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Urban renewal and manpower training : the relationship between a social program and urban development Adderley, Erwin Percy 1967

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URBAN RENEWAL AND MANPOWER TRAINING: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A SOCIAL PROGRAM AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT by ERWIN PERCY ADDERLEY M.Arch., U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that ciie L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e A p r i l 26. 1967 ABSTRACT One of the goals o f developed c o u n t r i e s i s the o p t i m i z a t i o n of the urban environment. T h i s g o a l i s r e f l e c t e d i n the p o l i c i e s of both Canada and the United States r e g a r d i n g urban renewal and manpower t r a i n i n g . Urban renewal has p r i m a r i l y been one of the concerns of the p h y s i c a l p l a n n er. P o l i c i e s , programs, and techniques have been d e v i s e d i n order to s o l v e the problems of urban renewal, but to date a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n has not been r e a l i z e d . With the c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t i n human re s o u r c e o p t i m i z a t i o n as r e f l e c t e d i n the manpower t r a i n i n g p o l i c i e s and programs, and w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t both manpower t r a i n i n g and urban renewal are concerned w i t h a common problem that o f communal l i v i n g and are t h e r e f o r e somewhat i n t e r - r e l a t e d . The search f o r a more e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n to the urban renewal problem, coupled w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n of the i n t e r - r e l a -t i o n s h i p of manpower t r a i n i n g and urban renewal problems l e d to the study h y p o t h e s i s : That manpower t r a i n i n g can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n the urban renewal p r o c e s s . Although these problems appear to be i n t e r - r e l a t e d to date no p o l i c y or programs aimed at a coor d i n a t e d s o l u t i o n e x i s t s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a d a p t a b i l i t y of manpower t r a i n i n g to urban renewal problems, t h e r e f o r e begins w i t h an e v a l u a t i o n of i i p r e s e n t urban renewal p o l i c i e s , programs and problems, and from a n a l y s i s o f the cause of these problems being determined. By means of the case study method, the c o n c l u s i o n made w i t h r e s p e c t to the causes of these problems were v e r i f i e d . The s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n so drawn are t h a t to a gre a t extent the problems t h a t urban renewal has been unable to s o l v e are to a g r e a t extent a t t r i b u t a b l e to p o v e r t y . F u r t h e r , i t was a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t t h i s poverty was to a l a r g e extent due to the low l e v e l of s k i l l s possessed by* the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the area. In l i g h t o f these f i n d i n g s and i n view of the f a c t t h at manpower t r a i n i n g i s s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed at the o p t i m i z a t i o n o f s k i l l s , the t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s not only the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f such a program to the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s but a l s o i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s o l v i n g other problems of urban renewal. The s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s have been that manpower t r a i n i n g i s capable o f improving the ear n i n g power of the i n h a b i t a n t s by p r o v i d i n g them w i t h wider and b e t t e r s k i l l s ; the improvement of t h i s e a r n i n g power a l s o p r o v i d e s a g r e a t e r range of s o c i a l c h o i c e . I t has a l s o been demonstrated t h a t manpower t r a i n i n g i s a process which can be used to r e b u i l d , renovate or r e f u r b i s h an urban renewal area, and when a p p l i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the urban renewal program, i t can not only e l i m i n a t e substandard d w e l l i n g u n i t s , but would a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the need f o r such s t r u c t u r e s . The f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n being drawn i s that the i n v e s t i g a r t i o n s i n t h i s t h e s i s has demonstrated the v a l i d i t y of the i i i h y p o t h e s i s : That manpower t r a i n i n g can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n the urban renewal p r o c e s s . A l s o of gr e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the f a c t t h a t t h i s i n v e s t i -g a t i o n has demonstrated the a b i l i t y of the urban renewal pro-gram to be combined w i t h other programs. T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y i n d i c a t e s i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r becoming the nucleus of a set of programs aimed at s o l v i n g a l l aspects of communal l i v i n g . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF CHARTS . . .'. i x LIST OF MAPS x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i I . INTRODUCTION 1 A. The S e t t i n g B. Statement of the Problem C. Statement of the Hypothesis D. Method of Research Approach E. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms F. Chapter Summary I I . AN EVALUATION OF THE URBAN RENEWAL PROCESS . . 13 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. The P o l i c y C. The Program D. An E v a l u a t i o n of the P o l i c y and Program E. Chapter Summary I I I . MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT 36 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. Human Resource Development and Manpower Development Defined C. Manpower Development: P o l i c y and Program D. Chapter Summary v i TABLE OF CONTENTS -- CONTINUED Page IV. STRATHCONA:• THE CASE STUDY 64 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Problems C. Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Problems D. The Urban Renewal Scheme E. A n a l y s i s of the Program F. Cause of Poverty i n the Study Area G. Ch ap t er Summary V. THE ADAPTABILITY OF MANPOWER TRAINING TO URBAN RENEWAL PROBLEMS 89 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. On-the-Job T r a i n i n g Programs C. The Job Corps T r a i n i n g Center Program D. Self-Help Housing E. The Economic Aspects of the Combined Programs F. Chapter Summary VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . 107 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. Summary C. E v a l u a t i o n of the Study D. Conclusions E. Recommendations-" F. Areas of Further Research BIBLIOGRAPHY 114 APPENDIX 121 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I I I . 1 Immigration of S k i l l e d Workers to Canada f o r Selected Groups of Years Between 1951-1956 . . 55 I I I . 2 Registered Apprentices i n the B u i l d i n g Trades by Trade, E i g h t Provinces, 1947-56 57 I I I . 3 Labor Shortages f o r Selected Occupational Groups, Canada, 1947-1956. 60 IV. 1 Family S t r u c t u r e 72 IV. 2 Income vs. Number i n Household 75 IV. 3 A c t i v e Caseload, C i t y S o c i a l Service Department, J u l y , 1965 76 IV. 4 Present Rent as Per Cent of Income 77 IV. 5 Rent Increase as Percentage of Income 81 IV. 6 Study Area: Occupational S k i l l s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s 84 IV. 7 Study Area: L e v e l of Education 87 v i i i LIST OF CHARTS Chart Page I I I . 1 Unemployment Rates i n United States by Major Occupational Groups, 1947-1961 44 I I I . 2 Average Income i n United States f o r Men by Education, 1961 46 I I I . 3 Unemployment Rates i n the United States f o r Males by Age Groups, 1947-1961 52 IV. 1 Study Area: Strathcona, Sex and Age Pyramid, 1961 73 i x LIST OF MAPS Maps Page IV. 1 Vancouver and S u r r o u n d i n g M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( L o c a t i n g Study A r e a ) 66 IV. 2 The Study A r e a : S t r a t h c o n a 69 x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S During the o r a l examination f o r a master's degree i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , the author of t h i s t h e s i s was asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : I f the r e l o c a t i o n o f slum d w e l l e r s i n new and b e a u t i f u l b u i l d i n g s i s not the answer to urban renewal problems, then what measures could be taken i n order to make i t more o p e r a t i v e ? In response to t h i s q u e s t i o n the author answered that slum renewal i s p r i m a r i l y a s o c i a l and economic problem and t h a t p r e s e n t renewal programs attempt to renew people by renewing b u i l d i n g s . He f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t the p r e s e n t urban renewal program, coupled w i t h a program of s o c i a l and economic renewal of the people, would be a more e f f e c t i v e urban renewal t o o l . The author then p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the programs of "Job Corps T r a i n i n g " and "Manpower T r a i n i n g " as p r a c t i s e d i n the United States and Canada r e s p e c t i v e l y , might be adaptable to s o l v i n g some of these socio-economic problems. I t i s t h e r e f o r e , as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t the p r e s e n t t h e s i s t o p i c , "Urban Renewal and Manpower T r a i n i n g : The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between a S o c i a l Program and Urban Development" i s d e r i v e d . The author wishes to express h i s indebtedness to the many people who made t h e i r time, a s s i s t a n c e , as w e l l as the reso u r c e s of t h e i r knowledge a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of the t h e s i s . In p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i f i c acknowledgement should be g i v e n x i to the f o l l o w i n g persons: To Dr. H. P. Oberlander, Head of the Department of Community and Re g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , whose i n s p i r a t i o n and s t i m u l a -t i o n both d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of the t h e s i s , as w e l l as d u r i n g the remainder of the course of study, has been immeasurable. To P r o f e s s o r Robert C o l l i e r , who i n h i s c a p a c i t y as t h e s i s a d v i s o r gave i n v a l u a b l e time, advice and suggestions d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of the t h e s i s . To Mr. L a r r y I. B e l l , D i r e c t o r o f Research of the Community S e r v i c e s , i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, who pro v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s i g h t i n t o the study area. To Mr. C. Sutherland, S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r of the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , who so g r a c i o u s l y made h i s time, and h i s knowledge of the problems of p u b l i c housing a v a i l a b l e . To Mr. Thomas Jenkinson, Senior Planner o f the Urban Renewal S e c t i o n o f the Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, f o r h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and data r e g a r d i n g the study area, Strathcona. To Mr. Frank Hatcher, C h i e f of the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e c t i o n of Canada Manpower D i v i s i o n , P a c i f i c Region, f o r h i s dat a and i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g both the newly enacted A d u l t  Occupation T r a i n i n g B i l l , as w e l l as data r e g a r d i n g the proposed new programs which t h i s B i l l w i l l p r o v i d e . F i n a l l y , to my w i f e V a l e r i e , whose p a t i e n c e , sympathy, encouragement, and t y p i n g of both the d r a f t s and f i n a l copies of •this t h e s i s has been g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . x i i I. I N T R O D U C T I O N I . INTRODUCTION A. The S e t t i n g Concurrent w i t h the tremendous changes i n urban l i f e r e s u l t i n g from the automobile r e v o l u t i o n , other massive changes occurred i n the character of the urban populations of the United States of America and Canada. An example of the p i c t u r e of the l i f e s t y l e that e x i s t e d i n these newly formed urban communities at the tu r n of the Twentieth Century i s portrayed i n the f o l l o w -ing statement by s o c i o l o g i s t Scott Greer: M i n o r i t y c i t i z e n s from Russia, Germany, I t a l y , A f r i c a , Poland, I r e l a n d made up h a l f of the t o t a l . They were a l s o c i t i e s of the poor, the average income i n r e a l money was h a l f that of today. And they were c i t i e s where the average man l i v e d i n an apartment -- a tenement or town house. A c c u l t u r a t i o n to and success i n such c i t i e s were as s o c i a t e d w i t h smaller f a m i l i e s , lower f e r t i l i t y . ^ These e t h n i c new commers were q u i t e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from o the " o l d i n h a b i t a n t s " they were g e n e r a l l y l e s s prosperous, l e s s l i t e r a t e and l e s s honourably employed. Chinatown, the P o l i s h D i s t r i c t , the Gold Coast, the Slum, Skid Row, and many other terms have been used to desc r i b e the areas i n which they were 1-Scott Greer, Urban Renewal and American C i t i e s : The  Dilemma of Democratic I n t e r v e n t i o n (New York: The Bobbs-M e r r i l l Company, Inc., 1965), p. 131. 2 U n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d , the term " o l d i n h a b i t a n t s " w i l l r e f e r to that s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n that r e s i d e d i n the United States or Canada p r i o r to the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . 2 3 f o r c e d t o r e s i d e . These terms not o n l y d e s c r i b e a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a o f the u r b a n environment bu t a l s o d e s c r i b e a complete way o f l i f e . Such terms are a l s o synoymous w i t h h i g h r a t e s o f c r i m e , t u b e r c u l o s i s , m a l n u t r i t i o n , and almost i n v a r i a b l y a lower l e v e l o f g e n e r a l h e a l t h . I n today's u r ban s o c i e t y t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s have been somewhat b r o k e n down. These immigrants have s l o w l y been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the u r b a n s o c i e t y , they a r e no l o n g e r e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e one from the o t h e r o r from the " o l d i n h a b i t a n t s . " The g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n w e a l t h w h i c h has o c c u r r e d s i n c e 1900 has r e s u l t e d i n a d o u b l i n g i n the average f a m i l y income. T h i s i n c r e a s e has produced a g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n by com-mitments and l i f e s t y l e . W i t h t h i s r i s e i n l e v e l o f income, t h e s e e t h n i c groups have been a b l e t o improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n by m i g r a t i n g out o f the g h e t t o s and e n t e r i n g t h e g e n e r a l l a b o u r and h o u s i n g m a r k e t s . Here i t can be p o i n t e d out t h a t the main t h i n g t h a t has o c c u r r e d , has been a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l c h o i c e , d i s t r i b u t e d o v er a wide range o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . ^ However, a l l have not y e t been a b l e t o a c h i e v e such freedom o f c h o i c e . There s t i l l remains a s i g n i f i c a n t segment o f the u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s e g h e t t o s . F o r t h i s segment the b a r r i e r s a r e s t i l l q u i t e r i g i d . I n the p a s t , t h o s e who were a b l e t o escape have done so on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . Now, however, p r e s e n t 3 w i l b u r Thompson, A P r e f a c e t o Urban Economics. ( B a l t i m o r e : P u b l i s h e d f o r the Resources f o r the F u t u r e I n c . , by the John Hopkins P r e s s , 1965), p. 126. G r e e r , l o c . c i t . 4 s o c i e t i e s o f b o t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, as w e l l as o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , have f o r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic r e a s o n s committed themselves t o h e l p i n g the slum d w e l l e r s t h a t s t i l l r e m a i n . The r e a s o n f o r such a commitment i s summed up i n the f o l l o w i n g s t atement by P r e s i d e n t Johnson: We seek t o e s t a b l i s h a harmony between man and s o c i e t y w h i c h w i l l a l l o w each o f us t o e n l a r g e the meaning o f h i s l i f e and a l l o f us t o e l e v a t e the q u a l i t y o f our c i v i l i z a -t i o n . 5 The t a s k t h a t has been s e t i s a monumental one, and w i t h o u t p r e cedence G r e e r p o i n t s o u t : B. Statement o f t h e P r o b l e m Based on where the m a j o r i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e s , s o c i e t y has been u r b a n f o r a l i t t l e more th a n t h i r t y y e a r s , a f t e r b e i n g r u r a l f o r more th a n t h r e e hundred. However, i t i s o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t our t h i n k i n g and p l a n n i n g o f c i t i e s has begun t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e a l i t i e s and problems o f t h i s b a s i c change.^ As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, s o c i e t y has committed i t s e l f t o t h e improvement o f man and h i s environment. The immediate o b j e c t i v e appears t o be t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h a t p o r t i o n o f s o c i e t y t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d i n a d i r e s t a t e o f p o v e r t y , by e l i m i n a t i n g the p l a c e ^ P r e s i d e n t Lyndon B. Johnson, S t a t e o f the Union Message, J a n u a r y 4 t h , 1965. 6Greer, op. c i t . , p. 185. 7 M i l e s C o l e a n , Renewing Our C i t i e s , (New Y o r k : The We have never b e f o r e f a c e d a w e a l t h y , r a p i d l y , c h a n g i n g u r b a n complex, w i t h a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o mold i t i n t o a form s u i t a b l e t o our d e s i r e s . of residence, "the slum." Of the numerous programs d i r e c t e d toward, or c o n t r i b u t i n g to the improvement of the slum and i t s environs, urban renewal i s the one i n which the government's o f f i c i a l e f f o r t s are concentrated. Although urban renewal per-forms c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s that are i n d i s p e n s a b l e , and i s beginnin to perform others, i t i s not the panacea f o r slum renewal problems per which many have given i t c r e d i t . I t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y evident that urban renewal programs as they e x i s t today are not i n themselves the answer to slum renewal. This i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that the r e l a t i v e magnitude of the present stock of slums, and the r a t e of new slum formation on one hand and the r a t e of slum renewal on the other, are so d i s p a r a t e that even the most generous estimates i n d i c a t e the 8 f u t i l i t y of the b a t t l e that i s being waged. This i s p r i m a r i l y due to the f a c t that urban renewal i n i t s present form i s only capable of s o l v i n g one aspect of the slum problem, that i s the v i s u a l appearance of b l i g h t , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o l d d i l a p i d a t e d b u i l d i n g s w i t h over-crowded occupants paying low r e n t s . Urban renewal i s incapable of s o l v i n g the s o c i a l pathologies of a l c h o l i s m , disordered f a m i l y l i f e , p r o s t i t u t i o n and the l i k e , Q which are g e n e r a l l y synoymous w i t h slum l i v i n g . Not only has urban renewal f a i l e d to r i d the c i t i e s of the slums, but i t seems evident that these slums w i l l remain u n t i l a s o l u t i o n i s ^Guiding M e t r o p o l i t a n Growth (New York: Committee f o r Economic Development, August, 1960), p. 36. ^Thompson, op. c i t . , p. 221. 6 a r r i v e d at which solves the economic, s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i l l s which are concurrent w i t h slum l i v i n g . C. Statement of the Hypothesis Arguments i n favor of t h i s commitment to slum renewal have been put f o r t h on a e s t h e t i c , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic grounds. The most s i g n i f i c a n t of these have been (1) the presence of slums creates u g l i n e s s i n an otherwise b e a u t i f u l environment, (2) a l l men are e n t i t l e d to decent safe and s a n i -t a r y housing, and (3) the presence of the slum and i t s i n h a b i t -ants represents a t e r r i b l e waste of human resources. In the past, the a t t a c k on the problem of slum clearance has been based on the f i r s t two hypotheses, hence the i n i t i a t i o n of the urban renewal programs. However, more recent t h i n k i n g has i n d i c a t e d that a more s i g n i f i c a n t and l a s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n can be made i f the problems of slums are t a c k l e d on the t h i r d ground, that i s , w i t h the purpose of o p t i m i z i n g human resources. Proponents of t h i s p o i n t of view p o s t u l a t e that i n the past, i n a l l s o c i e t i e s whether underdeveloped or advanced, the means a v a i l a b l e f o r human resource development have been l i m i t e d . No country has had the number or v a r i e t y of t e c h n i c a l education f a c i l i t i e s that they needed. And no country has been able to a l l o c a t e s u f f i c i e n t funds to provide the f u l l range of the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d . Thus, a l l c o u n t r i e s have had to be s e l e c t i v e i n the use of l i m i t e d means f o r human resource development, and t h e i r i U R o b e r t C. Weaver, Dilemmas of Urban America (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), p. 57~. 7 choices have been economic, p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l . The country which has committed i t s e l f to r a p i d progress and has attempted to engage i n - r a t i o n a l planning to achieve i t s goals has had to 11 make l o g i c a l assessment of p r i o r i t i e s . In choosing the a l l o -c a t i o n of funds f o r h i g h p r i o r i t y programs, i t has had to post-pone investments i n l e s s urgent ones. In the past, the dilemma of the slum dwellers has been g e n e r a l l y placed i n the l a t t e r category. The c e n t r a l i s s u e i n b u i l d i n g a strategy of human resource development, t h e r e f o r e , has been the determination of p r i o r i t i e s to achieve the best use of l i m i t e d resources. This no longer seems to be the case i n the "great s o c i e t y . " I t would appear that not only the i n t e r e s t but a l s o the i n i t i a t i v e and c a p i t a l resources are now a v a i l a b l e to solve a l l of the problems of the slum d w e l l e r s . The o p t i m i z a t i o n of human resource development e n t a i l s the development of a st r a t e g y that enables a l l members of s o c i e t y to be deployed i n the most productive manner.- Such a str a t e g y i n v o l v e s the r i c h and poor, the s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d , the weak and strong a l i k e . At present, i n the m a j o r i t y of cases the area that defines b l i g h t , a l s o defines higher than average r a t e s of poverty, w e l f a r e cases, and unemployment. I n general i t d e f i n es an area i n which the most unproductive element i n our s o c i e t y r e s i d e s . I t i s stated here that u n p r o d u c t i v i t y i s i n many cases synoymous w i t h b l i g h t . I t i s ther e f o r e suggested that, •'-•'-Fredrick Harbison and Charles A. Myers, Education, Manpower and Economic Growth (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1965), pp. 19-20. 8 based on the a v a i l a b l e data, an e v a l u a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l man-power t r a i n i n g programs at both the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s and a d e t a i l e d a p p r a i s a l of some of the problems of urban renewal should lead to a s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of the hypothesis t h a t : Manpower T r a i n i n g can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n the Urban Renewal Process. The current program of urban renewal without a strong pro-gram of employment c o u n s e l l i n g , v o c a t i o n a l and job t r a i n i n g and i n general a d u l t education i s not l i k e l y to r a i s e the s o c i o -economic l e v e l of the slum dwellers i n any s i g n i f i c a n t amount, i n f a c t , i t i s u n l i k e l y that such a program w i l l be able to keep 12 pace w i t h the present r a t e of b l i g h t formation. Here i t i s po s t u l a t e d that urban renewal programs should be coupled w i t h a set of w e l f a r e programs aimed at s o l v i n g the b a s i c problem of human resource development and redevelopment. This view p o i n t i s i n accordance w i t h those of Harbison and Myers who s t a t e : The goals of modern s o c i e t y , as we have already s t r e s s e d , are p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l , as w e l l as economic. Human resource development i s a necessary con-d i t i o n f o r achieving a l l of them. 1 "3 The purpose of t h i s study i s to t e s t the above hypothesis and provide evidence that may e i t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e or c o n t r a d i c t i t . The s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of t h i s hypothesis would not only h i g h l i g h t the weaknesses of present urban renewal programs but would pro-v i d e a program f o r strengthening these weaknesses. i ZThompson, op. c i t . , p. 22. 1 3 H a r b i son and Myers, op. c i t . , p. 13. 9 D. Method of Research Approach The task of developing a s u i t a b l e method of research f o r ev a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of manpower t r a i n i n g programs i s as i n t r i c a t e as the study of manpower t r a i n i n g i t s e l f . There are many reasons f o r such a predicament. The s o c i e t i e s of both the United States of America and Canada have only r e c e n t l y i n d i -cated an awareness of the l i m i t a t i o n s of present urban renewal techniques and a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to the s o l u t i o n of these l i m i t a t i o n s . The manpower t r a i n i n g program has only r e c e n t l y become accepted as a component of a n a t i o n a l program f o r eco-nomic development. This i s su b s t a n t i a t e d by the f a c t that i n the United States The Economic Opportunity Act, the enabling l e g i s l a t i o n f o r such a program, was not enacted u n t i l 1964; w h i l e , i n Canada, The Adult Occupation T r a i n i n g B i l l was not passed u n t i l March 31st, 1967. At present only a few p r o j e c t s are underway and these are too i s o l a t e d and too recent to per-mit a r e a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r general e f f e c t i v e n e s s . This problem i s f u r t h e r compounded by the f a c t that no attempt has been made to coordinate manpower t r a i n i n g programs w i t h the pro-grams of urban renewal. Another c o m p l i c a t i o n a r i s e s out of the f a c t that very few follow-up studies have been conducted on urban renewal p r o j e c t s . Furthermore, the i n f o r m a t i o n that has been c o l l e c t e d i s not comprehensive enough to allo w general conclusions to be drawn from i t . In s p i t e of these l i m i t a t i o n s , i t i s not impossible to make a meaningful e v a l u a t i o n of urban renewal and manpower t r a i n i n g 10 i n order to attempt to substantiate this hypothesis. By inference i t i s possible to i d e n t i f y the problems of present urban renewal techniques and then to postulate the adaptability of manpower tra i n i n g to the soultion of these problems. A com-parative analysis of this nature does not r e a d i l y lend i t s e l f to the standard methods of measurement and comparison because of the v a r i e t y and number of variables involved. Under these circumstances, and bearing i n mind the relevant variables, the descriptive method appears to be the best method of research approach. This thesis w i l l proceed therefore from the basic assump-tio n that the presence of slums represents more than a physical problem. The approach to this study w i l l begin by reviewing the present problems of slum renewal. This section w i l l include an analysis of pertinent urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n , practice, problems and solutions. The study w i l l proceed to an investiga-t i o n of manpower tra i n i n g methods, techniques and present enabling l e g i s l a t u r e . The next step w i l l be to attempt to adapt the theories and techniques of manpower training to urban renewal problems, and then to devise a framework for a comprehensive urban renewal program. The f i n a l step w i l l be to re-evaluate the hypothesis i n l i g h t of the findings and to determine whether i t has been substantiated or refuted. E. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Several terms, some of which appear i n the hypothesis, and others which w i l l appear through this thesis, require precise d e f i n i t i o n as to t h e i r connotation i n t h i s study. They are: "Slum," "Manpower T r a i n i n g , " "Urban Renewal," and " L i f e S t y l e Improvement Program." These are defined as f o l l o w s : A Slum i s a t h i c k l y populated homogeneous segment of s o c i e t y c o n t a i n i n g squalor and wretched l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s o c i a l pathologies and o l d , unsafe, a e s t h e t i -c a l l y unpleasing b u i l d i n g s . Manpower T r a i n i n g i s the process by which the knowledge, the s k i l l s and the c a p a b i l i t i e s of a l l the people i n a s o c i e t y are increased and or improved. Urban Renewal (under the present system) i s used to de f i n e any a c t i o n , p u b l i c , p r i v a t e , or a combination of both by which the f a b r i c of an urban community i s renewed, r e p a i r e d , or pro-tected from b l i g h t . ^ L i f e S t y l e Improvement Program i s a process s p e c i f i c a l l y devised f o r t h i s t h e s i s under which every a v a i l a b l e resource i n the community from a p o l i t i c a l , an economic, as w e l l as a s o c i a l standpoint, i s m o b i l i z e d i n order to provide a b e t t e r urban c l i m a t e . F. Chapter Summary The need f o r such a study stems from the observation that the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of urban renewal programs has been severely c r i t i c i z e d by planners, s o c i o l o g i s t s , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , economists and the l i k e . There i s an abundance of data a v a i l a b l e -^George T. C. Peng, I n t r o d u c t i o n to Urban Renewal (A Digest of a speech d e l i v e r e d i n 1963, December, 1965), p. 1. 12 i l l u s t r a t i n g the shortcomings of such a program. However, very-few attempts have.been made to i n i t i a t e a program aimed at pro-ducing a satisfactory solution to these problems. Here i t must be pointed out that the question of whether urban renewal was designed to solve a l l of the problems of slum l i v i n g i s of no r e a l interest to t h i s thesis, the important fact i s that i t does not solve these problems, regardless of whether t h i s occurred through design or oversight. The problem s t i l l remains to devise a program or system of programs, which w i l l solve those hitherto unsolved problems of slum l i v i n g . The interest i n manpower t r a i n -ing stems from the fact that preliminary investigation indicates i t s a b i l i t y to solve some of these problems and, further, the fact that i f it.proves f e a s i b l e , that recent l e g i s l a t u r e has provided a framework which would make manpower tr a i n i n g suitable for adaptation into an urban renewal program. II. A N E V A L U A T I O N OF T H E U R B A N R E N E W A L P R O C E S S I I . AN EVALUATION OF THE URBAN RENEWAL PROCESS A. I n t r o d u c t i o n An a n a l y s i s of the urban renewal process depends p r i m a r i l y on a c l e a r understanding of the broad s o c i e t a l g o a l towards which ends the urban renewal process i s designed to work. This broad s o c i e t a l goal i s defined as the d e s i r e to optimize the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n of the urban i n v i r o n -ment, w i t h the immediate o b j e c t i v e being the e l i m i n a t i o n of slums. The urban renewal process can then be defined as the o f f i c i a l g o a l form adopted by s o c i e t y to achieve t h i s g o a l . For the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , the elements of t h i s process have been defined as, (1) The P o l i c y , (2) The Program, (3) The P l a n , (4) The P r o j e c t , and (5) The Implementation. In t h i s Chapter both the p o l i c y and the programs w i l l be analyzed and evaluated. With t h i s i n mind and proceeding from the b a s i c assumption that "a slum" i s more than the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of the b u i l d i n g w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c geographic l o c a t i o n i n the urban community, a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s as to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the urban renewal process can begin.''" ''"Portions of t h i s a n a l y s i s , s p e c i f i c a l l y segments p e r t a i n -ing to the P o l i c y , have been excerpted from a paper p r e v i o u s l y presented by the author e n t i t l e d Urban Renewal: Concepts and  Approaches, f o r an Urban Renewal Seminar, Planning 521, at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Community and Regional Planning. 14 B. The P o l i c y At the Fed e r a l l e v e l , the United States i n t e r e s t i n urban renewal goes back at l e a s t to 1892 when Congress appropriated $20,000 f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the Secretary of Labor, of slum o i n c i t i e s over 200,000 popu l a t i o n . However, Fe d e r a l l e g i s l a -t i v e a c t i o n on slums was i n s i g n i f i c a n t u n t i l the great depression of the 1930's brought Federal a s s i s t a n c e f o r housing to the f o r e -f r o n t as an economic s t a b i l i z a t i o n device. The Housing Act of 1949 s p e c i f i c a l l y declared a n a t i o n a l housing p o l i c y and stated and o u t l i n e d the goals of a l l the various housing agencies, i n c l u d i n g those of the urban renewal agency. Sections of t h i s Act e s s e n t i a l to an understanding of t h i s p o l i c y are as f o l l o w s : The Congress hereby declares that the general welfare and s e c u r i t y of the Nation and the h e a l t h and l i v i n g standards of i t s people r e q u i r e housing production and r e l a t e d com-munity development s u f f i c i e n t to remedy the serious housing shortage, the e l i m i n a t i o n of substandard and other inadequate housing through the clearance of slums and b l i g h t e d areas and the r e a l i z a t i o n as soon as f e a s i b l e of the goals of a decent home and s u i t a b l e l i v i n g environment f o r every American f a m i l y thus c o n t r i b u t i n g to the development and redevelopment of the communities and the advancement of the growth, wealth, and secur-i t y of the Nation. I t can be seen that the aims as expressed by the Housing Act, place a great deal of emphases on the e l i m i n a t i o n of substandard 2Ri chard L. S t e i n e r , Urban Renewal i n the United States  of America, "New L i f e f o r C i t i e s Around the World" ( I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Handbook on Urban Renewal, 1959), p. 177. 3The Housing Act, 1949, as ammended through June 1961 ( P u b l i c Law 171, 81st Congress), Sec. 2. housing and the p r o v i s i o n of b e t t e r housing. A more complete p i c t u r e w i t h regard to the f e d e r a l p o l i c y can be obtained by i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s e c t i o n of t h i s Act which s p e c i f i c a l l y deals w i t h urban renewal. ...appropriate l o c a l bodies s h a l l be encouraged and a s s i s t e d to undertake p o s i t i v e programs of encouraging and a s s i s t i n g the development of w e l l -planned i n t e g r a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l neighbor-hoods, the development and redevelopment of communities, and the production, at lower-cost of housing of sound standards of design, c o n s t r u c t i o n , l i v a b i l i t y and s i z e f o r adequate fa m i l y l i f e . . . 4 The N a t i o n a l Urban Renewal P o l i c y i s based on three assump-t i o n s . ^  (1) That the general w e l f a r e of the n a t i o n can be best e f f e c t e d by the e l i m i n a t i o n of substandard b u i l d i n g s ; (2) That t h i s cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y accom-p l i s h e d without the p u b l i c agencies assuming the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a c q u i r -i n g and c l e a r i n g large b l i g h t e d areas of the community f o r p r i v a t e development and (3) That the s t a t e and l o c a l government lacks the f i n a n c i a l resources to handle any sub-s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the area i n v o l v e d . 4 l b i d . , Sec. 3. 5Thomas F. Johnson, James R. M o r r i s , and Joseph G. Bu t t s , Renewing America's C i t i e s (Washington, D. C.: The I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Science Research, 1962), p. 31. 17 C. The Program The goals of the present urban renewal program are based on the theory that the a b i l i t y of a r e n t e r to choose substandard housing deminishes as the supply i s destroyed by s t r i c t code enforcement and urban renewal p r o j e c t s . Tn t u r n , the a d d i t i o n a l supply of houses r e q u i r e d to repla c e those so depleted would be augmented by p u b l i c housing, r e l o c a t i o n housing and new construe-6 t i o n produced by the p r i v a t e housing market. This theory i s based on the assumption that the consumers need to seek sub-standard housing i s negated by the d e s t r u c t i o n of these sub-standard u n i t s , coupled w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y of an adequate qu a n t i t y of standard housing at the same or lower c o s t s . The Workable Program as p r e s c r i b e d under the Housing Act of 1954 has probably had the gr e a t e s t s i n g l e e f f e c t on urban renewal. I t has forced the communities to undertake a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of t h e i r present s i t u a t i o n regarding slums and other areas i n need of renewal and to commit themselves to a c t i o n designed to e l i m i n a t e b l i g h t and slums. This program o u t l i n e d seven b a s i c steps that communities must comply w i t h before f e d e r a l a i d i s granted. These steps r e g a r d l e s s of the type of renewal a c t i o n undertaken are o u t l i n e d i n Appendix A of t h i s t h e s i s . Here i t i s necessary to c l e a r l y d e f i n e the program of low-rent housing which i s g e n e r a l l y conducted i n conjunction °Scott Greer, Urban Renewal and American C i t i e s : The  Dilemma of Democratic I n t e r v e n t i o n (New York: The Bobbs-M e r r i l l Company, Inc., 1965), p. 150. w i t h the urban renewal program i n order to provide the necessary number of homes re q u i r e d by those who are unable to a f f o r d what i s g e n e r a l l y considered normal r e n t s . The m a j o r i t y of the occu-pants of a slum community are c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s category, low cost or low-rent housing c o n s i s t s of housing s u b s i d i z e d by the government and operated by a l o c a l P u b l i c Housing A u t h o r i t y , w i t h f e d e r a l grants being used to cover operating l o s s e s . During the 1930's, 21,600 p u b l i c housing u n i t s were constructed by the P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and were f o r sometime operated by the Federal Government i t s e l f . ^ When the Housing Act of 1949 was passed, 191,700 u n i t s of t h i s k i n d were put i n t o operation. The 1949 s t a t u t e extended t h i s p u b l i c housing loan fund c o n t r i b u t i o n s up to $308 m i l l i o n per year. Preference f o r occupancy of these u n i t s was f i r s t given to those f a m i l i e s c l a s s i f i e d as low-income, which had been d i s p l a c e d by slum clearance p r o j e c t s . The remaining vacancies were then d i s t r i b u t e d to other low-income f a m i l i e s on the b a s i s of t h e i r needs, as w e l l as on the b a s i s of how f a r below the n a t i o n a l average t h e i r income f e l l . There were a l s o other standards f o r Q admission i n t o t h i s p u b l i c housing. The top rent charged to the occupants would have to be 20 per cent below the rents charged f o r standard housing, be i t o l d or new, by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . The net income of f a m i l i e s at admission ( l e s s $100 exemption f o r 'Johnson, M o r r i s and B u t t s , op. c i t . , pp. 34-35. 8 I b i d . 9 l b i d . 19 each minor), cannot exceed f i v e times the annual income l i m i t f o r admission and continued residence i n the p r o j e c t . F u rther-more, t h i s a u t h o r i t y must demonstrate to the P u b l i c Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n that the income of a l l occupants of the p r o j e c t are below the s p e c i f i e d maximum.^ F i n a l l y , that tenant f a m i l i e s were r e q u i r e d to vacate once t h e i r income rose above t h i s maximum l i m i t . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s broad b a s i c framework that a l l urban renewal p r o j e c t s are c a r r i e d out. D. An E v a l u a t i o n of the P o l i c y and Program That the urban renewal program i s f a i l i n g to r i d the c i t i e s and communities of the slums or even r i d them of the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the slums, b l i g h t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t . ^ In order to r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n there are those who b e l i e v e that the answer l i e s i n a greater commitment by the f e d e r a l and l o c a l governments ( i n terms of d o l l a r s ) , i n the present renewal pro-gram. The contention being that what i s r e a l l y needed i s more money, tha t i s to say the annual monetary commitment to the present program should be increased from $.3 b i l l i o n to about $2.5 b i l l i o n i n order to reduce to time span of goal achievement 12 from the present 400 years to a more r e a l i s t i c 50 years. On the other hand there are those who argue that urban renewal i n 1 Q i b i d ^ l l G u i d i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n Growth (New York: Committee f o r Economic Development, August, 1960), pp. 36-38. •^Wilbur Thompson, A Preface to Urban Economics (Baltimore: Published f o r the Resources f o r the Future Inc., by the John Hopkins Press, 1965), p. 127. 20 i t s present form w i l l never solve the problems of the slums or even of b l i g h t , that b l i g h t and slums are m u l t i - f a c e t e d problems, and that no s i n g l e program aimed at only one of these fa c e t s w i l l r e s u l t i n a permanent or even temporary s o l u t i o n to the problem. T h e i r argument i s summed up by Wilbur Thompson who s t a t e s that what i s r e a l l y needed i s a b e t t e r understanding of the nature of poverty; w i t h t h i s understanding, our renewal programs w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become coupled w i t h a new set of welfare programs which a t t a c k the b a s i c problems of human r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and perso n a l economic development, thus r e p l a c i n g current programs "which merely spread cosmetic salves on these sores and soothe 13 g u i l t y conciences. In order to determine the merit of these arguments the consequences and c r i t i c i s m s of the present renewal programs w i l l be examined i n l i g h t of the stated broad s o c i a l g o a l of o p t i -m i zing the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the urban environment and a l s o i n l i g h t of the urban renewal process e s t a b l i s h e d i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the achievement of t h i s g o a l . The three broad areas of problems of the slum w i l l be examined; p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic, w i t h the view i n mind to determine whether the present urban renewal process i s capable of s o l v i n g them. The P h y s i c a l Consequences: I t i s o f t e n argued that the urban renewal process has a d e f i n i t e p h y s i c a l b i a s , -- i t i s f e l t 1 3 I b i d . 21 that "we renew b u i l d i n g s to renew people r a t h e r than the r e v e r s e . " ^ This p h y s i c a l b i a s stems from s e v e r a l very s i g n i f i -cant f a c t o r s . In the f i r s t p l a c e , i n the past, areas of p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n have been a great d e a l e a s i e r to i d e n t i f y then general areas of poverty. I t has only been since the advent of s o c i a l reforms, i . e . s o c i a l w e l f a r e programs that s o c i e t y has become concerned w i t h the s o c i a l and economic aspects of communal l i v i n g . I t i s a l s o due to the f a c t that i t has been amid s t i l l i s much e a s i e r to solve problems of b l i g h t than to e l i m i n a t e poverty and other s o c i a l diseases. However, probably the two most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s are: (1) i n the past the programs have been placed i n the hands of c i t y planners whose i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g was as a r c h i t e c t s , landscape a r c h i t e c t s and c i v i l engineers, and who due to t h i s o r i g i n a l t r a i n i n g s t ressed the v i s u a l and engineering aspects of the problem; (2) that the housing tech-nology has advanced so r a p i d l y , a great d e a l f a s t e r than our human technology, that i n t a k i n g advantage of these improvements i n housing technology the progress i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has f a r out distanced s o c i a l and economic progress;"'""' (3) as pointed out i n "The Myths of Housing Reform," by John P. Dean, that our housing programs have been e s t a b l i s h e d based on the assumption that poor 16 housing produces crime and disease. 1 4 I b i d . . p. 126 ~ 1 5 I b i d . 1 6 J o h n P. Dean, "The Myths of Housing Reforem," American  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . XIV, No. 2 ( A p r i l , 1949), pp. 281-288. 22 Probably the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e argument against t h i s p h y s i c a l emphasis of urban renewal i s the f a c t that i n the great m a j o r i t y of cases i t does not solve the housing problem of the poor, s i n c e i n most cases only t h r e e - f i f t h s of the low-cost houses that e x i s t i n an urban renewal area are r e b u i l t through the urban renewal process."^ That i s to say t w o - f i f t h s of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n an urban renewal area are not provided f o r w i t h i n the p r o j e c t area. The few follow-up s t u d i e s which have been conducted f o r urban renewal p r o j e c t s have been unable to a s c e r t a i n what has happened to t h i s p o r t i o n of the popu l a t i o n . ' Whether or not they have been able to f i n d s u i t a b l e equivalent housing at a p r i c e that they can a f f o r d to pay i s unknown. This would i n d i c a t e that at l e a s t t w o - f i f t h s of the popu-l a t i o n ( u s u a l l y those of lowest means) w i t h i n an urban renewal area are not being provided f o r through the urban renewal program or any other a l l i e d program. An a n a l y s i s of the s t a t i s t i c s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s constructed w i t h i n New York State from f i r s t of January to the t h i r t e e n of June 1964, i s a s i g n i f i c a n t example of t h i s f a c t . As of June t h i r t e e n , 1964, of the 61,777 r e s i -d e n t i a l u n i t s constructed w i t h i n the s t a t e on urban renewal s i t e s , only 8.5 per cent were of the low-income or p u b l i c housing v a r i e t y . Of the remainder, 68.2 per cent were f o r upper income occupancy; 7.3 per cent were f o r moderate-income occupancy and 17 18 per cent f o r middle-income occupancy. •^Robert c. Weaver, Dilemmas of Urban America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), p. 69~. 1 8 l b i d . F u r t h e r m o r e , o f the l a n d d e s i g n a t e d f o r redevelopment w i t h i n t h e f i s c a l y e a r o f 1964, p r e l i m i n a r y f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t about 35 p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s were t o be con-s t r u c t e d f o r moderate-income occupancy, 6 p e r c e n t f o r m i d d l e income occupancy, 3 p e r c e n t f o r occupancy by s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , and 7.4 p e r c e n t as p u b l i c o r low-income h o u s i n g . These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r o f 1964, o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f a l l r e s i d e t i a l u n i t s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n an urban r e n e w a l a r e a were f o r low-income occupanyc, w h i l e t h r e e - f i f t h s o f t h e u n i t s s c h e d u l e d f o r f u t u r e development were d e s i g n a t e d f o r such o c c u -pancy. 19 V i e w i n g t h e s e f a c t s as a t y p i c a l example o f the urban r e n e w a l s i t u a t i o n , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t urban r e n e w a l has t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f s q u e e z i n g out t h e p o o r e s t from the r e n e w a l a r e a and f u r t h e r p r e v e n t s f i l t r a t i o n by removing second hand 2 0 h o u s i n g u n i t s . T h i s would f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t urban r e n e w a l (redevelopment o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ) produces a n e t d e f i c i t i n l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g w h i l e r e p l a c i n g t h i s d e f i c i t w i t h h i g h - r e n t <- 21 apartments. I t t h e n can be seen t h a t the p r e s e n t system produces two a d v e r s e r e s u l t s on the h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n the c e n t r a l c i t y I n the f i r s t p l a c e i t d e c r e a s e s the s u p p l y o f l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g w i t h o u t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e i h n t h e need f o r such h o u s i n g and s e c o n d l y , i t encourages the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i g h - r e n t .; ..; 19lbid. 2^Greer, op. c i t . , p. 151. 2 1 I b i d . 24 apartments w h i c h compete w i t h the h i g h - r e n t apartments a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y and i n t h e suburbs, w i t h o u t i n c r e a s i n g t h e need o r demand f o r such s t r u c t u r e s . A n o t h e r g e n e r a l a r e a o f c r i t i c i s m r e g a r d i n g the p h y s i c a l emphasizes o f urban r e n e w a l i s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t r e n e w a l programs a r e f o r c i n g mass m i g r a t i o n ; p r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e areas o f low-income i n t o s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d s . That i s t o say, the slums are n o t b e i n g r e p l a c e d , but b e i n g s h i f t e d from one a r e a too a n o t h e r . T h i s i s o c c u r r i n g p a r t i a l l y due t o t h e p h y s i c a l emphasis o f the p r e s e n t program, as w e l l as the n a t u r e o f the program i t s e l f . Under the p r e s e n t urban r e n e w a l p r o c e s s the h i g h e s t d e n s i t y slum p r o p e r t i e s a r e p u r c h a s e d f i r s t due t o the f a c t t h a t they u s u a l l y c o n t a i n t h e g r e a t e s t amount of h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and a e s t h e t i c decay. These a r e a s , however, a r e a l s o u s u a l l y the a r e a w h i c h g e n e r a t e the h i g h e s t p r o p e r t y v a l u e s p e r a c r e , w i t h the r e s u l t b e i n g t h a t the c o s t o r r a i s i n g t h e s e areas i s v e r y h i g h . T h i s t h e n has the n e t e f f e c t o f d e c r e a s i n g t h e r e a l p u r -c h a s i n g power o f the urban r e n e w a l budgets, b u t a l s o produces 22 the e v i c t i o n o f l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e . The r e s u l t s o f such a p r o c e s s i s mass m i g r a t i o n i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s where th e r e n t s a r e w i t h i n the economic means of t h e e v i c t e d p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s t h e n produces o v e r - c r o w d i n g o f the a r e a s t o w h i c h t h i s exodus o c c u r s , thus p e r c i p i t a t i n g i t s e a r l y d e t e r i o r a t i o n , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t f u t u r e funds w i l l be Thompson, op. c i t . , p. 296. r e q u i r e d to purchase slum p r o p e r t i e s i n the next round. The r e s u l t o f such a system i s a r i p p l i n g e f f e c t r e s u l t i n g from "human b u l l d o z i n g . " Thus such a process w h i l e s o l v i n g the problems of p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n one area, hasten i t s forma-t i o n i n another. Another r e s u l t of such a process i s the f a c t t h a t the housing c h o i c e s of the very poor i s f u r t h e r l i m i t e d w i t h -9 / out l i m i t i n g t h e i r demand f o r substandard housing. The area of low-rent and p u b l i c housing a l s o has c r e a t e d s e v e r a l major problems. "The p r o j e c t s " as t h i s type of housing i s r e f e r r e d t o , r e s u l t s i n what Jane Jacobs c a l l s "slum immu-i n g . " That i s to say "the p r o j e c t " has the e f f e c t o f reassembling and regrouping these slum d w e l l e r s i n a concentrated v e r t i c a l f a s h i o n . T h i s has been done i n an attempt to p r o v i d e through government subsidy the eco n o m i c a l l y d e p r i v e d segment of the popu-l a t i o n of an urban renewal area w i t h decent safe and s a n i t a r y housing. In most cases the r e s u l t s have been d e l i t e r i o u s . R e s i -dency i n such housing a u t o m a t i c a l l y brands the occupants w i t h the stigma of w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e and thus a breed o f people to be o s t r a c i z e d by the r e s t o f s o c i e t y . Furthermore, these occupants h a v e 5 n o t been p r o v i d e d w i t h the means to l i v e up to the standard that from the outward appearances t h i s housing would i n d i c a t e . In f a c t other than r e n t s u b s i d i e s , t h e i r economic means has not been changed at a l l , w i t h the net r e s u l t being t h a t i n most i n s t a n c e s w i t h i n a very s h o r t span of time these housing p r o j e c t s 2 3 I b i d . 2 4 G r e e r , op. c i t . , p. 153. 26 become as bad as the slums t h a t they were d e s i g n e d t o e l i m i n a t e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f such a system has been t o t r a n s -f e r the slum from one s e c t i o n o f t h e c i t y t o a n o t h e r , u s u a l l y the f i n a l p l a c e o f l o c a t i o n i s much more c o n s p i c u o u s t h a n t h e f i r s t . The S o c i a l Consequences: I n g e n e r a l the c r i t i c i s m o f s o c i -o l o g i s t , w e l f a r e workers and o t h e r s concerned w i t h the s o c i -o l o g i c a l problems o f slumming and unslumming can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s , t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e l i m i t a t i o n on c h o i c e , and t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h the t y p e o f l i f e s t y l e a v a i l a b l e t o the s o c i a l l y under p r i v i l e d g e d . Here i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h o s e concerned w i t h t h e s e s o c i o l o g i c a l problems d e f i n e the slums i n s o c i a l terms. T h i s s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n appears t o be e q u a l l y as v a l i d as the p h y s i c a l d e f i n i t i o n t h a t the p r e s e n t u r b a n r e n e w a l framework i s d e s i g n e d t o r e c t i f y . I t i s t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e s o c i a l phenomenon commonly r e f e r r e d t o as t h e slum i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o u r g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e must be p r e s e n t i n c o m b i n a t i o n i n o r d e r f o r t h e slum t o e v o l v e . I n accordance w i t h t h i s , slums a r e t h e n produced by, (1) t h e demand f o r l o w - q u a l i t y h o u s i n g among t h o s e w i t h l i m i t e d c h o i c e ; (2) the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a s u p p l y o f a r e a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d l o w - q u a l i t y cheap h o u s i n g w h i c h i s i n a d e q u a t e by c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d s ; (3) the s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h o s e members o f s o c i e t y w i t h t h e l e a s t s o c i a l c h o i c e w i t h i n an a r e a and; (4) the r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e s o c i a l consequences by r e s p o n s i b l e agents o f s o c i e t y . 2 - ' I n g e n e r a l terms t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s u b s t a n d a r d 2 5 I b i d . , p. 148. 27 housing i s u s u a l l y occupied by those w i t h the l e a s t s o c i a l choice; they are what can be c o l l o q u a l l y described as the , r l o o s e r s " i n the general p o p u l a t i o n changes which were described i n Chapter I . of t h i s t e x t . T h e i r range of choice has been severely r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r s o c i a l rank, e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l i f e s t y l e . S o c i o l o g i s t and welfa r e workers have suggested that chang-ing the slum dwellers environment from substandard to standard housing f a c i l i t i e s would act as a strong s o c i a l reforming f o r c e . This has been the primary reason f o r the emphases of the urban renewal programs i n low-rent housing, e i t h e r on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s or on the group " p r o j e c t " b a s i s . These types of accommo-dations have been g e n e r a l l y viewed by t h e i r promoters as housing to promote s o c i a l reforms and have been considered as an important p a r t of f e d e r a l a i d . However, recent s o c i a l surveys have produced considerable evidence to the contrary on t h i s p o i n t . I n numerous p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s the r a t e s of crime, j u v e n i l e delinquency, vendalism and tenant damage i s as high and 9 ft some times higher than i n that of the former slum area. P u b l i c housing i s now being seen as housing p r o j e c t s which f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t the s o c i a l choice of those already s o c i a l l y u n d e r - p r i v i -ledged. I t has been found that the s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s and charac-t e r i s t i c s of those r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g i n the p r o j e c t s are no d i f f e r e n t than when they were i n the slums; the s o c i a l conse-27 quences have a l s o been found to be the same. However the ^Johnson, M o r r i s , and B u t t s , op• c i t . , p. 23. ^ G r e e r , op. c i t . , p. 152. 28 c o n s t r u c t i o n of these p r o j e c t s have served two very u s e f u l pur-poses w h i l e i t has to some extent e l i m i n a t e d the housing problem, i t has a l s o served to h i g h l i g h t these other s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . Thus, p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s are beginning to move i n the d i r e c t i o n of counseling group therapy group work and i n general adu l t education. However, here i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that to date t h i s i s s t i l l being done on a piece-meal b a s i s and no attempt has yet been made to coordinate these a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the urban renewal programs. Another s o c i a l consequence of the urban renewal program i s the f a c t that w h i l e i t demolishes the d i l a p i d a t e d b u i l d i n g i t i s al s o d e s t r o y i n g a neighborhood which contains a complete s o c i a l system. This s o c i a l system u s u a l l y contains a l l of the a t t r i -butes of what we consider to be normal s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , w i t h i t s h i e r a r c h i e s , r i t u a l s , tabbos, e t c . I t i s a t y p i c a l s o c i e t y , i n which each member knows h i s p o s i t i o n , as w e l l as h i s r o l e and h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Not only does urban renewal destroy h i s s e c u r i t y by demolishing h i s d w e l l i n g u n i t but i t a l s o destroys the s e c u r i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y of h i s s o c i a l environment. 2^ The p o p u l a t i o n so d i s p l a c e d i s thus placed at an extreme disadvantage. They are not only forced to become a c c l i m a t i z e d to a completely u n f a m i l i a r environment, but a l s o ; when r e l o c a t i o n occurs they are a l s o faced w i t h the task of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n a completely f o r e i g n s o c i a l system, as w e l l as understanding - Jane Jacobs, The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s (New York: Vintage Books and Random House, Inc., 1961), p. 285. 29 and i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h i n t h i s system. This can be q u i t e a harrow-ing experience f o r even the middle and upper c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y , but when t h i s i s a p p l i e d to those already s o c i a l l y o s t r a c i z e d i t i s of greater magnitude. With these f a c t s i n mind the f o l l o w i n g statement by Wilbur Thompson than has a great de a l of v a l i d i t y . Urban renewal programs which repl a c e tene-ments w i t h luxury apartments and do not provide f o r rehousing the slum dwellers d i s p l a c e d , can n e u t r a l i z e n a t i o n a l s o c i a l planning.29 The Economic Consequences: I t i s the economist's view that the slums can be defined on p u r e l y economic terms. Thompson p o i n t s out that slums could j u s t as e a s i l y be defined as the p l a c e where the very poor l i v e . I t i s a l s o h i s hypothesis that the c i t i e s are segregated i n t o areas of h i g h and low-income based on the i n d i v i d u a l s a b i l i t y to pay r e n t , he s t a t e s that good, safe and s a n i t a r y housing cost money, th e r e f o r e the poor are forced to c l u s t e r together i n poorer, cheaper b u i l d i n g s . 3 ^ This r e s u l t s from the f a c t that due to the a l l o c a t i o n of d w e l l i n g accommoda-t i o n s by income the poor are forced to concentrate i n the a v a i l -able housing of lowest p r i c e . This housing tends to be s p a t i a l l y concentrated because of i t s s i m i l a r i t y i n age and type and a l s o because the aggregate c o n s t i t u t e s the environment of any given o 1 house. Urban b l i g h t i s customarily q u a n t i f i e d i n such terms as persons per square mi l e or persons per room or per cent of "^Thompson, op. c i t . , p. 247. 3 0 I b i d . , p. 220. 3^-Greer, op. c i t . , p. 143. 30 d w e l l i n g u n i t s without adequate f a c i l i t i e s . "Unemployment i f i t enters the d i s c u s s i o n at a l l , i s regarded as a r e g r e t t a b l e , c o m p l i c a t i n g exogenous f o r c e which has something to do w i t h 32 poverty and slums." However, i t can j u s t as e a s i l y be seen that those of the lowest s o c i a l rank w i t h l i t t l e formal education and consequently undemanding and p o o r l y p a i d jobs have very l i t t l e to b i d w i t h i n 33 the competitive market. They are u s u a l l y viewed by employers as a marginal, e a s i l y expandable commodity w i t h the general e f f e c t that t h e i r income i n the m a j o r i t y of cases i s i n t e r m i t -t e n t . For these people whose employment i s at best i n t e r m i t t e n t the pressures of s u r v i v a l are q u i t e acute. They s t i l l r e q u i r e the minimum n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e , such as food, c l o t h i n g , ade-quate s h e l t e r , and p r i d e i n order to e x i s t , i n f a c t t h e i r needs are o f t time g r e a t e r than those of normal s o c i e t y . The f o l l o w -in g statement i s used to v e r i t y t h i s p o i n t : To the extent, more over, that per c a p i t a p u b l i c s e r v i c e needs are greater i n low income than i n high-income areas the i n e q u a l i t y of need and means i s heightened. The low income s u b d i v i s i o n s both needs more and has less.34 With an income that i s incapable of p r o v i d i n g a l l of these bare n e c e s s i t i e s they are thus forced to make a choice w i t h regard to the r e l a t i v e importance of these needs. Adequate d w e l l i n g accom-modations being the most expandable, i s i n v a r i a b l y the commodity -^Thompson, l o c . c i t . ^^Greer, l o c . c i t . •^Johnson, op. c i t . , p. 116. 31 t h a t i s s a c r i f i c e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e poor a r e p a r t l y a t t r a c t e d t o t h e cheap neighborhood by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p a y i n g r e n t i n weekly i n s t a l l m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n on a monthly b a s i s . A l s o t h e i r l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r upward m o b i l i t y by j o b o r income f u r t h e r anchors t h e i r commitment t o the cheapest h o u s i n g ; a v a i l a b l e . They 35 a r e i n d e e d l i m i t e d by t h e i r minimum economic competency. T h i s c o n d i t i o n has n o t r e s u l t e d from the i n a b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e e n t e r -p r i s e t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e o r d i n a r y h o u s i n g needs o f the p o p u l a t i o n , b u t i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e p o o r s ' i n a b i l i t y t o pay f o r i t . The key v a r i a b l e h e r e would appear t o be h o u s i n g c h o i c e . I n o r d e r t o t o t a l l y e l i m i n a t e the slum, t h e range o f h o u s i n g c h o i c e f o r t h e slum d w e l l e r must be i n c r e a s e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g . T h i s can be done by i n c r e a s i n g t h e s u p p l y t h a t they can a f f o r d t o pay f o r by e i t h e r l o w e r i n g i t s p r i c e o r r a i s i n g t h e i r income o r b o t h . However t h i s must be done b e a r i n g i n mind the f i n d i n g s of' Abu-Lughod and F o l e y who i n d i c a t e i n "Housing C h o i c e s and C o n s t r a i n t s " t h a t t h e r e i s a sharp d e c l i n e i n the d e s i r e f o r home ownership as income d e c l i n e s . I t was t h e i r f i n d i n g t h a t l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e r e l i e f r e c i p i e n t s wanted t o own a home.^'^ An o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h o s e o f v e r y low economic means i s t h a t extreme p o v e r t y tends t o be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o poor h e a l t h . A "secondary a n a l y s i s " o f c i v i l d e f e n s e 3 5 i b i d . 3 6 j a c o b s , op. c i t . , p. 324. 37Greer, op. c i t . , p. 144. survey data from eleven l a r g e c i t i e s compiled by the Survey Research Center of the U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan found that the h e a l t h of an i n d i v i d u a l v a r i e d d i r e c t l y w i t h h i s socio-economic s t a t u s . The per cent of persons who were found to be f a i r or poor h e a l t h was f a r i n excess or twice as great i n the $3,000 o o f a m i l y income group as i n those over $5,000. From the foregoing data i t can be seen that the economic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the slum dwellers i s of great importance. I t a l s o can be seen that at present very l i t t l e i s being done i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . This data a l s o i n d i c a t e s that although a number of these problems of poverty can and w i l l be solved by p r o v i d i n g the poor w i t h decent, safe and s a n i t a r y housing, there are al s o s e v e r a l other problems such as poor h e a l t h , inadequate education and the l i k e , which w i l l not y i e l d to such a s o l u t i o n . E. Chapter Summary An a n a l y s i s of the data presented i n t h i s chapter tends to i n d i c a t e that the urban renewal process i s f a i l i n g to r i d the c i t i e s of the slum and i n many instances i s f a i l i n g to r e c t i f y even the slums p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , b l i g h t . However, the f a i l u r e of t h i s process i s not s o l e l y a r e s u l t of i t s p h y s i c a l b i a s , but r a t h e r the i n a b i l i t y of the process to solve the many s o c i a l and economic problems, such as poverty, poor h e a l t h , j u v e n i l e delinquency, e t c . , which are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the slum. I t can then be seen that these ambitious slum clearance •^Leo F. Schmore and James D. Couhig, "Some C o r r e l a t e s of Reported Health i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Centers," S o c i a l Problems 7 (1959-1960), Table 3, p. 225. e f f o r t s a r e f u t i l e and u n p r o d u c t i v e when c h r o n i c unemployment and h i g h r a t e s o f p o v e r t y a r e c r e a t i n g new slums a t an even f a s t e r r a t e t h a n the p r e s e n t program i s c a p a b l e o f e l i m i n a t i n g them. Thus, under such c o n d i t i o n s t h e program i s i n c a p a b l e o f s o l v i n g even t h e p u r e l y p h y s i c a l problems. These c o n c l u s i o n s t h e n tend t o be i n agreement w i t h t h o s e o f R o b e r t Weaver who s t a t e s : Not o n l y w i l l u r b a n r e n e w a l f a i l t o c l e a r a l l slums but I q u e s t i o n i f we s h a l l even r i d our c i t i e s o f them u n t i l we s o l v e the economic, s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i l l s w h i c h h a r a s s modern man.-39 These c o n c l u s i o n s a r e a l s o i n agreement w i t h a f u r t h e r statement by Weaver i n w h i c h he s t a t e s t h a t "No one f e d e r a l program can by i t s e l f s o l v e the s o c i a l problems o f the n a t i o n . 4 ^ A c c e p t i n g t h i s as b e i n g a t r u t h , i t i s t h e n n e c e s s a r y t o d e v i s e a n o t h e r program o r s e t o f programs t h a t a r e aimed d i r e c t l y a t s o l v i n g t h e s e h i t h e r t o u n s o l v a b l e problems. To t h e s e ends i n t h e p a s t many s o l u t i o n s have been p r o p o s e d , b u t i n s p i t e o f t h e i n c r e a s -i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f u r b a n a f f a i r s and the d e s i r e t o improve them t h e problems s t i l l r e m a i n l a r g e r t h a n t h e s o l u t i o n s so f a r offered. 4-'- The answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t h e n appear t o l i e i n an u n d e r s t u d y o f t h e b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g problems o f t h e slums. ^Weaver, op. c i t . , p. 59. 4 0 l b i d . 4 ^ - M i l e s Co l e a n , Renewing Our C i t i e s , (New York: The T w e n t i e t h Century Fund, 1953), p. 3. 34 A thorough a n a l y s i s of the data presented i n t h i s chapter i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r e s e n t urban renewal program i s capable of s o l v i n g the problems of p h y s i c a l b l i g h t . T h e r e f o r e the remain-i n g problems must be a r e s u l t of c o n d i t i o n s that are somewhat d i s - s i m i l a r or d i s - s o c i a t e d w i t h the b l i g h t problems. Based on the data so f a r presented these problems seem to f a l l i n t o one of two broad c a t e g o r i e s ; e i t h e r s o c i a l or economic problems. These problems can be more s p e c i f i c a l l y broken down i n t o those of p o v e r t y . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t much of t h i s poverty i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of e i t h e r the l a c k of an adequate education, the l a c k of f u l l - t i m e employment or a combination of both. I f t h i s i s the case, then a program aimed at e l i m i n a t i n g these two aspects of the slums i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p r e s e n t urban renewal program should a f f o r d a more r e a l i s t i c and permanent s o l u t i o n to the slum e l i m i n a t i o n problems. However, b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g to d e v i s e a program to e l i m i n a t e or e l e v i a t e poverty, the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t poverty i s a b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r the slum, and f u r t h e r t h a t t h i s c r i t e r i a i s not being e l i m i n a t e d by p r e s e n t urban renewal programs, must be f u r t h e r v e r i f i e d . The case study method appears to be adaptable to these ends. By means of case s t u d i e s , an attempt w i l l be made f i r s t to i d e n t i f y by p u r e l y economic means, what has p r e v i o u s l y been c l a s s i f i e d as a slum based on other c r i t e r i u m . Next those segments of the p o p u l a t i o n who have a l r e a d y undergone the urban renewal experience w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order to determine whether or not such renewal has e l i m i n a t e d or e l e v i a t e d t h e i r poverty c o n d i t i o n . I f these 35 f i n d i n g s v e r i f y t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t p o v e r t y i s a v i t a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s l u m and t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s n o t b e i n g e l i m i n a t e d o r e l e v i a t e d by p r e s e n t u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o g r a m s , t h e n i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o p r o c e e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p r o g r a m o r s e t o f p r o g r a m s aimed a t s o l v i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s . I I I . M A N P O W E R D E V E L O P M E N T I I I . MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT A. I n t r o d u c t i o n Developed coun t r i e s such as the United States of America and Canada have committed themselves to a p o l i c y of f u l l employ-ment and the o p t i m i z a t i o n of human resources. The problems which confront l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s , such as the c o n f l i c t s a s s o ciated w i t h attempts to maintain a balance between the r a t e of economic growth and the b i r t h r a t e have been solved to a degree.^ However, the very nature of these advanced economics have created other major problems. Of these problems, those associated w i t h unemployment appear to be the most acute. In these r a p i d l y changing s o c i e t i e s , severe problems of unemployment, as w e l l as d i s l o c a t i o n from employment o f t e n occur as a r e s u l t of a r a p i d l y changing s o c i e t y and technology which not only replaces the human labor force w i t h machines but which a l s o renders o l d s k i l l s obsolete as new ones emerge. An example of t h i s phenomena i s the f a c t that d e s p i t e the era of general p r o s p e r i t y that i s at present p r e v a l e n t throughout the United States, between f i v e and s i x per cent of the labor f o r c e i s unemployed. W i t h i n these advanced s o c i e t i e s , i n which pro-d u c t i v i t y i s the b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r reward, the unemployed are l F r e d r i c k Harbison and Charles A. Myers, Education, Manpower and Economic Growth (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1965), p. 167. 2 l b i d . 37 38 i n general l e a s t rewarded economically, as w e l l as s o c i a l l y . Thus, under such a system the m a j o r i t y of these unemployed are the l e a s t rewarded and become what i s nominally defined as the poor. The problem of poverty i n these c o u n t r i e s i s now being viewed w i t h s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , not only i n human and economic terms, but a l s o because the f u t u r e development of the s o c i e t i e s ' manpower resources depends to a great extent upon the u t i l i z a -t i o n of these human r e s o u r c e s . 3 Poverty due to low income i s f r e q u e n t l y spasmodic and short-term, when i t occurs due to periods of i l l n e s s or infrequent unemployment. However, t h i s poverty f o r a great number of f a m i l i e s i s long term and u n r e l i e v e d o f t e n d e f i n i n g the l i f e s t y l e of successive generations, " f o r these f a m i l i e s poverty i s not an a c c i d e n t a l and temporary condi-t i o n ; i t i s an i n h e r i t e d s t a t u s . " ^ Furthermore, when unemploy-ment i s chronic and nationwide, l o c a l unemployment provides at most, only the motive to move from an area, without p r o v i d i n g the means or a d e s t i n a t i o n . ^ Even when t h i s means e x i s t s , moving to an area w i t h a lower r a t e of unemployment s t i l l does not guarantee a j o b , f o r the a v a i l a b i l i t y of jobs i n the new l o c a t i o n may not be i n accordance w i t h p r o s p e c t i v e employees' s k i l l s . The reasons f o r t h i s unemployment are m u l t i - f a c e t e d and a f f e c t s 3Henry David, Manpower P o l i c i e s f o r a Democratic Society (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), p. 43. 4 I b i d . -^Wilbur Thompson, A Preface to Urban Economics.(Baltimore: Published f o r the Resources f o r the Future Inc., by the John Hopkins Press, 1965), p. 175. the i n d i v i d u a l , as w e l l as the n a t i o n i n d i f f e r i n g d egrees. However, r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s due t o age, a p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l d e f e c t , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the l a c k o f an adequate e d u c a t i o n o r o t h e r t r a i n i n g , t h e l a c k o f i n i t i a t i v e , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f one or more o f t h e s e , the consequences a r e more t h a n the d e p r i v a t i o n o f income. I t i s a l s o t h e condemna-t i o n t o a l i f e s t y l e . Long-term unemployment a l s o produces the sense o f h o p e l e s s n e s s and r e j e c t i o n w h i c h extends i n t o and p e r -meates t h e f a m i l i e s , s o c i a l groups and communities i n w h i c h t h o s e unemployed a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d and i s m a g n i f i e d i n t h e p r o -c e s s . ^ Not o n l y i s s o c i e t y d e n i e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e c o u l d and would make but i t must u n d e r t a k e t h e economic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and burden o f p r o v i d i n g f o r them t h r o u g h unemploy-ment b e n e f i t s , w e l f a r e payments, h e a l t h a s s i s t a n c e , as w e l l as the s o c i a l burden o f c r i m e and d e l i n q u e n c y , w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o v e r t y . The A p p a l a c h i a R e g i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a can be e i t e d as an example o f the s e v e r i t y o f t h e problems o f unemployment and p o v e r t y . T h i s r e g i o n a ccounts f o r 35 per c e n t o f t h e unemployment i n a l l the n a t i o n ' s redevelopment areas d e s i g n a t e d under the A r e a Redevelopment A c t . ^ A l s o the income range o f t h e r e g i o n i s from 10 t o 80 p e r c e n t below the n a t i o n a l ^Samuel Ganz, "The S o c i a l Roots o f Unemployment," The  Manpower R e v o l u t i o n : I t s P o l i c y Consequences (New York: Doubleday and Company, I n c . , 1965), p. 153 ^ F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t , J r . , " A p p a l a c h i a : Case Study f o r R e g i o n a l Development," The Manpower R e v o l u t i o n : I t s P o l i c y Consequences (New York: Doubleday and Company, I n c . , 1965), p. 397. average. The problems of unemployment are not only confined to economically depressed areas but are also acute i n areas of general p r o s p e r i t y as w e l l . A comparison w i t h i n the United States of 10 Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas, w i t h high, unemploy-ment and 10 w i t h low unemployment i n d i c a t e d that between 1955 and 1960, the 10 r e l a t i v e l y depressed areas l o s t 3 per cent of t h e i r employed manpower, whereas the 10 prosperous areas gained Q 3 per cent through i n - m i g r a t i o n . In 17 of the 20 areas the net gains and losses were i n what i s g e n e r a l l y considered the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . However, i n - m i g r a t i o n i n t o the depressed areas was more than two and h a l f times the net l o s s , and out-migration from the prosperous areas was almost three times the net g a i n . ^ ^ The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these s t a t i s t i c s i s f u r t h e r a m p l i f i e d by the f a c t that out-migration was higher i n the prosperous areas (11.6 per cent) than i n the depressed areas, (9.0 per cent) This would i n d i c a t e that a l l areas of the country, be they prosperous or depressed are experiencing severe unemployment problems. These are problems which s e r i o u s l y e f f e c t a l l aspects of planning, whether i t i s economic, s o c i a l or p h y s i c a l planning. The p a t t e r n of unemployment can a l s o be defined i n terms of the l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l attainment. I n 1962 f o r the 8 i b i d ^ 9Ri chard A L e s t e r , Manpower Planning i n a Free Society (New Jersey: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966), p. 397. l O l b i d . 1 : L I b i d . 41 permanent labor f o r c e aged eighteen years and over, the unemploy-ment r a t e f o r c o l l e g e graduates was 1.5 per cent, whereas i t was 5 per cent f o r high school graduates, 7 per cent f o r those w i t h a grade school education and 10 per cent f o r those w i t h l e s s 1 o than a f i f t h - g r a d e education. A The c o n c l u s i o n can the r e f o r e be drawn that the problems and consequences of unemployment e f f e c t i n v a r y i n g degrees a l l aspects of s o c i e t y , whether i t i s the r i c h and the poor, the educated and the i l l i t e r a t e , or the strong and the weak. The o b j e c t i v e of these developed s o c i e t i e s through t h e i r p o l i c i e s of human resources, i s to maximize the p o t e n t i a l of i t s human resources. The program s p e c i f i c a l l y designated to the task of employment o p t i m i z a t i o n i s the Manpower Development Program. B. Human Resource Development and Manpower Development Defined Human resource development has o f t e n been defined purely on economic terms, w i t h the b a s i c assumption being that the c e n t r a l purpose of t h i s development was to maximize man's con-t r i b u t i o n to the c r e a t i o n of productive goods and s e r v i c e s . Based on t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , the re t u r n s from education and job t r a i n i n g were measured i n terms of increases i n income or the increases i n the income of the n a t i o n as a whole. A more r e a l -i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n , and the one that w i l l be used throughout t h i s t h e s i s i s the d e f i n i t i o n used by Harbison and Myers i n Education, Manpower and Economic Growth, i n which they d e f i n e human resource development i n terms of the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge and s k i l l s . ^-^David, op. c i t . , p. 87. T h e i r d e f i n i t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : Human r e s o u r c e development i s the p r o c e s s o f i n c r e a s i n g the knowledge, t h e s k i l l s , and the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the p e o p l e i n a s o c i e t y . I n economic terms i t c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f human c a p i t a l and i t s e f f e c -t i v e i n v e s t m e n t i n the development o f an economy. I n P o l i t i c a l terms, human r e s o u r c e development p r e p a r e s p e o p l e f o r a d u l t p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as c i t i z e n s i n a democracy. From t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l p o i n t s o f view, t h e development of human r e s o u r c e s h e l p s p e o p l e to l e a d f u l l e r and r i c h e r l i v e s , l e s s bound by t r a -d i t i o n . I n s h o r t , t h e p r o c e s s o f human r e s o u r c e development u n l o c k t h e door t o modernization.- 1--' To t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i t can be added t h a t from t h e p h y s i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , human r e s o u r c e development i n s u r e s the optimum o f the p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s by s o c i e t y . Whereas, human r e s o u r c e development embraces e v e r y a s p e c t o f human development, manpower development, a t e c h n i q u e o f human r e s o u r c e development, i s aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the p l a n n e d o p t i -m i z a t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l o f t h e work f o r c e . T h i s concept o f p l a n n i n g can be d e f i n e d as t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f u t u r e by means o f l o n g range a n a l y s i s , i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h e u n c e r -t a i n t i e s and t o e l i m i n a t e m i s t a k e s and waste, by p r o v i d i n g f o r the f u t u r e w i t h f l e x i b i l i t y and w i t h the g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y o f c h o i c e . Manpower p l a n n i n g a p p l i e s the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e p r o c e s s to t he p r e p a r a t i o n and employment o f human r e s o u r c e s f o r produc-t i v e purposes."*- 4 I t s g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e t o i n c r e a s e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t o improve t r a i n i n g and employment d e c i s i o n s by means o f l o n g and s h o r t range f o r e c a s t i n g o f changing demands 1 3 H a r b i son and Myers, op. c i t . , p. 2 . s t e r , op. c i t . , p. 5 . and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s t e p s t o c o r r e c t o r p r o v i d e f o r t h e s e demands. The p o t e n t i a l o f t h i s program can be summed up as f o l l o w s : By means o f more i n t e l l i g e n t t r a i n i n g and c a r e e r d i v i s i o n s and g r e a t e r a d a p t a b i l i t y o f the n a t i o n ' s l a b o r f o r c e , manpower p l a n n i n g can enhance s a t i s f a c t i o n on the j o b , r a i s e the q u a l i t y and u t i l i z a t i o n o f the l a b o r r e s o u r c e s , r e duce the c o s t o f j o b s e a r c h and i n d u s t r y s t a f f i n g and t h e r e b y i n c r e a s e the o u t p u t o f t h e n a t i o n . 1 5 Once a g a i n t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i t can be added, "promote the o p t i m i z a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e n a t i o n . " Manpower development i n s h o r t , i n v o l v e s t h o s e elements w h i c h d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y e f f e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l l a b o r f o r c e s k i l l s . ^ The major problems o f manpower development f a l l i n t o one o f two broad c a t e g o r i e s : (1) t h o s e r e l a t e d t o s h o r t a g e s o f h i g h - l e v e l manpower w i t h c r i t i c a l s k i l l s and competence, and (2) t h o s e r e l a t e d t o b a s i c o r u n d e r u t i l i z e d manpower."^ T h i s p o i n t has a l r e a d y been i l l u s t r a t e d i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n 1962, 1.5 p e r c e n t o f the c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s were unemployed and 10 p e r cen t o f t h o s e w i t h l e s s t h a n a f i f t h - g r a d e e d u c a t i o n were so d i s p o s e d . The problems o f the b a s i c a l l y s k i l l e d o r u n d e r s k i l l e d workers a l t h o u g h no more c r i t i c a l t h a n t h o s e o f t h e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s , because o f • ^ D a v i d , op. c i t . , p. 22. l ^ H a r b i s o n and Myers, op. c i t . , p. 15. CHART I I I . 1 44 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN UNITED STATES BY MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS, 1947-1961 IS 61 Key: Laborers Operators Craftsmen C l e r i c a l -P r o f e s s i o n a l Source: Ad o l f Sturmthal, Current Manpower Problems (An  Introduct o r y Survey, ( I n s t i t u t e of Labor and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1964), p. 25. 45 t h e magnitude o f t h e i r numbers r e q u i r e s immediate a t t e n t i o n . The s e v e r i t y and c o m p l e x i t y o f the unemployed w i t h l i t t l e o r no s k i l l s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e unemployment s t a t i s t i c s between 1960 and 1964. The average a n n u a l r a t e o f unemployment d u r i n g t h i s 18 p e r i o d was 5.5 p e r cen t o r h i g h e r . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the p e r c e n t a g e s o f unemployment o f workers i n d e c l i n i n g and d i s t r e s s i n d u s t r i e s , t h e u n s k i l l e d , the p o o r l y educated; and the y o u t h were i n most i n s t a n c e s f a r above the n a t i o n a l average. I n f a c t f o r some o f t h e s e groups i t was 100 p e r cen t o r more abo\?e the n a t i o n a l average r a t e s . ^ A l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d 3 t o 4 m i l l i o n w o r k ers were e n j o y i n g d u a l employment, i n f a c t i n 1962 and 1963 some 6.5 t o 7.5 p e r cen t o f a l l those employed h e l d 20 two j o b s . T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t t o a s u b s t a n t i a l degree the problems were n o t o n l y due t o t h e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f work but a l s o due t o t h e i n a b i l i t y o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e due to a t t a i n adequate s k i l l s t o f i l l t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . T h i s c o n t e n t i o n i s borne out i n P r e s i d e n t Johnson's, "1965 Manpower R e p o r t . " T h i s r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t o f eve r y 10 h i g h s c h o o l d r o p - o u t s , 8 r e p o r t e d t h a t they had never been c o u n s e l e d by a s c h o o l o f f i c i a l about j o b t r a i n i n g o r t h e k i n d o f work t o l o o k f o r . I t f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t even among t h e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s l e s s t h a n 50 p e r c e n t had r e c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l 21 g u i d a n c e . A l s o o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the f a c t t h a t a su r v e y I S D a v i d , op. c i t . , pp. 76-77. 1 9 j b i d . 2 0 I b i d . 2 1 I b i d . CHART III.-2 AVERAGE INCOME IN UNITED STATES FOR MEN BY EDUCATION, 1961 Thousand Persons I I I I I I ! • I l l co U . cd >j >> < OO a u w cu a £ < W !3 cd iJ oo CQ cd O O O cn CO O o t—I -r-l 1-3 o o U! co cd • ^ I—1 <t-w W o co J-l cd cu >•. a) u o B o Source: A d o l f S t u r m t h a i , C u r r e n t Manpower Problems (An  I n t r o d u c t o r y S u r v e y ) , ( I n s t i t u t e o f Labor and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1964), p. 38. 47 conducted i n F e b r u a r y 1963, showed t h a t l e s s t h a n 14 p e r cen t o f a l l y o u t h s g o t t h e i r f i r s t f u l l - t i m e j o b t h r o u g h s c h o o l on a p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e j o b c o u n s e l i n g a g e n c y . 2 2 The problems o f manpower development are f u r t h e r c o m p l i -c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t w i t h i n a broad i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r n a t i o n a l framework t h e problems o f manpower tend t o b l e n d i n w i t h , and become v i r t u a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h e m u l t i t u d i n o u s o t h e r problems w h i c h c o n f r o n t s o c i e t y . And t h e r e f o r e , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l tendency t o v i e w each p r o b l e m w h i c h r e l a t e s t o manpower r e s o u r c e s 23 as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , i s not a sound p o l i c y a c t i o n . I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n o f many e x p e r t s on t h e m a t t e r o f manpower development t h a t t h e pr o b l e m and s o l u t i o n o f manpower a r e i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r -woven i n t o a l l a s p e c t s o f communal l i v i n g ; and t h a t i n o r d e r t o s o l v e manpower problems n o t o n l y w i l l t h e s e o t h e r a s p e c t s have t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d , b u t some manpower development problems must be s o l v e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s e o t h e r r e l a t e d problems i n o r d e r t o produce an e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n . 2 4 I n v i e w o f the l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t , t h e n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f man-power t r a i n i n g t o u r b a n r e n e w a l ( a n o t h e r a r e a o f problems o f an i n t e g r a t e d communal n a t u r e ) appears t o be q u i t e r e l e v a n t . C. Manpower Development: P o l i c y and Program The p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t and d i r e c t i o n o f manpower development are based upon s e v e r a l s e p a r a t e h y p o t h e s i s . I n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r 2 2 i b i d . 23David, op. c i t . , p. 101. 2 4 I b i d . 48 c l a r i f y t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t manpower development i s t a k i n g i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o c i t e some o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e assumptions and o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n o f promoters o f t h i s program t h a t t h e m o b i l i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f a n a t i o n ' s work f o r c e can be improved by e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . I n g e n e r a l i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n c r e a t e s b e t t e r i n f o r m e d and more f l e x i b l e p e o p l e . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g w h i c h p u t s w o rkers i n a p o s i t i o n t o t a k e advantage o f d e v e l o p i n g j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y advanced t e c h n o l o g i c a l age. 2-* E d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g a re t h e r e -f o r e seen as t h e key f a c t o r n o t o n l y i n the development o f s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s , b ut a l s o i n the e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s . U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y t h e employing i n s t i t u t i o n s have under-t a k e n t h e s u b s t a n t i a l manpower development t h r o u g h o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g and by f i n a n c i n g s p e c i a l j o b t r a i n i n g programs. How-e v e r , due t o t h e r e c e n t awareness t h a t t h e b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f human r e s o u r c e s b e n e f i t s the e n t i r e s o c i e t y , the need f o r a g o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c y on manpower has been i n d i c a t e d . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s such an awareness a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l l e d i n p a r t t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e c o m m i t t i n g t o t h e F e d e r a l government t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g the l a b o r f o r c e . The f i r s t p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t u r e d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e s e ends was "The A r e a Redevelopment A c t o f 1961." Under t h i s A c t , p r o -v i s i o n s were made f o r t h e F e d e r a l government t o u n d e r t a k e 2 5 L e s t e r , op. c i t . , p. 153. r e t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s f o r unemployed workers and to make s u b s i s -2 6 tance allowance payments to the t r a i n e e s . The second s i g n i -f i c a n t Act i s the "Trade Expansion Act of 1962," which provides f o r r e t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and f o r t r a i n i n g and r e l o c a t i o n allowances f o r workers i n i n d u s t r i e s adversely a f f e c t e d by f o r e i g n competition as a r e s u l t of the reductions i n p r o t e c t i v e 27 t a r i f f r a t e s . The t h i r d A c t, "The Manpower Development and T r a i n i n g Act of 1962" inaugurated a new era i n the e v o l u t i o n of 28 f e d e r a l manpower development p o l i c i e s . Of great s i g n i f i c a n c e here i s the f a c t that t h i s Act declared that improved labor f o r c e s k i l l s and b e t t e r f u n c t i o n a r y markets are e s s e n t i a l i n order to achieve and maintain h i g h l e v e l s of employment. Amendments to the Act i n 1963 and again i n 1965 broadened i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , extended i t s l i f e beyond the o r i g i n a l three-year 29 p e r i o d and a l s o provided a d d i t i o n a l funds. The programs e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s Act operate under the c o n s t r a i n t that they must favor the short-term o b j e c t i v e s . The three l i m i t s which favor these term o b j e c t i v e s are as f o l l o w s : (1) there must be a reasonable expectation of employment i n the occupation f o r which t r a i n i n g i s provided and i n the s e l e c t i o n of p r o j e c t s , p r i o r i t y must be given to the t r a i n i n g of s k i l l s needed, f i r s t w i t h i n the l o c a l labor market area, and second 2 ^ D a v i d , op. c i t . , pp. 77-78. 27Ibid. 2 8 l b i d . 2 9 i b i d . w i t h i n the s t a t e ; (2) p r i o r i t y i s f u r t h e r given to persons who cannot reasonably be expected to o b t a i n adequate f u l l - t i m e employment without t r a i n i n g ; (3) t r a i n i n g allowances f o r support of t r a i n e e s and t h e i r dependants during the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d can be p a i d to an i n d i v i d u a l f o r a p e r i o d not to exceed 52 weeks. The amendments of 1963 extended t h i s payment p e r i o d up to an a d d i t i o n a l 20 weeks f o r persons needing b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l prepa-30 r a t i o n as a p r e r e q u i s i t e to undertaking o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The most recent l e g i s l a t i o n i n the United States has been the "Economic Opportunity Act of 1964" which allowed f o r the undertaking of s e v e r a l programs designed to enable i n d i v i d u a l s and communities to meet t h e i r own goals f o r s o c i a l and economic development. Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t f eature of t h i s Act i s i t s d i v e r s i t y and s p e c i f i c n e s s . The Act authorized the establishment of over 250 separate programs aimed at a i d i n g i n d i v i d u a l and community development. 3^ The Economic Opportunity Act f u r t h e r authorized the establishment of an agency to access, administer and to d i s t r i b u t e funds f o r these various programs, t h i s agency has become to be known as the O f f i c e of Economic Opportunity. I t w i l l not be p o s s i b l e nor necessary to describe and disc u s s each i n d i v i d u a l program. However, those which appear 30Lester, op. c i t . , pp. 158-159. ^ U n l e s s otherwise noted, the i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n t h i s t h e s i s p e r t i n e n t to the "Economic Opportunity Act of 1964" has been ex t r a c t e d from the Catalog of F e d e r a l Programs f o r  I n d i v i d u a l and Community Improvement, December 1965, and other unpublished i n f o r m a t i o n produced by the O f f i c e of Economic Opportunity. p e r t i n e n t t o t h e t h e s i s t o p i c w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t t h i s t i m e . Here i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t f o r t h e f i r s t t i me t h i s l e g i s -l a t i o n d e v i s e d and s u b d i v i d e d programs based on the g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e problems. The two broad problem a r e a s so d e v i s e d were t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l and t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h the environment. The g e n e r a l problem areas a r e t h e n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o program a r e a s . Under the i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m a r e a t h e s e s u b - g r o u p i n g s a r e ; (1) human needs and (2) human s k i l l s , whereas under th e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m a r e a the s u b - g r o u p i n g s a r e (3) p h y s i c a l , (4) s o c i a l , and (5) economic. I n b o t h cases each sub-group i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o s e l e c t e d programs a p p l i c a b l e to the t y p e o f problems. From t h i s breakdown, i t can r e a d i l y be seen t h a t the d i v e r s i t y and s p e c i f i c s o f t h e program e n a b l e s the program t o be more s p e c i f i c i n t h e i r d e t a i l s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e programs a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be f o u n d . i n b o t h g e n e r a l p r o b l e m a r e a s . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p e r t i n e n t programs w i l l be g i v e n i n Appendix B\ P r o b a b l y the most d i s c u s s e d and w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d o f the over 250 programs r e p r e s e n t e d i n the A c t , has been th e Job Corps T r a i n i n g Program. T h i s program a l s o appears t o be o f r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s t h e s i s . The Job Corps T r a i n i n g Program i s an i n - r e s i -dence program o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e m e d i a l e d u c a t i o n and work e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s d e s i g n e d t o equip t h e y o u t h from i m p o v e r i s h e d homes and environments w i t h the s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s needed i n o r d e r t o a l l o w them t o become g a i n f u l l y employed. I n J a n u a r y 1966, a y e a r a f t e r the programs i n c e p t i o n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y CHART I I I . 3 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN THE UNITED STATES FOR MALES BY AGE GROUPS, 1947-1961 Key: 14-19 20-24 25-34 Source: A d o l f Sturmthal, Current Manpower Problems (an  Introduct o r y Survey). ( I n s t i t u t e of Labor and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1964), p. 27. 20,000 t r a i n e e s were e n r o l l e d i n 91 Job Corps C e n t e r s l o c a t e d 32 i n 38 S t a t e s and P u e r t o R i c o . More d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e Job Corps T r a i n i n g Program i s c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix C}> o f t h i s t h e s i s . The Work E x p e r i e n c e Program on t h e o t h e r hand p r o v i d e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s t a t e s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and o p e r a -t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n work e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s . T h i s program i s d e s i g n e d t o expand th e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r con-s t r u c t i v e work e x p e r i e n c e and o t h e r t r a i n i n g t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e t o low-income f a m i l i e s , i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n s who a r e p r e s e n t o r p o t e n t i a l r e c i p i e n t s o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . Under t h i s program, no m a t c h i n g funds r e r e q u i r e d . The Urban Renewal D e m o n s t r a t i o n  G r a n t s p r o v i d e funds to p u b l i c b o d i e s f o r p r o j e c t s t o demonstrate and improve t e c h n i q u e s o r methods o f b l i g h t p r e v e n t i o n o r e l i m i n -a t i o n . These g r a n t s may c o v e r t w o - t h i r d s o f u n d e r t a k i n g the d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s . And f i n a l l y The Community A c t i o n Program p r o v i d e s f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o communities i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h and c a r r y out programs d e s i g n e d t o m o b i l i z e t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o combat b l i g h t . These programs would appear t o be c a p a b l e o f f o r m u l a t i n g a n u c l e u s around w h i c h a p o t e n t i a l program aimed a t a s s i s t i n g the p r e s e n t u r b a n r e n e w a l program and problems c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d . There a r e , however, s e v e r a l o t h e r programs aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y a t i n d i v i d u a l a t t a i n m e n t w h i c h a r e a l s o o f r e l e v a n c e . These and o t h e r programs of l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e o u t l i n e d i n 32The F i r s t Y e a r o f Job Corps (Washington, D. C.: A Pamphlet p r e p a r e d by t h e O f f i c e o f Economic O p p o r t u n i t y ) , p. 1. Appendix B o f t h i s t h e s i s and w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o and d i s c u s s e d as they a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h the a d a p t a -b i l i t y o f manpower t r a i n i n g t o u r b an r e n e w a l . I n t h e p a s t , t h e Canadian approach t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s k i l l e d manpower has d i f f e r e d somewhat from t h a t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y Canada has r e l i e d upon t h r e e sepa-r a t e s o u r c e s o f m e e t i n g i t s s k i l l e d manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s ; (1) f o r m a l t r a i n i n g and a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs; (2) n e t i m m i g r a t i o n , 33 and (3) i n f o r m a l o n - t h e - j o b u p g r a d i n g . I n f o r m a l o n - t h e - j o b e x p e r i e n c e and u p g r a d i n g has been the major s o u r c e , w i t h n e t m i g r a t i o n c l a i m i n g an i m p o r t a n t , a l t h o u g h somewhat s m a l l e r r o l e . S k i l l e d manpower p r o v i d e d by the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program has been the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t . I n t h e decade between 1946 and 1956, i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e number o f s k i l l e d w orkers i n Canada i n c r e a s e d by 280,000. I t has been f u r t h e r e s t i m a t e d , t h a t o f t h i s t o t a l 130,000 were produced by the o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g method, 110,000 by i m m i g r a t i o n and 40,000 by t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p 34 p r o g r a m s . ^ Of t h e s e t h r e e methods o f s e c u r i n g s k i l l e d l a b o r , t h e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program i s t h e o n l y one o ver w h i c h the Canadian Government i s c a p a b l e o f e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l under the B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t . The p r o v i s i o n o f s k i l l e d l a b o r i s the 3 3 S k i l i e d and P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower i n Canada, 1945-1965, R o y a l Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s , (Ottawa: P r e p a r e d by: Economics and R e s e a r c h Branch, Department o f L a b o r , J u l y , 1957), p. v i i i . 3 4 I b i d . TABLE I I I . 1 1 IMMIGRATION OF SKILLED WORKERS TO CANADA FOR SELECTED GROUPS OF YEARS BETWEEN 1951-1956 1951-1955* 1955-1957 b 1957-1965^ T o t a l , S k i l l e d workers 93,677 48,000 151,500 Per cent of t o t a l immigration 11.6 10.0 10.0 Per cent of a l l immigrants destined to non-farm labor f o r c e 26.2 d d • • Notes: (a) f i g u r e s f o r 1951 to 1955 are a c t u a l . (b) f i g u r e s f o r 1955 to 1957 are estimated. (c) f i g u r e s f o r 1957 to 1965 are p r o j e c t e d . Reference: S k i l l e d and P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower i n Canada, 1945--1965, Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, (Ottawa: Prepared by: Economic Department of Labor, J u l y 1957), pp. 81-83. and Research Branch, U l 56 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l government. However, under the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Coordination Act (see Appendix £))•, the M i n i s t e r of Labor, a c t i n g on behalf of the f e d e r a l government may enter i n t o an agreement w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l governments to provide f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s a s s i s t a n c e are o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n s 3 and 4 35 of s a i d Act. Under t h i s arrangement the War Emergency T r a i n -ing Program which had been used during World War I I f o r t r a i n i n g men i n s k i l l e d trades f o r the armed s e r v i c e s and war i n d u s t r i e s was transformed i n t o the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Program. This program, combined w i t h the Apprenticeship Acts of the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s , provides the b a s i s f o r apprenticeship t r a i n -i n g i n Canada. The apprenticeship program has not played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n supplying s k i l l e d manpower i s evident by the f a c t that at March 31, 1956, only 15,000 persons were r e g i s t e r e d i n such programs, of t h i s t o t a l some 7,700 were apprenticed to 37 the b u i l d i n g trades. T r a i n i n g i n the f o l l o w i n g trades i s being accomplished under both the Tradesman's Q u a l i f i c a t i o n Act and the Apprenticeship Act. 1. E l e c t r i c i a n s 2. Motor Mechanics 3. Auto Body Workers . . 3 5 T h e V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Coordination Act of Canada, 1942-1943, Chapter 286, Sections 1-12 i n c l u s i v e . 36 A Modern Concept of Ap p r e n t i c e s h i p : The Story of  Apprenticeship i n A l b e r t a (Canada: Prepared by the Information Branch f o r the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch of the Department of Labor, 1957), p. 12. 3 7 S k i l l e d and P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower i n Canada, 1945-1965  op. c i t . , p. 45. TABLE III.:,2 REGISTERED APPRENTICES IN THE BUILDING TRADES, BY TRADE, EIGHT PROVINCES, 1947-56 a Number of apprentices r e g i s t e r e d at March 31 Trade 1947 1950 1953 1956 B r i c k l a y e r s and stone masons*5 463 351 338 442 Carpenters 1,302 908 947 1,329 E l e c t r i c i a n s 1,212 1,324 1,637 2,149 P a i n t e r s and decorators 323 157 163 260 P l a s t e r e r s 182 399 228 287 Plumbers and p i p e f i t t e r s 0 l , 2 9 7 e 1,402 1,461 1,884 Sheet metal workers 564 569 633 897 S t e a m f i t t e r s f 262 328 432 Other b u i l d i n g trades 21 23 31 75 T o t a l 5,364 5,395 5,766 7,755 (a) Excludes P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and Quebec; inc l u d e s Newfoundland from 1954. (b) Includes p l a s t e r e r s i n New Brunswick. (c) Includes s t e a m f i t t e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (d) Lathers and t i l e s e t t e r s . (e) Includes s t e a m f i t t e r s . ( f ) Included w i t h plumbers. Source: S k i l l e d and P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower i n Canada, 1945-1965, Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, (Ott awa: Prepared by: Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labor, J u l y , 1957), p. 48. UT 58 4. Plumbers 5. S t e a m f i t t e r s 6. G a s f i t t e r s 7. R a d i o and T e l e v i s i o n T e c h n i c i a n s 8. R e f r i g e r a t i o n Mechanics.38 The C o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e methods as a means o f s e c u r i n g the needed s k i l l e d manpower has n o t been t o t a l l y suc-c e s s f u l . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f two s e p a r a t e p e r i o d s o f time i n d i -c a t e s the n a t u r e and t h e causes of t h i s problem; the p e r i o d s under r e v i e w a r e t h e y e a r s ' 1947-1949 and t h e y e a r s 1950-1953. Between 1947 and 1949, i n v e s t m e n t and e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r new c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s and equipment, p u b l i c u t i l -i t y p r o j e c t s and r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g expanded r a p i d l y . Employ-ment i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y i n c r e a s e d by 40 p e r c e n t , r e s u l t i n g i n w i d e s p r e a d s h o r t a g e s i n almost a l l o f the s k i l l e d c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s f o r almost e v e r y q u a r t e r o f t h e t h r e e y e a r s under s t u d y , even i n F e b r u a r y when the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y i s u s u a l l y s l a c k . 3 9 T a b l e I I I . 3 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l groups i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l groups were i n c o n t i n u o u s wide spread s h o r t a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t q u a r t e r s o f 1947-1948 and a n o t h e r 13 were i n c o n t i n u o u s s h o r t a g e f o r from t h r e e t o seven c o n s e c u t i v e q u a r t e r s . The cause o f t h i s dilemma has been d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the l a c k o f s t a b i l i t y o f t h e t h r e e above mentioned s o u r c e s o f l a b o r . Between 1947 and 1949, no a p p r e c i -a b l e i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d i n t h e number of a p p r e n t i c e s a v a i l a b l e 3 8 A Modern Concept o f A p p r e n t i c e s h i p , op. c i t . , p. 9. S k i l l e d and P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower i n Canada, 1945-1965, op. c i t . , p. 14. and n e t i m m i g r a t i o n o f s k i l l e d w orkers d e c r e a s e d from 11,500 i n 1948 t o 6,400 i n 1 9 4 9 . 4 0 The r e s u l t b e i n g t h a t t h e i n f o r m a l o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g method o f manpower t r a i n i n g accounted f o r the m a j o r i t y o f t h e i n c r e a s e s i n the s k i l l l a b o r s u p p l y . The second p e r i o d o f r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o c c u r r e d between 1950 and 1953, and was a l s o marked by a s h o r t a g e o f s k i l l e d tradesmen. T a b l e I I I . 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d 4 o c c u p a t i o n a l groups were i n s h o r t a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r and a n o t h e r 11 were i n s h o r t a g e f o r h a l f the y e a r o r more. A g a i n the most s i g n i f i -c a n t s h o r t a g e s i n s k i l l e d l a b o r o c c u r r e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s , c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by th o s e i n m i n i n g . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e number o f r e g i s t e r e d a p p r e n t i c e s d i d not i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y ; i n c r e a s i n g from 5,400 i n 1950 t o about 5,800 i n 1953. However, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the i m m i g r a t i o n o f s k i l l e d man-power d i d n o t d e c l i n e , i n f a c t i t i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y and t o t a l l e d some 60,787 f o r t h e t h r e e - y e a r period. 4"'' As a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n c r e a s e t h e s h o r t a g e o f s k i l l e d l a b o r was n o t as p r o -nounced as i t had been f o r t h e f i r s t p e r i o d under r e v i e w . The f a c t t h a t t h e s e p e r i o d s a r e n o t u n i q u e b u t r e p r e s e n t the g e n e r a l c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n o f an expanding economy i s summed up i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : The e x p e r i e n c e o f 1947 t o 1948 s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t e n s i v e and w i d e s p r e a d s h o r t a g e s o f s k i l l e d tradesmen w i l l appear i n the Canadian economy i n p e r i o d s when the d u r a b l e goods and con-s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s a r e expanding a t h i g h 4 0 j b i d . , pp. 16-17. 4 1 I b i d . /TABLE I I I . 3 LABOR SHORTAGES FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS, CANADA, 1947 - 1956 SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS 1947 1950 1953 1956 1 • Cabinet Makers and Woodworkers M a c h i n i s t s , toolmakers, D i e s e t t e r s Other Machine Shop Workers Boilermakers S t r u c t u r a l I r o n and S t e e l Welders and Flame Cutters E l e c t r i c i a n s A i r c r a f t Workers fyT-i Tl PT" C L i m c i o B r i c k l a y e r s and T i l e S e t t e r s 7 Carpenters Cement and Concrete F i n i s h e r s P l a s t e r e r s Plumbers and S t e a m f i t t e r s Cranemen and Shovelmen D l a b L - I . o , -L UWUC1 ILlt-H cl.LlV-l U L 1 1 1 C I o Auto Mechanics Note: Each (.) represents a s i t u a t i o n i n which vacancies l i s t e d by employers amount to f i f t y per cent or more of the number of a p p l i c a n t s r e g i s t e r e d at N a t i o n a l Employment Services O f f i c e s . Source: S k i l l e d and P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower i n Canada, 1945-1965, Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, (Ottawa: Prepared by: Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labor, J u l y , 1957), p. 12. r a t e s , u n l e s s l a r g e numbers of s k i l l e d tradesmen a r e a v a i l a b l e from d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g programs o r i m m i g r a t i o n . 4 2 I n an e f f o r t t o d e c r e a s e i t s r e l i a n c e upon i m m i g r a t i o n as a s o u r c e o f s k i l l e d l a b o r the F e d e r a l Government o f Canada has a ttempted t o s t r e n g t h e n and improve i t s d o m e s t i c t r a i n i n g p r o -grams, by t h e enactment o f the A d u l t O c c u p a t i o n T r a i n i n g B i l l w h i c h was e n a c t e d on March 3 1 s t , 1967. U n f o r t u n a t e l y a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g the d e t a i l s o f t h i s B i l l had n o t been made a v a i l -a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . However, i t has been a s c e r t a i n e d from Mr. F r a n k H a t c h e r t h a t t h e B i l l i s i n many i n s t a n c e s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h e Manpower Development and T r a i n i n g Programs of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The o b j e c t o f t h e B i l l b e i n g t o s t r e n g t h e n b o t h t h e o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g programs and the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs by p r o v i d i n g t h e adequate f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , as w e l l as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o f a c i l i -t a t e t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e s k i l l e d l a b o r f o r c e . Appendix E lout-l i n e s t h e r e l e v a n t a r e a s o f s k i l l t r a i n i n g and the t y p e s o f programs t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d under the A d u l t O c c u p a t i o n T r a i n i n g  B i l l . B. Chapter Summary The r e l e v a n c e and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e manpower development t h e o r y , was n e v e r i n doubt i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t s m e r i t i s s e l f -e v i d e n t . The o b j e c t i v e was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o n c e p t s , ~ 4 2 i b i d . , p. 15. 4 3 F r a n k H a t c h e r , C h i e f o f the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e c t i o n o f Canada Manpower D i v i s i o n , P a c i f i c Coast R e g i o n , Department o f Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n . 62; p o l i c i e s and program i n an attempt t o dete r m i n e the v a l i d i t y o f the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t manpower t r a i n i n g can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i n t he u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o c e s s . I t has been t o t h i s end t h a t t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e has been summarized. Here i t must be r e s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e manpower development concept and program was devel o p e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e much b r o a d e r s o c i a t a l o b j e c t i v e o f m a x i m i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l o f human r e s o u r c e s . The manpower development programs a r e d e s i g n e d f o r the t a s k o f employment o p t i m i z a t i o n . W i t h t h i s i n mind an a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n d i c a t e s s e v e r a l s i g n i f i -c a n t p o i n t s . Of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e i s the f a c t t h a t i n t h e p a s t , n e i t h e r t h e programs o f Canada o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have been s u c c e s s f u l i n m e e t i n g t h e i r demands f o r s k i l l e d manpower. I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e emphasis has been upon the f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n system; whereas i n Canada, dependence has been p l a c e d upon t h e - o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g programs and i m m i g r a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e i n a d e -q u a c i e s t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n has been drawn. I f t h e s e demands a r e t o be met, t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s o f a l l k i n d s w i l l have t o be expanded i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n . T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e t h e c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and c r e a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e c u r -r i c u l a , t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f competent s t a f f , t h e c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f s k i l l e d and p r o -f e s s i o n a l manpower, and c o n t i n u e d s t u d i e s o f the b e s t t y p e o f t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n l i g h t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s . 4 4 S k i l l e d and P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower i n Canada, 1945-1965, op. c i t . , p. x i v . 63 I n b o t h c o u n t r i e s , as i n d i c a t e d , t h e f e d e r a l emphasis has been p l a c e d upon the o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g method and the a p p r e n t i c e -s h i p t r a i n i n g system. As a r e s u l t o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s ' h i g h demands f o r s k i l l e d l a b o r , a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f b o t h programs has been devoted t o t h e s e needs. An a n a l y s i s o f Appendix B and C i n d i c a t e s t h e t y p e , as w e l l as the n a t u r e of t h e s e programs. B e a r i n g i n mind the p r e s e n t emphasis o f u r b an r e n e w a l programs upon the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e f u r b i s h i n g o f r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s , i t would appear t h a t manpower t r a i n i n g programs w h i c h a r e d i r e c t e d toward the a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s k i l l s c o u l d be used i n an u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a . However, b e f o r e a c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn a more d e t a i l e d s t u d y of the s p e c i f i c needs o f t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a , as w e l l as the a d a p t a -b i l i t y o f p r e s e n t manpower t r a i n i n g programs t o t h e s e needs must be i n v e s t i g a t e d . These a s p e c t s a r e c o v e r e d i n C hapters IV. and V., r e s p e c t i v e l y . IV. S T R A T H C O N A : T H E C A S E S T U D Y ! I V . STRATHCONA: THE CASE STUDY A. I n t r o d u c t i o n The o b j e c t i v e s o f the case s t u d y as p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e f o u r - f o l d . I t i s f i r s t used t o f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e f a c t t h a t the problems o f slum l i v i n g a r e m u l t i - f a c e t e d and i n c l u d e many s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s w h i c h cannot be s o l v e d by p r e s e n t urban r e n e w a l programs a l o n e . S e c o n d l y , i t i s used p r e s e n t q u a n t i f i -a b l e d a t a i n o r d e r t o h i g h l i g h t by use o f numbers and p e r c e n t a g e s the g r a v i t y o f some o f t h e s e major problems. T h i r d l y , i t i s used as an e f f o r t t o t i e t h e s e problems o f u r b a n r e n e w a l needs i n t o t h e Canadian c o n t e x t . W i t h r e g a r d t o the l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t , the m a j o r i t y o f s t a t i s t i c s and w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g the inadequacy o f p r e s e n t r e n e w a l programs, as w e l l as t h a t on man-power t r a i n i n g and needs, has been w r i t t e n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e Ame r i c a n c o n t e x t . A l t h o u g h as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h e s e problems are analogous t o tho s e o f most, i f n ot a l l d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t i e s . T h e r e f o r e i t was f e l t t h a t a non-American case s t u d y would be a p p r o p r i a t e i n o r d e r t o r e p o r t how t h e s e problems r e l a t e i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t . F o u r t h l y , and most s i g n i f i c a n t , an attempt w i l l be made t o r e l a t e t h e problems o f u r b a n r e n e w a l and manpower t r a i n i n g . The a r e a s e l e c t e d f o r st u d y i s Census T r a c t 50, w i t h i n the C i t y o f Vancouver i n the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 65 MAP IV. 1 VANCOUVER AND SURROUNDING MUNICIPALITIES 67 T h i s a r e a i s p a r t o f a l a r g e r a r e a commonly known as S t r a t h c o n a . The s t u d y a r e a i s 6 b l o c k s l o n g by 3 1/2 b l o c k s wide c o n t a i n i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3,200 people.''" T h i s a r e a i s u n i q u e i n the f a c t t h a t i t s problems and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been d e f i n e d b o t h from t h e p h y s i c a l , as w e l l as the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p o i n t s o f view. These p o i n t s o f v i e w have been e x p r e s s e d i n two s e p a r a t e r e p o r t s . The p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been d e s c r i b e d i n The Vancouver  Redevelopment Study, p r e p a r e d by the C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, i n December, 1967. The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n a s t u d y conducted by the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , i n J u l y , 1966, e n t i t l e d Urban  Renewal Scheme I I I ; S t r a t h c o n a . Here i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s was conducted a f t e r the a r e a had been d e s i g n a t e d as an urban r e n e w a l a r e a and the method o f approach d e t e r m i n e d t o r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n , based upon th e recommendations o f the Vancouver Redevelopment Study. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a ttempt t o (1) d e f i n e b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l , as w e l l as the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c problems o f S t r a t h c o n a , (2) i d e n t i f y t h o s e problems c a p a b l e o f b e i n g s o l v e d by p r e s e n t urban r e n e w a l programs, and (3) i d e n t i f y t h o s e t h a t t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l program i n i t s p r e s e n t form i s i n c a p a b l e o f s o l v i n g . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s t h i r d c a t e g o r y ; t h e s e problems w i l l b b e a n a l y z e d i n C h apter V. i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o a s o l u t i o n by an u r b a n r e n e w a l program w h i c h i n c l u d e s manpower 1-Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a (Vancouver, B. C. : P r e p a r e d by: U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , J u l y , 1966), p. 1. 68'} t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . B. P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Problems I n g e n e r a l t h e s t u d y a r e a can be c l a s s i f i e d as b l i g h t e d but by no means homogeneous. I t has been d e f i n e d as "a good r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t 40 o r 50 y e a r s ago, and s t i l l has the o c h a r a c t e r o f a genuine n e i g h b o r h o o d . " W i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a t h e S t r a t h c o n a s c h o o l s e r v e s as t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f a c t i v i t i e s o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e , w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l churches and s o c i a l c e n t e r s p e r f o r m i n g s e r v i c e s f o r the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups t h a t r e s i d e i n t h e a r e a . However, age, changes o f occupancy and the c o n v e r s i o n s o f o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s i n t o d w e l l i n g u n i t s have r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r e d e t e r i o r a t i o n . 4 S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f h o u s i n g a r e found h e r e , i n c l u d i n g s i n g l e houses, apartments, rooms o v e r s t o r e s , c a b i n s , rooming houses, e t c . The s i n g l e house comprised aboutvi80 p e r c e n t o f the d w e l l i n g s t r u c t u r e s , however a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 20 p e r cen t o f t h e s e had been c o n v e r t e d t o m u l t i p l e , occupancy, and a n o t h e r 10 p e r cen t housed t w o ' f a m i l i e s . ^ I n g e n e r a l , c o n v e r t e d and s u b s t a n d a r d accommodations c h a r a c t e r i s e d the e n t i r e a r e a , w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 52 p e r cen t o f a l l d w e l l i n g u n i t s s h a r i n g s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s . ^ ^Vancouver Redevelopment Study (Vancouver, B. C.: P r e p a r e d by The C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, f o r t h e Hou s i n g R e s e a r c h Committee, December, 1957), pp. 6-7. 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . 6 I b i d . MAP I V . 2 THE STUDY AREA: STRATHCONA Jl*UU Li •iJl LLiiJ i"r * nvi] I s r i ||f!T!Ti'f59TTif!ll'?: AiiiLIJILLiiJ! LlLDxlLLiiLiilL . . I'Tr'-yrTiTryiTi'n - r m— n T i r m n ' r I ; ! :M1 h • ; 70 I " j i i I i l l tit »JlfMM3—>i J J -1-1. ! : 1 sr I i l l UiJluliLliLu [ L3 , l . ! . ' . ' . .V. ; . ; . ; , ' .? 1 a l 11!! i i i i i ij Ifl u I ' l l ' ' 871 LL ITnTiiTiiiTf^l-yiTniTJrm IXllQilLillillQl^viT'''' LIM I BTjrrsfmTi^  lit * JI!»•,*»,.f i> n.ti.t .18 tifliUJiLiill!:] fmriTTiTiTn m l i e L 2 A H ] 8 9 P A Jl X B?>.ATKC©HA DlfilifuLO^. &LilLuJliIl,QiJIUJ JLMi i ; i i- :74 - i ' - i i i ;SCSO Q.LJ nTJTIJTtTITjTE" lMj.Ujy !!|l|Xll^ h'i'rifiiTiTirrn ^jnfilJiTnTfiJt. lTrriTfi?5|T]T[ j t-7!TfTT^!T1I]TTl, LLUULff m i l l . ^ U i l i i i L i i i l U i l i J J L I f ! I i ! i ! 11 i i * ! ' VI i IrfmYfsfrriiTrH n y sQliili ! ! I ! I i mT|Trf|n[i m uiiiulMiilD t^pnTrrrprrn GtOPGIA S T I i j i w m w a ' [-; 83 ' I ' i ' i ' i i ' i ' i . i s;2 r I DM1 K11111 L B . imrrpiTiiTnrrni BjiLLiin jTirM [ rt i M i j: rt t n n nTi hiTinfiTi tm S'-LTi'iflMLjly i±l[ilLiiiim:'.;: ! I I i I i i i i I I I ! i n i 120 At/ LI^OTQS f^iiiii s M W f f f l s raw's * W f f i W s 2 l i p , m r i.:.;=.iiis.i[ii.!ijis mniM: ^hiMnii^: Lm.ij.Ci.i.i.i.iJ1fl! L L U I U L I M iii^: tLiiiiLhiuiLLuLLL)! aiMiMlti.i,{iijJ r L - - -Key Source Boundary o f Study A r e a Urban Renewal Scheme I I I S t r a t h c o n a ( V a n c o u v e r . B . C . : P r e p a r e d by U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s p f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , J u l y , 1966), p. 1.  70 The survey conducted i n 1957, analyzed the area based upon the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a , (1) the age of the d w e l l i n g s , (2) the q u a l i t y of the housing as shown by e x t e r i o r c o n d i t i o n s , and, (3) e x i s t i n g land use and mixed land use. With regard to the f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s , using f i v e broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of b u i l d -i n g s , very good, good, f a i r , poor, and very poor, the survey i n d i c a t e d the f o l l o w i n g percentages of major d e f e c t s : poor to very poor s t a t e of a f f a i r s , 32 per cent; w a l l s or f l o o r damp, 16 per cent; outside water supply, 12 per cent; t o i l e t s shared w i t h more than 6 persons, 18 per cent; bath e i t h e r non-existent or o u t s i d e the s t r u c t u r e , 14 per cent; inadequate f i r e e x i t s , . 10 per cent.^ Although t h i s survey was conducted i n 1957, the more recent Strathcona Report conducted i n 1966 i n d i c a t e s that approximately 50 per cent of a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s were o e i t h e r "poor" or "very poor." This was f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a w i n d s h i e l d check conducted by the author on March 20, 1967. The Strathcona Report f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d that 25 per cent of a l l households met the Census d e f i n i t i o n of a crowded d w e l l i n g as compared to 15 per cent as i n d i c a t e d by the Vancouver RedeVelOp-Ct ment Study. This would seem to* i n d i c a t e that a c e r t a i n per cent of i n - m i g r a t i o n r a t h e r than out-migration has occurred w i t h i n the area i n the 9 year i n t e r i m between the two s t u d i e s . With regard to the t h i r d c r i t e r a : land uses, i t i s important 7 I b i d . ^Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : Strathcona, op. c i t . , p. 11. 9 I b i d . t o n o t e t h a t a t t h e time o f t h e 1957 s t u d y , o v e r 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e a r e a was zoned f o r i n d u s t r y and commerce; i t was i n f a c t p r i m a r i l y b e i n g used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s . " ^ I t was based p r i m a r i l y upon t h e s e f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e a r e a was d e s i g n a t e d as a comprehensive redevelopment a r e a . I t was the recommendation o f the c i t y o f f i c i a l s t o c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r the a r e a and t o zone i t r e s i d e n t i a l , w i t h the development t o be as i n t e n s i v e as r e a s o n -11 a b l y p o s s i b l e . C. Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Problems The r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a has b a s i c a l l y been made up o f t h r e e groups. There has been a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f A s i a t i c s w h i c h account f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 57 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ( t h e y a r e p r i m a r i l y C h i n e e s e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some J a p a n e s e ) . P e r s o n s o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n formed t h e n e x t 12 l a r g e s t e t h n i c group, f o l l o w e d by t h o s e o f I t a l i a n e x t r a c t i o n . The estimaged p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the study a r e a i n 1966 13 was 3,213 comprised o f some 1,423 f a m i l y u n i t s . T a b l e IV. 1 i n d i c a t e s the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e breakdown o f the study a r e a . Here i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e does n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o h o u s e h o l d s t r u c t u r e , f o r w i t h i n t h i s a r e a a g r e a t d e a l o f n o n - f a m i l y communal l i v i n g o c c u r s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y •^Vancouver Redevelopment Study, op. c i t . , p. 6. l l l b i d . , p. 4. ^ U r b a n Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a , op. c i t . , p. 2. 1 3 l b i d . t r u e o f the s i n g l e male A s i a t i c s . W i t h r e g a r d t o age, t h r e e p o i n t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e h e r e . F i r s t l y , a t the 1961 Census, 22 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was 14 y e a r s o l d o r younger. S e c o n d l y , t h a t p e o p l e over 55 y e a r s o l d r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . And t h i r d l y , t h a t p e r s o n s o v e r 55 y e a r s comprise o v e r 47 p e r c e n t o f the e s t i m a t e d 1,423 h o u s e h o l d s . " ^ From t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s i t can be e s t i m a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 44 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n o r some 1,400 p e r s o n s are o f w o r k i n g age. TABLE IV. U FAMILY STRUCTURE No. o f U n i t s No. o f Persons F a m i l i e s w i t h C h i l d r e n 408 2,040 F a m i l i e s w i t h no C h i l d r e n 158 316 S i n g l e Males 837 837 S i n g l e Females 20 20 T o t a l 1,423 3,213 Source: Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a (Vancouver, B. C.: P r e p a r e d by: U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , J u l y , 1966), p. 2. I n 1961, S t r a t h c o n a , w h i c h i n c l u d e s the s t u d y a r e a , had the l o w e s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s w i t h i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, 1 4 I b i d . 1 5 I b i d . 73 • CHART IV. 1 STUDY AREA: STRATHCONA SEX AND AGE PYRAMID, 1961 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 P e r c e n t o f T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n MALE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 P e r c e n t o f T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n FEMALE S t r a t h c o n a Vancouver Source: Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a (Vancouver, B.C, P r e p a r e d by: U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , J u l y , 1966), p. 1. 1 6 having both the lowest average f a m i l y wage and s a l a r y income. The Vancouver Redevelopment Study i n d i c a t e s that i n 1957 w i t h i n the study area, the medium income range f o r f a m i l i e s was between $232 and $250 and under $100 f o r s i n g l e p e r s o n s . 1 7 Although the surveys are not s t r i c t l y comparable, the Strathcona survey i n d i -cates approximately the same range when conducted 9 years 18 l a t e r . The Strathcona study using as a c r i t e r i a f o r poverty an annual of income of $1,500 f o r s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s , $2,500 f o r married couples and an a d d i t i o n a l $500 f o r each dependant, found that at l e a s t 76 per cent of a l l s i n g l e persons and 55 per cent 19 of a l l f a m i l i e s are below the minimum subsistance l e v e l . In f a c t i t was found that approximately 15 per cent of incomes 20 were below the present l e v e l s of s o c i a l allowance support. In 1966, 25 per cent of the study p o p u l a t i o n was r e c e i v i n g sup-plemental income from the government i n one form or another. On the order of 55 to 60 per cent of persons 65 years and over r e c e i v e d pensions and or supplementary s o c i a l allowance up to the maximum of $105 per month, wh i l e roughly 50 per cent of a l l 21 s i n g l e men under 65 years were r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . 1 6 I b i d . ^Vancouver Redevelopment Study, op. c i t . , p. 47. 18 Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : Strathcona, l o c . c i t , 1 9 J b i d . 20 I b i d . 2 1 I b i d . , p. 6. TABLE: IV. 22: INCOME VS. NUMBER IN HOUSEHOLD (Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n ) NUMBER IN FAMILY INCOME 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTALS Under - $1,500 39 5 - - 1 1 - - - 46 1,500 - 2,000 5 4 1 3 - - 1 - - 14 S o c i a l 2,000 - 3,000 4 8 5 4 3 1 1 - 1 27 Allowance L e v e l 3,000 - 4,500 2 2 2 5 7 2 6 2 3 31 Poverty 4,500 - 7,500 1 2 2 4 5 3 2 - - 19 L e v e l 7,500 - 10,000 - - 1 2 1 - - 1 - 5 Over T$10,000 - - - 1 - - - 1 - 2 To t a l s 51 21 11 19 17 7 10 4 4 144* *No Response - 6 households. Source: Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : Strathcona (Vancouver, B. C.: Prepared by: United Community Services of the Greater Vancouver Area, J u l y , 1966), p. 3. There were a l s o 22 f a m i l i e s r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d i n one form o r a n o t h e r . TABLE IV. 3 ACTIVE CASELOAD CITY SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT JULY, 1965 TOTAL S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e : Employable 6 Unemp l o y ab l e 106* S i n g l e Men - Unemployed 157 Old Age A s s i s t a n c e : Old Age S e c u r i t y -Su p p l e m e n t a l B e n e f i t s 408 T o t a l 677 ''Categorized as unemployable a r e unemployed female heads o f households w i t h 3 o r more c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age. Source: Urban Renewal! Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a (Vancouver, B~. C. : P r e p a r e d by: U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , J u l y , 1966), p. 6. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e r cen t o f a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the a r e a were c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r p oor o r v e r y poor. However, what i s more i m p o r t a n t p e r h a p s , i s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e r cen t o f the households w i t h i n the stud y a r e a were t e n a n t s w i t h the r e n t s p a i d r a n g i n g from $6 p e r month f o r a s i n g l e p e r s o n i n shared q u a r t e r s t o $85 f o r a f a m i l y r e n t i n g a six-room house. The average rents range from $22 per month f o r housekeeping or s l e e p i n g rooms to $63 f o r accom-modations w i t h three or more bedrooms. While average rents are r e l a t i v e l y low, the average rents range from 10 to 31 per cent of the annual income. While those households w i t h annual incomes under $2,000, were spending i n the order of 30 per cent of t h e i r income on r e n t s and t h i s percentage decreased to 10 per cent f o r 23 those i n the higher income brackets. TABLE IV. 4 PRESENT RENT AS PER CENT OF INCOME Average Rent Per Cent* P u b l i c Housing INCOME Per Month Of Income (25% of Income) Under $1,500 23.5 28.0 $22 - 25 1,500 - 2,000 45.5 31.0 36 2,000 - 3,000 41.5 20.0 52 3,000 - 4,500 50.5 16.0 78 4,500 - 7,500 51.0 10.0 125 ''Calculated on the b a s i s of the mid-point of income range. Source: Urban Renewal Scheme I I I . Strathcona (Vancouver, B. C.: Prepared by: United Community Services of the Greater Vancouver Area, J u l y , 1966), p. 2. D. The Urban Renewal Scheme Based upon an a n a l y s i s of the area, (the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have been brought out i n the foregoing three z z I b i d . , pp. 11-12. 2 3 I b i d . 78 s e c t i o n s of t h i s Chapter), i t was recommended that the area be c l a s s i f i e d as a comprehensive redevelopment area. The area was to be completely c l e a r e d and redeveloped as a mixed community i n order to e l i m i n i a t e the problems of a l l low-income people r e s i d i n g i n a s i n g l e area. The scheme had two b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s , (1) to provide f o r the e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s and (2) to provide f o r people outside the area. With regard to the e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s the p r o v i s i o n s were f u r t h e r subdivided i n t o , (a) those that wished to leave and (b) those that wished to remain. For those that wished to leave the area, r e l o c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of f i n a n c i a l a i d , as w e l l as other help was to be given. For those who d e s i r e d to stay i n the area three types of accommodations were proposed i n order to c a t e r to the d i v e r s i t y of needs. The m a j o r i t y of the accommodations were to be p r i v a t e housing w i t h rent s u b s i -d i e s f o r those who needed i t . P u b l i c housing ( a l s o w i t h rent s u b s i d i e s were to be kept to a minimum. And f o r the more a f f l u e n t of the e x i s t i n g i n h a b i t a n t s , p a t i o housing i n d i v i d -u a l l y owned was to be constructed. I t was proposed that p r i v a t e development should be encouraged, p r i m a r i l y to c a t e r to the needs of people who now r e s i d e outside of the area but would wish to move i n . For these people i t was recommended that redevelopment should i n c l u d e a l l types of housing, i n c l u d i n g and not l i m i t e d to p a t i o houses f o r i n d i v i d u a l ownership, as w e l l as the economic rent Vancouver Redevelopment Study, op. c i t . , pp. 84-85. developments f o r h i g h e r income r e s i d e n t s . Other recommendations were, (1) t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e a r e a s h o u l d be used f o r p u b l i c development and the remainder made a v a i l a b l e f o r p r i v a t e r e s i -d e n t i a l development; (2) t h a t adequate community f a c i l i t i e s be p r o v i d e d , t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s t o i n c l u d e s c h o o l s ; p a r k s and o t h e r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s ; r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l ameni-t i e s , as w e l l as a neighborhood shopping c e n t e r . The f i n a l recommendation i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e and i s as f o l l o w s : There needs t o be a b r o a d e r program f o r "up l i f t i n g " t h e low-income c i t i z e n s who are c a p a b l e o f b e i n g g a i n f u l l y employed. The u r b a n r e n e w a l scheme needs a comple-mentary p r o j e c t sponsored by the F e d e r a l o r P r o v i n c i a l Governments where, f o r i n s t a n c e , p e o p l e can be r e t r a i n e d , o r t r a i n e d f o r j o b s , i n essence, a new "economic o p p o r t u n i t y " p r o g r a m . " At the time o f t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s the r e d e v e l o p -ment o f the st u d y a r e a was p r o c e e d i n g i n accordance w i t h the above s t a t e d p l a n s and recommendations, w i t h two e x c e p t i o n s . The g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f the h o u s i n g b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d f o r tho s e who w i s h e d t o r e m a i n was o f t h e p u b l i c ( r e n t s u b s i d y ) v a r i e t y . And t h e r e was no complementary program f o r the t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g o f the low-income i n d i v i d u a l s . E. A n a l y s i s o f the Program The o b j e c t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s , as w e l l as t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the proposed s o l u t i o n (and now 2 5 A R e p o r t from Thomas J e n k i n s o n , S e n i o r P l a n n e r , Urban Renewal S e c t i o n , C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, e n t i t l e d "Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a , " Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, J u l y 29, 1966, p. 17. 80 i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ) , upon t h e s t a t e d major problems o f the st u d y a r e a . The f i n d i n g s a r e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h i s program i s a d e q u a t e l y e l i m i n a t i n g s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g ; l i k e most o t h e r u r ban r e n e w a l programs and s o l u t i o n s , i t has f a i l e d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e need f o r such s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e major p o r t i o n o f t h e accommodations a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d have been o f the l o w - r e n t s u b s i d y v a r i e t y . Even w i t h r e n t s u b s i d i e s and w e l f a r e ( t h e s o l u t i o n p r e s e n t l y b e i n g used as a method o f e l i m i n -a t i n g the need f o r l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g ) , a r e t a k e n i n t o account t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the u r b a n r e n e w a l program i s s t i l l f a r below what i s r e q u i r e d . A l t h o u g h i t i s t r u e t h a t some 524 households w i l l b e n e f i t e c o n o m i c a l l y from p u b l i c h o u s i n g t h e r e i s alm o s t an e q u a l p r o -p o r t i o n (440) who w i l l n o t . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s l a t t e r group T a b l e IV. 5 a n a l y z e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s e n t r e n t , income and r e n t i n c r e a s e . A n a l y z i n g T a b l e IV. 5 i n l i g h t o f the s t a t i s -t i c s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e IV. 4, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s u b s i s t a n c e l e v e l and t h e p o v e r t y l e v e l h o u s e h o l d s b e n e f i t l e a s t from p u b l i c h o u s i n g . I n f a c t i t can be seen t h a t o f t e n r e s i d e n c e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s a d i s b e n e f i t , s i n c e f o r them t h e r e n t s charged r e p r e -s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n p e r cen t o f income used f o r t h i s p u rpose w i t h o u t any i n c r e a s e i n r e a l income. B e a r i n g i n mind 26NO. o f h o u s e h o l d s were r e n t i n c r e a s e as p e r c e n t o f p r e s e n t r e n t i s between 0-10 p e r cen t and under 5 p e r cent o f income i s 524. Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a , op. c i t . , p. 14. TABLE IV. .5 RENT INCREASE AS PERCENTAGE OF INCOME RENT INCREASE AS % OF PRESENT RENT Under 5% 5-10% 11-15% 16-20% 0 - 10% 524 - - -11 - 20% 12(12) 2 -41 - 50% - - 29( 1 8 ) 2 51 - 60% - 12 61 - 70% - - 285(285) 3 -71 - 80% - 1 2 ( 6 ) 2 90 - 100% - - 6 -101 - 110% - - 4 2 ( 1 8 ) 2 -210 - 220% - - - 12 250 - 260% - - - 18 410 - 420% - - - 12 To t a l s 536(12) 53(24) 333(303) 42 1. C a l c u l a t i o n s based upon mid-point of income and r e n t a l ranges. 2. Present income below poverty c r i t e r i a . 3. S i n g l e males - balance of t a b l e represents married couples w i t h or without c h i l d r e n . Source: Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : Strathcona (Vancouver, B. C.: Prepared by: United Community Services of the Greater Vancouver Area, J u l y , 1966), p. 14. 82 t h a t t h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s 35 t o 55 p e r c e n t lower t h a n t h a t on t h e open market, i t would appear t h a t 55 p e r c e n t o f a l l f a m i l i e s t h a t r e s i d e i n the a r e a w i l l r e m a i n below the s u b s i s t a n c e l e v e l even a f t e r u r b a n r e n e w a l . F u r t h e r -more, t h a t f o r t h i s p e r c e n t a g e u r b a n r e n e w a l w i l l be a d i s b e n e -f i t s i n c e r e n t s charged i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s g r e a t e r t h a n what they a r e now p a y i n g . I t t h e n becomes e v i d e n t t h a t e s p e c i a l l y i n S t r a t h c o n a , t h e problems o f u r b a n r e n e w a l and slum d w e l l i n g a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h a t o f income and f u r t h e r , u n l e s s the income l e v e l s o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s a r e improved, even f r e e r e n t w i l l n o t s i g n i -f i c a n t l y improve th e c o n d i t i o n s o f the i n h a b i t a n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s p r o b l e m i s i n d i c a t i v e o f slum l i v i n g , as t h e s t a t i s t i c s p r e s e n t e d h e r e do n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e v i a t e from t h o s e o f o t h e r u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a s , be they i n Canada o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s . P r e s e n t l y , w e l f a r e payments i n a d d i t i o n t o r e n t s u b s i d i e s as a means o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e income o f t h o s e a t the p o v e r t y and s u b s i s t a n c e l e v e l s , such a program has a d v e r s e consequences and b r oad r a m i f i c a t i o n s . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , p r e s e n t w e l f a r e pay-ments a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve th e l e v e l o f l i v i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h e s e payments have a m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t f o r as new p r o j e c t s a r e added more p e o p l e w i l l r e q u i r e such payments w i t h o u t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e i n t h o s e t h a t a r e a l r e a d y r e c e i v i n g them. T h i s i s v e r i f i e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a l r e a d y c o n s t r u c t e d i n Vancouver the c l a u s e w h i c h r e q u i r e s t e n a n t s t o move out a f t e r one y e a r ' s r e s i d e n c y , has n o t been e n f o r c e d s i n c e i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e o n l y p l a c e 83 a v a i l a b l e f o r them t o go i s back i n t o a n o ther slum. Such an arrangement commits the government t o an unending r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a s s i s t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s t o m a i n t a i n t h i s l e v e l o f l i v i n g . ':. A g a i n t h e m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t a p p l i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , such an arrangement has v e r y r b r o a d s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s . F o r many i t t a k e s away t h e f e e l i n g o f independence and r e p l a c e s i t w i t h the s t i g m a o f w e l f a r e case and f o r o t h e r s (and her e i t i s f e l t t h e r e i s a v a s t m a j o r i t y ) , i t e l i m i n a t e s t h e need o r t h e d e s i r e t o t r y t o improve. F o r who would w i s h t o work when the government g u a r a n t e e s a l l i n d i v i d u a l s an average a n n u a l wage r e g a r d l e s s o f whether one works o r n o t . F. Cause o f P o v e r t y i n the Study A r e a I n l i g h t o f the apparent weakness i n t h e program and a l s o due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e weaknesses a r e r e l a t e d t o income and e a r n i n g power, a su r v e y o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s o f t h e a r e a was conducted by the a u t h o r i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e causes o f t h i s p o v e r t y . I n f o r m a t i o n on o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s o f the r e s i d e n t s o f the a r e a was o b t a i n e d from v o t e r r e g i s t r a t i o n forms f o r a l l r e s i -d ents e l i g i b l e t o v o t e on September 27, 1965. I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s as l i s t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l were o b t a i n e d f o r 1,032 p e o p l e , r e p r e s e n t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 52 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n over 21 y e a r s r e s i d i n g i n t h e a r e a . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two groups a c c o r d i n g t o sex. The j o b s k i l l s o f each group were t h e n c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s ; (1) t h o s e employed, (2) t h o s e unemployed 84 f o r reasons other than age or p h y s i c a l or mental d e f e c t s , (3) those r e t i r e d . With regard to those employed, t h i s category was f u r t h e r subdivided i n t o three broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s accord-i n g to the l e v e l of s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to accomplish the job. The three s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were, (a) u n s k i l l e d , (b) s e m i - s k i l l e d , and (c) s k i l l e d . The r e s u l t s were then tabulated and presented in,Table IV 6 of t h i s Chapter. TABLE IV.£6 STUDY AREA: OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS CLASSIFICATIONS EMPLOYED MALE FEMALE TOTAL . No. S k i l l e d 79 14 93 • No. S e m i - S k i l l e d 15 98 113 • No. U n - S k i l i e d 248 11 259 Sub T o t a l s 342 123 465 UNEMPLOYED (For reasons other than age or p h y s i c a l or mental d e f e c t s ) 67 224 291 RETIRED /V 27 6 T o t a l . 409 347 1,032 *No. of males and females r e t i r e d was not subdivided but are presented as a t o t a l . Reference: P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l regarding r e s i d e n t s e l i g i b l e to vote i n Urban P o l l i n g D i v i s o n s , Nos. 115 t h r u 139 i n c l u s i v e , E l e c t o r i a l D i s t r i c t of Vancouver Center, C i t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, September 27, 1965. 85 An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s w i t h r e g a r d to' the l e v e l s o f income and e a r n i n g power i s q u i t e r e v e a l i n g . The t o t a l s from th e t h r e e broad c a t e g o r i e s r e v e a l t h a t 465 p e r s o n s a r e employed, 291 p e r s o n s a r e unemployed; and 27 6 p e r s o n s a r e r e t i r e d . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45, 28, and 27 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y o f the sample p o p u l a t i o n . I f the p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e o r a l l t h o s e c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g a r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n o t h e r p o i n t becomes q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . Of the 756 p e r s o n s c a p a b l e o f work-i n g 259 and 291 r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e e i t h e r u n s k i l l e d o r unemployed,' r e p r e s e n t i n g a t o t a l o f 550 o r 72 p e r c e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f i t i s assumed t h a t 50 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d as u n s k i l l e d a r e a b l e t o e a r n a moderate l i v i n g , b u t 430 o r 57 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g a r e u n a b l e t o e a r n a s u b s i s t a n c e l i v i n g . These f i g u r e s o f 72 and 57 p e r c e n t a l t h o u g h a p p e a r i n g q u i t e h i g h seem t o be r e a l i s t i c when compared w i t h the e a r l i e r s t a t e m e n t s t h a t 76 p e r c e n t o f a l l s i n g l e p e r -sons and 55 p e r c e n t o f a l l f a m i l i e s i n t h e study a r e a a r e below th e minimum s u b s i s t a n c e l e v e l . However, what t h e s e new s t a t i s t i c s do i n d i c a t e i s t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s a r e u n a b l e t o e a r n an adequate l i v i n g p r i m a r i l y due t o t h e i r l a c k o f j o b s k i l l s . T h i s i s f u r t h e r borne out by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l w i t h i n the a r e a i s q u i t e low. I n f a c t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 56 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the a r e a 27 had o n l y an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . Census o f Canada, 1961. 86 Here i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s s u r v e y has two l i m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t , t he members o f t h e work f o r c e between the ages o f 16 and 21 y e a r s a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s sample. However, i n l i g h t o f the f i n d i n g s f o r f a m i l y income, as w e l l as th o s e f o r e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s , b o t h o f w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h i s group, the c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn.that they a re by no means unique and t h e r e f o r e would have a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same p e r c e n t a g e b r e a k -down. Second, w i t h r e g a r d t o t h o s e unemployed b u t employable, t h e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s e were f e m a l e s . As a r e s u l t o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h b o t h Mr. L a r r y B e l l o f the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , and Mr. Campbell S u t h e r l a n d o f the Vancouver Ho u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , i t was a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t t h e major-i t y o f t h e s e women were m a r r i e d w i t h c h i l d r e n and no husbands. Under such c o n d i t i o n s and w i t h t h e i r low l e v e l o f s k i l l s , t h e c o s t o f baby s i t t e r s would be alm o s t as much as t h e money t h a t they would e a r n . There may be some q u e s t i o n as t o whether they s h o u l d have been c l a s s i f i e d as unemployed b u t employable o r n o t . I t was f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o c l a s s i f y them i n t h i s manner due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i f t h e i r e a r n i n g power was i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e n they would be c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s u r v e y can be summarized as f o l l o w s : That between 55 and 72 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the st u d y a r e a a r e i n c a p a b l e o f e a r n i n g an adequate l i v -i n g , and t h a t t h i s d e f i c i e n c y i s due p r i m a r i l y t o t h e l e v e l s o f s k i l l s and e d u c a t i o n t h a t they p o s s e s s . 87 •>. TABLE IV...7 STUDY AREA: LEVEL OF EDUCATION EDUCATION No. % None 34 22.4 Grade S c h o o l 82 53.9 Some H i g h S c h o o l 17 11.2 H i g h S c h o o l Graduate 16 10.5 Some U n i v e r s i t y 2 1.3 U n i v e r s i t y Graduate 1 .7 T o t a l s 152 100.0 Source: Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a (Vancouver, B. C.: P r e p a r e d by: U n i t e d Com-munity S e r v i c e s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , J u l y , 1966), Appendix 1 - 2 . G. Chapter Summary The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r has been t o a n a l y z e what would appear t o be a t y p i c a l u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e problems o f the a r e a c o r r e s p o n d t o what has been d e s c r i b e d i n the e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s , as t y p i c a l u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o b l e m s . S i n c e the r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s were a f f i r m a t i v e i n n a t u r e , t h e n e x t s t e p was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l o f t h e s p e c i f i c program f o r s o l v i n g t h e s e problems. The p r o c e d u r e has been t o de t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t a r e t h e s e problems r e l a t e d t o t h e j o b s k i l l l e v e l s a v a i l a b l e i n the a r e a , and t o e v a l u a t e whether o r not manpower t r a i n i n g would appear t o be r e l e v a n t i n s e e k i n g a s o l u t i o n . 88.. W i t h r e g a r d t o the l a t t e r two a s p e c t s o f t h e problem, the a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l e v e l o f s k i l l s i n the urban r e n e w a l a r e a i s g e n e r a l l y v e r y low, and t h a t t h i s has a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on b o t h t h e need f o r s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g , as w e l l as the i n a b i l i t y o f p r e s e n t u r b a n r e n e w a l programs t o s o l v e t h i s need. F u r t h e r m o r e , w i t h between 55 and 72 p e r c e n t o f the p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e o f t h e a r e a been c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r unemployed b u t employab l e , o r u n s k i l l e d ; and w i t h t h i s a r e a a p p e a r i n g t o be t y p i c a l o f a l l urban r e n e w a l a r e a s , i t appears t h a t manpower t r a i n i n g c o u l d be o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n e f f e c t u a t i n g a p e r -manent s o l u t i o n . The f i n a l s t e p t h a t remains i s t o det e r m i n e to what e x t e n t can manpower t r a i n i n g a s s i s t i n b o t h the r a i s i n g of t he low l e v e l o f income t h a t e x i s t s , as w e l l as i n a i d i n g i n s o l v i n g the problems o f u r b a n r e n e w a l . These a s p e c t s w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 7 V . . T H E A D A P T A B I L I T Y O F M A N P O W E R T R A I N I N G T O U R B A N , R E N E W A L P R O B L E M S v'V. THE ADAPTABILITY OF MANPOWER TRAINING TO URBAN RENEWAL PROBLEMS A. I n t r o d u c t i o n The a n a l y s i s of the data presented i n t h i s t h e s i s has not only i n d i c a t e d the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of the v a r i e t y of problems that are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the urban renewal areas. I t a l s o demon-s t r a t e d the phenomena that s o l u t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed at s o l v -i n g one aspect of these problems may a l s o a i d i n s o l v i n g problems th a t appear to be almost u n r e l a t e d . Here i t i s f e l t t h a t although manpower t r a i n i n g programs are s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to cope w i t h the problems of unemployment, and the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s ; the use of such a program i n an urban renewal area, i f c o r r e c t l y a p p l i e d , w i l l a l s o a i d i n a s o l u t i o n o f some of these other p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic problems. Previ o u s evidence has i n d i c a t e d , t h a t the problems of the urban renewal area are m u l t i - f a c e t e d . The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s has a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d the f a c t that a s i g n i f i c a n t number of the problems of urban renewal can be a t t r i b u t e d to p o v e r t y . The case study has f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s poverty i s to a g r e a t extent d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d to the inadequacy of earning power which i n t u r n i s due to the low l e v e l o f s k i l l s possessed by the p o p u l a t i o n . Furthermore, i t has been determined i n p r e v i o u s chapters through an a n a l y s i s of manpower, p o l i c i e s , programs and "91 o b j e c t i v e s ; t h a t such programs a r e geared t o i m p r o v i n g the e a r n -i n g c a p a c i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s by the o p t i m i z a t i o n o f s k i l l s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g programs. What remains t o be d e t e r m i n e d i s t o what e x t e n t a r e manpower t r a i n i n g p r o -grams and t e c h n i q u e s a d a p t a b l e t o s o l v i n g n o t o n l y t h e need f o r s k i l l e d t r a i n i n g o f the p o p u l a t i o n , b u t a l s o t o what e x t e n t are such programs a d a p t a b l e t o s o l v i n g the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic problems analogous w i t h u r ban r e n e w a l . W i t h r e g a r d to t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t o f u r ban r e n e w a l , t h e r e may be a chance o f combining the two programs: the p r o v i s i o n o f manpower t r a i n i n g , and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f u r ban b l i g h t . One o f the means o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e s e ends i s d e s c r i b e d by W i l b u r Thompson: An i n c r e a s i n g l y g l a r i n g paradox o f u r b a n l i f e i s the e x i s t e n c e o f perhaps two m i l l i o n u n s k i l l e d but a b l e - b o d i e d men, s t a n d i n g i n c i t y s t r e e t s a n k l e deep i n t r a s h , l e a n i n g a g a i n s t d i l a p i d a t e d b u i l d i n g s , b e h i n d w h i c h r a t - i n f e s t e d a l l e y s menace h e a l t h . C h r o n i c unemployment i n the m i d s t o f u r b a n b l i g h t and drabness i s an i n d i c t m e n t o f our vaunted yankee i n g e n u i t y . The s i m p l i e s t s o l u t i o n would be t o r e v i v e t h e o l d W.P.A. o f t h e t h i r t i e s and d i s p t a c t h work gangs t h r o u g h the c i t y , c l e a n i n g , p a i n t i n g , r e p a i r i n g and g a r d e n i n g as they g o . l A d m i t t e d l y , what Thompson i s s u g g e s t i n g i s n o t h i n g more tha n a c l e a n - u p campaign, an as such, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e v e r y l i m i t e d . Such a system does_not p r o v i d e the u n s k i l l e d w i t h adequate s k i l l s and f u r t h e r m o r e , i t cannot be used i n areas were W i l b u r Thompson, A P r e f a c e t o Urban Economics, ( B a l t i m o r e : P u b l i s h e d f o r the Resources f o r the F u t u r e I n c . , by the John Hopkins P r e s s , 1965), p. 243. t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e s u b s t a n d a r d and have t o be removed and r e p l a c e d . However the system does r e c o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l o f u s i n g t h e u n s k i l l e d i n s o l v i n g the problems o f ur b a n r e n e w a l . What remains t o be done i s t o d e v i s e programs aimed a t e x p l o i t i n g t h i s p o t e n t i a l . To t h e s e ends the p o s s i -b i l i t i e s and advantages o f combining t h e On-the-Job T r a i n i n g  Programs, Job Corps T r a i n i n g Programs and S e l f - H e l p Housing  Programs, w i t h u r b a n r e n e w a l programs w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The c h o i c e o f the above t h r e e programs f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the a d a p t a b i l i t y o f manpower t r a i n i n g t o u r b a n r e n e w a l . F i r s t l y , t h e s e programs were chosen i n l i g h t o f t h e need f o r s k i l l e d c o n s t r u c t i o n tradesmen as i n d i c a t e d by the manpower programs' emphasis on such t r a d e s . S e c o n d l y , a l l t h r e e c o u l d be used as a method o f o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g o r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g , t h e two systems o f o b t a i n i n g s k i l l e d manpower s t r e s s e d by b o t h the American and Canadian programs. T h i r d l y , a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l v a r i e d programs may r e s u l t from a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two o r more o f them, i n d i v i d -u a l l y , they r e f l e c t the v a r i a t i o n s o f c o m p l e x i t y , s i z e and needs of problems c o n f r o n t e d i n u r b a n r e n e w a l . And f i n a l l y , t h ey appear t o be r e a d i l y a d a p t a b l e t o t h e urban r e n e w a l p r o c e s s . B. On-the-Job T r a i n i n g Programs B o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, under t h e Economic O p p o r t u n i t y A c t , 1964 and t h e A d u l t O c c u p a t i o n T r a i n i n g B i l l o f 1967, o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r i e s p r o v i d e programs f o r t h e t r a i n -i n g and r e t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s , such •9-3 as carpentry, masonary, e l e c t r i c i t y , etc. I t i s suggested that residents of the urban renewal area who show an i n t e r e s t and an aptitude for such trade, could and should be employed and trained on the urban renewal project of t h e i r area. Such a system could be accomplished i n several ways. In the f i r s t place the contractors bidding on the urban renewal project could be required to hire and t r a i n those r e s i -dents who are deemed e l i g i b l e for t r a i n i n g . In fact the con-tractor i n submitting his bid for the project would be required to submit as part of that bid the cost of such t r a i n i n g . Under such a system the contractor would not only be responsible for the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the physical environment, but part of the urban environment as well, with both being under the close super-v i s i o n of the government. An alternative method would be for the government to provide an allotment for every trainee that the contractor i s w i l l i n g to employ. The system suggested here i s a c t u ally a continuation of the present on-the-job t r a i n i n g and apprenticeship t r a i n i n g programs with private enterprise con-tinuing to play i t s dominant r o l e . The s i g n i f i c a n t differences of this proposal being that the governments would hot only finance but also administer these programs of t r a i n i n g . Aside from taking advantage of the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e that industry i n the past has played i n the provision of s k i l l e d labor, i t also ensures that t r a i n i n g w i l l be provided for those i n the area i n which needs seem to be most acute, the urban renewal areas. Such a system of cooperation between government and industry i s by no means unique. The success possible under th i s type of 1*94 arrangement i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e E n g l i s h example i n w h i c h the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s t h r o u g h an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program i s the 9 combined r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e government and i n d u s t r y . The system has r e s u l t e d i n a c o n t r a c t u r a l arrangement r e g a r d i n g t h e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f b o t h government and i n d u s t r y i n a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs. T h i s arrangement has r e s u l t e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r t h e major i n d u s t r i e s o f N a t i o n a l J o i n t C o u n c i l s . R e p r e s e n t e d on t h e s e c o u n c i l s are the M i n i s t e r o f L a b o r , th e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , t r a d e u n i o n l e a d e r s , as w e l l as r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s o f employment b o d i e s . 3 Under t h i s system th e t r a i n e e s who a r e s c h o o l aged boys between 15 and 17 y e a r s , w h i l e s t i l l i n s c h o o l s e r v e a system o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t o an i n d u s t r y o r f i r m engaged i n t h e t r a d e i n w h i c h t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a p t i t u d e l i e . The g e n e r a l arrangement has been t h a t t h i s program i s e n t e r e d i n t o d u r i n g t h e l a s t two y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , w i t h the t r a i n e e d i v i d i n g h i s time between s c h o o l and j o b - t r a i n i n g program. The n o r m a l - d i v i s i o n o f t ime i s 3 and 2 days r e s p e c t i v e l y . 4 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s system i s borne out by the f a c t t h a t i n 1953, t h o s e a p p r e n t i c e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s a l o n e t o t a l l e d 22,000, and o f t h i s t o t a l , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 56 p e r c e n t were s e r v i n g under a w r i t t e n i n d e n t u r e . ^ 2 G e r t r u d e W i l l i a m s , R e c r u i t m e n t t o S k i l l e d Trades (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1957), p. 28. 3 l b i d . . p. 92. 4-Ibid.. PP. 31-33. 5 l b i d . , pp. 90-102. m The o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g programs as a p p l i e d t o the ur b a n r e n e w a l p r o c e s s would appear t o have a t l e a s t two areas o f a p p l i c a t i o n . I t c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n areas i n w h i c h the r e n e w a l p r o j e c t i s l a r g e o r complex enough t o a l l o w f o r t h e c o n t i n u o u s employment o f t h e t r a i n e e s o v er t h e i r t r a i n i n g p e r i o d ( w h i c h averages between one and two y e a r s ) ; an example i s an a r e a d e f i n e d as a redevelopment a r e a . The o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n would be i n an a r e a , such as a c i t y o r m e t r o p o l i s where a l t h o u g h the i n d i v i d u a l u r b a n r e n e w a l areas may be l i m i t e d i n s i z e and scope, t h e i r combined number and c o m p l e x i t i e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e employment o v e r the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . An example o f t h i s type of a p p l i c a t i o n would be s e v e r a l s m a l l d i s a s s o c i a t e d r e d e v e l o p -ment o r r e n e w a l a r e a s w i t h i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . C. The Job Corps T r a i n i n g C e n t e r Program Under t h i s method the government would be r e q u i r e d t o d e s i g n a t e the u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a as a j o b c o r p s c e n t e r and t o a c t u a l l y u n d e r t a k e t h e p h y s i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f urban r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s , u s i n g as a l a b o r f o r c e , t r a i n e e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s . T h i s program would be q u i t e s i m i l a r i n d e t a i l t o the program by the same name now b e i n g c a r r i e d out i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t t o dat e A merican e f f o r t s have been p i e c e - m e a l and i s o l a t e d and no attempt has been made t o use i t i n whole o r i n p a r t i n an ur b a n r e n e w a l a r e a . The i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e f e d e r a l government i n a c t i v i t i e s p r e v i o u s l y conducted by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e has e a r l i e r p r e c e -dence i n b o t h Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The Canadian Government a t p r e s e n t i s engaged i n economic endeavors w h i c h a re i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , w i t h A i r Canada, and Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d b e i n g t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e f o r e such a v e n t u r e as urban r e n e w a l would be i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r p o l i c y o f p r o v i d i n g a n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the "Work P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n / ' a p r o j e c t s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e t o t h a t suggested h e r e was e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e Emergency R e l i e f  A p p r o p r i a t i o n s A c t i n 1935, and marked i t s advent i n t o t h e con-s t r u c t i o n f i e l d . Here i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o c i t e some o f the major accom-p l i s h m e n t s o f the W.P.A. s i n c e i t i n d i c a t e s t he s u c c e s s t h a t i s p o s s i b l e under such a program. The W.P.A. was e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930's i n o r d e r t o g i v e employment on use-f u l p r o j e c t s t o as many needy p e r s o n s as p o s s i b l e , i n a com-mun i t y . Under the program, employment t o o k precedence over con-s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y . ^ W i t h i n 3 y e a r s a f t e r t h e s t a r t o f t h e program, o v e r 1,000,000 i l l i t e r a t e p e r s o n s had been t a u g h t t h e fundamentals o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , as w e l l as l e a r n i n g t he s k i l l s o f a t r a d e . 7 The bro a d c a t e g o r i e s o f completed p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n by the W.P.A. i n c l u d e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r improvement o f highways, r o a d s and s t r e e t s ; w h i t e - c o l l a r p r o j e c t s f o r c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s ; p u b l i c b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s , ^ C o r r i n g t o n G i l l , Wasted Manpower: The C h a l l e n g e o f Unemployment (New York: M. W. N o r t o n and Company, I n c . , 1939), pp. 186-189. 7 I b i d . such as s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , c i t y h a l l s , r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s ; p r o j e c t s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r improvement o f p a r k s , swimming p o o l s , a t h l e t i c f i e l d s , t e n n i s c o u r t s and g o l f c o u r s e s ; sewer systems and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t y p r o j e c t s , as w e l l as m u n i c i p a l o a i r p o r t s . The l i s t o f p r o j e c t s p r e s e n t e d above w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f p o s s i b l y t h e a i r p o r t , c o v e r a l l a s p e c t s o f con-s t r u c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an ur b a n r e n e w a l a r e a , and a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e t h a t j o b t r a i n i n g programs a re exp e c t e d t o s o l v e . T h e r e f o r e , a c t u a l l y what has been recommended as p e r W i l b u r Thompson's s u g g e s t i o n , i s a r e v i v a l o f the o l d W.P.A., but w i t h an emphasis o f b o t h th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s and t h e permanent s o l u t i o n o f ur b a n r e n e w a l . W i t h f u r t h e r r e g a r d t o the W.P.A., a stu d y c a r r i e d on by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the b u i l d i n g t r a d e s and the e n g i n e e r s under the a u s p i c e s o f the House A p p r o p r i a t i o n s Committee t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p r o j e c t s i n the l a t e S p r i n g o f 1939, i n d i c a t e d good workmanship and "on t h e whole a s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h degree o f e f f i c i e n c y . " 9 W i t h p r o p e r t r a i n i n g programs and adequate s u p e r v i s i o n , i t i s t h e r e f o r e n o t i n c o n c e i v a b l e t o a n t i c i p a t e an e f f e c t and e f f i c i e n c y o f u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n by j o b t r a i n e e s , a t l e a s t e q u a l t o t h a t a c c o m p l i s h e d by the W.P.A. The Job Corps T r a i n i n g C e n t e r Program, l i k e the On-the-Job T r a i n i n g Programs, a r e most a d a p t a b l e t o ur b a n r e n e w a l programs w h i c h a r e g r e a t e r t h a n 1 y e a r i n l e n g t h , t h i s would a l l o w 9 l b i d . t r a i n e e s , under b o t h the o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g programs, and the j o b c e n t e r programs t o complete t h e i r t r a i n i n g on a s i n g l e p r o -gram. T h e r e f o r e urban r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and human r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would commence and be completed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . D. S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g The s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g t e c h n i q u e i s a method o r system o f house c o n s t r u c t i o n , by w h i c h a number of f a m i l i e s o r g a n i z e them-s e l v e s , o r a r e o r g a n i z e d by an e x t e r n a l agency f o r t h e purpose o f b u i l d i n g houses f o r i n d i v i d u a l o r j o i n t ownership by t h e f a m i l y o r f a m i l i e s . "The f a m i l i e s c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r own s e r v i c e s and t h e r e f o r e b e n e f i t i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the work t h a t t hey con-t r i b u t e d . " 1 ^ T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g used i n d e v e l o p -i n g c o u n t r i e s i n A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a , as a method o f p r o v i d i n g b o t h s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g and t r a i n i n g i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s k i l l s . A l s o i t has been used t o a v e r y l i m i t e d e x t e n t i n A m e r i c a as a method o f combating urban r e n e w a l problems. The p r o j e c t i n t h e a r e a known as " l i t t l e M e x i c o " i n D a l l a s , Texas, i s an example.of i t s p r e s e n t day u s u a g e . 1 1 S e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g embodies t h e p r i n c i p a l t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s o f t h e a r e a p r o v i d e b o t h t h e l a b o r , as w e l l as a p a r t o f t h e f i n a n c i a l lOAmjad A l i Bahadur R i z v i , " S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g : An E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s P o l i c y i n S e l e c t e d D e v e l o p i n g Countries':' ( U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , D i v i s i o n o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) , p. 11. 1 : L R o b e r t S. S t r o t h e r , " S e l f - H e l p on Slums," N a t i o n a l  C i v i c R e v i e w ^ ( J a n u a r y , 1965), V o l . L I V , No. 1, (New York: The N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l League, 1965), pp. 12-15. resources needed, with the government providing some financial assistance, as well as technical assistance and supervision. In developing countries, the results have been satisfactory, here not only has self-help produced homes and provided t ra in-ing for builders and masons, but i t also has stimulated socio-12 economic development. True, the circumstances, as well as the needs and standards of the developing countries are somewhat different from those of developed countries, such as Canada and America, however, i t i s f e l t that the pr inciple , as well as the results accomplished by this principle are applicable. It is suggested that self-help housing could be used i n specific urban renewal areas to provide standard housing, provide s k i l l training and to stimulate socio-economic development. Such a system could be used i n renewal areas where there is a substantial proportion of the labor force already involved i n the construction f i e l d , with the object here being to improve the level of the trainees' already existing s k i l l s . Here to be more specific the mass con-struction method of self-help housing when applied to a limited urban area, provides several dist inct advantages not normally associated with this program when conducted over a much larger scale. It is easier to schedule work for the families ; i t can be used to provide a common goal while at the same time main-taining interest and enthusiasm among the families ; i t saves time and money because more men are working on each task and R i z v i , loc. c i t . 100 because r e p e t i t i o n o f work a c c e l e r a t e s the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s ; and f i n a l l y i t a l l o w s a s i n g l e s u p e r v i s o r t o t e a c h and super-v i s e the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f more houses t h a n i f they were g r e a t l y 13 s e p a r a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , w i t h i n an urban a r e a w i t h the houses f a i r l y c l o s e t o g e t h e r , the workers a re a b l e t o move q u i c k l y and e a s i l y from one house s i t e t o a n o t h e r . 1 4 The 1 ' . / l i t t l e M e x i c o " u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t i n D a l l a s , Texas, i l l u s t r a t e s t he a d a p t a b i l i t y o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g t o urban r e n e w a l problems i n a h i g h l y d eveloped economy such as Am e r i c a . U s i n g the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s , the p r o p e r t y owners, many w i t h incomes below the " p o v e r t y l e v e l " o f $3,000 a y e a r , p a i d f o r the improvements t o some 450 d w e l l i n g u n i t s , the 15 c o s t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ranged from $250 t o $3,500 a house. Other u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g t h e s e l f - h e l p method have been conducted i n Dewberry, and West D a l l a s , Texas, w i t h s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . S e l f - h e l p c o o p e r a t i v e s , a l t h o u g h n o t used s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , embodies t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f c o o p e r a t i o n o f the k i n d r e q u i r e d i n a s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program, and i n d i c a t e s the degree and e x t e n t o f c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t would be e x p e c t e d . The s e l f - h e l p c o o p e r a t i v e s i n tne U n i t e d S t a t e s were i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n o f the 1930's, i n an attempt on 1 3 S e I f - H e l p H o u s i n g : A Handbook f o r V i l l a g e Workers (New Y o r k ! Oceana P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1964), pp. 31-33. 1 4 I b i d . l ^ s t r o t h e r , Loc. c i t . 101 t h e p a r t o f some unemployed men and women t o combat p o v e r t y , w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o c h a r i t y . By the end o f 1934, t h e r e were 310 such u n i t s , i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s s e r v i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y one m i l l i o n p e r s o n s . 1 ^ Los A n g e l e s County i n t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a d eveloped i n t o one o f the p r i n c i p a l c e n t e r s o f t h i s movement, and by 1934 i t accounted f o r n e a r l y 45 p e r ce n t o f a l l s e l f - h e l p u n i t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and about o n e - t e n t h o f t h e me m b e r s h i p . 1 7 The s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s movement w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e the degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n p o s s i b l e i n s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g . Many o f t h e reaso n s c i t e d f o r j o i n i n g , a r e i n answer t o needs and demands s i m i l a r t o th o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the poor i n an u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t . And i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e s e r e a s o n s c o u l d a l s o be the c a t a l y s i s f o r a c t i o n w i t h i n the urban r e n e w a l a r e a . The need t o j o i n i s p a r t l y r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f i t s members had been unemployed f o r o ver t h r e e y e a r s ; s e c o n d l y , b e s i d e s economic n e c e s s i t y , many o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n v o l v e m e n t i n such a p r o j e c t a l l o w s them t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s e l f - r e s p e c t ; t h i r d l y , i t b r o k e the monotony o f i d l e n e s s and a f f o r d e d them an o p p o r t u n i t y o f no t o n l y c o n t r i b u t i n g , b u t an avenue f o r s o c i a l companionship; and f i n a l l y , a few saw the s e l f - h e l p o r g a n i z a t i o n as a method • ^ C o n s t a n t i n e P a n u n z i o , Wade Church, and L o u i s Wasserman, " S e l f - H e l p C o o p e r a t i v e s i n Los A n g e l e s " P u b l i c a t i o n s o f the  U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t Los An g e l e s i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V o l . V I I I , No. 1^ ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i . : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1939), p. 108. 1 7 I b i d . , pp. 1-2. 102 o f combating the unemployment problems. ° Manned as they were by p e r s o n s o f r e l a t i v e l y advanced age, and o t h e r s w i t h p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s , and o b l i g e d t o r e l y upon l a n d and b u i l d i n g s l e n t t o them as w e l l as c o m p e l l e d t o use c a s t o f f t o o l s and l e f t o v e r m a t e r i a l , t h o s e p e r s o n s managed t o meet the c h a l l e n g e s o f the 19 d e p r e s s i o n and t o make s i g n i f i c a n t advances. I n s p i t e o f t h e s e and o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s , s e l f - h e l p c o o p e r a t i v e s have a c c o m p l i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . They were a b l e t o p r o d u c t i v e l y employ a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f l a b o r and have u t i l i z e d a s i g n i -f i c a n t amount o f goods and m a t e r i a l s w h i c h i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y would have gone t o waste. And as C o n s t a n t i n e P a n u n z i o , e t a l . , s t a t e s : They have i n t h i s manner supplemented t h e work o f r e l i e f a g e n c i e s and r e n d e r e d a s e r v i c e t o t h e community.20 The s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d by t h e t h r e e p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n i n D a l l a s , Texas, u s i n g s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g as a s o l u -t i o n t o u r b a n r e n e w a l , c o u p l e d w i t h the p o t e n t i a l t h a t such a program p o s s e s s e s , as i n d i c a t e d by the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e l f - h e l p c o o p e r a t i v e programs, would i n d i c a t e t h a t the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method i s an a d a p t a b l e t o o l t o the urban r e n e w a l problems and p r o c e s s . E. The Economic A s p e c t s o f the Combined Programs The economic b e n e f i t s o f manpower t r a i n i n g programs t o i n d i v i d u a l s r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the urban r e n e w a l a r e a are p r o b a b l y 1 8 l b i d . , pp. 2 5 - 2 8 . 1 9 l b i d . 2 Q I b i d . l'fl.'3 the most o b v i o u s . I f the f a c t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t a g r e a t p e r c e n t o f t h e p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e r e s i d i n g w i t h i n an ur b a n r e n e w a l a r e a a re e i t h e r u n s k i l l e d o r unemployed, and f u r t h e r i f i t i s ac c e p t e d t h a t t h i s low l e v e l o f s k i l l s has produced p o v e r t y ; ( b o t h s t a t e m e n t s have been borne out by t h e case s t u d y ) then i t can be seen t h a t any i n c r e a s e i n i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s h o u l d produce a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e i n the degree o f p o v e r t y . To f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t i t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t t he c o s t o f 21 t r a i n i n g averages between $1,000 and $1,250 p e r t r a i n e e . I f t h i s t r a i n i n g does no more t h a n f o r example improve the t r a i n e e from u n s k i l l e d non-farm l a b o r e r t o s e m i - s k i l l e d o p e r a t o r (an a p proximate e q u i v a l e n t f o r a woman would be from o p e r a t i v e or s e r v i c e worker t o c l e r i c a l w o r k e r ) , the i n c r e a s e i n an n u a l income as a r e s u l t o f t h i s t r a i n i n g would be i n t h e magnitude 9 9 o f $1,300. The i n c r e a s e d e a r n i n g power i n one y e a r would amount t o s l i g h t l y more th a n the t o t a l c o s t o f t h e t r a i n i n g . I t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n t h e c o u r s e o f the average w o r k i n g l i f e t i m e , the t r a i n e e s i n c r e a s e d income would t o t a l about 9 o $50,000. F u r t h e r m o r e , about o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f t h i s t r a i n i n g would be recouped by the government i n a s i n g l e y e a r ; w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t coming back as a d d i t i o n a l income t a x rev e n u e s , and an a d d i t i o n a l 10 p e r cen t because o f 21w. W i l l a r d W i r t z , "The I n c i d e n c e and Cost o f Unemploy-ment," The Manpower R e v o l u t i o n : I t s P o l i c y Consequences (New Yor k : Doubled ay and Company, I n c . , 1965), p. T. 2 2 I b i d . 2 3 I b i d . 310.4 lower unemployment compensation. Here i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e s e e s t i m a t e s do n o t i n c l u d e the s a v i n g s a c c r u i n g as a r e s u l t o f t h e r e d u c t i o n s i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r o t h e r w e l f a r e programs. T h i s i n c r e a s e d e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y has s e v e r a l o t h e r broad r a m i f i c a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o u r b a n r e n e w a l and b l i g h t . One o f t h e major c r i t i c i s m o f p r e s e n t u r b a n r e n e w a l programs has been t h a t u r b a n r e n e w a l e l i m i n a t e s s u b s t a n d a r d o r l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g , w i t h o u t e l i m i n a t i n g the need f o r such s t r u c t u r e s . I f the need f o r such s t r u c t u r e s i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p o v e r t y o r t h e l e v e l o f income, th e n the i n c r e a s e d e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y r e p r e s e n t e d by the above f i g u r e s s h o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o e l i m i n a t e such needs f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r -more, t h i s p e r c e n t d e c r e a s e would r e p r e s e n t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e i n the need f o r government r e n t - s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g . F o r as i t has been p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , a l t h o u g h i t i s a l o o s i n g p r o p o s i t i o n , r e n t - s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e d e c e n t , s a f e and s a n i t a r y h o u s i n g f o r t h o s e who c o u l d not o t h e r w i s e a f f o r d i t . And i f as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the c o s t o f t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s recouped by t h e government i n t h r e e t o f o u r y e a r s , t h e n t h i s would a l l o w t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e government o u t l a y f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g t o be used i n o t h e r a r e a s . These i n c r e a s e s i n e a r n i n g power a l o n g w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n a b i l i t y t o a f f o r d s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g , c o u l d a l s o produce r e p e r c u s -s i o n s on the h o u s i n g market. These i n c r e a s e s i n income w i l l 2 4 I b i d . 105 p r o v i d e the i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f c h o i c e o f accommodations' t h a n they p r e v i o u s l y had. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s c h o i c e w i l l produce a d e s i r e , as w e l l as a demand f o r b e t t e r houses. I t a l s o i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a c e r t a i n p e r cen t o f t h i s demand cannot o r w i l l n o t be met w i t h i n the urban r e n e w a l a r e a . As i n h a b i t a n t s move o u t , c o m p e t i t i o n s h o u l d r e s u l t f o r t h e houses thus v a c a t e d . The r e s u l t b e i n g t h a t some l a n d l o r d s w i l l be g e n t l y c o e r c e d i n t o i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s t r u c t u r e s i n o r d e r t o h o l d t h e i r t e n a n t s . Thus, some urban r e n e w a l may o c c u r w i t h o u t government i n t e r v e n t i o n . F i n a l l y , f o r a v e r y s m a l l number o f p e o p l e , $50,000 i n added l i f e - t i m e income w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w them t o p u r -chase and m a i n t a i n t h e i r own homes. F. Chapter Summary I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h r e e s p e c i f i c programs have been i n v e s t i -g a t e d i n o r d e r t o de t e r m i n e t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y t o the urban r e n e w a l p r o c e s s ; On-the-Job T r a i n i n g Programs, t h e Job Corps T r a i n i n g Programs, and t h e S e l f - H e l p Housing Programs. I t has been i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l t h r e e programs may t o some degree be used i n an u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a t o improve the s k i l l s o f t he i n h a b i t a n t s , w h i l e a t the same time r e c o n s t r u c t and r e f u r -b i s h the p h y s i c a l environment. I t has been f u r t h e r demonstrated t h a t t h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g o r d i l u t i n g e i t h e r t h e g o a l s o f urban r e n e w a l o r manpower t r a i n i n g . From t h e a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e , i t would appear t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the t h r e e methods i n v e s t i g a t e d have t o a g r e a t 106 e x t e n t been governed by the n a t u r e o f the urban r e n e w a l problems. F o r example, i t has been shown t h a t b o t h t h e o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g programs and t h e j o b c o r p s t r a i n i n g programs a r e more s u i t a b l y a p p l i e d where the a r e a and the types o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e l a r g e and complex, o r where the areas a r e s m a l l e r i n s i z e b u t s e v e r a l i n number. N e i t h e r program would appear t o be s u i t a b l e f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o s m a l l i s o l a t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program, t h e areas o f a p p l i c a t i o n a r e j u s t t h e r e v e r s e . S e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g would appear to be most e f f e c t i v e l y used i n much s m a l l e r i s o l a t e d areas o f e i t h e r the c o n s e r v a t i o n o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n v a r i e t y . A l t h o u g h i t may a l s o have some a p p l i c a t i o n i n s m a l l e r redevelopment areas as w e l l . However, i t has been demonstrated t h a t such a system i s i m p r a c t i c a b l e when used i n l a r g e r redevelopment areas o r i n area s where the n a t u r e o f t h e problems a r e more complex and the s u p e r v i s i o n r e q u i r e d i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . I n s h o r t , g i v e n a competent framework, manpower t r a i n i n g methods and t e c h n i q u e s can be an e f f e c t i v e method o f s o l v i n g some o f the problems o f u r b a n r e n e w a l . V I . S U M M A R Y , C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose of t h i s c o n c l u d i n g chapter i s to eva l u a t e the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s and to make recommendations r e g a r d i n g the imple-mentation of an i n t e g r a t e d program. Recommendations r e g a r d i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h are a l s o i n d i c a t e d . B. Summary The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the adapta-b i l i t y o f manpower t r a i n i n g , a s o c i a l program f o r urban develop-ment, to urban renewal problems. The reasons f o r t h i s study stems from the f a c t t h a t p r e s e n t urban renewal programs are f a i l -i n g to s o l v e many of the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban renewal. And i t would appear t h a t an i n t e g r a t e d program designed to f a c i l -i t a t e a comprehensive approach could be an e f f e c t i v e method of r d e a l i n g w i t h the m u l t i - f a c e t e d problems of urban development. With the p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t on the p a r t o f the F e d e r a l Governments of Canada and the United S t a t e s i n the o p t i m i z a t i o n of human res o u r c e s through manpower t r a i n i n g programs; and w i t h f u r t h e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t both the problems of urban renewal and manpower t r a i n i n g are problems d e a l i n g w i t h the i n t r i c a c i e s o f urban development; more s p e c i f i c a l l y both d e a l i n g w i t h aspects of pove r t y i n communal l i v i n g , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of programs of man-power t r a i n i n g to urban renewal problems appeared to m e r i t 108 109 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o v a l i d a t e the h y p o t h e s i s , a tho r o u g h under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e problems o f urban r e n e w a l , as w e l l as an under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e problems, g o a l s , and o b j e c t i v e s o f manpower t r a i n i n g was r e q u i r e d . The method o f r e s e a r c h began w i t h a r e v i e w o f p r e s e n t problems o f r e n e w a l , i n c l u d i n g an a n a l y s i s o f p e r t i n e n t u r b a n r e n e w a l l e g i s l a t i o n p r a c t i c e and s o l u t i o n s . I t th e n proceeded t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f manpower t r a i n i n g methods, t e c h n i q u e s and p r e s e n t e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t u r e . The n e x t s t e p was -.. an attempt t o adapt t h e t h e o r i e s and t e c h n i q u e s o f manpower t r a i n i n g t o u r b a n r e n e w a l problems. And f i n a l l y , t h e h y p o t h e s i s was r e - e v a l u a t e d i n l i g h t o f the f i n d i n g s . An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e consequences o f such a program i n an urban r e n e w a l a r e a were a l s o a n a l y z e d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h r e e types o f manpower t r a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d and a p p l i e d t o t h e urban r e n e w a l p r o c e s s ; " t h e o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g program," " t h e j o b c o r p s t r a i n -i n g c e n t e r program," and " t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program." The i n f e r e n c e s t h a t have been drawn from t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e t h a t manpower t r a i n i n g w h i l e d e c r e a s i n g p o v e r t y by i n c r e a s i n g the e a r n i n g power o f t h e t r a i n e e , i t a l s o has p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic r a m i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h a r e b e n e f i c i a l . C. E v a l u a t i o n o f the Study The t a s k o f d e v e l o p i n g a method o f r e s e a r c h by w h i c h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f manpower t r a i n i n g programs c o u l d be e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o urban r e n e w a l problems, has been an i n t r i c a t e one. A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s an abundance o f w r i t t e n 110 information available concerning the programs and problems of urban renewal and although there is information concerning the goals and programs of manpower training, other information con-cerning the effectiveness of manpower training methods has been found to be extremely limited. In fact there is very limited information available concerning the effectiveness of the man-power training program to the improvement of s k i l l s , or even information concerning the problem concerned with such training. The evaluation has therefore, by necessity been required to rely quite heavily upon the resourcefulness of the author to devise and analyze programs which would appear to be applicable, and furthermore, to uncover programs, projects and undertakings of a similar nature by which the effectiveness of such a program could be postulated. However, in spite of these limitations i t is f e l t that the findings of the investigation are significant enough to allow a valid conclusion to be drawn. D. Conclusions In concluding, i t has been demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between manpower training and urban renewal. It has been further demonstrated that manpower training is capable of improving the earning power of the inhabitants by providing them with more and better s k i l l s . It has also been illustrated that such a program further reduces the need for rent subsized housing, by increasing the inhabitants ab i l i t y to pay I l l f o r adequate h o u s i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , such a program when u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e form o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g , as i l l u s t r a t e d by the examples i n D a l l a s , Texas, has demonstrated an a b i l i t y t o promote community cohe-s i v e n e s s and u n i t y , r a t h e r t h a n the d i s u n i t y c r e a t e d by d i s -r u p t i o n o f community l i f e c r e a t e d by p r e s e n t r e l o c a t i o n programs. Such a program a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h t h e s k i l l s and a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n and up grade t h e i r homes once u r b a n r e n e w a l has been completed. A l s o o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the a b i l i t y o f such a program t o be c a r r i e d out i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the urban r e n e w a l program. The i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p e x h i b i t e d t h r o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e two programs i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t may be p o s s i b l e t o i n t e g r a t e o t h e r programs i n t o t h e urban r e n e w a l p r o c e s s . Programs s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed a t s o l v i n g problems t h a t n e i t h e r u r b a n r e n e w a l o r manpower t r a i n i n g a r e c a p a b l e o f s o l v i n g . Such a program does n o t appear c a p a b l e o f a f f o r d i n g a s o l u t i o n t o the problems c o n f r o n t i n g t h e e l d e r l y , who r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f an urban r e n e w a l a r e a . Even w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s , such a program i s o f m i n i -mal v a l u e t o t h o s e who due t o t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g t r a i n e d , n o r i s i t o f much h e l p t o t h e mother who w i t h s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n t o c a r e f o r , even w i t h s k i l l s would be i n c a p a b l e o f g a i n f u l employment. Based upon a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f t h e advantages and l i m i t a -t i o n s o f such a program, and b e a r i n g i n mind the f a c t t h a t u r b an r e n e w a l even when c a r r i e d out i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a manpower 112 t r a i n i n g program i s not t h e panacea o f a l l u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o b l e m s ; i t has been c o n c l u d e d t h a t the advantages and e f f e c t s o f such a system a r e q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . The c o n c l u s i o n thus drawn i s t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s has demonstrated the v a l i d i t y o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s : THAT MANPOWER TRAINING CAN BE AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN THE URBAN RENEWAL PROCESS. E. Recommendations I n v a l i d a t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u -s i o n s can be i n f e r r e d . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , from t h e i n v e s t i g a -t i o n p r e s e n t e d h e r e i t would appear t h a t no s i n g l e f e d e r a l p r o -gram i s , by i t s e l f , c a p a b l e o f s o l v i n g t h e problems o f urban development. I t would seem t h a t t h e comprehensive approach t o th e s e problems a f f o r d s t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n . And t h a t what i s needed i s a s e t o f i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r w o v e n and c o o r d i n a t e d programs aimed a t s o l v i n g problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u r b an development. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f such an i n t r i c a t e program o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e program v a l i d a t e d by t h e h y p o t h e s i s , depends t o a g r e a t e x t e n t upon the p r e s e n c e o f an adequate framework w i t h i n w h i c h they may o p e r a t e . Such a frame-work can o n l y be p r o v i d e d a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l . I t must be added t h a t a t p r e s e n t such a framework does n ot e x i s t . Here i t i s recommended t h a t i n o r d e r f o r the problems o f communal l i v i n g t o e v e n t u a l l y y i e l d t o a permanent s o l u t i o n , t h a t an agency o r body must be c r e a t e d a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l w h i c h i s c a p a b l e n o t o n l y o f v i e w i n g t h e s e problems i n t o t o b u t a l s o one 113 which i s capable o f d e v i s i n g and e f f e c t u a t i n g a s o l u t i o n . T h i s would r e q u i r e the c r e a t i o n of a department capable of such an u n d e r t a k i n g . I t i s recommended t h a t a Department of Urban A f f a i r s should be e s t a b l i s h e d i n order to a i d i n s o l v i n g not o n l y the problems of slum l i v i n g , but a l s o the broader range of problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h communal l i v i n g . F . Areas of F u r t h e r Research Even w i t h the v a l i d a t i o n of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , and t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such a program, i t i s e v i d e n t , at l e a s t based upon the da ta used to v a l i d a t e t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t the combined program a f f o r d s l i t t l e a i d to the e l d e r l y , the u n t r a i n a b l e , or to those who are unable to work, such as , the handicapped or the mother w i t h s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n . Programs aimed at these problems, need f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . A l s o , based upon the da ta used to v a l i d a t e the h y p o t h e s i s , there appears to be s e v e r a l o ther i n f e r r e d advantages of such a com-b i n e d program of manpower t r a i n i n g and urban renewal which f u r -t h e r r e s e a r c h may v e r i f y . The da ta tends to i n d i c a t e t h a t a combinat ion of manpower t r a i n i n g and urban r e n e w a l , when con-ducted i n an urban renewal a r e a , may improve both the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l cho ice of the i n h a b i t a n t s . I t a l s o i n f e r s t h a t such a program i s capable of i n c r e a s i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the community, as w e l l as i n c r e a s i n g the s o c i a l a d j u s t a b i l i t y of the members of t h a t community. F u r t h e r , i t i n d i c a t e s tha t the program may be e f f e c t i v e i n produc ing cohesiveness and community s p i r i t w i t h i n the a r e a . B I B L I O G R A P H Y B I B L I O G R A P H Y Books" Abrams, Charles. Man's Struggle f o r S h e l t e r i n an Urbanizing  World. Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1964. Anderson, M a r t i n . The F e d e r a l B u l l d o z e r . Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1964. A n g e l l , Norman and Wright, Harold. Can Governments Cure  Unemployment. London: J . M. Dent and Sons, 1931. Colean, M i l e s L. Renewing Our C i t i e s . New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1953. David, Henry. Manpower P o l i c i e s f o r a Democratic Society. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965. Doxiadis, C. A. Urban Renewal and the Future of the American  C i t y . (Prepared f o r the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Housing and Redevelopment O f f i c a l s ) , I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c Adminis-t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , 1966. G i l l , C o r rington. Wasted Manpower: The Challenge of Unemploy- ment. New York: W. V. Norton and Company, Inc., 1939. Ginzberg, E l i . 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L e s t e r , R i c h a r d A. Manpower P l a n n i n g i n a F r e e S o c i e t y . New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. L i c h f i e l d , Nathan. Economics o f P l a n n e d Development. London: The E s t a t e G a z e t t e L i m i t e d , 1966. Mangum, G a r t h M. ( e d . ) . The Manpower R e v o l u t i o n : I t s P o l i c y  Consequences. New York: Doubleday and Company, I n c . , 1965. M i l l a r , J . M a r s h a l l ( e d . ) . New L i f e f o r C i t i e s Around the World. ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Handbook on Urban Renewal). New Yor k : Books I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1959. M i l l s p a u h , M a r t i n , and B r e c k e n f e l d , Gurney. The Human S i d e o f  Urban Renewal. B a l t i m o r e : F i g h t - B l i g h t , I n c . , 1958. N e l s o n , Lowery, Ramsey, C h a r l e s E., and V e r n e r , C o o l i e . Community S t r u c t u r e and Change. New York: The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1962. P a r k , R o b e r t E z r a . Human Communities: The C i t y and Human  Ec o l o g y . I l l i n o i s : The F r e e P r e s s , 1952. P e r l o f f , Harvey S. ( e d . ) . P l a n n i n g and the Urban Community P e n n s y l v a n i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s , 1961. R e i n e r , Thomas A. The P l a c e o f t h e I d e a l Community i n Urban P l a n n i n g . P e n n s y l v a n i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s I n c . , 1963. S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g : A Handbook f o r V i l l a g e Workers. New York: Oceana P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1964. Thompson, W i l b u r R. A P r e f a c e t o Urban Economics. ( P u b l i s h e d f o r R e sources f o r "the F u t u r e I n c . ). B a l t i m o r e : The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1965. T u r a b i a n , K a t e L. A Manual f o r W r i t e r s o f Term P a p e r s , Theses  and D i s s e r t a t i o n s . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1965. Weaver, R o b e r t C. Dilemmas o f Urban A m e r i c a . Cambridge,' Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. 117. Weaver, R o b e r t C. The Urban Complex. New Y o r k : Anchor Books, Doubleday and Company, I n c . , 1966. Weber, Max. The C i t y . New York: The F r e e P r e s s , 1958. Wickersham, Edward D. D e t r o i t ' s I n s u r e d Unemployed and Employ- a b l e W e l f a r e R e c i p i e n t s : T h e i r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Labor  Market E x p e r i e n c e and A t t i t u d e s . M i c h i g a n : The W. E. UpJohn I n s t i t u t e f o r Employment R e s e a r c h , A p r i l , 1963. W i l l i a m s , G e r t r u d e . R e c r u i t m e n t t o S k i l l e d T r a d e s . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1957. P e r i o d i c a l s Dean, John P. "The Myths o f Hou s i n g Reform," American  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, XIV, No. 2 ( A p r i l , 1949). F r i e d , Marc. " F u n c t i o n o f t h e W o r k i n g - C l a s s Community i n Modern Urban S o c i e t y : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F o r c e d R e l o c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , X X X I I I , (November 2 ) . Gaus, John M. " E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e Emerging F i e l d o f R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and Development," S o c i a l F o r c e s , XXIX, No. 3 (March, 1957). "Human Resource Development P l a n n i n g i n M o d e r n i z i n g Economics," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, V, (1962). L o c a l P l a n n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1960. MacDonald, Gordon D., and Tough, R o s a l i n d . "New York: S o c i a l A c t i o n i n Urban Renewal," Land Economics, X L I I , No.v4, (November, 1966). " N a t i o n a l Manpower C o u n c i l , " P u b l i c P o l i c i e s and Manpower R e s o u r c e s , New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. P a n u n z i o , C o n s t a n t i n e , Church, Wade, and Wasserman, L o u i s . " S e l f - H e l p C o o p e r a t i v e s i n Los A n g e l e s , " S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V I I I , No. 1 , . B e r k e l e y , C a l i . : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 / "Program (A Program o f R e s e a r c h i n Urban Renewal f o r the American C o u n c i l t o Improve Our N e i g h b o r h o o d s ) , " Urban Renewal  R e s e a r c h , New York: A c t i o n . 118 Schnore, Leo F. and Couhig, James D. "Some Co r r e l a t e s of Reported H e a l t h i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Centers," S o c i a l Problems, V I I , (1959-1960). 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Transactions of the Sixteenth B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, September 8, 9, 10, 1965, B r i t i s h Columbia: The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1966. . • 119 A Modern Concept o f A p p r e n t i c e s h i p : The S t o r y o f A p p r e n t i c e s h i p  i n A l b e r t a . Canada: p r e p a r e d by the I n f o r m a t i o n Branch f o r the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch o f t h e Department o f La b o r , 1957. " R o y a l Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s , " S k i l l e d and  P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower i n Canada, 1945-1965. Ottawa: p r e p a r e d by The Economics and R e s e a r c h Branch, Department o f Labor, J u l y , 1957. S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Guide. Bogota: I n t e r - A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r , 1962. Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a . Vancouver, B. C.: p r e p a r e d by U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a , J u l y , 1966. Vancouver Redevelopment Study. Vancouver, B. C.: p r e p a r e d by the C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department f o r the Housing R e s e a r c h Committee, December, 1957. The V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n A c t o f ••Canada, 1942-1943. Chapter 286, S e c t i o n s 1-12, i n c l u s i v e . W i c h i t a - S e d w i c k County M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a P l a n n i n g Department, Community Renewal Program: C r i t e r i a f o r Programming A c t i o n , August, 1962. U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l A d d e r l e y , E r w i n P., e t a l . "Urban Renewal: Concepts and Approaches." A Paper p r e p a r e d f o r an Urban Renewal Seminar, P l a n n i n g 521, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . D e b e a uvais, M i c h e l . "Methods o f F o r e c a s t i n g Long-Term Manpower Needs." A Paper p r e p a r e d f o r a T r a i n i n g Course f o r Human Resource S t r a t e g i s t s , OECD, P a r i s . J e n k i n s o n , Thomas. "Urban Renewal Scheme I I I : S t r a t h c o n a . " A Paper w r i t t e n i n l o n g hand, summarizing the problems and needs o f the a r e a , J u l y 29, 1966. Peng, George T. C. " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Urban Renewal." A D i g e s t o f a Speech d e l i v e r e d i n 1963, December, 1965. R i z v i , Amjad A l i Bahadur. " S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g : An E x a m i n a t i o n o f the E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s P o l i c y i n S e l e c t e d D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s . " An u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1966. Other Sources L'2.0 Department o f Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n , Canada Manpower D i v i s i o n , P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. F r a n k H a t c h e r , C h i e f o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e c t i o n , P a c i f i c R e g i o n . A p r i l 4, 1967. U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. L a r r y I . B e l l , D i r e c t o r o f R e s e a r c h . March 6, and 20, 1967. The Vancouver H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. C. S u t h e r l a n d , S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r ; F e b r u a r y 14, 1966. A P P E N D I X A P P E N D I X A ELEMENTS OF THE WORKABLE PROGRAM Codes and O r d i n a n c e s : I t r e q u i r e s the enactment o f ade-quate s t a n d a r d s under w h i c h d w e l l i n g s may be c o n s t r u c t e d . Comprehensive Community P l a n : T h i s provide/s t h e g u i d e l i n e f o r improvement, r e n e w a l and b l i g h t p r e v e n t i o n and f o r the demon-s t r a t i o n o f the communities' a b i l i t y t o u n d e r t a k e a sound program f o r f u t u r e development. Neighborhood A n a l y s i s : T h i s s e c t i o n t h e community must demonstrate t o t h e F e d e r a l Government t h a t i t has conducted an a n a l y s i s o f t h e b l i g h t e d n e ighborhood i n o r d e r t o de t e r m i n e t h e n e c e s s a r y t r e a t m e n t o f t h e a r e a . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n : Here the community i s r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a c l e a r - c u t h i e r a c h y o f a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c o o r d i n a t e the o v e r a l l program p r o v i d i n g f o r the e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f codes, o r d i n a n c e s and o t h e r r e l a t e d p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a n c i n g : The community must a l s o demonstrate i t s a b i l i t y t o meet f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s and r e q u i r e m e n t s , such as the f i n a n c i n g o f p u b l i c improvements, and the s a l a r i e s o f s t a f f and o t h e r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . H o u s i n g f o r D i s p l a c e d F a m i l i e s : I n d i c a t i o n must be g i v e n t o the' F e d e r a l Government o f the communities' a b i l i t y t o u n d e r t a k e 122 123 the r e l o c a t i o n o f a l l f a m i l i e s d i s p l a c e d by urban r e n e w a l and o t h e r government a c t i v i t i e s . C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : E v i d e n c e must be i n d i c a t e d t h a t w o r k a b l e program has been p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e a r e a o f the community i n v o l v e d . 1 •'-Martin Anderson, The F e d e r a l B u l l d o z e r (Cambridge, Mass. : The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1964), pp. 17-18. A P P - E - N D I X- BA SELECTED FEDERAL PROGRAMS OFFERED UNDER THE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY ACT The Work E x p e r i e n c e Program p r o v i d e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o S t a t e s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and o p e r a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n work e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s . T h i s program i s d e s i g n e d t o expand th e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e work e x p e r i e n c e and o t h e r t r a i n i n g t h a t are a v a i l a b l e t o low-income f a m i l i e s , i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n s who a r e p r e s e n t or p o t e n t i a l r e c i p i e n t s o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . Under t h i s program, no m a t c h i n g funds a r e r e q u i r e d . The Low Income Housing D e m o n s t r a t i o n Program p r o v i d e s g r a n t s t o p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b o d i e s or a g e n c i e s f o r the purpose o f d e v e l o p i n g and d e m o n s t r a t i n g new o r improved means o f p r o v i d -i n g h o u s i n g f o r low-income p e r s o n s o r f a m i l i e s . These g r a n t s a r e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y l i m i t e d t o c o n s t r u c t i o n methods and t e c h -n i q u e s , b u t a l s o a p p l y t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g , e i t h e r e x i s t i n g o r new, such as d e s i g n , l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , l a n d use, as w e l l as f i n a n c i n g . No m a t c h i n g S t a t e funds are r e q u i r e d . The Urban Renewal D e m o n s t r a t i o n G r a n t s p r o v i d e funds t o p u b l i c b o d i e s f o r p r o j e c t s t o demonstrate, develop-^ and t e s t , new and o r improved t e c h n i q u e s o r methods o f b l i g h t p r e v e n t i o n o r e l i m i n a t i o n . These g r a n t s may c o v e r t w o - t h i r d s o f u n d e r t a k i n g the d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t , p l u s the f u l l c o s t o f r e p o r t s on such p r o j e c t s . 124 1:25 The A p p r e n t i c e s h i p and T r a i n i n g Program i s d e s i g n e d t o promote the improvement o f l a b o r s t a n d a r d s n e c e s s a r y t o s a f e -guard t h e w e l f a r e o f a p p r e n t i c e s , extends the a p p l i c a t i o n o f such s t a n d a r d s by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n c o n t r a c t s o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and b r i n g s t o g e t h e r employers and l a b o r f o r t h e purpose o f f o r m u l a t i n g o f programs o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . T h i s program i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a p p r e n t i c e s between the ages o f 17 and 21, w i t h t h e a p p r e n t i c e r e c e i v i n g a p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s i n g wage as they advance. The s t a r t i n g wage i s u s u a l l y 50 p e r cen t o f t h e customary journeyman r a t e . The Employment S e r v i c e -- I n d u s t r i a l S e r v i c e s Program p r o v i d e s an employment s e r v i c e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o employers and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a p p l y i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and j o b market i n f o r m a t i o n , t e c h n i q u e s , and methods t o h e l p them s o l v e work f o r c e problems o f s e l e c t i o n , development, u t i l i z a t i o n and s t a b i l i z a t i o n . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s a l s o p r o v i d e d t o employers by o c c u p a t i o n a l o r j o b market a n a l y s t s o f the S t a t e Employment S e r v i c e , i n o r d e r t o a i d employ-e r s i n i m p r o v i n g u t i l i z a t i o n o f s k i l l s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f w o r k e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e g i n n e r s ; i t i s a l s o d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g manpower r e s o u r c e s needed f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance-ment and economic e x p a n s i o n . The G e n e r a l Employment S e r v i c e s Program p r o v i d e s t h r o u g h a n a t i o n a l system o f p u b l i c employment o f f i c e s , p r o v i d e s manpower s e r v i c e s on a n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y b a s i s . T h i s s e r v i c e i n c l u d e s c o u n s e l i n g , t e s t i n g , j o b development and placement, and s e l e c t i o n 12:6 f o r t r a i n i n g , as w e l l as r e c r u i t m e n t and i n d u s t r i a l s e r v i c e s f o r employers. I t f u r t h e r p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t t o o c c u p a t i o n a l and l a b o r s u p p l y and demand, as w e l l as i n f o r m a t i o n on manpower development t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g programs. Under t h i s program, community employment development i s s t i m u l a t e d t h r o u g h manpower a d v i s o r y committees and economic development groups. The Job Market I n f o r m a t i o n Program p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on employment and unemployment c o n d i t i o n s i n S t a t e s , as w e l l as i n l o c a l a r e a s , f o r s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s , by l o c a l i t y , and j o b f u n c t i o n . I t a l s o c o nducts r e s e a r c h i n o r d e r t o d e v i s e the t o o l s t h r o u g h w h i c h worker s k i l l s , and t a l e n t s may be a n a l y z e d and j o b f u n c t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d , d e f i n e d and c o d i f i e d . I t a l s o p u b l i s h e s i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o employment and unemployment, and i n d i c a t e s t h e n a t u r e o f l o c a l o r s t a t e w i d e s h o r t a g e s o r s u r p l u s i n s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e j o b market s i t u -a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i e s . Job T r a i n i n g f o r D i s a d v a n t a g e d P e r s o n s p r o v i d e s a program under w h i c h communities and i n s t i t u t i o n s can c r e a t e t r a i n i n g and g u i d a n c e programs f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d , unemployed p e r s o n s . E x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t i n g , casework, i n d i v i d u a l and group c o u n s e l i n g , and work c o n d i t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e used t o p r e p a r e t h e i n d i -v i d u a l f o r t r a i n i n g and employment. The unemployed o r under-employed p e r s o n s , i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h problems w h i c h p r e c l u d e t h e i r u s i n g t h e r e g u l a r M.D.T.A. programs, w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s , p e r s o n s w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t work h i s t o r y , and pe r s o n s h a v i n g l e s s t h a n a 5 o r 6 t h grade e d u c a t i o n a r e e l i g i b l e . lQ.lt The O c c u p a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g i n Redevelopment Areas Program p r o v i d e s f o r t r a i n i n g and r e t r a i n i n g o f p e r s o n s r e s i d i n g i n d e s i g n a t e d redevelopment a r e a s i n o r d e r t o q u a l i f y them f o r j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s c r e a t e d t h r o u g h economic redevelopment, p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s , o r e x i s t i n g j o b v a c a n c i e s . O c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g o r r e t r a i n i n g needs a r e d e t e r m i n e d by the Department o f Labor i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Department o f Commerce. These t r a i n e e s may be p a i d a t r a i n i n g a l l o w a n c e f o r up t o 104 weeks. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s u b s i s t a n c e a l l o w a n c e s are a l s o a v a i l a b l e . The Job Corps T r a i n i n g Program i s an i n e r e s i d e n c e program o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e m e d i a l e d u c a t i o n , a a n d work e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s d e s i g n e d t o equip t h e y o u t h from i m p o v e r i s h e d homes and e n v i ronments w i t h t h e s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s needed i n o r d e r t o a l l o w them t o be g a i n f u l l y employed. There a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f i n - r e s i d e n c e c e n t e r s ; C o n s e r v a t i o n C e n t e r s f o r 100 t o 200 men l o c a t e d on p a r k s , f o r e s t s and o t h e r p u b l i c l a n d s where corpsmen work on p r o j e c t s t o c o n s e r v e n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , and t o improve r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . T r a i n i n g c e n t e r s f o r 1,000 t o 3,000 men where corpsmen r e c e i v e f u l l - t i m e t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i f i c o c c u -p a t i o n a l s k i l l s . T r a i n i n g c e n t e r s f o r 250 t o 350 women l o c a t e d i n o r n e a r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , w h i c h p r o v i d e v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g , b a s i c r e m e d i a l e d u c a t i o n , and t r a i n i n g i n f a m i l y management. T h i s program i s open t o y o u t h between the ages o f 16 and 21 from i m p o v e r i s h e d environments and who cannot f i n d s u i t a b l e employment. 1/28 The Community A c t i o n Program p r o v i d e s F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o communities i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h and c a r r y out programs d e s i g n e d t o m o b i l i z e t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o combat b l i g h t . The elements o f t h i s program a r e as f o l l o w s : A Program Development G r a n t s f o r program development a r e made under S e c t i o n 204 o f t h e Economic O p p o r t u n i t y A c t t o e n a b l e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e n o n - p r o f i t a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g p a r t i c u l a r communities t o p r e p a r e sound and e f f e c t i v e p l a n s and programs and to o r g a n i z e f o r community a c t i o n . B Conduct and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n G r a n t s f o r the conduct and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a community a c t i o n program a re made, under S e c t i o n 205, f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f p r o j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g b u t not l i m i t e d t o the f o l l o w i n g : 1. R e m e d i a l and n o n c u r r i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n 2. Employment, j o b t r a i n i n g , and c o u n s e l i n g 3. H e a l t h , f a m i l y p l a n n i n g , and v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n 4. Hou s i n g and home management 5. W e l f a r e 6. Consumer i n f o r m a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n 7. L e g a l S e r v i c e s 8. M u l t i - s e r v i c e neighborhood c e n t e r s 9. P r o j e c t H e a d _ S t a r t and day c a r e . 129 C R e s e a r c h and D e m o n s t r a t i o n G r a n t s a r e made under S e c t i o n 207 f o r the conduct o f s t u d i e s , s u r v e y s , and i n v e s t i -g a t i o n s i n t o t h e causes and n a t u r e o f p o v e r t y and the means by w h i c h p o v e r t y might be e l i m i n a t e d o r re d u c e d , and f o r p r o j e c t s t h a t r e p r e s e n t n o v e l and e x p e r i m e n t a l approaches t o e l i m i n a t i o n o f p o v e r t y . D T r a i n i n g G r a n t s a r e made under t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f the A c t f o r T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s : 1. S e c t i o n 205: t r a i n i n g as a p a r t o f a s i n g l e community's Community A c t i o n Program 2. S e c t i o n 206: t r a i n i n g as a p a r t o f the Community A c t i o n Programs o f s e v e r a l communities 3. S e c t i o n 207: n o v e l and e x p e r i m e n t a l t r a i n i n g programs r e l a t e d t o the p u r -poses o f the Community A c t i o n Program. E T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e G r a n t s a re made t o a g e n c i e s p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o communities i n d e v e l o p i n g , c o n d u c t i n g , and a d m i n i s t e r i n g community a c t i o n programs, under S e c t i o n 209(b) t o S t a t e a g e n c i e s , and Under S e c t i o n 206 t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s . A P P E N D I X OFFICE OF ECONOMIC w PUBLIC AFFAIRS • JOB CORPS FACTS ' . ":; Job Corps is a voluntary national residential training program for s out-of-school, out-of-work, underprivileged young men'and women. Job Corps enrollees must be: •'V, '• (1) 16-21 years old; (2) Citizens or permanent residents of the United States; (3) School dropouts for three months or more, (4) Unable to find or hold an adequate job} (5) Underprivileged from having grown up i n impoverished surroundings; (6) In need of a change of environment in order to become useful and productive citizens. The goal of the Job Corps is to prepare young men and women for jobs i n which they can earn a decent l i v i n g . In the entirely new environment of Job Corps training centers, enrollees w i l l : (1) Work on useful and productive public resource conservation projects; (2) Learn job s k i l l s and basic academic subjects; (3) Earn a modest l i v i n g allowance. Enrollees may be assigned to three types of residential training centerst (More) Jl a 130 Ul -2 -(1) Conservat ion Centers — located on p u b l i c l a n d s , operated b;y the Department of the I n t e r i o r and the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ; (2) Urban Centers f o r Men — f r e q u e n t l y located on d e m i l i t a r i z e d f e d e r a l i n s t a l l a t i o n s , operated under c o n t r a c t ; (3) Urban Centers f o r Women — located i n urban areas , u s u a l l y on leased f a c i l i t i e s , a l so operated under c o n t r a c t . About 40,000 young people from a l l sec t ions of the country w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n the Job Corps by the c lose of the f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n . They come from r u r a l and urban areas and w i l l include a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the r a c i a l and e thnic groups i n the country . Based upon the f i r s t 1,200 e n r o l l e e s i n the Job Corps, the t y p i c a l e n r o l l e e : (1) Is 17 years o l d ; (2) Stayed i n school through the n i n t h grade and then dropped out ; (3) Has s i x t h grade l e v e l r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and ar i thmet ic s k i l l s ; (4) Has been out of school f o r more than s i x months; (5) Comes from a f a m i l y l i v i n g i n substandard and overcrowded housing ; (6) Is unemployed but l o o k i n g f o r work at the time of entry i n t o the Job Corps . Each e n r o l l e e rece ives room and board, medical and denta l care , work c l o t h i n g , a nominal allowance to be used toward the purchase of dress c l o t h i n g , and a monthly l i v i n g allowance of $30. In a d d i t i o n , each e n r o l l e e w i l l rece ive a terminal allowance of $50 for each month that he has spent i n the Job Corps . An e n r o l l e e may a l l o t up to $25 per month of h i s terminal allowance to a q u a l i f i e d dependent. Each month, Job Corps w i l l match the a l l o t t e d sum with an equal amount. While e n r o l l e e s w i l l be encouraged to volunteer and p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s , they w i l l not be allowed to leave centers i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . E n r o l l e e s w i l l be issued o c c a s i o n a l passes to v i s i t nearby communities and w i l l be given p e r i o d i c leaves f o r longer t r i p s . A l l e n r o l l e e s w i l l be given the opportuni ty to attend r e l i g i o u s serv ices of t h e i r c h o i c e . In most i n s t a n c e s , nearby community r e l i g i o u s resources w i l l be r e l i e d upon. (More) -3-132 Recruitment and S e l e c t i o n The recruitment of enrollees i s a cooperative e f f o r t of Job Corps, national p u b l i c and p r i v a t e organizations, the newspapers, radio and TV, and the outdoor a d v e r t i s i n g industry. As a r e s u l t of th i s e f f o r t , hundreds of thousands of young men and women have indicated t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the Job Corps by submitting Opportunity Cards (the i n i t i a l Job Corps a p p l i c a t i o n ) , l e t t e r s , and postcards to Job Corps headquarters. The names of a l l prospective candidates 16-21 are sent to l o c a l screening agencies ( i n most cases the State Em^loynnit S e r v i c e s ) , which interview and test applicants for the Job Corps. Screening i s performed f o r Job Corps by State Employment s e c u r i t y agencies and other l o c a l Youth agencies and WICS (Women i n Community. Se r v i c e ) , a na t i o n a l p r i v a t e organization which screens a l l women Job Corps applicants. These agencies forward the records of e l i g i b l e applicants to Job Corps headquarters i n Washington for further s e l e c t i o n and assignment to Job Corps centers. Young men accepted f o r the Job Corps are assigned e i t h e r to a Conservation Center or an Urban Center, depending upon the r e s u l t s of tests and other factors revealed i n the screening process. Travel to designated centers i s at government expense. Education Programs Job Corps has adopted techniques and materials to provide a s p e c i a l program of basic education f o r these young men and women who have derived l i t t l e b e n e f i t from conventional schooling. These techniques include self-taught courses i n mathematics, reading and other basic s k i l l s . Contractors operating urban t r a i n i n g centers for men and women are encouraged to develop new approaches, methods and materials to provide the necessary education and work s k i l l s f o r Job Corps enrollees to become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and productive c i t i z e n s . E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n Job Corps centers include sports, a r t s , c r a f t s , music, drama, and p u b l i c a t i o n of center newspapers. Job Placement Although'Congress has authorized that an enrollee may spend a maximum of two years i n the Job Corps, i t i s expected that most young men and women w i l l complete the t r a i n i n g program within a year. While the Job Corps cannot guarantee a job to the enrollees who complete the t r a i n i n g program, every e f f o r t w i l l be made by Job Corps and the contractors operating urban centers to a s s i s t each graduate i n learning of job opportunities f o r which he i s q u a l i f i e d . Private and pub l i c agencies, as we l l as business and industry groups, have been e n l i s t e d to aid i n t h i s e f f o r t . (More) - 4 -133 Conservation Centers Located i n n a t i o n a l parks, forests and grasslands, these centers accommodate 100 to 200 enrollees who perform long-needed conservation work while acquiring basic education and work s k i l l s . Under the supervision of experienced members of the Forest Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s , and the Bureaus of Land Management, Reclamation, Sport F i s h e r i e s and W i l d l i f e , enrollees learn basic s k i l l s such as surveying, f o r e s t r y , weed and pest c o n t r o l , f i r e prevention and c o n t r o l , and hand and power to o l operation. In addition to basic education courses conducted by experienced teachers and counselors, enrollees receive t r a i n i n g i n n u t r i t i o n , personal hygiene and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Members of the administrative s t a f f of each center include the Center D i r e c t o r , Deputy D i r e c t o r for Education, Deputy D i r e c t o r for Work Programs, and an Administrative O f f i c e r . Conservation Centers also u t i l i z e the services of VISTA volunteers. Urban Centers for Men O f f e r i n g intensive and s p e c i a l i z e d vocational t r a i n i n g , these centers accommodate 1,000 to 3,000 enrollees and are established on unused m i l i t a r y bases and other f a c i l i t i e s near urban areas. Urban Centers are established and operated under contracts with businesses, educational and s o c i a l services agencies, and u n i v e r s i t i e s . These organizations r e c r u i t and employ a l l center s t a f f s . Young men assigned to these centers are being trained f or jobs for which there are demands for workers — now and for the predictable future. Vocational t r a i n i n g programs vary from center to center — some centers feature t r a i n i n g for p a r t i c u l a r occupational s p e c i a l t i e s such as automobile r e p a i r work or data processing machine operation. Some of these programs include on-the-job t r a i n i n g i n l o c a l community businesses. • Enrollees are being trained for employment as o f f i c e machine operators, data processing machine operators, accounting c l e r k s , automotive repairmen, cooks, waiters, h o s p i t a l o r d e r l i e s , farm equipment operators, and for numerous other jobs responsive to labor market demands. Urban Centers for Women Women's centers, each accommodating an average of 250-300 enrollees, are located in or near urban areas and l i k e men's centers, are operated under contracts with business organizations, u n i v e r s i t i e s , and educational and s o c i a l services agencies. In addition to basic education, vocational t r a i n i n g and work experience, programs i n these centers include t r a i n i n g i n family r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - how to e s t a b l i s h a stable home, budget manage-ment and fundamentals of good grooming and good health. (more) - 5 -The vocational program for women includes t r a i n i n g f or employment i n these and other areas: business and c l e r i c a l occupations, household serv i c e s , food preparation, health s e r v i c e s , c l o t h i n g s e r v i c e s , graphic a r t s , r e c r e a t i o n , and various e l e c t r o n i c s technician occupations. Community Relations To b u i l d cooperation between Job Corps centers and t h e i r neighboring communities, each center w i l l have a Community Relations Council composed of the Center D i r e c t o r , center s t a f f members and interest e d l o c a l r e s idents. The success of a r e s i d e n t i a l center i s , to a great extent, dependent upon the v i t a l i t y of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the adjacent community. For the Job Corps en r o l l e e , a harmonious center-community l i a i s o n not oniy exemplifies the meaning of good c i t i z e n s h i p but also can provide opportunities f o r on-the-job t r a i n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community service p r o j e c t s . * U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1965 O — 7 8 0 - 9 6 6 A P P E N D I X D CHAPTER 286. An Act respecting the carrying on and co-ordination of Vocational Training. 1. This Act may be cited as the Vocational Training Short title. Co-ordination Act. 1942-43, c. 34, s. 1. (a) "Council" means the Vocational Training Advisory "Council." Council appointed under this Act; (b) "Minister" means the Minister of Labour; and . "Minister." (c) "vocational training" means any form of instruction "Vocational the purpose of which is to fit any person for gainful training." employment or to increase his skill or efficiency therein, and, without restricting the generality of the foregoing, includes instruction to fit any person for employment in agriculture, forestry, mining, fishing, construction, manufacturing, commerce or in any other primary or secondary industry in Canada. 1942-43, c. 34, s. 2. 3. (1) The Minister may undertake projects to provide Minister (o) to fit persons for employment for any purpose con- projects, tributing to the efficient prosecution of the war whether in industry or in the armed forces; (b) to fit for any gainful employment former members of His Majesty's Canadian Forces or former members of any of His Majesty's Forces who were at the time of enlistment domiciled in Canada or any other persons with respect to whom authority for the granting of vocational training is vested in the Minister of National Health and Welfare, if such former members or other persons are approved for such training by such Minister; (c) to fit unemployed persons for gainful employment; and SHORT TITLE. INTERPRETATION. 2. In this Act, Definitions. vocational training may undertake 5357 338 R.S., 1952. 185 2 Chap. 2 8 6 . Vocational Training Co-ordination. Research work. (d) to fit persons for employment for any purpose con-tributing to the conservation or development of the natural resources vested in the Crown in the right of Canada. (2) The Minister may undertake and. direct research work pertaining to vocational training and may undertake the dissemination of information relating to such training.' 1942-43, c. 34, s. 3; 1945, c. 7, s. 1; 1948, c. 30, s. 1. Agreements with provinces. Percentage of cost. 4. (1) The Minister may, with the approval of the Governor in Council, enter into an agreement covering any period with any province to provide financial assistance for (a) any project, undertaken in the province, to provide vocational training for any of the purposes set out in section 3; (6) the continuation after March 31st, 1942, of any project for training heretofore carried on in the prov-ince under the Youth Training Act; (c) any vocational training project for the conservation or development of the natural resources vested in the Crown in the right of the province; (d) the development and carrying on by the province of any project recommended by the Council to provide vocational training for apprentices or supervisors in any industry; and (e) the development and carrying on after the present war of vocational training on a level equivalent to secondary school level. (2) No agreement made in respect of any of the matters set out in paragraphs (b) to (c) of subsection (1) shall provide for payment to the province of a percentage of the cost of any vocational training pi^ject, including the cost '.of the training facilities, in excess of the percentage of such cost contributed by the province. 1942-43, c. 34/ s. 4. Council. Chairman and members. Tenure of office. T H E V O C A T I O N A L T R A I N I N G ADVISORY C O U N C I L . 5. There shall be appointed by the Governor in Council a council to be called "The Vocational Training Advisory Counci l . " 1942-43, c. 34, s. 5. 6. (1) The Council shall consist of a Chairman and not more than sixteen members. (2) The Chairman and other members of the Council hold office for a period of three years except in the case of the members first appointed and of any member 535S appointed R.S.. 1952. 137 the Composition of Council. Vocational Training Co-ordination. Chap. 2 8 8 . appointed to a casual vacancy, who hold office for such period, not exceeding three years, as may be determined by the. Governor in Council. (3) There shall be equal numbers of members on Council specially representative of employers and of em ployees, and the remainder of the members may be repre-sentative of such other groups of persons or interests as the Governor in Council may determine. (4) A majority of the members constitutes a quorum for Quorum, any meeting of the Council. (5) The Council may act notwithstanding any vacancy ^c°tWgtrcto in its membership, if the membership is not fewer than ten a e ' e c ' members. (6) The Council may make rules for regulating its pro- Procedure, ceedings and the performance of its functions and may provide therein for the delegation of any of its duties to any special or standing committees of its members. (7) The Minister may provide the Council with such Assistance professional, technical, secretarial and other assistance as the Council may require but the provision of such assistance otherwise than from the public service of Canada is subject to authorization by the Governor in Council. (8) The Minister shall make available to the Council ^ 1 ™ ^ ° " such information as the Council may reasonably require for the proper discharge of its functions under this Act. (9) The members of the Council shall serve without T x r a ^" e i 3 n f n d salary but each member shall receive his actual travelling per diem a ° expenses that have been incurred with the approval of the allowance. Minister in connection with the work of the Council and a per diem allowance of ten dollars for each day he is neces-sarily absent from his home in connection with such work. 1942-43, c. 34, s. 6. 7. The Minister may from time to time refer to the J- '^f/11'88". Council for consideration and advice such questions relating reports to the operation of this Act as he thinks fit and the Council ™dn5*ct°™",. shall investigate and report thereon to the Minister, and shall make such recommendations as the Council sees fit in connection therewith. 1942-43, c. 34, s. 7. G E N E R A L . 8. This Act shall be administered by the Minister of AdminiBtra Labour. 1942-43, c. 34, s. 8. tion. 9 . A supervisor of training and such officers, clerks and ° ] m ' j e r ^ d other employees necessary for the administration of this employees. Act shall be appointed in the manner authorized by law. 1942-43, c. 34, s. 9. 5359 10. 338* R.S.. 1952. 4 Chap. 2 S G . Vocational Training Co-ordination. Regulations. The Governor in Council may make regulations for the purpose of giving effect to this Act . 1942-43, c. 34, s. 10. Annual report. To be laid before Parliament. Expendi-tures and appropria-tions. 1 1 . The Minister shall as soon as possible, but in any case within sixty days after the termination of each fiscal year, prepare an annual report on the work done, moneys expended and obligations contracted under this Act and shall upon completion thereof lay such report before Parlia-ment if Parliament is then sitting or if Parliament is not then sitting, within fifteen days after Parliament is next assembled. 1942-43, c. 34, s. 11. 1 2 . Expenditures incurred under this Act shall be paid out of moneys appropriated by Parliament for carrying out the purposes of this Act . 1942-43, c. 34, s. 12. EDMOND CLOUTIER, C.M.G., O.A., D.S.P. QUEEN'S PRINTER AND CONTROLLER OF STATIONERY OTTAWA, 1952 R.S., 1952. 5360 139 2 - 3 E L I Z A B E T H I I . C H A P . 45. A n Act to amend the Vocational Training Co-ordination Act . [Assented to 10th June, 1954-] HE R Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the rt.s., c. 286. Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows: 1. (1) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection (1) of section 3 of the Vocational Training Co-ordination Act, chapter 2S6 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1952, are repealed and the following substituted therefor: "(a) to fit persons for employment for any purpose Minister may contributing to the defence of Canada whether in J J " ^ £ k e industry or in the armed forces; (b) to fit for any gainful employment former members of Her Majesty's Canadian Forces or former members of any of Her Majesty's Forces who were at the time of enlistment domiciled in Canada or any other persons with respect to whom authority for the granting of vocational training is vested in the Minister of Veterans Affairs, if such former members or other persons are approved for such training by such Minis ter ; " (2) Subsection (1) of section 3 of the said Act is further amended by deleting the word " a n d " at the end of p a r a -graph (c) thereof, by adding the word " a n d " at the end of paragraph (d) thereof and by adding thereto the following paragraph: "(e) to fit persons for employment for any purpose in the national interest that is within the legislative authority of the Parliament of Canada and is approved by the Governor in Counci l . " 2 . (1) Subsection (1) of section 4 of the said Act is amended by deleting the word " a n d " at the end of paragraph (d) thereof, by repealing paragraph (e) thereof and by substituting the following therefor: 249 "(e) C. 2 Chap. 4 5 . Vocational Training. 2-3 ELIZ. II. Percentage of cost. "(e) the development and carry ing on of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g on a level equivalent to secondary school l e v e l ; (j) any t r a i n i n g project for the purpose of rehab i l i t a t ing disabled persons or f i t t i n g t h e m for gainful e m p l o y -m e n t ; and (g) any t ra in ing project to increase the s k i l l or efficiency of persons engaged i n agricul ture , forestry, m i n i n g , f ishing or i n any other p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y in C a n a d a , or i n h o m e m a k i n g . " (2) Subsect ion (2) of section 4 of the said A c t is repealed and the fo l lowing subst i tuted therefor : "(2) N o agreement made i n respect of a n y of the matters set out i n paragraphs (b) to (g) of subsection (1) shal l provide for p a y m e n t to a province of a percentage of the cost of any project , i n c l u d i n g the cost of any t r a i n i n g facil i t ies connected therewith , in excess of the percentage of such cost contr ibuted b y the p r o v i n c e . " Chairman 3nd members Travelling expenses and per diem allowance Alternate members. 3 . (1) Subsect ion (1) of section 6 of the said A c t is repealed and the fo l lowing subst i tuted therefor : (1) T h e C o u n c i l shal l consist of a C h a i r m a n and not more t h a n t w e n t y other m e m b e r s . " (2) Subsection (9) of section 6 of the said A c t is repealed and the fo l lowing subst i tuted therefor: "(9) T h e members of the C o u n c i l shall serve w i t h o u t salary b u t each member shall be pa id his actual t rave l l ing expenses that have been incurred w i t h the a p p r o v a l of the M i n i s t e r i n connection w i t h the work of the C o u n c i l , and m a y , w i t h the a p p r o v a l of the M i n i s t e r be p a i d a per d i e m allowance fixed by the G o v e r n o r in C o u n c i l for each day he is necessarily absent f rom his home in connection w i t h such work . (10) T h e G o v e r n o r Genera l in C o u n c i l m a y appoint an alternate member for each member of the C o u n c i l to ho ld office for such per iod, not exceeding three years, as m a y be determined by the G o v e r n o r in C o u n c i l ; the alternate member shal l be representative of the same group of persons or interests as the member for w h o m he is appointed as alternate and m a y , at the request and in the absence of the member for w h o m he is an alternate, act in the stead of that member, and whenever an alternate member so acts he shal l , for a l l purposes, be deemed to be a member of the C o u n c i l . " Officers, clerks and employees. 4. Sect ion 9 of the said A c t is repealed and the fo l lowing subst i tuted therefor : "9. There m a y be appointed in the manner author ized by law such officers, clerks and other employees as are necessary for the adminis t ra t ion of this A c t . " 250 5 . 141 1953-54. Vocational Training. Chap. 45. 5 . Sect ion 11 of the said A c t is repealed and the fo l lowing subst i tuted therefor: .• ;• . . " 1 1 . T h e M i n i s t e r shal l as soon as possible, b u t i n any Annua) case w i t h i n .one h u n d r e d and twenty days after the t e r m i n a - r e p ° r t . t i o n of each fiscal year, prepare an annual report on the w o r k done, moneys expended and obligations contracted under this A c t and shal l u p o n complet ion thereof lay such report before P a r l i a m e n t if P a r l i a m e n t is then s i t t ing or if T o be laid P a r l i a m e n t is not then s i t t ing , on any of the first fifteen days fef(ir?,„„„. next thereatter that P a r l i a m e n t is s i t t ing . . E D M O N D CLOUTIER, C.M.O., O.A., D.S.P. QUEEN'S PRINTER AND CONTROLLER OF STATIONERY OTTAWA, 1954 251 A P P E N D I X E PREFACE T h i s Directory r e p l a c e s the Program 5 and 6 Manual and the L i s t of Approved C o u r s e s . The Directory i s set out in blocks for ease in l o c a t i n g job t i t l e s . Each block i s the Di c t i o n a r y of O c c u p a t i o n a l T i t l e s major breakdown, and t i t l e s are lo c a t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y within each block. Wherever p o s s i b l e the f u l l DOT code number i s shown, however, where course content i s such that a graduate could enter into a number of jobs following training, only the first three d i g i t s are shown. The DOT t i t l e i s shown in c a p i t a l s with the appropriate program t i t l e immediately below in small print. The DOT t i t l e i s shown as the "doing" rather than by u s i n g the noun in the job t i t l e , i . e . Stenographer i s shown as Stenography. Programs which are i d e n t i c a l in content are grouped under one outline; however, separate o u t l i n e s are included for programmes that are not i d e n t i c a l in either Programme T i t l e or Programme Content. Separate o u t l i n e s are a l s o made for each course offered by private training i n s t i t u t i o n s as there i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the subjects taught, method of presentation, or examination. O n l y Programme ou t l i n e s which meet the c r i t e r i a of the O c c u p a t i o n a l Adult Training Programme are included i n th i s d i r e c t o r y . For the pre sent, these have been confined to the courses p r e v i o u s l y approved under Program 5 . Other tr a i n i n g information for c o u n s e l l i n g purposes w i l l be supplied for the present by the.issuing of calendars, brochures, e t c . , as they become a v a i l a b l e . A l s o included in the Directory are:-1) Directory Content, l i s t e d under block number and a l p h a b e t i c a l l y within the block and schoo l s where course i s offered; 2) a cross reference which shows the programme t i t l e , followed by the appropriate DOT T i t l e ; 3) a l i s t of school addresses, telephone numbers and the person who should be contacted regarding course intake and other information; 4) an additional page for a record of course changes, additions and deletions; a l l amendments w i l l be numbered and dated for c h ecking purposes. 142 143 Program BASIC TRAINING FOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT Grade X Level Up-grading Programme L E N G T H E N T R A N C E REQUIREMENTS AGE EDUCATION H E A L T H F E E S E N R O L M E N T D A T E T E X T B O O K S AND SUPPLIES REQUIRED O T H E R E X P E N S E S SCHOOL DAY SCHOOL WEEK DRESS EXAMINATIONS 2 to 8 months according to individual i needs (see reverse side) Out of school at least one year. An earnest desire to achieve and willingness to put forth great effort to acquire suitable standing in Mathematics, Science and English to enable one to enter a vocational training programme (see comments on reverse side) 17 years of age or over No minimum but should have a sufficient l e v e l , either through education or experience,to be able to successfully complete the programme Good general health $15.00 per month. $1.00 Registration fee Continuous intakes as space permits $5.00 approximately N i l 6 hours 5 days Standard By school • (See other side for course content) B . C . V . S Burnaby * Dawson Creek Kelowna * Nanaimo Prince George Victoria Accommodation available (see reverse side) C O U R S E C O N T E N T Applied Mathematics Applied Science Communicative English The main aim of this programme is to academically up-grade individuals in as short a period of time as possible, in order that they may continue with specific vocational training programmes. It is not the purpose of the Basic Training for Skill Development course to offer Grade X equivalency to enable students to carry on with further academic education. This is the job of the local school districts. As all students will have had different backgrounds of education and experience, it follows that all students will have to start at a different level. It may take some 2, 3, 4 or 5 months in preparation for the laid down course of studies. Others may be ready to start it immediately, while still another group could conceivably require only a few weeks to prepare themselves for entry into a specific vocational course. As some of those who enroll for B . T . S . D . will not have a definite future vocational goal--or their goal may be unrealistic in terms of their potential—it follows that the B . T . S . D . programme must include adequate vocational counselling, as one part of the service. This should be provided by the Manpower Counsellor working in close co-operation with the instructor. Room and Board: Dawson Creek - $60.00 per month (limited accommodation) Nanaimo - $2.00 per day (meals not served on weekends) STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS AUTOMOBILE BODY REPAIRING BCVS, Dawson Creek Kelowna WI, Vancouver BOILERMAKING I BRICKLAYING CARPENTRY Erection Boilermaking Bldg. Constr. & Woodwork BCVS, Burnaby BCVS, Bumaby BCVS, Burnaby Dawson Creek Kelowna WI, Vancouver Yukon Voc. & Tech. Trg. Centre, Whitehorse ELECTRICITY ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLY ELECTRONICS ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLY Any industry Electrical & Industrial Electronics 2 Courses From Block 7 BCVS, Burnaby Yukon Voc. & Tech. Trg. Centre, Whitehorse WI, Vancouver BCVS, Burnaby WI, Vancouver OPERATING ENGINEERING Heavy Equipment Operators BCVS, Nanaimo Prince George Yukon Voc. & Tech. Trg, Centre, Whitehorse PAINTING PLUMBING AND PIPEFITTING SHEET METAL WORKING STRUCTURAL STEEL WORKING Con struction BCVS, Burnaby BCVS, Burnaby BCVS, Burnaby BCVS, Burnaby STRUCTURAL WORK OCCUPATIONS TELECOM-MUNICATIONS Basic See Block 7 WI, Vancouver WELDING, COMBINATION Courses vary from 6 - 1 1 months. Separate outlines have been prepared for each programme BCVS , A l l Regional.Schools except V i c t o r i a , WI, Vancouver, Yukon Voc. & Tech. Trg. Centre, Whitehorse Note: . These programs a l t h o u g h d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t R e g i o n , i n g e n e r a l i n d i c a t e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e programs a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o u t Canada. 

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