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'Tis pity she's a whore : a record and analysis of a production Livingstone, Kenneth David 1967

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•TIS PITY SHE'S A WHORE A Record and Analysis of a Production by KENNETH D. LIVINGSTONE B.A., B i s h o p ^ University, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of THEATRE We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h a L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada 11 ABSTRACT 'Tis Pity She's A Whore. an Elizabethan revenge tragedy by John Ford, was produced and directed by Kenneth Livingstone, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Master of Arts degree in the Department of Theatre of the University of British Columbia, at the Frederic Wood Studio Theatre, from March 8 - 1 1 , 1967. The following i s a detailed record of that production along with the director's analysis and interpretation of the script. 'Tis Pity She's A Whore was produced on a budget of $300.00, with a 90 hour rehearsal period and had a five performance run in a theatre seating approximately ninety people. The play was performed by a predominantly student cast in a setting designed by Harry Soloveoff and with original music composed by Leon Dubinsky which was played each night by a small group of musicians employing recorders, guitars, drums, bells and a virginal. This record is divided into three main sections. The f i r s t is an essay which starts by discussing the histori c a l background of the play with reference to i t s position in the genre of Revenge Tragedy. This is followed by a brief biographical note on the author and then a detailed analysis of the play with reference to the significant c r i t i c a l inter-pretations available and concludes with a discussion of the i i i d i r e ctorial concept adopted for this production. The director's interpretation is compared to, and contrasted with, the various c r i t i c a l views already mentioned. The essay is followed by a short bibliography which is not Intended as a complete academic record of works on Ford, but merely indicates those views which were taken into consideration in the preparation of this production. The second section is made up of the actual script; showing cuts, blocking, significant divisions and indioatiag light, music and scenery cues. Each scene i s preceded by a brief analysis which indicates the major units within the scene and the directorial approach taken in terms of purpose, action, dominant emotions, character dominance, and particular d i f f i c u l t i e s Involved. The third section is made up of various tables, records, and Illustrations relating directly to the production. Included are l i s t s of light cues, music cues, set changes, properties, costumes, cost l i s t s , and box office reports. Also included are transcripts of the music composed for the production, a sample of the program, and copies of the press reviews. The illustrations include colour photographs of the production, and f i n a l l y , blueprints of the floor plan and working drawings. TABLE OP CONTENTS Page Introductory Essay . 1 Notes ^0 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^2 Prompt Sc r i p t ^3 Scene Analysis 139 Tables 203 Appendix . . . . . . . . . 21? Music Sheets . 21? Program 225 Reviews 226 I l l u s t r a t i o n s . . . . . . . . 229 LIST OF,TABLES Page Music Cues 203 Light Plot . . 208 Panel Plot 210 Property Plot 211 Costume Plot 214 Budget and Cost L i s t s . 215 Box Off i c e Reports 2l6 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Production Photographs • 229 Set 23^ Panels 235 Costume Drawings: Giovanni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Annabella . . : i . . . 237 Soranzo 239 H i p p o l i t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Vasques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Bergetto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Cardinal 24-3 Working Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 v i l ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to express my sincere gratitude to a l l those whose names appear on the program for t h i s production, and especially to Harry Soloveoff who designed the set and prepared coloured drawings, and Leon Dubinsky who composed, conducted.and transcribed the music. INTRODUCTORY ESSAY It i s the absolute condition of r e v o l t , i t i s an exemplary case of love without r e s p i t e which makes us, the spectators, gasp with anguish at the idea that nothing w i l l ever be able to stop i t . - Antonin Artaud I John Ford's "biography i s b r i e f and f a r from ill u m i n a t i n g . He was born i n Devon and baptized at Islington i n A p r i l 1586. In 1602 he was admitted to the Middle Temple and records exist to prove he made hi s residence there u n t i l at l e a s t l 6 l 7 » There i s no record of his being c a l l e d to the bar, but i t seems u n l i k e l y that he would have remained that long at the Inns of Court without pra c t i s i n g law. He r e t i r e d to Islington shortly before the outbreak of the C i v i l War and remained there u n t i l his death. Ford's work can conveniently be divided into three periods. The f i r s t , from 1606 to 1620, was non-dramatic and consisted mainly of poems and prose pamphlets, the most notable being Fames' Memorial ( 1606) , an elegaic poem on the death of the E a r l of Devonshire; a pamphlet e n t i t l e d Honour Triumphant (1606)"in honour of a l l f a i r l a dies, and i n defence of these four positions following; 1. Knights i n ladles service have no free w i l l ; 2 . Beauty i s the maintainer of valour. 3 . F a i r Lady was never f a l s e . 4 . Perfect lovers are only wisef!* and C h r i s t i e s Bloodle Sweat ( I 6 1 3 ) , a poem. The second period, from 1621 to 1625, consisted mainly of dramatic works written i n collaboration and included his work with Rowley and Dekker on The Witch of Edmonton i n 1622. 2 Any plays that Ford wrote independently during t h i s period have been l o s t . From 1628 to at least I 6 3 8 , the probable date of his retirement to Devonshire, Ford produced his extant plays, a l l written independently; The generally accepted dates of these plays, usually based on records of f i r s t performance, are as followst The Lover's Melancholy (1629) , 'Tls Pity She's A Whore ( 1633) , Loves* S a c r i f i c e ( I 6 3 3 ) , The Broken Heart ( I 6 3 3 ) , Perkln Warbeok (1634), The Fancies Chaste and Noble ( 1638) , and The Ladles' T r i a l ( 1639) . Authorship of The Queen (I653) 1 has also been att r i b u t e d to Ford. I t i s on the f i r s t f i v e of these plays that Ford's fame r e s t s . Love's S a c r i f i c e . The Broken Heart, and Perkln  Warbeok are Ford's three most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tragedies. These, together with his tragi-comedies: The Lovers' Melancholy. The  Fancies Chaste and Noble, and The Ladles' T r i a l , comprise a body of work i n which a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e i s developed. The nature of t h i s s t y l e , and the various c r i t i c a l a t titudes towards i t , i s not the prime concern of t h i s a n a l y s i s , which intends to deal primarily with 'Tls Pity She's A Whore as i t has been viewed by various c r i t i c s , and as i t was conceived for a p a r t i c u l a r t h e a t r i c a l production. In taking t h i s approach I have adopted the suggestion 2 of C l i f f o r d Leech that 'Tls Pity should be considered as Ford's f i r s t independent play since i t s s t y l e i s so 3 considerably different from that of the other three tragedies and that l t can be examined most successfully in the light of Ford's great predecessors rather than by attempting to wrestle with l t In terms of his own peculiar style. Leech's concern here i s primarily with classifying Ford's plays according to their seperate dramatic genres and this is the key to a proper understanding of *Tls Pity, for in this play Ford harks back to the Jacobean revenge tragedies of Shakespeare, Tourneur, Middleton and Webster. While the love of Giovanni and Annabella may echo in The Broken Heart and Loves'Sacrifice l t i s in Romeo and Ju l i e t . Othello. The Revengers' Tragedy, and The White Devil that we find it's kindred s p i r i t . Apart from the consternation caused by i t s theme, 'Tis  Pity has suffered at the hands of c r i t i c s who either refuse to recognize i t s sources and therefore attempt to bend i t to f i t some preconceived idea of Fordian tragedy;^ or, recognizing •I* i t s essential difference, find fault with i t for that reason. This latter view, when i t wishes to include 'Tis Pity with the other tragedies and draw general conclusions, usually solves the obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s by condemning the action as being made up of sensational episodes, designed solely to whet the jaded appetites of a decadent audience, and excusing the sub-plot as pointless buffoonery included to please the groundlings; While this approach is not without a certain validity with regard to some of the other plays, i t is certainly 4 not the case in 'Tls Pity. A good description of the prevalent mood In such plays as The Broken Heart and Loves' Sacrifice is given by Una Ellis-Fermor, and i t i s obvious that this is a different world from that of the earlier 'Tls Pity: There is a coldness and restraint in much of his work; a grave and c h i l l dignity in which the emotions seem to be recollected rather than f e l t ; recollected not merely in tranquility, but in spellbound s t i l l n e s s . There i s also a quality, at once firm, solid and motionless, which effects progress-ively his diction, his prosody, the demeanour of his characters and f i n a l l y their groupings and relations and even the architecture i t s e l f of the inner form of the play.* This is hardly the mood of Giovanni's opening debate with the Friar nor of the impassioned scene with Annabella that leads to his confession of love. Restraint is a quality conspicously absent in 'Tls Pity. Una Ellis-Fermor divides English drama from the beginning of the Elizabethan era to the time of Ford into three phases: from the beginning to about 1598, from about 1598 to 1610-11, and from 1610-11 to about the end of the reign of James I. It is apparent then that a l l of Ford's great tragedies were written after the Elizabethan drama, as such, had to come to an end, in the increasingly rarefied atmosphere of the court of Charles I; However, i t i s to the second of the three phases, the Jacobean, that we must turn 5 to find the proper context for 'Tis Pity. Miss Permor characterizes the f i r s t , or Eliabethan, 1 phase as one of clarity and exhilaration in which the drama was concerned with war and patriotism, romance and bloodshed, but had none of the obsession with sadism and perversion which creeps in later; There is no doubt that the drama was brutal, but i t was a brutality that sprang from the natural violence of normal l i f e in the Elizabethan period rather than from Jaded imaginations that could only be stirred by the sensational. The tone of this drama changed significantly in the Jacobean period. The reasons for this are of course complex, but certain dominant factors can be noted. Most significant, perhaps, was the general mood of apprehension and disillusion-ment that followed the death of Elizabeth. This lack of stability, which was the natural result of the ending of an era of prosperity and security, brought with i t a significant spiritual despair, as the materialistic world and the spiritual world drifted apart and men found that, since reconciliation seemed impossible, i t was necessary to make a choice. The result of this was a pre-occupation with death that is a major characteristic of Jacobean drama. The second significant force was the influence of Mfichiavelli, primarily as l t was reflected in the plays of Marlowe during the Elizabethan period: 6 Machiavelli offered to the mind that could grasp him with any completeness a compact, unshakeable interpretation of c i v i l i z a t i o n based frankly upon the assumption of weakness, ingratitude and i l l - w i l l as essential elements of human character and society, upon the acceptance of religion only as the means of making a people docile to their governors, upon the open admission of cruelty, parsimony and betrayal of faith as necessary ( i f regrettable) instruments," It is not surprising then that tragedy, concerned as i t is with interpreting man's place in the cosmos and in his own world, began to view the world as the domain of e v i l in which the Satanic powers vie with each other for control. The despair that is bred under such conditions permeates the great drama of the Jacobean era from King Lear to The Duchess of Malflt As f l i e s to wanton boys, are we to th* gods, They k i l l us for their sport. (Lear. IV, 1) We are merely the stars tennis-balls (strook, and bandied which way please them). (Duchess of Malfl. V. iv) This s p i r i t u a l uncertainty led to a rejection of the spiritual for the corporeal: the choice that precipitates the tragedy in 'Tis Pity; Whenever the characters in Jacobean drama attempt to come to terms with the spi r i t u a l the result is inevitably a confusion which leads either to resignation or rejection; 7 This rejection i s not always complete however, and while the suffering i s seldom resolved by an appeal to the stars, the appeal sometimes lingers! If there is any comment (and often the tragedy ends in a crash of hardy and unmoved defiance) i t i s at most a thin, wavering doubt, a wandering scent blown for a moment on the tempest across the dark action of the f i n a l catastrophe.' Both attitudes are present at the end of 'Tls Pity. "Unmoved defiance" is the note struck by Vasques as he exitst •Tis well; this conquest is mine, and I rejoice that a Spaniard outwent an Italian in revenge• (Vi vi) For that, "thin, wavering" groping towards the beyond we have Giovanni's But d'ee think That I shall see you there?---You look on me? May we kiss one another, prate or laugh, Or do as we do here? (Vi v) But of course Giovanni is here trying to make heaven over in the image of his love. It i s the recognition of the enormity of the gulf that seperates man from the stars, and the anguish which results, that C l i f f o r d Leech sees as the basic situation of Jacobean tragedy and the connection between i t and 'Tls Pity: 8 This drama i s characterized by an I n t e l l e c t u a l tension; On the one side there i s a f e e l i n g of exaltation i n the nature of man . . • on the other side there i s a recognition of the l i m i t -ations of man's power, his i s o l a t i o n i n the universe.8 Leech goes on to say that the drama t h i s tension pro-duced was not s p e c i f i c a l l y a n t i - C h r i s t i a n i n intention but that the dramatists were primarily concerned with: a phase of human l i f e that began with the establishment of a perilous s i t u a t i o n and that ended with the hero's death;9 While t h i s i s obviously a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n that must be amplified to have any p a r t i c u l a r v a l i d i t y , i t does suggest, i n part, the reason why Ford has Giovanni so soon r e j e c t the abstract metaphysical world for the dangerous joys of his s i s t e r ' s bed. Only when death i s imminent does Giovanni again consider the metaphysical question, and so strong i s the bond he has forged on earth that he has l i t t l e doubt that i t w i l l hold i n the hereafter: Where'er I go, l e t me enjoy t h i s grace, Freely to view my Annabella's face. (V. v) There i s then, at the l a s t moment, a recognition (or perhaps i t i s only that desperate need to see beyond) that there i s a scheme of things beyond the machinations of the Jacobean world: 9 I . . could I believe This might be true, I could believe as well There might be h e l l or Heaven. (V. v) According to Leech, a continuing b e l i e f i n a C h r i s t i a n cosmology and the p e r s i s t i n g problem of a C h r i s t i a n e t h i c a l scheme were e s s e n t i a l to the Jacobean drama. Nowhere i s the e t h i c a l problem more apparent than In the case of the revenger himself, the bulwark of Jacobean tragedy. Revenge was against the ethics of the church and of society yet, i n an age which exulted i n man's a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l his destiny and at the same time despaired at h i s ultimate impotence before the cosmic order, to be one's own revenger was to assume a c e r t a i n omnipotence that defied both the e x i s t i n g order and the cosmic order. The l a t t e r , while i t could not be defeated ultimately, could be taunted t i l l the l a s t and then met with a sneer* I limned t h i s night-piece and i t was my best. (The White D e v i l . V. v i ) Webster's Lodovico i s the archetype of the Jacobean revenger and his defiance i s echoed by Vasques i n 'Tls Pity . The authority f o r revenge as a f i t t i n g theme for tragedy came from Seneca but i t s p a r t i c u l a r appeal at t h i s time was due l a r g e l y to the Machiavellian philosophy as f i r s t propounded by Marlowe. 10 The revenge figure takes many forms. The greatest are the reb e l s : Hamlet, V l t t o r i a , Vindioe, Richard, Giovanni. For some the r e v o l t i s against an order that oppresses and corrupts; others embrace e v i l and carry i t to i t s ultimate extreme. The reward i n the end i s always death and while i t i s Just that they pay the price for t h e i r r e v o l t , there i s something i n the force of t h e i r personalities that demands admiration no matter what crimes they have committed. There i s another type of revenger i n Jacobean tragedy, of which Lodovico i s the prime example and to which the character of Vasques i n 'Tis Pity i s most cl o s e l y r e l a t e d ; This i s the professional, the instrument of the main i n t r i g u e r s , whose actions are governed e n t i r e l y by the Machiavellian e t h i c i For such a character death i s a profession i n which he indulges to the l i m i t s of his imagination. I t i s not enough merely to be revenged, the act must be accomplished with a r t i s t r y . This i s the manner of the revengers i n Webster and i t i s t h i s that i s behind Vasques 1 injunction to Soranzo that he give Giovanni free passage to his s i s t e r ' s bedroom before the trap swings closed: • • I' give him time enough, l e t him have your chamber and bed at l i b e r t y ; l e t my hot hare have law ere he be hunted to his death (V. iv) 11 There Is, of course, something In this of the idea seen in Hamlet that the victim should be sent to his death with his sins fresh upon him, in order that his damnation.be greater. But this somewhat perverted Christian ethic is less important than the desire of the professional to accomplish his revenge with stylei Una Ellis-Fermor notes the ready acceptance by the Elizabethan audience of this type of revenger as a technical convention, essential to the action but not to the emotion or thought of the p l a y i 1 0 This, however, as I w i l l point out later, is not the case with Vasques, whose emotional involve-ment is an essential part of 'Tls Pity; The Jacobean revenger then, be he rebel or instrument, is a figure calculated to win our admiration but condemned from the start to death! He exists in a world which fluctuates between Machiavellian scepticism'and a s t i l l potent Christian scheme of values. This ambiguity of values is one of the most significant features of revenge tragedy and is basic to 'Tls  Pity, where the Christian ideal remains, even when the Church i t s e l f is v i l l a i n i The basic mood of the Jacobean period has been described as a sp i r i t u a l uncertainty springing in part from the spreading of Machiavellian materialism emphasized by Marlowe's tragic thought and in s t i l l greater from the cause which has reproduced i t to-day for us, fear of the impending destruction of a great c i v i l i z a t i o n . 1 1 12 It Is not hard to see why, with such a world view and having the figure of the rebel as Its hero, the Jacobean tragedy finds such ready sympathy to-day. Having noted, b r i e f l y , some of the basic characteristics of Jacobean tragedy that reappear in 'Tis Pity, i t i s necessary, before turning tothe play i t s e l f , to glance at the state of the theatre at the time the play was written! Prom about 1610 there was a s p l i t i n the London theatrical scenei The Kings 1 Men acquired the small Blackfriars theatre and gradually the court and the aristocracy formed the audience for this and similar smaller •private 1 theatres while the general public patronized the larger Red Bull and Fortune Theatres; The important plays were written for the smaller courtly audience; It is impossible to know whether a play was performed solely before the court or also transferred to the public theatres, but i t i s evident that dramatists were now mainly writing for an aristocratic audience who wished to see plays that extolled the codes to which they aspired in a rhetoric that was both elegant and dignified yet tinged with a noble melancholy; By the time of Charles I the tension created by the death of Elizabeth had subsided; With the gradual assumption of serenity came a tragedy that i s concerned less with the immediate nature of the world than with the manner in which i t should be enjoyed and with the proper way in which death should be met; In such a rarefied atmosphere horror becomes 13 t i t i l l a t i n g and i s toyed with for i t s own sake from the luxury of a secure a r i s t o c r a t i c code. The foundation stones of t h i s code were the virtues of continence, courage, and c h i v a l r y ; v i r t u e s that are not always permitted a world that sees i t s e l f on the verge of destruction; While t h i s philosophy plays a part i n 'Tls Pity, i t i s the true subject of Ford's l a t e r tragedies, the best and most t y p i c a l of which i s The Broken Heart; Here the concern i s less with the circumstances surrounding the hero's death than with the manner i n which he meets i t ; The suffering i t s e l f , rather than the ac t i o n , i s all-Important and i t i s a melancholy s u f f e r i n g i n which only the e l i t e can af f o r d to indulge; A few l i n e s from Calantha's great death speech i n The Broken  Heart indicate the ideals that t h i s drama proclaimss G, my lords, I but deceiv'd your eyes with antic gesture, When one news straight came huddling on another Of death! and deathl and deathl s t i l l I danc'd forward; But i t struck home, and here, and i n an instant; Be such mere women, who with shrieks and outcries Can vow a present end to a l l t h e i r sorrows, Yet l i v e to count new pleasures, and ou t l i v e them* They are the s i l e n t g r i e f s which cut the he a r t - s t r i n g s i Let me die smiling. (V; i l l ) Giovanni too, dies smiling, but not before he has committed the ultimate act of revenge and strewn the stage with corpses I t i s Giovanni's compulsion to act rather than accept his suff e r i n g with melancholy dignity that seperates 'Tls Pity from The Broken Heart and places i t within the context of the Jacobean era. Pew plays have raised the moral hackles of c r i t i c s and commentators with such regularity as 'Tis Pity She's A Whore! Before proceding to an analysis of the play i t s e l f , i t i s perhaps advisable to dispense with the most extreme element of such c r i t i c i s m ! One quote should serve to i l l u s t r a t e the general approach taken by such c r i t i c s i H. G. Oliver gives an example from a work called The Moral Tone of Jacobean and  Caroline Drama: • . •' there i s here a lamentable want of backbone and a deplorable effeminency, especially in the conduct of the man ! • • ; There is about her \Annabella). an atmosphere of impurity, which manifests i t s e l f in the sickly, extravagant praise of her brother's good outward parts, and she goes on with this nauseous commendation, even when she stands face to face with her husband after the detection. The only extenuating circumstance in her favour is the baneful Influence exercised upon her by the abominable nurse, but the latter is more than compensated by that admirable f r i a r , who i f to some extent a slave to convention, is an excellent sp i r i t u a l counsellor.* 2 The effect of such a moral bias on a c r i t i c a l viewpoint need not be elaborated further; However, even those c r i t i c s who attempt to explain Ford's modernity with a more objective moral approach continue to label his drama decadent and see in his choice of incesit as the subject of tragedy a prurience peculiar to the Caroline theatre in i t s rapid decay before the C i v i l War. While i t may be convenient, for the sake of 15 l i t e r a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , to term the drama of t h i s period decadent, such an approach by c l a s s i f y i n g various authors together purely on the grounds of the sensational elements i n t h e i r plays, implies a common motivation for the choice of these elements which i s misleading: His comedies teem with the cheapest of wit; h i s tragedies equal and possibly excel i n sensationalism those of John Webster and James Shirley• His p r i n c i p a l characters, tortured with burning desires, whisper lecherous pleas and utter arguments for clandestine love which exceed i n prurience some of the most er o t i c scenes i n the plays of John Fletcher. Held up i n t h i s manner for comparison with men of his age, Ford c l e a r l y displays those dramatic sins of excess which common consent agrees to have forwarded dramatic decay; and for t h i s reason alone, as t r a d i t i o n i n s i s t s , Ford may r i g h t l y bear h i s t i t l e of high p r i e s t of decadence;13 This not only suggests that a d e f i n i t e moral bias s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n modern c r i t i c i s m but, misses the very great difference i n purpose i n the works of Webster, the true Jacobean, and Shirle y , the epitome of Caroline dramatists. As I have suggested above, Ford's body of work rests somewhere between these l i m i t s , with 'Tls Pity providing the s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k with WebsterI II 'Tls Pity She's A Whore i s a Jacobean revenge tragedy; Richardetto seeks revenge against H i p p o l i t a , H i p p o l l t a attempts 16 to avenge her r e j e c t i o n "by Soranzo, Soranzo attempts to avenge his being cuckolded by Giovanni, and Vasques i s the prime instrument of revenge throughout; The ultimate act of revenge Is Giovanni's; The action of the play, i n b r i e f , i s as follows: Giovanni, i n love with his s i s t e r Annabella, seeks counsel from his tutor F r i a r Bonaventura, whose i n e f f e c t u a l piety i s no match for Giovanni's determined l o g i c , which he argues with a f i e r c e , though sop h i s t i c , passioni When the F r i a r ' s suggested remedies prove useless, Giovanni confesses his love to Annabella, who has been suppressing her own desire for her brother; They consumate t h e i r love and, r e j e c t i n g r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l morality, vow to love only each other or d i e . Eventually Annabella becomes pregnant and i s forced to marry Soranzo, whose base treatment of H i p p o l i t a , once his mistress, leaves no doubt as to his true character I When Soranzo d i s -covers Annabella's pregnancy he attempts to force her into revealing the i d e n t i t y of her lover; Annabella refuses, but Soranzo's servant, Vasques, succeeds i n discovering that i t i s Giovanni by torturing Annabella's nurse, Putana; Soranzo and Vasques plan a trap for Giovanni but at the l a s t moment they are thwarted when Giovanni k i l l s Annabella and then Soranzo, before he i s himself stabbed to death by Vasques; Hippolita's attempted revenge on Soranzo i s f o i l e d by 17 Vasques and r e s u l t s i n her own death, and the plot of Rlchardetto, Hippolita's husband, to murder Soranzo r e s u l t s i n the innocent death of Bergetto, a foppish suitor to Annabella; S t r u c t u r a l l y the play i s made up of the main p l o t : Giovanni and Annabella's incestuous love; a sub-plot of intrigue and treachery involving H i p p o l i t a and Rlchardetto which i s linked to the main plot by the character of Soranzo; and a comic sub-plot concerned with the exploits of the f o o l i s h Bergetto and his man Poggio, which i s rela t e d to the rest of the play by Bergetto*s courting of, f i r s t , Annabella, and then P h i l o t i s , the innocent niece of Rlchardetto. Throughout the play the characters of the F r i a r and Putana act as moral f o i l s to Giovanni and Annabella. Even from so b r i e f an outline, i t i s easy to see that *Tls Pity bears c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c resemblances to other Jacobean plays. Most noticeable are the p a r a l l e l s with Romeo and J u l i e t ; In both there i s a pair of M s t a r c r o s s e d M lovers, and i n both there i s a F r i a r and a bawdy nurse who attends the heroine! The I t a l i a n a t e setting i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and i s as appropriate to the mood of 'Tis Pity as Sparta i s to the ideals of The  Broken Heart; Echoes from other Jacobean plays may be detected; The r e l a t i o n s h i p betwenn Vasques and Soranzo bears some resemblance to that of Othello and Iago; As i n other Jacobean plays, the love story which i s at the center of the play i s surrounded by violence and in t r i g u e ; 18 Having outlined the basic plot structure i t i s necessary now to look at the play i n greater d e t a i l ; Ford's opening scene presents us Immediately with the p r i n c i p a l dramatic c o n f l i c t , the dominant mood of the play, the character of the hero, and the nature of his opposition; In essence the c o n f l i c t i n 'Tis Pity i s between Giovanni's incestuous love and the established order; The spokesman for t h i s r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l , and moral order i s the F r i a r , and so the opening debate between Giovanni and the F r i a r suggests the problem of the ent i r e play; From the s t a r t Giovanni i s i n the position of challenger; Like Hamlet, he i s recently returned from the un i v e r s i t y , where he has made a reputation for himself as a student and acquired the habit of submitting a l l problems to r a t i o n a l debate. R e a l i s i n g h i s love f o r h i s s i s t e r , he appeals f i r s t to the F r i a r on i n t e l l e c t u a l grounds: can r e l i g i o n o f f e r a solution or provide a r a t i o n a l explanation for h i s overiding emotion: Giovanni comes to reason with the F r i a r and for an answer he i s t o l d that r e l i g i o n i s beyond reason; Small wonder then that he seeks h i s own j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n sophistic argument which can only gain Impetus from the F r i a r ' s r e f u s a l to propose an a l t e r n a t i v e ! I t i s important to note that Giovanni, having recognized his passion for h i s s i s t e r , does not immediately rush to embrace her but goes to hi s tutor and r e l i g i o u s advisor i n order to 19 place his passion in a proper intellectual framework! He is not an atheist; i t i s only when religion f a i l s him that he rejects i t ! According to Giovanni's logic, the Friar must either Justify his incestuous passion or find in religion a decisive rational argument against i t ! Failure to provide such an argument is taken by Giovanni as proof that one does not exist and that there i s , therefore, no logical reason for him not to love Annabella It Is this logic that prompts Giovanni to exclaim, as his ultimate justification to Annabella: I have asked counsel of the holy church, Who t e l l s me I may love you i . • (I. 11) The intellectual, forced by his nature to Justify his passion, resorts to sophistry! Ford leaves l i t t l e doubt about the nature of Giovanni's passion: Shall then, for that I am her brother born, My joys be ever banish'd from her bed? (Ii 1) Giovanni is an intellectual driven by sexual desire for his sister but rationalizing this desire in terms of his own peculiar logic! 1 A very different interpretation is given by Sensabaugh whose The Tragic Muse of John Ford is based on two assumptions: that the foundations of modern thought are a supreme belief in scie n t i f i c determinism and an ultimate faith in extreme 2 0 individualism; and that Ford's modernity stems from a similar philosophy which finds its scientific basis in Robert Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy and its cult of individualism in the system of Platonic love promulgated by the court of Henrietta Maria, wife to Charles I. Any cri t i c a l approach which unhesitatingly defines modern thought within such strict, and certainly questionable, boundaries is likely to grind its axe very thin and this is indeed what Sensabaugh does. Giovanni is represented as suffering from heroic love and religious melancholy as they are described by Burton, and his actions are viewed as being motivated by an adherence to the Platonic code whose principal tenets Sensabaugh l i s t s : Fate rules a l l lovers, beauty and goodness are one and the same, beautiful women are saints to be worshipped, true love is of equal hearts and divine, love is all-important and all-powerful, true love is more important than marriage, true love is the sole guide to virtue, and, true love allows any liberty of action and thought; Such a l i s t certainly seems to be made to order to explain the arguments Giovanni uses against the Friar, but in compiling i t Sensabaugh seems too much to have interpreted the beliefs of the Platonic coterie with just such a pat explanation in mind!' It seems highly likely that Ford drew on the cult for many of Giovanni's sophistic arguments and, as such, i t provides an interesting historical footnote to the theatrical climate 21 i n which Ford was writing; However, to argue that Giovanni i s a firm believer i n t h i s code and that a l l his actions are motivated by i t , i s to deny the e s s e n t i a l struggle i n the play; Giovanni uses his arguments to r a t i o n a l i z e what he recognizes as a physical desire and h i s vehemence i n proclaiming them stems from his awareness of h i s own sophistry; Also, the atmosphere which produces such a code i s , by i t s very nature, l i k e l y to breed a s p e c i a l type of hypocrisy which uses the a r i s t r o c r a t i c i d e a l to j u s t i f y i t s decadence; Giovanni and Annabella may be g u i l t y of w i l l f u l self-deception but they are not decadent hypocrites; I f Sensabaugh bends h i s platonic ethics to f i t the plays, he i s even more dogmatic i n his a p p l i c a t i o n of Burton* 'Tis Pity She's A Whore« whatever i t s other i n t e r e s t s , i s mainly s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t presents the inception, the apparent cure, and the f i n a l destructive powers of h e r o i c a l l o v e ^ To prove his point he makes an almost word by word comparison of Giovanni's imagery with Burton's description of the symptoms and physical manifestations of t h i s disease; This analysis leads him to the statement: It i s clear that 'Tis Pity She's A Whore embodies the l e t t e r and s p i r i t of the mechanistic doctrine of humours;15 To imply that Ford wrote 'Tis Pity with a copy of the 22 Anatomy of Melancholy open on his desk and that Giovanni i s merely a pathological casebook study of h e r o i c a l love i s to reduce the characters to mechanical types and depriye the play of that humanity which gives i t tragic stature! However, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s worth mentioning since i t suggests a p a r a l l e l between the influence of Burton on his day and that of Freud today! Both Ford and Giovanni would have the same awareness of the various diagnoses i n the Anatomy of Melancholy as the modern writer and hero has of Freudian psychology, and t h i s was bound to influence t h e i r reasoning! Turning once again to the text, we f i n d that Ford, having established the character of Giovanni and explained the peculiar c o n f l i c t between passion and reason that w i l l lead i n e v i t a b l y to tragedy, has provided i n the character of the F r i a r , a spokesman for the world against which Giovanni's incestuous passion r e v o l t s ! It i s worth noting when and why the F r i a r appears throughout the play! In the f i r s t scene he i s the f o i l to Giovanni's arguments, against which he can provide no more meaningful a l t e r n a t i v e than b l i n d , unreasoning f a i t h and a pre s c r i p t i o n of prayer and f a s t i n g ! His despairing a t t i t u d e is epitomized i n his f i r s t speech to Giovanni! M ! ! • no more; I may not hear i t ! " This a t t i t u d e Is rather l i k e that of the monkey who hides his eyes, ears, and mouth and then maintains that e v i l does not e x i s t ! 23 The next scene with the F r i a r takes place a f t e r Giovanni and Annabella have become lovers and Giovanni's approach i s now that of one who, convinced he has made the r i g h t decision, i s determined to win round the skeptics. The F r i a r ' s counsel Is that Annabella be married since only t h i s can save her from damnation. Giovanni r e t o r t s with contempt: Marriage? Why, that's to damn her! That's to prove Her greedy of variety of l u s t . ( I I . v) Faced with Giovanni's l y r i c a l description of Annabella and his obvious determination to pursue his chosen course, the F r i a r again shrinks from any positive action, "what I can do is but pray." When he appears next i t i s to torture Annabella with h e l l - f i r e and damnation and then to o f f i c i a t e , s e l f -righteously, at her wedding to Soranzo. Afte r t h i s the F r i a r has one more function to perform. He acts as messenger between Annabella and Giovanni and overhears Annabella's confession with obvious s a t i s f a c t i o n : —my blessing ever re s t with thee, my daughter: l i v e , to die more blessed! (V. i i ) His f i n a l scene i s the ultimate i n moral weakness. Having delivered the l e t t e r , he witnesses Giovanni's determination to defy Soranzo and decides that he cannot remain to see his 2k inevitable destruction; Having f a i l e d to provide an answer to Giovanni's o r i g i n a l dilemma, either p o s i t i v e or negative, he averts his eyes from the catastrophe and refuses to accept any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for what i s about to happen. His f i n a l statement leaves no doubt that he i s washing the blood from his hands: Well, young man, since no prayer Can make thee safe, I leave thee to despair; (V. iv) I have dwelt on the weakness of the F r i a r ' s character because of the peculiar bias on the part of many c r i t i c s who refuse to accept t h i s weakness and attempt to make the F r i a r spokesman for the moral philosophy of the play; This view stems d i r e c t l y from an almost pathalogical r e f u s a l to accept the subject of incest unless i t i s chosen only to be condemned; For t h i s to be the case, i t i s necessary to make the F r i a r the ultimate symbol of morality i n the play; 5 This i s the view taken by N. W. Bawcutt i n his i n t r o -duction to the ed i t i o n of the play which was used as the s c r i p t for t h i s production; Bawcutt Interprets the play as a series of warnings against the effects of passion and goes to painstaking pedantic lengths to support t h i s assertion: Fors uses the word "Heaven" i n *Tls Pity She's A  Whore (over t h i r t y times), and,these a l l u s i o n s b u i l d up a clear picture of.a divine agency intervening In human a f f a i r s ; 1 ^ 25 He excuses the F r i a r ' s i n a b i l i t y to come to terms with the moral problem by saying that nothing he could have said would have had any a f f e c t on Giovanni anyway and he i s not to be blamed for leaving, since Giovanni has spurned h i s a f f e c t i o n by refusing to heed his advice. Bawcutt concludes: Whatever c r i t i c i s m s may be made of the F r i a r , the impression s t i l l remains that Ford intended him as an admirable representative of orthodox morality; 1' These are weak arguments but when presented as an introduction to an e d i t i o n of the play published i n 1966, they suggest the attitude with which the established order continues to view any presentation of incest that might be construed as favourable! This bias cannot help but obstruct an objective analysis of the play; I f we accept the i n t r i n s i c weakness of the F r i a r as being a basic part of the play's structure i t i s easy to rela t e the Hi p p o l i t a sub-plot to the o v e r - a l l purpose! If the F r i a r i s the r e l i g i o u s representative of the established order (ignoring for a moment the symbolic importance of the Cardinal), then Soranzo i s i t s secular representative! By introducing Hippolita and c a r e f u l l y showing the hypocrisy i n Soranzo*s treatment of her, Ford establishes Soranzo*s moral worthlessness and removes him permanently as a v a l i d a l t e r n a t i v e to Giovanni. I t i s apparent that Ford wishes no diversion In focus and that he i n no way suggests that there i s a moral r i v a l 26 to Giovanni• The conclusion to be drawn here, i n opposition to the views of Bawcutt, i s that Ford was not concerned with the moral issue of incest as such! The function of each of the suitors i n the play i s to emphasize the decadence of the order that Annabella r e j e c t s by loving Giovanni; This view i s supported by O l i v e r : He does not take up the general moral issue, but adopts the j u s t i f i a b l e course of keeping one's dramatic sympathies with Giovanni rather than h i s r i v a l s Grimaldi, Bergetto and Soranzo; 1" This brings us to the Bergetto comic sub-ploti Apart from his choice of incest as a subject for tragedy, nothing has been so r e a d i l y attacked i n Ford as his comic sub-plots; Havelock E l l i s 1 ^ supports Gifford's view that Ford's comic characters are "a despicable set of buffoons." Representative of those who emphasize Ford's decadence i s the view of The  Cambridge History of English L i t e r a t u r e : F i n a l l y , i n his attempts at comedy, Ford sinks to a lower l e v e l than any dramatist of his c l a s s , and his farce lacks the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of much of the coarse buffoonery of h i s pre-decessors. I t i s not r e a l i s t i c ; i t i s not the expression of high s p i r i t s ; i t i s a perfunctory attempt to season tragedy and romance with an admixture of rubbish, without humour and without joy;20 Whatever v a l i d i t y t h i s may have for the comedy i n Ford's other plays, i t does not apply to 'Tis Pity; 4 I have pointed out the importance of the suitors as f o i l s to Giovanni: 27 Grimaldi i s a coward, Soranzo a moral defective, and Bergetto a f o o l ; but^Bergetto»s Importance goes beyond t h i s ; Whether or not Ford intended a play on the Elizabethan meaning of "innocent M as f o o l , such a d u a l i t y e x i s t s ! Bergetto i s a f o o l , but m o r e f s i g n i f i c a n t l y he i s the innocent, and t h i s gives a spec i a l emphasis to the gratuitous death which he s u f f e r s ! In the established order maintained by Soranzo and the F r i a r It i s the-, innocent f o o l who i s victim when treachery m i s f i r e s ! I t i s not enough, therefore, f o r Leech to excuse the Bergetto episode by suggesting- that Ford's motive for introducing i t was to provide ! ! ! the contrast between the i n t e n s i t y and the reluctance of Giovanni's love and the easualness and easy pleasure of B e r g e t t o ' s ! 1 A proper appreciation of the comic plot i s shown by Oliver when he says that Bergetto "becomes a pathetic and almost tra g i c f i g u r e , and his death i s not the lea s t of the many great scenes i n the p l a y ! " 2 2 I t i s apparent then that the two sub-plots are e s s e n t i a l to a proper understanding of the play and when they are excised, as they were by Maeterlink i n hi s 1895 adaption for Le Theatre de 1' Oeuvre, Annabella. a serious d i s s e r v i c e i s done to Ford!' One other general aspect of the play must be discussed and that i s the frequent charge made by c r i t i c s that Ford, dealing primarily with mental aberration, f i l l s out the action . 28 of his plays with excessive horror and sensationalism for the t i t i l l a t i o n i t would provide the decadent audience of the Caroline court. In p a r t i c u l a r , Giovanni's appearance with Annabella*s bloody heart impaled on his dagger has been pointed to as a prime example of t h e a t r i c a l excess! The standard argument i s upheld by Leech: Not only must he k i l l Annabella, but he must make his l a s t entry on the stage bearing her heart on the end of his dagger. The Jacobean writers had indeed c u l t i v a t e d the h o r r i b l e and the shocking, needing to j o l t an audience accustomed to tragedy, to prevent them from merely recognizing i n disaster an old dramatic acquaintance. But there i s something * operatic.*, something i n the Fletcherian mode, i n 'Tis Pity She*s A Whore! Though when he wrote i t he was around f o r t y years of age, Ford shows something of a mere desire to make our f l e s h creep! 23 This i s f a r too g l i b a dismisal of Giovanni*s f i n a l a c t i o n s ! They are grotesque but meaningful• Oliver confesses that his o r i g i n a l interpretation of the f i n a l a c t i o n regarded i t as a melodramatic acceptance of the t r a d i t i o n of bloody endings for tragedies of blood: Revising t h i s however, he suggests that i t i s a psychological fact that the thinker, forced to become the man of action, overacts his part and his actions i n r e a l l i f e appear melo-dramatic! He says, "He had to give a r e a l i s t i c presentation of melodramatic action; i t has seemed to many a melodramatic presentation of r e a l i t y : " This view i s consistent with the 29 development of Giovanni's character and repudiates the charges that Ford catered p o i n t l e s s l y to a decadent t h e a t r i c a l appetite! In f a c t , when one considers the torment between passion and i n t e l l e c t that governs Giovanni's character and the in t e n s i t y with which he has pursued his incestuous course, his f i n a l act of defiance, rather than seeming superfluous, appears almost i n e v i t a b l e . In t h i s general analysis of the play I have attempted to cover the major areas of c r i t i c a l debate and to take into account the s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n c r i t i c a l opinion, suggesting at the same time the viewpoints which come closest to my own!" I have attempted to show that 'Tls Pity i s a Jacobean revenge tragedy r e f l e c t i n g the dominant mood and ethos of the time and concerned primarily with the c o n f l i c t between, on the one hand, the established s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s order, repre-sented variously by the F r i a r , the Cardinal, and the sui t o r s , and, on the other, the r e b e l l i o u s incestuous love of Annabella and Giovanni! The play i s not a discussion of the moral question of incest, but e s s e n t i a l l y a love story! The hero and heroine are rebels, and the atmosphere that surrounds them i s one of violence, treachery and intrigue! 5 I have jalso suggested that from the very f i r s t scene we are made aware of the sexual nature of Giovanni's passion and that sex continues 30 to be a dominant force throughout the play. These are the basic assumptions on which the production was based. I l l In terms of emotional inte r p r e t a t i o n I have been influenced by the description of the play given by Artaud i n The Theatre and I t ' s Double. The Influence of Artaud, however, i s one of s p i r i t rather than s p e c i f i c d e t a i l . His enthusiasism tends to lose sight of the actual facts as they are stated i n the text and so eager i s he to proclaim his support for the incestuous theme that he becomes as extreme, i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n , as the s t r i c t moralists: In Ford's 'Tis Pity She's A Whore, from the moment the curtain r i s e s , we see to our utter stupefaction a creature flung into a v i o l e n t v i n d i c a t i o n of incest, exerting a l l the vigor of his youthful consciousness to proclaim and j u s t i f y i t . 2 5 We can argue that what Giovanni proclaims and j u s t i f i e s i s not incest per se, but his p a r t i c u l a r incestuous love f o r Annabella; however, t h i s i s not as important as recognizing the emotional impact behind Artaud's statements. What Artaud proclaims, and what was taken as the springboard for t h i s production, i s the heroic i n t e n s i t y with which Annabella and Giovanni plunge themselves into t h e i r love. The tragedy of the play i s that 31 they are able to r a t i o n a l i s e and j u s t i f y t h e i r decisions, not to the world against which they r e b e l , but to themselves; Giovanni and Annabella are children convincing them-selves that t h e i r game cannot be spoiled by contact with the world, whose existence when i t refuses to support them they choose to ignore. The heroism i n the play i s the courage and conviction with which they face t h i s world when i t demands that they pay the price of t h e i r love; I t i s t h i s unyielding defiance that Artaud speaks of when he says: It i s the absolute condition of r e v o l t , i t i s an exemplary case of love without res p i t e which makes us, the spectators, gasp with anguish at the idea that nothing w i l l ever be able to stop l t i,26 Giovanni and Annabella grow and develop i n the course of the play from the bravado of Giovanni's f i r s t debate with the F r i a r : I t were more ease to stop the ocean From f l o a t s and ebbs than to dissuade my vows, ( I i 1) and the c h i l d i s h innocence of Annabella*s determination to formalize t h e i r passion with r i t u a l : , On my knees, Brother, even by our mother's dust, I charge you, Do not betray me to your mirth or hate, love me or k i l l me, brother; ( I i 11) 32 to the calm strength with which Giovanni prepares to face his enemies : Despair, or tortures of a thousand h e l l s , A l l ' s one to met I have set up my r e s t i I f I must t o t t e r l i k e a well-grown oak, Some under-shrubs s h a l l i n my weighty f a l l Be crushed to s p l i t s : with me they a l l s h a l l perlshi (Vi iv) and the worldly.dignity with which Annabella, grown from c h i l d to woman, accepts the i n e v i t a b l e : Brother, dear brother, know what I have been, And know that now there's but a dinlng-time •Twixt us and our confusion: l e t ' s not waste These precious hours i n vain and useless speech; (Vi' v) Two basic assumptions were made i n the interpretation of the love story of Giovanni and Annabella: t h e i r s p i r i t u a l passion evolved out of a basic physical desire, and the inte n s i t y of t h e i r r e v o l t when seen against the backdrop of t h e i r society was both noble and, ultimately, triumphanti ; The complexity of Giovanni's character stems from the i n t r i n s i c c o n f l i c t between idealism and sexuality and h i s determination to resolve i t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y : i' I J" ' t i s not, I know, My l u s t , but ' t i s my fate that leads me oni ( I i i i ) i Although Annabella seems to submit rather e a s i l y to her brother's impassioned rhetoric at the beginning of the play, 33 i t i s obvious that her strength i s equal to his when required, and i t i s t h i s defiant strength that she exhibits to Soranzo, even with h i s dagger at her throat: I dare thee to the worst: s t r i k e , and s t r i k e home I leave revenge behind, and thou shalt f e e l ' t i (IV; i i i ) Passion-, defiance, strength, and an unwavering l o y a l t y to t h e i r oath of love or death: these are the q u a l i t i e s that are to be discovered i n Giovanni and Annabella, and i t i s these that make t h e i r incestuous love the one symbol of purity i n the play!' I f t h i s interpretation takes Annabella*s and Giovanni's love as representing a special purity (what Artaud c a l l s , "absolute freedom i n r e v o l t " ^ ) , i t represents the world i n which t h i s takes place as dominated by e v i l , decadence, and corruption! Often the e v i l springs from malicious intent, at times i t i s the r e s u l t of moral cowardice and general ineptitude; Ford suggests no a l t e r n a t i v e to the path taken by h i s lovers through t h i s grotesque society! The problem then i s to emphasize the decadence and contrast It x-fith the love story! I have already mentioned the purpose of the parade of suitors early i n the play!' Even sexually, Giovanni emerges favourably i n comparison with Soranzo and Grlmaldi, whom both Putana and Vasques imply Is impotent and who i s not above using 3k aphrodisiacs to secure Annabella: I love f a i r Annabella, and would know whether i n a r t there may not be potions to move a f f e c t i o n ! ( H i i i i ) The peripheral characters, i f not e v i l themselves, contribute to the general decay of the s o c i e t y i P l o r i o and Donado are both well meaning but i n e f f e c t u a l and easy prey to the machinations of those i n c o n t r o l i Putana i s a sympathetic character from an audience viewpoint, and her needless torture i s genuinely h o r r i f y i n g , but her bawdy li c e n t i o u s sexuality i s i n strong contrast to the physical desire which motivates Giovanni and Annabellai Her immorality i s an example of an extreme as deplorable as the F r i a r ' s perverted piety: If a young wench f e e l the f i t upon her, Let her take anybody, father or brother, a l l i s one. ( I i i i ) There i s a d e f i n i t e grotesqueness about Putana's bawdry. Her earthiness, while often genuinely funny, i s not meant to represent an extension of Annabella * s sexual a t t i t u d e . An Important r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the play i s that of Rlchardetto and P h i l o t i s . Rlchardetto i s a bona f i d e revenger and h i s s i n i s t e r plottings seem p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i l since Hippolita's adultry i s used as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n for his treachery; There i s also an unpleasant suggestion throughout h i s scenes 35 that he Is an opportunist constantly seeking the approval and favour of the Cardinal: There seems to be l i t t l e doubt that Ford meant him to be viewed i r o n i c a l l y . A good example i s his assurance to Donado, a f t e r the death of h i s nephew, that The Cardinal i s noble; he no doubt W i l l give true j u s t i c e ! ( I I I . ix) There i s a latent sexuality apparent i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with P h i l o t i s : the phrase "my lovely niece!" recurs often enough to be suspicious. Consequently the scene In which he orders her to become a nun i s u t t e r l y unmotivated and not c r e d i b l e ! I t must be taken as the one serious s t r u c t u r a l flaw i n the play and for t h i s reason i t was cut completely. It should be noted, however, that there i s c r i t i c a l dlssention on t h i s point. Bawcutt, the C h r i s t i a n moralist, argues that i t i s e s s e n t i a l to the meaning of the play and represents a moral a l t e r n a t i v e to human love: Oliver recognizes i t as a clumsy plot lapse to get r i d of a character for whom the dramatist has no further use; I have already mentioned the importance of the absurdity of Bergetto's death and the almost tragic dimension i t achieves: The quality of t h i s scene and i t s i r o n i c comment i s one of the most s t r i k i n g examples of the modernity of 'Tis Pity . In a grotesque and e v i l world i t i s the rebel who becomes hero, I and death, though occasionally glorious, i s usually an 36 absurdity which claims the innocent by mistake. Having set up the basic contrast between Giovanni and Annabella and t h e i r society, I have taken the church as the epitome of that society! Consequently both the F r i a r and the Cardinal are viewed i r o n i c a l l y as representatives of moral corruption! I have already dwelt at some length on the weakness of the F r i a r ' s character, his r e f u s a l to off e r a moral al t e r n a t i v e to Giovanni's arguments, and his ultimate betrayal when the end i s near! Nowhere i s the F r i a r ' s behaviour more contemptible than when he forces Annabella to agree to marry Soranzo, i n a scene of verbal torture which reveals the twisted mentality behind his pious sanctimony! The Cardinal i s more a symbol than a character. His s c a r l e t robes represent the stream of blood that flows through the blackness of Ford's Parma! The Cardinal makes only two s i g n i f i c a n t appearances i n the play: F i r s t , at the end of the f i r s t h a l f , a f t e r the death of Bergetto, where his contempt for j u s t i c e signals the violence that dominates the action of the remainder of the play; and again at the end to pronounce sentence on the slaughter and reap the s p o i l s : And a l l the gold and jewels, or whatsoever Confiscate by the canons of the church, We sieze upon to the pope's proper use. (V. v i ) 37 One other s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p needs to be discussed! that of Vasques and Soranzo. I have already mentioned that Vasques i s a true Jacobean revenge figure i n the t r a d i t i o n of Webster's Lodovico. This i s why the position of Vasques i n the play i s emphasized! In a grotesque world the weak man i s merely corrupt, but the man of strength who devotes h i s entire energy to the professional practice of murder and intrigue has a c e r t a i n monstrous fa s c i n a t i o n about him and as such i s the prime representative of t h i s world! Vasques i s such a man and his character i s seen i n peculiar r e l a t i o n s h i p to Soranzo, who, despite his arrogance and cruelty, i s e s s e n t i a l l y weak! There i s a d e f i n i t e , i f l a t e n t , sexual flavour to t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , on the part of Vasques. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that when Vasques f i g h t s Grimaldi on Soranzo's behalf he makes a point of mocking Grimaldi 1s v i r i l i t y . When Vasques becomes Hlppolita's accomplice, i n order to f o i l her attempt to murder Soranzo, he plays his part well, but how loathsome a task i t i s for him i s suggested by the force of the v i t r i o l i c abuse he hurls at Hl p p o l i t a a f t e r he has poisoned her! Vasques' manipulation of Hlpp o l i t a here bears some resemblence to the influence of De Plores on Beatrice i n Middleton's The Changeling! Having dispensed with H l p p o l i t a , Vasques i s soon c a l l e d upon to discover the i d e n t i t y of Annabella»s lover. When 38 Soranzo agrees to l e t Vasques handle the in v e s t i g a t i o n he acknowledges Vasques* c o n t r o l . A s i g n i f i c a n t revelation of Vasques* true nature i s his treatment of Putanai Having wrung the necessary information from her, he orders her gagged and her eyes put out. However, when his Band i t t i fumble the job, he leaps on her i n an attack that i s as vi o l e n t as i t i s unnecessary: Let me come to her; 1*11 help your old gums, You toad-bellied b i t c h . (IV; i i i ) Vasques then delights i n taunting Soranzo with an excessive almost feminine z e a l : Vasques: Am I to be believed now? F i r s t marry a strumpet that cast herself away upon you but to laugh at your horns, to feast on your disgrace, r i o t i n your vexations, cuckold you i n your brldebed, waste your estate upon panders and bawdsI Soranzo: No more, I say, no more! Vasques: A cuckold i s a goodly tame beast my l o r d . (Vi- i i ) Vasques* importance i s then, that he represents e v i l at i t s most malevolent and dangerous extreme and consequently he i s a more f i t t i n g opponent for Giovanni than Soranzo. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Vasques survives at the end of the play, and his pride i s i n sharp contrast to the hypocrisy of the Cardinal! 39 F i n a l l y , a note on the interpretation of Giovanni's f i n a l act of revenge: When he k i l l s Annabella and tears out her heart i t i s the ultimate act of r e b e l l i o n , a magnificent gesture of defiance and love. Again I acknowledge the s p i r i t of Artaudi Giovanni, the lover, inspired by the passion of a great poet, puts himself beyond vengeance, beyond crime, by s t i l l another crime, ont that i s indescribably passionate; beyond threats, beyond horror by an even greater horror, one which overthrows at one and the same time law, morality, and a l l those who dare set themselves up as administrators of j u s t i c e i • . i You want, he seems to say, my love's f l e s h and bloodi Very well, I w i l l throw t h i s love i n your face and shower you with i t s b l o o d — f o r you are incapable of r i s i n g to i t s height!30 40 NOTES 1. C l i f f o r d Leech, John Ford and the Drama of His Time (London, 1957)» p. 109. 2. Leech, p. 37. 3 . Gi F; Sensabaugh, The Tragic Muse of John Ford (Stanford, 1944); 4! Una Ellis-Fermor, The Jacobean Drama (New York, 1964), pi 231. 5. Ibid., pi 229i 6. Ibid I', pi 12 i 7. Ibid., pi 18i 8i Leech, pi 41; 9 . I b i d i 10i Ellis-Fermor, p. 283i 11. I b i d i , pi 3-12. H. G. Oli v e r , The Problem of John Ford (Melbourne, 1955)* P» 5» 13. Sensabaugh, p. 6 i 14. Ibid., p. 71. 15. I b i d i , p. 92. 16. N. W. Bawcutt, edi, 'Tls Pity She's A Whore, by John Ford (University of Nebraska, 1966), p. x v i . 17. I b i d i , p. x x i i 18. O l i v e r , pi 90i 19i Havelock E l l i s , ed;, Five Plays, by John Ford (New York, 195?). Pi xiv; 20; Sensabaugh, p; 5» 21; Leech, p; 51* 22; O l i v e r , pi 97i 23i Leech, pi k9* 2ki O l i v e r , pi 95i 25. Antonln Artaud, The Theatre and Its Double (New York, 1958), p. 28. 26. Ibid., pi 29. 27. I b i d . 28i Bawcutt, pi x v i . 29. O l i v e r , pi 97i 30. Artaud, pi 29. 42 BIBLIOGRAPHY Artaud, Antonin. The Theatre and Its Double. Trans., by-Mary Caroline Richards. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1958. Ellis-Fermor, Una. The Jacobean Drama. New York: Vintage Books, 1964. Ford, John. Five Plays, ed., by Havelock E l l i s . New York: H i l l and Wang Inc., 1957. 'Tis Pity She's A Whore, ed., by N. W. Bawcutt. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966. Leech, C l i f f o r d . John Ford and the Drama of His Time. London: Chatto and Windus, 1957. O l i v e r , H. G. The Problem of John Ford. Melbourne: University of Melbourne Press, 1955* Sargeaunt, M. G. John Ford. London: Oxford University Press, 1935. Sensabaugh, G. F. The Tragic Muse of John Ford. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1944. 'TIS PITY SHE'S A WHORE by John Ford 43 J>«\KME\ cue. \ M U « A C cue I Pity She's a Whore [Li] Enltr Friar <W Giovanni, o f * C * J U M Dispute no more in this, for know, young man, These are no school-points; nice philosophy May tolerate unlikely arguments, But Heaven admits no jest: wits that presum'd On wit too much, by striving how to prove There was no God, with foolish grounds of art, Discover'd first the nearest way to hell, And fill'd the world with devilish atheism.-. r * . \ * 8 , « l o J t y W>OM, Such questions, youth, are-feott; for better 'tis To bless the sun than reason why it shines, Yet He thou talk'st of is above the sun. No more; I may not hear it. G I O V A N N I . Gentle father, To you I have unclasp'd my burdened soul, Emptied the storehouse of my thoughts and heart, Made rhyself poor of secrets; have not left Another word untold, which hath not spoke All what I ever durst or think or know; And yet is here the comfort I shall have, Must I not do what all men else may, love? F R I A R . Yes, you may love, fair son. G I O V A N N I . Must I not praise That beauty which, if fram'd anew, the gods Would make a god of, if-they had it there, And kneel to it, as I do kneel to them? 10 15 20 2. school-points] topics for academic debate; 6. art] learning. 9. fond] foolish. -5-£)4 I.i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE FRIAR. Why, foolish madman— GIOVANNI. Shall a peevish sound, Vj£^f(<, W\+ A customary form, from man to man, * Of brother and of sister, be a bar 'Twixt my perpetual happiness and me? Say that we had one father, say one womb X ftfek/^ •(Curse to my joys) gave both us life and birth; fi>fc^  Are we not therefore each to other bound 30 So much the more by nature, by the links Of blood, of reason—nay, if you will have't, \<»»«\s Even of religion—to be ever one, One soul, one flesh, one love, one heart, one all? FRIAR. I i.:/'' Have done, unhappy youth, for thou art lost. • 35 j GIOVANNI. j Shall then, for that I am her brother /born, My joys be ever banish'd from her bed ? No, father; in your eyes I see the change Of pity and compassion; from your age, As from a sacred oracle, distils 40 The life of counsel: tell me, holy man, What cure shall give me ease in these extremes. FRIAR. Repentance, son, and sorrow for this sin: For thou hast mov'd a Majesty above With thy unrangcd. almost blasphemy. 45 GIOVANNI. O do not speak of that, dear confessor! h-»o /tH»« FRIAR. W\«»«S«*,o.»*W«, Art thou, my son, that miracle of wit Who once, within these three months, wert esteem'd A wonder of thine age, throughout Bononia? How- did the University applaud 50 Thy government, behavior, learning, speech, 25. customary form] mere convention, formality. 45. unranged] probably meaning "wildly disordered". 49. Bononia] Bologna, famous for its university. 51. government] good conduct, discretion. -6-i 45 'Tis P I T Y S H E ' S A W H O R E I.i Sweetness, and all that could make up a man! I was proud of my tutelage, and chose Rather to leave my books than part with thee. I did so: but the fruits of all my hopes Are lost in thee, as thou art in thyself. O, Giovanni, hast thou left the schools 55 Of knowledge to converse with lust and death ? For death waits on thy lust. Look through the world, And thou shalt see a thousand faces shine • More glorious than this idol thou ador'st: Leave her, and take thy choice, 'tis much less sin, Though in such games as those they lose that win. G I O V A N N I . It were more ease to stop the ocean M'tWiK y From floats and ebbs than to dissuade my vows. F R I A R . Then I have done, and in thy wilful flames Already sec thy ruin; Heaven is just. Yet hear my counsel. G I O V A N N I . As a voice of life. F R I A R . V-V'A.Sv.c . Hie to thy father's house, there lock thee fast Alone within thy chamber, then fall down On both thy knees, and grovel on the ground: Cry to thy heart, wash every word thou utter'st In tears, and (if't be possible) of blood: Beg Heaven to cleanse the leprosy of lust; That rots thy soul, acknowledge what thou art, A wretch, a worm, a nothing: weep, sigh, pray Three times a day, and three times every night. For seven days' space do this, then if thou find'st No change in thy desires, return to me: I'll think on remedy. Pray for thyself At home, whilst I pray for thee here. —Away, — My blessing with thee, we have need to pray. 60 65 70 75 80 57. Giovanni] to be pronounced with four syllables, not three as in Italian. 65. floats] flows. 65., vows] wishes, prayers. -7-46 t I.i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE GIOVANNI. All this I'll do, to free me from the rod < * < * M t > s Hm<\c. CAX6. ^ Of vengeance; eke I'll swear my fate's my god. Fwtmt, [I.ii] Enter Grimaldi and Vasques ready to JighL G*«»wv«W \£»*Via>.i VASQUES. V,\n VfcoWy Uc €*v(ft.»»l<ML yOtfH *UJe»x> Come, sir, stand to your tackling; if you prove craven, I'll make you run quickly. *-^ >& v-» GRIMALDI. a\ocV,^«rv Thou art no equal match for me &«*fcVt, P I V K V ^ \_ VASQUES. • Indeed I never went to the wars to bring home news, ^ nor cannot play the mountebank for a meal's meat, and 5 1 swear I got my wounds in the field. See you these grey hairs? ; They'll not flinch for a bloody nose. Wilt thou to this gear 2 \M& GRIMALDI. C u A x V U i V t H * * • * . « , » Why, slave, think'st thou I'll balance my reputation with a cntt-suit?. Call thy master, he shall know that I dare— f^uvw f\>l<w VASQUES. Scold like a cot-quean, that's your profession. Thou poor 10 shadow of a soldier, I will make thee know my master keeps tottapiffw&i servants thy betters in quality and performance. Com'st thou to fight or prate? GRIMALDI. Neither, with thee. I am a Roman and a gentleman, one that a ,^^ have got mine honor with expense of blood. •'•Of 0, VASQUES. You are a lying coward and a fool; fight, or by these hilts I'll kill thee. —Brave my lord! You'll fight? Vwwi, 14-15.] Weber; Neither . . . thee./ I o w « t j . . . got/ Mine . . . blood. Q.. 1. tackling] weapons. 3. equal] socially equal; Grimaldi will not demean himself by fighting a servant. 7. gear] business (of fighting). 9. cast-suit] servant wearing his master's cast-off clothing. 10. cot-quean] a man with too much interest in domestic matters; hence, effeminate and shrill. 17. Brave my lord!] "Do you dare to challenge my master?" -8-47 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE I.ii ORIMALDI. -•' Provoke me not, for if thou dost-VASQUES. Have at you! '. \lfrt>«su.es -<\\i,<**r<s f\>»t»Xw They fight, Grimaldi Aa<ft ffo MJor.rt. en*****, 1 Enter Florio, Donado, Soranzo. M<st*«\ifc«=, v\o\&*. v*\w, <v( -i>io<ki»- yo\*xX. 1 CoKMU OiJ'Cop Left, V>»»>>trt>o •Art»t»\B.«j{e* FLORIO. What mean these sudden broils so near my doors? Have you not other places but my house To vent the spleen of your disordered bloods ? Must I be haunted still with such unrest As not to eat or sleep in peace at home ? Is this your love, Grimaldi ? Fie, 'tis naught. DONADO. And Vasques, I may tell thee, 'tis not well To broach these quarrels; you are ever forward In seconding contentions. Entmr above Annabella and Putana. 25 . court feovJA f\ FLORIO. What's the ground? SORANZO. That, with your patience, signors, I'll resolve:— This gentleman, whom fame reports a soldier, (For else I know not) rivals me in love To Signor Florio's daughter, to whose ears He still prefers his suit, to my disgrace, Thinking the way to recommend himself Is to disparage me in his report. But know, Grimaldi, though, may be, thou art My equal in thy blood, yet this bewrayo <g*6»>\fe • A lowness in thy mind which, wert thou noble, Thou wouldst as much disdain as I do thee 30 Caj^ Vitot* 35 20. mean] Q con.; meaned Q. uncorr. 28. S.D. above] on the upper stage. 37. bewrays] betrays, reveals. -9-I.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE For this unworthiness; and on this ground ^^cV'Ao ^ \o^ v> I will'd my servant to correct his tongue, Holding a man so base no match for me. VASQUES. And had not your sudden coming prevented us, I had let my gentleman blood under the gills; I should have worm'd you, sir, for running mad. V a s ^ C * , ^ * * ^ ftj»e45 GRIMALDI. I'll be reveng'd, Soranzo. "&cM&. «v-><V>l 8v\«»W< VASQUES. On a dish of warm broth to stay your stomach—do, honest innocence, do; spoon-meat is a wholesomer diet than a Spanish blade. —4\H**M> &\«J**\»V Viw *•»»,«» GRIMALDI. Remember this! Ej.v(<, o»i &<c^ » SORANZO. I fear thee not, Grimaldi. Exit Grimaldi. FLORIO. My Lord Soranzo, this is strange to me, c^**>ta~ bow* Why you should storm, having my word engag'd: Owing her heart, what need you doubt her ear? Losers may talk by law of any game. 55 VASQUES. Yet the villainy of words, Signor Florio, may be such as would make any unspleen'd dove choleric. Blame not my lord in this. Mo f\og,\o FLORIO. Be you more silent. I would not for my wealth my daughter's love 60 Should cause the spilling of one drop of blood. Vasques, put up, let's end this fray in wine. Exeunt [Florio, Donado, Soranzo and VasquesJ. 4\. his] Dodsley; this Q.. 56-58.] Weber1; Yet... such/ As 43. had not] Dodsley; had Q.. . . . choleric./ Blame . . . this. Q_. 56. villainy] Dodsley; villaine Q_. 44. worm'd] "Worming" was an operation performed on dogs to prevent madness. 48. innocence] fool. 54. Owing] owning. 57. unspleen'd] lacking spleen, not easily angered. 62. put up] sheathe your sword. -10-'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE I.ii P U T A N A . <WW4A C ^ ^ C . V ^ , How like you this, child? Here's threat'ning, challenging, ^ f t ^ o y i ^ J ^ y quarreling, and fighting, on every side, and all is for your \ sake; you had need look to yourself, Charge, you'll be 65 stol'n away sleeping else shortly. A N N A B E L L A . But tut'ress, such a life gives no content To me, my thoughts are fix'd on other ends; Would you would leave me. '. c<M£s> P U T A N A . •'fo Mv«*cAe *<c^  Leave you? No marvel else. Leave me no leaving, charge; 70,j j ^ , ^ ^ 4 this is love outright. Indeed I blame you not, you have choice fit for the best lady in Italy. A N N A B E L L A . Pray do not talk so much. —^twvj^i ^ f&cM P U T A N A . Take the worst with the best, there's Grimaldi the soldier, a very well-timber'd fellow: they say he is a Roman, 75 nephew to the Duke Montferrato, they say he did good service in the wars against the Milanese, but 'faith, charge, I do not like him, an't be for nothing but for being a soldier;—: ^ p o v ^ ' f o l c * ^ not one amongst twenty of your skirmishing captains but V have some privy maim or other that mars their standing 80 upright. I like him the worse, he crinkles so much in the hams; though he might serve if there were no more men, yet he's not the man I would choose. A N N A B E L L A . Fie, how thou prat'st. **c»ei t>ovj*^fc£ P U T A N A . W f W f o f W^ H As I am a very woman, I like Signor Soranzo well; he is 85 \^  c > o v > ^ ^ cfg^ wise, and what is more, rich; and what is more than that, kind, and what is more than all this, a nobleman; such a one, were I the fair Annabella myself, I would wish and pray for. Then he is bountiful; besides, he is handsome, and ^j^o t*,w*M\i6.VLh 70-72.] Dodsley; Leave . . . charge;/ 78. an't] Weber; and Q_. This . . . have/ Choice . . . Italy. 0_- 79. not one] Dodsley; one Q_. 75. well-timber'd] sturdy, well-built. 80-81. standing upright] implying that their wounds have rendered them impotent. 50 I.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE by my troth, I think wholesome (and that's news in a gallant 90 of three and twenty); liberal, that I know; loving, that you ^ J ^ J ^ ^ know; and a man sure; else he could never ha' purchas'd QJ^g^ such a good name with Hippolita, the lusty widow, in her husband's lifetime: and 'twere but for that report, sweet-heart, would 'a were thine. Commend a man for his 95 qualities, but take a husband as he is a plain-sufficient, naked man: such a one is for your bed, and such a one is vleft*; c\o&t Signor Soranzo, my life for't. \g Vi>iV>K%fc^ v\ ANNABELLA. Sure the woman took her morning's draught too soon, ^^yg^ w ^ ^ Entsr Bergetto and Poggio. PUT AN A. I But look, sweetheart, look what thing comes now: hrrr'<; 100 • iflnnther of your ciphers to fill up tho number. O brnva old api? in •> tilVrn rnati Observe. *i<^fc'fi» BfcRUKl-lU. — * : B r f A c ^ Didst thou think, Poggio, that I would spoil my new g^g^ ti<^  clothes, and leave my dinner, to fight? \_£jvo\»iv. ovs ?o4Mo POGGIO. ..^  No, sir, I did not take you for so arrant a baby. 105 BERGETTO. I am wiser than so: for I hope, Poggio, thou never heardst of an elder brother that was a coxcomb. Didst, Poggio? POGGIO. Never indeed, sir, as long as they had either land or money left them to inherit. ^ j X °» BERGETTO. I t » •» Is it possible, Poggio? O monstrous! Why, I'll undertake 110 with a handful of silver to buy a headful of wit at any time; but sirrah, I have another purchase.in hand, I shall have the - 100-102.] Weber; But . . . now:/ 105-107.] Dodsley; I . . . thou/ Here's .. . number./ O . . . observe. Q_. Never . . . coxcomb./ Didst, Pog-103-104.] Dodsley; Didst... my/ gio?Q.. New . . . fight ? Q.. 90. wholesome] healthy, not diseased. 91. liberal] generous with money (to Putana). 94. report] rumor, gossip. -12-51 'Tis P I T Y S H E ' S A W H O R E I.ii wench, mine uncle says. I will but wash my face, and shift S»*\f ^ « fbtff socks, and then have at her i'faith! Mark my pace, Poggio ?cv^ es «\»»t> v^ ftW.t [Walks affectedly.]\JS6( WftA-H P O G G I O . RJSCJ»M«S«, f ^ e x v A t > \ - • Sir—[Aside.] I have seen an ass and a mule trot the 115 t^ Vafct *«.V\t?AivAC, Spanish pavin with a better grace, I know not how often. "AEfti* A N N A B E L L A . This idiot haunts me too P U T A N A . Exeunt [Bergetto and Poggio]. Etvfc K^eR^  Ay, ay, he needs no description; the rich magnifico that is W^j* below with your father, charge, Signor Donado his uncle, for that he means to make this his cousin a golden calf, 120 thinks that you will be a right Israelite and fall down to him presently: but I hope I have tutor'd you better. They say a fool's bauble is a lady's playfellow, yet you having wealth enough, you need not cast upon the dearth of flesh at any rate: hang him, innocent! 125 Enter Giovanni. A N N A B E L L A . But see, Putana, see: what bli?t?ed sh-ape Of mine celestial creature now appears? What man is he, that with such sad aspect Walks careless of himself? P U T A N A . Where? A N N A B E L L A . Look below. P U T A N A . O, 'tis your brother, sweet. A N N A B E L L A . , Ha! P U T A N A . 'Tis your brother.-A N N A B E L L A . Sure 'tis not he: this is some woeful thing Wrapp'd up in grief, some shadow of a man. . Dor*it4 -Sr<«P4 N*m\Vi S W J V V t y * ^ 116. pavin] pavanne, a stately dance. 118. magnifico] person in authority, magistrate. 120. golden calf] see Exodus, chapter 32. 123. bauble] stick or truncheon (but with an indecent implication). 123-125. yetyou . . . rate] Since Annabella is wealthy, she need not gamble recklessly ("cast... at any rate") and accept Bergetto as a husband on the assumption that there will be a shortage of suitors ("dearth of flesh"). 125.1. Enter] on the main stage below. -13-52 I.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Alas, he beats his breast, and wipes his eyes . • Drown'd -all in tears - methinks I hear him sigh. VSUr^  G\w\>fcta£\ Let's down, Putana, and partake the cause; 135 I know my brother, in the love he bears me, Will not deny me partage in his sadness E*.W «<Wi»x UL [Aside.] My soul is full of heaviness and fear VU. -LLS2 ^ g X T Exit [with Putana]. < W W V S A.U< GIOVANNI. t M m ^ A - - ^ ^ ^ Wft ^ \ S . 1 » Lost, I am lost: my fates have doom'd my death. The more I strive, I love; the more I love, 140 The less I hope: I see my ruin certain. What judgment or endeavors could apply RYSES To my incurable and restless wounds I throughly have examin'd, but in vain: «"-* t f ^ * - °^ 0 that it were not in religion sin 145 ! To make our love a god and worship it! i 1 have even wearied Heaven with prayers, dried up The spring of my continual tears, even starv'd My veins with daily fasts: what wit or art • i Could counsel, I have practic'd; but alas, 150 j I find all these but dreams and old men's tales To fright unsteady youth; I'm still the same ^ ox'Ahili Or I must speak, or burst; 'tis not, I know, My lust, but 'tis my fate that leads me on. Keep fear and low faint-hearted shame with slaves; 155 I'll tell her that I love her, though my heart — Were rated at the price of that attempt. U**»o o v i ft*to\G. O mel She comes. ^fc^S v^wfctc* Enter Annabella and Putana. CMVJH &<e^ b ANNABELLA. Brother! <SM*<(CM <i<tp GIOVANNI [aside]. If such a thing (SvriCw Vv\<»w{ As courage dwell in men, ye heavenly powers, ' Now double all that virtue in my tongue. 160 137. partage] a part or share. .138.] Some editors unnecessarily begin a new scene here. Annabella and Putana descend from the upper to the main stage while Giovanni speaks his soliloquy. 144. throughly] thoroughly. 155. Keep] live, dwell. -14-I J 53 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE I.ii . \ u , f C £ » * < £ ^ ANNABELLA. Why, brother, will you not speak to me? GIOVANNI. Yes; how d'ee, sister? — ANNABELLA. Howsoever I am, methinks you are not well. PUTANA. Bless us, why are you so sad, sir ? ;  GIOVANNI. Let me entreat you, leave us a while, Putana. Sister, 165 \_ 0Jg l t 4 4 > ^ I would be private with you. fvo^ e^V^  ANNABELLA. . . Withdraw, Putana. • Uxfcwifc Prf PUTANA. . O N \A\t>^4 V f e ^ I will. [Aside.] If this were any other company for her, I should think my absence an office of some credit; but I will leave them together. Exit Putana. 1 70 &t( . GIOVANNI. Come, sister, lend your hand, let's walk together. -I hope you need not blush to walk with me; Here's none but you and I. ANNABELLA. How's this? GIOVANNI. Faith, I mean no harm. ANNABELLA. Harm? GIOVANNI. No, good faith; how is't with 'ee?  ANNABELLA [aside]. I trust he be not frantic. [To him.] I am very well, brother. GIOVANNI. Trust me, but I am sick, I fear so sick 'Twill cost my life. ANNABELLA. Mercy forbid it! 'Tis not so, I hope. 165-166.] this edn.; Let. . . Putana./ Sister . . . you. Q_. 175 , VK> fwf' of -'(ftak 180 169. of some credit] deserving payment (as a bawd). 178. frantic] mad. -15-54 I.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE GIOVANNI. I think you love me, sister. tyf \s*»<i<fy ANNABELLA. Yes, you know I do. GIOVANNI. I know't indeed. —Y'are very fair H«vt&% cVo**^ ANNABELLA. Nay then, I see you have a merry sickness rtv*|«ii 9ndi6-> GIOVANNI. i That's as it proves. The poets feign, I read, \)<Jkj CAO That Juno for her forehead did exceed . \ All other goddesses: but I durst swear M*»**h Your forehead exceeds hers, as hers did theirs. ANNABELLA. Troth, this is pretty! GIOVANNI. Such a pair of stars 190 As are thine eyes would, like Promethean fire, If gently glanc'd, give life to senseless stones. ANNABELLA. Fie upon 'ee! — VKcitO&» (>\o\}to»t» tw("of'fa&t GIOVANNI. HV5, ftVfc waouf Wfc^  The lily and the rose, most sweetly strange, Upon your dimpled cheeks do strive for change. 195 Such lips would tempt a saint; such hands as t h c ^ ^ y ^ ^ ^ Would make an anchorite lascivious. \, \ ANNABELLA. D'ee mock me or flatter me? GIOVANNI. If you would see a beauty more exact Than art can counterfeit or nature frame, 200 Look in your glass and there behold your own. — £><&Af\C\>4fei VkE\ ANNABELLA. O you are a trim youth! ftv^fcvj \gfc<i*of GIOVANNI. Here ^V,^ s>ft&f»fcl\ Offers his dagger to her. 186. The] Dodsley; They Q.. ' 191. Promethean fire] In Greek mythology Prometheus first brought fire to men by stealing it from Heaven. -16-'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE I.ii ANNABELLA. What to do? GIOVANNI. —And here's my breast, strike home. 205 Rip up my bosom, there thou shalt behold A heart in which is writ the truth I speak. Why stand 'ee? : ANNABELLA. Are you earnest? GIOVANNI. Yes, most earnest. You cannot love? ANNABELLA. Whom? GIOVANNI. Me. My tortur'd coul Hath fait affliction in the heat of death, 2 10 0 Annabella, I am quito undone: The love of thee, my sister, and the view Of thy immortal beauty hath untun'd All harmony both of my rest and life. Why d'ee not strike? ANNABELLA. Forhirl it, my jutt frartl. If this be true, 'twere fitter I were dead. GIOVANNI. True, Annabella; 'tis no time to jest. 1 have too long suppress'd the hidden flames That almost have consum'd me; I have spent ... Many a silent night in sighs and groans, Ran over all my thoughts, despis'd my fate, Reason'd against the reasons of my love, Done all that smooth-cheek'd virtue could advise, But found all bootless; 'tis my destiny That you must either love, or I must die. ANNABELLA. tV »f-<t\%\£ 215 220 Comes this in eaanett from you? GIOVANNI. Let some mischief Befall me soon, if I dissemble aught. ANNABELLA. You are my brother Giovanni. :  205. strike] Dodsley; strick Q.. 223. smooth-cheek'd] smooth'd-cheek Q. Dodsley; 224. bootless] useless. 226. in sadness] seriously, sincerely: - 1 7 -56 I.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE GIOVANNI. YOU - My sister Annabella; I know this:——— PsvJtW fyj.^of And could afford you instance why to love 'feftJiS. 1230 So much the more for this; to which intent "£t><^ Wise nature first in your creation meant To make you mine; else't had been sin and foul To share one beauty to a double soul. Nearness in birth or blood doth but persuade 235 ' A nearer nearness in affection. I have ask'd counsel of the holy church, ^ Q * CX I A £ 'fo'tfvtSK Who tells me I may love you, and 'tis just That since I may, I should; and will, yes, will: Must I now live, or die? \\cX* c*\**s • : ANNABELLA. Live: thou hast won (N<ASU«£ O ' The field, and never fought; what thou hast urg'dC^VOMISVW^ ' ,' My captive heart had long ago resolv'd. I blush to tell thee—but I'll tell thee now— For every sigh that thou hast spent for mc j I have sigh'd ten; for every tear shed twenty: 245 j " And not so much for that I lov'd, as that 1 I durst not say I lov'd, nor scarcely think it. i G I O V A N N I . j Let not this music be a dream, ye gods, ELvvW c^wi^  I For pity's sake, I beg 'ee! ; j ' ANNABELLA. On my knees, She kneels.*** fag»^f. ; Brother, even by our mother's dust, I charge you, ofVwfcte 250 I Do not betray me to your mirth or hate, fi\cAt»(^  fySxWC' I Love me or kill me, brother. • — «»n ^ GIOVANNI. On my knees. He kneels&&**1* i Sister, even by my mother's dust, I charge you,^*» v*ie»»i<»» Ver-V ! Do not betray me to your mirth or hate, ' Love me or kill me, sister. Pwfe cAM&fw^ 255  ANNABELLA. KBM>V4S> n£R, You mean good sooth then? U<At>\vi&» W9«i«»s GIOVANNI. In good troth I do, And so do you, I hope: say, I'm in earnest. 256. sooth] truth. -18-57 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE I.i: ANNABELLA. I'll swear't, I. GIOVANNI. And I, and by this kiss, Kisses her. V~\.*AA\C (Once more, yet once more; now let's rise by this), [They rise.] v^ t^  /(U|e<. **** Vo ~ I would not change this minute for Elysium. What must we now do? ANNABELLA. What you will. GIOVANNI. Come then, After so many tears as we have wept, —;  Let's learn to court in smiles, to kiss, and sleep. L\gxU< CMS £ I.w Enter Florio and Donado. Signor Donado, you have said enough, I understand you; but would have you know I will not force my daughter 'gainst her will. You see I have but two, a son and her; ~'i And he is so devoted to his book, As I must tell you true, I doubt his health: Should he miscarry, aft my hopes rely Upon my girl; as for worldly fortune, I am, I thank my stars, blest with enough. My care is how to match her to her liking: I would not have her marry wealth, but love, And if she like your nephew, let him have her, Here's all that I can say. DONADO. Sir, you say well, Like a true father, and for my' part, I, Tf th<? young folks can Hire ('twivt you und me). Will promise to assure my nephew presently Three thousand florins yearly during life, And after I am dead, my whole estate. 260 of'ffttUtt Exeunt ^oo tAq> tiov»»\^ c. <»>e.W\^VH*\| Wkcv\ 10 15 258. swear't, I] Gifford; swear't and i a-[i.iii] 6. doubt] worry about. -19-58 I.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE FLORIO. 'Tis a fair proffer, sir; meantime your nephew Shall have free passage to commence his suit: 20 If he can thrive, he shall have my consent. So for this time I'll leave you, signor Exit, of? U-V. DONADO. Well, Here's hope yet, if my nephew would have wit: \^ "^ y^C 0 ^ But he is such another dunce, I fear tMvpH He'll never win the wench. When I was young 25 I could have done't, i'faith, and so shall he If he will learn of me; and in good time He comes himself.  Enter Bergetto and Poggio. . t>L RA\»OV»V»\<VI, How now, Bergetto, whither away so fast? S o^^ a<fUiy-\ BERGETTO. O uncle, I have heard the strangest news that ever came 30 out of the mint, have I not, Poggio ? POGGIO. Yes indeed, sir. <vf toPv^l^ DONADO. osu^a^ What news, Bergetto? .BERGETTO. Why, look ye, uncle, my barber told me just now that there is a fellow come to town who undertakes to make a 35 mill go without the mortal help of any water or wind, only with sand-bags: and this fellow hath a strange horse, a most excellent beast, I'll assure you, uncle (my barber says), whose head, to the wonder of all Christian people, stands just behind where his tail is; is't not true, Poggio? 40 POGGIO. So the barber swore, forsooth. DONADO. And you are running thither? BERGETTO. Ay forsooth, uncle. DONADO. Wilt thou be a fool still? Come, sir, you shall not go: Y°u/{(\^ 29. How . . . fast?] Assigned to Don- 42. thither] Gifford; hither 0_. ado by Weber; to Poggio in Q.. .• tffl, -20 -i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE I.iii have more mind of a puppet-play than on the business I 45 told ye; why, thou great baby, wilt never have wit, wilt make thyself a may-gamr to all the world ? ^i.*^sl6o «\^ aV& <0 POGGIO. ***** Answer for yourself, master. /tvA*#it AviCiy BERGETTO. I Why, uncle, should I sit at home still, and not go abroad to see fashions like other gallants? ctvy e^^  50 DONADO. To see hobby-horses! What wise talk, I pray, had you with Annabella, when you were at Signor Florio's house? BERGETTO. O, the wench! Uds sa' me, uncle, I tickled her with a rare \<io &o*W*»o speech, that I made her almost burst her belly with laughing. DONADO. Nay, I think so, and what speech was't? 55 BERGETTO. j. What did I say, Poggio ? "k^o VotMwo POGGIO. Forsooth, my master said that he loved her almost as well as he loved parmasent, and swore (I'll be sworn for him) that she wanted but such a nose as his was to be as pretty a young woman as any was in Parma. 60 DONADO. O gross! BERGETTO. Nay, uncle, then she ask'd me whether my father had any fefick Xo t^o»ftt>o more children than myself: and I said, "No, 'twere better he should have had his brains knock'd out first." DONADO. This is intolerable. 65 BERGETTO. Then said she, "Will Signor Donado your uncle leave you all his wealth ?" DONADO. • Ha! that was good, did she harp upon that string ? 47. may-game] laughing-stock, comic butt. 53. Uds sa' me] God save me. 58. parmasent] parmesan cheese. -21-60 I.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE BERCETTO. Did she harp upon that string ? Ay, that she did. I answered, "Leave me all his wealth? Why, woman, he hath no other 70 wit; if he had, he should hear on't to his everlasting glory and confusion: I know," quoth I, "I am his wlnuTfeoy, and will not be gull'd"; and with that she fell into a great smile and went away. Nay, I did fit her. DONADO. Ah, sirrah, then I see there is no changing of nature. Well, 75 Bergetto, I fear thou wilt be a very ass still. BERGETTO. I should be sorry for that, uncle. DONADO. Come, come you home with me; since you are no better a ^ speaker, I'll have you write to her after some courtly manner, and enclose some rich jewel in the letter. 80 BERGETTO. Ay marry, that will be excellent. Ao 9ov\iVi«> DONADO. -Peace, innocent. < • ^* f^c'Cofe6^&j«.<(o Once in my time I'll set my wits to school, If all fail, 'tis but the fortune of a fool. £X.v\ BERGETTO. V W O y ^ Poggio, 'twill do, Poggio. ; **x&5 »Avss\c CMS Q V\W. W**, [II.i] Enter Giovanni and Annabella, as from their chamber. \t£\ GIOVANNI. twlW.'W V l R f r V l f c ^ ^ V J \ » J 6 ^ Come, Annabella: no more sister now,"k"" 1^ v > i ft But love, a name more gracious; do not blush, i^cxtitV, ^ *\cvy f^teS. Beauty's sweet wonder, but be proud to know \>,sw<ivK£ of <^«^ That yielding thou hast conquer'd, and inflam'd A heart whose tribute is thy brother's life. 5 ANNABELLA. And mine is his. O, how these stol'n contents Vgwto.giMn%>»&. VUwt 71. glory] apparently a malapropism by Bergetto. 72. white boy] favorite. 74. ft] give an appropriate answer. -22-61 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Il.i Would print a modest crimson on my cheeks, Had any but my heart's delight prevail'd! GIOVANNI. I marvel why the chaster of your sex Should think this pretty toy call'd maidenhead . So strange a loss, when, being lost, 'tis nothing, And you are still the same. ANNABELLA. 'Tis well for you; Now you can talk. GIOVANNI. Music as well consists In th' ear, as in the playing. —'• ANNABELLA. O, y'are wanton; Tell on't, y'are best: do. GIOVANNI. Thou wilt chide me then. Kiss me: so; thus hung Jove on Leda's neck, And suck'd divine ambrosia from her lips. I envy not the mightiest man alive, But hold myself in being king of thee More great than were I king of all the world. 4 But I shall lose you, sweetheart. "1 15 (2>#>>»»Gs4 \i&\'io But you shall not Yes? To whom? ANNABELLA. GIOVANNI. You must be married, mistress. rUt afteY^o VxS^ ANNABELLA. " ~ GIOVANNI. Someone must have you. ANNABELLA. You must. GIOVANNI. Nay, some other. VV\H ANABELLA. I Now prithee do not speak so: without jesting, You'll make me weep in earnest. GIOVANNI. What, you will not! 2.5—Yv^ o t\*l>^S^^ But tell me, sweet, canst thou be dar'd to swear - ^ V j e i VXX V^ (S>»J*i That thou wilt live to me, and to no other? ANNABELLA. By both our loves I dare, for didst thou know, My Giovanni, how all suitors seem 16. Ledd] the mistress of Jove, who approached her in the form of a swan. -23-II.i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE To my eyes hateful, thou wouldst trust me then. 30 GIOVANNI. :  Enough, I take thy word. Sweet, we must parr MoUgfc tyi.wC Remember what thou vow'st, keep well my heart. W^E'Ws ANNABELLA. Will you be gone? of ftRc\k «>»»t* GIOVANNI. VvufeWfXfc VlXVA. I must. ANNABELLA. When to return? 35 GIOVANNI. j . Soon. ——Hovl41» <\w»«>n&«£K Cx&ortAw ANNABELLA. OJC( of VVlS. ' Look you dp. GIOVANNI. Farewell. Exit.^A ANNABELLA. . . Go where thou wilt, in mind I'll keep thee here, And where thou art, I know I shall be there. O M !^' 40 Guardian! • V W * WiAwrfU Enter Putana. V&\x> ft^etfA Wit> PUTANA. I Child, how is't, child? Well, thank Heaven, ha? c*i /(o^ 5<<«^V. j ANNABELLA. | O guardian, what a paradise of joy £*£vJrte«, j Have I pass'd over! i PUTANA. ! . Nay, what a paradise of joy have you pass'd under! Why, 45 I LL. J • •T-——•—jJ- i - r - , -r ow> Vt^tAa. now 1 commend thee, charge: tear nothing, sweetheart; ; what though he be your brother? Your brother's a man, >J/^o ^£g^ • I hope, and I say still, if a young wench feel the fit upon her, f j let her take anybody, father or brother, all is one. ' ANNABELLA. j I would not have it known for all the world. Wftt>*, ^[Ui^^ 1 PUTANA! D ^ v C ^ e . Nor I, indeed, for the speech of the people; else 'twere \ nothing.  FLORIO (within). V X L °ft Daughter Annabella! 63 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE II. i ANNABELLA. O me, my father! —Here, sir! —Reach my work. FLPRIO (within). What are you doing? ANNABELLA. So: let him come now. ?uK(\Vi* VV>M«. S.O*>**> Enter Florio, Kichardetto like a doctor oj physic, and Philotis with a Lute tn her hand. . f\,o«,\» vCe^s fcv»t> FLORIO. \\sev\<\«s><tf(o cov-s-as. t ^ ^ v i So hard at work ? That's well, you lose no time. v ( < ^ r^V\W6& Look, I have brought you company: here's one, cu'do. A learned doctor lately come from Padua, ' ' Much skill'd in physic, and for that I see You have of late been sickly, I entreated 60 This reverend man to visit you some time. ANNABELLA. Y'are very welcome, sir. RICHARDETTO. I thank you, mistress. €>c«jJtt Loud fame in large report hath spoke your praise. As well for virtue as perfection: For which I have been bold to bring with me A kinswoman of mine, a maid, for song And music one perhaps will give content; Please you to know her. 65 \V»wft&i\fc ^Kes. $\m> Gn>B&'Co ANNABELLA. They are parts I love, And she for them most welcome. PHILOTIS. Thank you, lady.Y^ V*» Ue* FLORIO. «\V»C Sir, now you know my house, pray make not strange, of Wft&V • And if you find my daughter need your art, ^ ^ I'll be your paymaster. RICHARDETTO. Sir, what I am 56-61.] Weber; prose in Q. 72-73. Sir . . . command.] Weber; one line in Q_. 54. work] needlework. 58. Padua] famous for the medical school of its university. 64. perfection] accomplishments. 68. parts] abilities. 70. make not strange] do not stand on ceremony. -25-64 II.i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE She shall command. FLORIO. You shall bind me to you. Daughter, I must have conference with you About some matters that concerns us both. 75 Good master doctor, please you but walk in, We'll crave a little of your cousin's cunning. I think my girl hath not quite forgot To touch an instrument: she could have done't; We'll hear them both. fVtvWU VSJoX* t>^ - 80 V\\xfr\C *\ RICHARDETTO. I'll wait upon you, sir. \^&AWV.Cw!Xk <&o*i% Exeunt. [ll.iij Enter Soranzo in his study reading a book. &iafrA\16\& p . SORANZO. • : 'Eg* ^  °^ ««"t* T "Love's measure is extreme, the comfort, pain, The life unrest, and the reward disdain:" • What's here? Look't o'er again: 'tis so, so writes This smooth licentious poet in his rhymes. But Sannazar, thou liest, for had thy bosom 5 Felt such oppression as is laid on mine, Thou wouldst have kiss'd the rod that made thee smart. To work then, happy muse, and contradict D«*i>iv(h&s What Sannazar hath in his envy writ. "Love's measure is the mean, sweet his annoys, 10 His pleasure's life, and his reward all joys." Had Annabella liv'd when Sannazar Did in hie brief oncomium celebrate ' VenicO) that queen of citicc, he had left That verse which gain'd him such a sum of gold, 15 And for one only look from Annabel Had writ of her and her diviner cheeks. O how my thoughts are— \ y>o^ ^ cgu^ gj^  VAS&UES (within) UA_ off ' Pray forbear; in rules of civility, let me give notice on't: I . [Il.ii] . '7. thee] Dodsley; the Q.. 77. cunning] skill. [Il.ii] 5. Sannazar] Jacopo Sannazaro (?1456-1530), an Italian poet, author of a famous epigram praising Venice, for which the city lavishly rewarded him. -26-'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Il.ii shall be tax'd of my neglect of duty and service. 20 SORANZO. What rude intrusion interrupts my peace? ^ wi/fo cot^efc, Can I be nowhere private? VASQUES (wilhin). Troth you wrong your modesty. SORANZO. What's the matter, Vasques, who is't? /CL«.>J>^&> Ut>sf(ta.g Enter Hippolita and Vasques H\^ >oW<\ f\pf«<tf M" HIPPOLITA. UI#\J> o f v f t v u t >Tis j . 25^*f,SMSX ^» 1 M t> Do you know me now? Look, perjur'd man, on her SoAjuJio"W** ft Whom thou and thy distracted lust have wrong'd. *° ft"*1^ Thy sensual rage of blood hath made my youth _C*\e& tx>vj»i ^ ssf. A scorn to men and angels, and shall I devout* So«^»^o Be now a foil to thy unsated change? 3XL | S o * * w r » o Kooes Thou know'st, false wanton, when my modest fame C e k t , s * , Stood free from stain or scandal, all the charms Of hell or sorcery could not prevail Against the honor of my chaster bosom. Thine eyes did plead in tears, thy tongue in oaths 35 ^ ^ ^ ^ M ^ Such and so many, that a heart of steel | Would have been wrought to pity, as was mine: And shall the conquest of my lawful bed, My husband's death urg'd on by his disgrace, My loss of womanhood, be ill rewarded 40 With hatred and contempt? No, know Soranzo, *->oQ4vszo VAositi I have a spirit doth as much distaste ^ifcv Q,\fc»w( The slavery of fearing thee, as thou V* vlo^wc Dost loathe the memory of what hath pass'd. W^ otvK**, 0\\V» SORANZO. fo\W*JS Nay, dear Hippolita— -•'tua^ iS rXo Uef^  HIPPOLITA. Call me not dear, 45 Nor think with supple words to smooth the grossness Of my abuses; 'tis not your new mistress, HoOei "SoRft^ Zo Your goodly madam-merchant, shall triumph e^^be. u^ efa&oe df Vivv-v On my dejection: tell her thus from me, .) . / 1 J M^ ssMts Mo-Jet.Ao 20. tax d of] rebuked for. A 30. foil] setting, background (to make his new love more enjoyable). -27-SORANZO. You are too violent. : H M W l_ HIPPOLITA. You are too double Il.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE My birth was nobler and by much more free. , , , , j 50 In your dissimulation. Seest thou this, V »y"c! This habit, these black mourning-weeds of care ? • 'Tis thou art cause of this, and hast divorc'd My husband from his life and me from him, 55 And made me widow in my widowhood. SORANZO. Will you yet hear ? — : on HIPPOLITA. More of thy perjuries? Thy soul is drown'd too deeply in those sins; Thou need'st not add to th' number. SORANZO. Then I'll leave you; You are past all rules of sense. V\o\j€t 4t> fod( e$^ «feos. HIPPOLITA. '" And thou of grace. 60 Vjrfvf VASQUES. Fie, mistress, you are not near the limits of reason ; if my lord ^gyrf^ had a resolution as noble as virtue itself, you take the course V\>^ <Av<?\ to unedge it all. Sir, I beseech you, do not perplex her,-^*f*«. ft^Y griefs, alas, will have a vent. I dare undertake Madam Hippolita will now freely hear you. ftjfc^f' 5^ SORANZO. Talk to a woman frantic! Are these the fruits of your love? ^ ^ g n ^ ^ HIPPOLITA. : U^rt-ft They are the fruits of thy untruth, false man: Didst thou not swear, whilst yet my husband liv'd, _^ CEiifeJ^/^, That thou wouldst wish no happiness on earth wftj^to More than to call me wife? Didst thou not vow, 70 When he should die, to marry me? For which, The devil in my blood, and thy protests, Caus'd me to counsel him to undertake A voyage to Ligorn, for that we heard His brother there was dead, and left a daughter 75 57. thy] Qcorr.; the Qjmcorr. 63. unedge] blunt, weaken. 72. protests] protestations. 74. Ligorn] Leghorn (Italian Livorno). 67 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Il.ii Young and unfriended, who, with much ado, I wish'd him to bring hither: he did so, And went; and as thou know'st died on the way. Unhappy man, to buy hie death so doar • With my advice 1 Yet thou for whom I did it Forget'st thy vows, and leav'st me to my shame. SORANZO. Who could help this? . HIPPOLITA. Who? Perjur'd man, thou couldst, 80 If thou hadst faith or love. SORANZO. YOU are deceiv'd. 85 90 The vows I made, if you remember well, Were wicked and unlawful: 'twere more sin To keep them than to break them; as for me, I cannot mask my penitence. Think thou How much thou hast digress'd from honest shame In bringing of a gentleman to death Who was thy husband, such a one as he, So noble in his quality, condition, Learning, behavior, entertainment, love, As Parma could not show a braver man. VASQ_UES. You do hot well, this was not your promise. Xife, SORANZO. I care not; let her know her monstrous life. Ere I'll be servile to so black a sin, • I'll be accurs'd. Woman, come here no more: Learn to repent and die, for by my honor I hate thee and thy lust: you have been too foul-95 _ [Exit.]— mi VASQ_UES [aside]. This part has been scurvily play'd. 100 HIPPOLITA. How foolishly this beast contemns his fate, And shuns the use of that which I more scorn Than I once lov'd, his love; but let him go. 97. accurs'd] tliis edn.; a Curse Q, uncorr.; a Coarse Qcorr. 100. scurvily play'd] badly acted (Vasques thinks that Soranzo should have soothed Hippolita). -29-68 110T , Il.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE My vengeance shall give comfort to this woe 'kfovXd ^ Srte^ »s She offers to go away. \ VASQUES. ~~ j Mistress, mistress, Madam Hippolita, pray, a word or two! 105 1 HIPPOLITA. ^ : X . c ^ \ c b i v v*^ ' With me, sir? Ctw<«| I VASQUES" j With you,, ff you please.  ; HIPPOLITA. j Whatis't? I VASQUES. j I know you are infinitely mov'd now, and you think you ! have cause: some I confess you have, but sure not so much as . .« . . you imagine. »> • HIPPOLITA. ! Indeed? '_ C**AC& t>w* ! i V A S* U E S' ^ w ; O, you were miserably bitter, which you followed even to j the last syllable. Faith, you were somewhat too shrewd; 'tU.Wic i by my life you could not have took my lord in a worse 115 ; time, since I first knew him: tomorrow you shall find him l. a new man. ! HIPPOLITA. I Well, I shall wait his leisure. & o * « J £ »i*>c. i VASQUES. V v j ^ £ 4 I Fie, this is not a hearty patience, it comes sourly from you; : troth, let me persuade you for once. ^ . 120 i r — , , . - " A f t t e i ft SVep To\jjft«o HIPPOLITA [aside], ^ 1 I have it, and it shall be so; thanks, opportunity! [To him.] fcy»rv/ 9^  Persuade me to what ? I •' VASQUES. 1 Visit him in some milder temper. O if you could but master \_ a little your female spleen, how might you win him! HIPPOLITA. He will never love me. Vasques, thou hast been a too 125 v ^ ^ ^ - ^ 104. this] thisedn.; his Q_. 105.] Weber; Mistress . . . Hippo-lita,/ Pray . . . two! Q_. 114. shrewd] sharp, outspoken. -30-'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Il.ii trusty servant to such a master, and I believe thy reward in the end will fall out like mine c.\«,cAei « « \ A ^ O ' C VASQUES. ^< of MhCsfucs So perhaps too. . \ HIPPOLITA. * ^ Resolve thyself it will. Had I one so true, so truly honest, )CvJ>'ro \to\*sj\i.es so secret to my counsels, as thou hast been to him and his, 130 I should think it a slight acquittance, not only to make him master of all I have, but even of myself. '"(ovjkcvu^ fri VASQUES. 0 you are a noble gentlewoman! foo^s. \ « « t Vfi*.Y.ft*» HIPPOLITA. Wilt thou feed always upon hopes? Well, I know thou art •^ ft.Vet t\ Sfe^>s wise, and seest the reward of an old servant daily, what it is. 135^ w<svi VASQUES. Beggary and neglect. &K<s/^ fSw. He^ HIPPOLITA. True: but Vasques, wert thou mine, and wouldst be cot-ye& vjes^  ciote private to me and my designs, I here protest myself and ^ " > l V * * K S I all what I can else call mine should be at thy dispose. VASQUES [aside]. Work you that way, old mole? Then I have the wind of 140 "^f^^, you. [To her.] I were not worthy of it by any desert that y ' could lie within my compass; if I could— MA AVV O Hatt^  HIPPOLITA. What then? VASQUES. 1 should then hope to live in these my old years with rest Xvx^ 'C} and security. 145 HIPPOLITA. Give me thy hand: now promise but thy silence, \ESNO& M9\£3W.e& And help to bring to pass a plot I have; \2>g^  And here in sight of Heaven, that being done, I make thee lord of me and mine estate. VASQUES. Come, you are merry; this is such a happiness that I can 150 ^(g^ £>W^ 150-151.] Weber; Come . . .merry;/ This. . . can/ Neither. . . believe. Q_. 140. have the wind] sec your intention. 70 Il.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE neither think or believe. HIPPOLITA. Promise thy secrecy, and 'tis confirm'd. yj^ djj c\o*e VASQUES. 1 Then here I call our good genii for witnesses, whatsoever y^ ggL-your designs are, or against whomsoever, I will not only y^^j, be a special actor therein, but never disclose it till it be 155UES^  effected. tt***t». HIPPOLITA. W^Atlft U~V^ olrf L. I take thy word, and with that, thee for mine; ft&N&e^ MfS^ftuEi Come then, let's more confer of this anon. fl^ft^ y w»,/(^  t\t>j-^  . On this delicious bane my thoughts shall banquet: Kvxfr\c Cma \\p Revenge shall sweeten what my griefs have tasted. \ ^ 0 ^ < t ^ \ J „ _ ^ [Il.iii] Enter Richardetto and Philotis. ^ Ceryfe^ RICHARDETTO. W N I S I S 0.\<U Thou seest, my lovely niece, these strange mishaps, \ " — How all my fortunes turn to my disgrace, Wherein I am but as a looker-on, Whiles others act my shame and I am silent. PHILOTIS. But uncle, wherein can this 'borrowed chape 5 Give you content? RICHARDETTO. I'll tell thee, gentle niece. i n H 1 / w n Ihy wanton aunt in her lascivious riots N Lives now secure, thinks I am surely dead T , Tt-woo*to In my late journey to Ltgom tor you, As I have caus'd it to be rumor'd out; 10 Now would I see with what an impudence She gives scope to her loose adultery, And how the common voice allows hereof: Thus far I have prevail'd. 153. for witnesses] Dodsley; foe-witnesses Q.. 159. bane] poison. [Il.iii] . . 5. shape] disguise (the robe of a doctor). 13. how . . . hereof] what ordinary people think about her. -32-f J 71 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Il.iii PHILOTIS. Alas; I fear You mean some strange revenge. RICHARDETTO. . O, be not troubled; Your ignorance shall plead for you in all. But to our business: what, you learn'd for certain How Signor Florio means to give his daughter . In marriage to Soranzo? PHILOTIS. Yes, for certain.. RICHARDETTO. But how find you young Annabella's love Inclin'd to him? PHILOTIS. For aught I could perceive, She neither fancies him or any else. RICHARDETTO. There's mystery in that which time must show. She us'd you kindly? PHILOTIS. Yes. RICHARDETTO. And crav'd your company? PHILOTIS. Often. RICHARDETTO. 'Tis well: it goes as I could wish. I am the doctor now, and as for you, 15 t V ^ t t «V^ *<*| f « * H 9U\Wti 20 25 None knows you; if all fail not, we shall thrive. But who comes here? VIEW c l o u 1 Enter Grimaldi. • I know him: 'tis Grimaldi, A Roman and a soldier, near allied Unto tho dulto of Montfcrrato, one Attending on the nvincio of the pppgCtsa»o\»i»A-That now retidet in Parma, by which means He hopes to get the love of Annabella. GRIMALDI. Save you, sir.  RICHARDETTO. GRIMALDI. /(po of 4 ^ s \&C 30 And you, sir. I have heard Of your approv'd skill, which through the city -HovJttXo *aaf V\\H 35 16. Tour. . . all] You know nothing of my plans and cannot be held responsible for them. -33-Il.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Is freely talk'd of, and would crave your aid. RICHARDETTO. For what, sir ? GRIMALDI. Marry, sir, for this— But I would speak in private. RICHARDETTO. Leave us, cousin. ilotis. '.-Exit PhUK1MALU1. ; I love fair Annabella, and would know Whether in art there may not be receipts To move affection. RICHARDETTO. Sir, perhaps there may, But these will nothing profit you. GRIMALDI. Not me? RICHARDETTO. Unless I be mistook, you are a man Greatly in favor with the cardinal. GRIMALDI. What of that? RICHARDETTO. In duty to his grace, I will be bold to tell you, if you seek To marry Florio's daughter, you must first Remove a bar 'twixt you and her. GRIMALDI. Who's that? RICHARDETTO. Soranzo is the man that hath her heart, And while he lives, be sure you cannot speed. GRIMALDI. Soranzo! What, mine enemy! Is't he? RICHARDETTO. Is he your enemy? GRIMALDI. The man I hate Worse than confusion— I'll kill him straight.  45 50 RICHARDETTO. Even for his grace's sake, the cardinal: I'll find a time when he and she do meet o f f U f r Nay then, take mine advice, <Uc*w,<^g<C W\vt 55 ^ 40. art] Dyct; arts £2.. 54. kill] Qcorr.; tell Quncorr. 40. receipts] recipes (love-potions). 73 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE II.iv Of which I'll give you notice, and to be sure He shall not 'scape you, I'll provide a poison To dip your rapier's point in; if he had As many heads as Hydra had, he dies 60 GRIMALDI. ^ V O ^ V h M o f f But shall I trust thee, doctor? RICHARDETTO. As yourself; Doubt not in aught. [Aside.] Thus shall the fates decree: GIO,\VA(\V\ — _ . WxVtCCmg By me Soranzo falls, .that ruin'd me. JZxcuHk , , [Il.iv] Enter Donado, Bergetto, and Poggio. t>c~-*» ftj&AVC tjifM DONADO. t^ C J e v j ^ rV_ftW\<k ^-Vofl Well, sir, I must be content to be both your secretary and ^offtso _S*etfo your messenger myself. I cannot tell what this letter may "^ °<^ -flV-^  Bactaia-iUjKV J work, but as sure as I am alive, if thou come once to talk ^OA*»vi \-£?r 11 with her, I fear thou wilt mar. whatsoever I make. BERGETTO. You make, uncle? Why, am not I big enough to carry mine 5 own letter, I pray? DONADO. Ay, ay, carry a fool's head o' thy own! Why, thou dunce, wouldst thou write a letter and carry it thyself? I BERGETTO. j Yes, that I would, and read it to her with my own mouth; 1 for1 you must think, if she will not believe me myself when 10 she hears me speak, she will not believe another's hand-writing. O, you think I am a blockhead, uncle! No, sir, Poggio knows I have indited a letter myself, so I have. . POGGIO. Yes, truly, sir; I have it in my pocket. ^ \ \ « > ^C-o DONADO. [ A sweet one, no doubt; pray let's see't. I 5 t ^ ^ ^ - a\>4E& BERGETTO. _.«<(-_, Aa ^°*»P_X> VCVro O^ZVg, f< -fo I cannot read my own hand very well, Poggio; read it, —•SQ<-\_ACO , Poggio. . •• Q.«K__t<o <Y»_^  j DONADO. * <o Qccuv- i Begin. HA ! 63. ruin'd] Qcorr.; min'd Q_uncorr. [Il.iv] • • 16-17.] Gifford; I . . . Poggio;/ Read ! . . . Poggio. Q.: - 3 5 -74 II.iv 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE POGGIO (reads) 4 ^ ^ ^ "Most dainty and honey-sweet mistress, I could call you fair, and lie as fast as any that loves you, but my uncle 20 being the elder man, I leave it to him, as more fit for his age and the color of his beard. I am wise enough to tell you I can X^Std where I see occasion: or if you like my uncle's wit better than mine, you shall marry me; if you like mine better than his, I will marry you in spite of your teeth. So 25 commending my best parts to you, I rest—Yours upwards and downwards, or you may choose, Bergetto.'! ^o^u ftHt> BERGETTO. Qifcft&ttk 6c*o'(o 'ttcM. Aha, here's stuff, uncle. o^MRj DONADO. Here's stuff indeed to shame us all. Pray whose advice &^NQ£ did you take in this learned letter? ^£<SeS^ POGGIO. None, upon my word, but mine own Ho^ SS BERGETTO. ^^ <Wi& vla\»»t» tsov^ iSko And mine, uncle, believe it, nobody's else; 'twas mine own brain, I thank a good wit for't. ^&P9sbo DONADO. Get you home, sir, and look you keep within doors till I return BERGETTO. How! That were a jest indeed; I scorn it i'faith fo\V<A4x>i<v^  DONADO. > What! You do not? - luR^S ftvi> BERGETTO. R*JN*i\s.wes. "s^X Judge me, but I do now. G>\VW wi> Wfe> POGGIO. W\o\ Indeed, sir, 'tis very unhealthy. DONADO. ^ ^ Well, sir, if I hear any of your apish running to ^ rr&?tions* 4*0 and fopperies, till I come back, you were as good not; look to't. , ' Exit Donatio. 29-30.] Weber; Here's . . . all./ Pray 41. not] Dodsley^^^^K^ . . . letter? Q. S^dV^ NOo t>\_ 23. bourd] jest. 40. motions] puppet-shows. -36-75 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE II.v DERGETTO. Poggio, shall's steal to see this horse with the head in's tail? . p 0 G c i a <w*> £ ^ Ay, but you must take heed of whipping. ., . BERGETFC— — ; . . Dost take me for a child, Poggio? Come, honest Poggio. 45 v-• - - £»«-«•. w e ^ v o [II.v] /inter Friar and Giovanni. Peace! Thou hast told a tale, whose every word Threatens eternal slaughter to the soul. I'm sorry I have heard it; would mine ears Had been one minute deaf, before the hour That thou cam'st to me. O young man castaway, By the religious number of mine order, I day and night have wak'd my aged eyes, - Above my strength, to weep on thy behalf: But Heaven is angry, and be thou resolv'd, Thou art a man remark'd to taste a mischief: Look for't; though it come late, it will come sure. GIOVANNI. Father, in this you are uncharitable;  When I was yet your scholar, that the frame And composition of the mind doth follow The frame and composition of the body: So where the body's furniture is beauty, The mind's must needs be virtue; which allowed, Virtue itself is reason but refin'd, And love the quintessence of that. This proves 45.] Weber ;T)ost . . . Poggio?/Come . . . Poggio. Ci- .f . C A M S 5 10 What I have done, I'll prove both fit and good. It is a principle, which you have taught  15 20 [II.v] 8. my] Dodsley; thy Q.. 15. frame] Dodsley; fame Q.. 17. the body] Gifford; body Q_. 6. number] Possibly meaning "group" or "company;" Gifford suggests an emendation to "founder." 10. remark'd] marked out. 10. mischief] misfortune, distress. -37-76 II.v 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE My sister's beauty being rarely fair Is rarely virtuous; chiefly in her love, And chiefly in that love, her love to me. If hers to me, then so is mine to her; 25 Since in like causes are effects alike. ' FRIAR. O ignorance in knowledge! Long ago, How often have I warn'd thee this before? Indeed, if we were sure there were no deity, Nor Heaven nor hell, then to be led alone 30 By nature's light, as were philosophers Of elder times, might instance some defense. But 'tis not so; then, madman, thou wilt find That nature is in Heaven's positions blind. GIOVANNI. Your age o'errules you; had you youth like mine, You'd make her love your Heaven, and her divine. -^fyjgj ^MW^^ FRIAR. j Nay then, I see thou'rt too far sold to hell, It lies not in the compass of my prayers To call thee back; yet let me counsel thee: Persuade thy sister to some marriage. 40 GIOVANNI. Marriage? Why, that's to damn her! That's to prove f^nf^c, /( Her greedy of variety of lust. r^l 1^ ° FRIAR. 0 fearful! If thou wilt not, give me leave To shrive her, lest she should die unabsolv'd. OIOVANNI. At your best leisure, father; then she'll tell you ^ X^^a How dearly she doth prize my matchless love. > ° ^ » Then you will know what pity 'twere we two Should have been sunder'd from each other's arms. View well her face, and in that little round ?kfeo\>£ 'ffyft^  You may observe a world of variety: 50 For color, lips; for sweet perfumes, her breath; 32. elder times'] in the days of paganism, before Christianity had been revealed. . 34. positions] doctrines (implying that the study of nature will teach us nothing about God). -38-77 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE ILvi For jewels, eyes; for threads of purest gold, Hair; for delicious choice of flowers, cheeks; Wonder in every portion of that throne: Hear her but speak, and you will swear the spheres Make music to the citizens in Heaven. But, father, what is else for pleasure fram'd, Lest I offend your ears, shall go unnam'd. FRIAR. The more I hear, I pity thee the more, That one so excellent should give those parts All to a second death; what I can do Is but to pray: and yet I could advise thee, Wouldst thou be rul'd. GIOVANNI. In what?  FRIAR. Why, leave her yet; The throne of mercy is above your trespass, Yet time is left you both— GIOVANNI. To embrace each other, 55 60 65 Else let all time be struck quite out of number. She is like me, and I like her, resolv'd. FRIAR. No more! I'll visit her; this grieves me most, Things being thus, a pair of souls are lost. [II.vi] Enter Florio, Donado, Annabella, Putanar FLORIO. Where's Giovanni? ANNABELLA. Newly walk'd abroad, And, as I heard him say, gone to the friar, His reverend tutor. FLORIO. That's a blessed man, A man made up of holiness; I hope He'll teach him how to gain another world. DONADO. Fair gentlewoman, here's a letter sent To you from my young cousin; I dare swear  Exeunt. PuK^a, tei^g^ t»viu *<<e^s fiUovj X^ OWKTJO ftf* ^ tA of He loves you in his soul: would you could hear 54. throne] Presumably Giovanni sees Annabclla's face as the her mind or soul, though the text may be corrupt. 61, second death] damnation as well as physical death. throne for -39-78 Il .vi 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Sometimes what I see daily, sighs and tears,— As if his breast were prison to his heart. FLORIO. Receive it, Annabella. ANNABELLA. Alas, good man., DONADO. What's that she said? PUTANA. An't please you, sir, she said, "Alas, good man." Truly X'Cfcbftftoo I do commend him to her every night before her first 15 sleep, because I would have her dream of him, and she hear-kens to that most religiously. DONADO. Say'st so ? God a-mercy, Putana, there's something for thee [gives her money], and prithee do what thou canst on his behalf; sha' not be lost labor, take my'word for't. 20 PUTANA. Thank, you most heartily, sir; now I have a feeling of your mind, let me alone to work. ANNABELLA. Guardian! PUTANA. Did you call? ANNABELLA. Keep this letter. DONADO. Signor Florio, in any case bid her read it instantly. FLORIO. Keep it for what? Pray read it me hereright. ANNABELLA. I shall, sir.  DONADO. How d'ee find her inclin'd, signor?" FLORIO. Troth, sir, I know not how; not all so well As I could wish. _She reads. 30 14. An't] Weber; And 0_. 27. hereright] immediately. -40 -79 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Il.vi ANNABELLA. Sir, I am bound to rest your cousin's debtor. . The jewel I'll return; for if he love, I'll count that love a jewel. DONADO. Mark you that? Nay, keep them both, sweet maid. ANNABELLA. You must excuse me; 35 , Indeed I will not keep it. FLORIO. Where's the ring, <&&t^>l&\ That which your mother in her will bequeath'd, *»-»>»«b«&\[i tVt> And charg'd you on her blessing not to give't o^wft^ yo To any but your husband ? Send back that. ANNABELLA. I have it not. FLORIO. Ha, have it not! Where is't? 40 ANNABELLA. My brother in the morning took it from me, Said he would wear't today. FLORIO. Well, what do you say To young Bergetto's love? Are you content To match with him? Speak. DONADO. There's the point indeed. ANNABELLA [aside]. What shall I do? I must say something now. FLORIO. 45 ^ 0 What say? Why d'ee not speak? ANNABELLA. Sir, with your leave, Please you to give me freedom? FLORIO. Yes, you have it. ANNABELLA. . Signor Donado, if your nephew mean  To raise his better fortunes in his match, The hope of me will hinder such a hope; 50 Sir, if you love him, as I know you do, Find one more worthy of his choice than me. In short, I'm sure I sha' not be his wife. DONADO. Why, here's plain dealing, I commend thee for't, 47. have it] Gifford; have Q,. -41-Il.vi 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE And all the worst I wish thee is, Heaven bless thee! 55 Your father yet and I will still be friends, Shall we not, Signor Florio? FLORIO. Yes, why not? Look, here your cousin comes. Enter Bergetto and Poggio. L_£f DONADO [aside]. O coxcomb, what doth he make here ? ^l-Hj^i ujp_ff\8*_ BERGETTO. ? < X _ < k » o ft\ Where's my uncle, sirs ? Coa^ef^ o f tj&tffi&^ vj DONADO. What's the news now ? BERGETTO. Save you, uncle, save you! You must not think I come for nothing, masters: and how, and how is't? What, youE>o»*s\_0-have read my letter? Ah, there I—tickled you i'faith! POGGIO. But 'twere better you had tickled her in another place. 65 . BERGETTO. ?\Alo GAf\8j£ _ Sirrah sweetheart, I'll tell thee a good jest; and riddle what ' t i s - Pw~ft_,\», ^ a - v f ANNABELLA. You say you'd tell me. BERGETTO. As I was walking just now in the street, I met a swaggering fellow would needs take the wall of me> and because he 70 did thrust me, I very valiantly call'd him rogue. He here-upon bade me draw: I told him I had more wit than so, but when he saw that I would not, he did so maul me with the hilts of his rapier that my head sung whilst my feet caper'd in the kcnncl.c^g* Ssft<b\wC> <*vo-ses 75 «.*v*< o f P\v_~W2*J\W Vt> Vw(S\«-A l«• W»,-V_s. -<VI_K fcwt. _ P * _ o f f W r < * M I 59. make] do. f \ o f \ \ o » » v - _ ^ < ~ f _ _ > 70. take the wait] walk nearest to the wall, on the cleanest part of the street. 75. kennel] gutter. -42-81 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE II.vi DONADO [aside]. Was ever the like ass seen? ANNABELLA. And what did you all this while ? .-. BERGETTO. Laugh at him for a gull, till I see the blood run about mine ears, and then L could not choose but find in my heart to cry; till a fellow with a broad beard—they say 80 he is a new-come doctor—call'd me into his house, and gave me a plaster—look you, here 'tis—and, sir, there was R\%tt ftr»» a young wench wash'd my face and hands most excellently, «Nie-\o-*£i WtYf i'faith, I shall love her as long as I live for't, did she not, Poggio? 85 POGGIO. Yes, and kiss'd him too. BERGETTO. Why, la now, you think I tell a lie, uncle, I warrant. DONADO. Would he that beat thy blood out of thy head had beaten t > o ^ > o ' f o some wit into it; for I fear thou never wilt have any. a*»(jjH>o BERGETTO. O, uncle, but there was a wench would have done a man's 90 . heart good to have look'd on her—by this light she had . a face methinks worth twenty of you, Mistress Annabella: :— »o<W»»\o DONADO. Was ever such a fool born ? ANNABELLA. I am glad she lik'd you, sir. BERGETTO. Are you so ? By my troth I thank you, forsooth. 95 ^ ' C V J P I R . & S FLORIO. rtCJ, fc*v> feovtft Sure 'twas the doctor's niece, that was last day with us here. BERGETTO. 'Twas she, 'twas she. vf s t^jy**^ DONADO. How do you know that, simplicity? 81. his] Cifford; this Q_. 94. lik'd] pleased. -43-Il.vi 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE BERGETTO. Why, does not he say so? If I should have said no, I should have given him the lie, uncle, and so have deserv'd a dry 100 beating again; I'll none of that. fcc«." FLORIO. A very modest well-behav'd young maid ^° ^c,*4^»o As I have seen. ' DONADO. Is she indeed? FLORIO. • Indeed She is, if I have any judgment. DONADO. Well, sir, now you are free, you need not care for sending 105 letters: now you are dismiss'd, your mistress here will none of you. BERGETTO. No? Why, what care I for that? I can have wenches ' enough in Parma for half-a-crown apiece, cannot I, Poggio? POGGIO. I'll warrant you, sir. 110 1 DONADO. Signor Florio, I thank you for your free recourse you gave For my admittance; and to you, fair maid, X . A ' o foJj> That jewel I will give you 'gainst your marriage. V \^«« VW£ »^^ v>. Come, will you go, sir? H ^ o f f {* BERGETTO. Ay, marry will I. Mistress, farewell, mistress: I'll come again tomorrow. Farewell, mistress. Exit Dona^ 3o^ VB,c?gc?fe^ ?iflPoggio. *^ Enter Giovanni . t ^ e f t \_ FLORIO. Son, where have you been? What, alone, alone still? ^vio'Co. focsf I would not have it so, you must forsake ofv< _ B S 102-103. A . . . seen.] Weber; one line 118-121.] Weber; prose in Q_. in 0_. 118. still] Gifford; still, still 0_-111-115.] Dyce; prose in Q_-109. half-a-crown] the standard price of a prostitute. . 114. 'gainst] against, in anticipation of.. ' -44 -83 j 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE IH.i 120 This over-bookish humor. Well, your sister Hath shook the fool off. GIOVANNI. 'Twas no match for her. FLORIO. -; 'Twas not indeed, I meant it nothing less; Soranzo is the man I only like— Look on him, Annabel!^ . Come, 'tis supper-time, And it grows late. VA^«\C C*x l£ Exit Florio.—1-34 GIOVANNI. Whose jewel's that? Some sweetheart's. bo 1 think. ANNABELLA. GIOVANNI. ANNABELLA. A lusty youth, Signor Donado, gave it me to wear  Against my marriage. GIOVANNI. But you shall not wear it: Send it him back again. ANNABELLA. What, you are jealous ? GIOVANNI. That you shall know anon, at better leisure. Welcome, sweet night! The evening crowns the day. 130 «v»e\ cue. \o Exeunt. TTrnr Suit*- Bergetto and Poggio. BERGETTO. Does my uncle think to make me a baby still? No, Poggio, he shall know I have a sconce now. POGGIO. Ay, let him not bob you off like an ape with an apple. BERGETTO. 'Sfoot, I will have the wench if he were ten uncles, in despite of his nose, Poggio. 127-129. A . . . marriage. Gifford; 129-130. But. . . again.] Gifford; one A . . . me/ To . . . marriage. Q_. line in Q_. 2. sconce] head, brain. 3. • bob] fob, trick. IH.i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE POGGIO. Hold him to the grindstone and give not a jot of ground. She hath in a manner promised you already. BERGETTO. True, Poggio, and her uncle the-doctor swore I should marry her. POGGIO. He swore,.!" remember. 10 BERGETTO. And I will have her, that's more; didst see the codpiece-point she gave me and the box of marmalade ? POGGIO. Very well; and kiss'd you, that my chops water'd at the sight on't. There's no way but to clap up a marriage in hugger-mugger. 15 BERGETTO. I will do't; for I tell thee, Poggio, I begin to grow valiant U o methinks, and my courage begins to rise. POGGIO. Should ybu be afraid of your uncle? BERGETTO. Hang him, old doting rascal! No, I say I will have her. POGGIO. Lose no time then. ,20 — — — — fybtS BERGETTO. X I will beget a race of wise men and constables, that shall g^^^' cart whores at their own charges, and break the duke'sy^ . „ oH'fo peace ere I have done myself. —Come away. Exeunt.y^ 6-7.] Weber; Hold . . . ground./ She 8-9.] Weber; True . . . doctor/ Swore . . . already. Q_. . . . her. Q. 8. S. P. BEROETTO] Dodsley; Poggio Q_. 11-12. codpiece-point] a lace for tying the codpiece, defined by OED as "a bagged appendage to the front of the close-fitting hose or breeches worn by men from the 15th to the 17th c.; often conspicuous and ornamented." 14-15. in hugger-mugger] secretly. 22. cart whores] Part of the traditional punishment for prostitutes was to parade them through the streets in a cart or wagon. -46-85 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Ill.ii [Ill.ii] Enter Florio,-Giovanni, Soranzo, Annabella, Putana, and Vasques. FLORIO. My Lord Soranzo, though I must confess The proffers that are made me have been great ca ' «. ^ / ^ In marriage of my daughter, yet the hope ^ . > „ vi' Of your still rising honors have prevail d . . , V n >• „ . . , , ^ . VJft»fe t»p Crtife^ «.\6»Vt< Above all other jointures; here she is: ' 5 She knows my mind, speak for yourself to her, And hear you, daughter, see you use him nobly; For any private speech I'll give you time. Come, son, and you the rest, let them alone: _ \ ^&*+^\}&( Agree they as they may. ^ ^ SORANZO. I thank you, sir. 10 " GIOVANNI [aside to Annabella]. ' Sister, be not all woman, think on me. WtfeS ^W>M2£\\f\^L SORANZO. Vasques. VASQUES. My Lord ? SORANZO. Attend me without-Exeunt nmtifr, manet Soranzo and Annabelia^ >^^ t^ jy^ ^"5'^^S " ANNABELLA. Sir, what's your will with me? SORANZO. DO you not know What I should tell you? ANNABELLA. Yes, you'll say you love me SORANZO. And I'll swear it too; will you believe it? ANNABELLA. 'Tis no point of faith. . 15' SORANZO. Have you not will to love 2-10. Agree they] Gifford; Agree Q. 18. no] Gifford; not Q_. 15-46. Do . . . you?] Weber; one line in d. • 5. jointures] Apparently a reference to Donado's offer at I.iii. 14—18. 14.1 manet] remain. -47-86 Ill.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE ANNABELLA. N°_y__: \ : • SORANZO. Whom then? ANNABELLA. That's as the fates infer. ; Pf*l<W GIOVANNI [aside]. ' Of thooo I'm regent now. SORANZO. What mean you, sweet? _tVl>~_ Wvrt^  ANNABELLA. .- , To live and die a maid. ^ Ya^v-^ W SORANZO. O, that's unfit. ___rfest, I GIOVANNI [aside]. Hero'o ono can coy that'o but a woman't note. SORANZO. Did you but see my heart, then w o u l d you swear— foUnvjc, ^ sJ^ ANNABELLA. [ That you were dead. ^ \__ fjf GIOVANNI [aside]. That'o true; o r s o m e w h a t near i t . SORANZO. , See you these true love's tears? ANNABELLA. No. GIOVANNI [aside]. Now aho winlm. 25 ' SORANZO. They plead to you for grace. ANNABELLA. Yet nothing speak. i SORANZO. O grant m y suit! ^ y~.__. ANNABELLA. What is't? U,^ SORANZO. To let me live— ANNABELLA. 1 Take it. off_«S W3» WftM* SORANZO. —Still yours. ANNABELLA. That is not mine to give. ^ auveXVu GIOVANNI [aside], \ •Ono ouch A n o t h e r word would k i l l hie hoped SORANZO. " Mistress, to leave those fruitless strifes of wit, 30 Know I have lov'd you long and lov'd you truly: 31. Know] Dodsley; I know Q_. - 4 8 -'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Hl.ii Not hope of what you have, but what you are, Have drawn me on; then let me not in vain Still feel the rigor of your chaste disdain. I'm sick, and sick to th' heart. ANNABELLA. Help, aqua-vitae! SORANZO. What mean you ? ANNABELLA. 80RANZ0. Do you mock my love? Why, 1 thought you had been sick. GIOVANNI [aside]. Thorg) cir, che was too nimble. SORANZO [aside]. 'Tis plain, she laughs at me. [To her.] These scornful taunts Neither become your rrtodesty or years. ANNABELLA. You are no looking glass; or if you were, ifirm'd. I'd dress my language by you. GIOVANNI [aside], -He ANNABELLA. To put you out of doubt, my lord, methinks Your common sense should make you understand That if I lov'd you, or desir'd your love, Some way I should have given you better taste: 45 But since you are a nobleman, and one I would not wish should spend his youth in hopes, Let me advise you to forbear your suit, And think I wish you well, I tell you this. SORANZO. Is't you speak this? ; ANNABELLA. Yes, I myself; yet know— Thus far I give you comfort—if mine eyes Could have pick'd out a man amongst all those That sued to me, to make a husband of, You should have been that man. Let this suffice;  Be noble in your secrecy and wise. GIOVANNI [aside]. Why) now I cee che lovec me. of <~xzMt»*0 50 K>Wie*, 55 tsovJA V__6< 38-49.] Dodsley; prose in Q. 48. to] Gifford; here, to Q,. 35. aqua-vitae] brandy, here to be used medicinally. 88 Ill.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE ANNABELLA. One word more: ''(VAJ^VS W C V As ever virtue liv'd within your mind, As ever noble courses were your guide, As ever you would have me know you lov'd me, Let not my father know hereof by you; 60 If I hereafter find that I must marry, It shall be you or none. SORANZO. I take that promise. VJ<A<.^  Wsi^ , H\V»> ANNABELLA. O, O, my head! 'CJ.VW, * v * t ^ SORANZO. What's the matter? Not well? ANNABELLA. O, I begin to sicken. .GIOVANNI [aside]. Hoavon forbid I Exit from above. Help, help within there, ho! CtCftvM. fv»b Enter Florio, Giovanni, Putana. Mo MyVi.. f\ot\\o Vut^ iviPi Look to your daughter, Signor Florio, FLORIO. Hold her up, she swoons. GIOVANNI. Sister, how d'ee? ANNABELLA. 'Sioli—brother, are you there? 70 Convey her to her bed instantly, whilst I send for a physician; G^^y^^^ quickly, I say. Ceif^tst ttvS^ v»£ *wfn*4 ftt»» PUTANA. f\o*\»o (t^MS tXt t>t_ Alas, poor child! Exeunt, mpnet Soranzo. Enter Vasques. VASQUES. My lord ? SORANZO. O Vasques, now I doubly am undone Both in my present and my future hopes; nmnet . . 75 67.1.] Webtr; after I. 68 in Q.. 68.] Assigned to Soranzo by Gifford; to Giovanni in 0_. -50 -89 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE III.iii She plainly told me that she could not love, V-OOV^ M^  of^  L^f* And thereupon soon sicken'd, and I fear Her life's in danger. 80 VASQUES [aside). By'r lady, sir, and so is yours, if you knew all. [To him.) 'Las, sir, I am sorry for that; may be 'tis but the maid's- ^V^^o ^^ d(V\>^ co sickness, an over-flux of youth, and then, sir, there is no such ^ofclWEo 'fotOt present remedy as present marriage. But hath she given you «»* V,\v^  an absolute denial? 85 SORANZO. She hath and she hath not; I'm full of grief, , ^•fjwoi0^\«>»f^»it' But what she said I'll tell thee as we go. Exeunt. ^Vl^S^a. ?\vttfc [III.iii] Enter Giovanni and Putana. ^fVWua. t^ \ko\»x 1 PUTANA. PUTANA. O sir, we are all undone, quite undone, utterly undone, CoH^Cn fovao* and sham'd forever; your sister, O your sister! GIOVANNI. <^LV»yaT> VWS, ' What of her ? For Heaven's sake, speak, how does she ? V^LOS L N A . O that ever I was born to see this day! y<<^orffof *(efi j GIOVANNI. I She is not dead, ha? Is she:1 5Co«e&tws«Ja^ j PUTANA! ~ — VvV(pv>lP\ j Dead? No, she is quick; 'tis worse, she is with child. You ^it/t^f^ Mm know what you have done; Heaven forgive 'ee! 'Tis too late | to repent now, Heaven help us. GIOVANNI. With child ? How dost thou know't? V*WM%6 V*A*t4 PUTANA. i How do I know't? Am I at these years ignorant what the 10 fyXto,*^ 6-8.] Weber; Dead . . . child./ You . . . 'ee!/ 'Tis . . . us. Q_. 82-83. maid's-sickness] otherwise called green-sickness, a form of anemia affecting young girls. 84. present], immediate. [IH.iii] 6. quick] a play on two meanings of the word: (1) alive; (2) pregnant. -51-90 Ill.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE meanings of qualms and water-pangs be? Of changing of colors, queasiness of stomachs, pukings, and another thing that I could name? Do not, for her and your credit's sake, spend the time in asking how, and which way, 'tis so; she is quick, upon my word: if you let a physician see her 15 water, y'are undone. GIOVANNI. But in what case is she? PUTANA. Prettily amended; 'twas but a fit which I soon espied, and she must look for often henceforward. GIOVANNI. Commend me to her, bid her take no care; 20 Let not the doctor visit her, I charge you, Make some excuse, till I return. —O mo! I have a world of business in my head. Do not discomfort her.—  How does this news perplex me! —If my father Come to her, tell him she's recover'd well, Say 'twas but some ill diet; d.'ee hear, woman? Look you to't. • PUTANA. I will, sir. Exeunt. [Ill.iv] Enter Florio and Richardetto. FLORIO. And how d'ee find her, sir ? RICHARDETTO. Indifferent well; , I see no danger, scarce perceive she's sick, But that she told me, she had lately eaten Melons, and, as she thought, those disagreed With her young stomach. FLORIO. Did you give her aught? 24-26.] Gifford; Do , well, Q. . me!/ If... 25. does] Dodsley; doe Q.. 17. case} condition. 20. take no care] not worry. -52-'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Ill.iv RICHARDETTO. An easy surfeit-water, nothing else. You need not doubt her health; I rather think Her sickness is a fulness of her blood— You understand me? FLORIO. I do; you counsel well, And once, within these few days, will so order't She shall be married ere she know the time. RICHARDETTO. Yet let not haste, sir, make unworthy choice; That were dishonor. FLORIO. Master Doctor, no; I will not do so neither; in plain words,  My Lord Soranzo is the man I mean. RICHARDETTO. A noble and a virtuous gentleman. FLORIO. As any is in Parma. Not far hence Dwells Father Bonaventure, a grave friar, Once tutor to my son; now at his cell I'll have 'em married. RICHARDETTO. You have plotted wisely. FLORIO. I'll send one straight to speak with him tonight. RICHARDETTO. Soranzo's wise, he will delay no time. FLORIO. It shall be so. 1 0 W < * 20 Enter Friar and Giovanni. FRIAR. FLORIO. Good peace be here and love. Welcome, religious friar; you are one That still bring blessing to the place you come to. GIOVANNI. Sir, with what speed I could, I did my best 21.] Weber; I'll. . . straight/ To . . . tonight. Q,. 6. easy surfeit-water] mild cure for indigestion. -53-_ t^ \*v \ ftt\Vf' Ofsi 92 1 •Ill.iv 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE To draw this holy man from forth his cell To visit my sick sister, that with words Of ghostly comfort, in this time of need, He might absolve her, whether she live or die. FLORIO. 'Twas well done, Giovanni; thou herein Hast showed a Christian's care, a brother's love. Come, father, I'll conduct you to her chamber, 30 And one thing would entreat you. FRIAR. Say on, sir. . FLORIO. I have a father's dear impression, And wish, before I fall into my grave, That I might see her married, as 'tis fit; A word from you, grave man, will win her more Than all our best persuasions. FRIAR. Gentle sir, 35 All this I'll say, that Heaven may prosper her. Exeunt. [III.v] Enter Grimaldi. GRIMALDI. Now if the doctor keep his word, Soranzo, Twenty to one you miss your bride; I know 'Tis an unnoble act, and not becomes A soldier's valor, but in terms of love, Where merit cannot sway, policy must. I am resolv'd; if this physician Play not on both hands, then Soranzo falls.— Enter Richardetto. RICHARDETTO. You are come as I could wish; this very night 8-11. You . . . Married.] Dodsley; prose in Q.. 29. ghostly] spiritual. 35. impression] The meaning is not clear. Perhaps it might be para-phrased as "notion" or "idea" (of the sort that fathers usually have). [III.v] 5. policy] cunning. 7. Play . . . hands] is not acting as a double-agent, working for both sides. -54-'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE III.v Soranzo, 'tis ordain'd, must be affied ^ . To Annabella, and, for aught I know, 10 Married. GRIMALDI. How! RICHARDETTO; Yet your patience. The place, 'tis Friar Bonaventure's cell. Now I would wish you to bestow this night In watching thereabouts; 'tis but a night: If you miss now, tomorrow I'll know all. 15 ORIMALDI. Have you the poison? RICHARDETTO. Here 'tis in this box. • Doubt nothing, this will do't; in any case, As you respect your life, be quick and sure. GRIMALDI. I'll speed him. RICHARDETTO. Do; away! for 'tis not safe H_f(io»-_ Ga^ Mtfei You should be seen much here. —Ever my love! 20 J>\_ GRIMALDI. And mine to. you. • Exit Grimaldi. jYf t sL^V** RICHARDETTO. So; if this hit, I'll laugh and hug revenge, • u c_^ etk And they that now dream of a wedding-feast ' May chance to mourn the lusty bridegroom's ruin. But to my other business. —Niece Philotis! ___V / ( os ( « c _ ^ ~ Enter Philotis. • —-I>QM»* *<kfr& PHILOTIS. • uncle?-'•": ' • RICHARDETTO. My lovely niece! ; w^<« You have bethought 'ee? ftfioxC ?V\\\oVifc PHILOTIS. Yes, and, as you counsel'd, Fashion'd my heart to love him; but he swears He will tonight be married, for he fears 30 His uncle else, if he should know the drift, 27-28. My . . . bethought 'ee?] Gif- > , fori; one line in Q_. 9.. affied] affianced, betrothed. 'i">y -55-III.V 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Will hinder all, and call his coz to shrift. RICHARDETTO. Tonight? Why, best of all!—but let me see, I—ha—yes: so it shall be; in disguise We'll early to the friar's, I have thought on't. 35 Enter Bergetto and Poggio. J ^ ' S w U ^ ' PHILOTIS. , Uncle, he comes. RICHARDETTO. Welcome, my worthy coz. BERGETTO. Lass, pretty lass, come buss, lass! —Aha, Poggio! POGGIO. There's hope of this yet! [Kisses her.] *"t» . o r C A « X , \iiUk( c*nt\< RICHARDETTO. < . You shall have time enough; withdraw a little, We must confer at large. BERGETTO. Have you not sweetmeats or dainty devices for me ? V>i^ \V^ i^  L*H>( i PHILOTIS. You shall have enough, sweetheart. BERGETTO. Sweetheart! Mark that, Poggio! By my troth, I cannot choose <j^_^ i I but kiss thee once more for that word "sweetheart." Poggio, I have a monstrous swelling about my stomach, 45 whatsoever the matter be. ^tyb 9o&f^ vo ^  POGGIO. fco*o>e*>«g4«, You shall have physic for't, sir. RICHARDETTO. Time runs apace. Un«*v\»tV<W\ BERGETTO. offVfc'ft' Time's a blockhead. RICHARDETTO. Be rul'd; when we have done what's fit to do, ftgd^tfRS V^ivW(w Cxj&_ V% Then you may kiss your fill, and bed her too. Exeunt, ^ j ^ p 38. S. P. Poooio] this can.; Philotis, Q.. 42. shall have] Gifford; shall Q.. ( j ^ ^ ^ 'ichardetto, Gifford. ^ fiEc**** 37. buss] kiss. -56-95 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE IH.vi [Ill.vi] Fnlrr Ihr Friar tilling in a (hair, Annabella kntrling and whispering to him; a tails before them end wax-lights: tht weeps and wrings her hand*. I am glad to see this penance; for, believe me, You have unripp'd a soul so foul and guilty As I must tell you true, I marvel how The earth hath borne you up: but weep, weep on, These tears may do you good; weep faster yet, Whiles I do read a lecture. ANNABELLA. Wretched creature! FRIAR. Ay, you are wretched, miserably wretched, ,. Almost condemn'd alive. There is a place— List, daughter—in a black and hollow vault, Where day is never seen; there shines no sun, But flaming horror of consuming fires, . . A lightless sulphur, chok'd with smoky fogs Of an infected darkness; in this place Dwell many thousand thousand sundry sorts Of never-dying deaths; there damned souls Roar without pity; there are gluttons fed With toads and adders; there is burning oil Pour'd down the drunkard's throat; the usurer Is forc'd to sup whole draughts of molten gold; There is the murderer forever stabb'd, Yet can he never die; there lies the wanton On racks of burning steel, whiles in his soul He feels the torment of his raging lust. . ANNABELLA. Mercy, O mercy! FRIAR. There stands these wretched things Who have dream'd out whole years in lawless sheets And secret incests, cursing one another: 0.1. Friar] Weber; Friar in his study Q. 10 15 20 25 0.1.] Q.'s in Ait study clearly seems an error, as the scene takes place in Annabella's bedroom (see III.iv.33). : 6. read a lecture] deliver a rebuke. . ' ' -57-96 Ill.vi 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Then you will wish each kiss your brother gave Had been a dagger's point; then you shall hear How he will cry, "O would my wicked sister Had first been damn'd, when she did yield to lust!"-But soft, methinks I see repentance "work New motions in your heart; say, how is't with you? ANNABELLA. ^ Is there no way left to redeem my miseries? FRIAR. There is, despair not; Heaven is merciful, And offers grace even now. 'Tis thus agreed, First, for your honor's safety, that you marry The Lord Soranzo; next, to save your soul, Leave off this life, and henceforth live to him. ANNABELLA. Ay me! FRIAR. Sigh not; I know the baits of sin Are hard to leave—O, 'tis a death to do't. Remember what must come. Are you content? ANNABELLA. I am. FRIAR. I like it well; we'll take the time. Who's near us there ? 30 35 40 45 Enter Florio and Giovanni. tita t^a </^«^ j FLORIO. W o ^ M ^ H ^ t W a ^ f t Did you call, father? 'j FRIAR. ( Is Lord Soranzo come? | FLORIO. He stays below. FRIAR. Have you acquainted him at full ? FLORIO. I have, And he is overjoy'd. FRIAR. And so are we;  Bid him come near. 46-47. I . . . overjoy'd.] Weber; one 47-48. And . . . near.] Weber; 'one line in Q.. line in Q. 42. take the lime] seize the opportunity. -58-97 i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Ill.vii GIOVANNI [aside]. My sister weeping, ha? [\\^  I fear this friar's falsehood. [To him.] I will call him. Exit. "^^j^u^ FLORIO. fex/up^s ' Daughter, are you resolv'd? ANNABELLA. Father, I am. 50 Enter Giovanni, Soranzo, and Vasques. ^^ opjfwi—c. •"Vfeos FLORIO. ^ M M t i ^ M ^ K 1 My Lord Soranzo, here ( *>>v(o^ e^^  1 Give me your hand; for that I give you this. • • .4»o*^ »_»")(,_.vf ' [Joins their hands.] of r\MviPvfc_\\vi j SORANZO. ''UVV»t\l_tW»>Jt> j Lady, say you so too? 1 ANNABELLA. I do, and vow To live with you and yours. I FRIAR. Timely resolv'd: j My blessing rest on both; more to be done, 55 £*>fW>K_ ^wvtfW You may perform it on the morning sun. Exeunti—Tw'Ao'*Hkft.\9iP% . [Ill.vii] Enter Grimaldi with his rapier drawn and a rfar*'antera-\^v^_i Q!OV>»S ^ p.VT-GRIMALDI. ; ; ; \K» i*\&S>o^ V, V«C&v^t«, j \ V' 'Tis early night as yet, and yet too soon . • To finish such a work; here I will lie ftpviMfe — S R ) * ^ To listen who.comes next! : fie lies down. _£jsV<_^ Enter Bergetto and Philotis disguis'd,.and after Richardetto and Poggio. ^ ^ ^ ^ s ' BERGETTO. We are almost at the place, I hope, sweetheart. _^ op \n of GRIMALDI [aside]. p^u, ftMt> I hear them near, and heard one say "sweetheart". 5 fewcjc^yj 'Tis he; now guide my hand, some angry justice, Home to his bosom. [Aloud.] Now have at you, sir! i-fvv_& t^fl&fftfo Strikes Bergetto and exit, foov-t fc_\\\>0_> BERGETTO. \ ^Vfe ^ >yOMff3Q& , O help, help! Here's a stitch fallen in my guts, O for a U ^ t - N f ^ flesh-tailor quickly!—Poggio! fe_\__Sv» 48-49. My. . . him.] Weber; My... 53-54. I . . .yours.] Weber; oneline^^^^ falsehood./1 . . . him. ft. tn ft. W\ o f ^ i t o ^ ^ 9. flesh-tailor] surgeon. • ' -59- ' -98 Ill.vii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE PHILOTIS. ;'-„i;. . What ails my love ? , 10 BERGETTO. '. ~ \J€P/ I am sure I cannot piss forward and backward, and yet I %£»fc(,<(0 am wet before and behind. —Lights, lights! ho, lights! PHILOTIS. • x -ftfcvVWfeetU Alas, some villain here has slain my love! RICHARDETTO. O Heaven forbid it! —Raise up the next neighbors Hustc C X A S 2.0 Instantly, Poggio, and bring lights. Exit Poggio.—tS-^ l&.Wvf How is't, Bergetto? Slain! It cannot be; Are you sure y'are hurt? BERGETTO. 0 my belly seethes like a porridge-pot, some cold water, 1 shall boil over else; my whole body is in a sweat, that you '. . may wring my shirt; feel here—Why, Poggio! 20 Enter Poggio with Officers and lights and halberts. - • ; .' . POGGIO. fcS&^o Here! Alas, how do you? Vo^ k fysnf of RICHARDETTO. G6ftVC'6,(Co - •, • Give me a light. What's here? All blood! O sirs, Signor Donado's nephew now is slain. Follow the murderer with all the haste Up to the city, he cannot be far hence; Follow, I beseech you. \ • OFFICERS. : 1 •Follow, follow, follow! fty*. RICHARDETTO. •Exeunt Officers!— Up Toar off thy linen, coa, to ctop hie w o u n d 6 ; Be of good comfort, man. •' BERGETTO. Is all this mine own blood? Nay, then, good night with 30 me. Poggio, commend me to my uncle, dost hear? Bid him for my sake make much of this wench. O!—I am going 16-17.] Gifford; How . . . Slain!/ It . I . hurt? Q_. 32. make much of] take care of, treat generously. . , • • -60-J 99 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Ill.viii the wrong way sure, my belly aches so. —O, farewell, Poggio!—O!—O!— Dies. PHILOTIS. O, he is dead! POGGIO. How ! Dead! RICHARDETTO. He's dead indeed. 35 'Tis now too late to weep; let's have him home, ¥&YC&t ?V\v\df\t fc>»© And with what speed we may, find out the murderer. L E M I S Hfc^off POGGIO. VW>\C C U ^ T J O my master, my master, my master! viaTw^  CM Tft 1 _ [Ill.viii] Enter Vasques and Hippolita. HIPPOLITA. . Betroth'd? . •  VASQUES. . • I saw it. HIPPOLITA. And when's the marriageKlay ? VASQUES. Some two days hence. HIPPOLITA. Two days! Why, man, I would but wish two hours To send him to his last and lasting sleep; And, Vasques, thou shalt see I'll do it bravely. VASQUES. I do not doubt your wisdom, nor, I trust, you my secrecy; I am infinitely yours. HIPPOLITA. I will be thine in spite of my disgrace. : So soon ? O, wicked man, I durst be sworn, , He'd laugh to see me weep. VASQUES. ' '' And that's a villainous fault in him. ;. HIPPOLITA. No, let him laugh, I'm arm'd in my resolves; Be thou still true.  VASQUES. I should get little by treachery against so hopeful a prefer-ment as I am like to climb to. • -61- ' • • •" 100 Ill.viii HIPPOLITA. 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Even to my bosom, Vasques. Let my youth -Exeunt* 20. t>L Revel in these new pleasures; if we thrive, He now hath but a pair of days to live. [ I I L i x ] C W W s m P . \ -1U Enter Florio, Donado, Richardetto, Poggio, and Officers, r V ^ovi4 «ft*^ *Cl6vW\ FLORIO. 'Tis bootless now to show yourself a child, Signor Donado; what is done, is done. Spend not the time in tears, but seek for justice. RICHARDETTO. I must confess, somewhat I was in fault  That had not first acquainted you what love Pass'd 'twixt him and my niece; but, as I live, His fortune grieves me as it were mine own. DONADO. Alas, poor creature, he meant no man harm, That I am sure of. FLORIO. I believe that too. But stay, my masters, are you sure you saw The murderer pass here? OFFICER. And it please you, sir, we are sure we saw a ruffian, with a naked weapon in his hand all bloody, get into my lord cardinal's grace's gate, that we are sure of; but for fear of his grace, bless us, we durst go no further. DONADO. Know you what manner of man he was ? Off)—ft* ! 15 OFFICER. Yes, sure, I know the man, they say 'a is a soldier; he that lov'd your daughter, sir, an't please ye; 'twas he for certain. FLORIO. Grimaldi, on my life! OFFICER. Ay, ay, the same. 18. my youth] a contemptuous reference to Soranzo. [Ill.ix] 17. 'a] he. • ' . . ; -62-'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE IH.ix RICHARDETTO. The cardinal is noble; he no doubt Will give true justice. DONADO. Knock someone at the gate. POGGIO. I'll knock, sir. SERVANT (within). What would 'ee? FLORIO. We require speech with the lord cardinal About some present business; pray inlbrm His grace that we are here. — fW\o Mt>W»9*> . 'fooff^tVJHo P o g g , o W , . W v > W s Enter Cardinal and Grimaldi. CARDINAL. . Why, how now; friends! What saucy mates are "you, That know nor duty nor civility? Are we a person fit to be your host, Or is our house become your common inn, To beat our doors at pleasure ? What such haste Is yours as that it cannot wait fit times? Are you the masters of this commonwealth, ' And know no more discretion? O, your news Is here before you; you have lost a nephew, Donado, last night by Grimaldi slain: Is that your business? Well, sir, we have knowledge on't. Let that suffice. GRIMALDI. In presence of your grace, , In thought I never meant Bergetto harm. But Florio, you can tell, with how much scorn Soranzo, back'd with his confederates, Hath often wrong'd me; I to be reveng'd, (For that I could not win him else to fight) Had thought by way of ambush to have kill'd him, But was unluckily therein mistook, . ,K ,\ J Else he had felt what late Bergetto did: And though my fault to him were merely chance, : Yet humbly I submit me to your grace, • To do with me as you please. of R>ft\o>*>y 30 35 40 45 -63-1 0 2 Hl.ix 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE CARDINAL. ^'fftV.s-^Vw f>VWV> Kino up, Grimaldi. 50 You citizens of Parma, if you seek For justice, know, as nuncio from the pope, For this offense I here receive Grimaldi Into his holiness' protection. He is no common man, but nobly born; 55 Of princes' blood, though you, Sir Florio, Thought him too mean a husband for your daughter. If more you seek for, you must go to Rome, For he shall thither; learn more wit, for shame. Bury your dead. —Away, Grimaldi—leave 'em! 60 Exeunt Cardinal and Grimaldi.-Is this a churchman's voice? Dwells justice here? _ FLORIO" ' X'»o 'Vo^ Vo Justice is fled to Heaven and comes no nearer. fe.^iyA C&^fea^ Soranzo! Was't for him? O impudence! Had he the face to speak it, and not blush ? Come, come, Donado, there's no help in this, 65 •When cardinals think murder's not amiss. VA—SAC CU£. 14? Great men may do their wills, we must obeyi - A » f o^Oj^ yo b-ttf tAAfc %Q But Heaven will judge them for't another day. ^eSft?^*^ : [iv.i] IV^4RM\4,<>\OS_ ^-^Sj^j frV_S\g,CU_ J£ A Banquet. Hautboys. Enter the Friar, Giovanni, Annabella, Philotis, f\t^at\Njfe\$, g>  VAfrwf CJSX. ZA Soranzo, Donado, Florio, Richardetto, Putana, and Vasques. :{ \ w w i i \ < P R I A R ; _ - ^ „ | These holy rites perform'd, now take your times <i*^J*to W* i \ To spend the remnant of the day in feast; ^a^rtuTov^eyfMO^ I Such fit repasts are pleasing to the saints, *y\»E. ^ o>»ft_o j . Who are your guests, though not with mortal eyes'Vo^  *<6^  ^\Wrf | To be beheld. —Long prosper in this day, You happy couple, to each other's joy! wr\hv^ UV-62. fled to Heaven] an allusion to the legend of Astraea, goddess of justice, ! who fled to Heaven when the Golden Age of earth came to an end. -' [iv.i] • ; . 0.1. A Banquet] a dessert of confectionery, fruit, wine, etc. :\ 0.1. Hautboy] "A wooden dpuble-reed wind instrument of high pitch" (OED). .. j - 6 4 -103 GIOVANNI. Prithee, fellow, wait; I need not thy officious diligence. FLORIO. Signor Donado, come, you must forget Your late mishaps, and drown your cares in wine. SORANZO. Vasques! VASQUES. My lord ?  SORANZO. Reach me that weighty bowl. Here, brother Giovanni, here's to you; Your turn comes next, though now a bachelor. Here's to your sister's happiness and minel GIOVANNI. I cannot drink. SORANZO. GIOVANNI. ANNABELLA What! 'Twill indeed offend me. Pray do not urge him, if he be not willing. IV.i 10 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE SORANZO. Father, your prayer is heard; the hand of goodness Hath been a shield for me against my death, And, more to bless me, hath enrich'd my life With this most precious jewel; such a prize As earth hath not another like to this. Cheer up, my love, and gentlemen, my friends, Rejoice with me in mirth; this day we'll crown With lusty cups to Annabella's health. GIOVANNI (aside). »———————. O torture! Were the marriage yet undone, Ere I'd endure this sight, to see my love Clipp'd by another, I would dare confusion. And stand the horror of ten thousand deaths. VASQUES. Are you not well, sir ? 15 20 25<V*DCnvuet y ( ^ 0 Hautboys. ^ 28. S.D. Hautboys) (Jifford; ajler I. 35 in 0_. 17. Clipp'd) embraced. 19. wait) wait on the guests. -65-IV.i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE FLORIO. How now, what noise is this ? \_©V,6 U> W^ C VASQUES! O, sir, I had forgot to tell you j\ certain young maiden^  of Pi arma, in honor to Madam Annabella's marriage, -^ ' sent t^ g^ r- lovef 'O-fegJ m a masque, for which tj*«y humbly _ftS(e5t° crave»your patience and silence. SORANZO. We are much bound to them, so much the more VAN»___JU_, XT As it comes unexpected; guide them in. 35 hntrr Hippolita and Ladiis in [masks and] white robes, with garlands of— wilhws. Music and a darue. \vMf\ •»» ^  of \jrf< <\* * W s ^ l 4 M t C » H « OovJvl trfe^S, fovjfe „ * \ \ _ SoV^fcKTo \J5K \ v i VB»»<rt Thanks, lovely virgins; now might we but k n o w ! To whom we have been beholding for this l°ve»' v^B!ve Vsv»t* ^fo^M^0"1*! We shall acknowledge it. [ J HIPPOLITA. Yes, you shall know; [Unmasks.]— ^ fJ** j' What think you now? / . / OMNES. Hippolita! x HIPPOLITA. 'Tis she, Be not amaz'd; nor blush, young lovely bride, 40 , . I come not to defraud you of your man. 'Tis now no time to reckon up the talk ' What Parma long hath rumor'd of us both: Let rash report run on; the breath that vents it Will, like a bubble, break itself at last. 45 But now to you, sweet creature: lend's your hand; ' \tt^>^_V_y^ i Perhaps it hath been said that I would claim fWifttfd^VM tVwKof • i Some interest in Soranzo, now your lord. '^ •it'fftV e^t VBB»WW> 1 What I have right to do, his soul knows best: But in my duty to your noble worth, 50 . 34-35.] Gifford; prose in G_. 37. this] Q,corr.; thy Qjtncorr. 35.2. a dance.] Weber; a dance. Dance. 0_. ' ' -29. noise] music. [ 34. bound] obliged. , 35.2. willows] An emblem of disappointed love. Cf. the willow song in ' Othello, IV.iii. j 37. beholding] indebted. j -66- • i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE IV.i Sweet Annabella, and my care of you, Here take, Soranzo, take this hand from me: once more join what by the holy church Is finish'd and allow'd; have I done well ? SORANZO. You have too much engag'd us. HIPPOLITA. One thing more. That you may know my single charity, Freely I here remit all interest I e'er could claim, and give you back your vows; And to confirm't—reach me a cup of wine:—  £oftSS*To <i\W*<Vj bcvo»A-55 My Lord Soranzo, in this draught I drink Long rest t'ee! —Look to it, Vasques. VASQUES. Fear nothing. He gives her a poison'd cup: she drinks SORANZO. Hippolita, I thank you, and will pledge This happy union as another life; Wine, there!  VASQUES. You shall have none, neither shall you pledge her. HIPPOLITA. How! of W\h VASQUES. ^•tfcm^N-aWl Know now, Mistress She-Devil, your own mischievous Ue^ <\ treachery hath kill'd you; I must not marry you. ^ Ha*/of •^ iftAe 1 HIPPOLITA. I Villain! 70 j OMNES. ' .1 What's the matter ? ] VASQUES. j Foolish woman, thou art now like a firebrand that hath kindled others and burnt thyself; troppo tptraff inganna, ' 68-69.] Weber; Know . . . treachery/ Hath . . . marry you. Q.. 73. ingannd] Weber; niganna Q. 55. engag'd] put under an obligation. 56. single] sincere, single-minded. 73. troppo . . . inganna] too much hope deceives. -67-106 IV.i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE 75 thy vain hope hath deceived thee, thou art but dead; if thou hast any grace, pray. HIPPOLITA. Monster! W>(o>CW« VASQUES. G t t h 0 g » 4 t > Die in charity, for shame! This thing df malice, this woman, had privately corrupted me with promise of marriage, under this politic reconciliation, to poison "•••/•V - m y i o r ( J ; whiles she might laugh at his confusion on his marriage day. I promis'd her fair, but I knew what my reward should have been; and would willingly have spar'd her life, but that I was acquainted with the danger of her disposition, and now have fitted her a just payment in her own coin. There she is, ohe hath yot and end 80 85 thy dnyo in pease, vile woman; as for life there's no hope, think not on't. OMNES. Wonderful justice! RICHARDETTO. Heaven, thou art righteous. HIPPOLITA. O, 'tis true; I feel my minute coming. Had that slave Kept promise (O, my tormentl}, thou this hour Hadst died, Soranzo—heat abovo holl fire I— Yet ere I pass away—cruel) cruol flamool— Take here my curse amongst you; may thy bed Of marriage be a rack unto thy heart, Burn blood and boil in vongoanoo—O my heart, My flame'c intolerable!—Mayst thou live To father bastards, may her womb bring forth Monsters, and die together in your sins, Hated, scorn'd, and unpitied!—O!—Ol— Dies. 90 J of 4«ia ! 95 00 b * » v i * i W ^ tab t*ew FLORIO. Was e'er so vile a creature? 79. marriage] Dodsley; malice Q.. 85. yet and] printed thus in Q.. 79. politic] cunning, hypocritical. 85. yet —and] Some words may have dropped from the text here, or possibly "yet" is a misprint for "that" or "it" (Hippolita's punishment). -68- . 107 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Here's the end IV.ii RICHARDETTO. Of lust and pride. ANNABELLA. It is a fearful sight. SORANZO. Vasques, I know thee now a trusty servant, And never will forget thee. —Gome, my love. We'll home, and thank the Heavens for this escape. Father and friends, we must break up this mirth; It is too sad a least. NtVtOttCt. Bear hence the body. FRIAR. Here's an ominous change; Mark this, my Giovanni, and take heed. I fear the event; that marriage seldom's good, Where the bride-banquet so begins in blood. i J=L__<______ ! E»«** 105 U W I I O S W 4 W VABCB*^ ! Enter Richardetto and Philotit. RICHARDETTO. •My wretched wife-) moro wretched in her shame 33ian in her wrongs to me, hath paid too toon The forfeit of her modesty and life j And I am cure; my niece, though vengeance hover, Keeping aloof yet from Soramn't fall, Yet he will fall, and sink with his own weight. I need not now my heart pcrtmdct me to— To further hip confucion; there is One Above boginc to work, for, as I hear, Pebatec already 'twixt his wifo and him Thickon and run to hoadj oho) ao 'tio oaid, Slightcno hio love^  and he abandono hero. Much talk I hear; cince thingc go thuc, my niece, In tender love and pity of your youth, My counoel in, that you ohould froo your yooro From hanard of these woet by flying hence To fair Cremona, there to vow your eoul •' 'In holineoo a holy votarett; Leavoi to oce the end of these extreme!. All human worldly court; eo are uneven j No life in bleoood but tho way to Heaven. -69-10 15 20 1 0 8 IV.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE PHILOTIS. 'Uncle, shall I recolvc to be a nun? (RICHARDETTO. Ay, gentle niece, and in your hourly prayers Remember me, your poor unhappy uncle-Hie to Cremona now, •» fortune lends, Your home/your cloister, your best friends ynnr beads. Your chaste and tingle life shall crown your birth; Who diec a virgin lives a saint on earth. PHILOTIS. Thon farewell) world, and worldly thoughts, adieu I Welcome, chaste vows; myself I yield to you Exeunt [IV.iii] Enter Soranzo unbrae'd, and Annabella dragg'd in. SORANZO. Come, strumpet, famous whore! Were every drop 25 30 Of blood that runs in thy adulterous veins A life, this sword—dost see't?—should in one blow Confound them all. Harlot, rare, notable harlot, That with thy brazen face maintainst thy sin, Was there no man in Parma to be bawd To your loose cunning whoredom else but I ? Must your hot itch and pleurisy of lust, The heyday of your luxury, be fed Up to a surfeit, and could none but I Be pick'd out to be cloak to your close tricks, Your belly-sports? Now I must be the dad To all that gallimaufry that's stuff'd In thy corrupted bastard-bearing womb, Say, must I?  28. lives] Dodsley; live Q.. [IV.iii] 15. Say] Dodsley; Shey Q.. 10 •: 0.1. unbrae'd] with part of his clothing untied; a symbol of mental turmoil (cf. Hamlet, II.i.78). • ; < • . • ' 5. maintainst] defend, persist in. . ' 9. luxury] lust, lechery. 11. close] secret, concealed. '•" ' 13. gallimaufry] an unpleasant mixture. ' -70-109 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE ANNABELLA. Beastly man! Why, 'tis thy fate. IV.iii I sued not to thee; for, but that I thought Your over-loving lordship would have run Mad on denial, had ye lent me time, I would have told 'ee in what case I was. But you would needs be doing. SORANZO. Whore of whores! Dar'st thou tell me this? ANNABELLA. O yes, why not? You were deceiv'd in me; 'twas not for love I chose you, but for honor; yet know this, Would you be patient yet, and hide your shame, I'd see whether I could love you. SORANZO. Excellent quean! Why, art thou not with child ? ANNABELLA. What needs all this When 'tis superfluous? I confess I am. SORANZO. Tell me by whom. _ _ _ _ ANNABELLA. Soft, sir, 'twas not in my bargain. Yet somewhat, sir, to stay your longing stomach, I'm content t'acquaint you with; the man,  The more than man, that got this sprightly boy— For 'tis a boy; that's for your glory, sir, Your heir shall be a son— SORANZO. Damnable monster! ANNABELLA. Nay, and you will not hear, I'll speak no more. SORANZO. Yes, speak, and speak thy last. ANNABELLA. -i >tch, a match! This noble creature was in every part So angel-like, so glorious, that a woman Who had not been but human, as was I, Would have kneel'd to him, and have begg'd for love. 32. that's for your] Mcllwraith; that for Q.; and therefore Dodsley. 25. quean] impudent woman, harlot. 35. A match] i.e., a bargain! agreed! -71-2 0 v\wt> G>«fc%t We* 25 Uflpt-C Ursa, ^ of V\n»*w_4fil | 35 ^ w v ^ ^ f c v e 110 IV.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE ANNABELLA. Alas, alas, there's all! Will you believe?. SORANZO. What? ANNABELLA. SORANZO. How! SORANZO. Tear the prodigious lecher joint by joint. ANABELLA. Ha, ha, ha, the man's merry! SORANZO. Dost thou laugh? Come, whore, tell me your lover, or, by truth, I'll hew thy flesh to shreds; who is't?  ANNABELLA (sings). Che morte piu dolcc che morirc per amore? SORANZO! ~~~ ~ " Thus will I pull thy hair, and thus I'll drag You! Why, you are not worthy once to name 40 y- • ' His name without true worship, or, indeed, Unless you kneel'd, to hear another name him. SORANZO. What was he call'd ?  ANNABELLA. We are not come to that. Let it suffice that you shall have the glory To father what so brave a father got. 45 vIn brief, had not thin chanco fall'n out an't doth, I never had boen troubled with a thought That you had been a creature; but for marriage, I Gcarco droaro yet of that. SORANZO. Tell me his name. You shall never know. ANNABELLA. Never; if you do, let me be curs'd. SORANZO. Not know it, strumpet! I'll rip up thy heart, And find it there. ANNABELLA. Do, do! And with my teeth 50 55 udi, Viae, \te**> 52. Never . . . curs'd] this edn.; 59.piu] Weber;pluis Q. P»tt> YXtXiS ' Never;/ If. ;. curs'd. Q.. V ^ l i t ^ U ^ ^ 59. Che . . . amore?] "What sweeter death than to die for love?" Ct*Al3t, -72- • J I l l 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE IV.iii Thy lust-be-leper'd body through the dust. Yet tell his name. . '• ANNABELLA (sings). Morendo in gratia Dei, morirei senza dolore. SORANZO. Dost thou triumph ? The treasure of the earth Shall not redeem thee; were there kneeling kings Did beg thy life, or angels did come down To plead in tears, yet should not all prevail Against my rage! Dost thou not tremble yet? ANNABELLA. At what? To die? No, be a gallant hangman. I dare thee to the worst: strike, and strike home; I leave revenge behind, and thou shalt feel't. SORANZO. Yet tell me ere thou diest, and tell me truly,  Knows thy old father this? ANNABELLA. No, by my life. SORANZO. • Wilt thou confess, and I will spare thy life? ANNABELLA. My life! I will not buy my life so dear. SORANZO. I will riot slack my vengeance. . , _f\ld*><. te*, V>oU, ova Enter Vasques. VASQUES. What d'ee mean, sir? SORANZO. Forbear, Vasques; such a damned whore Deserves no pity. Ge>y(ex. tov> 63. Dei] Weber; Lei Q_. 63. morirei] thisedn.; morirere Qcorr.; morire Quncorr. 71.1 leave] Q_ corr.; leave Q. uncorr. 61. lust-be-leper'd] made leprous and repulsive through lust. 63. Morendo . - r . dolore] A mixture of Italian and Latin: "Dying in the grace of God, I should die without sorrow." The reading morirei seems the most economical way of making sense of 0_, but it is hard to explain why the compositor made the mistaken correction to morirere; obviously he did not understand Italian. Annabella's two lines in Italian are presumably quotations, but no editor has identified them. -73-112 IV.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE VASP_UES. Now the gods forfend! And would you be her executioner, 80 , and kill her in your rage too? O, 'twere most unmanlike. V^\fe She is your wife: what faults hath been done by her before 'SoWivwo she married you, were not against you; alas, poor lady, what <Swt» •vWwA hath she committed which any lady in Italy in the like case ^ ^ K ^ * * * * would not? Sir, you must be ruled by your reason and 85 not by your fury, that were unhuman and beastly. SORANZO. She shall not live. ^ » > C E £ VASQUES. Come, she must. You would have her confess the author of her present misfortunes, I warrant'ee; 'tis an unconscion-able demand, and she should lose the estimation that I; 90 for my part, hold of her worth, if she had done it. Why, sir, you ought not of all men living to know it: good sir, be reconciled; alas, good gentlewoman! « f ftf^ V\\i ANNABELLA. A,0 ^UUftfciWft Pish, do not beg for me: I prize my life ^sJuifii As nothing; if the man will needs be mad, 95 W^H Why, let him take it. SORANZO. Vasques, hear'st thou this? VASQUES. Yes, and commend her for it; in this she shows the nobleness of a gallant spirit, and beshrew my heart, but it becomes her*««J»tto M _ rarely. [Aside to Soranzo.] Sir, in any case smother of5^,* your revenge; leave the scenting-out your wrongs to me; fOOta&,c (^? be rul'd, as you respect your honor, or you mar all. [Aloud.] ^° Sir, if ever my service were of any credit with you, be not so \( v^  • violent in your distractions. You are married now; what a ^V>»JV*M'J(I triumph might the report of this give to other neglected suitors! 'Tis as manlike to bear extremities as godlike to 105 forgive. SORANZO. O Vasques, Vasques, in this piece of flesh, ^.MfittCWit This faithless face of hers, had I laid up kj^a» \ w The treasure of my heart!—Hadst thou been virtuous, cad/A* ti&M 88. authqr] Dyce; authors Q.. of/ 80. forfend] forbid. -74 -'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE IV.iii Fair, wicked woman, not the matchless joys Ot lite itsell had made me wish to live With any saint but thee; deceitful creature, How hast thou mock'd my hopes, and in the shame Of thy lewd womb even buried me alive! I did too dearly love thee. VASQUES (aside), " This is well; follow this temper with some passion. Be brief and moving; 'tis for the purpose. SORANZO. Be witness to my words thy soul and thoughts,  And tell me, didst not think that in my heart • I did too superstitiously adore thee? 120 ANNABELLA. I must confess I know you lov'd me well. SORANZO. And wouldst thou use me thus? O, Annabella, Be thou assur'd, whatsoe'er the villain was That thus hath tempted thee to this disgrace, Well he might lust, but never lov'd like me. .125 He doted on the picture that hung out  tew**, ^v>»* Upon thy cheeks, to please his humorous eye; Not on the part I lov'd, which was thy heart, And, as I thought, thy virtues.  ANNABELLA. O my lord! These words wound deeper than your sword could do. VASQUES. Let me not ever take comfort, but I begin to weep myself, so much I pity him; why, madam, I knew when his rage was over-past, what it would come to. SORANZO. Forgive me, Annabella: though thy youth  I 3 0 ^tifiM&I^Kotyi. 116-117.] Weber; This Follow . . . passion./ Be . . a-. .-well;/ purpose. 123. thou] Gifford; thus Q.. . 116. follow . . . passion] i.e., go on talking in this way, with plenty of feeling; it is the right way to trick Annabella into confessing. 127. humorous] capricious. -75-IV.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Hath tempted thee above thy strength to folly, 135 Yet will not I forget what I should be, And what I am, a husband; in that name Is hid divinity; if I do find That thou wilt yet be true, here I remit . All former faults, and take thee to my bosom. » 'i$U>fc\\(\ VASQUES. By my troth, and that's a point of noble charity. ANNABELLA. Sir, on my knees— [fCmels.] SORANZO. Rise up, you shall not kneel. LA$4 W_V^O Get you to your chamber, see you make no show Xti/K Of alteration; I'll be with you straight. ^^(S^^V^ My reason tells me now that 'tis as common ^AAjwio Pw* To err in frailty as to be a woman. *A"C>6 Go to your chamber. Exit Annabella-—SVCNJW VASQUES. ^«ftM-VrtfCl. So, this was somewhat to the matter; what do you think ^ c v > 1 ^ o f^j of your heaven of happiness now, sir? j SORANZO. ! I carry hell about me; all my blood 150 j Is fir'd in swift revenge. M*rVW/li VASQUES. That may be, but know you how, or on whom? Alas, to  marry a great woman, being made great in tho otook to CtKtg^Vo ^yew-hand, is a usual sport in these days; but to know *&oA»n*_o what ferret it was that haunted your cony-berry, there's 155 the cunning. SORANZO. I'll make her tell herself, or—• X o^too'f VASQUES. eV«<eo4_ Or what? You must not do so. Let me yet persuade your ^y^yf sufferance a little while; go to her, use her mildly, win her ^ofly^ fcto 1 155. ferret] Dodsley; secret Q_. 153. great] pregnant. . 153. stock] trunk, body. 153-154. to your hand] ready for you, in advance. 155. cony-berry] rabbit-warren. • i -76-o 1 1 5 ! '• 'Tis P I T Y SHE'S A WHORE IV.iii ' if it be possible to a voluntary, to a weeping tune; for the 160 rest, if all hit, I will not miss my mark. Pray, sir, go in; the o^V&>v&o <**oe» K* next news I tell you shall be wonders. ^o^of VCpi\«,V SORANZO. - W * * Delay in vengeance gives a heavier blow. F v *' VASQUES. — ——• " ! Ah, sirrah, here's work for the nonce! I had a suspicion fy( j of a bad matter in my head a pretty whiles ago; but after 165 my madam's scurvy looks here at home, her waspish perverseness and loud, fault-finding, then I remember'd the proverb, that where hens crow and cocks hold their peace there are sorry houses. 'Sfoot, if the lower parts of a Y\UP C&t&A^ she-tailor's cunning can cover such a swelling in the 170 y ^ j ^ | stomach, I'll never blame a false stitch in a shoe whiles I I live again. Up and up so quick? And so quickly too? I 'Twere a fine policy to learn by whom this must be known; j and I have thought on't—Here's the way, or none. ^WfrfXo | • Enter Putana. / [ What, crying, old mistress! Alas, alas, I cannot blame 'ee, 175 . -we have a lord, Heaven help us, is so mad as the devil i himself, the more shame for him. ' . .'' | P U T A N A . ; O Vasques, that ever I was born to see this day! Doth he use thee so too, sometimes, Vasques? VASQUES. Me? Why, he makes a dog of me. But if some were of my 180 'tftVgt 9v ^ fe^ mind, I know what we would do; as sure as I am an honest Q>Wi< man, he will go near to kill my lady with unkindness. Say she be with child, is that such a matter for a young 9vrf(fc»»ft woman of her years to be blam'd for? ^>ov*» CJb^iS^ P U T A N A . Alas, good heart, it is against her will full sore. 185 Vw»tS cXott VASQUES. -<,ViftS5JU.«C, I durst be sworn, all his madness is for that she will not ^ ©f confess whose 'tis, which he will know, and when he doth SWfawJBSlv eJy»t* 174.1.] Weber; after I. 177 in Q.. A 160. voluntary] a pun: (1) an extempore or improvised piece of music; (2) a spontaneous confession. 168-169. where . . . houses] proverbial; cf. Tilley, H 778. -77-1 1 6 i i i IV.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE know it, I am so well acquainted with his humor, that he will forget all straight. Well, I could wish she would in \ U_U>^ » plain terms tell all, for that's the way indeed. 19uVufWP, PUTANA. A o f W T Do you think so ? • ^ ,,.„ —• • — wa,t*t><<, VASQUES. W L M Foh, I know't; provided that he did not win her to't by force. He was once in a mind that you could tell, and meant to have wrung it out of you, but I somewhat pacified him for that; yet sure you know a great deal. sJJt C-VKE PUTANA. C Heaven forgive us all! I know a little, Vasques. VASQUES. Why should you not ? Who else should ? Upon my conscience, she loves you dearly, and you would not betray her to any affliction for the world. 'C* *0»A_v{ PUTANA. Not for all the world, by my faith and troth, Vasques. 200 VASQUES. 'Twere pity of your life, if you should, but in this you ^t^f. -should both relieve her present discomforts, pacify my ftuW lord, and gain yourself everlasting love and preferment. ' PUTANA. Dost think so, Vasques ? - VASQUES. Nay, I know't; sure 'twas some near and entire friend. 205y^  ^  PUTANA. 'Twas a dear friend indeed; but— v4©^t VASQUES. *t»»WJ But what ? Fear not to name him; my life between you and i danger. Faith, I think 'twas no base fellow. _\wKo * PUTANA. \or<ky*t\ | Thou wilt stand between me and harm? VASQUES. | 'Ud's pity, what else? You shall be rewarded too, trust me. 210 PUTANA. 'Twas even no worse than her own brother. "^ £^ 4 C^ »6<. : 210. 'Ud's] God's. -78- ( r 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE IV.iii VASQUES. Her brother Giovanni, I warrant 'ee! 'WK.fc* 9\ ^ 6.0 fcAfrt^_ PUTANA. ' 1 Even he, Vasques; as brave a gentleman as ever kiss'd fair ?o\\o\»>i lady. O, they love most perpetually! VASQUES. A brave gentleman indeed; why, therein I commend her 215 V_<»pc ^UfauP, choice. —Better and better! —You are sure 'twas he? 0t^ Ce,*, PUTANA. Sure; and you shall see he will not be long from her too. VASQUES. He were to blame if he would: but may I believe thee ? PUTANA. Believe me! Why, dost think I am a Turk or a Jew? No, j Vasques, I have known their dealings too long to belie 220 them now. VASQUES. Where are you there? Within, sirs! V„fc\V* o.vv_fc\j v*t> E n t e r Banditti_ _ ; w __*fckv PUTANA. ^ 0 ^ ^ How now, what are these? . (j^^ VASQUES. <o Ni9v<t«a\w_ You shall know presently. Come, sirs, take me this old damnable hag, gag her instantly, and put out her eyes. 225 Qp.»>t>v<(\ ^C^foN^ Quickly, quickly! ^ ^ 4 o ^ * £ PUTANA. <W W 6 \ « _ Vasques, Vasques! £v<V\_^\Cfcaf VASQUES. \i9v£JftV»*_ vC??^ Gag her, I say!'Sfoot, d'ee suffer her to prate? What d'ee , fumble about? Let me come to her; I'll help your old V_CPWftfr—\ig , gums, you toad-bellied bitch. Sirs, carry her closely into the 230 °vx<9»if\ evtfe coalhouse, and put out her eyes instantly; if she roars, slither e^*.6*Vr>«jfc\W>& . nose: d'ee hear,.be speedy and sure. Why, this is excellent ViCSy'Oto-and above expectation. Exeunt TBanditti] with Putana. fr>at> '5 \^v»& K : ^ ^ \ v w / 224-226.] Weber; You . . . presently./ 233. S.D. Exeunt] Dodsley; Exit ft. o*f Come... hag,/ Gag... quickly! Q_. C_vfe^. . , 224. presently] immediately. -79-118 IV.iii 'Tis P I T Y S H E ' S A W H O R E Her own brother! O horrible! To what a height of liberty Ce^Jf^eft, in damnation hath the devil train'd our age, her brother! 235 Well, there's yet but a beginning: I must to my lord, and tutor him better in his points of vengeance; now I see how a smooth tale goes beyond a smooth tail. But soft— What thing comes next? ^"fa K'SScJ^L Enter Ciovannii Giovanni! As I would wish; my belief is strengthen'd„ 240 'tis as firm as winter and summer. i \ • G I O V A N N I . ' " Where's my sister? t>L>£S* : Troubled with a new sickness, my lord; she's somewhat ill Vo**£«o ft^fefctyb «V<vV»o of % < « t\t6 G I O V A N N I " v * C £ * ( f e ? Took too much of the flesh, I believe. 245 V A S Q U E S . Troth, sir, and you, I think, have e'en hit it. But my virtuous lady— G I O V A N N I . Where's she? V A S Q U E S . In her chamber; please you visit her; she is alone. Cr»w>ft>it>V [Giovanni gives him money.] Your liberality hath doubly 25^™^^' made me your servant, and ever shall, ever. ^jfj* 'Sivk VJk\J Exit GffiKSnJK****** • CO\>J <o Mwapttt -Enter SbraiMO. foow*»«<. , Sir, I am made a man, I have plied my cue with cunning v )^ i*.v»£* and success; I beseech you let's be private. S O R A N Z O . My lady's brother's come; now he'll know all. V A S Q U E S . Let him know't; I have made some of them fast enough. 255 246-247.] Weber; Troth . . . it./ But ...lady—Q.. 234. liberty] license, libertinage. 235. train'd] lured, enticed. 245. Took . . .flesh] a bawdy double meaning: (1) eaten too much meat; (2) had too much sexual experience and become pregnant. -80-119 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.i How have you dealt with my lady ? SORANZO. Gently, as thou hast counsel'd. O, my soul Runs circular in sorrow for revenge! But, Vasques, thou shalt know— VASQUES. • Nay, I will know no more, for now comes your turn to 260 know; I would not talk so openly with you. Let my young master take time enough, and go at pleasure; he is sold to death, and the devil shall not ransom him. Sir, I beseech your privacy No Gonquoot can gain glory of my fear,— n [V.i] i Enter Annabella above. • ANNABELLA. Pleasures, farewell, and all ye thriftiest minutes Wherein falce joyc have cpun a weary life 1 To these my fortune); now I take my leave. Thou, precious Time, that swiftly rid'tt in pott Over the world, to finish up the race Of my loot fate, horo ctay thy rcstlrtt course, And boar to ages that are yet unhorn A wretched) woeful woman's tragedy. My conscience now stands up against my lust With depooitiono charaoter'd in guilt. Enter Friar [below] i And tells me I am lost: now I confess Beauty that clothes the outside of the face Is cursed if it be not cloth'd with grace. Here like a turtle mow'd up in a cage, 10 —t W » 265. S.D. Exeunt] Dodsley; Exit Q_. 10. depositions] Dodsley; dispositions a-9. against] as a witness against. 10. depositions] This seems to fit the legal metaphor better than the reading of Q.. 10. charactered in guilt] Apparently a punning phrase: (1) with gilt lettering; (2) written so as-to expose Annabella's guilt. 14. turtle] turtle-dove. -81-V.i 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Unmatcd, I converse with air and walk, And descant on my vile unh vippincis. O Giovanni, that hast had the spoil Of thine own virtues and my modest fame, Would thou hadst been less subject to those stars That luckless reign'd at my nativity: O would the scourge due to my black offense Might pass from thee, that I alone might feel The torment of an uncontrolled flame! C » V « , of ViwH 20 15 FRIAR [aside-]. What's this I hear? ANNABELLA. That man, that blessed friar) Who join'd in ceremonial knot my hand To him whose wife I now am, told me oft I trod the path to death, and chowed me how. But they who sleep in lethargies of lust Hug their confusion, making Heaven unjust, And so did II FRIAR [aside]. Hare's mucic to the soul I 30 ANNABELLA. Forgive me, my good genius, and this once Bo helpful to my endo; lot come good man Pace thio way, to whoso trust I may commit This paper doublc-lin'd with tears and blood: Which being granted, here I sadly vow. 35 Repentance, and a loaving of that life I long have died in. FRIAR. Lady, Heaven hath heard you. And hath by providence ordain'd that I Should be hie minicter for your behoof. ANNABELLA. Ha, what are you? FRIAR. Your brother's friend, the friar; ' - 40 Glad in my soul that I have liv'd to hear This free confession 'twixt your peace and you. What would you, or to whom? Fear not to speak. ANNABELLA. ID Hoaven DO bountiful? Then I have found 35. sadly] seriously. 121 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.ii 'More favor than I hop'd. Here, holy man— Commend me to my brother; give him that, That letter; bid him read it and repent 45 Throws a teller. Tell him that I, imprison'd in my chamber, Barr'd of all company, even of my guardian, Who gives me cause of much suspect, have time To blush at what hath pass'd; bid him be wise, And not believe the friendship of my lord. I fear much more than I can speak: good father, The place is dangerous, and spies are busy; I must break off—you'll do't? FRIAR. Be sure I will; And fly with speed—my blessing ever rest  With thee, my daughter: live, to die more blessed! 50 55 Exit Friar. ANNABELLA. Thanks to the Heavens, who have prolong'd my breath . To this good use: now I can welcome death. -Exih-VASQUES. Enter Soranzo and Vasques. Am I to be believ'd now? First marry a strumpet that cast herself away upon you but to laugh at your horns, to feast on your disgrace, riot in your vexations, cuckold you in your bride-bed, waste your estate upon panders and bawds! SORANZO. No more, I say, no more! '1 VASQUES. A cuckold is a goodly tame beast, my lord. SORANZO. I am resolv'd; urge not another word. My thoughts are great, and all as resolute As thunder; in mean time I'll cause our lady To deck herself in all her bridal robes, Kiss her, and fold her gently in my arms. 10 50. suspect] suspicion. -83-122 V.ii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Begone—yet hear you, are the banditti ready ^ofoprto 0 f To wait in ambush? "^f* ^ ^Qm^-^i V A S 0- U E S- e ^ ^ c c ^ ^ Good sir, trouble not yourself about other business than v . '- . : '- . . . . . \W U»*>«« your own resolution; remember that time lost cannot be '5_{£D - ( recall'd. 1 SORANZO. 1 With all the cunning words thou canst, invite The states of Parma to my birthday's feast; Haste to my brother-rival and his father, Entreat them gently, bid them not to fail. 20 Be speedy, and return. VASQUES. Let not your pity betray you till my coming back; think upon • - incest and cuckoldry. ©w(_^€«dt^ SORANZO. Revenge is all'the ambition I aspire: , •Hwfoc,dug. ~?>X To that I'll climb or fall; my blood's on fire.-__ -ExewO-.—£&-U\_ fV.iii] Enter Giovanni. -u0 osi Vv*is>i GIOVANNI. Busy opinion is an idle fool, That as a school-rod keeps a child in awe, Frights the unexperienc'd temper of the mind: So did it me; who, ere my precious sister Was married, thought all taste of love would die In such a contract; but I find no change  Of pleasure in this formal law of sports. She is still one to me, and every kiss As sweet and as delicious as the first I reap'd, when yet the privilege of youth Entitled her a virgin. O the glory Of two united hearts like hers and mine! Let poring book-men dream of other worlds, My world, and all of happiness, is here, 10 18. states] people of importance, dignitaries. rv.iii] 1. opinion] what most people think; commonly-held beliefs. -84-1 1. 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.iii And I'd not change it for the best to come: A life of pleasure is Elysium. Enter Friar. Father, you enter on the jubilee 15 Of my retir'd delights; now I can tell you, The hell you oft have prompted is nought else But slavish and fond superstitious fear; 20 And I could prove it too— FRIAR. Thy blindness slays thee. Look there, 'tis writ to thee. Gives the Utter. GIOVANNI. From whom? FRIAR. Unrip the seals and see; The blood's yet seething hot, that will anon 25 Be frozen harder than congeal'd coral. Why d'ee change color, son? GIOVANNI. 'Fore Heaven, you make Some petty devil factor 'twixt my love And your religion-masked sorceries. Where had you this? FRIAR. Thy conscience, youth, is sear'd, Else thou wouldst stoop to warning. GIOVANNI. 'Tis her hand, 30 I know't; and 'tis all written in her blood. She writes I know not what. Death ? I'll not fear An armed thunderbolt aim'd at my heart. She writes, we are discovered—pox on dreams 35 Of low faint-hearted cowardice! Discovered? The devil we are; which way is't possible? Are we grown traitors to our own delights? Confusion take such dotage, 'tis but forg'd; This is your peevish chattering, weak old man. 40 Enter Vasques. 40.1] Dyce; after I. 41 in Q_. 17. jubilee] This usually means "a time of rejoicing or celebration," but its precise meaning at this point is not clear. 19. prompted] put forward (during arguments with Giovanni). 30. sear'd] dried or withered, incapable of feeling. —"Coo of ' t fKse.s. Wf* OK 12*1"' V.iii 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Now, sir, what news bring you? My lord, according to his yearly custom keeping this day a ' feast in honor of his birthday, by me invites you thither. Your worthy father, with the Pope's reverend nuncio, and other magnificoes of Parma, have promis'd their presence; 45 will't please you to be of the number? GIOVANNI. Yes, tell him I dare come.  VASQUES. "Dare come"? GIOVANNI. So I said; and tell him more, I will come. VASQUES. These words are strange to me. GIOVANNI. Say I will come. VASQUES. You will not miss? GIOVANNI. Yet more? I'll come! Sir, are you answer'd? VASQUES. So I'll say.—My service to you 50 -Exit Vasques-r-Ctf^ \_ FRIAR. You will not go, I trust. GIOVANNI. Not go! For what? FRIAR. O, do not go! This feast, I'll gage my life, Is but a plot to train you to your ruin; Be rul'd, you sha' not go. GIOVANNI. Not go ? Stood Death Threat'ning his armies of confounding plagues, With hosts of dangers hot as blazing stars, I would be there. Not go? Yes, and resolve To strike as deep in slaughter as they all. For I will'go.  55 60 47. him] Gifford; them Q_. 56. gage] pledge, wager. 57. train] lure. -86-I 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.iv FRIAR. Go where thou wilt; I see The wildness of thy fate draws to an end, To a bad fearful end. I must not stay To know thy fall; back to Bononia I  65 With speed will haste, and shun this coming blow. Parma, farewell; would I had never known thee, Or aught of thine! Well, young man, since no prayer Can make thee safe, I leave thee to despair. Exit Friar. 70 GIOVANNI. Despair, or tortures of a thousand hells, All's one to me; I have set up my rest. Now, now; work ceriouc thoughts on baneful plots, Be all a man, my soul; let not the curse Of old prescription rend from me thr gall Of courage, which enrols a glorious rlralh If I must totter like a well-grown oak, Some unde'r-shrubs shall in my weighty fall Be crush'd to splits: with me they all shall perish. — [V.iv] Enter Soranzo, Vasques, and Banditti. 75 -ExiUr SORANZO. You will not fail, or shrink in the attempt? VASQUES. I will undertake for their parts. Be sure, my masters, to be bloody enough, and as unmerciful as if you were preying upon a rich booty on the very mountains of Liguria; for your pardons, trust to my lord, but for reward you shall trust none but your own pockets. BANDITTI OMNES. We'll make a murder. 71. S.P. GIOVANNI] Dodsley; omitted in ft-72. set up my rest] a metaphor from the card-game of primero, in which the player eventually stands or rests upon his hand of cards in the hope that it will prove better than his opponent's. 75. old prescription] apparently a reference to the biblical commandments. 76. enrols] sets one's name in the lists or records of those who have died bravely. 79. splits) splinters. -87-126 V.iv 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE SORANZO. Here's gold, here's more; want nothing; what you do ^ f t ^ j e p i Is noble, and an act of brave revenge. fcp*MsYfi\ I'll make ye rich banditti, and all free. 10 ' OMNES. •Liberty) liberty I VASQUES. Hold, take every man a vizard; when ye are withdrawn, i keep as much silence as you can possibly. You know the watchword; till which be spoken, move not, but when you hear that, rush in like a stormy flood; I need not instruct 15 ye in your own profession. OMNES. No, no, no. VASQUES. In, then: your ends are profit and preferment. —Away! Exeunt Banditti.— U£ SORANZO. The guests will all come, Vasques? frf f^fofslepi VASQUES. .. , ..Yes, sir. And now let me a little edge your resolution. You 20^^ see nothing is unready to this great work, but a great mind rf^p^^—^ in you: call to your remembrance your disgraces, your loss of honor, Hippolita's blood, and arm your courage in your own wrongs; so shall you best right those wrongs j in vengeance, which you may truly call your own. 25 SORANZO. 'Tis well; the less I speak, the more I burn, .>jsvlCyviVV*4__ And blood shall quench that flame. VASQUES. Now you begin to turn Italian. This beside—when my H/(a young incest-monger comes, he will be sharp set on his 4>ofty\vV_. old bit: give him time enough, let him have your chamber 30 and bed at liberty; let my hot hare have -law- ere he be H i * HS*v» 18.1. Exeunt] Reed; Exit Q. 29. be . . . on] have a hungry appetite for. 31. law] a "start," or limited freedom before the pursuit begins. - 8 8 -127 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.iv hunted to his death, that if it be possible, he may post to hell in the very act of his damnation. Enter Giovanni. SORANZO. It shall be so; and see, as we would wish, He comes himself first. Welcome, my much-lov'd brother! 35 Now I perceive you honor me; y'are welcome. But where's my father ? • GIOVANNI. With the other states, Attending on the nuncio of the Pope, To wait upon him hither. How's my sister? SORANZO. Like a good housewife, scarcely ready yet; 40 Y'are best walk to her chamber.  GIOVANNI. If you will. SORANZO. I must expect my honorable friends; Good brother, get her forth. GIOVANNI. You are busy, sir. ton Exit Giovanni. VASQUES. ~ Even as the great devil himself would have it; let him go and glut himself in his own destruction. Flourish. 45 lark, the nuncio is at hand; good sir, be ready to receive him. T Enter Cardinal, Florio, Donado, Richardetto, and Attendants-i——————— SORANZO. ., . Most reverend lord, this grace hath made me proud,  That you vouchsafe my house; I ever rest Your humble servant for this noble favor. 50 45. S.D.Flourish] Quncorr.; after 1.47, Qcorr. (correction made in error by proof-reader). 32-33. post. .. damnation] If he is killed in the middle of a sinful act, his soul will be damned as well as his body destroyed. This refinement of vengeance is mentioned in Hamlet (III.iii) and several other early seventeenth-century plays. 42. expect] await. - . 49. vouchsafe] deign to visit. -89-128 , V.iv 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE CARDINAL. You are our friend, my lord; his Holiness Shall understand how zealously you honor Saint Peter's vicar in his substitute. Our special love to you. SORANZO: Signors, to you My welcome, and my ever best of thanks For this so memorable courtesy. Pleaseth your grace to walk near? CARDINAL. My lord, we come To celebrate your feast with civil mirth, As ancient custom teacheth: we will go.  SORANZO. CJJX. "5U Attend his grace there! Signors, keep your way. i f^rvSgV O j £ 2JO rV.v] Enter Giovanni and Annabella lying on a bed.-~ 55 ! 'xeunl. 60 GIOVANNI. What, chang'd so soon? Hath your new sprightly lord Vivicw^^igvi Found out a trick in night-games more than we Could know in our simplicity? Ha! Is't so? Or does the fit come on you, to prove treacherous To your past vows and oaths ? ANNABELLA. Why should you jest At my calamity, without all sense Of the approaching dangers you are in ? GIOVANNI. What danger's half so great as thy revolt? Thou art a faithless sister, else thou know'st Malice, or any treachery beside, Would stoop to my bent brows; why, I hold fate Clasp'd in my fist, and could command the course Of time's eternal motion, hadst thou been One thought more steady than an ebbing sea. And what? You'll now be honest, that's resolv'd? ANNABELLA. Brother, dear brother, know what I have been, 10 — - (\><.c^. s\tAfc _&S*iSi>* **3t>^  0.1 Enter . . . bed] The bed may have been pushed out onto the stage; compare the S.D. in Middleton's A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, Ill.ii: "A bed thrust out upon the stage; Allwit's w\fe in it." -90-'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.v And know that now there's but a dining-time 'Twixt us and our confusion: let's not waste These precious hours in vain and useless speech. Alas, these gay attires were not put on But to some end; this sudden solemn feast Was not ordain'd to riot in expense; I, that have now been chamber'd here alone, Barr'd of my guardian, or of any else, Am not for nothing at an instant freed To fresh access. Be not deceiv'd, my brother: This banquet is an harbinger of death To you and me; resolve yourself it is, And be prepar'd to welcome it.  20 25 Well, then; GIOVANNI. The schoolmen teach that all this globe of earth Shall be consum'd to ashes in a minute. ANNABELLA. So I have read too. GIOVANNI. But 'twere somewhat strange 30 To see the waters burn: could I believe This might be true, I could believe as well There might be hell or Heaven. ANNABELLA. That's most certain. GIOVANNI. A dream, a dream! Else in this other world 35 We should know one another. ANNABELLA. So W e shall. GIOVANNI. Have you heard so?  ANNABELLA. For certain. GIOVANNI. But d'ee think That I shall see you there? —You look on me? May we kiss one another, prate or laugh, Or do as we do here? ANNABELLA. I know not that. Movie 40 But good, for the present, what d'ee mean 17. dining] Q,corr.; dying Q_uncorr. 39-40.] Dodsley; That... there,/ You . . . me?/ May . . . another,/ Prate or laugh, 0_. 30. schoolmen] medieval theologians. -91-130 V.v 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE To free yourself from danger ? Some way think How to escape; I'm sure the guests are come. 50 55 GIOVANNI. Look up, look here; what see you in my face? ANNABELLA. Distraction and a troubled countenance. GIOVANNI. Death, and^ a swift repining wrath—yet look, What see you in mine eyes? ANNABELLA. Methinks you weep. GIOVANNI. I do indeed; these are the funeral tears Shed on your grave; these furrowed up my cheeks When first I lov'd and knew not how to woo. Fair Annabella, should I here repeat The story of my life, we might lose time. Be record all the spirits of the air, And all things else that arc, that day and night, Early and late, the tribute which my heart Hath paid to Annabella's sacred love Hath been these tears, which arc her mourners now. Never till now did Nature do her best To chow a matchless beauty to the world, Which in an instant, ere it scarce was seen, Tho joalouG Destinies requir'd again. Pray, Annabella, pray; since we must part,  Go thou, white in thy soul, to fill a throne Of innocence and sanctity in Heaven. Pray, pray, my sister! ANNABELLA. Then I see your drift— Ye blessed angels, guard me! GIOVANNI. So say I. Kiss me; if ever after-times should hear  Of our fast-knit affections, though perhaps The laws of conscience and of civil use May justly blame us, yet when they but know Our loves, that love will wipe away that rigor 51. woo] Q_corr.; woe Quncorr. 62. requir'd] Q, con.; require Q_, 60 70 -92-131 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.v Which would in other incests be abhorr'd. Give me your hand; how sweetly life doth run In these well-colored veins! How constantly These palms do promise health! But I could chide With Nature for this cunning flattery. Kiss me again—forgive me. ANNABELLA. With my heart. GIOVANNI. Farewell. "ANNABELLA. Will you be gone?  GIOVANNI. Bo dark, bright euiv And mako thio midday night, that thy gilt rayc May not behold a deed will turn thoir cplondor More sooty than the poets feign their Sty*) One other kiss, my sister.  ANNABELLA. What means this ? GIOVANNI. To save thy fame, and kill thee in a kiss. Thus die, and die by me, and by my hand! Revenge is mine; honor doth love command. ANNABELLA. O brother, by your hand ? GIOVANNI. When thou art dead I'll give my reasons for't; for to dispute With thy (even in thy death) most lovely beauty, Would make me stagger to perform this act, Which I most glory in. ANNABELLA. Forgive him, Heaven and mo my oins; farowoll. 75 80 Stabs her. 85 90 Brother unkind) unkind!—Morcy, groat Hoavon—Ol Ol HUAVC 'CMS- 3"7 GIOVANNI. She's dead, alas, good coul! The hapless fruit That in her womb receiv'd its life from me Hath had from me a cradle and a grave. I must not dally. This sad marriage-bed, Dies. 95 In all her best, bore her alive and dead. Soranzo, thou hast miss'd thy aim in this; 93. unkind] used here with two meanings: (1) harsh, cruel; (2) unnatural. -93-132 V.v 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V W c CML -2,9. I have prevented now thy reaching plots, And kill'd a love, for whose each drop of blood I would have pawn'd my heart. Fair Annabella, How over-glorious art thou in thy wounds, Triumphing over infamy and hate! Shrink not, courageous hand, stand up, my heart, And boldly act my last and greater part. 100 of «£S> Exit with the bodyi [V.vi] A Banquet. Enter Cardinal, Florio, Donado, Soranzo, Richardetto, Vasques, and Attendants; they.take their places. MM»<3U\_ ft»«>^><?*axo 'SWf C L « \ * J > 7\C«*V*^X f \ c * , V 9 V\«v> £*MM>o "APR. \ VASQUES. ,< V\w>s> v\>c^P**Ja^>\t>V-Remember, sir, what you have to do, be wise and resolute.'"'1?^ SORANZO. U ? W « ^ Enough—my heart is fix'd -Pleaseth your grace To taste these coarse confections; though the use Of such set entertainments more consists In custom than in cause, yet, reverend sir, I am still made your servant by your presence. CARDINAL. And we your friend. SORANZO. But where's my brother Giovanni ? . " Enter G i o v a n n i with a heart upon his dagger. GIOVANNI. r. Here, here', Soranzo\ trimm'd in rooking blood, That triumpho over death; proud in the opoil— Of love and vengeance! Fate or all the powcro That guide the motions of immortal EOUIB Could not prevent moi CARDINAL. What means this?  FLORIO. Son Giovanni! . ' tax*-**? ^&HfK 10 15 100. prevented] forestalled, anticipated. 100. reaching] far-reaching, cunning. -94-133 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE SORANZO. Shall I be forestall'd? GIOVANNI. Be not amaz'd; if your misgiving hearts A heart, my lords, in which is mine entomb'd: Look well upon't; d'ee know't? VASQUES. What strange riddle's this ? GIOVANNI. 'Tis Annabella's heart, 'tis; why d'ee startle? V.vi 42-43. How . . . madman!] McJl-ivraith; one line in Q. Shrink at an idle sight, what bloodless fear Of coward passion would have seiz'd your senses, Had you beheld the rape of life and beauty 20 Which I have acted? My sister, O my sister! FLORIO. Ha! What of her? ' OIOVANNL The glory of my deed Parlien'd the midday sun, made noon as night. You came to feast, my lords, with dainty fare; I came to feast too, but I digg'd for food 25 In a much richer mine than gold or stone g^'yOf any value balanc'd; 'tis a heart, _Vj3\^ « fo>M ^ « O i 30 I vow 'tis hers: this dagger's point plough'd up Her fruitful womb, and left to me the fame Of a most glorious executioner. FLORIO. Why, madman, art thyself? 35 GIOVANNI. Yes, father; and that times to come may know How as my fate I honor'd my revenge, List, father, to your ears I will yield up How much I have deserv'd to be your son. FLORIO. What is't thou say'st? GIOVANNI. Nine moons have had their changes 40 Since I first throughly view'd and truly lov'd Your daughter and my sister. FLORIO. How! —Alas, My lords, he's a frantic madman!"  -95-1 3 ^ V.vi 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Father, no. 45VA*t***b Exit Vasques^ t>»&v*t GIOVANNI. For nine months' space in secret I enjoy'd Sweet Annabella's sheets; nine months I liv'd A happy monarch of her heart and her. Soranzo, thou know'st this; thy paler cheek Bears the confounding print of thy disgrace, For her too fruitful womb too soon bewray'd The happy passage of our stol'n delights, 50 And made her mother to a child unborn. CARDINAL. Incestuous villain! FLORIO. O, his rage belies him. GIOVANNI. It does not, 'tis the oracle of truth; I vow it is so. SORANZO. I shall burst with fury; Bring the strumpet forth! 55 VASQUES. I shall, sir. GIOVANNI. Do, sir! Have you all no faith To credit yet my triumphs ? Here I swear By all that you call sacred, by the love I bore my Annabella whilst she liv'd, These hands have from her bosom ripp'd this heart. 60 Enter Vasques. Cie^ CeSt. ViV<V\ Is't true or no, sir? VASQUES. 'Tis most strangely true. ^ FLORIO. , Cursed man! —Have I liv'd to— ~Dies~-\$<$ CARDINAL. Hold U p ) Florio. 'Mono-tor of children) ooo what thou hoot done, Brolto thy old father'o heart! Is none of you Dares venture on him? GIOVANNI. Let 'em! O, my father, How well his death becomes him in his griefs! Why, this was done with courage; now survives None of our house but I, gilt in the blood Of a fair sister and a hapless father. SORANZO. Inhuman scorn of men, hast thou a thought 70 -96-o f /(\a.\u ttoufcoo 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.vi T'outlive thy murders? — — . N<Vt*ivV3 W <^ ] GIOVANNI. Yes, I tell thee, yes; *»**>Wa2ta U.C For in my fists I bear the twists of- life. Soranzo. see-this heart, which was thy wife's: , Thus I exchange it royally for thine, [Slabs him.)—\^Hr^ And thus and thus! Now brave revenge is mine. 75 ^ ^ ^ S w W u t t a VASQUES. 1 I cannot hold any longer. —You, sir, are you grown ^ \ ^OUA«>^ insolent in your butcheries? Have at you! [They] fight. cUaifetVC, GIOVANNI. C*\\o\Jtw»rJ\/Crtey Come, I am arm'd to meet thee. A'TVP*'. I VASQUES. U ^ U p ^ • No, will it not be yet ? If this will not, another shall. Not yet ? Mlva&ngi fTAVi^ I shall fit you anon. —Vengeance! 80 ^ V^vies^ Enter Banditti [andfight Giovanni]. U V S<ft\»& U w . ^ GIOVANNI. t>^ f\8CAr< Welcome, come more of you whate'er you be, Gwo^ftvii^ ^ f^s I dare your worst— 'Co v\«*C -CWEY-V O, I can stand no longer! Feeble arms, 3J*ft Vit\-aA<A,6^ Have you so soon lost strength ? W£ fw\i VASQUES. t > o v * i » i cevKeH, Now you are welcome, sir! —Away, my masters, all is done, 85, shift for yourselves! Your reward is your own; shift for \j^ c> Ce^JfCiy^ yourselves. BANDITTI. Away, away! •Exeunt Banditti. Wi^&CM VASQUES. ! How d'ee, my lord; see you this? How is't? \^G»wf/' SORANZO. t ^ i O Y\v*=SVS Dead; but in death well pleased that I have liv'd 90 C9>x>W>&k To see my wrongs reveng'd on that black devil. <="orV>fcvVz.o 79-80.] Dodsley; No . . . shall./ Not 85-87.] Weber; Now . . . sir!/ . . . Vengeance! Q_. ' Away . . . done,/ Shift... own;/ Shift for yourselves. Q.. 72. twists] an allusion to the legend of the Fates or Parcae, who spun the threads of man's life and cut them when they had reached the destined length. 80. Jit you] provide something that will cope with you. 80. Vengeance!] Presumably the watchword mentioned at V.iv. 14. -97-136 V.vi 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE O. Vasques, to thy bosom let me give \ My last of breath; let not that lecher live—O!— Dies. VASQ_UES. The reward of peace and rest be with him, my ever dearest \ ^ l^ \y^  lord and master. U1UVANN1. Whose hand gave me this wound ? VASQUES. Mine, sir, I was your first man; have you enough? GIOVANNI. I thank thee; thou hast done for me but what I would have else done on myself. Art sure Thy lord is dead? 100 VASQUES. O impudent slave! As sure as I am sure to see thee die. CARDINAL. Think on thy life and end, and call for mercy.  GIOVANNI. Mercy? Why, I have found it in this justice. CARDINAL. Strive yet to cry to Heaven. GIOVANNI. O, I bleed fast. Death, thou art a guest long look'd for; I embrace t 105 Thee and thy wounds; O, my last minute comes! Where'er I go, let me enjoy this grace, Freely to view my Annabella's face. Dies. Strange miracle of justice! CARDINAL Raise up the city; we shall be murdered all! VASQUES. You ended, I have paid the duty to the son which I have vowed o^O of You need not fear, you shall not; this strange task being to the father. CARDINAL. Speak, wretched villain, what incarnate fiend Hath led thee on to this ? ^ A   115 94-95.] Weber; The . . . him,/ My 98—100.] this cdrt.; prose in Q_. . . . master. Q.. 101. thee] Dodsley; the Q_. -98-13? 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE V.vi VASQUES. Honesty, and pity of my master's wrongs; for know, my • lord, I am by birth a Spaniard, brought forth my country in my youth by Lord Soranzo's father, whom whilst he liv'd I serv'd faithfully; since whose death I have been to this man as I was to him. What I have done was duty, 120j and I repent nothing but that the loss of my life had not ransom'd his. CARDINAL. Say, fellow, know'st thou any yet unnam'd Of counsel in this incest ? VASQUES. Yes, an old woman, sometimes guardian to this murdered 125 lady. CARDINAL. And what's become of her ? VASQUES. Within this room she is; whose eyes, after her confession, I caus'd to be put.out, but kept alive, to confirm what from Giovanni's own mouth you have heard. Now, my lord, what 130 I have done you may judge of, and let your own wisdom be a judge in your own reason. CARDINAL. Peace! First this woman, chief in these effects: o**^ of VCecS My sentence is, that forthwith she be ta'en ^ Out of the city, for example's sake, 135 ' There to be burnt to ashes. DOMAPO.RICM»&PS<(O. 'Tis most just. t©e\o\_ Cf\Wt>\vW\!L CARDINAL. Be it your charge, Donado, see it done. DONADO. I shall.  VASQUES. What for me? If death, 'tis welcome; I have been honest to the son as I was to the father. 140 CARDINAL. Fellow, for thee: since what thoudidst was done 125. sometimes'] formerly. 133. this woman] Most critics take this to refer to Putana, but the Cardinal might possibly be thinking of the corpse of Annabella. -99-W _ _ < , _m*f_v, • W f<*s( of <3(e^ t V.vi 'Tis PITY SHE'S A WHORE Not for thyself, being no Italian, .. We banish thee forever, to depart Within three days; in this we do dispense With grounds of reason, not of thine offense. VASQUES. 'Tis well; this conquest is mine, and I rejoice 145 that Spaniard outwent an Italian in revenge. Exit Vasques.y^ CVo^ u CARDINAL. &(*x> 1 Take up these slaughtered bodies, see them buried; And all the gold and jewels, or whatsoever Confiscate by the canons of the church, 150 We seize upon to the Pope's proper use. RICHARDETTO [discovers himself]. Your grace's pardon I thus long I liv'd disguis'd To sec the effect of pride and lust at once . Brought both to shameful ends. CARDINAL. •What, Richardetto whom wa thought for dead ? 155 DONADO. Sir, was it you-— RICHARDETTO. Your friend. CARDINAL. We shall have time • To talk at largo of all j but Hever yet Incest and murder have so strangely met. Of one so young, so rich in nature's store, Who could not say, 'tis pity she's a whore ? J__i____s_2£ 60 fceJova (tot. ^eA\»w»¥ntv actors—in—their— FINIS The—general—commendation—deserved—by.—thc-prescntmcnt of this tragedy may easily exGuee euch fow faults an-are escaped in the printing. A common charity may allow him the ability of spelling whom a secure confidence assuros that ho cannot ignorantly err in the application of sense. -100-139 Act One (Scene 1) The f i r s t scene is extremely Important. It establishes the plot, defines the characters of Giovanni and the Friar, sets the themes, and creates the dominant mood of the play. In terms of action, the scene is an argument between Giovanni, who i s attempting to justify his love for his sister, and Friar Bonaventura, his tutor, who urges him to repent his sin before i t is too late. Beyond establishing inoest as the basic plot situation the scene shows the conflict between Christian Morality and Giovanni's passion for his sister which is the dominant struggle throughout the play. Giovanni's character is clearly shown by the obvious conflict between his reason and his passion and the determined sophistry by which he attempts to persuade the Friar. The key to the scene is when Giovanni demands to know why being her brother should banish him from Annabella's bed. Giovanni here reveals the true sexual nature of his passion in violent contrast to his attempt at logical rationalization. Giovanni's determined passion dominates the scene and is contrasted by the ineffectual threats of the Friar whose basic weakness remains a f o i l to Giovanni throughout the play. It is obvious that the Friar can only combat Giovanni's fierce logic with vague threats. The dominant emotion in the scene is the intensity of Giovanni's conviction and i t is quite clear that although he agrees to try the Friar's remedy of prayer and fasting his determination has in no way been tempered by the Friar's argument. The mood of the scene establishes the danger inherent in Giovanni's decision and at the same time suggests the oppressive nature of the moral order against which he is revolting. It is clear that the church, as represented by the Friar, i s the oppressor. The scene is played before a blood red g r i l l representing the Friar's o e l l . Before the lights come up the sound of monk's chanting is heard in the background and while the Friar prescribes his remedy to the kneeling Giovanni the sound of to l l i n g bells is heard under his speech, ri s i n g in volume u n t i l the end of the scene. In order to better establish the ominous atmosphere required by the scene i t was originally planned to have the Friar's c e l l dominated by a large grotesque baroque crucifix suspended above the actors. When the scene opened the crucifix was to be illuminated by a t a l l flickering taper l i t by the Friar. Because of the problems involved in changing scenes quickly the crucifix and candle were found to be impractical. Act One (Scene 2) The action of the scene i s concerned with presenting, in turn, each of Annabella's suitors and, by showing their basic characters plus those of such attendant figures as Vasques, Putana, and Donado, with establishing the necessary contrast for Giovanni's wooing of his sister i n the following scene. Unit 1 The purpose is to introduce Vasques and Grimaldi. Vasques wants to provoke Grimaldi into fighting a duel and thereby remove his master's r i v a l from the competition for Annabella*s hand. Vasques also wants to assert his masculinity by suggesting that Grimaldi i s both effeminate and a coward, and to give vent to his natural passion for violence. Grimaldi does not wish to fight with Vasques since he is a servant and therefore beneath his dignity as a gentleman. Vasques completely dominates the action as he plays cat and mouse with the reluctant Grimaldi who is off his guard and defensive. Vasques taunt's and insults Grimaldi and f i n a l l y goads him into fighting by forcing him to defend himself. Vasques creates a mood of mounting tension and danger which erupts i n sudden physical violence. The major d i f f i c u l t y i s staging the actual sword f i g h t which must be both convincing and safe. Unit 2 The purpose i s to introduce Soranzo and contrast him with the humiliated Grimaldi. Vasques keeps Grimaldi at sword point and i s physically i n control of the acti o n . Soranzo takes advantage of Vasques' control to assert his super i o r i t y to Grimaldi^but he does not attempt to involve himself d i r e c t l y with Grimaldi, who remains sprawled on the ground u n t i l Vasques chooses to l e t him r i s e . Grimaldi's threats are balanced by Soranzo's confidence, which i s supported by the physical dominance of Vasques whose position i s seen to be stronger than that of an ordinary servant when he addresses F l o r i o . F l o r i o i s anxious that the quarrel be forgotten and i t Is quite clear that he favours Soranzo. Unit 3 The purpose i s to reveal Putana's character and at the same time 1to describe the r e l a t i v e merits of Grimaldi and Soranzo. Putana dominates the scene and i t i s obvious that she favours Soranzo and wishes to see Annabella married to him. Putana i s extremely coarse and bawdy and i t i s quite clear from her descriptions of the suitors that the f i n a l c r i t e r i o n i s sexual. Putana pursues and scolds Annabella whose thoughts are fi x e d on Giovanni and who seems nervous and detached. Annabella i s worried and resents her nurse's insistence and coarse implications. The mood of the scene i s one of contrast between Putana's earthiness and Annabella's obvious d i s t r a c t i o n . Annabella constantly attempts to avoid Putana, who pursues her course quite undeterred, though the action i s limited to the area around the steps so that the women can quickly return to the balcony when the next suitor enters. Unit I* The purpose i s to introduce Bergetto and Poggio and to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Annabella and Putana are openly contemptuous of Bergetto from t h e i r position on the balcony above. Bergetto*s foolishness i s accentuated v i s u a l l y . He i s determined to have Annabella and i s quite confident that he w i l l succeed. In contrast Poggio shows a weary resignation and an obvious awareness of h i s master's shortcomings which does not, however, prevent him from displaying his basic a f f e c t i o n and devotion. 144 Unit 5 Putana describes Bergetto and Is quite obviously contemptuous. Annabella continues to be preoccupied and pays no attention to her. Unit 6 The purpose i s to show Annabella*s obvious infatuation with Giovanni^ who now appears below. Annabella suddenly dominates the ac t i o n . She i s nervous and extremely concerned about h i s appearance. I t i s obvious that he i s something more than just her brother. The repeated use of the word "brother" contrasts Putana's indifference with Annabella's anxiety and creates a mood of ominous a n t i c i p a t i o n . 145 Act One (Scene l ) Unit 1 The purpose of Giovanni's soliloquy i s to show his state of mind immediately before he confronts Annabella with his love. For Giovanni i t i s the f i n a l attempt to r a t i o n a l i z e and j u s t i f y his decision. The action centers around the table where Giovanni has been reading the B i b l e . The Bible i t s e l f i s used as a sounding board against which he can d i r e c t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n at the F r i a r ' s f a i l u r e to help and h i s f i n a l determination to r e j e c t the teachings of the church. The shadow of r e l i g i o n s t i l l hangs over him but he convinces himself that he i s powerless to avoid the dictates of fate and i n hi s disgust with the f a i l u r e of the church to provide a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e b u t t a l , persuades himself that the warnings against incest are only superstitious tales meant to f r i g h t e n him. However, at the height of h i s argument he reveals a subconscious awareness of h i s true motivation, even though he does so only to deny l t . The very fact that he has to say to himself that i t i s not l u s t but fate which drives him on, proves that physical desire i s upermost i n h i s mind. The important thing i s that Giovanni has already made up his mind. He knows that he can no longer conceal his true feelings from his s i s t e r ; consequently the struggle 14-6 i s not between fate and r e l i g i o n but between Giovanni's awareness of his sexual desire for his s i s t e r and his determination to r a t i o n a l i z e and J u s t i f y i t i n the name of f a t e . Unit 2 The purpose of t h i s scene i s to reveal Giovanni and Annabella*s mutual love and to show them making the irr e v o c -able decision which precipitates t h e i r tragedy. The action of the scene i s dominated by extreme tension as;? both Annabella and Giovanni struggle against the intense physical desire which, l i k e a magnet,draws them to each other. There are several climaxes, a l l , of which increase the tension and b u i l d towards the ultimate physical contact which releases the desire that both have been supresslng. Above a l l , the emphasis of the scene i s on the contrast between the overwhelming awareness on the part of both Annabella and Giovanni of the other's physical proximity and the f u t i l e r hetoric of the arguments each employs. The f i r s t beat i s dominated by nervousness and physical tension. The action i s tentative and hesitant. Giovanni attempts to control himself In order to be r a t i o n a l i n his explanation. Annabella i s equally nervous. Her eyes never leave Giovanni. They make tentative physical contact by holding hands but Giovanni r a p i d l y loses c o n t r o l . Both he and Annabella are aware of the implication when he says that 147 he thinks she loves him. Prom t h i s point the pace builds r a p i d l y as Giovanni's r h e t o r i c a l praise of Annabella's beauty becomes more intense as t h e i r bodies come closer together. Giovanni's embraces become increasingly more sexual u n t i l i n ultimate f r u s t r a t i o n he plunges his dagger into the t a b l e . Annabella has made only a token e f f o r t to escape from Giovanni's embraces but now the truth i s out and she puts the width of the table between them as she l i s t e n s to Giovanni confess his love. I t i s Annabella who must now put into words the f a c t that they are brother and s i s t e r , f o r c i n g Giovanni to a f i n a l outburst of f a l s e l o g i c and sophistic r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . When even t h i s i s not enough to persuade her, he l i e s and states that the church has condoned his love. At the end of h i s plea there i s a moments pause and then Annabella rushes into h i s arms. The next beat i s played with an almost c h i l d l i k e solemnity as Annabella for the f i r s t time takes the i n i t i a t i v e . The action has a precise, r i t u a l i s t i c q u a l i t y as they kneel and exchange sacred vows i n front of the table i n which Giovanni's dagger s t i l l quivers beside the discarded 6 i b l e . To emphasize the solemnity of the r i t u a l Giovanni takes his s i l v e r c r u c i f i x and places i t around Annabella's neck while she places on h i s finger the r i n g which her mother had l e f t her to give only to her beloved. 148 After the exchange of tokens there is a moments hesitancy as they become tremendously aware of what they have vowed and of their mutual desire. The kiss is the f i n a l release of this suppressed desire and brings with i t an awareness of the enormity of their decision. The scene ends on a note of genuine shyness as they hesitate awkwardly before the f i n a l consummation of their love. The main d i f f i c u l t y i n staging the scene is to emphasize the sexuality that dominates the struggle and to maintain the tension u n t i l the f i n a l release. The problem of the dagger is solved by rotating the action about the table which can be used both for the dagger and as a physical barrier between the lovers when this is required. It also assumes something of the character of a profane altar, before which they kneel to make their vow. 149 Act One (Soene 4) Unit 1 The purpose of this scene Is to supply necessary "background for the characters of Florio and Donado. Florio Is shown as being good natured and complacent with a genuine love for his daughter and an obvious regret for the behaviour of Giovanni. Florio controls the opening exchange with genial condescension towards Donado. It is quite clear that he does not take the possibility of Annabella's favouring Bergetto seriously. Donado is eager to make a good impression on Florio for the sake of his nephew and at the same time is aware of Bergetto's shortcomings, which he vainly contrasts with his own youthful prowess. The scene is played on the steps of Florio's house as Donado is about to leave after presenting Bergetto's suit. Unit 2 The action in this scene arises from Bergetto's desire to see the strange horse described by his barber and Donado's determination that he concern himself with becoming a proper suitor for Annabella. The scene is dominated by Bergetto's combination of gullible naivety and innocent foolishness. Bergetto i s constantly getting excited about some new foolish-ness but is equally prone to be deflated by his uncle's disapproval. 150 He i s completely unaware of h i s own foolishness and oblivious to the r i d i c u l e of others and so i s con-vinced that he has charmed Annabella and thereby pleased h i s uncle. Bergetto's assurance i s contrasted by Donado's increasing f r u s t r a t i o n i n the face of his nephew's s t u p i d i t y . Poggio wears a constant expression of weary res i g n -a t i o n as he i s c a l l e d upon to alternate as accomplice and nursemaid to Bergetto. Nevertheless, i t i s obvious that there i s a genuine love and dependency between servant and master. The dominant emotion i s Bergetto 1s Innocence and therefore the scene never loses a sense of high s p i r i t s even when Donado loses his temper. 151 Act Two (Scene 1) Unit 1 The purpose of the scene is to show Giovanni and Annabella at the height of their happiness and quite serene in their mutual love. Consequently the scene has a relaxed playful quality^ in marked contrast to the tension of the earlier confrontation scene. The important thing is that they are now actual lovers and from the security of their physical awareness they can afford to Indulge in childish teasing. However, there is s t i l l a sense of danger in the scene and Giovanni is f u l l y aware of the significance of his thinly disguised jests about marriage. These intrude on the gaiety like a breath of cold wind. The important thing is that the lovers, having reminded themselves of their situation, immediately choose to pretend that the danger doesn't exist after a l l . The predominant mood of the scene should be a relaxed childish innocence which, at the same time, underlines the danger that is implicit in the lovers actions. Unit 2 The mood of this next exchange is sheer bawdry. Annabella's mixture of g i r l i s h eagerness to t e l l her news and natural embarrassment about the subject is completely 152 overwhelmed by Putana*s exhuberant obscenities. Putana i s thoroughly delighted at the outcome and her permissive morality, while based purely on sexual gratification,supports Annabella's decision and inoreases her confidence. Unit 3 The purpose here i s simply to introduce Richardetto and P h i l o t i s . P l o r i o again shows a very f a t h e r l y concern fo r Annabella,who i s charming and gracious towards her guests. P h i l o t i s appears shy and hesitant and i s meekly obedient to her uncle who i s both d e f f e r e n t i a l and f a i n t l y s i n i s t e r . 153 Act Two (Scene 2) Unit 1 Soranzo's soliloquy serves to reveal more of h i s character, to prepare for h i s treatment of H i p p o l i t a and to provide a contrast with Giovanni's tormented soliloquy e a r l i e r . The speech presents Soranzo i n a l l his pride and arrogance indulging his love for Annabella i n the proper courtly manner. His vanity i s evident i n h i s casual assumption of the r o l e of poet and his arrogance i s i r o n -i c a l l y suggested hy his a l t e r i n g of the descriptions of love which l a t e r apply exactly to the outcome of h i s love for Annabella. Unit 2 H i p p o l i t a enters l i k e a black fury and immediately commands the focus of the scene. The a c t i o n consists of Soranzo's feeble attempts to ward o f f Hippolita's v i o l e n t accusations as she hounds him back and f o r t h across the stage u n t i l he f i n a l l y turns on her, l i k e a trapped r a t , and curses her. Vasques remains i n the background, keenly aware but only stepping i n when the s i t u a t i o n threatens to explode into actual violence. The purpose of the scene i s to expose Soranzo's hypocrisy by revealing the d e t a i l s of his a f f a i r with 154 H i p p o l i t a and h i s treatment of her leaves no doubt that he Is the most repellent of Annabella*s s u i t o r s , H i p p o l i t a , despite her rage, i s w i l l i n g to be reconciled i f Soranzo reaffirms his love but his obvious scorn convinces her to seek revenge. Soranzo i s both contemptuous of Hi p p o l i t a and embarrassed by the obvious truth of what she says. He f i r s t t r i e s to soothe her and then attempts reason*, when neither succeeds he reveals his true hypocrisy by accusing her of having tempted him to f a l s e vows and of being responsible for her own husband's death. Soranzo*s one desire i s to get r i d of Hip p o l i t a once and for a l l , and to wash his hands of the a f f a i r . Vasques also wishes to see the end of H i p p o l i t a but he i s aware of the danger she presents as a r e s u l t of his master's actions and h i s chief concern i s to keep the s i t u a t i o n from exploding u n t i l he can f i n d a means of gaining control of H i p p o l i t a . The mood i s tense and v i o l e n t . Hippolita's fury dominates the scene but af t e r her i n i t i a l outburst her anger becomes a controlled venom. Soranzo, on the other hand, a f t e r v a i n l y attempting to placate her, r a p i d l y loses h i s temper and i t i s only the smooth manipulations of Vasques that keeps the s i t u a t i o n under contr o l . 155 Unit 3 The action now revolves about Vasques * e f f o r t s to gain c o n t r o l of H i p p o l i t a while convincing her that he i s ac t u a l l y submitting to her w i l l . Vasques wishes to put himself at Hippolita's disposal i n order to be i n a position to f o i l her attempt to revenge herself on Soranzo. H i p p o l i t a wishes to gain Vasques'support i n order to f a c i l i t a t e her revenge. The scene takes the form of a dual seduction. Vasques i s fi r m enough with Hi p p o l i t a to prevent her from leaving but as soon as she responds he immediately assumes a bewildered ignorance and reacts obediently to Hlppolita*s seductions. Vasques remains the c o n t r o l l i n g figure i n the scene while H l p p o l i t a appears to be manipulat-ing him f o r her own ends. There i s an in t e r e s t i n g sexual mood to the scene. Vasques must supress his natural aversion to Hippolita's physical presence by submitting to her advances. While H i p p o l i t a , convinced that she can seduce the older man, makes no attempt to disguise the nature of her proposals. ' 156 Act Two (Scene 3) Unit 1 The purpose of t h i s scene i s to reveal Rlchardetto's true i d e n t i t y and hint at the revenge he i s p l o t t i n g for Hi p p o l i t a and Soranzo. At the same time the scene serves to suggest the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Richardetto and P h i l o t i s . Richardetto i s the dominant character and he appears motivated by an intense hatred for his wife and her lover and only controls his resentment at having to remain s i l e n t by meditating on the revenge to come. I t becomes evident that Richardetto has come to r e l i s h the r o l e of revenger. It i s evident too that h i s intere s t i n his niece i s of a questionable nature. The actions of Richardetto imply that once he has disposed of Hi p p o l i t a he w i l l turn his f u l l a t t e n t ion to the vulnerable P h i l o t i s . P h i l o t i s appears innocent of her uncle's desires but i s extremely frightened of what she suspects he i s planning to do to H i p p o l i t a . The mood of the scene suggests treachery and P h i l o t i s ' innocence i s contrasted with Richardetto's t h i n l y disguised l u s t . Unit 2 Grimaldi i s at f i r s t hesitant about asking the strange 15? doctor for an aphrodisiac but i t i s obvious that his desire for Annabella has made him desperate. Vasques' implication, supported by Putana's remarks to Annabella that Grimaldi i s impotent, lends a rather unpleasant quality to the request. The straightforward and impulsive Grimaldi i s eas i l y manipulated by the cunning Richardetto,who s i n i s t e r l y , and with an obsequious bow towards Grimaldi*s patron, the Cardinal, suggests that Grimaldi murder Soranzo. Richardetto i s completely i n control of Grimaldi^ who agrees to his plan with scarcely a moment's h e s i t a t i o n . Grimaldi's overt violence i s contrasted by the s i n i s t e r velvet smooth quality of Richardetto's manipulations. 158 Act Two (Scene 4) The s i n i s t e r plottings of the previous scene are now contrasted hy Donado's determination to secure Annabella for Bergetto. But once again his actions are f o i l e d by Bergetto's Insistence on employing h i s own t a c t i c s . The humour of the scene comes out of the d i f f e r e n t reactions to Bergetto's preposterous l e t t e r . Bergetto, of course, i s convinced that i t i s a masterpiece and, though i t i s obvious that Poggio has had to do the actual writing, glows with pride at each r i d i c u l o u s l i n e . Poggio, on the other hand, i s only too aware of the i n a n i t i e s his master has dictated and his i n i t i a l attempt to carry o f f the reading of the l e t t e r bravely soon disintegrates under the r i s i n g fury of Donado,whose reaction goes quite unnoticed by Bergetto u n t i l the end of the l e t t e r . At f i r s t Bergetto, s t i l l convinced of the b r i l l i a n c e of his own wit, attempts to defy h i s uncle but the threat of Donado's s t i c k quickly deflates his bravado. However, l i k e a mischievous schoolboy playing hooky, he i s up to mischief again as soon as his uncle i s out of s i g h t . Poggio i s the l a s t to e x i t , wearily shaking h i s head and muttering under his breath, "My master I" This phrase i s established early i n the play as a tag l i n e i n a l l the scenes with Bergetto and Poggio so that the f u l l irony can be achieved when Poggio repeats l t a f t e r Bergetto's death. 159 Act Two (Scene 5) The tone of t h i s scene i s very d i f f e r e n t from that of the f i r s t scene between Giovanni and the F r i a r . Giovanni i s no longer tormented by doubt and uncertainty or eager for advice from his tu t o r . Instead, he i s com-ple t e l y confident of the v a l i d i t y of his actions and his eagerness now comes from his desire to make the F r i a r see that he was wrong and to acknowledge that Giovanni was r i g h t i n h i s decision to love Annabella. The F r i a r , on the other hand, i s no longer t o l e r a n t . His anger stems both from Giovanni's actions and from his awareness of h i s own i n a b i l i t y to prevent him going any further. Instead of pleas and v e i l e d warnings the F r i a r now openly threatens Giovanni and his resentment becomes increasingly more b i t t e r . Giovanni; however, i s s t i l l determined to prove his point according to a r a t i o n a l philosophic approach and with the complete confidence of a sophistic logic he J u s t i f i e s his actions l i k e a mathematician working out a successful proof. He has completely transcended the F r i a r ' s power by sub s t i t u t i n g Annabella for God and he scorns the F r i a r ' s r e f u s a l to accept t h i s ; The important thing i s that Giovanni i s completely honest within the bounds of h i s own convictions; The F r i a r ' s suggestion that Annabella should be married i s a miserable 160 attempt to reconcile a h y p o c r i t i c a l morality, and Giovanni treats i t with contempt, Giovanni's description of Annabella i s probably the most l y r i c a l moment i n the play and i t i s spoken with the utmost conviction and s i m p l i c i t y . Giovanni plays the entire scene moving about the Friar, who remains huddled i n his chair. The mood of the scene almost verges on gaiety as Giovanni gets c a r r i e d away by the power of his own argument. In contrast the F r i a r , convinced that Giovanni i s damned, makes v i r t u a l l y no attempt at posit i v e action and rather than take any d e f i n i t e moral ac t i o n he counters Giovanni's ultimate vow to worship only his love with a pronouncement which ends the scene with the f i n a l i t y of a curse. 161 Act Two (Scene 6) Unit 1 The action Involves Donado's gallant attempt to present Bergetto's suit and Annabella's firm but gracious refusal. Annabella and Putana match wits against the earnest entreaties of Florio and Donado and the scene has a particularly lighthearted quality to i t . Annabella Is amused by Donado's obvious embarrassment and the ridiculous gallantry of his letter, and Putana, as always, manages to benefit from the situation. But when Annabella is forced to say what she feels, her sincerity and goodwill towards Bergetto and Donado is quite genuine and Donado is very impressed with her honesty and kindness. The purpose of the scene,then, i s to show Annabella at her best and to emphasize again the straightforward honesty that character-izes Giovanni and Annabella and sets them apart from their society. However, a note of danger i s struck when Florio demands Annabella's ring and for a moment she Is caught off guard. The irony of Florio's reassurance when he learns that Giovanni has the ring keeps the scene from drifting very far from the main action. Unit 2 The purpose of the scene i s to evoke sympathy for Bergetto. The story he relates about his beating i s both 162 ludicrous and pathetic and i t Is obvious that Bergetto is as much the innocent as the fool; His renouncing of Annabella is as honest as l t i s ridiculous and i t is quite obvious that he has been genuinely impressed by the simple Philotis. Annabella remains gracious to Bergetto even while she laughs at him and Donado is resigned. It is evident from Poggio*s lecherous asides that he thinks there is a chance for his master to succeed. Bergetto's false bravado towards Annabella i s childish and not malicious and he exits quite undaunted. Unit 3 This short scene is important because Plorio reveals that he is in favour of Soranzo as a husband for Annabella and this news prompts a reaction from both lovers. Giovanni i s immediately suspicious when he sees Donado's jewel and Annabella plays on his jealousy to tease him. However, even though he smiles at her joke, Giovanni is quite adamant that she shall not wear i t . His love is passionate and possessive. 163 Act Three (Scene 1) This scene starts with Bergetto and Poggio sunk in gloom as they ponder Bergetto's chances of getting Donado to approve his match with Philotis, However, i t i s impossible for Bergetto to remain depressed for very long and as soon as Poggio offers the slightest bit of encouragement he immediately regains his confidence and rushes off to greet Philotis with a great display of bravado. The d i f f i c u l t y in the scene is that in the space of a very few lines Bergetto must go from the depths of despair to a great comic battle cry as he leaps exultantly into the fray. This climax must come as the result of a rapid build with Bergetto drawing fuel from Poggio*s encouragements and the excitement between them building to such a crescendo that Bergetto is motivated to leap onto Poggio's back and exit with a l l the fanfare of a military charge. 164 Act Three (Scene 2) Unit 1 This short Introductory section to the main action of the scene serves to e s t a b l i s h the various attitudes of those not d i r e c t l y involved i n Soranzo*s courting. F l o r i o makes i t quite obvious from his speech and actions that he i s highly i n favour of such a match and t h i s increases Annabella's tension as she prepares to meet Soranzo*s advances. F l o r i o * s a t t i t u d e , on the other hand, only strengthens Soranzo*s confidence and self-assurance. Putana i s aware of the s i t u a t i o n and watchful. Giovanni's jealousy forces him to take his s i s t e r aside and remind her to be true even though he knows thi s i s superfluous, and even then he i s reluctant to leave the stage. The l a s t to exit i s Vasques, who also hesitates and feigns surprise at being asked to leave his master alone. He too i s motivated by jealousy. The mood of the scene i s one of nervous tension on the part of a l l except F l o r i o who, i n his good natured con-s p i r a t o r i a l manner, i s oblivious to the awkwardness of the others. Unit 2 The action of t h i s scene involves Soranzo*s pursuing 165 Annabella and attempting to propose to her while she succeeds In making a f o o l out of him and completely shatter-ing the proud confidence with which he had begun. It i s very d e f i n i t e l y Annabella's scene. Knowing what he w i l l say the moment they are alone, Annabella throws him of f h i s guard by speaking f i r s t , t h u s taking the i n i t i a t i v e i n the conversation. At f i r s t Soranzo i s pleased by her s t r a i g h t -forwardness, thinking that she i s w i l l i n g to hear his s u i t , but what begins as a coy l i t t l e game soon becomes a duel of wits with Soranzo lagging one stroke behind. When he r e a l i z e s that Annabella i s making fun of him his pride refuses to l e t him be humiliated, but h i s attempt at s i n c e r i t y i s d e f t l y turned into a Joke by Annabella who, having mastered her i n i t i a l nervousness, i s now openly making fun of him. When Soranzo*s a r i s t o c r a t i c pride costs him his temper Annabella i s equally v i o l e n t i n return and for the f i r s t time i n the play i t i s obvious that she has an i r o n w i l l to match her brothers. Her sudden show of strength completely deflates Soranzo, who finds his dignity shattered, and he accepts with broken s p i r i t s Annabella's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y honest expression of her feelings f o r him. Having had her way with Soranzo, Annabella i s absolutely sincere when she t e l l s him that i f ever she must marry i t w i l l be he, but she does not for a moment ac t u a l l y believe t h i s w i l l ever happen. The irony Is that at precisely that moment the f i r s t signs 166 of her pregnancy cause her to faint. The mood of the scene changes from an i n i t i a l tension, to coquettish playful^ness, to extreme seriousness. Annabella is always in control and Soranzo must continually struggle to keep up with her. Giovannis asides in the scene were cut since their flippancy was not consistent with the rest of his character. The comments themselves took the focus away from Annabella's handling of Soranzo, which is the prime interest in the scene. Consequently the exchange between Annabella and Soranzo was much more rapid and Annabella's nimbleness that much more apparent. Unit 3 It is extremely important that when Annabella faints and Soranzo cries for help that Giovanni is at Annabella's side almost instantaneously. Reluctant to leave them alone, he has been waiting within earshot and rushes to catch her even before she reaches the ground. Their embrace is obviously intimate and i t is only the confusion of Florio and Soranzo that prevents them from being aware of l t . Unit k In the brief exchange between Vasques and Soranzo there is an aura of subtle control on the part of Vasques. 167 In his distraught state of mind Soranzo makes no attempt to hide the fac t that Vasques' position i s much more than that of a mere servant. It i s quite obvious that Vasques i s not at a l l displeased by the course of events and he comes near to overstepping the mark i n h i s rather insolent comment on Annabella's sudden i l l n e s s . - 1 : 6 8 Act Three (Scene 3) The general mood of this short scene between Giovanni and Putana is panic. Putana immediately sees that Annabella is pregnant and i s quite convinced that this w i l l bring disaster to them a l l , and that she w i l l , somehow, be held responsible. Her i n i t i a l reaction to Giovanni's incredulous disbelief is a rather selfish bitterness; however, Giovanni gains control of himself enough to make her promise to do as he says and she agrees, though s t i l l convinced that there is no hope for them. The news of Annabella's pregnancy momentarily shatters Giovanni—its grim reality has no place in their ideal romance. However, he quickly recovers and takes charge of the situation. 169 Act Three (Scene 4) Unit 1 The purpose of t h i s scene Is to show Rlchardetto taking advantage of the s i t u a t i o n to further h i s own p l o t . Richardetto i s not aware of Annabella's condition but her sudden i l l n e s s gives him an excuse to question the distraught F l o r i o and discover that he does indeed intend Annabella to marry Soranzo. Prodding further, he discovers that F l o r i o has taken his suggestion and intends to have them married r i g h t away. With t h i s information Richardetto can immediately put his plan to assassinate Soranzo Into a c t i o n . Richardetto's almost casual manipulations lend a s i n i s t e r mood to the scene. Unit 2 Giovanni's hurried return with the F r i a r suits F l o r i o ' s plans exactly and the F r i a r i s equally anxious to have Annabella married immediately. Giovanni, aware that Annabella's pregnancy must not be discovered, i s torn by doubt and confusion and can only numbly comply. 170 Act Three (Scene O  Unit 1 The web of int r i g u e Is being drawn t i g h t and the scene has a note of urgency. Grimaldi*s hatred f o r Soranzo Is such that he wastes l i t t l e time In j u s t i f y i n g h i s murder and when Richardetto appears with the news of Annabella*s impending marriage he can hardly control his passion: As always, Richardetto has worked out the d e t a i l s and made the necessary preparations. He h a s t i l y sends Grimaldi away, taking no chance that they might be seen together, and then gloats on the revenge to come; Unit 2 P h i l o t i s a r r i v e s with the news that she and Bergetto w i l l go to the F r i a r ' s that evening i n disguise; This i s i n accord with Richardetto*s plans but i t i s obvious that as the time draws nearer for his revenge on Hip p o l i t a h i s desire for P h i l o t i s Increases: The entrance of Bergetto and Poggio provides a moment of bawdy humour as Bergetto finds that he can hardly control himself and for once Poggio*s laconic shrugs are replaced by an excitement almost equal to his master's; Their boisterous enthusiasm i s i n d i r e c t contrast to the s i n i s t e r figure of Richardetto who looms ominously over t h e i r gaiety. They exit quickly at h i s command and i t i s obvious that Richardetto sees a l l his schemes working out exactly as planned; 171 Act Three (Scene 6) Unit 1 This i s a scene of to r t u r e . Annabella i s helpless before the F r i a r who, before the scene begins, has forced a confession from her when she i s hardly aware of what she i s saying. She knows only that suddenly and frightenlngly she i s pregnant and must somehow prevent i t from being discovered; At l a s t the F r i a r can come into his own. He has been proved r i g h t and instead of o f f e r i n g comfort he indulges i n a s a d i s t i c horror story calculated to t e r r i f y Annabella into agreeing to his commands; The F r i a r ' s sermon seems to be motivated more by an almost sexual passion than by the desire merely to chastise Annabella. The speech builds i n monstrous int e n s i t y as Annabella's weeping grows louder and louder u n t i l at the climax the F r i a r collapses i n exhaustion and Annabella begs desparately for mercy. The F r i a r i s now a l l sanctimonious hypocrisy as he speaks s o f t l y to her and t e l l s her that a l l w i l l be forgiven i f she marries Soranzo. He i s almost exultant when she agrees; The mood of the scene i s extremely grotesque but the horror of i t comes from the F r i a r ' s absolute conviction that he i s r i g h t and that he i s motivated only by concern for Annabella; 172 Unit 2 While the Friar and Florio prepare Annabella to be betrothed to Soranzo she remains absolutely numb. Giovanni Is helpless to prevent the Inevitable. When Soranzo enters i t Is obvious that) while he is overjoyed at the prospect of marriage to Annabella, he has not forgotten her words to him and l t Is only after he hears the marriage vows from her own lips that he believes i t to be true. The scene ends with the Friar, Florio, and Soranzo excitedly leading off the s t i l l numb Annabella. For both Giovanni and Vasques the wedding announce-ment has come as a profound shock. 173 Act Three (Scene 7) The important thing about Bergetto's death i s that the sheer absurdity of i t makes i t t r a g i c rather than funny. It i s completely meaningless, quite unnecessary and i n f i n i t e l y moving. As Bergetto and P h i l o t i s , cloaked and hooded, pause i n the shadows to embrace, Grimaldi appears from nowhere, runs his blade through him and then i s gone again so quickly that i t i s almost as i f i t had never happened, except that suddenly Bergetto i s dying. A f t e r the i n i t i a l shock, Bergetto's reaction i s one of absolute bewilderment. I t just i s n ' t possible and yet the blood on his hands cannot be denied. I t i s Bergetto*s i n c r e d u l i t y that creates the tremendous poignancy that the scene demands. While everyone else i s clamouring for l i g h t s and shouting f o r the guard, alarums are being rung and flaming torches dash across the stage % Bergetto contrasts WVTH the confusion and noise by speaking absolutely simply. This s i m p l i c i t y takes a l l the humour out of his ludicrous l i n e s and his death becomes pathetic and yet strangely moving for when Bergetto f i n a l l y comprehends the enormity of t h i s l a s t c o l o s s a l joke that the world has played on him, his dying l i n e s have a c e r t a i n quiet d i g n i t y . Richardetto, his plans having gone awry, wastes no time on needless sentimentality and h a s t i l y removes P h i l o t i s , 174 leaving Poggio alone, cradling Bergetto 1s body i n h i s arms repeating, h e l p l e s s l y , but with a t e r r i b l e new s i g n i f i c a n c e , "My masterJ My master Act Three (Scene 8) Soranzo*s impending marriage means that Hippolita's plan must now be put into immediate action and Vasques is quick to arrange a secret assignation: The scene has a furtive quality and is played in the light of a flickering torch. Like Richardetto, Hippolita can hardly restrain herself and the thought of vengeance makes her abandon any caution in her advances to Vasques who remains coldly Imperturbable• 176 Act Three (Scene 9) Unit 1 The dominant emotion Is Donado's bitter grief; Plorio secures the whereabouts of the murderer from the Officers and Richardetto is quick to praise the Cardinal but hovers discreetly in the shadows when Plorio calls for the Officers to knock at the Cardinal's gate. To emphasize the power and fear wielded by this enormous figure, there is a moments hesitation while neither of the Officers w i l l venture a challenge, then suddenly Poggio bursts between them and pounds loudly on the gate. Unit 2 This scene has a definitely grotesque quality; The Cardinal's entrance is anticipated by an incredible tension among those poised in the flickering torch light beneath his balcony: His appearance is that of an enormous and yet stately monster: He is absolutely dignified and absolutely corrupt and when he enters a perceptible shudder runs through the men that have summoned him. In his scarlet robes and dripping with jewels, he is more a presence than a person. The Cardinal visually epitomises the corruptness of the society which stands against Giovanni and Annabella. When he speaks i t i s with a combination of condescension 177 and contempt. Grlmaldi*s confession i s merely a statement of f a c t . He surrenders himself formally to the Cardinal without the s l i g h t e s t loss of pride and the Cardinal takes t h i s gesture as an opportunity to scorn the magnificoes of Parma. For a moment af t e r he disappears the others are too numb to speak, except for Poggio^ who sp i t s his disgust but then must cross himselfJ the power of the church cannot be denied; The f i r s t h a l f of the play closes on a note of despair with the removal of any positive element i n F l o r i o ' s f i n a l speech. 178 Act Four (Scene 1) Unit 1 This scene opens on a note of forced cheerfulness and false gaiety. The noise and laughter of the wedding ceremony forms a steady background babble as the Friar, convinced that Christianity has triumphed, toasts the newly wedded couple and Soranzo replies with a l l the customary gallantry of the magnanimous bridegroom. In contrast to the mood of celebration are Giovanni, Annabella and vasques: Annabella is surrounded by Soranzo and the Friar, who engage in animated conversation while she remains absolutely s t i l l and silent: Giovanni has isolated himself from the action and his brooding i s duly observed by the ever-watchful Vasques, who manages to be part of the celebration while at the same time he remains on guard for the unexpected and the dangerous: The climax of the scene comes when Soranzo separates himself from the others and offers Giovanni the wine bowl. It i s only when Giovanni refuses i t twice that Annabella speaks, for the f i r s t time in the scene, in a desperate attempt to avert the imminent c r i s i s . There i s an embarrassed pause^which i s only saved from becoming dangerous by the ar r i v a l of the minstrel. The f i r s t chord of the music shatters the tension which has suddenly hushed the celebration. 179 Unit 2 Hippolita enters alone, dressed as a minstrel and masked. As she sings she moves through the guests urging them to Join in the chorus and f i n a l l y delivering most of the song directly to Soranzo who cheerfully sings with her. The lyrics are an ironic description of Soranzo's treatment of Hippolita. At the end of the song there Is general applause which i s suddenly s t i f l e d when Hippolita removes her mask. Unit 3 The mood of this scene is one of extreme tension as Hippolita repeats the Friar's ceremony and again joins the wedding couple's hands before calling for a toast. There is a hushed a i r of uncertainty as the guests, a l l of whom are aware of Hippolita's past relationship with Soranzo, try to understand what is happening. It is Hippolita*s scene and she plays with her audience like a magician*, every move is calculated to shock and surprise the onlookers. Her movements are slow and deliberate and she plays with Annabellas obvious discomfort. It i s a l l a carefully prepared ceremony climaxed by her calling for wine. Soranzo relaxes his i n i t i a l distrust and is eager to make what seems like an easy reconciIllation, so that Vasques' 180 sudden outburst comes as a complete surprise, exploding like a grenade i n the hypnotic calm that Hippolita has woven. For the f i r s t time in the play Vasques reveals his true nature. The subtle, imperturbable facade is shattered by the visclous stream of abuse which he hurls at the dying Hippolita. Not only is he saving his master but he is getting his revenge for the loathsome guise he has been forced to wear. Hlppolita's death i s that of a poisonous snake. As she writhes in agony she spits her venemous curses in a l l directions u n t i l , with her last breath, she crawls to within an inch of where Annabella stands pressed against the wall. As Hippolita twists in her death agonies the guests crowd around to peer down, fascinated, at her f i n a l spasms. It is Richardetto whose triumphant voice breaks the silence after her death. The Friar's ominous prophecy ends the scene and is the cue for the f i r s t line of the next. 1 8 1 Act Four (Scene 3 ) Unit 1 Apart from the thematic reasons f o r cutting Act Four Scene 2 In Its ent i r e t y , In dramatic terms l t means that the action goes d i r e c t l y from the F r i a r ' s prophecy of doom at the end of Scene 1 to the actual physical violence of the opening of Scene 3 . Physical violence i s the key to t h i s scene. It begins with Annabella being hurled from the top of the s t a i r s and the action continues to be punctuated throughout by v i o l e n t physical contact. The explosive force of t h i s violence i s i n d i r e c t contrast to, and comes out of, the sexual f r u s t r a t i o n that motivates Soranzo's actions. The dominant character throughout i s Annabella. While she i s physically assaulted she emerges s p i r i t u a l l y v i c t o r i o u s and Soranzo, who releases an almost ani m a l i s t i c fury of physical energy, remains s p i r i t u a l l y impotent. Annabella i s motivated throughout by a proud defiance while Soranzo i s driven by a combination of b l i n d rage, wounded pride, Jealousy and f r u s t r a t i o n . Soranzo's actions i n t h i s scene, as Annabella says, are a l l superfluous. While Soranzo f l a i l s w ildly about i n h i s rage Annabella remains deadly accurate and each of her thrusts h i t s home. 182 The purpose of the scene Is to show the strength of Annabella*s love i n the face of Soranzo's torture and to show Soranzo f o r the animal he a c t u a l l y i s . Soranzo's f r u s t r a t i o n stems mainly from h i s being unable to cope with the wound to h i s pride that the discovery of Annabella*s pregnancy has been. It i s t h i s desecration of h i s honour that goads him more than the betrayal of love. Soranzo's sadism has a very sexual basis. He has discovered Annabella's pregnancy because she could no longer keep him from her and now he takes out t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n by throwing her to the ground and threatening her with h i s dagger. As his fury increases so does Annabella's strength and h i s impotence i n the face of her defiance drives him to greater physical excess. Towards the end of the scene he i s r o l l i n g on the ground with her, almost begging that she t e l l her lover's name. At the climax she sings i n h i s face and he drags her across the stage by her hair^ only to collapse on his knees beside her; Only once, when Soranzo threatens to t e l l her father, does Annabella waver, but the more he threatens her the greater her defiance, u n t i l ultimately out of absolute f r u s t r a t i o n Soranzo raises his dagger to s t r i k e . The main d i f f i c u l t y i n the scene i s maintaining the l e v e l of violence without losing the i n t e n s i t y of the emotional c o n f l i c t i n the sheer physical struggle. Unit 2 Vasques1 entrance comes at the paroxysm of violence and in one swift stroke he takes complete control of the situation and extinguishes the fuse that was about to explod Vasques is no longer a servant, but even though he makes himself master of the situation he does It with his usual calm, soothing persuasiveness. Where Soranzo was f i r e , Vasques is cold ice. His control is velvet smooth but twice as powerful as Soranzo's unrestrained violence; Vasques1 purpose i s to stop Soranzo before his actions endanger himself and then, while appearing to support Annabella, to persuade Soranzo to s t i f l e his natural feeling and placate Annabella long enough to let Vasques go about discovering the truth by much more subtle means. Vasques completely dominates Soranzo and by the time he takes him aside and gives him back his dagger Soranzo has controlled himself enough to be able to see the wisdom of Vasques* strategy; Soranzo*s threats meant nothing to Annabella except to increase her determination to defy him but now he turns from physical violence to a much more dangerous weapon. He appeals to her sense of honour and truth. By playing the hypocrite and asking for her forgiveness on the plea that he was driven to fury only by his love for her, constantly supported by Vasques* subtle apologies on behalf of his lord 184 Soranzo finds the one weak chink in her armour and Annabella's resistance collapses. While i t is Soranzo who plays the hypocrite and eventually succeeds, he i s l i t t l e more than a puppet manipulated, move by move, by Vasques u n t i l Annabella is safely out of the way. The mood of the scene is triumphantly e v i l . Unit 3 The purpose now is to show the true balance of power between Soranzo and Vasques. There i s a long pause before Vasques speaks and his voice is almost a sneer as he taunts Soranzo: Vasques is completely in control and he goads Soranzo to a helpless rage with his soft Insinuations and pointed instructions: It i s obvious that Vasques relishes his role. There is a definite sexual quality to his aware-ness that Soranzo i s now wholly dependant on him. Unit 4 Vasques approaches the task of revenge with the calm assurance of a professional. His soliloquy has a tone of methodical efficiencyj but at the same time i t i s tinged with an almost sexual excitement as he anticipates the results of his investigation; Unit 5 Vasques' purpose is now to gain Putana's confidence 185 and thus secure, by treachery, the Information that Soranzo could not gain by force; Putana i s almost In hysterics when she enters and Vasques plays with her li k e a cat with a mouse. The whole scene has the quality of a steel trap slowly swinging closed on Putana. Vasques mingles vague threats with soothing assurances, the whole time c i r c l i n g round and round the helpless Putana and speaking with an almost hypnotic assurance. He easily wins her confidence and convinces her that for the sake of her mlstress ,s and her own safety, Soranzo must know the identity of Annabella 1s lover; Vasques* tone becomes increasingly more intimate and persuasive and Putana, who is too t e r r i f i e d to be suspicious, is soothed and lull e d into a pathetic eagerness to confide in him; Even when Putana reveals the truth Vasques does not betray his hand u n t i l he has made absolutely sure that he can believe Putana. His reaction to the fact that It is Giovanni i s one of pleasure as much as surprise. Unit 6 Vasques* transition is abrupt and violent. The soft wheedling tone i s replaced by a hard emotionless command: Vasques orders Putana*s eyes put out with cold dispassion, but there Is a note of urgency in his voice and when the Banditti fumble their job he can no longer control himself: 186 His latent violence explodes against Putana i n an orgasmic attack as he savagely holds her to the ground and gags her. The cruelty of t h i s attack i s such that he i s forced to step back and recover himself while the B a n d i t t i f i n i s h with Putana. The sudden release of pent-up violence and Putana's uncomprehending terr o r combine to throw a p a l l of horror over the scene. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Vasques' attack comes as a surprise. It i s unnecessary and s a d i s t i c and an important r e v e l a t i o n of his character. Unit 7 A f t e r Putana Is dragged out, Vasques pauses to recover h i s composure; The prospects for treachery increase moment by moment. He reacts to the news that Giovanni i s Annabella's lover with something approaching admiration. For Vasques there i s a hierarchy of crime and t h i s news only whets his appetite. Unit 8 So elated i s Vasques that when Giovanni suddenly enters^ his obsequiousness i s almost overdone. Giovanni can hardly supress his Jealousy and suspicion, but when Vasques responds to his Implied obscenity and returns i t with a knowing l e e r , he does not hide his disgust. Giovanni does not suspect Vasques' eagerness to offer information as being 187 anything more than a servant's greed. Their obvious mutual contempt gives the scene a tone of dangerous irony. Unit 9 This last exchange is dominated by Vasques1 complete confidence. Events have worked out even better than he could have anticipated and he can now demand Soranzo1s admiration and love. Soranzo enters as agitated as before, his fears increased at the thought of Giovanni's hearing how his sister has been treated. Vasques handles him with an almost paternal calm that demands obedience. The ending of the scene i s made extremely ominous by giving the last line to Vasques. The danger to Giovanni and Annabella is accelerating rapidly. 188 Act Five (Scene l) This scene has been cut quite considerably for two reasons: In the fi r s t place, as written, i t is extremely rhetorical and quite unbelievably contrived and therefore large cuts have been made in order to tighten the emotional content and make the Friar's opportune appearance rather more believable: More important, however, is the thematic unbellevability of the scene. The proud defiant Annabella of Act Four is suddenly presented as a melancholy, frightened and repentant g i r l whose one desire seems to be to unburden herself of an unholy love and embrace the church in the hope of forgiveness; As i f in answer to her prayers, the Friar miraculously appears at just the right moment. Taken thus, the scene appears as an almost complete reversal of Annabella's character and is not only incon-sistent with what has gone before, but contradicts Annabella's calm dignity in her final scene with Giovanni. However, i t is extremely significant that Annabella's pious rhetoric ceases the moment the Friar reveals himself and offers to help: Annabella is suddenly firm and to the point as she instructs the Friar to carry her letter to Giovannii" This change of attitude is the key to the purpose of the scene: Working backwards from this point, i t becomes obvious that Annabella is motivated by one purpose alone—to warn Giovanni,1 She is quite sincere in her resignation, l t seems to her that death i s only a short distance away; however, she prepares to face i t proudly; She does not betray her love but rather uses her last resources in an attempt to save Giovanni. Her grief i s quite genuine but i t i s necessary to convince the Friar that she has repented and i s begging for the forgiveness of the church: In order to guarantee that he w i l l take her letter directly to Giovanni, she w i l l do l t . Consequently only those lines have been retained which serve to show that Annabella has resigned herself to death but i s determined to save Giovanni f i r s t . The Friar's appearance is seized upon as a means to this end. The mood of the scene therefore i s dominated by Annabella's strength rather than her weakness and the Friar' eagerness becomes grimly ironic. 190 Act Five (Scene 2) The action of this scene i s very rapid. Vasques has told Soranzo his news and now his prime concern i s to goad Soranzo into a great enough fury that he w i l l have no qualms about carrying out his revenge.' It i s extremely Important for Vasques that Soranzo not have the opportunity to r e c a l l any love for Annabella and, because of i t , hesitate at the last moment. Vasques* taunts have an almost feminine bltchlness about them and he obviously relishes the task of cataloguing Soranzo*s humiliations; It i s important that Vasques* Insistence makes Soranzo*s decision to set the trap, seem as much an attempt to regain Vasques' approval as a means to satisfy his own desire for revenge: Soranzo's f i n a l resolution gives Vasques a definite grim satisfaction but he continues to fan the flames of humiliation and jealousy; Act Five (Scene 3 ) Unit 1 Giovanni's soliloquy i s an ir o n i c moment of calm before the storm of revenge breaks. Its purpose i s to make the shock even greater by emphasizing Giovanni's unsuspecting v u l n e r a b i l i t y . There i s a confident tone to Giovanni's speech that c a r r i e s with i t a note of arrogance It i s clear that Giovanni innocently believes that his love for Annabella, by surviving even her marriage to Soranzo, i s absolutely secure. He greets the F r i a r with genuine pleasure-, having proved him wrong again, he i s eager to demonstrate h i s happiness. Unit 2 The entrance of the F r i a r i s that of the angel of death; He appears s i l e n t l y on the steps before Giovanni has f i n i s h e d h i s speech and stands immobile looking down on him u n t i l Giovanni turns and greets him: The Fria_ extends Annabella's l e t t e r with the deliberate f i n a l i t y of a death sentence. I t i s obvious from the manner of the F r i a r ' s appearance that he i s performing a solemn r i t u a l which he considers not only inev i t a b l e but, ultimately, j u s t : 1 9 2 Giovanni r e c o i l s from the l e t t e r as i f from a physical blow. He i s staggered, and only by turning v i o l e n t l y on the F r i a r can he pretend not to believe what he knows immediately to be the t r u t h . Unit 3 Vasques appears suddenly at the head of the s t a i r s as Giovanni seizes the F r i a r by h i s throat. His calm smile freezes Giovanni l i k e an i c y gust of wind. The exchange between Vasques and Giovanni i s l i k e a duel. They play with the words l i k e r a p i e r s , d e f t l y turning the implications. There i s a dangerous tension that i s emphasized by the apparent control that each displays u n t i l Vasques* sneering obsequiousness f i n a l l y goads Giovanni into a y e l l . Both are aware of the s i g n i f i -cance of the i n v i t a t i o n but neither i s f u l l y aware of the other's 1 knowledge. Unit h The ending of the scene i s completely dominated by Giovanni's deadly calm. During the exchange with Vasques he has regained control and acknowledged the implications of the l e t t e r . His too* i s a noble resignation. The F r i a r ' s reaction to Giovanni's decision i s an uncomprehending r e s e n t f u l anger. He recognizes his own 193 weakness when confronted by Giovanni's strength and he r e t r e a t s . The F r i a r ' s exit i s his ultimate act of moral betrayal and his l a s t l i n e has the ugliness of a curse. Giovanni has now become t e r r i f y i n g l y calm. He seems to grow i n stature with the strength of his decision. His oath i s stated very quietly and the rhetoric gains sig n i f i c a n c e from the almost detached d e l i v e r y . Giovanni's awareness of what he must do i s both heroic and mad. The scene ends on a note of absolute conviction and frightening i n t e n s i t y . 1 9 4 Act Five (Scene 4 ) Unit 1 Again i t i s Vasques who dominates the a c t i o n . His a t t i t u d e towards the B a n d i t t i Is one of c r i s p e f f i c i e n c y and there i s an i n s t i n c t i v e understanding between the professionals; It i s clear that Soranzo i s out of h i s depth i n such company and h i s treatment of the B a n d i t t i i s characterized by a nervous attempt to j u s t i f y what both Vasques and the B a n d i t t i calmly acknowledge as treachery. Vasques states his purpose quite openly to Soranzo— he intends to edge hi s r e s o l u t i o n ; When i t i s obvious that Soranzo i s eager to carry through to the end, Vasques reacts with the pride of a master who knows he has tutored w e l l . It i s Vasques who plans the d e t a i l s of the revenge and there i s the desire of an a r t i s t for perfection behind his suggestion that Giovanni be given free access to Annabella: Unit 2 Giovanni's entrance i s the test of Soranzo*s mettle and he responds with a f i e n d i s h delight that i s worthy of h i s tutor. His embrace has the q u a l i t y of the kiss of death. Soranzo's effusive greetings are countered by Giovanni's obvious suspicion and Vasques' sardonic s i l e n c e . Giovanni i s wearing a sword for the f i r s t time In the play and as he mounts the s t a i r s to his s i s t e r ' s chamber he i s f u l l y aware of the trap that closes behind him. Soranzo and Vasques can hardly r e s t r a i n themselves. Unit 3 The purpose of the ending of the scene i s to once again focus on the world that Giovanni and Annabella have defied and which i s now Joining forces to crush them; The entrance of the Cardinal takes the form of a regal procession and Soranzo humbles himself to t h i s symbol of corruption; The mood of the scene i s one of hypocrisy and i t sets up the f i n a l confrontation of Giovanni and Annabella. 1 9 6 Act Five (Scene *?) Unit 1 The d i f f i c u l t y of this scene l i e s in the complexity of emotions that are involved and the tremendous level of intensity at which i t i s played; The purpose of the scene is to express the tragedy of Giovanni and Annabella in such a way that Giovannis f i n a l decision becomes the ultimate act of defiance and a last great glorification of his love; Giovanni's actions have a terrible inevitability about them, and his madness is revealed in his determination to carry his love to i t s logical extreme, far beyond where i t can be contaminated any further by contact with the world represented by Vasques and the Cardinal. Giovanni k i l l s Annabella as the ultimate expression of his love and the revenge against a world that could not comprehend such love. S t i l l , as always, the dominant force is sexual and the scene opens with Giovanni struggling violently to embrace Annabella. When she resists, because of her anxiety that he escape, he flings her violently from him: Giovanni ,s jealous outburst Is ugly in i t s obvious attempt to cover up his genuine terror at the knowledge of what he must do. His momentary arrogance i s the bravado of a frightened boy who s t i l l hopes to postpone the inevitable: In this opening sequence i t i s Annabella who is the p i l l a r of strength, and for the f i r s t time between them, 197 her strength is independent of her brother's, Giovanni's outburst means nothing and he collapses into Annabella's arms. She speaks from a quiet acceptance of re a l i t y . There is no hope and she i s not afraid. Her one purpose is to save her brother, but even as she speaks Giovanni steels himself for what must come. Unit 2 There i s an almost pathetic tenderness to this sequence. Giovanni long ago rejected heaven for the world he shared with Annabella, but now that he knows he must destroy that world, he turns desperately to the hope of a heaven that his logic has convinced him does not exist, a heaven where he and Annabella can love forever. There i s desperation in his questions as he almost begs Annabella to defeat his logic and convince him that a heaven i s possible; If this is so then he can justify her death with no fear of i t being mean-ingless. Annabella does not understand, her thoughts are occupied with the immediacy of their danger, but i t Is not necessary: Giovanni has convinced himself with the same blind reasoning which he used to justify his rejection of religion at the very beginning, and from this point on his actions are automatic and inexorable. Unit 3 The pace becomes urgent as Giovanni dominates the action; Everything builds towards the ultimate act and Giovanni must maintain the intensity in order to have the courage to carry i t through. Annabella sees his madness and knows that she i s powerless to re s i s t . But even at the last moment the power of the flesh and Giovanni's logic clash violently: Three times he pulls her to him, kisses her, and thrusts her away and each time he speaks i t i s a desperate attempt to Justify the physical act; At the moment of climax he stabs her and the agony i s his. Annabella's last words are tinged with regret*but she does not resist nor does she blame her brother. The mood of her death is a triumphant agony. Unit k There Is along pause after Annabella dies and then Giovanni very gently carries her to the bed and lays her on i t in her bridal gown; Then he kneels beside her: The tone of the scene i s now hushed and almost tender. Giovanni has made his greatest decision and what i s to come cannot frighten him. Only when he thinks of Soranzo does his agony break though: His actions now have an a i r of calm dignity and a resolve that cannot be destroyed: Now that Annabella i s dead there i s nothing to conflict with Giovanni's terrible rational purpose; There i s a certain joy about his actions now. Only one more task remains and then he w i l l have gained his ultimate freedom. 199 Act Five (Scene 6) Unit 1 The scene opens with laughter and loud conversation as the banquet guests enter In small groups and disperse about the stage t a l k i n g amongst themselves: Vasques and Soranzo enter Just before the others, whispering to them-selves. Vasques even at the l a s t moment takes no chances that h i s master might waver and c a l l o f f the plan. Soranzof however, does not need to be coaxed any further*, revenge i s within h i s graspi Towards the Cardinal he i s a genial and d e f e r e n t i a l host: The mood of the scene Is tense and expectant as Soranzo c a l l s f o r Giovanni. Unit 2 Glovajani's entrance i s the single most explosive moment i n the play. As i f he has been waiting for the cue from Soranzo, he suddenly bursts into view on the balcony above the guests and stands towering over them, h i s s i s t e r ' s heart impaled on hi s dagger and hi s rapier naked i n hi s f i s t . His g r i s l y surgery has l e f t him dripping with blood and i n hi s eyes there i s the g l i t t e r of madness. However, i t i s a co l o s s a l madness born of love and when he speaks i t i s with the tremendous i n t e n s i t y of a fanatic who has stepped beyond the l i m i t s of reason and against whom nothing can p r e v a i l . The I n i t i a l reaction of a l l i s one of stunned 200 i n c r e d u l i t y . As Giovanni moves slowly down the steps, speaking almost w i s t f u l l y of his s i s t e r , they are hypno-t i z e d by htm u n t i l suddenly, with a great shout, he leaps onto the banquet table and demands that they acknowledge the enormity of what he has done: The guests r e c o i l i n horror and P l o r i o c r i e s out desperately that his sono i s mad. But Giovanni's madness i s a t e r r i b l e l u c i d i t y and with an almost s a d i s t i c honesty he d e t a i l s the story of h i s love; Although he holds the guests at bay with h i s sword he makes no attempt to r e s i s t when Soranzo orders Vasques to bring f o r t h Annabella. When Vasques appears, holding Annabella 1s bloody corpse i n h i s arms, Giovanni's i s a y e l l of triumph; The shock i s too great for P l o r i o , but as he f a l l s forward at h i s son's feet Giovanni welcomes his death with a strange pride. His father's death seems noble at that moment, for i t frees him completely from any l a s t respons-i b i l i t y on earth. With an exultant cry he leaps from the table and thrusts his sword through Soranzo. Vasques leaps towards him and Giovanni f i g h t s with a l l the force of his magnificent madness. Forced to the ground Vasques screams for the B a n d i t t i and as they rush i n Giovanni turns and welcomes them, and as he smiles Vasques thrusts his sword into h i s back. 201 Giovanni dies magnificently with a l l the dignity and grandeur of a toppling stag: For a moment there i s absolute silence as Giovanni stands surrounded by his assaslns, their blades poised ready to strike again*, then he f a l l s to the ground with what is almost a sigh of r e l i e f and gratitude: The scene now is confusion and panic as the Banditti flee and Vasques rushes to embrace the dying Soranzo: Vasques* agony cannot be hidden. When Giovanni speaks i t is with absolute simplicity. To the Cardinal's demand that he cry for mercy he replies* more with sadness for what the Cardinal cannot comprehend than with contempt. He welcomes death as a lover: Unit 3 It i s now the Cardinal who dominates the action: He has cowered from the actual violence but determines now to assert his power: He looms over the bloody corpses like a great scarlet inquisitor: Yet i t is Vasques who is in control:' He gives his account of the events which precipitated the slaughter with absolute dignity. His voice is f l a t and emotionless. Soranzo is dead but Vasques has seen his death avenged and now he demands his sentence with proud defiance: When the Cardinal announces his verdict Vasques i s not humbled by his false leniency, he expects nothing less. 202 His f i n a l remark has a ce r t a i n grim humour to i t , and he exits with pride and d i g n i t y . Unit 4 The s c a r l e t robes of the Cardinal tower above the carnage and as he struggles to make order out of the ruins,' he epitomizes the world that Giovanni and Annabella have escaped: Having cut Richardetto*s poorly motivated and ultimately unnecessary r e v e l a t i o n of his i d e n t i t y , the scene sweeps d i r e c t l y from the n o b i l i t y of Giovanni's death, and Vasques' proud arrogance, to the absolute demonstration of corruption as the Cardinal loots the corpses i n the name of the Church. The irony of his f i n a l l i n e i s an echo of the e v i l and hypocrisy that has dominated the tone of the play. 6 DETAILS OP PRODUCTION 203 Musio Cues Cue It Following cue from stage manager. Music before playt approximately ten minutes long. (A) Two heart-beats on drums. (B) One verse of Annabella on recorder. (C) One verse of Annabella on strings. (D) Combined Annabella bridge, 4-beat pause. (E) Hlppolita Minor on a l l ; slow tempo. (F) 4-beat transition to Major on guitar. (G) Hlppolita Major on a l l ; fast tempo. (H) 4-beat transition to Em on guitar. (I) Two verses of Banquet music; splghtly. (J) 4-beat transition to Dm on guitar. (K) One verse of Annabella on strings; Recorder plays last line alone; Guitar diminished minor walk-down to Dm. Notet The "pre-play w music continues in a cycle, so that the stage^manager can extend the playing-time i f required while the Studio is f i l l i n g . The f i n a l verse (K) is then played, approximately five minutes before the production proper begins. Cue 2: Following cue from stage manager. Chant: three lines of Gregorian chant with bells . Start strong and fade under lights up. Cue 3» Following Friar's line, p. 7. "Hie thee to thy father's house." Bells; double-beat softly under dialogue. Cue ki Following Giovanni's line, p. 7. "Else I ' l l swear my fate's my God." Continue loud bells to exit, then Dm dissonant chords fading under next dialogue. Cue 5* Following Annabella's line, p. 14. "My soul i s f u l l of heaviness and fear." Recorder plays verse of Annabella theme; fade under next dialogue. Cue 6t Following Giovanni's line, p. 19• "Now let's rise by this." Strings play Annabella theme u n t i l exit. Cue 7 : Following Bergetto's line, p. 22 "•Twill do Poggio." Recorder t r i l l s u n t i l exit. Cue 8: Following last cue, p. ?. Strings play Annabella theme under dialogue u n t i l Giovanni's l i n e : "But I shall lose you." Cue 9 : Following Richardetto's line, p. 2 6 . " I ' l l wait upon you s i r . " A l l , on light banquet music, recorder stops after scene i s established (approximately second line of music; strings continue and fade under next dialogue.) Cue 10: Following Hippolita's line, p. 32. "My griefs have tasted." Guitar on strong Am dissonant chord, then one strong Hlppolita minor lin e , ending in dissonant chord which fades under dialogue. Cue l i t Following Richardetto's line, p. 3 5 . "That ruin'd me." Guitar on Am dissonant ohords, fading under next dialogue. Cue 12s Following Bergetto's line, p. 3 ? . "Come honest Poggio." Comic line on recorder u n t i l exit. Cue 1 3 : Following last cue, p. 3 7 . Bells u n t i l next dialogue. Fade under dialogue. Cue 14: Following Friar's line, p. 3 9 . "A pair of souls are lost." Two bells, then Annabella theme to dialogue. Cue 1 5 : Following Florlo's l i n e , p. 4 5 . Annabella theme on strings to Giovanni's li n e , "evening crowns the day." Cue 16s Following Bergetto*s l i n e , p. 46. "Come, away I " Comic l i n e on recorder to e x i t . Cue l ? s Following l a s t cue. Light banquet music throughout scene, F i n i s h on crowd e x i t i n g . Cue 18s Following Richardetto*s l i n e , p. 5 6 . "and bed her too." B e l l s u n t i l l i g h t s are up. Cue 19* Following F r i a r ' s l i n e , p. 59. "perform i t on the morning sun." B e l l s u n t i l next dialogue. Cue 20t Following Richardetto*s l i n e , p. 6 0 . " i n s t a n t l y Poggio and bring l i g h t s . " Alarm b e l l u n t i l o f f i c e r s enter. Cue 21s Following Poggio*s l i n e , p. 6 1 . "My master, my master." Guitar plays 2-beat Am*s * t l l l blackout. Cue 22s Following l a s t cue, p. 6 l . On blackout, guitar plays A dissonant chords Fade under dialogue. Cue 23s Following Hlppolita*s l i n e , p. 6 2 . "A pair of days to l i v e . " Repeated dramatic dissonant chords on guitar Fade i n under next dialogue. Cue 24-s Following F l o r i o * s l i n e , p. 64. "We must obey." Dramatic Cardinal march as exit begins. Continue to blackout. INTERMISSION Cue 25* Following sig n a l from stage manager. Begin l i g h t banquet music. Cut music on F r i a r ' s s i g n a l . Cue 26s Following Annabella's l i n e , p. 65• "If he be not w i l l i n g . " Loud beginning of Hippolita's song, then fade as dialogue resumes, slowing the tempo to normal singing speed. Cue 27s Following Soranzo's l i n e , p. 66. "Guide them i n . " Hippolita's Song, a l l instruments following, Cue 28s Following Donado's l i n e , p. 69. "Bear hence the body." Guitar sof t dissonant chords (A) under dialogue, With funereal drum-beat; loud i n blackout. Cue 29s Following F r i a r ' s l i n e , p. 70. "Begins i n blood"; continue chords and drums; On sight s i g n a l that Annabella i s dressed, two loud beats for l i g h t i n g crew. Cue 30s Following Vasques'line, p. 81. "I beseech you, your privacy." Recorder plays Annabella u n t i l next dialogue. Cue 31* Following Annabella's l i n e , p. 83• "Now I can welcome death." A l l play Annabella to next dialogue. Cue 32$ Following Soranzo's l i n e , p. 84. "My blood's on f i r e . " Strings play Annabella; cut guitar on dialogue. Continue theme on v i r g i n a l u n t i l Giovanni's l i n e "A l i f e of pleasure i s Elysium." Cue 33s Following Giovanni's l i n e , p. 87. "With me they a l l s h a l l perish." Loud dissonant chord, fade to dialogue Cue 34t Following Vasques 1 l i n e , p. 89. "Glut himself i n his own destruction." Trumpet alarum. Cue 35* Following l a s t cue, on Cardinal's entrance. Cardinal march with drums u n t i l entrance. Cue 36: Following Cardinal's l i n e , p. 90. "We w i l l go." Trumpet alarum and drums; continue drums to e x i t . Cue 37: Following Annabella's death, p. 93• Begin simulated heartbeat on drum (muffled) Continue at same volume and tempo u n t i l Giovanni's l i n e , "My l a s t arid greater part. Cue 38: Following l a s t cue, p. 94. Banquet music u n t i l Giovanni's entrance. "Here Soranzo!" Cue 39* Following Giovanni's leap on table, p. 95« Begin heartbeat very low; continue to Giovanni's death, slowly b u i l d i n g . Cue 40: Following Cardinal's l i n e , p. 100. "•Tis Pity She's a Whore." One verse of Annabella theme on recorder, sustained l a s t note. Two beats on drum. 208 Light Plot Cue Is Before play begins the set l i t by a blue glow on eye. Cue 2s After Blackout down r i g h t area only ( c e l l l i g h t i n g ) brought up with the red backlight i n the arches. Cue 3s Blackout, then general exterior l i g h t with blue eye. Cue 4s Blackout, then i n t e r i o r down r i g h t and center with red eye. Cue 5* Cross fade down r i g h t out and down l e f t up. Cross fade eye red to blue. Cue 6s Cross fade down l e f t out and down r i g h t up. Cross fade eye blue to red. On Patana's entrance fade up l e f t . Cue ?s Blackout, then general i n t e r i o r up. Cue 8s Cross fade to up center and r i g h t . Cross fade eye from red to blue. Cue 9s Cross fade down r i g h t out up l e f t up. Cue 10s Black out then c e l l l i g h t i n g with red backlight. No eye. Cue l i s Blackout then general i n t e r i o r with red eye. Cue 12s Cross fade to center only. Cross fade eye red to blue. Cue 13s Cross fade up to general i n t e r i o r . Cross fade eye blue to red. Cue 14s Cross fade to center and down r i g h t only. Blue eye. Cue 15s Blackout then down r i g h t only with red eye. Cue 16s Fade up center and down l e f t . Cue 17s Cross fade to blue shaft of l i g h t from stage l e f t only. Cross fade eye red to blue. Cue 18s Blackout then down l e f t arch speoial only. Cue 19s Cross fade to up r i g h t and up center low with blue eye. 209 Cue 20: Blackout then red eye only during Intermission; Cue 2 1 : Blackout then general i n t e r i o r with red eye; Cue 2 2 : Blackout then general i n t e r i o r with red eye. Cue 2 3 * Cross fade to up center only very low. Cyc cross fade red to blue. Cue 24: Cross fade to general i n t e r i o r . Cyc blue to red. Cue 2 5 : Cross fade to center only then slowly fade up i n t e r i o r during s o l i l o q u y . Cue 2 6 : Cross fade to center, up r i g h t and up l e f t only; Cue 2 7 : Blackout then c e l l l i g h t i n g with green backlight and no cyc. Cue 28: Blackout then general i n t e r i o r with red cyc: Cue 2 9 : On l a s t l i n e medium fade on set: Cyc stays red u n t i l set i s out then fades to black. 210 Panel Plot In order to vary locations on the standard unit set, the arches upstage r i g h t were f i t t e d with a set of f i v e movable panels which were placed i n grooves d i r e c t l y behind the arches and alternated as required for each scene. When a panel was removed the next was already i n pos i t i o n therefore the majority of these changes were made without blackouts. The standard panel, used for a l l exteriors, was painted the same colour as the r e s t of the set and when i n place the arches seemed part of a s o l i d wall. F l o r i o ' s house and Soranzo's house were each represented by an ornamented coloured screen: F l o r i o ' s i n purple, and Soranzo's i n gold. These f i r s t three panels were a l l used when the acting area involved the entire set. In two cases, however rt-the F r i a r ' s c e l l and Annabella*s bedroom i n Soranzo's house;-the acting area was limited to d i r e c t l y In front of the panels i n order to represent the enclosed locations. For these scenes the panels used were made of scrim and b a c k l i t to create the required atmosphere. For the F r i a r ' s c e l l a black v e r t i c a l g r i l l on a blood red screen was used. For Annabella's bedroom a curved ornamented g r i l l was used on a translucent green screen. Sketches of the d i f f e r e n t screens are included with the set designs. Cue: 1-Wall 11-Wall 2-Friar G r i l l 12-Florio Screen 3-Wall 13-Wall 4-Florio Screen 14-Soranzo Screen 5-Soranzo Screen 15-Wall 6-Wall 16-Soranzo Screen 7-Friar G r i l l 17-Florio Screen 8-Florio Screen 18-Soranzo Screen 9-Wall 19-Annabella G r i l l 10-Florio Screen 20-Soranzo Screen Property L i s t Act I - Scene 1 Chair (set r i g h t center) Act I - Scene 2 2 swords (Vasques and Grimaldi) 2 embroidery sets (Annabella and Putana) Bib l e (Giovanni) Act I - Scene 3 Table and chair (set r i g h t center) Bible (Giovanni) Dagger (Giovanni) S i l v e r c r u c i f i x (Giovanni) Ring (Annabella) Act I - Scene 4 Walking s t i c k (Donado) Act II - Scene 1 Table and chair (as set previously) 2 embroidery sets (Annabella and Putana) Lute ( P h i l o t i s ) Act II - Scene 2 Book (Soranzo) Sword (Vasques) Act II - Scene 3 Sword (Grimaldi) Act II - Scene 4 Walking s t i c k (Donado) 2 l e t t e r s (Donado and Poggio) Act II - Scene 5 Chair (set r i g h t center) Act II - Scene 6 Walking s t i c k (Donado) Letter (Donado) Jewel (Donado) Coin (Donado) Head bandage (Bergetto) Act III - Scene 5 Sword (Grimaldi) Poison box (Richardetto) Act III - Scene 7 Sword (Grimaldi) 2 torches (Officers) 2 helmets (Officers) 2 pikes (Officers) Act III - Scene 8 Sword (Vasques) Torch (Vasques) Act III - Scene 9 3 s t i c k s (Poggio, Donado, and Plorio) 2 torches (Poggio and Of f i c e r ) 2 helmets (Officers) Sword (Grimaldi) Large jeweled cross (Cardinal) Rings (Cardinal) Act IV - Scene 1 Banquet table (set l e f t center) Cup for each guest (held) Wine bowl (on table) Mask (Hippolita) Sword (Vasques) Act IV - Scene 3 Dagger (Soranzo) Sword (Vasques) Gag (Banditti) Coin (Giovanni) Act V - Scene 1 Letter (Annabella) Act V - Scene 2 Sword (Vasques) Act V - Scene 3 Ring (Giovanni) Letter (Friar) Sword (Vasques) Act V - Scene 4 Sword (Vasques) 2 masks (Vasques) Sword (Giovanni) Cross (Cardinal) Act V - Scene 5 Bed (set r i g h t center) Dagger (Giovanni) Act V - Scene 6 Banquet table (set l e f t center) Sword (Vas que s) Dagg er (Soranz o) Sword (Giovanni) Bloody heart impaled on dagger (Giovanni) Blood soaked sheet (Annabella) 2 masks (Banditti) 2 spears (Banditti) Fake blood (Giovanni) Cross and rings (Cardinal) 214 Costume Plot Annabella t Giovanni: Soranzo: H l p p o l i t a : Vasques: Bergetto: Cardinal: Putana: F r i a r : F l o r i o : Donado: Rlchardetto: Poggio: Grimaldi: P h i l o t i s : O f f i c e r s : B a n d i t t i : Blue dress (1.11, I . I l l , II.1, V.i) Yellow dress ( I I . v l , I I I . i l , I I I . v l ) White wedding gown ( I V . i . V.v, V.vi) White night gown ( I V . i i i ) Black Jacket and pants, with white s h i r t , no jacket (V.v, V.vi) Red and gold Jacket and pants with white s h i r t . Cloak and hat ( I . i i , I l l . i i , I I I . v l , IV.I, V.iv, V.vi) Black dress with cape and hood ( I l . i i , I l l . v i i i ) Short black jacket, black tights and mask (IV.I) Black and s i l v e r Jacket, black ti g h t s and sword. Black cloak ( I . i i , I l l . i i , I I I . v l , I l l . v i i i , V . l i i ) Brown Jacket and pants trimmed with lace, short black cloak, white lace handkerchief, black plumed hat, brown wig. Scarlet robe with black c o l l a r , s c a r l e t gloves and hat. Long grey gown with white wimple and apron. Brown monk's habit. Purple Jacket and pants, white s h i r t , grey robe, black hat; Dark brown jacket and pants, brown robe, brown hat, white wig and beard. Black gown with doctor's pouch, black t i g h t s , black cloak with s c a r l e t l i n i n g , black hat, black wig and beard. Green jacket, brown pants, brown hat. Gold jacket and pants, white s h i r t , cloak, hat and sword. Green dress and hat. Blue dress (IV.i) Red uniforms with red sashes and black t i g h t s , s i l v e r helmets. Brown Jackets and pants, dark grey cloaks and hoods• 215 Cost Report Play Copies Duthie Books Ltd. - 20 ooples 22.50 Publicity The Ubyssey - 3 Ads. 2 cols x 3" Mar. 3 , 7, + 9 38.40 Mamooks (Alma Mater Society) 1 Banner 5*50 Scenery Built Prom Scene Shop Supplies Gothic Color Ltd. - Dry Color + Dyes 10.00 Brd. Pt. 1" x 3 M Best Grade 20.00 Lin. f t . 2" x 12M f i r 5.00 Paint 20.00 Petty Cash Items Props (Lamb hearts) Charlotte Green 2.00 Set (Spray paint) Brian Arnott 1.64 Props (Experimentation) Norman Young 3*60 Costumes (Shoes) T r i c l a Goodlad 2.08 (Ink & stencil) Harry Solveoff 10.00 (Blade for sword) Michael Irwin 5.78 Costumes Jace Vanderveen 7.77 (Developing and processing pictures) Ian Pratt 10.93 Out-of-Pocket Expenses Properties experimentation Norman Young 4.05 Meals and Transportation Tom Shandel 20.00 Tickets 1 Stamp with t i t l e M ' T i s Pity She's A Whore" 1.44 Coast Paper Ltd. Buckeye Duplex cover 1 pkg. of 100 15-37 Hudson's Bay Co. (1 Candle) 3.10 Fee - Geli Green - Housemanagement 10.00 $ 219.16 Ticket Sales: $329.75 Profit: $110.59 216 Box O f f i c e Report Date Unsold Seats Tickets Sold @ $1 Student Tickets @ .75 Comps TOTAL Wed. Mar. 8 1 30 30.00 19 14.25 ^3 44.25 Thurs. (noon) Mar. 9 0 14 14.00 78 58.50 1 72.50 Thurs. Mar. 9 0 39 39.00 46 3^.50 8 73.50 P r i . Mar. 10 0 33 33.00 50 37.50 10 70.50 Sat. Mar. 11 0 3 £ 36.00 44 33.00 13 69.00 1 152 237 75 152.00 177*75 329.75 Deposits &329.71) 21? S A O W I V ptt _ _ ) 6 _____ 9: £ ^ 2SL a fios £_& A •J f f e> ^ i f f f f i o F G JL L I T 1*3? ' ' r D M C Ae% On n u l l V IT P I f ? t 41 i ? 1*3 f f e FULL htf Ik/ I i i ft P . — " i ^ y — 1 1 r —1 1 * 5NJ, >/ j - / • ^ — i > r r ^  / • — i r r t n P 1P ~9 =^=-? 1 ( T l» D 0 C On — 1 — J — I . I i^i ft «a V © w C —i—i—?*%4— 1 «Et ft fa ^9 n# *#* * f»* f f 1 f { e * f Ff=ffc f^=l J J * ' | 7 * • 1 x L. 1_ ..v^...... 2 1 9 lived^ a maid 6f' she had suffered! mournful song i scornful wrong oes anyone kno|v II u> it her name II II f rrrpf 2 P she hadi giv^m^, m * See page 8; for complete l y r i c s to Hippolyta's song. Last twoj lines of l y r i c s take second ending (next page). 220 promised! vow an| he had gi^ g n kiseedi brow, s ie was l e f t behind and A i 3E b l i n d t i l l now does anyone knew her name Crr 221 i'* 4 P i i = i |>1 • /3 ) » * y *4—-—|- —I^J—isf—^ —^ gj[ | — — ft* P KT w fir I 1 «ra £*5 L-J-^r—f—£—|— 9 ! I ft ft — - J ? — 222 D A A M A T I C 3 m -3B_ 223 <p 3- j J -0 r r r j — » -19' *> r-S i W'mTS m . - \ m HIPPOLITA1S SONG Once lived a maid of mournful song, Does anyone know her name? And she had suffered scornful wrong, Does anyone know her name? For she had given her promised vow, And he had given but kissed brow, She was l e f t behind and blind ' t i l l now, Does anyone know her name? And then at last her soul fought free, Does anyone know her name? And she sees now what could not be, Does anyone know her name? The manly male who spurned her so, Was passing pale as good men go, It was he not she unworthy low, Does anyone know his name? It was she, not he, said—gladly—nol Does anyone know her name? Music and lyri c s by Leon Dubinskjr. .. 'TIS PITY SHE'S A WHORE •*•••'• by JOHN FORD (an M..A. Thesis Production) Directed by KEN LIVINGSTONE Designed by Harry Soloveoff O r i g i n a l Music Leon Dubinsky CAST Friar Bonaventura .Dermot Hennelly Giovanni.... Jace Vanclerveen Vasques Michael Irwin Grimaldi .Mark Parry Soranzo .Tom Shandel* Florio Gordon Kempton Donado.. Nick Kendall Annabella.... Mariko Van Campen Putana. .' Elizabeth Murphy Bergetto..... E l l i s Pryce-Jones Poggio Brian Paisley Hippolita....o.................Jean Guiguet Richardetto .Kees Van Westen Philotis ..Tricia Goodlad Cardinal .Walter Shyskaryk Banditti Gary Rupert ^ Dar re 11 Evans * Appears courtesy of Actors' Equity '; MUSICIANS Patsy Mallek .Virginal Tony MacFe^ e Recorder Joe Berarducci Percussion Jack Kouhry Guitar Virginal lent by Ray Nurse Drums lent by Harry Kalensky SCENE - Parn*. , about 1 6 3 0 There w i l l be one intermission of fifteen minutes. PRODUCTION Stage Manager. Judi Frieman • L i g h t i n g . Brian Bueckert A s s i s t a n t to the D i r e c t o r . . Sarah Kendall Costume Mistress Anne C h i s l e t t Stage Crew. . .Gary Rupert D a r r e l l Evans House Manager. G e l i Green P u b l i c i t y . Nan Gregory Fights arranged by Michael Irwin Dermot Hennelly Technical Direction,. Scenery Construction, P r o p e r t i e s , Costumes, Box O f f i c e : Theatre Department S t a f f ~i> a. SINCERE THANKS TO Ross B o l l e r u p , A r l o n Gislason, Donn E l l i o t , Ian P r a t t , The Sun, The Province, Vancouver L i f e Vancouver Radio and T.V. Stations, Buildings and Grounds. COMING EVENTS L A ip/jaSIENNE by Henry Becque 'March 31 - A p r i l 8 Directed by Klaus Strassmann ' with Pat Gage Vancouver Province; Thursday. March 9. I967 Buckets of blood in 'Tis Pity ' By JAMES BARBER Tis Pity She's A Whore is the . most complete catalogue of 17th ! Century sins I have yet j seen. Bastardy, cuckoldry, 1 incest, poisonings, stabbings, I blasphemy, well mixed with, double standard morality, lust, conscience and remorse strut a ' stage littered with corpses, j maidenheads and broken vows. .1 It is a long play, and at times I I thought it could have been I cut, but when the hero romps on stage halfway through the sec-ond act, carrying, like a candy apple on a stick, his sister's heart impaled bloody on his * dagger, the audience settled • down for a good rounded out I conclusion. I All the participants are killed, 1 except for an Iago-like servant * whose virtuous "I'm-only-trying-• to-help-you" meddling precip-! itated the whole thing. . Tis Pity is an M.A. thesis pro-' duction, directed by Ken Living-I stone of the UBC theatre de-j partment, and presented in the j theatre workshop. ; It is a difficult play to stage, ; suffering from the same frag-i mentation as is often criticized in television adaptations for the j stage. There are innumerable scene and location changes, and t' the original, written in five acts, ! obviously was intended to be j presented over a longer period of time, to allow audiences j breathing space. Livingstone I handles it most interestingly. 1 Harry Soloveoff's set is simple t and basic, using sliding panels I and a great range of lighting to i provide very effective changes. < Technically it is an excellent ; production, set over a pattern j of delicate recorder and virginal music which is in as strange I contrast to the violence of the I script as "Greensleeves" would be to Who's Afraid of Virginia ! Woolf. ; The surviving servant, Vas-ques (Michael Irwin) dominates the play, and Irwin's interpreta-tion in many ways is representa-tive of the production, which has two distinct. standards of acting, as though half the cast were completely rehearsed, and the r e m a i n d e r still a littler scared. Vasques is a Spaniard,-but he starts out in almost Anglo - Saxon embarrassment and only really comes to the part when the tide of blood is at its highest. : *< Giovanni , the incestuous, brother (Jace Vanderveen) de-livers a performance of agoniz-ed excellence, which marks him for death and violence from the moment he is seen, hollow-eyed, gaunt and. sleepless in the friar's confessional. His sister Annabella (Marika van Cam-pen) has a restrained passion which only shows itself in anger, and could have been put to so 'much more effect in the tightly-focused scene where she and her brother declare their love. Tonr* Sharidel and Elizabeth Murphy, a disappointed lover and a too-trusting nurse, both eventually betrayed, make great sense of their roles, and there is a delightful cameo performance by Ellis Pryce-Jones, whose camp ineffectual would have de-. lighted both Robert Morley and Oscar Wilde. Surprisingly, he knows not only how to amuse, but also to disturb as he dies, pathetically the victim of vio-lence intended for another. For the .rest, youth occasionally shows itself, despite the grey beards and red eyes. ' Generally speaking, a good production, worth seeing. There is a peculiar sense of intimacy and participation created by the little theatre which must in some way mirror the reaction of the original audiences 300 years ago. The Vancouver Sun: Thursday. March 9, 196? Play Gives Taboo Subject An Overwhelming Impact By DAVID WATMOUGH Sun Drama Critic - It is doubtful whether at any time in its more than 300-year history John Ford's 'Tis Pity She's' a Whore' has had. more relevance than now"—' a point adequately brought home- in the University of B.C. 'Theatre De partment production -which opened for a four - performance run Wednesday night in the Frederic Wood Studio Theatre , -Certainly the play • cries out for a l a T g e r area- than the Studio context permits and director Ken Livingstone had under-standable difficulty in keeping basically- larger - • than - life emotions' down to a scale that the cramped space would per-mit to come through with an adequate degree or realism. But restrictions of this nature and one or . two inadequate performances by student actors did not prevent, the extraordin-ary power and pertinence of this harrowing masterpiece to cres-cendo its overwhelming impact across the crowded little theatre. SEARING TREATMENT In -the first place- Tis' .Pity She's a Whore is largely con-, cerned with a searing but sympathetic treatment of one of the most trenchantly taboo sub-jects in our western world — incest. Shorn of all 20th century psy-chological niceties and against a bleak and bloody background of morality upheld by t h e rapier and the rack, John Ford yet manages to bring us a portrait of a young girl and her brother (admirably played by Mariko Van Campen and Jace Vander-veen) that demanded our'emo-tional commitment. In our age when so much is now explicit and there is so much striving among adults for und erstanding of emotional anomaly, incest can still touch the hackles. But only a' spiritually cold bigot or moralistic-maniac could fail to respond to the poignancy of this sad parody of a Romeo and Juliet, as Ken Livingstone and his company have so touch ingly rendered them. SOME RELIEF If there is occasion for sad ness and a black poetry of despair over this aspect of the play, Ellis Pryce-Jones provides a nuance of relief and contrast in a camp-comic role, of Ber getto.the half-hearted suitor of the beautiful Annabella who is in iove with her brother. Yet. even Bergetto is dead by the end of act one — and here is the key to the other major aspect of John Ford's dark drama yvhich relates strangely to so much contemporary theatre, notably John Osborne's latest play, A Bond Honoured. For if incest relates to our psychologically knowing minds the overall ethos of this play is acted-out violence. Another .sub-ject our contemporary world is greatly aware of. Life is cheap in John Ford's 17th century England, and by setting his play in Italy, Latin passion permits of even greater emotional-tu r b.u 1 e n c e and mayhem. No more death, however, than we reap on our roads, and when, at i play's end, the stage is strewn with four cadavers plus a carved out human heart, each relates to moral purpose. Taking in some savage, digs at papal corruption and ecclesias-tical obscurantism along the way, 'Tis a Pity She's a Whore yet questions sensitive,, shib-boleths such as incest, over-simplified concepts of- rewards, and punishments and ritually' enacts' some of the profoiindest' tensions of the human psyche. i The 'result is compelling ;theatre well -worth the seeing. The Ubysse.y: Friday. March 10. 1967 228 Heart coolly -Enter Giovanni, with a heart on his dagger" is one of the more cheerful stage directions of the Jacobean drama. It comes from John Ford's play 'Tis Pity She's A Whore, which Ken Liv-ingstone is directing as an M.A. thesis production this week at the Freddy Wood studio. The heart in question be-longs to Mariko Van Camp-en, and it has been removed, under rather un-surgical con-ditions, by Jace Vanderveen. He's her brother, you see, and the two of them have been indulging in a little friendly incest, cuckoldry, and other merry pastimes. Ford stands at the end of the long line of dramatists who make up the finest per-io3rof the English stage; he wrote in the 1620's, and his work is the reflective after-glow of the violence of Webster and Tourneur. 'Tis Pity takes a difficult subject, and treats it with a fine moral discrimination, presenting a whole range of j attitudes between the two unacceptable extremes of Putana's licentiousness and friar's shallow moralism. Any production faces the difficulty that modern audi-ences are unaccustomed to long verse plays, and much of the text's subtlety must necessarily be lost." Ken Liv-ingstone attempts to strike a balance between the action and the verse, and if the action tends to win, who can blame him? The heart, by the way, is oozily realistic. "Love me or k i l l me, s i s t e r . " ( I . i i i ) "-Why, Poggio!" ( I I I . v i i ) "Look up, look here; what see you in my face?" (V. v) "I can stand no longer! Feeble arms, Have you so soon l o s t strength?" (V. v i ) FroMT ELEVATION S C A L E : y t ' ! f I 1 AFLAT 00 ± 1 5 V5° -eye ::^L£VAT(0HmDfvt. -STAGELEFT . :::ScMB & V - . i ! 

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