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The detached Work Program of the Boys Club of Vancouver : an analysis of the detached work program, its… Mclean, Alan 1967

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THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM OF THE BOYS CLUBS OF VANCOUVER  A n A n a l y s i s o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work its  Program,  i n i t i a t i o n and p r o g r e s s  f r o m May 1 9 6 4 -  September 1967  by  A l a n McLean Douglas  Purdy  Barry Worsfold  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l for  t h e Degree the  F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Requirements  o f MASTER OF S O C I A L WORK i n  School o f Social  Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard degree o f Master o f S o c i a l  School o f S o c i a l  required Work  Work  1967 The U n i v e r s i t y  ofBritish  Columbia  f o r the  ABSTRACT  The  purpose of the study  was:  To d e s c r i b e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n a i m s o f d e t a c h e d w o r k a p p r o a c h e s b e t w e e n V a n c o u v e r and o t h e r m a j o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n c e n t r e s . To a n a l y z e t h e a t t e m p t e d f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e d e t a c h e d w o r k p r o gram o f t h e B o y s C l u b s o f V a n c o u v e r . To s u g g e s t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f d a t a g a t h e r i n g t o o l s t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e B o y s C l u b s o f V a n c o u v e r w i t h more a c c u r a t e and r e s e a r c h a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n for future i n q u i r i e s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were f o r m u l a t e d f o r : The o r g a n i z a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e a r e a s w h e r e d e t a c h e d w o r k was i n itiated . The y o u t h s w i t h whom t h e d e t a c h e d w o r k e r made c o n t a c t . D a t a was p r o v i d e d by t h e B o y s C l u b d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r e - -and p o s t - o r i e n t a t i o n program which they o f f e r e d to t h e i r l i n e detached workers. A third s e t o f d a t a r e g a r d i n g l i n e w o r k e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g and r o l e was o b t a i n e d by u s i n F e b r u a r y 1967 u s i n g t h e same t o o l as the. B o y s C l u b for t h e i r documentation. We  used  the above d a t a t o o l s  to attempt to determine  the  following:  The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d e t a c h e d w o r k e r o n d e l i n q u e n c y r a t e s , f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , p e e r g r o u p a n d . a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . The amount o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e d e t a c h e d w o r k program. The w o r k e r s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e and any d i s c r e p a n c i e s f r o m t h e p r e s c r i b e d r o l e f o r m u l a t e d by t h e s p o n s o r i n g a g e n c y . Provisional  findings  a r e as  follows:  More y o u t h s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s than d e c r e a s e d t h e i r d e l i n que\nt a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h t h e d e t a c h e d w o r k e r . N o . w o r k was d o n e w i t h t h e f a m i l i e s o f t h e i n v o l v e d t e e n s . P a t t e r n s o f l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e detached worker's presence. The number o f r e f e r r a l s t h a t a g e n c i e s s t a t e d t h e y w a n t e d f r o m t h e d e t a c h e d w o r k p r o g r a m was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r (5,0% y e s 25% no) t h a n a c t u a l l y h a n d led ( 6 % yes 1.5% no) . T h e r e was a s i m i l a r t r e n d i n t h e number o f r e f e r r a l s w a n t e d and h a n d l e d b y t h e d e t a c h e d w o r k p r o g r a m ( 3 6 % w a n t e d r e f e r r a l s 19% actual referrals). 507o o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t a c t e d s t a t e d t h e y c o u l d t a k e a more a c t i v e r o l e i n the d e t a c h e d work program l a r g e l y i n the a r e a o f use o f f a c i l i t i e s . O b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h e a r e a o f t h e w o r k e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s r o l e (#3 p a g e 2) w e r e t o t a l l y s u b j e c t i v e and l a r g e l y w i t h o u t s t a t i s t i c a l reliability.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I A. B.  INTRODUCTION PROBLEM FORMULATION D i f f i c u l t i e s . e n c o u n t e r e d i n Problem F o r m u l a t i o n D i s c u s s i o n o f Detached Work Program . Statement o f Assumptions F o r m u l a t i o n o f Hypotheses R a t i o n a l e f o r the Development o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as T o o l s f o r G a t h e r i n g Data.  CHAPTER I I OUTLINE OF THE THEORY OF DETACHED WORK PRACTICED IN NORTH AMERICA AND AN OUTLINE OF SOME OF THE PROGRAMS IN MAJOR NORTH AMERICAN URBAN CENTRES H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s . D e f i n i t i o n s of and B a s i c Sets o f F a c t o r s t o g a i n an Understanding of Detached Work: 1) The Delinquent S u b c u l t u r e , 2) The D e l i n q u e n t Group, 3) The d e l i n q u e n t I n d i v i d u a l , 4) The Agency Worker; D i f f e r e n t Agency Approaches: 1) Treatment, 2) Area, 3) Balanced R e f e r r a l Intake and Grouping; General Purpose and O b j e c t i v e s : 1) C o n t r o l , 2) Treatment, 3) O p p o r t u n i t i e s , 4) Value Change, 5) P r e v e n t i o n , 6) S u p e r v i s i o n . S t r u c t u r e d o u t l i n e of Detached Work Programs i n some Major North American C i t i e s . CHAPTER I I I AN EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF THE ORIENTATION. PROGRAM OFFERED TO DETACHED WORKERS BY THE BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER IN THE SUMMER OF 1966 Summary of L i t e r a t u r e D e a l i n g With: 1) R o l e , 2) T r a i n i n g , 3) S e l e c t i o n , 4) S k i l l s Necessary f o r P r a c t i c i n g Detached Work. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f : Three I d e n t i c a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s g i v e n t o L i n e Detached Workers over a p e r i o d of Ten Months (May 1966 - Feb. 1967) A Comparative A n a l y s i s o f : Worker Performance i n R e l a t i o n t o S t a t e d Agency Goals; Recommendations and C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r Future O r i e n t a t i o n Programs. Programs. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA REGARDING HYPOTHESES E v a l u a t i o n of Responses t o Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o Organization Administrators S t a t i s t i c a l Breakdown of Responses t o Agency Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and Teen Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  iv.  Six Charts i n d i c a t i n g S i g n i f i c a n t correlations and P e r c e n t a g e B r e a k d o w n t o R e l a t e d A r e a s i n Questionnaires. C o n c l u s i o n s Drawn f r o m C h a r t s and I m p l i c a t i o n s CHAPTER V  . SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  88  BIBLIOGRAPHY  92  APPENDICES: APPENDIX A  G o a l s o f Boys C l u b s o f V a n c o u v e r Detached P r o g r a m f o r Summer P r o j e c t 1 9 6 6  APPENDIX B  P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t o f Boys  Work  Club of Vancouver,  D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m APPENDIX C  O r i e n t a t i o n Program  APPENDIX D  T e s t used t o g a t h e r Data r e g a r d i n g Program  APPENDIX E  95  97 98 Orientation  F i v e Graphs showing worker r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n 6 on t h e t e s t u s e d t o g a t h e r d a t a o v e r t h r e e different administrations  99  102  V .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  We w i s h t o e x p r e s s o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n t o E w a r t B l a c k m o o r e , M.S.C. for h i s assistance data c o l l e c t i o n  i n making  instruments.  a v a i l a b l e a computer  and h i s time t o program o u r  CHAPTER I  Today, t h e word " d e l i n q u e n c y " i s so c a s u a l l y would  tend to t h i n k  that either  so much i s known a b o u t any  day  and  end  tossed about  that  one  the whole y o u t h p o p u l a t i o n i s d e l i n q u e n t ; o r ,  d e l i n q u e n c y t h a t someone w i l l  a l l t h e h e a d a c h e s and h e a r t a c h e s  stumble  u p o n THE  of a u t h o r i t i e s  and  answer  parents  alike. A t b e s t , i t i s a v e r y tenuous delinquency  i s usually  emotion-filled  d i s c u s s i o n s o f t e n emanate f r o m  fondly  and v a g u e t e r m .  and  discussion  emotion-provoking.  the i n d i v i d u a l  of  F u r t h e r , these  remembered p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s ,  "perceived d e l i n q u e n t a c t s " of today's youths t h a t i s , a c t s m o r a l l y j u d g e d by  Any  ( m o s t l y on h e a r s a y  and  evidence)  t o be o f a d e l i n q u e n t  -  (whatever  t h a t means') n a t u r e . In (1966),  a r e p o r t to the annual meeting  the D i r e c t o r  of the Department o f Detached  organization stated: the p r i m a r y aims has  o f the Boys Clubs o f  been to p r e v e n t the spread o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . centred" a c t i v i t i e s  the c i t y  s e r v i c e s a r e -a m a j o r  where y o u t h g u i d a n c e Unfortunately, states,  "one  for this On  fied  ing  this  in districts  and  No  Boys' of  necessity."^  a u t h o r assumes r e a d e r s w i l l  definitions  of  sections  know w h a t he  o f the p r i m a r y aims has b e e n to p r e v e n t the s p r e a d  juvenile delinquency". erence  Work S e r v i c e s f o r t h a t  " S i n c e t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e B o y s C l u b movement, one  Clubs have o p e r a t e d " b u i l d i n g  when he  Vancouver  are forwarded  means of  to p r o v i d e a frame of  ref-  phrase.  p a g e 3 o f t h e same r e p o r t , he  and w o r k e d w i t h w e r e  states,  'delinquent a c t i v i t i e s '  F l e m i n g , J o h n ; " S t o p o n any f o r 1966 ( F e b r u a r y ,21, 1967)  Street  Corner."  "The which  p 1.  major  problems  consisted of  Report  identidrinking,  to Annual  Meet-  theft, vandalism f i n g which  was  to p r i v a t e  later  and  to spread  p u b l i c p r o p e r t y , and  the upsurge of  i n other.areas of Vancouver."  frame of r e f e r e n c e , r a t h e r a l i s t i n g o f v a l u e - l a d e n c o n c e p t s activities". and  F u r t h e r , i s the s t u d e n t  "delinquent a c t i v i t i e s " Also,  grams and  "youth  guidance  the s e r v i c e community.  and  read  complete  through  dents  the assumption  m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  were n o t p r o v i d e d  In  one  and  prothe  same,  whatsoever.  f i r s t major e x p l o r a t o r y procirculated  widely i n  to a s c e r t a i n  the b a s i c  as w e l l a s  delinquent)  (non-delinquent  program.The  t h i s u n d e r l i n e d statement  stu-  t o be v e r g i n g  on  facts.  document s p e c i f i c  r e s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e was  also estab-  aspects of the p r o j e c t " .  The  stu-  the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet w i t h the " r e s e a r c h c o m m i t t e e " .  these d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  and  a committee u n t i l i n spite  t h e r e p o r t was  o f them, t h e  read.  students  to p r o v i d e a t a n g i b l e frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a -  t i o n s of detached  work w i t h "unreached"  quent a c t s " .  students preferred, also,  youth  delinquency"  these a s s e r t i o n s  -...was d o c u m e n t e d and  made o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h  view of  have a t t e m p t e d  to support  o n p a g e §•, i t i s s t a t e d , "A  t o c o l l e c t d a t a and  No m e n t i o n was  i n essence  p u r p o s e o f t h i s p r o j e c t was  found  "delinquent  t h a t Boys' Clubs  r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n and  t h i s r e p o r t and  Again, lished  The  of  no  same?  that, "...the  i n t e r e s t s of "unreached youth"  to study  dents  the  s e r v i c e s " are  the s t u d e n t s r e a d  j e c t " M o b i l i z i n g Unreached Youth"  n e e d s and  and  frame o f r e f e r e n c e o r e v i d e n c e  Secondly,  There i s y e t  t o assume t h a t " j u v e n i l e  the s t u d e n t s must a c c e p t  s e r v i c e s and  w i t h o u t any  a r e one  glue-snif-  The  youths,  some who  have committed  "delin-  to c o n s i d e r the a c t r a t h e r than  the  as d e l i n q u e n t . The  most d i f f i c u l t  t a s k has  been a t t e m p t i n g  to s p e c i f i c a l l y  w h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f D e t a c h e d Work h a v e b e e n .  2  Ibid,  p.  4.  pinpoint  Also,  to  d e f i n e what i s i n f e r r e d by t h e m u l t i t u d e o f terms c a s t about i n r e p o r t s such " r e c k l e s s fjservices",  "social  "juvenile delinquency",  adjustment forms", " s o c i a l development  "community  forms",  "social  - p r e v e n t i o n f o c u s " , " a g g r e s s i v e group work", " c o u n s e l l i n g  "community o r g a n i z a t i o n " , states  Some o f t h e s e t e r m s a r e :  "detached work", "youth guidance s e r v i c e s " , " r e s e a r c h " ,  development", adjustment  abandon".  t o name.a f e w . .These t e r m s  t h a t t h e y c o u l d mean a n y t h i n g t o In  knowledge,  the I n t r o d u c t i o n  this  3) G r o u p s e r v i c e s ,  i n such  1) u n r e a c h e d  (Note:  fluid  anyone.  t o t h e Summer P r o j e c t  4) C o u n s e l l i n g  Definitions and d i f f u s e .  are applied  services",  - 1966 ( T o t h e s t u d e n t ' s  i s a s much as h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d o f t h e r e p o r t ) s e v e r a l  t i o n s were f o r w a r d e d i e :  with  defini-  g r o u p s , ,2) N o n - P r e - a n d D e l i n q u e n t g r o u p s  services,  5) Community  o n e a n d two a r e a d e q u a t e  services.  but three through f i v e  See p a g e s 11 - 14 Summer R e p o r t o f Boys' C l u b s o n  a r e vague Detached  Work,1966). The regarding and  D i r e c t o r o f the Department  the design, design of tools  the development  perceived hypotheses  of tools  o f Detached  Work e x p r e s s e d  t o measure e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the program,  to e v a l u a t e the O r i e n t a t i o n Program.  t h e s e c o n c e r n s as d i r e c t i n g  concecns  their efforts  The s t u d e n t s  t o f o r m i n g o b j e c t i v e , and  i n a r e a s such as t h e f o l l o w i n g : A-.  To d e s c r i b e  the s i m i l a r i t i e s  D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m  and d i f f e r e n c e s  approaches  o f Vancouver  i n aims  of the  and o t h e r  major  centres. B.  To a n a l y z e t h e a t t e m p t e d f u l f i l l m e n t o f g o a l s o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m  '  o f the Boys Clubs o f  To d e v e l o p h y p o t h e s e s test C.  Vancouver.  and c o l l e c t a n d a n a l y z e d a t a t h a t  these hypotheses.  To make a b e g i n n i n g f o r m u l a t i o n o f d a t a g a t h e r i n g will  will  p r o v i d e the Department  o f Detached  tools  that  Work w i t h more a c c u r a t e  4.  and D.  researchable  information for future  inquiries.  The D e t a c h e d W o r k e r a s a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e o u t c o m e s o f work w i t h  E.  youths.  The i n f l u e n c e f a c t o r o f t h e O r i e n t a t i o n P r o g r a m i n d e f l e c t i n g t h e new w o r k e r s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e " D e t a c h e d W o r k e r R o l e " t o 1  F.  align with  the "Detached Worker's Role  Boys C l u b s  o f Vancouver.  I n view of s p e c i f i c the s i m i l a r i t y  goals  student's  t i o n and r e s e a r c h .  to  "start  data  detached  and r e l i a b l e  investiga-  M o s t o f t h e 1966 m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d was n o t a v a i l a b l e i n a  t o a n y o n e b u t t h e B o y s ' C l u b s t a f f members.  T h u s , i t was  the detached work s e r v i c e i n o r d e r  a n d make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s  necessary to r e p o r t  and r e s e a r c h  into  work.  Problem  Formulation  Firstly,  problem f o r m u l a t i o n proved d i f f i c u l t  of e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o This  role  Workers.  T h i s was a d r a w b a c k t o a n y v a l i d  from s c r a t c h " to analyze  results  and a c t u a l  r e p o r t o n t h e Summer P r o j e c t - 1966 was n o t c o m p l e t e t o t h e  knowledge.  form usable  s t a t e d f o r t h e Summer P r o j e c t - 1 9 6 6 ,  between agency r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s  performance o f Detached The  Expectations" of the  t h e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m o f t h e B o y s ' C l u b s  s i t u a t i o n arose 1.  because o f s e v e r a l  The e x p e c t a t i o n s "ought"  h e l d by t h e Boys' C l u b  to provide  School  as t o what such a  of the research  an adequate r e s e a r c h  study  continuing  i n t h e community o f V a n c o u v e r .  o f S o c i a l Work who w i s h e d  received  o f Vancouver.  f o r them a s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r  The a c a d e m i c e x p e c t a t i o n s  phases  factors:  p u r s u i t s with "unreached" youth 2.  i n the beginning  c o n s u l t a n t from the  to ensure that the students  experience.  5.  3.  Problem e x p l o r a t i o n s  were c o n s i d e r a b l y  fact.that  of  the  report  the  1966  slowed because of  D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m o f  Boys' Clubs of Vancouver i s i n c o m p l e t e even to m a t e r i a l was required 4.  The  limited.  to the p o i n t  Thus, the define  for  c o n c e p t s , and  question  given  d e t a c h e d work?  the  icular  (b)  vaguely  misleading.  to c o n s i s t e n t l y  the  Boys C l u b s  s t u d e n t s was:  create  the  Why  necessity  recurring specific  the  for  in  need  services  conditions  that  lend  lack of c r e a t i v e , organized  in  any  diverse  expressions  partof  wants  adolescent  activities  i n the  populations  and  community  that  d r a w them i n  participation.  behaviour which w i l l  support f o r , or knowledge of discourage  b e h a v i o u r on  illegitimate  the p a r t  them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s a n c t i o n e d  c o m m u n i t y on  a wide  adolescents.  lack of parental  existence  by  lack of workers with  themselves to the  the  the  a v a i l a b l e f o r use  and  i n t e r e s t s of  the  u s e d was  totally  t o by  Detached  c o n s i s t e n t l y repeated:  to f u l f i l l i n g  (d)  terminology  the  What c o n d i t i o n s  skills  sanctioned  Little  exploration  the Department of  hampered i n h a v i n g  and  the  type of  a m b i g u o u s and  that confronted  of youth populations  interest  (c)  the  lack of c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s  variety  by  programs r e f e r r e d  T h e r e seem t o be  environment that are (a)  this date.  t h e i r method o f .approach.  D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m s ?  s u c h as  of being  s t u d e n t ' s w o r k was  describing first  Above t h i s ,  the  the  material.  d e s c r i p t i v e material provided  defined  The  a v a i l a b l e that permitted  to develop r e s e a r c h a b l e  Work was  the  of adolescents legitimate  o f gaps i n the p r o v i s i o n o f the p a r t  and  o f p u b l i c and  limit-setting morally  and  encourage  activities.  services  voluntary  un-  in  the  organizations.  C e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n s are not being be  expressing  s i m p l y be  themselves  in illegitimate  They may  o r may  activities..  It  t h a t t h e i r community does n o t p o s s e s s  vices considered and  served.  fundamentally  u s e f u l to t h e i r  not may  the b a s i c s e r leisure-growth  development.  T y p i c a l l y , d e t a c h e d -work s e r v i c e s h a v e b e e n u t i l i z e d ment o f i n f l u e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d e t a c h e d groups of youngsters  i n -a t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n .  w o r k e r s and  as  the  develop-  individuals  I t i s a process  aimed a t  or  social  3  c o n t r o l of "delinquent behaviour". prevention.  S u c h c l a i m s c a n n o t be  T h e r e may  tried  claims  to  delinquency  s u b s t a n t i a t e d because adequate  methods have n e i t h e r been d e v e l o p e d adequately  e v e n be  to a p o i n t of v a l i d i t y  i n a sufficient variety  of circumstances  and and  research  reliability  nor  environments.  ASSUMPTIONS T h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s we framework w h e r e i n ered  in particular  h y p o t h e s e s may areas  be  are attempting  s t r u c t u r e d t o t e s t and  o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m o f  to e s t a b l i s h  analyze  data  the Boys' ;Clubs  a  gathof  Vancouver. 1.  ,  We  first  assume t h a t t h e r e was  of s e r v i c e s of p u b l i c tions  thus  and  a recognized  voluntary  ^ gap  i n patterns  leisure-time organiza-  c r e a t i n g the need f o r an a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e g y o r  a p p r o a c h t h a t c o u l d be  employed  populations called."unreached"  to reach ^  specific  target  groups.  The c l o s e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f " d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r " comes i n " S t o p o n any S t r e e t C o r n e r " w h e r e t h e a u t h o r w r i t e s "The m a j o r p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d • a n d worked w i t h were ' d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s ' w h i c h c o n s i s t e d of d r i n k i n g , t h e f t , v a n d a l i s m t o p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p r o p e r t y , and t h e u p s u r g e o f g l u e - s n i f f i n g w h i c h was l a t e r s p r e a d i n o t h e r a r e a s o f V a n c o u v e r " . p 3.  DEFINITIONS 1:1  recognized  - r e f e r s to the cognizance of..police, leisure'time workers, parents, ceived  public  a u t h o r i t i e s who p e r -  groups o f youths congregating  i n given,  areas with  no f o r m a l  expressing  themselves i n delinquent,  or unacceptable 1:2  and s c h o o l  organizational ties  and w e r e  anti-social,,  behaviour.  - r e f e r s to those o r g a n i z a t i o n s , nity  centres,  who d e r i v e  lars  and/or other  their  i n p a r t i c u l a r c.ommu funds from t a x d o l -  means a n d h a v e a c o m m u n i t y s a n -  c tion. •1:3  voluntary  - r e f e r s to those o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  i n particular  Y.M.C.A.'s, Y.W.C.A.'s, N e i g h b o u r h o o d H o u s e s a n d B o y s ' C l u b s who d e r i v e  their  Appeal  gifts)  (I.e. voluntary  have a n assumed s a n c t i o n  funds from the United and o t h e r  means and  t h r o u g h community  part-  icipation. .1:4  "unreached  1 1  - the d e f i n i t i o n f o r "unreached" i s derived the w r i t i n g s o f t h e Boys' C l u b s i n t h e i r on  reports  t h e Summer . P r o j e c t o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work  gram a n d means t h a t : no  not being  services  influenced.  T h e r e i s no c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n a s t o w h a t i s m e a n t b y t h e w o r d  ed the  Pro-  a ) t h e g r o u p was r e c e i v i n g  s e r v i c e s , b ) t h e g r o u p was r e c e i v i n g  but  ices".  from  "serv-  We a r e n o t s u r e w h e t h e r " s e r v i c e s " r e f e r s t o p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m s o f f e r -  by p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y  l e i s u r e time o r g a n i z a t i o n s ;  " w o r k e r s " who a r e p r o v i d i n g  the programs, o r both.  o r , whether i tr e f e r s to Further,  we a r e n o t  c l e a r , w h e t h e r , by t h e word " s e r v i c e s " , t h e Boys' C l u b s a r e r e f e r r i n g t o p a r t -  8.  icular  types o f a c t i v i t i e s  organizations 2.  t h a t may i n c l u d e  as w e l l as o t h e r  activities  the "programs" o f l e i s u r e time  such as i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g . ^  S e c o n d l y , we a r e a s s u m i n g t h a t  those youths p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  leisure  time p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y  derived  " s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s "  this  influences  their behaviour  organizational  activities  ^ f r o m them a n d t h a t  i n "morally  and l e g a l l y  legiti-  mate d i r e c t i o n s . " DEFINITIONS 2:1  " s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s "  - r e f e r s to standards o f con-  duct expressed w i t h i n the content of r e c r e a t i o n a l and  applying  to the everyday aspects o f ordinary  relationships with .2:2  "morally able and  adults  and l e g a l l y  actions  being  activities personal  and p e e r s .  legitimate directions" - refers  w i t h i n the confines  not transgressing  prescribed  T h i r d l y , we a r e a s s u m i n g t h a t  of acceptable  4-NOTE:  See "Worker r e s p o n s e s  the strategy  y o u t h ? . " , ( p a g e 52) a l s o s e e f i g u r e #11 professional or  and v o l u n t e e r  o f , f o r how l o n g  #20:  t o work  with  expressed.  "What i s a n u n r e a c h e d  ( p a g e 71) r e g a r d i n g  % breakdown o f  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d when r e f e r r a l s w e r e made e i t h e r t o  f r o m t h e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m .  consisted  behaviour  o f "detached work" i s  a b o u t whom c o n c e r n s h a v e b e e n  to question  to perceiv-  laws.  t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t may be e m p l o y e d target populations  inter-  We a r e n o t a w a r e o f w h a t t h i s  i t was g i v e n  and what r e s u l t s were  service  obtained.  9.  DEFINITIONS 3:1  " d e t a c h e d w o r k " - a l s o known i n r e p o r t s Vancouver received  from the Boys'  Clubs of  as " a g g r e s s i v e g r o u p w o r k i n t h e c o m m u n i t y s e t t i n g " little  satisfactory  d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e way  of attempting  an a c c u r a t e a n a l y s i s o r d e f i n i t i o n o f the term " d e t a c h e d Thus t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n h a s b e e n f o r m u l a t e d : Work" r e f e r s  to the a c t i v i t i e s  of  Clubs o f Vancouver  the Boys'  for  of e s t a b l i s h i n g  individual(s).and  a s s i g n e d t o move o u t s i d e  the  i n order to contact a  Group(s)  an i n f l u e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p  that w i l l  prevent or c o n t r o l  delinquency or p r e - d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e  activities  "Detached  (or groups) of youths w i t h i n a g i v e n area (or areas)  the purpose  youths  work".  o f v o l u n t e e r s and p a i d p e r s o n n e l  confines of that organization's b u i l d i n g s g i v e n group  -  i n existing  of established  and e n c o u r a g e  o r newly  with  their these  c r e a t e d programs  and  organizations.  DEFINITIONS A:1  "influence relationship" gaining  - refers  t h e c o n f i d e n c e and  acceptance of youths  u l a t i o n and h a v i n g them r e f e r d u a l and g r o u p A:2  "prevent" - refers deter  A:4  "control"  such  - refers  to him  i n a target  f o r guidance i n t h e i r  in pop-  indivi-  and b e h a v i o u r .  t o a c t i o n s by  t h o s e y o u t h s who  from c o m p i l i n g A:3  activities  to the workers' a c t i v i t i e s  the detached worker which  h a v e h a d no p r i o r  would  p o l i c e or court contacts  contacts. t o . a c t i o n s by  deter  t h o s e y o u t h s who  tacts  from c o m p i l i n g f u r t h e r  "delinquency" - refers  the detached worker  have had p r i o r p o l i c e and/or  which court  would con-  contacts.  to behaviour that t r a n s g r e s s e s p r e s c r i b e d  l a w s o f t h e C r i m i n a l Code o f C a n a d a .  .10.  A:5  "pre-delinquent  activity"  - i s d e s c r i b i n g behaviour  l i n e w i t h A:4 b u t a t a p o i n t w h e r e o f f i c i a l has  n o t been  directly i n  community  sanction  imposed.  •HYPOTHESES The the - a c t i v i t i e s  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses have been f o r m u l a t e d and e f f o r t s  accordingly  to.analyze  o f t h e Detached Workers o f t h e Boys' C l u b s o f Van-  couver. I.  Youths contacted terred  by Detached.Workers w i l l  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  de-  from p o l i c e c o n t a c t s .  DEFINITIONS 1:1  "deterred" to  1:2  those  - means "no f u r t h e r c o n t a c t w i t h p o l i c e "  y o u t h s who h a v e h a d p r e v i o u s  "police contacts" Prevention  - r e f e r s to recorded  "contacted"  contacts  with  police.  o f the Youth  Squad o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e F o r c e and does n o t t a k e  into account contacts 1:3  contacts  and r e f e r s  with  the r e g u l a r constables, e t c .  - r e f e r s to the r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y of  t h e D e t a c h e d W o r k e r who i s w o r k i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r  group o f  youths. II.  Youths contacted deterred  by t h e D e t a c h e d Worker w i l l  from c o u r t  be  significantly  contacts.  DEFINITIONS 11:1  "contacted"  - see D e f i n i t i o n  11:2  "deterred"  11:3  "court contacts"  - see D e f i n i t i o n  1:1  - r e f e r s to recorded  from the Youth P r e v e n t i v e III.  1:3  c o u r t . a p p e a r a n c e s as  Squad, e t c , e t c .  I n t h e s a m p l e g r o u p , y o u t h s f r o m b r o k e n homes w i l l delinquent  behaviour  to a greater  where b o t h n a t u r a l p a r e n t s  taken  extent  are present.  be i n v o l v e d i n  than youths  f r o m homes  11.  DEFINITIONS 111:1  "sample group"  - refers  t o t h o s e y o u t h s who a n s w e r e d  i o n n a i r e o r t h o s e y o u t h s who w e r e o n t h e l i s t Boys' 111:2  s u p p l i e d by t h e  Club.  "broken to  the quest-  homes" - a s u s e d  i n the questionnaire to youths,  t h o s e y o u t h s who a r e l i v i n g  i n a home s i t u a t i o n  refers  t h a t does n o t  i n c l u d e both n a t u r a l parents.. 111:3  " d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r " - as used two  specific  i n the questionnaire, refers to  types o f c o n t a c t s w i t h . a u t h o r i t i e s :  a) c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e Y o u t h  P r e v e n t i v e Squad  b) c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e F a m i l y & C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t o f t h e C i t y o f Vancouver. IV.  Those Detached  W o r k e r s who h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d t h e O r i e n t a t i o n  gram w i l l p e r f o r m more e f f e c t i v e l y part  - refers  get p o p u l a t i o n youths  V.  t h a n t h o s e who h a y e n o t t a k e n  i n t h e program.  IV:1 " e f f e c t i v e l y " ^  ling  Pro-  to the influence relationships with  aimed a t p r e v e n t i n g , d e t e r r i n g  tar-  and c o n t r o l -  delinquent behaviour.  Youths  w i t h a n i n c o m p l e t e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be more  likely  t o have p o l i c e  and/or  c o u r t c o n t a c t s t h a n t h o s e whose  e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e has been  sequential.  DEFINITIONS V:l  "incomplete educational experience" - refers a) h a v e d r o p p e d  a) b) c)  ^NOTE: The knowledge o f knowledge o f knowledge o f ulations  t o t h o s e y o u t h s who:  o u t o f s c h o o l f o r a n y r e a s o n w i t h o u t h a v i n g com-  d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e s such areas as: a d o l e s c e n t behaviour i n groups community r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n s a g e n c y p o l i c y a n d f u n c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g w o r k i n g w i t h t a r g e t pop-  plated  t h e g r a d e 10 s e q u e n c e o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l  b ) do n o t h a v e a t r a d e  or a completed v o c a t i o n a l  program,  training  pro-  gram . V:2  "police contacts"  V:3  "court  V:4  " s e q u e n t i a l " - r e f e r s to the youths' success i n passing  contacts"  - s e e 1:2 - see 11:3  course o r grade to the next; experienced  failure,  ing education As  i t infers  f r o m one  t h a t the youth has n o t  o r has n o t been d i s c o u r a g e d  as t h e r e s u l t o f e x p e r i e n c e d  a r e s u l t of concerns expressed regarding  from  continu-  failure.  the content  and i m p a c t o f  t h e O r i e n t a t i o n P r o g r a m , a n a n a l y s i s was s t r u c t u r e d a s f o l l o w s : 1.  A summary o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g training, ached  2.  Appendix  interview i n relation  A list  1966 r e p o r t ,  f o r det-  Clubs.  representatives  questionnaire  served  (See page 6 9 ) .  from these o r g a n i z a t i o n s were i n t e r v i e w e d . i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  as a n i n f o r m a t i o n - g a t h e r i n g  device  t h a t may be s u b s t a n t i a t e d  Q u e s t i o n s were asked i n the f o l l o w i n g Different organizations ment w i t h  referring  See C h a p t e r I V .  by t h e Boys' C l u b s  i n the areas d e l t with  further research  e s t a b l i s h e d by  specifically  ( S e e A p p e n d i x E)  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s was p r o v i d e d  h y p o t h e s e s were f o r m u l a t e d  1.  d e v e l o p e d by t h e Boys  to the statement of goals  to s e c t i o n s I I , I I I and I V .  areas m e r i t i n g  necessary  D)  the Boys' Clubs from t h e i r  the  the r o l e ,  A c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e w o r k e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n d i c a t e d by an  Administrative  considered  with  work.  An a n a l y s i s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (See  3.  s e l e c t i o n and t h e s k i l l s  specifically  t h a t may  by v a l i d  No Rather  reveal  data.  areas:  knowledge o f , i n t e r e s t i n , and i n v o l v e -  t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f D e t a c h e d Work.  .13.  2.  I d e a s and a t t i t u d e s  towards p r e s e n t and f u t u r e  -and f i n a n c i n g o f t h e D e t a c h e d .3.  Work  Program.  " D e l i n q u e n c y p e r c e p t i o n s " and p e r c e i v e d by  administration  impact of detached  work  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e respondents.  4.  Ideas o f S t a f f i n g a Detached  5.  Participation  Work  i n , and a t t i t u d e s  t h e D e t a c h e d Work  Program.  towards  referrals  t o and from  Program.  P e r c e n t a g e breakdowns and q u e s t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d on t h e information.  Comments, e v a l u a t i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  the b a s i s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e d e s p i t e Responses  have been used wherever Youths."  possible  ionnaire  to Unreached  Wherein,  ionnaire  i s used.in conjunction with  have been attempted  on  i t s questionable accurateness.  t o complement d a t a from t h e "Quest-  t h e m a t e r i a l on t h i s  the stated  hypotheses.  latter  quest-  14.  CHAPTER I I  OUTLINE OF AN  THE  OUTLINE OF  THEORY OF  SOME OF  THE  DETACHED WORK PRACTICED I N NORTH AMERICA  PROGRAMS I N MAJOR NORTH AMERICAN URBAN CENTRES  T h r o u g h o u t t h e b a c k g r o u n d r e a d i n g s we descriptive reports, articles, specific is  tical  and  will  work.  To  concerned  our knowledge, I r v i n g  with  use  h i s m o d e l as  of detached  a guide,  work.  adding  .Therefore,  in  a  Spergel  to c o n c e p t u a l i z e a t h e o r e t i c a l model, combined w i t h a  approach to the major a s p e c t s  c h a p t e r , we  were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h numerous  s t u d i e s w h i c h were m a i n l y  area or program of detached  the o n l y p e r s o n  AND  prac-  this  i n f o r m a t i o n from other  sour-  ces where i t i s p e r t i n e n t . Historical The  Perspectives  r o o t s of detached  d i t i o n of s o c i a l early  as  1848,  agencies  and  o r s t r e e t work c a l l e d audience  c i e s w e r e o f no  ial  through  primarily  found  deep i n the  the U n i t e d  They h o p e d  The  and  tra-  States.  As  w i t h o u t much s u c c e s s ,  "vagabond boys of the m e t r o p o l i s " through  to i n f l u e n c e w i l d  t h a t the sympathy o f  untutored  to  religious an  b o y s when o r d i n a r y a g e n -  m e e t i n g s w e r e among t h e e a r l i e s t e f f o r t s  t o combat  moral p e r s u a s i o n , o u t s i d e the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e of a  Scouts,  the  police  turn of  and  other  programs i n the agency, or activities  efforts  soc-  this,  t h e i r own  traditional  t h a t boy  worked  to develop  of  s t r e e t groups i n t h e i r  recommended  s e t t l e m e n t s , B o y s C l u b s , Y.M.C.A.,  s e r v i c e agencies  f o r them i n t h e v i c i n i t i e s  to s e r v e  i t was  the c e n t u r y ,  failing  a g e n c y p r o g r a m s w h i c h a r e now  ago,  t o be  agency. Before  Boy  avail.  are  c h a r i t y workers sought,  "Boy's M e e t i n g s " .  m i g h t be u s e d  delinquency  i n North America,  c h u r c h m e n and  c o n t a c t "young roughs"  work p r a c t i c e  to win special  hangouts.  s t r e e t boys over facilities  to  and  I n d e e d , many  o r w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d o r i g i n a t e d as  own  districts.  w o r k e r s o r "boy-men" be  More than f o r t y assigned  years  to f i n d  con-  15.  tact,  and  work w i t h m a l e gangs t o " r e h a b i l i t a t e The  ing.  T h e y w e r e t h e p r o g e n i t o r s , and  on  gressive  the r e s o u r c e s  post World  and  War  c h a r a c t e r i n lower  not  a specific  I I problem  t o do  something.  a result,  trol  was  to assign special  street  The  emphasis  was  gang.  Indigenous p r e s s u r e was  consequently  shifted  t o a more  ag-  organizations simply could brought  directed  the a g e n c i e s ' response  youth workers  leadership in  upon s o c i a l  t o gang  fighting.  to pressures  t o gangs i n a n a t t e m p t  to  agen-  for  con-  redirect  i n t o more c o n s t r u c t i v e c h a n n e l s .  Increased prevention,  and  A t t e n t i o n was  until very recently  their energies  operat-  of the  of indigenous  of d e l i n q u e n c y  class areas.  cope w i t h t h e enormous p r o b l e m s ,  cies  i n p a r t , the p r o t o t y p e s  class neighbourhoods w h i l e working w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s .  The  As  t o use  the e n t i r e neighbourhood  not  are s t i l l  h a v e s i n c e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n many l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s .  Area; P r o j e c t s attempted  lower  memberships".^  A r e a P r o j e c t s o f t h e e a r l y and m i d - t h i r t i e s  work p r o j e c t s which The  their  r e c o g n i t i o n has  treatment,  and  control  been g i v e n t o the n o t i o n t h a t  r e q u i r e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h o s e who  a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the s o c i a l w o r l d most r e c e n t agency e f f o r t s  delinquency  of the r e c i p i e n t s .  At  t h e same  form time,  c o n t i n u e t o c e n t e r on d i s c o v e r i n g more e f f e c t i v e  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d w o r k e r t e c h n i q u e s  or  to reach delinquents.  Definition A d e f i n i t i o n of detached and "The  how  of service  t o gangs.  practice variously  w o r k m u s t a n s w e r t h e w h a t , w h e r e , why,  I r v i n g Spergel offers  labeled  detached  work, s t r e e t  an a d e q u a t e  definition:  c l u b , gang work,  work, e x t e n s i o n youth work, c o r n e r work, e t c . , i s the s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t agency worker,  through  s o c i a l work or treatment  hood c o n t e x t , t o h e l p a group o f young p e o p l e  F r e d e r i c k M. T h r a s h e r , . The pp. 487530.  techniques w i t h i n the  who  Gang, U n i v e r s i t y  a r e d e s c r i b e d as  of Chicago  when  Press,  area of  an  neighbour-  delinquent  1927,  16.  or p a r t i a l l y  delinquent  to a c h i e v e  a conventional adaption.  the agent to work w i t h or m a n i p u l a t e t i v e s who  interact critically Spergel  understanding •1.  The  delinquent  values  w i t h members o f  o t h e r w r i t e r s i n the  o f d e t a c h e d w o r k we  The and  and  the people  subcultures  delinquent  of delinquent  subculture  lower  agency  the d e l i n q u e n t  field  must c o n s i d e r  and  groups.  or other  This  requires  representa-  group."  b e l i e v e i n order  2  to g a i n  four b a s i c sets of  factors:  c l a s s neighbourhoods:  i s the dominant system of b e l i e f s ,  I t may  an  be  regarded  as  a response  to  norms, three  major s o c i o c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a neighbourhood c o n t e x t . lower  class culture,  the youth  class culture results as b r o k e n f a m i l i e s , slum housing, youth  from c o l l e c t i v e  poor education,  to p r o v i d e  most i m p o r t a n t  and  adequate r o l e p a t t e r n s  system.  t o s u c h common l i f e  s y m b o l s o f s t a t u s a c k n o w l e d g e d by delinquent  of North  the  illness, The  Probably  the  subculture i s  insufficient  access  to  larger culture.^  the neighbourhood s o c i a l  s y s t e m and  i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y development.  the s m a l l group develop  During  adolescence  p e r s o n a l i t y , and  the peer group takes  The  problems  group:  within  e r c l a s s boy.  the  lower  American c u l t u r e  for adolescents.  i n the a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s or  group connects  subculture with  The  mental  assumption i s t h a t the development of d e l i n q u e n t  the  The  adaptation  to the d i s c o n t i n u i t y  to l i m i t a t i o n s  The  the o p p o r t u n i t y  some f o r m o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s t a t u s .  due  2.  and  c h r o n i c u n e m p l o y m e n t , s e r i o u s p h y s i c a l and  c u l t u r e i s a response  which f a i l s  culture,  The  delinquent  9  on  g r o u p i s one  Interpersonal  also transmit cultural  superordinate way  delinquent relations values.  i m p o r t a n c e f o r the  these boys can  achieve  low-  status  1  I r v i n g S p e r g e l , S t r e e t Gang Work: T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , R e a d i n g , M a s s . , p, 22. 3 . i b i d . , pp. 4-Richard Illinois.  A.  Free  1-20. C l o w a r d and Press,  1960,  L l o y d E. pp.  179  O h l i n , Delinquency -  177.  and  Opportunity,  Glencoe,  17 .  even though i t i s seen  as n e g a t i v e b y t h e l a r g e r  D e l i n q u e n t groups tend are  to d i f f e r  i n f l u e n c e d by the neighbourhood  uent  subculture.  within uent  Each group d e v e l o p s  the l i m i t s  of neighbourhood  subculture.  haviour, morale,  controls,  g r o u p may  be v a r i a t i o n s , b o t h social which 3.  The I n d i v i d u a l The  is  social  possible uents  and  such as o r i g i n ,  as t o t y p e and s e v e r i t y ,  distrust  agency d i s c i p l i n e .  While  there.may  i n i n d i v i d u a l s patterns of a n t i tend  to develop,  to h i s social  p o s i t i o n as a g a n g  member,  He e x p e r i e n c e s a l l t h e p h y -  problems of adolescence.  of behaviour which  I ti s  adolescent  delinq-  class  Secondly,  there i s a  s o c i e t y and a r e j e c t i o n o f s c h o o l  peers.  d e l i n q u e n t group i t i s p o s s i b l e  types  c a n be e x p e c t e d  in particular.  The u n d e r l y i n g theme i n a l l t h e s e p a t t e r n s i s  o f a d u l t s and o u t - g r o u p  extremely d i f f i c u l t  these  of a l l , there i s a conscious f l o u t i n g of adult authority  W i t h i n each  types  s t r u c t u r e , be-  Delinquent:  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t  basic pathological  delinq-  t h e group as a w h o l e .  t o m e e t t h e demands o f m i d d l e  social  size,  of delinquent behaviour  g e n e r a l , and c o n v e r t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y  failure  the d e l i n q -  set of characteristics  c o n t a i n some n o n d e l i n q u e n t members.  delinquent, i n addition  First  which  orientations.  t o d e s c r i b e t h e common q u a l i t y  share.  especially  r e s o u r c e s and t h e norms o f t h e l o c a l  also a distinctive biopsychologicalentity.  sical,  in  structures,  of dimensions  c o h e s i o n , and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y  b e h a v i o u r , d o m i n a n t modes characterize  along a v a r i e t y  a distinctive  Group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  prevailing delinquent subculteral The  social  culture.  to distinguish various  o f i n d i v i d u a l s , a l t h o u g h the. d i s t r i b u t i o n  t o v a r y by group and s u b c u l t u r e .  to diagnose  u s u a l l y derived through e f f o r t s  and t r e a t .  of these  The d e l i n q u e n t i s  Knowledge of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i s  at treatment.  He makes c l e a r  t h a t he d o e s  18.  n o t need  the worker  even respond  and o f t e n d e m o n s t r a t e s  to the worker's  ful,  and h a s l i t t l e  4.  The A g e n c y  efforts.  He may  d o e s n o t a d m i t h i s symptoms a r e  the s t r e e t s  i s an agency  representative  o f the neighbourhood  immediate  b e l o n g s t o two w o r l d s ; he  a t odd h o u r s o f t h e day  s t r u c t u r e o r s u p p o r t , s u c h as o f f i c e  i s of the d e l i n q u e n t group  a l s o o f t h e w o r l d o f r e s p e c t a b l e and t o c h a n g e t h e d e l i n q u e n t , and  on t h e o t h e r ,  s e r i e s of d i s t i n c t i v e , y _ t complimentary  the group.  Because  o f group  training,  itself  the agency  t y p e o f w o r k t o be d o n e .  qualified  staff.  dynamics.  depend on  an e x p e r i m e n t i n g and s e r v a t i v e one,  worker,  training  i s t h e i d e a l and  are a v a i l a b l e ,  but he  into  a  individual role i s  socialization have  and.academic  f o r the  the f a c t  training.  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  serious  for a qualified  i n c l u d e s ; g o o d h e a l t h , and p h y s i c a l  be d i v i d e d  c o n c e r n i s the d i r e c t  a r e n o t s o c i a l w o r k e r s by  comes u n d e r  Other c r i t e r i a  group  he  institutions  Besides h i s professional  Unless q u a l i f i e d workers  d e t a c h e d work program  t h e one h a n d ,  i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the worker  However, t h i s  will  On  He  regular  Furthermore,  However, the major  must p r o v i d e r e l e v a n t  m a j o r i t y of detached workers v a l u e o f the program  focus,  or night.  space,  t h e p e o p l e and  subroles:  his principal  of this  s u f f i c i e n t knowledge  the  streets,  i t s subculture,  H i s r o l e may  f a m i l y w o r k e r , and c o m m u n i t y w o r k e r .  t h a t o f group worker, because  and  conforming people.  w h i c h have a i d e d i n p r o d u c i n g the d e l i n q u e n t .  of  himself.  a l o n e on the  hours, guidance or s u p e r v i s i o n from c o l l e a g u e s or s u p e r i o r s .  counsellor,  pain-  t o h e l p the d e l i n q u e n t gang t o change i t s p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r .  have l i t t l e  tries  to change o r  Worker:  is striving i s on  lack of desire  m o t i v a t i o n to r e v e a l what i s g o i n g on i n s i d e  The d e t a c h e d w o r k e r who  He  a total  particular i s that  the  Nevertheless:,  of at l e a s t m i n i m a l l y the v e r y b a s i s  for a  question. worker  gathered from v a r i o u s r e a d i n g s  s t r e n g t h , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l m a t u r i t y ,  somewhat r a d i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y  rather  t h a n an e x t r e m e l y con-  some e x c e l l e n c e i n s p o r t s o f some k i n d , w i l l i n g n e s s  to devote  time  19.  and  energy without  loose  tail  on The  s e r i o u s p e r s o n a l h a r d s h i p s , , and  the  definition  worker p r a c t i c e s .  The  s t a t e s that detached nothing  work i s s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t .  intrinsically  problem-solving  h a p h a z a r d i n t h e way  a p p r o a c h he  sequence o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the group.  He  first  facilitates  develops  c o n s t r u c t i v e group a c t i v i t i e s . ,  and  then  terminates  may  appear i n v a r i o u s combinations  attempts  his relationship with and  the  detached  specific  relationship,  then communicates  convent-  intragroup transactions,  to modify  anti-social  the d e l i n q u e n t group.^  e m p h a s i s , b u t may  behaviour,  These a c t i o n s  a l s o be  regarded  the group over  an  as  extended  time. In order  i n general  terms,  conscious  inquent problem,  t o be and  is initiated.  m u s t be  initiates  positive  s e q u e n t i a l phases i n the workers r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  vice  up  This  the  uses c o n s i s t s of a  the e x p e c t a t i o n of s u p p o r t i v e b e h a v i o u r ,  i o n a l v a l u e s , implements c o n t r o l s ,  period of  to p i c k  hoof.  means t h a t t h e r e n e e d be  establishes  preferably single  determining  rationale  reasonably  t h e a g e n c y m u s t know t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e meaning of  the p a t t e r n b e f o r e  f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n and clear.  Once c l e a r  The  related  economics, a t t i t u d e s ,  methods.  s i z e of group, sex, m a n i f e s t e d  ser-  The  of  the  del-  purpose  the methodology s e l e c t e d  neighbourhood c o n d i t i o n s should provide and  group  relationship  about the n a t u r e  t o t h e g r o u p n e e d s and  the agency's purpose, s t r u c t u r e ,  long-term  continuing  the agency s e t s a p p r o p r i a t e program purposes.  s h o u l d be more c l e a r l y accordingly.  the p r o b a b l e  The and  effective,  the framework f o r This  behaviour,  includes and  social,  cultural  conditions. Under the most t r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s develop and  h i s program w i t h i n the p o l i c i e s  implementation  ively  5  0p.  of the agency.  of the agency's p o l i c i e s ; ,  i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e g o a l s and  C i t . , S p e r g e l , p.  71.  at times,  procedures  the detached By  the workers, e s t a b l i s h e d by  their  worker must  interpretation  themselves,  collect-  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  20.  s t a f f , b u t t h i s power as a r u l e tends to be l i m i t e d , even f o r the h i g h l y i n dependent of  and f r e e - w h e e l i n g detached worker.  I n the f i n a l  analysis,  the k i n d  s t r e e t work a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d o u t w i l l , depend to a very l a r g e degree on f a c -  t o r s which a c c r u e over a p e r i o d o f time on the b a s i s o f o f f i c i a l p o l i c y and day-to-day  practice. S p e r g e l p r e s e n t s t h r e e c u r r e n t agency  ment or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n approach,  to s e r v i c e ;  the a r e a or s o c i o l o g i c a l approach,  anced or i n t e r m e d i a t e approach,  the t r e a t -  and the b a l -  These are o n l y used as approximations as  there a r e many v a r i a t i o n s o f each approach. are  approaches  A l s o , many d i f f e r e n t  techniques  commonly employed by the worker r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s o r i e n t a t i o n .  there a r e enough d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r a c t i c e  to make i t p o s s i b l e  However,  to c l a s s i f y  agency  programs w i t h i n one o f these t h r e e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . 1.  The Treatment  Approach  T h i s type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n tends to be p r i v a t e or v o l u n t a r y and to have, a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f h i g h - q u a l i t y p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l . s e r v i c e rendered to i n dividuals,  f a m i l i e s , or groups.  A s e t t l e m e n t house w i t h a m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l  v i c e program or a f a m i l y s e r v i c e agency may be the base upon which work p r o j e c t has developed.. about  I n c r e a s e o f community and p r o f e s s i o n a l  the problem o f d e l i n q u e n c y may have o r i g i n a t e d  i z e d working  or middle c l a s s a r e a .  are  regarded as p r e d e l i n q u e n t .  the  individual  concern The agency  stable, well-organ-  The program s e r v e s younger  There -are two treatment g o a l s :  to develop more s o c i a l l y  the detached  the new s e r v i c e .  o r i e n t s i t s program to. a lower c l a s s segment o f a r e l a t i v e l y  ser-  teenagers who (a) To a s s i s t  a c c e p t a b l e and e m o t i o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t home, i n s c h o o l , and i n h i s peer groups.  (b) To p r o v i d e sup-  p o r t i v e and i f n e c e s s a r y , long-term casework treatment to the p a r e n t s or f a m i l i e s of  the y o u n g s t e r s .  6 l b i d . , pp. 49 - 66.  •In t h i s a p p r o a c h ,  the theory  i s that delinquency  generally arises  f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y .problems w h i c h i n t u r n s t e m f r o m h i s ship with his parents. malfunction major  Therefore  or i n a b i l i t y  psychology.  the t a r g e t f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n i s the p e r s o n a l i t y  to develop e f f e c t i v e  theoretical references  interpersonal relationships.  are psychoanalytic  p s y c h o l o g y a n d e s p e c i a l l y ego  eight or nine youths are s e l e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a  formed group i n which the worker attempts w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l ,  to develop a s e n s i t i v er e l a t i o n s h i p  i n hopes t o improve t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t -  ionships which i n t u r n w i l l  r e d u c e t h e need t o engage i n a n t i - s o c i a l  B e c a u s e t h e members a r e s o s e n s i t i v e t o r e j e c t i o n ,  everything  v i d e a c o n d i t i o n o f maximum p r o t e c t i o n a n d s u p p o r t . a t s c h o o l by t h e w o r k e r , t r a n s p o r t e d  Also,  The  7  In general,  up  relation-  special trips  behaviour.  i s done t o p r o -  The y o u n g s t e r s  are picked  t o t h e m e e t i n g and t h e n t a k e n  o r programs a r e planned.and c a r r i e d  out. This  home.  i s the high-  est cost per u n i t approach. Spergel  b e l i e v e s o n l y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s (M.S..W.)  who h a v e g r o u p o r c a s e w o r k e x p e r i e n c e  i n dealing with  c h i l d r e n a r e competent i n t h i s approach. close contacts with other 2.  The A r e a This  r e l a t e d agencies  Finally,  emotionally  disturbed  t h e worker must  and r e s o u r c e s  maintain  i n t h e community.  Approach i s a neighbourhood-oriented  community-wide concern.and p r e s s u r e  program, u s u a l l y a r i s i n g  out of  f o rcontrol of severely delinquent  and ag-  gressive youths.  N a t u r a l groups w h i c h a r e engaged i n t h e most a g g r e s s i v e  inquent  i n the neighbourhood a r e the focus  behaviour  of attention.  del-  Consequently,  the c r u c i a l component o f s e r v i c e i s c o n t r o l and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l d i t i o n s which p r e c i p i t a t e this behaviour. emphasizing contacts  7  . I b i d , , p. 5 5 .  Service  i s ordinarily  w i t h a l a r g e number o f y o u n g s t e r s ,  extensive,  agency w o r k e r s , and  con-  22.  neighbourhood  residents, rather  g a n g members.  Area  than i n t e n s i v e d e a l i n g w i t h a s m a l l group  S e r v i c e i s used most f r e q u e n t l y  i n p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d lower c l a s s neighbourhoods of v a r y i n g combinations. group  c o u n s e l l i n g and  projects,  Through group  a variety  the agency attempts  p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y  for highly  deprived youths  where the e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n i s  activities,  limited  o f p a r e n t , c o m m u n i t y and  to d e - i s o l a t e  of  individual  and  a g e n c y c o n t a c t s and  t h e d e l i n q u e n t and  i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l stream of s t a b l e  a s s i s t him  lower c l a s s  to  neigh-  Q  bourhood  life.  considerable ential  As  t h e emphasis i s on community i n v o l v e m e n t ,  time j u s t "hanging  around  o f the gang t o the p o l i c e ,  significant  the worker  spends  w i t h the gang", i n t e r p r e t s p o s i t i v e  to c i v i c  groups  and  so on.  a d u l t s r e g a r d i n g t h e n e e d s o f t h e g a n g , and  He  a l s o has  talks  pot-  with  agencies  alter  t h e i r program to r e a c h the gang. In the area approach, tion, which  c a n be d e v e l o p e d  in  this  feels in  environment  approach  The  Balanced  Recruits  sociology  to t h i s  to improve  The  i s a b a c h e l o r ' s degree,  e d u c a t i o n , p r o b a t i o n , and  Spergel preferably  is desirable  t e n d t o come f r o m  correctional  theory  the  fields  service.  Approach:  interpersonal relations,  quent b e h a v i o u r .  particular  than s o c i a l work.  type of agency  adapta-  i s inaccessible  Experience w i t h youth groups  T h i s program i n c o r p o r a t e s elements ing  which  i s more t h e p r o p e r t y o f a  f o r a worker  sciences or education.  of r e c r e a t i o n , p h y s i c a l  available  t h a n an a s p e c t o f i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r .  i s o r i e n t e d more t o w a r d  but not e s s e n t i a l .  3.  Delinquency  t h e minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n  the s o c i a l  as one  to g a i n s t a t u s or acceptance  t h r o u g h c o n v e n t i o n a l means. kind of s o c i a l  delinquency i s regarded  I t i s o f t e n developed  and  o f t h e o t h e r two to a l e s s e r  approaches,  e x t e n t to reduce  on.an e x p e r i m e n t a l o r  attemptdelin-  demonstration  'A P r o p o s a l F o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n and C o n t r o l o f D e l i n q u e n c y by O p p o r t u n i t i e s , M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Y o u t h R e p o r t , New Y o r k . , December  Expanding 1961.  23.  basis, often  i n response t o , or a n t i c i p a t i o n of d e l i n q u e n c y c r i s i s .  grams may  initiated  be  community p l a n n i n g  as  part  unit.  In  a r i s e s which i s connected service organization. lly, is  shifts  often  stances. of  not  social  and  social  with  Intensive  a d e q u a t e and love,  purposes with  and with  approach,  voluntary  individuals.  service  The  scope of  f i g h t i n g groups but youths.  also  less  In general,  There i s  extremely  secure  circum-  i n d i v i d u a l s , b o t h w i t h i n and attitudes.  treatment or c o u n s e l l i n g Usually, the  and  the  outside  In addition,  pro-  l i m i t e d attempts  actual  focus can  seve-  youths  treatment approach.  others from f a i r l y  other agencies.  control  r e m a i n on  fun-  treatment  family. the  f r u s t r a t i n g family  a c c e p t a n c e and  structure  origina-  t o a u t h o r i t a t i v e a g e n c i e s so  this  other  existing  c l a s s among members, some c o m i n g f r o m  for family  his  an  pro-  have been c o n t r o l - o r i e n t e d  a t t e m p t t o m o d i f y b e h a v i o u r and  i n d i v i d u a l and In  s e p a r a t e d e t a c h e d work  t h a n i n the  work i s c a r r i e d on  established  i s assigned the  aggressive  economic c o n d i t i o n s  a r e made t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h ction  only  treatment of  less seriously delinquent  t h e * g r o u p , i n an  grams a r e  p r o g r a m w h i c h may  community c o u n c i l or  a l t h o u g h p e r h a p s more d i s t u r b e d  a wide range of  deprived  for administrative  The  to i n c l u d e  rely, delinquent, are  time h o w e v e r a  i t s emphasis toward  broadened  served  of a metropolitan  Such  s e c u r i t y on  assumed c a u s e o f d e l i n q u e n c y a r i s e s f r o m i n e x p e r i e n c e s where t h e r e the  part  of  the  i s a lack of  parents,  consistent  consequently  develop-  er  ing  a sense of p e r s o n a l  this  i s heightened  approach attempts counselling In as  the  i n the  s u p p o r t e d by  to p r o v i d e  the  adolescent. reality  n a t u r a l groups w i t h  In  of  the  status  lower c l a s s  areas  deprivations.  This  a g r o u p w o r k and  individual  service. t h i s approach,' S p e r g e l r e g a r d s  preferred  9pp.  and  failure  the master's degree i n s o c i a l  minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r employment, but  C i t . , Spergel,  p.  55.  is willing  to  work accept  24.  people  trained  in.a related  importance, p a r t i c u l a r l y Workers  are required  field.  Also, personality  qualifications  the person's case a t working with  t o meet w i t h  a r e o f prime  the youths  t h e i r g r o u p s , make f a m i l y  served.  c o n t a c t s once o r t w i c e  a week, a n d e s t a b l i s h c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a s n e e d e d w i t h s e l e c t e d c o m m u n i t y The w o r k e r u s u a l l y m e e t s w i t h but l a r g e r two  than the treatment approach.  that are smaller  than the area approach,  Contact i s maintained f o r approximately  years. Referral,  I n t a k e , and G r o u p i n g  Still  a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n among d i f f e r e n t  cess o f r e c r u i t i n g , ved. is  three groups  agencies.  accepting,  and o r g a n i z i n g  types o f agencies i s the pro-  t h e d e l i n q u e n t y o u t h s t o be s e r -  F o r t h e o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s e r v e d by t h e t r e a t m e n t a g e n c y ,  the usual source  t h e s c h o o l , m a i n l y t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , where t h e s c h o o l s o c i a l worker o r  counsellor, police  t e a c h e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l make t h e r e f e r r a l s .  and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s  cess i s u s u a l l y  initiated  the o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s for admittance.  are a d d i t i o n a l sources of r e f e r r a l .  by t h e a g e n c y  The a g e n c y  f o r a range o f c h o i c e s .  s i z e and once  i t has been  to f i l l .  a d m i n i s t r a t o r o r w o r k e r who  e n c o u r a g e s more r e f e r r a l s As m e n t i o n e d ,  there-  the group i s l i m i t e d i n there i s a  on.selecting  t h e r i g h t members f o r t h e  group. The  individuals  a r e a program  and t h e u s u a l  i s concerned w i t h  the r e f e r r a l  o f groups r a t h e r  s o u r c e a r e t h e p o l i c e and t h e p r o b a t i o n  Neighbourhood r e s i d e n t s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f l o c a l ribute  the c r i t e r i a  i s p l a c e d on the group s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s s i n c e  much o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e g r o u p d e p e n d s right  notifies  than i t can handle  f o r m e d new members a r e not. t a k e n u n l e s s  G r e a t emphasis  agencies,  But the pro-  t h a t s u c h a g r o u p i s t o be f o r m e d , r e l a t i n g  fore allowing  vacancy  Public welfare  to c e r t a i n n a t u r a l d e l i n q u e n t groups.  department.  s o c i a l agencies also  i n f o r m a t i o n which the worker uses f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , Sometimes t h e w o r k e r  than  intake,  cont-  and s e r v i c e  i s assigned  t o an  25.  area rather  than a s p e c i f i c  group, and i s g i v e n freedom t o form groups w h i c h  may i n c l u d e n o n - d e l i n q u e n t s a s w e l l a s d e l i n q u e n t s . service  to this  type o f group i n c l u d e s :  number o f i n d i v i d u a l s the  the group i s s e r v i c e d . ^  probation officers  and o t h e r s o c i a l  individual  c o n s i d e r e d o n l y when t h e i n d i v i d u a l of service.  Most  of the c r i t e r i a  as w e l l  agencies.  listed  the greatest p o t e n t i a l  it  i s n o t t h e m o s t . s e r i o u s l y d e l i n q u e n t group i n the a r e a . Because  anagency  goal i s to a s s i s t  s e l e c t i o n o f methodology,  i n the v a r i o u s agency  even  t h e group  to dissolve  frequently.  a p p r o a c h e s have  a n d p r o c e d u r e s a r e s h a r e d i n common.  casework, group work,  w o r k e r s h o u l d n o t t r y t o be a l l t h i n g s  o r community  though  The g r o u p d o e s n o t  i s o f t e n weak a n d m e m b e r s h i p p a t t e r n s c h a n g e  e m p h a s i z e d , a g r e a t many p r a c t i c e s  limits  f o r t h e agency  o r d e v e l o p new a p p r o a c h e s may be s e l e c t e d ,  Although the differences  The  The r e q u e s t may  i n the area approach i s a p p l i c a b l e  demonstrate i t s s k i l l  t w e l v e members.  from  as a group, b u t t h e r e q u e s t  to  group s t r u c t u r e  agency  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r s who a r e a l s o i n  here, e x c e p t t h a t t h e group which o f f e r s  exceed  delin-  t h e most d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s .  be made i n t h e name o f a s p e c i f i c  need  department,  I n essence, t h i s  agency w h i c h f o l l o w s a b a l a n c e d a p p r o a c h g e t s r e f e r r a l s  schools, police,  is  or probation  and c o h e s i v e n e s s and t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t g r o u p  quency w i l l c o n t i n u e u n l e s s  The  for initiating  recognized delinquency, a substantial  a r e o f f i c i a l l y known t o t h e p o l i c e  gang h a s d u r a b i l i t y  approach s e r v i c e s  The c r i t e r i a  been I n the  o r g a n i z a t i o n , the  t o a l l d e l i n q u e n t groups and c o m m u n i t i e s .  o f a g e n c y p u r p o s e , t y p e o f l o w e r c l a s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d , a n d h i s own  unique q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  should  i n f l u e n c e h i s s e l e c t i o n o f methodology.  G e n e r a l Purposes and O b j e c t i v e s As  t h e d e f i n i t i o n s t a t e s , d e t a c h e d work i s a s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t .  l O R e r b e r t B l o c h , "The J u v e n i l e Gang: - A C u l t u r a l R e f l e x " . c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e , May 1 9 6 3 , p . 3 4 7 .  When  Annals o f Ameri-  .26.  a detached worker seeks f r o m one  of  to h e l p  groups or  f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s  of purpose:  t r e a t m e n t o f g r o u p members, p r o v i s i o n o f c h a n g e , and  prevention  program of h e l p i n g and  as  tral  of delinquent  the  the  the  limited  e n t i r e agency program or  But  to the  objectives behaviour,  access to o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  activity.^  other.  selects  c o n t r o l of d e l i n q u e n t  Each o f  group to a c h i e v e a c o n v e n t i o n a l  s u c h i s d e p e n d e n t on  to  i n d i v i d u a l s , he  a t any  these i s p a r t  or  given  objectives  acceptable point,  one  o f work w i t h  value  of  the  adaptation, may a  be  cen-  specific  group. 1.  Control In  in  the is  this  event,  gang-fighting,  greatest pressured  are  threat  to the  c o n f l i c t gangs o f an the  community groups 2.  In general,  welfare  and  public outcry. area.  they are  s e c u r i t y of The  ,Surveillance  basic and  w o r k e r m u s t a s s i s t and  to e x e r c i s e  delinquents,  the  gangs w h i c h 0  involved constitute  c o m m u n i t y , and  strategy  the  i s to s e r v i c e  a u t h o r i t y management i s  collaborate  c o n t r o l over the  the  commonly  with  agency  a l l the  extensively  organizations  and  b e h a v i o u r o f g a n g members.  Treatment For  basis  this  objective,  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  most s o c i a l l y  on  highly  the  delinquent  interpersonal or  is identified  difficulties.  from the most d e p r i v e d  selected  for t h i s approach.  The  and  y o u t h who  f a m i l i e s or For  selected  on  the  i s not  the  disorganized  the w o r k e r ,  the  focus  i n psychotherapeutic procedures both with  the  parents.  Opportunities This  city,  the  specialized skills  i n d i v i d u a l s and 3.  or  destructive  neighbourhoods i s o f t e n is  o l d e r , more s e r i o u s  selected.  from the  d e v e l o p e d , and  the  and  llQp.  type of  service  f o c u s e s on y o u t h s i n t h e  d i s t i n c t i o n between d e l i n q u e n t  C i t . , Spergel,  pp.  23  -  26.  and  worst slum areas of  non-delinquent  t e n d s t o become  the  27 .  blurred.  A n a t t e m p t i s made t o m o d i f y e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m s , t o c r e a t e  opportunities organize 4.  f o r these youths.  these  Value  The w o r k e r s p r i m a r y e f f o r t  Changes  the worker  i s t o change t h e v a l u e s  adult patterns 5.  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the major  and t o b r i n g a b o u t s i g n i f i c a n t  purpose  change i n  s t r u c t u r e s aimed a t c r i m e .  Prevention With this  focus,  development of d e l i n q u e n t stage, it  i s t o d e v e l o p and  resources.  I n neighbourhoods where crime i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d of  o r expand  less delinquent,  appears that  there  purpose of prevention  individuals are selected patterns  or w i l l  a t an e a r l y p e r i o d  and t h e group w i l l  i n their  be i n i t s e a r l y  formation  c o n s i s t of g e n e r a l l y younger youths.  Presently,  a r e no d e t a c h e d w o r k p r o g r a m s c o m m i t t e d p r i m a r i l y t o t h e b e c a u s e a g e n c i e s do n o t h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s o u r c e s  at  t h e i r d i s p o s a l as y e t . D e p e n d i n g on i t s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c r i t i c a l contributing to delinquency, mine i t s p r i o r i t y adopted  the agency, i m p l i c i t l y  of purpose.  f o l l o w from t h i s  and manageable  factors  or e x p l i c i t l y , w i l l  The t y p e o f g r o u p s e l e c t e d  deter-  and t h e p r o g r a m  decision.  Supervis ion The orter. staff  detached work s u p e r v i s o r  H i s many a c t i v i t i e s training,  planning,  includes:  coordination  i s an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ,  teacher  and s u p p -  community r e l a t i o n s , s t a f f s e l e c t i o n , and c o n t r o l , r e s o l u t i o n o f i n t r a - a n d 12  inter-agency  p r o b l e m s , p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n , a n d ad h o c s u p e r v i s i o n .  measure t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s practice with  of h i sworkers.  o f h i s p r o g r a m and make s y s t e m a t i c I n e s s e n c e , as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ,  g e t t i n g t h e j o b done w i t h  valuations  He m u s t of the  he i s c o n c e r n e d  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s , e f f i c i e n c y , and f e a s i b i l i t y  of h i s programs. 1^1. S p e r g e l , " R o l e B e h a v i o u r and S u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e U n t r a i n e d Group Work e r , " J o u r n a l ofT . S o c i a l W o r k , V o l u m e 7, No. 3, J u l y 1 9 6 2 , p p . 69 - 7 6 .  28.  Staff supervisor.  Organized  conferences, ing  t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , such as s t a f f m e e t i n g s ,  u n i v e r s i t y courses,  i n i t i a l orientation periods.  ical  nature  and s p e c i a l w o r k s h o p s , t e n d  amount o f s k i l l r e q u i r e d  gang, most a g e n c i e s  ofthe  supervisory  t o b e common  Because o f t h e complex, s e n s i t i v e ,  of the worker's r e l a t i o n s h i p with  extraordinary the  t r a i n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t i s a c o n t i n u i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  dur-  and c r i t -  g a n g members, and b e c a u s e o f t h e  t o develop a beginning  relationship with  r e q u i r e t h e worker t o undergo a f a i r l y  extensive  orien-  13 t a t i o n program. worker  P e r i o d i c r e - e x p o s u r e t o s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , once t h e  i s i n the f i e l d ,  seems e s s e n t i a l f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d  professional  develop-  ment . Principally, He m u s t u n d e r s t a n d expectations in  his  involves role analysis.  o f h i s own r o l e , p r e s c r i b e j o b  f o r h i m , and a s s i s t h i m t o t e s t o u t a p p r o p r i a t e g a n g members.  and t o u s e h i m s e l f  A l s o , he h e l p s  role  performance  the worker r e s o l v e  con-  i n a m a n n e r t h a t i m p r o v e s h i s p e r f o r m a n c e and e n h a n c e s  confidence. As  standing the  teaching role  the worker's p e r c e p t i o n  actual contact with  flicts  the supervisor's  a supporter,  f o r the personal  group.  and s o c i a l  needs o f t h e w o r k e r s as w e l l as t h o s e o f  Some i n h e r e n t p r o b l e m s w i l l  t e r e s t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , visor's  t h e s u p e r v i s o r m u s t h a v e a g e n u i n e c o n c e r n and u n d e r -  repeated  require the supervisor's  e s p e c i a l l y during  expressions  of confidence  special in-  t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d where t h e superi n t h e w o r k e r assumes g r e a t  import-  ance . I n c o n c l u s i o n , d e t a c h e d w o r k i s n o t a new d i s c i p l i n e but  an i n v i g o r a t i o n o f a v e r y  flexible,  o l d approach t o h e l p i n g people.  and a t t h e same t i m e ,  planned  and d i s c i p l i n e d .  or profession, I t i s f r e e and  I t emphasizes  - Desmond C a r t w r i g h t a n d R o n a l d L e e , C o n s u l t i n g w i t h D e t a c h e d U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o r a d o , U n p u b l i s h e d P a p e r , p p . 5 - 7. i  5  intimacy  Workers,  29.  and  d e e p i n v o l v e m e n t i n r e s o l v i n g human p r o b l e m s .  approaches  to helping  organizations, tions is  delinquents  and t h e i r  f a m i l i e s by e s t a b l i s h e d  b u t d e t a c h e d work c a n maximize t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s  c a n make t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  not i n the f r u i t s  Ultimately,  of i t s direct service  While studying American c i t i e s ,  the great  to delinquent  a model o f p r a c t i c e f o r any g r o u p w o r k i n g w i t h  uniformly  There a r e l i m i t a t i o n s i n the  highly  value  large-scale  such  organiza-  o f detached  work  youths, but i n i t s being  alienated  people.^  d e t a c h e d w o r k p r o g r a m s i n a number o f m a j o r  North  i t was t h o u g h t t h a t a m o d e l w o u l d a l l o w u s t o c o n c i s e l y a n d  p r e s e n t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each program.  The m o d e l e s t a b l i s h e d i n -  cludes: (1)  Objectives  o f t h e program.  (2)  Over-all  (3)  Intake  (4)  Programming.  (5)  Group  (6)  Outcome.  (7)  Evaluation.  strategy.  procedure.  composition.  Because o f the i n f o r m a t i o n  a v a i l a b l e a n d t h e number o f y e a r s  Y.M.C.A. D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m h a s b e e n i n o p e r a t i o n , gram i l l u s t r a t i o n . A. 1.  The o t h e r  programs w i l l  i t will  be p r e s e n t e d  THE CHICAGO Y.M.C.A. - P r o g r a m f o r D e t a c h e d W o r k e r s  be o u r m a j o r  i n phrase 1963.  the Chicago pro-  form.  1 5  Objectives a. ) c o n t r o l o f d e l i n q u e n c y b. ) p r e v e n t i o n  l^Op.  of delinquency  C i t . , I . Spergel,  S t r e e t Gang.Work:  Theory and P r a c t i c e , p. 2 2 5 .  •^Program f o r Detached Workers, Youth C o n s u l t a n t R e p o r t , Y.M.C.A., C h i c a g o , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 3 .  Project  Developmental  30.  2.  Over-all strategy I n M a r c h 1956,  fort  detached  b e e n , and which  A t no  designed remains,  The  project with a specified a highly pragmatic,  b u t as  type of  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,  the Program p r o g r e s s e d  delinquent  and  I t always  realistic  different,  aim and  structured  g r a d u a l growth  in staff,  content is  program.  the i n i t i a l  i n t e r v e n t i o n was  the focus g r a d u a l l y s h i f t e d  aimed a t  towards  control,  p r e v e n t i o n of  t h e a g e n c y makes a b o u t g a n g s i n c l u d e :  a l l gangs  f e w g a n g members a r e e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d , g a n g s u s u a l l y  mate a c t i v i t i e s .  The  detached  worker  informal but nevertheless e m p i r i c a l matically,  and  Intake  how  b e s t he  i s expected  to determine,  are  are  not  accept  legiti-  i n a somewhat  f a s h i o n , what " h i s " gang i s l i k e  and,  prag-  can work w i t h i t .  Procedure  S t r e e t g a n g s w e r e known t o t h e a g e n c y and  ected  undertaking  the areas w i t h which i t  f o r m e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , g a n g l e a d e r s c a n be w o r k e d w i t h , g a n g s w i l l  a worker  has  behaviour. Some a s s u m p t i o n s  3.  delin-  the program been a  e x p e r i m e n t a l , and  absence of a p r e - o r d a i n e d s p e c i f i c  as an a d v a n t a g e i n t h i s As  i n an e f -  their  theoretical basis.  the Program, combined w i t h the c o n t r o l l e d ,  viewed  to c o n t r o l  t i m e d u r i n g i t s d e v e l o p m e n t has  i n c o r p o r a t e s much o f t h e m i l i e u o f t h e y o u t h s  involved.  to the s t r e e t s  T h i s " y o u t h g a n g " p i l o t p r o j e c t l a t e r became t h e p r o g r a m f o r  workers.  rationally  for  man  to g a i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h y o u t h gangs i n o r d e r  quent b e h a v i o u r .  is  t h e Y . M . C . A . . a s s i g n e d one  moved i n t o  a s t r e e t gang.  I n t h i s way,  f o r the - a p p r o p r i a t e gang i n o r d e r  assessed  the r i g h t worker  intervening  before  c o u l d be  t o b e s t meet t h e needs o f t h e gang.  b o y s d i d n o t come t o t h e a g e n c y s e e k i n g h e l p , c o n s e q u e n t l y c o n s i s t e d of the worker  adequately  i n t o an a l r e a d y l o o s e l y  the i n t a k e formed  selThe  procedure  group.  4.  Programming a. )  Control The  duty  a g e n c y makes u s e  i s to attempt  of paid v o l u n t e e r s ( c o n s u l t a n t s ) .  t o c o n t r o l d e l i n q u e n c y as w e l l as  to c o n t r o l b e h a v i o u r w h i l e t h e i r group detached youth  worker  i s the key  element  T h e i r main  they can, but  especially  i s engaged i n program a c t i v i t i e s .  i n the s e l e c t i o n ,  training,  The  and management o f  consultants. In this  absolute  a r e a each worker  o p e r a t e s i n h i s own  manner b u t  these are  two  commandments: (1)  The  worker  must t a k e a c t i o n e v e n i f i t i s o n l y t o l e a v e the  o f a s i t u a t i o n he c a n n o t  alleviate,  rather  t h a n s t a y and  scene  legiti-  m a t i z e i t by h i s p r e s e n c e . (2)  The  worker  m u s t n o t a l l o w h i m s e l f t o be p u t  p o s i t i o n o r be m i d d l e d b e t w e e n two The  areas of s u b c u l t u r a l l y  has  been on  behaviour  t h e way  der.  these a c t i v i t i e s  i s expected  i s i n gang f i g h t i n g .  compromising  forces.  activities,  t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s them, and  a r e a where the worker control  opposing  approved  i n which  in a  the main emphasis  are conducted,  t h e i r consequences.  to w i e l d  he h a s  b u t by m a k i n g e m p l o y m e n t a v a i l a b l e and  The  the most i n f l u e n c e  H e r e he w o r k s t h r o u g h  Where c r i m e s a r e f o r p r o f i t ,  little  the gang  direct  b. )  activities  quent  lea-  a t t e m p t i n g to p o i n t out  activities  the worker  the  The uses.  Prevention Increasingly  energies  what s p e c i f i c  and  influence,  c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u c h b e h a v i o u r he c a n e x e r t some i n f l u e n c e . s t u d y does n o t m e n t i o n  the  the Program has  become i n v o l v e d  i n community a r e a s where i t i s n o t r e q u i r e d  to e s s e n t i a l l y  activities  but  negative control.  the methodology s h i f t s  The  i n secondary p r e v e n t a t i v e to d e v o t e - a l l of i t s  aim remains  the l e s s e n i n g of  t o i n c l u d e more f a r - r e a c h i n g  delin-  causality  32.  These have i n c l u d e d o r g a n i z i n g a t h l e t i c ball,  b a s k e t b a l l , and  f e a r s of other  areas of  from p a r t i c i p a t i o n emphasized. h o o d and staff  pool.  As  The  i n t e n t has  the c i t y .  i n an  teams, program-wide tournaments i n  I n a d d i t i o n , there  organized,  rule-bound  the program p r o g r e s s e d ,  the c r i t i c a l  i n operating  been attempted are  features of  activities.  b e e n t o i n c r e a s e m o b i l i t y and i s value  activity  i t spread  t o be  being  t o a much l a r g e r n e i g h b o u r of youths  more s e r i o u s p r o g r a m a c t i v i t i e s  a y o u t h e m p l o y m e n t s e r v i c e and  lessen  learned  with punctuality  t h i s development were the use  Two  soft-  as  which have  a school drop-out  prevention  project. 5.  Group  Composition At  loosely gress, 6.  first,  f o r m e d and  while aiming  or  f o c u s i n g on  s m a l l i n number.  the membership e n l a r g e d ,  As  control,  the groups were  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, with  e s p e c i a l l y where the  focus  was  on  already  t i m e and  pro-  prevention.  Evaluation A t no  developed  t i m e has  f r o m one  d y n a m i c , , and  t h e P r o g r a m had  a stable, specific,  t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t of view.  shifting  i t s emphasis  to see  to a p a r t i c u l a r  situation.  The  t h a t the w o r k e r i s aware o f a l l of  of.action,  i m p l i c a t i o n s and There are  a. )  m u s t be b. )  three  probable  Program b e l i e v e s that i n order  The  management o f  t h e o r e t i c a l aspects  The  the Program  own,  attempts  these  t h a t seem  alternatives.  important:  -  to d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y Small  i s currently appropriate.  i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r on h i s  consequences of  subculture  Informal  the  changing,  the r a m i f i c a t i o n s , a l t e r n a t i v e l i n e s  The  able  been c o n s t a n t l y  to whatever i t f e e l s  M u c h o f w h a t t h e P r o g r a m d o e s i s p r o d u c e d by i n response  I t has  "treatment-focus"  with  Group P r o c e s s  e m p h a s i s h e r e i s on  the  f o r a worker  subculture  t o show r e s u l t s ,  i n w h i c h he  he  i s involved.  -  the w o r k e r ' s d i r e c t  i n f l u e n c e on  the  groups.  33.  The  aim  stead  i s not  to a t t e m p t change i n i n d i v i d u a l s through group p r e s s u r e s ,  but i n -  t o u t i l i z e y o u t h s i n l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s t o c h a n g e g r o u p norms and  expec-  tations . c.)  Opportunity This  iately  Structure  i n v o l v e s not  d e s i r a b l e by  -  only  providing activities  the y o u t h s , but  s e e n as  s i g n i f i c a n t by  i n g and  jobs.  the g e n e r a l  rather  of  than  status  s e e n as  immed-  a l s o to d e v e l o p i n v o l v e m e n t i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s community-specifically  I n summary, t h e P r o g r a m i s s e e n as consisting  and  legitimate activities,  i n the  areas of  an a l t e r n a t i v e s u b c u l t u r e  w i t h e m p h a s i s on  education  and  or  school-  system  employment  delinquency.  B.  NEW  YORK  1.  Objectives  1 6  a.)  To  provide  sters'  activities  lives  and  that emphasize p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s  o f f e r s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e s to  of young-  delinquent  behaviour. b.)  Channels f o r e x p r e s s i o n  c.)  To  of grievance  channel d e f i a n t behaviour  and  collective  social  i n t o l e s s h a r m f u l f o r m s and  to  action pro-  vide alternatives. 2.  Over-all Strategy a.)  I n t e r v e n t i o n of  b.)  A l t e r basic values  c.)  Use  1 6  o f g a n g members.  of deep, p e r s o n a l  inquent  __  trusted adults.  ties  to r e l i n q u i s h d e l -  activities.  d.)  Agent of c o n t r o l .  e.)  I n t e r p r e t s consequences of  f.)  Mediates disputes  Reaching  to c o n v i n c e y o u t h s  behaviour  of e x p l o s i v e s i t u a t i o n s .  t h e F i g h t i n g Gang, New  York C i t y Youth Board,  1960.  34.  3.  g. )  Make a v a i l a b l e t a n g i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l and  h. )  To  be  a l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p and  vocational opportunities.  community  institutions.  Program a.)  M u s t be  i n keeping  with  t h e c l a s s and  offer alternative satisfaction 4.  Intake  5.  Group  P r o c e d u r e - Not  youth s t y l e or  to d e f i a n t  i t cannot  behaviour.  included.  Composition a.)  Use  of indigenous  and  n a t u r a l l y formed groups i n s p e c i f i c  neigh-  bourhoods . 6.  Outcome a.)  7.  Not  specified.  Evaluation a. )  A need  to e s t a b l i s h a c c u r a t e  m i s c o n d u c t s and  official  b e t w e e n d e m o g r a p h i c and  measurement between s e l f - r e p o r t e d  statistics social  to d i s c o v e r  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  s t r u c t u r e of various urban  neigh-  bourhoods . b. )  Extensive delinquent  c. )  BALTIMORE  1.  Objectives  patterns  of  agencies. p r o g r a m on a n  extensive  basis.  1 7  To  change a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r  pre-delinquent  Area,  distributions  behaviour.  -INeed t r a i n i n g  C.  a.)  n e e d e d o f o r i g i n s and  Need t o r e c o r d m a t e r i a l t o make i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o c o - o p e r ative  d.  survey  t o two  groups of d e l i n q u e n t  and  youths.  Reaching Hard to Reach Y o u t h , H e a l t h January 1964.  and  Welfare  Council of  Baltimore  35.  b. )  The s t a f f was a s s i g n e d  from t h e bureau, o f r e c r e a t i o n .  c. )  G o a l was i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n leisure  t i m e a c t i v i t i e s and  development o f a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards a u t h o r i t y , and a decrease Overall  i n illegal  activities.  Strategy  a. )  Choose groups  b. )  Oral  c. )  Work w i t h p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t a n d s c h o o l s .  d. )  Records on i n d i v i d u a l s k e p t b u t l i m i t e d  test  that promise  rehabilitation.  f o r candidates.  t o s e l e c t i o n s o f maximum  relevance. e. ) . M o d i f y  group behaviour,  extend  limits,  and p r o v i d e  models.  Program a. )  M u s t be  b. )  Needs ample  c. )  Included actual  Intake Group  mobile. time.  s o c i a l group work, o u t t r i p s ,  s e r v i c e s (e.g.,  dental  Procedure - Not s p e c i f i c a l l y  p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and  care).  stated.  Composition a . ) . S e l e c t e d by i n d i g e n o u s b. )  Membership l i m i t e d  c. )  U s u a l l y one s e x g r o u p .  interviews.  to t h i r t y .  Outcome a. )  P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g  n o t e s s e n t i a l e x c e p t f o r super-  visors . b. )  The w o r k e r m u s t be a b l e  to t o l e r a t e d e f i a n t  c. )  The w o r k e r m u s t h a v e p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , s k i l l s , unders tanding.  d. )  O p e r a t e o n t h e same l e v e l  as t h e d e l i n q u e n t .  behaviour. p a t i e n c e , and  36.  7.  Evaluation a. )  Co-operation p r o j e c t was  with  the v o l u n t a r y  and  p u b l i c agencies  within  the  disappointing.  b. )  Problems w i t h  c. )  School  d. )  One-third  law enforcement  attendance d i d not of  officials.  seem t o be a f f e c t e d . ,  the c h i l d r e n i n the p r o j e c t were i n v o l v e d i n f u r t h e r  delinquencies. D.  WINDSOR  1.  Objectives a. )  b. )  18  To w o r k w i t h r e c e n t  law v i o l a t o r s ,  and  y o u t h s w i t h poor employment  To  produce b e t t e r f u n c t i o n i n g of  of  s o c i a l p r o b l e m s and  school behaviour  problems,  records. these  i n d i v i d u a l s i n the  t o h e l p w i t h u n e m p l o y m e n t and  area  accommo-  dation. 2.  3.  Overall a. )  To  b. )  To u s e  5.  l o c a t e and  initiate  conversation  community r e s o u r c e s  to a s s i s t  with  groups.  the  youths.  Program a.)  4.  Strategy  High percentage - of  s t r e e t work, i n p o o l h a l l s  resultant referrals  to a p p r o p r i a t e  a. )  Age  20.  b. )  H i g h number o f  c. )  Low  and  dances,  with  agencies.  Intake  Group  r a n g e f r o m 16  educational  -  unemployed. standards.  Composition a.)  l^Youth  See  i n t a k e and  Services  objectives.  Report, United  Services of Greater  Windsor, March,  1966.  37.  6.  Outcome a.)  I t i s not possible  t o be p r e c i s e  regarding  to extent  of the pro-  blem. 7.  Evaluation a. )  A detached worker can e s t a b l i s h a working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h core  b. )  hard  problems.  The w o r k e r c a n n o t g i v e up c a s e s o n r e f e r r a l co-ordination  and c o - o p e r a t i o n  because o f l a c k o f  by e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s  to the t o t a l  s e r v i c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l . c. )  The c o m m u n i t y i s i n t e r e s t e d .  d. )  Facilities  f o r the accommodation o f t h e program a r e u r g e n t l y r e -  quired . In conclusion, the programs i n v a r i o u s tion dealt with,  many c e n t r a l t e n d e n c i e s o r u n i v e r s a l s c a n be d r a w n large c i t i e s .  Generally,  the goals,  1.  2.  3.  i n a number o f  The D e l i n q u e n t  hositle  populations.  The D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m i n V a n c o u v e r d i f f e r s centres  p r i n c i p l e s , popula-  and methodology, a r e s i m i l a r because o f the a g g r e s s i v e ,  nature of the target youth  from  from those i n other  areas:  Population  a. )  T h e r e i s no h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d d e l i n q u e n t  gang  structure.  b. )  T h e r e a r e no h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d  tenement  c. )  T h e r e a r e no h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d  alienated racial  slum.areas. sub-groups.  Staffing a. )  T h e r e was no u s e o f i n d i g e n o u s  b. )  University student volunteers  leaders. were used.  They w e r e n o t p a i d .  Objectives a.)  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e B o y s ' C l u b s o f V a n c o u v e r c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d the  first  o b j e c t i v e o f the Windsor program  ( s e e page 3 3 ) .  They  38.  were v e r y s i m i l a r b.)  Overall  Work P r o g r a m  had t h e a d d i t i o n a l  aim of  Strategy Vancouver  5.  Detached  (page 3 2 ) .  p r e v e n t i o n w i t h n o n - d e l i n q u e n t and p r e - d e l i n q u e n t g r o u p s .  1  4.  The Vancouver  to the Baltimore objectives  w o r k e r s moved i n t o  communities  w i t h o u t as e x t e n s i v e  an a s s e s s m e n t  as was p e r f o r m e d  i n other  centres.  The  approach  approximated  Program Vancouver  closely  the B a l t i m o r e appr-  oach . 6.  I n t a k e P r o c e d u r e and Group The  groups d e a l t w i t h by t h e Boys' Clubs o f Vancouver  t a i n e d boys 7.  Composition  and g i r l s  and r a n g e d  often  con-  i n s i z e f r o m 15 - 3 0 .  O u t c o m e and E v a l u a t i o n R e f e r t o (page The  outcomes o f t h e B a l t i m o r e program  t h e s i s were s i m i l a r w i t h co-operation.  27) and t h e r e s u l t s  the exception of organizational  I n , Vancouver,  organizational  and p o l i c e  of this  s u p p o r t and p o l i c e c o - o p e r a t i o n was v e r y  pos i t i v e . The  Detached  Work P r o g r a m  of t h e Boys' Clubs o f Vancouver  t h e " B a l a n c e d a p p r o a c h " as p r o p o s e d by S p e r g e l , d e s c r i b e d thesis.  approximated  on p a g e 22 o f t h i s  CHAPTER I I I  AN  EVALUATION AND  A N A L Y S I S OF THE  DETACHED WORKERS BY THE  S p e r g e l has a worker cents,  stated  that,  delinquent  ioral  has  a natural  o n e s , who  In c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n Detached  t i o n programs, or  group  nity  i n mind  and who  ed W o r k e r ' s  He  1 , 2  real  and  conditions.  equipment  maturity,  to  the  adoleswelfare  professional  level".  behav-  1  and q u i e t  own  S.,  Agency  orienta-  (Note)  h a v e gone s o f a r as t o s t a t e  " C r u c i a l t o the work a r e t h e knowledge  that  h i s A g e n c y and h i s commu-  and v a l u e s . " ^  Detach-  Bernstein  under w h i c h d e t a c h e d work i s c a r r i e d out family l i f e  impossible."^  I S p e r g e l I . , S t r e e t Gang Work: T h e o r y & P r a c t i c e , A d d i s o n W e s l e y l i s h i n g Co., R e a d i n g , M a s s . , 1 9 6 6 . , p. 28. ^Bernstein  groups,  p r e s e n t e d b y an i n d i v i d u a l  i s , "...himself,  skill,  assumes t h a t t h e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s regular  organizational  necessarily offer their  goes on t o s a y t h a t ,  motivations,  make a, " . . . s t a i d ,  i s p r e p a r e d by  the unique problems  to i t s demographic  detached worker's resources.  in relating  i s deeply concerned w i t h  H o w e v e r , a u t h o r s s u c h as B e r n s t e i n the  to delinquent  o f t h e above s t a t e m e n t , i t i s assumed t h a t any  Work P r o g r a m s w o u l d  bearing  c o m m u n i t y due  facility  Y o u t h on t h e S t r e e t s , A s s o c . P r e s s ,  N.Y.,  1964,  pp.  Pub109.  NOTE: By d e m o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s we a r e i n c l u d i n g s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n a s : t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d d e s c r i p t i o n , t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e r e g i o n , t h e i r p u r p o s e and s t r u c t u r e and m e t h o d s o f o p e r a t i o n , s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c a t t i t u d e s , and m a n i f e s t b e h a v i o r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . ^Bernstein,  Op.cit.,  p.  110.  ^Bernstein,  Op.cit.,  p.  111.  TO  1966  S o c i a l Work, t o u n d e r s t a n d and h a v e an e f f e c t on  processes at the i n d i v i d u a l ,  involved  SUMMER OF  " I d e a l l y f o r assignment  of p e o p l e i n the lower c l a s s communities, training, preferably  ORIENTATION.PROGRAM OFFERED  BOYS CLUB OF VANCOUVER I N THE  s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e who  particularly  EFFECT OF THE  40.  He  also  the detached  sees  worker  e m p h a s i s b e i n g p l a c e d on a h i g h d e g r e e  to operate w i t h i n .  s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and p r o f e r r e d examine c r i t i c a l l y  h i s own  A l t h o u g h no  In the f i e l d ,  supervision.  participation  The  accurate s t a t i s t i c a l  the l i n e workers  involved  needs n e c e s s a r y f o r detached the  t h e r e i s the need f o r  worker  t h e n c a n be  r e s e a r c h was  carried  out  subjective  interview  They a r e s t a t e d  i n Bern-  of  training  i n order of importance  to  workers: 1.  Increased s k i l l s dynamics.  w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i n d i v i d u a l  I t was  e x p e r i e n c e was  felt  that the impact  and  of the worker's  family  daily  g r e a t e r than t h a t of the o r i e n t a t i o n of the Agency.  2.  G r o u p w o r k , w i t h a d e s i r e f o r f u r t h e r k n o w l e d g e and  skill.  3.  I n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s  the  4.  Diagnostic s k i l l s .  5.  Miscellaneous concerns. bility  statistics  Finally, sider  t o be  detached  t h e New  the duties  worker"  York  and  (e.g. coaching i n a t h l e t i c s ,  and p u b l i c  of a S t r e e t  community.  job  availa-  relations).  C i t y Youth  f o r the purpose  Establish  Board  Club Worker  has  d e l i n e a t e d what t h e y  attitudes  and  socially  remedial such  as  vices, lated  their  youth groups, develop  individual  casework  therapy a v a i l a b l e  agencies, health  educational institutions,  group  activities  into  friendly  religious  cit.,  B e r n s t e i n . , p.  113.  their  constructive to  t h r o u g h v a r i o u s community  clinics,  work.  5pp.  and  a c c e p t a b l e c h a n n e l s , p r e p a r e members o f s u c h g r o u p s  t r e a t m e n t and  "line  of our s t u d y ) " D u t i e s under S u p e r v i s i o n t o :  contact with anti-social  redirect  con-  ( e q u i v a l e n t t o a Vancouver  w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l e a d e r s and members o f s u c h g r o u p s , m o d i f y  and  to  techniques  i n the program, to present a l i s t  work.  free  i n the program.  s t e i n ' s book,-* he h a s m a n a g e d , b y e m p l o y i n g with  o f autonomy f o r  accept agencies  community c e n t r e s , employment  ser-  c e n t e r s , keep r e c o r d s , p e r f o r m r e -  41.  Minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s : or  more a n t i - s o c i a l In  worker  A s s o c i a t i o n o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l e a d e r s o f members o f  youth  groups  f o r one  m o s t p r o g r a m s an o p e r a t i o n a l  programs would  policy  (See a p p e n d i x  detached  b e c a u s e many o f t h e U.S.  one m i g h t  7  have been developed  statements.  6  frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the  t o o p e r a t e i n i s c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d and  h a v e b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e f o r some t i m e ing  year."  one  programs  assume t h a t s p e c i a l i z e d  to correlate  f o r Vancouver  fairly  Detached  train-  c l o s e l y w i t h Agency  Worker P o l i c y  State-  ment) In roles  and  clearly  most cases  skills  expected  than o t h e r s , but  service levels, The  are l e f t  somewhat v a g u e and  workers",  and  York that,  as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n a l i t y B e f o r e we  e x a m i n e how  the r a t i o n a l e ,  gram o f f e r e d b y In  found  that,  worker  be d e v e l o p e d  report,  con-  experience i n soc-  needs s p e c i a l i z e d  Detached  l i n e work  i t i s stated  i n view of the f a c t  and  of t h e o r e t i c a l  training  characteristics.^  the Vancouver  to t h e i r  "lack  "a b a c k g r o u n d  s t r u c t u r e and p u r p o s e  the Boys Club  t h e 1966  The  diffuse.  c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e p r e c e e d i n g s t a t e m e n t s , we  comment on  i s not the case.  t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s b o t h a t t h e o r i e n t a t i o n and i n -  work were n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e the d e t a c h e d  as w e l l  and  however, t h i s  f o r a n y p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n a r e d e f i n e d , some more  W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o f New  s u l t a t i o n handicapped ial  i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  that,  t h a t m o s t had  Work P r o g r a m  compared  feel  i t necessary to  briefly  behind  the o r i e n t a t i o n  pro-  staff. " P r e p a r a t i o n of the s t a f f  n o t been engaged  should  i n detached  work p r e v i o u s l y . " 9  1949, pp.  6  Reaching  7  t h e F i g h t i n g G a n g . , New  York  C i t y Youth  S e e Chance t o B e l o n g . , S t o r y o f t h e Los A n g e l e s D. R o b i n s o n , Women's P r e s s , New Y o r k . , 1949.  Board,  Youth P r o j e c t  ^ W o r k i n g w i t h T e e n a g e G a n g s , The W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o f New 131 - 133 and C h a p t e r 1 2 , p . . 1 3 9 . ^Report  on D e t a c h e d  Work, B o y s '  I960.,, p.  Clubs of Vancouver,  York  1 9 6 7 . , p.  1943  City, 6.  278. 1950,  42.  It  is further stated  them ( d e t a c h e d w o r k e r s ) t o t h e for detached  The  r a t i o n a l e f o r the  a c t u a l program involved  (see  the  n e c e s s a r y areas except the How,  when and  i n the  s t r u c t u r e and  as b e i n g  planning  had  the  stat-  areas  important.  incorporated  a l l the  following: the  f a m i l i e s of  the  youths  involved  programs.  p r a c t i c a l ways t o  3.  The  extent  4.  The  working relationships with  and  use  the  Before breaking to the  From t h e  initiate of  We  extent  down and  are  field 1966  report  and  development.  e x i s t i n g organizations  to which they could c a t e g o r i z i n g the  be  within  the  utilized.'  responses to the  must n e c e s s a r i l y examine the  assuming that  i n the  R e c r u i t m e n t was  community o r g a n i z a t i o n  supervision.  l i n e w o r k e r s , we  selection.  performance i n the  1.  them  clearly  seem t o c o v e r m o s t o f  programs s t r e s s e d  2.  staff  orient  as w e l l as p r e p a r i n g  o r i e n t a t i o n program i s g e n e r a l l y  where t o work w i t h  c o m m u n i t y and  for  Boys C l u b o p e r a t i o n  appendix) would  i n other  Theoretically,  naire given  w o u l d be m o s t b e n e f i c i a l t o  1  which workers  1.  "...it  work." ^  The ed.  that,  question-  stated  criteria  this  significantly  affects  areas of s k i l l ,  k n o w l e d g e and  competence.  i t stated,  their  "Staff selection:  primarily voluntary.  (The  l i n e workers received  no  salary) 2.  Local  clubs  seven of 3.  w e r e s e e n as p r o v i d i n g  t h e w o r k e r s had  Personality selection  been p r e v i o u s l y  An  b.  A w i l l i n g n e s s t o work i n u n s t r u c t u r e d  6.  involved  included:  a.  l P l b i d . ,. p.  ability  indigenous leaders.  to r e l a t e to  youths. setting.  (two  i n Boys  1  out  of  Club Work)  43.  We  c.  Experience  d.  A  with working w i t h youth  commitment o f n o t  n o t e h e r e t h a t s e c t i o n s b,  tests  c, d,  standard  The used by stions  copy of  questionnaire  the Boys C l u b to cover  questions  on  observation  areas which the  1  easy to determine but  many o t h e r v a r i a b l e s n o t  to the  l i n e w o r k e r s was  o r i e n t a t i o n program, w i t h research  team w i s h e d  t h e y had  reason behind used  using  the  same q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i t extensively during  their  same  one  t e n a d d i t i o n a l quesimilar  (See  Appendix D f o r  as  the Boys Club i s  o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m , and  post-orientation questionnaire  f e l t we  the  should  partly  stay with  same t o o l ,  partly  t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t r e a c t i o n s w o u l d be  f i v e months a f t e r  completing  ience would p r o v i d e  5.  the  Questionnaire.)  b o t h p r e - o r i e n t a t i o n and  1. 2. 3. 4.  readily  to c o r r e l a t e w i t h  the Agency A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Our  and  a,  techniques.  administered  in their  essential.  e v e n i n g s a week."-'-  are r e l a t i v e l y  s u c h a r e a s as m o t i v a t i o n , . s e c u r i t y and  a v a i l a b l e by  that  l e s s t h a n two  considered  us w i t h  the program. three  f o r the  data  available.  sake of  forthcoming  to a n a l y z e .  We  consistency  from the  workers  A l s o , r e a c t i o n s to a f i e l d  sets of data  had  (Note:  The  experpre-test  l l l b i d _ . , 1966 R e p o r t , p. 7: A c t u a l S t a f f B r e a k d o w n as f o l l o w s : Age r a n g e 19 - 2 9 , one + 30 Sex 12 m a l e , 4 f e m a l e . Six married. Educational background: S o c i a l work (4) C o r r e c t i o n s (2) R e c r e a t i o n (4) E d u c a t i o n (2) U n d e r g r a d ( 3 ) . Experience: M o s t had w o r k e d w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s ; t h r e e had b e e n d e t a c h e d workers. ( N o t s t a t e d f o r how l o n g , w h e r e , i n w h a t p r o g r a m and i n w h a t capacity). One had no experience.  12o r g a n i z a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; P a g e 6 4 i ' Q u e s t i o n s 15 - 19 g i v e I d e a l S t a f f B r e a k d o w n . (See F i g u r e # I I I . , p. 72) We n o t e t h a t no. s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s w e r e g i v e n d u r i n g the worker s e l e c t i o n or the " a b i l i t i e s T e s t " ( P e t e r s o n & I n g l i s ) i n E x p l o r a t i o n s i n P e r s o n a l i t y . , H.A. M u r r a y , S c i e n c e E d i t i o n 62. p. 4 4 1 .  44.  of  the o r i e n t a t i o n program a d m i n i s t e r e d  in  t h i s p r o g r a m was  given just p r i o r  t o the workers  to the b e g i n n i n g  i n t e n d i n g to take of  The  o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m was  administered  the o r i e n t a t i o n program.  o f t h e above t e s t s were g i v e n by  Both  o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m . one  student  researcher  Another  The  final  i n February  important  ed  attended  to t e s t areas  the  t e s t was  after  post-test  completion  administered  of  the D i r e c t o r individually  by  1967.)  a r e a we  wanted  t a t i o n p r o g r a m on w o r k e r p e r f o r m a n c e . f o u r had  immediately  it.  part  t o t e s t was  the e f f e c t  Among t h e s e v e n w o r k e r s  c o m p l e t e o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m and  of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( i f any)  of the  orien-  interviewed,  t h r e e had  not.  We  i n knowledge, s k i l l  hopand  performance. The maintain  similarity  interviewed one  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  i n the  a t home, two  ered  i n personal  i n school l i b r a r i e s  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; a l t h o u g h ,  ( c ) on p a g e two  tions  PRE #1.  one  The  team t o  respondents  one  a t work.  individual  felt  A l l respondents  felt  p e r s o n a l and  Designated  A,  B,  C,  were work, answ-  t h a t most of the  quest-  questions 7(a)  u n r e l a t e d t o any  A breakdown of the f o u r worker responses  o f t h r e e w o r k e r s t o one 3,  and  A l s o , most of the r e s p o n d e n t s  o f t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  2,  of the r e s e a r c h  Three at the school of s o c i a l  o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be  (See A p p e n d i x D)  one  interview techniques.  following settings.  i o n s were i r r e l e v a n t .  1,  a d m i n i s t e r e d by  (b) study.  to three a d m i n i s t r a -  D and  of the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  responses Designated  follows:  (Orientation)  I f you were t o s t a r t would  POST ( O r i e n t a t i o n ) as a d e t a c h e d  FINAL  worker today,  (Administered how  do y o u  do?  A.  Good  Good  Good  B.  Fair  Poor  Better  Feb.  think  1967 you  45.  : PRE ( O r i e n t a t i o n )  POST  (Orientation)  C.  Fair  Fair  D.  Good  Good  FINAL  ( A d m i n i s t e r e d Feb. 1967) Fair-Good Good  1.  Good  2.  Good  3.  Fair  #2. A.  What d i d y o u g e t o u t o f t h e O r i e n t a t i o n P r o g r a m ? I n f o r m a t i o n and met t h e s t a f f .  C o u l d n ' t s a y . D i d n ' t know w h a t i t would c o n s i s t o f . I n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e ; made m a t e r i a l meaningful. O r i e n t e d me to Detached work g e n e r a l l y .  B. U n d e r s t a n d youth  L e a r n a b o u t s e l f and a d o l e s c e n t s and group work.  L o t o f i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s . Not too u s e f u l t o t h e a c t u a l p r o gram i t s e l f . N o t w e l l related-.: t o w h a t t o do when w o r k i n g w i t h groups.  C. E x p e c t a t i o n s and a framework.  I n f o r m a t i o n on r o l e s and t e c h n i q u e s .  P r i m a r i l y i n s i g h t i n t o detached work. Aims and b a s i c c o n c e p t s . How do y o u a p p r o a c h a g r o u p . To l e a r n and i d e n t i f y p e r s o n a l skills.  D.  M o r e t o be l e a r n e d  Methods o f c o n t a c t ; use o f r e s o u r c e p e o p l e and m a t e r i a l . How t o a p p l y a s s e t s c o n s t r u c t ively .  #3.  Understanding of youth.  What d i d y o u h o p e t o a c c o m p l i s h  A. I n c r e a s e s k i l l t o work w i t h y o u t h .  Improve ness .  B.. L e a r n i n g e x p e r i ence .  Insight into adolescents.  Realize self-potential fully.  from your  effective-  self,  To s e e i f c a n w o r k successfully with a group o f y o u t h s .  experience  this  summer?  Most important t h i n g i s t o build relationship with the group. Experience: (a) w i t h teens, (b) w i t h detached work, ( c ) o f a personal nature. Any r e a l a b i l i t y t o w o r k w i t h teens. Not t o o concerned w i t h g r o u p w o r k as s u c h . I f could r e l a t e , w o u l d g e t c a u g h t up i n t h e i r problem. S e l f assurance.  46.  PRE D.  (Orientation)  S a t i s f a c t i o n of h e l p i n g and the knowledge gained.  POST  (Orientation)  To r e a c h o u t and m o b i l i z e a group.  FINAL ( A d m i n i s t e r e d  Feb.  1967)  Learned a l o t . P e r s o n a l i t y change i n s e l f . Double standard hard to compromise. There is inconsistency i n counselling. L e a r n e d how t o r e l a t e t o k i d s . See them i n t h e i r own environment. Developed a p e r c e p t i o n of what t h e p r o b l e m s were. A r e s p e c t f o r the approach. A basic work.  skill  i n doing  detached  Closer contact with adolescent. How I w o u l d f a r e i n a n o n - s t r u ctured approach. To s e e i f I c o u l d be a d e t a c h e d w o r k e r . #4.  What d i d y o u this Prepare t o seek  accomplish with  a group  (or  i n d i v i d u a l s ) i n detached  work  summer? youth help.  B.' A t t i t u d e c h a n g e and c o n s t r u c t i v e h a b i t s of l i v i n g .  Guide or a d v i s e towards c o n s t r u c t i v e outcomes.  C o n f i d e n c e t o meet the group. B u i l d a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the members. Didn't understand the b e h a v i o u r problems. Did b e t t e r on t h e one t o one b a s i s . A t t e m p t e d t o use g r o u p d y n a m i c s (no e x a m p l e ) . Didn't deter d e l i n q u e n c y or s c h o o l drop-out. Agency p o l i c y not adequately explained. (e.g. w o r k e r s were t o l d to get i n v o l v e d w i t h the f a m i l i e s o n l y a t t h e end o f t h e project.) O v e r a l l p o l i c y of >program n o t w e l l e n o u g h i n t e r preted. Good s u p e r v i s i o n .  Some movement t o wards c o n s t r u c t i v e goals.  In i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l cases understood the b e h a v i o u r . Did use t h e group p r o c e s s f o r l i m i t setting. This took a l o n g time to develop. Used s u b t l e s t r u c t u r e and c o n t r o l . W a s n ' t w i t h the group l o n g enough t o d e t e r delinquency or drop-out. Only g o t t o w h e r e we c o u l d b e g i n t o w o r k w i t h them. A g e n c y d i d n ' t make i t s p u r p o s e c l e a r .  47.  PRE  (Orientation)  POST  (Orientation)  C. I n s t i l l s e l f responsibility  Help the group decisions.  D.  H e l p m o b i l i z e and f i n d themselves.  Understanding.  make  FINAL ( A d m i n i s t e r e d Feb.  1967)  U n d e r s t o o d b e h a v i o u r and was c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f the group dynamics. Used l i m i t s e t t i n g . No d e t e r r a n c e o f d e l i n q u e n c y or s c h o o l d r o p - o u t , never r e a l l y t r i e d to a c c o m p l i s h t h a t . Knew A g e n c y p o l i c y O.K. To m o b i l i z e t h e g r o u p . Used r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n and w i t h o u t the community. The B o y s C l u b and A l e x H o u s e f o r d a n c e s and team s p o r t s . Understood group b e h a v i o u r , b u t n o t on an i n d i v i dual basis. Group p r o c e s s : Y e s and No. Slightly deterred delinquency. Understood Agency policy. U n d e r s t o o d t h e g r o u p as a w h o l e . L e a r n e d how t o d e a l w i t h t h e p o l i c e and t h e p l a y g r o u n d s t a f f . U s e d b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s . Understood behaviour problems and u t i l i z e d g r o u p d y n a m i c s by c h a n g i n g the group c o m p o s i t i o n . Acted i n r o l e of c o u n s e l l o r to members who b e g a n t o o p e n up by t h e end o f t h e g r o u p m e e t ings. L i m i t e d deterrance, but gave v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . Aware of Agency p o l i c y . U n d e r s t o o d b e h a v i o u r and u s e d k n o w l e d g e o f p r e - d e l i n q u e n t and acting-out behaviour. Didn't deter delinquency or drop-out, as t h r e e o r f o u r members c h a r g e d w i t h NSF c h e q u e - p a s s i n g w h i l e i n the group. As l o n g as t h e worker t h e r e , the group k e p t out of t r o u b l e . Agency p o l i c y not understood because d i d not attend the o r i e n t a t i o n . Co-ordinated e f f o r t s to p l a n activities. Work e r w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o n t h e i r p r o b l e m s and u n d e r s t o o d b e h a v i o u r on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . Attempted group t e c h n i q u e s i n a m i n i m a l way. Didn't deter d e l inquency or drop-out. Understood agency p o l i c y .  48.  PRE ( O r i e n t a t i o n ) #5.  POST  What d i d y o u c o n t r i b u t e  A. U n c e r t a i n ; self.  perhaps  FINAL (Administered  (Orientation)  F e b . 1967)  t o d e t a c h e d work?  What s k i l l  I have,  B. C o n v e y a p o s i t i v e value system.  Uncertain.  C. A n y t h i n g w i t h i n my a b i l i t y .  R e a l i z e my potential.  D. P a s t p e r s o n a l experience.  As much a s I c a n do.  Working with youth, Not that much t o o f f e r ; b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s . Channel behaviour towards posi t i v e outcomes. Noble idea. F e l t young s o c i a l workers d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n l i f e . The g a n g c r o w d was a l s o b o r e d with l i v i n g . C o n f u s i o n began a f t e r t h e g r o u p was a p p r o a c h e d i n t h a t d i d n o t know e x a c t l y what t o do, o r o f f e r . N e v e r h a d any c o n c e p t i o n ; thought o f s e l f .  self  just  Use my p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s . Have been i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . a n d c o u l d teach.youth the communities a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s and show t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d e l i n quent b e h a v i o u r . H e l p k i d s g e t t h r o u g h ages and s t a g e s and a p e r s o n a l experience.  1.  My own t i m e was m o s t v a l u a b l e t h i n g from the k i d s p o i n t o f view. No #6  From t h e s c h e d u l e r e - r a t e each s e s s i o n to y o u .  ( S e e p . 2, q u e s t i o n n a i r e  I n the breakdown o f q u e s t i o n post-orientation administration  13  response.  i n descending order  i n appendix  D)  s i x , we a r e a s s u m i n g t h a t  test data i s not accurate However, i n t h e f i n a l  o f importance  as t h e r e s u l t o f  questionnaire  t h e p r e - and  non-controlled  administration,  t h e de-  1 3 r o m t h e s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e a c h w o r k e r , we w e r e i n f o r m e d b y them t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t o v e r l y c a r e f u l when t h e y c o m p l e t e d t h e p r e - a n d p o s t orientation questionnaires. Some u s e d r a n d o m s e l e c t i o n ; , some d i d n o t p a y t o o much a t t e n t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n s ; , a n d some w e r e h o s t i l e t o a n y f o r m o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; and t h i s r e d u c e d t h e a c c u r a c y and o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e i r r a t i n g schedules. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a s a g r o u p ; t h u s the f a c t o r s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s reduced the accuracy and r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e r a t i n g . F  49.  g r e e o f a c c u r a c y i s i n c r e a s e d , as e a c h q u e s t i o n was ent  i n a one  t o one  interview setting.  were o b v i o u s l y random a f t e r analysis of this 1. sponses.  The  We  some o f t h e c h o i c e s  t h r e e were s e l e c t e d .  From  and  hope t o d e t e r m i n e  the c o n s i s t e n c y of the worker  the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ,  have worked  stressed  Statistical The final  out a p r e d i c t i o n  between each  should this  table  final  administra-  occur.  f o r each q u e s t i o n ,  then chose  we  program  importance.  the p r e - p o s t - o r i e n t a t i o n r a t i n g s  t h e p o s t o r i e n t a t i o n g r a p h and  ( i f t h i s was  2  n o t a v a i l a b l e we  chose  case the pre-and p o s t - o r i e n t a t i o n  and  the f o r m u l a  showing  graph  to detthe  data). was  then calculated  by  P = ^6  T h i s showed us i n two c a s e s was  the f i n a l  t h e p r e - o r i e n t a t i o n and  the r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ,  N  dicated,  of t h e i r weighted  and  Procedure  i n one RHO,  applying  t r a i n i n g because  three sets of data ( i . e .  D and D and  for future  in his  r a t i n g s ) were p l o t t e d on a f r e q u e n c y p o l y g o n . We  ermine  the  following:  examine the r e s p o n s e s to determine which a r e a s of the o r i e n t a t i o n  s h o u l d be  and  last  t h e amount o f c h a n g e i n d u c e d i n t h e w o r k e r  2.  the  and  respond-  r a t e d o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e o f e a c h q u e s t i o n o v e r t h e t h r e e re.-  t i o n o f the t e s t ;  will  In spite of this,  q u e s t i o n , we w i s h t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  F r o m t h i s we  responses;  the f i r s t  v e r b a l l y put t o the  (N  2  -  1)  the e x t e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e l a t e d  significant  a tendency  i n that a negative rhb  measures  ( c o r r e l a t i o n ) was i n -  f o r r e v e r s a l b e t w e e n t h e two m e a s u r e s .  The  means  2 of  D  were c a l c u l a t e d  worker  t o g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n as t o t h e e x t e n t o f c h a n g e  showed i n h i s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e two m e a s u r e s .  each  A g r e a t e r mean w o u l d i n -  d i c a t e more c h a n g e and more f l e x i b i l i t y . a s  the r e s u l t o f the i n t e g r a t i o n of  the  page  field  experience.  ( R e f e r t o C h a r t #V,  46)  50.  The mean o f e a c h w o r k e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o e a c h q u e s t i o n o n e a c h t e s t calculated  giving  t h r e e means f o r e v e r y q u e s t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by  the  was  three  tests. The means w e r e t h e n r a t e d g i v i n g q u e s t i o n h a d and Chart  t h e s e were p l o t t e d  Number o f Responses  47.  +  .242  Pre  B  13 - 13  -  .820  Post-Final  33.07  C  13 - 13  +  .305  Pre-Final  19.46  D  13 - 13  -  .780  Post-Final  34.30  orientation test. during  We  and D.  assume f r o m t h i s plus  oughly using  larger  samples.  d e t a c h e d work p r o g r a m s , 1.  mitment  to the 2.  Workers  ( s h o w n by  that  their  to the post-  factors  field  (not tested),  t h e means o f D ) , 2  shows  t o t h e p r o j e c t and w e r e p r o b a b l y more  T h i s a s s u m p t i o n needs We  that  two w o r k e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e  t h e i r unique p e r s o n a l i t y  i n d i c a t e d degree of f l e x i b i l i t y  as d e t a c h e d w o r k e r s .  21.23  towards the e x a c t o p p o s i t e  that  t h e y m i g h t h a v e b e e n more c o m m i t t e d  effective  -Post  show a s i g n i f i c a n t r h o , i n d i c a t i n g  t e s t were t e n d i n g  t h e summer o f 1966,  their  Mean o f  Test Sequence  Rho  13 - 13  responses to the f i n a l  of  page  A  B o t h w o r k e r s B.  that  o n C h a r t #2,  each  #1  Detached Worker  and  an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e t r e n d  can, however,  state  t o be  t e s t e d more  that f o r future  t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s m i g h t be  s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d who  indicate  thor-  staffing  considered:  a h i g h d e g r e e o f com-  project. The  o r i e n t a t i o n program  seems t o h a v e  little  er's  p e r f o r m a n c e and i t w o u l d seem t h a t a g u i d e d f i e l d  more  valuable.  e f f e c t on t h e  e x p e r i e n c e would  workbe  51.  3.  I f a n o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m i s t o be  p o s t - and  final  t e s t s would i n d i c a t e  Questions  2,  8,  Questions  12,  one  3,  11,  10 7,  s h o u l d be 6,  g i v e n the  t r e n d s on  t h a t the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s  s t r e s s e d and  the  s h o u l d be  pre-, stressed:  emphasized.  5, w e r e r a t e d l o w and  c o u l d p e r h a p s be  combined  into  lecture.  Questions  13,  9,  4,  1,  stayed  even.  C h a r t . #2  Quest i o n # Pre  Post  Final  Actual  Predicted  1  6.6  10.2  7.5  Middle  Middle  2  7.5  6.5  5.7  High  Low  3  7.2  9.7  5.2  High  Middle  4  7.2  6.5  7.0  Middle  Low  5  7.6  6.5  8.7  Low  High  6  6.6  6.2  9.7  Low  Middle  7  6.8  5.7  8.2  Low  Middle  8  7.2  8.2  5.2  High  High  9  4.2  7.5  4.2  Middle  High  10  11.2  4.5  4.0  High  High  11  7.4  7.0  10:2  Low  Middle  12  4.0  6.0  7.7  Low  High  13  7.8  6.2  7.2  Middle  Middle  Questions ential,  p e r s o n a l and  7 ( a ) , ( b ) , and not  acceptable.  (c).were  Direction Predicted  Direction Ac t u a l  t  /\  T \  /  \ f /\  \  T /  /  \  -f-  -f-  t  \ /  f  1  t  y  generally felt  t o be  Most of the workers f e l t  this  inconsequi n some  52.  way On  was  c o n s t r u e d f o r the Boys C l u b S t a f f  the whole,  Club S t a f f ;  most w o r k e r s  stated  a l t h o u g h , t h e r e was  t h e p r o g r a m was  a n d n o t f o r t h e i r own  t h a t t h e y had good r e l a t i o n s w i t h  some c o n f l i c t  t o s e e how  closely  urban c e n t e r s around  #11.  A.  client  wanted  to determine  i d e a s were u n d e r s t o o d  t h e o r y " f o r s o c i a l change. detached workers  such q u e s t i o n s as:  i s a detached worker?  t o what  Also,  we  compared t o t h o s e o f  ( a ) What a r e t h e  advant-  (b) P e r c e p t i o n s o f  role  population.  Are you m a r r i e d or s i n g l e ?  Did you  feel  this  detached  worker?  Single.  The  hours  and  There  would  be more demands o n a f a m i l y  life. B.  we  "community development"  the Vancouver  a g e s o f b e i n g s i n g l e when one and  and  employed i n the l i g h t o f "systems  o t h e r major  to where  going.  e x t e n t "community o r g a n i z a t i o n "  wished  the Boys  among them a t t i m e s as  Q u e s t i o n s 11 - 20 w e r e a s k e d b e c a u s e  and  personal benefit.  Married.  There  time spent w i t h  n e e d s t o be  a f f e c t e d y o u r w o r k as  the group  a  a f f e c t one's p e r s o n a l man.  a b a l a n c e , and m a t u r i t y i s h e l p f u l .  t i m e - s p a n o f an o l d e r p e r s o n t o the y o u t h i s h a r d f o r m u t u a l  The  under-  standing. C.  Single.  No  D.  Single.  The  effect. d e t a c h e d w o r k j o b s h o u l d be  s h o u l d h a v e c o m m i t m e n t and p o i n t was about  accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  t o o many t h i n g s o u t s i d e t h e  Single.  The  time element  2.  Single.  One  i s free  t o do  would  f o r the group  No  e f f e c t on  be  the work  One  task.  project. too demanding f o r a m a r r i e d p e r s o n .  t h e same. situation.  This  People worried  things without other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ;  e v e r , a m a r r i e d p e r s o n m i g h t do Single.  not p a r t - t i m e .  n o t s t r e s s e d enough i n the o r i e n t a t i o n program.  1.  3.  full-time,  how-  53.  #12.  How l o n g w e r e y o u i n v o l v e d All  ject  i n the project?  responses i n d i c a t e d  t h a t a l l workers had been i n v o l v e d  i n the pro-  f r o m May - S e p t e m b e r 1 9 6 6 .  #13.  Do y o u s e e t h e S t a f f  A.  C a p a b l e , y e s , b u t t h e r e was some o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o g r a m w i t h i n t h e clubs,  a t t h e Boys C l u b c a p a b l e o f d o i n g d e t a c h e d  a n d no s p e c i f i c  r e a s o n was g i v e n why t h e p r o g r a m  work?  started.  B.  Capable, g i v e n time.  C.  C a p a b l e , b u t m o s t o f them d i d n ' t h a v e t h e i n t e r e s t , a n d t h e r e was t o o much " p u b b i n g " a n d n o t e n o u g h p l a n n i n g . directors  of clubs  antagonistic D.  forced  Staff  felt  coerced because the  t h e p r o g r a m o n them, a n d t h i s c a u s e d a l o t o f  feelings.  The p e o p l e , y e s ; b u t n o t w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e t i m e i n v o l v e d ,  One s h o u l d -  n ' t h a v e two j o b s . 1.  B o t h good and b a d . ing  based.  istration 2.  The B o y s C l u b p h i l o s o p h y i s O.K. t o work w i t h  Some, v e r y f e w . flict  T h e r e was a c o n f l i c t o v e r b e i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y  between themselves.  themselves  Yes and no.  #14.  I n w h a t way c o u l d  A.  By l a y i n g down a s t r i c t  g i v e up e a s i l y  on problems.  The  to the s t a f f .  I t depended on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . t h e p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n be  w i t h more d i r e c t i o n B.  t i m e a n d t h e r e was t o o much c o n -  The o r i e n t a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t  from s o c i a l work and t h e f o r m e r would  3.  and t h e y have a good admin-  kids.  M o s t d i d n o t have enough  groups had t o prove  build-  policy, maintaining  improved?  t h i s , , and f o l l o w i n g  through  to the s t a f f .  P r o j e c t time too s h o r t .  Lines o f communication  between  administration  and w h a t was e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e w o r k e r s was n o t t o o c l e a r .  No one r e a l l y  knew w h a t was e x p e c t e d . C.  More i n n e r d i r e c t i o n needed.  Workers sometimes h e s i t a n t a t e x p r e s s i n g  54.  t h e i r views. D.  The  Program d i r e c t o r o f t e n too  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s e t up  practically  ried  about themselves r a t h e r than w i t h  with  the problems of  t h e w o r k e r O.K. groups'  i n d i v i d u a l meetings  problems were s o l v e d  I f didn't attend  Workers too  the k i d s . (e.g.  too  but time  i n v o l v e d and  wor-  Administration dealt  S u p e r v i s i o n ) , but  individual.  Need f u l l - t i m e  Poor c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the No  theoretically,  not  with  inadequacy.  M o r e s u p e r v i s i o n b o t h g r o u p and v i s i o n a l l summer.  2.  Team and  t o o much T-Group e m p h a s i s .  the problems of the 1.  t h e p r o g r a m t h e r i g h t way  i t d i d n ' t work o u t .  c o n s u m i n g and  directive.  We  o n l y met  once f o r  super-  workers.  teams; s t a f f m e e t i n g s were a t o t a l  i n s u p e r v i s i o n and  o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m , no  t h e r e was  flop.  trouble getting i t .  a g e n c y p o l i c y was  given  to  the  worker. 3.  S u p e r v i s i o n was Little  adequate both i n the  more c o - o r d i n a t i o n n e e d e d .  from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . #15.  Do  you  team and  More c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r  t h i n k t h e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m s h o u l d  More r e s e a r c h before  B.  Joint.  to see  anything  individual  i f there  session.  More i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w o r k e r ' s  . d e v e l o p e d t o examine what i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g A.  the  role  Agencies.  b e a e x p a n d e d o r more  research  done?  i s a r e a l need f o r a d e t a c h e d work  program  i s expanded.  I approve o f the method, but  there  should  be  research  into i t s  practical application. C.  Yes  D.  More r e s e a r c h . the  to  both.  screening  The  process,  ment w i t h r e g a r d s 1.  Both.  2.  S h o u l d be  program should  expanded, but  the need f o r v o l u n t e e r s  to the  e x p a n d e d and  be  and  we the  need  to look  levels  of  into  commit-  workers.  more r e s e a r c h .  The  g r o u p s c o u l d go  a l o n g way  with  55.  more t i m e i f t h e y were p i c k e d when we  left.  We  up e a r l i e r .  n e e d more money and  3.  The p r o g r a m s h o u l d be expanded.  #16.  What d o e s C o m m u n i t y  A l s o , the groups f e l l  apart  resources.  D e v e l o p m e n t and Community  O r g a n i z a t i o n mean t o y o u  from a Detached worker's standpoint? A.  The t e r m s a r e new  t o me.  through l a y e f f o r t s . for B.  Community  Community  Organization  i s self-organization  Development i s p r o f e s s i o n a l  guidance  c o m m u n i t y ; d e v e l o p m e n t o f human and  physical  t h e community.  Building w i t h i n a small resources  t o meet a n e e d .  E x p a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o p e n l i n e s  of  communication. C  Community willing  D.  doesn't r e a l i z e  to take the i n i t i a t i v e  it  g r o u p and v i c e - v e r s a . s h o u l d know why,  u n d e r s t a n d why  Community  and w h a t  i s this  E n a b l e t h e community t o p u l l  2.  To d e v e l o p  3.  More f a c i l i t i e s them i n t e r e s t e d .  i n an  recognize  i t s b a c k on t h e g r o u p , b u t The  group d o e s n ' t  and t h e n do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t  i t sresources  together.  ( e . g . Meet-  of the p a r k ) .  area.  f o r adolescent groups. Need more  t h e community  way.  a t p a r e n t s ' home i n s t e a d  the resources  Help  the groups are doing.  t h e community  ings being held  No one i n t h e c o m m u n i t y i s  any p r o g r a m s .  turns  To g e t t h e c o m m u n i t y t o l o o k a t t h e k i d s it.  #17.  to s t a r t  To r e c o g n i z e t h e c o m m u n i t y as a n e n t i t y . the  1.  i t has a p r o b l e m .  To o r g a n i z e t h e p a r e n t s and g e t  time.  D i d y o u employ any o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s  i n your p r a c t i c e l a s t  summer?  Give examples: A.  D i d n ' t employ any o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s . worked w i t h  B.  some o f t h e a d u l t s  None o f t h e s e i d e a s e m p l o y e d .  Some o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may  have  i n t h e community. One n e e d s a t l e a s t a y e a r  i n the  field.  C.  No u t i l i z a t i o n thing.  of the concepts.  Felt  C o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e g r o u p .  prepared  t o spend f o u r n i g h t s  D.  Not r e a l l y .  1.  No.  2.  Generally  3.  No t i m e t o do  #18.  Were t h e y  t h e n e e d , b u t no t i m e t o do a n y -  As a p a r t  a week d o i n g  t i m e w o r k e r , I was n o t  detached  no. this.  successful?  From t h e above r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n to complete t h i s  17 no i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e  question.  #19.  What do y o u t h i n k o f t h e i d e a o f a M e t r o p o l i t a n  A.  D o n ' t know a n y t h i n g  B.  Good i d e a  C  H a v e n ' t h e a r d much a b o u t i t .  D.  No k n o w l e d g e . good  work.  Teen Committee?  about i t .  basically.  I f i t means K i v i e w  idea; but p r a c t i c a l l y ,  Boys C e n t r e ;  i t stinks.'  theoretically,  i tis a  There i s a l a c k o f t r a i n e d  building-supervisors. 1.  Planning  f o rkids  i s n o t a good  idea.  Should  i n v o l v e the teens  them-  selves . 2.  Heard n o t h i n g any  about i t . I f K i v i e w ,  t h e i d e a s t i n k s and won't meet w i t h  success.  3.  A good  #20.  What i n y o u r o p i n i o n  i s an U n r e a c h e d  A.  Someone n o t i n v o l v e d  i n t h e community, m a i n l y  exposed B.  idea. Youth? because they a r e not  to i t .  A n a l i e n a t e d p e r s o n who d o e s n ' t know w h a t t o do w i t h  self.  Probably  n u i s a n c e t o t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d a l w a y s t r y i n g t o do t h i n g s w h i c h the  community.  T h e y h a v e t h e image o f " b a d " k i d s .  a  irritate  C.  Primarily,  one  e s t l y w i t h no D.  A y o u t h who  who  f r e e to t a l k  t o someone e l s e o p e n l y  and  hon-  judgement i n v o l v e d .  hasn't r e a l l y  of h i s d e l i n q u e n t on  isn't  had  activity.  a c h a n c e t o see H a s n ' t had  the community i n t r o d u c e d  a c o n s t r u c t i v e r a t h e r than destructuve  teenage gang a t the  incubator  the consequences of  level.  some to  Poor s e l f - i m a g e .  him A  level. i  1.  A k i d unable  to u t i l i z e  or p r e - d e l i n q u e n t iscuity, 2.  not  community.  As to  the  P e o p l e who  i s , Section I I , 1 - 5 ,  A  delinquent,  have had  no  hedonistic. h i s f a m i l y or  his  f o r them.  contact with  social  agencies.  emotionally.  in relation  they  prom-  examine the  to the g o a l s  specifically  apply  Section I I I , 1 - 3  foregoing  s t a t e d i n the  to the  and  responses 1966  "line-workers".  S e c t i o n IV,  1-7,  A) We  can  assume t h a t e a c h w o r k e r d i d c o n t a c t a g r o u p o r g r o u p s  the  summer o f  ive  responses i n questions  no w o r k was work w i t h  going  s e c t i o n three w i l l  structure questionnaire  Appendix  1966  and  done w i t h  individuals  from those work.  have n o t h i n g  have never been r e a c h e d stated before,  and  of development o f ^ s e l f ,  T h o s e who  r e p o r t on d e t a c h e d w o r k , as (That  sense of nothingness  the r e s o u r c e s  Pre-delinquents. K i d s who  a v a i l a b l e to him.  w i t h a l c o h o l problems, poor f a m i l y background,  poor s e l f - i m a g e ,  There are  3.  the resources  (See  s p e n t some t i m e w i t h  the on  #17  and  18,  families  of  question  4,  ( p a g e 51)  p a g e 42.  However, from the we  can  see  and  t r a i n i n g was  I t should  be  noted  that workers  primarily  r e c r e a t i o n focus  specific  training,  and  B,  and  only  i n the a r e a  C,  no  subject-  practically  or a d v i c e - g i v i n g basis -  h a v e a s o c i a l w o r k b a c k g r o u n d , w o r k e r s A , a n d D, and  that  t h e y o u t h s i n v o l v e d , and  a problem-solving  w o r k e r s whose m a i n f o c u s  them.  of 1,  sporadic especially social 2,  a Boys' Club training  during  3, and  at a l l . )  58.  This 39).  i s understandable  when one l o o k s  a t t h e s t a f f breakdown  None h a d a n y s t a t e d k n o w l e d g e o f w o r k i n g w i t h  with problem f a m i l i e s i n a non-structured, especially  groups p e r s e , or d e a l i n g  non-agency approach.  t o t h e B o y s ' C l u b S t a f f whose m a i n f o c u s  a f a m i l y s e r v i c e agency, b u t i s i n c l i n e d  these  p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s , w i t h an emphasis on t h e l e i s u r e  opposed  to  the responses  an^Unreached Youth?" c l e a r l y  i s not a great  diagnosis helps  deal  to identify  little  of help  families. the It  p.  family  o f t h e needs  However,  assessment  to a l l e v i a t e the  t o the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned.  have been r e l i e d  other  the families,  sources  Adequate  on t o h e l p w i t h  and as t h e t i m e  such as t h e F a m i l y  Service  t h e o b v i o u s needs o f  i n t h e way o f m e e t i n g t h e e x p r e s s e d  t h e Youth P r e v e n t i v e  these  needs o f  i n t e r v e n t i o n i s n o t known.  c a n o n l y be measured, i n t h e case o f a d e l i n q u e n t  ctioning  "What i n y o u r o p i n i o n i s  some a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e  t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n by t h e detached worker's  80).  time approach ( i . e .  (See page 5 2 ) .  o r n o w o r k was d o n e w i t h  The a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s  tacts with  from  the problem, but n o t always t o s o l v e i t .  s p a n o f t h e p r o g r a m was l i m i t e d , Agency should  t h e boys  i n d i c a t e s the worker's perceptions  of a need o r a s o c i a l p r o b l e m w i t h o u t  As  t o work w i t h  to the question:  t h e i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s c o n t a c t e d .  problem  applies  "treatment").  Generally,  of  This  and p u r p o s e i s n o t o s t e n -  sibly  as  (page  Squad a n d c o u r t  group, by reduced  contacts.  con-  ( S e e f i g u r e #7,  I n the case of a non-delinquent  group, the aim i s b e t t e r s o c i a l  (should  t o a c c u r a t e l y measure t h i s ) ,  a s c a l e ever  stress,.fewer  or work a d j u s t m e n t .  be d e v i s e d  p r o b l e m s w i t h a u t h o r i t y , and p r e s u m a b l y , b e t t e r (Note:  Refer  t o F i g u r e #7 a n d D e l i n q u e n c y  fun-  less school  Statistics,  page 80) We with  can c a t e g o r i c a l l y  generally inexperienced  returns,  is likely  s t a t e t h a t n o p r o g r a m o f two m o n t h s  w o r k e r s , on a p a r t  t o be t r e m e n d o u s l y e f f e c t i v e ;  duration,  t i m e b a s i s , f o r no m o n e t a r y i n many c a s e s  i t i s merely a  59.  stop-gap measure f o r t h e worker t o e i t h e r g a i n experience,, t o improve h i s , skills  and t e c h n i q u e s ,  different  o r t o p r o v i d e h i m w i t h i n s i g h t and knowledge i n t o , a  a r e a o f work n o t p r e v i o u s l y , e x p e r i e n c e d .  ( S e e q u e s t i o n 3, p a g e s  41 & 4 2 ) . No s t a t i s t i c a l  d a t a was g a t h e r e d  to determine conclusions  t h r e e a n d f o u r ; s e c t i o n I I o f t h e Summer P r o j e c t - 1966 w i t h r e g a r d s m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t . The  (Question  workers s t a t e d t h a t they  o r community development t a s k s .  f o r goals, t o com-  18, p a g e 5 1 ) .  d i d not perform  community o r g a n i z a t i o n  This might have*been achieved  by s e t t i n g up  a program o f d e t a c h e d work w i t h i n a framework o f coded v a r i a b l e s and r e a l i s t i c goals  f o r the workers to achieve  on, a s t e p by s t e p b a s i s , w i t h some  reality  base. Goal to  analytic  iveness  f o u r h a s w i t h i n i t t e r m s t h a t do n o t r e a d i l y  breakdown.  No r e s e a r c h  instrument  o f the worker's m o b i l i z a t i o n o f those  have t o r e f e r h e r e t o t h e t e e n ^ - q u e s t i o n n a i r e P r e v e n t i v e Squad t o g i v e i n d i c a t i o n s Delinquency t h a t they  statistics,  inated,  loping groups, status  and t h e s t a t i s t i c s  i n this area.  stages  (Refer  shall  o f the Youth  t o F i g u r e #7 r e ;  They d i d ,  o f group development i n t h e i r  initial  expectations  l e a d e r s h i p , promoting democratic  the development o f group d i s c i p l i n e , systems, i n t e g r a t i o n o f the group i n t o  limit  work  when t h e p r o j e c t t e r m c o u l d n o t be  one assumes t h a t t h e u s e o f g r o u p work t e c h n i q u e s ,  indigenous  We  G e n e r a l l y , most o f t h e  ( i . e . group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c o h e s i o n )  a n d t h e r e f o r e , many o f t h e i r If  w i t h whom h e w o r k e d .  the groups p l a n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s .  the teens  to test the e f f e c t -  o r s c h o o l d r o p - o u t t o any e x t e n t .  w o r k e r s were o n l y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g with  themselves  page 8 0 ) . However, on t h e w h o l e , w o r k e r s d i d n o t f e e l  deterred delinquency  however, h e l p  was d e v i s e d  lend  fullfilled.  such a s :  deve-  d e c i s i o n making w i t h i n setting,  altering  group  t h e community, l e a r n i n g s o c i a l  60.  skills, in  c o r r e c t i v e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and p r o g r a m m i n g ^  detached work, i t would  h o u l d be  the r e s u l t s  g a i n e d i n t h e Van-  project. Q u e s t i o n #4,  pages  42 and  u s e d g r o u p p r o c e s s and d y n a m i c s  43, i n d i c a t e t h a t each w o r k e r  i n working with  their  a r e a s o f l i m i t - s e t t i n g and p l a n n i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  ial  w o r k e r s o u t o f t h e s e v e n d e t a c h e d w o r k e r s had  individuals  and  t o t h e i r work w i t h  have a l i m i t i n g  with  counsellor  larger  t h e y d i d not understand agency p o l i c y  t h e g r o u p s , and  workers stated  ( Q u e s t i o n #4, that  Neighbourhood  pages  they t r i e d  c o m m u n i t y i n a l i m i t e d way,  ency f a c i l i t i e s  four stated  e f f e c t on w o r k e r p e r f o r m a n c e  o f w o r k i n g i n a vacuum. Two  the  soc-  than  t h e group as a w h o l e .  lation  ing  Three  a tendency t o work  t h e i r p r o b l e m s more i n t h e r o l e o f i n d i v i d u a l  Three workers stated  to  consciously  groups, e s p e c i a l l y i n  the  with  employed  take a completely separate study to determine the  e x t e n t o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s and couver  s  questionnaire administered  are  not involved with r e f e r r a l s  ure  #1,  p a g e 70^_.  appears  the worker a  feel-  42 gand 4 3 ) .  to integrate  The  H o u s e w e r e t h e two a g e n c i e s u s e d .  the  gives  This  their  group  into  m a i n l y by u s i n g t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d  f o r r e c r e a t i o n and d a n c e s .  With r e g a r d s t o Agency  and  they d i d .  in re-  K i v i e w Boys  C l u b and A l e x a n d r a  ( Q u e s t i o n #4,  g o a l number f i v e ,  pp.  t r e n d s would  Detached, w o r k e r s were i n v o l v e d w i t h  42 &  43)  indicate  to the agencies that Neighbourhood from the detached workers.  ag-  from  Agencies  (Note:  See  few r e f e r r a l s  Fig-  from  agencies. In onses  to Agency  i n a l l e c a s e s would  w h a t was level,  relation  goal I I I ,  indicate  sections  1, 2,.3,  resp-  t h a t , a l t h o u g h m o s t o f them w e r e a w a r e o f  m e a n t b y c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t  noneof  the workers  t h e s e c o n c e p t s were used  in practice  on an  i n the f i e l d .  •*-^See " I d e n t i f y i n g and C o n t r o l l i n g D e l i n q u e n t G r o u p s Y o u t h S e r v i c e s B u r e a u , 1961., pp. 9 - 18.  intellectual! Most of the  of Boys",  Ottawa  61.  workers tacted.  concentrated  a l l their  (See q u e s t i o n s  time  i n working  w i t h t h e groups they had  16, 17, & 18, pages 50 - 5 1 ) .  con-  I n g e n e r a l , one m i g h t  feel  t h a t any community o r g a n i z a t i o n o r development i n i t i a t e d  time  span w i t h l i t t l e  preparation or planning i s , i n f a c t ,  i n such  a short  an u n r e a l i s t i c  e x p e c t i o n f o r the worker t o achieve. The lines to  sponsoring  f o r the workers  accomplish  agency should  i n these  areas,  i n f u t u r e s e t downeclear c u t guides t a t i n g how much a w o r k e r  d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m s ' d u r a t i o n , and p r o v i d e  tools  i s expected f o r them t o  measure t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A g e n c y g o a l number I V i s a n a l y z e d in  the structured interview.  five  graphs.  See A p p e n d i x  Analysis follows: general 11.  i n t h e breakdown o f q u e s t i o n 6  ( p a g e s 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 , a n d 13 ( p a g e s 46 - 4 7 ) and )  of the worker's responses  to questions  (These a r e n o t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r  11 - 20 a r e a s  goals but serve a  information purpose.) A l l w o r k e r s b u t two f e l t o f t h e demand o f t i m e perform  detached  work.  s o n a l movement w i t h o u t be  i t t o be an a d v a n t a g e t o be s i n g l e  and t h e i r r e g u l a r w o r k i n g They a l s o f e l t  Already  13.  A l l workers f e l t  ambivalent  about t h i s q u e s t i o n .  the job should  The d i f f e r e n t  They a l l f e l t  a g e n c y i n two o r t h r e e  The p r o b l e m o f m o v i n g o u t o f a b u i l d i n g b a s e d  areas:  program.  o r i e n t a t i o n s o f s o c i a l w o r k and r e c r e a t i o n  c a u s e d some c o n f l i c t c.  Most f e l t  answered on page 49.  d i s s e n t i o n w i t h i n the sponsoring  . b.  a freedom of per-  full-time.  12.  a.  h o u r s demanded t o  i t allowed  family obligations.  because  N o t enough time  of interest  and a p p r o a c h ,  t o do t h e j o b w e l l .  some  62.  14.  Responses a.  b r o k e n down f e l l  Need f o r s t r i c t e r  into the following  patterns:  p o l i c y d e f i n i t i o n s from sponsoring  agency.  F i v e y e s , two n o . b.  More s u p e r v i s i o n .  c.  Too much s u p e r v i s i o n .  d.  Poor  co-ordination  communication. 15.  A l l b u t one f e l t search  varying 20.  b e t w e e n t h e teams a n d a l a c k  that  t h e program  c a r r i e d on j o i n t l y  Generally  Two y e s .  should  as t h e p r o g r a m  been d i s c u s s e d .  be expanded  w i t h more r e -  progresses.  (See page 53)  a l l t h e w o r k e r s were n o t c l e a r on t h i s  answers.  i noverall  Four y e s .  16. 17. 18. have a l r e a d y 19.  Three, y e s .  question  and gave  (See page 5 2 ) .  The r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s  question  are self-explanatory  (See pages 52 &  53). In conclusion  we m u s t s a y t h a t  the detached workers b e n e f i t t e d  e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h i s p u t many a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m  greatly  from t h e i r  field  spective.  H o w e v e r , m o s t o f them w e r e n o t w e l l e n o u g h p r e p a r e d t o p e r f o r m d e -  t a c h e d w o r k a s i t i s v i s u a l i z e d i n C h i c a g o o r New Y o r k . that  the presenting  problftmsare  the  other  the  l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p r o j e c t , and o f t e n  tations  h a n d s e t down g o a l s  quite different).  i n worker performance.  worker's performance be b u i l t  around  this  (Bearing  The s p o n s o r i n g  t h a t were f a r t o o i d e a l i s t i c failed  into per-  i n mind agency  i n r e l a t i o n to  t o come c l o s e  to their  expec-  More work needs t o be done t o measure t h e  o n t h e j o b , and a n o r i e n t a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m research.  on  may  63.  CHAPTER I V A N A L Y S I S OF  General • 1.  Reasoning behind  To  discuss  the  A g e n c i e s and  DATA REGARDING HYPOTHESES  Administering  extent  of  A g e n c y o r O r g a n i z a t i o n may take  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o be be  served,  existence  churches, and 2.  To  By  the goals  o f s u c h a programme as  and  other  (by the  the  resource  the b e n e f i t s w h i c h the  we  both  community a  demonstra-  involvement with  Agencies or O r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s  of  t h e manner i n w h i c h  t i o n p r o j e c t t o i n d i c a t e a more e x t e n s i v e communities' youth.  of  i n v o l v e d as a r e f e r r a l  relationship,  m i g h t d e r i v e from the  Vancouver  h a v e o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work p r o j e c t ,  mean:  programme, the p o p u l a t i o n  i n a g i v e and  Questionnaire  the w o r k i n g knowledge t h a t the  Organizations  w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e we  the Agency  the  mean:  institutions,  both  schools, social  otherwise.) determine the  a)  founding  and  extent  of  planning  involvement i n and  the:  implementation  of  t h e D e t a c h e d Work  Programme b)  o f o n g o i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and  assessment of  the  D.W.P. The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  strators  (see page 6 1 ) .  Work S e r v i c e s and t e d , or  informed  w h i c h had As  well,  tioned School, ention  administered  The  list  was  i n c l u d e d a l l those o f t h e programme.  some c o n t a c t s  with  to seventeen o r g a n i z a t i o n  provided  by  some o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a d  the D i r e c t o r o f D e t a i l e d  o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h had I t also included  the youths c o n t a c t e d  by  direct contact with  f r o m the P r i n c e Edward P a r k group  admini-  those  been  organizations  the detached t h e 29 y o u t h s  (specifically)  contac-  Tupper  workers. ques-  Secondary  t h e C a m b i e Y.M.C.A., t h e A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t , t h e Y o u t h Squad).  Prev-  64.  QUESTIONNAIRE TO ORGANIZATION The before  t o O r g a n i z a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s was  any h y p o t h e s e s had been formed.  seeking device merit  Questionnaire  ADMINISTRATORS  I t was u s e d p r i m a r i l y a s a n i n f o r m a t i o n -  t h a t w o u l d h o p e f u l l y p r o d u c e some r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l t h a t w o u l d  further consideration.  E a r l y i n November, l i t t l e  o r d a t a was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t s  other  there A.  are severe  information  from the Boys' Club t h a t would  a s u b s t a n t i a l b a s i s f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a more m e a n i n g f u l tly,  developed  weaknesses e v i d e n t  tool.  provide Consequen-  throughout the questionnaire:  The a r e a s s e l e c t e d f o r e x p l o r a t i o n were: 1)  The o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s knowledge o f i n t e r e s t with  t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f D e t a c h e d Work.  The q u e s t i o n s  i n this  s e c t i o n b y and l a r g e , w e r e a m b i g u o u s and c e r t a i n w o r d s  used  may h a v e c o n f u s e d  largely  irrelevant.  respondents,  The q u e s t i o n s  indicate cess  that  Although,  the communication p a t t e r n s  with other  reaching  thus making t h e answers  were n e i t h e r p r e c i s e n o r comprehens-  i v e enough t o be m e a n i n g f u l .  2)  i n and i n v o l v e m e n t  This  obtained  and e d u c a t i o n  as was c l a i m e d ,  o r attempted by the Boys'  Clubs.  and f u t u r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  f i n a n c i n g o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m . block  of questions  was m o r e c l e a r l y  stated,though  p o n d e n t s d i d n o t a p p e a r k n o w l e d g e a b l e e n o u g h t o make confident or r e l i a b l e 3)  The a r e a  decision-making program provided  to provide  base.  the r e s competent,  answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s .  of "Delinquency Perceptions"  unclearly defined  And,  pro-  o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e n o t a s c o m p l e t e and a s f a r -  I d e a s and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s p r e s e n t and  the r e s u l t s  left  t o o many  concepts  r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h a more t a n g i b l e  Further,  t h e number who knew a b o u t t h e  t o o s m a l l a sample group t o be  meaningful.  t h e i r knowledge of the areas o f i n q u i r y i s q u e s t i o n a b l e  65.  b a s e d on s e v e r a l s a m p l e c o m p a r i s o n s f r o m s o u r c e s s u c h as Y o u t h Preventive  Squad f i g u r e s o n P o l i c e and C o u r t c o n t a c t s  p o n s e s o f t e e n s t o t h e same 4)  results  The  the q u e s t i o n  lacked  and r e s -  questions.  of questions  clarity  on " S t a f f i n g " w e n t as e x p e c t e d  i n i t s sub-divisions.  The  questions  were n o t w e l l - s t r u c t u r e d . 5)  The a r e a  of " R e f e r r a l s " proved a d i f f i c u l t  in posing as  the questions,  t h e y h a d no r e l i a b l e  elicit  some d a t a  terested  area  f o r the students  and f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s data  t o quote from.  i n answering,  The m a t e r i a l d i d  t h a t may b e u s e f u l f o r t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n -  i n and c o n c e r n e d w i t h  inter-agency  communication, co-  o r d i n a t i o n and u s e o f s e r v i c e s . The sible  data  obtained  from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  t o compliment more m e a n i n g f u l d a t a  has b e e n used wherever  from the "Questionnaire  pos-  t o Unreached  Youth". It  i s acknowledged  i n v a l i d , but i t provides perceived  i s e x t r e m e l y u n r e l i a b l e and  o f what o r g a n i z a t i o n  administrators  a s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m .  methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  be  this material  a perspective  In administering  ided  that  amongst o u r s e l v e s  the r e s u l t  the questionnaire, Then, t h e l i s t  and a d m i n i s t e r e d  of student  the three  of agencies  individually.  students  agreed  on  ( S e e p a g e 6 2 ) was d i v Inconsistencies  would  v a r i a t i o n s i n administration of the questionnaire.  L i s t of Organizations Interviewed i n P r i n c e Edward P a r k A r e a Boys' Clubs o f Vancouver A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s Children's A i d Society Catholic Children's  Aid Society  Association  th  66.  Family Service Probation  Branch  Tupper High Gladstone  Association  School  School  Y o u t h P r e v e n t i o n Squad Parks Social  Board S e r v i c e Department  (City)  Cambie-Y.M.C.A. A r e a Development  Project  Metropolitan Health S t . - P a t r i c k ' s High Cedar  School  Cottage Neighbourhood  Grandview  Community  H o u s e - D.  Sleight  Centre  17 O r g a n i z a t i o n s  THESIS:  DETACHED WORK.PROGRAM BOYS' CLUBS.OF VANCOUVER  NAME OF ORGANIZATION P O S I T I O N OF INTERVIEWEE QUESTIONNAIRE TO ORGANIZATIONS:  You a r e r e q u e s t e d t o answer a l l q u e s t i o n s as f u l l y , k n o w l e d g e a b l y and f a c t u a l l y a s p o s s i b l e . I f y o u do n o t know t h e a n s w e r o r a r e u n s u r e , p l e a s e s t a t e s o b u t g i v e a r e a s o n if this i s possible. I f y o u do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e q u e s t i o n , o r y o u f e e l i t i s u n c l e a r l y s t a t e d , p l e a s e s t a t e s o and a s k f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s d e p e n d u p o n y o u r c o m p l e t e and u n b i a s e d r e s p o n s e s . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s g r e a t l y appreciated. 1.  DOES YOUR WHOLE ORGANIZATION HAVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM OF THE BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER?  Yes  44  No  44  D o n ' t Know.  12  67 .  2.  3.  4.  DID YOU R E C E I V E ANY INFORMATION.IN THE FORM OF WRITTEN REPORTS, T A L K S , OR PERSONAL CONTACTS ABOUT THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM?  Yes  75  No  13  D o n ' t Know  12  WAS YOUR ORGANIZATION CONSULTED PRIOR TO THE E S T A B L I S H MENT OF A DETACHED WORK PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER?  Yes  31  No  56  D o n ' t Know  13  I S YOUR ORGANIZATION REPRESENTED ON THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE OF THE DETACHED WORK.PROGRAM?  Don 1 1  5.  DID YOU KNOW THAT SUCH A COMMITTEE E X I S T E D ?  Yes  56  No  38  Know Yes  63  No  31  Don 1 Know 1  6.  6  SHOULD THE BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER BE CONDUCTING THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM?  7.  6__  I F NO, DO YOU T H I N K THE PROGRAM I S UNNECESSARY?  Yes  75  No  0  D o n ' t Know  25  Yes  6  No ________ Other 8.  WOULD YOU PREFER A DIFFERENT VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATION TO A D M I N I S T E R THE PROGRAMME?  9.  94  WOULD YOU PREFER A P U B L I C ORGANIZATION TO ADMINISTER '"THE PROGRAM?  Yes  0  No  50  D o n ' t Know  50  Yes D o n ' t Know  13 24  No  63  68.  .10.  WOULD YOU PREFER A COMBINATION OF VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS TO ADMINISTER THE PROGRAM?  Yes  38.  No  25.  D o n ' t Know 11.  12.  WOULD YOU PREFER BOTH P U B L I C AND VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS TO ADMINISTER THE PROGRAM?  Yes  38  No  50  Don't. Know  12  SHOULD THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM BE FINANCED BY P U B L I C MONIES?  Yes  44  No  25.  Don't. Know 13.  Yes  38.  No  25.  D o n ' t Know  Yes  69  No  13.  Don ' t Know I D E A L L Y , WHO WOULD YOU SELECT AS L I N E WORKERS TO STAFF THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM? PROFESSIONALLY T R A I N E D SO.CIAL.vWORKERS?  Yes  81_ 6  D o n ' t Know  1_3  Yes No Don 1 Know 1  INDIGENOUS LEADERS FROM THE COMMUNITY?  18_  No  ANOTHER P R O F E S S I O N A L L Y TRAINED PERSON?  16.  37  SHOULD THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM BE FINANCED BY A COMBINATION OF P U B L I C AND P R I V A T E MONIES?  15.  31  SHOULD THE DETACHED WORK.PROGRAM BE FINANCED BY P R I V A T E MONIES?  14.  37  56 0 44  Yes  38  No  1_9  D o n ' t Know.  44  69.  17.  Yes  44  No  19  D o n 1 Know  37  VOLUNTEERS?  1  18.  ANY COMBINATION OF ABOVE?  Yes  50  No  13.  D o n 1 Know 1  19.  A.  37  WHAT WOULD YOU CONSIDER TO BE THE MOST APPROPR I A T E AIMS OF A DETACHED WORK PROGRAM? DELINQUENCY  CONTROL?  Yes_  No  31 13_.  D o n ' t Know _______ B.  DELINQUENCY PREVENTION?  Yes____88_ No  __  D o n ' t Know _, !._, C.  DELINQUENCY TREATMENT?  Y e s ______ No  25.  Don' t Know  37_  OTHER? 20.  DO YOU THINK THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM SHOULD BE EXPANDED I N VANCOUVER?  Yes No D o n ' t Know  21.  I N YOUR O P I N I O N , HAS THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM BEEN SUCCESSFUL I N DETERRING DELINQUENCY?  Yes No D o n ' t Know  22.  REDUCING DELINQUENCY?  Yes No Don ' t Know  8j ( 12  31 0_ 69 31 6 63  70.  23.  IMPROVING THE ATTITUDE OF TEENS TOWARDS AUTHORITY?  Yes No Don ' t Know.  24.  25.  26.  REDUCING F A M I L Y CONFLICT OF INVOLVED TEENS?  REDUCING NEIGHBOURHOOD CONFLICT OF INVOLVED TEENS?  Yes  19  No  13  D o n ' t Know  68  Yes  0  D o n ' t Know  50  Yes  56  No  0  D o n ' t Know  44  Yes  56  No  13. 31  DOES YOUR AGENCY WANT REFERRALS FROM THE DETACHED WORK: PROGRAM?  Yes No Don ' t Know  50 25. 25  DOES THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM WANT REFERRALS FROM YOUR ORGANIZATION?  30.  50  No  D o n ' t Know  29.  64  I S YOUR ORGANIZATION CAPABLE OF HANDLING REFERRALS FROM THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM?  28.  0  I N T E R E S T I N G TEENS I N P A R T I C I P A T I N G I N OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL A C T I V I T I E S ?  27.  36  I S THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM CAPABLE OF HANDLING REFERRALS FROM YOUR ORGANIZATION?  Yes  36  No  0  D o n ' t Know  64  Yes No D o n ' t Know  44 13. 43  31.  32.  33.  I S YOUR ORGANIZATION PRESENTLY INVOLVED WITH REFERRALS FROM THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAM?  I F Y E S , WOULD YOU ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF REFERRALS TO BE L E S S THAN F I V E ( 5 ) ?  Yes  6  No  75  D o n ' t Know  19  Yes_  13  No  13  D o n ' t Know  74  DOES REFERRAL FROM THE D.W.P. TAKE THE FORM OF YOUR AGENCY PROVIDING THE SERVICESDF A. PROFESSIONAL WORKER?  Yes_  19  No  38  D o n ' t Know  43  CLARIFY:  34.  DOES REFERRAL TAKE THE FORM OF PROVIDING THE S E R V I C E S OF A VOLUNTEER WORKER?  35.  No  44  D o n ' t Know  43  Yes  19  N6  50  D o n | t Know  31_  I F Y E S , WOULD YOU ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF REFERRALS TO BE. L E S S THAN F I V E  37.  13.  I S THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAMME.PRESENTLY INVOLVED WITH REFERRALS FROM YOUR ORGANIZATION?  36.  Yes  (5>?  DOES REFERRAL FROM YOUR ORGANIZATION TAKE THE FORM OF THE D.W.P.. PROVIDING THE S E R V I C E S OF A PROFESSIONAL WORKER?  Yes  6  No  31_  D o n ' t Know  63  Yes  25  No  19  D o n ' t Know  56  72.  . 38.. DOES REFERRAL FROM YOUR ORGANIZATION TAKE THE FORM OF THE D.W.P. PROVIDING THE SERVICES OF A VOLUNTEER WORKER?  39.  DOES VANCOUVER NEED A REPRESENTATIVE METROPOLITAN COMMITTEE TO ASSESS THE NEED FOR,.EXTENT, SUCCESS AND VALUE OF ADOLESCENT PROGRAMMES?  Yes  19  No  25  D o n ' t Know  56  Yes  69  NO_  19  D o n ' t Know 40.  WOULD YOUR ORGANIZATION L I K E TO KNOW MORE ABOUT THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAMME?  Yes  63  No  25.  D o n ' t Know 41.  COULD YOUR ORGANIZATION TAKE A.MORE A C T I V E ROLE I N THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAMME BY PROVIDING THE S E R V I C E S OF A PROFESSIONAL WORKER(S)?  Yes  6  D o n ' t Know  44  Yes_  Don't Know))  44.  45.  BY PROVIDING THE S E R V I C E S OF A VOLUNTEER WORKER(S)?  BY PROVIDING THE USE OF F A C I L I T I E S ?  BY PROVIDING F I N A N C I A L AID?  50  No  No  43.  12  COULD YOUR ORGANIZATION TAKE A MORE A C T I V E ROLE I N THE DETACHED WORK PROGRAMME?  42.  12  19 63_ 18  Yes  25  No  50_  D o n ' t Know  25  Yes  5C_  No  38  D o n ' t Know  12  Yes  13_  No  6_9_  D o n ' t Know  28  73.  B e c a u s e o f a m b i g u o u s w o r d i n g and one  to f i v e were r e l a t i v e l y  useless.  d i c a t i o n t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of e f f o r t  poor f o r m u l a t i o n ,  From the  questions,  to i n t e r p r e t  the  ceived  56%. n e g a t i v e  i n f o r m a t i o n on  interpret  occur  I f 75% o f  t h e programme, o f t h e  total  the  correlates with  is significant The  is difficult  correlations,  were i n c l u d e d w i t h o u t  t h e "no" to  as  evidenced  respondents  or another.  r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n 5.  g i v e n i n number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  comment f o r t h r e e m a i n  responses,  reasons:-  The  a m b i g u o u s w o r d i n g o f many o f t h e  B.  The  l a c k o f knowledge of the  students  questions. to  provide  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s to the meaning o f  the  res-  ponses . C.  The  o v e r a l l poor s t r u c t u r e of  the r e s e a r c h  tool.  renot This  Whether  say.  A.  accurate  i s an i n -  i n t e r v i e w e d , 31%, d i d  t h e programme t o t h e i r c h a r g e s f o r some r e a s o n  figure directly this  r e s p o n s e to q u e s t i o n s .  there  t h e D e t a c h e d Work  Programme t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i d n o t by  questions  ORGANIZATION:QUESTIONNAIRE  CORRELATION 1  and  Yes-Yes  No-No  4  6  5  2  .add-;- .4  9  2  3  and  4  4  5  8  and  12  0  1  8  and  13  0  2  8  and  14  0  0  9  and  12  2  4  9  and  13  1  3  9  and  14  1  2  10 a n d  12  4  2  10 a n d  13  3  2  10 a n d  14  3  0  11 a n d  12  3  3  11 a n d  13  2  2  11 a n d  14  5  2  42 a n d  28  7  1  42 a n d  29  6  1'  42 a n d  30  6  0  42 a n d  31  5  0  42 a n d  32  1  1  42 a n d  33  .1  0  47 a n d  48  5  0  47 a n d  49  4  2  48 a n d  49  5  0  AGENCY REFERRALS: F I G U R E #1  AGENCY %  D.W.P. 7.  CAPABLE  ACTUAL NO  YES  NO  YES  NO  YES  NO  56  13  6  75  44  13  19  50  REFERRALS  WANT  NO  YES  NO  50  25  36  :0  that Agencies  i n t h e a r e a w h e r e D e t a c h e d Work was  practiced a r e capable o f handling r e f e r r a l s ; public  REFERRALS  YES  F i g u r e . #1 i n d i c a t e s  relations.and  communication,  b u te i t h e r  through  poor  or a general lack ofco-operation  i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e programme, o n l y r e c e i v e d a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of  the cases d e a l t w i t h by t h e Detached Worker. 1966  ACTUAL  CAPABLE  YES  WANT  and  '  report  to substantiate  this,  No r e a s o n i s g i v e n i n t h e  a n d we a r e a l s o u n a w a r e o f t h e s e r v i c e s  p r o v i d e d b o t h b y t h e A g e n c i e s a n d t h e D e t a c h e d Work Programme w i t h t h e cases a c t u a l l y handled  i n F i g u r e #11.  SERVICES:. F I G U R E . #2  S E R V I C E S BY D.W.P. YES  NO  PROFESSIONAL  25  19  VOLUNTEER  19  25  REF.  FROM ORGANIZATIONS  S E R V I C E S BY AGENCY  REFERRAL FROM D.W.P.  The  PROFESSIONAL  19  38  VOLUNTEER  13  44  l a r g e gap between s t a t e d  vice,  anda c t u a l  services  c a p a b i l i t y and a w i l l i n g n e s s  service rendered  f o rthe c l i e n t  to provide  ser-  i s i n d e e d a comment o n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  i n t h e l i g h t o f community a g e n c y power  structures.  T h e r e seems t o b e a l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r new p r o g r a m m e s a n d how t h e y f i t into existing can  surely  service patterns  be r a i s e d :  andv i c e versa.  vice goals.  main, p r o f e s s i o n a l already or  t h e whole problem o f s e r v i c e o v e r l a p  We c a n s e e f r o m F i g u r e service  probably heavily  f i v e agencies that could  offer  could  indebted  could  to initiate  services?  n o t be o f f e r e d i nstaff  nine  that  tent  i n t h e D e t a c h e d Work Programme s h o u l d  We  and m u l t i p l e , s e r -  #IV t h a t w i t h o u t p l a n n i n g ,  offer volunteer  facilities  The q u e s t i o n  p r o g r a m m e s when A g e n c i e s a n d O r g a -  i n the area cannot co-operate and co-ordinate  must a l s o c o n s i d e r  II).  How i s t h e D e t a c h e d W o r k e r e x p e c t e d  community development and o r g a n i z a t i o n nizations  (Figure  i n the  by neighbourhood  agencies  deployment; although,  the four  s e r v i c e s , and the e i g h t o r  s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i t  continue.  t o a greater ex-  77.  STAFFING:  FIGURE  #3  PREFERRED BY ADMINISTRATORS YES  NO  %  %  YES  .3.7.4  Professionals From o t h e r F i e l d s  56  , 0  74.8  —  Indigenous  38  • 19  —  —  Volunteer  44  19  —  Combination  50  13  —  Undergraduates  —  --  5  the percentage breakdown would  s o c i a l workers were r a t e d h e a v i l y  over a l l other s t a f f  fing  (817.) b u t i n a c t u a l  line  staff.  will  n o t g e n e r a l l y work o v e r t i m e on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s .  Worker has staff.  Why  wer  The  reasons are f a i r l y  a heavy  would  responsibility  obvious.  and  to s p e c u l a t e , and  any  found  stafClub  cannot  and  Detached full-time the time  Work.Program.as v o l u n t e e r s i s a t  and  this  number o f v i e w s c o u l d be p u t f o r w a r d .  can s t a t e  that  even h o u r s o f work, newness o f a p p r o a c h might have been s i g n i f i c a n t  The  the j o b s h o u l d r e q u i r e  h a v e t o e x a m i n e s u c h . a r e a s a s m o t i v a t i o n and We  that  i n preferred  S o c i a l workers  a large percentage of other p r o f e s s i o n a l s  this accurately.  indicate  f a c t o n l y c o n s i s t e d o f 47.37, o f t h e B o y s '  t o work on t h e Detached  time hard We  %  6  Work  W i t h r e g a r d s t o C h a r t #111,  energy  NO  7o  81  Social  Total staff on Detached Work P r o j e c t 15  ACTUAL D.W.P. STAFF  factors.  commitment t o a n s -  the program's s h o r t d u r a t i o n ,  un-  and n o n - b u i l d i n g - b a s e d p h i l o s o p h y  78.  COULD YOUR ORGANIZATION TAKE A MORE A C T I V E ROLE I N D.W.P.? FIGURE  To  #IV  Y E S  N  50  6 7o  7.  Provide:  YES  0  NO  7,  %  Service of P r o f e s s i o n a l  19  63  Service of  25  50  50  38  13  69  Use  of  Volunteer  Facilities  Financial  A g a i n from F i g u r e t e e r w o r k e r s and  Aid  #111,  more u s e  t h i s w o u l d be  should  be  made o f  indigenous  supported h e a v i l y from  the  and  volun-  literature  on  D e t a c h e d Work. The  conclusions  are  1.  Communication between o r g a n i z a t i o n s organizations  2.  3.  as  follows:-  contacted  were not  contacted  Programme b u t  d i d not  Of  the  organizations  had  The  question  is  evidenced  of  information  knowing of  groups.  on  the  the Detached  the  t h e p r o g r a m m e , 1007,  Work  i n Figures  #1  and  to d e v e l o p the  i n with  I I ( p a g e s 75  th4  communication  & 76).  information  interplay beneficial  make u s e  saw  programme.  of r e f e r r a l s , which t i e s  t h e c o m m u n i t y who  programme).  i s s e l e c t i v e (317, o f  i n t e r - o r g a n i z a t i o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n and required  the  the  pass i t on).  Boys' Clubs c o n t i n u i n g w i t h 4.  informed of  Communication w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s organizations  i s weak (257, o f  Greater  sharing  is  t o t h o s e members  o f " s e r v i c e s " o f f e r e d by  both  79.  QUESTIONNAIRE TO The  UNREACHED YOUTH  development of  r e d u n d e r more f a v o u r a b l e if  not data.  conditions.  H y p o t h e s e s had  assumptions, but  the  w e r e and  extremely  the  are not  that d i d not  been roughly  developed  inexperience  showed h e r e .  students  well refined.  require asking.  w e l l - d e f i n e d as w e l l as have been asked  As  sufficient  The  the  relating  types  occur-  The in  of  hypotheses  forumulating  were asked - t h a t i s , ques-  relevant questions  were  fairly  Other questions  of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d  to the h y p o t h e s e s .  time to e x p l o r e  from a base  a result,  t h e c o n c e p t s u s e d i n them.  to s o l i c i t  more m e a n i n g f u l d a t a  to Unreached Youth  M o r e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e ,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , many i r r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s  tions  not  the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  could  topprovide  In a d d i t i o n , there  a l l the a r e a s where v a l i d  data  was  m i g h t be  de-  rived. Further,  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s . was  I t was  administered  t h e m e a n i n g and plained  and  i n two  content  of  the  The  and  so  youths contacted  a t 23rd  and  identified  The  the s t u d e n t s  explained  E a c h q u e s t i o n , was student  w e n t on  most  read, to  with a very  ex-  the  loose grouping of  John S t r e e t i n South Vancouver t h a t does not the  o f a p o s s i b l e 40  D e t a c h e d Work S e r v i c e s . reasons:-  desks, e t c .  P r i n c e Edward P a r k i s a p a t c h  regular recreation services during the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Then the  There  on.  P r i n c e Edward P a r k Group".  situated  questionnaire.  c o n s i s t e n t l y or  group s e t t i n g s .  the manner i n w h i c h  the respondents answered.  next question,  to  administered  n o i s e , c r a m p e d q u a r t e r s , u n c o m f o r t a b l e s e a t s , no  c o n s i s t e n t f a c t o r t h r o u g h o u t was  "The  not  summer.  T h e r e w e r e 29  names p r o v i d e d  E l e v e n y o u t h s were not  by  called  grass have  respondents  the D i r e c t o r of  contacted  for several  80  a) b) c)  moved away ( 3 ) ; l i v i n g elsewhere i n the c i t y (2); i n c a r c e r a t e d (3);  d)  unable  to c o n t a c t (5).  T h i s was o n e o f s e v e n g r o u p s the  Summer P r o j e c t - 1 9 6 6 .  The s t u d e n t s h a d p l a n n e d  but time d i d n o t p e r m i t t h i s . essential. i s based  fact that by  " s e r v e d " by Detached. Workers d u r i n g  To v a l i d a t e  Time a g a i n d i d n o t p e r m i t t h i s .  on base  findings,  groups  a c o n t r o l group i s  Thus, s t a t i s t i c a l  evidence  f i g u r e s p r o v i d e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .  The  honesty  767o  stated  statistics  t o c o n t a c t two  of the r e p l i e s o f the respondents contacts with police,  from the Youth  and t h i s  Prevention-Squad.  i s e v i d e n c e d by t h  f i g u r e was b o r n e o u t  81.  T H E S I S : DETACHED WORK PROGRAMME BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER  QUESTIONNAIRE FOR REACHED  "UNREACHED GROUPS"  YOU ARE ASKED TO READ, THEN ANSWER EACH.QUESTION VERY CAREFULLY AND AUCURATELY. A . S I N C E R E AND HONEST ANSWER I S REQUIRED, OR THE RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE W I L L BE DISTORTED. WE.APPRECIATE YOUR P A R T I C I P A TION. 1.  Name i n F u l l (Please  (Last)  .(First)  print)  2.  Address:_  .  3.  Sex:  5.  Female 21 Are you l i v i n g with both your Natural Parents? Yes (52) No (45) Other (3)  Male  79  4.  Marital  Status:  6.  Are both your Natural Parents l i v i n g together? Yes (59) No (38) D o n ' t Know (9)  7.  Do y o u a t t e n d s c h o o l ? Yes (62) No  (31)  Other  Single  100  Married  0  (7)  8.  What was t h e J a s t g r a d e y o u f u l l y c o m p l e t e d ? Grade 8 (2) 9 (7) 10, 1 1 , 12 (20)  9.  What programme w e r e o r a r e y o u t a k i n g ? Academic 4 General 22  Other .  3  1 0 . I f y o u h a v e n o t c o m p l e t e d y o u r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , do y o u p l a n t o do s o ? Yes (38) No (17:) D o n ' t Know (45) 1 1 . Do y o u p l a n t o c o n t i n u e y o u r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n b e y o n d S e c o n d a r y at a U n i v e r s i t y or s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n ? Yes (40) No (31) D o n ' t know (29)  School  12. I f y o u a r e n o t i n s c h o o l , a r e y o u w o r k i n g f u l l t i m e , o r a t l e a s t months a y e a r ? Yes (28) No (48) Other (24) 1 3 . Do y o u h a v e a Yes (7)  Trade? No  (69)  Not A p p l i c a b l e  nine  (24)  14. A r e y o u p r e v e n t e d f r o m f u l l t i m e e m p l o y m e n t b e c a u s e y o u do n o t h a v e a trade and/or s u f f i c i e n t experience? Yes (31) ' No (41) Not A p p l i c a b l e (28)  .82.  15.  A r e y o u n o t e m p l o y e d b e c a u s e y o u do n o t w a n t a j o b a n d , t h e r e f o r e , a r e n o t l o o k i n g f o r one? Yes (3) No (52) Not A p p l i c a b l e (45)  16.  As a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Detached continue your education or training? Yes (10) no (79)  Worker,  have y o u d e c i d e d t o  Other  (11)  17.  Have y o u h a d a n y c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p o l i c e a s a d i s c i p l i n e Yes (76) No (24)  18.  Have y o u b e e n t o C o u r t o n a n y k i n d or speeding t i c k e t ? Yes (45) No (55)  19.  Do y o u d r i n k a l c o h o l i c Yes $83)  20.  Have y o u e v e r d r u n k a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s ? Yes (93) No (7) D o n ' t Know  21.  Do y o u t a k e i l l i c i t Yes (3)  measure?  o f a charge o t h e r than f o r a parking  beverages? No (17)  drugs? No  (0)  (97)  22.  Have y o u e v e r t a k e n i l l i c i t Yes (10) No  drugs? (90)  23.  What was t h e n a t u r e o f t h e A c t i v i t y ? A. A t h l e t i c A c t i v i t i e s 9 B. G r o u p A c t i v i t i e s 10 C. H o b b i e s ) D. O t h e r ) 10  24.  D i d y o u r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h your group's Detached Worker d e t e r your delinquency? Yes (7) No (45) D o n ' t Know ( 4 8 ) N o t A p p l i c a b l e ( )  25.  D i d your involvement w i t h your group's Detached behaviour? Yes (7) No (48) D o n ' t Know ( )  Worker reduce d e l i n q u e n t Not A p p l i c a b l e  (45)  26.  D i d y o u r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h y o u r group's Detached Worker p r e v e n t delinquent behaviour? Yes (10) No (45) D o n ' t Know (45) Not A p p l i c a b l e ( )  27.  D i d your i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h your group's Detached Worker improve your a t t i t u d e towards a u t h o r i t y ? Yes (14) No (59) D o n ' t Know (27) Not A p p l i c a b l e (  28.  )  D i d y o u r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h your group's Detached Worker d e v e l o p b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s . w i t h your family? Yes (7) No (59) D o n ' t Know (34) Not A p p l i c a b l e ( )  83.  29.  D i d y o u r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h y o u r group's Detached Worker reduce n e i g h bourhood c o n f l i c t ? Yes (21) No (34) D o n ' t Know (45) Not A p p l i c a b l e ( )  30.  D i d your i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h y o u r group's Detached Worker h e l p y o u d e v e l o p i n t e r e s t t h a t y o u s p e n d s o m e t i m e a t e a c h week? Yes (48) No (38) D o n ' t Know (14) Not A p p l i c a b l e ( )  31.  D i d y o u r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h your group's Detached Worker i n t e r e s t y o u to p a r t i c i p a t e i n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ? Yes (34) No (55) D o n ' t Know (11) Not A p p l i c a b l e ( )  32.  Do y o u c o n s i d e r y o u r g r o u p a d e l i n q u e n t Yes (45) No (38)  33.  34.  Do y o u c o n s i d e r y o u r g r o u p a p r o b l e m Yes (38) No (45)  (17)  group? D o n ' t Know  (17)  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f d a n c e s , have y o u p a r t i c i p a t e d i n programmes o f f e r e d by: A. B o y s C l u b s ? Yes (62) No (21) Other (17) B.  C.  D.  35.  group? D o n ' t Know  With by: A.  B.  C.  D.  YM/YWCA? Yes (21)  No  (62)  Other  (17)  Community C e n t r e s ? Yes (41)  No  (45)  Other  (14)  Houses? No  (59)  Other  (13)  Neighbourhood Yes (28)  the e x c e p t i o n o f dances,  do y o u p a r t i c i p a t e  i n programmes  Boys Clubs? Yes (14)  No  (62)  Other  (24)  YM/YWCA? Yes (0)  No  (72)  Other  (28)  Community C e n t r e s ? Yes (14)  No  (66)  Other  (20)  Houses? No  (62)  Other  (.21)  Neighbourhood Yes (17)  offered  84.  TEEN QUESTIONNAIRE  Most o f t h e youths  i n t h e g e n e r a l h i g h s c h o o l programme. O f t h o s e who s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e w o r k i n g ,  they had a trade c e r t i f i c a t e . held  they  (The n a t u r e  o n l y 77, s t a t e d t h a t  of this certificate  i s also  i n question.) Generally,  the  Although  s t a t e d t h a t they had c o m p l e t e d Grade 9 , most were r e -  a l a r g e percentage gistered  worked w i t h were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l .  t h e Detached Worker d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  t a r g e t group t o continue intended  t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and o n l y  influence  indicated  387>  that  t o do s o . # 3 ( p a g e 1 0 ) , t h e r e seems t o b e a  In accordance with Hypothesis h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between incomplete  high school education  ( i . e . Grade 1 0  c o m p l e t e d ) , , a b r o k e n home a n d C o u r t  and p o l i c e  This,  should be t e s t e d w i t h a l a r g e r  contacts.  however,  sample group. FIGURE V  Attending S c h o o l & Grade Breakdown  Nos.  Total Group 2 9 6 males selected who s t a ted they were from broken homes.  NO  62  31  Gr.8 2  Programs  YES Gr.9 7  Academic General Other  D i d t h e Detached Worker I n f l u e n c e you t o Continue Your Education?  Working ;Full Time _ES NO 28  •V. Y E S  48  10  iTES  NO  YES  7  69  38 4  NO  7»  I  79  Gf.10,11,12 20  7>  7»  NO  7o  17  1  22 3  1  C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a b r o k e n home & d e l i n q u e n c y  & court  2 0 . 6 7 , o f t o t a l group had not c o m p l e t e d Grade 1 0 . Of t h i s sample a l l 6 boys had had p o l i c e c o n t a c t and 4 had h a d c o u r t c o n t a c t s .  contact  85.  DELINQUENCY  Evaluation  Deter  o f D.W.P. Re: D e l i n q u e n c y a n d A t t i t u d e s  Delinquency  Reduce Prevent  Delinquency  Teens %  D o n ' t Know o r Not A p p l i c a b l e  31  7  62  31  7  62  10  towards:authority  better relations with  Reduce neighbourhood  conflict  Help develop organized time i n t e r e s t s  The crepancies" Detached  A g e n c y 7o  Delinquency  Improve a t t i t u d e Develop  PERCEPTIONS: FIGURE.#6  leisure  f i g u r e s from both  family  36  14  50  19  7  74  50  21  29  56  34  10  questionnaires  reveal "Perception  as t o t h e i m p a c t and accomplishments  Work P r o g r a m .  more a c c u r a t e a n d h o n e s t administrators.  I t may e v e n b e f o r w a r d e d  o f the Boys'  Dis-  Clubs  that  t h e T e e n s may be  than the " A u t h o r i t i e s " , that  i s , organization  DELINQUENCY S T A T I S T I C S  P r i n c e Edward  Delinquent 18/29 A B C D E. F G H I J - K L M N 0 P - Q R  P a r k Group  - 29 Yoiiifahs I n t e r v i e w e d  Offences P r i o r to D. W. P.  Offences A f t e r D. W. P.  No.  Dates  No.  2 0 1 4 1 1 .4 1 : 2 .1 1 1 3 1 .1  N o v . 64  1 1  Police  (24 under  Dates  0 1 May 64 0 Dec 6 4 - F e b 66( - 1 F e b . 65 0 O c t . 65 0 F e b - D e c . 65 3 F e b . 65 0 Sep 6 4 - J a n 66 2 J a n . 66 0 O c t . 64 0 A u g . 64 0 Dec 6 2 - F e b 65 M a r . 65 1 F e b . 66 2 1 F e b . 66 2 June 6 6  The s t a t i s t i c s stantiated  FROM Y.P.S.-RELATION. TO THE ENTIRE GROUP: F I G U R E #7  Type o f Contact Court  Police  2 Jul.  66  Jan.  67  J a n - F e b . 67  2  Sept.66  2  Aug. Jul Jul. Feb.  66 6 6 - F e b 67 66 67  1 1 1 1 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 3  4  .2  1  f r o m t h e Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e Squad  completely  and C o u r t c o n t a c t s r e p o r t e d by t h e Teens  " Q u e s t i o n n a i r e F o r Reached  : ,  Unreached  1 8 ; 5 o v e r 18)  r  Groups".  on t h e  1  sub-  87.  FIGURE  #8  PERCENTAGE OF TEEN GROUP WHO HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN: DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR -Yes P o l i c e Contacts -Court Appearances .Drink A l c o h o l Been Drunk Take I l l i c i t Drugs Have t a k e n I l l i c i t D r u g s R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n D e l i n q u e n c y R a t e & b r o k e n homes Results Regarding Delinquency P a t t e r n s Had m o r e C o n t a c t s D u r i n g and A f t e r Programme t h a n P r i o r to i t Had C o n t a c t D u r i n g , B e f o r e a n d a f t e r S.tayed C o n s t a n t i n B e h a v i o u r Behaviour Improved  Hypotheses from  22.37o  who  "delinquent"  and  Two  had  prior  after,  55 17 7  93  3. .  97  10 :  -7.  90  46  54  33.3 44.4  22.3  the data  gathered  contacts  c o n t a c t s w i t h the Detached  c o n t a c t w i t h p o l i c e and  Courts, decreased  Worker.  their  activities.  H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e was of  45 83  w e r e n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e d by  C o u r t s d u r i n g , and  No 24  F o r example,, 3 3 7 . o f t h e S a m p l e G r o u p had  the Sample Group.  w i t h p o l i c e and But  One  -  %  76,  t h e y o u t h s who  had  had  substantiated.  Of  the Sample Group,  p o l i c e or Court c o n t a c t s were from  467,  "broken  homes". H y p o t h e s i s F i v e as s u b s t a n t i a t e d . who  met  Grade 10  the c o n d i t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n and  Of  the group  of s i x youths  a l l s i x w e r e f r o m b r o k e n homes, h a d had  p o l i c e and/or  Court c o n t a c t s .  less  than  88.  CHAPTER V  CONCLUSION If  the  t h e s i s , appears to be h y p e r c r i t i c a l of the Detached Work  Programme o f the Boys' Clubs of Vancouver, the development i s a c o n s c i o u s one. and  The  Boys' Clubs have shown they want and  constructive c r i t i c i s m .  stand  o f the A.  Whether s t a t e d p o s i t i v e l y  students i n c l u d e s As  are a b l e  the  a programme and  following  or not,  As  an approach assumed by an  a means of c o n t a c t i n g  who  are by-passed  tional,  t h a t p o r t i o n of  (and who  been i n v a l u a b l e .  basic  valid. the  population  I t has  organiza-  s i t u a t i o n s , the  revealed,  doubt t h a t a v o i d e x i s t s i n s e r v i c e p a t t e r n s such an approach m e r i t s  the  organization,  by-pass) i n r e g u l a r  leisure-time, building-centred  s e r v i c e has  valid  assumptions:  the Detached Work Programme i s r e a s o n a b l y B.  to a c c e p t  without a  and  f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by  that other  groups. C.  As.a and  means of narrowing the gap a u t h o r i t y , and  v i c e i s being D.  As  recognized  i s y e t untested  I t i s w i t h these and been w r i t t e n - to p r o v i d e  expansion pains. to t h i s  complimenting a u t h o r i t y aims, the as  community.  and  u n t r i e d on any  im-  large scale.  r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e s i n mind t h a t the an o u t s i d e  ser-  invaluable.  a concept i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , the  pact  has  between " a l i e n a t e d " youths  a n a l y s i s of an  thesis  organization's  I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t mistakes o c c u r i n a p r o c e s s unique  89.  The  i d e a of the Detached  Work Programme p r e v e n t i n g t h e s p r e a d  of J u v e n i l e Delinquency i s not borne out b y t o u r The  following  f a c t o r s m i g h t be  statistics.  instrumental  i n drawing  this  conclusion: 1)  Inadequate  research tools.  2) . S h o r t t i m e - s p a n o f d e t a c h e d w o r k p r o g r a m m e . 3)  Staff  4)  On  Turn-over.  the b a s i s of worker  programme " w o u l d qualify  seem t o be  the WNE-staff"  tively with  responses, the  target  insufficient  regarding police,  d u r a t i o n o f the presence of the Detached  t h e i m p a c t on t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n s .  2)  3)  t h e w o r k e r s and  i n detached  The  families  m u n i c a t i o n v o i d which negated  4)  i n the e x t e n t o f T h i s was  persona-  work.  seemed t o c r e a t e a comthe e f f e c t i v e  impact  of  Worker.  The  time f a c t o r a l s o prevented the worker  any  on-going communication  munity  e x p r e s s e d by  to e x p l o r e the workers'  l i t i e s . as a v a r i a b l e  the Detached  Worker  the y o u t h s c o n t a c t e d .  Some r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d  l a c k o f work w i t h  Court  factors:  seemed t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e  both  effec-  populations.  c o n t a c t s , b r o k e n homes, e d u c a t i o n a l The  i n o r d e r to  t o p e r f o r m D e t a c h e d Work  With regards to formulated hypotheses  1)  orientation  patterns with  organization structures.  this process i s v i t a l  from  effecting  existing  com-  I f Spergel i s accurate  i n a "Balanced Approach"  the k i n d s o f outcomes seen as v i t a l  to  effect  and d e s i r a b l e  to the  90.  Vancouver 5) , We  situation.  recognize  populations,  the f a c t o u r own  s e t t i n g up a v a l i d would adequately  that i n dealing with schedules  the teen  were n o t c o n d u c i v e  and r e l i a b l e r e s e a r c h s y s t e m  t e s t our  to that  hypotheses.  We  s h o u l d have had a c o n t r o l group matched w i t h o u r Sample  If  the Boys' Club  Group. have the o p p o r t u n i t y  into  f u t u r e D e t a c h e d Work P r o g r a m m e s we w o u l d  this  e v a l u a t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l The B o y s ' C l u b  Programme h a v e a t t e m p t e d their  to b u i l d  s t r o n g l y recommend  that  component be b u i l t i n .  throughout to b u i l d  t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e D e t a c h e d Work  i n research  t o o l s and components  programme p r o v i d e d It  supported  i s preferable i n this  with  situation  tools  and w h i c h c a n be v e r i f i e d  and  facts.  and r e l i a b l e r e s e a r c h methods.  statistically  particular  t o have s t a t i s t i c a l  The s t u d e n t ' s w o r k h a s a c c o m p l i s h e d of v a l i d  i n this  only descriptive material f o r analysis.  t h a t a r e o b j e c t i v e , r e l i a b l e and v a l i d  formulated  the hypotheses.  little  The d a t a  or s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d  from the s t a n d p o i n t  c o l l e c t e d was n o t  enough t o a c c e p t  However, enough q u e s t i o n s a r e r a i s e d  or r e -  (from a  p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e v i e w p o i n t where the s e r v i c e i s concerned.) it  into  activities. However, i n t e r n a l r e s e a r c h by the Boys' Club  ject  research  i s suggested  liable  that research i n this area  that forwards  o b j e c t i v e d a t a w o u l d be e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r  o p i n i o n f o r the grounds o f i n c r e a s i n g or d e c r e a s i n g  of  funds  a programme.  and r e -  t o p r o v i d e more  an  f o r such  valid  Thus,  the  than  expenditure  The a i m i s o u t c o m e o f s e r v i c e s a n d  and  service-giving patterns  r a t h e r t h a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n on p r o c e s s  and  m e t h o d o l o g y , and t h e c o n s e q u e n t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e o u t c o m e s a r e " g o o d " - that i s , that delinquent duced, emotional  acts are being  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  reduced, deviant  stability  restored  behaviour  to those  re-  populations  dealt with, e t c . With A.  this  i n m i n d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e made:  Objective  researcher  larger  sample p o p u l a t i o n s  terval  to evaluate  t h e programme B.  t o t e s t aims and outcomes and o v e r a g r e a t e r  b o t h l o n g and s h o r t  on t a r g e t y o u t h  d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t  time i n -  term e f f e c t s of  behaviour.  I n t e r n a l r e - e v a l u a t i o n with knowledgeable to  using  the i n i t i a t i o n  consultants  o f a Detached  Work Programme h a s o n t h e B o y s ' C l u b ' s i n t e r n a l  struc-  t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n , and f u r t h e r what a c c o u n t a b i l i t y does t h e agency p r o v i d e has  adequate communication r e g a r d i n g  and  knowledge r e g a r d i n g  tary/and C.  t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e community  Viewing  tax-based  the expenditure  i n the t h e s i s w i t h  the observations  volun-  the aim  and t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d  i m p a c t o n t h e D e t a c h e d Work Programme t i o n as a whole.  of both  plans  monies.  material obtained  of considering  t h e programme  and t h e o r g a n i z a -  92.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS B e r n s t e i n , S.: Y o u t h o n t h e S t r e e t s , New Y o r k ; A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . C l o w a r d , R. a n d O h l i n , L l o y d : Delinquency and O p p o r t u n i t y , Glencoe, F r e e P r e s s , 1955. E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work:  N. A. S. W., 1 9 6 5 .  M u r r a y , H. A.: E x p l o r a t i o n s i n P e r s o n a l i t y , S c i e n c e E d i t i o n s , 1962, p a g e 4 4 1 . R o b i n s o n , D.: Project,  Chance t o B e l o n g - S t o r y o f t h e L o s A n g e l e s Y o u t h 1943 - 1 9 4 9 . Women's P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 4 9 .  S p e r g e l , I . : • S t r e e t Gang Work T h e o r y a n d P r a c t i c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Company, I c , U. S. A., 1 9 6 6 . S o c i a l Work Y e a r B o o k : Thrasher, F r e d e r i c : P r e s s , 1927.  1960. S e c t i o n on Youths  The Gang, C h i c a g o :  Services.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o  ARTICLES A u s t i n , D.M.: " G o a l s f o r Gang W o r k e r s " ; O c t o b e r 1957, page 4 3 .  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C a r t w r i g h t , Desmond, a n d L e e , R o n n a l : " C o n s u l t i n g w i t h Detached Workers" U n i v e r s i t y o f Colorado Unpublished Paper. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press New Y o r k , p a g e s 27 - 4 0 . F r e n c h , D. G.: "Evaluating S o c i a l Services - Results J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Work, J a n u a r y 1 9 5 3 , p a g e 1 5 .  of Michigan Inquiry  93.  Gottesfeld, Harry: " P r o f e s s i o n a l s and D e l i n q u e n t s E v a l u a t e P r o f e s s i o n a l M e t h o d s w i t h D e l i n q u e n c y " , S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , V o l . 13, No. 1, 1965, p a g e s 45 - 5 9 . K l e i n , M., a n d S n y d e r , N.: "The D e t a c h e d Worker':' U n i f o r m i t i e s a n d V a r i a n c e s i n Work S t y l e " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Work, V o l . 10, No.. 4, 1 9 6 5 , p a g e s 60 - 68. M i l l e r , . 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Service  S p e r g e l , I . : "A M u l t i - D i m e n s i o n a l M o d e l f o r S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e Y o u t h W o r k e r " , S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w , V o l . 36, 1 9 6 2 , p a g e 62.  The  S p e r g e l , I . : " R o l e B e h a v i o u r and S u p e r v i s i o n o f The U n t r a i n e d G r o u p W o r k e r " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Work, V o l . 7, No. 3, J u l y 1962, p a g e s 69 - 76. S p e r g e l , I . : " S e l e c t i n g G r o u p s f o r S t r e e t Work S e r v i c e " , J o u r n a l o f Work, A p r i l 1 9 6 5 , p a g e 4 7 .  Social  REPORTS Youth  G r o u p s i n C o n f l i c t ; U.S.A. C h i l d r e n ' s B u r e a u  Report,  1965.  Y o u t h : S e r v i c e s Report; U n i t e d S e r v i c e s of G r e a t e r Windsor,  March  1966.  R e a c h i n g the Unreached Y o u t h ; Geneva P a r k Lake C o n f e r e n c e , C o u c h i c h i n g ; S o c i a l Planning Council Toronto, A p r i l 1964. R e a c h i n g H a r d t o Reach Y o u t h ; H e a l t h and W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o f B a l t i m o r e A r e a , J a n u a r y 1964. A P r o p o s a l f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n a n d C o n t r o l o f D e l i n q u e n c y by E x p a n d i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s ; M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Y o u t h R e p o r t , New Y o r k , D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 1 . Program F o r Detached Workers; Youth Y.M.C.A. C h i c a g o , O c t o b e r 1961  Consultant P r o j e c t Developmental t o J a n u a r y 1963.  Report,  94.  I d e n t i f y i n g and C o n t r o l l i n g D e l i n q u e n t Groups v i c e B u r e a u , 1961. Reaching  t h e F i g h t i n g G a n g ; New  S t o p on.Any S t r e e t C o r n e r ; B o y s Work S e r v i c e s , 1966.  of Boys; Ottawa Youth Ser-  Y o r k C i t y Y o u t h B o a r d , 1960, page C l u b o f Vancouver,, Department  267.  of Detached  W o r k i n g w i t h T e e n a g e G a n g s ; The W e l f a r e C o u n c i l p a g e s : 1 3 1 - 133, p a g e 139.  o f New  R e p o r t o n D e t a c h e d f o r t h e S ummer o f 1966; p a g e 6.  Clubs of Vancouver,  Boys  York C i t y ,  1950,  1967,  S r o p o n Amy S t r e e t C o r n e r ; A summary r e p o r t o f t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f a n Agency to s e r v e "Unreached Y o u t h " , Boys' C l u b s o f Vancouver, D e p a r t ment o f D e t a c h e d Work S e r v i c e s , 1 9 6 7 .  APPENDIX A  BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER  REACHING,FURTHER - M O B I L I Z I N G UNREACHED YOUTH SUMMER PROJECT - 1966  STATEMENT OF GOALS I.  II.  AGENCY GOALS: (1)  To d e v e l o p a d e p a r t m e n t couver.  o f detached  (2)  To w o r k t o w a r d t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n t h i s P r o j e c t , not o n l y i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y , b u t a l s o i n a d i r e c t s e r v i c e capacity .  (3)  To p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s  (4)  To b u i l d i n r e s e a r c h a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f g a i n i n g more u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f d e t a c h e d w o r k a n d i t s v a l u e a n d application.  (5)  To e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y teen-age c e n t r e .  (6)  To d e v e l o p a n o r i e n t a t i o n . , and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f detached  (7)  To w o r k t o w a r d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a c o m m i t t e e f o r t e e n - a g e a metropolitan basis.  to. "Unreached  work i n t h e Boys'  C l u b s o f Van-  Youth".  o f t h e use o f the K i y i e w B u i l d i n g as a  in-service workers.  training  program t o enhance  program on  GOALS OF THE DETACHED WORKER IN:WORKING WITH I N D I V I D U A L S , GROUPS & F A M I L I E S (1)  To l o c a t e a n d e s t a b l i s h and t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  c o n t a c t w i t h unreached  (2)  To a s s e s s families.  (3)  To i m p l e m e n t a p l a n o f a c t i o n t o m e e t t h e s e  (4)  To m o t i v a t e a n d / o r m o b i l i z e t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s f o r the s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and b e n e f i t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , group and/or family.  t h e needs and i n t e r e s t s  groups,  o f these i n d i v i d u a l s ,  individuals  groups  and/or  needs.  96.  (5)  III.  I n areas where i n t e n s i v e h e l p i s i n d i c a t e d , to p r e p a r e the i n d i v i d u a l , group or f a m i l y f o r r e f e r r a l to a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e s . ( i . e . , F.S.A., C h i l d r e n ' s A i d , V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , J o h n Howard S o c i e t y , e t c . )  GOALS I N WORKING WITH THE (1)  To e n h a n c e t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y t h r o u g h c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h / b y o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  (2)  To  (3)  To w o r k t o w a r d t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f l o c a l c i t i z e n s i n a s s u m i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o m m u n i t y c o n c e r n s and d e v e l o p i n g s e l f l e a d e r s h i p .  initiate  ORIENTATION AND IV  COMMUNITY:  new  programs i n communities where the need i s  the  indicated.  TRAINING GOALS  (A)  ORIENTATION GOALS:  (1)  To  (2)  To i n f o r m t h e w o r k e r s o f communication.  (3)  To  (4)  To d e v e l o p  (5)  To p r o v i d e b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g mology.  (6)  To e x p o s e t h e w o r k e r s t o t h e r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y , u s e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s t r e s s and c o n f l i c t , as w e l l as m e t h o d s o f c o n t a c t and " p r o c e s s " and " p h a s e s " i n w o r k i n g w i t h g r o u p s .  (7)  To  (B)  TRAINING GOALS:  (1)  To  (2)  To p r o v i d e f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n program.  (3)  To  draw i n r e s o u r c e s  (4)  To  provide  orient  the workers  t o t h e p r o j e c t d e s i g n and the agency  d e l i n e a t e the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e  f u n c g i o n , s t r u c t u r e and  functions of  an atmosphere o f s u p p o r t ,  orient Staff  reinforce  lines  use  mutual respect.and  of recording  p r e p a r a t i o n and  cohesiveness.  a p p l i c a t i o n of  sympfco-  procedures.  cohesiveness  o f the  workers.  the c o n t e n t  f o r the f u r t h e r development of  f o r t h e v e n t i l a t i o n o f f e e l i n g s and  of  Staff.  o f a d o l e s c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t and  t o t h e v a l u e and  the s u p p o r t ,  goals  of  the  workers.  emotions of the  SUBMITTED)BY:  John  workers.  Fleming.  97.  APPENDIX B  BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER  REACHING FURTHER -•MOBILIZING. UNREACHED YOUTH SUMMER PROJECT,. 1966  STATEMENT OF P O L I C Y : The ing  f o l l o w i n g p o l i c i e s a r e s e t f o r t h as g u i d l i n e s out t h e i r r o l e s .  f o r detached workers i n carry-  (1)  The d e t a c h e d w o r k e r w i l l i d e n t i f y , h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f a t a l l t i m e s , a s a s t a f f member o f t h e B o y s ' C l u b s o f V a n c o u v e r t o g r o u p s , a g e n c i e s a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y at large.  (2)  W h i l e t h e w o r k e r may be i n s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e a s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r may be e x h i b i t e d , t h e worker w i l l n o t condone t h i s b e h a v i o u r t o take p a r t i n i l l e g a l activities.  (3)  I n working with i n d i v i d u a l s or groups, the detached worker w i l l attempt to d e v e l o p s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s , p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s .  (4)  The w o r k e r w i l l s e e k t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n o f l a w e n f o r c e m e n t a g e n c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y where t h e w e l f a r e and s a f e t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r o t h e r members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a r e i n d a n g e r .  (5)  I n c a r r y i n g out h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the worker s h a l l n o t c o n s c i o u s l y v i o l a t e t h e l a w , o r a i d and a b e t anyone e l s e i n so d o i n g .  (6)  A l l r e c o r d s a n d r e c o r d i n g s a r e t o be k e p t i n a c e n t r a l be t a k e n f r o m t h e a g e n c y .  (7)  I t i s o u r p o l i c y t o s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a l l i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s where i t i s a c c e p t a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s s e r v e d .  (8)  The v a l u e o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f o r t h i s p r o g r a m i s r e c o g n i z e d ; h o w e v e r , i t i s o u r p o l i c y t h a t p u b l i c i t y a n d p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s w i l l be c l e a r e d w i t h t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and S t a f f w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t o f i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s s e r v e d w i l l be o u r f o r m o s t consideration.  (9)  I n w o r k i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s , i t i s o u r p o l i c y s e r v i c e s . a n d resources o f the Boys' Clubs o f Vancouver.  (10)  file  and a r e n o t t o  to u t i l i z e  I t i s o u r p o l i c y t o seek o u t and u t i l i z e , wherever p o s s i b l e , t h e and r e s o u r c e s o f o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b o t h p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y .  SUBMITTED BY: John Fleming.  the  services  98.  APPENDIX C  BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER  REACHING FURTHER  - M O B I L I Z I N G UNREACHED YOUTH  SUMMER PROJECT - 1966 ORIENTATION PROGRAMME  May 2nd Introduction of S t a f f Agency S t ructure -B.Robinson P r o j e c t Design -B.Wilson Project Goals -G. S t r o m  May 4 t h Adolescent Development  May 5 t h  May 9 t h  Legal Aspects of The I n d i vidual The G r o u p The W o r k e r and t h e Law  Working w i t h G r o u p s i n Det a c h e d Work  and Symptom-  COFFEE BREAK Basic Philosophy & Role Functions -J.Fleming  COFFEE BREAK .Adolescent  COFFEE BREAK Use o f stress & Conflict ( i . e . Police, Court,etc)  Policies D.Bradshaw  And Symptom-  Resources Boys' Club Staff  -Implications for our work  Resource Person Merv. Resource D avis, Person J o hn -Dr. BenHoward n e t Wong Society CD l o g y  - Role Playing - Methods o f Contact  &  Resource Person Hugh E v a n s - Lawyer  Development  -"Process  Programme Training  Phases"  ology  Research Goals -R.Kolbus  -Roles of the Worker  May 1 2 t h  COFFEE BREAK -Group G o a l s -Use o f Relationship -counselling Resource Person - Roop Seebaran Blair Wilson John Fleming  15 MINUTE SUMMARY -RESEARCH A N A L Y S I S  COFFEE BREAK Resources of Boys' Clubs of Vancouver -John B a l l a m -Recording Procedure -Open S e s s i o n -Announcement o f Teams  99.  APPENDIX D  BOYS' CLUBS OF VANCOUVER  SUMMER PROJECT, 1966 POST-TEST ORIENTATION PROGRAM  1.  I f y o u were t o s t a r t as a d e t a c h e d w o u l d do? (Circle one).  Poor  Fair  worker  Good  t o - d a y , how do y o u t h i n k y o u  V e r y Good  2.  What d i d y o u g e t o u t o f t h e O r i e n t a t i o n  3.  What d i d YOU h o p e t o a c c o m p l i s h f r o m y o u r  4.  What d i d y o u a c c o m p l i s h w i t h t h i s summer?  Excellent  Program?  .  experience this  summer?  a GROUP ( o r i n d i v i d u a l s ) i n d e t a c h e d  1.  Did you understand  t h e behaviour problems  i n your  2.  D i d y o u use group  3.  Did you deter delinquency of school drop-out?^  work  group?  p r o c e s s and dynamics t o e f f e c t t h e groups  behaviour?  4.  D i d y o u u n d e r s t a n d Agency  What d i d y o u c o n t r i b u t e  From the Schedule, ance t o y o u .  Policy?  to detached  r e - r a t e each  work?  session i n descending  1.  Agency S t r u c t u r e  2.  P r o j e c t Design, Research  3.  B a s i c Philosophy & Role Functions  3._  4.  Policies  4._  5.  A d o l e s c e n t Development & Symptomology  5._  6.  Legal Aspects  6._  7.  Use o f S t r e s s and C o n f l i c t  7.^.  8.  Working  9.  l  order of import-  w i t h Groups,  & Goals  "Process  .  _ 2._  &Phases",  Group G o a l s  8._  R o l e s o f t h e Worker  9.__  10.  Use o f R e l a t i o n s h i p , C o u n s e l l i n g  11.  Role P l a y i n g  12.  Methods o f Contact  13.  Resources  o f Boys'  -  H-_ 12._ Clubs o f Vancouver  (a)  List  t h e members o f t o t a l  (b)  W h i c h members o f t h e a b o v e do y o u f e e l w o u l d you needed i t ?  13._  s t a f f y o u f e e l y o u know  well.  be o f a s s i s t a n c e i f  101.  7.  (c)  W h i c h members o f t h e a b o v e ( 7 a ) t a n c e i f you needed i t ?  assis-  How  10.  Do  11.  I n w h a t ways c o u l d  12.  Do y o u search  13.  What d o e s C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . a n d Community o r g a n i z a t i o n mean t o from a detached worker's standpoint?  14.  D i d y o u e m p l o y any Give examples\  15.  Were t h e y  16.  W h a t ; do y o u  17.  What i n y o u r o p i n i o n  you  see  the  this  of  9.  i n the  feel  be  Are you m a r r i e d or Detached Worker?  involved  Did you  f e e l would not  8.  long were you  single?  do y o u  a f f e c t e d y o u r w o r k as  a  project?  S t a f f a t t h e B o y s ' C l u b c a p a b l e o f d o i n g D e t a c h e d Work? t h e programme a d m i n i s t r a t i o n be  improved?  t h i n k t h e D e t a c h e d Work programme s h o u l d be e x p a n d e d o r more r e d e v e l o p e d to examine what i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g done?  of  these concepts i n your p r a c t i c e t h i s  last  successful? think of  the  idea of a M e t r o p o l i t a n  i s an U n r e a c h e d Y o u t h ?  Teen Committee?  you  summer?  

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