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Contributions of Canadian teachers in overseas aid programs : a comparative analysis of experience in… Smith, Gloria M. 1968

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THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF CANADIAN TEACHERS IN OVERSEAS AID PROGRAMS: A comparative analysis of experience i n External Aid and CUSO programs, i n Nigeria and Sarawak, 1957-67 by GLORIA MARY SMITH B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949 A. R.C.T., Royal Conservatory Toronto, 1949 B. Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the College of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agr e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date Oct. 2. 1968. i v ABSTRACT Professional and volunteer programs of educational assistance to developing countries have increased to such an extent that l o c a l educational planners are often confused as to how to determine the most appropriate educational roles of each i n order to u t i l i z e t h e i r services most productively. This study inquires into the comparative q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and educational contributions overseas of Canadian teachers to Nigeria and Sarawak during the decade 1957-67 by the External Aid O ffice and Canadian University Overseas i n an attempt to prove that there i s an overlapping area of si m i l a r q u a l i f -i c a t i o n s and contributions overseas of Canadian teachers sent by the two agencies which r e s u l t s i n confusion of t h e i r respective professional and volunteer r o l e s . I t further searches into areas of in t e r a c t i o n of Canadian teachers over-seas with l o c a l and international personnel and agencies i n an attempt to show that such i n t e r a c t i o n has enhanced teachers' contributions, and that increased future co-operative endeavours could f a c i l i t a t e a greater t o t a l educational contribution. F i n a l l y , i t seeks to show that some d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by Canadian teachers, caused by inappropriate assignments or the non-provision of necessary emoluments, have affected t h e i r educational contributions, and that some means of avoiding or a l l e v i a t i n g such d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the future i s desirable and necessary. V Data f o r t h i s study was gathered by means of a survey form mailed to those External Aid and CUSO teachers who served i n Nigeria or Sarawak during the period 1957-67 as secondary teachers, teacher t r a i n e r s , group headmasters (primary school supervisors), p r i n c i p a l s and advisers to governments. Information was s o l i c i t e d about the teachers' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience before going overseas, education assignments overseas, educational a c t i v i t i e s beyond the assigned tasks, l o c a l and in t e r n a t i o n a l associations and t h e i r e f f e c t s upon the educational contribution, and d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g from non-fulfilment of contractual or agreement obligations per-ta i n i n g to education assignments or personal emoluments. Of those teachers canvassed, 72 percent of External Aid and 6l percent of CUSO teachers responded. The findings show that there was a degree of over-lapping of CUSO and External Aid teachers* q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and educational contributions i n Nigeria and Sarawak i n that some CUSO teachers had equal or better q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and made comparable or more professional contributions than some External Aid teachers. Many secondary teachers from both agencies assumed s i m i l a r classroom teaching duties and extra-c u r r i c u l a r duties; some CUSO teachers undertook professional tasks which a number of External Aid secondary teachers did not; a few CUSO volunteers performed the professional roles of'teacher tra i n e r , group headmaster, primary school super-v i s o r and secondary school p r i n c i p a l . Thus, the appropriate v i q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and r o l e s -which might distinguish Canadian professional and volunteer teachers were not c l e a r l y defined. A l l the teachers under study considered t h e i r l o c a l l e i s u r e time associations of value to t h e i r contributions, and most considered t h e i r time spent with Europeans of value, p a r t i c u l a r l y CUSO teachers. Although a l l worked with other in t e r n a t i o n a l educational personnel, l e s s than hal f reported special co-operation with these colleagues, and only one-third received Canadian support f o r t h e i r educational endeavours. The evidence reveals that CUSO volunteers have valued European professional assistance, that more co-operation between members of international agencies should prove f r u i t f u l , and that greater assistance from Canadian sources could r e s u l t i n a greater t o t a l contribution. Although the majority of teachers expressed no major assignment d i f f i c u l t i e s , a small number from both agencies reported modifications of t h e i r o r i g i n a l education assignments or indicated that t h e i r assignments d i f f e r e d from t h e i r o r i g i n a l expectations. A large minority did not f e e l that t h e i r s k i l l s were f u l l y u t i l i z e d . A small number from both agencies experienced emolument d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t may be inf e r r e d that the f r u s t r a t i o n s involved i n the solution of these d i f f i c u l t i e s often resulted i n adverse psychological e f f e c t s , which i n turn could a f f e c t t h e i r contributions. No consistent pattern.of assistance towards the solution of these problems was revealed; Several teachers expressed the need fo r External v i i Aid regional representatives to f a c i l i t a t e the teacher's adjustment and proper placement i n the country of service. From a national point of view, there- appears'.to be a d i s t i n c t need, and duty to ensure that the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and roles of professional and volunteer teachers provided by Canada be c l e a r l y recognizable, consistent and predictable to educational planners i n developing countries so that the. services of such personnel may be used to harmonize e f f i c i e n t l y with national development plans, and i n order that the . . potential professional contributions of experienced teachers be not wasted. Further.there appears to be a need f o r greater co-operation between members of the two Canadian agencies, and f o r more assistance i n the f i e l d from the sending agency. Thus, the following recommendations are made: 1. that External Aid and CUSO p o l i c i e s be co-ordinated i n order to distinguish the educational needs each w i l l attempt to s a t i s f y i n developing countries, and to determine the teaching and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and previous teaching, experience appropriate to those separate r o l e s . 2. that External Aid regional representatives be appointed,, charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of determining approp-r i a t e assignments, of ensuring the a v a i l a b i l i t y of necessary f a c i l i t i e s such as housing, and f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the teachers' adjustments i n the country of service by helping to solve unforeseen d i f f i c u l t i e s i n assignment V l l l and physical arrangements. External Aid and CUSO co-ordinators within the country of service might then co-operate i n j o i n t l y presenting t h e i r p o l i c i e s to l o c a l educational aut h o r i t i e s , and channeling requests f o r Canadian personnel to the appropriate agency. That closer co-operation of External Aid and CUSO agencies be encouraged both i n orientation programs i n Canada, and i n formal or informal meetings i n the countries of service, i n order that inexperienced teachers may a v a i l themselves of the professional assistance of more experienced teachers. i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to express her indebtedness to various in d i v i d u a l s who have contributed i n important ways to the development of t h i s study. Valuable assistance was provided by the members of the Thesis Committee: Dr. Joseph Katz, Chairman Dr. Leonard C. Marsh Dr. William E. Willmott To Dr. Joseph Katz of the Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I owe a deep debt of gratitude f o r h i s sustained guidance and encouragement. Very valuable suggestions and c r i t i c i s m s were provided by Dr. Leonard C. Marsh of the Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Dr. William E. Willmott of the Department of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Dr. Adelard Gascon, Director of the Education Division, External Aid O f f i c e , and Mr. King Gordon, Chairman of the Executive Board of Canadian University Service Overseas, were he l p f u l i n extending approval of the study on behalf of t h e i r respective agencies. Dr. J.P. Denny of the Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, provided valuable additions to the survey form f o r teachers. i i i The writer i s p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted to a l l those External Aid and CUSO teachers who gave so generously of t h e i r time and experience, and without whose support t h i s study would have been impossible. F i n a l l y , thanks are due to my husband, Colin, who so materially f a c i l i t a t e d my work. i x TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I... THE CONCEPT. OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AID. . . 1 Need f o r educational assistance 2 History of the Development of Commonwealth and American Educational Assistance Programs 4 The S p e c i f i c Problem 6 Relevant Literature 7 I I . TECHNIQUE OF THE STUDY 25 D e f i n i t i o n s • 25 Teaching q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 25 Teaching experience 26 Contributions to education 26 Overlapping 27 Hypotheses of t h i s Study 27 Assumption 2S Basis f o r Comparison 26" Methods of Gathering Data 29 Limitations 30 Returns 32 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Respondents According to Role Categories 32 I I I . TEACHERS: THEIR QUALIFICATIONS AND OVERSEAS ROLES 36 Teaching C e r t i f i c a t i o n 36 Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 39 Previous Teaching Experience 46 X Chapter Page IV. TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL CONTRIBUTION 63 .Secondary Teachers , 63 Classroom teaching 63 E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . 73 Extra professional a c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . 78 Primary Teachers . . . . . . 81 Teacher Trainers 83 Group Headmasters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 P r i n c i p a l s 90 Advisers to Departments or M i n i s t r i e s of , . Education 92 V. PERSONAL-INTERACTION: LOCAL AND.INTERNATIONAL. , 95 U t i l i z a t i o n of Community Resource§ . . , . .. „ 104 International Cooperation . . . . . . . . . 112 Cooperation ,of Canadian^teachers with j international personnel . . . . . . . . . 120 Assistance from Canadian Sources . . . . . . 126 VI. ASSIGNMENT AND EMOLUMENT DIFFICULTIES. . . . . . 133 Assignment D i f f i c u l t i e s . ? . . . . . . . . . . 133 Emolument D i f f i c u l t i e s . . . . . . . 147 VII. SUMMARIES, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . I63 Summary of the Problem 163 Data Summaries and Conclusions . . . . . . . I 6 5 Recommendations . . . . . . . . 173 Areas f o r Further Research 175 x i Page BIBLIOGRAPHY ........... 177 APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 A. Survey Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . =. •. . 16*3 A 1. -Experience 1 of Teachers with Service • i n Nigeria or Sarawak . ... .. .. 184 A 2. Experience of Group Headmasters, P r i n c i p a l s , Teacher Trainers, and Advisors to M i n i s t r i e s or Departments of* Education i n Nigeria or Sarawak. . 191 B. Letters . . . . . .. ,. . •. s. . . . . . . . . . .. 197 B 1. Covering l e t t e r 198 B 2. External Aid Office l e t t e r of. approval . . . .•. • • • . . . . 200 B 3. CUSO l e t t e r of approval 202 C. Teachers' Comments and Opinions 203 C 1. Major Contributions Overseas -self-Assessment 204 C 2. Need f o r F i e l d Representatives . . . 208 C 3. Suggested Methods of Evaluating Teachers' Contributions Overseas . 214 C 4» Appropriate roles of Professional and Volunteer Teachers . ~. 218 x i i LIST OF TABLES Table >: Page I. Roles Performed .. 34 I I . Total Teaching Years , . . . . . 34 I I I . Percentage of Teachers Holding Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e s Including A l l Categories . . . 3.7 IV. Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . . . 38 V. University Degrees, Nigeria and Sarawak . . . 40 VI. University Degrees, Nigeria and Sarawak separated . . 41 VII. Percentage of University Degrees by Role . . , Categories 43 VIII. C r i t i c a l Overlapping Areas .of Degree Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 45 IX. Diplomas 47 X. Average Total Previous Experience . . . . . . . . 48 XI. Average Experience i n Years by Role Category. 49 XII. Total .Range of Previous. Experience . . . . . 50 XIII. Range of Previous Experience by Role Category. 51 XIV. Analysis of C r i t i c a l Overlapping, Areas of Previous Teaching Experience 52 XV A. Levels of Previous Teaching Experience of Secondary Teachers 54 XV B. Levels of Previous Teaching Experience of Primary Teacher Trainers 56 x i i i Table Page XV C. Levels of Previous Teaching Experience of Secondary Teacher Trainers . . . . . . . 56 XV- D. Levels of Previous Teaching Experience-of Group Headmasters 57 XV E. Levels of Previous Teaching Experience . - • of Secondary P r i n c i p a l s . . . ..... . . . 57 XV F. Levels of Previous Teaching Experience of Advisers to Departments or M i n i s t r i e s of Education. . . 58 XVI. Secondary Teachers' Previous Experience by Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 60 XVII. Percentage of Teachers Who Taught Specified Subjects . . . . . . . . f . . . . . . ,. *. 4. 65 XVIII. Assignment-Locale, Rural or Urban . . . . . 68 XIXt. Percentage of Teachers Who Taught at. , , > » Specified Form Levels 69 XX A. Subjects Taught i n Nigeria by Level 71 XX, B. Subjects Taught i n Sarawak by Level . . . . . 72 XXI. Extra-Curricular A c t i v i t i e s of Secondary Teachers =. 76 XXII. Extra Professional A c t i v i t i e s 82 XXIII. Teaching Load of Secondary Teachers . . . . . 83 XXIV. Relative Weighting of Teacher Training Duties 87 XXV. Range of Leisure Time Spent with Europeans, Africans or Asians . . 96 xiv Table Page XXVI A. Percentage of Time Spent with Europeans and Africans - External Aid - Nigeria 98 XXVI B. Percentage of Time Spent with Europeans and Africans - CUSO - Nigeria 98 XXVI C. Percentage of Time Spent with Europeans and Asians - External Aid - Sarawak 99 XXVI D. Percentage of Time Spent with Europeans and Asians - CUSO - Sarawak . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 XXVII. U t i l i z a t i o n of Community Resources by Secondary Teachers 107 XXVIII A. International Colleagues of Canadian Teachers i n Nigeria - External Aid . . . . . . . . . . 114 XXVIII B. International Colleagues of Canadian Teachers i n Nigeria - CUSO •=•,•• n 5 XXVIII C. International Colleagues of Canadian Teachers i n Sarawak - External Aid . . . . . • ... • . 116 XXVIII D. International Colleagues of Canadian Teachers in. Sarawak - CUSO . ... 117 XXIX. Expatriate Contract Colleagues of Canadian Secondary Teachers 118 XXX. Teachers who Received Some Assistance from Canadian Sources 126 XXXI. Terms of Education Assignment of Secondary Teachers 134 X V Table Page XXXII. Modifications of Education Assignments of Secondary Teachers 135 XXXIII. Fulfilment of Assignment Expectations of Teacher Trainers 138 XXXIV. Fulfilment of Assignment Expectations of Pr i n c i p a l s . 139 XXXV. S k i l l s F u l l y U t i l i z e d - Self Evaluation . . 142 XXXVI. Number of Teachers Who Experienced Emolument D i f f i c u l t i e s 150 CHAPTER I THE CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AID International planning f o r human betterment following World War II has involved the peoples of the developed nations i n a s s i s t i n g the peoples of the less-developed nations toward technological and educational progress. World-wide concern f o r the prevention of war resulted i n the formation of the United Nations Organization. Interest i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of peoples devastated by war extended to a new conception of the d i g n i t y of a l l men - of t h e i r r i g h t to self-determination and develop-ment. The l a t e Right Honourable Vincent Massey has expressed t h i s modern theme simply and profoundly: We know that the passionate desire f o r men to see themselves as the equals of other human beings without d i s t i n c t i o n s of class or sex or race or nationhood i s one of the d r i v i n g forces of our day.-*-The Declaration of Human Rights contained i n the United Nations Charter outlines the economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l aspirations of the peoples of the world. But there i s a complex d i s p a r i t y between the r i c h and the poor nations which severely f r u s t r a t e s the hopes of poorer nations f o r the f u l f i l -ment of these aspirations. As Massey describes i t : One part of mankind has undergone the revolutions of modernization and has emerged on the other side to a pattern of great and increasing wealth. But most of the rest of mankind has yet to achieve any of the revolutions; they are caught off balance before the 3-The Right Honourable Vincent Massey, "Introduction", Barbara Ward, The Rich Nations and The Poor Nations (foronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1965), p. 2. -2-great movement of economic and s o c i a l momentum can be launched. Their old t r a d i t i o n a l world i s dying. The new r a d i c a l world i s not yet born. This being so, the gap between the r i c h and the poor has become inevitably the most t r a g i c and urgent problem of our day. 2 United Nations* recognition of the needs of the poorer or 'developing* countries resulted i n the formation of the specialized agencies of the UN, which attempt to study some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s , and make recommendations f o r t h e i r a l l e v -i a t i o n . This new world outlook has also served to inspire many of the wealthier nations to formulate t h e i r own programs of assistance to developing countries. Fundamental to other forms of development - economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l - i s education. Cerych points out the close l i n k between economic and educational development when he states that educational a i d i s 'indispensable as a condition f o r the effectiveness of a l l other assistance to development*: The new industries and communications, as well as the administrations of the newly independent states, need q u a l i f i e d manpower. In economic terms, then, c a p i t a l investment requires human investment. C a p i t a l invest-ment, whether i t comes from inside or out, w i l l sooner or l a t e r be wasted i f i t does not f i n d i n the develop-ing country i t s e l f people able to maintain and run i t . 3 The needs f o r educational assistance i n A f r i c a , Asia, and L a t i n America and the Caribbean are stated i n the f i n a l reports of three UNESCO regional educational conferences of Ministers of Education "and Ministers responsible f o r Economic Planning i n t h e i r various countries. 2Ward, op_. c i t . . p. 16. 3Ladislav Cerych, Problems of Aid to Education i n Developing Countries (New York: F r e d e r i c k T . Praeger, I 9 6 5 ) , p. 28. -3-The report of the conference on A f r i c a n educational development held i n Addis Ababa i n 1961 indicates a staggering need f o r trained teachers: One small State alone needs fo r next y e a r f s (1962) classrooms 400 teachers more than i t i s producing t h i s year. In addition, h a l f of i t s present teachers are i n the "untrained" category. Another State w i l l require 20,000 trained teachers during the next 20 years i n order to achieve universal primary education by 1980. To approach such targets, there must be a vast increase i n the number of i n s t i t u t i o n s t r a i n i n g primary school teachers. To the construction costs of these new teacher-training colleges ... must be added the costs of s t a f f i n g , a sizeable portion of which f o r many years w i l l have to be used f o r the employment of expatriates. The need f o r teachers at the secondary education l e v e l i s equally c r i t i c a l . Many Afr i c a n States i n order to meet minimum manpower needs require and plan a doubling or a t r e b l i n g of second-level school intake by 1965 i n some cases and by 1970 i n others. In general, t h i s means a sim i l a r increase i n the number of teachers. The secondary schools w i l l be heavily dependent on expatriate teachers u n t i l African and foreign u n i v e r s i t i e s have produced enough African graduates to s t a f f the schools.^" The report of the Asian Ministers of Education p a r t i c -ipating i n the Karachi Plan i n 1962 l i s t e d the following programmes as being worthy of special consideration f o r receiving assistance from external sources: Training of teachers, teacher educators, educational s t a t i s t i c i a n s and educational planners; Development of science teaching and the e s s e n t i a l attitudes and s k i l l s required f o r the new objectives of primary education i n primary schools and the teaching of subjects such as science, home economics, art s and c r a f t s , and health education i n teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ; Preparation of textbooks and teaching aids.-* ^UNESCO, Outline of a Plan f o r A f r i c a n Educational  Development (Paris: UNESCO/ED/180, 1961), p. 6. 5UNESCO, Report of Meeting of Ministers of Education of  Asian Member States P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Karachi"~Plan (Bangkok? Post Publishing Co. Ltd., UNESCO/ED7X927' 1962), p71>7. -4-The Report of the Karachi Plan also suggests that assistance from external a i d sources could be given i n preparing plans of educational development and i n improving standards i n education: At present, the preparation of accurate and detailed plans of educational development i s of the highest significance and i t i s on the preparation of these plans that the success of the entire programmes w i l l l a r g e l y depend.... S i m i l a r l y , programmes of qu a l i t a t i v e improvement are l i k e l y to be thrown into the background under the immense and uncontrollable pressures of expansion which the educational administrators have to face today i n every part of t h i s region. External a i d can...play a useful r o l e i n t h i s sector also by encouraging programmes of qu a l i t a t i v e improvement i n accordance with a c a r e f u l l y drawn-up and phased programme.° Today many in t e r n a t i o n a l agencies.have been formed to accept the challenge of providing educational a i d to developing countries. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h i s study are the educational contributions of English-speaking Commonwealth countries and the USA to developing areas of the Commonwealth. History of the Development of Commonwealth and American  Educational Assistance Programs - • The Director of Education of Sarawak"7 conceived the idea that experienced teachers"from Commonwealth countries l i k e Canada, A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand might be able to make a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to education there by helping to ^UNESCO, Report of Meeting of Ministers of Education of Asian Member States P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Karachi Plan, op_. c i t . . p. 29. -?Mr.. Murray G. Dickson. No other person involved i n t h i s study w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by name. -5-improve standards i n the r u r a l primary schools, by t r a i n i n g teachers, and by setting up new government secondary schools planned by his Department, and so he requested educational personnel from these three countries under the Colombo Plan. Since 1957 there has been an increasing number of professional teachers going out under the Colombo Plan as group headmasters of primary schools, teacher t r a i n e r s , secondary school p r i n c i p a l s and teachers from Canada, A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand. About the same time, i n England, the brother and s i s t e r -in-law of Sarawak's Director of Education planned to send young volunteers, recent grammar school graduates, to serve abroad where needed, to work on community development schemes along-side the l o c a l young people, to encourage them i n agriculture and community development projects, to provide leadership i n games and excursions, to teach swimming and l i f e s a v i n g , and to teach -lower secondary classes when necessary. The f i r s t f i f t e e n members of Voluntary Service Overseas were sent out i n 1958 - ten to Sarawak, three to Nigeria, and two to Ghana. No doubt the heavy concentration of the f i r s t volunteers i n Sarawak can be attributed p a r t l y to the fact that the Director could keep a watchful eye over the experiment. The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t here i s that the Director of Education of Sarawak i n 1958 c l e a r l y distinguished the functions of the professional teacher from those of the volunteer. Other agencies closely followed these i n the educational f i e l d abroad. In 1958 Canada par t i c i p a t e d i n the Commonwealth -6-. Caribbean Program by sending professional teachers. In 1961 Canada sent out i t s f i r s t experienced teachers under the Special Commonwealth A f r i c a Assistance Program. Also i n 1961 the Canadian University Service Overseas sent out i t s f i r s t volun-teers, incorporating into i t s a c t i v i t i e s the Canadian Overseas Volunteers and the Canadian Voluntary Commonwealth'Service. In 1962 the. American Peace Corps sent i t s f i r s t volunteers abroad, a mixture of graduates and non-graduates. About 1963 . the Voluntary Service Overseas program of Great B r i t a i n expanded to include the new branch of Graduate Voluntary Service Overseas. The vast majority of these volunteers teach i n secondary schools. The S p e c i f i c Problem Since 1957 the extent of the Canadian education con-t r i b u t i o n abroad, both professional and volunteer, has rapidly expanded, both i n numbers and i n areas served. I t appears that there may be some confusion of role between professionals and volunteers - professionals performing some educational tasks which might as e f f i c i e n t l y be handled by volunteers," and volunteers undertaking some educational functions which might more p r o f i t a b l y be entrusted to experienced professionals. Further, i n the apparent absence of co-operative planning between the two agencies, the d i s t i n c t i o n between -7-Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l and volunteer teachers, which has f o r some time been c lear to Sarawak a u t h o r i t i e s , may not be c lear to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n other countr ies , perhaps r e s u l t i n g i n lack of understanding of the r o l e s each might perform, and a consequent wastage of External A i d p o t e n t i a l . Relevant L i t e r a t u r e Reports of UNESCO education conferences repeatedly emphasize the need f o r co-ordinated economic and educational planning at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l so that manpower needs may be predicted and s a t i s f i e d through the education system. The F i n a l Report of the Intergovernmental Meeting of Experts held at Manila i n 1964 s tresses t h i s aspect of p l a n n i n g : The Meeting endorses the present Unesco approach to planning, and emphasizes that the most d e t a i l e d and thorough economic planning should precede each major educational advance so that the needs of society f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l men, technic ians , s k i l l e d craftsmen and workers can be accurately a s s e s s e d . ® The same report expresses the view, t y p i c a l of the three UNESCO r e g i o n a l education reports , that i n t e r n a t i o n a l educational assistance should be c a l l e d upon when necessary: I f at a given moment of expansion a country cannot produce the t r a i n e d manpower that i t needs, i t should not hesi ta te to draw experts from abroad and to send i t s own young men and women abroad f o r t r a i n i n g . 9 "UNESCO, Means of Improving the Q u a l i t y of Education i n A s i a ( P a r i s : UNESCO/ED7208, 19&4), P« 15* 9 I b i d . , p . 1$. - 8 -Both the Af r i c a n and Asian UNESCO education conferences recommended that b i l a t e r a l - programs were worthwhile means of providing educational assistance. The Addis Ababa conference recommended: That u n t i l such time as the African States have produced t h e i r own senior personnel, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the top l e v e l s , the services of foreign experts and teachers and of t r a i n i n g fellowships be planned f o r under b i l a t e r a l and m u l t i l a t e r a l agreement The conference at Karachi stated that: B i l a t e r a l assistance i s available f o r a l l the programmes of educational development and i s decided by mutual agreement between the donor and receiving countries. From the quantitative point of view, t h i s i s the largest source of external a i d at present. 1! The UNESCO reports stress the need f o r co-ordination of external assistance at the national l e v e l by the re c i p i e n t government, so that such aid w i l l contribute to the country's development plans. The Report of the Asian Conference at Karachi emphasizes-this r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the rec i p i e n t government: The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r co-ordination l i e s upon the receiving country and can only be performed at the national l e v e l . I t i s f o r each country to select the educational programmes f o r which i t w i l l seek external assistance, to accord them the necessary p r i o r i t y , not only i n the educational plan but i n the development plan of the country as a whole, and to obtain the necessary assistance from donor countries. No international agency can perform t h i s role of co-ordination. . 10UNESCO, Outline of a Plan f o r A f r i c a n Educational Development, op_. c i t . , p. 22. HUNESCO, Report of Meeting of Ministers of Education of Asian Member States P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Karachi Plan, ojo. c i t . , p. 30. 12UNESC0, Report of Meeting of Ministers of Education of Asian Member States P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Karachi Plan, op. c i t . , p. 11. -9-The Addis Ababa conference on A f r i c a n education a l s o s t r e s s e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of M i n i s t r i e s of Education f o r educational planning, and the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s a t i s f y n a t i o n a l planning n e e d s . ^ The Karachi Report suggests t h a t UNESCO might f u n c t i o n as a c l e a r i n g house f o r e x t e r n a l a i d - as an intermediary between the r e c e i v i n g c o u n t r i e s and donor c o u n t r i e s or a g e n c i e s . ^ Teachers Abro a d 1 * i s a compilation by UNESCO of the p o l i c i e s of c o u n t r i e s sending teachers t o work abroad, and of cou n t r i e s r e c e i v i n g teachers from elsewhere. The 'Introduction* s t a t e s t h a t the m a j o r i t y of teachers sent abroad teach i n primary, secondary, t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l schools, or i n teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s ; they are u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d to teach languages, mathematics and science. Though u s u a l l y employed as teachers, many are c a l l e d upon to act as headmasters, i n s p e c t -o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or a d v i s e r s . The r e c e i v i n g c o u n t r i e s are most anxious to f i n d the f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s i n teachers from abroad: knowledge of languages, acquaintance w i t h l o c a l problems, and a d e s i r e to c o n t r i b u t e towards b e t t e r i n t e r -n a t i o n a l understanding.1° ^UNESCO, Ou t l i n e of a Pla n f o r A f r i c a n Educational Development, op. c i t . , p. 22. -^UNESCO, Report of Meeting Of M i n i s t e r s of Education of Asian Member States P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Karachi P l a n , op. c i t . . p. 30. 15UNESCO, Teachers Abroad ( P a r i s : UNESCO, Place de Fontenoy, 1966). l 6 I b i d . . p. v i i . -10-Reporting. on Canada's policy f o r Canadian teachers serving overseas, the UNESCO publication states that (apparently i n 1966) there were 319 teachers serving abroad under the External A i d Of f i c e and 105 under the Canadian University Service Overseas. Emphasis i s placed on sending secondary school teachers, and teacher t r a i n e r s at both primary and secondary l e v e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r mathematics, science, English and i n d u s t r i a l arts.'*"'7 Professional teachers are sent abroad by the External Aid O f f i c e : Teachers recruited by the External Aid O f f i c e are highly q u a l i f i e d , have several years of teaching experience and hold univ e r s i t y degrees and teachers' c e r t i f i c a t e s ; furthermore, they are capable of demonstrating improved methods and promoting syllabus development .1° New volunteers are sent by CUSO: Most of the teachers recruited by the Canadian University Service Overseas are recent univ e r s i t y graduates with no professional t r a i n i n g ; they are given b r i e f guidance before they go.19 Several writers provide important insights into an under-standing of the function of education as an agent of s o c i a l change i n developing countries. In The Role of Education i n  Developing S o c i e t i e s ^ C u r l e describes the importance of education - i n t r a i n i n g the s c i e n t i f i c , professional and -^UNESCO, Teachers Abroad, op_. ext., p. IS. l 8 I b i d . , p. 19. 19 / I b i d . , p. 19. 2 0Adam Curie, The Role of Education i n Developing  Societies' (Accra: Ghana University Press, l§ElJ~. - 1 1 -administrative personnel es s e n t i a l to economic development, i n the development of f l e x i b l e and empirical i n t e l l e c t u a l attitudes necessary f o r s o c i a l change, and i n supporting and a s s i s t i n g the s o c i a l goal of equality. Education and the 21 Development of Nations i s a c o l l e c t i o n of essays which examine education as an agent of s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l development, and which describe the kind of functional education required f o r constructive change and development. Lewis, i n h i s Guidelines f o r the Planning of External  Aid Projects i n Education enunciates two basic p r i n c i p l e s of aid, relevant to t h i s study: a) A id should compensate f o r inadequacies inherent i n underdevelopment; i . e . , an educational aid project should help to supply missing educational manpower; b) A id should help a nation to move to the next stage of development; i . e . , an educational a i d project should help a nation to develop i t s own educational l e a d e r s . 2 2 For our purposes, t h i s would imply the supply of both teachers to s a t i s f y immediate needs, and teacher t r a i n e r s to increase the supply of l o c a l q u a l i f i e d teachers. • - In Problems of Aid to Education i n Developing Countries. Cerych points out what he considers the three greatest educat-ional needs i n developing countries - secondary education, 2 l j o h n W . Hanson & Cole S. Brembeck, Education and the Development of Nations (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966). 2 2 A r t h u r J . Lewis, Guidelines f o r the Planning of  External Aid Projects i n Education (New York: Education and World A f f a i r s , Occasional Report No. 2 , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 1 0 . - 1 2 teacher t r a i n i n g , and advice on educational planning and development. He states that secondary education i s regarded by most developing countries as one of the most urgent of a l l needs: • This stage of education governs the growth of primary education (by t r a i n i n g teachers), of higher education (by providing a flow of students) and of the economy in general (by supplying the middle l e v e l manpower of which the developing countries stand i n greatest need).3 Cerych*s basic p r i n c i p l e i s that external a i d to education should be given p r i o r i t y f o r sectors and projects with the highest possible multiplying e f f e c t , such as teacher t r a i n e r s or directors of extension courses f o r i n s u f f i c i e n t l y trained teachers: Thus, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y the sending of primary school teachers by way of external aid, while the massive supply even of secondary school masters i s only desirable i n certain s p e c i f i c cases (especially i n some of the Afri c a n countries, or more generally f o r " s c a r c i t y " subjects l i k e mathematics and the exact sciences.) ^ P r i o r i t y i n external aid, according to Cerych, should also be given to endeavours which contribute to q u a l i t a t i v e improvement in education: Experts i n the planning, administration and inspection of education and s p e c i a l i s t s i n questions of curricula,.of. . the preparation of textbooks, of audio-visual teaching aids and i n adult education - a l l these, and many more,-have a part to play i n the development of human resources; and a l l are more or l e s s e s s e n t i a l i n ensuring the ef f i c a c y of external a i d to education i n general. Many . of them, are not available l o c a l l y and have to come from abroad, eit h e r from other developing countries or from the advanced countries. 2 5 ^Cerych, op_. c i t . . p. 41 • 2 4 l b i d . , p. 120. ' 2 5 l b i d . , p. 150. -13-- Thus, the appropriate roles of the professional external aid teacher may be considered to be those of the teacher t r a i n e r or the specialized expert who contributes to the quantity and quality of education i n developing countries. The role of the inexperienced, volunteer teacher has been studied by American, B r i t i s h and Canadian writers. In Cu l t u r a l Frontiers of the Peace Corps. Textor gives h i s impression of the American volunteer-teacher's r o l e : ; The simplest way of contributing to the,host country's development i s the r e l a t i v e l y noninnovative approach of stepping into a well-organized, highly structured job -,. and carrying i t out more or l e s s i n the manner that a host country c i t i z e n would, i f one were a v a i l a b l e . . . . The es s e n t i a l contribution of the Volunteers i s a : q u a n t i t a t i v e one: they are bringing important services to a larger number of l o c a l people than would otherwise be reached by such services. 2° He describes Volunteer innovations i n teaching techniques and v i s u a l aids as sometimes r a t i o n a l and e f f e c t i v e , or sometimes inappropriate and i n e f f e c t i v e , depending i n part upon the extent of the volunteer's t r a i n i n g i n techniques of education appropriate to the p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l context of the host country.27 A s i g n i f i c a n t contribution of the Peace Corps Volunteer may be simply encouraging the students to think c r i t i c a l l y and inductively rather than.relying upon rote 28 learning; by demonstrating the value standards of carrying out h i s s p e c i f i c function f u l l y and conscientiously: - - - 2 6Robert B. Textor (ed.), C u l t u r a l Frontiers of the  Peace Corps,(Cambridge. Mass.: Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1966), p. 313. 2 7 l b i d . . p. 3 H . 2 % b i d . , p. 315. -14-. ..he also becomes a " r o l e model" f o r the more or l e s s conscientious carrying out of both the l e t t e r and espec i a l l y the s p i r i t of duty - on time and i n the manner c a l l e d f o r . I suspect that i n the long run the simple f a c t that the PCVs usually do what they are supposed to do on the job, w i l l constitute one of t h e i r more important i n d i r e c t contributions i n some host countries.29 Textor sees as the volunteers* most ex c i t i n g p o t e n t i a l con-t r i b u t i o n , the intangible one of showing that there are d i f f e r e n t ways of looking at the world, and that some of these might be better, or more appropriate, or more u s e f u l . For e s p e c i a l l y w e l l - q u a l i f i e d Peace Corps Volunteers, Textor suggests assignment to l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r teacher education. For those without previous teaching q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or experience, he emphasizes the increasing importance of teacher t r a i n i n g i n the volunteers' orientation program: ...as more and more PCVs entered the teaching f i e l d i n Nigeria (and elsewhere i n West A f r i c a ) , i t became increasingly clear that while c u l t u r a l preparation was absolutely necessary, there was also an imperative need to place additional emphasis on specialized preparation f o r the actual professional job of teaching. Feedback from the f i e l d , and l a t e r from returning PCVs l e f t l i t t l e doubt on t h i s score. For i t was evident that the Nigerians - government o f f i c i a l s , p r i n c i p a l s , fellow teachers, students, and the general community - were judging the effectiveness of the PCVs primarily on the basis of t h e i r performance as teachers, and only very secondarily on the basis of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the broader community. What mattered to them most was effectiveness i n the classroom. They cared much l e s s whether the PCV was e f f e c t i v e i n h i s spare hours as a community developer, club advisor, technological innovator, or the like.3 0 ^ n The Volunteers. David Wainwright quotes the state-ments of the B r i t i s h Secretary f o r Technical Co-operation to 2^Textor, op_. c i t . , p. 316. 3 0 l b i d . . p. 158. -15-an international conference ( i n Puerto Rico) on the supply of volunteers. He stated that voluntary services i n the United Kingdom had come to be regarded as an i n t e g r a l feature i n ' f i l l i n g the gaps' exi s t i n g because of a lack of f u l l y trained people, and as supporting s t a f f to the professional worker.-*1 Roberts, i n Volunteers i n A f r i c a and Asia, comments generally on the use of volunteer school teachers. He i s of the opinion that formal teaching i s perhaps the most stable and productive p o s i t i o n f o r a volunteer: Teaching i s well structured; the volunteer knows more or l e s s what i s expected of him, he knows h i s subject, his classes understand h i s position as teacher and are generally anxious to l e a r n . He has a headmaster to supervise h i s progress and other members of s t a f f to turn to f o r advice. C u r r i c u l a are established and accommodation i s usually available.3 2 He states that Africans and Asians are w i l l i n g to receive a competent volunteer from abroad to do work f o r which no l o c a l people are yet trained, who w i l l f i t e a s i l y into e x i s t i n g systems, be adaptable, and get on well with colleagues. But he warns that volunteers must be productive i n terms of f u l f i l l i n g a needed function: The s o c i a l and economic future of communities cannot be played with to provide a "rewarding experience" f o r vast numbers of European and American youth. Each and every volunteer must pay h i s way, i n terms of productiveness, otherwise he i s a deadweight on the people he means to help.33 ^ D a v i d Wainwright, The Volunteers (London: Macdonald, 1965), p. 102. 32Qlyn Roberts, Volunteers i n A f r i c a and Asia (London: The Stanhope Press, I965), pp. 14 -^15. 3 3 I b i d . . p. 53. -16-He emphasizes the need f o r teacher t r a i n i n g : Volunteers going to teaching positions need better t r a i n i n g . A course on teaching techniques i s valuable, but they also need to have stood up i n front of a class and taught. A man may have.a B.A. but t h i s i s no use i f he cannot teach. I t i s u n f a i r to him - and to h i s students - i f he must f i n d out t h i s d i s a b i l i t y i n the field.3 4 In h i s study of Canadian University Service Overseas. Woolcombe reports the r e s u l t s of a survey sent to volunteers with more than one year's service abroad, requesting t h e i r opinions concerning the r e l a t i v e importance of three goals of CUSO volunteering. He states that: Most respondents placed primary importance on meeting host,country needs f o r trained personnel.35 Woolcombe also reports that CUSO's greatest demand from' host countries i n the middle-level manpower f i e l d i s f o r secondary school teachers.3° As a r e s u l t , there has been increasing recommendation that more teacher t r a i n i n g orientation i s needed f o r volunteers going overseas.37 B r i t i s h and Canadian voluntary service organizations now receiving some government support express concern that govern-ment subsidy may deprive them of t h e i r autonomy. Wainwright -^Roberts, op. cit.., p. 15« 35 G . Stephen M. Woollcombe, Canadian University Service  Overseas (Pennsylvania State University: Unpublished M.A. thesis, 1965), p. 59. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 109. 37ib id . . p. !57. -17-explains that i f the independent B r i t i s h Voluntary Service Overseas were to expand, i t would require government a s s i s t -ance, but i f i t were to receive government assistance, i t must become part of the b i l a t e r a l , government-to-government a i d programme.-*® Now subsidized by government, VSO's p r i n c i p a l representatives overseas are the o f f i c i a l s of the B r i t i s h Council, and where they do not exist, the B r i t i s h Embassies, Consulates and High Commissions. Thus, there i s a certain ambiguity of a privately-organized, voluntary organization i d e n t i f i e d with the o f f i c i a l B r i t i s h voice: This may be an inevitable c o r o l l a r y of increased government f i n a n c i a l provision, but i t i s bound to create the impression overseas that the volunteers are o f f i c i a l representatives of B r i t a i n , i n the same way that the Peace Corps members are o f f i c i a l repres-entatives of the United States.39 Wainwright states that i n d i v i d u a l volunteers * strongly resent 1 any suggestion that they are i n any way "ambassadors of B r i t a i n " as American Peace Corps volunteers are expected to be ambassadors of the United States. However, r e a l i s t i c a l l y he concludes that the majority of people overseas probably regarded them as ambassadors of t h e i r country, even when they were les s formally t i e d to government: On the other hand, the volunteers are ambassadors, i n the sense that everyone t r a v e l l i n g abroad i s an ambassador f o r h i s country, which i s inevitably, judged by h i s actions.40 38Wainwright, p_p_. cit.., p. 143. 39 lb id . , p. 124. 4°Ibid., p. 147. -18-Woollcombe expresses the reluctance of Canadian University Service Overseas volunteers to being considered 'an arm of the government's foreign p o l i c y ' . ^ He states that the concept of a "partnership" appeals to both the independent CUSO agency and the government because: . . . i t leaves CUSO free of the bureaucracy of f u l l government control, and at the same time i t permits the government to earn p o l i t i c a l c a p i t a l by investing a r e l a t i v e l y small amount of money i n a n o n - p o l i t i c a l and highly popular a c t i v i t y . 4 2 However, Woollcombe suggests that the CUSO volunteers abroad, i n s i m i l a r manner to the B r i t i s h , are regarded by the l o c a l people f i r s t as Canadians, over and above any d i s t i n c t i o n concerning the agency sending them: ...the d i s t i n c t i o n that the average Indian or Nigerian makes between governmental and non-governmental aid programs i s not nearly as sharp as the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n he makes between countries. On the whole, CUSO volunteers f i n d they are regarded, w i l l y - n i l l y , as having been sent by the Canadian government.43 Keith Spicer, i n A Samaritan State, recognizes the d i f f i c u l t y of a voluntary organization l i k e CUSO, having roughly two-thirds of i t s income provided by government, ret a i n i n g i t s basic independence. He suggests that 'any attempt to co-ordinate voluntary agencies from above would probably prove unwelcome" .44 41Woollcombe, p_p_. c i t . , p. 46. 4 2Ibid., p. I65. 43ib id . , p. 47. 44Kelth Spicer, A Samaritan State? External Aid In Canada's Foreign Po l i c y (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966), p. 211. -19-Increased government stimulation of private Canadian involvement i n in t e r n a t i o n a l aid i s supported by two eminent Canadians. Hugh Keenleyside, i n h i s comprehensive work on International Aid, maintains that government assistance to voluntary agencies has a d i s t i n c t value whether i t takes the form of d i r e c t subsidies to agencies such as CUSO, or providing 'information and verbal encouragement to r e l i g i o u s organizations, u n i v e r s i t i e s and related educational agencies, private foundations and other committed groups'.45 Maurice Strong, Director-General of the Canadian External Aid O f f i c e , i n a recent a r t i c l e i n Canadian Welfare, expresses h i s conviction that 'Foreign aid should not be just a government a c t i v i t y - but an expression of the best of Canada abroad'. He urged more p a r t i c i p a t i o n by churches, u n i v e r s i t i e s , farmers, workers, and i n d i v i d u a l Canadians from a l l walks of l i f e , and announced increased Government f i n a n c i a l support f o r voluntary agencies: In recognition of t h i s growing awareness and involvement, the government recently announced that $ 5 m i l l i o n would be available i n 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 to provide f i n a n c i a l support f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l assistance projects launched by Canadian voluntary agencies. I am confident that t h i s w i l l stimulate the a c t i v i t i e s of the private groups, enhance the effectiveness of aid by tapping complement-ary resources which can best be brought into play through the private sector, give Canadians a much greater sense of involvement i n one of the key issues of our day, and also create a.wider and more s o l i d public base f o r our a i d e f f o r t s . 4 ° 45Hugh L. Keenleyside, International Aid: A Summary (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Limited, 1966), p. 3 O 5 . 46Maurice Strong, "Global Aid - Canada*s Part", Canadian Welfare Volume 44 Number 2 (Ottawa: Canadian Welfare Council, March-April 1968), p. 1 6 . -20-Several writers stress the need f o r co-ordinating i n t e r -national aid programs because of the confusion caused i n developing countries by the m u l t i p l i c i t y of donors. Coombs points up t h i s confusion i n h i s book e n t i t l e d Education and  Foreign Aid: Each of these external agencies quite n a t u r a l l y has i t s own way of approaching educational development, i t s own motivations and objectives, and i t s own constantly changing p o l i c i e s and procedures. To be on the receiving end can be a b a f f l i n g and f r u s t r a t i n g a f f a i r , e s p e c i a l l y since the various com-ponents of the receiving nation's government and private sector are often no better coordinated or u n i f i e d than the outside agencies that are t r y i n g to help. The m i l l i n g about - and sometimes the vigorous competition -of various well-intentioned donor representatives i n the c a p i t a l c i t i e s of many developing countries...and the hectic e f f o r t s of each l o c a l government agency to get the kinds of a i d i t most needs from each have been described by some observers as chaotic. Perhaps t h i s i s too strong, but that a serious problem e x i s t s i s now well recognized by.all.47 Masland, i n discussing Educational Development i n A f r i c a i s of the opinion-that the numerous and extensive areas of foreign assistance may be u n c r i t i c a l l y accepted by A f r i c a n nations, hindering planned educational development: . . . t h i s very m u l t i p l i c i t y of donors - both i n the United States arid elsewhere - each with d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s , has produced a piecemeal approach to educational development.48 • He states that co-ordination of U.S. programs should be more vigourously pursued, and that each U.S. source of assistance 47Philip H. Coombs, Education and^ Foreign Aid (Cambridge, Mass..: Harvard University Press, 1965), p. 18. . 48John W. Masland, Educational Development i n A f r i c a (New York: Education and World A f f a i r s , Occasional Report No. 4, 1967), pp..39-40.. -21-should be responsible f o r communicating and exchanging inform-ation 'within the U.S. community'.^9 While recognizing that the multitude of organizations devoted to educational aid i s a 'heartening phenomenon', t e s t i f y i n g to the growing inter e s t of the i n d u s t r i a l i s e d nations i n everything connected with the mobilisation of the human resources i n the developing countries', Cerych i l l u s t r a t e s the complications of the s i t u a t i o n overseas: In one small Central American country there are 31 d i f f e r e n t American organisations alone which, i n one form or another, are giving that country educational assistance. Examples could be multiplied....As f a r as central government i n s t i t u t i o n s are concerned, there are about 24 i n the United States, about 15 i n the United Kingdom and at l e a s t 7 i n France. In addition, there are some 20 specialised agencies or autonomous In s t i t u t i o n s i n the UN family, and half-a-dozeri other m u l t i l a t e r a l governmental organisations, nearly a l l of which carry out an educational a i d programme i n developing countries.50 Cerych recommends a closer cooperation between the d i f f e r e n t donors, and reports that the developing countries ask that coordination of aid to a p a r t i c u l a r country should cover a l l forms of external educational a i d . * 1 He states that several developing countries already have a central agency which permits them e f f e c t i v e l y to match the country's educational needs with the various o f f e r s of a i d so that external educ-- a t i o n a l aid serves the requirements of the national education p l a n . 5 2 ^Masiand, OJD. c i t . , pp. 39-40. 5°Cerych, op. c i t . i p. 176. 5 1 I b i d . . p. 177. ; * 2 I b i d . , ,op. c i t . . p. 176. -22-Tickner, i n h i s book Technical Cooperation, also stresses the need f o r planning and coordination of aid i n the developing country to support successfully the national programme of economic and s o c i a l development. He states that i n developing countries l o c a l coordination varies from 'extremely sophisticated arrangements' to 'planning machinery which i s i t s e l f being supported by technical assistance': In one country the whole operation may be under the f u l l control and supervision of a Ministry of National Planning or i t s equivalent; i n another there may be no more coordination than an i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l committee on which the strongest p e r s o n a l i t i e s tend to secure the larger shares i n the Programme.53 Tickner suggests that a Resident Representative could greatly a s s i s t i n the coordination of a p a r t i c u l a r donor country's program i n a developing area.5^ Fatouros and Kelson have presented a report of the discussions of the Conference On Canadian Overseas Aid (COCOA) held at the University of Western Ontario i n May, 1962. A major problem was considered to be the lack of knowledge of the sp e c i f i c kinds of educational assistance required by the develop-ing countries^* A further problem was the lack of clear d e f i n i t i o n of assignments.*^ The conclusion was reached that *3Fred Tickner, Technical Cooperation (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966), p. 183. *^Ibid., p. I84. **A rghyrios A. Fatouros & Robert N. Kelson, Canada's  Overseas Aid (Toronto: Canadian I n s t i t u t e of International A f f a i r s , I96"4), p. 68. * 6 I b i d . . p.' 8 4 . -23-greater co-operation was required at the f i e l d l e v e l between l o c a l and Canadian o f f i c i a l s , and the appointment of regional o f f i c e r s of the External Aid O f f i c e was suggested as a possible solution.57 Voluntary agencies were recognized by the Conference f o r t h e i r unique and s i g n i f i c a n t r ole overseas.^ However, there was consideration of the ambiguity caused by the independent operation of Canadian agencies i n developing countries: The independent operation of several agencies i n the f i e l d of external assistance i n e v i t a b l y produces some i n e f f i c i e n c y , because of the lack of coordination of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . There i s overlapping of functions and of geographic coverage, and excessive s p l i t t i n g up and uneconomic u t i l i z a t i o n of resources .59 On the one hand i t was suggested that o v e r a l l coordination of p o l i c i e s and supervision by the Canadian Government might be 60 wise to consolidate the Canadian "image"; on the other hand, i t was argued that recipient governments and peoples can usually d i s t i n g u i s h between Canadian government and private agencies, and that Canadian voluntary agencies collaborate cl o s e l y abroad with members of other similar voluntary agencies. x In practice, i t i s reported, both governmental and private agencies prefer to keep t h e i r r elationships informal and u n o f f i c i a l : ^ Fatouros & Kelson, OJD. c i t . , p. 85. 5 % b i d . , . p. 90. 5 9 I b i d . . p. 91. 6 0 I b i d . , p. 91. 61 Ibid., p. 92. - 2 4 -Ori the part of the Government, there i s a reluctance to undertake any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the actions of the private agencies or f o r c o n t r o l l i n g or supervising such actions. On the part of the voluntary agencies, there i s strong opposition to governmental intervention on the ground that i t would tend to obscure t h e i r private character and eventually render them v i r t u a l branches of the governmental apparatus.°2 Fatourous and Kelson conclude t h i s discussion with the opinion that the 'methods of informal coordination are not uniformly e f f e c t i v e ' : In certain f i e l d s , at l e a s t , there i s urgent need f o r some method of coordinating and a s s i s t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of the private agencies i n order to avoid waste of scarce resources and, possibly, negative r e s u l t s . A f i e l d i n need" of some coordination i s , f o r example, that of education assistance, both i n the form of sending Canadians to teach abroad and also of bringing trainees to Canada.°3 The report recommends the development of 'a special s t a f f of external aid o f f i c i a l s , responsible f o r the administration of the aid at a l l l e v e l s ' to a s s i s t Canada's long-range, planned program of external aid.^4 Against t h i s background, the present study endeavours to throw l i g h t on Canadian contributions, and to derive a better understanding of Canadian overseas aid, by surveying a specially-focused group of External Aid and CUSO teachers, and analyzing t h e i r experience on a comparative b a s i s . 6? • Fatouros & Kelson, op. c i t . , p. 92. 6 3 I b i d . . p. 92. 6 / fIbid.'. p. 101. CHAPTER II TECHNIQUE OF THE STUDY A comparative study w i l l be undertaken of the exper-iences of External Aid and CUSO teachers i n Nigeria and Sarawak, two countries i n which the writer has had actual teaching experience. By 1967, almost three hundred Canadian teachers had worked i n those two countries i n d i f f e r e n t capacities. There are many aspects of education involved i n t h i s experience such as primary and secondary teaching, teacher t r a i n i n g , the development and supervision of primary schools (group headmasters), administration of secondary schools ( p r i n c i p a l s ) , and advising governments on primary and secondary education, and teacher t r a i n i n g . There are i n s u f f i c i e n t records of t h i s valuable and growing experience.. Apart from the general value of recording f a c t u a l l y some of the p r o l i f e r -ating programs i n which Canadians are now engaged, i t i s possible to define terms and set up some tentative or working hypotheses which w i l l probe more precisely the pros and cons of educational a i d . D e f i n i t i o n s 1. Teaching q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the purposes of t h i s study are defined as any p r o v i n c i a l l y recognized c e r t i f i c a t e which authorizes a person to teach elementary or secondary school -25--26-i n h i s province. This s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i s necessary because of the diverse terminologies and standards employed i n li c e n s i n g teachers across Canada. Teaching experience f o r the purposes of t h i s study i s defined as f u l l years of teaching i n a formal i n s t i t u t i o n . The type of previous experience w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d as elementary, secondary, administrative, teacher t r a i n i n g , or university teaching. A further d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i l l be made of^ experience i n the home province, elsewhere i n Canada, and outside Canada, with the supposition that previous experience of another educational system should f a c i l i t a t e adaptation to a d i f f e r e n t system i n a developing country. Contributions to education f o r the purposes of t h i s study are defined as (a) the classroom teaching load, d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by l e v e l s -Transition, Forms I - I I I , IV-V, and VI, whether heavy, average or l i g h t . (b) e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , which presumably may be conducted as well by volunteers as by experienced teachers, according to talents and i n t e r e s t . (c) extra a c t i v i t i e s of teachers which can be c l a s s i f i e d as professional, and which i t i s assumed w i l l be undertaken only by experienced teachers: heading an academic department, advising on curriculum, preparing -27-syllabuses, preparing textbooks, and in-service t r a i n i n g , f o r example, (d) professional assignments such as supervising primary schools,.administering secondary schools, t r a i n i n g teachers, and advising departments or m i n i s t r i e s of education. 4* 'Overlapping' f o r the purposes of t h i s study i s defined as the area i n which the previous teaching q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience, and the education contributions overseas of CUSO volunteers equal or exceed those of External Aid professional teachers. Hypotheses of t h i s Study 1. That the maximum teaching and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and previous teaching experience of Canadian University Service Overseas teachers who have served i n Nigeria or Sarawak from 1957-67 are equal to, or exceed, the minimum of those q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Canadian External Aid teachers serving i n the same countries during the same period, with.the r e s u l t that within the range of that overlapping, the Canadian professional and volunteer programs are rendered i n d i s t -inguishable. 2. That the -maximum teaching, extra-curricular and professional contributions of Canadian University Service Overseas teachers who have served i n Nigeria or Sarawak from 1957-67 -28-equal, or' exceed the minimum of those contributions of Canadian External Aid teachers serving i n the same countries during the same period, with the" r e s u l t that within the range of that overlapping, the Canadian . professional and volunteer programs are rendered indistinguishable. 3. That i n t e r a c t i o n of Canadian External Aid and CUSO teachers with l o c a l and international personnel and-agencies enhanced t h e i r contributions to education i n Nigeria and Sarawak during the period 1957-67. - • < 4. That d i f f i c u l t i e s pertaining to terms of assignment and emoluments, a r i s i n g from non-fulfilment of External A i d and CUSO teachers* contracts or agreements, have l i m i t e d t h e i r educational contributions i n Nigeria and Sarawak during the period 1957-67. Assumption The assumption basic to t h i s study i s that the External Aid teacher, by virtue of- h i s professional c e r t i f i c a t i o n and teaching experience, can be expected to make a professional contribution over and above that' of* the CUSO volunteer. Basis f o r Comparison The basis f o r comparison of External A i d and CUSO teachers i s that they are Canadians apparently engaged i n -29-similar tasks overseas under similar circumstances during the same decade. V a r i a b l e s are t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , experience, performance,, and t h e i r sponsoring agencies. . Nigeria and Sarawak were selected as examples of Canadian teachers abroad under the External Aid and CUSO programs .because these two countries have represented the heaviest commitment of both agencies to-education i n single countries i n A f r i c a and Southeast Asia during the period 1957-67. Further, they both have s i m i l a r systems and standards of education, both o r i g i n a t i n g from the B r i t i s h grammar school system.-. • - • Methods of Gathering Data -The central data-gathering instrument f o r t h i s study i s a survey form mailed to those External A i d and CUSO teachers who served i n Nigeria or Sarawak during the period 1957-67* Names and addresses of teachers f a l l i n g within the ambit of t h i s study were supplied by the.External Aid Off i c e and CUSO Headquarters. Two forms were prepared - one f o r classroom teachers, and the other f o r the responses of group headmasters (primary,school -supervisors), p r i n c i p a l s , teacher t r a i n e r s and advisors to departments or mi n i s t r i e s of education. Information was s o l i c i t e d about the teacher*s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience before going overseas, h i s education assignment overseas, h i s educational a c t i v i t i e s beyond the assigned task, -30-h i s l o c a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l associations overseas and t h e i r e f f e c t upon h i s contribution, and h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g from non-fulfilment of contractual or agreement obligations pertaining to the education assignment, or personal emoluments. As much of the information as possible, was requested i n f a c t u a l form which the respondent i s well' able to supply. Those questions which c a l l f o r opinions were, esp e c i a l l y included to e l i c i t value judgements which can only r e s u l t from experience i n the f i e l d . Copies of the two survey forms, the covering letter., and l e t t e r s of approval of the study from the External Aid Of f i c e and CUSO Headquarters are included i n the Appendix, together with relevant comments and opinions which, though not d i r e c t l y related to the hypotheses, shed additional l i g h t on various aspects of Canadian teachers* involvement overseas. Limitations The chief l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study.is that i t had to depend on a teacher's own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s contribution. No other: evaluations were ava i l a b l e . A second l i m i t a t i o n i s that, "because of the dispersion of the respondents across Canada and i n Sarawak and Nigeria, the data had to be obtained by means of a mailed survey form, which did not permit more intensive questioning, and from which complete returns were u n l i k e l y . -31-A further important l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i s that-inherent i n any descriptive research: ... Descriptive Research describes and interprets 'what i s 1 . I t i s concerned with conditions or relationships that e x i s t ; practices that p r e v a i l ; b e l i e f s , points of view or attitudes that are held; processes that are going on; ef f e c t s that are being f e l t ; or trends that are developing. I t concerns description of Canadian External Aid and CUSO teachers having taught i n Nigeria or -Sarawak during the period 1957-67, and information gained w i l l be r e l i a b l e only f o r t h i s group. S i m i l a r i t y to other groups cannot be taken f o r granted. The survey form has empirical v a l i d i t y ; i t i s simply a useful instrument to accomplish a p r a c t i c a l purpose. I t seeks information on a r e a l problem of the present i n two sim i l a r settings. I t s purpose i s to reveal practice i n Canadian over-seas education, to secure basic information which may reveal trends, and to discover attitudes and opinions of teachers , which may tend to evaluate present p o l i c i e s , and indicate possible improvements. A f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n of the study i s the f a c t that i t i s a quantitative rather than a q u a l i t a t i v e analysis. External Aid and CUSO teachers* previous- q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience, and t h e i r educational contributions overseas are studied primarily from a quantitative point of view. John W. Best, Research i n Education (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1959)7 P» 102. -32-Returns 272 teachers were canvassed by mail - 145 External Aid and 127 CUSO teachers. A t o t a l of 182 responses was received -105 from External A i d and 77 from CUSO teachers. Thus, 72 percent of External A i d and 61 percent of CUSO teachers were covered i n the two countries (68 percent of External Aid teachers i n Nigeria, and 81 percent i n Sarawak; 58 percent of CUSO teachers i n Nigeria, and 66 percent i n Sarawak). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Respondents According to Role Categories Of the t o t a l number of responses received, seven had to be discarded as being outside the scope of t h i s study which concerns i t s e l f only with those roles d i r e c t l y related to the formal primary and secondary education system (primary and secondary school teaching, teacher t r a i n i n g , supervision and development of primary schools, secondary school p r i n c i p a l s , and advisers to government on primary and secondary education and teacher t r a i n i n g ) . Those r e p l i e s discarded as ir r e l e v a n t to the study were - one External Aid and two CUSO teachers i n post-secondary technical i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Nigeria; one CUSO teacher at a school of nursing i n Nigeria; two CUSO teachers at university l e v e l i n Nigeria; and one External A i d adviser i n adult education i n Nigeria. Included i n the primary teachers category was one CUSO teacher at nursery school l e v e l i n Nigeria. The f i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of role categories used f o r t h i s study i s presented i n Table No. I, together with the t o t a l number of teachers i n each category, according to the o r i g i n a l roles they performed i n Nigeria or Sarawak. This assignment of teachers to t h e i r o r i g i n a l role categories i n Nigeria or Sarawak w i l l be used f o r the assessment of previous teaching q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n Chapter I. The following External Aid teachers changed t h e i r roles during the period- of t h e i r assignments: i n Nigeria a secondary teacher f o r one year subsequently became a teacher t r a i n e r f o r two years; i n Sarawak two people who taught secondary school for two years then became group headmasters for two years, two other people who were group headmasters for two years became secondary p r i n c i p a l s f o r one and three years respectively, a secondary p r i n c i p a l f o r one year became a group headmaster f o r one year, and a teacher t r a i n e r f o r six years subsequently became an adviser to the Department of Education f o r two years. The number of ^ teachers who transferred to new roles appear i n the. appropriate new role categories i n Table. I. The t o t a l number of teaching years overseas of teachers performing each r o l e , including those who changed roles, i s given, i n Table I I . Throughout t h i s study, data concerning External Aid teachers w i l l be given separately from data about CUSO teachers -34-TABLE I ROLES PERFORMED NIGERIA SARAWAK TOTAL (both countries Category Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO N ' N Primary teacher - 3 - - - 3 Secondary teacher 40 35 IS 29 58 64 Teacher t r a i n e r 21 1 2 9 1 30 3 Group headmaster - - 4 3 1 4 1 P r i n c i p a l - 1 7 2 - 7 1 Adviser 4 - 1 - 4 -Total 65 1 41 38 6 31 103 72 N = number who transferred to that role from another role overseas TABLE II TOTAL TEACHING YEARS NIGERIA SARAWAK TOTAL (both countries) Category Ex A id CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Primary teacher - 5 - - - 5 Secondary teacher 79 59 40 44 119 103 Teacher t r a i n e r 41 4 36 2 77 6 Group headmaster - - 24 2 24 2 P r i n c i p a l - 2 17 - 17 2 Adviser 8 - 2 - 10 -Total 128 70 119 48 247 118 -35-i n order that d i s t i n c t i o n s may be drawn between the two groups. A further d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l be made between teachers serving i n Nigeria and those i n Sarawak under each agency, so that com-parisons may be drawn between teachers i n the two countries, and i n order that the v a l i d i t y of the conclusions may be tested by providing data from disparate s i t u a t i o n s . CHAPTER III . TEACHERS: THEIR QUALIFICATIONS AND OVERSEAS ROLES External Aid and CUSO teachers' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are compared, i n t h i s chapter, on the basis of t h e i r previous teaching c e r t i f i c a t i o n , academic degree q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and diplomas, and length of previous teaching experience, together with the appropriateness of the l e v e l and teaching subject matter of that experience to t h e i r r o l e s overseas. Teaching C e r t i f i c a t i o n While 89 percent of the External Aid teachers held some teaching c e r t i f i c a t e , the evidence shows that 17 percent of CUSO teachers were better q u a l i f i e d than 11 percent of External Aid teachers from the point of view of teaching c e r t i f i c a t i o n . In those instances where CUSO teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n equals or exceeds that held by External Aid teachers, the term 'overlapping* w i l l be employed. A comparison of c e r t i f i c a t i o n of Canadian teachers i n each country separately reveals that both External Aid and CUSO teachers i n Sarawak had a considerably higher percentage of c e r t i f i c a t i o n than did those i n Nigeria. (See Table III.) The detailed d i s t r i b u t i o n of teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n percentages i n role categories, and according to the type of -36--37-TABLE III PERCENTAGE OF TEACHERS HOLDING TEACHING CERTIFICATES INCLUDING ALL CATEGORIES NIGERIA SARAWAK TOTAL (both countries) Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Some c e r t i f i c a t e 88 10 92 26 .89 17 No c e r t i f i c a t e 12 90 8 74 11 83 Totals 100 100 100 100 100 100 c e r t i f i c a t e held - elementary, secondary, both elementary and secondary - or no c e r t i f i c a t e held, reveals that the External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s , group headmasters and education advisers to Nigeria and Sarawak were a l l c e r t i f i c a t e d teachers. External Aid p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak holding no teaching c e r t -i f i c a t e (29 percent) were two CUSO volunteers who transferred to External Aid immediately a f t e r completing t h e i r CUSO -assignments - one a f t e r one year of secondary teaching, and the other a f t e r two years as a group headmaster. (See Table IV). The figures f o r the category of secondary teachers are worth :considering. 15 percent of a l l External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria and Sarawak held no c e r t i f i c a t i o n , while 10 percent of CUSO were c e r t i f i c a t e d . The highest proportion of u n c e r t i f i c a t e d External Aid secondary teachers was i n Nigeria (20 percent), while the highest proportion of ce r t -i f i c a t e d CUSO secondary teachers was i n Sarawak (24 percent). TJ O p. < H- CD O fl) C W o a^d CD H- 3 13 fl> w t—1 ter ro U l -o O O ro U l - O O .p- Ul JO O o H3 CO Ct CD C+ CD fl) CD O fl) o fl) O H* tr o 3 CD P. CD >1 CD {D 1 T) ct CD H-fl> 3 O fl) CD *< 4 ^3 I—' 00-r- 1 O UJ ro o u i O O O O UJ UJ o o - 0 ro ro ro H o o H -0 Elementary C e r t i f i c a t e Secondary C e r t i f i c a t e Both Elem. & Sec. C e r t i f i c a t e s No C e r t i f i c a t e Elementary Secondary Both None Elementary Secondary Both None Elementary Secondary Both None M Q t?d M O CQ o o Co O H3 O M O fd •-3 M *J M O •-3 H CO t-3 HH td % O t-3 *> tti tr* -39--I t i s also noteworthy that two CUSO volunteers without teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n were employed i n t r a i n i n g teachers - one i n Nigeria as a teacher t r a i n e r , and one i n Sarawak as a group headmaster of primary schools. The following conclusions may, therefore, be drawn. F i r s t , overlapping of teacher c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s evident, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the role category of secondary teachers i n Sarawak where 24 percent of CUSO teachers held some teaching c e r t i f i c a t e , while 6 percent of External Aid teachers were not c e r t i f i c a t e d . Second, teaching c e r t i f i c a t i o n has not been an absolute prerequisite i n the recruitment of either External Aid or CUSO teachers. Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s University degree q u a l i f i c a t i o n s have been c l a s s i f i e d f o r t h i s study as follows: Doctor, Master, double Bachelor, single Bachelor, and no degree. The survey reveals that the majority of External Aid teachers i n Nigeria and Sarawak (54 percent) held two or more university degrees, while the majority of CUSO teachers (96 percent) held a single degree or l e s s . Considerably higher percentages of External Aid teachers held graduate degrees than did CUSO teachers - one External Aid teacher held a Doctor's degree; twenty-two held Masters degree; t h i r t y - t h r e e held two or more bachelors degrees. - 4 0 -In comparison, one CUSO teacher had a Masters degree, and two each had two Bachelors degrees. S i g n i f i c a n t i s the f a c t that 44 percent of External Aid teachers and 7$ percent of CUSO teachers held one Bachelor degree each. (Table V.) TABLE V UNIVERSITY DEGREES (percentages, both countries combined) Degree Class External Aid CUSO Teachers Teachers Doctor 1 1 - -Master 22 21 1 1 Double bachelor 3 3 * 32 2 3 Single bachelor 45 44 56 7® No degree 2 2 13 1® Total 103 100 72 100 ;This figure includes 4 teachers with 3 Bachelor degrees each. A further analysis of degrees held by teachers i n Nigeria compared with those i n Sarawak reveals that 66 percent of External Aid teachers i n Nigeria held two or more degrees, compared with 34 percent of External Aid teachers i n Sarawak. P a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i s the percentage of teachers i n Nigeria holding Masters degrees - more than t r i p l e the percent age f o r Sarawak. CUSO degrees i n both countries were -41-concentrated i n the single Bachelor c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The single CUSO teacher holding a Masters degree served i n Nigeria; almost twice .as many CUSO .teachers i n Nigeria had no degree compared with those i n Sarawak. (See Table VI.) TABLE VI UNIVERSITY DEGREES NIGERIA SARAWAK Degree Class Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Teachers Teaehers Teacher£ Teachers Doctor 1 2 - - - - - -Master 19 29 1 2 3 a - -Double bachelor 23* 35 1 2 10 26 1 3 Single bachelor 20 31 30 73 25 66 26 84 No degree 2 3 9 22 - - 4 13 Total 65 100 41 100 3® 100 31 100 x T h i s figure includes 2 teachers with 3 bachelor degrees each. In Nigeria, CUSO teachers held si m i l a r degree q u a l i f -i c a t i o n s with External A i d teachers i n four degree classes -Master, double Bachelor, single Bachelor, and no degree; i n Sarawak, i n two classes - double Bachelor and single Bachelor. -42-A closer analysis of degrees held by teachers i n each role category reveals the following information. Among secondary teachers, at the upper end of the degree scale, one person with a Doctor's degree served i n Nigeria under External Aid as a senior secondary teacher of engineering and technical subjects at a techn i c a l secondary school. At the other end of the degree scale, two External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria had no degree; both had professional vocational diplomas, and taught at a technical secondary school - one at senior l e v e l , and one from junior through to senior l e v e l . (Table VII.) ' ' External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria had twice the percentage of Masters degrees of those i n Sarawak. Further, 61 percent of External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria had more than one Bachelor degree compared with 44 percent i n Sarawak. Thus, External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria were better q u a l i f i e d academically than were those i n Sarawak. On the other hand, CUSO secondary teachers i n Sarawak were s l i g h t l y better q u a l i f i e d academically than t h e i r counter-parts i n Nigeria; 90 percent of those i n Sarawak had degrees compared with 83 percent of those i n Nigeria. The greatest concentration of CUSO secondary teachers i n both countries was i n the single Bachelor c l a s s . Commonality of External Aid and CUSO secondary teachers' academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n Nigeria i s evident i n the Master, - 4 3 -TABLE VII PERCENTAGE OF UNIVERSITY DEGREES BY ROLE CATEGORIES Category Doctor 1 Vlaster Double Single Bachelor Bachelor No Degree % N %• N % N N % N Primary teacher Ex Nigeria A i d Sarawak CUSO Nigeria Sarawak mm ^ ? 33 1 677 2 Secondary teacher Ex Nigeria Aid Sarawak 3 1 23 9 11 2 35 147 33 & 35 14 56 10 5 2 mm mm 3 1 4 1 . 80 28 86 25 17 6 10 3 Teacher t r a i n e r Ex Nigeria Aid Sarawak - 38 8 38 8$ 22 2^ 24 5 k 78 7ff -CUSO N i g e r i a Sarawak mm mm mm mm 50 1 50 1 100 1 Group headmaster Ex Nigeria Aid Sarawak mm mm mm mm 25 1 75 3 : : CUSO J i g e n a Sarawak mm mm' • mm mm — — 100 1 P r i n c i p a l Ex Nigeria Aid Sarawak mm mm 14 1 14 1 71 5 G U S 0 Sarawak mm mm 100 1 ~ "** Adviser' Ex Nigeria A i d Sarawak 50 2M LOO r 25 25 1 -CUSO N i g e r i a Sarawak Nine secondary teachers represent 22.5% of the t o t a l Ex Aid secondary teacher group that went to Sarawak. Key to a l l f i g ures i n narrow columns. ^0f these one held three bachelors degrees. ^One teacher t r a i n e r to Sarawak Ex Aid during period under review, returned to Canada where he obtained h i s Masters degree, and subsequently was reassigned to Sarawak as an Adviser to Dept. of Ed. Thus, he appears s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n two categories. -44-single Bachelor and no-degree classes; i n Sarawak, i n the double Bachelor and single Bachelor classes. External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria were much better q u a l i f i e d academically than those i n Sarawak - 76 percent had more than a single Bachelor degree i n comparison . with 22 percent i n Sarawak; 38 percent i n Nigeria held Masters degrees compared with none i n Sarawak. In contrast with External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s , a l l of whom held degrees, two CUSO teacher t r a i n e r s had no degrees (one i n Nigeria, and one i n Sarawak supervising primary schools.) S i m i l a r i t y of academic degree q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i s apparent i n the single Bachelor class of External Aid and CUSO teacher t r a i n e r s , i n the single Bachelor class of Group Headmasters i n Sarawak, and i n the. double. Bachelor, class of. P r i n c i p a l s (one External Aid p r i n c i p a l i n Sarawak and a CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n •• Nigeria). . - ' -A summary of those External Aid and CUSO teachers who held equivalent academic degrees reveals that 57 External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria and Sarawak combined had equal or less academic degree q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than the CUSO secondary teacher having the maximum academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s - 39 i n Nigeria, and 18 i n Sarawak. In t o t a l , 62 External Aid teachers and 6 l CUSO teachers may be considered to be included i n t h i s c r i t i c a l area of over-lapping i f Nigeria and Sarawak are considered together. (Table VIII.) -45-TABLE VIII CRITICAL OVERLAPPING AREAS OF DEGREE QUALIFICATIONS NIGERIA SARAWAK TOTAL Category- Degree Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Secondary teacher Master Double bachelor 9 14 1 2 6 1 11 20 1 1 Single bachelor 14 28 10 25 24 53 No degree 2 6 - 3 2 9 Total 39 35 18 29 57 64 Teacher t r a i n e r Single bachelor _ 1 1 _ 1 1 Total - 1 . 1 - 1 1 Group head-master Single bachelor - - 3 1 3 1 - Total - - 3 1 3 1 P r i n c i p a l Double bachelor - 1 1 - 1 1 Total - 1 1 - 1 1 X i Total 39 37 23 30 62 67 xThe f i r s t degree c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n "each category represents the maximum CUSO academic degree qu a l i f i c a t i o n , i n that category. ^Totals f o r each category indicate the number of teachers from both agencies whose academic degree q u a l i f -i c a t i o n s overlap. -4-6-The evidence shows that s p e c i a l i s t diplomas held by-External Aid and CUSO teachers were concentrated i n the secondary teacher and teacher-trainer categories. A larger percentage of External Aid teachers held s p e c i a l i s t diplomas i n both countries combined (23 percent) than CUSO teachers (4 percent) - 28 percent of External Aid secondary teachers compared with 5 percent of CUSO secondary teachers; 23 percent of External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s compared with 0 percent of CUSO teacher t r a i n e r s . (Table IX.) External Aid teachers* diplomas (in a l l . categories) were proportionately represented i n the following s p e c i a l i s t f i e l d s : Language (English, French, other) 54 percent Art 13 Music 13 I n d u s t r i a l Arts 8 Geography 4 Commerce 4 Guidance 4 Diplomas held by CUSO teachers were i n the f i e l d s of Health and Public Administration. Previous Teaching Experience The data reveal that 100 percent of External Aid teachers and 26 percent of CUSO teachers had some teaching experience before going to Nigeria or Sarawak. Of the t o t a l teaching years previous experience of External Aid teachers, 81 percent was gained within the home -47-TABLE IX DIPLOMAS NIGERIA SARAWAK Category Ex Aid N" TJUSO N Ex Aid N CUSO N Secondary teacher A.R.C.T. 2 — _ A.R.C.T. 1 RN & Dip Nursing 1 Eng.as 2nd language 1 _ Eng.as 2nd language 3 _ _ F r . s p e c i a l i s t c e r t i f i c a t e 3 _ _ _ Eng.(London) Sp.(Madrid) Ger.(Munich) Licence i n -Soc.Relations (Rome) 1 - - - - -Geog.Spec. Comm.Spec. Guidance Spec. 1 1 1 - -.Carpentry & tech.drawing 1 Public Admin. 1 Jr . I n d u s t r i a l Arts 1 - - - - Physical & Health Cert. 1 Total 9 0 7 3 Teacher t r a i n e r Eng.as 2nd language 1 Eng.as 2nd language 3 mm Sr.Arts & potters 1 - - Sr.Arts & potters 1- - -Total 2 5 -Group headmaster - - - Grad.Study (SorbonneJ 1 - -Total 0 0 1 0 Total 1 0 13 2, XN z actual number of teachers. --48-province, 9 percent elsewhere i n Canada, and 11 percent outside Canada. Of the t o t a l teaching years previous experience of CUSO teachers, 85 percent was gained within the home province, 13 percent elsewhere i n Canada, and 2 percent outside Canada. The average External Aid teacher i n both countries had s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer previous teaching., experience (11 years) than the average CUSO teacher (.6 years). (See Table X.) TABLE X AVERAGE TOTAL PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE (expressed i n years) NIGERIA SARAWAK TOTAL Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO 11.3 .5 9.6 .7 10.6 .6 The average External Aid adviser to government i n Nigeria had the longest previous teaching experience (17 years),' followed by External A i d teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria (15 years) and External Aid secondary teachers i n Sarawak (11 years). The. External Aid .teacher'category having the least average previous teaching experience were the Group Headmasters i n Sarawak (7 years). The average CUSO teacher i n a l l categories had consider-ably l e s s previous teaching experience than the average External Aid teacher. The average CUSO secondary teacher i n -49-Nigeria had .3 years experience compared with the average 9-years of External Aid teachers, and i n Sarawak .7 years com-pared.with 11. years f o r External Aid secondary teachers. (Table XI.) TABLE XI AVERAGE EXPERIENCE IN YEARS BY ROLE CATEGORY NIGERIA SARAWAK Category Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Primary teacher - 2 - -Secondary teacher 9 .3 11 .7 Teacher t r a i n e r 15 2 8 2 Group headmaster - - - 7 1 P r i n c i p a l - .4 9 -Adviser 17 - 13 -The evidence reveals a wide range i n the length of previous teaching experience of External Aid teachers. For a l l categories combined there i s a total- range of 1-40 years i n Nigeria,, and 2-40 in. Sarawak. The t o t a l range of CUSO teachers* previous experience was 0-6 years i n Nigeria, and 0-5 years i n Sarawak. (Table XII.) Thus, the 6 years* previous teaching experience of a.CUSO teacher i n Nigeria exceeded the minimum one year's experience of an External Aid teacher i n Nigeria; s i m i l a r l y , the maximum 5 years* experience of a CUSO teacher -50-TABLE XII " TOTAL RANGE OF PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE (expressed i n years) NIGERIA SARAWAK BOTH COUNTRIES Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO 1-40 0-6 2-40 0-5 1-40 0-6 i n Sarawak exceeded the minimum 2 years* experience of an External Aid teacher i n Sarawak. A study of the range of previous teaching experience analyzed by role categories shows that the categories i n which CUSO teachers have equal or more years of previous teaching experience compared with External Aid teachers are secondary teachers, teacher t r a i n e r s and school p r i n c i p a l s . (Table XIII.) A closer analysis of these three categories, and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the overlapping areas, may be u s e f u l . Twenty-one External A i d secondary teachers i n Nigeria and Sarawak combined had equal or l e s s previous teaching experience than the GUSO teacher t r a i n e r having the maximum experience of three years, and two External Aid secondary school p r i n c i p a l s had les s previous teaching experience than one CUSO principal''with four years experience. (One of the two External Aid p r i n c i p a l s had transferred to External Aid immediately a f t e r the completion of h i s CUSO assignment.) Let us consider each country separately. In Nigeria two External Aid secondary teachers had equal or l e s s previous -51-TABLE XIII RANGE OF PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE BY ROLE CATEGORY (expressed i n years) NIGERIA SARAWAK Category Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Primary teacher Secondary teacher Teacher " t r a i n e r Group headmaster P r i n c i p a l Adviser 1-29 "3-40 0-6 0-2 0-3 4 s 2-40 2- 12 •5-11 3- 25 0-5 1* 8-28 The figure represents one person only. experience than four CUSO teachers, and one External Aid teacher t r a i n e r had equal experience with one CUSO teacher t r a i n e r . In Sarawak six External Aid secondary teachers had equal or l e s s previous experience than one CUSO secondary teacher, and one External Aid teacher t r a i n e r had equal experience with one CUSO teacher t r a i n e r . Twenty-two External Aid teachers and seventeen CUSO teachers may be considered to be included i n t h i s area of overlapping i f Nigeria and Sarawak are considered together. (Table XIV.) -52-TABLE XIV ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL OVERLAPPING AREAS OF PREVIOUS TEACHING EXPERIENCE NIGE RIA SARA] VAK TOTAL Category Previous teaching experience (yrs.) Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Secondary teacher 5 4 2 2 — 2 1 1 4 3 1 3 6 - 2 1 8 1 2 1 4 • 1 4 2 8 1 1 1 - 3 1 4 Tota l 12 5 6 9 18 14 Teacher t r a i n e r 3 2 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 Total 1 1 1 1 2 2 P r i n c i p a l 4 3 _ 1 2 _ 2 1 Total - 1 2 - 2 1 TOTAL 13 7 9 10 22 17 Turning now from quantity to quality of previous experience, i t would seem important that the professional teacher should already have had experience appropriate to the l e v e l of teaching i n which he i s engaged overseas. That i s , a -53-primary teacher, teacher t r a i n e r , group headmaster or p r i n c i p a l overseas could be expected to have had previous experience at the elementary l e v e l i n Canada; similarly,., a secondary teacher, teacher t r a i n e r or p r i n c i p a l may be expected to have had previous experience at the secondary l e v e l . Each teacher category w i l l be discussed separately, and the.level of teaching overseas correlated with the l e v e l of previous teaching experience. The data show that the previous elementary experience of a CUSO teacher was appropriately used at the primary l e v e l i n Nigeria. 95 percent of External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria, and almost 95 percent of those i n Sarawak had secondary teaching experience before going to those countries. Some of these -teachers had other l e v e l s of teaching experience, as we l l . -(See Table XVA.) However, 5 percent of External Aid secondary teachers.in Nigeria and 6 percent.of those i n Sarawak had no previous secondary experience, while 6 percent of CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria, and 21 percent of those i n Sarawak had previous secondary experience. (One of the External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria had two years university teaching experience, and the other had one year's experience at Royal M i l i t a r y College.) . A l l the External Aid tr a i n e r s of secondary teachers i n both Nigeria and Sarawak had had previous secondary teaching -54-TABLE XVA LEVELS OF PREVIOUS TEACHING EXPERIENCE  OF SECONDARY TEACHERS (expressed i n percentages) NIGER] [A SARAWAK Experience l e v e l Ex Aid N* CUSO N Ex Aid N CUSO N Elementary 15 6 - - 39 7 7 2 Secondary 95 3® 6 2 94 17 21 6 University 5 - 9 3 6 1 - -In Service t r a i n i n g - - - - 6 1 - -A g r i c u l t u r a l school - — — — 6 1 — — P r i n c i p a l 3 1 - - - - - -Department Superviser 3 1 — - - - — — R.C.A.F. 3 1 - - - - - -Private Tutor overseas - - 3 1 — — - — R.M.C. 3 1 - - - - - -^Numbers under 'Nf represent the actual number of secondary teachers. ^One person may have had teaching experience at more than one l e v e l ; where applicable he i s included more than once experience themselves. (Table XVC.) However, the information indicates that four External A i d t r a i n e r s of primary teachers i n Nigeria had no elementary experience-. (Table XVB.) (One taught advanced l e v e l subject matter i n h i s f i e l d to elementary teachers returning f o r more t r a i n i n g ; two taught p r i n c i p l e s , practice and methods courses; one with experience teaching indigenous peoples i n Canada and with Home Economics q u a l i f -i c a t i o n s , taught at a teacher t r a i n i n g college f o r women.) One External Aid teacher of primary content and methods i n Sarawak had no previous elementary experience. One CUSO t r a i n e r of primary teachers i n Nigeria and a • CUSO supervisor of primary teachers i n Sarawak had previous elementary experience. Thus, there were f i v e External Aid t r a i n e r s of primary teachers without elementary experience, and two CUSO t r a i n e r s of primary teachers with previous elementary experience. The task of the Group Headmaster i s promotion and super-v i s i o n of primary schools. Three of the External Aid Group Headmasters i n Sarawak had previous elementary experience, and two had additional secondary experience; however, one External Aid Group Headmaster had only secondary teaching experience, and the one CUSO Group Headmaster had experience only with adults. (Table XVD.) A l l External Aid secondary p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak had previous secondary experience. One also had elementary -56-TABLE XVB LEVELS OF PREVIOUS TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF PRIMARY TEACHER TRAINERS .. NIGERIA SARA WAK Experience l e v e l Ex Aid N* CUSO ; N Ex Aid N CUSO N • Elementary Secondary • '. University Teacher t r a i n i n g P r i n c i p a l 60 6 60 6 20 2 20 2 100 1 80 '4 80 4 20 1 20 1 100 1 XN r numbers represent actual numbers of primary teacher t r a i n e r s . TABLE XVC LEVELS OF PREVIOUS TEACHING EXPERIENCE  OF SECONDARY TEACHER TRAINERS NIGERIA SARA WAK Experience l e v e l Ex Aide. N* CUSO N Ex Aid N CUSO N Elementary Secondary Teacher t r a i n i n g Technical R.C.A.F. . 64 7 100 .11 27 3 9 1 9 1 100 1 . 50 2--100.. 4 *N = numbers represent actual numbers of secondary teacher t r a i n e r s . -57-experience, and another had previous experience as a p r i n c i p a l . The CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria had both elementary and secondary experience. (Table XVE.) TABLE XVD LEVELS OF PREVIOUS TEACHING EXPERIENCE  OF GROUP HEADMASTERS Experience l e v e l SARAWA K Ex Aid N*5 CUSO N Elementary 75.0 3 Secondary 75.0 3 -M i l i t a r y Training Camp (adults) - - 100.0 1 XN = numbers represent actual numbers of group headmasters. ^There were no Group Headmasters i n Nigeria TABLE XVE LEVELS OF PREVIOUS TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF SECONDARY PRINCIPALS Experience l e v e l NIGERIA SARAWAK Ex Aid N* CUSO N Ex Aid N CUSO N Elementary Secondary P r i n c i p a l -100.0 1 100.0 1 20.0 1 100.0 5 20.0 1 -XN = numbers represent actual numbers of secondary p r i n c i p a l s . - 5 S -Every External Aid advisor i n Nigeria and Sarawak working i n primary or secondary education, or i n teacher t r a i n i n g , had previous experience at the appropriate l e v e l . That i s , advisers i n primary education had experience at that l e v e l ; those i n secondary education had previous secondary experience, and advisers on teacher t r a i n i n g had previously worked i n teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . Two had additional experience as p r i n c i p a l s ; one was experienced also as an inspector of schools, a p r o v i n c i a l subject supervisor, and assistant education d i r e c t o r . (Table XVF.) TABLE XVF LEVELS OF PREVIOUS TEACHING EXPERIENCE OF  ADVISERS TO DEPARTMENTS OR MINISTRIES OF EDUCATION Experience l e v e l NIGERIA SARAWAK Ex Aid N* Ex Aid N Elementary 75 3 100 1 Secondary 100 4 100 1 Teacher t r a i n i n g 75 3 - -P r i n c i p a l 50 2 -Inspector 25 1 - -P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor 25 1 - -• Assistant Education Director 25 1 — -xThere were no CUSO advisers i n either country. -59-Let us turn now from the l e v e l of previous experience to the subject matter taught. The data show that a l l the External Aid secondary teachers, and a l l the CUSO secondary teachers with secondary school experience, had p r i o r teaching experience i n those subjects which constituted t h e i r major subject f i e l d s i n Nigeria and Sarawak". Canadian teachers are usually required to teach more than one subject; thus, the experience they take with them overseas i s often gained i n more than one subject f i e l d . The subjects i n which the largest percentage of External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria had previous teaching experience were Science (38 percent of the teachers), Mathematics (35 percent), French and Social Studies (28 percent), and English (18 percent). The largest proportion of External Aid secondary teachers i n Sarawak were experienced i n teaching English (72 percent), followed by Soc i a l Studies (39 percent) and Mathematics (28 percent). Three CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria had previous experience i n teaching English, and one each i n Science and Mathematics. Five CUSO secondary teachers i n Sarawak had experience teaching Social Studies, four i n English, two i n Science, and one each i n Commercial subjects, Physical Education, and Arts and Craft s . (Table XVI.) The foregoing comparison of External Aid and CUSO teachers' previous academic and teaching q u a l i f i c a t i o n s may be concluded by pointing out the overlapping of the maximum CUSO q u a l i f i c a t i o n s with the minimum External Aid q u a l i f i c a t i o n s --60-TABLE XVI SECONDARY TEACHERS PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE BY SUBJECTS NIGERIA SARAWAK Subjects Ex Aid N CUSO N Ex Aid N CUSO N English 18 7 9 3 72 13 14 4 French 28 11 - - 17 3 - -German 3 1 - - ' - - - -Latin 10 . 4 - - - - - -Social Studies (Hist., Geog., Etc.) 28 11 39 7 17 5 Science 38 15 3 1 17 3 7 2 Mathematics 35 14 3 1 28 5 - -Arts & Crafts 5 2 - - - - 4 1 Music 5 2 - - 6 1 - -Engineering 3 1 - - - - - -I.A. & Technical 8 3 - - - - - -Commercial 3 1 - - - - 4 1 Physical Education 3 1 - - 6 1 4 1 N = actual numbers of secondary teachers. -61-that i s , the area i n which CUSO teachers' q u a l i f i c a t i o n s equal or exceed those of External Aid teachers. Concerning teaching c e r t i f i c a t i o n , seven CUSO secondary-teachers i n Sarawak held teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s , while one External Aid secondary teacher i n Sarawak and eight External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria held no c e r t i f i c a t e . One CUSO secondary p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria held a teaching c e r t i f i c a t e , while two External Aid secondary p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak held none. Regarding univ e r s i t y degree q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , one CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria held a Masters degree while two External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria held no univer s i t y degree. One CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria held two Bachelors degrees while one External Aid p r i n c i p a l i n Sarawak held one Bachelor degree. Concerning the length of teaching experience at the beginning of assignments, four CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria each had two years experience, while one External Aid secondary teacher i n Nigeria had one year's experience. One CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak had f i v e years' teaching experience, while an External Aid secondary teacher i n Sarawak had two years' experience. Among the teacher t r a i n e r s sent to Nigeria, each agency sent one with three years' teach-ing experience, .while to Sarawak each agency sent a teacher t r a i n e r with two years' experience. A CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria had four years' previous experience while two External Aid p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak each had three years' experience. - 6 2 -How far.have the teachers had the l e v e l of experience appropriate to t h e i r assignments? Among the secondary teachers sent to Nigeria, two CUSO volunteers had secondary experience, while i n the same country, two External Aid secondary teachers were without secondary experience. In Sarawak, six CUSO secondary teachers had secondary experience, while one External Aid secondary teacher had no secondary experience. A study of primary teacher t r a i n e r s reveals that one CUSO teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria had elementary experience, while four External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s had no elementary experience; i n Sarawak one CUSO teacher t r a i n e r at the primary l e v e l had elementary.experience, while one External Aid teacher t r a i n e r had none. The overlapping revealed s i g n i f i e s that previous teaching c e r t i f i c a t i o n , academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and teaching experience have not f u l l y distinguished those teachers sent to Nigeria and Sarawak by External Aid from those sent by CUSO. CHAPTER IV TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL CONTRIBUTION The contributions to education i n Nigeria and Sarawak by External Aid and CUSO teachers w i l l be discussed i n two separate parts. F i r s t , the a c t i v i t i e s of secondary teachers w i l l be analyzed, as the bulk of CUSO teachers abroad work i n t h i s area. Second, the educational endeavours of primary teachers, teacher t r a i n e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , group headmasters and advisers w i l l each be described separately; few CUSO volunteers were involved i n these tasks. Secondary Teachers The contributions of secondary teachers w i l l be analyzed under the following three sub-headings: classroom teaching, extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , and extra-professionai contrib-utions. Classroom Teaching Secondary teachers overseas, as i n Canada, often are required to teach more than one subject. For example, of the t h i r t y - f i v e CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria, twenty-four (67 percent) spent some of t h e i r time teaching English, sixteen (46 percent)' spent some time teaching French, twelve (34. percent) Mathematics, ten (29 percent) Science, and some taught other subjects as w e l l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of External Aid and CUSO teachers by subjects taught i n Nigeria and Sarawak reveals that while the -63--64-range of subjects was extensive, the area of heaviest involve-ment f o r a l l teachers was i n the core subjects of English, Mathematics, Science, Geography, History, and (in Nigeria) French. With the exception of External Aid teachers i n Nigeria, most of the teachers from both agencies taught English (72 percent of External Aid teachers i n Sarawak, 69 percent of CUSO teachers i n Nigeria, and 86 percent of CUSO teachers i n Sarawak). (See Table XVII.) A comparison of External Aid teachers* subjects In both countries reveals a heavy concentration on English i n Sarawak, and a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n among the core subjects of English, French, Mathematics and Science i n Nigeria, with f a i r repres-entation i n Geography and Technical subjects i n Nigeria. I t i s worth noting that no teaching of Technical subjects was reported by the other groups. Though CUSO teaching i n both countries was centred i n the teaching of the core subjects of English, Mathematics, Science, History, and (in Nigeria) French, and (in Sarawak) Geography, a la r g e r percentage of CUSO teachers i n Sarawak than i n Nigeria taught additional subjects. For example, a much larger percentage of Sarawak CUSO teachers taught Physical Education (14 percent) and Bible Knowledge (10 percent) than did those i n Nigeria (3 percent f o r each subject). The Sarawak CUSO teachers' involvement i n additional subjects such as General Knowledge, Health Science, Husbandry, Nature Study and -65-TABLE XVII PERCENTAGE OF TEACHERS WHO TAUGHT SPECIFIED SUBJECTS NIGERIA SARAWAK Subject Ex Aid N* CUSO N Ex Aid N CUSO N English 20 ' 8 67 24 72 13 86 25 French 25 10 46 16 - • - - -Mathematics .25 10 34 12 28 5 • -10 3 Science 30 12 29 10 17 3 17 5 Geography- 10 .. 4 6 .2 33 6. 31 9 History 8 3 14 5 39 7 38 11 Music 3 1 6 2 6 1 - -Technical subjs. 10. 4 - - - - -General Knowledge & Current Events _ 6 2 ** 1 Physical Education - - 3 1 - - 14 4 Bible Knowledge - • - 3 1 11 2 10 3 Art 3 . 1 - - 6 1 7 2 Commerce 3 1 - - - - 4 1 Health Science . 5 2 6 2 - - 7 2 Husbandry - - - - - - 4 1 Nature Study - - - - - - 4 1 Government - - - - - 4 1 L a t i n 3_ 1 3 ' 1 • - - - -XN - actual number of teachers. ^In those instances where a teacher taught more than one subject, he i s tabulated once f o r each subject he taught. Thus, a single teacher may be represented i n three or four subject percentages. -66-Commerce may be par t l y attributable to the wider curriculum f o r junior secondary schools adopted by the Sarawak Government. In a comparison of the teaching subjects i n the two countries, i t i s notable that a f a i r l y large percentage of teachers taught French i n Nigeria (46 percent of CUSO teachers; 25 percent of External Aid teachers) while none taught French i n Sarawak. Si m i l a r l y , while 10 percent of External Aid teachers i n Nigeria taught Technical subjects, there were none i n Sarawak. There were higher percentages of both External Aid and CUSO teachers teaching Geography and History i n Sarawak than i n Nigeria. Of special i n t e r e s t i s the fact that smaller percentages of External Aid teachers i n Nigeria were engaged i n teaching each of the core subjects than CUSO teachers i n the same country. This would indicate that CUSO teachers i n Nigeria were required to teach more subjects than External Aid teachers. A probable explanation i s that CUSO teachers found themselves busi l y engaged i n ' f i l l i n g i n the gaps' on teaching s t a f f s i n small r u r a l schools, whereas External Aid teachers were more able to spec i a l i z e i n t h e i r own teaching subjects i n better-staffed urban schools. Information provided by teachers indicates that 86 percent of CUSO teachers i n Nigeria were i n predominantly r u r a l areas, while External Aid teachers were mostly i n urban areas (80 percent). Such a contrast i s not evident i n Sarawak where the rural-urban difference i s not so acute. (79 percent of CUSO teachers were i n r u r a l areas -67-compared "with External A id teachers who were 44 percent urban.) (See Table XVIII). • -Overlapping of External Aid and CUSO teaching subjects i s evident i n that teachers from both agencies were involved i n teaching a l l the core subjects i n each country; CUSO teachers were more engaged than External. Aid teachers i n additi o n a l subjects in.both countries. Most Nigerian and Sarawakian secondary schools follow the B r i t i s h secondary grammar school pattern. Canadian equiv-alents of the B r i t i s h form l e v e l s are approximately the following: Forms I-III (grades 7, 8, 9); Forms IV-V (grades 10, 11); Form VI (grades 12, 13). The above three l e v e l distinctions,, commonly made i n the B r i t i s h system, will.be employed i n t h i s discussion of the teaching, l e v e l s overseas. For Sarawak teachers an additional l e v e l i s included -Tran s i t i o n . This i s a special year between the completion of elementary school i n Chinese medium and Form I i n the English medium, when selected Chinese children are given an intensive course i n English to prepare them f o r the English medium secondary school. Secondary teachers often are required to teach at more than one l e v e l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of External Aid and CUSO teachers by l e v e l s taught i n Nigeria and Sarawak indicates that a large percentage of teachers from both agencies were engaged i n teaching Forms I-V i n both countries. However, a greater percentage of those i n Nigeria were teaching Forms IV-VI than TABLE XVIII ASSIGNMENT LOCALE, RURAL. OR URBAN (expressed i n percentages) NIGERIA SARAWAK TOTAL Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Category- Rural N Urban N Rural N Urban N Rural N Urban N Rural N Urban N Rural N Urban N Rural N Urban ' N Primary teacher - - 17 h 83 2h 17 h 83 2h Secondary teacher 21 8 $9 31 86 30 14 5 56 10 44 8 79 23 21 6 40 18 60 39 83 53 17 11 1 o> i Teacher t r a i n e r 52 11 48 10 50 1 50 1 - 100 9 50 h 50 i 37 11 63 19 50 l i 50 lh Group head-master 100 4 100 1 100 4 100 1 P r i n c i p a l .- - - - 50 h 50 i 100 7 i o o 7 - - 50 £ 50 h Adviser - 100 4 100 4 -MN represents actual number of teachers. ^The figure "s" under TN* means that a teacher spent half h i s time i n a r u r a l s e t t i n g . - 6 9 -were teachers i n Sarawak. (See Table XIX.) This may be explained partly by the fact that secondary education i s more advanced i n Nigeria, and that the Government of Sarawak has an extensive development program of new junior secondary schools. TABLE XIX PERCENTAGES OF TEACHERS WHO TAUGHT AT SPECIFIED FORM LEVELS NIGERIA SARAWAK Level Ex Aid N* CUSO N Ex Aid N CUSO N Form VI 68 27 6 2 11 2 4 1 Forms IV & V 80 32 94 33 78 14 55 16 Forms I,II & III 73 29 94 33 83 15 90 26 Transition - - •- - 28 5 21 6 XN equals actual number of teachers. ^In those instances where a teacher taught at more than one l e v e l , he i s tabulated once f o r each l e v e l at which he taught. Thus, a single teacher may be represented i n the percentages at two or more l e v e l s . There was a f a i r l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n of External Aid teaching i n Nigeria from Form I to Form VI, while there was a concentration of CUSO teaching i n Nigeria i n Forms I-V. (Only two CUSO teachers i n Nigeria taught at the Form VI level.) -70-In Sarawak, comparable percentages of External Aid (28 percent) and CUSO (21 percent) teachers taught at the Transition level-, and at the Forms I-III l e v e l (83 percent of External Aid teachers compared with 90 percent of CUSO). A s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger percentage of External Aid teachers taught at the Forms IV-V l e v e l (78 percent compared with CUSO's 55 percent). Only two External Aid teachers and one CUSO were employed at the Form VI l e v e l i n Sarawak. Overlapping of External Aid and CUSO teaching i s apparent i n that teachers from both agencies taught at a l l l e v e l s i n both countries. A consolidation of teaching subjects by form l e v e l s reveals that i n Nigeria there was common External Aid and CUSO teaching of core subjects - English and Science from Forms I-VI; French, Mathematics and History from Forms I-V; and Geography from Forms I - I I I . (See Table XXA.) In Sarawak teachers from both agencies taught English and Geography from Transition to- Form V; Mathematics and Science from Forms I-V; and History from Forms I-III. (See Table XXB.) In Nigeria External A i d teachers were employed as well i n teaching French, Mathematics and History at the Form VI l e v e l , and Geography from Forms IV-VI. Sarawak employed both External Aid and CUSO teachers at the Form VI l e v e l - External Aid i n Science and Geography; CUSO i n English and Government. -71-TABLE XXA SUBJECTS TAUGHT IN NIGERIA BY LEVEL (expressed i n percentages) External Aid CUSO Subjects FormsI-III N IV-V N VI N I-III N IV-V N VI N English 15 6 15* 6 8 3 57 20 43 15 3 • 1 French 2 5 10 22 9 10 4 46 16 17 6 - -Mathematics 13 5 18 7 15 6 29 10 23 8 - -Science 8 3 23 9 23 9 20 7 26 9 3 1 Geography- 10 4 10 4 8 3 6 2 - - - -History 5 2 5' 2 3 1 3 > 11 4 - -Music 5 2 - - - - 6 2 - - - -Technical subjects 3 1 3 1 10 4 General Knowledge & Current. Events • • 6 2 Physical Ed." 3 1 - . '- - - 3 1 ! 3 1 - -Bible Knowledge .3 1 — — — — 3 1 — - - -Art 3 1 3 1 Commerce 3 1 3 1 Latin 3 1 - - - ;- 3 1 3 1 - -• KN = actual number of teachers who taught s p e c i f i c subject l i s t e d . •P Health Science, Husbandry, Nature Study and Government were taught i n Sarawak. I TABLE XXB SUBJECTS TAUGHT IN SARAWAK BY LEVEL (expressed i n percentages) 1 External Aid CUSO Subjects Forms T N I-III N IV-V N VI N T N I-III N IV-V N VI N English 17 3 56 10 39 2 - - 24 7 76 i 22 35 10 4 1 Mathematics - - 17 3 11 2 - - 10 3 4 1 — -Science - - 17 3 H 2 6 1 - - 17 7 2 -Geography- 6 22 4 17 3 6 1 4 1 28 8 10 3 - -History - - 22 4 28 8 14 4 - - i -o Music 6 1 6 1 1 Physical Education 14 4 - - - -Bible Knowledge - - 6 1 11 2 - - - - 7 2 7 2 - -Art - - - - 6 1 - - - - 7 2 - - - -Commerce 4 1 - -Health Science 7 2 - -Husbandry 4 1 - - - -Nature Study / 4 1 Government 4 1 *N = actual number of teachers who taught s p e c i f i c subject l i s t e d . ^Technical subjects, General Knowledge & Current Events, & La t i n were taught i n Nigeria. -73-In the additional subjects of La t i n , Physical Education, Music and Bible Knowledge there was also teaching from both agencies i n Nigeria at the Forms I-III l e v e l ; and i n the teaching of Bible Knowledge i n Sarawak from Forms I-V. The two programs appear more distinguishable i n Nigeria . where a l a r g e r percentage of External Aid than CUSO teachers were employed at the Form VI l e v e l . Extra-Curricular A c t i v i t i e s ' Outside the classroom, secondary teachers o r d i n a r i l y , lead the students i n a c t i v i t i e s intended to develop t h e i r physical, s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , or as i t i s said T t o develop the well-rounded personality 1.. In both Nigeria and Sarawak these a c t i v i t i e s are important-, es p e c i a l l y i n the boarding school where l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s must be planned f o r ; they also help to provide s o c i a l situations i n which students from varied t r i b a l or communal backgrounds learn to co-operate i n groups, and where boarders and day scholars can become acquainted a f t e r school. Through these a c t i v i t i e s students are encouraged to,inquire into t h e i r own areas ;of in t e r e s t , to enlarge t h e i r experience and to develop t h e i r leadership p o t e n t i a l . From the Canadian teacher's point of view, an ext r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y may provide excellent oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r the employment of those progressive ideas concerning committee and project work which he i s unable to u t i l i z e i n h i s classroom because of the formal examination requirements. -74-The evidence shows that more CUSO than External Aid teachers were engaged i n ex t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n both countries. 97 percent of a l l CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria were involved i n some extra-curricular a c t i v i t y , compared with 85 percent of External Aid teachers. In Sarawak the figure -was 97 percent f o r CUSO teachers and 89 percent f o r External Aid. The t o t a l percentage f o r both countries combined, of teachers engaged i n some extr a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , was 97 percent f o r CUSO and 86 percent f o r External Aid. The degree of involvement i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , f o r the purposes of t h i s study, has been assessed i n the following manner: each teacher weighted h i s own involvement i n each-of h i s a c t i v i t i e s as HEAVY, AVERAGE or LIGHT f o r each f u l l year of h i s involvement. In place of the teacher's HEAVY, AVERAGE or LIGHT the writer assigned the numbers 3, 2 or 1 i n order to weight the degree of involvement. Thus, each teacher may be considered to have earned a number of points per teaching year f o r h i s extra-curricular involvement. There was a wide range of involvement i n extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s by i n d i v i d u a l Canadian secondary teachers per teaching year as indicated below: External Aid teachers CUSO teachers Nigeria 0-36-points 0-29 points Sarawak 2-12 points 6-34 points • To discover the degree of involvement i n each extra-c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y of the average secondary teacher per teaching year, the t o t a l number of points was recorded f o r the -75-p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l teachers from one agency i n one country i n one p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . This figure was then divided by the t o t a l number of teaching years of a l l teachers of that agency i n the one country. The r e s u l t i n g figure represents the average involvement i n that a c t i v i t y per teaching,year. For example, the t o t a l involvement of External Aid teachers i n Nigeria i n sports over the ten year period i s numerically expressed as (77). The t o t a l number of teaching years of the forty. External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria from 1957-67 i s 79* Thus, the average involvement per teaching year of External Aid secondary teachers to Nigeria i n sports was .97. (This may be interpreted as s l i g h t l y l e s s than 'light*.) (See Table XXI.) It i s notable that the average CUSO secondary teacher i n both countries was more heavily engaged i n extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s than the average External Aid teacher; considering both countries combined, the average CUSO teacher earned 8.7 e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r points i n comparison with 5*3 points f o r the average External Aid teacher. Broadly interpreted, t h i s could mean that the average CUSO teacher was heavily involved i n three extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s per year, while the average External Aid teacher had heavy involvement i n one a c t i v i t y , and average involvement i n a second. Both CUSO and External Aid secondary teachers were con-siderably more active i n extr a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n Sarawak (11 points average f o r CUSO; 6 points f o r External Aid) than i n Nigeria (7 f o r CUSO: 5 f o r External A i d ) . -76-TABLE XXI EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES OF SECONDARY TEACHERS AVERAGE POINTS PER TEACHING YEAR NIGERIA SARAWAK TOTAL A c t i v i t y - Ex A i d CUSO Ex A i d CUSO Ex A i d CUSO 79' 6 N* 59 N 40 N 44 N 119 N 103 N Sports - 9 7 77 1.07 63 .55 22 1.82 80 .83 99 1.39 143 E x t r a S u p e r v i s i o n - .74 5® .78 46 .9® 39 1.03 45 .82 97 .88 91 S p e c i a l Clubs .70 55 1.05 62 .95 3® • 91 40 .78 93 .99 102 House Sponsor .76 60 .54 32 .23 9 .61 27 .5® 69 .57 .59 L i b r a r y .24 19 .90 53 .53 21 1.4® 65 .34 40 1.15 118 School Newspaper & Magazine .16 13 .17 10 .63 25 .80 35 .32 .38 • 44 45 Music .15 12 .49 29 .45 18 .20 9 •25 30 .37 3® Drama .08 6 .29 17 .5® 23 .4® 21 .24 29 ".'37 3® P u b l i c Speaking & Debating .03 2 .42 25 .5® 23 .50 22 .21 25 .46 47 Health Program .10 8 .27 16 .15 6 .23 1° .12 14 .25 26 Swimming .06 5 .05 3 .23 9 .30 13 .12 14 .16 16 Overseas L i b r a r y - • • sup p l i e s .14 11 .31 18 .03 1 .32 14' .10 12 .31 32 A r t .11 9 - ' - - - .09 4 .08 9 .04 4 Cross Country & outward bound t r i p s . ,05 4 .03 2 .27 12 .03 4 .14 14 Students Co u n c i l _ mm mm .05 2 .14 6 .02 2 .06 6 Other • 44 .35 .S3 49 .45 18 1.66 73 .45 53 1.18 122 TOTAL 374 4.73 7.20 425 6.35' 254 10.82^ +76 628 5.28 8.74 901 xN = t o t a l e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r p o i n t s . ^ = t o t a l teaching years. -77-Secondary teachers from both agencies i n both countries engaged i n si m i l a r extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s - f o r example, sports, extra supervision, special clubs, house sponsor duties, l i b r a r y supervision, school newspaper and magazine, music, drama, public speaking and debating, health program, swimming, and a r t i c u l a t i n g overseas l i b r a r y supplies. In Nigeria, both External Aid and CUSO teachers took students on 'cross country' and 'outward bound' t r i p s ; i n Sarawak they both supervised Students' councils. Thus, there was considerable s i m i l a r i t y i n the type of extr a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by secondary teachers from both agencies. However, i t i s worth remembering that t h i s involvement i s here recorded only from a quantitative, not a q u a l i t a t i v e point of view. As a matter of int e r e s t , the most popular a c t i v i t y of teachers from both agencies was sports, except f o r External Aid teachers i n Sarawak where sports took s i x t h place. The f i v e most popular a c t i v i t i e s f o r each group are l i s t e d below i n order of involvement i n each case: External Aid CUSO Nigeria Sarawak Nigeria Sarawak Sports extra supervision s p e c i a l clubs sports sports house sponsor extra supervision school news-paper and magazine special clubs l i b r a r y l i b r a r y extra supervision special clubs drama extra supervision house sponsor special clubs l i b r a r y public speaking and debating (sports) school news-paper and magazine -78-Extra Professional A c t i v i t i e s Those a c t i v i t i e s of secondary teachers which extend beyond the regular classroom, and whose purpose i s to improve the quality of secondary education, or to increase the quantity and quality of teachers, w i l l here be distinguished as • p r o f e s s i o n a l 1 . Most professional a c t i v i t i e s of secondary teachers i n the two countries were directed towards the improvement of the quality of secondary education - f o r example, the preparation of teaching subject s y l l a b i either f o r the i n d i v i d u a l school i n Nigeria or Sarawak, or f o r the government, especially i n Sarawak where a complete new set of teaching s y l l a b i was adopted by the government. Heading an academic department involves the plan-ning and supervision of a l l work i n one subject f i e l d f o r the whole school, selecting textbooks, and assistance to those teachers who require i t . Advice on curriculum may be c a l l e d f o r by the government (as i n Sarawak) or by the i n d i v i d u a l p r i n c i p a l i n connection with the teacher's special subject f i e l d . The teacher may be c a l l e d upon by education o f f i c i a l s , to prepare a new textbook i n h i s subject area appropriate to l o c a l conditions and needs. Teachers may co-operate with the national examinations council to determine formal examination requirements. Ensuring high standards i n the maintenance of school records, i n the duplication of examinations, i n the supervision of external examinations and i n conducting external oral language examinations - a l l may be considered tasks best -79-performed by those w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l experience. S i m i l a r l y , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work aimed at i n c r e a s i n g the e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n -i n g of the school such as temporary d u t i e s as v i c e - p r i n c i p a l or p r i n c i p a l , or preparing the school t i m e t a b l e , or o r g a n i z i n g textbooks and s u p p l i e s f o r the school should r e q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n -a l experience. P r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and .experience should c e r t a i n l y be considered necessary f o r those e x t r a a c t i v i t i e s of teachers which concern themselves w i t h the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of other teachers, i n s p e c t i o n of schools, and teacher assessment. The data show t h a t 66 percent of a l l E x t e r n a l A i d , and 49 percent of a l l CUSO teachers i n both c o u n t r i e s combined, performed some p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y during the p e r i o d under review. The percentages of a l l teachers i n v o l v e d i n profession-, a l t a s k s i n each country f o l l o w : E x t e r n a l A i d CUSO N i g e r i a 55 percent 67 percent Sarawak 89 percent 28 percent A comparison of E x t e r n a l A i d secondary teachers i n both c o u n t r i e s r e v e a l s t h a t more teachers were engaged i n p r o f e s s i o n -a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Sarawak (89 percent) than i n N i g e r i a (55 per c e n t ) . On the other hand, more CUSO teachers were engaged i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n N i g e r i a (67 percent) than i n Sarawak (28 pe r c e n t ) . A l i k e l y e xplanation i s th a t E x t e r n a l A i d secondary teachers i n Sarawak found t h e i r advice and a s s i s t -ance sought i n the Government's plan f o r development of new -80-junior secondary schools which included a new curriculum and s y l l a b i f o r a l l subjects, new textbooks and in-service t r a i n i n g . CUSO teachers i n Sarawak then would f i n d themselves presented with the o f f i c i a l teaching syllabus and prescribed textbooks f o r t h e i r subjects. In Nigeria, on the other hand, where there i s no o f f i c i a l l y recognized syllabus, the CUSO teacher, i n an under-staffed r u r a l school would probably f i n d that he had to use h i s own judgment, with or without experience, to prepare s y l l a b i , -choose textbooks, a s s i s t i n school organization, and help unqualified teachers. External Aid teachers i n Nigeria i n most cases probably found themselves i n a better-staffed urban secondary school with a longer t r a d i t i o n of syllabus content, appropriate textbooks and better school administration, and better q u a l i f i e d l o c a l and int e r n a t i o n a l s t a f f . Thus, the need f o r the professional advice aside from t h e i r academic teaching load and extr a - c u r r i c u l a r work would unlikel y be so acute. The exception i n Nigeria i s i n the teaching of French, a, r e l a t i v e l y new teaching subject there. Canadian External Aid teachers have been active i n the organization of French s y l l a b i , audio-visual: aids, preparation of textbooks and French o r a l examining. It. would seem, then, that i n a country where the govern-ment assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r providing education, and i s engaged -in developing new programs f o r secondary schools, greater demands would be placed upon the professional External Aid teacher. -81-. There was s i m i l a r i t y of endeavour of External Aid and CUSO professional a c t i v i t i e s i n both countries i n the prepar-ation ,of . s y l l a b i , heading academic departments, organizing texts and school supplies, and in-service t r a i n i n g . (See Table XXII.) CUSO teachers i n Nigeria also performed such tasks as advising,on curriculum, and supervision of external examinations; .one CUSO teacher reported that he was writing a text; one organized.a science laboratory; another arranged the school timetable; a fourth established a reading program-for. the whole school. Many a CUSO volunteer teacher i n Nigeria must have had his c a p a b i l i t i e s taxed to the l i m i t . i+6 percent of CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria described t h e i r ...duties as 'heavy', while 8 percent of -External Aid-secondary teachers i n Nigeria described t h e i r s as ' l i g h t ' . (See Table.XXIII.). Primary Teachers . Three CUSO volunteers taught primary school i n .Nigeria. A l l were i n urban settings, though one had taught i n a r u r a l setting for. six months before being transferred because of the . c i v i l disturbances surrounding the region now known as B i a f r a . The duties of two became heavier .as t h e i r assignments progressed. One ran a. private nursery school f o r a year, and was head-mistress of a private elementary school f o r six months during her second year. Another taught French to upper primary forms i n addition to her other tasks. The t h i r d volunteer worked i n -82-TABLE XXII EXTRA PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES (expressed i n percentages) ' NIGERIA SARAWAK TOTAL A c t i v i t y ExAid N* CUSC 1 N ExAid N CUSO N ExAid N CUSC ) N Preparation of s y l l a b i 28 11 40 14 22 4 7 2 26 15 25 16 Heading Acad-emic department - 23 9 37 13 28 5 14 4 24 14 27 17 Organizing Texts & schoo supplies 1 5 17 6 11 2 4 1 12 7 11 7 In-Service-Training 18 7 6 < 2 56 10 10 3 29 17 8 5 Advi sing on Curriculum 3 1 6 2 6 1 4 2 3 2 Supervision of External exams 3 1 6 2 6 1 4 2 3 2 Oral Examiner f o r external exams 3 1 6 1 4 2 Teacher Assess ment f o r university 3 1 2 1 Preparing (writing), texts 3 1 3 1 6 1 4 2 2 1 Acting Prineip or vice p r i n c i p a l a l 6 1 2 1 Inspecting Schools 3 1 2 1 Committee Work to recommend new exam syllabus. 3 1- 2 . 1 Organizing Science l a b -oratory 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 Selecting Texts - - - . - 6 1 -. - .2 1 — -School Records & mimeo-graphing 3 1 2 1 School Time Table _ 9 3 - • -5 3 Establishing Reading progr I-IV am-1 3 1 2 1 XN = actual number of teachers. -83-TABLE XXIII TEACHING LOAD OF SECONDARY TEACHERS (expressed i n percentages) NIGERIA SARAWAK Teaching load Ex Aid N* CUSO N • Ex A i d N CUSO N Heavy 30 12 46 16 44 8 41 12 Average 63 25 51 18 50 9 59 17 Light 8 3 3 1 6 1 - -XN - actual numbers of teachers a school f o r the b l i n d a f t e r having been moved from a r u r a l to an urban setting. In t h i s instance slow learners had to be given i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n . Music, drama, preparing textbooks, swimming, and teaching such c r a f t s as hooking rugs, making baskets and fashioning jewellery f u l l y occupied her time. One described her duties as 'heavy* and the other two, 'average'. Teacher Trainers One External Aid secondary teacher of French i n Nigeria was transferred to teacher t r a i n i n g a f t e r h i s f i r s t year; h i s work i s included i n t h i s description of teacher t r a i n e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s . A l l teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria and Sarawak were sent by External Aid, except f o r two CUSO volunteers i n Nigeria and one i n Sarawak. A c t i v i t i e s of the three CUSO teacher t r a i n e r s w i l l be discussed a f t e r External Aid. 64 percent of a l l External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria were i n urban areas, and 36 percent i n r u r a l areas. Sarawak teacher t r a i n e r s were 100 percent urban, though much of t h e i r work was directed to r u r a l schools, and practice teaching was often conducted i n r u r a l areas. A larger percentage of teacher t r a i n e r s i n both countries worked i n the f i e l d of primary education (64 percent i n Nigeria; 67 percent i n Sarawak) than i n secondary education (36 percent i n Nigeria; 33 percent i n Sarawak). Primary teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria taught primary school leavers, u n c e r t i f i c a t e d teachers who were returning to become c e r t i f i c a t e d , or older teachers who were returning f o r more advanced subject matter and'higher c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Some taught subjects such as English, Mathematics, Geography, History, Science and Art together with teaching methods i n those subjects. .- Others taught advanced Mathematics, Chemistry and , Physics. ' Many lectured i n the area of p r i n c i p l e s and practices of professional education. Most supervised practice teaching i n r u r a l schools. One teacher t r a i n e r f s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h i f t e d from teaching to supervision of the teacher t r a i n i n g program, involving organization, preparation of materials and running a demonstration school. Two others reported additional admin-i s t r a t i v e work. Most secondary teacher t r a i n e r s in"Nigeria taught t h e i r subject and methods of teaching i t . Two were French s p e c i a l i s t s who endeavoured to-teach the language, and'prepare t h e i r " students to teach i t , i n three years. Three were s p e c i a l i s t s i n -85-Geography, one i n History, and one i n English. Other teaching, included general methodology, philosophy, sociology and psych-ology.. Some engaged i n inspection, curriculum work, and supervision and. evaluation of student teachers., -Sarawak primary teacher t r a i n e r s taught, primary school leavers, untrained teachers returning f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , and l a t e r i n the ten year period under review, junior secondary school, leavers who had completed Form I I I . Most of them taught English content and methods; History and Geography content and methods were also taught. Their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s included planning f o r and evaluation of practice teaching, curriculum development, preparation of s y l l a b i f o r primary schools, experimental work and demonstration teaching, in-service t r a i n i n g , and preparation of "permanent" teaching materials f o r other members of the s t a f f . Most secondary teacher t r a i n e r s i n Sarawak taught Chinese secondary school graduates, h a l f of whom would teach i n Chinese schools, and the rest i n government secondary schools. Further a c t i v i t i e s of .teacher t r a i n e r s i n ^Nigeria i n -cluded l i b r a r y supervision, music, school newspaper and magazine, showing documentary films, special clubs, debating, educational tours and student housing supervision. Two taught i n c i t y schools as volunteers i n order to gain experience of l o c a l conditions. One taught some motor repair; another lectured i n other departments of h i s college. Two became -86-acting p r i n c i p a l s i n the summer while t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s were absent. One did f i e l d work i n geography; another Geography s p e c i a l i s t conducted an in-service t r a i n i n g programme i n Geography; a t h i r d prepared Geography course outlines f o r h i s region. Other teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria did outside exam-ination supervision, curriculum development, and administrative work with the West Afr i c a n Examinations Council. A French s p e c i a l i s t helped a colleague prepare a language l a b . course, and taped dialogues f o r the French l i b r a r y at his college. Another co-operated with f i v e other teacher t r a i n i n g colleges i n t e s t i n g program workshops. Another conducted' experimental surveys i n such things as ' t e l l i n g time' and s p e l l i n g . Further a c t i v i t i e s of Sarawak teacher t r a i n e r s included grounds improvement, special clubs, sports, l i b r a r y reorgan-i z a t i o n , drama, music, debating and educational tours. Some assisted with preparing schools broadcasts to teachers - radio talks, music and h i s t o r i c a l plays. Some prepared government examinations for- entrance to secondary school, to Form IV, and to the Teacher Training College, and were involved i n marking them. Some assisted i n preparing s y l l a b i f o r primary schools and f o r the Teacher Training College; two prepared teaching materials f o r the use of other college t u t o r s . Two prepared textbooks f o r use i n primary and secondary schools. One did archeological and museum work with h i s students; he also prepared l i s t s of science equipment f o r secondary school laboratories. Some engaged i n in-service t r a i n i n g f o r teachers during vacations. - 5 7 -It may be s i g n i f i c a n t that the majority of secondary teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria (63 percent) and of primary teacher t r a i n e r s i n Sarawak (67 percent) described t h e i r duties as 'heavy', while only 43 percent of primary teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria, and none at the secondary l e v e l i n Sarawak described t h e i r s as 'heavy'. (See Table XXIV.) TABLE XXIV RELATIVE WEIGHTING OF TEACHER TRAINING DUTIES (expressed i n percentages) NIGERIA SARAWAK Category Weighting Ex Aid N* Ex Aid N Primary Heavy 43 6 67 4 teacher t r a i n e r s Average 57 8 33 2 Secondary Heavy 63 5 _ _ teacher t r a i n e r s Average 3® 3 100 3 N = actual number of teachers. The two CUSO teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria worked at the primary l e v e l teaching English and Mathematics content and methods. Their further a c t i v i t i e s included sports, l i b r a r y supervision, music, drama, extra supervision, co-ordinating overseas l i b r a r y supplies and d r i v i n g lessons. One headed an academic department, and taught night school classes i n English. The other organized home economics classes which were taught by -88-her students to the women of the community. Both described t h e i r duties as 'heavy'.. One had an elementary teacher's . c e r t i f i c a t e , a Bachelor's degree, and three year's teaching experience at the elementary l e v e l . The other had no teaching c e r t i f i c a t e , no degree, and no previous experience. The CUSO teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak was a supervisor of l o c a l primary teachers i n the English medium. She v i s i t e d t h i r t y classes i n r u r a l and urban areas, helped the teachers and assessed them, and conducted holiday courses f o r untrained teachers. Further a c t i v i t i e s included preparing and d i s t r i b -uting teaching aids and r e v i s i n g teaching notes. Her duties became heavier as she became more experienced. Her previous q u a l i f i c a t i o n s included an elementary teaching c e r t i f i c a t e and two years teaching experience at the elementary l e v e l . Group Headmasters Two External Aid secondary teachers became group head-masters a f t e r each had two years of secondary teaching i n Sarawak. One CUSO group headmaster transferred to External Aid as a secondary p r i n c i p a l f o r one year, immediately a f t e r completion of hi s CUSO assignment, and then returned to the duties of a group headmaster under External Aid. With the incl u s i o n of these three, the t o t a l number of group headmasters to Sarawak here to be considered i s seven under External Aid, and one under CUSO. The role of group headmaster involved the development and "supervision of r u r a l primary schools. Primary teacher t r a i n i n g occupied a great deal of the group headmasters* time. They were often c a l l e d upon to advise Rural D i s t r i c t Councils on school planning and estimates. They explained to parents the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of education f o r the young, and encouraged them to send t h e i r children to school. Most of t h e i r time was spent v i s i t i n g rural" schools that were often very f a r apart, and i n some instances, almost impossible to reach. They opened new schools, established higher primary classes, and recruited teachers. : As well, they ran vacation in-service t r a i n i n g courses f o r primary teachers, arranged f o r school repairs, supplies and equipment, and conducted t e s t i n g programs. Two group headmasters became deeply engaged i n a s s i s t i n g i n the development of the Primary English Medium Scheme (PEMS), a system f o r the teaching of English as a second language. Some took a keen in t e r e s t i n organizing health programs f o r " t h e i r ' r u r a l primary students. To t h i s end, one group head-master supervised the construction of a series of hygienic outhouses i n a r u r a l area. "Several became involved.in promoting community development projects such as f i s h ponds, gardens, tree planting, and road' and culvert construction. A l l reported increasingly heavier duties as-they became better known. Six group headmasters (86 percent') described t h e i r " a c t i v i t i e s as 'heavy', while one (14 percent) described his as 'average*. -90-The one CUSO group headmaster had no teaching c e r t i f i c a t e , a Bachelor's degree, and one year's previous teaching experience with adults at a m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g camp. Pr i n c i p a l s Two External Aid group headmasters were reassigned, a f t e r two years, as p r i n c i p a l s of secondary schools. Thus, the a c t i v i t i e s of nine secondary p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak under External Aid w i l l be included i n the following discussion. One CUSO volunteer served f o r one year i n Nigeria as a secondary p r i n c i p a l . A l l - E x t e r n a l Aid p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak worked i n government secondary schools i n r u r a l settings. While two headed junior-senior secondary schools, seven established new junior secondary schools. C o l l e c t i n g school fees, and ordering school supplies of every description including food and cooking ut e n s i l s , took much of t h e i r time. Setting up school records, and establishing the o f f i c e , l i b r a r y , science laboratory, woodwork shop, and cooking f a c i l i t i e s to accommodate not only the regular boarder but also the Moslem, were time-consuming. Timetables c a l l e d f o r very close attention due to acute s t a f f shortages plus the f a i r l y wide range of subject options. A number of the p r i n c i p a l s taught from 18-30 periods per week. Few had any trained o f f i c e s t a f f to help them i n the f i r s t , and i n many.. ways, the most d i f f i c u l t , year of operation. They conducted s t a f f meetings, and delegated duties to s t a f f members -91-concerning study and dining h a l l supervision, classroom and compound cleaning, and dormitory supervision. Clearing back the jungle to est a b l i s h playing f i e l d s , f i s h ponds, school gardens, chicken runs, walks and pineapple f i e l d s occupied a great deal of the p r i n c i p a l ' s time. One had h i s school occupied by the armed forces during the Brunei rebel revolt^" and confrontation; another had to cope with major floods on the school compound which washed away desks, chairs, books and student clothing. In one school the p r i n c i p a l organized a comprehensive health plan which established TB checks, eye examinations and dental care f o r a l l the students. One school was f i f t y a i r miles from the nearest town. In spite of a l l these demands.on t h e i r time, the p r i n c i p a l s i n some eases found time to sponsor the students' council, sponsor an astronomy club, or a s s i s t with study h a l l supervision. A l l spent some time on supervising examinations. Some worked on s y l l a b i and curriculum r e v i s i o n and in-service t r a i n i n g . Possibly the f i n e s t summary was made by one p r i n c i p a l who commented: There were many a c t i v i t i e s which might not be considered part of my regular designated duties i n a Canadian context, but which I considered to be part of my duty, i n Sarawak. 56 percent of External Aid secondary p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak described t h e i r duties as 'heavy'; 33 percent as 'average'; 11 percent (one p r i n c i p a l ) as ' l i g h t ' . December, 1962 - 9 2 -The js'ingl© Canadian p r i n c i p a l to Nigeria was a CUSO volunteer who served i n a private secondary school. He spent a great deal of h i s time teaching English. Though he was kept busy advising on curriculum, being a House Master, supervising study h a l l s and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n in-service t r a i n i n g , he reports that h i s school management committee was reluctant to allow him any r e a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He describes h i s duties as 'average*. His q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were a permanent secondary teaching c e r t i f i c a t e , two Bachelor degrees, and four years teaching experience at the elementary and junior high l e v e l . Advisers to Departments or M i n i s t r i e s of Education Advisers to Nigeria and Sarawak were a l l sent by External Aid. Of the four sent to Nigeria, two were advisers on teacher t r a i n i n g , attached to the Federal Ministry of Education and available on c a l l to the Regional M i n i s t r i e s of Education; one was a consultant on primary education to a Native Authority; the fourth was an adviser on French language teaching to- the Ministry of Establishments and Training. The one adviser i n Sarawak was assigned to work i n the f i e l d of primary education at the Department of Education a f t e r s i x years experience as a teacher t r a i n e r i n the same country. The advisers on teacher t r a i n i n g i n Nigeria advised on interpretation and implementation of the Ashby Commission Report. They advised on curriculum development and were consultants on various Ministry of Education committees, and - 9 3 -at conferences of Teacher Training College p r i n c i p a l s . They conducted in-service t r a i n i n g f o r headmasters and headmistresses of primary schools, and taught evening and vacation courses f o r untrained teachers. They worked on a Tcrash program' i n English, developed new teaching techniques, and helped teachers and teacher educators to f i n d books and other resources which they needed. -The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the primary education consultant i n Nigeria was to t r y to improve teaching i n about f i f t y schools i n the c i t y area. He established an in-service education centre which consisted of a l i b r a r y of four thousand books and a workroom which could also be used as a classroom f o r courses, and as a place to which teachers could come to - • make teaching aids f o r t h e i r schools. He worked e n t i r e l y with teachers i n the f i e l d who needed schemes of work i n a l l • subjects, pu p i l l i b r a r i e s and teacher reference l i b r a r i e s . He helped to prepare new s y l l a b i which the regional Ministry was preparing to issue. The adviser on French language established a language section at the Staff Development Centre where he advised on curriculum and conducted in-service t r a i n i n g . The adviser on primary education i n Sarawak prepared materials f o r a primary English-medium scheme f o r teaching children i n English from Primary.I onwards. He prepared three books, the f i r s t two of which were lessons i n oral English f o r teachers to use i n teaching the f i r s t two years of English. -94-In addition, he helped to supervise the scheme which grew from 10,000 to 50,000 p u p i l s . He worked with group supervisors to improve t h e i r l e v e l of supervision and inspection of schools, and gave radio t a l k s f o r teachers. A comment from one of the advisers overseas provides somewhat wise insight into the adviser's r o l e : Many advisers to underdeveloped countries have a vaguely designated assignment at best, so unless the sleeves are r o l l e d up, advising i s forgotten, and some good p r a c t i c a l work i s done, the job runs into seat warming.... I was involved i n so much (even to supervising carpenters) that the task never seemed to end. In summary, considerable overlapping, or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s i m i l a r educational tasks, i s evident i n the educational contributions of External A i d and CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria and Sarawak - i n the classroom teaching at most l e v e l s i n most of the core subjects, and i n some of the additional subjects; i n many extr a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ; and i n the extra professional tasks of preparation of s y l l a b i , heading academic departments, and in-service t r a i n i n g . Limited overlapping i s also to be taken note of i n the case of teacher t r a i n e r s (two from CUSO i n Nigeria, and one i n Sarawak, though the Sarawak primary supervisor was working under the d i r e c t i o n of an External Aid advisor), and group headmasters (one from CUSO i n Sarawak). CHAPTER V PERSONAL INTERACTION: LOCAL AND INTERNATIONAL Canadian teachers overseas are l i k e l y to es t a b l i s h friendships and working relationships among both the l o c a l and international communities. Leisure and working time assoc-i a t i o n s could conceivably a s s i s t the Canadian teacher to make a greater contribution. External Aid and CUSO teachers were asked to estimate the proportion of t h e i r l e i s u r e time they spent with Europeans and with l o c a l Africans or Asians. A study of the range of r e p l i e s f o r each role category indicates that the External Aid category i n Nigeria revealing the greatest range was secondary teachers; at least one spent 100 percent of h i s l e i s u r e time with Europeans, while another spent 90 percent with Africans. The CUSO category showing the greatest range i n Nigeria also was secondary teachers; at l e a s t one spent 90 percent of h i s time with Europeans compared with another who spent 99 percent of h i s with A f r i c a n s . External Aid secondary teachers, teacher t r a i n e r s and p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak reported a wide range i n t h e i r associations; one p r i n c i p a l spent 75 percent of h i s l e i s u r e time with Europeans, while another spent 95 percent of hi s with Asians. One CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak spent 95 percent of h i s time with Europeans, another 95 percent with Asians. (See Table XXV.) -95-- 9 6 -TABLE XXV RANGE OF LEISURE TIME SPENT WITH  EUROPEANS. AFRICANS OR ASIANS (expressed i n percentages) NIGERIA SARAWAK Ex Aid CUSO Ex A id CUSO Lth :tropeans With Africans Lth iropeans With Africans .th iropeans CQ C Si as -P - H .th iropeans , CQ Si as -P -H Is &q With Africans With Africans •H CQ ;rj CQ Category Primary teacher - - — -4O-65 35-60 - — _ -Secondary teacher 10-100 0-90 1-90 10-99 20-90 10-80 5-95 5-95 Teacher t r a i n e r 50-90 10-50 33-60 40-67 10-80 20-90 70* -30* Group headmaster - - - — 5-40 6O-95 30* 70* P r i n c i p a l - - 50* 50* 5-75 30-95 - -Advi ser 20-99 1-80 - - - - - -Indicates but a single teacher i n each category, that i s the CUSO Teacher t r a i n e r spent 70% of h i s time i n Sarawak with Europeans and 30% with Asians. -97-A l l the Canadian teachers studied, with the single exception of the CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria, indicated that they had gained benefits from both t h e i r l o c a l and European l e i s u r e -time associations which helped t h e i r professional contributions. (See Tables XXVI A , B, C & D.) The average CUSO teacher i n each country spent more l e i s u r e time with the l o c a l people than the average External Aid teacher - i n Sarawak, approximately 10 percent more, and i n Nigeria approximately 20 percent-more.-In Sarawak the average teacher from both agencies spent s l i g h t l y more l e i s u r e time with Asians than with Europeans; i n Nigeria, l e s s time with Africans than with Europeans. Important i s the fac t that the average External Aid teacher i n Nigeria spent 70 percent of h i s time with Europeans. Despite t h i s f a c t , both agencies i n Nigeria indicated that t h e i r associations with Africans helped t h e i r contribution more than t h e i r assoc-i a t i o n s with Europeans. There was approximately 25 percent more help from Europeans recognized by CUSO teachers i n Nigeria than by External A i d . The majority of External A i d secondary teachers i n Sarawak said.that t h e i r contacts with. Asians more meaningfully enhanced t h e i r .contribution than did t h e i r contacts with Europeans. However, though the average CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak spent approximately 12 percent more l e i s u r e time with l o c a l people than did h i s counterpart i n A f r i c a , and 21 percent more than h i s External Aid counterpart i n Sarawak, -98-TABLE-XXVI A , PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT, WITH. .EUROPEANS AND AFRICANS (expressed i n percentages) NIGERIA-- External Aid Helped professional contributions (YES/NO) Category- N* - YES NO Time With Europeans YES NO Time With Africans Secondary teacher 40 50 50 71 60 40 29 Teacher t r a i n e r 21 .71 29 . 72 81. 19 28 Adviser 4 75 25 52 100 - 48 Averages 65 59 42 70 69 31 30 N = actual number of teachers. TABLE XXVI B PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT WITH EUROPEANS AND AFRICANS (expressed i n percentages) NIGERIA. . CUSO ' - ' • • Helped professional contributions (YES/NO) Category N* - YES "NO |ime With Europeans YES ' NO ' Time With Africans Primary teacher . 3 33 . 6 ? 52 100 48 Secondary teacher - 35 . . 77 24 50 85 - 15 50 Teacher t r a i n e r 2 50 50' 47 100 mm 54 P r i n c i p a l 1 100 50 100 50 " Averages- 41 70 30 50 $7 13 50 U = actual number of teachers. -99-TABLE XXVI C PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT WITH EUROPEANS AND ASIAN'S (expressed i n percentages) SARAWAK.. Externai Aid Helped professional contributions (YES/NO) Category. N* YES NO Time With Europeans YES NO Time" With Asians Secondary teacher 18 S i 19 58 94 6 42 Teacher t r a i n e r 9 89 11 49 100 _ 51 Group headmaster 4 75 25 16 100 — 84 P r i n c i p a l 7 43 57 44 86 14 56 Averages 38 75 25 49 94 6 51 XN - actual number of teachers. TABLE XXVI D PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT WITH EUROPEANS AND ASIANS (expressed i n percentages) SARAWAK' CUSO Helped professional contributions (YES/NQ) Category N YES NO Time With Europeans YES NO Time With Asians Secondary teacher 23 79 21 35 66 35 65 Teacher trainer. 1 100 - 70 100 _ 30 Group headmaster 1 100 — 30 100 70 Averages 30 87 19 36 68 32 64 N = actual number of teachers. -100-20 percent fewer of those i n Sarawak- than of those i n A f r i c a said association with l o c a l people helped t h e i r contribution. The average CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak indicated 14 percent more help from h i s European associations than from Asians. "Most Canadian teachers from both agencies commented that t h e i r l e i s u r e time associations with Africans or Asians provided them with invaluable insights into the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l back-grounds of t h e i r students which helped them to r e l a t e t h e i r course materials to t h e ' l o c a l customs and practices. Under-standing of l o c a l outlooks, t r a d i t i o n s , taboos, morality, I.<:: humour, art, problems, worries, cares and t r i b a l animosities a l l helped, the teacher to become more tolerant and patient, and to concentrate h i s attention on areas of need. One CUSO teacher stated that his experience with l o c a l people gave him 'under-standing and examples f o r more sensitive classroom discussions'. With l o c a l teachers, Canadians discussed various aspects of education, the educational backgrounds of pupils, and they gained unique points of view about special" l o c a l needs i n teaching from the previous experience of l o c a l teachers. One CUSO volunteer commented, "Some were inspired teachers who inspired me." One CUSO secondary teacher i n each country stated warmly that h i s l o c a l p r i n c i p a l helped him very much with ordinary teaching problems and d i s c i p l i n e . Another CUSO teacher with a more inexperienced teaching s t a f f said that h i s associations with l o c a l teachers on the s t a f f provided a -101-"common ground of heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with l i t t l e experience which made advice and discussion l e s s t h e o r e t i c a l " . An External Aid teacher found that l o c a l teachers "can illuminate from t h e i r own experiences the d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n learning English, and developing foreign thought processes and concepts." Several indicated that an understanding of the l o c a l language gave insight into the special problems involved i n teaching English and French and helped to create bonds of respect and assistance, making the teacher more acceptable to the l o c a l people. Geography, Biology and History teachers indicated that they received valuable information i n t h e i r subject f i e l d s from l o c a l people, such as a knowledge of A f r i c a n f l o r a and fauna, l o c a l attitudes towards many animals, and material f o r the preparation of a classroom text i n h i s t o r y . Group headmasters i n Sarawak indicated that the active support of the l o c a l people was essential f o r the performance of t h e i r duties. One reported that by mixing f r e e l y with, and actually l i v i n g among the various t r i b e s , he began to appreciate the way that they looked at things, and to understand the reasons f o r certain school problems which he encountered. One External Aid adviser commented that l o c a l assoc-iatio n s helped him to relate h i s endeavours more r e a l i s t i c a l l y to p r i o r i t i e s , and his friends acquainted him with t h e i r own outlook towards the role of the European i n t h e i r country. -102-'1 An External Aid teacher-trainer neatly expressed" the need to understand the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l milieu within which the teacher works: . • A stranger just'cannot a r r i v e i n a strange, foreign country and expect to be successful i n the classroom -' a f t e r a l l , Education- i s L i f e ! Both CUSO and External Aid teachers gained profession-a l l y from t h e i r European associations,' though there were important differences. The majority of comments from CUSO secondary teachers indicated that they were large l y concerned with the exchange of p r a c t i c a l information and ideas to a s s i s t them- with t h e i r teaching tasks. With Europeans they shared t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s and problems, and from them they gained suggestions f o r solutions, encouragement arid moral • support. From experienced teachers they received invaluable professional advice - about syllabus requirements, about the l o c a l education system, teaching methods, texts, equipment and-teaching aids. With other volunteers they discussed how things were handled i n t h e i r schools which helped them to reassess what they were doing, es p e c i a l l y i n very Isolated areas. With other volunteers they also exchanged teaching" methods and ideas. One CUSO' volunteer received assistance from Europeans i n l i b r a r y organ-i z a t i o n and obtaining l i b r a r y supplies; another i n co-ordinating science courses; a t h i r d i n extr a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . A CUSO teacher of French" reported that European associations • provided him with the opportunity to speak i n French occasion-r l 0 3 -External Aid teachers' comments seemed to indicate that they sought from Europeans, not so much p r a c t i c a l teaching suggestions, but rather a broader int e r p r e t a t i o n of the culture, and a more t h e o r e t i c a l understanding of the education system. Individual External Aid secondary teachers reported that they gained from Europeans understanding of the B r i t i s h system of education, of the history, economy, geology and s o i l s of the l o c a l area, and of the duties and obligations of expatriate teachers. Others gained assistance i n connection with resources f o r t h e i r teaching, such as advice on obtaining biology specimens, and speakers f o r a weekly school lecture s e r i e s . Others gained from membership i n professional associations, from 'very rewarding' discussions with heads of .departments sent by UNESCO, from discussion with Education-Department o f f i c i a l s , and from co-operation with teachers w r i t i n g new t e x t -books and planning new s y l l a b i . . External Aid teacher-trainers learned about the previous development of l o c a l education, and methods of teaching English as a second language from Europeans.-, Some were stimulated by . ideas from'professionals and enthusiastic amateurs': We had stimulating conversations with fellow Canadians about education. In Sarawak we a l l seemed keenly interested i n t r y i n g new methods to improve our contribution. Group headmasters i n Sarawak stated that government o f f i c e r s provided valuable assistance and information on t h e i r l o c a l d i s t r i c t s , t r a v e l problems, v i l l a g e problems, and l o c a l disputes. From medical and a g r i c u l t u r a l personnel some learned - 1 0 4 -about local"problems, and were thus able to provide a better service to the people. With professionals and volunteers they discussed the development of primary school plans and programs. P r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak reported that discussions with professional and volunteer European teachers f a c i l i t a t e d the exchange of ideas and programming i n t h e i r schools. Advisers to Nigeria indicated that they had informal consultations with European colleagues about education. Some received 5good advice i n special f i e l d s . One reported that Europeans provided him with examples of what Africans did or did not l i k e i n Europeans. His European associations 'helped to d i s t inguish those who went f o r commercial and educational and denominational purposes, and how d i f f e r e n t they were.* U t i l i z a t i o n of Community Resources Teachers i n Nigeria and' Sarawak sometimes made use of the services of in d i v i d u a l s from the l o c a l and inte r n a t i o n a l communities, or of the resources of l o c a l and inte r n a t i o n a l agencies within the country of service, i n order to add enrich-ment to t h e i r educational endeavours. Some resources, such as public recreational f a c i l i t i e s , are completely controlled by l o c a l people, and others, such as the B r i t i s h Council, are c u l t u r a l agencies of foreign govern-ments. However, i t i s not always possible to make such a clear d i s t i n c t i o n between l o c a l and international agencies when developing countries are i n t r a n s i t i o n from colonialism to -105-nationhood. For example, l o c a l c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s such as museums and l i b r a r i e s , educational i n s t i t u t i o n s as teacher t r a i n i n g colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s , government departments and ., agencies l i k e medical and a g r i c u l t u r a l services, and industries often are staffed and supervised by both l o c a l and international personnel. Thus, f o r the purposes of the following,discussion, a l l those resources within the host country which were used by teachers f o r the enrichment of t h e i r work w i l l be termed 'community resources'. The data show that of a l l the secondary teachers i n Nigeria and Sarawak combined during the period 1957-67, 38 percent of External Aid, and 37 percent of CUSO teachers made use of some community resources to help them i n t h e i r work. The percentages of secondary teachers who used community resources i n each country were! External Aid CUSO Nigeria . 38 percent 33 percent Sarawak 39 percent 41 percent The percentages f o r External Aid teachers i n each country are r e l a t i v e l y comparable; however, 8 percent more CUSO secondary teachers i n Sarawak than i n Nigeria made use of community resources. A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of those resources used by Canadian secondary teachers, together with the t o t a l percentage of teachers from each agency who used each type of resource, shows that international c u l t u r a l agencies were used by almost three -106-times as many External Aid secondary teachers as CUSO. The "B r i t i s h Council, United States Information Service, Canadian High Commission and the Attache Culturel Ambassade de France i n Dahomey provided films, f i l m s t r i p s , reference books, t e x t -books, l i b r a r y displays and records. In one case i n Nigeria, a United States Information Service clerk typed the school newspaper, and i n Sarawak, the B r i t i s h Council provided one teacher with a piano examiner. (See Table XXVII.) Local c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s were used by three times as many secondary teachers from both agencies i n Sarawak as i n Nigeria. Some used the l o c a l l i b r a r y f o r reference material, l i b r a r y projects, films, and obtained advice from the l i b r a r i a n about organization of the school l i b r a r y . Others used the museum f o r resource materials and student v i s i t s . One made use of the town h a l l f o r a music f e s t i v a l ; another, the abattoir f o r demonstrations of mammalian anatomy and parasitology, and the market as a source of fresh material f o r dissection (frogs, s n a i l s , chickens, etc.) One teacher borrowed equipment such as music instruments and amplifiers from a l o c a l club. Other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s were used only by teachers i n Nigeria. U n i v e r s i t i e s were useful f o r teachers' conferences and the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of teachers' manuals; f o r Geography Department consultations and reference; f o r lectures from the Fine Arts Department and the l i b r a r y s t a f f ; f o r English poetry classes i n the l i b r a r y ; f o r drama and musical performances which the students attended; f o r evaluation of a school l i b r a r y ; -107-TABLE XXVII UTILIZATION OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES BY SECONDARY TEACHERS (expressed i n percentages) NIGERIA .SARAWAK TOTAL Resource ExAid N* CUSO N ExAid M CUSO N ExAid N CUSO N International Cultural agencies 25 10 11 4 22 4 4 1 24 14 B 5 Local C u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s a 3 6 2 22 4 17 5 12 7 11 7 Other Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s 18 7 11 4 12 7 6 4 Industries 13 5 6 2 11 2 _ 12 7 3 2 Local Citizens 5 2 3 1 11 2 10 3 7 4 6 4 Government Departments & agencies 5 2 11 4 6 1 4 1 5 3 a 5 Medical Personnel _ ~ 9 3 11 2 4 .2 5 3 Public Recreational f a c i l i t i e s 3 1 6 2 21 6 2 1 13 a Armed Forces 3 1 - 6 1 7 2 4 2 3 2 Places of H i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t 3 1 2 1 XN = actual number of teachers. -108-and f o r the supply of le c t u r e r s who were inv i t e d to a school. An Advanced Teacher Training College loaned English pattern practice tapes, provided speakers to a school, and arranged exchange meetings of students. Other secondary schools provided speakers and arranged exchange meetings. One Government College provided a CUSO teacher with advice on equipment and s y l l a b i . Helpful advice on subject teaching was provided by Science, French and Library teachers' associations. Industries were used by more than three times as many External Aid teachers as CUSO. Students v i s i t e d rubber plant-ations, a show factory, a brewery, and an e l e c t r i c company. Some industries provided speakers to schools. One provided fil m s ; another welded science club projects. One External Aid teacher s o l i c i t e d jobs i n industry f o r h i s technical school graduates. Local c i t i z e n s were employed equally by External Aid and CUSO teachers. A carpenter made posts and backboards, and a fisherman made nets f o r a basketball court. Local c i t i z e n s refereed sports meets. One person taught dances and s k i l l s to G i r l Guides; another assisted i n making a school banana plant-ation. A c i t i z e n with a car helped with emergency transport-ation and communications f o r students i n a r u r a l area of Nigeria. A garage mechanic loaned gear boxes and tools f o r ins t r u c t i o n i n the application of physical p r i n c i p l e s . A Chinese musician lectured on Chinese music, and gave a demon-stration of Chinese musical instrument playing. A Chinese -109-launch operator gave special rates f o r student t r i p s . C i v i l servants and ind i v i d u a l s from the inte r n a t i o n a l community provided speakers f o r a weekly lecture s e r i e s . Government departments and agencies were used most by CUSO teachers i n Nigeria. Classes were taken on - v i s i t s to see educational broadcasting, a water p u r i f i c a t i o n plant, an a g r i -c u l t u r a l college, and -an agriculture development farm. Advice was sought from a Ministry of Agriculture Extension Staff about gardening. Printed materials were obtained from the Ministry of Information, and topographical maps from the Surveys Department. Speakers were provided by the Department of Agriculture to 4H Club meetings, and by the Police Department. Government surveys of geology were used f o r f i e l d t r i p s and mapping. The Ministry of Education provided trucks fo r the outing of a Nigerian French class to Dahomey. Public recreational f a c i l i t i e s were u t i l i z e d " almost e n t i r e l y by CUSO teachers, es p e c i a l l y i n Sarawak. The stadium, playground and municipal f i e l d were used f o r sports, races and parades; the"municipal pool and courts, f o r swimming and tennis. One volunteer borrowed hockey sticks from a l o c a l youth club, and arranged matches f o r h i s student's with members of the youth club. Another volunteer used the v i l l a g e boat f o r student t r i p s . Medical personnel were used only by CUSO teachers i n Nigeria and External Aid teachers i n Sarawak. They were c a l l e d upon f o r attention to student needs, f o r lectures on dental -110-care and diet, and f o r Red Cross nursing i n s t r u c t i o n f o r G i r l Guides and Boy Scouts. One teacher obtained specimens f o r biology from a hospit a l , and another took h i s ..students to tour a h o s p i t a l . The services of - the armed forces were s o l i c i t e d equally by teachers from both agencies, but predominantly i n Sarawak.. They provided transportation, maps, swimming and l i f e - s a v i n g lessons, speakers, k id i n building basketball courts, and jobs f o r students. One teacher took h i s class on v i s i t s to h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s . Obviously, community resources available to the teacher have varied,-probably d i r e c t l y i n r e l a t i o n to his proximity to an urban centre. The time and energy l e f t to the teacher a f t e r the completion of,his regular duties and h i s own ingenuity have, no-doubt, also helped to determine the extent to which he was able t o , u t i l i z e f a c i l i t i e s outside the school f o r the benefit of his students. • Teacher t r a i n e r s i n both countries u t i l i z e d many of the same resources as .secondary teachers -.government departments and agencies, industries, international and l o c a l c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , and other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . One teacher trainer, i n Nigeria took-his students to v i l l a g e s to study the geographical setting and factors r e l a t i n g to v i l l a g e l i f e , and to markets to study the economic geographical aspects of trade i n an- urban setting. A teacher t r a i n e r in.Sarawak arranged v i s i t s for. h i s ,students to government and.military e s t a b l i s h -ments, to port f a c i l i t i e s , the airport, and places of h i s t o r i c a l -111-and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t such as the government-buildings and-a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n area f o r refugees. Another took h i s students to art exhibitions. A CUSO teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria made use of primary school teachers and university students on vacation to organize community home economics and c h i l d care classes. She also arranged f o r v i l l a g e age group associations to-teach s p e c i f i c songs and dances to the school music and drama society, and f o r the public l i b r a r y mobile van to -call at her. teacher t r a i n i n g establishment twice monthly. Group headmasters i n Sarawak depended a great deal upon : l o c a l c i t i z e n s to provide labour and materials to repair older schools and b u i l d new ones. V i l l a g e leaders provided a s s i s t -ance-in promoting the cause of education. Local money bought school equipment and materials. Government departments provided information and supplies f o r gardens and fishponds, f a c i l i t i e s f o r blue p r i n t i n g and dra f t i n g school building plans, transportation, tree seedlings, medical information, and, i n one case, the use of l o c a l radio f a c i l i t i e s to establish radio communication with schools. -The army and a i r force provided transportation by boat and helicopter to and from border schools during confrontation, materials and supplies f o r r u r a l schools, communications, and i n one case, kerosene. One group headmaster reported assistance from missionaries i n the form of supplies- and transport. P r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak indicated that they u t i l i z e d government medical and a g r i c u l t u r a l services, l o c a l and I -112-International c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , industries and the armed forces. One reported an extensive medical program f o r h i s school, -which included complete school t e s t i n g f o r TB, twice-yearly v i s i t s to the school by a dental o f f i c e r f o r extractions and arrangements f o r f i l l i n g s , and treatment, f o r hookworms. The CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria obtained a movie projector and fi l m s from USAID and the Peace Corps. International Cooperation Canadian teachers abroad commonly f i n d that they are working with educators from a number of other.countries - on the same s t a f f i n a secondary school or a teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , or i n other facets of educational endeavours. In order to discover the extent of External Aid and CUSO teachers' international associations at work, each teacher was asked to l i s t the t o t a l number of non-Nigerian and non-Sarawakian educators with whom he worked on the same s t a f f or i n other educational endeavours, to name the agencies which "sponsored them, and t h e i r countries of o r i g i n . The following abbreviations are used f o r p a r t i c u l a r agencies: -"SCAAP The Special Commonwealth A f r i c a Assistance Plan. Under t h i s plan professional teachers are recruited and sent by Commonwealth governments, including Canadian External Aid teachers i n Nigeria. - i i 3 -VSO . Voluntary Service Overseas. B r i t i s h grammar or tech-n i c a l school graduates without university t r a i n i n g . GVSO Graduate Voluntary Service Overseas. B r i t i s h university graduates, usually without teaching experience. "' PCV Peace Corps volunteers. »A wide mixture of graduates and non-graduates, with and without teaching experience. VSA Voluntary Service Abroad. - New Zealand volunteers. AVA Australian Voluntary Association. An index was derived of the amount of cooperation of the average Canadian teacher with teachers from other i n t e r -national agencies, based upon the differences i n numbers of teachers from each agency with whom the average Canadian teacher worked. For example, the t o t a l number of Peace Corps volunteers with whom External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria indicated they worked was divided by the t o t a l number of teaching years of External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria, y i e l d i n g the index- '1' (Table XXVII! A); t h i s figure may generally be interpreted to mean that the average External Aid teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria worked each teaching year with one Peace Corps volunteer. •• . -The data reveal that the average Canadian teacher i n a l l categories from both agencies i n both countries had at lea s t one colleague.drawn- from the international community. (Tables XXVIII A, B, C & D.)-Expatriate contract o f f i c e r s were the largest group encountered by External Aid and CUSO secondary teachers i n both countries. (Table XXIX.) TABLE XXVIII A INTERNATIONAL COLLEAGUES OF CANADIAN TEACHERS IN NIGERIA NIGERIA External Aid Category- SCAAP CUSO VSO-GVSO PCV Expatriate Contract Teachers Other Foreign Aid Missionaries European Wives of Government Employees Total Secondary teacher .8 .1 .7 1.4 3.2 ' .8 .01^ - 6.9 Teacher t r a i n e r .4 . l ' .4 1.0* 1.5 1.3 - - 4.7 £ •p-i Adviser : The average Canadian External Aid teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria, worked each teaching year with one Peace Corps Volunteer. A l l other fig u r e s are r e l a t i v e . included to aid comparison with CUSO i n Nigeria TABLE XXVIII B INTERNATIONAL COLLEAGUES OF CANADIAN TEACHERS IN NIGERIA NIGER: [A CUSO Category SCAAP CUSO VSO-GVSO PCV Expatriate Contract Teachers Other Foreign Aid Missionaries European Wives of Government Employees Total Primary teacher J _ — — — — .6 1.6 2.2 Secondary teacher _ .2 .4 .6 1.7* .1 .7 _ 3.8 i M H 1.3 T Teacher t r a i n e r - — - - - - 1.3 — P r i n c i p a l - - .5 • 5 • 5 - - - 1.5 The average CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria worked each teaching year with more than one expatriate contract teachers. A l l other figures are r e l a t i v e . Included to aid comparison with External Aid i n Nigeria. TABLE XXVIII C INTERNATIONAL COLLEAGUES OF CANADIAN TEACHERS IN SARAWAK SARAWAK External Aid Category Colombo Plan CUSO VSO CUSO PCV VSA AVA Expatriate Contract Teachers Missionaries Total Secondary teacher 1.0 .3 1.0* 1.4 • .2 J 1.5 J 5-3 Teacher t r a i n e r 2.4 .6 .1 1.3 .03 - 1.1 - 5-4 Group headmaster .4 .2 ..5 .5 - - - -i 1.6 o 1 P r i n c i p a l .1 .1 1.0 .6 .6 - .6 - 3.1 Adviser - 1.0 - 75.0 - - - - 76.0 The average Canadian External Aid secondary teacher i n Sarawak worked each teaching year with one B r i t i s h volunteer. A l l other figures are r e l a t i v e . Included to aid comparison with CUSO i n Sarawak. TABLE XXVIII D INTERNATIONAL COLLEAGUES OF CANADIAN TEACHERS IN SARAWAK SARAWAK CUSO Category Colombo Plan CUSO vso CUSO PCV VSA AVA Expatriate Contract Teachers Missionaries Total Secondary teacher .6 • 4 .5 1.2* .1 .02^ 1.4 .05 4.2 Teacher t r a i n e r 1.0 - - - 21.5 - - - - 22.5 i H Group headmaster 3-5 1.0 1.0 3.0 - - 3.0 2.5 14.0 I—1 -<J 1 3£ The average Canadian CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak worked each teaching year with more than one Peace Corps Volunteer. A l l other figures are r e l a t i v e . Included to aid comparison with other volunteers. - l i o -TABLE XXIX EXPATRIATE CONTRACT COLLEAGUES OF CANADIAN SECONDARY TEACHERS • (Nationality and Numbers) NIGERIA SARAWAK Nationality Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO B r i t i s h 174 53 3 7 Indian 40 29 35 37 Other African $ - _ South Af r i c a n 6 6 Pakistani 6 3 - _ Ceylonese 5 1 1 -Australian 3 - — 9 American 3 4 1 French 2 - _ Ghanaian 1 - _ New Zealand 1 - _ Jamaican 1 - _ I r i s h 1- 5 _ Danish 1 - _ Greek - 1' Canadian - - 1 Singaporean - - 1 3 Malayan - - 1 _ Taiwanese - - 11 2 Mainland Chinese - - 6 2 -119-The largest number of expatriate contract teachers with whom Canadian secondary teachers i n Sarawak worked was Indian. Worthy of note i s the extensive range of n a t i o n a l i t i e s met i n Nigeria, the employment of Asian teachers i n Sarawak, and the number of Af r i c a n teachers i n Nigeria from other African countries. The average Canadian secondary teacher i n both countries worked with more than one Peace Corps volunteer per year, except f o r CUSO teachers i n Nigeria, who worked with l e s s than one. External Aid secondary teachers i n both Nigeria and Sarawak worked with other professional teachers under SCAAP and Colombo Plan more than did CUSO secondary teachers, none of whom worked with SCAAP teachers i n Nigeria. More CUSO second-ary teachers i n Nigeria worked with missionaries than any other group of Canadian secondary teachers. External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s i n Sarawak worked with more international educational personnel than d i d those i n Nigeria - i n Sarawak, mostly with Colombo Plan personnel as well as with Peace Corps volunteers and expatriate contract teacher t r a i n e r s ; i n Nigeria, External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s worked mostly with expatriate contract teacher t r a i n e r s and other foreign a id (44 American, 6 B r i t i s h Council, 1 Unesco, and 1 I.L.O.) The two CUSO teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria worked only with missionaries ( I r i s h nuns); the one CUSO teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak worked as a Group Supervisor of primary schools, together with a large number of Peace Corps volunteers, a l l under the d i r e c t i o n of a Canadian External Aid advisor. -120-External Aid p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak had a varied assort-ment of teachers on t h e i r s t a f f s - Colombo Plan, expatriate contract, and volunteer teachers, but predominantly B r i t i s h volunteers. • Group headmasters i n Sarawak, though not usually working d i r e c t l y with other foreign a i d personnel, had contacts and exchanged information with quite a number of them. Two External Aid advisers i n Nigeria, working as- a team immediately a f t e r Nigerian independence, had contacts with B r i t i s h and Unesco education o f f i c e r s . Another adviser establishing a French language centre f o r in-service t r a i n i n g , and one establishing a primary teachers' in-service education centre, had contacts with American and B r i t i s h personnel and agencies, as well as professional and volunteer teachers. The External Aid adviser i n Sarawak supervised the work of primary Group Supervisors, including one CUSO teacher and a large number of Peace Corps volunteers. Cooperation of Canadian Teachers with International  Personnel Teachers were asked-to state any special areas of-co-operation i n educational endeavours-between themselves and other in t e r n a t i o n a l personnel. Twenty percent of External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria indicated special co-operation. One teacher reported that he worked well i n many educational endeavours with. Canadian, -121-Peace Corps and I.L.O. s t a f f . Another indicated that he met . regularly with nineteen B r i t i s h VSO mathematics.teachers. One teacher organized a series of lectures f o r senior students involving other Canadian teachers, and B r i t i s h and American volunteers from the same s t a f f , as well as other international personnel from the community. One gave assistance to an English GVSO volunteer i n English and Music teaching, and also assisted Peace Corps volunteers i n English teaching. Three helped to administer the John F. Kennedy scholarship essay papers i n t h e i r areas. One worked closely with h i s Unesco head of department, and l i v e d with a B r i t i s h GVSO volunteer •, who worked i n the same school. Another made e f f o r t s to improve the library" at his school and to procure educational materials given on a voluntary basis by foreign companies and organiz-ations. - • F i f t y percent of External Aid secondary teachers i n Sarawak indicated special co-operation. Two reported that they co-operated at a l l l e v e l s with B r i t i s h VSO and Peace Corps fellow teachers on special projects and on f i e l d t r i p s . Another stated that the international personnel on his s t a f f worked together 'doing s i m i l a r jobs, or jobs which overlapped or complemented each other'. One teacher worked closely with Peace Corps volunteers and with Overseas Chinese on some projects. Another assisted ah Indian teacher with h i s science exhibition. A Peace Corps o f f i c e r was he l p f u l i n sharing v i s u a l a i d equipment and fi l m s with one Canadian teacher. -122-A teacher helped a non-graduate volunteer with no experience with teaching procedures, techniques and exam setting. Another worked with the New Zealand Curriculum Team on English and Music s y l l a b i f o r junior secondary schools* One indicated that B r i t i s h VSO's assisted him i n teaching English. 43 percent of CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria reported co-operation, mostly with other volunteers. With B r i t i s h VSO and GVSO volunteers they held j o i n t in-country orientation, and participated i n several, in-service teacher t r a i n i n g courses. One CUSO volunteer indicated a close l i a i s o n between himself and a Peace Corps volunteer with whom he shared a house and teaching aids. Another worked with a-Peace Corps volunteer by getting books from Canada f o r her school l i b r a r y . One indicated that the Peace Corps was h e l p f u l i n supplying equipment f o r h i s school. CUSO teachers worked co-operatively with Peace Corps volunteers and B r i t i s h volunteers i n preparing s y l l a b i , teaching materials, exchange of examination questions, supplementary texts f o r students and l i b r a r y books. One obtained assistance from the B r i t i s h Council i n the teaching of English; another stated that voluntary agencies a l l shared ideas on the teaching of English as a second language. One CUSO teacher indicated that he shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r supervision at the school with a Peace Corps volunteer and a B r i t i s h contract o f f i c e r . Another co-operated with a Peace Corps volunteer i n making simple inexpensive equipment and simple class experiments f o r a science course. One CUSO secondary -123-teacher i n Nigeria stated that he received advice and assistance from more experienced External Aid and Unesco s t a f f . 41 percent of CUSO secondary teachers i n Sarawak stated . that they co-operated with other i n t e r n a t i o n a l personnel i n special endeavours. One planned h i s work i n health science i n co-operation with a biology teacher; another organized a science course with a Peace Corps volunteer who was to oversee the continuation of h i s projects a f t e r he l e f t . Another was greatly assisted i n drama by B r i t i s h VSO. and Peace Corps s t a f f members. A CUSO teacher helped sponsor a 4H Club with Peace Corps volunteers from a school one hour away. One did l i b r a r y work with another CUSO volunteer. Three reported co-operation with Colombo Plan personnel. One received advice on teaching problems.from two.Colombo Plan personnel i n a nearby school. Two co-operated with an Australian Colombo Plan s p e c i a l i s t i n developing teaching notes f o r l o c a l teachers f o r teaching English as a Second Language. Two CUSO volunteers from the same school stated that there was personal-co-operation on the sta f f , but because of poor leadership at the school/,co-operation within the.school was non-existent. Special co-operation i n the educational f i e l d was reported by 48.percent of External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s -in Nigeria. Three stated that USAID provided or loaned v i s u a l aids, teaching materials and sports.equipment. The B r i t i s h Council provided one teacher t r a i n e r with a place f o r debates; another stated that the B r i t i s h were valuable i n curriculum -1-24-i development. USAID a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r s were help f u l i n arranging tours, providing speakers f o r one class, and arranging a short course. One teacher t r a i n e r said that a Peace Corps s t a f f member co-operated with him. i n teaching Science and English, while another worked with the Peace Corps i n in-service t r a i n i n g . One teacher t r a i n e r , together with a B r i t i s h Council o f f i c i a l and a man from the International Labour Organization (I.L.O.) founded a United Nations Assoc-i a t i o n with wide international and Nigerian membership. Other teacher t r a i n e r s indicated co-operation i n discussions of curriculum and syllabus work, methods and choosing materials. One worked with an English teacher t r a i n e r on admission examinations. Another made a tape-recording i n French, a permanent part of a French course, with a Belgian and another Canadian. . 56 percent of External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s i n Sarawak indicated co-operation. One worked with other Canadian Colombo Plan teacher tr a i n e r s , B r i t i s h contract o f f i c e r s and Peace Corps volunteers on an English-medium scheme. Another worked with Australian Colombo Plan.personnel, Peace Corps and CUSO volunteers on two f i l m s about language teaching. .One teacher t r a i n e r , who l a t e r became an adviser, indicated close work with Peace Corps and CUSO volunteers on an English-medium scheme; under h i s d i r e c t i o n the volunteer supervisors helped l o c a l teachers to prepare t h e i r lessons, made science apparatus and teaching aids, and conducted vacation courses. -125-one teacher t r a i n e r received co-operation from the i n t e r -national community'concerning lower primary methods and the preparation of songs f o r primary schools. Another received books from the Peace Corps. One of the two CUSO teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria expressed co-operation with missionaries i n every facet of her work, and informal co-operation with B r i t i s h GVSO and Peace" Corps volun-teer teachers at other schools. The one CUSO teacher t r a i n e r , or group supervisor, i n Sarawak shared ideas with Peace Corps volunteers, and received assistance and d i r e c t i o n from a Canadian External Aid adviser. 50 percent of group headmasters i n Sarawak under External Aid mentioned co-operation i n educational matters. Some prepared school radio broadcasts and worked with others i n teacher t r a i n i n g . The CUSO group headmaster participated with members"of the Peace Corps and the Colombo Plan (Canadian and New Zealand) on a scheme f o r the teaching of English as a second language,.and he worked with two Canadian Colombo Plan s p e c i a l i s t s on teacher refresher courses. 29 percent of External Aid secondary p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak reported co-operation. One gave assistance to the New Zealand Curriculum Team on' the English syllabus for" junior secondary schools, engaged i n in-service t r a i n i n g with the same Team, and supported the Indian science teacher i n entering exhibits f o r the f i r s t Sarawak science exhibition. One helped young B r i t i s h VSO and Peace Corps volunteers i n h i s school to -126-become better teachers, and f a c i l i t a t e d and supported the work of Canadian Colombo Plan and Indian contract teachers. Another p r i n c i p a l worked on teacher refresher courses f o r the teaching of English as a second language with Canadian and New Zealand Colombo Plan s p e c i a l i s t s and Peace Corps volunteers. The CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria worked closely with members of the -Peace Corps. Assistance from Canadian Sources A f a i r proportion of Canadian teachers i n Nigeria and Sarawak have ca l l e d upon various Canadian departments of Government, voluntary associations, organizations and private in d i v i d u a l s f o r assistance to render t h e i r contributions overseas more e f f e c t i v e . (See Table XXX.) TABLE XXX TEACHERS WHO RECEIVED SOME ASSISTANCE FROM CANADIAN SOURCES (expressed i n percentages) NIGERIA - SARAWAK Category . Ex Aid CUSO Ex Aid CUSO Primary teacher - 33 -Secondary teacher 3® 29 3 9 35 Teacher t r a i n e r 33 100 67 -Group headmaster - - 100 100 P r i n c i p a l - - 43 -Adviser 25 - - -Totals 35 32 53 35 -127-Canadian Government, assistance included National Film Board films, and books and maps about Canada and Canadians from the Off i c e of the Canadian High Commissioner i n Lagos and the Canadian Trade. Commissioner in, Singapore. The Department of Mines and Technical Surveys provided sets of topographical maps to a s s i s t classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . The External Aid Of f i c e assisted a teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak with a language labor-atory, and provided a group headmaster with l i b r a r y books, f i l m s t r i p s , projectors and screens under i t s "Small Projects" scheme. A teacher-trainer i n Nigeria described valuable assistance from the Government Scholarship Program: • The Canadian Government's scholarship program con-s t i t u t e d a perfect complement to the work of the French Department. Five of the best students were admitted to Laval University f o r pre-master's work i n French, (and a r e . s t i l l there), and f i v e more would have gone i n 1967 i f the war had not intervened. The Overseas Institute of Canada acted as a clearing house f o r the widespread shipment of new and used textbooks and l i b r a r y and reference books f o r schools and l i b r a r i e s i n Nigeria and Sarawak. One adviser i n Nigeria received books f o r each primary school l i b r a r y i n h i s area, as well as books f o r teachers' reference l i b r a r i e s and his own in-service t r a i n i n g l i b r a r y - ' A l l t o l d about two hundred tea chests were sent.' One CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria commented that the books he received were very he l p f u l and encouraging; a CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak wrote, "Many were useless from the point of view of our school's needs, but the rest were excellent and - 1 2 8 -l i t e r a l l y formed the basis of our 2 , 0 0 0 book l i b r a r y which had 1 5 0 0 books i n English and 500 i n Chinese." Another CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak commented that many of the books were of " l i m i t e d value because most books were out of date and North American i n content." A CUSO teacher-trainer i n Nigeria stated that she received excellent books fo r t h e i r l i b r a r y , " p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of teaching methods and i n science-, which were good f o r student teachers". Needed supplies were sent>by high schools and a univ-e r s i t y . A students' club at Carleton University sent money to a CUSO volunteer i n Sarawak f o r a workcamp. Science and other texts were sent from the Napanee D i s t r i c t High School, B e l l e v i l l e Collegiate I n s t i t u t e , Quebec High School, Magog High School, Mount Royal Collegiate, Glebe Collegiate I n s t i t u t e , C h u r c h i l l Secondary School i n Winnipeg, and the Winnipeg High School, while two unnamed secondary schools sent teaching aids, sample textbooks and reference books. Mount View Senior High School i n V i c t o r i a sent a shipment of National Geographic Magazines to Sarawak. . The Courtenay School Board i n B r i t i s h Columbia sent books to Sarawak, and an unnamed school board sent books and a mimeograph machine to Nigeria. P r o v i n c i a l teachers' associations assisted some of t h e i r members. The Manitoba Teachers' Society gave help to a secondary teacher i n Nigeria, and to two p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak; as well they gave books and money to a teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak, and one hundred and f i f t y d o l l a r s to a secondary - 1 2 9 -teacher i n Sarawak to a s s i s t i n l i b r a r y and science laboratory expansion. The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation provided four complete sets of lesson aids to a p r i n c i p a l i n Sarawak f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to teachers. The Ontario Public School Men's Teachers' Federation offered assistance to an External Aid teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria, but the teacher-left before the aid could be a r t i c u l a t e d . Assistance from church groups to CUSO secondary teachers i n Sarawak included money f o r books and a projector. A CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria received assistance from a women's church group, and a teacher t r a i n e r received cash to buy needed books. One CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria received 700 books from a church group, but commented that " h a l f of them should never have l e f t Canada". Another stated that "a church interested i n my work offered help, but could not see any s p e c i f i c way they could help". Another reported that a "young people's group from my hometown church raised enough money to buy a projector f o r my school, but unfortunate-l y i t ' s s t i l l s i t t i n g i n CUSO o f f i c e s i n Ottawa - f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n shipping". A church group provided an External Aid secondary teacher i n Nigeria with one hundred d o l l a r s f o r records and a player. Another women's church group gave a two-year scholarship so that an i n t e l l i g e n t Nigerian student would be able to attend Sixth Form. A men's church group-provided a three-year scholarship to a Nigerian university f o r a very bright student. -130-A CUSO primary teacher i n Nigeria who worked i n a school f o r the b l i n d received books, equipment and teaching guides from the Canadian National I n s t i t u t e f o r the Blind and The Montreal Association f o r the B l i n d . An External Aid secondary teacher i n Sarawak was sent F i r s t Aid and Home Nursing books from the St..John's Ambulance Association. A service club i n Saskatoon sent science supplies and textbooks to an External Aid teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria,- and a service club i n Barrie, Ontario, sent l i b r a r y books to a CUSO teacher t r a i n e r i n the same country. Private businesses and corporations also assisted. An e l e c t r i c firm gave assistance to an External Aid secondary teacher i n Nigeria. Book companies sent texts and novels, as well as f o r t y - f i v e books on speech and language. Two other companies sent v i s u a l aids concerning the manufacturing and d i s t r i b u t i o n of Canadian products. An automotive company provided booklets on hand-tools and power mechanics. Several Manitoba newspapers invited subscribers to send magazines to the students of Canadian teachers serving abroad* Assistance from private i n d i v i d u a l s was given to External Aid secondary teachers i n Sarawak i n the form of small amounts of money to replace students' clothing which was l o s t i n a f l o o d . Materials were provided by a Canadian music teacher to a s s i s t i n the preparation of a music teaching syllabus and song books fo r secondary schools. In Nigeria, one v i s i t i n g Canadian engineer provided a two-year scholarship to -131-enable a very promising Nigerian student to attend Sixth Form, and another supplied the same boy with bedding, clothing, and school supplies. To summarize,.interaction of Canadian External Aid and CUSO teachers with l o c a l and inte r n a t i o n a l personnel and agencies has enriched t h e i r contributions to education i n Nigeria and-Sarawak during the.period under review. Leisure time contacts with Africans or Asians were recognized as valuable by a l l the•Canadian teachers under study, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n orienting them to the needs and problems of the l o c a l culture within which they worked. Leisure time spent with . Europeans i n exchanging ideas and information was considered of some professional value by many of the,teachers, especially CUSO secondary teachers i n Sarawak. Local community resources, and.the resources, of the international community within the host country were u t i l i z e d rather.imaginatively by some External Aid and CUSO teachers i n a l l categories i n both countries to as s i s t them with t h e i r educational work. A l l the- Canadian teachers under study indicated some association with colleagues drawn from the international community, and teachers i n each category from both agencies i n the two countries reported special co-operation with them i n educational endeavours. Teachers from nearly a l l categories drew upon Canadian sources fo r p r a c t i c a l support f o r t h e i r work overseas. -132-However, i t appears from the evidence that many Canadian teachers i n situations of s i m i l a r potential i n r Nigeria or Sarawak f a i l e d to exploit resources, both within the host country and i n Canada, which might well have enhanc t h e i r contributions overseas. CHAPTER VI ASSIGNMENT AND EMOLUMENT DIFFICULTIES Canadian teachers i n developing countries sometimes experience d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adjusting to what they consider to be u n f u l f i l l e d or inappropriate job expectations, or non-f u l f i l m e n t of material contractual obligations. I t i s possible, i n some cases, that the r e s u l t i n g disappointment and f r u s t r a t i o n have helped to l i m i t the educational contribution of the teacher affected. Assignment and emolument d i f f i c u l t i e s of both External Aid and CUSO teachers i n both countries during the period under review w i l l be discussed separately i n the following pages. Assignment D i f f i c u l t i e s A l l of the primary and nursery teachers to Nigeria and the group headmasters to Sarawak indicated that t h e i r assign-ments approximated t h e i r expectations. They may therefore be excluded from t h i s discussion. Secondary teachers, the largest number of teachers i n any single role category sent by both,agencies, sometimes have rather s p e c i f i c expectations. External Aid contracts often designate a s p e c i f i c school, d e f i n i t e subjects, and an approx-imate grade l e v e l i n describing a p a r t i c u l a r secondary teacher's assignment. CUSO secondary teachers' assignments, on the other hand, are usually l e s s s p e c i f i c . (See Table XXXI.) -133--134-TABLE XXXI TERMS OF EDUCATION ASSIGNMENT OF SECONDARY TEACHERS . (expressed i n percentages). External Aid . CUSO .. . School Nigeria N* Sarawak N Nigeria N Sarawak N No Sp e c i f i c school designated i n agreement. 18 7 6 1 -. 29 10 , 52 15 S p e c i f i c school designated i n agreement 82 33 94 17 71 25 48 14 Total 100 40 100 18 100 35 100 29 Teaching Subjects. No Sp e c i f i c teaching subjects designated 3 1 11 2 54 19 ... 79. 23 S p e c i f i c Teaching .subjects -designate 2d 97 • 39 89 16 46 16 21 6 Total . 100 40 100 18 100 ...35 100 29 Grade Level . . No Sp e c i f i c Grade l e v e l : designated 65 26 72 13 80 28 83 24 Spe c i f i c Grade" l e v e l designated 35 14 28 . 5 - 20. 7 • 17 5 Total. 100 40 100 18 100 35 100 29 ;N = number of teachers. -135-Of those secondary teachers whose school, teaching subjects or grade l e v e l were s p e c i f i c a l l y indicated i n t h e i r terms of agreement, some found that t h e i r assignment expect-ations had to be modified. (Table XXXII.) TABLE XXXII MODIFICATIONS OF EDUCATION ASSIGNMENTS OF SECONDARY TEACHERS (expressed i n percentages) External Aid CUSO School Nigeria N* Sarawak N Nigeria N Sarawak N Those Not Teaching at designated school 15 5 12 2 16 4 14 2 Teaching'Subjects Those not teaching designated subjects 5 2 19 3 25 4 33 2 Grade Level Those .Not Teaching at designated l e v e l 14 2 "40 2 14 1 20 1 N = number of teachers. Of those External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria not teaching at -the designated schools - one changed hi s school because of a teachers' s t r i k e ; one had been transferred to Nigeria a f t e r the U n i l a t e r a l Declaration of Independence i n -136-Rhodesia; another was moved from a church to.a,government school because-the accommodation . i n the. former ..was not suitable f o r h i s family; the Ministry of Education arranged a transfer f o r one teacher from, a government secondary school to a College of Education; another teacher was supposed to be a French supervisor, but was required to teach secondary school instead. Two did not concentrate .their teaching on the desig-nated subject. A teacher of English taught h i s subject the f i r s t year.only, and thereafter was required to teach History; another teacher taught Art, the subject f o r which he was s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d , though h i s contract sp e c i f i e d some Chemistry and Biology. Two teachers reported that they taught beyond the l e v e l indicated i n t h e i r contracts, one i n a secondary school, and the other, as previously mentioned, i n a College.of Education. Of those External Aid secondary teachers i n Sarawak not teaching at the specified school, two had been designated as teacher-trainers, but were required to teach secondary school; thus, they taught subjects and l e v e l s not s p e c i f i e d i n t h e i r contracts.' Another teacher reported that at f i r s t he merely replaced a teacher whose subject area was completely d i f f e r e n t from h i s own, but l a t e r he was able to teach h i s own special subjects. One CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria found upon a r r i v a l that the roads to his.school were impassable, so he was posted temporarily to a c r a f t school where he taught science and - 1 3 7 -b r i c k l a y i n g ; l a t e r he was reposted and taught English and History at the appropriate secondary l e v e l . Three teachers were transferred to other schools because of c i v i l war; one was required to teach French, which he had not expected. One CUSO teacher said that the subjects indicated i n h i s agreement did not f u l f i l school needs by the time he arrived, while h i s adopted subject d i d . Another reported 'The P r i n c i p a l gave'me ' my choice of subject to teach. What he r e a l l y wanted and expected was a science teacher but I couldn't teach that.' Of those CUSO secondary teachers in'Sarawak not teaching at the designated school, one was transferred from a government t o a Chinese school; another had been assigned to a school that had not yet been constructed, and was therefore re-assigned. One teacher said that h i s job prospectus suggested-English-teaching only, but he also taught other heeded subjects; another reported that Commerce was her spec i f i e d subject, but since there already was a q u a l i f i e d Commerce teacher at the school, she taught English. One teacher taught at the junior and middle l e v e l s , though h i s job prospectus suggested senior English. °Though many CUSO secondary teachers do have some-ind i c a t i o n i n advance of the job they w i l l be doing, one teacher pointed' out the f l e x i b i l i t y required of the volunteer? ' The Sarawak Government chooses our schools based on t h e i r need as we arrive;. the_ school chooses our subjects based on t h e i r need and our a b i l i t y . Over seventy-five percent of External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria and Sarawak indicated that t h e i r assignments -138-approximated t h e i r expectations; however, f i v e i n Nigeria and two i n Sarawak found that t h e i r s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from what they had o r i g i n a l l y expected. (Table XXXIII.) TABLE XXXIII FULFILMENT OF ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS OF TEACHER TRAINERS (expressed i n percentages) External Aid CUSO Assignment Nigeria N* Sarawak N Nigeria N Sarawak N Assignment Approximated expectations 76 16 7® 7 50 1 100 1 Assignment Differed. S i g n i f i c a n t l y frcam o r i g i n a l 10 2 22 2 --Transferred 14 3 - 50 1 . -Total 100 21 100 9 100 2 . 100 1 XN - number of teachers. Three External Aid teachers i n Nigeria, o r i g i n a l l y designated as secondary teachers, were assigned to teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s instead. One indicated that he was i n i t i a l l y disappointed to learn that he was expected to teach, not to advise or suggest change; however, he commented 'this altered a f t e r about six months, possibly as I began to show a measure of competence.' Another teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria -139-f e l t t l a t he was used to 'plug a gap - a teacher i n a remote community;T An External_Aid teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak expected to do more advising and planning of work to be done i n schools instead of classroom teaching, but reported, 'However, I did the advising and syllabus work as extra duty.' Another was sent to t r a i n secondary teachers, but spent the f i r s t two years t r a i n i n g primary teachers. A male CUSO teacher t r a i n e r , whose o r i g i n a l agreement sp e c i f i e d a p a r t i c u l a r school, sp e c i f i e d subjects and grade l e v e l , spent sixteen months at a g i r l s ' school, but was transferred to a boys' t r a i n i n g college when i t closed. Two External Aid secondary p r i n c i p a l s indicated that t h e i r assignments d i f f e r e d from t h e i r o r i g i n a l expectations. (Table XXXIV.) TABLE XXXIV FULFILMENT OF ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS OF PRINCIPALS 1 expressed i n percentages) External Aid CUSO Assignment Sarawak N ' Nigeria N Assignment Approximated expectations 71 5 _ _ Assignment Differed s i g n i f i c a n t l y from o r i g i n a l expectations 29 2 100 1 Total 100 7 100 1 N = number of teachers. - 1 4 0 -One secondary p r i n c i p a l i n Sarawak expected to become p r i n c i p a i of the school at the beginning of hi s assignment, but the incumbent remained considerably longer than expected. Another was forced to evacuate the students and s t a f f from h i s school to other premises because of insurrection; the re s u l t was con-siderable l o s s of valuable teaching time, and disruption of the teaching schedule. The CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria stated that the school board seemed reluctant to l e t him take any r e a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 'The school board seemed unhappy when I began to exercise some authority which I f e l t belonged to me. They wanted a "puppet p r i n c i p a l " and I didn't see t h i s as my job.' He turned f o r assistance to the CUSO representative, and was transferred to a secondary school f o r h i s second year, where he indicated he was much happier. One adviser described the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n attempting to a s s i s t a government during the t r a n s i t i o n period from c o l o n i a l to independent administration: The Government did not know how to u t i l i z e the services of an adviser, and there was reluctance i n allowing me to v i s i t teacher t r a i n i n g centres. As I was the f i r s t adviser to be sent to Nigeria, i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r Canada to know the problem or devise solutions. I was allowed (by Canada) to do as I thought best. I was r e s t r i c t e d i n my work by the government o f f i c i a l s , and when I found any problems i t was impossible to obtain the time when o f f i c i a l s could discuss them with me. I t was the f i r s t year of independence when government services were being reorganized. I t was an 'exploratory assignment' i n many ways, with too much id l e time i n the f i r s t part of the year, and excessive detailed planning i n the second part. For the l a s t two months t h i s -141-adviser was secretary of the UNESCO Commission on the University of Lagos, which gave him opportunity to parti c i p a t e i n planning f o r teacher education. Another early adviser to Nigeria pointed but the lack of d e f i n i t i o n of hi s assignment, a f a i l i n g common to the assign-ments of many advisers to governments. A l a t e r adviser to Nigeria was o r i g i n a l l y assigned to a secondary school, but was transferred to work i n a government ministry i n hi s subject f i e l d . Teachers from both agencies i n Nigeria and Sarawak were asked to express an'opinion as to whether or not t h e i r s k i L l s were f u l l y u t i l i z e d . (See Table XXXV.). 40 percent of External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria f e l t that t h e i r s k i l l s were not f u l l y u t i l i z e d , and that they had more to o f f e r than they were requested to perform. A technical teacher wrote, 'I was better q u a l i f i e d i n general I n d u s t r i a l Arts than telecommunications engineering'. Among the Science teachers, two complained about not having had s u f f i c i e n t challenge. Both would l i k e to have taught science methods and teaching techniques at summer schools f o r teachers, and to have assisted i n curriculum development. One would l i k e to have had a free hand to organize h i s college's science department. A Mathematics teacher, who had taught senior l e v e l s i n Canada, was r e s t r i c t e d to teaching only junior forms i n Nigeria. Another, complaining of a l i g h t load, wrote that - 1 4 2 -TABLE XXXV SKILLS FULLY UTILIZED - SELF EVALUATION (expressed i n percentages) External Aid CUSO Category S k i l l s Nigeria N3 "Sarawak N Nigeria N Sarawak N Secondary teacher Yes No 60 40 24 16 50 50 9 9 54 46 19 •16 59 41 17 1 2 Total 100 40 100 18 100 35 100 29 Teacher t r a i n e r Yes No 57 43 12 9 . 89 11 8 1 50 50 1 1 100 - . 1 Total 100 21 100 9 100 2 100 1 Group headmaster Yes No - - 100 . 4 - 100 1 Total — — 100 4 — — 100 1 P r i n c i p a l . Yes No - • 86 14 6 1 100 1 -Total - 100 7 100 1. -Adviser .Yes • No . 50 . 50 2 2 100 1 - - . - -..Total 100 4 100 1 - -Total Yes 58 38 72 28 53 20 58 18 No 42 27 28 11 . 47 IS. 42 13 XN = number of teachers -143-he 'would l i k e to have had more teaching, supervision and extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s ' . To compensate f o r the lack of challenge, t h i s teacher worked part-time with the Ins t i t u t e of Education, and subsequently transferred to a university teacher t r a i n i n g department. A Geography teacher, who had hoped to a s s i s t i n some in-service t r a i n i n g , was 'simply a classroom teacher with no opportunity to t r a i n l o c a l teachers to take over'. One English teacher wrote, 'I could have taught some Form VI English because I had done so i n Canada. However, I was given only classes i n the Form I-V range to teach.' Another English teacher f e l t that he was not permitted to perform a needed service, 'My school was badly i n need of someone to reorganize and give d i r e c t i o n to the English Department'. A French teacher would have l i k e d an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n in-service t r a i n i n g . An experienced French supervisor, af t e r h i s f i r s t year, f e l t that he could have helped to organize the teaching of French f o r h i s Region, but he was given no encouragement. S t i l l another teacher of French wrote that a f t e r a short period i n a school where successful teaching was possible, he was placed i n a voluntary agency school 'whose reputation f o r slackness and poor supervision i s widely known in the area. My time there was l a r g e l y wasted. A transfer, although requested through the Ministry, was not permitted.' 50 percent of External Aid secondary teachers i n Sarawak f e l t they could have contributed more. Six teachers of English -144-would have likednmore time i n which to t r a i n teachers. One wanted more time to t r a i n teachers to teach English instead of preparing.Form V students to pass the Cambridge exam'. Another stated, 'I have never been asked to present demonstration lessons or to give seminars to other teachers of English i n the school. My duties as senior English teacher are l i m i t e d . ' Another would have preferred higher l e v e l s than Form V. Two other English teachers regretted that they were not able to t r a i n teachers. A Mathematics teacher wrote that he would l i k e to have chosen h i s own subjects and extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . 'My a c t i v i t i e s were l i m i t e d because of the p r i o r i t y of the di r e c t i n g (N.Z.) influence here.' A Geography teacher commented, 'I f e l t I was better q u a l i f i e d to teach the senior Geography and History and even English i n the school, but was not given the chance by the P r i n c i p a l (a Canadian). The person who did teach Form III Geography had had no Geography t r a i n i n g - he was interested i n I n d u s t r i a l A r t s . ' 46 percent of the CUSO teachers i n Nigeria f e l t they could have contributed more. Some experienced uneasiness over the subjects they taught. One wrote, 'As a univers i t y History major I wanted to teach History but had to teach English and French instead'. Another said, 'I was sent to teach English but because of a shortage of teachers I had to spend my time teaching French i n which I was not so p r o f i c i e n t . ' One would have preferred a higher l e v e l , 'I could have taught at a higher l e v e l than Forms I-V, while another, a lower l e v e l , 'I should -145-have been placed i n the junior forms primarily where I might have been able to give a s o l i d foundation i n Science. The older students had established set patterns of work and study. As a r e s u l t , changes-were d i f f i c u l t to implement.' S e l f -assessment was noted i n the remarks of f i v e CUSO teachers -•I lacked patience,in d i s c i p l i n e ' ; 'During terms when the school was well-staffed I f e l t that I should be doing more'; 'As -a male I could have done better i n a boys' school'; 'My contributions were only beginning when the contract period was up. I would l i k e to have continued my service beyond two years'; 'I could have contributed more i n a better organized and d i s c i p l i n e d school'; and f i n a l l y , 'Too much time, was spent sorting out palavers. With more aid (Canadian perhaps), I •could have done more at the College'. . 4 1 percent of CUSO secondary teachers i n Sarawak f e l t they could have done more, or that t h e i r s k i l l s were not f u l l y u t i l i z e d . Two seemed conscious of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t y , 'I do not f e e l anyone i n a foreign country i s made use of, except i n a very l i m i t e d way i n the academic f i e l d , since we are destined to remain foreign and. therefore very distant from our hosts.' Two would have l i k e d more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y -'Perhaps more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a Department Head or L i b r a r i a n to choose books'; and 'A p o s i t i o n of more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r example, a- second v i c e - p r i n c i p a l ' . This l a s t writer then went on- to-reveal the confidence and enthusiasm of youth when he -14-6-wrote, f I knew more about running a school and about people than the l o c a l s t a f f did. I t was f r u s t r a t i n g to see wasted ta l e n t s and time. T Individual CUSO teachers indicated they -could have made a greater contribution by - 'replacement of the Canadian Colombo Plan headmaster'; 'teaching nursing In the country'; (the l a s t writer was the holder of an R.N. and a B Sc Nursing degree.) One female CUSO secondary teacher to Sarawak wrote, 'If I had had a. l i g h t e r teaching.load I could have organized more.sports f o r the g i r l s , done a better job with G i r l Guides, helped with h o r t i c u l t u r e , and done more i n the l i b r a r y ' . 43 percent of External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s in-Nigeria f e l t t h e i r skills-were not f u l l y employed. They-gave varied responses concerning further contributions they could have made - 'By being given further r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ' ; -'Lack of materials and money'. Two indicated that much time was l o s t i n changing posting due to c i v i l war. One with university experience commented, 'Work i n the country cannot be compared with that connected with a u n i v e r s i t y . ' Another remarked that he was doing a task that -almost any teacher could have done and that there was i n fact 'no need f o r many of my s k i l l s ! ' One regretted that there had been no A f r i c a n counterpart to t r a i n f o r h i s job which he described as one that 'just f i l l e d . a gap'. Another would have,liked to teach more advanced Mathematics. One External Aid teacher t r a i n e r to Sarawak indicated a l i m i t a t i o n on h i s potential contribution, 'People here f a i l to -147-see how v i s u a l aids are important - t r a d i t i o n - cannot be changed because of administration'. A CUSO group supervisor of primary schools i n Sarawak remarked that she could have contributed more 'by being more conscientious myself. I never give as much to.a job as I could'. One secondary school p r i n c i p a l indicated that with problems of insurrection and floods, his" educational contrib-ution was not as s i g n i f i c a n t as i t could, perhaps, have been. The CUSO p r i n c i p a l to Nigeria commented, 'There was no f a u l t on the part of the Nigerians. We were just getting to know the people when we came home a f t e r our assignment'. External Aid and CUSO teachers' self-assessment of t h e i r three most important contributions overseas may be found i n Appendix No. C 1. Emolument D i f f i c u l t i e s B i l a t e r a l agreements entered into by the Canadian Government with i n d i v i d u a l governments of developing countries under the Special Commonwealth A f r i c o Assistance Plan and the Colombo Plan invariably devolve r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a f i n a n c i a l nature upon both governments. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s p e c i f i c developing countries towards t h e i r Canadian External Aid teachers include varied combinations of the following emoluments: housing, household necessities, transportation within the country at the beginning -14-8-and end of the assignment, l i v i n g allowance, car allowance, medical care, holiday time, or other s p e c i f i c benefits as may be agreed upon by both countries. S i m i l a r l y , CUSO teachers receive s p e c i f i c emoluments from t h e i r host countries, often including t h e i r s a l a r i e s , housing, medical care and other s p e c i f i c benefits. Non-fulfilment of such obligations on the part of host countries can cause embarrassment and fr u s t r a t i o n - t o the Canadian teacher, and may possibly have a r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t upon h i s educational contribution. . It i s important that the majority of teachers from both agencies did not report d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the provision of emoluments by t h e i r host governments, and that fewer CUSO teachers expressed d i f f i c u l t i e s (20 percent of a l l CUSO teachers i n Nigeria; 10 percent i n Sarawak) compared with External Aid teachers (35 percent i n Nigeria; 34 percent i n Sarawak). A few External Aid teachers i n Nigeria commented on t h e i r l o c a l government provisions i n the following manner: 'no d i f f i c u l t y ' ; 'well cared f o r ' ; 'this area very s a t i s f a c t o r y ' . One married teacher t r a i n e r with four children made the following statement: In almost six years i n Nigeria I can honestly say that I have had no major problems with the Nigerian govern-ment i n r e l a t i o n to my contract. As.you well know, fr u s t r a t i o n s are numerous, but at no time did I have to •turn to the Canadian High Commission f o r help. External Aid teachers i n Sarawak made the following comments: -149-" *no d i f f i c u l t i e s ' ; 'we were well accommodated'; 'excellent'; 'most-generous and l i b e r a l i n every respect';.'I found the l o c a l government o f f i c i a l s - B r i t i s h and Malaysian - extremely co-operative'. ' A. CUSO teacher i n Nigeria reported, 'Although deep i n the bush, I had excellent f a c i l i t i e s ' . The s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r percentages of External Aid teachers experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of housing, household necessities and medical care, may be explained p a r t l y by the fac t that most of them were married (87 percent of a l l External Aid teachers i n Nigeria, and 79 percent i n Sarawak, compared with 20 percent of CUSO teachers i n Nigeria, and 33 percent i n Sarawak.) Further, the average of a l l married External Aid teachers -in Nigeria had 1.7 children accompanying'him, • and i n Sarawak, .7 children, compared with; . none for' the average married CUSO teacher 1 i n Nigeria., and .2 i n Sarawak. ». "• . . , In Nigeria the leading d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered, by External A i d teachers were housing, household necessities .and medical care;- i n Sarawak they were housing, household neces-s i t i e s , ' c a r allowances, and transportation.• (See Table. XXXVI.) Selected examples of such d i f f i c u l t i e s follow. Married teachers with families seemed to experience the greatest hardship concerning housing. A married External Aid teacher with three children i n Nigeria wrote- the following: .-150-TABLE XXXVI NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO EXPERIENCED, EMOLUMENT. DIFFICULTIES D i f f i c u l t y : Housing Transportation in the country .Living Allowance Car Allowance Household necessities Medical care Holiday time Other NIGERIA External Aid Secondary teacher Teacher t r a i n e r Adviser 9 4 2 1 1 3 3 6 2 1 . 4 4 • 1 2 2 2 Total 15 2 - 6 9 9 4 2 NIGERIA . CUSO Primary and nursery teacher Secondary teacher Teacher t r a i n e r 1 - - - - - 5 1 Total 1 - - - - - - 6 SARAWAK External Aid Secondary teacher Teacher t r a i n e r 6 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 - * 1 . 1 .Total 10 2 1 2 3 — 1 1 SARAWAK CUSO Secondary, teacher Teacher t r a i n e r 1... 1 - - - - 2 Total 1 1 - - - - - 2 Total ExAid (both CUSO countries) 25 2 4 1 1 8 12 9 5 3 8 -151 ...state of the house was poor. L i t t l e was done despite numerous l e t t e r s and personal appeals. Most of the d i f f i c u l t y stemmed from the personality i n charge. Shortly before we l e f t there was a change i n personnel and workmen came to do the work required. We attempted to obtain s a t i s f a c t i o n through the English p r i n c i p a l of the school. He l e f t at the end of our f i r s t school year. The problem was not solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . A married secondary teacher i n Nigeria with four children reported that the housing provided was too small and had inadequate sleeping accommodation f o r h i s family. He turned f o r a solution to the l o c a l p r i n c i p a l , the l o c a l Ministry, and :the Canadian High Commission, but the problem was not solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . He commented that the d i f f i c u l t y possibly affected h i s contribution, as he was eventually transferred. '"• A married secondary teacher i n Nigeria without children was at f i r s t assigned to an unsuitable teaching and l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . He turned to the Canadian High Commission but received no help. F i n a l l y , he reports, he went out himself and found a school which needed a teacher and which had accom-modation. He states that he would have preferred 'an External Aid f i e l d representative to take care of these problems', and that i t affected h i s contribution because 'I wasted a whole month i n a hotel waiting f o r the High Commission to f i n d me a new assignment'. Another married secondary teacher i n Nigeria with two children indicated that inadequate housing supplied by a private school at the beginning of h i s assignment affected-his -152-contribution i n that unsanitary l i v i n g conditions caused i l l -ness i n h i s family, and subsequent periodic absences. He f i r s t turned f o r solution to the Canadian High Commission and then to the Nigerian i n charge of housing a l l o c a t i o n , and the problem was eventually solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Another married secondary teacher i n Nigeria with no children had no housing provided f o r f i v e and one-half months and had to l i v e i n a rest-house. The teacher turned to the Canadian High Commission, the l o c a l Ministry of Education, and then the. l o c a l housing a u t h o r i t i e s . 'The embarrassment caused by having continually to press l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to do something did not help to establish good s o c i a l relationships with them.' The teacher,suggests that an External Aid f i e l d representative, experienced i n serving i n r u r a l areas and therefore acquainted with t h i s type of problem, should be assigned to undertake to solve these d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the teacher. A married teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria said that the regional government had made no arrangements to allocate l i v i n g quarters before h i s a r r i v a l . He turned to the regional Ministry of Education. He states that he would have preferred d e f i n i t e arrangements to alloc a t e s p e c i f i c s a t i s f a c t o r y accom-modation p r i o r to h i s a r r i v a l . Two married teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria said that t h e i r housing was 'not at a l l suitable or l i v e a b l e ' . They turned to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , the regional-Ministry, and then the Canadian High Commission. They reported: -153-The Canadian representative should have returned to check a f t e r deeming our house unsatisfactory before our a r r i v a l . Arrangements took three months af t e r the f i r s t term. Affected contribution. We shared housing with"'a GVSO the f i r s t term, then waited three months i n hotels f o r posting, meanwhile not teaching. One acSwi-S'-ea* to Nigeria stated that i t was necessary to decline the f i r s t house offered. He turned to the Ministry of Education and the problem was solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . One married secondary teacher with three children i n Sarawak said that housing of proper standards was a problem i n the f i r s t four months. A married teacher t r a i n e r with one c h i l d i n Sarawak wrote! No housing f o r six months. No solution. We had to wait. We would have preferred not to have been sent to t h i s post without proper housing. I do not know i f i t affected my contribution. A secondary p r i n c i p a l said there was no provision f o r housing on a new school s i t e , and i t was l e f t to him to do a l l the arrang-ing, which was embarrassing. D i f f i c u l t i e s concerning the provision of household necessities were reported by nine External A i d teachers i n Nigeria and three i n Sarawak. A married secondary teacher with two children i n Nigeria indicated that i t was very d i f f i c u l t to obtain what h i s family needed f o r the house. He turned f o r solution to other expatriates i n the same situ a t i o n , and i t was 'more or les s * solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . He said that i t affected h i s contribution as 'many hours were wasted on v i s i t s to public works a u t h o r i t i e s ' . Another married secondary teacher commented that 'authorities provided a very poor wood stove. -154-A f t e r t h i r t y days of agitating, a gas cooker was provided. My problems were small compared to some other teachers.* A married couple, both teacher t r a i n e r s , with two children, needed time to buy food supplies i n a centre two hundred miles away; every six weeks one s t a f f member only was permitted to tr a v e l t h i s distance *to buy butter and other European foods f o r the entire European s t a f f * . Further, they were many times without water. They turned f o r assistance to Canadian author-i t i e s , but the problem was not solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . They f e l t that these problems affected t h e i r contribution, and made the following suggestion - 'Since advisers must work with the approval of the l o c a l authorities, then another position i s necessary f o r a Canadian who tr a v e l s around solving these tedious problems.* Obtaining necessary medical care was a problem f o r nine External Aid teachers i n Nigeria. One married secondary teacher with two children said that medical service was free but 'shockingly poor; one had to go to a private p r a c t i t i o n e r , a Peace Corps doctor, or anyone but the one provided'. He reported that he was fortunate i n getting to know-the Peace Corps doctor. 'We turned to the Canadian High Commission f o r assistance i n getting typhoid vaccine and gamma globulin a f t e r my wife got h e p a t i t i s but received no assistance whatever.' The problem affected h i s contribution. 'My wife's i n f e c t i o u s h e p a t i t i s and a mysterious recurring ailment which a f f l i c t e d my -155-daughter did not add to my peace of mind when f o r a time we had no: one to turn t o . 1 Obtaining customs exemptions has caused d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r some teachers. A married secondary teacher i n Nigeria with one c h i l d reported that an auto was imported free of duty f o r him, and at the time of writing the dealer had not yet received the duty he o r i g i n a l l y paid. Customs o f f i c i a l s did not accept a passport as proof of i d e n t i t y . The teacher turned to the Canadian High Commission, but the problem was not solved s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y . The teacher suggests that an o f f i c i a l l e t t e r should be given to a l l External Aid experts to f a c i l i t a t e customs clearance, and that d e f i n i t e procedures re cars be established. He states that the d i f f i c u l t y affected h i s contribution: •When a family a r r i v e s i n a country there are enough d i f f i c u l t -i e s with arranging l i v i n g accommodation and adjusting to a strange environment (not to forget adjusting to new teaching conditions and curricula) without adding f r u s t r a t i n g delays at Customs depots. 1 A married teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak with three children indicated that he had d i f f i c u l t i e s with customs exemptions a f t e r home leave. He turned f o r assistance to the Education Department., but h i s problem was not solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . When leaving the host country, one married teacher i n Nigeria was refused the normal three days at a hotel since he was at a voluntary agency schoor which supposedly could not afford i t . He turned to the Canadian High Commission which -156-^ provided the service a f t e r much protest on h i s part. A married teacher.trainer, in; Nigeria with four children indicated that h i s p r i n c i p a l and the regional education headquarters had not been informed, of h i s terms of reference. He said that the r e s t -house -was going to. law to. get t h e i r - f i v e days rent. The teacher turned to the Canadian,High Commission f o r assistance, and the problem was eventually solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . He said he would have preferred more ground work done on h i s terms of reference between l o c a l and national governments. He indicated he was the first.. Canadian i n h i s region,. and l a t e r Canadians had l e s s trouble. Obtaining t h e i r car allowance-was a problem f o r six External Aid teachers i n Nigeria, and two i n Sarawak. One married secondary•teacher i n Nigeria indicated *I would never have got it-had I not contacted a Canadian adviser at the Ministry who- helped three Canadian teachers i n our region to obtain i t . ' • -. A married teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak with one c h i l d stated that not a l l Colombo Plan advisers received the same -car allowances i n the same country; he had not received h i s car allowance four years-after leaving the country. He stated that he sought assistance from the Canadian High Commission, but the problem was not solved, and i t affected h i s contrib-ution. -A group headmaster i n Sarawak indicated that his t r a v e l l i n g allowance was cut short because of confrontation. -157-He said that i t affected h i s contribution, r e s u l t i n g i n some curtailment of t r a v e l l i n g : 'The e f f e c t was more on d i r e c t i o n or continuity than on quantity of contribution as there was more than- enough to do a l l over the d i s t r i c t . Obviously, remoter areas received l e s s service.' As soon as money was available the Director of Education allocated a suitable sum. The group headmaster said that he 'would have preferred trans-portation costs paid by the Government of Canada on approval of a regional External Aid O f f i c e representative from funds under h i s control. This would be bothersome f o r the External Aid O f f i c e , but some countries simply cannot afford help l i k e ours.' One married teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria with two children reported, 'I've s t i l l not concluded my f i n a n c i a l business with the recipient government nine months a f t e r leaving.' He turned to the p r i n c i p a l , the High Commission, and External Aid, but hi s problem was not yet solved at the time of writing. External Aid teachers i n Nigeria reported that they turned f o r solution of t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s to t h e i r l o c a l p r i n c i p a l s , l o c a l M i n i s t r i e s , l o c a l housing authorities, the External Aid O f f i c e , or the Canadian High Commission, and those i n Sarawak turned to the Education Department or the Canadian High Commission, a l l with varying degrees of success. Nine External Aid teachers i n Nigeria and three i n Sarawak said that t h e i r problems concerning emoluments were not solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Ten teachers i n Nigeria and two i n -158-Sarawak indicated that these d i f f i c u l t i e s did a f f e c t t h e i r contributions to education i n the host country. Of those teachers experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s , seven i n Nigeria and f i v e i n Sarawak suggested that they would have preferred a person appointed by the External Aid Office as an 'area representative' or ' l i a i s o n o f f i c e r ' to undertake the solution of- t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . One i n Nigeria suggested that External Aid would do well to study arrangements made by USAID fo r t h e i r teachers, es p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d of housing. Only eight CUSO teachers i n both countries combined reported serious d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the provision of emoluments -six i n Nigeria, and two i n Sarawak. One i n each country indicated important housing d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s in t e r e s t i n g that the'complaint of one of the e a r l i e s t CUSO teachers i n Sarawak was of 'opulence'-rather than of neglect: Our opulent housing was a l i t t l e embarrassing f o r "volunteer" teachers. We never found a solution; we were t o l d no other housing was avai l a b l e . Perhaps some group of l o c a l residents could have handled housing rather than the Europeans. It affected the contribution only i n i t i a l l y - once we persuaded our Asian friends to v i s i t , they came f r e e l y . A CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria indicated that he had d i f f i c u l t i e s with arrangements concerning the payment of return transport within the country at the end of h i s tour. He turned to friends i n the Ministry of Education and the Chairman of the Board of Governors of h i s school, and the problem was solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . -159-Other d i f f i c u l t i e s of CUSO teachers i n Nigeria con-cerned salary scales, termination allowances, and leave allowances, and disruptions caused by c i v i l war. One secondary teacher i n Nigeria stated that the salary scale of CUSO teachers was i n question at the beginning of h i s assignment. 'CUSO had requested and returned a l l contract copies - I retained photostatic copies.' In the temporary absence of a " l i a i s o n o f f i c e r " the teacher turned to the Ministry f o r solution. He suggested that the problem affected hi s contribution: In the i n i t i a l weeks I was c a l l e d to c a p i t a l as other volunteers had not copied contracts. I was ca l l e d from post while matter under discussion. One CUSO teacher indicated that there was a delay i n paying h i s termination allowance. Another said that h i s was not paid. One teacher reported that h i s leave allowance was not paid at the correct time. C i v i l war i n Nigeria caused serious d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r a number of CUSO teachers. One reported that a f t e r the second coup, the t r i b a l union which owned h i s school was abolished, and 'I had nobody to be responsible to, or take control of school finances or assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r my contract.' He turned to CUSO f i e l d secretaries and o f f i c i a l s i n the Ministry of Education, but f e l t that the problem was not solved s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y . He indicated h i s contribution was affected -'Time wasted i n t r a v e l l i n g to c a p i t a l to get these c o n f l i c t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s sorted out - better spent at school, teaching and administering.' -160-One CUSO teacher who returned home before the com-plet i o n of her assignment because of c i v i l war, had t h i s to say: CUSO showed no d i s c r e t i o n i n allowing my group to go on to N i g e r i a . . T h e y bungled getting people evacuated and the feedback I've gotten from friends who've come back i s I would say demoralizing....Many had to be put on t r a n q u i l i z e r s etc. and everyone l o s t money and valuable belongings.... Another affected by the c i v i l war expressed the following opinion: CUSO i s i n i t s infancy and consequently poorly organized. This had some tr a g i c repercussions i n Nigeria. What would I suggest? Having at leas st one coordinator per 50 square miles and s t r a t e g i c a l l y placed; otherwise no one should be sent there. •- . CUSO teachers i n Sarawak, who were l e s s e x p l i c i t , apparently did not experience d i f f i c u l t i e s as serious as those i n Nigeria. One indicated some trouble with transportation within the host country upon h i s a r r i v a l and departure, but t h i s was solved s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t body of opinion, p a r t i c u l a r l y of External Aid teachers i n both countries, recommended the appointment of ' f i e l d representatives' or ' l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s ' of the sending agency, to be responsible f o r the placement of teachers and the prevention, or solution of problems a r i s i n g from non-fulfilment of contracts or agreements. (See Appendix No. C 2.) One representative example of opinion from each agency w i l l be presented here. An External Aid secondary teacher i n Nigeria made the following statement: -161-I believe that the most e f f e c t i v e thing that could be done towards increasing the potential contribution of Canadian External Aid teachers to t h e i r countries of service, and minimizing the d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i v i n g and .working conditions would be f o r the External Aid O f f i c e to appoint experienced f i e l d representatives who would be responsible f o r : 1) determining the need of any p a r t i c u l a r school f o r educational assistance; 2) assessing the a b i l i t y of =a p a r t i c u l a r community to provide accommodation; 3) estimating the s u i t a b i l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r teacher f o r a p a r t i c u l a r assignment; 4) supervising the professional a c t i v i t i e s , and assessing the general deportment and personal l i f e of the teacher and h i s family; 5) planning and coordinating the general assistance program i n a given area, etc; 6) and, i n general, carrying out the work i n respect to the Aid program that High Commissions and Embassys have agreed to do, but which they are apparently loathe to do. A CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak gave h i s opinion: I also acted as CUSO coordinator f o r Sarawak during my two year stay i n Kuching. Based on that experience I have the following comments: There should be a closer l i a i s o n between CUSO volunteers i n the f i e l d and External Aid teachers. We did not even know the names or assignments of more than a few External Aid personnel. I would recommend EA/CUSO meetings, reunions, seminars, etc. i n the s p e c i f i c countries* The emphasis be put more on " i n the f i e l d " super-v i s i o n by regional coordinators - would save time and money i n the long run i f not dependent on o f f i c i a l v i s i t s from personnel i n Ottawa. Many CUSO volunteers f e l t when interviewed by myself that Ottawa simply "dumped" them i n Sarawak and to a l l intents and purposes forgot them. With . regional coordinators t h i s problem would be a l l e v i a t e d . In summary, the majority of External Aid and CUSO teachers i n Nigeria or Sarawak during the period 1957-67 expressed no major assignment or emolument d i f f i c u l t i e s . -162-Most f e l t that t h e i r s k i l l s were f u l l y u t i l i z e d , and most recorded no emolument d i f f i c u l t i e s . However, a s i g n i f i c a n t number of both External Aid and CUSO secondary teachers recorded modifications of t h e i r o r i g i n a l education assign-ments, and External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s i n both countries, and p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak indicated that t h e i r assignments d i f f e r e d considerably from t h e i r o r i g i n a l expectations. Similarly, a s i g n i f i c a n t minority of External Aid"and CUSO teachers experienced emolument d i f f i c u l t i e s . Although not a l l of those who experienced assignment and emolument d i f f i c u l t i e s indicated that these affected t h e i r contributions, i t may, nevertheless, be inferr e d that time wasted and e f f o r t expended while t r y i n g to solve the problems, together with t h e i r attendant f r u s t r a t i o n s , had adverse psych-o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s upon many teachers. Individual reports from both External Aid and CUSO teachers have demonstrated the effects of some of these d i f f i c u l t i e s upon teachers* contrib-utions. The reports, parti c u l a r l y , of External Aid teachers who experienced more d i f f i c u l t i e s than CUSO teachers, revealed no consistent pattern of assistance towards the solution of teachers' problems. The only, recurrent suggestion by teachers f o r the a l l e v i a t i o n of such d i f f i c u l t i e s was the recommendation that 'area representatives' or ' l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s ' be appointed to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e f f e c t i n g appropriate assignments and the provision of necessary emoluments. CHAPTER VII SUMMARIES, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS .. Summary of the Problem Because of the fundamental importance of education to other aspects of development, stress has been placed upon the need f o r combined educational and economic planning at the national l e v e l i n developing countries so that changing man-power requirements may be met by the education system. As a temporary measure i n the early stages of development, External Aid has been considered a necessary and appropriate means of supplementing l o c a l educational resources, both i n the supply of professional advice - on educational planning, the develop-ment of new c u r r i c u l a , textbooks, teaching methods, audio-v i s u a l aids, teacher t r a i n i n g - and i n the provision of supplementary teaching personnel, especially at the secondary l e v e l . The need f o r co-ordination of such external educational assistance by the recipient governments has been emphasized so that i t may most e f f i c i e n t l y s a t i s f y the requirements of t h e i r national development plans. The task of co-ordinating the varied forms of educ-at i o n a l aid offered has become confusing to many education au t h o r i t i e s i n developing countries because of the p r o l i f e r -ation of professional and volunteer programs from several donor nations. Each donor country may help i n reducing t h i s -163--164-confusion by co-ordinating the various forms of educational add offered by i t s people, and by a s s i s t i n g the governments of developing countries to discern how such a i d may best s a t i s f y the needs of t h e i r national development plans. The appropriate roles overseas of professional and volunteer teachers have been studied by American, B r i t i s h and Canadian writers. Suitable r o l e s f o r the professional external aid teacher have been described as those of the teacher t r a i n e r or the speci a l i z e d expert who contributes to the quantity and quality of education i n developing countries"*", and which help 2 a nation to develop i t s own educational leaders. The role of the inexperienced, volunteer teacher has been considered' that of the classroom teacher i n a well-organized, highly structured 3 situation , ' f i l l i n g i n the gaps' e x i s t i n g because of a lack of f u l l y trained people^, and meeting the needs of host countries fo r trained personnel.^ Studies of American, B r i t i s h and Canadian volunteers indicate a need f o r more teacher t r a i n i n g to prepare volunteers better f o r t h e i r tasks overseas. 0 •*-Ceryth, op_. c i t . . pp. 41 & 150. 2Lewis, ojo. cit.., p. 10. 3Textor, op_. c i t . , p. 313; Roberts, ot>. c i t . , pp. 14-15* ^Wainwright, op_. c i t . . p. 102. ^Woollcombe, ojo. c i t . , p. 59 • °Textor, cjo. c i t . t p. 158; Roberts, ojo. c i t . . p. 15; Woollcombe, ojo. c i t . , p. 157. -165-Canadian po l i c y i s to send to developing countries. " highly q u a l i f i e d teachers under the External Aid-Office, who are capable of demonstrating improved methods and promoting syllabus .development, and to send recent univ e r s i t y graduates with no professional t r a i n i n g under CUSO auspices. 7 The report of the discussions of The Conference on Canadian Overseas Aid concluded that there i s an urgent need f o r some method of co-ordinating and a s s i s t i n g the p o l i c i e s and a c t i v i t i e s of private agencies* including education a s s i s t -ance, i n order .to avoid overlapping of functions, wastage of resources,, and negative r e s u l t s . 8 . The appointment of regional off.i cers. of the External Aid Of f i c e was recommended to f a c i l i t a t e cooperation at the l o c a l l e v e l between l o c a l "and Canadian o f f i c i a l s . 9 . . . .. The f i r s t decade of o f f i c i a l Canadian involvement i n education overseas, from 1957-67, provided s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r -mation to permit a- comparative examination of the extent and practices of Canadian professional and voluntary educational programs i n Nigeria and Sarawak. Data Summaries and •Conclusions" The f i r s t hypothesis of t h i s study was that the maximum teaching and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and previous experience of Fatouros & Kelson, o_p_. c i t . , pp. 91-2. 9lbld.. p. 68. -166-CUSO teachers i n Nigeria or Sarawak during the period from 1957-67 equalled or exceeded the minimum of those same q u a l i f -i c a t i o n s of Canadian External Aid teachers serving i n the same countries during the same period, "with the r e s u l t that to the extent that such overlapping occurred, the Canadian prof-essional and volunteer programs were rendered ind i s t i n g u i s h a b l The analysis of previous teaching c e r t i f i c a t i o n , academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and teaching experience i n Chapter III reveals that there was overlapping of CUSO and External Aid teachers* q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n these three areas i h Nigeria and Sarawak during the decade 1957-67. While some CUSO teachers held teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s , a number of External Aid teachers did not. A number of CUSO teachers were better q u a l i f i e d academically than some External Aid teachers. The previous teaching experience of some CUSO teachers was longer, and at a l e v e l appropriate to t h e i r assignments overseas, compared with the shorter experience of a number of External Aid teachers, and i n some cases, at a l e v e l inappropriate to the l e v e l of work overseas. Although the majority of Canadian External Aid teacher were better q u a l i f i e d than the average CUSO teacher, i t .would seem impossible, from the evidence presented, to predict accurately the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of any p a r t i c u l a r teacher sent by one of these two agencies; a CUSO teacher could be better q u a l i f i e d than,an External Aid teacher. Thus, i t may be con-cluded that within the range of the above overlapping of -167-previous qualifications:and experience, the Canadian External Aid.and CUSO programs In Nigeria and Sarawak from 1957-67 were, indistinguishable and, perhaps,, confusing to those l o c a l educational authorities who would attempt to maximize the u t i l i z a t i o n of the services of teachers from both agencies i n t h e i r planned programs of development. . The second hypothesis was that the maximum teaching, extra-curricular and professional contributions of CUSO teachers i n Nigeria or Sarawak during the period 1957-67 were equal to, or exceeded the minimum of.those same contributions of External Aid teachers i n the same countries during the same period, with the r e s u l t that within :the range of that over-.... lapping ;the Canadian professionaltand volunteer programs were rendered indistinguishable.. The analysis i n Chapter IV of Canadian teachers',^ con-t r i b u t i o n s to education i n Nigeria and Sarawak reveals. overlapping of External Aid and CUSO secondary classroom ... teaching, extra-curricular activities,:.and professional a c t i v i t i e s . There was similar timetabling f o r CUSO and External Aid secondary teaching at most- levels..in most of the core subjects - English, French, Science, Mathematics, History and Geography. -. and i n the additional subjects of Physical Education, Bible Knowledge and Art. There was...similar... endeavour of CUSO and External Aid secondary teachers i n many extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , , and some-performed similar professional tasks the: preparation of s y l l a b i , heading -.168-. i academic departments, in-service t r a i n i n g , and organizing texts and school supplies. Professional roles were also performed by CUSO volunteers - two served as teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria, and one as a group supervisor of primary schools i n Sarawak; one served as a group headmaster i n Sarawak, and one as a p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria. Classroom teaching experience i n the l o c a l setting can be of p r a c t i c a l value-to the professional secondary teacher as a basis upon which he influences the content and methods of teaching i n his subject f i e l d at h i s school. More External Aid than CUSO secondary teachers taught at the Form VI l e v e l i n Nigeria, with the concommitant professional r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of heading an academic department and influencing the work of teachers throughout that department. However, while some CUSO teachers.had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of heading departments and organizing s y l l a b i to the Form V l e v e l i n secondary schools, and a few CUSO teachers performed the p r o f e s s i o n a l tasks of tr a i n i n g teachers, developing and supervising-primary schools, and one administered a secondary school, a number of External Aid teachers had no such professional r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , but simply performed the tasks of the ordinary classroom teapher. Thus, the roles of the teachers sent by each of the two agencies may not, from the data provided, be c l e a r l y d i s t -inguished by t h e i r performance of professional tasks or professional r o l e s . I t may, therefore, be concluded that -169-within the range of overlapping of the educational-contrib-utions of secondary teachers - teaching, extra-curricular and professional tasks - and i n the performance, of some professional roles, the Canadian External Aid and CUSO programs i n Nigeria and Sarawak from 1957-67 were indistinguishable. A. clear d e f i n i t i o n of the appropriate roles of Canadian professional and volunteer teachers apparently was not evident to education-a l planners i n the two countries; a clearer d e f i n i t i o n of roles could r e s u l t i n more productive u t i l i z a t i o n of External A id . teaching personnel, and i n more e f f i c i e n t planning on the part of l o c a l educational a u t h o r i t i e s based on the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the p o l i c i e s of the two agencies. The t h i r d hypothesis was that i n t e r a c t i o n of Canadian External Aid and CUSO teachers with l o c a l and internat-ionai personnel and agencies enhanced t h e i r contributions to education i n Nigeria and Sarawak during the period, 1957-67. The data presented i n Chapter V surveyed the Canadian teachers' l e i s u r e time associations, u t i l i z a t i o n of l o c a l and -inter-national resources, co-operative action with colleagues drawn „ from the international community, and the p r a c t i c a l Canadian support they received f o r the enhancement of t h e i r educational work overseas. -The data showed that l e i s u r e time contacts with Africans or Asians was recognized as valuable by a l l the Canadian . teachers under study, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n orienting them to- the problems and needs of the l o c a l peoples with whom they worked. -170-Leisure time spent with Europeans i n exchanging information and ideas was considered of some professional value'by over h a l f of the External Aid teachers, but by a much larger percentage of ' CUSO teachers i n both countries. This would seem to indicate a need on the part of inexperienced CUSO teachers f o r p r a c t i c a l advice and help i n the performance of t h e i r assigned tasks. Local and international community resources were -u t i l i z e d by less than hal f of a l ! Canadian teachers i n both countries. Though a l l teachers reported that they worked with teachers drawn from the international community, l e s s than half reported special co-operation i n educational endeavours With these colleagues. Less than half received p r a c t i c a l support f o r t h e i r work overseas from Canadian sources. The o v e r a l l evidence "would seem to indicate that there i s a reservoir of assistance available to the Canadian teacher overseas - from both l o c a l and international sources within the country of service, and from Canadians at home - which some have been able to make use of to advantage. However, a greater u t i l i z a t i o n of those resources and more extensive co-operation between teachers from the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies could surely enhance the t o t a l contribution, and should p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s i s t those volunteer teachers seeking p r a c t i c a l teaching help. The fourth hypothesis was that d i f f i c u l t i e s concerning terms of assignment and emoluments a r i s i n g from non-fulfilment of External Aid and CUSO teachers* contracts or agreements -171-have l i m i t e d t h e i r educational contributions i n Nigeria and Sarawak during the period 1957-67. The. data i n Chapter VI shows that the majority of. External Aid and CUSO teachers i n both countries during the period under question expressed no major assignment or emol-ument d i f f i c u l t i e s . However, a number of secondary teachers reported modifications of t h e i r o r i g i n a l assignments; some did not teach at the designated school, or the assigned subjects at the designated l e v e l . A few External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s and p r i n c i p a l s reported that t h e i r assignments d i f f e r e d from t h e i r expectations; three External Aid teacher t r a i n e r s and one from CUSO were transferred. Though the majority of • Canadian teachers f e l t that t h e i r s k i l l s were f u l l y u t i l i z e d , a large minority from both agencies did not. A minority of -External Aid and CUSO teachers experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the provision of necessary emoluments. ;Reports from i n d i v i d u a l teachers have demonstrated the e f f e c t s of assignment or emol-ument d i f f i c u l t i e s upon t h e i r educational contributions.; Although not a l l of those teachers who experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s stated d e f i n i t e l y that they had affected t h e i r contributions, the inference may be made that the attendant l o s s of time and f r u s t r a t i o n s involved i n t h e i r solution often resulted i n adverse psychological, and perhaps s o c i a l e f f ects, which i n turn could a f f e c t t h e i r contributions. No consistent pattern of assistance towards the solution of these problems was revealed by the teachers' reports. The only recurrent -172-suggestion by teachers f o r the a l l e v i a t i o n of such d i f f i c u l t i e s was the recommendation that persons variously designated as •area representatives* or ' l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s * be appointed to assume o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r attempting to ensure appropriate assignments and the provision of necessary emoluments. . , Planners i n developing countries have recognized the need f o r the co-ordination of international educational assistance so that i t may serve t h e i r national development plans. In order to a s s i s t and encourage such national planning, there appears to be a d i s t i n c t duty on the part of Canadians to ensure that the varied forms of educational aid provided by Canada be c l e a r l y recognizable, consistent and predictable; thus, a clearer d e f i n i t i o n of the separate roles of Canadian professional and volunteer teachers and t h e i r appropriate q u a l i f i c a t i o n s could help educational planners i n developing countries to u t i l i z e t h e i r services more e f f i c i e n t l y i n harmony with t h e i r development plans. Apart from the more formal co-ordination of p o l i c i e s , the t o t a l Canadian educational contribution overseas could probably be enhanced by greater co-operation between members of the d i f f e r e n t agencies, both i n Canada and overseas, i n sharing information and ideas, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n providing p r a c t i c a l assistance to inexperienced volunteers i n teaching methods. Further, f r u s t r a t i o n s caused by d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the country of service could perhaps be avoided or a l l e v i a t e d -173-by experienced resident representatives of the sending agency i n order to release the energies of teachers f o r t h e i r educ-ati o n a l tasks. Thus, the following recommendations are submitted. Recommendations 1. The data supports that section of opinion at the Conference on Canadian Overseas Aid which stated that 'there i s overlapping of functions' and that 'there i s urgent need f o r some method of coordinating and a s s i s t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of the private agencies i n order to avoid waste of scarce resources, and possibly, negative r e s u l t s . '-1-0 Thus, the f i r s t recommendation of t h i s study i s that External Aid and CUSO p o l i c i e s should be co-ordinated by t h e i r decision-makers i n Canada i n order to define the educational needs each w i l l attempt to s a t i s f y i n developing countries, and to determine the separate r o l e s of External Aid and CUSO teachers and the teaching and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and previous teaching experience appropriate to those r o l e s . (Comments and opinions about the appropriate roles of Canadian professional and volunteer teachers may be found i n Appendix C 4.) 2. The evidence supports the recommendation of the Conference on Canadian Overseas Aid that External Aid regional representatives be appoint e d l l charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ^ F atouros & Kelson, op_. cit,., pp. 91-2. ~^Ibid.. p. 68. -174-of determining appropriate assignments, of ensuring the a v a i l a b i l i t y of necessary f a c i l i t i e s such as housing, and f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the teachers 1 adjustments i n the country of service by helping to solve unforeseen d i f f i c u l t i e s on the spot. Such regional representatives could present t h e i r p o l i c i e s j o i n t l y with CUSO representatives to l o c a l education-a l planners i n order that requests f o r Canadian personnel be directed to the appropriate agency. 3. The need f o r more t r a i n i n g of CUSO teachers has been expressed by some of those studied. A greater co-operation of External-Aid and CUSO agencies could r e s u l t i n u t i l i z a t i o n of the services of experienced External Aid teachers i n CUSO orientation programs i n Canada and i n the country of service. To r e f r a i n from such co-operation r e s u l t s i n a wastage of valuable resources. Thus, a f i n a l recommendation of t h i s study i s that closer co-operation of External Aid and CUSO agencies be encouraged both i n orientation programs i n Canada, and i n formal and informal meetings i n the countries of service, i n order that inexperienced teachers may a v a i l them-selves of the professional assistance of more experienced teachers. The o v e r a l l evidence of t h i s study reveals how eagerly Canadian teachers have ris e n to the challenge presented them by the o f f i c i a l and voluntary agencies which were established to provide channels through which educational aid to developing countries may be a r t i c u l a t e d . Individual Canadians have gained -175-immeasurably from the experience which they gained as teachers while serving i n developing countries, and Canadians may be j u s t l y proud of the contributions of those teachers, both professional and volunteer, who have served abroad under the aegis of both External Aid and CUSO. It i s f i t t i n g now, a f t e r the f i r s t decade of o f f i c i a l Canadian educational involvement overseas, to reassess past p o l i c i e s and practices, and to discover means by which they might be improved i n order that Canada may better a s s i s t peoples of the less-developed nations i n t h e i r e f f o r t s towards progress. • Areas f o r Further Research 1. Suitable teacher t r a i n i n g orientation programs f o r CUSO volunteers, both in. Canada and i n the countries of service. 2. A comparison of the External Aid orientation programs fo r teachers i n English and French, with emphasis upon the comparative value of teacher-orientation i n Canada and i n the country of service. 3. ' The quality of the professional contributions of External A i d secondary teachers at both junior and senior levels. 4 . The effects of overseas involvement upon teachers returning to Canada! t h e i r professional standing i n Canada and academic studies. B I B L I O G R A P H Y BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS African Education. A Study of Educational Policy and Practice i n B r i t i s h T ropical A f r i c a by the N u f f i e l d Foundation and the Colonial O f f i c e . Oxford: The University Press, 1953. Pp. 187. Beeby, C E . The Quality of Education i n Developing Countries. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966. Pp. x + 139. 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The need f o r a plan of educational development, r e l a t i n g educational programs to a more comprehensive strategy of human resource development and i n turn to ov e r a l l national development. C. UNESCO PUBLICATIONS UNESCO. Conference of African Ministers of Education. F i n a l Report. Abidjan, 17-24 March 1964. P a r i s : UNESCO, August 1964. Pp. 38 *r 2 + 5 + 7 + 4- + 10 + 1 + 2 4- 2 + 6. UNESCO. Means of Improving the Quality of Education i n A s i a . P a r i s : UNESCO/ED/208, 1954. F i n a l Report of the Intergovernmental Meeting of Experts"held at Manila, Philippines, 21-28 A p r i l 1964. The teacher, organizing schools, role of the school i n socio-economic development, curriculum and teaching methods, science teaching, evaluation and research, administration and supervision. UNESCO. Outline of a Plan f o r African Educational Development. P a r i s : UNESC07ED/180T Pp. 27. Report of the conference of African states on the development of education i n A f r i c a , held at Addis Ababa, 15-25 May, 1961. Needs, economics and education, p r i o r i t i e s , costs, and recommendations f o r educational p o l i c y . UNESCO. Report of Meeting of Ministers of Education of Asian Member States P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Karachi Plan. Bangkok: Post Publishing Co. Ltd., 1952. UNESCO/ED/I92T -Pp. 88. Report of the meeting held at Tokyo A p r i l 2-11, 1962, on review and implementation of the Karachi Plan - a programme f o r the development of primary education i n Asia. -181-UNESCO. Teachers Abroad. XXIXth Session of the International Conference on Public Education. P a r i s : UNESCO, Place de Fontenoy, 1966. Pp. x x l i x -f 110. A comparative study of national p o l i c i e s of M i n i s t r i e s of Education of 80 countries oh teachers sent abroad and teachers coming from abroad. D. GOVERNMENT' PUBLICATIONS Central O f f i c e of Information. Education. B r i t a i n and the Developing Countries. London: Reference Division, Central O f f i c e of Information, August 1967. Pp. 31. Pamphlet prepared f o r B r i t i s h Information Services, Canada. External Aid O f f i c e . Annual Review 1966-67. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1967. Pp. 41. E. PERIODICAL Strong, Maurice. "Global Aid". Canadian Welfare Volume•44 Number 2 (March-April 1968) Ottawa: Canadian Welfare Council, Pp. 15-18. F. ESSAY IN A COLLECTION Massey, Vincent. "Introduction", Ward, Barbara. The Rich Nations and the Poor Nations. Toronto: CBC: The Hunter Rose Co. Limited, 196I. Pp. x i + 97. A P P E N D I C E S A P P E N D I X A S U R V E Y F O R M S -184-1. EXPERIENCE OF TEACHERS WITH SERVICE IN NIGERIA OR SARAWAK (Please indicate with "X") Accompanying Children: External A i d Male Married Number C U S O Female Single Ages Years you worked in Nigeria or Sarawak (or both) in education: 1957-'58 1958-'59 1959 -'60 1960-'61 1961 -'62 1962-'63 1963 -'64 1964 -'65 1965 -'66 1966-'67 NIGERIA -S A R A W A K Your teaching qualifications at the beginning of your assignment: Teaching Certificate Degrees (please name) Diplomas (give details) Elementary [ Secondary •. No certificate Your teaching experience before going overseas on your assignment: Total years Teaching Number Grade TyFe of Institution t- . , v Chief Subjects Taught Levels (Elementary, Secondary, Exper.ence of Years T a u g h t Teacher Tuning, Other) In your home province: Elsewhere in C a n a d a : Outside C a n a d a : A. TEACHING ASSIGNMENT OVERSEAS 1. What were your main teaching subjects overseas and the Form levels? Teaching Subjects Forms I - III Forms I V - V Form VI -185-2. (a) Is/was your teaching load: Heavy Average or Light (b) If you have answered "light," would you have preferred to transfer to another school? Yes No. (c) If you have answered "yes" in (b) above, was it possible to arrange a transfer? Yes No. (d) If "yes" in (c) above, by what process was it arranged? Please explain. 3. During the period of your assignment, were your duties made: Heavier No change Lighter 4. Is/was your assignment in a predominately rural or urban environment? Rural Urban B . A C T I V I T I E S O U T S I D E T H E C L A S S R O O M 1. In each year you taught overseas, what activities are/were you engaged in beyond your regular classroom teaching? As far as possible, indicate degree of involvement, whether light, average or heavy. Activities listed below are for your assistance. Music Students' council Drama House sponsor Ait Library supervision Sports Agriculture project Health program Heading academic department Advising on curriculum Preparing textbooks Preparing syllabuses In-service training Other (please specify) Activity Degree of Involvement heavy average -light - -heavy average -light - -heavy average -light - -heavy average -light - -heavy average -light - -heavy average -light - -heavy average -light - -heavy average -light - -heavy average -light - -Swimming, life-saving Duke of Edinburgh awards Students' cross-country hikes Overseas library supplies School lecture series Extra supervision (dorm., dining) Public speaking, debating Organizing textbooks, school supplies School newspaper, magazine Sponsoring special club First Second Third Fourth Fifth Year Year Year Year Year -186-2. Which of the endeavours listed in B (1) (if any) were encouraged or requested by your Principal? 3. Which of them (if> any) were requested by the Department or Ministry of Education? 4. What local community resources did you call upon to support your work in the school? How were they utilized? RESOURCE U T I L I Z A T I O N 5. Some Canadians overseas spend their leisure time in the company of other Europeans, whereas others spend it with Asians and/or Africans. Indicate roughly the percentage of your leisure time social contacts with these two groups: Europeans % Asians/Africans % 6. Did leisure time contacts with Europeans aid your professional contribution? If yes, describe how: 7. Did leisure time contacts with Asians and/or Africans aid your professional contribution? If yes, describe how: C . T E R M S O F A S S I G N M E N T 1. (a) Is/was there a special school designated in your contract or agreement? Yes No.. (b) If "yes," are/were you teaching in that school? Yes No.. (c) If "no" in (b), please explain. 2. (a) Are/were there special teaching subjects designated in your contract or agreement? Yes No.. (b) If "yes," are/were you teaching those subjects? Yes No-te) If "no" in (b), please explain. - 1 8 7 -3. (a) Is/was there a grade level indicated in your contract or agreement? Yes No.. (b) If "yes," are/were you teaching at that level? Yes No.. (c) If "no" in (b), please explain. D. EMOLUMENTS 1. In Column "A" check each of those items from the following list which were included in your contract or agree-ment as responsibilities of the recipient government: 2. In Column "B" check each of those items in your contract or agreement which the recipient government had difficulty in providing, or seemed reluctant to provide: Column A Column B (a) Housing - - - - -(b) Transportation in the country - - - - - -(c) Living allowance (d) Car allowance - -(e) Household necessities (f) Medical care (g) Holiday time (h) Other (specify) - -3. (a) Were there any special difficulties concerning the commitment made by the recipient government under the terms of your contract or agreement? Yes. No If "yes," please explain. (b) To whom did you turn for a solution to your difficulty? (c) Were you satisfied that it was solved satisfactorily? Yes No. (d) Would you have preferred some other arrangement to help solve your problem? Yes No. (e) If "yes" in (d) above please specify. (f) Did these difficulties affect your actual contribution? If "yes," please explain. Yes No. -188-E. PERSONAL ASSESSMENT i . Name two or three activities in which you feel you made your greatest contribution while overseas. 2. Do you feel your skills were fully utilized? Yes No. 3. If not, in what ways could you have contributed further? 4. Can you suggest any methods by which we could assess the contribution to education of Canadians serving overseas? F. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION 1. What teachers other than Nigerians or Sarawakians did you work with on the same staff? Please indicate the number (during the entire period of your assignment) and nationalities below: Number Nationality (a) Colombo Plan personnel (b) Special Commonwealth African Aid personnel (c) Canadian University Service Overseas (d) Voluntary Service Overseas (e) Graduate Voluntary Service Overseas (f) Peace Corps (g) Other (specify) 2. Are/were there any special areas of co-operalion in educational endeavours between yourself and members of any of the above mentioned agencies? please specify. 3. Are there areas where informal co-operation (sharing of ideas and information between members of different agencies) may be utilized to facilitate a more effective total contribution? Please explain. 4. Has any Canadian agency or organization provided you with assistance in order to make your contribution more effective? If so please name the type of agency or organization and describe the assistance. -189-5. Please list visiting international representatives with whom you had consultations about education in your coun-try of service; state any reciprocal benefits derived from the contact. NAME AGENCY BENEFITS G. FURTHER COMMENTS If you wist to comment further on any of the above aspects of the Canadian External Aid or C.U.S.O. teachers' con-tributions overseas, your remarks will be welcomed. Please use the back of the last sheet. A P P E N D I X A 2 -191-2 - EXPERIENCE OF GROUP HEADMASTERS, PRINCIPALS, TEACHER TRAINERS, AND ADVISORS TO MINISTRIES OR DEPARTMENTS OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA OR SARAWAK (Please indicate with "X") Accompanying Children: External A i d Male Married Number C U S O Female Single Ages.. Years you worked in Nigeria or Sarawak (or both) in education: 1957 -'58 1958 -'59 1959-'60 1960-'61 1961-'62 1962 -'63 1963 -'64 1964 . '65 1965 -'66 1966-'67 NIGERIA -S A R A W A K Your teaching qualifications at the beginning of your assignment: Teaching Certificate Degrees (please name) Diplomas (give details) Elementary Secondary N o certificate Your teaching experience before going overseas on your assignment: Total years _ , . N . Grade Type of Institution reaching numDer C h i e ( S u b j e c t s T a u q n , Levels (Elementary. Secondary. Expenence of Years T a u g h t Teacher Training. Other) In your home province: Elsewhere in C a n a d a : Outside Canada : -192-A. EDUCATION ASSIGNMENT OVERSEAS Please describe the nature of your assignment overseas, the scope of your employment, and the general age level with which you worked (primary, secondary, adults, administrative, or a combination of these). Did you work in a rural or urban setting? Which aspect of your work demanded most of your time? Were you asked to assume increasingly heavier duties during the period of your assignment? B. FURTHER ACTIVITIES 1. Please indicate for each year you worked overseas a l l those additional educational endeavours (related to the formal education system) undertaken by you beyond your regular designated duties, and the degree of involve-ment whether heavy, average or light. Educational Endeavour Degree of First Second Third Fourth Fifth Involvement Year Year Year Year Year heavy -average -light - -heavy -average -light - -heavy -average -light - -heavy - ". average -light - - :  - 1 9 3 -heavy -average -light - -heavy -average -light - -heavy -average -light - -heavy -average -light - -2. What local community resources did you call upon to support your work? How were they utilized? RESOURCE U T I L I Z A T I O N 3. Some Canadians overseas spend their leisure time in the company of other Europeans, whereas others spend it with Asians and/or Africans. Indicate roughly the percentage of leisure time social contacts with these two groups: Europeans % Asians/Africans % 4. Did leisure time contacts with Europeans aid your professional contribution? If "yes," describe how: 5. Did leisure time contacts with Asians and/or Africans aid your professional contribution? If "yes," describe how: -194-C. TERMS OF ASSIGNMENT 1. Did your actual assignment differ considerably from your original expectation? If so, in what way(s) did it differ? D. EMOLUMENTS 1. In Column "A" check each of those items from the following list which were included in your contract or agree-ment as responsibilities of the recipient government: 2. In Column "B" check each of those items in your contract or agreement which the recipient government had difficulty in providing, or seemed reluctant to provide: Column A Column B (a) Housing -(b) Transportation in the country . . . . . . (c) Living allowance -(d) Car allowance (e) Household necessities - -(f) Medical care (g) Holiday time -(h) Other (specify) 3. (a) Were there any special difficulties concerning the commitment made by the recipient government under the terms of your contract or agreement? Yes No If "yes," please explain. (b) To whom did you turn for a solution to your difficulty? (c) Were you satisfied that it was solved satisfactorily? Yes No. (d) Would you have preferred some other arrangement to help solve your problem? Yes No. (e) If "yes" in (d) above please specify. (f) Did these difficulties affect your actual contribution? Yes No. If "yes," please explain. -195-E. PERSONAL ASSESSMENT 1. Name two or three activities in which you feel you made your greatest contribution while overseas. 2. Do you feel your skills were fully utilized? Yes No. 3. If not, in what ways could you have contributed further? 4. Can you suggest any methods by which we could assess the contribution to education of Canadians serving overseas? F. INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION 1. Please indicate the number of people from the international community (other than Nigerians and Sarawakians) with whom you worked and state their countries of origin: Number Nationality (a) Colombo Plan personnel (b) Special Commonwealth African Aid personnel (c) Canadian University Service Overseas ; (d) Voluntary Service Overseas (e) Graduate Voluntary Service Overseas (f) Peace Corps (g) Other (specify) 2. Are/were there any special areas of co-operation in educational endeavours between yourself and members of any of the above mentioned agencies? please specify. 3. Are there areas, where informal co-operation (sharing of ideas and information between members of different agencies) may be utilized to facilitate a more effective total contribution? Please explain. 4. Has any Canadian agency or organization provided you with assistance in order to make your contribution more effective? If so please name the type of agency or organization and describe the assistance. -190-5. Please list visiting international representatives with whom you had consultations about education in your coun-try of service; state any reciprocal benefits derived from the contact. NAME AGENCY BENEFITS G . F U R T H E R C O M M E N T S If you wish to comment further on any of the above aspects of the Canadian External Aid or C.U.S.O. teachers' con-tributions overseas, your remarks will be welcomed. Please use the back of the last sheet. Appendix B 1 A P P E N D I X B L E T T E R S -198-APPENDIX B 1 8th January, 1968. Dear A s a Canadian who has been engaged in international education, you have valuable experience which I should like to ca l l upon. M y purpose is to assess the range of qualifications, previous experience, and educational endeavours of Canadian teachers, group headmasters, princi-pals, teacher trainers, and advisors to education ministries and departments, both External A i d and C.U.S.O. , during the ten year period from 1957-67. I am using Sarawak and Nigeria as a sample of countries in which C a n a d a is quite heavi ly committed to education. It is wel l known that many Canadian teachers make excellent contri-butions to the general community, but I want to limit this siudy to formal edu-cation. Studies are needed of both our contributions and our difficulties. Teachers are certainly among the busiest of people, but I hope you wi l l consider this important enough to give some of your time to providing the information requested. Could you complete it by , please? There is no need to give your name unless you wish to. The infor-mation w i l l be used for statistical purposes only. It w i l l be treated as confi-dential, and no names of persons or even of districts, in the two countries wi l l appear in the text of my report. Y o u w i l l find enclosed a letter of approval of the study from your agency, either External A i d or C.U.S.O. and a return addressed envelope. M a n y thanks for your co-operation. Sincerely, Appendix B 2. -200-APPENDIX B 2 C A N A O * EXTERNAL AID OFFICE BUREAU OE L'AIDE EXTERIEURE O T T A W A 4 Dear During the period of your service overseas with the External Aid Office you may have come in contact with Mrs. Gloria Smith who taught under our auspices in Sarawak from November I960 to November 1963 end in Nigeria from August 1964 to August 1966. Mrs. Smith is presently pursuing postgraduate studies at the University of British Columbia and has requested our assistance in gathering information for her master's thesis which will deal with the role of External Aid Office teachers and CUSO volunteers in Sarawak and Nigeria. Very l i t t l e data has yet been compiled of a comparative nature suoh as Mrs. Smith's research may provide and the External Aid Office is most interested in the results of her study. Consequently her efforts have our fullest support and we would hope that you iwill be able to spare the time to provide her with the detailed and specific information which she is seeking. i Yours sincerely, H. J. Hodder, Director of Education. Appendix B 3. APPENDIX B 3 C A N A D I A N U N I V E R S I T Y S E R V I C E O V E R S E A S S E R V I C E U N 1 V E R S I T A I R E C A N A D i E N O U T R E - M E R Refer lo file: Mcntiowwz k dossier: Dear During the p e r i o d of your s e r v i c e abroad with Canadian U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e O v e r s e a s you may have come i n contact with Mrs. G l o r i a Smith who t a u g h t under Canadian E x t e r n a l Aid auspices i n Sarawak from November i960 to November 196?» and in N i g e r i a from August 196** to August 1966. Mrs. Smith i s pr e s e n t l y pursuing postgraduate s t u d i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and has r e q u e s t e d our a s s i s t a n c e i n gathering i n f o r m a t i o n f o r her master's t h e s i s w h i c h w i l l d e a l with the r o l e of E x t e r n a l A i d O f f i c e teachers and CUSO volunteers i n Sarawak and N i g e r i a . CUSO Headquarters i s moat i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e s u l t s o f her study« Consequently h e r e f f o r t s have our f u l l e s t support and we would hope that you w i l l be able to spare the tiwe to provide her w i t h the d e t a i l e d and s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n which she i s seeking. Yours . s i n c e r e l y , King Gordon," Chairman of the E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . • A n A s s o c i a t e M e m b e r o f the ASSOCIATION OF U N I V E R S I T I E S AND COLLEGES OF CANADA • Mcmbrc associe do 1'ASSOCIATION DES UNIVERSITES ET COLLEGES DU CANADA A P P E N D I X C T E A C H E R S ' C O M M E N T S A N D O P I N I O N S -204-APPENDIX C TEACHERS' COMMENTS AND OPINIONS 1. Major Contributions Overseas - Self-Assessment Single CUSO primary teachers i n Nigeria noted the following as t h e i r major contributions - church work; a s s i s t i n g with the early education of l o c a l and European children; teaching; music and drama; 'getting things f o r the school*. Teaching was considered one of t h e i r major contributions by 19 External Aid secondary teachers i n Nigeria, and 10 i n Sarawak. Three i n Nigeria considered of major value t h e i r face to face contact with c i t i z e n s of the re c i p i e n t country; teachers i n Sarawak referred to 'casual conversations with the people', 'public r e l a t i o n s work i n the community', 'helping to change adults' attitudes towards education', and 'presenting Canadians as a people neither English nor American*. One i n Nigeria f e l t i t was important to have a non-colonial European l i v i n g amongst the Nigerians, while another f e l t i t was important to show what Canada was t r y i n g to do to help. Three Secondary teachers i n Sarawak considered t h e i r work i n in-service t r a i n i n g of major importance; two l i s t e d f i e l d t r i p s and drama. In Nigeria, two mentioned f i e l d t r i p s and sports, and single teachers placed importance on the following - Bible Club; helped trainee get to Canada; provided books and lab equipment; l i b r a r y ; o f f i c e organization; teacher t r a i n i n g ; preparing - 2 0 5 -language lab; developing a program i n French f o r beginners; music lessons; supervising external exams; helping to establish the Nigerian Association of French Teachers; giving books to primary schools. In Sarawak, single teachers.mentioned -Radio Club; supervising woodwork and t o o l shop; 'training a l o c a l to replace me when I l e f t ' ; sports; counselling students. Teaching was indicated by 21 CUSO teachers i n Nigeria and 18 i n Sarawak to be the area i n which they f e l t they had made t h e i r greatest contribution. 8 i n Nigeria and 7 i n Sarawak mentioned t h e i r l i b r a r y work as an important contribution. Improving race r e l a t i o n s was mentioned by 6 i n Nigeria; one wrote, 'I l i v e d as a person, not as a European during the Hausa massacres'. 6 CUSO teachers i n Sarawak considered t h e i r work i n sports important. Each of the following were l i s t e d as important contributions by at lea s t two CUSO teachers i n Nigeria - church work; working on s y l l a b i ; housemaster; helping needy students; science lab design. In Sarawak, at lea s t two mentioned the following - helping students i n need; Typing Club; community work; dancing and singing. Single CUSO teachers i n Nigeria gave importance to - IMCA work; manual labour; Science Club; bringing Canada to the school; chatting with Europeans; music; being a p r i n c i p a l ; medical ai d ; o r a l French; private tutoring; adult l i t e r a c y classes. In Sarawak, single CUSO teachers mentioned - making friends; scouting; acting as a p r i n c i p a l - s t a f f l i a i s o n ; school magazine; animal husbandry; drama; public health nursing; F i r s t Aid class; organizing v i s u a l -206-aids; r a i s i n g f i f t e e n hundred Malaysian d o l l a r s f o r a basket-b a l l court and playing basketball on an otherwise all-Chinese team. • Teacher t r a i n i n g was the most frequently noted contrib-ution by teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria under External Aid (10 persons), while i t was noted by only one i n Sarawak. 5 i n Nigeria and 6 i n Sarawak indicated that teaching was one of t h e i r main contributions. 3 teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria mentioned preparing teaching aids as important; 2 mentioned-care and t r a i n i n g i n equipment repair, and curriculum develop-ment. Single teacher t r a i n e r s noted t h e i r contributions i n race r e l a t i o n s ; introducing:Canada to Nigerians, l i b r a r y work," in-service t r a i n i n g , arranging conferences, and helping-to compile a complete.geography course of study. In Sarawak, two teacher t r a i n e r s f e l t that they had contributed i n preparing s y l l a b i f o r primary schools; single teacher t r a i n e r s mentioned ho r t i c u l t u r e ; sports; h o s t e l . a c t i v i t i e s ; 'persuading an Asian to replace me as Head of the English Department'; encouraging students to further .their studies overseas; v i s u a l aid develop-ment; establishing ..a geography lesson plan book f o r the Primary English Medium Scheme; methods i n using English t e x t s - i n Chinese primary schools; writing a textbook plus books of lessons f o r teachers. -The two CUSO teacher t r a i n e r s i n Nigeria indicated that i t was in-teaching and i n l i b r a r y work that they f e l t they had contributed most. -207-Th e f i r s t group headmaster i n Sarawak to be sent by the Canadian Government f e l t that he-had made his greatest contrib-ution by 'establishing the format of the group headmaster scheme as a model f o r l a t e r educational development', and by 'persuading Ottawa that i t was a good idea to send other Canadians overseas'. Four indicated that t h e i r chief contrib-ution l a y i n developing a sound primary school pattern f o r t h e i r areas,' one that would ensure that the most promising primary students would be afforded an opportunity of entering a secondary school. Two also mentioned teacher t r a i n i n g ; one noted work with l o c a l school committees to improve the school; one, working with the townspeople i n organizing•community sports. ' ; The CUSO group headmaster f e l t he had made h i s best contribution by school v i s i t s , working with r u r a l schools and teachers, and' planning to maximize resources to enhance learning. Of the External Aid p r i n c i p a l s i n Sarawak, 4 f e l t that t h e i r major contribution was i n opening a' new school, and establishing i t along sound, well-organized l i n e s . Two indicated that'one of t h e i r contributions lay i n preparing an understudy to take over from them once they had departed. Single p r i n c i p a l s mentioned"the f o l l o w i n g - setting up a sports council f o r the community; establishing greater human understanding between the races; i n s t i t u t i n g an e f f i c i e n t health service f o r students; setting up a students' council. -208-The CUSO p r i n c i p a l i n Nigeria noted that he f e l t he made hi s "finest contributions i n teaching and i n helping students to think. The External Aid advisers i n Nigeria held that t h e i r major contributions were made i n helping a r t i c u l a t e teaching resources f o r l o c a l teachers; developing new teaching tech-niques; establishing a Teaching Aid Centre; in-service t r a i n i n g ; acting as a consultant at conferences; a s s i s t i n g with a crash program i n English; and i n increasing the l o c a l people fs confidence and self-respect. 2• Need f o r F i e l d Representatives a. External Aid teachers i n Nigeria (i) I am a classroom teacher and nothing more. No counterparts are trained as External Aid expects. I f the Nigerian a u t h o r i t i e s had a person who could be trained as a counterpart, they would use him as a teacher i n a classroom. (In our school there are at present f i v e Form VI boys who have written t h e i r Higher School C e r t i f i c a t e and are waiting f o r r e s u l t s who are teaching up to Form III l e v e l ) . Placing such a person i n a classroom with me to be given t r a i n i n g to take over my assignment would be considered the waste of one teacher. Therefore, I think t h i s aim of External A i d i s naive and impractical. • - 2 0 9 -What I do any CUSO volunteer can do. Perhaps with my background I can do i t better, but a CUSO volunteer could give as good i n s t r u c t i o n as the students need or i n f a c t get from other teachers. Many of the teachers have had no professional t r a i n i n g . During a leave period I v i s i t e d a mission school ....There a man i s teaching Geography along with Rural Science and General Science. He does not know what to teach i n Geography nor does he have the proper text books. I am providing him with a s s i s t -ance on my own. How many other teachers i n government as well as mission schools are faced with the same predicament and need someone to advise them? I see a need f o r such supervisors to give a s s i s t -ance and a heed f o r teachers i n teacher-training i n s t i t u t i o n s , but the Nigerian authorities are desperate f o r teachers i n secondary schools so that they place us there. To expect the Nigerian govern-ment to recognize a l l i t s needs and to coordinate the aid i t receives from so many sources seems to be a naive assumption too. In conclusion, I f e e l the secondary school f i e l d should be l e f t to CUSO. The External Aid O f f i c e should have a regional representative i n West A f r i c a to discuss aid programmes with the M i n i s t r i e s so -210-that Canadian a i d could,.be directed or channeled into teacher t r a i n i n g and supervisory sit u a t i o n s . ( i i ) I consider myself very fortunate to have been assigned to my present s i t u a t i o n . I am teaching within my proper f i e l d and at the correct l e v e l . Others were not so fortunate. There i s nothing so depressing as to arrive here only to discover that there i s nothing f o r you to do or no money from the l o c a l a u t horities f o r projects. I t seems obvious that the host government sometimes accepts whatever aid i s available without having actual plans and f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s u t i l i z a t i o n . I had no such d i f f i c u l t i e s , but many of my EA and CUSO friends were very disappointed by t h e i r experience here.... Obviously, the Canadian Government should have a special representative i n the country who could draw out the host government on t h e i r plans and pri v a t e l y evaluate the p r a c t i c a l i t y of t h e i r requests. There i s no person, at present, who f i l l s such a pos i t i o n . ( i i i ) The External Aid educational programme should be organized a) so that adequate professional super-v i s i o n i s exercised over EA personnel i n the f i e l d ; b) so that the teacher i n the f i e l d i s provided with the basic e s s e n t i a l supplies to carry on h i s work e f f i c i e n t l y ; c) f o r better EA screening of personnel. -211-(iv) I believe i t i s extremely important that there be some authority i n the f i e l d responsible f o r supervising the professional work of the teachers, and f o r observing (in at l e a s t a casual way) t h e i r personal or family l i f e , i . e . t h e i r personal or family l i f e to the extent that i t becomes public knowledge, to the extent that i t creates a Canadian image. During my stay .in (two African countries) I came i n contact with no more than about a dozen Canadian External Aid families, yet three of these f a m i l i e s , to put i t quite frankly, conducted themselves i n a disgusting manner i n both professional and personal l i f e , and thereby did a great deal towards ruining the image of Canadians i n t h e i r country of service. b. External Aid teachers i n Sarawak (i) In Sarawak there were a number of cases where experienced EA teachers were just._ stuck i n schools beside young CUSO, Peace Corps or VSO teachers, who were generally not very much more experienced or trained than the l o c a l teachers, sometimes l e s s . Such a sit u a t i o n was bound to create invidious com-parisons f o r the young volunteers with t h e i r nominal s a l a r i e s and modest quarters, i f the EA teacher was doing exactly the same job as they were. This by i t s e l f was bound to be a negative factor i n the -212-Colombo Plan's so-called expert's presence and would detract from the benefit he could provide i n the school situation, but more importantly with the generally p r e v a i l i n g s i t u a t i o n of l o c a l and foreign volunteer teachers with a minimum of experience and formal t r a i n i n g i t was a vast waste of the EA teacher's education and experience to have him doing ordinary classroom work, and of course also a waste of the Canadian and l o c a l taxpayers' money. I t seems that experienced Canadian teachers should only be used to t r a i n and supervise the l o c a l teachers, and a s s i s t them i n r a i s i n g t h e i r standards and knowledge. There seemed to be a confidence that the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s knew what they were doing....I think though, that there does tend to be a b i t of a deluge of aid o f f e r s which the emerging countries f e e l they can't a f f o r d to l e t pass, yet which they are not expert enough, or f o r which they lack the time to actually decide what needs to be done, or i n what order. The mere presence of droves of foreign aid people i s not necessarily going by i t -s e l f to bring about any improvement. So i t i s not doing these countries a favour i f we pay no attention to where they are placing personnel or how they are using them. We, of course, would not wish to appear - 2 1 3 -to be ordering them what to do, but at the same time an experienced EA representative could v i s i t the personnel i n the f i e l d , note t h e i r problems and complaints, and suggest where better use might be made of the personnel to the benefit of the r e c i p -ient country. Certainly some sort of l i a i s o n with the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n the" placement and use of our personnel would not be amiss. Further, such a person could also t r y to make sure that contact and r e l a t i o n s between EA personnel and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s were proceeding s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . ( i i ) I think there i s a need f o r someone to act as a l i a i s o n between the l o c a l government and the EAO. I have seen Canadians (unhappy ones) go clear to the Director of Education about housing, transport, etc. This arrangement was very unsatisfactory and Canada got a bad name i n many instances. I f a representative were appointed f o r say every 20-25 Canadians abroad i n a s p e c i f i c area then problems could be channelled through a representative who would then make contacts, i f necessary, with l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . This would help to preserve our image abroad and would make our l o c a l contribution more e f f e c t i v e . I t would also help the morale of the adviser. -214-( i i i ) Unless v i s i t o r s from High Commissions, Ottawa, etc. are p a r t i c u l a r l y perspicacious they get only a superfluous and often distorted picture of the l o c a l situations....There has been t a l k of area supervisors. This i s a splendid idea provided he or she i s mature, diplomatic, experienced i n the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of work i n the geographic area and not interested i n making money. i Suggested Methods of Evaluating Teachers' Contributions  Overseas a. External Aid teachers i n Nigeria Four External Aid teachers i n Nigeria were of the opinion that i t i s not possible to evaluate teachers' contributions overseas. Four expressed an opinion similar to the teacher who wrote that 'Someone eminently q u a l i f i e d should be i n charge of the educational programme i n a sp e c i f i e d area; too many teachers do not set a good example re work, attitudes, e t c ' Three suggested asking the p r i n c i p a l s of the schools i n which the Canadians were teaching. Two teachers made each of the following recommend ations - send out a questionnaire sampling those students whose l i v e s have been touched by Canadians; ask the students send out f i e l d representatives instead of more teachers. One teacher suggested asking the teacher i n question. Four teacher t r a i n e r s supported the idea of the appoint-ment of experienced External Aid education supervisors f o r - 2 1 5 -suitably-sized areas overseas. One wrote, 'External Aid needs representatives on the spot. I do not believe that one can place too much f a i t h i n the P r i n c i p a l s ' Reports which External Aid has received.. I believe that many, i f not most, Nigerian p r i n c i p a l s would be very reluctant to c r i t i c i z e , a Canadian's contributions.' Two other teacher t r a i n e r s suggested asking the p r i n c i p a l s , while another two f e l t that one could assess the previous contribution by studying the number of requests placed for more Canadian teachers. Single teacher t r a i n e r s suggested - 'ask the l o c a l s t a f f members', and 'ask the students'; another recommended 'a group report from Canadian teachers serving i n a l o c a l i t y ' . External Aid advisers i n Nigeria submitted the following suggestions as to the best method of evaluating the Canadian contribution abroad: 'by conducting an on the spot survey, and not by a questionnaire f o r the l a t t e r i s misleading'; 'assess the degree to which Nigerians have replaced B r i t i s h education o f f i c e r s and teachers'; 'appraise the willingness of recipient governments to accept the assistance of other Canadians.'. , B. External Aid teachers i n Sarawak Four External Aid teachers i n Sarawak suggested an External Aid coordinator or representative i n the area of service, not sent from the o f f i c e of the High Commissioner. Two suggested asking the p r i n c i p a l s , and two recommended -216-studying the progress of those Sarawakian students who came to Canada with or without scholarship assistance. Two suggested periodic reports from l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . One f e l t i t was impossible to make an accurate evaluation, 'We can't even begin to assess the contributions of teachers serving i n Canada! 1 "Four teacher t r a i n e r s i n Sarawak suggested External Aid area supervisors who had worked i n schools as a teacher, one with tact and experience. Another said, 'Why not ask the students from Sarawak or Nigeria who are now, or have been, i n Canada.' One suggested, 'Inquire through question-naires.' One f e l t i t was impossible to assess properly the Canadian contribution 'unless you set up a Canadian college as New Zealand has done.' One Group Headmaster suggested evaluation was impossible. One recommended 'roving foreign a i d representatives who would keep i n close contact with both teachers posted abroad and o f f i c i a l s i n the education m i n i s t r i e s and l o c a l govern-ments of recipient countries.' One Group Headmaster said that while he was i n Sarawak f o r three and one-half years, he saw no one from Canada who looked at h i s work or saw what was going on. He continued, 'An observer could quite e f f e c t i v e l y measure the effectiveness of the Group Headmaster scheme i n a couple of days by t a l k i n g to teachers, school committees, the l o c a l council, the D i v i s i o n a l Education o f f i c e r , the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r , and by v i s i t i n g schools. -217-One p r i n c i p a l suggested having trained, experienced and q u a l i f i e d Canadian f i e l d l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s v i s i t a l l Canadian teachers within a reasonable geographic perimeter. Another p r i n c i p a l suggested an External Aid representative to t r a v e l and t a l k to teachers on the job. Another recommended questionnaire research, c. CUSO teachers i n Nigeria Five CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria suggested surveying the p r i n c i p a l s of the schools i n which Canadians are teaching. Two thought questionnaires to in d i v i d u a l coordinators might prove of value. Another two recommended-having CUSO and External Aid teachers report on their, own fee l i n g s about t h e i r personal contributions at the end. of t h e i r assignments. One f e l t that i t i s impossible to assess the Canadian teacher's contribution overseas - . -accurately, and another was of the opinion that the same volunteer would perform d i f f e r e n t l y were he i n a di f f e r e n t school. One f e l t that questionnaires to students and fellow teachers of Canadian teachers could help to assess t h e i r contributions; another suggested that i t should be possible to assess the success of the CUSO program by the number of requests received f o r more volunteers. Two suggested studying the progress of students who had been taught by Canadians, and how many had proceeded to university. One CUSO secondary teacher recommended a comparative study of two -schools of equal composition, comparable i n size and -218-l o c a t i o n ; one might have a series of Canadians teaching f o r 4-6 years and t h e i r examination r e s u l t s compared with those of the other school, or one school may be staffed with CUSO teachers and the other with External Aid teachers for- com-parison. One teacher f e l t that value judgments should be made by l o c a l people and not by Canadians. A CUSO primary teacher i n Nigeria suggested asking l o c a l p r i n c i p a l s and fellow teachers. A CUSO teacher t r a i n e r recommended well-trained f i e l d o f f i c e r s from Canada. The CUSO p r i n c i p a l f e l t i t was impossible to assess the Canadian contribution overseas, d. CUSO teachers i n Sarawak - Nine CUSO secondary teachers i n Sarawak suggested asking the p r i n c i p a l s or immediate superiors f o r an evaluation of Canadian teachers' performances. Three recommended asking the l o c a l government; two said i t should be done only by an Asian; and two said i t was too d i f f i c u l t to assess the Canadian contribution. Two suggested that teachers should make a self-assessment of t h e i r own contributions, and two suggested that the agency should make checks on teachers' performances i n the f i e l d . 4« Appropriate Roles of Professional and Volunteer Teachers What are the most appropriate and productive roles f o r Canadian professional and volunteer teachers overseas? Is the role of the ordinary classroom teacher s u f f i c i e n t l y challenging -219-to an experienced External Aid teacher? Are CUSO volunteers adequately trained f o r t h e i r educational work overseas? A number of External Aid secondary teachers f e l t that t h e i r tasks were demanding and f u l l y s a t i s f y i n g . A teacher i n Nigeria wrote: ' Surely the greatest contribution of any teacher, apart from h i s academic assignment, l i e s i n the exposure of h i s personality to his students. The influence of a Canadian teacher on a youngster from any of the develop-ing countries i s incalculable, and must defy s t a t i s t i c a l analysis as any of the worthwhile features of a l i b e r a l education. I would suggest, further, that the expatriate teacher, driven by a messianic urge to 'contribute' by immersing himself i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , can do a great deal of damage to these young people; they are apt to assume that the expatriate i n question i s mad, or that the outside world i s waiting at t h e i r beck and c a l l . I f e e l , personally, that the average expatriate teacher needs hi s l e i s u r e time f o r l e i s u r e , i f he i s to maintain that mental health which i s so necessary f o r h i s c l a s s -room performance. I f we can, i n addition to our academic work, pass on an understanding of Western l i f e and a grasp of the Greek i d e a l of 'arete', our contribution w i l l be more than worthwhile. Another experienced secondary teacher i n Nigeria, deeply engaged i n extra professional a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to the development of s y l l a b i , texts and teaching methods f o r h i s teaching subject, favoured the employment of q u a l i f i e d External Aid teachers i n secondary teaching positions: Generally speaking, I am against unqualified teaching personnel, either i n CUSO or the Peace Corps. Developing countries need eminently q u a l i f i e d professionals. They have enough amateurs and "do-gooders" as i t i s l An External Aid teacher at the junior secondary l e v e l i n Sarawak indicated that worthwhile u t i l i z a t i o n of professional experience was possible at that l e v e l : -220-I was able to o f f e r the benefits of my p r a c t i c a l experience i n teaching Transition, Forms I and II and my under-standing of the students and l o c a l conditions to a s s i s t in the development of a subject teaching syllabus and texts at the junior secondary l e v e l . On the other hand, several External Aid secondary teachers expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with what they considered a l i m i t e d r o l e . One wrote, f I f e e l that our status overseas must be more closely defined. Are we s k i l l e d professional people who can f i l l a demanding post, or are we merely a Canadian Peace Corps who w i l l f i l l a vacancy? T The comments of another External Aid secondary-teacher i n Nigeria expressed the fee l i n g s of many i n similar positions who would have l i k e d professional r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s beyond classroom teachings I was a high school p r i n c i p a l at home and would have l i k e d some assignment involving administrative duties.... A f t e r teaching i n Nigeria f o r three years, I wanted to transfer to teacher t r a i n i n g but no luck. I cannot see why. How i s i t decided that one w i l l be a classroom teacher and another a teacher trainer? There i s no doubt that a teacher t r a i n e r can have a more profound influence on the future of the country than can a teacher of Biology. Tb.e apparent wastage of some External Aid teachers' po t e n t i a l was commented upon by several CUSO teachers. A CUSO teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria wrote: I suspect our government should concentrate on placing highly q u a l i f i e d , hard working advisers, consultants, etc. i n M i n i s t r i e s . My observation i s that our External Aid teachers are doing excellent jobs i n t h e i r schools but I question the value that A f r i c a i s getting f o r our aid d o l l a r s under the programme. A s i m i l a r observation was made by a CUSO secondary teacher i n Sarawak: -221-Many of us observed that occasionally the Education Department was making very poor use of the expertise of Colombo Plan personnel by placing them i n straight teaching jobs which an ordinary volunteer could handle -one whom we knew was teaching as few as 11 hrs. per week - quite a waste of Canadian a b i l i t y and External Aid moneyI I t would appear that the greatest d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has arisen when External Aid and CUSO teachers have r e a l i z e d that they were both performing apparently s i m i l a r functions - when CUSO teachers observed that External Aid teachers were paid a great deal more f o r 'doing the same job', and when External Aid teachers f e l t that there was a need f o r professional services which they could f u l f i l , but unhappily were not i n a position to do so. A CUSO secondary teacher In Sarawak stressed the importance of the External Aid secondary teacher's leadership i n d i r e c t i n g the academic work of a subject department, i n a s s i s t i n g younger, less experienced s t a f f members, and i n preparing students f o r higher l e v e l examinations: At a meeting held i n Juching i n A p r i l of 1966 between the 3rd Secretary of the High Commission i n Kuala Lumpur and the Colombo Plan and CUSO personnel i n the 1st D i v i s i o n of Sarawak we were informed that i t had become policy f o r Canadian Colombo Plan to send only teacher t r a i n e r s and p r i n c i p a l s and no teachers to the Borneo States as t h i s function was being adequately f i l l e d by CUSO. I ^ f e e l t h i s i s not such a cut and dried s i t u a t i o n and that Canadian Colombo Plan should continue to send high school teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y 'teachers f o r Form VI and Forms IV and V. CUSO personnel, while generally enthusiastic and w i l l i n g to work, lack the experience of teaching and the organizational s k i l l s to prepare pupils f o r the Form VI exams. I t i s here where an experienced Colombo Plan person can contribute f a r more than a CUSO teacher. -222 -Although the need f o r these experienced people i s perhaps not as c r i t i c a l at the Forms IV and V l e v e l , an older teacher, not involved with the administration, • can be of enormous assistance to the s t a f f of a secondary school i n a developing country l i k e Sarawak because these s t a f f s of l o c a l personnel are usually very young and often need some s t a b i l i z i n g influence - an influence which can come more e f f e c t i v e l y from a teacher who i s working a l l day teaching and not embedded-in the paper work of administration. I t seems reasonably clear that the role of the secondary teacher, e s p e c i a l l y at the junior l e v e l s , i s accepted as appropriate f o r the inexperienced volunteer, but that something more professionally i s expected of External Aid teachers -either through improvement i n the quality of education by influencing the work of a whole academic department within the school, by improved s y l l a b i , new texts and teaching methods, in-service t r a i n i n g and administration, or by helping to increase the quantity and quality of teachers through teacher t r a i n i n g , the supervision of teachers' work, or advising at government l e v e l . • • I t i s anomalous that inexperienced CUSO volunteers should be assigned the tasks of t r a i n i n g teachers, supervising schools, or acting as p r i n c i p a l s of secondary schools when, at the same time, experienced External Aid teachers are carrying out only the routine tasks of the classroom teacher. Such. incongruities must only serve to cloud the. .distinction between the two Canadian agencies o f f e r i n g educational assistance, and make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r l o c a l education authorities to u t i l i z e the services of each most productively. F i e l d representatives - 2 2 3 -of the two agencies could help to prevent the misplacement of teachers by channeling requests f o r Canadian educational personnel to the appropriate agency. How well equipped are CUSO volunteers f o r the respons-i b i l i t i e s of the secondary teacher? An experienced External Aid teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak expressed h i s view that CUSO teachers had helped s i g n i f i c a n t l y there, es p e c i a l l y i n secondary education. The majority have only the short o r i e n t -ation program, including teacher t r a i n i n g , immediately before proceding overseas. Several CUSO secondary teachers i n Nigeria were concerned about the importance of t h e i r teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . One wrote, 'Teachers should go overseas primarily to teach and t h i s should be t h e i r only concern. Outside projects...should be secondary.' Another commented, 'In both agencies, a closer screening of the candidates going abroad i s imperative. Too often, those sent seemed c u l t u r a l l y i n f l e x i b l e and more t r a g i c a l l y (perhaps i n the l a t t e r 'CUSO' organization) un s k i l l e d and i l l - p r e p a r e d to teach.' A CUSO teacher t r a i n e r i n Nigeria said, 'It would be most valuable to send over people with as much t r a i n i n g as possible f o r t h e i r assigned tasks.' A CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria with no degree, no teaching c e r t i f i c a t e and no teaching experience, wrote the following: Don't send CUSO volunteers who are too young or immature. The l e v e l of education i s often not r e l a t i v e to age. Training i n a p r a c t i c a l setting f o r teaching, plus -224-experience i s necessary! Volunteers ought to be questioned upon what ( i f any) s p e c i f i c s k i l l s or knowledge they have to o f f e r i n subjects, or education as a whole!....As great as the need may be, we have to re-evaluate the ef f e c t s of CUSO volunteers overseas. Undoubtedly, they meet a great need i n schools which are groping f o r teachers. But, how well are they teaching? Can they teach? We're sending our young under-graduates who do not know what they want to do as yet i n l i f e , . a n d many of them (the majority) have had no experience i n teaching. Moreover, we are not t r a i n i n g them adequately before they leave. A crack course of '3 weeks' (and they're so excited about t r a v e l and leaving home, that i t doesn't r e a l l y sink in.) Either we prepare them adequately or we ought to send experienced and competent teachers. An External Aid secondary teacher i n Nigeria attempted to assess the attitude of l o c a l teachers toward the volunteer teacher: In my opinion CUSO and Peace Corps personnel have one major handicap. They are ca l l e d on to teach under conditions where few guidelines are given, yet they lack experience, that would serve them i n that capacity. At (one) government college i n Nigeria the l o c a l s t a f f showed some resentment towards the Peace Corps people because they f e l t that the Peace Corps had l e s s q u a l i f -i c a t i o n s f o r the job than they did. For our college, • t h i s was true. Several External Aid and CUSO teachers i n both countries suggested that more co-operation between External Aid and CUSO personnel i n the f i e l d would be p r o f i t a b l e . An experienced External Aid group headmaster i n Sarawak wrote, 'As much co-operation as possible would be most desirable as petty jealousy should have no place. At the moment I can't think of any s p e c i f i c areas of co-operation to suggest, but I f e e l that CUSO and External Aid should have a p a r t i c u l a r l y close r e l a t i o n s h i p . ' An External Aid teacher t r a i n e r i n Sarawak - 2 2 5 -suggested that more co-operation between professional and voluntary agencies would be useful i n the t r a i n i n g of new personnels 'Canadian Colombo Plan experienced people have helped con-siderably on i n i t i a t i o n courses' f o r large Peace Corps groups just a r r i v i n g . B r i e f i n g sessions f o r p a r t i c u l a r areas could use shared knowledge.' A CUSO secondary teacher i n Nigeria suggested that External Aid teachers could serve as advisors to CUSO teachers: External Aid people... should serve as co-ordinators and advisers to CUSO's i n the f i e l d . The average CUSO works harder than External Aid and accomplishes as much. The average External Aid i s wasted as a secondary school teacher (and i s a waste of Canadian money i n terms of contribution). I f External Aid people are more experienced, and hence cost more, put them i n central positions where they can rewrite c u r r i c u l a , and advise and co-ordinate CUSO's i n the f i e l d who are generally as dedicated, have a heavier work load (and cost less!) A CUSO coordinator and secondary teacher i n Sarawak suggested that External Aid and CUSO teachers work together on 'project postings': Project postings, i n my opinion, should be encouraged more than i s presently being done. In Sarawak we simply f i l l e d "holes" i n the education system. This was b e n e f i c i a l but I f e e l we (CUSO and External Aid) could work together and accomplish some very worthy and necessary projects rather than simply f i l l i n d i v i d u a l vacancies. Other teachers from both agencies f e l t that no co-ordination or co-operation of external agencies should take place within the country of service without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the l o c a l people. In conclusion, some rather d e f i n i t e statements may be made about the appropriate r o l e s of CUSO and External Aid - 2 2 6 -teachers based upon the evidence of the f i r s t decade of Canadian involvement. CUSO teaching should be concentrated.in secondary schools; requests f o r personnel f o r more, professional tasks such as t r a i n i n g teachers should be referred to the External" Aid O f f i c e . The a b i l i t y to teach should be considered a major fa c t o r i n the selection of CUSO volunteer teachers. The teacher t r a i n i n g part of the CUSO orientation program should be emphasized i n order to prepare the volunteers as adequately as possible f o r t h e i r future tasks. External Aid teachers, experienced i n the p a r t i c u l a r education system to which CUSO teachers w i l l be going, could be of great service i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n . External Aid teachers' positions should provide oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r professional contributions. The teaching l e v e l does not appear s i g n i f i c a n t ; a professional contribution to content and methods of teaching and in-service t r a i n i n g based upon, and i n conjunction with, an External Aid teacher's practical.experience i n the country of service can as well be made at the junior as at the senior l e v e l of secondary teaching. P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r such professional contributions can best be ensured by External Aid f i e l d representatives who themselves have had sim i l a r overseas experience, and therefore, better understand the requirements of both l o c a l needs and External Aid personnel. • -227-Preparation f o r external examinations at the Form VI l e v e l i s a serious matter f o r students i n developing countries; usually the f a m i l i e s have made great s a c r i f i c e s so that they could proceed so f a r , and t h e i r countries have need of t h e i r future services. I t i s an i n j u s t i c e to provide them with inexperienced teachers when experienced ones are av a i l a b l e . Thus, Form VI i s an appropriate l e v e l f o r External Aid teaching, together with the attendant r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of heading an academic department which the p o s i t i o n usually e n t a i l s . Other professional tasks such as t r a i n i n g teachers, administering secondary schools and advising governments should be reserved f o r w e l l - q u a l i f i e d , experienced External Aid personnel. Closer co-operation among Canadian agencies engaged i n providing education abroad should be welcomed; i t can a s s i s t i n defining more closely t h e i r respective roles so that the Canadian contribution may more e f f i c i e n t l y serve the education-a l needs of developing countries. 

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