UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Rules and cricumstances : the young protagonist and the social codes in Faulkner's fiction Meltabarger, Beverly Ann 1967

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1967_A8 M45.pdf [ 8.62MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104563.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104563-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104563-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104563-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104563-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104563-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104563-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104563-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104563.ris

Full Text

RUIES AND CIRCUMSTANCES: THE YOUNG- PROTAGONIST AND THE SOCIAI CODES IN FAULKNER'S FICTION by BEVERLY ANN MELTABARGER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964  A THESIS SUMBITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s i n t h e Department of English We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h a L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. thesis  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  f o r extensive copying of  this  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my  Department o r by h i s  representatives.  It  i s understood t h a t  copying  o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  ii ABSTRACT I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g and seldom n o t e d f a c t t h a t t h e young p r o t a g o n i s t — t h e hoy o r g i r l between t h e ages o f t e n and t w e n t y - o n e — a p p e a r s a g a i n and a g a i n i n the n o v e l s and s h o r t s t o r i e s o f W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r .  Since  Faulkner  wrote f o r an a d u l t audience w h i c h might w e l l l o s e i n t e r e s t i n a n o n - a d u l t h e r o , and s i n c e h i s themes i n v o l v e v i o l e n t and  even s e n s a t i o n a l a s p e c t s  such as s u i c i d e , r a p e ,  l y n c h i n g and c a s t r a t i o n , w h i c h a r e p a r t o f an a d u l t w o r l d , he must have had some d e f i n i t e purpose i n u s i n g a young protagonist. A c l o s e r l o o k a t the works i n w h i c h young people p l a y major r o l e s w i l l  r e v e a l t h a t , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s ,  the young p r o t a g o n i s t i s i n v o l v e d i n a c o n f l i c t w i t h one o f s o c i e t y ' s many u n w r i t t e n codes o f b e h a v i o r , w h i c h i s e x e r t i n g pressure  on him t o conform t o i t s d i c t a t e s .  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t becomes apparent t h a t F a u l k n e r i s u s i n g the young p r o t a g o n i s t f o r two main p u r p o s e s : t o show, i n microcosm, t h e v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l s o f any age and t h e s o c i a l codes, and t o remind t h e r e a d e r o f the c o n s t a n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o use f r e e w i l l ,  to free  o n e s e l f from d e s t r u c t i v e o r immoral s i t u a t i o n s and demands, w h i c h a l l i n d i v i d u a l s possess but w h i c h t h e child particularly utilizes.  I n showing how the young  iii p r o t a g o n i s t r e s o l v e s h i s c o n f l i c t , t h e n , F a u l k n e r seems to he making a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t statement on i n d i v i d u a l i s m and c o n f o r m i t y , man  both  and the s o c i a l  codes.  In t h i s t h e s i s I have d i s c u s s e d s e v e r a l of F a u l k n e r ' s young people i n terms of the p a r t i c u l a r codes v/hich they encounter.  These I have c a l l e d The F a m i l i a l Code, The  R e l i g i o u s Code, The R a c i a l Code and She  C h i v a l r i c Code.  The o r d e r i n v/hich these codes are p r e s e n t e d i s determined f i r s t l y by the o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y might be encountered a c h i l d as he grows up.  They r e p r e s e n t , i n o t h e r words,  a c o n s t a n t movement outward from almost e m o t i o n a l responses  by  instinctive  t o h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and  idealistic  concepts.  At the same t i m e , I move towards codes of major  importance  i n F a u l k n e r ' s w r i t i n g — T h e R a c i a l and  C o d e s — p l a c i n g the most emphasis on them by  Chivalric  examining  i n g r e a t e r depth those works i n w h i c h they o c c u r .  iv  TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter I. II. III.. IV.  Page  INTRODUCTION  .  1  THE FAMILIAL COLE  12  THE RELIGIOUS CODE  21  THE RACIAL CODE  48  V... THE CHIVALRIC CODE VI.. CONCLUSION.  . . . . . . . .  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  71 151 161  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION In W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r ' s n o v e l I n t r u d e r i n t h e Dust, a statement i s m a d e — f i r s t by an o l d Negro, t h e n i n s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n hy an o l d w h i t e woman—which hears c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h F a u l k n e r ' s work as a whole: I f you g o t something o u t s i & e the common run t h a t ' s g o t t o he done and cant w a i t , dont waste y o u r time" on the menfolk's; t h e y works on...the r u l e s and c a s e s . Get the womens and c h i l d r e n a t i t ; they works on t h e circumstances.- - ( I t a l i c s F a u l k n e r ' s ) 1  T h i s statement i s shown t o he t r u e i n the n o v e l , f o r i t i s two young hoys and an o l d woman who go t o t h e t r o u b l e o f f i n d i n g o u t whether o r n o t an accused N e g r o — L u c a s i s a c t u a l l y g u i l t y o f m u r d e r i n g a w h i t e man.  Beauchamp—  They go ahead  w i t h t h e i r r a t h e r b i z a r r e e n d e a v o r — t h e d i g g i n g up o f t h e dead man i n o r d e r t o check what k i n d o f gun he was k i l l e d w i t h — e v e n though most o f t h e men o f t h e community have a l r e a d y judged t h e Negro t o be g u i l t y and a r e p r e p a r e d t o l y n c h him. The community's response i s based on more t h a n j u s t t h e a n g e r , g r i e f , and shock w h i c h a murder g e n e r a l l y the  elicits:  f a c t t h a t the accused man i s a Negro, and a Negro who  has a r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e f u s i n g t o behave as a Negro s h o u l d , b r i n g s t h e murder i n t o t h e r e a l m o f r a c i a l codes, r a t h e r t h a n l e g a l ones.  As l a w y e r Gavin Stevens s a y s ,  "'"(New Y o r k : Random House, 1948), p. 112. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s book a r e from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a f t e r each q u o t a t i o n .  2  "....now the white people w i l l take him out and burn him, a l l regular and i n order and themselves acting exactly as they are convinced Lucas would wish them to act: like white folks; both of them observing explicitly the rules: the nigger acting like a nigger and the white folks acting like white folks and no real hard feelings on either side...once the fury i s over....Which proves again how no man can cause more grief than that one clinging blindly to the vices of his ancestors" (pp 48-49). It is against these "rules", these inherited vices which are part of the racial code of his society, that young Chick Mallison acts.  Unlike Aleck Sander he has no racial  ties to Lucas Be§uchamp.  Nor does he feel the kind of  emotional involvement Miss Habersham feels because of her childhood relationship with Lucas' wife.  He owes Lucas  nothing; he does not particularly like him; he even believes that Lucas is probably guilty of the murder.  However, he  does what Lucas asks because he feels that "he alone of a l l the white people Lucas w i l l  have a chance to speak  to between now and the moment when  Lucas might be dragged  out of the c e l l and down the stairs at the end of a rope, will  hear the mute unhoping urgency of the eyes" (pp 68-69).  For Chick, apart from the excitement and the sheer momentum which sweeps him along i n the endeavor once he has started i t , the whole matter is one of coming to grips with a strange feeling he has had for years about his relationship to Lucas. He is one of the few who can help Lucas now, because despite his upbringing as a Southern white child, his attitudes toward Negroes—in this case Lucas—are s t i l l uncertain  5 because he is s t i l l involved in questioning and testing the rules, codes and actions of his elders; i n other words, because he is a child. Cleanth Brooks, i n his study of Faulkner's works  x  remarks that, like Wordsworth, "Faulkner makes much of the special qualities to be found i n children and peasants, both black and white, and i n idiots".  Mr. Brooks sees  this as part of Faulkner's "primitivism", i n the sense that these individuals, whom Faulkner seems to admire, "are simple in mind and s p i r i t and have managed to maintain the kind of wholeness and integrity that we associate with childlike sincerity and lack of duplicity".^  However, a  close examination of the novels i n which children play a major role w i l l reveal that Faulkner's use of the child goes beyond merely his recognition of these particular qualities and is not a simple matter of equating the child character with Innocence.  The child serves a more definite,  complex purpose. Unlike most of Faulkner's idiots and peasants,  the  child seldom appears as a character "at rest" within his environment, accepting, enduring, ignoring, or remaining unaware of i t s conflicts.  As is generally true, the child's  very nature as a developing individual means that he is i n a state of flux and change and consequently stands in a ^Cleanth Brooks, William Faulkner; The Yoknapatawpha Country, (Yale University Press: 1963), p. 36. ^Brooks, Yoknapatawpha, p. 37.  4  unique relationship to the society around him.  His  reactions are not as predictable as those of an adult because he has not yet learned and settled into the regular patterns of behavior.  His position in society, as  a novice or apprentice, rather than a f u l l and responsible member, places him slightly outside the society, yet under i t s influence i n a way which a v i s i t o r , a real outsider, would not experience.  Such a position, combined with the  naivete which children generally show because they lack a f u l l experience of l i f e , gives the child a special point of view of his society. Of course, Faulkner is not by any means the f i r s t writer to realize the advantages of presenting a society through the eyes of a child.  Mark Twain did this i n The Adventures  of Huckleberry Finn and (to present a more contemporary example), J.D. Salinger did i t i n Catcher i n the Rye. However, both these writers, like many others who have used the "innocent eye" technique, seem to have had as their main aim a criticism of some aspect of society, with the naivete and honesty of the child or young person serving to emphasize the e v i l , dishonesty or hypocrisy of the adults who make up that society. Faulkner occasionally does use the figure of the child as means of contrasting innocence with experience.  His  last novel, The Reivers, projects a naif into the world of Memphis brothels and race-tracks, and makes some interesting  5 comments on both naivete and the lack of naivete.  In "That  Evening Sun", the central irony comes from the fact that the Compson children are unaware of the frightening situation in which their Negro servant, Nancy, finds herself.  Never-  theless, in neither of these cases does the role of the child imply a criticism of adult society so much as provide a means of exploring human nature in child and adult. Faulkner's purpose appears to be something other than social criticism, although readers often interpret i t as such because of his exposure of some of the less favorable aspects of human nature and Southern society.  Certainly he  is very much aware of the evils in society and the evil impulses within human beings.  To him, however, understanding  the evils and their origins, rather than merely pointing them out or deploring them, seems to be of primary importance. And he is not attempting to understand only the evil aspects of society: he is equally interested in exploring and attempting to explain the more positive aspects. For this purpose, the child is a valuable protagonist in a novel or short story, for the child is already very much involved i n the process of trying to understand his society and can quite naturally take on the role of explorer or questioner.  The child's learning about the world around  him becomes a vehicle for presenting what Faulkner himself has discovered.  Moreover, the reader, led by the child's  process of discovery, is brought to re-examine, or even see for the f i r s t time, the forces and laws which govern man's l i f e i n society.  6 The s o c i e t y w h i c h  the  child  diverse  elements  and the  society  may t a k e  many f o r m s .  m e r e l y a day by d a y , as  they  present  minimal.  It  what r i g i d  of his  Usually  these  accepted having  that  to  demand  books,  they  inescapable:  They a r e whose  more l i k e l y  sources  written  laws,  are  fact.  Part  appeal  to  members. just  to for  the  their  sources.  which  role there  child  the  seldom kept  up t o  is  laws  of  world,  really  about  must  no r e a d y  the  out.  most  the  on l o g i c  or  their  strong  society's sprung  child,  him and an  struggle  to  and  Unlike  comes f r o m  reasons,  world  avoid  i f he  date w i t h  or imaginations o f the  of the  widely  attitudes  past.  always based  indeed,  occurs.  seldom w r i t t e n  womewhere i n t h e  For these  some-  cannot  be f o u n d i n p r e v a l e n t  they  his  the  and  actual  i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , have  i n that are  the  conduct are  force,  emotions  questioner  a full  are  of  c a n be f o u n d i n s t a t u t e s  Nor are  They may,  those  curious  of  established  Yet, unlike  to  lost  they  changing times.  so w e l l  of social  are  conflict  them i n one way o r a n o t h e r  society.  rules  aspects  belief—often at  are  country, which  the  circumstances  a p r e s c r i b e d and  patterns are  involves  encountered  beliefs—that  of  that  experience  problems  behavior or or  made u p  a c t i n g upon  conformity to  of  deal with  and  Where h i s  the  is  experience w i t h i n  comes up a g a i n s t  own d e s i r e s  be a member o f court  themselves,  pattern  expense  child's  spontaneous  i s when he  society which  confronts  with  explanations  from as  a  apprentice problems and  against  7 concepts which appear to he amorphous and yet have, paradoxically, a l l the effects and demands of a s t r i c t code. What are these unwritten codes which the child confronts?  There are, of course, many of them.  Some, such  as the familial code, the spiritual code, or the sexual code, are to he found in almost any society.  Others, like  the racial code and the chivalric code, are more relevant to the society of the southern United States.  However, in  focussing his intention on the south and in particular on that mythical area of Mississippi he has called Yoknapatawpha County, Faulkner shows that even such codes as the f a m i l i a l , spiritual and sexual are subject to the peculiar forces—geographical, h i s t o r i c a l , sociological-of the South. The child's situation may, of course, contain within i t elements of more than one of these codes.  For example,  i n The Sound and The Fury, Quentin is most certainly involved with a conflict caused by his family: the fact that Caddy is his sister creates i n him a stronger emotional reaction to her promiscuity than i f she were merely an acquaintance.  His insistence to his father that he and  Caddy have committed incest would suggest that the sexual code also i a involved.  Faulkner's mention of Quentin's  "presbyterian concept" of eternal punishment because of this imaginary incestuous union would bring in the religious or spiritual code Quentin has been brought up under. However, Faulkner makes quite clear in his appendix to the  8  novel that Quentin's main obsession is "not his sister's body but some concept of Compson honor precariously and (he knew) only temporarily supported by the minute fragile membrane of her maidenhead"4- and since I see this concept of honor to be a part of what I c a l l the "Southern chivalric code", Quentin w i l l be considered under the section of this paper dealing with that code.  Such a process of  isolating codes is not meant to imply that the situations which Faulkner's children are i n can be oversimplified. It is merely a means of attempting to clarify what each of the major codes i s , i n order to better understand the complexity of the conflict when several of these codes are involved.  Moreover, this paper is not intended to be  a comprehensive treatment of each work mentioned: such a treatment would demand more space than is available here. Although Faulkner does write about the spontaneous individual reaction and occasionally shows the child as an individual oblivious to the social codes of his society, i t is in' these cases where the child confronts one of the codes that he appears to be most interested.  Most of his  stories and novels dealing with children present such a situation. How the child reacts under these circumstances depends on both the nature of the circumstances and the personality of the child.  He may accept the social codes completely  ^The Sound and the Fury. (New York: Random House, 1946), p. 9.  9  or i n part.  He may totally reject them, or reject those  aspects which he cannot accept.  He may he caught i n the  conflict between the code and his own feelings and not be able to do anything decisive about the matter.  He may  even be the victim of the destructive forces of the code. It is in those instances where the child becomes a victim that Faulkner's difference from the naturalists is most clearly seen, for seldom is victimization unavoidable or deterministic.  The character himself may feel that he  i s doomed by forces greater than himself, but the reader can usually discover not only that the situation is an individual one and not necessarily true of society i n general, but also that the individual himself is responsible (to one degree or another) for it—or for not escaping it.  What is more important, the possibility nearly always  exists for salvation, escape, or rescue. There are, of course, some truly hopeless cases. Surely Benjy Compson had no responsibility for his being born an idiot and can do nothing about escaping his state. And i n other cases the influences working on the individual seem to stem from a time before his birth or originate i n his racial or psychological makeup.  Faulkner would not be  a realist i f he did not suggest that there are often i n explicable, unfortunate, and irrevocable situations i n l i f e . But to conclude, as some c r i t i c s have done, that Faulkner's treatment of his characters shows a strong Calvinistic sense  10  of predestination or fatalism, with the individual caught i n a web of helplessness or moved like a chess-piece by some whimsical hand of Pate, is to see Faulkner's view of man as more negative than i t i s .  As he himself has said,  most individuals are a l i t t l e bit better than their c i r cumstances would suggest they be.  It i s , i n fact, in  these novels and stories which use children as central characters that the reader is most often made aware of Faulkner's affirmation of the individual's a b i l i t y to determine his own destiny.  To say that men are what they  think they are is far less grim a philosophy than to say that they are what they cannot help but be, and Faulkner's philosophy, when summed up by the reader after an examination of the whole of his writing and not just of isolated works, seems to be strongly i n favor of the former view.  Faulkner  appears to be saying that whatever the conflicts and evils are i n society, the means of at least dealing with them with free w i l l and hope of a satisfactory result is available for the individual.  Such a means often involves a struggle  or a personal sacrifice, but there is a triumph i n both. If, as Wordsworth believed, the child is father of the man, then what the child protagonist learns i n his struggle with the social codes is of extreme relevance to the adult as well.  Nor does the fact that Faulkner is dealing, in the  f i r s t instance, with the codes of the South limit the conclusions to be drawn from his writing. Yoknapatawpha  11  County is the world i n microcosm.  Although what Faulkner  shows the reader is of immediate value i n understanding the Southern situation, i t is not difficult to enlarge this vision to aid i n one's understanding of the human situation i n general.  The relationship of man to the society he lives  i n , the conflict between individualism and conformity, the dangers involved i n both conservativism and liberalism: these themes are illustrated i n Faulkner's stories of children and their confrontation with social codes. The following chapters w i l l attempt to determine, i n more detail (and yet, hopefully, i n a more comprehensive fashion), what these codes are, what alternatives are open to the child in dealing with these codes, and what the reader can assume that the child's choice of alternatives shows about Faulkner's view of man in society.  12 CHAPTER TWO THE FAMILIAL COLE Certainly one of the most basic human allegiances  is  to the family unit, perhaps because the family is the f i r s t "society" which the individual experiences.  Whatever the  nature of the family, i t exerts a powerful influence over the child, and in most cases determines his responses to the rest of society.  It is here that many of society's social and  moral codes are learned, either through instruction, or example.  Moreover, the family i t s e l f , with i t s demands of  loyalty and love, and i t s complex patterns of interrelationships between members, presents a code of behavior to the child. Every normal child must, as a part of his maturation, learn to cope with this code and reach a compromise with i t . He must develop as an individual within a unit "and eventually separate himself from that unit to pursue an individual form of existence.  Such a separation can occur quite naturally,  but when the family hold is particularly strong, or i t s demands unreasonable, or the individual himself weak, the process of separation may involve a painful struggle. Nearly a l l of the children i n Faulkner*s work, because of their being members of a family unit, experience the familial code to one degree or another.-*  -  Like most of the  lOne exception who comes to mind is young Otis, the nephew of the prostitute i n The Reivers. If anything, he exhibits the results of a lack of family background which ^ould have given him contact with the moral codes of society.  13 codes to be considered i n this paper, i t is only one of the inherited situations which the child must face.  However,  for some children the familial code provides the main source of conflict.  This is true, for example, i n the short story  "Barn Burning", where the reader is told in the opening paragraph that ten year old Sarty Snopes is f i l l e d with "The sense and smell - just a l i t t l e of fear because mostly of despair 2 and grief, the old fierce pull of blood".  The repetition  throughout the story of the words "despair" and "grief" emphasizes Sarty's feelings towards his situation.  He is torn  f  between loyalty to his family—particularly his father, Ab Snopes—and his own half-formed sense of what is right: between the "pull of blood" which represents to him the only order and meaning his young l i f e has knownj and the pull of his own growing perception of another type of order and meaning in the universe, one which f i l l s him with the emotions of "peace" and "joy" rather than those of fear and unhappiness.  As he  himself sees i t , he is being "pulled two ways like between two teams of horses" (p. 18).  As Marvin Fisher points out,  even Sarty's f u l l name—Colonel Sartoris Snopes—indicates the conflict of motives within him.^  The conflict i s  accentuated, by Ab Snopes fierce pride and unlawful actions, ^William Faulkner, "Barn Burning", Selected Short Stories of William Faulkner, (Hew York: Random House Modern library Edition, 1962), p. 3. A l l future page references are also from this edition and w i l l be placed i n parentheses after the quotation. •7. "World of Faulkner's Children". (Urrirversity of Kansas City Review: Autumn, I960), p. 15. 1  14 which f o r c e the f a m i l y to stand a p a r t from and normal s o c i e t y .  A l l those who  become h i s enemies and,  i n j u r e Snopes' p r i d e  because of the i n t e n s e  demands of h i s f a m i l y , t h e i r enemies t o o . S a r t y t h i n k s , as he watches the case a g a i n s t Ab h i s n bothl  He's  For Ab  judge who  my  father1"  (p.  i s hearing  does not even have to l o o k a t him:  Sarty knows t h a t His  the boy's duty "He  (p. 5 ) .  aims f o r me  L a t e r , Ab  h i s awareness of the boy's c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g i t f o r him  of  Faced w i t h  , a g a i n w i t h t h a t f r a n t i c g r i e f and  I w i l l have to do h i t l "  and  3.).  he must a c t i n accordance w i t h such a code.  Sarty t h i n k s  a  Mine  Snopes' f a m i l y , the most powerful aspect  be a matter of automatic a c t i o n .  he  enemy",  Snopes f o r barn burning, "ournl  h a v i n g to t e s t i f y a t h i s f a t h e r ' s t r i a l ,  reiterates  loyalty  "Our  the f a m i l i a l code i s t h i s sense of l o y a l t y .  And  against  father should to l i e , despair.  Snopes shows the  code,  forcefully:  "You were f i x i n g to t e l l them. You would have t o l d him." He d i d n ' t answer. His f a t h e r s t r u c k him.-with the f l a t of h i s hand on the s i d e o f the head, hard but without h e a t , e x a c t l y as he had s t r u c k the two mules a t the s t o r e . . . h i s v o i c e s t i l l without heat or anger: "You're g e t t i n g to be a man. You got to l e a r n . You got to s t i c k to your own blood or you a i n ' t going to have any blood to s t i c k to you. Do you t h i n k e i t h e r of them, any man there t h i s morning, would? Don't you know a l l they wanted was a chance to get a t me because they knew I had them beat? Eh? (p. 9 )  and  15 And Sarty t r i e s to appear l o y a l .  In f a c t , he throws him-  s e l f passionately into demonstrations and statements of l o y a l t y , as i f i n doing so he w i l l he able to not only convince h i s father, but convince himself, that he stands unquestioningly on the side of the family and against the r e s t of society.  When a town boy c a l l s Snopes a barn  burner, Sarty f i g h t s him i n a kind of blind frenzy; when Major deSpain accuses Snopes of deliberately ruining an expensive rug and says he w i l l charge him twenty bushels of corn f o r i t as r e t r i b u t i o n , Sarty t r i e s desperately to see h i s father as victim rather than c u l p r i t , and 3iow h i s allegience to him: Suddenly the boy went toward him, f a s t , stopping as suddenly. "You done the best you c o u l d i " he c r i e d . "If he wanted h i t done d i f f e r e n t why didn't he wait and t e l l you how? He won't g i t no twenty bushels! He won't g i t none'. We'll get h i t and hide i t i I k i n watch..."(p. 1 7 ) . In order to reinforce what he f e e l s i s a slackening of Sarty's adherence to the family code, Ab Snopes attempts to involve h i s son more d i r e c t l y i n h i s f i e r c e defiance of society.  Both times he goes to the deSpain house he takes  Sarty with him rather than h i s elder son, and both times he exhibits before the boy h i s contempt and lack of respect f o r a l l that deSpain and h i s class represent.  I t i s as  i f he wishes to impress on the boy t h e i r shared involvement and g u i l t — a s "blood k i n " — i n the whole incident of the ruined rug.  16 Unwittingly, however, i n taking Sarty with him Snopes exposes him to an alternate way of l i f e , as symbolized by deSpain's enormous white manor-house.  In  contrast to the terror, grief and despair felt i n connection with his father's way of l i f e , Sarty feels a "surge of peace and joy" when he views the house.  "Hit's big as  a courthouse", he thinks, and the simile is significant: the way of l i f e which deSpain represents is for Sarty a part of the dignity, justice, order and law which a courthouse represents. At this moment, the imagery which Faulkner uses i n regard to Ab Snopes (apparently as part of Sarty's unconscious associations),  coalesces, showing Sarty's sudden  awareness of the contrast between his father and deSpain. Ab Snopes has been described repeatedly i n terms of t i n , "without face or depth—a shape black, flat and bloddless as though cut from t i n . . . t h e voice harsh like t i n and without heat like tin" (pp. 8-9).  In contrast now, Sarty  sees his father, against "the serene columned backdrop", as having "more than ever that impervious quality of something cut ruthlessly from t i n , depthless, as though, sidewise, to the sun, i t would cast no shadow" (p. 11).  It  i s as i f at this moment Sarty realizes that the way of l i f e his father represents is also as valueless and depthless as t i n .  He also sees his father now as a wasp, an  insect, rather than an object of fear.  In comparison to  people like deSpain—"people whose lives are a part of this peace and dignity" which the house represents—his father appears as "no more...than a buzzing wasp: capable of stinging for a moment but that's a l l " (p. 11).  Such  an image is continued a few lines later when the boy notices that his father's coat has "that friction-glazed greenish cast of the bodies of old house flies" (p. 12). It is after this moment of awareness that Sarty allows himself his f i r s t conscious thoughts concerning his father's nature: "May be he w i l l feel i t too.  Maybe i t w i l l even  change him now from what maybe he couldn't help but be" (p.12) In this unspoken statement, Sarty shows not only that he feels his father's actions are undesirable, but that he is beginning to take a more objective view of him. Major deSpain's house i n i t s e l f , apart from i t s symbolic air of peace and dignity, forms a contrast, with i t s "suave turn of carpeted stair" and "pendant g l i t t e r of chandeliers" and "mute gleam of gold frames", to the "paintless two-rrom house" in which the Snopes family must live.  Mrs. deSpain is a lady "in a gray, smooth gown with  lace at the throat", quite different from Sarty's "big, bovine" sisters i n their "flutter of cheap ribbons". DeSpain himself is dressed i n linen with a collar and a cravat, and rides a sorrel mare; Ab Snopes wears a s t i f f , old coat of broadcloth and rides a mule. cannot be unnoticed by Sarty.  Such contrasts  Most poignant, however is  18 the c o n t r a s t i n S a r t y ' s mind between t h e permanence and s e c u r i t y i n v o l v e d even i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f l i v e s t o c k pens o r p l o w i n g t h e r i c h l a n d w h i c h h i s f a t h e r r e n t s from d e S p a i n , and t h e i n e v i t a b l e moving from one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r , w i t h little  chance t o f e e l a t home anywhere, w h i c h t h e Snopes  f a m i l y has been f o r c e d t o do. D e s p i t e h i s growing awareness o f these c o n t r a s t s , S a r t y ' s c o n f l i c t does n o t become any l e s s . w h i c h he which  The " o l d b l o o d  has n o t been p e r m i t t e d t o choose f o r h i m s e l f ,  has been bequeathed him w i l l y n i l l y "  a bond w h i c h i s h a r d t o b r e a k .  ( p . 2 3 ) , forms  I n a sense S a r t y n e v e r does  make t h e c h o i c e between t h e code o f h i s f a m i l y and h i s own sense o f j u s t i c e : h i s f i n a l a c t i o n i_s a b r e a k i n g o f t h e i n e r t i a i n w h i c h g r i e f and d e s p a i r have p l a c e d him, b u t i s more an a t t e m p t a t compromise t h a n a c h o i c e - m a k i n g .  When  he l e a r n s t h a t h i s f a t h e r i s i n t e n d i n g t o burn deSpain's b a r n , S a r t y t r i e s t o s a t i s f y b o t h o f t h e demands w i t h i n h i s c o n s c i e n c e : he r u s h e s t o warn de S p a i n , and t h e n heads f o r the b a r n t o v/arn h i s f a t h e r o f deSpain's a p p r o a c h . he cannot r e a c h h i s f a t h e r i n t i m e .  However,  Even as he i s r u n n i n g  down t h e d r i v e toward t h e b a r n he sees t h e f l a m e s a g a i n s t t h e s k y , "a l o n g s w i r l i n g r o a r i n c r e d i b l e and s o u n d l e s s , b l o t t i n g the s t a r s " ; he i s passed by d e S p a i n ; he h e a r s t h e sound o f shots.  I t i s a t t h i s moment t h a t h i s g r i e f and d e s p a i r r e a c h  t h e i r peak, f o r he r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e f a m i l i a l code o f l o y a l t y has been broken d e s p i t e h i s e f f o r t s t o u p h o l d i t and s a t i s f y h i s own sense o f what i s r i g h t .  19  The reader may applaud Sarty's action i n warning deSpain, but for the boy this action is not immediately apparent as a positive one.  It has cut him adrift from  his familial heritage—such as i t is—and for the time being he is without any other form of security and order. However, subconsciously the whole incident has brought him to a higher level of maturity.  It is significant that  as he i s running down the road he changes his way of addressing his father, beginning with "Pap . Pap .'.' and 1  1  concluding, when he realizes that i t is too late for him to reach Snopes, with "Father! Father!", as i f the running i t s e l f is a kind of symbolic flight from childhood into maturity.  Faulkner i s , of course, too aware of the truths  of human nature to have the change i n Sarty occur instantaneously.  Sitting on a h i l l above the deSpain land,  Sarty makes one last effort at adhering to the code of family loyalty, feeling "no longer terror and fear but just grief and despair": Father. My father, he thought. "He was brave!" he cried suddenly, aloud but not loud, no more than a whisper. "He was! He was i n the war! He was i n Colonel Sartoris' cav'ry!" (pp. 26-27). The last paragraph of the story clearly indicates however, that Sarty w i l l not return to his family.  He sits with his  back toward "what he had. called home for four days anyhow"; he faces the "dark woods", symbolic of the unknown and even frightening world which l i e s ahead of him now that he i s on  20 h i s own.  The  c o l d and  the s t i f f n e s s w h i c h he f e e l s — b o t h  r e m i n i s c e n t f o r the r e a d e r of the q u a l i t i e s w h i c h have been r e p e a t e d l y a t t r i b u t e d to Snopes, and t h e r e f o r e  suggesting  s y m b o l i c a l l y those a s p e c t s o f S a r t y ' s p e r s o n a l i t y o r memory w h i c h s t i l l bear the mark o f h i s f a t h e r — w i l l be the w a l k ahead of him.  And  "cured"  as he s t a r t s down the h i l l  by  towards  the d a r k woods, " w i t h i n w h i c h the l i q u i d s i l v e r v o i c e s of the birds new  call  way  unceasingly"  (p. 2 7 ) , as i f c a l l i n g him t o some  o f l i f e more b e a u t i f u l and v a l u a b l e than the one  he  has l e f t , he does n o t l o o k back. F o r S a r t y the break w i t h the f a m i l i a l code has had p o s i t i v e e f f e c t , even though he i s not f u l l y aware of f a c t a t the end o f the s t o r y .  However, F a u l k n e r has  t h a t such a break i s n o t an easy one, and does not  this shown  totally  erase the g r i e f and d e s p a i r w h i c h the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s e l f may  have caused the i n d i v i d u a l .  a  it-  W i t h i n the f a m i l y u n i t ,  the g r i e f and d e s p a i r a r i s e p a r t l y from the sense o f h e l p l e s s n e s s w h i c h the c h i l d f e e l s because o f h i s y o u t h and h i s s u b j e c t i o n to h i s p a r e n t s ' d e s i r e s , and p a r t l y from h i s growing awareness o f the f a c t t h a t h i s p a r e n t s a r e n o t as  infallible,  i n v u l n e r a b l e and  A f t e r the  " a b s o l u t e " , as he once thought.  break v / i t h the f a m i l y , the c h i l d ' s g r i e f and d e s p a i r a r e a p a r t of h i s sense o f "not b e l o n g i n g " any more, and of h i s a u n c o n s c i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the w o r l d o u t s i d e the r e a l m s of any s o c i a l c o d e — f a m i l i a l o r o t h e r w i s e — i s a l o n e l y no-man'sland.  F a u l k n e r seems to be c l e a r l y s a y i n g t h a t the  o f such a code, t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d nor underestimated  in i t s difficulty.  breaking lightly  21 CHAPTER THREE THE RELIGIOUS CODE The family may form a kind of society i n microcosm, but i t is nevertheless a limited one from which the individual must emerge, at some point i n his maturation, i n order to join the larger society outside the family c i r c l e .  His  sense of identity and belonging within the small family group must expand to become a sense of identity and belonging within the community, the country, the world.  Religious  training of some sort can help to bridge the two states of existence, primarily because the moral dictates accompanying religious beliefs are intended to control and direct the individual's performance i n his relationship to other human beings as well as in his relationship to nature or his gods. The religious code can be said to be much like the family code writ large, in that both codes demand certain loyalties,  and preserve certain hierarchical patterns.  The  individual's already-instilled emotional responses towards his family are, i n a sense, expanded, universalized, and made mystical.  conceptualized,  He begins to see himself  as a member of the family of man, sharing a common origin and fate with other human beings because of their shared relationship to some constant Being in the outside world which, father-like, controls or teaches or judges or destroys or creates.  22 This i s , of course, a very g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of b o t h r e l i g i o n and the r e l i g i o u s  code.  Generally speaking,  when one r e f e r s t o t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y N o r t h America*! r e l i g i o n he i s apeaking of C h r i s t i a n i t y of i t s v a r i o u s s e c t s . the  religious  i n one o r a n o t h e r  I n t h i s c a s e , one can see t h a t  code i s p a r t i a l l y a f o r m a l s e t o f Chruch  dogmas, and p a r t i a l l y the p o p u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s dogma i n everyday  life.  As one might e x p e c t , F a u l k n e r g e n e r a l l y d e a l s w i t h the sects of C h r i s t i a n i t y Mississippi.  found i n the South, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  F o r the most p a r t , the  institutionalized  a s p e c t of r e l i g i o n does n o t c o n c e r n him: i t remains somewhere i n the background, u n d e r s t o o d to be p a r t o f the l i v e s o f many o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s but n o t o f t e n discussed.  directly  What he seems t o be more concerned w i t h i s the  p o p u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of the m o r a l views s e t by the Church, and the i n f l u e n c e these views have on the i n d i v i d u a l .  In  The Sound and The F u r y , D i l s e y o b v i o u s l y g a i n s some o f h e r s t r e n g t h and a b i l i t y to endure from h e r r e l i g i o u s i n The Unvanquished, Rosa M i l l a r d "stealing"  beliefs;  t r i e s to r e c o n c i l e h e r  of Union army mules w i t h the m o r a l d i c t a t e s o f  the  Church.  the  sense t h a t F a u l k n e r i s c r i t i c i z i n g the Church i n any  way. in  I n n e i t h e r o f these cases does the r e a d e r g e t  I t remains a c o n s t a n t and a r e l a t i v e l y p o s i t i v e f o r c e society..  23 In less  Light  i n August,'*'  a t t r a c t i v e view of r e l i g i o n , the f a n a t i c a l or  side,  which, rather than g i v i n g  t r a i n i n g him to r e a c h h i s being,  giving  necessary  part  greatest  of h i s  desires  spontaneous  s t e r n and r e l e n t l e s s To s t r e s s  this  i n order to  Van 0'Conner n o t e s  that  to  "The U . S .  saying  or  the  distortion  the d i c t a t e s  He g o e s on t o  a small  sect:  of  figures  group i n  he  the  doctrine.  and t h e  William show  that  Mississippi,  Presbyterians  t r y t o e x p l a i n why F a u l k n e r  Jefferson Presbyterian  that i n doing  i n t r o d u c e the d o c t r i n e s of  Christianity,  Census  the l a r g e s t  "make t h e community o f  of  Calvinist  the second l a r g e s t ,  a small m i n o r i t y " .  Calvinistic",  aspect  i n the South,  a r e by f a r  the Methodists  suit  a  discipline.  P r e s b y t e r i a n Church, with i t s  would  a human  toward  and t h e s u b m i s s i o n  negative  u p o n what i s ,  the B a p t i s t s  strength,  p o t e n t i a l as  o f a u n i v e r s a l p a t t e r n , works spirit  focuses  the i n d i v i d u a l  a  rigid  him peace o f m i n d , o r making him f e e l  destruction of h i s  a  however, F a u l k n e r p r e s e n t s  so F a u l k n e r was  or able  p r e d e s t i n a t i o n and m a n ' s  2 total  depravity. T h i s r e a s o n may be v a l i d  Faulkner i s  showing  i n Light  i n a l i m i t e d sense,  in  that  i n August the e f f e c t s of  a b e l i e f i n p r e d e s t i n a t i o n on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s  such  who h o l d  it  ( N e w Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1932). A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n parentheses a f t e r the q u o t a t i o n . 1  ^William Faulkner. (University M i n n e a p o l i s , 1959), p . 22.  of Minnesota  Press:  24  or try to live in a society which holds i t .  However, the  major purpose in focusing on a small sect of Christianity would seem to he rather to make a distinction between Christianity as a whole, and the various sects of Christianity which represent and stress only part of the whole doctrine. In other words, he is not condemning a l l of Christianity, but only those destructive aspects of i t , and Calvinism becomes a vehicle for showing the embodiment of these aspects i n an orthodoxy.  When he seems to show, in the  Reverend Hightower's thoughts, a view of a l l the Southern churches as having this destructive impulse, he seems to be implying that i t is not only Calvinism which is guilty of this: he works back again, therefore, to make a comment on aspects of the whole of Christianity i t s e l f , having sufficiently shown that-this negative quality is not the main part of Christianity. Joe Christmas, the protagonist, has the i n i t i a l misfortune of being born to the daughter of Eupheus Hines, a half-mad man who obsessively believes himself the instrument of a "God of wrathful hosts" whose "vengeful w i l l " and purpose must be carried out in a corrupt world.  Prom the  beginning the reader can see the destructiveness  of such  a religious view.  Acting on i t , Hines f i r s t k i l l s his  daughter's lover, who is reportedly part Negro, and then allows his daughter to die in childbed because she i s , in his mind, a symbol of sin and corruption, of "God's abomination of womanflesh" (p. 3 2 7 ) .  later in the novel  25  he t r i e s t o s t i r up  the people of J e f f e r s o n t o l y n c h h i s  g r a n d s o n , whom he a l s o f e e l s t o he n a r k e d w i t h s i n . W h e t h e r Joe C h r i s t m a s ' e v e n t u a l m u t i l a t i o n and d e a t h a t the hands of  a l y n c h mob  i s a r e s u l t of t h i s attempt  c a n be h e l d p a r t i a l l y  responsible;  or not,  i f he h a s n o t  Hines  actually  d e s t r o y e d J o e p h y s i c a l l y , he h a s c e r t a i n l y h e l p e d i n d e s t r o y i n g him  psychologically.  A s F a u l k n e r s a y s , "Memory b e l i e v e s b e f o r e k n o w i n g remembers. B e l i e v e s l o n g e r t h a n r e c o l l e c t s , l o n g e r t h a n knowing even wonders" (p.104). takes p l a c e i n the f i r s t c a n c e r t a i n l y n o t be H a r d l y "a hundred  Hines*  i n f l u e n c e on  Joe  f i v e years of the boy's l i f e  seen as a f o r m a l p a t t e r n o f  and  learning.  w o r d s " p a s s e s b e t w e e n t h e o l d e r man  and  t h e c h i l d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . Yet Joe senses not o n l y H i n e s ' f e e l i n g s about him, but the d e t e r m i n i s t i c r e l i g i o u s behind those f e e l i n g s .  Moreover,  Joe's r a c i a l  belief  conflict  seems t o s t e m f r o m H i n e s ' v i e w o f t h e N e g r o r a c e a s cursed.  Through a p r o c e s s of s u b t l e , almost  a p p r e h e n s i o n , the boy alienation, guilt and  intensified In  unconscious  i s instilled with feelings  and p r e d e s t i n a t i o n w h i c h w i l l  i n his later life  and w i l l  inferior,  of be  expanded  lead to h i s death.  t a k i n g Joe t o a n orphanage and g e t t i n g a j o b t h e r e  h i m s e l f , H i n e s b e g i n s t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f God's f o r e - o r d a i n e d W i l l ' . ' By he  s e p a r a t i n g Joe f r o m any k i n d o f f a m i l y l i f e  i s , i n e f f e c t , p u n i s h i n g t h e boy and p u r p o s e l y  him;  by w a t c h i n g h i m f r o m the b o i l e r room o f t h e  or love  isolating orphanage  26 he  h o p e s t o be  m u s t be  on hand t o do,  done t o l e a d t h e b o y  w a t c h i n g o f the boy l a t i o n s h i p to the f e e l that there the if one  a l s o has  a s a n a g e n t o f God, to h i s f a t e .  His  continual  a d i r e c t e f f e c t on J o e ' s r e -  o t h e r c h i l d r e n a t the  orphanage. They  i s something d i f f e r e n t about Joe  c r u e l t y of youth, taunt  whatever  him by  c a l l i n g him  and,  with  "nigger",  i n t u i t i v e l y k n o w i n g t h a t t h i s e p i t h e t i s t h e most d a m a g i n g they can apply  t o him  i n their society,  t h e i r r e a c t i o n a s p a r t o f God's p l a n . l a t e r r e l a t e s , he  i m a g i n e d t h a t God  t h i s t a u n t i n g was  intended  on him.  Hines  I n f a c t , as  Himself  t o make J o e  sees  t o l d him  aware o f the  I t i s H i n e s h i m s e l f , h o w e v e r , who  he that curse  makes a r t i c u l a t e  t h e l i n k b e t w e e n J o e ' s r e j e c t i o n b y h i s p l a y m a t e s and  his  predetermine f a t e : "And o l d Doc H i n e s s a i d t o h i m , 'Why d o n t y o u p l a y w i t h t h e m o t h e r c h i l d r e n l i k e y o u u s e d V. t o ? ' a n d he d i d n t s a y n o t h i n g and o l d Doc Hines s a i d , 'Is i t because they c a l l you n i g g e r ? ' and he d i d n t s a y n o t h i n g and o l d Doc H i n e s s a i d , 'Do y o u t h i n k y o u a r e a n i g g e r b e c a u s e God h a s m a r k e d y o u r f a c e ? ' and he s a i d , ' I s God a n i g g e r t o o ? ' and o l d Doc H i n e s s a i d , 'He i s t h e L o r d God o f w r a t h f u l h o s t s , H i s W i l l be d o n e . N©t y o u r s and m i n e b e c a u s e y o u and me a r e b o t h a p a r t o f H i s p u r p o s e and H i s v e n g e n a c e ' . A n d he w e n t away and o l d Doc H i n e s w a t c h e d h i m h e a r i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o t h e v e n g e f u l w i l l o f the L o r d . . . . " (pp.335-336). Joe  as  himself  i s aware o f H i n e s ' w a t c h i n g him.  As  Faulkner  says: E v e n a t t h r e e y e a r s o f age t h e c h i l d knew t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g b e t w e e n t h e m t h a t d i d n o t n e e d t o be s p o k e n . He knew t h a t he was never on the p l a y g r o u n d f o r an i n s t a n t t h a t t h e man was n o t w a t c h i n g h i m f r o m t h e c h a i r  27  i n the furnace room door, and that the man , was watching him with a profound and unflagging attention. If the child had been older he would perhaps have thought He hates me and fears me. So much so that he cannot let me out of his sight With more vocabulary but no more age he might have thought That is why I am different from the others: because he is watching me a l l the time (pp. 120-121). This awareness not only increases Joe's own sense of his "differences" but makes him somehow feel guilt for being different.  And this differentiation is inextricably bound to  his belief that he is a Negro, even though he apparently does not look like a Negro.  Years later, with no other proof of  his racial origin, he w i l l t e l l a woman that he thinks he has "some nigger blood" i n him.  Believing this and yet never  quite sure of i t , he w i l l never feel quite at home with either race, w i l l never really know who or what he i s . The next stage of his psychological destruction by the destructive forces of religion occurs when he is adopted by Simon McEachern, an uncompromising Calvinistic farmer who t e l l s him, as they leave the orphanage: " . . . . I w i l l have you learn soon that the two abominations are sloth and idle thinking the two virtues are work and the fear of G-od" (p. 126). And, i n truth, i t is "the fear of God" and of himself, rather than any kind of divine or human love, that he impresses upon the boy. McEachern's appearance seem to show those aspects of his religious belief which are dominant.  His hair and beard  have a "hard, vigorous quality"; his eyes are "cold", with  28 a stare "cold and intent and yet not deliberately harsh" (p. 124); his suit is of "hard, decent black"; his overall appearance is "rocklike, indomitable, not so much ungentle as ruthless" (p. 126).  When he f i r s t looks at the boy i t  is with an impersonal a i r , as i f he has been "convinced beforehand that he would see flaws" (p. 124); in a sense this attitude is carried out in his relationship with Joe, as he continually attempts to correct these flaws and even anticipate their manifestation.  Believing in man's innate  and original sinfulness, he can hardly be expected to give Joe a feeling of his own positive qualities and potential. He may mean well in his attempts to discipline and direct the boy's behavior, but his is a sterile approach to l i f e rather than a vitalizing one.  The very fact that his  marriage has produced no children seems to emphasize this sterility.  He t e l l s Joe that "Christmas" is a "heathenish  name", a "sacrilege", and that he w i l l change i t to "McEachern".  Perhaps for him "Christmas" connotes the  birth of a child and suggests the gentle, human qualities of Christ which are not a part of his concept of a god as a stern and demanding taskmaster.  In any case, by  attempting to take Joe's name away from him he is denying the boy individuality, and, since Joe thinks to himself, "My name aint McEachern.  My name is Christmas", he is  causing the boy to take a position of defensive separateness within the family which might have provided him with a sense of belonging.  29  McEachern makes more intense the feelings of guilt which Joe has acquired at the orphanage.  When Joe was not punished  there for stealing the dietitian's toothpaste, and was i n fact given money as i f in reward for what he considered a punishable act, he was left with a sense of unexpiated s i n . Under normal circumstances he might have grown into an awareness of how very slight this sin really was; with proper and reasonable guidance he might have learned, as Lucius Priest learns in The Reivers, that one must live with his sins and bear the burden of their consequences. Instead, under the constant whippings which McEachern gives him for sins he has committed  and sins he is only suspected  of committing, Joe grows to see pain as the only way of relieving his sense of guilt and unworthiness.  In fact,  through pain he i s able to transcend his immediate situation and feel some measure of peace.  As he is being beaten his  face bears a "rapt, calm expression like a monk i n a picture" (p. 131); he resembles "a poet or tower upon which the sentient part of him muses like a hermit, contemplative and remote with ecstasy and selfcrucifixion" (p. 140). As an adult he w i l l appear to deliberately cause himself pain i n his t e l l i n g people that he is a Negro: when they subsequently reject him he w i l l feel contented.  It is as  i f he i s only happy when he is being rejected by others or i s receiving pain from them.  Perhaps his unconscious belief  that he i s marked for God's vengeance makes him feel that  30 t h i s kind of treatment i s h i s f a t e . the  I t i s a l s o , of course,  o n l y form o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p he has ever known,  and t h e r e f o r e the o n l y one i n w h i c h he f e e l s  comfortable.  What Joe cannot a c c e p t i s human k i n d n e s s .  Coldness,  r e j e c t i o n , punishment, he e x p e c t s and can d e a l w i t h ; t h e y cause him t o w i t h d r a w i n t o h i m s e l f i n a k i n d o f d e f i a n t , proud, s t u b b o r n i n v i o l a b i l i t y , w h i l e a t t h e same time d e f i n i n g him as t h e k i n d o f i n d i v i d u a l he has come t o f e e l t h a t he i s .  The k i n d n e s s w h i c h Mrs. McEachern shows him  p i e r c e s t h e s h i e l d o f d e f i a n c e and s e l f - i s o l a t i o n w h i c h he has s e t up between h i m s e l f and t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d .  It  a p p e a l s t o h i s hungry need f o r l o v e and t h e r e f o r e makes him f e e l more v u l n e r a b l e t h a n p a i n does.  Not knowing how  to l o v e e x c e p t when t h a t f e e l i n g i s connected w i t h sexual,", d e s i r e , he r e g a r d s Mrs. McEachern's clumsy but w e l l - m e a n t a t t e m p t s t o l o v e him as some new way t o break him down. "She i s t r y i n g t o make me c r y " , he t h i n k s when she has been k i n d to him and has ever r i s k e d h e r husband's anger i n t a k i n g t h e blame f o r something Joe has done wrong.^ "She was t r y i n g t o make me c r y . had me" ( p . 1 4 7 ) .  Then she t h i n k s t h e y would have  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t l a t e r he w i l l be  a b l e t o a c c e p t Joanna Burden's contemptuous t r e a t m e n t o f h i m , but w i l l r e b e l under h e r a t t e m p t s t o mother h i m . ^One might even see Mrs. McEachern as o p e r a t i n g under the same d e s i r e t o b r i n g down punishment upon h e r s e l f a t t h e hands o f h e r husband. I f s o , t h i s would s t r e s s t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s under t h e C a l v i n i s t i c r e l i g i o u s v i e w s , f o r i n a s e n s e , she seems t o have l i t t l e p l a c e i n h e r husband's l i f e a p a r t from h i s s c o l d i n g o f her.-  31 Even the p o s s i b i l i t y of Joe's g a i n i n g some measure o f h a p p i n e s s or peace of mind t h r o u g h a p u r e l y s e x u a l s h i p w i t h a woman i s d e s t r o y e d  by the i n f l u e n c e of M c E a c h e r n s  p u r i t a n i c a l a t t i t u d e s towards sex. a man  who  has  1  McEachern i s d e s c r i b e d  as  "never committed l e a c h e r y h i m s e l f and...had  n o t once f a i l e d to r e f u s e to l i s t e n to anyone who it"  relation-  t a l k e d about  (p. 1 7 5 ) , so he i s s i n g u l a r l y u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o the i d e a  o f Joe's r e l a t i o n s h i p v/ith a woman.  Moreover, h i s c a l l i n g  the w a i t r e s s , Bobby, a " J e z e b e l " and  " h a r l o t " s i m p l y because  she i s d a n c i n g w i t h Joe would s u g g e s t t h a t he upholds the fundamentalist  C h r i s t i a n view of woman as the c o r r u p t o r , the  cause of man's o r i g i n a l f a l l from God's g r a c e .  In f a c t , i t  does not appear t o occur to him t h a t Joe's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Bobby c o u l d be a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n , or more t h a n , Although to  McEachern i s n o t p r e s e n t e d  as a c t u a l l y  "leachery". preaching  Joe about the e v i l s of sex and women, Joe's responses t o  these t h i n g s show t h a t he has been i n f l u e n c e d by McEachern's a t t i t u d e s t o them. When he i s f o u r t e e n , Joe k i c k s and s t r i k e s a young Negro g i r l i n s t e a d of h a v i n g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h e r . H i s r e a c t i o n i s an i n s t i n c t i v e one,  p a r t of a f e e l i n g  " d r i v e n " h a s t e w h i c h he h i m s e l f does not u n d e r s t a n d .  of He  does n o t c o n s c i o u s l y t h i n k of sex as a s i n w h i l e he i s w a i t i n g t o have h i s t u r n w i t h the g i r l , " s i n c e t o f o u r t e e n the paramount s i n would be to be p u b l i c l y c o n v i c t e d of virginity"  (pp. 136-137), but the i r r a t i o n a l u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  v i o l e n c e he d i r e c t s a t the g i r l s u g g e s t s h i s s t r o n g sense  o f g u i l t and h o r r o r a t t h e s e x u a l d e s i r e he f e e l s w i t h i n h i m s e l f , and t h e u n c o n s c i o u s anger he -feels towards h e r "womansmell".  I t i s as i f he hopes t o d e s t r o y t h e f o r b i d d e n  d e s i r e s o f l u s t fey d e s t r o y i n g  her.^"  When he l e a r n s from a n o t h e r boy about  menstruation,  he seems t o see McEachern's (and H i n e s ) views about t h e 1  i n n a t e s i n f u l n e s s and " u n c l e a n n e s s " o f women as an a c t u a l fact.  W i t h no more p o s i t i v e  context i n which to f i t t h i s  p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , he i s h o r r i f i e d and t r i e s t o purge h i m s e l f o f t h e u g l y and u n c l e a n i d e a by d i p p i n g h i s hands in  the f r e s h blood of a slaughtered  sheep.  I n e f f e c t what  he i s doing a t t h i s p o i n t i s c a r r y i n g o u t a r i t u a l a s a c r i f i c e t o purge h i m s e l f o f u n c l e a n n e s s .  cleansing,  A l t h o u g h he  t h i n k s he has a c c e p t e d t h i s a s p e c t o f womanhood as t r u e , he has r e a l l y t r i e d t o i s o l a t e h i m s e l f from i t , s a y i n g , "All right.  I t i s so, t h e n .  But n o t t o me.  Hot i n my  l i f e and my l o v e " (p. 162).. He cannot escape t h e f a c t , however.  I t i n t r u d e s i n t o h i s l i f e i n t h e form o f Bobby,  the w a i t r e s s , who t e l l s h i m on t h e i r f i r s t date t h a t she is  "sick".  I n t h e d i s g u s t and o u t r a g e he f e e l s when he  r e a l i z e s what she means, he has a v i s i o n o f a d i m i n i s h i n g row o f s u a v e l y shaped u r n s i n m o o n l i g h t , b l a n c h e d . And n o t one was p e r f e c t . Each one was c r a c k e d and from each c r a c k t h e r e i s s u e d something l i q u i d , d e a t h c o l o r e d , and foul. He touched a t r e e , l e a n i n g h i s propped arms a g a i n s t i t , s e e i n g t h e ranked and moonl i t u r n s . He v o m i t e d (p. 165). 4 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Joe f e e l s t h a t "there was something i n him t r y i n g t o g e t o u t , l i k e when he used t o t h i n k o f t o o t h p a s t e " (p. 1 3 7 ) . He i s , i n t h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h e g i r l , s t i l l t r y i n g to e x p i a t e h i s g u i l t from t h a t s i t u a t i o n , p u n i s h i n g h i m s e l f in effect.  33 Although  he c o n t i n u e s  t o see Bobby and e v e n t u a l l y forms a  s e x u a l a l l i a n c e w i t h h e r , h i s views o f women have been damaged and d i s i l l u s i o n e d by t h i s r a t h e r crude i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f women.  McEachern i s n o t  d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s type o f i n t r o d u c t i o n : i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t Joe would l e a r n about women and q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t he would l e a r n from t h e r a t h e r clumsy words o f a n o t h e r boy.  But i f McEachern had p r o v i d e d him w i t h a n o t h e r ,  p o s i t i v e concept o f women t o c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e unpleasant  more  this rather  p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e e f f e c t on Joe might n o t  have been so damaging, and what i s a c t u a l l y an a s p e c t o f f e r t i l i t y i n women might n o t have appeared as much an a s p e c t o f d e a t h and decay.^ When Joe d i s c o v e r s t h a t Bobby i s a p r o s t i t u t e , he n o t only accepts  t h i s d i s c o v e r y as t h e f i n a l c o n f i r m a t i o n o f  McEachern's v i e w o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f woman, b u t sees h i m s e l f as damned f o r h a v i n g i n d u l g e d i n f o r n i c a t i o n w i t h such a creature.  He r e a c t s by d o i n g a l l those  knows McEachern would r e g a r d as s i n f u l .  t h i n g s w h i c h he He d r i n k s and  smokes; he i m i t a t e s t h e i d l e men who l o i t e r around t h e r e s t a u r a n t ; he speaks o f Bobby "even i n h e r p r e s e n c e , i n ^ L u c i u s P r i e s t , i n The R e i v e r s , i s u p s e t when he h e a r s about s e x u a l d e p r a v i t y from a n o t h e r boy, and l e a r n s t h a t one of t h e l a d i e s he has met i s a c t u a l l y a p r o s t i t u t e . However,, as I s h a l l e x p l a i n more f u l l y i n t h e c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e C h i v a l r i c Code, he i s a b l e t o f i t t h i s new knowledge i n t o t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i d e a l i z e d view o f woman as an o b j e c t o f r e s p e c t — a view w h i c h he has no doubt l e a r n e d from h i s f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r and has seen embodied i n h i s mother. Joe has a p p a r e n t l y had no such i n s t r u c t i o n and Mrs. McEachern, humble and i g n o r e d , would h a r d l y p r e s e n t an image o f woman as a c r e a t u r e o f r e s p e c t .  34 his  l o u d , drunken, d e s p a i r i n g young v o i c e , c a l l i n g h e r  his  whore" (p. 174).  Caught i n a r e l i g i o u s view w h i c h  does n o t a l l o w f o r s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n s from v i r t u e , h u t r e g a r d s a l l such d e v i a t i o n s as s i g n o f a g r e a t e r and is  corruption  s i n f u l n e s s , he must go a l l t h e way i n t o what he f e e l s c o r r u p t i o n l i f e i s t o s t a n d i n d e f i a n c e o f McEachern  and McEachern's way o f l i f e . When McEachern d i s c o v e r s t h a t Joe has been  creeping  out a t n i g h t t o meet Bobby, McEachern r e a c t s w i t h a s e l f r i g h t e o u s anger n o t u n l i k e t h a t o f Hines and,  l i k e Hines,  sees h i m s e l f as a n agent o f a " w r a t h f u l and r e t r i b u t i v e Throne" (p. 178), g u i d e d by "some m i l i t a n t M i c h a e l (p. 1 7 7 ) .  Himself"  As he w a l k s towards Joe on t h e d a n c e f l o o r o f t h e  s c h o o l house, s h o u t i n g o u t c u r s e s o f damnation on Joe and Bobby, he has "the f u r i o u s and d r e a m l i k e m a r t y r who has a l r e a d y been a b s o l v e d " obsessive  e x a l t a t i o n of a  (p. 178).  His  r e l i g i o u s v i e w s , whiEh a r e r i g i d and a t times  a l m o s t inhuman i n t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n , do n o t l e a v e him any room f o r r a t i o n a l thought a t t h i s p o i n t . He does n o t even r e a l l y c o n s i d e r Joe a s a human b e i n g , b u t sees him as an embodiment o f S a t a n .  I f he c o u l d see t h e  6Joanna Burden shows t h i s same a t t i t u d e . When she t a k e s p a r t i n s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h Joe, she m a n i f e s t s a l l h e r sense o f sex as e v i l , c u r s i n g Joe, u t t e r i n g a l l manner o f o b s c e n i t i e s , e x h i b i t i n g a k i n d o f nymphomania. As F a u l k n e r s a y s , she shows "the i m p e r i o u s and f i e r c e urgency t h a t c o n c e a l e d a n a c t u a l d e s p a i r o f f r u s t r a t e and i r r e v o c a b l e y e a r s , w h i c h she t r i e s t o a t t e m p t t o compensate each n i g h t as i f she b e l i e v e d t h a t i t would be t h e l a s t n i g h t on e a r t h by damning h e r s e l f f o r e v e r t o t h e h e l l o f h e r f o r e f a t h e r s , by l i v i n g n o t a l o n e i n s i n b u t i n f i l t h " (pp. 225-226).  35 human element i n the s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e h i m , he would c e r t a i n l y r e a l i z e t h e embarrassment and dismay w h i c h h i s a c t i o n s cause Joe and would expect t h e boy—who i s now a l m o s t a m a n — t o f i n a l l y t a k e some form o f d e f e n s i v e a c t i o n . As f o r J o e , t h e moment i s the c u m u l a t i v e p o i n t o f a l l the h o s t i l i t y and d e s p e r a t i o n he has f e l t throughout h i s childhood.  He s t r i k e s McEachern w i t h a c h a i r , h a r d l y  c o n s c i o u s o f what he i s d o i n g , but when he r e a l i z e s i t , he i s not s o r r y .  H i s f a c e i s " q u i t e calm" beneath t h e up-  l i f t e d c h a i r as he t e l l s the s u r r o u n d i n g crowd, " I s a i d I would k i l l him some day! I t o l d him s o ! " ( p .  179).  In o t h e r words, t h e d e s t r u c t i v e , l i f e - d e n y i n g q u a l i t i e s o f a r i g i d r e l i g i o u s environment have bred i n Joe Christmas a b a s i c a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y : d e s t r u c t i v e i n terms o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s and, more i m p o r t a n t , i n terms o f h i m s e l f . Lind  As U s e D u s o i r  says, Over and over Joe enacts a p a t t e r n o f d e f i a n c e and f l i g h t , c a r r y i n g w i t h him h i s " C a l v i n i s t i c burden", the h e r i t a g e o f those who have r e a r e d him, b e a r i n g t h e p s y c h i c weight o f m u l t i p l e r e j e c t i o n s — r e j e c t i o n s b e f o r e God, r e j e c t i o n s as a Negro, r e j e c t i o n as a human b e i n g . R i g i d , s o l i t a r y , c o l d , w i t h a l a t e n t compulsion toward a j o y l e s s v i o l e n c e , he f i n d s "peace" nowhere.V I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n t r a s t Joe's e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h  those o f I s a a c M c C a s l i n i n "The O l d P e o p l e " and "The Bear". I k e ' s t r a i n i n g i n t h e woods i s o f a r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e , i n 7"The C a l v i n i s t i c Burden o f L i g h t i n August". (New England Q u a r t e r l y Review),XXX: Sept. 1957), p . 317.  36 t h a t i t i n s t i l l s him w i t h m o r a l p a t t e r n s and an awareness o f m y s t i c a l f o r c e s r e l a t i n g him t o the o u t s i d e workd, y e t i t s e f f e c t i s p o s i t i v e and l i f e - g i v i n g .  That i t has s u c h  an e f f e c t i s n o t because i t i s any l e s s a d i s c i p l i n e t h a n the C a l v i n i s m Joe Christmas has been s u b j e c t e d t o : i n f a c t , i t i s j u s t as much p a r t o f a code w h i c h demands c e r t a i n a c t i o n s and q u a l i t i e s o f i t s a d h e r e n t s .  Where i t d i f f e r s  f r o m the - C a l v i n i s t i c code i s i n the a t t i t u d e s t o l i f e which i t h o l d s .  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , a t r a i n i n g which i s b a s i c a l l y  d i r e c t e d t w a r d the a c t o f k i l l i n g c a r r i e s w i t h i t an unspoken d o c t r i n e o f r e s p e c t f o r . a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s . Ike's t r a i n i n g comes f r o m Sam F a t h e r s , who i s p a r t Chickasaw, p a r t Negro, p a r t white.;,.. As Ike's McCaslin  cousin  says, "When he was b o m , a l l h i s b l o o d on both s i d e s , e x c e p t the l i t t l e w h i t e p a r t , knew t h i n g s t h a t had been tamed o u t o f our b l o o d so l o n g ago t h a t we have n o t o n l y f o r g o t t e n them, we have t o l i v e t o g e t h e r i n h e r d s t o p r o t e c t o u r s e l v e s from o u r own source".8  He l i v e s sometimes w i t h t h e Negroes, b u t i s s l a v e t o no man; he does n o t belong t o t h e w o r l d o f the w h i t e either.  man,  When he moves i n t o t h e h u t i n t h e woods, " f i v e  m i l e s f r o m t h e p l a n t a t i o n and about t h a t f a r from any o t h e r h a b i t a t i o n " ( p . 1 7 2 ) , i t i s because he f e e l s more a t home i n the wilderness than i n c i v i l i z a t i o n .  Through t h e b l o o d  " T h e O l d P e o p l e " , Go Down, Moses. (New Y o r k : Random House, 1942), p. 167. A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a f t e r the q u o t a t i o n . 8  37 of his Indian ancestors he has a bond with Nature, and i t i s this that he tries to pass on to Ike, as a priest might pass on a secret rite or doctrine to a young novitiate. Even before Ike goes to the Big Woods, he is being trained by Sam Fathers i n the ways of hunting.  Sam  teaches him "the woods, to hunt, when to shoot and when not to shoot, when to k i l l and when not to k i l l , and better, what to do with i t afterward" (p. 170).  It is under Sam's  guidance that Ike f i r s t learns to shoot rabbits, and i t i s with Sam that he enters his "true novitiate" at the age of ten when he goes with Major de Spain, General Compson and the other hunters into the wilderness to shoot deer and bear.  Again like a priest, Sam Fathers marks Ike's  face with the blood of the f i r s t deer the boy killas, indieating that he has now become a man and a hunter. Yet this is not enough i n i t s e l f .  Later, Sam does  not even attempt to shoot the buck which appears; nor does he instruct Ike to shoot i t , although Ike has his gun " s t i l l aimed and one of the hammers s t i l l cocked" (p. 184). Instead he faces the buck with "his right arm raised at f u l l length, palm outward", speaking i n the "old tongue" of the Chickasaw, and addressing the buck as "Chief.... Grandfather" (p. 184). the natural creature.  His gesture shows his respect for In hailing the buck, he stands as  one l i v i n g creature facing another, both products of Nature, both united i n their relationship to Nature.  At the same  38 t i m e , h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e buck i m p l i e s a v i e w o f l i f e as a c o n t i n u i n g f o r c e w h i c h even death does n o t end. c o u s i n M c C a s l i n , who has a l s o w i t n e s s e d  Ike's  this action i n h i s  boyhood, a r t i c u l a t e s t h i s concept when me t e l l s I k e : "Think o f a l l t h a t has happened h e r e , on t h i s e a r t h . A l l t h e b l o o d h o t and strong f o r l i v i n g , pleasuring, that has soaked back i n t o i t . . . . A n d a l l t h a t must be somewhere; a l l t h a t c o u l d n o t have been i n v e n t e d and c r e a t e d j u s t t o be thrown away. And t h e e a r t h i s s h a l l o w ; t h e r e i s n o t a g r e a t d e a l o f i t b e f o r e you come t o t h e r o c k . And the e a r t h dont want t o j u s t keep t h i n g s , h o a r d them; i t wants t o use them a g a i n . Look a t t h e seed, t h e a c o r n s , a t what happens even t o c a r r i o n when you t r y to bury i t : i t r e f u s e s t o o , seethes t o o and s t r u g g l e s t o o u n t i l i t r e a c h e s l i g h t and a i r a g a i n , h u n t i n g t h e sun s t i l l . And t h e y . . . . dont want i t , need i t . B e s i d e s , what would i t want, i t s e l f , k n o c k i n g around out t h e r e , when i t never had enough time about t h e e a r t h as i t was, when t h e r e i s p l e n t y o f room about the e a r t h , p l e n t y o f p l a c e s s t i l l unchanged from what they were when t h e b l o o d used and p l e a s u r e d i n them w h i l e i t was s t i l l b l o o d ? " (pp. 186-187). Such a concept does n o t make man an u s u r p e r i n N a t u r e , b u t a p a r t o f a c h a i n o f l i f e w h i c h can n e v e r be b r o k e n . k i l l i n g a n i m a l s man i s n o t c o m m i t t i n g  In  a s i n , but t a k i n g  part i n a sacred, n a t u r a l r i t e — b u t only i f h i s a t t i t u d e c o n t a i n s t h e proper q u a l i t i e s o f h u m i l i t y , endurance, courage and p r i d e . Ike's r e a l s p i r i t u a l development i n t h e woods i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c q u i r i n g o f these q u a l i t i e s . his  t r a i n i n g continues.  I n "JSae Bsaur",  He must l e a r n endurance, t h e  p a t i e n c e t o w a i t day a f t e r day a t a s t a n d i n t h e woods,  39  ready i n case the dogs s h o u l d d r i v e a deer or hear i n his direction.  He must a c c e p t the f a c t t h a t u n t i l  the  r i g h t time comes, u n t i l he i s worthy of i t , he w i l l even c a t c h a g l i m p s e  not  of Old Ben, the a n c i e n t , i n d o m i t a b l e  bear whom the h u n t e r s pursue each y e a r w i t h o u t The h u m i l i t y he a l r e a d y has i n p a r t .  success.  He f e e l s "an  p a s s i v e ; an a b j e c t n e s s , a sense of h i s own  eagerness,  fragility  and  9  impotence a g a i n s t the t i m e l e s s woods..." , and h i s own u n w o r t h i n e s s h u m i l i t y , however. gun:  as a h u n t e r .  realizes  He has more t o l e a r n o f  He must f a c e the bear a l o n e , w i t h o u t  a  submit h i m s e l f i n courage and h u m i l i t y t o the w i l d e r n e s s  w i t h o u t the t a i n t o f c i v i l i z a t i o n upon him.  He l e a r n s ,  once he i s i n the woods, t h a t t h a t i s n o t enough, e i t h e r . He had a l r e a d y r e l i n q u i s h e d , of h i s w i l l , because o f h i s need, i n h u m i l i t y and peace and w i t h o u t r e g r e t , y e t a p p a r e n t l y t h a t had n o t been enough, the l e a v i n g o f the gun was n o t enough. He s t o o d f o r a moment—a c h i l d , a l i e n and l o s t i n the green and s o a r i n g gloom o f the m a r k l e s s w i l d e r n e s s . Then he r e l i n q u i s h e d completely to i t . I t was the watch and the compass. He was s t i l l t a i n t e d . He removed the l i n k e d c h a i n o f the one and the l o o p e d thong o f the o t h e r from h i s o v e r a l l s and hung them on a bush and l e a d e d the s t i c k b e s i d e them and e n t e r e d i t (p. 208).. Through such a r e l i n q u i s h m e n t of s e l f to something g r e a t e r t h a n h i m s e l f , he i s a b l e t o see i n t o the h e a r t of he meets the bear f a c e to f a c e .  life:  He has been proven w o r t h y :  he i s a t t h i s time the t r u e h e i r o f Sam  Fathers.  9"The Bear", Go Down, Moses, p. 200. A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a f t e r the q u o t a t i o n .  40  Out of this lesson i n courage and humility comes his own sense of pride.  It is a pride i n being worthy, of  being a competent hunter.  By the age of thirteen he has  k i l l e d his f i r s t bear and is "a better woodsman than most men".  Moreover, i t is a pride i n being part of Nature,  of knowing his way i n the environment which man belongs to i n his natural state.  When he becomes aware that Old  Ben is doomed to die and senses that the age of the true wilderness w i l l come to an end with that death, he does not feel grief, but rather humility and pride that "he had been found worthy to be part of i t too or even just see i t too" (p. 226); that he would be on hand to witness the final aspect of the r i t u a l he has been initiated into. The moral qualities which Ike learns i n the woods are i n direct contrast to those which Joe Christmas learns i n Christian society.  For Joe, humility must be linked  with despair, rejection and pain.  According to his training  under McEachern's teachings, man must be f i l l e d with fear of God; later i n l i f e , when Joe hurls defiance to God from the pulpit of a church he has temporarily invaded, he shows that out of his fear has come only hatred; that for a l l his religious training he has not become one with God.  It  is significant that when Ike faces the wilderness he feels neither doubt nor fear, only awe and anticipation.  He i s  dwarfed by the size and mystery of the woods, but the humility he feels i s one which is yoked with his own awareness  41  of someday becoming worthy of taking his place i n the pattern of Nature.  The pride which he feels has no  parallel in Joe's feelings, for Joe can never know who or what he i s , can never feel pride in himself or his accomplishments• While Joe is running and hiding after his murder of Joanna Burden, he is suddenly aware of both his own alienation from Nature and the eternal qualities of the earth. This awareness occurs, significantly, as he "enters the woods again" from the paved highway: It is as though he desires to see his native earth in a l l i t s phases for the f i r s t or the last time. He had grown to manhood i n the country where, like the unswimming sailor, his physical shape and his thought had been molded by i t s compulsions without his learning anything about i t s actual shape and f e e l . For a week now he has lurked and crept among i t s secret places, yet he has remained a foreigner to the very immutable laws which earth must obey. For some time as he walks steadily on, he thinks that this is what i t is—the looking and seeing—which gives him peace and unhaste and quiet, u n t i l suddenly the true answer comes to him. He feels dry and light. 'I dont have to bother about having to eat anymore,' he thinks. 'That's what i t i s ' (p. 295). The momentary peace he feels is part of the restorative effect of Nature on him and of i t s spiritual feeding of his soul.  However, eventually the woods give way to a  road and then to paved street again, bringing him back to society.  He thinks to himself then that he has been inside  a circle a l l his l i f e , unable to break out into the vast  42 n a t u r a l w o r l d beyond.  There can n o t be f o r him the  permanent r e s t o r a t i v e e f f e c t o f N a t u r e : he h i m s e l f i s d r i v e n by h i s own sense of d e s t i n y t o l e a v e the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and r e t u r n t o the c e n t e r of the s o c i a l c i r c l e once more, where he w i l l meet h i s f a t e . Nor can t h e r e be f o r Joe the easy comradeship o f o t h e r men w h i c h Ike e x p e r i e n c e s i n the woods.  Joe's r e l i g i o u s  t r a i n i n g has i s o l a t e d him, n o t o n l y from n a t u r e and the n a t u r a l w o r l d , but from human companionship as w e l l .  The  d r i n k i n g of w h i s k y and the e a t i n g of w i l d meat g i v e s the h u n t e r s i n 'She Bear" a sense o f communion and  physical  r e s t o r a t i o n w h i c h Joe C h r i s t m a s can n e v e r e x p e r i e n c e . McEachern it,  p r a y s o v e r h i s f o o d n o t o n l y t o g i v e thanks f o r  but to o f f e r a k i n d o f a p o l o g y f o r h a v i n g t o e a t a t  all;  Joe c o n t i n u a l l y r e f u s e s f o o d as an o f f e r i n g o f k i n d -  n e s s from Mrs. McEachern and w i l l a c c e p t i t o n l y i n the i m p e r s o n a l , a l i e n a t i n g way i n w h i c h Joanna Burden  offers  i t : l e f t on the t a b l e i n h e r k i t c h e n t o be e a t e n i n s o l i t u d e , as i f " s e t out f o r a n i g g e r " (p. 208).  For Joe, l i q u o r i s  a symbol of a s i n f u l s t a t e : he drowns h i m s e l f i n i t as a form of r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t McEachern  and an embracing o f h i s  own s i n . F o r the men i n the f o r e s t , however, the l i q u o r i s a symbol o f those q u a l i t i e s w h i c h they re-new w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s each time t h e y r e t u r n t o the woods: i t i s p a r t of  the r i t u a l  o f the h u n t .  I t seems t o Ike  43 that those fine fierce instants of heart and brain and courage and wiliness and speed were concentrated into that brown liquor which not women, not boys and children, but only hunters drank, drinking not of the blood they spilled but some condensation of the wild, immortal s p i r i t , drinking i t moderately, humbly even, not with the pagan's base and baseless hope of acquiring thereby the virtues of cunning and strength and speed but i n salute to them (p. 192). It is significant that liquor takes on a negative connotation i n this story only when i t is consumed i n town by Boon Hogganbeck, mainly because directly after this drinking bout Boon returns to the hunting party and k i l l s Old Ben. If is as i f he has, i n his trip to town, renewed his contact with the corruptive and destructive forces of society, and brought them back with him to the woods.  In  k i l l i n g Old Ben he appears to be an agent of these forces working against Nature. In L^ght i n August, the minister, Hightower, equates this destructive force with the r i g i d , ruthless nature of Southern Christianity.  Even the music of the churches seem  to him to have a quality stern and implacable, deliberate and without passion so much as immolation, pleading, asking, for not love, not l i f e , forbidding i t to others, demanding in sonorous tones death as though death were the boon, like a l l Protestant music (pp. 321-322). Listening to i t , Hightower can see how such a religion might drive i t s adherents to "crucifixion of themselves and one another" (p. 322).  He links this religious force  not only with Joe Christmas, but with the destruction of  44 Christmas a t t h e hands o f the s e l f - r i g h t e o u s mob.  It is  not o n l y the o b v i o u s v i c t i m s , l i k e Joe C h r i s t m a s , who s u f f e r under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s type o f r e l i g i o u s code: the agents o f d e s t r u c t i o n a r e themselves s u f f e r i n g and v i c t i m i z e d . Ike's form o f r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g would seem t o suggest t h a t he would t h e r e f o r e come t o a b e t t e r end t h a n t h a t shown i n " D e l t a Autumn" where he, t o o , seems t o be a v i c t i m o f s o c i e t y ' s r i g i d a t t i t u d e t o human l i f e .  In section four  o f "The B e a r " , he h i m s e l f f e e l s , as he s t r u g g l e s t o r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n about the f a m i l y g u i l t he has i n h e r i t e d and the l a n d w h i c h i s p a r t o f t h a t i n h e r i t a n c e , t h a t he i s a c t i n g on the l e s s o n he l e a r n e d i n t h e woods.  Relinquish-  ment o f the i n h e r i t a n c e i s h i s attempt t o copy the relinquishment  of watch and compass w h i c h was n e c e s s a r y  f o r him as a boy., b e f o r e he c o u l d see t r u t h . a g a i n he t e l l s h i s c o u s i n M c C a s l i n him f r e e .  He a p p a r e n t l y  free future generations  A g a i n and  t h a t Sam F a t h e r s s e t  hopes, i n g i v i n g up the l a n d , t o o f M c C a s l i n s i n t h e same way from  the g u i l t o f l a n d ownership.  Y e t t h i s a c t i o n o n l y shows  how he has m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e l e s s o n a c q u i r e d from Sam Fathers.  Sam d i d n o t r e l i n q u i s h t h e l a n d , i n t h e sense  o f g i v i n g i t up: he immersed h i m s e l f i n i t , i n the m i d s t o f i t .  l i v i n g alone  Ike's r e a c t i o n shows o n l y t h e h u m i l i t y  he l e a r n e d i n t h e woods, w i t h o u t the concomitant q u a l i t i e s o f courage and p r i d e and endurance.  Or, i f i t shows these  q u a l i t i e s t h e y a r e d i s t o r t e d : courage has become s a c r i f i c e , p r i d e a k i n d o f s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s , and endurance t h e h e l p l e s s  45  hope t h a t some day,  "maybe i n two thousand y e a r s " ,  w i l l be a b l e to l i v e w i t h h i s f e l l o w man  man  i n a better kind  of r e l a t i o n s h i p than at present. Perhaps t h i s d i s t o r t i o n i s the r e s u l t o f I k e ' s reaching maturity i n society. at  He may  have become a  man  the age o f t w e l v e , i n the woods, when he shot h i s f i r s t  deer and Sam  F a t h e r s marked h i s f a c e w i t h i t s b l o o d , but  s o c i e t y recognizes a c h r o n o l o g i c a l , r a t h e r than o r r i t u a l i s t i c e n t r a n c e i n t o manhood.  symbolic  And t h a t p o i n t o f  m a t u r i t y o c c u r s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f s o c i e t y , w i t h Ike " j u x t a p o s e d not a g a i n s t the w i l d e r n e s s but a g a i n s t the l a n d . . . t h e l a n d w h i c h o l d C a r o t h e r s M c C a s l i n h i s grandf a t h e r had bought w i t h w h i t e man's money from the w i l d men whose g r a n d f a t h e r s w i t h o u t guns hunted i t . . . . " In t h e f o u r t h s e c t i o n o f "The and a t t e m p t s  (p. 1 9 4 ) .  Bear", where Ike e x p l a i n s  t o j u s t i f y h i s d e c i s i o n about the l a n d to h i s  c o u s i n , the t e r m i n o l o g y and l o g i c i s steeped i n b i b l i c a l , and even M i l t o n i c r e f e r e n c e s .  God, who  has n o t been  mentioned i n the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the woods, suddenly B e i n g who  comes i n t o prominence i n Ike's c o n v e r s a t i o n as a views the p r o g r e s s o f man.on e a r t h w i t h anger  and i m p a t i e n c e , demanding t h a t man  change h i s p a t t e r n o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r l i v i n g t h i n g s .  I t i s quite obviously  a s t e r n , Old Testament God whom.' Ike sees a t t h i s p o i n t . And when Ike i n e f f e c t s a c r i f i c e s h i s ownership o f the l a n d , h i s w i f e , and h i s chance of h a v i n g a s o n ,  and t a k e s up  the  t r a d e o f a c a r p e n t e r , these C h r i s t i a n elements b r i n g i n  46 the New  Testament.  I t i s as i f r e a c h i n g m a t u r i t y  within  s o c i e t y has meant t h a t Ike has a l s o come under the  influence  of s o c i e t y ' s v e r s i o n of r e l i g i o n : the C h r i s t i a n i t y w h i c h s t r e s s e s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b m i s s i o n t o the w i l l of a s t e r n God who  demands s a c r i f i c e r a t h e r t h a n g i v i n g s t r e n g t h  and  renewal.^  spiritual  In showing the e f f e c t s o f b o t h C h r i s t i a n i t y and a k i n d o f p a n t h e i s t i c paganism, F a u l k n e r i m p l y i n g t h a t man from s o c i e t y . a g a i n s t any  does not seem to  be  s h o u l d r e t u r n to a p r i m i t i v e s t a t e  apart  In L i g h t i n August, Lena Grove i s not shown  o t h e r backdrop t h a n t h a t of the towns and  farms w h i c h make up s o c i e t y . a l m o s t pa^an q u a l i t y , and  Yet she  exhibits a natural,  stands i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to  Joe Christmas i n t h a t she g i v e s l i f e r a t h e r t h a n t a k e s i t , and  endures r a t h e r t h a n d i e s .  Nor  does c o n t a c t  with  Nature i n i t s e l f b r i n g an a t t i t u d e toward l i f e w h i c h i s v i v i f y i n g and  p o s i t i v e , as the example o f Ike M c C a s l i n  shows.  - ^ I k e a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s h e r e the c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g w h i c h i s so much a p a r t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . As we s h a l l see i n the c h a p t e r d e a l i n g v/ith The R a c i a l Code, Ike i s a b l e to i d e a l i z e t h e Negro i n c o n c e p t , but cannot a c t on t h i s p r i n c i p l e . The t r a i n i n g w h i c h Ike has l e a r n e d i n the w o o d — e v e n the q u a l i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s — a r e p r i n c i p l e s d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to p r a c t i c e and a c t i o n . Sam F a t h e r s does not p h i l o s o p h i z e on the code of the woods o r on man's m y s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to n a t u r e : he p r e s e n t s p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e , and a l l o w s the boy t o i n t u i t i v e l y g r a s p the u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t s . Throughout F a u l k n e r ' s works, an o v e r - c o n c e r n w i t h concepts i s seen as dangerous: Q u e n t i n Compson i s a good example of such ah o v e r c o n c e r n . The danger i n t h i s , a p p a r e n t l y , i s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l comes i n t o a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , c e r e b r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o u t s i d e w o r l d a t the expense of s p o n t a n e i t y and a p r a c t i c a l approach t o r e a l i t y .  47 What F a u l k n e r seems to he s u g g e s t i n g i s t h a t man  cannot  r e t u r n to N a t u r e ; t h a t he must, i n s t e a d , t r y t o l e a r n from Nature those q u a l i t i e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f w h i c h he  can a p p l y  i n the c o n t e x t of s o c i e t y a g a i n s t  the d e s t r u c t i v e  forces  which threaten  from o t h e r s and  from  to i s o l a t e h i m s e l f  n a t u r a l a s p e c t s of h i s own  personality.  the  48 CHAPTER POUR THE  RACIAL CODE j  In "The F i r e and The H e a r t h " , a white  F a u l k n e r d e s c r i b e s how  S o u t h e r n c h i l d comes t o r e a l i z e , as h i s h e r i t a g e ,  the r a c i a l code o f h i s s o c i e t y . ' A l t h o u g h o f C a r o t h e r s Edmonds i s a n i n d i v i d u a l one,  the experience i t suggests a  p a t t e r n , i f o n l y s y m b o l i c , w h i c h might be t r u e on a larger scale.  As s u c h , i t m e r i t s q u o t i n g a t some l e n g t h .  Roth has grown up w i t h a Negro boy, Henry Beauchamp, whose p a r e n t s l i v e on t h e Edmonds', l a n d .  Moreover, he has  been n u r s e d by Henry's mother, and has regarded o n l y mother he birth.  h e r as "the  c a n remember", h i s own h a v i n g d i e d a t h i s  Because o f t h i s l i n k w i t h t h e Beauchamps i n h i s  i n f a n c y , Roth i s p a r t i c u l a r l y .close t o them i n h i s e a r l y childhood: Even b e f o r e he was p u t o f i n f a n c y , t h e two • houses had become i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e : h i m s e l f and h i s f o s t e r - b r o t h e r Henry s l e e p i n g on t h e same p a l l e t i n the w h i t e man.'s house o r i n t h e same bed i n t h e negro.' s and e a t i n g o f t h e same f o o d a t t h e same t a b l e i n e i t h e r , a c t u a l l y p r e f e r r i n g the negro house...to h i s own. . v  He g r a d u a l l y comes t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e b l a c k woman i s n o t h i s r e a l mother, b u t t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n changes l i t t l e i n h i s w o r l d : There was s t i l l t h e b l a c k woman, c o n s t a n t , s t e a d f a s t , and t h e b l a c k man o f whom; he W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , "The F i r e and The H e a r t h " , Go Down, Moses, (New Y o r k : Random House Modern L i b r a r y E d i t i o n , 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 110. A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a f t e r t h e q u o t a t i o n .  49 saw as much and even more t h a n o f h i s own f a t h e r , and the n e g r o ' s house, the s t r o n g warm negro s m e l l , t h e n i g h t - t i m e h e a r t h and the f i r e even in-summer on i t , w h i c h he s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t o h i s own. And b e s i d e s , he was no l o n g e r an i n f a n t . He and h i s f o s t e r - b r o t h e r rode the p l a n t a t i o n h o r s e s and mules, t h e y had a pack o f s m a l l hounds to hunt w i t h and,promise of a gun i n a n o t h e r y e a r o r s o ; t h e y were s u f f i c i e n t , . c o m p l e t e , w a n t i n g , as a l l c h i l d r e n do, n o t t o be u n d e r s t o o d , l e a p i n g i n m u t u a l embattlement b e f o r e any t h r e a t to privacy., but o n l y to. l o v e , t o q u e s t i o n and examine u n c h a l l e n g e d , and t o be l e t a l o n e (pp. 110-111)., The time comes, however, when Roth s u d d e n l y — a l m o s t instinctively, i t seems—feels a certain distinction  between  h i m s e l f and Henry, and p o i n t e d l y chooses t o s l e e p on h i s bed, a l o n e , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h Henry on the p a l l e t on the floor.  He s t o p s Henry's i n n o c e n t attempt t o j o i n him i n  the  bed, and t h e n l i e s  " i n a r i g i d f u r y o f t h e g r i e f he  can  n o t e x p l a i n , t h e same he  will  not a d m i t " (p. 1 1 2 ) ,  l i s t e n i n g t o Henry's p e a c e f u l b r e a t h i n g from the f l o o r . the  Even  a d j e c t i v e s used by F a u l k n e r i n d e s c r i b i n g Roth's v o i c e  ( h a r s h and v i o l e n t ) and p o s i t i o n i n bed ( r i g i d ) s u g g e s t a t t r i b u t e s o f the r a c i a l code as i t t a k e s p o s s e s s i o n o f the boy. A f t e r t h i s i h - c i d e n t , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e boys i s n o t resumed: Roth f e e l s too much shame t o go t o Henry's house a g a i n .  F i n a l l y t h e g r i e f he f e e l s about the way he  has a c t e d f o r c e s him t o admit t h a t he i s ashamed and he wants t o a p o l o g i z e t o h i s f o s t e r - f a m i l y .  He goes t o t h e i r  home to admit h i s shame, i n t e n d i n g t o "say i t once and f o r e v e r so t h a t i t w i l l himself to dinner.  be gone f o r e v e r " ; he i n v i t e s  F o r a w h i l e t h e Beauchamps t r e a t him  50  "as i f i t had never happened a t a l l " , and he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i n g s a r e a l l r i g h t , t h a t he can resume h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them as b e f o r e .  But, says F a u l k n e r , i t i s too  t o make amends, t o change the p a t t e r n : " f o r e v e r and too l a t e " .  late forever  When he comes i n to d i n n e r Roth f i n d s t h a t  the r e s t of the f a m i l y have e a t e n and t h a t h i s - i s the o n l y p l a c e s e t a t the t a b l e .  By a s s e r t i n g h i s f e e l i n g s of  s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r Henry, he has removed a l l p o s s i b i l i t y  of  b e i n g a b l e t o r e t u r n to an e q u a l b a s i s w i t h the Beauchamps, not because t h e y f e e l i n f e r i o r , but because t h e i r p r i d e w i l l cause them t o t r e a t him a c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s o f code w h i c h he has i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e i r o t h e r w i s e relationship.  the  spontaneous  And he r e a l i z e s t h a t "the o l d curse of h i s  f a t h e r s , the o l d haughty a n c e s t r a l p r i d e based not on  any  v a l u e but on an a c c i d e n t of geography, stemmed not f r o m courage and honor but from wrong and t o him"  (p. I l l ) , and  shame,  has  descended  t h a t he must eat i t s " b i t t e r  The r e a d e r i s not t o l d how  R o t h Edmonds has  fruit".  2  come to  f e e l s u p e r i o r t o h i s Negro p l a y m a t e , but i t i s not h a r d t o guess.  The  Beauchamps l i v e i n a house on the Edmonds  p l a n t a t i o n and d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t Roth has a l e a y s t h a t house to be c o m f o r t a b l e , o  1  felt  i t i s o b v i o u s l y not as grand  ^For Joanna Burden, i n L i g h t i n August, t h i s i n h e r i t a n c e i s s t r e s s e d by h e r f a t h e r as b e i n g p a r t of "the curse of e v e r y w h i t e c h i l d t h a t was ever born and t h a t ever w i l l be b o r n " , a curse by God f o r the w h i t e r a c e ' s s i n s . (Hew Y o r k : Random House, 1932), p. 221.  51  as h i s own.  Perhaps he has a l s o u n c o n s c i o u s l y  overheard  the c o n v e r s a t i o n of w h i t e a d u l t s r e g a r d i n g Negroes i n g e n e r a l , or has whites  observed the t r e a t m e n t of Negroes by  i n town.  I n any  c a s e , by the age  of seven he  can  a c t i n accordance w i t h the r a c i a l code w h i c h c o n t r o l s the s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between Negro and w h i t e , and his  can  feel  s u p e r i o r i t y w i t h what seems t o be the same k i n d of  u n t h i n k i n g , i n s t i n c t i v e i m p u l s e as once prompted him  to •5  unquestioningly  a c c e p t M o l l y Beauchamp as h i s mother.  The h e r i t a g e i s not always a c o n s c i o u s l y r e c e i v e d one, I t i s more l i k e  some s o r t of v i r u s w h i c h f l o a t s about i n  the Southern a i r , e n t e r s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s system his  without  awareness, and then s u d d e n l y shows i t s e l f as a  untraceable  then.  disease,  i n i t s immediate o r i g i n but u n m i s t a k e a b l y  there—and painfully d i f f i c u l t  to  cure.  C h i c k M a l l i s o n , the young boy i n I n t r u d e r i n the Dust, f e e l s t h a t he has  been aware of the d i s t i n c t i o n between  Negro and w h i t e a l l h i s l i f e , and has a c c e p t e d i t unq u e s t i o n i n g l y , j u s t as he has always a c c e p t e d  without  q u e s t i o n the f a c t t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s m e l l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "the p l a c e s where people w i t h any t r a c e of Negro b l o o d ^ I t i s o n l y a f t e r t h i s sense of s u p e r i o r i t y has a s s e r t e d i t s e l f t h a t Roth's a c t i o n s , as Olga V i e k e r y o u t , become c a l c u l a t e d r a t h e r than spontaneous as he d e l i b e r a t e l y "paces h i s w a l k i n g so t h a t the Negro boy q u i t e catches up w i t h him" and "times h i s u n d r e s s i n g a l l o w Henry to l i e down on the p a l l e t so he can take p o s s e s s i o n Of the bed". Olga V i e k e r y , The Novels of Faulkner, (Louisiana State U n i v e r s i t y Press: r e v i s e d 1964),  p.  129.  "suddenly" points never to solitary William.. ed.  52 live".4  When the r e a d e r f i r s t sees C h i c k M a l l i s o n i n a  r a c i a l s i t u a t i o n , the hoy i s a l r e a d y t w e l v e .  Perhaps any  awareness of the d i s t i n c t i o n between Negro and w h i t e  has  o c c u r r e d u n c o n s c i o u s l y , f o r C h i c k , sometime i n the p a s t . I n any case, he t a k e s f o r g r a n t e d the s m e l l of the Negroes, t h a t s m e l l which...he would have gone to h i s g r a v e n e v e r once p o n d e r i n g s p e c u l a t i n g i f perhaps t h a t s m e l l were not r e a l l y the odor o f a r a c e n o r even a c t u a l l y of p o v e r t y but perhaps of a c o n d i t i o n : an i d e a : a b e l i e f : an a c c e p t a n c e , a p a s s i v e acceptance by them themselves of an i d e a t h a t b e i n g Negroes t h e y were not supposed t o have f a c i l i t i e s t o wash p r o p e r l y o r o f t e n o r even t o wash bathe o f t e n even w i t h o u t the f a c i l i t i e s to do i t w i t h ; t h a t i n f a c t i t was a l i t t l e to be p r e f e r r e d t h a t they d i d not....He had s m e l l e d i t f o r e v e r , he would s m e l l i t a l w a y s ; i t was a p a r t o f h i s i n e s c a p a b l e p a s t , i t was a r i c h p a r t of h i s h e r i t a g e as a Southe r n e r ; he d i d n ' t even have t o d i s m i s s i t , he j u s t no l o n g e r s m e l l e d i t a t all...(pp.11-12) In the same way,  he has always a c c e p t e d u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y the  f o o d w h i c h the Negroes e a t : n i g g e r f o o d t o o , accepted and then d i s m i s s e d a l s o because i t was e x a c t l y what he had exp e c t e d , i t was what Negroes a t e , o b v i o u s l y because i t was what they l i k e d , what they chose; n o t ( a t t w e l v e : he would be a man grown before he e x p e r i e n c e d h i s f i r s t amazed d u b i e t y a t t h i s ) t h a t out of t h e i r l o n g c h r o n i c l e t h i s was a l l they had had a chance to l e a r n t o l i k e except the ones who a t e out of w h i t e f o l k s * k i t c h e n s , but t h a t they had e l e c t e d t h i s out of a l l e a t i n g because t h i s was t h e i r p a l a t e s and t h e i r metabolism...(p.13). William F a u l k n e r , I n t r u d e r i n the Dust, (frew Y o r k : Random House, 1948), p. SL A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o from t h i s e d i t i o n , and w i l l be p l a c e d i n parentheses a f t e r the q u o t a t i o n .  53 L i k e R o t h , C h i c k e n c o u n t e r s a time when he s u d d e n l y f a c e s the f a c t o f h i s r a c i a l i n h e r i t a n c e .  Both i n s t a n c e s  are s i m i l a r , i n t h a t t h e y b r i n g a f e e l i n g o f shame t o the w h i t e boy f o r h a v i n g t r e a t e d a Negro as a k i n d o f l e s s e r human b e i n g .  Even the w o r d i n g w h i c h F a u l k n e r uses t o .  d e s c r i b e C h i c k ' s e n c o u n t e r — i n w h i c h C h i c k o f f e r s t o pay /  f o r t h e meal he has e a t e n a t a Negro's home—shows t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e two c a s e s : He extended t h e c o i n s : and i n t h e same second i n w h i c h he knew she would have t a k e n them he knew t h a t o n l y by t h a t i r r e v o c a b l e second was he f o r e v e r now too l a t e , f o r e v e r beyond r e c a l l , s t a n d i n g w i t h t h e slow h o t b l o o d a s . s l o w as minutes t h e m s e l v e s up h i s neck and f a c e , f o r e v e r w i t h h i s dumb hand open and on i t t h e f o u r shameful fragments o f m i l l e d ' and m i n t e d d r o s s . . . (p. 15j i t a l i c s m i n e ) . That t h i s i s the same Negro f a m i l y — t h e  Beauchamps—with  w h i c h Roth was i n v o l v e d , i s s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y  since  f o r C h i c k i t i s n o t too l a t e t o change t h e p a t t e r n o f h i s adherence t o t h e r a c i a l  code.  The i n c i d e n t causes him to q u e s t i o n h i s views on the Negro n a t u r e .  Faced w i t h t h e calm p r i d e and d i g n i t y o f  Lucas Beauchamp, C h i c k i s f i r s t angry and ashamed, and a s k s h i m s e l f what most o f t h e w h i t e s i n the a r e a have a l r e a d y asked t h e m s e l v e s : why c a n ' t Lucas a c t l i k e a n i g g e r ? Why must he make me f e e l so u n c o m f o r t a b l e by a c t i n g  like  a w h i t e man and t h e r e f o r e making me have t o see him as a man l i k e h i m s e l f and n o t an i n f e r i o r ?  54 This f e e l i n g changes over the next few y e a r s .  When  Chick sees Lucas a f t e r the death of h i s w i f e , M o l l y , he suddenly i s even more aware o f the man under the b l a c k s k i n , and t h i n k s : He was g r i e v i n g . You dont have to n o t be a n i g g e r i n order to g r i e v e (p. 25). By the time t h a t Lucas i s i n v o l v e d i n the murder case, f o u r years have passed, and Chick has reached a p o i n t where h i s doubts about the white a t t i t u d e t o the Negro a r e such t h a t , as Olga V i c k e r y puts i t , he "cannot take the r i s k " o f not b e l i e v i n g i n Lucas' i n n o c e n c e .  Out o f these doubts and  h a l f - f o r m e d i d e a s o f j u s t i c e separate from those which h i s s o c i e t y ' s r a c i a l code c o n t a i n s , comes Chick's a b i l i t y t o a c t a g a i n s t t h a t code and make up t o Lucas f o r h i s e a r l i e r mistake, i n a way t h a t Roth never can.  I n t r u d e r i n the Dust,  p u b l i s h e d s i x y e a r s a f t e r Go Down, Moses, seems to i n d i c a t e e i t h e r a development  i n F a u l k n e r ' s own p o s i t i o n i n regards  to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l and the r a c i a l code, o r h i s f e e l i n g t h a t the s i t u a t i o n should n o t appear as i r r e v o c a b l e as "The F i r e and the Hearth" might  suggest.  Of course, Chick M a l l i s o n i s n o t the o n l y young person i n Faulkner's works who a c t i v e l y opposes he has i n h e r i t e d .  the r a c i a l code  Isaac M c C a s l i n i n "The Bear" (which i s  a l s o i n Go Down, Moses) opposes  i t i n a manner so f o r m a l ,  so d r a m a t i c a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d and p a i n f u l l y a r r i v e d a t , t h a t i t makes Chick M a l l i s o n ' s a c t i o n a t f i r s t seem a mere g e s t u r e i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n o r , worse, almost a k i n d o f  55  Tom Sawyer adventure, carried out p a r t i a l l y and  initially  because of Chick's feelings about Lucas Beauchamp but becoming an adventure f o r i t s own sake once i t has been embarked upon.  A closer look at both boys' encounters with  the r a c i a l code w i l l reveal, however, that t h i s i s not the case. Ike's encounter i s , f o r the most part, on an abstract, conceptual l e v e l : he i s dealing with the idea, with the g u i l t , with the h i s t o r y , of the r a c i a l s i t u a t i o n , but not with the i n d i v i d u a l Negro, face to face, as are Roth Edmonds and Chick Mallison. Being a Southerner he has of course been i n contact with Negroes a l l h i s l i f e , but the incident which causes him to be aware of the r a c i a l code c o n t r o l l i n g Negro-white relationships i s an incident i n the past, involving h i s grandfather, not himself. At the age of sixteen while looking through the McCaslin family's ledgers, he stumbles across indications of an incestuous relationship between h i s grandfather, Carothers McCaslin, and Carother's daughter by a Negro slave named Eunice.  At f i r s t he cannot believe that what he suspects  i s true: he would l i k e to believe that there was  just the  l i a i s o n between Carothers and the g i r l , Tomy, possibly based on love of some sort.  But the fact that Eunice  drowned herself s i x months before her daughter bore Carothers' c h i l d , when added to the fact that Eunice had o r i g i n a l l y been purchased at great d i f f i c u l t y by Carothers to  (ostensibly  be the wife of one of h i s slaves) seems to suggest that  56 E u n i c e was a l s o C a r o t h e r s ' m i s t r e s s .  H o r r i f i e d , Ike i s  f o r c e d to a c c e p t what the c r y p t i c e n t r i e s i n the l e d g e r s i n t i m a t e and see both women as v i c t i m s — n o t merely of l u s t and t h o u g h t l e s s n e s s , hut of a code w h i c h p e r m i t s and  even  condones a man's summoning "because she was h i s p r o p e r t y , a human b e i n g because she was o l d enough and f e m a l e , to h i s . . . house and  getting  a c h i l d on h e r and then  dismissing her  because she was o f an i n f e r i o r r a c e " (p. 294).  Moreover, i t  i s a p p a r e n t t h a t any f e e l i n g s of g u i l t o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i c h C a r o t h e r s M c C a s l i n might have f e l t about the m a t t e r o n l y r e s u l t e d i n a f i n a n c i a l move on h i s p a r t : a r r a n g i n g f o r a thousand d o l l a r s to be g i v e n t o Tomy's son when he r e a c h e d twenty-one.  To Ike t h i s l o o k s l i k e an a t t e m p t , by h i s grand-  f a t h e r , t o t a k e the easy way o u t .  It is a  f l i n g i n g a l m o s t contemptuously, as he might a c a s t - o f f h a t o r a p a i r of shoes, t h e thousand d o l l a r s w h i c h c o u l d have had no more r e a l i t y t o him under t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s t h a n i t would have the n e g r o , the s l a v e who would n o t even see i t u n t i l he came o f age, twenty-one y e a r s too l a t e t o b e g i n to l e a r n what money was. So I r e c k o n t h a t was cheaper t h a n s a v i n g My son t o a n i g g e r , Ike thought Even i f My son wasn't but j u s t two words.5 L i k e C h i c k and R o t h , Ike f e e l s deep shame and  guilt  when he s u d d e n l y becomes aware of h i s r a c i a l h e r i t a g e , but s i n c e the s i n a g a i n s t the Negro i s n o t a p e r s o n a l one h i s p a r t he has d i f f i c u l t y d e t e r m i n i n g a way  on  t o atone f o r  ^ W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , "The Bear", Go Lown, Moses, pp. 269270. A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a f t e r the q u o t a t i o n .  57 i t i n a p e r s o n a l way.  Roth can a t l e a s t attempt  a p o l o g i z e t o the i n d i v i d u a l Negroes whom he has  to sinned  a g a i n s t ; C h i c k can a c t u a l l y do something f o r Lucas Beauchamp to make amends. generations  But how  does one r e c t i f y a wrong done two  before?  Ironically,  Ike b e g i n s by c a r r y i n g out h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s  financial responsibility.  He t a k e s the l e g a c y ( i n c r e a s e d to  t h r e e thousand d o l l a r s by h i s f a t h e r and u n c l e ) and t r i e s to d e l i v e r i t p e r s o n a l l y to the t h r e e descendants o f Tomy's son. He cannot l o c a t e one boy. to r e c e i v e i t .  The second boy i s as y e t too young  The g i r l , P o n s i b a , he e v e n t u a l l y f i n d s i n  a n o t h e r p a r t of the c o u n t r y , a f t e r a l o n g , u n p l e a s a n t w h i c h he u n d e r t a k e s  journey  w i t h f e e l i n g s o f " d e t e r m i n a t i o n and  d e s p e r a t i o n " , as i f w i l l i n g to a c c e p t any d i s c o m f o r t o r i n c o n v e n i e n c e as a k i n d of n e c e s s a r y p u r g a t i o n .  The  experience  does n o t g i v e him the sense of atonement he s e e k s , however. P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h the abused Negro does n o t g i v e him personal salvation.  He cannot buy h i s s a l v a t i o n from the  Negroes, any more t h a n h i s g r a n d f a t h e r c o u l d .  I f anything,  the s o r r y s t a t e i n w h i c h P o n s i b a and h e r husband l i v e him w i t h even g r e a t e r d e s p a i r and c o n v i n c e s him o f the  fills curse  w h i c h t h e . e n t i r e South seems t o l i e under as a r e s u l t of the racial situation.  He cannot u n d e r s t a n d  the hope w h i c h  s u s t a i n s the Negroes, and no doubt P o n s i b a ' s him t h a t she i s now  statement  " f r e e " seems a mockery of h i s own  to feeling  o f b e i n g t r a p p e d i n g u i l t and c h a i n e d down h e l p l e s s l y by the r a c i a l code.  58 His  subsequent r e l i n q u i s h i n g o f h i s own i n h e r i t a n c e  two y e a r s l a t e r , when he i s twenty-one, seems t o r e p r e s e n t a second a t t e m p t t o do something i n t h e way o f atonement. Having r e a l i z e d the f u t i l i t y of the s m a l l , personal a c t , he i s p r e p a r e d t o make a g e s t u r e w h i c h , s y m b o l i c a l l y a t l e a s t , w i l l be o f more u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . of the  His heritage  M c C a s l i n l a n d has come t o r e p r e s e n t f o r him n o t o n l y h e r i t a g e o f M c C a s l i n b l o o d — t h e "doomed and f a t a l b l o o d  w h i c h i n t h e male d e r i v a t i o n seems t o d e s t r o y a l l i t t o u c h e s " ( p . 2 9 3 ) — b u t man's a r r o g a n t c l a i m o f ownership of  those t h i n g s i n Nature w h i c h b e l o n g o n l y t o G-od. I f  he cannot e r a s e t h e s t a i n on t h e l a n d which such a s i n has c r e a t e d , he can a t l e a s t n o t be t h e means o f a d d i n g f u r t h e r s t a i n s by h i s v e r y a c q u i e s c e n c e o f the ownership of  t h a t w h i c h was n e v e r any man's t o bequeath. In a l o n g , t o r t u r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h i s c o u s i n ,  M c C a s l i n Edmonds, Ike t r i e s t o e x p l a i n h i s d e c i s i o n t o r e l i n q u i s h the i n h e r i t a n c e . the  I n d o i n g so he r e v e a l s , t o  reader a t l e a s t , h i s almost M e s s i a n i c s e l f - v i s i o n .  In b i b l i c a l and M i l t o n i c terms he speaks o f God's c h o o s i n g c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s i n each age t o be agents o f atonement f o r man's s i n s a g a i n s t f e l l o w men and Nature i n general.  He b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s f a t h e r and u n c l e were  such chosen i n d i v i d u a l s , b u t what t h e y d i d was n o t enough: God had t o a l l o w t h e C i v i l War t o happen, as i f s a y i n g , " A p p a r e n t l y t h e y can l e a r n n o t h i n g save t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g ,  59 remember n o t h i n g s a v e when u n d e r l i n e d i n b l o o d " And  s i n c e t h a t d i d n o t make man r e a l i z e h i s m i s t a k e s , I k e  feels do  (p. 286).  t h a t now he h a s b e e n c h o s e n " o u t o f a l l h i s t i m e " t o  s o m e t h i n g f u r t h e r : c h o s e n l o n g ago as a boy o f t w e l v e  i n t h e w o o d s , when Sam F a t h e r s i n i t i a t e d h i m i n t o t h e m y s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man a n d Nature-, when he s t o o d , "a c h i l d , a l i e n and l o s t i n t h e g r e e n and s o a r i n g gloom o f the markless  w i l d e r n e s s " ( p . 208) and r e a l i z e d t h e t a i n t  o f man on h i m ( i n t h e f o r m o f h i s w a t c h a n d c o m p a s s ) , a n d had  t o r e l i n q u i s h them i n o r d e r t o p i e r c e t h e v e r y  o f N a t u r e a n d become one w i t h i t . by a n o t h e r  heart  Now h e b e l i e v e s t h a t  a c t o f r e l i n q u i s h m e n t he can s y m b o l i c a l l y l i n k  man t o N a t u r e a g a i n o n a n o n - o w n e r s h i p b a s i s , a n d t h e r e b y somehow m y s t i c a l l y r e s t o r e man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s f e l l o w man a s w e l l . The in  confused  syntax and r a t h e r p u z z l i n g l o g i c  t h i s p a s s a g e o f "The B e a r "  e m p h a s i z e I k e ' s own s t a t e o f  mind r e g a r d i n g t h e whole m a t t e r . r h e t o r i c , r e a d e r s may s u s p e c t to  presented  Faced w i t h such  that Ike i s r e a l l y  high trying  j u s t i f y t o h i m s e l f what i s b a s i c a l l y a d e s i r e t o escape  f r o m f a m i l y g u i l t by g e t t i n g r i d o f t h e l a n d w h i c h has come t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t g u i l t f o r h i m .  What t h e p r o b l e m  amounts t o i s w h e t h e r I k e ' s a c t i o n i s a s e l f i s h o r s e l f l e s s one.  I s the reader  supposed t o admire Ike's n o b i l i t y o r  deplore h i s evasion of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ?  More  does h i s a c t i o n r e p r e s e n t a genuine attempt  important, t o come t o g r i p s  60 w i t h the r a c i a l code which i s h i s h e r i t a g e , or merely a s e v e r i n g of h i m s e l f from the s o c i e t y which embodies t h a t code, i n o r d e r to not have to d e a l w i t h the code? Olga V i e k e r y maintains t h a t Ike i s l o o k i n g f o r p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n , and t h a t h i s r e l i n q u i s h m e n t i s an e v a s i o n "both of  the g u i l t of h i s f o r e f a t h e r s and h i s own  responsibilities".  C e r t a i n l y i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s for such a motive. is  Ike's c o u s i n , M c C a s l i n Edmonds, suggests t h a t  Ike  seeking escape, and Ike. i m p a t i e n t l y a c c e p t s the word,  as i f not denying i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . the word appears s e v e r a l times. t h a t i t l o o k s as i f he has  In h i s own  thoughts  General Compson t e l l s  "just quit".  Ike  In " D e l t a Autumn",  Roth Edmonds' r e j e c t e d quadroon m i s t r e s s accuses Ike of r u i n i n g Roth by g i v i n g the M c C a s l i n land to h i s grandf a t h e r — a statement which not o n l y seems to show the c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e of land-ownership, but i m p l i e s that the f e e l s Ike has imposed h i s own  girl  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on another  person r a t h e r than cope w i t h them h i m s e l f (p. 360). Ike's own  d e c l a r a t i o n to h i s c o u s i n — " I have got myself to  have to l i v e w i t h f o r the r e s t of my is  l i f e and a l l I want  peace to do i t i n " (p. 2 8 8 ) — c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as a  d e s i r e to be r i d of the anguish and g u i l t which of  And  ownership  the land g i v e s him. ^Olga V i e k e r y , The Novels of W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , p.  133.  61 However, i n t h a t d e c l a r a t i o n perhaps l i e s the answer to t h e q u e s t i o n o f s e l f i s h n e s s o r s e l f l e s s n e s s .  F o r what  Ike appears t o mean h e r e — o n a c o n s c i o u s l e v e l , a t l e a s t — i s t h a t he must d e a l w i t h t h e m a t t e r o f atonement, must f i g u r e o u t some way i n w h i c h he can show t h e r e p u l s i o n he f e e l s about the r a c i a l s i t u a t i o n , o r e l s e he can n e v e r e x p e c t t o have any peace o f mind.  He cannot be c o n s c i o u s l y  t r y i n g t o escape ( i n t h e sense o f e v a d i n g h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) , f o r t o do so would be t o f o l l o w t h e example o f h i s g r a n d f a t h e r and would be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e h o r r o r t h a t he f e e l s f o r Carothers' a c t i o n .  What i s more, i t i s because  Ike has such an extreme sense o f m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  that  he i_s so concerned about t h e whole problem o f h i s i n h e r i t a n c e and h i s f a m i l y ' s g u i l t and so determined t o do something about i t .  I t would be much e a s i e r f o r him t o c o n c l u d e , as  Roth Edmonds a p p a r e n t l y does, t h a t i t i s too l a t e t o change the p a t t e r n w h i c h t h e r a c i a l code has imposed, and t h a t a l l one can do i s t r y t o be a k i n d o f b e n e v o l e n t l a n d l o r d t o h i s Negro t e n a n t f a r m e r s i n an attempt t o a t l e a s t a m e l i o r a t e the u n f o r t u n a t e b u t i r r e v o c a b l e s i t u a t i o n o f o w n e r s h i p . When Ike speaks o r t h i n k s o f escape he seems t o mean f r e e dom, n o t f o r h i m s e l f — s i n c e he says s e v e r a l t i m e s t h a t Sam F a t h e r s has a l r e a d y s e t him f r e e — b u t  f o r the g e n e r a t i o n s  of M c C a s l i n s w h i c h w i l l come a f t e r h i m . As an o l d man i n " D e l t a Autumn" he r e f l e c t s t h a t what he was t r y i n g t o do was " a t l e a s t save and f r e e h i s s o n " from the r e g r e t and  62 grief  associated  with the inheritance  ( p . 351).  By n o t  k e e p i n g t h e l a n d , he h a s removed a l l p o s s i b i l i t y on  that  land  as a l e g a c y  to future  i n d i v i d u a l s who, by  t h e i r very  ownership o f the l a n d would n o t o n l y  possession  o f something which  b u t w o u l d be s y m b o l i c a l l y other the  human b e i n g s w h i c h  accepting  the ownership o f  landlord.  required  so he r e d u c e s h i m s e l f  accepting living  c a n n o t be owned by a n y man,  s e l f l e s s n e s s o f h i s i n t e n t i o n i s e m p h a s i z e d by t h e  amount o f s a c r i f i c e doing  be a s s u m i n g  I k e s e e s a s somehow i n h e r e n t i n  r o l e o f the Southern The  of passing  only  a small  i n a rented  i n r e l i n q u i s h i n g the l a n d . to a state  allowance  room.  of near-poverty,  e a c h month f r o m h i s  l o s e h e r , t o o , becoming, i n h i s o l d age, "uncle  well  part  as t h e sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which  t o make a g e s t u r e w h i c h w i l l  level, in  of the r a c i a l  and f o r mankind i n g e n e r a l ; symbolize  animals o r the land gesture w i l l  living  itself.  n o t be l a r g e  t h e w h i t e man's  code a n d e v e n , on a much  s y m b o l i z e man's r e p u d i a t i o n  regards to a l l other  Ike f e e l s  i s t h e more u n i v e r s a l d e s i r e on  to a c t f o r h i s race  repudiation  to h a l f a  intended.  f o r h i s descendants, there his  will  t o no o n e " , a n d n e v e r h a v i n g t h e s o n f o r  whom t h e s a c r i f i c e was As  cousin,  Even t h e attempts o f h i s w i f e to  change h i s mind w i l l h a v e no e f f e c t on h i m , a n d he  c o u n t r y and f a t h e r  By  of a destructive  higher role  t h i n g s , w h e t h e r f e l l o w men,  Ike i s o n l y  one man, a n d h i s  enough o r s i g n i f i c a n t  enough t o  and  63 a c c o m p l i s h much, i f a n y t h i n g , up of s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s and  a l o n e , hut s o c i e t y i s made each s i n g l e g e s t u r e , when  added to the n e x t , can amount t o a change of a t t i t u d e f o r s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . n i g h t , and  However, change cannot take p l a c e  Ike r e a l i z e s t h i s .  said otherwise",  " I t w i l l he l o n g .  he t e l l s h i s c o u s i n  (p. 299).  over-  I never The  code, a f t e r a l l , i s embodied i n each i n d i v i d u a l who  racial makes  up a s o c i e t y : i t i s u p h e l d o r e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e f e a t e d  by  i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n to i t . To say t h a t Ike's i n t e n t i o n i s a s e l f l e s s one  i s not,  however, t o suggest t h a t h i s a c t i o n must be seen as a good one.  I n t e n t and r e s u l t are two  q u i t e separate t h i n g s .  A l t h o u g h Ike i n t e n d s h i s a c t i o n to have good r e s u l t s , i f o n l y i n p r i n c i p l e , what i n e f f e c t happens i s t h a t by g i v i n g the ownership o f l a n d to someone e l s e he has made t h a t p e r s o n s u s c e p t i b l e to the e v i l e f f e c t s of such a r o l e . Moreover, i n t r y i n g to d i s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f from h i s s o c i e t y ' s code he has  cut h i m s e l f o f f from a normal membership i n  t h a t s o c i e t y as husband, f a t h e r , c i t i z e n . t h a t , as an o l d man, excursions  I t i s no wonder  he w i l l l i v e o n l y f o r the y e a r l y  i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s : h i s l i f e i n s o c i e t y i s  hardly a l i f e at a l l .  Roth Edmonds i s not f a r wrong when  he b i t t e r l y s u g g e s t s , i n " D e l t a Autumn", t h a t Ike has dead a l o n g t i m e .  And  been  Roth's r e j e c t e d quadroon m i s t r e s s  echoes t h i s i d e a when she asks Ike o f he has and f o r g o t t e n so much t h a t  he doesnt  " l i v e d so  remember a n y t h i n g  e v e r knew o r f e l t or even h e a r d about lsrve" (p.  363).  long he  64 The most t r a g i c a s p e c t o f Ike's a c t i o n i s t h a t he does not r e a l i z e j u s t how much a p a r t o f h i m the r a c i a l code i s . I n i d e n t i f y i n g h i s l a n d w i t h the c o d a l h e r i t a g e o f t h e p a s t , he t h i n k s t h a t by g i v i n g up t h e l a n d he can g i v e up t h e code's h o l d on him.  S o c i a l a t t i t u d e s go deeper t h a n t h a t , u n -  fortunately.  I k e c a n speak v e r y i d e a l i s t i c a l l y about t h e  Negro r a c e , and m a i n t a i n  t h a t a l l t h e i r v i c e s a r e those  a c q u i r e d from the w h i t e man and a l l t h e i r v i r t u e s t h e i r own  and even s u p e r i o r t o the w h i t e man's v i r t u e s , but when  he i s f a c e d w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l Negro i n " D e l t a Autumn", he r e a c t s t o t h e i d e a o f h e r w a n t i n g t o marry a w h i t e man w i t h spontaneous f e e l i n g s o f "amazement, p i t y and o u t r a g e " ; he  c r i e s o u t "You're a n i g g e r . . . . G e t o u t o f h e r e !  do n o t h i n g f o r you'.  I can  Cant nobody do n o t h i n g f o r y o u i " , and  t h i n k s t o h i m s e l f , "Maybe i n a thousand o r two thousand y e a r s i n America....But n o t nowl  Not n o w l " (p. 361).  In  o t h e r words, no m a t t e r what he may f e e l i n p r i n c i p l e about the e q u a l i t y o r even s u p e r i o r i t y o f the Negro t o the w h i t e man, who  i n p r a c t i c e he i s n o t much d i f f e r e n t from Roth Edmonds, a t l e a s t acts according  t o h i s "code" i n a  conscious  manner. C e r t a i n l y t h e Ike M c C a s l i n whom t h e r e a d e r sees as a c h i l d i n "The Bear" must be c o n s i d e r e d  i n the l i g h t o f o l d  Ike M c C a s l i n he w i l l have become i n " D e l t a Autumn".  How-  e v e r , the main s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e l a t t e r s t o r y , i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o "The Bear", appears t o be t h a t i t i s not u n t i l much  65 l a t e r i n Ike's l i f e t h a t he w i l l meet the r a c i a l code on a p e r s o n a l b a s i s r a t h e r t h a n an i d e a l i s t i c , a b s t r a c t e d  one.  And,  acted:  i r o n i c a l l y , he w i l l a c t the way  h i s grandfather  f o l l o w i n g the code, o f f e r i n g money i n s t e a d of commitment. old  personal  L y i n g shaken a f t e r the n e g r e s s has l e f t  Ike M c C a s l i n w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t one  cannot s i m p l y  r e p u d i a t e a code or a t t e m p t non-involvement w i t h s o c i e t y w h i c h i s the embodiment of t h a t code. b l i n d e d w i t h i d e a l i s m , he cannot see t h i s .  As  the  When a  Ike's a c t i o n as the i d e a l s o l u t i o n of the  problem o r even t o r e g a r d h i s m o t i v a t i o n as saintlike"^.  youth,  Cleanth  Brooks p o i n t s o u t , F a u l k n e r i s n o t a s k i n g the r e a d e r accept  him,  "to  race  obviously  He i s showing one i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n f r o n t a t i o n  w i t h the r a c i a l codes, and the elements c o n t a i n e d i n and r e s u l t i n g f r o m the c h o i c e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l f a c e s . Comparatively  speaking,  Chick M a l l i s o n ' s a c t i o n has  a more immediate and p o s i t i v e r e s u l t , even though i t i s l e s s i m p r e s s i v e , f o r i t i s the C h i c k M a l l i s o n s of the who  world  can, by a c t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h the r a c i a l code w i t h i n  the framework o f t h e i r s o c i e t y , a f f e c t a change i n the racial  code.  However, C h i c k ' s adherence to h i s s o c i e t y d e s p i t e h i s r e j e c t i o n of i t s r a c i a l code, i s not an a u t o m a t i c ^ W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , The Yoknapatawpha Country (New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963^ p. 274'.-  one.  66 In f a c t , i t i s n o t h i s i n i t i a l i m p u l s e a t a l l , hut a d e c i s i o n w h i c h he a r r i v e s a t as a r e s u l t of a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h i s u n c l e , Gavin S t e v e n s . of  H i s f i r s t r e a c t i o n i s one  d i s a p p o i n t m e n t and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t on d i s c o v e r i n g , a f t e r  he and A l e c k Sander and M i s s Habersham have exposed  the  t r u t h o f the grave o u t s i d e of town and shown t h a t Lucas Beauchamp i s n o t the murderer  o f a w h i t e man,  t h a t the  r e c e p t i o n o f t h i s news i s f a r from r e w a r d i n g .  He has n o t  wanted p r a i s e f o r h i m s e l f : what he.has done has to be "anonymous e l s e i t i s  valueless".  Nor has he  expected  " l u c a s t o be swept out o f h i s c e l l s h o u l d e r h i g h on a t i d e of  e x p i a t i o n and s e t f o r h i s moment of v i n d i c a t i o n and  t r i u m p h on the base of the C o n f e d e r a t e monument" (p. 1 9 3 ) . However, he has n o t expected  this:  n o t a l i f e saved from death nor even a death saved from shame and i n d i g n i t y n o r even the s u s p e n s i o n o f a sentence but m e r e l y the g r u d g i n g p r e t e r m i s s i o n of a d a t e ; not i n d i g n i t y shamed w i t h i t s own shameful c a n c e l l a t i o n , n o t s u b l i m a t i o n and h u m i l i t y w i t h h u m i l i t y and p r i d e remembered n o r the p r i d e of courage and p a s s i o n nor of p i t y nor the p r i d e and a u s t e r i t y and g r i e f , but a u s t e r i t y i t s e l f debased by what i t had g a i n e d , courage and p a s s i o n b e f o u l e d by what t h e y had had t o cope w i t h (p. 194 I t a l i c s m i n e ) . He suddenly sees h i s s o c i e t y i n terms o f a f a c e — o r , as F a u l k n e r p u t s i t — a  Face: "The  composite Face of h i s  n a t i v e k i n d , h i s n a t i v e l a n d , h i s people h i s b l o o d h i s own... a Face monstrous u n r a v e n i n g omniverous  and not even  u n i n s a t i a t e , not f r u s t r a t e d n o r even t h w a r t e d , not b i d i n g  67 n o r w a i t i n g and n o t even n e e d i n g to be p a t i e n t s i n c e y e s t e r d a y today and tomorrow a r e i s : I n d i v i s i b l e : (p. 1 9 4 ) . ( i f one  One"  This i s , f o r C h i c k , the f a c e of the r a c i a l code  can say t h a t a code has a " f a c e " ) , f o r i t i s the  m i n d l e s s , h e a r t l e s s , " i d e n t i t y - l e s s " embodiment o f the s t a t u s quo by men.  I t i s the mask w h i c h the  individual  p u t s on, such as a member o f the Ku K l u x K l a n might put on a hood, i n o r d e r to merge h i m s e l f i n t o the mass o f o t h e r men,  making whatever a c t i o n i s done under t h i s  composite mask a m a t t e r o f c o l l e c t i v e i m p u l s e , g u i l t : the i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h h i s p a r t i c u l a r  collective  features, i s  l o s t i n the group, and t h e r e f o r e does n o t f e e l p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r whatever t h a t group might do.  And, when  the c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h caused the r a c i a l code to come f o r w a r d , to s o l i d i f y i n t o a Pace, a r e no l o n g e r p r e s e n t , the i n d i v i d u a l needing  immediately  can s l i p away i n anonymity, n o t  to make the p e r s o n a l g e s t u r e .  "They d i d n ' t even  w a i t to send him a can of tobacco and say I t ' s a l l r i g h t , o l d man,  everybody makes m i s t a k e s and we wont h o l d t h i s  one a g a i n s t you",  C h i c k says b i t t e r l y to h i s u n c l e ,  s p e a k i n g o f the lynch-mob and Lucas Beauchamp (p. 200). H i s u n c l e , however, puts the m a t t e r o f the mob different  perspective.  As he sees i t , the men  into  i n the  a  street  o u t s i d e the j a i l would n o t have l y n c h e d Lucas because t h e r e were too many o f them, and  68 there i s a simple numerical point at which a mob c a n c e l s and a b o l i s h e s i t s e l f , maybe because i t has f i n a l l y got too b i g f o r d a r k n e s s , the cave i t was spawned i n i s no l o n g e r b i g enough to c o n c e a l i t from l i g h t and so a t l a s t whether i t w i l l or no i t has to l o o k a t i t s e l f , o r maybe because the amount of b l o o d i n one human body i s no l o n g e r enough, as one peanut might t i t i l l a t e one e l e p h a n t but not two o r t e n . Or maybe i t ' s because man h a v i n g passed i n t o mob passes t h e n i n t o mass w h i c h a b o l i s h e s mob by a b s o r p t i o n , m e t a b o l i s m , then h a v i n g g o t too l a r g e even f o r mass becomes man a g a i n c o n c e p t i b l e o f p i t y and .justice and c o n s c i e n c e even i f o n l y i n the r e c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s l o n g p a i n f u l a s p i r a t i o n toward them, toward t h a t something anyway o f one serene u n i v e r s a l l i g h t " (p. 201/ i t a l i c s m i n e ) . I n o t h e r words, Stevens seems to be s a y i n g t h a t , w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l man  the  can l o s e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i s m under the  c o l l e c t i v e Pace o f the r a c i a l code, i t i s w i t h i n t h a t v e r y c o n t e x t o f o t h e r members o f s o c i e t y t h a t he can r e a l i z e h i s own  i n d i v i d u a l i s m the most s t r o n g l y w h i l e a l s o g a i n i n g the  sense o f u n i v e r s a l humanity t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l a l o n e might lack. Chick h a r d l y l i s t e n s .  A n g r i l y he condemns J e f f e r s o n ,  the county, the whole 6 o u t h , f o r r u n n i n g away from the m a t t e r o f t r e a t i n g the Negro l i k e a human b e i n g and  not  a d m i t t i n g t h a t "they" had been wrong i n " t h e i r " approach t o him.  "You're a l a w y e r " , he a c c u s e s h i s u n c l e (p.  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t he f e e l s i t i s Gavin Stevens' n a t u r e  205), and  p r o f e s s i o n to " t a l k up a smoke s c r e e n " and to defend h i s own  i n t e r e s t s and t h a t c o n v i n c i n g t a l k does not make a  situation right.  Y e t Gavin Stevens i s more than j u s t a  69 s m o o t h - t a l k i n g l a w y e r : he i s a p e r c e p t i v e man who unders t a n d s t h e hoy's d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i n s e e i n g t h e u g l i e r s i d e o f human n a t u r e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e .  And, u n l i k e I s a a c  M c C a s l i n ' s c o u s i n , he does n o t s t r i k e a t t h e hoy's i d e a l i s m (which i s o f course b e h i n d t h e d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ) w i t h c y n i c a l comments w h i c h might f o r c e an even more s t u b b o r n l y d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n and l e a d t o t h e k i n d o f extreme g e s t u r e o f i d e a l i s m w h i c h I k e makes. "Yes. he t e l l s C h i c k Some t h i n g s you must always be u n a b l e t o b e a r . Some t h i n g s you must n e v e r s t o p r e f u s i n g t o b e a r . Injustice and outrage and d i s h o n o r and shame. No m a t t e r how young you a r e o r how o l d you have g o t . Not f o r kudos and n o t f o r c a s h : your p i c t u r e i n t h e paper n o r money i n t h e bank e i t h e r . J u s t r e f u s e t o bear them..." ( p . 2 0 6 ) . I n matching  t h e boy's f e r v e n c y f o r a moment and b r i d g i n g  the gap w h i c h C h i c k sees between h i m s e l f and t h e r e s t o f h i s s o c i e t y , Gavin Stevens i s a b l e t o cause C h i c k t o r e v e r t t o a more moderate and l e s s b i t t e r p o s i t i o n .  When C h i c k  says ( i n answer t o h i s u n c l e ' s s t a t e m e n t ) , " I haven't been a T e n d e r f o o t s c o u t s i n c e I was t w e l v e y e a r s o l d " , ( p . 206) he i s a l r e a d y s e e i n g h i s own i d e a l i s m from an i r o n i c a l , and t h e r e f o r e more detached, p e r s p e c t i v e . And,  s h o r t l y afterwards, i n f a c t , Chick i s able to  see t h a t p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n why the mob had d i s p e r s e d was t o enable those who c o u l d h a n d l e t h e m a t t e r o f Lucas  "rightly"  t o do s o : people l i f e h i m s e l f , A l e c k Sander, Miss Habersham, h i s u n c l e , t h e s h e r i f f ; t h a t t h e mob's q u i c k d i s p e r s a l was n o t r e a l l y a r u n n i n g away from g u i l t and admittance  of a  70 m i s t a k e f o r t h e y a l l share the same g r i e f and shame as S o u t h e r n e r s , whether i n a l y n c h mob o r n o t , and  therefore  i t doesn't r e a l l y m a t t e r w h i c h o f them r e c t i f i e s the s i t u a t i o n so l o n g as i t i s done i n the b e s t way p o s s i b l e . He r e a l i z e s , i n the n e x t moment, t h a t h i s anger a t the way i n w h i c h the townspeople a c t e d stems from t h a t f i e r c e d e s i r e t h a t they s h o u l d be p e r f e c t because t h e y were h i s and he was t h e i r s , t h a t f u r i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e o f any one s i n g l e j o t o r t i t t l e l e s s t h a n a b s o l ute p e r f e c t i o n — t h a t f u r i o u s almost i n s t i n c t i v e l e a p and s p r i n g t o defend them f r o m anyone anywhere so t h a t he might e x c o r i a t e them h i m s e l f w i t h o u t mercy s i n c e t h e y were h i s son and he wanted no more save t o s t a n d w i t h them u n a l t e r a b l e and i m p r e g n a b l e : one shame i f shame must be, one e x p i a t i o n s i n c e e x p i a t i o n must s u r e l y be but above a l l one u n a l t e r a b l e d u r a b l e impregnable one: one people one h e a r t one l a n d . . . ( p . 209-210;. He a l s o r e a l i z e s how much a p a r t of h i s s o c i e t y he i s and says t h a t he has been s e l f r i g h t e o u s i n c r i t i c i z i n g i t so o b j e c t i v e l y .  Even t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d  and put i n t o b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e  by Gavin S t e v e n s , who  t e l l s him t h a t i t i s n o t wrong t o be " r i g h t e o u s " , so l o n g as he doesnt " s t o p " i n h i s r e f u s a l to a c c e p t c e r t a i n things—even  now t h a t he can see and u n d e r s t a n d more o f  the n a t u r e of h i s s o c i e t y .  He must c o n t i n u e  i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n that s o c i e t y ; not repudiate transcend  i t o r become e n s l a v e d  by i t s codes.  t o be an i t , or  71 CHAPTER FIVE THE CHIVALRIC CODE One o f t h e most s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i m a g i n a t i v e l y a p p e a l i n g o f t h e codes w h i c h t h e Southern c h i l d encounters i s t h a t w h i c h — f o r want o f a b e t t e r name—one might  call  the c h i v a l r i c code, s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s many o f t h o s e i d e a l s and p r e c e p t s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m e d i e v a l k n i g h t l y system o f conduct and a t t i t u d e .  J u s t how t h e  South's c h i v a l r i c code o r i g i n a t e d i s n o t e n t i r e l y  clear,  but one might guess t h a t i t grew out o f t h e a n t e - b e l l u m S o u t h e r n e r ' s b e l i e f — n o t n e c e s s a r i l y based upon f a c t — t h a t h i s s o c i e t y , w i t h i t s p l a n t a t i o n system and s e t economic l e v e l s , resembled t h e m e d i e v a l f e u d a l s o c i e t y i n w h i c h chivalry flourished.  Such a b e l i e f , when g i v e n t h e  c o n n o t a t i o n s w h i c h n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Romantic n o v e l s provided"!- c o u l d have l e d t o a c o n s c i o u s o r even u n c o n s c i o u s e m u l a t i o n o f t h e c h i v a l r i c i d e a l and an attempt t o p r a c t i c e i t i n everyday l i f e , a t l e a s t i n t h e p a r t o f the upper  classes. That a n t e - b e l l u m S o u t h e r n e r s were n o t always n o b l e ,  g a l l a n t , c u l t u r e d a r i s t o c r a t s has been i l l u s t r a t e d a t g r e a t l e n g t h by h i s t o r i a n s o f t h i s c e n t u r y .  Even d u r i n g  ^•This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e n o v e l s o f S i r W a l t e r S c o t t , such as Ivanhoe, Q u e n t i n Durward and perhaps even The V i r g i n i a n s , u i une l a t t e r boou: w.d. Cash says t h a t , i f i t d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e t h e S o u t h e r n e r ' s view o f h i m s e l f , i t a t l e a s t seems t o have p r o v i d e d a metaphor f o r h i s s o c i e t y .  72 the age o f the C o t t o n Kingdom, men Law Olmsted, who  such as F r e d e r i c k  t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h most r e g i o n s o f the  S o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and t r i e d t o r e p o r t  objectively  on what he saw, p r o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e percentage o f a c t u a l m a n o r i a l f a m i l i e s was v e r y s m a l l i n comparison to the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , t h a t the S o u t h e r n e r s ' c l a i m s t o  culture  and g e n t i l i t y were f o r the most p a r t unfounded, and t h e i r adherence a projection  t o a c h i v a l r i c i d e a l was m a i n l y an  that illusion,  of t h e i r own r o m a n t i c view of t h e m s e l v e s .  However t r u e t h i s may  be, i t i s n o t r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t  e x c e p t to h i s t o r i a n s , amateur o r p r o f e s s i o n a l , who  must  s e p a r a t e t r u t h from i l l u s i o n i n o r d e r t o determine f a c t u a l l y the p a s t .  F o r a n o v e l i s t such as F a u l k n e r , f a c t  i s n o t of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e : i l l u s i o n i t s e l f may  reveal  a k i n d o f t r u t h and, i n any c a s e , might be more f a s c i n a t i n g as a t o p i c f o r a f i c t i o n a l work.  I n any c a s e , F a u l k n e r  i s n o t so much concerned w i t h whether o r n o t the a n t e b e l l u m S o u t h e r n e r a c t u a l l y was what he b e l i e v e d , i h i m s e l f t o be.  He i s more concerned w i t h what e f f e c t such a b e l i e f  had on the i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l d i t a t t h a t t i m e , and  on  the i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l d i t a t t h a t t i m e , and on the i n d i v i d u a l s who  i n h e r i t e d i t , i n code and l e g e n d , i n l a t e r  times. Because he i s a n o v e l i s t and n o t a romancer, however, F a u l k n e r must t r y t o show b o t h s i t u a t i o n s as h o n e s t l y as possible.  He must, i n o t h e r words, suggest the v a l i d i t y o f  73 the c h i v a l r i c code and e s t i m a t e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , i f o n l y i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e code. As an a i d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g from the romantic  hoth F a u l k n e r ' s  divergence  v i s i o n o f t h e C i v i l War South, and h i s  modern c h a r a c t e r ' s problems i n f o l l o w i n g t h e c h i v a l r i c code, i t might be o f v a l u e t o quote W.J. Cash's summary o f what t h e r o m a n t i c popular  "myth" o f t h e O l d South i s i n t h e  imagination: I t was a s o r t o f s t a g e . p i e c e o u t o f t h e eighteenth century, wherein gesturing gentlemen move s o f t - s p o k e n l y a g a i n s t a background o f r o s e gardens and d u e l i n g g r o u n d s , t h r o u g h always g a l l a n t deeds, and l o v e l y l a d i e s i n f a r t h i n g a l e s n e v e r f o r a moment l o s t t h a t e x q u i s i t e remoten e s s w h i c h has been t h e dream o f a l l men and t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f none. I t s s o c i a l p a t t e r n was m a n o r i a l , i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n t h a t of the C a v a l i e r , i t s r u l i n g c l a s s an a r i s t r o c r a c y c o e x t e n s i v e w i t h t h e p l a n t e r group—men o f t e n e n t i t l e d to q u a r t e r t h e r o y a l arms o f S t . G-eorge and S t . Andrew on t h e i r s h i e l d s and i n every case descended from t h e o l d g e n t l e f o l k who f o r many c e n t u r i e s had made up t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s o f Europe. They dwelt i n l a r g e and s t a t e l y mansions, p r e f e r a b l y w h i t e and w i t h columns and G r e c i a n e n t a b l a t u r e . T h e i r e s t a t e s were f e u d a l b a r o n i e s , t h e i r s l a v e s q u i t e too numerous t o ever be counted, and t h e i r s o c i a l l i f e a t h i n g o f O l d World s p l e n d o r and d e l i c a c y . . . . I t was a w o r l d s i n g u l a r l y p o l i s h e d and mellow and p o i s e d , w h o l l y dominated by i d e a l s o f honor and c h i v a l r y and n o b l e s s e — a l l those s e n t i m e n t s and v a l u e s and a c t i o n s w h i c h used t o be, e s p e c i a l l y i n Walter Scott novels, i n v a r i a b l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e gentleman born and t h e Cavalier.^  2  T h e Mind o f t h e South-  (New Y o r k : Random House, 1941), p . i x .  74 The ITnvanq u i shed Old  3  p r e s e n t s F a u l k n e r ' s view o f t h e  South d u r i n g t h e C i v i l War, when legends and myths  were i n t h e making, and young S o u t h e r n e r s such as Bayard S a r t o r i s would have, presumably, l i v i n g examples o f honor and courage t o model themselves on.  Bayard h a s , con-  s e q u e n t l y , t h e advantage over many o f F a u l k n e r ' s o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n b e i n g a b l e t o see t h e C h i v a l r i c code i n a c t u a l and v i g o r o u s p r a c t i c e . at  He g a i n s i n s i g h t i n t o i t s v a l i d i t y  c l o s e r a n g e , even though t h e f a c t t h a t he i s C o l o n e l  John S a r t o r i s ' son and Rosa M i l l a r d ' s grandson does mean t h a t t h e demands on h i s performance i n r e g a r d s t o t h a t code are  g r e a t e r t h a n he might o t h e r w i s e e n c o u n t e r .  What he  c o n c l u d e s about t h e v a l i d i t y and l i m i t s o f the code i s p e r t i n e n t t o any f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f i t i n o t h e r works by F a u l k n e r , f o r h e r e , c l o s e t o i t s o r i g i n s , t h e code s h o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y u n c o r r u p t e d , and adherence t o i t , on t h e p a r t o f young men l i k e B a y a r d , an easy and u n q u e s t i o n e d matter. To some e x t e n t t h i s i s t r u e . to the  John S a r t o r i s appears  b e — f o r t h e f i r s t f i v e c h a p t e r s o f t h e book a t l e a s t — i d e a l image o f t h e Southern gentleman: b r a v e , h o n o r a b l e ,  d a s h i n g , q u i c k - w i t t e d , g e n t e e l , g a l l a n t and c u l t u r e d .  Rosa  3(New Y o r k : Random House, 1966). A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s a r e a l s o from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n parentheses a f t e r the q u o t a t i o n .  75 M i l l a r d i s t h e " m a t r i a r c h o f t h e mansion", f a c i n g t h e Yankee r e g i m e n t s a l o n e w i t h s p i r i t and d i g n i t y and courage, k e e p i n g o r d e r amongst t h e f a m i l y when t h e home i s burned down, r i s k i n g h e r own s a f e t y t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e f a m i l i e s around h e r t h r o u g h h e r shrewdness  and d a r i n g .  I f t h i s i s t h e t y p i c a l r o m a n t i c image o f t h e C i v i l War and i t s A r i s t o c r a t i c Order b u i l t up by c o u n t l e s s h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l s such a s Gone W i t h t h e Wind, then The Unvanquished seems, s u p e r f i c i a l l y , t o do l i t t l e t o d e s t r o y o r amend t h a t image.  I n f a c t , v a r i o u s c r i t i c s have found f a u l t  w i t h t h e work f o r j u s t t h i s - r e a s o n , c l a i m i n g t h a t i t p r e s e n t s " s l i c k magazine s t e r e o t y p e s " and "the u n q u e s t i o n e d r o m a n t i c i z i n g o f t h e S a r t o r i s males."4 Young Bayard S a r t o r i s would seem t o f i t such a r o m a n t i c image v e r y w e l l .  H i s a t t e m p t t o defend h i s home  from t h e a p p r o a c h i n g Yankee r e g i m e n t , i n "Ambuscade" i s a n a i v e b u t courageous g e s t u r e , t h e type o f g e s t u r e around w h i c h l e g e n d s a r e formed.  And, i n h i s o b v i o u s a d m i r a t i o n ,  r e s p e c t and l o v e f o r h i s f a t h e r and grandmother, he appears t o be a s c r i b i n g t o t h e code o f v a l u e s and b e h a v i o r w h i c h t h e s e two r e p r e s e n t . Both h i s courage and h i s adherence t o a c e r t a i n code o f b e h a v i o r a r e seen i n h i s r e a c t i o n t o h i s murder by a l o c a l band o f renegade  grandmother's  Southerners.  Bayard's  ^ W i l l i a m Van O'Connor, The Tangled F i r e o f W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1959), pp.  100-101.  76 f i r s t t h o u g h t i s t o a c q u i r e a p i s t o l and avenge h e r d e a t h , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e f a c t t h a t he i s o n l y a hoy o f f o u r t e e n . During h i s search f o r her k i l l e r ,  Grumby, he e x h i b i t s  n e i t h e r anger n o r g r i e f , o n l y a d e t e r m i n a t i o n w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e g r i e f and anger he must f e e l have been c h a n n e l l e d i n t o a s t r o n g sense o f f a m i l y l o y a l t y and an awareness o f his  duty t o defend f a m i l y honor.  Once Grumby has been  k i l l e d , t h e way i n w h i c h Bayard and h i s young Negro companion Ringo c a r r y o u t a r i t u a l o f v e n g e a n c e — n a i l i n g Grumby's body t o the door o f the compress, c u t t i n g o f f t h e r i g h t hand, and p u t t i n g t h a t hand on Rosa M i l l a r d ' s  grave—is  i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e depths o f Bayard's sense o f d u t y and of  the demands i t makes on h i m .  That B a y a r d , even i n  r e c o l l e c t i n g t h e i n c i d e n t , cannot b r i n g h i m s e l f t o m e n t i o n these a c t i o n s d i r e c t l y , and must r e f e r t o t h e s e v e r e d hand as " i t " , w i t h a k i n d o f a b h o r r e n c e , emphasizes t h a t t h i s murder i s p a r t o f a r i t u a l he f e e l s i s n e c e s s a r y and not  a s i g n o f r u t h l e s s n e s s o r c r u e l t y i n h i s own n a t u r e .  He i s , one r e a l i z e s , o n l y a boy t a k i n g the r o l e o f a v e n g e r . As he and Ringo f i n i s h a t t a c h i n g Grumby's  hand t o Rosa  M i l l a r d ' s grave-marker and r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r vengeance i s complete, they both b e g i n t o c r y , becoming once a g a i n j u s t young boys who a r e hungry, weary and overwhelmed by t h e t r a i n o f events o f w h i c h t h e y have been a p a r t ; now t h e y can  i n d u l g e themselves i n g r i e f .  77  The Tightness  of t h e i r a c t i o n s , according to the  unspoken code o f Southern  or a r i s t o c r a t i c behavior, i s  r e c o g n i z e d when t h e y r e t u r n home.  Bayard's f a t h e r and  c o u s i n B r a s i l i a may n o t say a n y t h i n g , but t h e i r r e a c t i o n s show t h a t they n o t o n l y have been concerned  over Bayard's  absence, but a r e moved by t h e magnitude o f what he has accomplished.  Uncle Buck; M c C a s l i n , a g a r r u l o u s o l d  n e i g h b o r and one o f C o l o n e l S a r t o r i s ' articulates  greatest admirers,  t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g when he d e c l a r e s ,  t r i u m p h a n t l y , " A i n ' t I t o l d y o u he i s John S a r t o r i s ' ; boy? Hey? A i n ' t I t o l d you?" ( p . 213) However, The Unvanquished i s n o t about t h e u n q u e s t i o n e d acceptance  o f a p e r f e c t code.  instance, carried  A l t h o u g h Bayard h a s , i n t h i s  out the d i c t a t e s  o f t h e code and done so  on h i s own, w i t h o u t s u g g e s t i o n o r p r e s s u r e from o t h e r s , t e n y e a r s l a t e r when he i s urged  t o avenge h i s f a t h e r ' s  murder he w i l l r e f u s e t o do s o . The r e a s o n f o r t h e change i n his attitude  i s a complex one, b u t a t i t s h e a r t  lies  Bayard's r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e code's v u l n e r a b i l i t y and l i m i t s , d e s p i t e i t s r o m a n t i c a l l u r e , a r e a l i z a t i o n reached  slowly  over t h e y e a r s w h i c h t h e book c o v e r s . Part of t h i s process of r e a l i z a t i o n i s the d i s c o v e r y t h a t t h e code i s n o t j u s t an a b s t r a c t i d e a l but something embodied i n human b e i n g s , who, b e i n g i m p e r f e c t c r e a t u r e s , tend to i n t e r p r e t  i t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own weaknesses  78 and  desires.  T h i s tendency i s perhaps f i r s t seen i n Rosa  M i l l a r d ' s compromising o f h o n e s t y f o r what she s t u b b o r n l y a t t e m p t s to defend as a j u s t i f i a b l e end. Her a p p e a l t o t h e Yankee c o l o n e l f o r t h e r e t u r n o f h e r two s t o l e n mules and c h e s t o f f a m i l y s i l v e r w a r e has been an h o n e s t one: a d i g n i f i e d a p p e a l f o r j u s t i c e ; i t i s n o t h e r f a u l t , she f e e l s , i f a m i s t a k e has been made, g i v i n g h e r an o f f i c i a l o r d e r f o r t h e r e t u r n o f one hundred and t e n mules. the  Besides,  mules have been s t o l e n by t h e Yankees i n t h e f i r s t  place.  She even t r i e s t o see t h e m i s t a k e as "the hand o f God" (p.  128).  A l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y , however, she can see t h a t she  i s s u b s c r i b i n g t o a p a t t e r n of a c t i o n which i s a matter of human w i l l , and n o t God's.  "Whose hand was t h a t ? " young  Ringo a s k s r a t h e r smugly,' a f t e r he has o b t a i n e d f o r t y seven o f t h e promised mules from a Yankee t r o o p encountered on t h e way home ( p - 1 3 0 ) .  Her s i l e n c e a f t e r t h i s  state-  ment, and h e r l a t e r h e s i t a t i o n when Ringo s u g g e s t s u s i n g the  same means t o o b t a i n some Yankee h o r s e s , shows t h a t  her  m o r a l r e p u l s i o n i s weakening, and t h a t by s i m p l y n o t  v e r b a l l y condoning o r o r d e r i n g t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n she hopes to  escape r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t : Granny d i d n ' t answer, s i t t i n g t h e r e drawn back a l i t t l e , w i t h h e r hand a t h e r b r e a s t a g a i n . " W e l l , what y o u wanter do?" Ringo said. "You g o t t o ' c i d e q u i c k , o r t h e y be gone." He l o o k e d a t h e r ; she d i d n ' t move. Ringo l e a n e d o u t o f t h e wagon. " H e y i " he h o l l e r e d . They t h e c a v a l r y s o l d i e r s l o o k e d back q u i c k and saw us and w h i r l e d a b o u t . "Granny s a y come h e r e ! " Ringo h o l l e r e d .  79 "You, R i n g o , " Granny w h i s p e r e d . " A l l r i g h t , " Ringo s a i d . "You want me t o t e l l urn t o never mind?" She d i d n ' t answer; she was l o o k i n g p a s t Ringo a t the two Yankees who were r i d i n g toward us a c r o s s the f i e l d , w i t h t h a t k i n d of drawnhack l o o k on h e r f a c e and h e r hand h o l d i n g the f r o n t o f h e r dress....And t h e n a l l o f a sudden she took h e r hand away from h e r c h e s t ; i t had the paper i n i t ; she h e l d i t out t o the, l i e u t e n a n t w i t h o u t s a y i n g a word (pp, 131-132). Her p r a y i n g , a t the end of " R a i d " i s a m i x t u r e o f h e r f  u s u a l p i o u s form o f c o n t r i t i o n a f t e r an immoral a c t i o n (such as f o l l o w e d h e r l y i n g t o the Yankee c o l o n e l i n "Ambuscade"), and the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n w h i c h h e r compromise between h o n e s t y and a k i n d o f s e l f - r i g h t e o u s and w e l l meaning d i s h o n e s t y n e c e s s i t a t e s : Granny g o t out slow and t u r n e d t o R i n g o . "Get o u t , " she s a i d ; t h e n she l o o k e d a t me. "You t o o " , she s a i d . "Because you s a i d n o t h i n g a t a l l " . We g o t out of the wagon. She l o o k e d a t u s . "We have l i e d " , she s a i d . " H i t was the paper t h a t l i e d ; i t wasn't u s " , Ringo s a i d . "The paper s a i d a hundred and t e n . We have a hundred and twenty-two," Granny said. "Kneel down." "But t h e y s t o l e them ' f o r e we d i d , " Ringo s a i d . "But we l i e d , " Granny s a i d . "Kneel down." She k n e l t f i r s t . Then we a l l t h r e e k n e l t by the r o a d w h i l e she prayed (p. 1 3 4 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h e r a d m i t t i n g o f the l i e does n o t mean a n end to the l y i n g .  I n " R i p o s t e i n T e r t i o " she i s shown  5 l t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t Bayard has n o t s a i d much d u r i n g the e n t i r e t r a n s a c t i o n , u n l i k e R i n g o , he i s n o t q u i c k to r e i n t e r p r e t h o n e s t y f o r a p r a g m a t i c end. Perhaps he d i s a p p r o v e s o f the a c t i o n — i n a r a t h e r confused w a y — b u t s a y s n o t h i n g because "Granny" i s the a d u l t p r e s e n t . I n any c a s e , t h e r e i s no m o r a l comment by him.  80 i n v o l v e d i n a system of f o r g i n g the o r i g i n a l o r d e r mules a g a i n and a g a i n , o b t a i n i n g the mules from  for  various  Yankee r e g i m e n t s , and  t h e n s e l l i n g the mules hack to  d i f f e r e n t regiments.  To do so she has  w i t h Ab Snopes, who from any  become i n v o l v e d  sees her a c t i o n s as i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  o t h e r k i n d of t h e f t .  And,  i n absolute  terms  (which Rosa M i l l a r d h e r s e l f a c c e p t s ) , he i s q u i t e r i g h t . . Such a r e a l i z a t i o n makes her sense of g u i l t even s t r o n g e r . However, she must go t h r o u g h w i t h h e r c h o i c e i n the hope t h a t her  " s i n " i s a v e n i a l one  because she i s u s i n g  money f r o m i t t o h e l p her n e i g h b o r s . a t t e m p t s to u t i l i z e  the  In o t h e r words,  the r e s u l t s of her l y i n g even w h i l e  p r a y i n g f o r f o r g i v e n e s s f o r t h a t l y i n g — a s i f the  latter  w i l l somehow b a l a n c e out the w e i g h t of the f o r m e r . even admits her  she  She  " s i n " p u b l i c l y ; i n c h u r c h , as i f the  h u m i l i t y of such an a c t w i l l a l s o be to her m o r a l c r e d i t . The m i n i s t e r , B r o t h e r F o r t i n b r i d e , seems t o f e e l t h a t h e r a c t i o n i s j u s t i f i a b l e : he c e r t a i n l y says against i t .  nothing  Yet h i s l a c k of comment i s perhaps i n  significant.  itself  Bayard t h i n k s t h a t D o c t o r Worsham, the  p r e v i o u s m i n i s t e r , would have s a i d t h a t " a l l s o l d i e r s did  not c a r r y arms", and  hunger and  t h a t "one  c h i l d saved from  c o l d i s b e t t e r i n heaven's s i g h t than a thousand  s l a i n enemies", and he assumes t h a t B r o t h e r i s thinking this,  too:  Fortinbride  81 But B r o t h e r F o r t i n b r i d e d i d n ' t say i t ; I r e c k o n he thought o f t h a t ; he always had p l e n t y of words when he wanted t o . I t was l i k e he s a i d t o h i m s e l f , "Words a r e f i n e i n peacetime, when everybody i s c o m f o r t a b l e and easy. But now I t h i n k t h a t we can be e x c u s e d " (p. 1 5 6 ) . T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , Bayard's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s i l e n c e . More t h a n l i k e l y i t i s a s i l e n c e n o t u n l i k e Rosa M i l l a r d ' s earlier.  He cannot deny t h e advantages o f the s i n , but  he cannot v e r b a l l y condone i t .  He even r e f u s e s t o be  any more of a r e c i p i e n t o f the l i e ' s r e s u l t s t h a n he can h e l p : each week he r e f u s e s the money w h i c h Rosa M i l l a r d o f f e r s him, t e l l i n g h e r t h a t he doesn't need i t , t h a t he is  "making out f i n e " . What i s even more s i g n i f i c a n t i s Bayard's  idea—  a t t r i b u t e d to the m i n i s t e r , but o b v i o u s l y h i s o w n — t h a t i n time o f war c e r t a i n t h i n g s can be "excused".  This seems  t o be the boy's way o f r a t i o n a l i z i n g h i s grandmother's actions.  He cannot, however, be unaware t h a t Rosa M i l l a r d  does n o t see h e r s e l f as "excused".  He n o t e s the q u i e t  way she r e g a r d s him a f t e r Ab Snopes has p r a i s e d h e r f o r h e r a b i l i t y t o g e t the mules from the Yankees; he sees t h a t she l o o k s l i k e night".  "somebody t h a t has q u i t s l e e p i n g a t  He i s p r e s e n t when she i s a t l a s t brought f a c e  t o f a c e w i t h h e r l i e s , i n the p e r s o n o f a Yankee l i e u t e n a n t who  comes t o r e c l a i m the s t o l e n mules.  How  she can no  l o n g e r view h e r a c t i o n s as b e i n g e n t i r e l y h o n o r a b l e o r w i t h o u t any h a r m f u l r e s u l t s .  She can see h e r s e l f ,  s u d d e n l y , t h r o u g h the eyes of the l i e u t e n a n t and. s o ,  82 p e r h a p s , can  Bayard:  The l i e u t e n a n t wrote on the pad and t o r e the s h e e t out and came hack to Granny. He s t i l l t a l k e d q u i e t , l i k e when somebody i s s i c k i n a room. "We are under o r d e r s to pay f o r a l l p r o p e r t y damaged i n the p r o c e s s o f e v a c u a t i o n " , he s a i d . "This i s a voucher on the q u a r t e r m a s t e r a t Memphis f o r t e n d o l l a r s . F o r the f e n c e " . He d i d n ' t g i v e the paper t o h e r a t once; he j u s t s t o o d t h e r e , l o o k i n g a t her.. "Confound i t , I don't mean promise. If I j u s t knew what you b e l i e v e d i n , h e l d — " He c u r s e d a g a i n , n o t l o u d and n o t a t anybody or a n y t h i n g . "Listen. I don't say p r o m i s e ; I n e v e r mentioned the v/ord. But I have a f a m i l y ; I am a poor man; I have no grandmother. And i f i n about f o u r months the a u d i t o r s h o u l d f i n d a w a r r a n t i n the r e c o r d s f o r a thousand d o l l a r s to Mrs. Rosa M i l l a r d , I would have t o make i t good. Do you s e e ? " "Yes," Granny s a i d . "You need not w o r r y " (pp, 165-166 ). Immediately  a f t e r w a r d s she t a k e s Bayard and Ringo to the  empty c h u r c h and makes a more v e r b a l c o n f e s s i o n o f h e r s i n s ; a t the same time she d e f i e s a n y o n e — G o d i n c l u d e d , a p p a r e n t l y — t o say t h a t she has s i n n e d f o r g a i n o r  greed  or revenge: " I s i n n e d f i r s t f o r j u s t i c e . And a f t e r t h a t f i r s t t i m e , I s i n n e d f o r more than j u s t i c e ; I s i n n e d f o r the sake of f o o d and c l o t h e s f o r Your own c r e a t u r e s who could not help t h e m s e l v e s — f o r c h i l d r e n who had g i v e n t h e i r f a t h e r s , f o r w i v e s who had g i v e n t h e i r husbands, f o r o l d people who had g i v e n t h e i r sons t o a h o l y cause even though You have seen f i t to make i t a l o s t cause. What I g a i n e d , I shared w i t h them. I t i s t r u e t h a t I kept some o f i t back, but I am the b e s t judge o f t h a t because I , t o o , have dependents who may be orphans, t o o , a t t h i s moment, f o r a l l I know. And i f t h i s be s i n i n y o u r s i g h t , I take t h i s on my c o n s c i e n c e , too. Amen" (pji 167^-168).  83 Y e t , d e s p i t e h e r f i r m , d e f i a n t argument to the c o n t r a r y , h e r code o f v a l u e s has been compromised i n t o a form o f c o r r u p t i o n .  The boys r e a l i z e t h i s .  have c a r r i e d out t h e i r r i t u a l  A f t e r they  o f revenge f o r h e r murder,  Ringo p u t s t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n t o words: " I t wasn't him o r Ab Snopes e i t h e r t h a t k i l t h e r , " Ringo s a i d . " I t was them mules. That f i r s t b a t c h o f . mules we g o t f o r n o t h i n g . " "Yes", I s a i d (p. 2 1 1 ) . I t i s w i t h t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t Bayard r e t u r n s home t o be g r e e t e d  as a c r e d i t to the S a r t o r i s f a m i l y f o r h a v i n g  avenged h i s grandmother.  He has d e a l t w i t h h e r human  murderer because the code demanded i t ; he has y e t to d e a l w i t h the awareness t h a t the code can be w r o n g l y i n t e r p r e t e d and  corrupted.  H i s view o f h i s f a l h e r s embodiment o f the code i s 1  a more complex one.  C e r t a i n l y he i s more e x p l i c i t , as  n a r r a t o r , i n p o i n t i n g out h i s f a t h e r ' s q u a l i t i e s t h a n his  grandmother's.  surrounding  Unfortunately,  the v e i l o f romance  h i s f a t h e r i s d i f f i c u l t to see t h r o u g h ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r an i m a g i n a t i v e  c h i l d who has a v e r y  l i m i t e d awareness o f what war i n g e n e r a l i s l i k e , and what t h i s war i n p a r t i c u l a r i s concerned w i t h ,  No doubt  Bayard has r e a d some o f the books i n h i s f a t h e r ' s  library:  even y e a r s l a t e r , as n a r r a t o r , he can r e c a l l t h a t the l i b r a r y contained,  among o t h e r t h i n g s , "a complete  W a l t e r S c o t t , a complete Penimore Cooper, a paper bound  84 Dumas complete, t o o , save f o r t h e volume w h i c h [ h i s f a t h e r j l o s t from h i s pocket a t Manassas he s a i d " ( p . 1 8 ) ) .  (retreating,  P r o t e c t e d from t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e  war, and f i l l e d w i t h t h e k i n d o f r o m a n t i c i d e a s w h i c h t h e s e hooks a r e n o t e d f o r , Bayard i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y i n the p o s i t i o n t o v i e w h i s f a t h e r as an h e r o i c f i g u r e , f i g h t i n g f o r a n o h l e cause i n g l o r i o u s b a t t l e . I n "Ambuscade", when h i s f a t h e r suggests b u i l d i n g a s t o c k pen, Bayard i m m e d i a t e l y e n v i s i o n s h i m s e l f and Ringo s t a n d i n g l i k e s o l d i e r s b e f o r e h i m , w a t c h i n g him approach t h e j o b as i f i t were a b a t t l e : He was on J u p i t e r now; he wore t h e frogged grey f i e l d - o f f i c e r ' s t u n i c ; and w h i l e we watched he drew t h e s a b r e . G i v i n g us a l a s t embracing and comprehensive g l a n c e he drew i t , a l r e a d y p i v o t i n g J u p i t e r on t h e t i g h t s n a f f l e ; h i s h a i r t o s s e d beneath t h e cocked h a t , t h e sabre f l a s h e d and g l i n t e d ; he c r i e d , n o t l o u d y e t s t e n t o r i a n : " T r o t i C a n t e r ! Charge!" Then, w i t h o u t even h a v i n g t o move, we c o u l d b o t h watch and f o l l o w h i m . . . s t a n d i n g i n t h e s t i r r u p s above t h e smokecolored diminishing thunderbolt, beneath t h e a r c y and m y r i a d g l i t t e r o f the sabre from which t h e chosen s a p l i n g s , sheared trimmed and l o p p e d , sprang i n t o n e a t and w a i t i n g windrows, r e q u i r i n g o n l y t h e c a r r y i n g and t h e p l a c i n g t o become a f e n c e ( p . 1 4 ) . I n r e a l i t y , however, h i s f a t h e r works w i t h t h e r e s t o f them, w i t h h i s c o a t o f f , and w i t h o u t t h e s a b r e . approaches  He  the j o b w i t h t h e same dynamic q u a l i t y o f  Bayard's v i s i o n , f o r he i s shown " w i t h a s a p l i n g under each  85 arm,, g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e brush and b r i e r s a l m o s t f a s t e r t h a n t h e mules", b u t t h e r e i s l i t t l e romance i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f a s t o c k pen . In t h e same way, a l t h o u g h aware t h a t h i s f a t h e r i s a " l i t t l e man" i n s t a t u r e , Bayard f e e l s t h a t " i n conj u n c t i o n w i t h t h e h o r s e [hej l o o k e d e x a c t l y t h e r i g h t s i z e because t h a t was as b i g as he needed t o l o o k a n d — to twelve y e a r s o l d — b i g g e r t h a n most f o l k s c o u l d hope to l o o k " ( p . 1 4 ) . Even h i s f a t h e r ' s humble r e s p e c t f o r and g a l l a n t r y toward Rosa M i l l a r d i s something w h i c h adds to h i s " s t a t u r e " i n Bayard's eyes r a t h e r t h a n d i m i n i s h i n g it.  As Bayard r e c a l l s : He mounted f o u r o f t h e s t e p s . . . t h e n he stopped and removed h i s h a t . And t h a t ' s what I mean: about h i s d o i n g b i g g e r t h i n g s t h a n he was. He c o u l d have stood on t h e same l e v e l w i t h Granny and he would have o n l y needed t o bend h i s head a l i t t l e f o r h e r t o k i s s h i m . But he d i d n ' t . He stopped two s t e p s below h e r , w i t h h i s head bared and h i s f o r e h e a d h e l d f o r h e r t o touch h e r l i p s t o , and t h e f a c t t h a t Granny had t o stoop a l i t t l e took n o t h i n g from t h e i l l u s i o n o f h e i g h t and s i z e w h i c h he wore f o r us a t l e a s t (p. 11). A little  l a t e r , i n " R e t r e a t " , Bayard h e a r s h i s  f a t h e r ' s q u a l i t i e s l a u d e d by Uncle Buck M c C a s l i n i n J e f f e r s o n ; i n t h e same c h a p t e r he r i d e s w i t h h i s f a t h e r ' s band o f men and sees h i s f a t h e r encounter a r e g i m e n t o f Yankee s o l d i e r s — a s w e l l as w i t n e s s i n g t h e l o y a l t y and r e s p e c t S a r t o r i s ' men have f o r h i m .  These t h i n g s cannot  86 h e l p h u t add t o h i s sense o f p r i d e i n being a S a r t o r i s and h i s g r e a t a d m i r a t i o n  for his father.  Yet B a y a r d , as a d u l t n a r r a t o r , i s q u i t e capable o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y — b e t w e e n what he b e l i e v e d as a c h i l d t o be t r u e and what he knows now t o be t r u e — w h e r e v e r such a d i s t i n c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . For example, i n r e c a l l i n g h i s a t t i t u d e towards h i s f a t h e r , he  says: Then I began t o s m e l l i t a g a i n . . . t h a t odor i n h i s c l o t h e s and beard and f l e s h too w h i c h I b e l i e v e d was t h e s m e l l o f powder and g l o r y , t h e e l e c t e d v i c t o r i o u s , but know b e t t e r now: know now t o have been o n l y t h e w i l l t o endure, a s a r d o n i c and even humorous d e c l i n i n g o f s e l f d e l u s i o n w h i c h i s n o t even k i n t o t h a t optimism which b e l i e v e s that that which i s about t o happen t o us can p o s s i b l y be the w o r s t w h i c h we can s u f f e r ( p . 1 1 ) .  And,  as a c h i l d , Bayard knows t h a t p a r t o f the wonder he  f e e l s about h i s f a t h e r i s t i e d up w i t h M s  realization  t h a t t h i s man whom t h e Yankees f e a r i s a l s o t h e one whom he has "heard s n o r i n g a t n i g h t i n a q u i e t house".  What  he ,learns about h i s f a t h e r as he grows o l d e r does n o t d i m i n i s h h i s r e s p e c t and a d m i r a t i o n  f o r h i m : i t o n l y adds  t o h i s awarenessof the man beneath t h e r o m a n t i c  veil.  °An an a d u l t n a r r a t o r , Bayard i s s t i l l caught up t o some e x t e n t i n t h i s r o m a n t i c a u r a o f h i s f a t h e r . However, t h e r e a d e r must keep i n mind t h a t t h e f i r s t p e r s o n p o i n t o f view determines how t h e s t o r y i s r e l a t e d , and n o t a t t r i b u t e t h e " r o m a n t i c i z i n g " t o F a u l k n e r himself. Bayard can be excused f o r i t , s i n c e over t e n y e a r s have passed s i n c e most o f t h e i n c i d e n t s o f t h e book t o o k p l a c e , and s i n c e he was o n l y an i m a g i n a t i v e c h i l d a t t h e time. Furthermore t h e r e a d e r can b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e h i s d e l i b e r a t e d e v i a t i o n f r o m the code o f t h e p a s t i n s e e i n g " how s t r o n g a h o l d t h a t p a s t s t i l l has on h i s i m a g i n a t i o n .  87 I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g his  f a t h e r t h a t Bayard remembers i n the most d e t a i l ,  and  r e l a t e s a t g r e a t e s t l e n g t h , are not ones i n v o l v i n g "powder and g l o r y " .  When h i s f a t h e r ' s band of men  encounter a  Yankee r e g i m e n t , the s o l d i e r s are r e l i e v e d of t h e i r weapons, f o o d and  c l o t h i n g , and are p e r m i t t e d  i n t h e i r underwear.  I t i s a humorous t a l e ,  to  horses,  "escape"  particularly  because o f p a r t w h i c h Bayard and Ringo p l a y i n the o f the r e g i m e n t , but i t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t , no  "capturing"  matter  what r o l e C o l o n e l S a r t o r i s once had when commanding an o f f i c i a l r e g i m e n t , he i s now  more of a g a d f l y to  Yankees t h a n a f e a r e d a s s a i l a n t . he manages to e l u d e s o l d i e r s who for  him,  the  In another i n c i d e n t , come t o h i s home l o o k i n g  but a g a i n i t i s cunning and q u i c k w i t s w h i c h are  demonstrated r a t h e r t h a n "powder and  glory".  I n " S k i r m i s h a t S a r t o r i s ", Bayard r e c a l l s h i s f a t h e r ' s p a r t i n the immediate post-war r e c o n s t r u c t i o n And  i t i s h e r e , perhaps, t h a t he f i r s t r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s  cause i s n o t a h o l y and one  period.  therefore i n e v i t a b l y successful  and t h a t h i s f a t h e r i s f i n d i n g i t n e c e s s a r y to com-  promise h i s b e l i e f s and work w i t h men  who  had  been h i s  enemies. F o r f o u r y e a r s we had l i v e d f o r j u s t one t h i n g , even the women and c h i l d r e n who c o u l d not f i g h t : to g e t the Yankees t r o o p s out o f the c o u n t r y ; we thought t h a t when t h a t happened i t would be a l l o v e r . And now t h a t had happened, and t h e n b e f o r e the summer began I h e a r d F a t h e r say to D r u s i l l a , "We were promised F e d e r a l t r o o p s ; L i n c o l n h i m s e l f promised to send us  88 t r o o p s . Then t h i n g s w i l l he a l l r i g h t . " That, f r o m a man who had commanded a regiment f o r f o u r y e a r s w i t h the avowed purpose of d r i v i n g F e d e r a l t r o o p s from the c o u n t r y (p. 228). Now  John S a r t o r i s uses h i s l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y  and  v i g o r i n r e b u i l d i n g J e f f e r s o n , and, most i m p o r t a n t , i n s t o p p i n g the e l e c t i o n of C a s s i u s (JJ. Benbow, an e x - s l a v e ^ to  o f f i c e of M a r s h a l l . o f J e f f e r s o n .  This e l e c t i o n i s  r e c a l l e d by Bayard as b e i n g f u l l o f the same e x c i t e m e n t and s p i r i t as the C i v i l War r a i d s , and when one t h a t from the Southern p o i n t of view S a r t o r i s  realizes action  1  was  a p o s i t i v e one such r e c o l l e c t i o n becomes u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . However, the "dashing about", and the humorous c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g theme of D r u s i l l a ' s a b o r t i v e wedding ceremony cannot h i d e the f a c t t h a t John S a r t o r i s and a band o f f o l l o w e r s r i d e i n t o J e f f e r s o n , encounter the N o r t h e r n e r s who  have been o r g a n i z i n g the e l e c t i o n , k i l l b o t h of them  ( c o u r t e o u s l y a l l o w i n g them t o f i r e f i r s t , of c o u r s e ) , c a r r y o f f the b a l l o t box to the S a r t o r i s mansion, and proceed t o s t u f f the box w i t h o p p o s i t i o n v o t e s a l l s c r i b b l e d out by one man  i n o r d e r t o "save more t i m e " .  Then  S a r t o r i s i s cheered f o r h a v i n g once a g a i n saved the community from the e n e m y — i n t h i s case the "new c a r p e t b a g g e r s and Yankee  foe":  liberals.  The r e a d e r — p a r t i c u l a r l y the N o r t h e r n r e a d e r — m a y f i n d t h i s c h a p t e r of The TJnvanquished to a c c e p t .  He may  p a r t i c u l a r l y hard  not approve o f the s e g r e g a t i o n i s t  89  f e e l i n g s w h i c h he s u s p e c t s a r e i m p l i c i t i n S a r t o r i s  1  a c t i o n s ( a l t h o u g h they a r e n o t s t a t e d ) and he jway...Ti©t understand  t h e l a c k o f c r i t i c i s m , on t h e p a r t o f e i t h e r  Bayard o r F a u l k n e r , o f t h i s whole m a t t e r .  Bayard i s  s i m p l y t h e r e c o r d e r o f what happens: he i s a c t i v e i n i t o n l y when he shows h i s concern f o r h i s f a t h e r ' s s a f e t y i n f a c i n g t h e two N o r t h e r n e r s  singlehandedly.  Y e t we  a r e n o t t o l d by t h e a d u l t B a y a r d , as n a r r a t o r , how he f e l t about t h e a c t u a l i n c i d e n t . No doubt as a c h i l d o f the S o u t h e r n way o f l i f e he sees n o t h i n g wrong w i t h t h e g e n e r a l d e s i r e t o p r e v e n t an u n l e t t e r e d Negro from obt a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i n t h e community; even the r e a d e r can a p p r e c i a t e t h i s .  I t i s t h e method used by  S a r t o r i s and h i s men w h i c h seems t o be a t f a u l t the i m p o s i n g  here:  o f the community's w i s h e s i n a v i o l e n t  manner, a n d , i r o n i c a l l y , i n t h e name o f law and o r d e r . John S a r t o r i s cannot h e l p b u t appear u n h e r o i c .  Perhaps even  Bayard i s aware t h a t t h e v i o l e n c e i s n o t , i n t h e c a s e , i n the name o f a H i g h e r Cause, o r a Holy Cause: t h a t i t i s a m a t t e r o f two o p i n i o n s c l a s h i n g . chivalric  Again the Southern  code i s r e v e a l e d as r e l a t i v e  to circumstance,  r a t h e r than p e r f e c t and a b s o l u t e . How Bayard comes t o r e g a r d t h e i n c i d e n t i s seen i n his  conversation w i t h h i s cousin D r u s i l l a f o u r years  i n "An Odor o f Verbena", where he q u i t e c l e a r l y  later,  shows h i s  doubts about t h e r i g h t n e s s o f h i s f a t h e r ' s methods i n t h e  90 election issue.  "They were men.  Human b e i n g s , " he a r g u e s ,  s p e a k i n g o f t h e two Burdens whom John S a r t o r i s shot t h a t day; t h e f a c t t h a t they were c a r p e t b a g g e r s , " N o r t h e r n e r s , f o r e i g n e r s . . . . p i r a t e s " , as D r u s i l l a c a l l s them, o r even the "new f o e " , no l o n g e r seems t o excuse t h e i r death so f a r as Bayard i s concerned.  Pour y e a r s o f peace have  g i v e n him a w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e i n v i e w i n g h i s f a t h e r and h i s f a t h e r ' s code o f b e h a v i o r ; Bayard i s no l o n g e r a c h i l d , and, what i s more i m p o r t a n t , he has spent a y e a r a t u n i v e r s i t y , l i v i n g away from home.  D u r i n g t h a t time he  has no doubt come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h v a l u e s w h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t from those he has grown up w i t h and, w i t h o u t the f a m i l i a l p r e s s u r e upon him t o f o l l o w t h e S a r t o r i s code, has been f r e e t o f o l l o w h i s own i n t u i t i v e  responses.  Bayard h i m s e l f says t h a t h i s new p o i n t o f view has n o t been t a u g h t t o him by P r o f e s s o r Wilkins,;. w i t h whom he has d i s c u s s e d t h e s e t h i n g s ; he has n o t even t a u g h t i t t o h i m s e l f , s i n c e i t goes " f u r t h e r than j u s t h a v i n g been learned".  What he has concluded i s t h a t i f t h e r e was a n y t h i n g a t a l l i n t h e Book, a n y t h i n g o f hope and peace f o r H i s b l i n d and b e w i l d e r e d spawn w h i c h He had chosen above a l l o t h e r s t o o f f e r i m m o r t a l i t y , Thou.ishalt n o t k i l l must be i t . . . ( p . 2 4 9 ) .  T h i s o f course i s n o t h i n g new: i n f a c t , such an i d e a l i n s p i r e s most o f N o r t h America's as i t s r e l i g i o u s codes.  c r i m i n a l codes as w e l l  Y e t Bayard's a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s  commandment w i l l come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h D r u s i l l a ' s code  91 o f B e h a v i o r : - t h e S a r t o r i s code, o r , more c o r r e c t l y , the code of b e h a v i o r i d e a l i z e d by the S o u t h e r n a r i s t o c r a c y and e x e m p l i f i e d by the S a r t o r i s f a m i l y .  According to  t h a t code, as D r u s i l l a s t a t e s i t , t h e r e are "worse t h i n g s than k i l l i n g men....There a r e worse t h i n g s t h a n being k i l l e d . . . . "  (p. 261). That something worse  would  seem to be l a c k o f honor, i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , and a l a c k of n e c e s s a r y romance and g l o r y , i n one's p e r s o n a l image, i n the second.  W h a t . D r u s i l l a sees as an i d e a l i s  f o r a man t o " . . . l o v e something, a woman p r e f e r a b l y , w e l l , h a r d h a r d h a r d , t h e n t o d i e young because he  believed  what he c o u l d n o t ( c o u l d n o t ? would n o t ) h e l p but be" (p. 261). And t h i s i d e a l , however r o m a n t i c , has d e a t h a t i t s centre.  D r u s i l l a , w i t h her c h i l d l e s s n e s s , her b i t t e r n e s s  about the d e a t h o f h e r i'r'iiance, and h e r subsequent  embracing  o f a man's r o l e i n the war, i s l i k e the symbol of d e a t h itself.  The way i n w h i c h she l o o k s a t Bayard a f t e r  s t a t i n g t h a t i t i s a " f i n e " t h i n g t o d i e young f o r a cause o r f o r what one  " c o u l d n o t h e l p be" shows t h a t she  i s e l e c t i n g him f o r t h a t r o l e , even though i t may him d e a t h .  Immediately a f t e r t h i s statement and  bring signi-  f i c a n t l o o k , she demands t h a t Bayard k i s s h e r , embrace h e r , and, he r e l u c t a n t l y f e e l s h i m s e l f d r i v e n t o do s o . S y m b o l i c a l l y he i s embracing d e a t h , o r a code w h i c h v a l u e s h o n o r a b l e d e a t h : a code w h i c h i s a t t r a c t i v e t o him d e s p i t e h i s awareness o f i t s "immoral" p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  92 Bayard h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s D r u s i l l a as a "Greek amphora p r i e s t e s s o f a s u c c i n c t and f o r m a l v i o l e n c e " (p. 2 5 2 ) . and  so she i s , demanding t h e s a c r i f i c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  to a cause w h i c h i s v i o l e n t i n i t s demands—a cause she c a l l s a "dream". I t i s i n the name o f t h i s dream t o r e b u i l d and r e s t o r e Yoknapatawpha County t h a t D r u s i l l a defends John S a r t o r i s ' post-war i n v o l v e m e n t i n v i o l e n c e .  To h e r ,  t h i s dream j u s t i f i e s h i s f o r m i n g o f t h e " n i g h t perhaps f o r e r u n n e r s  riders"—  t o t h e Ku K l u x K l a n — t o ' k e e p t h e carpet-  baggers f r o m o r g a n i z i n g t h e Negroes i n t o an i n s u r r e c t i o n " ; i t a l s o makes t h e s t r u g g l e between Sutpen and S a r t o r i s appear t o be one between Sutpen's s e l f i s h concern over h i s own l a n d and S a r t o r i s ' more n o b l e , w i t h a l l the land of the county.  generous concern  B u t Bayard r e a l i z e s  t h a t h i s f a t h e r has h a t e d Sutpen s i n c e the war because i t was Sutpen who was e l e c t e d c o l o n e l when the regiment deposed him;  a l s o , he knews t h a t h i s f a t h e r ' s  challenging  o f Sutpen t o j o i n the n i g h t r i d e r s o r e l s e f i g h t on t h e m a t t e r was u n n e c e s s a r y , and n o t t o h i s c r e d i t ,  particularly  s i n c e Sutpen m e r e l y r e f u s e d b o t h c h o i c e s , and t h e r e f o r e seemed t o r i d i c u l e S a r t o r i s ' r i g h t t o l i m i t t h e c h o i c e t o two.  There i s a l s o the m a t t e r o f t h e " h i l l man" whom  S a r t o r i s shot f o r a t h i e f , but whom t h e y would n e v e r know f o r sure t o be a t h i e f , s i n c e he had "shot t o o q u i c k " . The  response o f the man's w i f e — h e r  p r i d e and contempt  93  as she throws i n S a r t o r i s ' f a c e t h e money he has s e n t h e r t o compensate f o r t h e d e a t h o f h e r h u s b a n d — a g a i n r e v e a l s S a r t o r i s as a man who has l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e normal human sense o f v a l u e s i n h i s adherence t o a code w h i c h by i t s v e r y n a t u r e demands a h a r d e n i n g o f something s e n s i t i v e w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , an o v e r l o o k i n g o f the s m a l l d e t a i l s , such as i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s , f o r t h e l a r g e r , more b e a u t i f u l "dream".  No doubt he has b e l i e v e d , w i t h  D r u s i l l a , t h a t t h e r e a r e "not many dreams i n t h e w o r l d , but t h e r e a r e a l o t o f human l i v e s .  And one human l i f e  o r two dozen" a r e n o t w o r t h a n y t h i n g ( p .  257).  I n any c a s e , Bayard now sees t h a t h i s f a t h e r can be !!wrong".  Seen i n t h e post-war c o n t e x t , and t h r o u g h t h e  eyes o f a young man who no l o n g e r has t h e na'ivet! o f c h i l d ' hood t o obscure h i s v i s i o n , John S a r t o r i s appears l e s s h e r o i c and more extreme i n h i s a c t i o n s t h a n d u r i n g t h e war.  After a l l ,  Bayard's memories o f him from the war  a r e o f s k i r m i s h e s and b r i e f e n c o u n t e r s i n w h i c h c u n n i n g , p e r s e v e r e n c e and l e a d e r s h i p were e x h i b i t e d more t h a n f o r c e and r u t h l e s s n e s s , and where g l o r y surrounded even the p o s s i b i l i t y o f death because i t would be death f o r a n o b l e cause.  Now t h e l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y appears t o Bayard  as a " v i o l e n t and r u t h l e s s d i c t a t o r i a l n e s s and w i l l t o dominate" ( p . 258), and t h e cunning and p e r s e v e r e n c e — w h i c h were g a d f l y q u a l i t i e s when d i r e c t e d a t a p o w e r f u l and numerous enemy d u r i n g t h e w a r — s e e m s p i t e f u l ,  petty,  94  and u n n e c e s s a r i l y c r u e l when t h e y are merely a t t a c k s one man,  Redmond, S a r t o r i s ' e x - p a r t n e r  i n the  on  railroad"  business. John S a r t o r i s ' problem i s t h a t he i s f o l l o w i n g a code of b e h a v i o r w h i c h i s b e t t e r s u i t e d to a time of when the i n t e n s i t y and for  an i n t e n s i t y and  e x t r e m i t y of c i r c u m s t a n c e s  war,  call  e x t r e m i t y i n human a c t i o n and  emotions, and i d e a l i s m i s as n o b l e as p r a g m a t i o n . time of peace, such a c t i o n s and  In a  emotions appear t o be  out  of p r o p o r t i o n t o the normal p a t t e r n s of human e x i s t e n c e , and whatever i d e a l i s m once s p u r r e d them now be an e x t r a v a g a n t ,  appears to  d i s t o r t e d t h i n g , melodramatic r a t h e r  t h a n h e r o i c , g r o t e s q u e r a t h e r t h a n b e a u t i f u l , and dangerous.  Under t h i s code, John S a r t o r i s  1  a c t i o n s seem  to be a d e l i b e r a t e c o u r t i n g of d e a t h , w i t h o u t to excuse i t or l i f t i t to an i d e a l i s t i c Bayard i s n o t the o n l y one who  yet  the Cause  level.  senses t h i s : even  S a r t o r i s ' o l d f o l l o w e r s , w h i l e s t i l l l o y a l to him,  are  no l o n g e r l i v i n g a t the same l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y as  during  the war and do not s u p p o r t h i s p r o v o k i n g As one  of them a n a l y z e s  S a r t o r i s , " I know what's wrong;  he's  had  man"  (p. 260), s u g g e s t i n g  man  of Redmond.  to k i l l too many f o l k s , and t h a t ' s bad f o r a perhaps t h a t e v e n t u a l l y a  becomes d u l l e d to the p o s s i b i l i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e  o f d e a t h — e v e n h i s own—when he has often.  been i t s agent so  More l i k e l y , however, what i s meant i s t h a t when  95 a man i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k i l l i n g  "so many f o l k s " he  a l m o s t seeks to l o s e h i s own l i f e as a form of a t o n e ment to r e l e a s e h i m s e l f from a sense o f g u i l t , b a l a n c e s the s c a l e s .  and  Bayard says o f h i s f a t h e r t h a t he  had eyes w h i c h i n the l a s t two y e a r s had a c q u i r e d t h a t t r a n s p a r e n t f i l m w h i c h the eyes o f c a r n i v o r o u s a n i m a l s have and from b e h i n d w h i c h t h e y l o o k a t a w o r l d w h i c h no ruminant ever s e e s , perhaps d a r e s to s e e , w h i c h I have seen b e f o r e on the eyes of men who have k i l l e d so much t h a t n e v e r a g a i n as l o n g as t h e y l i v e w i l l t h e y ever be a l o n e ( p . 266). As i f r e a l i z i n g t h a t he b e l o n g s to an o r d e r of t h i n g s w h i c h i s too d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e f o r the t i m e s , and a n a n c h r o n i s t i c now,  even  John S a r t o r i s t e l l s Bayard, j u s t  b e f o r e g o i n g to f a c e Redmond i n a d u e l : " . . . I a c t e d as the l a n d and the time demanded and you were too young f o r t h a t , I w i s h e d to s h i e l d you. But now the l a n d and the t i m e too a r e c h a n g i n g ; what w i l l f o l l o w w i l l be a m a t t e r o f c o n s o l i d a t i o n , o f p e t t i f o g g i n g and d o u b t l e s s c h i c a n e r y i n w h i c h I would be a babe i n arms but i n w h i c h you, t r a i n e d i n the l a w , can h o l d y o u r o w n — o u r own. Y e s . I have a c c o m p l i s h e d my-aim,, and now I s h a l l do a l i t t l e m o r a l housec l e a n i n g . I am t i r e d o f k i l l i n g men, no m a t t e r what the n e c e s s i t y o r the end. . Tomorrow when I go t o town and meet Ben Redmond, I s h a l l be unarmed" (p. 266). In  t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n , S a r t o r i s i n e f f e c t passes on the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as head o f the f a m i l y and defender of the f a m i l y ' s honor to Bayard, who w i l l b e t t e r f i t i n t o the times.  He a l s o shows h i s awareness  of the i m m o r a l i t y —  a c c o r d i n g t o the n o r m a l , peacetime code of v a l u e s — o f  96 the v i o l e n t l i f e he has been l i v i n g .  A l t h o u g h he perhaps  hopes t o a p o l o g i z e to Redmond and a v o i d f u r t h e r v i o l e n c e when he meets h i m , i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t he f e e l s t h a t those who l i v e by v i o l e n c e s h o u l d d i e by i t , and t h a t Redmond d e s e r v e s t o be t h e e x e c u t i o n e r i n t h i s c a s e , i f f a t e d e c i d e s i t i s time f o r him t o d i e . He d i e s a t Redmond's hand, and Bayard f i n d s h i m s e l f the h e i r n o t o n l y t o t h e f a m i l y l e a d e r s h i p , but t o t h a t p e c u l i a r r o l e o f b e i n g "The S a r t o r i s " .  Such a r o l e demands  o f h i m a f o l l o w i n g o f h i s f a t h e r ' s example, b u t o n l y Bayard f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d s what t h a t example was a t i t s finest.  G-eorge Wyatt and S a r t o r i s ' o l d t r o o p have  little  doubt t h a t i t was an example o f b r a v e r y : t h e y f e e l conf i d e n t t h a t Bayard w i l l once a g a i n , as i n t h e case o f h i s grandmother's  d e a t h , e x a c t revenge.  R i n g o , Bayard's  c h i l d h o o d companion e x p e c t s something s i m i l a r , i f o n l y because o f Bayard's p a s t performance and l o v e f o r h i s father. D r u s i l l a sees i t as a m a t t e r o f honor and a k i n d o f divine retribution.  More t h a n ever now she resembles a  p r i e s t e s s , w e a r i n g the y e l l o w b a l l gown, and t h e verbena i n h e r h a i r ^ a s i f t h e y were p a r t o f a u n i f o r m o r r i t u a l d r e s s , s p e a k i n g t o Bayard i n a tone o f " p a s s i o n a t e and v o r a c i o u s e x a l t a t i o n " , l i k e t h e devotee o f come c u l t . I n t h e scene where she o f f e r s Bayard t h e d u e l l i n g  pistols  she i s q u i t e o b v i o u s l y l i k e a p r i e s t e s s o f a d e a t h c u l t .  97 She  s t a n d s i n the " d e a t h - f i l l e d room" where S a r t o r i s  l i e s , s p e a k i n g w i t h a " p a s s i o n a t e and d y i n g f a l l " ,  and  i n the same tone i n which she t o l d Bayard to k i s s h e r the summer b e f o r e : k i s s i n g her and a c c e p t i n g the p o l e as s a c r i f i c i a l thing.  v i c t i m o f the code a r e c l e a r l y the same  Even h e r c h o i c e o f words makes these  aspects  clear: "Take them. I have k e p t them f o r you. I give them to you. Oh you w i l l t h a n k me, you w i l l remember me who put i n t o y o u r hands what they say i s an a t t r i b u t e o n l y o f God's, who took what belongs to heaven and gave i t to you. Do you f e e l them? the l o n g t r u e b a r r e l s t r u e as j u s t i c e , the t r i g g e r s (you have f i r e d them) q u i c k as r e t r i b u t i o n , the two o f them s l e n d e r and i n v i n c i b l e and f a t a l as the p h y s i c a l shape o f l o v e ? " (p. 273). In the n e x t b r e a t h , however, she shows h e r s e l f to be  not  o n l y " v o r a c i o u s " , as. Bayard has a l r e a d y r e p e a t e d l y d e s c r i b e d h e r , but v e r g i n g on i n s a n i t y ; as she t e l l s  him,  "...How b e a u t i f u l : young, to be p e r m i t t e d to k i l l , t o be p e r m i t t e d vengeance, to t a k e i n t o your bare hands the f i r e o f heaven t h a t c a s t down L u c i f e r . . . " (p. 274). I n o t h e r words, t h i s a c t of vengeance i s f o r h e r a p l a y i n g o f God  on the p a r t o f B a y a r d .  I n t a k i n g such a r o l e  he  becomes n o t o n l y the agent of death but a h o l y w a r r i o r of a h o l y cause, o r the p r i e s t o f a c u l t who and  must r i s k  death  c a r r y out a r i t u a l i s t i c k i l l i n g i n o r d e r t h a t the  i t s e l f and the o r d e r of l i f e i t r e p r e s e n t s may  live.  cult Eor  t h i s r e a s o n D r u s i l l a k i s s e s Bayard's hand, as i f b l e s s i n g i t ; as she does so she resembles a p r i e s t e s s k i s s i n g  the  98 hand of an a r c h b i s h o p  o r head p r i e s t .  She a l s o g i v e s  the  whole s i t u a t i o n a c h i v a l r i c a i r : she i s l i k e the l a d y o f the c a s t l e , b e s t o w i n g h e r f a v o r on h e r chosen k n i g h t b e f o r e he goes i n t o b a t t l e .  The verbena w h i c h she  i n h i s l a p e l becomes s y m b o l i c imposes upon him.  puts  of the k n i g h t l y duty  she  However, Bayard makes no m o t i o n to  p l a y the r o l e a s s i g n e d  t o him,  and D r u s i l l a r e a l i z e s  s u d d e n l y t h a t he i s not g o i n g to k i l l Redmond: Then h e r eyes f i l l e d w i t h an e x p r e s s i o n of b i t t e r and p a s s i o n a t e b e t r a y a l . "Why, he's n o t . . . " she s a i d . "He's not...And I k i s s e d h i s hand," she s a i d i n an aghast w h i s p e r ; " I k i s s e d h i s h a n d l " (p. 275). A l l t h i s i s c r u c i a l f o r B a y a r d , who m a t t e r of r e v e n g i n g his  own  sees the whole  h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h as a c o n f l i c t between  p r i n c i p l e s and those of the code he has been brought  up under.  Can he a c t as he b e l i e v e s i s the r i g h t  d e s p i t e the p r e s s u r e s  of the code t o do the  way,  opposite?  As he t h i n k s to h i m s e l f w h i l e l e a v i n g P r o f . W i l k i n s ' home, upon f i r s t l e a r n i n g of h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , "At l e a s t t h i s w i l l be my  chance to f i n d out i f I am what I t h i n k I am  o r i f I .just hope; i f I am g o i n g to do what I have t a u g h t m y s e l f i s r i g h t , or i f I am (p. 248.  .just g o i n g  I t a l i c s Faulkner's).  to w i s h I were"  In o t h e r words he i s  s t r u g g l i n g between h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s m — i n the form of  the  p r i n c i p l e s t h a t he h i m s e l f has f o r m e d — a n d h i s p a r t i c u l a r h e r i t a g e of v a l u e s — i n the form of D r u s i l l a ' s demands. Bayard sees h i s s t r u g g l e " a s the need to s t i c k t o p r i n c i p l e  99 i n the f a c e o f b l o o d and r a i s i n g and background;  t o be  f a c e d w i t h o u t warning and made t o d e l i v e r l i k e by a h i g h wayman out of the d a r k . . . ( p . 249).  However, though he  f e e l s s t r o n g l y t h a t he s h o u l d not k i l l Redmond, he i s still  a f r a i d of b e i n g thought a coward by D r u s i l l a  and  the county p e o p l e ; worse t h a n t h a t , he must be sure t h a t he i s n o t s i m p l y f a l l i n g back on h i s p r i n c i p l e s out o f cowardice i n the f a c e of d e a t h .  F o r he i s a f r a i d of  d y i n g : he knows t h i s , f e e l i n g the f e a r i n t e n s e l y when he l o o k s upon h i s dead f a t h e r . L u c k i l y he has Aunt Jenny, h i s f a t h e r ' s s i s t e r to h e l p him make the d e c i s i o n . still all  She t e l l s him t h a t she would  t h i n k w e l l of him i f he were t o h i d e i n t h e  day.  A l t h o u g h she has l o s t someone she l o v e d d u r i n g  the war, the way  D r u s i l l a h a s , h e r l o s s has made h e r w i s e  and g r a v e , n o t b i t t e r o r " i n t o l e r a n t " . is  loft  While  Drusilla  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h verbena, s y m b o l i c o f k n i g h t h o o d  and  d e a t h , Aunt Jenny i s a s s o c i a t e d i n Bayard's mind w i t h the two  jasmine c u t t i n g s ^ w h i c h a r e l i v i n g ,  growing things ?  she brought from h e r home when she came to s t a y w i t h Sartoris.  What she s a l v a g e d from h e r home was  something  b e a u t i f u l and t r u l y " g e n t e e l " : panes o f c o l o r e d g l a s s f r o m a window; i n c o n t r a s t , D r u s i l l a seems t o have s a l v a g e d , from the r u i n o f h e r p a s t l i f e , o n l y h e r h o r s e and  the  b i t t e r uncompromising n a t u r e w h i c h has l e a d t o her v o r a c i o u s , passionate a p p e t i t e f o r "honorable" v i o l e n c e .  100 I t i s Aunt Jenny who g i v e s Bayard t h e key t o c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s b e l i e f s when she p o i n t s out t h a t q u i t e o f t e n what appears t o be courage i s m e r e l y l u c k or  c i r c u m s t a n c e ; t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s "no b l o o d y moon"  to  expose t h e deed, o r make one a c l e a r l y l i g h t e d target..  She seems to be s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f courage, and t h a t t h e type v/hich T J r u s i l l a demands i s a f o o l i s h v a r i e t y w h i c h w i l l n o t s t a n d up t o s c r u t i n y under the l i g h t o f r e a s o n .  "Ho. b l o o d y moon" can a l s o be i n t e r -  p r e t e d as a vow, o r p r a y e r o r w a r n i n g : l e t t h e r e be no b l o o d s h e d f o r t h e moon t o i l l u m i n a t e ; a c h i e v e y o u r  self-  r e s p e c t , your peace v/ith y o u r s e l f and y o u r s o c i e t y , w i t h o u t bloodshed. I t i s w i t h Aunt Jenny's r e a s s u r a n c e t h a t Bayard goes i n t o town and f a c e s Redmond unarmed.  Redmond does n o t  shoot him i n o r d e r t o k i l l him; b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s know t h a t t h e y a r e s i m p l y a c t i n g out a k i n d o f r i t u a l , and t h a t i t i s as n e c e s s a r y f o r Redmond t o f i r e two u s e l e s s , unaimed s h o t s a t Bayard as i t i s f o r Bayard t o f a c e him a l o n e . And i n the end George Wyatt and t h e r e s t o f John  Sartoris'  f o l l o w e r s come t o r e c o g n i z e Bayard's a c t as e x h i b i t i n g a h i g h e r form o f courage t h a n t h a t w h i c h they had a n t i c i p a t e d : h i g h e r because i t does n o t demand d e a t h , b u t i n f a c t g i v e s life.  Even D r u s i l l a appears t o a c c e p t h i s a c t i o n as  courageous.  A l t h o u g h she l e a v e s b e f o r e he r e t u r n s home,  she p u t s a s p r i g o f verbena on h i s p i l l o w .  S i n c e verbena  101 has h a d j t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r ,  the c o n n o t a t i o n  of a  g a r l a n d , or even of a k n i g h t ' s emblem, her g e s t u r e t h a t she i s w i l l i n g to concede t h a t he has and  bravery  shows  shown honor  even though he has n o t f o l l o w e d her  concept  of c h i v a l r y . The manner i n w h i c h he has  a c t e d i s , of c o u r s e ,  compromise: the r e a d e r would be n a i v e to see i t as wise.  other-  However, as a compromise i t d i f f e r s from t h a t w h i c h  Rosa M i l l a r d was  l e d to make i n t h a t i t s a t i s f i e s  r e q u i r e m e n t s of b o t h the s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s conscience.  and  the  the individual  So f a r as the c h i v a l r i c code i s c o n c e r n e d ,  Bayard's a c t c o n t a i n s  the n e c e s s a r y q u a l i t y of honor w i t h -  out the v i o l e n c e w h i c h has war.  a  d i s t o r t e d t h a t code d u r i n g  the  I t i s an a c t w h i c h r e s t o r e s the code to the p r o p e r  p r o p o r t i o n s f o r normal everyday l i v i n g .  I t i s done,  however, w i t h f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n on Bayard's p a r t t h a t  the  code l i v e s i n each i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t and must be tempered a c c o r d i n g  t o the i n d i v i d u a l  i n o r d e r t h a t i t be of any v a l u e o r  conscience  validity.  I f Bayard S a r t o r i s s t a n d s a t the p o i n t where the b l a z e and g l o r y of the c h i v a l r i c code r e a c h e s i t s z e n i t h and  b e g i n s to d e c l i n e , Q u e n t i n Compson, the n i n e t e e n  o l d n a r r a t o r of s e c t i o n two  of The  Sound and  The  year  Furl",7  7(New Y o r k : Random House, 1946). A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s are a l s o from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a f t e r the quotation...  102 s t a n d s i n the t w i l i g h t of i t s day.  F o r t u n a t e l y , Bayard  i s a b l e t o see the n e c e s s i t y of a c c e p t i n g the changing v a l u e s of h i s time and can r e - i n t e r p r e t the code i n h i s own terms. For at  Q u e n t i n i s n o t so f o r t u n a t e .  him, a c c e p t a n c e of such a c h a n g e — o r  all—is  almost i m p o s s i b l e .  o f change  Most of h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h  t i m e , and h i s a t t e m p t s t o become o b l i v i o u s t o the p a s s i n g of  time (as s y m b o l i z e d by t h e d e l i b e r a t e b r e a k i n g of h i s  w a t c h ) , stem from h i s d e s i r e to s t o p the minute by minute c h a n g i n g of something w h i c h he f e e l s must r e m a i n a b s o l u t e and  immutable. J u s t what t h i s something i s , i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y  c l e a r , e i t h e r t o the r e a d e r o r t o Q u e n t i n h i m s e l f . the  In  f i r s t i n s t a n c e i t appears to be h i s c h i l d h o o d r e l a t i o n -  s h i p w i t h h i s s i s t e r Caddy, a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h has been weakening y e a r by y e a r as Caddy becomes more s e x u a l l y mature and i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d w i t h men. development  Caddy's  as a woman p r o j e c t s h e r i n t o a w o r l d w h i c h  Q u e n t i n , who  i s s t i l l a v i r g i n , has y e t to e n t e r .  s e x u a l encounter Caddy h a s , however minor i t may  Each be,  seems t o r e p r e s e n t f o r Q u e n t i n a b r o a d e n i n g of the gap between them.  I t i s as i f Q u e n t i n w i s h e s t h a t time would  s t o p p r e s e r v i n g Caddy i n an e t e r n a l innocence and  virginity,  so t h a t she would be t o t a l l y h i s , untouched by the l o u d and s o r d i d w o r l d around them.  103 Quentin's dilemma i s i n c r e a s e d by t h e f a c t t h a t Caddy, as w e l l as b e i n g h i s s i s t e r , i s f o r him t h e symbol o f a p u r i t y , c h a s t i t y and honor t h a t i s a v e r y n e c e s s a r y p a r t of h i s c h i v a l r i c i d e a l .  As a c h i l d she more c l o s e l y  resembles t h i s i d e a l , and when she f a l l s s h o r t o f i t ( a c c o r d i n g t o Quentin's r i g i d s t a n d a r d s ) , he i s a b l e t o reprimand h e r , remind h e r o f h e r r o l e i n h i s m o r a l universe.  F o r example, when he sees h e r k i s s a boy, a t  f i f t e e n , he s l a p s h e r and s c o u r s h e r head i n t h e g r a s s (p. 1 5 2 ) . He even becomes angry when she a c c i d e n t a l l y w i t n e s s e s h i s own e a r l y s e x u a l encounter w i t h a l i t t l e neighborhood g i r l , p a r t i c u l a r l y when Caddy shows no sense of proper moral outrage.  When he smears Caddy w i t h t h e  mud he has been w a l l o w i n g i n ( a l m o s t as an a c t sjonbolic o f h i s view o f s e x ) , i t i s as i f he wants t o make h e r aware o f t h e s o r d i d n e s s o f what he was d o i n g so t h a t she . w i l l n o t do something l i k e i t .  I f she r e p r e s e n t s h i s  m o r a l i d e a l s and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , Southern w h i t e womanhood and a l l t h a t t h a t e n t a i l s , she must be p u r e r t h a n he i s ,  inviolate.  However, he cannot p r e v e n t Caddy's i n e v i t a b l e  bio-  l o g i c a l c h a n g i n g : as a human b e i n g r a t h e r t h a n an i d e a l , she cannot be immutable and p e r f e c t .  Unfortunately, since  he has i d e n t i f i e d h e r w i t h h i s i d e a l s o f honor and v i r t u e , Q u e n t i n sees h e r l o s s o f v i r g i n i t y as p r o v i n g those i d e a l s themselves somehow i m p e r f e c t , i n a b s o l u t e , s u b j e c t t o change.  104 I n a s e n s e , h i s f a t h e r has heen t e l l i n g him a l l a l o n g t h a t t h i s i s the case: that " p u r i t y i s a negative therefore contrary to nature"  ( p . 135), and t h a t b e l i e f i n  an i d e a l o f p u r i t y i s t h e r e f o r e u n r e a l i s t i c , doomed t o end i n d e s p a i r and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . according  s t a t e and  un-natural, Women,  t o Mr Compson, a r e v e s s e l s too f r a i l t o c o n t a i n  one's i d e a l s ; t h e y have no codes o f honor themselves b u t m e r e l y a c q u i e s c e t o o p e r a t e w i t h i n men's codes o f h o n o r , c o n s e q u e n t l y do n o t f e e l a sense o f s i n when t h e y f a i l t o l i v e up t o those codes. Perhaps Q u e n t i n s u s p e c t s t h a t h i s f a t h e r i s r i g h t , but t o admit t h i s would mean r e l i n q u i s h i n g h i s i d e a l s . As M i c h a e l M i l l g a t e s a y s , i n Quentin's o b s e s s i o n w i t h f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n and honour i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t he s h o u l d r e f e r t o h i s f a t h e r , t h e head o f the f a m i l y , as a t r a n s m i t t e r o f t h a t t r a d i t i o n and as a s o u r c e o f a u t h o r i t y and a d v i c e . The i r o n y o f the s i t u a t i o n , however, and a major cause f o r Q u e n t i n ' s t r a g e d y , i s t h a t j u s t as h i s mother has f a i l e d him as a s o u r c e o f l o v e so h i s f a t h e r f a i l s him u t t e r l y i n a l l h i s r o l e s o f p r o g e n i t o r , c o n f e s s o r and c o u n s e l l o r . He has become, i n d e e d , Quentin's p r i n c i p a l enemy, h i s c o l d and even c y n i c a l l o g i c p e r s i s t e n t l y u n d e r m i n i n g t h e v e r y b a s i s o f a l l those i d e a l i s t i c concepts t o w h i c h Q u e n t i n so passionately holds. Throughout the s e c t i o n ' t h e r e i s a b a t t l e i n p r o g r e s s between Q u e n t i n ' s r o m a n t i c i d e a l i s m and Mr. Compson*s somewhat c y n i c a l r e a l i s m . 8  The  b a t t l e i s t a k i n g p l a c e , o f c o u r s e , i n Quentin's mind,  as he wanders around Cambridge on t h e l a s t day o f h i s l i f e . M i c h a e l M i l l g a t e , "The Achievement o f W i l l i a m (London: C o n s t a b l e and Co. L t d . , 1966), pp. 95-96. 8  Faulkner  105  A g a i n and a g a i n h i s f a t h e r ' s phrases r e c u r r i n h i s t h o u g h t s : he i s a s obsessed w i t h them as he i s w i t h t h e image o f h i s sister.  C e r t a i n l y they a r e one o f t h e s o u r c e s o f h i s  a n g u i s h , r e m i n d i n g him o f t h e f o l l y  of i d e a l i s m ,  propelling  him towards a s u i c i d e w h i c h w i l l end t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h i n h i m s e l f once and f o r a l l .  What i s h a r d e s t o f a l l t o  a c c e p t , however, i s n o t t h e c h a l l e n g i n g and u n d e r m i n i n g o f his  i d e a l s by h i s f a t h e r so much as t h e f e a r t h a t , as  his  f a t h e r s a y s , t h i s whole m o r a l dilemma w i l l someday no  l o n g e r b o t h e r h i m as i t does now; t h a t i t w i l l o n l y w h i t e n his  h a i r o v e r n i g h t w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g h i s appearance  (p.  196).  of  S i n c e Quentin's u n i v e r s e i s d e f i n e d i n terms  h i s i d e a l s , he cannot imagine a n e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t  some system o f o r d e r and p e r f e c t i o n . is  at a l l  "the s a d d e s t word o f a l l " ( p . 197).  F o r h i m , "temporary" His father i s  c o r r e c t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g Quentin's thoughts o f s u i c i d e as an attempt t o do something" i n w h i c h a temporary  state of  mind w i l l become s y m m e t r i c a l above t h e f l e s h and aware both of i t s e l f and o f t h e f l e s h " (pp.195-196).  In other  words, by c o m m i t t i n g s u i c i d e Q u e n t i n hopes t o f r e e z e his  idealism into a state of eternal  untouched  changelessness  by t i m e .  S u i c i d e i s Quentin's f i n a l means o f d e a l i n g w i t h h i s m o r a l dilemma.  B e f o r e he r e a c h e s t h a t p o i n t he a t t e m p t s ,  d e s p e r a t e l y and d e f e n s i v e l y , t o i g n o r e t h e t r u t h i n h i s f a t h e r ' s comments and a c t as i f t h e c h i v a l r i c code were  106 s t i l l operating.  He f i r s t t r i e s t o persuade h i m s e l f  Caddy was m e r e l y t h e i n n o c e n t  that  v i c t i m o f D a l t o n Ames, t h a t  Ames "made h e r do i t " hecause he was s t r o n g e r t h a n she was ( p . 1 6 9 ) . When Caddy does n o t a f f i r m t h i s as he w i s h e s h e r t o , he t a k e s t h e n e x t s t e p  suggestion  i n the  " h o n o r a b l e " a p p r o a c h t o f a m i l y d i s h o n o r : he suggests t h a t he k i l l h e r and t h e n h i m s e l f .  Twice he asks h e r , w h i l e  h o l d i n g h i s knife a g a i n s t h e r t h r o a t , i f she remembers t h e t i m e as a c h i l d whenShe muddied h e r drawers.  I t i s as  i f he w i s h e s he c o u l d see t h e s u l l y i n g o f h e r honor as a s i m i l a r k i n d of innocent  action, equally venial.  i t i s h i s s u s p i c i o n that t h i s i s the c a s e — t h a t  Perhaps  Caddy's  l o s s of v i r g i n i t y i s a n a t u r a l and i n e v i t a b l e p a r t o f l i f e and n o t t h e t r a g i c o c c u r r e n c e w h i c h h i s i d e a l i s m has made i t — w h i c h makes h i m unable t o c a r r y o u t t h e d u a l suicide.  T h i s scene p a r a l l e l s t h a t i n w h i c h Caddy o f f e r s  h e r s e l f to Quentin. though  He i s u n a b l e t o commit i n c e s t , even  t o do so would make v a l i d h i s c o n f e s s i o n t o h i s  f a t h e r t h a t he has done s o . I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e f a c t t h a t Caddy i s w i l l i n g t o go a l o n g w i t h h i s i d e a s seems t o be what s t o p s him.  Quentin i s n o t a b l e t o p h y s i c a l l y c a r r y  out h i s d e s i r e s ; he would r a t h e r p l a y w i t h the concepts of i n c e s t and d e a t h t h a n a c t on these i m p u l s e s . t e l l s h i s f a t h e r , regarding the i d e a of i n c e s t :  As he  107 i was a f r a i d t o {make h e r do i t j ± was a f r a i d she might and t h e n i t wouldn't have done any good h u t i f 1" c o u l d t e l l y o u we d i d i t would have been so and t h e n t h e o t h e r s wouldnt he so and t h e n t h e w o r l d would r o a r away (p. 1 9 5 ) . In o t h e r words, a c o n f e s s i o n o f i n c e s t w i t h o u t  the a c t u a l  p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y o f i n c e s t would c o n t a i n a l l the s o c i a l h o r r o r o f such an a c t w i t h o u t i n v o l v i n g a v i o l a t i o n o f his  pure r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Caddy.  I t would p l a c e them  h o t h i n a p r i v a t e p l a c e i n h e l l ; o s t r a c i z e d hy s o c i e t y and t h e r e f o r e f r e e o f s o c i e t y ' s i n t r u s i o n , hut a t t h e same time s t i l l i n v i o l a t e ,  ideal.  Q u e n t i n e x h i b i t s t h e same h o r r o r o f p h y s i c a l conf r o n t a t i o n when he a t t e m p t s t o f i g h t a d u e l o f honor w i t h D a l t o n Ames.  He can go t h r o u g h a l l t h e m e l o d r a m a t i c  a c t i o n s and words a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r o l e o f a k n i g h t d e f e n d i n g h i s l a d y ' s h o n o r : t e l l i n g Ames t o l e a v e town by sundown, t h r e a t e n i n g t o k i l l him; b u t when he a c t u a l l y a t t e m p t s to h i t Ames, he passes o u t .  What makes m a t t e r s  worse i s t h a t Ames, whom he does n o t r e g a r d as a g e n t l e man, g a l l a n t l y p r e t e n d s t h a t he has knocked Q u e n t i n o u t , and  even o f f e r s h i m h i s h o r s e t o r i d e home on. I r o n i c a l l y , w h i l e w a n d e r i n g around Cambridge on h i s  l a s t day, Q u e n t i n — t h e d e f e n d e r o f h i s s i s t e r ' s h o n o r — is  accused of attempting  to assault a l i t t l e  whom he has been t r e a t i n g i n a b r o t h e r l y way.  Italian  girl  Moreover,  i t i s h e r b r o t h e r who comes t o h e r " r e s c u e " and a t t a c k s  108 Q u e n t i n , c a u s i n g Quentin t o l a u g h h y s t e r i c a l l y a t what he sees as t h e " b i t t e r l y humorous a s p e c t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . Q u e n t i n l a t e r l o s e s i n h i s f i g h t w i t h G-erald B l a n d , whom he has momentarily  confused w i t h D a l t o n Ames; a c c o r d i n g  to Shreve's comments, Quentin d i d n ' t even h i t B l a n d , a l t h o u g h Spoade seems t o speak as i f he d i d .  I n any c a s e ,  Quentin n o t o n l y f a i l s i n h i s o r i g i n a l attempt  t o avenge  Caddy's s e d u c t i o n , hut f a i l s each subsequent time he t r i e s t o take t h e r o l e as defender I t i s , one i n d i c a t i o n  o f t h e c h i v a l r i c code.  o f t h e code's d e c l i n e t h a t i t s h o u l d  have, a s i t s t r u e a d v o c a t e ,  someone as weak as Q u e n t i n ,  o r t h a t i t s s t r o n g e s t and most f o r c e f u l embodiment s h o u l d be i n the G-erald Blands o f t h i s w o r l d .  Bland, w i t h h i s  p r o p e r rowing costume, h i s u p p e r - c l a s s snobbery, h i s s t o r y about h i s f a i t h f u l " n i g g e r " , p r o j e c t s t h e image o f t h e S o u t h e r n gentleman even w h i l e r e n d e r i n g t h e code o f t h e gentleman meaningless  by h i s a c t i o n s and coarse  talk.  Perhaps t h e most s e r i o u s a f f r o n t t o Quentin's o f h i m s e l f as t h e defender  image  o f Caddy's honor o c c u r s w i t h  Sydney H e r b e r t Head, the man whom Caddy p l a n s t o marry. D a l t o n Ames r e p r e s e n t e d t o Quentin t h e r e a l i t y o f Caddy's l o s s o f v i r g i n i t y , but he was a t b e s t an i n e f f e c t u a l , papier-mache v i l l a i n . Quentin's  Head, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s i n  eyes a t r u e " b l a c k g u a r d " , h a v i n g been e x p e l l e d  from u n i v e r s i t y  f o r c h e a t i n g and t h e r e f o r e almost by  d e f i n i t i o n n o t a gentleman.  What i s worse, Head shows  109 the same k i n d o f h y p o c r i c r i s y r e g a r d i n g t h e c h i v a l r i c code as Bland does.  Speaking  o f Quentin's  i d e a l s of  h o n o r , he s a y s , a young man g e t s these i d e a s and I'm a l l f o r them / does him good w h i l e he's i n s c h o o l / forms h i s c h a r a c t e r / good f o r t r a d i t i o n t h e s c h o o l / hut when he g e t s o u t i n t o t h e w o r l d h e ' l l f i n d t h a t everybody e l s e i s d o i n g t h e same t h i n g and he damned t o ( p . 1 2 8 ) . By p l a c i n g i d e a l i s m i n t o a c o n t e x t o f something whicji i s good o n l y f o r a young man a t s c h o o l , Head i s a l s o l a b e l l i n g Quentin's  sense o f m o r a l i t y as j u v e n i l e .  A little  he c a l l s Q u e n t i n a " h a l f - b a k e d Galahad", e c h o i n g  later  Shreve's  humorous comment (on h e a r i n g t h a t Caddy was p l a n n i n g t o m a r r y ) t h a t "young L o c h i n v a r rode out o f t h e west a l i t t l e too  soon" ( p . 1 1 2 ) . Hot o n l y must Quentin f a c e t h e f a c t  o f h i s f a i l u r e t o m a i n t a i n t h e c h i v a l r i c code: he must, i n a n g u i s h , see h i m s e l f as a r i d i c u l o u s , a l m o s t figure i n others' In  quixotic,  eyes.  t h i s r o l e , Quentin i s somewhat l i k e  Quentin  Durward, a young Scotsman i n a r o m a n t i c n o v e l o f t h e same name by S i r W a l t e r S c o t t .  Durward i s an i d e a l i s t i c  young man who b e l i e v e s i n and p r a c t i c e s t h e c h i v a l r i c code even though he i s l i v i n g i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , an age, S c o t t s a y s , when c h i v a l r y was d y i n g o u t a l o n g w i t h t h e f e u d a l system w h i c h had bred i t . A t s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n t h e romance Durward's g a l l a n t r y and i d e a l i s m a r e r i d i c u l e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e more c y n i c a l  110 or  r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r approach t o l i f e .  As S c o t t s a y s ,  a t r i b e o f s c o f f e r s had r i s e n who p r e t e n d e d to s u p p l y what was n a t u r a l l y u s e f u l i n c h i v a l r y by o t h e r r e s o u r c e s and threw r i d i c u l e upon t h e e x t r a v a g a n t and e x c l u s i v e p r i n c i p l e s o f honor and v i r t u e , w h i c h were o p e n l y t r e a t e d as a b s u r d , because, i n f a c t , t h e y were c a s t i n a mould o f p e r f e c t i o n too l o f t y f o r the p r a c t i c e o f f a l l i b l e b e i n g s . I f an ingenuous and h i g h - s p i r i t e d y o u t h proposed t o frame h i m s e l f on h i s f a t h e r ' s p r i n c i p l e s o f honor, he was v u l g a r l y d e r i d e d , as i f he had brought t o the f i e l d the good o l d k n i g h t s D u r i n d a r t e , o r twohanded sword, r i d i c u l o u s from i t s a n t i q u e make and f a s h i o n , a l t h o u g h i t s b l a d e might be t h e Ebro's temper and i t s ornaments of pure g o l d . 9 However, Durward n o t o n l y t r i u m p h s o v e r those who would reduce h i s c h i v a l r i c conduct t o t h e l e v e l o f a q u a i n t g e s t u r e , but seems t o prove t h e v a l u e s s t i l l t o be found i n such a n approach t o l i f e .  Q u e n t i n Compson, caught  i n a s o c i e t y w h i c h i s u n d e r g o i n g a s i m i l a r emergence from a f e u d a l i s t i c system, i s n e v e r t h e l e s s u n a b l e t o make the 10 c h i v a l r i c code t r i u m p h a n t even on an i n d i v i d u a l  level.  I f t h e r e a d e r can assume F a u l k n e r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e -^Walter S c o t t , Q u e n t i n Durward ( E d i n b u r g h : Adam and Chas. B l a c k , 1871), I n t r o d u c t i o n , p. 3. lOwhen F a u l k n e r was asked about t h e p a r a l l e l s between h i s Q u e n t i n and t h a t o f S c o t t he o n l y s a i d t h a t he d i d "not n e c e s s a r i l y " mean t h a t Q u e n t i n was t h e r e f o r e t h e type of r o m a n t i c a l l y - m i n d e d S o u t h e r n e r who might be i n f l u e n c e d by S c o t t ' s n o v e l s . T h i s does n o t deny t h e p a r a l l e l s , however, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t F a u l k n e r seems t o have m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e q u e s t i o n . I n any case h i s subsequent comments on t h e way i n w h i c h S c o t t ' s H i g h l a n d e r s seem t o have much i n common w i t h S o u t h e r n e r s a f t e r t h e C i v i l War would suggest h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h S c o t t ' s n o v e l s . Faulkner i n the U n i v e r s i t y , eds. F r e d r i c k L. Gwynn and Joseph L. B l o t n e r (New Y o r k : Random House, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 135.  Ill S c o t t romance, the i m p l i c a t i o n s would seem t o he t h a t t h i s i s n o t o n l y not an age  of c h i v a l r y , hut i s not an age  of  romance, e i t h e r ; t h a t t h e modern h e r o can not even he  a  h e r o , hut must he a k i n d of a n t i - h e r o i n s p i t e of a l l h i s efforts.  Or, F a u l k n e r may  be s u g g e s t i n g  Compson's case the c h i v a l r i c code has  t h a t i n Quentin  become too r i g i d ,  h y s t e r i c a l , too much a s t i f l i n g of the l i f e  too  force.  C e r t a i n l y F a u l k n e r makes q u i t e e x p l i c i t the f a c t t h a t Q u e n t i n i s i n l o v e w i t h d e a t h "above a l l " , l o v i n g and l i v i n g i n "a d e l i b e r a t e and a l m o s t p e r v e r t e d a n t i c i p a t i o n of d e a t h " (p. 9 ) . v i t a l i t y and and  I n comparison t o Caddy's spontaneous  s e n s u a l i t y , Quentin's i n f l e x i b l e ,  puritanical  even i m p o t e n t a s s e r t i o n of i d e a l s appears l i f e - d e n y i n g .  In h i s obsessive  i d e a l i s m , he^appears to have developed  an abhorrence of some a s p e c t s w o r l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y sex.  of t h e p h y s i c a l , n a t u r a l  A t one  p o i n t he t h i n k s of Caddy's  s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h D a l t o n Ames i n terms o f  "whispers  s e c r e t surges s m e l l the b e a t i n g of h o t b l o o d under w i l d unsecret  f l e s h w a t c h i n g a g a i n s t r e d e y e l i d s the swine  untethered  i n p a i r s r u s h e d coupled  A t a n o t h e r p o i n t he sees women as  i n t o the s e a " (p.  195).  "delicate equilibrium  o f p e r i o d i c a l f i l t h between two moons  balanced....Liquid  p u t r e f a c t i o n l i k e drowned t h i n g s f l o a t i n g l i k e p a l e r u b b e r flabbily filled mainly  " (p. 147).  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the  sees Caddy's s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e s  t h r o u g h the  t o r t e d l e n s e s o f Quentin's c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  reader dis-  i t i s hardly  112 any wonder t h a t they appear t o r e p r e s e n t a r a t h e r v u l g a r promiscuity.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t B e n j y ,  who  has not m o r a l sense a t a l l and o b j e c t s t o Caddy's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men  s i m p l y on an e m o t i o n a l  basis, associates  Caddy w i t h such p o s i t i v e and e l e m e n t a l  t h i n g s as  the  f i r e , the p a s t u r e , the s m e l l of l e a v e s and t r e e s , and sleep.  I n v i e w o f these a s s o c i a t i o n s , h e r s e x u a l freedom  c o u l d be seen as "the e x p r e s s i o n o f a n a t u r a l r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the r e p r e s s i v e demands made upon h e r by d i f f e r e n t members o f the f a m i l y " . T h a t f e e l s "doomed" and  she h e r s e l f  "dead" i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the morbid  i n f l u e n c e on h e r of Quentin's e t h i c a l sense. Swiggart  suggests,  the  As  Peter  Caddy appears to have developed h e r  sense o f g u i l t under the i m p a c t of h e r b r o t h e r ' s  puritanism.  Her f a t e i s the f a t e of a n y t h i n g v i t a l under a system whose r i g i d i t y has become a k i n d o f  sterility.  I f Q u e n t i n i s a n e g a t i v e f i g u r e i n h i s adherence to the v a l u e s of the o l d o r d e r , Sydney H e r b e r t Head i s h a r d l y l e s s so i n h i s embodiment o f modern v a l u e s . f l i p p a n t d i s m i s s a l of the f a c t t h a t he was  His casual, e x p e l l e d from  u n i v e r s i t y f o r c h e a t i n g shows a complete d i s r e g a r d f o r honesty.  H i s attempt t o b r i b e Q u e n t i n — f i r s t w i t h the  o f f e r o f a job i n the bank he works f o r , and t h e n w i t h M i l l g a t e , p. 97. • . 1? / The A r t of F a u l k n e r ' s N o v e l s ( U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s , Austin,, 1962^ p. 91. 1 1  113 a c t u a l money—shows the l e v e l t o which he w i l l stoop to buy  p o p u l a r i t y and smooth over any rough"moral edges i n  s i t u a t i o n : he buys h i s way i n t o the Compson f a m i l y i n a s i m i l a r way by g i v i n g Caddy an automobile, which a t l e a s t impresses Mrs. Compson.  With h i s slangy  expressions, h i s  pompous c i g a r and h i s a l l u s i o n s to an a f f a i r w i t h "a l i t t l e widow over i n town", Head i s a r a t h e r p a t h e t i c f i g u r e . Nevertheless,  he i s , l i k e Jason Compson (although  lacking  Jason's r u t h l e s s n e s s ) , a symbol of the new order which i s d e s t r o y i n g and r e p l a c i n g t h a t order which Quentin, and the Compson f a m i l y as a whole, r e p r e s e n t s .  This new  order  w i l l e v e n t u a l l y t u r n the Compson e s t a t e which once "formal  sported  lawns and promenades and p a v i l i o n s l a i d out by  the same a r c h i t e c t who b u i l t the columned porticoed house f u r n i s h e d by steamboat from France and New Orleans" i n t o a square m i l e  containing  (p. 6 ) —  "row a f t e r row o f s m a l l  crowded j e r r y b u i l t i n d i v i d u a l l y owned demiurban bungalows" (p. 9 ) . The  d e c l i n e i n the c h i v a l r i c code i s m i r r o r e d  d e c l i n e o f the Compson f a m i l y i t s e l f . is  The present  i n the generation  the end o f a l o n g l i n e o f men who had had something i n them o f decency and p r i d e even a f t e r they had begun to f a i l a t the i n t e g r i t y and the p r i d e had mostly become v a n i t y and s e l f p i t y ; from the e x p a t r i a t e who had to f l e e h i s n a t i v e l a n d w i t h l i t t l e e l s e except h i s l i f e y e t who s t i l l r e f u s e d to accept d e f e a t , through the man who gambled h i s l i f e and h i s good name twice and l o s t twice and d e c l i n e d to accept t h a t e i t h e r , and the one who w i t h o n l y a c l e v e r small  114 q u a r t e r h o r s e f o r t o o l avenged h i s d i s possessed f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r and g a i n e d a p r i n c i p a l i t y , and the b r i l l i a n t and g a l l a n t g o v e r n o r and the g e n e r a l who though he f a i l e d a t l e a d i n g i n b a t t l e brave and g a l l a n t men a t l e a s t r i s k e d h i s own l i f e too i n the f a i l i n g , to the c u l t u r e d dipsomaniac who s o l d the l a s t of h i s patrimony n o t t o buy d r i n k but t o g i v e one o f h i s descendants a t l e a s t the b e s t chance i n l i f e he would t h i n k o f (p. 13)* r  The t i t l e first  o f " T w i l i g h t " , w h i c h F a u l k n e r wrote on the  page of the m a n u s c r i p t  o f The Sound and the  Fury,  seems a p e r t i n e n t term of d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the s t a t e o f b o t h the c h i v a l r i c code and the Compson f a m i l y as  they  appear i n t h i s n o v e l , s u g g e s t i n g the moment when "the dimmed g l o r y o f  an  eminent p a s t i s about t o f a d e l^  ultimate extinction."  J  into  The f a m i l y ' s d e c l i n e perhaps  i n d i c a t e s the i n n a t e f a l l a c y i n a t t e m p t i n g to cope w i t h an i d e a l i z e d view of p a s t performances w h i c h , i n t h e i r v e r y i d e a l i z a t i o n , are i m p o s s i b l e to emulate and t h e r e f o r e a r e bound t o create d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i n those who  t r y t o use them as s t a n d a r d s f o r everyday  individuals living.  Each g e n e r a t i o n , , comparing i t s e l f to a d i s t o r t e d image o f p a s t g e n e r a t i o n s , cannot h e l p but b e l i e v e i t s e l f l a c k i n g the same power and' s p l e n d o u r .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i f such a  b e l i e f becomes an o b s e s s i o n , i t may  c r e a t e an apathy  w h i c h , i n e f f e c t , makes the b e l i e f a t r u t h . M i l l g a t e , p.  86.  Or, i t can  115 l e a d t o the d e s p a i r w h i c h Q u e n t i n shows, and t h e sense of  f a t a l i s m w h i c h he r e v e a l s when he t e l l s  Caddy, "There's  a c u r s e on us i t s n o t our f a u l t " (p. 1 7 6 ) . Quentin's v i s i o n of h i s f a m i l y shows an of  t h i s d e c l i n e i n t o a shadowy t w i l i g h t .  awareness  He sees h i s  mother i n terms o f "a f a c e r e p r o a c h f u l / t e a r f u l / an odor of camphor and of t e a r s / a v o i c e weeping  steadily  and s o f t l y h e h i n d the t w i l i t d o o r / the t w i l i g h t - c o l o r e d s m e l l o f h o n e y s u c k l e " (p. 1 1 4 ) .  He a l s o r e c a l l s a scene  i n one of the hooks i n the f a m i l y l i b r a r y ,  portraying  "a d a r k p l a c e i n t o w h i c h a s i n g l e weak r a y o f l i g h t came s l a n t i n g upon two f a c e s l i f t e d out of the shadow" (p.  191).  F o r Q u e n t i n t h e s e two f a c e s were those of h i s  mother and f a r t h e r , t u r n e d "upward i n t o weak l i g h t h o l d i n g hands, w i t h the c h i l d r e n below even them w i t h o u t a r a y of  l i g h t " (p. 191). Mr. and Mrs. Compson a r e b o t h the immediate  of  cause  the darkness i n w h i c h the c h i l d r e n f i n d t h e m s e l v e s ,  and the v i c t i m s o f a g r e a t e r darkness over w h i c h t h e y have no c o n t r o l .  Mrs. Compson i s , a d m i t t e d l y , a s e l f -  p i t y i n g , s e l f - c e n t r e d , h y s t e r i c a l woman whose c h r o n i c i l l n e s s and n e u r o s e s c o n v e n i e n t l y remove fier from the n e c e s s i t y o f g i v i n g l o v e and s t r e n g t h to h e r c h i l d r e n and whose i n s i s t e n c e on the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f h e r  own  f a m i l y , the Bascombs, undermines what s t r e n g t h and u n i t y the  Compson f a m i l y might have.  A g a i n and a g a i n Q u e n t i n  116 s a y s to h i m s e l f , " I f I o n l y had a mother".  One  might  even say t h a t p a r t of h i s i n a b i l i t y t o l o v e  others—  e x c e p t i n an i d e a l i z e d w a y — s t e m s f r o m the l a c k of p h y s i c a l maternal  love i n h i s childhood.  H i s mother i s ,  a f t e r a l l , a r a t h e r shadowy, d r e a r y f i g u r e , a s s o c i a t e d i n h i s mind w i t h s o r r o w , s i c k n e s s and  complaint.  Her  p e r s o n a l i t y seems t o have been d e t e r m i n e d , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , by h e r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t  i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t h e r husband i s  a f a i l u r e and a d r u n k a r d and w i l l n e v e r r e s t o r e the Compson name t o the s t a t u s i t a t one time had.  Perhaps when she  m a r r i e d him, he e x h i b i t e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r e m u l a t i n g p a s t success  of the Compsons.  the  Her e x p e c t a t i o n s have exceeded  reality. Mr.  Compson, on the o t h e r hand, appears to have been  d i s i l l u s i o n e d by h i s d i s c o v e r y t h a t the v a l u e s w h i c h he was  b r o u g h t up under and w h i c h he sees i n the  classical  w o r l d o f h i s "dogeared Horaces and L i v y s and C a t u l l u s e s " (p. 8)  are no l o n g e r t o be found i n the modern w o r l d .  Though he c o u n s e l s Q u e n t i n i n c y n i c a l terms and  speaks  o f the m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s o f e x i s t e n c e , " i t i s p l a i n t h a t i t was  f r o m him t h a t Q u e n t i n d e r i v e d h i s h i g h n o t i o n o f the  c l a i m s of honor.""^  He i s a d i s i l l u s i o n e d i d e a l i s t  n e v e r t h e l e s s s t i l l r e t a i n s c e r t a i n w i s t f u l and  who  ironic  • ^ C l e a n t h B r o o k s , W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r : The Yoknapatawpha Country (New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 336.  117  vestiges of his lost idealism. A l t h o u g h he talks about the f a l l i b i l i t y of women, his reaction to Caddy's promiscuity i s apparently such that even Caddy feels that she has led him to want to drink himself to death. Perhaps  his cynicism i s merely a mask which he wears to  hide a sensitivity and despair not unlike Quentin's. Because  of his parents' i n a b i l i t y to provide him  with either a proper sense of proportion i n his adherence to the chivalric code or an admirable example of alternate action in view of the changing times, Quentin i s forced to work out his dilemma alone.  Ironically,  he chooses to  follow their example of escape—in his case escape through suicide rather than through chronic illness or alcohol. He escapes the destruction of the chivalric code by time, progress and human f a l l i b i l i t y .  H i s tragedy is that he  is unable to adapt his moral views to a changing universe and accept human nature as a part of that universe. As one example of the individual's relationship to the precepts of social morality, his case shows the dangers of a too r i g i d adherence to the past. IS  has been called W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r ' s most pessimistic novel. C l e a n t h Brooks sees i t as, among other Sanctuary  J  things, a product of the era in which i t was written,  16  5 ( S i g n e t Books: New Y o r k , 1954) $ Ccopyright 1931]A l l future page references are also from this edition and w i l l be placed i n parentheses after the quotation. 1  " ^ W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , p. 131.  118 p r e s e n t i n g a p i c t u r e o f the s t e r i l e modern w a s t e l a n d where the  f o r c e s of c o r r u p t i o n a r e t h o s e m e c h a n i c a l a c t i o n s ,  u n n a t u r a l p a s s i o n s and r u t h l e s s a t t i t u d e s hred by a s o c i e t y whose system o f v a l u e s has decayed o r grown irrelevant.  C e r t a i n l y Popeye, t h e v i l l a i n o f the p i e c e ,  c o u l d he seen as a symbol o f such a s o c i e t y .  He h i m s e l f  i s i m p o t e n t and o b t a i n s h i s s e x u a l p l e a s u r e t h r o u g h p e r v e r t e d means; h i s f a c e i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g a "queer, b l o o d l e s s q u a l i t y , as though seen by e l e c t r i c l i g h t " (p. 5 ) ; his  body has the " v i c i o u s d e p t h l e s s q u a l i t y o f stamped  tin"  (p. 5 ) ; h i s eyes a r e compared t o "two knobs o f s o f t  b l a c k r u b b e r " and h i s b l a c k s u i t and s t i f f h a t t o "a m o d e r n i s t i c l a m p s t a n d " ( p . 7 ) ; he i s a f r a i d o f e n t e r i n g the  woods a t n i g h t and p a n i c s a t the sudden appearance o f  an o w l , as i f he f e e l s a l i e n i n a n a t u r a l w o r l d .  With h i s  " b l a c k " s m e l l and h i s waxen, "dead" p a l l o r he has a d i s t i n c t l y c o r p s e - l i k e c o n n o t a t i o n . At the same t i m e , his  d a n g l i n g c i g a r e t , t i g h t b l a c k s u i t and p i s t o l suggest 17  the  u r b a n g a n g s t e r of the n i n e t e e n - t w e n t i e s and  His  rape o f Temple Drake, t h e contemporary  of  thirties.  representative  pure w h i t e S o u t h e r n womanhood, c o u l d s y m b o l i z e the  modern i n d u s t r i a l , amoral s o c i e t y ' s v i o l a t i o n of the 17  of  John Lewis L o n g l e y , J r . The T r a g i c Mask. ( U n i v e r s i t y I . C a r o l i n a P r e s s ? 1957), p. 143.  119 c h i v a l r i c code and t h e o l d t r a d i t i o n a l o r d e r from w h i c h t h a t code stems. In The Sound and The F u r y ,  Q u e n t i n Compson f u t i l e l y  t r i e s t o o b s t r u c t and deny such a v i o l a t i o n .  I n Sanctuary  the o n l y p a r a l l e l o f t h i s attempt i s t o be found i n t h a t o f t h e i d e a l i s t i c l a w y e r , Horace Benbow, who a l s o  fails  to combat t h e f o r c e s d e s t r o y i n g t h e o l d concepts o f h o n o r , j u s t i c e and decency.  However, Horace i s a n a d u l t ,  a man i n h i s f o r t i e s , f o r whom perhaps the " o l d " concepts were once v i a b l e .  There i s no young i d e a l i s t i c  o f the c h i v a l r i c c o d e — n o t Quentin.  advocate  even one as i n e f f e c t u a l as  F o r t h e young people i n t h e n o v e l t h e c h i v a l r i c  code has n o t even t h e power o f an i d e a l : i t has become m e r e l y a s o c i a l p r e t e n s i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h manners o f d r e s s and p u b l i c b e h a v i o r , w i t h s o c i a l s t a t u s and f a m i l y i m p o r t a n c e and i s no l o n g e r adhered t o as a p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d o f m o r a l i t y and conduct. A l t h o u g h he sees h i m s e l f as a Southern  gentleman,  Gowan Stevens-*- , t h e young c o l l e g e s t u d e n t e s c o r t o f 8  Temple Drake, m e r e l y e x e m p l i f i e s how d i s t o r t e d t h a t concept has become.  He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e prime v i r t u e o f a  S o u t h e r n gentleman i s t h e a b i l i t y t o h o l d one's l i q u o r and i t i s h i s a t t e m p t t o prove h i m s e l f such a gentleman •*- His f i r s t name, w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i o n o f "Gawain", might be an i r o n i c comment on t h e t y p e o f k n i g h t - l i k e c h i v a l r y he e x h i b i t s — o r f a i l s t o e x h i b i t — w h e n i t comes t o r e s c u i n g Temple. 8  120 w h i c h s e t s the scene f o r the i n c i d e n t a t the Old F r e n c h man's P l a c e .  He i s drunk when he meets Temple a t  the  t r a i n ; he i n s i s t s on d r i v i n g out t o the Old Frenchman's P l a c e t o get a h o l d of some of the b o o t l e g l i q u o r w h i c h Lee  Goodwin s e l l s ; once t h e r e , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t  i s completely Goodwin, he  out o f h i s depth w i t h men continues  to d r i n k .  he  l i k e Popeye and  When he wakes up a f t e r  p a s s i n g out f o r a second t i m e , he i s so overcome w i t h shame a t h i s "ungentlemanly" conduct the n i g h t b e f o r e and  his  d i s s h e v e l e d appearance, t h a t "the p r o s p e c t of f a c i n g Temple a g a i n  [ i s ] more than he  he d e s e r t s h e r .  (can)  b e a r " (p. 50)  I r o n i c a l l y , when he w r i t e s  and  Harcissa  Benbow h i s f l o w e r y , m e l o d r a m a t i c l e t t e r o f goodbye, he speaks of the d i s h o n o r a b l e  e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h he has  i n v o l v e d i n as h a v i n g i n j u r e d no one  but h i m s e l f .  been It i s  as i f , i n h i s e g o c e n t r i c c o n c e r n over g e n t l e m a n l y a c t i o n and  p u b l i c shame, he has  being present.  f o r g o t t e n a l l about Temple's  I t i s no wonder t h a t Horace Benbow,  knowing what b e i n g a gentleman r e a l l y i n v o l v e s , mocks the l e t t e r , and was  l a t e r , when he f i n d s out  r e f e r r i n g t o , says b i t t e r l y ,  young man.  Her  j u s t what Gowan  "Her n i c e , w e l l - b r e d  V i r g i n i a gentleman....when I t h i n k of  people l i k e t h a t walking  the e a r t h w i t h i m p u n i t y ;just  because he had a "...balloon-tailed s u i t and went t h r o u g h the a s t o n i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e of h a v i n g a t t e n d e d the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a . . . " (p. 93).  A l t h o u g h w e l l - m e a n i n g , Gowan i s  121 much l i k e G e r a l d Bland i n The the p r e t e n s i o n s  Sound and  The  Fury, f u l l  of being a gentleman even w h i l e  of  denying  the t r u t h of t h a t r o l e by h i s a c t i o n s . Temple Brake does not have s i m i l a r p r e t e n s i o n s her r o l e according  t o the c h i v a l r i c code.  N a r c i s s a Benbow, who  about  In f a c t , u n l i k e  no doubt sees h e r s e l f as the image  o f the d i g n i f i e d w h i t e S o u t h e r n " l a d y " (and y e t r u t h l e s s l y , s e l f i s h l y and  immorally),  acts  Temple a t f i r s t shows  no r e a l a t t e m p t t o f o l l o w such a t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t . i s a j a z z age  f l a p p e r , w i t h eyes " c o o l , p r e d a t o r y  She  and  d i s c r e e t " , a " b o l d p a i n t e d mouth", a.-face "dusted w i t h r e c e n t powder" and h a i r i n " c l o t t e d r e d c u r l s " under a brimless hat  (p. 1 9 ) •  She  i s on p r o b a t i o n a t h e r  college  f o r s l i p p i n g out a t n i g h t t o r i d e w i t h town boys; she so many d a t e s t h a t she can n o t always remember who t h a t she i s supposed to be g o i n g out w i t h . a n g r i l y t e l l s h e r t h a t he has  has  i t is  Gowan Stevens  seen h e r name on the w a l l  o f a l a v a t o r y and accuses h e r , i n f a r from g a l l a n t terms, o f p l a y i n g around a l l week w i t h "barber-shop j e l l i e s " "any  badger-trimmed h i c k t h a t owns a F o r d " (p. 2 4 ) .  though i t appears t h a t h e r f a t h e r and t r i e d t o make h e r a c t a c c o r d i n g  four brothers  and Al-  have  to the t r a d i t i o n a l ways  of a l a d y , she e x h i b i t s a l l the r e c k l e s s freedom  and  d i s r e g a r d f o r c o n v e n t i o n t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h modern women.  122 Yet,  as C l e a n t h Brooks o b s e r v e s , "Temple's mind i s 19  thoroughly conventional" wide-eyed  child,  d a t e s w i t h boys.  , and she i s s t i l l v e r y much a  d e s p i t e h e r e i g h t e e n y e a r s and h e r many To Ruby, Goodwin's common-law w i f e , she  l o o k s "no more than an e l o n g a t e d and l e g g y i n f a n t i n h e r s c a n t d r e s s and u p t i l t e d h a t " ( p . 3 5 ) .  She r e a l l y  knows  n o t h i n g about e v i l or the e v i l i m p u l s e s i n some men: such t h i n g s e x i s t o n l y i n books.  to her  A l t h o u g h she has had more  freedom t h a n t h a t p r e v i o u s l y p e r m i t t e d t o Southern g i r l s , she i s i g n o r a n t o f what r e a l l i f e i s l i k e and  believes  a l l men must be l i k e the c o l l e g e boys she has d a t e d , a l l p e o p l e l i k e those she has met a t home and a t s c h o o l . F r i g h t e n e d by the unspoken t h r e a t o f a s s a u l t w h i c h  she  senses i n the men a t the Old Frenchman's P l a c e , she says to Ruby, t r e m u l o u s l y , n a i v e l y , "Things l i k e t h a t dont happen.  Do t h e y ?  They're  j u s t l i k e other people.  just l i k e other people.  You're  W i t h a l i t t l e baby" (p. 3 3 ) .  She cannot u n d e r s t a n d t h a t she i s no l o n g e r i n a w o r l d where she can seek the s a n c t u a r y of e i t h e r f a m i l y s t a t u s and p r o t e c t i o n , o r t h e v e s t i g e s o f the c h i v a l r i c undergraduate l 9  boys who w i l l n o t t a k e advantage  B r o o k s , p. 133.  code i n  of her coquetry.  123 The  e v i l she has stumbled i n t o i s something she would  n e v e r have b e l i e v e d t o e x i s t .  As Ruby t e l l s h e r ,  "Do you t h i n k you're m e e t i n g k i d s now? k i d s t h a t g i v e a damn whether y o u l i k e i t o r n o t ? L e t me t e l l you whose house you've come i n t o w i t h o u t b e i n g asked o r wanted; who you're e x p e c t i n g t o drop e v e r y t h i n g and c a r r y you back where y o u . had no b u s i n e s s ever l e a v i n g . When he was a s o l d i e r i n t h e P h i l i p i n e s he k i l l e d a n o t h e r s o l d i e r over one o f those n i g g e r women and they s e n t him t o Leavenworth..." ( p . 3 5 ) . Lee  Goodwin i s , however, n o t the most dangerous man a t  the O l d Frenchman's P l a c e : Popeye i s t h e r e , t o o , and, d e s p i t e h i s impotence, he i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e b i g g e s t threat to her v i r g i n i t y .  T r a g i c a l l y , Temple does n o t  know how t o d e a l w i t h such e v i l .  She t r i e s t o g a i n comfort  from t h e thought t h a t h e r f a t h e r i s a judge, t h a t h e r b r o t h e r s w i l l come t o h e r r e s c u e o r somehow p r o t e c t h e r honor.  I n o t h e r words, she t r i e s t o see h e r s e l f as a n o b j e c t  t o be p r o t e c t e d , defended, a c c o r d i n g  t o t h e c h i v a l r i c code.  But h e r v e r y a c t i o n s d e s t r o y h e r a t t e m p t s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h h e r s e l f w i t h i n t h e image o f t h e code. schooled  She i s t o o w e l l -  i n t h e r o l e o f t h e modern g i r l , and a l m o s t a u t o -  m a t i c a l l y r e s o r t s t o the means she has l e a r n e d f o r g e t t i n g h e r way w i t h m e n — a m i x t u r e o f c o q u e t r y and b o l d d e r i s i o n . F i r s t she a p p e a l s t o Popeye, w i t h a " c r i n g i n g g r i m a c e " , t o d r i v e Gowan and h e r s e l f i n t o town.  "Be a s p o r t " , she  s a y s , as i f Popeye were s i m p l y r e f u s i n g out o f f a i n t s p i t e t o p l a y a game.  When he c a l l s h e r a whore, she i n s u l t s  124 him:  "What r i v e r d i d y o u f a l l i n and w i t h t h a t s u i t on?  Do you have t o shave i t o f f a t n i g h t ? " (pp. 30-31).  When  t h i s s t i l l f a i l s t o move h i m she c r i e s , p e t u l a n t l y , "You mean o l d t h i n g " ( p . 3 1 ) . Exhibiting her usual recklessness  and e x c i t a b i l i t y ,  she d a r t s i n and o u t o f Goodwin's house l i k e a f r i g h t e n e d a n i m a l , y e t does n o t s e r i o u s l y t r y t o escape, even when she l e a r n s t h a t Gowan has d e s e r t e d h e r .  She r e t a i n s a  n a i v e f a i t h i n h e r i n v i o l a b i l i t y as a Southern woman: nothing  can happen t o h e r i n such a p o s i t i o n .  As she  l a t e r t e l l s Horace Benbow, she even imagines h e r s e l f as wearing a c h a s t i t y b e l t ,  o r as l y i n g dead i n a c o f f i n ,  dressed i n white w i t h a v e i l l i k e a b r i d e ' s .  Both images  suggest a n a t t e m p t t o escape t h r o u g h f a n t a s y t h e r e a l i t y of what might happen t o h e r , r a t h e r than d e a l w i t h reality logically. lying  that  Y e t , a t t h e same time t h a t she i s  on t h e shuck m a t t r e s s i n a k i n d o f h e l p l e s s w i s h f u l  t h i n k i n g , she i s s i l e n t l y u r g i n g Popeye a n g r i l y t o t o u c h h e r , s i l e n t l y c a l l i n g him a coward because he i s t a k i n g such a l o n g time b e f o r e a t t a c k i n g h e r .  Her r e a c t i o n a t  t h i s point i s a p a t h e t i c mixture of a n t i c i p a t i v e impatience and h o r r i f i e d  aversion.  To say t h i s , however, i s n o t t o i m p l y t h a t Temple purposely  l e a d s Popeye on and provokes h e r e v e n t u a l  o r t h a t she i s r i p e f o r t h e k i n d o f c o r r u p t i o n he  rape,  125 represents.  20  Her s i l e n t t a u n t i n g , l i k e h e r f a n t a s i z i n g ,  stems f r o m f e a r .  She t e l l s Horace Benbow l a t e r t h a t the  r e a s o n she s i l e n t l y urged Popeye t o t o u c h h e r , rape h e r , was because she wanted him t o g e t i t over w i t h so t h a t she c o u l d go to s l e e p .  S l e e p , l i k e t h e images i n h e r  f a n t a s i e s , would be a b l i s s f u l escape from the f r i g h t e n i n g r e a l i t y looming over her.  Even h a v i n g t o go t h r o u g h the  h o r r o r of the rape f i r s t , b e f o r e b e i n g a l l o w e d t o escape, would be b e t t e r t h a n a drawn-out a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h o r r o r . Her a t t e m p t i n g t o change h e r s e l f , through w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g , i n t o a boy, emphasizes  t h i s d e s i r e t o escape.  I f she were, even s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , d e s i r i n g the r a p e , she would h a r d l y i n d u l g e i n such f a n t a s i e s .  Nor does she s t a y  a t the Old Frenchman's P l a c e because o f h e r f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the e v i l t h a t she f i n d s t h e r e : she u n d e r e s t i m a t e s t h a t e v i l u n t i l i t i s too l a t e t o l e a v e e a s i l y , and t h e n i s so t e r r i f i e d by the t h r e a t o f t h a t e v i l t h a t she i s r e n d e r e d p h y s i c a l l y unable t o save h e r s e l f .  I n h e r f e a r she h e l p -  l e s s l y l e t s Ruby take h e r t o the c o r n c r i b , r a t h e r than t o the edge o f the p r o p e r t y from where she might be a b l e t o f i n d h e r way  t o the r o a d ; she c h i l d i s h l y a p p e a l s t o the  h a l f - w i t , Tommy, t o p r o t e c t h e r by k e e p i n g Goodwin and Popeye from the b a r n .  I f w i s h i n g c o u l d remove h e r from the  p l a c e , she would be gone i m m e d i a t e l y .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , some  20 As, f o r example, John Lewis L o n g l e y , J r . d e c l a r e s i n The T r a g i c Mask, p. 143.  126 k i n d of i n t e l l i g e n t , c l e a r - h e a d e d a c t i o n i s needed, Temple i s s i n g u l a r l y u n a b l e t o t a k e such a c t i o n .  and  A l l her  u p b r i n g i n g and e x p e r i e n c e have i l l - p r e p a r e d h e r f o r t h i s k i n d of c i r c u m s t a n c e .  Perhaps t o the v e r y l a s t moment  she h a l f b e l i e v e s t h a t something so d r e a d f u l as rape cannot happen to h e r ; t h a t someone o r some form of l u c k , o r m o r a l i t y w i l l p r o t e c t h e r , save h e r .  justice  As she i s b e i n g  b r u t a l l y raped by Popeye, she screams out a c c u s i n g l y t o t h e b l i n d , s e n i l e o l d man  s i t t i n g n e a r b y , who  t o what i s happening t o h e r .  i s oblivious  I t i s as i f she m o m e n t a r i l y  sees him as a symbol of the b l i n d j u s t i c e who a l l o w s such o u t r a g e s t o o c c u r , o r as a symbol of h e r own p r e v i o u s b l i n d hopes o f i n v i o l a b i l i t y and r e s c u e , w h i c h k e p t h e r from f o l l o w i n g i n s t i n c t i v e u r g e s to r u n away.  "Something i s  happening t o m e l . . . . I t o l d you i t was g o i n g t o I . . . I t o l d you!  I t o l d you a l l the t i m e ! " (p. 59) she c r i e s ,  shocked  t h a t such a t h i n g c o u l d r e a l l y be happening t o h e r — t h a t the c h a s t e temple o f h e r body and h e r i n v i o l a b l e womanhood c o u l d a c t u a l l y be v i o l a t e d i n t h i s manner. The u n n a t u r a l n e s s of t h i s a c t i s emphasized  later,  i n the passage where Temple i s r i d i n g i n t o Memphis w i t h Popeye.  F a u l k n e r l i n k s , i n one p a r a g r a p h , the p i c t u r e o f  the " s o f t r a d i a n c e o f May",  the f l o w e r i n g o f dogwood, l i l a c ,  w i s t e r i a and b o u g a i n v i l l e a , w i t h Temple's s t a t e as she s i t s b e s i d e Popeye, s t i l l b l e e d i n g from h e r r e c e n t r a p e .  127 It  i s as i f h e r own i n s t i n c t i v e  sense of the paradox  between the promise o f S p r i n g and the r e g e n e r a t i o n w h i c h t h a t season i m p l i e s — a s w e l l as the promise o f h e r  own  y o u t h — a n d the c o r r u p t i o n and d e a t h she i s b e i n g drawn i n t o , causes h e r to scream as she s t a r e s " v a c a n t l y and 21 s t u p i d l y a t the r u s h i n g r o a d - s i d e " (p. 7 8 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , when Temple does m o m e n t a r i l y escape from Popeye s !  c a r a t the f i l l i n g  s t a t i o n , she runs t o  h i d e b e h i n d a "greasy b a r r e l h a l f f u l l o f s c r a p s o f m e t a l and r u b b e r " (p. 79)» the  r a t h e r than s e e k i n g h e l p from any o f  p e o p l e around, and i s o f course found t h e r e by  The mechanic who  Popeye.  shows Popeye where she i s , the b a r r e l  and Popeye h i m s e l f a r e p a r t s of the modern w o r l d from w h i c h , i t would appear, t h e r e i s no escape.  Temple i s  no more s u c c e s s f u l i n t r y i n g to h i d e i n such a w o r l d than she was i n b e l a t e d l y t r y i n g t o f i n d p r o t e c t i o n i n the s a n c t u a r y o f the c h i v a l r i c  code.  She i s n o t , however, r u n n i n g away from Popeye, from the eyes o f a p a s s i n g boy from s c h o o l .  but  This a c t i o n  seems t o suggest h e r sense of shame b e f o r e the eyes o f s o c i e t y . I f , a c c o r d i n g to the c h i v a l r i c code, a woman's 21 This scene i s echoed l a t e r when Horace Benbow, b r o k e n and weeping a f t e r h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h e v i l , i n the courtroom, says o f the S p r i n g he i s d r i v i n g t h r o u g h , " I t does l a s t . . . S p r i n g does. You'd a l m o s t t h i n k t h e r e was some purpose t o i t " (p. 1 6 5 ) . As i n E l i o t ' s poem, f o r the i n h a b i t a n t s of the modern w a s t e l a n d S p r i n g b r i n g s no f e r t i l i t y but o n l y p a i n .  128 v a l u e and honor a r e t i e d up i n h e r s t a t e o f c h a s t i t y , t h e n Temple i s a " f a l l e n woman", d i s h o n o r e d ,  irrevocably  beyond any c l a i m s she might have made f o r b e l o n g i n g t o the code.  I t i s Temple's b e l i e f t h a t she i s " r u i n e d "  w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r subsequent b e h a v i o r a t M i s s Reba's b r o t h e l : she f e e l s t h a t i f she i s a l r e a d y debased i n t h e eyes o f s o c i e t y , n o t h i n g she can do now can damn h e r any f u r t h e r .  I n f a c t , perhaps she f e e l s t h a t t h e  most s u i t a b l e p l a c e f o r a f a l l e n woman i s i n a b r o t h e l ; t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t she was n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her  " r u i n " , she i s now no d i f f e r e n t from any o f t h e  p r o s t i t u t e s a t t h a t b r o t h e l , except i n the small matter o f degree o f s i n f u l n e s s .  Temple shows t h e same c r i n g i n g  shame when she c o n f r o n t s h e r f a t h e r and b r o t h e r s a t t h e end o f h e r t e s t i m o n y  i n court.  Knowing t h a t t h e y see  women i n terms o f t h e image o f t h e code, she e x p e c t s them to f e e l towards h e r t h e way t h e y might f e e l towards any p r o s t i t u t e . A t t h a t p o i n t she i s perhaps more j u s t i f i e d i n h e r sense o f shame: she spent time i n t h e b r o t h e l , has brought about t h e death o f Red, witness  and has l i e d on t h e  s t a n d t o p r o t e c t h e r s e d u c e r , Popeye.  Earlier,  however, b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t t h e b r o t h e l , i t i s o n l y h e r a c u t e awareness o f h e r debased p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the c h i v a l r i c code w h i c h causes h e r sense o f shame.  She  crouches behind t h e b a r r e l o f m e t a l l i c r e f u s e as i f i n s t i n c t i v e l y a s s o c i a t i n g h e r s e l f w i t h i t s contents  seeing  129 h e r s e l f as something r e j e c t e d by decent s o c i e t y , r e n d e r e d v a l u e l e s s and  "trashy" according  to i t s m o r a l  standards.  A l l t h a t i s l e f t to h e r i s the appearance of decorum: she  combs h e r h a i r and f i x e s h e r makeup; she w o r r i e s  the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s b l o o d on her c o a t .  Her  about  concern  o v e r appearances a t such a time i s much l i k e t h a t w h i c h Gowan Stevens e x h i b i t e d e a r l i e r , showing t h a t she too  has  c o n f u s e d the p h y s i c a l appearance o r embodiment of honor w i t h the P l a t o n i c i d e a l .  A f t e r a l l , i f she d i d n o t  see  honor as r e s i d i n g i n a woman's p h y s i c a l s t a t e of c h a s t i t y and  t h e r e f o r e l o s t f o r e v e r when t h a t s t a t e i s p h y s i c a l l y  changed, she would r e a l i z e t h a t she i s no more s i n f u l d i s h o n o r e d now  than she was  before her  Yet i t i s n o t o n l y she who  or  rape.  f e e l s t h i s way.  She  is a  v i c t i m of a s o c i e t y w h i c h , t r u e to h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of it,  o f t e n confuses decorum w i t h honor, a p h y s i c a l s t a t e  w i t h a moral s t a t e .  Horace Benbow, h e a r i n g h e r a c c o u n t  of h e r r a p e , t h i n k s t h a t i t would be b e t t e r f o r h e r i f she were dead; the D i s t r i c t A t t o r n e y "ruined" c h i l d .  speaks of h e r as a  N a r c i s s a Benbow, i n h e r t r e a t m e n t o f  Ruby Goodwin, b e s t e x e m p l i f i e s the a t t i t u d e w h i c h sees o n l y the s u p e r f i c i a l a s p e c t s of a human b e i n g ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to s o c i a l codes: s i n c e Ruby i s o n l y Goodwin's commonlaw w i f e , s i n c e she was  once a p r o s t i t u t e , she i s t h e r e -  f o r e n o t worthy of the sympathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of "decent" p e o p l e , but i s seen as a k i n d of a f f r o n t to s o c i e t y ,  130 something d i s t a s t e f u l w h i c h s h o u l d be swept o u t o f s i g h t as soon a s p o s s i b l e . l i k e Caddy Compson i n The Sound and The F u r y , Temple's own sense o f b e i n g r u i n e d l e a d s h e r t o a c t t h a t part.  A t the b r o t h e l she d r i n k s g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f  h a r d l i q u o r , smokes i n c e s s a n t l y , drenches h e r s e l f w i t h e x p e n s i v e perfume, and d r e s s e s i n a " s p u r i o u s Chinese robe s p l o t c h e d w i t h g o l d dragons and jade and s c a r l e t f l o w e r s " (p. 1 3 0 ) , l i k e t h e concubine o f an e a s t e r n emperor.  A l l h e r c o n s c i o u s a c t i o n s become p a r t o f t h e  r o l e of h a r l o t .  When she appears i n c o u r t she i s d r e s s e d  i n t h e tawdry f a s h i o n o f t h e k i n d o f woman she f e e l s h e r s e l f t o be: From beneath h e r b l a c k h a t h e r h a i r escaped i n t i g h t r e d c u r l s l i k e c l o t s o f r e s i n . The h a t bore a r h i n e s t o n e ornament. Upon h e r b l a c k s a t i n l a p l a y a p l a t i n u m bag. Her p a l e t a n coat was open upon a s h o u l d e r k n o t of p u r p l e . . . . h e r two m o t i o n l e s s s l i p p e r s w i t h t h e i r g l i t t e r i n g b u c k l e s l a y on t h e i r s i d e s as though empty. Above t h e ranked i n t e n t f a c e s . . . s h e s a t i n an a t t i t u d e a t once detached and c r i n g i n g , h e r gaze f i x e d on something a t t h e back o f t h e room. Her f a c e was q u i t e p a l e , t h e two s p o t s o f rouge l i k e paper d i s c s p a s t e d on h e r cheek bones,, h e r mouth p a i n t e d i n t o a savage and p e r f e c t bow, a l s o l i k e something both s y m b o l i c a l and c r y p t i c c u t c a r e f u l l y from p u r p l e paper and p a s t e d t h e r e (pp. 160-161*, i t a l i c s m i n e ) . 2 2  The emphasis on t h e m e t a l l i c q u a l i t y o f h e r c l o t h e s h e r e might a l s o suggest t h a t she has come under the i n f l u e n c e o f the modern w o r l d (as i t n e g a t i v i s t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e t a l s i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Popeye).  131 The words " c r i n g i n g " and "detached" b e s t r e v e a l h e r a t t i t u d e t o h e r s i t u a t i o n , b e f o r e and a t t h e t r i a l .  In  the c a r on the way t o t h e b r o t h e l , she c r i n g e s from t h e eyes of p a s s i n g people and from Popeye's  touch, yet f o r  t h e most p a r t has t h e l o o k o f a s l e e p w a l k e r , vague and stupid.  She c r i n g e s and w r i t h e s away from Popeye a t t h e  b r o t h e l , and from the d o c t o r who comes t o examine h e r , y e t she r e c o u n t s t h e s t o r y o f h e r rape t o Horace  Benbow  i n a " b r i g h t , c h a t t y " tone o f v o i c e , w i t h an " i m p e r s o n a l " vanity.  The c r i n g i n g comes from h e r f e a r and h e r shame;  the a i r o f detachment f r o m h e r own f e e l i n g s o f shocked, stunned d i s b e l i e f t h a t such a t h i n g has r e a l l y happened t o h e r . She seems t o v a c c i l l a t e between t h e two s t a t e s and a t t i m e s , as t h e above passage s u g g e s t s , e x i s t i n the two s t a t e s a t once. The t r u t h of the m a t t e r i s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e s e two a t t i t u d e s a r e b o t h p a r t o f t h e same d e s i r e t o escape the h o r r o r of h e r s i t u a t i o n . drawing away from i t ; dissociation.  One i s an a c t u a l , p h y s i c a l  the o t h e r i s a m e n t a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l  I n some i n s t a n c e s — f o r example, h e r drunk-  eness, f r e n z i e d d a n c i n g , and o b s e s s i v e p a s s i o n f o r Red, a t t h e r o a d h o u s e — t h e two approaches seem t o merge as Temple a t t e m p t s t o l o s e h e r s e l f and h e r awareness o f g u i l t i n some form o f a c t i o n w h i c h w i l l o b l i t e r a t e t h e p a i n of conscious thought.  132 This attempt t o escape r e a l i t y perhaps e x p l a i n s Temple's l y i n g on the w i t n e s s  stand.  She f i r s t  tries  to a v o i d a n s w e r i n g , and t h e n , as she b e g i n s t o answer, she t r i e s t o a v o i d l o o k i n g i n t o the D i s t r i c t eyes.  Attorney's  When t h i s f a i l s , she f a n t a s i z e s , as she has done  b e f o r e , as i f b e l i e v i n g t h a t by p u t t i n g Goodwin i n t o the r o l e of h e r a s s a u l t e r she can a n n i h i l a t e a l l t h a t w h i c h f o l l o w e d w i t h Popeye and Red, and remove h e r own sense o f g u i l t about Red's d e a t h as w e l l .  J u s t as she was  e a r l i e r a b l e t o sound t o Horace Benbow a l m o s t as i f she were r e c o u n t i n g a s t o r y about someone e l s e , she now  has  r e a c h e d the p o i n t where even the d e t a i l s o f t h a t s t o r y can be d i s t o r t e d .  As M i c h a e l M i l l g a t e p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e  i s no r e a l i n d i c a t i o n , i n F a u l k n e r ' s  p r e s e n t a t i o n of h e r  t e s t i m o n y , t h a t she t e l l s the c o u r t o f h e r s t a y i n the 23 brothel. Attorney's  Perhaps she i s encouraged by the D i s t r i c t p l a c i n g h e r i n the p o s i t i o n o f a v i c t i m , and  f e e l s t h a t t o admit o n l y t o the rape w i l l a l s o r e s t o r e h e r t o the p r o t e c t i v e n e s s o f h e r f a m i l y and s o c i e t y as a whole. For, i r o n i c a l l y , although  t h e a d h e r e n t s t o the c h i v a l r i c  code may see Temple as i r r e p a r a b l y r u i n e d by a v i o l a t i o n ^The Achievement o f W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , pp.316-317. M i l l g a t e goes on t o s a y , however, t h a t Temple has been c o r r u p t e d by Popeye, and encouraged t o l i e by h e r f a t h e r , who doesn't want anymore s c a n d a l — a v i e w w i t h w h i c h I do not agree. 2  133 t o h e r womanhood, t h e y can a l s o become most aware o f the s a n c t i t y of womanhood i n v i e w of such a v i o l a t i o n , and c l a i m h e r back a g a i n , r u i n e d o r n o t , as a symbol of Pure 24  and S a c r e d Womanhood d e f i l e d by a human agent o f e v i l . The D i s t r i c t A t t o r n e y i s a l s o aware o f t h i s a s p e c t o f the c h i v a l r i c code, and uses i t t o a c h i e v e Goodwin's conviction.  Whether o r n o t he i s aware of the a c t u a l  t r u t h o f Temple's s i t u a t i o n , he speaks i n terms o f m o r a l o u t r a g e about h e r v i o l a t i o n and the t e r r i b l e wrong done to h e r , a p p e a l i n g t o the "good" men,  the f a t h e r s and  husbands on the j u r y and i n the c o u r t , t o see h e r as a " r u i n e d , d e f e n s e l e s s c h i l d " ( p . 1 6 3 ) , whose a s s a u l t e r s h o u l d n o t m e r e l y be hung, but s h o u l d be s u b j e c t e d to "a b o n f i r e of g a s o l i n e " (p. 1 6 0 ) . True t o h i s s u g g e s t i o n , the townsmen r a l l y t o a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r sense o f m o r a l o u t r a g e a g a i n s t the c h i v a l r i c code.  They burn Goodwin b e f o r e he can be hung,  d e s p i t e Horace Benbow's a t t e m p t s t o c l e a r him. is  And Temple  r e c l a i m e d by h e r f a t h e r and f o u r b r o t h e r s , even b e f o r e  the t r i a l i s o v e r .  The r e a d e r ' s l a s t s i g h t o f h e r i n  S a n c t u a r y i s i n the Luxembourg Gardens.  Her f a t h e r has  ^ A s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n i s seen i n "Dry September", when the townsmen, who have p r e v i o u s l y had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n M i s s M i n n i e Cooper, r e a c t to h e r w i t h a new r e s p e c t once i t i s rumored t h a t she has been raped by a Hegro, and s w i f t l y , i r r a t i o n a l l y , go about a v e n g i n g h e r honor by k i l l i n g the Negro.  134 apparently  t a k e n h e r away to Europe, to remove h e r  p h y s i c a l l y from the shame and she has  s c a n d a l of the whole i n c i d e n t  been a p a r t o f .  Yet h e r f a c e , i n the m i r r o r of h e r compact, i s " s u l l e n and d i s c o n t e n t e d  and  sad"  (p. 178).  She  i s being  f o r c e d back i n t o the appearance of decorum w h i c h she f l a u n t e d as a r e c k l e s s c o l l e g e s t u d e n t , and not s u i t h e r .  Her  s a d n e s s , however,  i n d i c a t e t h a t she i s d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t even p h y s i c a l  escape cannot remove the memory of g u i l t . for  the r o l e does  This f a c t a c c o u n t s f o r h e r boredom and  r e s t l e s s n e s s , her s u l l e n expression. may  once  a Nun i l l u s t r a t e s , she w i l l c o n t i n u e  As Requiem to see h e r s e l f  as a r u i n e d woman i n the terms of the c h i v a l r i c code and will  continue  t o c a r r y out those a c t i o n s w h i c h she  sees  s u c h a r o l e t o i m p l y , even a f t e r h e r m a r r i a g e to Gowan Stevens.  I t w i l l t a k e a g r e a t s h o c k — t h e murder of  one  of h e r c h i l d r e n — t o shock her i n t o awareness of what i s doing: it, her.  that i n attempting  to escape g u i l t by embracing  she i s " d e s t r o y i n g h e r s e l f and And  she  a t t h a t time she w i l l  the l i v e s of those around  t r y so h a r d to f a c e  t h a t she w i l l c r e d i t to h e r s e l f a d e p r a v i t y and to corruption which, according  reality  inclination  t o S a n c t u a r y , she d i d n o t  r e a l l y have. Faulkner  seems to be s u g g e s t i n g  i n Sanctuary  d e s t r u c t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h the c h i v a l r i c code have on those who  the can  see themselves so s t r o n g l y i n r e l a t i o n -  135 s h i p t o i t s s t a n d a r d s t h a t escape o r f a n t a s y become the only a l t e r n a t i v e s to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  I f The Sound and  The F u r y and S a n c t u a r y were the o n l y statements o f F a u l k n e r ' s view o f the c h i v a l r i c code i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , the r e a d e r c o u l d i n d e e d conclude t h a t the code was no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t t o modern s o c i e t y , and t h a t those i n c i d e n t s of i t s appearance and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s .  o n l y proved i t s d e t e r i o r a t i o n  As the R e i v e r s shows, however, such  a c o n c l u s i o n must be q u a l i f i e d by F a u l k n e r ' s l a t e r  thoughts  on the m a t t e r . I n b o t h S a n c t u a r y and The Sound and The F u r y , the c h i v a l r i c code i s seen as under a s s a u l t by the f o r c e s o f p r o g r e s s and m o d e r n i t y .  P a r t of i t s i r r e l e v a n c e t o the  modern w o r l d stems from i t s seeming t o b e l o n g t o an o l d o r d e r w h i c h appears t o be d y i n g out because of an t o change w i t h t h e t i m e s .  inability  Adherence t o the code, as  Q u e n t i n Compson's case s u g g e s t s , i s t h e r e f o r e apt t o be d e f e n s i v e , a d e s p e r a t e c l i n g i n g t o v a l u e s which can n o t s u r v i v e i n a w o r l d which no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r s them i m p o r t a n t , even as i d e a l s . 25 I n The R e i v e r s ,  the dichotomy between p r o g r e s s and  t r a d i t i o n i s no l o n g e r as a p p a r e n t .  In f a c t , the suggestion  seems t o be t h a t the two need not be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , 5(New Y o r k : Random House, 1962). A l l f u t u r e page r e f e r e n c e s a r e to t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s a f t e r each q u o t a t i o n . 2  136 but can c o - e x i s t : t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l can move w i t h t h e t i m e s even w h i l e r e t a i n i n g a r e s p e c t f o r and adherence t o t r a d i t i o n a l values. Such a n approach t o p r o g r e s s i n t h e buying grandfather  i s perhaps most o b v i o u s  o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e by "Boss" P r i e s t , t h e  o f t h e young p r o t a g o n i s t o f t h e n o v e l .  The  o l d man i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o l d o r d e r : i t i s from him t h a t young L u c i u s has l e a r n e d h i s g e n t l e m a n l y conduct 26 and m o r a l v a l u e s .  He i s n o t a t a l l a p r o g r e s s i v e i n  h i s t h i n k i n g e s p e c i a l l y so f a r as t h e modern w o r l d i s concerned but b e l i e v e s , a c c o r d i n g t o L u c i u s , t h a t t h e motor v e h i c l e i s "an i n s o l v e n t phenomenon l i k e night's toadstool  which , l i k e the fungus,  w i t h tomorrow's s u n " ( p . 2 5 ) . automobile,  last  will  vanish  n e v e r t h e l e s s , he buys an  and a l t h o u g h he does so i n o r d e r . t o  thwart  C o l o n e l S a r t o r i s , t h e p r e s i d e n t o f a r i v a l , u p s t a r t bank i n town, who has f o r c e d t h e town c o u n c i l t o pass a law f o r b i d d i n g a u t o m o b i l e s w i t h i n t h e c i t y l i m i t s , he makes a r e g u l a r h a b i t o f r i d i n g i n i t , not to.show h i s d e f i a n c e o f C o l o n e l S a r t o r i s b u t because he i s " i n t e r e s t e d i n teams, H i s name would a l m o s t l e a d one t o see him as s i m i l a r t o t h e head p r i e s t o f a s p i r i t u a l o r d e r . He i s , i n d e e d , t h e main spokesman f o r t h e c h i v a l r i c code i n t h e s t o r y and i t i s he who h e a r s L u c i u s ' c o n f e s s i o n o f s i n s a f t e r t h e boy has r e t u r n e d from Memphis. S i n c e t h e P r i e s t f a m i l y does n o t appear i n any e a r l i e r works about the McCaslin-Edmonds-Beauchamp c l a n , F a u l k n e r might have u s e d t h e name i n o r d e r t o emphasize t h a t L u c i u s and h i s grandfather are representatives of the b e t t e r aspects of the code: t h a t i n them t h e code i s u n t a i n t e d and has been passed down from e l d e r t o c h i l d as a k i n d o f s a c r e d r i t u a l .  137 v e h i c l e s " and i s "a f a r - s i g h t e d man, vision"  (p. 3 8 ) .  D e s p i t e h i s own  a man  capable  of  f e e l i n g s about the  auto-  m o b i l e , he i s w i l l i n g to g r a n t t h a t t h e r e w i l l someday be o t h e r such v e h i c l e s i n J e f f e r s o n — a l t h o u g h he h o p e f u l l y p r o j e c t s t h i s time to t e n or f i f t e e n y e a r s i n the f u t u r e — and he p r e d i c t s t h a t i n t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s a l l the roads i n the county w i l l be s u i t a b l e f o r  automobiles.  In o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h he i s c e r t a i n l y he i s n o t r e a c t i o n a r y .  conservative,  He might move b e g r u d g i n g l y  w i t h the  t i m e s , but he does not have a c y n i c a l o r d e s p a i r i n g a t t i t u d e towards elements of change.  He i s a b l e to a s -  s i m i l a t e change i n t o h i s p a t t e r n of e x i s t e n c e and  accept  the r e a l w o r l d w h i c h i s s u b j e c t to the laws o f change. This a s p e c t of h i s c h a r a c t e r i s i m p o r t a n t for  to keep i n mind ,  as w e l l as h a v i n g h e l p e d i n t e a c h i n g L u c i u s to f o l l o w  the t r a d i t i o n a l code of a gentleman, he has  apparently  presented  the boy w i t h a p o s i t i v e example of the  ability  to a c c e p t  the r e a l w o r l d f o r what i t i s , even though i t  f r e q u e n t l y f a l l s s h o r t of one's i d e a l s . Perhaps more t h a n i n the case of the a u t o m o b i l e ,  this  a b i l i t y i s e x h i b i t e d near the end of the n o v e l , when Grandf a t h e r P r i e s t meets Miss Reba, the madame of a Memphis b r o t h e l , and t r e a t s her as c o u r t e o u s l y as he would lady. to  any  In L u c i u s the a b i l i t y i s r e v e a l e d by h i s r e a c t i o n s  the w o r l d encountered d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n Memphis w i t h  Boon Hoggenbeck and l e d M c C a s l i n .  Although  the  boy  138 becomes t e m p o r a r i l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d by h i s e l d e r s ' f a i l u r e to keep promises or a c t w i t h the p r o p e r decorum, he i s a b l e to not o n l y take e v e r y t h i n g i n h i s s t r i d e , but r e t a i n h i s own  to  p r i n c i p l e s and r e s i s t the f o r c e s of  corruption. At the time of the t r i p  to Memphis, L u c i u s i s o n l y  e l e v e n , but a l r e a d y he has a c l e a r i d e a of what c o n s t i t u t e s good and  evil.  "Borrowing" h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s  car i n i t s e l f  i s a s i n , and he sees h i m s e l f as a f o l l o w e r of the goddess of N o n - V i r t u e as soon as he b e g i n s  to work out a p l a n i n  his  mind f o r g e t t i n g away f r o m J e f f e r s o n w i t h o u t  his  relatives' suspicions.  i t too easy f o r him  He f e e l s t h a t N o n - V i r t u e makes  to l i e to h i s f a m i l y about where he  w i l l be f o r the n e x t f o u r days: h i s own little for  arousing  f e e b l e , s o u l has  change a g a i n s t the " i n c r e d i b l e m a t c h l e s s c a p a c i t y  i n v e n t i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n " w h i c h h i s impulses  misbehavior  g i v e him.  for  D e s p i t e a l l the w o r r y w h i c h he  causes h i s f a m i l y , i t i s t h i s l y i n g about h i s i n t e n t i o n s w h i c h he f e e l s s o r r i e s t f o r when he r e t u r n s t o J e f f e r s o n f o u r days l a t e r .  He has broken h i s promise to h i s mother  to h e l p h i s aunt w i t h the o t h e r c h i l d r e n and he has  lied;  and s i n c e a gentleman does not break h i s word or l i e , he e x p e c t s and r e a d e r may  even d e s i r e s punishment f o r such s i n s . s m i l e at t h i s s e n t i m e n t ,  but i t i s an  The  indication  o f the s t r e n g t h o f L u c i u s ' m o r a l t r a i n i n g , and shows t h a t his  i s not m e r e l y a code of s o c i a l g e s t u r e s but  a much deeper sense of duty to o n e s e l f and  represents  others.  139 Lucius' t r i p  t o Memphis p r o v i d e s him w i t h a v a l u a b l e ,  a l t h o u g h a t times u n p l e a s a n t , s e r i e s of l e s s o n s .  He  l e a r n s h i s f i r s t l e s s o n b e f o r e he has even l e f t J e f f e r s o n : t h a t he has w i t h i n h i m s e l f a c a p a c i t y t o s i n , t h a t h i s innocence  i s no s h i e l d a g a i n s t i m p u l s e s t o do wrong, and  t h a t t h e w o r l d p r o v i d e s no a s s i s t a n c e f o r him i n r e s i s t i n g such i m p u l s e s but w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t s h i s l i e s .  In other  words, he d i s c o v e r s t h a t he i s c o m p l e t e l y on h i s own and p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s own s o u l ; no l o n g e r w i l l his  good b e h a v i o r be determined  and a s s u r a n c e s  of h i s parents.  m a i n l y by the d i c t a t e s Such a r e a l i z a t i o n n o t  o n l y p r e p a r e s him f o r what he w i l l encounter  i n Memphis,  but i s a s t e p towards m o r a l m a t u r i t y . The main l e s s o n he l e a r n s , however, i s t h a t t h e r e i s a world which l i e s  o u t s i d e h i s code o f m o r a l b e h a v i o r .  In h i s i n n o c e n c e , he a t f i r s t does n o t know t h i s , and Boon Hogganbeck does l i t t l e t o p r e p a r e him f o r such a discovery, short of t e l l i n g  him, as they g e t washed i n a  room u p s t a i r s i n Miss Reba's b r o t h e l , t h a t he w i l l be a b l e to handle a n y t h i n g he meets, and t h a t t h e r e i s " n o t h i n g you w i l l ever l e a r n t h a t t h e day wont come when y o u ' l l need i t o r f i n d use f o r i t " ( p . 1 0 4 ) .  B e l i e v i n g t h a t the  b r o t h e l i s the b o a r d i n g house w h i c h Boon has c l a i m e d i t to  be, L u c i u s p o l i t e l y bows t o Miss Reba, and t o Mr.  B i n f o r d , the " l a n d l o r d " o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  Almost a t  once, however, he b e g i n s t o see t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between  140 these people and t h o s e he i s accustomed t o .  M i s s Reha,  f o r example, has h a i r t h a t i s "too r e d " , wears the b i g g e s t y e l l o w i s h - c o l o r e d diamonds he has  ever', seen,  p a i n t s h e r f a c e w i t h make-up i n an age when l a d i e s d i d not do s o , and  swears l i k e a man.  Mr.  Binford, despite  h i s g e n t l e m a n l y appearance, speaks u n c h i v a l r o u s l y to the two  " l a d i e s " a t the d i n n e r t a b l e , c a l l i n g them b i t c h e s .  And  the women t h e m s e l v e s have something "wrong" about  them.  As L u c i u s says of the o l d e r  one:  I t wasn't t h a t she was o l d , l i k e Grandmother i s o l d , because she wasn't. She was a l o n e . I t was j u s t t h a t she s h o u l d n ' t have had to be h e r e , a l o n e , to have t o go t h r o u g h t h i s . No, t h a t ' s wrong t o o . I t ' s t h a t nobody s h o u l d e v e r have to be t h a t a l o n e , nobody, not ever (p. 110). Nevertheless,  t h e s e people do not p a r t i c u l a r l y impress  upon him any r e a l sense of i m m o r a l i t y , and are n o t agents of c o r r u p t i o n .  I n f a c t , M i s s Reba, and M i s s C o r r i e , Boon's  m i s t r e s s , make an u n s u c c e s s f u l  e f f o r t to c o n t r o l Mr.  B i n f o r d ' s language f o r L u c i u s ' s a k e . i m p r e s s e d and  Both women are  even a b i t awed by the boy's p o l i t e manner;  i t i s as i f he reminds them a f a way  of l i f e t h e y  had  almost f o r g o t t e n e x i s t e d . I f a n y t h i n g , L u c i u s i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and conduct.  When Boon t r i e s to f o n d l e M i s s C o r r i e p u b l i c l y  as he no doubt has always done, she i s too aware of L u c i u s ' p r e s e n c e to respond a c c o r d i n g l y .  Lucius notes that  does n o t even l o o k a t Boon, but l o o k s a t  him,  she  141 Boon's hand d r o p p i n g and a l r e a d y g r i p p i n g one cheek o f h e r bottom, i n s i g h t o f us a l l , she s t r a i n i n g back and l o o k i n g a t me a g a i n w i t h something dark and b e s e e c h i n g i n h e r e y e s — s h a m e , g r i e f , I don't know w h a t — w h i l e t h e b l o o d rushed s l o w l y i n t o h e r b i g g i r l ' s f a c e t h a t was n o t r e a l l y p l a i n a t a l l except a t f i r s t . But o n l y a moment. She was s t i l l g o i n g t o be a l a d y . She even struggled l i k e a lady.... " A i n ' t you ashamed o f y o u r s e l f " , she s a i d (p. 132). Of c o u r s e , L u c i u s does n o t c o n s c i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e M i s s Corrie.  B a r t o f t h e e f f e c t he has on h e r and on Miss  Reba stems from h i s i n n o c e n t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t they a r e both w o r t h y o f r e s p e c t — a n assumption as much based on i g n o r a n c e as on an u p b r i n g i n g w h i c h has taught him t o t r e a t a l l l a d i e s w i t h r e s p e c t and has n e g l e c t e d t o mention t h a t a l l women a r e n o t l a d i e s .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , by i n n o c e n t l y t r e a t i n g  M i s s C o r r i e as i f she were a l a d y , he causes h e r t o want to a c t l i k e  one, i f o n l y t o p r e v e n t d i s i l l u s i o n i n g h i m .  At t h e same t i m e , L u c i u s r e p r e s e n t s a s t a n d a r d o f conduct w h i c h she r e s p e c t s and r e c o g n i z e s as p r o p e r , d e s p i t e h e r professional indiscretions.  When she l a t e r vows t o h i m  t h a t she w i l l s t o p b e i n g a p r o s t i t u t e i t i s because she i s determined  t o prove t h a t h i s i n n o c e n t ,  mistaken  d e f i n i n g o f h e r c h a r a c t e r i s a t l e a s t a prophesy, and not just a q u i x o t i c piece of f o l l y .  The v i r t u e o f t h e  c h i v a l r i c code would seem t o be, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t s e t s a s t a n d a r d f o r human a s p i r a t i o n .  I t may n o t d e s c r i b e  human b e i n g s t h e way they a r e , b u t i n d e s c r i b i n g them the way t h e y might be i t c a n , as F a u l k n e r puts i t , cause the human h e a r t t o " b e l i e v e i n i t s e l f , b e l i e v e i n i t s  142 27 c a p a c i t y t o a s p i r e , t o be b e t t e r t h a n i t i s , might be". S t r a n g e l y enough, t h e most immoral p e r s o n L u c i u s e n c o u n t e r s i s O t i s , t h e young nephew o f Miss C o r r i e , whom she has brought i n from a farm i n . A r k a n s a s  w i t h the hopes  t h a t he w i l l l e a r n some r e f i n e m e n t i n the c i t y .  What he  shows, however, i s t h a t r e f i n e m e n t cannot be l e a r n e d as r e a d i l y as e v i l c a n , and t h a t t h e k i n d o f  "refinement"  which L u c i u s e x h i b i t s i s something much deeper than a b r i e f s t a y i n t h e c i t y c o u l d ever i n s t i l l .  Otis i s completely  w i t h o u t m o r a l s c r u p l e s and i s q u i c k t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e most c o r r u p t a s p e c t s world.  o f c i t y l i f e i n t o h i s view o f t h e  H i s b i g g e s t d i s c o v e r y seems t o have been t h a t  money i s t h e b a s i s o f a l l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . So sure i s he o f t h i s t h a t he i s a c t u a l l y s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h e r e a r e p o l i c e m e n who w i l l o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e n e e d i n g t o be b r i b e d f i r s t .  that  without  He h i m s e l f always h o l d s o u t  f o r a monetary payment b e f o r e d o i n g something, and sees p e o p l e o n l y i n terms o f what he can g e t from them. him,  To  :Memphis i s f u l l o f money-making p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and  he r e g r e t s o n l y h i s i n a b i l i t y t o g e t some o f t h a t money himself.  He r e g a r d s h i s own p r e v i o u s  s t a t e o f innocence  as time wasted i n i g n o r a n c e . As he s a y s , 27 F a u l k n e r i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y , F r e d e r i c k L. Gwynn and Joseph L. B l o t n e r , e d s . (New Y o r k : Random House, 1965) p. 78.  143 "When I t h i n k o f a l l them y e a r s I spent over t h e r e on t h a t durn farm i n Arkansas w i t h Memphis r i g h t here a c r o s s the r i v e r and I never even knowed i t . How i f I had j u s t knowed when I was f o u r or f i v e y e a r s o l d what I had to w a i t u n t i l j u s t l a s t y e a r to f i n d out about, sometimes I j u s t want to g i v e up and q u i t . But I r e c k o n I wont. I r e c k o n maybe I can make i t up" (pp.142-143).  How  he has g o t t e n t h i s way  the a d u l t s he has observed  i s questionable.  Certainly  i n Memphis have n o t s e t him  a  p a r t i c u l a r l y good example, and i n t h e i r p a y i n g him to do t h i n g s f o r t h e m have c o r r u p t e d him i n t o e x p e c t i n g payment f o r what he would o t h e r w i s e have done f o r f r e e . i t i s not t h e i r f a u l t alone.  However,  As h i s account o f the  peephole b u s i n e s s i n Arkansas r e v e a l s , O t i s has been w i t h out a p r o p e r sense o f v a l u e s f o r y e a r s : h i s s t a y i n Memphis has s i m p l y broadened the h o r i z o n s f o r h i s c o r r u p t i o n . any  case, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  In  t o c o n t r a s t him w i t h L u c i u s .  Both boys s t a y i n Memphis f o r a short t i m e , but  Lucius  manages to r e t u r n home h a v i n g l e a r n e d something of the w o r l d w i t h o u t h a v i n g been c o r r u p t e d .  The knowledge he  a c q u i r e d has  He says o f h i m s e l f ,  c o s t him h i s i n n o c e n c e .  " I knew too much, had seen too much. l o n g e r now;  innocence and  f o r e v e r gone from me"  I was  has  a c h i l d no  c h i l d h o o d were f o r e v e r l o s t ,  (p. 175).  toward manhood, not i m m o r a l i t y .  Yet t h i s has been a s t e p As h i s f e e l i n g s  of g u i l t  upon r e t u r n i n g home show, he i s s t i l l v e r y much aware o f r i g h t and wrong, and s t i l l i s most concerned w i t h t h a t "wrong" w h i c h i n v o l v e s the c h i v a l r i c code.  Perhaps the  144 d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e two boys t o t h e e v i l aspects of l i f e l i e s i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i n moral training.  With no such t r a i n i n g , O t i s ' l o s s o f innocence  has l e f t a m o r a l vacuum i n t o w h i c h t h e most r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e "values" rushed.  L u c i u s , on t h e o t h e r hand,  has a m o r a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t o p l a c e t h e new knowledge he has g a i n e d ; h i s i n s t i l l e d sense o f v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s form a s t r o n g c o u n t e r - f o r c e t o t h e f o r c e s o f c o r r u p t i o n . L u c i u s f e e l s from t h e s t a r t t h a t t h e r e i s something wrong w i t h O t i s : w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g i t , he sense t h e d i s p a r i t y between h i s own i n n o c e n c e and O t i s ' w o r l d l i n e s s . Yet,  l y i n g i n bed w i t h O t i s t h a t n i g h t , he b e g i n s t o f e e l  t h a t something i s wrong w i t h him because he i s unaware o f some v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t b u t h o r r i b l e p i e c e o f knowledge w h i c h O t i s p o s s e s s e s and w h i c h he too must i n e v i t a b l y gain: I t was l i k e I d i d n ' t know what i t was y e t : o n l y t h a t t h e r e was something wrong and i n a minute now I would know what and I would h a t e i t ; and suddenly I d i d n ' t want t o be t h e r e a t a l l , I d i d n ' t want t o be i n Memphis or ever t o have heard o f Memphis: I wanted to be a t home (p. 1 5 4 ) . A l t h o u g h d r e a d i n g t h i s knowledge, he i s i r r e s i s t a b l y drawn toward i t and h a t e s h i m s e l f f o r f e e l i n g t h i s way. When he h e a r s t h e s t o r y o f how M i s s C o r r i e — w h o s e r e a l name i s E v e r b e — w a s i n i t i a t e d i n t o p r o s t i t u t i o n as a c h i l d , and o f how people p a i d t o watch t h i s debasement t h r o u g h a peephole w h i c h O t i s d e v i s e d , he i s h o r r i f i e d ,  145 n o t so much by l e a r n i n g the t r u t h about Everbe as by l e a r n i n g o f the depths o f c a l l o u s n e s s t o w h i c h human b e i n g s can s i n k : I was h i t t i n g , c l a w i n g , k i c k i n g n o t o n l y a t one w i z e n e d t e n - y e a r - o l d boy, b u t a t O t i s and t h e p r o c u r e s s b o t h : t h e demon c h i l d who debased h e r p r i v a c y and the w i t c h who debauched h e r i n n o c e n c e — o n e f l e s h t o b r u i s e and b u r s t , one s e t o f n e r v e s t o wrench and a n g u i s h ; more: n o t j u s t those two, b u t a l l who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n h e r debasement: n o t o n l y the two panders, b u t the i n s e n s i t i v e b l a c k g u a r d c h i l d r e n and t h e b r u t a l and shameless men who p a i d t h e i r p e n n i e s t o watch h e r d e f e n s e l e s s and undefended and unavenged degradation (p. 157). H i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i s r e l i e v e d s l i g h t l y by Everbe's p r o m i s e , d i r e c t l y a f t e r t h e f i g h t , t o g i v e up b e i n g a prostitute. Then I had been a s l e e p , i t was Miss C o r r i e t h i s time, k n e e l i n g beside the mattress.... " I made O t i s t e l l me", she s a i d . "You f o u g h t because o f me. I've had p e o p l e — d r u n k s — f i g h t i n g over me, b u t you're the f i r s t one e v e r f o u g h t f o r me. I a i n t used t o i t , you see. That's why I dont know what t o do about i t . Except one t h i n g . I can do t h a t . I want t o make you a promise. Back t h e r e i n Arkansas i t was my f a u l t . But i t wont be my f a u l t any more" (pp. 159-160). T h i s promise and h e r o b v i o u s d e s i r e f o r r e p e n t e n c e somewhat r e s t o r e s t o him a w o r l d where i n d i v i d u a l s a b i d e by vows o f i n t e n t i o n and f e e l g u i l t about p a s t s i n s .  However,  the n e x t day, when he sees h e r newly r e - i n s t a t e d v i r t u e under t h r e a t by b o t h Boon and B u t c h , t h e crude deputy s h e r i f f , he senses t h a t he can no l o n g e r r e s t h i s i d e a l i s m on a f a i t h i n human s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r .  He knows h i s  own i n a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t N o n - V i r t u e , and f e a r s f o r E v e r b e :  146 But I was more than a f r a i d . I was ashamed t h a t such a r e a s o n f o r f e a r i n g . . . e x i s t e d ; h a t i n g i t a l l , h a t i n g a l l o f us f o r b e i n g the poor f r a i l v i c t i m s o f b e i n g a l i v e , h a v i n g t o be a l i v e . . . . j u s t as I had h a t e d O t i s f o r t e l l i n g me about Everbe i n Arkansas and h a t e d Everbe f o r b e i n g t h a t h e l p l e s s l o d e s t a r f o r human debasement w h i c h he t o l d me about and h a t e d m y s e l f f o r l i s t e n i n g , h a v i n g t o hear about i t , l e a r n about i t ; h a t i n g t h a t such n o t o n l y was, but must be had t o be i f l i v i n g was t o c o n t i n u e and mankind be a p a r t o f i t ( p . 1 7 4 ) . A t t h i s p o i n t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e much l i k e those o f Q u e n t i n Compson, i n t h a t he i s f a c e d w i t h t h e knowledge of sex and must somehow cope w i t h the f a c t t h a t people are n o t p e r f e c t l i k e the i d e a l s he b e l i e v e s i n . But u n l i k e Q u e n t i n , L u c i u s i s a b l e t o a c c e p t t h i s knowledge, p a r t i a l l y because, u n l i k e Q u e n t i n , he i s k e p t moving so f a s t d u r i n g the n e x t few days t h a t he has l i t t l e time t o brood.  P a r t i a l l y , however, i t i s because he i s a much  more p r a c t i c a l young p e r s o n than Q u e n t i n and comes from a much more normal f a m i l y .  Having been surrounded by  r a t h e r d e c e n t , average people a l l h i s l i f e , he cannot become c o n v i n c e d t h a t a l l people a r e e v i l s i m p l y on t h e b a s i s o f d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t a few a r e t h i s way.  Also, h i s  age i s such t h a t he i s n o t r e a l l y p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n h i s newly a c q u i r e d knowledge o f s e x . What h o r r i f i e s him is  the i n s e n s i t i v i t y o f Everbe's c o r r u p t o r s , and n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y the sexual a c t i t s e l f .  L a t e r , when he l e a r n s  t h a t Everbe has broken h e r vow t o him and g i v e n h e r s e l f s e x u a l l y t o B u t c h , he i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d because she has  147 b r o k e n a vow, n o t because she has committed any k i n d o f immoral a c t i o n .  I n o t h e r words, what o f f e n d s and  d i s i l l u s i o n s him most a r e those a c t i o n s w h i c h do n o t correspond  t o t h e c h i v a l r i c code he h o l d s as an i d e a l .  Q u e n t i n , however, seems t o be d i s g u s t e d by t h e s e x u a l a c t i t s e l f , a s h i s thoughts  show when he j u x t a p o s e s t h e  i d e a o f Caddy and D a l t o n Ames making l o v e w i t h t h e i d e a o f swine r u n n i n g c o u p l e d i n t o t h e s e a . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t L u c i u s l e a r n j u s t where h i s code o f b e h a v i o r has i t s l i m i t s , and i t i s t h i s w h i c h Everbe's b r e a k i n g o f h e r vow teaches him, f o r Everbe does so out o f h e r l o v e f o r Boon and h e r d e s i r e t o h e l p h i m . I n o t h e r words, l o v e t a k e s precedence over p r o p r i e t y . And  t h a t l o v e i s n o t always t h e type w h i c h f i t s i n t o t h e  c h i v a l r i c concepts. understand  F o r example, L u c i u s does n o t  t h a t Boon has s t r u c k Everbe o u t o f j e a l o u s l y  and l o v e : t o L u c i u s such a n a c t i s a g a i n s t t h e code w h i c h sees woman as a c r e a t u r e w o r t h y o f one's p r o t e c t i o n and respect.  L i k e Q u e n t i n , L u c i u s goes i n s e a r c h o f h o n o r a b l e  vengeance.  He f i n d s Boon and f i g h t s him, c r y i n g i n "anguish,  r a g e , o u t r a g e , g r i e f " w h i l e he swings w i l d l y and i n e f f e c t u a l l y a t the b i g man.  A t t h i s t i m e , Ned M c C a s l i n  g i v e s him a p i e c e o f p r a c t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h h e l p s h i m : " H i t t i n g a woman dont h u r t h e r because a woman dont shove back a t a l i c k l i k e a man do; she j u s t g i v e s t o i t and t h e n when your back i s t u r n e d , reaches f o r the f l a t - i r o n o r t h e b u t c h e r k n i f e .  148 That's why h i t t i n g them dont break n o t h i n g ; a l l i t does i s j u s t b l a c k h e r eye o r c u t h e r mouf a l i t t l e . And t h a t a i n t n o t h i n g t o a woman. Because why? Because what b e t t e r s i g h t t h a n a b l a c k eye o r a c u t mouf can a woman want from a man t h a t he g o t h e r on h i s mind?" ( p . 2 6 3 ) . Such a p h i l o s o p h y may a p p l y o n l y t o t h e c l a s s o f people L u c i u s i s e n c o u n t e r i n g i n Memphis, but i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t he l e a r n t h i s , and n o t demand people who have no adherence t o t h e c h i v a l r i c code t o s t i l l l i v e by i t s dictates.  He i s a l s o saved from t o o much d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  by h i s own sense o f l o y a l t y t o Ned. Much as he would l i k e t o go home now i n h i s d e s p a i r and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , he f e e l s t h a t he cannot l e t Ned down, but must r e m a i n to r a c e t h e horse f o r w h i c h Ned has exchanged P r i e s t s ' car.  Grandfather  I f h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t has been the r e s u l t  of h i s i d e a l i s m , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s h i s i d e a l i s m — i n t h i s case h i s l o y a l t y t o N e d — w h i c h moderates t h a t d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , f o r i n r e m a i n i n g , L u c i u s becomes i n v o l v e d i n t h e r a c e and can t e m p o r a r i l y f o r g e t h i s unhappiness. V/hen he r e t u r n s home a f t e r h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n Memphis, L u c i u s e x p e c t s t o be p u n i s h e d ,  b u t both he and  his  him would be wrong.  f a t h e r r e a l i z e that simply whipping  Whipping i s f o r c h i l d r e n ; L u c i u s i s now on t h e t h r e s h o l d o f manhood.  As L u c i u s r e c a l l s the i n c i d e n t ,  I f a f t e r a l l t h e l y i n g and d e c e i v i n g and d i s o b e y i n g and c o n n i v i n g I had done, a l l he c o u l d do about i t was t o s h i p me, then F a t h e r was n o t good  149 enough f o r me. And i f a l l t h a t I had done was b a l a n c e d by no more t h a n t h a t s h a v i n g s t r a p , t h e n b o t h of us were debased (p. 3 0 1 ) . What h i s g r a n d f a t h e r o f f e r s him i s n o t a punishment, but a mature way of f a c i n g one's g u i l t . to  L u c i u s must l e a r n  l i v e w i t h h i s newly a c q u i r e d knowledge about l i f e  about h i m s e l f .  As G r a n d f a t h e r P r i e s t t e l l s him  and  this,  he a l s o r e - d e f i n e s what a gentleman i s : "A gentleman can l i v e t h r o u g h a n y t h i n g . He f a c e s a n y t h i n g . A gentleman a c c e p t s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h i s a c t i o n s and b e a r s the burden of t h e i r consequences, even when he d i d n o t h i m s e l f i n s t i g a t e them but o n l y a c q u i e s c e d t o them, d i d n ' t say No though he knew he s h o u l d " (p. 3 0 2 ) . Such a d e f i n i t i o n removes the word "gentleman" from i t s u n f o r t u n a t e modern c o n n o t a t i o n s of s o c i a l g e s t u r i n g , o b s e s s i v e i d e a l i s m or e f f e m i n a t e f a s t i d i o u s n e s s . combines the p r a c t i c a l w i t h the i d e a l , manly w i t h strength of character.  It  fortitude  As s u c h , i t i s p a r t o f a con-  cept w h i c h can w i t h s t a n d whatever the changing t i m e s might bring. F a u l k n e r h i m s e l f has s a i d t h a t the hope f o r the modern South l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h p e o p l e l i k e the  Snopeses w i l l breed and succeed i n an i n d u s t r i a l  " t h e r e w i l l be something l e f t o f the o l d c a v a l i e r t h a t w i l l appear, t h a t does appear....people who  society,  spirit believe  i n s i m p l e honor f o r the sake o f honor, and h o n e s t y f o r the  sake of h o n e s t y " . such a v i e w .  L u c i u s P r i e s t i s the embodiment o f  H i s innocence and i d e a l i s m n o t o n l y l o o k  backward to the t r a d i t i o n s of the p a s t , but a f f i r m the v a l u e o f a v i a b l e t r a d i t i o n i n the p r e s e n t , d e s p i t e the n e g a t i v e f o r c e s w h i c h t h r e a t e n t o s t r i p s o c i e t y o f its  values.  F a u l k n e r i n the U n i v e r s i t y , p. 80.  151 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION A f t e r examining t h e i n s t a n c e s i n F a u l k n e r ' s f i c t i o n where young people c o n f r o n t the codes o f t h e i r s o c i e t y , oan one say t h a t , t r u e t o t h e q u o t a t i o n w h i c h began t h i s p a p e r , t h e s e c h i l d r e n always "act on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s " of it?  a s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r than on t h e r u l e s o r codes g o v e r n i n g The answer i s no, i f by " a c t on t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s "  one means a c t o u t s i d e t h e r u l e s , i n t h e sense o f b e i n g exempt from t h e i r demands and r e s t r i c t i o n s .  The c h i l d  cannot escape t h e e f f e c t o f t h e codes on h i s l i f e .  He  i s molded by them from b i r t h , a c q u i r i n g knowledge o f them and r e s p e c t f o r them t h r o u g h a k i n d o f osmosis as w e l l as t h r o u g h h i s e l d e r s ' i n s t r u c t i o n .  He a c c e p t s them  u n c o n s c i o u s l y , as he a c c e p t s most o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the w o r l d around him, and seldom doubts t h e i r v a l i d i t y . of  The moment  c o n f r o n t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s when t h e c h i l d s u d d e n l y  d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , o r h i s i n n a t e and as y e t u n c o r r u p t e d sense o f what i s m o r a l l y r i g h t , appears t o c o n t r a d i c t what t h e codes d i c t a t e as t r u t h . I t i s a moment o f c o n f l i c t between t h e i n d i v i d u a l emotion of  p e r c e p t i o n and a code w h i c h i s q u i t e o f t e n made up o f  i l l o g i c a l concepts t h a t i n themselves bear l i t t l e resemblance t o r e a l i t y .  I f the c h i l d decides to f o l l o w  his  own i n s t i n c t s about t h e s i t u a t i o n a t hand, he does so  in  f u l l awareness o f h i s d e v i a t i o n from the u s u a l p a t t e r n  152 of b e h a v i o r and undergoes a g r e a t sense of a n g u i s h as a result.  H i s " a c t i n g on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s " i s , i n o t h e r  words, r e a l l y a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the r u l e s , r a t h e r than merely a spontaneous  a c t i o n o b l i v i o u s of any o t h e r  approach. Moreover, not a l l of F a u l k n e r ' s c h i l d r e n do " a c t on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s " .  Queitin Compson i s so unable t o a c c e p t  those c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o n c e r n i n g h i s s i s t e r which deny the v a l i d i t y of the c h i v a l r i c concepts he h o l d s t h a t he himself.  kills  Joe Christmas n o t o n l y a c c e p t s and a c t s upon the  r u l e s o f the r e l i g i o u s  code, but a l s o demands t h a t o t h e r s  f o l l o w them, t o o , i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t of him.  Because i n  terms o f t h a t code he i s s i n f u l , he expects punishment from h i s s o c i e t y .  He cannot u n d e r s t a n d or a c c e p t the  c i r c u m s t a n c e s where the women he s l e e p s w i t h a r e n o t concerned about h i s Negro b l o o d and a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n him o n l y as a s e x u a l p a r t n e r . ten young people who  I n f a c t , i f one c o n s i d e r s the  have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s  i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t s i x of t h e m — Q u e n t i n ,  paper,  Joe, Gowan  S t e v e n s , Temple Drake, Roth Edmonds, and L u c i u s P r i e s t — a c t on the r u l e s of the code r a t h e r than on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h they f i n d  themselves.  However, one cannot conclude t h a t the q u o t a t i o n from I n t r u d e r i n the Dust  i s therefore entirely  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the c h i l d r e n who,  false.  f o l l o w the codes, f o r  one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , s u f f e r as a r e s u l t .  Gowan i s  153 r i d i c u l e d ; L u s i u s i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d ; Roth f e e l s  anguish  and g u i l t ; Temple i s r a p e d ; Q u e n t i n becomes i n s a n e commits s u i c i d e ; Joe i s m u t i l a t e d and murdered. c h i l d r e n who  and  The  a c t oh t h e i r own i m p u l s e s do n o t escape  some a n g u i s h and g u i l t from b r e a k i n g w i t h t r a d i t i o n ,  but  t h e r e i s always some s u g g e s t i o n i n the s t o r y t h a t they a c h i e v e peace o f mind, even though i n I s a a c M c C a s l i n ' s case t h i s peace o f mind i s l a t e r  s h a t t e r e d by h i s  r e a l i z a t i o n o f how much he s t i l l adheres to the code he once t r i e d to a b r o g a t e .  A p p a r e n t l y a too r i g i d adherence  t o or r e l i a n c e on the codes i s seen by F a u l k n e r as dangerous and a t times even f a t a l .  What he seems t o be  i m p l y i n g i s n o t t h a t c h i l d r e n , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e as young and somewhat i n n o c e n t , are a u t o m a t i c a l l y g o i n g to a c t o u t s i d e the r u l e s o f t h e i r s o c i e t y , but t h a t i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e f o r the c h i l d to do s o , p r o v i d e d he  has  the s t r e n g t h of c h a r a c t e r and has n o t been c o n d i t i o n e d t o do o t h e r w i s e . who, now  He i s , i n any case, f r e e r t h a n the a d u l t ,  h a v i n g once encountered  a s i m i l a r c o n f r o n t a t i o n , has  s e t t l e d down to l i v e w i t h the c h o i c e he made and  has  l i t t l e hope o f ever a g a i n f e e l i n g c a l l e d upon to change h i s mind. The i n d i v i d u a l who  attempts t o cut h i m s e l f away from  h i s s o c i e t y c o m p l e t e l y i s n o t the i d e a l . shows how  Isaac McCaslin  u l t i m a t e l y i m p o s s i b l e such an attempt i s .  Q u e n t i n Compson's s u i c i d e i s o n l y a more t r a g i c example  154 o f the same type o f extremism, even though the  reason  for  The  h i s " w i t h d r a w a l " i s d i f f e r e n t from I k e ' s .  fate  o f each o f these i n d i v i d u a l s shov/s t h a t t h e r e i s something i n h e r e n t l y wrong w i t h h i s r e a c t i o n to the c o n f l i c t he  has  encountered. F a u l k n e r h i m s e l f has d i v i d e d some o f h i s heroes i n t o groups a c c o r d i n g to r e a c t i o n s , and expressed what he f e e l s t o he the most p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n s There seem to he t h r e e s t a g e s : The f i r s t s a y s , T h i s i s r o t t e n , I ' l l have no p a r t of i t , I w i l l take death f i r s t . The second s a y s , This i s r o t t e n , I dont l i k e i t , I cant do a n y t h i n g about i t but a t l e a s t I w i l l not p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t m y s e l f ; I w i l l go o f f i n t o a cave or c l i m b a p i l l a r to s i t on. The t h i r d s a y s , T h i s s t i n k s and I'm g o i n g to do something about i t . . . . W h a t we need are people who w i l l say, T h i s i s bad and I'm g o i n g to do something about i t ; I'm g o i n g to change i t . O b v i o u s l y Quentin  Compson f i t s the f i r s t c a t e g o r y o r  Ike M c C a s l i n the second, and Bayard and C h i c k M a l l i s o n the t h i r d . at  "stage",  S a r t o r i s , S a r t y Snopes  F a u l k n e r does not mention  t h i s p o i n t two o t h e r p o s i t i o n s w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l  t a k e : he may  say, "This i s r o t t e n , but I can't do  may  anything  about i t " , and c o n t i n u e to f o l l o w the s t a t u s quo, as Roth Edmonds does, o r he may  not be aware t h a t he a c t u a l l y  has  the a b i l i t y to choose h i s p o s i t i o n , even though he i s aware t h a t the s i t u a t i o n i s u n p l e a s a n t  or h o r r i b l e .  The  latter  c a t e g o r y would s u i t , i n v a r y i n g degrees of a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , F r e d e r i c k L. Gwynn and Joseph L. B l o t n e r , eds., F a u l k n e r i n The U n i v e r s i t y (New York: Random House, 1965), p. 246.  155  Joe  Christmas,  Priest.  Temple Drake, Gowan Stevens and L u c i u s  Of these f o u r , Joe and Temple seem r a t h e r h e l p l e s s  i n t h e i r dilemmas, both caught i n w o r l d s t o w h i c h they f e e l a l i e n , b o t h v i c t i m i z e d n o t o n l y by t h a t w o r l d but a l s o by t h e i r own i g n o r a n t f o l l o w i n g o f the codes by w h i c h they have been c o n d i t i o n e d .  Gowan Stevens i s i g n o r a n t  even o f t h e need t o change t h i n g s ; L u c i u s e x e r t s change without  r e a l l y choosing  prevents  t o do s o , because h i s innocence  him from r e a l i z i n g t h e e f f e c t he has on o t h e r s .  What emerges from such a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n — a n d justifies i t — i s  the d i s c o v e r y that Faulkner's  perhaps  young  p r o t a g o n i s t s have, f o r t h e most p a r t , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and a b i l i t y t o choose, t o e x e r c i s e some measure o f f r e e w i l l i n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . F a u l k n e r may f e e l free w i l l  that  " f u n c t i o n s a g a i n s t a Greek background o f f a t e " ,  and may show c e r t a i n o f h i s heroes i n p a r t i c u l a r a c t i n g according  t o a sense o f doom o r d e t e r m i n i s m , but these  cases a r e n o t so f r e q u e n t as many o f F a u l k n e r ' s c r i t i c s would have one b e l i e v e .  earlier  And t h e s u g g e s t i o n i s  t h a t each a d u l t has h a d , a t some time i n h i s  childhood,  the same moment o f c h o i c e r e g a r d i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the codes o f h i s s o c i e t y .  To t h a t moment he has brought  a degree o f c o n d i t i o n i n g e x p e r i e n c e d  as a v e r y young  F a u l k n e r i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y , p. t h a t sometimes f a t e l e a v e s man a l o n e , "never depend on t h a t . However, man t o f r e e w i l l and we hope t h e courage  38. He goes on t o s a y but t h a t man can "always has t h e r i g h t to d i e f o r h i s choice".  156 c h i l d , and, a f t e r t h a t moment, the f a c t o r s engendered by h i s c h o i c e may  have swept him a l o n g i n an a p p a r e n t l y  f a t a l i s t i c f a s h i o n , but even t h i s amount o f  determinism  does not mean t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s c o m p l e t e l y h e l p l e s s under the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f some p r e - o r d a i n e d d e s t i n y . Temple Drake, f o r example, i s a b l e t o a c h i e v e i n Requiem f o r a Nun,  salvation  years a f t e r her experiences w i t h  Popeye. Perhaps the b e s t metaphor t o d e s c r i b e the  situation  of f r e e w i l l - i n - f a t e which F a u l k n e r p r e s e n t s i s t h a t used by Robert F r o s t i n h i s poem "The  Road Not Taken".  One  comes t o a p l a c e where the r o a d of l i f e s e p a r a t e s i n t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t roads and a c h o i c e i s n e c e s s a r y , even though i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know a t t h a t time where each r o a d might l e a d .  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , one c o u l d come back and  take a n o t h e r road l a t e r b u t , as F r o s t s a y s , "knowing way  how  l e a d s on to was'"", i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h i s w i l l  happen: i n one's own  sense o f h a v i n g come so f a r one  way  t h e r e i s a k i n d o f d e t e r m i n i s m , even w h i l e the a b i l i t y t o use f r e e w i l l i s s t i l l p r e s e n t .  Joe Christmas  as he i s r u n n i n g and h i d i n g a f t e r h a v i n g k i l l e d  feels,  Joanna  Burden, t h a t he has been on the same road f o r t h i r t y y e a r s , a road w h i c h has  "made a c i r c l e " and brought  back to where he s t a r t e d .  him  Y e t he chooses to l e a v e the  woods where he has been h i d i n g and g e t back onto the paved r o a d l e a d i n g to town; he has d e l i b e r a t e l y g o t t e n a r i d e  157 i n t o town i n a p a s s i n g wagon, even though he knows t h a t he w i l l he c a p t u r e d when someone i n town r e c o g n i z e s  him.  He chooses to l e t the road take him to the d e s t i n y he expects and now  i s w i l l i n g to a c c e p t .  In the " i n h e r i t i n g " of the s o c i a l codes t h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , a c e r t a i n sense o f f a t e a t work. has no Quentin  choice i n that matter.  The  child  I n Absalom, Absalom1  Compson appears i n many ways to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of a l l the young p r o t a g o n i s t s i n F a u l k n e r ' s w r i t i n g  who,  by b e i n g born i n the South, f a l l h e i r to i t s h i s t o r y , i t s attitudes, i t s forces.  He i s r a t h e r u n w i l l i n g l y  i n t r o d u c e d to the s t o r y of Thomas Sutpen, and s i t s  through  Rosa C o l d f i e l d ' s l o n g n a r r a t i o n o n l y out of r e s p e c t f o r h e r . He f a i l s to see why  she has p i c k e d him to l i s t e n to the  s t o r y ; a f t e r a l l , he i s no r e l a t i o n to Sutpen nor to h e r and the i n c i d e n t s she d e s c r i b e s happened l o n g b e f o r e h i s b i r t h , i n the time of h i s g r a n d f a t h e r . t h a t Miss C o l d f i e l d has f a t h e r was  suggests  because h i s g r a n d -  "the n e a r e s t t h i n g to a f r i e n d Sutpen ever  had" and i n a way the county.  chosen Quentin  His f a t h e r  h e l p e d Sutpen to become e s t a b l i s h e d i n  "So maybe she c o n s i d e r s you p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e  through h e r e d i t y f o r what happened to her and h e r f a m i l y through him", he d e c l a r e s (p. 1 3 ) . Whatever the r e a s o n , Quentin f i n d s h i m s e l f becoming drawn i n t o the s t o r y o f Sutpen, and  by the end of the  n o v e l he i s o b s e s s i v e l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the p i e c i n g  158 t o g e t h e r o f t h e whole p a t t e r n o f Sutpen's r i s e and f a l l . . The s t o r y has t a k e n on a l a r g e r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r h i m ; i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s t o u c h him, f o l l o w him even t o h i s room a t Harvard.  I t i s not only that the past i s extending  i n t o t h e p r e s e n t t o haunt h i m , hut a l s o t h a t he sees the same c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c r e a t e d and d e s t r o y e d Sutpen's dream as s t i l l e x i s t i n g i n h i s own time and h a v i n g d i r e c t h e a r i n g on h i s own s i t u a t i o n .  I n e f f e c t , Sutpen's  s t o r y i s t h a t o f the South i t s e l f , embodying i t s hopes, weaknesses and f a i l u r e s .  Q u e n t i n , as a young S o u t h e r n e r ,  i s h e i r t o a l l these a s p e c t s o f the South and " r e s p o n s i b l e t h r o u g h h e r e d i t y " o f t h i s k i n d , as w e l l as o f t h e k i n d h i s f a t h e r s u g g e s t s , f o r a p a s t i n w h i c h he p l a y e d no part. T h i s sense o f the p a s t ' s i n f l u e n c e i n g t h e p r e s e n t may be o p p r e s s i v e , but i t p r o v i d e s man w i t h a r i c h context.  As F a u l k n e r has s a i d , no man i s h i m s e l f ; he i s t h e sum o f h i s p a s t . There i s no such t h i n g r e a l l y as "was" because t h e p a s t i s . I t i s a part o f e v e r y man, e v e r y woman, and every moment. A l l o f h i s and h e r a n c e s t r y , background, i s a l l a p a r t o f h i m s e l f and h e r s e l f a t any moment. And so a man, a c h a r a c t e r i n a s t o r y , a t any moment o f a c t i o n i s n o t j u s t h i m s e l f as he i s t h e n ; he i s a l l t h a t made him...3  By p u t t i n g h i s young p r o t a g o n i s t s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h s o c i a l  3 F a u l k n e r i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y , p. 84.  159  codes which, stem from the p a s t , F a u l k n e r n o t o n l y shows v a r i o u s approaches t o the problem of man's p l a c e i n s o c i e t y , but a l s o i n d i c a t e s what man's r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o u l d be t o the p a s t , t o t r a d i t i o n . v a i l " by t o t a l r e b e l l i o n .  Man does n o t " p r e -  He does so by a c t i n g  decisively,  m o r a l l y and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a l l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of h i s s o c i e t y and i t s m o r a l codes, a c t i n g i n such a way as t o s a t i s f y i t s demands and those of h i s own c o n s c i e n c e . the  In  examples of Bayard S a r t o r i s and C h i c k M a l l i s o n t h e r e  i s some measure o f t r i u m p h on b o t h the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l l e v e l s because such a compromise has been a c h i e v e d . At the same t i m e , h i s young p r o t a g o n i s t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n a p r o c e s s of t r y i n g to u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r s o c i e t y and what they themselves f e e l about i t .  Q u e n t i n Compson's  o u t c r y , i n Absalom, Absalom1 of " I dont hate i t i I d o n t l " shows the same k i n d of ambivalence w h i c h C h i c k M a l l i s o n appears t o f e e l towards the South.  Both boys l o v e the  South because t h e y a r e so much a p a r t o f i t , y e t f e e l a d e f i n i t e h o s t i l i t y towards v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h a t l a n d . Quentin n e v e r seems t o r e a c h a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the South, and cannot r e s o l v e h i s confused f e e l i n g s about i t . C h i c k i s more s u c c e s s f u l . The prooess.vof C h i c k ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g might m i r r o r F a u l k n e r ' s own.  While i t i s true t h a t n e a r l y a l l of  F a u l k n e r ' s n o v e l s show:- to some degree, an a f f i r m a t i o n o f l i f e and of man's a b i l i t y to p r e v a i l , the n o v e l s b e f o r e  160 193& appear to delegate those characters who represent these positive q u a l i t i e s to minor or secondary r o l e s * So the positive force of Dilsey i s outweighed by the negative or gloomy forces of Benjy and Quentin i n The Sound and the Fury, and Lena Grove takes a secondary position to that of Joe Christmas i n Light i n August» After 193#,  however, books such as The Unvanquished.  Intruder i n The Dust, Requiem f o r a Nun, and The Reivers exhibit a conscious e f f o r t to present the " o l d v e r i t i e s " which he spoke of i n h i s Nobel prize speech i n 1950,  and  show the i n d i v i d u a l reaching a positive resolution to h i s c o n f l i c t with society, i t s codes, and h i s own personality. That three of these books have children as protagonists only emphasizes the fact that f o r Faulkner the c h i l d i s the most suitable agent f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g man s c a p a b i l i t y f  for change.  161  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  I.  WORKS BY FAULKNER  Absalom, AbsalomI New Y o r k : Random House. E d i t i o n , 1951.•  Modern L i b r a r y  F a u l k n e r i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y : C l a s s c o n f e r e n c e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a , 1957-1958.- Eds. F r e d e r i c k L.• Gwynn and Joseph L. B l o t n e r . New Y o r k : Random House, 1965. V a l u a b l e f o r F a u l k n e r ' s own comments on h i s works. Go Down, Moses. New Y o r k : Random House. E d i t i o n , 1955. I n t r u d e r i n t h e Dust. Book, 1948.  Modern L i b r a r y  New Y o r k : Random House, V i n t a g e  L i g h t i n August. New Y o r k : Random House, Modern L i b r a r y E d l l e g e E d i t i o n , 1959. The R e i v e r s .  New Y o r k : Random House, V i n t a g e Book, 1962..  Requiem f o r a Nun. Sanctuary.  New Y o r k : S i g n e t Books, 1961.  New Y o r k : S i g n e t Books, 1961.  S e l e c t e d Short. S t o r i e s o f W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r . NeW Y o r k : Random House, Modern L i b r a r y E d i t i o n , 1962. The Sound and The F u r y . E d i t i o n , 1946. The Unvanquished.  New Y o r k : Random House, Modern  New Y o r k : Random House, V i n t a g e Book,  162 II.  CRITICAL WORKS ABOUT FAULKNER A. Books  B r o o k s , C l e a n t h . W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r : The Yoknapatawpha Country. New Haven & London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. Very p e r c e p t i v e and s y m p a t h e t i c a n a l y s e s o f F a u l k n e r ' s major works. Notes, g e n e a l o g i e s and i n d i c e s a t end o f book a r e e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e . Cash, W.J. The Mind o f t h e South. New York: Random House, 1941. Of some use f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the myth o f t h e a n t e b e l l u m South and t h e o r i g i n s o f Southern a t t i t u d e s towards t h e Negro and t h e N o r t h . Hoffman, F r e d e r i c k J . and Olga V i e k e r y , eds. W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r : Three Decades o f C r i t i c i s m . M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960. Combines many good, h a r d - t o - o b t a i n a r t i c l e s under one cover. E x c e l l e n t b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l l i s t . L o n g l e y , John W. The T r a g i c Mask. U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1957. U s e f u l comments on S a n c t u a r y ' s Popeye i n c h a p t e r on villains. On the whole a r a t h e r b i a s e d , fragmented p o i n t o f view. O'Connor, W i l l i a m V. W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r . U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s : M i n n e a p o l i s , 1959. Amazingly s h o r t - s i g h t e d comments a t t i m e s . Not p a r t i c u l a r l y sympathetic to Faulkner. M i l l g a t e , M i c h a e l . The Achievement o f W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r . London: C o n s t a b l e & Co. L t d . , 1966. Works from o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t s t o b r i n g i n new i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t does n o t g i v e i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s e s o f works. Olmsted, F r e d e r i c k L. The C o t t o n Kingdom. New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1<J5T. Of use i n s e e i n g what t h e a n t e - b e l l u m South l o o k e d l i k e t o a N o r t h e r n contemporary.  163 Swiggart, Peter. The A r t of F a u l k n e r ' s N o v e l s . U n i v e r s i t y of Texas P r e s s : A u s t i n , 1962. P a r t i c u l a r l y good f o r e x a m i n a t i o n of G a l v i n i s t i c e l e m e n t s , C h r i s t i a n symbolism and imagery i n L i g h t i n August. Seems t o miss the p o i n t of The R e i v e r s and c r i t i c i z e s F a u l k n e r f o r not b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y humorous i n t h a t book. A l s o f e e l s t h a t the l i m i t s of the boy's p o i n t of view makes the b r o t h e l scenes " c u t i f i e d " . U t l e y , F r a n c i s Lee and A r t h u r F. K i n n e y , eds. Bear, man and God: Seven Approaches to W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r ' s "The B e a r " . New Y o r k : Random House, 1964. Good c o l l e c t i o n of d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s c u l l e d f r o m many sources. V i e k e r y , O l g a . The Novels of W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r . Louisiana S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , c o p y r i g h t 1959, r e v i s e d ed. 1964. Best c r i t i c a l work a v a i l a b l e on F a u l k n e r . Especially good f o r a b s t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n s of works, g e n e r a l thematic examinations. Waggoner, H y a t t H. W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r , From J e f f e r s o n to W o r l d . . U n i v e r s i t y of K e n t u c k y - P r e s s , 1959. Not as comprehensive as V i e k e r y , but j u s t as p e r ceptive.  the  Witham, W. Tasker. The A d o l e s c e n t i n The American N o v e l , 1920-1960. New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k Ungar P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1964.Much too g e n e r a l and c l i n i c a l t o be of much use i n i t s e l f , but i n t r o d u c t i o n i s v a l u a b l e f o r o b t a i n i n g summaries of o t h e r books and a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t i n f i c t i o n . B.  Articles  Baker, C a r l o s . " W i l l i a m F a u l k n e r : The Doomed and The Damned". The Young R e b e l i n American L i t e r a t u r e , C a r l Bode, ed., New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , I 9 6 0 , pp. 145-170.. By d i v i d i n g F a u l k n e r ' s young p r o t a g o n i s t s i n t o the doomed and the damned, he suggest t h a t even those who t r i u m p h do so somewhat f a t a l i s t i c a l l y because they are "doomed to s e r v e t h e i r f e l l o w men". Does n o t d e a l w i t h The Unvanquished, w h i c h would c o n t r a d i c t h i s v i e w .  164 C a r p e n t e r , F r e d e r i c k I . "The A d o l e s c e n t i n American F i c t i o n " . E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , XLVI (Sept. 1957), pp. 313-319. Does n o t d e a l w i t h F a u l k n e r , hut makes some i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s i n g e n e r a l . C a l l s the n o v e l s w i t h a d o l e s c e n t p r o t a g o n i s t s "the most i m p o r t a n t f i c t i o n produced by our s o c i e t y , whose v a l u e s a r e s i m i l a r l y c o n f u s e d " . F i e d l e r , L e s l i e . "Adolescence and M a t u r i t y i n The Modern N o v e l " . An End to Innocence, B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1948. "The I n v e n t i o n o f The C h i l d " . The New L e a d e r , X L I (March 31, 1958), pp. 2 2 - 2 4 . ."Good Good B i r l and Good Bad Boy". NL,, X L I : ( A p r i l 14, 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 24-26. ."Boys W i l l Be Boys'" NL, X L I ( A p r i l 28, 1958)  , pp.  23-25.  ."From Redemption t o I n i t i a t i o n " . NL, (May 26, 1958), pp. 29-22.. ."The P r o f a n a t i o n o f The C h i l d " . NI, X L I (June 23, 1958), pp. 26-29.. Series of a r t i c l e s i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r general survey o f t r e a t m e n t of c h i l d t h r o u g h o u t l i t e r a t u r e , a l t h o u g h F i e d l e r r a t h e r o v e r s t a t e s . h i s arguments. Not p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t t o F a u l k n e r ' s works. XLI  F i s h e r , M a r v i n . "The World o f F a u l k n e r ' s C h i l d r e n " . U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas C i t y Review, Autumn I 9 6 0 , pp. 13-17. D e a l s w i t h "Barn B u r n i n g " and "That E v e n i n g Sun", commenting m a i n l y on the r e s t r i c t e d p o i n t o f v i e w and l e v e l s of consciousness i n short s t o r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h children. Hassan, Ihab H. "The Idea of A d o l e s c e n c e i n American F i c t i o n " . American Q u a r t e r l y , X ( F a l l 1958), pp. 312-324. Good g e n e r a l e s s a y . Sees the " c u l t of a d o l e s c e n c e " as stemming from the American Dream. Johnson,. James ". "The A d o l e s c e n t Hero: A Trend i n Modern Fiction". T w e n t i e t h Century L i t e r a t u r e , V ( A p r i l 1959) 3-11. L i k e C a r p e n t e r , he sees the a d o l e s c e n t as "an a r c h e t y p a l f i g u r e f o r the c o n f u s i o n s of our age".  , PP.  L i n d , U s e D u s o i r . "The C a l v i n i s t i c Burden o f L i g h t i n • August". New England Q u a r t e r l y Review, XXX ( S e p t . 1957),  pp.  307-329.  E x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e comparing the r e l i g i o u s backgrounds of Joe C h r i s t m a s and Joanna Burden, and examining i n f l u e n c e of such backgrounds on each.  165 M e r i w e t h e r , James B. " F a u l k n e r and The South". Southern W r i t e r s , A p p r a i s a l s i n Our Time, B.C. S i m o n i n i , J r . , ' ed., U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f V i r g i n i a , 1964, pp. 142-161. I n d i s c u s s i n g F a u l k n e r ' s d e p i c t i o n o f the South, M e r i w e t h e r p r e s e n t s a good a n a l y s i s o f p a r t s o f The Unvanquished. He a l s o suggest t h a t F a u l k n e r ' s c r i t i c a l r e j e c t i o n i n the 1950's was due t o the f a c t t h a t c r i t i c i s m was then i n the hands o f s o c i a l i s t s who demanded t h a t a n o v e l i s t he a s o c i a l c r i t i c .  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104563/manifest

Comment

Related Items