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Functionally illiterate adult : some elements of an instructional program to meet his needs Berry, Mabel Vivian 1968

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THE FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE ADULT: SOME ELEMENTS OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TO MEET HIS NEEDS by MABEL VIVIAN BERRY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1937 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of Adult Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1968 In presenting this, thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree.at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the .Library shall make it freely available for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h.ils representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.' Department The Uni'vers i t-y- of Br i t i sh Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date J 0 / . + ABSTRACT Automation and machines are replacing unskilled manpower at a rapid rate; these unskilled, untrained people are today's unemployed. They must be given the opportunity to secure the educational tools necessary to take advantage of vocational retraining programs. Both economic and social upgrading are necessary for realization of the potential of these undereducated adults. Provision of Adult Basic Education (A.B.E.) programs is the first step in preparing the functionally i l l i terate to become a participant in today's society and to become strengthened and extended as an individual. This descriptive study has focused on the functionally i l l i terate adult and certain elements of an instructional program designed to meet his needs. The learning abilities of the undereducated adult are influenced by certain social-psychological characteristics which develop out of his restricted environment. These characteristics influence student recruitment and necessitate a flexible, informal learning climate. Careful selection of teachers who understand the students' background and needs is emphasized. The objectives of an A.B.E. program, based upon the communication needs of the functionally i l l i terate , are met through utilization of a variety of teaching techniques. Examples of techniques which may be used with any published reading system, are suggested. i i i This study reviewed eleven s e l e c t e d reading systems, concentrating i n each case on approach, content, format and e v a l u a t i o n and a p p r a i s a l where a v a i l a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g systems were reviewed: 1. Mott B a s i c Language S k i l l s Program 2. American I n c e n t i v e to Read m a t e r i a l s 3. Reading i n High Gear 4. System f o r Success 5, B e h a v i o r a l Research L a b o r a t o r i e s 6. The Streamlined E n g l i s h S e r i e s 7. ABC-EDL B a s i c Adult Education System 8. H o l t Adult B a s i c Education S e r i e s 9. The Steck P u b l i s h i n g Co. 10. Words i n Color 11. Operation Alphabet TV Home Study Book. A s i m i l a r i t y of content appeared to e x i s t i n most reading systems reviewed. A need e x i s t s f o r more content r e l a t e d to the student's environment and h i s s o c i a l and v o c a t i o n a l problems. More s t i m u l a t i n g , e n r i c h i n g and meaningful content would c o n t r i b u t e to student i n t e r e s t and motivation. The elements of drama and humor which are appealing to students are l a c k i n g i n most m a t e r i a l s . Where published m a t e r i a l s are u n a v a i l a b l e or inadequate, the c r e a t i v e , i n n o v a t i v e teacher can produce va l u a b l e m a t e r i a l s based on t o p i c s of l o c a l needs and i n t e r e s t s . An urgent need e x i s t s f o r more e m p i r i c a l research on the e v a l u a t i o n ^ of m a t e r i a l s f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and student r e t e n t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem of I l l i t e r a c y 1 Purposes of the Study 3 D e f i n i t i o n s 4 L i m i t a t i o n s 5 Format 6 I I . POVERTY AND ILLITERACY 7 Background of the F u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e Adult . . 7 S o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Undereducated 13 Summary 20 I I I . STUDENT RECRUITMENT 22 A Recruitment Program 22 Cou n s e l l i n g 27 Testi n g 29 Summary 31 IV. THE LEARNING CLIMATE 33 The P h y s i c a l Environment 33 The Teacher 33 The P a r t i c i p a n t 38 Summary 41 V. INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESSES 43 Communication Needs of the F u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e . 43 Objectives of the Adult B a s i c Education Program ... 44 Techniques 48 Devices 60 Summary 61 V CHAPTER PAGE VI. MATERIALS 63 Selected Published M a t e r i a l s 63 Mott B a s i c Language S k i l l s Program 63 American I n c e n t i v e to Read M a t e r i a l s 65 Reading i n High Gear 66 System f o r Success 67 Be h a v i o r a l Research Lab o r a t o r i e s . 67 The Streamlined E n g l i s h S e r i e s 70 ABC-EDL B a s i c Education S e r i e s 72 Holt Adult B a s i c Education Series 74 The Steck P u b l i s h i n g Company 75 Words i n Color 76 Operation Alphabet TV Home Study Book 77 C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i o n of I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s • 78 Teacher-made M a t e r i a l s 80 Summary 83 VI I . SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ADULT BASIC EDUCATION. . . . 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 APPENDIXES 96 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the generous a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d by Dr. John A. Niemi, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Adult Education, i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION I. The Problem of I l l i t e r a c y The i l l i t e r a t e adult i s one who lacks the basic s k i l l s of communication—reading, w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c — e s s e n t i a l to e f f e c t i v e functioning i n today's increasingly complex society. He must be reached and involved i n programs which w i l l lead to improvement of these basic s k i l l s and on to achievement of h i s personal goals. Adult Basic Education (A.B.E.) encompasses a l l programs directed toward meeting the needs of the f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . I l l i t e r a c y i s a u n i v e r s a l problem, but one which receives l i t t l e a ttention from ei t h e r educators or the general public. The neglected i l l i t e r a t e i n our society must be given the opportunity to reach his p o t e n t i a l , s o c i a l l y and economically. L i t e r a c y has been regarded as a v i t a l element i n the economic, s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l development of any country i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the needs and aspirations of i t s c i t i z e n s , and i n t h e i r personal enrichment. . . . Careful long-range planning i s therefore an e s s e n t i a l requirement of any n a t i o n a l l i t e r a c y program. . . . u n t i l a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g l e v e l of achievement has been reached . . . which permits continued learning through reading (22:6). United Nations Educational, S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Organization (UNESCO) has issued a report that, i n the f a l l of 1965, 700,000,000 persons or nearly 50 per cent of the world's population were i l l i t e r a t e . Over 10,000,000 Americans were i n t h i s group and, according to the 1961 2 Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Census data ( 1 : 1 1 5 ) , there were over 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 Canadians. This Canadian f i g u r e represents n e a r l y s i x per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n who would be considered f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . Out of a t o t a l Canadian population of 1 8 , 2 3 8 , 0 0 0 , 1 8 4 , 8 3 4 had never attended school and 8 5 8 , 9 7 2 had l e f t s c h o o l before reaching Grade 1 0 . Thus, we can assume that compulsory education f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s to the age of 16 does not ensure an elementary l e v e l of education. Verner ( 4 2 : 1 0 9 ) s t a t e s that e d u c a t i o n a l programs s u i t e d to the socio-economic c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the less-educated must be developed i n Canada, and that the concepts and procedures developed f o r a l i t e r a t e group are not appropriate per se f o r i l l i t e r a t e s . Educators must recognize the need f o r a b a s i c education program f o r those adults who, f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons, l a c k the b a s i c s k i l l s of communication. The undereducated a d u l t s i n Canada need a program i n A.B.E. f o r both economic and s o c i a l reasons. Revolutionary t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c advances have transformed the employment requirements of the primary i n d u s t r i e s — l o g g i n g , mining, f i s h i n g and farming. As a r e s u l t , employment i n these areas has been cut almost i n h a l f . As an example, Moon ( 2 7 : 3 0 7 ) s t a t e s , "The a g r i c u l t u r a l work f o r c e has dropped from twenty to twelve out of every hundred people, and the requirements f o r those twelve are correspondingly h i g h e r . " Secondary i n d u s t r i e s are now developing i n Canada and the demand here i s f o r s k i l l e d employees. In 1 9 6 1 , the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e s t a t e d that men w i t h no more than a Grade V I I I education were i n e l i g i b l e f o r seventy per cent of the jobs ( 2 7 : 3 0 2 ) . 3 However, vocational training alone i s not enough; i f the i n d i v i d u a l has merely gained a new s k i l l , he may soon be again unemployed, as automation makes his s k i l l obsolete. The i n d i v i d u a l must become adjusted to the " t o t a l society" i n socio-economic and social-psycho-l o g i c a l characteristics (41:31). The undereducated person must be helped to overcome his c u l t u r a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , i n terms of attitudes and values, while he i s attempting to overcome his reading and writing d i s a b i l i t i e s . A.B.E. i s the foundation upon which a national program to t r a i n and r e t r a i n large groups of unemployed adults must be b u i l t . Both vocational training and s o c i a l development must be considered when preparing adults to function adequately i n society and to make use of i t s opportunities and resources. Adult educators i n establishing A.B.E. programs must recognize that procedures and content of standard training programs are unsuitable for low income and underprivileged groups. These standard programs are based upon "the values and behavior patterns of a different l e v e l of society" (13:2). I I . Purposes of the Study 1. This descriptive study, through a review of recent l i t e r a t u r e i n A.B.E., proposes to present resource material for the use of teachers who are or w i l l be working with the undereducated. I t hopes to assist these teachers i n understanding and appreciating the psychology of the undereducated adult, his learning problems and his non-learning related problems. 4 2. The study wi l l emphasize the problems arising in the instructional setting, where techniques and devices must be flexible to overcome cultural differences. 3. The study wi l l provide concrete suggestions for teachers in the development of reading programs and in the preparation of teacher-made materials. 4. A selected l i s t of eleven recently published reading systems wi l l be reviewed, with evaluation as developed by authoritative sources in the field of A.B.E. 5. The study wi l l provide selected criteria for the appraisal and evaluation of existing reading systems. III. Definitions Certain terms which wi l l be used in the thesis should be defined according to their functions: 1. Adult Basic Education (A.B.E.) is a plan to provide elementary skills in reading, writing and arithmetic to those adults who did not acquire them in their childhood but who have the innate capacity to acquire them (48:18). 2. Functionally i l l iterate adult. An individual who does not possess the knowledge and skills in reading and writing which would enable him to perform at the fifth grade level of competency. The terms disadvantaged, undereducated, and functionally i l l i terate are inter-changeable in this study. 3. Technique. A technique is a means of facilitating learning 5 used by the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent, and the choice of technique i s determined by the s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s of the program (43:238). 4. Device. A device i s an a i d used by the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent to enhance the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a program (43:238), j ^ . j ; . tape recorders, t e l e v i s i o n . IV. L i m i t a t i o n s In a d e s c r i p t i v e study of b a s i c education f o r the f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e , many l i m i t a t i o n s must be imposed. 1. The study i s an overview of recent l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of b a s i c education f o r a d u l t s and not a study i n depth of any s p e c i f i c aspect (e.j*. i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, c o u n s e l l i n g ) . 2. The study does not describe any of the many e x i s t i n g programs i n A.B.E., although much of i t s content i s derived from observation of e x i s t i n g programs. 3. The study does not propose to develop the t e c h n i c a l aspects of reading development or l i n g u i s t i c s . 4. The teaching of b a s i c education to adults w i t h s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , e i t h e r p h y s i c a l or mental, w i l l not be included. 5. The l e v e l of l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g described i n t h i s study w i l l be the equ i v a l e n t of Grades I-IV (elementary l e v e l ) . 6. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures described w i l l be those used i n developing the communication s k i l l s — r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and o r a l language. 6 V. Format Th is d e s c r i p t i v e study w i l l be conta ined i n seven c h a p t e r s . Chapter Two w i l l develop the p s y c h o l o g i c a l background of the f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a t e . Th is s e c t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e : the r e l a t i o n s h i p between poverty and i l l i t e r a c y , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i l l i t e r a t e and of the s u b - c u l t u r e i n which he l i v e s , and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s on the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Chapter Three w i l l focus a t t e n t i o n on the r e c r u i t m e n t of s tudents f o r A . B . E . programs. Methods used to l o c a t e and r e g i s t e r s tudents w i l l be suggested . The importance of good c o u n s e l l i n g and t e s t i n g programs _ i n s tudent r e c r u i t m e n t and r e t e n t i o n w i l l be emphasized. Chapter Four w i l l d e s c r i b e the l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e . The p h y s i c a l environment f o r l e a r n i n g , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behav io r of the A . B . E . teacher and l e a r n i n g problems of the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to a d u l t l e a r n e r s w i l l be developed. Chapter F i v e T i r i . l l rev iew i n s t r u c t i o n a l processes i n v o l v e d i n teach ing b a s i c communication s k i l l s . O b j e c t i v e s of the A . B . E . programs, some g e n e r a l approaches and s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques w i l l be i n c l u d e d . Chapter S i x w i l l be a survey of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s to be, used i n A . B . E . programs. E leven s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g systems w i l l be rev iewed , w i t h emphasis on c o n t e n t , approach and e v a l u a t i o n . The importance of teacher-made m a t e r i a l s w i l l be s t r e s s e d . C r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w i l l be p r o v i d e d . Chapter Seven w i l l be a summary of the study w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e of A . B . E . CHAPTER TWO POVERTY AND ILLITERACY North America has the highest standard of living in the world; however, in the midst of this affluence exists a vast reservoir of poverty, where individuals are inadequately nourished, poorly housed and maimed in body or spirit . They may be found in the overcrowded slums of large cities or in rural areas and they are almost always uneducated and dispirited.. They do not demonstrate in the streets or lobby in the nation's capitals for improved conditions; for the most part, they are passive, resigned and without hope. The two character-istics common to a l l are lack of money and lack of education. I. The Background of the Functionally Illiterate Adult The culture of poverty is self-perpetuating. The children of the poor grow up in conditions of squalor; they lack proper food, clothing and parental direction. After a few years of attendance at an inferior school, they drop out and turn to the unskilled labor market, where un-employment rates are high. They marry early, bring up their children in the same deprived environment and so the cycle continues. The broad outlines of President Johnson's "War on Poverty" were presented to Congress on March 16, 1964. Particular stress was placed on the education and training of unemployed youth, assuming that this was the best way to break the cycle by which ignorance, hopelessness and poverty are trans-8 m i t t e d from one generation to another. Moon, r e f e r r i n g to the undereducated i n Canada, notes, They can s c a r c e l y read w e l l enough to decipher a want ad; they can s c a r c e l y w r i t e w e l l enough to f i l l i n an a p p l i c a t i o n blank; they cannot reckon w e l l enough to f o l l o w a b l u e p r i n t . And there i s l i t e r a l l y , no sch o o l f o r them, anywhere i n the country where they can go to l e a r n (30:302). This undereducated segment of the population has been d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t e c h n i c a l changes i n a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y , through automation and c y b e r n e t i c s . The demand f o r u n s k i l l e d l a b o r has been d r a s t i c a l l y reduced and yet the undereducated are not l i t e r a t e enough to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the upgrading and r e t r a i n i n g programs which would ensure employment. Without the b a s i c s k i l l s of communication, the i l l i t e r a t e has no hope of improved e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s which would enable him to compete i n today's complex s o c i e t y . High school graduation i s becoming the minimum acceptance l e v e l of education f o r employment i n today's l a b o r market. For the undereducated and disadvantaged members of s o c i e t y , unemployment and underemployment are c r i t i c a l problems today and w i l l become more c r i t i c a l i n the f u t u r e . In North America there has been a gradual s h i f t i n g of the i l l i t e r a t e p o pulation from r u r a l to urban communities. Reporting i l l i t e r a c y r ates by residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Appendix A), Verner (46:103) s t a t e s : "From 1951 to 1961 r u r a l i l l i t e r a t e s decreased 18 per cent and urban i l l i t e r a t e s i ncreased 35 per cent." When r u r a l workers are d i s p l a c e d through automation on farms, they f l o c k to the c i t i e s . They are poorly equipped to f u n c t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n the impersonal s e t t i n g of the l a r g e c i t y , and are for c e d , economically, to l i v e i n a low socio-economic 9 poverty area. In t h i s poverty area, i n d i v i d u a l s have created t h e i r own sub-culture which i s s e l f - p r o p a g a t i n g and e v e n t u a l l y becomes permanent. The disadvantaged create t h e i r own value system i n t h i s sub-c u l t u r e , a system which r e j e c t s most of the dominant middle-class value system. Since they cannot achieve power, p r e s t i g e or f i n a n c i a l i ndependence—conditions which are h i g h l y valued by middle-class s o c i e t y , they are t r e a t e d as i n f e r i o r and m o t i v a t i o n f o r self-improvement d i s -appears. The p h y s i c a l environment of the disadvantaged c o n t r i b u t e s to t h i s ' i n f e r i o r ' s t a t u s . M a l n u t r i t i o n , inadequate housing and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , overcrowded l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , l a c k of h e a l t h care, l a c k of m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s — a l l of these conditions are d e s t r u c t i v e to i n i t i a t i v e and m o t i v a t i o n . Since they see t h e i r p o s i t i o n as hopeless, apathy and lethargy develop w i t h t h e i r accompanying i n a c t i v i t y . The o b j e c t i v e s of A.B.E. must i n c l u d e the a c q u i s i t i o n of the b a s i c s k i l l s of communication by the disadvantaged i n d i v i d u a l and the r e l a t e d development of h i s s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l that the undereducated be l e d away from chronic s o c i a l dependency and unemployment to a l e v e l where they can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y and so b u i l d back t h e i r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and self-esteem. This d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r a l change cannot be accomplished by u t i l i z i n g conventional approaches. The Canada Newstart Program, 1967, i n developing an e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g program f o r the disadvantaged i n areas of slow economic growth, recognizes t h i s f a c t : "The content and 10 degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of standard education and t r a i n i n g programs tend to be u n s u i t a b l e f o r low income and u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d groups, because they are based upon the values and b e h a v i o r a l patterns of a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of s o c i e t y " (15:2). The adult educator i n A.B.E. must respect the value system of the disadvantaged and recognize that the sub-culture of the i l l i t e r a t e i s v a l i d i n the environment i n which he f u n c t i o n s . The approach, methods, techniques and content of m a t e r i a l s must not r e f l e c t m i d d l e - c l a s s standards and behavior p a t t e r n s , i f the program i s to be an e f f e c t i v e one. Freeman and Kassebaum (19:139), r e p o r t i n g on the value system of the i l l i t e r a t e s t a t e , "The existence of a d i f f e r e n t value system among these persons i s evinced by the communality of behavior which occurs when i l l i t e r a t e s i n t e r a c t among themselves. Among themselves they have a universe of response . . . and i n t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h one another the mask of accommodative adjustment drops." B l a k e l y (7:324) suggests that we should teach the i l l i t e r a t e a d u l t , not as a c h i l d , but as an adult from a f o r e i g n country, w i t h a c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t to ours and one which we must t r y to understand. According to B l a k e l y , there are three requirements f o r program designers i n attempting to achieve a c c u l t u r i z a t i o n : 1. The students must be respected as adults 2. The respect must be proved by becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h the c u l t u r e these students b r i n g to the class-room 3. The program should be aimed at promoting s o c i a l l i t e r a c y 11 1 hand i n hand w i t h reading, w r i t i n g and a r i t h m e t i c . Haggstrom (22:151) supports the view that conventional a d u l t education and t r a i n i n g programs have l i t t l e value i n developing l i t e r a c y among the lower socio-economic l e v e l s of s o c i e t y . The message recei v e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s could w e l l be: You are ignorant. You are s t u p i d . You are i n f e r i o r . You are worthless. Come to us. We are s u p e r i o r . We are educated. We are v a l u a b l e . We w i l l help you to become important and va l u a b l e and good and educated l i k e us. I m i t a t e us. Do not be l i k e your f r i e n d s . Do not be l i k e your neighbours. They are ignorant and s t u p i d , too. Leave them and q u i t being l i k e them. Come and be l i k e us (22:150). One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the disadvantaged i s that they value c l o s e k i n s h i p t i e s and become dependent upon t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . I f they r e c e i v e the message as i n d i c a t e d by Haggstrom, they w i l l withdraw from the c l a s s , s i n c e t h i s strong attachment to fa m i l y and f r i e n d s i s being threatened. E v a l u a t i o n of A.B.E. programs r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the United States has provided data which i n d i c a t e that the programs have met w i t h only l i m i t e d success. Haggstrom a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to a l a c k of mot i v a t i o n and involvement on the par t of the student, s i n c e he i s unable to see that the program can d i r e c t l y a f f e c t h i s l i f e . When undereducated i n d i v i d u a l s are caught up i n a s o c i a l or r e l i g i o u s movement which can d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r the d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r l i v e s , many of them develop an i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g and the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge. Haggstrom suggests that the disadvantaged are u s u a l l y caught up i n someone e l s e ' s s o c i a l r e a l i t y and c a r r i e d along (22:147). Examples are c i t e d by Haggstrom to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . In 12 Spain, e a r l y i n t h i s century, peasant v i l l a g e s were transformed as the r e s u l t of i n t e r e s t i n the a n a r c h i s t movement. The peasants heard rumors that they were to be the r e c i p i e n t s of a d i v i d e d e s t a t e , and, although they were i l l i t e r a t e , suddenly developed a great i n t e r e s t i n reading a n a r c h i s t l i t e r a t u r e . Evenings were spent i n an attempt to read and d i s c u s s what the words meant. T h e i r . l i v e s were changed, when they were caught up i n a s o c i a l r e a l i t y of t h e i r own, which provided the m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n . A second i l l u s t r a t i o n occurred among poor l y educated mid-west farmers, when a d e s i r e to improve t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l methods sparked an i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g . F i v e m i l l i o n copies of one t e c h n i c a l book were s o l d to these undereducated farmers; the Farmer's A l l i a n c e d i s t r i b u t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , sponsored l e c t u r e s and encouraged education. The farmers met i n groups where a c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n and exchange of opinions took place i n a very r e a l and s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n -in g experience. The h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l a g r i c u l t u r a l extension s e r v i c e developed as a r e s u l t of t h i s hunger f o r knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n on the part of i n d i v i d u a l s who could see t h e i r l i v e s being d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the l e a r n i n g . Adult educators and students i n A.B.E. must e s t a b l i s h r e a l i s t i c goals c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h the needs and personal o b j e c t i v e s of the student c l e a r l y i n s i g h t . Haggstrom (22:152) s t a t e s , " I f one assumes that s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n i s approached through a process of s e l f - r e s p o n s i b l e and s e l f - d i r e c t i n g d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n , then to draw the poor i n t o a c t i o n 13 on t h e i r own behalf i s not merely one form of education, i t becomes a t h e o r e t i c a l l y necessary requirement f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e d u c a t i o n a l or t r a i n i n g programs" (22:152). I I . S o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Adult I l l i t e r a t e s and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Learning The disadvantaged a d u l t s who l i v e i n poverty areas or areas of slow economic growth have a low ed u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and l i t t l e opportunity f o r self-improvement. They are unable to p a r t i c i p a t e f r e e l y i n s o c i e t y ; t h e i r l i v e s are r e s t r i c t e d economically, s o c i o l o g i c a l l y , and education-a l l y . C e r t a i n s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s develop out of t h i s excluded r e s t r i c t e d - e n v i r o n m e n t — c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which appear common to lower socio-economic l e v e l s of s o c i e t y . Verner (45:27) s t a t e s , "In Canada, there are many c u l t u r e s of poverty but i n each case t h i s sub-c u l t u r e provides shared v a l u e s , f e e l i n g s , patterns of t h i n k i n g , and behaviour which can be i d e n t i f i e d as s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the lower socio-economic l e v e l s . " Through a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the disadvantaged a d u l t , the f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been i d e n t i f i e d , which have s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g . 1. H o s t i l i t y and anxiety toward a u t h o r i t y . I n d i v i d u a l s i n the lower socio-economic l e v e l s of s o c i e t y e x h i b i t h o s t i l i t y toward a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s — t h e policeman, the teacher, government o f f i c i a l s . This h o s t i l i t y may stem from unpleasant past a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h these a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s — a n encounter w i t h the p o l i c e , 14 unhappy a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h parents or an unsuccessful school experience. Gradually h o s t i l i t y develops against the a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e and the i n s t i t u t i o n s which he represents. E d u c a t i o n a l l y , t h i s h o s t i l i t y may become a mental block against a l l teachers and a l l schools. Taylor (37:89) f i n d s t h i s h o s t i l i t y t r a i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the low achiever. He s t a t e s , "The degree to which a student i s able to c o n t r o l h i s anxiety i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to h i s l e v e l of achievement, and the student's a b i l i t y to conform to and/or accept a u t h o r i t y demands w i l l determine the amount of academic success." The A.B.E. teacher must p r o j e c t h i m s e l f as a f r i e n d or helper and not as a teacher or a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e . S i t u a t i o n s which threaten or create anxiety f o r the student must be avoided, s i n c e t h i s i s d e s t r u c t i v e to the l e a r n i n g process. 2. A l i e n a t i o n . The disadvantaged have a f e e l i n g of p o w e r l e s s n e s s — t h a t t h e i r own e f f o r t s have l i t t l e to do w i t h what happens to them. Jackson, as c i t e d i n Puder and Hand (37:88) maintains that a l i e n a t i o n a r i s e s i n a personal h i s t o r y of d e p r i v a t i o n , economic and p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a r v a t i o n , l a c k of achievement i n the school s i t u a t i o n and l a c k of emotional support i n the home. These ' a l i e n a t e d ' persons g r a d u a l l y 'close' t h e i r minds against education, the school and against e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l goals. Puder and Hand (37:88) describe a l i e n a t i o n as e x i s t i n g at four l e v e l s : (a) The person f e e l s unable to c o n t r o l f a c i l i t i e s and e n v i r o n -ment. (b) The person no longer f e e l s a need to adhere to s o c i e t y ' s expectations. 15 (c) The person refuses to conform to the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s by which goals are achieved. (d) The person r e j e c t s or f a i l s to develop a commitment to one or more fundamental values of h i s s o c i e t y . The teacher must attempt to gain the t r u s t of the student and to accept him f o r what he i s , a person w i t h p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l s . There must be no c r i t i c i s m of the student, only p r a i s e and encouragement. 3. Present o r i e n t a t i o n . The c u l t u r a l background of the disadvantaged causes them to have a present o r i e n t a t i o n i^.e^. to l i v e f o r today and not f o r tomorrow (30:11-4). These undereducated adults have l i t t l e concept of long-range planning; any e f f o r t expended must have immediate r e s u l t s . Verner (45:27) s t a t e s , "The poor value spontaneous unplanned a c t i v i t y . " To the teacher, t h i s means that m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n should be based on immediate rewards. The student must experience success from the f i r s t c l a s s ; he must l e a r n something which he can apply i n h i s everyday l i f e at each c l a s s s e s s i o n . 4. S e n s i t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y toward the nonverbal forms of communication, i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common to most members of lower s o c i o -economic l e v e l s . Any f a c i a l expressions, gestures or v o i c e tones used by those i n power are communicated more c l e a r l y to the disadvantaged than v e r b a l messages. Much of the communication w i t h i n the f a m i l y i s of the nonverbal v a r i e t y , so t h i s they w e l l understand. Extreme s e n s i t i v i t y toward t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s i s also evident; t h i s i s demonstrated by the devious and ingenious methods used to d i s g u i s e t h e i r i l l i t e r a c y , 16 je.j£. c a r r y i n g a newspaper which he cannot read, " f o r g e t t i n g " h i s glasses i n a s i t u a t i o n where reading i s expected of him. Teachers must avoid saying one t h i n g v e r b a l l y w h i l e conveying a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t message n o n v e r b a l l y , through f a c i a l expressions or gestures. I t w i l l be the nonverbal message which the student w i l l r e c e i v e . 5. Concrete r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g . Derbyshire (15:9) s t a t e s , "The more a b s t r a c t the edu c a t i o n a l process, the f u r t h e r from r e a l i t y and comprehension i t becomes f o r these persons." Verner (45:27), i n speaking of the sub-culture of poverty i n slow growing r e g i o n s , s t a t e s that the sub-culture r e j e c t s the a b s t r a c t and symbolic o r g a n i z a t i o n of the middle c l a s s and " p r e f e r s i n s t e a d i n -form a l , f l u i d , primary r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This produces an almost t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as fo r m a l i z e d a s s o c i a t i o n a l contacts." Freeman and Kassebaum (18:135) note, "The more a b s t r a c t the symbolic o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n , the more probable i t i s that the i l l i t e r a t e w i l l withdraw from the s i t u a t i o n . " The adu l t educator must create an i n f o r m a l f l e x i b l e l e a r n i n g climate where course content i s concrete and d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to the adu l t students' needs. 6. Lack of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . Undereducated a d u l t s have r a r e l y experienced success and f e e l t h e r e f o r e that they are inadequate and unable to l e a r n . They come to the class-room, r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i r l a c k of s t a t u s ; they have l i t t l e 17 education, they are poor, they are engaged in poor occupations and hold inadquate social position (15:7). These conditions do not in s t i l l confidence in people, and i t must be a primary objective of the educator to ensure some l i t t l e success for these students, from the very beginning. They are fearful and they must be made to feel comfortable; they feel inadequate and they must have the satisfaction of some small achievement. 7. Reticence. Students in A.B.E. classes usually have difficulty in speaking out about their own needs, except, according to Derbyshire, in an "explosive, erratic and self-destructive manner" (15:7). They are often 'shy' and unable to express their feelings and their aspirations; they lack the experience of standing up for their rights. The A.B.E. teacher should encourage free expression by dividing the class into small groups for discussion (30:11-12). 8 . Values, attitudes and goals. The values, attitudes and goals of the disadvantaged differ from upper and middle class norms (30:11-4). Middle class society is goal-oriented and motivated toward success (45:27). Some undereducated individuals may have attempted to reach similar goals but have met with only failure and frustration; others may lack a knowledge of or appreciation for values associated with other levels of society (14:1). The instructional agent must go along with and not oppose their values and attitudes. The agent must attempt to place himself in the cultural 18 environment of the student. 9. Fear of school. This f e a r stems from unfortunate past experience i n the school s i t u a t i o n . This f e a r of school i s accompanied by f e a r of exposure, f e a r of f a i l u r e and f e a r of being t e s t e d (30:11-4). The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent must never use r i d i c u l e or sarcasm w i t h under-educated a d u l t s ; there must be warm, u n c r i t i c a l acceptance of t h e i r slow l e a r n i n g , t h e i r c l o t h e s , manners and speech. P r a i s e and encourage-ment are e s s e n t i a l from the f i r s t s e s s i o n , i f students are to overcome t h i s f e a r which represents a stumbling-block to l e a r n i n g . 10. M o t i v a t i o n . The m o t i v a t i o n of A.B.E. students may be weak; they have had a l i f e h i s t o r y of f a i l u r e to achieve the accepted values of success, work, and economic independence. They have found i t impossible to escape from t h e i r environmental c o n d i t i o n s and so develop a r e s i g n a t i o n , lethargy or l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n (15:7). They do not have to be i n school and many do not recognize the value of a c h i e v i n g the b a s i c s k i l l s . The teacher must accept the challenge to i n t e r e s t and motivate h i s students (30:11-4). Some mo t i v a t i o n f a c t o r s are: need f o r s e c u r i t y , need f o r r e c o g n i t i o n , need f o r achievement, need f o r conformity, need to help others. The teacher must di s c o v e r the goals of the student and a l s o h i s sub-goals, e_.^ . the a c q u i s i t i o n of vocabulary to use i n f i l l i n g out j o b -a p p l i c a t i o n forms. 19 11. Unacceptable behavior. C e r t a i n forms of behavior which are acceptable i n the sub-c u l t u r e are not acceptable to middle-class teachers. However, the teacher must not be c r i t i c a l , as t h i s would set up a b a r r i e r and a l i e n a t e the student. The teacher must search f o r the p o s i t i v e and d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l s of the person "who i s h i d i n g behind t h i s un-acceptable behavior" (30:11-4). 12. C u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n . Persons from lower socio-economic l e v e l s are o f t e n unaware of the existence of l i b r a r i e s , museums and other c u l t u r a l c e n t e r s , although they may be l o c a t e d nearby and are f r e e f o r a l l to use. Teachers might organize f i e l d - t r i p s to f a m i l i a r i z e students w i t h a v a i l a b l e c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . 13. Defense mechanisms. The e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e f i c i e n t a d u l t i t f i l l o f t e n go to great lengths to d i s g u i s e or conceal h i s l a c k of education. He may carry a book or newspaper; i f asked to complete a w r i t t e n form, he may have " f o r g o t t e n h i s g l a s s e s " ; he may compensate by well-developed o r a l expression (30:11-4). Freeman and Kassebaum (18:136) suggest three patterns which the i l l i t e r a t e r e s o r t s to when he must p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y : 1. Compliance. He acts as he i s expected to a c t , or assumes the r o l e i n d i c a t e d by the l a r g e r group, i n order to avoid c o n f l i c t . 2. Concealment. He attempts to "pass" as l i t e r a t e . In many 20 cases, h i s r e a l s t a t u s i s discovered. 3. S u b s t i t u t i o n . He o f t e n invents and adopts methods of per-forming o c c u p a t i o n a l tasks to replace methods used by l i t e r a t e s . Moon c i t e s examples of ingenious methods devised by i l l i t e r a t e s to hide t h e i r handicap. I l l i t e r a t e workers on pay-day s i g n f o r t h e i r wages and the signatures prove to be only scrawled l i n e s . An automobile company reports that i l l i t e r a t e workers deface t h e i r time cards i n order to s e l e c t them e a s i l y when they c l o c k i n and out. An i l l i t e r a t e may take forms home and r e t u r n them next day completed by a f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e . These s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged must be recognized and understood by educators who are planning programs i n A.B.E. or t r a i n i n g teachers to teach the undereducated i n A.B.E. c l a s s e s . Teaching methods, techniques and approaches must be f l e x i b l e , so that adjustments can be made f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g by A.B.E. students. I I I . Summary Census f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e - that there i s an i n c r e a s i n g number of human beings i n a l l nations of the world who le a d l i m i t e d l i v e s and who may be c a t e g o r i z e d as f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . They are the undereducated l i v i n g i n r u r a l areas of slow economic growth or i n depressed urban areas. T h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l background i s too d e f i c i e n t to enable them to t r a i n or r e t r a i n f o r improved employment, and the demand f o r the undereducated, untrained worker i s r a p i d l y disappearing. 21 Adult B a s i c Education programs can provide the f i r s t step toward s o c i a l and economic independence. A research of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that conventional approaches to i n s t r u c t i o n are not s u c c e s s f u l i n A.B.E. programs, because the i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent o f t e n f a i l s to recognize and understand the background of the f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e adult and to respect h i s value system. He l i v e s i n an excluded, r e s t r i c t e d environ-ment; as a r e s u l t , c e r t a i n s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear which are common to such i n d i v i d u a l s . Some of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h o s t i l i t y toward a u t h o r i t y , a l i e n a t i o n , s e n s i t i v i t y , r e t i c e n c e , l a c k of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , have great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the recruitment, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n and success of these students i n A.B.E. programs. The d e s i r e d s o c i a l changes can be e f f e c t e d only through a c t u a l involvement and experience on the p a r t of the student. CHAPTER THREE STUDENT RECRUITMENT Since adult i l l i t e r a t e s have developed many ingenious methods of d i s g u i s i n g or concealing t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n reading and w r i t i n g , i t i s most d i f f i c u l t to know who they are and where to f i n d them. Th e i r d e f i c i e n c y i n reading s k i l l s s harply l i m i t s t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n about s e r v i c e s and programs which could a s s i s t them. They do not wish to expose t h e i r i l l i t e r a c y and they f e a r the new and u n f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g . They are excluded from the dominant c u l t u r e and most of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , although they do have some a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h e a l t h and we l f a r e agencies and perhaps with agencies of law enforcement. Disadvantaged adults do not seek out remedial help which would move them out of t h e i r deprived and r e s t r i c t e d environment. The p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e t i c e n c e , h o s t i l i t y and l a c k of confidence a l l c o n t r i b u t e to the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n f i n d i n g the p o t e n t i a l students. For these reasons, i t must be the a d u l t educator's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to devise and disc o v e r new approaches to motivate i n d i v i d u a l s from the lower s o c i o -economic l e v e l s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n A.B.E. a c t i v i t i e s . I . Recruitment Program In the recruitment of the p o t e n t i a l student, the f i r s t personal contact can be c r u c i a l e i t h e r i n mo t i v a t i n g him to attend o r i n d i s -couraging him from attending. C r i l e , as c i t e d i n Brunner (11:146) 23 found that " i n t e r p e r s o n a l contacts were e d u c a t i o n a l l y important on a l l socio-economic and income l e v e l s but that the lower the e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s the more important they became i n the spread of new ideas." Gray s t a t e s that a personal approach to adults i s the foundation of the A.B.E. program and t h i s must be emphasized i n the t r a i n i n g of v o l u n t e e r leaders (20:252). I f the student i s approached w i t h warmth and understanding, he may be able to overcome h i s r e s i s t a n c e to teacher, school and s o c i e t y and, f o r the f i r s t time i n h i s l i f e perhaps, be motivated to l e a r n . Recognizing the need f o r an organized program f o r c o n t a c t i n g p o t e n t i a l students f o r A.B.E., the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P u b l i c School Adult Education (NAPSAE) has made suggestions f o r such a program (31 :VI-15-20). The whole community should be i n v o l v e d i n the recruitment program; the resources of p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s , e d u c a t i o n a l agencies and s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s should a l l be u t i l i z e d . An advisory committee should be e s t a b l i s h e d , which would i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s from p u b l i c agencies, v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , business and i n d u s t r y , l a b o r unions and churches. A l l of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s have contact w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s from lower socio-economic l e v e l s . This committee should devise ways and means 1. to make A.B.E. a community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , 2. to look f o r p o t e n t i a l students, 3. to arrange p u b l i c i t y , 4. to i n i t i a t e community surveys, 5. to act as a l i a i s o n group w i t h any community a c t i o n program. 24 Neighborhood committees should be formed to do the a c t u a l i d e n t i f y i n g and r e c r u i t i n g of adults who are i n need of A.B.E. programs. Henney suggests the use of "indigenous" leaders as an i n v a l u a b l e a i d at t h i s l e v e l of recruitment (12:45). These are the people (the m i n i s t e r , nurse, teacher, business-man) who l i v e and work i n the area and who care f o r the immediate problems of the i l l i t e r a t e i n h i s community. Henney (12:45) s t a t e s that these "indigenous" leaders know the " f r u s t r a t i o n of the community and the pulse of the people . . . They are leaders because of the s e r v i c e s they perform, not because of the i n s t i t u t i o n s they are connected w i t h . " Names of these leaders can be discovered i n i n f o r m a l conversation with members of the community. Through these l e a d e r s , a " g r a s s - r o o t s " survey of the area can be made, on a door-to-door, block-by-block b a s i s , securing as much in f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e on a census card (31 :VI-5) (Appendix B). When t h i s demographic data on p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i s a v a i l a b l e , the a d u l t educator w i l l have v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l enable him to contact those i n t e r e s t e d and to e s t a b l i s h a program based on t h e i r needs and i n t e r e s t s . Adult educators who are engaged i n recruitment of A.B.E. students must undergo a comprehensive and i n t e n s i v e p eriod of t r a i n -i n g . They must recognize the forces which motivate the f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a t e to attend l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s . Barnes and Hendrickson suggest that these m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s may be e i t h e r v o c a t i o n a l , or the d e s i r e f o r self-improvement. Job-seeking or job-25 improvement are the p r i n c i p a l v o c a t i o n a l motives. Self-improvement motives may i n c l u d e : improvement of themselves as parents i n the eyes of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , improvement of t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s , the d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l contacts outside the home (5:25). The r e c r u i t e r should attempt to i d e n t i f y the student's motives and i f they are weak or non-ex i s t e n t , an attempt should be made to motivate through the student's s t a t e d needs and i n t e r e s t s . The approach, the s e n s i t i v i t y of the r e c r u i t e r to the a d u l t s ' problems and background can be determining f a c t o r s i n e f f e c t i v e recruitment. In the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a recruitment program, the f o l l o w i n g community groups would be of a s s i s t a n c e : 1. Organizations which have d i r e c t contact w i t h the undereducated. S o c i a l s e r v i c e groups, neighborhood houses, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., and community s e r v i c e agencies would have in f o r m a t i o n on the disadvantaged f a m i l i e s i n the community. Church-related groups or e t h n i c groups could provide names of p o t e n t i a l students. P u b l i c agencies such as the Department of Health and Welfare and the Department of Manpower and Immigration could a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of students. The Motor V e h i c l e License Bureau could provide i n f o r m a t i o n on persons who have f a i l e d the d r i v i n g t e s t , due to an i n a b i l i t y to read (13:73). 2. Organizations which provide t e c h n i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , informa-t i o n a l and advisory s e r v i c e s . Government agencies such as the Depart-ment of Health and Welfare, Department of Education, Department of Labor, Department of Manpower and Immigration, could provide v a l u a b l e 26 advice and in f o r m a t i o n (31:VI-19,20). 3. Organizations which c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l support, m a t e r i a l s and equipment. Service clubs such as Kiwanis, Rotary, Soroptomist; p r o f e s s i o n a l clubs such as medical or e d u c a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s ; o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n business and i n d u s t r y , and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s might a l l be contacted f o r a s s i s t a n c e . R e c r u i t e r s must i n i t i a t e and innovate methods of recruitment. The folloxtfing methods are suggested as p o s s i b l e ways of f i n d i n g p o t e n t i a l students: 1. I n a p u b l i c school survey, add a question on the ed u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s of parents, to the ques t i o n n a i r e taken home by school c h i l d r e n . 2. P u b l i c i z e the a c t i v i t y by "word of mouth". This s t r a t e g y i s ofte n productive s i n c e the p o t e n t i a l student can t a l k f r e e l y and there i s no stigma attached. 3. U t i l i z e the census data s u p p l i e d by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . 4. Contact the post-master, the mailman, the milkman, the l i b r a r i a n . A l l of these persons f u n c t i o n i n the i l l i t e r a t e ' s community. 5. Newspapers can be h e l p f u l . Although the p o t e n t i a l students are unable to read, p e r t i n e n t a r t i c l e s and feat u r e s t o r i e s somehow f i n d t h e i r way to the ta r g e t . j_.jg/ , "The P h i l a d e l p h i a newspapers r e c e n t l y c a r r i e d a s t o r y about a woman, 75 years o l d , e n r o l l i n g i n a reading c l a s s ; the next evening 325 -new a p p l i c a n t s were e n r o l l e d " (31:VT-11). 6. Spot announcements on r a d i o and T.V. are u s e f u l . The term 27 i l l i t e r a c y " must not be used to describe the program; i n s t e a d i t could be termed "reading improvement". 7. An 'open house' could be organized, w i t h announcements of place and date appearing on r a d i o and T.V. and i n newspapers. A f t e r t h i s d i r e c t personal contact and a pe r i o d of c o f f e e ' and conversation, an i n f o r m a l r e g i s t r a t i o n could take place. Names and addresses of p o t e n t i a l students could be l i s t e d f o r f u r t h e r contact. This would c o n s t i t u t e a simple and non-threatening r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure. 8. Adults who succeed are quick to t e l l others of t h e i r progress. E n l i s t the support of current students to n o t i f y others of the program. Innovations i n the media of communication are i n d i c a t e d i n the c r i t i c a l need f o r improved recruitment techniques i n A.B.E. I n some way, the r e c r u i t e r must be able to reach the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y deprived so that he i s moved to change himself and h i s con d i t i o n s and to b e l i e v e that t h i s i s p o s s i b l e f o r him. I I . C o u n s e l l i n g i n A.B.E. Once students have been r e c r u i t e d , they req u i r e c a r e f u l c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance. NAPSAE suggests that one of the f i r s t steps i n a good c o u n s e l l i n g program i s to a s s i s t the adult to e s t a b l i s h s o l i d " p e r s o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l goals" (31:V-5). Disadvantaged adults have many needs and problems which can be discussed i n a f r i e n d l y atmosphere; the personal problems of these adults i n v o l v i n g f a m i l y , f i n a n c e , housing and h e a l t h , can o f t e n be 28 d e t e r r e n t s to l e a r n i n g (5:37). T h e i r v o c a t i o n a l and ed u c a t i o n a l problems can be discussed w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r ; they may r e q u i r e informa-t i o n on kinds of j o b s , the t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e and the p e r s o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l requirements f o r jobs. Disadvantaged a d u l t s are o f t e n unaware of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g which l i e ahead f o r them, when t h e i r b a s i c communication s k i l l s are developed. In most cases, t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y has been unpleasant and they are o f t e n s u s p i c i o u s of a person who shows i n t e r e s t i n them. Over-coming t h i s f e a r and d i s t r u s t may be a lengthy process, but the cou n s e l l o r ' s s i n c e r i t y , i n t e r e s t and respect are keynotes i n the s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v i e w . The c o u n s e l l o r ' s f u n c t i o n s are f i r s t , to set the pace of the program and put the p a r t i c i p a n t at ease and, second, to evaluate the student i n some way, so th a t he i s placed i n the r i g h t s e t t i n g f o r optimum growth. This e v a l u a t i o n may be accomplished through observation, l i s t e n i n g , i n t e r v i e w s , use of standardized t e s t s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s and teacher-made t e s t s i n the content areas. I f a q u a l i f i e d c o u n s e l l o r i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r student i n t e r v i e w s , t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must be assumed by the teacher. NAPSAE suggests c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and approaches which have been used s u c c e s s f u l l y by teachers i n i n f o r m a l conferences w i t h t h e i r students: 1. The teacher l i s t e n s . 2. The teacher c l a r i f i e s , perhaps by repeating what the student has j u s t s a i d . 29 3. The teacher i s aware of non-verbal cues. R e j e c t i o n can be communicated by the teacher's behavior as w e l l as by h i s words. 4. The teacher uses simple language. 5. The teacher asks questions s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y and only one question at a time. 6. The teacher t r e a t s w i t h confidence a l l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h h i s students (31:V-10). I I I . T e s t i n g i n A.B.E. Testing i s an e s s e n t i a l element of any c o u n s e l l i n g program. How-ever, i n the beginning l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g , t e s t s may create a thre a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r the adult student who i s already f i l l e d w i t h doubts and apprehension. Barnes and Hendrickson report that f i f t y per cent of the p o t e n t i a l enrolment i n one school dropped out when sub-j e c t e d to a t e s t s i t u a t i o n before admission (5:45). I t i s e s s e n t i a l , however, to determine the i n i t i a l s k i l l - l e v e l placement of students; the i n i t i a l placement t e s t should be given p r i v a t e l y i n a f r i e n d l y , i n f o r m a l , r e l a x e d atmosphere. The word " t e s t " should be avoided i f p o s s i b l e . The placement t e s t may be a reading t e s t such as the Gilmore O r a l Reading Test or i t may be simply short paragraphs from graded m a t e r i a l s or graded word l i s t s . As the program progresses and there i s need f o r diagnosis of i n d i v i d u a l and group needs and measurement of achievement, teacher-made t e s t s are f r e q u e n t l y used. Teachers i n A.B.E. c l a s s e s soon know t h e i r students' a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s ; both the teacher and the student are 30 aware of the achievement that i s being accomplished. Standardized d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s are not e s s e n t i a l at t h i s beginning l e v e l s i n c e most teachers can i d e n t i f y t h e i r students' reading problems; they assess and evaluate at every s e s s i o n . T e s t i n g , whether formal or i n f o r m a l , i s necessary f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the student and the program r e q u i r e d by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r , the teacher and the student (Appendix C). Standardized t e s t s , w i t h norms e s t a b l i s h e d f o r c h i l d r e n are e a s i l y obtained; however, few t e s t s w i t h norms e s t a b l i s h e d f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n A.B.E. are a v a i l a b l e . Barnes and Hendrickson r e p o r t that the Gilmore O r a l Reading Test and Gray's O r a l Reading Test are two standardized i n f o r m a l reading i n v e n t o r i e s , designed f o r c h i l d r e n , which are being used i n A.B.E. programs (5:73). One example of an i n f o r m a l reading inventory i s provided by Smith (40:5) (Appendix D). Henney reports u s i n g Gray's O r a l Reading Test s i n c e i t i s the l e a s t threatening (12:58). Adult educators support the v a l i d i t y of these t e s t s i n A.B.E. placement. Other t e s t s which are s i m i l a r l y designed f o r c h i l d r e n but u s e f u l i n A.B.E. are: 1. General Aptitude Test B a t t e r y 2. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test 3. Wide Range Achievement Test (32:23). As a r e s u l t of increased i n t e r e s t i n A.B.E. by the American and Canadian governments, p u b l i s h e r s have produced t e s t i n g systems e s p e c i a l l y designed to measure adu l t achievement i n the b a s i c s k i l l s of reading, a r i t h m e t i c and language. One such system i s Tests of Adult Basic 31 Education (TABE) based on three levels of the California Achievement Tests. Some attempt has been made to use adult content; however a high degree of sophistication is necessary for the test i t s e l f , marking and administration. Another recently published testing system is Adult  Basic Learning Examination (ABLE). Two editions of ABLE are available, one hand-scorable and one machine-scorable. The content is adult-oriented, and easy to follow. There are two batteries of tests: Level 1 for Grades 1-4 and Level 2 for Grades 5-8. At each level, vocabulary, reading, spelling.and arithmetic are tested. The tests are essentially without time limits and are therefore power tests; they are not diagnostic. The reading test may be used as a placement device. The publication of testing systems such as ABLE is an indication that more tests devised for disadvantaged students w i l l appear with norms based on this segment of the population. Testing i s needed but i t must be recognized as a tool and must not assume too much importance in the whole learning process. IV. Summary Since motivation to participate in A.B.E. programs on the part of undereducated adults i s limited, a carefully designed recruitment program is essential. These potential students do not wish to expose their deficiencies in the s k i l l s of communication and they fear the new and unfamiliar class-room situation. The f i r s t step in a program for student recruitment is to 32 a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e the e n t i r e community. The support of community groups, s e r v i c e clubs and government agencies should be e n l i s t e d f o r program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A committee composed of key members of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s l o c a t e s l e a d e r s , p r e f e r a b l y indigenous leaders who know the needs and problems of the people. These leaders conduct surveys of areas to determine needs and i n t e r e s t s . Since t h i s contact w i t h the p o t e n t i a l student i s the i n i t i a l one, the r e c r u i t e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y and understanding are c r u c i a l i n the success or f a i l u r e of the program. The next step i n an e f f e c t i v e program i s the establishment of good c o u n s e l l i n g procedures. The A.B.E. student i s surrounded xriLth a complex of problems ( p e r s o n a l , f i n a n c i a l , h e a l t h , housing) which can i n f l u e n c e h i s d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e . F r i e n d l y , i n f o r m a l conferences w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r can provide e f f e c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e f o r the student i n coping w i t h h i s problems and overcoming h i s f e a r s . The t h i r d and f i n a l step i s the development of a t e s t i n g program, i n c onjunction w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g . T e s t i n g devices are t o o l s only and must never create a t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r the adult student. L i m i t e d , i n f o r m a l t e s t i n g i s necessary f o r placement l e v e l as the A.B.E. program begins. Tests f o r achievement and d i a g n o s t i c purposes are considered l a t e r , as the program develops. Tests w i t h norms e s t a b l i s h e d f o r c h i l d r e n are being used but new t e s t i n g systems are appearing, designed f o r A.B.E. students. CHAPTER FOUR THE LEARNING CLIMATE I . The P h y s i c a l Environment The t y p i c a l p u b l i c s c h o o l c l a s s room may h o l d unpleasant a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the i l l i t e r a t e a d u l t , s i n c e most of them have a h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n a l f a i l u r e . Other f a c i l i t i e s i n homes, churches or neighbor-hood houses may provide a more comfortable l e a r n i n g environment. When c h a i r s or desks are arranged i n rows, the students f e e l they are back i n elementary school. Barnes and Hendrickson found t h a t i n s i t u a t i o n s where c h a i r s were movable and students could work s i n g l y or i n groups, a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t type of i n s t r u c t i o n seemed to occur. The teacher was able to provide f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s more e a s i l y , grouping f o r i n t e r e s t s or developmental l e v e l (5:12). On o c c a s i o n , a c i r c u l a r arrangement of seats could be made, w i t h the teacher seated w i t h the students. This arrangement would create a f r i e n d l y , c h e e r f u l atmosphere and would promote group i n t e r a c t i o n (52:19). I I . The Teacher The s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g of teachers f o r A.B.E. programs must be emphasized, s i n c e the a t t i t u d e and p e r s o n a l i t y of the teacher can be determining f a c t o r s i n student m o t i v a t i o n and r e t e n t i o n . The undereducated a d u l t comes to c l a s s w i t h many doubts as to h i s a b i l i t y 34 to l e a r n ; the teacher can i n s p i r e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and growth or engender increased h o s t i l i t y toward the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . He must be able to understand the doubts and f e a r s , problems and a t t i t u d e s of the adult i l l i t e r a t e . He must be able to p r a c t i c e and apply a l l of h i s knowledge of a d u l t l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n ; he must be aware of research i n the development of the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s , m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and new program development (9:5-6). In order to o b t a i n some data on teachers i n A.B.E. programs, a d e s c r i p t i v e study was set up at Modesto J u n i o r College at the New Hope Adult R e t r a i n i n g Center. The purpose of the study was to "provide an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s of the A.B.E. teacher" (32:256). The o b j e c t i v e s of the study were: 1. To i d e n t i f y those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which students, teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s considered e s s e n t i a l f o r an e f f e c t i v e A.B.E. i n -s t r u c t o r . 2. To define through a p r a c t i c a l context each of the character-i s t i c s . 3. To develop instruments that would a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g a p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e teacher. Data was secured through group meetings and recorded depth i n t e r -views w i t h students, teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Each person provided w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to teacher q u a l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s were found to be e s s e n t i a l i n the A.B.E. teacher. In each case, a u t h o r i t i e s supporting the f i n d i n g s 35 of t h i s study are c i t e d . 1. Understanding (a) Mutual respect (9:5-6). (b) Preconceived ideas set a s i d e . (c) Sincere and honest attempt to help. (d) Genuine l i k i n g f o r people and a d e s i r e to see them grow (9:5-6). (e) A p p r e c i a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . ( f ) Must not operate on emotional l e v e l (9:5-6). (g) Must have f a i t h and confidence i n each student (5:95). (h) Must be o p t i m i s t i c and e n t h u s i a s t i c . ( i ) Must be able to admit mistakes. ( j ) Must recognize t h e i r value system and the merits of t h e i r way of l i f e (5:95). 2. F l e x i b i l i t y The teacher must be prepared to make momentary changes when the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n demands them. Recognition of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e q u i r e s t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y of approach toward teaching techniques and m a t e r i a l s . Barnes and Hendrickson suggest f l e x i b i l i t y of body as w e l l as of mind; the i n s t r u c t o r must move about the class-room c o n s t a n t l y and not maintain a f i x e d p o s i t i o n at the f r o n t of the c l a s s -room (5:95) (9:5-6). Barnes and Hendrickson note that i n s u c c e s s f u l A.B.E. programs, f l e x i b i l i t y on the p a r t of the teacher and m o t i v a t i o n of the students were very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d (5:10). 36 3. Patience These undereducated students move ahead s l o w l y , i n small s t e p s , and the teacher must be supportive of the sm a l l e s t g a i n , r e c o g n i z i n g that change i s a constant and gradual process. An even temperament, c o n s i s t e n t behavior and a high l e v e l of patience are e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the teacher of slow l e a r n e r s (9:5-6). 4. P r a c t i c a l i t y The student must be able to see that what he i s l e a r n i n g i s immediately p r a c t i c a b l e . The teacher who has a broad frame of reference and a wide range of contacts can meet t h i s need. The student's growth i s more important than the subject matter. 5. Humor A sense of humor helps to e s t a b l i s h a bond of f r i e n d s h i p and rapport w i t h the student. Pearce s t a t e s (35:258), "The use of humor re q u i r e s a f i n e balance s i n c e the teacher may be able to handle some issues w i t h g r a v i t y and some w i t h l e v i t y . He must be able to see the l u d i c r o u s even under the most t r y i n g circumstance, f o r i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t i s humor that can provide a refuge f o r s a n i t y . " 6. C r e a t i v i t y The teacher should be imaginative and i n n o v a t i v e , i n order to develop novel s o l u t i o n s to students' l e a r n i n g problems. The teacher should have a wide range of i n t e r e s t s and ideas which can c o n t r i b u t e to new approaches i n teaching techniques. I n many instances s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s are not a v a i l a b l e and he must r e l y on h i s own resources. I t 37 was found that the non-conformist teacher was o f t e n the more productive teacher (9:5-6). Barnes and Hendrickson report that "teachers who dared depart from the schedules and the l i s t s and determined t h e i r own teaching schedules and o b j e c t i v e s w i t h t h e i r own students more i n mind appeared to be meeting w i t h more success than were those who stuck r i g i d l y to the r u l e s " (5:10). 7. P r e p a r a t i o n A l l sources s t r e s s e d the importance of knowledge of subject matter and techniques of teaching. Every teaching assignment should be c a r e f u l l y planned, i n d i r e c t response to the students' needs. " I t was found that the prepared teacher could be described as a p e r s i s t e n t a c hiever, a person who c o n t i n u a l l y sought self-improvement as w e l l as student improvement" (35:278). Each lesson must be prepared w i t h success f a c t o r s b u i l t i n f o r every student f o r , according to Wallace, "Adult students cannot f a i l today and succeed tomorrow; f o r i f they f a i l today, they w i l l not be back tomorrow" (51:43). Many opinions e x i s t as to the l e v e l of teaching q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience r e q u i r e d by A.B.E. teachers. Some a u t h o r i t i e s suggest t h a t no p u b l i c school teaching experience i s necessary; that p u b l i c school teachers are more r i g i d i n d e a l i n g w i t h i l l i t e r a t e s and have l e s s f l e x i b l e approaches. Elementary teachers are perhaps b e t t e r s u i t e d to the teaching of i l l i t e r a t e s , s i n c e they have learned to teach i n s m a l l steps; secondary teachers are more l i k e l y to l e c t u r e and to focus on l a r g e r concepts. T r a i n i n g programs f o r indigenous teachers, those 38 who have l i v e d i n the students' environment and understand t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l background, t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s f o r them-selves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , should be i n i t i a t e d . "Understanding that r e f l e c t s the inherent worth of every i n d i v i d u a l , emphasizing a c t i v e involvement i n student problems rather than sympathy, leads to a l e a r n i n g climate where the student f e e l s he i s an i n t e g r a l and needed p a r t . This i s the foremost requirement f o r the e f f e c t i v e adult b a s i c education teacher" (35:278). III. The P a r t i c i p a n t 1. M o t i v a t i o n M o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n i s the "one most important i n g r e d i e n t i n the ed u c a t i o n a l processes, i n v o l v i n g adult l e a r n e r s " (5:49). U t i l i z i n g the p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d expressed needs of the disadvantaged, the A.B.E. i n s t r u c t o r can a s s i s t i n continued m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n by: (a) Tying the c l a s s work and content to the goals of the students. (b) A l l o w i n g i n t e r a c t i o n among students i n order to f o s t e r f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s which could a s s i s t i n work achievement. (c) Using content and m a t e r i a l s provided by the students. (d) Helping students to i d e n t i f y , enlarge and set goals. (e) P r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the students to t a l k w i t h the teacher. The student may i d e n t i f y w i t h the teacher, 39 or he may i d e n t i f y with other students. (f) Making use of feed-back procedures. (g) Keeping work within the achievement l e v e l s of the student (5:54). 2. Differences between teaching adults and ch i l d r e n In order to achieve goals established cooperatively by students and i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent, i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques must be adapted to the p h y s i o l o g i c a l , psychological and s o c i o l o g i c a l character-i s t i c s of adult learners. The student i s not a c h i l d but a mature adult and cannot be approached or taught as a c h i l d . In a review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the differences between teaching adults and teaching c h i l d r e n , the follox^ing factors have been selected as those having the greatest implications f o r learning: (a) Adults have maturity i n l i f e experience, w i l l power, perseverance, reasoning and p r a c t i c a l judgment. They are more r e a l i s t i c ; they have l i v e d longer and have a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e — t h e y see l i f e as a set of r e a l i t i e s . They have had more experience and so have i n -sights and see r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a c h i l d does not see (31:11-19)(44:16) . (b) Among adults there i s a c e r t a i n r i g i d i t y of thoughts and habits; they know or think they know t h e i r own l i t t l e world. They know what they want and are c r i t i c a l of i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials which chi l d r e n would accept (31:11-19)(44:16). They may f a i l to assess th e i r learning power c o r r e c t l y , often overestimating or underestimating i t . (c) The needs of the adult student are more concrete and 40 more immediate than those of children. They r e s i s t knowledge which follows the pattern and techniques used i n teaching children. They are impatient with theory and want to see i t applied to p r a c t i c a l problems; they need to see tangible immediate results for their time investment. < . (d) Adults can learn as well as youth, although a slowing up of physical energies slows down their productivity. Some physio-l o g i c a l changes which affect adult learning are: decline of v i s u a l acuity, decline of auditory acuity, reduction i n speed of learning, decline of memory. In addition to the physiological changes, there are other handicaps which the adult must overcome—psychological handicaps of prejudice, h o s t i l i t y , etc., fixed patterns and habits and fatigue after a f u l l day's work. (e) The attendance of adults i n l i t e r a c y classes i s voluntary. I f they do not get what they want or have no interest i n the program, they w i l l drop out. I f the approach i s both interesting and educationally sound, results could be attained much more quickly with adults than with children (46:16). Their reasoning demands quick progress, since they f e e l a sense of urgency and shortness of time. (f) Adults must acquire and retain a high degree of s e l f -confidence and their need to experience success i s much greater than that of children. Failure has usually more immediate consequences with adults than with children and many psychological factors exist i n their l i v e s which could promote f a i l u r e . 41 (g) Adults come to class with a p r a c t i c a l command of language and much o r a l language experience. At some e a r l i e r time, most i l l i t e r a t e adults have been exposed to reading i n s t r u c t i o n and sometimes these once-learned s k i l l s w i l l come into use. They have speaking and l i s t e n i n g vocabularies d i f f e r e n t to those of children. L i t e r a c y teaching f o r them, therefore, i s pri m a r i l y symbol recognition and subsequent growth i n language habits. (h) A l l of the problems of adult l i f e are being experienced by these adult s t u d e n t s — f a m i l y pressures, f i n a n c i a l problems, housing problems, adult ph y s i c a l ailments, a l l of which may have s i g n i f i c a n t implications f o r the learning s i t u a t i o n . ( i ) The adult group i s heterogeneous, with a wide range i n experience, age and educational background. A class of children tends to be a homogeneous group, with s i m i l a r experience, age and education. IV. Summary A favorable learning climate would include provision f or an informal, f l e x i b l e p h y s i c a l environment. Since undereducated adults may associate the t y p i c a l school class-room with f a i l u r e and embarrass-ment, the l o c a t i o n of the program i n another s e t t i n g (home, church) i s suggested. Equally important i s pro v i s i o n f o r the pre-service t r a i n i n g of teachers. Here the teacher must be made aware of the differences i n teaching middle-class students and those who are s o c i a l l y and economically 42 d isadvantaged . C e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e f f e c t i v e A . B . E . teacher have been i d e n t i f i e d , e-.ja;. f l e x i b i l i t y , unders tand ing , p a t i e n c e , p r a c t i c a l i t y , c r e a t i v i t y . A . B . E . teachers must a l s o be aware of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g a d u l t s and teach ing c h i l d r e n . Adu l t s have a broad l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , perseverance and p r a c t i c a l judgment. T h e i r needs are concre te and they are i m p a t i e n t w i t h t h e o r y ; they must exper ience immediate s u c c e s s . The teacher must r e c o g n i z e the p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes which occur i n adul thood and a l s o the many problems of a d u l t l i f e which beset these a d u l t s t u d e n t s . CHAPTER FIVE INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESSES I . Communication Needs of the F u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e A.B.E. has as i t s purpose the development of a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s i n the area of communication, to enable the undereducated adult to l i v e and f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y i n today's s o c i e t y . The communication needs of the undereducated adult are complex, reading newspapers and unknown words i n e d i t o r i a l s , p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to h i s employment (completing l e t t e r s of a p p l i c a t i o n , income ta x , w r i t i n g l e t t e r s ) . The scope of h i s needs f a r exceeds h i s v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . "The new l i t e r a t e has a c q u i r e d — o f t e n i n a p a i n f u l f a s h i o n — 3 0 0 or more b a s i c s i g h t xrords. He has only a rudimentary knowledge of word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s , l i t t l e or no a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e reference m a t e r i a l s , and, sometimes, l a c k s the background or experience necessary to understand even the si m p l e s t m a t e r i a l " (52:12). Therefore, he must have a gradual i n t r o d u c t i o n to new words, guidance i n reading, someone to r e f e r to f o r h e l p , encouragement i n reading f o r pleasure, an explanation of is s u e s too complex f o r him to read about and a systematic opportunity to improve i n a l l aspects of h i s newly acquired l i t e r a c y (52:12). The vocabulary of the beginning reader i s mainly o r a l ; h i s o r a l language s k i l l s have been well-used and developed. The b a s i c task of the teacher i s to enable 44 the student to r e l a t e the spoken word which he knows w i t h i t s p r i n t e d symbol which he does not know; i n other words, he must be able to as s o c i a t e the v i s u a l symbols of the alphabet w i t h the sound symbols of speech. I I . Objectives The ed u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s of the A.B.E. program are based on the o b j e c t i v e s , goals and needs of the i n d i v i d u a l students. The a d u l t educator aims at b r i n g i n g about d e s i r e d changes i n adu l t behavior patterns i n the areas of s k i l l s , knowledge and a t t i t u d e s . The p r a c t i c a l needs of the student x v i l l be met through s k i l l s and knowledge develop-ment; the self-improvement, self-image needs w i l l be met through a t t i t u d e change. A l l aspects of the student's s o c i a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l and psycho-l o g i c a l needs should be met as w e l l as h i s immediate needs of improved communication s k i l l s . The A.B.E. program o b j e c t i v e s discussed here are. b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l ( s k i l l s and knowledge) o b j e c t i v e s f o r the elementary l e v e l : 1. S t i m u l a t i o n of compelling motives f o r l e a r n i n g to read. 2. Word r e c o g n i t i o n s k i l l s . To develop accuracy and independence i n word r e c o g n i t i o n by: (a) Using a p i c t u r e to i d e n t i f y the speaker, the theme of a s t o r y or the a c t i o n of a s t o r y . (b) Using the context of a sentence to help to i d e n t i f y words. (c) Using c o n f i g u r a t i o n clues as an a i d to i d e n t i f y i n g words: 45 length of word, letters that are t a l l , short or extend downward, capitals and small letters. (d) Phonetic analysis—listening for words that rhyme, listening for in i t ia l and final sounds, recognizing words that sound alike, recognizing that two-letter consonant digraphs, e.g. ch, th, sh represent one sound, long and short vowels, silent letters. (e) Structural analysis—recognizing root words and inflected forms, e_.j*. s, ed, ing added to the root words, simple suffixes (soundless), common prefixes (unkind), compound words (raincoat) (5:104)(31-III-6). 3. Comprehension ski l ls . A.B.E. students learn to associate sound and meaning with the printed symbol, to extract the main idea from a paragraph and to draw conclusions, to read for information and to follow directions. Students should be able to recall what has been read (5:104)(28:111-4-6). 4. Vocabulary building ski l ls . (a) Building a sight vocabulary. (b) Recognizing and using words that rhyme and words that are opposites. (c) Associating spoken words with pictures. 5. Location ski l l s . (a) Locating a story by page number and by using the table of contents. 46 (b) Knowing the alphabet and beginning to apply t h i s knowledge i n d i c t i o n a r y use. (c) Using simple maps or globes and supplementary m a t e r i a l s to l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . 6. Organization. Learning to f o l l o w a sequence of d i r e c t i o n s . The students may c l a s s i f y words i n t o c a t e g o r i e s : they may arrange words i n t o sentences and sentences i n t o sequences. In summarizing, they develop the b a s i c study s k i l l s . 7. F u n c t i o n a l reading s k i l l s . (a) D r i v i n g l a n g u a g e - - s u f f i c i e n t to o b t a i n d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e . (b) Road and s t r e e t s i g n s . (c) Reading want ads and a p p l i c a t i o n forms. (d) Food and c l o t h i n g p r i c e s and l a b e l s . As many o p p o r t u n i t i e s as p o s s i b l e f o r the student to use h i s "new" vocabulary should be provided. In order to accomplish t h i s purpose, good teaching techniques are e s s e n t i a l . McCullough (28:111-4) makes a s u c c i n c t statement on the v a r y i n g emphases which have been placed on reading techniques, Much of the knowledge we now have about the teaching of reading has been developed by a curious and . . . i n terms of the l i v e s of students . . . w a s t e f u l p a t t e r n of extremes. We learned a great deal about o r a l reading by having too much of i t , about s i l e n t reading by n e g l e c t i n g o r a l r eading, about extensive reading by n e g l e c t i n g i n t e n s i v e reading, about sight-vocabulary by n e g l e c t i n g phonics, about phonics and speed by n e g l e c t i n g comprehension. We are now i n v o l v e d i n a great controversy over the r e l a t i v e v i r t u e s of a developmental program.with systematic i n s t r u c t i o n and an 47 i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program w i t h i n c i d e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n . One would t h i n k that i t should f i n a l l y have dawned on us that a l l of these p r a c t i c e s have value and that the s e n s i b l e , most e f f i c i e n t program encompasses them a l l (28:111-4). A l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques used i n teaching the communication s k i l l s i n A.B.E. may be c l a s s i f i e d according to the f o l l o w i n g three approaches (44:19-23). 1. S y n t h e t i c approach This approach begins w i t h l e t t e r s or s y l l a b l e s . L e t t e r s may be taught by name (alphabet technique) or by sound (phonic technique) and then combined w i t h other l e t t e r s i n t o s y l l a b l e s and words, _i._e. s y n t h e s i s takes place. Often too much a t t e n t i o n i s given to the mechanical aspects and too l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s attached to the meaning of what i s r e a d — f o r m a l d r i l l of meaningless elements does not s t i m u l a t e the i n t e r e s t of adult students and taxes t h e i r memories. This approach may i n s t i l l h a b i t s which r e t a r d f l u e n t reading f o r meaning. 2. A n a l y t i c or g l o b a l approach This approach begins w i t h meaningful "wholes", i . e . words, sentences or s t o r i e s . When the l a r g e r u n i t can be recognized, i t i s then broken down i n t o i t s p a r t s — s e n t e n c e s , words, s y l l a b l e s , l e t t e r s . "Meaningful u n i t s of l a r g e r s i z e are good p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a r t i n g p o ints f o r l e a r n i n g and provide easy frames f o r memory work; the rhythm and pa t t e r n of speech are caught from the start!'(44:23). However, the mechanical s k i l l s of symbol recognition" may be underemphasized, r e s u l t i n g 48 in poor word recognition ability. 3. Eclectic approach In this approach, both analysis and synthesis are used in every lesson, £.g_. in one lesson, key words may be introduced and analyzed into syllables; these syllables may then be used to form new and different words. This approach ensures quick progress, but the rapid changes from analysis to synthesis may be confusing for some beginning readers. Cass (13:162) states that the most successful techniques used in A.B.E. for the native-born are those making use of the global or sentence approach. It facilitates comprehension ski l l s , since the students begin with meaningful ideas or thoughts. The trend on this continent is toward the eclectic approach or using the technique most appropriate to the particular situation, keeping in mind the in te l l i -gence, age and experiential background of the students. Some specific teaching techniques which may be used in developing both vocabulary and comprehension skills in conjunction with oral language skills and writing are suggested by Smith (40:11-19). These techniques may be used with published reading systems or may provide a useful basis in the preparation of teacher-made materials. 1. Vocabulary Techniques a. Building a sight vocabulary (1) List new words on the board and write sentences including the new word, before reading the text. 49 (2) Write sentences from the text on the board and read them with the class. (3) Ask students to underline the "new" xrords in their texts as you read the words. (4) Use the words in the basic text in a weekly news-letter or bulletin to be distributed to the students. (5) Make flashcards of common words and phrases. Teacher may use cards with the group or students may x^ ork in pairs. (6) Have students copy sentences containing the sight xrords to be learned. (7) Ask students to write words xvrhich appear similar, e_.j». "there" and "xjhere", "xjhite" and "write", and to underline the point of difference. (8) Have students select from a group of similar words the correct one to f i l l the blank in a sentence, e_.j*. net, not, new, now Mr. Black has a car. (9) Ask the students to complete mutilated words. e_.j*. bunch b-nc-person p-rs-n (10) Have the students x^rite the word to be learned on a magic slate and trace over i t several times. (11) Have the students make up some sentences using alliteration. 50 e^.j;. Seven s i s t e r s sang simple songs. (12) Have the students, w h i l e timed, f i n d the word that i s d i f f e r e n t , s h o r t e s t , longest, e t c . e^j*. come ( l i k e ) t o n i g ht (longest) toy ( s h o r t e s t ) come ( l i k e ) (13) Label objects i n the room, p l a c i n g the l a b e l s at eye l e v e l . Change the objects l a b e l l e d every week. e^ .g_. c l o c k , desk, door, window, e t c . (14) S e l e c t key words and have the c l a s s as a whole make up a s t o r y using these words, e_.£. car d r i v e new s t a r t e d drove Sunday t o n i g h t asked Mr. Brown has a new car. The car would not go toni g h t . He asked h i s f r i e n d to push the car. The car s t a r t e d . Mr. Brown drove to school. But there was no school that n i g h t . I t was Sunday! (15) D i s t r i b u t e picture-word cards f o r i n d i v i d u a l study, b. To develop word at t a c k s k i l l s (1) Have the students u n d e r l i n e rhyming words. j2.jg_. s t a r stay f a r bar (2) Have the students underline words beginning w i t h the same sound. e_.g_. b r i c k born b r i n g brew (3) Have the students u n d e r l i n e words ending w i t h the same sound. 51 e_._g. say boy pay stay (4) Make new words by changing the beginning sounds. e..£. n i g h t : - i g h t - i g h t - i g h t (5) Make new words by adding s_. e_.£. boy(s) (6) Make new words by adding i n g , e r , ed, e t c . e^.j*. c o l d ( e r ) slow(er) c r y ( i n g ) walk(ing) (7) Have the group f i n d the small word i n the l a r g e r word. 6 i . j [ . woman, c h a i r (8) Have students f i l l i n missing sound. e_.j>. b-ke, t r - n k , h-pe (9) Mark the long sound and the short sound i n words. e_.j*. r a t r a t e cut cute (10) Ask students to w r i t e out c o n t r a c t i o n s . don't - do not i t ' s - i t i s (11) Have students make short vowels long by adding e^ . e_.£. h i d - hid(e) mat - mat(e) (12) Have students draw a l i n e between the s y l l a b l e s of words. e_.j|. run/ning to/day car/pet (13) Have students draw a l i n e between the p r e f i x e s and 52 roots of words. e_.j*. un/kind be/fore r e / t u r n (14) Draw a l i n e between the s u f f i x e s and roots of words. bad/ly plant/ed good/ness (15) Have students give the mi s s i n g word i n the sentence. _e._. She opened the to the house. c. To develop meaning vocabulary (1) Have students match words w i t h s i m i l a r meanings, e.j*. b i g - huge wee - l i t t l e (2) Have students s e l e c t the r i g h t meaning f o r each word, e^.g. crowd - 1. many people 2. guards (3) Have students t h i n k of as many meanings as they can f o r a word. e_.j». perch -a f i s h , to s i t , a r e s t i n g place f o r a b i r d (4) Have the students s e l e c t the best meaning f o r each xrord. e^g_. turkey - 1. a k i n d of b i r d 2. a k i n d of dog (5) Have the students p i c k out sentences where the word has been used i n c o r r e c t l y . We same to l i k e the c o l o r . (x<rrong) We seem to l i k e the c o l o r , ( r i g h t ) (6) Have the students use homonyms i n sentences. e_.g_. The two Browns go to s c h o o l , too. 53 (7) Have the students change prefixes to make new words. e_.j». mistake - retake untie - retie inside - outside (8) Have the students guess the meaning.of words from context. e^ j*. The dog howled to te l l us he was hungry. (9) Have students substitute key words to change the meaning of a sentence. e:.j». He turned left at the corner. He turned right at the corner. 2. Comprehension Techniques a. To learn to organize ideas (1) Have students underline words that te l l who, what, when, where, how, why. (2) Ask students to organize sentences in the correct order or sequence. (3) Ask students to organize paragraphs so they te l l a sensible story. (4) Have them te l l what happened f irst , second, etc. in the story. (5 ) Have the students find a l l the characters, etc. mentioned in the story. b. To learn to pick out the main idea 54 (1) Ask students to select the best title for the story. (2) Have them make up a title for the story. (3) Have them underline the most important sentence or paragraph in the story. (4) Ask the students to write a summary of the story. (5) Ask the students to write the name of the person or event the paragraph describes. To learn to find important details (1) Ask questions and have students underline the words or sentences in the story which answer the questions. (2) Ask them to f i l l in missing details in an account of the story. (3) Have them answer "who", "what", "where", "when", "why" and "how" questions on the story. (4) Have them select the three most important details in a story. To learn to read directions (1) Have the students underline the most important words in the directions. (2) Have the students do what the directions te l l them to do. (3) Have the students paraphrase the directions. (4) Ask the students to write the directions on how to do s ome thing. 55 e. To learn to infer meanings (1) Have the students complete a story. (2) Have the students draw conclusions from information given. (3) Ask them, "What do you think happened next?" (4) Ask them to explain what a sentence really means. f. To learn simple study skills (1) Ask the students to find the pages that a story begins and ends on. (2) Have them alphabetize words. (3) Ask them questions about the table of contents (40:11-19). Cass (13:159-160) describes the Gouin theme, which may be used to promote comprehension, vocabulary building and functional reading ski l ls . This consists of a series of related acts which te l l a story in 6-10 simple sentences, expressed in first person, present tense, each of which can be dramatized separately. I come home. I take off my hat. I take off my coat. I take my newspaper. I sit down in my chair. I open my newspaper. I read my newspaper. 56 The theme i s developed o r a l l y by the teacher and the student, then w r i t t e n on the blackboard by the teacher. Related sentences are learned more e a s i l y than i s o l a t e d u n r e l a t e d sentences. Sentences can be extended when needed. Grammatical s t r u c t u r e i s learned i n c i d e n t a l l y by changing tense and person. Voskresenky (50:157) suggests t h a t i n no other area of a d u l t education i s the choice of teaching techniques so important as i n A.B.E. Poor techniques add to an already overburdened l i s t of handicaps and hazards which the i l l i t e r a t e must hurdle before he learns to read. An a d u l t learns things more con s c i o u s l y and i n t e l l i g e n t l y than a c h i l d ; the c h i l d has more aptitud e f o r l e a r n i n g things mechanically. Adults do mechanical work which they do not understand w i t h r e l u c t a n c e . Voskresenky views the phonic method of teaching reading as unsound, si n c e the more fragmented the m a t e r i a l , the l e s s l i k e l y i t i s to be used f u n c t i o n a l l y . He s t a t e s that when the sounds of a word are pronounced s e p a r a t e l y , one a f t e r the o t h e r , the speech organs go through the same three f u n c t i o n s w i t h each sound: 1. From a s t a t e of r e s t , they s p r i n g i n t o readiness f o r speech. 2. They u t t e r the sound. 3. They r e t u r n to a s t a t e of r e s t . His contention i s that these superfluous movements of speech organs i n t e r f e r e w i t h c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n . A word should not be pronounced as the sum of i t s separate sounds but should be pronounced i n s y l l a b l e s . Voskresenky supports the a n a l y t i c - s y n t h e t i c techniques. 57 Z i n t z (55:141) supports t h i s view, noting t h a t , "When these adults have achieved confidence i n themselves and have begun to demonstrate t h e i r use of s i g h t vocabulary i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , perhaps then they w i l l be ready f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n phonic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . " W i t t y (54:264) describes the work done w i t h f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a t e s among American Army r e c r u i t s during the Second World War. The program was h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l , s a l v a g i n g n i n e t y per cent of the f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a t e s i n the average i n s t r u c t i o n a l period of e i g h t weeks. C e r t a i n b a s i c l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s have proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n teaching the disadvantaged a d u l t : 1. The Army program demonstrated the v a l i d i t y of using f u n c t i o n a l methods and m a t e r i a l s . 2. The program showed the value of v i s u a l aids i n a c c e l e r a t i n g the l e a r n i n g process. 3. The work accomplished showed the importance of strong i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n i n f o s t e r i n g l e a r n i n g . The men wanted to read and w r i t e l e t t e r s and know what was happening on the f i g h t i n g f r o n t s . 4. The program showed the value of c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s and s p e c i f i c goals. 5. The importance of s m a l l c l a s s e s was i n d i c a t e d . 6. Supplementary m a t e r i a l s were used to apply and r e i n f o r c e academic s k i l l s . A weekly newspaper and a monthly magazine were i s s u e d , both at the f o u r t h grade l e v e l . In a l l A.B.E., there i s a combined language a r t s approach to the 58 teaching of reading, w i t h speaking and w r i t i n g the language c a r r i e d on i n conjunction xji t h reading. 3. O r a l Communication Smith and Mason (39:24) s t a t e that r e s u l t s of research i n d i c a t e that many people l e a r n b e t t e r through an au d i t o r y approach than through a v i s u a l approach. This f i n d i n g would suggest that much o r a l reading be done i n the beginning l e v e l s of A.B.E. Undereducated adults may have some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h o r a l language, but w i l l g r a d u a l l y gain confidence i n expressing themselves o r a l l y i f much p r a c t i c e i s provided. This p r a c t i c e may be provided through r o l e - p l a y i n g , imaginary telephone con-v e r s a t i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n by a group of questions a r i s i n g i n c l a s s (55:21). Some t o p i c s f o r i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n i n c l a s s might be: the l i t e r a c y program, personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , proper n u t r i t i o n , f a m i l y problems, use of l e i s u r e time, current a f f a i r s . Other a c t i v i t i e s which provide o r a l reinforcement are o r a l book r e p o r t s , s p e l l i n g bees, three-minute e x p o s i t o r y speeches, making sentences from words on f l a s h - c a r d s . Mien students put t h e i r thoughts i n t o words and v e r b a l i z e w i t h one another, a good group f e e l i n g i s created. The l i s t e n i n g span of disadvantaged, undereducated people i s low, and comprehension questions should f o l l o w o r a l d i s c u s s i o n to evaluate the student's l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s (26:356). The student should read the m a t e r i a l s i l e n t l y before he reads i t o r a l l y , to minimize e r r o r s . There should always be a purpose f o r reading any s e l e c t i o n . 59 4. Writing Just as a program of reading for beginners must arise from the immediate needs of the adult student in order to find out what a sign or label says, so the motivation for learning to write develops from the student's need to f i l l out forms or write letters. The writing activity must be coordinated with reading for one s k i l l reinforces the other. Writing is usually introduced through manuscript form since this is the form familiar to him in his reading. Writing his name, the names of members of his family, his beginning vocabulary will provide practice tasks for the first few lessons. When students have learned manuscript form, the transition to cursive writing is not difficult (Appendix E). Wallace (51:87) suggests the use of a published hand-writing program and a demonstration by the teacher of the direction and sequence of strokes. Lined paper should be used, and two alphabets taught, one composed of capital letters, and one composed of small letters. The student should have a printed or written alphabet in front of him and should alxtfays say the name of the letter he is writing. As the student progresses, opportunity for practicing writing should be provided at every class session. Vocabulary and spelling words may be dictated, scrambled sentences may be rewritten in correct sequence, simple forms of letter-writing (personal notes for friends and family), practice in f i l l ing out forms, catalog orders, grocery l i s ts , cheques, etc. 60 IV. Devices Instructional devices can provide great motivational stimulus for A.B.E. students i f prepared with the background of the learners in mind. A l l audio-visual equipment should be simple and easy to operate. Audio-visual materials can turn abstractions into reality through demonstrations (showing how to do something); they can arouse a desire for further information on a topic by providing valuable background material; they can provide reinforcing practice and repetition of lesson content; they can increase student participation through a discussion period following the presentation (13:163). Pictures, posters, objects, filmstrips, tape recorders, demonstrations are frequently used devices for these purposes. Cass (13:212) suggests that audio-visual materials vrtiich can enrich and supplement the lesson content should be 1. Technically correct and accurate. 2. Educationally sound. 3. Recent and up-to-date. 4. Mature in approach and appeal. 5. At the learner's level of ability and comprehension. 6. Attractive and interesting. 7. Thought-provoking; good "discussion starters'. When teaching techniques and materials have been selected, the teacher wil l find the use of a wide variety of audio-visual devices will augment the subject matter and provide concrete means of associating 61 printed material with the actual objects, places, etc. Comprehension skills and word recognition skills wi l l be reinforced. V. Summary The communication needs of the functionally i l l i terate adult are complex, e_.g_. f i l l ing out application forms, reading newspapers and books. His deficiencies in reading and writing restrict his activities at home, at work and in a l l facets of his l i fe . Although his background in oral language is adequate, he has not learned to associate the visual symbols of the alphabet with the sound symbols of speech and so lacks the elementary reading ski l ls . To overcome this deficiency is the basic task of the A.B.E. teacher. The needs of the student determine the educational objectives of an A.B.E. program. Since the student is functionally i l l i terate , the basic instructional objectives are the development of word recognition skills (e.j*. using pictures, context clues, structural analysis, phonetic analysis to recognize words) and comprehension skills (associating the sound and meaning with the printed symbol). His social needs and problems, too, must be considered throughout the program, i f he is to become a self-confident participating member of society. These objectives can be accomplished through the utilization of a variety of teaching techniques. Instructional materials employ various approaches and experimentation with techniques wil l result in the selection of the most appropriate one for a particular learning situation. 62 Flexibility is the keynote in the selection of techniques. A l l techniques used in teaching communication skills may be classified according to three approaches, the synthetic approach, the analytic or global approach and the eclectic approach. Instructional devices (audio-visual materials, television, tape-recorders, demonstrations, posters, pictures) used by the teacher can enrich and supplement the learning experience and wil l also provide motivational stimulus for A.B.E. students. CHAPTER SIX MATERIALS I. Selected Published Materials Most publishers of educational materials are offering 'reading systems' for A.B.E. programs. Published materials may be classified as either basic or supplementary. Basic materials provide the 'core' of the reading program—the acquisition of communication ski l ls; supplementary materials provide practice and reinforcement of these ski l ls . In this review of selected published reading systems for the beginning level, only basic materials wi l l be described; a l i s t of useful supplementary materials appears in Appendix F. Teachers should familiarize themselves with many materials and techniques, trying out various types with their classes until they arrive at one which is effective, resulting in behavioral change in the student and learning satisfaction for the student. Each series of A.B.E. materials appears to concentrate on one area, so the teacher may find i t necessary to use more than one type of material to accomplish the desired objectives. In reviewing the following selected l i s t of published reading systems, an evaluation by cited authorities wil l follow a description of the approach, content and format of each system. 1. The Mott Basic Language Skills Program, 1966. Allied Education 6 4 C o u n c i l . Byron E. Chapman and Louis Schulz This program c o n s i s t s of a s e q u e n t i a l s e r i e s of t e x t s ranging from the beginning l e v e l to Grade X I I l e v e l . A phonics approach i s used, w i t h the emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l reading rather than group work. At the beginning l e v e l , there are three student books: B a s i c  Language S k i l l s - 300A, B a s i c Language S k i l l s - 3Q0B and Word Bank - 300. These three t e x t s are r e f e r r e d to as "Reading I " . An I n s t r u c t i o n Manual - S e r i e s 300 i s a v a i l a b l e f o r teachers. Books 300A and 300B each c o n s i s t of f i f t e e n lessons. Each lesson i s to be covered i n four hours or s i x t y hours f o r each t e x t . These t e x t s concentrate on phonic elements, i l l u s t r a t e d by photographs. I n 300A, consonant and blend sounds are taught, short vowels are presented i n word f a m i l i e s which the student reads o r a l l y and w r i t e s . Samples of a p p l i c a t i o n forms and blank cheques give the student reading and w r i t i n g p r a c t i c e . At the end of t h i s book, there i s a s t o r y , s e v e r a l paragraphs i n l e n g t h , folloxtfed by comprehension questions. In 300B vowel digraphs and long vowel sounds are taught; there are s e v e r a l longer reading s e l e c t i o n s followed by questions f o r comprehension. Grammatical r u l e s r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n ; there are fewer photographs, f o r c i n g the student to depend upon h i s own reading f o r meaning. Both 300A and 300B are consumable work-books f o r student use. The Word Bank - 300 i s a c o l l e c t i o n of photographs of two hundred objects f a m i l i a r to a d u l t s . The p r i n t e d name of each o b j e c t — i n manuscript and c u r s i v e , upper and lower c a s e — i s taught by a s s o c i a t i o n . 65 Spelling tests are included for each 25 word unit (34:56). The Instructional Manual - Series 300 gives practical suggestions to the teacher on how to introduce new material and how to cope with class-rpom problems; i t also includes lesson plans for 300A and 300B. Another text published by Mott for the use of teachers is Teaching  Adults to Read. It is an orientation book for teachers with l i t t l e experience; i t includes material on methodological, sociological-psychological aspects of A .B .E . . and lists of supplementary materials, placement and diagnostic tests (34:58). A review of the literature reveals a lack of published evaluation of the Mott system. 2. American Incentive to Read (A.I.R.) Materials, 1965. This program uses a phonics approach to the teaching of reading. There are two student texts, Books 1 and 2, and a teacher's manual. The student texts include work-book type exercises accompanied by a set of 24 correlated phonograph records. The teacher merely introduces the lesson; the student learns the letter sounds through the records. The estimated time for completion of the program is 125 hours. A diagnostic test—"Structural Phonics Affecting Comprehension of English" (S.P.A.C.E.)—is given at the beginning of the program to determine the student's weaknesses in phonics ski l ls . An Examiner's  Copy is available with directions for administration and scoring (34:60). At the beginning stage in the student texts, short vowels are studied in simple words that require combination with only the regular consonants. A small number of sight words is taught. Small drawings of a childish nature introduce the new letter sounds; the first letter 66 of the object name has the sound. The sound is enunciated by the teacher and then by records; finally, the student sees i t printed in his book (34:60). The teacher's manual includes detailed lesson plans with step-by-step guides to the text. A formula is presented clearly and simply for teaching each lesson. Otto and Ford (34:61), in their survey of A.I.R. materials, note that the content does not reflect adult tastes and interests, does not present problems related to the everyday life of the student, does not develop comprehension or location ski l l s , does not include handwriting or speech training. The student texts are limited to the teaching of phonic reading ski l ls . No provision is made for individual differences in the rate of learning* "Diagnostic tests should be devised to periodically assess individual learning. Supplementary phonics activities might be needed to reinforce ski l ls . Additional articles should be employed to provide comprehension practice" (42:2). 3. Reading in High Gear, Cycle 1, 1964. Myron Woolman. Science Research Associates, Inc. This reading system emphasizes the phonics approach to the teaching of reading. The materials are partly programmed and partly tutorial, with the teacher reading prepared statements and supervising practice. 67 Cycle 1 i s p a r t of a three c y c l e s e r i e s x^hich the p u b l i s h e r s say w i l l l e a d to eighth-grade reading l e v e l when s u c c e s s f u l l y completed. This beginning c y c l e includes tx «7o teacher's manuals and four consumable student work-books. The short simple u n i t s are e a s i l y done and by l i m i t i n g the number of p o s s i b l e responses, there i s a greater chance of success and r e s u l t i n g m o t i v a t i o n . Otto and Ford (34:98) i n d i c a t e that there i s l i t t l e evidence here of p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a d u l t students i n the areas of c i t i z e n s h i p , s o c i a l or v o c a t i o n a l adjustment. The content i s not geared to adult t a s t e s and i n t e r e s t s , since i t was designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d i s -advantaged youth. The m a t e r i a l s are not inexpensive. Smith and Cook (41:2) note that the approach to l i t e r a c y education used here (Progressive Choice Method) i s unusual but that the phonics approach i s perhaps over-emphasized. The teacher's manuals are e f f e c t i v e and easy to f o l l o w . The suggestion i s made that student i n s t r u c t o r s , who are a c y c l e ahead, be used as he l p e r s . The teacher must organize h i s i n s t r u c t i o n time so that the various l e v e l s of the c l a s s can be met and the i n d i v i d u a l student's work can be checked at each lesson. P u r p o s e f u l reading h a b i t s should be developed by the teacher (42:3). This s e r i e s does not appear to a l i o * / f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and over-emphasizes phonics s k i l l s . The teacher's manuals are too d e t a i l e d (39:51). 4. System f o r Success, Book I , 1965, R. Lee Henney. Chicago: 68 F o l l e t t P u b l i s h i n g Co. System f o r Success o r i g i n a t e d i n a t r a i n i n g program conducted by Henney at the Indiana Reformatory, Pendleton, Indiana, f o r inmates who were complete or f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a t e s . I t i s a complete beginning program using a m u l t i p l e approach to b u i l d s k i l l i n reading, w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g , computation and E n g l i s h usage. I t i s a two-book s e r i e s x^ith accompanying phonics charts and an i n s t r u c t o r ' s manual. Book I takes the student to a grade 4 l e v e l and Book I I covers grades 5 - 8 . Both phonic and l i n g u i s t i c approaches are used i n reading i n -s t r u c t i o n . L e t t e r sounds are learned f i r s t , then blends at the be-ginnings of words and f i n a l l y word ' f a m i l i e s ' are learned by s u b s t i t u t i n d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l elements. Sentence reading does not begin u n t i l the student has learned many xrords and word-attack s k i l l s . A r i t h m e t i c lessons are i n a separate s e c t i o n , and are designed to give the students f u n c t i o n a l knox^ledge of computational s k i l l s . The b a s i c processes of a d d i t i o n , s u b t r a c t i o n , m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n are covered; word problems are presented i n many lessons to r e i n f o r c e the student's reading s k i l l . The E n g l i s h usage s e c t i o n provides p r a c t i c e f o r those s k i l l s needed i n l e t t e r x ^ r i t i n g — a b b r e v i a t i o n s , c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , punctuation and l e t t e r form (34:76). According to the e v a l u a t i o n c h e c k - l i s t of Otto and Ford, Systern  f o r Success does consider adult tastes and i n t e r e s t s , does i n c l u d e phoni s k i l l and x^ord a n a l y s i s s k i l l t r a i n i n g , but does not i n c l u d e l o c a t i o n 69 s k i l l t r a i n i n g or speech t r a i n i n g . With reference to t h i s reading system, Smith and Mason (39:51) s t a t e , " I t has been w e l l received by c e r t a i n groups and i s under constant r e v i s i o n to in c o r p o r a t e what has been learned as i t i s used. The research on i t s use i n d i c a t e s that i t i s a sound approach to use w i t h many a d u l t s . " Smith and Cook (41:3) r e p o r t , " I t covers the gamut of adult b a s i c education except f o r the general knowledge segment. I t should be supplemented at every l e v e l . " The content i s based on a d u l t i n t e r e s t s and in c l u d e s such t o p i c s as adventure, s p o r t s , mystery, w r i t i n g l e t t e r s , automobiles, dating and g e t t i n g a job (42:4). Ilenney designed an experimental program, the Planner House L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t , i n I n d i a n a p o l i s on June 15, 1964. I t s purpose was to t e s t System f o r Success i n a n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Henney reported, "At the completion of the program on A p r i l 15, 1965, s i x t y - e i g h t a d ults and older youth had increased t h e i r reading p r o f i c i e n c y over three grade l e v e l s i n a l i t t l e more than 70 hours average classroom i n s t r u c t i o n " (18:1). He a l s o pointed out t h a t , "The mean beginning grade l e v e l , as measured by the Gray O r a l Reading Test, was 1.734 w h i l e the completion grade l e v e l was 5.071, an increase of 3.312 grades i n an average of l e s s than 73 i n s t r u c t i o n a l hours" (18:7). 5. Reading, S e r i e s I , 19-6. M. W. S u l l i v a n , B e h a v i o r a l Research L a b o r a t o r i e s . This programmed s e r i e s c o n s i s t s of four consumable work-books, 70 four c o r r e l a t e d readers, a placement t e s t and a teacher's guide. I t assumes some knowledge of the alphabet and pre-reading l e t t e r and word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l s . The reader provides a d d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e a f t e r c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s of the work-book have been completed. There i s l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n between teacher and student. No speech t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e or handwriting t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e are included. The content does not r e f l e c t adult t a s t e s and i n t e r e s t s and does not provide i n f o r m a t i o n to adu l t students on v o c a t i o n a l o r s o c i a l adjustment (34:63). Barnes and Hendrickson (5:66) suggest that programmed l e a r n i n g i s h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d because of the l i m i t e d vocabulary and because i t soon becomes a r e p e t i t i o u s procedure and therefore b o r i n g to a d u l t s . "From what the team observed, i t could not conclude that the s t a t e d advantages of programmed l e a r n i n g were c l e a r l y demonstrated o r v i s i b l y evident." 6. The Streamlined E n g l i s h S e r i e s , Revised. Syracuse, New York: New Reader's Press. This i s a non-programmed s e r i e s f o r c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n using the Laubach system which u t i l i z e s the s i m i l a r i t y between objects and l e t t e r forms. There are two books f o r students, Streamlined E n g l i s h and Charts  and Studies of the Laubach Streamlined E n g l i s h S e r i e s , and a weekly newspaper, News f o r You, prepared on two l e v e l s of reading a b i l i t y . The teacher i s provided w i t h Teacher's Manual f o r Streamlined E n g l i s h and Lesson Plans f o r Streamlined E n g l i s h . 71 The students l e a r n f i r s t to i d e n t i f y and w r i t e the l e t t e r s through charts and work-book. The f i r s t twenty lessons are based upon the f i v e vowels (13:162). Upon s u c c e s s f u l completion of Stream- l i n e d E n g l i s h , -students have a vocabulary of approximately 1000 words, based upon the Thorndike-Lorge word l i s t . Otto and Ford i n d i c a t e that there i s l i t t l e attempt made to i n c l u d e content which gives i n f o r m a t i o n to the adult student on v o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l problems. L o c a t i o n s k i l l s and word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s have not been i n c l u d e d (34:94). Smith and Cook suggest the use of much supplementary m a t e r i a l when using t h i s reading system. I t may be found u s e f u l when other techniques have f a i l e d (41:2). Olson (33:32) who made an a n a l y s i s of the Laubach L i t e r a c y Method s t a t e s , "Why, i n t h i s day of new l i n g u i s t i c i n s i g h t s , should anyone bother w i t h a system that i s p a t e n t l y and s e l f - c o n f e s s e d l y a phonetic approximation, and which emphasizes that abomination of most l i n g u i s t s — s p e l l i n g - p r o n u n c i a t i o n s — a system that i n s p i t e of a r a d i c a l phonetic p o s i t i o n i s s t i l l o r i e n t a t e d l a r g e l y t o w a r d - t r a d i t i o n a l grammar?" Olson supports the Laubach system i n i t s mass t e s t i n g , low cost and use of untrained teachers. Olson (33:32) c i t e s Gudschinsky i n her Handbook of L i t e r a c y , r e f e r r i n g to the Laubach system, " I t emphasizes the parts to the e x c l u s i o n of the wholes and i n p r a c t i c e turns out 'word readers' who can f i g u r e out the pronunciations of words but not get connected thought 72 from t h e i r reading." Berg questions the success i n a c t u a l achievement of l i t e r a c y programs, e s p e c i a l l y the Laubach system used i n the L i t e r a c y Movement i n the Southeast, U.S.A. No s c i e n t i f i c e v a l u a t i o n has been made but according to Berg (26:54), "A c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l of the program might see i t as narrow and r e s t r i c t i v e , based on an emotional approach, f a l l i n g f a r s h ort i n meeting best e d u c a t i o n a l methods and philosophy, and one that i n the long run, accomplishes very l i t t l e . . . . The Laubach m a t e r i a l s , f o r example, are patterned a f t e r the o l d alphabet approach that has long been r e t i r e d as a p r a c t i c a l beginning i n the teaching of reading." 7. ABC-EDL B a s i c Adult Education System. Learning 100. Edu c a t i o n a l Developmental L a b o r a t o r i e s , I n c . , Huntington, N.Y. In a review of l i t e r a t u r e e v a l u a t i n g and a p p r a i s i n g reading systems f o r b a s i c education, no i n f o r m a t i o n on Learning 100 could be found, other than that provided by the p u b l i s h e r s . Learning 100 i s a multi-media communication s k i l l s system ( f i l m s , r e c o r d i n g s , t a c h i s t o s c o p e ) ; i t i s m u l t i - l e v e l and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . I t i s organized i n t o graded l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l l o w i n g each student to enter the system at h i s own l e v e l and progress a t h i s oxra l e v e l . A l e s i s t a t e s , "The heart of the system i s a communications s k i l l program, which provides s e q u e n t i a l , i n t e g r a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n reading, w r i t i n g , speaking, l i s t e n i n g and observing and i n the t h i n k i n g s k i l l s which u n d e r l i e these a c t s " (3:3). 73 Three d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the program provide three points at which students may enter: 1. Readiness Program f o r Non-Readers "Ten sessions are devoted to b u i l d i n g b a s i c auditory and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l s ; eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n ; d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ; the a b i l i t y to name, recognize and copy the l e t t e r s of the alphabet: the a b i l i t y to pay a t t e n t i o n and f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s " (3:4). A b a s i c s i g h t vocabulary of n i n e t y words i s learned. 2. B a s i c Program f o r Reading Levels 1 - 3 Students may enter at f i r s t , second or t h i r d grade l e v e l . The emphasis i s on a c q u i r i n g a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s k i l l s , v i s u a l -f u n c t i o n a l and perc e p t u a l s k i l l s , an extensive s i g h t vocabulary and t r a i n i n g i n word a t t a c k , comprehension and study s k i l l s . 3. Intermediate and Advanced Program 4 - 8 More enriched vocabulary and advanced comprehension s k i l l s and study s k i l l s are emphasized at these l e v e l s . "Both standardized and i n f o r m a l t e s t s are i n t e g r a l parts of the communication s k i l l s program" (3:5). Many of the techniques are s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l and provide immediate feedback. The content of the reading program i s of i n t e r e s t to undereducated a d u l t s , i n c l u d i n g t o p i c s on h e a l t h and s a f e t y , community l i f e , o c c u p a t i o n a l and personal adjustment, economics, s c i e n c e , r e c r e a t i o n , adventure and fun, and l i t e r a t u r e . 74 8 . H o l t Adult B a s i c Education F i r s t S e r i e s . Learning to Read  and Write. E l l e n C. Henderson, T w i l a L. Henderson. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, I n c . , 1 9 6 5 . Learning to Read and W r i t e , w i t h i t s accompanying workbook i s a phonetic and l i n g u i s t i c approach to word r e c o g n i t i o n and comprehension s k i l l s ( 2 8 : 5 6 ) . A teacher's guide, o u t l i n i n g the plan of the book i s i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t . S p e l l i n g i s emphasized as an important p a r t of reading and w r i t i n g . Proper eye movements and " i n n e r speech" are s t r e s s e d from the beginning. "Inner speech" i n v o l v e s r a p i d l y r e c o g n i z i n g words by the consonant framework, s t r — t , 1-ved. At f i r s t words are taught as wholes by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p i c t u r e s . The student moves from these s i g h t words to consonants, then to vowels and on to phonetic and s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s techniques ( 5 : 1 1 6 ) . Otto and Ford note the i n c l u s i o n of some work on s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s and c o r r e c t pronunciation. There are reading s e c t i o n s about one f a m i l y at the end of the book but no comprehension e x e r c i s e s on t h i s m a t e r i a l . The contents r e f l e c t adult tastes and i n t e r e s t s but none i s d i r e c t e d toward the s o c i a l and economic needs of the a d u l t student ( 3 4 : 8 3 ) . Some of the t o p i c s f o r reading content are: "Using the D i c t i o n a r y " , "Forms, Forms, Forms.'", " E l e c t i o n Day", "The I n v i t a t i o n " , "The C l i n i c " , "Mrs. Jones Goes to School". "The teacher w i l l need to supplement the t e x t to provide d i a g n o s t i c 75' instruments which w i l l assess the student's needs, prepare the students f o r p urposeful reading, and provide reinforcement of the s k i l l s i n t r o -duced i n the lesson"(42 :3). 9. The Steck Co., A u s t i n , Texas, 1964. (a) I Want to Read and Write. Harley A. Smith and Ida Lee King. (b) Adult Reader. M.S. Robertson. (c) Steps to Learn i n g , Book 1 and Book 2. Burton W. K r e i t l o w , 1965. (a) The approach used i n I Want to Read and Write i s through whole words and sentences. Otto and Ford (34:104) note the i n c l u s i o n of some word a n a l y s i s s k i l l s and some s e l e c t i o n s about s o c i a l and economic t o p i c s , w i t h s i g h t words l i s t e d f o r each s t o r y . O r a l d i s c u s s i o n of the p i c t u r e s and s t o r i e s i s encouraged. Consonants are s t r e s s e d as the primary cues i n word r e c o g n i t i o n . Students are taught to w r i t e l e t t e r s and make out cheques. M a t e r i a l s are durable, inexpensive, consumable and p l e a s i n g l y designed. (b) Adult Reader i s a s i n g l e volume i n which reading i s taught by whole words and sentences. The m a t e r i a l i s not programmed and no time allotments are suggested. Each lesson c o n s i s t s of a reading s e l e c t i o n and a w r i t i n g e x e r c i s e . The s t o r i e s of i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y about one fa m i l y are presented, followed by comprehension questions about each s t o r y . Otto and Ford (34:102) describe the word s t o r y s k i l l s as being mainly 76 recognition of words by sight. In the section on writing ski l ls , only cursive writing is taughti There are no lesson plans or teacher's manual. The materials are consumable and inexpensive. Barnes and Hendrickson (5:109) view this publication as a useful one but stress the need for more work in phonics and word analysis ski l ls . (c). Steps to Learning, Books 1 and 2. This two-volume series of workbooks is useful for class instruction. The lessons combine reading, writing and arithmetic instruction. Sight word recognition is taught f irst , but phonic and structural analysis skil ls are also developed. Otto and Ford (34:106) suggest supplementing the series with more skill-building materials. There is no provision for placement and there is no teacher's manual. 10. Words in Color. Caleb Gattegno. Encyclopedia Britannica Press 1962. (now published by Xerox) Words in Color color codes the standard alphabet in such a way that one color always represents one sound—regardless of its spelling. It provides a preliminary reading program using 47 different colors to introduce the 47 different English sounds. A phonic approach is used. Word patterns are introduced linguistically. In the first lesson, the students learn isolated sounds, using short vowels with some consonants. These are later combined into words and then into short sentences (34:69). The teacher is provided with two manuals. One describes the system, how i t originated and the principles of learning on which i t is based. 77 The other manual describes the teaching methods w i t h d e t a i l e d suggestions f o r the content and sequence of lessons. Twenty-one colored w a l l charts are used to introduce the sounds; the l e t t e r s i n the words are p r i n t e d i n t h e i r sound c o l o r s . A s e t of e i g h t other charts shows a l l of the vowel and consonant sounds w i t h t h e i r v a r i e d s p e l l i n g s . Student m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e Books 1, 2 and 3, a Word B u i l d i n g Book, a Book of S t o r i e s and Worksheets. The State Education Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of New York says of t h i s system, (42:5) "The major purpose of t h i s program i s to help beginning readers decode the symbols of E n g l i s h i n t o meaningful words, phrases and sentences." Supplementary reading m a t e r i a l s w i l l be necessary f o r students to grasp l i t e r a l meaning, r e a c t to what i s read and c o r r e l a t e new ideas w i t h past experience. Smith and Cook (41:3) view t h i s program as lending i t s e l f to ' l o c k -s t e p ' teaching and over-emphasis on one approach. Otto and Ford (34:70) assess Words i n Color as m a t e r i a l not geared to a d u l t tastes and i n t e r e s t s . I t i n c l u d e s no speech or handwriting t r a i n i n g , no comprehension questions, no word a n a l y s i s or l o c a t i o n s k i l l s . 11. Operation Alphabet T.V. Home Study Book. N a t i o n a l Assocation of P u b l i c School Adult Educators, Washington, D.C. 1962. Operation Alphabet was designed i n i t i a l l y as a t e l e v i s e d l i t e r a c y program to reach the a d u l t i l l i t e r a t e s w i t h i n a f i f t y - m i l e radius 78 of P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa. The Home Study Book which was sup p l i e d to students contains one hundred lessons based on the t e l e v i s i o n program. The book r e i n f o r c e s and supplements what the l e a r n e r sees and hears on the t e l e -v i s i o n . Z i n t z (55:124) notes the omission i n the Home Study Book of d i s c u s s i o n m a t e r i a l , e x e r c i s e s to develop x^ord a n a l y s i s or comprehension s k i l l s . Each lesson i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and the vocabulary and r a t e of i n t r o d u c t i o n of new xrords i s c o n t r o l l e d . W r i t i n g e x e r c i s e s are i n c l u d e d . According to Otto and Ford (34:91), the content does not provide i n f o r m a t i o n on v o c a t i o n a l or s o c i a l problems of the a d u l t student. The p r i n c i p a l value of t h i s s e r i e s l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t students to the program. L i t t l e research has been conducted to determine the number of people viex^ing the program or how f a r t h e i r reading l e v e l advanced a f t e r completing a s e r i e s . I I . C r i t e r i a f o r S e l e c t i o n of Published I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s In the s e l e c t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r the beginning l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g , the teacher and the a d m i n i s t r a t o r today are faced with a con s t a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y of published systems, s i n g l e volumes, supplementary books, programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , e t c . The folloxtfing c r i t e r i a have been e s t a b l i s h e d by researchers i n A.B.E. as a guide to a s s i s t teachers and ad m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n : 1. The format and content of the m a t e r i a l has appeal f o r a d u l t s . The content should be based on r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , food, j o b , 79 v o t i n g , h e a l t h , s a f e t y , c i v i c s , housing, e t c . 2. Important i n f o r m a t i o n a l content i s conveyed through the p r a c t i c e s e l e c t i o n s w h i l e reading s k i l l s are being learned. 3. The m a t e r i a l i s c l a s s i f i e d as b a s i c or supplementary. 4. P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r the new p u p i l to be incorporated i n t o the program at a c e r t a i n p o i n t i n the sequence. 5. The sequence of the vocabulary introduced by the program i s st a t e d . 6. The program incl u d e s adequate p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l s . 7. The progress of the student can be assessed. 8. Other language s k i l l s are taught i n conjunction w i t h reading. 9. The m a t e r i a l s a s s i s t the student i n gai n i n g s e l f - r e l i a n c e and independence. 10. P r o v i s i o n s have been made to t e s t the m a t e r i a l s before being o f f e r e d f o r s a l e . 11. The m a t e r i a l s should be durable, using a good q u a l i t y of paper, b i n d i n g , e t c . 12. I l l u s t r a t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u c t i o n should be in c l u d e d i n the t e x t s . 13. The accompanying manuals should describe the program i n d e t a i l . (5:102, 103)(34:46) P a n t e l l (28:71) s t r e s s e s the importance of l e a r n i n g i n t e r e s t among undereducated a d u l t s ; t h i s i n t e r e s t has to be "wooed" and the choice of books can a i d or r e t a r d t h i s process. She s t a t e s that the choice of tex t s 80 i n v o l v e s at l e a s t these two c r i t e r i a : (a) the m a t e r i a l s used should not a l i e n a t e the r e l u c t a n t reader. (b) they should be so graded that the reader gains a f e e l i n g of personal success at every step. P a n t e l l continues, " M o t i v a t i o n , i n other words, i s paramount, and m o t i v a t i o n may be embedded i n complex s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s that p u b l i s h e r s , as w e l l as i n n o v a t i v e educators, must l e a r n to face" (28:71). I I I . Teacher-made M a t e r i a l s At every stage of the f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a t e ' s reading development, there i s a v i t a l need f o r q u a n t i t i e s of easy reading m a t e r i a l , which w i l l enable him to use the b a s i c s k i l l s he has learned. Since great i n t e r e s t has developed i n "War on Poverty" programs i n both the United States and Canada, p u b l i s h e r s are becoming aware of t h i s need and many e x c e l l e n t supplementary readers and easy-to-read m a t e r i a l s are being published. However, i n d i v i d u a l students' needs vary and m a t e r i a l may not be a v a i l a b l e f o r s p e c i f i c t o p i c s and i t i s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n that o r i g i n a l teacher-made m a t e r i a l s become i n v a l u a b l e . M a t e r i a l s produced by the teacher are timely and develop d i r e c t l y out of the student's s p e c i f i c needs and i n t e r e s t s . Only these m a t e r i a l s , created "on the spot" can r e l a t e to the l o c a l scene, e_._g_. the geographical and h i s t o r i c a l aspects of the community. These s t o r i e s based on t o p i c s of l o c a l i n t e r e s t , w i t h a l o c a l c u l t u r a l s l a n t , w i l l be read w i t h much more i n t e r e s t than commercially produced m a t e r i a l s . 81 Paragraphs, short stories and plays about real-life situations may be written by the teacher and used as practice exercises in oral and written work, e_.j*. construct a number of scrambled sentences about an activity which the students have experienced and ask them to re-arrange the sentences in correct sequence. Flash-cards constructed by the teacher serve many purposes in teaching communication ski l l s , je.j*. teaching letters, both manuscript and cursive, upper and lower case; sight words; vocabulary words and phrases; spelling problems; months and days and also simple sums in arithmetic (55:147). Charts of a l l types may be constructed by the teacher to l i s t vowels and consonants, vocabulary, student drop-out rates, population figures, spelling problems, etc. A good picture collection, with a wide variety of pictures mounted on durable cardboard, is an invaluable device in teaching word recognition and association ski l ls . When possible, the teacher should bring meaningful real-life objects into the class-room for demonstration purposes. Application forms, income tax forms, mail-order catalogs, with order forms, blank cheques, etc. should be used to correlate reading and writing activities in a very real way. The students can see the practical application of i^ hat they have been learning. The student, with the teacher's assistance, can dictate his own stories or experience charts using as topics real-life situations, _e._g_. 82 a family incident, a local news item, a personal experience, a community project, etc. These stories may be read and discussed in class, then typed and mimeographed by the teacher and kept in a folder. The student wil l have actively participated in the creation of instructional materials. Barnes and Hendrickson (5:11) note the apparent success of class-room situations where the teacher prepared many of his own materials to meet the specific instructional needs of students. Another approach to the development of new materials is adaptation of stories, folk-tales, plays, biographies, etc. for the new literate. The teacher rewrites the material in simple easy-to-read language. Sheldon (52:15) makes the following suggestions for teachers who are rewriting materials: 1. Select material which wil l appeal to the modern reader. 2. Omit words or phrases which represent the sort of archaic reference or obscure point understood only by a scholar. 3. Condense the story by omitting long explanations and long descriptions of a personal nature or of scenery. 4. Develop a basic word l i s t within the"listening, speaking and reading vocabulary of the reader. 5. Reduce compound and complex sentences into simple sentences. Include no more than three or four sentences in a paragraph, so a thought can be clearly expressed in each paragraph. 6. Avoid slang or the colloquialisms of people other than the readers. 83 7. Try to reproduce conversation which f o l l o w s the l i n g u i s t i c patterns of the students. 8. I l l u s t r a t e complex ideas by using p i c t u r e s , simple a n a l o g i e s , graphs or c h a r t s . 9. Provide a simple glossary of terms to be used by the student when reading independently (52:15). 10. Test the m a t e r i a l on a random sample of A.B.E. students. Delete every tenth word and see i f students can supply missing words (38:30). IV. Summary P u b l i s h i n g houses are producing v a s t q u a n t i t i e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r A.B.E. programs. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent i s confronted w i t h the task of j u d i c i o u s l y s e l e c t i n g a reading system which w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y meet the o b j e c t i v e s of the program. This study reviewed eleven s e l e c t e d reading systems, con c e n t r a t i n g i n each case on format, approach, content and e v a l u a t i o n . Each student i n an A.B.E. program has d i f f e r e n t needs and i n t e r e s t s , and only by experimentation w i t h recommended m a t e r i a l s can the teacher determine the most productive m a t e r i a l s . C e r t a i n c r i t e r i a (format, content, vocabulary, s k i l l s developed, manuals) have been e s t a b l i s h e d as g u i d e - l i n e s to teachers i n the s e l e c t i o n of appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . In s i t u a t i o n s where adequate m a t e r i a l s are not a v a i l a b l e or need to be augmented, teachers can produce t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s . These are o f t e n h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e as they develop d i r e c t l y out of the student's 84 present needs and environment. Written materials (stories, sentences), charts, posters, picture collections, flash-cards can a l l be produced by the teacher. Stories, play, biographies may be rewritten by the teacher in simple easy-to-read language for the use of the beginning s tudent. CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY I . Summary and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Adult B a s i c Education This d e s c r i p t i v e study, through a review of recent l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of A.B.E., has presented resource m a t e r i a l f o r the use of teachers who are or w i l l be working w i t h disadvantaged a d u l t s . By p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l background and the l e a r n i n g problems of the undereducated a d u l t , the study w i l l a s s i s t teachers i n understanding and a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e i r students. The study provides suggestions f o r teachers i n developing reading programs and i n s e l e c t i n g appropriate techniques and devices f o r class-room use. The study reviewed eleven s e l e c t e d reading systems and provided s e l e c t e d c r i t e r i a f o r the a p p r a i s a l and e v a l u a t i o n of A.B.E. m a t e r i a l s . The background of undereducated a d u l t s , which i s transmitted from generation to generation, i s one of poverty, ignorance and apathy. A.B.E. must attempt to achieve a c c u l t u r i z a t i o n through respect f o r the student and f o r the value system of h i s c u l t u r e . Disadvantaged adults who l i v e i n areas of low socio-economic l e v e l s develop c e r t a i n s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which have d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g . Some of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are h o s t i l i t y and anxiety toward a u t h o r i t y , a l i e n a t i o n , present o r i e n t a t i o n , s e n s i t i v i t y , concrete r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g , l a c k of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , r e t i c e n c e , d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , 86 a t t i t u d e s and g o a l s , f e a r of s c h o o l , weak m o t i v a t i o n , unacceptable behavior, c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n , use of defense mechanisms. The recruitment program i s an e s s e n t i a l part of an A.B.E. program. The f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a t e s i n the community must be i d e n t i f i e d , l ocated and motivated to come and l e a r n . The s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the undereducated i n d i c a t e the need f o r a good c o u n s e l l i n g program, i n c l u d i n g personal i n t e r v i e w s and the u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a l i d t e s t i n g program. Two r e c e n t l y published t e s t i n g systems, designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r A.B.E. students, are reviewed. Teachers i n A.B.E. programs determine student m o t i v a t i o n and r e t e n t i o n . In reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on teacher s e l e c t i o n , some d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s found to be e s s e n t i a l i n the e f f e c t i v e A.B.E. teacher are understanding, f l e x i b i l i t y , p a t i e n c e , p r a c t i c a l i t y , humor, c r e a t i v i t y , p r e p a r a t i o n . The class-room f o r l i t e r a c y programs should be located i n a b u i l d i n g other than the p u b l i c s c h o o l , and xcLthin i t , the c h a i r s and tables should create a f l e x i b l e , i n f o r m a l s e a t i n g arrangement. M o t i v a t i o n of the student i s a b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t i n the s e l e c t i o n of teaching techniques, as i t i s a b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t i n a l l parts and processes of A.B.E. programs. The adult educator e s t a b l i s h e s program o b j e c t i v e s on the b a s i s of the student's need and c e r t a i n b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of l e a r n i n g . In the development of i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures, the adu l t educator must be aware of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s , a b i l i t i e s and experience between adults and c h i l d r e n as l e a r n e r s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques i n b u i l d i n g vocabulary and comprehension 87 s k i l l s may be u s e f u l to teachers.who w i l l be developing .their own techniques. The combined language a r t s approach, where speaking and w r i t i n g s k i l l s are developed i n conjunction w i t h reading s k i l l s , i s recommended. I n s t r u c t i o n a l devices, e.g_. a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s (tapes, f i l m s , records, p i c t u r e s ) , increase m o t i v a t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g . In recent years, many e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s — t h e Federal Governments, boards of education, churches, welfare o r g a n i z a t i o n s — h a v e been o f f e r i n g help i n l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g . This i n t e r e s t has been the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r p u b l i s h i n g houses to produce a great v a r i e t y of i n -s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Eleven reading systems have been i d e n t i f i e d and reviewed i n t h i s study. This l i s t of reading systems i s s e l e c t i v e rather than complete. Many other i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s are a v a i l a b l e , but these systems have been reported i n the research l i t e r a t u r e reviewed on e v a l u a t i o n of A.B.E. programs. I n reviewing each system, the format, content and approach to the teaching of reading i s described. Where a v a i l a b l e , e v a l u a t i o n and a p p r a i s a l of each system by c i t e d a u t h o r i t i e s i h A.B.E. i n provided. The l i m i t a t i o n s of these eleven systems r e q u i r e s that the A.B.E. teacher be informed on how to develop m a t e r i a l s to r e -i n f o r c e and supplement the lesson content. C r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of appropriate m a t e r i a l s f o r the be-ginning l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g have been e s t a b l i s h e d . These c r i t e r i a serve as g u i d e - l i n e s f o r teachers who are not f a m i l i a r w i t h the new m a t e r i a l s which publishing-houses are producing i n ever i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s . 88 I m p l i c a t i o n s Boards of education must recognize the f a c t that the number of f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a t e s so c l a s s i f i e d by the Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s may not present an accurate p i c t u r e of the i l l i t e r a c y problem. Many adults who c l a i m f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g are not able to read at f o u r t h or f i f t h grade l e v e l . Educators and the general p u b l i c are a p a t h e t i c toward the problem of educating the undereducated; i t i s a s i t u a t i o n which can be e a s i l y ignored and neglected. A program should be developed to p u b l i c i z e the extent of i l l i t e r a c y and to i n t e r e s t community groups i n t h i s "hidden" waste of human resources. The need i s urgent f o r t r a i n e d teachers to work w i t h the f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . The impetus given to A.B.E. through a n t i - p o v e r t y programs has increased the demand f o r these teachers. Many are teaching who have no teaching experience or experience only w i t h c h i l d r e n ; they must r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n teaching undereducated a d u l t s . This t r a i n i n g should take place i n a s p e c i a l i z e d area of the Education or Adult Education f a c u l t y of a u n i v e r s i t y . Knowledge concerning the disadvantaged a d u l t — h i s c u l t u r a l background, the s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a f f e c t h i s a b i l i t y to l e a r n — i s a v a i l a b l e ; i t must be passed on to the teacher and so b e n e f i t the a d u l t student, f o r whom i t was intended. The problem of a v a i l a b i l i t y of m a t e r i a l s f o r A.B.E. programs no longer e x i s t s . However, there i s a s i m i l a r i t y of content i n most published m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s c l i e n t e l e . Content must be r e l a t e d to the 89 needs and i n t e r e s t s of the students and i n every community, these needs and i n t e r e s t s are d i f f e r e n t . Every course must be designed to meet these needs, even i f the f l e x i b l e , c r e a t i v e teacher must adapt published m a t e r i a l or construct h i s own. There i s no one program which i s e f f e c t i v e f o r a l l A.B.E. students. M a t e r i a l s must be s t i m u l a t i n g , e n r i c h i n g and a d u l t o r i e n t e d ; the elements of drama -and humor which increase student i n t e r e s t are l a c k i n g i n most m a t e r i a l s . Topics which are meaningful to the student and which open up new areas of thought should form the b a s i s f o r content. H i s t o r y , geography, poetry, biography, s c i e n c e , consumer i n f o r m a t i o n — t h e r e i s an endless l i s t of t o p i c s which would serve to broaden h i s horizons w h i l e e s t a b l i s h i n g the communication s k i l l s . The use of programmed m a t e r i a l s should be l i m i t e d i n the beginning l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g . At t h i s stage, the student needs to i d e n t i f y w i t h the teacher or w i t h other students f o r reinforcement; he would not t h r i v e i n i s o l a t e d , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d study. A l s o , at t h i s l e v e l , much of the feedback of programmed m a t e r i a l s i s i n w r i t t e n form and the student i s not yet s u f f i c i e n t l y competent i n reading to use i t . Few of the reading systems have been t e s t e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y or f o r a long enough p e r i o d to provide any c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s . 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Adult Education: Let's Teach Adults Reading. Tallahassee, Florida: State Department of Education, 1961. 41. Smith, Edwin H . , et a l . A Revised Annotated Bibliography of Instructional Literacy Material for Adult Basic Education. Tallahassee, Florida: State Department of Education, 1966. 42. Teaching and Study Materials. The University of the State of New York, Albany, New York: State Education Department, 1966. 43. Timmins, O.H. Basic Training for Ski l l Development. Unpublished term paper. U.B.C. Aug., 1967. 44. UNESCO. Manuals on Adult and Youth Education, No. 2. Paris: UNESCO, 1961. 45. UNESCO. Simple Reading Material for Adults: Its Preparation and Use. Paris: UNESCO, 1963. 46. Verner, Coolie. "Human Characteristics of Slow-Growing Regions," Stimulants to Social Development in Slow-Growing Regions. G.R. Winter and W. Rogers (eds.). 47. Verner, Coolie. "Adult Illiteracy 1921-61," Journal of Education of the Faculty of Education. Vancouver, Canada: The University of British Columbia, Apri l , 1964. 48. Verner, Coolie. "Basic Concepts and Limitations." Learning and Society. J.P. Kidd (ed.). Toronto: C.A.A.E. , 1963. pp. 229-240. 49. Verner, Coolie. Lecture, "Characteristics of Adult Illiterates," delivered at Workshop in Adult Basic Education, Green Park, U.B.C. , Jan. 21, 1967. 50. Voskresensky, V.D. "Methods of Teaching Reading and Writing to Adults," Fundamental and Adult Education, Vol. 11, No. 3 (1959). 51. Wallace, Mary C. Literacy Instructor's Handbook. An Adventure in  Teaching. Chicago: Follett Publishing Co., 1965. 95 52. WCOTP. L i t e r a c y Handbook. Washington, D.C.: World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching P r o f e s s i o n , May, 1967. 53. Whittemore, Robert G. and E c h e v e r r i a , Ben P. "Can We Use E x i s t i n g Tests f o r Adult B a s i c Education?" Adult Education XVII, No. 1, Autumn, 1966, pp. 19-54. W i t t y , Paul A. "Campaign Against I l l i t e r a c y - A War We Must Win." B a s i c Education f o r the Disadvantaged A d u l t , Lanning and Many. Boston: H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n , 1966, pp. 56-63. 55. Z i n t z , M i l e s V. (ed.). T r a i n e r s of Teachers of Undereducated A d u l t s . Albuquerque, New Mexico: The U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico, 1965. APPENDIXES A. I l l i t e r a t e s 21 Years of Age and Over: 1921-1961 Verner, C o o l i e . "Adult I l l i t e r a c y 1921-1961," J o u r n a l of  Education of the F a c u l t y of Education. Vancouver, Canada: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1964. 3. Census Card N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P u b l i c School Education. A Guide  f o r Teacher Trainers i n Adult B a s i c Education. Washington, D.C.: NAPSAE, 1966. C. I n d i v i d u a l Record Mangano, Joseph A. Te s t i n g and Test Records. The U n i v e r s i t y of the State of New York, Albany, New York: State Education Department, (n.d.) D. Informal Reading Inventory Smith, Edwin, H. and Marie P. Adult Education: Let's Teach  Adults Reading. T a l l a h a s s e e , F l o r i d a : State Department of Education, 1961. E. Alphabet Z i n t z , M i l e s V. (ed.) Trainers of Teachers of Undereducated  Adu l t s . Albuquerque, New Mexico: The U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico, 1965. F. M a t e r i a l s "The B o o k l i s t and S u b s c r i p t i o n Books B u l l e t i n " . American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . Dec. 1, 1967. APPENDIX A Illiterates 21 Years of Age and Over: 1921-1961 I L L I T E R A T E S 21 Y E A R S O F A G E A N D O V E R : 1921 - 1961 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 T O T A L P O P . 21 N u m b e r Illiterate % Illiterate. A N D O V E R 329.4-19 2 2 , 6 9 3 6.88 4 4 8 , 2 3 8 2 0 . S 4 0 4 .65 5 7 6 , 1 0 8 4 0 , 8 7 2 8.48 7 8 2 , 9 0 4 5 2 , 9 3 6 6.76 9 9 0 , 9 3 4 5 7 , 6 9 5 5 .32 T O T A L M A L E N u m b e r Illiterate % Illiterate 194 .836 14 ,703 7.54 2 5 9 , 9 3 9 12,578 4.83 3 1 2 , 6 3 7 3 2 , 4 0 6 10.36 4 0 0 , 7 9 2 3 3 , 2 3 0 8 .29 5 0 0 , 3 2 2 3 2 , 9 5 2 6.58 T O T A L F E M A L E N u m b e r Illiterate % Illiterate 134 ,615 7 ,990 5.93 18S ,299 8,262 4 .3S 2 6 3 , 4 7 1 16,466 6.24 3 8 2 , 1 1 2 19,706 5 .25 4 9 0 , 6 1 2 24 ,743 5.04 T O T A L R U R A L % Rural 171 ,690 52.2 2 187 ,813 4 2 . 9 0 2 5 0 , 6 0 2 4 3 . 4 9 2 2 9 , 9 5 0 2 9 . 3 / 2 4 8 , 2 6 2 2 5 . 0 5 N u m b e r Illiterate % Illiterate 16,718 9.73 15 ,038 8.0 3 0 , 8 3 8 i 2 . 3 0 26 ,391 11,47 2 1 , 6 6 2 8.72 T O T A L U R B A N % Urban 157,761 47.88 2 6 0 , 4 2 5 5 8 . 0 9 3 2 5 . 5 0 6 5 6 . 5 0 5 5 2 , 9 5 4 70.62 7 4 2 , 6 7 2 74,94 N u m b e r Illiterate % Illiterate 5 ,975 3.78 5 ,802 2 . 2 0 18,034 5.54 2 6 , 5 4 5 4 . 8 0 36 .033 5 .55 APPENDIX B Census Card (LOCAL SCHOOL HEADING) CENSUS CARD — BASIC - EDUCATION S t r i c t l y confidential' — Recruiter must show identification --Information for o f f i c i a l use only. Name Phone No. (Potential Student) Address Age Sex: male female (City) Marital Status* single (check one) married not l i v i n g with spouse Years of schooling Enroll i n a class: w i l l may , w i l l not I f not - reasons: Number of children l i v i n g at home Most convenient times moraine. afternoon evening not interested children - no baby sitter poor health aged 170rk schedule lacks confidence already engaged in edu-cation doesn't appear to need basic education other reasons Should another c a l l be made* Additional information yes no Recruiter Date V J . - 1 3 APPENDIX C I n d i v i d u a l Record NAME ( P r i n t ) ADDRESS J C L S t i r s t Middle PHONE DATE . I n i t i a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l - L e v e l Placement: [] Basic [] Primary [] Intermediate Achievement Test Name and Form ! Date j Test Given Grade j Equiv .j Score Student Attendance i n Flours Remarks and Dropout Data [] Upper Teacher F i r s t Achievement Test 100 Hour Tes 200 Hour Test ^00 Hour Test. ! hOO Hour Test, j i * ! i t i 500 Hour Test i  i ! 600 Hour Test 700 Hour'Test i ! i 8 0 0 Hour Test 900 Hour Test • l l . I ! 1000 Hour Test I ! 1 • | ! ! ! i 1 -Raw Score New York State Minimum Competence Test i n Reading Percentage Date Test Given Other Test R e s u l t Name & Form of Test Date Test Given Results Remarks Teacner J APPENDIX D Informal Reading Inventory I n f o r m a l Heading Inventory Here i s a sample check sheet t h a t might he h e l p f u l i n making a reading i n -ventory f o r each a d u l t i n your group. You may f i n d many ways t o change i t t o make i t more u s e f u l t o you. Name Date Education I n s t i t u t i o n Vocabulary D i f f i c u l t i e s L e t t e r s transposed p r o n u n c i a t i o n Beginnings omitted Endings omitted Reversals Words confused Sounds added Sounds omitted Comprehension D i f f i c u l t i e s Context clue P i c t u r e clue Phonic d i f f i c u l t i e s Poor memory D i r e c t i o n s D e t a i l reading S umma r i za t i on Word reader Punctuation D i r e c t i o n a l s k i l l c -R e p e t i t i o n s S p e c i a l D i f f i c u l t i e s Reading L e v e l s * Independent I n s t r u c t i o n a l F r u s t r a t i o n C a p a c i t y S e r i e s used M a t e r i a l s recommended *Smith, Edwin H. and Marie P. Adult Education: Let's Teach Adults Reading. Tallahassee, F l o r i d a : State Department of Education, pp. 3 - 4 . 5 APPENDIX E Alphabet M A N U S C R I P T A L P H A B E T SHEET Grade two L O W E R C A S E LETTERS copyright 1958 PUBLISHED BY THE ZANER-BLOSER COMPANY, COLUMBUS, OHIO 43215 Additional copi«i art available. Catalog No. 100070 CURSIVE ALPHABET Grade three APPENDIX F M a t e r i a l s Books for Adults Beginning To Read I Revised 1967 The Committee on Reading Improvement /or Adults of the American Library Asso-ciation Adult Services Division recom-mends the following list of books for libraries developing special services for adults beginning lo read. This list repre-sents a completely edited and annotated revision of a list originally distributed in 1965 and reprinted in Wilson Library Bulletin, September 19G5, pages 6G-70 and a supplement issued in July 1966 and also reprinted in Wilson Library Bulletin, September 1966, pages 83-86. New titles are identified by an asterisk placed at the end of the imprint. Films, recordings, programmed materials, and similar ma-terials are not included although they are regarded as important in servicing the adult beginning lo read. . For the past four years the Committee •has examined and reviewed innumerable titles to determine their suitability for use with adult groups and individuals who are illiterate, functionally illiterate or whose reading skills are latent or undeveloped. The level of reading, elementary and intermediate, has been the predominant " factor in selecting these materials. Every effort has been made to cover a range of interests—basic adult education, family life, job information, personal and com-munity problems, and inspirational and pleasurable reading—within the limita-tions of reading level. Children's books are included where appeal, subject matter, and format seem appropriate for adult use. A minimum selection of instructional materials, es-pecially workbooks, has been included when the materials have self-study value. A sampling of creative writing is included for pleasure reading. The Com-mittee fully recognizes that many more well-written adult books may be read by those with limited reading skill if the subject has pulling power and if the librarian has practiced individualized reading guidance. The suitability of ma-terials for particular readers must be tested by librarians with different groups in a variety of reading situations and selecting material to meet their specific interests, needs, and abilities. Criteria for selection of books for adults beginning to read have not been suffi-ciently established because the Committee has received very little library reaction to this material. The result is a list which is somewhat uneven and by no means comprehensive. However, the list should afford a starting point for some libraries and a source of previously overlooked items for others. Its future usefulness de-pends upon testing and evaluation in the field, and the Committee hopes for a greater flow of comments. Samples of experimental materials produced by local creative writing groups and other books not readily available through commercial, publishing channels are especially wel-come. .Critical annotations and frank comments on the use of materials are also valuable. I. M A T E R I A L S A T T H E E L E M E N T A R Y R E A D I N G L E V E L Alesi, Gladys E . and Pantcll, Dora F . Family Life in the U.S.A. 1962. 133p. Re-gents, $1.25. Comprehension questions, work on usage, and sight vocabulary words follow short chapters of continuous story about everyday family situations. Small magazine size, large print, and very wide-spaced lines. First Book in American English. 1962. 241p. Oxford Book Co., 71 Fifth Ave., New York, N Y 10003, $1.65; paper, $1.10. Classroom -approach to teaching English as a new language. Contains reading material as well as drills, review exercises, and pronun-ciation guides. Content based on adult experi-ences. Illustrated. Allen, Maury. Ten Great Moments in Sports. (Interesting Reading Series) 1961. 5Sp. Follett, $1.59 net. Of special appeal to teen-age readers al-though juvenile in appearance. Approximately third-grade reading level, with short sen-tences and elementary vocabulary. Basic Dict ionary of A m e r i c a n English; 1966. 864p. Hol t , Rinehart and Winston, $3.96; paper, $1.40. Attractively illustrated, legible typeface dic-tionary giving the usual dictionary informa-tion for words on the upper elementary level. B e r g , Le i l a . F o l k Tales for Reading and Tel l ing . 1966. 124p. W o r l d , $3.95.* A collection of 18 folktales for children. The introduction is addressed to adults as story-tellers and the book has potential adult use because of the ageless folktale appeal. B lake ly , Carol ine , ed. O u r Uni ted States. 1965. 76p. N e w Readers Press, B o x 131, Syracuse, N Y 13210, paper, $1.50.* Combines articles on the 50 states reprinted from the Laubach newspaper, News jor You, in a large paperback format. Contains a glos-sary of difficult words. B r o w n , V i r g i n i a arid others. (The Skyl ine Series) B o o k A : W a t c h Out for C . 91p.; B o o k B : T h e H i d d e n Lookout . 92p.; B o o k C : W h o Cares! 91p. 1965. Webster D i v i -sion, M c G r a w - H i l l , each, $1.80. Teacher's M a n u a l for each, $1. Colorful series of school readers developed in the St. Louis schools and dealing with the daily experiences of city children—human problems with social implications. Definitely children's books but with great potential for new-reader parents to use with their children. Call T h e m Heroes. Books 1 to 4 and Teacher's M a n u a l . Developed by the B o a r d of Educat ion of the C i t y of N e w Y o r k . 1965. S i lver Burdett , each, 36c.* Attractively illustrated series of small book-lets about Negroes and immigrants who over-came poverty, prejudice, and language bar-riers to become successful citizens of New York City. High appeal but upper elementary reading level. Carnes , M a r i o n . G o i n g T o H a v e a B a b y ? 1958. 16p. K o i n o n i a Foundat ion, B o x 5744, Balt imore, M D . 21200, paper, 30c. Prepared especially for use with literacy groups as a class assignment. Furnishes valu-able practical information in 16 short pages, at a very easy reading level. C a r y , Barbara . Meet A b r a h a m Linco ln . ( S t e p - U p Books) 1965. 86p. Random, $1.95. A n easy children's book with large print which provides the highlights of Lincoln's life in a factual, simple style acceptable to adults. Cass, Ange l i ca XV. E v e r y d a y Engl i sh and Basic W o r d Lis t for Adul t s ; Useful for Reading, Wri t ing , Spel l ing and Conversa -tion. (Noble's A d u l t Basic Educat ion Se-ries) 1960. 58p. Noble and Noble, paper, $1.28. Designed for beginning-level class use but also useful to individual readers. A basic word list is taught through stories. Contains practical information on writing letters, using the dictionary, and becoming a citizen. — — H o w W e L i v e . (Noble's A d u l t Basic Educat ion Series) 1949, 1966. 152p. Noble and Noble, paper, $2.16. First-year textbook for foreign-born classes, also suitable for the native-born. Takes the new adult reader from word recognition through short easy sentences to reading these sentences in paragraph form. F i l l - in exercises. • Y o u r F a m i l y and Y o u r Job. (Noble's A d u l t Basic Educat ion Series) 1948, 1966. 71p. Noble and Noble , paper, $2.16. Short sketches focus on homemaking, nutri-tion, consumer education, family relations, and use of leisure time. Includes write-ins and a "things to do" section. More difficult than How V/e Live. Clayton , E d w a r d T . M a r t i n L u t h e r K i n g : the Peaceful W a r r i o r . ( P - H J u n i o r R e -search Books) 1964. 80p. Prent i ce -Ha l l , $3.50. Children's biography emphasizing King's childhood. Will appeal to. adults because of widespread interest in this famous Negro leader and because of its easy reading level. Commager , H e n r y S. The Firs t Book of A m e r i c a n History. 1957. 62p. Watts, $2.65. Authoritative, nicely illustrated children's history of America from its founding through World War II. On upper elementary level. Corbett , Scott. What Makes a C a r Go? 1963. 43p. Lit t le , $2.95. A children's book useful for its clear illustra-tions and simple text on how the transmis-sion, gears, clutch, and brakes of a car work. On beginning reading level. C r o c k e r , Betty. Betty Crocker's N e w G o o d and Easy Cookbook. 1962. 192p. Go lden Press, $1.99.* Spiral-bound, gayly illustrated book giving in simple style recipes for every meal of the day. Includes information useful to the beginning cook. On upper elementary level. Engl i sh Readers G r a d e d Series. Reader 1: Stories T o Surprise Y o u . 1964. 87p. C o l -l i e r - M a c m i l l a n , paper, 85c. Seven stories, including Poe's "The Purloined Letter" and Maupassant's "The Necklace," have been shortened and simplified for read-ing on the upper elementary level. A 2,000-word vocabulary; questions and exercises at the end. 2 Epstein, Samuel and Epstein, Beryl. George Washington Carver: Negro Scientist. (Discovery Books) 1960. 80p. Garrard, $1.98. A children's book with interesting text and il-lustrations on the youth of this pioneering Negro scientist. Evcnson, Beverly. Eating Is Fun. 1958. lOp. Koinonia Foundation, Box 5744, Balti-more, MD 21200, paper, 30c. A booklet written and illustrated as a class assignment. Advice on how to make eating fun for "small ones." Line drawings add a light touch. The Face of Danger: True Stories and Re-ports Adapted from Life Magazine. (Adult Basic Education Series) 1967. 126p. Silver Burdett, $1.05* True stories and reports portray the exciting adventures of real-life heroes. Attractively il-. lustrated with photographs, and adult in for-mat and appeal. Farquhar, Margaret C. Colonial Life in America. (A Book To Begin On) 1962. 42p. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, $2.75.. Gracefully illustrated account of the daily lives and customs of the colonists. Intended for children, but could be used effectively with adults. Federal Textbook on Citizenship; Becom-ing- a Citizen Series. 1964. Superintendent — of Documents, Government Printing Of-fice, Wash., DC 20402, paper; Book 1. Our American Way of Life. 105p. 65c; Book 2. Our United States. 118p. 75c; Book 3. Our Government. 128p. $1.25. Naturalization textbooks which begin with an elementary treatment and move to a progres-sively more detailed, and difficult, description of the U.S. system of government. Book 1 em-phasizes practical aspects of living. Books 2 and 3 focus on history and the Constitution. Francis, Roger and Iftikhar, Sam. How To Find a Job. Rev. ed. 1963. 24p. New Read-ers Press, Box 131, Syracuse, NY 13210, paper, 30c. Brief but useful information, covering the want ads, the application, and the interview. Illustrated. Goldberg, Herman R., ed. The Job Ahead. v.1-3, Levels I-III (New Rochester Occu-pational Reading Series) 1963. each, 168p. Science Research Associates, each, $3.95. Books on three reading levels, workbooks, and a Teacher's Manual are available. The same information is presented in each volume but the vocabulary, sentence structure, apd other elements become progressively more difficult. Stories such as "Starting Work," "On the Job," "Working for the City," and "Time Out for Leisure,", concentrate on promoting basic occupation and social skills and atti-tudes. Cover is dull. Gorelick, Molly C. and Gracber, Jean B. Flood at Dry Creek. (Rescue Series: No.2) 1967. 40p. Ritchie, $2.92 net.* Fictional adventure tale of how a rescue squad saved Dry Creek. Details of rescue op-erations are of interest to adults, as well as to the intended juvenile audience. At the third-grade reading level. Goss, Jocelyn P. The Thomases Live Here. (Holt Adult Basic Education. First Series) 1965. 150p. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, $2.20. A paperback written especially for adults as supplementary reading. The Thomases are a low-income rural family whose problems may be like those of some beginning adult readers. New words and questions at the end of each chapter. Guyton, Mary L. and Kielty, Margaret E. From Words to Stories. (Noble's Adult Basic Education Series) 1951. 83p. Noble and Noble, $2.16. An illustrated textbook planned for the for-eign-born but not limited to that audience. Begins with everyday words and builds them into simple stories which develop a reading knowledge of words and signs found in busi-ness places and newspapers. Low elementary level. Henderson, Ellen C. and Henderson, Twila L. Learning to Read and Write. (Holt Adult Basic Education. First Series) 196f 148p. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, $2.68. The textbook for the Holt series. Lessons start with the alphabet and focus on reading, writ-ing, and spelling. Designed for group use, but the short stories could be interesting to indi-vidual readers. Green pages at the end con-tain material for the teacher. Home and Family Life Series. Produced by Project for Literacy Education under sponsorship of Federal Security Agency, rev. by E. W. Griffin. Reader 1: A Day With the Brown Family. 34p.; Reader 2: Making a Good Living. 28p.; Reader 3: The Browns at School. 27p.; Reader 4: The Browns and Their Neighbors. 14p. 1960, 1961. Arthur C. Croft Publications, New London, CT 06320, paper, each, 50c. Long a standard in literacy classes. Despite dull format and sometimes childish style, re-mains useful for its simple presentation of or-dinary life situations as faced by the Brown family. Howard, Ruth. With Needle and Thread. 1966. [unpaged]. Kalamazoo Library Sys-3 tem, Adult Reading Center, 315 S. Rose St., Kalamazoo, MI 49006, paper, 50c.* Practical mimeographed booklet which de-scribes and illustrates four types of mending. Very easy reading level. Knott, B i l l . They Work and Serve. 1967. 151p. Steck-Vaughn, $1.65.* Eleven imaginative stories describing such jobs as that of mechanic, truck driver, nurse's aide, policeman, and waitress. Clear style with short sentences and realistic dialog. Attractive format. Laubach, Frank and Hord, Pauline Jones. A Door Opens. (Streamlined English Se-ries) 1963. 122p. Macmillan, paper, $1.25. Fictional account of the Hill family's joys and woes—as Grandpa joins the household, one of the children nearly dies, the family seeks new housing, and daughter Ann gets engaged. In-teresting content and inviting format. Going Forward. (Streamlined English Series) 1963. 78p. Macmillan, paper, $1. Sequel to A Door Opens and on a somewhat more advanced reading level. The Hill family moves into a housing project, becomes in-volved with the P T A , and sees daughter Ann marry. The Story of Jesus. 2d rev. ed. Part 1: Jesus' Birth and Ministry. 61p.; Part 2: Jesus' Death and Resurrection. 63p.; Part 3: The Parables of Jesus. 63p. 1963. New Readers Press, Box 131, Syracuse, NY 13210, paper, each, 40c. Adults with only rudimentary reading skills but with strong religious interests will ap-preciate these brief pamphlets on Jesus' life which progress in difficulty and include new word lists. The New Streamlined English Series. 1966-1967. Skill Books 1-3 and Teacher's Manual. Macmillan, Skill Book 1: Sounds and Names of Letters. 72p. $1.25; Skill Book 2: Short Vowel Sounds. 80p. $1.25; Skill Book 3: Long Vowel Sounds. 128p. $1.40; Teacher's Guide, $2.* The beginning of a basic reading and writing course for both non-English- and English-speaking adults and an expansion of the "Laubach method." The illustrated work-books and lesson guides are designed to teach English phonetically. Includes stories which may be used as supplementary reading. McGovcrn, Ann. Runaway Slave; the Story of Harriet Tubman. 1965. [unpaged]. Scholastic Book Services, 900 Sylvan Ave., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, paper, 45c. An easy-to-read story of the Civil War her-oine which is adult in interest, style, and il-lustration. Making- the Most of Your Money, [n.d.] 47p. Educational Division, Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017, paper, free.* Practical, readable, true to life. Lessons in consumer education for adults on buying used cars, shopping in the supermarket, "easy pay-ment" plans, and other money transactions. Melville, Herman.' Billy Budd. (Ladder Classic) 1905. 128p. Popular Library, paper, 40c. The "Ladder Classics" are a series of titles shortened, simplified, and adapted for new adult readers. Billy Budd is written with a 1,000-word vocabulary. Other titles in the se-ries use 2,000 words. Typical paperback for-mat. Other titles, which are the same length and price, are Golden Trails, selected short, stories by Bret Harte; The Turn oj the Screw, by Henry James; and The Red Badge oj Courage, by Stephen Crane. Morris, Phyllis D. Life With the Lucketts. (Holt Adult Basic Education. First Series) 1965. 151p. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, paper, $2.20. Similar to The Thomases Live Here, by Goss, above, but concerns the problems of a New York City family. O'Connor, Grace. Helping Your Children. 1966.103p. Steck-Vaughn, $1.65.* Simple, practical, but somewhat sketchy guide for mothers. Some chapters are written in story form while others use a direct approach. Illustrated, elementary. Parker, Gordon. Great Moments in American History. (Interesting Reading Series) 1961. 43p. Follett, $1.59 net. Useful, brief stories (onc-to-four pages in length), chiefly of appeal to teen-age readers. Powell, Walter. Our World Is Small. 1964. [unpaged]. New Readers Press, Box 131, Syracuse, NY 13210, paper, 30c* Photographs with brief, one-sentence captions illustrate international understanding for the beginning adult reader. Prevo, Helen. Family Life. 1967. 78p. Frank E. Richards, 215 Church St., Phoe-nix, NY 13135, $4.75.* Simply written stories about a young couple dealing with realistic family situations such as apartment and job hunting, bringing up chil-dren, moving, and taking sewing lessons. Putnam, Mildred. Working with Words. 1966. 96p. Steck-Vaughn, 96c* Working with Word Patterns. 1937. 95p. Steck-Vaughn, 96c* Useful, illustrated workbooks for adults with beginning reading skills. Lessons include short readings. Teacher's Manual available. 4 Header's Digest. Adult Readers. Step 1: Second Chance; "Send for Red!"; Mystery of the Mountains; Workers in the Sky. Step 2: Men Who Dare the Sea; A Race To Remember; Santa Fe Traders; Valley of 10,000 Smokes. Step 3: First at the Fin-ish; Guides to High Adventure; "I Fell 18,000 Feet"; What's on the Moon? 1964-1965. each, 32p. Reader's Digest. Pleasant-ville, NY 10570, paper, each, 25c. Simplified versions of stories from Reader's Digest, illustrated and presented in a format similar to that of the magazine; The reading level begins at the elementary and progresses in difficulty. Skill development exercises are included after each story. Reading Skill Builder. Books 1 to 6. (Several Parts). 1958-1965. [paging varies.] Reader's Digest, Pleasantville, NY 10570, paper, each, 80c* Workbook readers prepared to develop read-ing skills at first- through sixth-grade levels. The "Skill Builder Series" is made up of four books at the first-grade level and of three-part sets for each grade thereafter. Brief ex-ercises for improving comprehension and word skills follow each study selection. All stories have been selected from the Reader's Digest, are high in interest appeal, and are varied in subject matter. Though produced for children, the magazine format will enhance adult appeal. A Teacher's Edition and an "Advanced Reading Skill Builder" series are available. Readings: English as a Second Lan-guage. Books 1 to 4. 1963-1964. each, 144p. Reader's Digest, Pleasantville, NY 10570, paper, each, $1. Books 1 and 2 cover material at the elemen-tary level, Books 3 and 4 the intermediate level. The series, which also includes two ad-vanced titles, has been planned to improve the reader's proficiency in the use of English and to increase his vocabulary by gradually introducing hew words. Exercises and special vocabulary listings aid students. Science Reader. Green Book, 128p.; Orange Book, 128p.; Blue Book, 144p.; Red Book, 144p. 1961-1964. Reader's Digest, Pleasantville, NY 10570, paper, each, $1. General science stories and articles adapted from the Reader's Digest. The Green and Or-ange Books have been prepared for third-and fourth-grade reading levels, the Blue and Red Books for fifth- and sixth-grade reading levels. Simple experiments, questions, and other books to read are included at the end of each article. Reynolds, James J. and others. Short Sto-ries of Famous Men. 1953. 309p. Noble and Noble, $3.20. Brief biographies of outstanding men such as Julius Caesar, George Washington, and Thomas A. Edison. Written for children but the stories will not offend the adult reader. Has a somewhat old-fashioned schoolbook appearance. Robertson, M. S. Adult Reader. 1964. 127p. Steck-Vaughn, paper, 96c. Excellent workbook dealing with adult inter-ests. Includes writing and vocabulary exer-cises and a word list. First published in 1949 as Veteran's Reader. Rosenfckl, Jcannctte B. and Cass, Ange-lica W. Write Your Own Letters; Simple Letters for Adults. 1956. 64p. Noble and Noble, paper, $1.08. Attractive, large-print book with a high level of adult interest. Includes examples of busi-ness and social letters, checks, postal money orders, and telegrams. . Smith, Edwin H. and Lutz, .Florence Radcr. My Country. Rev. ed. 1964. 96p. Steck-Vaughn, paper, 72c. A good, popular workbook for beginning readers which is useful for both foreign- and native-born. Much repetition of words. Vo-cabulary list precedes each chapter. Spitze, Hazel Taylor and Rotz, Patricia H. We Are What We Eat. 1966. lOlp. Steck-Vaughn, paper, 96c* Family-centered, beginning reading exercises which are adult in format, style, and interest level. Clear print and illustrations. Stilwcll, Hart. Looking at Man's Past. 1965. 48p. Steck-Vaughn, $2. An attractive children's book with excellent illustrations, clear type, short paragraphs, and a few difficult words. High interest potential for adults. Truth and Tales; Stories and Reports adapted from UNESCO Features. 1967. 119p. Silver Burdett, paper, $1.05.* This first title in a new "Adult Basic Educa-tion Program" requires testing because it re-sembles a children's book in choice of folktale and in illustration. U.S. Children's Bureau. When Your Baby Is on the Way. 1961. [unpaged]. Superin-tendent of Documents, Government Print-ing Office. Wash., DC 20402,15c • Your Baby's First Year. 1962. [unpaged]. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash., DC 20402, 15c. -Your Child from 1 to 3. 1964. [unpaged]. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash., DC 20402, 20c* Attractive, sensible picture leaflets covering 5 •many aspects of childbirth and baby care. Quick and easy reading for adult beginners. U.S. Dept. oj Health, Education, anid Wel-fare. Joe Wheeler Finds a Job and Learns About Social Security. OASI-Soa, June 19G4. 22p. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash., DC 20102, paper, 25c. Practical Social Security pamphlet in popular comic-book format. High subject interest to adults. Wallace, Wary C. Figure It Out. Books 1 and 2. (Educational Opportunities Proj-ect) 1965. G4p.Follett, paper, Book 1, 9Gc; Book 2, $1.08. Arithmetic books with high adult interest. Book 1 is at the beginning level and Book 2 at the intermediate level. Wanamaltcr, Pearl A. Short Stories of Famous Women. 1949. 270p. Noble & Noble, $3.20. Fictionalized biographies about such women as Joan of Arc, Dolly Madison, and Madame Curie. Written for children but the style should not offend the adult reader. Has a somewhat old-fashioned schoolbook appear-ance. Watson, Willie Mac. We Honor Them. v. 1 and 2. 1964-1965. each, 48p. New Readers Press, Box 131, Syracuse, NY 13210, paper, each, 40c\ Each, booklet contains illustrated, easy-to-read, one-page sketches of Negroes who have helped their fellowmen. Suggestions for exer-cises and games are included. Beginning read-ing level, progresses in difficulty. Weil, Ann. Eleanor Roosevelt, Coura-geous Girl. (Childhood of Famous Ameri-cans) 19G5. 200p. Bobbs-Merrill, $2.25. A simply written story about Eleanor Roose-velt's childhood. Juvenile in treatment, with school-text type of cover, but of potential in-terest and appeal to adult readers. White, Nancy. Meet John F. Kennedy. (Step-Up Books) 1965. 85p. Random, $1.95. A children's book with simple text, good pho-tographs, and large type. Subject will appeal to the beginning adult reader. Wingcrson, E'Lane. Baby Care. Rev. by Betty Cleland. 1966. 21p. Kalamazoo L i -brary System, Adult Reading Center, 315 S. Rose St., Kalamazoo, MI 4900G, paper, 50c. A simply written, excellent stapled pamphlet on baby care for beginning adult readers. One of several published by Kalamazoo. 6 

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