UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Russian conjugation McFadden, Kenneth Dallas 1967

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1967_A8 M235.pdf [ 10.99MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104571.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104571-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104571-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104571-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104571-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104571-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104571-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104571-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104571.ris

Full Text

i  RUSSIAN  KENNETH  CONJUGATION  DALLAS  McFADDEN  of Western O n t a r i o , 1 9 6 2  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER  OF  ARTS  i n the Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1 9 6 7  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study, thesis  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood t h a t  copying  o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f  Slavonic Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  June, 1967  ii ABSTRACT In h i s a r t i c l e  "Russian Conjugation" (Word IV, 19^8) P r o f .  Roman Jakobson presented an a l t e r n a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the R u s s i a n c o n j u g a t i o n based  on the p r i n c i p l e o f the ' f u l l - s t e m ' and the  " p i v o t a l feature" of a l l S l a v i c conjugation, truncation, i . e . the l o s s of the f i n a l phoneme o f a ( v e r b a l ) stem or of the i n i t i a l phoneme of the desinence.  By c o n f i n i n g t h i s  strictly  s y n c h r o n i c f o r m a l a n a l y s i s of present-day Standard R u s s i a n to simple verbs (with u n p r e f i x e d one-root stems) and t o the purelyv e r b a l c a t e g o r i e s (the f i n i t e forms and the i n f i n i t i v e ) , quate coverage  of a l l p r i n c i p l e s and problems,  ade-  i n c l u d i n g many  i l l u s t r a t i o n s , was p o s s i b l e i n j u s t a l i t t l e more than 9 pages and the f i n a l s e c t i o n , l i s t i n g only ^1 e x c e p t i o n s , though somewhat o v e r s i m p l i f i e d , gave s t r i k i n g p r o o f of the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the p r i n c i p l e s t e s t e d and a h i n t o f the use t h a t might be made of them i n t e a c h i n g R u s s i a n . With these two impressions i n mind ( i . e . the system's apparent  s u p e r i o r i t y and i t s p o s s i b l e u s e f u l n e s s i n the c l a s s ) ,  a f u r t h e r examination has been made here which i n v o l v e s the e x t e n s i o n of the a n a l y s i s t o i n c l u d e those verb forms p u r p o s e l y excluded by Jakobson  ( i . e . the compound and semiverbal forms)  i n an attempt t o demonstrate  the extent of i t s v a l i d i t y and,  at the same time, t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p r a c t i c a l i t y of i t s adopt i o n i n teaching Russian.  I t would, a f t e r a l l , be t o the  c r e d i t of the f u l l - s t e m system of a n a l y z i n g the R u s s i a n con-  iii j u g a t i o n i f i t were p o s s i b l e , without too much  complication,  t o p r e d i c t the behavior of a verb's gerunds, p a r t i c i p l e s  and  p r e f i x e d f i n i t e forms on the b a s i s of i t s f u l l - s t e m .  any  case, the teacher  In  of R u s s i a n r e q u i r e s some demonstration of the  system's performance when i t i s a p p l i e d to these a d d i t i o n a l forms as students are apt to want to A c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t has  been made t o p r e s e r v e the  of the f u l l - s t e m , as conceived mula or  'key'  e r a l p r i n c i p l e s do appear.  but two One  Wo  new  types of  full-  b a s i c a d d i t i o n s to the gen-  of these,  the p r i n c i p l e of  or m u l t i - f u l l - s t e m v e r b , i s i n s t r u m e n t a l  ducing the number of exceptions  essence  by Jakobson, as a s o r t of f o r -  t o the grammatical forms.  stem have been i n t r o d u c e d ,  two-full-stem  do.  in re-  admitted by Jakobson and  the r e s u l t of the l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n  the  is  of Jakobson's b a s i c p r i n -  c i p l e t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t any v e r b a l form must r e a l i s e a stem, even i f i t means p r o p o s i n g tv/o or more f u l l - s t e m s  full-  to  account f o r a l l the forms of c e r t a i n v e r b s . A second major a d d i t i o n i n v o l v e s one 'significant features* type.  of the f u l l - s t e m , namely the  accent  T h i s i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the i n c l u s i o n of semiverbal  and p r e f i x e d forms. preferences e.g.  of the most important  In order to e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s  i n these forms i n otherwise i d e n t i c a l f u l l - s t e m s ,  the n o n s y l l a b i c unaccented V'J_  w i t h Masc. P r e t . and  ( t w i s t ) and  L'J__ (pour)  s h o r t Masc. Past Pass. P a r t . na+v'i_l-#,  na+v'i_t-# and na+l'i__l-#, n a + l ' i _ t - # ( p r e f e r r e d to  na+l'i_l-#,  iv na+l'i_t-#) respectively, the principle of 'degrees of unaceentedness' within full-stem types has been introduced ( i . e . V' J__ unacc., L' J _ maximally unacc.). In an attempt to improve the already established p r i n c i ples of describing the accent types of various full-stems, more emphasis has been placed on the feature of columnarity of stress pattern as the primary criterion for accentedness. This topic is of particular concern among the monosyllabic broadly-closed full-stems, which Jakobson divides into accented and unaccented varieties, but which may alternatively be considered two different varieties of accented full-stems whose "columnar" stress patterns contrast with those of the unaccented items among the other types of non-polysyllabics. With only a few changes i n the detail of the system as conceived by Jakobson, the additions named above have been successfully adapted to the full-stem idea.  This has however  been achieved only at the expense of the c l a r i t y , precision and brevity of the nan giratii,exposition.  Though the validity  of the system has only become ever more apparent as the more complex data regularly submitted to formulization, the f u l l complexity of the problem as i t exists without any a r t i f i c i a l limitations has made the preservation of the system's original virtues impossible even though, as w i l l be seen, the number of verbs that need be s t r i c t l y termed exceptional can be effectively reduced, even from Jakobson's low total of kl.  The  V  system's attractiveness from the pedagogical point of view i s , however, seriously affected "by this increased complexity".  vi  Table of Contents  p. 1  Introduction  Determining  the Full-Stem  Relevance of Nonverbal Forms i n the Determination  p. 2 p. 6  of Full-Stems  11  Aim  p.  Additions  p. 12  Transcription  p. 15  Summary of the Jakobson C o n t r i b u t i o n  p. 17  p. 17  Truncation Truncation  p. 19  Summary of P r o g r e s s i v e T r u n c a t i o n  p. 21  Changes Accompanying A f f i x a t i o n (with or  p. 22  Regressive  without  Truncation)  Desinences and T h e i r A l t e r n a n t s  p. 22  Components o f the Desinence  p. 22  Desinential Alternants  p. Zk  S i g n i f i c a n t Features  of the F u l l - S t e m  p. 28  (i)  S y l l a b i c i t y of the F u l l - S t e m  p. 29  (ii)  Nature of the F i n a l Stem Phoneme  p. 30  ( i i i ) Nature of the L a s t Consonant  p. 30  vii  Table of Contents  (cont'd.)  (iv)  Accent  of the F u l l - S t e m  p. 31  (v)  Nature of the L a s t Three Phonemes  p. 32  (vi)  Nature o f the L a s t Two Phonemes  p. 32 p. 3 3  Types of T r u n c a t i o n D i r e c t i o n of Truncation  p. 3 3  Degrees of T r u n c a t i o n  p. 3 3  Simple T r u n c a t i o n  p. 3 4  (i)  Normal T r u n c a t i o n  p. 3 4  (ii)  Deep T r u n c a t i o n  p. 3 4  Complex T r u n c a t i o n  p. 3 5  (iii)  p. 3 5  'Chain' or Compound T r u n c a t i o n  (a) Simple Chain T r u n c a t i o n  p. 3 5  (b) R e f l e x Chain T r u n c a t i o n  p. 3 5  (iv)  T r u n c a t i o n with Concomitant  p. 3 5  Change (v)  T r u n c a t i o n with Vowel I n s e r t i o n  p. 3 7  Palatalization  p. 3 7  S t r e s s and Accent  p. 4 0  Definitions  p. 4 1  Accent  p. 4 1  Accent,  as an A b s t r a c t i o n S t r e s s and S y l l a b i c i t y  External Factors i n Stressing C o n c l u s i o n t o Summary  p. 42 p. 4 8 p. 4 8  viii  Table of Contents  (cont'd.)  p. 50  C r i t i c i s m and A d d i t i o n s  The System from the P e d a g o g i c a l P o i n t of View  P. 50  The  p.  54  P.  57  Imperative  Desinence  of the I n f i n i t i v e (and Past Gerund)  The Past Gerund  p. 59  Participles  P.  Desinential Alternants  p. 62  Morphophonemic T r a n s c r i p t i o n - lew Problems  P.  67 67  61  d e r i v i n g from Expansion of the Topic (i)  Signs  P.  (ii)  Determining Accent Type from  P. 73  Related Suppletives  74  ( i i i ) Other T y p i c a l Problems  p.  (iv)  P. 76  Morphophonemic T r a n s c r i p t i o n of the Vowels i n Pull-Stems (a) Relevance  of Semi-verbal Forms  (b) Relevance  of Nominal Forms  (c) Relevance  of Concomitant  Change  Accent Columnarity of S t r e s s P a t t e r n and the  P.  77  P.  77  p. 80 p.  80  p.  80  P.  87  p.  88  Monosyllabic Broadly-Closed Full-Stem Removed and Removable S t r e s s Accent v s . S t r e s s - C r i t i c i s m  of the Use  of these Terms  ix  Table of Contents  (cont'd.)  Removable and Irremovable  S t r e s s of  p. 89  Accented P o l y s y l l a b l e s - a Redundancy F u r t h e r Observations on the T a b l e , pp. 43-45  p. 92  Types of S t r e s s P a t t e r n among Unaccented  p. 92  Pull-Stems A l t e r n a t i v e C r i t e r i o n f o r Accentedness  p. 93  and Unaccentedness Columnarity. P r e f i x e s and N o n - F i n i t e Forms  p. 97  S t r e s s E l i c i t o r s - The P r e f i x and R e f l e x i v e  p. 101  Suffix General Observations  p. 101  Degrees o f Unaccentedness.  p. 103  M o n o s y l l a b i c Hard Open Full-Stems  p. 103  N o n s y l l a b i c Full-Stems  p. 107  M o n o s y l l a b i c Narrowly-Closed Full-Stems  p.  M o n o s y l l a b i c B r o a d l y - C l o s e d Full-Stems  p. 128  119  P a r t i c i p l e s and Gerunds - Formation  p. 130  The  p. 143  I n s e r t e d Vowel  p . 149  Suppletion Introduction  p. 149  Complementary Full-Stems  p.  Precedence  p. 154  among S u p p l e t i v e s  151  Labelling  p. 155  L i s t o f S u p p l e t i v e Full-Stems  p. I56  X  Table of Contents  (cont'd.)  p.  157  p.  160  p.  162  p.  168  p.  170  Jakobson's E x c e p t i o n s  p.  171  Changes and C o r r e c t i o n s  p.  17^  p.  17^  Changes i n the Wording of Rules  p.  175  Other Changes R e s u l t i n g from Expansion  p.  177  M o n o s y l l a b i c Hard Open Full-Stems  p.  178  H o n s y l l a b i c Full-Stems  p.  179  S p e c i a l Notes  p.  180  (i)  #P'J_  p.  180  (ii)  v-JM_  p.  182  p.  187  Other S u p p l e t i v e Full-Stems F u l l - S t e m A l t e r n a n t s Determined  "by  Prefixation F u l l - S t e m A l t e r n a n t s not Determined  by  Prefixation Homonymic Full-Stems D i s t i n g u i s h e d by Accent Accented P o l y s y l l a b i c  Full-Stems with  Both Removable and Irremovable S t r e s s  S p e c i f i c Mistakes and M i s p r i n t s i n Jakobson's Paper  of the Topic Full-Stem L i s t s  M o n o s y l l a b i c Narrowly-Closed  Full-Stems  xi  Table o f Contents  (cont'd.)  M o n o s y l l a b i c B r o a d l y - C l o s e d Full-Stems  p.  189  M o n o s y l l a b i c S o f t Open Full-Stems  p.  193  P o l y s y l l a b i c Hard Open Full-Stems  p.  194  Notes  p.  198  Bibliography  p.  215  Introduction T r a d i t i o n a l methods of d e s c r i b i n g the R u s s i a n verb have always proceeded  from the observed f a c t t h a t almost a l l S l a v -  i c verbs have two c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e stems:; the s o - c a l l e d I n f i n i t i v e and Present stems.  Some w r i t e r s , such as Dobrovsky,  use the I n f i n i t i v e stem as the b a s i c stem w h i l e making the s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s on the b a s i s o f the Present stem.  Leskien,  among o t h e r s , s t a r t s with the Present stem as the primary form and uses the I n f i n i t i v e stem as the b a s i s of h i s subclassifications.  I n order to conjugate i n f u l l any g i v e n verb,  the student must know both i t s stems.  I t i s n o t enough, f o r  example, t o be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e the I n f i n i t i v e stems o f c'ita^t • (read) and p ' i s a _ t ' ( w r i t e ) as c i t a pectively.  and p ' i s a _ r e s -  The s i m i l a r i t y o f these two I n f i n i t i v e stems i s ,  a f t e r a l l , a deceptive one. There  i s nothing i n t h e i r  form  t o s i g n a l t h e i r c o n t r a s t i n g behavior i n the Present tense and f o r t h i s reason the Present stems must a l s o be memorized Sita(j)  and p''is__.  In h i s a r t i c l e "Russian Conjugation" (Word  pp.155-167)  P r o f . Roman Jakobson made a most important o b s e r v a t i o n , namely t h a t the d i v i s i o n o f v e r b a l stems i n t o Present and I n f i n i t i v e stems i s b a s i c a l l y a d i v i s i o n i n t o p r e v o c a l i c and preconson-  z. a n t a l a l t e r n a n t s o f what he chooses t o c a l l t h e f u l l - s t e m l , i n asmuch as t h e P r e s e n t d e s i n e n c e s always b e g i n w i t h a v o w e l w h i l e the I n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x , u s u a l l y _ t ' ( l e s s f r e q u e n t l y _ c or _ t ' i ) , has a consonant as i t s i n i t i a l or o n l y phoneme.  The  f u l l - s t e m , as t h e name i m p l i e s , i s always t h e l o n g e r o f t h e p r e v o c a l i c and p r e c o n s o n a n t a l a l t e r n a n t s .  Determining the Pull-Stem I n t h e v e r b p ' i s a _ t ' , t h e I n f i n i t i v e stem i s l o n g e r t h a n t h e P r e s e n t stem p ' i s _ and i s t h e r e f o r e t h e f u l l - s t e m . I t i s t h i s form p ' i s a _ t h a t Jakobson proposes t o use as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l base form upon which a l l g r a m m a t i c a l forms ( p r e v o c a l i c and p r e c o n s o n a n t a l ) can be c o n s t r u c t e d .  I n t h e case  o f a v e r b l i k e c i t , a _ t ' , t h e I n f i n i t i v e stem c i t a _ i s found t o l a c k t h e consonant j (yod) which o c c u r s c o n s i s t e n t l y as t h e f i n a l phoneme o f t h e stem i n a l l o f t h e p r e v o c a l i c forms ( e . g . 1 Sg. c i t a . j _ u , 2 Sg. c i t a j _ i - s , 3 Pl» c i t a j _ u - t ) .  I n other  words, t h e f u l l - s t e m i s t h i s time found t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e P r e s e n t stem o f t r a d i t i o n a l grammar.  The f u l l - s t e m o f t h e  v e r b c i t a _ t ' i s t h e r e f o r e s a i d t o be CITAJ_. Sometimes, upon comparing t h e I n f i n i t i v e and P r e s e n t stems, no d i f f e r e n c e i n l e n g t h can be o b s e r v e d .  This w i l l  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e stems a r e i d e n t i c a l .  In the verb  v ' i s _ _ t ' i ( l e a d ) , f o r example, the I n f i n i t i v e stem v * i s _ _ cont r a s t s w i t h t h e P r e s e n t stem v ' i d _ _ ( e . g . 1 Sg. v'id__u).  Though  3 :•  o f e q u a l l e n g t h , t h e i r f i n a l phonemes a r e d i f f e r e n t .  However,  o n l y one o f these stems can he s e l e c t e d as t h e f u l l - s t e m . c h o i c e must f a l l , a c c o r d i n g t o Jakobson,  The  t o t h a t stem w h i c h ,  g i v e n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c phonetic a l t e r n a t i o n s of the R u s s i a n language, w i l l n a t u r a l l y and w i t h o u t any s p e c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n y i e l d t h e o t h e r stem i n a g i v e n environment. that before _ t  1  I t i s w e l l known  o f an I n f i n i t i v e s u f f i x the phoneme d (and t )  i s not permitted.  The s i n v ' i s _ _ t ' i i s t h e a c c e p t e d r e p l a c e -  ment o f d i n t h e g i v e n environment.  I n o t h e r v/ords, d can be  s a i d t o y i e l d s i n t h e g i v e n environment.  The d i n 1 Sg.  v ' i d _ u cannot, on t h e o t h e r hand, be r e g a r d e d as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c phonemic replacement  o f s b e f o r e u , i . e . s cannot be  s a i d t o y i e l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y , when f o l l o w e d by the v o c a l i c Present desinence, _ u .  I n f a c t , s i n such an environment i s  w h o l l y a d m i s s i b l e , i . e . t h e r e i s no c o n s t r a i n t on t h e phoneme s b e f o r e t h e phoneme u.  T h i s i s e a s i l y demonstrated  by such  forms as n ' i s _ u ( i : c a r r y ) , sun_u ( I v / i l l p o k e ) , sud'b_a ( f a t e ) and sup_# ( s o u p ) .  There can be no doubt t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e  P r e s e n t stem v ' i d _ _ i s more l i k e l y t o be the t r u e base t h a n t h e I n f i n i t i v e stem.  T h i s does n o t however conclude the s e a r c h  f o r the f u l l - s t e m of the verb  v*is_t'i.  I n t h e v e r y s i m i l a r v e r b n ' i s _ _ t ' i ( c a r r y ) no such n a t i o n o f f i n a l consonants stems i s observed.  alter-  i n t h e I n f i n i t i v e and P r e s e n t  I n s t e a d , t h e consonant i s everywhere s  and t h e base i s t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n as end-  4  ing  i n t h a t phoneme.  n'is^t'i,  But i n the case of both v ' i s _ _ t ' i  and  f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the base must a w a i t some  i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the a u t o m a t i c a l t e r n a t i o n s of s t r e s s e d and u n s t r e s s e d vov/els i n R u s s i a n . S i n c e , i n both t h e I n f i n i t i v e and P r e s e n t tense f o r m s , the  stem n ' i s _ i s u n s t r e s s e d , c a r e must be t a k e n i n d e t e r m i n -  ing  the t r u e c h a r a c t e r o f the vowel r e p r e s e n t e d here i n t r a n -  s c r i p t i o n by i and i n the t r a d i t i o n a l C y r i l l i c the  l e t t e r e.  s p e l l i n g by  As i s o f t e n the c a s e , the c o n v e n t i o n a l o r t h o -  graphy i s m i s l e a d i n g . P h o n e t i c a l l y , the vowel i n the stem of such forms as Inf.  n ' i s _ t ' i , 1 Sg. n ' i s _ u , 2 Sg. n ' i s ' _ o - s i s [i] .  But  such a sound i n an u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e and p r e c e d e d , as i t i s , by a s o f t consonant c o u l d be a replacement f o r phonemes / a / , / e / , / i / or /o/.  Only when the vowel o f the stem appears i n  a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e w i l l t h e r e be no phonemic r e p l a c e m e n t s of it.  I t i s the M a s c u l i n e P r e t e r i t of t h i s v e r b t h a t has t h e  vowel i n a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e and t h e r e i t i s r e a l i z e d by o n'os__#-#.  The f u l l - s t e m i s t h e r e f o r e n o t ^IT'IS^ (much l e s s  *IPES_, as the c o n v e n t i o n a l o r t h o g r a p h y would s u g g e s t ) , but r a t h e r N'OS__.  I f o i s the morphophoneme, the r e p l a c e m e n t s i n  unstressed s y l l a b l e s are p r e d i c t a b l e .  I n o t h e r words, the r e -  a l i z a t i o n i n a c t u a l speech of the base vowel o as  i n every  F i n i t e form except t h e M a s c u l i n e P r e t e r i t can do n o t h i n g t o a l t e r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e vowel i n the base i s morphophonemic-  5 a l l y o. W h i l e t h e vowel o w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y y i e l d  [ i ji na  g i v e n c o n t e x t , i . e . when preceded by a s o f t consonant and o c c u r r i n g i n an u n s t r e s s e d not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e .  s y l l a b l e , the reverse  That i s , t h e u n s t r e s s e d  i s certainly [ t ] may c o r r e s -  pond t o any one o f a number o f s t r e s s e d vowels i n cognate f o r m s , and n o t j u s t t o o. F o r example, . O-l/[X] CiJ/  i n u c i t ' i l _ a ' (teachers)/ u c i t ' i l ' _ # !  [e] i n p l ' i c _ o ( s h o u l d e r ) / p l ' e c _ _ i  The  (shoulders)  c i s t ' _ _ e j ( p a r t s , G e n i t i v e ) / 6ast'__# ( p a r t )  CtJ/[se]±n [iJ/[oJ  (teacher)  i n s ' i l _ o ( v i l l a g e ) / s'6l_a ( v i l l a g e s )  unstressed  f o r m n'is__ would t h e r e f o r e n o t be a c c e p t -  a b l e as a base as i t c o u l d n o t r e l i a b l y p r e d i c t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e v o w e l i n t h e Masc. P r e t . where t h e v o w e l would o f n e c e s s i t y be s t r e s s e d .  A l o n g w i t h n'os_#-#', t h e Masc. P r e t s .  *n*is_#'-#", *n'as_#-# and *n'es__#-#" would a l l be t h e o r e t i c a l l y possible.  The b a s i c vov/el, t h e n , i s t o be l o o k e d  f o r i n the  stress position . The  above examples serve t o i l l u s t r a t e Jakobson's b a s i c  statement r e g a r d i n g full-stem.  t h e morphophonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e  H i s own v/ords a r e "we take as b a s i c t h e a l t e r n a n t  which appears i n a p o s i t i o n where t h e other a l t e r n a n t t o o would be a d m i s s i b l e "  (jak. I . 3 2 ) .  Both d and s a r e a d m i s s -  i b l e b e f o r e _ u and t h e r e f o r e t h e a l t e r n a n t d, which i s t h e one t h a t a c t u a l l y does o c c u r b e f o r e  t h e 1 Sg. d e s i n e n c e __u ( f o r  the v e r b v ' i s _ _ t ' i ) , i s t a k e n as b a s i c .  By c o n t r a s t , t h e  6 alternant  s  where  other  the  Relevance  i n  of  the  i n f i n i t i v e  alternant  Nonverbal  d  v ' i s _ t ' i  would  Forms  i n  he  i s  missible bal  a l l f i v e  only  i n  full-stem  a c t u a l l y a  has  proposed  to  verbal A  the  and  For  reason,  this  with  before  the  the  the v/ill  true  s t r i c t l y tern  purely  of  second  F i n i t e  the  are  f i r s t  be  the  or  the and  be  i n  can  In  the  i n  one  f i n a l  a  of  by  vowels  r e f e r r i n g  the  which  are  vowels  of  two  or  must  stress  case  due  to  s y l l a b l e  the  and f u l l -  s y l l a b l e s  means and  the  the  that,  Since  a l l r e a l i z a t i o n s nowhere  that  the  the  the  r e a l i z e d  pre-  stress  i n  least,  are or  fact  that  o.  be  preconsonantal  columnar.  two  form  a  established  I n f i n i t i v e at  i n  either  be  forms,  unstressed  of  verbal  a  f i r s t  s y l l a b l e  s t r i c t l y  Russian  i n  the  p a r t i c i p i a l ,  the  ver-  some  v e r i f i e d  r e a l i z e d  verbal  accented  every phonemes  related  vowel  o's  the  ad-  v o c a l i c  variants  other  vowel  the  not  are  cognates.  one  of  of  on  v/ill  form,  to  full-stem.  forms  s y l l a b l e s  full-stem,  an  occur  stress  1 1  verbal  i s  have  phonemes  since  constituent  p o s i t i o n a l  l e a s t  the  any  and  u n s t r e s s e d [A] o r [ V [  (talk),  full-stem  may  p o s i t i o n  Full-Stems  v o c a l i c  grammatical  nature  i n  i t s  a  Determination  s y l l a b l e  nonverbal  at  into  r e a l i z e d  always  a  "unknown  G0v"0R'I__  v o c a l i c ,  of  represent  incorporated  not  i n  consistently may  stem  a l l  even  Russian  stress  full-stem  paradigm  found  the  r e a l i z e d  in  Modern  i n  allowed.  of Since  not  pat-  f i r s t of i n  and  t h i s t h e i r  7 true  form  forms  t o  and r e c o u r s e must supply  (dialect) l i s h  use  the necessary  a n d razgavor__#'  the vowels Involved nominal  acter  of a  here  forms  ^s  categories.  However,  contrast the  Slavic'.-:  safely l y  dern  obscured  Russian  graphically tinue  certain  forms  a t least)  and  or  or  forms, some  sepy  of this  severely  vowel  of vowel  inherited  as  a  and  verbal apo-  grade  One  series  with  have  o,  o f stem  e a r l i e r  the  t o  fragmentarily  p r i n c i p l e .  grades an  deny  factor, use  one  char-  and  p a r t i c u l a r  weakened  cannot  namely  case.  Can  the complete  one  a n d Bpan  "zero"  estab-  i n each  consideration.  also  otherwise)  the p r i n c i p l e  l o s t  one  t o  of policy.  the Indo-European  ,  serve  g6var_#  i n the nominal  systematic  deserves  coeop  matter  items  a t least  that  w i l l  Admittedly,  i n formVbut  (imperfectly  system, been  group,  The nouns  i n establishing  and v e r b a l  s a y however  been  important  the Indo-European nominal  information.  (nominal)  o morphophonemically  morpheme?  between  and  an  as  r e l i a b l y  verbal  t o nonverbal  (conversation)  concerned  r e l a t i o n s h i p  phony  "be h a d  can n o t on-  I f the e  by  Mo-  (ortho-  vowel  con-  Indo-European  formal  one need  no  contrast longer  has  sup-  r pose and ever  any  verbal  any  forms  the facts  recourse that  conscious and  must  on vowel  of the nominal be  the nominal relevance.  based  systematic  had  t o them.  facts  w i l l  E o r example,  opposition  apophony.  category This  always  t h e stems  Therefore,  c a n be  does or  between  of  b r a  usually and  wher-  assistance,  n o t mean,  even  nominal  however, be  b ' i r  of of  8  t h e v e r b bra__t '•' ( t a k e ) a r e n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a stem - b o r _ v/ith v o w e l o i n sabor_# ( c a t h e d r a l ) , s i n c e any proposed a l t e r n a t i o n o f o w i t h be  u  zero  m  i n -bor__, b r a - cannot  j u s t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n o r m a l phonemic a l t e r n a t i o n s o f  Modern R u s s i a n , n o r would e i t h e r o f t h e s e stems y i e l d t h e o t h e r i n any g i v e n environment, i . e . t h e o i n - b o r i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e same p h o n e t i c c o n t e x t as t h e "zero" vice versa.  5  o f b r a _ and  As f o r t h e stem b ' i r _ , t h e p a l a t a l i z e d  nature  o f t h e i n i t i a l phoneme has a l r e a d y s e t i t a p a r t from t h e stem -bor_, suggesting the i r r e l e v a n c e of the l a t t e r i n determini n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e u n s t r e s s e d v o w e l o f t h e former. To r e t u r n t o t h e problem o f t h e f u l l - s t e m G 0 V 0 R ' I _ , t h e s t r e s s e d vowel a i n the verb ugavar' iva__t  1  (persuade) cannot  be used t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e second vowel o f t h e f u l l - s t e m GOVOR'I__ as a, i n s t e a d o f o.  I t may be o b j e c t e d  t h a t t h e v e r b u g a v a r ' i v a ^ t ; i s a t l e a s t as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d 1  s e m a n t i c a l l y t o g a v a r i _ _ t ' ' as govar_#~ and r a z g a v o r _ # a r e , i f f  n o t more s o , s i n c e i t a t l e a s t b e l o n g s v / i t h g a v a r ' i ^ t t o 1  the v e r b a l c a t e g o r y .  T h i s would be a s t r o n g argument  f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s here i n v o l v e d a l i v i n g , and  except  conscious  s y s t e m a t i c a l t e r n a t i o n , a type o f apophony t h a t i s d i s -  t i n c t l y Slavic (orRussian).  Hot o n l y does t h e s t r e s s e d a  i n u g a v a r i v a _ t *•' n o t correspond 1  t o t h e second u n s t r e s s e d a o f  g a v a r ' i ^ t , 1 Sg. g a v a r ' _ u e t c . , i t p u r p o s e l y a v o i d s c o i n 1  c i d e n c e w i t h i t i n accordance w i t h a l i v i n g p r i n c i p l e o f d e r -  9 i v a t i o n a l  morphology.  i s ,  i f anything,  the  corresponding  since  this  of  between  refer as  t o a  of  verbs  nominal  o  does  the p r i n c i p l e  determining  to  v o c a l i c  however  of the relevance  the constituent  a l t e r n a t i o n as  r  degree  on  of  the  of nominal  morphophonemes  one  Imperto  the writing  o f GOVOR'I^J,  depend  Russian  gavar'i__t  morphophoneme  s t i l l  not a, i n  not necessary  j u s t i f y  1  gavar'i_t',  the  second  therefore  stem  and  of Modern  and  and  morphophoneme  of the f i r s t as  f i r s t  ugavar*iva_t  of  prescribes  ugavar 'iva_t  I t i s a c t u a l l y  v o c a l i c  i n  o f o,  feature  a c t u a l l y as  a  of the f u l l - s t e m  of contrasting  related  the second  GOVOR'I  syllable  such  verbs.  sentation  of the existence  morphology  the devices  fective  proof  the vowel  p a r t i c u l a r productive  derivational a/o  Indeed,  of  The  o  repre-  full-stem acceptance  cognates  i n  of verbal  f u l l -  stems. Similar unstressed stem  /  i n  stressed  In no  /or / o / and  As be  then or  determining  confirmation  v/ith  i n a  a  the occurrence  forms  mentioned  vov/el  i n any  f o r which  above  r e a l i z a t i o n  i f this  s y l l a b l e  nominal  arise  i n grammatical  could  full-stem,  cognate,  w i l l  sought.  vowel  /e/,  verbal  i  I  vowel  i s being  stressed  a  problems  f u l l -  ( p . ^j-), t h i s  un-  o f t h e phonemes / a / ,  should  be  nowhere  of the grammatical  recourse  a  of the  r e a l i z e d  forms  v/ill  have  only  t h e morphophoneme  t o be  had  to  of the some  verbal. full-stems, stressed  syllable  since  u  t h e phoneme  needs u  •JO  never r e p l a c e s another vowel i n n o n d e s i n e n t i a l The u n s t r e s s e d  r e p l a c e m e n t u of the n o n t e r m i n a l  syllables. Pres.  suf-  f i x __a- i n the 3 P I . of v e r b s of the '"old"' ( i . e . a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ) Second C o n j u g a t i o n gavar'_a-t, h e r e as we  but s p o r ' _ u - t ,  " they argue") w i l l not c o n c e r n us :  are d e a l i n g o n l y w i t h the r e p l a c e m e n t s t h a t  t o the stem and not t o the Jakobson, w i t h o u t his  (e.g.  apply  desinences.  a c t u a l l y d i s c u s s i n g the problem i n  a r t i c l e , has approved the p r i n c i p l e of r e f e r r i n g , i f need  be, t o n o m i n a l forms as an a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g phemic c h a r a c t e r of a v e r b a l f u l l - s t e m .  the t r u e mor-  I t i s , i n any  case,  p o s s i b l e t o i n f e r as much from h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  full-  stem of the v e r b r ' i v ' e ^ t ' ( r o a r ) as R'OV'E_ ( J a k . Sec.  3*2,  p. 163).  No v e r b a l f o r m w i l l v e r i f y the morphophoneme o i n  this full-stem.  One  must assume t h a t he w i s h e s t o  justify  t h a t morphophoneme on the b a s i s of the noun r ' o f _ # ( r o a r ) w i t h f u l l - s t e m R'6v_. I t i s v/orth s t r e s s i n g however t h a t n o m i n a l cognates are t o be r e f e r r e d t o o n l y i f the f u l l range of g r a m m a t i c a l forms of the v e r b i t s e l f i s fo^^nd t o l a c k the forms needed t o  deter-  mine the f u l l - s t e m and t h a t the morphophonemic f a c t s of e x i s t ing  n o m i n a l forms must be expected a t t i m e s t o s h a r p l y c o n -  t r a d i c t the morphophonemic f a c t s of a v e r b a l f u l l - s t e m t h a t can be d e r i v e d from the v e r b a l f o r m s . I n the case of the v e r b smatr'e t ' ( l o o k ) ( f u l l - s t e m  11 SMOTR'E__), t h e I n f i n i t i v e  or any P a s t tense form w i l l  verify  t h e f i n a l v o w e l a s morphophoneme e, w h i l e t h e P r e s e n t t e n s e , e x c e p t 1 S g . , shows t h e f i r s t v o w e l o f t h e f u l l - s t e m t o he o s i n c e i t i s so r e a l i z e d  i n the stressed  syllables  o f 2 Sg.  s m o t r ' _ _ i - s , 3 S g . s m o t r ' _ i - t , e t c . The n o u n s m o t r j f ( r e v i e w ) w i t h f u l l - s t e m SM0TR_ c a n o n l y r e i n f o r c e t h e e v i d e n c e a l r e a d y o b t a i n a b l e i n the v e r b a l paradigm and, i ft h e vowel o fthe n o u n h a d b e e n o t h e r t h a n o, t h e f i r s t v o w e l o f t h e v e r b a l  full-  s t e m v/ould h a v e r e m a i n e d o.  Aim  The  aim of t h i s paper i s t o c r i t i g i z e ,  d e v e l o p and e x -  pand t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n j u g a t i o n p a t t e r n o f p r e s e n t - d a y Standard R u s s i a n as p r e s e n t e d by P r o f . Jakobson i n t h e abovenamed a r t i c l e .  P r o f . J a k o b s o n ' s p r o c e d u r e w i l l be c l o s e l y  f o l l o w e d i n e m p l o y i n g , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , o n l y one b a s i c  form  f o r e a c h v e r b f r o m w h i c h a l l g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s m i g h t be d e r i v e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i o n s t a t e m e n t s .  Some  changes and a d d i t i o n s w i l l however prove n e c e s s a r y i f t h e full-stem i s to contain sufficient guish i tfrom a l l  characteristics to distin-  other full-stems undergoing d i f f e r e n t  n a t i o n s and t a k i n g d i f f e r e n t d e s i n e n t i a l a l t e r n a n t s .  alter-  The  r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t paper p r o p o s e s t o examine t h e v e r b a l s y s t e m i n i t s e n t i r e t y w i t h o u t m a k i n g t h e two s u b s t a n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t were made i n t h e o r i g i n a l  paper,  12 that  of confining  v e r b s and t h a t the  the a n a l y s i s t o the simple  of excluding  (unprefixed)  a l l G e r u n d s and P a r t i c i p l e s f r o m  analysis.  Additions W i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f p r e f i x e d v e r b s , some p r o v i s i o n  will  h a v e t o be made f o r t h e s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f f u l l s t e m s a s t o t h e i r b e h a v i o r when p r e f i x e s a r e u s e d .  While  cer-  t a i n p r e f i x e s do a l t e r t h e l e x i c a l m e a n i n g a s w e l l a s t h e g r a m m a t i c a l meaning o f c e r t a i n v e r b s , t h e f u l l - s t e m s the  of both  s i m p l e v e r b and o f i t s p r e f i x e d d e r i v a t i v e ( s ) a r e , o f  c o u r s e , b e s t r e g a r d e d a s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same f u l l - s t e m . T h e r e f o r e t h e means must be f o u n d when n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e t h e full-stems  sufficient  character  that  they might  accurately  p r e d i c t t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e p r e f i x e d forms as w e l l as t h a t o f the  simple forms.  stress.  This  The m a j o r p r o b l e m h e r e i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f  c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d  i n advance w i t h  the forms  n a + v ' i _ l - # ( h e wound on) and n a + l ' i _ l - # ,  r a r e r n a - n l ' i _ l - # (he  poured o u t ) .  the prefixed  was a b l e  Jakobson, i n d i s r e g a r d i n g  t o i d e n t i f y t h e f u l l - s t e m s V J _ ('twist) f  forms,  and L'J__  (pour) since both, i n t h e i r s t r e s s i n g o f t h e Feminine in  the P r e t e r i t s v i__l-a,  fore  t :  l'i__l-a,  w e r e u n a c c e n t e d and t h e r e -  opposed t o t h e a c c e n t e d f u l l - s t e m s  S J _ a n d B'J__ ( s e w a n d •  beat), b'i  which c a l l  1-a.  suffix  -  •  f o r s t e m s t r e s s i n t h e Fern. P r e t . -  Inclusion of the prefixes i n the analysis  •  »  /  si__l-a, shows,  12 however, the as  existence  of a s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e , here  Degree of U n a c c e n t e d n e s s , between the  L'J_.  This  of the  full-stems.  defined  full-stems V J_  and  f  d i f f e r e n c e must be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e  actual  form  J a k o b s o n s second l i m i t a t i o n , t h a t of c o n f i n i n g h i s  anal-  r  y s i s t o t h e purely v e r b a l  categories  the  I n f i n i t i v e ) , also permitted  one  a t t e m p t e d h e r e , where n o t  but  a l s o the  semiverbal  been i n c l u d e d . is  The  (the F i n i t e forms  a simpler  a n a l y s i s than  only a l l purely verbal  f o r m s ( P a r t i c i p l e s and  main problem introduced  the  forms  Gerunds) have  by  these  additions  t h a t of the p o s i t i o n of s t r e s s i n the p r e f i x e d P a s t  Participles.  For  example, the  the  with  However, w i t h  the p u r e l y v e r b a l forms.  the Past Passive  Participle  a n a l y s i s i s concerned  (pra+:)cita__n-#,  p e r f e c t l y columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n i s r u i n e d s t a t u s of the  the the  otherwise  and  therefore  the can  T h i s p r o b l e m i s d e a l t w i t h a t some  below.  A, f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n i s t h e multi-stem  verb.  Since  the  concept of the  full  two-stem  as  predicted  exceptions f r o m any  one  on pp.  or  gamut o f g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s  o f some R u s s i a n v e r b s ( l a r g e l y t h o s e t h a t J a k o b s o n was to l i s t  only  i n c l u s i o n of  f u l l - s t e m C I T A J _ as an a c c e n t e d f u l l - s t e m  s e r i o u s l y questioned.  length  Passive  f u l l - s t e m C,ITAJ_ ( r e a d ) i s i n -  d i s p u t a b l y a c c e n t e d as l o n g as  be  and  obliged  163-164 o f h i s p a p e r ) c a n n o t  f u l l - s t e m w i t h o u t the  a l t e r n a t i o n statements of great  complexity  formulation  and  an  be of  extremely  1^ limited  range of a p p l i c a b i l i t y ,  s e t t i n g up  two  the  a l t e r n a t i v e course  ( o r more) b a s e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e v e r b s  been adopted here.  T h e s e b a s e s s u p p l e m e n t one  t h e g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s t h a t any  one  The  other  s u p p l e t i v e base or  of h i s fundamental n o t i o n s ,  grammatical  bases.  of the  and  and  productive  types of f u l l - s t e m s .  Complete l i s t s  m a t i c a l forms have been i n c l u d e d  t h e y do  Ozhegov who  very  severe i n strengthening  admitting  c a t i n g the  has  occur i n the  S.I.  are  The  factors characvarious  verbs from  o f f e r e d of the  the non-  gram-  t h a t are not  strictest  Russian.  i n the These are  un-  Slovar' russkogo jazyka  p r o m i s e d , i n an i n t r o d u c t o r y n o t e , t o  by be  the n o r m a t i v e a s p e c t of h i s work  stress a l t e r n a t i o n i n only rare  recommended v a r i a n t more s t r i c t l y  t h e Academy's 1959  and  Some f u l l - s t e m s and  of p r e s e n t - d a y s t a n d a r d as  a  o f some  complete  of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  categories.  avoidable  e x p o s i t i o n of the  d e l i n e a t i n g the  productive  by  of c e r t a i n terms  f u l l - s t e m ( s ) of each of the v e r b s i n the  nonproductive categories  sense p a r t  are  of c e r t a i n f u l l - s t e m s .  m a j o r p o r t i o n of the p a p e r i s an i n determining  things, criticism  o f h i s use  of h i s morphophonemic r e n d e r i n g  by  are  a summary o f h i s a r t i c l e w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d  s e c t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s , among o t h e r  ter  and  above-mentioned a d d i t i o n s t o Jakobson's paper  p r e c e d e d by  involved  the  has  another  o f them e n g e n d e r s  u s u a l l y i n complimentary d i s t r i b u t i o n with forms of the  of  c a s e s and t h a n was  guide to l i t e r a r y pronunciation  and  indidone i n stress,  1-5 Russkoje  l i t e r a t u r n o j e  Avanesov  and  t i o n  as  used,  an  authority. natives their  S . I . Ozhegov.  important  along  also  regional  a t a l l i s a a r e many  and Avanesov) should  be  synchronic  noted  here  pre.sent-day  2.^-2,  that  and  which,  f o r this  two  authorities  part  reason,  mentioned  and  a l t e r -  substandard,  that  mention  i s  v i t a l i t y .  the authors  (Ozhe-  Jakobson  the line  himself  between a i m was  experienced  standard the  and  " strictly ;  of the conjugation pattern i n  Russian"',  a  been  :  h i s express  the full-stem  considered  source  as  o f some  which  :  analysis  t o be  i thas  basic  the fact  reputa-  " permissible" .  Though  not  a  a  old-fashioned  i n d i c a t i o n  i n drawing  standard  as  e d . R..I.  enjoys  a r e marked  alternatives as  forms. formal  they  good  guide  and  Indeed,  l a b e l  d i f f i c u l t y  substandard  Sec.  and, though  i s not forbidden.  included  i n  many  udarenije,  r e f e r e n c e work,  Here  Also  the'same  and r e l i a b l e  dictionary,  o f them  It  this  Ozhegov's  made  gov  Since  with  a r e found  use  proiznoshenije i  he  has nevertheless  o r a - (plough),  which  of present-day  standard  cannot  be  found  included,  i s  d e f i n i t e l y Russian  i n either  of the  t o that  employed  above.  Transcription The by  t r a n s c r i p t i o n  Jakobson  as  t r a n s c r i p t i o n from  used  here  i s as  the t y p e w r i t e r would of grammatical  the following  morpheme  forms, by  a  close,  allo\'/.  I n the  the prefix  (+-) s i g n ,  phonemic  i s separated  t h e stem  from  the  1"6 d e s i n e n c e by a dash  (__), and w i t h i n t h e d e s i n e n c e t h e  t u e n t s u f f i x e s a r e s e p a r a t e d from each The  s i g n (/)  denotes  consti-  o t h e r by a h y p h e n ( - ) .  alternation.  A l l R u s s i a n v e r b f o r m s a r e shown p h o n e m i c a l l y i n l o w e r case l e t t e r s whereas b a r e v e r b a l components a r e i n morphophon e m i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n and u p p e r - c a s e (')  letters.  The  acute  on a b a r e a f f i x i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s r e g u l a r l y  accent  stressed,  the grave accent s i g n i f i e s that the a f f i x never c a r r i e s  the  s t r e s s , and  affix  t h e a b s e n c e o f a c c e n t mark i m p l i e s t h a t t h e  i n q u e s t i o n may used t o denote  be e i t h e r s t r e s s e d  or u n s t r e s s e d .  The  means  t h e a c c e n t t y p e o f bare stems i s d e s c r i b e d  b e l o w i n t h e s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d A c c e n t , and a l s o on p . 71, ( i ) , (j).  17  Summary o f t h e Jakobson  Contribution  Truncation Jakobson's s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s what M o r r i s H a l l e c a l l s t h e " p i v o t a l f e a t u r e " ' o f t h e S l a v i c c o n j u g a t i o n , namely t r u n c a t i o n , i . e . t h e l o s s o f t h e f i n a l phoneme o f the i n i t i a l phoneme o f t h e d e s i n e n c e .  stem o r o f t h e  T h i s f e a t u r e has i t s o r i -  g i n s deep i n h i s t o r y , i n the p e c u l i a r word s t r u c t u r e o f Common S l a v o n i c w i t h i t s a l t e r n a t i o n o f vowels and consonants and  i t s l i m i t a t i o n s on c l u s t e r s o f e i t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h e l o s s o f the ;jers. has r e i n t r o d u c e d t h e con-  sonant c l u s t e r i n t o a l l modern forms o f S l a v o n i c ,  t h i s Common  S l a v o n i c f e a t u r e has been e s p e c i a l l y w e l l p r e s e r v e d i n t h e c o n j u g a t i o n , where t r u n c a t i o n  i s observed t o operate con-  s i s t e n t l y a t t h e j u n c t u r e o f stem and d e s i n e n c e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c e r t a i n c l u s t e r s o f consonants or c h a i n s o f v o w e l s . F o r example, t h e s u f f i x __1- o f the P a s t tense appears i n the Masc u l i n e P r e t e r i t o f most v e r b s as t h e f i n a l phoneme, e.g. c i t a _ l - # (he r e a d ) , v ' e r ' i _ l - # (he b e l i e v e d ) , took).  b r a _ l — # (he  T h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u f f i x f o l l o w e d a  vowel, the f i n a l vowel of the s o - c a l l e d  I n f i n i t i v e stem.  In  the v e r b s v ' i s _ t " i ( l e a d ) , m ' i s _ _ t ' i (sweep) e t c . t h e o r i g i n a l I n f i n i t i v e stems *v'ed_, *m'ed__ ended i n a consonant which formed a c l u s t e r w i t h t h e s u f f i x __1- o f the P a s t t e n s e , r e q u i r i n g s i m p l i f i c a t i o n by means o f t h e t r u n c a t i o n  of the  18 final  consonant  o f t h e stem, g i v i n g t h e modern Masc. P r e t s .  v'o__l—# a n d m'o_l-#. n'is_t'i and  However, i n t h e case o f a v e r b  like  ( c a r r y ) , t h e c l u s t e r - s _ _ l - a t t h e j u n c t u r e o f stem  d e s i n e n c e was r e s o l v e d b y t h e t r u n c a t i o n o f t h e s u f f i x _ 1 . It  i s therefore of the greatest importance, i n the pres-  ent a n a l y s i s , t o n o t e , f i r s t ence, i . e . whether  of a l l , the nature of the desin-  i t sinitial  segment (phoneme) i s a  a n t o r a v o w e l , and s e c o n d l y , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e stem, must a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d a s e n d i n g i n a c o n s o n a n t  consonwhich  or a vowel.  T h i s g i v e s t h e terms v o c a l i c and c o n s o n a n t a l d e s i n e n c e s ( b e g i n n i n g w i t h a vowel and  closed full-stems  pectively) .  o r a consonant r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and open (ending i n a vowel  T r u n c a t i o n o f stem  or a consonant  or desinence i n t r o d u c e s the  c o n c e p t s o f stem a l t e r n a n t s and d e s i n e n t i a l Hot  res-  alternants.  o n l y t r u n c a t i o n b u t o t h e r f a c t o r s as w e l l ,  including  c o n c o m i t a n t change, m u t a t i o n , m o d i f i c a t i o n , i n s e r t i o n and s t r e s s removal  (see below), account f o rthe form of the v a r -  i o u s stem a l t e r n a n t s . t i o n .factors .  Ho b a s e  F o r example,  c a n escape a l l o f t h e a l t e r n a -  t h e a c c e n t e d f u l l - s t e m PAD__ ( f a l l )  never q u i t e achieves, complete r e a l i z a t i o n o f i t s t r u e n a t u r e i n a n y o f i t s many f o r m s , u n d e r g o i n g t r u n c a t i o n ( o f one p h o neme) i n a l l f o r m s  of the P r e t e r i t  e t c . ) , mutation of the f i n a l  ( M a s c . p a _ l - # , Fem. p a _ l - a  consonant  i n the I n f i n i t i v e  where  d b e f o r e t i s r e p l a c e d by s ( I n f . p a s _ _ t ) , m o d i f i c a t i o n ( i n 1  t h i s case s i m p l e s o f t e n i n g ) o f t h e f i n a l  1  consonant  i n most o f  19  the  p r e v o c a l i c forms (2 Sg. p a d ' _ 6 - s , 3 Sg. pad'__o-t, 1 P I .  pad'__o-m, 2 P I . pad '__o-t i , Imper. Sg. pad*__i-#, Imper. P I . ,:  pad ' _ _ i - t ' i ; , and s t r e s s removal i n a l l p r e v o c a l i c forms, i n c l u d i n g 1 Sg. and 3 Pl« (pad__u, p a d _ u - t ) . 3  The main problem i s , as H e r b e r t Rubenstein-' p u t s i t , "the  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e between t h e a l t e r n a n t s  of t h e stem morphemes and the a l t e r n a n t s o f t h e morphemes t o which t h e y a r e j o i n e d " ( i . e . t h e d e s i n e n t i a l morphemes). old  Common S l a v o n i c r e q u i r e m e n t o f s t r i c t a l t e r n a t i o n  The  between  consonant and v o w e l i s r e f l e c t e d t h e n i n t h e b a s i c r u l e conc e r n i n g t h i s i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , namely t h a t consonant t r u n c a t e s consonant and v o w e l t r u n c a t e s v o w e l .  Generally speaking, the  d e s i n e n c e remains i n t a c t w h i l e i t s i n i t i a l vowel or consonant r e q u i r e s the t r u n c a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l consonant or vowel o f the  stem ( r e g r e s s i v e t r u n c a t i o n ) .  There a r e , however,  impor-  t a n t r e v e r s a l s o f t h i s g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e when t h e i n i t i a l  seg-  ment o f t h e d e s i n e n c e i s l o s t w h i l e t h e stem remains i n t a c t (progressive truncation). Regressive Truncation The f o l l o w i n g e x e m p l i f y t h e two t y p e s o f r e g r e s s i v e truncation. 1.)  Vowel ( o f t h e d e s i n e n c e ) t r u n c a t e s v o w e l ( o f the  base).  SOL'I_(salt) - 3 P I . s o l ' u-t  20  MAZ"Al_(oil) - 2 Sg. maz_i-S G 0 Y 0 R ' I _ ( s p e a k ) - Imper. Sg. g a v a r ' _ i - # 2.)  Consonant ( o f the d e s i n e n c e ) t r u n c a t e s consona n t ( o f the "base). CITAJ_(read)  -  Masc. P r e t .  ZIV_ ( l i v e )  -  Inf. zi__t'  cita_l-#  BR'0JjJ(make one's way) - Pern. P r e t . b r ' i _ _ l - a VI'OKjCdraw)  -  Inf. vl'e_c  The g e n e r a l statement t o the e f f e c t t h a t  consonants  t r u n c a t e consonants can be a p p l i e d w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n o n l y t o the stems ending i n - J _ , -AT_, -B__ o r -M^ which a r e s a i d t o be n a r r o w l y c l o s e d ( e . g . DUMAJ_ "think"', ZIV_ " l i v e " , STAM_ 1  "become"').  T r u n c a t i o n where t h e s e stems a r e concerned i s  always o f the r e g r e s s i v e v a r i e t y . A l l o t h e r c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s ( t h o s e e n d i n g i n -K_, -G_, -T_,  -S__, -Z._, -B2. & -R_ e.g. VL'OKj " draw" , STR'IG_ !  :  " c u t " , GN'OTj "'oppress"-, KLAD_ " l a y " , "SPAS^ " save", V'OZj :  :  "convey", GR'0B__ "row", #T'#R__ "rub" ) a r e c a l l e d b r o a d l y c l o s e d :  and t h e y r e s i s t t h i s g e n e r a l t r e n d i n some o r a l l o f the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms.  Thus stems i n v e l a r s a r e t r u n c a t e d o n l y  b e f o r e t h e I n f i n i t i v e d e s i n e n c e b u t n o t b e f o r e the P r e t e r i t d e s i n e n c e where t h e t r u n c a t i o n i s p r o g r e s s i v e (see b e l o w ) . A l s o , stems i n d e n t a l s t o p s (~T__, -D__) a r e t r u n c a t e d o n l y b e f o r e the P r e t e r i t desinence and undergo m u t a t i o n ( t o s) b e f o r e t h e I n f i n i t i v e d e s i n e n c e .  Stems i n -S ,  -B__,  21  -R__ are never t r u n c a t e d and i n s t e a d r e q u i r e t r u n c a t i o n ( p r o g r e s s i v e ) of the P r e t e r i t  s u f f i x i n the Masculine  ( e . g . IT'OSJ " c a r r y " Masc. P r e t . n'os_#-#,  S K R ' O B J  gender o n l y "scrape"  Masc. P r e t . s l c r ' o p j M , GRIZ_ "gnaw"-Masc. P r e t . g r i s _ # - # , #T'#R__ "rub" Masc. P r e t .  t'or_#-r#).  Stems i n - B _  undergo  m u t a t i o n b e f o r e t h e I n f i n i t i v e d e s i n e n c e (e.g. GR'OBj' "row" I n f . gr'is__t»i).  Summary o f P r o g r e s s i v e ' Broadly  Truncation  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s i n -K__,  -S_, -Z_, -B__,  s u f f i x _ 1 - i n the Masculine  -R_ t r u n c a t e t h e P r e t e r i t  form  only. E.g.  P'OK^'bake" Masc. P r e t . p'ok_#-#, Pem. p»ik_l-a S T R ' I G J ' c u t " Masc. P r e t . str»ik_#-#, Pem. str'ig_l-a PAS_^"graze", pas_jf-#, p a s _ l - a POLZ_^" crawl", pols_#-#, p a l z _ _ l - a :  GR'OB^"row" , gr'op_#-#, g r ' i b _ l - a ;  #T #RJ rub", t'or_#-#, t ' 6 r _ l - a ,/  H.B. sive.  ,  The t r u n c a t i o n o f vowel by v o w e l i s always r e g r e s -  Where a stem e n d i n g i n a consonant i s f o l l o w e d by a  d e s i n e n c e b e g i n n i n g w i t h a v o w e l , o r a stem e n d i n g i n a v o w e l i s f o l l o w e d by a d e s i n e n c e b e g i n n i n g w i t h a consonant, no t r u n c a t i o n o f e i t h e r stem or d e s i n e n c e t a k e s  place.  22  Changes Accompanying A f f i x a t i o n ( w i t h A.discussion  he  e v e n when s u f f i x e s a r e  f o u n d b e l o w on  D e s i n e n c e s and  Their  added w i t h o u t  and  automatically  ( e . g . _!-/_#- f o r t h e P r e t . s u f f i x i n c i t a _ l - #  n'os__#'-#), many d e s i n e n c e s s u c h as  choice  m i n e d by  that  of the  n a t u r e of the preceding  t h e s e a l t e r n a n t s and few  r e m a r k s on t h e  Components o f t h e  their  other  the v a r i o u s  stem.  deterof  follow  a  desinence.  Desinence Jakobson examined the n a t u r e  desinences that play  s u c h an  I t has  been mentioned t h a t desinences are n e c e s s a r i l y t o t h e i r i n i t i a l phoneme, a s  of  important r o l e i n  stem a l t e r n a t i o n statements t h a t f o l l o w .  according  factors.  A.discussion  stem d e t e r m i n a n t s w i l l  components of t h e  Early i n his article,  the  Infinitive  among a l t e r n a t i n g d e s i n e n c e s i s m o s t o f t e n  the  trun-  Alternants  ( _ t ' / _ t ' i / __c) h a v e a l t e r n a n t s d e t e r m i n e d by The  of  pages  Apart from s u f f i x a l a l t e r n a n t s a r i s i n g from t r u n c a t i o n  Truncation)  o f c h a n g e s a c c o m p a n y i n g t r u n c a t i o n and  changes o c c u r r i n g c a t i o n may  or w i t h o u t  already  classified,  e i t h e r consonantal  or  vocalic. Each of the o f one be  desinences c o n s i s t s , according  o r more component s u f f i x e s .  followed  to  Jakobson,  Those s u f f i x e s which, must  by a n o t h e r s u f f i x , i n c l u d i n g t h e  s u f f i x zero  (#),  23, he  c a l l s non-terminal  the Pres.-Future  suffixes.^  ( o r non-Pret.)  These a r e t h e s u f f i x e s o f _ i - , _ u - , _ a - , _o-^ (always  f o l l o w e d by the p e r s o n a l s u f f i x e s ) , i t _1-  the s u f f i x  of the P r e t e r -  (always f o l l o w e d by the s u f f i x e s o f gender  including  z e r o f o r t h e M a s c u l i n e , o r by t h e s u f f i x - i f o r t h e P l u r a l ) . The o t h e r s u f f i x e s a r e known a s f r e e s u f f i x e s . suffixes  o f p e r s o n , number and g e n d e r (-u, - s , - t , -m,  - a , -6,  ~'i),  the s u f f i x of the I n f i n i t i v e  t h a t o f the P r e s e n t Gerund. a complex desinence  definition,  i s one c o n t a i n i n g a n o n t e r m i n a l s u f f i x ( a s without a nonterminal  since Jakobson regards the s u f f i x  u l a r as a simple desinence 2.62A),  -t'i,  and, presumably,  S i n c e , by Jakobson's  opposed t o a s i m p l e d e s i n e n c e and  These a r e t h e  of the Imperative  ( i m p l i e d i n S e c t i o n s 2.122  t h e Imper. Sg. d e s i n e n c e  kobson as a f r e e s u f f i x .  suffix) Sing-  and  must a l s o be r e g a r d e d  Nevertheless, this so-called  by J a free  s u f f i x b e h a v e s somewhat l i k e a n o n t e r m i n a l s u f f i x w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n i n the P l u r a l  of the 2 P I . s u f f i x - t ' i .  t e r m i n a l o r f r e e , t h e Imper. Sg. d e s i n e n c e _ _ i - a f t e r two c o n s o n a n t s  h a s two a l t e r n a n t s ,  o r a f t e r a stem n o t h a v i n g an  m o v a b l e a c c e n t and " z e r o " - e l s e w h e r e . used,  Whether non-  irre-  Whichever a l t e r n a n t i s  t h e p r e c e d i n g c o n s o n a n t becomes s o f t .  This softening i s  s u b s t i t u t i v e f o r one v a r i e t y o f f u l l - s t e m , t h e p o l y s y l l a b i c hard  open f u l l - s t e m  ( s e e b e l o w , p . 194)  and s i m p l e  (See n o t e s b e l o w on J a k o b s o n ' s r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g  elsewhere.  softening).  An a l t e r n a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e I m p e r a t i v e i s o f f e r e d i n the c r i t i c i s m  below.  2k Desinential  Alternants  The v e r b a l d e s i n e n c e s d i s c u s s e d b y J a k o b s o n y s i s are l i s t e d noted.  Statements  follow. ing  A. l i s t  I n f o u r c a s e s an a l t e r n a t i o n w i l l  d e f i n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g Czech  t h e a l t e r n a n t s as n o t e d by R u b e n s t e i n ^ )  purposes  of  The  Finite  desinences  (includ-  i s included f o r  comparison.  t o Jakobson's  forms  Jakobson's  and  self-imposed l i m i t a t i o n s  the I n f i n i t i v e  (only  the  unwillingness to complicate h i s alternation  areas of a p p l i c a b i l i t y .  limited  I n s t e a d , he h a s i n c l u d e d t h e s e i n  o f e x c e p t i o n s (pp. 163-16^).  list  A. more c o m p l e t e  c h a r t showing  a l l of the  desinential  a l t e r n a n t s i n R u s s i a n o f a l l d e s i n e n c e s , however t h e s e may  is  a r e d e a l t w i t h ) and p a r t l y  s t a t e m e n t s by a d m i t t i n g a l t e r n a n t s w i t h e x t r e m e l y  his  be  alternants  p o v e r t y o f d e s i n e n t i a l a l t e r n a n t s as h e r e l i s t e d  p a r t l y due  to  below.  i n his anal-  be, w i l l  Grammatical  62-67.  be f o u n d b e l o w on p p .  Form  Russian  Czech -u/-i/-m  1  Sg.  -u  2  Sg.  -s  3  Sg.  -t  -ff  1 PI.  -m  -me  2 PI.  -t'i  -te  3 PI.  -t"  -ou/-i:.  V  -s  limited  due  Grammatical  porm  P r e s". - P u t .  Russian  Czech  _o-/__a-/  _ i : - / _ a : -/__e  -/_#-  _i-/_uPret.  -l/-#  -1  Infin.  _k'i/.J' /__c f  _ t (or _ t ' i ,  literary)/  _ci Masc. ( P r e t . )  -#  -#  Pem.  -a  -a  Neut.  -6  -o  Plural  -  '  i  - i (Masc. & -a  Pem.)  (Heut.)  Imper. The  f o l l o w i n g a l t e r n a t i o n statements  R u s s i a n n o n t e r m i n a l P r e s . - P u t . and " f r e e " I m p e r a t i v e and (i)  Infinitive  are r e q u i r e d f o r the  P r e t . s u f f i x e s and  f o r the  suffixes.  I n t h e 3 Pl»> s t r e s s e d P r e s . s u f f i x e s a r e for  soft  _k-  open f u l l - s t e m s and __u- f o r a l l o t h e r  full-stems.  The  everywhere _u-.  unstressed desinence Por a l l other persons  is (except  1 Sg.), the s t r e s s e d Pres. s u f f i x i s _ _ i - f o r s o f t o p e n f u l l - s t e m s and _ o - f o r a l l o t h e r s . The  unstressed desinence  The  1 Sg.  desinence  may  J a k o b s o n does n o t h a n d l e  i s everywhere _ _ i - . he  e x p l a i n e d , though  i t t h i s way,  s i c a l l y a complex d e s i n e n c e ,  as  consisting,  balike  26  a l l the r e s t , of a Pres.-Put.  suffix (vocalic)  f o l l o w e d by a p e r s o n a l s u f f i x w h i c h , u n l i k e the o t h e r s , i s a l s o a vowel and t h e r e f o r e r e quires t r u n c a t i o n of the nonterminal  suffix  i n order t o avoid a "chain". (ii)  The a l t e r n a t i o n _1-/__#- o f t h e P r e t . s u f f i x i s a problem c o n c e r n i n g  t r u n c a t i o n and i s d e a l t  w i t h above under t h e h e a d i n g P r o g r e s s i v e Truncation. ( i i i ) According  t o Jakobson, t h e Imper. Sg. d e s i n -  ence i s _ i / _ # "when t h e p r e c e d i n g is soft".  consonant  T h i s means t h a t t h e f i n a l  ant o f t h e f u l l - s t e m , i f n o t a l r e a d y must be s o f t e n e d  consonsoft,  i n conjunction with the ad-  d i t i o n of e i t h e r a l t e r n a n t of t h i s  suffix.  S o f t open f u l l - s t e m s r e q u i r e no changes, r e t a i n i n g t h e p a l a t a l i z e d or p a l a t a l consonant j u s t as i t o c c u r s i n t h e f u l l - s t e m .  Stems i n  - J _ , whether open o r c l o s e d , cannot undergo any changes, w h i l e the o t h e r c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s r e q u i r e o n l y bare ( o r s i m p l e ) s o f t e n i n g  (where  p o s s i b l e ) o f t h e f i n a l consonant o f t h e stem b e f o r e __i/_#.  The p o l y s y l l a b i c hard open  f u l l - s t e m s r e q u i r e s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t e n i n g as t h e y undergo s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t e n i n g  before  27  a l l vocalic  desinences.  Y'ERT'E _ ( t w i r l ) BUD«I_ v  v /  Imper. Sg. v ' i r t ' _ i /  1!,  bud ' _ _ i  n  II  zurc ' _ i  (wake)  ZURCA_  (purl)  STOJA_  (stand)  11  II.  sto;j_#  DUMAJ_  (think)  II  II  duma;j_#  SM'EJ_  (dare)  it  II  sm 'e j_#  PLIV_  (swim)  ti  II  pliv _i  S'AD_  (sit)  II  II  s'at'__#  ZM__  (press)  it  II  zrji'_i  RZ_  (neigh)  II  II  rz__i  ZRA__  (gorge)  it  II  zr  XNIKA__  (whimper)  n.  It  xnic__/r  it  It  sv ' i s c _ _ i  y/  SV*ISTA_J  whistle)  !  ' _ i  The a l t e r n a n t _ i o c c u r s a f t e r two consonants or a f t e r a stem t h a t does n o t have an i r r e movable a c c e n t .  See p. k6.  POMIT'I_ (remember) DR EMA_ (slumber) !  L ' 0 Z A _  (lie)  11  " "  "  pomn'_i  11  dr'iml'__i  "' l ' i z _ i  T h i s l e a v e s t h e a l t e r n a n t __# as t h e Imper. desinence  o n l y o f those f u l l - s t e m s with, an  i r r e m o v a b l e accent and w i t h a s i n g l e consonair i n stem f i n a l p o s i t i o n . S«AD_ ( s i t )  s'-at' #  28 D'EM_  (put)  C-ATOV'IJ  The  Imper. Sg. d'en'j^'  prepare)  »  "  a l t e r n a n t __# i s a l s o u s e d  group  to avoid  instead  f  stoj_#, v'ej_#,  occur V'J__  T h u s , ST0JA_ ( s t a n d ) ,  ( t w i s t ) ' , G-l\T IJ_ ( r o t ) h a v e _#  The  the  i n t h e Imper. i f i t does n o t  i n the f u l l - s t e m .  (iv)  gatof'__#  of _ ' i : -  gn'ij_#.  a l t e r n a n t s of the I n f i n i t i v e  desinence  a r e _ t ' , _ t ' i and __c. The  a l t e r n a n t _ c i s used f o r c l o s e d  cented or unaccented) sonant, _ _ t ' i  ending i n a v e l a r  i s used f o r a l l other  "broadly-closed  stems ( a c con-  "unaccented"  f u l l - s t e m s and _ _ t ' ("by f a r t h e  m o s t common a l t e r n a n t )  occurs i n a l l other  positions. E . g . STR'IG_ ( c u t )  Infinitive  str'i_c  T ' O K J  (flow).  "  t'e^c  B L ' U D j  (guard)  "  bl'us_t i  L « E Z _  (climb)  "  l'es_t»"  G A I D t E _  (make a d i n )  "  gald'e_t«  , :  S i g n i f i c a n t Features of the F u l l - S t e m As n o t e d a b o v e ,  the s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i n g s u f f i x e s or  d e s i n e n c e s depends upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f u l l - s t e m w i t h they combine.  which  T h e s e s e l e c t i o n s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by c e r t a i n s i g -  29 nificant  features  of the full-stem.  F e a t u r e s o f t h e f u l l - s t e m a l s o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t and nature of softening stem combines w i t h  ( o f the l a s t the various  c o n s o n a n t a l phoneme) a s t h e  selected  desinential alternants.  E x t e n t and n a t u r e o f t r u n c a t i o n and, t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , t h e meanings o f t h e terms a c c e n t e d and u n a c c e n t e d a l s o h i n g e upon the  general  features icance  character  of the f u l l - s t e m .  Certain significant  o f t h e f u l l - s t e m r a n k a b o v e and d e t e r m i n e t h e s i g n i f -  of c e r t a i n other s i g n i f i c a n t features.  A' l i s t  of these s i g n i f i c a n t features  t h a t determine the  s h a p e o f t h e p u r e l y v e r b a l f o r m s ( F i n i t e f o r m s and t h e I n f i n itive)  of unprefixed (i)  o n e - r o o t stems f o l l o w s .  Syllabicity  of the Full-Stem  Stems a r e d i v i d e d abic  - Number o f V o w e l s  into nonsyllabic,  and p o l y s y l l a b i c v a r i e t i e s .  a c c e n t e d and u n a c c e n t e d a c q u i r e  monosyll-  The t e r m s  different  meanings depending upon whether t h e stem i s polysyllabic  or n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c .  P o l y s y l l a b i c i t y a l s o accounts f o r d i f f e r e n t softening  p r i n c i p l e s ( c f . monosyll. hard  full-stems with  p o l y s y l l . hard  open  open  full-stems  - See b e l o w p p . 3 8 - 3 9 ) • A l l non-polysyllabics Pres. soft  have rounded  stressed  tense desinences except the monosyll. open f u l l - s t e m s .  30 (ii)  Nature  o f t h e F i n a l S t e m Phoneme Consonant  or Vowel  Stems a r e d i v i d e d i n t o c l o s e d a n d open stems.  This c r i t e r i o n i s i r r e l e v a n t  regards the nonsyllahics. the  full-  only as  This feature i s of  g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e as i t determines  w h i c h w i l l he t h e f o r m s i n w h i c h will  operate.  truncation  Certain restrictions  on a c c e n t  t y p e and s t r e s s b e h a v i o r a r e a l s o  established  on t h e b a s i s  phoneme o f  of whether  the f i n a l  a p o l y s y l l a b i c i s a vowel or a consonant. example,  a p o l y s y l l . h a r d open f u l l - s t e m  n o t b e a r t h e a c c e n t on i t s f i n a l v o w e l  For can-  (unless  s t e m i s i n -0VA__ o r -NU__) , b u t t h e r e i s  the no  such l i m i t a t i o n i f the p o l y s y l l .  is  c l o s e d , as f o r example  Also  full-stem  CITAJ_.  o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e r e s t r i c t i o n  among p o l y s y l l a b l e s  on t h e c l o s e d s t e m  w i t h v e r y few e x c e p t i o n s (namely  which,  B'lR'OG^  " t a k e c a r e o f " , ST'LR'OGj "guard",'VALOKj " d r a g " , P R • I N ' I B R ' O G J ' " n e g l e c t " ) must e n d i n the  consonant  DUMAJ_ ('iii) Nature  - J _ _ , e.g. C I T A J _  (read),  (think). o f t h e L a s t Consonant  (not  o f t h e Stem  n e c e s s a r i l y the f i n a l  phoneme)  31 ( a ) Among t h e open f u l l - s t e m s , t h e h a r d n e s s o r softness ture) the  of the l a s t  or p a l a t a l i z e d na-  consonant  s e l e c t i o n of the Pres.  inential (i)). P.  (i.e.palatal  alternants.  determines stressed des-  (See above, p. 2 5 ,  ( S e e a l s o S e c t i o n on S o f t e n i n g ,  37).  A l s o , there i s an important r e s t r i c t i o n a c c e n t t y p e where t h e p o l y s y l l . h a r d  on  open  f u l l - s t e m s a r e c o n c e r n e d t h a t does n o t a f f e c t the p o l y s y l l .  soft  open f u l l - s t e m s .  See ( i i ) . ( h ) Among t h e c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s , o n l y a h a r d consonant tion  or - J _ can appear i n f i n a l  and, whether  or - J _ _ , t h e P r e s .  t h a t consonant i s hard stressed desinences are  always the rounded distinction  posi-  ones.  However, t h e  between t h e f i n a l  as narrow o r broad i s o f g r e a t  consonants signifi-  cance i n m a t t e r s o f a c c e n t ( s e e below) and t r u n c a t i o n (see above), (iv)  Accent of the Pull-Stem This  - A c c e n t e d and Unaccented  determines the p a t t e r n of s t r e s s through-  out t h e v a r i o u s g r a m m a t i c a l forms o f each v e r b . This topic i s discussed  i n detail  separately  32 below.  S e e p p . 80-129.  The t e r m a c c e n t e d o r  unaccented i s o f no s i g n i f i c a n c e u n l e s s t h e syliableity, and f i n a l  consonant  (hard or s o f t , narrow or  b r o a d ) a r e known, a s t h e s e t h r e e f a c t o r s  lend  a d i f f e r e n t meaning t o t h e term " a c c e n t " .  See  (i), (v)  f i n a l phoneme ( c o n s o n a n t o r v o w e l )  ( i i ) and ( i i i ) above.  N a t u r e o f t h e L a s t T h r e e Phonemes (of P o l y s y l l a b i c Pull-Stems) ( a ) S t e m s e n d i n g i n -CCY_ ( i . e . c o n s o n a n t , consonant, vowel). Significant f o r selection of correct a l ternant ence.  (_i/_#) o f t h e I m p e r a t i v e d e s i n (See a b o v e , p p . 2 6 - 2 8 , u n d e r D e s -  inential Alternants, ( b ) Stems i n -AVA_.  (iii)).  See T y p e s o f t r u n c a t i o n ,  p . 3 4 ( i i ) and p p . 149-150. ( c ) Stems i n -0VA_. P. 3 5  See T y p e s o f t r u n c a t i o n ,  (iv)(a).  ( d ) Stems i n -CNU__, w h e r e -C__ i s a n y c o n s o n ant. (vi)  S e e a l s o p . 34  ( i i ) and p.  151.  N a t u r e o f t h e L a s t Two Phonemes o f Non-. P o l y s y l l a b i c Pull-Stems T h i s w i l l determine the need ted vowel or concomitant  f o r the inser-  change.  33 One  monosyll.  nonsyllabics  (TAL#K_^ "pound") and  certain  ( i . e . t h o s e t h a t do n o t  require  c o n c o m i t a n t change) have i n s e r t i o n . -J__ or n a s a l consonants r e q u i r e change.  c o n c o m i t a n t change. b e l o w , pp.  Types of The than the  the  See  concomitant also  Types o f  simple i n the  i n v o l v i n g more  a l t e r n a t i o n of v o w e l or consonant with, "zero" above f o r m u l a t i o n the  (see p.  interdependence of the  19)  of the  c o n s o n a n t and  vowel truncates  D i r e c t i o n of  Truncation  Degrees of  article,  and  a l r e a d y b e e n d r a w n a b o v e on p p .  p l e s of each type were  and  truncates  vowel.  d i s t i n c t i o n between p r o g r e s s i v e  c a t i o n has  regressive  trun-  1 9 - 2 1 w h e r e exam-  given.  Truncation  types d i s t i n g u i s h e d below are i m p l i e d i n Jakobson's t h o u g h nov/here s u m m a r i z e d and  done b e l o w .  1  basic  stem a l t e r n a n t s  d e s i n e n t i a l a l t e r n a n t s , namely t h a t consonant  The  Truncation  33-37-  p r o b l e m o f t r u n c a t i o n i s a c o m p l e x one  concerning  The  require  Truncation  described rule  i n -0J__  Monosyllables  Those i n  labelled  as h a s  been  34 Simple (i)  Truncation Normal  Truncation  One phoneme initial  phoneme o f t h e d e s i n e n c e )  i s lost.  Normal  t r u n c a t i o n c a n he p r o g r e s s i v e o r r e g r e s s i v e .  This  type  on  of t r u n c a t i o n has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d  17-21.  pp. (ii)  ( t h e f i n a l phoneme o f t h e s t e m o r t h e  Deep T r u n c a t i o n The in  final  ( J a k . , S e c . 2.23)  two phonemes o f t h e v e r b a l s t e m a r e l o s t  the formation of the Pret. of c e r t a i n  verbs rule  v/hose f u l l - s t e m s end i n -NU_.  suffix place.  This therefore represents  t r u n c a t e s only consonant. of the r e g r e s s i v e v a r i e t y indeed  the  the basic  consonantal  of the P r e t . should n o t , of course,  parture from the general p r i n c i p l e  take  an important that  de-  consonant  Deep t r u n c a t i o n i s o n l y (never p r o g r e s s i v e ) and  t h i s i s the only instance of i t i n Russian.  GASNU__ ( b e e x t i n g u i s h e d ) , Pem. P r e t . g a s _ l - a .  A l s o noted 2.23)  Given  (above) f o r t r u n c a t i o n , any degree o f t r u n c a -  t i o n o f s u c h open f u l l - s t e m s b e f o r e  E.g.  polysyll.  as deeper t r u n c a t i o n by Jakobson ( S e c .  i s t h e l o s s o f -VA- i n t h e g r o u p - A V A J _ ( e . g .  "DAYAJ__ " g i v e " ) and t r a n s f e r e n c e o f t h e s t r e s s f r o m t h e stem t o t h e d e s i n e n c e  i n the Pres.  i c i s m of Jakobson's h a n d l i n g  Some c r i t -  of t h i s problem w i l l  35 be found below, pp. 149-150.  Complex  Truncation  I n some i n s t a n c e s  of t r u n c a t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l develop-  ments, e i t h e r f u r t h e r t r u n c a t i o n o r changes o f a d i f f e r ent o r d e r , (iii)  occur  automatically,  " C h a i n " o r Compound  Truncation  I s t h e name would i m p l y , an i n i t i a l  truncation  (Type ( i ) - Normal) causes a f u r t h e r t r u n c a t i o n . Depending on whether t h e secondary t r u n c a t i o n p r o ceeds i n t h e same or r e v e r s e  d i r e c t i o n as compared  w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l t r u n c a t i o n , two sub-types o f " c h a i n " t r u n c a t i o n can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , (a)  Simple C h a i n E.g.  Truncation  1 Sg. p ' i s u < p'is$_J\-u (V/=  any v o w e l , t h e v o w e l o f t h e P r e s . , i.e.  n o n - t e r m i n a l s u f f i x ) (See above,  Desinential Alternants (b)  R e f l e x Chain E.g.  ( i ) , p.  25).  Truncation  Masc. P r e t . t'ix__#-# < t ' i x ( n u ) _ l - # Masc. P r e t . r o s #-# < r o s t H.B.  Truncation  l'-#  i s i n both cases  ini-  t i a l l y r e g r e s s i v e and t h e n p r o g r e s sive. (iv)  Truncation  w i t h Concomitant Change  36 When t h e f i n a l  - A i _ o f f u l l - s t e m s i n -OVA_  alternates with -0V-  "zero", i . e . i s truncated,  a l t e r n a t e s w i t h -ug-.  -A_-_ i n -0VA__ i s a c c e n t e d ,  I n c a s e s where t h e t h e s t r e s s remains  on t h e v e r b a l s t e m b y m o v i n g b a c k one s y l l a b l e to  the -u- of - u j - , unless  tutes the i n i t i a l  syllable  t h i s vowel  consti-  of a grammatical  form. E.g.  SAV»ET0VA_ ( a d v i s e ) , 1 S g . s a v ' e t u j _ _ u OBRAZOVA_ ( f o r m ) , 1 S g . a b r a z u j _ u S0VA_ ( p o k e ) ,  When t h e f i n a l  1 Sg. s u j _ u  - J _ _ o f mono- a n d n o n s y l l a b i c  full-stems alternates with  "zero", i . e .i s  truncated, the -0- of the monosyllables  and t h e  "zero vowel" o f the n o n s y l l a b i c s are replaced by - i _ _ . E.g.  V 0 J _ ( h o w l ) , Masc. P r e t . #1«J_ See  ( p o u r ) , Masc. P r e t . P o o t n o t e 57  concerning  vi_l-# l'i__l-# BR'0<T__ ( s h a v e ) .  When t h e f i n a l n a s a l c o n s o n a n t i n n o n s y l l . stems a l t e r n a t e s w i t h the  "zero", i . e . i s truncated,  " z e r o " i s r e p l a c e d b y -a__.  below concerning  See c r i t i c i s m  f u l l - s t e m v-JM_ ( t a k e ) , pp.  182-186. E.g.  ZN__ ( r e a p ) , M a s c . P r e t . z a l - # .  37  (v)  Truncation with The  Vowel  Insertion  f l e e t i n g v o w e l "o" (between two s o f t  "e")  i sinserted w i t h i n a verbal  the  stem ( o r p a r t  give  stem o r between  o f i t ) and a c o n s o n a n t a l  ence e i t h e r t o a v o i d cluster  consonants  an u n d e s i r a b l e  final  desinconsonant  ( i n t h e c a s e o f one m o n o s y l l a b i c ) o r t o  syllabicity  t o an otherwise n o n s y l l a b i c  form  ( i n t h e case o f c e r t a i n n o n s y l l a b i c s ) . E.g.  TAI#Kj ( p o u n d ) , M a s c . P r e t .  t a l o k #'-#, I n f . <f —  t a l o _ _ c C f . 1 S g . t a l k _ u , Pern. P r e t . #Z#G—  (burn),  Cf. The  talk_l-a  M a s c . P r e t . z to k— #-#, I n f . zfe—c  1 S g . zg__u, Pern. P r e t .  zg_l-a  n e e d f o r a n i n s e r t e d v o w e l t o accompany  trun-  c a t i o n c a n be n o t e d i n t h e f u l l - s t e m b y p l a c i n g t h e s i g n -#- a t t h e same p o i n t be  i nthe f u l l - s t e m as w i l l  o c c u p i e d by t h e i n s e r t e d v o w e l i n t h o s e gram-  matical  f o r m s r e q u i r i n g i t . E . g . T A I # K j ' , #Z#G__.  T h i s and other a d d i t i o n s  t o the configuration of  full-stems  f u l l y below, pp. 6 7 - 7 2 .  are discussed  Palatalization Jakobson has taken the trouble erning  the softening  analysis The  (2.41,  to restate  therules  gov-  o f c o n s o n a n t s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s new  2.42).  softness  or hardness o f t h e f u l l - s t e m ' s  last  conson-  38 ant  a s one o f t h e f u l l - s t e m ' s  m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , p p . 30-31*  s i g n i f i c a n t features This  c o n s o n a n t may be t h e f i n a l  phoneme o f t h e f u l l - s t e m i n t h e c a s e o f c l o s e d the  was a l r e a d y  full-stems or  s e c o n d l a s t phoneme i n t h e c a s e o f open f u l l - s t e m s whose V  f i n a l phoneme may be a n y o f t h e f i v e v o w e l s . ( s o u n d ) , DISA_ ( b r e a t h e ) ,  G0V0R'i_  /  E . g . ZVUGA_  SM0TR'E_ ( l o o k ) , V ' l l ' E ^ ( o r d e r ) ,  ( t a l k ) , P0MN»I_ ( r e m e m b e r ) , V'ID'I__ ( s e e ) , P0R0_  ( u n d o ) , TALK1TTJ_ ( p u s h ) , Y«ANiJ_ The  last  (fade).  c o n s o n a n t o f a n open f u l l - s t e m i s s o f t ( p a l a t a l  o r p a l a t a l i z e d ) b e f o r e -E__ a n d - I _ , h a r d b e f o r e -0_ a n d -U_. B e f o r e -A__, h a r d o r p a l a t a l c o n s o n a n t s may a p p e a r ( e . g .  T0PTA__  " t r a m p l e down", ST0JA__  pala-  talized  consonants.  svir'a_t' nizable  therefore  as having f u l l - s t e m s end o n l y  Softening  of the last  phoneme)of f u l l - s t e m s to truncation.  Softening  full-stems  ening, already  closed  recog-  i n -J_.  (see below)  full-stems  (send). consonant ( f i n a l  o r next t o l a s t  i s a problem second i n importance occurs only i n p r e v o c a l i c  are l e a s t affected by t h i s  f a c t o r as they a r e subject  atal  (reproach),  i nhard consonants or i n - J _  the suppletive  ( n e i g h ) a n d #SL'_v  Soft  but never  ( f l i n g ) and k a s l ' a _ _ t ' (cough) a r e i m m e d i a t e l y  two e x c e p t i o n s ,  #R'Z__V  MICA_ " l o w " ) ,  I n f i n i t i v e s such as p ' i n ' a _ t '  Closed full-stems with  "stand",  only  forms.  alternation  t o change o n l y b y s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t -  having, as t h e i r f i n a l  or p a l a t a l i z e d ) consonant.  consonant, a s o f t ( p a l -  Those i n p a l a t a l i z e d c o n s o n -  39 a n t s have s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t e n i n g i n t h e 1 Sg. o n l y E . g . UD'I__ ( f i s h ) :1  consonant w i l l p e r m i t ) .  ( l o v e ) : l ' u b l ' _ _ u , P ' E I T ' ^ ( f r o t h ) :p »en "_u. consonants are not subject E.g.  S g . u£_u, L ' U B ' I _  Those i n p a l a t a l  t o any changes o f t h i s  open f u l l - s t e m s  ( i n -0__ a n d -A__) u n d e r -  s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t e n i n g where p o s s i b l e b e f o r e  d e s i n e n c e s , i n c l u d i n g _[#/__'i o f t h e I m p e r a t i v e . tive  a l l vocalic I f substitu-  s o f t e n i n g i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r a consonant, bare E . g . SKAZA__ ( s a y ) :1  occurs instead. 3 P I . skaz_u-t, por'_u-t, _u  nature.  K R ' I C A _ ( c r y ) : k r ' i c _ u , STOJA_ ( s t a n d ) : s t a j _ u . P o l y s y l l a b i c hard  go  (as the  S g . skaz__u, 2 S g . s k a z _ j L - s ,  I m p e r . S g . s k a z _ i ; P 0 R 0 _ ( u n d o ) :.-par '_u, p o r ' _ _ i - s ,  par'__i.  of a desinence.  ston__u-t,  softening  standi.  H a r d s t e m s i n -N- h a v e n o s o f t e n i n g E . g . STOHA_ ( g r o a n ) :stan__u,  before  ston'_i-s,  F o r t h i s r e a s o n Jakobson has d e a l t v/ith  t h e m i n 2.42B. P o l y s y l l . h a r d open f u l l - s t e m s w i t h have o n l y bare s o f t e n i n g of the Imperative. Cf. and  SIPA_ ( p o u r ) ,  of l a b i a l s before  Jakobson's a r t i c l e .  as  exceptions  the "zero"  stress alternant  TR'OPA__ ( s c u t c h ) , I m p e r . S g . t r ' i p l ' _ _ i  sip'_#.  in  irremovable  This l a s t  Instead  ( J a k . 3«1)»  statement i s not included  such Imper. forms a r e l i s t e d  See c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s , p .  172.  I n t h e case o f n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s , t h e consonant is  subject  only t o bare s o f t e n i n g  (when t h i s i s p o s s i b l e ) e x -  c e p t i n t h e case o f t h e v e l a r stems w h i c h have bare only before  softening  t h e Imper. d e s i n e n c e and s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t e n i n g  40 elsewhere.  Hone o f t h e s e s t e m s , v e l a r  f o r m of s o f t e n i n g E.g.  or  before a desinence beginning with  #VRA__ ( t e l l  l i e s ) 1 Sg.  vr_u,  2 Sg.  3 PI. vr_u-t, #1GA_  o t h e r w i s e , have  (tell  any  __u.  vr'__o-s,  I m p e r . Sg. v r ' _ i  l i e s ) l g _ u , lz__o-&, l g _ u - t , l g ' _ i  KL'AN__ ( c u r s e )  kl'in__u, kl'in_o-s, kl'in__u-t, kl'in'__i  GH'IJ_ (rot)  gn*ij_u, gn'ij_o-s,  gn*ij__u-t,  gn'ij_# T'0K_'  S t r e s s and  (flow)  Accent  Though o f l i t t l e like  t ' i k _ u , t'ic_o'-s, t ' i k _ u - t , t * i k * _ _ i  C z e c h and  concern i n the  Polish, the'stressed  r e a l i s a t i o n of a f u l l - s t e m The  description  of  s y l l a b l e i n any  i n R u s s i a n i s not  languages actual  easily  predicted.  p r o b l e m of s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of f u l l - s t e m s  as  to  t y p e of a c c e n t i s of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n Jakobson's p a p e r . assumes e v e r g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y as The in  terms "accent*  1  and  the  analysis  i s expanded.  " s t r e s s " have each been d e f i n e d  a number o f d i f f e r e n t ways i n l i n g u i s t i c - g r a m m a t i c a l  ysis. cations  So  too,  and  m u s t h e r e be  i n Jakobson*s a r t i c l e ,  a certain relationship defined.  u s e d i n R u s s i a n , as  they have s p e c i a l  between themselves  Both r e f e r u l t i m a t e l y  t o the  s y l l a b l e i n a word o r ,  analapplithat  device  i n many o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , t o g i v e a  prominence to a s i n g l e  It  certain  i n some c a s e s ,  41 to a s i n g l e s y l l a b l e w i t h i n a short phrase.  Definitions Prominence i n a s y l l a b l e i n an a b s t r a c t form l i k e t h e f u l l - s t e m i s known as A c c e n t .  S y l l a b i c prominence i n s u c h  a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e d forms as b r ' i J L - a (she made h e r way), g r i z _ l - a (she gnawed), v ' i _ _ l - a (she t v / i s t e d ) , b ' i _ _ l - a (she b e a t ) i s known here as S t r e s s .  S t r e s s , t h e r e f o r e , i s the  r e a l i z a t i o n i n a c t u a l speech o f a c c e n t .  The a c c e n t type o f  a f u l l - s t e m i s t h e '-'structural f o r m u l a " of i t s s t r e s s  pattern  and may be s a i d t o determine or a t l e a s t p r e d i c t t h e e x a c t c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the l a t t e r .  A l l features  of t h e f u l l - s t e m  are l i k e w i s e f o r m u l a e f o r the a c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of i t s  b e h a v i o r i n i t s v a r i o u s g r a m m a t i c a l forms o r r e a l i z a t i o n s .  A c c e n t as an A b s t r a c t i o n The a b s t r a c t n a t u r e of a c c e n t may be i l l u s t r a t e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the n o n s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s . i s the p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a c t u a l utterance,  Since  syllabicity  o n l y an a b s t r a c t  e n t i t y c o u l d be s a i d t o l a c k s y l l a b i c i t y . y/ v the f u l l - s t e m s #SJ__ (sew) and #Z#G_ ( b u r n ) .  Such e n t i t i e s a r e Of c o u r s e , t h e  r e a l i z a t i o n s o f these a b s t r a c t i o n s i n a c t u a l speech a u t o m a t i c a l l y acquire  a v o w e l w h i c h may be e i t h e r a s i g n i f i c a n t quan-  t i t y , as i n the case o f t h e -a f o r t h e Feminine gender i n t h e f o r m zg 1-a, a r e p l a c e m e n t , as i n the case o f t h e - i - i n s i 1-a  42  replacing an  truncated  - J _ ( s e e J a k . 2 . 2 4 o r above, p. 3 6 ) , o r  i n s e r t i o n , a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e - o - i n z o k #-#,  syllabicity  t o an o t h e r w i s e n o n s y l l a b i c  form.  giving  The a p p e a r a n c e  o f a n a c u t e a c c e n t mark ( u s e d t o d e n o t e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e accent) i n nonsyllabic  f u l l - s t e m #§J__ w o u l d make no s e n s e i f  a c c e n t were n o t t h o u g h t o f a s a n a b s t r a c t . of the existence level for  ted (she  and  such an accented f u l l - s t e m c o u l d  sewed) o r b ' i _ l - a  recognised  ( s h e t w i s t e d j , p ' i _ _ l - a ( s h e drank) and l ' i _ l - a  ZM_ ( r e a p ) a s a c c e n t e d  and  (Jak.  stressed  illustrates  The e x p r e s s i o n  i nhis article,  f u l l - s t e m s ZM_  though  (press)  2.24).  with  i s always or even u s u a l l y a n example o u t s i d e  the verbal  p r ' i + s l a _ _ t ' n a dam_# ( t o s e n d home)  a t once t h e l o s s o f s t r e s s b y a n o r m a l l y  noun and, conversely, unstressed  relation-  o f a w o r d does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  t h e word i n q u e s t i o n  may be i l l u s t r a t e d  category.  Jakob-  Syllabicity  T h a t t h e mere s y l l a b i c i t y imply that  That  t h e a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f a c c e n t and i t s  t o mark t h e n o n s y l l a b i c  Accent, Stress  si_l-a  ( s h e b e a t ) whose f u l l - s t e m s a r e a c c e n -  s t r e s s i s everywhere i m p l i c i t  didf a i l  account  as e x i s t between t h e forms  p o u r e d ) , whose f u l l - s t e m s a r e n o t a c c e n t e d .  ship with he  only  and v ' i _ l - a  however,  o f a n a c c e n t e d f u l l - s t e m # S J _ on t h e a b s t r a c t  such s t r e s s d i f f e r e n c e s  (she  son  i s that  The p r o o f ,  stressed  the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s t r e s s by a n o r m a l l y  preposition.  The p r e p o s i t i o n n a must be assumed t o  43  "be u n a c c e n t e d by n a t u r e w i t h i z e d by  l a c k of s t r e s s .  O n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y , due  t o r s o f a more c o m p e l l i n g preposition include the  of such p h r a s e s na are  the  appearance of the  the unaccentedness u s u a l l y  nature, w i l l feature  dam,  i n the  i z damu, pod  normally unstressed  and  z a garadam, t h e y  u n a c c e n t e d and  this  s i n c e mere  necessarily imply accent.  i s Jakobson's contention  the  prominent s y l l a b l e s  t h a t a c c e n t i s independent of s y l l a b i c i t y , s y l l a b i c i t y does n o t  fac-  Notwithstanding  r u k u and  therefore  to other  the r e a l i z a t i o n of  of s t r e s s .  prepositions  real-  shows  (mono)-  Similarly, i t  t h a t l a c k of s y l l a b i c i t y does n o t  ne-  c e s s a r i l y i m p l y lack: of a c c e n t o r , i n o t h e r words, t h a t a syllabic  s t e m i s n e c e s s a r i l y a n u n a c c e n t e d one.  contrast  i n the  syll.  s t r e s s ' p o s i t i o n i n the  Pem.  f u l l - s t e m s BR'ODj' (make o n e ' s way)  br'i_l-a,  griz_l-a,  ( t v / i s t ) and  or  and  of the n o n s y l l a b i c  #B'J__ ( b e a t ) , v ' i _ l - a ,  Pret.  t r a s t accentedness v s . unaccentedness i s not the  contrast  therefore  matical) form. son  s t r e s s are  ( o r r e a l ) p r o m i n e n c e r e s p e c t i v e l y and  v a l u e s are  meant by  of the  the  mono-  GRIZ_ ( g n a w ) , #Y J^ f  shows t h a t t h e coincident  con-  with  s y l l a b i c i t y vs. n o n s y l l a b i c i t y .  I n summary t h e n , a c c e n t and crete  As p r o o f ,  full-stems  b'i_l-a,  non-  The  parallel  variety  of each t y p e .  cations  are  con-  contrasting (gram-  i l l u s t r a t e what J a k o b -  u n a c c e n t e d f u l l - s t e m s and  I t v / i l l be  d e t e r m i n e d by  their  and  t o t h o s e o f f u l l - s t e m and  following table w i l l  a c c e n t e d and  abstract  noted t h a t the  show  the  sub-classifi-  other s i g n i f i c a n t features  of  the  kk f u l l - s t e m noted i n the f a r left-hand  column. UNACCENTED  ACCENTED FULL-STEMS S t r e s s n o t remova b l e f r o m stem  S t r e s s removable f r o m stem  E.g. R'EZA__(cut)  SAXAR'I_(sugar)  (KOVAj(forge)  X0X0TA_(laugh)  VIL'S  SM0TR'E_(look)  (order)  B0R0ZD'I_(furrow)  VAR'I_(boil) K0L0__(stab)  CARAPNU__( s c r a t c h )  ytiRNU-(return)  TONUjsink)  Inf.  Inf.  0  P E N  E.g.  P  Pret.  0  L Y S Y L L.  Inf.  r'eza_t' r'eza_l-#  E N N 0.  1  v'il'e_l-#  xaxata_t*  Pret.  xaxata_l-#  1 S g . r'ez__u  1 Sg. v ' i l ' _ u  1 Sg. x a x a c _ u  2 Sg. r ' e z _ i - s  2 S g . v'il«_i-s  2 Sg. x a x o c _ i - s  Imper.  Imper. v ' i l  Imper.  r'es_#  In t h e v e r b s above, the s t r e s s i s aLways on t h e same s y l l a b l e o f the stem.  0 M P 0  Pret.  v'il'ejt  1  i  I n t h e p re c o n s . forms t h e s t r e s s i s a l w a y s on t h e same s t e m s y l l . I n t h e p re v o c . forms, i t i s s t i l l on t h e same relative syll. but due t o t r u n - . cation i t is r e moved t o the d e s .  V  Simple des. i s stressed. Vowell p r e c e d i n g a complex des. i s stressed.  ZDA BD'E_( w a t c h ) DL'I  (last)  <  xaxac_i  (wait)  45  UNACCENTED  ACCENTED-FULL STEMS S t r e s s n o t remova b l e from stem  S t r e s s removable from stem GNU_(bend)  0 P E N  E.g. Inf.  M 0 N 0 S Y L L.  P r e t . z d a 1-a, - a 1 Sg. zd_u 2 Sg. zd'_o-s Imper. z d ' _ i  N 0 N S Y L L. C L 0 S E D  zda_t»  B'J__(beat)  L'J_(pour)  Inf..b'i_t»  Inf. l ' i _ t '  1 S g . b«j_u  1 Sg. l ' 3 _ u  Pret. b'i_l-a(Neut.) Pret. ' -a(Fem.)  l»i_l-a(Neut.) -a(Fem.)  RUGAJ_(scold) P 0 Inf. ruga t 1 P r e t . ruga"_l-# Y. 1 S g . r u g a j _ u 1  N A R R 0  BR»OJ_(shave)  GN IJ_(rot)  D'EN_(put)  KL'AN_(curse) PLIV_(swim) E.g.  w II  E.g.  C L 0 S E D  Pern.Pret. d'e__l-a t  .Y  f  Inf.  d'e_t'  N e u t . P r e t . d e__l-a  Inf.  kl'as_t'  Pern.Pret.  kl'i_l-a  Neut.Pre t . k l a _ l - a 1  1  1 S g . d'en_u 2 Sg. d'en'_i-s  1 Sg. k l ' i n _ u /  V  2 Sg. k l ' i n ' _ o - s  46 UNACCENTED  ACCENTED-FULL STEMS S t r e s s n o t remova b l e from stem  S t r e s s removable f r o m stem  L'EZ_( c l i m b ) I r r e g .  STR'IGjcut)  B R 0 A D L Y  E.g.  GRIZ_(gnaw)  TR'AS_( s h a k e )  E.g.  E.g.  Inf.  2 Sg. I ' e z ' i - s  g r i s _ t t r '  is__t' i  F e m . P r e t . g r i z 1-a  Fem.Pret.tr'is_l-a  Neut.Pret.griz_l-a  Neut.Pret.tr'is_l-o  1 S g . g r i z u.  1 Sg. t r ' i s _ u  2 Sg. g r i z ' _ 6 - s  2 Sg. tr'is'__o-s  E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e t a b l e shows t h a t J a k o b s o n r e c o g nizes  two b a s i c  types of accented f u l l - s t e m s , those with r e -  movable and i r r e m o v a b l e s t r e s s i n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l forms ( c f . left  and m i d d l e c o l u m n s ) .  The b a s i c  criterion  f u l l - s t e m i s a columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n and  the I n f i n i t i v e .  a c c e n t on t h e f i n a l  of an accented  i n a l l P i n i t e forms  I n t h e case o f open f u l l - s t e m s w i t h t h e or only  syllable,  truncation of the f i n a l  vowel before v o c a l i c desinences occasions the transference the  of  s t r e s s i n such forms t o a d e s i n e n t i a l s y l l a b l e w i t h o u t  s p o i l i n g t h e columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n .  S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e case  of accented n o n s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s , t h e s t r e s s e d u n a v o i d a b l e though c o l u m n a r i t y  i s maintained.  desinence i s  This  factor  47 has  g i v e n r i s e t o Jakobson's d i s t i n c t i o n , whether, or not  any  great importance,  irremovable  accent  between f u l l - s t e m s w i t h removable  (Jak. 2.6l).  t h a t t h e t e r m s " r e m o v a b l e and together accurate is  "accented  See  ones and  irremovable  accent"  t h a t w h a t i s o b v i o u s l y meant h e r e irremovable  of the f u l l - s t e m .  stress mobility  i s determined  by the n a t u r e  i n e n c e , s i m p l e or complex, the s i m p l e desinence  itself,  does not  cri-  broadly of the  des-  requiring  d e s t r o y t h e c o l u m n a r i t y o f s t r e s s ) and r e q u i r i n g t h e s t r e s s on t h e p r e c e d i n g  a f a c t o r which,  i n the case  e f f e c t s a noncolumnar p a t t e r n of As f o r t h e u n a c c e n t e d criterion  of a v o c a l i c  the in  the stem  desinence,  stress.  n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s , the  o f u n a c c e n t e d n e s s w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  s t r e s s s t r o n g l y f a v o r i n g the desinences.  essential  a p a t t e r n of  However, o n l y i n  s m a l l group, the monosy11. nonvelar b r o a d l y c l o s e d is  the  of s t r e s s t o i t s e l f f r o m the stem (a f a c t o r w h i c h ,  complex desinence vowel,  In  poly-  (the e s s e n t i a l  t e r i o n of unaccentedness f o r a l l but the unaccented closed monosyllables)  dis-  w h i c h i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e  or n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c i t y  of the p o l y s y l l a b l e s ,  transfer  stress".  88.  t i n c t i o n i n the term unaccented  case  here  are not a l -  S t u d y o f t h e f a r r i g h t c o l u m n shows a n i m p o r t a n t  syllabicity  and  I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t  f u l l - s t e m s w i t h r e m o v a b l e and  b e l o w , p.  of  full-stems,  a p e r f e c t l y c o l u m n a r s t r e s s p a t t e r n on t h e d e s i n e n c e s  c e p t Masc. P r e t . ) a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e d .  In a l l other  one  (ex-  unaccented  48  non-polysyllabics, stress pattern o r by  the  stressable) _ t ' i  s y l l a b i c s , the  N e u t . and  o n l y when t h e  Thus, i n the  be  PI. Prets. the  and/  syllabic  case of the  unaccented  non-poly-  characterizes  in  Stressing  that  The  the v o c a l i c d e s i n e n c e s of a l l b r o a d l y s t r e s s e d , whether the  closed  f u l l - s t e m i s accented  or  s t r e s s i n g of the v o c a l i c d e s i n e n c e s of even the  cented broadly much g r e a t e r  closed  monosyllables (e.g. PAD_"fall")  s i g n i f i c a n c e than the  is  t r a n s f e r of s t r e s s t o  v o c a l i c d e s i n e n c e s of the  o p e n f u l l - s t e m s whose a c c e n t i s  the  s i n c e , i n the  la.st or o n l y  syllable  former, the  i s automatically  not  t h e s e s t e m s as u n a c c e n t e d , e v e n t h o u g h t h e  classified  broken.  t i o n of the  Conclusion  This  i s because the  columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n  of s t r e s s  f a c t o r causing  i s an  of the on  However, J a k o b s o n  mary c r i t e r i o n o f a c c e n t e d n e s s , c o l u m n a r i t y been broken.  ac-  columnar  stress pattern  The  2.6l,  o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r , which Jakobson formulates i n  f u l l - s t e m s be  has  (and  f u l l - s t e m i s nonvelar  l a c k of a columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n  Factors  requires  not.  the  of a columnar d e s i n e n t i a l  unaccented.  External An  i s d e s t r o y e d by  closed.  t h e m as  possibility  I n f i n i t i v e , whose d e s i n e n c e c a n  therefore broadly  the  external  has pri-  pattern, disrup-  one.  t o Summary  abstract  q u a l i t y o f any  f u l l - s t e m p r e c l u d e s any  in-  stance of i t s c o m p l e t e l y independent r e a l i z a t i o n i n a c t u a l  kg speech.  I n a l l o f i t s many r e a l i z a t i o n s , i t a p p e a r s n o t  b u t i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h , d e r i v a t i o n a l and g r a m m a t i c a l real  or u n r e a l ,  however t h a t may  appear  expressed or unexpressed.  i n some i n s t a n c e s  I t c a n n o t be  the f u l l - s t e m .  the Masc. P r e t . o f t h e v e r b " t o c a r r y " .  The  i t s f u l l - s t e m N'0S_^ a r e o n l y  o f t h e P r e t . t e n s e and t h e M a s c . g e n d e r , and  "carrying".  suffixes,  one  but expresses only  The  other  the " f r e e " s u f f i x  Neut.  -o).  The  a c t u a l speech n ' i s _ l - a , with  -#  impli-  therefore  such  addi-  lexical two  notion "zero"  s u f f i x _#-/_!- and  o f the Masc. gender  iden-  the  ( c f . Pem.  -a,  f o r m n'os_#-# i s no more a n o c c u r r e n c e i n  o f t h e f u l l - s t e m t h a n i s t h e Pem. i t sfully  audible  automatic vowel replacement further  the p u r e l y  Masc. P r e t . a c t u a l l y i n c l u d e s  the n o n t e r m i n a l P r e t .  question,  i t the grammatical  o f S i n g u l a r n u m b e r , t h e f u l l - s t e m c a r r i e s no inferences  form  superficially  cations  of  carries with  form i n  '.Chile t h e f i r s t  tional  denied  Such a case i s  tical.  also  elements,  an a c t u a l l y spoken v e r b a l  t o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h  n'os_#-#, and  alone,  (-o-  Pret.  form,  s u f f i x e s , not to mention  the  by - i - ) w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s  a  c o r r u p t i o n of the f u l l - s t e m .  50 C r i t i c i s m and A d d i t i o n s  The  System from the P e d a g o g i c a l P o i n t of View B o t h M o r r i s H a l l e ? and H e r b e r t R u b e n s t e i n ^ a r e i n a g r e e -  ment w i t h J a k o b s o n  t h a t the f u l l - s t e m  t h e R u s s i a n o r any  other Slavic  system  of a n a l y z i n g  conjugation represents a  marked improvement over e a r l i e r methods based distinguishable  stems,  s t e m . . To H a l l e , the Old Church "...a g r e a t l y article  t h e I n f i n i t i v e s t e m and  clearly  the Present  i n h i s a d a p t a t i o n of Jakobson's  method f o r  S l a v o n i c c o n j u g a t i o n , Jakobson has a c h i e v e d • simplified description."  Rubenstein, i n h i s  on C z e c h , a d m i t s t h a t he i s i m p r e s s e d by t h e  plification  of our l e x i c o n " r e s u l t i n g f r o m the use  s i c f o r m r a t h e r t h a n two t e r s are p r a i s i n g  or more.  Jakobson s f  s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t s , who system  on two  "...sim-  o f one  B u t w h e t h e r t h e s e two  bawri-  method f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w  of  must o f c o u r s e be i m p r e s s e d w i t h a  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which r e c o g n i z e s the e x i s t e n c e i n  language  o f what B l o o m f i e l d c a l l e d t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i c  forms,  o r w h e t h e r t h e y a r e i n f a c t e n d o r s i n g t h i s method f o r t e a c h i n g purposes clear  ( p r o b a b l y i n a s i m p l i f i e d , p o p u l a r f o r m ) i s n o t made  i n their I n any  articles.  case, Jakobson  g i n a l a r t i c l e was  d i d h a v e t h i s i n m i n d when t h e  p u b l i s h e d . (See h i s c o n c l u s i o n , S e c .  p.162.) Of some s i g n i f i c a n c e h a n d l i n g of the t o p i c  h e r e t h e n may  be  ori2.8,  the f a c t t h a t h i s  i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y f a r from e x h a u s t i v e .  51 A. n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n was t h a t o f m a k i n g t h e a n a l y s i s on a purely formal basis.  Also understandable  of examining only present-day has  Standard  was h i s i n t e n t i o n  Russian.  a l s o s e t two p u r e l y a r b i t r a r y l i m i t a t i o n s :  that of t r e a t i n g r o o t stems),  only simple verbs  the f i r s t ,  ( i . e . with unprefixed  one-  and t h e second, t h a t o f c o n f i n i n g t h e a n a l y s i s t o  the p u r e l y v e r b a l c a t e g o r i e s . m a t e r i a l and a v o i d s Little  But Jakobson  This excludes  a great deal of  a number o f m a j o r p r o b l e m s .  c r i t i c i s m from the pedagogical  p o i n t of view can  be l e v e l l e d w i t h j u s t i f i c a t i o n a t t h e new s y s t e m o f a n a l y s i s so l o n g a s t h e a n a l y s i s s t a y s w i t h i n t h e b o u n d s s e t b y J a k o b son.  H o w e v e r , c r i t i c i s m a c q u i r e s more w e i g h t when l e v e l l e d a t  the r e s u l t  of e x t e n s i o n of the a n a l y s i s which i s attempted i n  t h i s paper. introduces  It will  be shown t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e p r e f i x  s i g n i f i c a n t problems i n the s u f f i c i e n t  differentia-  t i o n o f t h e f u l l - s t e m , e s p e c i a l l y where s t r e s s i s c o n c e r n e d . The a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e new t e c h n i q u e as t h e s t u d y plexity.  becomes more e x h a u s t i v e  The s t u d e n t ,  while  and l e a d s t o g r e a t e r  supposedly spared  m e m o r i z i n g numerous and s e e m i n g l y l e s s concrete  v / i l l be s e e n t o d i m i n i s h  unsystematic  and a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e d  forms, w i l l  the task of though  neverthe-  be f a c e d  e q u a l , i f n o t g r e a t e r , burdens i n memorizing each v e r b abstract alysis  entity.  com-  with  as an  T h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n a b r o a d e r a n -  the f u l l - s t e m i s a h i g h l y complex f o r m u l a , h e a v i l y  with information regarding i t s behavior  with respect  laden  to certain  52 desinences, f i t t e d cannot ted  with, a h o s t  be i m m e d i a t e l y  by t h e m i n d .  apparent  o f s i g n a l s and p o i n t e r s t h a t t o t h e eye n o r e a s i l y  A l l t h i s tends  assimila-  t o make t h e s t u d y e v e r more  reminiscent of mathematics. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , v i g o r o u s l o g i c and m i n u t e a n a l y s i s c a n b e come a v e r y r e a l  o b s t a c l e t o l e a r n i n g , a s p o i n t e d o u t more  t h a n h a l f a c e n t u r y a g o b y H e n r y Sweet i n a w o r k  concerned  with the p r a c t i c a l study of languages^.  Sweet w o u l d n o t c o n -  s i d e r the v e r b a l f u l l - s t e m s l i s t e d here  a n a i d t o l e a r n i n g due  to  their theoretical nature  1 0  .  The " c r u d e - f o r m e r "  ( i . e . the  s t u d e n t who a t t e m p t s  t o l e a r n a language by s t u d y i n g u n d e r l y -  ing  f u l l - s t e m s ) t a k e s on a v e r y  crude  task.  forms l i k e  A s Sweet s a y s , "The c r u d e - f o r m e r  the a c t u a l forms or a t l e a s t develop them f r o m  difficult  not only has t o l e a r n  the s k i l l  of deriving  t h e f u l l - s t e m s by a p p l y i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r u l e s ,  but a l s o a v a r i e t y of h y p o t h e t i c a l forms, make t h e a d d i t i o n a l e f f o r t not e x i s t " . Sweet's crude  besides having t o  o f r e m e m b e r i n g t h a t t h e s e f o r m s do  Though t h e f u l l - s t e m i s n o t s t r i c t l y a n a l o g o u s form,  to  i . e . t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d o r i g i n a l stem o f a  word b e f o r e s u f f i x a t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t sound changes, h i s p o i n t of  criticism i s s t i l l The  o f some r e l e v a n c e  here.  i n c l u s i o n o f g e r u n d s a n d p a r t i c i p l e s , a s w i l l be  shown, l e a d s t o s t i l l  f u r t h e r problems t h a t a r e o f such  com-  p l e x i t y t h a t t h e v a l u e o f s u c h a n a n a l y s i s , a t l e a s t when p r o p o s e d f o r p e d a g o g i c a l e n d s , c a n be s e r i o u s l y  questioned.  53 Though t h e e x p a n d e d gogical point are  sound.  system i s v u l n e r a b l e  from t h e peda-  of view, the p r i n c i p l e s established  by Jakobson  Though c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f p a r t i c i p l e s ,  g e r u n d s and p r e f i x e d f o r m s , t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s r e m a i n , on the whole, unshaken  and u n a l t e r e d .  d i t y f o r the entire verbal  I n o t h e r words t h e i r  s y s t e m c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d .  The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p a p e r c a n be d i v i d e d tions.  The f i r s t  i n t o three  sec-  c o m p r i s e s t h e s u b - h e a d i n g s The I m p e r a t i v e ,  Desinential Alternants  and Morphophonemic T r a n s c r i p t i o n and  p r e p a r e s t h e way f o r t h e s e c t i o n w h e r e i n t h e m a j o r t o t h e a n a l y s i s a r e f o u n d by o f f e r i n g :  first,  additions  an a l t e r n a t i v e  s o l u t i o n t o a problem u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d e a l t with in  vali-  by Jakobson  h i s p a p e r ; s e c o n d l y , by r e p r o d u c i n g and c o m p l e t i n g t h e c h a r t  on p p . 24-25 a b o v e w h i c h was d r a w n up on t h e b a s i s  of Jakob-  son's i n c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s ; and t h i r d l y , by p r e s e n t i n g  and s o l v -  ing  t h e many p r o b l e m s i n t h e m o r p h o p h o n e m i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f  the  full-stems The  that a r i s e with  the expansion of the a n a l y s i s .  second s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s  the major a d d i t i o n s  under  t h e h e a d i n g s A c c e n t P o l i c y , S t r e s s E l i c i t o r s , P a r t i c i p l e s and Gerunds,  The I n s e r t e d  The l a s t  f r o m t h e changes  t h e second s e c t i o n mentioned above.  Jakobson's l i s t in  Suppletiveness.  s e c t i o n i s made up o f a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s  on t h e w h o l e , d e r i v e in  Vowel,  and a d d i t i o n s  recorded  I t includes  n o t e s on  o f e x c e p t i o n s a n d on t h e s u b s t a n t i a l  t h e i r numbers t h a t  that,  t h e new m a t e r i a l a f f o r d s , l i s t s  reduction ofspe-  5k c i f i c m i s t a k e s and m i s p r i n t s i n J a k o b s o n ' s p a p e r , c o r r e c t i o n s o f some o f h i s a w k w a r d l y f o r m u l a t e d the r u l e s as f o r m u l a t e d by  The l a s t p a r t  o f a l l t h e members o f t h e v a r i o u s  ductive)  categories  The  ( i . e . nonpro-  o f f u l l - s t e m s t h a t a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e  Imperative J a k o b s o n would have us b e l i e v e t h a t t h e Imper.  2.62A.,  desinence i s a simple  terminal suffix his  closed  d i c t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t i e s mentioned above.  In Sg.  of the t h i r d  the form o f an appendix c o n s i s t i n g of complete  listings  two  changes i n  by J a k o b s o n , which were n e c e s s i t a t e d  the expansion of the t o p i c .  s e c t i o n takes  r u l e s and o t h e r  one ( i . e . does n o t c o n t a i n a n o n -  - See J a k . 1 . 2 ) .  statement concerning  T h i s may be g a t h e r e d  the unacc. p o l y s y l l .  from  full-stems  like  v  SKAKA__(skip) a n d D'ERZA__(hold) , n a m e l y , t h a t t h e y " . . . s t r e s s . . . the is  simple  desinence or the preceding  complex."  Thus, t h e " s i m p l e "  vowel i f the desinence  d e s i n e n c e o f t h e Imper. Sg.,  _ _ i / _ # , i s s t r e s s e d i n s k a c _ i and d ' i r z _ _ i , w h i l e  the preceding  v o w e l i s s t r e s s e d whenever a complex desinence l i k e t h a t o f the  2 Sg. i s used - s k a c _ i - s , d ' e r z _ i - s . Since,  discussed  i n Jakobson's understanding,  i s a simple  the desinence  being  o n e , i t s f u n c t i o n must be d e s c r i b e d  as  c o n v e y i n g n o t o n l y t h e i d e a o f I m p e r . mood, b u t a l s o o f S g . number.  For this  noting Imperative  r e a s o n he c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r s t o _ i / _ # + Singular.  The d e s i n e n c e  as de-  i /# i s there-  55  f o r e a rather h e a v i l y weighted  sign.  T h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e Imper.  desinence i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  In  comparing t h e forms g a v a r ' _ i  ( I m p e r . Sg.) a n d g a v a r ' _ i - s  (2  Sg.) o f f u l l - s t e m G - O V O R 1 _ ( t a l k ) , 1  the f i r s t  a d m i s s i o n one  m u s t make i s t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f _ _ i i n e a c h c a s e i s n o t t h e same. for  I n the f i r s t  f o r m , as Jakobson would have i t , _ i s t a n d s  t h e I m p e r . mood + S g . number, w h e r e a s i n g a v a r ' _ _ i - s i t  s t a n d s f o r P r e s . t e n s e ( I n d i c a t i v e mood t h e r e f o r e  understood)  w h i l e - s s p e c i a l i z e s i n d e n o t i n g number a n d p e r s o n , t h e r e b y l i g h t e n i n g t h e l o a d , s o t o s p e a k , on _ i . The  q u e s t i o n n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s why _ i must be t h o u g h t o f  as p l a y i n g such a n a m b i t i o u s r o l e i n gavar'__i. ly  t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t element  i n the desinence of t h i s  J a k o b s o n h i m s e l f a d m i t s (2.122) Imper.  ofthe  I f - t ' i i s s i m p l y an a d d i t i o n , then t h e d e s i n -  o f t h e f o r m g a v a r * _ i - t ' i must c o n t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g n o -  tions:  (imperative + Singular) + P l u r a l .  impossibility PI.  form?  that the P I . form of the  "...adds t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g Sg. form t h e s u f f i x  2 PI. - t ' i . " ence  Or i s i t r e a l -  Imper.,  11  T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y an  N  .  I f t h e s u f f i x - t ' i i s n o t added t o f o r m t h e  t h e n i t must be r e p l a c i n g s o m e t h i n g .  What d o e s i t r e p l a c e ? i s e a s i l y a n s w e r e d .  The q u e s t i o n  I t replaces a "zero"  s u f f i x e x p r e s s i n g S g . number w h i c h o c c u r s a f t e r t h e s u f f i x _ i in  gavar'_i, i . e . gavar_i-#.  Thus t h e d e s i n e n c e o f g a v a r ' _ i - #  i s n o t a s i m p l e d e s i n e n c e b u t a complex  one i n w h i c h t h e v o w e l  12 is  o n l y t h e n o n t e r m i n a l component  .  Its function i s to  56 denote the Mood ( I m p e r a t i v e ) , and not the Sg. number as w e l l . To r e t u r n t o the comparison  of gavar'__i-rr and gavar ' _ i - s ,  the desinences are i n both cases complex. observed  t h a t the phoneme " i " ,  i n the v e r b a l system  express two homonymous morphophonemes: of the Imper. mood; the other, one P r e s e n t tense s u f f i x .  Prom t h i s i t may  one,  alone,  be can  the morphophoneme  of the a l t e r n a n t s of the  I t i s a l s o demonstrated  t h a t the  of the 2 Person Sg. i s not simply - s , but -s/-#.  The  suffix  distri-  b u t i o n of these tv/o a l t e r n a n t s p r e s e n t s no problem i n formulation. and -#  The  s u f f i x -s i s used f o r the I n d i c a t i v e ( P r e s e n t ) ,  i s used f o r the Imperative.  See  s e c t i o n on d e s i n e n -  62.  t i a l a l t e r n a n t s below, p.  T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the Imper. r e q u i r e s an a d d i t i o n t o Jak.  2.62A.  A f t e r "...verbs with open p o l y s y l l a b i c  f u l l - s t e m s s t r e s s e i t h e r the simple desinence vowel i f the desinence  i s complex..." add  or the p r e c e d i n g  "except i n the  case  of the Imperative which, though complex, i s s t r e s s e d . "  An-  other e x c e p t i o n i s the Present P a s s i v e P a r t i c i p l e .  below,  See  pp. 131-133. Another  r e s u l t i s t h a t now  there a r e , i n s t e a d of one,  v e r b a l s u f f i x e s t h a t a l t e r n a t e with " z e r o " ( a p a r t from  those  cases where t r u n c a t i o n l e a v e s a " z e r o " i n a l t e r n a t i o n with other s u f f i x . (he c a r r i e d ) ) .  E.g. __l-/__#- i n v'o_l-# And  both  ence of the Imperative  two  an-  (he l e d ) and n'os_#-#  of these are components of the d e s i n -  Sg.  57 Thus i n t h e gavar'_i-t'i  Imper. s u f f i x , _ i - a l t e r n a t e s w i t h  "speak", s l a f ' _ j * - t ' i  son-number s u f f i x gavar'_i-if).  only  - t ' i alternates with  In the  ( g l o r i f y ) , two  I m p e r . Sg.  z e r o ' s can  other instance  Pret.  "glorify."') -#  (e.g.  of f u l l - s t e m s  like  n'os_#-#> g'ip_#-#.  N'OSj'  no  ( c a r r y ) and  case the  alternant  and  the  first  Desinence of the  P a s t Gerund)  I n f i n i t i v e (and  Jakobson's statement that full-stems  with respect  to the  in  the  zero i s  p.  stressable  Inf. suffix  28 /  explanation  as  t o why  open or  Though  i s unquestionably a full-stems  alternant  ( - t ' i ) has  of the  that  the  already  This would d o u b t l e s s l y such p o l y s y l l .  simple  do  Inf.  not des-  syllabic  been  above), to the unaccented broadly  s t e m s l i k e N'OS__ ( c a r r y ) .  one  simple desinence  statements g o v e r n i n g the range of d e s i n e n t i a l  n a n t s (see  fered  denoting  I n f i n i t i v e desinence.  inence, l e t alone stress i t . I t i s true of the  -  desinence i s complex..." i s a l s o  ( - t ' i alternant)  only  Masc.  "...unaccented verbs with  d e s i n e n c e , t h e u n a c c e n t e d open p o l y s y l l .  alternant  The  truncation.  s t r e s s e i t h e r the  the p r e c e d i n g vowel i f the  even s e l e c t t h i s  l i k e SLAV'I__  second z e r o ,  by  I n f . desinence  gavar'_i-t'i,  G'LBNTJ_ ( p e r i s h )  that i s determined automatically  the  Per-  o c c u r i n sequence - slaf'__#-#.  In t h i s  the Masc. g e n d e r , has  inaccurate  i n the  of a double z e r o desinence i s i n the  of f u l l - s t e m s  polysyllabic  and  (e.g.  confined, alter-  closed be  full-stems  the do  fullprofnot  58 i n fact select this stressahle  (simple) alternant  of the I n f .  d e s i n e n c e , a s t h e s t a t e m e n t i n 2.62A„would s u g g e s t i f i n t e r preted i n i t s s t r i c t e s t  sense.  B u t j u s t such a s t r i c t  inter-  p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d a s a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y a n d a q u a l i f y i n g s t a t e m e n t s h o u l d be a d d e d t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t "the v o c a l i c  (and t h e r e f o r e s t r e s s a b l e )  alternant  of the s i m p l e desinence o f the I n f . ( - t ' i ) h a s a l r e a d y been ruled  o u t by statements g o v e r n i n g the range  ternants of that desinence."  o f the v a r i o u s a l -  T h i s would appear  advisable  e s p e c i a l l y i n view o f the f a c t t h a t the statement has a l r e a d y been demonstrated desinence  t o be i n a c c u r a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e  Imper.  (see above) and a l s o i n v i e w o f the f a c t t h a t  i n a c c u r a c i e s have appeared  f o r two o n l y s l i g h t l y  r e a s o n s , namely, t h e f a i l u r e  both  different  t o a c c u r a t e l y r e c o g n i z e t h e des-  i n e n c e a s s i m p l e o r complex ( i n t h e case o f t h e Imper.) and the f a i l u r e  t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t one o f t h e  p l e desinences ( t h i s time the I n f . ) has a s t r e s s a b l e T o g e t h e r , t h e two i n a c c u r a c i e s s e r i o u s l y weaken  sim-  alternant.  Jakobson's  attempt t o define t h e s t r e s s m o b i l i t y o f the unaccented  open  p o l y s y l l a b l e s as determined s i m p l y by the s i m p l e o r complex n a t u r e o f the d e s i n e n c e .  W i t h t h e two q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  proposed  f o r J a k . 2.62A, a n o r i g i n a l l y n e a t , s i m p l e , b u t d e c e p t i v e l y p r e c i s e s t a t e m e n t h a s b e e n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o one t h a t i s l o n g e r and much more c o m p l e x a n d cumbersome, t h o u g h more and more a c c u r a t e .  thorough  59  Past  Gerund F u r t h e r weakness i s i n evidence  desinence  o f t h e " P a s t " Gerund.  upon e x a m i n a t i o n  of the  Though t h i s d e s i n e n c e  has  t h r e e a l t e r n a n t s , two o f w h i c h a r e v o c a l i c a n d t h e r e f o r e retically desinence. p.  134)  and  s t r e s s a h l e (_f , _ f s This time  permit  i  ,  i t i s clearly a  the a l t e r n a t i o n statements  the f r e e • a l t e r n a t i o n o f both  In spite of this,  (see below,  i n the case  the s y l l a b i c alternant,  when u s e d , d o e s n o t r e c e i v e t h e s t r e s s - p ' i s a _ f ( s i ) written), za+plat'i_f(si),  simple  the nonsyllabic  one o f t h e s y l l a b i c a l t e r n a n t s (_f a n d _ f s i )  o f open f u l l - s t e m s .  theo-  (having  (having p a i d ) .  Though t h i s t o o c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d b y r e f e r r i n g t o a f a c tor higher  i n the h i e r a r c h y which f o r b i d s the stressed  Gerund s u f f i x  Past  ( i n some c a s e s h o w e v e r i t i s s t r e s s e d i n c o n n e c -  t i o n w i t h the use of the r e f l e x i v e  s u f f i x ) - ^ , by now J a k o b s o n ' s 1  s t a t e m e n t i n 2.62AI h a s l o s t a l l semblance o f i n f l e x i b i l i t y s i n c e , o f t h e two s i m p l e  desinences  J a k o b s o n h a d i n m i n d , name-  l y t h e 1 Sg. and t h e Imper. Sg., t h e l a t t e r i s a c t u a l l y complex and t h e f o r m e r i s a l s o t h e o r e t i c a l l y i i i ,  a) and o f t h e t h r e e  other simple  so (See p.  desinences  proven 35>  (theInf.,  which J a k o b s o n s h o u l d have had i n mind b u t a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t , and  t h e P r e s . and P a s t Gerund, w h i c h were p u r p o s e l y  from h i s a n a l y s i s ) ,  o n l y t h e P r e s . Gerund d e s i n e n c e  excluded i s actu-  a l l y accomodated by Jakobson's statement i n 2 . 6 2 A , w h i l e t h e other two, as e x p l a i n e d above, tend t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e s t a t e ment.  60 S i n c e t h e r e i s so l i t t l e  a c t u a l concurrence  r u l e as f o r m u l a t e d by Jakobson, value.  the r u l e appears o f l i t t l e  I n four of the desinences  i n f a c t simple  with the  d e a l t w i t h above t h a t a r e  ( i . e . P r e s . a n d P a s t G-erund, I n f . a n d 1 S g . ) ,  it  i s c l e a r t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f Jakobson's r u l e does n o t  at  a l l d e p e n d on t h e s i m p l e n a t u r e  t h e r on t h e n a t u r e  of the i n i t i a l  of the desinence, but r a o r o n l y phoneme o f t h e d e s -  inence - i . e . i s the desinence v o c a l i c t h i s f a c t o r that determines not take p l a c e .  With  or consonantal?  whether t r u n c a t i o n w i l l  the occurrence  or w i l l  of t r u n c a t i o n before the  v o c a l i c d e s i n e n c e s __u a n d _ a ( 1 S g . a n d P r e s . G e r u n d ) , simple desinences  It i s  are i n fact stressed.  these  S i n c e t r u n c a t i o n does  n o t t a k e p l a c e b e f o r e t h e c o n s o n a n t a l d e s i n e n c e s _ _ f ( s i ) and _t'(i)  ( o f t h e P a s t Gerund and Inf.),  t h e r e i s no t r a n s f e r -  ence o f s t r e s s t o t h e d e s i n e n c e . H o w e v e r , i t w o u l d n o t be a c c u r a t e t o s t a t e t h a t t h e v o calic  simple desinence  cated  ( i . e . because t h e simple desinence  explains nothing.  i s s t r e s s e d because t h e stem i s t r u n -  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e mere f a c t  d o e s n o t e x p l a i n why t h e v o c a l i c be  stressed.  i svocalic), f o r this  desinence  of t r u n c a t i o n  s h o u l d t h e n have t o  Some f u l l - s t e m s l i k e KAL'EBA_ ( s h a k e )  cated before the simple desinence and y e t t h e s e d e s i n e n c e s  are trun-  o f t h e 1 Sg. o r P r e s . Gerund  are not stressed - kal'ebl'_u,  k a l ' e'bl ' _ a . The  only statement  t h a t c a n be made r e g a r d i n g t h e u n a c -  61 c e n t e d open p o l y s y l l a b l e s floating  ( e x c e p t t h o s e l i k e KAL'SBA_ w i t h  s t r e s s ) i s t h a t only the simple desinence  c a n be  s t r e s s e d a n d a c t u a l l y i s s t r e s s e d o n l y when t h e s t e m i s t r u n cated  (i.e.  when t h e s i m p l e d e s i n e n c e  i svocalic).  The e x p l a n -  a t i o n o f why t h e r e s h o u l d be a n y s t r e s s movement a t a l l l i e s in ity  the primary c r i t e r i o n f o r unaccentedness of stress pattern).  ( i . e . noncolumnar-  The r u l e s t h a t d e s c r i b e t h e p r e c i s e  pattern of t h i s noncolumnarity  of stress with respect t o the  p o l y s y l l a b l e s l i e i n the nature of the desinence,  only not  j u s t i n t h e number o f phonemes i t c o n t a i n s , a s J a k o b s o n  be-  l i e v e d , b u t i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n i t i a l o r o n l y phoneme. Jakobson's  statement  A i n 2.62,  i n accordance  c r i t i c i s m p r e s e n t e d a b o v e , must be s t i l l first to  in  further altered (see  a l t e r a t i o n above under d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Imper., p.  56)  r e a d ' - " v e r b s w i t h open p o l y s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s s t r e s s t h e  vowel preceding the desinence and  with the  simple v o c a l i c which  except i n the case  o f t h e Imper.  ( i . e . P r e s . G e r u n d and 1 Sg.) d e s i n e n c e s ,  cases the f i r s t  or only s y l l a b l e  of the desinence i s  stressed."  Participles An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r e s s b e h a v i o r o f t h e s e v e r b s i n t h e p a r t i c i p l e s , a l l o f which have complex d e s i n e n c e s , i n t r o d u c e s still  f u r t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t Jakobson's  statement.  original  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e M a s c . JTom. S g . d e s i n e n c e  of the  62 Pres. with  Active Part, a stressed  considered  f u l l - s t e m XOD'I_ (go)  complex d e s i n e n c e .  somewhat i r r e g u l a r , t h e r e  rences of i t . the  o f the  xad'_asc-ij  Though s u c h a s t r e s s i s are  more t h a n a f e w o c c u r -  S e e s e c t i o n b e l o w on p a r t i c i p l e s ,  particularly  c h a r t , p p . 164-166.  Desinential  Alternants  D e s i n e n c e s p r e c e d e d b y t h e h y p h e n (-) a r e or c o o r d i n a t i n g ) . by  is  Those p r e c e d e d b y t h e  a hyphen are n o n t e r m i n a l (or GRAMMATICAL FORM 1 Pers. Sg.  dash  (terminal  (__) a n d f o l l o w e d  non-coordinating).  DESINENCE(S) -m  RANGE full-stems (eat)  -u 2 Pers. Sg.  all  j£l) ( S )  and D A P / ( S ) ( g i v e )  other  full-stems  Imperative V  3 Pers. Sg.  free  -S  Indicative  -t  all  full-stems  all  full-stems,  (+• n o n t e r m i n a l Pres. s u f f i x t o distinguish from 3 PI.) 1 Pers. P I .  -m  a t i v e a n d Sg.  Indic-  Inclusive  Imper. o f P e r f e c t i v e & Determined Imperf.  vbs.  63 GRAMMATICAL POEM  DESIBEJATCE(S)  1 Pers. P I . (Cont'd)  RAEGE  -mt ' i  PI. Inclusive  Imper.  of P e r f e c t i v e & Determined Imperf. -t'i  2 Pers. P I .  all  verbs  full-stems,  Indicative  -t  3 Pers. P I .  a l l full-stems  (+• n o n t e r m i n a l Pres. suffix to distinguish f r o m 3 Sg.) Present  all  Tense  Sg. persons  of  J E D _ ( S ) & DAD^(S) _V- ( i . e . v owe 1  unknown,  see p . 3 5 , i i i , o-  1 Sg. of a l l other full-stems  a.  2 and 3 Sg. & 1 and 2 P I . of closed s t e m s and h a r d  fullopen  full-stems.  l-  2 and 3 S g . & 1 and 2 P I . of a l l other full-stems.  /  a-  3 P I . of soft  open  full-stems u-  3 P I . of a l l other full-stems  6k GRAMMATICAL FORM Pret.  RANGE  DESIHENCE(S)  Tense  Masc. P r e t . o f broadly  closed  full-  stems i n cons,  other  t h a n -D_, -T_ & M a s c . Pret.  of certain  h a r d open in  full-stems  -NU_ w i t h  ing  poly,  preced-  cons. & accented  with  irremovable  stress.  150.  See p .  Pern., N e u t . & P I .  Pret,  o f f u l l - s t e m s above & all  P r e t . forms o f  all  other  full-stems  Infinitive  velar t'i  full-stems closed i n  consonant  unacc. (according t o Jak.)  broadly  full-stems  closed  except  those i n v e l a r s  OR a c -  cented b r . c l . f u l l stems w i t h  removed  s t r e s s except those i n velars below).  (see pp.  87-88  65 GRAMMATICAL FORM Inf.  (Cont'd)  Masc. Gender  RANGE  DESINENCE(S) _t' - i j etc.  all  other f u l l - s t e m s  long  participles  (declined)  Fern. G e n d e r  N e u t e r Gender  P l u r a l Number  Imperative  -#  elsewhere  -aja e t c .  long  -a  elsewhere  -oja e t c .  long  -o  elsewhere  - i j i etc.  long  -i  short  - • i  Preterit  v.  participles  participles  participles participles  f u l l - s t e m JED_(S)  (jeVj-(t'i)) open f u l l - s t e m s w i t h final  consonant  clus-  ter & full-stems not having  an irremovable  s t r e s s , except  those  c l o s e d i n - J _ _ o r open i n a vo\fel o t h e r  than  - I _ preceded by - J - (e.g. G N ' I J _ " r o t " and STOJA_ "stand") all  other f u l l - s t e m s  66 GRAMMATICAL FORM Vocalic  Gerund  RANGE  DESINENCE(S) 'a  all  full-stems  form t h i s Consonantal  Gerund  sx  "broadly  that  gerund  closed  full-  stems e x c e p t t h o s e i n d e n t a l p l o s i v e s & accented  (according  to Jak.)  OR "br. c l . f u l l - s t e m s except those i n d e n t a l plosives with stress  removable  (See pp.  87-88  below).  Pres. Part.A c t .  f(si)  all  asc-  soft  usc-  all  other  open f u l l - s t e m s other  broadly  Past Part. A c t .  full-stems  full-stems  closed  full-  stems e x c e p t t h o s e are  accented  that  (according  t o J a k . ) and i n d e n t a l p l o s i v e s OR e x c e p t those i n dent, p l o s i v e s w i t h removable s t r e s s all P r e s . P a r t . Pass,  f om-  other  broadly stems  ' im-  all  full-stems  closed  full-  (rare)  other  full-stems  67 GRAMMATICAL FORM Past Part.  DESL¥ENCE(S)  Pass.  RAUGE  n-  open f u l l - s t e m s i n -A__ and  closed  full-stems  in -AJ_ open f u l l - s t e m s i n -0__ and  -U_, f u l l - s t e m s i n  -R__ a n d a l l n a r r o w l y closed  full-stems ex-  c e p t t h o s e i n -AJ__ •on-  open f u l l - s t e m s  'm-  and  i n -E_  -I__, hroadly  full-stems  closed  except  those  i n -R__ As t h e a b o v e c h a r t  shows, t h e o n l y R u s s i a n v e r b a l  es t h a t h a v e a b s o l u t e l y no a l t e r n a n t s 2 Pers.  P I . and t h e v o c a l i c g e r u n d .  a r e those of the 3 Since the f i r s t  d e p e n d s on t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e n o n t e r m i n a l P r e s . fix  t o contrast  of as h a v i n g  s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ,  suffix-  i t could  Pers.,  of these  tense  suf-  a l s o be t h o u g h t  alternants.  M o r p h o p h o n e m i c T r a n s c r i p t i o n - New P r o b l e m s D e r i v i n g  from  Expansion of the Topic (i)  Signs (a)  The i n i t i a l  d a s h (__) means t h a t a f u l l - s t e m n e v e r  occurs without a p r e f i x .  E . g . __#P'#R_ ( l o c k ) ,  68 / o) _ J R A T ' I _ ( t u r n , r e v o l v e ) , __#JD_(S) (go), _MKIIU__ ( c l o s e , l o c k ) , _V'ERZ__ (open), ^ J E Z Z A J ^ ( t r a v e l ) . F u l l - s t e m s t h a t are not p r e f i x e d by the i n i t i a l may  appear i n both simple and  v e r b forms.  A small i n i t i a l  compound ( p r e f i x e d ) "x" marks the  as o c c u r r i n g only i n n o n p r e f i x e d forms. (go),  dash  full-stem  E.g. xII)J(S)  xM'#R_(S) ( d i e ) , xV#Z 'M_ ( t a k e ) . N  (b) F u l l - s t e m s t h a t do not occur i n simple forms and  (unprefixed)  t h a t can combine only with one p r e f i x are  t r a n s c r i b e d with, t h a t p r e f i x i n lower  case  letters  f o l l o w e d by a p l u s s i g n i n b r a c k e t s and p r e c e d i n g full-stem. "to  An example i s the f u l l - s t e m of the verb  bend" which i s accented  only when the p r e f i x  i s used - (na+)GHTJ_ (Past P a r t . Pass.  CO Of. GNU  na  na+gnu_t-ij).  / , Past P a r t . Pass,  so+gnu t - i j e t c .  t h e r example i s the f u l l - s t e m (o+)parozn'i_ (c)  the  In the case  of an obscured  d e r i v a t i v e , no  A fur(empty).  attempt  should be made t o r e l a t e the f u l l - s t e m to i t s o r i g i n a l form.  Thus the f u l l - s t e m of the v e r b a+brat'i__t'  ( t u r n ) i s (o+)BRAT'I_, though the o r i g i n a l form, know, c o n s i s t e d of p r e f i x ob and f u l l  we  stem -VRAT'I_.  S i m i l a r l y , any attempt t o r e p r e s e n t the f u l l - s t e m of the verb v z ' a _ t ' (take) as a compound i n c l u d i n g p r e fix  vz would not be a d v i s a b l e .  (d) I f the use  of a f u l l - s t e m depends on the nature  of the  69 prefix  ( i . e . i t s f i n a l segment, consonant or vowel),  the dash p r e c e d i n g the f u l l - s t e m and marking i t as one  t h a t must he used w i t h a p r e f i x i s i t s e l f p r e c e -  ded  by lower case "v" or " c " r e p r e s e n t i n g  "vowel" and  "consonant" r e s p e c t i v e l y and c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the f i n a l phoneme of those p r e f i x e s with which the f u l l - s t e m combines. pp.  E.g. v_JM_ (take) and c_N'IM_ ( t a k e ) .  182-186.  See  The stem i n such cases cannot occur  v/ithout a p r e f i x . (e) In the case o f a s u p p l e t i v e coincides  f u l l - s t e m whose range  e x a c t l y with the t o t a l of the p r e v o c a l i c  or p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms, the same device may be used, but  t h i s time i t i s p l a c e d  a f t e r the f u l l - s t e m .  E.g.  BIJ_c and BUD_v (be), #GIM c and GOM'?_v ( d r i v e ) . L  See (f)  s e c t i o n on S u p p l e t i o n below, pp. 149-157*  I f the range of a s u p p l e t i v e  f u l l - s t e m does not c o -  i n c i d e e x a c t l y with the t o t a l of the p r e v o c a l i c or p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms, the morphophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n w i l l include placed  a c a p i t a l (S), f o r "suppletive",  i n b r a c k e t s a f t e r the f u l l - s t e m .  Such a f u l l -  stem must be considered i r r e g u l a r and the s i g n (S) an i n d i c a t i o n o f i t s i r r e g u l a r i t y . the  same time, be considered a d i r e c t i v e t o r e f e r t o  a special l i s t 160,  I t should, a t  of i r r e g u l a r s u p p l e t i v e s  where the range of each i s noted.  on pp. 158-  (g) The  q u e s t i o n mark (?) r e p r e s e n t s the f i n a l v o c a l i c  morphophoneme of an open f u l l - s t e m , the ty (character)  of which cannot he  exact q u a l i -  determined due  to  the f a c t t h a t the f u l l - s t e m i n q u e s t i o n i s s u p p l e t i v e and  s t r i c t l y prevocalic.  The  vowel, whose e x i s -  tence must he admitted i n theory t o characterize  the f u l l - s t e m and  i n i t s various  sufficiently  e x p l a i n i t s behavior  r e a l i z a t i o n s , i s everywhere  i n the a c t u a l forms.  For example, the  truncated  prevocalic  forms of the verb gna_t' ( d r i v e ) might be t r a c e d f u l l - s t e m *GON I_ or *G0N»E_. l  from the p o i n t  Since there i s no  the  way,  of view of synchronic l i n g u i s t i c s ,  determine the vowel, the problem i s l e f t by u s i n g  to  q u e s t i o n mark i n the  to  unresolved  f u l l - s t e m - GON*?__v.  S i m i l a r l y , SP'?_y ( s l e e p ) . (h) A verb whose grammatical forms never occur without the r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c l e must have the r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c l e included  ( i n b r a c k e t s ) i n the morphophonemic  t r a n s c r i p t i o n of i t s f u l l - s t e m . ment noted i n such f u l l - s t e m s . deavor) , SM'EJ__v(s'a)(laugh). ( i ) The The  Inserted  I t i s the f i n a l E.g. Gf.  ele-  STARAJ_(s'a)(enSM'EJjdare).  Vowel  p o s i t i o n ( s ) of the i n s e r t e d vowel i n a f u l l - s t e m  i s / a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the  sign  i n the morphopho-  nemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n .  s i g n "#"  w i t h i n the  The  full-  71 stem r e p r e s e n t s the p o s i t i o n of the primary i n s e r t e d vowel and the "#" p r e c e d i n g the f u l l - s t e m shows t h a t i n s e r t i o n i s r e q u i r e d between p r e f i x and f u l l - s t e m , whenever the p r e f i x i s consonantal ( i . e . ends i n a consonant).  See notes on the I n s e r t e d Vowel below, pp.  143-149.  I n the phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the grammat-  i c a l forms, a s u b l i n e a r arrow p o i n t i n g upwards i^) i s p l a c e d d i r e c t l y beneath ted  the r e a l i z a t i o n of the i n s e r -  vowel,  ( j ) Accent Marks The acute accent ( ') marks the accented E.g. SP'EJ_(ripenX,  full-stem.  #B'J_(beat), S ' E K j f l o g ) , S'EK^  ( c u t ) , Y ' O D j d e a d ) , P L A K A j weep).  P u l l - s t e m s t h a t are  without accent marks are unaccented.  E.g. SMOTR'E__  ( l o o k ) , # V J_( t w i s t ) , #SPA__c( s l e e p ) ,  PLIV_(swim),  P'ISA_(write).  The grave accent ( ) marks the nonv  p o l y s y l l . maximally unaccented  full-stem.  ( t e a r ) , #!' J _ ( p o u r ) , IJAJ_(S) (give).. of the grave accent on a bare a f f i x  E.g. #RVA__  C f . the meaning (see p. 16).  The  m i n i m a l l y unaccented m o n o s y l l a b i c hard open f u l l - s t e m s l i k e # S 1 A c (send) (Past P a r t . Pass, so+sla n-#), t  ~  which may i n f a c t be regarded as a l l but accented ( e x cept f o r the requirement  of s t r e s s d e f l e c t i o n t o the  p r e f i x i n one form only - the Past P a r t . Pass., a f a c t which does n e v e r t h e l e s s r u i n the columnarity o f the  72  s t r e s s p a t t e r n ) , are marked with the acute accent as i f they were accented, but the accent mark i s bracketed as a s i g n of the compromise i n the Past P a r t . 0)  Pass.  The m o n o s y l l . narrowly c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m ZNAJ__  (know) must be marked the same way  f o r the same r e a -  son, as must a l s o p o l y s y l l a b l e s l i k e CITAJ_(read) P a s t P a r t . Pass, so+zna n-#, T  ~~  f u l l - s t e m s and grammatical  pra+;6ita n-#.  -  In both  •—  forms, the double acute a c -  cent mark (") marks the p r e f e r r e d accent or s t r e s s sition.  E.g. V I X R ' I _ ( s ' a ) ,  wind), d a + v ' i l '__i-s . 1  po-  ( r i s e i n or l i k e a w h i r l -  The s i n g l e acute accent then  marks an a l t e r n a t i v e which i s e i t h e r obsolete or p e r f e c t l y contemporary ing  though  less desirable.  II.B. Mark-  the phonemes -e- or -o- with a s t r e s s mark i n the  phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f the grammatical forms i s i n a c t u a l f a c t unnecessary  s i n c e , i n modern Standard Rus-  s i a n , these phonemes can occur only i n the s t r e s s e d syllable.  T h e r e f o r e , the mere f a c t of t h e i r  appear-  ance i n a t r a n s c r i b e d form i s i t s e l f an i n d i c a t i o n of the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e .  Jakobson a p p a r e n t l y d i d not i n -  tend t o i n c l u d e t h i s w e l l known f e a t u r e of R u s s i a n p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n h i s phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the  forms.  Though h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the Imper. P I . of the  full-  stem V ' E R ' ^ ( b e l i e v e ) l a c k s a s t r e s s mark - v ' e r ' ^ t ' i (Sec.  2.122),  t h i s would appear t o be p u r e l y a c c i d e n -  73 t a l as the s t r e s s e d e's and  o's appearing elsewhere  the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of grammatical ly  forms are c o n s i s t e n t -  (and u n n e c e s s a r i l y ) marked with the acute  mark.  E.g.  d •elaJL-a  skr i h '^o-t-s 'a !  in  stress  d'elaj__u-t,  (2.122),  (2.221).'  (k) See below, p. 1 5 1 concerning morphophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of f u l l - s t e m s i n -NU^  with deep t r u n c a t i o n i n the  Pret. (ii)  Determining Accent  Type from R e l a t e d S u p p l e t i v e s  Many s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m s do not y i e l d s t r e s s placement(s) accent t y p e .  those forms whose  p r o v i d e the c r i t e r i o n f o r determining  Por example, the n o n s y l l a b i c RZ_y  their  (neigh) has  on-  l y p r e v o c a l i c forms and these are of no r e l e v a n c e i n determining if  the stem i s accented  or unaccented  edness i f i t i s unaccented.  or the degree of  unaccent-  In such cases, the same c h a r a c t e r i s  a s c r i b e d t o the f u l l - s t e m i n q u e s t i o n with r e s p e c t t o accent as p e r t a i n s t o the other s u p p l e t i v e ( s ) t h a t do(es) y i e l d the s a r y forms f o r determining accent type. s y l l . RZ_v,  neces-  In the case of the  the accented preconsonantal stem RZA_c  s o f t open) with Pern. P r e t . rza._l-a determines  non-  (monosyll.  the p r e v o c a l i c stem  a l s o t o be accented, as i t i s both l o g i c a l and d e s i r a b l e t o a s sume t h a t they would have at l e a s t t h i s much i n common. further i l l u s t r a t i o n , cented  xID_ (S) >  (and not maximally  __#JD__(S)  which, u n l i k e  (As a  (go) might be e s t a b l i s h e d as unac-  unaccented) s i n c e the r e l a t e d  xID_(S),  full-stem  does combine with p r e f i x e s , does  74 not s t r e s s them (normally) i n the Past P a r t . Pass. - ab+ajd* t  p'ir'i+gd'__on-# (na+jd'_in-# i s of course an e x c e p t i o n . p. 179).  Of* unacc. #V'J_(twist)  and max.  with Past P a r t . Pass. do+v'i_t-#' and  on-# "~  See  unacc. #L'J__(pour)  d6%l'i_t-#.)  ( i i i ) Other T y p i c a l Problems (a)  xY#Z'M__(take) i s maximally unaccented  s i n c e i t s Pem.  the s t r e s s e d desinence  unaccented  and not  just  Past P a r t . Pass, must have  - vz'i__t-a.  Only the max.  un-  a c c . f u l l - s t e m s of t h i s category (the n o n s y l l a b i c s ) c a l l f o r such a s t r e s s without an a l t e r n a t i v e . #L'J_  (pour) with u n p r e f i x e d Pem.  l ' i _ t - a only.  E.g.  Past P a r t . Pass.  The merely unacc. f u l l - s t e m s of t h i s  category on the other hand permit an a l t e r n a t i v e stem s t r e s s i n the Pem. (tv/ist),  Past P a r t . Pass.  E.g.  #V'J_  v'i_t-a.  (b) The s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m L'AG-  v ( l i e down) i s marked  accented w i t h irremovable s t r e s s even though the p r e consonantal s u p p l e t i v e L'OGjc i s accented w i t h r e moved s t r e s s .  T h e o r e t i c a l l y the prevoc. stem  cannot  y i e l d any forms r e l a t i v e t o the t a s k of determining the accent type s i n c e , i n b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s , the v o c a l i c desinences are always s t r e s s e d r e g a r d l e s s of the type of accent of the f u l l - s t e m .  This general  p r i n c i p l e i s however c o n t r a d i c t e d by the f u l l - s t e m L'AG  v and a few  others.  The c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the  75 rule  must be v i e w e d  full-stem  as  L'AG_v h a s  sufficient  evidence  an a c c e n t type  that  opposed  to  the that  o f i t s s u p p l e t i v e I'0G__c.  I n o t h e r w o r d s , i f L'AG__v  is  the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e  s t r o n g enough t o r e s i s t  stressed vocalic stems, t h e n sociated  desinences  i n a l l broadly closed  the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l  with  it,  full-stem  i f i t were o f t h e  should  a l s o h a v e no  on t h e  stem, s i n c e  sition  of the  that  t h e r e i s no stress  the  restriction  of broadly closed  type,  stress  on  as f a r as t h e  the  forms  cerned.  S i n c e l'OG_^c does n o t h a v e s t e m s t r e s s ,  respect The  full-stem  a c c e n t e d w i t h removed  of the  desinential  even though  such  f u l l - s t e m s are  t o be  conthese  opposites with  type.  broadly closed  t o be sis  to accent  assumed  po-  precon-  sonantal  tv/o s u p p l e t i v e s must be  full-  i s as-  same a c c e n t  trouble i n retaining  columnar  of  S O S j V ( s u e k ) i s assumed stress  stress  a stress  solely  on t h e  i n the prevoc.  i s called  ba-  forms,  f o r i n the  case  of the b r o a d l y c l o s e d m o n o s y l l a b l e s r e g a r d l e s s of accent  type.  sonantal there  Though i t s p o l y s y l l .  s u p p l e t i v e SOSA^c must be  a r e no  accented  s t r e s s u n l e s s they  end  polysyllables i n v o w e l -U_  "push") o r h a v e c o n c o m i t a n t the unaccentedness  change  hard  open  precon-  unaccented, with  since  removable  ( e . g . TAIKHTJ^ ( e . g . K0VA__ " f o r g e " )  o f SOSA c i s n e v e r t h e l e s s o f  no  76 r e l e v a n c e i n determining the accent type of SOS^v, s i n c e r e g u l a r b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s cannot be unaccented  (iv)  (see p. 82).  Morphophonemic T r a n s c r i p t i o n of the Vowels i n Full-Stems The t r u e morphophonemic c h a r a c t e r of a vowel i n c e r t a i n  f u l l - s t e m s i s n o t , i n some cases, demonstrable of  a form wherein  for  the vowel i s s t r e s s e d .  due t o the l a c k  The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s ,  example, as t o the c o r r e c t morphophonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  the f i r s t vowel of the f u l l - s t e m of the verb " t o push". it  i s nowhere r e a l i z e d i n the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , the o i n the  Inf. of  Since  i s linguistically  TojiKHyrt,  the language  (i.e.  from the p o i n t of view  i t s e l f without r e f e r e n c e t o the h i s t o r i c a l o r t h o -  graphy) the phoneme a (the u n s t r e s s e d replacement  of phoneme o ) .  Jakobson's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s f u l l - s t e m i s with vowel -A-, i.e.  TAIOU__(2.121)' and s i m i l a r l y , the f u l l - s t e m of the v e r b  opa-Tt,  i s r e p r e s e n t e d as ARA^ with no r e g a r d f o r the conven-  t i o n a l orthography.  I n the case of both these f u l l - s t e m s , there  i s no form, v e r b a l or nominal, t h a t r e a l i z e s the f i r s t  vowel  i n a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e and i t s morphophonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as -A- i s t h e r e f o r e j u s t i f i e d . However, the c o n f u s i o n f o r which Jakobson c r i t i c i z e s Gornyn  (p. 165,  3«)j as regards the l a t t e r ' s morphophonemic t r a n -  s c r i p t i o n , has a h a b i t of r e a p p e a r i n g i n h i s own work. example, can he j u s t i f y the w r i t i n g of the f i r s t  How, f o r  -E- i n the f u l l -  77 stems V'EL'E_(order) and K1'EV«ETA_(slander) and 3 . 2 ) are  or the f i r s t  - 0 - i n T0L0K^(pound)  (see Sees. (3.2)2  2.61  These vowels  never r e a l i z e d as such i n any grammatical form, v e r b a l or  nominal, and should t h e r e f o r e be r e p r e s e n t e d  morphophonemically  by the u n s t r e s s e d replacements, g i v i n g V ' I 1 ' E _ , KL'IV'ETA_ and He a l s o c r i t i s i z e s Gornyn's b'or'og__u,  TAI#KJ.  b'or'e'__c and s t * o r ' e _ c (p. 165,  3»)»  st'or'og_u,  y e t h i s morphophonemic  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of the f u l l - s t e m s as B'ER'0G_ and ST'ER'0G_ w i t h vowel -E-, which i s never r e a l i z e d as such, a l s o stand i n need of c o r r e c t i o n .  The only j u s t i f i a b l e morphophonemic r e p r e s e n t a -  t i o n of these f u l l - s t e m s i s with vowel - I  (a)  B'IR'OGj, ST'IR'OG^/.  Relevance o f Semi-Verbal Forms The f a c t t h a t p a r t i c i p i a l are,  ( i . e . semi-verbal) forms  i n Jakobson's o p i n i o n , p e r m i s s i b l e sources f o r  determining the true shape of the f u l l - s t e m ,  even  when the a n a l y s i s i s c o n f i n e d t o p u r e l y v e r b a l c a t e g o r i e s , i s demonstrated by h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n of f u l l stems l i k e M0L0__(grind) ( 3 . 2 ) (2.122)  .  and P 0 J I _ ( g i v e t o d r i n k )  Since no f i n i t e form r e a l i z e s the  first  vowel of e i t h e r f u l l - s t e m as - 0 - , r e c o u r s e must have been had t o Past Pass. P a r t s , l i k e raz+mola^t-^ and na+po'j_in-#. (b) Relevance of Nominal Forms What i s not c l e a r i n the paper i s Jakobson's p o s i -  78 t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the r e l e v a n c e o f s t r e s s e d  vowel  r e a l i z a t i o n s i n r e l a t e d nominal forms i n the determina t i o n of the v o c a l i c morphophonemes of v e r b a l stems.  That c o n v e n t i o n a l orthography i s of no  fullrele-  vance whatever i s s u r e l y a p o i n t on which a l l can agree.  The only j u s t i f i c a t i o n then of Jakobson's  mor-  phophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of f u l l - s t e m GOVOR'I^talk) with two -0-*s  (2.21) i s the i m p l i e d r e l e v a n c e of  nouns G6VAR__# ( d i a l e c t ) and RAZGAVORjf  (conversation)  i n d e t e r m i n i n g the v o c a l i c morphophonemes of the v e r b a l f u l l - s t e m , s i n c e the -0-*s  of GOYOR'I^ are not  r e a l i z e d i n any v e r b a l or s e m i - v e r b a l form. S i m i l a r l y , the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the u n d e r l i n e d  vowels  i n the f u l l - s t e m s X 0 X 0 T A _ ( 2 . 6 2 ) , BL 0PFU__(2.7), G R 0 Z ' I _ 1  (2.41),  TR'EST'IR0VA__(2.7) , S 0 S A _ ( 3 . 2 ) , SKR'EZETA__(3 .2) .  R'0Y'E_(3.2),  TR'EP'ETA_(3.2), R 0 D ' i _ ( 3 . 2 ) cannot be  j u s t i f i e d without h a v i n g r e c o u r s e t o nominal forms like pee  XoxoT, And  poAbi  The p r i n c i p l e  GJie-cp*  fpo3tl,  Tpe-cT,  riblJiecoc,  c ^ ^ e r ,  respectively. of the r e l e v a n c e of nominal forms i n de-  t e r m i n i n g the morphophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of v e r b a l f u l l - s t e m s i s t h e r e f o r e , i f not a c t u a l l y expressed, then a t l e a s t v e r y d e f i n i t e l y i m p l i e d i n Jakobson's a r ticle.  T h i s r e f u s a l t o completely d i v o r c e the nominal  and v e r b a l c a t e g o r i e s from one another appears t o be  79  a wise one  and  a l l the more so s i n c e the f a c t s of  mo-  dern orthography do tend i n many cases to r e i n f o r c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between noun and v e r b . be gained, a f t e r a l l ,  Nothing i s 'to  by proposing the f u l l - s t e m of  r a d ' i ^ t ' ( g i v e b i r t h ) as R A D ' I _ i n s t e a d of R O D ' I _ cept an u n d e s i r a h l e  formal  ex-  d i s s o c i a t i o n of a nominal  and  a v e r b a l stem t h a t are i n d i s s o l u a b l y l i n k e d any-  way  i n meaning.  It  should  be remembered, however, that R u s s i a n  r e t a i n s a few  of those v o c a l i c o p p o s i t i o n s  still  of Indo-  European a b l a u t which d i d i n f a c t on p r i n c i p l e serve t o c o n t r a s t the nominal and v e r b a l c a t e g o r i e s .  Though  these are only v e s t i g i a l i n Modern R u s s i a n , they  do  present  bra__t  (take).  some problems i n d e a l i n g w i t h verbs l i k e The  p r e v o c a l i c s u p p l e t i v e , which i s nowhere  r e a l i z e d i n a s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , i s best  transcribed  morphophonemically with vowel - I - (though s p e l l e d -  B ' I R / , i n s p i t e of the appearance of the  e)  stressed  vowel i n the nominal category as o i n such nouns as nabor_#(admissionX, s a b o r _ # ( c a t h e d r a l ) .  The  proposal  of v e r b a l stem B ' C - R / , based on the r e a l i z a t i o n of o in  the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s of r e l a t e d nouns, would not  be  s a t i s f a c t o r y , s i n c e the v e r b a l and nominal  stems would s t i l l be contrasted  full-  by the nature of  i n i t i a l consonant (hard B - v s . s o f t B ' - ) .  The  the  fur-  t h e r d i s s o c i a t i o n of these stems i n the o p p o s i t i o n  of  !  80 the vowel would t h e r e f o r e he (c) Relevance  justified,  of Concomitant Change  Though the -0- of a f u l l - s t e m l i k e K 0 V A _ ( f o r g e ) r e a l i z e d and t h e r e f o r e j u s t i f i e d i n the Past  iD  is  Pass.  P a r t . , e.g. s+kova_n-#, the -ova__t' verbs t h a t do not s t r e s s the f i n a l s y l l a b l e , e.g. S'ETOVA^Clament), not ever have r e a l i z a t i o n of the -0- i n any c a l form.  The  can-  grammati-  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the -0- i n f u l l - s t e m  S'ETOVA^ l i e s , however, i n the f a c t t h a t the prevoc. stem ends i n - u j - which i s the normal replacement o f f u l l - s t e m s i n -0YA_  only  upon t r u n c a t i o n of the -A.  See  Concomitant Changes, p. 35 > i v , a. In the case of the f u l l - s t e m BR 0J__( shave), the mor!  phophoneme -0- i s never r e a l i z e d , not even i n the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , s i n c e i t i s i n double  softness i n  the prevoc. forms and s u b j e c t t o concomitant upon t r u n c a t i o n i n the preconsonantal forms. comitant  change, however, i s i t s e l f the  f o r w r i t i n g the morphophoneme -0-, m o n o s y l l a b l e s i s r e p l a c e d by - i -J.  change The  justification  s i n c e only -0- i n  before the dropped  (Jak. 2 . 2 4 ) .  Accent  Columnarity  con-  of S t r e s s - P a t t e r n and the M o n o s y l l a b i c B r o a d l y Closed  Pull-Stem  81 Jakobson has e s t a b l i s h e d the columnar s t r e s s - p a t t e r n as  17 the c r i t e r i o n f o r accented p o l y s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s .  More-  over, depending on whether the accent i s l o c a t e d on the f i n a l s y l l a b l e of the open p o l y s y l l a b i c or not,  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  removable and irremovable s t r e s s ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) a r e determined. However, i n the case of the n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s , Jakobson aban1  dons t h i s b a s i c c r i t e r i o n f o r another  Pi  .  I t i s nevertheless  c l e a r t h a t h i s accented n o n p o l y s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s (e.g. l'ITU__ " c l i n g " , D*EN__ "put", KRAD_ " s t e a l " , #B''j_ "beat") do have a columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n with the exception  o f the broadly  closed  f u l l - s t e m s ( l i k e KRAD__) which a r e governed by an h i e r a r c h i c a l f a c t o r r e q u i r i n g the removal o f s t r e s s from the stem t o the first  or only s y l l a b l e of the v o c a l i c d e s i n e n c e . j  n  the case  of the m o n o s y l l . open f u l l - s t e m s l i k e L'BTJ^ or the n o n s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s l i k e #B'J__, though s t r e s s e d desinences are determined by t r u n c a t i o n o f the f i n a l v o c a l i c phoneme of the f u l l - s t e m or by the n o n s y l l a b i c i t y of the f u l l - s t e m r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n n e i t h e r case i s the columnarity  o f the s t r e s s p a t t e r n damaged.  S t r i c t l y speaking, there i s no i n c i d e n c e  o f columnar s t r e s s  among any of Jakobson's n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s due, f o r example, i n the case o f the b r o a d l y  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s , t o the  forms o f the Masc. P r e t . , the consonantal Past Gerund and the Past A c t i v e P a r t . - v'o_l-#, pr ' i + v ' e t _ s i , p r ' i + v ' e t _ _ s - i j . However, i t may be noted that the three forms quoted are i n h e r e n t l y incapable  i n any case of promoting a columnar s t r e s s  pat-  t e r n due t o m o n o s y l l a b i c i t y and l a c k of s t r e s s a b l e d e s i n e n t i a l  82 vowel ( i . e . -#  of the Masc.) i n the f i r s t  case and the h i e r a r -  c h i c a l f a c t o r of s t r e s s e d stems i n the consonantal Past Gerund and the Past A c t i v e P a r t , i n the second  case.  Apart from  this,  the s t r e s s p a t t e r n of the stem Y'OTJ^ e t c . i s i n a c t u a l f a c t columnar and  one might with j u s t i f i c a t i o n propose  such a stem  as accented on the grounds of the columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n of i t s 20 forms.  The i m p o s s i b i l i t y of s t r e s s e d p r e f i x e s i n stems of  t h i s n a t u r e , namely the m o n o s y l l a b i c b r o a d l y c l o s e d  full-stems,  a l i m i t a t i o n as c e r t a i n here as i n the case of the p o l y s y l l a b l e s , only makes more c o n v i n c i n g the case f o r l a b e l l i n g such monosyll a b l e s as these accented because of the columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n . Consequently,  a l l m o n o s y l l a b i c b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s (with  the e x c e p t i o n of M0G__  "be a b l e " whose noncolumnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n  i s of a s p e c i a l order compared with those of the other unaccent e d n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s , i . e . the unaccented  m o n o s y l l . narrowly  c l o s e d and hard open f u l l - s t e m s and the unaccented n o n s y l l a b i c s ) are accented  ( i . e . have columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n ) with PJ3M0VED  or removable (see below) s t r e s s as i n V0D_^ pectively.  and PAI)_ ( f a l l )  res-  The l a b e l l i n g of a stem such as Y'ODj'as accented,  i n the absence of a p e r f e c t l y columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n , i s no l e s s l o g i c a l than Jakobson's l a b e l l i n g of the f u l l - s t e m KRAP_ as accented, i n s p i t e of the f a c t that t h a t stem's "columnar" s t r e s s p a t t e r n i s a l s o compromised by the h i e r a r c h i c a l  factor  of s t r e s s e d v o c a l i c desinences f o r monosyll. b r o a d l y c l o s e d stems whether they be accented or unaccented.  Perfect  full-  colum-  n a r i t y i n f a c t cannot be r e a l i z e d by a r e g u l a r stem of t h i s type,  83  not even by the ones Jakobson classifies as accented.  The on-  ly stem of this class that does not require suppletion and that does achieve a completely columnar stress pattern is the f u l l stem L'EZ_ (climb) whose prevocalic forms are for this very reason classified as irregular ( i . e . though columnarity is maintained, this is an irregular feature for a l l monosyllabic broadly closed full-stems). The advantage i n such a change as the one described above would be that the simple criterion of columnarity of stress pattern (given the limitations prescribed by the monosyllabicity ^ of a given form or by hierarchical factors which are easily stated separately) is then established for a l l full-stems whether polysyllabic or non-polysyllabic.  It w i l l be pointed out below  however that, with the introduction of participles and gerunds, s t i l l further limitations must be applied to this columnarity. It should be noted here however that these limitations apply to Jakobson's so-called accented monosyll. hard and soft open f u l l stems and accented polysyll. full-stems to no less a degree than to the broadly closed non-polysyllabics. E . g . so+:sla n-#, t  —  pra+dl '__in-o, pra+cita_n-#, na+d'il'_in-a, pr' i+v' id_in-a. below.  See  Damaging as these factors may be to the "accented" sta-  tus of some of the full-stems proposed by Jakobson and of the new ones proposed here, the single criterion of columnarity (however damaged by external factors) for a l l stems, regardless of syllabicity, remains most attractive. for changes i n Jak. Sec. 2 . 6 1 and 2 . 6 2 .  Its acceptance calls  84 Though the c r i t e r i o n of eolumnarity i s i m p l i e d i n Jakobson's paper, n e i t h e r the term i t s e l f nor the g r e a t s i g n i f i In Sec. 2 . 6 1 where r e f -  cance i t c a r r i e s are ever p r e s e n t e d .  erence i s made t o the open f u l l - s t e m s , p o l y s y l l a b i c or monos y l l a b i c , they beg c o n s i d e r a t i o n . q u i r e s , f o r purposes first  The p r e s e n t c r i t i q u e r e -  of c l a r i t y , the segmenting  sentence i n t o two d i s t i n c t statements.  of Jakobson's  Jakobson  states  t h a t i n the F i n i t e forms and the I n f i n i t i v e "...the s t r e s s  falls  on the same s y l l a b l e of the accented f u l l - s t e m , w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n t h a t i n open ... f u l l - s t e m s the s t r e s s moves from f i n a l or o n l y s y l l a b l e t o the f i r s t c a l i c desinence."  their  or only s y l l a b l e of the v o -  The s u p e r f l u i t y of t h i s statement  i n view  of the a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d mechanism of the p i v o t a l p r i n c i p l e o f t r u n c a t i o n and the concept of columnar s t r e s s (as c r i t e r i o n o f accentedness) i s d e a l t w i t h below, pp. 8 9 - 9 1 . As f o r the statement falls  ( a l s o i n 2 . 6 1 ) t h a t "...the s t r e s s  on the same s y l l a b l e o f the accented f u l l - s t e m , with, the  l i m i t a t i o n t h a t i n ... b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s the s t r e s s moves from t h e i r f i n a l  or o n l y s y l l a b l e t o the f i r s t  or o n l y  s y l l a b l e of the v o c a l i c desinence", the change proposed two paragraphs above compels us t o t h i n k of the l i m i t a t i o n i t cont a i n s as i n v o l v i n g a f a r g r e a t e r number o f b r o a d l y c l o s e d  full-  stems than Jakobson h i m s e l f was t h i n k i n g o f when he used the term "accented".  A l l accented b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s are  i n v o l v e d i n f a c t except L'EZ__(climb).  And t h i s being the case,  the statement concerning b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s should be  85 changed t o read  - "The  stress f a l l s  on the same s y l l a b l e  the accented f u l l - s t e m with the l i m i t a t i o n t h a t , i n  of  broadly  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s with s t r e s s on the stem, the s t r e s s moves from the stem t o the f i r s t or only vowel of the v o c a l i c d e s i n ence and,  i n broadly  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s with s t r e s s (columnar)  on the desinences, the s t r e s s moves unto the stem i n the Masc. P r e t . and The  i n the Past  (consonantal) Gerund and  Past P a r t . Active."  statement a l s o f a i l s t o l a y s u f f i c i e n t emphasis on  f a c t t h a t the requirement t h a t a l l v o c a l i c desinences be when a f f i x e d to the b r o a d l y f a c t o r and full-stem.  stressed  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s i s an o v e r r i d i n g  therefore unrelated  t o the a c c e n t u a l nature of  the  A l s o , the exceptions t o t h i s r u l e are f a r more  merous t h a n Jakobson suggests i n 3 « 2 . , admittedly,  the  though the l i s t  nu-  grows,  only with the a d d i t i o n t o the a n a l y s i s of supple-  tive full-stems.  I t should  '  a l s o be emphasized t h a t a f u r t h e r  o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r demands t h a t a l l broadly  closed full-stems  s t r e s s e d on the stem i n the Masc. P r e t . (the p r e f i x e s never  be and  the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x only o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n t r a d i c t t h i s s t a t e ment, see pp. the  (or the  1 2 8 - 1 2 9 ) and  t h a t a l l f u l l - s t e m s s t r e s s one  only) stem s y l l a b l e s i n the Past A c t i v e P a r t ,  of and  i n the Past Gerund ( n o n - r e f l e x i v e a t l e a s t ) . With the r e c o g n i t i o n of a l l ( r e g u l a r ) b r o a d l y  closed  stems as accented, changes are r e q u i r e d a l s o i n Jak.  full-  2.62B.  ( 2 . 6 2 A I h a s a l s o been changed as the r e s u l t of another problem i n v o l v i n g the nature of the Imperative desinence - See 57.)  pp.  P i r s t of a l l , a mistake i n the wording, probably an  5^error  86  i n c o p y i n g , s h o u l d he p o i n t e d out.  I t i s obvious t h a t the word  " n a r r o w l y " was meant t o read " b r o a d l y " .  The f a c t t h a t none o f  the r e g u l a r b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s a r e i n f a c t  unaccented,  i f c o l u m n a r i t y i s t o be our g e n e r a l c r i t e r i o n o f  accentedness,  o b v i a t e s the awkward f o r m u l a t i o n o f the l i m i t a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the statement  i n 2.62B.  P a r t B s h o u l d s t a t e s i m p l y t h a t "the  o t h e r (unaccented) v e r b s s t r e s s t h e i r l a s t ( o r o n l y ) a c c e n t a b l e s y l l a b l e , w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n t h a t they draw the s t r e s s back f r o m the Neut. and P l u r . P r e t . d e s i n e n c e s . "  By " o t h e r unaccen-  t e d v e r b s " i s h e r e meant the vuiaccented m o n o s y l l a b i c h a r d f u l l - s t e m s , the unaccented stems and the unaccented  open  monosyllabic narrowly closed f u l l -  nonsyllabic full-stems.  It i s a curi-  ous f a c t t h a t , i n the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms o f these  unaccented  v e r b s , the i n s t a n c e s o f stem s t r e s s a c t u a l l y outnumber the currences of d e s i n e n t i a l s t r e s s .  oc-  T h i s i s never the case i n the  p r e v o c a l i c forms however and the a d d i t i o n o f p r e f i x e s and  the  r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x (see pp. 1 0 1 - 1 2 7 ) a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e s the numb e r of ( p r e c o n s o n a n t a l ) forms w i t h u n s t r e s s e d stems.  This i s  n o t t o suggest t h a t the r e l a t i v e number o f forms w i t h stem s t r e s s and w i t h desinence  s t r e s s i s any l o n g e r of any s i g n i f i c a n c e i n  d e t e r m i n i n g the accentedness  or unaccentedness of the f u l l - s t e m .  C o l u m n a r i t y a l o n e can do t h i s .  But i f Jakobson's f a i l u r e t o  emphasize c o l u m n a r i t y as the p r e f e r r e d c r i t e r i o n f o r a c c e n t e d n e s s even among n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s i s t o be t a k e n as a s i g n t h a t he p r e f e r r e d the o t h e r c r i t e r i o n h e r e , t h e n the c u r i o u s f a c t r e f e r r e d t o above p r e s e n t s some s e r i o u s problem t o h i s p o s i t i o n . ^  87  Even w i t h t h e acceptance o f t h e above-proposed changes, s y l l a b i c i t y continues t o play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n s i g n a l l i n g stem b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a c c e n t u a l p i v o t . mary above, S i g n i f . F e a t u r e s  See Sum-  o f t h e F u l l - S t e m , pp. 2 8 - 3 2 .  As  a l w a y s , t h e p o l y s y l l a b i c i t y or n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c i t y o f a f u l l stem d e t e r m i n e s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e term unaccented though, as a v e r y g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e p o l y s y l l . and n o n - p o l y s y l l ' i , unaccented stems have t h e f e a t u r e of noncolumnarity  o f s t r e s s p a t t e r n i n common, though i t i s i n  each case a v e r y d i f f e r e n t noncolumnar p a t t e r n .  Removed and Removable S t r e s s Fo d i f f e r e n c e on t h e o t h e r hand can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n the meaning o f t h e t e r m accented  as a p p l i e d t o p o l y s y l l . o r  n o n - p o l y s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s provided the s t r e s s i s irremovable. I n t h e case o f a c c e n t e d i s not ambivalent  stems w i t h removable s t r e s s t h e term  when a p p l i e d t o p o l y s y l l . and n o n - p o l y s y l l .  open f u l l - s t e m s t o g e t h e r , b u t i t t a k e s on a d i f f e r e n t meaning when t h e c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s such as V ' O D J a r e i n v o l v e d , s i n c e , i n the l a t t e r case, r e m o v a b i l i t y of the s t r e s s i s a p r i n c i p l e and n o t an a c c i d e n t ( i . e . determined i n c i d e n t a l l y by t r u n c a t i o n ) , as i t i s i n t h e case o f t h e open f u l l - s t e m s .  Thus w i t h  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s new c a t e g o r y o f accented f u l l - s t e m s and w i t h r e s p e c t o n l y t o t h i s c a t e g o r y , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between the terms removable and i r r e m o v a b l e s t r e s s , o f no r e a l  signif-  i c a n c e i n J a k o b s o n s paper (See below, pp. 8 9 - 9 1 ) » can no l o n g f  88 er  be regarded as the p u r e l y automatic r e s u l t of an a l t e r n a -  t i o n statement  of t r u n c a t i o n , but as a s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of  some r e l e v a n c e of the f u l l - s t e m .  F o r t h i s r e a s o n the terms  removed and removable s t r e s s are suggested i n order t o p o i n t to  the c o n t r a s t i n g v a r i e t i e s o f n o n - i r r e m o v a b i l i t y o f s t r e s s  as e x e m p l i f i e d by Y'0D__ and KLAD_ r e s p e c t i v e l y .  In the case  of V'OD_^, the stem, w h i l e accented as determined by i t s columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n , has t h i s accent r e a l i z e d by a s t r e s s removed to  the desinences i n the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of the forms  ( p r e v o c a l i c and p r e c o n s o n a n t a l ) •  I n the case of KLAD_, the  s t r e s s i s n o t removed i n p r i n c i p l e but s t i l l removable i n c e r t a i n forms t o the v o c a l i c desinences by v i r t u e of an h i e r a r c h ical  requirement.  Accent v s . S t r e s s - C r i t i c i s m of the Use o f these Terms In stress.  Sec. 2.61, Jakobson has confused the terms accent and As e x p l a i n e d above i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n ( p . 40);, the  term accent r e f e r s t o the s y l l a b i c prominence of the a b s t r a c t f u l l - s t e m and i s i t s e l f an a b s t r a c t i o n , w h i l e the term r e f e r s t o s y l l a b i c prominence i n a c t u a l l y r e a l i s e d  stress  grammatical  forms and i s t h e r e f o r e the implementation o f a c c e n t .  In para-  graph one, Sec. 2.61, t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n would appear t o be obs e r v e d , but the t i t l e Pull-Stems w i t h Removable and Irremovable  Accent should be changed t o read Accented Pull-Stems with  Removable and Irremovable S t r e s s .  Moreover, one cannot  logic-  a l l y speak of accent p a t t e r n , but only of s t r e s s p a t t e r n ( J a k .  89  3.2)', s i n c e i t i s t h e s t r e s s , and n o t t h e a c c e n t , t h a t f i g u r e s i n t h e v a r i o u s g r a m m a t i c a l forms and w h i c h , i n i t s s t a b i l i t y or n o n - s t a b i l i t y , d e s c r i b e s a p a t t e r n which i s columnar o r not  columnar. I n p a r a g r a p h two o f 2.61, Jakobson has c o r r e c t l y r e f e r r e d  t o t h e a c u t e a c c e n t ( i . e . a c c e n t mark) as t h e marker o f t h e prominent  s y l l a b l e i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of f u l l - s t e m s .  In re-  f e r r i n g t o t h e a c t u a l forms, c a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n t o r e f e r t o t h e marker o f s y l l a b i c prominence as t h e s t r e s s ( m a r k ) . Sec. 2.62, Jakobson has observed t h i s p r i n c i p l e  In  faithfully.  Removable and I r r e m o v a b l e S t r e s s o f Accented P o l y s y l l a b l e s a Redundancy Two g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be made w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t a b l e on pp. 43-45 above.  The f i r s t i n v o l v e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n  made under t h e h e a d i n g ACCEITED-PULL STEMS between and i r r e m o v a b l e s t r e s s .  removable  This d i s t i n c t i o n i s of only l i m i t e d  i m p o r t a n c e i n so f a r as i t i s o n l y t h e p u r e l y a u t o m a t i c r e s u l t of t r u n c a t i o n .  G i v e n t h e p r i n c i p l e and mechanism o f t r u n c a -  t i o n , t h e terms removable In  and i r r e m o v a b l e s t r e s s a r e redundant.  o t h e r words, t h e o n l y r e l e v a n t remark w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e  a c c e n t o f S A X A R ' I _ ( s u g a r ) as opposed t o BOROZD'I_(furrow) conc e r n s t h e p a r t i c u l a r s y l l a b l e , f i n a l o r o t h e r w i s e , t h a t happens t o bear t h e a c c e n t .  The mere f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e a c c e n t e d i s  an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e columnar i c a l forms.  s t r e s s p a t t e r n o f t h e i r grammat-  The l o c a t i o n o f t h a t a c c e n t w i l l determine  auto-  90 m a t i c a l l y whether or not  the  s t r e s s w i l l i n c e r t a i n forms  pear on a desinence, l e a v i n g the  ap-  stem ( i . e . what's l e f t of i t )  unstressed. (This " d i f f e r e n c e " , which Jakobson chooses t o emphasize, between p o l y s y l l a b l e s of the type SAXAR'I__ and f i g u r e s prominently (and  unnecessarily)  cented n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s . (watch) and his  has  BR'0J__(shave) i n the  t a b l e above, which summarizes But  here  d i f f e r e n c e so emphasized i s only an i n c i d e n t a l  That i s to say,  (consonant or vowel, and  full-stems  one them-  t h i s " d i f f e r e n c e " depends on the  t h a t they are d i f f e r e n t with r e s p e c t therefore  fact  to t h e i r f i n a l phoneme  open or c l o s e d ) , but  does  i t s e l f determine something e l s e about the verbs b e h a v i o r . In other words, the  able  ac-  Thus the accented f u l l - s t e m s BD'E__  n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the nature of the  selves.  not  i n h i s remarks on  remarks, must be a s s i g n e d to d i f f e r e n t columns.  a g a i n the and  B0R0ZD'I_ a l s o  s t r e s s " as a p p l i e d  that w i l l  d i s t i n c t i o n "removable and  to accented f u l l - s t e m s i s not  explain a full-stem's  s i g n i f i c a n t feature  b e h a v i o r , not,  of the f u l l - s t e m , but  terms removable and  a cause  therefore,  a  r a t h e r a symptom, a  r e f l e c t i o n of the f u l l - s t e m b e i n g what i t i s . case, the  irremov-  T h i s being  i r r e m o v a b l e s t r e s s are not  the to  be  used, as Jakobson uses them, as though they were s i g n i f i c a n t features  of the f u l l - s t e m , i . e . s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  a b s t r a c t i o n "accent". ded  In the same way,  v o c a l i c desinences are not  the rounded and  s i g n i f i c a n t features  the  unroun-  of the  ver-  91 b a l f u l l - s t e m s , "but r a t h e r the symptoms d i s p l a y e d i n the gramm a t i c a l forms of the t r u e s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s , the f i n a l phoneme (consonant  or vowel) and the f i n a l consonant  (hard or  soft). In the l i g h t of the above c r i t i c i s m , i t i s easy t o understand the dilemma presented by the t i t l e Jakobson has g i v e n t o h i s S e c t i o n 2.61.  The replacement  of Full-Stems with Removable  and Irremovable Accent by Accented Full-Stems with Removable and Irremovable  obson's t i t l e attempts ifiers The  a l r e a d y suggested above, p. 88.  S t r e s s was  (removable  Jak-  t o d e f i n e types of accent by u s i n g q u a l -  and irremovable) t h a t p r o p e r l y r e f e r t o s t r e s s .  c o r r e c t e d t i t l e may  be allowed t o stand s i n c e i t puts the  terms removable and irremovable i n t h e i r proper context as symptoms ( s t r e s s i t s e l f being a symptom), not causes b e i n g a cause  (accent  or a s i g n i f i c a n t feature)..  The use of the terms removable and irremovable s t r e s s i s however w e l l j u s t i f i e d  s i n c e i t g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s the formu-  l a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c r u l e s . imagine, f o r example, how cond statement __i  It i s d i f f i c u l t  to  the i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n the se-  of Jak. 2.122  (The Imperative) - "The  occurs a f t e r tv/o consonants  alternant  or a f t e r a stem not having an i r -  removable accent" - c o u l d be s t a t e d more b r i e f l y and n e a t l y w i t h out r e s o r t i n g to the use of the terms removable and i r r e m o v a b l e . The f i n a l word should be changed however t o read No l e s s a r t i f i c i a l and redundant  "-stress".  i s the statement  Jakob-  son makes r e g a r d i n g the irremovable s t r e s s on the f i n a l or only  92 s y l l a b l e o f narrowly c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s . i n Sec. 2.61, p. 162.  E.g. RUG-AJ__, D'EI_  In c o n t r a s t t o p o l y s y l l . V I I ' E _ ( o r d e r ) ,  the p o l y s y l l . narrowly c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m RUG-AJ_( s c o l d ) , he says, does not have the t r a n s f e r e n c e o f the s t r e s s from the f i n a l s y l l a b l e of the stem t o the f i r s t i c desinence.  or only s y l l a b l e o f the v o c a l -  In o t h e r words, i n s h o r t , 1 Sg. v ' i l ' _ u does n o t  imply *rugaj__u.  A s p e c i a l statement was a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r  t h i s problem due t o the e r r o r i n p r e s e n t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e t o be one of s t r e s s .  These two p o l y s y l l a b l e s are b a s i c a l l y con-  t r a s t e d by the f a c t t h a t one i s open and the other i s c l o s e d ; the d i f f e r e n c e , i n other words, l i e s i n the nature o f t h e i r n a l phoneme.  fi-  The f a c t t h a t s t r e s s cannot be removed from the  vowel -A- i n RUGAJ__, or from - E - i n D'EN__, merely depends on the f a c t that the vowel i n each case cannot be t r u n c a t e d , not on any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r s t r e s s or accent, as i m p l i e d by Jakobson.  F u r t h e r Observations on the T a b l e , pp. 43-45. Types of S t r e s s P a t t e r n among Unaccented Full-Stems The second o b s e r v a t i o n based on the t a b l e above concerns the types of f u l l - s t e m s under the heading "unaccented".  There  i s a s t r i k i n g and v e r y important d i f f e r e n c e i n the s t r e s s p a t t e r n o f the unaccented p o l y s y l l a b l e s on the one hand, and the other unaccented f u l l - s t e m s on the other, though i n each case the common a t t r i b u t e i s noncolumnarity.  One s p e c i f i c  ence i s the s m a l l number of forms of the p o l y s y l l a b i c  differunaccen-  93 ted f u l l - s t e m s  that have d e s i n e n t i a l s t r e s s .  C e r t a i n l y none of 22  the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms have s t r e s s e d  desinences.  YJith the  admission o f p r e f i x e d verbs and p a r t i c i p l e s and gerunds, the unaccented p o l y s y l l a b l e s are a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o d e f l e c t s t r e s s t o the p r e f i x or r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x , a common occurrence among c e r t a i n of the unaccented abics.  non-polysyll-  See below.  A l t e r n a t i v e C r i t e r i o n f o r Accentedness and Unaccentedness As  explained  full-stems tern.  above, the b a s i c c r i t e r i o n f o r c l a s s i f y i n g  as accented or unaccented i s the columnar s t r e s s p a t -  T h i s c r i t e r i o n was s e l e c t e d a r b i t r a r i l y , though w i t h good  reason.  I t i s not,  however, the only p o s s i b l e b a s i s f o r the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f u l l - s t e m s  as accented or unaccented.  p r i n c i p l e f o r such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n could be c o n s t r u c t e d observation matical  Another on the  t h a t some f u l l - s t e m s have a preponderance o f gram-  forms with stem s t r e s s , w h i l e another l a r g e group have  a majority  of forms w i t h d e s i n e n t i a l s t r e s s .  t h i s observation  I t was i n f a c t  t h a t prompted Jakobson t o c l a s s i f y such mono-  syll'. broadly closed full-stems  as V*0P/(lead) as unaccented i n  s p i t e o f the s t r i k i n g c o l u m n a r i t y o f i t s s t r e s s p a t t e r n , ded  t h r e e i r r e l e v a n t forms are overlooked.  See p. 81.  proviJakob-  son's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f V O D / e t c . as unaccented must, of course, be r e j e c t e d i f the c r i t e r i o n o f columnarity i s t o be s t r i c t l y maintained. I f , however, the r e l a t i v e numbers o f forms with d e s i n e n -  94 t i a l or stem stress were to be taken as the main criterion for classifying full-stems as accented or unaccented, then a verb of the type  V'OTJJ,  with a (near columnar) stress pattern dis-  placed or removed to the desinences, would be the most nearly perfect representative  of an unaccented full-stem which, ideally,  would lack any form with the stress realized on the stem. Whether the classificatory criterion i s columnarity or "preponderance", the forms v''ol__-# (Masc. Pret.), v'et_s-ij etc. (Past Active Part.) and -v'et_j3i (Past Gerund) require special statements (p. 81).  If the unaccented full-stem i s ideally one that  stresses the maximum number of forms on the desinences, then one implication i s that no normal polysyllabic full-stem could be unaccented since desinential stress i n a l l of the preeonsonantal forms i s s t r i c t l y an impossibility, i . e . the forms p'isa__t i !  (Inf.) or p'isa^l-c^-a,-! (Pret.) for the full-stem P'ISA_ (write) are unthinkable. Even i n the case of a verb like G0V0R'I_(speak)" or K0VA__( forge)., the incidence of stress on a l l vocalic desinences could not outweigh the fact that a l l preconsonantal forms have the stress on one of the stem s y l l ables.  This compromises too far the requirement of desinential 22  stress predominance for unaccented full-stems. While a l l polysyllables would be accented, they would not a l l be accented i n the same way, as illustrated by the f u l l stems G O V O R ' I J t a l k ) , GAToV'I_(prepare) and L ' U B «I_(love).  In  these verbs the accent would be described as realized by removable, irremovable and movable (or mobile) stress respec-  95 tively.  The distinction between the f i r s t two, as explained  earlier (p. 89),  is of l i t t l e consequence, hut together they 23  would contrast sharply with the third variety.  J  Since the  fact that a l l polysyllables are accented would already have been stated, the absence of the accent mark on the full-stem L'UB'I^ or P'ISA_ could not possibly be taken to mean that the stem was unaccented.  Instead, the absence of accent mark i n such poly-  syllabic full-stems would signal one of the three types of aceentedness, namely the one realized by movable stress i n the paradigm.  In summary, the main reason for refusing to admit  stems of the type L ' U B ' I ^ P'ISA__ as accented is their failure to clearly favor desinential stress.  Such stems are readily  classified as unaccented only i f the basic criterion is columnarity.  The alternative criterion of preponderance w i l l permit  only the classification "accented"', i . e . i f the terms accented and unaccented are to have the same meaning with respect both to polysyll. and non-polysyll. full-stems. One problem with this criterion is that, i n the case of the accented full-stem with removable stress (e.g. G0Y0R'I_, L 1TU_), truncation before vocalic desinences causes, i n a l l !  too many instances, the transference of stress from an accented stem to a desinential syllable.  In other words, these ac-  cented full-stems f a i l to "clearly" favor stem stress. It may be argued, of course, that such an automatic stress transference, determined, as i t i s , by truncation, should not be considered of any more significance in determining whether  96 a f u l l - s t e m i s accented or unaccented,  than the requirement,  i n the case of m o n o s y l l . "broadly c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s , accented or unaccented,  of s t r e s s t r a n s f e r e n c e t o the v o c a l i c  desinence.  For example, the f u l l - s t e m KRAD_ i s c o n s i d e r e d t o he accented even though  the many p r e v o c a l i c forms with d e s i n e n t i a l  would appear t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s f a c t  stress  (Jak. Sec. 2.61).  More s e r i o u s however i s the a l l too f r e q u e n t t r a n s f e r e n c e of s t r e s s back unto the unaccented c l e a r l y avoidable.  stem a t times when t h i s i s  F o r example, i n the case of the unaccented  f u l l - s t e m #BRA_(take)., the s t r e s s e d stem i n the Masc. P r e t . i s u n a v o i d a b l e , but the occurrence of the s t r e s s on the stem  syll-  a b l e i n the Neut. and P I . P r e t . damages the p r i n c i p l e o f desi n e n t i a l s t r e s s wherever p o s s i b l e i n the grammatical forms of unaccented  full-stems.  Although the a l t e r n a t i v e c r i t e r i o n f o r c l a s s i f y i n g stems w i t h r e s p e c t t o accent p r e s e n t s some problems,  full-  i t w i l l be  shown below t h a t i t must be used as a secondary c r i t e r i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h the unaccented n o n - p o l y s y l l a b l e s , i . e . non-polys y l l a b i c s t h a t have been c l a s s i f i e d as unaccented  on the b a s i s  of noncolumnarity o f s t r e s s p a t t e r n , the primary  classificatory  criterion.  The i n c l u s i o n o f p r e f i x e d verbs p r e s e n t s a v a r i e t y  of d i f f e r e n t noncolumnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n s .  Some of these a r e  determined by the p a r t i c u l a r type o f n o n - p o l y s y l l . f u l l - s t e m , j u s t as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p o l y s y l l a b i c i t y and non-polys y l l a b i c i t y s i g n a l l e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning of the term un-  97  accented, i . e . a d i f f e r e n t type of noncolumnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n . Though these "broad"  1  d i f f e r e n c e s need no s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n  s i n c e the v e r y shape of the f u l l - s t e m speaks er d i f f e r e n c e s i n unaccentedness  of them, s t i l l  ( i . e . i n noncolumnar s t r e s s  p a t t e r n ) can be observed w i t h i n each type of n o n - p o l y s y l l . stem, i . e . among the i n d i v i d u a l members. f e r e n c e s t h a t a secondary accent i s e s s e n t i a l . Unaccentedness.  oth-  I t i s f o r these  fulldif-  c r i t e r i o n f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  Involved here i s the t o p i c of Degree of  The i n c l u s i o n of p a r t i c i p l e s i n the a n a l y s i s  i n t r o d u c e s f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n s among stems of a s i n g l e and t h e r e f o r e a f u r t h e r refinement i n degree  of  type  unaccentedness.  Columnarity, P r e f i x e s and Ifon-Finite Forms As mentioned i n the p r e c e d i n g paragraph,  the i n c l u s i o n of  the p r e f i x and s e m i - v e r b a l forms i n the a n a l y s i s w i l l  compli-  cate the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of the unaccented polysyllabics. elements  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of these  nonnew  t o the a n a l y s i s has the more s e r i o u s e f f e c t of r u i n i n g  the otherwise p e r f e c t c o l u m n a r i t y of s t r e s s p a t t e r n of c e r t a i n "accented" f u l l - s t e m s and; thereby demanding a r e - a n a l y s i s of c e r t a i n f u l l - s t e m s c l a s s i f i e d by Jakobson as accented.  Involved  are the accented m o n o s y l l . s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s and the accented p o l y s y l l . s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s w i t h removable s t r e s s , i . e . with accent on the f i n a l s y l l a b l e .  Though the p r e f i x cannot  accept  the s t r e s s e i t h e r i n the P r e t . or Past Pass. P a r t . , the Past Pass. P a r t , does have s t r e s s e d desinences i n the non-Masc. s h o r t  98 forms, e.g. G-0V0R'I__( speak) - u+gavar'__in-o, (last) - pra+dl'_in-6,-a,-i. p a t t e r n of the v e r b .  -a,-i,  DL'I_  T h i s r u i n s the columnar s t r e s s  I n the "accented" monosyll. b r o a d l y  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m w i t h removed s t r e s s , the same problem E.g. the accented f u l l - s t e m V'OD/ / /  exists.  has i t s c o l u m n a r i t y r u i n e d i  by forms l i k e p r ' i + v ' i d ' _ i n - o , - a , - i .  In the case of the  un-  accented f u l l - s t e m s l i k e D ' E L ' I _ ( d i v i d e ) , the Past Pass. P a r t , i s g e n e r a l l y s t r e s s e d on the desinence the s h o r t form.  (terminal suffix) i n  T h i s time i t serves only t o f u r t h e r r e f l e c t  the stem's unaccentedness  ( i . e . i t s noncolumnarity  of s t r e s s  p a t t e r n ) , p r o v i d i n g a t h i r d p o s i t i o n f o r the s t r e s s i n a d d i t i o n to  the two a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the P i n i t e forms.  C f . 1 Sg.  d ' i l * _ u , 2 Sg. d ' e l ' _ _ i - s , Past Pass. P a r t , n a + d ' i l ' _ _ i n - o , - a , - i . A. f u r t h e r accent problem presented by the p a r t i c i p l e i s the t r a n s f e r e n c e of the s t r e s s back one s y l l a b l e i n accented f u l l - s t e m s of the type CITAJ_(read)  or SLA_(send) i n a l l forms,  l o n g or s h o r t , of the Past Pass. P a r t . The forms etc.  (pra+)cita_n-#  and po+:sla_ji-# e t c . r u i n an otherwise p e r f e c t columnar  s t r e s s p a t t e r n and Jakobson's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the f u l l - s t e m s as accented i s p l a c e d i n doubt.  On the other hand,  unaccented  f u l l - s t e m s l i k e P 'ISA__(write) only have t h e i r  unaccentedness  f u r t h e r confirmed by the Past P a r t . Pass. E.g.  (na+)p 'isa__n-#.  The case of a verb l i k e SLA_  ( f o r others see below pp.  103-107) i s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n c e the r u l e s governing format i o n of the p a r t i c i p l e s c a l l f o r the removal  of the s t r e s s  from  99  the stem t o the p r e f i x .  T h i s unusual development could he  p l a i n e d by an h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s u p e r i o r f a c t o r governing  ex-  parti-  c i p l e f o r m a t i o n and would c o n s t i t u t e an o b j e c t i o n t o c l a s s i f y ing  the stem as accented no more s e r i o u s than does that  factor  which demands s t r e s s e d v o c a l i c desinences of a l l b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s r e g a r d l e s s of whether the c o l u m n a r i t y of an accented f u l l - s t e m i s thereby r u i n e d . still  j u s t i f i a b l y c l a s s i f i e d as accented. There may  of  SLA_  etc.  however be grounds f o r denying the  accentedness  T r u l y accented f u l l - s t e m s of t h i s type, i . e . mono-  s y l l . hard open, may of  In e i t h e r case the f u l l - s t e m i s  i n f a c t not r e q u i r e such a t r a n s f e r e n c e  s t r e s s i n the Past Pass. P a r t . , i . e . they may  p l e t e c o l u m n a r i t y of s t r e s s p a t t e r n .  achieve com-  The problem here i s t h a t  accented f u l l - s t e m s of t h i s type are r a r e and a Past Pass. P a r t , s t i l l rarer.  The f u l l - s t e m s of t h i s type t h a t are Standard Rus-  s i a n and t h a t might i n f a c t have p e r f e c t c o l u m n a r i t y of s t r e s s are  -LGNU__(lie)  t h a t H.H.  and 1 ' F U _ ( c l i n g ) .  The  only p r e f i x e d compounds  B i e l f e l d t l i s t s i n h i s R u c k l a u f i g e s Worterbuch der  R u s s i s c h e n Sprache pr'i+l*nu_t  !  der Gegenwart f o r these stems are ab-nal'nujfc',  and p r ' i + l g n u _ t ' .  I f these p a r t i c u l a r compounds  do not permit the t r a n s f e r e n c e of the s t r e s s t o the p r e f i x i n the Past Pass. P a r t . , then they r e p r e s e n t the p r e s c r i b e d behavior  i n t h i s r e s p e c t of accented monosyll. hard open f u l l - s t e m s .  None of these verbs a c t u a l l y has Past Pass. P a r t s , i n use  and  n a t i v e informants t h e r e f o r e are not sure about  posi-  the s t r e s s  100 t i o n , though they are i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t should be on the stem.  The appearance o f the s t r e s s on the p r e f i x of the  Past Pass. P a r t , of compounds of SLA__ v/ould then demand the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of t h i s f u l l - s t e m as unaccented, v e r y s p e c i a l and l i m i t e d degree pp. 103-107.  o f unaccentedness.  though of a See below,  T h i s i s due t o the f a c t t h a t the c o l u m n a r i t y i s  d i s t u r b e d t o only a v e r y l i m i t e d e x t e n t , i . e . i n the Past P a r t . , but not i n other preconsonantal forms l i k e  Pass.  the P r e t e r i t .  Though i t may be p o s s i b l e t o r e t a i n the f u l l - s t e m s of the type CITAJ_,  SLA_, G0V0R'I__, DL'I_, V'OPj i n the category o f  accented f u l l - s t e m s by e s t a b l i s h i n g the f a c t o r s as h i e r a r c h i c a l l y determined,  columnarity-damaging  i t i s impossible to avoid  a l t o g e t h e r a decrease i n the number o f accented f u l l - s t e m s w i t h a p e r f e c t columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n once the n o n - f i n i t e forms have been i n c l u d e d .  I n f a c t , the number o f p o l y s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s  w i t h a p e r f e c t columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n i s now s t r i c t l y to  limited  accented p o l y s y l l . s o f t or hard open f u l l - s t e m s with the a c -  cent l o c a t e d on any but the f i n a l s y l l a b l e  (e.g. GAT07'I__,  MAZA__); and t o p o l y s y l l . narrowly c l o s e d ( i . e . i n -J_) f u l l - s t e m s accented on any but the f i n a l s y l l a b l e (e.g. DTJMAJjt. A c u r i o u s case i s presented by the f u l l - s t e m (gild).  Z0I0T'I_  Marked as accented, the columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n can-  not be expected t o be s t r i c t l y maintained due t o the f a c t t h a t the accented s y l l a b l e i s the f i n a l  one.  The s t r e s s should be  removed by an h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s u p e r i o r determining f a c t o r  from  101  the t h i r d s y l l a b l e to the f o u r t h i n the short forms of the Past Pass. P a r t . , Pem., raz+zalac_in-o,-a,-i  Neut. and  and pa-Kzalac__in-6,-a,-i  forms when p r e f i x o+ i s used).  The  However, the forms  (though a + z a l a c _ i n - 6 , - a - i  old-fashioned  back one  PI.  Instead,  are  are the  considered prescribed  the s t r e s s i s s h i f t e d  s y l l a b l e - raz-nzaloc__in-a,-a,-i and  pa+zaloc_in-a,-a,-i.  same a p p l i e s to ZUHR'I_(serrate), with Past Pass. P a r t ,  za+zubr'__in-ij  etc.  S t r e s s E l i c i t o r s - The  P r e f i x and  the R e f l e x i v e S u f f i x  General Observations Only i n the case of the p o l y s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s i s the  non-  columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n of unaccented f u l l - s t e m s r e a l i z e d w i t h out the d e f l e c t i o n of the s t r e s s to the p r e f i x or to(wards) the  24 reflexive suffix.  The v a r i o u s types of unaccented non-poly-  s y l l a b i c s do not, however, have the same p a t t e r n of s t r e s s f l e c t i o n t o p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x i s s y l l a b i c and  the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x .  de-  The r e f l e x i v e  t h e r e f o r e capable i t s e l f of  accepting  the s t r e s s only i n the Masc. P r e t . ; i n the non-Masc. P r e t . , where i t i s n o n s y l l a b i c ( - s ) , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s 1  towards i t s e l f ,  draws the s t r e s s  e f f e c t i n g i t s t r a n s p o s i t i o n from the v e r b a l stem  or the p r e f i x t o the, t e r m i n a l s u f f i x (-0,-1X of the Neut. and PI. Pret.  E.g.  bra_l -i-s ; 1  1  c f . Neut., bra__l-a, P I . b r a _ l ' - i but bra_l-o'-s',  d o + l ' i _ l - a , d o + 1 i 1 - i but d a + 1 • i 1-o-s', 1  1  102. da+1 ±_l -1-s ,  *.  i  As demonstrated "by the m o n o s y l l . narrowly  c l o s e d and n o n s y l l . unaccented f u l l - s t e m s , the r e f l e x i v e s u f fix  occupies  a p o s i t i o n h i g h e r i n the h i e r a r c h y  c i t a t i o n (or absorption).  of s t r e s s e l i -  Whether the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x  itself  a c q u i r e s the s t r e s s or merely draws i t c l o s e r t o i t s e l f , i t g e n e r a l l y o v e r r i d e s the a t t r a c t i o n f o r c e of p r e f i x e s . quently,  Conse-  the p r e f i x i s s t r e s s e d only i n the n o n - r e f l e x i v e non-  Feminine forms o f the P r e t . of DAJ_(S)(give)pro+da_l-a (Neut.)', pro+da__l'-i,  - pro+da__l-#,  but g i v e s up the s t r e s s i n f a -  v o r o f the stem s y l l a b l e or the desinence when the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s added - pra+da_l-#-s * a, pra+:da__l-o-s ', (or  obsolete p r a + d a ^ l ^ - s ' a and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l  (Neut.), p r a + d a _ l ' - i - s ' ) .  pra+da_l*-i-s'  pra+da__l-a-3'  I n a few n o n s y l l a b i c s however, t h i s  g e n e r a l r u l e i s not observed i n convers. a l t e r n a t i v e s . E.g. -#P '#R__(lock)': za+p'ir_#-#-s'a or convers. za+p'ir_#-#-s'a, z a + p i r _ l - o - s , z a + p i r _ l - i - s ' or convers. z a + p i r _ l - a - s 1  1  (Neut.), za+p i r _ l 1  The  1  1  1  1  1  -i-s . 1  s t r e s s e d r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i n the Masc. P r e t . has been  l o s i n g ground as a comparison between Ushakov on the one hand and  Ozhegov or Avanesov on the other w i l l show.  While the f o r -  mer author u s u a l l y , i f not always, permits a f r e e a l t e r n a t i o n between stem s t r e s s and r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x s t r e s s i n the Masc. P r e t . o f unaccented n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s , the l a t t e r authors l e s s commonly admit the s t r e s s i n g of the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i n the Masc. P r e t . and then, i n most cases, i t i s the l e s s common or  103 l e s s acceptable stress p o s i t i o n .  Only v e r y r a r e l y do the more  modern a u t h o r i t i e s supply a Masc. P r e t . with s t r e s s e d r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x as the p r e f e r r e d or only form.  Such i s the case  w i t h n o n s y l l . -#P' #Ii_(lock) Masc. P r e t . R e f l e x , za+p 'ir_#-#-s 'a. S  (convers. za+p'irj7*-#--s'a), -CH_(begin) na+;ci_l-#-s'a ( o n l y ) and v-JM__(take) w i t h p r e f i x e s za+, na+-and p r ' i + (e.g. za+n'i_l-#-s'a).  The form za+n'a_l-#-s'a  .  i s conversational.  Degrees of Unaccentedness The frequency w i t h which the d i f f e r e n t n o n - p o l y s y l l . unaccented f u l l - s t e m s d e f l e c t s t r e s s to p r e f i x and/or r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s the b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i v e degrees of unaccentedness, not only among stems o f d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s but a l s o among stems w i t h i n one and the same c a t e g o r y .  M o n o s y l l a b i c Hard Open Pull-Stems The unaccented m o n o s y l l . hard open f u l l - s t e m s a r e , as a group, l e s s capable of d e f l e c t i n g s t r e s s t o p r e f i x e s and the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x than the other types of unaccented non-polysyllabics.  Though d i f f e r e n t stems w i t h i n t h i s category d i s p l a y  d i f f e r e n t degrees o f unaccentedness, a l l are i n c a p a b l e of def l e c t i n g s t r e s s t o the p r e f i x i n any of the P r e t . forms, as o f t e n occurs i n the non-Pern. P r e t . of the other unaccented nonpolysyllabics.  E.g. na+rva l-# e t c . , pra+spa l-# e t c . , s a + s l a l-#  —  e t c . but #1'J  —*  f  do+l»i l-# e t c . , ZIV_ do+zi_l-# e t c . P r e f i x e s  ~  104 elicit  the s t r e s s only i n the Past Pass. P a r t .  25  This a p p l i e s  even t o the Fern, s h o r t Past Pass. P a r t . , a f a c t v/hich t o s e t these stems s t i l l  serves  f u r t h e r apart from the o t h e r s , v/hich  r e t a i n the s t r e s s on the Pern, desinence o f the s h o r t Past P a r t . , whether or not the form i s p r e f i x e d . P a s s . P a r t s . prc^-spaja-a, -#P'#R_ z a + p ' i r _ t - a ,  Pass.  E.g. Pern. Past  so+sla_n-a, hut #V'J__ da+v'i_t-a,  DAJ_(S) pra+da_n-a, KL'AN_ p r a + k l ' i _ t - a . ^ 2  In the P r e t . ( p r e f i x e d or n o t ) , unaccentedness i s r e f l e c t e d only i n the Pern, where the desinence i s s t r e s s e d . not  This i s  the case, however, w i t h a s m a l l sub-category o f these  the m i n i m a l l y  verbs,  unaccented f u l l - s t e m s l i k e SLA^_c(send), which,  though unaccented as demonstrated by the l o s s of s t r e s s column a r i t y when s t r e s s i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o the p r e f i x i n a l l forms o f the Past P a s s . P a r t . , do n o t s t r e s s the desinence even i n the Pern. P r e t . , n o t even when the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s used. E.g.  Pem. P r e t . ( s a + ) s l a _ l - a - s . 1  Jakobson as accented.  Such a stem i s c l a s s i f i e d by  This i s o f course j u s t i f i a b l e as l o n g  as no a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o the p r e f i x e d forms and when s t r i c t columnarity cented  o f s t r e s s p a t t e r n i s not the c r i t e r i o n f o r an a c -  full-stem. ? 2  The  Neut. and P I . desinences i n the P r e t . are s t r e s s a b l e  f o r most o f these stems only v/hen the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s used. Sometimes, however, even with the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x , the s t r e s s remains on the v e r b a l stem i n the Neut. and P I . P r e t . , i n other  cases the p r e f e r r e d p o s i t i o n (but not the only one) i s  105 on the stem, while i n a t h i r d group o f m o n o s y l l . hard open f u l l - s t e m s the p r e f e r r e d s t r e s s p o s i t i o n i s the desinence i n these two forms.  Degrees of unaccentedness w i t h i n the category  o f m o n o s y l l . hard open f u l l - s t e m s are e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o the s t r e s s i n g o f these two P r e t . forms.  The f u l l - s t e m s #RVA_  ( t e a r ) , #SPA__c(sleep) and 7^SLA_c(send) w i l l serve t o i l l u s t r a t e these d i f f e r e n c e s - #R7A__: (na+)rva_l-o-s',  ( n a + ) r v a _ l ' - i - s ';  #SPA c : pra+spa 1-o-s", pra+spa l ' - i - s ' ; ^ #SLil : ( s a + ) s l a 1-a-s', 2  —  (Neut.),  _  —  ( s a + ) s l a _ l ' - i - s ' . I t i s evident  ^  —  from a comparison o f  these forms t h a t the l e a s t unaccented f u l l - s t e m i s the type by 7 ? S L A _ C  represented  7  (confirmed  moreover by i t s l a c k of a  s t r e s s e d desinence i n the Pem. P r e t . ) , t h a t the most unaccented i s the f u l l - s t e m #RVA_ , 29  occupies an i n t e r m e d i a t e of unaccentedness.  and t h a t the f u l l - s t e m #SPA_c  p o s i t i o n with r e s p e c t  29  t o i t s degree  The f u l l - s t e m #RVA__ might t h e r e f o r e be l a -  b e l l e d Maximally Unaccented, the f u l l - s t e m #SPA__c Unaccented and  the f u l l - s t e m f^lA^c  Minimally  Unaccented.  L i k e #RVA__ are  #BRA_c ( t a k e ) , #VRA_ ( l i e ) , #G-NA_c ( d r i v e ) , #DRA_c ( t e a r ) , #ZDA__ ( w a i t ) , #ZRA__ (gorge), #ZVA_c ( c a l l ) and the p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e #TKA__ (weave); l i k e #SPA__ i s #LGA_ ( l i e ) and l i k e #SLA_c a r e #GNU^ (bend), ^MKNU^ ( l o c k ) , #S LA_c t  #TKNTJ_ (poke), the p e r m i s s i b l e .  (i)  (po+) PRA__ The ing  .  (spread),  a l t e r n a t i v e #TKA^_ (weave) and  .  (trample).  p r e f i x and r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x p l a y no r o l e i n a t t r a c t -  the s t r e s s from the unaccented monosyll. hard open f u l l -  106 stem ( o f whatever degree) i n any o f the p r e v o c a l i c forms, the I n f i n i t i v e , the Past A c t i v e P a r t , or the Past ( i . e . P e r f e c t i v e ) Gerund.  The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t l i s t s  the preconsonantal forms o f (fi  \  the m o n o s y l l . hard open f u l l - s t e m s #RVA__, #SPA_c and #SlA__c. In the Neut. and P I . r e f l e x i v e P r e t . forms o f the f u l l - s t e m #SPA__c, only the p r e f i x e d verb i s meant s i n c e , o f the two f u l l stems o f t h i s type, the f u l l - s t e m #SPA_c i s i r r e g u l a r i n the n o n p r e f i x e d Neut. and P I . r e f l e x i v e P r e t . i n p r e f e r r i n g the s t r e s s on the desinence ( i t has i n any case a s p e c i a l  imperson-  a l meaning), and the f u l l - s t e m #1GA__ i s n o t used i n the unpref i x e d r e f l e x i v e form and t h e r e f o r e i t s s t r e s s cannot be a t t e s ted.  The order of forms was determined with the aim of keeping  t o g e t h e r those forms whose s t r e s s p o s i t i o n s p r o v i d e the c r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the degree  o f unaccentedness.  These a r e  c o n c e n t r a t e d a t the bottom and a r e u n d e r l i n e d f o r f u r t h e r emphasis.  Por purposes  open f u l l - s t e m #1'NU  of comparison  the accented m o n o s y l l . hard  ( c l i n g ) i n the r a r e compound ab+al'nu t ' —  (to clench t i g h t l y ,  Gramm. Form  t~  #RVA__  #SPA_c(#lGA_)  Max.Unacc. Inf.  —*  c l o t h e snuglyP^ has been i n c l u d e d .  (na+) r v a _ t'(s'a):  Unacc. (  p r a  #Slf_c  #L'NU_  Min.Unacc.  Accented  + ) spa_  (s+a)sla.  t'(s«a)  t»(s'a)  Past A c t i v e (na+)rva (pra+)spa Participle "" ~ fs-ij(-s'a) fs-ij(-s'a)  t  -  (s+a). f s l a— f^-ij(-s'a)  (ab+a)l 'nu. t  —  t'(s'a) (ab+a)l'nu fs-ij(-s a) f  107  Gramm. Form  #RYA__  #SPA__c(#LGA_)  Max.Unac c. Non-Fern, non-reflex.  (na+) r v a _ l(-a,-'i)  Unac c. (pra+) spa__ l(-a,-'i)  #S1A  c  Min.Unacc. (s+a)sla t  —  l(-a,-:'.i)  Accented (ab+a)l*nu t  ~~  l(-a,-'i)  Pret. Masc.Reflex (na+)rva  (pra+)spa  1-s'a  Pret. Past P a s s .  -#  Part.  -i  -id  etc.  (pra+) spa__  l-a-(s') Neut. &P1. R e f l e x . Pret.  (na+)rva 1-o-s (na+) rva__ 1-s'a  l-a-(s») pra+spa  —**•  1-o-s  (ab+a)l*nu T  "~  1-s 'a  ab+al»nu *  —  -#  —  -#  -a(N.) n-a(F.) -i  -a(N.) t_-a(F.) -i  etc.  etc.  -id  -id  etc.  (na+)rva_  1-s a t  -a(N.) n-a(F.)  — 1  s+osla  -if  -a(N.) n-a(F.) -i  Fern. P r e t .  t  1-s'a pro+spa  na+rva  (s+a)sla  -id  (ab+aXl'nu  (s+a).sla l-a-(s') (s+a)sla * ~ 1-a-s »'  l-a-(s'; (ab+a)l'nu * 1-a-s»  spa_l-6-s  1  (irreg.)  (obsol.)  Nonsyllabic  Full-Stems  The unaccented n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s a l s o e x h i b i t amongst themselves v a r y i n g degrees o f unaccentedness.  Here, however,  the problems are more complex due t o the f a c t t h a t usage i s not c o n s i s t e n t as f a r as s t r e s s p o s i t i o n i s concerned. The  108  fact that a full-stem is described by one authority as having one degree or other of unaccentedness is no guarantee that another degree of unaccentedness w i l l not be permitted by other arbiters of standard usage.  It w i l l also be demonstrated that  recommended usage very often calls for a different degree of unaccentedness to be ascribed to the full-stem depending upon the particular prefix used.  In order to make a final state-  ment as to the most generally preferred degree of unaccentedness, the behavior of a full-stem must therefore be examined with respect to each of the various prefixes with which i t combines.  Obviously, definitive statements would not be possible  i f more than one authority were to be consulted here.  A long  and tedious collation of several or even just two authorities would be rewarded only with increased refinements and subtleties at a time when the generalities are being sought.  More-  over, the prescribed forms or patterns of stress resulting from such a collation might conceivably represent only a compromise f u l l y acceptable to neither authority.  Even worse, they might  approach the status of mere abstractions of the actual facts, realized nowhere, though somehow reflecting the basic p r i n c i ples behind a l l actually attested patterns.  For these reasons,  a single authority has been consulted i n dealing with the nonsyllabics, namely R . I . Avanesov and S.I. Ozhegov, Russkoje L i t eraturnoje Proiznosenije i Udarenije.  It should be noted how-  ever that there is a great deal of accordance between this source and S.I. Ozhegov, Slovar' Russkogo Jazyka.  109 Two  degrees of unaccentedness  among the n o n s y l i a b l e f u l l - s t e m s .  can "be c l e a r l y  distinguished  These w i l l determine the  l a b e l l i n g of f u l l - s t e m s as unaccented and maximally  unaccented.  S e r v i n g as i l l u s t r a t i o n s are the f u l l - s t e m s #V'J__(twist) and #1'J_(pour), unaccented and maximally unaccented The unaccentedness  respectively.  of each i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s t r e s s of the  fern, desinence i n the P r e t . , both i n simple and i n p r e f i x e d forms, e.g. ( d a + ) v ' i _ l - a and Pret.  (da+)b'i__l-a.  (da+)l'i__l-a.  1  1  Pem.  ,  In both types the s t r e s s r e v e r t s t o the  stem i n the Neut. and P I . P r e t . and da-K-1 i _ l - i  Of. a c c . #T3'j__  The forms da+:l'i_l-a  (Neut.)  a r e , however, c o n s i d e r e d l e s s a c c e p t a b l e than  the more common forms with s t r e s s e d p r e f i x e s - d 0 4 f l ' i _ l - a and d o + i ' i _ l - i . f  (Neut.)  The same a p p l i e s t o the Masc. P r e t . where  d o + l ' i _ l - # i s p r e f e r r e d t o da+1  ,  i__l-#.  I n the case of the  f u l l - s t e m #Y'J__ however, such forms v/ith s t r e s s e d p r e f i x e s i n the M a s c , Neut. and P I . P r e t . are not p e r m i t t e d - da+v'i_l-#, d a + v ' i _ l - a (Neut.) and da+v i _ l 1  1  -i  onlyP  1  It i s this  differ-  ence t h a t p r o v i d e s a ready c r i t e r i o n f o r l a b e l l i n g some unaccented n o n s y l l a b i c s as (merely), unaccented and others as maximally  unaccented.  The same c o n t r a s t i s repeated i n the s h o r t forms of the P a s t Pass. P a r t , where both types of stems concur i n t h e i r s t r e s s i n g of the Pem.  desinence - ( d a + ) v ' i _ t - a ^  2  and  ( d a + ) l i _ t - a , but d i f f e r as to s t r e s s p o s i t i o n i n the non-Fein. !  P a s t P a s s . P a r t . - c f . (da+)v*i_t-#, (da+)v'i__t-a (Neut.), ( d a + ) v ' i _ t - i and l ' i _ _ t - # , l  , :  i_t-a  (Neut.), l»i t - i  but  110  do+l»iJ;-#,  do+l'i_t-a  (Neut.)  The l o n g P a s t P a s s . lable  Part,  and do+;l « i _ _ t - i .  generally stresses  though Avanesov a l s o p e r m i t s  s t r e s s e d p r e f i x e s as unacc. full-stems do+l'i_t-ij  (though  a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e max.  -cf.  da+v'i_t-ij  (permiss.).  felt  stress,  In  (only)  some c a s e s ,  t h o u g h i n many c a s e s  t o be a n a d j e c t i v e .  #V'J__, t h e P a s t f i x e s v+, used.  iz+,  Pass. o+,  and da+1 ' i _ t - i j ,  d e p e n d i n g on t h e  p'er'e+,  s+,  raz+v i__t-6j.  u+, v z + ,  ob+,  to Avanesov,  Both # V ' J _ p r e f i x e d Past  (unacc.)  Pass.  stem - v ' i _ _ t - i j ,  In  behaves as pod+.  and  with t h i s  e x i s t but are f e l t , 1  i__t-i j ,  (max. u n a c c . )  The s t r e s s  also  ac-  ab+v'i__t-ij  form u n -  i n e i t h e r case i s  The f o r m s v ' i _ _ t - o j and  on t h e  l'i__t-oj  are a d j e c t i v e s . Pass.  Part.,  t h e u n a c c . f u l l - s t e m #V'J__  such w i t h the p r e f i x e s i z + ,  The p r e f i x e s v + ,  raz+v*i_  With the p r e f i x e s p r ' i +  and # B ' J _  l'i__t-ij.  the short P a s t  on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  ab+v'i_t-6j.  Parts.  with desinential stress  and pod+ a r e  - za+v'i__t-ij,  t o be o b s o l e t e - p r ' i + v  and o b s o l . p r ' i + v ' i ^ t - o j ,  when p r e -  are  the forms w i t h d e s i n e n t i a l s t r e s s  cording  is  The l a t t e r two f o r m s  !  b o t h p a r t i c i p l e s and a d j e c t i v e s .  des-  full-stem  o n l y stem s t r e s s  The f o r m s w i t h p r e f i x e s za+ and r a z + ,  and z a + v ' i _ t - o j ,  P a r t , has  Thus i n t h e c a s e o f t h e  Part, permits  po+,  Pass.  full-  t h e f o r m so s t r e s s e d  p e r m i t b o t h s t e m and d e s i n e n t i a l s t r e s s t-ij  the stem s y l -  does n o t p r e f e r )  s t e m and on t h e p r e f i x u s e d , t h e l o n g P a s t inential  3 3  ot+,  po+,  p'er'e+,  u+,  s+ and v z + , w h i c h do f o r m compounds  s t e m , a r e n o n s y l l . and o f n o i n t e r e s t h e r e s i n c e  Ill s t r e s s d e f l e c t i o n t o them would i n any case he an i m p o s s i b i l i ty  even when the stem i n q u e s t i o n i s max. unacc.  With the p r e -  f i x e s za+, ob+ and raz+, however, the unacc. f u l l - s t e m # V J _ f  has, i n the non-Pern, s h o r t forms o f the Past Pass. P a r t . , a l ternatives  ( p e r f e c t l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e and equal except i n the  case of ob+ where i t i s " p e r m i s s i b l e " ) with the s t r e s s on the v.  p r e f i x as though the f u l l - s t e m #V'J__ were, l i k e #L'J_, max. unacc.  Moreover, the same a l t e r n a t i v e s ( p e r m i s s i b l e ) w i t h  s t r e s s e d p r e f i x e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the non-Pern. P r e t . of the forms i n c o r p o r a t i n g the p r e f i x  ob+i-  (but not za+ or raz+).  These occurrences a r e i n the m i n o r i t y and must be regarded as i r r e g u l a r i t i e s or e x c e p t i o n s .  T h e i r behavior could e a s i l y be  r e l a t e d t o the i n f l u e n c e of the t r u l y max. unacc. f u l l - s t e m s l i k e #I»J_ or v-JM__. The max. unacc. f u l l - s t e m #L*J_ p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r c a t i o n s i n the Past Pass. P a r t .  Twelve p r e f i x e s form  complitransi-  t i v e verbs capable o f having a P a s t Pass. P a r t , and these can be d i v i d e d i n t o three equal groups o f f o u r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r b e h a v i o r with r e s p e c t t o s t r e s s i n the l o n g form of the P a s t Pass. P a r t .  I n the case of the p r e f i x e s do+, ob+, ot+, and  pod+, the p r e f e r r e d s t r e s s p o s i t i o n i s the stem, though the stressed p r e f i x i s permitted - da+1'i_t-ij/permiss. d o + l ' i ^ t - i j etc.  I n the case o f the p r e f i x e s za+, na+, po+ and pro+ the  r e v e r s e s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e s , i . e . pro+1 ' i _ _ t - i j e t c . with s t r e s s e d p r e f i x a r e p r e f e r r e d while pra+1'i__t-ij e t c . with stem s t r e s s  112 are merely p e r m i s s i b l e a c c o r d i n g  to A v a n e s o v ,  but not  preferred.  F i n a l l y , the p r e f i x e s voz+, i z + , p'er'e+ and raz+; are never s t r e s s e d i n the long form of the Past Pass. P a r t . , s t r e s s c u r r i n g i n s t e a d on the v e r b a l stem - v a z + l ' i t - i j T  t h e r complicate  matters, two  za+l i_t-oj. f  The  though these are  t o Avanesov, to be obsolete - raz+1'i^t-o'j and  The  form n a + l i _ _ t - o j i s s t r i c t l y an a d j e c t i v e . !  i s the  then to have a l l three p o s s i b l e s t r e s s p o s i t i o n s -  the p r e f i x - z a + l ' i _ t - i j ( p e r m i s s i b l e ) and The  of  definitely  long Past Pass. P a r t , formed with the p r e f i x za+  only one  To f u r -  "—  p r e f i x e d Past Pass. P a r t s ,  #I'J__ have s t r e s s e d desinences, f e l t , according  etc.  oc-  ( p r e f e r r e d ) , on the stem - z a + l ' i _ _ t - i j  on the desinence - za+1 'i__t-o'j  (obsol.H  problem i s to s e l e c t the s t r e s s behavior  of j u s t  one  of the three groups above as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e model of the category  of max.  n o n s y l l . max.  on  unacc. n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s as a whole.  unacc. f u l l - s t e m v-JM_(take) p r o v i d e s  the  sub-  The key.  In the forms apart from the l o n g Past Pass. P a r t . , i t s s t r e s s p a t t e r n i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h that of the p r e f e r r e d p r e f i x e d forms of #1'J_  and  the behavior  as a matter of f a c t p r o v i d e s of the max.  a p e r f e c t model f o r  unacc. f u l l - s t e m , c l e a r e r and more  d e f i n i t e than #L'J__ s i n c e none of the confusing and  obsolete  forms of #L'J_  model however due  occur.  permissible  I t has not been used as  the  to the f a c t that i t i s , i n i t s phonemic s t r u c -  t u r e , much l e s s l i k e the c o n t r a s t i n g unacc. f u l l - s t e m #V'J_ t h e r e f o r e l e s s s u i t e d f o r c o n t r a s t i n g s t r e s s behavior.  The  and  113 stems #"V'J_ and #I'J_  on the other hand are i d e n t i c a l i n every  r e s p e c t except i n t h e i r s t r e s s p a t t e r n and t h e i r comparison w i t h r e s p e c t to s t r e s s i s t h e r e f o r e more c l e a r l y brought i n t o focus. max.  Moreover, the f u l l - s t e m v-JM__ has an unusual ( f o r the  unacc. n o n s y l l a b i c s as a group) preference  f o r the s t r e s s e d  r e f l e x , s u f f i x i n the Masc. P r e t . , at l e a s t i n some compounds - aa+n'i_l-#-s'a (convers., za+n'a__l-#-s *a) .-^  The c l e a r - c u t  r i g i d requirements of t h i s stem with r e s p e c t to the s t r e s s pos i t i o n i n the l o n g Past Pass. P a r t , can be used however t o s o l v e the problem d e s c r i b e d above where equal numbers of p r e f i x e d compounds of #L'J_  e x h i b i t three d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s p o s s i -  b i l i t i e s i n the l o n g Past Pass. P a r t . p o s i t i o n permitted  by v-JM__ i n the long Past P a r t . Pass, i s  the prefix-^ 5 - z a + n ' a ^ t - i j ob+,  p r * i + , do+,  u+n'a_t-ij  Since the only s t r e s s  po+,  represent  e t c . ( s i m i l a r l y with p r e f i x e s  pro+, ot+ - the forms r a z + n ' a _ t - i j  be regarded  and  e x c e p t i o n s ) , the p r e f e r r e d p r e f i x s t r e s s  of the compounds of #1'J__ with p r e f i x e s za+, may  na+,  as r e p r e s e n t i n g the norm.  l o n g Past Pass. P a r t , w i t h p r e f i x e s do+,  na+.,  The ob+,  po+  and  pro+  forms of the ot+ and pod+ are  somewhat i r r e g u l a r i n t h e i r p r e f e r r i n g the s t r e s s on the stem and must be noted as such.  T h i s problem could be s t a t e d i n  other terms, namely that the p r e f i x e s do+, cause the max.  unacc. f u l l - s t e m #L'J_  ob+,  ot+ and pod+  t o behave, i n the s t r e s s -  i n g of the l o n g Past Pass. P a r t . , l i k e the unacc. n o n s y l l a b i c s (#V*J  etc.) and  indeed  the behavior  of the f u l l - s t e m  #1'J  114 w i t h r e s p e c t to these f o u r p r e f i x e s might he a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n f l u e n c e of the unacc. f u l l - s t e m s .  As f o r the remain-  i n g group of p r e f i x e s which are never s t r e s s e d i n the  long  Past P a r t . Pass, when added to the f u l l - s t e m 7fI'J_, a f a c t o r more s e r i o u s than t h a t of the i n f l u e n c e of the unacc. stem v/ould appear to be f a c t t h a t not  operating.  T h i s i s evident from the  only the l o n g Past Pass. P a r t , but a l s o the  s h o r t Past Pass. P a r t , forms (except forms (except  full-  the Pern.) and  the  Pret.  the Pern.) of the compound forms i n c o r p o r a t i n g  these p r e f i x e s - ^ do not permit p r e f i x s t r e s s , but have i n stead  stem s t r e s s as i s normal i n the case of the unacc.  syllabics. vaz+1'i. t-#, t —  non-  vaz+1'i_l'-i;  E.g. vaz+1'i_JL-#, vaz+l'i_JL-a (Neut.),  vaz+1'i t - a (Neut.), vaz+1'i t - i but no *vo'z+l'i l-# *  —  e t c . or * v o z + l ' i _ t - #  '  etc.  t  —  These f a c t s seem t o be  t  —  connected  r a t h e r with the c h a r a c t e r of the p r e f i x e s voz+, i z + , p'er'e+ and  raz+ themselves.  In other words, these p r e f i x e s are them-  s e l v e s of an unaccented nature and dency of the max.  o v e r r i d e the n a t u r a l  ten-  unacc. f u l l - s t e m to d e f l e c t s t r e s s to the  p r e f i x i n the non-Pern. P r e t . and Past Pass. P a r t , forms. forms t h e r e f o r e can not p l a y any r o l e i n determining  These  by major-  i t y count the degree of unaccentedness of the f u l l - s t e m #L'J_. The and  f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n p r e f i x e s l i k e voz+, i z + , p'er'e+  raz+ (and a l s o u+)  are unaccented themselves and  therefore  capable of r e v e r s i n g the normal s t r e s s placement i n the forms of unaccented f u l l - s t e m s of one by the f a c t that even the max.  degree or other i s evidenced unacc. f u l l - s t e m v-JM  which  115 displays,  on the whole, a f a r g r e a t e r degree of r e g u l a r i t y  and r i g i d i t y i n i t s s t r e s s p a t t e r n  than does #L'J_,  f a i l s to  d e f l e c t the s t r e s s t o the p r e f i x i n the l o n g Past Pass. P a r t . and non-Pern, short Past Pass. P a r t , and P r e t .  forms when the  3 7  p r e f i x e s u+ and raz+ are used. When the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s added, the s t r e s s i s a t t r a c ted t o the desinence i n the Neut. and P I . P r e t . -  (da+)v'i_l-o-  ( d a + ) v ' i _ _ l ' - i - s ' and (da+)l'i_l-o'-s ', (da+)l ' i _ l ' - i - s *, though conversational or max.  a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t f o r a l l or most stems, unacc.  u n a c c , simple or p r e f i x e d , where the s t r e s s  on the stem d e s p i t e flexive suffix. not  now  the f o r c e  remains  of a t t r a c t i o n exerted by the r e -  In the Masc. P r e t . ,  the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x does  s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t r a c t the s t r e s s from the v e r b a l  whatever the degree of unaccentedness.  The s t r e s s e d  stem,  reflexive  s u f f i x occurs only i n sub-standard, o l d - f a s h i o n e d usage. v ' i _ l - # - s a and v ' i _ l - # - s ' a 1  (obsol.).  The s t r e s s e d  Cf.  ( o b s o l . ) , 1 ' i _ l — # - s ' a and 1 ' i _ l - # - s  r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x of the Masc. P r e t . i s  a l s o found i n p r e f i x e d v e r b s of e i t h e r accent degree, though i n each case i t i s here too obsolete - da+v'i_l—/f-s 'a,  da+l'i_  l-#-s ' a and obs o l . da+v' i _ l - # - s 'a and da+1' i__l-#-s 'a. In the I n f i n i t i v e and i n the Past A c t i v e i s always on the stem.  Part.,  the s t r e s s  N e i t h e r the v a r i o u s p r e f i x e s nor the  r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x has the a b i l i t y n o r m a l l y - ^ t o a t t r a c t the s t r e s s from the stem, whatever the degree of unaccentedness. Stressing  of the p r e f i x and the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s a l s o  un-  116 known i n a l l o f the p r e v o c a l i c forms o f the unacc. and max. unacc. n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s . As f o r the consonantal Gerund, however, which, as a gene r a l p r i n c i p l e , has the s t r e s s on the v e r b a l stem r e g a r d l e s s of  the type o f accent the f u l l - s t e m may have,-^ the r e f l e x i v e  s u f f i x does draw the s t r e s s unto the ( v o c a l i c a l t e r n a n t of the) consonantal Gerund s u f f i x i n the case o f the f u l l - s t e m -#P'#R__ ( l o c k ) .  E.g. za+p ' i r _ l i - s •«, at+p'ir_j§i-s«.  Most unusual i s the f a c t t h a t t h i s occurs even i n the case of  the a c c . f u l l - s t e m #P'#R__ (lean) when p r e f i x e s za+,  pod+ and u+ are used. the r e f l e x i v e v e r b ) .  (These are the only p r e f i x e s used with The forms with p r e f i x e s o+, pod+ and u+ -  a + p ' i r _ s i - s ' , pat+p i r _ s i - s , 1  missible  1  u+p ir__si'-s ' do however have p e r 1  (though l e s s favored) a l t e r n a t i v e s with s t r e s s e d stems  - a+p or__si-s , pat+p ' or__si-s , u+p ' o r _ s i - s ' 1  of  o+, ot+,  1  1  I n the case  the forms with p r e f i x e s za+ and ot+, the l a c k of t h i s n o r -  mal a l t e r n a t i v e would appear t o be r e l a t e d t o the f a c t  that  the unacc. stem —#P'#R__ ( l o c k ) , which has t r a n s f e r e n c e o f s t r e s s t o the desinence i n the r e f l e x i v e consonantal Gerund, combines with these same two p r e f i x e s (and only these p r e f i x es). acc.  A p p a r e n t l y the i n f l u e n c e o f the unacc. f u l l - s t e m on the one has been enforced by the use o f the same p r e f i x e s t o  the p o i n t where the a c c . f u l l - s t e m ' s r e g u l a r or normal r e f l e x ive  consonantal gerunds (with r e s p e c t t o s t r e s s ) no l o n g e r  s u r v i v e even as secondary  alternatives.  117 The  i n f l u e n c e of the unaccented f u l l - s t e m -#P #R_(lock) !  on the accented f u l l - s t e m #P'#R__(lean) i s apparent i n other grammatical forms as w e l l .  When the p r e f i x e s o+,  are used, an a l t e r n a t i v e , though admittedly  pod+ and  obsolete,  r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i n the Masc. P r e t . i s p o s s i b l e and of course, the p r e f e r r e d  u+  stressed  this i s ,  or only s t r e s s p o s i t i o n i n the  case  of the unacc. f u l l - s t e m .  Furthermore, the compound of the  f u l l - s t e m with, p r e f i x o+,  perhaps the most w i d e l y used of a l l  i t s compounds, has i v e Pem.,  Neut. and  preferred non-reflexive P I . P r e t . and  Pem.  short Pem.  Pret., r e f l e x -  Past Pass. P a r t ,  w i t h s t r e s s e d desinences, the behavior of the compound then most l i k e that of the unacc.  full-stem.  with s t r e s s e d stem are however f a r from being They a r e , a c c o r d i n g ly  acc.  The  being  same forms  sub-standard.  t o Avanesov, p e r m i s s i b l e , though d e f i n i t e -  secondary. In the chart below are l i s t e d the v a r i o u s  preconsonantal  forms of the n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s #V'J__ and #1'J__. chart on pp.  106-107  above, the order has  the d e s i r e to keep those forms together  and  are u n d e r l i n e d .  The  been determined  by  that p l a y a p a r t i n  r e f l e c t i n g the degrees of unaccentedness. i n the l i s t  As i n the  These appear l a s t  corresponding forms of  the a c c . n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m #SJ__(sew) have been i n c l u d e d f o r purposes of comparison.  118 Gramm. Porm  Max. Unacc. Inf.  #SJ  #1'J_ Unacc. (da+)v i_  (na+)l'i_  t'(-s'a) (da+)v'i_  (na+)l'i_ fs-ij(-s'a)  Participle Consonantal  (na+)l ' i _  (da+)v'i_  (na+)l'i__  Reflexive  Neut. & P I . Reflex. Pret. Pem. P r e t .  1-s a  P r e f i x e d Long ?  l-a(-s')  l-a(-s')  (na+) si__  (da+)v'i  na+l'i  1-a-s' (na+)si  (da+)v'i_  t-a  Past Part'. Pass.&  (na+)si__ 1-o-s'  l-a(-s')  Past Pass. P a r t .  l-s'a  1  1-o-s*  (na+)l'i  f(si-s') (na+)si  (da-f)v'i  (na+)l ' i _ _  Pem. Short  (na+)si_  (da+)v'i  (na+)l'i  fs-ij-(-s'a)  f(si-s')  l-s'a  Masc. P r e t .  t'(s'a) (na+)3i__  fs-ij-(-s'a)  f(si-s')  Gerund  (na+)si_  l  t'(-s'a) Past A c t i v e  Accented  t-a  t-a na+;si  da+v'i t-#  t-#  \J—tr  Non.-Pem. Short  -a(N.)  -a(N.)  -a(N.)  Past Pass. P a r t .  -i  -i  -i  -ij  -ij  -ij  etc.  etc.  etc.  P r e f i x e d nonPern. non-Reflex. Pret.  n£i+l' i l(-a,-'i)  da+v'i l(-a,-'i)  na+si l(-a,-'i)  119  #1^  G-ramm. Form  Max.  Unacc.  (na+)l'i_ *  #V'J_  #SJ_  Unacc.  Accented  (da+)v'i_ l-s'a  *  <  l-s'a  (obsolete)  (obsolete)  (na+ ) 1 ' i _  (da+) v'!_  **  l-a-s'(N.) **  ('convers.).  l-a-s'(N.)  (convers.) (da+)v'i__ ***  t-a  (convers.)  M o n o s y l l a b i c Narrowly-Closed  Full-Stems  Degrees of unaccentedness are a l s o i n evidence monosyll. narrowly-closed f u l l - s t e m s .  among the  The f u l l - s t e m s DAJ__(S)  ( g i v e ) and KL'AN__ (curse) r e p r e s e n t most c l e a r l y the of the s t r e s s i n the max.  unacc. f u l l - s t e m s of t h i s  of which t h e r e are i n a l l only f o u r , the two and BIJ__e  (be)  , ZIV^  v e r y complicated  (live).  behavior category,  a l r e a d y mentioned  The l a t t e r two present some  data w i t h r e s p e c t to p r e f e r e n t i a l  depending on the p r e f i x s e l e c t e d .  However, t h e i r  stressing, behavior  w i t h the m a j o r i t y of the p r e f i x e s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the f u l l - s t e m s DAJ_(S) and KL'AN__. The max.  unacc. f u l l - s t e m s d e f l e c t the s t r e s s to the p r e -  f i x i n the n o n - r e f l e x i v e non-Fern. P r e t . , the s h o r t non-Fern.  120 Past Pass. P a r t , and i n a l l forms of the l o n g Past Pass. P a r t . I n other words, the s t r e s s behavior here i s i d e n t i c a l t o the p r e f e r r e d s t r e s s b e h a v i o r of max. (see pp.  107-119  above).  But  unacc. n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s  only the stems ZIV__ and  BU_c  have an a l t e r n a t i v e p e r m i s s i b l e s t r e s s on the stem of the l o n g or non-Pern, s h o r t Past Pass. P a r t . , as i s r e g u l a r l y the among the max.  unacc. n o n s y l l a b i c s .  case  Moreover, the choice i s  vv such i n the case of ZIY__ only with p r e p o s i t i o n s do+, p'er*e+ and pro+.  In the case of p r e f i x e s ob+  ot+,  and p r ' i + , how-  ever, where both a l t e r n a t i v e s of s t r e s s a l s o e x i s t i n these forms,  the p r e f e r r e d p o s i t i o n i s on the stem.  be regarded as i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . f i x e s za+,  o+, po+,  Pass. P a r t . )  .  J  These must  (The stem combines with p r e -  pod+, raz+ and u+ a l s o , but forms no Past  In the case of B I J _ c , the a l t e r n a t i v e  permis-  s i b l e s t r e s s on the stem of the l o n g and non-Pern, short Past Pass. P a r t , e x i s t s only f o r the forms with p r e f i x e s ot+, p r ' i + and pro+.  (The p r e f i x u+ p e r m i t s no such  po+,  alternative).  The p r e f e r e n c e i s f o r stem s t r e s s however i n the case of p r e f i x do+i,  ITo Past Pass. P a r t s , e x i s t f o r the only remaining  compound with p r e f i x i z + . In the case of the l o n g Past Pass. P a r t . , a t h i r d  alter-  v V  n a t i v e must be admitted f o r the stem ZIV_ i n c o n j u n c t i o n v/ith p r e f i x e s na+:, p'er'e+, p r ' i + and i z + , where the s t r e s s may on the desinence.  be  Such s t r e s s p o s i t i o n i n g i s however obso-  l e t e , though mentioned by Avanesov.  The forms z a + z i _ t - 6 j  and  121  a b + z i ^ t - o j are  adjectives  Three of the f o u r s t r e s s on the preferred is  stems ( a l l but KL'AN_) have a l t e r n a t i v e  stem of the non-Fern. P r e t .  position for a l l full-stems  on the p r e f i x .  s t r e s s i n the ever the  (Avanesov).  The  the  almost a l l compounds  f u l l - s t e m KL'AN_ permits only p r e f i x  only r e l e v a n t  compound*^ with p r e f i x pro+.  Wher-  a l t e r n a t i v e stem s t r e s s i s g i v e n f o r the non-Pern.  Pret.,  i t i s noted by Avanesov to be  i n the  case of the max.  i s therefore servation  and  forms, though  unacc. n o n s y l l a b i c s ,  sub-standard and  not,  as  permissible.  l e s s acceptable.  i s t h a t the p r e f e r r e d  the non-Pern. P r e t .  conversational,  It  A curious  p o s i t i o n f o r the  stress  ob-  in  i s the p r e f i x , whatever t h a t p r e f i x  may  46 be.  This i s i n contrast  to the non-Pern, short  Pass. P a r t , where the p r e f e r r e d pended on the p r e f i x used.^7  and  p o s i t i o n , stem or p r e f i x ,  One  i n the non-Pern. P r e t .  Only the  Instead, the  age  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r e f i x e s pro+ and  conversational ob+,  i n the  stress only.  Past Pass.  i n standard  us-  i z + , but  only  case of the forms v/ith p r e f i x e s  za+,  nad+, pod+, roz+, do+,  i s l i s t e d f o r the  the  alternative  short Pem.  This i s considered wholly p e r m i s s i b l e  i s not  s t r e s s i s on  f u l l - s t e m LAJ__(S) r e g u l a r l y has  s t r e s s i n g of the p r e f i x , even i n the Part.  de-  notable e x c e p t i o n however  i s the p r e f i x is+: which, with a l l three f u l l - s t e m s , stressed , 48 stem.  l o n g Past  po+  and  ot+.  No  such a l t e r n a t i v e  form w i t h p r e f i x voz+ which has  T h i s . i m i t a t i o n of the  desinential  s t r e s s i n g of the  short  122  Pem.  Past Pass. P a r t , of monosyll. hard open f u l l - s t e m s i s  r a r e l y encountered stems.  among other monosyll. narrov/ly c l o s e d f u l l -  The f u l l - s t e m KL'AN__ has such s t r e s s i n g of the  s h o r t Past Pass. P a r t , only i n the e x p r e s s i o n h u t  1  t i prokl'ita  (Pem.), hut normally the s t r e s s i s on the desinence. listing  of da+bi__t-a with stem s t r e s s i n the Pem.  Pem.  Avanesov's  s h o r t Past  Pass. P a r t , i s p r o b a b l y an e r r o r ( c f . Ozhegov - d a + b i _ t - a ) . A f u r t h e r anomaly connected with the f u l l - s t e m DAJ_(S) i s the p e r m i s s i b l e v a r i a n t of the n o n - p r e f i x e d Neut. P r e t . w i t h desinential stress - da_l-o.  T h i s does not occur anywhere e l s e  i n t h i s c l a s s and must be c o n s i d e r e d s t r i c t l y e x c e p t i o n a l . A l s o , the f u l l - s t e m DAJ_(S) has s t r e s s e d desinences i n the n o n - p r e f i x e d s h o r t Neut. and P I . Past Pass. P a r t . - Masc. ,,  da^n-rf-,  Pem.  /  /  /  da__n-a, Neut. da_n-o, P I . d a _ n - i .  Since unpre-  f i x e d Past Pass. P a r t s , are not used i n the case of the t h r e e max.  other  unacc. f u l l - s t e m s , the forms of D A J ^ S ) can be  as being r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of max. p e c t t o these p a r t i c u l a r forms.  taken  unacc. stems:' s t r e s s w i t h r e s I t w i l l be noted t h e r e f o r e  t h a t t h i s s t r e s s f a c t o r presents a f u r t h e r c o n t r a s t with the two  types of n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d above. In  the case of the (merely) unacc. f u l l - s t e m s , there i s  no d e f l e c t i o n of s t r e s s t o the p r e f i x e s , s t r e s s remaining, i n the forms d i s c u s s e d above, on the stem i n each case. all  other forms, the unacc. and max.  In  unacc. stems show a s t r e s s  p a t t e r n r e m i n i s c e n t of the n o n s y l l a b i c s .  Thus the Pem.  des-  123 i n e n c e of bo oil the P r e t .  ( p r e f i x e d or not)  Pass. Part, i s stressed regardless tedness.^  0  The  and  the short Past  of the degree of unaccen-  r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x continues to d i s p l a y i t s su-  p e r i o r i t y i n a t t r a c t i n g s t r e s s unto or towards i t s e l f from o f f the v e r b a l stem or p r e f i x . e x i s t here as i n the  Moreover, the same a l t e r n a t i v e s  case of the n o n s y l l a b i c s .  i n the r e f l e x i v e ( p r e f i x e d or not)  Neut. and  In other words,  P I . P r e t . forms,  the p r e f e r r e d s t r e s s i s d e s i n e n t i a l , though c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s are admitted v/ith s t r e s s on the stem.  The  Masc.  r e f l e x i v e P r e t . with s t r e s s e d r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s f e l t obsolete  as i s the  normally retained a n t a l Gerund and  case v/ith the n o n s y l l a b i c s and on the  stem.  the v e r b a l stem i n keeping with a g e n e r a l a l l non-polysyllabics  conson-  stress  on  principle, involving  of whatever degree of unaccentedness,  which c a l l s f o r s t r e s s e d exception  be  stress i s  A l s o , the I n f i n i t i v e ,  Past A c t i v e P a r t , a l l r e t a i n the  to  stems i n these three  forms, the  one  being the n o n s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m -#P' '#R_(lock) w i t h V  s t r e s s e d desinence i n the r e f l e x i v e consonantal Gerund s t r e s s e d p r e f i x i n the n o n - r e f l e x i v e  and  consonantal Gerund  and  Past A c t i v e P a r t . - z a + p ' i r j s i - s , za+p i r _ s i , za+p i r _ _ s - i j . 1  See  above, p.  1  !  116.  As demonstrated above, the m o n o s y l l . narrowly c l o s e d stems are a c u r i o u s group that p r e s e n t great problems to a n a l y s i s as regards s t r e s s p a t t e r n due p r e f e r e n c e s of the max.  to c o n f l i c t i n g  fullthe  stress  unacc. items depending on the p r e f i x  124 used.  They are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by and  of the n o n - p o l y s y l l a b l e s  contrasted  with the r e s t  by the f a c t that the acc. stems f a r  outnumber the unacc. ones."^  The  small number of unacc. f u l l -  stems a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s i n determining t y p i c a l s t r e s s h a v i o r i s s t i l l f u r t h e r reduced by two  factors:  f a c t t h a t some are p r e v o c a l i c s u p p l e t i v e s and value  first,  be-  the  therefore  of  no  i n determining the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( f o r the c l a s s ) s t r e s s  p a t t e r n i n the P r e t . and  i n the Past Pass. P a r t . ; second i s  the f a c t t h a t too many are i n t r a n s i t i v e , even i n t h e i r many p r e f i x e d forms, and  therefore  of no  a s s i s t a n c e i n determining  g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of s t r e s s behavior v/ith r e s p e c t t o the Pass. P a r t . , which can of course be a r t i f i c i a l l y , ally  constructed,  the Past  theoretic-  but which would not then be r e l i a b l e  forms.  Another c u r i o u s f e a t u r e r e s t r i c t e d to the m o n o s y l l . n a r rowly c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s i s the d e f l e c t i o n of s t r e s s t o the nega t i v e p a r t i c l e by t h r e e  of the f o u r ( a l l but KL'AI__) max.  f u l l - s t e m s i n the non-Pem. n o n - r e f l e x i v e P r e t .  The  unacc.  negative  p a r t i c l e i s t r e a t e d , i n the absence of a p r e f i x , as though i t were i t s e l f E.g.  n'e  a p r e f i x , i . e . i t behaves l i k e a s t r e s s  b i _ l - # , n'e  da__l-#, n'e  accented f u l l - s t e m s and  one max.  zi__l-# e t c . The  elicitor.  (merely)  un-  unacc. f u l l - s t e m (KL AK_) do !  not have t h i s p e c u l i a r s t r e s s r e a l i z a t i o n - n ' i k l ' a _ l - # e t c . , GN'IJ_(rot):  n ' i gn'i__l-#  etc.  noted i n the forms above must be the max.  The  s t r e s s e d negative  considered  particle  as the norm f o r  unacc. f u l l - s t e m s of t h i s category, s i n c e the major-  125 ity  of them a r e so s t r e s s e d . Since a (merely) unacc. m o n o s y l l . narrowly c l o s e d  stem t h a t i s both n o n - s u p p l e t i v e and t r a n s i t i v e  full-  (and t h e r e -  f o r e equipped with a t t e s t e d Past Pass. P a r t s . ) i s not a v a i l a b l e , and s i n c e t h e o r e t i c a l forms, however l i k e l y they may appear or be f e l t t o be, should be s t r i c t l y avoided, i t was exp e d i e n t , i n the t a b l e below, t o use, f o r some of the grammatic a l forms, the f u l l - s t e m BIJ_c as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the (merely) unacc. sub-type. unacc,  T h i s f u l l - s t e m i s most o f t e n max.  but not as presented i n the t a b l e below i n i t s p r e -  f e r r e d forms when combined with p r e f i x do+ ( o r i z + ) . the  Elsewhere  f u l l - s t e m PLIV^ serves as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e (merely) unacc.  full-stem.  The f u l l - s t e m DAJ__(Sj r e p r e s e n t s the max. unacc.  full-stems of t h i s category^  2  and the f u l l - s t e m D'E1J_ ( p u t )  w i l l serve as the model a c c . m o n o s y l l . narrowly c l o s e d  full-  stem.  Gramm. Porm  DAJ_(S) Max. Unacc.  Inf.  (za+)da__  PLIV_y(  d 0 +  )  B I J  -  Unacc. (na+;)pli_  t'(-s'a)  t«  D'EE_ Accented (a+)d'e_ t'(-s»a)  ras+pli_ t'-s'a Past A c t i v e Participle  (za+)da__ fs-ij(-s'a)  (na+)pli__ fs-ij ras+pli__ fs-ij-s'a  (a+)d'e^ fs-ij(-s'a)  126 Gramm. Form  DAJ_(S) Max. Unacc'.  Consonantal  (za+)da__  D'EN Accented  Unacc.  (a+)d'e_  (na+)pli__  f(si-s')  Gerund  PLIV_/(do+)BIJ_  f(si)  f(si-s')  ras+pli__ f si-s R e f l e x . Masc.  (za+-)da  Pret. R e f l e x . Neut.  ras+pli  (a+)d'e_ l-s'a  l-s'a (za+)da_  & PI. Pret. Pem. P r e t .  1  ras+pli  (za+)da__  (a+)d 'e__  1-o-s  1-o-s•  l-s'a  1-a-s'  1  (na+)pli__  (a+)d'e_ l-a(-s')  1-a  l-a(-s')  ras+pli_ 1-a-s Pem. Short  (za+)da  da+hi  t-a  n-a  Past Pass''. P a r t . Unpref. Neut. &  (a+)d'e'__  (d'e__t-a,-i)  da_n-6,-i  P I . Short P a s t Pass'. P a r t . Prefixed long Past Pass. Part.& Non-Pem. Short  za+da_  da+hi  n-  a+d' e c—jr  t-#  -a(N.)  -a(N.)  -a(N.)  -i  -i  -i  etc.  etc.  etc.  127  Gramm. Form  DAJ_(S)  Max. P r e f i x e d nonFern . non-Re-  Unacc.  PLIVy(dO+.)BIJ_  Unacc.  za+da da+bi__ *****" ***** l(-a,-'i) l(-a,-'i)  flex. Pret. *(za+)da_ 1-s  *ras+pli_  'a  1-s  »a  (obsol.1  (obsol.)  **(za+)da__  **ras+pli_ 1-a-s•  l - a ( - s ' ) (IT.). (convers.)  (permiss.)  za+da *** ~"  ***Ozhegov  n-a (convers.) (not t y p i c a l of the c a t . ) na+zi t-# **** — etc.  do+bi t-# **** etc.  (permiss.)  (permiss.)  za+da__l-#  do+bi l-#  *****  *****  -a  -a -'i (convers.)  (permiss.)  D'EN.  Accented a+d' e l(-a,-»i)  128 Monosyllabic The  Broadly-Closed  Full-Stems  f a c t t h a t the m o n o s y l l . b r o a d l y  closed  full-stems  never d e f l e c t the s t r e s s t o the p r e f i x was, as p o i n t e d out above (pp. 81-82), one of the reasons f o r p r o p o s i n g t h a t a l l members of t h i s category be regarded as accented,  columnarity  b e i n g the b a s i c c r i t e r i o n f o r accentedness ( b a r r i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t can d i s r u p t an otherwise p e r f e c t columnar stress pattern). ly  The f u l l - s t e m MOG__(be a b l e ) , w i t h a complete-  i r r e g u l a r shared s t r e s s p a t t e r n i n the p r e v o c a l i c forms,  can be c l a s s i f i e d n e i t h e r as accented v/ith removable s t r e s s nor  accented v/ith removed s t r e s s (the tv/o r e c o g n i z e d  of the b r o a d l y  closed f u l l - s t e m s ) .  varieties  A l s o i r r e g u l a r are the  f u l l - s t e m s t h a t r e s i s t the o v e r r i d i n g requirement o f s t r e s s e d v o c a l i c desinences. form a t h i r d stress.  These b r o a d l y  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s might  sub-category of acc. f u l l - s t e m s w i t h i r r e m o v a b l e  " c l i m b " ) , i r r e g u l a r i n other r e s p e c t s therefore  little  nomous sub-group.  ziiUjr  They are:.  ( t h i r s t ) , Z'IZI)_v(s a) l  The  BUI)_v (be),  them t o be an auto(ot+)V'ERZ__  (be based on) ,  'down),  r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s of l i t t l e  the b r o a d l y  as w e l l and there i s  advantage i n c o n s i d e r i n g  L'AG_v ( l i e down), " S ' AJ>_v ( s i t  the  (JJ'EZ_  However, these a r e , w i t h only one e x c e p t i o n  STRAZD__(S)  non-polysyllabics  (go),  (suffer).  importance as f a r as  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s a r e concerned.  same important r o l e t h a t i t p l a y s  J E V ( S )  (open),  I t does not p l a y  i n the other  unaccented  o f drawing the s t r e s s o f f a p r e f i x or stem  129 u n t o t h e ending o f t h e Neut. and P i . P r e t . forms. P r e t . of monosyll.  The Masc.  b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s w i t h removed  s t r e s s , p r e f i x e d o r n o t , has an o b s o l e t e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r e s s e d r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x provided  t h e b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m ends  i n t h e d e n t a l p l o s i v e -T__ o r -D_.  G f . V'ODj' ( l e a d ) t (za+)  v'o__l-#-s'a/(za+) v ' i _ l - # - s ' a , P L ' 0 T ^ ( p l a i t ) : s+pl'o_l-#-s • a / ( s + ) p l ' i _ l - # - s ' a and N'OS_' (carry):.' (za+)n* os_#-#-s'a o n l y . Obviously,  the obsolete a l t e r n a t i v e with stressed r e f l e x i v e  s u f f i x o f f e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e s t r e s s column a r i t y o f such a c c . f u l l - s t e m s , a t l e a s t i n t h e F i n i t e forms. Nevertheless,  t h e forms w i t h s t r e s s e d - s ' a a r e l o s i n g ground  as Avanesov's n o t a t i o n or a comparison between Avanesov and the much more dated Ushakov shows.  T h i s i s perhaps a t t r i b u t -  able t o the f a c t that the stressed r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s only r a r e l y p r e f e r r e d elsewhere. and 34.  See above p. 113  and f o o t n o t e s  24  The f a c t t h a t t h e s t r e s s e d r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x can e x i s t  a t a l l as an a l t e r n a t i v e i n t h e P r e t . o f d e n t a l p l o s i v e f u l l stems might be l i n k e d w i t h a c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y t h a t t h e Masc. P r e t . o f t h e s e f u l l - s t e m s has v/ith t h a t o f t h e unaccented n o n polysyllabic full-stems.  This s i m i l a r i t y l i e s i n the f a c t that  o n l y t h e broad consonants" -D__ and -T_ a r e s u b j e c t , l i k e a l l lf  "narrow c o n s o n a n t s " , t o t r u n c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x o f t h e P r e t . C f . # R V A j t e a r ) (na+)rva__l-#-s'a ( o b s o l . ) , #L«J_ (pour) (na+)l'i_l-#^s«a(obsol.), MJ__(S) ( g i v e ) (za+). d a _ l - # - s ' a ( o b s o l . ) and V'OTjJ ( l e a d ) (za+)v*i__l-#-s'a. ( o b s o l . ) w i t h (za+)n'os #-#-s'a.  130 P a r t i c i p l e s and Gerunds  Formation Apart from problems concerning s t r e s s , the r u l e s f o r the f o r m a t i o n of the gerunds and most p a r t i c i p l e s are e a s i l y adapted t o Jakobson's system based The  desinence  on the f u l l - s t e m and  truncation.  of the s o - c a l l e d "Present Gerund" and  both P r e s e n t P a r t i c i p l e s  ( A c t i v e and P a s s i v e ) are v o c a l i c and  t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e t r u n c a t i o n of the open f u l l - s t e m s . the simple desinence  of  Since  of the s o - c a l l e d Present Gerund  '__a i s  o f t e n used w i t h P e r f e c t i v e verbs t o form a s o - c a l l e d Past Gerund,-^ and  s i n c e the d i s t i n c t i o n P a s t / P r e s e n t i s i t s e l f  of no  concern t o a p u r e l y f o r m a l a n a l y s i s of the R u s s i a n v e r b ,  this  desinence w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o h e n c e f o r t h as the " v o c a l i c g e r und  desinence" as opposed t o the "consonantal gerund  w i t h a l t e r n a n t s _ f , _ _ f s i and _ s i . simple s o f t e n i n g  desinence"  The V o c a l i c Gerund  of a p r e c e d i n g consonant  i f i t i s hard  p a i r e d , e.g. B'IR_^ (take):; V o c a l i c Gerund b ' i r ' _ a and (lead): pr'i+v'id'_a. i n -MJ_,  Closed f u l l - s t e m s i n v e l a r s ,  m o n o s y l l . hard and  s y l l . hard open f u l l - s t e m s  desinences  V'0D__  /  full-stems  (e.g. ISKA_ "look f o r " : i s c _ a ,  (except -#JD__(S) (go) : pra+jd'_a,  The  and  s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s , most p o l y -  no * p ' i s c _ a from P'ISA__ "write") and n o n s y l l a b i c  pra+ct'_a, p Mr'i+ct'_a)  requires  but  full-stems  na+jd'__a and -#3#T_ (read) :-  do not form a V o c a l i c Gerund.  of the Present A c t i v e P a r t , and  P a s s . P a r t , are complex, comprising a non-terminal  Present (non-coor-  131 dinating) p a r t i c i p i a l s u f f i x followed dinating)  gender-number-case  adjective.  by a t e r m i n a l  (coor-  s u f f i x , the same as f o r the l o n g  The n o n - t e r m i n a l s u f f i x o f the P r e s . A c t . P a r t ,  has the s t r e s s e d a l t e r n a n t s _ a s c - and __usc-, the s u f f i x  alter-  nant v/ith the unrounded vowel _ a - i n s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s and the a l t e r n a n t v/ith the rounded vowel __u- f o r a l l other stems.  The u n s t r e s s e d  full-  non-terminal s u f f i x i s i n v a r i a b l y _usc-.  Accented f u l l - s t e m s s t r e s s or do not s t r e s s the f i r s t  syllable  of t h i s v o c a l i c desinence i n conformance v/ith the columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n of the f i n i t e forms.  E.g. POIWI__  (remember):  pomn'_usc-i j , G-0V0R'I__ ( s p e a k ) : g a v a r ' _ a s c - i j , Y'0D__' ( l e a d ) : v'id_usc-ij.  Acc. m o n o s y l l . b r o a d l y  closed full-stems with  removable s t r e s s have the h i e r a r c h i c a l requirement of s t r e s s e d v o c a l i c desinences.  E.g. KLAD__ ( l a y down): klad__u§6-i j .  d i s t u r b s the columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n . full-stems generally See a l s o p. 6l)  This  Unaccented p o l y s y l l .  obey the r u l e formulated above  (p.56.  t h a t r e q u i r e s the s t r e s s t o be on the s y l l a b l e  p r e c e d i n g the s y l l a b l e expressed by a complex desinence (except i n the case of the Imperative). the  This i s always so i n  case of the p o l y s y l l a b i c hard open f u l l - s t e m s , but there  are many exceptions among the s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s , e.g. STUD'I_ ( c o o l ) : stud ' _ a s c - i j , MOL'I_ (pray) :. mal »_asc-i j - s ' a . Por more examples, see below pp. 164-166.  A l l other unacc.  f u l l - s t e m s have a s t r e s s e d desinence i n the P r e s . A c t . P a r t . The desinence of the P r e s e n t P a s s i v e  P a r t i c i p l e has the  132 s t r e s s e d non-terminal a l t e r n a n t s _om- and _'im- f o l l o w e d "by the t e r m i n a l  s u f f i x of gender-number-case, the same as those  of the l o n g or short a d j e c t i v e .  The u n s t r e s s e d a l t e r n a n t of  the non-terminal s u f f i x i s everywhere __'im-.  The s t r e s s e d a l -  t e r n a n t _'im- i s used f o r p o l y s y l l . s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s and the s t r e s s e d a l t e r n a n t  om- elsewhere.  E.g. 61 TAJ  TR'EBOyA__ (demand): tr'ebuj__im-i j , V I D ' I ^  c i t a j _ _ i m - i j,  ( s e e ) : v ' i d '_im-i;j,  l\T'6s_^ ( c a r r y ) : n ' i s _ o m - i j , YOD'I__ (lead):. pra+;iz+vad'__im-i j , GOVOR'I_ ( t a l k ) : ' g a v a r »_im-ij. " Acc. f u l l - s t e m s have s t r e s s e d or u n s t r e s s e d P r e s . Pass. P a r t , desinences i n keeping w i t h t h e i r columnar s t r e s s p a t tern.  Unacc. p o l y s y l l a b l e s g e n e r a l l y have s t r e s s e d P r e s . Pass.  P a r t , desinences and t h e r e f o r e present a f u r t h e r t i o n t o Jakobson's 1 ub'_im-ij. 1  statement i n  The a l r e a d y  2.62A*  corrected  contradic-  E.g. L'UB'I_ ( l o v e ) :  statement  that  appears  above on p. 56 under the d i s c u s s i o n o f the Imperative must be s t i l l f u r t h e r a l t e r e d with the a d d i t i o n "...and except i n the case of the P r e s . Pass. P a r t , which, though a l s o complex, i s also stressed."  And the statement i n i t s f i n a l form on p. 61  a f t e r the I n f i n i t i v e and Past Gerund were examined must have the a d d i t i o n of the f u r t h e r e x c e p t i o n , the P r e s . Pass. P a r t . The f i n a l form t h i s statement takes i s t h e r e f o r e  "verbs w i t h  open p o l y s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s s t r e s s the vowel p r e c e d i n g the desinence except i n the case o f the Imperative, P r e s . Pass. P a r t , and simple v o c a l i c desinences ( i . e . P r e s . Gerund and 1 Sg.  133 desinences) i n which cases the f i r s t desinence i s s t r e s s e d . " s t r e s s e d desinence.  or only s y l l a b l e of the  A l l other unacc. f u l l - s t e m s have the  The form i s r a r e however f o r a l l but the  p o l y s y l l . s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s and the p o l y s y l l . hard open f u l l - s t e m s i n -Ov"A__.  I n the case o f verbs i n -AVAJ_, the l o s s  of the sequence -YA- o f the f u l l - s t e m b e f o r e v o c a l i c desinences of the P r e s . tense does n o t apply b e f o r e the v o c a l i c desinence of the P r e s . Pass. P a r t . E.g. DAVAJ_ ( g i v e ) : davaj__im-i j , but daj_u e t c .  Nor does i t apply b e f o r e the _#- a l t e r n a n t  Imperative -  o f the  davaj_#-#i  The desinences o f the s o - c a l l e d Past or P e r f e c t i v e Gerund (here the Consonantal Gerund) and of the P a s t A c t i v e p l e are c o n s o n a n t a l .  Partici-  The Consonantal Gerund has a simple  des-  inence v/ith the a l t e r n a n t s _ f , _ f s i and _ s i , the f i r s t two o f which are i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n .  The desinence of the Past A c t i v e  P a r t , i s a complex desinence c o n s i s t i n g of the n o n - t e r m i n a l ( n o n - c o o r d i n a t i n g ) s u f f i x _ f s - ( s u b j e c t t o t r u n c a t i o n by broadly  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s g i v i n g the a l t e r n a n t __s-) followed  terminal  or ( c o o r d i n a t i n g )  s u f f i x of number-gender-case  i c a l t o t h a t of the l o n g a d j e c t i v e . generally  This desinence  by the ident-  (_fs-)  causes t r u n c a t i o n of the f i n a l phoneme of a c l o s e d  f u l l - s t e m , i . e . i n the case of narrowly c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s , but n o t i n the case of b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s where t r u n c a t i o n i s usually progressive. na+.Sa_fs-ij,  E.g. #SJ_ (sew): s i _ f s - i j ,  ZNAJ_ (know): z n a _ f s - i j , CITAJ_  -CN__( b e g i n ) t.  (read):, c i t a _ f s - i j ,  134 PLIV_ (swim) : p l i _ _ f s - i j , but S'EK_ (whip): s ' e k _ s - i ; j , N»OS_' ( c a r r y ) : n ' o s ^ s - i j , #S#D_(S) ( g o ) : set__s-i j , V'OD_' ( l e a d ) : v e't_s-i;j. 1  The m o n o s y l l . b r o a d l y  closed full-stems i n dental  p l o s i v e s v/ith removable s t r e s s have normal r e g r e s s i v e t i o n l i k e the narrov/ly c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s . je_fs-ij,  trunca-  E . g . JED_(s) (eat) :  KLAD_ ( l a y down): k l a _ f s - i j , KRAD_ ( s t e a l ) : ; k r a _ f s - i j ,  PAD_ ( f a l l ) : p a _ f s - i j , S'EP_c ( s i t down): s«e__fs-ij. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the a l t e r n a n t s _ _ f s i and _ s i of the  Consonantal Gerund i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h that of the Past P a r t , a l t e r n a n t s _ _ f s - i j and _ 5 - i j r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Active  Wherever the  a l t e r n a n t _ f s i can occur, however, the a l t e r n a n t __f i s a f r e e v a r i a n t o f i t , except t h a t i t cannot occur when the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s used.  E.g. na+.d'e^f/na+d'e_fsi, but a+.d e _ f s i - s 1  1  only. In the case of the Past A c t . P a r t . , the s t r e s s i s almost always on the stem s y l l a b l e r e g a r d l e s s f u l l - s t e m i s accented. broadly  Therefore,  of whether or not the  i n the case of acc.  monosyll.  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s v/ith "removed" (see above pp. 87-88)  s t r e s s , the Past A c t . P a r t , p r e s e n t s  an h i e r a r c h i c a l l y d e t e r -  mined c o n f l i c t with the columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n .  E.g. V'ODj:  1 Sg. v ' i d _ u , 2 Sg. v'id'__o-s, P r e s . A c t . P a r t . v'id__usc-i j , Conson. Gerund pr'i+v'id'__a,  Pem. P r e t . v ' i _ l - a ,  inf. v'is_t'i,  but Past A c t . P a r t , p r ' i + v ' e t ^ s - i j . Unacc. p o l y s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s have the s t r e s s i n the Past A c t . P a r t , and Conson. Gerund on the s y l l a b l e immediately p r e -  135 ceding  the desinence.  In the case o f the Past A c t .  Part.,  where the desinence i s complex, t h i s conforms with Jakobson's statement i n 2.62k.  However, s i n c e the Conson. Gerund has a  simple desinence and s i n c e , i n two o f i t s three  alternants,  the desinence i s s y l l a b i c and t h e r e f o r e capable t h e o r e t i c a l l y of b e a r i n g  the s t r e s s , Jakobson's statement i n 2.62A.has r e -  q u i r e d changes (see pp.  59-6l)*.  The v o c a l i c a l t e r n a n t - S i o f  t h i s simple desinence i s i n f a c t s t r e s s e d only i n one f u l l stem, the n o n - p o l y s y l l . -#P'#R__ and then only when the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s used.  E.g.  -#P'#R__ (lock):: za+p ' i r j s i ,  but za+:p'ir_si-s', a t + p ' i r _ s i - s ' . it  See above p . 116.  6t+p'ir_§i, Moreover,  i s only i n the case o f the f u l l - s t e m —#P'#R__ ( l o c k ) t h a t  the s t r e s s f a l l s on the p r e f i x i n the Past A c t . P a r t , ( r e f l e x i v e or not)  and i n the n o n - r e f l e x i v e  Conson. Gerund (pp.  115-  116). The  i n c l u s i o n o f the Past Pass. P a r t , i n the a n a l y s i s o f  the R u s s i a n v e r b by the f u l l - s t e m method has,  u s u a l l y i n con-  j u n c t i o n with the use a l s o of p r e f i x e s , g r e a t l y complicated the p r i n c i p l e s concerning accent, s t r e s s , a n d  their notation.  T h i s i s due t o the f a c t that c e r t a i n v e r b s , which could be c l a s s i f i e d together  by Jakobson and d e s c r i b e d  with a s i n g l e  statement, a r e o f t e n found t o have a d i f f e r e n t behavior w i t h respect  t o the s t r e s s i n g o f p a r t i c i p l e s , v/ith or without  f i x e s , and o f p r e f i x e d P r e t s .  pre-  The Past Pass. P a r t , o f the  f u l l - s t e m CITAJ__ ( r e a d ) , f o r example, c a l l s f o r the t r a n s f e r ence o f s t r e s s from the vov/el -A- t o the preceding  syllable,  136 giving cita_n(n)-ij.  This has  the e f f e c t of r u i n i n g an  wise p e r f e c t columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n . - ^  And  i n the case of G0V0R'I_  a c c . p o l y s y l l . and monosyll. s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s l i k e (speak) and  other-  DL'I__ ( l a s t ) with removable s t r e s s or an a c c . mono-  s y l l . broadly  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m l i k e V'OD_ with removed s t r e s s , /  the short Past Pass. P a r t , forms have s t r e s s e d t e r m i n a l fixes.  E.g.  suf-  u+gavar'_in-o' e t c . , p r a + d l ' _ i n - 6 e t c . and  pr'i+v'id'_in-o etc. stress pattern.  This a l s o r u i n s the columnarity  As a f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n , the  of  the  full-stems  BRA_c (take) and KL'AN__ ( c u r s e ) , which, as unaccented  full-  stems, are not expected t o y i e l d a columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n , had,  at l e a s t before  the a d d i t i o n of p a r t i c i p l e s and  prefixed  forms to the a n a l y s i s , i d e n t i c a l non-columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n s , i n c l u d i n g s t r e s s e d v o c a l i c desinences, s t r e s s e d Pem. desinence and u n s t r e s s e d  Pret.  Neut. and P I . P r e t . desinences.  In  the Past Pass. P a r t . , both verbs are s t i l l a l i k e i n s t r e s s i n g the p r e f i x i n the l o n g form and  i n the non-Pern, short forms -  p r o + k l i _ t - i j , p r o + k l i__t-#, p r o + k l ' i _ t - a (Neut.), p r o + k l i _ t - i , 1  1  1  do'+bra__n-i j , do+bra_n-#, do+bra_n-a (Neut.), they d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g P r e t . and  t o the s t r e s s p o s i t i o n i n the non-Pern.  i n the s h o r t Pem.  p r o + k l ' i _ l - a (Neut.), da+bra_l-a (Neut.),  do+bra__n-i, but  Past Pass. P a r t . -  pro'+kl ' i _ l ' - i ,  da+bra_l'-i,  Prom t h i s i t i s evident  pro+kl'i__l-#,  p r a + k l ' i__t-a but  da+bra_l-#,  do+bra__n-a (Pem.).  t h a t the f u l l  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  term unaccented, as a p p l i e d to the n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s , depends to some extent  on the p a r t i c u l a r type of n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c .  137 T h i s , i n c i d e n t a l l y , was a l r e a d y a p r o b l e m i n J a k o b s o n ' s  orig-  i n a l p a p e r e v e n when p a r t i c i p l e s a n d p r e f i x e d f o r m s w e r e n o t included.  T h u s , w h i l e he r e c o g n i z e d  a full-stem like  as u n a c c , i n s p i t e o f i t s b a s i c a l l y it  V'0D_^  columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n ,  h a d t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e o t h e r u n a c c . n o n - p o l y s y l l -  abics with respect contained  i n Jak.  t o s t r e s s p a t t e r n b y means o f t h e s t a t e m e n t 2.62B.  A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n that r e s u l t s from the a d d i t i o n t o the a n a l y s i s o f p r e f i x e d v e r b s and p a r t i c i p l e s the  term unaccented c a n have d i f f e r e n t meanings w i t h  t o t w o v e r b s o f t h e same c a t e g o r y . discussed and  i s the f a c t  Degrees o f Unaccentedness.  respect  T h i s p r o b l e m was  a t l e n g t h above under t h e h e a d i n g s S t r e s s  already Elicitors  F o r example, t h e s t r e s s p a t -  t e r n d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n #BRA_c a n d K L ' A N _ i s s i g n a l l e d f a c t t h a t one i s a m o n o s y l l . a monosyll. rva_t'  narrowly  hard  ( t o sleep)  But while both have  monosyll.  open f u l l - s t e m s , t h e s i m i l a r i t y ,  ity,  o f t h e i r f u l l - s t e m s as Jakobson would r e p r e s e n t  ( i . e . RVA__ a n d SPA__) i s m i s l e a d i n g ,  i n fact  the verbs  hard  patterns  by t h e  open f u l l - s t e m and t h e o t h e r  closed full-stem.  ( t o t e a r ) and s p a _ t '  complete i d e n t them  inasmuch as t h e i r  a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l as f a r as t h e p r e f i x e d  N e u t . and P I . P r e t . f o r m s a r e c o n c e r n e d .  stress  reflexive  These a r e , p r e f e r -  a b l y , n a + r v a _ l - o - s ' , n a + r v a _ _ l ' - i - s ', b u t p r a + s p a _ l - a - s '  (Neut.),  pra+spa_l -i-s'.~>5 1  Apart  that  from the problems of accent  and s t r e s s , t h e P a s t  138 P a s s . P a r t , p r e s e n t s a s p e c i a l problem i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f s t a t e m e n t s g o v e r n i n g i t s f o r m a t i o n and t h e range o f t h e s u f f i x a l t e r n a n t s , due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t ,  almost a l o n e i n t h e R u s s i a n  v e r b a l system, has both c o n s o n a n t a l and v o c a l i c  alternants.  Jakobson has s t a t e d ( S e c . 2.1) t h a t t h e P a s t P a s s . P a r t , i n e n c e i s t h e o n l y one w i t h such an a l t e r n a t i o n .  des-  He has f a i l e d ,  u n d e r s t a n d a b l y however, t o t a k e i n t o account t h e same a l t e r n a t i o n i n t h e d e s i n e n c e o f t h e 1 Sg. (See above, p. 6 2 ) . The a l t e r n a n t s o f t h e P a s t P a s s . P a r t , a r e _ n - , _ t - , _'on-, _ ' i n - . A c c o r d i n g t o Jakobson, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : __nf o r f u l l - s t e m s i n -A__ o r - A J _ j _ t - f o r a l l o t h e r n a r r o w l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s , f o r f u l l - s t e m s b r o a d l y c l o s e d i n -R_ and f o r open f u l l - s t e m s i n - 0 _ _ and -U_.  The r e m a i n i n g f u l l - s t e m s  ( i . e . t h e open f u l l - s t e m s i n -E__ and -I__ and t h e b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s a p a r t from those i n -R_) have t h e v o c a l i c _'on-  suffix  ( s t r e s s e d ) and _ * i n - ( u n s t r e s s e d ) . E.g. #GNA__e ( d r i v e ) : .  do+gna n-#, ZHAJ  (know): s+ozna n-#, LIMAJ f  *—  "—  (think):  —*  p ' i r 'i+duma_n-#, #B'J__ ( b e a t ) : pa+b'i_t-#, #MN_ ( c r u m p l e ) : raz+m'a_t-#, -#P'#R__ ( l o c k ) :: z a + p ' i r _ t - # , -CN_ ( b e g i n ) : V  na+5a_t-#,  TR01TO_  (touch):. t r o n u _ t - # ,  K 0 L 0 _  (prick):  ras+;kola_t-#, V'ERT'E_ ( t w i r l ) : na+v'erc_in-#,  G0V0R'I_  ( s p e a k ) : u+gavar __on-#, SOL'I_ ( s a l t ) : na+so 1'_in-#, PL• 0 T _ ^ 1  ( b r a i d ) : z a + p l ' i t ' _ o n - # , KRAD_ ( s t e a l ) : u+krad'_in-#. I t s h o u l d be noted here t h a t t h e v o c a l i c P a s t P a s s . P a r t ,  des-  i n e n c e i s t h e o n l y v o c a l i c d e s i n e n c e t h a t does n o t r e q u i r e t h e removal  o f s t r e s s from t h e stem o f a c c . m o n o s y l l . b r o a d l y  139 closed full-stems  (with removable s t r e s s ) .  E . g . CRIZ_ (gnaw):  g r i z _ l - a , g r i s _ _ t ' , g r i z _ u , griz'__o-s, g r i z _ _ u s c - i j , g r i z '__i-# but n a + g r i z ' _ i n - i j , z a + g r i z ' _ _ i n - i j .  griz'_a,  The b r o a d l y  c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s , a l l of which end i n hard consonants, have bare s o f t e n i n g of the f i n a l consonant before  the v o c a l i c des-  inence of the Past Pass. P a r t , as provided  f o r already  in  See pp. 3 7 - 3 9 *  the statements d e a l i n g with s o f t e n i n g .  above The  open f u l l - s t e m s ( i n - E _ and -I_) have s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t e n i n g i f p o s s i b l e before Part.  the v o c a l i c desinence o f the Past  Pass.  E . g . V«ERT'E_ ( t w i r l ) : na+v»erc_in~#, AB'ID'I_ ( o f f e n d ) :  a ( + ) V i z _ i n - # , ABRAT 1_ ( t u r n ) : a(+-)bragc__on-#. 1  The  Past  56  Pass. P a r t , desinence i s , l i k e t h a t of a l l the  other p a r t i c i p l e s , a complex desinence. (non-coordinating)  s u f f i x e s described  To the n o n - t e r m i n a l  above a r e added the t e r -  m i n a l l o n g or s h o r t a d j e c t i v a l s u f f i x e s . The  s h o r t form o f the P I . Past Pass. P a r t , r e q u i r e s  c i a l a t t e n t i o n as i t c o n t a i n s made by Jakobson i n Sec.  a c o n t r a d i c t i o n of a statement  2.111.  V/ith the P I . P r e t . and the  Imper. i n mind, Jakobson has made a g e n e r a l e f f e c t t h a t "the i n i t i a l  "i"  spe-  of  axij  statement t o the  verbal suffix  ( t h i s ap-  p l i e s a l s o t o "#" i n a l t e r n a t i o n with " i " ) s o f t e n s the p r e ceding  consonant."  One  wonders, i n the f i r s t  speak of the " i "  as the i n i t i a l  p l a c e , why i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o " i " of a verbal s u f f i x , i n  view of the f a c t t h a t there i s no v e r b a l s u f f i x v/ith " i " i n  140  any p o s i t i o n o t h e r t h a n i n i t i a l , t o o t h e p r e c e d i n g consonant  save - t ' i (2 P I . ) . But here  i s softened, or r a t h e r s o f t .  This  p a r t i c u l a r s u f f i x i s c l e a r l y n o t what Jakobson had i n mind anyway, s i n c e he s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r e c e d i n g consonant  i s soft-  ened b e f o r e " i " , i . e . i s n o t so s o f t e n e d e l s e w h e r e , as one might i n f e r .  The phoneme - t ' - i n t h e s u f f i x - t ' i i s , however,  f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s y n c h r o n i c l i n g u i s t i c s and i n v i e w of  t h e f a c t t h a t i t n e v e r a l t e r n a t e s w i t h any o t h e r phoneme,  i n h e r e n t l y s o f t , i . e . s o f t by i t s e l f . J u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s statement, i . e . a reason f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e , i s no more e v i d e n t upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e P r e s . t e n s e d e s i n e n c e s t h a t have t h e n o n - t e r m i n a l P r e s . tense  suffix  a l t e r n a n t _ _ i - (e.g. p l ^ c _ _ i - s , l ' u b ' _ i - s ) , i n view of the f a c t t h a t t h e p r e c e d i n g consonant well.  i s s o f t b e f o r e o t h e r vowels as  E . g . p l a c _ u , p l a c _ a , l'ub'__u-t, l'ub'__a.  (c must a l -  ways be s o f t i n R u s s i a n and -B- i n t h e f u l l - s t e m L'TJB'I_ ( l o v e ) i s i n h e r e n t l y s o f t and n o t determined  as such by t h e  _±- of the desinence.) Efo j u s t i f i c a t i o n can be found i n t h e I m p e r a t i v e f o r t h e use o f t h e a d j e c t i v e " i n i t i a l "  i n t h i s statement  since neither  t h e I m p e r a t i v e s u f f i x _ i - n o r i t s a l t e r n a n t _#- c o n s i s t s o f a n y t h i n g but t h e phoneme i / # .  T h i s i s always t r u e , whether  the Imper. (Sg.) i s r e g a r d e d as a s i m p l e desinence or a comp l e x one.  (See d i s c u s s i o n above, pp. 5 4 - 5 7 ) .  ence o f v ' i d ' _ i  I f the d e s i n -  (-#) ( l e a d I ) i s s i m p l e , as Jakobson would have  it,  i t means I m p e r a t i v e + S i n g u l a r , b u t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e  o n l y phoneme o f t h e d e s i n e n c e ( w h i c h i s a l s o here a s u f f i x ) , and as much t h e f i n a l phoneme as i t i s t h e i n i t i a l if  t h e d e s i n e n c e o f v ' i d ' _ _ i - # i s r e g a r d e d as complex, as i s ,  even i n Jakobson's the s u f f i x is  one. And  admission, the desinence of P I . v ' i d ' _ _ i - t '  . i - of the Imperative ( - t ' i expresse s the 2 P I . )  s t i l l monophonematic and s t i l l no more t h e i n i t i a l  the s u f f i x t h a n i t i s t h e f i n a l one. does mean i n i t i a l  That Jakobson  " i " of  actually  " i " o f t h e s u f f i x and n o t o f t h e e n t i r e des  i n e n c e i s p r o v e n i n t h e case o f t h e P r e t . which i s a compound desinence c o n s i s t i n g of non-terminal _ 1 - + t e r m i n a l g e n e r i c s u f f i x or p l u r a l s u f f i x .  The phoneme " i " i n n ' i s _ l ' - i i s  c l e a r l y n o t t h e i n i t i a l phoneme o f t h e d e s i n e n c e , y e t J a k o b son had i t p a r t i c u l a r l y ment i n 2.111.  i n mind when he f o r m u l a t e d t h e s t a t e -  He would, however, a p p a r e n t l y have us b e l i e v e  t h a t i t i s t h e i n i t i a l phoneme o f t h e s u f f i x o f P l u r a l number But here a g a i n t h e case f o r " i " b e i n g t h e i n i t i a l phoneme o f a s u f f i x c a n be no more c o n v i n c i n g t h a n t h e case f o r i t b e i n g t h e f i n a l phoneme, when i t i s i n f a c t t h e o n l y phoneme o f t h e suffix. A p a r t from t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e use o f t h e term  "initial",  the statement i s wrong i n any case s i n c e t h e s u f f i x - i o f t h e P I . number i n t h e compound d e s i n e n c e o f t h e s h o r t P a s t P a s s . P a r t , (and here a g a i n Jakobson would a p p a r e n t l y have us bel i e v e t h a t i t i s i n i t i a l , which i t may be i n so f a r as i t i s  142 t h e o n l y phoneme of t h e s u f f i x , j u s t as i t i s the o n l y phoneme of the P I . s u f f i x of the complex d e s i n e n c e o f n ' i s ^ l ' - i ) does n o t r e q u i r e the s o f t e n i n g o f the p r e c e d i n g namely _ n - or _ t - . pra+eita_n-i.  consonant,  E.g. p r ' i + z a _ t - i , u + g a v a r ' _ i n - i ,  I f Jakobson d i d n o t have the P a s t P a s s . P a r t ,  i n mind a t the t i m e , c a r e s h o u l d have been t a k e n t o e x p r e s s this reservation.  I n s t e a d the statement  i n c l u d e s the  phrase  "any v e r b a l s u f f i x " . I n the case of s u p p l e t i o n (see b e l o w ) , the  preconsonan-  t a l f u l l - s t e m i s used t o form the P a s t P a s s . P a r t .  T h i s means  t h a t the c o n s o n a n t a l P a s t P a s s . P a r t , s u f f i x a l a l t e r n a n t s _ n and _ _ t - a r e used - e.g. #BRA__c/B'LTR/V  ( t a k e ) : Past Pass. P a r t .  vi+bra_n-#, BIJ_c/BUI)_v ( b e ) : z a + b i _ t - i j , #GNA_c/GON' ?_v ( d r i v e ) : raz+ogna t  n-#. —  C e r t a i n monosyll'. b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s w i t h vowel - 0 - preceded  by a p a l a t a l i z e d consonant  have an anomolous  s t r e s s e d r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l i c morphophoneme as - e - i n the Past A c t . P a r t .  Cf.  V L ' O K J  (draw); p r 'i+vL' 6 k _ s - i j ,  -PR'0G__' z a + p r ' 6 k _ s - i j , GR'0B_' (row):; za+gr»6p_s-i j ,  (carry): pr'i+n'os^s-ij,  V'OzJ  U'OSj  (cart): pr'i+v'os_s-ij, etc.  v / i t h B'OG-J (run):: p r ' i + b ' e k _ j 3 - i j , -BR'OG^: p r ' i n ' i + b r ' e k _ s - i j , -BR'OTjV. a+br * e t _ s - i j , BR'ODj' (make one's way):, na+br ' e t _ _ s - i j , V ' O D j ( l e a d ) : p r ' i + v ' e t _ s - i j , Gil' 0T_f ( o p p r e s s ) : g n ' e t _ s - i j , TSV'OTj  (flower):  tsv'et_s-ij.  143 The  Inserted The  Vowel  p o s i t i o n reserved  f o r the i n s e r t e d vowel i s r e p r e -  sented i n the morphophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f f u l l - s t e m s by the s i g n - #.  I t s r e a l i z a t i o n i n a c t u a l speech i s with the  phoneme "e" i n double s o f t n e s s ants) and "o" elsewhere.5?  ( i . e . betv/een two s o f t conson-  Each of these i s s u b j e c t , of course,  t o the normal phonemic and a l l o p h o n i c replacements i n the unstressed s y l l a b l e . t i o n or other  Grammatical forms c o n t a i n i n g  of the i n s e r t e d vowel are marked w i t h a s u b l i n -  ear arrow ( p o i n t i n g upward) p l a c e d alization.  one r e a l i z a -  d i r e c t l y beneath t h a t r e -  E.g. #Z#G\_ (burn): I n f . ze_c, Masc. P r e t . zok_#-#,  xV#zVi  Pem. P r e t . s+azg 1-a; T /  ( t a k e ) : 1 Sg. vaz'm u; -#JD (S) T  -  x  (go):; at+ajd u; -#P'#R raz+apr u ( l Sg.).  —'  —  /  ( l o c k ) : za+p'ir #-#  (Masc. P r e t . ) ,  Some n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s , l i k e #2#G  (burn), have two p o s i t i o n s reserved  f o r the i n s e r t e d vowel,  one w i t h i n the stem (the i n t e g r a l or primary i n s e r t e d vowel), and  one between stem and p r e f i x (the secondary i n s e r t e d vowel).  In the morphophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n , these f u l l - s t e m s have the s i g n -# w r i t t e n t w i c e . (read).  Others are #S#D_(S) (go), -#5#T__  See below.  One of the most obvious f u n c t i o n s o f the i n s e r t e d vowel i s t o g i v e s y l l a b i c i t y t o an otherwise n o n s y l l a b i c form. t h e r e f o r e f i g u r e s prominently among the n o n s y l l a b i c t h a t do not have a vowel provided t r u n c a t i o n before  full-stems  f o r them concomitant v/ith  consonantal desinences, as i n the case of  #B J_ ( b e a t ) : Masc. P r e t . b ' i _ l - # , or #ZM_ |/  It  (press):  za_l-#.  For  example, the n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s  '  V  ( l e a n ) , #T'#R__  (rub),  V  #2#G_ (burn),  p r e f i x e d Masc. P r e t s . m'or #-#, p'or and  xM'#R_ ( d i e ) , #P'#R_  so l - # r e s p e c t i v e l y .  /f-  t~  -  ^  #S fD_ (go) 7  have the non-  #-#, f o r #-#, 20k —•  T  —*  #-#  ^ * —  The i n f . ze 6 o f f u l l - s t e m #S#G t—  —  i l l u s t r a t e s the same use o f the i n s e r t e d  vowel.  A second use o f the i n s e r t e d vowel i s t o a v o i d  an unde-  s i r a b l e consonant c l u s t e r a r i s i n g mainly from the a f f i x a t i o n of consonantal desinences ( i . e . desinences b e g i n n i n g with sonants) t o a c l o s e d  con-  f u l l - s t e m or the a f f i x a t i o n o f a conson-  a n t a l p r e f i x ( i . e . a p r e f i x ending i n a consonant) t o stem beginning  with a consonant.  f i x e d Masc. P r e t s .  Examples o f the f i r s t  o f the n o n s y l l a b i c s  #P«#RjS) (lean), -#P'#RjS) V  (burn),  a r e the p r e -  -#M'#R_(S) ( d i e ) ,  ( l o c k ) , #T'#H_(S)  (  r u  b ) , #Z#G_ f  v  -#C#T_ (read) and #S #D_(S) ( g o ) . 7  These are u+m ir_#-#, f  a+p'or #-#, za+p'ir #-#, u+t'or #-#, za+zok #-#, pra+co t  t  ~~  t  and  na+:so l-# r e s p e c t i v e l y .  bic  ( i . e . n e i t h e r v+ n o r s+),  ~"  1 ~  t  v  l-#,  As l o n g as the p r e f i x e s a r e s y l l a the use o f t h e i n s e r t e d vowel  cannot be e x p l a i n e d i n the same manner as was done i n the p r e c e d i n g paragraph, namely by the need t o give an  otherwise n o n s y l l a b i c  form.  s y l l a b i c i t y to  I n s t e a d , the reason t h a t must  be g i v e n i s the avoidance of an u n d e s i r a b l e consonant c l u s t e r , whether the f u l l - s t e m o f the form concerned i s s y l l a b i c or nonsyllabic.  The I n f i n i t i v e s za+ze c and pra+ces t ' i l l u s -  t r a t e the same p r i n c i p l e . When consonantal p r e f i x e s a r e added t o c e r t a i n  full-stems  b e g i n n i n g i n consonantal c l u s t e r s , the i n s e r t e d vowel appears.  145 In the case o f n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s c o n s i s t i n g o f a consonant c l u s t e r and y i e l d i n g both p r e c o n s o n a n t a l and p r e v o c a l i c forms ( i . e . n o t -#JD_y), there a r e two p o s i t i o n s f o r i n s e r t e d vowel a primary one w i t h i n the f u l l - s t e m ( i . e . between the components o f the c l u s t e r ) and a secondary  one between the p r e f i x  and the stem which i s used whenever the primary one i s n o t c a l l e d f o r , i . e . where s y l l a b i c desinences are used.  The non  s y l l a b l e s w i t h two p o s i t i o n s r e s e r v e d f o r i n s e r t e d vowels a r e -#C#T_ ( r e a d ) , #2#G_ ( b u r n ) , #S#D_(S) (go), -#M'#R_(S) ( d i e ) , #P'#R_(S) ( l e a n ; l o c k ) , #T'#RjS)  (rub).  Before the n o n s y l l a  b i c desinences o f the Masc. P r e t . o f a l l these f u l l - s t e m s and the I n f i n i t i v e of the f i r s t two (the I n f . o f the others i s formed  on another f u l l - s t e m ) , the primary i n s e r t e d vowel i s  realized  (see forms above).  Before a l l s y l l a b i c desinences,  i . e . v o c a l i c desinences and the consonantal desinences a p a r t from the I n f . and the Masc. P r e t . , the primary i n s e r t i o n i s not r e q u i r e d s i n c e no f i n a l consonant  c l u s t e r s are p o s s i b l e .  But with the a d d i t i o n o f a consonantal p r e f i x , the (now) med i a l c l u s t e r becomes t r i s y l l a b i c i n s t e a d of b i s y l l a b i c and t h e r e f o r e the secondary i n s e r t i o n o c c u r s .  E . g . I n f . z+ze c, f~" Masc. P r e t . z+zok #-# but Pem. P r e t . s+azg 1-a e t c . and P r e s . t- —  i~ —  s+azg u, s+azz o-s e t c . ; s+ces t ' , s+co l-# but s+ac 1-a, t  —  t  —  s+act u, s+act o-s e t c . t + 1  t  t—  ~  t ~  The same i s t r u e i n the case o f the  n o n s y l l a b i c s -#JI)_(S) (go) and #SL _y (send) which are r e a l l  i z e d o n l y before s y l l a b i c v o c a l i c desinences and -#J_(S) (go) which occurs only b e f o r e the s y l l a b i c I n f . desinence -  146 ab+ajd_u e t c . , a t + a s l ' _ u e t c . and v+a.j_t'i e t c . The Masc. P r e t . s+aso l-#, at+aso l-# e t c . and the P a s t A c t . P a r t , s+aset s - i j , - ^ at+aset s - i j e t c . , with both i n s e r t s used, must be c o n s i d e r e d i r r e g u l a r .  The f u l l - s t e m #S#D_(S)  (go) i s i n f a c t the only f u l l - s t e m i n the language which p e r mits the simultaneous r e a l i z a t i o n o f both primary and secondary i n s e r t e d vowels.  The s u p p l e t i v e n e s s of t h i s  full-stem  i s no doubt r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y and uniqueness. While the f u l l - s t e m s #Z#G_ and -#C#T_ have the uniqueness o f t h e i r Masc. P r e t . , as compared with the other P r e t .  forms  ( i . e . the Masc. has no i n s e r t e d vowel between p r e f i x and stem as i s the case i n the remaining P r e t . forms), r e i n f o r c e d i n the I n f . , the f u l l - s t e m  frOfrD^S)  does n o t even form an I n f .  T h i s would l e a v e the Masc. P r e t . as the only grammatical  form  of the f u l l - s t e m #S#JJ_(S) without the i n s e r t i o n between p r e f i x and stem. complete  The uniqueness of t h i s s i n g l e form, i . e . i t s  i s o l a t i o n , no doubt e x p l a i n s the appearance  of the  secondary i n s e r t i o n where the primary one i s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . The need f o r the primary i n s e r t e d vowel before n o n s y l l . desinences does not e x i s t i n the case of those n o n s y l l a b i c s t h a t have concomitant change.  Since the concomitant change  a p p l i e s t o a l l p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms and n o t j u s t the forms with n o n s y l l . desinences ( i . e . the I n f . and the Masc. P r e t . ) , the secondary i n s e r t e d vowel i n f u l l - s t e m s of t h i s nature i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the p r e v o c a l i c forms only.59  Of. #B'J_, #ZM__ w i t h  #Z#G__: Pem. P r e t . z + b ' i _ l - a , ad+za_l-a, s+azg_l-a and s+ab'j^u,  147 at+azm u, s+azg u (1 Sg.).  The f u l l - s t e m xV#Z'M__ has no p r e -  f i x e s and t h e r e f o r e no r e a l i z a t i o n of the secondary vowel. it  inserted  As f a r as the primary i n s e r t e d vowel i s concerned,  f i g u r e s i n the stem p r e v o c a l i c a l l y , i . e . wherever the f u l l -  stem appears i n t a c t .  E.g. vaz'm u e t c .  stem has a t r i c o n s o n a n t a l c l u s t e r .  the  P r e c o n s o n a n t a l l y i t does  not occur s i n c e , as i n the case of #B'J_ comitant change i n those  T h i s i s because  and 7fZM_, i t has  con-  forms.  The primary i n s e r t e d vowel i s known i n o n l y one m o n o s y l l . f u l l - s t e m , the b r o a d l y c l o s e d T A L # K J (pound): Masc. P r e t . talok_#-#, etc.  I n f . tald[_c/ 1 Sg. t a l k u e t c . , Pem.  Pret.  talk_l-a  I t i s completely unknown i n the two remaining m o n o s y l l .  c a t e g o r i e s and i n the p o l y s y l l a b l e s . Outside the n o n s y l l a b i c s , the secondary i n s e r t e d vowel i s v e r y n e a r l y r e s t r i c t e d t o the m o n o s y l l . hard and s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s with i n i t i a l  consonant  clusters.  E.g. #BRA__c:  Pem.  P a s t Pass. P a r t , raz+obra n-a, Masc. P r e t . raz+abra 1-jf, I n f . t -r raz+abra t ' ; #ZDA (v/ait) : 1 Sg. pad+azd u; ZR'E (watch): Inf.  ab+azr'e t ' , 1 Sg. ab+azr' u; #MST'I ( r e v e n g e ) : I n f . t ^ ~ ~~  at+amst' i _ t ' , 1 Sg. at+amsc__u.^°  I t i s never used by the n a r -  rowly c l o s e d m o n o s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s nor by the p o l y s y l l a b l e s , however complicated the i n i t i a l  consonant  c l u s t e r and  never by the m o n o s y l l . b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s .  almost  E.g. KROJ_  (cover):' 1 Sg. at+kroj u; PLIY_ (swim):. p a t + p l i _ l - a ; STR05l_ '(stitch) :; a t + s t r o c in-# ( s t i t c h e d on); GRIZ^ (gnaw): I n f . r a z + g r i s _ _ t ; STR'IG^ ( c u t ) : Pem. 1  P r e t . pat+str'ig_. 1-a.  148 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, t h e r e are exceptions i n the of Cf.  case  the l a s t - m e n t i o n e d category and these defy e x p l a n a t i o n . a t + v l ' e _ c / s+avl'e_c  from VL'OKJ.  Though t h e r e are a few e x c e p t i o n a l cases as p o i n t e d out above, i t has been demonstrated f u l l - s t e m belongs the secondary an i n i t i a l  is itself  t h a t the category t o which a  enough to determine  whether or not  i n s e r t e d vowel w i l l be used, g i v e n the f a c t  c l u s t e r i n the f u l l - s t e m .  of  T h i s means t h a t the  ne-  c e s s i t y of n o t i n g , i n the morphophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of f u l l stems, the p o s s i b i l i t y vowel was  of the secondary  inserted  almost, but not q u i t e , removed.  That the secondary ing  of occurrence  i n s e r t e d vowel i s a problem  concern-  the n a t u r e of the v e r b a l f u l l - s t e m and not the nature  the p r e f i x i s apparent  i n a comparison  of  of the f u l l - s t e m s #GMA.__c  ( d r i v e ) (or #GFU__ "bend") on the one hand with GiI'IJ__ ( r o t ) on the o t h e r .  The use  v e r b s , whose i n i t i a l of  the secondary  of the same p r e f i x ot+  (or s+) with  these  segments are i d e n t i c a l , c a l l s f o r the  i n s e r t e d vowel i n the case of rGNA__c 7  use  (and  # G F U _ J , but not i n the case of G-N'IJ_.  E.g. Masc. P r e t .  at+agna l-#, at+agnu l - # / ad+gn'i l-#.  This discrepancy could  not be a t t r i b u t e d t o the p r e p o s i t i o n which i s the same i n each case, nor to the c h a r a c t e r of the i n i t i a l stem which i s a l s o i d e n t i c a l i n each case. c a t i o n of the f u l l - s t e m narrowly  segment of the Only the  full-  classifi-  (monosyll. hard open v s . m o n o s y l l .  c l o s e d ) can be c r e d i t e d with determining t h i s  differ-  149 ence i n b e h a v i o r .  Suppletion  Introduction The i m p o s s i b i l i t y of p r e d i c t i n g a l l of the  grammatical  forms of c e r t a i n verbs from the shape of a s i n g l e need not be taken as a s i g n of i r r e g u l a r i t y . r u l e s concerning concomitant  full-stem  Jakobson's  own  change were of g r e a t value i n  m a i n t a i n i n g the p r i n c i p l e of a s i n g l e f u l l - s t e m f o r each v e r b . These r u l e s were d i s c u s s e d above i n the summary of the c l e by Jakobson under the heading PP.  arti-  Types of T r u n c a t i o n (see  35-36). Another device t h a t Jakobson uses i n order to a v o i d the  admission tion."  of c e r t a i n verbs as exceptions i s "deeper t r u n c a -  Deeper t r u n c a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Jakobson, occurs i n  the s m a l l c l a s s of verbs r e p r e s e n t e d by dava__t' ( t o g i v e ) where the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c -AVAJ__ of the f u l l - s t e m DAVAJ__ s i g n a l s the t r u n c a t i o n of the two phonemes -YA-  wherever the stem r e t a i n s  the f i n a l - J _ , i . e . b e f o r e v o c a l i c desinences.  The use  here  of the term t r u n c a t i o n i s unfortunate as t h i s term i s b e s t used t o mean, and indeed n a t u r a l l y suggests, the removal of a f i n a l segment, e i t h e r the l a s t s i n g l e phoneme, the l a s t two,  or the  l a s t three etc.,. as long- as the f i n a l one i s a l s o i n v o l v e d . Such a removal does not take p l a c e here p r e v o c a l i c a l l y ,  nor  150 c o u l d i t without u p s e t t i n g the "basic r u l e s of t r u n c a t i o n . Restatement of the problem or the admission of two  full-stems  i n complimentary d i s t r i b u t i o n v/ould seem a d v i s a b l e here i n order  to preserve a c l e a r and u n e q u i v o c a l meaning and use  for  the term t r u n c a t i o n . The  statement i n v o l v i n g deeper t r u n c a t i o n i n the  Pret.  of c e r t a i n f u l l - s t e m s i n - H U _ _ i s a l s o an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y Jakobson notes t h a t i f - N U _ i s preceded by a consonant the verb does not  one. and  denote ( i . e . mean) momentariness, i t i s  omitted i n the P r e t . forms.  Here the author has  compromised  h i s o r i g i n a l r e s o l u t i o n ( t o conduct a s t r i c t l y formal  analy-  s i s ) by i n t r o d u c i n g the c r i t e r i o n of meaning to d i f f e r e n t i a t e a number of f u l l - s t e m s . One  p o i n t missed by Jakobson i s the f a c t that the verbs  i n - H U _ _ t h a t are s u b j e c t to t h i s k i n d of t r u n c a t i o n can  be  narrowed down t o those i n which the s u f f i x - N U _ i s unaccented, i . e . the f u l l - s t e m must be acc. v/ith irremovable s t r e s s . thermore, with one full-stem  V'ANIJ_  exception  ( f a d e ) ; we  as coming from s t i _ t  1  a l s o missed by Jakobson (the regard Masc. P r e t . s t i _ l - # e t c .  ( f u l l - s t e m STIM_) and not  ( f u l l - s t e m STII\TD__)), a l l of the -Fu_  from stinu__t  Jak.  These two  Sec.  1  verbs s u b j e c t t o deep  t r u n c a t i o n have a consonant immediately p r e c e d i n g the s u f f i x .  Fur-  the - H - of  2.23.  c o n d i t i o n s are only of l i m i t e d v a l u e , however,  s i n c e there are many verbs with irremovable s t r e s s and/or v/ith  151 a consonant before tion.  t h e -IT- w h i c h do n o t p e r m i t  deep t r u n c a -  E . g . kapnu__t' ( t o d r o p ) , k r ' i k n u _ _ t ' ( c r y ) .  less, sufficient  Neverthe-  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s have been g i v e n t o r u l e out  deep t r u n c a t i o n i n t h e P r e t . o f f u l l - s t e m s l i k e KANU_ s i n k ) , SAGNU__ ( t a k e a s t e p ) An  a n d T0NU_  (fall,  (sink).  a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m , one t h a t w o u l d  d e a l w i t h a l l f u l l - s t e m s i n -NU__ a n d w h i c h w o u l d s t i l l  avoid 6l  any  m e n t i o n o f m e a n i n g , i s t h e one u s e d b y R u b e n s t e i n .  The  m o r p h o p h o n e m i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f u l l - s t e m s o f two v e r b s l i k e k r ' i k n u _ t ' a n d gasnu__t' ( t o be e x t i n g u i s h e d ) in  would  t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f -N- o r -ITU- b y u p p e r a n d l o w e r  letters,  o r b y roman and i t a l i c  letters.  case  In the transcription  u s e d h e r e , where f u l l - s t e m s a r e w r i t t e n i n upper case the  differ  letters,  segment -NU__ m i g h t be w r i t t e n i n l o w e r c a s e l e t t e r s i f  t h e f u l l - s t e m u n d e r g o e s deep t r u n c a t i o n i n t h e P r e t .  E.g.  KR'IK1TU__, b u t GASnu_: P r e t s . k r ' i k n u _ l - # , gas_#-#. Complementary The  Pull-Stems  apparent i r r e g u l a r i t i e s  of s t i l l  c a n be a c c o u n t e d f o r b y p r o p o s i n g  other Russian  t w o o r more ( u s u a l l y ) c o m p l e -  mentary f u l l - s t e m s t h a t a r e r e a l i z e d by m u t u a l l y grammatical forms.  exclusive  I t may be a r g u e d t h a t s u c h a f u n d a m e n t a l  a d d i t i o n as t h i s t o Jakobson's system represents complication  verbs  o f that system.  Nevertheless,  a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r many o t h e r w i s e  a n unwelcome  i t does  anomalous f o r m s .  provide Further-  152 more "both the p o s s i b i l i t y and the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of such a s o l u t i o n are strengthened when the v e r b a l category i s compared w i t h such m i n o r i t y items i n the R u s s i a n nominal f u l l - s t e m BRAT_ ( b r o t h e r ) , the p l u r a l paradigm based  category as of v/hich i s  on a d i f f e r e n t enlarged f u l l - s t e m BRATJ_.  I f the oper-  a t i o n of some R u s s i a n nouns can be e x p l a i n e d on the b a s i s o f two  separate f u l l - s t e m s , then a s i m i l a r e x p l a n a t i o n can be  used f o r the v e r b . The  o p e r a t i o n of some verbs on two f u l l - s t e m s  from the t r a d i t i o n a l two-stem system  of the verb  differs  ( i . e . Pres.  Stem and I n f . Stem) i n t h a t i t i s not the b a s i c , u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f the system,  but r a t h e r a device employed out of  n e c e s s i t y i n d e a l i n g with a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of v e r b s . Having  once proposed  the f u l l - s t e m as a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e , we  are o b l i g e d t o r e g a r d every s i n g l e grammatical as a r e a l i s a t i o n of some f u l l - s t e m . not be proposed  form of a verb  I f a s i n g l e f u l l - s t e m can  t o account f o r a l l the forms without  adding  new and ever more complicated a l t e r n a t i o n statements e t c . , then the only a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o propose  the e x i s t e n c e of more  than one f u l l - s t e m . The immediate e f f e c t  of t h i s i s an i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l  of some types of f u l l - s t e m s .  The new members have a l l the  r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r p r e d i c t i n g the shape of the gramm a t i c a l forms and one a d d i t i o n a l one, t h a t of s u p p l e t i o n . I n other words, though each i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y capable of engender-  153  i n g a l l of the r e q u i r e d forms of a v e r b , each s u p p l e t i v e f u l l stem happens i n a c t u a l f a c t to supply only a g i v e n number of those forms, while the other s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m ( s ) of the same verb supply the remaining forms, one another.  In most i n s t a n c e s of s u p p l e t i o n , there are no  more than two f u l l - s t e m s , one v o c a l i c forms,  or l e s s l i m i t e d than  garded  of v/hich s u p p l i e s a l l of the p r e -  the other a l l of the preconsonantal forms.  a few cases, hov/ever,  The  i . e . they complement  the "range"  of a f u l l - s t e m may  In  be more  this.  s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m s of any  one verb should be r e -  as having a v e r y c l o s e s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with  another, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r common meaning, and i n g c e r t a i n of t h e i r f o r m a l d i f f e r e n c e s . i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e to determine t i v e f u l l - s t e m has due  one  transcend-  In some i n s t a n c e s ,  the type of accent a s u p p l e -  t o the f a c t t h a t the f u l l - s t e m i n ques-  t i o n does not y i e l d the grammatical  forms whose s t r e s s p l a c e -  ments p r o v i d e the c r i t e r i o n f o r l a b e l l i n g f u l l - s t e m s w i t h respect to accent.  In these cases r e c o u r s e must be had  to  the other c l o s e l y r e l a t e d s u p p l e t i v e ( s ) whose accent type be determined.  Since the s u p p l e t i v e s are regarded as  can  differ-  ent f a c e t s of the same v e r b , the accent type of one can be g e n e r a l i z e d f o r the e n t i r e verb and be designated as the a c cent type of the other s u p p l e t i v e as w e l l .  This w i l l  permit  the complete c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a l l f u l l - s t e m s proposed. In one verb the range of the s u p p l e t i v e s i s c o i n c i d e n t  154 not v/ith the sum  of the p r e v o c a l i c or pre consonantal  hut r a t h e r with the use  of v o c a l i c or consonantal p r e f i x e s .  See s p e c i a l notes on v-JM_  Precedence  forms,  below, pp. 182-186.  among S u p p l e t i v e s  I f the t o t a l number of forms of a g i v e n verb are engendered by s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m s whose range i s p e r f e c t l y comp l i m e n t a r y and determined  by the v o c a l i c or consonantal nature  of the desinences, the preconsonantal s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m may  be d e s c r i b e d as the primary f u l l - s t e m of t h a t verb.^3  i s apparent  i n the f a c t t h a t , i n the one grammatical  This  form w i t h  both consonantal and v o c a l i c d e s i n e n t i a l a l t e r n a n t s , namely the Past Pass. P a r t . , i t i s almost i n v a r i a b l y the  preconson64  a n t a l s u p p l e t i v e t h a t i s used t o form the Past Pass. P a r t . , w i t h s e l e c t i o n of the consonantal Past Pass. P a r t , d e s i n e n t i a l a l t e r n a n t s ^ _ t - or _n-, even though the p r e v o c a l i c s u p p l e t i v e c o u l d be e a s i l y mated, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , with the v o c a l i c d e s i n e n t i a l a l t e r n a n t of the Past Pass. P a r t . - _'on-, _ _ ' i n - .  Thus  the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m ^BRA_c ( t a k e ) , BIJ__c ( b e ) , #GNA__c ( d r i v e ) are used t o form the Past Pass. P a r t s , s+obra n-#,  da+bi t-#, raz+ogna n-#  i n s t e a d of the p r e v o c a l i c  s u p p l e t i v e s B'XR__y, BUD_v, G-OH'?_v, which would y i e l d Past Pass. P a r t s . *z+b'ir'_on-#, *da+bud'_in-# and  the  *raz+gon'_in'  In the case of the v e r b " t o r e a c h " , whose f u l l - s t e m -ST'IGITU_ i s n o n - s u p p l e t i v e and whose f u l l - s t e m -ST'IG_c i s a s u p p l e t i v e  155 p r e c o n s o n a n t a l a l t e r n a t i v e , the f u l l - s t e m with the wider range  ( i n t h i s case non-suppl. -ST'IGI\TU_) i s the only one t o  supply the Past Pass. P a r t . - da+st'ignu_t-#. -ST'fG__(S)  The  suppletive  would y i e l d the form *da+st 'iz__in-# as the Past  P a r t . Pass.  Labelling I f a s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m i s i n f a c t used i n a l l p r e v o c a l i c or a l l p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be s u p p l i e d i n the morphophonemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the verb's formula ( i . e . i t s f u l l - s t e m ) by adding lower -case "v" ( f o r p r e v o c a l i c s u p p l e t i v e ) and lower-case " c " ( f o r p r e c o n s o n a n t a l s u p p l e t i v e ) immediately a f t e r the f u l l - s t e m (separated from the f u l l - s t e m by a d a s h ) .  S u p p l e t i v e s whose range does not  c o i n c i d e with e i t h e r the p r e v o c a l i c or the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms r e q u i r e s p e c i a l notes s t a t i n g t h e i r range. t i o n above on Morphophonemic T r a n s c r i p t i o n ,  See s e c -  ( f ) , p.  69.  I n the case of the f u l l - s t e m s of the verbs za+n'a_t' (occupy), pad+n'a_t' ( l i f t ) e t c . , the range -JM_  of the f u l l - s t e m s  and -U'IM__, which i s determined by the use of v o c a l i c  and consonantal p r e f i x e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , are noted morphophon e m i c a l l y with a lower-case "v" and " c " r e s p e c t i v e l y p r e c e d i n g the f u l l - s t e m (separated from the f u l l - s t e m by a v-JM_, c-l'IM__. pp. 182-186.  hyphen),  See s p e c i a l notes on these f u l l - s t e m s below,  156 List  of Suppletive  Full-Stems  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t  i s composed o f a l l those verbs  s u p p l e t i v e p r e v o c a l i c and p r e c o n s o n a n t a l f u l l - s t e m s .  with Other  v e r b s with s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m s t h a t do not c o i n c i d e with the range of the p r e v o c a l i c or p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms are d e a l t with separately  afterwards.  The a s t e r i s k marks those  t h a t a r e never r e a l i z e d i n t h e i r f u l l untruncated *BIJ_c/BUD_v  (be)  #ERA_c/B' Ip/v  (take)  # DRA^c/L'IR^v  (tear)  #GlTA_c/*GOiJ'?_v  (drive)  ' L«OG^c/L'AG_v  (grind)  ARA_c/AP/v  (yell)  * P ' E J__c/POJ_v  (sing)  R OV 'E_c/R OV_y  (roar)  1  R2A_c/R2_v  (neigh)  *S'E D_c/S AD_v /  (sit  l  #SLA_c/SL'__v  down)  (send)  SM'EJA_c(s a)/SM'EJ_v(s'a) ,  (laugh)  SOSA_c/S0sV  (suck)  #SPA_c/*SP'?_v  (sleep)  ZAZDA_c/ZAZl»_v  (thirst)  ZIYAP' ISA_c/*ZIVAP»IS0VA_v ' I Z D ' I _ c ( s • a ) / Z • I Z B _ v ( s a) 1  #ZYA_c/Z0V_v  form.  ( l i e down)  M6L0_C/*M'0L0_JV  1  suppletives  (describe  vividly)  (be based on) (call)  157 N.B.  A l l f i v e of the p r e v o c a l i c b r o a d l y  closed  full-  stems above marked as acc. with removable s t r e s s are i r r e g u l a r i n t h e i r r e t e n t i o n of the s t r e s s on the stem of the p r e v o c a l i c forms ( i . e . they a r e a c t u a l l y acc. with irremovable s t r e s s ) .  T h i s con-  t r a d i c t s the h i e r a r c h i c a l f a c t o r t h a t r e q u i r e s def l e c t i o n o f the s t r e s s t o the v o c a l i c desinence r e gardless  o f the acc. type o f the b r o a d l y  full-stem.  C f . 1 Sg. bud_u, l'ag__u,  closed  s'ad_u, zazd_u,  3 P I . z'izd__ut-s'a with KRAD_:'l Sg. krad__u.  It  i s o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e that t h i s h i e r a r c h i c a l stress factor i s contradicted  only by s u p p l e t i v e  members ( a l s o L'EZ~) of the b r o a d l y stem category.  Suppletion,  closed  full-  i t s e l f an i r r e g u l a r i t y  of a s o r t , i s g e n e r a l l y a s i g n of f u r t h e r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n a verb.  Other S u p p l e t i v e  Pull-Stems  In some cases a verb has, i n a d d i t i o n t o one or more s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m s , y e t another f u l l - s t e m t h a t i s n o t supp l e t i v e and which n o t only s u p p l i e s the m i s s i n g  forms f o r the  s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m ( s ) , but a l s o d u p l i c a t e s the s u p p l e t i v e stem's forms.  These non-suppletive  below i n b r a c k e t s .  f u l l - s t e m s are i n c l u d e d  158 Full-Stem  Range  Meaning  (AB'AZIVAJj  b i n d , make incumbent  AB'AZOVA  b i n d , make incumbent  Prevocalic  B'EGj  run  1 Sg., 3 P L , Imper., P r e s . A c t . Part,  B'EZA  run  Precons., P r e v o c . ( e x c e p t 1 Sg., 3 P I . , Imper. and P r e s . A c t . P a r t . )  BL»ESKA_ or  shine  B1'ESTA_  shine  (BL»ESTAJ_)  shine  (BL'EST'E_)  shine  (pa+)CI_  honour  1 Sg., 3  CT'I_  honour  Precons. and Prevoc. (except 1 Sg.)  DA_  give  Convers. a l t e r n a t i v e consonantal stem & permiss. a l t e r n . s h o r t Pem. Past Pass. P a r t .  DABj  give  Sg. p e r s o n s . 3 B l . & p e r m i s s . , a l t e r n . u n p r e f i x e d Eeut. P r e t . ( d a _ l - o )  DAD«I_  give  1 PI., 2 P I .  DAJ_  give  Precons.,  go  U n p r e f i x e d p r e v o c . stem & I n f . it' t ' i  go  Prefixed  go  Prefixed p r e v o c , Past Pass. P a r t .  xir/ ^ 6  -#JD_ #S#D_ JED  Prevoc. (except no V o c a l i c und)  Ger-  (normal f o r such stems)  PI.  Imperative 66  infinitives. including  Precons., e x c l u d i n g Past P a s s . Part. & Inf. eat  Precons. ( i n c l u d i n g Past Pass. P a r t . ) & Imperative (des. a l t e r n . __z)  159  160  -ST'IG  reach  (-ST'IGHlJj  reach  ST'II*?  groan  V o c a l i c Gerund & P r e s . A c t . P a r t .  groan  Precons. & Prevoc. Act. Part.)  (ST0M_)  groan  ST0IAJ_  groan  (STRADAJ  )  Precons.,  excluding Past Pass.  1 Sg. & V o c a l i c  Part,  ( b u t no P r e s .  Gerund  suffer  STRAZD  suffer  P r e s . Tense (obsol.)  SV' ISTA__  whistle  all  (SV'IST'E_J  whistle  T' IR *E_  ruh  Infinitive  #T'#R_  rub  Prevoc. & Precons.,  X0TA_  want  Sg.  XOT 'E  want  P r e c o n s . & P r e v o c , except Sg. p e r s o n s . ( T h i s v e r b does n o t f o r m Imp e r . , V o c a l i c Gerund o r P a s s . P a r t s . )  ZIBA_(s'a)  surge, swell  Prevocalic  ZIBL'lJs'a)  surge,  Prevocalic  ZIB*I_Js'a)  surge, swell Preconsonantal  forms  & P r e s . A c t . Part,  but V o c a l i c  Gerund  except I n f .  persons  or swell  P u l l - S t e m A l t e r n a n t s Determined  by P r e f i x a t i o n  One i n s t a n c e o f t h e a l t e r n a t i o n determined The  by t h e p r e f i x u s e d was  v  \  full-stems  a l r e a d y mentioned  use o f the s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m s ,  of suppletive  p a d + n ' a _ t ' e t c . , v-JM_ and c-U'IM_,  of the verbs i s determined  above.  za+n'a_t', by t h e n a t u r e  161 of the f i n a l phoneme o f the p r e f i x , i . e . whether i t i s a vowel or a consonant.  See d e t a i l e d notes on verbs i n - n ' a _ t ' below,  pp. 182-186. The a c c . n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m #P'#R__ was a l s o d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d i n i t s s t r e s s p a t t e r n by the unacc. f u l l - s t e m -#P'#R__ ( l o c k ) , but the success o f t h i s appears t o be l a r g e l y dependent above on stress' e l i c i t o r s , pp.  on the p r e f i x used  ( i . e . p r e f i x e d ) form, however, r e a l i z e s an unacc.  etc.  (see notes  116-117).  The u n p r e f i x e d f u l l - s t e m xM'#R_ i s accented.  -#M'#R__.  influence  C f . Pem. P r e t . m'or__-l-a, u+m'ir_l-a,  Any compound full-stem  za+m'irJL-a,  The p r e f i x e s can t h e r e f o r e be regarded as determining  the range o f the f u l l - s t e m a l t e r n a n t s xM'#R__ and -^M^R^. The use o f f u l l - s t e m s - B I J _ ( a c c ) , B I J _ (unacc.) and -BIJ__ (max. prefix.  unacc.) i s a l s o determined by the nature o f the  The a c c . stem operates only v/ith the p r e f i x za+. (Pem.  P r e t . z a + b i _ l - a , Pem. Past Pass. P a r t . z a + b i _ t - a ) , the  unacc  f u l l - s t e m v/ith p r e f i x e s do+ and i z + ( d a + b i _ l - a , da+bi_t-a, Masc. P r e t . do+bi_l-#, Masc. Past Pass. P a r t . do+bi_t-#), and the max. unacc. f u l l - s t e m with p r e f i x e s ot+, po+-, p r ' i + , pro+ and u+ and a l s o n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e n'e__ ( a d + b i _ l - a , o'd+b^l-^). See above, p. 1 2 0 . See a l s o notes above concerning f u l l - s t e m ZIV_, p.  120.  S i m i l a r l y , the use of p r e f i x e s za+. or na+. determines the n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m - 5 M _ _ t o be unacc. or max. unacc. r e s p e c tively.  C f . za+:ci_l-s, za+ci__t-a, za+ca_l-#,  za+:ca__t-# w i t h  162 na+ci__l-a, The  n a + c i _ t - a , na+<5a__l-#, na+6a__t-#.  use  of the f u l l - s t e m s BUD'I^ and  on the p r e f i x used.  P r e f i x e s l i k e raz+ t h a t g i v e  compounds w i t h l i t e r a l meanings use E.g.  -BUD'I_ a l s o depends Perfective  the unacc. f u l l - s t e m BUD'I__.  raz+buz__u, raz+bud'__i-s, raz+buz_i-n-#.  Those p r e f i x e s  l i k e pro+ t h a t l e n d a f i g u r a t i v e meaning to the f u l l - s t e m acc.  (v/ith removable s t r e s s ) f u l l - s t e m -BUD'I_.  E.g.  use  pra+buz__u,  pra+hud'_i-s, pra+buzd'_o-n. The  permissible  a c c . a l t e r n a t i v e B'EL'I__ (whiten) of  more modern B'EL'I_ ( u n a c c ) , p l e verb and  a l l compounds ( a l l Past Pass. P a r t s , are  on i t ) , i s the the  which i s used f o r both the  and  o+ and  a l s o the  m i s s i b l e base of the Past Pass. P a r t . , r e g a r d l e s s  The  E.g.  only  per-  of the  used f o r  most p r e f i x e d compounds, i s r e p l a c e d  a c c . f u l l - s t e m when p r e f i x e s na+:,  o+ and  u+  are used.  over, a l l Past P a s s . P a r t s , suggest the acc. stress) full-stem. The  formed  pre-  pa+b'il'__6n-#.  full-stem D'El'I^ (divide) ( u n a c c ) ,  simple v e r b and  sim-  only p e r m i s s i b l e v a r i a n t of the f u l l - s t e m i n  compounds v/ith p r e f i x e s u+  f i x used.  the  E.g.  Neut. short -  by  an More-  (with removable  ab+d'il'_in-o.  f u l l - s t e m SV'ET'I_ (unacc.) (shine)  -SV'ET'I_ (with Church S l a v o n i c  the  softening)  i s replaced  by  v/hen the p r e f i x  o+  i s used, or v/hen the p r e f i x pro+, with the f i g u r a t i v e meaning " t o e n l i g h t e n " , i s used.  163 Full-Stem  Alternants  not Determined by B r e f i x a t i o n  More widespread i s the a l t e r n a t i o n o f p o l y s y l l a b i c f u l l stems ( d i f f e r e n t i a t e d only by accent type) t h a t i s not d e t e r mined by the p a r t i c u l a r p r e f i x used. i n g i n number.  These verbs are i n c r e a s -  One o f the a l t e r n a n t s , g e n e r a l l y the more  a c c e p t a b l e one, i s u n a c c , while the other i s a c c and v/ith removable s t r e s s .  A number of the unacc. a l t e r n a t i v e s would  appear t o be r e c e n t gov  innovations  as a comparison between Ozhe-  (1963) or Avanesov (1959) and Ushalcov (1935) o f t e n shows.  T h i s i s a l s o apparent from the notes t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l aut h o r s themselves supply r e g a r d i n g the a l t e r n a n t s .  Further  the r e l a t i v e modernity of  evidence t h a t the a c c . stems are o l d e r  i s the f a c t t h a t some o f these verbs have grammatical forms based on an acc. f u l l - s t e m only i n compounds w i t h an a b s t r a c t meaning, which may t h e r e f o r e be regarded as having a c q u i r e d  a  c e r t a i n degree of autonomy from the unacc. stem used by the simple verb and by the compounds w i t h a more l i t e r a l meaning. See  -BUD'i_ and -SV'ET'I^ above.  F i n a l l y , the p o s i t i o n o f  s t r e s s i n t h e Past Pass. P a r t , and P r e s . A c t . P a r t , of an una c c . f u l l - s t e m i s o f t e n suggestive  of an acc. verb with remov-  able s t r e s s , though the other p r e v o c a l i c forms j u s t i f y the proposal The  of an unacc. f u l l - s t e m as the base. f o l l o w i n g p o l y s y l l . s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s are b a s i c a l l y  and/or p r e f e r a b l y unacc. able  Some have an acc. a l t e r n a t i v e (remov-  s t r e s s ) that i s p e r f e c t l y contemporary and p e r m i s s i b l e  (though l e s s d e s i r a b l e ) , while others have an obsolete  or ob-  164 s o l e s c e n t acc. a l t e r n a t i v e . a t i v e i s contained  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n about the a l t e r n -  i n a s p e c i a l column.  I n other columns are  noted the Past Pass. P a r t , and P r e s . A c t . P a r t , w i t h s t r e s s marked.  Those p a r t i c i p l e s t h a t cannot be d e r i v e d from the mo-  dern unacc. f u l l - s t e m , but which must be t r a c e d t o the ' o l d e r ' a c c . f u l l - s t e m , are u n d e r l i n e d .  The s p e c i a l problem t h a t c e r -  t a i n unacc. f u l l - s t e m s must be acc. i n c o n j u n c t i o n only with c e r t a i n p r e f i x e s has a l r e a d y been d e a l t with above.  Unaccented Pull-Stem  Accented  P r e s . P a r t . A c t . Past Pass. P a r t .  Altern. (remov. stress)  B'EL__I_ whiten permiss.  b'il'_asc-ij  na+b' i l '__on-i j  BLUD'I_ roam  NONE  biud '__asc-i j  (intrans.)  BUD'I_ wake  NONE  bud'_asc-ij  raz+buz__in-i j  VAR'I_ b o i l  NONE  var '__asc-i j  na+var * _ i n - i j  V'ERT'E_ t w i r l  NONE  v'irt '_Jisc-i j  na+v'erc_in-ij  V0D'I_ l e a d  NONE  vad'_asc-ij  YOZ' I _ c onvey  NONE  vaz '__^Sc-i j  VAl65l_  NONE  valac__asc-i j  na+valac_on-i j  garad _as6-±j  na+gar o'zM.n-i j  drag  GAROD'I_ put up a.fe'nce; t a l k nonsense  permiss.  GON'?_ d r i v e  NOME  gan'_agc-ij  obsol.  dar'_asc-ij  DAR'I__ g i v e D'E1'I__ d i v i d e  NONE  ,  d'e'l' u s c - i j / d'il'^IScJ-ij-s'a  na+dar'_in-ij  (na+) d' i l '__6n-i  165 Unaccented . Accented Full-Stem  P r e s . P a r t . A c t . Past Pass. P a r t .  Altern. (remov. stress)  D'ERZA_ h o l d IX)JI_ m i l k DRAZN'I_ tease ZUBR'i_ cram  NONE  d 'irz_asc-ij  permiss.  daj_asc-ij  NOME permiss.  drazn'__asc-i3 zubrasc-ij  NONE  kat'_as5-ij  K10N'I_ incline  NONE  klan'_asc-ijs 'a  KAL0T'I__ strike(on)  NONE  KR 'EST'  NONE  kr ' i s t '__asc-ij  KRO§I_ crumble  NONE  kras_asc-i j  KAT'I_  KRUZI  roll  turn  KRUT'.I_ t w i s t IUD''I_ t i n L'UB'I_ l o v e  k a l a t '__asc-i j  za+d ' e r z _ _ i n - i j na+doj_in-i3 za+drazn '__on-i j za+zubr'_in-i j na+kac_in-i j na+klan ' _ o n - i j -  pa+kaloc_in-i j  -  permiss.  kruz__asc-ij-s'a  NOME  k r u t '___asc-i j  permiss,  lud' asc-ij  NONE  1 'ub '__usc-i j  —  (a+) Icr' i s c _ o n - i j na+krc's^in-ij z a+kruz_on-ij za+kru5__m-i3 (permiss, (na+)kruc__in-i j pa+luz__in-i j l ' u b l * in-in/ vaz+ — v+1 'ubl '__on-ij i z +  t  obsol.  man'__asc-ij  -M'EN'I_ change  NONE  NONE  M0L'I_ pray  NONE  mal ' ^ a s c - i j - s ' a  NOS'I__ c a r r y  NONE  nas ' _ a s c - i j  P0JI_ give to d r i n k  permiss.  MAN'I  beckon  paj_asc-ij  za+man ' ^ i n - i j / za+man' o'n-i.ij (permiss , za+m*in' on-i j —  za+mal '_on-i j  na+poj_in-ij  166 Unaccented Pull-Stem  Accented  Pres. A c t . P a r t .  Past Pass. P a r t .  Altern. (remov. stress)  PROS'I_ ask  NOME  (za+)pros__in-i j  pras '__a.sc-13  PRUD'I_ dam up permiss.  prud'_asc-ij  R'AD'I__ d r e s s , adorn  r'id'__asc-ij  obsol.  SAD«I_ p l a n t  NONE  SV'ET'I__ shine  NONE  SKOBL'I__scrape permiss. SOL'I__ s a l t  /  NONE  SUD'I_ t r y  NONE  . .  sad'_ _asc-i;j sv'it  (na+) saz__in-i j  asc-ins 'a  1  .  / VV  .* .  skabl ' _ a s c - i j  s a l '_asc-i;j  permiss.  STUi>'I_ c o o l  V V  za+pruz_in-i j / za+pruz_on-i j ( p e r ~ miss.) na+r'az__in-i j  (na+) skobl ' _ _ i n - i j (na+)sol'_in-ij (na+)stuz_in-ij  stud sud '_asc-io  r as+suz__in-i j / pr'i+ ab+suzd'_on-ij a+ /  /  V V  . .  (na+)suc_in-ij  permiss.  suc_ _ a s c - i j  T'EL'I_(s'a) calve _  NONE  t ' i l '__asc-i j - s 'a  TAROP'I__ hurry  NONE  T0CI_ sharpen^7 eat away  NONE  UD'I_ f i s h  NONE  XVAL' I _ commend  NONE  xval'_asc-ij  (na+)xval ' _ _ i n - i j  TSED'I_ s t r a i n  NONE  t s i d '__asc-i j  (na+)tsez_in-io  TSEN'I  NONE  tsen' u s c - i j  a+:tsin' o n - i j  spin  value  tarap '__asc-ij ,  >/ / v v . .  tac__asc-ij ud '__asc-i j  pa+taro'pl ' _ _ i n - i j (na+) t o c _ _ i n - i j na+uz_in-i j  167 Two  other verbs are b a s i c a l l y acc. with removable s t r e s s  but have p e r m i s s i b l e unacc. a l t e r n a n t s i n the P r e s e n t .  These  are: MUT'I__ s t i r up  Unacc. a l t e r n a n t MUT'I__ permiss. only i n l i t e r a l meaning.  R'AD'I_ h i r e  Unacc. a l t e r n a n t R'AD'I_ permiss. ( I n f l u e n c e of R AD 1_ 1  Two  v e r b s t h a t are a c c . only  1  dress)(?)  (removable s t r e s s ) have  anomalous s t r e s s f e a t u r e i n the Past Pass. P a r t , an unacc. f u l l - s t e m .  an  suggesting  These are:.  ZQ10T'I_ g i l d  Past Pass. P a r t . pa+zalo'c_in-i;j (pa+zalac_6n-ij  ZUBR'I_ s e r r a t e  Past Pass. P a r t ,  is  obsol.)  za+zubr'__in-ij  ( I n f l u e n c e of unacc. ZUBR'I_ cram)(?) The  f u l l - s t e m DVOJI^ with p r e f i x e s raz+ and  s+ has  an  a l t e r n a t i v e p e r m i s s i b l e Past Pass. P a r t . raz+dvcg__in-i j and an o b l i g a t o r y P a s t Pass. P a r t . z + d v o j _ i n - i j (meaning " b i s e c t e d " ,and  "doubled" r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , y e t the f u l l - s t e m i s d e f i n i t e l y  accented  v/ith removable s t r e s s i n the f i n i t e p r e v o c a l i c forms  raz+dvaj__u, raz+dvaj__i-s,  z+dvaj_u,  z+dvaj__i-s.  A l s o , the f u l l - s t e m -P'EN'I__ ( f r o t h ) , accented movable s t r e s s , has suggesting  v/ith  irre-  an o b s o l . Past Pass. P a r t , f s + p ' i n ' _ o n - i j ,  an acc. f u l l - s t e m v/ith removable s t r e s s .  common, however, i s f s + p ' e n ' _ _ i n - i j .  More  168 Homonymic Full-Stems D i s t i n g u i s h e d "by Accent Some f u l l - s t e m s are e x a c t l y the same as other f u l l - s t e m s of r e l a t e d or completely d i f f e r e n t meaning except f o r a d i f f erence i n the accent type.  Some of these p a i r s c o n t r a s t the  d i f f e r e n t types of accent (removable others c o n t r a s t accent with  v s . irremovable  stress),  non-accent.  BAGR 1_ g a f f , spear / BAGR'I_ p a i n t , dye crimson 1  B1UD'I__ l e a d a d i s s - / BLUD'I_ roam olate  life  CIH'I__ cause, put i n / CIN'I__ r e p a i r ;  sharpen  the way CUD'I_(s'a) impers. / GUD'I_ behave i n a queer as i n 'jimu c u d ' ^ i - t - s *a'  way;  t r y t o be o r i g i n a l  (he seems to• see, hear, e t c . ) / - F T 0 R ' I _ _ r e p e a t (-FT0R'I__ i s convers.)  FTOR'I^ echo  -GUB'I_ E . g . p r ' i + g u b J GUB'I_ r u i n i-t  !  (take a sip)  -JASN'I__ c l e a r ( o f  /-JASN'I_ c l a r i f y ,  weather) E.g. raz+_  explain  E.g. ob+  KOS'I_make, be s l a - / KOS !_ mow 1  nted; s q u i n t KTJR I__(s 'a) smoke, / ICUR'I_ smoke (tobacco e t c . ) r i s e ( o f smoke) (trans.) (intrans.) !  169 /  V V  MORSCI_ w r i n k l e  / MORSCI_ c r e a s e ,  PAR»I__ steam(-cook),/  pucker  PAR'I_ soar  stew -POJI_E.g. n a + p a j i _ t ' / P0J.I_ g i v e / t o d r i n k (suffuse, f i l l . u p ) (P0JI_ i s permiss.) POLN'I_ E.g. / P0M'I__ make l o o k s t o u t pa+poln'i__t' (replenish)#P'#R__ l e a n  /-#P'#R__ l o c k  -PRUD»I_ E.g.  / PRUD'I__ dam up (PRUD'^ i s  za+prud*i_t' ( f i l l , pack)  -  permiss.)  R'AD'I^ h i r e , con- / R'AD'I_ d r e s s , adorn trol - (R'AD'I__ i s obsol.) (R'AD'I_ i s - • .permiss.) SA3}'I__(s'a) . s i t down/ SAD'I__ p l a n t -SAD'I_ E^g. na+sad'i__t' (inculcate, instill) S'EK:_ f l o g  / S'EKj c u t t o p i e c e s  SP0R'I_ argue  / SP0R'I_(s a) succeed ,  (impers.)  -SUD I_ E.g. / SUL'i_ t r y zablagaras+sud'i__t - s ' a ( l i k e , deem i t - n e c e s s a r y ) (impers.) f  ?  ab'is+sud'i_t  1  TV0R'I_ create;laiead/-TVOR I__ E.g. I  T0(5l_ s e c r e t e v  /  -TOCI_ i n c a r c e r a t e E.g. za+  za+tvar'i__t ( c l o s e )  / TOCI__ sharpen;  1  eat away  170 TRUS'I__ "be a f r a i d  / TRUS'I_ shake; s c a t t e r ; t r o t  TSEL'I_ aim  / TSEL.'I_ h e a l  (at)  TSEN'I_ E.g.  / TSEN 1_ v a l u e 1  ah'is+tsen'i_t' (depreciate) TUZI__ s t r a i n VAL*I_ heap up,  / TUZI__ g r i e v e  for  mass/ VAL'I_ overthrow;  V'IS'E_ hang  /-V'IS'1__ depend  fell  (za+.v'is'i^')  V'IXR«I__ r i s e i n or /-V*IXR'I__ f l u f f up (hair} like a whirl- • E.g. v z + v ' i x r ' i _ _ t  1  wind  -V03D'I__ E.g.  / - Y 0 D ' i _ E.g.  / V0D'I_ lead rukavad i__t (guide).  v' i r x a v o d i _ _ t (lord it)(convers.) 1  1  kanavod'i_t (instigate).(pop.  1  1  1  speech)  (xaravod' i _ _ t -s a) ( f u s s ahoujfc) 1  1  Accented P o l y s y l l a b i c Pull-Stems with Both Removable Irremovable A number of p o l y s y l l . s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s i n t e r e s t as they are accented and e i t h e r of the movable and the  Stress  are  of s p e c i a l  t h e i r accent i s r e a l i z e d by  columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n s ,  irremovable s t r e s s .  and  i . e . they have both r e -  In some cases one  or both of  a l t e r n a t i v e s are r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n compounds.  The  f e r r e d s t r e s s p o s i t i o n i s marked with a double s t r e s s mark. V'IS 'E_ hang V'lXR'I  /za+Y IS 1__ depend 1  1  r i s e i n or l i k e a whirlwind  pre-  171 DVOJI__ double, b i s e c t / u+W0JI__ double v z + W 0 J I _ ( r ' i d _ i ) (form f o u r s ) ft  s  t  ISKR'I__ s p a r k l e ,  '•  r  /(za+)ISKR'I__ g i v e sparks (upon  scintillate -KI'BT'f^ E.g.  imperfect  contact)  /-KL'IN'I_ E.g. z a + k l ' i n ' ^ t  f+kl'in i _ t '  1  (only) v/edge  1  wedge i n  -M'EN'sX.  decrease  a+PAR6zN'i_ empty PTIZTR'I^s'a) bubble, e f f e r v e s c e R«ISET' f . l a t h f  /^ob^,  I § B  / , _ T  T  c  o  n  l  y  )  (  l  a  t  h  )  ft  u+SUGUB I__ r e d o u b l e ; aggravate 1  Jakobson's E x c e p t i o n s Any s u p e r i o r system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and/or any improvement on e x i s t i n g systems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must e f f e c t a r e d u c t i o n i n the number of e x c e p t i o n s .  Jakobson's system does  not d i s a p p o i n t t h i s demand and he i s o b l i g e d t o mention only 41 v e r b s i n the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g v/ith exceptions The m a j o r i t y of these exceptions (25)  (3»l-3«3)»  can be e l i m i n a t e d  once the p r i n c i p l e of tv/o- or m u l t i - f u l l - s t e m verbs has been introduced.  This p r i n c i p l e i s a c t u a l l y i m p l i c i t i n Jakobson's  f o o t n o t e 12,  p. 163,  with closed f u l l - s t e m  where he s t a t e s that "the p r e f i x e d v e r b (u+)&IB_  ( b r u i s e ) forms the I n f i n i t i v e  from an open f u l l - s t e m (u+)SIB'I__." Of those remaining, SIPA_ ( s c a t t e r ) , KRAPA_  (trickle),  172 STONA_ (groan), he  listed  BR'OJ_ (shave) and  as e x c e p t i o n s .  The  TAL#K_' (pound) should  f i n a l consonant -N-  s y l l . hard open f u l l - s t e m i s always, and subject  STOBA_ cannot p o s s i b l y be In the  or -A^.  considered  case of SIPA__ and  an  Sg.)  need not be  statements and  The  38-39),  For t h i s r e a s o n ,  exception.  KRAPA_, there  t i o n f o r Jakobson's a s s e r t i o n t h a t there Imperative form.  poly-  therefore r e g u l a r l y ,  t o s p e c i a l s o f t e n i n g r u l e s (see above, pp.  whether the f o l l o w i n g vowel i s -U_  the  in a  not  i s no  justifica-  i s an i r r e g u l a r i t y i n  forms sip'_#-#, krap'_#-#" (Imper.  considered  i r r e g u l a r as f a r as the a l t e r n a t i o n  t r u n c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s are concerned.  Desinen-  t i a l a l t e r n a n t s n o r m a l l y determine the shape of stem a l t e r n a n t s only w i t h r e s p e c t  to t r u n c a t i o n  (the most common type of  c a t i o n b e i n g , by f a r , r e g r e s s i v e ) , but not with r e s p e c t softening.  trunto  To i n s i s t , as Jakobson does, on *sipl'__!-#,  * k r a p l ' _ i - # as the normal, expected Imper. forms would appear t o be the r e s u l t  of f i r s t  desinential alternant __i-  e s t a b l i s h i n g a r b i t r a r i l y the  of the Imperative i n these cases to  ( d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the f u l l - s t e m s concerned have  movable s t r e s s ) and  then r e q u i r i n g the  (i.e.  v/ith s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t e n i n g )  trmicated  fore i t .  and  T h i s i s working backwards.  the f u l l - s t e m s  be irre-  c o r r e c t stem a l t e r n a n t  The  general  to appear  be-  contours of  ( p o l y s y l l . hard open, v/ith irremovable  determine the d e s i n e n t i a l a l t e r n a n t i n advance as _#-, The  correct  s o f t e n i n g r u l e s are e a s i l y amended to s t a t e t h a t  stress) not  __i-.  polysyll.  hard open f u l l - s t e m s with irremovable s t r e s s have only bare  173 softening tive  of l a b i a l s before the _#-  alternant  of the  Impera-  desinence. The  full-stems  TAL#K__'and BR*0J_ have a l r e a d y  been d e a l t  e l e v e n remaining f u l l - s t e m s must s t i l l be  considered  w i t h above. The  exceptional.  I t might be noted t h a t the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s noted  by Jakobson i n connection with KL'AN_ ( c u r s e ) , L'EZ^ and  PR'AP/^ ( s p i n ) can be d e s c r i b e d  (climb)  as a tendency of the  stem t o behave, i n the i r r e g u l a r forms concerned (the the p r e v o c a l i c forms and  full-  Inf.,  the P r e t . r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , as though  the f i n a l consonant of the f u l l - s t e m were broad ( i n the of KL'AN_), i n s t e a d the  case of L'EZ_ The  of narrow, or narrow i n s t e a d  and  of broad ( i n  PR'AP/).  l i s t i n g of only f o u r  ( p o l y s y l l . hard open) f u l l - s t e m s  whose s u b s t i t u t i v e s o f t e n i n g i s of the Old Church variety and  (t/sc instead  case  of t/c) ^ s ^ I r  0  ^  Slavonic  Siftefcg@entation  o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of a v e r y complex problem.  i r r e g u l a r i t y occurs i n the 1 Sg.  The  same  and/or the P a s t Pass. P a r t ,  of a number of p o l y s y l l . s o f t open f u l l - s t e m s , where not  only  the O.C.S. a l t e r n a t i o n of sc with t , but a l s o of ad with d be found.  E.g.  -PR'ET'I_ ( f o r b i d ) : 1 Sg. za*pr'isc__u,  can  Past  Pass. P a r t , za+pr isc_on-#; -GRAD'I_ (bar, e t c . ) : za+graz__u, T  za+grazd'__6n-#; The  -BUD'I_ (rouse):: pra+buzd _on-#. !  anomaly r e f e r r e d to i n the P r e s . Sg. and  the verb j e s _ t ' ( t o eat) and  the P r e s . Sg.  Imper. of  of da_t'  (to g i v e )  i s a problem r e l a t i n g to the s e l e c t i o n of three h i g h l y  res-  174 t r i c t e d d e s i n e n t i a l a l t e r n a n t s -m ( l Sg.), -s (Imper.) and (non-terminal P r e s . tense)  (see pp.  62-67)•  However, the be-  h a v i o r of the f u l l - s t e m s themselves ( J E D J S ) and DAD__(S)) i s p e r f e c t l y r e g u l a r and i n complete conformity with the r u l e s concerning t r u n c a t i o n and other forms of a l t e r n a t i o n , g i v e n the p e c u l i a r i t y of the desinences p e r . of da__t  f  themselves.  As f o r the Im-  and the remaining p r e v o c a l i c and preconsonantal  forms o f these v e r b s , see the s e c t i o n on m u l t i - f u l l - s t e m verbs above, pp.  149-157.  F i n a l l y , the t r u l y unique s t r e s s i r r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t Jakobson notes f o r ROD«I_ (bear) ( P e r f e c t i v e ) and EflPOVA, (spend  the day) (Fern.Pret. r a d ' i _ l - a , 1 Sg. dn'uj__u e t c . )  must s t i l l be r e c o g n i z e d as t r u e exceptions without any p a r allel.  Changes and C o r r e c t i o n s  S p e c i f i c Mistakes i ) Jak. 2.121 i i ) Jak. 2.121  and M i s p r i n t s i n Jakobson's Paper - f o r UCI__ ( a c c e n t e d ) , read UCI_ ( u n a c c ) . - f o r RVA__ ( a c c ) , read #RVA_ (max. unacc.) ( t h i s e r r o r i s c o r r e c t e d by Jak. i n  iii)  Jak. 2.122  2.42B)  - f o r POJI_ ( a c c ) , read POJI_ (unacc.) (give t o d r i n k ) or -POJI__ (acc.) ( s u f f u s e , f i l l up) (See pp.  i v ) Jak. 2.24  168-171)  - f o r ZM__, ZH__, read #ZM_, #ZH_ ( a c c )  175 v) Jak.  2.4  - f o r GNU_,  read #GMTJ_ (min. unacc.) or  (na+)GMTJ_ (acc.);. v i ) Jak.  2.4  - ZMJ_,  v i i ) Jak.  2.5  - f o r T'R_,  v i i i ) Jak.  3.2  - f o r #SLA_c, read #SLA_ c (min. u n a c c ) .  i x ) Jak.  3*2  - f o r BR»EJ_, read  read ZHAJ_ (min. read #T'fR__  unacc).  (ace.)  7  >  BR»0J_  Changes i n Wording of Rules Jak. 2.122  - The word "when" i n "The a l t e r n a t i n g with _ i  Imperative  Sg. has  zero  when the p r e c e d i n g consonant  i s s o f t " would appear to r e f e r t o some c o n d i t i o n or s t i p u l a t i o n , as though i t were r e p l a c e a b l e by "provided".  T h i s i s not at a l l what was  meant.  To avoid m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , one p o s s i b l e r e p l a c e ment of "when" i s "and".  The  s o f t n e s s of the p r e -  ceding consonant i s as much an e x p r e s s i o n of the Imper. as i s the desinence _ i _jr.  The  with i t s a l t e r n a n t  statement should then read "The  Sg. has zero a l t e r n a t i n g with _ i consonant i s s o f t . "  Imper.  and the p r e c e d i n g  T h i s does not apply t o the  one accented v e l a r m o n o s y l l a b i c with an i r r e g u l a r irremovable s t r e s s L'AG__ where the p r e c e d i n g consonant i s not s o f t - l'ak_#-#. erence t o Jak. 2.11  The f o l l o w i n g r e f -  should be d e l e t e d s i n c e i t i s  no l o n g e r accurate when p a r t i c i p l e s have been i n cluded i n the a n a l y s i s (see pp. 139-142).  176 The  second  sentence  two consonants  "The a l t e r n a n t _ i  occurs a f t e r  or a f t e r a stem n o t having an i r -  removable accent" shows c o n f u s i o n i n the use of the terms accent and s t r e s s and should r e a d : "The alternant _ i  occurs a f t e r two consonants  or i n  the case of an accented f u l l - s t e m not having an irremovable  Jak. 2,2k  -  stress."  In a l l t h r e e statements  involving  concomitant  change i n t h i s s e c t i o n , c l a r i t y has been s a c r i f i c e d i n f a v o r of economy of e x p r e s s i o n . A l l t h r e e replacements  (-0V- i n verbs i n -OVA__ by - u j _  - 0 - i n m o n o - s y l l a b i c verbs c l o s e d i n -J__ by - i - , and f i n a l n a s a l consonant i n n o n s y l l a b i c s by -a__) are d e s c r i b e d as t a k i n g p l a c e " b e f o r e " , i . e . i n f r o n t o f , dropped A^, - J and n a s a l consonant r e s pectively.  Though the statements  are c o r r e c t , i n -  asmuch as the t r u n c a t i o n of these elements (-A__, -J__ and n a s a l consonant) does i n f a c t the concomitant  precipitate  changes, l o g i c demands, with am-  p l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n , an e x p l a n a t i o n of how these replacements  can proceed before ( i n f r o n t o f )  elements t h a t are no l o n g e r t h e r e . These statements  should be changed t o read:-  The group -OV- p r e c e d i n g -A__ i s r e p l a c e d by  177 -uj__ whenever -A__ i s dropped -  The vowel -0- p r e c e d i n g  (truncated). -J__ i n  f u l l - s t e m s i s r e p l a c e d by - i dropped -  monosyllabic  whenever - J _ i s  (truncated).  V/hen the f i n a l n a s a l of n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m s  i s dropped ( t r u n c a t e d ) , the r e s u l t i n g zero nant) i s r e p l a c e d by - a _ .  The  l a t t e r p a r t of t h i s  statement must a l s o be r e v i s e d t o read by - ' a _ " and  the preceding  pp.  consonant must be  - The  182-186).  statement "...the i n i t i a l  t e r n a t i n g with the p r e c e d i n g  "i"  2.4  - The  Topic  "i"  or a zero a l -  of any v e r b a l s u f f i x  softens  consonant" i s i n v a l i d v/ith r e s p e c t  to the Past Pass. P a r t . Jak.  palatalized  i f capable of such a change.  Other Changes R e s u l t i n g from Expansion of the Jak. 2.111  "replaced  ( i . e . - ' a _ i s not n e c e s s a r i l y s t r e s s e d  i f not a l r e a d y so and See  (alter-  statement "Closed  See pp. 139-142.  stems may  end i n - J _ ,  otherwise only i n hard consonants" i s i n v a l i d with the a d d i t i o n of s u p p l e t i v e s RZ__y ( i n p a l a t a l Z__) t a l i z e d -L*  .  DO  (neigh)  and frSL'__v (send) i n a p a l a -  178 Pull-Stem  Lists  M o n o s y l l a b i c Hard Open Pull-Stems ( 2 2 ) #ERA__c  take  #LRA_c  tear  #GHA_c  drive  (/)  (na+)GM_ #LG-A_ (pr 'i+)LGHIJ_ #L'HTJ_ -rrMKHTJ^ (po+)PRA__  bend bend lie add l i e s t o a s t o r y cling lock trample>69 1  #RVA_  tear  #SLA_c  send  #S*I#.c  spread  -SHU_  sleep  #SPA_c  sleep  #TKA_  weave,70 1  a)  #TKA_ (,J  #TKMJ_  weave (permiss. poke lie  #vsi_  wait  #ZTjA__  gorge  #ZRA  call  altern.)?0  179 ITonsyllabic Full-Stems 'J (pro+)B'J__  (27) beat beat  (permiss. a l t e r n . i n P r e t . f o r secondary  meaning  " s t r i k e , sound, of alarms, clocks etc.") (na+)SN_  begin (no permiss. a l t e r n . havior  of merely  be-  unacc.  stem) (za+)CN__  -#5#T_  conceive read  ( i r r e g . s t r e s s e d Neut. & PI. s h o r t Past Pass. P a r t ,  des-  inences - p r a + c t ' _ i n - o , - i ) (po+)G1 _(S) ,  m  honour ( i r r e g . s t r e s s e d Neut. & P I . s h o r t Past Pass.  Part,  desinences - pa+ct ^ i n - o ' , -i) -#J_(S)  go  -#JD__(S)  go  ( i r r e g . s t r e s s e d Neut. & P I . s h o r t Past Pass. P a r t ,  des-  inences i n most compounds E.g. ab+ajd'_in-o, p r e f i x e s na+  - 1 . With  & pro+, a l l  forms of s h o r t Past  Pass.  P a r t , have p r e f e r r e d s t r e s s on p r e f i x l i k e unacc. mono-  180 s y l l . hard open  full-stems)  \  v-JM_  take (see below)  #L'J__  pour  /  crumple  xM'#R__(S)  die  -#M»#R_(S)  die  #P'J__ (raz+)PN_  drink  (see below)  crucify  #P'#R__(S)  lean  -#P'#R_(S)  lock  RZ__y  neigh  #S#D_(S)  go  #SJ__  sew  v  #SL'_y #T»fe_(S) #V'J_ xV#Z M _ X,  send rub twist take burn  #ZM_  press  #ZN  reap  S p e c i a l Notes (i)  #P*J_ The f u l l - s t e m o f the v e r b p ' i _ t ' l i k e #Ii'J_ (pour), max. unacc.  (to drink) i s ,  A t l e a s t , i t behaves  as a max. unacc. f u l l - s t e m i n terms o f s t r e s s  deflec-  t i o n t o desinences and p r e f i x e s i n s i x o f i t s  fourteen  181 compounds.  Since the compounds with p r e f i x e s v+ and  s+ cannot have s t r e s s d e f l e c t i o n t o the p r e f i x , due to the f a c t t h a t these p r e f i x e s a r e n o n s y l l . , the number  of compounds wherein the f u l l - s t e m behaves p r e f -  erably  as a max. unacc. f u l l - s t e m i s e x a c t l y the same  as the number o f compounds i n which i t behaves as a (merely) unacc. f u l l - s t e m .  However, of the s i x p r e -  f i x e s forming compounds with the (merely) unacc. stem (za+71, i z + , o+:-j p'er'e+, r a z + , ^  2  full-  u+), a t l e a s t  two (u+ and iz+) are o f a s p e c i a l unaccented nature themselves, o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t i n g r u l e s governing  stress  d e f l e c t i o n by r e f u s i n g t o accept the s t r e s s from a v e r b a l stem under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  Moreover, t h r e e of  these compounds (with p r e f i x e s za+, i s + and raz+) have Fern, short Past Pass. P a r t , forms v/ith s t r e s s e d  stems  a  (the p r e f e r r e d  form i n the case of p r e f i x za+ /  za+p i _ _ t - a / and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l f  /is+p * i _ _ t - a , ras+p ' i _ _ t - a ) .  i n other compounds  These forms serve t o f u r -  t h e r weaken any c l a i m the (merely) unacc. v e r s i o n may have t o be the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  or the primary  full-  stem, s i n c e i t appears t o be compromised with a t h i r d  73 accented The  full-stem.  compounds whose f u l l - s t e m i s max. unacc. a l l have  " r e l i a b l e " p r e f i x e s , i . e . p r e f i x e s that do n o t ever c o n t r a d i c t the r u l e s f o r s t r e s s d e f l e c t i o n (do+, z a + ^ ,  182 na+, ot+, po+,-, pro+)..  The f a c t that these compounds  have a l t e r n a t i v e non-Pern, s h o r t Past Pass. P a r t s , and non-Pern. P r e t s . with stem s t r e s s i s normal f o r the max. unacc. f u l l - s t e m s (see #L'J_ above, pp. 118-119) and  t h e r e f o r e does not mean t h a t #P'J_ i s more c l o s e l y  r e l a t e d i n i t s accent t o #V'J_ than to #L J _ . 1  (ii)  v-JM_ Depending ( g e n e r a l l y ) on whether the p r e f i x used (the u n p r e f i x e d verb does not occur) ends i n a vowel or a consonant, the present stem ( i . e . i n t h i s case the f u l l - s t e m ) i s -jm_ ( n o n s y l l . ) or -n'im_ (monosyll.) r e s p e c t i v e l y . E.g.  da+;jm__u, da+jm'__6-s; za+jm__u, za+.jm'_o-s; na+jm_u,  na+jm'_o-s; pa+jm__u, pa+jm'_o-s; p'ir'i+jm__u,  p'ir i+ f  jm'__o-s; pra+jm_u, pra+jm'__6-s; u+3m__u, u+jm' o-s —  and ab+n'im_u, ab+n'im'_i-s; at+n'im_u,  at+n'im'__i-s;  pad+n'im^u, pad+n'im'__i-s; raz+n'im_u, raz+n i m * _ i - s ; 1  s+n'im^u, s + n ' i m i - s . f  —  lI.B'i - v+n'a__t* ( t o l i s t e n ) does not have a P r e s . Put. - at+n'a_t' and pad+n'a_t' have popular a l t e r n a t i v e s at+im_u, at+im'__i-s; pad+im_u, pad+im'_i-s. - ab+n'a^t --  1  has convers. a l t e r n . ab+ajm_u,  ab+ajm' o-s  t  ~  /j.  •—  183 - p r ' i + n ' a _ t ' has pr'i+m__u, v/ith f u l l - s t e m (?) The f u l l - s t e m v-JM_  pr'i+m'^JL-s,  -M__.  i s taken as the primary one f o r  the  f o l l o w i n g reasons:  1.  A workable a l t e r n a t i o n statement i s p o s s i b l e f o r the  p r e c o n s o n a n t a l stem -n'a^.  Jakobson's  state-  ment c o n c e r n i n g concomitant change (Sec. 2.24) the  to  e f f e c t t h a t "before the dropped n a s a l , zero  i n n o n s y l l . stems i s r e p l a c e d by -a__" must be changed however t o accommodate the n a s a l v-JM__. a.  The changes are ::; The replacement vowel i s simply -a__ and not  - a _ as the category w i l l now 76  an unacc. stem #ZM__, #ZN_ b.  stem  include  as v/ell as the a c c . ones  and (raz+)PlT_.  In the stem v-JM_, a secondary  concomi-  tant change r e q u i r e s replacement of - J by -n- whenever the f i r s t  concomitant  change o c c u r s . c.  T h i s -n- and any other consonant p r e c e d i n g the it  (replaced) nasal i s p a l a t a l i z e d ( i f i s a p a i r e d consonant) v/hen the primary  replacement occurs,  (thus (raz+)PN__  also  g i v e s I n f . ras+p'a_t' where -a___ i s the replacement  of zero b e f o r e the dropped  184 n a s a l and p- i s p a l a t a l i z e d . ) . P r o p o s i n g a f u l l - s t e m -U'IM_ serves no purpose. While a statement  s i m i l a r t o Jakobson's s t a t e -  ment of concomitant  change i n stems l i k e MOJ__  (wash) i s p o s s i b l e , i t would be o f l i t t l e  advan-  tage s i n c e the changes d e s c r i b e d would apply only t o t h i s s i n g l e stem. "Before the dropped  The statement would r e a d l a b i a l nasal  i . e . "m'% the  vowel - I - i n the m o n o s y l l . f u l l - s t e m -IVJM.^ i s r e p l a c e d by - a - . " The f u l l - s t e m would i n any case be h i g h l y  irreg-  u l a r v/ith r e s p e c t t o i t s s t r e s s p a t t e r n .  While  unacc. and conforming  t o the model of a max. un-  a c c . f u l l - s t e m i n a t l e a s t some of i t s compounds i n the preconsonantal forms ( i . e . w i t h s t r e s s e d p r e f i x e s i n the non-Fern. P r e t . and non-Pern. Past Pass. P a r t s . - e.g. ob+n'a_t-# e t c . , 6b+n'a__l-# e t c . , ob+n'a__t-ij e t c . ) , i t s shared s t r e s s p a t t e r n i n the Pres.-Put. v/ould r e p r e s e n t an anomaly d u p l i cated among the n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s only i n the one unacc. b r o a d l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m - MOG_ But even i n the preconsonantal forms,  (be a b l e ) . depending  on the p r e f i x used, s t r e s s p o s i t i o n s suggesting a f u l l - s t e m t h a t i s merely unacc. and not max. unacc are sometimes p e r m i s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , sometimes  185 the r u l e .  For example, while ob+n a_l—# e t c . , !  ot+n'a__l-# e t c . , pod+n'a_l-# e t c . and p er i + n 1  e t c . are the standard forms,  there are  1  1  a_l-#  conversa-  t i o n a l v a r i a n t s ab+n'a__l-#, at+n'a_l-#, pad+n'a_l-# and p ' i r 'i+n'aJL-^ which suggest a simply unacc. stem (hut not an a c c . stem due  t o the f a c t t h a t  the Past Pass. P a r t s . ob+n'a__t-# e t c . and Fern. ab+n i__t-a f  and Fern. P r e t . ah+n'i_l-a permit  no  v a r i a t i o n s and c o n f i r m the b a s i c unaccentedness of the f u l l - s t e m . ) In a d d i t i o n t o a l l t h i s , w i t h p r e f i x e s raz+ and the stem behaves as i f i t were a merely  u+  unacc.  stem, the standard P r e t s . and Past Pass. P a r t s , b e i n g h e r e : r a z + n ' a _ t - i j , raz+n'a__t-# e t c . , r a z + n ' i t - a , raz+n'a__l-# e t c . ^ ; u+n a__t-i j , 1  —  u+n'a__t-# e t c . , u+n'i__t-a, u+n'a__l-# e t c . , u+n'i_JL-a. F u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of the extreme i r r e g u l a r i t y of the f u l l - s t e m -H'IM_ are the r e f l e x i v e Masc. P r e t s . , where the forms with s t r e s s e d r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x e s are c a l l e d  (by Avanesov) o b s o l e t e i n the  case of the p r e f i x e s s+ and u+ and p e r m i s s i b l e (though not p r e f e r r e d ) i n the case of the p r e f i x e s ob+,  ot+ and pod+.  These c o n t r a s t with the forms with v o c a l i c es based  prefix-  on f u l l - s t e m v-JM_, where the s t r e s s e d  186 r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i n the Masc. P r e t . i s the standard  form w h i l e s t r e s s e d stems i n such  forms are considered tional.  E.g.  by Avanesov to he  Cf. za+n'i_l-#-s'a and  za+n'a_l-#-s'a. pr'i+.  considered  conversa-  convers.  S i m i l a r l y w i t h p r e f i x e s na+  and  In u+n a_l-#-s'a ( p r e f e r r e d ) / u + n i _ l - # - s ' a 1  (obsolete)  there i s a r e v e r s a l of t h i s  principle. the three  1  I t should  general  be borne i n mind t h a t , i n  categories  of n o n - p o l y s y l l a b i c s  taken  as a whole, the s t r e s s e d r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i n the Masc. P r e t . i s considered The  r e f l e x i v e Neut. and  substandard.  P I . P r e t s . of the  full-  stem -N'IM__ i n combination with the p r e f i x s+ the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l v a r i a n t s s + n a _ l - a - s 1  and  s+n'a^JL'-i-s 1  1  1  S i m i l a r l y , the f u l l - s t e m  with p r e f i x u+ has f  1  v-JM_  the convers. a l t e r n a t i v e s  u+n'a_l-a-s', u + n a _ l ' - i - s u+n  (Neut.)  ( i n s t e a d of r e g . s + n ' i _ l - o - s ,  1  s+n i_l -i-s').  1  has  as w e l l as the  1  reg.  i__l-o-s , u + n ' i _ l - i - s . 1  1  In a l l other  1  compounds with a l l other  the s t r e s s of the Neut. and P I .  (and  i v e P r e t s . i s on the desinences o n l y .  prepositions Pem.) This  reflexlack  of a l t e r n a t i v e i n the forms mentioned i s uncharacteristic  of the n o n s y l l a b i c s and m o n o s y l l . n a r -  rowly c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s .  See  above.  187 M o n o s y l l a b i c Narrowly Closed Pull-Stems (za+)BIJ_c BIJ_c  forget da+bi_t  1  rid BIJ  c  (40)  (get) & iz+.bi_t' (get of)  be ( i n c l u d e s a l l compounds except v/ith p r e f i x e s za+,  do+  and iz+) . BR'0J_  shave  -CIJ  pa+ci__t' ( s l e e p ) , a+pa+ci__t to  s l e e p ; pass away)  DAJ_(S)  give  D'SH  put, do w i t h  DIJJ  blow  GH'IJ  rot  GR'EJ_  g i v e out v/armth  KL'AH_  curse  KRo'j_  cover  M1'EJ_  be  MOJ  wash  (za+O-MSEJ. (c-H'IM_J HO  J  P«EJ_c  pirv  thrilled  be covered v/ith moss take  (see above)  ache; whine sing swim  1  (go  188 POJ__y  sing  PR'EJ_  rot; stew  RD'E'J_  glow reddish  ROJ_  dig  R OV__y  roar  SL'AJjs'a)  gad ahout  SLIV__  he famed  SM'EJ_  dare  SM»EJ_(s'a)  laugh  SP E J _  ripen  STAH_  begin, become  STII_  get cold  1  f  -STR'AI\T__  f+str'a_t' (meddle i n ) , za+str'a^t' (get stuck)  IL 'E J _ -UJ_  rot; smoulder ab+u_t' (put on /shoes/), raz+u_t' (take off /shoe  VO-'j_  howl  ZIV_  live  ZL«EJ_  become evil  ZHAJ_  know  ZOV_v  call  ZR'EJ  ripen  189 Monosyllabic  Broadly  Closed Pull-Stems (62)  AR/V B'EG_^(S)  yell run  B'IRV  take  B'lR'OG^  take care o f  BL *ur/  guard  BR'OD^  make one's way  (pr'in'i+)BR'OGj -BR • OT^  neglect a+br' i s _ t i ( f i n d ) , p r ' i+a+br' i s__t' i 1  (acquire), iz+a+br'is_t'i (invent) BUD_v  be ( i r r e g . irremovable  DAr/(S)  give  D'IRST  tear  GN'OO?'  oppress  GRIZ__  gnaw  GR'OBj  row  GR*?D_^  draw near, approach  xir/(S)  stress)  go ( a l t e r n . o b s o l . i r r e g . noncolumnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n i n P r e s . id__u, i d ' _ i - s ,  JED_(S) JED_(S) KLAB__ KRAD  id_u-t)  eat t r a v e l ( i r r e g . irremovable lay steal  stress)  I'AG_v  l i e down ( i r r e g . irremovable stress)  L'EZ_  climb ( i r r e g . irremovable  L'OG^c  l i e down  (ob+)L'OK__ MOG_  stress)  clothe;  invest  be able  ( i r r e g . noncolumnar s t r e s s  i n P r e s . tense) M'OT_'  sweep  M'?T__(s'a)  m ' i s _ _ t ' - i - s ' (be i n c o n f u s i o n , disarray)  (Avan.)  N'OS^  carry  PAD__  fall  PASj  graze  PL'OTj  plait,  P'OK_'  bake  POLZj  crawl  PR'AD '  spin (irreg. nonsyll. desinential  braid  alternant  i n Inf.)  (irreg. stress i n Pret. only Pem. des. i s s t r e s s e d and des.  even t h e r e the u n s t r e s s e d i s permiss.)  N.B. - Both these i r r e g . tures are reminiscent of m o n o s y l l . narrowly full-stems.  closed  fea-  191 E.g. na+pr a__c  -PR'AC/  f  (to strain) (pre-  f e r r e d pronunc. na+pr'e_S); s+apr a c 1  t  -PR'OG-^  —  E.g. za+pr'ejS  (harness) A l s o ,  p r e p s : v+, pod+, p'er'e+, p r ' i + , raz+, ot+. -R'OK/  say, speak  ROST_;  grow  S'ADJV  sit  down ( i r r e g . irremovable s t r e s s )  S 'ED_c  sit  down  S'EK_  flog  s »EKJ  cut,  slash  -SIB__(S)  injure  SKR'OB^  scrape  SOSJy  suck  SPAS_[  save  -ST'IG__(S)  reach  ST'IR'OGJ_  guard  STRAZDjS)  s u f f e r ( i r r e g . irremovable s t r e s s )  STR'IG__  cut,  (raz+)Sy'ET__  /  break  TAL#K_'  pound  T ' OK/  flow  TR«AS_;  shake  TSV'OT  7  clip ( o f dawn)  f l o w e r , bloom  192 VA10K/ (ot+)V»ERZ_  drag open (irreg. irremovable stress)  YL'OKj  draw  V'ODj  lead  V'OZ^  convey  v / •*  ZAZL v  thirst (irreg. irremovable stress)  Z'IZD v(s'a)  be based, founded on (irreg. irremovable stress)  193 (15)  M o n o s y l l a b i c S o f t Open Full-Stems BD'E__  be awake, keep v i g i l  6T'i__(S)  honour  D1'I_  continue  //I'ST'I^  rush  MIT 1__  t h i n k , imagine  #MST'I_  Sg.)  flatter  MCA_ 1  (no 1  revenge o n e s e l f (MST'I_ without insertion  of secondary  mo-  b i l e vowel i s o b s o l e t e ) RZA__c  neigh  (iz+)#SCR'I_ SH'I  (S)  SP'?_v (raz+)TL'I__ (za+;)TM'I_ ZL'I__ #ZR'E__  cultivate,  refine  dream sleep seduce cover; darken anger, tease behold  (Two  compounds v/ith p r e -  f i x e s u+ & p r ' i + behave  like  p o l y s y l l . unacc. f u l l - s t e m s , i.e. like  *UZR'E__ and  *PR'I2R'E .)  194 P o l y s y l l a b i c Hard Open Pull-Stems (90-91) AB'AZA__  make incumbent crave, hunger f o r  ARA_c  yell  BL 'ESKA__y or  shine,  glitter  BL»ESTA_v BARMOTA_  mutter  B0R0__(s*a)  fight  BR'EXA_  y e l p , bark  BRIZGA_  splash  GLODA__  gnaw  GOGOTA_  c a c k l e ( o f geese)  GROXOTA_  c r a s h ( o f thunder)  £V»IGA_  move  DR'EMA_  slumber  ZAZBA_c  thirst for  ZIBA_(S)  shake, r o c k  ISKA__  search f o r  JEXA c  travel show  KAPA  drip,  KVOXTA_  c l u c k ( o f chickens)  KL'IV'ETA.  slander  KL'EPA  slander  dribble  (Church S l a v ,  softening)  195 KL«IKA__  call  KLOKOTA__  bubble  K1'0K0TA_  scream (of birds)  KLOXTA__  cluck (of chickens)  KAL 'EBA__79  shake  KA1IXA_  sway, rock  7 9  KOLO_  stab, prick  KRAPA__  spit (of rain)  KUDAXTA_  cackle (of hens)  KURLIKA_  make sound of a crane  L'EP*ETA_  babble, prattle  L'IZA_  lick  LAPOTA_  mutter  MAZA_  grease, smear wave  MOLO_c  grind, mill  M'010_v  grind, m i l l  M«OTA_  throw; spawn  I€JRLIKA__  purr  IT'IZA^  string, thread  PAXA_  plough  P'ISA_  write  PIXA_  be hot  PLAKA__  weep  P1'ASA__  dance  splash E.g. a+pajasa__t' ( t o g i r d ) A l s o v/ith p r e f i x e s pod+, pr'e+ and raz+. weed rinse undo conceal cry  (pop.)  (Avanesov)  cut r o v e , roam r o a r , murmur murmur, grumble (Church S l a v . softening) whistle pour,  strew  say grit  (the t e e t h ) (Church S l a v , softening)  hear gain suck groan chirr poke  197 T0POTA_  stamp  TOPTA_  trample  T'OSA_  c u t , hew  TR 'EP 'ETA__  tremble (Church S l a v ,  TR' OPA__  scutch  XLISTA_  lash  XLABISTA__  lash  XLOPOTA_  b u s t l e about  XL'OSTA_  lash  XNIKA_ •  whimper  XOTA__(S)  want  XOXOTA_  laugh  TSOKOTA_  c l a t t e r ( o f hooves)  C03A__  comb  SOPTA_  whisper  SCEB *ETA__  twitter  SCIKOTA_  tickle  §CEPA_  splinter  SGIPA_  pinch  SCOKOTA_  sing (of nightingales)  V'AZA_  t i e up  VZISKA  exact  softening)  loud  from (Pres. A c t i v e P a r t . v z i s k u j _ u s c - i j as though from *VZISK0VA )  198 NOTES T h i s i s what B l o o m f i e l d would c a l l  1  "the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i c  form" or " a r t i f i c i a l u n d e r l y i n g form". R.  2  I . Avanesov & S. I . Ozhegov, Russkoje  P r o i z n o s h e n i j e i Udareniye, Moscow, 1959 S l o v a r * Russkogo Yazyka, Moscow,  Literaturno;fe  and S. I . Ozhegov,  1963.  3  H e r b e r t Rubenstein, "Czech C o n j u g a t i o n " , Word, V I I  ^  Rubenstein's and Cornyn's'("On  R u s s i a n Verbs", language, " n o n - c o o r d i n a t i n g " and  -i-,  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  24.64 f f . (1948)), terms here are  "predesinential" respectively.  As Jakobson notes i n  J  (1951)..  2.121,  the s u f f i x e s - a - , -o- and  -u-, when f o l l o w e d by a f r e e s u f f i x t h a t s p e c i f i e s only  person but not number, must assume f o r themselves the f u n c t i o n of  d e n o t i n g number as v / e l l as t e n s e .  Thus i n the 3 P I . forms  g a v a r ' _ a - t , n ' i s _ u - t , 6itaj_u-t, v ' e r ' _ u - t , only the n o n t e r m i n a l P r e s . tense s u f f i x e s serve to d i s t i n g u i s h these forms from gavar'_i-t, c i t a j _ i - t , s u f f i x - t denotes -s,  -m  6  Rubenstein,  n ' i s ' ^ o - t and v er ' _ _ i - t , w h i l e the f r e e 1  only the 3 Person.  and - t ' i which  T h i s c o n t r a s t s with -u,  denote not only person, but number as v / e l l .  2.1-2.28,  M o r r i s H a l l e , "The Word, V I I  Sg.  pp.  147-149.  Old Church S l a v o n i c Conjugation",  (1951).  Q  Rubenstein op. c i t .  9 Henry Sweet, The P r a c t i c a l Study of Languages, London,  1899.  199 1 0  Sweet, p. 86. That Jakobson  be a complex one  does r e c o g n i z e the Imper. P I . desinence t o  (and t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t t o such an a n a l y s i s )  i s f u r t h e r demonstrated a l s o i n Sec. 2 . 1 2 2 .  i n h i s subsequent  remarks on Sandhi,  Here he s t a t e s t h a t phonemic p a l a t a l i z a -  t i o n i n such forms as grap'__t'i ( r o b J ) , s l a f ' _ t ' i v er'_t'i f  may  (believeI)  (praise.),  "...shows d i s t i n c t l y t h a t t h e i r  desinence  be i n t e r p r e t e d o n l y as a z e r o s u f f i x f o l l o w e d by the P I .  suffix -t'i"',  i . e . grap'__#-t'i e t c .  Whether the argument p r e -  sented here as t o the complex nature of the Imper. Sg. d e s i n ence i s accepted or not, the complex nature of the Imper. P I . desinence cannot, as Jakobson h i m s e l f admits, be denied and i s d o u b t l e s s l y mistaken when he s t a t e s t h a t (unaccented)  he  "verbs  w i t h open p o l y s y l l a b i c f u l l - s t e m s s t r e s s e i t h e r the simple desinence or the p r e c e d i n g vowel i f the desinence i s complex", s i n c e t h i s would not e x p l a i n the s t r e s s e d desinence i n Imper. PI.  xaxac__i-t'i  (.laugh!), v a r ' _ _ i - t ' i  -  i p  -  -  R u b e n s t e i n would be i n complete 1.4 of  ( b o i l l ) , etc.  -  agreement h e r e .  In Sec.  he w r i t e s - "Every desinence, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h a t the I n f i n i t i v e which has  non-terminal s u f f i x ) , i n h i s own  only a n o n - c o o r d i n a t i n g s u f f i x ( i . e .  c o n t a i n s a s u f f i x of both types", ( i . e .  t e r m i n o l o g y , c o o r d i n a t i n g and n o n - c o o r d i n a t i n g ; i n  Jakobson's t e r m i n o l o g y , t e r m i n a l and n o n - t e r m i n a l ) . Ruben. 2 . 2 4  See  also  where he s t a t e s t h a t i n Czech the Imper. s u f f i x  a l t e r n a n t - i occurs b e f o r e the Sg. s u f f i x  (-#).  E.g.  Cz.  200  t'iskn__i (i.e.  ( i . e . t 'iskn_i-#).  Of. P i . t'iska_e-me.  In Cz. ber  ber_#-#) both components of the complex desinence a r e  expressed by zero a l t e r n a n t s , as i n R u s s i a n slaf'_#-#. Though i t s p o s i t i o n i s f i x e d , the r e f l e x i v e s u f f i x i s t o be regarded as an independent a d d i t i v e s u f f i x t h a t does n o t change the c h a r a c t e r  of a desinence from simple t o complex.  Thus the desinence of moj__u-s  1  is  ( I wash) or b a j _ u - s  1  (I fear)  s t i l l a simple desinence. Both Avanesov  and Ozhegov p r e f e r the unacc. f u l l - s t e m  P 0 J I _ t o the accented P0JI_, i n the meaning "give t o d r i n k " . The accepted form of t h i s noun i s with vowel -e-, BL'EF__#. 16  Jakobson's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  '* o f t h i s f u l l - s t e m as KAVA_  v/ith f i r s t vowel -A- i n Sec. 2.121 i s c o r r e c t e d i n Sec. 2.24. See h i s statement i n 1*6 - "...when the s t r e s s  oscillates  between tv/o d i f f e r e n t s y l l a b l e s of the stem i n the f i n i t e forms, we l a b e l such f u l l - s t e m s as unaccented...". In Sec. 1.6 he w r i t e s - "When i n the a c c e n t u a l  alterna-  t i o n the b a s i c form o f the stem i s never s t r e s s e d . . . , we l a b e l such f u l l - s t e m s as unaccented."  The c r i t e r i o n f o r unacc. non-  p o l y s y l l a b i c s i s t h e r e f o r e not so much the non-columnarity of the s t r e s s p a t t e r n as the i n a b i l i t y of the stem t o c a r r y the stress.  T h i s i s perhaps the most i n a c c u r a t e  e n t i r e paper.  statement i n the  I n the f i r s t p l a c e , Jakobson might a t l e a s t  have made the p r o v i s o t h a t the stem would n e c e s s a r i l y be s t r e s s e d i n a form v/hose desinence was n o n s y l l a b i c , as i n the case of  201 the  M a s c . P r e t . o f V'0Z__ ( c o n v e y ) , N ' O S j ( c a r r y ) , e t c . : v'os_#-#,  n'os_#~#. far  Then a t l e a s t h i s s t a t e m e n t w o u l d h a v e b e e n s o u n d a s  as h i s "unaccented" m o n o s y l l a b i c b r o a d l y c l o s e d  were concerned.  full-stems  ( F u r t h e r e x c e p t i o n w o u l d h a v e t o be made o f  c o u r s e f o r t h e P a s t A c t . P a r t , and t h e C o n s o n a n t a l Gerund i f these had been i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . ) lem has been c o n v e n i e n t l y ignored namely  H o w e v e r , one p r o b -  (at least f o rthe time),  t h a t t h e overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f t h e unacc. non-poly-  syllabics  (i.e.  t h e m o n o s y l l . h a r d open, t h e n o n s y l l . and t h e  m o n o s y l l . n a r r o w l y c l o s e d f u l l - s t e m s ) have t h e s t r e s s on t h e stem i n t h e Neut. and P I . P r e t . forms fixed, non-reflexive forms). bra_l-a. to  P i .bra_l'-i.  These  ( a t l e a s t i n the non-pre-  E . g . BRA_c ( t a k e ) : N e u t .  Pret.  f a c t s make i t a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e  r e g a r d s u c h stems a s u n a c c e n t e d i n t e r m s o f J a k o b s o n ' s  t e r i o n i n 1.6. denied  T h a t J a k o b s o n was f u l l y  ( s e e 2.62B).  m e n t , made f i n a l l y  cri-  aware o f t h i s c a n n o t be  B u t t h e l i m i t a t i o n on h i s o r i g i n a l i n 2.62B, i s i t s e l f o f s u c h g r e a t  state-  significance  a s t o make t h e s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t i n 1.6 a l l b u t m e a n i n g l e s s . advisability  The  o f p r o p o s i n g any c r i t e r i o n o f unaccentedness o t h e r  t h a n n o n - c o l u m n a r i t y o f s t r e s s p a t t e r n c a n be s e r i o u s l y  ques-  t i o n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p r o b l e m a l o n e . 19  T h i s f a c t o r does n o t o p e r a t e however b e f o r e t h e v o c a l i c  desinence of the Past Pass. P a r t .  See s e c t i o n b e l o w o n f o r m a -  t i o n o f p a r t i c i p l e s and gerunds, pp. 130-142. 20 B. 0. U n b e g a u n ( R u s s i a n G r a m m a r ) , t h o u g h c l a s s i f y i n g h i s  202 verbs according  t o a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t system, has  found  no  c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n r e f e r r i n g t o the f i x e d s t r e s s of v e r b s l i k e pr'i+v'is__t'i (bring). the d e s i n e n c e s ( w i t h few  The  s t r e s s i s f i x e d , though f i x e d  exceptions).  Y e t he  on  s t i l l r e f e r s to  the v e r b , and n o t i t s e n d i n g s , as h a v i n g f i x e d s t r e s s . 2 1  See  footnote  2 2  Exceptions*  18.  are B'IR'OGj ( t a k e c a r e o f ) , ST'IR'OG-^ ( g u a r d ) ,  VALOKj (drag) and R0D'I_ ( P e r f e c t i v e ) ( g i v e b i r t h ) with, s t r e s s e d d e s i n e n c e s i n some or a l l of the P r e t . f o r m s . 2  3  The  t h i r d v a r i e t y of " a c c e n t e d " p o l y s y l l a b i c would a l s o  i n c l u d e the s t r e s s p a t t e r n as r e p r e s e n t e d by the KAL'EBA__ ( s h a k e ) .  I n such v e r b s , two  full-stem  stress p o s i t i o n s , both  t h e stem, c o i n c i d e e x a c t l y v/ith the p r e v o c a l i c and a n t a l forms. i n g " and  preconson-  T h i s s t r e s s p a t t e r n might be d e s c r i b e d  as  "float-  marked i n the morphophonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n w i t h  marks over b o t h s t r e s s a b l e s y l l a b l e s .  on  Thus, KAL'EBA_.  stress Also  AL ALKA_, KALIXA_ 2k  The  only exception  i s the u n u s u a l R0D'I_ ( p e r f e c t i v e )  ( g i v e b i r t h ) w h i c h , i n the r e f l e x i v e Masc. P r e t . , has v a r i a n t s r a d i _ l - # - s * a and r a d ' i _ _ l - # - s ' a , and 1  the  i n the Neut.  P I . P r e t . the p r e f e r r e d forms r a d ' i _ l - o - s , r a d ' i _ l - i - s . 1  free  1  1  and The  forms r a d ' i _ l - a - s ' (Neut.) and r a d 'i_JL ' - i - s are p e r m i s s i b l e . 25 . . T h i s r u l e i s b r o k e n o n l y i n the case of the min. unacc. 1  J  f u l l - s t e m #GNU_ (bend) and t h e p r e f i x na+.  even t h e n o n l y when i t combines v/ith  C f . na+gnu_t-# e t c . w i t h s+o'gnu__t-#, v+ognu_t-#,  203 etc.  S i m i l a r l y v/ith p r e f i x e s za+, i z + ( o ) , ob+(o), ot+(o), t  p r ' i + , p'er'e+, pro+, r a z + ( o ) .  po+,  T  The a c c . stem #GMJ_ as used i n  t  the s i n g l e compound w i t h p r e f i x na+ i s r e p r e s e n t e d morphophon e m i c a l l y as (na+)GNU__.  See p. 6 8 , ( h ) .  One e x c e p t i o n i s the f u l l - s t e m #TKA_ (weave) (max. or min. unacc.) whose u n p r e f i x e d Pem. Past Pass. P a r t , has d e s i n e n t i a l s t r e s s - tka_n-a.  A l l p r e f i x e d forms however have the r e g u l a r  ( f o r t h i s category) s t r e s s e d p r e f i x i n the Pem.  Past Pass. P a r t .  E.g. s+otka n-a, za+tka_n-a, na+tka_n-a, v+otka_n-a, i z + o t k a n-a, pro+tka_n-a, raz+otka n-a, u+tka n-a. /p  f  —  —  Another e x c e p t i o n i s the min. unacc. f u l l - s t e m (trample on)'.  do+tka__n-a,  (po+)PRA__  Pem. Past Pass. P a r t . - pa+pra__n-a.  A l s o , some unacc. monosyll. hard open f u l l - s t e m s have an a l t e r n a t i v e obsolete s h o r t Pem. Past Pass. P a r t , w i t h s t r e s s e d desinence. da+bra_n-a  E.g. #HRA_c ( t a k e ) : do+bra_n-a (obsolete)*  ?7  '  ( p r e f e r r e d ) , and  \  The max. unacc. f u l l - s t e m #ZVA__c ( c a l l ) behaves t h i s  way  ( i . e . l i k e a min. unacc. f u l l - s t e m ) when the p r e f i x v#z+ i s used i n e l e v a t e d speech - vaz+zva__t vaz+zva  1  ( t o appeal t o ) : Pem.  Pret.  1-a.  '  28  The n o n p r e f i x e d form p r e f e r s d e s i n e n t i a l s t r e s s - s p a ^ l-o'-s'. T h i s i s however a s p e c i a l meaning ( i m p e r s o n a l ) . 2  9  3°  1935.  See p.  71, ( j ) .  D. U. Ushakov, T o l k o v y j s l o v a r ' russkogo jazyka, Moscow,  204  3~^  A s i n g l e exception  i n v o l v e s t h e p r e f i x oh+ which i s  s t r e s s e d i n t h e M a s c , Neut. and P i . P r e t . ( a l s o i n t h e M a s c , Neut. and P I . P a s t P a s s . P a r t . ) . are not the p r e f e r r e d 12  permissible  ones. /  The forms (da+)v'i__t-a  J  These f o r m s , w h i l e  etc. are conversational.  On t h e  o t h e r hand, t h e max. unacc. f u l l - s t e m w i l l n o t p e r m i t such an alternative stress.  E.g. # L ' J : l ' i —  etc. 33  —  /f.  —-  only. Avanesov g i v e s t h e forms w i t h s t r e s s e d stem -  da+l'i__t-a (Neut.), not  t-a, da+l'i t-a, vaz+l'i t —•  da+l*i_t-#,  d a + l ' i _ _ t - i , e t c . - as p e r m i s s i b l e , b u t  preferred. Those (merely) unacc. n o n s y l l a b i c s l i k e  (burn),  -#C#T_ (read) o r -#JD__(S) (go) t h a t a r e b r o a d l y  c l o s e d and  therefore r e q u i r e the v o c a l i c a l t e r n a n t o f the Past Pass. P a r t . d e s i n e n c e __on- s t r e s s a l l s t r e s s a b l e ( i . e . a l l b u t t h e Masc. z e r o ) d e s i n e n c e s i n t h e s h o r t forms o f t h e P a s t P a s s . P a r t . #Z#G_:; da+zz__on-#, d a + z z _ i n - a , -6, - i ; -#S#T_: pra+ct'_on-#, p r a + c t ' i n - a , -6, - i ; -#JD_: ab+ajd' on-#, ab+ajd' i n - a , -6, i  -i.  t  ..  —•  t  •—  C u r i o u s l y , t h e f u l l - s t e m -#JD__, v/hen combined w i t h t h e  p r e f i x e s na+ o r pro+, d e f l e c t s t h e s t r e s s t o t h e p r e f i x i n a l l the P a s t P a s s . P a r t , f o r m s , l o n g and s h o r t , even i n the s h o r t Pem. f o r m , and t h e r e f o r e i s i m i t a t i n g t h e s t r e s s o f t h e unacc. (any degree) m o n o s y l l . h a r d open f u l l - s t e m s - na+jd M L n - i j , na+.jd'_in-#, na+jd'__in-a (Pem.) e t c . ; p r o + j d ' _ _ i n - i j , pro+jd'__ i n - # , p r o + j d ' _ i n - a (Pem.) e t c . These same two compounds w i t h  205  stressed desinences (the norm) are permissible (though not preferred) i n the case of prefix pro+ and obsolete i n the case of prefix na+. The same applies to the max. unacc. full-stem -CE_ (be-  J  gin) , Masc. Pret. na+ci_l-#-s'a. 35  The lack of choice for this stem applies also to the  short non-Fern. Past Pass, Part. stem -CN__.  It also applies to the f u l l -  za+n'a__t-#, za+n'a__t-a (Neut.),  za+n'a__t-i;  na+ca_t-ij, na+ca__t-#, na+ca__t-a (Neut.), na+5a__t-i. This applies also to the non-Fern. Pret. (there i s no Past Pass. Part.) of the compound with the prefix pr'i+ pr i+1 1  3^  1  etc. only.  The prefix roz+ may however be stressed i n conversational  alternatives of the above mentioned forms'. Also, the prefix p'er'e+, which i n the same forms does succeed i n attracting the stress to i t s e l f , has conversational alternatives showing an unstressed prefix.  In connection with other stems however the  prefix p'er'en- does appear to be of an unaccented nature and capable of resisting the max. unacc. full-stem's natural tendency to deflect stress to the prefix. 38  N  / v  Exceptions are: -M'#R__ (die): za+m'er_s-ij, and permiss. za+m*ir_s-i j ; -#P'#R__ (lock): za+p'ir_s-ij (only), ot+p'ir__s-i j (only). 39  An exception i s full-stem -#P'#R__ (lock) which has a con-  sonantal gerund v/ith prefix stress - za+p'ir__si, 6t+p'ir_si.  206 I n b o t h c a s e s , however, a c o n s o n a n t a l gerund formed on  the  s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m P'LR'E^ i s p r e f e r r e d - za+p i r e__f, 1  1  a t + p ' i r 'e__f. 40 These v/ould appear t o be the r e g u l a r , expected forms  and  t h e i r d e c r e a s e d v i t a l i t y can p r o b a b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n fluence 4l  of the unacc. f u l l - s t e m -#P'7fR__ ( l o c k ) . / \ v  Only the f u l l - s t e m DAJ_(S) w i l l e x p l a i n the s t r e s s e d f i x e s i n b o t h the non-Pem. P r e t . and  pre-  the non-Pern. P a s t P a s s .  P a r t , and  i t i s a l s o the o n l y one  t h a t a l l o w s the  regular  formation  of the Imper. daj^#-#.  A f u l l - s t e m *DA__(S) (mono-  s y l l . h a r d open) c o u l d e x p l a i n n e i t h e r the d e f l e c t i o n of s t r e s s t o the p r e f i x e s i n the non-Pern. P r e t . nor the Imper. f o r m daj_#'-#. 42  See  also footnote  42.  I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p r e f i x za+, i s a c c e n t e d - Pem. The  Pret. za+bi_l-a.  the f u l l - s t e m B I J _ c  Therefore,  (za+)BIJ_c.  c l o s e d stem i n - J _ _ i s proposed as the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l  stem of the v e r b " t o be"  i n s t e a d o f a m o n o s y l l . hard open f u l l -  stem (*BI_c) s i n c e the l a t t e r c o u l d not a c c o u n t f o r the  de-  f l e c t i o n of s t r e s s t o t h e p r e f i x i n the non-Pern.'Pret., i n a s much as the unacc. m o n o s y l l . h a r d open f u l l - s t e m s d e f l e c t the s t r e s s t o the p r e f i x o n l y i n the P a s t P a s s . P a r t , ( l o n g short).  Mor  the s h o r t Pem.  and  c o u l d i t account f o r the s t r e s s e d d e s i n e n c e i n Past Pass. P a r t ,  llor  would the s e l e c t i o n of  the P a s t P a s s . P a r t , s u f f i x a l t e r n a n t _ _ t - be the expected  one  i f the f u l l - s t e m * B I _ c were p r o p o s e d , s i n c e open f u l l - s t e m s i n  207  -I_  s e l e c t the v o c a l i c a l t e r n a n t  suffix.  See p .  of the Past Pass.  Part.  138.  43 ^  Avanesov has  pr'i+zi_t-ij, Cf.  a p p a r e n t l y made a m i s t a k e  pr'i+zi_t-#,  Ozhegov: p r ' i + z i _ t - a  hut p r ' i + z i _ t - a (Neut.J,  (Neut.)  in giving  (Neut.J,  Except po+zi_t-a  *5  The o n l y o t h e r compound, w i t h p r e f i x z a + ,  the endings.  is  • A single  prefix  (only).  do+.  exception i s  is  an a d j e c t i v e .  BIJ__c i n c o n j u n c t i o n o n l y v / i t h  T h i s compound h a s p r e f e r r e d s t r e s s  is  47  stress  p e r m i s s i b l e , not  just  Thus t h e p r e f e r r e d P r e t . f o r m s  (Avan.)  Masc.  6b+zi_l—#, N e u t .  (Neut.),  ab+zi_t-i,  ab+zi_t-ij,  Prefix  in  pre-  stress  conversational.  of the v e r b  6b+zi_l-a,  with the p r e f e r r e d Past Pass. P a r t ,  on t h e stem  and a l s o h a s  on t h e stem i n t h e non-Pern. P r e t .  i n both cases  reflexive  v  t h e l o n g and non-Pern, s h o r t P a s t P a s s . P a r t , ferred  is  drawn o f f t h e p r e f i x and u n t o  The f o r m z a + k l ' a _ t - i j  46  pr'i__zi_t-i.  pr'i+zi_t-i.  ^  o n l y and t h e r e f o r e t h e s t r e s s  us  '  ab+zi__t'  6b+zi_l'-i  forms a b + z i _ t - # ,  contrast ab+zi_t-a  etc.  48 This i s Pass. Part, ^9  also  o f 2lV_  The ( m e r e l y )  not without  its  t r u e o f t h e l o n g and non-Pern, s h o r t  Past  only i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r e f i x  iz+.  u n a c c . f u l l - s t e m PLIV__ (sv/im) i s ,  o b s o l e t e a l t e r n a t i v e s which have p r e f i x  i n t h e non-Pern. P r e t . pod+ and p r o + .  however,  o f compounds w i t h p r e f i x e s o t + ,  No s u c h a l t e r n a t i v e s  compounds w i t h p r e f i x e s sat,  na+,  e x i s t however f o r  pr'i+,  p'er'e+,  u+.  stress  po+, the (The  208  p r e f i x roz+ i s used only with the r e f l e x i v e v e r b and f i x e s v+  and  s+ are n o n s y l l a b i c and  i n determining 5°  i s the short Pem.  p r e s s i o n - but'__#-# t i pro+kl'a__t-a  Past Pass. P a r t ,  (Pem.).  Elsewhere  exthe  Past Pass. P a r t , i s p r a + k l ' i _ t - a ( r e g u l a r ) .  f u l l - s t e m PAJ__(S) ( g i v e ) a l s o has explained One  therefore also i r r e l e v a n t  unacc. f u l l - s t e m KL'AN_ (curse) i n a s i n g l e  s h o r t Pem.  pre-  the range of s t r e s s d e f l e c t i o n t o p r e f i x e s ) .  A curious exception  of the max.  the  The  exceptional alternants  as  earlier. p a r t i c u l a r p e c u l i a r i t y worthy of mention here i s the  a c c . f u l l - s t e m ZNAJ_ (know) (Pem. transference s h o r t , Pem.  P r e t . zna_l-a) which  has  of the s t r e s s to a p r e f i x i n a l l forms ( l o n g included)  and  of the Past Pass. P a r t , (but not i n the  P r e t . ) and which t h e r e f o r e i m i t a t e s the min. a)  unacc. m o n o s y l l .  hard open f u l l - s t e m s ( l i k e #SLA__c "send") i n i t s s t r e s s p a t t e r n - s+ozna_n-# e t c . , u+zna__n-# e t c . , pr*i+zna_n-# e t c . 5  Though t h i s f u l l - s t e m i s s u p p l e t i v e , i t does supply a l l  2  of the r e l e v a n t preconsonantal 53  forms.  Examples a r e : p r ' i + j d ' _ a , na+jd'^a, pra+jd'__a, p r ' i + v ' i d  pra+n"is '__a, at+v'id'__a, .  1.  f  na+xmur '_a-s ', a+b  1  pr'i+n'is'__a', u+n'is'__a, e t c . .  .  .  .  .  /  .  .  and  f  i d '__a-s ', p r ' i + s l a n ' _ a - s , u+tam'_a-s ', 1  s+xvat '_a-s , u + s l i s _ a , u+v'id'__a, pr'i+smatr '_a-s', 1  f s t r ' et '__a-s ', a+hrat '__a-s ', ras+s ' i r d '__a-s ', pa+laz__a, e t c . See S. S. Maksimenko, Spravocnik po russkomu g l a g o l u , Moscow,  1963.  209 T h i s a l s o happens i n the case o f m o n o s y l l a b l e s #ZMAJ 55  like  (know): s+ozna n-#. Avanesov g i v e s the forms n a + r v a _ l - a - s  l'-i-s',  pra+spa l-o-s , 1  —  1  (Neut.), na+rva_  p r a + s p a _ l ' - i - s ' as p e r m i s s i b l e , but  not p r e f e r r e d . 56  Exception:' V I D ' I _ ( s e e ) : u+v'id'__in-ij  (no s u b s t i t u t i v e  softening). 5?  The phoneme "o" i s r e p l a c e d by "e" i n double s o f t n e s s  i n the R u s s i a n verb n o t only when "o" i s the i n s e r t e d  vowel,  but a l s o when i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the f u l l - s t e m of the verb.  T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the verb b r ' i _ t '  ( t o shave)'.  If  the f u l l - s t e m BR'0J__ i s proposed with the vowel morphophonemi c a l l y - 0 - , then the unique a l t e r n a t i o n of - i -  and -e- i n the  p r e c o n s o n a n t a l and p r e v o c a l i c forms r e s p e c t i v e l y  (Masc. P r e t .  b r ' i _ l - # , 1 Sg. br'ej__u) does n o t r e q u i r e a s p e c i a l  statement  (which would i n e f f e c t make t h i s f u l l - s t e m an e x c e p t i o n , as i t i s i n Jakobson's p a p e r ) , s i n c e the stem would then be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h KR0J__ ( c o v e r ) , R 0 J _ ( d i g ) , e t c . which have a l r e a d y been d e a l t with by means of a statement (see  pp. 35-36,  of concomitant  ( i v , b)); e x p l a i n i n g the a l t e r n a t i o n o / i i n p r e -  v o c a l i c and p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms r e s p e c t i v e l y . of  change  The r e a l i z a t i o n  the - 0 - o f f u l l - s t e m BR'0J__ as - e - i n the p r e v o c a l i c forms  i s determined  by double s o f t n e s s and the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e  same morphophoneme as - i -  i n the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l forms i s the t  same as i n the case o f KROJ e t c .  210  A f u r t h e r example i s the v e r b malo__t has  the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l  1  ( t o g r i n d ) which  s u p p l e t i v e f u l l - s t e m M 0 L 0 _ c and the  p r e v o c a l i c s u p p l e t i v e M'010_y w i t h a p a l a t a l i s e d i n i t i a l  con-  sonant.  The s o f t e n i n g r u l e s f o r a stem o f t h i s type c a l l f o r  softened  - 1 - i n the p r e v o c a l i c forms.  Hence the r e a l i z a t i o n  of morphophoneme - 0 - as -e-. Of. Past Pass. P a r t . s+mola__t-# and  2 Sg'. s+m e l ' _ i - s .  ble  s o f t n e s s does n o t , however, apply t o the n o n v e r b a l c a t e -  1  gory.  The replacement o f - 0 - by - e - i n dou-  C f . t o t k _ a / t ot'__a ( a u n t ) , a i n _ o j ( w i f e , 1  z'iml'^oj The  1  instr.)/  (earth, i n s t r . ) . replacement o f ( v e r b a l ) - 0 - by -e- (whether "o" i s  the i n s e r t e d vov/el or an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the f u l l - s t e m ) o c c u r s sometimes i n e x c e p t i o n a l forms even when the c o n d i t i o n of double s o f t n e s s i s n o t met.  Examples o f the s t r e s s e d r e a l - r  i z a t i o n o f " i n t e g r a l " -G- as - e - i n a p o s i t i o n t h a t c o u l d n o t be  d e s c r i b e d as double s o f t n e s s were a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d  E.g. The  above.  V ' O D J ( l e a d ) : Past A c t . P a r t , p r ' i + v ' e t _ s - i j , e t c . p . 1 4 2 . same t h i n g happens v/ith i n s e r t e d -o- i n the v a r i o u s  A c t . P a r t s , o f #S#D_(S) (go) and  - # M ' # R _ ( S )  Past  ( d i e ) (but n o t  xM'#R__(S) " d i e " ) : ' (pr'i+) set__s-i j , e t c . and za+m'erjs-ij , e t c . C f . #T'#R__ ( r u b ) : (na+)t'or__s-ij; #P'#R__ (lean).* a+p o r _ s - i j - s 'a; ,  xM'#R__ ( d i e ) : m o'r_s-i j . ~ The form z a + p • i r . S - i j (from -#P*fe_ 1  " l o c k " ) has r a r e s t r e s s d e f l e c t i o n t o the p r e f i x i n the Past Act. Part. Since no p r e f i x e s end i n s o f t consonants, t h e r e i s no  211 p o s s i b i l i t y of the double s o f t n e s s . always -6The  secondary i n s e r t e d vowel ever o c c u r r i n g The  (or one  secondary i n s e r t e d vowel i s  in  therefore  of i t s u n s t r e s s e d r e p l a c e m e n t s ) , never  -e-.  a l t e r n a t i v e s + s e t _ s - i j i s obsolete a c c o r d i n g t o  Avanesov. 59  The  only e x c e p t i o n here i s the n o n s y l l . f u l l - s t e m  (raz+)PH__  ( c r u c i f y ) which does not have the i n s e r t e d vowel even i n the Cf. 1 Sg. ras+pn_u and  p r e v o c a l i c forms. #2M_).  IT.B.' The  absence of i n t e g r a l -#-  raz+azm__u (from i n a nonsyll.  full-  stem i s i t s e l f an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the f u l l - s t e m i s s u b j e c t concomitant change upon t r u n c a t i o n ; (in a nonsyll. full-stem) ^  The  t  (1  Sg.  the absence of secondary  i s a s i g n of  forms v a z + z r ' i t ' - s ' a  irregularity.  (to s t a r e a t ) and  vaz+zr'  ~  +  appearance of the  special  secondary i n s e r t e d  vowel w i t h i n the framework of the p r e f i x i t s e l f , between p r e f i x and v e r b .  u-s' —  of same) ( f u l l - s t e m -ZR'I__(s 'a)) i l l u s t r a t e the  problem i n v o l v i n g the  to  instead  of  Cf. a l s o vz+aj t ' i ( t o ascend, e t c . ) , T ~~  fs+xad'i__t' ( t o ascend, e t c . ) , vas+xad ' i _ J ; ' (ascend; go t o , date from). ^  62  Rubenstein, Sec. Alexander M.  a l s o proposes two P o l i s h verbs and alternation"  3«71«  Schenker ( P o l i s h Conjugation, Word, X, different full-stems  f o r each of  says that these f u l l - s t e m s  (Sec. 4 . 7 ) .  stem a l t e r n a n t s  back  ^he  apply e q u a l l y  are  "in  sixteen suppletive  statements of d e s i n e n t i a l to suppletive  and  19)  and  non-suppletive  212 f u l l - s t e m s i n both languages. ^  I n other words, the p r e c o n s o n a n t a l f u l l - s t e m has p r e c e -  dence  over the p r e v o c a l i c one.  a p p l i e s t o P o l i s h , as Schenker ^  E x a c t l y the same p r i n c i p l e  An important e x c e p t i o n i s the verb i ( t ' ) _ t ' i  Of i t s f o u r s u p p l e t i v e stems (see p. 158), is  4.7.  (op. c i t . ) notes i n Sec.  (to go).  the f u l l - s t e m fS#P_(S) 7  the most w i d e l y used p r e c o n s o n a n t a l s u p p l e t i v e  (xID__(S) and  ~#J__(S) a r e used pre consonant a l l y , but only b e f o r e the s u f f i x of the simple and p r e f i x e d i n f i n i t i v e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , but i s not  used t o form the Past Pass. P a r t .  stem, -#JD_(S),  Instead, a p r e v o c a l i c  i s used. v  /  Another e x c e p t i o n i s -SIB__(S)  (injure).  I t i s both the  p r e v o c a l i c and b a s i c p r e c o n s o n a n t a l stem, but -SIB'I_(S) supp l i e s the Past Pass. P a r t , (and I n f . ) - u + s i b l _ _ i n - i j . f  65 The complimentary d i s t r i b u t i o n of the grammatical  forms  of the f u l l - s t e m s -#J_(S) and x I P / ( s ) , or o f -#JD_(S) and x I p / ( S ) , o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n i n v o l v i n g an a l t e r n a t i o n or replacement statement.  The f u l l - s t e m -#J__(S) ( o r  -#JD__(S)) might be taken as the b a s i c stem and xIP/(S) regarded as the a l t e r n a n t o f i t when t h e r e i s a z e r o p r e f i x . Schenker i n 4.1.  (op. c i t . ) uses such a statement of a l t e r n a t i o n  He w r i t e s , " I n simple (uncompounded) f u l l - s t e m s ,  ini-  it di _a el . "jC i s r e p l a c e d by i C . E.g. JDy^SDJgo : 1 Sg. P r e s . 66 The r e t e n t i o n o f stem f i n a l d e n t a l p l o s i v e ( t ) b e f o r e 1  213 the  i n i t i a l dental plosive  (i.e.  alternant _ t ' i )  ( t ) o f the I n f i n i t i v e desinence 1  r e p r e s e n t s the only c o n t r a d i c t i o n of the  r u l e that r e q u i r e s the replacement of stem d e n t a l p l o s i v e by -s_  i n such a p o s i t i o n .  E.g. V'OD^: I n f . v ' i s _ _ t ' i .  Trubetzkoy, i n h i s Das Morphonologische System der Russi s c h e n Sprache, Sec. 23, in  t h i s form w i t h the r e t e n t i o n o f a stem f i n a l - t _ b e f o r e the  I n f i n i t i v e desinence. the  doubts the v a l i d i t y of the i n f i n i t i v e  artificial  He regards such an i r r e g u l a r form as  r e s u l t of i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l s ( " E i n f l u s s der  Schulgrammatik")  and the secondary or a l t e r n a t i v e form,  as the more n a t u r a l .  i_t'i,  But even t h a t form has the i r r e g u l a r  t r u n c a t i o n of the stem f i n a l d e n t a l i n s t e a d of the expected replacement by - s _ ( i . e . °<  *is_t'i).  Not t o be confused with TACI__ ( s e c r e t e ) or -TACI_, as i n  za+taci_t' (to incarcerate). 6ft Morphophonemically, not ^  the term  ' s o f t consonant' i n c l u d e s  only a l l p a l a t a l i z e d consonants, but a l s o a l l p a l a t a l s . The p r e v o c a l i c forms of t h i s verb are not used (Avan.).  T h i s f u l l - s t e m i s i r r e g u l a r w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t r e s s i n the short Pem. Past Pass. P a r t . - pa+pra_n-a. 7°  The n o n - p r e f i x e d s h o r t Pem. Past Pass. P a r t , i s i r r e g -  u l a r v/ith r e s p e c t t o s t r e s s - tka_n-a. 71 In ?  2  the meaning "wash down v/ith".  The forms ros+p'i_JL-# e t c . , ros+p'i__t-# e t c . are con-  s i d e r e d substandard ' c o n v e r s a t i o n a l ' a l t e r n a t i v e s (Avan.).'  214 73  Three compounds (those with p r e f i x e s do+,  which are based on the max. n a t i v e s h o r t Pem.  ot+ and  unacc. f u l l - s t e m have an  pro+)  alter-  Past Pass. P a r t , v/ith stem s t r e s s (da+p ' i _ t - a ,  at+p'x_t-a, pra+p i _ _ t - a ) , but t h i s time, i n a l l three 1  t h i s s t r e s s i s considered  to be  cases,  conversational.  74 In the meaning "take t o d r i n k i n g " . 75  T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e does not  pound v/ith p r e f i x za+ Obviously,  e x i s t i n the case of the com-  ( i n the meaning "take to drinking").".  t h i s i s r e l a t e d to the f a c t t h a t the other compound  w i t h p r e f i x za+  ( i n the meaning "wash down v/ith") i s a  (merely)  unacc. f u l l - s t e m and the tv/o degrees of unaccentedness are t h e r e f o r e made to r e f l e c t the c o n t r a s t i n the two meanings. *1 76(~\  77  V  A l s o unaccented i s xV#Z»M The  (take)  q u a l i f i c a t i o n " l a b i a l " i s necessary  here s i n c e " n a s a l "  alone v/ould a l s o i n v o l v e the f u l l - s t e m STIK__ (get c o o l ) which i s not 7&  s u b j e c t t o t h i s concomitant change. The  forms ro'z+n'a^-rf, ro'z+n'a_t-a (Neut.),  ro'z+n'a__t-i  and roz+n'a_l-#', roz+n'a_l-a (Neut.), roz+n'a__l'-i a l s o but are c o n s i d e r e d  sub-standard and  conversational  occur  (Avan.)'.  79 '  y  T h i s unacc. p o l y s y l l . does not have the normal v a r i e t y  of non-columnar s t r e s s p a t t e r n as d e s c r i b e d footnote  23.  on pp. 46-47.  See  215 Bibliography Avanesov, R. I . and S. I . Ozhegov.  Russkoje l i t e r a t u r n o j e  proiznoshenije i udarenije.  Moscow,  1959.  B i e l f e l d t , H. H. R u c k l a u f i g e s Worterbueh der Russischen der Gegenwart. Cornyn, W i l l i a m S.  1965«  Berlin,  "On the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the R u s s i a n  Verbs", Language, XXIV TJaum, E . and W. Schenk. Halle, Morris.  Sprache  (1948).  Die R u s s i s c h e n  Verben.  Leipzig,  "Old Church S l a v o n i c Conjugation",  1954.  Word, V I I  (1951). Isacenko, A. V. Die Russische (Formenlehre).  Sprache der Gegenwart.  Teil  1.  i960.  Halle (Saale),  Isacenko, A. V. Grammaticheskij strop russkogo jazyka v sopostavleniji s slovatskim. vtoraja.). Jakobson, Roman.  Bratislava,  "Russian  (Morfologija, chast'  i960.  Conjugation",  Word, IV  K a r c e v s k i , S. Notes de morphologie r u s s e .  (1948). 1948.  Geneva,  K a r c e v s k i , S. Manuel p r a t i q u e e t theorique de r u s s e .  Geneva,  1956. Kumprecht, K. R u s s k i j g l a g o l . Maksimenko, S. S.  Prague,  1946.  Spravochnik po russkomu g l a g o l u .  Moscow,  1963. O b n o r s k i j , S. P. Moscow,  Ocherki po m o r f o l o g i j i russkogo 1953.  jazyka.  216 Bibliography  (cont'd.)  O r f o g r a f i c h e s k i j s l o v a r ' russkogo j a z y k a . Moscow, Ozhegov, S. S. Rubenstein,  Ak. Hauk, S.S.S.R.  I 9 6 3 .  S l o v a r ' russkogo j a z y k a .  Hei^bert.  Schenker, Alexander M.  "Czech Conjugation",  Moscow,  Word, V I I  " P o l i s h Conjugation",  Sweet, Henry.  (1954).  Ak. Hauk,  1957.  The P r a c t i c a l Study of Languages.  T r u b e t z k o j , H.  (1951)'  Word, X  S l o v a r ' russkogo jazyka (v c h e t y r j o k h tomakh). S.S.S.R. Moscow,  1963*  London,  1964.  "Das morphonologische System der r u s s i s c h e n  Sprache", Travaux du c e r c l e l i n g u i s t i q u e de Prague,  5  2  193k.  Unbegaun, B. 0'. Ushakov, D. H.  R u s s i a n Grammar.  Oxford,  1957.  T o l k o v y j s l o v a r ' russkogo j a z y k a .  Moscow, 1935*  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104571/manifest

Comment

Related Items