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Manuel Gonzalez Prada and two trends in Peruvian poetry. Statton, Marian Joyce 1968

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MANUEL GONZALEZ PRADA AND TWO TRENDS IN PERUVIAN POETRY by MARIAN JOYCE STATTON B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies We accept t h i s thesis as confirming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f H i s p a n i c and T h a l i a n a M i d i a B . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 20 A p r i l 1968 ABSTRACT While Gonzalez Prada was mainly a prose writer and id e o l o g i s t , he did write poetry throughout his l i f e , beginning perhaps even before he began to write prose. Although his poetry i t s e l f had l i t t l e influence on other poets, the ideas which l i e behind i t did. The purpose of t h i s paper i s to show that there are two i n c i p i e n t trends of Peruvian poetry i n Prada's poems: Modernism and indigenism. Prada 1s tendency towards Modernism i s found to be mainly t h e o r e t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l , as his adoption of modernist s t y l e occurs when Modernism has already been established by Ruben Darxo, and disappears after the publication of Exoticas i n 1911. Chocano serves as a counterpoint to Prada i n showing the extent to which the l a t t e r had any r e a l influence on the development of a p a r t i c u l a r modernist poet, and to which the f u l l development of Modernism d i f f e r e d from the innovations which Prada had envisioned. The i n c i p i e n t indigenism i n Prada's poetry i s represented i n Baladas peruanas, although the point i n which Prada anticipates twentieth century writers i s that of the use of poetry as a vehicle for ideas, and as such i s also i i evident i n L i b e r t a r i a s and Presbiterianas. The nature of Prada"s indigenism i s compared to that of Chocano i n order to show the extent of the modernists' f a i l u r e to develop the trends which Prada had foreshadowed. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Chapter One: The nature and extent of Prada 1s Modernism 5 Chapter Two: Prada's influence on Jose Santos Chocano 39 Chapter Three: Prada's Baladas peruanas 61 Chapter Four: Chocano's modernist treatment of indigenous themes 83 Conclusions 9 8 L i s t of Works Cited 100 INTRODUCTION Manuel Gonzalez Prada has been regarded by most c r i t i c s as a thinker and a polemicist who expressed himself mainly i n prose. His f i r s t d e f i n i t i v e published work was Pajinas l i b r e s , 189 4. Most of the a r t i c l e s i n that book were written i n the mid 18 80's and reveal the ideas which characterize Prada's l a t e r work. In the "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo" he attacks the clergy and p o l i t i c s which are not based on i d e a l s . 1 In "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima" he attacks 2 academic culture and proclaims, as he does i n many other a r t i c l e s , " e l Arte l i b r e " based on "lo unico i n f a l i b l e , l a Ciencia; lo unico i n v i o l a b l e , l a verdad." In "Instruccicn Catolica" he attacks C h r i s t i a n i t y and Catholicism. ^ In the "Discurso en e l Politeama" he attacks " l a ignorancia 5 de los gobernados" m which he includes not only the government i t s e l f , but the Army, the Church, and the entire s o c i a l order which condones t h e i r actions. In Pajinas l i b r e s he includes a r t i c l e s on three men whom he looked to as precedents: V i c t o r Hugo, Renan and V i g i l . The essay dealing with Heine reveals the extent of Prada's acquaintance with germanic culture. He mentions Goethe, S c h i l l e r , Tieck, Ruckert, Uhland, Wilhelm Muller and Wilhelm Schlegel as well as Schopenhauer and Kant. In "Renan" he 2 shows that he i s acquainted with Spencer, Darwin and Comte. g In the essay on Valera he mentions Kropotkin. Thus by the l a s t few years of the 1880's Prada was f a m i l i a r with the p o s i t i v i s t s and m a t e r i a l i s t s as well as with at least one anarchist. Prada's a n t i c l e r i c a l and a n t i p o l i t i c a l orientation had been 9 declared even e a r l i e r , i n 1879. I t i s the tendency to be against the established order which characterizes Prada's thought. He never attempted to define i n a systematic manner the new order which he v i s u a l i z e d , a fact which i s r e f l e c t e d i n his ultimate espousal of Anarchism. Indeed at the moment when he had an opportunity to ac t i v e l y t r y to influence the course of events i n Peru, Prada chose rather to absent himself i n Europe where he remained for seven years and where he published Pajinas l i b r e s . In 1871 Prada published a number of poems i n Corte's' Parnaso 10 . . peruano. Later while he was l i v i n g i n the country he began to write some of the ballads which are included i n Baladas peruanas. Through the Chilean occupation Prada v o l u n t a r i l y imprisoned himself and spent a great deal of time writing s a t i r i c a l pieces as well as poems. I t was at t h i s time that most of his experimentation i n verse form 3 began. Thus Prada began writing poetry before his polemical prose and continued to do so as his prose developed. The poems written before 1880, that i s a l l those mentioned above, reveal l i t t l e of the influence of Prada's develop-ing ideology. The f i r s t book of Prada's poetry was pub-lishe d i n 1901, not of his own v o l i t i o n , but by his wife. I t i s not on the whole, polemic or propagandistic, although a few of the poems do r e f l e c t the ideas Prada was at the time expressing i n prose. The same might be said of Exo'ticas, 1911. Although there i s some evidence of the influence of the modernists i n Minusculas, i t becomes more pronounced i n Exoticas. Presbiterianas, however, published i n 1909, represents Prada's development of verse as a vehicle for his ideas, as do L i b e r t a r i a s , Grafitos, and Trozos de Vida a l l published i n the 1930"s. The relationship of these two trends i n Prada's poetry can best be seen at two points, as they come together i n t h e i r plenitude i n Minusculas and Ex6ticas and when they appear together i n i n c i p i e n t form i n Baladas peruanas. 4 INTRODUCTION 1 Manuel Gonzalez Prada, "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo", Pajinas l i b r e s , ed. Luis Alberto Sanchez, 3rd ed. (Lima, 1946), pp. 36-48. 2 Prada, "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima", Pajinas  l i b r e s , p. 21. 3 i b i d . , p. 27. 4 Prada, "Instrucci6n C a t d l i c a " , Pajinas l i b r e s , pp. 107-136. 5 Prada, "Discurso en e l Politeama", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 66. 6 Prada, "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima", Pajinas  l i b r e s , . p . 12. 7 Prada, "Renan", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 196. 8 Prada, "Valera", Paj.inas l i b r e s , p. 215. 9 Merida (Aureliano Villaran) , Cuartos de hora (Lima,. .1879) . 10 Jos4 Galindo Cortes, Parnaso peruano, (Valparaiso, 1871.) CHAPTER I C r i t i c s considered Manuel Gonzalez Prada a pe^cursor of Modernism. The t i t l e of an a r t i c l e by Luis Alberto Sanchez designates Prada as an "olvidado p'ejtrcursor del Modernismo": x forgotten, not i n the sense of unrecognized, but i n the sense of neglected. Max Henriquez Urena i n his Breve h i s t o r i a del Modernismo devotes two pages to Prada, c a l l i n g him "un modernista 'avant l a l e t t r e ' " on the basis of his "prosa a g i l y r e c i a " and his various 2 innovations i n poetic form , but mainly because: S i Gonzalez Prada s i g n i f i e d en e l mariejo de l a prosa y del verso una revolucion, precursora del modernismo y despues coexistente con ese movimiento, mas honda fue l a que encarn6 en e l orden de las^ideas, a p a r t i r del famoso discurso que pronuncio en e l Teatro Politeama en 1886. Pedro Henriquez Urena m Lit e r a r y Currents i n Hispanic America also mentions Prada's innovations i n poetry and his 4 f o r c e f u l prose. He says "The t r a n s i t i o n from romanticism to 'modernismo' began with writers l i k e Gonzalez Prada ..." Sanchez, who proposes to reaffirm Prada's position as a precursor of modernism, bases his argument on Prada's s t y l e i n prose and poetry. Although much has been written about Prada's i d e o l o g i c a l influence, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Chang-Rodriguez's study of Prada, Mariategui and Haya de l a Torre , the relationship of his ideology to his poetry, the extent to which his poetry embodies the s p i r i t of 6 modernism, and the extent to which he may have influenced Jose Santos Chocano, whom Max Henriquez Urena *7 c a l l s the "modernista autentico" of Peru, has been ignored. The desire for change of a l l kinds which i s evident i n the modernist movement as a whole i s apparent very early i n Prada's prose writings. In Pajinas l i b r e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n the "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima" which Prada gave i n 1886, he expressed a desire for innovation and renovation with respect to l i t e r a t u r e . He often attacked formalism i n language, as he does i n the following l i n e s : Los idiomas se vigorizan i retemplan en l a fuente popular, mas que en las reglas muertas de los gramaticos i en las exhumaciones pre-hi s t o r i c a s de los eruditos. De las canciones, refranes i dichos del vulgo brotan las palabras o r i j i n a l e s , las frasesgraficas, las construcciones atrevidas. Even the s p e l l i n g changes he uses correspond to his desire to reform the use of language )so that i t i s not concerned so much with the p u r i t i e s of form, but with the p u r i t i e s of the idea, and with the exact expression of the idea: I n u t i l r e s u l t a r i a l a emancipacion p o l i t i c a , s i en l a forma nos limitaramos a l exajer^ado purismo de Madrid ... Despojandonos de l a tendencia que nos induce a p r e f e r i r e l f o l l a j e de las palabras a l fruto de las ideas, i e l repiqueteo del consonante a l a mdsica del ritmo, pensemos con l a independencia jermanica ... 7 P r a d a e x p r e s s e s i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s the same a t t i t u d e t o l a n g u a g e , i n s i s t i n g t h a t language must express the i d e a i n the c o n t e x t o f i t s own t i m e : V e r d a d en e s t i l o y l e n g u a j e v a l e t a n t o como v e r d a d en e l f o n d o . H a b l a r h o i con i d i o t i s m o i v o c a b l o s de o t r o s s i g l o s , s i g n i f i c a m e n t i r , f a l s i f i c a r e l i d i o m a . Como l a s p a l a b r a s e s p r e s a n i d e a s , t i e n e n su medio p r o p i o en que nacen i v i v e n ; i n j e r i r en un e s c r i t o moderno una f r a s e a n t i c u a d a , e q u i v a l e a i n c r u s t a r en l a f r e n t e de un v i v o e l o j o c r i s t a l i z a d o de • 10 una momia. u He a l s o e x p r e s s e d the e c l e c t i c i s m t y p i c a l of the m o d e r n i s t s i n h i s p r o s e . He p o i n t s out t h a t V a l e r a need f e e l no o b l i g a t i o n t o e x p o r t " e l e s p i r i t u moderno" t o South A m e r i c a b e c a u s e : " l e r e c i b i m o s d i r e c t a m e n t e de A l e m a n i a , I n g l a t e r r a i F r a n c i a . . . " ^ About " E s c u e l a s l i t e r a r i a s " Prada says the f o l l o w i n g : Sobre l a s f o r m u l a s p a s a j e r a s y v a r i a b l e s , sobre l a s c l a s i f i c a c i o n e s a r b i t r a r i a s de generos y e s c u e l a s , sobre l o s p r e j u i c i o s de n a c i o n a l i d a d y s e c t a , se e l e v a e l a r t e supremo y humano que p r a c t i c a dos p r i n c i p i o s : l a v e r d a d en., l a i d e a , l a c l a r i d a d en l a e x p r e s i o n . He d e c l a r e s an e c l e c t i c i s m w h i c h i m p l i e s i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : Debemos c o n s e r v a r y d e f e n d e r n u e s t r a i n d i v i d u a l i d a d , marchar s iempre l i b r e s y s o l o s , s i n a f i l i a r n o s a n i n g u n a e s c u e l a n i someternos a n i n g u n a r e g l a m e n t a c i o n . Nada de c a p o r a l i s m o s l i t e r a r i o s . 8 Several arguments have been made by Luis Alberto Sanchez, and others can be made, to support the thesis that Prada was a precursor of Modernism. Sanchez argues that, chronologically, Gonzalez Prada i s one of the f i r s t precursors of modernism: S i tomamos a Ruben como punto de r e f e r e n d a , tendremos que Gonzalez-Prada fu4. 19 anos mayor que e l ; Marti y Diaz Mirdn, 14; Gutierrez-Najera, 8; Casal y Vargas V i l a , 4; S i l v a , 2. Practicamente, los tres ultimos son pues sus contemporaneos. Gonzalez-Prada se i n i c i a poeticamente entre 186 8 y 1871. ... Jose Marti comienza entre 1870 y 1873; Diaz Miron, entre 1870 y 1873, tambie'n; Ndjera hacia 1877 - 80;, S i l v a , despues de 1880; Casal hacia 1881; Dario entre 1884 y 1886. Thus Prada began to write poetry e a r l i e r than any of the other accepted precursors of-modernism. Indeed when Prada began writing i n 1868, Ruben was barely one year old. Sanchez c i t e s Prada 1s "plenitud" as occurring between 1886 and 1889, r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to the "Discurso del Ateneo", "del Teatro Olimpo", and to the formation of the "Circulo l i t e r a r - i o " . One must note, however, that t h i s i s his i d e o l o g i c a l "plenitud". His "plenitud" with respect to his poetic production i s more d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y with such p r e c i s i o n . Most of the poems which I w i l l show to be of a modernist nature were published i n 1901 i n Minusculas and i n 1911 i n Exoticas, although the 9 poems themselves are undated. Judging from the fact that Minusculas was edited without Prada's knowledge for his 17 birthday i n January 1901, we can assume that the poems i n that volume were written at least by the end of 1900. At least one of the poems, "Aves de paso" was written by 1885, when Sanchez notes that Prada read i t i n the "Club 18 l i t e r a r i o " . The "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima", which took place i n 1886 deals mainly with poetry, so i t i s obvious that Prada was divulging his poetry and his ideas about poetry i n the mid 1880's. Azul, Ruber's f i r s t r e a l l y modernist work, was published i n 1888, when Prada was forty years old and had been expressing a modernist attitude to l i t e r a t u r e for several years. Sanchez points out as i n d i c a t i v e of modernism the technical innovations which appear i n Minusculas: Las novedades metricas que aporta Gonzalez Prada entre 1871 y 1901 son Rondeles, T r i o l e t s , Balatas, Pantums, Rispettos, Espenserinas, Estornelos, Ritmos s i n rimas, un ensayo de ritmo alkmanico; un romance que combina versos de 12 y 8 y en otros casos de 10 y 12; ademas un rondel-romance ... Despue's de 1901, Gonzalez-Prada anade a sus innovaciones formales los Laudes, V i l l a n e l a s , Gacelas, Polirritmos ... y Cuartetos Persas. Ademas, ensaya un endecasilabo con acentuacidh en l a 3 a y 7a ... 19 Sanchez mentions other facts to support the argument that Prada i s an "olvidado percursor del Modernismo". He c i t e s 10 the poets whom Prada paraphrases i n Minusculas: Gautier, Van Hasselt, Shelley, Heine, Herbert Spencer, Catulle Mendes, Th. de B a n v i l l e , Maurice R o l l i n a t , Leopardi, and mentions translations of Goethe, S c h i l l e r , Ruckert, Von Chamisso, Klopstock, Heine, Omar Khayyam, and K i p l i n g 20 which Prada had made. Sanchez writes: ... imitara a l s a g i t a r i o Quevedo y escuchara a Gracian. Dira e l elogio de Cervantes. Des'testara a Becquer, elogiara en c i e r t o modo a Nunez de Arce y Campoamor; denostara a Castelar; rendira p l e i t o homenaje a Hugo y a Renan, a Louis Menard y a Michelet, c a s i todo antes de 1894; conocera a Verlaine, de leidas y en persona, desde luego, antes de esa misma fecha. Sanchez gives none of the evidence which exists i n Prada's work to support these statements. "La di v i n a podre" i n f 2 2 Exoticas , seems very close to the s p i r i t of Quevedo. I t i s quite f a l s e , however, to say that Prada detested Becquer. He detested Becquer's imitators, but praised Becquer i n the following l i n e s : Imita s i n perder l a individualidad; su obra no consiste en traducir con i n f i e l maestria versos de poetas jermanicos, sino en dar a l e s t i l o l a simpleza, l a injenuidad, l a trasparencia, l a delicada i r o n i a , en una palabra, todo e l sabor del 'lied' aleman. while he found f a u l t with Becquer 1s imitators: 11 Pero las composiciones f u j i t i v a s de los verdaderos poetas son chispas de b r i l l a n t e s o f r i s o s de marmol pentelico, mientras las cuartetas asonantadas de los becqueristas son fragmento de sustancias opacas i amorfas. 24 While Ruben rejected most Spanish authors once he became fa m i l i a r with the post-romantic French schools, before t h i s time, before Azul, he imitated Becquer i n his Rimas, as Henriquez Urefia points out: Sus Rimas ... se inspiran en Becquer, pues fueron es c r i t a s para un certamen en e l que se o f r e c i a premiar "composiciones po^ticas del ge'nero sugestivo e insinuante de que es ti p o e l poeta espanol Gustavo Adolfo Becquer. 25 Campoamor, who Sanchez says Prada praises i n a certain fashion, also influenced Ruben's early work, i n p a r t i c u l a r Abrojos which, "es, segun confesidn propia, un remedo de 2 6 las Humoradas de Campoamor". Campoamor, however, unlike Becquer, did not ultimately f i n d a place i n the modernist's models. The " c i e r t o modo" i n which Sanchez finds Prada praising Nunez de Arce must be a very obscure one indeed. Prada writes of "Los Fragmentos de Luzbel": "Abundan f r a s e o l o j i a s , prosaismos i revoques usados por malos versificadores 27 para resanar grietas del e d i f i c i o . " 12 Ruben wrote i n "Palabras liminares" to Prosas profanas: LY l a c u e s t i 6 n metrica? "jY e l ritmoi" Como cada palabra tiene un^lma, hay en cada verso, ademas de l a harmonia verbal, una melodia i d e a l . La musica es solo de l a idea, muchas veces. 34 Contact with the French schools since romanticism, and the influence of one or several of them, must be seen as e s s e n t i a l for the consideration of an author as a modernist. Mapes c i t e s the influence of the Goncourt brothers, Catulle Menders, and Theophile Gautier amongst others i n Ruben's A z u l r ^ while Max Henriquez Ureria c i t e s the possible influence of Mallarme i n the t i t l e of the book. 2 9 In G r a f i t o s , Prada shows his a f f e c t i o n for The.ophile Gautier: Verne a l pie de tu sepulcro, 0 maestro de l d e c i r , ... No te ofrezco yo las f l o r e s De un efimero j a r d i n : Solo murmuro tus versos, Condoliendome de t i . and for the Goncourts: Coloristas del vocablo; Despue's de Homero y V i r g i l i o , Apreciaron como nadie E l valor de un adjetivo. 30 Ruben included an a r t i c l e on Verlaine i n Los Raros published i n 1896, and Verlaine's influence i s evident i n Prosas  profanas. Sanchez states that Prada knew Verlaine i n 13 person and through his works before 1894. Prada was i n Europe between 1892 and 1898, while Dario was there for short periods i n 1892-93 and again i n 1900. Many of Prada's poetic experiments were attempts to free poetry from the imprisonment of rhyme: Sueno con ritmos domados a l yugo r i g i d o acento, Libres del rudo carcan de l a rima; Ritmos sedosos que efloren l a idea, cual plumas de un cisne 33 Rozan e l agua tranquila de un lago. Verlaine's "Art poetique" expresses a s i m i l a r p o s s i b i l i t y : Tu feras bien, en t r a i n d'energie, De rendre un peu l a Rime assagie. S i l'on n'y v e i l l e , e l l e i r a jusqu'ou? 0 qui d i r a les torts de l a Rime? Quel enfant sourd ou quel negre fou Nous a forge ce bijou d'un sou Qui sonne creux et faux sous l a lime? 35 De l a musique encore et toujours! Prada also praised Verlaine's poetry i n Grafitos : En sus versos amalgama La ceniza con l a llama, Lo b e s t i a l con lo divino, La salud con l a gangrena, E l cantar de l a sirena _fi Con e l gruriir del gorrino. Sanchez attributes the o r i g i n of Prada's rondels and 3 t r i o l e t s to Banville's divulgation of them i n 1870 14 Although i t i s also possible that the ballads are influenced by Verlaine's, the rather decadent romantic tone of Prada"s early poetry lends credence to the influence of B a n v i l l e . While Ruben's Azul may have taken i t s t i t l e from Mallarme, i t i s equally possible that there i s an echo of Hugo 38 i n i t . I t i s perhaps i n his fondness for Hugo that Prada i s most t y p i c a l as a precursor with regard to the l i t e r a r y figures admitted by modernists. In the poem "Victor Hugo y l a tumba" dated 1885, Hugo's influence on Ruben i s most patent: ese que asicamina, con l a l i r a en l a d i e s t r a , l a armonia en los labios, l a fe en e l corazon, ese ha vertido e l anfora del bien y de l a vida con que cura sus ulceras l a Humanidad caida: ese profeta es aguila, y es alondra y es leon. 39 The influence of Hugo on Ruben can be seen even i n Azul, 40 as Mapes points out, and Ruben himself c i t e s him as 41 a precedent i n Prosas profanas. As I w i l l discuss Hugo's influence on Chocano, I w i l l only point out here 42 that Prada's essay on Hugo i s also dated 18 85. Hugo's influence i s evident even i n l a t e r modernists such as Lugones, _ 4 3 i n p a r t i c u l a r i n Las montanas del pro published i n 1897. 15 Lugones only arrived i n Buenos Aires i n 1896 and therefore entered the modernist movement when i t had already begun to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f with Ruben as i t s head. I t i s clear that Prada's poetic preferences, running the gamut from Becquer, through Hugo, to the post-romantic French schools, i n p a r t i c u l a r the symbolists, not only r e f l e c t , but actually forerun those of the modernists i n general and of Ruben i n p a r t i c u l a r . The most evident modernist exoticism i n Prada's work occurs i n poems which deal with Greek l i t e r a t u r e or mythology. His prose writings often express the same ideas as his poetry. For instance, the basis of his appreciation of Greek culture as expressed i n "Memoranda" i s s i m i l a r to that expressed i n several of his poems re f e r r i n g to Greek l i t e r a t u r e . In "Memoranda", Prada writes: "Con e l advenimiento d e l Cristianismo, l a l i t e r a t u r a , e l Arte, perdieron e l germen l i b r e y p o s i t i v o 44 de Grecia". and Como las decadencias a r t i s t i c a s y l i t e r a r i a s de Occidente se corrigieron siempre con ;un regreso a las fuentes del Helenismo, a s i l a decadencia del e s p i r i t u humano se corrige con l a ^ sabia y moderada inoculacion del e s p i r i t u pagano. 16 Prada describes the " e s p i r i t u pagano" as "Paganismo inmortal" i n the poem "Prelusion" which serves as a prelude to Exoticas. Prada describes Greek l i t e r a t u r e as an eternal i n s p i r a t i o n for poets: Dura e l poeta, s i en c r i s o l antiguo Acendra el r*oro-broza' de sus cantos. En e l ja r d i n poetico de Grecia Es todo grande, todo perfumado, Desde l a encina p a t r i a r c a l de Horaero A l a efimera rosa de Meleagro. 46 In Prada's description of Pan as e t e r n a l l y renewing, Pan represents the s p i r i t of the "jardin portico de Grecia": Eternamente joven y fecundo, Recorre Pan los mares y los llanos Vertiendo vida en e l oscuro fondo De las saladas ondas, despertando En los f e r t i l e s surcos de l a gleba Al perezoso, entumecido grano. 47 Ruben described Pan i n a very s i m i l a r way: iOh, l a selva sagrada! ... (Oh, l a fecunda fuente cuya v i r t u d vence a l destino'. Bosque i d e a l que l o r e a l complica, A l i i va e l dios en celo tras l a hembra Y l a caha de Pan se alza del lodo: l a eterna vida sus semillas siembra. 48 Both poets begin with an image of water which evolves into a image of land, both connected with renewed l i f e : Prada: Vertiendo vida en e l oscuro fondo De las saladas ondas. Ruben: Oh, l a fecunda fuente cuya v i r t u d vence a l destino. 17 Prada: despertando En los f e r t i l e s surcos de l a gleba A l perezoso, entumecido grano. Ruben: y l a cana de Pan se alza del lodo: l a eterna vida sus semillas sembra. In Prada's poem there i s a r i g i d system of c o r r e l a t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g i n the elements "mares" and "llanos" and continuing i n " e l oscuro fondo", "los f e r t i l e s surcos", and "de las saladas ondas", "de l a gleba". The verbal forms "vertiendo vida" and "despertando" are also p a r a l l e l i s t i c i f one omits the l a s t l i n e which i t s e l f gains impetus from the fact that i t f a l l s outside the c o r r e l a t i v e structure and contains the ultimate object of both verbal ideas. Prada s t i l l , however, preserves the sensation of du a l i t y by using two adjectives to modify "grano". Such c o r r e l a t i v e structures are very frequent i n Prada's poetry and i n fact could be c a l l e d t y p i c a l of i t . I t seems obvious from the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n Rube'n's and Prada's poem that one must be an echo of the other. Ruben's poem i s dated 190 4 while Prada's, l i k e most of h i s , i s not dated. I t was published i n 1911, and since i t was not included i n Minusculas must be dated between 19 01 and 1911. The fa c t that there are two poems i n Minusculas, "Ritmo 49 s i n rima" and "Rondel" , which deal with a si m i l a r theme, must be seen as evidence that even i f the images of "Prelusidn" 18 are a reminiscence of Rube'n, the idea of Greek culture as a source of i n s p i r a t i o n i s not. Thus the images may be Ruben's influence on Prada but the theme has i t s basis i n Prada's own ideas. While Prada venerated Greek poetry, Ruben once described 50 his own poetry as "un renovar de notas del Pan griego" and wrote: Amo mas que l a Grecia de los griegos l a Grecia de l a Francia, ... and as i f to prove i t c a l l e d Verlaine "iPanida! iPan j 52 tu mismo . . . 1 " Prada must have f e l t the same way, both that his poetry was a renewal.of the Greek s p i r i t and that the French inte r p r e t a t i o n of Greece was most desirable, as he chose to precede his poem with two lines from Sainte-Beuve: Paganisme inmortel, es-tu mort? on le d i t ; Mais Pan Tout bas s'en moque/ et l a Sirene en r i t . Prada recognizes the effectiveness of the r h e t o r i c a l question and uses i t throughout the poem. There are several other instances where the significance Prada gives Greek figures corresponds to that which Ruben gives them. Prada describes the e f f e c t of Greek art as exemplified i n a statue of Venus whom he c a l l s "Diosa de las diosas": 19 Todos quedan sepultados En divino arrobamiento Nadie siente en sus entrafias E l aguijdn de un deseo. 54 Rube'n attributes the same e f f e c t to art i n general i n a more personal reference: Y s i hubo aspera h i e l en mi existencia m e l i f i c o toda acritud e l Arte. 55 Ruben agrees that the absence of " e l aguijon de un deseo" i s one of.the advantages of Pan's "bosque i d e a l " : Bosque i d e a l que lo r e a l complica, a l i i e l cuerpo arde y vive y Psiquis vuela; mientras abajo e l s a t i r o f o r n i c a , 56 Prada often describes Greek figures i n terms of human beauty: Siempre a mis ojos, vestida de gracia, desnuda del peplum, Reine l a griega beldad Casta blancura l i l i a l , desnudez impecable y divina, Siempre a mis ojos l u c i d . 57 Conversely he attributes the beauty of Greek godesses to humans: i A ddnde vas tan hermosa Con beldad tan sobrehumana, Que pareces una diosa? Con pie cpe vuela y no posa Igualandote con Diana IA donde vas tan hermosa? 58 He places the beauty of Greek mythology above that of other exotic places: 20 Fuera alabanza i n j u r i o s a Llamarte reina 6 sultana 5» Que pareces una diosa. The e r o t i c theme so basic i n Ruben's poetry also exists i n Prada's: En t i confiado y entusiasta creo, Forma tangible: Te a c a r i c i o con mis manos, te veo con mis ojos. De t i no dudo, Candida b e l l e z a femenina, Aspiro e l ambar en tu alie n t o , sorbo e l nectar en tus labios . Gozo e l placer en tus ardientes, vibradoras carnes Vosotros sois mi fe, vosotros mi verdad. ^ Ruben i n "Carne, celeste came ..." refers to women i n general through mythological figures. As Prada uses the form "tu" to refe r to personal woman i n the lines above, Ruben uses i t to refer to women i n general: Eva y C i p r i s concentran e l misterio del corazon del mundo. Pues en t i existe Primavera para e l t r i s t e , labor gozosa para e l fuerte, nectar, anfora, dulzura amable, iPorque en t i existe e l placer de v i v i r ... There are certain s i m i l a r i t i e s of language i n the two poems. "Nectar" i s common to them with the corresponding "anfora" i n Ruben and "ambar" i n Prada, both beginning i n "a", having a sim i l a r sound and meaning. Ruben uses 21 "gozoso", Prada, "gozo". Both use " e l placer", Ruben saying "en t i existe", Prada saying "en tus ardientes, vibradoras carnes". Rube'n though c a l l s his poem "Carne, celeste carne", so that "en t i " 'takes on the significance of "en tu carne". The s i m i l a r i t y i n meaning i s obvious. Rube'n i n the same poem writes: En e l l a esta l a l i r a ^ en e l l a esta l a rosa thus associating women with art and beauty, as Prada does i n a rather more dif f u s e manner than Ruben: E l ritmico vuelo de l a estrofa alada y e l rayo de ardiente, pasional mirada, Encierran lo b e l l o , lo mejor del mundo. iAmor! iPoesiai .... Lo restante ^nada! En los a r t i s t i c o s seres De l a forma enamorados, Valen t a l vez las miradas Lo que valen lbs abrazos. In the f i n a l two lines of the following passage, Prada expresses the same idea as Rube'n i n "En e l l a estci l a ro sa," . The rest of the verse i s quoted merely to show another instance of Prada"s use of language si m i l a r to that of "Carne, celeste carne:" Amor, suprema dulzura; Miel.no existe mas sabrosaj No hay bien i g u a l a tus bienes Ni g l o r i a i g u al a tus g l o r i a s . Solo e l que ama y es amado Sabe e l precio de las rosas. A l l of Ruben's poems quoted are from Cantos de vida y esperanza, los cisnes y otros poemas published i n 1905. Prada's are from Exoticas, 1911, and thus admit the p o s s i b i l i t y of some influence by Ruben. This influence i s obvious i n the images and the language. The theme of Greek culture appears i n the"Conferencia en e l Ateneo de 66 Lima" i n 1886. The theme as i t i s transformed by modernist s t y l e , however, i s barely recognizable as Prada's. The e r o t i c theme i s the main note of "Adoracion", the l a s t poem of which was written i n 1885. Thus, again, the basic conception i s Prada's, but the lexicon and images are influenced by Rube/n. I t i s evident i n Minusculas that Prada was aware of a need to renovate Spanish poetry, and, furthermore, that his attempts to do so were i n harmony with those of the modernist movement. In "Ritmo sonado", s u b t i t l e d "Reproducci6n barbara del metro alkmanico", Prada expresses a preference for rhythmic unrhymed forms: Sueno con ritmos domados a l yugo r i g i d o acento, Libres del rudo carcan de l a rima Ritmos sedosos que efloren l a idea, cual plumas de un cisne Rozan e l agua tranquila de un lago. ° 23 Considering the mention of Ruben's emblem the swan, and the idea of finding a form adequate to the idea, these lines can hardly be considered anything but modernist i n orientat i o n . Another poem, "Ritmo s i n rima", leads one to a s i m i l a r conclusion. Prada demonstrates a technique which i s prevalent throughout his poetry, the use of the r h e t o r i c a l question for emphasis: ISon i n v i o l a b l e s doncellas los lexicos? \Son las palabras sagrados cadaveres, Momias de reyes, en petreos sarcofagos? Son las palabras l i b e l u l a s vivas: Yo, las atrapo, s i rasan mis sienes; Yo, palpitantes, las clavo en mis versos. Vengas de Londres, de Roma o Paris, Se bienvenida, oh ex6tica voz S i amplio reguero derramas de luz. 69 Some of the exotic lexicon which occurs i n Minusculas are the following expressions: " e l rebafio de Panurgo, l a rosa, seraficas notas, e l hada en o r i e n t a l region, La boreal aurora/ Del f r i o Septentrion, cisne, griego c r i s o l , l a purpura de tu alma, rojo pielago, nubes de ambar y opalo, Libo nectar y miel, arrojan nectar y ambrosia, crisantemo, mirto, l a u r e l , rosa, Gacela hermosa carmm y rosa, lobrega laguna, Fenix, E l trebol mistico profana/ A l mirto griego y a l acanto . Prada expresses very succinctly the aim to which his experimentation i n form and lexicon was directed: " E l 24 e&critor no debe decirse: Yo voy a ser e s p i r i t u a l i s t a o m a t e r i a l i s t a ; c l a s i c o o romantico; simbolista o p o s i t i v i s t a ' , sino 1 Yo voy a ser yo: dar l i b r e rienda 71 a su personalidad." I t i s the same point which Ruben < ' 1 2 makes when he writes "Mi l i t e r a t u r a es 'mia' en mi". Prada i n s i s t s on the e c l e c t i c nature of l i t e r a t u r e : Un error comun a todas las generaciones l i t e r a r i a s es figurarse que descubren un nuevo mundo desconocido a las generaciones anteriores, cuando no hacen mas que evolucionar en vez de revolucionar, v e r i f i c a r un v i a j e de regresion en lugar de i r adelante, a l t e r a r en vez de crear. 73 The modernist movement i s perhaps exemplary of a generation which regressed to many d i f f e r e n t points of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y to a l t e r contemporary forms and s t y l e s . The great preoccupation for form and s t y l e evident i n Prada 1s own poetry and ih'that of the'modernist movement as a whole, i s described i n the following terms: En Arte no conoce mas moral que e l respeto a l a forma. Nada de leyes n i trabas, que e l tiempo depurara las obras y concedera a lo bueno e l lugar debido. La ley de seleccidn es tambien una ley a r t i s t i c a : lo b e l l o en l a forma y e l fondo concluye por t r i u n f a r . 7 4 The f i r s t poem of Minusculas, s u b t i t l e d "A manera de prologo", and separated from the re s t of the book by a d i f f e r e n t type, reveals Prada's feelings about poetry and i t s place 25 i n society. The poem i s preceded by two lines by A. de Belloy which are translated into Spanish to form the l a s t quartet of the poem: Cedons, puis q u ' i l le faut, soumettons-nous en prose Mais protestons en vers pour le l i s et l a rose. The f e e l i n g that poetry i s not accepted or appreciated by the world at large preoccupies the poet throughout the poem: iVersos? Nadie los estima, No cuadrando a gentes graves Eso de ritmo y de rima. \Que adelanto s i e l poeta Cambiara l i r a s y Musas Por azadon y piqueta! 76 S i sois b r u t a l mayoria LQue haremos hoy los amantes De l a hermosa Poesia? Prada mentions e l burgues, thinking perhaps along the lines of Ruben's " E l Rey burgues" ^8 w h i c h deals with a lack of s e n s i t i v i t y and i n t e r e s t i n poetry. The use of "azucena" and "rosa" i n the poem as emblems of the per-fe c t i o n of poetry i s a d i s t i n c t l y modernist choice. The extent to which the theme of t h i s poem i s the theme of Prada's poetry as a whole, i s debatable. I t i s applicable largely to Minusculas and Exdticas but even i n these books certain poems tend to r e f l e c t Prada's b e l i e f that a man of l e t t e r s should contribute to an "obra de 26 / 79 r e g e n e r a c i o n s o c i a l " . Even i n the poem I have been q u o t i n g , " P o r l a r o s a " , Prada does not r e f r a i n from t a u n t i n g the saperf i c i a l m o r a l i t y he so o f t e n a t t a c k e d : Es e l beso a c c i o n impura S i n e l santo m a t r i m o n i o , S i n b e n d i c i o n e s d e l c u r a . P r a d a t r i e s t o e x p l a i n the a p p a r e n t c o n f l i c t between p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c i d e a l s a n d ' s o c i a l i d e a l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o e t r y by l i n k i n g the two: " E l Parnaso de l a s Musas , como e l Olimpo de l o s D i o s e s , se h a l l a n en l a T i e r r a ; y e l Pegaso , e l s i m b o l o de l a p o e s i a , t i e n e a l a s p a r a 81 v o l a r a l a s n u b e s , cascos p a r a t r o t a r en e l s u e l o . " H i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the beauty o f A r t , a l t h o u g h u n f i n i s h e d , s u g g e s t s b o t h a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l c o n n o t a t i o n s : " . . . e l A r t e r e a l i z a l o b e l l o . . . . P e r o , como nada e x i s t e mas b e l l o que l a s cosas v e r d a d e r a s o l a s i n s t i t u c i o n e s j u s t a s , 8 2 e l a r t e v e r d a d e r o . . . . " I t appears f rom the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s f rom M i n u s c u l a s t h a t P r a d a h e l d a b a s i c a l l y a r i s t o c r a t i c c o n c e p t of the p o e t : No a r r a s t r e s , o h , p o e t a , L a p u r p u r a de t u alma En e l l o d o y l a s m i s e r i a s De l a s c a l l e s y l a s p l a z a s : No des t u n o b l e c o r a z o n de p a s t o A l p i c o de l o s b u i t r e s y l o s g r a j o s . No hagas p a p e l de j u s t o y m e r c e n a r i o ; _ Lengua de a p o s t o l , sangre de l a c a y o . 27 The poet i n these lines i s pictured i n a manner si m i l a r to Ruben's i n : "/Torres de Dios,', jPoetasi, Pararrayos celestes." However, Prada i s not r e a l l y contradicting his idea of the s o c i a l obligation of the poet, as i s evident i n the following lines where he defines that o b l i g a t i o n : "Dejese l a boberia de; llamar ap6stoles o profetas a los escritores de buenos versos; pero no se olvide que e l bUen poeta s i n t e t i z a las ideas a n a l i t i c a s de su epoca, i sirve de intermediario entre e l sabio abstruso i las multitudes 85 i n c i p i e n t e s . " Thus the c o n f l i c t i n these two passages does not l i e i n aesthetic ideals as opposed to s o c i a l i d e a l s , but i n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y versus s o c i a l i d e a l s , the former being unworthy of the poet because he i s capable of influencing society by the sheer force of his expression and the v a l i d i t y of his ideas. For Prada, the a r i s t o c r a t i c nature of the poet l i e s i n his being able to express his ideology i n an enduring form of a r t . V i c t o r Hugo, who i s exemplary of Prada's admiration of a poet, on just t h i s basis. . He praises Hugo as being representative of his age: Para estudiar e l e s p i r i t u de nuestro siglo. necesitamos leer las paginas del gran poeta: conociendo a v i c t o r Hugo, sabemos lo que fuimos, lo que somos, l o que anhelamos ser. Mas que e l t i p o de una raza, debe llamarse e l hombre representative de una epoca. 86 He also praises the s o c i a l importance of Hugo's poetry: 28 lanzandola a l a tribuna parlamentaria, a l club jacobino i a l a plaza publica, l a hizo relampaguear como Mirabeau, tronar como Danton i h e r i r como las encolerizadas i j u s t i c i e r a s muchedumbres del 93. La lectura de V i c t o r Hugo ... hace brotar ideas. 87 There are a number of poems i n Exoticas which f a l l outside the region of modernist s t y l e . Aside from certain verses within otherwise modernist poems, l i k e the one beginning " E l culto a l a b e l l e z a y a l a gracia" which I have already quoted from "Prelusion", these poems are mainly based on the idea of determinism. For instance i n a poem c a l l e d "Determinismo" Prada writes: No es criminal e l milano A l comerse las Palomas, Ni culpable l a serpiente Al segregar su ponzona. No may malos dignos de mengua Ni buenos dignos de g l o r i a : Existen solo instrumentos De las fuerzas creadoras. 88 The techniques which contribute largely to the e f f e c t of Prada's poetry i n the modernist idiom are also noticeable i n t h i s poem. The f i r s t verse and the f i r s t two li n e s of the second verse quoted are based on r e p e t i t i o n of a certai n significance within a p a r a l l e l structure. The f i r s t l i n e of the second stanza repeats i n the form of a general concept the significance of the two p a r a l l e l parts of the previous stanza. The second l i n e repeats the sig n i f i c a n c e of the f i r s t i n p a r a l l e l but opposite terms. 29 Thus i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r poem, Prada does not use the modernist idiom, but an almost epigrammatic s t y l e suitable to the concise expression of his ideas. Prada repeats the technique of parallel.constructions throughout "Determinismo", expanding with each new element the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the previous elements. For instance: No abominemos las manos Que desgarran o destrozan Ni maldigamos las fauces Que de sangre vienen rojas. 89 which can be interpreted as an application of the theory of the s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t mentioned at the beginning of the poem to human l i f e , and thus as an exhortation to violence i n the i n t e r e s t of s u r v i v a l . Certainly t h i s i s not out of keeping with Prada's adoption of anarchy 90 exemplified i n Anarquia published posthumously xn 1938. In another poem i n Exdticas, Prada i s e x p l i c i t about the rela t i o n s h i p of violence to i d e a l s : Sangre que moja las manos v i r i l e s de heroicos rebeldes Nunca s a l p i c a n i mancha l a faz de l a Idea. 91 Logical as he may have f e l t violence to be, Prada confined his own a c t i v i t i e s to propagating " l a Idea". Another theme which inspired Prada to abandon the modernist mode i n Exoticas was that of a n t i c l e r i c a l i s m . The f i r s t verse of the s a t i r i c a l poem " E l Borrico" describes the 30 burro: Mi hermano e l burro (lo digo Con franciscana humildad) Mi hermano e l burro camina, S i arrastrarse es caminar. The si g n i f i c a n c e of "arrastrarse" i s developed i n the poem to deride C h r i s t i a n i t y : La Cruz - e l perfido nuncio De j u s t i c i a y caridad, E l oprobioso instrumento Del s u p l i c i o universal La l l e v a e l asno en sus lomos; Y l a llevan muchos mas, No por fuera, s i por dentro Sin dejarlo sospechar. In the f i r s t verse quoted Prada again uses a type of p a r a l l e l i s m with contradictory meaning, i n th i s case to an i r o n i c end. The two elements of the t h i r d l i n e of the second stanza are not only p a r a l l e l and opposite i n meaning, but each i s related to one of the other p a r a l l e l l i n e s : "por fuera-el asno, por dentro - muchos mas." In "La Esperanza" Prada opposes the progressive influence of reason and science to the detrimental one of r e l i g i o n , an opposition which i s evident i n such prose works as "Instruccidn c a t o l i c a " . Again p a r a l l e l i s m i s the basis of the s t y l e : La Ciencia t r i u n f a , l a Raz6n domina .. Y e l reino e s t e r i l de l a Fe sucumbe; 31 While i n the poems I have just mentioned Prada expresses his ideas i n d i s t i n c t l y non-modernist terms, indeed i n an almost prosaic language, i n the poem "Le tour du propietaire" he combines modernist elements with other elements, such as p a r a l l e l i s m , t y p i c a l of the s t y l e of a l l h is i d e o l o g i c a l poems. Prada begins three of the stanzas with the following p a r a l l e l l i n e s : Nada escucha e l burgues: Nada huele e l burgues: g,-Nada mira e l burguds: The references and lexicon of the following stanza, however, are d i s t i n c t l y modernist i n tone: Naturaleza, en vano Almibaras tu almibar, hermoseas tu hermosura, Y como regio donf/ ofreces a los hombres Tu desnudez olimpica y g l o r i o s a . E l burgues, e l binario de Harpagdh, y de Tartufo No te comprende a t i , l a madre s i n hipocritas remilgos A t i , l a prodiga divina; A t i , l a gran pagana. He echoes the modernist b e l i e f that poetry i s valued only by a minority: E l gran sehor no mira, no huele n i escucha Que luz, amor, bel l e z a y poesia 97 Nunca fueron productos cotizables en l a bolsa. Even i n Minusculas certain poems occur which f a l l outside the scope of modernist s t y l e . For instance, the following which again suggests the epigrammatic form used i n Grafitos : Para verme con los muertos, Ya no voy a l campo santo. Busco plazas, no desiertos, Para verme con los muertos. iCorazones hay tan yertos! iAlmas hay que hieden tanto! A l l these non-modernist poems occurring i n modernist books have two things i n common: t h e i r s t y l e and the fact that they are vehicles for the expression of ideas which Prada has already stated i n prose. Their s t y l e i s polemic, d i d a c t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l , just as Prada's prose s t y l e . The use of p a r a l l e l i s m and r e p e t i t i o n , for instance, i s used as i t i s i n prose, to repeat concepts, ideas, rather than images and emotional connotations. Although, as I have shown, the ideas which inspired the modernist movement, appeared i n Prada's work before the modernist period r e a l l y began, and thus permit Prada's designation as a precursor, the appearance of modernist s t y l e i n Prada's poetry begins by 1900 and continues u n t i l 1911. Thus, as far as s t y l e i s concerned, Prada i s only a follower. Indeed, the occurrence of i d e o l o g i c a l poems i n Exoticas and Minusculas, and the publication of Presbiterianas i n 1909, the ideas of which a l l f i n d t h e i r origins i n Prada's early work, and i n the p o s i t i v i s t orientation of his own generation, suggest that the appearance of poems i n a modernist s t y l e presents a cert a i n anomaly. Prada, quite naturally, clung to the basic ideas 33 which he had developed i n his youth, and, although he made some e f f o r t to adjust to the next generation's orientation to modernism, i t proved impossible. For Prada, the renovation which Modernism produced i n l i t e r a t u r e was only a small token of the vast changes which he bad envisioned, and although i t had some basis i n his ideas, i t proved too lim i t e d to embody them a l l . In f a c t , Modernism as i t became enclosed i n i t s "torre de m a r f i l " , increasingly abandoned Prada's most previous i d e a l , that of l i t e r a t u r e as a weapon for s o c i a l change. The fa c t that Prada could have influenced a writer such as Chocano who represents the f u l l e s t r e a l i z a t i o n of a trend which Prada himself had rejected i s evidence of the enduring influence of Prada's work and of the fa c t that i t embodied the essence of the l i t e r a r y developments of the next two generations i n Peru. 34 CHAPTER I 1 Luis Alberto Sctnchez, "Gonzalez Prada, olvidado precursor del Modernismo", Cuadernos Americanos, VI (Nov.-Dec, 1953), 225-234. 2 Max Henriquez Urefia, Breve h i s t o r i a del Modernising, 2nd ed. (Mexico 1962), p. 333. 3 i b i d . , p. 234. 4 Pedro Henriquez Urena, L i t e r a r y currents i n Hispanic  America, (Cambridge, Mass., 1949), p. 154. 5 i b i d . , p. 165. 6 Eugenxo Chang-Rodriguez, La l i t e r a t u r a p o l i t i c a de Gonzalez Prada, Maricttegui y Haya de Ika Torre, (Mexico 1957). s 7 Max Henriquez Urena, p. 333. 8 Prada, "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima", Pajinas  l i b r e s , p. 22. 9 i b i d . , p. 26 . 10 Prada, "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo", Pa jinas l i b r e s , p. 45. 11 Prada, "Valera", P a j i n a s l i b r e s , p. 217. 12 Prada, "Escuelas l i t e r a r i a s " , E l Tonel de Diogenes (Mexico 1945), p. 143. 13 Prada, "Memoranda", E l Tonel de Diogenes, #66. 14 Sanchez, "Gonzalez-Prada, olvidado precursor", p. 226. 15 Sanchez, p. 227. 16 l o c . c i t . 17 Luis Alberto Sanchez, "Noticia" i n Minusculas, Manuel Gonzalez Prada, 4th ed. (Lima, 1947). p. 11. 18 Luis Alberto Sanchez, Don Manuel (Santiago, Chile, 19 37), p. 102. 35 19 S a n c h e z , "Gonzalez P r a d a , o l v i d a d o p r e c u r s o r " , p . 230. 20 i b i d . , p . 232. 21 l o c . c i t . 22 Manuel G o n z a l e z P r a d a , E x o t i c a s ( L i m a , 1911), p . 77. 23 P r a d a , " C o n f e r e n c i a en e l Ateneo de L i m a " , P a j i n a s  l i b r e s , p . 13. 24 i b i d . , p . 18. 25 Max H e n r i q u e z Uref ia , Breve h i s t o r i a , p . 91 . 26 l o c . c i t . 27 P r a d a , "Los Fragmentos de L u z b e l " , P a j i n a s l i b r e s , p . 234. 28 E r w i n K . Mapes, L ' i n f l u e n c e f r a n c a i s e dans l ' o e u v r e  de Rubdn Dario, ( P a r i s , 19 2 5 ) . p . 18. 29 Max H e n r i q u e z U r e n a , Breve h i s t o r i a , p . 93. 30 S a n c h e z , " G o n z a l e z P r a d a , o l v i d a d o p r e c u r s o r " , p . 232. 31 Mapes, p . 72. 32 S a n c h e z , " G o n z a l e z P r a d a , o l v i d a d o p r e c u r s o r " , p . 232. 33 P r a d a , M i n u s c u l a s , p . 43. 3 4 Rub6n Dario, P o e s i a s completas ( M a d r i d , 195 4 ) . p . 6 1 3 . 35 P a u l V e r l a i n e , Oeuvres poet iques* completes ' ' ( P a r i s , .1954) , p . 207. > 36 P r a d a , G r a f i t o s , p . 59. 37 S a n c h e z , " G o n z a l e z P r a d a , o l v i d a d o p r e c u r s o r " . , p . 228. 3 8 Max H e n r i q u e z Uref ia , Breve h i s t o r i a , p . 93. 39 Ruben Dario, p . 436. 40 Mapes , p . 41. 41 Ruben D a r i o , p . 613. 42 P r a d a , " v i c t o r H u g o " , P a j i n a s l i b r e s , p . 183. 36 43 Max Henriquez Ureria, Breve h i s t o r i a , p. 190. 44 Prada, "Memoranda", E l Tonel de Diogenes, #140. 45 Ibid, #1. 46 Prada, Exdticas, p. 6. 47 i b i d . , p. 5. 48 Ruben Dario, p. 70 7. 49 Prada, Minusculas, p. 54. 50 Rube'n Dario, p. 70 6. 51 Rube'n Dario, p. 619. 52 Rubdn Dario, p. 667. 53 Prada, Exdticas, p. 5. 54 i b i d . , p. 14. 55 Ruben Dario, p. 707. 56 lo c . c i t . 57 Prada, Exdticas, p. 104. 58 i b i d . , p. 19. 59 i b i d . , p. 20. 60 i b i d . , p. 114. 61 Ruben Dario, p. 756. 62 Rube'n Dario, p. 755. 63 Prada, Exdticas, p.29. 6 4 ibid:-., p. 37. 65 ibid::, p. 57. 66 Prada, "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 11-29. 37 6 7 Sanchez, "Noticia" i n Minusculas, p. 77. 68 Prada, Minusculas, p. 43. 69 i b i d . , p. 51. 70 i b i d . , passim. 71 Prada, "Memoranda", E l Tonel de Didgenes, #130. 72 Rubdn Dario, p. 611. 73 Prada, "Escuelas l i t e r a r i a s " , E l Tonel de Didgenes, p. 143. 74 i b i d . , # 49. 75 Prada, Minusculas, p. 13. 76 i b i d . , p. 14. 77 i b i d . , p. 15. 78 Ruberi Dario, " E l Rey burguds", Azul (Buenos Aires, 1948), pp. 29-34. 79 Prada, "Propaganda; Ataque", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 166. 80 Prada, Minusculas, p. 62. 81 Prada, "Memoranda", E l Tonel de Didgenes, #154. 82 i b i d . , #155. 83 Prada, Minusculas, p. 62. 84 Ruben Dario, Poesias, p. 7 21. 85 Prada, "Los Fragmentos de Luzbel", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 244. 86 Prada, "Vxctor Hugo", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 177. 87 i b i d . , p. 179. 88 Prada, Exoticas, p. 60. 38 89 loc. c i t . 90 Manuel Gonzalez Prada, Anarquia, 4th ed. (Lima, 1948). 91 Prada, Exoticas, p. 131. 92 i b i d . , P- 47. 93 i b i d . , P. 48. 94 i b i d . , P- 119. 95 i b i d . , P- 106. 96 i b i d . , P- 107 . 97 l o c . c i t . 9 8 Prada, Minusculas, p. 60. 99 Sanchez, "Gonzalez Prada, olvidado precursor", p. 234. 39 CHAPTER I I The e v i d e n c e of the e x i s t e n c e o f s t r o n g l i t e r a r y and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s between Manuel G o n z a l e z Prada and Jose Santos Chocano i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . In 1899, P r a d a s a t on a b o a r d o f judges which awarded C h o c a n o ' s "Epopeya d e l morro" the p r i z e i n the "Ateneo de L i m a ' s " l i t e r a r y c o n t e s t t o commemorate the P e r u v i a n A r m y ' s a c t i o n a t A r i c a i n 1881. L a t e r , i n 1910, P r a d a 2 wrote the p r o l o g u e f o r C h o c a n o ' s Poesias c o m p l e t a s . P r a d a ' s p e r s o n a l esteem f o r Chocano i s e v i d e n t i n h i s d e d i c a t i o n o f the 89th copy o f M i n u s c u l a s t o him i n 1903. A s i d e from Unamuno, Chocano i s the o n l y v e r y w e l l - k n o w n l i t e r a r y f i g u r e among the d e d i c a t i o n s which L u i s A l b e r t o Sanchez has succeeded i n i d e n t i f y i n g . Chocano a l s o h e l d P r a d a i n h i g h esteem. Sanchez notes t h a t he appeared a t meet ings o f the " C l u b l i t e r a r i o " o f 4 w h i c h P r a d a was a member, and where he r e a d " R o n d e l " . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t Chocano was p r e s e n t a t P r a d a ' s speech i n the P o l i t e a m a . Sanchez c i t e s some q u o t a t i o n s w h i c h Chocano makes from Prada as b e i n g from t h a t d i s c o u r s e One o f the q u o t a t i o n s , however , i s from the e s s a y " C a s t e l a r and the o t h e r i s d e f i n i t e l y not from the P o l i t e a m a speech 40 i n Sanchez 1 own e d i t i o n of i t . One might conclude from t h i s t h a t Chocano's knowledge of Prada's prose was f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e . That he was famihar w i t h the Politeama speech i s evident i n many phrases of h i s poetry which I w i l l quote l a t e r . One of the poems i n Chocano's e a r l y c o l l e c t i o n , F l o r i l e g i o , i s e n t i t l e d "A Manuel Gonzalez Prada" and dated January 1891. He p r a i s e s Prada's reason, antidespotism and a n t i c l e r i c a l i s m : iHasta m o r i r , que t u raz6n a r d i e n t e Combata e l yugo y e l e r r o r combata! i S i aplastas l a cabeza a l venenoso Nauseabundo r e p t i l d e l despotismo Sube a l z e n i t t u nombre esplendoroso'. iY a l atacar e l c l e r i c a l cinismo Tu genio es mar que azota borrascoso E l minado pehon d e l fanatismo ...! S i g n i f i c a n t l y Prada and Chocano both p r a i s e d i n V i g i l the same q u a l i t i e s which Chocano admited i n Prada. Chocano w r i t e s of Prada: Y e l genio de V i g i l sobre t u f r e n t e Con toda su grandeza se r e t r a t a ! ... Prada, i n e x t o l l i n g V i g i l ' s r e f u s a l to mix i n m i l i t a n t p o l i t i c s , h i s r e n u n c i a t i o n of C a t h o l i c i s m i n favor of philosophy, and a t t r i b u t i n g to him the task of "propagandista g i defensor d e l Estado contra l a I g l e s i a " , ob v i o u s l y recognizes him as a precedent f o r h i s own a t t i t u d e s . 41 Prada praised Chocano's poetry largely because of i t s s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , comparing him to Montalvo: Es l a poesia de cdleras y odios, de imprecaciones y d i a t r i b a s : Chocano l a maneja como nadie en e l Peru y muy pocos en America. Por sus furibundos ataques 'al tir a n o ' , hace pensar en Montalvo anatematizando a Rosas, en un "Montalvo poeta" clamando por l a exterminacio'n de Garcia Morena ... t i r a r a^la cara de un hombre una l l u v i a de buenos endecasilabos salpicados de maldiciones y denuestos, es algo como g abofetearle con rosas mo.jadas en v i t r i o l o . The q u a l i t y of s t y l e which Prada found lacking i n V i g i l ("las obras de V i j i l ... jeneralmente pecan de i n d i j e s t a s , porque no poseen l a majia del e s t i l o " . ) ^ i s not fa u l t i n g i n Chocano as the l a s t l i nes of Prada's comment show. Prada i s i n fac t praising Chocano's s t y l e and v e r s a t i l i t y : ... nunca l e f a l t a n vocablos n i giros para manifestar sus ideas y d e s c r i b i r e l mundo entero. Con tanta f a c i l i d a d maneja e l verso suelto, como e l asonantado y e l consonantado; y l o mismo cince l a un soneto y una decima que una octava r e a l o un terceto. Ningun metro l e arredra; y sale tan airoso del a r t i s t i c o endecasllabo, como del popular octasilabo ... A l a variedad en las formas ^ responde l a diversidad en e l e s t i l o y l a manera. Prada also praises Chocano's prose: S i de muchos hombres se ha dicho que vivie r o n en "estado de gracia", Chocano puede afirmarse que vive en "estado de poesia". Naci6 tan formado para cernerse en l a esfera de l a imaginacidn, y ha vivido tan consagrado a vaciar las ideas en e l verso, que a l descender a la:, prosa denuncia su idolo de poeta y merece que le apliquen e l 42 citado verso de Le Mierre. Meme quand l'oiseau marche On sent q u ' i l a des a i l e s . Chocano says almost the reverse of Prada i n 1930-1, stating that Prada only found his f i n a l mode of expression afte r the War of the P a c i f i c : Hasta los t r e i n t a y cinco anos don Manuel Gonzalez Prada es un cultor del verso en forma discreto, s i n e l vigor de l a personalidad que se revela luego en eI,teniendo que convenirse en que no fueron bastantes a imponer l a g l o r i a de t a l nombre los rondeles y sonetos en que ensaya l a pluma, ignorante entonces de su origen oculto bajo e l ala del aguila de Patmos. La produccidn de don Manuel Gonzalez Prada antes de l a Guerra, es l a de un e s p i r i t u sofrenado, cohibido o desconocedor de s i mismo. Despuds de l a guerra ... don Manuel Gonzalez Prada aparece en todo e l vigor de su lirismo heroico. t , No usa. e l para su poesia e l verso, pero s i una suerte de ver s i c u l o caracterizado por l a concision acerada o por l a vibracidh nerviosa, ... ... e l verbo nuevo de don Manuel'Gonzalez Prada sorprende a l Peru entero, que reconoce a l escucharle l a voz de su conciencia. La verdad aparece dicha en forma de belleza^y con una acentuacidn grandilocuente y p r o f e t i c a . Both i n the above passage and i n the following one i t i s obvious that i t i s hot Prada"s poetry which Chocano admires, but his prose, Don Manuel Gonzalez Prada, en l a plentitud de supersonalidad, fue un producto del ambiente formado por l a Guerra, como lo fue tambien mi poesia. E l se s i n t i d profeta; poeta naci yo. ^ 43 Chocano obviously recognies a certain community of s p i r i t between himself and Prada based largely on t h e i r common formation i n the Peru of the War of the P a c i f i c and on th e i r common revolutionary and l i b e r t a r i a n i d e a l s . Thus when Chocano says of Prada " e l Peru entero ... reconoce a l escucharle l a voz de su conciencia", he must be including himself. Chocano recognizes Prada as his precursor as far as the "tono mayor" of his poetry i s concerned: El. ambiente f e s t i v o de Lima ya no ahogaba e l liri s m o ; y, por e l co n t r a r i o , , l a voz pr o f e t i c a de don Manuel Gonzalez Prada habia acostumbrado e l oido publico a l tono mayor. E l poeta no tenia por que ya presentarse en actitud temerosa, n i menos dolido de su suerte: a s i se explica l a arrogancia con que lance mi Selva Virgen, no sol i c i t a n d o , sino exigiendo e l favor publico. La guerra del 79 habia,formado e l ambiente de que s.urgio una prosa b i b l i c a y luego una poesia v i r i l , un profeta y luego un poeta, don Manuel Gonzalez Prada y luego yo. 1 I have already quoted passages of Prada's prose and poetry which reveal his t h e o r e t i c a l adhesion to the modernist movement, as well as one passage i n which he praises Chocano's experimentation i n form and s t y l e . Chocano himself declares the e c l e c t i c nature of his poetry i n F i a t Lux of which he says: 44 Esta di v i d i d o en tres partes: "Poemas c l a s i c o s , Poemas romanticos, Poemas modernistas." No c r e o ^ n poesia anticuada n i futura, sino en poesia eterna .... Mi lema es inv a r i a b l e : en e l Arte caben todas las escuelas como en un rayo de s o l todos los colores. Like Prada, Chocano refuses to be a part, or a leader, of any school, and, l i k e both Ruben and Prada, he emphasizes the d i s t i n c t l y personal nature of his poetry: Ni quiero ser l a oveja, n i quiero ser e l cjuia: Mi verso es para todos, pero mi Musa es mia. Chocano i n s i s t s on maintaining his personality i n his poetry, at the same time refuting the necessity for merely formal perfection: Amala feiusaj a s i , desnuda del ropaje de un arte impropio, a l t i v a en su franqueza; dejala que se burle del encaje; porque no ignora que e l primor del t r a j e sera elegancia, pero no belleza Amo e l arte cual tu, no cual l a tropa cautiva solo de l a forma fatua; ^ Chocano c a l l s t h i s poem "Arte sincere" Prada expresses a s i m i l a r idea using the word s i n c e r i t y i n the following l i n e s : Quiza e l arte de e s c r i b i r se resume en: sinceridad en e l fondo y cl a r i d a d en l a forma .... un e s p i r i t u l i b r e , independiente y hasta huraho cuadra bien a l a r t i s t a .... Nada de caporalismos l i t e r a r i o s . ^ 45 A f a i r l y early poem published i n Cantos del P a c i f i c o i n 190 4, shows certain s i m i l a r i t i e s of thought to Prada's "Prelusion". Both poems suggest that Greek poetry w i l l not die and that there w i l l be someday a renewal of the s p i r i t which engendered i t : Chocano En l a tricorde l i r a con que e l griego hablo a los brutos y encant6 a las gj.edras, nunca l a G l o r i a apagara su fuego. Prada 0 g l o r i a de l a T i e r r a y de los Cielos Paganismo inmortal I has muerto acaso? x^ In both selections the word " g l o r i a " i s applied to Greek culture and the implication e x i s t s , by means of a purely r h e t o r i c a l question i n Prada's verse, that Greek culture has not and w i l l not die. Chocano's poem i s f a i r l y short and c a l l e d "Fragmentos de un poema" thus giving the impression of being not quite finished whereas Prada's i s longer and a finished work, revealing c a r e f u l l y thought out images and form. Chocano shows the influence of poetry on nature, as I have pointed out that Ruben and Prada both did through the image of Pan. Both Prada and Chocano mention not only poetry but also the "sabio", thus drawing Chocano's thought nearer to Prada's than to Ruben's, Chocano c a l l s poetry: 46 cruz de sangre en l a cota del guerrero, nimbo de e s t r e l l a s en l a sien del sabio y alas abiertas sobre e l mundo entero. 20 Prada also mentions both the attributes of the "guerrero" and of the "sabio" i n a most prosaic verse: E l culto a l a be l l e z a y a l a gracia, La aspiracion a los' v i r i l y sano, E l i n f a l i b l e metodo del sabio, Bienes son por e l v i e j o Paganismo A l a moderna Humanidad legados. 21 Both Chocano and Prada marvel at the a b i l i t y of the "alma" of Greece to survive the greatest d i s a s t e r s : Chocano: y a s i , triunfando sobre cada ruina, morira sdlo cuando muera e l alma! 22 Prada: Pudo a l empuje arrollador de Roma Caer e l Qiego y arrastrarse esclavo, Pudo l a raza de Soldn y Esquilo Rendirse a l ferreo yugo de Bizancio; Mas no sucumbe e l alma de l a Grecia, No muere e l noble e s p i r i t u pagano, 23 Both Chocano and Prada predict a r e b i r t h : Chocano: Mas vigorosa en e l futuro d i a ha de volar por las celestes salas l a larva de l a v i e j a Poesia. 24 Prada: Que s i una Grecia vieron ya los s i g l o s , Segunda Grecia no veran acaso. 25 The reminiscence of Prada 1s "Rondel" which repeats the phrase "Aves de paso" three times, i n Chocano's "De Viaje" dated 1895, must surely be more than a coincidence. Sanchez 47 says that Prada read the poem i n the Club l i t e r a r i o i n 26 1885. I t appeared i n the Anales del Circu l o l i t e r a r i o 27 / • i n 1888. I t l a t e r appeared i n Minusculas of which Chocano had a copy. I t seems unlikely that Prada would have inscribed a copy of Minusculas to a person who was not aware of and interested i n his poetry. Chocano modifies Prada"s "Aves de paso" to "ave de paso" and uses the phrase only once, i n the opening l i n e , alone, to embody i n one metaphor the significance of a l l the lin e s to follow. Prada's technique was prec i s e l y the opposite. His f i r s t mention of "Aves de paso" i s i n the f i r s t l i n e , but occurs i n a descriptive passage and thus has l i t t l e metaphorical s i g n i f i c a n c e . The second and t h i r d mentions occur at the end, alone, of the second and t h i r d stanzas respectively and embody the significance of the preceding l i n e s . Where Prada's f i n a l two li n e s read: ... eternos caminantes, Aves de paso. 28 Chocano's i n i t i a l two read: Ave de paso Fugaz v i a j e r a desconocida. The phrase "Ave de paso" i s used for the same e f f e c t by both poets i n conjunction with an image of t r a v e l l e r s . This suggests that Chocano did remember Prada's poem. 48 The use i n Chocano's poem of the phrase " l a g l o r i a del paganismo" which I have already related to Prada's poetry and of a l i n e consisting of three substantives which i s t y p i c a l of Prada's s t y l e , and i n fact appears i n "Rondel", also indicate Prada's influence. Prada wrote: "Son e l 30 amor, l a g l o r i a y e l contento", Chocano: "fue s6lo un sueno, solo un capricho, sdlo un acaso;" Thus the echoes of Prada's modernist poetry i n Chocano are lim i t e d , understandably so, as Chocano's own statements indicate that he hardly considered Prada a poet. They do e x i s t , nevertheless, i n the t h e o r e t i c a l proclomation of the modernist s p i r i t , references to Greek culture as i d e a l and eternal, and at least one d i s t i n c t reminiscence of language and s t y l e . Prada's influence must not, however, be underestimated, for Chocano himself attributes the "tono mayor" of his poetry to Prada. Indeed, i t i s the "tono mayor" which continues i n and characterizes Chocano's poetry long af t e r any d i s t i n c t evidence of Prada's influence i s present. Between 1892 and 1898 when Prada was i n Europe and thus no longer a d i r e c t influence on Chocano's work, many of Chocano's modernist c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear. It was before 1892, however, when Prada was i n Peru that the "tono mayor" of Chocano"s poetry originated. 49 I t appears quite clear that Prada's was the main i d e o l o g i c a l influence on Chocano's early poetry. I t i s through his i d e o l o g i c a l influence that his influence on the tone of Chocano's poetry i s evident. The poem e n t i t l e d "A Manuel Gonzalez Prada" i s dated January 1891, while the f i r s t poem dedicated to Ruben, " E l sermon de l a montana" occurs i n Iras santas, 189 3-9 5. The poem i n which Chocano f i r s t expresses his poetic ideals occurs i n Notas (1890-91) , the same book i n which the poem "A Manuel Gonzalez Prada" appears. Both, i n thi s poem, "Deseos" and i n the composition of the c o l l e c t i o n as a whole, the influence of Prada"s ideas, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of Pajinas l i b r e s , including the "Discurso en e l Politeama" and the "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo" both given i n 1888, i s evident. The three main ideas i n "Deseos" can be traced to Prada. The poem begins with a rej e c t i o n of the romantic attitude to poetry: I No quiero ser poeta, de aquellos quejumbrosos Romanticos que cantan las penas de su amor; De aquellos i n f e l i c e s que llevan misteriosos La vida que otros tiempos llevaba e l trovador... 50 I I iNo quiero ser poeta, de aquellos tan galantes Que solo vierten versos y f l o r e s de salon, Que adulan las mujeres con frases elegantes,. 3 3 Prada, i n the "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo" laments the lack of poets who w i l l r e j e c t romanticism i n favour of a poetry of ideas: E l Peru no cuenta hoi con un l i t e r a t o que por e l caudal i atrevimiento de sus ideas se levante a l ' a l t u r a de los escritores europeos, n i que en e l e s t i l o se l i b e r t e de l a imitacion seudo pu r i s t a o del romanticismo trasnochado. Hai gala de arcaismos, lujo de refranes i hasta choque de palabras grandilocuentes; pero; i. donde brotan las ideas? 3 4 Chocano lin k s the break with romanticism to the embracing of a poetry of ideas based on science, or, as he says, reason: iiYo quiero ser poeta, de aquellos pensadores Que por aureola ostentan l a ley de l a Razdn, Que mucho hablan de ideas, que poco hablan de amores, Que otro cerebro tienen en vez del corazdn . . . I ! 35 S i m i l a r l y , Prada recommended as a basis for a program for the Circ u l o l i t e r a r i o " l a verdad en e l e s t i l o i l a verdad 36 en las ideas" and exhorted "Empiece ya en nuestra 37 l i t e r a t u r a e l reinado de l a Ciencia." In "Memoranda" Prada makes a statement si m i l a r to that i n the l a s t l i n e of the verse quoted from Chocano: " E l hombre no es e l corazon, ese trozo de carne que recibe y arroja sangre, 51 es l a cabeza, esa forforescencia cerebral que piensa y quiere. La l l u v i a y l a luz vienen de lo a l t o ; los grandes 3 8 sentimientos bajan del cerebro." The t h i r d idea present i n "Deseos" i s the following: o / Yo quiero ser poeta, de aquellos vxgoros@s Que azotan con sus versos, que matan con su voz, Que rompen los g r i l l e t e s t i r a n i c o s y odiosos, Que a l Pensamiento adoran como se adora a un Dios ... I There are r e a l l y two points to be considered: the use of poetry as a weapon against tyranny and the idea of reason as naturally leading to l i b e r t y . Prada expressed the l a t t e r i n the Politeama speech: S i l a ignorancia de los gobernantes i l a servidumbre de los gobernados fueron nuestros vencedores, acudamos a l a Ciencia, ese redentor que nos ensena a suavizar l a t i r a n i a de l a Naturaleza, adoremos l a Libertad, esa madre enjendradora de hombres fuertea 40 He suggests the p o l i t i c a l uses of l i t e r a t u r e i n his speech i n the Teatro Olimpo: "Una juventud, eri f i n , que se impacienta por suprimir obstaculos y abrirse camino para enarbolar l a bandera roja en los desmantelados terreones 41 de l a l i t e r a t u r a naeional." Cuando llegue l a hora oportuna ... e l Peru contemplara una cruzada contra e l espxritu decrepito de l o pasado, una guerra contra todo lo que implique retroceso en l a Ciencia, en e l Ate i en l a L i t e r a t u r a . 42 Not only do Prada and Chocano express the same objectives 52 for l i t e r a t u r e , but both look to the French revolution and Hugo as exemplary, becoming most eloquent when r e f e r r i n g to t h e i r merits. Prada's essay on V i c t o r Hugo i s dated 1885, Chocano's poem 1891. Sanchez claims that except for 43 Hugo, French poetry hardly existed for Chocano. Prada wrote "La lectura de Victor Hugo, como poderoso estimulante, hace brotar ideas; sus palabras actuan en e l cerebro, 44 como abono en l a t i e r r a " . Chocano wrote: iTodo un mundo de luz siempre chispea, En l a cancion que hace brotar tu mano A los calidos soplos de l a idea ... I Both Prada and Chocano re l a t e the influence of Hugo's writing to p o l i t i c a l action. Prada: E l quito a l a Poesia las inmaculadas alas de s e r a f i n , que Lamartine le habia revestido, e l l a saco de l a ebdrnea torre donde A l f r e d de Vigny l a qiiso mantener encerrada, e l I' a l e j d d e l palacio donde un tiempo se gozaba en murmurar mondtonos cantos de servidumbre i lanza'ndola a l a tribuna parlamentario, a l club Mirabeau, tronar como Dantdn i h e r i r como las encoler-izadas i j u s t i c i e r a s muchedumbres del 93. Chocano: fCiencia es l a espada que esgrime Robespierre en l a tribuna, Cuando habia de l a fortuna Que "a los derechos oprime; Ciencia es l a pluma sublime Del inmortal V i c t o r Hugo, Que a l apostrofar e l yugo Del rey que lo estrecha todo Va salpicando de lodo La conciencia del verdugo! 53 Y c i e n c i a es Dantdn hablando De l a luz en e l santuario Cuando hiere a l opresario Y l o u l t r a j a y l o desprecia ... 47 Thus both authors appear to consider the figures of the French revolution as symbolic of the s p i r i t of emancipation. As Prada says: " e l romanticismo franee's ... se fu4 modificando con V i c t o r Hugo hasta s i g n i f i c a r emancipaci6n del pensamiento, quiere decir, l i b e r t a d en l a Ciencia, en 48 e l Arte i en l a Li t e r a t u r a . " I t i s as a function of emancipation i n t h i s broad sense that Prada, and Chocano i n his i n i t i a l works, interpreted l i t e r a t u r e and the poet. I have already pointed out the li n e s i n which Chocano praises Prada for his a n t i c l e r i c a l i s m . Even before those l i n e s were written i n 1891 Chocano had declared his atheism: La vida es un sistema de eaaciones Con incognitas m i l ; Cuantas menos incognitas existan Es mas f a c i l v i v i r ! Por eso elimine de mis creencias A Dios, que es una i n c o g n i t a de mas ...! 49 He declares atheism to be a r e s u l t of reason: Eso nos manda e l Dios que han fabricado Los que quieren sonar, iConformarse! Ipalabra s i n sentido! jNunca puede emana: de l a raz6n ... 50 54 Prada usually d i r e c t s his c r i t i c i s m not against God but against those who create and propagate the idea of his existence. His c r i t i c i s m also i s based on the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of b e l i e f : He c a l l s clerics, "los hombres del error, de 51 l a oscuridad i de l a muerte." He also opposes science to r e l i g i o n : "muere l a mentira con las lucubraciones metafisicas i t e o l d j i c a s , nace l a verdad con l a Ciencia ... „ 52 p o s i t i v a . Chocano, nevertheless, uses "Dios" for poetic e f f e c t to embody any i d e a l i n a way which Prada only uses the Greek gods. For instance, of V i g i l Chocano writes: iDios es Dios y V i g i l es su profeta I ILos profetas de Dios se Haitian sabiosl ... What Prada said of V i g i l well describes Chocano"s concept of God at thi s point: " V i g i l , en su evolucidn r e l i j i o s a , se despoj6 de las creacias c a t o l i c a s , para v i v i r confinado en una especie de cristianismo l i b e r a l o vago teismo 54 c r i s t i a n o " . A s i m i l a r poetic use of the word "Dios" i s found i n "Inj u r i a " with reference to Hugo: En vano quiere e l f r a i l e con l a i n j u r i a A V i c t o r Hugo h e r i r iLos seres grandes no se ofenden nunca! iNunca se da por ofendido Dios! Chocano evokes the same n o n - c l e r i c a l "Dios" i n r e l a t i o n to love: Ahora, s i , creo en Dios; porque ya creo En e l bien, que l o encuentro en e l amor. 'iEn brazos del amor no hay hombre ateo! I E l hombre que ama, rinde culto a Dios I 5 6 55 Prada expresses a si m i l a r idea but s t i l l does not resort to using the word "Dios": Nunca pude veneer un imposible, E l imposible de creer en algo. Mas yo de t i no dudo, 5 7 Vosotros s o i s mi fe, vosotros mi verdad. Chocano i n s i s t s on the purely f i g u r a t i v e significance of his "Dios" i n the following l i n e s : Ese Dios se esconde incomprensible: iNo existe en realidad I E l verdadero Dios es e l Dios mio: iQue es l a ley natural I Pero a pesar de todo ... lYo creere en e l Dios de los cr i s t i a n o s mientras exista un angel como tu', 5 8 Chocano quite obviously i s w i l l i n g to put the in t e r e s t of poetic e f f e c t ahead of ideology whereas Prada i s not. Even Prada's modernist poetry remained consistent with his ideology whereas Chocano's ideals are mainly evolved within his poetic expression as he himself admits: A traves de mi h i s t o r i a resonante y f l o r i d a , he de hacer yo del Arte mi mejor fe de vida, y he de hacer de l a vida mi mejor obra de Arte ... 59 Chocano not only echoed many of Prada's ideas about poetry, but also a certa i n well-known phrase of h i s : "\Los viejos 60 a l a tumba, los jovenes a l a obra!" In "Toque" from Notas, 1890-91, Chocano wrote: i Alz ate j uventud! iJovenes a luchar! ^ 56 and i n " C a t i l i n a r i a " from Iras santas, 1893-95: Es de l a juventud l a gran tareal ... Es de l a juventud l a mision noble ^ de hacer triunf.ar l a redentora idea. In this poem Chocano relates the "gran tarea" to the f i g h t i n the name of "pensamiento" and "razon" against tyranny and c i t e s Hugo as exemplary of i t , just as I have shown that Prada does. Although I have chosen to quote only poems which demonstrate a close s i m i l a r i t y with Prada's thought, the many coincidences evident throughout the Versos de  adolescencia and Iras santas, with the exception of some of the very early "Rimas", indicate that Prada's i s the main i d e o l o g i c a l influence on Chocano's early poetry. Certain reminiscences of Prada do occur l a t e r , but generally they are not s i g n i f i c a n t . For instance i n "Yunque" written i n 1901 but published i n 190 4 one reads: Ya no canto e l amor que l a t e a solas, encarcelado en pechos de egoismo; porque se dialogar como las olas y no monologar como e l abismo. La poesia cerebral, l a idea, r e s a l t a sobre e l fondo mas obscuro, como l a viva imagen que chispea con p e r f i l e s de fosforo en un muro ... La vida empieza en sensacion y acaba por ser idea; ... 3 57 The theme of youth as leaving the old behind i s present i n " L e t i t i a e " from F i a t Lux, 1907: iAlegrate, juventud! Sobre las tumbas de tus padres debes pasar tu arado; ... ^4 The paucity of echoes of Prada i n Chocano 1s l a t e r poetry merely tends to emphasize the abundance of them i n his e a r l i e r work. Undoubtedly, Prada's influence on Chocano was a major one, not only i n i t s immediate e f f e c t , but also on the. development of his l a t e r poetry. While Prada attempted to use prose and poetry as a vehicle for the expression of the s o c i a l ideals which his polemic attitude led him to regard as a kind of poetic r e a l i z a t i o n i n themselves, Chocano adopted poetry as the prime vehicle for the r e a l i z a t i o n of his combative temperament. I t i s the basic coincidence of temperament i n the two authors which led Chocano to recognize something of himself i n , and to be influenced by the tone and ideas of Prada's prose. 58 CHAPTER II 1 Luis Alberto Sanchez, Aladino o Vida y obra de Jose  Santos Chocano (Mexico, I960), p. 83. 2 Jose Santos Chocano, Poesias completas (Barcelona, 1910), I. 5-14. 3 Prada, Minusculas, p. 10. 4 Sanchez, Don Manuel, p. 102. 5 Luis Alberto Sanchez, ed. Obras completas, by Jose Santos Chocano (Mexico, 1954), p. 1467, note 1. 6 Prada, "Castelar", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 228. 7 Chocano, Obras, p. 54. 8 Prada, " V i g i l " , Pajinas l i b r e s , pp. 91-106. 9 Prada, "Pr6logo" i n Chocano, Poesias completas, I, 6. 10 Prada, " V i g i l " , Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 106. 11 Prada, "Prologo", p. 12. 12 Chocano, Obras, p. 1466. 13 i b i d . , p. 1467. 14 i b i d . , p. 1468. 15 i b i d . , p. 482. 16 i b i d . , p. 484. 17 Prada,"Memoranda", E l Tonel de Diogenes, #66. 18 Chocano, Obras, p. 308. 19 Prada, Exoticas, p. 5. 20 Chocano, Obras, p. 308. 21 Prada, Exdticas, p. 7. 59 22 Chocano, Obras, p.30 8. 23 Prada, Exdticas, p. 8. 24 Chocano, Obras, p. 308. 25 Prada, Exdticas, p. 7. 26 Sanchez, Don Manuel, p. 102. 27 Vicente Garcia Calderon, Parnaso peruano (Barcelona), p. 132. 28 Prada, Minusculas, p. 21. 29 Chocano, Obras, p. 194. 30 Prada, Minusculas, p. 21. 31 Chocano, Obras, p. 194. 32 i b i d . , p. 81. 33 i b i d . , p. 57. 34 Prada, "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 39. 35 Chocano, Obras, p. 57.. 36 Prada, "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 43. 37 i b i d . , p. 47. 38 Prada, "Memoranda", E l Tonel de Didgenes, #60. 39 Chocano, Obras, p. 57. 40 Prada, "Discurso en e l Politeama", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 66. 41 Prada, "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 37. 42 i b i d . , p. 38. 43 Sanchez, Aladino, p. 544. 44 Prada, " v i c t o r Hugo", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 179. 60 45 Chocano, Obras, p. 54. 46 Prada, "Victor Hugo", Pajinas libres, p. 179. 47 Chocano, Obras, p. 50. 48 Prada, "Victor Hugo", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 173. 49 Chocano, Obras, p. 48. 50 i b i d . , p. 50. 51 Prada, "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 43. 52 i b i d . , p. 46. 53 Chocano,' Obras, p. 57. 54 Prada, " V i j i l " , Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 102. 55 Chocano, Obras, p. 65. 56 i b i d . , p. 62. 57 Prada, Exoticas, p. 114. 58 Chocano, Obras, p. 60. 59 i b i d . , p. 657. 60 Prada, "Discurso en e l Politeama", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 61 Chocano, Obras, p. 68. 62 i b i d . , p. 76. 63 i b i d . , p. 305. 64 i b i d . , p. 494. 61 CHAPTER III Just as Chocano said that he and a l l Peru recognized i n Prada " l a voz de su conciencia" after the War of the P a c i f i c , so did the writers of the next generation, who, reje c t i n g the aestheticism of Modernism, developed a poetry of s o c i a l protest. They re f e r , of course, to Prada's prose, and i n p a r t i c u l a r to his indigenous poetry. Nevertheless there are certain notes i n Baladas peruanas which suggest the i n c i p i e n t modernist treatment of indigenous themes. Some of Prada"s Baladas peruanas represent his attempt to express s o c i a l ideals and to attack s o c i a l abuses i n poetry. They have been recognized as such by twentieth century writers who have t r i e d to use poetry for the same purpose as Aida Cometta Manzoni shows: Aparecido en l a ultima mitad del s i g l o XIX y perteneciente a l a generaci6n romantica de los postreros afios, l a i n f l u e n c i a de Gonzalez Prada, pasada l a etapa modernista, va a tener una enorme repercusidn en l a escuela indigenista que aparece en e l s i g l o XX con s o l i d a base de rei v i n d i c a c i o n s o c i a l . 1 They also, however, reveal the relat i o n s h i p which Prada had with his own generation and that preceding him. As Manzoni says., he belonged to the f i n a l years of the romantic generation. During these years Prada began to write. In 1871 several of Prada's poems were coll e c t e d i n Corte's' Parnaso peruano. Juana Manuela G o r r i t i who had been born i n 1818 and written La quena at the age of eighteen was s t i l l conducting "veladas l i t e r a r i a s " i n Lima i n 1877, when Clorinda Matto de Turner was "coronada". Thus there i s a d i s t i n c t l i n k between the romantic treatment of indigenous themes and the new s o c i a l approach which Matto and Prada represented. I t was mainly a personal l i n k , however, and one which was broken i n 1886 when the "Circulo l i t e r a r i o " formed i n opposition to the "Club l i t e r a r i o " . Ricardo Palma had been present at many of Juana Manuela G o r r i t i ' s veladas and evidently considered Clorinda Matto one of his followers as a r e s u l t of such works as Tradiciones cuzquenas, Leyendas, biografias y hojas sueltas. Clorinda Matto, however, joined the "Circulo l i t e r a r i o " when i t was 2 formed i n 1886 , thus i n e f f e c t a l l y i n g herself with Prada who was to c r i t i c i z e Palma's legends i n the 18 88 speech i n which he accepted the presidency of the "Circulo l i t e r a r i o " : en l a prosa reina siempre l a mala t r a d i c i o n , ese monstruo enjendrado por las f a l s i f i c a c i o n e s agridulcetes de l a h i s t o r i a i l a caricatura microsc6pica de l a novela. 3 Nevertheless, as Sanchez points out, one can see Palma's legends as a basis for Clorinda Matto's and Prada's writings on indigenous themes with the exception that the l a t t e r dwell on the least developed aspects of Palma's legends: the indigenous t r a d i t i o n s , and the s o c i a l 63 4 implications of the Indian's s i t u a t i o n . While Clorinda Matto de Turner i s the most obvious precedent for the aspect of s o c i a l protest i n Prada's indigenous ballads, Rocca de Vergallo serves as a possible 5 precedent i n other respects. He was born i n 1846 i n Lima, but wrote mainly i n French. In 1870, just when Prada was beginning to write poetry, he published La mort d'Atahoualpe i n Lima. In 1879 he published Le Livre 7 des Incas i n Pa r i s . Supposedly i t was between the years 1871 and 1879, during his stay at Mala that Prada wrote 8 many of his Baladas peruanas. The p o s s i b i l i t y that Prada was aware of Rocca's work i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one, for he also wrote a poetic manifesto "La Poetique Nouvelle" i n which he proclaims innovation, individualism as opposed to imitation i n poetry, as well as the need for the a r t i s t to be firmly attuned to his time, to observe the paths that Humanity i s taking, to study what has passed and 9 foresee what i s to come. In his indigenous poems, Rocca de Vergallo has Pizarro and Atahualpa speak and sympathizes with the l a t t e r . Dialogue occurs i n ahiost a l l of Prada's indigenous poems, and indeed, i n a poem e n t i t l e d "La cena de Atahualpa" Prada sympathizes with the l a t t e r ' s speech: Y, murmura en s i , volviendo Afable rostro a Pizarro: "Licor mas puro y sabroso Bebere muy pronto acaso: La sangre v i i de extranjeros En l a copa de tu craneo." * - l The p o s s i b i l i t y of Prada's awareness of Rocca de Vergallo's techniques and indigenous poems must, therefore not be dismissed. Although the ideas which Prada expressed i n some of his indigenous poems are si m i l a r to Clorinda Matto's, many of his ballads have no i d e o l o g i c a l content, and thus appear closer to the poetry of perhaps Rocca de Vergallo or Prada's f r i e n d , Rossell. Rossell, however, also appeared i n 12 Juana Manuela G o r n t t i ' s veladas . Thus his poems, Palma's legends and Matto's early legends,any of which may have served as a precedent to Prada have a common element i n t h e i r romantic o r i g i n . The s o c i a l aspect, the attempt to use poetry as a sword i s novel i n Prada's ballads and i n Matto's Aves s i n nido. The fa c t that the "Circulo l i t e r a r i o " became i n 1891 the nucleus of the r a d i c a l "Partido union nacional" i s i n d i c a t i v e of the orientation of that group from i t s o r i g i n s . Clorinda Matto and Prada found i n i t the opportunity to develop a new kind of l i t e r a t u r e i n Peru, a l i t e r a t u r e which they hoped would help to bring about broad s o c i a l change. In 1889 Matto de Turner published Aves sin nido i n which she revealed that she shared i n the a n t i c l e r i c a l i s m which Prada 65 had declared i n 1879, and i n which she pictured the 13 Indxan as abused by socxety. Prada followed her lead by publishing i n E l peru i l u s t r a d o his most famous 14 xndxgenous ballad " E l mxtayo". The movement toward s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d indigenous l i t e r a t u r e continued i n an a r t i c l e by Emilio Gutierrez de Q u i n t a n i l l a and i n the second e d i t i o n of Aves s i n nido which was dedicated to Prada. as well as i n Matto's novel Indole written i n 1891. Clorinda Matto, however, was forced to leave Peru on Pidrola's v i c t o r y while Prada also l e f t for Europe i n 1891. ^ Thus ttie movement towards s o c i a l l i t e r a t u r e i n Peru became i n s i g n i f i c a n t as the modernist movement began to assert i t s e l f i n a l l South America and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n Peru i n the person of Jose Santos Chocano. The poems i n which Prada does show an element of s o c i a l protest against the Indian's oppression are mainly those dealing with the encounter of Indian and Spaniard during the conquest. "La cena de Atahualpa" and "Las flechas del Inca", both 16 of which Prada published before 1900 are e f f e c t i v e poetic expressions of the Indians hatred of t h e i r conquerors. In both poems i t i s through the use of dialogue that Prada manages to express the Indians' feelings without 66 sounding dogmatic or propagandistic. The f i r s t part of "La cena de Atahualpa" sets the scene through a description of the embattled land: Suena e l ronco clamoreo De enfurecidos soldados, Y r e s t a l l a n arcabuces, Y retumban f i e r o s tajos. Bajo e l f i l o de l a espada, A los pies de los caballos, Agonizan y sucumben Nifios , mujeres y ancianos . Not u n t i l the l a s t stanza of t h i s f i r s t part does the poet pass any judgment on the combattants, and, even then, he does not d e f i n i t e l y refer to Spaniards alone. He sets the tone for the dialogue which w i l l follow: No hay compasidn en las almas, En e l h e r i r : no hay descanso; Es e l eco un ay. de muerte* Cajamarca un rojo lago. The f i r s t stanza of the second part which describes the more precise setting of the dialogue has a d i s t i n c t l y i r o n i c e f f e c t 'in view of the meaning of the preceding verse : Cual amigo con amigo Atahualpa con Pizarro, Departen, cenan y beben, Sorbo a sorbo, lado a lado. The same verse serves as an i r o n i c counterpoint to the dialogue which follows. The irony i s maintained i n the dialogue i t s e l f by the following verse which occurs between 6 7 Pizarro's speech and Atahualpa's speech: Y, murmura en s i , volviendo Afable rostro a Pizarro: "Licor mas puro y sabroso Beber^ muy pronto acaso: La sangre v i i de extranjeros En l a copa de tu craneo." 18 Thus, i n t h i s poem, Prada riot only describes the conquest but renders the Indians' reactions i n a r e a l i s t i c manner through dialogue. Speech and irony i s used s i m i l a r l y i n "Las flechas del Inca". The e f f e c t of t h i s poem i s based largely on r e p e t i t i o n i n conjunction with a series leading to a culmination. The f i r s t s i x lines of each e i g h t - l i n e verse are the same with the exception of the number which forms the s e r i e s , "primera, segunda, tercera": Tuvo tres flechas en l a mano e l Inca Y, alegre, a l a primera pregunt6: "Amiga f i e l , envenenada flecha Di'lque me pides hoy?" "Fuerte guerrero de i n f a l i b l e pulso, De bravo corazon, 19 The f i n a l two lines of the three stanzas are respectively: Te pido solo destrozar las alas De condor volador". Te pido solo desgarrar e l seno De t i g r e acechador". Te pido s6lo atravesar e l pecho De v i i conquistador". 19 68 T.he modifying e f f e c t of the structure of each stanza, on i t s f i n a l two li n e s i s such that these lines also w i l l be f e l t as repetitious and climac t i c i n t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . That i s , each element to be destroyed w i l l be seen as a v i l e and threatening natural enemy to the Indian, with the greatest vileness and threat being i n the l a s t element, the conqueror. Therefore, t h i s poem gains a l l i t s e f f e c t from the use of poetic devices within the dialogue so that there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of Prada's voice as poet intervening to force his point. Several poems i n Baladas peruanas describe i s o l a t e d relationships between Indian and Spaniard. The advantage of these anecdotal poems i s , of course, that they allow the poet to protest not i n general, but i n . p a r t i c u l a r . For instance i n " E l chasqui" a Spaniard abuses an Indian for the sake of his own pleasure: "Desiertos, montes y r i o s De t i me apartan, oh E l i s a ; Mas pisare tu morada Con l a aurora vespertina. Pronto, en marcha, imbecil Indio, Se mi chasqui, se mi guxa: Ve delante a mi caballo; S i cejas, \ay de tu vida!" 20 Prada again takes advantage of the p o s s i b i l i t y of dialogue to show the Spaniard's cruelty and juxtaposes i t to one l i n e of dialogue showing the Indian's helplessness: "iPiedad, piedad, Viracocha!" He repeats the Indian's plea at the beginning of the f i n a l stanza of each of the f i r s t four sections of the poem so that i t gains impact as the poet describes the increasing d i f f i c u l t y of the t r i p he i s forced to undertake. Each of the three middle parts describes a d i f f e r e n t part of the t r i p : desert, mountains and r i v e r s . Each part has a sim i l a r structure for the description: f i r s t stanza, description of the set t i n g , second stanza, insitence on the uninhabited and wild nature of each set t i n g , t h i r d stanza, persistence of the Spaniard's horse i n the face of grave d i f f i c u l t i e s . Thus there i s a r e p e t i t i v e element i n the structure of the poem. The t h i r d stanza of each of these sections, by showing how d i f f i c u l t i t i s for the horse to continue, serves to i n t e n s i f y the cruelty of the Spaniard when, i n the stanza immediately following, he thrashes the Indian just as he spurs the horse on. The l a s t section of the poem departs from the r e p e t i t i v e structure to depict the a r r i v a l of the group at the ranch. In the f i n a l stanzas the author pictures the Spaniard and his lady on one l e v e l and the chasqui and the horse on another to reveal the inhumanity of the Spaniard toward the Indian. The very harshness of t h i s idea expressed i n prose when i t i s com-pared to the lines of the poem i t s e l f shows the success of 70 Prada's technique: En t i e r r a s a l t a e l j i n e t e , A l Indio arroja l a ba?ida, Un dulce nombre modula Y l a b e l l a estancia pisa. En l a sombra e s t a l l a un beso Y en e l campo un ay expira, Que delante del caballo Exhala e l chasqui l a vida. Some of Prada's ballads reveal the Spaniards' motivation by greed. Two such poems are "La cadena de Huascar" and "La India". The l a t t e r i s again an anecdotal poem based on dialogue. The Spaniard says 2 3 "Todo juro por mi amor" when the Indian asks whether he w i l l keep silence i f she shows him her vast treasure. He i s supposed to remain blind-folded u n t i l he has entered the hiding place but tears the b l i n d - f o l d off i n order to see the entrance. The poem ends 33 follows: -"Insensato, d i "t que h i c i s t e ? " -"Ver l a entrada \voto a bri o s ! " -"Pierdes mi amor, oh perjuro". -"Quiero e l oro, no tu amor". -'VOro no, l a muerte!" exclama La i n d i a , ciega de furor, Y un purial agudo clava En e l pecho a l espanol. 24 Again, the c o n f l i c t occurs i n the context of the conquest and any judgment occurs within the action of the poem, not i n comments or inter p r e t a t i o n by the poet. 71 In "La cadena de Huascar" a judgment exists i n the symbolic action of the poem. An Inca o f f e r s a Spanish Captain a chain of gold: -"Ven, avanza con denuedo, Valeroso Capitan, Y l a cadena de Huascar En tus manos cogeras". Ya l a planta mueve e l Joven, La cadena toca ya; Mas se sumerge en las aguas, Y en e l viento suena un ay. 25 Other of the ballads are based on the Spaniards' abuse of the Indians by forcing them to work. In 'El cacique f i l i c i d a " the Indian speaks for himself: -"Fui Senor de veinte pueblos, Fui valido d el Monarca: Soy ya juguete y escarnio De implacable y fuerte raza Prole v i i de v i l e s senos, iQue te queda, que te aguarda? La servidumbre, e l trabajo, La mina oscura y helada ..." Se oye l a queja de un nino, Un sordo choque en las aguas, E l rumor de lentos pasos, Y despues, e l eco, y nada. 26 " E l mitayo" i s one of the poems which Cometta Manzoni refers to as i n d i c a t i v e of Prada's influence on indigenism. " E l mitayo", however, i s a d e f i n i t e h i s t o r i c a l reference, i n spite of the fac t that Prada did protest i n prose about the p l i g h t of the Indian i n contemporary Peru, and compare^ i t to the h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n he recreates i n the 72 Baladas peruanas: E l substratum nacional o e l Indio permanece como en tiempo de l a dominacio'n espafiola: envuelto en l a misma ignorancia i abatido por l a misma servidumbre, pues s i no siente l a vara del Correjidor, jime bajo l a f e r u l a de 1 1autoridad o del hacendado 1 ... Hasta vamos haciendo e l milagro de matar en e l l o que rara vez muere en e l hombre: l a esperanza. 28 In " E l cacique f i l i c i d a " as well as i n " E l mitayo" and "Cancidn de l a India", i t i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of hope which i s vanquished. In " E l mitayo" the Indian speaks out and judges the white man's law as he has not done i n other ballads: -"La i n j u s t a ley de los Blancos Me arrebata del hogar: Voy a l trabajo y a l hambre, Voy a l a mina f a t a l . " 29 A lack of hope i s evident i n the expression "mina f a t a l " as well as i n the l a s t l i n e s when the Indian promises to return when Hie white man i s moved by compassion, but adds: -"Hijo, e l pecho de los Blancos No se conmueve jama's." 30 The clima c t i c e f f e c t of the series of r h e t o r i c a l questions and equally r h e t o r i c a l answers i s enhanced by the fact that each question i s i n fact a r e p e t i t i o n of the previous answer. The e f f e c t of the f i n a l l i n e s i s due largely to the fa c t that they break the s t r u c t u r a l pattern of r e p e t i t i o n . 73 An additional element which i n t e n s i f i e s t h e i r significance i s the r e p e t i t i o n of the sense of i m p o s s i b i l i t y inherent i n the r h e t o r i c a l answers, but i n thi s case i n concrete, non-rhetorical terms. Therefore, i t i s not only because of the theme that this poem has been pointed, out as one of Prada's best, but also because i n i t one finds the f u l l e s t use made of his own p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e and techniques. The abundance of p a r a l l e l structures and repetitions i n the poems i s i n d i c a t i v e of Prada's i n t e l l e c t u a l rather than emotional approach to poetry. His main concern l i e s i n the cle a r , f o r c e f u l and objective expression of ideas rather than i n the subjective evocation of emotions. In "Cancion de l a India" the Indian again speaks out against i n j u s t i c e : i Ay pobre del Indio, Sin leyes n i amparo Muriendo en las garras De inicuos tiranos! 31 This poem creates a p a r t i c u l a r l y urgent tone by the use of lines of s ix s y l l a b l e s which give an impetuous sound to the speech. The use of r h e t o r i c a l questions, series 32 of lines l i k e the following " iadios, oh mi chozal" and the r e p e t i t i o n of the r e f r a i n : iMaldita l a guerra I iMalditos los Blancos! 32 7 4 at the end of each stanza contribute to the e f f e c t . The poems i n which Prada protests against the oppression of the Indian must then be considered from two points of view. On one hand, the protest i s always i n a h i s t o r i c context, and thus reveals the romantic origins of the poems i n legends. On the other hand, the fac t that the Baladas have been considered precedents for the twentieth century writers of s o c i a l protest and Prada's own expressions i n prose of the need for the author to use l i t e r a t u r e as a vehicle for his ideas, as well as his expressions of sympathy for the Indian and the publication of " E l Mitayo" i n r e l a t i o n to Clorinda Matto's novels, indicate the forward-looking innovations which, they represent. As t h e i r romantic origins would indicate, however, Prada's Baladas do not only carry the seed for the development of the twentieth century i n d i g e n i s t school, but also for the modernist orientation to Americanism. This i s not to say that his indigenous poems were a major influence on either development, but rather to point to Prada's position as a very advanced writer i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l period, through the existence of two pot e n t i a l poetic orientations i n his poetry. In Peru, one of the trends developed f i r s t : modernist Americanism, and, once past the modernist interlude, 75 the other took root. Yet both existed i n embryonic form i n Prada's Baladas, themselves ori g i n a t i n g i n Romanticism. Thus i t i s impossible to accept the c r i t e r i o n of such c r i t i c s as Manzoni and Mariategui who seem to consider the forms of indigenism expressed by the romantics and modernists as i n f e r i o r and t o t a l l y unrelated to twentieth century indigenous poetry. The fact that i n Prada these three trends found a common expression disproves t h i s theory. I t i s i n part the discovery and evaluation of the Indian past and culture which occurs through the exoticism of the romantic and modernist movements that contribute to the reconsideration of the Indians' s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . The d i s t i n c t element.in twentieth century in d i g e n i s t poetry i s i t s p o l i t i c a l intent. This originated i n Prada, not only i n his Baladas, but i n his prose and other poems, as well as i n his contemporaries such as Clorinda Matto. Ruben expressed the poetic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of American themes i n the following words: "Si hay poesia en nuestra America, e l l a esta en las cosas v i e j a s j en Palenke y Utatlan, en e l indio legendario, y e l inca sensual y 3 3 f i n o , y en e l gran Moctezuma de l a s i l l a de oro." Ruben's idea i s c l e a r l y an application of the modernist search for exoticism to America, as Henriquez Urena points out: "Un reflorecimiento del "americanismo l i t e r a r i o " habia ido suplantando otras tendencias entre los modernistas, empezando por e l exotismo y l a constante fevocaci6n de ^pocas p r e t e r i t a s de otros pueblos y otras c i v i l i z a c i o n e s . " To a li m i t e d extent Prada*s Baladas foreshadow t h i s exotic orientation. For example, he chose to precede his book with several lines by Andre Chenier which describe Inca c i v i l i z a t i o n i n an exotic manner: Sous ces bois Strangers que couronnent ces monts, Aux vallons de Cusco, dans ces antres profonds, S i chers A l a fortune et plus chers au genie, Germent des mines d'or, de g l o i r e et d 1harmonie. 35 As far as exoticism implies exhuberance of fauna and f l o r a , however, as i t did to Chocano, Prada's Baladas show l i t t l e evidence of i t . Indeed i n Pajinas l i b r e s Prada wrote: I no tomemos por americanismo l a p r o l i j a enumeracion. de nuestra: fauna i de nuestra f l o r a o l a minuciosa pintura de nuestros fenomenos meteorol6jicos, en lenguaje saturado de provincialismos ociosos y rebuscados. 36 Neither i s Prada an exponent of the superiority of pre-Columbian culture: "no f a l t a n "chauvins" que en los modernos espanoles vengarian l a degollaci6n de Atahualpa n i lacrimosos l i t e r a t o s que con l a perdida de l a poesia 77 i n c a i c a v i v a n t a n i n c o n s o l a b l e s como Sancho con e l robo 37 de a l f o r j a s 1 f i a m b r e . " He does see i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e as a b a s i c i n f l u e n c e on the development o f P e r u : D e l e s p a f i o l nos s e p a r a n y a l a s i n f l u e n c i a s d e l c l i m a , l o s c r u z a m i e n t o s e t n o g r a f i c o s , e l i n t i m o r o c e con l o s e u r o p e o s , l a e d u c a c i o n a f r a n c e s a d a i 64 anos de tempestuosa v i d a r e p u b l i c a n a . . . Vamos p e r d i e n d o y a e l desapego a l a v i d a , desapego t a n marcado en l o s a n t i g u o s e s p a n o l e s , i nos c o n t a j i a m o s con l a t r i s t e z a jemebunda que d i s t i n g u e a l i n d i j e n a p e r u a n o . 38 In s e v e r a l b a l l a d s P r a d a at tempts t o express the I n d i a n s 1 " t r i s t e z a jemebunda" t h r o u g h a s y m b o l , f o r i n s t a n c e , the " q u e n a " , and the " l l o r a - m u e r t o " . There i s an element of e x o t i c i s m i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f these themes, j u s t as t h e r e i s i n Rube'n's t r e a t m e n t of o r i e n t a l themes. The p o e t t r i e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e a symbol p e c u l i a r t o one p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e i n t o h i s own p o e t i c w o r l d by g i v i n g i t a u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . In " I n v e n c i 6 n de l a quena" Prada d e s c r i b e s the w a i l i n g sound o f the qiena i n terms of i t ' s o r i g i n . The l e g e n d i s t h a t the I n c a cannot f i n d e x p r e s s i o n f o r h i s a n g u i s h at the d e a t h of h i s b e l o v e d a n d , i n P r a d a ' s w o r d s : E s c a r b a e l I n c a l a tumba; Y , d e l f u n e b r e e s q u e l e t o , A l a i n c i e r t a l u z d e l r a y o L a b r a musico i n s t r u m e n t o . 78 E l Inca v i e r t e su l l a n t o ; Y, a las lagrimas de fuego, Las duras rocas se ablandan Y se d i r r i t e n los h i e l o s . E l Inca toca l a Quena; Y, a los lugubres acentos, Lloran lagrimas los vivos Y se estremecen los muertos. 39 In the second stanza the poet emphasizes the in t e n s i t y of the Inca's emotion by a t t r i b u t i n g to i t an influence over nature. In the f i n a l stanza he attributes to i t an influence over other men. In " E l llora-muerto" the g r i e f at the loss of a beloved i s coupled with the b e l i e f i n a f a t a l i s t i c death omen. Indeed, i t i s the i n a b i l i t y to express s u f f i c i e n t g r i e f i n l i f e which brings about the appearance of the death omen. Thus i t i s the g r i e f which causes death: -"No cantes, oh Poeta: Voces lugubres quiero Que de pena y angustia Despedacen mi pecho." 40 The Inca's subjects o f f e r to bring him the llora-muerto: "Un pajaro s i n i e s t r o : Su voz quebranta penas, Se llama e l Llora-muerto." 40 The e f f e c t of the bird's laments on the Inca i s described i n the l a s t three stanzas: E l pajaro se queja, Y, a su primer acento, Lanza e l Rey de los Incas Un g r i t o lastimero. E l pa j arc- se queja, Y, a su segundo acento, L l o r a e l Rey de los Incas Dos lagrimas de fuego. E l pajaro se queja, Y, a su tercer acento, Queda e l Rey de los Incas Mudo, inmovil y muerto. 41 The technique used i s a simple and frequent one i n Prada's poems. The r e p e t i t i o n of the f i r s t l i n e of each stanza i s continued i n the second l i n e with the additional e f f e c t of a s e r i e s , "primer, segundo, tercer", leading to a climax. The same two elements are present i n the t h i r d l i n e of each stanza; r e p e t i t i o n i n " e l Rey de los Incas" and the series i n "lanza, l l o r a and queda". In the f i n a l l i n e s of the f i r s t and second stanzas quoted, the system of repetion of grammatical structure i s maintained, i n that the elements of each l i n e form the object of the Inca's actions. In the f i n a l stanza, however, the poet breaks the system for greater e f f e c t . In that stanza, there i s no corresponding action or object. On the contrary, the l i n e s describe complete inaction, which i s rendered mainly through the use of three adjectives which r e i t e r a t e the same s i g n i f i c a n c e : s t i l l n e s s and death. Within the three there i s also a certain element of progession with "muerto" as i t s culmination. The Indians' s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s i r r e l e v a n t to the sign i f i c a n c e of both poems. 80 The element i n which Prada's Baladas foreshadow the Peruvian development of modernist Americanism i s i n the heroism of t h e i r characters, i n p a r t i c u l a r the Indian ones. Prada pictures, for instance, the heroism of Tupac-Amaru who continues to f i g h t for the freedom of the Indians i n spite of an oracle which indicates that 42 he i s doomed to f a i l . Prada describes an Inca king: Vencedor, jamas vencido, Lleno de triunfos y honores, Llega e l Rey a l Apurimac. 43 There i s even an element of heroism i n the picture of the "Cacique f i l i c i d a " who k i l l s his son to save him 44 the humiliation of slavery under the Spaniards. In the l a s t poem of Baladas, Prada attributes a d i s t i n c t kind of heroism to each of the epochs of Peruvian history and t r i e s to capture i t s significance by having the exemplary leader of each period express his ambition. Manco: "Sembrare grandeza y dicha Con mi poder y mis leyes." Pizarro:"Es /mi ley l a ley del fuerte; A mi l a plata y e l oro; Tiembla, oh Peru, y obedece." Bol i v a r : ..."America, juro Tu l i b e r t a d , o l a muerte." 45 The element of heroism which Prada sees i n the three epochs of Peruvian his t o r y i s one i n which he anticipates Chocano's modernist treatment of i t . 81 CHAPTER III 1 Aida Cometta Manzoni, E l Indio en l a poesia de America  Espanola (Buenos Aires, 1939), p. 220. 2 Luis Alberto Sanchez, La L i t e r a t u r a peruana, derrotero  para una h i s t o r i a e s p i r i t u a l del Peru (Asuncion, 1951), VI, 215. 3 Prada, "Discurso en e l Teatro Olimpo", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 39. 4 Sanchez, Li t e r a t u r a peruana, VI, 215. 5 i b i d . , p. 222. 6 i b i d . , p. 223. 7 i b i d . , p. 225. 8 Sanchez, Don Manuel, p. 75. 9 Sanchez, L i t e r a t u r a peruana, VI, 233. 10 i b i d . , p. 230. 11 Manuel Gonzalez Prada, Baladas peruanas (Santiago, C h i l e , 1935), p. 100. 12 Juana Manuela G o r r i t i , Veladas l i t e r a r i a s de Lima 1876-1877 (Buenos Aires, 1892), I, passim. 13 Clorinda Matto de Turner, Aves s i n nido (Cuzco, 1958). 14 Sanchez, L i t e r a t u r a peruana, IV, 167. 15 i b i d . , p. 216-217. 16 Cometta Manzoni, p. 220. 17 Prada, Baladas peruanas, p. 99. 18 i b i d . , p. 100. 19 i b i d . , p. 121. 20 i b i d . , p. 121-23. 21 i b i d . , p. 124. 22 i b i d . , p. 127. 82 23 i b i d . , p. 113. 24 i b i d . , p. 115. 25 i b i d . , p. 118. 26 i b i d . , p. 119. 27 Cometta Manzoni, p. 223. 2 8 Prada, "Propaganda i Ataque", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 164. 29 Prada, Baladas peruanas, p. 133. 30 i b i d . , p. 134. 31 i b i d . , p. 150. 32 i b i d . , p. 149. 33 Ruben Dario, Poesias, p. 612. 34 Max Henriquez Urena, Breve h i s t o r i a , p. 32. 35 Prada, Baladas peruanas. 36 Prada, "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 26. 37 Prada, "Valera", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 219. 38 Prada, "Conferencia en e l Ateneo de Lima", Pajinas l i b r e s , p. 25. 39 Prada, Baladas 40 i b i d . , P- 67. 41 i b i d . , P- 68. 42 i b i d . , P- 145. 43 i b i d . , P. 79. 44 i b i d . , P- 119. 45 i b i d . , P- 153. 83 CHAPTER IV Jose Santos Chocano's use of indigen i s t themes represents the modernist form of Americanism at i t s height. Max Henriquez Urena refers to Chocano as one of the "otros poetas menores que fueron a abrevar su inspiracidn en los . 1 temas autoctonos." Ureha points, as does Cometta Manzoni, to the l i n k between modernist americanism and romantic americanism, i n the following manner: E l americanismo l i t e r a r i o no era, ciertamente, una novedad. Habia recibido su impulso i n i c i a l durante l a epoca romantica en e l Rio de l a Plata y llego a c o n s t i t u i r un movimiento de alcance continental. 2 Thus, any romantic note i n Chocano 1s indigenous poems i s not out of keeping with the h i s t o r i c a l development of Americanism as I have shown i t with reference to Prada. On the other hand, to c a l l Chocano an exponent of l i t e r a r y Americanism i s by no means to deny that, as Sanchez maintains, he was the i n i t i a t o r of the mundonovista trend 3 ' — i n Peruvian l i t e r a t u r e . Indeed Henriquez Urena sees various trends growing out of Americanism: "Ademas, del americanismo l i t e r a r i o se derivaron orientaciones diversas 4 que disfrutaron de larga boga, como e l indigenismo ..." Henriquez's statement that: "Parecio, por un momento, que con l a preferencia concedida a lo exotico tendia a desterrar 84 l a tendencia americanista, pero sucedid l a contrario: Fue e l americanismo l i t e r a r i o e l que se i n f i l t r d en e l movimiento 4 modernista" indicates that i t was because of the exotic nature of Americanism that i t found a place within Modernism. As far as Chocano's Americanism i s concerned, such i s the case. Henriquez Ureiia suggests one possible influence on the development of Americanism within Modernism which may have some bearing on Chocano: ilnf l u y o en e l l o l a frase recogida por Jose Enrique Rod6: "iNo es e.1 poeta de America'." a l r e f e r i r s e a Ruben Dario, con motivo de l a publicacidn de Prosas profanas? Quizd s i . 5 g Rodo's a r t i c l e i s dated 1899. Chocano had already c r i t i c i z e d Los Raros i n 189 7 on the basis that i t was too concerned with French schools and not enough with t h e i r American origins or with the development of a t r u l y American poetry: iQue f i n a r t i s t i c o ha querido Ruben Dario en Los Raros? S i hacer de su obra un misal para l a r e l i g i o n del nuevo arte americano, se equivoca; porque hay entre nosotros algunos lo bastante capaces para no encerrar en e l cartabon frances, exclusivamente, sus producciones. S i hacer una exposicion comentada de autores nuevos, para darlos a conocer, tambien se equivoca, porque Gomez C a r r i l l o , en su L i t e r a t u r a Extranjera le aventaja, s i n duda, desde e l punto de v i s t a c r i t i c o . 85 Pobre l a l i t e r a t u r a americana que resultase de l a transfusion de esa sangre gastada en nuestras venas de juventud: Ruben no repara en que todas esas ramificanciones de Baudelaire y todas esas cabriolas de l a musa actual, tienen su r a i z en las Americas, en un cerebro americano: e l de Edgar A l l a n Poe. 7 E l Modernismo puede y debe americanizarse entre nosotros; y a e l l o e l prodigioso Ruben Dario tiene a l f i n que tender, porque e l poeta y e l a r t i s t a no pueden ver con los ojos impasibles estas naturalezas formidables. Rube'n Dario nos debe otra obra en que sea menos franees y m^s americano. 8 The following declaration which Chocano wrote i n 1906 and placed at the begining of Alma America also suggests that he was aware of Rodo's phrase: "Mi poesia es objetiva; y, en t a l 9 sentido, solo quiero ser Poeta de America." The following lines by Rodd serve as a prelude to the book: Reconoci en usted a l poeta que, por raro y admirable consorcio, une l a audacia a l t i v a de l a i n s p i r a c i o n con l a firmeza e s c u l t o r i c a de l a forma; y que, con g^eneroso designio, se propone devolver a l a poesia sus armas de combate y su mision c i v i l i z a d o r a , acertando con el. derrotero que, • en mi s e n t i r , sera e l de l a poesia americana. 10 Chocano must, then, have had a d i s t i n c t sense of being not a mere follower, but ofopening new paths. He declared at once his modernist tendency and his determination to remain an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i n poetry: Aunque mis revistas sirven de organos del "modernismo", conservo en todo momento mi independencia de c r i t e r i o personal. 11 In his own words: "0 encuentro camino, o me l o abro." 12 .86 I t i s through American nature, that Chocano finds his poetic personality, and thus i t happens that he exhalts America's character just as he does his own. In " E l primer v i a j e de Simbad" Chocano relates how he found himself and an undiscovered poetry i n the selva. E l poeta en mi s a l i o de l a p r i s i o n y se marchd a l a selva 13 E l c u l t i v o de cafe que me decidid a hacer e l v i a j e , ya no me interesa. , Me interesa e l c u l t i v o de l a poesia que en e l v i a j e he sentido. E l p^rimer v i a j e de mi vida hace que me encuentre a mi mismo. 14 He also describes the sensations which the f l o r a and fauna of the selva awoke i n him: La exuberancia de l a vegetacidn me produce sucesivamente, asombro, entusiasmo, extasis y f a t i g a . 1458. 15 La f l o r a m u l t i p l i c a , como en v i s i d n de encantamiento .. La vida animal hierve en l a lente de l a lampara maravillosa y l a selva se puebla de una fauna f a n t a s t i c a . 16 Mi sorpresa de limeno l l e g a a saber, estremecida de una sublimidad penetrante, lo que es e l trueno, lo que es e l rayo, l o que es l a l l u v i a . 17 This exuberance of nature i s only one aspect of Chocano's Americanism, although an exhuberant tone pervades a l l his poetry. In Alma America there are several poems which descri nature i n t h i s manner, i n p a r t i c u l a r "Las Selvas": 87 Cada selva en su pompa de rumores, sobre l a ostentacion de los f o l l a j e s , copia e l f r u f r u de los sedosos trajes y en l a seda despuds pinta sus f l o r e s . Luce insectos de gasa b r i l l a d o r e s , pcijaros de vivxsimos plumajes, f i e r a s dignas de verse en los paisajes de una a r t i s t i c a alfombra de colores. 18 This i s the aspect of Chocano's Americanism which aroused Marstegui's c r i t i c i s m : Jose Santos Chocano pertenece, a mi j u i c i o , a l periodo c o l o n i a l de nuestra l i t e r a t u r a . Su poesia grandilocua tiene todos sus origenes en Espana. Una c r i t i c a v e r b a l i s t a l a presenta somo una traduccidn del alma autoctona. Pero, este es un concepto a r t i f i c i o s o , una f i c c i d n r e t o r i c a . S u l d g i c a , tan simplista como f a l s a , razona a s i : Chocanoes exuberante, luego es autdctono.19 The c r i t i c i s m i s v a l i d as far as i t s reference to c r i t i c s i s concerned. To c a l l Chocano autoctonous would be equivalent to c a l l i n g Ruben French. Chocano merely interpreted America within the framework gf his modernist orientation. He expressed his desire to be "Boeta de America" i n various poems of Alma America, i n p a r t i c u l a r i n "Troquel" where he describes the nature of his American poetry: Mi culto no es e l culto de l a pasada gente, n i me es bastante e l vuelo solemne del Pegaso: los tropicos avivan l a flama en que me abraso; y en mis oidos suena la-voz de un Continente. Yo bebere en las aguas de caudalosos r i o s , yo cruzare otros bosques lozanos y bravios, yo buscare a otra Musa que asombre a l Universe 88 Yo de una r i m a f r a g i l hare mi c a r a b e l a ; me s e n t a r e en l a p o p a ; d e s a t a r e l a v e l a ; y z a r p a r d a l a s I n d i a s , como un C o l o n d e l v e r s o . . . 20 In the f i r s t s t a n z a he sugges ts t h a t A m e r i c a i s f o r him a c u l t and t h r o u g h the r e f e r e n c e s t o "pasada g e n t e " and "Pegaso" t h a t he i s t h i n k i n g i n the e x o t i c terms o f Modernism. The r e f e r e n c e t o the "Musa que asombre a l U n i v e r s o " i n the second s t a n z a r e i n f o r c e s t h i s e f f e c t . In the second s t a n z a he r e v e a l s the e s s e n t i a l l y " P a i s a j i s t a " n a t u r e o f h i s A m e r i c a n i s m . The t h i r d s t a n z a g i v e s s u b s t a n c e t o M a r i a t e g u i ' s c l a i m t h a t C h o c a n o ' s A m e r i c a n i s t p o e t r y i s b a s i c a l l y c o l o n i a l i n o u t l o o k . C l e a r l y , by c a l l i n g h i m s e l f a " C o l o n d e l v e r s o " Chocano i m p l i e s b o t h d i s c o v e r y and c o l o n i a l i s m . A s i d e from the d i f f e r e n c e i n m o t i f s another b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n C h o c a n o ' s and P r a d a ' s a m e r i c a n i s t poems i s o b v i o u s i n the above s t a n z a s . Chocano speaks o f A m e r i c a as he i n t e r p r e t s i t and he does so w i t h h i s own v o i c e . Prada speaks o f A m e r i c a as I n d i a n l e g e n d i n t e r p r e t s i t a n d , when not w i t h an i m p e r s o n a l commentator 's v o i c e , he speaks w i t h the I n d i a n ' s v o i c e . In s p i t e of P r a d a ' s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n f o r m , e x o t i c r e f e r e n c e s , and d e c l a r a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n l i t e r a t u r e , he never r e v e a l s the e x a l t e d p e r s o n a l i s t i c tone i n p o e t r y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s Chocano and o t h e r m o d e r n i s t s t o 8:9 such an extent. Chocano's suggestion i n the following stanza that he feels equally Indian and Spanish reveals at once the fact that i t i s the heroic and exotic nature of both which a t t r a c t him and the fac t that his i n t e r e s t bears no r e l a t i o n whatever to s o c i a l problems. Soy e l cantor de America autoctono y salvaje; La sangre es espafiola e incaico es e l l a t i d o ; iy de no ser Poeta, quizas yo hubiese sido un bianco Aventurero o un indio Emperador! 21 Certainly t h i s i s very much i n keeping with his early choice of heroes, Hugo, Danton and Robespierre. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "Poeta" with "Aventurero" and "Emperador" throws a good deal of l i g h t on Chocano's idea of poetry. Poetry i s a heroic task for the e l i t e . Although Chocano t r i e d to exemplify the heroic i n his l i f e , undoubtedly the li m i t a t i o n s of p o l i t i c s made him see i n the evocation of the past i n poetry the only possible unbounded expression of heroism. I t i s only i n the past where one sees heroism i n l i f e : Velazquez suma aquella d i n a s t i c a osadia que encaden6 a su trono dos mundos en un dia , que e q u i l i b r o los astros, que redonded e l planeta y en cada gran guerrero c r i s t a l i z d un poeta. 22 In "Avatar" Chocano mentions the heroic nature of poetry i n r e l a t i o n to his Spanish and Indian past: 90 ICuantas veces he nacido! iCuantas veces me he encarnado! Soy de Ame'rica dos veces y dos veces espanol. S i Poeta soy ahora, f u i Virrey en e l pasado, Capitan por las conquistas y Monarca por e l Sol. Ya no soy aquel gran Inca, n i aquel epico Soldado, n i e l Virrey de aquel Alcazar con que sueles gonar tu Pero, ahora, soy Poeta: soy divino, soy sagrado. 23 As one might expect, Chocano portrays the conquest as an epic struggle between two equally heroic peoples. Naturally, the episode which best exemplifies t h i s interpretation i s that of the lengthy resistance of the Araucanian Indians. Chocano describes the c o n f l i c t : Es l a t r i b u araucana: e l l a a p o r f i a r e s i s t e a l espanol, que, siempre noble, se entusiasma ante aquella rebeldia. Previo l a muerte; y combatio s i n miedo y s i n reposo; y cuanto mas brego, se hizo mas fuerte. 24 The main i n t e r e s t i n Chocano 1s poem l i e s i n an episode which increases the heroism attributed to the Indians, Lautaro's decision to place himself amongst the defeated. In t h i s poem, as i n "Cahuide" there i s no element of protest against the cruelty of the conquest, or the abuse of the Indian, as there i s i n some of Prada"s poems which deal with the conquest. "Cahuide" i s p a r t i c u l a r l y revealing of thi s difference i n that i t pictures a s o l i t a r y Indian defending^ h e r o i c a l l y his post. Yet the Indian does not speak out against his inevitable defeat as he might i f the poem were Prada's. Chocano's poem merely pictures a momentary s i t u a t i o n . The poet characterizes the Indian as being inspired by the i d e a l of heroism, not by any attachment to his land or home: Como un penon que corta las aguas de un torrente, se yergue en l a osadia de su locura vana; y evoca, en los recuerdos de l a v i r t u d pagana, a l heroe s o l i t a r i o que defendk un puente. 25 Certain of Chocano's poems dealing with Indian themes can be compared with Prada's. For instance, Chocano 1s "La frusta" bears a s i m i l a r i t y to Prada's " E l arbol maldito" Prada's poem i s shorter and less elaborate than Chocano's, but they deal with the same subject: an Indian g i r l k i l l s her Spanish pretender: i n Prada's poem, by t e l l i n g him to wait for her under the shade of a certain tree, which has a f a t a l e f f e c t ; i n Chocano's poem by putting poison on her l i p s and then k i s s i n g him. In Chocano's poem there i s an additional element i n that the g i r l and her Indian lover also die. Aside from the theme, there i s a s i m i l a r i t y of technique. Both authors use dialogue, frequent i n Prada, but not i n Chocano. Both poems have an element of irony, Prada's of a more subtle nature. In his poem i t l i e s i n the contrast between his description of the Indian g i r l with the Spaniard where she reveals only good intentions and the f i n a l outcome of her action: 92 "LVes aquel erguido leno Coronado de a l t a copa? A su fresco abrigo espera, Yo volvere con las sombras." Asx murmura l a Indiana, Entre esquiva y amorosa, Sonriendo a l Castellano Que l a bendice y l a adora. No despierta mas e l Joven, Pues e l arbol de a l t a copa, Es e l arbol maldecido Que da muerte con su sombra. 26 Chocano's irony i s much more e x p l i c i t : En e l dia siguiente, fue Peralta enterrado con magnificas pompas; y l a i n d i a a su lado: los hispanos quisieron e l hacer de esa suerte que, a traves de los s i g l o s , fuera suya en l a muerte, l a que solo en l a vida se entregara un momento ... No hay un alma espariola que no logre su intento! 27 The idea involved i n Chocano's irony occuis i n another of ^ Prada's poems "La h i j a del Curaca" where the Indian who k i l l s his daughter because she loves a Spaniard j u s t i f i e s his act i n the following words: "Hallo en medio de mi pena Una gran consolacion: / S i tu f u i s t e y no eres mia, No sera's del espanol." 28 Thus there i s a cer t a i n coincidence i n Chocano's and Prada's treatment of the relationship of Indian g i r l s to Spanish men i n that both suppose a c o n f l i c t based on the loyal t y of the Indian to her own race. 93 Both Prada and Chocano wrote poems about the "quena". Prada, as I have already pointed out, bases his poem on a legend explaining the invention of the "quena" which accounts for the p l a i n t i v e sound of the instrument. The f e e l i n g that the sound of the "quena" gives the l i s t e n e r i s des-cribed only i n d i r e c t l y , through the description of the reactions of the legendary Inca and others to i t . Chocano's poem,, however, makes no reference to legend, but attempts to describe the sound and e f f e c t of the instrument: Desgranando las perlas de su l l o r o , a veces hunde e l musical lamento en e l hueco de un cantaro sonoro; y entonces finge, en l a nocturna calma, soplo d e l alma convertido en viento, soplo del viento convertido en alma ... 29 The sound of the "quena" was one of the things that had impressed Chocano i n his t r i p to the selva: Cuando todo ha cesado, de lo profundo de l a obscuridad ya tranquila, l l e g a hasta mi en t a l noche l a lamentaci6n musical de una quena que, a l l l o r a r en e l hueco de un cantaro e l dolor de l a raza aborigen, me hace asomar a l a ventana del cuarto del hotel en que me hospedo, levantando mis ojos hacia e l c i e l o , otra vez est r e l l a d o , en donde e l son dolorido que se alarga en l a limpieza del ambiento, parece que r i g i e r a , de las constelaciones. 30 Thus, once again, Chocano uses an Indian theme as poetic material, but interprets i t i n such a way that i t s indianism i s of no consequence i n the f i n a l poem. 94 While Chocano g e n e r a l l y a r r i v e s at h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the s p i r i t of Spaniard and Indian through t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n the p a s t , he does attempt to describe the s p i r i t of the Indian i n the present i n "Notas d e l alma indxgena". These d e s c r i p t i o n s appear t o correspond to Chocano's disc o v e r y of the s p i r i t of the Indian through h i s v i s i t to the s e l v a : F o r t a l e z a y me l a n c o l i a son l a s dos notas p s i q u i c a s d e l Ande. A s i es e l alma indigena. 31 I t i s the element of " f o r t a l e z a " which comes out most s t r o n g l y i n "Notas". In "Quien sabe" the streng t h i s revealed i n i n d i f f e r e n c e : jOh, raza antigua y m i s t e r i o s a de impenetrable corazon, que s i n gozar ves l a a l e g r i a y s i n s u f r i r ves e l d o l o r : eres augusta como e l Ande, e l Grande Oceano y e l S o l ! Ese t u gesto que parece como de v i i r e s i g n a c i d n , es de una s a b i a i n d i f e r e n c i a y de un o r g u l l o s i n rencor ... 32 "A s i sera" contains a s i m i l a r expression of the Indian's s t r e n g t h : iOh, raza firme como un a r b o l que no se agobia a l huracan, que no se queja bajo e l hacha y que se impone a l pedregal'. 33 Chocano uses a l l the poems as a basis f o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of himself w i t h respect to h i s Indian h e r i t a g e , so he "9 5 c e r t a i n l y does not renounce his personal int e r p r e t a t i o n of the Indian. He does, however, give the impression that he i s interpreting the Indian i n his own way by having an imaginary Indian i n his poem repeat certain phrases such as "otra vez sera"; "Quien sabe, senor", "Ahi no mas" and "Asi sera" which succinctly express the Indian s p i r i t . This technique i s , s i m i l a r to Prada's use of dialogue, and i t s use d e f i n i t e l y adds to the authenticity of the expression of indigenism. Indeed, i f as Mariategui seems to imply, i t i s desirable to be "autoctono", the author must actually be an "indigena", or f a i l i n g that, pretend to be, i n order to speak with an indigenous voice. Prada did t h i s i n his Baladas peruanas, but Chocano did so only to the very limited extent I have shown i n "Notas", because he did not care to abandon his own modernist voice and in t e r p r e t a t i o n of the indigenous s p i r i t . Thus Chocano i s exemplary of the modernist who developed only the aesthetic aspect of Prada's embryonic treatment of indigenous themes. -96 CHAPTER IV 1 Max Henriquez Urena, Breve h i s t o r i a , p. 32. 2 i b i d . , p. 33. 3 Sanchez, Aladino, p. 550. 4 Max Henriquez Urena, Breve h i s t o r i a , p. 33. 5 i b i d . , p. 32. 6 Jose Enrique Rodo, Obras completas (Madrid, 1957), p. 187. 7 Chocano, Obras, p. 947. 8 i b i d . , P- 948. 9 i b i d . , P. 362 . 10 ibid.., p. 369 . 11 i b i d . , P- 1453. 12 i b i d . , P- 363. 13 i b i d . , P- 1455. 14 i b i d . , P. 1459. 15 i b i d . , P- 1458. 16 i b i d . , P- 1459. 17 i b i d . , P. 1458. 18 i b i d . , P- 383. 19 Jose Carlos Mariategui, Siete ensayos de interpretacion  de l a realidad peruana (Santiago, Chile, 1955) , p. 201. 20 Chocano, Obras, p. 371. 21 i b i d . , p. 381. 22 i b i d . , p. 384. 23 i b i d . , p. 399. 24 i b i d . , p. 407. 25 i b i d . , p. 425. 26 Prada, Baladas peruanas 27 Chocano, Obras, p. 431. 28 Prada, Baladas peruanas 29 Chocano, Obras, p. 435. 30 i b i d . , p. 1458. 31 i b i d . , p. 1457. 32 i b i d . , p. 828. 33 i b i d . , p. 829. 9 8 CONCLUSIONS Throughout his l i f e Prada exhorted Peruvians to use l i t e r a t u r e as he did, as a vehicle for p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i d e a l s . While his poetry does not represent his major accomplishment, i t does r e f l e c t his p o s i t i o n with r e l a t i o n to his own, the preceding and the following generation. While his supposed precursorship of Modernism i s based, i n keeping with the nature of Prada as an i d e o l o g i s t , on his advanced ideas, paradoxically/ these ideas have the i r origins i n the p o s i t i v i s t thought against which the Modernists reacted. The proof of t h i s l i e s i n the i d e o l o g i c a l nature of Prada's influence on Chocano and the l a t t e r 1 s recognition of V i g i l as a precedent to Prada. Yet i t i s Chocano's poetry which, representing the height of the Modernist movement, reveals i t s development into the opposite of what Prada had seen as desirable. I t was the "art for art's sake" attitude which i s evident i n p a r t i c u l a r i n Chocano's poetry on indigenous themes i n comparison to Prada's, which prevented the l a t t e r from adopting Modernist for more than a b r i e f interlude. Prada's use of poetry as a vehicle for his ideas also had i t s origins i n the previous generation, but found no imitators i n the following one. Indeed, i t appears that, as i n Prada 1s own work, i n Peru, Modernism was but an interlude after which writers undertook a new voyage of regression, back to Prada's writing, from where they began to evolve i n the d i r e c t i o n which he had indicated, but which Modernism had so d r a s t i c a l l y d istorted. LIST OF WORKS CITED Chang-Rodriguez, Eugenio. La l i t e r a t u r a p o l i t i c a de  Gonzalez Prada, Mariategui y Haya de l a Torre. . Mexico, 1957. Cometta Manzoni, Aida. E l Indio en l a poesia de America  Espafiola. Buenos Aires, 1939 . Cortes, Jose Galindo. Parnaso peruano. Valparaiso, 1871. Dario, Ruben. Azul. 8th ed., Buenos Aires, 19 48. Poesias completas. Madrid, 1954 Garcia Calderdn, Vicente. Parnaso peruano. Barcelona. Gonzalez- Prada, Manuel. Anarquia. 4th ed. Lima, 1948. Baladas peruanas. Santiago, Ch i l e , 1935. E l Tonel de Didgenes. Mexico, 1945. Exdticas"! Lima, 1911. Graf itos". Paris, 1937. L i b e r t a r i a s . Paris, 1938. Minusculas. 4th ed., Lima, 19 47. Pajinas l i b r e s . 3rd ed., Lima, 1948. Presbiterianas. 2nd ed., Lima, 1928. G o r r i t i , Juana Manuela. Veladas l i t e r a r i a s de Lima 1876- 1877. 2 vols., Buenos Aires, 189 2. Henriquez Urena, Max. Breve h i s t o r i a del Modernising. 2nd ed., Mexico, 19 62. Henriquez-Urena, Pedro. < L i t e r a r y Currents i n Hispanic America. Cambridge, Mass., 1949. Mapes, Erwin K. ^ ' i n f l u e n c e francaise dans l'oeuvre de  Ruben Pario"! Paris f 1925. Mariategui, Jose Carlos. Siete ensayos de interpretacidn  de l a realidad peruana. Santiago, Chile, 19 55. Matto de Turner, Clorinda. Aves s i n nido. Cuzco, 1958. Merida (Aureliano V i l l a r a n ) . Cuartos de hora. Lima, 1879. 101 Rod6, Jose E n r i q u e . Obras c o m p l e t a s . M a d r i d , 1957. S a n c h e z , L u i s A l b e r t o . A l a d i n o o V i d a y o b r a de Jose Santos Chocano. M e x i c o , 1960. Don M a n u e l . , 2nd e d . , S a n t i a g o , C h i l e , 1937. " G o n z a l e z P r a d a , o l v i d a d o p r e c u r s o r d e l M o d e r n i s m o , " Cuadernos A m e r i c a n o s , V I ( N o v - D i c , 1953) , 225-234. L a L i t e r a t u r a p e r u a n a , d e r r o t e r o p a r a una h i s t o r i a  e s p i r i t u a l d e l P e r d . 6 v o l s . A s u n c i o n , 1951. Santos Chocano, J o s e . Obras c o m p l e t a s , M e x i c o , 1954. P o e s i a s c o m p l e t a s . 6 v o l s . B a r c e l o n a , 1910. V e r l a i n e , P a u l . Oeuvres p o e t i q u e s c o m p l e t e s . P a r i s , 19 54. 

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