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The integration of metropolitan transportation planning with a comprehensive development policy : a coordinated… Brown, Gerald Richardson 1966

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THE INTEGRATION OF METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING WITH A COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT POLICY: A COORDINATED APPROACH hy GERALD RICHARDSON BROWN B.Sc,  Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1956  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the D i v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1966  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of Columbia, for  I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  s h a l l make i t  freely  the  British available  I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r  ex-  t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be gran by the Head of my Department o r by h i s  representatives.  understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r cial  is  finan-  g a i n sha11 not be a l l owed wi thout my wr i t t e n pe rm i ss i o n .  Department of  Community and R e g i o n a l  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  It  April,  1966  Planning  ABSTRACT  Metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s the movement of per-  sons and goods w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  region.  The t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n movement r e s u l t s from a demand f o r i n t e r a c t i o n amongst s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out oh the l a n d , and t h e r e f o r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n of land However, the supply  utilization.  of transportation f a c i l i t i e s  i n turn  enables a f u r t h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f urban f u n c t i o n s and helps to determine the f u t u r e use o f l a n d .  There i s t h e r e -  f o r e a two d i r e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and land use, which'must be considered p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  i n the metro-  process.  Moreover, there i s change i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o land use w i t h a change i n the transportatlonnmode. e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n  space, and t o allow  the land to be e x p l o i t e d t o i t s maximum extent, of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n must be i n t e g r a t e d . p o r t a t i o n planning  F o r an  a l l systems  Therefore,  the t r a n s -  process must e f f e c t i v e l y Integrate a l l  systems. The  i n t e g r a t i o n o f land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  net-  works, and the i n t e g r a t i o n and o p t i m i z a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems can only be accomplished e f f i c i e n t l y i f the proposals can be implemented w i t h i n a comprehensive development p o l i c y . (iii)  Because the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network t r a n s c e n d s any fragmented p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h i n the metropolitan  area,  trans-  p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y must stem from t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l r e l e v a n t t e c h n i c a l a g e n c i e s and p o l i t i c a l w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  jurisdictions  area.  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n  transportation  p r o c e s s by an a n a l y s i s o f s o - c a l l e d major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n studies i n nine selected metropolitan  regions  i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s and Canada shows a h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d toward an i n t e g r a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and l a n d use by means o f a coordinated  approach.  The f i r s t s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r e d  only the  one d i r e c t i o n a l e f f e c t of l a n d use on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n movement, w h i l e t h e l a t e r , more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t u d i e s approach a systems a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l a n d u s e , and i n c o r p o r a t e  provisions f o r evaluation  o f t h e systems by means o f a l t e r n a t i v e l a n d u s e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n plans. inherent  A p l a n o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been an  p a r t o f the l a t e r s t u d i e s , but no attempt has been  made of i n t e r - s y s t e m s  a n a l y s e s o f a l l modes.  The h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e t h e s i s i s t h a t  "transportation  systems have an i n f l u e n c e on l a n d use and t h e r e f o r e p o l i t a n transportation planning  metro-  s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e g r a l  component o f a comprehensive m e t r o p o l i t a n  development  policy".  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the l e g a l and f i n a n c i a l framework and the f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the s e l e c t e d major t r a n s (iv)  p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s shows that the h i s t o r i c a l trend t h i s hypothesis.  The U n i t e d  supports  States government has  changed  from a "highways-only" p o l i c y of f e d e r a l - a i d to a p o l i c y of a i d for transportation planning s i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning land use planning  and  c o n d i t i o n a l upon a comprehen-  process,  had  provides  public transportation  i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a comprehensive p l a n . Canada has  and  The  funds f o r  planning Government of  only a minor i n f l u e n c e on m e t r o p o l i t a n  p o r t a t i o n planning,  but at l e a s t two  w i l l i n g n e s s to support m e t r o p o l i t a n  provinces  trans-  show a  transportation  planning  on an i n t e g r a t e d b a s i s . A major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study i s administered  by  an  i n v e s t i g a t i v e agency c o n s i s t i n g of a P o l i c y Committee and T e c h n i c a l Committee. over i;iime has  Changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  structure  r e f l e c t e d the l e g i s l a t i v e comprehensiveness,  need to i n c o r p o r a t e  a  the  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning process i n t o  the governmental process,  and  the n e c e s s i t y to become con-  t inuous. I t i s concluded t h a t m e t r o p o l i t a n planning  transportation  must be conducted by a s p e c i a l purpose  agency which i s p o l i t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and  continuous.  federated  coordinating  comprehensive,  The major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e ,  metropolitan  government, i s not  the a r e a l scope of m e t r o p o l i t a n  f e a s i b l e because  transportation  planning  exceeds the l i m i t which could l o g i c a l l y be governed by a s i n g l e municipal  government.  A small Executive (v)  Committee  c o n s i s t i n g of Cabinet  M i n i s t e r s and municipal  representation,  w i t h a M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l i c y Committee and a T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r i s suggested to coordinate agencies and p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n the region.  Comprehensiveness  i s obtained  of the r e g i o n a l planning process planning  hierarchy.  (vi)  the fragmented metropolitan  by the i n t e g r a t i o n  i n t o the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  On r e a c h i n g t h i s s t a g e i n one's e d u c a t i o n  it is  i m p o s s i b l e t o acknowledge t h e h e l p , c o u n s e l , and i n s p i r a t i o n r e c e i v e d from o t h e r s .  However, an attempt i s made here t o  thank those who helped d i r e c t l y on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e thesis.  G r a t e f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended t o - D r . H.P. Oberland  f o r h i s i n s p i r i n g guidance d u r i n g two y e a r s , t o D r . K. Cross f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g t h e preparation of t h i s t h e s i s , to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , and l a s t l y t o my w i f e , who made t h e t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . S p e c i a l thanks must a l s o go t o those who s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n ; Mr. P.E. Wade, Mr. J.L. Vardon, Dr. V. S e t t y Pendakur, Mr. G.F. P a r r y , Mr. D.W. M i l l s , Mr. V.J. and  t o Mrs.  E o r r a i who d i d t h e f i n a l t y p i n g .  (vii)  Parker;  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE THE METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROBLEM OF INTEGRATION AND COORDINATION . . A History of Metropolitan  1  Transportation  Planning  4  The S i g n i f i c a n c e of M e t r o p o l i t a n Transp o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g f o r Comprehensive 9  Planning Study Framework  12  Summary of the Problem and the Study Hypothesis II  18  THE INFLUENCE OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ON 21  LAND USE The H i s t o r i c Role of A c c e s s i b i l i t y on  23  Urban Form T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f Metropolitan A c t i v i t y  .  26  The Economic Impact of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 32  Innovation The Influence o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Innovation  37  on Environment  39  Summary (viii)  CHAPTER III  PAGE THE INTEGRATION OF METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS  46  Historical Development and Change in Transportation Modes The Decline of Public Transportation  49 . . . 52  The Growth of Motor Vehicle Travel and the Need for a Balanced Transportation System Chapter Summary IV  55 58  METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING IN SELECTED REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES . . .  62  Legislative and Financial Framework . . . .  62  An Analysis of Six Major United States Metropolitan Area Transportation Studies  72  An Evaluation of the Selected Transportation Studies  93  Chapter Summary V  105  METROPOLITAN' TRANSPORTATION PLANNING IN CANADA: SELECTED CASES  114  Legislative and Financial Framework . . . . 116 Metropolitan Transportation Planning in Selected Regions of Canada Chapter Summary VI  123 140  THE COORDINATION OF METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF GREATER VANCOUVER  146  Legislative and Financial Framework . . . . 147 (ix)  CHAPTER  PAGE The Vancouver Metropolitan Region . . . .  156  The History of Metropolitan Transportation Planning in the Vancouver Region  . . . 165  Transportation Planning Objectives  . . . 169  Transportation Planning Administration  VII  . 174  Case Study Evaluation and Recommendations  178  Chapter Summary  188  TOWARD AN INTEGRATED AND COORDINATED METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING POLICY  197  Summary Conclusions  197  General Recommendations Study Evaluation  205 210  BIBLIOGRAPHY  214  (x)  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I  PAGE Major Transportation Studies in Large Metropolitan Areas of the United States, as of October, 1962  II  74  Areal Extent and Number of Political Jurisdictions of Selected Studies  III  Policy Committee Composition of Selected Studies  IV  89  Technical Committee Composition of Selected Studies  V  76  90  Sponsorship of Selected Studies  (xi)  94  H>  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE 1  PAGE Change i n Home L o c a t i o n s of Employees i n New England I n d u s t r i a l C e n t e r , 1953-1957 (Route 128, Boston)  2  I n c r e a s e i n Land V a l u e s A d j a c e n t t o Grand C e n t r a l Parkway, New  3  York, 1925-1953  . . .  .34  I n c r e a s e i n Land V a l u e s A d j a c e n t t o Edens Expressway,  4  30  Chicago, 1941-1956  36  O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a r t , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study  129  5  L o c a t i o n of G r e a t e r Vancouver  6  P o l i t i c a l J u r i s d i c t i o n s i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver Region  146a  '  (xii)  157a  CHAPTER I THE METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROBLEM OP INTEGRATION AND COORDINATION  Two major problems which have r e s u l t e d from the c u r r e n t trend to u r b a n i z a t i o n i n North America a r e the " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem" and the " m e t r o p o l i t a n problem". The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem o f c o n g e s t i o n and the i n e f f i e i e n c i e s of the movement of persons and goods has been caused by t e c h n i c a l improvements  i n the means o f m o b i l i t y , superimposed on  urban areas which were designed and b u i l t f o r a more l e i s u r e l y age.  The m e t r o p o l i t a n problem has been caused by a stream o f  m i g r a t i o n to the l a r g e c i t i e s s i n c e the i n d u s t r i a l  revolution,  and a consequent d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s causing u r b a n i z a t i o n t o b u r s t i t s p o l i t i c a l boundaries r e s u l t i n g i n "the l a c k of u n i f i e d  c o n t r o l o r the i n a b i l i t y of the  whole t o d i r e c t and coordinate the f u n c t i o n i n g o f p a r t s v i t a l to i t s e x i s t e n c e . T h e  m e t r o p o l i t a n problem i s a fragmenta-  t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s which i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o the coordinated approach needed  to supply v i t a l s e r v i c e s t o the  whole m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . These two problems are i n t i m a t e l y connected.  The  l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n regions which have developed i n North America a t the expense of s m a l l towns and r u r a l areas a r e  2  made p o s s i b l e by more e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s / w h i c h have produced an increased ment .  c o n t r o l o f the s p a t i a l  environ-  As the cost o f overcoming space decreased i t allowed  the f u n c t i o n s o f the c i t y t o spread outward and the r u r a l areas and s m a l l e r c i t i e s and towns which had grown up beside the c e n t r a l c i t y were inundated w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l areas housing people who worked i n the c i t y .  As the trend  con-  t i n u e d i n d u s t r y and r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s moved outward a l s o and  enforced  central  low d e n s i t y development many miles from the  core. Although one o f the causes o f i n c r e a s i n g  was t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n n o v a t i o n , man's c a p a c i t y t o provide which caused congestion,  metropolitanism  the momentum of growth exceeded  enough t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  facilities  f r u s t r a t i o n and l a r g e economic  l o s s e s due t o i n e f f i c i e n c y i n moving people and goods.  With  the increased use o f the motor c a r the problem became acute, r e s u l t i n g i n mounting pressure  t o improve the s i t u a t i o n . The  growth of t r a f f i c began t o be recorded  and e x t r a p o l a t e d  into  the f u t u r e t o a n t i c i p a t e f u t u r e demands on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes. 1950  T h i s process has s t e a d i l y been improved and has s i n c e  l e d t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n  attempts t o i n v e n t o r y  area t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study which  e x i s t i n g land use development and t r a v e l  p a t t e r n s , and t o p l a n f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s based on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between these. majority of metropolitan  regions  The great  over one m i l l i o n  population  3 have done, o r a r e doing such a study. However t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g of m e t r o p o l i t a n r e gions must contend with the m e t r o p o l i t a n problem.  The growth  o f u r b a n i z a t i o n has created problems i n the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the fragmented governmental j u r i s d i c t i o n s which a r e no l o n g e r a b l e t o maintain t h e i r independence from each other with regard t o c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s that must be provided on a r e gional basis.  One of the more important  s e r v i c e s which  transcends t r a d i t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l boundaries transportation.  i s regional  Any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n i s only s u c c e s s f u l  i f i t can be implemented under these c o n d i t i o n s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l fragmentation w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . F i t e h has s t a t e d the problem v e r y w e l l .  He w r i t e s :  Most urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g has s u f f e r e d from two main d e f e c t s . F i r s t , i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s have concentrated e i t h e r on highway or t r a n s i t p l a n n i n g , r a r e l y on comprehensive p l a n n i n g . Second, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n many i n s t a n c e s has not been adequately coordinated w i t h land-use-anddevelopment p l a n n i n g . . . . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p l a n n i n g has been d i v i d e d among numerous agencies, which a r e o r d i n a r i l y l i m i t e d as t o geographic scope o r t o a p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode, o r both.2 T h i s study i s an e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning i n s e l e c t e d m e t r o p o l i t a n regions of North America.  The e x p e r i -  ment i s t o determine t o what extent the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g process considers:.the i n f l u e n c e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on urban development, and to examine t o what extent t h i s e f f e c t was r e f l e c t e d i n the l e g i s l a t i v e , f i s c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework o f s t u d i e s done i n the s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s .  4 The  experimental method i s to examine nine  metropolitan  regions w i t h an e x i s t i n g or near f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n one m i l l i o n or more i n h a b i t a n t s .  of about  E i g h t regions a r e i n v e s t i -  gated t o determine the g e n e r a l case and one r e g i o n i s s t u d i e d i n some depth.  The purpose o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o  determine the problems of i n t e g r a t i n g a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems w i t h land -use, and t o suggest a l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework which would coordinate  a l l the  d i v e r s e components o f the problem w i t h i n the framework of a comprehensive development p o l i c y . I. A HISTORY OF METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING The  h i s t o r y of m e t r o p o l i t a n  may be d i v i d e d i n t o three phases.  transportation  planning  During the f i r s t phase,  p r i o r to 1950, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s were planned on the b a s i s o f p r e d i c t e d estimates of t r a f f i c volume growth.  A  measurement was made o f the e x i s t i n g movement p a t t e r n s , and improvements t o the network r e s u l t e d from a p r o j e c t i o n of what these movements might be i n the f u t u r e . The  second phase began i n the e a r l y 1950's and may  be t y p i f i e d by the D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n Area T r a f f i c Study. I t was recognized  i n the study that m e t r o p o l i t a n  transporta-  t i o n (or the movement o f persons and goods w i t h i n the metropolitan  r e g i o n ) r e s u l t s from the demand f o r i n t e r a c t i o n  of a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out on the land w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  region.  That i s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n of land  utilization.  The D e t r o i t study recognized  that "the mosaic  of land use i s the determinant of the t o t a l t r a f f i c and  as p a r t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study included  pattern,  population  f o r e c a s t s and a land use p l a n which was prepared by the planning  agencies i n the r e g i o n .  metropolitan  Since 1953 every major  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study has used a land use p l a n  as a b a s i s f o r t r a f f i c gene r a t Ion .".and land use f o r e c a s t s as the c r i t e r i a The  on which t o p l a n f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks  general study methodology used i n these s t u d i e s was t o  conduct surveys to determine the o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n of journeys as a means of r e l a t i n g the journey t o some aspect of land use.  The o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s were grouped i n t o  " t r a f f i c " zones and composite p a t t e r n s  of d e s i r e d movement  were c a l c u l a t e d and theh.;examined. The composite movement p a t t e r n s were then p r o j e c t e d t o some year i n the f u t u r e f o r which new expected movements would t h e o r e t i c a l l y occur.  The  f u t u r e movement d e s i r e s were compared w i t h the e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network, the d e f i c i e n c i e s found and new routes The  planned t o a l l e v i a t e the expected f u t u r e d e f i c i e n c i e s  f u t u r e movements were then assigned  t o the planned  net-  work. At f i r s t the f u t u r e composite d e s i r e d movements were p r o j e c t e d from those measured by means o f a common growth f a c t o r f o r a l l zones.  I t soon became evident however that  t h i s was u n r e a l i s t i c s i n c e each zone had a d i f f e r e n t growth  6 p o t e n t i a l , which was  r e l a t e d to the use  p o t e n t i a l use  land.  of the  of the l a n d , or the  As the methods became more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and the help of the h i g h speed computer i t was  p o s s i b l e by means  of a household survey (at the o r i g i n of a journey) to mine the v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g the g e n e r a t i o n a household.  By u t i l i z i n g  p o s s i b l e to f i n d under any  with  deter-  of t r a f f i c  from  c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s i t became s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s the  signif-  i c a n t v a r i a b l e s of household composition which a f f e c t e d movement.  To p l a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks i t was  then only  necessary to p r e d i c t the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of the uses of the land at some f u t u r e date. f u t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n t e n s i t y and between the land uses and  Knowing the  the measured r e l a t i o n s h i p  movement a t h e o r e t i c a l p a t t e r n  could  be c a l c u l a t e d . The  success of t h i s method depends upon three  t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l a n d use c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s remain constant can be foreseen and  traffic  generating  over time, or that changes  taken i n t o account; that the  l a n d use p r o j e c t i o n i s an accurate  representation  estimated of the  and  that the land use d i s t r i b u t i o n and  not  change when the planned t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  built.  The  f i r s t two  things:  i n t e n s i t y patterns  of these i n v o l v e f o r e c a s t i n g the  are not considered  l a s t component i s a c r i t i c a l one  future  i n t h i s study.  i n the procedure and  do  are  (which i s u s u a l l y done i n p r a c t i c e by a c c u r a t e l y observing p r o j e c t i n g t r e n d s ) , and  future;  and The  unlike  7 the f i r s t two the present t i o n and  has a b e t t e r p r o p e n s i t y  s t a t e of technology.  f o r improvement,  The  i n t e r a c t i o n of  given  transporta-  land use with respect to the e f f e c t of land use  on  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system has been w e l l handled i n a l l the recent m e t r o p o l i t a n  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s , but the  corollary  t o t h i s , the e f f e c t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on land has  use  only very r e c e n t l y been g i v e n more than c u r s o r y prominence  i n the s t u d i e s .  The  complete i n t e g r a t i o n of land use  and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n both d i r e c t i o n s w i t h a feed-back arrangement b u i l t i n t o the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study methodology i s j u s t now  becoming p o s s i b l e . The  planning  t h i r d phase i n the e v o l u t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  began about I960.  of the major m e t r o p o l i t a n way  two  t i o n was  During the second phase when many t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s were under-  problems were developing.  Although p u b l i c  transporta-  v o i c e d as a n e c e s s a r y mode of movement w i t h i n  urban r e g i o n i t was  not g i v e n much p r i o r i t y by the  i n s o l v i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem.  studies  Many of the  studies  showed a p e s s i m i s t i c outlook to the f u t u r e of p u b l i c t i o n when they based p r e d i c t i o n s on the measured demand.  However i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y evident  l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n to the m e t r o p o l i t a n was  the  transporta-  present that the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem  a balanced system where each mode could be developed  the b a s i s of i t s most economical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and w i t h a l l other modes.  I t was  t i o n appeared i n the U n i t e d  i n 1961  States  only  that the f i r s t  on  integrated legisla-  (the Housing A c t of  1961)  8  which a l l o c a t e d l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l a i d i n the form of demonstrat i o n g r a n t s and  loans to p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o j e c t s .  These were t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d F i n a n c e Agency.  t h r o u g h the Housing and Home  T h i s modest b e g i n n i n g r e s u l t e d u l t i m a t e l y  i n the Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n U.S.  A c t of 1964  which a l l o c a t e d  f e d e r a l funds f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n "the development of 5  comprehensive and The  coordinated  second a s p e c t of the t h i r d phase was  about whether or not any ing  mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems". a concern  o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n s r e s u l t -  from the s t u d i e s would be implemented.  Among the people  i n v o l v e d t h e r e seems a " q u i e t c o n f i d e n c e t h a t the  studies  would e x e r t a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n development i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  area".  I t i s c l e a r t h a t the  influence  of the s t u d i e s w i l l depend on the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  admin-  i s t r a t i v e machinery developed t o implement t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  areas.  The  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s were done  by s p e c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i v e ad hoc a g e n c i e s w i t h p r o v i s i o n made i n most cases t o e s t a b l i s h the s t u d y as a c o n t i n u i n g The  process.  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p l a n s can o n l y be accomplished  t h r o u g h government by means of b u d g e t i n g , f i n a n c i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g l a n d use and  by the c o n t r o l of p u b l i c works.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study p r o c e s s i s not  Where the  i n harmony w i t h  the  p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s the chances of the p l a n b e i n g implemented are s m a l l . planning  T h e r e f o r e a major n e c e s s i t y f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  i s t h a t i t i s accomplished w i t h i n a l e g i s l a t i v e frame-  work which w i l l ensure t h a t i t s recommendations a r e c a r r i e d  9  out. T h i s aspect  of m e t r o p o l i t a n  i s the one l e a s t s t u d i e d .  transportation  planning  The emphasis i n the f i r s t and  second phases was on technique and methodology.  The emphasis  i n the t h i r d phase must be one of i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n , that i s the i n t e g r a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning land use planning  and the i n t e g r a t e d planning  with  o f a l l modes  o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , as w e l l as a c o o r d i n a t i o n of a l l metropolitan  agencies who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r each of these  components.  However not only the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the  agencies i s r e q u i r e d but a d i r e c t involvement of these agencies w i t h the p o l i t i c a l process i s necessary t o make metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning e f f e c t i v e .  I I . THE SIGNIFICANCE OF METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING FOR COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING At f i r s t the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem was seen as congestion.  The movement of persons and goods on the t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n system was reduced t o i n e f f i c i e n c y and the s o l u t i o n was to b u i l d more f a c i l i t i e s t o take the growth o f t r a f f i c . Very l i t t l e thought was g i v e n to the reasons behind the cong e s t i o n , and the problem was solved w i t h the p l a n n i n g and design  of new f a c i l i t i e s by highway, s t r e e t and t r a n s i t  engineers. generation  When the r e l a t i o n s h i p between land use and t r a f f i c was r e a l i z e d the m u n i c i p a l  and r e g i o n a l planner  became an i n d i s p e n s i b l e p a r t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g  teams.  10 The planner's r o l e i n e a r l y major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s was one o f  supplying  as p o p u l a t i o n  e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e land use data, as w e l l  and employment  predictions.  The land use planner must c o n s i d e r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network as one determinant of a f u t u r e land use p a t t e r n , but p a r a d o x i c a l l y as a member o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  team  he has t o produce a f u t u r e land use p l a n which determines that network.  He i s a l s o faced w i t h other problems because  h i s area o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i s u s u a l l y not l a r g e enough t o encompass the area considered  i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study, and  he t h e r e f o r e can not p r e d i c t development on an adequate geographic s c a l e .  Although the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network i s a  f a c t o r h e l p i n g t o spread the b u i l t up area beyond  political  boundaries, the l o c a l f i n a n c i n g o f any improvements i s based on the m u n i c i p a l  tax base, and most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can not  a f f o r d the heavy expenditure needed t o provide  area wide  transportation f a c i l i t i e s .  This r e s u l t s i n appeals t o s e n i o r  governments f o r f i n a n c i n g .  P a r t i c i p a t i o n of s e n i o r l e v e l s  of government i n both Canada and the U.S.A. came about g r a d u a l l y and they began to provide  f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r large  s c a l e s t u d i e s and c a p i t a l works programs.  Since the budget  f o r the s t u d i e s was a l l o c a t e d from highway a i d programs and the experts  were provided  by the s t a t e highway departments i n  the U.S. and the p r o v i n c i a l highway departments i n Canada, the o r i e n t a t i o n of the work was toward highway  planning.  11 With the development of comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s some o f these problems became l e s s bothersome.  By  the e a r l y 1950's there was an awareness of the i n t e r a c t i o n o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g problem and land use p l a n n i n g . Although the D e t r o i t study  (as an example) was f i n a n c e d by  the Michigan S t a t e Highway Department and the Wayne County Road Commission, the resources of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area Regional P l a n n i n g Commission and the D e t r o i t C i t y P l a n Commission were u t i l i z e d f o r the l a n d use phases of the Study.  Since 1953 there has been increased cooperation on  the major m e t r o p o l i t a n s t u d i e s , and they have i n g e n e r a l become j o i n t e f f o r t s of most of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and planning a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h i n the a r e a . In the past p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s have been asked by the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study group to develop land use, populat i o n , employment and other p r o j e c t i o n s necessary f o r the study.  They have been more or l e s s an adjunct t o the study.  The t h e s i s o f t h i s study i s that the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n component i s a s e r v i c e system f o r g e n e r a l development and t h a t t h i s component c o n d i t i o n s development.  Because of t h i s the area  planning a u t h o r i t i e s should be i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n a l l aspects of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study.  Whether or not the  m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning process i s conducted  by  an ad hoc agency, by a c o n t i n u i n g executive committee o f area e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or by a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y , the r o l e o f the comprehensive planner i s a c r i t i c a l one f o r  12 future studies. III.  STUDY FRAMEWORK  Objectives The  b a s i c o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o determine  the most e f f e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework t o c a r r y out t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning r e g i o n i n Canada. considered  i n a typical  metropolitan  The two main components o f the problem  i n t h i s study a r e the n e c e s s i t y f o r the i n t e g r a -  t i o n o f a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems w i t h land uses and the inter-systems and  i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  facilities,  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c o o r d i n a t i o n of a l l the separate  agencies and j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  regions  which a r e concerned with the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and land use components o f development.  There a r e other s p e c i f i c aspects  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and land use planning which p e r haps need i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n such as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  and urban renewal, but  f o r purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n process i s considered  comprehensive i f i t i s c a r r i e d out  w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d and coordinated policy  p o l i c y framework.  framework must r e f l e c t m e t r o p o l i t a n  w i t h the p l a n n i n g  planning  development goals,  of transportation f a c i l i t i e s  means o f a c h i e v i n g these g o a l s .  The  one of the  Assumptions The  subject  o f metropolitan  transportation  i s treated  i n t h i s study a t the macroscopic s c a l e i n the sense that major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s are considered.  only  Although i t  i s necessary i n theory t o i n t e g r a t e a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f s t r e e t s from the l o c a l s t r e e t to the freeway (which may be planned by d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s ) , i t i s not p r a c t i c a l to c a r r y the study t o t h i s degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . source m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s o f s e l e c t e d r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s and t h e r e f o r e  The main  transportation  t h i s study i s l i m i t e d t o the degree of  a n a l y s i s of t h i s type of study.  This does not u s u a l l y extend  below the a r t e r i a l system, nor the main p u b l i c  transportation  routes. Although many systems o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have been, and  could s t i l l be used f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n  movements the  systems r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s study a r e r e s t r i c t e d to motor v e h i c l e s and p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v e h i c l e s i n c l u d i n g buses, streetccars, r a i l - r a p i d , and t o some extent r a i l F e r r y s e r v i c e i s not i n c l u d e d , may operate i n some regions u n i v e r s a l i n North America. nor  o r other r a r e modes which  but which are not considered A i r transport  i s the l o c a t i o n o f a i r terminals  i s not included  a f a c t o r i n the study,  although i n p r a c t i c e these can not be ignored. terminal has  commuter.  An a i r  i n t h i s study i s simply another use o f land which  traffic  g e n e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but which i s given  14 no s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The  e f f e c t of the  i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  f a c i l i t i e s on a l l land uses i s considered.  The  emphasis i s  on the e f f e c t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on land use than the t r a f f i c generating  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of land use, or  i n other words, the e f f e c t of land use systems. land use and  The  study.  on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  reason f o r t h i s i s simply  on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems has  has become an inherent  rather  that the e f f e c t of long been  recognized  part of any modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  T h i s t h e s i s emphasizes the feed-back r e l a t i o n s h i p  (the e f f e c t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y on land  use)  because t h i s problem has not been solved t e c h n i c a l l y , and because the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the s t u d i e s do not  i n general r e f l e c t t h i s  transportation  aspect.  Since the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems are d e a l t w i t h on the macroscopic s c a l e , only m e t r o p o l i t a n g e n e r a l ) are considered. are Involved  The  wide agencies ( i n  assumption i s that most agencies  e v e n t u a l l y t o some degree, but only the more  s i g n i f i c a n t ones are considered  i n any d e t a i l i n t h i s  study.  Definitions One planning  i s a l a c k of r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n of terms i n the  literature. may  d i f f i c u l t y i n w r i t i n g about t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Therefore  some of the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s  be somewhat a r b i t r a r y , but remain c o n s i s t e n t i n meaning  throughout the  study.  15 "Public Transportation"  r e f e r s to a l l modes of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n where common c a r r i e r s are used and  the term  i s synonymous w i t h mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , mass t r a n s i t , transit. and  Because a l l these terms are used i n the  and  literature  i n the l e g i s l a t i o n no attempt i s made here to convert  a l l the terms expressing s i n g l e expression.  common c a r r i e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to a  T h e r e f o r e where any  of these terms are  used i t s h a l l mean a l l forms of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , specified  unless  otherwise.  "Private Transportation"  r e f e r s to movement by  p r i v a t e c a r r i e r ( i n c l u d i n g motor cars and  t r u c k s , but  not  buses). A "Major T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Study" i s one which  a l l modes; i n v o l v e s the p r i n c i p a l phases of the t i o n planning  process, i n c l u d i n g an a n a l y s i s  employment, and  land use,  involves  transporta-  of-population,  p r e d i c t i o n of t r a f f i c flows  and  the development of a comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n plan; uses t r a f f i c zones as the b a s i c u n i t of a n a l y s i s ; has  an adequate  7 budget and  has  a broad-based o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  "Area" and  structure.  "Region" are synonymous i n t h i s study.  "Area" i s used i n many of the s t u d i e s to designate the extent of the study, whereas the term "Region" or i s used i n o t h e r s .  areal  "Regional"  For the purposes o f t h i s study a  region  c o n s i s t s of a n a t u r a l urbanized area f o r the purposes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning, centered m e t r o p o l i t a n  and  region.  i n a l l eases r e f e r s to a  city-  16 The " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Planning Process" g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s a l l the steps i n the development o f a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network based on community goals f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and i n c l u d e s a p l a n and program f o r network development, t o gether with a method o u t l i n e d f o r implementing and c o n t i n u i n g the study. "Regional p l a n n i n g " has been d e f i n e d by Friedmann as "the process  of f o r m u l a t i n g and c l a r i f y i n g s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s Q  i n the o r d e r i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s i n supra-urban space". p l a n n i n g process as d e f i n e d by D a v i d o f f and Reiner  The  involves  choice at three l e v e l s : v a l u e f o r m u l a t i o n , means i d e n t i f i c a Q t i o n and e f f e c t u a t i o n .  The d e f i n i t i o n of r e g i o n a l planning  i n t h i s study i s a combination  o f these concepts.  Regional  development goals a r e formulated which embrace t h e comprehensive development o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems a r e t e s t e d as a means of a c h i e v i n g the development goals and t h e r e f o r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s a r e subordinated goals.  t o r e g i o n a l development  The i n f l u e n c e o f land use p a t t e r n s i n determining  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks and the feed-back r e l a t i o n s h i p of the e f f e c t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on land use i s p a r t of the means i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as d e f i n e d by D a v i d o f f and Reiner.  The r e g i o n a l planner must a l s o c o n s i d e r the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l of p l a n n i n g programs, and insure t h a t development p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g proceed step by step manner.  i n an i n t e g r a t e d  17 "Development p o l i c y " i s the governmental process needed f o r the implementation has d i v i d e d the concept  of the planning program.  Pitch  of p o l i c y i n t o two components:  p o l i c y making and p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  10  P o l i c y making  i n v o l v e s choosing among a l t e r n a t i v e courses of a c t i o n and committing  resources t o implement d e c i s i o n s .  I t includes  the power t o r a i s e and t o a l l o c a t e funds and t o have the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o make the implementing d e c i s i o n s b i n d i n g . T h i s could take the form of the l e g i s l a t i v e and executive arm  of government or may appear i n the form of delegated  l e g i s l a t i o n t o m u n i c i p a l agencies o r boards. P o l i c y implementation policy decisions. accomplished  means the execution of broad  The execution o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s a r e  by an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f government,  or by s p e c i a l agencies o r boards created t o a d m i n i s t e r policy. "Metropolitan region." have developed  The U.S. Bureau of the Budget  an extensive d e f i n i t i o n o f a "Standard  M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l Area" which i n v o l v e s c r i t e r i a as t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e area, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the a g r i c u l t u r a l t o n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l labour f o r c e and the s o c i a l and economic i n t e g r a t i o n o f the contiguous city.  1 1  c i t i e s w i t h the core  The m e t r o p o l i t a n regions analyzed i n t h i s study  w i t h i n the S.M.S.A. d e f i n i t i o n although a s i m p l i f i e d  fall  defini-  t i o n i s adequate s i n c e the regions s t u d i e d here are simply l a r g e urban regions with s e v e r a l contiguous m u n i c i p a l  juris-  1 8  d i c t i o n s to a c e n t r a l c i t y , having a current or near future population  o f one m i l l i o n or more i n h a b i t a n t s . IV. SUMMARY OF THE PROBLEM AND THE STUDY HYPOTHESIS  I n r e c e n t decades two major problems have accompanied the growth of urbanism, the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem and the metropolitan  problem.  Over the y e a r s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  planning  has developed i n t o a r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r o c e s s i n an attempt t o produce t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h would a l l e v i a t e t h e c o n g e s t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n s of a modern mobile society i n metropolitan  areas.  The e f f o r t s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  planners,however, may be d i r e c t e d t o t h e achievement of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n g o a l s w h i c h a r e not comprehensive enough t o r e s u l t i n e f f i c i e n t development, and w h i c h presumes the f u l l i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems., w i t h t h e p a t t e r n of l a n d use i n the r e g i o n . Not o n l y i s i t n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e g r a t e the l a n d use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems but c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the fragmented p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s and a g e n c i e s w i t h i n t h e area i s imperative.  metropolitan  T h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt t o show t h a t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n t e r a c t w i t h l a n d u s e , and t o d e v i s e a l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework which w i l l a l l o w t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g t o be c a r r i e d out as an i n t e g r a l component of a comprehensive development p o l i c y f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n  region.  19 It i s hypothesized t h e r e f o r e  that:  transportation  systems have an i n f l u e n c e on land use and t h e r e f o r e i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  should c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e g r a l  component of a comprehensive m e t r o p o l i t a n policy.  metropol-  development  20  REFERENCES  John G. Grumm, M e t r o p o l i t a n Area Government: The Toronto Experience (Lawrence: the U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, 1959), p. 1. 2 L y l e C. F i t c h and A s s o c i a t e s , Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and P u b l i c P o l i c y (San F r a n c i s c o : Chandler P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1964), p. 2. ^ D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n Area T r a f f i c Study, Report, P a r t I ( D e t r o i t : 1955), p. 37. 4  Ibid.  ^ P u b l i c Law 88-365, 88th Congress, 2d. Sess. p. 1, c i t e d by Geage M. Smerk, Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : The F e d e r a l Role (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. P r e s s , 1965), p. 64. g Richard M. Z e t t e l , and R i c h a r d R. C a r l l , Summary Review o f Ma.jor M e t r o p o l i t a n Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Studies i n the United S t a t e s (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1962), p. 18. I b i d . , p. 2. g John Friedmann, "Regional P l a n n i n g as a F i e l d o f Study," i n John Friedmann, and W i l l i a m Alonso (eds.), R e g i o n a l Development and Planning (Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1964), p . 64. Q ^Paul D a v i d o f f , and Thomas A. Reiner, "A Choice Theory of P l a n n i n g , " i n J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXVII (May, 1962), pp. 103-115. 7  1 0  L y l e C. F i t c h and A s s o c i a t e s , o p . c i t . , p. 60.  "^Bureau of the Budget, Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l Areas, (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1961), c i t e d by F. S t u a r t Chapin, Urban Land Use P l a n n i n g (Urbana: Univ. of I l l i n o i s Press, 1965), p. 105.  CHAPTER I I THE  INFLUENCE OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ON LAND USE  The systems and categories.  l i t e r a t u r e on the i n t e r a c t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n land use may  be c l a s s i f i e d by three  general  F i r s t the s u b j e c t i s t r e a t e d i n an  historical  p e r s p e c t i v e where the r e s u l t s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  innovation  w i t h i n the context  of the h i s t o r y of u r b a n i z a t i o n are viewed  on a macroscopic s c a l e . years man  Blumenfeld s t a t e s that f o r 5000  e i t h e r l i v e d i n town or i n the c o u n t r y .  about 200 years ago  1  Then  h i s environment began to change very  q u i c k l y because of the impact of the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c method to m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n  which i n t u r n  r e s u l t e d i n a r a p i d l y growing p r o d u c t i v i t y , an ever i n c r e a s i n g d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r and These trends  a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s .  r e s u l t e d i n an ever i n c r e a s i n g interdependence  on the exchange of goods and the 19th Gentury new and  services.  By the middle of  means o f i n t e r - u r b a n  transportation  communication, the steamboat, r a i l r o a d and  t e l e g r a p h made i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n consequent m i g r a t i o n cities.  I t was  electric  possible with a  of workers from the country to  towards the end  the  of the 19th Qentury that  i n t r a - u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s became g e n e r a l  and  22 these have i n a r e l a t i v e l y short time changed v e r y d r a s t i c a l l y the form of urban a r e a s . A second interaction land v a l u e s .  may  category i n which t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - l a n d use he viewed i s the e f f e c t of an improvement on  Most of the work done to date has been of t h i s  type where the economic impact  of an improvement or extension 2  of an e x i s t i n g system i s s t u d i e d . have centered on the impact  Most of these s t u d i e s  of a s i n g l e route on r e s i d e n t i a l ,  commercial and i n d u s t r i a l land uses. impact  The m a j o r i t y o f the  s t u d i e s have shown an economically b e n e f i c i a l  result  to the land use adjacent to the improvement.-^ The t h i r d category of land u s e - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n i s the e f f e c t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y on the adjacent environment.  The environmental  effects  of the  growth i n t r a f f i c volumes i s a s u b j e c t which i s j u s t now  being  i n v e s t i g a t e d , and much impetus has been g i v e n to t h i s area of r e s e a r c h w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of " T r a f f i c i n Towns" by the M i n i s t r y of Transport of Great B r i t a i n . ^ emphasises the e f f e c t of t r a f f i c  on the  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of " s a f e t y " , "comfort",  The r e p o r t  environmental  "convenience"  and  "appearance" w i t h the i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y necessary f o r the e f f i c i e n t movement of motor v e h i c l e s .  Increased  accessibil  i t y l e a d s to n o i s e , fumes and danger t o p e d e s t r i a n s . Before the e f f e c t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can be the three aspects of impact  understood  introduced above must be explained  23 i n more d e t a i l .  T h i s chapter i s an a n a l y s i s o f the r e l e v a n t  l i t e r a t u r e i n v e s t i g a t e d and some c o n c l u s i o n s a r e made which may l o g i c a l l y be drawn from the r e s e a r c h . I. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OP ACCESSIBILITY ON URBAN FORM P r e - i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s were g e n e r a l l y s m a l l and compact r e l e g a t i n g the movement o f wheeled v e h i c l e s t o a secondary c o n s i d e r a t i o n over the primary f o r c e s which tended to keep the c i t y s m a l l .  Two o f these f o r c e s were the  a g r a r i a n economy and the need f o r d e f e n s i v e  fortifications.  Trade and i n d u s t r y were c a r r i e d on i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the merchant's r e s i d e n c e and the prime mode o f t r a f f i c movement was by f o o t .  When an i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n created a demand  f o r wheeled t r a f f i c the congestion became i n t o l e r a b l e .  (One  of Caesar's f i r s t a c t s a f t e r s e i z i n g power i n a n c i e n t Rome was t o ban wheeled v e h i c l e s from the s t r e e t s d u r i n g the day.)^  However the v e h i c l e could not be denied and i t was  d u r i n g the 16th Qentury t h a t c a r t s and wagons came i n t o more  7 g e n e r a l use w i t h i n c i t i e s .  F o l l o w i n g the i n v e n t i o n o f  mechanical power, f i r s t u s i n g steam and then the form o f the c i t y began t o change. industrialized, capitalistic  electricity,  The advantages o f an  economy centered  c i t i e s created two major e f f e c t s : i t nucleated  i n the growing concentrations  of i n d u s t r y a t a power source and i t produced a consequent d i s p e r s a l o f s p e c i a l i z e d types of r e s i d e n c e s .  Once the  24 tradesman l i v e d beyond walking d i s t a n c e from h i s place of work a need developed,  and technology produced, a means to  make the journey more e f f i c i e n t l y . Up to the 17th Century there had been a g r a d u a l d i s p e r s i o n o f - i n d u s t r y to escape r e s t r i c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s being imposed i n the towns, to areas where l a b o u r could be more g easily exploited.  However with the steam engine  operating  most e f f e c t i v e l y a t a concentrated power source, combined w i t h the advantages of market proximity, c o n c e n t r a t i o n was s t i l l the dominant t r e n d .  The r a i l w a y s with t h e i r a b i l i t y  to b r i n g raw m a t e r i a l s t o the f a c t o r y from great d i s t a n c e s q a l s o enhanced concentrated a c t i v i t y .  The dichotomy of con-  centrated work places and d i s p e r s e d r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n a need f o r new  resulted  modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The changes i n  c i t y form r e f l e c t t h i s b a s i c dichotomy and subsequent  innova-  t i o n s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n technology have been shown to a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s and l a n d use.  By the beginning of the 19th Century some urban funct i o n s had begun to concentrate i n i d e n t i f i a b l e q u a r t e r s . The dormitory f u n c t i o n was  the f i r s t  i d e n t i f i a b l e one  w i t h the advent of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f i r s t  and  the omnibus  and horse c a r and l a t e r powered by e l e c t r i c i t y , commuting became p o s s i b l e and r e s u l t e d i n the modern e x t e n s i v e p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l land use. u n t i l about 1920 f i n a n c i a l and  By the end of the 19th Century  a form of c i t y developed  and  where r e t a i l trade,  other o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e  25 f u n c t i o n s and organized amusement and c u l t u r a l  activities  were s t i l l concentrated i n a c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t ; many manufacturing, immediately  with  wholesaling, and warehousing f u n c t i o n s  adjacent.  The poor l i v e d i n the c e n t r a l area  because they could not a f f o r d the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s to move outward, and the middle and upper income groups l i v e d i n the f r i n g e areas, c o n c e n t r a t i n g along the r a d i a l  transit  routes. Since the advent of motor v e h i c l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h e r e has been a s t a r t l i n g t r a n s i t i o n i n urban form which to some extent i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode but which has a l s o been a f f e c t e d by p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , higher p r o d u c t i v i t y , mass d i s t r i b u t i o n of consumer products, i n creased s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , b e t t e r communications  (notably the  telephone) and b e t t e r and cheaper sources of e n e r g y . automobile experienced  The  1 1  provided i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y which had not been s i n c e the days of walking to work.  I t had  the  e f f e c t of f i l l i n g i n the low d e n s i t y s e c t o r s between the r a d i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes and had the p o t e n t i a l of providing a ubiquitous m o b i l i t y .  Since World War  I I the i n c r e a s e d  economic freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l to buy an automobile, s i n g l e f a m i l y house i n the suburbs and to pay the  taxes  necessary to b u i l d highways, has r e s u l t e d i n one of the 2 0 t h Century's  g r e a t e s t urban problems.  a  26 I I . TRANSPORTATION AND THE DECENTRALIZATION OP METROPOLITAN ACTIVITY There a r e three f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g the movement of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n .  Pirst  there i s  insmigration; a f o r c e o p e r a t i n g which b r i n g s the p o p u l a t i o n to urban areas from r u r a l areas, s m a l l towns and c i t i e s and from outside the country.  Secondly  there i s a c e n t r i p e t a l  f o r c e c o n c e n t r a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t the urban core of the r e g i o n , and t h i r d l y of a c t i v i t i e s and  a c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e causing a d i f f u s i o n  outward.  The three f o r c e s a r e a c t i n g a t one  the same time although h i s t o r y has shown that there i s a  dominance o f one or two o f the f o r c e s which determines the c h a r a c t e r , d i r e c t i o n and extent of growth a t any p a r t i c u l a r time during the development o f the urban r e g i o n . The r a t e o f growth o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i s not a homogeneous i n c r e a s e where c i t i e s i n g e n e r a l a r e growing a t the same r a t e , but the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas a r e growing a t the expense o f the non-metropolitan.  Studies of p o p u l a t i o n migra^  t i o n i n North American c i t i e s have shown t h a t there i s a stream of p o p u l a t i o n m i g r a t i o n t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n Bogue found  areas.  i n a study of the n e t m i g r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n t o  c e n t r a l c i t i e s and m e t r o p o l i t a n r i n g s i n a l l the Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l Areas of 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n t h a t the c e n t r a l c i t i e s l o s t 671,000 and the suburbs gained 7,068,000; and  that only 10% of the suburban g a i n came from the c e n t r a l  27 cities.  12  He emphasizes t h a t the 671,000 l o s t from the  c e n t r a l c i t i e s i s a net l o s s only, f i n d i n g that the  central  c i t i e s were " e x p o r t i n g " t h e i r l o n g term r e s i d e n t s while were a l s o a t t r a c t i n g in-migrants.  He  concludes  t h a t i n most  r e g i o n s the " e n t i r e t y of t h i s growth (metropolitan from m e t r o p o l i t a n areas) accrued  to the suburbs, and  they  non-  i n most regions  the c e n t r a l c i t i e s themselves added a net increment to suburban growth (through net out-migration to the suburbs"."*"^ Bogue a l s o concludes  that at l e a s t one-half the growth of  the suburbs from 1940-50 came from d i r e c t a c c r e t i o n at the edges, without  mediation  through the c e n t r a l c i t y .  This  d e f l a t e s the o l d theory t h a t the major growth of the suburbs i s due to a d e c e n t r a l i z i n g movement from the c e n t r a l  city.  As w e l l as the g e n e r a l i n - m i g r a t i o n t o m e t r o p o l i t a n areas there i s a l s o a c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e c o n c e n t r a t i n g on activities  at the t r a d i t i o n a l core.  Colby sees these f o r c e s  as s i t e a t t r a c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with the o r i g i n a l reasons c i t y development, f u n c t i o n a l convenience f o r the trade area, agglomeration  and  1  c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e s are  the dominant one at any p o i n t i n time  w i l l comprise the determinant The  metropolitan  magnetism and f u n c t i o n a l prestige." "^  He s t a t e s that the c e n t r i f u g a l and acting i n conflict  for  of the urban c h a r a c t e r .  f i r s t major c i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d at the break  p o i n t between water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes and t a t i o n routes.  land t r a n s p o r -  As the r a i l r o a d s began to f a n out from these  p o i n t s d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f of the 19th Century towns sprang  28 up along the r a i l r o a d t e r m i n a l p o i n t s .  The  suburban r a i l r o a d  s e r v i c e ( f i r s t inaugurated i n Chicago i n 1 8 5 6 b e g a n  to  i n f l u e n c e the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of s e v e r a l l a r g e  cities.  The  electric  horse drawn s t r e e t car, the cable car and  the  s t r e e t c a r tended to develop t e n t a c l e s of growth r a d i a t i n g outward from the core, l e a v i n g vacant land between the r a d i a l  i n the i n t e r s t i c e s  lines.  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been made which shows the s t r u c t u r e of the m e t r o p o l i t a n transportation innovation. study of Route 128,  changing  r e g i o n through changes i n  One  of these, a comprehensive  a c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l highway l o c a t e d about  ten miles from the Boston c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , s e r v e s to i l l u s t r a t e the d e c e n t r a l i z i n g e f f e c t of o u t l y i n g highway improvements.  The  study showed that with the c o n s t r u c t i o n  the c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l highway i n 1956  s i x t y - e i g h t percent  the i n d u s t r i e s which r e l o c a t e d to the new came from w i t h i n a r a d i u s c i t y center and  96$  of two  and  one-half  by t o t a l investment gave "space f o r expansion and  the  miles.^  Questioned as to the primary motive f o r d e c e n t r a l i z i n g  operating  of  highway l o c a t i o n  one-half miles of  from w i t h i n f o u r and  of  83$  improved  e f f i c i e n c y , 52.4$ of a l l i n d u s t r i e s gave "business  a c c e s s i b i l i t y " as the primary reason, 51.3$ procurement", and The  "gave  labour  50.4$ s a i d "employee a c c e s s i b i l i t y " .  Route 128  Study a l s o i n c l u d e d a survey of  the  employees of i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t e d i n the New  England I n d u s t r i a l  Park to attempt to determine the i n c i d e n c e  of residence  re-  29  l o c a t i o n w i t h the d e c e n t r a l i z i n g o f j o b s .  A sample of  28$  o f the employees showed t h a t 12$ moved s i n c e s t a r t i n g t o work a l o n g Route 128.  N i n e t e e n percent of these were o r i g i n a l  employees and 81$ were new employees who  employees.  Of the  original  moved, 40$ moved c l o s e r t o work, 34$ moved  f a r t h e r away and 11$ made no change i n d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d . F i g u r e 1, page 30 shows the s h i f t i n g of employeete r e s i d e n c e s when t h e i r job l o c a t i o n was d e c e n t r a l i z e d . F a g i n has observed  the d e v e l o p i n g p a t t e r n of the  New  York m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i n c e i t became the dominant u r b a n 17  complex on the e a s t e r n seaboard  e a r l y i n the 1 9 t h  Century.  He r e f e r s t o a s e r i e s o f maps p u b l i s h e d by the R e g i o n a l P l a n A s s o c i a t i o n which shows the e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t which  was  i n i t i a l l y on Manhattan I s l a n d and i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the Hudson and E a s t r i v e r s a t d o c k i n g a r e a s , w i t h some important s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g the " f a l l l i n e " of the r e g i o n ' s r i v e r s . 1850  By  the r a i l l i n e s , a l t h o u g h t e n d i n g t o c r e a t e major n o d a l  p o i n t s a t the same l o c a t i o n s as the water system had p r e v i o u s l y caused, began t o c r e a t e s e t t l e m e n t i n l a n d from the water r o u t e s .  By 1900 the r a i l dominant r e g i o n r e f l e c t e d  some q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of s e t t l e m e n t .  Two  of these  were a p a t t e r n of homogeneous s e t t l e m e n t a t the c e n t e r of the r e g i o n caused by a v e r y e x t e n s i v e t r o l l e y system, and f o r m a t i o n o f d i s c r e t e nodes o f s e t t l e m e n t a t the r a i l terminal points.  the  inter-regional  30  r  2  M I I  —rIN  SCALE  3 MILES  I  • I  • — NEW HOME LOCATIONS o — OLD HOME LOCATIONS X — MOVED FROM "OUT OF STATE"  FIGURE 1 CHANGE I N HOME LOCATIONS OF EMPLOYEES I N NEW ENGLAND INDUSTRIAL CENTER, 1953-1957 (ROUTE 128, BOSTON) S o u r c e : A . J o Bone, and M a r t i n Wohl, E c o n o m i c Impact S t u d y o f Massachusetts Route 128,Preliminary Report (Cambridge: M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 43.  31 The  auto dominant system at f i r s t  e x i s t i n g development.  supported  the  However soon the areas on the f r i n g e  of the core began to expand between the r a d i a l r a i l L a t e r express auto routes were d e l i b e r a t e l y b u i l t wedges and  new  nodes of development became  F a g i n has a l s o observed the new v i c i n i t y of New  routes!  i n the  evident.  urban p a t t e r n s  York's a i r p o r t s which he says may  i n the  foreshadow  a d d i t i o n a l changes as a r e s u l t of increased a i r t r a n s p o r t a tion. However Fagin goes on to say that f o r a measurable e f f e c t to occur to the land use  there must be a s u b s t a n t i a l  a c c e s s i b i l i t y d i f f e r e n t i a l throughout d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of region.  The  d i f f e r e n t i a l may  not  the  occur i f the area i s too  small to make t r a v e l time saving s i g n i f i c a n t , the network system i s u b i q u i t o u s  and  the s e r v i c e very f a s t , and i f  d i f f u s i o n i s so w e l l developed that the need to t r a v e l i s insignificant.  However even i f these c o n d i t i o n s are assumed  i t merely shows t h a t the d e l i b e r a t e development of one of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system produces one F a g i n has  type  kind of urban p a t t e r n ,  observed.  I f the m e t r o p o l i t a n  area remained constant  i n size  an improvement i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system would tend to d i m i n i s h the a c c e s s i b i l i t y d i f f e r e n t i a l , although i n most present-day m e t r o p o l i t a n  areas t h i s would be modified  cause the i n h e r i t e d pattern.- of land and  be-  transportation  puts a premium on c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n to optimize  the sum  still of  site  32  r e n t a l and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . metropolitan  However t h e t r e n d i s f o r  complexes t o g e t l a r g e r which o f f s e t s the  d i m i n i s h i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n c e t h e impact on l a n d use tends t o i n c r e a s e as the a b s o l u t e d i s t a n c e s o f interaction  increase.  J a s c h i k , i n a n a l y z i n g 12 l a r g e c i t i e s i n t h e U.S. t o attempt t o determine t h e importance o f highway p a t t e r n s i n s h a p i n g development p a t t e r n s reached t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a t the macroscopic s c a l e highways have l i t t l e e f f e c t on d e v e l o p no  ment. gVO&B  He s t a t e s t h a t highways " c o l l e c t and l o c a l i z e " t h e e f f e c t s o f development t o t h e highway, but t h a t  i n d u s t r y ( f o r example) l o c a t e s i n random c l u s t e r s based on f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s and when a highway i s b u i l t t h e y w i l l l o c a t e near i t i f o t h e r w i s e c o n v e n i e n t .  But i f t h e highway  i s b u i l t t o o f a r out t h e i n d u s t r i e s w i l l r e v e r t back t o t h e i r random c l u s t e r s .  I n e f f e c t t h e r e i s an upper l i m i t where  highways no l o n g e r c o n d i t i o n development. I I I . THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION INNOVATION S i n c e t h e p a s s i n g o f I n t e r s t a t e Highway l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s there, has been much emphasis on r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e economic impact o f highways.  This has t a k e n g e n e r a l l y  two forms; t h e f l u c t u a t i o n o f l a n d v a l u e s a d j a c e n t t o h i g h way improvements, and t h e g e n e r a l impact o f a highway improvement t o t h e community.  I n t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y of t h e s t u d i e s  33 done i t has been concluded that a b e n e f i t d e r i v e s t o both the community as a whole and t o adjacent  land v a l u e s .  One of  the most comprehensive o f these s t u d i e s has been a survey o f a l l the economic impact s t u d i e s done i n the U.S. ^ 1  The study  examined a l l aspects of the i n f l u e n c e o f highways on urban l a n d development and the changes i n land values commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l land use.  for industrial,  The survey concluded  t h a t highway improvements g e n e r a l l y introduce  cost  savings  i n t o the economy and r e l e a s e investment f o r c e s t h a t may not have been r e l e a s e d otherwise.  The b e n e f i t i s r e f l e c t e d by  an increase i n land values, u s u a l l y adjacent  to the improve-  ment . G a r r i s o n and Marts i n a study a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington summarized 37 s t u d i e s i n 8 s t a t e s and c l a s s i f i e d each improvement as to i t s impact on land values,  on business  20 change, and on t r a f f i c change.  The value  of land may r e f l e c t  many i n f l u e n c e s a t work i n an urban area but i t i s represent a t i v e o f an e f f e c t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n changes, and because of t h i s i t was used i n the study t o determine the s c a l e of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e f f e c t s .  An examination of the f i v e  s t u d i e s which were made on New York C i t y parkways shows that the e f f e c t of t h i s type o f f a c i l i t y has been to i n c r e a s e p r o p e r t y values  from a h i g h of 2038$ to a low of 76$.  page 34 shows the e f f e c t o f one of these,  F i g u r e 2,  the Grand C e n t r a l  Parkway where the i n c r e a s e i n the study area  (two blocks on  e i t h e r s i d e of the parkway) between 1925 and 1953 was 2038$,  34  FIGURE 2 i  INCREASE I N LAND VALUES ADJACENT TO GRAND CENTRAL PARKWAY, ' NEW YORK, 1925-1953  S o u r c e : W i l l i a m L„ G a r r i s o n , and M a r i o n E . M a r t s , I n f l u e n c e o f Highway Improvements on Urban Land: A G r a p h i c ' Summary ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1958), p« 11„  35 while the i n c r e a s e of the area through which the parkwayonly 501$.  runs was  With one  exception  i n the 5 s t u d i e s  reviewed by G a r r i s o n and Marts, the g e n e r a l area of the parkwayss a l s o b e n e f i t e d from an i n c r e a s e i n land v a l u e s .  This  i n c r e a s e v a r i e d with the d i s t a n c e of the measurement from the parkway, but g e n e r a l l y the land value i n c r e a s e i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the highway was general area.  F i g u r e 3,  g r e a t e r than i n the  page 36 shows the r e s u l t of s t u d i e s  done on the Edens Expressway i n Chicago where a more dramatic e f f e c t on l a n d values  occurs  immediately adjacent  to the  expressway when the d e n s i t y of development i s low, than the d e n s i t y i s h i g h .  The  area of i n f l u e n c e on land  spreads out i n b u i l t up areas and immediately adjacent  the r e l a t i v e  when  values  increase  to the highway i s modified.  Although s e v e r a l of the impact s t u d i e s show dramatic r e s u l t s i n the increase of land v a l u e s , they overwhelmingly emphasize the impact of h i g h speed c o n t r o l l e d access ties  (expressways, freeways and  parkways), and  facili-  consider  only  a s i n g l e f a c i l i t y r a t h e r than a network of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  S e v e r a l of the s t u d i e s have been supported  by  F e d e r a l highway funds a l l o c a t e d through the Bureau of P u b l i c Roads and  s t a t e Highway departments, and  s e v e r a l of the  s t u d i e s were done to determine the impact of the I n t e r s t a t e System. by and  l a r g e and  Federal  These have s t u d i e d the impact of highways  although there have been many s t u d i e s done,  they are not g e n e r a l l y c o n c l u s i v e enough to measure the impact  EFFECT  36  ON LAND VALUES  SECTION OF EDENS EXPRESSWAY NORTH OF HARRISON STREET 700  :  661 600 521 500  3  8  400 308  300 200  SI  100  1 3 3  EAST ' MILES FROM- EXPRESSWAY  700  SECTION OF EDENS EXPRESSWAY BETWEEN HARRISON STREET 731 A N D DEMPSTER STREET 703 7  600 500  467  PI  3 X  S  400 :i  300  Z u  257  200 100  EAST  WEST . MILES FROM EXPRESSWAY  EAST MILES  FROM  FIGURE 3 ,  EXPRESSWAY  •  '  INCREASE I N LAND VALUES ADJACENT TO EDENS EXPRESSWAY, CHICAGO, 1941-1956 • S o u r c e : W i l l i a m L„. G a r r i s o n , a n d M a r i o n E . M a r t s , I n f l u e n c e o f Highway Improvements on U r b a n Land: A G r a p h i c • Summary ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , "lQffc) " n , 2 2 .  37 of t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on p r o p e r t y IV. THE  values.  INFLUENCE OF TRANSPORTATION INNOVATION ON ENVIRONMENT  The  economic b e n e f i t s from the improvement of h i g h -  ways are w e l l documented.  The gross b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of  a l l forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , although not so w e l l documented, are obvious from .past s t u d i e s .  However a l i t t l e known e f f e c t  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n n o v a t i o n i s the d e t r i m e n t a l impact of the f a c i l i t y on the. immediately adjacent  environment.  has been argued that any damages to the immediate ment has been balanced i t y as a whole.  It  environ-  by the b e n e f i t d e r i v e d to the commun-  However there i s an i n c r e a s i n g awareness  of the problems caused by the motor v e h i c l e with respect to v e h i c l e emissions,  n o i s e and danger to p e d e s t r i a n s .  The  d e t e r i o r a t i n g e f f e c t s of t r a d i t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes have been considered  i n the past.  "elevateds'* on the adjacent New  The  e f f e c t of the  environment i n such p l a c e s as  York and Chicago i s w e l l known; the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of  property v a l u e s , a breeding have been recorded. mobile and  p l a c e f o r crime and  other  ills  However with the p o p u l a r i t y of the auto-  i t s complete i n v a s i o n of the urban area  the  problem has become more acute. Although s t u d i e s have been done i n the past to measure the extent of some of the d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s (notably  s t u d i e s on n o i s e and  i t s abatement, fumes and  smog, and  e s p e c i a l l y the problem of motor v e h i c l e s a f e t y ) , the t r u l y comprehensive treatment of "the problem was 1963  i n Great B r i t a i n .  problem was  2 1  done i n  In " T r a f f i c i n Towns" the  not seen only as congestion,  only  traffic  or a l a c k of  facili-  t i e s but as a c o n f l i c t between i n c r e a s i n g " a c c e s s i b i l i t y "  22 and  i t s e f f e c t on the urban "environment",  to the problem was  t a i n i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y standard  at the same time main-  of environment w i t h i n the  The Jreport sees the t r a f f i c problem as having  main v a r i a b l e s ; environmental standards, and  the s o l u t i o n  a j u d i c i o u s balance between p r o v i d i n g more  a c c e s s i b i l i t y to any urban area and  area.  and  three  accessibility  level  the cost of p h y s i c a l a l t e r a t i o n s . A rough law i s  postulated: w i t h i n any urban area as i t stands the e s t a b l i s h ment of environmental standards a u t o m a t i c a l l y determines the a c c e s s i b i l i t y but the l a t t e r can be increased according to the amount of money t h a t can be spent on p h y s i c a l a l t e r a t i o n . 2 3 Although the r e p o r t emphasizes the d e s i g n s o l u t i o n i t does o f f e r v a r i o u s other s o l u t i o n s such as s t a t u t o r y and p o l i c y measures and  professional collaboration.  The main t h e s i s  of the r e p o r t i s that there i s an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a f f i c uses.  The  (and t h e r e f o r e t r a f f i c f a c i l i t i e s ) and  land  s o l u t i o n to the t r a f f i c problem i s to optimize  r e l a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between these.  the  39 Another group of recent s t u d i e s concentrates on the d e s i g n of the landscape and roadside development as seen from the road.  Pushkarev  24  has concentrated on the a e s t h e t i c  d e s i g n of the highway as seen by the d r i v e r as he moves along it.  He i s concerned w i t h f i t t i n g the r i g h t of way  landscape and.with  t o the  the a e s t h e t i c s of the roadway i t s e l f .  T h i s he c a l l s " e x t e r n a l " and  " i n t e r n a l " harmony.  Appleyard,  25 l y n c h , and Myer  have developed an a b s t r a c t space n o t a t i o n  drawing h e a v i l y on T h i e l ' s  work wherein they develop some  d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the road and f o r road s i d e development as. seen from a moving v e h i c l e .  The authors t e s t the  n o t a t i o n on the Northeast Expressway i n Boston.  T h e i r hypo-  thesis i s : the experience of a c i t y i s b a s i c a l l y a moving view, and t h i s i s the view we must understand i f we wish t o reform the l o o k of our c i t i e s 27  V. SUMMARY T h i s chapter of the t h e s i s i s an attempt  to d e s c r i b e  an important aspect of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning; that of i n t e g r a t i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network with the l a n d use.  H i s t o r i c a l l y the e f f e c t of changing  contiguous transportation  technology i s seen to have a s t r u c t u r i n g i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n urban m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s .  When walking was  the primary  mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c i t i e s tended to be s m a l l and  compact  w i t h very l i t t l e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s i n space,  and  40 a minimum need f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . to  The  f i r s t major c i t i e s began  grow at the p o i n t s between i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea routes  land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes which served land.  and  the i n t e r i o r h i n t e r -  Wherever water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes could be. u t i l i z e d  w i t h i n the r e g i o n communities sprang up and began to grow. With the coming of steam a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of manufacturing at the major power sources was  most e f f i c i e n t and at the same  time r a i l r o a d s were b u i l t to b r i n g the raw m a t e r i a l s from d i s t a n t sources, r e p l a c i n g the .slower canal systems. suburban r a i l l i n e s l i n e s ) allowed  (at f i r s t an adjunct  to the  The  inter-city  c e r t a i n people to move from the area of con-  centrated a c t i v i t y which produced i n time s p e c i a l i z e d r e s i d e n t i a l uses on the f r i n g e s of the b u i l t up areas the developing r a d i a l p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n e s . mobile allowed  a much g r e a t e r d i f f u s i o n , and  along  The  auto-  development  occurred i n the i n t e r s t i c e s between the r a d i a l r o u t e s . As America moved d u r i n g the 2 0 t h Century from an a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y to an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d urbanized m i g r a t i o n from the farms and  s m a l l towns to the l a r g e  m e t r o p o l i t a n regions began to spread system and  development.  the a v a i l a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n technology  the motor v e h i c l e ) allowed  economic  (notably  More and more  t r a d i t i o n a l core a c t i v i t i e s found i t convenient causing a massive sprawl of u r b a n i z a t i o n . only one  The  a great d i f f u s i o n of urban growth  from the c e n t r a l core area of the r e g i o n .  v e h i c l e was  one, mass  to d e c e n t r a l i z e ,  Although the motor  of many f a c t o r s causing t h i s  ( i n any  case  41 the movement a c t u a l l y s t a r t e d with the suburban r a i l r o a d s and  the s t r e e t c a r l i n e s ) , i t wasc- one of the means of  a c h i e v i n g what seems t o be a d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e o f urban society. The  d e s i r e f o r a suburban home created  pressure f o r  highways t o serve the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r a c t i o n which was necessary between the h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s metropolitan  area.  of the  Roads were b u i l t and consequently r e -  search was c a r r i e d out t o t r y and determine some of the economic impacts of these improvements.  Many s t u d i e s were  done on i n d i v i d u a l routes w i t h a g e n e r a l  conclusion  that i n most instances increase  reached  the highway improvement created an  i n land value along the highway route and a general  economic b e n e f i t t o the whole community.  However the i n c r e a s e  i n motor v e h i c l e s and highways had d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s a l s o . Noise, a i r p o l l u t i o n , and danger t o pedestrians a penalty  r e s u l t e d as  f o r i n c r e a s i n g the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the s p e c i a l i z e d  urban f u n c t i o n s .  There has r e c e n t l y been an increased  aware-  ness o f t h i s environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Because o f the volume o f m a t e r i a l on t h i s subject, t h i s has n e c e s s a r i l y been a general i n g the s t u d i e s which seemed most r e l e v a n t object  overview s t r e s s -  to express  of the chapter; that i s t o v e r i f y the f i r s t  of the hypothesis.  general  the  component  There seems ample evidence i n the  l i t e r a t u r e t h a t the statement " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems have an i n f l u e n c e on land use" may be made.  This a n a l y s i s has used  42  some o f t h e most p e r t i n e n t m a t e r i a l on t h e s u b j e c t and a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some evidence t h a t f o r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s the statement does not h o l d , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n does seem t o v e r i f y t h i s component o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s .  43  REFERENCES  Hans Blumenfeld, " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the Modern M e t r o p o l i s , " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y (Kingston: Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1961), LXVII, pp. 640-653. Bureau of P u b l i c Roads, Highways and Economic and S o c i a l Changes (Washington: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1964), (This study analyzes the r e s u l t s of more than 100 economic impact s t u d i e s done i n the U.S.A. through 1961, and l i s t s the s t u d i e s done s i n c e 1961 and those i n p r o g r e s s . The survey found: "In the process of regrouping a c t i v i t y and i n the cost savings introduced i n t o the economy by highway improvement and the r e l e a s e of investment f o r c e s that might otherwise have not been r e l e a s e d at t h a t time, a b e n e f i t to the economic system i n g e n e r a l occurs and comes to r e s t i n a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n , u s u a l l y a highway l o c a t i o n . " ) , p. 7. 5  Ibid.  ^ M i n i s t r y of Transport, T r a f f i c i n Towns: A Study of the Long Term Problems of T r a f f i c i n Urban Areas (London: H.M.S.O., 1963). Lewis Mumford, The C i t y i n H i s t o r y (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1961), p. 218. (Rome was a notable except i o n c o n t a i n i n g upwards of one m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s d u r i n g i t s peak " s u f f e r i n g " , says Mumford from "megalopolitan e l e p h a n t i a s i s " . ) 6  Ibid. I b i d . , p. 368.  8  I b i d . , p. 455.  9  I b i d . , p. 456.  Harmer E. Davis, Some Aspects of the I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Land Use (Unpublished paper presented t o the Environmental Engineering Conference, S a u l t Lake C i t y , May, 1964), p. 2.  44 i:L  Ibid.  12 Donald J. Bogue, Components of Population Change 1940-1950: Estimates of Net Migration and Natural Increase for Each Standard Metropolitan Area and State Economic Area (Miami: Scripps Foundation for Research in Population Problems, Pub. 12, 1957), p. 31. 13  lbid.  "^Charles C. Colby, "Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces in Urban Geography", Readings in Urban Geography (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1959), pp. 287-298. 15  Homer Hoyt, "The Influence of Highways and Transportation on the Structure and Growth of Cities and Urban Land Values", Jean Labatut and Wheaton Lave (eds), Highways in Our National Life (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1950), pp. 201-206. 16  A.J. Bone, and Martin Wohl, Economic Impact Study of Massachusetts Route 128, Preliminary Report (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1958), p. 49. 17  Henry Fagin, "Transportation Systems Planning as an Influence on Urban Land Uses," Dynamics of Urban Transportation (Detroit: Automotive Manufacturers Association, 1962), pp. 11-1 to 11-12. 1 ft  Nathan Louis Jaschik, Land Use and Urban Transportation: Their Reciprocal Effects (Unpublished Master's thesis, M.I.T., Cambridge, 1963), p. 74. (Mimeographed.) 19  Bureau of Public Roads, op.cit. 20 William L. Garrison, and Marion E. Marts, Influence of Highway Improvements on Urban Land: A Graphic Summary (Seattle: University of Wahington, 1958"]T 21 Ministry of Transport, op.cit. Ibid. (Accessibility and environment have somewhat special meanings in the report and are defined respectively "The degree of freedom for vehicles to circulate and to penetrate to individual destinations and to stop on arrival"  45 and the term environment " i s used i n two senses . First, the g e n e r a l comfort, convenience, and a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of the p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s f o r l i v i n g . S e c o n d l y , i n a more s p e c i a l i z e d sense, where the term r e f e r s o n l y t o t h o s e a s p e c t s o f the environment which a r e d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e presence o f v e h i c l e s - moving or a t r e s t " ) , pp. 220-221. 2'> ^ I b i d . . p. 45. 3  ^ ^ C h r i s t o p h e r Tunnard, and B o r i s Pushkarev, Man Made America; Chaos o r C o n t r o l ? (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963). 25  Donald A p p l e y a r d et a l , The View From t h e Road (Cambridge: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964). P h i l i p T h i e l , "The Problem o f S e q u e n t i a l C o r r e c t e d ness i n t h e Urban Environment", Urban P l a n n i n g and Development, S e r i e s No. 1 ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington) and "An Experiment i n Space N o t a t i o n " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review (May, 1962). 27 A p p l e y a r d e t a l , o p . c i t . , p. 63.  CHAPTER I I I THE INTEGRATION OF METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS  An  e s s e n t i a l component of the m e t r o p o l i t a n  transporta-  t i o n problem i s that o f the i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. purports  The comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g to i n v o l v e the planning  metropolitan  region.  process  f o r a l l systems w i t h i n the  These have been described  as a p u b l i c  system and a p r i v a t e system w i t h s e v e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n each system, but t h i s nomenclature has l i m i t e d u n l e s s w e l l d e f i n e d because the s o - c a l l e d p u b l i c  with-  usefulness transporta-  t i o n system has i n v a r i a b l y been financed and operated w i t h private capital.  On the other hand p u b l i c t a x funds may be  used f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance o f the highways and streets.  (Some argue that t h i s i s not the case but that  highway u s e r funds a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o supply needed.)  The m e t r o p o l i t a n  the f a c i l i t i e s  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem i s too  o f t e n seen i n terms of the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f one o f these systems over the other, not i n a l o g i c a l balance and i n t e g r a t i o n o f the systems where each i s used i n i t s most e f f e c t i v e manner.  The competition  i s between a system which moves a  great number o f people c o l l e c t i v e l y o r a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e concentration  o f goods from one f u n c t i o n a l area of the r e g i o n  to another, and a system which moves i n d i v i d u a l s or a small  47 group.  These systems have been confused by the nature of  the h i s t o r i c a l development of transportation systems and several terms have been applied to t h i s dichotomy of modes: mass transportation versus private transportation,  rail  versus rubber, public versus private, t r a n s i t versus t r a f f i c , are a l l terms used.  However none of these adequately describe  the true meaning of the dichotomy because they r e f e r not only to the movement of people and goods but to the rights of way, the vehicles and the method of financing.  To avoid  introduc-  ing any more terms, and recognizing the loose meaning of any of the above terms this thesis accepts the terms public versus private as being the closest i n meaning to describe the systems integration which should be the p r i n c i p a l focus for the transportation planner.  Public transportation refers to  the movement of persons and goods i n a c o l l e c t i v e sense, whereas private transportation refers to the movement i n an individual or small unit sense. In the metropolitan  region there i s a need f o r  f a c i l i t i e s which w i l l s a t i s f y t r a v e l needs i n different ways for d i f f e r e n t conditions of* development.  For very low densi-  t i e s the private automobile i s desirable because of i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , at medium densities buses or street cars may be more economical, and at very high densities and i n larger regions r a i l - r a p i d t r a n s i t (elevated or subway) may be most efficient.  In some s p e c i a l metropolitan  regions with a highly  dense hinterland the so-called r a i l commuter system has de-  48  v e l o p e d a l t h o u g h i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e s e systems have s u f f e r e d from n e g l e c t  and d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  The essence o f t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n i s movement, and movement i s c r e a t e d because o f the need f o r i n t e r a c t i o n amongst s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , which i n t u r n a r e r e l a t e d t o the l a n d and i t s u s e . T h e r e f o r e t h e movement systems depend on the use o f the l a n d , and  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e system depends on c e r t a i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the use o f the l a n d and i n t e r a c t i o n .  The  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems as they r e l a t e t o an e f f i c i e n t i n t e g r a t e d m e t r o p o l i t a n p o r t a t i o n network.  trans-  The h i s t o r i c a l development o f p u b l i c  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems i s examined as w e l l as t h e d e c l i n e o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s form o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h t h e advent and p o p u l a r use o f t h e motor v e h i c l e d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 2 0 t h Century.  W i t h the emphasis on motor v e h i c l e  t i o n i t became e v i d e n t  transporta-  t h a t a p r o p e r b a l a n c e i s needed be-  tween the two b a s i c systems and an i n t e r e s t has developed r e c e n t l y i n d e v e l o p i n g i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. T h i s concern i s i l l u s t r a t e d by changes i n the l e g i s l a t i o n i n the U n i t e d planning  S t a t e s which now a u t h o r i z e s  f e d e r a l highway  funds- o n l y on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the highway p l a n n i n g i s  i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a comprehensive p l a n .  There has a l s o been  enacted p o s i t i v e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  legislation.  49 I. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND  CHANGE IN  TRANSPORTATION MODES P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been a component of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems of urban areas f o r a t l e a s t c e n t u r i e s , and has developed and t h i s time.  The  The  years.  1  f i r s t intra-municipal public transportation  v e h i c l e of merit was  for  changed d r a s t i c a l l y d u r i n g  T h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the  v a r i o u s modes through the  1662.  first  the omnibus, introduced i n P a r i s i n  omhJLhus c a r r i e d 8 passengers and  operated  about one year charging no f e e f o r i t s use but as soon  as f a r e s were introduced i t l o s t i t s patronage and operating. New  I t was  York i n 1831.  i n New over 27  stopped  r e - i n t r o d u c e d i n London i n 1829, By 1836  York and by 1885  and  in  there were more than 100 v e h i c l e s  there were 593 v e h i c l e s o p e r a t i n g  routes. The horse car was  was  two  introduced i n 1832  soon adopted by a l l the major U.S.  i n New  cities.  York and  I t "became  the f i r s t g e n e r a l means of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and revealed the power of urban t r a n s p o r t to a f f e c t c i t y  2  first size  1  and  form."  The horse c a r s t a r t e d the d e c e n t r a l i z i n g trend  and  o p e r a t i n g at a speed of 4 m.p.h. meant that a commuter  could t r a v e l 2 miles to work i n 30 minutes. expansion at t h a t time was  The  population  not enough to f o r c e c i t y growth  s i g n i f i c a n t l y beyond t h i s l i m i t .  The  horse car was  expensive,  50  u n p r e d i c t a b l e , had h i g h o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and a low c a p a c i t y . The cable c a r was  i n vogue between 1877  and 1890  50 cable r a i l w a y s were b u i l t i n the United S t a t e s .  The  and lines  were very expensive t o b u i l d , but they were inexpensive t o operate.  Speeds reached  9 m.p.h. and these h i g h e r speeds  promoted more p e r i p h e r a l growth. The e l e c t r i c s t r e e t c a r was i n 1883 runs.  and i n Toronto two years l a t e r , both on I t was  Virginia. of  introduced i n Chicago  f i r s t used commercially  i n 1888  experimental  i n Richmond,  The s t r e e t c a r had a dramatic e f f e c t on the form  the c i t y forming a s t a r f i s h p a t t e r n of development with  the s t r e e t c a r l i n e s r a d i a t i n g outward from the c o r e .  The  l i n e s were mostly run by p r i v a t e " t r a c t i o n " companies which e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r e d " t h a t the supply of f a c i l i t i e s could c r e a t e a demand f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e " .  They a l s o found  another  e x c e l l e n t source of revenue: land s p e c u l a t i o n a l o n g the l i n e s . The s t r e e t c a r was  abandoned i n most p l a c e s about 25 years  ago with some exceptions (notably T o r o n t o ) . The motor bus and the t r o l l e y bus have l a r g e l y over from the s t r e e t c a r . New  York i n 1905,  automobile  The f i r s t motor bus appeared  and i n Cleveland i n 1912.  t r a n s i t companies decimated  taken in  Many of the  by competition from the p r i v a t e  and the d e p r e s s i o n of the 1930's converted to buses  d u r i n g the 1940's.  P a l l i n g patronage,  h i g h maintenance c o s t s  and high f i x e d c a p i t a l c o s t s removed the s t r e e t c a r l i n e s by one.  The  one  t r o l l e y bus^. more f l e x i b l e than the s t r e e t car,  51 developed around 1910 but tended to pass away a t about the same time as the s t r e e t c a r . the  N e i t h e r the t r o l l e y bus nor  motor bus made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o urban  growth. The f e r r y was a major mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n some c i t i e s which were dominated New  by water b a r r i e r s .  Examples were  York, P h i l a d e l p h i a , San F r a n c i s c o and Vancouver.  These  systems have l a r g e l y d i e d out f o r purposes of i n t r a - u r b a n travel. About the t u r n of the 20th Century forms of r a i l r a p i d t r a n s i t began t o appear.  Congestion on the s u r f a c e  s t r e e t s r e s u l t e d i n subways and elevated r a i l r o a d s . first  e l e c t r i c a l l y powered subway was  s i n c e then Boston, P h i l a d e l p h i a , New  i n London i n 1890  h i g h and r e q u i r e h i g h d e n s i t y development  introduced i n New  and  York, Chicago, Cleveland  and Toronto have a c q u i r e d subway systems.  economically f e a s i b l e .  The  Subway c o s t s are b e f o r e they are  The elevated r a i l l i n e s were  York i n 1863 and over a p e r i o d of time  those systems were found t o have a p a r t i c u l a r l y excessive d e p r e c i a t o r y e f f e c t on surrounding p r o p e r t y .  The monorail  has perked imaginations r e c e n t l y but no complete systems have been b u i l t t o date.  They are mostly an unknown a l t e r n a t i v e  although w i t h some apparent  disadvantages such as c o s t l y  s t r u c t u r e s , adverse p u b l i c acceptance by the e l e v a t e d experience.  probably c o n d i t i o n e d  52 The  commuter and  develop about 1850,  i n t e r - u r b a n r a i l r o a d s began to  at f i r s t a by-product of the  i n t e r - c i t y s e r v i c e where a few up  i n the suburbs.  e x t r a passengers were picked  Passenger demand increased and  t r a i n s were put on these runs and by 1900 p a t t e r n had  regular  the  special  starfish  superimposed on i t the l a r g e r r a d i a n t s of the  commuter l i n e s .  The  mined by economic and  spacing  of the depots which were d e t e r -  technological conditions  created nodes of  development a t the t e r m i n a l p o i n t s a l o n g the l i n e s . intra-urbans  had  were spaced The so great  the same e f f e c t except the settlement  nodes  closer.together. e f f e c t o f the automobile s i n c e 1920  "as to render the  portation i n s i g n i f i c a n t " . than 85$  The  4  has  been  impact of p u b l i c means of t r a n s In the United  States today more  of the t o t a l d a i l y t r a v e l i s by automobile although  i n l a r g e c i t i e s 40-90$ of the peak p e r i o d t r a v e l continues 5 public transportation. II. Two  THE  on  DECLINE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION  main reasons f o r the d e c l i n e of p u b l i c  transporta-  t i o n i n the U n i t e d States has been, f i r s t l y , the outmoded a t t i t u d e that the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has a p r i v i l e g e and government was abuse;  7  a p o t e n t i a l monopoly, and  been  that the r o l e of  to p r o t e c t the p u b l i c against  financial  and secondly t h a t i t has been d i v o r c e d  from  other  s e c t o r s of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n need i n s p i t e of the f a c t that  53 transportation  p o l i c y w i l l nave an e f f e c t on a l l modes.  H i s t o r i c a l l y the paradox i n p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n that s o - c a l l e d p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  has been  mode has been  financed  p r i v a t e l y , while highway routes have been constructed p u b l i c funds.  from  The p r i v a t e r a i l r o a d s and the t r a n s i t companies  were seen as p o t e n t i a l monopolies before the advent of the motor v e h i c l e and because o f t h i s governmental p o l i c i e s t o regulate  these i n d u s t r i e s have not allowed the companies t o  compete f r e e l y .  The trend has been f o r the r a i l r o a d s t o a t -  tempt-to drop any uneconomical passenger s e r v i c e regulated),  (also  and f o r t r a n s i t companies t o be purchased by  municipalities. However a more d i r e c t reason f o r the d e c l i n e o f public transportation  has been a decreasing demand f o r t h i s  type o f s e r v i c e i n both the U.S.A. and Canada. about the s i t u a t i o n i n the United  Smerk s t a t e s  States:  s i n c e 1940, the bus and r a p i d t r a n s i t i n d u s t r i e s have l o s t 28$ of t h e i r passengers, have decreased v e h i c l e miles operated by 17$ and trimmed employment by 41$. A 92$ increase i n revenue, through a seemingly endless s e r i e s o f f a r e hikes that d r i v e s t i l l more people to t h e i r autos, has been o u t s t r i p p e d by a 116$ jump i n operating expenses.7 By way of i l l u s t r a t i o n i n Canada, the Toronto T r a n s i t Commission i n one o f the more s u c c e s s f u l examples o f p u b l i c transportation  i n North America had i t s f i r s t n e t operating  d e f i c i t i n 1954.  8  In 1956 s u b s i d i e s  Toronto C o r p o r a t i o n s u b s i d i z e d  from the M e t r o p o l i t a n  the Commission's  operating  54 expenses.  In 1962  to provide  c a p i t a l s u b s i d i e s and' i n 1963  provide  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Toronto Act was  o p e r a t i n g s u b s i d i e s as w e l l .  d e f i c i t s and  amended  f u r t h e r amended to  During the p e r i o d  f a r e adjustments t o a l l e v i a t e the l o s s e s  of  there  was  a d e c l i n e i n passengers from 1953-1963 of 38$.  was  b e t t e r than the average Canadian c i t y , however, which had  an average d e c l i n e of 48$. i n the U.S.  was  57$.  The  decline during t h i s  period  There i s some i n d i c a t i o n of a r e v e r s a l  of t h i s trend however s i n c e i n Toronto there was 2.5  This  m i l l i o n passengers i n 1964  over  a r i s e of  1963.  Patronage on the commuter r a i l l i n e s i n the  cities  where t h i s system i s important has been d e c l i n i n g s t e a d i l y 9 s i n c e 1930.  By 1958  almost every r a i l r o a d s t i l l  operating  commuter t r a i n s was  t h r e a t e n i n g to terminate s e r v i c e unless  the p u b l i c provided  help through f a r e i n c r e a s e s , tax  or s u b s i d i e s .  1 0  Commuter l i n e d e f i c i t s had  been supported by f r e i g h t revenue but  relief  i n most cases  i n 1957  the f r e i g h t  revenue took a r a p i d d e c l i n e making the f i n a n c i a l p l i g h t of the companies worse. under the  The New  Haven R a i l r o a d went bankrupt  pressure.  Although the demise of the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems i n the United  S t a t e s may  f a c t o r s such as obsolete  be a t t r i b u t e d to s e v e r a l  equipment, expense of  improvements, o v e r c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i n some cases, nature of demand and  the low  capital the peaked  "commuted" f a r e i n the case of  the r a i l r o a d s , a l a r g e p a r t of the reason f o r the  failure  55 o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i e s i n the area o f p u b l i c p o l i c y . The  5 cent s t a t u t o r y f a r e , the l a c k o f any i n t e g r a t i n g  agencies f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t o r y t i o n were f a c t o r s . effect.  legisla-  P o s i t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o had i t s  The F e d e r a l A i d Highway Act  o f 1944 which set t h e  p a t t e r n f o r f e d e r a l a i d t o highways only and which e x i s t e d u n t i l 1961, authorized  the F e d e r a l A i d Highway Act  o f 1956 which  the massive N a t i o n a l System o f I n t e r s t a t e and  Defense Highways had the e f f e c t o f emphasizing highway travel.  The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Act o f 1958, which was d r a f t e d  t o a l l e v i a t e the r a i l r o a d s ! ; f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n but which had the e f f e c t o f reducing metropolitan  the number o f commuter t r a i n s i n  areas s i n c e the Act permitted discontinuance  of an u n p r o f i t a b l e l i n e without formal I n t e r s t a t e Commerce Commission action, a l s o had the e f f e c t o f promoting highway travel. "*"  The I n t e r s t a t e Commerce Act was amended "to permit  1  a c a r r i e r t o discontinue  any t r a i n , ferry,- s t a t i o n , or depot  used i n i n t e r s t a t e o r i n t r a s t a t e commerce w i t h i n 30 days of p o s t i n g n o t i c e unless  the I n t e r s t a t e Commerce Commission  entered upon an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the proposed ance."  discontinu-  1 2  I I I . THE GROWTH OF MOTOR VEHICLE TRAVEL AND THE NEED FOR A BALANCED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM The  growth o f motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c i n North America  (and more r e c e n t l y i n the U.K. and Europe) i s w e l l documented.  56 In the United S t a t e s 67$ and 7$ own  two  or more. ^ 1  o f a l l consumer u n i t s own  a car  H a l f of a l l motor t r a v e l i n the  United S t a t e s i s i n c e n t r a l c i t i e s with an unknown but much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of automotive t r a v e l t a k i n g p l a c e i n metropolitan areas.  More than h a l f of a l l persons e n t e r i n g  and l e a v i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n areas with populations of over 250,000 are moving by automobile and increased by 69$  t r a f f i c volumes have  on urban s t r e e t s s i n c e 1 9 4 0 .  14  The growth of automobiles has p r e c i p i t a t e d the  de-  velopment of highways and urban s t r e e t s which In t u r n a t t r a c t more v e h i c l e s .  Urban motor t r a v e l has  increased at a  s u b s t a n t i a l l y f a s t e r annual r a t e than the urban p o p u l a t i o n w i t h the annual motor v e h i c l e t r a v e l per urban r e s i d e n t r i s i n g from 2000 miles i n 1940 The  to about 2900 m i l e s i n I 9 6 0 .  1 5  f l e x i b i l i t y of the automobile has changed the  t r a v e l h a b i t s of m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s i d e n t s and added to the g e n e r a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n f u n c t i o n s . has been a marked s h i f t i n the work t r i p p a t t e r n s .  There Where  i n the past these p a t t e r n s c o n s i s t e d of morning and  evening  peaks between the core and the f r i n g e areas, today's p a t t e r n i s more widely d i f f u s e d as work p l a c e s have become d e c e n t r a l i z e d , c r e a t i n g job o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the suburbs.  The  I960  Census i n the United S t a t e s showed t h a t 65$ of the workers who  both l i v e d and worked i n town use automobiles f o r work  t r i p s , while 85-^94$ of suburbanites  depend on cars f o r work.  In the metamorphosis from the compact c i t y of the e a r l y 20th Century to a sprawling m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n  over-extending  1  57  i t s p o l i t i c a l boundaries,  the p r i v a t e automobile "has been  t h e most p o w e r f u l s i n g l e i n f l u e n c e on encouraging the d i s persed and s p r a w l i n g p a t t e r n s of r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and 17  i n d u s t r i a l development"  ' which c h a r a c t e r i z e  the U n i t e d  S t a t e s and Canada t o d a y . W i t h the growth of automobile t r a v e l and the i n g patronage  decreas-  o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; w i t h the e f f e c t  o f these has on the form o f m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ,  there  each  has  come an awareness of the need t o i n t e g r a t e a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes.  P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n becomes more e f f e c t i v e  in  h i g h l y dense a r e a s , whereas the f l e x i b i l i t y o f the  automobile  i n the d e c e n t r a l i z i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s i s a l s o  necessary.  W i t h the f e d e r a l l y a i d e d highway program o f 1944 t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n i t i a t e d a F e d e r a l government  transportation policy  w h i c h emphasized the development of highways and automobile t r a v e l , but because o f the s p e c i a l i z e d n a t u r e o f t h i s and j  s u c c e e d i n g h i g h w a y - a i d l e g i s l a t i o n the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems were not s o l v e d .  A f t e r 17 y e a r s o f  continuous  f e d e r a l - a i d t o highways l e g i s l a t i o n , i n 1961 t h e r e came a s m a l l r e v e r s a l o f t h i s p o l i c y w i t h the Housing A c t o f t h a t  year  which gave some support t o p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e c o g n i z e d the comprehensiveness  o f urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g .  The  f i n a n c i a l support was i n the form o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n g r a n t s , l o a n s and g r a n t s f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g i n c l u d i n g c o o r d i n a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  1 ft  °  58 This modest beginning was extended by the F e d e r a l A i d Highway A c t o f 1962 which provides that no F e d e r a l government funds w i l l be a l l o c a t e d t o any m e t r o p o l i t a n area f o r any highway program that i s not i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a "con-  19 t i n u i n g p l a n n i n g process".  The c u l m i n a t i o n o f the  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r an i n t e g r a t e d program was i n the Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t o f 1964 which a u t h o r i z e d the Housing and Home Finance A d m i n i s t r a t o r t o provide a s s i s t a n c e f o r the development of comprehensive and coordinated mass t r a n s p o r t a 20 t i o n systems both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e .  T h i s was, however,  only a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n : "the a c t i s by no means a c u r e - a l l f o r urban t r a n s p o r t d i s t r e s s ,  ... the r e a l heart o f the  problem ... l i e s i n b r i n g i n g the f u l l economic c a p a b i l i t i e s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n areas t o bear on the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem.  No r e a l , l o n g - l a s t i n g s o l u t i o n i s p o s s i b l e  u n t i l governmental and f i s c a l fragmentation  on the l o c a l  m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l i s overcome and the problems which f a c e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas can be met by a u n i f i e d approach a t that level'.  2 1  IV. CHAPTER SUMMARY P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been one component o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems of urban areas f o r two c e n t u r i e s . The s u c c e s s i v e development o f the omnibus, horse car, cable c a r and  s t r e e t c a r produced changes i n the form o f the c i t y w i t h  urban development along the r a d i a l c a r l i n e s forming a s t a r f i s h  59 pattern.  The commuter and i n t e r - u r b a n r a i l r o a d s produced  nodes of settlement  at t h e i r terminal points,  l a r g e r r a d i a n t s and modifying the s t a r f i s h .  superimposing The automobile  a f t e r 1920, w i t h i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , has rendered these e f f e c t s i n s i g n i f i c a n t and has helped t o spread development outward in a l l directions. With the 'increasing use o f the motor v e h i c l e , age  on p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems has been  patron-  decreasing.  As w e l l as the e f f e c t of the automobile t h i s d e c l i n e has been due  t o other c o n d i t i o n s , such as r e s t r i c t i v e government  r e g u l a t i o n s on the t r a n s i t companies and the peaked nature of t r a n s i t demand.  The p o p u l a r i t y o f the motor v e h i c l e  r e s u l t e d i n F e d e r a l government l e g i s l a t i o n which a l l o c a t e d f e d e r a l funds t o highway planning aid  and c o n s t r u c t i o n .  No such  was a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d u r i n g the  1940's and 1950's. The  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t highways alone would not s o l v e  the i n t r a - u r b a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem brought modest F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1961 which was designed t o help r e v i v e the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode o f t r a v e l .  This f i r s t  legisla-  t i o n was followed by broader based enactments which r e s u l t e d i n the Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t o f 1964, which a u t h o r i z e s the F e d e r a l government t o provide  a s s i s t a n c e f o r the development  of both p u b l i c l y and p r i v a t e l y owned p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  I t now remains only f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n  t i e s t o organize legislation.  area  munieipall  so that f u l l advantage may be taken of t h i s  60.  REFERENCES  George M. Smerk, Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : The F e d e r a l Role (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965). (The b a s i s of t h i s h i s t o r i c a l review.) 2  I b i d . . p. 19.  ^ I b i d . . p. 2 3 . 4  I b i d . . p. 29.  "Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - J o i n t Report t o the President by the S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce and'the'Housing and Home Finance A d m i n i s t r a t o r , " The Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t of 1962 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962). c  W i l f r e d Owen, The M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem (Washington: The Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n , 1956), p. 67. 7  Smerk, o p . c i t . , p. 49. o  C a r l H. Goldenberg, Report o f the Royal Commission on M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto (Toronto: 1965). q  W i l f r e d Owen, o p . c i t . , p. 100.  M i c h a e l Danielson, F e d e r a l - M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i t i c s and the Commuter C r i s i s (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), p. 12. 1 0  i : L  1 2  I b i d . . p. 35.  I b i d . . p. 35.  ^ W i l f r e d Owen, o p . c i t . , p. 32. 1 4  I b i d . , p. 35.  U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : Issues, Trends Automotive Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n , 1963). 1 5  (Detroit:  " I b i d . , p. 13. 17 "Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , " The Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t o f 1962 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), p. 17. 18 Smerk, o p . c i t . , pp. 148-150. 1 9  I b i d . , p. 171.  20 P u b l i c Law 88-365, 88th Congress, 2nd sess., p 21 Smerk, o p . c i t . . p. 177.  CHAPTER IV METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING IN SELECTED REGIONS OP THE UNITED STATES  T h i s chapter i s an examination o f m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n the United States with regard t o i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n .  The r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i v e  framework w i t h i n which m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning can he e a r r i e d out and the f i n a n c i a l means of making s t u d i e s are examined.  The base d a t a examined i n t h i s chapter a r e  s i x m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s ; the type commonlyknown as major r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s . s i x m e t r o p o l i t a n centers and t h e i r contiguous  Studies of  regions a r e  examined w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study o b j e c t i v e s .  Transportation  p l a n n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r the study and f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning i n general i s investigated.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g t o the comprehensive p l a n n i n g  process  i s a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r the s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s . I . LEGISLATIVE AND FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK Highways The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the U n i t e d States g i v e s t o Congress the powers t o " e s t a b l i s h post roads, t o r e g u l a t e i n t e r s t a t e  65 commerce, to provide f o r defense, the g e n e r a l welfare to  and t o tax and  spend f o r  ... a l l powers which ... could be held  s u s t a i n f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y i n road b u i l d i n g " .  Although  1  both the F e d e r a l and s t a t e governments engaged d i r e c t l y i n road b u i l d i n g before 1830 i t was  never very  F e d e r a l a c t i v i t y i n road b u i l d i n g was  satisfactory.  considered  to be  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l by some of the e a r l y p r e s i d e n t s and roads were mismanaged and  non-  state t o l l  d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by the p u b l i c .  A f t e r 1830 the n a t i o n a l and  s t a t e governments  concentrated  t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on other forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f i r s t canals then r a i l r o a d s , as major instruments movement.  Highways, regarded  of l o n g d i s t a n c e  as s h o r t - d i s t a n c e t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n f a c i l i t i e s were r e l e g a t e d as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l governments.  The S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , who  had  i n h e r i t e d the O f f i c e of Road I n q u i r y i n 1893> d e c l a r e d i n 1913 t h a t "everybody w i l l agree that the r a i l r o a d  (not h i g h -  ways) i s the n a t i o n a l road f o r the v a s t m a j o r i t y of In the e a r l y 1900's there was s t a t e l e v e l than a t the F e d e r a l l e v e l .  people."  more a c t i v i t y at the By 1 9 1 6 ,  forty-five  of the s t a t e s were g r a n t i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d to l o c a l governments, 42 had  created s t a t e highway departments and  e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t e highway systems.  25  had  However, s t a t e highway  3  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was p r i m i t i v e .  J  The F e d e r a l A i d Highway Act of 1916 was  the  first  l e g i s l a t i o n to provide d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a i d t o the s t a t e s or to  l o c a l areas.  The Act provided highway funds to be  64 administered an  approved  state in  through  highway agency.  highway  many  the states  This  organizations  states.  concentration  T h e 1921  Federal  were  profoundly  ments,  Although  tion  ments  could  depression  o f highway  these  i n f l u e n c e s was  generally. grant  but  the states  example,  system road  began  was  Interest  since  the registra-  a source  of  administrative  brought  depart-  about  These were  exerted  of highway  from  a  a  new  emergency  continuing  affairs.  a strictly  One o f  rural  policy  s t r e e t s and u r b a n  areas  carried  on  t h e same m a n n e r a s t h e 1921 A c t r e l u c t a n t steps  highway  i n general  area  toward the  connections  confined  aided  i n urban  level  motor v e h i c l e  A i d H i g h w a y A c t o f 1930  t o take  California  high-  roads.  f o r urban  i n nearly  of  and r e q u i r e -  to evaluate  the states  to develop of  policy  mileage i n  at the state  at a l l levels.  of intra-urban  responsibility  4  gave  a change  concession  program  development  tion).  This  b u t have  The F e d e r a l  the  (For  increased  on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  some s m a l l  "primary"  of the t h i r t i e s  programs  a t t h e time  influence  to a  beginning  mileage  of  A i d Highway A c t r e q u i r e d  from  be u s e d  and a g r e a t e r  measures  to  o f revenue  which  The era  also  and l i c e n c e f e e s .  income  up s t a t e highway  the developments  were  through  a strengthening  a f f e c t e d by f e d e r a l inducement  the states  implications  do s o  Ifo o f t h e r u r a l  ways;; w h i c h was n o t t o e x c e e d state.  they  prompted  and f i r m e d  of f e d e r a l funds  each  provided  i n areas  to small under  although  the  urban  cities.  2500  popula-  s t r e e t s h a d n o t come  before  65  the d e p r e s s i o n  because o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : urban s t r e e t s  were r e l a t i v e l y good, t h e the  cities  had  p r o b l e m and  no  l e g i s l a t u r e s were r u r a l l y  comprehension of the  planning  had  concentrated  oriented,  transportation on t h e  City Beautiful  5 Movement.  During t h i s  period  the  s t a t e s were t a k i n g  a l a r g e r s h a r e o f highway f i n a n c i n g p r o v i d i n g r o a d and  s t r e e t f u n d s i n 1931,  The  local  1936  and  contributions declined t o 32$  i n 1941.  At  e x p e n d i t u r e s between 1934 w h i c h 27$  was  i n 1936,  f r o m 49$  the  and  for streets.  f e d e r a l f u n d s had  1941  Federal  the  of. no  unemploy-  t h a n were this there  o f t h e money f o r since there i t put  used f o r  was  money i n "planning  work. " 1  F e d e r a l A i d Highway A c t  main emphases, f e d e r a l a i d t o  t i o n s and  The  to undertake  planning  p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n s which e x i s t to the two  in  t h i s p o l i c y because  hands o f highway e n g i n e e r s w h i c h was  The  t o 42$  government made i t  t o i n s u r e use  antagonism toward m e t r o p o l i t a n  engineering  1941.  time v i r t u a l l y  c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n programs and an  in  billion  t o the needs o f c i t i e s  Smerk c r i t i c i z e s  s t r i n g s attached  68$  t o t a l e d $6.4  s t a t e s , w h i c h were w i t h o u t r e s o u r c e s  type of program.  of a l l  same t i m e a l l f e d e r a l r o a d  gone f o r s t r e e t p u r p o s e s .  somewhat more r e s p o n s i v e  were no  and i n 1931  P r i o r to t h i s  ment emergency powers o f t h e  the  58$  41$  over  a p r o v i s i o n f o r the  System o f I n t e r s t a t e Highways.  o f 1944  established  present.  intra-urban  designation  It  created  highway  of the  Smerk s t a t e s t h a t  new  connec-  National the  1944  6'6 Act set a "highwaya-only" p o l i c y which produced 17 years (to the Housing Act  of 1961  which moderated the highways-only  p o l i c y ) of urban " d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and  t r a f f i c jams".  The  8  reasons f o r a "highways-only" p o l i c y were t r a d i t i o n a l f e d e r a l a i d to highways, a dominance of r u r a l p o l i t i c i a n s i n the l e g i s l a t u r e s , the t y p i c a l , v o t e r ' s mobile t r a v e l , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Public loads, to p u b l i c  d e s i r e f o r auto-  power of the Bureau of  the automobile lobby and  the n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e  transportation.  During the post World War  I I p e r i o d two  important  developments i n highway f i n a n c i n g were a g e n e r a l increase u s e r charges by s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s , and t o l l roads.  and  movement f o r  In C a l i f o r n i a f o r example (an extreme  the L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1947 50$  a new  increased  in  case),  u s e r taxes by more than  assumed f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t a t e highways i n  c i t i e s as w e l l as extending a i d to l o c a l governments. n i n e s t a t e s between 1945 gasoline  from 0.5  - 3.0  and  1956  increased Q  cents per g a l l o n .  s u c c e s s f u l a l t e r n a t i v e highway routes and  t h e i r tax  Thirtyon  T o l l roads became by 1953  there were  t o l l roads i n 9 s t a t e s . The  F e d e r a l A i d Highway Act  b i l l i o n s spread over 13 I n t e r s t a t e and  authorized  years f o r the N a t i o n a l  $25  System of  Defense Highways, to be matched by s t a t e funds  i n the r a t i o of one -taxes was  of 1956  to nine.  A Highway Trust Fund of user  e s t a b l i s h e d which was  program e n t i r e l y .  The  intended t o f i n a n c e  the  annual amount of f e d e r a l a i d to  the  s t a t e s i s s e t by Congress but the law r e q u i r e s t h a t the . allotments be in'.conformity with the revenues a c c r u i n g to the Highway T r u s t F u n d .  F e d e r a l funds represented  1 0  44$ o f a l l  money spent f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t r e e t s and roads by a l l governments i n 1 9 6 1 . The  11  e f f e c t of the l e g i s l a t i o n o f 1956 on water, a i r  and r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was not considered,  n o r was there  i n i t i a l l y any p r o v i s i o n t o t i e the program i n t o community p l a n n i n g programs. The new f e d e r a l highway l e g i s l a t i o n ... missed the opportunity to provide a d d i t i o n a l impetus f o r community p l a n n i n g . I t f a i l e d t o demand that the approval o f road c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s be made contingent on such planning.12 T h i s problem was recognized  and i n c o r p o r a t e d  into  the F e d e r a l - A i d Highway A c t of 1962 which: provides t h a t , beginning no l a t e r than J u l y 1, 1965, approval o f f e d e r a l - a i d highway programs f o r p r o j e c t s i n any urban area of over 50,000 p o p u l a t i o n s h a l l be made a contingent upon a f i n d i n g by the S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce t h a t such p r o j e c t s a r e based on a c o n t i n u i n g p l a n n i n g process c a r r i e d on c o o p e r a t i v e l y by the s t a t e s and l o c a l communities.13 This A c t paved the way f o r highway t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning as part o f a comprehensive p l a n but d i d not i n c l u d e funds for  non-highway p r o j e c t s .  68 Public  Transportation There has been a renewed i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c  trans-  p o r t a t i o n as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e means of s o l v i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem i n m e t r o p o l i t a n f o r common c a r r i e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has  areas.  been subject  opposing f o r c e s , those toward an i n c r e a s e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n due population due  areas and  demand to  i n the use  to the increased  i n metropolitan  The  the  of  concentration  of  those toward a decrease  to the s h i f t to p r i v a t e automobile use.  T o t a l usage of  common c a r r i e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has been d e c l i n i n g s i n c e World War  I I i n most places  except f o r c e r t a i n of the r a i l r a p i d 14  systems which seem to have s t a b i l i z e d . There are a s i g n i f i c a n t number of  metropolitan  r e s i d e n t s dependent on p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Census showed that 7.4 workers of 190  The  I960  m i l l i o n workers or almost 18$  of the l a r g e s t standard m e t r o p o l i t a n  s u r f a c e r a i l r o a d , subway or elevated, c a r f o r work j o u r n e y s .  1 5  households i n the United  The  r a i l w a y , bus  own  the  areas  use  or s t r e e t -  Census a l s o showed 22$  States d i d not  of  U.S.  of a l l  an a u t o m o b i l e . ^ 1  A c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n developed because of the i n c r e a s i n g need f o r public transportation i n large metropolitan the f e d e r a l p o l i c y of "highways The  c r i s i s became evident  San F r a n c i s c o  and  regions  and  only". i n the e a r l y 1950's when  P h i l a d e l p h i a i n i t i a t e d vigorous programs  t o improve t h e i r r a p i d t r a n s i t systems. S t a t e L e g i s l a t u r e created  The C a l i f o r n i a  the San F r a n c i s c o Bay Area Rapid  69 T r a n s i t Commission f o r research  i n 1951 g r a n t i n g $750,000 t o 9 counties  i n t o the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s i t u a t i o n . Be-  cause o f the r e g i o n a l nature of the problem f i v e of the counties  formed a governmental agency i n 1957 which was c a l l e d 17  the San F r a n c i s c o Bay Area Rapid T r a n s i t D i s t r i c t .  ' The  D i s t r i c t has the powers of a c i t y or county, w i t h l i m i t e d t a x i n g powers, the a u t h o r i t y t o i s s u e general  o b l i g a t i o n bonds  18  and the power of eminent domain.  The D i s t r i c t  i s governed  by a 16 member Board o f D i r e c t o r s appointed by boards of superv i s o r s and committees counties.  of mayors w i t h i n the 5 p a r t i c i p a t i n g  The D i s t r i c t ' s p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n was to p l a n a  r e g i o n a l r a p i d t r a n s i t system t o u l t i m a t e l y c o n s i s t of 24 m i l e s of s u r f a c e grade separated r o u t e s ,  31 m i l e s of a e r i a l  l i n e s , 16 m i l e s o f subway and a 4 m i l e tube under San F r a n c i s c o Bay.  The estimated cost w i l l be $792 m i l l i o n , approved by  p l e b i s c i t e i n 1962. The planning  of the system i s t o provide  " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u p e r i o r t o the p r i v a t e automobile". In the e a r l y 1950's P h i l a d e l p h i a a l s o undertook to do something about p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . C o u n c i l created  I n 1953,  City  the Urban T r a f f i c and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  which made a study r e s u l t i n g i n a recommendation balanced r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  Board  for a  A modest freeway  system was a l s o recommended but the emphasis was on f u l l e r u t i l i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g r a p i d t r a n s i t and commuter r a i l w a y lines.  The c r e a t i o n o f a r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  t i o n t o develop and administer  the comprehensive  organizatransportation  70 system was  a l s o suggested.  These e f f o r t s at the  metropolitan  l e v e l ran i n t o p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the State so the c i t y of P h i l a d e l p h i a decided  t o create i t s  legislature, own  mechanism f o r b r i n g i n g o v e r a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s , w i t h a p o s s i b l e suburban expansion 20 whenever the a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e . The Passenger S e r v i c e Improvement C o r p o r a t i o n was  therefore  e s t a b l i s h e d i n I960 as a n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n to r e p l a c e the Urban T r a f f i c and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Board.  The new  corpor-  a t i o n began t o s u b s i d i z e commuter operations w i t h i n the l i m i t s , and  by means of f a r e cuts, b e t t e r s e r v i c e and buson  t r a i n t r a n s f e r s increased the patronage 46$ The  city  surrounding  by  1962.  counties e v e n t u a l l y j o i n e d i n  i n t o the Southeast Pennsylvania the promise of f e d e r a l a i d .  1962  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Compact a f t e r  In 1964,  State  e s t a b l i s h e d the Southeastern Pennsylvania  legislation  Transportation  A u t h o r i t y which has the power to coordinate a l l t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s under one management. I n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the development of new i n p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n San F r a n c i s c o P h i l a d e l p h i a helped t i o n of the problem.  interest and  to p r e c i p i t a t e F e d e r a l government r e c o g n i I t s f i r s t a c t was  to coordinate  the  programs of the Bureau of P u b l i c Roads with the Housing and Home Finance Agency i n I960 to "provide  j o i n t planning  highways and urban development i n m e t r o p o l i t a n The  Housing Act of 1961  of  areas."22  embodied three amendments t o the  71 previous housing a c t s which served t o help p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the comprehensiveness o f urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning.  T h i s A c t provided f o r F e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n the  form o f demonstration grants to experiment w i t h p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n demonstration p r o j e c t s . ^  P u b l i c Law 560,  S e c t i o n 701 provided grants " t o f a c i l i t a t e comprehensive planning f o r urban development, i n c l u d i n g coordinated p o r t a t i o n systems, on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . " ^  trans-  The grant  could  be made t o the s t a t e or t o l o c a l governments and i n c l u d e the " p r e p a r a t i o n o f comprehensive urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n surveys, s t u d i e s , and plans t o a i d i n s o l v i n g problems o f t r a f f i c 25 congestion".  P u b l i c Law 345 allowed  the F e d e r a l govern-  ment t o provide loans t o s t a t e s and l o c a l governments t o f i n a n c e the " a c q u i s i t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and improvement o f f a c i l i t i e s  ... i n mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e  i n urban area  ... and f o r use i n c o o r d i n a t i n g highway, bus,  surface-rail,  underground, p a r k i n g and other t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 26  f a c i l i t i e s i n such areas." was  relatively  This program, although a s t a r t ,  mild.  Although the F e d e r a l A i d Highway Act o f 1962 made F e d e r a l highway grants contingent upon a c o n t i n u i n g  planning  process c a r r i e d on c o o p e r a t i v e l y by the s t a t e s and l o c a l communities, i t was not u n t i l the Urban Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Act o f 1964 t h a t l o c a l communities could get f e d e r a l grants f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  T h i s a c t a u t h o r i z e s "the  Housing and Home Finance A d m i n i s t r a t o r t o provide  additonal  72  a s s i s t a n c e f o r the development of comprehensive and ordinated  co-  mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems, both p u b l i c and  i n metropolitan  and  other urban a r e a s " .  27  private  The Act has  three  purposes: t o a s s i s t i n the development of improved p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , to encourage the p l a n n i n g area-wide urban p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems, and assistance systems.  to s t a t e and  to provide  l o c a l governments i n f i n a n c i n g such  Three hundred and  appropriated  of  seventy-five  over a three year p e r i o d .  million dollars In order to be  f o r funds an area must have a p l a n f o r a coordinated  was  eligible  urban  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system as p a r t of a comprehensive p l a n f o r the r e g i o n . Act  of 1962  The Act  complements the F e d e r a l A i d Highway  i n which "comprehensive planning"  enough to i n c l u d e s t a t e and  l o c a l highway and  i s broad public  trans-  portation projects. I I . AN ANALYSIS OF SIX MAJOR UNITED STATES METROPOLITAN AREA TRANSPORTATION STUDIES An attempt i s made i n t h i s s e c t i o n to analyze metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  i n the United  States  through a study of major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s f o r s i x selected areas.  Each study i s examined with regard  a r e a l extent and  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p o l i t i c a l  d i c t i o n s of each r e g i o n , the study o b j e c t i v e s w i t h to the i n t e g r a t i o n of land use and and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  to  the juris-  regard  a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems,  administration  - i n c l u d i n g the  73 study o r g a n i z a t i o n and the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l agencies and jurisdictions The  i n the  region.  s t u d i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s based on  geographic and temporal c r i t e r i a .  Two s t u d i e s from each o f  the eastern, midwestern and f a r western regions o f the United States are examined, and i n c l u d e d i n each geographic r e g i o n i s a sample o f an o l d e r study as w e l l as a more recent one,  with the exception  of the f a r western r e g i o n  where no study has been completed.  The m e t r o p o l i t a n  regions  f o r study are D e t r o i t , P h i l a d e l p h i a , Chicago, P i t t s b u r g h , Los Angeles and S e a t t l e . There are c u r r e n t l y 75 t o 80 c i t i e s i n the  United  S t a t e s which have t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s underway and which v a r y i n s i z e from A l l e g a n , Michigan w i t h 4,822 p o p u l a t i o n t o the t r i - s t a t e m e t r o p o l i t a n  area o f New York w i t h 17,000,000  28 people.  However t h i s study i s concerned with o n l y those  which have completed o r begun major comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a tion studies.  Using Z e t t e l and C a r l l s d e f i n i t i o n o f major  pq studies  done on a l a r g e s c a l e and comprehensive i n scope,  there are twelve m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i n the United whose p o p u l a t i o n exceeded 1,300,000 (I960 census),  States which now  have major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s completed, i n progress, of October, o r a u t h o r i z e d1962. . Table  page 74 shows the 12 s t u d i e s as  74 TABLE I MAJOR TRANSPORTATION  STUDIES IN LARGE  METROPOLITAN  AREAS OF THE UNITED STATES, AS OF OCTOBER, 1962  Metropolitan Area  1960 Population  Study Name  Year Begun  Main Study Status, 1962  New York  14,759,429  T r i - S t a t e Transporta t i o n Study  1961  Initial stages  7,552,487  Los Angeles R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study  1959  In progress  Chicago  6,794,461  Chicago Area Transp o r t a t i o n Study  1956  Completed, new study begun  Philadelphia  4,342,897  Penn-Jersey Transp o r t a t i o n Study  1959  In progress  Detroit  3,762,360  Detroit Metropolitan Area T r a f f i c Study  1953  Completed, new study begun  Boston  2,589,301  Boston R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study  1962  Initial stages  Pittsburgh  2,405,435  P i t t s b u r g h Area Trans-1958 p o r t a t i o n Study  Completed, new study begun  Washington  2,001,897  Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l Region  1955  Completed, new study begun  MinneapolisS t . Paul  1,482,030  Twin C i t i e s Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study  I960  In progress  Milwaukee  1,436,000  Southeastern Wisconsinl962 Regional Transportat i o n Study  Seattle Tacoma  1,428,803  Puget Sound R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study  I960  In progress  Buffalo  1,306,957  Niagara F r o n t i e r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study  1961  In progress  Los  Angeles  Source:  Initial stages  R i c h a r d M. Z e t t e l , and Richard R. C a r l l , Summary Review of Major M e t r o p o l i t a n Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Studies i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a . 1962), Table 1, p. 1.  75 The  s i x s t u d i e s s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s are t y p i c a l of  a l l the s t u d i e s that have been done to date, w i t h the D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n Area T r a f f i c study being the f i r s t  attempted,  and the Penn-Jersey T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, although i n 1959 and  (relatively early) u t i l i z i n g  the l a t e s t t e c h n o l o g i c a l  t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge i n the f i e l d .  The study regions  v a r y i n p o p u l a t i o n from 1,428,803 (Seattle-Tacoma) (Los A n g e l e s ) .  commencing  t o 7,552,478  Some of the regions have completed s t u d i e s  ( D e t r o i t , Chicago and P i t t s b u r g h ) , while other (Los S e a t t l e and P h i l a d e l p h i a ) are not complete. elapsed s i n c e the f i r s t  study was  Angeles,  Enough time  has  completed t o a l l o w some  evaluation,and these c r i t i c i s m s are i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . The  Study Regions Table I I , page 76 represents the study r e g i o n s with  regard to the a r e a l extent of each r e g i o n , and  the number of  p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s which are i n c l u d e d i n the study a r e a . No s p e c i f i c conclusions can be drawn from Table I I .  The  study areas v a r y i n s i z e a c c o r d i n g to the p o p u l a t i o n which occurs w i t h i n them but there i s no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n . D e t r o i t with a p o p u l a t i o n of about 4 m i l l i o n has an area of approximately 6000 persons approximately  700 square miles g i v i n g a d e n s i t y of l e s s  than  per square m i l e , whereas P h i l a d e l p h i a has 1000  persons  per square mile i n the study a r e a .  There i s a c e r t a i n trend to l a r g e r study areas from the e a r l i e r s t u d i e s to the l a t e r ones,but there i s not enough  76 TABLE I I AREAL EXTENT AND NUMBER OP POLITICAL JURISDICTIONS OP SELECTED STUDIES  Metropolitan P o l i t i c a l Metropolitan Region  Detroit  Study Counties C e n t r a l F r i n g e Area City Cities (Sq.Miles) Towns o r Villages 709  3  1  Philadelphia  4231  8  1  Chicago  1236  4  420  1  Los Angeles  9000  5  Seattle  6312  4  Pittsburgh  b  Jurisdictions  Other T o t a l No. j u r i s - of P o l i t i c a l dieJurisdictions tions 70  22  44 a  a n.a.  n.a.  1  125  26  156  1  72  e  24  98  122  d  -  4  e  Notes: a. Not l i s t e d i n the Study Prospectus. b. Study a r e a d i d not i n c l u d e Lake County Indiana, . (134 sq.. m i l e s , 12 j u r i s d i c t i o n s ) . c. C i t i e s and Boroughs. d. Only those j u r i s d i c t i o n s which are p a r t i c i p a t i n g are  available.  e. Only those j u r i s d i c t i o n s which are p a r t i c i p a t i n g are  available.  a  n.a.  127  b  d  e n.a.  77  evidence t o a r r i v e a t d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s . Although the P i t t s b u r g h study was p u b l i s h e d i n 1961 (Volume I) and 1963 (Volume I I ) , and i s v e r y w e l l advanced i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s , i t has a very s m a l l study a r e a .  T h i s could be due t o two  f a c t o r s : the nature o f P i t t s b u r g h ' s h i n t e r l a n d and the f a c t t h a t the study area was e s t a b l i s h e d a t an e a r l y date i n the study program, whereas improvements could be made i n other aspects as the study progressed. There a r e two b a s i c concepts f o r study area s e l e c t i o n : a "commuter-shed" and a "water-shed" shed approach  approach.-^  The commuter-  1  i s the extent of u r b a n i z a t i o n (determined by  the d a i l y i n f l o w and outflow to the c e n t e r by the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n ) a t the t a r g e t date of the study's "planning p e r i o d " , whereas the "water-shed  approach t r i e s t o d e f i n e a  " n a t u r a l " r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g some r u r a l h i n t e r l a n d . types are e v i d e n t : the Chicago study being based  Both  on a  "commuter-shed" and the Puget Sound study on a " n a t u r a l " region.  I n p r a c t i c e however county boundaries r a t h e r than  a t h e o r e t i c a l approach a r e more l i k e l y t o be used t o d e f i n e study a r e a s .  The Penn-Jersey  study i s of t h i s t y p e .  There i s no observable c o r r e l a t i o n between the number of j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n the study area and the a r e a l extent of the area, or w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the study a r e a .  Part  of the reason f o r t h i s may be the e x c l u s i o n from some o f the study p r o j e c t s of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h i n the study a r e a .  Each study r e c o g n i z e s the d e s i r a b i l i t y of i n -  78 e l u d i n g a l l the a f f e c t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h i n the study area hut  f o r v a r i o u s reasons t h i s has not  study d i d not  there because i t was  The  Study  The  i n c l u d e Lake County, Indiana i n the  a r e a f o r example, but  for future  occurred.  c o l l e c t e d land use and  Chicago  study  other  data  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i t would be u s e f u l  planning. Objectives  A l l the s t u d i e s w i t h the exception  of Los Angeles  have an e x p l i c i t o b j e c t i v e f o r the development of a "comprehends  s i v e , long-range t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n " . ^ Regional Transportation  i n l o c a l and  planning."^  Los Angeles  Study "aims to measure and  the d a i l y movement of people and area f o r use  The  explain  goods throughout the study  regional integrated  transportation  I t emphasizes a c o n t i n u i n g s e r v i c e aspect  an " a i d to guide p u b l i c and  as  p r i v a t e agencies i n making and  e v a l u a t i n g planning d e c i s i o n s i n terms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n "55  requirements". A s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s of the study o b j e c t i v e s i s made here to examine the emphasis g i v e n i n each of the s t u d i e s the i n t e g r a t i o n of l a n d use and general  to  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  In  each of the s t u d i e s emphasized the r o l e of land  use  i n determining t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs. became the new  phase of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  w i t h the D e t r o i t study where i t was of land use  As has been s t a t e d  this  beginning  s t a t e d that "the mosaic  i s the determinant of the t o t a l t r a f f i c  pattern".  79 The D e t r o i t study was p r i m a r i l y concerned with  developing  s o l u t i o n s t o "serve the f u t u r e t r a f f i c demand" and would "conform t o and encourage the land development planned f o r the 37  area".  The D e t r o i t study, as t y p i c a l of the e a r l y s t u d i e s  based i t s procedure on the f o r e c a s t i n g of a d i s c r e t e land use p l a n and the development o f a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system t o serve these uses.  The development o f land use a l t e r n a t i v e plans  based on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n recommendations was n o t cons i d e r e d , although i t was mentioned. Major t r a f f i c w a y s provide the broad framwork w i t h i n which land development takes p l a c e (and) not only w i l l these new highways i n f l u e n c e the c h a r a c t e r of land development but, by being f i x e d and known improvements, they w i l l a i d the l o c a l communities i n g u i d i n g t h e i r f u t u r e land development.38 However t h i s p r i n c i p l e was not i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e p l a n . The D e t r o i t study made an i n v e n t o r y  of t r a n s i t  demand (17$ of the t o t a l number o f i n t e r n a l t r i p s , w i t h a 43$ decrease i n patronage between 1948 and 1954), hut only as t o i t s e f f e c t on automobile t r a v e l .  The prime o b j e c t i v e of t h e 39  study was the development o f a highway express system.' Robert Hoover suggests t h a t the R e g i o n a l Planning  J  Commission  (who made the land use study) was prepared t o do a mass t r a n s i t study and could not get funds.  He w r i t e s : " i t may have been  t h a t f u r t h e r e f f o r t s i n [ s i c ] b e h a l f o f mass t r a n s i t at t h i s time would have compromised or k i l l e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  8G  the Commission as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the 0-D study  itself".^  0  In any ease a d e c i s i o n was made to ignore the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The  Chicago study was more cognizant  o f the shaping  of land use by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s but d i d not d e v i s e a procedure. t o account f o r t h i s . "planning  The study s t a t e s :  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s on the b a s i s of p r e v i o u s l y  f o r e c a s t l a n d use takes on the c h a r a c t e r of making a s e l f f u l f i l l i n g prophecy, s i n c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvements would be planned t o r e i n f o r c e the land use f o r e c a s t " . ^ However on the same page an argument c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e land use plans  1  i s developed f o r not because:  roads a r e v i r t u a l l y u b i q u i t o u s i n the Chicago r e g i o n , p o l i t i c a l philosophy w i l l not allow development by means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and land r e q u i r e s more than t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r development (and t h e r e f o r e ) the p a t t e r n of f u t u r e land development i s not subject t o v i o l e n t change by reason of a l t e r n a t i v e plans f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvements.42 The  Chicago study r e l u c t a n t l y included a p l a n f o r  public transportation f a c i l i t i e s .  The o b j e c t i v e of the study  was t o "prepare a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s p l a n and ... t o provide the b a s i c understanding and f a c t s needed f o r c o n t i n u i n g review and a p p r a i s a l of the p l a n " . ^ study r e p o r t considers region.  Volume I I I o f the  a p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n f o r the  The approach taken i n the study was that the t r a n s i t  market was i n e l a s t i c and t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n s e r v i c e would  81 not r e s u l t i n an e f f e c t i v e i n c r e a s e  i n patronage.  r e p o r t an e l a s t i c market i s considered can use  one  In  the  i n which "people  e i t h e r p r i v a t e or p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " .  The  4 4  view taken i s that p r i v a t e car v s . t r a n s i t technology w i l l not allow an e l a s t i c demand. the Chicago study to recognize t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  However a s t a r t was  made i n  the i n t e g r a t i o n o f p u b l i c  highway f a c i l i t i e s w i t h a proposed program  of improvements a l l o c a t i n g automobile parking  garages at  r a p i d t r a n s i t s t a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the outermost terminals. The its  P i t t s b u r g h Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  S t u d y ^ has  as  4  objectives: to develop an i n t e g r a t e d p l a n of major highway and mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems ... designed to serve the p r o j e c t e d land uses (and) these o b j e c t i v e s r e q u i r e a comprehensive view point (where) major systems of movement must be g i v e n emphasis because they provide the framework f o r a l l subsequent p l a n n i n g . A systems approach means that a l l p r a c t i c a l t r a v e l modes must be  considered47  In Volume I I i t was and  imperfect  s t a t e d that the o b j e c t i v e s are  ... p r e c i s e i n some o f i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s A  The  a c t u a l technique of the  to f o r e c a s t a d i s c r e t e land use  p a t t e r n and  and  8  nebulous i n o t h e r s " . study was  "ponderous  Pittsburgh  ^distribution  to d e s i g n a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system to accommodate  t h i s pattern.  A t r a n s i t network was  a highways network and  one  designed s e p a r a t e l y  from  superimposed on the o t h e r without  an i n t e g r a t i n g procedure which would consider a l t e r n a t i v e  82 highway-transit  systems.  However the P i t t s b u r g h p l a n began  to consider more than j u s t the past demand f o r t r a n s i t as a basis f o r t r a n s i t planning.  I t recommended t h a t freeways  c l o s e s t to p o t e n t i a l r a p i d t r a n s i t usage should  be programed  f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r the r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e i s b u i l t . recognizes  This  a p o l i c y " d e l i b e r a t e l y to promote r a p i d t r a n s i t  u s a g eit " ,4 9 J  The  D e t r o i t , Chicago and P i t t s b u r g h s t u d i e s have  produced f i n a l r e p o r t s , (although  the process i s not  n e c e s s a r i l y complete; D e t r o i t f o r example, i s i n i t i a t i n g a new  study which w i l l c o n s i d e r some of the problems d i s c u s s e d  here).  The  S e a t t l e and  other s e l e c t e d s t u d i e s of the P h i l a d e l p h i a , Los Angeles regions have no f i n a l r e p o r t s  and  t h e r e f o r e the a n a l y s i s must be taken from the prospectus of each study, w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s evaluated T h i s may  on that b a s i s .  l e a d t o f a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the study emphasis  because what i s s t a t e d as an o b j e c t i v e at the beginning of the study may evident  not  i n f a c t be p r e c i s e l y a c h i e v a b l e ,  i n the P i t t s b u r g h study.  Any  as  was  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the  a n a l y s i s must be made c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s problem. 50  The  Penn-Jersey T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Study^  accepts the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c o n s i d e r i n g the e f f e c t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s on land  use:  the recommended t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system('s) ... i n f l u e n c e on the development of the area should tend toward f a c i l i t a t i n g a d e s i r e d p a t t e r n of  83 r e g i o n a l development. S t r e s s i s to be l a i d on the d e s i g n and a n a l y s i s of a l t e r n a t i v e p a t t e r n s both of p o s s i b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and of the f u t u r e r e g i o n a l development l i k e l y to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each system.51 T h i s o b j e c t i v e i s achieved by the development of a r e g i o n a l growth model which i d e n t i f i e s and  analyzes the past  and  present r e l a t i o n s h i p s among "geographic f a c t o r s , land  develop-  ment, p o p u l a t i o n ,  facili-  i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , transportation 52  t i e s and  s e r v i c e s , s o c i a l trends,  r e g i o n a l growth and generalized may  be  change.  etc.,"  and  which determine  From these determinants f u t u r e  a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l a n d use  patterns  projected. The  f i r s t step i n the Penn-dersey procedure i s to  develop a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  By use  of  r e g i o n a l growth model the a l t e r n a t i v e r e g i o n a l growth f o r each t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system can be determined. a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and w i l l then be  evaluated  each a l t e r n a t i v e , and  land use  the patterns  The  patterns  as to the probable consequences of the P o l i c y Committee of the study w i l l  s e l e c t the most d e s i r a b l e combination.  A d e t a i l e d study  then be made of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system which has  can  been  selected. The  Penn-Jersey study intends  the p o t e n t i a l use  and  extensively  of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of a l l kinds,  more so than i n previous s t u d i e s . highway  to explore  Consideration  of both  p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems should be  possible  84 i n the development of a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  plans  which emphasize d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes, although there i s no i n d i c a t i o n whether there w i l l be an attempt at inter-systems  i n t e g r a t i o n or that an e i t h e r / o r concept w i l l  be used, as i n the e a r l y s t u d i e s . The  g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e of the Puget Sound R e g i o n a l  Transportation  Study ^ i s to "formulate a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  p l a n as part o f a g e n e r a l development p l a n f o r the The  region".,  procedure i s s i m i l a r to the Penn-Jersey study, that i s ,  generalized  plans f o r both land use  patterns and  transporta-  t i o n networks w i t h an adoption of a f i n a l r e g i o n a l development p l a n by the l e g i s l a t i v e bodies i n c l u d e d i n the  study  area.  i s no  U n l i k e the Penn-Jersey study, however, there  r e g i o n a l growth model developed. use  One  a l t e r n a t i v e land  p l a n i s determined by p r o j e c t i n g e x i s t i n g trends,  whereas a d d i t i o n a l land use a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l be developed by the planning d i r e c t o r s of the r e g i o n . s t a t e d by r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  R e g i o n a l goals  commissioners and  the  are  trans-  55  p o r t a t i o n p l a n w i l l be t a i l o r e d to these. formal  There i s no  t e c h n i c a l procedure to i n t e g r a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  l a n d use,  although the two  adjusted u n t i l they are  and  components w i l l be mutually  compatible.  A "modal s p l i t " model has  been developed i n the  Puget Sound R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t r a n s i t use as highways and  Study t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e  t r a n s i t s e r v i c e s are  improved.  The v a r i a b l e s determining the modal s p l i t c o n s i s t of such  85 f a c t o r s as t r i p purpose, income, automobile ownership, household type and  the t o t a l amount and  of t r a n s i t usage.  T h i s w i l l be the b a s i s f o r the p u b l i c  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n elements i n the  relative  proportion  plan. 56  The Los Angeles Regional T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study a continuous process,  developing  The  techniques and  procedures  as  i t progresses.  and  e x p l a i n d a t a on the d a i l y movement of people and  f o r use by l o c a l and  is  purpose of the study i s to measure  r e g i o n a l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  goods  agencies.  A b a s i c f u n c t i o n of the study i s t o undertake r e s e a r c h the development of methods f o r t e s t i n g and a l t e r n a t i v e l a n d use and I t recognizes  and  evaluating  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems  proposals.  the i n t e r a c t i o n between these components,  although i t w i l l emphasize the c o l l e c t i o n of and  analysis  of e x i s t i n g data. P u h l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l a l s o be s t u d i e d although to what extent  i s not made c l e a r i n the Base Year Report.  Transportation  Planning  The metropolitan  Administration  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning areas i s analyzed  transportation studies.  in  u s i n g the s i x s e l e c t e d r e g i o n a l  An examination of these s t u d i e s  g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n needed f o r a comprehens i v e metropolitan l o c a l and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study, the c o o r d i n a t i o n  s e n i o r governments as w e l l as n o n - p o l i t i c a l  agencies which i s i s necessary to c a r r y out such a study,  of  86  and the f i n a n c i n g and continued a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g program. The  e a r l y s t u d i e s were conducted hy l o c a l  staff  members or c o n s u l t a n t s as j o i n t ventures between the s t a t e and l o c a l governments, w i t h F e d e r a l government t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e administered through the Bureau of P u b l i c Roads.  As the s t u d i e s became more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and  l a n d use and t r a n s i t began to be i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning process other o f f i c i a l s and  technical  experts were i n c l u d e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework. C u r r e n t l y a study i s t y p i c a l l y administered by a s e m i - i n dependent j o i n t committee of area o f f i c i a l s , r e p r e s e n t i n g agencies i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and land use and d e s i g n .  planning  There i s a P o l i c y Committee which s e t s the  g u i d e l i n e s f o r the study, and a T e c h n i c a l Committee which plans and administers the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the A Study D i r e c t o r i s appointed who aspects of the  study.  administers a l l t e c h n i c a l  study.  The P o l i c y Committee of a t y p i c a l study draws t o gether experts i n the v a r i o u s aspects o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning.  Members are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the p a r t i c i p a t -  i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s which h e l p s to get the study recommendations implemented and  insures t h a t the agencies w i l l have r e s p o n s i b i l -  i t y f o r implementation.  57  The P o l i c y Committee u s u a l l y has  the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : to a d m i n i s t e r budgetary c o n t r o l and personnel matters, to i n t e g r a t e the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the  87 study, t o provide a l i a i s o n w i t h other agencies not represented, to formulate immediate a c t i o n p o l i c i e s as w e l l as long range p o l i c y , t o judge and a p p r a i s e a l t e r n a t i v e land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n plans, t o t e s t community r e a c t i o n and t o " s e l l " the p l a n , and t o judge on ways and means t o maintain the process on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s .  The P o l i c y Committee may  be supplemented by an Executive Sub-committee t o expedite c e r t a i n aspects o f the study. The composition  o f the more recent study  policy  committees i n c l u d e most o f the agencies and j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the planning o f highways, s t r e e t s , t r a n s i t , as w e l l as community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agencies.  Composi-  t i o n i n c l u d e s members from the sponsoring agencies such as the Bureau of P u b l i c Roads, the s t a t e highway department, l o c a l governments and more r e c e n t l y , the Housing and Home Finance Agency which s u b s i d i z e s the c o l l e c t i o n of p l a n n i n g data. I n a d d i t i o n t o a P o l i c y Committee a t y p i c a l  study  has a T e c h n i c a l Committee, or a T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Group, which g i v e s t e c h n i c a l advice to the P o l i c y Committee and which a c t s as a sounding  board and g i v e s advice to. the  Study D i r e c t o r , who i s u s u a l l y the S e c r e t a r y of the T e c h n i c a l Committee.  The T e c h n i c a l Committee may c o n s i s t o f members  from the same agencies and j u r i s d i c t i o n s as the P o l i c y Committee but a t the t e c h n i c a l l e v e l r a t h e r than a t the policy level.  In c e r t a i n cases some of the t e c h n i c a l work  88  i s done by an outside c o n s u l t a n t ,  but u s u a l l y the study has  i t s own s t a f f r e p o r t i n g to the Study D i r e c t o r , who i s a h i g h l y competent p r o f e s s i o n a l and who may o r may not be i n dependent of a sponsoring  agency.  Tables I I I and IV, pages 8 9 , 9 0 , show the composition of the P o l i c y and T e c h n i c a l Committees by j u r i s d i c t i o n and by agency f o r the s e l e c t e d s t u d i e s . Transportation  Study  Financing  A major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study i s an expensive undertaking.  I t has been estimated that a cost of one d o l l a r p e r  c a p i t a f o r t h e people i n the study area i s a rough average.  As t h e s t u d i e s become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , however,  the costs r i s e w i t h t h e scope. f o r land use,  Data c o l l e c t i o n ,  especially  i s a main cost component.  The major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study i s an outgrowth of the home i n t e r v i e w urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n surveys sponsored by the Bureau o f P u b l i c Roads beginning i n 1 9 4 4 .  The  e a r l i e r s t u d i e s were financed with s t a t e highway funds and u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d a share of f e d e r a l funds f o r t h e home i n t e r v i e w survey.  L o c a l highway agencies o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e d  e i t h e r w i t h funds o r s e r v i c e s . planning  There were no g e n e r a l  funds from any l e v e l o f government.  Although the  scope of t h e s t u d i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y broadened t o i n c l u d e sometimes c o n s i d e r a b l e funds have provided  land use a n a l y s i s , u n t i l r e c e n t l y highway the funds f o r n e a r l y a l l t h e s t u d i e s .  89 TABLE I I I POLICY COMMITTEE COMPOSITION OF SELECTED STUDIES  Local Jurisdictions Metropolitan Federal State(s) County Region Jurisdiction Jurisdiction a  Detroit  BPR  P h i l a d e l p h i a BPR(2)  SHD  b  SHDi?2)  (8) HE  Chicago  BPR  SHD  b  Pittsburgh  BPR  SHD  b  SPO  Los Angeles Seattle  BPR,HHFA  HE  Other C e n t r a l Other Regional C i t y RP  (D  d  C  d  CP HE,T E  HEt4), RP,E b  MA  HE RP  SHD DCED  HE,CP, T  ITTE, ACSC,:  PSGC  Agency A b b r e v i a t i o n : BPR - Bureau o f P u b l i c Roads HHFA - Housing and Home Finance Agency SHD - S t a t e ( s ) Highway Department SPO - S t a t e P l a n n i n g O f f i c e SDCED - S t a t e Dept Commerce & Economics Development (Washington S t a t e only) PSGC - Puget Sound Governmental Conference CP - Community Planning RP - Regional Planning T - Transit HE - Highway Engineering E - General Engineering ITTE - I n s t i t u t e T r a f f i c & T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g (University of C a l i f o r n i a ) ACSC - Auto Club o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a MA - M e t r o p o l i t a n A u t h o r i t y Notes: (l) a. b. c. d.  Refers t o number o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s The P h i l a d e l p h i a study embraced two s t a t e s Chairman Metropolitan Authority Agency not designated  90 TABLE I V TECHNICAL COMMITTEE COMPOSITION OF SELECTED STUDIES  Local Jurisdictions Metropolitan Federal State County Area Jurisdiction Jurisdiction Detroit  Other  6  P h i l a d e l p h i a BPR(3)  SHD,SHD  7  Chicago  SHD(3)  HE(3)  SHD(2)  RP  BPR(3)  Pittsburgh Los Angeles Seattle  Central City  BPR BPR  b  l  b  HB(3) T(2)  CP,HE  e  C°  d  Agency A b b r e v i a t i o n ; BPR - Bureau o f P u b l i c Roads SHD - S t a t e Highway Department CP - Community P l a n n i n g agency RP - R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g agency T - T r a n s i t agency HE - Highway E n g i n e e r i n g agency C - Consultant Notes: (a) No T e c h n i c a l Committee. Study D i r e c t o r r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o P o l i c y Committee. (b) Agency not designated. (c) T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Group c o n s i s t i n g o f the D i v i s i o n Engineer, BPR, and a Consultant (Automotive S a f e t y Foundation). (d) Number o f agencies and a f f i l i a t i o n not d e s i g n a t e d .  91 The United S t a t e s Housing and Home Finance Agency funds hecame a v a i l a b l e i n 1961 under S e c t i o n 701 o f P u b l i c Law which now may  560,^  be used t o support the p l a n n i n g aspects of a  study. F e d e r a l - a i d highway funds a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a n n i n g purposes through the d e v i c e o f r e s e r v i n g one and one-half percent of the s t a t e apportionments f o r p l a n n i n g purposes. These funds may  be used f o r those aspects of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to highway p l a n n i n g . P u b l i c Roads who  However the Bureau o f  a d m i n i s t e r s the funds encourages m e t r o p o l i t a n  s t u d i e s and are somewhat sympathetic t o non-highway o r i e n t e d aspects.  For example, i n the Penn-Jersey Study the Bureau  of P u b l i c Roads a t f i r s t d i s a g r e e d w i t h the study s t a f f as to  what would be l e g i t i m a t e use o f funds, but a f t e r a  prospectus f o r the study was submitted and d i s c u s s e d there were 60 items approved that could not have been approved f o r  60 f e d e r a l and s t a t e funds based on precedent. D i r e c t o r found "the narrowness not  The  Study  of the major base of our funds  to be an insurmountable b a r r i e r t o making broad studies'*'...^  1  One problem however e x i s t s w i t h the use of " l i # funds". A s t a t e does not get any a d d i t i o n a l funds i f they undertake a major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study, and t h e r e f o r e a l l o c a t i o n s  may  be taken from the s t a t e ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n fund s i n c e the f e d e r a l 1-J# funds may  be used f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n i f not f o r p l a n n i n g .  Because of t h i s , the use of Ifyfo funds f o r a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study may be of c r i t i c a l concern s i n c e i t cuts i n t o construe-  92 t i o n funds.  The normal s i t u a t i o n i s f o r the s t a t e t o match  f e d e r a l funds f o r the study, t a k i n g the money from s t a t e highway funds.  :  Sometimes, however, money i s taken from the  s t a t e ' s g e n e r a l fund so t h a t the scope o f the study can be enlarged beyond highway p l a n n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s ,  especially  i f the p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e has a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment a g a i n s t the d i v e r s i o n o f highway-user taxes t o non-highway planning. The more recent s t u d i e s have been p a r t i a l l y financed by Housing and Home Finance Agency funds, which have been a v a i l a b l e s i n c e 1961 t o promote g e n e r a l land use p l a n n i n g (which i n c l u d e s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning) i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas.  These funds  (which are known as "701" funds) may be  obtained through a s t a t e p l a n n i n g o f f i c e  (as f o r the Los  Angeles Study), o r they may be obtained d i r e c t l y by the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a provided i t has an e l i g i b l e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency, and p r o v i d i n g p l a n n i n g i s done f o r the whole a r e a and not f o r a p a r t i c u l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n . s t a t e matching  One-third  funds o r s e r v i c e i s a l s o a p r e r e q u i s i t e .  e a r l i e r completed  The  s t u d i e s were not e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s a i d but  the more r e c e n t s t u d i e s a r e t a i l o r i n g t h e i r programs to partake o f the "701" funds.  The Puget Sound study i s an  example. L o c a l f i n a n c i n g o f the s t u d i e s has been comparatively modest, but the Housing and Home Finance Agency funds a r e s t i m u l a t i n g more l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and although l i m i t e d  93 resources make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the l o c a l agencies  t o con-  t r i b u t e they f e e l i t d e s i r a b l e because i t s t i m u l a t e s more i n t e r e s t at the l o c a l l e v e l .  Where there has been l o c a l  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t has come from road and s t r e e t funds apportioned  to them by the s t a t e s .  Table V,  page 94,  shows the sponsorship  of the s e l e c t -  ed s t u d i e s by sponsoring agency, and i n c l u d e s the  sponsorship  of the F e d e r a l , s t a t e s and l o c a l governments. I I I . AN EVALUATION OF THE  SELECTED  TRANSPORTATION STUDIES An e v a l u a t i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s must c o n s i d e r two a s p e c t s : conclusions which  may  be drawn from the above o b s e r v a t i o n s , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the study and program t o comprehensive m e t r o p o l i t a n planning.  Conclusions are based on the a r e a l extent of the  study r e g i o n s , the o b j e c t i v e s o f the s t u d i e s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s t u d i e s and  their financing.  Comparisons are  made between the e a r l i e r process w i t h the evolved which i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l a t e r s t u d i e s . of the s t u d i e s may  The  be determined from the 1964  process,  current state National  62  Survey of M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s from the study areas.  and  other more recent  An a n a l y s i s of the  rela-  t i o n s h i p o f m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s to comprehens i v e m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i s a l s o p a r t of the e v a l u a t i o n .  94 TABLE V SPONSORSHIP OF SELECTED STUDIES  Local Jurisdictions Metropolitan Region  Federal State Jurisdiction Jurisdiction  County  Central City  Detroit  BPR  SHD  WCRC  D  Philadelphia  BPR  SHD(2)  8  a  P  Chicago  BPR  SDPW  CC  C  Pittsburgh  BPR  SHD  AC  P  Los Angeles  BPR,HHFA  SHD,SPO  4*  LA  Seattle  BPR,HHFA  SHD  4  S  d  Ag-ency A b b r e v i a t i o n : BPR - Bureau o f P u b l i c Roads SHD - State Highway Department HHFA - Housing and Home Finance Agency SPO - State Planning O f f i c e WCRC - Wayne County Road Commission CC - County o f Cook SDPW - s t a t e Department o f P u b l i c Works Notes: a. b. c. d. e.  8 c o u n t i e s : 4 i n Pennsylvania, 4 counties 122 c i t i e s and 4 agencies 4 counties 3 main c i t i e s  4 i n New J e r s e y  Other  95 Conclusions  Regarding I n t e g r a t i o n  The  t e c h n i c a l aspects of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s  i n v e s t i g a t e d here are v e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d , i n c o r p o r a t i n g work which f a l l s i n t o many d i s c i p l i n e s , ^ and which cover a wide range of problems. and  The  s t u d i e s may  be d i v i d e d i n t o t e c h n i c a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e components f o r convenience, but  the  a n a l y s i s i n t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h the t e c h n i c a l component o n l y t o the extent the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the extent analyses  that i t a f f e c t s the way  land use  i n t e r a c t i o n was  i n which  handled,  and  t o which an i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems  and  a l t e r n a t i v e s were concerned.  A l l o f the s t u d i e s except Los Angeles were committed t o produce a l o n g range comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n . Los Angeles emphasized the p r o v i s i o n of a continuous s e r v i c e to the component m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The  modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  study emphasizes the need to p l a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s on the b a s i s of a f u t u r e land use p a t t e r n , and s t u d i e s t h i s was  the method used.  i n a l l the  However, the s o p h i s t i c a -  t i o n of the a n a l y s i s of the i n t e r a c t i o n improves from the e a r l i e r s t u d i e s to the more recent  ones.  In the D e t r o i t  study, as an example of t y p i c a l e a r l y p e r i o d one, land use p l a n was agency and  used which was  compiled by an  the highway network was  land use p l a n .  The  a discrete outside  planned to serve  this  Chicago and P i t t s b u r g h s t u d i e s were  e s s e n t i a l l y the same as D e t r o i t .  Since the other  studies  96  are  incomplete they may  to do.  only he judged by what they intend  Of these the Penn-Jersey study i s the most comprehen-  s i v e and holds out promise o f an adequate s o l u t i o n to the two d i r e c t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and f u t u r e urban  facilities  development.  The Penn-Jersey study i s attempting t o develop a r e g i o n a l growth model which can be used t o simulate a l t e r n a t i v e land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n s .  The model  past and c u r r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l a n d use and  examines transport-  a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and uses these t o d e s i g n the a l t e r n a t i v e plans, from which the most d e s i r a b l e can be s e l e c t e d by the P o l i c y Committee. the  The Penn-Jersey study i s a s y n t h e s i s of  ones which had gone b e f o r e i n t h i s  respect.  The Puget Sound T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study has a s i m i l a r method t o the Penn-Jersey study but without the development of a r e g i o n a l growth model.  In t h i s study two  alternative  land use plans are p r o j e c t e d : one an e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f past trends and the other produced by the planning agencies i n accord w i t h development  goals.  The main c o n s t r a i n t on a two d i r e c t i o n a l  interaction  between l a n d use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a t e c h n i c a l one.  The  f i r s t mathematical models which were adapted to the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g process were used f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of movement journeys g i v e n a f i x e d l a n d use d i s t r i b u t i o n . has been a development  There  of technology which t h e o r e t i c a l l y  simulates land use growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n based on input  97 determinants, and mueh refinement has been achieved i n developing  land use models w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  inputs.^  An o p e r a t i o n a l model i s s t i l l t o come which w i l l  simulate  l a n d use p a t t e r n s and the two d i r e c t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n of transportation f a c i l i t i e s  by r e c u r s i v e procedure, w i t h an  o p t i m i z a t i o n o f the output p l a n . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n exists regarding p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the s t u d i e s . an o f f i c i a l p o l i c y almost ignored  The D e t r o i t study as  the r o l e of p u b l i c t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o highways. a highway express system.  the emphasis on  I t was a p l a n f o r  The Chicago study although con-  s i d e r i n g the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n market i n e l a s t i c d i d i n clude a p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n based on past trends.  patronage  The study i n c l u d e d plans f o r parking f a c i l i t i e s a t  j u n c t i o n s between expressways and t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s ,  there-  f o r e r e c o g n i z i n g the i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n of the two systems. The P i t t s b u r g h study developed a p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n but d i d not i n t e g r a t e i t with the highways p l a n although t h e r e was a p o l i c y d e c i s i o n t o promote r a p i d t r a n s i t usage i f feasible. The  Penn-Jersey study intends  to deal  extensively  w i t h p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n but there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of an i n t e g r a t i o n between the systems.  The Puget Sound and Los  Angeles s t u d i e s a l s o i n c l u d e a study of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The  approach and emphasis of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s with regard  t o p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has  98 been t o consider systems based on past demand (modified t o some extent) and w i t h no t r a n s f e r of mode f o r any one journey. There i s much d i s c u s s i o n as t o whether t h i s approach i s the proper one.  I s past demand a f i r m base f o r p u b l i c t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n planning?  Some p r o t a g o n i s t s  point t o the demand  and maintain t h a t p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s not  economically gc  f e a s i b l e because patronage w i l l not support i t .  J  b e l i e v e i t t o be the answer t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n  Others transporta-  t i o n problem and would s u b s i d i z e the f a c i l i t i e s t o a t t r a c t people t o use i t . One author wants to c o n d i t i o n demand 66 through a c o n t r o l l e d and s u b s i d i z e d system. problem can be solved more b e h a v i o u r a l  Before t h i s  studies are required  to p o i n t out the determinants o f t r a v e l by d i f f e r e n t modes, as w e l l as the s o c i a l and economic b e n e f i t s and costs of an i n t e g r a t e d system.  The Puget Sound Regional  Transportation  Study f o r one has developed a "modal s p l i t " model which describes  the p r o p o r t i o n o f person t r a v e l between the two  t r a v e l modes o f t r a n s i t and p r i v a t e v e h i c l e s .  The v a r i a b l e s  used i n the model are t r i p purpose, income, automobile owners h i p , type o f d w e l l i n g u n i t , and the q u a l i t y of the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  These models have been developed  r e c e n t l y f o r other s t u d i e s and are v a l u a b l e t o o l s which w i l l make p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning more e f f e c t i v e i n the future.  Although r e l i a b l e comparisons w i t h i n systems can be  made reasonably w e l l now a framework and c r i t e r i a a r e needed t o make r e l i a b l e comparisons between systemsin the f u t u r e .  68  99 Conclusions Regarding  Coordination  The number of p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s and  the a r e a l  extent of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study r e g i o n s have no tion.  The tendency i s however to i n c l u d e l a r g e r l a n d areas  and t h e r e f o r e more p o l i t i c a l methods become more r e f i n e d . new  correla-  j u r i s d i c t i o n s as the  study  The study area f o r the proposed  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Land Use Program i n the D e t r o i t r e g i o n  c o n s i s t s of 3,983 square m i l e s and  i n c l u d e s s i x southeastern  6°;  Michigan c o u n t i e s .  J  W i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n are 210  v i l l a g e s and townships. t h a t "the 1953  cities,  I t i s s t a t e d i n the Summary Report  D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n Area T r a f f i c Study i s  too l i m i t e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l a n d use p l a n n i n g beyond 70 1972".  T h i s area i s l a r g e r than the Regional Planning 71  Commission's area of 3250 square m i l e s . now  The tendency i s  to s e l e c t l a r g e " n a t u r a l " urbanized regions r a t h e r than  the "commuter shed" approach as taken i n the Chicago The D e t r o i t study r e g i o n now sphere.  study.  has 6 major c i t i e s w i t h i n i t s  I t i s evident t h a t i n other cases where more than  one s t a t e i s i n v o l v e d i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to enlarge the study area, but t h i s i s being considered i n the most recent t h i n k i n g of the Penn-Jersey study team where the S t a t e of Delaware i s p o t e n t i a l l y i n c l u d e d . From the beginning the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s worked on the p r i n c i p l e of drawing together the agencies  and  j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p l a n n i n g to form an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the study.  There are  100 t y p i c a l l y a P o l i c y Committee and a T e c h n i c a l Committee each w i t h i t s own f u n c t i o n s .  The o r i e n t a t i o n of the study i s  evident by an a n a l y s i s o f the P o l i c y Committee of the s i x s t u d i e s .  Table I, page 74, i l l u s t r a t e s the h i g h -  way o r i e n t a t i o n o f i t s members. and  composition  The i n f l u e n c e o f community  r e g i o n a l planners"may be adequate but t h e i r  t i o n on the committee does not r e f l e c t t h i s .  representa-  I t i s also  i n d i c a t i v e t h a t the s t a t e highway r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s chairman of the P o l i c y Committee i n f i v e o f the s i x s t u d i e s and a county highway engineer i n the s i x t h . and  other d i c i p l i n e s  The r a t i o  o f planning  has not changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  e a r l i e r s t u d i e s to the l a t e r  from the  ones.  The Puget Sound study has r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from  other  s t a t e government departments; namely the Department of Commerce and Economic Development, as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the Puget Sound Governmental Conference which was organized  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o coordinate a development program  w i t h i n the r e g i o n .  The Governmental Conference i s a v o l u n t a r y  a s s o c i a t i o n o f c i t i e s and c o u n t i e s i n the r e g i o n f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g p l a n n i n g and other governmental a c t i v i t i e s and t h i s body included the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study i n i t s over a l l r e g i o n a l 7?  planning program.  The Puget Sound Regional  Planning  C o u n c i l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r land use planning and r e p o r t s t o the Governmental Conference which was created i n 1957 and has 6,213  square miles and 66 c i t i e s w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n .  I t c o n s i s t s o f 24 e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , 12 from the counties  101 and  12 from the c i t i e s . * ^ The  and  Los Angeles study has brought i n U n i v e r s i t y people  the Automobile Club o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a t o t h e i r  P o l i c y Committee.  I t i s a l s o unique i n having a member of  the State P l a n n i n g O f f i c e on the P o l i c y Committee. The  T e c h n i c a l Committees o f the s t u d i e s a r e h e a v i l y  o r i e n t e d toward highway personnel a t the F e d e r a l , s t a t e and local level.  The Study D i r e c t o r i s u s u a l l y a member o f both  the T e c h n i c a l and P o l i c y Committees and t h e r e f o r e  ensures  c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n the study. The  past method o f f i n a n c i n g major  transportation  s t u d i e s may have tended t o c o n d i t i o n the o r i e n t a t i o n o f each study.  C e r t a i n components o f the s t u d i e s were based on  Federal-aid  highway money which was c o n d i t i o n a l upon t h e  study s o l v i n g c e r t a i n highway problems. planning  A t f i r s t the  aspects o f the s t u d i e s were not s u b s i d i z e d by a  s e n i o r l e v e l of government, but r e c e n t l y t h i s has been changed and now r e c e i p t o f F e d e r a l - a i d highway money i s cond i t i o n a l upon a comprehensive process w i t h the U n i t e d  States  Housing and Home Finance Agency s u b s i d i z i n g land use planning i n the l a t e r s t u d i e s .  A broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the l e g i s l a -  t i o n now makes i t p o s s i b l e to study a l l aspects of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and l a n d use i n t e g r a t i o n i f the t e c h n i c a l framework and c r i t e r i a were e s t a b l i s h e d , and the necessary coordination  o f agencies and j u r i s d i c t i o n s was e f f e c t e d t o  implement t h e study  proposals.  102 R e l a t i o n s h i p of the S t u d i e s to Comprehensive  Metropolitan  Planning The  d i f f e r e n c e between comprehensive  planning and of g o a l s .  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  seems to be a matter  T y p i c a l of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  i s that s t a t e d i n the P i t t s b u r g h study. of an i n v e n t o r y of the present present  metropolitan  The  process  process c o n s i s t s  s i t u a t i o n , an a n a l y s i s of  t r a v e l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f o r e c a s t s of the f u t u r e  t i o n , planning  of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and  t i o n of these s y s t e m s . ^  s t u d i e s may  situa-  evalua-  The P i t t s b u r g h study does not  i n c l u d e a statement of goals state i t s objectives.  an  The  be considered  i n the process but  i t does  o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d i n most of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n goals as they i n -  v a r i a b l y r e f e r to an e f f i c i e n t movement of people and  goods  throughout the r e g i o n .  Some of them (notably the Penn-  J e r s e y Study) recognize  the n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n s i d e r i n g  the  e f f e c t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on r e g i o n a l development but goals of r e g i o n a l development are s t a t e d outside the t i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning process.  i n g the P o l i c y Committee to judge and  In the Penn-  was  p i c k the best  r e g i o n a l development p l a n .  adopted i n the Puget Sound study.  p o r t a t i o n planning  the  considera-  J e r s e y study f o r example t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s handled by  p o r t a t i o n and  the  allow-  trans-  A s i m i l a r procedure  Not u n t i l the  trans-  process can be conducted w i t h i n a develop-  ment p l a n framework based on comprehensive development goals  103 does i t seem p o s s i b l e to i n t e g r a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and use,  to i n t e g r a t e d i f f e r e n t t r a v e l modes or to  the agencies and Davidoff as a choice  and  R e i n e r have d e f i n e d  the p l a n n i n g  at three l e v e l s : value f o r m u l a t i o n , effectuation.  J  They recognize  that  i n the a l t e r n a t i v e ends and  purposes of planning  means.  are to p r o v i d e a widening of  through r a t i o n a l a c t i o n to supplement the n a t u r a l which operate i n s o c i e t y .  choice  forces  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f planning  the achievement o f ends s t a t e d , the  e x e r c i s i n g of  an o r i e n t a t i o n to the f u t u r e , based on a c t i o n and s i v e as to the components o f the system. i n t o the proper time p e r s p e c t i v e  range and  and  " a c t o r s " w i t h i n the environment have a  l a r g e degree of choice  put  process  means  i s c a r r i e d on w i t h i n a c e r t a i n environment  i n d i c a t e that the  The  coordinate  j u r i s d i c t i o n s t o achieve a common o b j e c t i v e .  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and planning  land  are  choice, comprehen-  Plans must a l s o  be  of a long range, middle  s h o r t range p l a n .  In the value f o r m u l a t i o n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  phase of t h i s process the  process i s not  comprehensive.  This,  however, i n many cases can be a t t r i b u t e d to the l a c k of comprehensive m e t r o p o l i t a n  planning  of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study. p o r t a t i o n study was was  r a t h e r than a weakness  For example when the  i n i t i a t e d i n the Chicago r e g i o n  transthere  no p o l i c y f o r d i r e c t i n g growth on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s .  Chicago study had  The  to develop i t s p l a n proposals s e v e r a l years  i n advance of those of the c e n t r a l c i t y and  the  metropolitan  104 r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agencies.  76  T h e r e f o r e , although t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the p r i n c i p a l framework f o r a g e n e r a l p l a n i t must i n many cases, l i k e Chicago,  t r y to anticipate  r e g i o n a l development goals as much as i s p o s s i b l e by means of the P o l i c y Committee.  Even so, i n a l l the s t u d i e s  i n v e s t i g a t e d , although t h e r e were statements  about the e f f e c t  o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on l a n d use, none considered as the f i r s t step o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g process the f o r m u l a t i o n of comprehensive development g o a l s . The D e t r o i t study has been c r i t i c i z e d because o f i t s i n c o r r e c t time p e r s p e c t i v e s .  Hoover s t a t e s t h a t the long  range d i r e c t i o n f i n d i n g by means o f f o r m u l a t i n g a P o l i c y Committee was not undertaken f o r i t s own sake but i n order t o g a i n a " s o r t o f necessary background f o r the important 77  phase o f the study";  "important" meaning the s h o r t range  p e r s p e c t i v e o f the executive and l e g i s l a t i v e a g e n c i e s .  He  f e e l s these agencies gave orders t o the Regional Planning Commission.  In one aspect of the study  (the c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) Hoover f e e l s the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission had t o a c t u a l l y withdraw t h e i r t o have p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n considered o r k i l l  efforts  their  e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the study. R e c e n t l y there has been a t r e n d toward the amalgamat i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s and comprehensive planning.  In h a l f of the regions s t u d i e d the t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n has been placed under a r e g i o n a l  105 p l a n n i n g agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g . In Chicago the Northeastern  78  I l l i n o i s M e t r o p o l i t a n Area  Planning Commission, created i n 1957,  i s now  the agency  " p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the ( t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 79 p l a n n i n g program; study".  ^  In D e t r o i t i t i s the D e t r o i t  M e t r o p o l i t a n Area Regional P l a n n i n g Commission; i n P i t t s b u r g h , the Regional P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n .  On the other hand  there  have been some changes i n the other s t u d i e s which do not conform to t h i s t r e n d . t i o n Study i s now ment although  The  Puget Sound Regional  Transporta-  under the Washington S t a t e Highway Depart-  the Puget Sound Government Conference i s the  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency. - The Penn-Jersey study has become the r e g i o n a l planning agency w i t h the C i t y of P h i l a d e l p h i a excluded; is s t i l l  and  the Los Angeles Regional T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study  c a r r i e d out under the C a l i f o r n i a State Department  of Highways. IV. CHAPTER SUMMARY The  l e g i s l a t i v e and  f i n a n c i a l framework f o r t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n i n the United States has  emphasized the  importance  of highways s i n c e the f i r s t F e d e r a l A i d Highway Act of  1916.  Highway l e g i s l a t i o n showed a r e c o g n i t i o n t o the n e c e s s i t y t o s u b s i d i z e urban s t r e e t undertakings  i n 1944» hut s e t the  p o l i c y of a highway emphasis i n urban areas f o r the next seventeen y e a r s .  106 During t h i s p e r i o d o f seventeen years many t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s were done i n t h e United these s t u d i e s were a t f i r s t c o n d i t i o n e d  metropolitan  S t a t e s , and  by t h i s p o l i c y .  ever, with the i n c r e a s e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  How-  i t was  recognized  that the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e c t o r was being  neglected,  although i t was not u n t i l the l a t e 1950's that  the major m e t r o p o l i t a n  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s were attempt-  i n g t o achieve a f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d t r a n s p o r a t i o n p l a n .  Federal  l e g i s l a t i o n began t o r e f l e c t the growing need to achieve i n t e g r a t e d and coordinated  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  i n 1961  by p r o v i d i n g a i d f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h a t year; and i n 1962 by making f e d e r a l a i d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n d i t i o n a l upon i t being  planning  c a r r i e d out i n a comprehensive  manner. An a n a l y s i s o f s i x major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  studies  shows the trend from c o n s i d e r i n g only highway improvements based on a d i s c r e t e land use p l a n , t o an i n t e g r a t e d program c o n s i d e r i n g a l l modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and a l t e r n a t i v e land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n s .  The h i s t o r i c a l trend o f the  s t u d i e s show l a r g e r areas being s t u d i e d , an i n c r e a s i n g aware^ ness o f the e f f e c t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems have on land use and  attempts t o i n c o r p o r a t e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study i n t o a  r e g i o n a l development p l a n . The  t y p i c a l major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study draws t o -  gether many p r o f e s s i o n a l s from most o f the agencies i n the study area, forming a P o l i c y Committee and a T e c h n i c a l  107 Committee.  These committees have i n the past been heavily-  o r i e n t e d to highway engineering personnel with some r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of other t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and land use p l a n n i n g elements. F i n a n c i n g of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s before was  1961  undertaken under f e d e r a l funds a l l o c a t e d through the s t a t e  highway departments, with one and  one-half per cent of con-  s t r u c t i o n and maintenance funds designated planning.  T h i s was  supplemented a f t e r 1961  f o r highway by l a n d i u s e  p l a n n i n g funds a l l o c a t e d through the United S t a t e s Housing and Home Finance Agency.  108  REFERENCES  Richard M. Zettel, State Local Relations in Highway Affairs in the United States (Berkeley: Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, Research Report No, 30, Univ. of California, I960), p. 9. 2 Charles L. Dearing, American Highway Policy (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1941), p. 261, cited by Richard M. Zettel, op.cit.. p. 10. 3  ^U.S. Board of Investigation and Research. Public Aids to Domestic Transportation (Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1944), p. 196, cited by Richard M. Zettel op.cit.. p. 21. ^Zettel, op.cit.. p. 26. 5  George M. Smerk, Urban Transportation The Federal Role (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1965), p. 25. Zettel, op.cit.. p. 25.  7 Smerk, op.cit.. p. 25. 8  Ibid., p. 126.  Q  -"Zettel, op.cit., p. 31. Smerk, op.cit.  10  t  i:L  p. 132.  Ibid.. p. 137.  IP  Wilfred Owen, "What Do We Want the Highway System to Do?," Financing nighways (Princeton: Tax Institute Inc., 1957), cited by George M. Smark, Ibid.. p. 133. ^Urban Mass Transportation (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963), hearings before a sub committee of the Committee of Banking and Currency, U.S. Senate, Feb. 28, March 1, 4, 5, 8 and 11, 1963. 1  109 ^Committee f o r Economic Development, D e v e l o p i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P o l i c i e s : A guide f o r l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p (New York: The Committee, 1965). p* 24. 1 5  I _ b i d . , p. 27.  l 6  Ibid..  Table 4, p. 25.  17 R a p i d T r a n s i t f o r the Bay A r e a . A summary of e n g i n e e r i n g f i n a n c i a l and economic r e p o r t s s u b m i t t e d to the San F r a n c i s c o Bay A r e a Rapid T r a n s i t D i s t r i c t (San F r a n c i s c o : Stone and Youngberg, 1961), p. 6. The 9 c o u n t i e s of the Commission i n c l u d e d Alemeda, C o n t r a C o s t a , M a r i n , San F r a n c i s c o , San Mateo, Napa, Santa C l a r a , S o l a n o , and Sonoma. The l a t t e r f o u r are not i n c l u d e d i n t h e D i s t r i c t . 18  Smerk, o p . c i t . , p. 141. 1 9  Ibid..  p. 142.  I b i d . . p. 143. I . R . T . New L e t t e r v. I l l ( I n s t i t u t e f o r R a p i d T r a n s i t , 1962), mimeo, c i t e d by Smerk, I b i d . , p. 144. 22 Smerk, o p . c i t . , p. 147. 2 0  2 1  ^ P u b l i c Law 171, Housing and Home F i n a n c e Agency, F e d e r a l Laws (Washington: A s s i s t a n c e t o Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n U.S. Government P u b l i c a t i o n s O f f i c e , 1961), p. 1. 2  2 4  Ibid..  2 5  Ibid.  2 6  Ibid..  P u b l i c Law 560, pp.  P u b l i c Law 345, p. 5.  Preamble 2nd S e s s . , p. 1. 27  3^4.  t o P u b l i c Law 88-365, 88th Congress,  U r b a n Freeway Development i n Twenty Ma.ior C i t i e s , ve Automotive S a f e t y F o u n d a t i o n , Washington, 1964, p. 7. 2 8  110 29  ^ R i c h a r d M. Z e t t e l and R i c h a r d R. C a r l l , Summary Review o f Manor M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S t u d i e s i n the United States (Berkeley; U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 106?^ p. 2. ^°Ibid., p. 1. 5 1  rbid.,  p. 3 4 .  32  Chicago A r e a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Volume I , Survey F i n d i n g s (Chicago: 1959), p. 11. 33  ^ Z e t t e l and C a r l l , o p . c i t . . p. 25. 34  Los Angeles R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Volume I . Base Year Report 1960 (Los A n g e l e s : 1963), p. 5. 5 5  Ibid.  • ^ D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a T r a f f i c Study. Data Summary and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , P a r t I ( D e t r o i t : 1955), p. 37. 5 7  I b i d . , p. 13.  ^ D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a T r a f f i c Study, Future T r a f f i c and A Long Range Expressway P l a n . P a r t I I ( D e t r o i t : 1956), p. 14. • ^ D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a T r a f f i c Study, P a r t I , o p . c i t . . p. 62. R o b e r t Hoover, " P o l i c y Growth and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g i n t h e D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a " , Papers and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . V I I (1961), p. 233. 4 0  C h i c a g o A r e a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Data P r o j e c t i o n s , Volume I I (Chicago: I 9 6 0 ) , p. 3 3 . 4 1  4 2  Ibid.  ^ C h i c a g o A r e a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Volume I , o p . c i t . , p. 2.  Ill 4 4  I b i d . . Volume I I I , p. 81.  4 5  I b i d . . p. 7 9 .  4.6 P i t t s b u r g h Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Study F i n d i n g s , Volume I ( P i t t s b u r g h : 1961). 4  ^ I b i d . . p. 2 and p. 3.  4 8  I b i d . . Volume I I , p. 84.  4 9  I b i d . . p. 86.  50 Penn-Jersey T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Prospectus ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1959). 5 1  I b i d . , p. 2.  5 2  I b i d . , p. 13.  •^Puget Sound R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Prospectus, ( S e a t t l e : 1962). 5 4  I b i d . , p. 1.  55  ^ John K. Mladinov, Toward a Balanced T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System f o r the Puget Sound Region (unpublished address, 1962) , p. 6. 56  Los Angeles R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, LARTS, Volume I. Base Year Report, I960 (Los Angeles: 1963). 57  • " Z e t t e l and C a r l l , o p . c i t . , p. 9. 5 8  I b i d . , P. 14.  5Q  -^Smerk, o p . c i t . . p. 150. H e n r y F a g i n , "The Penn-Jersey T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study", J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, XXIX (February, 1963) , PP. 9-18. 6 0  112 6 1  I b i d . , p. 14.  62 U n i t e d S t a t e s Housing and Home Finance Agency, 1964 N a t i o n a l Survey o f M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g (Washington: Committee on Governmental O p e r a t i o n s , U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate, U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1965). 6*5 •^Fagin, o p . c i t . . p. 14. F o r example t h e Penn-Jersey Study has an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e " C a b i n e t " c o n s i s t i n g o f men of 14 d i s c i p l i n e s : from t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , p l a n n i n g , engineeri n g , computation a n a l y s i s , and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . ^ J o u r n a l o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , S p e c i a l I s s u e on Urban Development Models: New T o o l s f o r P l a n n i n g , XXXI (May, 1965). 65 L o u i s E. K e e f e r , "The I l l u s o r y Demand f o r Mass T r a n s i t " , T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r i n g , 36. ( J a n . , 1966), p. 20. K e e f e r s t a t e s " t r a n s i t r i d e r s h i p i s ... n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the q u a l i t y of the a v a i l a b l e t r a n s i t service". R o b e r t Hoover, o p . c i t . , p. 233. 67  Puget bound R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d y , Development and A p p l i c a t i o n o f a Modal S p l i t Model f o r t h e Puget Sound Region, ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) , 1964. CO  Edward F.R. H e a r l e , Have We Learned A n y t h i n g From T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s ? ( C a l i f o r n i a : The RAND C o r p o r a t i o n ) , A paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e 29th A n n u a l N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Conference o f t h e American S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , S e a t t l e 1963, ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) . 69 Study Design f o r Comprehensive T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Land Use Program f o r t h e D e t r o i t Region: Summary Report, D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, ( D e t r o i t 8, 1964), p. 10. 7 0  Ibid.  7 1  1 9 6 4 N a t i o n a r Survey of M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g , o p . c i t . ,  p. 26.  J o h n K. M l a d i n o n , Toward a Balanced T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System f o r t h e Puget Sound Region, u n p u b l i s h e d . 1962, p. 5. 7 2  113 73 1964 N a t i o n a l Survey of M e t r o p o l i t a n pp. 90-91.  op.eit., 7 4  Planning,  P i t t s b u r g h T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, o p . c i t . , p.  3.  '•^Paul D a v i d o f f , and Thomas H. Reiner, "A Choice Theory of Planning", J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. XXVIII, (May, 1962). 76 Harold M. Mayer, "Chicago: T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning", Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science A s s o c i a t i o n . Volume 7, 1961, p. 242. 77 Hoover, o p . c i t . . p. 233« 78  1 9 6 4 N a t i o n a l Survey of M e t r o p o l i t a n  op.cit. 79 I b i d . , Questionnaire  p.  28.  Planning,  CHAPTER V METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING IN CANADA: SELECTED CASES  Metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  i n a city-  centered r e g i o n i n Canada i s s i m i l a r i n some r e s p e c t s and yet q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n others to that which has evolved i n the United  States.  The t e c h n i c a l process i s the same i n  most cases, w i t h a t r a n s f e r of knowledge and s k i l l s f r e e l y across  the border i n both d i r e c t i o n s .  flowing  However, there  are some v e r y r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t o t a l process because of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two  nations.  The l e g i s l a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l framework has a  d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r y i n Canada than i n the United t h i s has conditioned  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  S t a t e s , and  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i  s t r u c t u r e o f Canadian m e t r o p o l i t a n One a d m i n i s t r a t i v e countries  planning.  s i m i l a r i t y , however, which e x i s t s i n both  i s the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of l o c a l governments w i t h i n  large metropolitan general,  transportation  regions,  and t h i s f r u s t r a t e s planning i n  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  p o r t a t i o n planning  i n particular.  Trans-  i s a a p a r t i e u l a r problem because i t s  i n f l u e n c e extends f a r beyond the i n f l u e n c e of any other p h y s i c a l system w i t h i n the urban a r e a . Metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  i n Canada has  not been p r a c t i c e d a t the same s c a l e as i n the United  States.  115 There a r e two main reasons f o r t h i s : s e n i o r government f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n does not p r e c i p i t a t e s t u d i e s as the F e d e r a l a i d program does i n the United s t a t e s , and there a r e not as many m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s .  Only those regions which  have a near f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n p o t e n t i a l of one m i l l i o n a r e considered  i n t h i s study, which i n c l u d e s only three o r  p o s s i b l y f o u r m e t r o p o l i t a n regions i n Canada.  A further  problem r e s t r i c t s the scope of any a n a l y s i s of the program i n Canada and t h a t i s the l a c k of published studies.  comprehensive  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto has had a continuous  study  under way s i n c e the l a t e 1950's, and a study of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Region was begun i n 1963. now has a study under way.  Winnipeg  Vancouver completed a major study  i n 1959 which was f u r t h e r reviewed i n 1964 but which has had very l i t t l e progress  i n i t s implementation.  Many other  s m a l l e r areas have been s t u d i e d and r e p o r t s w r i t t e n but the s m a l l s i z e o f the regions put them outside the scope o f t h i s analysis. In t h i s chapter the l e g i s l a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l framework f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning i n Canada i s examined, and an a n a l y s i s o f some o f the current work i s i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h regard t o the o b j e c t i v e s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning i n i n t e g r a t i n g land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. The manner i n which the programs a r e administered v a r i o u s j u r i s d i c t i o n s coordinated  and the  i s examined, as w e l l as  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the study program with the s e n i o r  116 governments.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p to comprehensive r e g i o n a l  planning i s a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . I . LEGISLATIVE AND  FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK  F e d e r a l Government P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Development The Government of Canada has had very l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e  i on m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g . c o n t r o l of road making was  P r i o r to 1840  the  almost n o n - e x i s t e n t , but w i t h the  union of Upper and lower Canada i n t h a t year the Department of P u b l i c Works assumed d i r e c t i o n of the roads i n the United P r o v i n c e s .  By 1850  new  when r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n became  the most a c t i v e p u b l i c work i n Canada 2741 miles o f e a r t h , g r a v e l , broken stone and plank road had been c o n s t r u c t e d i n the United P r o v i n c e s .  1  S i m i l a r l y i n the Maritimesroad  i n g was  the p r i n c i p a l l o c a l work of the p r o v i n c i a l  ments.  This situation  was  build-  govern-  perpetuated w i t h the enactment  pf the B r i t i s h North America Act of  1867.  S e c t i o n 92 of the B r i t i s h North America Act gave the F e d e r a l government c o n t r o l over "works and undertakings  connect  i n g the Province w i t h any other or others of the P r o v i n c e s , p  or extending beyond the l i m i t s of the P r o v i n c e " . "undertakings"  These  i n c l u d e d steamship l i n e s , r a i l w a y s , canals  and the t e l e g r a p h s e r v i c e .  S e c t i o n 91 gave the F e d e r a l  government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y over i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l f e r r i e s ^ as w e l l as n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g .  These represent the F e d e r a l  117 government's t o t a l a u t h o r i t y i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n S e c t i o n 92 of the Act g i v e s the provinces  field. the respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r " l o c a l works and undertakings" other than those d e s c r i b e d above. the provinces  S e c t i o n 92.16  a u t h o r i t y and  r e i n f o r c e d t h i s by g i v i n g  control i n "generally a l l  matters of a merely l o c a l or p r i v a t e nature i n the P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s were placed p r o v i n c i a l and  Province".  i n c o n t r o l of i n t r a -  primary highways c h i e f l y "because t r a f f i c  so l i g h t that c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance d i d not  was  require  heavy expenditures or s u p e r v i s i o n by a department of  the  c e n t r a l government". The c a r , and  e a r l y 1900's saw  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the motor  the p o l i c y that p r e v a i l e d d u r i n g the l a t e 1800's,  when the r a i l w a y s were being  expanded and  o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs, was  bearing  the brunt  no longer adequate.  To  meet the expanding motor v e h i c l e demand the F e d e r a l government i n i t i a t e d a piece-meal approach to b u i l d and l i m i t e d s e c t i o n s of highways.  maintain  T h i s soon proved u n s a t i s f a c -  tory. Since then the F e d e r a l government has produced f o u r programs; the Canada Highways Act of 1919,  only  some p r o j e c t s  under the Unemployment R e l i e f A c t s during the Depression, s u b s i d i e s to the r a i l w a y grade c r o s s i n g fund, and Canada Highway Act of 1949. authorized  The  the Trans-  Canada Highways A c t ,  an a p p r o p r i a t i o n of $20  m i l l i o n s as 40$  1919  contribu-  t i o n to an improved c o o r d i n a t i o n of the system of main roads.  1 1 8  Because of t h i s  promised a s s i s t a n c e the  t h e i r highway i n v e n t o r y ,  hut  the  provinces  program d i d not  examined produce  comprehensive s t u d i e s of a l l roads i n each p r o v i n c e . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u r e l y l o c a l r o a d s was and  r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s unless  p r o v i n c i a l system. promoting road The grants tion  The  Act  with  the  t h e i r r o a d s were p a r t  was  l a r g e l y unsuccessful  urban  of  the  in  building.  Unemployment R e l i e f A c t s  f o r the  left  The  purpose o f i n i t i a t i n g  provided the  piece-meal  sectional  construc-  o f a trans-Canada highway. The  T r a n s - C a n a d a Highway A c t ,  1949  defined  the  F e d e r a l government's c o n t r i b u t i o n towards c o m p l e t i o n of  the  n a t i o n a l highway.  were  Payments up  t o but  not  e x c e e d i n g 50$  made r e t r o a c t i v e f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n between 1928 This  same p e r c e n t a g e a p p l i e d u n t i l 1956  amendment e x t e n d e d t h e p e r i o d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o 90$ province. i n 1963  The  at which time  t o I960, and  c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d was  i n the A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s . ^  officials  the  90$  of the  The  t o t a l budget f o r the  m i l l i o n d o l l a r s as  e x i s t e d a t one  of  time.  I t was  f r o m t h e F e d e r a l Department  construction  make recommendations on  and  costs program  1963. transportation  composed o f t e c h n i c a l o f P u b l i c Works and  r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l highway departments. t o s t u d y and  increased  an  e x t e n d e d t o 1967,  A F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l committee on planning  1949.  f o r one-tenth o f the mileage i n each  an amendment a l l o w e d  amounted t o 625  and  the  The  committee  technical  aspects  the met  119 of the Trans-Canada Highway. largely  T h i s committee has now  heen  discharged.  Provincial Responsibilities  f o r Highways  The B r i t i s h North America A c t , S e c t i o n 92 g i v e s to the provinces the e x c l u s i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y w i t h regard to "municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s " , " l o c a l works and undertakings" and  "property and  c i v i l r i g h t s " i n the province  T h i s t i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and planning to the p r o v i n c i a l governments.  The  p r o v i n c i a l governments of Canada have chosen to a d m i n i s t e r these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n g e n e r a l l y the same way. t i e s are created by the provinces as instruments self-government  which may  Municipali of l o c a l  e x e r c i s e powers delegated to them  through the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s . A m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n i n Canada i s a s t a t u t o r y l e g a l i d e n t i t y created e i t h e r by a c h a r t e r (as i n the case of the C i t y o f Vancouver), o r g a n i z a t i o n s may  or by a g e n e r a l m u n i c i p a l a c t .  Municipal  a l s o be used by the province as agents t o  c a r r y out p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c i a l f u n c t i o n s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y designated by the B.N.A. act f o r " l o c a l works and undertakings" has been t r e a t e d as both a direct responsibility  (primary r u r a l highways), and as an  indirect responsibility  (urban s t r e e t s ) .  The  provinces  b u i l d and m a i n t a i n the p r o v i n c i a l road systems and i n g degrees support f i n a n c i a l l y the major s t r e e t s  i n varyof urban  120 areas over a c e r t a i n s i z e , while l e a v i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The  "property and  p r o v i n c e s to r e g u l a t e and power has been delegated them to p l a n .  This may  c i v i l r i g h t s " clause a l l o w s c o n t r o l the uses of l a n d . to m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s  be i l l u s t r a t e d by a b r i e f  the This  enabling reference  to the e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, which i s the Vancouver Charter. to develop l a n d and  This Act allows the M u n i c i p a l i t y  c e r t a i n powers a r e given to the  M u n i c i p a l i t y t o enable i t to c a r r y out development  according  Q  to a p l a n .  S e c t i o n 561  of the Act s t a t e s : "The  have development plans prepared time.  Such plans may  l a n e s , and  ...  may  or r e v i s e d from time to  (c) designate  other p u b l i c thoroughfares",  s t a t e s : "the C o u n c i l may  Council  land f o r s t r e e t s , and S e c t i o n 564(1)  a c q u i r e any r e a l property  i t con-  s i d e r s e s s e n t i a l to the c a r r y i n g - o u t of the p r o j e c t , and i n a d d i t i o n a c q u i r e other adjacent property."  The C o u n c i l may o  expropriation. use  C o u n c i l may  or neighboring  real  purchase by n e g o t i a t i o n or by a l s o c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e the  of land by means of by-law l e g i s l a t i o n , u s u a l l y a  zoning  or s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l by-law. Public Transportation S e n i o r governments i n both the United S t a t e s  and  Canada have not recognized p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n urban areas as part of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Traditionally,  121 p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has heen developed by p r i v a t e  enter-  p r i s e with some m u n i c i p a l and s e n i o r l e v e l  government  c o n t r o l , such as that on f a r e s t r u c t u r e s .  The d e c l i n e i n  patronage has r e s u l t e d i n three courses o f a c t i o n f o r those companies which have not been able t o meet expenses.  These  have been t o go out o f business, merge with a l a r g e r company, or s e l l t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  These trends have r e s u l t e d  i n a decrease i n the number o f companies with many of the systems becoming p u b l i c l y owned. S t a t i s t i c s reported  The Dominion Bureau o f .  i n 1964 t h a t f i f t y s i x o f the t o t a l  systems r e p o r t i n g were p r i v a t e l y owned and t h i r t y one were p u b l i c l y owned. respective  The same r a t i o a p p l i e d  i n 1963 when the  number o f systems were f i f t y f i v e p r i v a t e l y and  t h i r t y municipally  owned.  10  There i s one p r o v i n c i a l l y  owned system, the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y . The r a t i o o f p r i v a t e ownership t o p u b l i c ownership i n the U n i t e d States  i s much g r e a t e r  than the Dominion Bureau of  S t a t i s t i c s r a t i o shows f o r Canada.  P i t c h s t a t e s there are  approximately 1200 p r i v a t e l y owned systems and o n l y 59 p u b l i c l y owned systems i n the United  States.  1 1  A v a r i a t i o n on p u b l i c ownership o f t r a n s i t systems i s m u n i c i p a l subsidy.  Many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f i n d i t necessary  t o support t h e i r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  system so t h a t  basic  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n may be provided f o r those who do not have automobiles.  An example i s the Toronto T r a n s i t  Commission  which was s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g u n t i l 1954 when i t had i t s f i r s t  122 operating d e f i c i t .  Since t h a t time the  Metropolitan  C o r p o r a t i o n has been s u b s i d i z i n g o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , and more recently, c a p i t a l costs. The  f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n  urban areas  i s precarious.  Since the p o p u l a r i t y of the  automobile, patronage has been c o n t i n u o u s l y (except  f o r the war  years).  declining  In the l a s t 18 years the  total  revenue passenger f a r e s f o r a l l systems i n Canada have dropped from 1,500  m i l l i o n from a peak i n 1946  t o about  12 1,000  m i l l i o n i n 1964.  occurred  T h i s t o t a l patronage l o s s  i n s p i t e of an i n c r e a s e i n motor bus  has  patronage  from 400 m i l l i o n to 700 m i l l i o n d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . decrease has  r e s u l t e d i n f a r e i n c r e a s e s and modernization  the systems to the p o i n t where between 1963 was  The  and 1964  of  there  an o p e r a t i n g revenue i n c r e a s e ( f o r 68 systems r e p o r t i n g )  of 6.4$> a g a i n s t a t o t a l o p e r a t i n g expense i n c r e a s e of only 3.3$.  The  i n c r e a s e of revenues amounted to 9.4  million  d o l l a r s i n o p e r a t i n g revenues with i n c r e a s e s being i n a l l p r o v i n c e s , and may i n t r a n s i t operations. f o r a l l systems was  be the beginning  systems.  trend  A s t a b i l i z a t i o n of passenger revenue 13  shown between 1961  passenger f a r e s increased by 0.6$ 68  of a new  reported  and 1964.  between 1963  Revenue  and 1964  on  14  Perhaps a beginning has r e c e n t l y been made i n Canada f o r increased s e n i o r government subsidy f o r t r a n s i t expenses and  capital costs.  In 1963  operating  the Highway Improvement  123 A c t of Ontario was  amended to a u t h o r i z e the M i n i s t e r of  Highways to pay up to o n e - t h i r d of the r i g h t of way t i o n costs to the Toronto east-west subway.  construc-  T r a n s i t Commission f o r i t s new  The Province a l s o assumed and  purchased  at t h a t time 60 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s worth of non-matured 15 debentures.  The F e d e r a l government has a l s o allowed  m u n i c i p a l a i d funds to go toward the Toronto  and  Montreal  subway systems. Another event which may  have some s i g n i f i c a n c e i s  the o p e r a t i o n of the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver t r a n s i t  system  by the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , a P r o v i n c i a l crown c o r p o r a t i o n .  However, t h i s was  acquired  i n c i d e n t a l l y to the P r o v i n c i a l government,, take over of the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company and does not represent  any  p o s i t i v e d e s i r e of the P r o v i n c i a l government t o get i n t o the transit  business. I I . METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING- IN SELECTED REG-IONS OF CANADA The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to d e s c r i b e the  g e n e r a l ease of m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n Canada.  There are two  main d i f f i c u l t i e s i n doing t h i s :  l a c k of completed s t u d i e s which can be examined and  the  the  s m a l l number o f m e t r o p o l i t a n regions comparable i n s i z e to the United S t a t e s cases.  I d e a l l y , s t u d i e s would be examined  f o r the same eastern, mid-western and  f a r western g e o g r a p h i c a l  124 areas, and which could he used t o see the changes over But l a c k i n g completed s t u d i e s , a g e n e r a l overview  time.  i s made of  c e r t a i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas which a r e c u r r e n t l y p l a n n i n g a t r e l a t i v e l y the same s c a l e as those areas examined i n Chapter IV, and which do represent some g e o g r a p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The regions s e l e c t e d f o r study are the Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s .  These were  s e l e c t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons; they represent a g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s i m i l a r to the s i x s e l e c t e d s t u d i e s i n the United S t a t e s , they a r e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e regions., which compares to~the U n i t e d States cases and t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n time sequence t o the study h i s t o r i e s .  The Toronto  cases w i l l be c l o s e l y examined because of that c i t y ' s  success  i n a c h i e v i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n government and i t s r e l a t i v e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g techniques.  Winnipeg  i s only i n i t i a t i n g a study, whereas m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver has had a completed study s i n c e 1959, but i t has never been implemented.  Toronto and Winnipeg regions a r e examined i n  t h i s chapter, whereas the Vancouver case i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n Chapter VI where a d e t a i l e d examination  o f the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  c o o r d i n a t i o n i s made. M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study i s a s p e c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i v e agency e s t a b l i s h e d by the Province o f Ontario t o undertake a comprehensive  examination  125 of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n centered was  on M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto.  This  an unprecedented move f o r the P r o v i n c i a l government  which had up to I960 confined i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t e r e s t t o r u r a l roads and the Ontario Northland  Railway.  The a c t i o n  o f the Province was"based on three c o n d i t i o n s i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto r e g i o n : heavy freeway expenditures, problem of f i n a n c i n g p u b l i c t r a n s i t  the  ( i n p a r t i c u l a r subway  c o n s t r u c t i o n ) and an i n t e r e s t i n extended commuter r a i l services.  Since these problems could not be handled by  e x i s t i n g agency the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region p o r t a t i o n Study was  created.  Trans-  An O f d e r - i n - C o u n c i l was  by the Lieutenant-Governor i n December 1962,  an  approved  which a u t h o r i z e d  the formation of a "committee to study and r e p o r t on an  over-  a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and surrounding  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s " . ^ An Executive Committee and 1  T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Committee were formed to a d m i n i s t e r  a  the  study. The Study Region. counties and  p a r t s of two  The  study r e g i o n c o n s i s t s of three  others.  I t d e s c r i b e s a crescent  shaped area w i t h M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto at the c e n t e r d e l i m i t s between 3000 and  and  3500 square miles which contained  over 2,000,000 persons i n 1963.  The  r e g i o n contains  70  17 municipal  jurisdictions.  Study O b j e c t i v e s .  The primary o b j e c t i v e s of the  study are to d e v i s e a coordinated  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network,  126 t o define a comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y , and  to  recommend a f i s c a l p o l i c y f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The  study " w i l l review t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on an i n t e r - s y s t e m  and  19 not an i n t r a - s y s t e m  basis",  D  i t " w i l l endeavor to determine  the most d e s i r a b l e development p a t t e r n f o r the r e g i o n as b a s i s f o r determining a p l a n and  p o l i c y for future  the  trans-  20 portation".  The  study w i l l recommend a " p o l i c y and 21  program f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l funds" P r o v i n c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o b l i g a t i o n s , and  will  to meet "endeavor  t o recommend a d m i n i s t r a t i v e requirements (and to) w i t h s p e c i f i c inter-agency The  one  administrative  f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e should  to coordinate  integrated transportation plan.  structure.  be noted.. The  of the e x i s t i n g plans  agencies i n the r e g i o n and  deal 22  to propose an i n t e g r a t e d system,  a f i s c a l p o l i c y and an inter-agency  intends to make f u l l use  ...  transportation situations".  study t h e r e f o r e intends  One  a  study  of the  the programs i n t o  To do t h i s the  w i l l subject the "important n o n - t e c h n i c a l  study  matters of 23  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and The  finance  (to an)  extensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n " .  study w i l l examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e n i o r  government r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o t r a n s i t f i n a n c i n g , u s e r revenues from motor v e h i c l e usage and arrangements f o r any r a i l appear f e a s i b l e .  the  financial  commuting systems that might  127 Study A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The  Order-in-Council creating  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n designated  t h a t i t was  to he administered  an Executive Committee and  by two  a Technical Advisory  study  committees; Committee.  The Executive Committee c o n s i s t s of e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the P r o v i n c i a l Cabinet and the Chairman of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto.  The M i n i s t e r s of the  P r o v i n c i a l government on the Executive Committee are the M i n i s t e r of Highways (Chairman), the M i n i s t e r of  Transport  and the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The T e c h n i c a l Committee c o n s i s t s of s e n i o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s from P r o v i n c i a l government departments  (Trans-  p o r t , Highways and M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) , from M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and N a t i o n a l Railway, and a t r a n s i t  consultant.  of the Committee i s the T r a f f i c Engineer o f Transport, and  The  Chairman  f o r the Department  the Vice-chairman i s the T r a f f i c  Planning S t u d i e s Engineer Other d i s c i p l i n e s  the Canadian  and  from the Department of Highways"!  i n c l u d e the P l a n n i n g Commissioner f o r the  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, the Roads Commissioner f o r the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, the D i r e c t o r o f the Community Planning Branch of the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , two and  the afforementioned  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the R a i l r o a d s t r a n s i t c o n s u l t a n t , who  a consultant to the Toronto T r a n s i t Commission.  was  formerly  128 There are a l s o v a r i o u s ad hoc committees s e t up to d e a l with s p e c i a l i z e d phases of the work.  F i g u r e 4, page 129,  shows the o r g a n i z a t i o n chart f o r the study with the subcommittee r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and the agencies  whose work i s  coordinated by the Study S t a f f under a Study D i r e c t o r . Study F i n a n c i n g .  The study i s financed b a s i c a l l y by  the P r o v i n c i a l government through the budget of the Department of T r a n s p o r t .  2 4  However there have been some s i g n i f -  i c a n t f i n a n c i a l support by many agencies:  computer s e r v i c e s  are provided by M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, l a n d use and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s a r e s u p p l i e d by the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , economists from the Department of Economics and Development, plus a " f a n t a s t i c amount of work under25 t a k i n g s by a l l agencies  involved".  An E v a l u a t i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study.  T h i s study has s e v e r a l unique f e a t u r e s  which d i s t i n q u i s h i t from the s e l e c t e d United S t a t e s The  cases.  study o b j e c t i v e s are much broader and i n c l u d e a d e f i n i -  t i o n of comprehensive development p o l i c y and f i s c a l  policy.  I t goes much f u r t h e r i n examining the i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l systems and concentrates  on inter-systems  integration rather  than the narrower i n t r a - s y s t e m i n t e g r a t i o n . The  study i s being conducted with a f u l l awareness  of the need t o i n t e g r a t e land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n plans, although t h i s concept eveolved  over the short h i s t o r y o f  129  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE  STUDY OPERATIONS SUB-COMMITTEE  CONTRACTORS  SUB-COMMITTEES  Agencies  Consultants Commuter Rail  Railway Do Louw, Cother and Co.  Regional Development  Traffic Traffic Research Corporation  « Finance & Administration  STUDY STAFF  Rogional Dovelopment L O . Gertler Dr. A . H o w Public Relations E. Ingraham Financo 61 Administration F. H. Finnis General Hans Blumenfeld Parking Parking Design and Development Ltd.  Provincial Dept. of Highways Dept. of Municipal Affairs Dept. of Transport Dept. of Economics & Development  Metropolitan Toronto Y Planning Board Dept. of Roads Toronto Transit Comm.  National Canadian National Railways Canadian Pacific Roilways  FIGURE 4 ORGANIZATION CHART, METROPOLITAN TORONTO AND REGION TRANSPORTATION STUDY S o u r c e : M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and R e g i o n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S t u d y , ( T o r o n t o : 1966  the study.  The  Study D i r e c t o r has d e s c r i b e d how  Technical Advisory  the  Committee went through s e v e r a l concepts 26  of what the study was  to do.  The  Committee f i r s t  ceived of the study as an e v a l u a t i o n of e x i s t i n g t i o n plans a g a i n s t  existing o f f i c i a l  to the review.  The  transporta  plans, then a "vague"  study of c o n d i t i o n s i n the year 2000 was extension  con-  envisioned' as  next phase was  the  an  concept  that the year 2000 p l a n must be a comprehensive r e g i o n a l p l a n w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as one was  followed by c o n c e i v i n g  plans.  The  component only, and  of s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e r e g i o n a l  Study D i r e c t o r s t a t e s that "now  suddenly appeared unexpectedly that the component f o l l o w s from and r a t i o n a l planning study of the use,  and  the i d e a  transportation  of land use.  "dynamic i n t e r p l a y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and land 27  Study D i r e c t o r considers  official".  the p r o j e c t s u c c e s s f u l  c e r t a i n problems.  The  Committee and  P r o v i n c i a l government.  although  main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  problem r e v o l v e s around the personnel of the Advisory  and  T h i s i m p l i e s a l o n g term  a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to s u c c e s s f u l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  he d e s c r i b e s  has  i s subordinate to the i d e a l  which i s being h i n t e d at but i s not The  this  Technical  the s t a t u s of the study w i t h i n  the  Three members of the Committee i n -  c l u d i n g the Chairman and Vice-chairman are h i g h l y competent t e c h n i c a l l y and as a r e s u l t second guess the Study D i r e c t o r The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the study w i t h i n a department where  the chairman o f the p r o j e c t a l s o has  day to day  decisions  131 to make w i t h i n h i s department has i n some cases the Study D i r e c t o r ' s a u t h o r i t y and  cxantravened  t h i s has l e d to wrong pQ  program d e c i s i o n s ( i n the Study D i r e c t o r ' s o p i n i o n ) . One  p  o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the p r o j e c t has been the  l a c k of d i r e c t i o n .  The Executive Committee has never d e f i n e d  the o b j e c t i v e s of the study, and  the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y  Committee has paid more a t t e n t i o n to t e c h n i c a l procedure than 29 to o b j e c t i v e s . The  study attempts no o f f i c i a l cooperation  with  l o c a l governments, p r e f e r r i n g to operate on the p r i n c i p l e that the two  important  p a r t i e s i n the study, the Department  of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  represent  There i s some i n d i c a t i o n , how-  ever, t h a t the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would l i k e  stronger  30  t i e s to the study. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Planning i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  Toronto  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto must be i n c l u d e d i n any a n a l y s i s such as t h i s because of the governmental s t r u c t u r e of the r e g i o n .  In 1953  the  Ontario  M u n i c i p a l Board recommended that the C i t y of Toronto and i t s twelve  contiguous  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s be made i n t o a f e d e r a t e d  system of m u n i c i p a l government.  The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of  the Province of Ontario passed the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Act i n 1953  endorsing the Ontario M u n i c i p a l Board's  recommendations with few a l t e r a t i o n s .  The Act provided f o r  132 a d i v i s i o n of power between the t h i r t e e n area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n where the matters of a r e a wide concern were assigned t o the C o r p o r a t i o n or to q u a s i independent boards, while those matters of l o c a l  concern  remained the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . - ^  1  The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l c o n s i s t e d of twelve r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the C i t y o f Toronto  and  municipalities.  c o r p o r a t i o n embraced 241  m i l e s and 13  The new  one  each from the suburban square  municipalities.  Three agencies  of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n  a f f e c t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g : the M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning Board, The Toronto  T r a n s i t Commission and  M e t r o p o l i t a n Roads Department. quasi-independent  Toronto  bodies and  The  f i r s t two  the  of these  are  the l a t t e r provides a s t a f f  f u n c t i o n to the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning Board has the duty to prepare an O f f i c i a l P l a n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area i n accordance with S e c t i o n 10(1) (Ontario).^  2  Planning  of the P l a n n i n g Act  The scope of the O f f i c i a l P l a n as d e f i n e d by  the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Act i n c l u d e s "ways  33 of communication (and) p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " l a n d uses and  other matters.  J  as w e l l as  The P l a n i s concerned with  e s t a b l i s h i n g the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n and p r i n c i p l e s of  develop-  ment l e a v i n g l o c a l p l a n n i n g bodies the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t a i l e d planning c o n t r o l . ?  4  133 The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Act  created  the Toronto T r a n s i t Commission as successor to the Toronto T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Commission and gave i t f u l l powers f o r "cons t r u c t i o n , maintenance, operation, extension,  alteration,  r e p a i r , c o n t r o l and management of a l l forms of l o c a l p u b l i c passenger t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " ?  S e c t i o n 115(c) of the Act s t a t e s  5  that the Commission's "powers r i g h t s , a u t h o r i t i e s , and p r i v i l e g e s s h a l l not be e x e r c i s e d by any area m u n i c i p a l i t y ... or by the m e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n " . was  The  Commission  a u t h o r i z e d to f i x t o l l s and f a r e s so that i t i s s e l f -  sustaining.  However, i n 1962  i t was  necessary  f o r the  M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n to s u b s i d i z e the c a p i t a l costs of the Commission, and was  i n 1963  the o p e r a t i n g c o s t s .  The  Act  amended a c c o r d i n g l y . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Roads Department was  t o design, c o n s t r u c t and metropolitan  established  maintain those roads designated  as  roads.  The M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning Board's T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n has been conducting studies since i t s inception.  transportation planning But no comprehensive r e p o r t  has been produced as i s the case i n some of the major United States m e t r o p o l i t a n areas s t u d i e d .  In M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h land use on a m e t r o p o l i t a n wide b a s i s and  planning  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n proposals  are an inherent part of the O f f i c i a l P l a n . proposed O f f i c i a l P l a n i t s t a t e s t h a t the  In the  1965  "Metropolitan  Toronto P l a n n i n g Board i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the Commission  134 (Toronto Transit Commission) s h a l l prepare and recommend to the Metropolitan  Council general plans for rapid transit  37  facilities."^  The Commission prepares engineering  designs  and operational specifications for the public t r a n s i t system subject to review by the Metropolitan  Corporation.  The planning of a l l transportation systems w i l l i n the future be done i n an integrated manner by the Planning Board. The transportation planning objectives of the Metropolitan Planning Board refer to "major transportation f a c i l i t i e s , consisting of rapid t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s , expressway  and a r t e r i a l roads."^  8  The transportation system w i l l  "establish public and private transportation f a c i l i t i e s at suitable locations and with appropriate  specifications to  39  best discharge t h e i r proper f u n c t i o n " .  JJ  The rapid transit  f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be planned to ensure "their integration with surrounding land uses and the o v e r a l l transportation system"  40  and an " e f f e c t i v e integration of a r a i l commuter system to connect outlying urban development and the areas beyond the Planning Area to the rapid transit system"  41  w i l l be provided.  The influence of rapid t r a n s i t on environment i s also considered i n the Plan.  F a c i l i t i e s " s h a l l be so located so as  to cause minimum interference with existing or future 42  r e s i d e n t i a l amenities and community structure".  The effect  of transportation on a i r p o l l u t i o n i s also considered the Plan.  in  135 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg i s s t u d i e d b r i e f l y here f o r two  reasons:  i t represents a middle western m e t r o p o l i t a n  r e g i o n i n conformance w i t h the g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h p l a n of t h i s t h e s i s , and  i t has one  of the v e r y few f e d e r a t e d  m e t r o p o l i t a n governments i n North America.  However Winnipeg  i s not as l a r g e as the b a s i c r e g i o n being s t u d i e d here  and  i t has only j u s t begun t o study i t s m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems.  T h e r e f o r e , although a marginal case, the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning process and where i t f i t s  i n t o the  s t r u c t u r e of M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg i s examined. G-reater Winnipeg i s the f o u r t h l a r g e s t m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n i n Canada and before I960 contained j u s t over 400,000 people, with the aggregate  p o p u l a t i o n of the suburban  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s two-thirds that of the C i t y of Winnipeg. The  community was  divided into nineteen d i f f e r e n t  municipal  c o r p o r a t i o n s o f f i c i a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of four c i t i e s ,  ten  " r u r a l " m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ranging from h i g h l y urban t o h i g h l y 43  r u r a l , two  towns and one v i l l a g e .  y  In 1955  an O r d e r - i n -  C o u n c i l of the Province of Manitoba e s t a b l i s h e d the  "Greater  Winnipeg I n v e s t i g a t i n g Commission" t o enquire i n t o and r e p o r t on m e t r o p o l i t a n government f o r the r e g i o n . Commission recommended i n 1959 l e g i s l a t i o n and without by way  The I n v e s t i g a t i n g  that "there be formed, by  seeking the approval of the r e s i d e n t s  of referendum the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n  Winnipeg".  44  136 The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg was  e s t a b l i s h e d by B i l l 62 of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of  Manitoba i n March, I960. " 4  5  Part IV of the Act g i v e s the  Metropolitan Corporation: s o l e and f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r , and a u t h o r i t y and j u r i s d i c t i o n over, the p l a n n i n g and development of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area ...' i n c l u d i n g the design, l a y - o u t , and p l a n of the highways ... save as e x p r e s s l y otherwise provided h e r e i n , the j u r i s d i c t i o n and powers of every m u n i c i p a l council.46 T h i s s e c t i o n supercedes the "Town P l a n n i n g A c t " and a l l previous schemes, r e g u l a t i o n s , orders, or plans cease to a p p l y w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .  The  metropolitan  c o u n c i l i s d i r e c t e d by the Act to prepare, approve, and implement by by-law "The  M e t r o p o l i t a n Development  Plan."  4 7  A Department of P l a n n i n g i s e s t a b l i s h e d as p a r t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the C o r p o r a t i o n and has  the  48 duty of p r e p a r i n g the development p l a n . P a r t V of the Act d i r e c t s C o u n c i l to e s t a b l i s h by by-law a m e t r o p o l i t a n s t r e e t system and the j u r i s d i c t i o n of every highway which i s not designated as p a r t of the m e t r o p o l i t a n s t r e e t system continues to be vested i n the 49 m u n i c i p a l i t y i n which i t i s s i t u a t e d . P a r t VI of the Act designates a " M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s i t System" whereas a l l the "undertaking, p e r s o n a l property  a s s e t s and  r e a l and  ... held by Greater Winnipeg T r a n s i t  Commission are vested i n the C o r p o r a t i o n " .  The  Corporation  137 assumes a l l debts and  liabilities  commission both i n Winnipeg and the Corporation  of  the former t r a n s i t  the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  " s h a l l c o n s o l i d a t e and  co-ordinate  of l o c a l passenger t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e w i t h i n metropolitan  area ... and  and  a l l forms the  s h a l l p l a n f o r the f u t u r e develop•51  ment of such t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " . any  other c o r p o r a t i o n  No area m u n i c i p a l i t y  i s allowed to operate any  l o c a l passenger t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e except  nor  form of railways,  52  t a x i s , and  chartered  The  bus  services.  take over by the Corporation  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i n the area was I n v e s t i g a t i n g Committee.  The  of the  public  recommended by  the  Committee suggested that a l l  p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n should be vested  i n a c e n t r a l author-  i t y i n c l u d i n g personnel from "planning,  engineering,  police,  53  t r a n s i t , f i n a n c e and " t r a f f i c and and  a few  others"  which would  plan  mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n with the support of  which would give mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y  than the movement of p r i v a t e v e h i c l e s " . recommendation of the  In i n t e r p r e t i n g the  i n v e s t i g a t i v e commission i t seems  c l e a r they r e f e r to a p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a u t h o r i t y and  d i d not  only  consider a c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y f o r both major  modes; t r a n s i t and has  Council,  private vehicles.  However, i n t e g r a t i o n  been achieved to some extent by e s t a b l i s h i n g  departments; S t r e e t s and In 1963  T r a f f i c and  a Transportation  e s t a b l i s h e d under the aegis  S t r e e t s and  P l a n n i n g Branch  of the Department of  two Transit. was Streets  138 • and T r a f f i c ,  54  with both short run and long-range t r a n s -  portation planning functions.  In 1964 the Branch undertook  the Winnipeg Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study with the a s s i s t a n c e and  cooperation o f other m e t r o p o l i t a n d i v i s i o n s , i n p a r t i c -  u l a r the P l a n n i n g The  Division.  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s study  i s the development of a  comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n i n c l u d i n g a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. techniques It  I t i s the i n t e n t i o n to employ the l a t e s t  a v a i l a b l e i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g is f e l t ^  process.  t h a t the r o l e o f the study i n the  S t r e e t s and T r a f f i c Department i s unique i n Canada.  Although  the study i s a long-range planning one, i t a l s o f u l f i l s the f u n c t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g a ready source to  day p r o j e c t s .  o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r day  This would f a l l i n t o the same  category  as the M e t r o p o l i t a n and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study whose Study D i r e c t o r r e p o r t s t o the Chairman of the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Committee who has both l o g i s t i c a l and advanced planning f u n c t i o n s .  I t was quoted as a weakness i n t h i s  type o f study and may u l t i m a t e l y prove t o a f f e c t the Winnipeg study i n the same way. The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g t o Comprehensive Planning The  regions s e l e c t e d f o r study here show a v a r i a -  t i o n i n the manner i n which the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o comprehensive p l a n n i n g i n  139 the r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s .  The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study has coordinated the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the study.  Both the Executive Committee and the  T e c h n i c a l Committee have r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the P r o v i n c i a l Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , the Department r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Planning i n O n t a r i o .  The T e c h n i c a l Committee a l s o i n -  cludes the Commissioner f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning Board.  T h e r e f o r e , the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  agencies and planning agencies i s complete, to t h e extent i t can be determined  by an a n a l y s i s of the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  structure. In t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s conducted  by the Planning Board.  How-  ever, there a r e some agencies i n v o l v e d which a r e outside the c o n t r o l of the Planning Board such as the Toronto  Transit  Commission (although r e c e n t l y the Chairman of the Commission was made an ex o f f i c i o member of the Board  ), the Department  of Highways o f Ontario, and the r a i l w a y companies.  Two  committees, the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n T e c h n i c a l Committee and the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Planning A d v i s o r y Committee, serve t o c o o r d i n a t e the design and o p e r a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s w i t h the p l a n n i n g function.  5 7  The former Committee i s c h a i r e d by the Road's  Commissioner, and the l a t t e r by the Planning Commissioner although the membership of both committees i s e x a c t l y the same and c o n s i s t s o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a f f i c Engineer, t h e Planning Engineer o f the Department o f Highways, and the D i r e c t o r of Planning f o r the Toronto T r a n s i t Commission, as w e l l as the  140 r e s p e c t i v e chairmen.  According to the D i r e c t o r of the  Trans-  p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Planning Board 58  t h i s system works r e l a t i v e l y w e l l . I n Winnipeg the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g study i s administered by the Department of S t r e e t s and T r a f f i c . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s handled Transit.  Public  by the Department of S t r e e t s and  The Planning Department has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g  m u n i c i p a l highways.  This arrangement seems t o be r e t r o g r e s s i v e  step c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the opposite, or the c o o r d i n a t i o n of a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning under one agency, i s the g e n e r a l t r e n d shown i n t h i s  study. I I I . CHAPTER SUMMARY  M e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n Canada d i f f e r s from t h a t i n the United States f o r two reasons: the  differ-  ence i n l e g i s l a t i v e and f i s c a l p o l i c y , and the s m a l l number of m e t r o p o l i t a n areas.  The f e d e r a l government i n Canada has  had very l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r both m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  and  i n t r a - p r o v i n e i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n being p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as set out by the B r i t i s h North America A c t .  The  provinces have chosen to administer i n t r a - p r o v i n e i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n urban areas i n g e n e r a l l y the same manner. province i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s r u r a l roads  Each  and  shares r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r urban h i g h way  connections.  S e n i o r governments have not recognized  141 p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n urban areas as part of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , although a step has been taken r e c e n t l y i n the form of a subsidy by the Ontario P r o v i n c i a l government to M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto f o r r i g h t of way  c o n s t r u c t i o n costs  of subway c o n s t r u c t i o n . In the t h r e e regions examined m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g has been c a r r i e d out d i f f e r e n t l y .  The  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study i s an i n v e s t i g a t i v e agency embracing a l a r g e r e g i o n centered M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto.  I t i s administered  by an  by  Executive  Committee of e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s with a T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Committee i n t e g r a t i n g and  c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l aspects  p o l i t a n transportation planning.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning i n  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto i s b a s i c a l l y administered p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board.  The  by the Metro-  In M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study i s administered of S t r e e t s and  by the Department  T r a f f i c of the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Corporation.  c o o r d i n a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g  comprehensive r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g d i f f e r s among the regions.  of metro-  and  three  The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Study b r i n g s together a l l the p l a n n i n g agencies r e g i o n as p a r t of the process.  In M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning i s c a r r i e d on w i t h i n the Board, while  i n Winnipeg i t i s removed from the  Department and  i n the  Planning Planning  i s part of the S t r e e t s and T r a f f i c Department.  142  REFERENCES  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Road and S t r e e t Mileage and Expenditure. 1963 (Ottawa: P u b l i c Finance and Transportedion D i v i s i o n , D.B.S., 1965), p. 6.  1867  2 A C o n s o l i d a t i o n of the B r i t i s h North America Acts to 1952 (Ottawa: Department of J u s t i c e . 1Q56). S e c t i o n  92.10(a). 5  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 91.13.  4  I b i d . . S e c t i o n 91.10.  5 Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 6  I b i d . . p.  o p . c i t . , p.  6.  7.  7 'The B r i t i s h North America A c t s , o p . c i t . , S e c t i o n 92(8), (10), and (13), pp. 27-28. Q  S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Charter,  1953. 9  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 564(2).  D o m i n i o n Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Urban T r a n s i t 1964 (Ottawa: P u b l i c Finance and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n , 1965), Table 1, p. 8. Firms enumerated i n Table 1 have a gross annual o p e r a t i n g revenue of $20,000 or more ,and do not i n c l u d e r a i l w a y commuter s e r v i c e s , f e r r i e s , t a x i companies, c h a r t e r and s c h o o l bus f i r m s . The coverage i s considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole urban t r a n s i t i n d u s t r y . 10  " ^ L y l e C. F i t c h and A s s o c i a t e s , Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and P u b l i c P o l i c y (San F r a n c i s c o : Chandler P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  1964), p. 37. 12  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1 3  Ibid.  o p . c i t . , p.  7.  143 1 4  I b i d . , p. 6.  15  H. C a r l Goldenberg, Report^of the Royal Commission on M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto (Toronto: 1965), p. 45. " ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Prospectus (Toronto: 1963), p. 6. 17  l p i d . , p. 7.  1 8  I b i d . . p. 10.  19 ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Statement of Study A u t h o r i t y (Toronto: 1965), p. 2. 2 0  Ibid.  2 1  Ibid.  22 I b i d . , p. 3. ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, Prospectus, o p . c i t . , p. 12. L e t t e r from Mr. P.E. Wade, Study D i r e c t o r , dated March 17, 1966, p. 2. 2 4  2 5  Ibid.  2 6  I b i d . . p. 3.  2 7  I b i d . , p. 4.  2 8  I b i d . , p. 2.  2 9  Ibid.,  p. 3.  °rbid., p. 4.  5  •^Goldenberg, o p . c i t . , p. 29. • ^ O f f i c i a l P l a n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area (Toronto: M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, 1965), p. 1.  144 5 5  Ip_id.  3 4  Ibid.  •55 -^Goldenberg, o p . c i t . , p. 3 4 . 5 6  I b i d . , p.  35.  •57 ^ O f f i c i a l P l a n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area, o p . c i t . , p. 8. 5 8  Planning  Ibid.  •X.Q  - " ^ O f f i c i a l P l a n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Planning Area Supplement (Toronto; M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, 1965), p. 11. 4 0  0 f f i c i a l P l a n , o p . c i t . , p.  8.  4 1  0 f f i c i a l Plan Supplement, o p . c i t . , p.  4 2  0 f f i c i a l Plan,  11.  Ibid.  G r e a t e r Winnipeg I n v e s t i g a t i n g Commission, Report and Recommendations Volume I (Winnipeg: 1959), p. 20. 4 3  4 4  Ibid.,  p.  249.  S t a t u s of Manitoba, B i l l 62. The Winnipeg Act (Prov. of Manitoba: I960). 4 5  4 6  4 7  4 8  4 9  5  I b i d . . Part IV, S e c t i o n  78(1).  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 79(1), and I b i d . . Section  (3).  86(1).  I b i d . , Part V, S e c t i o n 94(1), and  °Ibid., Part VI, S e c t i o n 109(1).  5 1  I b i d . , Section  Metropolitan  110(a).  (5).  145 5 2  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 112(1).  53  ^Greater Winnipeg I n v e s t i g a t i n g Commission,  op.cit.,  p. 261. R . T r i f f o , "Winnipeg Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study", Newsletter (Toronto: I n s t i t u t e of T r a f f i c Engineers, Canadian S e c t i o n , Aug., 1964), n.p. 54  5 5  b y Mr. T r i f f o ,  op.cit.,  n.p.  "56  l e t t e r from Mr. J . L . Vardon, D i r e c t o r of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, dated A p r i l 22, 1966, p. 2. L e t t e r from Mr. E. Comay, Commissioner of Planning, M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, t o the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, dated January 6, 1965, p. 2. 5 7  58  L e t t e r from Mr. J.L. Vardon, o p . c i t . , p. 3 .  CHAPTER VI THE COORDINATION OP METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF GREATER VANCOUVER  The  previous  chapters o f t h i s study have analyzed the  g e n e r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning metropolitan  regions  i n both the U n i t e d  f o r selected  States and Canada.  This chapter i s a case study of the problem as i t a p p l i e s t o the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n  area i n the Lower Mainland Region  of B r i t i s h Columbia (Figure 5, page 146&).  Where the previous  chapters used s e v e r a l major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s as r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l t o analyze t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  o b j e c t i v e s as  they a p p l i e d t o systems i n t e g r a t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  administration,  t h i s chapter attempts t o examine  the problems of i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o r d i n a t i o n i n some depth. Transportation  planning  o b j e c t i v e s t o the extent  they can  be determined from the s t u d i e s completed f o r the r e g i o n are described depth.  but no attempt i s made t o examine these i n  An examination o f the l e g i s l a t i o n which i s r e l e v a n t  to m e t r o p o l i t a n  transportation planning  p a r t i c u l a r reference Municipal Act.  i s made, w i t h  t o the P r o v i n c i a l Highways A c t and  The m e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver r e g i o n i s de-  s c r i b e d , and the h i s t o r y of i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l cooperation i s examined f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the r e g i o n . of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  A history  and i t s o b j e c t i v e s show a  146a  S o u r c e : B o a r d o f E n g i n e e r s , S e w e r a g e and D r a i n a g e o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a ( V a n c o u v e r : 1953)j p„ 11 0  147 d i v e r s i t y of e f f o r t s to s o l v e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s i n v e s t i g a t e d to  determine how  recent s t u d i e s have been administered.  An  e v a l u a t i o n of the process from the point of view of coo p e r a t i o n and  c o o r d i n a t i o n i s made, w i t h c e r t a i n recommenda-  t i o n s g i v e n f o r the case study I.  LEGISLATIVE AND  area. FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK  There are s e v e r a l Acts of the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e which apply t o c e r t a i n aspects of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g on a m e t r o p o l i t a n b a s i s .  The most important  these are the Trans-Canada Highway A c t , ment Act,  2  6  the Highway Develop-  the Department of Highways Act,  t i e s Assistance Act, Act.  1  4  of  "5  •• the M u n i c i p a l i -  5 the Highway A c t , and the M u n i c i p a l  Most of these A c t s , as w e l l as the Vancouver Charter,  7  have a minimal relevance to m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning, with the exception of the Highway Act and  the  Municipal Act.  the  The Trans-Canada Highway Act allows  Province to borrow or r a i s e up to f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s by s a l e of debentures, t r e a s u r y b i l l s ,  or notes as i t s f i n a n c i a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n to a Trans-Canada Highway agreement.  The  way  in  Development Act allows the Lieutenant-Governor  C o u n c i l to r a i s e up to e i g h t y s i x m i l l i o n d o l l a r s debenture or t r e a s u r y b i l l s  High-  by  f o r the purpose of c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , or the s u r f a c i n g of l o c a l roads w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r " e x t r a m u n i c i p a l " or through  traffic.  148 The Department of Highways Act simply  designates  ment • s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g allows  the Highway A c t .  It  the Department to p l a n P r o v i n c i a l highways but does  not provide  an allowance f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of funds f o r  non-Provincial projects. allows  the Depart-  the Province  The M u n i c i p a l i t i e s A s s i s t a n c e  Act  to guarantee the borrowing power of a  m u n i c i p a l i t y or m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r improvements i n water and  sewerage, or "any  such p r o j e c t s " . > Presumably "any  p r o j e c t s " would i n c l u d e roads and The Highway Act and d i r e c t relevance  such  streets.  the M u n i c i p a l Act have more  to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning,  and  are  discussed  as they e f f e c t , or p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t , t h i s problem. The  Highway Act of B r i t i s h Columbia The  Highway Act of the Province  of B r i t i s h Columbia  d e f i n e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the P r o v i n c i a l government w i t h regard Highways has  to highway t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  The M i n i s t e r of  broad powers w i t h r e s p e c t to the  designation  of highways w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which s h a l l r e c i e v e in-aid.  The Act s t a t e s that " a l l roads, other than p r i v a t e  roads, s h a l l be deemed common and the M i n i s t e r may  designate,  p u b l i c highways"  subject to approval  the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , two a r t e r i a l highways and absolute  grants-  and  that  by Order of  c l a s s e s of highways:  secondary highways.  The M i n i s t e r  has  d i s c r e t i o n as to the d e f i n i t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s  an " a r t e r i a l highway",  9  and  what c o n s t i t u t e s a "secondary  149 highway . 11  The M i n i s t e r may  10  denote highways as a r t e r i a l  or  secondary through m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a f t e r " c o n s u l t a t i o n with the M u n i c i p a l  Council"  1 1  "agreement made with and  i n the case of a r t e r i a l s , and r a t i f i e d by by-law of the  after  Municipal  C o u n c i l " i n the case of secondary highways. t  F o r a r t e r i a l highways the complete cost of  construc-  t i o n and maintenance i s borne by the Department of Highways. F o r secondary highways the Department bears 5 0 $ c o n s t r u c t i o n costs and  40$  of  the  of the maintenance cost with the 12  m u n i c i p a l i t y f i n a n c i n g the r e s t .  However, where a  secondary highway runs through a m u n i c i p a l i t y of l e s s than 1000  population,  the Department at the d i s c r e t i o n of  the  c o n t r i b u t e up to 7 5 $ of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and 13 maintenance c o s t s . The Department may, subject t o approval of the Lieutenant-Governor pay the e n t i r e cost of, or reimburse a m u n i c i p a l i t y to r e p l a c e , r e b u i l d , r e p a i r , or  M i n i s t e r may  14 p r o t e c t any  highway bridge  U n t i l 1965,  i n the  Province.  the Province through the  Governor i n C o u n c i l could a u t h o r i z e  Lieutenant-  a y e a r l y grant  not  exceeding $1500 per m i l e to a c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t y over 15,000 population  f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n or maintenance, or both.  ever t h i s s e c t i o n was amounts to any tion.  The  amended i n 1965  to provide  How-  unspecified  c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t y having over 30,000 popula-  Highway Act Amendment Act,  1965  states:  The Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may authorize an annual grant to any c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t y having  150 a p o p u l a t i o n i n excess of t h i r t y thousand to a s s i s t i n d e f r a y i n g expenditure on any s t r e e t where i t i s considered i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t that such s t r e e t i s necessary as a connecting l i n k i n the a r t e r i a l - h i g h w a y system of the Province.15 The g r a n t s - i n - a i d p o l i c y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s not s p e c i f i c , but stems from the t i o n a r y powers of the M i n i s t e r of Highways. *' 1  discre-  No p r o v i s i o n s  are made i n the Highway Act f o r g r a n t s - i n - a i d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s e a r c h or p l a n n i n g .  However, the Province does  c o n t r i b u t e to m u n i c i p a l t r a f f i c s t u d i e s done i n the The  Province.  f i n a n c i a l a i d i s based on the m e r i t s of each study at 17  the d i s c r e t i o n of the M i n i s t e r . The M u n i c i p a l Act The M u n i c i p a l Act of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia d e f i n e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , d u t i e s and of m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the P r o v i n c e .  powers  Part XXI  of the  Act i s the e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , and t h e r e f o r e the part of the Act which has most relevance to ^ t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g .  (Another S e c t i o n ,  513(2)(a), allows a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l to " l a y out, c o n s t r u c t , 18 maintain, and  improve highways or any p o r t i o n t h e r e o f "  ).  P a r t XXIV d e f i n e s the framework w i t h i n which i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n may  take p l a c e to provide  services.  be a p p l i e d by f o r m u l a t i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n  T h i s may  Areas as designated  metropolitan  i n the o r i g i n a l A c t , and  Regional  151 D i s t r i c t s as designated i n the amended A c t o f 1 9 6 5 .  19  D i v i s i o n (6) of P a r t XXI o f the A c t e s t a b l i s h e s l e g i s l a t i o n t o p l a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e , with the i n t e n t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g Regional Planning Boards f o r t h i s and a l l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  purposes.  D i v i s i o n (6) i s an i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t of \ c e r t a i n l e g i s l a t i o n which had been enacted under the Town Planning A c t , 1925 and which allowed the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t o " d e c l a r e any area a p l a n n i n g area and 20 may d e f i n e the boundaries  of the a r e a " .  The Lower Main-  l a n d Regional Planning Board, i n c o r p o r a t i n g the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver r e g i o n , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1949 under the Town Planning A c t .  D i v i s i o n (6) of the M u n i c i p a l A c t s t a t e s :  On p e t i t i o n o f the C o u n c i l s of two o r more m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n a r e g i o n , the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l may d e c l a r e any area, i n c l u d i n g unorganized t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n the r e g i o n , a p l a n n i n g area and d e f i n e the boundaries of the area.21 Where a p l a n n i n g area i s designated, the  Lieutenant-Governor  i n C o u n c i l must e s t a b l i s h a "Regional Planning Board" cons i s t i n g of one member o f C o u n c i l from each m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n the area, and one member appointed by the members of the Board. The duty of the Board i s to "prepare r e g i o n a l plans  22 a p p l i c a b l e t o the planning area"  and i s provided funds to  do t h i s from the member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on a per c a p i t a basis.  152 Any  r e g i o n a l p l a n adopted by at l e a s t two  t h i r d s of  the member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s becomes an o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n i f r a t i f i e d by the P r o v i n c e .  2 3  Transportation  facilities  are i n c l u d e d as a component of the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l The M u n i c i p a l Act as enacted l e g i s l a t i o n (which has C o u n c i l s of two  i n 1957  Plan.  included  s i n c e been deleted) to a l l o w  "the  or more adjacent m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to set up  J o i n t Committee to study and intermunicipal nature".  2 4  a  r e p o r t on such matters of an  I f the d o i n t Committee recommended  a m e t r o p o l i t a n area be e s t a b l i s h e d the Province could d i r e c t the C o u n c i l s of the i n c l u d e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to hold a 25  referendum,  and  i f approved by two-thirds  of the  voters  i n the a f f e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the Lieutenant-G-overnor i n C o u n c i l , on recommendation of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , could i n c o r p o r a t e the area as a " M e t r o p o l i t a n Area". The i n c o r p o r a t i o n would have " a l l the r i g h t s and 27  ... subject to a l l the l i a b i l i t i e s of a c o r p o r a t i o n " . In October 1957  the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s d i r e c t e d  the Councils of eleven m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the lower Mainland area t o form a M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t Committee under t h i s A c t . In I960 the M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t Committee concluded "it  i s f e a s i b l e and p r a c t i c a l " to p l a c e under the  that jurisdic-  t i o n of a s i n g l e m e t r o p o l i t a n board a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n t i o n s except h o s p i t a l s .  func-  2 8  Regional D i s t r i c t s .  Nothing r e s u l t e d from the  M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t Committee's d e l i b e r a t i o n s , and  Division (2)  153 o f P a r t XXIV o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t ( d e s i g n a t i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s ) was d e l e t e d i n an amendment t o the A c t i n 1965, created i n i t s place "Regional D i s t r i c t s " .  2 9  and  Under amend-  ment t o the A c t , on the recommendation o f the M i n i s t e r , the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may . . . i n c o r p o r a t e any a r e a o f l a n d w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o r d i s t r i c t s , o r any p a r t t h e r e o f . . . into a regional district.30 The i n c o r p o r a t i o n procedure i s as f o l l o w s : the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s prepares a recommendation t h a t a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t be formed w i t h c e r t a i n powers,  o b l i g a t i o n s and  d u t i e s ; t h i s recommendation i s forwarded t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the proposed d i s t r i c t and each i s g i v e n s i x t y days t o h o l d a referendum on whether or not the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l share the c o s t o f the proposed f u n c t i o n s of the D i s t r i c t . As an a l t e r n a t i v e the a f f e c t e d  m u n i c i p a l i t y has t h i r t y days  i n which t o r e q u e s t the M i n i s t e r t o a p p o i n t a commission t o examine the f e a s i b i l i t y of the m u n i c i p a l i t y as p a r t of the District, District.^  o r as p a r t of the f u n c t i o n proposed f o r 1  the  B e f o r e making a recommendation the M i n i s t e r  may have a r e p o r t prepared on the scope o f any f u n c t i o n which i s i n t e n d e d t o be a s s i g n e d t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , w i t h the c o s t o f the study p a i d out of the P r o v i n c i a l 32  C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue F u n d . When the s i x t y day w a i t i n g p e r i o d i s o v e r ,  the  M i n i s t e r may recommend t o the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l  154 t h a t a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t be formed by L e t t e r s Patent d e s c r i b ing  the area and  powers, and  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the D i s t r i c t , i t s  share of the cost of each Regional D i s t r i c t  t i o n that s h a l l be borne by each m u n i c i p a l i t y . Regional D i s t r i c t i s administered  func-  The  3 3  by a r e g i o n a l Board of  D i r e c t o r s which are appointed from the C o u n c i l s  of  the  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , with the number of d i r e c t o r s from each C o u n c i l s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of p o p u l a t i o n .  Directors  vote on matters which a f f e c t t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t y Board revenues are obtained  only  financially.  from the member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  on the b a s i s of the f u n c t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the municipality.  The Regional Board has  the power to borrow  money f o r c a p i t a l works without v o t e r approval, •55 p a r t of an approved f i v e year I f r e g i o n a l planning  i f they are  plan.^ i s i n c l u d e d as a f u n c t i o n of  the Regional D i s t r i c t i n the L e t t e r s Patent the Regional Board: s h a l l prepare r e g i o n a l plans a p p l i c a b l e to the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and r e v i s e them as necessary, and f o r t h i s purpose a r e g i o n a l plan means an o u t l i n e of the p r o j e c t e d uses of land w i t h i n the r e g i o n by major c a t e g o r i e s of use, i n c l u d i n g major t r a f f i c arteries.36 The  r e g i o n a l p l a n i s to have regard  of areas and  uses".  for "interrelationships  3 7  I f the r e g i o n a l p l a n i s approved by a m a j o r i t y the members of the Regional Board i t becomes o f f i c i a l ,  of and  155 the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may not i n i t i a t e any works which "would impair  or impede the u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e s 38  of the r e g i o n a l plan",  although t h e o f f i c i a l  r e g i o n a l plan  does not commit any m u n i c i p a l i t y t o undertake any o f the planned p r o j e c t s . I f provided Board " s h a l l provide Planning  f o r by the L e t t e r s Patent, the Regional f o r the establishment o f a T e c h n i c a l  Committee" c o n s i s t i n g o f a Planning D i r e c t o r , the  l o c a l M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r , a P r o v i n c i a l Planning O f f i c e r , and  one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a t the o p t i o n o f each o f Lands, Water  Resources, A g r i c u l t u r e , and Highway Departments.  Planning  matters i n v o l v i n g Board l e g i s l a t i o n must f i r s t be r e f e r r e d t o t h i s committee. With the establishment of a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , a r e g i o n a l planning  with  f u n c t i o n p r o v i s i o n made i n the L e t t e r s  Patent, any e x i s t i n g r e g i o n a l planning  area i s d i s s o l v e d .  S e c t i o n 2 1 o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t Amendment A c t s t a t e s : any r e g i o n a l planning area w i t h i n o r p a r t l y w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i s i p s o f a c t o , d i s s o l v e d , and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s h a l l assume the a s s e t s , . r i g h t s l i a b i l i t i e s , and o b l i g a t i o n s of the Regional Planning Board.39 Public Transportation L e g i s l a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the metrop o l i t a n areas o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s n e g l i g i b l e . The M u n i c i p a l A c t allows  the C o u n c i l of a m u n i c i p a l i t y  ( f o r which  156 the M u n i c i p a l A c t a p p l i e s ) t o " r e g u l a t e the use of highways by (a) motor-bus or e l e c t r i c t r o l l e y - b u s company" o f by-law enactments.  40  by means  C o u n c i l may a l s o a u t h o r i z e the c o n s t r u c -  t i o n of the equipment needed f o r p u b l i c t r a n s i t  vehicles.  S e c t i o n 5 7 4 ( a ) o f the A c t a u t h o r i z e s the C o u n c i l of any m u n i c i p a l i t y t o enter i n t o and r a t i f y agreements with p u b l i c transit  companies f o r an e x c l u s i v e or l i m i t e d f r a n c h i s e f o r  the o p e r a t i o n o f motor-buses, tramcars, buses or "other v e h i c l e s "  4 1  electric  trolley-  as a p u b l i c u t i l i t y f o r the  c a r r i a g e o f passengers. The Vancouver C h a r t e r a u t h o r i z e s the C i t y of Vancouver to r e g u l a t e v e h i c u l a r and other t r a f f i c on any s t r e e t , did  and  4 2  a l l o w the C o u n c i l to t a x the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c  Railway Company, L i m i t e d .  However, w i t h the e x p r o p r i a t i o n  of the Company by the P r o v i n c e , the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y A c t exempted the A u t h o r i t y "from taxes and l i c e n s e f e e s o f any nature or kind l e y i e d under or made pursuant  t o or r e q u i r e d t o be made under the p r o v i s i o n s of 43  the M u n i c i p a l A c t , Vancouver Charter, and T a x a t i o n A c t . "  J  I I . THE VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN REG-ION A r e a l Extent of the Region Since no m e t r o p o l i t a n government e x i s t s i n the g r e a t e r Vancouver area the a r e a l extent considered f o r purposes o f a s i n g l e m e t r o p o l i t a n community v a r i e s .  The area  administered depends i n each case on the extent of the s e r v i c e  157 being considered and the j u r i s d i c t i o n s which d e s i r e to participate.  F o r example the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t  embraces f o u r t e e n j u r i s d i c t i o n s and the Sewerage and Drainage Board t h r e e .  The M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t Committee, when i t was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1957 to study the f e a s i b i l i t y of a m e t r o p o l i t a n type government, considered eleven j u r i s d i c t i o n s ; the C i t i e s of Vancouver, Port Moody, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Port Coquitlam;  the D i s t r i c t s of North Vancouver, F r a s e r  M i l l s , West Vancouver, Burnaby, Coquitlam, of Richmond.  and the Township  T h i s i s the d e s i g n a t i o n used f o r the 1951  F e d e r a l Census. The 1956 Census extended the d e f i n i t i o n t o the United S t a t e s border, and i n c l u d e d Surrey, D e l t a and the C i t y o f White Rock.  T h i s area i n c l u d e s s i x t e e n j u r i s d i c -  t i o n s when the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands, and D i s t r i c t Lot 172  a r e added.  I f Indian Reserves a r e i n c l u d e d there a r e  a t o t a l of seventeen region.  areal jurisdictions  i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  F i g u r e 6, page 157a shows the 1956 Census a r e a . The above d e s i g n a t i o n a p p l i e s t o the p o t e n t i a l area  of the Lower Mainland  which may be an urbanized r e g i o n a t  some time i n the f u t u r e .  Parts of the area a r e h e a v i l y  urbanized now (such as the Burrard P e n i n s u l a  communities).  T h i s area l i e s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Lower Mainland  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, which covers an area 20  miles wide and 90 miles i n l a n d from the S t r a i t s of Georgia to the Cascade Mountains.  The R e g i o n a l Planning  Area  FIGURE 6 P O L I T I C A L J U R I S D I C T I O N S I N THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGION (WHITE ROCK NOT SHOWN) S o u r c e : B o a r d o f E n g i n e e r s , Sewerage and D r a i n a g e o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a ( V a n c o u v e r : p. 1 3 .  1953),  158 comprises the h a b i t a b l e and  f e r t i l e d e l t a and c o a s t a l  v a l l e y of the F r a s e r R i v e r as w e l l as a s u b s t a n t i a l area of rugged and u n i n h a b i t a b l e m o u n t a i n s .  The area embraces  44  over t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a m i l l i o n people and  contains w i t h i n 4.5  it  28 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , plus unorganized  territory.  J  The above a r e a l d i v i s i o n s have been used i n v a r i o u s combinations f o r j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s . The m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n f o r t h i s study i s not d e f i n e d , but where i t i s necessary  rigidly  f o r the purposes of  e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l c o n s i s t of the 1956  Census d e f i n i t i o n .  Included are Vancouver, Burnaby, Mew  Westminster,  D i s t r i c t , Port Coquitlam, l a n d s , D i s t r i c t Lot 172,  Coquitlam  Port Moody, U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Richmond, and F r a s e r M i l l s on the  Burrard P e n i n s u l a ( i n c l u d i n g Richmond); West Vancouver, North Vancouver C i t y , North Vancouver D i s t r i c t on the North Shore; D e l t a , Surrey and White Rock south of the F r a s e r R i v e r ; as w e l l as Indian Reserves w i t h i n these C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the P o l i t i c a l  boundaries.  Jurisdictions  As a consequence of B r i t i s h Columbia's rugged t e r r a i n , marked by a s e r i e s of h i g h p a r a l l e l mountain ranges running n o r t h and  south, and the l o c a l i z a t i o n of the  Province's  resources, only about one h a l f of one percent of the land 4.6 area i s m u n i c i p a l l y organized. t h a t about 78$  In 1947  i t was  estimated  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n organized  municipal areas.  The Royal Commission of 1947  observed  that  159 it  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of.'the Province to provide minimum  l o c a l government s e r v i c e s to about one-quarter of the p o p u l a t i o n which l i v e s i n s c a t t e r e d and areas, and  t h a t t h i s f a c t has had  f i s c a l p o l i c y i n the P r o v i n c e .  4 7  total  sparsely settled  important  effects  on  A c o r o l l a r y to t h i s would  be t h a t the s i t u a t i o n a l s o a f f e c t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Province and  the h i g h l y organized m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , such  as e x i s t i n the Lower Mainland m e t r o p o l i t a n The l a n d was  community.  f i r s t m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n i n the Lower Main-  the C i t y of New  Westminister e s t a b l i s h e d i n  as the c a p i t a l of the colony of B r i t i s h Columbia on mainland.  In 1865  a Borough Ordinance was  out the broad l i n e s of l a t e r m u n i c i p a l 1896  the M u n i c i p a l Clauses Act  (now  enacted  the and  organization.  the b a s i s of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r m u n i c i p a l 4 8  Vancouver was  In  i n 1953.  incorporation to-  i n c o r p o r a t e d by a s p e c i a l Act i n  enacted  c i t y , and  1886 and  superceded by the Vancouver Charter  49  In 1871, Act was  was  and  form  which became the Vancouver I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act of 1921, which subsequently  set  the M u n i c i p a l A c t )  the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act were passed and  day.  1860  f o l l o w i n g union with Canada, the p r o v i d i n g f o r two  township or d i s t r i c t .  to mean that the i n t e n t i o n was  Municipal  types of i n c o r p o r a t i o n : This has been i n t e r p r e t e d  to allow both urban and  rural  m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but t h i s has not been the case i n practice.  Through a l l subsequent m u n i c i p a l  legislation  160 these two  forms p e r s i s t hut the p r a c t i c e has been f o r urban  i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a c i t y or d i s t r i c t , with the r u r a l areas  50 remaining unorganized.  The  h i s t o r y of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n  of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia has followed  this  p a t t e r n even though s u c c e s s i v e P r o v i n c i a l governments, conscious  of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to extend municipal s e r v i c e s ,  "have made i t p r o g r e s s i v e l y e a s i e r f o r unorganized areas to  51 become i n c o r p o r a t e d " . By 1913  there were eleven more i n c o r p o r a t i o n s i n  the Lower Mainland m e t r o p o l i t a n  region.  Richmond, the D i s t r i c t of Surrey and D e l t a became i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n 1879.  Port Coquitlam became c i t i e s . i n c o r p o r a t e d between 1879 incorporated The  in  The  Township of  the C o r p o r a t i o n In 1913  of  Port Moody and  S i x " D i s t r i c t s " were a l s o  and 1913.  The  C i t y of White Rock  1957.  d i f f e r e n c e s between an i n c o r p o r a t e d  " C i t y " , and  a " D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y " i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t r y i n g to understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these u n i t s , and between these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and ment. and  the P r o v i n c i a l govern-  B r i t i s h Columbia has never had  the c i t y and  r u r a l incorporations,  d i s t r i c t d e s i g n a t i o n was  between urban and r u r a l areas.  The  i n c o r p o r a t e d as d i s t r i c t s which may  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  r u r a l areas have become contain r u r a l ,  suburban 52  and urban c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of " u n c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . Current  l e g i s l a t i o n allows an area of over 2000 acres  and  an average d e n s i t y of l e s s than 2 persons per acre to become  161 incorporated.  In p r a c t i c e t h i s does not d i s t i n g u i s h a r u r a l  area s i n c e a l l of the m e t r o p o l i t a n communities i n the Lower Mainland  except Vancouver, New  Westminister,  and Burnaby should he i n c o r p o r a t e d as r u r a l  North Vancouver, districts.  D i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l s t a t u s o f f e r s c e r t a i n advantages over c i t i e s , and t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident w i t h respect to highways.  They may  c l a i m c e r t a i n unoccupied  crown lands  p r e v i o u s l y reserved f o r roads, e x p r o p r i a t e s t r e e t a l l o w ances, take borrow m a t e r i a l from p r i v a t e lands f o r compensat i o n , may  d i r e c t drainage from a highway to any water course,  and most importantly, has a r t e r i a l routes planned, s t r u c t e d and maintained  by the P r o v i n c e .  con-  A partial  reason  f o r the l a c k of i n t e g r a t e d highway and land use planning i s because the d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y "does not have i t s highway and t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g done by the same s t a f f as does i t s land use p l a n n i n g , nor i s the highway and t r a f f i c  planning  53  s u b j e c t to review by the m u n i c i p a l  council".  The H i s t o r y of I n t e r - m u n i c i p a l Cooperation There has been a r e l a t i v e l y long h i s t o r y of i n t e r m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland community on s e v e r a l types of s e r v i c e s .  metropolitan  In 1914,  the  Vancouver and D i s t r i c t Sewerage and Drainage Board  was  e s t a b l i s h e d by P r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e as a s p e c i a l purpose d i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t i n g three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t was  formed i n 1925  The  Greater  f o r the  collection  162 and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f bulk water supply to i t s t e n o r i g i n a l member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and was l a t e r enlarged t o i n c l u d e f o u r t e e n by 1949. The D i s t r i c t was charged by s t a t u t e to set  p o l i c y and t o a d m i n i s t e r bulk water supply.  The co-  o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c y between the two d i s t r i c t s was good because the same man served as commissioner of both districts.  There was a l s o a j o i n t f i n a n c e department.  P o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , and the c o l l e c t i o n and expenditure of money was s e p a r a t e . In 1945 the Bureau of Post-War R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n (the P e r r y Committee) prepared a p l a n n i n g r e p o r t f o r the lower Mainland.  The lower Mainland was  "gazzetted" a "planning r e g i o n " , and a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g board r e p r e s e n t i n g member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was appointed. I n c r e a s i n g t r a f f i c needs were recognized a t t h i s time.  The  Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 54  June 1949 under S e c t i o n 65 of the "Town Planning A c t " . ^ The M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s designated the Lower Mainland Planning Area, and the appointed Board  c o n s i s t e d of  eleven of the t h i r t e e n member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  participating.  55  (There a r e now 28 member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) . 1  In 1950 the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board assessed i t s members $.02 per c a p i t a (Vancouver  allotted a  f l a t $5000), and obtained grants from the Province and the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing s t a f f , and i n 1951,  Corporation.  I t hired a small  obtained an experienced planner as  163 Executive D i r e c t o r .  A l l the m e t r o p o l i t a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  except North Vancouver C i t y and D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l i n g l y cooperated. departments at t h a t By 1951  There were no m u n i c i p a l  planning  time.  there was  an awareness of the growing  t r a f f i c problems i n the area, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Engineering Department of the C i t y of Vancouver and  the  Highways D i v i s i o n of the then Department of P u b l i c Works began d i s c u s s i o n s on these problems. to  The d i s c u s s i o n s l e d  engineering r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Vancouver, New  West-  minster and Burnaby j o i n i n g with the C h i e f Engineer  of the  Department of P u b l i c Works to form the T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway P l a n n i n g .  The M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c  Works proposed that the Committee's a t t e n t i o n be d i r e c t e d to  the p l a n n i n g of t r a f f i c i n t o , out of, and w i t h i n the  Burrard P e n i n s u l a .  The  o r i g i n a l metropolitan  engineering  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s asked t h a t the Committee be formed s e p a r a t e l y from the Lower Mainland  R e g i o n a l Planning Board,  although  they were mandatory members of the Board, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g was  one  of the Board's f u n c t i o n s .  terms of r e f e r e n c e were v e r y narrow and  The  excluded  Committee's the North  Shore m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and g e n e r a l l y confined i t s scope to the Burrard  Peninsula.  In the decade between 1950  and  I960 there were many  attempts at i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n f o r both  general  m e t r o p o l i t a n f u n c t i o n s , and f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s .  Some of  164 the most important  of these were the Burrard I n l e t  Committee formed i n 1953  Grossing  to study c r o s s i n g needs, the  Committee of M e t r o p o l i t a n Reeves and Mayors which became a d i s c u s s i o n group on- the g e n e r a l problems of the area, and a P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board i n 1956  metropolitan  to study water  pollution. T h i s b r i e f h i s t o r y of i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l cooperation shows a w i l l i n g n e s s f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to take a c t i o n f o r the p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s , and s o l u t i o n s f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n problems.  joint to f i n d  I t a l s o shows, however,  some o f the inherent problems of j o i n t a c t i o n which f r u s t r a t e r e g i o n a l comprehensive p l a n n i n g .  The most obvious  example  of t h i s i s the r e l u c t a n c e to t r e a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning w i t h i n the context of the Lower Mainland Board (which had the necessary  Regional  s t a t u t o r y powers), and  t r e a t i t on an a r e a l l y comprehensive b a s i s . may  Planning to  However, t h i s  not have been a weakness i n i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l cooperation  as much as conforming t o the g e n e r a l trend of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g procedure at the stage i n i t s h i s t o r y when other m e t r o p o l i t a n regions were a l s o e s t a b l i s h i n g ad hoc  trans-  p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s , with l i t t l e regard f o r land use  planning  integration.  165 I I I . THE HISTORY OF METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING IN THE VANCOUVER REGION Before 1951 and the formation of the T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway P l a n n i n g there was no process i n the r e g i o n which could he c a l l e d m e t r o p o l i t a n transportation planning.  The B r i t i s h Columbia Department  of P u b l i c Works (now Highways) was a t l e a s t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r t e r i a l and secondary c i t i e s over 15,000 p o p u l a t i o n .  partially  highways except i n  T r a n s i t s e r v i c e was s u p p l i e d  by the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company, and a f t e r 1961 by the B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y .  Most m u n i c i p a l  d i c t i o n s had some form of s t r e e t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Westminister  juris-  In New  and Vancouver roads, s t r e e t s and highways were  s o l e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  In a l l of  the other m e t r o p o l i t a n communities w i t h organized  street  c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance, there was some cost s h a r i n g between the Province and the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  The formation  of the T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway Planning was the f i r s t attempt to b r i n g together t r a n s p o r t a t i o n experts t o study the s u b j e c t  comprehensively.  During the e a r l y 1950's there was a g e n e r a l trend to f i n d a s u i t a b l e method o f s o l v i n g the regions t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems.  The Lower Mainland  i n i t s r e p o r t "Lower Mainland  R e g i o n a l Planning Board  Looks Ahead " o u t l i n e d some  of the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a f f i c problems. M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Board be formed.  They recommended a  166 During 1953 an O r i g i n - D e s t i n a t i o n Study was made i n eleven m e t r o p o l i t a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s under the guidance o f the Province, The Lower Mainland  Regional Planning Board,  Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, and with the c o o p e r a t i o n of a number o f agencies.  A l s o i n 1953 a committee on f u t u r e  Burrard I n l e t c r o s s i n g s was formed from the Mayors of Vancouver and North Vancouver, the Reeves of West Vancouver and North Vancouver, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the F i r s t Narrows Bridge Company, and the Burrard I n l e t Bridge and Tunnel Company.  The Committee's r e p o r t was f i n i s h e d i n 1954, the  Committee r e p o r t e d t o i t s member c o u n c i l s and disbanded. The Burrard I n l e t C r o s s i n g r e p o r t recommended an immediate c r o s s i n g of Burrard I n l e t and a second one by 1976.  It  s t r e s s e d the m e t r o p o l i t a n nature o f the t r a f f i c problem. An attempt was made i n 1954 t o enlarge the Lower Mainland  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board t o i n c l u d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and the T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway Planning.  T h i s move was recommended by the Committee o f  Mayors and Reeves and put f o r t h by the Deputy M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works.  No a c t i o n was taken on t h i s  suggestion.  The B r i t i s h Columbia T o l l Highways and Bridge A u t h o r i t y (created by s t a t u t e i n 1953 t o r a i s e f i n a n c e s f o r new highways) produced a r e p o r t on a Second Narrows c r o s s i n g . The T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway Planning undertook an i n t e r n a l t r a f f i c study of the Burrard to provide f o r the best connections  Peninsula  t o the water c r o s s i n g s ,  167 which were considered f i x e d i n l o c a t i o n . t r a f f i c study  Part I of the  (land use and t r a f f i c survey) was  initiated  (57  at an estimated cost of 32,000 d o l l a r s .  The  financial  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s study were: Vancouver 40$, Province 40$, each 5$.  Burnaby 10$,  No commitment was  accept the r e s u l t s of the  Richmond and' New  the  Westminister  made by any m u n i c i p a l i t y to study.  During t h i s p e r i o d i t was  evident to the C i t y of  Vancouver t h a t some o u t s i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was to  r e a l i z e the development of new  needed  m e t r o p o l i t a n highways.  In  the C i t y ' s submission to the Gordon Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects i n 1955,  i t recommended new  f i n a n c i n g i n the form of " p u b l i c investment" government i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. that new  federal  by the F e d e r a l  The b r i e f a l s o recommended  methods of f i n a n c i n g a r t e r i a l highways a l s o be con-  sidered. Alderman Cunningham of Vancouver, i n a memorandum i n 1956,  proposed a s p e c i a l purpose m e t r o p o l i t a n "planning board  or committee i n t e g r a t e d w i t h l o c a l m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g 58 committees".  He was  concerned  t h a t "there i s p r e s e n t l y  no means of c o o r d i n a t i n g a m e t r o p o l i t a n highway p l a n i f such were adopted". ^  The T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r Metro-  p o l i t a n Highway Planning had nobody to which i t was responsible. statement  The Committee of Mayors and Reeves made a  at t h i s time a l s o s t a t i n g t h a t "the g r e a t e s t  urgency was  the planning of t r a f f i c routes and movement,  168 and the greatest lack was in the planned relationship of 60 bridge and highway locations". The new Municipal Act of 1957 allowed the Minister of Municipal Affairs to "direct the Councils of two or more adjacent municipalities to set up a Joint Committee to study and report on such matters of an intermunicipal nature as shall be set out by the Minister".^  1  In late 1957, the  Minister directed that a Joint Committee be established of eleven municipalities to "study and report on the feasibility and practicability of placing (them) under the jurisdic62 tion of a single metropolitan board".  The terms of  reference for this directive were broad enough to include transportation planning.  For the purpose of this act the  City of Vancouver was included, (although i t is not normally subject to the Municipal Act).  The Metropolitan  Joint Committee completed their report in I960 and concluded that i t was feasible and practical to place under the jurisdiction of a single board a l l the functions studied, except hospitals, providing that the local representation on the policy making board was coexistent with the jurisdictional area and that a right of appeal to a municipal board was guaranteed. However, no board was formed. In 1959 the Technical Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning published their last and final report "Freeways with Rapid Transit".^ disbanded.  The Committee was then  169 The recognized  t e r m i n a l r e p o r t of the T e c h n i c a l Committee that financing, coordination, d i r e c t i o n  and  management of t h e i r proposed freeway development and r a p i d t r a n s i t system would r e q u i r e " e i t h e r complete l i a i s o n  be-  tween the v a r i o u s r e s p o n s i b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s or the establishment  of an o v e r - a l l management".^  requirement was  4  The  a f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y study.  the Department of Highways decided  first However,  t h a t a study should  be  made of r a p i d t r a n s i t as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the proposed f r e e ways, and was  consequently  the B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l  asked to examine the f e a s i b i l i t y of i n c l u d i n g a  r a p i d t r a n s i t system i n the o v e r a l l scheme "before i n g with the implementation of t h i s Transit") plan".  65 J  The  railproceed-  (Freeways with Rapid  study concluded  that "there i s no 66  route which j u s t i f i e s r a i l - r a p i d t r a n s i t at present".  It  a l s o recommended a " f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y study to determine how  the f u t u r e freeway and  should be  financed".^  t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s f o r Vancouver  7  A f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y study was review of the 1959  study was  published  not done, but a  i n 1964,  which  e s s e n t i a l l y endorsed the previous p r e d i c t i o n s and .. 68 tions.  recommenda-  IV. TRANSPORTATION PLANNING OBJECTIVES The  o b j e c t i v e s of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study  carried  out by the T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway  170 Planning  between 1956 and 1959 were t y p i c a l of the United  States and other Canadian s t u d i e s examined. study i s an inventory and land use.  Part I of the  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , t r a v e l  Part I I of the study i n c l u d e s a s e r i e s of  t e c h n i c a l analyses  of p o p u l a t i o n and land use f o r e c a s t s ,  motor v e h i c l e t r a v e l and f o r e c a s t , a t r a n s i t planning  study,  a r t e r i a l highway needs, route l o c a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e a r t e r i a l highway systems, and stage development.  No p o l i c y framework, f i s c a l f e a s i b i l i t y , nor  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n was proposed. T h i s study being the major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e f f o r t i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n representative i n the a r e a .  Vancouver r e g i o n i s examined as  of the process and problems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n concentrates  as s t a t e d i n the s e r i e s of r e p o r t s . analyzed  planning  on the o b j e c t i v e s  The o b j e c t i v e s are  r e l a t i v e t o the i n t e g r a t i o n of land use with t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and the i n t e g r a t i o n of the highway and p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. The I n t e g r a t i o n of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s and Land Use The o b j e c t i v e s of the study were to assess a r t e r i a l highway and s t r e e t systems t o meet f u t u r e demands, to study p o t e n t i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of the v a r i o u s  systems, to recommend  i n o u t l i n e a systems p l a n , and t o recommend the f i r s t i n a development program.69  stage  The a n a l y t i c a l procedure to  develop t r a v e l trends was based on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of land  171 use, and a l t h o u g h t h e r e was no t e c h n i c a l methodology cons i d e r i n g the feed-back r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e r e was an awareness o f t h i s problem.  I t i s s t a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h freeways a r e  designed t o meet t r a f f i c demands t h e secondary e f f e c t s on l a n d use development "are as f a r r e a c h i n g as t h e p r i m a r y 70  reason f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n "  T h i s statement has been  harshly c r i t i c i z e d f o r implying that the a c c e l e r a t i o n of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , an a c c e n t u a t i o n o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f s e r v i c i n g new a r e a s , and t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r y 71  a r e secondary e f f e c t s .  The study made no attempt t o  q u a n t i f y t h e "secondary" e f f e c t s . One major weakness r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i n g e f f e c t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l a n d use was t h e l i m i t a t i o n i n t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e t o "the s i z e and g e n e r a l l o c a t i o n of the major c r o s s i n g p o i n t s o f t h e water b a r r i e r s bounding t h e 72  area". T h i s has been d e s c r i b e d as " n a i v e t e " on t h e p a r t of t h e T e c h n i c a l Committee, c o n d i t i o n e d by the s t a t e o f knowledge a t t h e time t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e were drawn 73  up.  T h i s d e c i s i o n i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the s t u d y a r e a ,  J  w h i c h i n c l u d e d o n l y t h e B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a and L u l u and Sea Islands. The  Much o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a was n o t s t u d i e d .  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study recommended a f i n a n c i a l l y  feasibil-  i t y study be made as an a d j u n c t t o t h e t e c h n i c a l s t u d y . T h i s was never done b u t t h e p r e s s u r e r e s u l t i n g from l a c k o f a c t i o n l e a d t o a r e v i e w o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n s f o r the area.  T h i s r e v i e w , a u t h o r i z e d i n 1963,  included a section  172 on the "Impact  of Freeways  on P r o p e r t y Values", which con-  cluded that "the probable f u t u r e impact of new freeways on property v a l u e s i n the p a r t s of Vancouver a f f e c t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of such freeways cannot now be determined with 74  any reasonable degree of accuracy". examines  However, the r e p o r t  other area impact s t u d i e s t o determine probable  q u a l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s i n the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . Impacts on two kinds o f property were considered: that d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the freeway c o n s t r u c t i o n , and that e f f e c t on the s t r e e t s from which t r a f f i c would be removed by b u i l d i n g the freeway., Conclusions a r e that a freeway network w i l l b r i n g about i n c r e a s e s i n the value o f commercial, i n d u s t r i a l and unused land s u f f i c i e n t t o o f f s e t decreases i n value o f adjacent r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s as l o n g as s u f f i c i e n t care i s taken w i t h the placement o f the freeways t o ensure that e x i s t i n g land use p a t t e r n s a r e not s e r i o u s l y disrupted.75 I t i s a l s o concluded that business and trade i n c r e a s e s w i t h the e l i m i n a t i o n o f through t r a f f i c from a commercial s t r e e t . The I n t e g r a t i o n o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Systems  P u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the Greater Vancouver area t y p i c a l l y had a h i s t o r y of p r i v a t e ownership u n t i l 1961 when the system was expropriated by the B r i t i s h Columbia government; a move i n c i d e n t a l t o hydro power development.  The  t r a n s i t system i s now run by the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y .  173 A t r a n s i t p l a n n i n g study was  c a r r i e d out under the  guidance of the T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway 76 Planning.  The  r e p o r t noted the i n c r e a s e of t r a n s i t  patronage i n the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a w h i c h i n c r e a s e d by one percent between 1955 f o u r p e r c e n t between 1955  and 1956, and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 77 and 1957. Rides per c a p i t a were  s t i l l d e c l i n i n g but t h e r e was off.  evidence of some l e v e l l i n g  T h i s t r e n d i s g e n e r a l i n b o t h Canada and the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , and a l t h o u g h the i n c r e a s e s a r e s m a l l t h e y i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of t r a n s i t patronage i n the f u t u r e . The t r a n s i t r e p o r t has as an o b j e c t i v e the c o m p e t i t i o n of t r a n s i t w i t h the a u t o m o b i l e .  The  effective  report  s t a t e s " f o r o t h e r t h a n s h o r t d i s t a n c e passenger t r i p , r a p i d t r a n s i t i s r e q u i r e d t o be c o m p e t i t i v e i n speed w i t h the 7R automobile".  The  r e p o r t goes on t o say t h a t a f a s t s e r v i c e  f o r l a r g e r d i s t a n c e passenger t r a v e l and l o c a l t r a n s i t s e r v i c e s h o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d t o be most e f f e c t i v e where t r a n s f e r s and  f a r e s a r e kept t o a minimum.  The  report  recommended a freeway-bus type of r a p i d t r a n s i t system, coo r d i n a t e d w i t h a l o c a l bus system. were a n a l y z e d  The  transit  characteristics  on an e i t h e r / o r b a s i s w i t h no c o n s i d e r a t i o n  g i v e n t o an i n t e g r a t i o n between the freeways and the system.  transit  There was a l s o no a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  t r a n s i t t o l a n d use.  The  t r a n s i t system i s seen as a means  of moving people b o t h s h o r t and l o n g d i s t a n c e s , w i t h  these  174 two  types of t r i p s coordinated  points.  at terminals  and t r a n s f e r  Besides r e c o g n i z i n g that r a p i d t r a n s i t  h i g h d e n s i t i e s t o be economically  requires  operated, no great  con-  s i d e r a t i o n was given t o the e f f e c t o f land use d i s t r i b u t i o n on t r a n s i t patronage, o r t o more e f f i c i e n t t r i p  lengths.  V. TRANSPORTATION PLANNING ADMINISTRATION Metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  administration  i n the Vancouver r e g i o n has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out by a temporary committee or a u t h o r i t y . There has been no emphasis on the study of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n administration,  on f i n a n c i n g , or on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  development p o l i c y .  Most o f the s t u d i e s are based on s i n g l e  p r o j e c t s by a committee which has attempted c o r r e l a t i o n of the agencies i n v o l v e d , but which has not l e a d t o a permanent c o n t i n u i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process. the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l Planning is justified  i n planning  With the exception of Board, which by s t a t u t e  f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n but which  c l e a r l y i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h broad t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 70  planning  policy;  r e g i o n a l type  y  the only agency which approaches a  administration  Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n  was the now defunct  Highway  Technical  Planning.  In 1956 when the f i r s t r e p o r t of the T e c h n i c a l Committee was published, representatives Province,  the Committee c o n s i s t e d of  from the f o l l o w i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s : the  the C i t y of Vancouver, the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby,  175 the G i t y o f New Westminster, and the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond.  Agencies  represented were the Lower Mainland  Regional P l a n n i n g Board, the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway  Company; the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of High-  ways; the C i t y o f Vancouver Works Department, P l a n n i n g Department, and T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n ; the E n g i n e e r i n g  Depart-  ment and the P l a n n i n g Department from Burnaby; and the E n g i n e e r i n g Department of New Westminster and Richmond.  The  f u n c t i o n a l breakdown was one r e g i o n a l planner, two communi t y planners, f i v e highway and t r a f f i c m u n i c i p a l engineers, and two t r a n s i t  engineers,  five  experts.  When the f i n a l r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1959 some of the p e r s o n a l i t i e s had changed but the f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e remained e s s e n t i a l l y the same, except  f o r the d e l e t i o n of  one P r o v i n c i a l highway engineer, the a d d i t i o n o f a community planner from Richmond and the a d d i t i o n o f a t r a n s i t from the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway  expert  Company.  The T e c h n i c a l Committee formed a Study Committee which i n c l u d e d some of the t e c h n i c a l experts o f the T e c h n i c a l Committee and an outside C o n s u l t a n t . The a c t u a l work of the p r o j e c t was c a r r i e d out by the C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g and E n g i n e e r i n g Departments, the Consultant and  ( r e p r e s e n t i n g the Department of Highways),  the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia  E l e c t r i c Railway  Company.  176 The T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway Planning was disbanded  when the f i n a l r e p o r t was w r i t t e n .  There a r e s e v e r a l aspects o f the study t i o n which need t o be examined.  administra-  These are the concern of  the Committee with m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y , the scope o f the work undertaken, and the temporary aspect of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Mr. P a r r y , S e c r e t a r y of the Committee  d u r i n g i t s l i f e t i m e , observed  that the Committee was i n  80 f a c t a p o l i c y committee and t e c h n i c a l committee combined. There were both h i g h l y competent t e c h n i c a l members and high l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s on the Committee.  The Committee con-  s i s t e d of a very h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of engineering The  people.  scope o f the study undertaken by the Committee  was v e r y narrow.  E s s e n t i a l l y , the Committee considered  the Burrard P e n i n s u l a area because o f the concept  only  that the  water c r o s s i n g l o c a t i o n s were f i x e d p o i n t s and any areas beyond these c r o s s i n g s would not be a f f e c t e d ( o r a f f e c t ) the p e n i n s u l a t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s . reflect  The r e p o r t s o f the Committee  a h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l a n a l y s i s w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y no  concern with development p o l i c y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t i n u i t y , or f i s c a l  policy.  One o f the reasons  f o r the narrow scope of the study  may have been because o f the planned the Committee.  temporary aspect of  The S e c r e t a r y observes  that there was no  d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g the l i f e time o f the Committee t o continue as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  177 planning.  81  Two  reasons f o r t h i s may  have heen because of  the lack of any policy function, and because of external factors.  The Committee was  established by joint action of  several municipalities and had no legitimacy r e l a t i v e to Provincial development p o l i c y .  Although the Committee was  proposed by the P r o v i n c i a l government i t never had l e g i s l a t i v e backing.  any  There was no attempt through l e g i s -  l a t i o n , or otherwise, to t i e the Committee to a continuing development p o l i c y process. Another reason for the demise of the Committee have been the expectation Committee, which was metropolitan  may  that the Metropolitan Joint  investigating the f e a s i b i l i t y of  joint services the same time, would solve the  transportation problem from an administrative point of 82  view. Aside from this major attempt at producing a transportation planning process i n the metropolitan  region,  there  have been several project studies done by various agencies. Most of these have been conducted by consultants under the administration of separate municipalities, the Highway Department, or temporary ad hoc committees established for the purpose of making a study.  178 VI.  C A S E STUDY E V A L U A T I O N AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  Legislation  The to  the  trend  legislation  problem toward  services.  of  inter-municipal  some f o r m  coordination  i s one  of  has  provide  30,000  legislation  this  that  has  The  of  use,  grant  so  could  section reads The the  amended Province  highway p l a n n i n g  i n the  trend  provision of  toward  a  although with  further  i n d i c a t i o n of  The an ing  the  attempt  recent to  find  inter-municipal  politan  services.  i t may be "to  no  most which  construcin  ex-  clearly  more a c t i v e  for  shows  role  municipalities.  to  the  planning  in defraying  grants-in-aid  for  The  traffic  definite  policy,  is  trend.  i n the  coordination Joint  amended  for street  a  the  cities  of  legislation  commitment  this  to  interpreted  assist  assume  politically  The  used  be  allow  The  conditions  larger city  changes a  links.  the  highway to  to  grants-in-aid  omits  this  legislation  been broadened  unspecified  and  the  function.  specifically  8  studies,  i n recent  connecting  maintenance  intent  resulted  for arterial  penditure". ^ the  and  Highways A c t  to  purposes.  definite  Transportation  The  future  shows a  for a l l joint  coordinating  tion,  cooperation  applies  agency  aims  over  which  coordinating  needs  Province  Columbia  of  obvious at  in British  Municipal  Act  indicates  f e a s i b l e method for  the  Committee  to  planning study  of of  achievmetro-  metropolitan  179 problems was  an attempt  to a l l o w the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to co-  operate, a t l e a s t t o the extent of a n a l y z i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y of j o i n t s e r v i c e s .  The f o l l o w up l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g  f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of a m e t r o p o l i t a n area by referendum, was  found not t o be s u c c e s s f u l and was  abandoned i n 1965  favour of R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n . l e g i s l a t i o n i s an obvious attempt  in  Regional D i s t r i c t  to put more t e e t h i n t o  P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n s i n c e the i n i t i a t i v e l i e s w i t h the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n was of s e v e r a l e v e n t s .  8 4  enacted because  Some of these were: the J o i n t  Committee  study of m e t r o p o l i t a n government i n Vancouver, requests to e s t a b l i s h more R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Boards, tendency  the i n c r e a s i n g  f o r s i n g l e purpose i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l boards, and  movement t o s e t up R e g i o n a l Park A u t h o r i t i e s .  a  The o b j e c t -  i v e s of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s were to c r e a t e a f l e x i b l e method of a c h i e v i n g i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i t h the a f f e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h e l p i n g i n the d e s i g n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o preserve the i d e n t i t y of the e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t o broaden the borrowing  base of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and t o  provide a l o c a l d e c i s i o n making body f o r the areas of the P r o v i n c e . 8  5  unorganized  The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  legislation,  i f i t i n c l u d e s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , w i l l abrogate the e x i s t i n g Regional Planning The  Boards.  e f f e c t of the i n s t i t u t i o n of R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  l e g i s l a t i o n on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g , on an i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l  180 b a s i s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver r e g i o n , i s s t i l l unknown and can only be speculated upon. Provincial  Whether the  i n i t i a t i v e w i l l f o r c e i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l coopera-  t i o n ; whether the Lower Mainland  R e g i o n a l Planning Board  w i l l become a M e t r o p o l i t a n Board f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , or whether i t w i l l be the b a s i s of the Regional D i s t r i c t ; whether i n f a c t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g w i l l be a f u n c t i o n of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a r e a l l questions t h a t cannot be answered a t t h i s time.  I t i s apparent, however, t h a t d i s -  cussions a r e t o be i n i t i a t e d i n May o f 1966 on the e s t a b l i s h 86 ment o f a Lower Mainland  Regional D i s t r i c t .  With the new Highway A c t and the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n the way i s open f o r i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n f o r metropolitan transportation planning.  The R e g i o n a l  D i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n allows f o r the p r o v i s i o n of metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning.  The l e g i s l a t i o n has, how-  ever, one weakness which w i l l probably make i t inoperable with regard t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and t h a t i s the l a c k of any f i n a n c i a l commitment by the Province f o r p l a n n i n g . The  cost o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g has been found  about one d o l l a r per c a p i t a i n the United S t a t e s .  to be In most  of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s examined i n t h i s study  there  was a commitment from a s e n i o r l e v e l o f government which helped t o p r e c i p i t a t e the study.  In the m e t r o p o l i t a n h i g h -  way study of the Vancouver r e g i o n the Province c o n t r i b u t e d 40$ t o the c o s t .  In other recent s t u d i e s the Province a l s o  181 contributed  financially.  future o f f i c i a l  However,  P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y should  c o n t r i b u t i o n , which should  f o l l o w from the 6 0 $ -  Act.  The p o l i c y c o u l d  That  i s , the  4 0 $ o f the per c a p i t a cost  where e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y would be s u b s i d i z e d its  population.  construction search cent  i n the  i n t o both the  4 0 $ r e l a t i o n s h i p on s e c o n d a r y  ways, on a p e r c a p i t a c o s t b a s i s . contribute  that  designate i t s  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  Highway A c t and t h e M u n i c i p a l  should  i t is felt  perhaps high-  Province  of the study on t h e b a s i s o f  A. p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e moneys r e c i e v e d f o r  o r maintenance going t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e -  as i n the U n i t e d  States,  where one and o n e - h a l f  per-  o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e f u n d s may be a l l o c a t e d  to transportation studies,  i s not considered  the best  solu-  t i o n s i n c e t h e money c a n t o o e a s i l y be s i d e t r a c k e d  into  construction  money  should  or maintenance p r o j e c t s .  The r e s e a r c h  be e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  planning.  T h r o u g h a n amendment t o t h e Highway Improvement A c t in  I 9 6 0 Ontario  l e g i s l a t i o n permits the Province  up t o s e v e n t y - f i v e The  percent  of the cost  to contribute  of a t r a f f i c  study.  s t u d i e s must encompass a l l p r o b l e m s and a l l p h a s e s o f  transportation, studies,.parking  and u s u a l l y i n c l u d e o r i g i n - d e s t i n a t i o n studies  o f Highways p r o v i d e s  and t r a n s i t  certain traffic  studies. data,  computer s e r v i c e and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e .  The Department  electronic The s u b s i d y i s  a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e s t u d y o n l y and c a n n o t be a p p l i e d other  purpose.  t o any  182  The Ontario  l e g i s l a t i o n has been p r i m a r i l y a p p l i e d  to s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , although i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l cooperat i o n , both f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l , i s p o s s i b l e . To i n c o r p o r a t e  the above concepts i n the B r i t i s h  Columbia s i t u a t i o n as i t a p p l i e s t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver r e g i o n would i n v o l v e only s l i g h t changes i n legislation.  I t i s recommended  amended t o a l l o w the Province  that the Highway A c t be  to contribute grants-in-aid  f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  t o any m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  of s i z e .  the m u n i c i p a l i t y must meet  To o b t a i n a grant  regardless  c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s : the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the study must consider the i n t e g r a t i o n of land use planning t i o n planning;  and t r a n s p o r t a -  a l l modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n must be s t u d i e d ,  and a balanced system aimed f o r ; the m u n i c i p a l i t y must be incorporated  i n a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t with a R e g i o n a l  Planning  f u n c t i o n (that i s , a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s not accepta b l e ) ; and the m u n i c i p a l i t y must be prepared to e s t a b l i s h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  ( w i t h i n the Regional Planning  t i o n ) as a c o n t i n u i n g process.  These changes would  funcprovide  g r a n t s - i n - a i d f o r the very expensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s , which i n t u r n would p r e c i p i t a t e t h i s type of planning,  and  i t would achieve comprehensiveness w i t h i n a R e g i o n a l P l a n . One other f a c t o r should  be considered  i n the  development of adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  legislation,  and that i s the r o l e of the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a u t h o r i t y i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver r e g i o n .  C u r r e n t l y the B r i t i s h  183 Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y operates p u b l i c t r a n s portation.  At present  the T r a n s i t D i v i s i o n of the Author-  i t y operates a t a l o s s and D i v i s i o n , and  i s s u b s i d i z e d by the  Electrical  i s t h e r e f o r e an unwelcome by-product of the  P r o v i n c i a l e x p r o p r i a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c 88 Company.  However, the o p e r a t i o n of the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n a u t h o r i t y by a s e n i o r government, with i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  f i s c a l power, represents  a unique chance i n North  America f o r the development of a t r u l y i n t e g r a t e d p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  highway system.  be taken of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , and  P u l l advantage should  s t u d i e s should be undertaken  immediately to determine i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  Transit  planning  w i t h i n the A u t h o r i t y c u r r e n t l y c o n s i s t s of s c h e d u l i n g routes to developing  areas, when i t i s shown that  new  transit  89 is feasible.  S u f f i c i e n t l e g i s l a t i o n should be  t o allow the establishment  enacted  of a l o n g range, comprehensive  p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the Administration  Authority.  There has been a h i s t o r y of i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l cooperat i o n i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver r e g i o n on c e r t a i n services.  However, the cooperation  i n regard to t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n planning has not been s a t i s f a c t o r y . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning has been one  of ad hoc  and  a u t h o r i t i e s doing p r o j e c t s t u d i e s .  for  t h i s has  h i s t o r y of committees  Part of the  reason  stemmed from the f i s c a l arrangements which  184 have seen the F e d e r a l government, the P r o v i n c i a l government and  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d , w i t h d i f f e r e n t f i n a n c i a l  g r a n t s - i n - a i d going t o immediately contiguous m u n i c i p a l i ties.  Thus, a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y has i t s major roads  planned and constructed  by the Province,  whereas a l a r g e  c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t y can expect very l i t t l e P r o v i n c i a l a i d . Another reason f o r the l a c k of i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l p o r t a t i o n planning  cooperation  has been the l a c k o f an  adequate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . evolved  i n t h i s study regarding  governmental developmental p o l i c i e s ,  Planning  planning  i t should  be a r e a l l y be continuous.  planning a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n m e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver has not, teristics.  have  be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of  f u n c t i o n a l l y comprehensive, and i t should  Transportation  way  Three conclusions  any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e : i t should  and  trans-  i n the past, had any of these charac-  The T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n  High-  had no p o l i c y framework w i t h i n which t o work,  i t d i d not embrace the complete m e t r o p o l i t a n  r e g i o n , and  although an attempt was made t o make the committee  func-  t i o n a l l y comprehensive, many aspects of a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  study were not represented.  One of the major, f a u l t s  with t h i s Committee was i t s demise a t the completion of the t e c h n i c a l study. An attempt i s made below t o o u t l i n e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e which would be operable w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g and suggested l e g i s l a t i o n and which would i n c l u d e the c o n d i -  185 t i o n s o u t l i n e d above. Because the f i s c a l p o l i c y of the P r o v i n c i a l government d i c t a t e s whether or not any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n i s implemented, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the study must be c l o s e l y t i e d t o the p o l i t i c a l process. range planning one  perspectives  On the other hand, the short  and the vested  i n t e r e s t s o f any  department of the P r o v i n c i a l government d i c t a t e s that the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  process should  involve several  departments, and that the process can be continued changes i n government. Transportation  The M e t r o p o l i t a n  Study has an Executive  through  Toronto and Region:-. . 1  Committee c o n s i s t i n g  of Cabinet M i n i s t e r s and the Chairman of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n  Toronto.  A s i m i l a r committee i s recommended  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l and  the M i n i s t e r of Highways.; r e p r e s e n t i n g  Cabinet.  Affairs  the P r o v i n c i a l  The M i n i s t e r o f Finance ( i . e . the Premier) should  be an e x - o f f i c i o member of the Executive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning.  To be s u c c e s s f u l the Committee  must i n c l u d e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Vancouver m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . formulation  Committee f o r  from the m e t r o p o l i t a n  However, a problem e x i s t s i n the  of such r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , namely, the number of  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r populations.  To avoid i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o n f l i c t , and t o keep the  Executive it  Committee very s m a l l  (a prime r e q u i s i t e f o r s u c c e s s ) ,  i s suggested that a s t e e r i n g committee o f the mayors and  reeves be formed to s e l e c t a maximum o f f o u r members t o  1 8 6  represent  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Because of the  Province's  attempt to d e c e n t r a l i z e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the chairman of committee should  the  be appointed from the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s '  representatives. The  suggested s t r u c t u r e would accomplish s e v e r a l  t h i n g s : a s m a l l Executive than a l a r g e committee.  Committee would be more d e c i s i v e There are c e r t a i n disadvantages  with t h i s arrangement s i n c e a l l the f u n c t i o n s of a development p o l i c y are not represented,  but w i t h proper i n t e r -  departmental l i a i s o n the advantage of a small  executive  committee seems to outweigh a l a r g e , more comprehensive one. P r o v i n c i a l representation  on t h i s p o l i c y c o o r d i n a t -  i n g committee i s necessary because o f the f i s c a l of the s e n i o r government, and and  t e c h n i c a l experts One  because of the  capacity  information  at i t s d i s p o s a l .  disadvantage of the committee concept of  administration  i s the weakness of a committee to l e a d .  Because of the fragmentation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  the  lack  Of)  of " u n i t y of command"^  a committee may  c r e a t e p o l i c y , but simply t i o n and Executive  program.  The  l a c k of d i r e c t i o n from the  Committee f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n Study was  and  examine the r e s u l t s of i n v e s t i g a -  pass on d i r e c t i v e s .  Transportation  not be d e c i s i v e  considered  Toronto and  Region  a weakness i n t h a t  However, the comprehensiveness and  representativeness  of a Cabinet Committee, w i t h the Premier r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  187 f i n a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s would seem t o e l i m i n a t e some of these disadvantages.  A s m a l l committee w i t h a f r e e interchange of  views and with p o l i t i c a l responsiveness would produce comprehensiveness, and would help the implementation  of any  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n by i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s , and by i t s c a p a c i t y t o formulate f i s c a l  policy.  A M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Planning P o l i c y Committee would r e p o r t t o the Executive Committee.  This  Committee would be s i m i l a r to the p o l i c y committee of the major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d , but w i t h s e v e r a l important d i f f e r e n c e s .  Firstly,  i t would be concerned  with  p o l i c y only and would not i n v o l v e i t s e l f i n t e c h n i c a l d i s cussions.  T h i s would r e q u i r e t h a t i t s members be  technically  competent but a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l r a t h e r than a t the t e c h n i c a l l e v e l .  Secondly,  i t must achieve a more  balanced s t r u c t u r e i n terms of i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l membership than d i d most of the past s t u d i e s .  The aim i n s e t t i n g up  the Committee should be towards comprehensiveness with r e g i o n a l planners, community planners, economists, s o c i o l o g i s t s and  engineers,  other p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s which a f f e c t  p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n p a r t i c ular.  A l l the important agencies i n the r e g i o n should  represented, as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the  be  jurisdic-  t i o n a l areas i n v o l v e d . An important aspect of t h i s P o l i c y Committee w i l l be i t s i n t e g r a t i o n with the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t f u n c t i o n of  188 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning.  The R e g i o n a l Planner must he an  important member of the Committee, He must serve t o bridge engineering  i t s Chairman i f p o s s i b l e .  the gap between  transportation  and comprehensive r e g i o n a l planning.  ( i f he i s chairman) coordinate  He must  a l l the elements of t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y with development p o l i c y and i n t e g r a t e a l l the s k i l l s and techniques of the agencies and j u r i s d i c t i o n s participating. The t e c h n i c a l aspects of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning i t i s recommended should be c a r r i e d out as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f the P o l i c y Committees  The chairman o f t h i s  T e c h n i c a l Committee should be a h i g h l y competent  Technical  D i r e c t o r who would a l s o be a member of the P o l i c y Committee. The T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r i s i n complete c o n t r o l of the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the study and may engage experts o f a l l types t o help the o p e r a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r would be i n charge of a study team which would i n t e g r a t e a l l the t e c h n i c a l aspects of t r a n s portation planning.  Such a team may be f u n c t i o n a l l y d i v i d e d  i n t o f o u r purposes; i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l and inter-governmental r e l a t i o n s , transportation studies, regional planning and common s e r v i c e s  (such as  studies,  computerization).  V I I . CHAPTER SUMMARY L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia shows a trend toward some form o f c o o r d i n a t i n g agency f o r i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l  joint  189 services.  The  Highway Act and  the M u n i c i p a l Act have both  r e c e n t l y been amended to allow a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of both t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and  "  r e g i o n a l comprehensive  planning. There has  been a h i s t o r y o f i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l  coopera-  t i o n i n the Vancouver r e g i o n f o r the p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s on a j o i n t b a s i s . p o r t a t i o n planning  has  conducted on an ad hoc,  been c h a r a c t e r i z e d temporary b a s i s .  Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n 1951» and  However, the h i s t o r y of by p r o j e c t The  Technical  The  t i o n s were never implemented, p a r t l y because of the mented f i s c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t s e n i o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and  the l a c k o f comprehensiveness and  The  recommendafraglevel  p a r t l y because o f  c o n t i n u i t y of  the  structure.  Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l Planning Board, although  having l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to conduct s t u d i e s , has not  produced any  transportation  s t u d i e s to date.  l e g i s l a t i o n , although not yet f u l l y for metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning,  comprehensive  would have to  changed very l i t t l e to produce a s u c c e s s f u l p o l i c y . administration  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g  an  Committee of P r o v i n c i a l Cabinet M i n i s t e r s and municipal  in  metropolitan-transportation  recommended a freeway system f o r the area.  administrative  studies  Highway Planning, e s t a b l i s h e d  produced s e v e r a l r e p o r t s on  governments and  trans-  representatives  i s suggested.  For  be the  Executive selected  A P o l i c y Committee  190 at the metropolitan  l e v e l integrated with a Regional D i s t r i c t  Planning Board i s necessary for comprehensiveness.  A highly  competent Technical Director heads up a study team to integrate a l l the i n t e r - j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , transportation and regional planning  functions.  191  REFERENCES  ^Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, Chapter 386....The Trans-Canada Highways A c t . 1949. p  Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, Chapter 173, Highway Development A c t . 1950. 103,  ^Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, Chapter Department of Highways A c t . 1955.  ^Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, Chapter 260, M u n i c i p a l i t i e s A s s i s t a n c e A c t . 1948. ^Revised S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, Chapter 172, Highway A c t . 1948. c  Revised S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, Chapter 255, M u n i c i p a l A c t . 1957. Charter  ^ S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Chapter 55, Vancouver 1953. Q  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 4. 9  I b i d . , Section 31(a).  1 0  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 31(b).  i : L  1 2  1 3  1 4  I b i d . . S e c t i o n 32(2) ( a ) .  I b i d . . S e c t i o n 33(1)(a) and ( b ) . I b i d . , S e c t i o n 33(2). I b i d . . Section 33(3).  •^Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Highway Act Amendment A c t , 1965, S e c t i o n 3 ( f ) .  192 "^V. S e t t y Pendakur, Regional and L o c a l Planning For Roads and S t r e e t s i n Western Canada ( r e p r i n t from Proceedings. Canadian Good Roads A s s o c i a t i o n , 1965), p. 12.  17  'Interview with Dr. V. S e t t y Pendakur, March 29,  1966. 1 8  M u n i c i p a l Act, o p . c i t . , S e c t i o n  513(2)(a).  3 t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965, Chapter 28, An Act to Amend the M u n i c i p a l A c t . , 1965. S e c t i o n 22. 1 9  20 Revised S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948, Chapter 339, Town Planning A c t , 1925, S e c t i o n 65, c i t e d by Lower Mainland Regional P l a n n i n g Board, O f f i c i a l Regional P l a n , (New Westminster: The Board, 1965), p. f a c i n g 1. 21 Municipal Act, 2? "ibid.,  o p . c i t . , S e c t i o n 720(1).  S e c t i o n 721(1).  2 5  I b i d . , s e c t i o n 723(1) and  2 4  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 766(1).  2 5  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 767(1).  2 6  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 768(1).  2 7  I b i d . , S e c t i o n 771.  (2).  M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t Committee, F i n a l Report, (Vancouver: The Committee, I960), i n 3 volumes. S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Chapter 28, Act Amdendment Act, 1965, S e c t i o n 22. 2 9  Municipal  30 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 22, amendment to S e c t i o n 766(1). ^ "B.C.'s New Regional D i s t r i c t s " , Community Planning i n B.C., (Vancouver: Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n , Feb. 1966), p. 3. ^ M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, o p . c i t . , S e c t i o n amendment to S e c t i o n 766(5) and ( 6 ) .  22,  193 33 -^B.C.'s New 3 4  Ibid.  5 5  Ibid.  Regional D i s t r i c t s  loc.cit.  36  M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment A c t , o p . c i t . , S e c t i o n amendment to S e c t i o n 795(1).  22,  37 I b i d . , amendment to S e c t i o n 795(4). 3 8  I b i d . , amendment to S e c t i o n 797(1).  39 I b i d . , S e c t i o n 21, amendment t o S e c t i o n 40  4 1  M u n i c i p a l Act, o p . c i t . , S e c t i o n  I b i d . , Section  723.  552.  574(a).  4.2  ^ V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r . 1955  Chapter 55, S e c t i o n  398  (2)(e). S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Chapter 8, 1962, B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y Act, S e c t i o n 12(l)(f). 4 3  D.M. C h u r c h i l l , " L o c a l Government and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland M e t r o p o l i t a n Community", F i n a l Report (Vancouver: M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t Committee, V. 4-6, 1959). 44  4.5  ^ O f f i c i a l Regional P l a n of the Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Area (New Westminister: Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, 1965). ^H. C a r l Goldenberg, P r o v i n c i a l M u n i c i p a l R e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : A R o y a l Commission, under the P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s Act, 1947), p. 16. 4  4 7  Ibid.  4 8  Ibid. Vancouver Charter,  op.cit.  194 50  C h u r c h i l l , o p . c i t . , p. 4.  51 B r i t i s h Columbia i n the Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n ( V i c t o r i a : A Submission presented to the Royal Commission D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s by the Government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1938), p. 200. 52  ' Churchill,  5 5  Ibid.,  of  op.cit.  p. 8.  54 Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n (New Westminister: 1965), c i t e d i n B.C. Gazette, June 23rd, 1949. 5 5  Ibid.  56 Churchill,  loc.cit.  57  ^ T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway P l a n n i n g , A Study on Highway P l a n n i n g f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. B r i t i s h Columbia. P a r t I Surveys (Vancouver: The Committee, 1955-56). 5 8  Churchill,  o p . c i t . , p. 73*  5 9  Ibid.  6 0  Ibid.,  6 1  M u n i c i p a l A c t , 1957,  p. 76. o p . c i t . . S e c t i o n 766(1).  6? The M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t Committee, F i n a l Report (Vancouver: The J o i n t Committee, I960). ^ T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway Planning, A Study on Highway P l a n n i n g f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. B r i t i s h Columbia, Part I I Freeways w i t h Rapid T r a n s i t (Vancouver: The Committee 1958-1959). 64  M;..-Reynolds,  The Vancouver Sun, Feb. 5 , 1966,  p.6.  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , R a i l - R a p i d T r a n s i t f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver (Vancouver: 1962), p. 1.  195 6 6  I b i d . , p.  3.  6 7  I b i d . , p.  4.  6ft S t a n f o r d Research I n s t i t u t e , and Wilbur Smith and A s s o c i a t e s , Review of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Plans, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver B.C~. (Vancouver: 1964). 69 A Study of Highway Planning, Part I I , o p . c i t . , p. 7 0  I b i d . . p.  67.  71 J.N. Jackson and J . l . Northey, The Impact of Highway Development on Land Use (Vancouver: Department of Community and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963), p. 43. 7 2  I b i d . . p.  3.  73 ^Interview with Mr. G. F a r r y , S e c r e t a r y , T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway Planning. 74  7 5  R e v i e w of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Plans, o p . c i t . , p.  56.  r b i d . , p. 59.  ^ T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway Planning, A Study on Highway Planning, Part I I , T e c h n i c a l Report No. 3, (Vancouver: The Committee, n.d.). 7 7  Ibid.,  p.  7 8  I b i d . . p.  7. 19.  I n t e r v i e w with Mr. Parker, Executive D i r e c t o r , Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, A p r i l 4, 1966. The Board now has a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study underway as Schedule D of the proposed O f f i c i a l P l a n . 7 9  RO Interview with Mr. G.F. F a r r y , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Planning S e c t i o n , C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver, March 16, 1966. 8 1  Ibid.  1.  196 82  Ibid.  83.'The  (Vancouver) Sun, A p r i l 1966, p. 41.  84 "B.C. s New Regional D i s t r i c t s " o p . c i t . , p. 3. 1  85 I b i d . 86  Highway A c t Amendment Act,  op.cit  S e c t i o n 3.  A.E. Argue, Ontario's Program F o r Urban Transportat i o n P l a n n i n g (Toronto: The Department of Highways, Ontario, n.d.),pT lT I n t e r v i e w with Mr. D.W. M i l l s , B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , March 29, 1966. 8 8  89 I b i d . L. G u l i c k , "Notes on the Theory of O r g a n i z a t i o n , " J.E. Hodgetts, and D.C. Corbett (eds..), Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( T o r o n t o : Macmillan, I960), pp. 38-66.  CHAPTER V I I TOWARD AN INTEGRATED AND COORDINATED METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING POLICY  I. SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS Urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning entered i t s t h i r d phase.  i n North America has  The f i r s t two phases were p r i m a r i l y  concerned with the t e c h n i c a l aspects of s o l v i n g the problem of motor v e h i c l e congestion, but the t h i r d phase has encountered the f u r t h e r problem o f m e t r o p o l i t a n i s m . methodology o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  The  process has been  r e f i n e d s i n c e 1950 and the r e s t r a i n t s on s o l v i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem, as i t r e l a t e s t o the movement o f persons and goods, a r e p r i m a r i l y t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l . the m e t r o p o l i t a n  However,  problem, o r the l a c k o f a b i l i t y t o provide  necessary m e t r o p o l i t a n  s e r v i c e s because o f the fragmentation  of p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s , i s not so c l o s e t o being r e solved.  Because t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s transcend the  many j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t s o f most m e t r o p o l i t a n metropolitan  r e g i o n s , the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem of i n t e g r a t i n g t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n systems with land development, and the coordinat i o n o f a l l the j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n a c h i e v i n g  t h i s end, i s  critical. In reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o the i n f l u e n c e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on land use i t was found that the  198 i n f l u e n c e may  be d e s c r i b e d  i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and t i o n techniques due  i n s e v e r a l ways.  Since  the  the consequent changes i n produc-  to steam, then e l e c t r i c power, and  then  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the r a i l r o a d , the form of urban areas began to change.  With the growth and  development o f  intra-  urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n n o v a t i o n the c i t y feegan to spread outwards along the r a i l and  s t r e e t car l i n e s .  v e h i c l e helped to encourage the f i l l i n g between the r a d i a l routes, development, but  The  i n of the  motor sectors  c r e a t i n g a more homogeneous  i t 'also allowed the i n f l u e n c e of the c e n t r a l  c i t y to overflow i t s p o l i t i c a l boundaries.  I t has  been  shown that the development of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvements has an e f f e c t on land values w e l l as an economically community.  innovation  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the whole  may  a l s o cause d e t r i -  Fumes, v i b r a t i o n , n o i s e and danger to result.  To the extent  that  transportation  e f f e c t land uses i n t h i s manner i t i s concluded  that t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning ive  to the improvement, as  But highway improvements may  mental e f f e c t s . pedestrians  adjacent  development  i s one  component of comprehens-  planning.  Before a complete i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems with land use  can be e f f e c t e d there must be  an  i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n the d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems because of the d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each system. A p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system may  be used more e f f e c t i v e l y  under c o n d i t i o n s of high land use d e n s i t y , whereas a highway  199 system, with motor v e h i c l e t r a f f i c , c o n d i t i o n s of low d e n s i t y . p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has innovations. motor and  The  The  i s more e f f e c t i v e under  h i s t o r y of  been one  intra-urban  of many changes and  omnibus, horse car, cable car, s t r e e t car,  t r o l l e y buses, as w e l l as i n t r a - u r b a n  s e r v i c e and  railroad  r a i l r a p i d t r a n s i t , have a l l developed at  d i f f e r e n t stages of urban growth. p o r t a t i o n patronage has s i n c e the advent and  However, p u b l i c t r a n s -  c o n t i n u a l l y d e c l i n e d i n North America  popular use  of the motor v e h i c l e .  This  has r e s u l t e d from r e s t r i c t i v e governmental r e g u l a t i o n s , mismanagement by the t r a n s i t companies, and of the motor c a r .  Recently  the p o p u l a r i t y  i t has been recognized  r e v i v a l of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s needed, and i n the United  States has  that a  legislation  r e f l e c t e d the response of the  F e d e r a l government, r e s u l t i n g i n the p r o v i s i o n of f e d e r a l aid  funds f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning and  i f c a r r i e d out w i t h i n a comprehensive planning In response to the m e t r o p o l i t a n  facilities, process.  transportation  problem s o - c a l l e d major r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s have been conducted i n most l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n the United  States and  Canada.  regions,  i n both  An a n a l y s i s of nine  regions  shows that the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g  process has  been  c a r r i e d out w i t h an awareness of the need to i n t e g r a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and administrative  land use planning  s t r u c t u r e which coordinate  j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  and  to develop an  the agencies  region.  and  200 The  l e g i s l a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l framework w i t h i n which  a metropolitan  study i s c a r r i e d out, although s i m i l a r i n  theory hut d i f f e r e n t i n emphasis, has d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s on metropolitan United has  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  States.  In the United  i n Canada and the  States the F e d e r a l government  taken a l a r g e share of the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  planning and improvements of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks, even though the s t a t e s hold the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Since f e d e r a l a i d funds f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning emphasized the importance o f highways i n i t i a l l y ,  over-  the f i r s t  major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s were highway o r i e n t e d , deemphasizing the f u t u r e r o l e o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  This  a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a c e r t a i n apathy toward the e f f e c t the planned improvements would have on the f u t u r e form of the region.  Since I960, however, the United  States government  has attempted t o r e d r e s s the highway over-emphasis, and c u r r e n t l y f e d e r a l funds are contingent s t u d i e s being process.  upon t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  conducted w i t h i n a comprehensive  The recent  planning  s t u d i e s have consequently become more  comprehensive i n scope.  An attempt i s now being made to  i n t e g r a t e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n w i t h the land use p l a n by means of r e g i o n a l growth models,, with t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n p u t s , and  by means o f s e l e c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e land  use-transportation  plans on the b a s i s of comprehensive development The  goals.  Government o f Canada has not g e n e r a l l y con-  tributed to metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , nor t o m e t r o p o l i t a n  201  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning, p r e f e r r i n g to leave t h i s i t y to the p r o v i n c e s .  responsibil-  A c c o r d i n g to the B r i t i s h North America  Act the provinces have both the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t r a - p r o v i n c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n s , the two p o r t a t i o n problem.  municipal  components of the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s -  Although the provinces c o n t r i b u t e to  road c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance g e n e r a l l y , t h i s i s not the case r e l a t i v e to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g , although  the  Province of Ontario has l e g i s l a t i o n which allows 7 5 $ P r o v i n c i a l subsidy t o m u n i c i p a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s .  B r i t i s h Columbia  a l s o a i d s i n t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s but i t has passed o f f i c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n to t h i s e f f e c t .  no  Since i n g e n e r a l ,  however, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g has f a l l e n to the municipalities  ( e s p e c i a l l y p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , t h i s type of  p l a n n i n g has been l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n Canada than i n the United S t a t e s . The a n a l y s i s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework of the major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s shows s e v e r a l important characteristics.  There i s , t y p i c a l l y , a P o l i c y Committee  c o n s i s t i n g of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the p a r t i c i p a t i n g munic i p a l i t i e s and agencies.  There i s a T e c h n i c a l Committee  which i s an a d v i s o r y body on the one hand to the Committee on t e c h n i c a l matters, and Study D i r e c t o r who study.  Policy  on the other hand to a  coordinates the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , both the P o l i c y and T e c h n i c a l  Committees are composed mostly of highway engineering  202 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Bureau o f P u b l i c Roads and the State Highway Department. r e g i o n a l planning,  There a r e some community and  p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and other  t i o n , but these a r e i n a m i n o r i t y .  representa-  A l l of the p o l i t i c a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y represented  on the Committees,  although the s m a l l e r l o c a l u n i t s n e i t h e r have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n nor c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l l y t o the study.  The Canadian  examples s t u d i e d do not i n g e n e r a l conform to t h i s arrangement with the exception  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and  Regional T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study.  In the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Metro-  p o l i t a n Toronto t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n s c a l e i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning Board. metropolitan  Toronto  In Winnipeg t h i s i s a l s o the case.  In the  Vancouver r e g i o n , a T e c h n i c a l Committee was  formed and was disbanded a f t e r the study was completed.  No  P o l i c y Committee was formed. In the United S t a t e s , the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning process  has been i n c o r p o r a t e d  agency i n one-half  i n t o the r e g i o n a l planning  the cases examined, and has become the  r e g i o n a l planning agency i n one other r e g i o n .  The g e n e r a l  trend has been toward an awareness of the n e c e s s i t y t o conduct t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning w i t h i n a comprehensive process,  planning  although there a r e i n d i c a t i o n s i n the formal  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f some o f the s t u d i e s t h a t t h i s may not be the s i t u a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e .  203  The  case study of the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver r e g i o n  showed a trend toward the f o r m u l a t i o n  of some type of co-  o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n , which w i l l b r i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s together to be able to provide themselves with services.  The  metropolitan  amended Highway Act p r o v i d i n g u n s p e c i f i e d  funds f o r " d e f r a y i n g expenditures" i n keeping w i t h the g e n e r a l t r e n d .  i n city municipalities is Regional  District  l e g i s l a t i o n provides an adequate v e h i c l e to allow m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o c a r r y out t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l planning  function.  However, the l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l only  be  e f f e c t i v e i f i t i s supported with a P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y f o r financial aid. The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n  transportation  planning i n the g r e a t e r Vancouver r e g i o n has not satisfactory.  H i s t o r y has  been  shown the establishment  committees with too narrow terms of r e f e r e n c e .  of ad  hoc  Transporta-  t i o n p l a n n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has not been adequate because of a l a c k of a uniform  g r a n t s - i n - a i d p o l i c y f o r a l l the  contiguous m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , - a n d because of the l a c k of a proper a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . I I . GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS One  of the purposes of t h i s study i s to e s t a b l i s h  a g e n e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning Canada.  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r  i n a t y p i c a l metropolitan  region i n  f o l l o w i n g recommendations s p r i n g from t h i s  204  purpose. Constitutional M e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n should continue to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o v i n c e s .  F e d e r a l government  c o n d i t i o n a l g r a n t s - i n - a i d , as h i s t o r y has shown i n the United S t a t e s , can create an u n d e s i r a b l e emphasis which defeats the object of p l a n n i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on an i n t e g r a t e d and  comprehensive b a s i s .  Regional p r i o r i t i e s f o r  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g must be respected so t h a t a system can develop which i s u n i q u e l y s u i t a b l e f o r the r e g i o n . San F r a n c i s c o and P h i l a d e l p h i a examples of i n i t i a t i n g development of unique systems independently  The the  of the F e d e r a l  government's "highways-only" p o l i c y , should not happen i n Canada.  M e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n (as opposed to r u r a l  or i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) should be the i t y of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area and  responsibil-  i n d i r e c t l y t h a t of the  p r o v i n c i a l government. There are, however, elements of F e d e r a l government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which may transportation.  be contiguous with m e t r o p o l i t a n  These are such elements as connections  wharves, a i r p o r t s , grade c r o s s i n g s , and Trans-Canada Highway.  i n some areas  the  A j o i n t use of r a i l f a c i l i t i e s  may  a l s o be p o s s i b l e f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . the v e r y l a r g e s t areas may  to  In the case of  (Toronto, Montreal) a j o i n t agreement  be necessary with the r a i l r o a d s to provide commuter  205  service,  Because of t h i s j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c e r t a i n  elements of the m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems, some l e g i s l a t i o n may  be necessary  inter-governmental  to a l l o w the establishment  of  agreements.  While recommending that m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g continue to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  the p r o v i n c i a l governments, the unique nature  s o - c a l l e d "Cooperative sidered.  The  Federalism"  of  i n Canada must be con-  i n c r e a s i n g power of the provinces, the demand  f o r s e r v i c e s which are c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y the of the p r o v i n c e s , and  responsibility  the l i m i t e d tax powers of the  provinces  a l l l e a d t o n e g o t i a t e d agreements between the F e d e r a l government and the p r o v i n c e s . c o n s t i t u t i o n a l , and  These agreements may  or may  not  be  i n any case can r e s u l t i n F e d e r a l  financial aid for certain projects.  I t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to  imagine t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i s going to decrease,  but on the  contrary, i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t n e g o t i a t e d agreements w i l l i n c r e a s e i n the f u t u r e ,  With regard to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  planning i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i t i s recommended t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e be recognized, but t h a t no agreements are  entered  i n t o which w i l l provide c o n d i t i o n a l g r a n t s - i n - a i d f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s u n l e s s the funds can be a p p l i e d on the b a s i s of a comprehensive r e g i o n a l plan, and w i t h i n a planned i t y of  undertakings.  prior-  206 Legislative M e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g must be i n corporated i n t o the development p o l i c y of each p r o v i n c e . Highway l e g i s l a t i o n as i t a f f e c t s m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s must be d r a f t e d so that m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning  can  be c a r r i e d out w i t h i n a comprehensive planning f u n c t i o n . Highway l e g i s l a t i o n must a l s o r e f l e c t the change to an urban o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y i n Canada and  f u r t h e r recognize the i n c r e a s -  i n g dominance of urban area needs over r u r a l highway needs. Comprehensive p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n must r e f l e c t  an  awareness of the cost of comprehensive t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning.  One  o f the problems shown i n t h i s study i s the  a b i l i t y to o b t a i n funds f o r highway planning, and not f o r l a n d use or t r a n s i t p l a n n i n g .  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g cannot  be comprehensive i f the development p o l i c y of the governments provides s u b s i d i e s f o r the planning of  provincial roads,  as opposed to t r a n s i t or land use.  A fundamental mistake  o f the United States government was  the p r o v i s i o n t h a t a  p o r t i o n of road c o n s t r u c t i o n funds could be used f o r planning research.  These funds should be from a general fund so t h a t  the planning process can s e l e c t the proper emphasis.  In the  past t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g has been conducted u s i n g the s e r v i c e s of d i f f e r e n t agencies which supply the  staff  necessary t o do the p r o j e c t s t u d i e s f o r the o v e r a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study.  However, i n many cases c o n s u l t a n t s are  207 necessary and  other problems, such as higher  priority  p r o j e c t s by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g agency s t a f f s , may t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study to s u f f e r .  cause the  I t i s recommended that a  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning fund be e s t a b l i s h e d by  provincial  l e g i s l a t u r e s which goes toward r e s e a r c h and p l a n n i n g . may  be=a cost s h a r i n g scheme between the  This  participating  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the province, with s u b s i d i e s a l l o c a t e d on the b a s i s of p o p u l a t i o n .  Any  F e d e r a l a i d to m e t r o p o l i t a n  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g should be routed through t h i s  fund.  M e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g depends on the transcendence of the fragmented .. p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .  S e v e r a l methods are "used to provide  m e t r o p o l i t a n s e r v i c e s under these c o n d i t i o n s : annexation  of  the f r i n g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by the c e n t r a l c i t y , e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l zoning, inter-governmental  agreements, metro-  p o l i t a n f e d e r a t i o n , r e g i o n a l planning and s p e c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s or d i s t r i c t s .  The  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s examined here have  been c a r r i e d out by s p e c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i v e agencies with no power.  The t r a n s i t i o n from such a s t r u c t u r e to a  continuous  permanent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t w i l l depend on the way  i n which  the c o o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i s handled.  has  stopped  short of an examination  This study  of a l e g i s l a t i v e enactment  to create a v i a b l e c o o r d i n a t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n s e r v i c e s , but these a l t e r n a t i v e s must be examined before f i n i t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n can enacted.  be  208  Adminis t r a t i v e The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n area depends on the e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l governmental s t r u c t u r e of the r e g i o n .  The m e t r o p o l i t a n  problem has been d e s c r i b e d as a fragmentation  of p o l i t i c a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n a f u n c t i o n a l l y dependent r e g i o n .  Certain  means have been attempted t o achieve c o o r d i n a t i o n of the necessary m e t r o p o l i t a n s e r v i c e s .  These may be d i v i d e d i n t o  two main arguments: t h a t f o r a f e d e r a t e d m e t r o p o l i t a n :  government, and that f o r a p o l y c e n t r i c s t r u c t u r e of p o l i t i c a l l y independent m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Seven of the nine  regions examined here c o n s i s t e d of p o l y c e n t r i c p o l i t i c a l systems, whereas two r e g i o n s had m e t r o p o l i t a n federated government. The  c o n c l u s i o n reached  i n t h i s study i s that metro-  p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g cannot be c a r r i e d out s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h i n the framework of a federated metrop o l i t a n government.  The trend o f the great m a j o r i t y of the  s t u d i e s examined i s t o an enlarged study area of s e v e r a l thousand square m i l e s .  There are, i n every case, many  j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n v o l v e d , and i n the case of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  i s only one o f seventy  jurisdictions.  The i n f l u e n c e  of m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n extends f a r beyond the a r e a l l i m i t s which would make a s i n g l e u n i t of r e g i o n a l government  209  acceptable. Wood has s t a t e d t h a t "there does not appear to be any m e t r o p o l i t a n  community, p o l i t i c a l l y speaking, other than  that made by a common concern f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " .  He  1  advocates the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the power t o manage t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and devises  criteria for this; a  arrangement among the m e t r o p o l i t a n  cooperative  j u r i s d i c t i o n s , an a s s i g n -  ment to a s t a t e agency, and the c r e a t i o n of a s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t w i t h d i r e c t c o n t r o l f o r the a r e a .  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  framework recommended below conforms to these c r i t e r i a , and two a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a have been i n c o r p o r a t e d ,  comprehen-  siveness and c o n t i n u i t y . A l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s would on the e x i s t e n c e or not o f a r e g i o n a l planning r e s p o n s i b l e f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g .  If a  depend  agency Regional  Planning a u t h o r i t y e x i s t s i n the area an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i m i l a r to the one devised would be acceptable an Executive  f o r B r i t i s h Columbia  f o r a t y p i c a l Canadian r e g i o n .  Committee  That i s  o f P r o v i n c i a l cabinet m i n i s t e r s would  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r development p o l i c y , as w e l l as a Metrop o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Planning P o l i c y Committee with a T e c h n i c a l Committee  c h a i r e d by a T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r .  An  i n t e g r a t i o n with the r e g i o n a l planning  f u n c t i o n takes p l a c e  through the membership of the Regional  Planner on the Trans-  p o r t a t i o n Planning P o l i c y Committee. man.  He i s p r e f e r a b l y c h a i r -  Whether the r e g i o n a l planning agency could c a r r y out  the t e c h n i c a l aspects  of the study would depend on the  210  competence of the planning  staff.  of the s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d was  One  of the  characteristics  the h i g h l y complex  s p e c i a l i z e d nature of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning Whether or not  and process.  i t i s more e f f e c t i v e to maintain a l a r g e  p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f of experts,  to h i r e the work done as  needed hy a Consultant, or to use  the s e r v i c e s of a l l  agencies i n the area i s a matter f o r f u r t h e r study. I f a regional planning the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Transportation  a permanent o r g a n i z a t i o n  f u n c t i o n i s not  P l a n n i n g Committee must form  i n c o r p o r a t i n g and  i n t e g r a t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning, coordinating and  the  successfully  r e g i o n a l planning,  e f f o r t s of a l l the p o l i t i c a l  agencies i n the  organized  and  jurisdictions  region. I I I . STUDY EVALUATION  V a l i d i t y of Hypothesis The  hypothesis as s t a t e d i s t h a t :  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems have an i n f l u e n c e on land use and t h e r e f o r e m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g should c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e g r a l component of a comprehensive m e t r o p o l i t a n development policy. There i s ample evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e that t i o n systems have an i n f l u e n c e on l a n d use. research  i s needed to s t r u c t u r e the  i v e of a systems a n a l y s i s .  transporta-  However, more  e f f e c t from the  perspect-  Most of the work done to date  has  211 c o n c e n t r a t e d on h i s t o r i c a l changes a l o n g r o u t e s , the economic impact of s i n g l e improvements and t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t  of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n n o v a t i o n on the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a c t i v ity.  To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e s t u d i e s r e p r e s e n t the  influence  o f systems o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on l a n d u s e , and the community s t r u c t u r e , the f i r s t component of the h y p o t h e s i s may be s a i d t o be v e r i f i e d . I t was t h e i n t e n t i o n t o show by an h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d a n a l y s i s t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e g r a l component of a comprehensive development p o l i c y . The h y p o t h e s i s was based on the assumption t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g can not be e f f e c t i v e u n l e s s i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the governmental p r o c e s s , tinuous.  i s comprehensive, and c o n -  Of the n i n e r e g i o n s i n v e s t i g a t e d o n l y one of t h e  s t u d i e s seem t o f u l f i l l  a l l of these c r i t e r i a c o m p l e t e l y ,  but t h e t r e n d i s shown t o be i n accordance w i t h t h e hypothesis.  Most of t h e s t u d i e s i n the United States have b e -  come comprehensive and c o n t i n u o u s o v e r time but t h e i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s i s obscure from the a n a l y s i s o f the f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e made h e r e . p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study a l l the c o n d i t i o n s .  The Metrofulfills  I t has an Executive Committee composed  of Cabinet M i n i s t e r s , i t  has a T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Committee  w h i c h i s comprehensive, as w e l l as a broad based s t u d y  staff.  It i s concluded t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d s shown i n the s t u d i e s examined v e r i f y the h y p o t h e s i s .  212 V a l i d i t y of Research Method The  r e s e a r c h method used i n t h i s study i s an  h i s t o r i c a l trend a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h . s u f f e r s from three weaknesses. covered i n the study was time span was  The method  F i r s t , the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d  l e s s than f i f t e e n years and  not l o n g enough to observe c l e a r cut  this  results.  Secondly, only formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s were examined which i s a major weakness i n attempting success  use  administrative  of f a i l u r e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e .  i n s i g h t could be gained analyzed  to v a l i d a t e the  More  i f the i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e were  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n .  of a survey based on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  view i s suggested.  personal  T h i r d l y , s i n c e many of the  the success  inter-  transporta-  t i o n s t u d i e s examined are not yet complete, and importantly,  The  more  of the implementation of the  pro-  posals i s not known, the r e s e a r c h could not be conducted  on  a s t r i c t l y p a r a l l e l comparison between s t u d i e s . I t i s suggested t h a t as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r i n t o t h i s t o p i c i t would be a d v i s a b l e to use the trend method, t o i n t e r v i e w  research  historical  ( p e r s o n a l l y i f p o s s i b l e ) a l l the  p a r t i c i p a n t s of the s t u d i e s with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the d e c i s i o n making aspect The  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s t u d i e s does not  power s t r u c t u r e , and whether or not  i n d i c a t e the  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study  f u n c t i o n s as p a r t of the governmental  process.  213  REFERENCES  • Robert C. Wood, "A D i v i s i o n o f Powers i n Metrop o l i t a n A r e a s " , A r t h u r Maass ( e d . ) , A r e a and Power; A Theory o f L o c a l Government, (Glencoe 111: The Free P r e s s , 1959), p. 68.  213a  BIBLIOGRAPHY  214  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  BOOKS  Appleyard, Donald, Kevin Lynch, and John R. 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A l l o c a t i o n of Road and S t r e e t Cost: The E f f e c t of Freeway Access Upon Suburban R e a l Property Values. S e a t t l e : Washington State C o u n c i l f o r Highway Research, June, 1956. Z e t t e l , Richard M., and Richard R. C a r l l . Summary Review of Ma.ior M e t r o p o l i t a n Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S t u d i e s i n the united S t a t e s . Berkeley: I n s t i t u t e of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and T r a f f i c Engineering, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1962.  222 Z e t t e l , R i c h a r d M. S t a t e L o c a l R e l a t i o n s i n Highway A f f a i r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Berkeley: I n s t i t u t e of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and T r a f f i c Engineering, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , I960. F.  UNPUBLISHED  Becker, John Manning. The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Land Development to Highway L o c a t i o n , unpublished Masters t h e s i s , Department o f C i t y and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a , Chaper H i l l : 1958. Canadian F e d e r a t i o n o f Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . P r o v i n c i a l Sharing o f M u n i c i p a l Road Costs. The F e d e r a t i o n , 1962, unpublished. C h u r c h i l l , D.M. " L o c a l Government and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland M e t r o p o l i t a n Community," A submission t o the M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t Committee, Vancouver: 1959, unpublished. Davis, Harmer E. Some Aspects o f the I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Land Use. 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The RAND C o r p o r a t i o n C a l i f o r n i a , 1963, a paper presented t o 29th Annual N a t i o n a l Planning Conference o f the American S o c i e t y of Planning O f f i c i a l s , S e a t t l e , 1963. I n s t i t u t e o f T r a f f i c Engineers. Newsletter, S e c t i o n , Aug., 1964, unpublished.  I.T.E. Canadian  J a s c h i k , Nathan L o u i s . Land Use and Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : T h e i r R e c i p r o c a l E f f e c t s , unpublished Masters t h e s i s , Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Cambridge, 1963.  223 Kain, J.F., and J.R. Meyer. A F i r s t Approximation t o a RAND Model f o r Study o f Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The RAND Corpora t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a , 1961, working paper. Mladinov, John K. Toward a Balanced T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System f o r the Puget Sound Region. Unpublished address, S e a t t l e , 1962. Zwick, Charles J . Models of Urban Change: T h e i r Role i n Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Research. The RAND C o r p o r a t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a , 1962, unpublished. G. NEWSPAPERS The Vancouver Sun, A p r i l , 6, 1966. The Vancouver Sun, Feb., 5, 1966. H. CORRESPONDENCE L e t t e r t o t h e Author from Mrv P.E. Wade, Study D i r e c t o r , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, dated March 17, 1966. L e t t e r t o the Author from Mr. J.L. Vardon, D i r e c t o r , Transp o r t a t i o n D i v i s i o n , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, dated A p r i l 22, 1966. L e t t e r t o M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board from Mr. E. Comay, Commissioner of P l a n n i n g , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Planning Board, dated Jan. 6, 1965.  

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