'soda* tuleng /tu! l e u / 'deaf* vs tulong /tu! lonj?f 'help' The front-versus-back c o n t r a s t does not occur a t the lowest l e v e l i n the Ilokano vowel p a t t e r n . 155 4 .£212 Consonants E a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, i t was s c h e m a t i c a l l y shown th a t jjust l i k e the vowels, each Ilokano consonant phoneme i s a bundle of phono l o g i c a l components or d i s -t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s ; t h a t consonants c o n t r a s t w i t h each other i n two main dimensions: p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n and manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n ; t h a t v o i c i n g i s a t h i r d dimen-s i o n of c o n t r a s t among stops and f r i c a t i v e s ; and tha t by a t l e a s t one of i t s components/ a consonant i s s e t o f f from every other consonant i n the system. 1 With a view to e s t a b l i s h i n g the e n t i r e consonant p a t t e r n of Ilokano, 1 the subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s w i l l f u r t h e r i d e n t i f y each of the phonemes as a point of reference i n an i n t e r l o c k i n g network of c o n t r a s t s . One technique f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the phonemes i s to group them i n t o s e r i e s or bundles i n which one phonolo-g i c a l f e a t u r e i s kept constant, and others,' v a r i a b l e . A p a r a l l e l s e r i e s of oppositions or c o n t r a s t s based on the same fe a t u r e i s c a l l e d c o r r e l a t i o n / 4 .£212 (a) Voice versus Breath Ilokano has a c o r r e l a t i o n of vo i c e between some stops and f r i c a t i v e s - /p t k f / vs /b d g v/ - thus: 156 Breath { Stop p F r i c 64 Voice { Stop F r i c b v The f o l l o w i n g minimal p a i r s w i l l e s t a b l i s h the f u n c t i o n a l c o n t r a s t or c o r r e l a t i o n of v o i c e : /p/ /b/ apa /qa paq/ 'wafer' vs aba /qa baq/ 'a k i n d of desiduous p l a n t 1 apay /qa pay/ 'why1 vs abay /qa bay/ 'beside' apog /qa pog/ 'lime' vs abog /q& bog/ 'drive away' atap /qa t a p / 'wedge' vs atab /qa tab/ 'flo o d t i d e ' pagay /pa gay/ ' r i c e p l a n t ' vs bagay /ba gay/ ' f i t t i n g ' pa l a /pa l a q / 'shovel' vs ha l a /ha" l a q / ' b u l l e t ' para /pa r a q / 'stop* vs bara /bk r a q / 'heat' parot /pa r o t / 'uproot' vs barot /bS r o t / 'wire* patang /pa t a n / 'conversation' vs batang /ba t£n/ 'one's t u r n ' payat /pa y a t / 'step' vs bayat /ba y a t / 'while' 64 Note th a t the dimension of c o n t r a s t under c o n s i -d e r a t i o n Is i n d i c a t e d by means of heavy l i n e s ; the broken l i n e s merely show p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between phon-emes i n the t o t a l phoneme p a t t e r n t h a t i s to be evolved. 15? P a t a y / P a t a y / 'death' vs batay /ba t a y / 'step l a d d e r ' P u o t / P u q'ot/ 'awareness' vs buot /bu qot/ 'mildew' siri£ / s i r i p / 'peek' vs s i r i b / s i r i b / 'wisdom' t a e P / t a qep/ ' r i c e c h a f f or h u l l ' vs taeb / t a qeV 'contemporary' A / / a / baket /ba k i t / 'old woman' vs baked /ba ked/ 'brawn' batanfi / b a t a n / 'one's t u r n ' vs badang /ba dan/ 'large bolo' bavat /ba y a t / 'duration' vs bayad / b l yad/ 'payment' bukot /bu k o t / 'back' vs bukod /bu kod/ 'by or f o r o n e s e l f i g a t /qt g a t / ' e e l ' vs igad /qi gad/ 'grater* i t a / q i t a q / 'now' vs i d a / q i daq/ 'them' i t l / q i t i q / 'the' vs i d i / q i d£q/ 'before' P i l i t /p£ l i t / ' i n s i s t e n c e ' vs p i l i d /pf l i d / 'wheel' s i l e t / s i l e t / 'small i n t e s t i n e s ' vs s i l e d / s i l i d / 'room' t a / t a q / 'we ( d u a l ) ' vs da /daq/ 'they' tawa / t a waq/ 'window' vs dawa /da waq/ ' f r u i t of r i c e p l a n t ' tukot / t u k o t / 'bottom' vs tukod / t u kod/ 'fathom, measure' t ePP^ ]: Aep p e l / ' r e s t r a i n t ' vs deppel /dep pSl/ 'thumbmark' 158 A / /g/ batok /"ba t o k / 'dive* vs batog /ba t o g / 'row' bennek /ben nek/ 'mollusk' vs benneg /ben neg/ ' a i s l e 1  bettek /bet t e k / 'a bundle of r i c e ' vs betteg /bet t e g / ' d i s t i n c t i o n ' kapas /ka pas/ 'cotton' vs gapas /ga pas/ 'harvest' kawat /ka wat/ 'anchor' vs gawat /ga wat/ 'famine' k i t a / k J t a q / 'kind, c l a s s ' vs g i t a /g£ taq/'venom' kunnot /kun n o t / 'suck' vs gunnot /gun not/ 'fibrous t i s s u e 1 kura /ku r a q / ' c l e r g y ' vs gura /gu raq/'hatred' k u r i k o r /ku r i k o r / 'earpick' vs g u r l g o r /gu r l gor/ 'fever' n a r u k i t /na r u k£t/ ' c u l t i v a t e d ' vs n a r u g i t /narru g i t / ' d i r t y ' sukat /su k a t / 'measurement' vs sugat /su. g a t / 'wound' taktak./tak t a k / 'delay' vs tagtag_ /tag t a g / 'shake' / f / /v/ f a l d a / f a " l daq/ ' s k i r t ' vs Valda (pas t i l i a s de) / v a l daq/ • t a b l e t s f o r sore t h r o a t ' f i n o / f f noq/ ' f i n e ' vs vino /v£ noq/ 'wine' C l e o f e / k l y S f e q / 'a g i r l ' s name' vs H a v e / l y a veq/ 'key' 159 f a l s o / f a l soq/ ' d e f e c t i v e ' vs v a l s e / v a l seq/ 'waltz' fecha / f e t t y a q / 'date* vs vechin /vet t y i n / 'a brand of sodium glutamate' f e r i a / f e r r y a q / ' f a i r , c a r n i v a l * vs verde /ver deq/ 'green* f i e s t a /fyes t a q / ' f e a s t , h o l i d a y * vs VIernes /vySr nes/ •Friday' f u e r a /fwe r a q / 'besides, except' vs vuelo /vwe l o q / ' f l i g h t ' i n f i e r n o / q i n f y e r noq/ ' h e l l ' vs Noviembre /no vyem breq/ 'November' Rufino / r u f i noq/ 'a boy's name' vs Gavlno /ga v i noq/ •a boy's name' 4.2212 (b) Contrasts i n P o i n t of A r t i c u l a t i o n Along t h i s dimension, Ilokano has i n i t s stops a four-way - although not o v e r - a l l - c o n t r a s t i n v o l v i n g b i l a b i a l - d e n t a l - v e l a r - g l o t t a l p o s i t i o n . The stops and nasals e x h i b i t a l a b i a l - d e n t a l - v e l a r bundle of c o r r e l a -t i o n s , thus: p ^ t k q • ' i i 1 . ' ' t b d g • i i i i i • i i m n ' n In the semiconsonants, there i s of course a two-way c o n t r a s t - b i l a b i a l and a l v e o l a r : 160 There i s a three-way c o n t r a s t between breath f r i c a -t i v e s , i . e., l a b i o d e n t a l - a l v e o l a r - v e l a r . The f r i c a t i v e s introduce a dioramic p a t t e r n of c o n t r a s t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s 65.: or c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the stops, thus: f t m n w U n l i k e the vowels, the consonants do not lend themselves to f o r m u l a t i o n i n o v e r l y neat symmetrical p a t t e r n . For example, the l a c k of p a r a l l e l o p p o s i t i o n between /q/ and a f r i c a t i v e or a voiced c o r r e l a t e leaves 65 The "diagonal c o r r e l a t i o n s " i n point of a r t i c u l a -t i o n between stops and f r i c a t i v e s - /p t k b/ vs / f s h v/ -are a l s o the c o r r e l a t e s i n "manner". To avoid d u p l i c a t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l be e x e m p l i f i e d under the l a t t e r c a t e -gory. 161 a l i n g u i s t i c hole or case v i d e i n the Ilokano consonant system. This phenomenon can be considered a l i n g u i s t i c u n i v e r s a l , f o r , as Edward S a p i r s a i d , no language forms a water t i g h t system, and we should be s u s p i c i o u s i f ,too p r e t t y a p i c t u r e r e s u l t s from the phonemic a n a l y s i s of a p h o n e t i c a l l y a s s y m e t r i c a l s i t u a t i o n . Adopting the term i n s o c i o m e t r i c s , the g l o t t a l s top, /q/, may be considered an " i s o l a t e " i n the whole p a t t e r n , i . e., i t c o n t r a s t s w i t h only one phoneme, /k/. To f u l l y e s t a b l i s h i t s i d e n t i t y , i t w i l l be contrasted w i t h a l l the other breath stops - /p t k/ vs /q/. The use of minimal t r i p l e t s , minimal p a i r s and subminimal p a i r s w i l l e s t a b l i s h c o r r e l a t i o n s along the point-dimension of c o n t r a s t , thus: /p/ / t / /k/ pay /pay/ 'yet, s t i l l 1 vs tay / t a y / 'the; we' vs kay /kay/ 'you' sapsap /sap sap/ *a k i n d of f i s h ' vs s a t s a t / s a t s a t / /''rip ( c l o t h e s ) * vs saksak /sak sak/ 'stab' s i p s i p a n / s i p s i pan/ 'to s i p ' vs s l t s l t a n / s i t s i t a n / 'to d r a i n * vs s i k s l k a n / s i k s i kan/ *to remove the s c a l e s of a f i s h * 162 /b/ /d/ /g/ sabsab /sab sab/ 'voracious e a t i n g 1 vs sadsad /sad siad/ 'aground' vs sagsag /sag sag/ 'ruined' bawbaw /baw baw/ ' t o p l e s s , r o o f l e s s * vs dawdaw /daw daw/ 'extended p a r t ' vs gawgaw /gaw gaw/ 'starch* /m/ /n/ / y lmama / q i ma maq/ *to chew something w i t h b e t e l nut* vs lnana / q i na haq/ *r e s t * vs lnganga / q i na naq/ 'to open the mouth' semsem /sem sem/ 'annoyance' vs sensen /sen sen/ 'compress* vs sengseng /sen sen/ ' s t u f f * /p/ / t / p e l p e l / p e l p e l / ' s t u f f e d mouth' vs t e l t e l / t e l t i l / 'nape' pulong /pu Ion/ 'assembly' vs tulong Aft Ion/ 'help' purong /pu r5n/ 'a k i n d of f i s h ' vs turong / t u r o n / 'trend' putot /pu t o t / 'progeny' vs t u t o t / t u t o t / ' r e s i n , sap* r l k e p / r i kep/ 'shutter' vs r i k e t / r i k i t / ' d i f f i c u l t y * A / /k/ ary e t /qar y e t / ' a s c a r l s ' vs aryek /qar yek/ ' t i c k l e ' t a / t a q / 'we, the two of us* vs ka /kaq/ *you* tabo /ta boq/ 'dipper* vs kabo /k£ boq/ 'corporal' t a l i /ta l i q / 'rope' vs k a l i /ka l i q / 'hawk' tapa /ta paq/ 'dried meat' vs kapa /ka paq/ 'cape' A / /q/ amak /qa mak/ 'my father' vs ama /qa maq/ 'father' baket /ba ket/ 'old woman' vs baet /ba qet/ 'between/ bukot /bit kot/ 'back' vs buot /bu qot/ 'mildew, mold' k i l o /k£ loq/ 'kilogram' vs l l o /q i loq/ ' to i let paper' kapa /ka paq/ 'cape' vs apa /qa paq/ 'wafer' tako /ta koq/ 'dipper' vs tap /ta qoq/ 'person? /t/ /q/ bato /ba toq/ 'stone' vs bao /ba qoq/ 'rat ' rangtay /ran tay/ 'bridge' vs rang-ay /ran qay/ 'progress' sangit /sa a i t/ 'cry* vs sangi /sa niq/ 'molars' tasa /ta saq/ 'cup' vs asa /qa saq/ 'hone, whet' tayab /ta yab/ ' f l ight ' vs ayab /qa yab/ ' c a l l ' tidda / t id daq/ 'remainder' vs idda /qid daq/ 'bed' tubo /tu boq/ 'sprout, shoot' vs ubo /qu boq/ 'leak' /p/. / q / paypa^ /pay pay/ 'fan' vs ay-ay /qay qay/ 'pi ty ' sapad /s& pad/ 'bunch of bananas' vs saad /sa qad/ 's tatus' sapo /sa poq/ 'ointment' vs sao /sa qoq/ 'word' 164 /t / / s / f l a n s a /fyan saq/ ' b a i l ' vs s l a n s l /syan s i q / 'spatula* f lno /ft noq/,'fine' vs s i n o / s i noq/ 'who' f u e r t e /fwer t e q / 'strong* vs suerte /swer t e q / 'lucky' Hufo / r u f o q / 'a boy's name* vs Ruso / r u soq/ 'Russian' /s/ /h/ a s l /qa s i q / 'compassion' vs a h i t /q£ h i t / 'shave* L i s a / i f saq/ 'a g i r l ' s name' vs l i h a /l£ haq/ 'sandpaper' mason /ma son/ 'mason' vs mohon /mo hon/ 'landmark' ra s a / r a saq/ 'race of man' vs raha / r a haq/ ' c h i e f t a i n ' Sues /swes/ 'Suez Canal' vs hues /hwe"s/ 'judge' /b/ /d/ bagas /ba g5s/ ' r i c e * vs dagas /da g5s/ 'stopover' banag /ba nag/ 'outcome' vs danag /&& nag/ 'worry' bara /ba' r a q / 'heat' vs dara /da! r a q / 'blood' bua /bwaq/ 'areca nut' vs dua /dw5q/ 'two' kurab /ku rab/ 'a b i g b i t e ' vs kurad / k f i r a d / 'ringworm* /d/ — /g/ a d a l /qa d a l / ' l e a r n i n g ' vs a g a l /q£; g a l / 'complaint' allnedned /qa l i ned ried/ ' u t t e r darkness' vs allnegneg /qa l i neg neg/ 'depths' 165 bangad /ba nad/ 'stubborn' vs bangag /ba nag/ 'low pitched' betted /bet ted/ 'cramps' vs betteg /bet teg/ 'dist inct ' dapo /da pSq/ 'ashes' vs gapo /ga poq/ 'reason* cause' dita /di tSq/ 'there' vs gita /gi taq/ 'o i ly taste of nuts' tulad /tu lad/ 'imitate' vs tulag /tu lag/ 'agreement' turod /tu rod/ ' h i l l ' vs turog /tu rog/ 'sleep' udaod /qu da qod/ 'bow (viol in) ' vs ugaog /qu ga qog/ •weeping' umadaw /qu m&' daw/ 'to borrow f ire from a neighbor' vs umagaw /qu ma gaw/ 'to snatch away' /m/ / n / ammong. /qam mon/ 'p i le , heap' vs annong /qan nSn/ 'burden' amag. /qa mag/ 'mold, mildew' vs anag. /q5 nag/ 'implication' ayam /qa yarn/ 'chicken t ick ' vs ayan /qa ySn/ 'place' damag /da mag/ 'news' vs danag /da" nag/ 'worry' manang /mC nan/ 's ister ' vs nanang /nS. nan/ 'mother' matay. /ma tay/ ' w i l l die' vs natay /na tay/ 'died' mo /mSq/ 'your' vs no /n6q/ 'if» /n/ /n/ aneo /qa nep/ 'diligence' vs angep /qa nep/ 'fog* bulan /bu lan/ 'moon' vs bulang /bu lan/ 'cockfighting' na /naq/ 'his,' her, i t s ' vs nga /naq/ »a ligature' nepneo /nep nep/ 'rainy days' vs ngepngeo /nep nep/ 'darkness' tunaw /tfi naw/ 'dissolve' vs tungaw /tfi naw/ ' i tch bug' 166 /w/- - / y / awan /qa wan/ 'nothing 1 vs ayan /qa yan/ 'where* nawaya /na wa yaq/ 'at l i b e r t y ; spacious' vs nayaya /na ya yaq/ 'dissuaded' wakawakan /wa ka wa! kan/ 'to s p r i n k l e w i t h powder' vs yakayakan /ya ka ya kan/ 'sieve* 4;2212 (c) Contrasts i n Manner of A r t i c u l a t i o n Ilokano has a six-way c o n t r a s t i n t h i s dimension, thus: Stops & F r i c a t i v e s Nasals L a t e r a l F l a p Semivowels w 167 Two aspects of the p a t t e r n should be noted. F i r s t , two p o t e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the voiced f r i c a t i v e s e r i e s are not u t i l i z e d , s i n c e Ilokano l a c k s the d e n t a l and v e l a r v oiced f r i c a t i v e s , / z / and /*jj*/, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Secondly, there are two sets of c o r r e l a t i o n , i . e., the s t o p - f r i c a - t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , /p t k b/ vs ff s h v/, and the stop-na- s a l c o r r e l a t i o n , /b d g/ vs /m n n/. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t of minimal p a i r s , minimal t r i p l e t s , -and subminimal p a i r s w i l l f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h the emic s t a t u s of the consonants: /p/ /ff piano /pya noq/ 'piano' vs f l a n s a /fyan saq/ ' b a i l ' puerta /pwer t a q / 'entrance' vs f u e r t e /fwer t e q / 'strong' piko /pf koq/ 'pick ax' vs f i h o / f f hoq/ 'sure, c e r t a i n ' p i l i /pi l i q / 'choice' vs f l l a / f l l a q / ' f i l e , l i n e ' p r i s o / p r f soq/ 'prisoner' vs f r l t o / f r f t o q / ' f r i e d ' punto /pun t o q / ' i n t o n a t i o n , twang' vs fundo /fun doq/ 'fund' a l a t /qa l a t / ' f i s h basket' vs a l a s /qa l a s / 'indecency' 168 bata /ba t a q / 'bathrobe' vs basa /ba saq/ 'read' k u t i t /ku. t i t / 'rump' vs k u s i t /ku s i t / ' d e c e i t ' t a r a / t a r a q / 'an aromatic p l a n t ' vs sara /sa r a q / ' a n t l e r ' tanga / t a naq/ ' s t u p i d ' vs sanga /sa naq/ 'branch' t a t a / t a t a q / 'uncle' vs tasa / t a saq/ 'cup' tawar / t a war/ 'bargain' vs sawar /sa war/ 'search' A / A / kaka /ka kaq/ 'elder s i b l i n g ' vs kaha /ka haq/ 'box, case' K i k o / k i koq/ 'a boy's name' vs iho / q i hoq/ 'son' k o l a /ko! l a q / 'paste' vs h o i en /h'6 l e n / 'marbles ( t o y ) ' kuetes /kwe! t e s / ' f i r e w o r k s ' vs hueteng /hwe t e n / ' r a f f l e ' piko /pf koq/ 'pick ax' vs f i h o /fa' hoq/ ' c e r t a i n , sure' pikon /pf kon/ ' f o l d ' vs bihon /bf hon/ ' r i c e s t i c k s ' / V A / bara /ba r a q / 'heat' vs vara /va r a q / 'a v a r i a b l e u n i t of l e n g t h , about 2.8 f e e t ' bienes /bye nes/ ' r e a l e s t ate property* vs Viernes /vyer nes/ 'Friday* b i s i l /bf s i l / * gravel* vs v i s t a / v i s t a q / 'view' 169 / V /m/ agob /qa gob/ 'smell of o l d r i c e ' vs agora /qa gom/ 'covet' ayab /qa yab/ ' c a l l ' vs ayam /qa yam/ 'chicken t i c k ' balo / b 5 l o q / 'widow(er)' vs malo /m§, l o q / 'wooden c l u b 1  batay /ba t a y / 'support' vs matay /ma t a y / 'to d i e ' bayo /bH yoq/ 'pounding' vs Mayo /ma yoq/ 'May' buyot /bu y o t / 'troops' vs muyot /mu y o t / 'craze' berber /ber ber/ ' d r a f t ' vs mermer /mer mer/ 'dust shower' labes / l a bes/ 'beyond' vs lames / l a mes/ ' f i s h ' /d/ /n/ agadi /qa ga d i q / 'two consecutive s i b l i n g s ' vs agani /qa ga n i q / 'harvester' da /daq/ 'they, t h e i r ' vs na /riaq/ ' h i s , her, i t s ' indayon / q i n da yon/ 'swing' vs innayon / q i n na yon/ /'added t o ' /g/ agot /qa; g o t / 'ointment' vs angot /qa not/ 'smell' Pia-g /hyag/ ' l i f e ' vs biang /byan/ 'care, concern' 170 bulog /bu I6g/ 'uncastrated male a n i m a l 1 vs bulong /bu log./ ' l e a f 1  gerger /ger ger / 'grooved l i n e ' vs ngernger /ner n e r / ' s n a r l ' kulugen /ku l u gen/ 'to shake' vs kulungen /ku l u nen/ 'to fence i n ' /m/ /w/ ama /qa: maq/ 'my f a t h e r ' vs awa /qa waq/ 'a l a r g e m i l k f i s h ' ameng /qa men/ 'miser' vs aweng /qa wen/ 'resonance* ima /qf 1 maq/ 'hand' vs iwa / q l waq/ ' s l i c e ' kammet /kam met/ 'a ha n d f u l ' vs kawwet /kaw wet/ 'cockspur* /n/ A / a g n i s n i s /qag n i s nl's/ 'to wipe w i t h a r a g ' vs a g l i s l i s /qag l i s l i s / 'to tuck up one's sleeves or s k i r t ' agnutnot /qag nut n o t / 'to thumbsuck' vs a g l u t l o t /qag l u t l o t / 'to become muddy' nana /na naq/ 'pus' vs lana / l a ' naq/ ' o i l * nawnawen /naw n& wen/ 'to d i s s o l v e ' vs lawlawen /law l a wen/ 'to surround' 171 nlwniw /nlw nlw/ ' v e r t i g o ' vs l f w l l w / l i w law/ ' f i s h i n g rod' nungnungan /nun nu nan/ 'to f a v o r ' vs lunglungan /lug. l u nan/ 'kitchen u t e n s i l s ' / ! / / r / labong / l a hog./ 'loose' vs rabong / r a bon7 'bamboo shoot' l a em / l a qem/ 'house proper' vs raem / r a qem/ 'respect' l ames / l a me's/ ' f i s h ' vs rames / r a mes/ ' d i s r e s p e c t ' J-asl / l a s l q / ' d a n d r u f f vs r a s l / r a s l q / ' q u a l i t y of being f r a g i l e ' l i a l i / l i ya l i q / 'sway' vs r i a r i / r i ya ; r i q / 'male c i c a d a ' n a l a y l a y /na l a y l a y / ' w i l t e d ' vs narayray /na ray r a y / 'burning/ s p a r k l i n g ' s a l a /sa ! l a q / 'dance' vs sara /sac r a q / 'horns' / r / /y/ ragrag /rag r a g / ' r u i n ' vs yagyag /yag yag/ ' i n s u l t ' reprep /rep r e p / 'crowd' vs yepyep /yep yep/ 'quiet' rukurok / r u ku1 rok/ 'erosion' vs yukuyok /yu ku yok/ 'sieve' wara /wa r a q / ' l i t t e r ' vs waya /wa yaq/ 'spare time' 172 P i g , 11. Ilokano Consonant P a t t e r n (A Summary) n 1 r y 173 4.2213 Suprasegmental Prosodemes The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of overlapping or i n t e r l o c k i n g of suprasegmental features are u n l i m i t e d . However, j u s t as i n the case of the e t i c a n a l y s i s (Sec. 3*3)» the features are here t r e a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n order to estab-l i s h - or not e s t a b l i s h - t h e i r i d e n t i t y as prosodemes. From the w e l t e r of e t i c data, the w r i t e r assumes the f o l l o w i n g features as emic norms to be e s t a b l i s h e d as separate prosodemes through c o n t r a s t : Dimensions of Contrast Features A. S t r e s s (x = s y l l a b l e ) /x'x/ vs /'xx/ Length: Vowel /V/ vs /V:/ Consonant /c/ vs /cc/ P i t c h , I n t o n a t i o n and Juncture (PIJ) / l / vs /3/ /2/ vs /3/ /3/ vs / V /2/ vs / l / 4/ vs /I/ vs r/\/ 174 4/2213 (a) S t r e s s On pages 127 and 128 of t h i s t h e s i s i s a summary of the e t i c s t r e s s patterns of Ilokano.* The present a n a l y s i s i s concerned not about such patterns per se, but whether or not s t r e s s i s an emic u n i t a t a l l i n the language. Once the emic s t r e s s or stroneme i s e s t a b l i s h e d , the stroneme patterns can l i k e w i s e be e s t a b l i s h e d - t h i s i s the domain of Sec. : 4.222, V a r i a t i o n !and D i s t r i b u t i o n . Thus, only the two-way c o n t r a s t of s t r e s s - i . e.', weak (unmarked) versus strong (') - w i l l be considered here. That Ilokano has a weak-strong c o n t r a s t i n s t r e s s i s evidenced by the f o l l o w i n g minimal p a i r s : agraman /qag ra! man/ ' i n c l u d i n g ' vs /qag r a man/ 'to t a s t e * anayen /qa na yen/ *to be consumed by t e r m i t e s ' vs /qa na.-yen/ 'to make complete o r r s u f f i c i e n t ' ayam /q& yam/ 'play, game' vs /qa yam/ 'chicken t i c k * bawang /ba; wan/ ' g a r l i c * vs /ba wlln/ 'ravine' data /da1 t a q / 'supine p o s i t i o n ' vs /da t a q / 'the two of us' daya /da yaq/ 'east' vs /da yaq/ 'gathering' i t a y a / q i t a yaq/ *to r e c e i v e * vs / q i t a yaq/ *to bet' k a l i /ka 1 l i q / ' d i t c h ' vs /ka l i q / 'hawk' kayo /ka ! yoq/ 'tree* vs /ka yoq/ 'you ( p l u r a l ) ' p i l a w /p£ law/ 'blemish' vs / p i iaw/ 'pool of stagnant water' sanga /s& naq/ ' l a r v a of c l o t h e s moth* vs /sa naq/ 'branch* 175 suso /su soq/ 'breast' vs /su s'S'q/ f a k i n d of s n a i l ' tayab / t 5 ' yab/ 'earthen pot' vs / t a yfib/ ' f l i g h t ' 4.2213 (b) Length (1) Vowel Length I n Ilokano, v o c a l i c l e n g t h i s phonetic and automatic, i . e.-,' i t co-occurs w i t h s t r e s s a t l e a s t i n an open s y l l a b l e . The c o n t r a s t i n the f o l l o w i n g minimal p a i r s i s a f u n c t i o n of the s t r e s s w i t h which the vowel length i s co-occurrent: badang ['ba': .dog] /b& dan/ 'help' vs [ba.'dan] /ba dan/ 'large bolo' bara ['ba:.raq] /ba r a q / 'heat' vs [ba.'raq] /ba r a q / 'lungs* g i t a L 1 S i * • t a q ] / g i t a q / 'venom' vs [ g l . ' t a q ] / g i t a q / ' o i l y t a s t e of nu t s ' s i k a ['si:.kaq] / s i kaq/ 'dysentery' vs [sl.'kaq] / s i kaq/ 'you' tudo ['tu:.doq] / t u doq/ ' r a i n ' vs [tU.'doq] / t u doq/ 'point' tugot ['tu:.got] / t u g o t / 'bring* vs [tU.'got] / t u g 5 t / ' f o o t p r i n t ' The f o l l o w i n g examples i n which the vowel i n both the weakly- and the s t r o n g l y - s t r e s s e d c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s i s lengthened, w i l l f u r t h e r prove that vowel length i s merely a phonetic - even i d i o s y n c r a t i c - r e a l i z a t i o n : 176 «V: V: ['ba:.dan] ['gi:.taq] ['tu:.doq] or [»ba:.da:n] /ba dan/ 'help' or ['gi:.ta:q] /gi" t a q / 'venom or ['tu:.do:q] / t u doq/ ' r a i n ' V V 'V: [ba.'dan] [ g l . ' t a q ] or [ba.'da:n] /ba dan/ 'large bolo' or [ g l . ' t a : q ] / g i t a q / ' o i l y t a s t e of nuts' [tU. i fdoq] or [tU.«do:q] / t u doq/ 'point' Therefore,' vowel l e n g t h , whether or not i t co-occurs w i t h stress,' i s not phonemic i n Ilokano, s i n c e i t does not c o n s t i t u t e a meaningful or f u n c t i o n a l c o n t r a s t . This gene-r a l i z a t i o n can be s t a t e d ' i n the r u l e : Ilokano consonants have a two-way co n t r a s t i n l e n g t h . A p h o n e t i c a l l y long consonant, [ C : ] , becomes or i s i n t e r -preted phonemically as geminate - i . ' e., a sequence of two phonemes, the consonant fo l l o w e d by i t s e l f , /CC/ - s i n c e I t c o n t r a s t s w i t h a s i n g l e consonant, /G/.' B r i e f l y s t a t e d : (2) C ons onant : Length [C:] > /CC/ vs /C/ 177 The f o l l o w i n g l i s t of minimal p a i r s w i l l j u s t i f y the phonemic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of long consonants as geminates i n Ilokano: /C/ vs /GC/ amo /qa moq/ 'boss' vs ammo /qam m'oq/ 'knowledge' b a l a /ba- l a q / ' b u l l e t ' vs b a l l a / b a l l a q / ' l u n a t i c ' Ida / q l daq/ 'them' vs idda / q i d daq/ 'bed' i k a n / q i kan/ ' f i s h ' vs ikkan / q i k kah/ 'give* i t a / q i t a q / *now' vs i t t a / q i t t a q / 'unhusked k e r n e l of r i c e mixed w i t h husked r i c e * l a b a / l a baq/ 'laundry' vs labba / l a b baq/ 'large basket' m l k i /ml1 k i q / 'noodles' vs mlk k i /mik k i q / ' f a s t i d i o u s n e s s ' naganak /na ga nak/ 'gave b i r t h ' vs nagannak /na gan nak/ 'parents• 4.&213 (c) P i t c h ? I n t o n a t i o n and Juncture ( P U ) The c o n t r a s t i n P I J i s a co n t r a s t of combinations or bundles of t h e i r f e a t u r e s , s i n c e these are simultaneous or co-occurrent. L i n g u i s t s c a l l such combinations or bun-dl e s 'contour p a t t e r n s . ' However, the c o n t r a s t s intended here are veered not to the patterns per se but to the i n d i -v i d u a l t e n t a t i v e prosodemes that compose them. Thus,' w h i l e i t i s true,' and r e l e v a n t , t h a t /21^/ vs (see (1) below) are c o n t r a s t i v e p a t t e r n p a i r s / i t i s 1?8 more r e l e v a n t a t t h i s stage of e s t a b l i s h i n g the prosodemes, to consider the o p p o s i t i o n i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l com-ponent features - / l / vs /3/ and / ] , / vs / [ / - although not d i s r e g a r d i n g the g e s t a l t . The p i t c h l e v e l , A A i s i n t h i s case h e l d constant,- and can i n t u r n be e s t a b l i s h e d as an emic p i t c h or toneme using the minimal p a i r , /2lV vs /31\l/, (see (2) below). Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should apply to the other patterns as w e l l . I t i s another i n s i g h t i n t o the v i a b l e p r i n c i p l e that an emic u n i t , be i t a segmental phoneme or a suprasegmental prosoderne, i s a point of reference i n an i n t e r l o c k i n g network of c o n t r a s t s . Thus, i n the o p p o s i t i o n : the i n d i v i d u a l features contrasted are: (1) A4/ vs / 2 3 T / A / vs /3/ 4 / vs 4 / (2) AlJ,/ vs / 3 l | / A / vs /3/ (3) A 3 f / vs /2>t/ /3/ vs A / (4) /22|/ vs / 2 l i / A / vs A / /| / vs /J,/ (5) /22|/ vs A 3 t / /I / vs A/ /2/ vs /3/ 179 The f o l l o w i n g c o n t r a s t i v e utterance p a i r s serve to r e i f y the emic sta t u s of the t e n t a t i v e suprasegmental ...66 prosodernes enumerated above: (1) / 2 l j / vs /23f/ 2 1 2 3^  . Adda. /qad daq^/ 'There i s . ' vs Adda? /qad d a q j / 'Is there?' or 'Did you say (echo), 'There i s ? ' /•qa wan^/ 'Nothing.' vs Awan? /qa wan^/ '(echo) Nothing?' 2 1 - . 2 3, A / d i t o y l / 'Here.' vs Ditoy? / d i t o y j / '(echo) Here?' /nwanj/ 'John ( i s my name).' or 'John (you are c a l l e d ) . ' vs Juan? /nwan^/ '(echo) John? 1 or 'John (you are c a l l e d ) . ' /2 1> 2 3# A /sa qan^/ 'No.*' vs Saan? /sa q a n j / '(echo) No? 1 or '(tag question) I s n ' t i t ? ' 2,1 i 2 #3A /wenl/ 'Yes.' vs Wen? /wenj/ '(echo) Yes?' or '(tag question) Yes, you agree, don't you?' or 'Yes, w i l l you?' Awan. Ditoy, Juan. Saan. Wen. (2) /2l|/ vs /3l|/ 2 1 3 1. Awan. /qa wan^/ 'Nothing.' vs Awan? /qa wianj^/ 'Nothing?' 66 Short utterances which are p o t e n t i a l sentences have been a r b i t r a r i l y chosen because they demonstrate f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s more c l e a r l y and e a s i l y than do long ones. 180 2 1 I 3 1 Ditpjr. / d i toyj,/ 'Here.' vs Dit o y ? / d i t o y j / 'Here?' Wen. /wen|/ •Yes.' vs Wen? /w'enj/ 'Yes, w i l l you?' (3) /23|/ vs /2^/ D i t o y ? / ^ i "toyf/ '(echo) Here?' vs Dit o y ? / d i t o y f / •(Where, oh, where) Here?' (4) /22 J/ vs / 2 l J / 2 2, j 2 1 A d d a «•» /qad daq|/ 'There i s a ...» vs Adda, /qad d a q j / 'There i s . ' 2 JI I Juan ... /hwan / 'John ... (your surname, p l e a s e ) ' vs 2 ,1, Juan, /hwanl/ 'John.' ^ e n ' i l t - /wen|/ 'Yes ( b u t ) ' vs Wen. /wenj,/ 'Yes.' (5) /22J/ vs /23f/ 2 Adda ... /qad d a q j / 'There i s a ...' vs Adda? /qad daqj/ 'Is t h e r e ? ' 2 2> i 2 3, Awan ... /qa wan [/ 'There i s no ...' vs Awan? /qa waVrf/ 'Nothing?' or 'Isn't there any?' 2 2; 2 3 D i t o y ... / d i t o y ) / 'At t h i s ...» vs Ditoy? / d i t o y f / •Here?' 181 4.222 VARIATION and DISTRIBUTION : Phonotactlcs and Morphophonemics Each of the Ilokano phonemes and prosodemes estab-l i s h e d through c o n t r a s t i s f u r t h e r s p e c i f i e d by d e s c r i b i n g ^•ts v a r i a t i o n s , i y e.y i t s v a r i e d manifestations c a l l e d allophones or "allodemes",' as w e l l as i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , which means the c o n d i t i o n s under which the a l i o s occur or the p o s i t i o n i n which they are found w i t h respect to each other and to other elements i n the stream of speech. A s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r such d e s c r i p t i o n s would be an enumeration of the phonemes and prosodemes already i d e n t i f i e d , f o r de-t a i l s of which reference i s made to Sec. ; 4.221. The emic u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d through c o n t r a s t are the f o l l o w i n g : 5 vowels: / i , e, a, o, u/ 18 consonants: /p, t , k, q, b, d,- g, m, n, n,' f, s, h, v, 1, r , w,' y/ 4 tonemes: / l , 2,' 3,- 4/ 2 junctonernes: /|, J| (symbolized as ^ or ^ )/ 2 stronemes: /', (unmarked)/ 3 i n t o n a t i o n contours: /|»^ »f / In Sec. 4.2212 (b) are i l l u s t r a t i v e examples show-ing c o n t r a s t between /p,' t , k/ vs /q/, thereby e s t a b l i s h -i n g them as separate phonemes of the Ilokano d i a l e c t . An a n a l y s i s of the v a r i a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of these phon-emes, however, r e v e a l s that there are c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s 182 i n which the emic c o n t r a s t i s suspended - i . e., the phon-eme /q/ i s a t the same time an allophone of the phonemes /p, t,- k/. This suspension of emic o p p o s i t i o n i s o f t e n c a l l e d n e u t r a l i z a t i o n / but a more apt term f o r such l i n g -u i s t i c phenomenon i s Trubetzkoy's "Aufhebung".* I t w i l l be noted t h a t the Aufhebung p r i n c i p l e a p p l i e s to c e r t a i n phonemes as w e l l as prosodemes. C l o s e l y t i e d i n w i t h the concepts of v a r i a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n are those of phonotactlcs and morphophonemics. Phonotaotics has been defined as that area of emic d e s c r i p -t i o n which provides general statements about permitted sequences or d i s t r i b u t i o n of phonemes and prosodemes i n short u t t e r a n c e s / The d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween the emic shapes representing morphemes i s the task of morphophonemics. A r a t i o n a l e f o r i n c l u d i n g such d e s c r i p -t i o n i s the f a c t that i n a c t u a l speech Ilokano morphemes change shape due to s e v e r a l complicating f a c t o r s , l i n g u i s t i c or otherwise.' Phonotactic and morphophonemic d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s t r u c t u r e of Ilokano are s t a t e d i n the form of r e -w r i t e r u l e s / 4.2221 Phonotactlcs 4/2221 (a) Diphthongs The s t r u c t u r e of an Ilokano s y l l a b l e c o n t a i n i n g a **From aufheben, a German word, meaning 'to suspend.' 183 diphthong i s represented by the r u l e : Since Ilokano has only f i v e vowel phonemes, /i» e» a, o,J u/ e s t a b l i s h e d through c o n t r a s t , only these vowels can be e m i c a l l y considered as diphthong onglides.' On the basis of the s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e patterns of Ilokano - described i n Sec. ! 2,3 - the s t a t u s , f u n c t i o n , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of /w/ and /y/ may be defined as f o l l o w s : (1) /w/ and /y/ are semivowels (v) when they f u n c t i o n as diphthong o f f g l i d e s ; (2) /w/ and /y/ are semiconsonants (c) i n p r e v o c a l i c or prediphthongal p o s i t i o n , and when they p a r t i c i p a t e as the l a s t member of a consonant c l u s t e r . The f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of /w/ and /y/ i s some-what a r b i t r a r y , yet a not-quite-exact d e f i n i t i o n which i s workable enough i s b e t t e r than none.' At any r a t e , the ambivalent s t a t u s of these phonemes - i . e., they s t r u c -t u r e w i t h both consonants and vowels - can be Resolved only f o r and w i t h i n a given language. Let t h i s be f o r Ilokano. 184 Two sets of ordered r e w r i t e r u l e s convey the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s more c l e a r l y , namelyJ (1) /w/ or /y/ i s a semivowel (v) i f i t f u n c t i o n s as an o f f g l i d e of a diphthong (Vv) -Sd . > CVv • i f f J //p, t , k, \ 1 D, . . . / J ( i ) ( i i ) Examples: v ~ ~ > | ?/w/ / / CI-Vy/ / A a o -> /w/ / / a vu / ( i i i ) ( i v ) t i l l w / t i l i w / 'catch' baw-lnfi /baw q i n / 'swerve* 185 v -— > /y/ / A a o kU J reyna /rey naq/ 'queen1  daytoy /day toy/ * this 1 kasuy /ka suy/ 'cashew1 (2) /w/ or /y/ is a semiconsonant (c) in prevocalic or predlphthongal position: ((C) l(v) (d)fir * /(C)(C)cv[ J/ i?J ^ |/p, t, k, 1 ° " * l b, ... /1 (/l, e, a,-] v — - > J I I o, u/ J (i) ( i i ) ( i l l ) '/w/ / / (IV i (iv) vy/ / /_-•A/ / / Vy/ / / (v) 186 Examples: o > /w/ / /_ CCcVC isibroan /qi sib brwah/'to inaugurate something for' CvVv ruay /rway/ 'abundance* cVC awlt /qa wit/ 'load 1 cV walo /wa l'Sq/ • eight 1 CcV(C) ilualoan /qi lwa lwan/ 'top sueldo /swel doq/ S a l a r y 1 c -> /y/ / /. CCcVC empleok /qem plyok/ »my employment1 CcW diay /dyay/ 'that' c V C layus / l a yus/ 'flood' cV yelo /ye loq/ 'ice' CcV(C) agsyudsyudut /qag syud syu dut/ / i s being peeved* 4 ; 2 2 2 1 (b) Consonant Clusters The rules underlying the structural patterns of con-toid clusters have been set up in Sec. 3.24, specifically pages 108 through 121. The same rules apply to the conso-nant clusters.' Without recapitulating the detailed etic descriptions, the rules are here re-stated emically, thusj 187 I n i t i a l C l u s t e r s ( I K ) / P r g v o c a l i c / P . - *A > I K 2 > I K 3 > I K ^ > Medial C l u s t e r s MK-L > M K 2 > M K 3 > > r/P, k, 1" b f g, • + C 2 /!/ • /p,! t,1 k,' b,- d/ g, r A H c s ezcept v+ C 2 /w/ nf- y/. + C 2 /y/ > IK-L except C-L / f / , but including C-jVt.d/, MKc > C 1 1 b, d / J + C 2 / r / + C 3 /y/ MK, -> C 1 /p/ + C 2 / l / + C 3 /y/ -> C1 /p/ + C 2 / r / + C 3 /w/' 188 Ci1 Pinal Clusters (PK)y Postvocalic FK, > CT 1 r + c ? / s / 1 1 \ n / r / ) 2 ^ 2 —> c i i ,r c 2 / k / PK^ > C 1 / r / + C a FK^ > C X / s / + C 2 ft/ 4/2221 (c) Vowels Of the nine Ilokano vocoids charted from the cor-pus of phonetic data, (Fig. 7), only five proved to be phonemes of the dialect, (Pig. 10). The four others, [ l t 3 » cu o], are subsumed as positional variants or al lo-phones, since they are in non-contrastive distribution -i . e., either in complementary distribution or in free variation - with their respective phonemic norms. Details of such distributional relationships have been presented in the etic descriptions on pages 46 through 68 of this thesis. In the present emic description, however, they wi l l be considered briefly, giving a few illustrative examples of each. 189 V a r i a t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n : Phoneme Allophone Conditions of Occurrence / ! / /e/ / a / /o/ [ i ] Stressed s y l l a b l e , a l l p o s i t i o n s . [ i ] Unstressed s y l l a b l e , a l l p o s i t i o n s . [ e ] Everywhere - i . e., st r e s s e d and un s t r e s s -ed s y l l a b l e s - a l l po-s i t i o n s . [9] I n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h [ e ] , except i n loan words. [ a ] Stressed s y l l a b l e , a l l p o s i t i o n s . [ a ] Unstressed s y l l a b l e , a l l p o s i t i o n s , [ o ] Everywhere, a l l p o s i t i o n s . Example / s i l i q / [ ' s i : . l i q ] 'pepper' / s i l i d / [ s i . ' l i d ] /hi f e q / ['he:.feq] ' c h i e f /bek ke l e n / [bek.ke.'len] [bak.ke. 'lan] 'to s t r a n g l e ' /nan na n i q / [nan.'na:.niq] 'almost' /na gan/ ['na:.gan] •name' /ma bo l o q / [ma.'bo:.loq] 'a k i n d of f r u i t ' /ko l o r / [ k o . ' l o r ] ' c o l o r ' /so l o q / ['so:.loq] 'alone' 190 V a r i a t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n : Phoneme Allophone Conditions of Occurrence Example /u/ [u]« r i L U J In f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h Co], except i n loan words. (See Morphophonemics, Sec. 42222 (c) ( 3 ) , Gradation, Rules 1 and 2.) Stressed s y l l a b l e , a l l p o s i t i o n s . Unstressed s y l l a b l e , a l l p o s i t i o n s . /su k a t / ['su:.kat] •measurement1 /qa su k a r / [qa.'su: .kar] 'sugar 1 /qa duq/ [qa . 'duq] •many* /su mti sup/ [sU.'mu:.sUp] 'to puff a t a c i g a r ' 4.2221 (d) Consonants There are 18 consonant phonemes out of the 19 c o n t o i d s . /P/ [P] Everywhere, i . e., /pa pen/ ['pa:.pen] pre- and p o s t - v o c a l i c , 'young coconut' a l l p o s i t i o n s . /qa t e p / [qa.'tep] ' r o o f *A case of Aufhebung. See a l s o the e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s i n S e c t i o n 3.211. 191 Variation* Distribution: Phoneme Allophone Conditions of Occurrence [q]* In free variation with [p] as syllable coda in medial position before the syllable onsets, [s. g]. Everywhere, /tu tot/ [*tu:.tot] A / A / A / Example /sip n£t/ [sip.'net] [slq.'net] 'darkness' [ t ] [q> a l l positions. In free variation with [ t ] as syllable coda in medial position before the syllable onsets, [q» b, d, g,' 1, r ] . Everywhere, a l l positions.' In free variation with [k] as syllable coda in medial position before the syllable onsets,' [b, d, m, n,J 1/ r ] . [q] Everywhere, a l l positions. [q> 'resin' /qa gat qa gas/ [qa.gat.»qa:.gas] [qa.gaq. 'qa: .gas] ' I t smells like medicine.' A i 11 k i I f k / [ k l . l l . k l . ' l i k ] 'my armpit 1 /sak moi/ [sak.'moi] [saq.'moi] 'mouthful' /qal q o q / [qal.'qoq] •pestle' *Auf hebung 192 Variation! Distribution* Phoneme Allophone Conditions of Occurrence Example /b/ /d/ /g/ /m/ /n/ Cd] Cm] Cm> Cn] Everywhere, a l l positions, Everywhere/ a l l positions. Everywhere/ a l l positions. Everywhere, a l l positions. /ba bSq/ [ba.*baq] •down* /si r ib/ C ' s i : . r i b ] •wisdom* /dfi don/ C 'du: .don] •grasshopper* /tu r i d / CtU.*red] •courage* /gu g6t/ CgU^'got] 'gums* /b£ leg/ C'bi:. leg] * power * /mu ma lSm/ [mU.ma.'lem] •late afternoon* Before b i labial /pen pen/ Cpem.*pen] stops/ [p, b] . Before velar stops, [k/ g]. Elsewhere, a l l positions. Everywhere, a l l positions. 1 •stacks* * earthquake * /gin g i n€d/ Cgln.gl.'ned] /na ga nan/ C^a.'ga:.nan] •to name* /na naq/ Cncu'naq] •open mouthed* /nway C 'nwan] •water buffalo* »Aufhebung/ 193 Variation* Distribution* Phoneme Allophone Conditions of Occurrence Example / f / /•/ /s/ /h/ A / Cf] Cv] Cs] Ch] Cn] Prevocalic only, a l l positions. Pre-semiconsonantal, medial only, as the / f f noq/ [*fi:.noq] • f i n e 1 / q l f fwe raq/ Cqlf.*fwe:.raq] f i r s t C of a cluster. *to cast aside* Prevocalic only, a l l positions. Everywhere a l l positions. /nwl vaq/ /vis ka yaq/ C *nwe:.vaq]CvIs.'ka:.yaq] •name of a province* /su sik/ C'su:.slk] •altercation* /*da:.kes/ [*da:.kes] •bad* Prevocalic only, /hus tbq/ [hUs.'toq] i n i t i a l position. •right; enough* Pre-semiconsonantal /re 11 hyon/ and intervocalic only;! [re.ll.*hyon] I n i t i a l and medial *religion* positions. 1 /ha lo ha loq/ Cha.lo.»ha:.loq] 'assorted sherbet* Everywhere, / l a q l loq/ Cla.'qi:.loq] a l l positions. *cajole* /qi la" q i l / [ q l . »la: . q l l ] •wobble * 1 9 4 V a r i a t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n : Phoneme A l l o p h o n e C o n d i t i o n s o f O c c u r r e n c e E x a m p l e / r / /w/ / y / [ r ] [ w ] C u ] C y ] ci> C i ] E v e r y w h e r e , a l l p o s i t i o n s . P r e v o c a l i c , a l l p o s i -t i o n s ; l a s t member o f a c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r . D i p h t h o n g o f f g l i d e a f t e r s t r e s s e d C i ] « D i p h t h o n g o f f g l i d e a f t e r [ i ] , [ a ] , o r [ a ] . / r i r o q / [ » r i : . r o q ] ' c o n f u s i o n ' / q u p e r / C ' q u : . p e r ] • s o a k 1 / w a w e k / C w tx» ' w e k ] ' s t a b d e e p * / l w a g / Q l w a g ] ' f r o t h ' / t i l i w / [ t l . ' l i u ] ' c a t c h ' /t& l a w / [ ' t a : . l a U ] ' d e p a r t u r e ' P r e v o c a l i c , a l l p o s i - / y u y e m / [ ' y u : . y e m ] t i o n s ; l a s t member o f a c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r . D i p h t h o n g o f f g l i d e a f t e r s t r e s s e d [ u ] . D i p h t h o n g o f f g l i d e a f t e r [ u ] , [ a ] , o r [ o ] . ' c l o u d y ' / n y o g / [ ' n y o g ] ' c o c o n u t ' / k a s u y / [ k a . ' s u i ] • c a s h e w ' / s u y s o y / [ s U I . ' s o l ] ' f r a y , r a v e l ' ^ A u f h e b u n g 195 4.2221 (e) Tonemes v a r i a t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n : Toneme A l l o t o n e Conditions of Occurrence Example /2/ /3/ /4/ [2] I n i t i a l p i t c h l e v e l of most utterances. Before or a f t e r [ l ] , i n utterance p r e - f i n a l , s i g n a l s a s e r i e s . [ l ] A f t e r [2], i n utterance f i n a l , s i g n a l s a s t a t e -ment . A f t e r [3], i n utterance f i n a l , s i g n a l s a ques-t i o n . [3] A f t e r [2], utterance t e r m i n a l , s i g n a l s a qu e s t i o n . [4] Before [2], near u t t e r -ance f i n a l , s i g n a l s a statement w i t h emphasis or strong emotion. A f t e r [2], or sometimes [3]/ s i g n a l s a ques t i o n . Maysa, dua, ... _2 1 2 1_ [mal.'saq 'dwaqj or r l 2 1 2_ |_mal. 'saq 'dwaqj 'One, two, ...' Adda, [qad.'daq] 'There i s . ' [qad.'daq] •Is there?' [qad.«5aq] •Is there?» 4 2 [qad.'daq] •There i s . ' (Look!) « 2 4 [qad.'daq] 'Is there?' 196 V a r i a t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n : Toneme A l l o t o n e Conditions of Occurrence Example 4/ C|] A f t e r [2l], s i g n a l s a [qad. 'daq^] statement. 'There i s . ' A, A f t e r [23] or [ 2 4 ] , [qad.'laqf] s i g n a l s a questi o n . 'Is there?' ft] A f t e r [231], s i g n a l s 2 3 1 [qad. 'daq^] a q u e s t i o n . •Is t here?' C\tl A f t e r [213], s i g n a l s 2 1 3 A [qad.'daq^p a q u e s t i o n . 'Is t here?' A f t e r [31], s i g n a l s [qad. 'daqj,] a qu e s t i o n . 'Is there?' 4.2221 ( f ) Junctonemes Junctoneme Allojjunctone / ) / [|] A f t e r two i d e n t i c a l p i t c h l e v e l s , e. g., [22], s i g -n a l s a r e l a t i v e l y short pause, l e v e l tone, and i n -complete statement. [qad. 'daq |] 'There i s a ...' ^Aufhebung x /\/ vs /\/\ \_\f\ i n the context [31>^ ] i s equivalent t o [ T ] . 197 V a r i a t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n : Junctoneme A l i o j u n c t o n e Conditions of Occurrence Example /||/ [|] A f t e r [ 2 1 ] , s i g n a l s a complete statement and [q.ad. Tdaq^] a long t e r m i n a l pause. 'There i s . ' [f] A f t e r [ 2 3 ] or [ 1 3 ] , s i g -n a l s a complete sentence [qad.'ciaq^] and a long t e r m i n a l pause. 'Is there?* 4.2221 (g) Stronemes Stroneme A l i o s t r o n e /*/ [*] An Ilokano has a t / / (unmarked) l e a s t one strong s t r e s s , [ ] a t most two, i n the f o l l o w -67 i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e rns: One Strong S t r e s s , [ ' ] : ( x ) ( x ) ( x ) ' x [ b a . t l . k U . ' l e n ] ' g i b l e t ' ( x ) ( x ) ( x ) ' x x [na.ka.pUd.'pu:.dot] ' I t ' s very hot.' (x) (x)x'xxx [na.ka.pUd.-'pu: .do.ten] ' I t ' s very hot now.' 67 The symbol x = s y l l a b l e ; the parenthesis i n d i c a t e s o p t i o n a l occurrence of the s y l l a b l e . I n the s p e c i f i c examples given here, however, x i s o b l i g a t o r y . 198 V a r i a t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n : Stroneme A l i o s t r o n e Conditions of Occurrence Example Two Strong S t r e s s e s , [* ' ] : xx'xx'x [na.ka.'al.qa.'yat] ' l o v e l y ' (x)x'xxx'x [ma.kl.'qin.na.yan.qa.'yat] 'to be i n love w i t h someone' (x)x'xx'xx [ma.kl.'bin.nl.'la:.nan] •to j o i n i n the mutual counting' (x)(x)x'xxx'xx [ m a . k l . p a g . ' p i n . p i n . n a . ' l i s . q i u ] 'uncalled f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n observing' xx'xxxx'xx [ma.kl.'lin.lln.nem.me.'na:.nen] 'He's p l a y i n g hide-and-seek now.' (x)x'xx'xxx [ma.kl.'bin.bln.nl.'la:.na.nen] 'He has joined i n the mutual counting.' There are two important observations about the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t r e s s i n Ilokano. F i r s t , there has to be a t l e a s t one o b l i g a t o r y s y l l a b l e before the s t r e s s e d ante-penultimate s y l l a b l e , e. g., [xAxxx]. Ilokano does not superpose s t r e s s a t the beginning of a t h r e e - s y l l a b l e word, i n the way that E n g l i s h does, e. g., p o s s i b l e [ f p a : . s l . b l ] ['xxx]. Secondly, In the patterns w i t h two s t r e s s e s , there 199 has to he an o b l i g a t o r y s y l l a b l e before the f i r s t strong s t r e s s Of the suprasegmentals, s t r e s s i s the primary f e a t -ure i n a c h i e v i n g a p a t t e r n of prominence i n the word, the other features t y i n g i n very c l o s e l y . Thus, f o r Ilokano: + /'Length } S y l l a b l e Prominence > + [ s t r ] J V I P I J J For example: S t r e s s : [ x 'x x] [na.'pu .do tQ ' I t ' s hot.' plus Length: [ x 'x: x] [na. fpu:.dot] ' I t i s hot.' 1 2 1 plus P I J : [ x 'x: .x^] [na.'pu: .dot^] ' I t i s hot.' 4.2222 Morphophonemics A l i n k or transducer between the s y n t a c t i c and the phonol o g i c a l components of a grammar i s morphophonemics -roughly equivalent to systematic phonemics i n Chomsky's 68 g e n e r a t i v e - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar. To the transforma-t i o n a l i s t s , systematic phonemics i s second t o the l a s t stage i n the grammar of a language - the l a s t being s y s t e -matic phonetics which describes how sentences are a c t u a l l y produced and p h o n e t i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d by the n a t i v e speaker. 68 See Noam Chomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, pp. 15-18; "Current I S S U E S i n L i n g u i s t i c Theory," In Katz and Fodor, op_. c i t . , pp. 85-90. 200 I n t h i s phonological grammar of Ilokano, morpho-phonemics deals w i t h the v a r i a t i o n s i n the phonemic s t r u c -t u r e of morphemes. I t a l s o describes how the phonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of each morpheme i s p h o n e t i c a l l y r e a l i z e d . The morphophonemic changes i n Ilokano may take the form of one, or a combination of any, of the f o l l o w i n g processes: (a) Phoneme a d d i t i o n (b) Phoneme d e l e t i o n (c) Phoneme s u b s t i t u t i o n as a r e s u l t of: (1) a s s i m i l a t i o n (2) d i s s i m i l a t i o n (3) g r a d a t i o n (4) r e d u p l i c a t i o n 4.2222 (a) Phoneme A d d i t i o n The phenomenon of phoneme a d d i t i o n i n Ilokano may be explained using the examples below. 1) I n the f i r s t example, /sum brek/, the i n t r u s i v e /b/, being a b i l a b i a l stop, i s a l i a i s o n between the b i l a b i a l n a s a l , /m/, to the a l v e o l a r f l a p , / r / . The f a c t t h a t /b/ i s non-nasal l i k e / r / f a c i l i t a t e s the t r a n s i t i o n from /m/ to / r / . 2) The same may be s a i d f o r the a l v e o l a r /n/ l i n k i n g the o r a l , /a/, to the d e n t a l , /d/. A c t u a l l y the process involved has a semblance of r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n . The i n t r u s i v e /n/ can l i k e w i s e be i n t e r p r e t e d as a phenomenon of phoneme 201 s u b s t i t u t i o n (see d i s c u s s i o n about d i s s i m i l a t i o n ) . 3) The a d d i t i o n of consonants by gemination i s induced by the s h i f t of s t r e s s to the s y l l a b l e i n which the second member of the geminate occurs. This has reference to gradation as ex-pl a i n e d i n Sec. 4.2222 ( c ) . H y p o t h e t i c a l Phonemic Phonetic Morpheme Form £*) Representation R e a l i z a t i o n (1) I n t r u s i v e /b/: #s errek# 1entranc e 1 + #-um-# >^/sumerrek/ > /sum r e k / /sum b r e k / — > [sUm.'brek] 'to enter' (2) I n t r u s i v e /n/: #madi# 'won't' + #-ak# ' I ' >Vmadiak/ ^ /man dyfik/—> [man.'dyak] 'I won't.' (3) Other i n t r u s i v e consonants: /p/ #tupi# 'hem' + #-am# 'you' — — > */tupiam/ > /tup pyam/ — ^ [tUp.'pyam] 'Xou hem i t . ' / t / #luto# 'cook' + #-ek# ' I ' >*/lutoek/ — — > / l u t twSk/ > [lUt.'twek] 'I cook i t . ' 202 H y p o t h e t i c a l Phonemic Phonetic Morphemes Form (*) Representation R e a l i z a t i o n A / #lako# 'sal e * 'to s e l l to» + #-an# 'to' —> */lakoan/ —> / l a k kwan/ —> [lak.'kwan] /b/ #ab£# ' i n s u l t ' 'to i n s u l t ' + #-en# 'to' —> #/abien/ —> /qab byen/ —> [qexb. 'byen] /d/ #adu# 'abundant' 'wel l o f f + #-an# ' o f —> #/aduan/ —> /qad dwSn/ —> [qad.'dwan] /g/ #rugl# ' s t a r t ' 'You s t a r t i t . ' + #-am# 'you' —y */rugiam/—> /rug gyam/ —> [rUg.'gyam] /m/ #sim8# 'knot' 'to knot' + #-en# 'to' —> */simoen/ —> /sim mwen/ —> [slm.'mwen] /n/ #ani# 'harvest' 'to harvest' + #-en# 'to' —> */ a n i e n / —> /qan nyen/ —> [qctn. 'nyen] /n/ #sahgo# ' f r o n t ' 'where to f a c e ' + #-an# 'at* —> */sangoan/ —> /san awan/—> [san.'nwan] / l / #gulo# 'confusion' 'to confuse' + #-en# 'to' — > */guloen/ — > / g u l lweh/ —> [gUl.'lwen] / r / #buro# 'preserve' 'You preserve i t . ' + #teem# *you' —> */buroem/ —>- /bur rwem/—> [bUr.'rwem] ft/ #kafe# 'coffee' 'to d r i n k as c o f f e e ' + #-en# 'to' —> */kafeen/ — > /kaf f y i n / —> [ k a f . ' f y e n ] / s / #kaasi# ' p i t y ' + #-an# 'to' —£ *Aaasian/ — ^ /ka qas syan/ — ^ [ka.qas.'syan] 'to p i t y ' 203 4/2222 (b) Phoneme D e l e t i o n I n Ilokano, morphophonemic change i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the l o s s of phonemes - vowels as w e l l as consonants. The l o s s of medial vowels i s c a l l e d syncope. I t w i l l he noted t h a t the vowel that i s u s u a l l y syncopated i s /e/, p o s s i b l y due to the f a c t that i t tends to become weakened and reduced to the s t a t u s of schwa, /d/, and f i n a l l y l o s t . I n some word forms, the consonants adjacent to /e/ are a l s o l o s t . H y p o t h e t i c a l Phonemic Phonetic Morphemes Form (*) Representation R e a l i z a t i o n (1) Loss of / e / i #arem# #/aremen/ — > /qar men/ --^ [qar.'men] •courtship* #kapet# •to c o u r t ' */kapeten/—> /kap t e n / [keep.'ten] + #-en# --> •hold' I 'to h o l d ' #pateg# | */pategen/~> /pat gen/ [pat.'gen] 'endearment''' 'to endear* #rikep# + #-an# —> * / r i k e p a n / ~> / r i k pan/ —> [ r l k . ' p a n ] 'shutter' 'to shut (do.©r) t o ' (2) Loss of / e l / , /en/, / r e / , /er/, /ed/, and /ep/: #kelleb# 'cover' 'to seek cover' + #-um-# 'to' --> ^/kumelleb/ —> /kum l e b / --> [kUm.'leb] #pennSk# ' s a t i s f a c t i o n ' 'to be s a t i s f i e d ' + #ma-# 'to be' —> ^/mapennek/—^ /map neW —> [map.'nek] 204 H y p o t h e t i c a l Phonemic Phonetic II Morphemes Form (*) Representation R e a l i z a t i o n #serrek# 'entrance' 'xfhere to enter' + #an# 'at' —> #/serrekan/ —> /ser kan/ — » [ser.'kan] #serrek# 'entrance' 'to e n t e r 1 + #-um-# 'to' —> */sumerrek/ —> -/sum rek/ — > [sUm. 'rek] #tedda# ' l e f t - o v e r * 'to be l e f t - o v e r ' + #ma-# 'to be' — ^ */matedda/ —> /mat daq/ —> [mat.'daq] #lepp5s# ' f i n i s h ' 'to be f i n i s h e d ' + #ma-# 'to be' —> */maleppas/ —> /mal pas/ —> [mal.'pas] 4iII22 (o) Phoneme S u b s t i t u t i o n (1) A s s i m i l a t i o n : Two d i f f e r e n t adjacent phonemes become more l i k e each other. When the f i r s t phoneme i n the s e r i e s changes to become s i m i l a r to the one that f o l l o w s i t , i . e., phoneme A a s s i m i l a t e s to phoneme B, the process i s described as r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n ; the reverse process i s c a l l e d progressive a s s i m i l a t i o n . A l l phenomena of a s s i -m i l a t i o n i n Ilokano are of the r e g r e s s i v e type. ( l a ) A l v e o l a r /n/> b i l a b i a l /m/, a s s i m i l a t e s to b i l a b i a l s /p,b/: #banban# —> /banban/ > /bam ban/ > [bam.'ban] ' t h i n bamboo s t r i p s used f o r t y i n g ' #penpen# — y /penpen/ ^ /pem pen/ > [pem.'pen] 'stack' 205 ( l b ) A l v e o l a r /n/> v e l a r /n/, a s s i m i l a t e s to v e l a r s /k, g/: #gunguna# —> /gunguna/ — £ /gun gu naq/ — » [gUn.gU.'naq] 'gain' #kenka# —> /kenka/ —> /ken kaq/ —> [ken.'kaq] 'to you' ( l c ) B i l a b i a l /p/> a l v e o l a r / r / , a s s i m i l a t e s to a l v e o l a r /n/: #ma-# + #pennek# > /mapennek/ > By d e l e t i o n : /map nek/ — [ m a p . ' n e k ] By a s s i m i l a t i o n : /mar nek/ —> [mar.'nek] (2) D i s s i m i l a t i o n : Two i d e n t i c a l adjacent phonemes become d i s s i m i l a r . This i s the reverse process of a s s i m i l a -t i o n . (2a) D i s s i m i l a t i o n as to v o i c i n g : /d/> / t / before /g/: #asideg# 'near' + #-an# 'to' — > /asidegan/ — > By syncope: /qausid gan/ — > [qa.sld.'gan] By d i s s i m i l a t i o n : /qa s i t gan/ —> [ q a . s l t . ' g a n ] 'to go near to* (2b) D i s s i m i l a t i o n as to point-manner of a r t i c u l a t i o n : -dental-stop+dentalssfcop /dd/> alveola r - n a s a l + d e n t a l - s t o p /nd/: #madl# 'won't' + #-ak# ' I ' — > /madiak/ —> By phoneme a d d i t i o n : /mad dy5k/ —> [mad.'dyak] By d i s s i m i l a t i o n : /man dyfik/ — > [man.'dyak] 'I won't.' 206 (3) Gradation: The s u b s t i t u t i o n of phonemes - i . e., vowel change - due t o s h i f t of s t r e s s i s a process c a l l e d g r a d a t i o n . I n Ilokano, the vowels that g e n e r a l l y undergo such change are: /o/ which becomes /u/ or a semiconsonant /w/; and, / i / or /e/ which becomes a semiconsonant /y/. This type of morphophonemic change and the con d i t i o n s that i n f l u e n c e i t can be e x p l i c i t l y described i n the f o l l o w i n g f o u r r u l e s : Gradation Rule 1: /-ak\ -am -em Examples: #al£mon# + #-ek# —> /alimonek/ > 'swallow' ' I ' /qa l i mu nek/ ^ [qa.H.'mu: .nek] 'I swallow i t . ' #pftor# + #-am# —> /puoram/ /pu qu ram/ > [pU. 'qu: .ram] ' f i r e ' 'you 'You burn i t . ' #baot# + #-en# — > /baoten/ --—y /ba qu t e n / > [ba.'qu:.ten] 'to l a s h ' ' l a s h ' 'to' 207 Gradation Rule 2: A - a l A /o/ / / C a r-CF - / i ^ > /u/ / /C, a k.u •C C +, -am -fin -Ik -em k-enj Examples: #apoy# + #een# — > /apoyen/ — ^ ' f i r e ' 'to' /qa pu yen/—> [qcupU. 'yen] 'to cook ( r i c e ) ' #bungon# + #-en# —> /bungonen/ — > 'wrapper' 'to* /bu nu n i n / > [bU.nU.'nen] 'to wrap up' #liko'd# #-an# —> / l i k o d a n / — > 'back' 'to' / l i ku dan/—> [ l l . k U . ' d a n ] 'to t u r n one's back t o * Gradation Rule 3$ l/e/J l / G V G ^ ^ / J > /y/ / /cvc1c1 + Gradation Rule 4: f/o/") f/CVC, C?/-) J f/ J 2 I > /w/ / /CV^C, 1 /u / J l/CVC! •» C 2 / J 1 r - a k % 4 -fim -an -Ik -em *v-*W 69 69 CTC-, = Consonant geminates. Por examples i l l u s t r a t -i n g Rules 3 and 4, see Sec. 4.2222 ( a ) ( 3 ) . 208 (4) R e d u p l i c a t i o n : A morphological process where-by there i s a r e p e t i t i o n of a r a d i c a l element i s r e f e r r e d to as r e d u p l i c a t i o n . I n Ilokano, the r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s e i t h e r p a r t i a l , i . e., only the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of the r a d i c a l element i s repeated, or f u l l , i n which the e n t i r e r a d i c a l element i s r e d u p l i c a t e d . No phoneme s u b s t i t u t i o n r e s u l t s from a p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n the language. The Ilokano vowel /o/ becomes /u/ i n the f i r s t r a d i c a l element of a f u l l r e d u p l i c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g r u l e describes such morphophonemic change: /of / /CVC ^ j/ > /u/ / /CVC ,_, .Q/ /CVC o Examples: #ag# + # l u t o # 2 — > / a g l u t o l u t o / —> /qag l u t u lu. t o q / — > •to* 'cook* [ q a g . l U . t U . f l u : . t o q ] 'to play cooking' #baboy# —y /baboybaboy/ —> /ba buy ba boy/ — > [ba.bUI.'ba:.bol] ' p i l l bug' #kulog# 2 ~> /kulogkulog/ — > /ku lu g ku l o g / — > [kU.lUg.kU.'log] 'a game of d i c e ' * 2 #surot# — > / s u r o t s u r o t / — > /su r u t su s o t / — > [sU.r U t . ' s u : . r o t ] ' t r a i l e r ' 209 4/3 The Stream of Speech 70 4.31 Corpus 'Second year my now here Vancouver, i s n ' t i t ? Malkadua nga tawen kon d i t o y Vancouver, saan k a d i ? [malkad'dwa:nata 1 wenkondl * t o l v a n 'ku: ver| s a 1 qanka 1 d i q ^ Thank you f o r generous a i d your to the P h i l i p p i n e s . 1 Dios t i agngina i t i nahushusto nga badang yo i t i F i l i p i n a s . 'dyostlqog'niJnaqltlnahUs'hustonabadan'yo:| q l t l f l l l ' p i : n a s Q 4.32 Concepts The a n a l y s i s of the stream of speech i n the next f i v e pages aims to i l l u s t r a t e g r a p h i c a l l y the g e n e r a l concepts i n l i n g u i s t i c s enumerated below. The i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from such g r a p h i c a r t i c u l a t o r y a n a l y s i s i s i n a way roughly s i m i -l a r t o t h a t which a spectrogram, sonagram, kymogram, or 71 o s c i l l o g r a m i n i n s t r u m e n t a l phonetics would y i e l d about the corpus of u t t e r a n c e s above. 70 The corpus i n c l u d e s a l l the 34 emic u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s c h a p ter. A l l o w f o r a margin of e r r o r s i n c e one cannot t r a n s c r i b e f a i t h f u l l y a l l the phonetic events of a c t u a l speech. 71 F o r an adequate and d e t a i l e d account of instruments 210 The graphic analysis shows that: a. The ongoing stream of a meaningful utterance is a complex, ever-changing continuum of different sound feat-ures ; b. Each utterance can be uniquely, although inade-quately, represented as a f i n i t e set of discrete emic ele-ments occurring in succession or simultaneously; c. A segmental phoneme represents one or more phon-etic features; d. A suprasegmental prosodeme extends over a series of segmental groupings; e. Sounds in context are modified in various ways because of their influence on one another, e. g«, [n]>[n] before [k]; f. Borrowed sounds tend to be altered to conform to the native phonetic habits, and to the native phonemic code, e, g.V [vgei^kuwvr] > [vctn'ku: .ver]; g. Phonetics is closely related, is a prerequisite, to phonemics. One cannot be dogmatic about the phonemes of a language or dialect unless one is conversant with i t s phonetic structure and arrangement. used in acoustic phonetics, see C. Gunnar M. Fant, "Modern Instruments and Methods for Acoustic Studies of Speech," Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Linguists, Oslo: Oslo University Press, 1958, pp. 282-3o"2. 211 4.3 A n a l y s i s Table 2„ The Stream of Speech Analyzed EMIC Sup Seg J. 2 "UNITS S e g 8 t a l : m |w . ETIC FEATURES* Close H a l f - c l o s e Half-open Open Stop B i l a b i a l D e n t a l V e l a r G l o t t a l F r i c a t i v e Labio-Dental D e n t a l G l o t t a l N a s a l B i l a b i a l A l v e o l a r V e l a r L a t e r a l A l v e o l a r F l a p A l v e o l a r Poll \ t p a l Semi^f lof 1 1 v pal L a b i a l i z e d D e n t a l i z e d P a l a t a l i z e d V e l a r i z e d ".' Lengthened +v +v +b +b +b *Every symbol a t the po i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s the presence of an e t i c f e a t u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r vowels: h = f r o n t , + ss c e n t r a l / -j = back; f o r consonants: v = v o i c e , b = breath. 212 EMIC Sup: UNITS Seg: n d i * 1 2 * 1 t o y v a n k . u v e r 1 s a ^|^ a • n ETIC FEAT. Close H a l f - c l o s e Half-open Open Stop B i l a b i a l D e n t a l V e l a r G l o t t a l F r i c Lab-Dent Dental . G l o t t a l N a s al B i l a b i a l A l v e o l a r V e l a r L a t e r a l A l v e o l a r F l a p A l v e o l a r •fv Semi rt. b i l p a l b i l p a l Lab»lized D e n t a i l z e d Pal»lized Velar ! z e d Lengthened +b +b +v +v 213 EMIC SupJ. 2 UNITS Seg.:, k a d i q 2 1 2 -d y o s t 1 q . a g n 1 n a q ETIC FEAT. Close H a l f - c l o s e Half-open Open Stop . B i l a b i a l D e n t a l V e l a r G l o t t a l F r l c Lab-Dent Dental G l o t t a l Nasal B i l a b i a l A l v e o l a r V e l a r L a t e r a l A l v e o l a r F l a p A l v e o l a r • b i l Semi ^pal-p a l • b i l Lab»lized D e n t a i l z e d P a l ' l l z e d V e l a r i z e d Lengthened +b +v +v +b +v 214 EMIC Sup:. | 2 1 UNITS ,Seg:, q i t 1. n u h u 2 s . t ETIC FEAT.1 Close H a l f - c l o s e Half-open Open Stop 3 i l a b i a l Dental V e l a r G l o t t a l F r i c Lab-Dent Dental G l o t t a l Nasal B i l a b i a l A l v e o l a r V e l a r L a t e r a l A l v e o l a r F l a p A l v e o l a r Semi p a l L a b " l i z e d D e n t a l i z e d P a l 1 l i z e d V e l a r i z e d Lengthened +v +b +b +v +b t 215 EMIC Sups. UNITS Segs. a a y o q ETIC FEAT. Close H a l f - c l o s e Half-open + .4 Open Stop B i l a b i a l Dental V e l a r G l o t t a l P r i c Lab-Dent Dental G l o t t a l Nasal B i l a b i a l A l v e o l a r V e l a r L a t e r a l A l v e o l a r F l a p A l v e o l a r /bil ( % a l Semij ( b i l ^pal-L a b ' l i zed D e n t a l i z e d P a l 8 l i z e d V e l a r i z e d Lengthened 1 2 * 1 q i t i f i .1 i p i n a s +b +b Chapter 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 5.1 Summary The linguistic data described and classified at the taxonomic level of this research - i . e.t the etic and emic analyses i n the preceding chapters - w i l l now, by way of summary, be considered at a higher level of abstraction: the explanatory level. The latter characterizes the relation-ships or patterns of combinability of the emic units by means of a system of rewrite rules. The output of each level of description may be schematically shown in the order of their degree of abstraction, thus: Taxonomic level: Explanatory level: describes and classifies reveals the underlying etic units emic units patterns of relationships Phones Phonemes Phonological Rules The rationale for the f i n a l scheme of description derives from the realization that a totality does not con-s i s t of things but of relationships, and, that language -which is a totality or gestalt - is essentially a rules-based  act i v i t y . This ties in with the modern concept of a grammar, namely, that i t .Is a theory of a language - a system of rules  which explicitly characterizes a native speaker-hearer's com- petence and performance in his language. 217 Returning now to the two problems previously stated which this study purports to seek answers for, namely: Problem 1: What are the emic units of the cultivated Ilokano dialect as spoken in Bayombong, Nueva Vlzcaya? The dialect distinguishes a total number of thirty-four emic units, summarized as follows: Segmental Phonemes - / Five (5) Vowels: / i u Eighteen (18) Consonants: /p 1 S m n w- y/ 218 Suprasegmental Prosodernes Pour (4) Pitch Levels or Tonemes /4/ Extra High /3/ High /2/ Normal /!/ Low Three (3) Intonation Contours /|/ Level Intonation 4/ Falling intonation /^/ Rising intonation Two (2) Junctonemes / / Pre-terminal short pause Two (2) Stronemes / V Strong stress / / (Unmarked) Weak stress Problem 2: What phonological patterns of occurrence relations between the emic units does the dialect permit? The phonological grammar is the answer. The underlying patterns of relative occurrence of thellinguistic units are stated in the form of explicit rewrite rules. The grammar is a f i n i t e set of - 1. e.y only 42 - unordered rules that gene-rate an i n f i n i t e number of combinable phonological elements in the Ilokano dialect. Such rules are grouped into two catego-ries, namely; 219 G r o u p A , P h o n e t i c R u l e s , s t a t e s t h e p h o n e t i c c o n s t i -t u t i o n o f phonemes w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t a t e d c o n t e x t s ; a n d G r o u p B , M o r p h o p h o n e m i c R u l e s , s t a t e s t h e p h o n e m i c c o n s t i t u t i o n o f morphemes w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t a t e d c o n t e x t s . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a f i n i t e s e t o f s y m b o l s w h i c h p a r t l y c o n s t i t u t e s t h e m e t a l a n g u a g e o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l g r a m m a r : ^ " i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y " o r " i s r e w r i t t e n a s " / " i n t h e c o n t e x t ( e n v i r o n m e n t ) " [ ] e t i c u n i t o r u n i t s / / e m i c u n i t o r u n i t s £ ^ a s e t : " c h o o s e o n e a n d o n l y o n e o n a g i v e n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r u l e " ( ) " o p t i o n a l - i n c l u d e t h e i t e m o r i t e m s w h e r e a p p l i c a b l e " [ . . . [ } " t h e r e s t o f t h e i t e m s b e l o n g i n g i n t h e s y l l a b l e " C C o n t o i d (or C o n s o n a n t ) V V o c o i d ( o r V o w e l ) c S e m i c o n t o l d ( o r S e m i c o n s o n a n t ) v S e m i v o c o i d ( o r S e m i v o w e l ) A f A f f i x : - a k . - a m , - a n , - e k , - e m . - e n T h e p h o n o l o g i c a l g r a m m a r o f t h e d i a l e c t o f I l o k a n o u n d e r s t u d y h a s b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e s e a s g i v e n : t h e f i n i t e n u m b e r o f p h o n e m i c d a t a , p l u s t h e f i n i t e s e t o f 220 symbols,* plus a working knowledge of the basic character-i s t i c s of a good grammar,1 namely: (a) Descriptive adequacy -a grammar is descriptively adequate to the extent that i t s structural descriptions correspond to the intrinsic compe-tence and linguistic intuition of the native speaker; and; (b) Simplicity, economy and generality - identified with fewer symbol tokens used in each descriptive statement or rule to generate an i n f i n i t e number of linguistic forms. A l l the statements about the structure of relative occurrence, i . e., of distribution, apply within the domain of the syllable. Thus, the elements enclosed in square brackets, [ ], or slashes, / /$ In the case of morphophonemic rules, represent the structure of a single syllable. The rules underlying the syllable structures (SS) of Ilokano have been stated as follows: ,[(C)C(c)V] SS Rule 1: S„ {ml ^ CC(c)V(C)] •[(C)C(c)VC] SS Rule 2: S, > -l [C(c)VC(C)] SS Rule 3: Sd -> [| jw] if J 221 E v e r y r u l e i s o f t h e f o r m X > Y. F o r e x a m p l e : A/ —-> [i] A f [ ' c ( v ) ] C»c (c)] [ » C c ( C ) ] T o o b v i a t e t h e l i m i t l e s s p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s y m b o l s a n d s t a t e m e n t s , t h e w r i t e r i m p o s e s a r e s t r i c t i o n o n t h e n u m b e r e m p l o y e d b y w o r k i n g t o w a r d a maximum g e n e r a l i t y . T h u s , f o r A/t t h e f o u r s p e c i f i c r u l e s o r s t a t e m e n t s , c a l l e d s c h e m a i n m o d e r n l i n g u i s t i c t e r m i n o l o g y , a r e c o a l e s c e d i n t o a s i n g l e g e n e r a l r u l e o r s t a t e m e n t c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y c a l l e d 72 - s c h e m a t a : /-•C(c)7 r v , n, --> [i] / [{ ,o J_ <{c}>] A l m o s t a l l o f t h e r e w r i t e r u l e s w h i c h make u p t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l g r a m m a r o f t h e I l o k a n o d i a l e c t a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e g e n e r a l f o r m o f s c h e m a t a , a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e t o b e s i m i l a r l y I n t e r p r e t e d . V • 72 F o r t h e o p e r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t s , s c h e m a a n d s c h e m a t a , c r e d i t I s d u e t o P r o f e s s o r Noam C h o m s k y ! R e c a l l e d f r o m t h e l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n s I n h i s c l a s s i n A d v a n c e d P h o n o l o g y a t t h e I966 Summer L i n g u i s t i c I n s t i t u t e o f t h e L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y / o f A m e r i c a , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t L o s A n g e l e s ( U C L A ) . 222 It w i l l be noted that even at this abstract explan-C atory level of description, the trimodal scheme, U = V, D is s t i l l operative. CONTRAST VARIATION The erne has the al i o DISTRIBUTION in the context A . Phonetic Rules (PR)t [ i ] / C « c ( o ) _ ( { v } ) ] % PR 1: / i / > [I] / [ C ( o ) _ ( { V } ) ] (i) ( i i ) [e] / [(')C(c). PR 2: /e/ > [a] / [OC l c ) , ® (i) ( i i ) [ a ] / [(«)(C)C(c) ( { V } ) ] ^ j <U PR 3: / a / -> [a] / [C(c) ([*})] ( i i ) 223 PR. *H / o / > [ o ] / C(«)(C)C(c) (| })] (i) r [ u ] / C«(C)C(o) ( { } ) ] PR 5: /u/ -> W [ c(c)_<{ C* 3}] (i) ( i i ) [ c v _ ] *cpy<c_v({>] PB 6s /p/ - — (1) > ( i i ) [i*y [cv_ i {J s \ (o] » (iv) 224 [t]A_y(r})] (1) k.i._]C_(f3J){V}(c)]J ( i i ) . ( i i i ) [o-tb,^ 1*1/ [cv 3C< disi (iv); 225 PR 9t /q/ > [q]/ [_<}>] / [cv ] PR 10: /b/ > [b ] /J [ V ( { V } ) ] /[cv ] P R 11: / a / > [ d]A [_v(Q)] _][_({ r 1)( }(C)] [ r ] ' lev. /[cv ] FR 12: / g / > [ g ] / J [ _ V ( { V } ) ] M l k . . . _ ] [ _ ( { [ r ] } ) ( c ) V ( { c } ) ] 2 2 6 PR 13: /m/ > [a]// [ V( (i) (ii) (iii) / [ C V _ ( [ s ] ) ] M/{[_v(0)] PR 14: /n/ >< [ [ * ] / c c v _ i { ^ } . . . ] (i) (n) (ii i) (iv) >]/ Ccv_X^} . . . ] J (v) 227 , [ c v _ ( { })>] P O -PR i5» / y — > [»]/<[ v({v}>] ( [1] .[ ( PR 16: / f / > [ f ] / )V(C)] 1 .[... ][ cv(c)] J PR 17: /s/ -> [ s ] / J [ V({ V])] M I . . . i (°>v-(Q ) r PR 18: /h/ -> M / L_v({v}>] [ cV(C)] [...¥][ V(C)] 228 PR 191 M > [v]/ [ (c)V(C)] ( i ) PR 20: / ! / > [ 1 ] / J [ V({V})] p p _ _ r c v i c v t t k k" b b" d d" f[t,k,-v PR 21: / r / > [ r ] / J [ V({V})] t t k k" b b" d d~ ( i ) ( i i ) 1 T3 TJ YcV ' ( V> ( i ) ( l i ) ( i i i ) 229 r W / [ . f . . c ] [ ( cU( { v } ) ]< PR 22 : /w/ — - > ^ [ u ] / C ' C [ i ] _ ] W cQ{j> i f — ] ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) [ [ i ] / [»C[u]_] PR 23 : /y/ -> C i ] / [cl [ a ] Co] £ u ] (i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) 2 3 0 The schemata / [ov ], and / [..._i_{cX))] may be further coalesced Into more involved schemata in order to account for the observed regularities in many of the rules, thereby achieving greater generality. Thus; / A l l C»s except f, v, h/ >[p,t,k, \ y \ t>,d,g, ] / [cv_] / A l l C«s/ ... ] / A l l C«s except y 4 q,v,h/ [ P t t . k , ^ b.d.g, • / [... ] [ _ ( Icfb] lev' lC J ,... y 231 r C Xf \] \ 73 PR 24s /2/ -PR 25: PR 26: / 3 / •-> C 2 ] ^ -> [ 3 ] . -> [ i ] J c (4) 3 2 1 d[_] ] _] (ID ( i l l ) ( i v ) PR 27: /4/ > [>]/ < 1 , c (4) 3 2 [_ ] ^ r — 3 ' ( i ) ( I I ) ( I i i ) ( i v ) 73 A n e x c e p t i o n t o PR 24 t h r o u g h 32.: U n l i k e i n t h e c a s e o f t h e s e g m e n t a l s - w h e r e t h e i t e m s e n c l o s e d i n s q u a r e b r a c k e t s r e p r e s e n t a s i n g l e s y l l a b l e - t h e s u p r a s e g m e n t a l s y m b o l s b e t w e e n t h e b r a c k e t s a r e t h o s e s u p e r p o s e d o n o n e o r m o r e s y l l a b l e s . 232 PR 28 s 4/ > [|] / [21 ] (i) PR [4] / [ 2 3 1 _ ] 29: A/ > Ctl / C 2 1 3 _ ] / C 3 1 _ ] J (i) ( i l ) ( i i i ) (iv) PR 30s /I/ - — > [|] / D 33 22 11 (i) 1|] / C 2 1 _ ] v PR 31: /||/ >• [ f ] / (2)31J (1) ( i i ) 233 ,/V » [•]/ .[(x)(x)(x) x(x)(x)] .[(x)(x)x (x)(x)xx x ( x ) ( x ) ] J PR 32:2 (i) ( i i ) Unmarked in the v / _„_> [ y [ ] context above. ( i i i ) B. Morphophonemic Rules (MR): MR 1 - Phoneme Addition by Gemination: ,/<$/ / VCA /C 2/ / , • y /C2C2/ J'/CJ7 2 / / 2c+Af/ (1). /cv/ / VC/J MR 2 - Phoneme Deletion, /e(C)/: MR 2 a : i/ /=2 V —-> Deleted / / C l V l ' C c/ /C3+Af/ (i) 234 MR 2b: /eC 2/^//C 1u/ /mJL/ /C^C/ « Deleted / /c 2vc/ MR 2c: /eC 2/ / /ma-/ /C^ . / /c 2vc/ -Deleted ^ /ma-C]/ /CgVC/ MR 3 - Phoneme S u b s t i t u t i o n MR 3a - Assimilations /m/ /CV. /n/ > /CV 235 MR 3b - Gradation* MR 3^(1): /o/ /c_Q/ -/u/ / /C a / /C ' / /CAf/ MR 3*>(2) : /o/ / /CJ / / c - 0 7 /u/ / / c | « i ^ a / / c / /dBf / MR 3b(3)« / V c f / c 2 A ./cv/ /c1_l.c2/i / y / / A w e - , / /Cj^JlAf/ 236 /*/cv/ /c 1 c 2A MB 3b(4): / 0'/ /cv/ / c ^ C g / J /w/ / /cvc^ A x A i f / (iv) MH 3c - R e d u p l i c a t i o n : /o/ / /CV/ A [ " j / > / u / / /cv/ /c Q / /cv/ A o Q / (i) 2 3 7 5.2 Conclusions Within the limits of the organized data and facts arrived at? at the taxonomic and explanatory levels of this research/ i t is possible, by way of conclusion;' to make the following assertions: l . 1 That, the phonetic or phonemic data and facts are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y significant and important only to the extent that generalizations about their relational occurren-ces i n the dialect are explicitly stated; 2. That, the phonological grammar constructed for the cultivated Ilokano dialect as spoken in Bayombong/ Nueva Vizcaya is generative/ i / e// predictive in that i t projects an i n f i n i t e number of potential combinations of the 3 4 emic units/ beyond those actually represented in the corpus; 3 / That/ concomitant with the influx of loans which is evident in the every day speech of the Ilokanos represent-ed in this study/ borrowed sounds/ such as /e, o 9 f / v, h// have become assimilated into the native phonemic system; 4 , ' That/ syntactic and morphological structures are inevitably involved i n phonology - there Is no s t r i c t sepa-ration of levels/ The dynamics of stress in the dialect resulting from morphological expansion using affixes is one concrete instance of the interrelation of phonology and morphology. A l l the suprasegmental prosodemes for that matter 238 depended on higher level grammatical considerations for their interpretation* 5. ' That;/ every utterance i n the dialect can be uniquely represented as a sequence of phones - segments or suprasegments - which are in turn represented by a sequence of phonemes each of which can be regarded as a token or abbreviation for a set of phonetic features, ; The features are distinctive or contrastive in the dialect, setting utterances apart,1 thereby making communication possible. An analysis of the stream of speech bears this out even more succinctly; 6. That,1 a dialect has a phonemic system that is unique and adequate in i t s e l f and for i t s users. Thus, the Ilokano dialect in this study has i t s own phonemic code, slightly different from any of those of the dialects studied by Sibayan/ Constantino, and McKaughan and Porster. There Is no essential difference, however, in the syllable structure of the Ilokano dialects/ On this point the writer begs to d i f f e r with Drs." Sibayan and Constantino in that they established V as a syllable type in Ilokano. This view seems to be orthography-based or printbound. For example/ what they l i s t and transcribe as /a ma/ 'father 1/ and /a/ 'a ligature*, are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y CV(C)/ /qa maq/ and /qaq// respectively, since the glottal stop is a phoneme; The writer begs also to disagree with Dr. Constantino who says that in Ilokano/ syllable boundary, which he symbo-239 lized as /-/, is phonemic since i t is unpredictable - i . e., either before or after C in the -VCV- sequence type - and that i t has the allophones of a glottal stop, [?], before a vowel, and a prolongation, indicated by [.], of the f i n a l consonant before a consonant. He indicates the syllable boundary in the transcription when i t occurs after the con-sonant in -VCV- sequences.1 For example: blr-1 /blr-iy [ b i r t i ] •crack 1  maysa /maysa/ [may.sa] •one* sabung /sabung/ [sabunB 'flower 1  sab-ung /sab-un/ [sabtun] 'laps' Considering the structural patterns of the Ilokano syllable (Sec. 2 .33 of this thesis), the glottal stop, /q/, is a phoneme by the principles of identity of function -i . e., /q/ identifies with ft/ or /b/ - and by the principle of pattern congruity - i . e., in the CVC CVC sequence. For example: rangtay /ran tay/ 'bridge' vs rang-ay /ran qay/ 'progress* uttot /qut tot/ *break wind' vs ut-ot /qut qot/ •pain* sabong /s£! bon/ •flower,* vs sab-ong /sab qo"n/ *dowry* This view, of course,1 disregards the Aufhebung principle whereby /q/ may become a free variant of /p,t,k/ (Sec. 4 .222).* One might say;- for the sake of argumentthat syllable boundary is phonemic since i t patterns and functions like the consonant /b/ in /s& hon/ vs /sab qon/i The decision 240 i n favor of such argument is untenable because syllable boundary is suprasegmental, i . e., i t can be identified only in terms of several segmental unitsy while /b/ is segmental.1 Methodologically speaking," segments cannot be subsumed with suprasegmentslin one and the same phoneme.-Finally, 1 that this research study has aimed at comprehensiveness of coverage and depth of analysis. The writer/ however, is prepared to accept the possibility that in both content and methodology the study may well have failed to get at some crucial details. Gaps are inevitable. Perhaps the day w i l l come when the type of metalanguage that has been employed in this grammar w i l l be insufficient to resolve deeper questions concerning the phonological structure of the Ilokano dialect. This can be expected considering the present trend in the interdisciplinary approach to the study of language, whereby new phenomena are revealed and better concepts and methodologies developed. The statements above reflect the attitude that at any time the writer must be prepared to modify her theory -i . ' eiV the grammar - and evolve a more viable one which gives a precise structural delineation of a l l phonological phenomena in the dialect. As Robins has said;' "linguistics as a branch of scholarship cannot afford to remain unaltered for any length of time." Language is dynamic and the think-ing of students of language must be equally dynamic. * * * B I B L I O G R A P H Y 242 A. BOOKS Bach, Emmon, 1964. An Introduction to Transformational  Grammars. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Bloomfield, Leonard, 1933. Language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.' Carrell, James, and William„R. Tiffany, I960,. Phonetics: Theory and Application to Speech Improvement. New York: McGraw-Hill. Chomsky, Noam, 1957. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton and Co/ .• 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax/ Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. Fodor, J.: A., and J. J. Katz (eds.), 1964. The. Structure  of Language: Readings i n the Philosophy of Language. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J.: Prentice-Hall. Gimson,' A. D., 1962. An Introduction to the Pronunciation  of English. London: Edward Arnold Pub. Ltd. Gregg, Robert J/y I960. A Students 1 Manual of French Pronunciation. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada, Limited. Cohen, A., 1952/ The Phonemes of English. The Hague: Mar-tinus Nyhoff. Gleason, H.! A./ Jr., I96I. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Halli Robert A/, Jr., 1964. Introductory Linguistics. New York: Chilton Books. Halle/ Morris, 1959. The Sound Pattern of Russian. The Hague: Mouton and Co. H i l l , Archibald A.y 1958. Introduction to Linguistic Struc-tures : From Sound to Sentence in EngTTsh. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.5 Hjemslev/ Lois, 1953. Prolegomena to a Theory of Language, ( t r / F.' J / Whitfield). Baltimore TlJAL Memoir No. 7). 243 Hockett;• Charles F.y 1958. A Course in Modem Linguistics. New York: The Macmillan Co. Jakobson, Roman, and Morris Halle, 1956. Fundamentals of Language. The Hague: Mouton and Co. m_mmmmm^i,' C.1 Gunnar M. Fant, and Morris Halle, 1965. P r e l i -minaries to Speech Analysis: The Distinctive Features  and Their Correlates. Cambridge,' Mass.; The MIT Press. Jones, Daniel,' 1950.' The Phoneme: Its Nature and Use. Cambridge: W. Heffner & Sons, Ltd. .1 I957.' The History and Meaning of the Term "Phoneme." L"ondon: International Phonetic Association. i960. An Outline of English Phonetics. Cambridge: W. Heffner & Sons,- Ltd. Katz, Jerold J.y and Paul M. Postal, .1964. An Integrated  Theory of Linguistic Descriptions. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Mackey, William Francis, 1965. Language Teaching Analysis. London: Longmans, Green & Co.', Ltd. McKaughan, Howard,' and Forster, 1 Jannette, 1953. Ilooano: An Intensive Course. Grand Forks, N. D.: Summer Insti-tute of Linguistics. Malmberg, B e r t i l , 1963. Structural Linguistics and Human  Communication. New York: Academic Press, Inc. Martinet, Andre/ 1949. Phonology as Functional Phonetics. London: Oxford University Press.' ,' i960. Elements of General Linguistics. London: Faber and Faber, Ltd. Nadel, F.' S., 1951. The Foundations of Social Anthropology. London: Cohen and West,' Ltd.-Pel,- Mario, 1966J Glossary of Linguistic Terminology. New York: Doubleday and Co. Pike, Kenneth Lee,1 1943. Phonetics: a c r i t i c a l analysis of phonetic theory and a technic for the practical descrip-tion of sounds. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. (University of Michigan Publications i n Language and Literature, Vol. 21.) 244 194?.' Phonemlcs; a technique for reducing languages to writing. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. (University of Michigan Publications in Linguistics, Vol . 3.) 1954. . Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior. Vol.' l 7 Glendale, California: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Robins,. R. H., 1964. General Linguistics: An Introductory  Survey. London: Longmans, Green and Co., Ltd. Sapir, Edward, 1921. Language: An Introduction to the Study  of Speech.' New York: Harcourt , rBrace, and World,' Inc. Saussure, Ferdinand de, 1959. Course in General Linguistics. New York: Philosophical Library. B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT AND LEARNED SOCIETIES Bureau of the Census and Statistics, 1962. Philippine National  Census of I960. Manila: BCS. International Phonetic Association, I965. The Principles of  the International Phonetic Association. London: Univer-sity College. Joos, Martin (ed.), 1957.'' Readings in Linguistics. Washington, D. C : American Council of Learned Societies. Lunt, Horace G. (ed.),' 1964. Proceedings of the Ninth Inter-national Congress of Linguists. The Hague: Mouton & Co. Panganiban, Jose V i l l a / 1957. "The Family of Philippine Lang-uages," Bureau of Public Schools Bulletin No. 37, s.1957. Manila: Bureau of Public Schools. C. PERIODICALS Bloch, Bernard. "A Set of Postulates for Phonemic Analysis," Language 24, pp. 3-46. Bloomfield, L . "A Set of Postulates for the Science of Language," Language 2, pp. 153-164. (Reprinted in Joos, 1957). 245 Chomsky; N. "Some Methodological Remarks on Generative Grammar," Word 17, pp. 219-239. , and Morris Halle. "Some Controversial Questions in Phonological Theory." Journal of Linguistics, 1, pp. 97-214. Pries, Charles C.y and Kenneth L . Pike, "Co-existent Phonemic Systems,5" Language 25, pp. 29-50. Halle, Morris. "The Strategy of Phonemics," Word 10, pp.1 197-209. , "Phonology in Generative Grammar," Word 18, pp. 54-72".1 (Reprinted in Fodor and Katz (1964), pp/ 334-352. Harris/ Zellig S. "Distributional Structure," Word 10, pp. 46-62. (Reprinted in Fodor and Katz (1964-)/ pp.' 33-49. Haugen, Einar. "The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing," Language 26/ pp/ 210-231.' "The Phoneme in Bilingual Description," Language Learning 7/ PP. 17-23. Hockett., C.z F. "Linguistic Elements and Their Relations," Language 37* PP. 29-53. / "A System of Descriptive Phonology," Language 18, pp. 3-21/ Pike, Kenneth L . "Grammatical Prerequisites to Phonemic Analysis," Language 3/ PP- 155-172.' Sapir, Edward. "Sound Patterns in Language," Language 1, pp/37-51. (Reprinted in Selected Writings of Edward  Sapir; ed/ D. G. Mandelbaum/ California, 195971 Stockwell, R. P. "The Place of Intonation in a Generative Grammar of English," Language 36, pp. 360-367. Twaddell,1 W. F . "On Defining the Phoneme," Language/ Monograph No. 16/ 1935. (Reprinted in Joos (ed.J , 1957. D. ESSAYS AND ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS Chomsky, Noam. "Current Issues in Linguistic Theory," In Fodor and Katz (1964), pp. 50-118. 246 Chomsky, N., M. Halle, and F. Lukoff,. "On Accent and Juncture in English," in For Roman Jakobson: Essays, eds. M. Halle, H. Lunt, H. McLean. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1956, pp. 65-80.1 Fant,; C. Gunnar M.y "Modern Instruments and Methods for Acoustic Studies of Speech," in Proceedings of the Eighth  International Congress of Linguists, ed. Eva Sivertsen. Oslo: Oslo University Press, 1958, pp. 282-362. Halle, Morris, "On the Bases of Phonology," in The Structure of Language, eds. J. A. Fodor and XJ. Katz, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964, pp. 324-333. Haugen, Einar:,,, "The Syllable in Linguistic Description," in For Roman Jakobson, eds. M. Halle and others, 1956, pp.~ZT3-22l. Hanssen, H. Spang, "Mathematical Linguistics - A Trend in Name or in Fact?" i n Proceedings. ed. H. G. Lunt, 1965, pp. 61-71. J^rgensen, E l i Fischer, "The Commutation Test and Its Application to Phonemic Analyses," in For Roman Jakobson. eds. M. Halle and others, 1956, pp. l40^13l. Pike, Kenneth L., "On Systems of Grammatical Structure," i n Proceedings, ed. H. G. Lunt,-* 1964, pp. 145-154. Pilch, Herbert, "Phonetics, Phonemics,1 and Metaphonemics;" i n Proceedings. ed. H. G. Lunt, 1965, pp. 900-904. Rischel, Jjrfrgen, "Stress, Juncture and Syllabification in Phonemic Description," in Proceedings, ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, pp. 85-93. Saumjan, S. K., "Concerning the Logical Basis of Linguistic Theory," in Proceedings, ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, pp. 155-160. Discussion in session, "Mathematical Linguistics -A Trend in Name or in Fact?" in Proceedings. ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, p. 70/ Thompson, Laurence C.y "Pattern Fringe and the Evaluation of Phonological Analyses," in Proceedings. ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, pp. 94-100. Truby, H. M., "Pleniphonetic Transcription in Phonetic Analysis," in Proceedings, ed. H. G. Lunt, 1964, pp. 101-107. 247 E. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Beyer, H. Otley. "List of Philippine Languages and Dialects," Mimeographed, 1942. Constantino, Ernesto Andres, A Generative Grammar of a Dialect of Ilocano. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertaTion, Indiana University,1 1959. Microfilmed. Slbayan,' Bonifacio Padilla, English and Iloco Segmental  Phonemes. Unpublished Ph.* D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1961. Microfilmed. * Vt * 

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