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A new translation of Lucian's De Dea Syria with a discussion of the cult at Hierapolis Darcus, Roy 1967

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A NEW TRANSLATION OF LUGIAN'S DE DEA SYRIA WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE CULT AT HIERAPOLIS Roy Darcus A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of M.A. i n the Department of C l a s s i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia September, 1967 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h.i>s representatives. It is understood that copying or publ ica t ion of th is thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shal l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s seeks t o p r o v i d e a new t r a n s l a t i o n of L u c i a n ' s De Pea S y r i a , and a d i s c u s s i o n of the c u l t a t H i e r a p o l i s . The t r a n s l a t i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o be a c l e a r and s i m p l e r e n d i t i o n of the t e x t . The l o c a t i o n of H i e r a p o l i s , the c i t y L u c i a n d e s c r i b e s , i n n o r t h e r n S y r i a makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c u l t t o be d e r i v e d e i t h e r from A s i a M i n o r or f r o m S y r i a . The d i s c o v e r i e s of Ras Shamra, however, have p r o v i d e d a p i c t u r e of a f e r t i l i t y c u l t o f t h e second m i l l e n n i u m B. C., and H i e r a p o l i s seems t o e x h i b i t a l a t e r v e r s i o n of t h i s r e l i g i o u s p a t t e r n . F i r s t o f a l l , the names o f the c h i e f d e i t i e s , A t a r g a t i s and Hadad, r e f l e c t a S y r i a n o r i g i n s i n c e both are S e m i t i c . Second, t h e myths t h a t L u c i a n r e l a t e s o f the F l o o d and o f S t r a t o n i k e and Kombabos a l s o seem t o d e r i v e from a S y r i a n o r Mesopotamian background. F i n a l l y , the r i t e s p r a c t i s e d t h e r e f i t i n w i t h the f e r t i l i t y c u l t of S y r i a s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n f l u e n c e f r om A s i a M i n o r , e s p e c i a l l y i n l a t e r t i m e s , must always be c o n s i d e r e d , however, and the presence of t h e G a l l i a t H i e r a p o l i s , as w e l l as some of the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s p r i n g f e a s t , may be a r e s u l t o f i n f l u e n c e from t h e r e . I n the main, however, the c u l t seems b a s i c a l l y S y r i a n , and t h e r e seems no need t o s e a r c h f o r a n o n - S y r i a n o r i g i n . TABLE OF CONTENTS P r e f a c e I n t r o d u c t i o n Text Notes C o n c l u s i o n B i b l i o g r a p h y p. 1 p. 8 P. 36 p. 99 P. 115 PREFACE The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o p r e s e n t a new t r a n s l a t i o n of L u c i a n ' s De Pea S y r i a w i t h notes on the v a r i o u s S y r i a n c u l t s he d e s c r i b e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c u l t of H i e r a p o l i s . I n t h i s way, I hope t o shed some l i g h t on the p o s s i b l e background of the c u l t of H i e r a p o l i s . One of the e s s e n t i a l s o u r c e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the background o f S y r i a n c u l t s i s t h e Ras Shamra ( U g a r i t ) m a t e r i a l . T h i s c o n t a i n s poems about the gods of S y r i a i n t h e second h a l f of the second m i l l e n n i u m B. C , and presents a g r e a t d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n about the background of the l a t e r c u l t s i n S y r i a . J . G a r s t a n g and H. S t o c k s ( The S y r i a n Goddess, London, 1913 ) p r e p a r e d a commen-t a r y and t r a n s l a t i o n of the De Pea S y r i a , but c o u l d not use t h i s m a t e r i a l w h i c h was not d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l 1929 and not w i d e l y p u b l i s h e d u n t i l the f o r t i e s . The t r a n s l a t i o n , moreover, i s sometimes i n a c c u r a t e . A. Harmon ( The Works of L u c i a n , V o l . IV, London, 1925 ) t r a n s l a t e d the work i n t o s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h in..order t o g i v e the e f f e c t t h a t the I o n i c Greek of Herodotus would have had o n the second c e n t u r y A.D. r e a d e r . H i s n o t e s do not u t i l i z e the U g a r i t i c m a t e r i a l , and, a l t h o u g h they are sometimes v e r y h e l p f u l , t h e y are u s u a l l y v e r y b r i e f . C. Clemen ( L u k i a n s S c h r i f t uber d i e S y r i s c h e G o t t i n , P e r A l t e O r i e n t , XXXVII, 3/4, L e i p z i g , 1938 ) t r a n s l a t e d t h e work i n t o German, but h i s commentary a g a i n does not seem t o u t i l i z e the m a t e r i a l of Ras Shamra s u f f i c i e n t l y . i i I n t h i s work I have attempted t o p r o v i d e a new t r a n s l a t i o n and a commentary which makes use of the U g a r i t i c m a t e r i a l as w e l l as t h e work of the e a r l i e r commentators. My main c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t the c u l t a t H i e r a p o l i s seems s i m p l y and s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d as S y r i a n , and t h a t i t i s u n necessary t o p o s t u l a t e n o n - S y r i a n o r i g i n s f o r the cult". V o l . IV, London, 1925, pp. 338-410, and have f o l l o w e d the r e a d i n g o f t h i s v e r s i o n t h r o u g h o u t . The t r a n s l a t i o n i s l i t e r a l i n n a t u r e and seeks t o p r o v i d e a c l e a r and s i m p l e r e n d i t i o n o f L u c i a n ' s work. The a u t h o r s h i p of the De Dea S y r i a has been q u e s t i o n e d but most a u t h o r i t i e s f e e l t h a t the work was composed by L u c i a n . G. Goossens ( H i e r a p o l i s de S y r i e , L o u v a i n , 1943, p. 17. ) l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g who do so: M. G r o i s s e t , E s s a i s u r l a v i e e t l e s oeuvres de L u c i e n , P a r i s , 1882. 0. S t a h l i n , G e s c h i c h t e des G r i e c h i s c h e n l i t e r a t u r , I I , 1, Munich, 1924. W. W. B a u d i s s i n , Adonis und Esmun, L e i p z i g , 1911. F. Cumont, Les r e l i g i o n s o r i e n t a l e s dans l e paganisme romain, P a r i s , 1929. C. Clemen, L u k i a n s S c h r i f t uber d i e S y r i s c h e G o t t i n , L e i p z i g , 1938. J . F r a z e r , F o l k - l o r e i n the Old Testament, London, 1919. R. Dussaud, "A propos du d i e u s y r i e n Hadad", J o u r n a l a s i a t i q u e , 1910, I I . J . G a r s t a n g and H. .Strong, The S y r i a n Goddess, London, 1913. F. C-. A l l i n s o n , "Pseudo-ionism i n the second c e n t u r y A.D.", American J o u r n a l o f P h i l o l o g y , V I I , 1886. D. P e n n i c k , Notes on L u c i a n ' s S y r i a n Goddess, S t u d i e s i n Honor o f B. G i l d e r s l e e v e , B a l t i m o r e , 1902. However H. Helm ( " L u k i a n o s " , Pauly-Wissowa, R e a l e n c y c l o p a d i e F o r the t r a n s l a t i o n I have used the t e x t 7^0^ 'coO p r i n t e d i n A. W. Harmon, The Works o f L u c i a n , i i i X I I I , pp. 1760ff. ) and M. C a s t e r ( L u c i e n e t l a pensee r e l i g -i e u s e djg son temps, P a r i s , 1937, pp. 360-6/+. ) r e j e c t h i s a u t h o r s h i p . T h e i r o b j e c t i o n i s based upon the f a c t t h a t L u c i a n seems so c r e d u l o u s i n some of h i s s t a t e m e n t s and not s a t i r i c a l a t a l l . I f the work i s t o be a s c r i b e d t o L u c i a n , i t must be s a t i r i c a l because of the n a t u r e of h i s o t h e r w r i t i n g s . Thus C a s t e r does n ot ac c e p t L u c i a n as the a u t h o r of t h e work because, f o r i n s t a n c e , the w r i t e r of the De Pea S y r i a t e l l s us t h a t he f i n d s the wind t h a t blows the r e d sand i n t o the r i v e r A d onis a m i r a c u l o u s event ( c.# ) and t h a t he h i m s e l f has seen the s t a t u e o f A p o l l o f l y i n the a i r ( c. 37 )• L u c i a n , however, c o u l d be j o k i n g i n such cases by h i s s o l e m n i t y ; a parody i s o f t e n i r o n i c . A n a t o l e F r a n c e ' s Le Hongleur de Notre  Pame i s an example. I f the work i s by L u c i a n , i t has l i m i t e d v a l u e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s s i n c e L u c i a n ' s genre was s a t i r e and t h u s he would not be r e l u c t a n t t o exaggerate o r even t o make up e v i d e n c e about a r e l i g i o u s c u l t he was s a t i r i z i n g . The work i s an i m i t a t i o n of Herodotus and L u c i a n w i t h tongue i n cheek d e s c r i b e s the e x t r a o r d i n a r y r i t e s o f H i e r a p o l i s and o t h e r p l a c e s i n S y r i a and P h o e n i c i a . Thus i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y the use o f such a work i n o r d e r t o determine the h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y of S y r i a n c u l t s u n l e s s L u c i a n ' s statements are t e s t e d by o u t s i d e s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n . Presumably what L u c i a n s a t i r i z e s has a background o r b a s i s o f f a c t which can be conf i r m e d by the h e l p of t h i s e x t r a n e o u s m a t e r i a l . Upon t h i s assumption I have endeavoured i n t h i s t h e s i s t o d e t e r m i n e the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of the c u l t of H i e r a p o l i s by making use of the o t h e r known sources of i n f o r m a t i o n con-c e r n i n g the c u l t s of S y r i a . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my deep g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r H. E d i n g e r f o r h i s c a r e f u l ( and many! ) c o r r e c t i o n s o f my t r a n s l a t i o n , t o P r o f e s s o r H. K a s s i s f o r h i s generous guidance i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e commentary, and t o M i s s Mary R u s s e l l and M i s s S h i r l e y Darcus f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n t y p i n g the f i r s t d r a f t . SYMBOLS USED IN TRANSCRIBING CANAANITE DIALECTS The symbol 1 r e p r e s e n t s the X o r 3 a l e f , t h e g l o t t a l s t o p . T h i s l e t t e r i s not a vowel, but a consonant, and merely i n d i c a t e s t h a t the speaker c l o s e s h i s g l o t t i s b e f o r e p r o n o u n c i n g whatever vowel f o l l o w s . The word ^adon, ' l o r d ' b e g i n s w i t h t h i s l e t t e r . The symbol 1 r e p r e s e n t s t h e ^) or ' a y i n . The sound i n v o l v e d i s a v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e l a r y n g a l , and does not o c c u r i n Indo-European languages. T h i s sound b e g i n s t h e names Anat, A t e , A s h t a r , and A s t a r t e , but i s not u s u a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d . The l e t t e r ' s ' , w i t h the dot u n d e r n e a t h , r e p r e s e n t s the X. o r sad_e, an emphatic v o i c e l e s s d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e . I t i s the emphatic ' s ' sound s i m i l a r t o ' t s ' . The dot denotes an emphatic. The l e t t e r ' s ' w i t h the curved l i n e over i t ( s' ) r e p r e s e n t s a non-emphatic v o i c e l e s s p a l a t o - a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e . I n o t h e r words i t i s the 'sh' sound of the word 'shoe'. The l e t t e r ' t ' w i t h a l i n e under i t ( t ) r e p r e s e n t s the s p i r a n t i z e d ' t h ' sound i n t h e E n g l i s h ' t h i n ' . The l i n e under a l e t t e r r e p r e s e n t s s p i r a n t i z a t i o n . The symbol 'h' r e p r e s e n t s a s t r o n g l y g u t t e r a l 'h'. 56 I D * _J INTRODUCTION The main problem concerned with Lucian 1s De Pea Syria l i e s i n determining the background and nature of the cult he describes. Lucian presents a picture of the c u l t at Hierapolis i n the second century A. D., but his description i s involved at a surface l e v e l either with int e r e s t i n g s t o r i e s attached to the sanctuary or with d e t a i l s of i t s r i t e s and architecture. His main purpose seems to have been to present an entertaining survey of the chief oddities of a r e l i g i o u s cult i n the style of s i m i l a r descriptions found i n Herodotus, father than to produce a consistent or reasoned r e l i g i o u s commentary. Viewed i n t h i s l i g h t , the work does not need a commentary to achieve i t s purpose, but from another point of view, the document presents a glimpse of ancient Syrian culture, and i n t h i s context we wish to present a f u l l e r picture of the o r i g i n of the cult so that we may understand more f u l l y the background of Lucian's description. Then i f the author's general information can be illuminated, the d e t a i l s he gives i n turn can be used to broaden our picture of Syrian culture i n the Greco-Roman period. The actual explication of the cult at Hierapolis has never been easy because of the lack of information con-cerning ancient Syrian r e l i g i o n . Moreover, the c i t y ' s l o c a t i o n i n the north of Syria, i f considered i n i t s e l f , allows the hypothesis that the cult was derived from Asia 1 2 M i n o r and not from S y r i a a t a l l . C o nsequently <J. Garstang-*-i n 1913 proposed t h a t the c u l t r e f l e c t e d t h e Great Goddess and God of t h e H i t t i t e s . The d i s c o v e r i e s , however, a t Ras Shamra ( a n c i e n t U g a r i t ) on the c o a s t o f S y r i a have r e v e a l e d a gen-e r a l p i c t u r e of a n c i e n t S y r i a n r e l i g i o n , and t h e c u l t a t H i e r a -p o l i s seems t o r e f l e c t t h i s background more t h a n t h a t of A s i a M i n o r . F i r s t , the names o f the c h i e f d e i t i e s , A t a r g a t i s and Hadad, r e f l e c t a S y r i a n o r i g i n s i n c e b o t h are S e m i t i c . Second, t h e myths t h a t L u c i a n r e l a t e s o f t h e F l o o d and o f S t r a -t o n i k e and Kombabos a l s o seem t o d e r i v e from a S y r i a n o r Mes-opotamian background. F i n a l l y , the r i t e s p r a c t i s e d t h e r e seem t o match the n a t u r e o f the c l i m a t e o f S y r i a , and not of A s i a M i n o r , and f i t i n w i t h the f e r t i l i t y c u l t of S y r i a . An e x a m i n a t i o n of the myths and e p i c s o f U g a r i t p r o v i d e s a broad b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f A t a r g a t i s and Hadad. The main e p i c concerns th e d e a t h and reappearance of the v e g e t a t i o n god Baal-Hadad t h r o u g h the h e l p o f h i s s i s t e r - c o n s o r t Anat. A p i c t u r e of f o u r i m p o r t a n t gods emerges from these t e x t s . These are E l , Baal-Hadad, Anat, and Mot. The f i g u r e E l i s the head of the U g a r i t i c pantheon as the s e n i o r god and c r e a t o r o f the d i v i n e f a m i l y . He i s c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y as the e s t a b l i s h e r o f the s o c i a l o r d e r and as the f a t h e r o f the community,. The word ' E l ' i t s e l f l j . G a r s t a n g , H. S t r o n g , The S y r i a n Goddess, London, 1913. i s thought to derive from the root T ' w l ' , 'to be strong, to be the leader ' .^ At Ugarit, however, E l was real ly only the t i t u l a r head of the pantheon. In the Ugaritic texts, the chief d iv ini ty i s Baal-Hadad, and he played the most prominent role in the f e r t i l i t y cult and was the foremost god of reproduction. One of the central episodes of the Ugaritic myths centres around the three gods Baal-Hadad, Anat, and Mot. Baal-Hadad was the chief god of the Ugaritic pantheon. The term 'baal ' simply means ' l o r d ' , and the term became applied especially to the god Hadad who was the storm god of the Syrians, and hence the god of f e r t i l i t y since Syria depends on the r a i n f a l l for i t s crops.3 Although El i s creator of the divine family and father of the important d i v i n i t i e s at Ugarit, Baal never-theless i s not the son of E l but of Dagon, the wheat god of the Amorites, that i s , of the Semites of the west^ The two temples excavated at Ugarit are ascribed to Baal and Dagon. Dagon, however, does not play a role in the myths, and from the fact that Baal is his son, Baal may have taken over his functions.5 This confusion in genealogy makes i t very d i f f i c u l t to determine the origin of Baal-Hadad. In fact , 2 M . Dahood, "Ancient Semitic Deit ies" , in Le Antiche  Divinita Semitiche, S. Moscati, ed . , Rome, 1958, p. 74. 3Ibid. , p. 76. * 4R. Dussaud, "Peut-on ident i f ier l 'Apollon barbu de Hierapolis de Syrie?", Revue de 1'Histoire des Religions, C.XXVI, 1942 -43, II , PP. 128^49"." 5j . Gray, The Legacy of Canaan, Leiden, 1957, p. 1 3 2 . 4 one episode in the myths is concerned with the construction of a temple for Baal since he alone of the gods in the realm of El does not possess one. Thus i t is thought that Baal-Hadad was introduced into the pantheon of Ugarit at a date sometime after i t s primary formation, but i t is not certain from exactly what source. He shows similarities to the Indo-Aryan mountain god Teshub.° On the other hand, Dagon and Hadad were important divinities in Mesopotamia and could well have entered the Ugaritic pantheon from this source.''' Baal's sister-consort is Anat, who i s the goddess of f e r t i l i t y . She is called "the virgin", and seems to play a martial role similar to that of Athena. It is she who destroys Baal's enemy Mot ( Death ) who has captured Baal in the underworld and hance removed him from l i f e . Anat seems to be the figure who allows Baal, the god of vegetation, to return from Mot's realm of death to fructi f y the earth. Baal is lured into the underworld by his enemy Mot or Death. When Baal goes there, decay and s t e r i l i t y reign over the earth since Mot is ascendant.9 Mot then as the god of s t e r i l i t y and death in nature i s the counter-principle of Baal. In the myth concerning these three gods, Baal-Hadad, Anat, and Mot, Baal is overcome by Mot, but returns 6«J. Gray, op_. c i t . , p. 1 1 4 . 7M. Dahood, op_. c i t . , p. 77. S j . Gray, op_. c i t . , p. 1 2 7 . 9 c f . T. H. Gaster, Thespis, New York, 1 9 6 1 , p. 2 2 1 . 5 t o l i f e t h r o u g h t h e agency of Anat, h i s s i s t e r - c o n s o r t . The myth r e f l e c t s t h e v e g e t a t i o n c y c l e o f growth and d e a t h i n S y r i a . Baal-Hadad as the storm god b r i n g s l i f e i n n a t u r e t h r o u g h r a i n . I n o p p o s i t i o n t o him Mot, t h e god of Death, g a i n s mastery over the e a r t h and u s u r p s B a a l . Anat, however, the w a r - l i k e c o n s o r t o f B a a l , d e f e a t s Mot and so e f f e c t s the r e t u r n o f l i f e t o e a r t h . These t h r e e gods formed t h e n the r e a l c e n t r e o f the C a n a a n i t e f e r t i l i t y c u l t around t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y B. C. I n m o d i f i e d form t h e y a l s o formed the b a s i s o f S y r i a n r e l i g i o n i n the Greco-Roman p e r i o d . I n H i e r a p o l i s , Hadad and A t a r g a t i s ( ' A t a r - ^ A t e ) were the c e n t r a l f i g u r e s o f the c u l t . The name A t a r g a t i s , w h i c h i s the Greek f o r m of the Aramaic T)S)\)-/S1M ( ' A t a r - ' A t e ), seems t o be a c o m b i n a t i o n o f ''Attar and ' A t e . 1 0 'Ate was the Aramaic form of ^ n a t , 1 1 and the name i s found on c o i n s of H i e r a p o l i s d a t e d the f o u r t h c e n t u r y B. C. 1^ 4 A t t a r ( t ) was A s h t a r t , I s h t a r , or A s t a r t e , the f e r t i l i t y goddess who was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the p l a n e t Venus. 13 I n t h e Ras Shamra t e x t s , b o t h 'Anat ( 'Ate ) and ' A t t a r t are independent and s e p a r a t e d e i t i e s , a l t h o u g h i n f a c t t h e i r f u n c t i o n s are v e r y s i m i l a r . 'Anat p l a y s the major r o l e o f 1°G. Cooke, A Text-Book of N o r t h - S e m i t i c I n s c r i p t i o n s , O x f o r d , 1 9 0 3 , ( R e p r i n t , U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1 9 6 6 ) p. 2 6 7 , g i v e s an i n s c r i p t i o n of Palmyra dated I 4 O A. D. where i n the b i l i n g u a l t e x t , 'Atar 'ateh i n Aramaic i s A t a r g a t i s i n Greek. 13-W. F. A l b r i g h t , "The E v o l u t i o n o f the West S e m i t i c D i v i n i t y 'An- ' A n a t - * A t t a " , American J o u r n a l of S e m i t i c Languages  and L i t e r a t u r e s , X L I , 1925, pp. 88-90T 12G. Goossens, H i e r a p o l i s de S y r i e , L o u v a i n , 1943, p. 61. 13M. Dahood, op_. c i t . , p. "STJ. f e r t i l i t y goddess and i s c o n s o r t of B a a l , whereas ' A t t a r t remains i n t h e background. S t i l l , ' A t t a r t i s mentioned as the h y p o s t a s i s of B a a l ( sm b ' l B a s i c a l l y *A£tar was the d i v i n i t y connected w i t h the p l a n e t Venus. I n South A r a b i a ' A t t a r was not a goddess but a god, and Venus was c o n c e i v e d of as m a s c u l i n e . I t seems t h a t the C a n a a n i t e s i n the n o r t h may have c o n c e i v e d o f the d e i t y as androgynous s i n c e t h e r e are two p e r s o n a l names, ' t t r ab, ' ' A t t a r i s f a t h e r ' , and f t t r um, ' fA£tar i s mother', i n the Ras Shamra t e x t s . ^ 5 I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say when the two d i v i n i t i e s 'Anat and £A£tar were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h one a n o t h e r , but t h a t t h e y were so i s e v i d e n t . Moreover because of the background o f the name, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o conclude t h a t a f e r t i l i t y c u l t o f a god and goddess s i m i l a r i n p a t t e r n t o t h a t o f B a a l -Hadad and Anat was p r e s e n t at H i e r a p o l i s . There i s a l s o t h e e v i d e n c e o f the c u l t s o f o t h e r s i t e s i n S y r i a t h a t L u c i a n mentions ( T y r e , B y b l o s , S i d o n ) w h i c h tends t o support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s s i n c e t h e y t o o sometimes r e f l e c t more e x p l i c i t l y t h i s b a s i c p a t t e r n . I n our n o t e s , we w i l l examine the c u l t s o f these p l a c e s i n H e l l e n i s t i c t i m e s , and see what p i c t u r e t h e y g i v e of S y r i a n r e l i g i o n . I t w i l l be f a i r l y e v i d e n t , I b e l i e v e , t h a t the b a s i c elements of t h e U g a r i t i c f e r t i l i t y c u l t remained i n f l u e n t i a l t h roughout t h e Syrio-Mesopotamian a r e a , and are r e f l e c t e d i n the c u l t s . 1 o f Tammuz i n Mesopotamia Gray, op_. c i t . , p. 129. ^5M. Dahood, p_p_. ci£. , p. £6 . and of Adonis i n B y b l o s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , because of* the names o f the d e i t i e s A t a r g a t i s and Hadad, and because of t h e n a t u r e of the myths and r i t e s found a t the c i t y , t h e r e i s good r e a s o n t o i n c l u d e H i e r a p o l i s i n t h i s sphere. I hope t h a t t h i s con-t e n t i o n w i l l become c l e a r i n the n o t e s and i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . THE GODDESS OF SYRIA In S y r i a there i s a c i t y not f a r from the Euphrates River which i s c a l l e d h o l y , and i t i s sacred to the A s s y r i a n Here. I do not th i n k the c i t y had t h i s name when i t was founded, but that the old name was d i f f e r e n t . Afterwards, when the great ceremonies came'into e x i s t e n c e , the name was changed to t h i s . Now I plan to r e l a t e every p o s s i b l e f e a t u r e about t h i s c i t y ; I w i l l speak of the customs which they f o l l o w i n t h e i r ceremonies, the f e s t i v a l s they keep, and the s a c r i f i c e s they perform. I w i l l a l s o r e l a t e the accounts they give about those who e s t a b l i s h e d the sanctuary and how the temple came to be. I who w r i t e am an A s s y r i a n , and some of the things I w i l l e x p l a i n I learned from my own obs e r v a t i o n , and some, concerning whatever I describe that was previous to my time, 1 learned from the p r i e s t s . 2 Now the Egyptians are said to be the f i r s t that we know of mankind to develop an awareness of the gods, to found sanctuaries and enclosures, and to appoint f e s t i v a l s . They were the f i r s t to know the d i v i n e names and to r e l a t e sacred s t o r i e s . Not long afterwards, according to the account of the Egyptians, the Assyrians came upon the gods. They founded sanctuaries and temples i n which they placed statues and set up images. 3 However, by ancient p r a c t i c e , the Egyptians kept t h e i r temples without images. There are a l s o temples i n S y r i a which are almost equal i n age to those of the 8 Egyptians. I have seen most of them, e s p e c i a l l y the temple of Heracles i n Tyre. This i s not tha t Heracles whom the Greeks p r a i s e i n poetry, but another who I say i s much ol d e r and a hero of Tyre. L There i s a l s o another la r g e temple i n Phoenicia which the Sidonians have. As they themselves say, i t i s A s t a r t e ' s , and I t h i n k Astarte i s Selenaia. But according to the account of one of the p r i e s t s , i t i s Europa's, the s i s t e r of Cadmus. She was the daughter of k i n g Agenor. When she disappeared, the Phoenicians honoured her w i t h a temple and r e l a t e d a sacred s t o r y about her, that Zeus d e s i r e d her f o r her beauty, and, changing h i s appearance to a b u l l , he seized her and c a r r i e d her o f f to Crete. I a l s o heard t h i s account from other Phoenicians, and the currency that the Sidonians use has Europa s i t t i n g upon Zeus as a b u l l . However they do not agree that t h i s i s the temple of Europa. 5 The Phoenicians have another temple which i s not As s y r i a n but Egyptian. I t reached Phoenicia from H e l i o p o l i s . I have not seen i t myself but i t i s also l a r g e and o l d . 6 I also saw i n Byblos the large temple of Aphrodite of Byblos i n which they a l s o celebrate the r i t e s f o r Adonis. In a d d i t i o n I learned about the r i t e s . Now they say that the a ttack on Adonis by the boar happened i n t h e i r own country, and so every year they beat themselves i n memory of h i s s u f f e r i n g and carry out the r i t e s . T h e i r deep mourning spreads over the country. When they stop t h e i r beating and w a i l i n g , f i r s t they make o f f e r i n g s to Adonis as to a dead person, then on the n e x t day t h e y t e l l the s a c r e d s t o r y t h a t he i s a l i v e and t h e y b r i n g him out i n t o the open. They have t h e i r heads shaved j u s t as the E g y p t i a n s do when A p i s d i e s . A l l those women who r e f u s e t o have t h e i r heads shaven have t o f u l f i l l t he f o l l o w i n g p e n a l t y : on a c e r t a i n day t h e y s t a n d on s a l e f o r t h e i r beauty. The m a r k e t - p l a c e stands open o n l y t o s t r a n g e r s , and the p r o f i t becomes an o f f e r i n g f o r A p h r o d i t e . 7 Some of the people of B y b l o s say t h a t the E g y p t i a n O s i r i s i s b u r i e d among them, and t h a t a l l the mourning and the r i t e s are c a r r i e d out not f o r Adonis but f o r O s i r i s . I w i l l g i v e the r e a s o n t h e y t h i n k t h i s i s t r u e : e v e r y y e a r a head from Egypt reaches B y b l o s s a i l i n g the voyage between the two w i t h i n seven days. The winds c a r r y i t a l o n g on a q u i c k passage. I t n e v e r t u r n s a s i d e but o n l y comes t o B y b l o s . T h i s i s the complete m i r a c l e . T h i s happens e v e r y y e a r and i t came t o pass when I was t h e r e , and I saw the head of B y b l o s . 8 There i s a l s o a n o t h e r wonder i n the l a n d o f B y b l o s . A r i v e r f r o m Mount Lebanon f l o w s out i n t o the s e a , and i s g i v e n the name A d o n i s . Every y e a r the r i v e r becomes b l o o d - r e d and, h a v i n g l o s t i t s c o l o u r , i t f l o w s i n t o the sea and dyes much o f the b r i n e r e d . I t s i g n i f i e s s u f f e r i n g t o the people of B y b l o s . They o f f e r the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t on t h e s e days Ad o n i s has been wounded upland on Mount Lebanon and h i s b l o o d , m i x i n g w i t h the w a t e r , changes the r i v e r ' s c o l o u r and g i v e s the stream h i s name. T h i s i s the common r e p o r t . But a c e r t a i n man a t B y b l o s who appeared t o be t e l l i n g the t r u t h a t t r i b u t e d a n o t h e r cause t o the i n c i d e n t . These are h i s words: " S t r a n g e r , t h e r i v e r A d o n i s comes t h r o u g h the Lebanon, w h i c h has e x t r e m e l y red-brown e a r t h . T h e r e f o r e when the rough winds blow d u r i n g t h a t season, t h e y c a r r y t h i s e x t r e m e l y r e d e a r t h i n the r i v e r w h i c h t u r n s i t b l o o d - c o l o u r . And so not the b l o o d as they say, but the t e r r a i n i t s e l f i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s e v e n t . " So much the man o f B y b l o s t o l d me. I f he t o l d the t r u t h , even the c o i n c i d e n c e o f the wind seems e x t r e m e l y m i r a c u l o u s t o me. 9 I went up t o Mount Lebanon from B y b l o s , a day's t r i p , h a v i n g l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e was an a n c i e n t temple of A p h r o d i t e t h e r e which K i n y r e s b u i l t . I saw the temple and c o n f i r m e d i t s age. Those a r e the o l d and s i z e a b l e s a n c t u a r i e s i n S y r i a . 10 B e i n g as t h e y a r e , none of them seems t o me t o be l a r g e r t h a n the ones i n the h o l y c i t y , nor i s t h e r e a n o t h e r temple more h o l y , o r any o t h e r d i s t r i c t more s a c r e d . I n i t are many e x p e n s i v e works, a n c i e n t v o t i v e o f f e r i n g s , many m a r v e l s and images f i t f o r a god. Moreover the gods make t h e i r presence f e l t g r e a t l y among the p e o p l e , f o r the images p e r s p i r e among them, move, and u t t e r o r a c l e s . A shout o f t e n r i n g s out i n the temple a f t e r the s a n c t u a r y has been l o c k e d , and many have he a r d i t . What i s more, I know i t i s the r i c h e s t temple among them, f o r a g r e a t d e a l of money comes i n t o t h e i r hands from A r a b i a , P h o e n i c i a , B a b y l o n i a , as w e l l as a d d i t i o n a l funds f r o m Cappadocia, C i l i c i a , and A s s y r i a . I a l s o know what i s s t o r e d away p r i v a t e l y i n the t e m p l e , t h a t i s , a g r e a t q u a n t i t y o f r a i m e n t and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t i s judged t o be e i t h e r g o l d o r s i l v e r . T h e i r g r e a t number of f e s t i v a l s and h o l i d a y s 12 i s a c c e p t e d by no o t h e r group o f men. 11 I n my r e s e a r c h e s about the age o f the s a n c t u a r y , and who t h e y themselves t h i n k the goddess i s , I r e c e i v e d many a c c o u n t s , some s a c r e d , some common, and some e x t r e m e l y l e g e n d a r y ; some were f o r e i g n , and o t h e r s agreed w i t h Greek a c c o u n t s . I w i l l r e l a t e a l l o f t h e s e even though a c c e p t i n g none o f them. 12 The m a j o r i t y say t h a t D e u k a l i o n the S c y t h i a n founded the s a n c t u a r y , t h a t i s , the D e u k a l i o n upon whom the f l o o d descended. I n Greece I heard the s t o r y t h a t the Greeks t e l l about D e u k a l i o n , and here i t i s . T h i s p r e s e n t race o f men was not the f i r s t , but t h e r e was a f o r m e r t h a t c o m p l e t e l y p e r i s h e d , so t h a t men o f today a re of a second s t o c k , w h i c h through D e u k a l i o n a g a i n grew i n t o a m u l t i t u d e . They e x p l a i n t h a t those men were e x t r e m e l y v i o l e n t and committed outrageous s i n s . They d i d n o t keep t h e i r o a t h s , r e c e i v e s t r a n g e r s , o r p r o t e c t s u p p l i a n t s , and so i n consequence the g r e a t c a t a s t r o p h e b e f e l l them. Suddenly the e a r t h gave f o r t h a g r e a t q u a n t i t y of water ; a heavy r a i n f a l l o c c u r r e d , t h e s w o l l e n r i v e r s came down, the sea's l e v e l surged up u n t i l e v e r y t h i n g was water and a l l were d e s t r o y e d . D e u k a l i o n was the s o l e s u r v i v o r of men i n t o the second epoch because of h i s wisdom and h o l i n e s s . T h i s i s how he was r e s c u e d : he owned a l a r g e c h e s t upon wh i c h he embarked h i s w i v e s , h i s c h i l d r e n , and h i m s e l f . As he was b o a r d i n g , p i g s , h o r s e s , the l i o n f a m i l y , snakes, and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t f e e d s on.land a r r i v e d a l l i n p a i r s . He r e c e i v e d them a l l and t h e y d i d not harm him, but a g r e a t f r i e n d s h i p i n s p i r e d by Zeus sprang up among them. They a l l s a i l e d i n one a r k as l o n g as the water p r e v a i l e d . So t e l l the Greeks about D e u k a l i o n . 13 About subsequent e v e n t s , the people i n the sac r e d c i t y t e l l a s t o r y t h a t g r e a t l y m e r i t s wonder. In t h e i r c o u n t r y , t h e y say, a g r e a t chasm opened and swallowed a l l the waiter. When t h i s happened, D e u k a l i o n s e t up a l t a r s and e r e c t e d a temple to Here o v e r the chasm. I have seen the chasm; i t i s under the temple and i s e x t r e m e l y s m a l l . Whether o r not i t was once l a r g e and t h e n became l i k e t h i s , I do not know. But the one I saw i s s m a l l . They f u r n i s h the f o l l o w i n g p r o o f o f t h e i r account. Twice e v e r y year water from the sea a r r i v e s a t the temple. Not o n l y do cit he p r i e s t s b r i n g i t , but a l l S y r i a and A r a b i a ; even many people from a c r o s s the Euphrates go t o the sea. They a l l b r i n g w a t e r which f i r s t t h e y pour out i n the temple and w h i c h a f t e r w a r d s f l o w s i n t o t he chasm, and even though the chasm i s s m a l l , i t t a k e s i n a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of water. I n d o i n g t h i s , t h e y say t h a t D e u k a l i o n e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s custom i n the s a n c t u a r y as a memorial o f the c a t a s t r o p h e and the good outcome. Such i s t h e i r a n c i e n t s t o r y about the s a n c t u a r y . 14 I n the o p i n i o n o f o t h e r s , Semiramis the B a b y l o n i a n , who has many monuments i n A s i a , founded t h i s s i t e a l s o , not f o r Here, but f o r h e r own mother whose name i s De r k e t o . I saw a l i k e n e s s o f Derketo i n P h o e n i c i a , an u n u s u a l wonder. H a l f i s a woman, but from h e r t h i g h s t o the t o e s s t r e t c h e s the t a i l of a f i s h . However i n the h o l y c i t y , she i s c o m p l e t e l y a woman, and those who b e l i e v e i n t h a t s t o r y are not v e r y common. They c o n s i d e r f i s h as s a c r e d t h i n g s and never t o u c h them. Moreover t h e y e at most b i r d s , but not t h e dove, because i t i s s a c r e d t o them. They observe the custom because o f Derketo and Semiramis, f i r s t because Derketo has t h e shape of a f i s h , and t h e n because Semiramis was f i n a l l y t u r n e d i n t o a dove. But f o r my p a r t I suppose I w i l l r e l u c t a n t l y b e l i e v e t h a t the temple i s t h e monument o f Semiramis. However I i n no way b e l i e v e i t t o be the s a n c t u a r y o f D e r k e t o , s i n c e t h e r e a re E g y p t i a n s who do not eat f i s h , and t h e y do not do t h i s f o r the f a v o u r of Der k e t o . 15 There i s a n o t h e r s a c r e d account w h i c h I heard m y s e l f from a l e a r n e d man, t h a t t h e goddess i s Rhea, and the s a n c t u a r y the worl£,of A t t e s . A t t e s was a L y d i a n by b i r t h and was the f i r s t t o t e a c h the r i t e s f o r the w o r s h i p o f Rhea. Whatever r i t e s t he P h r y g i a n s , the L y d i a n s , and the Samothracians p e r f o r m , t h e y a l l l e a r n e d from A t t e s . When Rhea c a s t r a t e d him, he l e f t o f f the l i f e o f a man and t o o k on a woman's shape, put on women's c l o t h e s , and t r a v e l l i n g t o e v e r y l a n d , he c e l e b r a t e d r i t e s , t e l l i n g of what he s u f f e r e d and p r a i s i n g Rhea i n song. D u r i n g t h e s e wanderings, he a l s o came t o S y r i a . Because the people beyond t h e Euphrates would accept n e i t h e r him nor h i s r i t e s , he b u i l t t he temple i n t h i s c o u n t r y . Here i s the e v i d e n c e . The goddess f o r t h e most p a r t matches Rhea, f o r l i o n s c a r r y h e r , she has a drum, and on h e r head she wears a m u r a l crown, the same k i n d o f Rhea the L y d i a n s make. He a l s o s a i d t h a t the G a l l i who are i n the temple are never c a s t r a t e d f o r Here but r a t h e r f o r Rhea, and t h e y i m i t a t e A t t e s . T h i s account seems p l a u s i b l e t o me, but not t r u e , s i n c e I heard a much more c r e d i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e i r c a s t r a t i o n , 1 ° and am s a t i s f i e d by what those who agree f o r t h e most p a r t w i t h the Greeks say about the temple. They b e l i e v e t h e goddess i s Here and t h e monument the work of D i o n y s u s , son o f Semele. F o r d o u b t l e s s D i o n y s u s reached S y r i a on t h a t j o u r n e y he made t o E t h i o p i a . There are many s i g n s i n the temple t h a t Dionysus was the b u i l d e r , among which are the f o r e i g n c l o t h e s , the I n d i a n s t o n e s , and t h e t u s k s of e l e p h a n t s which Dionysus brought from E t h i o p i a . Moreover two e x t r e m e l y l a r g e p h a l l i c columns stand i n the e n t r a n c e upon which the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n i s w r i t t e n : These p h a l l i I Dionysus s e t up f o r Here my step-mother Now t h i s seems s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o me, and I w i l l r e l a t e a n o t h e r r i t e o f Dionysus i n the temple. The Greeks r a i s e up p h a l l i f o r D i o n y s u s , and o v e r them t h e y c a r r y something l i k e t h i s : s m a l l men made from wood which have o v e r s i z e d s e x u a l organs. These are c a l l e d puppets. T h i s r i t e i s a l s o i n the temple. On the r i g h t of the temple i s p l a c e d a s m a l l man i n bronze d i s p l a y i n g an o v e r s i z e d s e x u a l organ. 17 Such are t h e i r s t o r i e s about the f o u n d e r s of the t e m p l e . Now c o n c e r n i n g the t e m p l e , I w i l l d i s c u s s how i t s s i z e came t o be, and who d i d the a c t u a l b u i l d i n g . They say t h a t the p r e s e n t temple was not the o r i g i n a l one, but the f o r m e r one was d e s t r o y e d a t l a s t by age, and the p r e s e n t one i s t he work of S t r a t o n i k e , the w i f e of the k i n g o f the A s s y r i a n s I t h i n k S t r a t o n i k e was the woman who had a s t e p - s o n who f e l l i n l o v e w i t h her. I t took the i n g e n u i t y o f the d o c t o r t o d i s c o v e r h i s c o n d i t i o n . When t h i s m i s f o r t u n e o c c u r r e d t o the young man, he d e s p a i r e d over the seeming shamefulness of i t and q u i e t l y became i l l . He l a y t h e r e f e e l i n g no b o d i l y p a i n , but h i s complexion changed e n t i r e l y and h i s body wasted away from day t o day. When the p h y s i c i a n saw t h a t he was weakened w i t h no apparent r e a s o n , he r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e d i s e a s e was l o v e . There are many s i g n s of h i d d e n l o v e : weak eyes , the v o i c e , c o m p l e x i o n , and t e a r s . A f t e r l e a r n i n g h i s c o n d i t i o n , he a c t e d . W ith h i s r i g h t hand, he touched the h e a r t o f the young man, and t h e n summoned everyone of the h o u s e h o l d . The p a t i e n t remained i n a g r e a t calm w h i l e t h e y a l l e n t e r e d the room, but when h i s step-mother a r r i v e d , h i s complexion changed, he began t o sweat, and was s e i z e d w i t h t r e m b l i n g , and h i s h e a r t l e a p e d . These e v e n t s made c l e a r t o the d o c t o r the young man's p a s s i o n , and he used the f o l l o w i n g remedy t o cure him. 18 He summoned the e x t r e m e l y w o r r i e d f a t h e r o f the y o u t h and s a i d , " T h i s s i c k n e s s y o u r son s u f f e r s i s not a d i s e a s e but an u n j u s t d e s i r e . T h i s l a d i s not s i c k a t a l l , he i s b e f u d d l e d w i t h l o v e . He l o v e s what he w i l l never g e t , my w i f e , and I w i l l never g i v e h e r up." He l i e d v e r y w i s e l y . The f a t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y begged h i s f a v o u r . " I n the name o f your m e d i c i n e and l e a r n i n g , " he s a i d , "do not d e s t r o y my son. I t i s h a r d l y h i s f a u l t he was s t r u c k by t h i s m i s f o r t u n e t h e s i c k n e s s i s i n v o l u n t a r y . Don't i n f l i c t p a i n on a l l the • 17 kingdom w i t h your j e a l o u s y , and s i n c e you are a d o c t o r , do not e n r o l l murder i n your a r t . " I n h i s i g n o r a n c e , he made t h e r e q u e s t . The d o c t o r answered, "You are promoting s a c r i l e g e by b r e a k i n g up my ma r r i a g e and u s i n g f o r c e on a d o c t o r . How would you a c t , i f he d e s i r e d your w i f e , you who beg such t h i n g s o f me?" The k i n g r e p l i e d t h a t he would i n no way be j e a l o u s o f h i s w i f e and begrudge h i s son's h e a l t h , i f he somehow l o v e d h i s step-mother. I t i s not t h e same s o r t o f m i s f o r t u n e t o l o s e a w i f e as t o l o s e a son. As soon as the d o c t o r heard t h i s , he s a i d , "Why are you p u t t i n g e n t r e a t i e s t o me? You see, your son r e a l l y does d e s i r e your w i f e . A l l t h a t I t o l d you was not t r u e . " The k i n g b e l i e v e d t h i s , l e f t h i s son, b o t h h i s w i f e and h i s kingdom, and went h i m s e l f t o B a b y l o n i a where on the Euphrates he b u i l t t he c i t y t h a t bears h i s name. There he d i e d . And so t h i s i s the wqy the p h y s i c i a n r e c o g n i z e d p a s s i o n and h e a l e d i t . 19 W h i l e S t r a t o n i k e was s t i l l l i v i n g w i t h h e r forme r husband, she had a dream i n whi c h Here commanded h e r t o b u i l d f o r h e r the temple i n the h o l y c i t y . I f she s h o u l d d i s o b e y , many e v i l s would b e f a l l h e r . At f i r s t she d i d not t r o u b l e h e r s e l f , but a f t e r w a r d s , when she had become v e r y i l l , she r e v e a l e d the v i s i o n t o h e r husband and appeased Here by p r o m i s i n g t o b u i l d the temple. As soon as she was v/e 11, h er husband sen t h e r t o the h o l y c i t y w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f money and a l a r g e army, p a r t t o do the b u i l d i n g and p a r t t o guard h e r . He summoned one of h i s f r i e n d s , an extremely handsome young man c a l l e d Kombabos. "Kombabos," he s a i d , " s i n c e you are so good, I love you most of a l l my f r i e n d s and i n every way p r a i s e your wisdom and the good w i l l you have a l r e a d y demonstrated towards me. Now I have great need of your f a i t h f u l n e s s . I want you to f o l l o w my wife and complete t h i s task f o r me, c a r r y out the r i t e s and command the army. When you r e t u r n , you w i l l g a i n g r e a t honour from me." Kombabos i n r e p l y immediately begged and pleaded w i t h the k i n g not to send him and e n t r u s t to him a f o r t u n e f a r g r e a t e r than h i s own along w i t h the queen and the sacred p r o j e c t . He dreaded t h a t l a t e r the k i n g would become j e a l o u s of S t r a t o n i k e with whom Kombabos would set out alone. 20 Since the k i n g would not l i s t e n to him, he made a second p l e a and asked the k i n g to give him seven days, and then to send him away a f t e r he had done something t h a t was completely necessary. Having e a s i l y gained h i s request, he r e t u r n e d to h i s own home where f l i n g i n g h i m s e l f on the ground, he w a i l e d , "How could I be so unlucky? Why does he have to t r u s t me? Why do I have t h i s journey whose r e s u l t I can see already? I am young and I am going to e s c o r t a b e a u t i f u l woman. There w i l l be a g r e a t d i s a s t e r u n l e s s I remove every cause of danger. I w i l l have to take the g r e a t step t h a t w i l l cure me of every f e a r . " So reasoning he made himself i m p e r f e c t , and, a f t e r c u t t i n g o f f h i s t e s t i c l e s , he p l a c e d them i n a small v e s s e l w i t h myrrh, honey and other s p i c e s . Then s e a l i n g i t with a 19 s i g n e t r i n g he was c a r r y i n g , he h e a l e d the wound. L a t e r when he thought i t time t o s e t o u t , he went t o the k i n g and i n f r o n t o f many w i t n e s s e s he gave him the v e s s e l and s a i d , "My l o r d , i n my h o usehold t h i s g r e a t t r e a s u r e was s t o r e d w h i c h I g r e a t l y p r i z e . Now s i n c e I am g o i n g on a l o n g j o u r n e y , I w i l l p l a c e i t w i t h you. You keep i t s a f e f o r me. T h i s i s more v a l u a b l e t o me t h a n g o l d and w o r t h no l e s s t h a n my l i f e . When I r e t u r n , I w i l l c a r r y i t o f f s a f e . " The k i n g r e c e i v e d i t and marked i t w i t h a n o t h e r s e a l and t h e n e n t r u s t e d i t t o the stewards t o guard. 21 A f t e r t h i s e v e n t , Kombabos a c c o m p l i s h e d h i s j o u r n e y i n s a f e t y . When t h e y a r r i v e d a t the h o l y c i t y , t h e y b u i l t t h e temple w i t h z e a l . They were t h r e e y e a r s a t the t a s k d u r i n g w hich o c c u r r e d e x a c t l y what Kombabos had dreaded. S i n c e S t r a t o n i k e was t o g e t h e r w i t h him f o r such a l o n g t i m e , she began t o d e s i r e him, and a f t e r w a r d s she was mad about him. The people o f the h o l y c i t y say t h a t Here was the cause o f the a f f a i r s i n c e she wished t o make known the goodness o f Kombabos and t o p u n i s h S t r a t o n i k e because she d i d not r e a d i l y promise the temple. 22 At f i r s t S t r a t o n i k e was r e s t r a i n e d and c o n c e a l e d her p a s s i o n . But when the e v i l would not a l l o w h e r peace, she o p e n l y showed h e r a f f l i c t i o n , and used t o weep day by day and c a l l out f o r Kombabos who was now e v e r y t h i n g t o h e r . F i n a l l y h e l p l e s s i n her m i s f o r t u n e , she sought an h o n o r a b l e p e t i t i o n . She was c a r e f u l not t o r e v e a l h e r l o v e t o anyone e l s e , but she was a f r a i d t o t r y h e r s e l f . T h e r e f o r e she planned t o become drunk and go and t a l k t o him. B o l d n e s s i n speech comes t o one w i t h wine and f a i l u r e i s not e s p e c i a l l y shameful. R a t h e r , e v e r y t h i n g done f a d e s away i n t o f o r g e t f u l n e s s . T h i s seemed a good p l a n and she c a r r i e d i t out. A f t e r d i n n e r she went t o the house where Kombabos was lodged where she begged and i m p l o r e d him and r e v e a l e d h e r p a s s i o n . He r e c e i v e d h e r r e v e l a t i o n h a r s h l y , spurned h e r advance and accused h e r of b e i n g drunk. When she t h r e a t e n e d t o do h e r s e l f some g r e a t e v i l , however, i n f e a r he r e v e a l e d the whole s t o r y by r e l a t i n g h i s own s u f f e r i n g and b r i n g i n g the whole a f f a i r i n t o the l i g h t . When S t r a t o n i k e saw what she never e x p e c t e d , she gave up t h a t madness, y e t i n no way d i d she escape from h e r p a s s i o n , but i n h i s presence she c o n t i n u e d h e r advances f o r a l o v e t h a t c o u l d not be consummated. T h i s k i n d o f l o v e o c c u r s even now i n the h o l y c i t y . Women y e a r n f o r the G a l l i and the G a l l i are mad about women. No one i s j e a l o u s and the p r a c t i c e i s c o n s i d e r e d e x t r e m e l y h o l y . 23 What was g o i n g on i n the h o l y c i t y by no means escaped the n o t i c e o f the k i n g , s i n c e many people who r e t u r n e d made a c c u s a t i o n s and d e s c r i b e d what was happening. S u f f e r i n g a g r e a t d e a l o v e r t h e s e r e p o r t s , he summoned Kombabos from the u n f i n i s h e d p r o j e c t . O ther people g i v e an u n t r u e v e r s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h S t r a t o n i k e , a f t e r she f a i l e d i n what she d e s i r e d , wrote t o h e r husband and accused Kombabos of a s s a u l t i n g h e r . J u s t as the Greeks t e l l about S t h e n e b o i a and Phaedra o f Knossus, t h e y say, so the A s s y r i a n s t e l l the t a l e about S t r a t o n i k e . 1 f o r one do not b e l i e v e e i t h e r S t h e n e b o i a o r Phaedra d i d any such t h i n g , i f Phaedra r e a l l y l o v e d H i p p o l y t u s . But l e t t h o s e t h i n g s be t h e way t h e y were. 24 When the message came t o the h o l y c i t y , Kombabos r e a l i z e d i t s cause, but he was i n good s p i r i t s because h i s defence was l e f t a t home. When he came, the k i n g i m m e d i a t e l y had him bound and kep t him under guard. A f t e r w a r d s , s t a n d i n g him i n t h e mi d s t of those f r i e n d s who were a t hand when he had been s e n t away, he began t o accuse him and charge him w i t h a d u l t e r y and l i c e n t i o u s n e s s . S u f f e r i n g t h e deepest a n g u i s h , he r e c a l l e d t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and t r u s t and charged t h a t Kombabos had s i n n e d i n t h r e e ways: i n a d u l t e r y , i n a r r o g a n c e towards a p l e d g e , and i n blasphemy a g a i n s t the goddess i n whose s e r v i c e he d i d such t h i n g s . Many of those p r e s e n t t e s t i f i e d t h a t t h e y saw t h e two o p e n l y w i t h one a n o t h e r . F i n a l l y everyone thought i t r i g h t t h a t Kombabos be put t o d e a t h i m m e d i a t e l y s i n c e h i s deeds d e s e r v e d t h a t p e n a l t y . 2 5 A l l the w h i l e he stood t h e r e s a y i n g n o t h i n g . When he was b e i n g l e d t o e x e c u t i o n he spoke out and asked f o r h i s t r e a s u r e . He p r o t e s t e d t h a t the k i n g was k i l l i n g him not because o f arr o g a n c e o r a d u l t e r y , but because he d e s i r e d what Kombabos s t o r e d w i t h t h e k i n g when he went away. I n response t o h i s r e q u e s t , the k i n g summoned a steward and commanded him t o b r i n g what he e n t r u s t e d t o h i s c a r e . When he brought i t , Kombabos, a f t e r b r e a k i n g the s e a l , showed i t s c o n t e n t s and d e s c r i b e d what he had s u f f e r e d and t h e n s a i d , "My k i n g , d r e a d i n g what has happened when you sent me on t h i s t r i p , 22 I went u n w i l l i n g l y . S i n c e I was bound by your r o y a l command, I d i d t h i s , a t h i n g advantageous t o my mast e r , but not l u c k y f o r me. And b e i n g i n such a c o n d i t i o n , I am charged w i t h a man's c r i m e . " 26 C r y i n g a l o u d a t t h i s , the k i n g embraced him and i n t e a r s s a i d , "0 Kombabos, what a t r o c i t y have you committed? Why a l o n e among men d i d you do such an unseemly a c t t o y o u r s e l f ? I do not p r a i s e t h i s a t a l l . You f o o l , who dared t o do what I would you had never s u f f e r e d and I had never seen. I d i d not r e q u i r e such a d e f e n c e . But s i n c e some god wished i t , f i r s t you w i l l have g r e a t r e t r i b u t i o n from me: y o u r f a l s e a c c u s e r s d e a t h , and a f t e r w a r d s g r e a t g i f t s , much g o l d , u n l i m i t e d s i l v e r , A s s y r i a n garments, and r e g a l h o r s e s w i l l be added. You w i l l come i n t o my presence w i t h o u t b e i n g announced, and no one w i l l keep you from s e e i n g me, even i f I am i n bed w i t h my w i f e . " What he s a i d he d i d . The o t h e r s were l e d t o e x e c u t i o n , and Kombabos r e c e i v e d the g i f t s and t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p became g r e a t e r . No o t h e r A s s y r i a n was e q u a l t o Kombabos i n wisdom and good f o r t u n e . When a f t e r w a r d s he asked t o f i n i s h the work a t t h e temple --he had l e f t i t u n c o m p l e t e d — he was sent out a g a i n and completed the temple. There he spent the r e s t of h i s l i f e . The k i n g a l l o w e d him t o s e t up a s t a t u e of b r o n z e - o f him because of h i s v i r t u e and good conduct. Kombabos i s s t i l l honoured i n bronze i n the s a n c t u a r y , the work of Hermocles of Rhodes. I t i s a woman i n shape, but i t has the d r e s s of a man. I t i s s a i d t h a t those o f h i s f r i e n d s who were c l o s e s t t o him chose f e l l o w s h i p i n the m i s f o r t u n e as c o n s o l a t i o n f o r h i s s u f f e r i n g . They c a s t r a t e d themselves and l e d the same way of l i f e as h i s . On t h i s p o i n t o t h e r s g i v e the s a c r e d account t h a t s i n c e Here l o v e d Kombabos, she put t h e i d e a of c a s t r a t i o n i n t o the minds of many people so t h a t he would not mourn alone t h e l o s s o f h i s manhood. 27 A f t e r t h i s p r a c t i c e happened once, i t l a s t e d and remains even t o d a y . Many men e v e r y y e a r are c a s t r a t e d and made l i k e women i n the s a n c t u a r y . Whether t o comfort Kombabos o r t o p l e a s e Here, t h e y are a t any r a t e c a s t r a t e d . They no l o n g e r keep the d r e s s o f men, but wear women's c l o t h e s and do women's c h o r e s . As I heard i t , the r e a s o n f o r t h e s e t h i n g s i s a l s o a s s i g n e d t o Kombabos. The f o l l o w i n g s t o r y i s r e c o u n t e d about him. A f o r e i g n woman who came t o t h e f e s t i v a l saw him w i t h h i s good l o o k s and s t i l l w e a r i n g male c l o t h e s , f e l l d e e p l y i n l o v e w i t h him. When she l e a r n e d he was c a s t r a t e d , she k i l l e d h e r s e l f . A f t e r t h i s , Kombabos, d e s p a i r i n g because he was c u r s e d i n m a t t e r s o f l o v e , put on women's c l o t h e s so t h a t never a g a i n would another woman make such a m i s t a k e . T h i s i s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e f e m i n i n e d r e s s o f the G a l l i . T h i s I t h i n k w i l l s u f f i c e about Kombabos, and I w i l l mention the G a l l i l a t e r on i n my account: how t h e y are c a s t r a t e d , how t h e y are b u r i e d , and why t h e y do not go i n t o the s a n c t u a r y . F i r s t I want t o t a l k about the s i t e and s i z e of t h e t e m p l e , and so w i l l b e g i n s t r a i g h t away. 2 4 28 The a r e a i t s e l f i n which t h e temple i s s i t u a t e d i s a c r e s t of a h i l l r i g h t i n the c e n t r e of the c i t y . Two w a l l s s u r r o u n d i t , one of w h i c h i s o l d and the o t h e r d a t e s not much b e f o r e our t i m e . The e n t r a n c e povfcA of the temple f a c e s n o r t h , and i t about 1 0 0 o r g u i a i n s i z e . I n the e n t r a n c e a r e a stand the p h a l l i which D i o n y s u s s e t up, and these are 3 0 0 o r g u i a i n h e i g h t . Twice each y e a r a man goes up one of these and l i v e s on the t o p o f the p h a l l u s f o r seven days. The f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n i s g i v e n f o r t h i s a s c e n t . Many t h i n k t h a t on h i g h he communicates w i t h the gods and asks f o r p r o s p e r i t y f o r a l l S y r i a , and t h e y hear h i s p r a y e r s from nearby. Others b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s done because of D e u k a l i o n i n remembrance of t h a t d i s a s t e r when men f l e d t o the mountains and t o t h e t o p s of the t r e e s i n dread o f t h e f l o o d . These e x p l a n a t i o n s are u n c o n v i n c i n g t o me. R a t h e r , I t h i n k t h e y p e r f o r m the custom f o r Dionysus and I am c o n v i n c e d by the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . Those who e r e c t p h a l l i f o r Dionysus a l s o s e t wooden men on them, f o r what r e a s o n I w i l l not say. I t h i n k t h i s man goes up i n i m i t a t i o n of t h i s man i n wood. 2 9 The a s c e n t t a k e s p l a c e as f o l l o w s . F i r s t he throws a s h o r t cord around both t h e p h a l l u s and h i m s e l f , and a f t e r w a r d s he •climbs on t o p i e c e s o f wood f a s t e n e d t o the p h a l l u s which are b i g enough t o a l l o w a t o e - h o l d . As he c l i m b s , he h o i s t s the rope up a t the same time on both s i d e s j u s t as i f he were c o n t r o l l i n g r e i n s . I f anyone has not seen t h i s , but has seen men c l i m b i n g palms e i t h e r i n A r a b i a or Egypt o r anywhere e l s e , 25 he knows what I am t a l k i n g about. When he r e a c h e s th e end of t h e a s c e n t , he throws down a n o t h e r rope t h a t he h a s , a l o n g one t h i s t i m e , and draws up t h i n g s t h a t he wants, wood, c l o t h i n g and equipment from which he f a s t e n s t o g e t h e r and s e t s up an abode l i k e a h u t , and s t a y s t h e r e f o r the p e r i o d o f days I mentioned. Many v i s i t o r s come and some throw g o l d and s i l v e r , o r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r custom, b r a s s i n t o a pot l y i n g b e f o r e them, each announcing h i s name which t h e n a n o t h e r man s t a n d i n g t h e r e s h o u t s up. The man r e c e i v e s t h e names and p r a y s f o r each pe r s o n and w h i l e he i s p r a y i n g , he shakes a b r a s s o b j e c t which r a t t l e s l o u d and h a r s h as i t i s moved. He never goes t o s l e e p . I f e v e r s l e e p does o v e r t a k e him, a s c o r p i o n c l i m b s up and wakes him and does u n p l e a s a n t t h i n g s which are c o n s t i t u t e d as the punishment f o r s l e e p . Thus t h e y c r e d i t the s c o r p i o n w i t h h o l i n e s s and s a n c t i t y . I f t h i s i s t r u e I cannot say. I t seems t o me the f e a r o f f a l l i n g g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o the s l e e p l e s s n e s s . So much f o r t h o s e who c l i m b p h a l l i c columns. 30 The temple f a c e s the r i s i n g sun. I n appearance and c o n s t r u c t i o n i t i s l i k e the temples b u i l t i n I o n i a . A l a r g e p l a t f o r m r i s e s f r o m the e a r t h two o r g u i a h i g h , uoon which the temple i s p l a c e d . An approach t o i t i s made of s t o n e , and i s not v e r y l o n g . The f r o n t o f the t e m p l e , d e c o r a t e d w i t h g o l d , i n s p i r e s g r e a t awe i n one who approaches. W i t h i n , the temple s h i n e s from i t s abundance of g o l d , and the whole r o o f i s g i l d e d . A h e a v e n l y i n c e n s e s a i d t o be from the l a n d of A r a b i a comes from i t and c a s t s an e x t r e m e l y p l e a s a n t s c e n t t o you as you approach from a f a r . I f you go away a g a i n , i t does not l e a v e you, but your c l o t h e s r e t a i n the f r a g r a n c e f o r a l o n g t i m e , and you w i l l always remember i t . 31 I n s i d e , the temple i s not a s i m p l e u n i t , but c o n t a i n s a n o t h e r room i n s i d e . The way up t o t h i s i s s h o r t . I t i s not f i t t e d w i t h d o o r s , but e n t i r e l y open as you approach. Everyone e n t e r s the g r e a t t e m p l e , but o n l y the p r i e s t s t h e chamber, and t h e n not a l l the p r i e s t s , o n l y those who are c l o s e s t t o the goddess and whose e v e r y c a r e i s the temple. I n t h i s room are p l a c e d the s t a t u e s , b o t h Here and the e q u i v a l e n t t o Zeus whom t h e y address by a n o t h e r name. Both are i n g o l d and are s e a t e d . However, l i o n s are c a r r y i n g Here, and the o t h e r i s seated on b u l l s . The s t a t u e o f Zeus c e r t a i n l y resembles Zeus i n e v e r y way; head, c l o t h i n g , and p o s i t i o n , and you would be r e l u c t a n t t o i d e n t i f y him o t h e r w i s e . 32 Here p r e s e n t s an e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d a s p e c t t o the o n l o o k e r . A l t h o u g h on the whole by t r u e r e a s o n i n g she i s Here, s t i l l she has some q u a l i t y of Athene, A p h r o d i t e , S e l e n a i a , Rhea, A r t e m i s , Nemesis and the F a t e s . I n one hand she h o l d s a s c e p t r e , i n the o t h e r a s p i n d l e Upon h e r head she wears the r a y s and a mural crown and the embroidered b e l t w i t h which A p h r o d i t e alone i s adorned. On the o u t s i d e o f the s t a t u e t h e r e i s more g o l d and e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e j e w e l s , some w h i t e and some l i k e w a t e r ; many are w i n e - c o l o u r e d and many l i k e f i r e . There are numerous sardonyxe as w e l l as s a p p h i r e s and the emeralds which the E g y p t i a n s , the I n d i a n s , the E t h i o p i a n s , the Medes, the Armenians and the B a b y l o n i a n s b r i n g . There i s something even more remarkable which I w i l l d e s c r i b e . She wears a j e w e l upon h e r head c a l l e d t h e " t o r c h " , and i t s name matches i t s e f f e c t . From t h i s stone a t n i g h t a b r i g h t flame s h i n e s f o r t h and t h r o u g h i t t h e whole temple i s l i g h t e d as i f by t o r c h e s . D u r i n g the day the l i g h t becomes weak, and appears l i k e a f l a m e . I n the s t a t u e i t s e l f i s a n o t h e r m a r v e l . I f you s t a n d i n f r o n t and l o o k a t i t , i t l o o k s a t you, and when you change y o u r p o s i t i o n , h e r gaze f o l l o w s you. I f anyone t r i e s i t from t h e o t h e r s i d e , she l i k e w i s e f i n i s h e s w i t h h e r gaze on him. 33 Between both o f t h e s e stands a n o t h e r g o l d e n s t a t u e , by no means s i m i l a r t o the o t h e r s t a t u e s . I t does not have i t s own d i s t i n c t shape, but b e a r s the f i g u r e s of t h e o t h e r gods. I t i s c a l l e d the e n s i g n by the A s s y r i a n s t h e m s e l v e s , who g i v e no p a r t i c u l a r name t o i t , and account f o r n e i t h e r i t s o r i g i n nor appearance. Some a t t r i b u t e i t t o D i o n y s u s , some t o D e u k a l i o n and some t o Semiramis. As a m a t t e r of f a c t on i t s crown s i t s a g o l d e n dove, and t h e r e f o r e t h e y c o n s i d e r i t the e n s i g n o f Semiramis. I t d e p a r t s t w i c e e v e r y y e a r t o the sea f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f w a t e r t h a t I d e s c r i b e d . 34 I n the temple i t s e l f on the l e f t as you e n t e r , the throne o f Sun i s p l a c e d f i r s t , but h i s s t a t u e i s not i n i t . O n l y o f the Moon and the Sun do t h e y not d i s p l a y images, and I l e a r n e d the f o l l o w i n g c o n c e r n i n g why t h e y t h i n k t h i s way. They say i t i s w i t h i n the bounds o f p i e t y t o make s t a t u e s o f the o t h e r gods, f o r t h e i r appearance i s not c l e a r 28 t o everyone. The Sun and the Moon are c o m p l e t e l y v i s i b l e , and everyone sees them. What r e a s o n i s t h e r e t h e n f o r c r e a t i n g s t a t u e s f o r what i s seen i n the sky? 3 5 B e h i n d t h i s t h r o n e i s p l a c e d an image o f A p o l l o i n an u n u s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Everyone e l s e b e l i e v e s t h a t A p o l l o i s a young man and r e p r e s e n t s him i n the prime of h i s youth. Q n l y these people d i s p l a y a s t a t u e o f A p o l l o w i t h a bear d . Moreover t h e y commend themselves f o r d o i n g so, and c r i t i c i z e the Greeks and the r e s t who s e t up and w o r s h i p A p o l l o as a yo u t h . T h i s i s t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n . They t h i n k i t i s a g r e a t s i l l i n e s s f o r i m p e r f e c t s t a t u e s o f the gods t o be made, and th e y c o n s i d e r y outh s t i l l i m p e r f e c t . They i n n o v a t e i n y e t a n o t h e r m a t t e r f o r t h i s A p o l l o o f t h e i r s . They are unique i n a d o r n i n g him w i t h c l o t h e s . 3 6 I c o u l d t e l l many s t o r i e s about the s t a t u e ' s m i r a c l e s , but I w i l l o n l y d e s c r i b e what m e r i t s the g r e a t e s t wonder. F i r s t I w i l l mention the o r a c l e . There are many o r a c l e s among the Greeks, many a l s o among the E g y p t i a n s , some even i n L y b i a , and many i n A s i a . But these do no g i v e u t t e r a n c e w i t h o u t p r i e s t s o r p r o p h e t s . At t h i s p l a c e , however, t h i s A p o l l o moves by h i m s e l f , and works out the prophecy h i m s e l f c o m p l e t e l y . T h i s i s how he g i v e s h i s answer. Whenever he w i s h e s t o g i v e an o r a c l e , f i r s t he moves about i n h i s p l a c e , and the p r i e s t s i mmediately, l i f t him up. I f they do not l i f t him, he b r e a k s out i n p e r s p i r a t i o n and s t i l l moves about even more. When th e y are under him and are c a r r y i n g him, he l e a d s them as he t u r n s them about i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n and jumps from one t o a n o t h e r . F i n a l l y the c h i e f p r i e s t s t a n d s b e f o r e him and q u e s t i o n s him on e v e r y s u b j e c t . I f he does not want something t o be done, he goes backwards; i f he approves something, he d r i v e s those who are c a r r y i n g him f o r w a r d , l i k e a c h a r i o t e e r . I n t h i s way t h e y c o l l e c t t h e i r o r a c l e s , and u n d e r t a k e no h o l y or p r i v a t e a c t i o n w i t h o u t t h i s god. He a l s o speaks about the y e a r and a l l i t s seasons, even when t h e y do not ask, and t e l l s when the e n s i g n i s t o go on the t r a v e l s t h a t I mentioned. 37 I w i l l r e l a t e something e l s e he d i d when I was p r e s e n t . The p r i e s t had l i f t e d and was c a r r y i n g him when he l e f t him below on the ground and c a r r i e d h i m s e l f a l o n g i n the a i r . 38 A f t e r A p o l l o comes the s t a t u e o f A t l a s , t h e n Hermes, the n E i l e i t h y i a . 39 Such are the i n n e r f u r n i s h i n g s o f the temp l e . O u t s i d e , a g r e a t bronze a l t a r i s p l a c e d and on i t t h e r e a re c o u n t l e s s o t h e r bronze s t a t u e s o f k i n g s and p r i e s t s . I w i l l m ention what i s most worth remembering. On the l e f t o f t h e te m p l e , a s t a t u e o f Semiramis s t a n d s p o i n t i n g out the temple a t h e r r i g h t . Here i s why she sta n d s t h e r e : she made a law f o r t he people o f S y r i a t o w o r s h i p h er as a goddess, and n e g l e c t the o t h e r gods, even Here h e r s e l f . And so t h e y d i d . A f t e r w a r d s when t h r o u g h d i v i n e agency, s i c k n e s s , d i s a s t e r s and g r i e f b e f e l l h e r , she d e s i s t e d from t h a t madness and a d m i t t e d she was m o r t a l and or d e r e d h e r s u b j e c t s t o t u r n a g a i n t o Here. Co n s e q u e n t l y so she s t i l l s t a n d s , a d v i s i n g t h o s e who a r r i v e t o w o r s h i p Here and a d m i t t i n g she i s no l o n g e r a goddess but h e r s e l f . 30 40 I n the same p l a c e , I saw s t a t u e s o f Helen,Hecuba, Andromache, P a r i s , H e c t o r and A c h i l l e s . I a l s o saw an image o f Nereus, the son o f A g l a i a , t h e n P h i l o m e l and Procne s t i l l as women, Tereus h i m s e l f as a b i r d , a n o t h e r s t a t u e o f Semiramis, a l s o a n o t h e r one o f Kombabos whose s t o r y I have t o l d . There was an e x t r e m e l y l o v e l y one o f S t r a t o n i k e , and a good l i k e n e s s o f A l e x a n d e r . Near him st a n d s S a r d a n a p a l l o s w i t h a n o t h e r shape and d i f f e r e n t d r e s s . 41 I n the c o u r t y a r d l a r g e b u l l s p a s t u r e f r e e l y w i t h h o r s e s , e a g l e s , b e a r s and l i o n s ; t h e y never harm men, but are a l l s a c r e d and tame. 42 Many p r i e s t s are a p p o i n t e d by them, some o f whi c h s l a u g h t e r t h e v i c t i m s , some bear the l i q u i d o f f e r i n g s ; o t h e r s are c a l l e d f i r e bearers, and o t h e r s a l t a r a t t e n d a n t s . I n my time more t h a n t h r e e hundred came t o the s a c r i f i c e . A l l o f them had w h i t e r o b e s , and c o n i c a l f e l t h a t s on t h e i r heads. A d i f f e r e n t h i g h p r i e s t i s chosen e v e r y y e a r , and he al o n e wears a p u r p l e o u t f i t and i s crowned w i t h a g o l d e n t i a r a . 43 There i s a l s o a n o t h e r group o f men who are f l u t e p l a y e r s , p i p e r s , and G a l l i . Then, t o o , t h e r e are mad, deranged women. 44 The s a c r i f i c e i s performed t w i c e e v e r y day and a l l a t t e n d i t . F o r Zeus t h e y s a c r i f i c e i n s i l e n c e w i t h o u t s i n g e r s o r f l u t e p l a y e r s . When th e y b e g i n the ceremonies f o r Here, however, t h e y s i n g , p l a y t h e f l u t e , and r a t t l e c a s t a n e t s . No one was a b l e t o e x p l a i n t h i s custom c l e a r l y t o me. 45 There i s a l a k e t h e r e , not f a r from the temple i n w h i c h many s a c r e d f i s h o f v a r i o u s t y p e s are r e a r e d . Some of them are e x t r e m e l y l a r g e . Moreover t h e y have names, and come when t h e y a r e c a l l e d . I n my time t h e r e was one who wore g o l d among them. On i t s f i n a g o l d e n o b j e c t was f a s t e n e d . I saw the f i s h many t i m e s and i t had the o b j e c t . 46 The depth o f the l a k e i s g r e a t . I d i d not t e s t i t , but t h e y say i t i s more t h a n two hundred o r g u i a . I n the c e n t r e o f i t a stone a l t a r r i s e s up. At f i r s t g l a n c e you would t h i n k i t was f l o a t i n g and supported by the w a t e r , and many i n f a c t do t h i n k so. I t seems t o me t h a t a l a r g e s u p p o r t i n g p i l l a r h o l d s up the a l t a r . I t always has g a r l a n d s and i n c e n s e , and many people e v e r y day a c c o r d i n g t o a vow swim t o i t b r i n g i n g w r e a t h s . 47 High f e s t i v a l s t ake p l a c e t h e r e which are c a l l e d the d e s c e n t s t o the l a k e , because i n them a l l the s a c r e d s t a t u e s go down t o the l a k e . Among them Here i s f i r s t t o a r r i v e , f o r the sake o f t h e f i s h . I f Zeus sees them f i r s t , t h e y say t h a t t h e y a l l p e r i s h . And t o be s u r e , he comes t r y i n g t o l o o k , b u t she st a n d s i n f r o n t and wards him o f f , and a f t e r much e n t r e a t y , sends him away. 48 They a l s o have h i g h f e a s t s which are c u s t o m a r i l y performed on the way down t o the sea. However, I am unable t o r e l a t e a n y t h i n g p r e c i s e about these f e s t i v a l s , f o r I d i d not go m y s e l f o r t r y out t h i s j o u r n e y . However, what t h e y do a f t e r t h e y a r r i v e I saw and t h i s I w i l l r e l a t e . Each one c a r r i e s a v e s s e l f i l l e d w i t h water which t h e y have s e a l e d w i t h wax. They do not break the s e a l o r pour out the water, 32 but t h e r e i s a s a c r e d cock which l i v e s by the l a k e who, when he r e c e i v e s the v e s s e l s f rom them, l o o k s a t the s e a l , and, a f t e r a c c e p t i n g an o f f e r i n g , b r e a k s the s e a l and d e s t r o y s the., wax. Many c o i n s are ga t h e r e d by the cock a t t h i s t a s k . From t h e r e t h e y c a r r y the v e s s e l s t o the temple and pour the water as a l i b a t i o n . Then, a f t e r s a c r i f i c e s , t h e y r e t u r n home. 49 Of a l l the f e a s t s I know, t h e y c a r r y out the g r e a t e s t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of s p r i n g . Some c a l l i t the f e a s t o f f i r e , o t h e r s the f e a s t o f lamps. They p e r f o r m the f o l l o w i n g s o r t o f s a c r i f i c e i n i t : a f t e r chopping down t a l l t r e e s , t h e y s t a n d them up i n the c o u r t y a r d , and a f t e r w a r d s , when t h e y have gat h e r e d g o a t s , sheep, and o t h e r l i v e - s t o c k , t h e y hang them from t h e t r e e s . They a l s o i n c l u d e b i r d s , garments, and g o l d and s i l v e r j e w e l l e r y . When t h e y have made e v e r y t h i n g c o m p l e t e , and have c a r r i e d the s a c r e d images around the t r e e s , t h e y throw on f i r e , and burn e v e r y t h i n g up a t once.' Many people come t o t h i s f e a s t f r om S y r i a and a l l the c o u n t r i e s round about,-'and each b r i n g s h i s own s a c r e d images and each has symbols r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e . 50 On s p e c i f i e d days the m u l t i t u d e g a t h e r s i n t o t h e s a n c t u a r y , and the many G a l l i , whom I d i s c u s s e d , and who are h o l y men, c a r r y out the r i t e s . They cut t h e i r f o r e a r m s and s t r i k e one a n o t h e r on the back. Many s t a n d i n g nearby p l a y an accompaniment on the f l u t e w h i l e many o t h e r s beat k e t t l e d r u m s , o r s i n g i n s p i r e d and s a c r e d songs. T h i s r i t e o c c u r s o u t s i d e the t e m p l e , and tho s e who p e r f o r m i t do not e n t e r i t . 51 A l s o d u r i n g t h e s e days G a l l i are made. As o t h e r s are p l a y i n g f l u t e s and p e r f o r m i n g t h e r i t e s , f r e n z y soon s e i z e s many, and many who came f o r t h e s p e c t a c l e a f t e r w a r d s do t h i s t h i n g . I w i l l r e l a t e what t h e y do. The young man f o r whom th e s e t h i n g s are i n s t o r e t e a r s o f f h i s c l o t h e s and w i t h a g r e a t shout comes i n t o the c e n t r e and l i f t s up a sword. T h i s has stood t h e r e many y e a r s , I b e l i e v e . G r a s p i n g i t , he s t r a i g h t w a y m u t i l a t e s h i m s e l f and the n runs t h r o u g h t h e c i t y and c a r r i e s what he has c u t o f f i n h i s hands. From the house i n t o which he throws t h i s , he t a k e s f e m i n i n e c l o t h i n g and the ornaments o f a woman. So th e y a c t i n t h e i r c a s t r a t i o n s . 52 When t h e y d i e , the G a l l i are not b u r i e d i n t h e same f a s h i o n as t h e o t h e r s , but when one d i e s , h i s companions l i f t him up and c a r r y him t o the area j u s t o u t s i d e the c i t y and, l a y i n g him down w i t h the b i e r on which t h e y put him, t h e y throw r o c k s o v e r t o p , and when t h e y a re f i n i s h e d , t h e y go back home. A f t e r o b s e r v i n g a p e r i o d o f seven days, t h e y t h e n e n t e r t h e temple. I f t h e y go i n b e f o r e , t h e y commit s a c r i l e g e . 53 Here are some of t h e i r customs i n t h e s e m a t t e r s . I f any o f them sees a c o r p s e , he does not go i n t o the temple t h a t day, but a f t e r c l e a n s i n g h i m s e l f , he e n t e r s the day f o l l o w i n g . Each one o f the dead man's hou s e h o l d observes a p e r i o d of t h i r t y days o f mourning, and the n e n t e r s the temple w i t h h i s head shaven. I t i s s a c r i l e g i o u s f o r them t o e n t e r b e f o r e d o i n g t h i s . 54 They s a c r i f i c e c a t t l e , b o t h b u l l s and cows, as w e l l as sheep and g o a t s . They c o n s i d e r o n l y p i g s t o be u n c l e a n and n e i t h e r s a c r i f i c e n o r eat them. Others t h i n k t h e y are 34 not u n c l e a n , but s a c r e d . The dove seems the h o l i e s t o f o b j e c t s t o them, and t h e y do not t h i n k i t r i g h t t o t o u c h them. I f u n w i t t i n g l y t h e y do t o u c h one, t h e y are u n c l e a n f o r t h a t day. F o r t h i s r e a s o n doves share l i f e w i t h them, e n t e r t h e i r homes, and f o r the most p a r t t h e y f e e d on the ground. 55 I w i l l now d e s c r i b e the customary a c t i o n s o f those who a t t e n d t h e f e s t i v a l . When a man i s g o i n g t o the h o l y c i t y f o r the f i r s t t i m e , he shaves h i s head and eyebrows. Then, a f t e r s a c r i f i c i n g a sheep, he c u t s ut> and f e a s t s on the e d i b l e p a r t s ; the f l e e c e he puts on the ground and r e s t s on i t upon h i s knees. Then he l i f t s up the f e e t and the head of the b e a s t onto h i s own head, and a t the same time p r a y s and asks t h a t the p r e s e n t s a c r i f i c e be a c c e p t e d , and promises a g r e a t e r one l a t e r . A f t e r he f i n i s h e s t h i s , he g a r l a n d s b o t h h i s own head, and the head of each one who i s coming on the j o u r n e y . Then g e t t i n g up, he t r a v e l s from h i s home, u s i n g c o l d w a t e r f o r b a t h i n g and d r i n k i n g , and s l e e p i n g everywhere on the ground. I t i s s a c r i l e g i o u s f o r him t o go t o bed b e f o r e he has f i n i s h e d the p i l g r i m a g e and come back t o h i s own home a g a i n . 56 I n the h o l y c i t y , a h o s t r e c e i v e s him, a l t h o u g h the p i l g r i m does not know him. Tou see, t h e r e are s p e c i f i e d h o s t s f o r each c i t y t h e r e , and the o f f i c e i s passed on by f a m i l i e s f rom the f a t h e r . These men are c a l l e d t e a c h e r s by the A s s y r i a n s because t h e y e x p l a i n e v e r y t h i n g t o them. 57 They do not s a c r i f i c e i n the temple i t s e l f , but when the p i l g r i m s tands h i s o f f e r i n g b e s i d e t h e a l t a r , he 35 pours a l i b a t i o n over i t s head, and leads i t back a l i v e again t o h i s l o d g i n g , and a f t e r he a r r i v e s , he s a c r i f i c e s i t and prays by h i m s e l f . 58 There i s a l s o the f o l l o w i n g other form of s a c r i f i c e . A f t e r g a r l a n d i n g the v i c t i m s , they h u r l them a l i v e from the entrance h a l l of the temple , and what has f a l l e n down i s k i l l e d . Some even h u r l t h e i r c h i l d r e n from t h i s s p o t , not i n the same way as the b e a s t s , but p l a c i n g them i n a sack, they toss them down by hand, and at the same time they mock them and say they are not c h i l d r e n but c a t t l e . 59 Everyone i s t a t t o o e d , e i t h e r on the w r i s t or<>on the neck, so t h a t consequently a l l A s s y r i a n s bear t a t t o o marks. 60 They have another p r a c t i c e which of the Greeks o n l y the people of Troezen f o l l o w . Here i s what they do. The people of Troezen have made i t law f o r t h e i r v i r g i n s and young men not to enter marriage i n any way before c u t t i n g o f f a l o c k f o r H i p p o l y t u s . And so they do . T h i s a l s o takes p lace i n the h o l y c i t y . The young men shave o f f par t of t h e i r beard , and on the youths they l e t sacred l o c k s grow from the hour of b i r t h . They do the c u t t i n g when they are i n the temple and p lace these l o c k s i n t o p o t s , sometimes of s i l v e r , but most ly of g o l d , and a f t e r each one i n s c r i b e s h i s name on i t and f a s t e n s i t up i n the temple , he goes away. T h i s I d i d when I was s t i l l young, and my l o c k and my name are s t i l l i n the temple . f NOTES ON THE TEXT Lucian 1. Lucian of Samosata was born about 12$ A. D. Samosata i s on the western bank of the Euphrates i n Syria. It was part of the Seleucid kingdom of Syria, and was i n the province of Commagene, which lay north of Cyrrhestica, the province to which Hierapolis belonged.! Later Samosata was ruled by independent Seleucid princes, a n d ^ s t i l l l a t e r , i t s seat of government was Hierapolis.^ Because the d i s t i n c t i o n between Assyrian and Syrian was not made i n Greek i n Lucian Ts time, he uses the word Assyrian to designate the people we c a l l Syrian. Hierapolis was located about eighteen miles west of the Euphrates. The c i t y was towards the south of a s l i g h t v a l l e y i n a depression of land, and the temple was b u i l t on the h i l l nearby, around a spring which fed the sacred lake there.3 The c i t y i s situated at the northern curve of the f e r t i l e crescent, northeast of the Syrian desert.^ Hierapolis, the holy c i t y , as Lucian states, was not the c i t y ' s o r i g i n a l name. Many c i t i e s of the ancient near east became known in H e l l e n i s t i c times by Greek names, since the native ones were too strange and meaningless to the Greeks to be adopted. Some of the new names were created by royal IB. Head, Hi s t o r i a Numorum, 2nd ed., London, 1925, p. 777. ?J. Garstang, op_. c i t . , p. 42, n. 4» G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 2. 4 l b i d . , p. 4. z 36 decree, such as Seleucia, Antioch, and Apamea, but most devel-oped through popular custom.5 The term Hierapolis was also applied to c i t i e s i n Phrygia, Caria, and Crete. Aelian° states that Seleucus I Nicator gave the Syrian Hierapolis t h i s name, and he most l i k e l y bases his assumption upon the t r a d i t i o n that the temple was b u i l t by Stratonike, the wife of Seleucus I. The v a l i d i t y of Aelian's statement, however, has been questioned. F i r s t of a l l , the h i s t o r i a n Appian ( c. 95-165 A. D. ) does not include Hierapolis i n his l i s t of c i t i e s i n northern Syria whose names were changed by Seleucus.7 Second, although Lucian gives the story of how Seleucus's wife, Stratonike, undertook to rebuild the temple at Hierapolis, the central part of the story i s concerned more with Kombabos, the young man appointed to escort her, and with hi s s e l f - c a s t r a t i o n to avoid intercourse with the wife of h i s king. This type of story was a common l i t e r a r y theme in the ancient east, and so i t i s impossible to say exactly how h i s t o r i c a l was the background fo r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r version of i t . Consequently, since Aelian was writing af t e r both Appian and Lucian, i t has been suggested9 that Aelian r e l i e d on Lucian and deduced that-..Seleucus renamed the c i t y , and that since Lucian's story i s f i c t i o n a l , Aelian's statement has no basis. In support of Aelian's statement, however, there 5G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 6 . 6Aelian, De natura animalium, XII, 2. 7Appian, Syrian Wars, 5 7 . °S. Benveniste, "La legende de Kombabos", Melanges  Dussaud, 2 vols., Paris, 1939? pp. 249-58. 9G. Goossens, op... c i t . , pp. 189-92. 38 i s the f a c t t h a t even i f the s t o r y of S t r a t o n i k e and Kombabos were p u r e l y i m a g i n a r y , n e v e r t h e l e s s the t r a d i t i o n about h e r remained a t H i e r a p o l i s , and t h i s t r a d i t i o n may have had some cause. The t r a d i t i o n , however, would r e f e r more t o a r e b u i l d -i n g of the t e m p l e , and not t o the renaming of the c i t y ; L u c i a n h i m s e l f says t h a t the name H i e r a p o l i s came about a f t e r t h e g r e a t r e l i g i o u s ceremonies d e v e l o p e d , but he does not say e x a c t l y how i t was changed. I n f a c t S e l e u c u s seems t o have been i n v o l v e d i n an a c t u a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the temp l e , and th u s he may a l s o have had something t o do w i t h changing the name, but t h e r e i s no way o f knowing f o r s u r e . As a matter o f f a c t , the form ' H i e r a p o l i s ' i s a c t u a l l y l a t e r t h a n ' H i e r o p o l i s ' , the p r i e s t l y c i t y . 1 0 The S e l e u c i d c o i n s g i v e ' H i e r o p o l i s ' , 1 1 and t h i s name appears s p o r a d i c a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y of the c i t y . Most a u t h o r s g i v e n ' H i e r a p o l i s ' . J The Aramaic name o f the c i t y was Manbug o r Mabbog, 1^ G. Goossens, op. e f t . , p. 7. j l B . V. Head, op_. c i t . , p. 777-P r o c o p i u s , P e r s a e , I , 6, 2; Codex Theodosianus, X I I I , 11, 9. 1 3 A e l i a n , De n a t u r a animalium, X I I , 2; S t r a b o , XVI, 1, 27; P l u t a r c h , A n t o n i u s , 37; Ptolemy, V, 1$, 13; Zosimus, I I I , 12, 1; P r o c o p i u s , P e r s a e , I , 13, 11 and I I , 6, 17; Theophylus, IV, 10, 9; E u a g r i u s , V I , 9; Theodorus, E p i s t u l a e (Migne, P a t r o l o g i e g recque, L X X X I I , 12, 1 5 . ) ; P l i n y , N a t u r a l i s  H i s t o r i a , V, 81; Ammianus M a r c e l l f c n u s , X X I I I , 2, 6; Codex  Theodosianus X I I I , 11, 9. P r o c o p i u s and the Codex g i v e both forms. T h i s l i s t i s t a k e n from G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , pp. 4, 8, 10. !4w. F. A l b r i g h t , A r c h a e o l o g y and t h e R e l i g i o n o f  I s r a e l , B a l t i m o r e , 1953, p. 194, n. 7. 39 15 and the Greeks used the form Manbog or Bambuke. The Arab name i s Membidj.^ A l b r i g h t ^ suggests that the o r i g i n a l name was Mabbigu, 'Fountain', and he connects the name Mabbigu with the Syriac 'nbg', 'gush f o r t h ' which i s i t s e l f a p a r t i a l assimilation of the Hebrew-Canaanite 'nbk', 'gush f o r t h ' . He finds support for his suggestion i n that the Assyrian texts give Nap-pi-gi or Nam-pi-gi which i s an Accadian form diss i m i l a t e d from an o r i g i n a l Mappigu or Mabbigu. There i s other evidence which supports Albright's suggestion that the root of Manbug or Mabbog was connected with the Syriac 'nbg' and to the Hebrew-Canaanite 'nbk'. In the Ug a r i t i c texts, the word 'nbk' means ' w e l l ' . l ^ The word 'nbk' i s also used i n the Ugaritic texts with a pre-formative 'm1 i n the phrase 'mbk nhrm' which means 'the sources of the r i v e r s ' and which i s used to describe the location of El's abode.19 The word 'mbk' i s vocalized 'mabbiku' since the o r i g i n a l was *manbiku ( 'm' plus 'nbk'. )20 Thus the name of the c i t y Manbug or Mabbog seems ultimately derived from the preformative 'm' form of 'nbk', that i s , from 'mbk'. Consequently, the name l i k e l y developed as *Manbiku>Mabbiku^Mabbigu, and means source of water or fountain. 21 l|strabo, XVI, 1, 27_; Plutarch, Antonius, 37. 1°G. Goossens, pjo. c i t . , pp. 8-9. 17w. F. Albright, op_. c i t . , p. 194, n. 7. 1°C. H. Gordon, U g a r i t i c Textbook, Rome, 1965, p. 441. 19Loc. c i t . Cf. Job 28, 11: rf)lT)2 " DJl£) , and W. Albright, op_. c i t . , p. 72. T •' : 20W. F. Albright, op_. c i t . , p. 194, n. 7. 21Cf. M. Pope, E l i n the Ugaritic Texts, Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, I I , Leiden, 1955, PP. 73-4. 4 0 Lucian 2. Since Lucian was Syrian, i t i s surprising for him to attribute the development of r e l i g i o n to the Egyptians and not to the Babylonians. This hypothesis of Lucian i s , of course, incorrect, since eults developed from an early date in many places, but i t was the common opinion of antiqu i t y and can be found i n Diodorus I, 9, 6.^ Since Lucian's work i s an imitation of the style and approach of Herodotus, his opinion may be based on Herodotus's chapters on Egypt, especially chapters four and f i v e . Lucian 3. The god Heracles was called Melqart by the people of Tyre. His name, 'Mlk q r t ' , s i g n i f i e s 'King of the c i t y ' . His c u l t , l i k e those of Adonis of Byblos and Eshmun, the 23 health god of Sidon, appears r e l a t i v e l y l a t e . He i s also known as Baal Sor, the 'Lord of Tyre'. 2^ In the genealogy of Philo of Byblos, he i s reported to be the son of Demarus, who i s the son of Dagon. Since i n the Ug a r i t i c texts, Baal-Hadad i s called the son of Dagon, Melqart may i n some way be 2?-A. W. Harmon, "The Goddesse of Surrye", The Works  of Lucian, v. IV, (Loeb) London, 1925, p. 3 4 0 , n. 1; J. Garstang, pp. c i t . , p. 4 2 , n. 5. 3^W. R o l l i g , "Melqart", Gotter und Mythen im Vorderen  Orient, Band I, Worterbuch der Mythologie, Stuttgart, 1965, p. 297. 2 4 G . Cooke, A Text-Book of North Semitic Inscriptions, Oxford, 1903. Inscription 31, 1, p. 102 contains "To our lord ( Mnn) Melqart, lord of Tyre." connected with this god.25 There is other evidence that Mel-qart had some connection with the dying-rising god of the vegetation cycle. In Josephus, Antiquities, VIII, 146, we hear that Hiram, the king of Tyre 7Fp^r°C _ T £ To7 . - n y ? o i j<Ai:o^ ^ . ^ i^.o : i v /jrqjjjjrotTo iv -n/J My>iTiui U ^ N / I . This probably refers to the re-awakening of Heracles in Paritios, the fourth month of the Macedonian year, and the equivalent to February-March, < D rather than to the construction of a temple of Heracles*2''' Then Eudoxus of Knidos in Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae. IX, 47, 392 d/e, reports that Heracles, while on the road to Libya, was ki l l e d by Typhon, but Ialaos, by holding a ( roasted ) quail close to his nose, had revived him through i t s smell. Zenobius, Paroemiographi. V, 56, gives the same story with a few variations. 2^ The stories are meant to explain why the Phoenicians sacrificed quails to Heracles, but they also reflect the theme of a dying-rising god. Typhon was the monster who tore Osiris's body into pieces; Osiris was the Egyptian god who was brought back to l i f e . Clemen29 also sees similarities between Melqart and a vegetation god. Moreover, he points out that Melqart 2'^E. Dhorme, Les Religions de Babylonie et d'Assyrie and R. Dussaud, Les Religions des Hittites et des Hourrltes. des Pheniciens et des Syriens, Paris, 1949, p. 366. 2bW. Rellig, op_. c i t . . p. 297. 27R. Marcus, Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, (Loeb) London, v. V., p. 651, note a. 28W. Rdllig, op_. c i t . , p. 298. 29C. Clemen, Lukians Schrift iiber die Syrische Gotti Der Alte Orient. XXXVII, 3/4, Leipzig, T ^ , p. 31. 42 was connected with the sea. On coins he rides a sea horse. In Pausanias, Description of Greece, X, IV, 7-10, i t i s reported that Kleon of Magnesia had to leave the Phoenician i s l a n d c i t y of Cadiz along with other strangers when the r i t e s of Heracles were celebrated. On his return he saw the e f f i g y of a huge man burning on the shore. J. G. Frazer states: The monster whom Cleon declares he saw burning on the shore may perhaps have been an e f f i g y of Hercules (Melcart) such as was p e r i o d i c a l l y burned on a pyre at Tarsus i n C i l i c i a , a c i t y which recognized Hercules as i t s founder. ( Dio Chrysostom, Oration 33, 4, 7. )30 He was burnt and then resurrected i n spring to effect the changes of the season. Not o r i g i n a l l y but apparently quite early Melqart was connected with the Sun, and t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n probably contributed to h i s association with Heracles.31 According to coins, the eagle and l i o n were holy to him, and outside his temple were two stone p i l l a r s l i k e the ones at Hierapolis. These were p i l l a r s connected with the cult of the Sun.32 In his temple was an perpetual f i r e , and from t h i s perhaps comes his association with the word ' reshef T ( r'sp-mlqrt ) , since 'rsp' means Tflame T.33 He i s also connected with Eshmun, the Syrian god of healing, ( CIS I 16:... X).lp_iGJ^!6!xi 'J7X.7 _)24 and with Sid, the hunter and f i s h e r . ( CIS I 256, 3f. ) 3 0 j . G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece, New York, 1965, v., V, p. 222. 3lW. R b l l i g , op_. c i t . , p. 298 y 32A. Audin, "Les p i l i e r s jumeaux dans le monde semitique", Archiv O r i e n t a l n i , XXI, 1953, pp. 430-2. 33W. R o l l i g , l o c . c i t . 34G. Cooke, op_. c i t . , p. 37. Lucian 4. Astarte. The Syrio-Mesopotamian f e r t i l i t y goddess was associated with both Venus and the moon. In the East, the dew from the night sky i s important f o r f e r t i l i t y , and the outstanding representative of the night sky i s the moon.35 Moreover, since the sun tended to be a masculine diety i n Syrian thought, by a tendency consistent i n Semitic r e l i g i o n , the moon was the opposite sex.3° Primarily, however, Astarte was Venus, the brightest star of the night sky. Chez l e s Semites le nom p r i m i t i f de l a planete Ve'nus est 'Athtar, ( ' t t ) qui designe une divinite' male dans l'Arabie du sud. 'Athtar devient 'Ashtar dans l a stele de Mesa. La dispardtion de l a gutturale i n i t i a l e a pour consequence l a prononciation Eshtar en accadien, d'ou Ishtar en babylonien et Istar en assyrien. Chez les Semites de l'ouest on ajoute l a terminaison feminine dtou 'Ashtart, 'Ashtoreth, (vocalisation pejorative d'apres boshe'th 'honte'), Astarte, etc...3' Ishtar was both goddess of war and love, and the same way as Anat was i n the Ras Shamra texts. Inanna-Istar was T l a dame des batailles'.3$ As goddess of love she ensured f e r t i l i t y . Atargatis was her counterpart i n Hierapolis. Ainsi l a planete Venus, de'esse du s o i r , est I'astre qui rapproche les sexes. On sait que l e mot 'ash-teroth, p l u r a l de 'ashtoreth, s i g n i f i e l e s fecondations dans Deutironome. VII, 13; XXVIII, 4, 18 and 51. Ce n'est pas i c i l e l i e u d ' i n s i s t e r sur l a vogue dont jouit dans tout l'ancien Orien^ le culte de 1'Ishtar amoureuse, prototype d'Astarte, d'Aphrodite 35c. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 31. 36H. Stocks, "Studien zur Lukiahs De Syria Pea», Berytus, IV, 1937, pp. 36-7. 37E. Phorme, op_. c i t . , p. 89. 3«ibid. , p. 90T 44 celeste, de Virgo c a e l e s t i s . C'est de Mesopotamie, comme nous l e verrons, qu'essairaera le culte de Tammuz-Adonis, issu de c e l u i de Dumuzi ou Dumu-zi-abzu, l'amant d'Ishtar. J 59 Herodian ( V, 6, 3-5 ) reports that the emperor Elagabalus as the Sun brought Astarte the Moon from Phoenicia to marry her.4-0 Lucian 5. The Egyptian Temple. This was the temple of Baalbek, the Syrian He l i o p o l i s . O r i g i n a l l y i t was a cult of Baal-Hadad and Astarte, and i n Roman times we know that the gods there were Jupiter Heliopolitanus, Venus, and Mercury. Baal-Hadad was often connected with the Sun, and at Baalbek, t h i s aspect became emphasized. The cult was probably more Syrian than Egyptian since Macrobius41 says the god " r i t u Assyrio magis quam Aegyptivo colatur", even though Macrobius does i n s i s t that the cult's image of Jupiter came from Egypt.^ 2 The c i t y ' s connection with Egypt probably results through a reform of the cult under the dynasty of the P t o l e m i e s . L u c i a n ' s sentence invert Ji Kb i^" <£/Uo (j^civiKy yoy To KA>ou TTokio^ T V j y C J ) o i v / f U T T I K X - T O seems to picture the temple building i t s e l f coming from Egypt to Heliopolis and i s probably a joke. Lucian 6. Adonis. At Byblos the cult was centred around Aphrodite and Adonis. Aphrodite was Baalat/*\he lady of Byblos, and she was joined with Adonis i n the celebration 39E. Dhorme, p_p_. cit.» p. 90. ^TA. Harmon, op. c i t . , p. 341, n. 3. ^Macrobius, Saturnalis, I, 23, 11. 42Macrobius, I, 2 3 , 10. 43R. Dussaud, "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l'Apollon barbu...", p. 148. ^/+G. Cooke, op. c i t . , p. 2 0 - 1 . The phrase.— f)b^-l (Ba'alat Gbl) simply means 'Mistress of Byblos'. of his feast. In Alexandria, a hieros gamos of Aphrodite was carried out,^5 B a s i c a l l y the name Adon, Adoni means 'lord' ( aAdon ) or 'my l o r d ' ( ?Adsni ). The history of the word i s disputed. The form '"'Aduna' was found i n the ancient c i t y of Mari i n Mesopotamia. ( Cf. Syria, XIX, p. 109. ) The text dates about 1750 B. C . ^6 Albright interpreted i t as containing the form '°adon', 'lord'.4 7 Gelb, however, points out that the element ''Aduna' i n the Amorite area, that i s , the area to the east of Palestine i n Mesopotamia and also to the north of the f e r t i l e crescent, could not mean 'lord', since ex-amples from Mari, Chagar Bazar, and Ugarit give the form ''adantum >'adattum' f o r 'lady', and t h i s form, ' *adattum' , fo r 'lady' implies the form ''adanum' for 'lord' i n the Amorite area. Thus the form '"'Aduna' at Mari cannot mean 'lord', since 'lord' i n t h i s region would be ' \danum'. Rather, ''Aduna' means 'our 'adum', or 'our father'.48 Since the long 'a' of the Amorite area s h i f t s regularly to a long 'o' i n the Canaanite area,49 the change of '''adanum' to 45j. Garstang, op. c i t . , p. 45, n. 11; A. Harmon, op. c i t . , p. 343, n. 3• 4oI. Gelb, "The Early History of the West Semitic Peoples", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, XV, 1961, p. 3 9 . 47W. F. Albright, "Northwest Semitic Names i n a L i s t of Egyptian Slaves from the eighteenth century B. C", Journal °£ the American Oriental Society, LXXIV ? 1954, P. 228, n. 3 9 . 48The root then for ' ''Aduna' i s not ''dn', but simply " d ' . 4 9 Z . Harris, Development of the Canaanite Dialects, New Haven, 1939, pp. 43-5. 4 6 ''adohum' would be expected.50 The a c t u a l c u l t o f Ad o n i s i s not a t t e s t e d u n t i l l a t e , but i t was w i d e l y s p r e a d , and the god seems v e r y much s i m i l a r t o the Baal-Hadad f i g u r e o f the Ras S h a m r a - U g a r i t i c t e x t s . 5 1 A donis shares c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h t h e E g y p t i a n O s i r i s , t he Mesopotamian Tammuz, and the A s i a n M i n o r A t t i s . P s e u d o - M e l i t o o f S a r d i s equates A d o n i s w i t h Tammuz i n a myth he r e l a t e s . T h i s myth i s w r i t t e n i n Greek, but i s b e l i e v e d t o be a t r a n s l a t i o n o f an o r i g i n a l S y r i a c c o m p o s i t i o n o f the e a r l y t h i r d c e n t u r y A. D.5 2 I t seems c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l t o th e o t h e r myths o f Adonis and A p h r o d i t e . I t ru n s as f o l l o w s : The people o f P h o e n i c i a worshipped B a l t h i , queen o f Cyprus, because she f e l l i n l o v e w i t h Tammuz, son o f K u t h a r , k i n g o f the P h o e n i c i a n s , and l e f t h e r own kingdom, and came and dw e l t i n B y b l o s ( G e b a l ) , a f o r t r e s s of the P h o e n i c i a n s , and a t t h e same time she made a l l the C y p r i o t e s s u b j e c t t o t h e k i n g K u t h a r ; f o r b e f o r e Tammuz she had been i n l o v e w i t h A r e s , and committed a d u l t e r y w i t h hinf, and H e p h a i s t e s , h e r 5°I. G e l b , op_. c i t . , p. 4 3 . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t 5ad and vadahum i n A m o r i t e , and 'ad and "ado"n i n C a n a a n i t e a re r e l a t e d one t o the o t h e r . S i n c e anu/onu i s a h y p o c o r i s t i c e n d i n g , i t may have been added t o the r o o t 'ad ( f a t h e r ) and t h e n become c o n v e n t u a l i z e d i n use w i t h t h e gods. A l b r i g h t ( JAOS, 1 9 5 4 , p. 228 ) f e e l s t h a t the e t y m o l o g i e s o f t h e forms ' ''adn' and ' *ad' when t h e s e mean ' f a t h e r ' are d i f f e r e n t from the etymology o f the f o r m •'adn' when i t means ' l o r d ' . I f we c o n s i d e r , however, t h a t a l l t h r e e words, t h a t i s , ' ""ad' when i t means ' f a t h e r ' , '''adn' when i t means ' f a t h e r ' , and '""adn' when i t means ' l o r d ' t o be r e l a t e d and t o stem from e i t h e r the r o o t ''ad' al o n e o r f r o m '^ad' w i t h t h e h y p o c o r i s t i c anu/onu s u f f i x , t he need f o r a c o m p l i c a t e d etymology i s removed. T h i s seems f i t t i n g s i n c e the meanings of the words are a c t u a l l y v e r y c l o s e . 5 1 w . R o l l i g , op_. c i t . , p. 2 3 4 . 5 2 j . Quasten, P a t r o l o g y , 3 v o l s . , W e s t m i n s t e r , M a r y l a n d , 1 9 5 0 , v. I , p. 2 4 7 . M e l i t o o f S a r d i s was the b i s h o p o f S a r d i s i n L y d i a i n the second h a l f of t h e second c e n t u r y . Because the work c i t e d above was written irfiW t h i r d c e n t u r y , M e l i t o of course i s not i t s a u t h o r and thus. I have used the term P s p u d o - M e l i t o . 47 husband, caught her and was jealous over her, and came and slew Tammuz i n Mount Lebanon, while he was hunt-ing wild boars; and from that time Balthi remained i n Byblos (Gebal), and she died i n the c i t y Aphaqa where Tammuz was buried.-^ Also i n connection with the equation of Adonis and Tammuz, the Septuagint i n i t s t r a n s l a t i o n of Ezek. VIII, 14, ^ __ t ) ^ ) n ~ i ) X 5 ) 1 ^ X b gives J ^ a L & k i f _ — whereas the Vulgate gives "plangentes Adonidem". Although these i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s may be l a t e , they nevertheless reveal the general character of Adonis as veg-etation god, since Tammuz d e f i n i t e l y had t h i s role i n Mes-opotamia. The e a r l i e r myths also reveal t h i s character. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 10, 708-39, states that Aphrodite f e l l i n love with Adonis, the hunter. Her jealous consort, Ares, took the shape of a wild boar and k i l l e d Adonis near Aphaca ( the Aphaqa of M e l i t o ) i n Lebanon. His blood, flowing into the source of the r i v e r Adonis ( the present day Nahr Ibrahim, which flows from Aphaca ), turned the water red. Aphrodite went to the underworld to free her beloved, but Persephone would only allow his return for half of each year. This version seems very close to that of the Tammuz myth, where the god i s sought out i n the underworld by his consort Inanna.54 53The only e d i t i o n of Pseudo-Melito i s W. Cureton, Spicilegium Syriacum, Containing Remains of Bardesan, Melito, Ambrose, and~Mara Bar Serapion. London, TH55^ This passage i s copied from J. P. Brown; "Kothar, Kinyres, and Kythereia", Journal of Semitic Studies. X, 1965, p. 198. 54T. Jacobsen, "Toward the Image of Tammuz", History of Religions, v. I, 1962, pp. 201-3. 48 His death at the hand of Ares suggests Baal's death at the hand of Mot, the god of s t e r i l i t y i n the Ras Shamra t e x t s . The f a c t that Adonis only returns f o r part of the year r e - i n f o r c e s the idea that Adonis i s b a s i c a l l y a vegetation god. R i t e s f o r Adonis were a l s o celebrated at A l e x a n d r i a . There Adonis returned a f t e r a year's absence f o r a hieros gamos wi t h Aphrodite. The f o l l o w i n g day the women car r y him from 55 the wedding chamber and place him i n the sea. The Adonis f e a s t seems to have been celebrated i n high summer, a strange time f o r a r e s u r r e c t i o n m o t i f , since i n S y r i a new l i f e occurs i n spring a f t e r the winter r a i n s . ^ D The f o l l o w i n g evidence i s adduced f o r a summer f e a s t . In Mesopotamia, the f e a s t of Tammuz took place i n June-July, 57 i n the month c a l l e d Tammuz. At S e v i l l e the f e a s t of Adonis was celebrated at t h i s time, and itijthought that the Syrians introduced the c u l t i n t o Spain. F i n a l l y Ammianus M a r c e l l i n u s ( X X I I , 9 , 1 4 f f . ) r e p o r t s that the emperor J u l i a n on h i s t r i p i n the east was at Constantinople i n June, and a f t e r s e v e r a l detours came to Antioch where the f e a s t of Adonis was being 55Theocritus, XV; A.Harmon, o p . c i t . , p. 344. 5°H. Stocks, op. c i t . , p. 27. 57p. Lambrechts, "La ' r e s u r r e c t i o n ' d'Adonis", Melanges I s . Levy, Annuaire de 1 ' I n s t l t u t de P h i l o l o g i e , d ' H i s t o i r e  Orientale. et Slave de. 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e de B r u x e l l a s , V o l . X I I I , 1953, p. 218. He quotes W.W. B a u d i s s i n , Adonis und Esmun, 1911, p. lOOff. 58p. Lambrechts, l o c . c i t . He quotes F. Cumont, S y r i a , V I I , 1927, p. 330ff. and S y r i a , XVI, 1935, P . 4 6 f f . c e l e b r a t e d . T h i s would p r o b a b l y have been m i d - J u l y . ^ At Athens, however, t h e r e seems t o be e v i d e n c e f o r a f e a s t i n June, a month of g r e a t h e a t , as w e l l as f o r one i n A p r i l . H e r e t h e r e may have been two f e s t i v a l s , one i n A p r i l and one i n summer; the month of A p r i l was s p e c i a l l y d e d i c a t e d t o A p h r o d i t e . The r e a s o n f o r the two f e a s t s may l i e i n the f a c t t h a t the c u l t a t Athens d e r i v e d from Cyprus 61 r a t h e r t h a n S y r i a . However I do not see how t h i s r e a l l y e x p l a i n s a n y t h i n g , s i n c e the C y p r i o t c u l t must i t s e l f have come from S y r i a . Lambrechts has suggested t h a t s i n c e o n l y i n L u c i a n do we f i n d e x p l i c i t mention of a r e s u r r e c t i o n o f A d o n i s a t t h i s f e s t i v a l , a t B y b l o s , t h e c o n c e p t i o n was never b a s i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f e a s t , but r a t h e r i t was one s o l e l y o f mourning. T h i s would f i t i n w i t h i t s p l a c e i n summer. Ammianus M a r c e l l i n u s ( X X I I , 9 , 14 ) o n l y r e c o r d s a mourning-f e a s t a t A n t i o c h i n J u l y . Lambrechts r e g a r d s t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n m o t i f a t B y b l o s as an E g y p t i a n i n f l u e n c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h 6 2 the O s i r i s myth. However the theme of a d y i n g - r i s i n g god i s not a l i e n t o S e m i t i c r e l i g i o n , and i t s c u l t s do not seem d e r i v a t i v e . Thus i t seems b e s t t o r e g a r d the r e s u r r e c t i o n as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the c u l t . Lambrechts a l s o f i n d s no 5 9 p . L a m b r e c h t s , l o c . c i t . ; he quotes J . B i d e z , La V i e de l'Empereur J u l i e n , p. 2 7 4 f f . and p. 4 0 0 n . 1 . 60p. Lambrechts, op. c i t . , pp. 2 1 9 - 2 0 . 6 l p . Lambrechts, op. c i t . He quotes A. Nock, Gnomon, 1 9 3 4 , p. 2 Q 0 . ° 2P. Lambrechts, op. c i t . , p. 2 3 1 - 3 5 . 6 3 c f . the myths of Adonis which have the d y i n g -r i s i n g theme, as w e l l as Tammuz and B a a l Hadad. r e s u r r e c t i o n i n T h e o c r i t u s XV, but does not e x p l a i n t h e l i n e s : ... y^uuOt 'uJv , i& C ^ W r i ' _,uoVft/r<-roj-. (Jl. Such i s t h e problem i n v o l v e d i n d a t i n g t h e f e a s t L u c i a n d e s c r i b e s . No d e f i n i t e answer can be g i v e n , but perhaps t h e r e i s a s o l u t i o n i n t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e month of Tammuz was J u l y i n Mesopotamia, the f e a s t o f h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n was c e l e b r a t e d a t New Year a t t h e s p r i n g solstice.°^ Thus t h e r e seems t o be two p e r i o d s of the y e a r connected w i t h Tammuz, perhaps a f e a s t o f j o y i n s p r i n g and one of mourning i n summer. Now i f the concept o f r e s u r r e c t i o n i s not an E g y p t i a n i n f l u e n c e , as Lambrechts s u g g e s t s , but i s i n d i g e n o u s l y S y r i o -Mesopotamian, as t h e Baal-Hadad and Tammuz c y c l e s show, i t would be n a t u r a l f o r i t t o o c c u r i n s p r i n g , not summer, L u c i a n g i v e s no date whatsoever f o r t h e f e a s t he d e s c r i b e s , but he does s t a t e , however, t h a t when t h e r i v e r A d o n i s t u r n s r e d , t h e y c o n s i d e r A donis wounded by t h e boar ( Luc. 8 ). I t seems n a t u r a l t o connect t h i s w i t h the f e a s t d e s c r i b e d i n L u c i a n 6 . The phenomenon has been obse r v e d on the s e v e n t e e n t h of March and at the b e g i n n i n g o f F e b r u a r y . T h e windy season o c c u r s a t t h i s t i m e . I t a l s o o c c u r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f June, but not i n summer. Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e f e a s t L u c i a n d e s c r i b e s o c c u r r e d i n s p r i n g . 6 ^T. G a s t e r , op_. c i t . , p. 4 7 . °5j. G a r s t a n g , op_. c i t . , p. 4 8 , n. 18; C. Clemen, pp. c i t . , pp. 3 4 - 5 . Lucian 6. Sacred P r o s t i t u t i o n . This custom was carried out b a s i c a l l y to ensure f e r t i l i t y . Herodotus mentions the similar custom i n Babylon ( I, 199 ), and Strabo ( XI, XIV, 16 ) the one on Cyprus. There the women only had to f u l f i l l the duty once i n t h e i r l i f e . In Byblos, however, since only strangers could hire them, i t was a form of exogamy. Its purpose was to promote the f e r t i l i t y and vigour of the community.°^ The practice thus f i t s i n well with a theme of the renewal of nature. Clemen f e e l s that since they shaved t h e i r heads afte r the resurrection, i t was not a sign of mourning as Lucian thought, but another f e r t i l i t y r i t e where a s p e c i a l l y important part of the human body was offered. 67 Apis. Apis was the sacred b u l l of Memphis and was associ-ated with the worship of O s i r i s . When i t died, the animal was mummified and entombed, and the mourning f o r i t lasted seventy days.68 Lucian 7 . O s i r i s . There was always a close connection between Egypt and Byblos, since from Byblos came the important pine pitch used i n Egyptian embalming. Montet has shown that there was a very early connection i n the Pyramid age. In texts from the sixth dynasty ( c. 23OO B. C. ) there i s mention of a god called Khay-taou, with whom the pharaoh i s i d e n t i f i e d . This god i s located by these texts i n the land of Byblos. 66G. Clemen, p_p_. c i t . , pp. 32-3. § 7 l b i d ., p. 33. 68cf. Diodorus Siculus, I, 21 , 5-11 . Montet cites three texts from which he deduces an early myth of a god who is turned into a tree.^9 Then there seems an intermediate form of the Osir is myth coming between that version which Plutarch relates and these pyramid texts. In i t the hero Bataou leaves Egypt when his brother wants to k i l l him. He flees to the valley of the pine and places his heart on top of the flower of the pine. Bataou's spouse, however, allows the Egyptian soldiers who have come to take her back to cut down the pine. Bataou f a l l s dead. Bataou is only revived four years later when his brother has found his heart and has carried out r i tes which Bataou revealed to him before their separation. Bataou then changes into a b u l l and the two brothers, the one carrying the other, return 70 to Egypt. ' This myth seems a fore-runner of the myth told by Plutarch, where O s i r i s ' s brother Seth plots against him, and locks his brother in a coffer which he then f l ings into the Ni le . The coffer floats to Byblos where i t was enveloped in a tree. The king of Byblos later had i t cut down and made i t a p i l l a r in his house. O s i r i s ' s sister and consort, I s is , meanwhile, had come searching for Osir is and begged for the p i l l a r . She cut" the coffer from i t ; the trunk she wrapped^ in fine linen and l e f t i t in Byblos where i t was worshipped by the people of Byblos inAthe temple of Is is . She took the 69p. Montet, "Le pays de Negaou, pres de Byblos, et son dieu", Syria, IV, 1923, pp. 182-92. 7i>Ibid. , p. 190; A. Audin, o_p_. c i t . , p. 433. c o f f e r and s a i l e d back t o Egypt. Typhon, however, found the c o f f e r , r e c o g n i z e d the body, and r e n t i t i n t o f o u r t e e n p i e c e s and s c a t t e r e d them around Egypt. Thus i n Egypt t h e r e were many b u r i a l p l a c e s of O s i r i s . T h i s i s the myth as re c o u n t e d by P l u t a r c h , 7 1 but E g y p t i a n a c c o u n t s r e p o r t t h a t when I s i s f o u n d what had happened t o the body, she mourned so i n t e n s e l y t h a t the Sun-god Ra sent the j a c k a l - h e a d e d god Anubiss who found a l l the p i e c e s o f t h e body' except the g e n i t a l s and p i e c e d them t o g e t h e r . Then he performed the r i t e s of the dead o v e r i t . I s i s fanned the body and r e v i v e d i t . O s i r i s t h e n r e i g n e d as k i n g of the u n d e r w o r l d . ? 2 S i n c e the c o n t a c t s between By b l o s and Egypt were v e r y a n c i e n t , P. Lambrechts has suggested t h a t the O s i r i s myth c o n t r i b u t e d the i d e a o f r e s u r r e c t i o n f rom the dead t o the Adonis c u l t a t a l a t e d a t e . The complete A d o n i s myth, however, seems s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d as S y r i a n i n o r i g i n , s i n c e i t r e f l e c t s the theme o f the v e g e t a t i o n c y c l e common i n t h e c u l t s o f the Syrio-Mesopotamian a r e a . The c u l t concept o f r e s u r r e c t i o n , moreover, i n the O s i r i s myth and i n t h e Adonis myth seems q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n , e a c h case. On t h e one hand, Ad o n i s comes back t o e a r t h i n a c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n e v e r y y e a r i n l i n e w i t h the r e n e w a l i o f n a t u r e . O s i r i s , however, r e i g n s a t a l l t i m e s as god of the u n d e r w o r l d , presumably because 7 1 j . G. F r a z e r , The Golden Bough, Ab r i d g e d ed., London, 1933 , pp. 365-6; P l u t a r c h T T s i s and" O s i r i s . 12-20. 7 2 j . F r a z e r , op. c i t . , p. 366. 73p. Lambrechts, op_. c i t . , p. 235. when he was brought back to l i f e , his genitals were not found, and so t h i s s t e r i l i t y associated him with the kingdom of death. The Egyptian concept of the immortality of the soul was well developed, whereas i n the r e l i g i o n of Syria and Mesopotamia, i t was never so consistently worked out. A l l i n a l l , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see a detailed connection between O s i r i s and Adonis except i n so far as both were connected with the vegetation cycle. Although the r i t e Lucian describes at Byblos can most l i k e l y be associated with Adonis, nevertheless O s i r i s had his cult there also.74 As god of the underworld/ part of O s i r i s ' s connection with Byblos would stem from the nature of the Egyptian Burial r i t e s which used the pine re s i n from t h i s region for embalming. Thus the temple of Astarte at Byblos was also considered the temple of Isis. 7 5 The head of Byblos. This i s a pun i n Greek since fi'U,$XnAjv can also mean 'of papyrus', and the head would probably be of papier mjfch£. The 'head' may have been a diadem which was placed i n the water off Byblos, since such diadems have been found.''70 Lucian, however, seems clear that i t i s a head, and there i s no reason to reject what he says, although Clemen points out that whatever the object was, i t was probably placed i n the water just off the shore of Byblos. The current of the Ni l e , however, does reach right to the Phoenician 74 C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 33. 75R. Dussaud, Religions des Pheniciens t des Syriens, pp. 3 0 8 - 9 . _ , '°C. Clemen, lo.c. c i t . shore, and so i t would not be e n t i r e l y impossible for something to be floated across.77 In Alexandria, the women sent a l e t t e r i n a pot over the water to Byblos to announce that Aphrodite had found Adonis.7# Lucian 7- > •'->:"" " > y / I N / . . . . .". . . . cj T<^l...yjz^. -fTC<xTTov(r\ "fecchen him f o r t h to the eyr." A. Harmon, op_. c i t . , p. 344. He regards the phrase as equivalent to £fud o - i V tO/^tr i n Theocritus, XV, 11, 132-3. "exhibit his e f f i g y to the sky." H. A. Strong, J. Garstang, oj>. c i t . , p. 46. "schicken ihn i n die Lu f t . " C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. S. He adds "Statt ~ro^ rjyjj l i e s t Jacobs rav tf\o d. h. das Meeresufer (beach)." ' The phrase seems to refe r to the c u l t i c reappearance of the image of Adonis. Lucian 8. The River Adonis. The r i v e r Adonis i s the present Nahr Ibrahim. Its source i s near Aphaca, or Apheq, the place where Adonis i s reported to have died. The root of Apheq, T 'pqT was used i n the names of several places i n the near east: Apheq, Aphiq i n the t e r r i t o r y of Asher ( Josh. XIX, 30; Jud. I, 31. ), Apheq on the plains of Sharon ( Josh. XII, 18. ), and two c i t i e s called Apqu i n Mesopotamia. The word seems to have a meaning connected with spring, source, or stronghold of water.79 Aphaca or Apheq at the head of the r i v e r Adonis i s 77A. Harmon, op_. c i t . , p. 345, n. 4. 78c. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 33. 79M. Pope, op_. c i t . , pp. 74-5. the modern K h i r b e t Afqa i n S y r i a , around twenty-three m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of Beyrut. The r i v e r i t s e l f i s s u e s from a cave on the west side of the mountain, J e b e l e l Munetireh, and cascades i n t o a deep gorge which has c l i f f s more than a thousand f e e t h i g h on each s i d e . On the east side of the mountain from which the r i v e r f l o w s , there i s an i n t e r m i t t e n t l a k e , B i r k e t e l Yammuneh, at an e l e v a t i o n of f o u r t e e n hundred f e e t . T h i s l a k e becomes very l a r g e i n s p r i n g , but d r i e s up i n autumn a f t e r the hot summer. I t i s f e d by a s p r i n g which erupts around the v e r n a l equinox i n a tremendous bur s t of water, and which d r i e s up around the l a s t day of Tammuz ( J u l y ) . T h i s lake i s a l s o d r a i n e d by a s i n k - h o l e i n i t s b a s i n , but d u r i n g the r a i n y season, the supply of water f a r outmatches i t s c a p a c i t y , and so the l a k e becomes q u i t e e x t e n s i v e . Apparently the i n -h a b i t a n t s f e e l t h a t Aphaca on the other s i d e of the mountain i s the o u t l e t of t h i s s i n k - h o l e , and t h a t the s i n k - h o l e i s the beginning of a t u n n e l through the mountain.^1 In connection with t h i s l a k e , t h e r e i s the l a t e P h o e n i c i a n legend t h a t Aphrodite changed h e r s e l f i n t o a f i s h and dove i n t o the lake of Aphaca i n order to escape the amorous advances of the monster T y p h o n . ^ T h i s myth seems s i m i l a r to those t o l d about A t a r g a t i s and the l a k e at Ascalon. ( See notes on L u c i a n 14 and 45. ) As has been s t a t e d , the phenomenon t h a t L u c i a n r e c o r d ^°M. Pope, op_. c i t . , p. 76. j & I b i d . . p. 77. i b i d - , PP. 79-30. about the change of the r i v e r ' s colour to red occurs because of the wind and r a i n during the spring t i m e . ^ This phenomenon was connected with the suffering and death of Adonis who reportedly was k i l l e d at Aphaca. At t h i s place there was the famous temple of Aphrodite which i n chapter nine Lucian t e l l s us was founded by Kinyres. Lucian 9. Kinyres. T r a d i t i o n made Kinyres the father of Adonis,^4 whereas Kautar or Kothar was the father of Tammuz, the counterpart of Adonis i n Mesopotamia .^5 Kautar or Kothar seems to have a background i n the Ugaritic texts where i n the myths of Baal, the god Ktr whss, the 'Adroit and Cunning one', played the role of the Canaanite Hephaestus. Philo of Byblos, moreover, describes two brother gods, one of whom i s Chousor (y(<*,v<roJy° ) who Philo says cultivated speeches, magic s p e l l s , and modes of prophecy, and i s also the equi-valent of Hephaestus.&7 On examination, Kinyres seems to have a character very similar to Kothar/Kautar/Kuthor, or Philo's Chousor, and i n fact may have been i d e n t i c a l to these gods. J. P. Brown^ has made a detailed comparison of the 83j. Garstang, op_. c i t . , p. 4#; C. Clemen, OJ J. c i t . , pp. 34-5. . °4Apollodorus, I I I , 14, 3; Ovid, Metamor., X, 298ff. »5 Gf. the myth of Melito above. 86M. Dahood, OJ J. c i t . , p. 81 ° 7 p h i l o of Byblos i n Eusebius, Praeparatio Evan-g e l i c a , I, 10. ( Jacoby, no. 790, frag. 2. ) Quoted i n J. FI Brown, op. c i t . , p. 202. ^ 8 j . P. Brown, o£. c i t . , pp. 197-219. three gods, Kinyres, Philo's Chousor, and the U g a r i t i c Ktr whss. Brown finds four ways i n which he sees s i m i l a r i t i e s between them. F i r s t of a l l , he f e e l s that each of these gods i s involved with a doublet or a twin. Philo says ex-p l i c i t l y that Chousor has a brother who was the inventor of the technique of making brick walls, and the co-discoverer with Chousor of i r o n . This, however, i s the only case where a brother i s e x p l i c i t l y assigned to any one of these three gods. For the other two, Kinyres and Ktr whss, Brown makes the following speculations. Since the god Ktr whss ( Adroit and Cunning ) r e a l l y has a double epithet f o r a name, Brown f e e l s that the phrase may have come to denote two d e i t i e s , since i t i s a tendency for each epithet of a r-god to acquire independent status. ^ 9 This i s possible, but there i s no r e a l evidence to confirm the development. He also suggests that although the t h i r d god Kinyres i s not attested as a twin the Greek twins Kastor and Polydeukes bear a resemblance to Ktr whss.90 Again, however, the evidence i s inconclusive. More important f o r our purposes, Brown shows-that the three gods, Chousor, Ktr whss, and Kinyres were a l l builder-gods.9 1 The Ugaritic Ktr whss was the god who b u i l t the temple for BaalJ?2 The brother of Chousor invented bricks and Chousor himself was a co-discoverer of ir o n with his brother, and i s equated by Philo with Hephaestus. Kinyres §9J. P. Brown, op. c i t . , p. 2 0 3 . o-j Loc. c i t . v lTbi~d.. p. 2 0 4 . 9 2 J . Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 2 n d ed. Princeton, 1 9 5 5 p. 1 3 4 a . d e a l t i n i r o n and s i l v e r s i n c e he made a b r e a s t p l a t e f o r Agamemnon. ( I l i a d , X I , 24-5 . ) T h i r d , two o f the gods are s a i l o r s . K t r whss be-l o n g s t o Gaphtor, and g e t s t h e r e by water.93 A p o l l o d o r u s ( I I I , 14, 3 ) says t h a t K i n y r e s was born i n C i l i c i a i n the town o f K a l e n d r i s , and l a t e r s a i l e d t o Cyprus and founded Paphos. S t r a b o ( XVI, 2, 18 ) says K i n y r e s a l s o had a r o y a l r e s i d e n c e a t B y b l o s . E u s t a t h i u s , a t w e l f t h c e n t u r y A. D. commentator on Homer, s t a t e s t h a t K i n y r e s sent Menelaus f i f t y s h i p s , one o f which was r e a l w i t h r e a l men, the o t h e r f o r t y -n i n e made out o f c l a y w i t h c l a y figures.9 4 F o u r t h t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t K i n y r e s , a t l e a s t , ' was connected w i t h music. E u s t a t h i u s s t a t e s t h a t K i n y r e s , i n h i s c a p a c i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c i a n , l o s t h i s l i f e by competing w i t h A p o l l o i n s i n g i n g . He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t he was c a l l e d K i n y r e s a f t e r the word wivu/Oci 'lyre ' . 9 5 ~ Brown a l s o quotes a passage from P i n d a r , P y t h i a n 2, 15-17 , w h i c h r u n s : K * A o f (/tiWTl yUjTv1 e^M^T (<^ l V '^OCN/ TTO A A cf KiJ .. . V w j jr. (|)'Ayj.r\'A-n-oJvl<^v ) KA ' - T OV ' A d ^ o o ^ /-r-etf-^ J . P r i t c h a r d , op_. c i t . , p. 141b. 94Eustathius on I l i a d XI, 20; J. P . Brown, op. Q i t . , p. 205. 9 5 E u s t a t h i u s , l o c . c i t . The songs of the Cypriotes often resound f o r Kinyres, whom golden-hair Apollo graciously loved, the mild p r i e s t of Aphrodite.96 Brown asks i f t h i s connection of Kinyres and Apollo was made because Kinyres was a musician. Brown also points out that Philo^? says that Chousor had a descendant called ~^~cy(^ '"^J" but surely t h i s word means by i t s e l f merely 'craftsman'. Although we f e e l that Brown does not r e a l l y succeed i n establishing a completely consistent pattern f o r the gods, Ktr wh,ss, Chousor and Kinyres i n a l l four respects, he never-theless does show c l e a r l y t h e i r common role as craftsmen gods. Kinyres thus can be seen as a builder, a s a i l o r , and a musi-cian, and i s probably the late Greek equivalent of Chousor ( Kautar/Kothar ) and Ktr whss. The etymology of the word Kinyres has been disputed. It may be connected with the Hebrew word for l y r e , 3 kinnor. Apparently the Septuagint was the f i r s t to use the word l ^ ' ^ ^ o ^ i n i t s t r a n s l a t i o n of kinnor9& Since the name Kinyres, however, i s attested e a r l i e r than the date of the Septuagint, i t may s t i l l have come from kinngr, but there i s no e x p l i c i t evidence of t h i s . It has also been sugge sted Q9 that the epic Greek word J</iOoyo*J i s derived from the name of the god Kothar. 96j. P . Brown, op_. c i t . , p. 206. 97philo, i n Eusebius, Praep. Ev., I, 10, 12. 98j. p. Brown, p_p_. c i t . , p. 207. 99H. L. Ginsberg, "Women Singers and Wallers among the Northern Canaanites", B u l l e t i n of the American School of  Oriental Research, LXXII, 1938, pp. 13-15. T h i s god K o t h a r , we have seen, shares a background v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f K i n y r e s , i n t h a t he i s a c r a f t s m a n and f a t h e r o f a v e g e t a t i o n god ( K o t h a r , the f a t h e r of Tammuz, K i n y r e s , the f a t h e r of A d o n i s . ) S i n c e K o t h a r was the S e m i t i c c o u n t e r p a r t o f K i n y r e s , he i s most l i k e l y t o be connected w i t h music. Thus i t i s tho u g h t t h a t perhaps the Greeks i n d e a l i n g w i t h the c r a f t s m a n god of P h o e n i c i a , used the g o d T s name ( K o t h a r ) f o r h i s i n s t r u m e n t ( j < i G © ( ^ J ) » a n c* h i s i n s t r u m e n t ( k i n r i o r ) f o r h i s name, K i n y r e s . I n the I l i a d ( X V I I I , 569-70 ) we are t o l d t h a t the v<<9^ o^ J was used t o s i n g the ' L i n o s ' song, and Herodotus ( I I , 79 ) t e l l s us L i n o s was a s u b j e c t of song i n P h o e n i c i a , Cyprus, and e l s e w h e r e . T h u s t h e r e may be some c o n n e c t i o n between e a r l y Greece and I r o n age P h o e n i c i a i n terms o f the etymology o f the words K J ^ y ^ f and K i n y r e s , but the case i s not c l e a r . A n other etymology has been suggested from H i t t i t e a r e a . " ^ ^ I n a t e x t o f K a r a t e p e , a d i v i n i t y c a l l e d e l - k u - n i - i r - s a i s mentioned. The ' e l ' of t h e word p o i n t s t o a S e m i t i c etymology s i n c e ' e l ' was the Canaanite word f o r 'god'. O t t e n compares t h e name e l - k u - n i - i r - s a t o the P h o e n i c i a n Y^~l^ ]p ( ' e l qn 7rs ), which means 'god, c r e a t o r o f e a r t h ' , 1 0 0 J . P. Brown, op_. c i t . , p. 208. 1°1-H. O t t e n , " E i n k a n a a n a i s c h e r Mythus aus Bogazkoy", M i t t e i l u n g e n des I n s t i t u t - 3 f u r . ^ Q r i e n t f o r s c h u n g , I , 1953 > pp. 124-50; J . P. Brown, op_. c i t . . p. 208-9. and f i n d s them r e l a t e d . The problem now i s t o see how he f i n d s t h e name K i n y r e s i n the name e l - k u - n i - i r - s a . He argues t h a t s i n c e t h e r e i s a t r a d i t i o n t h a t K i n y r e s came from C i l i c i a ( A p o l l o d o r u s , I I I , 14, 3 ) from the town o f JK'alendris, and s i n c e an i n s c r i p t i o n o f K a r a t e p e r e a d i n g dJ^lDllD b^J. 'Lord of K r n t r i s h ( K a l e n d r i s )' i s 102 t h o u g h t t o r e f e r t o the god of K a l e n d r i s , t h e r e may be a c o n n e c t i o n between the 'Lord of K r n t r i s h ' , and K i n y r e s , who came from K r n t r i s h o r K a l e n d r i s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the name K i n y r e s can be seen i n t h e S e m i t i c phrase e l - k u - n i - i r - s a , i f the f i r s t component ' e l ' i s dropped, and t h e ' K u - n i - i r - s a ' f u s e d . S i n c e t h e phrase e l - k u - n i - i r - s a means 'god, the c r e a t o r o f the e a r t h ' , K i n y r e s , i f d e r i v e d from t h i s word, would be a c r e a t o r g o d . T h e o n l y e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i s t h a t K i n y r e s seems a god l i k e H e p h a i s t o s i n I l i a d XI,2 4 . Moreover, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how t h e ' e l ' of e l - k u - n i - i r - s a would drop. Thus the q u e s t i o n of the etymology must remain open. The temple L u c i a n a t t r i b u t e s t o K i n y r e s was a t Aphaca i n Lebanon, the d e a t h p l a c e o f A d o n i s . Because the temple w i t h i t s o r g i e s , s a c r e d p r o s t i t u t i o n - * - 1 ^ and s e l f -e m a s c u l a t i o n f o l l o w e d the S y r i a n f e r t i l i t y c u l t a l i t t l e t o o e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , C o n s t a n t i n e ordered the d e m o l i t i o n o f the 1 0 2 J . P. Brown, op_. c i t . , p. 2 0 5 , n.3« 1 0 3 l b i d ., p. 208. lOA-According t o Clement o f A l e x a n d r i a ( P r o t r e o t i c u s , I I , 135 ) K i n y r e s had i n s t i t u t e d s a c r e d p r o s t i t u t i o n on Cyprus. s h r i n e . L u c i a n 10. The Temple. H. S t o c k s made a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n of the s i t e of the s a n c t u a r y at H i e r a p o l i s , and from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , I have made t h e f o l l o w i n g diagram. The o n l y d i f f i c u l t y r a i s e d by h i s r e p o r t concerns theyfJay*^ o r c l e f t . S t o c k s l o c a t e s i t s o u t h of the temple where, by the p l a n t s t h e r e , a s p r i n g o r w e l l seem t o be underneath the ground. L u c i a n s t a t e s t h a t the temple was b u i l t £TTT yjtryu.*r\ ( L u c i a n 13 ), and t h a t he h i m s e l f saw the c l e f t , and i t was brr* "R5' v^ CjT. The people who b r i n g water t o the temple 1~° (tiJu/o) rr^wr,* /*ZJ i v CK^/ou«-ij.yUct£ cr To y/rjKcf farz^tTeH . S t o c k s t a k e s kwT t o mean 'up fr o m ' and uno 'dovm from', and p l a c e s they ^ e - y u * on a lo w e r l e v e l o u t s i d e the te m p l e , a t the s p r i n g 107 o r w e l l . T h i s seems t o be f o r c i n g the Greek. There may have been a c l e f t a l s o i n the temple f l o o r which i s now no l o n g e r e v i d e n t . L u c i a n 12.. The F l o o d . A l t h o u g h L u c i a n says he has heard the s t o r y from the Greeks, the account he g i v e s f o l l o w s t he B a b y l o n i a n t r a d i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n the Greek, which i s found 108 i n P s e u d o - A p o l l o d o r u s , B i b l i o t h e c a , I , 7, 4 7 f f . C o n s e q u e n t l y , Buttman proposed D e u k a l i o n - S i s t h e s (2i°~^Qc«t ) i n s t e a d of D e u k a l i o n t h e S c y t h i a n (5"K(J6SV ) , s i n c e S i s y t h e s i s a p o s s i b l e v a r i a n t o f X i s u t h r o s , the B a b y l o n i a n f l o o d hero o f B e r o s s o s 1 0 5M. Pope, SI i n the U g a r i t i c T e x t s , L e i d e n , 1 9 5 5 , p . 7 6 E u s e b i u s , V i t a Const. I l l , I U O H. S t o c k s , op_. c i t . , pp. 1-4. See page 6 5 . 107H. S t o c k s , op_. c i t . , p. 3 2 8 . 108C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 3 6 . i n E u s e b i u s ( C h r o n i c a . 1 , 5 , 1 9 f f . ). However, s i n c g 'ft C^KO I i s i n a l l m a n u s c r i p t s , and a t r a d i t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e presence o f S c y t h i a n s i n P a l e s t i n e - S y r i a was preserved, 1 0°- t h e r e a d i n g ZvLoOr./ may w e l l be L u c i a n ' s word, even though i t i s s t i l l u n l i k e l y t h a t a S c y t h i a n was connected by the people of H i e r a p o l w i t h the flood.^® The mistake may be L u c i a n ' s own.^"^ L u c i a n ' s account f o l l o w s the B a b y l o n i a n and B i b l i c a l t r a d i t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g ways. I n the Greek v e r s i o n , a g r e a t r a i n causes the f l o o d , but i n L u c i a n the e a r t h a l s o sends f o r t h water from beneath. T h i s r e c a l l s the S e m i t i c p i c t u r e o f the w o r l d as a firmament w i t h water b o t h above and below i t . 1 1 2 The Gilgamesh e p i c ( X I , l O l f f . ) and G e n e s i s ( V I I , 11 ) have the water pour i n from above and below. I n the Greek account o n l y D e u k a l i o n and h i s w i f e ar e saved, but i n L u c i a n , D e u k a l i o n saves h i s . w i v e s and c h i l d r e n I n t h e Gilgamesh e p i c , the h e r o , U t n a p i s h t i m , saves h i s whole f a m i l y and k i n . Noah saved h i s w i f e , h i s sons and t h e i r w i v e s , and so L u c i a n seems more i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n . I n the account o f P s e u d o - A p o l l o d o r u s , no a n i m a l s are saved, but i n L u c i a n a l l t h e a n i m a l s are t a k e n on board. 1 0 9 M . Avi-Yonah, " S c y t h o p o l i s " ( B i b l i c a l Beth-Shean) I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l , X I I , 1 9 6 2 , pp. 1 2 3 - 3 4 . 110H. S t o c k s , p_p_. c i t . , p. 8. U l A . Harmon, op. c i t . , pp. 3 5 0-1, n. 1. H 2 c f . G e n e s i s , I , 1-7-In the Gilgamesh epic, only domesticated animals are saved, whereas i n the B i b l i c a l account two t r a d i t i o n s are given. In one, the P r i e s t l y , two of every animal are saved, and i n the other, the Yahwist, seven of each sex are saved of the clean animals, and two of each sex of the unclean.H3 Lucian speaks of the ^c/rjxj. or c l e f t through which the flo o d water disappeared. This d e t a i l i s not i n the Semitic accounts, and may be a l o c a l t r a d i t i o n because of the c l e f t under the t e m p l e . H o w e v e r Pausanias ( I, XVIII, 7 ) men-tions a precint of Olympian Earth, that i s a sacred area of ground, southwest of temple of Olympian Zeus i n Athens, i n which was a c l e f t through which the flood water was supposed to have run away. Every year the Athenians threw a cake of wheaten meal kneaded with honey into i t . H 5 However the r i t e at Hierapolis where water was thrown into the c l e f t ( Lucian 13 and 48 ) o r i g i n a l l y was not connected with the flood myth, but was probably a r i t e concerning prayers f o r rain.11° It i s u n l i k e l y that the cult at Hierapolis was centred around the flood myth since the Deukalion story was only one of several concerned with the founder of the temple. Moreover, the geography of Hierapolis makes i t u n l i k e l y that a flood occurred. I f the r i t e were connected 113Genesis VI, 18 and VII, 2; E. A. Speiser, Genesis New York, 1964, pp. 46-56 says Genesis VI, 18 i s P r i e s t l y and Genesis VII, 2 i s Yahwist. II4H. Stocks, pj>. c i t . , p. 8. 115J. Frazer, Pausanias*s Description of Greece, Vol. I I , p. 182. 1 1 6 R . Dussaud, "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l'Apollon barbu.." p. 133; G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , pp. 70-2. w i t h the f l o o d , i t would be a p e t i t i o n f o r the end o f m o i s t u r e and not f o r i t s occurrence.-*--'-''' Such a f e a s t a g a i n would be str a n g e i n H i e r a p o l i s where i t seldom r a i n s . L u c i a n 14. Semiramis and Derk e t o . Derketo i s a v a r i a t i o n of A t a r g a t i s i n Greek. The o r i g i n a l Aramaic name, ( a t a r - a t e h ) i s d i f f i c u l t t o t r a n s c r i b e i n t o any n o n - S e m i t i c language because o f the a y i n , a sound which i s l i k e " i n c i p i e n t vomiting".l-*-9 T h e r e f o r e the name was t r a n s c r i b e d 'ATO^^VIJ, y^TLfyaifij A d a r g a t i s , where the f i r s t ' a y i n became a g l o t t a l s t o p and the second a 'g', o r e l s e i t was t r a n s c r i b e d Atyotccru) Derketo", where the f i r s t a y i n dropped and t h e second became a 'k' i n s t e a d o f a 'g'.-*-2^ The myth o f Derketo and Semiramis i s r e l a t e d i n D i o d o r u s , I I , 4. I n the myth, Derketo i s s a i d t o have had i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h a young S y r i a n , her p a s s i o n i n s p i r e d by A p h r o d i t e who was o f f e n d e d w i t h h e r . Derketo bore a da u g h t e r , Semiramis, and t h e n i n shame over the whole a f f a i r , k i l l e d t h e young S y r i a n , exposed Semiramis, and thre w h e r s e l f i n t o the l a k e o f A s c a l o n . She was t u r n e d i n t o a f i s h and f o r t h i s r e a s o n , f i s h a re h o l y t o the S y r i a n s . Semiramis, however, was nurtured by doves u n t i l she was found by shepherds. She was r a i s e d by Simmas, t h e keeper of t h e r o y a l h e r d s . Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 52. H 8 R . Dussaud, "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r . . . " , p. 133. 119F. R o s e n t h a l , A Grammar o f B i b l i c a l Aramaic, Wiesbaden, 1963, p. 7. l 4 U G . Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 58; G. Cooke, op_. c i t . , p. 270. A s c a l o n was a S y r i a n town where the c u l t o f A t a r g a t i s was a l s o c a r r i e d out; t h e r e was a h o l y l a k e t h e r e j u s t as a t H i e r a p o l i s . The name Semiramis i t s e l f i s p r o b a b l y based upon the h i s t o r i c a l Sammu-ramat, who was queen-regent o f A s s y r i a a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h e r e i g n o f h e r son A d a d - N i r a r i I I I , 811-782 B. C . 1 2 1 She was "a s o r t of A s s y r i a n C a t h e r i n e I I , d i s t i n g u i s h e d e q u a l l y i n war and f o r s e n s u a l i t y . " - ' - 2 2 Thus she l a t e r assumed a t t r i b u t e s of I s h t a r o r A s t a r t e i n the s t o r i e s t o l d about her. Semiramis was connected w i t h Ninus o f Nineveh i n myths about t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f N i n e v e h . 1 2 3 The myth about D e r k e t o and Semiramis seems t o i n c l u d e t h e theme of p a s s i o n as a punishment, and t h u s f i t s i n w i t h t h e c u l t of A t a r g a t i s . 1 2 4 I t a l s o s e t s out t o e x p l a i n t h e s a n c t i t y o f f i s h and doves. However, as L u c i a n p o i n t s o u t , f i s h were not e a t e n because t h e y were s a c r e d t o D e r k e t o s i n c e t h e E g y p t i a n s a l s o d i d not eat them.. The r e a l r e a s o n was p r o b a b l y h y g i f r i i c . 1 2 5 Sacred f i s h were kept a t A s c a l o n and H i e r a p o l i s , and when th e c u l t spread t h r o u g h the Greco-Roman e v e r y s a n c t u a r y of A t a r g a t i s had a fishpond. - * - 2 6 The dove was c o n s i d e r e d s a c r e d by a l l the Semites ( Xenophon, A n a b a s i s , I , 4 , 9 ). I t was e s p e c i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d l ^ C . H. O l d f a t h e r , D i o d o r u s S i c u l u s , (Loeb) London, I 9 6 0 , v . - I , pp. 3 5 6 - 7 , n. 2 on D i o d o r u s , I I , 3 , 4 . 122w. How, J . W e l l s , A Commentary on Herodotus, Ox-f o r d , 19<ZB, v. I , p. 1 4 3 , note on Herodotus I , I 8 4 . 1 2 3J. G a r s t a n g , op_. c i t . , pp. 5 2 - 3 , n. 2 4 . 124G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 6 2 . 1 2 5 c . Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 4 8 . 1 2 6 G . Goossens, l o c . c i t . w i t h A s t a r t e ( A e l i a n , De n a t u r a a n i m a l i u m , IV, 2 ) and i s r e p r e s e n t e d on f i g u r i n e s f r om P h o e n i c i a , A s i a M i n o r , Rhodes, D e l o s , Athens and E t r u r i a . There was no d i s t i n c t i o n , of c o u r s e , between the dove and pigeon.127 L u c i a n 15. R h e a - A t t t s . Because o f the l o c a t i o n of H i e r a p o l i s i n the n o r t h o f S y r i a , i t was open t o i n f l u e n c e s f rom A s i a M i n o r . The G a l l i seem the c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s i n -f l u e n c e , a l t h o u g h L u c i a n r e j e c t s such a view and e x p l a i n s t h e i r presence by the s t o r y of Kombabos and S t r a t o n i k e . T h i s s t o r y , however, i s a l i t e r a r y theme which was p o p u l a r a t 128 t h e t i m e , and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the note on c h a p t e r 17. L u c i a n 16. D i o n y s u s . L u c i a n f i n d s Dionysus the most l i k e l y f o u n d e r of t h e t e m p l e . However, the p r o o f s he o f f e r s a r e , of c o u r s e , v a l u e l e s s from our p o i n t o f view. The columns r e a l l y are Sun columns such as those found a t Tyre f o r M e l q a r t , and f o r H e l i o s a t E d e s s a . 1 2 ^ These p i l l a r s a re connected w i t h the hammanim of the O l d Testament. These hammanim were o b e l i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a l t a r s o f B a a l as a s o l a r god. The Aramaic word hamma means sun.130 P h i l o of B y b l o s r e p o r t s t h a t S a n c h o n i a t o n s t u d i e d t h e wisdom of the P h o e n i c i a n s on t h e t e x t s o f the ammouneon, and these have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the hammanim. Moreover, the ' d e c r e t a a s t r o r u m ' were engraved on the 127j . Garstang, op_. c i t . , p. 86, n. 66. 12°E. Benveniste, op_. c i t . , pp. 248-58. 129A. Audin, op_. c i t . , p. 430 130lbid., p. 431. 70 columns of Heracles of C a d i z . " ^ l L ucian 16. Marionettes. Herodotus ( I I , 4 8 ) gives an account of the use of puppets i n the c u l t of Dionysus i n Egypt. To Dionysus on the evening of h i s f e s t i v a l , everyone o f f e r s a porker which he k i l l s before h i s door and then gives i t to the swineherd who has s o l d i t f o r him t o take away. The r e s t of the f e s t i v a l of Dionysus i s ordered by the Egyptians much as i t i s by the Greeks, except f o r the dances; but i n place of the p h a l l u s , they have invented the use of puppets a c u b i t long moved by s t r i n g s , which are c a r r i e d about the v i l l a g e by women, the male member moving and near as b i g as the r e s t of the body.132 I f these e x i s t e d at the temple i n H i e r a p o l i s there must have been some connection w i t h Dionysus, even i f the c u l t was not centred around him. I t i s known that i n S y r i a the c u l t of Dionysus was widely adopted and joined with c u l t s of l o c a l v e g e t a t i o n gods.133 Something of the sort probably happened at H i e r a p o l i s . Bronze statue. This statue may be connected w i t h a motif on S y r i a n c y l i n d e r seals d a t i n g from the second millennium. On them i s represented a nude man w i t h emphasized sexual organs.134 The statue has been a l s o connected w i t h the Egyptian god Bes whose c u l t penetrated, S y r i a at an e a r l y date.1 3 5 Lucian 17. S t r a t o n i k e . The two s t o r i e s which f o l l o w seem to •'A. Audin, op.,, c i t . , p. 4 3 2 . 132A. D. Godley, Herodotus, (Loeb) London, I960, v. I , p. 335. ! 3 3 H . S e y r i g , "Le grande pretre de Dionysus a Byblos", S y r i a , XXXI, 1954, pp. 68-73; G. Goossens, op. c i t . , p. 135. 134G. Goossens, op. c i t . , p. 113. 1 3 5 C . Clemen, Q£. c i t . , p. 4 5 . be b a s i c a l l y l i t e r a r y rather than h i s t o r i c a l or c u l t i c . Lucian i d e n t i f i e s the Stratonike i n the second story concerning Kombabos with the h i s t o r i c a l Stratonike, the wife of Seleucus I who l a t e r married her step-son Antiochus I of Syria. 136 Lucian's story, however, of exactly how the actual marriage occurred i s probably f i c t i o n a l . In Lucian*s t a l e , the diagnosis was attributed to Erasistratos who was born some-time between 310 and 300 B. C. He was the famous physician of Syria of t h i s time. The h i s t o r i c a l marriage of Antiochus and Stratonike took place i n 293 B. C., and so i f Erasistratos was involved, he could not have been more than seventeen years old. According to Lucian, Seleucus I went away afterwards and founded a c i t y called a f t e r him on the Euphrates, but Seleucia, the c i t y i n question, was founded i n 300 B. C. Antiochus was co-regent with his father f o r thirteen years i n the upper provinces of Asia Minor.137 The story Lucian relates about Stratonike and Kombabos r e f l e c t s a l i t e r a r y theme which became popular i n the near east between the t h i r d century B. C. and the second century A. D. It involves a king's minister who i s entrusted with the care of his lord's wi^e or concubines and who castrates himself secretly because he knows suspicion w i l l f a l l on him l a t e r . Then after he has been accused, he brings f o r t h .1 ^^k. Harmon, op_. c i t . , p. 361, n.'3. 137G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , pp. 189-92. The story of Antiochus and Stratonike i s also given i n Appian, Syrian Wars, 59-61; Plutarch, Demetri v i t a , 38; Valerius Maximus, V, 7; Pliny refers to Erasistratos in,Naturalis H i s t o r i a , XXIX, 3« 72 the evidence of his innocence . 1 ^ Lucian offers the story to explain the rebuilding of the temple in Hierapolis after the old one had been destroyed by a g e . T h e story i s also intended to explain the statue of a woman in man's clothing, and the presence of the G a l l i at H i e r a p o l i s . 1 ^ 0 It i s generally assumed that the temple at Hierapolis was rebuilt by the his tor ica l Stratonike, the second wife of Seleucus I, and that Seleucus renamed the city Hierapolis. 1 ^! In our discussion of the name of the c i ty , however, we pointed out that since the basic story of Stratonike and Kombabos was non-h i s t o r i c a l , Goossens142 rejects i t s worth for determining his -tor ica l evidence. It does seem l i k e l y , however, that some his tor ica l situation gave rise to this story, just as the his tor ica l marriage between Stratonike and her step-son An-tiochus gave rise to the romantic story of how i t happened.143 The main factor in determining the his tor ical value of the Stratonike and Kombabos story w i l l be the amount of extraneous evidence. Since we do not possess much archaeological data, however, we can only try to glean hints from the rest of Lucian's text. It i s interesting to note that Lucian accepts the !3&E. Benveniste, "La legende de Kombabos", pp. 249-58, gives versions of the story from Parthia, the Sassanide empire, and India. ^ y L u c i a n 17. l 4 0 L u c i a r i 26. ! 4 l F . Gumont, in Daremberg-Saglio, Dictionnaire des  Antiquites, v. IV, 2, p. 1591. |42G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , pp. 189-92. I43cf . notes on Lucian 1. 73 temple as b e i n g b u i l t b y the h i s t o r i c a l S t r a t o n i k e , s i n c e he s t a t e s t h a t he h i m s e l f i d e n t i f i e s the S t r a t o n i k e o f the Stratonike-Kombabos s t o r y w i t h S t r a t o n i k e , the w i f e o f S e l e u c u s . I n a d d i t i o n , L u c i a n s t a t e s t h a t of the two w a l l s t h a t surround the t e m p l e , one i s not v e r y o l d . " * " ^ G o o s s e n s ^ 0 f e e l s t h a t t h i s s t a t e m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the temple i t s e l f was r e a l l y r e b u i l t r e c e n t l y i n the f i r s t c e n t u r y A. D., a t whi c h time t e m p l e s were a l s o r e b u i l t a t Palmyra and H e l i o p o l i s . I t i s t r u e t h a t L u c i a n does t a l k o f the w a l l as q u i t e r e c e n t , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see why he d i d not mention t h e temple as r e c e n t a l s o i f i n f a c t i t were so. He seems t o have no doubt t h a t the temple goes back t o the time of the h i s t o r i c a l S t r a t o n i k e , the second w i f e o f S e l e u c u s . The s t o r y o f S t r a t o n i k e and Kombabos i s a l s o connected w i t h the presence o f the G a l l i a t H i e r a p o l i s . However, i t r e a l l y does not e x p l a i n a n y t h i n g about them. In t h e s t o r y Kombabos c a s t r a t e s h i m s e l f s e c r e t l y i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h h i s innocence i n advance. At H i e r a p o l i s the G a l l i were c a s t r a t e d i n a s t a t e o f f r e n z y i n a r i t e o b v i o H S l y s i m i l a r t o the R h e a - A t t i s c u l t i n A s i a M i nor. ^ ^ L u c i a n 17. ^ L u c i a n 28. i Z f 0G . Goossens, op. c i t . , p. 1 0 9 . 1^7s. B e n v e n i s t e ( op_. c i t . , p. 2 4 9 . ) f e e l s t h a t L u c i a n has S t r a t o n i k e b u i l d the temple a t H i e r a p o l i s i n e x p i a t i o n fofr her m a r r i a g e w i t h h e r s t e p - s o n . L u c i a n , however, e x p r e s s l y s t a t e s t h a t she was l i v i n g w i t h h er fo r m e r husband a t the time ( c. 19 ), and does not connect the two s t o r i e s by any common theme beyond t h e mere i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the two S t r a t o n i k e s . 140E. B e n v e n i s t e , op_. c i t . , p. 2 5 6 . 74 The word Kombabos seems t o have c o n n e c t i o n s withK U ^ I ^ I J , G a l l u s and , ^  *UrLj(°f*s.\/o£ ^y/.|y>?TwV Q i ^ V i n H e s y c h i o s , and the word p r o b a b l y was used i n the s t o r y because of i t s c o n n o t a t i o n s . The s t a t u e by Hermocles o f Rhodes, who i s o n l y mentioned here i n c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , was p r o b a b l y not o f Kombabos. J . Garsta n g s u g g e s t s i t was a s t a t u e of an Amazon, 150 but n o t h i n g can be s a i d w i t h c e r t a i n t y . y L u c i a n 2 7 . The C l o t h i n g of the G a l l i . L u c i a n t e l l s us the s t o r y o f t h e young woman who k i l l e d h e r s e l f t o e x p l a i n why the G a l l i wore f e m i n i n e a t t i r e , but of course t e l l s us v e r y l i t t l e about the r e a s o n f o r the custom. The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r Is* t h i s d r e s s p r o b a b l y ^ o r i g i n a l l y i n the p s y c h o l o g y o f h o m o s e x u a l i t y , but c a s t r a t i o n was r e g a r d e d a t a v e r y e a r l y date i n a n c i e n t s o c i e t y as an a i d t o f e r t i l i t y because, I suppose, one o f f e r e d 151 one's s e x u a l organs t o the d i v i n i t y i n v o l v e d . L a t e r c a s t r a t i o n was p a r t o f t h e s e a r c h f o r s e x u a l p u r i t y , and became p a r t of a s c e t i c i s m . Clemen a s s o c i a t e s the mad, po s s e s s e d women i n L u c i a n 43 w i t h the women who a r e empassioned by the G a l l i , and t h i n k s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be p a r t o f an a s c e t i c i s m i n s e a r c h o f a pure love.1^2 U Q C. Clemen, op. c i t . , p. 3 9 ; .Kombabos has a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e monster Humbaba, Humwawa i n the Gilgamesh e p i c , ( A. Harmon, op. c i t . , p. 3 6 6 , n. 1. ), but t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i s v e r y u n l i k e l y . "The two c h a r a c t e r s are c o m p l e t e l y d i s s i m i l a r . 150G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 112; J. Ga r s t a n g , op_. c i t . , p. 6 5 , n. 36-± : > ± G . • Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 3 7 . 1 5 2 c . Clemen, op. c i t . , pp. 5 5 - 6 . Lucian 28. The orguia measured six feet, one inch. Thus Lucian's measurements seem a t r i f l e exaggerated. Lucian states here that the entrance faces north, but l a t e r on i n chapter 30 he states that the temple faces east. This entrance on the north side may have been a secondary side entrance, since Stocks locates the courtyard of chapter 41 to the east of the temple. 1 ^3 on the other hand, there i s the fact that a road passed east to west through the f i e l d on the north side of the temple, and, since t h i s road was the p r i n c i p a l artery of the c i t y , the temple may have had i t s p r i n c i p a l entrance located i n r e l a t i o n to i t . 1 ^ In addition, Semitic temples were usually constructed so that the inner sanctuary could not be seen by one passing outside the temple. Thus i n the t y p i c a l Canaanite temple, the entrance was located on the side of the building. 155 This plan survived at Palmyra and Hierapolis may also represent the same pattern.-^o -^H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 3; C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 40. 154G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 110. 155G. Ernest Wright, B i b l i c a l Archaeology, Philadelphia, 1957, p. 114; see also t h i s author's review of Lachish II: The Fosse Temple by Olga T u f n e l l , Charles Inge, and L. Harding i n the American Journal of Archaeology, XLV, 1 9 3 7 , P. 6 3 4 , 1 5 o F o r the temple plan of Palmyra see K. Michalowski, "Palmira", Enciclopedia dell'Arte Antica, v o l . V., p. 9 0 4 . G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , pp. 53-4, f e e l s that the plan of the temple r e f l e c t s a survival of Hurrian culture. L i t t l e i s known of t h e i r c u l t , except that i t was often fused with that of the H i t t i t e s . However, the cult at Hierapolis seems to be explained s a t i s f a c t o r i l y as Semitic because of the gods found there. The Semitic idea of a 'Holy of Holies' also seems to be there. 76 Lucian 28. The P i l l a r Climber. The f i r s t reason Lucian gives i s the c o r r e c t explanation. The Semites climbed p i l l a r s because they b e l i e v e d they would be nearer the gods and could be more e a s i l y heard. The noise made a t t r a c t e d the gods' a t t e n t i o n to the requests the climber o f f e r e d i n the name of the people. -^'7 The reason f o r the r i t e i n the worship of Dionysus which Lucian blushes to t e l l i s found i n two C h r i s t i a n authors, Arnobius, Adversus Nationes, V, 28, and Clement of A l e x a n d r i a , P r o t r e p t i c u s , I I , 30. No one knows what i s meant by the scorpion. The 159 scorpion was sacred i n the r e l i g i o n of M i t h r a , but t h i s f a c t probably has not much to do with the c u l t here at H i e r a p o l i s . Lucian may be jo k i n g . Lucian 31. The Inner Sanctuary. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the statues i n the in n e r sanctuary seems f a i r l y c l e a r , and the d e s c r i p t i o n of Lucian's Hera and Zeus matches the representations of A t a r g a t i s and Hadad on coins. On a coin of Alexander S e v e r u s l 6 l dated 225 A. D. from H i e r a p o l i s , A t a r g a t i s i s seated and faces f r o n t , dressed, w i t h mural crown, her upper arms 157 'C. Clemen, op. c i t . , p. 46. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 2, f e e l s that since the ascent of the p i l l a r took place twice a year, and since the t r i p to the sea al s o took place twice a year, the two f e a s t s were connected; the t r i p to the sea Stocks connects w i t h the f l o o d and the c u l t of Deukalion. Thus he connects the ascent of the p i l l a r w ith the f l o o d a l s o . However, the t r i p t o the sea i s probably not connected w i t h the f l o o d , but was probably a prayer f o r moisture. Thus the p i l l a r s are probably not connected w i t h Deukalion. !58Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 128. 159H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 3. 160C. Clemen, o_p_. c i t . , p. 46. 161J. Garstang, OJJ. c i t . , fty 7, p. 70. 77 down and her f o r e a r m s s t r e t c h e d out h o r i z o n t a l l y . I n the r i g h t hand i s a s c e p t r e and i n the l e f t , a s h o r t s t i c k w i t h a s m a l l sphere on the end ( the s p i n d l e ? ). She i s sea t e d on a t h r o n e which has the head of a l i o n on each of i t s arms. Hadad i s p i c t u r e d s e a t e d w i t h the head o f a b u l l w i t h the c a l a t h o s , and h i s thro n e has the head o f a b u l l on each of i t s arms. The Abd-Hadad ( S l a v e o f Hadad ) c o i n s from 332 B. C. from H i e r a p o l i s i n the B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e i n P a r i s show the h i g h p r i e s t on one s i d e and the bust of A t a r g a t i s on 162 the o t h e r . Then a s t a t u e found i n H i e r a p o l i s r e p r e s e n t s A t a r g a t i s h o l d i n g h er b r e a s t s , and thus she i s t o be connected n 67 w i t h A s t a r t e . A t a r g a t i s i s a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e f e r t i l i t y goddess o f As i a - M i n o r . On one of the two C a r a c a l l a c o i n s ( c. ZCkl-217 A.D. ) o f the B r i t i s h Museum, she i s s i t t i n g on her l i o n t h r o n e w i t h s c e p t r e i n h e r r i g h t hand and Rhea's tambourine i n the o t h e r . On a n o t h e r C a r a c a l l a c o i n she i s i n Greek d r e s s r i d i n g on a l i o n . She wears the c a l a t h o s and i n 164 her r i g h t hand.she h o l d s a s c e p t r e . I n an i n s c r i p t i o n of the t h i r d c e n t u r y A. D. found i n B r i t a i n . ( C I L , V I I , 750 ) A t a r g a t i s i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Pax, V i r t u s , A r e s , the mother of the gods ( Rhea ), and the 165 c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f the V i r g i n . I n A p u l e i u s ( Metmorphoses 1^ > 2B. V. Head, op_. c i t . , p. 777; H. S t o c k s , op. c i t . , p. 15. , /-_ L0*F. Cumont, D i c t i o n n a i r e des A n t i q u i t e s , V o l . IV, 2 , p. 1591., l°4lbid., p. 1593. l ° 5 c . Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 42. V I I I , 25 ) she i s c a l l e d a l l powerful and a l l - c r e a t i v e . Lucian 3 3 . The Ensign. The nature of the semeion has been much disputed. R. Dussaud b e l i e v e s that at H i e r a p o l i s there was a t r i a d at the centre of the c u l t which consisted of Zeus-Hadad as the senior or f a t h e r god, A t a r g a t i s as the mother goddess, and a Simios as a young f e r t i l i t y god. The word semeion would then r e f e r to a statue of Simi of Simios, j u s t as the word adonion could r e f e r to a statue of Adonis."'" 0 0 The main defence f o r maintaining the existence of a god c a l l e d Simios and hence of a t r i a d at H i e r a p o l i s r e s t s upon t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the object c a l l e d the semeion. In a d d i t i o n , there i s also a reference to a goddess Simi at H i e r a p o l i s . Pseudo-Melito of Sardis^ 0'' 7 states t h a t the magi at H i e r a p o l i s commanded Sim i , the daughter of Hadad, to draw some water from the sea and pour i t down the w e l l there to • • * • 168 keep an e v i l s p i r i t from coming up. Outside H i e r a p o l i s , there was a goddess Sima venerated at Beyrut, and a goddess Semea at Emesene. F i n a l l y an i n s c r i p t i o n found i n Nebo Kefer i n the mountains around Antioch 169 dated 223 A. D. mentions a god Simios. 1 °R. Dussaud, R e l i g i o n s des Pheniciens <|ti des  S y r i e n s , pp. 3 9 4 - 5 ; and a l s o i n "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l ' A p o l l o n barbu de H i e r a p o l i s " , p. 1 3 0 . C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 4 3 , f o l l o w s h i s o p i n i o n . l67cf. note on Adonis. • I 6 8 H . Stocks, op. c i t . , p. 2 0 ; H. S e y r i g , "Les dieux de H i e r a p o l i s " , S y r i a , ~ X X X V I I , 1 9 6 1 , p. 2 4 3 ; A. Harmon, op. c i t . , p. 3 5 3 , n. 3 , gives t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e x t of M e l i t o . 1 6 9 H . Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 2Q„ >5*EMSI0V) P i c r u ^ p BeroJE^ \-lr)DBO flfJD / / - T f t R . & # " P j ^Sgfn^io^ ^ / o T O f c e D BcS-r^e^A) V HyUKES OF HflDflD / M D Q-rflRsrHns ON QfiS AeutF of DutfTj-The s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e r e was a t r i a d c o n s i s t i n g o f Hadad, A t a r g a t i s , and S i m i o s i s open t o doubt f i r s t because of the s c a n t i n e s s of t h e e v i d e n c e f o r h i s e x i s t e n c e , and, second, because of i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the e v i d e n c e . Do we have a f a t h e r , mother, son ( S i m i o s ) t r i a d , o r a f a t h e r , mother d a u g h t e r , ( S i m i ) t r i a d , s i n c e o n l y the goddess S i m i i s a t t e s t e d e x p l i c i t l y a t H i e r a p o l i s ? The god S i m i o s i n the i n s c r i p t i o n from Nebo K e f e r i s the c h i e f of the t r i a d mentioned i n the i n s c r i p t i o n and i s p r o b a b l y t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f Hadad.^0 S i m i o s may w e l l be a Greek form of the Aramaic shemesh, 'sun' o r SMI, shemay, 'heaven', s i n c e b o t h words were e p i t h e t s of B a a l Hadad. Thus i t seems l i k e l y t h a t L u c i a n ' s e n s i g n was e x a c t l y what he s a i d i t was: an e n s i g n . On the c o i n o f A l e x a n d e r Severus mentioned above and on a b a s - r e l i e f a t Dura-Europa, a Roman m i l i t a r y e n s i g n i s r e p r e s e n t e d between the f i g u r e s of 171 Hadad and A t a r g a t i s . On the c o i n f r om H i e r a p o l i s the e n s i g n between the two f i g u r e s i s a s m a l l s h r i n e w i t h a recfengula r o o f w h i c h forms a g a b l e . I n t h i s s h r i n e stands a p o l e w i t h 172 f o u r h o l l o w r i n g s a t t a c h e d t o i t . The r i n g s are a t t a c h e d v e r t i c a l l y t o the f r o n t of the p o l e , t h a t i s , so t h a t the 1 7°H. S e y r i g , "Dieux de H i e r a p o l i s " ' , p. 244. 171 j . Garstang,' op_. c i t . , f . 7, p. 70. 172See a l s o H. S t o c k s , op_. c i t . , pp. 16-9. pole passes up behind them, and does not pass through the inside of the rings. Thus the four form a sequence upwards. The whole ensign is placed between Hadad and Atargatis in the coin in the same way Lucian says i t stood in the inner chamber of the temple. On the r e l i e f at Dura~Europ,04 a different type of ensign occurs. Between the figures of Hadad and Atargatis, a pole rises topped by a crescent moon attached on i t s back. Down a l i t t l e from the top of the pole is a cross bar with a ribbon or a band of cloth hanging down each end of the bar. Below the crossbar, three solid discs are attached to the , 173 pole. These two forms of ensign probably go back just to the Romanization of Syria, but the custom of using an ensign obviously must have gone back earlier, since i t occupied such 17L. an important place in the cult. Lucian probably did not 175 see this form of ensign, but the one he saw was probably similar to those ensigns pictured on Syrian cylinder seals of the second millennium B. G. Seyrig cites many examples of these. Each of them is a long staff with the visage of at least one deity on i t . If there are two faces, one is at the top of the staff, and the other is half way down. Seven 1?3H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 17. 174H. Seyrig, "Dieux de Hierapolis", p. 239. 175j . Garstang, 0J9« c i t . , p. 70, n. 3 -specimens have a b i r d p l a c e d on t o p of them. Of the s i x t e e n examples S e y r i g l i s t s , t h i r t e e n are o f S y r i a n o r i g i n , and t h r e e are f r o m Kanesh i n S y r i a - C a p p a d o c i a . S e y r i g d a t e s them from 1 9 0 0 - 1 3 0 0 B. C. 1 7° S e y r i g b e l i e v e s t h a t these s a c r e d o b j e c t s were p r o b a b l y used i n p r o c e s s i o n s t o ensure the presence o f t h e gods. Thus a t H i e r a p o l i s we f i n d the e n s i g n i s t a k e n on the t r i p t o t h e s e a . 1 ? ? L u c i a n says the e n s i g n has no shape of i t s own, but' b e a r s -r«/V '^XX»JM 0 i u ) V ZidtLj. . The word £\Jzu , i n l i g h t o f t h e e a r l y S y r i a n e n s i g n s seems t o mean the shapes o r v i s a g e s o f the o t h e r gods, t h a t l i s , o f A t a r g a t i s and H a d a d . 1 7 8 Because of t h e e v i d e n c e of the a n c i e n t S y r i a n r e -l i g i o u s e n s i g n s on the one hand,^and because of the l a c k o f r e a l e v i d e n c e f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f the god c a l l e d S i m i o s , i t seems b e s t t o take the word semeion i n i t s s i m p l e s t meaning. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the c u l t a t H i e r a p o l i s was not c e n t r e d around a t r i a d o f gods, but around A t a r g a t i s and Hadad. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n seems t o f i t i n w i t h the h i s t o r y o f S y r i a n 7 H. S e y r i g , "Les d i e u x de H i e r a p o l i s " , p. 2 3 6 . 177H. S e y r i g , op_. c i t . , pp. 245-A-6. C. F. A. S c h a e f f e r , "Nouveaux temoignages du c u l t e de E l e t de B a a l a~~Ras Shamra-Ugarit et a i l l e u r s en S y r i e - P a l e s t i n e " , S y r i a , X L I I I , 1 9 6 6 , pp. 1-19, p o i n t s out t h a t i n the c u l t o f E l , t h e s e n i o r god o f t h e U g a r i t i c pantheon, d u r i n g t h e second h a l f o f the second m i l l e n n i u m B. C., a s m a l l s t a t u e of a b u l l was c a r r i e d on t o p o f a s t a f f presumably i n r e l i g i o u s p r o c e s s i o n s . 178H. S e y r i g , op_. c i t . , pp. 238-9. r e l i g i o n and a l s o w i t h the o t h e r t e s t i m o n y i n L u c i a n . 1 7 9 L u c i a n 3 4 . The Sun and the Moon. L u c i a n ' s r e a s o n f o r t h e absence of t h e s t a t u e s o f the sun and moon i s d e b a t e a b l e . Goossens f e e l s t h i s absence o f s t a t u e s r e f l e c t s a repugnance on the p a r t o f the S y r i a n s t o r e p r e s e n t the d i v i n e i n m a t e r i a l form, 1 ^ 0 - but such a repugnance i s hard t o s u b s t a n t i a t e . P r o b a b l y t h e empty thro n e of the sun was i n r e a l i t y the t h r o n e of A p o l l o who s t o o d behind i t . A p o l l o . The bearded A p o l l o seems by h i s d e s c r i p t i o n t o r e p r e s e n t Reshef, the S y r i a n god o f f i r e and t h e pla g u e . M a c r o b i u s , i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the A p o l l o of H i e r a p o l i s ( S a t u r n a l i a , I , 1 7 , 6 6 ) s t a t e s he i s w e a r i n g armour and i s c a r r y i n g a spear i n h i s r i g h t hand and so he seems t o be a war god. Reshef was worshipped i n .Cyprus and Carthage 1 8 2 as the god o f f l a m e , h e a t , and l i g h t n i n g . I n n o r t h e r n S y r i a , h i s w o r s h i p was of e a r l y d a t e . ^ 3 Because the word - ^ ( z / l r s h f , means f l a m e , l i g h t n i n g f l a s h ( Ps. 78, 4 8 ; 1 7 9 H. S e y r i g , "Les d i e u x de H i e r a p o l i s " , p. 2 4 0 . A c c o r d i n g t o another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s passage, when L u c i a n says t h a t the people o f H i e r a p o l i s c a l l the o b j e c t semeion t h e m s e l v e s , he means t h e y c a l l the s t a t u e by an Aramaic word which sounds v e r y much l i k e semeion. A. Caquot, "Note s u r l e semeion e t l e s i n s c r i p t i o n s arame'ennes de H a t r a " S y r i a , XXXII, 1 9 5 5 , pp. 5 9 f f . , has found an Aramaic r o o t SYM t h a t means 'image, s i g n ' . However, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems r a t h e r f o r c e d , s i n c e the Greek makes good sense as i t s t a n d s . , "•^  G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 1 3 4 -l°lj. G a r s t a n g , o_p_. c i t . , p. 7 4 , n. 4 7 ; C. Clemen, op. c i t . , p. 4 3 . I82Q. Cooke, op_. c i t . , p. 5 7 . l ° 3 l b i d . , i n s c r i p t i o n 6 1 , 2, 3 , p. 1 6 1 . 84 Cant. 8, 6 ), the god i s i d e n t i f i e d with A p o l l o 1 ^ who as rK*|y6/Acj and ZK^T^/XOJ ( I l i a d I, 50ff . ) was the author of pestilence. Reshef s function as an oracle giver i s only known from t h i s passage i n Lucian. Clemen f e e l s that a c t u a l l y the main function of the p r i e s t s at the temple i n Hierapolis was to give oracles, even though Lucian assures us Apollo was p e r f e c t l y capable of i t h i m s e l f . 1 ^ 5 Lucian 3 8 - 4 0 . The Statues. An explanation of the minor statues r e a l l y seems impossible. Harmon suggests that the three i n chapter 38 are another version of the t r i a d ( Hadad, 1 ^ C f . G. Cooke, op_. c i t . , i n s c r i p t i o n 30, pp. 88 -9 , ( CIS I 89 ) where i n a b i l i n g u a l i n s c r i p t i o n , l'adni l r s h f , 'to my lord Reshef' 'to Reshef i s translated TVJL ' A r - i u A u w i • ^ 5 r j . Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 54* A. Harmon, op. c i t . , p. 390, n. 2, i d e n t i f i e s the bearded Apollo of Hierapolis with Nebo, the Babylonian god of science and learning. Now i n his discussion of Hierapolis, Pseudo-Melito says that the god the people of Hierapolis c a l l Nebo i s r e a l l y Orpheus. His i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Nebo with Orpheus i s explained by statues of a god with a cithara that have been found i n Syria with the name 'Nebo' inscribed on them. Since Apollo i s also associated with music, Nebo could be i d e n t i f i e d with Apollo rather than with Orpheus. Conversely, i f Lucian described the statue of a god with a cithara, and called him Apollo, we could i d e n t i f y him with Nebo. However, Lucian i s not describing a statue of Apollo with a cithara to us. Our bearded Apollo i s a warrior, and thus Reshef seems c l e a r l y indicated. Dussaud, "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l'Apollon barbu...", pp. 148-9 i d e n t i f i e s him with E l because of the beard and his importance i n the c u l t . Reshef again, however, seems better attested because of the t r a d i t i o n a l association with Apollo. Goossens i d e n t i f i e s him with Kombabos, but surely t h i s i s u n l i k e l y . ( G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 11$. ) 85 Atargatis, and Simios ) of the inner sanctuary, but since i t is f a i r l y l i k e l y that there was not any tr iad of the inner sanctuary, this thesis breaks down. Simios would be equivalent to Hermes-Nebo-Mercury.1^° Goossens regards Hermes ( Mercury ) of chapter 3 8 as Nebo, the Babylonian god of science, since Nebo was also connected with the planet M e r c u r y . H o w e v e r , he points out that temples were l i t tered with s t a t u e s . I n connection with chapter 3 8 also, Stocks feels that Atlas i s Kronon ( E l ), that Hermes is Mercury, perhaps Nebo, and that Ei le i thyia i s Aphrodite or Venus; these three he connects with the cult of the s t a r s . C l e m e n , however, feels that the statues are Greek, not Syrian, and i n fact statues of the three gods Lucian mentions were in the temple of the Syrian goddess at Rome. 1^ 0 Clemen feels that the statue of Semiramis was really that of a high priestess, since the his tor ical Semiramis had 1 9 1 nothing to do in the building of the later temple. Stocks feels that because Hera reportedly a f f l i c t e d both Semiramis 1 9 2 and Stratonike with sickness, they are really the same person. However there is nothing to indicate such a view really since sickness sent by a god was a common theme. Stocks feels that the statues of Semiramis, Helene, Hecuba, Andromache, Paris, Hector, and Achilleus point to an ^ ° A . Harmon, op_. c i t . , p. 3 9 2 , n. 2 . 1 § 7 G . Goossens, op_. c i t . , pp. 56-7. 1 ° ° I b i d . , p. 115. 1 ° 9 H . Stocks, pj>. c i t . , p. 5. 1 9 0 c . Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. LU. J A i l b i d . , p. 3 9 . y H. Stocks, op. c i t . , p. 11. 86 A s i a n Minor i n f l u e n c e , a n d Clemen i s i n c l i n e d to agree. 195 Stocks f e e l s t h a t the s ta tues of S a r d a n a p a l l o s , the second Semiramis , Kombabos and S t r a t o n i k e belong i n the c i r c l e of the A t t i s - C y b e l e c u l t because of the "mannweibischen 196 und weibraannischen G e s t a l t e n " . However, t h i s i s not c l e a r . Stocks a l s o connects the s ta tues of Tereus , Procne and Phi lomele 197 w i t h the Dionysus c u l t . G. Goossens, on the o ther hand, f e e l s t h a t the s ta tues o f Nereus, P h i l o m e l e , Procne and Tereus were i d e n t i f i e d by L u c i a n as such because of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s as h a l f human, h a l f a n i m a l . He p o i n t s out the H u r r i a n p r e d e l i c t i o n f o r s p h i n x e s , griff j>ns and other combinations of man and a n i m a l s . He a l s o t h i n k s the s ta tues of H e l e n , Hecuba, Andromache, P a r i s , H e c t o r , and A c h i l l e u s can be connected w i t h H u r r i a n 198 iconography found at T e l l H a l a f . H i s e x p l a n a t i o n seems as good as any other because there are s i m p l y no f a c t s . L u c i a n 41. A n i m a l s . Keeping horses , e a g l e s , bears and l i o n s (even tame ones) together i s very d i f f i c u l t . L u c i a n 42. P r i e s t s . The h i g h p r i e s t was e l e c t e d ~ y e a r l y ! 9 3 H . Stocks, OJJ. c i t . , p. 3. - L"4c. Clemen, Tempel und Kult in Hierapolis, P i s c i c u l i  F r . J. Duelger dargeboten, Munster, 1939, p. 69. 195Sardanapallos was based on Ashurbanipal, ruler of Nineveh 668-626 B. C. G. B. Gulick, Athenaeus Deipnosophistae, ( Loeb ), Vol . V, p. 3^7; Athenaeus XII, 528. 196H. Stocks, o_p_. c i t . , p. 4. 197Loc. c i t . 198G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 54. 199cf. J. W. Darcus, My_ Li fe on the Happy Farm, Vancouver, 1963 ( privately printed ), pp. 37-43. Lucian may be joking and referring to statues. 37 here as i n Delos. ®® The p i l o s was a c o n i c a l f e l t hat. I t i s t o be noted that the G a l l i are part of the minor c l e r g y . Goossens f e e l s they were subordinated w i t h the a r r i v a l of the 201 Aramaeans, but the c u l t before them was Semitic and G a l l i were not common i n t h e i r r e l i g i o n . They are probably a r e s u l t of i n f l u e n c e from Asia Minor. However eunuchs '• were associated 202 i n a minor way w i t h the r i t e s of I s h t a r i n Mesopotamia. Lucian 44. S a c r i f i c e s . Clemen suggests t h a t the worship of Zeus was conducted i n s i l e n c e because he had become l e s s 20"? important than A t a r g a t i s . J In f a c t , by H e l l e n i s t i c times, Hadad seems to have taken second place since the goddess was the cause of f e r t i l i t y . I t ' i s true Macrobius states that A t a r g a t i s was subordinated to Hadad, but h i s statement i s not to be t r u s t e d too f a r since he mentions Hadad only as a proof 205 of h i s theory of s o l a r monotheism. The s a c r i f i c e was probably performed i n the morning and at evening. Lucian 45-6. The Lake. The a u t h o r i t i e s have reported some remarkable t h i n g s about the l a k e . H. Stocks rep o r t s that i t i s Clemen, op. c i t . , p. 54. 20-'-G. Goossens, op. c i t . , p. 72; he f e e l s that the G a l l i were part of the Hurrian c u l t u r e b a s i c a l l y , and that the H i t t i t e s borrowed from the Hurrians ( p . 52 ). Thus since the Hurrians would have had t h i s c u l t at f i r s t , the G a l l i would be the c h i e f c l e r g y . However, G a l l i were l a t e even i n Asia Minor and there seems no r e a l evidence of Hurrian background; at H i e r a p o l i s . ( c f . R. Dussaud,"Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l ' A p o l l o n barbu,"p. 137. 202E. Dhorme, Les R e l i g i o n s de Babylonie et D'Assyrie, p. 211. 2030. Clemen, OJD. c i t . , p. 48. 204G. Goossens, p_p_. c i t . , p. 65. 205Macrobius, I , 23, 18. Hunc ( Hadad ) ergo ut potentissimum adorant deum, sed subiungunt eidem deam nomine Adargatin. 206C. Clemen, l o c . c i t . , south o f t h e o ^ A ^ which i s i t s e l f on the e a s t s i d e o f the 207 temple. Thus i t would seem t o be south and a l i t t l e e a s t o f the temple. A . Schmidt, on the o t h e r hand, says th e temple ^ , 208 h i l l i s " t o u t pres e t justement a l ' o u e s t du l a c s a c r e . " Thus the l a k e i s t o the e a s t of the temple. H. S t o c k s r e j e c t s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and t h i n k s Schmidt's h i l l i s the "green s p o t " i n the t e r r a c e - l i k e promontory s o u t h of the temple and n o r t h west of the l a k e . 2 0 ^ Thus the two o p i n i o n s seem a t l e a s t i n the same frame of r e f e r e n c e . However, the two h i l l s have not been e x c a v a t e d , and so i t i s not a b s o l u t e l y sure upon w h i c h h i l l t h e temple r e s t e d . S t o c k ' s h i l l i s two metres h i g h , and much l a r g e r t h a n the t e r r a c e t o the s o u t h ; L u c i a n says ( c. 30 ) t h a t the temple i s on a h i l l of t h a t h e i g h t . C o n t r a r y t o t h e s e o p i n i o n s , G. Goossens s t a t e s : A l ' o u e s t des r u i n e s du t e m p l e , p r e s de 1 ' e n c e i n t e de l a v i l l e , on t r o u v e un i t a n g d'une c e n t a i n e de metres de diame*tre.210 Thus t h e l a k e i s now on the-west of t h e t e m p l e , i n e x a c t l y the o p p o s i t e p l a c e from Stocks 1.- p l a n . However, t h e r e does seem t o be an e x p l a n a t i o n . Goossens c i t e s M. M a u n d r e l l , a t r a v e l l e r 211 i n the l a s t y e a r o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n S y r i a , who says the l a k e i s a t t h e west s i d e o f the c i t y w a l l . He says the temple b u i l d i n g i s nearby i t . Now Pocock, w r i t i n g i n S t o c k s , op_. c i t . , p. 6. "An den s u d l i c h e n T e i l d e r otoXr] ... s c h l i e s s t s i c h d i e A U A V H . . . . ' 208A. Schmidt, "La G r o t t e tie H i e r a p o l i s M e n b i d j " , S y r i a , X, 1929, pp. 78-9. 209H. S t o c k s , op_. c i t . , p. 28. 210G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 118. 211M. M a u n d r e l l , A Journey from Aleppo t o J e r u s a l e m , D u b l i n , 1749; the r e l e v a n t t e x t i s e x t r a c t I i n J . G a r s t a n g , op. c i t . , p. 91. the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y agrees t h a t the l a k e i s at the west s i d e o f the c i t y w a l l . However he , u n l i k e M a u n d r e l l , l o c a t e s the temple s i t e at the eas t s i d e of the c i t y . He s t a t e s : Around two hundred spaces w i t h i n the eas t gate t h e r e i s a , r a i s e d g r o u n d , on which p r o b a b l y s tood a t e m p l e . 2 1 3 Goossens a c c e p t s P o c o c k ' s d e s c r i p t i o n , a,nd t h u s f o r him the lake must be west of the t e m p l e . But on c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n t h i s c o u l d not be the c a s e . Both Pocock and M a u n d r e l l say t h a t the c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f the w a l l s o f the c i t y i s two or t h r e e m i l e s . Thus i f the temple were on the e a s t s i d e , and the l a k e on the west , they c o u l d not b e , as L u c i a n s a y s , c l o s e t o one another ( L u c i a n 45 ). I t i s b e t t e r to f o l l o w M a u n d r e l l , S t o c k s and L u c i a n , and l o c a t e the temple and l a k e t o g e t h e r . As t o the temple s i t e ' on the eas t s i d e of town, C o l o n e l Chesney t e l l s us t h a t t h e r e were two temple s i t e s w i t h i n the c i t y 214 w a l l s . Clemen c i t e s P o c o c k ' s e s t i m a t e t h a t the temple f r o n t 215 was 200 f e e t l o n g . However, Pocock i s t a l k i n g about the s i t e on the eas t s i d e of the c i t y , and t h u s cannot be r e f e r r i n g to our t e m p l e . Remarkable t h i n g s have a l s o been r e p o r t e d about the d e p t h o f the l a k e . L u c i a n says i t i s two hundred o r g u i a deep. 2 1 2 P o c o c k ' s D e s c r i p t i o n of the E a s t , V o l . I I , p t . 1 , 1747. E x t r a c t I I i n J . G a r s t a n g , op. c i t . , p . 9 2 . 213G. Goossens , o p . c i t . , p . 110. 214 The E x p e d i t i o n to the E u p h r a t e s and T i g r i s , by C o l o n e l Chesney, L o n d o n , 1850, V o l . I , E x t r a c t I I I i n J . G a r s t a n g , o p . c i t . , p . 95. 215C. Clemen, ojo. c i t . , p . 4 0 . Maundrell stated i t was shallow, and Pocock merely saw a dry basin. Cumont said i t was f a i r l y deep, and Stocks reports a depth of 1 . 7 5 metres. Herr Schlumberger i n September 1 9 2 5 waded around i t , and only i n the middle found no ground. P i £ The stone a l t a r i s no longer there. Stocks, however, found a si m i l a r a l t a r i n a lake at Amrit at Tartus . 2 - * - 7 Lucian 4 5 . Fish. Sacred f i s h were kept i n several places i n S y r i a . 2 1 ^ Xenophon ( Anabasis, I, IV, 9 ) r e f e r s to tame f i s h at Aleppo. There were also ponds at Ascalon, Edessa and Smyrna. According to Pliny ( Nat. Hist., 3 2 , 1 7 ) the f i s h came when called and l e t themselves be touched. Aelian says they swam i n regular formation aft e r a leader. ( De  natura animalium, 1 2 , 2 ) The sanctity of f i s h i n Syria apparently lasted u n t i l modern times. Lucian 4 7 . The Descent to the Lake. This descent to the lake probably was a l a v a t i o after a hieros gamos between Hadad and Atargatis. Zeus i s probably sent away r e a l l y because he i s OOF] not supposed to watch Atargatis. There are several myths connecting Atargatis with sacred f i s h . Pseudo-Hyginus ( Fabulae 1 9 7 , and Poetae astron. I I , 30 ) t e l l s us that an egg f e l l from heaven into the Euphrates. The f i s h pushed i t ashore and i t was hatched by 2-1-0C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 47. 217H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 6 . 218J. Garstang, op_. c i t . , p. 81, n. 5 6 ; A . Harmon, op. c i t . , p. 398. 219A. Harmon, l o c . c i t . 2 2 0 C . Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 48. 91 a dove. Aphrodite, the Syrian goddess, came fo r t h and l a t e r asked Zeus to make f i s h holy.221 Athenaeus, following Xanthos the Lydian ( Deipno-sophistae, VIII, 346 e ) 7 says that Mopsus, a Lydian, had thrown Atargatis and her son Ichthys into the lake of Ascalon because of t h e i r • The f i s h ate them. Then there i s the note i n Diodorus II, 4, 3 where Derketo, because of her shame over intercourse with a young Syrian, threw herself into the lake of Ascalon and was turned into a f i s h . Also i n Pseudo-Eratosthenes ( Catasterismi, rec. O l i v e r i , Leipzig, 1897, 9, p. l l f f ; p. 43ff. ) Derketo f a l l s into the lake at Hierapolis ( Bambyke ) and i s saved poo by a huge f i s h that l i v e d there. These myths are, of course, a l l a e t i o l o g i c a l and purport to explain the sanctity of the f i s h of Atargatis. The r e a l reason perhaps lay i n the fact that Atargatis, as the goddess of f e r t i l i t y , was esp e c i a l l y the goddess of l i v i n g water. Her r i t e then was closely connected with sacred lakes and f i s h , and petitions f o r r a i n . 2 2 - * Lucian 48. Trip to the Sea. This feast was probably a prayer for r a i n . It i s un l i k e l y , as Stocks believes, that i t was done i n memory of a flood, since the climate i s dry 2 2 1 H . Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 33. 2 2 2 l b i d . , pp. 34-5. 223G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 64. 92 and f l o o d i n g unlikely.2 2 4 Since i t i s a long distance from H i e r a p o l i s to the Mediterrean, i t has been suggested that by (ySXcKir^J^ 'sea', Lucian i s r e f e r r i n g to the Euphrates. The Aramaic 'body of water', could r e f e r to both.225 How-ever, i f Lucian i s w r i t i n g and t h i n k i n g i n Greek 2 26 a n ( j n o t 227 merely t r a n s l a t i n g , the Mediterrean seems to be meant. The semeion would be taken along as a symbol of the gods. The r o o s t e r i s another enigma. I t i s suggested th a t the Aramaic word which can e i t h e r mean r o o s t e r or overseer i s behind Lucian's word.228 Moreover, since a r o o s t e r i n L a t i n i s ' g a l l u s ' , i t i s suggested i n a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t Lucian i s p l a y i n g on the word g a l l u s or eunuch.229 Q n a n u r n ^ n ^ n e Lateran Museum there i s a cock used as an emblem of a priest-eunuch of A t t i s , and hence as a pun on the word 'gallus' . 230 There does not seem, however, to be any i n d i c a t i o n of a pun i n the t e x t . Lucian h i m s e l f says that he saw the r i t e s at the temple and thus :iie presumably saw a r o o s t e r . He may be j o k i n g by 2 2 4H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , pp. 23 -8 ; R. Dussaud, "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l ' A p o l l o n barbu...", p. 133. ^25j. Garstang, op_. c i t . , p. 82, n. 58. Cf. P h i l o -s t r a t u s , V i t a A p o l l o n i , I, 20: U)j t r n (bJiX^rr'u^j r t K u r d / S t ( v t ^ (Luo-kxiv/ O T r i r i -royj -no-royiouf /3 otd i j a i C v - These r i v e r s are the T i g r i s and Euphrates. ( G. Goos-sens, p_p_. c i t . , p. 18. ) 226on Lucian's language, Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 18, quotes Lucian's statement that " i l I t a i t 'barbare de langage, vetu uniquement d'un candys a" l a mode assyrienne' B i s Accusatus 27. Mais comme l e mot 'assyrien' n'a aucun sens p r e c i s dans 1 ' A n t i q u i t e , nous n'en pouvons r i e n conclure; et cette 'langue barbare' n ' e t a i t peut-^tre r i e n d'autre ,qu'un pa t o i s grec, f o r t d i f f e r e n t dela langue classique q u ' i l e c r i v a plus t a r d . " 227G. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 51 22°R. Dussaud, Review of' Clemen's a r t i c l e , S y r i a . XIX, 1938, p. 367. 229j. Garstang, op. c i t . , p. 82, n. 59. 230H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 27. 93 exaggeration, or else the animal may have been trained to do this trick.2 3 1 jf t however, there i s a pun, i t must be a conscious one, and not as Dussaud suggests, a confusion between an Aramaic and a Greek word. The author of the work seems well in control of the language. A rooster actually played a role in the Attis-Cybele Cok} but i t i s not understood how.232 i t also played a part in a ceremony in which rain was prayed for in Jerusalem. An old woman had to beat the rooster until i t crowed. 2-*3 Lucian 4 9 . The Spring Festival. The f i r e feast which Lucian describes seems to bear traces of the Attis cult. H. Stocks points out that the other name of the feast, A^n - o L ^ seems to refer to the s\*ij*TXotJ*^cp\of Attis, which was celebrated around the spring solstice. 2 3 4 The Calendar of Philocalus on an inscription of Rome235 gives the sequence of rites of the spring feast of Attis. XI Kal. Apr. (22 March) Arbor intrat IX Kal. Apr. (24 March) Sanguem VIII Kal. Apr. (25 March) Hilaria VII Kal. Apr. (26 March) Requietio VI Kal. Apr. (27 March) Lavatio In the rite of Attis, a pine tree was cut down in memory of the pine under which Attis castrated himself. Its branches were wreathed with violets and i t s trunk wound around with Clemen, op. c i t . , p. 51. 232L.OC. c i t . 233H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 24. 2 3 4 l b i d . , p. 2 9 . He uses Hepding, Attis, Seine  Mythen und sein Kult. 2 J 5 C I L , I, 2 , p. 312; H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 2 9 . 94 wool b i n d i n g . On i t the instruments of A t t i s , cymbals, tynpanon, s y r i n x , and f l u t e s were hung. The tree was brought i n t o the sanctuary and the whole was burnt a f t e r a year. J u l i a n ( Ora-t i o n V ) says the tre e was cut down on the day of the s o l s t i c e . 2 ^ The twenty-fourth of March, the di e s sanguinis, was the day of high mourning. This was the t h i r d day a f t e r the death of A t t i s . On t h i s day the G a l l i put themselves i n t o a f r e n z y through music and dancing. They wounded themselves and s p r i n k l e d blood on the a l t a r . I t i s thought that the new G a l l i were c a s t r a t e d on t h i s day i n the c u l t of A t t i s . In Asia Minor, the e<ido(u were dedicated to the goddess and played a r o l e i n the secret r i t e s of the mysteries. In H i e r a p o l i s , however, the G a l l i d i d not perform the c a s t r a t i o n i n the temple. A f t e r the dies sanguinis i n the c u l t of A t t i s , and before the H i l a r i a the next day, the night was spent i n f e s t i v a l since a f t e r the day, A t t i s returned from the dead. This f e a s t was the T T ^ v V u ^ i J the X^^^Jy^((?y)f^ during which the p r i e s t announced 23°H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , pp. 29-30; W. C. Wright, The Works of the Emperor J u l i a n , (Loeb) London, 1954. 2"37lbid. , p. 30. I t i s thought ( Goossens, op. c i t . , p. 37 ) that the G a l l i were excluded completely from the temple at H i e r a p o l i s . However, i t appears that they d i d go i n since Lucian ( c. 52 ) sta t e s that a f t e r the b u r i a l of a G a l l u s , h i s companions had to wait seven days before en-er i n g the temple. 95 The day following, the H i l a r i a was celebrated with masquerades and banquets. The day following, the twenty-sixth of March, the requietio or hieros gamos took place and the next day the l a v a t i o o-f r i t u a l p u r i f i c a t i o n . Aelian ( p_e natura animalium, XII, 30 ) states that the Syrian Hera bathed after intercourse with Zeus, and thus the descent to the lake i n Lucian 47 seems to r e f l e c t such a r i t e . 2 ^ ^ There seems to be some p a r a l l e l s between the r i t e of A t t i s at Rome and that of the spring feast at Hierapolis. Both take place at the same time of year. There are trees involved i n both, although the tree of A t t i s i s burnt a year l a t e r whereas at Hierapolis several trees are burnt with animals and other objects hung upon them apparently as part of a s a c r i f i c e . I f i n the r i t e of A t t i s , the G a l l i are castrated on the day when they wound themselves, the dies  sanguinis, the r i t e seems d i f f e r e n t from that of Hierapolis where Lucian says that on more than one day, the G a l l i work themselves into a frenzy ( C\/ jQy^'Qlry' Ot- Jj^y0^^ Lucian 50 ) and that during these days ( cv T ^ U T ^ <T 1 "Qj^l r\fyy)'QerL Lucian 51 ) the G a l l i are made. Then i n the A t t i s cult the oixcJoTd were preserved, but i n Hierapolis, there seems to have been an extraordinary r i t e connected with them. R. Dussaud feels that the semeia which the people have at the feast ( Lucian 51 ) are the same as the gold and s i l v e r rro 1 yjyA.c*.ro<. which they hang on the trees, since images of gods have been found at Ras Shamra imprinted on t h i n amulets of gold. In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , the semeia were something simi l a r to t h i s , since Lucian states that they were made i n 238H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , pp. 3 0 - 1 . 9 6 imitation of the ifoL that i s , of the i d o l s . 2 ^ 9 However, there is no need to identify them with the gold and s i lver objects hung on the trees. It must be asked for whom this spring r i te was cele-brated. It is not stated by Lucian. It seems to have some s imilar i t ies to the r i te of At t i s , but there are also differences. Most l i k e l y i t was celebrated in connection with the f e r t i l i t y goddess Atargatis and god Hadad. They are the foremost gods in the cult , and this theory seems to f i t most sat isfactori ly the known data about Hadad and Atargatis, and such gods as Melqart, Adonis, and Astarte. Lucian 52-3. Burial of G a l l i . Clemen suggests that the rocks were piled oh the corpse outside the city to prevent the return of the s p i r i t of the Gallus to the temple. 2 ^0 j_n the Old Testament ( Leviticus 21, 1-3; Ezek., 4 4 , 25 ) the pollution connected with death is mentioned. 2^ 1 Shaving the head was a customary sign of penance; i t was shaved to 242 remove the uncleanness that might be in i t . Lucian 54. Swine and Doves. Whethfr the pig was polluted or holy was disputed in Syria. In Hebrew r e l i g i o n , of course, they were unclean. However in a sect in Harran, nearby Hierapolis, they were sacrificed and eaten once a year. 2 3 9 R . Dussaud, Syria , 1938, p. 3 6 7 . 2 4 0 c . Clemen, op. c i t . , p. 5 6 . 241A. Harmon, OJJ. c i t . , p. 404, n. 2 . 242Q. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 5 0 . 97 Moreover i n I s a i a h 66, 3, an Aramaic s e c t i s d e s c r i b e d as o f f e r i n g swine blood.243 The dove, o f c o u r s e , was sa c r e d t o A s t a r t e . ( A e l i a n , De n a t u r a a n i m a l i u m , IV, 2 ) The dove was a l s o h o l y among the Hebre\vs, ( L e v i t i c u s LjlHrTj Numbers 6^ )0) so much so t h a t t h e y were n o t ea t e n i n famine. ( I I K i n g s 6, 25 ) L u c i a n 55. The P i l g r i a n . a g e • The head and eyebrows were shaved f o r t h e p i l g r i m a g e i n o r d e r t h a t the u n c l e a n e s s r e s t -i n g i n the h a i r might be t a k e n away. The s u p p l i a n t p l a c e d the head o f the sheep onto h i s i n o r d e r t o g a i n the v i g o u r o f the a n i m a l i n t o which th e power of the god had passed when i t was s a c r i f i c e d . 2 4 4 The s u p p l i a n t a l s o t h u s i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h the o f f e r i n g and pa r t o o k o f i t s s a n c t i t y . I n o r d e r not t o l o s e t h i s communion o r i n s p i r a t i o n , the s u p p l i a n t o n l y washed w i t h c o l d w a t e r , and s l e p t on the ground, s i n c e i f he s l e p t i n a bed, i t would be made u n f i t f o r o r d i n a r y use because the presence o f the god would pass i n t o it.246 L u c i a n 58. S a c r i f i c e s . S t o c k s f e e l s t h a t s i n c e the l e v e l o f t h e ground i n the f r o n t o f the temple ( the n o r t h s i d e ) i s not. v e r y much below the temple, th e h i l l b e i n g o n l y two metres h i g h , t he a n i m a l s may have been s a c r i f i c e d by b e i n g thrown down a w e l l t o the south of th e t e m p l e , p o s s i b l y the w e l l o f S i m i i n Pseudo-Melito.247 However, t h e r e c o u l d have 243c Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 49. 2 4 4 i b i d . , p. 50 2 4 5 A . Harmon, oo. c i t . , p. 407, n. 3» 246c. Clemen, l o c . c i t . ( 2 4 7 H . S t o c k s , op_. c i t . , p. 24. 98 been some structure for the sacrifice buil t in the entrance with stairs leading up to i t . This form of child sacrifice i s unusual. Animals were sacrificed instead of humans, not humans in place of a n i -mals. 2 ^ G. Clemen thinks they were called animals because of the emerging objection to human sacrif ice . The emperor Hadrian tr ied to abolish the p r a c t i c e . 2 ^ Thus to mitigate the horror, the children were put into sacks so that their blood would not s p i l l nor their cries be heard. J Child sacrifice was common among the Semites. It i s documented in Palestine, Moab, Phoenicia, and Carthage.2^1 Lucian 59-60. The tattoo, l ike the religious amulet, insured the presence and protection of the d i v i n i t y . Similarly , hanging up pieces of one's hair was also intended to establish a connection with the gods. Shaven hair or finger nails remain part of the person according to the primitive idea, and 'so he can be influenced through them.252 248Q. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 74* 249A. Harmon, op. c i t . , p. 408, n. 1. 250C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , p. 50. 251G. Goossens, loc . c i t . 252C. Clemen, ojo. c i t . , p. 57; G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 99. CONCLUSION In examining the cult at Hierapolis, we must re-member the city's location in the north of Syria. Thus i f the cult derives basically from Asia Minor, we w i l l not be surprised i f we find Syrian and Mesopotamian influences. Conversely, i f the cult i s basically Syrian, nevertheless influences or practices from Asia Minor w i l l not be entirely unexpected. In actual fact, the cult seems esentially Syrian or Canaanite rather than Anatolian in origin because of the gods worshipped there. To clarify this statement, we w i l l discuss briefly the important deities found at Hierapolis. Lucian ( c. 31 ) states that the temple at Hier-apolis contained an inner chamber or 'holy of holies' where the statues of Here and Zeus, the central gods of the cult, were kept. The goddess Here is Atargatis, the Syrian goddess of f e r t i l i t y , and Zeus is Baal-Hadad, the thunder and storm god of Syria, as well as the vegetation god in the Ugaritic l o r e . 1 In Hellenistic times, Atargatis seems to be the 2 outstanding figure of the cult. An object called the cryj^y^itV also stood in this inner chamber between the statues of Here and Zeus. -^-The coins show that these were the two deities of Hierapolis. Cf. B. V. Head, op_. c i t . , p. 777. 2G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , pp. 41, 65. 100 T h i s o b j e c t has been th o u g h t t o be a s t a t u e o f a god c a l l e d S i m i o r S i m i o s , 3 but more l i k e l y i t was a r e l i g i o u s e n s i g n c a r r i e d i n p r o c e s s i o n s . 4 O u t s i d e t h i s i n n e r chamber stood the s t a t u e o f the god whom L u c i a n i d e n t i f i e s w i t h A p o l l o . H i s main f u n c t i o n , from L u c i a n ' s a c c o u n t , was t o g i v e o r a c l e s , and, by Greco-Roman t i m e s a t l e a s t , the god had an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n the c u l t . The name of A p o l l o o c c u r s f i v e out o f n i n e t i m e s i n the i n -s c r i p t i o n s a t H i e r a p o l i s , and Goossens suggests t h a t t h i s name appears i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f t h e onomastica of the c i t y . ^ L u c i a n ( c. 35 ) n o t e s t h a t the god's r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n w i t h a beard and w i t h c l o t h e s i s u n u s u a l f o r a s t a t u e o f A p o l l o . I t i s thought t h a t t h i s god may r e a l l y be the Ganaanite god o f i l l n e s s , Reshef, who was t r a d i t i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A p o l l o . ' R e s h e f means 'flame' and s i n c e A p o l l o was r e -garded as the cause o f p e s t i l e n c e 0 t h e two were v e r y sim-i l a r . 7 These t h r e e main gods a t H i e r a p o l i s seem s a t i s f a c -t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d as S y r i a n - C a n a a n i t e i n o r i g i n . I n h i s work L u c i a n a l s o d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l myths and r i t e s connected w i t h 3c. Clemen, op_. c i t . , pp. 42-3; R. Dussaud, 'Teut-on i d e n t i f i e r l ' A p o l l o n b arbu...", pp. 130-1. ^H. S e y r i g , "Les d i e u x de H i e r a p o l i s " , pp. 233-51. See note on L u c i a n 33. 5G. Goossens, op. c i t . , p. 41. °Cf. I l i a d , I , 50ff. 7G. Cooke, op_. c i t . , p. 57. 1 0 1 these gods. Let us now discuss Lucian's description of these myths and rites and see what background they seem to ref lec t . Lucian ( c. 1 2 ) relates a version of the myth of the Flood which is mainly Syrio-Mesopotamian in origin , in spite of the fact that he uses the Greek flood hero Deucalion for his main character. Furthermore the feast called the Hydrophoria ( Lucian 13, l+B ) seems close to certain r i tes for praying for rain in the Semitic world.^ The cult of Atargatis, i t must be remembered, was originally one of fer -t i l i t y both of vegetation and human reproduction. This myth and this rite seem to point to a Syrio-Mesopotamian background for the temple. Lucian, however, through his own observation, believes that Dionysus was the founder of the cult . (c. 16. ) He also sees Attis as a possible founder, but favours Dionysus mainly because of the columns he saw at the temple which he t e l l s us bore the inscription: These phall i I Dionysus set up for Here my stepmother. Thus i f we are to accept Lucian's view, the temple probably originated from Asia Minor. Lucian may not be serious in his argument but even i f he were, i t is argued that the columns he saw were basically dedicated to the Sun in the Syrian and Mesopotamian world, and that one may find evidence for this in Sumer. 1 0 Thus Lucian really does not have any basis for his conjecture. Moreover, i t is clear because of the d iv ini t ies ^C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , pp. 3 6 - 7 . "H . Stocks, p_p_. c i t . , pp. 2 3 - 6 ; C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , pp. 5 0 - 2 ; R. Dussaud, "Peut-on ident i f ie r 1 ' A p o l l o n . . . " , p. 1 3 3 . Audin, "Les p i l i e r s jumeaux dans le monde semitique", pp. 430-2. 102 a t H i e r a p o l i s , t h a t n e i t h e r A t t i s nor Dionysus were c e n t r a l t o t h e c u l t . I t i s t r u e t h a t L u c i a n was t o l d t h a t the G a l l i i n the temple were not c a s t r a t e d f o r Here ( A t a r g a t i s ) but f o r Rhea ( Cybele ) i n honour o f A t t i s , and i n a c t u a l f a c t , s i n c e t h e G a l l i p l a y e d such a prominent, though l a t e , r o l e i n the c u l t of A t t i s - C y b e l e i n A s i a M i n o r ^ l the presence o f the G a l l i a t H i e r a p o l i s might be a r e s u l t o f i n f l u e n c e from t h e r e . I n the c u l t o f C y b e l e , however, the G a l l i were the main c l e r g y , whereas a t H i e r a p o l i s t h e y were o n l y minor clergy.-*- 2 Con-s e q u e n t l y , i f the G a l l i d i d d e r i v e from A s i a M i n o r , t h e i r r o l e must have been m o d i f i e d at H i e r a p o l i s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t eunuchs d i d p l a y a r o l e i n the c u l t o f I s h t a r i n Mesopotamia-*-3 and t h a t c a s t r a t i o n was a l s o p r a c t i s e d a t the temple o f A s t a r t e a t Aphaca above Byblos,-*-4 so t h a t a case c o u l d be made t h a t s i n c e t h e G a l l i were minor c l e r g y a t H i e r a p o l i s , t h e i r p r esence was a r e s u l t o f the natu r e o f S y r i a n r e l i g i o n . Any d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n between t h e two a l t e r n a t i v e s seems im-p o s s i b l e , and the c u l t of H i e r a p o l i s may have been i n f l u e n c e d by b o t h a r e a s . A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the f o u n d e r s o f the c u l t , L u c i a n • H H . S t o c k s , op_. c i t . , pp. 29-33; E . Dhorme and R. Dussaud, Les R e l i g i o n s de B a b y l o n i e e t d T A s s y r i e (Dhorme) et  l e s R e l i g i o n s des H i t t i t e s e t des H o u r r i t e s des P h e n i c i e n s e t  des S y r i e n s (Dussaud), pp. 341-2. 12Lucian 43. 13E. Dhorme, p_p_. c i t . , p. 211. H M . Pope, op. c i t . , p. 73. ( c. 17 f f . ) r e l a t e s the s t o r y about Kombabos and S t r a t o n i k e to e x p l a i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the second temple a f t e r the f i r s t one had been destroyed by age. At f i r s t glance, the story seems t o have connections w i t h the A t t i s - C y b e l e myth. The name Kombabos seems to be r e l a t e d to the word Cybele who was a l s o c a l l e d j ^ . o a c c o r d i n g to Hesychius.!5 Moreover the word K,^/3*y3^j meant a G a l l u s , and denoted a person possessed by Rhea. There was a t r a d i t i o n at H i e r a p o l i s t h a t Here had loved Kombabos, 1 0 and t h i s v e r s i o n might be a r e f l e c t i o n of an o r i g i n a l Rhea-Attis theme. The s t o r y as we have i t , however, where a young man c a s t r a t e s himself i n order not t o y i e l d t o temptation w i t h h i s master's w i f e , and to prove h i s innocence when sus-p i c i o n has f a l l e n upon him, r e f l e c t s a l i t e r a r y theme popu-l a r i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the ancient e a s t . 1 7 The s t o r y Lucian r e l a t e s seems based upon t h i s l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n r a t h e r than on the myth of Rhea-Attis. In h i s account, the young man c a s t r a t e s himself t o protect himself from h i s master's s u s p i c i o n and vengeance, whereas i n the A t t i s myth, the young man c a s t r a t e s himself i n a f i t of madness which A d g i s t i s ( Cybele ) i n s p i r e s because he i s about to marry someone e l s e . 1 ^ ! 5G. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 36; C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , l o L u c i a n 2 6 . , 17E. Benveniste, "La legende de Kombabos", pp. 2 4 9 -58. Cf. the "Tale of the Two Brothers", i n J. P r i t c h a r d , op. c i t . , pp. 23-5 . ISPausanias, D e s c r i p t i o n of Greece, V I I , XVII, 5. 104 F i n a l l y L u c i a n d e s c r i b e s a f e a s t o f s p r i n g c a l l e d t h e f e a s t o f f i r e s o r lamps^^ which seems t o have c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h o s e s p r i n g r i t e s c e l e b r a t e d f o r A t t i s . The c e n t r a l i d e a o f the f e a s t was not the c a s t r a t i o n o f new G a l l i , but the ren e w a l o f v e g e t a t i o n . C a s t r a t i o n was p a r t o f the r i t e of f e r t i l i t y , 2 ^ but was not e s s e n t i a l t o such a r i t e s i n c e even i n A s i a Minor t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f G a l l i seems t o have been f a i r l y l a t e , 2 ! whereas t h e concept o f a s p r i n g f e s t i v a l i s v e r y a n c i e n t . I n Mesopotamia t h e new y e a r began w i t h the r e t u r n o f Tammuz i n s p r i n g from the un d e r w o r l d . I n the Ras Shamra t e x t s , the f e r t i l i t y god Baal-Hadad d i e s and n a t u r e w i t h him, but h i s r e t u r n i n the s p r i n g u s h e r s i n a new y e a r and a r e t u r n o f l i f e t o the f i e l d s . Thus once a g a i n i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o determine from L u c i a n ' s account the e x a c t o r i g i n of the f e a s t at H i e r a -p o l i s , s i n c e the b a s i c i d e a o f such a f e a s t was common t o bo t h a r e a s . The c u l t o f Baal-Hadad as a v e g e t a t i o n god was pr i m a r y i n a n c i e n t S y r i a n r e l i g i o n , and so t h e r i t e may be e x p l a i n e d i n t h i s way. I n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s q u e s t i o n of the o r i g i n o f the c u l t , however, G a r s t a n g r e l a t e s H i e r a p o l i s d i r e c t l y w i t h A s i a M i n o r s i n c e t h e r e i n a n c i e n t t i m e s the two c h i e f gods resembled Hadad and A t a r g a t i s . I n A s i a Minor t h e r e was a thunder god and h i s c o n s o r t , the Great M o t h e r . 2 2 The god's c h i e f symbol was t h e b u l l , and t h e goddess i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the l i o n . l Q L u c i a n 49. 2 0 G . Goossens, op,, c i t . , p. 37; C. Clemen, op_. c i t . , pp. 55-6. 2 l R . Dussaud, "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l ' A p o l l o n b a r b u " , p. 137. 2 2 J . G a r s t a n g , op_. c i t . , pp. 5-l2« G a r s t a n g wrote h i s e s s a y b e f o r e the d i s c o v e r y of Ras Shamra which i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c u l t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d most s i m p l y and s a t i s f a c t o r i l y as b a s i c a l l y S e m i t i c and S y r i a n . Moreover, a l t h o u g h the p a r a l l e l w i t h A s i a M i n o r i s s t r i k i n g , i t i s not e x a c t . Dussaud p o i n t s out t h a t the Indo-European H i t t i t e s had no developed r e l i g i o n of t h e i r own, but adopted t h a t o f the l a n d t h e y s e t t l e d i n . They s e t t l e d i n Asia. M i n o r i n the second m i l l e n n i u m . The o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s t h e r e i n the t h i r d m i l l e n n i u m d i d not have an Indo-European language, but one d e s i g n a t e d as A s i a n i c , t h a t i s , n e i t h e r S e m i t i c nor Indo-European. I n the mountainous p l a c e s o f west A s i a t h e r e seems from e a r l i e s t t i m e s t o have been the concept of a storm god. Thus the Indo-European H u r r i a n s i n n o r t h e r n Mesopotamia e a s t o f the H i t t i t e s adopted the l o c a l storm god Teshub and h i s c o n s o r t Hebat who i s s i m i l a r t o Anat. When the Semites on t h e i r p a r t moved i n t o S y r i a , t h e y may a l s o have found t h e mountain god who l a t e r d eveloped i n t o Baal-Hadad. Thus t h e r e seems t o be some c o n n e c t i o n between the two a r e a s , but i t i s r e a l l y v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o go beyond g e n e r a l i t i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , f r o m v e r y e a r l y t i m e s the c h i e f d e i t y i n the H i t t i t e pantheon was not the male god, but h i s c o n s o r t t h e sun goddess I n S y r i a , however, Baal-Hadad was as i m p o r t a n t as Anat and i t was he who l a t e r became i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the sun. 23R. Dussaud, Les R e l i g i o n s des H i t t i t e s e t des  H o u r r i t e s des P h e n i c i e n s e t des S y r i e n s , pp. 3 3 4 f f • 106 Thus the c u l t at H i e r a p o l i s seems b a s i c a l l y to be S y r i a n with perhaps c e r t a i n Asia Minor i n f l u e n c e s i n i t s mythology and r i t e s . In S y r i a the Baal-Hadad deity r e l a t e d t o the renewal of vegetation seems c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l to the A t t i s theme. However, there are important d i f f e r e n c e s . In H i t t i t e r e l i g i o n there was a t r i a d of the thunder and mountain god, h i s consort, the sun goddess who a c t u a l l y occupied f i r s t place i n the pantheon, and a young son-god. This son-god e v e n t u a l l y took precedence over the father-thunder god and developed i n t o the 2 L l a t e r A t t i s . The pantheon of S y r i a i s not p a r a l l e l . There the senior god was E l and Baal-Hadad and h i s s i s t e r - c o n s o r t were young gods. Baal i s not the son of E l . Baal-Hadad seems to have been i d e n t i f i e d l a t e r as Zeus because of h i s r o l e as a thunder-mountain god. However, he was a l s o a vegetation god, apparently u n l i k e the thunder god of Asia Minor. Thus we do not r e a l l y have a t r i a d i n ancient Syrian r e l i g i o n of f a t h e r -mother-son where the son takes over from the f a t h e r and becomes the consort of h i s mother. Baal-Hadad himself was the young god, the vegetation god. In a c t u a l f a c t i n l a t e r times the goddess ( Anat, l a t e r A t a r g a t i s ) seems to stand foremost i n the f e r t i l i t y c u l t , at l e a s t at H i e r a p o l i s . In Contrast t o J. Garstang, G. Goossens f e e l s that the c u l t d e r i v e d not from the H i t t i t e s of Asia Minor, but from the Hurrians, another Indo-European people who s e t t l e d i n the north of S y r i a and east of the H i t t i t e s i n the second millennium. 24R, Dussaud, Les R e l i g i o n s des H i t t i t e s et des  H o u r i t t e s des Pheniciens et des S y r i e n s , v~p~. 338-41. 107 He argues i n the f o l l o w i n g way. F i r s t he sees i n the myth o f S t r a t o n i k e and Kombabos a r e f l e c t i o n of the As i a ? i Minor Gybele-A t t i s c u l t whose p r i e s t s were eunuchs. Thus, s i n c e t h i s i s the myth o f f o u n d a t i o n a t H i e r a p o l i s , a t t h i s c i t y t h e n o r i g i n a l l y t h e r e would have been a Great Goddess and a young god as c o u n t e r p a r t s 25 t o Cybele and A t t i s . Then t h i s o r i g i n a l Cybele-goddess was r e p l a c e d l a t e r by the P h o e n i c i a n A s h t a r t o r e l s e the B a b y l o n i a n I s h t a r , who, i n t u r n , was r e p l a c e d by the s i m i l a r goddess Anat o r Ate of the Aramaeans who came i n t o S y r i a i n the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y B. C. 2° Thus *Atar 'ateh would mean ^ A t a r ( ' A s h t a r t ) ) who has become s u b o r d i n a t e d t o 'Ate ( 'Anat )'. Thus Goossens f e e l s t h a t the o r i g i n a l goddess a t H i e r a p o l i s was the Great Goddess o f the H i t t i t e s . However, he f e e l s t h a t the H i t t i t e Great Goddess h e r s e l f may i n f a c t 27 have come o r i g i n a l l y f r om the H u r r i a n s . Thus the Great Goddess o f H i e r a p o l i s would be o r i g i n a l l y H u r r i a n r a t h e r t h a n H i t t i t e , s i n c e the H i t t i t e goddess was h e r s e l f a d e r i v a t i v e . Goossens p r e s e n t s t h i s t h e s i s as a p o s s i b i l i t y , and adduces i n support o f i t s l i k e l i h o o d the t r i a d o f the H u r r i a n s : Teshub, t h e g r e a t storm god, Khepet, the g r e a t f e r t i l i t y goddess, and S i m i k e , t h e young s o l a r god, which a re v e r y l i k e t he t h r e e main gods 2 5 tip;. Goossens, op_. c i t . , p. 43. 2°Ibid., p. 61. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 53. 108 28 of the H i t t i t e s . He a l s o f i n d s a t r i a d at H i e r a p o l i s , Hadad, A t a r g a t i s , and Simios, and equates the three Hurrian gods wi t h these. As a d d i t i o n a l evidence, he f e e l s t h a t the temple a r c h i t e c t u r e of H i e r a p o l i s r e f l e c t s that of the Hurrian temple at T e l l H a l a f . 2 9 There are many o b j e c t i o n s to t h i s theory. F i r s t the C y b e l e - A t t i s myth and c u l t were a l a t e r development, and were 30 not b a s i c t o H i t t i t e r e l i g i o n i n the second millennium. The Hurrian t r i a d i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the gods of H i e r a p o l i s . There we probably only have two c e n t r a l gods, Hadad and A t a r g a t i s . There i s not e x p l i c i t mention of a young god, and the existence of Simios i s quite d o u b t f u l . ( See note on Lucian 33. )• Then the myth of S t r a t o n i k e i s not r e a l l y about marriage and f e r t i l i t y ( see note on Lucian 17. )• F i n a l l y there i s simply no evidence t h a t Ate ( Anat ) superseded Ashtar at H i e r a p o l i s . In f a c t , Anat seems to be the foremost f e r t i l i t y goddess of Ras Shamra-Ugarit i n the fourteenth century B. C. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how Anat could be thought of as a l a t e r goddessthan Ashtar i n S y r i a . I t r e a l l y seems best not t o enter i n t o the question of who proceeded whom.at H i e r a p o l i s . The name A t a r g a t i s seems s a t i s f a c t o r i l y explained as simply an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f ' A t t a r ( Ashtar, Astarte ) w i t h Ate ( Anat ). In h i s argument, Goossens makes use of the idea that at H i e r a p o l i s there was a t r i a d , Hadad, A t a r g a t i s , and Simios, °G. Goossens, op., c i t . , pp. 53-4 2 9 l b i d ., p. 54. 30R. Dussaud, Les R e l i g i o n s des H i t t i t e s et des  Hourrites.., pp. 341-2. In "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l ' A p o l l o n barbu", p. 137, he quotes Hepding, A t t i s , Seine Mythen und s e i n K u l t , who s t a t e s that the i n s t i t u t i o n of the G a l l i was l a t e . 109 who were r e s p e c t i v e l y a f a t h e r , mother and a young god, u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e son, who i s supposed t o be the young v e g e t a t i o n god. As we have s t a t e d Dussaud and Clemen^ r e a l l y f i r s t p o s t u l a t e d t h i s t r i a d . The name S i m i o s was connected w i t h the e\/ s t a n d i n g between Hadad and A t a r g a t i s i n the i n n e r s a n c t u a r y . H. S e y r i g , however, has shown t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of such a 32 t r i a d i s n o t a t a l l c e r t a i n . L u c i a n e x p l i c i t l y says t h a t t h e o-^jxyyud i s not a s t a t u e o f a god, and by the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e , the word tr/jyA^V seems w e l l e x p l a i n e d i n the obv i o u s way. The problem t h e n a r i s e s w i t h the bearded A p o l l o . S i n c e he p l a y s such an i m p o r t a n t r o l e a t H i e r a p o l i s , i s he t o be s u b s t i t u t e d as the young god o f the t r i a d ? L e t us l i s t the t r i a d s t h a t have been p o s t u l a t e d i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s i n S y r i a and see f i r s t of a l l whether t h e y are r e a l l y t r i a d s and i f 33 A p o l l o matches t h e r o l e of some god i n them. Proposed T r i a d s : Father-Mother-Young God B y b l o s E l - K r o n o s B a a l a t A d o n i s S i d o n B a a l o f S i d o n A s t a r t e Eshmun Bey r u t P o s e i d o n A s t a r t e Eshmun Tyre Zeus A s t a r t e H e r a c l e s Baalbek J u p i t e r - H a d a d Venus Mercury A c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f thes e t r i a d s r e v e a l s s e v e r a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . The t h r e e o f B y b l o s , E l - K r o n o s , B a a l a t , and A d o n i s , : -3 1 c . C l emen, op_. c i t . , pp. 42 -3 ; R« Dussaud, "Peut-on i d e n t i f i e r l ' A p o l l o n b a r b u " , pp. 130-1. 32H. S e y r i g , "Les d i e u x de H i e r a p o l i s " , pp. 241-51. See note on L u c i a n 33. 3 3 L i s t g i v e n i n S e y r i g , " Q u e s t i o n s h e l i o p o l i t a i n e s " , S y r i a , XXXI, 1954, p. 87; and "Les d i e u x de H i e r a p o l i s " , p. 248 f f . do not r e a l l y form a f a t h e r - m o t h e r - s o n t r i a d a t a l l . B a a l a t i s A p h r o d i t e o r A s t a r t e , the c o n s o r t of A d o n i s , not o f E l . 3 4 I n the myths, Adonis i s the son o f K i n y r e s . 3 5 I n the next two t r i a d s , t h e god Eshmun ap p e a r s . He c e r t a i n l y p l a y s a r o l e as a god o f r e n e w a l , and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h healing. 3° Here i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the f a c t s about the r e s t o f the t r i a d s , and the H e l l e n i s t i c e q u i v a l e n t s of the t h i r d member. The g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n o f the c i t i e s i s a l s o g i v e n . S i d o n : on c o a s t . B a a l , A s t a r t e , Eshmun. These t h r e e are never mentioned t o g e t h e r i n one i n s c r i p t i o n o r t e x t . ( S e y r i g , "Les d i e u x de H i e r a p o l i s " , p. 2 4 9 . ) Eshmun=Dionysus on c o i n s . ( S e y r i g , " Q u e s t i o n s h e l i o -p o l i t a i n e s " , p. 7 2 . ) = A s c l e p i o s on an i n s c r i p t i o n ( R o l l i g , " H e i l g o t t e r " , op. c i t . , p. 2 8 6 . ) B e y r u t : on c o a s t . P o s e i d o n , A s t a r t e , ( Astronoe ) Eshmun. These t h r e e are never mentioned t o g e t h e r i n one i n -s c r i p t i o n . ( S e y r i g , "Les d i e u x de H i e r a p o l i s " , p. 2 4 9 . ) Damascius r e l a t e s a myth about A s t r o n o e and Eshmun i n which Astronoe f a l l s i n l o v e w i t h the y o u t h Eshmun. He f l e e s f r om h e r and c a s t r a t e s h i m s e l f and d i e s . By the warmth of the goddess, however, he i s r e c a l l e d t o l i f e and d e i f i e d . ( R o l l i g , " H e i l g o t t e r " , p. 2 8 6 . ) 3 Z f C f . G. Cooke, op_. c i t . , pp. 2 0 - 1 . 3 5 w . R o l l i g , op_. c i t . , p. 2 3 4 . 3 6 w . R o l l i g , l o c . c i t . J . Gray, op_. c i t . , p. 1 3 3 ; H. S t o c k s , op_. c i t . , p. 16. I l l EshmunrAsclepios ( inscription.) (Rbllig, p. 286.) sDionysus on coins of Beyrut ( Seyrig, "Questions heliopolitaines" , p. 72. ) Tyre: on coast. Zeus ( Baal-shamin ), Astarte, Melqart. This is the only triad l is ted e x p l i c i t l y as a family of father, mother and son by Eudoxos of Knidos in Athenaeus, IX , 47, 392d. Zeus in Eudoxos is thought to be Baal-shamin, who, according to Dussaud, Religions  des Pheniciens, p. 360, i s an El figure. Seyrig, however, sees him as Baal. ( "Dieux de Tyr", Syria , X L , 1963, pp. 19-28. ) Philo of Byblos says that Melqart is the son of Demarus, who is the son of Dagon, and so there seems CK to be^different genealogy in existence. AstartesAstronoe on inscriptions ( Seyrig, "Dieux de Tyr" , p. 22, ) sconsort of Baal-shamin ( Seyrig, "Dieux de Tyr" , pp. 19-28. ) =consort of Melqart ( Dussaud, "Melqart", Syria, XXV, 1943, p . 213. ) The case of Tyre seems very much unclear. Seyrig rejects the idea of Syrian triads, but in his art ic le on Tyre37 he supports the proposition that Eudoxos' statement reflects the late genealogy of-the people of Tyre. However this question is unclear. Melqart was thought of as a vegetation god,38 3 7 H . Seyrig, "Dieux de Tyr" , Syria, X L , 1963, pp. 19-23. 38c. Clemen, op_. c i t . , pp. 29-30. 112 however, and i t seems n a t u r a l to u n i t e him with the Astarte or Aphrodite of Tyre. In a l l these cases, the young god seems to r e f l e c t the nature of a vegetation god. Moreover, j u s t as Adonis i s associated w i t h Dionysus, so are they. By the connection w i t h A s c l e p i o s , the young god a l s o seems to have had some f u n c t i o n as a healer. In the case of Beyrut and Byblos i t i s f a i r l y c l e a r that the young god's consort was h i s 'mother' A s t a r t e . Nothing i s known about Sidon, and Tyre i s unclear. Thus the b a s i s f o r such t r i a d s now seems debatable. Next we come to the case of Baalbek. Here the t r i a d i s Jupiter-Hadad, Venus, and a god c a l l e d Mercury. This t r i a d i s w e l l a t t e s t e d , although i t i s l a t e . At Baalbek, Jupiter-Hadad was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Sun and A s t a r t e with Venus. Mercury, however, has as h i s symbol a lamb, and t h i s i s q u i t e e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n S y r i a n iconography. The god apparently was a l s o a vegetation god and was l a t e r a ssociated w i t h Dionysus. Dussaud f e e l s that t h i s young god was a' r u s t i c god and was the equivalent of Simios of H i e r a p o l i s . ^ But, as we have s a i d , Simios very l i k e l y d i d not e x i s t . Thus the god Mercury at Baalbek seems a s p e c i a l case. Family r e l a t i o n s h i p between the three gods there i s never given. In the p i c t u r e of them, Mercury i s without a beard at the l e f t of J u p i t e r ; Venus i s at 41 J u p i t e r ' s r i g h t . 39 H. S e y r i g , "Questions h e l i o p o l i t a i n e s " , p. 84. 40R. Dussaud, "Temples et c u l t e s de l a t r i a d e h e l i o -p o l i t a i n e aN Baalbek", S y r i a , X X I I I , 1943, p. 76. 41H. S e y r i g , "Questions h e l i o p o l i t a i n e s " , p. 113 Thus the existence of father-mother-son t r i a d s as such i n Syria seems doubtful. The relationship between the gods at the various s i t e s does not seem to be worked out so e x p l i c i t l y or consistently that one set f a m i l i a l connection always e x i s t s between any>two s p e c i f i c gods. Thus i t i s doubtful whether Apollo could be thought to be the t h i r d god of a family t r i a d at Hierapolis. Apollo seems to be a special god for special purposes, and so his statue marks him out. He i s bearded and dressed. Macrobius describes him i n armour.4 2 Stocks f e e l s that he i s the warrior god, Reshef, the god of flame, heat and pestilence. By the statues of Reshef, and by the fact that i n Cyprus he i s i d e n t i f i e d with Apollo, t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n seems highly l i k e l y . 4 3 In the Ras Shamra texts, the myth of Baal centres around Baal, Anat, and Mot. Baal i s the vegetation god i n c o n f l i c t with Mot, the god of s t e r i l i t y and death. Anat acts as the agent i n effecting Baal's return and so pro-vides i n a way the stimulation for the renewal of nature. The myth of Adonis r e f l e c t s a similar c o n f l i c t among three gods. There Adonis i s k i l l e d by Ares and Aphrodite wins from Persephone his return to earth for half of every year. In stead of a father-mother-son or young god t r i a d , there seems to be a t r i a d of a male and female who s t r i v e f or productivity against a male who i s i n opposition to t h e i r e f f o r t s . 4?Macrobius, I, 17. 43H. Stocks, op_. c i t . , p. 33; cf. R. Dussaud, "Kinyras, Etude sur l e s anciens cultes chypriotesi', Syria, XXVII, 1950, p. 74. 114 At Hierapolis, Atargatis and Hadad seem to play the roles of Anat and Baal. Since Apollo or Reshef was known as the god of the plague and hence as a god of destruction, i t can be asked whether he played a role similar to Mot i n the Ugar-i t i c texts and to Ares i n the Adonis myth. We have no e x p l i c i t evidence that these three main gods at Hierapolis were so conceived, but i t seems a possible inference on the basis of the other c u l t s . Thus Atargatis and Hadad would form a sort of t r i a d with Reshef, but i t would be r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from a father-mother-son t r i a d . In t h i s examination of the cults of Syria, I hope I have been able to show that Hierapolis b a s i c a l l y was Syrian in o r i g i n . The gods of the c i t y were probably the descendants of the d e i t i e s of the second millennium. The myths of the Flood and of Stratonike seem to r e f l e c t a Syrian or Mesopotamian o r i g i n , and the r i t e s carried out at the temple also r e f l e c t t h i s background. A l l i n a l l , there seems to be a good basis for including the cult Lucian describes within the Syrian framework. 115 Modern A u t h o r i t i e s A l b r i g h t , W. F. Ar c h a e o l o g y and the R e l i g i o n of I s r a e l . John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1953-" N o r t h west S e m i t i c Names i n a l i s t o f E g y p t i a n S l a v e s f r om the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y B. C " , J o u r n a l o f t h e  American O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y . LXXIV, 1954, pp. 222-31. "The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e West S e m i t i c D i v i n i t y *An-' A n a t - ' A t t a " , American J o u r n a l o f S e m i t i c Languages  and L i t e r a t u r e s ^ X L I , 1925, pp. 88-90. A u d i n , Amable. 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