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An analysis of the relationship between the urban based skier and his recreational hinterland Campbell, Colin Kerr 1967

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE URBAN BASED SKIER AND HIS RECREATIONAL HINTERLAND by COLIN KERR CAMPBELL M . A . , University of Aberdeen,  1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Depa rtment of Geography  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming required  to  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1967  the  In presenting  t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and Study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of  this  thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h.ih; representatives.  It is understood that copying  or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  Department of  permission.  GEOGRAPHY  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date  September 6 t h .  1967  ABSTRACT  The has  work produced to date  i n the f i e l d  shown a r e g r e t t a b l e tendency to p l a c e the v a c a t i o n area at  c e n t r e of i t s research f o c u s . such a b i a s has  led to an  work f o r the s u b j e c t .  imbalance i n research which has  i n the with  The  reasons  the s t r o n g p h y s i o g r a p h i c  attractive  r o l e of the n a t u r a l  study  by h i g h l i g h t i n g  trend  geographic  Movements i n North America. resource and  i s an attempt  the urban p o p u l a t i o n  ments emanating from i t . Two  l i e essentially  r e s e a r c h , combined Park and  have obscured  The  recreational travel.  user-area r e l a t i o n s h i p s  source and  the t a n g e n t i a l move-  a s p e c t s of such a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s  based p e r s p e c t i v e , throw a new a c t i o n between the user and  unity and  i s maintained  dynamic  and  are magni-  those which c o n d i t i o n i t s d i r e c t i o n .  o b s e r v a t i o n s , developed  interrelationships  the  the con-  s t r e s s e d w i t h i n the work--those which determine the extent tude of the movement and  frame-  These have a s s e r t e d  i n f l u e n c e s on  to c l a r i f y  inhibited  methodological  undertones of the N a t i o n a l  d i t i o n i n g e f f e c t s of socio-economic present  and  f o r the noted  i d e o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r of p r e v i o u s  Conservationa1  the  It i s the w r i t e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t  the development of an adequate conceptual  The  of r e c r e a t i o n geography  represent  the  through the adoption of the  l i g h t on  the nature of s p a t i a l  recreational area.  the c e n t r a l  inter-  consequential  theme of the t h e s i s and  throughout by a s e g m e n t a 1 i z a t i o n  relationships.  The  city  based upon  their static  iii. The  r e s u l t s o f the i n q u i r y would suggest that area s e l e c t i o n  i s c o n d i t i o n e d by d i f f e r e n t centre. is  Within  the t r a v e l and  the day zone o f Vancouver's s k i i n g h i n t e r l a n d , demand  so s i g n i f i c a n t  directional  f a c t o r s with added d i s t a n c e from the urban  that the m i n i m i z a t i o n  movement p a t t e r n s . friction  effect  becomes p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s  decreases,  effective,  The consequence i s that  area  i s i n c r e a s i n g l y concomitant with area p r e f e r e n c e s , which i n  t u r n may be a s s o c i a t e d with result directional affected  time dominates  With added d i s t a n c e , demand  a momentum f a c t o r i s i n t r o d u c e d .  selection  of travel  socio-economic and s k i l l  groups.  As a  movement w i t h i n the v a c a t i o n zone i s s t r o n g l y /  by the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the market.  Thus a  p o l a r i z a t i o n o f movement  i s observed w i t h i n the v a c a t i o n zone, based on  socio-economic and s k i l l  groupings.  The passport  t h i s zone o f maxi mum choi ce i s i ncreased  r e q u i r e d to enter  s k i i n g ski 1 1 , p a r t i a l l y  l i m i t e d by age, and income f a c t o r s .  Two broad  i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e d e r i v e d from these  findings.  Firstly  an emphasis on area q u a l i t y o r land c a p a b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n may only be meaningful related  f o r t h e v a c a t i o n zone, and then only when i t i s  t o the d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s  groups.  Secondly  i t i s evident  f a c t o r which a f f e c t s demand.  of various  socio-economic  that d i s t a n c e i s not the o n l y c o n t r o l  A model which merely c o n s i d e r s  popula-  t i o n and d i s t a n c e can s c a r c e l y be expected t o p r e d i c t demand a c c u r a t e l y . Inputs which account f o r area q u a l i t y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y , functional  zones, and the l i n k a g e s between socio-economic and m o b i l i t y  factors, will possible.  location within  have to be i n c l u d e d b e f o r e a c c u r a t e  prediction is  i v. Urbanization in r e c r e a t i o n a l  is increasing,  c o n g e s t i o n and  the work week i s d e c r e a s i n g ,  societal frustration.  demand along with p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g a position first  to c o n t r i b u t e  to the  i s necessary.  solution of  i s to  indicate  a b l e through the a l t e r e d as a node and  some of  perspective  generator of  Prediction  of  geographer i s i n  t h i s pragmatic problem  he must break away from the b i a s e s of the  present study  The  resulti  past.  The  aim  of  but the  the added i n s i g h t s which are a v a i l which a s s e r t s  recreational  travel.  the c i t y ' s p o s i t i o n  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGE  Part  Part  I  II  THE CONCEPTUAL AND PROCEDURAL Chapter  I  The Conceptual  Prologue  1  Chapter  II  The Procedural  Prologue  14  THE USER AND THE RECREATIONAL AREA Chapter  III  The User and The P a t t e r n o f H i s Demand  22  Chapter  IV  The User and H i s Degree o f S a t i s f a c t i o n  33  Chapter V  Part  III  The User and Area Q u a l i t y  IV  42  THE ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF THE USER Chapter VI  The Macro Scene--A Zonal Comparison  Chapter VII  The Micro Scene--An Area and Regional Compari son  Part  FRAMEWORK  . .  50  58  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  71  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  78  APPENDICES  86  LIST OF TABLES  PAGE  Table  Table  I  II  Regional R e l a t i o n s h i p Between V i s i t a t i o n Rate and Average D i s t a n c e  30  Comparison o f Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks Areas and Zonal Average User S a t i s f a c t i o n Indices  38  LIST OF MAPS AND DIAGRAMS  PAGE  Figure  1  A T h e o r e t i c a l Framework f o r R e c r e a t i o n a l Movement  Figure 2  The Sample Composition  Figure 3  L o c a t i o n o f S k i i n g Areas and Regional  Figure k  User P r e f e r e n c e s  Figure 5  A Zonal  Figure 6  A Regional  Comparison Using  Figure 7  A Regional  Comparison Using Average D e v i a t i o n  Figure 8  The D i r e c t i o n a l  . .  10 19  Classification  28 kk  Comparison o f A c t i v i t y  P a t t e r n s and M o b i l i t y . . . .  59  . . . .  63  t h e Day Use Zone .  67  Facies T r i a n g l e s  Determinant W i t h i n  52  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I should l i k e to thank Dr. A . L . Farley and Dr. J . D . Chapman, both of the Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r helpful c r i t i c i s m s of t h i s study. Mr. Larry Walker of the " B . C . Skier Magazine" and Mr. Dave Trendel1 of the Y . M . C . A . , were kind enough to allow me access to thei r mai1i ng 1i sts . I would also l i k e to thank the many s k i e r s whose d i l i g e n c e in completing the study questionnaire made the analyses  possible.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia provided me with both a Fellowship and some research funds which greatly assisted the p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , my wife was most helpful in the f i n a l stages of the study.  CHAPTER I  THE CONCEPTUAL PROLOGUE  In recreational studies there are three essential components worthy of study.  The f i r s t is the character of the individual who  participates in outdoor recreation.  The second is the quality and  physique of the recreational area designed to meet the needs of that individual.  The third is the form of the transportationa1  link  between the residence of the participant and the recreational zone frequented. Given these three basic elements, i t  is possible to study  recreation through an analysis of any one of these segments. due to the inextricable way in which the three factors are twined, i t  Yet,  inter-  is often more p r o f i t a b l e to study their i n t e r a c t i o n .  The  one common factor in their relationship is the spatial component and it  is this consistent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which the geographer may most  f r u i t f u l l y analyze.  Accepting t h i s , two possible perspectives may be adopted.  On  the one hand one may study the concentration of recreationists at a recreational place, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , from their urban base may be analyzed.  the emanation of  recreationists  With very few exceptions  is the former perspective which has been adopted in recreational research to date.  The suggested reasons for this are threefold.  it  2.  1.  The h i s t o r i c a l emphasis in geography on the uniqueness of area through physiographic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  2.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y of research monies through governmental agencies, as custodians of p u b l i c recreational  3.  land.  The ease of sampling based upon a market passing through a s p e c i f i c point or zone.  It is the w r i t e r ' s contention that the results of the recent major studies on recreation in the United States, combined with the increasing trend towards u r b a n i z a t i o n , make i t imperative that should be made to study urban based demand.  attempts  Thus the major purpose of  the thesis i s to explore the way in which such a study might be completed and structured in order to h i g h l i g h t the new insights a v a i l a b l e through such a perspective.  The composition and order of the thesis  are s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to emphasize the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the user and the use area, at a l l times. facets has been avoided.  Hence segmentalization of these  Instead, the d i v i s i o n has been made between  the s t a t i c aspects of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s described in Part II and t h e i r dynamic counterparts, which are studied in Part I I I . t i n c t i o n between dynamic and s t a t i c  The d i s -  l i e s in the degree to which  distance and m o b i l i t y factors are stressed in comparison to demand, preference, and perception f a c t o r s . Before advancing to t h i s stage, however, i t is necessary to set the study in i t s proper perspective.  Chapter 1 wi11 provide a  part of t h i s background by reviewing the antecedent bibliography and  3-  p r e s e n t i n g a conceptual  framework.  The former w i l l  the f o r e g o i n g , w h i l e the l a t t e r w i l l  assist  serve to j u s t i f y  the reader i n r e - o r i e n t a t i n g  h i m s e l f to the c e n t r a l i t y o f the urban base as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f the  study.  Revi ew  The  h i s t o r y of recreational  writing  the h i s t o r y o f t r a v e l , but r e c r e a t i o n a l tinct  i s , i n one sense, as o l d as  geography has o n l y been a d i s -  e n t i t y f o r t h e short p e r i o d o f approximately  thirty-five  years.  T h i s s i n g l e f a c t c o l o u r s c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the methodology i n v o l v e d i n the f o r e g o i n g t h e s i s . apparent and  The degree o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ,  i n o t h e r branches o f geography, with  disadvantages,  i s not so o b s e r v a b l e  increasingly  i t s attendant  in recreational  advantages  geography.  The  i n s o l u b l e s combine to f o r c e the r e s e a r c h e r i n t o the r o l e o f the g e n e r a l i s t , and thus  i tis difficult  approach with a high  level  to be r e j o i c e d been reached  of abstraction.  a d e f i n i t i v e empirical  Such a s i t u a t i o n  i s neither  i n o r to be r e g r e t t e d , i t i s simply the stage which has  i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t o f geography.  mental process  recreational  inventory stage. remarkable  t o adopt  geography i s s t i l l  Nevertheless  In the develop-  i n many ways, a t the  i t must be conceded t h a t , with the  progress which has been made i n t h i s decade, i t s advance t o  the s t a t u r e o f a nomothetic  s c i e n c e must soon become a r e a l i t y .  In the t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s , l e a d i n g up to the present  stage,  t h r e e p e r i o d s o f development may be d e l i n e a t e d from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  4. the a v a i l a b l e to  1955, and  1 i t e r a t u r e - - a n e a r l y p e r i o d to 19*5. a post-war p e r i o d a contemporary p e r i o d .  In the e a r l y p e r i o d , with regional logued  approach dominated.  The  some n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s  the  classical  r e g i o n a l method d e s c r i p t i v e l y c a t a -  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r e a s , working a c r o s s the whole range of  2 physical valid in  and economic f a c t o r s .  These w r i t i n g s brought  to l i g h t  certain  p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n , ^ but many a r t i c l e s which appea'red  geographical  Robert  j o u r n a l s were simple d e s c r i p t i o n s of  E. Brown, "The  individual  Business of R e c r e a t i o n , " Geog. Review,  (1935), 467-^75; K. C. McMurray, "The Use of Land f o r R e c r e a t i o n , " A.A.A.G. , 20 (1930), 7-20; W. L. G. J o e r g , "Geography and N a t i o n a l Land P l a n n i n g , " Geog. Review, 2 5 (1935), 117-208. These a r t i c l e s 25  were very 'modern' i n t h e i r i n s i g h t s . Others, though of dubious academic v a l u e , r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to s k i i n g as a new and expanding development i n s p o r t and t o u r i s m . Examples of these were: Dudley B a t c h e l o r , " S k i i n g i n Canada," Canadian Geographical J o u r n a l , 14 (February, 1937), 57-77; Otto Barkam, " S k i i n g in C a l i f o r n i a , " Si e r r a Club Bui 1 . , 16 (February, 1 9 3 0 , 41-43. Rather more r e f i n e d i n i t s methods, though s t r o n g l y p h y s i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d was A l b e r t C a r l s o n ' s "Ski Geography of New England," Ec. Geog., 18 (October, 1942), 3 0 7 - 3 2 0 . H. P. Douglas noted i n h i s a r t i c l e , " L a u r e n t i a n Skiways," Canadi an Geographical J o u r n a l , 20 (January, 1940), 42, that ".. . s k i i n g has now become b i g b u s i n e s s . " A r t h u r S e l k e , " G e o g r a p h i c a l A s p e c t s of the German T o u r i s t Trade," Ec. Geog., 12 (1936), 205-216; Stephen Jones, " M i n i n g and T o u r i s t Towns i n the Canadian Rockies," Ec. Geog., 9 (1933), 3 6 8 - 3 7 8 . 3 1 b i d . A. Selke makes a number of i n t e r e s t i n g suggestions with regard to a n a l y z i n g the number of t o u r i s t s v i s i t i n g Germany. J o e r g , op. c i t . , p. 196, s t a t e s that "any program of r e c r e a t i o n a l land u t i l i z a t i o n must c o n s i d e r p a r t i c u l a r l y the needs of the c i t y dweller. In view of t h i s i n t e n s e urban c o n c e n t r a t i o n the matter of p r o x i m i t y should be taken i n t o account in the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n areas." Brown, op. c i t . , attempted to develop a terminology in t o u r i s m .  5journeys,  4  or n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l  q or s t a t e p a r k s .  3  At best t h e r e were  some very r e l e v a n t p o i n t s hidden i n a morass of r e g i o n a l  description,  or at worst an almost " t o u r i s t  of  "geographical" features.  brochure type" assessment  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n defence of the  of t h i s p e r i o d , i t c o u l d be argued that a v a i l a b l e at t h i s time and, tively  literature  r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c s were not  in a d d i t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n movement was  l i m i t e d , f o r the m a j o r i t y o f people, due to economic  In the post-war  period  of geography, a strong  realized.  Contemporaneously,  mainstream  there existed  l e s s e n v i r o n m e n t a I i s t i c approach and evidence  of a more s y s t e m a t i c s c i e n t i f i c s c h o o l . best be e x e m p l i f i e d  restrictions.  r e c r e a t i o n a l move-  Hence, t h e r e emerged, as i n the  a p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n .  r e g i o n a l , though  rela-  these r e s t r i c t i o n s d i m i n i s h e d and the  f r e q u e n t l y quoted determinants of the contemporary ment were f i r s t  individual  The two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  may  i n a comparison of the work produced by Harper^ and  Examples of these a r e : Helen V. K e r r , "Motor Vagabonding on Vancouver I s l a n d , " C.G.J., 1 ( J u l y , 1930), 253-268; L e s l i e B e l l , "Up and Down the Peace," C .G. J . , 2 (September, 1935), 117-124; Edward S. Bishop, "The B a n f f - J a s p e r Highway," C.G.J., 20 (January, 1940), 2-22. ^Robert J . C. Stead, "Canada's Mountain Playground," C ,G. J . , 14 (June, 1937), 319-335; Ruth D. Golman, " G a r i b a l d i Park," C.G.J., 3 (November, 1931), 339-347; J . Horace McFarland, " A r e National Parks Worthwhile?' S i e r r a Club Bui 1., 8 (1911-12), 236-239; George H. Primmer, " I s l e R o y a l e — P o t e n t i a l N a t i o n a l Park," Ec. Geog., 14 (October, 1938), 349-353, and many o t h e r s . k|t o f t e n seems that every a r t i c l e on r e c r e a t i o n commences with a statement r e g a r d i n g i n c r e a s e d d i s p o s a b l e income, the reduced working week, g r e a t e r m o b i l i t y , e t c . •^Robert A. Harper, R e c r e a t i o n a l Occupance o f the Morai ne Lake Region o f N o r t h e a s t e r n I 11i noi s and Southeastern Wi sconsi n, Paper No. 14 (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P u b l i c a t i o n s , Department o f Geography,  1950).  Porter,  g  w r i t i n g on recreational  writes a c l a s s i c  land use at the same time.  Harper  regional d i s s e r t a t i o n with recreation playing the Q  role of the ideographic theme,  the personality of the region, whereas  Porter goes a great deal further through a nomothetic approach to recognize causal cerning land use.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and to develop v a l i d g e n e r a l i t i e s  con-  It should be noted, however, that Harper does make  the point that proximity to an urban centre is often as important a factor as outstanding beauty,  in the success of a recreational  Somewhere in between these two extremes l i e s the doctoral  area.  dissertation  by W o l f e . W h i l e the d i s s e r t a t i o n describes a regional inventory, an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n e a r l i e r by Wolfe does r e l a t e urbanization to the growing demand for r e c r e a t i o n . ' '  This demand, he suggests, may be p a r t i a l l y  determined by the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the market—one  which i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y composed of urban d w e l l e r s . in her study of U.S. Highway 16 in South Dakota,  12  Miss E i s e l e n ,  makes the important  o  P h i l i p W. P o r t e r , "Recreation on the Shoreline of Lake Sunapee, New Hampshire" (unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , Department of Geography, Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y , 1954). ^Harper, op. c i t . , p. 12. " I t (the study) should throw some new l i g h t on the conditions and circumstances of the development and present functioning of recreational occupance and provide some c r i t e r i a for d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the recreational occupance of one recreat i o n a l region from another." Ph.D.  '^Roy I . Wolfe, "Recreational Land Use in Ontario" (unpublished t h e s i s , Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1956). ''Roy I. Wolfe, "Summer Cottages  ( 1 9 5 0 , 10-32.  ' E l i z a b e t h E i s e l e n , "The Tourist Industry of a Modern Highway: 16 in South Dakota," Ec. Geog., 21 ( 1 9 4 8 ) , 221-230. 2  U.S.  in O n t a r i o , " Ec. Geog., 27  7. point  that  she f a i l s that  the t o u r i s t  industry  t o expand t h i s  factor  i s highway o r i e n t a t e d . even though  h e r e m p h a s i s o n l i n e s o f movement and  contribution  Thus,  to the  literature  the post-war  of  the  Regrettably,  t h e r e c a n be l i t t l e l i n k a g e s was a  doubt  significant  time.  p e r i o d was t y p i f i e d  by  regional  studies  1^ slightly gesting  orientated  new i d e a s , b u t  adequate conceptual The f i n a l of  statistical  used to  recreation  exhibiting  since  techniques  in  i n c r e a s e the scope of  awareness of  real  burgeoning  of  deficiencies  recreational inventory,  the problem of  problem.  recreational  finite  research.  an 14 approach.  in a wide  range of  been  Increased  money a v a i l a b l e f o r this  use  the  s p a c e and s e e m i n g l y  A consequence of  literature  in the  They have  and h a s a s s i s t e d  sums o f  sug-  i n terms of  p l a n n i n g and management d e c i s i o n s .  societal  studies  1 9 5 5 , h a s s e e n an e x p a n s i o n  p u b l i c demand h a s made c o n s i d e r a b l e applied to t h i s  and a number o f  J  framework or a s u i t a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l  period,  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of public  towards  infinite research  has b e e n  the  disciplines  C . F. K o h n , " R e s o r t S e t t l e m e n t s A l o n g t h e New E n g l a n d C o a s t , " A . A . A . G . , 45 (1955), 196; R o s s N . P e a r s o n , " S o m e V a l u e s f r o m R e c r e a t i o n a l Land Use i n Ogemaw C o u n t y , M i c h i g a n , " P a p e r s o f t h e M i c h i g a n Academy o f S c i e n c e , A r t s and L e t t e r s , 4 0 (1955), 217-227; C l i f f o r d M. Z i e r e r , " T o u r i s m and R e c r e a t i o n i n t h e W e s t , " G e o g . R e v . , 42 3  (1952), 462-481.  ' ^ E i s e l e n , o p . c i t . , p . 221; G e o r g e F. D e a s y , " T h e T o u r i s t I n d u s t r y i n a N o r t h Woods C o u n t y , " E c . G e o g . , 25 (1949), 2 4 0 ; W i l l i a m S t a n t o n , " T h e P u r p o s e and S o u r c e o f S e a s o n a l M i g r a t i o n t o A l a s k a , " E c . G e o g . , 31 (1955), 138-148; Edward U l l m a n , " A m e n i t i e s a s a F a c t o r i n R e g i o n a l G r o w t h , " G e o g . R e v . , 44 (1954), 119-132.  8.  and a g e n c i e s .  The m a j o r i t y o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , i n common w i t h p r e v i o u s  p e r i o d s , has been i n v o l v e d w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and i n v e n t o r y o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e , a l b e i t through the use o f more r e f i n e d t e c h niques.  Much o f t h i s work i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y .  q u e n t l y , o n l y t h o s e elements from contemporary  Conse-  l i t e r a t u r e which a r e  r e l e v a n t to t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be reviewed, and t h i s w i l l be i n c o n t e x t , throughout t h e t h e s i s . S u f f i c e t o say t h a t d e s p i t e the advances noted above, t h e r e has been a r e g r e t t a b l e l a g i n the development o f a t h e o r e t i c a l framework to encompass t h e new  techniques  which a r e now a p p e a r i n g i n r e c r e a t i o n a l s t u d i e s . T h i s o m i s s i o n i s not s i m p l y one o f the contemporary each o f t h e p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d s .  p e r i o d f o r i t has been noted i n  Brown, f o r example, i n 1935 o f f e r e d  what he c a l l e d an " I n v i t a t i o n t o Geographers,"  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g terms:  From t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l p o i n t o f view the study o f t o u r i s m o f f e r s i n v i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e development o f new and i n g e n i o u s t e c h n i q u e s f o r r e s e a r c h f o r the d i s c o v e r y o f f a c t s o f v a l u e i n t h e i r s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n what is v i r t u a l l y a v i r g i n f i e l d . ' 5 It would appear t h a t t h i s i n v i t a t i o n was d e c l i n e d , f o r i n 19*9 George Deasy c o u l d say t h a t : ...because o f the i n a d e q u a t e a t t e n t i o n p a i d to t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y by Geographers, t h e r e e x i s t s a c o n c o m i t a n t d e a r t h o f t e c h n i q u e s a d a p t a b l e t o the c o l l e c t i o n , a n a l y s i s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f g e o g r a p h i c a l data on t h e s u b j e c t .  '^Brown, op. c i t . , p. 471. '^Deasy, op. c i t .  9. Finally,  i n the l a t e f i f t i e s ,  Marion Clawson s a i d , when  referring  to the economic a s p e c t s o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n , t h a t : ...the need i s f o r b a s i c r e s e a r c h . Not o n l y i n t h i s aspect but f o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . There i s an e q u a l l y great need f o r research a p p l i e d t o s p e c i f i c areas and problems, but the l a t t e r i s l i k e l y to be r e l a t i v e l y u n p r o d u c t i v e u n t i l a b e t t e r t h e o r e t i c a l framework has been d e v e l o p e d . ' 7  The  Conceptual  Framework  Having noted  t h i s omission  and having  realized  the n e c e s s i t y  f o r a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r ' s research p e r s p e c t i v e , a d i a grammatic e x p r e s s i o n mathematical reader  i n Figure  1.  The framework has no  c o o r d i n a t e s and i t s major purpose i s to r e o r i e n t a t e the  t o the urban-based p e r s p e c t i v e o f the t h e s i s .  pose l i e s  i n the s u g g e s t i o n  the urbanized yield  i s presented  that  A tertiary  pur-  i t p r o v i d e s a meaningful viewpoint i n  c o n t i n e n t o f North America and, i f developed, might  extended o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g e n e r i c s t u d i e s i n r e c r e a t i o n  geography.  Essentially  f o u r p r e c o n d i t i o n s underly  or " t h i n k i n g " model 1.  The c i t y should  2.  illustrated  in Figure  i s t h e generator  the conceptual  framework  1.  o f r e c r e a t i o n a l demand and  be the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r r e s e a r c h .  Some p r o v i s i o n should  be made to a l l o w a c l e a r  '^Marion Clawson, Land and Water f o r R e c r e a t i o n McNally, R.F.F., 1963), p. 1 0 0 .  definition  (Chicago:  Rand  A  TENTATIVE  RECREATIONAL  MODEL OF  ABSTRACTED  ACTIVITY  ACTIVITY  ACTIVITT  PATTERNS  PATTERNS.  CLASSIFICATION. CHARACTERISTICS-  RESULTANT RECREATIONAL FORM.  1. RECREATIONIST.  0  0  -  Time period l e s s than two days.  -  Minimal f i n a n c i a l  -  A c t i v i t y occurs r e l a t i v e l y frequently during t h e year.  -  A c t i v i t y dominates Journey secondary.  -  Greater tendency towards number one, but extended time and distance f a c t o r s allow a more f l e x i b l e a c t i v i t y pattern.  o 'o  outlay.  2. RECREATIONAL ^^A^^^^T.  o  3. VACATIONIST.  City of origin.  —. V  Other "Cities.  -  Expanded.time - more than four consecutive days.  -  Greater expenditures per person/day.  -  Event occurs i n f r e q u e n t l y during the year.  -  Journey primary A c t i v i t y secondary.  METROPOLITAN RECREATIONAL HINTERLAND. (Scattered tangentally to the c i t y . )  REGIONAL RECREATIONAL COMPLEX. (Non-linear grouping.)  VACATION SERVICE REGION. (Highway orientated: l i n e a r on vacation circuit.)  ACTIVITT PATTERN. Recreation "Centre. n - Recreation Places.  Recreatiomst. Recreational Vacationist. t  Vacationist.  C.K.C. 1967  11.  of the nature o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n 3.  Attention  market.  should be focussed on the s p a t i a l  between the c i t y and the r e c r e a t i o n a l  relationship  area, e s p e c i a l l y  as a consequence o f t h e p a t t e r n s o f movement e x h i b i t e d  by  users. k.  Both the v a c a t i o n  and r e c r e a t i o n  i n d u s t r i e s a r e accepted  as being to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, h i g h w a y - o r i e n t a t e d .  This  model suggests that  r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and v a c a t i o n i s t s be  p l a c e d at two ends o f a spectrum, due to the c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h e i r aims and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . i s dominant  i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l  time t r a v e l l i n g and w i l l journey from the c i t y pattern end  The r e c r e a t i o n i s t , t o whom the a c t i v i t y experience, w i l l  tend t o spend  be r a d i a l  area.  Thus f o r expedience h i s  from the urban base.  o f the spectrum i s the v a c a t i o n i s t , who i s p r i m a r i l y  with s e e i n g as many p l a c e s as p o s s i b l e route d e s c r i b e d  will  g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e than any a c t i v i t y extremes t h e r e i s the r e c r e a t i o n a l  involved.  vacationist.  His " l i f e  activity  that  enough t o determine the c h a r a c t e r o f h i s v a c a t i o n  the  activity  but  the route may well  important, the r a d i a l  The be o f  Between these two  ful  involved.  concerned  i n a minimum time p e r i o d .  so dominated by the p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n a l  tance  At the o t h e r  tend to be c i r c u i t o u s and the journey w i l l  is still  less  be l e s s concerned with the nature o f the  to the r e c r e a t i o n  o f movement w i l l  nature o f  pattern  style" is i t i s power-  period.  will  Because  be present  be " o b l o n g " due t o the extended time and d i s -  12. These p a t t e r n s also contribute  to the c h a r a c t e r  hinterland  region  influence,  usually  regional of  i s scattered  circuit  will  of the frequented a r e a .  demands The urban  on the p e r i p h e r y o f the urban zone of  complex may  areas p r o v i d i n g  to the s p e c i a l i z e d  recreational  l e s s than two hours d r i v i n g time from the c i t y .  recreational  recreational  of movement and v a r y i n g  recreational  tend to have  be thought o f as a nucleated  The  group  a v a r i e t y o f high q u a l i t y " p r o d u c t s " vacationists.  linear recreational  F i n a l l y , the facilities  those major c o r r i d o r s o f movement, most o f which w i l l  vacation  c l o s e to  be o f a s e r v i c e  nature.  Based upon the conceptual  framework d e s c r i b e d  above, the study  of Vancouver s k i e r s i s c e n t e r e d on the a c t i v i t i e s o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s and  recreational  vacationists.  the  recreational-vacationist  It must be conceded that  group must.be d i v i d e d  for skiing,  i n t o two sub groups  — t h e weekender and the v a c a t i o n e r .  Such a f o c u s ,  a c t i v i t i e s o f the r e c r e a t i o n i s t , was  s p e c i f i c a l l y chosen because of  the  paucity  of research  which  which t h i s area has r e c e i v e d .  includes  One  need  the  only  r e f e r to a c r i t i q u e o f the f i n d i n g s of the O.R.R.R.C. Reports to the President,  to s u b s t a n t i a t e  this  lack.  18  I t h i n k perhaps the most important s i n g l e f a c t cont a i n e d i n t h i s report came as a s u r p r i s e to many people. T h i s was the f a c t that America's g r e a t e s t need f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s i n or near  the  '"Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission, P r e s i d e n t (Washington, D.C, 1962).  Report to  urban c e n t r e s where people can r e a d i l y s e l v e s of these o p p o r t u n i t i e s . ' ^  It  i s hoped that the present  sary p e r s p e c t i v e on given  scant  study w i l l  t h i s s u b j e c t , one  avail  offer  them-  a new  and  which, to t h i s time, has  r e c o g n i t i o n by e i t h e r geographers or s o c i a l  neces been  scientists i  genera 1.  19H ugo F i s h e r , "Urban America's Demand f o r R e c r e a t i o n , " i n County Parks and R e c r e a t i o n (The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Counties and N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1965)•  CHAPTER I I  THE  Following Chapter desire  PROCEDURAL PROLOGUE  the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the conceptual  I, i t i s l o g i c a l  t o attempt  i n t o a p r a c t i c a l research  worthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  The one  t o t r a n s l a t e the t h e o r e t i c a l  framework.  recreational  activity.  c h o i c e o f Vancouver as the p o p u l a t i o n  o f expedience; the c h o i c e o f s k i i n g r e s u l t e d  h i k i n g and g o l f , e t c . , e x h i b i t e d  aesthetic  source was l a r g e l y from the f a c t  such as mountain  activity  climbing,  for this particular  For example, t h e m o t i v a t i o n to ski  enjoyment o f t h e n a t u r a l  pleasure i n exercise,  that  a group o f study c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which  made i t the most s u i t a b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l piece of research.  The o t h e r i s  i n data c o l l e c t i o n .  the a c t i v i t y , compared to o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s ,  cal  Two major i s s u e s a r e  One i s the c h o i c e o f Vancouver as the urban  base and s k i i n g as the s e l e c t e d the methodology employed  background i n  ranges from an  environment, through simple  t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f some l e v e l  of status  achievement i n s o c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n o f f the ski  range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l  m o t i v a t i o n s may be viewed through t h i s s i n g l e  medium o f s k i i n g . defined  slopes.  physi-  Thus, a wide  Secondly, s k i i n g i s an a c t i v i t y which i s w e l l -  with a c l e a r commitment and i s t h e r e f o r e  readily observable.  If a group with s k i s sets o f f towards a s k i i n g area t h e r e i s a high p r o b a b i l i t y that  they w i l l  spend a p o r t i o n o f that day s k i i n g .  This  15. may seem a t r i f l e very d i f f i c u l t  banal but i n an a c t i v i t y  to d i s t i n g u i s h  such as h i k i n g ,  between the Sunday a f t e r n o o n s t r o l 1 e r , . t h e  b u t t e r f l y c o l l e c t o r , and the s e r i o u s h i k e r - - a l l time o r another but i n each T h i r d l y , as r e c r e a t i o n a l  lity  these may h i k e at some  the a c t i v i t y p l a y s a d i f f e r e n t  p l a c e s , s k i i n g areas a r e e a s i l y  and each has a l i m i t e d geographic as p o i n t d e s t i n a t i o n s .  i t may be  role.  identifiable  l o c a l e , a l l o w i n g them to be t r e a t e d  A l s o , these areas p r o v i d e two types o f f a c i -  that a r e common t o a wide range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l  one hand they have d i s t i n c t  physical  snow q u a l i t y , e t c . , which a r e r e l a t e d the o t h e r hand, they have amenity  areas.  On the  resources such as v e r t i c a l to s k i l l  drop,  requirements, and, on  f a c t o r s such as p a r k i n g space,  con-  cession s t a l i s , e t c .  To summarize, s k i i n g as a r e c r e a t i o n a l of  a c t i v i t y e x h i b i t s many  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o t h e r forms o f r e c r e a t i o n a l  has a few s p e c i a l analysis.  q u a l i t i e s which make i t eminently s u i t a b l e f o r  F o r t u n a t e l y , w i t h i n the range o f a nine hour  journey from Vancouver,  automobile  t h e r e a r e more than t h i r t y a v a i l a b l e  s k i i n g a r e a s , ranging g r e a t l y couver.  a c t i v i t y , yet  commercial  i n both q u a l i t y and p r o x i m i t y t o Van-  Thus, t h e Vancouver s k i e r has a wide spectrum o f c h o i c e .  D e s p i t e t h e aforementioned that the s p e c i f i c approach be a p p l i e d  characteristics  and t h e methods used  to o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s ,  i t i s not suggested  i n t h i s study  in other s i t u a t i o n s .  cannot  Indeed, one o f  the m o t i v a t i o n s f o r t h i s p i e c e o f research i s the hope that such an a n a l y s i s , based on a c i t y attempts  at wider  should prove s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d  application.  to induce  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , because o f the n o v e l t y of the t o p i c , t h e r e are no real  g u i d e l i n e s f o r a research approach or even f o r data g a t h e r i n g .  Those works which  have i n v e s t i g a t e d  s k i i n g demand, such as "The  Market  i n Northeast North America,"' or " S k i i n g Trends and  nities  i n the Western  States,"  or "Report on S k i e r s  Skier  Opportu-  1966,"-'  have,  without e x c e p t i o n , been l i m i t e d t o a sample s e l e c t i o n which has been drawn from s k i e r s v i s i t i n g  the ski s l o p e s .  A l l three studies  offer  v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on s k i i n g , although the survey o f the western s t a t e s must be s i n g l e d out because tical  i t used more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  methods than the o t h e r two s t u d i e s .  all  concerned with the market  the  development  George Besch's  These works, however, are  p i c t u r e and p l a c e  o f a research methodology t h e s i s , t i t l e d "Land  statis-  little  emphasis  on  or conceptual framework.  Use and Other C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  Needed f o r Developing Winter S p o r t s Areas i n M i c h i g a n , " ^ i s s i m i l a r l y area o r i e n t a t e d and the  is l i t t l e  more than a c a t a l o g u e of g u i d e l i n e s f o r  o p e r a t i o n of s k i i n g a r e a s .  The e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s completed  s k i i n g a r e l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f the growing  interest  on  i n t h i s phenomenon.  A r e a Redevelopment A s s o c i a t i o n , The S k i e r Market i n Northeast North Ameri ca (Washington, D.C.: prepared by Sno E n g i n e e r i n g f o r the S t a t e of New Hampshire, S t a t e P l a n n i n g P r o j e c t , 1964). !  Western  of  ^Roscoe B. H e r r i n g t o n , Ski i ng Trends and Opportuni t i es i n the S t a t e s (U.S. Forest S e r v i c e Research Paper, INT. 34, 1967)•  ^Dr. Peter K l o p c h i c , Report on S k i e r s 1966, O n t a r i o Department Tourism and I n f o r m a t i o n , Report No. 16 ( O n t a r i o : 1967).  ^George Besch, "Land Use and Other C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Needed f o r Developing Winter S p o r t s Areas i n Michigan (M.Sc. t h e s i s , Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1963). (Mimeographed.) 1  '7-  They merely note the increased interest  i n t h i s sport and the possible  c o n t r i b u t i o n s which i t might make to the t o u r i s t industry of various parts of North America.-' As a consequence very l i t t l e of the a v a i l able l i t e r a t u r e on s k i i n g has been of value in the organization of the study.  Since the approach used i n t h i s work diverges from the afore-  mentioned analyses, the adoption of tested procedures is largely prec1uded. It was mentioned early in Chapter I that one of the  reasons  why the c i t y orientated procedure had not been extensively adopted was because i t was much easier to draw an accurate sample from the recreation area.  The problem of d e r i v i n g an accurate  city-based  sample was not solved by the w r i t e r , largely due to temporal and f i n a n cial  limitations.  If more information was included i n the decennial  census regarding recreation p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t would be much easier to derive a s u i t a b l e sample.  However, three possible a l t e r n a t i v e  approaches were considered by the w r i t e r . The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e is to go to the ski slopes and take a systematic sample, e i t h e r as the ski tows are being used, or as skiers a r r i v e and depart from the s k i i n g area by c a r .  This system was  rejected due to the d i f f i c u l t y of v i s i t i n g t h i r t y areas at the end of the season and i d e n t i f y i n g a systematic sample of e x c l u s i v e l y  ^See Chapter I, footnote 1, where selected s k i i n g demand are l i s t e d .  references on early  18.  Vancouver s k i e r s .  It might have been f e a s i b l e f o r l o c a l  f o r those at a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e from Vancouver. those drawbacks  the emphasis on area s e l e c t i o n  a r e a s but not  In a d d i t i o n to  is antithetical  to the  urban source approach.  Alternatively,  i t might be p o s s i b l e to take a random or s y s t e -  matic sample of s k i e r s as they use ski r e p a i r , s k i r e n t a l or ski r e t a i l outlets.  However, i t seemed p r o b a b l e that the type o f s k i e r s most  q u e n t l y u s i n g those f a c i l i t i e s would tend to be b i a s e d towards beginners o r very experienced s k i e r s . that a c a r e f u l lets  An a d d i t i o n a l  t e s t would be necessary f i r s t  problem a r i s e s i n  sample.  Another approach i n v o l v e s the d e r i v a t i o n o f a weighted  to e s t a b l i s h  Some c l u b s a r e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i s t , l e s s , the approach which was  sample  However, the r e s o l u t i o n o f  the v a r i o u s b i a s e s would pose severe problems. s i n c e i t would be d i f f i c u l t  either  to determine which o u t -  i n the c i t y would best p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e  from each of a wide range of ski c l u b s .  fre-  This  is especially  true  the nature of the w e i g h t i n g s .  some a r e f o r the b e g i n n e r .  Neverthe-  f i n a l l y adopted was a k i n to the above  method, and although i t d i d not p r o v i d e a random sample of the Vancouver s k i i n g p o p u l a t i o n , ^ the sample o b t a i n e d adequate f o r the study. sample was  (see F i g u r e 2 ) was  considered  From Appendix B i t can be seen that the  quite heavily biased  i n favour of the committed,  experienced  S i n c e the complete p o p u l a t i o n was not sampled the group quest i o n n a i r e d c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as a random sample. Appendix B i n d i c a t e s how t h i s sample compared with o t h e r s drawn by o t h e r researchers.  THE  COMPOSITION.  MALE  Sex  FEMALE  Marital Status  Age  21 3 9 % B B B 1  MARRIED  52  SINGLE  4 7 59%aaBBaBBBi  10.16% mm  19 - 22  1818%  23 - 30  23-53%BBM«i  31 - 40  22 - 99% • • • •  41 - 50  l6<58%i^H 8 - 56%  ELMENT.  Education  3•24%  27 5 7 % ^ ^ ^ 24-32% HBBB  -  $5,999  26 37% 24 737. ^ B ^ H  CRAFTSMEN  13-192 mmm  MANAGERIAL  io 44% mm  SALES  Years skied  mmWM mmm  Skiing group  49-20% ^ ^ H i ^ H ^ M  7-697. mm  CLERICAL  7 697 mm  HOUSEWIVES  4-95%  OTHERS  4 95% •  •  794% mn  AVERAGE  49 74%  AB. AVERAGE  42 33% M  22-22% • • • • 63-49% •••••••••i  MIX. A D U L T S .  41 - 80% ••••••i  A L L M A L E AD.  23 28% • • • •  M I X . AD.&CH.  21 - 16% • • • • 4-23% • 3 17% •  10-70%  OTHERS  6 35% •  $15,000 +  percent  'B.C. S k i e r  H  sample  Magazine  w a s drawn  during  from  the month  • B  7+  ALL MALE C H .  $10-14,999  • ^  4-7  13-90% mmm  2 6 - 20%  • ^  12 - 17% mmm  2-3  A L L FEM. AD.  $6-9,999  •  2 31% I  1  I  mm  S O M E UNIV.  05%  STUDENTS PR0F.4 TECH.  BEGINNERS  Skill  GRAD. H. S.  14  Occupat -ion  H  WM  tl - 8 9 %  P O S T GRAD.  An eight  M  S O M E H.S.  GRAD. UNIV. 1 8 - 9 2 %  Income  M  41%  12 - 18  over 50  to  SAMPLE  subscribers of M a y , 1 9 6 6 . C.K.C. 1967  20.  skier.  Such a b i a s was accepted ( F i g u r e 2 ) , p a r t i a l l y because c i r c u m -  s t a n c e s prevented the a d o p t i o n of a s u i t a b l e random sample of total  the  s k i i n g p o p u l a t i o n s of Vancouver and p a r t l y because the committed  s k i e r ' s h a b i t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y important i n i n d i c a t i n g s k i i n g t r e n d s .  The v e r y e x i s t e n c e of the aforementioned b i a s l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was composed of those Vancouver c o n t r i b u t e d to B.C. S k i e r Magazine. beyond B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , but of  s k i e r s who  I t s c i r c u l a t i o n ^ extended w e l l  i t s seven thousand s u b s c r i b e r s ,  thousand were l o c a t e d i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a .  three  An e i g h t e e n  per cent sample was s e l e c t e d through the use of random numbers and a 1966,  r e t u r n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a i l e d t o t h i s group i n A p r i l of y i e l d i n g a f o r t y - o n e per cent r e t u r n .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , an e i g h t per cent  sample was d e r i v e d from the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t h r e e thousand V a n couver s k i e r s who c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s magazine.  To the e x t e n t  the response was high and the number of unusable r e t u r n s  low,  that it  would be f a i r to say t h a t the d e s i g n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e met w i t h some s u c c e s s .  Three groups o f q u e s t i o n s were asked (Appendix  One group q u e r i e d present and p o t e n t i a l s k i i n g p r e f e r e n c e s ; group e n q u i r e d about the use and r a t i n g of s k i i n g areas  another  retrospec-  t i v e l y over the 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 s e a s o n , w h i l e a t h i r d group d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o f i l e s of the i n d i v i d u a l  T h i s magazine i s now out of  print.  A).  skiers.  the  21 . To  try to o f f s e t  t h e expected b i a s o f t h e B.C. S k i e r Magazine  sample, a nine per cent  sample was drawn from s i x hundred s k i e r s who  belonged t o t h e Y.M.C.A. s k i s c h o o l . mainly beginners t i v e purposes.  It was assumed t h a t these were  and i t was hoped that t h i s c o u l d be used f o r comparaMost o f t h e respondents were c h i l d r e n and i t was e v i -  dent that t h e i r m o b i l i t y was c e r t a i n l y Beyond t h i s  The  to t h e l o c a l  slopes.  l i t t l e c o u l d be d e r i v e d from t h e responses.  only exception  distributed material  limited  t o twenty-six  was o b t a i n e d  t o these  urban based q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was one  s k i i n g areas.  Some u s e f u l d e s c r i p t i v e  from t h e responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  t r u e t o say, however, that t h e main c o n c l u s i o n s  reached  in this  It i s study  a r e based on the sample taken from B.C. S k i e r Magazine s u b s c r i b e r s . The  fact  that t h e r e  i s so great an emphasis on one q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s  recognized  as a weakness but i t i s f e l t  that t h e study  sufficient  information  guidelines for the a n a l y s i s of  to g i v e at l e a s t  an urban r e c r e a t i o n a l h i n t e r l a n d . which emphasizes the s t a t i c recreational  area,  The f i r s t  has y i e l d e d  p o r t i o n o f the a n a l y s i s ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the user and the  forms t h e core o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e  which h i g h l i g h t user demand, user  s a t i s f a c t i o n , and user  chapters, preferences.  CHAPTER I I I  THE USER AND THE PATTERN OF HIS DEMAND  The u l t i m a t e q u e s t i o n which i s posed i n most r e c r e a t i o n a l s t u d i e s c o n c e r n s t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e economic b e n e f i t s which may be d e r i v e d from a p r i v a t e o r governmental r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . order to c a l c u l a t e these b e n e f i t s i t i s necessary  In  t o i d e n t i f y one o r  more m e a s u r a b l e c o n t r o l f a c t o r s which may c o n d i t i o n t h e s i z e o f demand generated.  As with o t h e r p r o d u c t s , t h e p r o x i m i t y and magnitude o f t h e  p o t e n t i a l market a r e key f a c t o r s , but i n r e c r e a t i o n t h e market g r a v i t a t e s towards t h e p r o d u c t .  Thus t h e r o l e o f t h e d i s t a n c e f a c t o r i s  primary and as w i l l be seen l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r , i t has been by r e s e a r c h e r s as t h e major c o n t r o l f a c t o r .  regarded  T h e r e i s no i n t e n t i o n i n  this thesis to contest the c e n t r a l i t y of the s p a t i a l relationship between t h e user and use a r e a , but r a t h e r t o e n l a r g e upon i t , t h r o u g h viewing  i t from an urban r a t h e r than from a r e s o u r c e  perspective.  It might w e l l be a r g u e d t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n o f demand s h o u l d take up a t e r m i n a l r a t h e r than an i n t r o d u c t o r y p o s i t i o n because i t may be regarded as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f user p r e f e r e n c e , d e r i v e d  user  s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h e p e r m i s s i v e o r r e s t r i c t i v e e f f e c t s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c factors.  However, t h e w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t a l t h o u g h  i t may be thought  that the v i s i t a t i o n rate resolves a l l these f a c t o r s i n t o a s i n g l e  numerical v a l u e , singly  the t h e s i s i s s t r u c t u r e d  r e f i n e and expand  i n such a way as to i n c r e a -  upon t h i s measure.  issue of attendance w i l l  be e l a b o r a t e d  The r e l a t i v e l y  crude  on as the work p r o g r e s s e s ,  through the r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f users and t h e i r a c t i v i t y patterns. attempting establish  Thus t h e present c h a p t e r w i l l  to meet a t r i l o g y o f o b j e c t i v e s .  The f i r s t  through a b r i e f review o f the contemporary  r e c o g n i t i o n o f the d i s t a n c e The second w i l l  will  be to  l i t e r a t u r e , the  v a r i a b l e as the major parameter o f demand.  be to d e l i m i t f u n c t i o n a l demand zones and t o d e s c r i b e  the p a t t e r n o f s k i i n g demand emanating aim w i l l  i n v e s t i g a t e demand by  i n v o l v e a resume^of  from Vancouver.  While a t h i r d  t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s which may be d e r i v e d  from t h e p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s .  Several of  recreational  income,  studies  have attempted  travel.'  t o i s o l a t e the major  V o l k , f o r example, i n v e s t i g a t e d median  per cent o f t o t a l  population  living  i n urban p l a c e s ,  t r a v e l l e d and m o b i l i t y as measured by per c a p i t a automobile per  state.  A f t e r using  multiple  regression  Parks i n the U.S.A., he found  family  distance ownership  t o determine the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between those parameters and t h e v i s i t a t i o n of N a t i o n a l  parameters  r a t e t o a number  that,  Roy I. Wolfe, Parameters o f R e c r e a t i o n a 1 T r a v e l i n O n t a r i o , Research Paper No. R.B. FT1 ( O n t a r i o Department o f Highways, 1966); George F. Deasy and P h y l l i s G r e i s s , "Impact o f a T o u r i s t F a c i l i t y on I t s H i n t e r l a n d , " A.A.A.G., 56 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 290-306; Donald J . V o l k , " F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g R e c r e a t i o n a l Use o f N a t i o n a l Parks" (a paper presented a t t h e Annual Meeting o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, Columbus, Ohio, 1965). (Mimeographed.)  24. . . . i n every i n s t a n c e the most important f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g attendance proved t o be the d i s t a n c e o f the r e c r e a t i o n area from the p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e o f the v i s i t o r . In a l l cases d i s t a n c e accounted f o r at l e a s t 60% o f a l l t o t a l v a r i a t i o n , with f i g u r e s running as high as 90% in a vew c a s e s . 2  This empirical  f i n d i n g by V o l k has been noted  way by a number o f w r i t e r s .  i n an i n t u i t i v e  T r o t t e r , f o r example, when  the demand e x e r t e d on parks i n I l l i n o i s  investigating  State, declared rather banally  that, l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e populous s e c t i o n s o f the s t a t e and p r o x i m i t y t o l a r g e urban c e n t r e s a r e s i g n i f i cant f a c t o r s i n park attendance.3 V a r i o u s e q u a t i o n s have been used t o p r e d i c t demand. have been developed around  g r a v i t y modes.  O p p o r t u n i t i e s model, the Kep1er-Kneutonian  Most o f these  The S t o u f f e r I n t e r v e n i n g model and the Z i p f  Inter-  L actance model have a l l been adapted  f o r use i n r e c r e a t i o n a l  studies.  The work o f t h e s o c i o l o g i s t , W i l l i a m C a t t o n , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y cant  i n t h i s sphere, f o r he i n t r o d u c e d a r a t i n g  r  the a t t r a c t i o n v a l u e i n the demand equation.'  1  signifi-  index to be used as  6 Knetsch,  7 Wolfe,'  V o l k , op. c i t . , p. 53 John E. T r o t t e r , "Some F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Attendance nois S t a t e Parks," J o u r n a l o f Land Economics, 41 (1965), 23.  at  Illi-  ^ W i l l i a m Catton and Lennart Berggren, " I n t e r v e n i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s and N a t i o n a l Park V i s i t a t i o n Rates," P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review,  7 (1964), 66-73.  -'William C a t t o n , "Measuring ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1964).  a N a t i o n a l Park's (Mimeographed.)  Attendance"  ^Jack L. Knetsch, "Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Demands and B e n e f i t s , " Journal o f Land Economics, 39 (1963), 387-396. 7  Wolfe,  op. c i t . , p. 18.  Ullman  and E l l i s and Vandoren" are others who have developed models  centred on the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v i s i t o r ' s home and the recreation area. A l l these aforementioned models which have attempted to explain demand, have emphasized the r o l e of distance as a c r u c i a l determinant. This s p a t i a l factor combined with a supply or population component i s manipulated in various ways to explain the demand or the v i s i t a t i o n at a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t .  The i m p l i c a t i o n in many of these studies i s  that around the recreation area there i s a concentric diminution of demand with increased distance from that p o i n t - - a uniform f r i c t i o n factor.  In t h i s regard there i s perhaps a p a r a l l e l with the develop-  ment of urban growth theory.  Urban s o c i o l o g i s t s began with a concen-  t r i c zone theory'^ then graduated to the less graphic, but more II meaningful sector  and m u l t i p l e - n u c l e i t h e o r i e s .  12  Already Deasy  °E. Ullman and D. J . Volk, " A n Operational Model f o r P r e d i c t i n g Resevoir Attendance and B e n e f i t s . Implications of a Locational Approach to Water Recreation," Papers of the Mi chi gan Academy of Science, A r t s and L e t t e r s , 47 (1962) , 4~63-484.  9 j a c k B. E l l i s and Carlton S. Vandoren, " A Comparative Evaluat i o n of Gravity and System Theory Models for Statewide Recreation T r a f f i c Flows," Journal of Regional Science, 6 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 5 7 - 6 9 - An excel lent recent paper. ' ^ E . W. Burgess, "The Determination of Gradients in the Growth of a C i t y , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Society P u b l i c a t i o n s , 2 1 , 178-184. ' 'Homer Hoyt, "The Pattern of Movement of Residential Rental Neighbourhoods," in Readings in Urban Geography, H . M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn, e d i t o r s (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1964). ' C . D. H a r r i s and E. L. Ullman, "The Nature of C i t i e s , " Anna!s of the Ameri can Academy of Poli t i ca1 and Soc i a I Sci ences, 242 ( 1 9 4 5 ) , 2  7-17.  26.  13  and G r e i s s have  in t h e i r "Impact  suggested  concentric vening  some o f  picture.  will  roles  later  a city  distort  for  such a  possible that  different  This  it  is  end,  and v a c a t i o n ,  this  temporal  extent of  value  day,  to t r a v e l  time zones.  is assigned d i s t i n c t  Thus t o  spatial  o n e h u n d r e d and t e n m i l e s  zone  to Vernon,  the v a c a t i o n  zone  a r e no e x a c t  boundaries.  '^Deasy  which  l i e s anywhere  and G r e i s s ,  was  It  is  op.  lies  beyond  this  cit.  The  to Mt.  The  The  the  skiers  weekend functional  The  the weekend  from Vancouver,  that  week-  degree  range of  Baker.  point.  quite probable  day,  on a d a y ,  these figures  300 m i l e s  skiing  some  manner.  zones were d e t e r m i n e d .  day z o n e e x t e n d s reaches out  those  co-ordinates.  i n an o b j e c t i v e  and f r o m t h e a v e r a g e o f  w e e k e n d and v a c a t i o n  As  these zones  periods,  w e r e a s k e d t h e maximum d i s t a n c e t h e y had t r a v e l l e d trip,  attract  activity.  i s a f f e c t e d by  relate visitation  t h e s e z o n e s was d e r i v e d  or vacation  may  way.  p o s s i b l e to  etc.,  and  represents  S i n c e t h e a u t o m o b i l e d o m i n a t e s a s t h e m a j o r means o f transportation  inter-  zones as they  d e f i n i t i o n of  J  neat  one o t h e r  forms of  the v i s i t a t i o n  The a c t u a l  Hinterland"  characteristics,  based p e r s p e c t i v e .  in the t h e s i s  in the f o l l o w i n g  is  its  induced d i s t o r t i o n ,  regional  It  on  weekend and v a c a t i o n  groups  characteristics.  determined  transport  internal  the day,  socio-economic  be s e e n  differing  of  of  Facility  which might  advertising.  be a d d e d , a s a r e s u l t  different  the f a c t o r s  factors,  impact of  the varying  a Tourist  These a r e :  opportunity  t h e uneven  of  Obviously  while  there  some e n t h u s i a s t i c  27. s k i e r s may w e l l go t h r e e hundred m i l e s f o r a d a y ' s s k i i n g , but  the  zones d e s c r i b e d form meaningful f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s f o r the m a j o r i t y the m a r k e t .  For refinement purposes t h e s e zones were s u b d i v i d e d  r e g i o n a l c l u s t e r s , determined on a l o c a t i o n a l and d i r e c t i o n a l These e i g h t  of into  basis.  regions w i t h t h e i r component s k i i n g areas a r e i l l u s t r a t e d  in F i g u r e 3 • Having a s c e r t a i n e d t h e p r i m a r y r o l e of d i s t a n c e as a demand control  f a c t o r , and h a v i n g d e l i m i t e d the f u n c t i o n a l z o n e s , and r e g i o n a l  d i v i s i o n s d e r i v e d from the d a t a ,  it  i s now p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e the  p a t t e r n of demand e x e r t e d by Vancouver  Vancouver  skiers.  i s l o c a t e d on the n o r t h w e s t e r n seaboard of the North  American c o n t i n e n t .  It  i s a Canadian c i t y ,  but the U n i t e d S t a t e s -  Canada boundary would seem to have l i t t l e impeding e f f e c t on area visitation.  However, i t s seaboard l o c a t i o n p r o h i b i t s a c i r c u l a r  land s h a p e .  The western segment i s almost n o n - e x i s t e n t  travel  f r i c t i o n f a c t o r of f e r r y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Vancouver  due t o the  The s k i i n g areas o f  I s l a n d , the most important of which a r e Green Mountain and  Forbidden P l a t e a u , s e r v e dominantly day use f u n c t i o n s f o r the cities.  hinter-  Island's  However, t h e i r p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s and general a m e n i t i e s a r e  not s u f f i c i e n t l y good to overcome the d i f f i c u l t y of r e a c h i n g these  O r i g i n a l l y the w r i t e r s e l e c t e d the r e g i o n s , Southern U . S . A . and S o u t h e a s t e r n U . S . A . , on the b a s i s of t h e i r l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e to the p o s i t i o n of Vancouver. In r e t r o s p e c t t h i s i s recognized as b e i n g ambiguous. The " N o r t h w e s t P a c i f i c Coast Region" and the "Rocky M t . Region" would have been more m e a n i n g f u l .  COMPOSITION  OF VANCOUVER'S SKIING  HINTERLAND  Z O N E S  WEEKEND l  DAY  VACATION  R E G I O N S  1 Grtiuse  Mt.  2 Hollyburn 3 Seymour  Mt.  4 Diamond  Hd.  5 Whistler  Mt.  NORTH SHORE  SOUAMISH  MT. BAKER  m  S.U.S.A.  OKANAGAN  CAN. KOOTENAYS NAT. PARKS  S.E. USA. HCSORTS  6 Garibaldi 7 Mt. Baker 8 Manning  Pic.  Mt  9 Mt Pilchu*.  Norquay  Sunshi ne  10 The Amber  W in der mere  Stevens Pass  Ki mberely  13 Crystal  Silver  1J Apex  Big  Mt.  Sun  Valley  Alpine  u Kamloops Jig  White  Aspen  King  in  UTAH  ]  100  0 mis  Baker  Lake Louisa Mt. N o r q u o y Sunshine Mt. Pilchak Stevens P. C r y s t a l Mt.  Apex Big W h i t e Tod Mt. S i l v e r St.  WYOM.  i miles.  M*.  Diamond Hd. G a r i b o l di Whistler M t .  IDAHO  50 Stole  Grouse Mt. Hoi ly b u r n S e y m o u r Mt.  MONT. Boise "29.»  J 100  COL. Denver  j  , C.K.C.  1967  FIGURE 3 LOCATION OF SKIING AREAS AND REGIONAL CLASSIFICATION  Red M t . Kimberel)  Schweitzer Basin Big Mt. Sun V a l l e y Aspen  29. areas  from the mainland.  the a u t o m o b i l e - o r i e n t a t e d on  the mainland.  activity south  l i t t l e a t t r a c t i v e power f o r  Vancouver s k i e r who  However, having excluded  p r e f e r s to do h i s s k i i n g  the western segment, the  p a t t e r n s of Vancouver s k i e r s are d i r e c t e d towards the  and  ficant  Thus they hold  due  east.  The  extension  to the general  towards the east  improvement  is particularly  signi-  in c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s as  moves towards the c e n t r e o f the c o n t i n e n t . a drier variety  north,  than on the c o a s t , and  The  there a r e  one  snow i s g e n e r a l l y of longer hours of  sunshine.  As might be p r e d i c t e d , the g r e a t e s t use, a c c o u n t i n g fifty  per cent of a l l use, o c c u r s on the North Shore s l o p e s , with  Grouse Mountain and total  Mount Seymour c o n t r i b u t i n g almost e q u a l l y to t h i s  W h i s t l e r Mountain comes next  in total  though i t opened up halfway through the this May  f o r almost  late s t a r t ,  the n o v e l t y v a l u e and  c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s high f i g u r e . ' ^  v i s i t o r days, even  1965-66  The suggest  general  r a t e of 370  visitor  Mt.  into  Baker, twice the d i s t a n c e time away, was  fourth  days.  r e l a t i o n between these  f o u r l e a d i n g areas would  a f a i r l y c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between demand and  e v e r , when a l l twenty-six  Offsetting  i t s long season extending  from Vancouver, though not twice the t r a v e l l i n g with a v i s i t a t i o n  season.  distance.  of the s k i i n g areas were subjected  How-  to  '^An e s t i m a t e of the number of Vancouver s k i e r s using W h i s t l e r Mt. was c a l c u l a t e d using t i c k e t s a l e s as compared to p r o p o r t i o n a l v i s i t a t i o n by sample s k i e r s . The f i g u r e d e r i v e d revealed that W h i s t l e r Mt. r e c e i v e d 9,000 Vancouver s k i e r s in the 1965-66 season.  30. Table I Regional Relationship Between V i s i t a t i o n Rate and Average Distance Average Distance (Mi les)  V i s i t a t i o n Rate (Vi si tor/Days)  North Shore Mountains  11  Squamish Mountains  63  504 ]  Mt. Baker  1 10  370 ;  South U . S . A .  187  595  Okanagan  290  332 :  Kootenays  513  82 )  Canadian National Parks  563  197  !  S.E. U . S . A . Ski  866  266  ;  Resorts  2203 ;  ;  Day Zone  Weekend Zone  Vacation Zone  regression analysis no l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was observed.  With a log  transformation the c o r r e l a t i o n does improve, but remains below a 16  s i g n i f i c a n t value. regional c l u s t e r s  However, when the areas are grouped into t h e i r in Table I c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be noted.  It would appear that some r e l a t i o n s h i p s do e x i s t between v i s i t a t i o n rate and distance, and the lack of a linear r e l a t i o n s h i p , noted above, may be a consequence of either the small number of areas sampled or the fact that a number of areas i n , say the weekend zones, are r e a l l y day orientated to local markets.  What is perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t  is the role of the distance v a r i a b l e in the vacation zone.  'Value of R =  .16.  Even when  31 • average v i s i t a t i o n  rates per region a r e taken, there  suggest a d i m u n i t i o n  o f demand with d i s t a n c e  There i s a remarkable c o n s i s t e n c y factor. it  The p u l l  o f Sun V a l l e y  i s no evidence to  i n t h i s vacaton zone.  o f demand i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the d i s t a n c e  is particularly  significant  indicating  to be an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s k i i n g c e n t r e , where t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e  area  and t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d  b a r r i e r o f t r a v e l time.  a c t i n a p o s i t i v e way t o overcome the  Furthermore, i t may be suggested that beyond  the weekend zone a momentum f a c t o r may be p r e s e n t ,  and as w i l l be  seen i n Chapter VI t h i s has c l e a r d i r e c t i o n a l components which may be associated  with p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic and s k i l l  groups.  Both  these aforementioned f a c t o r s would  lead one t o the c o n c l u s i o n  is  visitor  i n the sphere o f the " f l o a t i n g "  the g r e a t e s t  degree o f market d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n may o c c u r .  t h i s would j u s t i f y the g r e a t e s t tion  the b e l i e f  that  i t i s i n the v a c a t i o n  zone that Furthermore,  sphere that  amount o f emphasis must l i e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e c r e a -  resource  significant  to the v a c a t i o n  that i t  and i t s development.  Indeed, t h e momentum f a c t o r i s  enough t o j u s t i f y an a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r y  model d e s c r i b e d  i n Chapter  I. We might c a l l  Their significant  i n the t h i n k i n g  t h i s group the v a c a t i o n a l -  recreationist  group.  international  c l a s s o f r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , where they might spend extended  time i n t h e one l o c a t i o n .  d e s i r e would be to reach an  In a d d i t i o n , these f i n d i n g s might  v i n d i c a t e t h e viewpoint  that previous  example, overemphasized  the p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y o f t h e park to a t t r a c t  visitors.  research  in national  partially  parks, f o r  While the w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t many o f these parks a r e v i s i t e d  because they  1 i e on part o f a v a c a t i o n  circuit  a c e r t a i n p a r t o f the  visitation  i s o r i e n t a t e d towards the R e c r e a t i o n i s t , R e c r e a t i o n a l  V a c a t i o n i s t , and " V a c a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n i s t . "  It i s t h i s  who  p l a c e major emphasis on the p h y s i c a l  who  e x p e r i e n c e maximum sensory c o n t a c t with the r e s o u r c e .  last  group  q u a l i t y of the resource and The  vaca-  t i o n i s t , on the o t h e r hand, r e c e i v e s most o f h i s sensory s t i m u l a t i o n through  visual  perception only.  It would be extremely  to i n v e s t i g a t e the demand composition the f o u r groups mentioned above. c e p t i o n s and  m o t i v a t i o n s might  recreational  areas.  i n terms of  of t h e i r  per-  lead to more p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g of t h e r e f o r e t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r  i n t o the user c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are  a s s o c i a t e d with the demand f a c t o r . ment f o l l o w s i n Chapter  park  Wider understanding  It i s suggested  must p e n e t r a t e more deeply  of a n a t i o n a l  interesting  The f i r s t  attempt  at such  IV where the q u e s t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s t a n c e , user demand and  user  refine-  i s the  satisfaction.  CHAPTER IV  THE  USER AND HIS DEGREE OF SATISFACTION  In the p r e v i o u s chapter r a t e i s a numerical  i t was suggested  that the v i s i t a t i o n  v a l u e which r e s o l v e s a number o f v a r i a b l e s  such  as d i s t a n c e , p r e f e r e n c e s , time segments and o t h e r s , i n t o a s i n g l e measure.  However, i t might w e l l be argued  t h a t a demand v a l u e i s  r e a l l y o n l y i n d i c a t i v e o f a compromise between these s e p a r a t e and  i n no way r e f l e c t s  the b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d by the i n d i v i d u a l ,  the p a r t i c u l a r e n t e r p r i s e .  There tends t o be a syndrome  factors from  suggested  i n economic s t u d i e s whereby l i n k a g e s a r e p l a c e d between e n t r e p r e neurial tion. based  s u c c e s s , high v i s i t a t i o n  r a t e , p o p u l a r i t y and user  It i s the aim o f t h i s chapter through approach,  satisfac-  the use of t h e urban-  t o throw some l i g h t on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  exist  between user s a t i s f a c t i o n , demand and d i s t a n c e between the c i t y and the r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . measurement u t i l i z e d  Basically  A b r i e f prologue w i l l t o determine  two p r i n c i p a l  o u t l i n e the method o f  the user s a t i s f a c t i o n  methods have been a p p l i e d i n p r e v i o u s  research t o e s t i m a t e user s a t i s f a c t i o n — t h e one s i t e the r e t r o s p e c t i v e r a t i n g system. tionist  i s asked  index.  In the former  i n t e r v i e w and  case the r e c r e a -  h i s o p i n i o n o f the area which he i s v i s i t i n g ,  a campground, p i c n i c a r e a , r e s e v o i r , o r whatever. the advantage o f an area sampling  be i t  T h i s approach has  system, but the disadvantage  that  34. some personal emotional overall  assessment.  conflict  and  success of the day may  In a d d i t i o n the v i s i t o r  alter  i s faced with the  the  prob-  lem of g i v i n g a q u a l i t y assessment of a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e without a d e f i n i t i v e y a r d s t i c k o f comparison method can be adopted  available.  r e c r e a t i o n areas are asked,  who retro-  they would c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a t e the v a r i o u s areas which  they had v i s i t e d .  Here the problem  s c a l e s may  appear,  but a s u i t a b l e system  derived.'  Another  criticism  lies  of a r r i v i n g at u n i f i e d f o r overcoming  rating  t h i s has been  i n the very reasonable b e l i e f  the v a l u e s a s s e s s e d by v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s would show such a that the d e r i v a t i o n o f meaningful n a t e l y , Catton has results  another  whereby p a r t i c u l a r groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s ,  have v i s i t e d a number o f s p e c i f i e d s p e c t i v e l y , how  Alternatively,  tested  that  latitude  r e s u l t s would be i m p o s s i b l e .  Fortu-  the r e t r o s p e c t i v e r a t i n g system and h i s  i n d i c a t e t h a t both these c r i t i c i s m s are minor i n c h a r a c t e r and  in no way  prohibit  the d e r i v a t i o n of meaningful  results.  As Catton says,  Though i t was a l l e g e d that park a t t r a c t i v e n e s s c o u l d not be m e a n i n g f u l l y r a t e d , the approach taken i n t h i s study d i d y i e l d s c a l e v a l u e s which r e l a t i v e l y measure it. 2  The  r e t r o s p e c t i v e r a t i n g system was  p r o j e c t because two  adopted  i n the  skiing  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s made i t p r e f e r a b l e to the c i t e d  a l t e r n a t i v e o f an o n - s i t e  interview.  On the one hand the study  was  'A method suggested by W i l l i a m C a t t o n , though not employed i n t h i s study, i s found i n A l e n L. Edwards, Techniques of A t t i t u d e S c a l e C o n s t r u c t i o n (New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t , 1957) , Ch. 5W i l l i a m C a t t o n , "Measuring ( U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1964). 2  a N a t i o n a l Park's (Mimeographed.)  Attractiveness,"  urban based, and, on the o t h e r hand i t was r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y o r i e n t a t e d over  the 1965-66 season.  In a d d i t i o n  the f a c t  that s k i i n g areas were  p o i n t d e s t i n a t i o n s and were common to a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the market, made i t h i g h l y s u i t a b l e . the f o l l o w i n g manner.  The a c t u a l  The r a t i n g s from "poor"  t i o n n a i r e ^ were given v a l u e s from individual  numerical  1 to 5.  v a l u e was d e r i v e d i n to "good" on the ques-  The mean values f o r the  s k i i n g areas were then d e r i v e d and were converted  s c a l e where 1 represented z e r o and 5 represented one hundred. means thus d e r i v e d ranged  into a The  from a low o f 17 f o r H o i l y b u r n Ridge t o a  high o f 100 f o r B i g Mountain, Montana, and Aspen,  Colorado.  Description of Results  On the broadest zone, t a k i n g a l l areas  scale,  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the day  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , r e c e i v e d a mean v a l u e o f  50 which, when reconverted g i v e s a " q u e s t i o n n a i r e r a t i n g " o f "average." T h i s suggests  intuitively  the respondents  that the l o c a l  as a mean on t h e i r  rating scale.  zone r e c e i v e s a mean r a t i n g o f 7 3 which verted"  areas have been u t i l i z e d by L i k e w i s e , the weekend  i s very c l o s e , when " r e c o n -  to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r a t i n g o f "above average",  v a c a t i o n zone r e c e i v e s an average be made from t h e s e statements. f a c t i o n with  rating of 8 3 .  Two o b s e r v a t i o n s may  There i s c l e a r l y an i n c r e a s e i n s a t i s -  i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e from the urban base.  See Appendi x C.  w h i l e the  A l s o there i s  36. an  i n d i c a t i o n that the s i g n i f i c a n t  i n c r e a s e i n user  to be found as the s k i e r moves from the day  satisfaction  i n t o the weekend zone,  r a t h e r than from the weekend i n t o the v a c a t i o n zone. r e l a t i o n s of the gated,  these  Mt.  the day  this  low  of the  (27)  and  slopes.  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e following  certain qualifications.  the  do the more proximous North  Undoubtedly there must be some r e l a t i o n s h i p between  rating  local  investi-  zone, s k i e r s rate the Squamish region and  Baker region twice as h i g h l y as they  Shore s l o p e s .  When the s u b t l e r  r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n each zone a r e  statements a r e upheld, but with  Within  is  the overcrowding and  This suggestion  respondents.  One  was  poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  verified  by a number of  lady, f o r example, made the  statement:  We a r e a f a m i l y of two a d u l t s and two teenage boys whose f a v o r i t e s p o r t i s s k i i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , my husband r e f u s e s to ski l o c a l l y on account of the overcrowded and p o o r l y groomed s l o p e s of Mt. Seymour and Grouse Mountain. There a r e a great deal of V a n c o u v e r i t e s who f e e l the same way. One good week's s k i i n g away i s worth more than a month's l o c a l ski i ng. Nevertheless magnificent  Grouse Mountain and opportunity  in the Vancouver a r e a .  The  Evidence of t h i s was distributed  From a l e t t e r e n c l o s e d sample).  with  skiing  found through the  to a Y.M.C.A. ski  responses r e v e a l e d that almost one  the s k i i n g done by these beginners  Magazi ne  Seymour undoubtedly o f f e r a  f o r the development of the sport of  of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was sample.  Mt.  results  school  hundred per cent  of  took p l a c e on Grouse or Seymour.  returned q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (B.C.  Skier  .37. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough the average age o f the respondents was between e i g h t and nine years  The  o f age.  Squamish and W h i s t l e r  regions  the high o f W h i s t l e r Mountain ( 7 5 ) Garibaldi  (62).  have s i m i l a r  i s reduced by Diamond Head  It would seem that W h i s t l e r Mountain  become one o f the most popular  observe over t h e next few y e a r s .  (42)  Indeed the  seems r a t h e r  low but  p r i d e f a c t o r here i n favour o f W h i s t l e r .  U.S.A. s l o p e s and those o f  the Okanagan region get comparable r a t i n g s . ranges a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t .  However, t h e i r  compara-  In t h e Okanagan the r a t i n g s l i e  from 69 f o r B i g White t o 75 f o r S i l v e r S t a r , with Tod Mt. (71) and Apex (71)  p o s i t i o n e d w i t h i n t h i s very narrow margin.  e x h i b i t e d by the southern  The spectrum  U.S.A. s l o p e s v a r i e s q u i t e widely  from a  low o f 61 f o r Mt. P i l c h u k t o a high o f 90 f o r C r y s t a l Mountain. i s worth n o t i n g t h a t the r a t i n g s p a r a l l e l  It  d i s t a n c e increments from  Vancouver.  In t h e v a c a t i o n zone t h e r e  i s a considerable  mean o f 72 f o r the Canadian N a t i o n a l for the southeastern  and  be an i n t e r e s t i n g one t o  Baker's r a t i n g  In t h e weekend zone, the southern  tive  although  i s destined to  areas w i t h i n the day zone.  b a t t l e between W h i s t l e r and Baker should  t h e r e may be a l o c a l  ratings  United  i s 87 f o r the Kootenay  States  region.  range from a  Parks region t o a high o f 94  resort region.  The median here  T a b l e Ii Comparison  o f Canadian N a t i o n a l  Parks Areas  and Zonal Average User S a t i s f a c t i o n  Indices  User S a t i s f a c t i o n S k i i n g Area - Lake L o u i s e Zone - V a c a t i o n  88  (avg)  83  S k i i n g Area - Sunshine V i l l a g e  76  Zone - Weekend (avg)  73  S k i i n g Area - Mt. Norquay Zone - Day  The  Index  52  (avg)  50  low v a l u e recorded by the Canadian N a t i o n a l  Parks  region  r e q u i r e s some e x p l a n a t i o n , s i n c e the v a l u e o f ~]k i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same as that the i n d i v i d u a l covered.  r e c e i v e d by the Okanagan--a weekend r e g i o n .  areas a r e examined  a s u r p r i s i n g l y wide range i s d i s -  Indeed the range between these i n d i v i d u a l  v a c a t i o n zone i s p a r a l l e l  areas w i t h i n the  to that which e x i s t s between the day,  weekend and v a c a t i o n zones.  The  low f i g u r e of Mt. Norquay  explanation.  S i n c e Mt. Norquay r e c e i v e s such a low r a t i n g  be p o s t u l a t e d  that Mt. Norquay does not s e r v e Vancouver  a r e a , but r a t h e r s e r v e s C a l g a r y as a day zone. a n t i c i p a t e d enjoyment not f u l f i l l e d , a postulation the Department  When  o f the Vancouver  i t might  as a v a c a t i o n  As a consequence  skier v i s i t i n g  and thus h i s degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i s at least p a r t i a l l y  begs  t h i s area i s  i s reduced.  upheld by a study completed  o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l  the  Such by  Resources i n a study  39.  of Mt. in that  Norquay v i s i t a t i o n  i n 19&5-  The  f o l l o w i n g statement  i s included  report: It must be emphasized that o n l y a very small proport i o n of the w i n t e r v i s i t o r s to t h i s area r e s i d e outside Alberta The winter v i s i t o r market to Mt. Norquay i s predominantly l o c a l i n c h a r a c t e r . ^  The q u i t e high  Kootenay region  r e c e i v e s an o v e r a l l r a t e of 87 which i s  in view of the f a c t  that  i t i s not  However a combination o f good c h a l l e n g i n g siastic  social  degree of  The  and  The  the  f o u r s k i i n g r e s o r t s comprising  and  enthu-  an  high  Sun  The  Schweitzer Basin with a very  V a l l e y e x h i b i t s a high  r e c e i v e d maximum r a t i n g s of one  It would appear from the from an area  zones.  The  social  user  satisfac-  received  respectable  demand f i g u r e as well  Big Mountain and  domi-  factors  lowest r a t i n g in t h i s zone was  User S a t i s f a c t i o n Index of 9*.  f a c t i o n derived  r e s o r t s area  zone i n terms of both v i s i t a t i o n and  newly-established  functional  the S.E.  p r o v i s i o n of good s k i i n g , amenity and  v a l u e of 85. higher  orientated.  s k i i n g atmosphere would seem to r e s u l t i n a  secures t h i s s u c c e s s . by  ski slopes  resort  satisfaction.  nate the v a c a t i o n tion.  highly  as a  Aspen both  hundred.  results that,  increases  nature of t h i s  as one  in general,  the  satis-  moves through the  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  three  investigated  ^Gordon D. T a y l o r , Mount Norquay Ski Study, Planning D i v i s i o n , Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, R e c r e a t i o n a l Research Report No. 17 (Ottawa, 1965)(Mimeographed.)  40. and  the use of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n and  a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of  .64,  a log t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  which  r e l a t i o n between i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e and would be  i n a p p r o p r i a t e to imply  " f a m i l i a r i t y may  breed  any  physical as one  i n other  causal  zones i s important  c o n d i t i o n s improve and  moves from the coast  the c e n t r e of the c o n t i n e n t  and  t h i n g , as w i l l  the market composition chapter  s e t s out  area q u a l i t y .  to develop an  s k i i n g area p e r s i n g with the  i s brought  to the  as the  into focus.  might in  relation-  It c o u l d be the  case  international skiing a r e a , s i n c e the d e s i r e s recreationist  be seen from Chapters VI and  the theory  be held constant  that  research  the v a c a t i o n a l  groups have d i f f e r i n g area p r e f e r e n c e s . variable will  Further  of each group v a r i e s .  to q u e s t i o n  other  C l e a r l y greater  to b r i n g g r e a t e r c l a r i t y  l i e s too c l o s e to a m e t r o p o l i t a n  For one  l i t t l e doubt that  i t a p p l i e s to a l a r g e area  the needs of the r e c r e a t i o n i s t and  differ.  Though  as well as the f a c t  to the i n t e r i o r .  i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t  It  proximous market g e n e r a l l y decreases  s h i p between d i s t a n c e demand and  area which  be  is a  satisfaction.  relationship.  satisfaction.  i n v e s t i g a t e the d i s t a n c e f u n c t i o n as  that  increased  contempt" t h e r e can  f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to the i n c r e a s e d selectivity  i n d i c a t e d that t h e r e  yielded  VII,  Thus the f o l l o w i n g  that d i f f e r e n t  socio-economic  Consequently the  distance  r e l a t i o n s h i p between user  However b e f o r e t e m p o r a r i l y  and dis-  the d i s t a n c e v a r i a b l e i t i s p e r t i n e n t to summarize  r e l a t i o n s h i p between demand, user  s a t i s f a c t i o n and  briefly  distance.  The d e r i v e d mathematical r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s t a n c e , demand and user s a t i s f a c t i o n i s expressed i n the f o l l o w i n g equation: y = 235.21 - 0.41 Log X] + I.58 Log X , where Xj = d i s t a n c e and X2 = r a t i ng. 2  From t h e urban s o u r c e s t a n d p o i n t lem.  there i s a very obvious  prob-  One can m e r e l y s p e c u l a t e about t h e d e n s i t y o f use i n a r e a s  than t h o s e i n t h e day zone.  other  When one speaks o f demand i n t h i s s i t u a -  t i o n one i s o n l y s p e a k i n g o f a p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from t h e urban b a s e .  A c c e p t i n g t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n and comparing t h e f i n d i n g s  o f C h a p t e r s II and III i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t w i t h i n t h e day and weekend zones t h e r e seems t o be a p r e d i c t a b l e i n c r e a s e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n with added d i s t a n c e from t h e urban base, which i s p a r a l l e l e d by a d e c r e a s e i n p r o p o r t i o n a l demand.  O u t s i d e t h e weekend zone, which may be o u t -  w i t h t h e urban s p h e r e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e , user s a t i s f a c t i o n , l i k e demand, seems t o v a r y i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e d i s t a n c e f u n c t i o n . The f i n d i n g s o f both C h a p t e r s c o r r o b o r a t e t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n t h e s e a r e a s s a t i s f a c t i o n and v i s i t a t i o n r a t e a r e much more s u s c e p t i b l e t o v a r i a t i o n through i n d i v i d u a l a r e a q u a l i t i e s . I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r t o a c t as a l i n k between P a r t s II and I I I , t h r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s k i e r and t h e skiing area.  Thus, t h e f i n a l component o f t h e " s t a t i c t r i l o g y " o f  e l e m e n t s , demand, s a t i s f a c t i o n and a r e a q u a l i t y , w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  CHAPTER V  THE USER AND  It  AREA QUALITY  i s a strange paradox t h a t , d e s p i t e the f a c t  recreational  research has been d i r e c t e d  that much  towards i n v e n t o r y ,  has been done to a s c e r t a i n the components o f r e c r e a t i o n a l quality.  Essentially  little area  such research would be market r e s e a r c h , but  i t would seem from the p a u c i t y o f m a t e r i a l on t h i s area t h a t the recreational  product  is a difficult  Undoubtedly one o f the most  one t o c l a s s i f y  qualitatively.  s e r i o u s problems f a c i n g the c l a s s i f i e r  i s the q u e s t i o n o f whether to i n c l u d e a c c e s s , demand and factors within evaluation.  Even when these f a c t o r s a r e held con-  s t a n t , as i n the Canada Land Inventory, measure p o t e n t i a l  locational  land c a p a b i l i t y  i t is s t i l l  s i n c e we  d i f f i c u l t to  r e a l l y do not know what  people want, nor do we know the r e l a t i v e a t t r a c t i v e power of p h y s i c a l as compared with amenity f a c t o r s to the p o t e n t i a l the o t h e r end o f t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between user and area  whole i s s u e of personal  m o t i v a t i o n and r e a l i z e d  s o c i o l o g i s t s and s o c i a l  p s y c h o l o g i s t s might w e l l  fully.  T h i s area  visitor.  At  i s the  s a t i s f a c t i o n which i n v e s t i g a t e more  i s l a r g e l y beyond the competence of the w r i t e r ,  but as a t e r t i a r y part of the present e n q u i r y an attempt was made to answer t h r e e q u e s t i o n s .  F i r s t l y , what general  p r e f e r e n c e s do  s k i e r s show f o r a range o f q u a l i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s  present  in a l l  43-  s k i i n g areas?  Secondly, do d i f f e r e n t socio-economic groups place  varying emphasis on these area q u a l i t i e s ?  T h i r d l y , is the s t a t i c  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v i s i t o r and the area of any s i g n i f i c a n t importance? Four questions were asked in the questionnaire concerning user preferences.  Two dealt with the physical and amenity aspects of the  area, while two others delved more deeply into the important question of o n - s i t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . a)  Which ONE of the following physical q u a l i t i e s of a s k i i n g area do you think is most i m p o r t a n t : - - 1ack of moguIs - great v a r i e t y of slopes - large v e r t i c a l drop - good weather - hi gh quali ty snow - b e a u t i f u l scenery  b)  Which ONE of the following amenity factors of a s k i i n g area do you think is most important:— - adequate tow f a c i l i t i e s - good eating f a c i l i t i e s - adequate close car parking f a c i l i t i e s - well organized a f t e r - s k i a c t i v i t i e s - good overnight accommodations  c)  Assuming a surface l i f t (T-bar, Poma, etc.) were s a t i s f a c t o r y , are you w i l l i n g to pay an a d d i t i o n a l 2 0 % fee to ride up a ski slope on a chair l i f t ?  d)  Would you be w i l l i n g to pay a 10% premium i f you did not have to wait in a l i n e over f i v e minutes?  From the responses to the questions l i s t e d above, a number of points may be made.  F i r s t l y , in the evaluation of physical factors  w i t h i n s k i i n g areas, two were c l e a r l y dominant (Figure 4 ) .  F i f t y per  cent of a l l s k i e r s indicated that a " v a r i e t y of slopes" was of primary  Which  W h i c h one of the following physical ou-olities of a tkii ore do you Ihink is most i m p o r t a n l :  area  one of the following do you think  is mojl  AMENITY PHYSICAL  of Slope*.  High quality snow. ffi Large v e r t i c a l drop. Good  ;  QUALITIES  QUALITIES Aequote  Variety  amenity factor! of a skiing important  tow  facilities.  Close  to cor  Good  overnight a c c o m m o d a t i o n .  After  ski activities.  lot.  G o o d eating f a c i l i t i e s  wea the r.  Lock of mogul;. Scene.  27%  Assuming a surface to pay an  lift  were  additional 20 4 fee  satiifactory. lo ride  are you  willir  ^  / Would  up a ski slope  you  hove to woit  be w i l l i n g in  to  Iii  pay a 10% pri five  minute) 7  on a choirlift ?  z  * 5  100 %  100%  50%  50%  07.  < «  12-18  1,-22  23-30  31-39  0%  41-50 over 50  1007.  100%.  50%  50%  0%Under $6,000  0%Under  6 - 9 9 9 9 1 0 - U , 9 9 9 o v e r 15,000  SKIER  12-18  23-30  31-39  SKIER  SKILL  100%  50% 0%  07. Beginners  Average  Beginner!  Above average  FIGURE k USER PREFERENCE  41-50 over 50  $6,000 6-9999 10-U.999 over'15,000  SKILL  100%  19-22  Average  Above average  45. that number (27%)  importance, w h i l e approximately h a l f " q u a l i t y of the snow." mental  It i s s i g n i f i c a n t  f a c t o r s seem of secondary  emphasized  that a e s t h e t i c and e n v i r o n -  importance, f o r "good weather"  "beautiful  scenery" were o n l y c o n s i d e r e d primary by a t o t a l  per c e n t .  Secondly, when a s s e s s i n g amenity  f a c t o r s the  majority  (88%)  factor.  A l l o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s combined to t o t a l  The  suggested that tow a v a i l a b i l i t y was  s i n g l e c o n c l u s i o n which may  amenity  and  o f eleven  overwhelming  the major  amenity 12%.  a meagre  be d e r i v e d from these p h y s i c a l  p r e f e r e n c e s i s the s t r o n g r o l e o f the a c t i v i t y  experience.  the  and  i n the s k i i n g  O b v i o u s l y environmental q u a l i t i e s add to the enjoyment  o f the f a c i l i t y  but those s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which  q u a l i t y of s k i i n g  i t s e l f a r e o f paramount  improve  importance.  the  It i s worth  b e a r i n g i n mind that the b i a s o f the sample i n favour o f the enthusiastic will  skilled  s k i e r may  be seen from Part  important  affect  the nature o f t h i s  I I I , however, the s k i l l e d  in vacation v i s i t a t i o n - - t h a t  the g r e a t e s t c o n t r o l  on  response.  skier  As  is particularly  zone where area q u a l i t y e x e r t s  visitation.  The o u t s t a n d i n g emphasis on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of o n - s i t e p o r t a t i o n as an amenity  f a c t o r was,  Hence q u e s t i o n s (c) and  (d) attempted  issue.  to f u r t h e r  predictable.  investigate  In q u e s t i o n ( c ) , two b a s i c elements, comfort and  were i n v o l v e d . reflected was  to some degree,  So  i t was  this  expense,  p o s t u l a t e d t h a t these f a c t o r s would  i n the responses of the v a r i o u s age and  trans-  be  income groups.  It  hypothesized that the o l d e r the s k i e r , the more -he would be w i l l i n g  to pay f o r a d d i t i o n a l  comfort.  As can be seen from F i g u r e 4,  such  proved that to  to be the c a s e .  Similarly  p o s t u l a t e d and s u b s t a n t i a t e d  the h i g h e r the income bracket the more the s k i e r would be  pay  f o r the added f a c i l i t y .  much as t h e r e may Still  second  i n response  affirmative.  to q u e s t i o n (c) should be seen  in the  l n t h i s case i t was  p o s t u l a t e d that a s i g n i f i c a n t  groups r a t h e r than impatience supported  i n c r e a s e i n the s k i l l  of the  i n income and age  to wait and on  by the d a t a .  f a c t o r s showed no c l e a r t r e n d but one was  responses  as  ( d ) , f o r the responses were b a s i c a l l y  Such a h y p o t h e s i s was  The  factors.  i n the  s i n c e the q u e s t i o n r e f l e c t e d on  an  age  inas-  not as o b s e r v a b l e  would be e v i d e n t i n s k i l l  ski .  between income and  A s i m i l a r wide v a r i a t i o n was  q u e s t i o n asked,  willing  These r e s u l t s must be q u a l i f i e d  well be a p a r a l l e l  the v a r i a t i o n  significant.  to  i t was  trend groups,  enthusiasm  Income and  age  d e f i n i t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with  individual.  to q u e s t i o n s  (c) and  (d) would  lead one  to the  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t , given a s u i t a b l e research methodology, d e f i n i t e evidence of p r e f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d with v a r i o u s socio-economic may  be  simple  identified. listed  The  problems of working on the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of  preferences  i s manifested  v a r i a t i o n shown i n responses indicating their physical  A tendency quality  b)  i n the  by d i f f e r e n t  lack of  f o r beginners  identifiable  socio-economic  and amenity p r e f e r e n c e s .  number o f , at b e s t , t e n d e n c i e s might be a)  groups  groups when  Nevertheless, a  noted:  to be more concerned  with snow  than with a v a r i e t y of s l o p e s .  A p r o p e n s i t y f o r the $ 10,000-$14,999 per annum income group and  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  graduate  group to be  47. c o n s i d e r a b l y concerned with area c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . c)  A certain parallel physical trast  between o l d and young i n t h e i r  s i t e preference.  The middle age group i n con-  tended to emphasize v a r i e t y o f s l o p e s , w h i l e  minimized the snow q u a l i t y d)  An i n c r e a s e i n s k i l l tow  facilities,  facilities, modation. though e)  they  factor.  leads t o an i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on  and a d e c r e a s i n g concern  with  good e a t i n g  p r o x i m i t y t o c a r l o t and good o v e r n i g h t Although  t h e r e i s a p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e , small  i t may be, f o r a f t e r - s k i  A decreasing  accom-  activities,  emphasis on tow f a c i l i t i e s with age i s i n d i -  c a t e d , with an i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r e to be c l o s e t o the c a r lot.  These f o u r simple  questions  s e t w i t h i n the general  n a i r e were too b r i e f and too l i m i t e d answers to the q u e r i e d It  situation  accurate  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between user and area  i s possible that, c e r t a i n l y  "satisfier"  i n scope to p r o v i d e  question-  preferences.  f o r the day and weekend zones, a  i s prevalent.  It i s o n l y  i n the v a c a t i o n area  where t h e r o l e o f d i s t a n c e i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n analyze  i s relevant.  It would be very  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the areas  stated preferences these f a c t o r s .  that  i n t e r e s t i n g to  s k i e r s v i s i t e d and t h e i r  t o d i s c o v e r the degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y between  A l l inventory of c a p a b i l i t y  i s based upon the assump-  t i o n that t h e r e i s some r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y o f the area and d e r i v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l  o r the degree of  48. demand developed. this  issue.  As yet research  Even so researchers  quality of skiing areas.  i s only  scraping  i n s k i i n g have attempted to rate the  George Besch,' f o r example, d e r i v e d  system f o r s k i i n g areas--so many p o i n t s were given amenity a t t r i b u t e s present  i n the v a r i o u s  method might y i e l d a system o f p h y s i c a l really dual of  the s u r f a c e o f  a rating  f o r p h y s i c a l and  s k i i n g areas.  classification,  While t h i s i t cannot  i n c l u d e any human judgment, o t h e r than that made by the i n d i v i -  who has d e l i m i t e d  inventory  t h e v a l u e o f the r a t i n g s .  must n e c e s s a r i l y concede that  Thus most systems  t h e i r eventual end i s merely  a r e f i n e d geomorphologica1 assessment o f landscape, devoid o f much functional  r e c r e a t i o n a l meaning.  consideration  of a hypothetical  The answer might well  be t h a t the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a user and the  q u a l i t y o f the area may be so much o f an a b s t r a c t i o n as to be v a l u e l e s s , unless included  the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and demand f a c t o r s a r e somehow  within  the framework o f area q u a l i t y .  c h a p t e r i t was p o s t u l a t e d tive force within tion  i s possibly  that area q u a l i t y only  the v a c a t i o n  zone.  a c t s as a major a t t r a c -  Consequently, the c r u c i a l  the e f f e c t o f socio-economic o r s k i l l  mitting or constraining zone.  Indeed i n the p r e v i o u s  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y  It i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s sphere which w i l l  ques-  f a c t o r s i n per-  t o move i n t o t h i s  be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n  Chapters VI and VI I.  Thus t o answer t h e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s posed a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the chapter we can make the f o l l o w i n g  responses.  Firstly,  the s k i e r  George Besch, "Land Use and Other C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Needed f o r Developing Winter Sports Areas i n Michigan" (M.Sc. t h e s i s , Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1963). (Mimeographed.)  49.  i s above a l l concerned with the  q u a l i t y of an  activity  i t s e l f - - t h e recreation  quality  strong.  Secondly, d e s p i t e the  certain  relationships groups and  skill  the  need f o r more research  use  area, i t is quite day  relationship will  Still, that  the  would a t t e s t vacation  into  the  the  q u e s t i o n s posed,  of  the  F i n a l l y , accepting  between the  user and  demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n  simply of academic  an  enquiry  the  i s so  i n t o such a  interest.  following  two  c h a p t e r s would c o n f i r m  identifiable relationships  s p e c i f i c socio-economic and  to the v a l u e of  zone.  relationships  weekend zones, that  findings  regions and  i s extremely  s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of the  l i k e l y that  t h e r e do appear to be  vacation  skier  in the  their p a r t i c u l a r preferences.  and be  i t affects  would appear to e x i s t between socio-economic  and  extreme i n the  area as  skill  between c e r t a i n groups, which  such r e s e a r c h , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n  the  CHAPTER VI  THE  MACRO SCENE--A ZONAL COMPARISON  The a d o p t i o n o f an urban based p e r s p e c t i v e makes i t p o s s i b l e to  view the r e l a t i o n s h i p between socio-economic f a c t o r s and  mobility.  By  initially  v i e w i n g the b a s i c market composition w i t h i n  each of the t h r e e demarcated  d i s t a n c e and  functional  p o s s i b l e to observe p r o p e n s i t y change throughout. zones may all  be t r e a t e d as a r e a l l y c o i n c i d e n t  movement i s by automobile over  tiating  factor  i t is  F o r t u n a t e l y , these  i n the a n a l y s i s s i n c e almost The  significant  differen-  best r e l a t e to the market  In t u r n t h i s market may  socio-economic and s k i l l to  land.  zones,  i n the r o l e s that the day, weekend and v a c a t i o n  play w i t h i n an urban h i n t e r l a n d may they a t t r a c t .  spatial  factors.  zones which  be c o n d i t i o n e d by v a r i o u s  The present c h a p t e r w i l l  i d e n t i f y the r o l e o f the socio-economic and s k i l l  attempt  f a c t o r s as they  r e l a t e to the observed m o b i l i t y of s k i e r s , through the day, weekend and v a c a t i o n zones.  The  socio-economic and s k i l l  s i d e r e d are s k i e r s k i l l , '  age, m a r i t a l  status,  f a c t o r s to be con-  income, o c c u p a t i o n and  educat i on.  In  Chapter V i t was  p o i n t e d out that the q u a l i t y of a s k i i n g  S k i e r s k i l l , although a s u b j e c t i v e assessment, was thought to be a more s i g n i f i c a n t measure than the number of years of s k i i n g experience. I n f o r m a t i o n , however, was d e r i v e d f o r both of these f a c t o r s .  51 • area may well the a c t i v i t y and  r e l a t e most c l o s e l y to the v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s itself,  T h i s f a c t , added to the c l e a r l y apparent  phenomenon that s k i e r s show a remarkable involvement would suggest that the s k i l l  element might  you develop,  c h a l l e n g e o f new s l o p e s , r e s u l t i n g  i n an i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a l  the nuances o f good q u a l i t y snow, v a r i e t y o f s l o p e s ,  the h y p o t h e s i s  a wider range o f area  added.  The e x t e n s i o n  increment  i s p a r a l l e l e d by a  These r e s u l t s alone would  that an i n c r e a s e i n s k i l l  would  lead  use, but the d i s t a n c e dimension has yet to be  of the h y p o t h e s i s ,  namely that the d i s t a n c e  i s l i k e w i s e i n c r e a s e d with added s k i l l ,  (Figure 5)-  visi-  I n c r e a s i n g l y the s k i l l e d  widening s e l e c t i o n o f s k i i n g areas v i s i t e d .  to  rank high as a s p a t i a l l y  As F i g u r e 5 p o r t r a y s , an i n c r e a s e i n s k i l l  perhaps j u s t i f y  sport,  the more you wish to meet the  t a t i o n o f the weekend and v a c a t i o n zones.  etc.  in their  More s u c c i n c t l y i t may be s a i d that the more you  ski , the g r e a t e r t h e s k i l l  skier appreciates  improve  such as q u a l i t y o f the snow, the v a r i e t y o f slopes  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f tows.  expansive f a c t o r .  that  There i s a c l e a r trend present  i s also substantiated  t o show a p r o g r e s s i o n  from day, weekend t o v a c a t i o n use as a s k i e r becomes more s k i l l e d and s k i i n g becomes a g r e a t e r part o f h i s " g e n r e de v i e . " visitation with  T h i s change i n  emphasis i s p r i m a r i l y from the day t o the v a c a t i o n  the weekend zone v i s i t a t i o n  the average and above average  remaining  f a i r l y constant  zone,  f o r both  skier.  It c o u l d well be suggested that age would be a minor f a c t o r i n affecting  the development o f movement p a t t e r n s , but i n r e a l i t y  i t has  ZONAL USE PATTERNS, u v,...  AREA RANGE. ( A v g * . No. 01 different areas vititod.)  s K I L L  Beg i n n e r s Average Ab. A v g e .  A G E  Young M e d i um Old  S T A T U S  N C O M E  0 C  c u p  A T I O N  E D U C A T O N  I 92  I  II'"  2  2.1  4.0  3X1 i . i  mmm 19  «3  cm  176  3 °4  I  I  I 20 2  4.5  12  12  J  M a r r i ed Si ngle  6  1  • " I  j  •  4.7 4.4  10  I  0  I  14  12 12  ] 7 2  - $6,000 $6 - $9,999 $10-$15,000 • $15,000  Housewives Students Managerial Prof. & Tech. Cleri cal Sales Craftsmen  1* I 75 •  70  mm  11  111  ) 3 9 3.7  Element. Some H. S. Grad. H.S. Some Univ. G r a d Univ. P o s t grad.  ]82  10  I  • so lain 10 74  i;i m  ' ' I ' I " I 3.8  115 16  j™ I Day  3 Weekend  1  25  ~l'o  Vacation  /  m  ONE AREA  C.K.C. 1967  FIGURE 5 A ZONAL COMPARISON OF ACTIVITY  PATTERNS AND MOBILITY  From F i g u r e 5,  considerable s i g n i f i c a n c e .  i t i s q u i t e c l e a r that  age group tends t o favour one of the t h r e e zones.  The youngest  group, under twenty-three, tends to favour the l o c a l  zone,  uses  local  lower than average  income.  time i n the weekend zone, as opposed t i o n zone.  sion  of h i s s k i i n g  to a lower f i g u r e f o r the vaca-  m o b i l i t y by t h e i r  i n o r d i n a t e emphasis  regions and t h e i r high weekend zone component.  i n terms o f d i s t a n c e i s r e f l e c t e d  visited  by these t h r e e groups.  v i s i t i n g an average o f 4.65  areas.  reasonable t o s t a t e that the middle age group on a s k i i n g v a c a t i o n h o l i d a y , w h i l e we may  increased  Thus,  little  range,  i t would  i s most  likely  seem to go  c o n j e c t u r e that the o l d e r  r e s e r v e s i t s major v a c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s  than the s k i i n g  This exten-  Although t h e r e i s remarkably  different  on  i n the range o f s k i i n g areas  v a r i a t i o n , the middle age group shows a s l i g h t l y  age group  forty,  Middle age s k i e r s , from twenty-three to f o r t y , show a  considerably greater spatial vacation  time  The o l d e r s k i e r , over  areas l e s s f r e q u e n t l y and c e n t r e s a f i f t h  age  possibly  because o f a combination o f enthusiasm, a v a i l a b i l i t y of short segments, and  each  i n a sphere o t h e r  realm.  It has o f t e n been w r i t t e n that marriage r e s t r i c t s a person's mobility.  In s k i i n g , at l e a s t , t h i s h o l d s t r u e .  skier v i s i t s  3'5  different  s k i i n g a r e a s , the s i n g l e s k i e r v i s i t s  L o c a t i o n a l l y the married s k i e r tends to dominate zone, though vacation  both groups show i d e n t i c a l  zone.  While the married 4.6.  use of the weekend  visitation  percentages i n the  Although both the and  the p e r m i s s i v e  r e s t r i c t i v e e f f e c t of marriage on  function of  increased  income may  mobility  be upheld,  the  2 operation The  of the  l a t t e r f a c t o r shows some unusual  f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d of  tional  earnings  analyzed  there  i s well  illustrated,  but when the s p a t i a l  i n the a c t i v i t y  income groups, with  increased  range of m o b i l i t y with  The  v a c a t i o n use  spectacular  fact  revealed  i s the dramatic  by the group which earns above  an extreme s p a t i a l  While i n c r e a s e d f a c t o r on m o b i l i t y , the It has  increase rise in  $15,000 per annum.  would seem that $15,000 per annum demarcates some kind of denoting  threshold,  e a s i l y be p o s t u l a t e d  r o l e of o c c u p a t i o n  may  be  as a c o n t r o l  rather  less obvious.  been suggested by Webber^ that d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l of space and  with  d i f f e r i n g degrees of concern.  said  that  there  It  mobility.  income can  have a d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n  first  tendency f o r an  use of the weekend s e c t o r to be p a r a l l e l e d by an  in income.  is  There  p a t t e r n s of each of the  the emergence of a s l i g h t  addi-  pattern  i s l i t t l e evidence of such a c l e a r - c u t t r e n d .  is a close s i m i l a r i t y three  increased  characteristics.  groups  view the d i s t a n c e b a r r i e r  From F i g u r e 5 i t can  at  least  be  i s a wide range i n the v a r i e t y of areas at which  d i f f e r e n t occupational  groups choose to s k i .  This  ranges from a  low  2 I n t u i t i v e l y people f e e l that increased a v a i l a b l e income allows an i n c r e a s e d degree of m o b i l i t y . Such a suggestion was not wholly v e r i f i e d by the f i n d i n g s . ^Melvin Webber, "Space, T e r r i t o r i a l i t y , and the E l a s t i c M i l e , " Regional S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n Papers, 13 (1965), 59-70. (Mimeographed.)  of 3-7  areas f o r t h e c l e r i c a l  group.  It would be t r i t e  group to a high o f 6.5  to suggest  f o r the s a l e s  that t h i s external m o b i l i t y  r e f l e c t s the degree o f i n t e r n a l m o b i l i t y w i t h i n the o c c u p a t i o n . so, i t i s tempting  t o suggest  t h a t the very high v i s i t a t i o n  men to the weekend, and p a r t i c u l a r l y  Even  by s a l e s -  the v a c a t i o n zones, may be p a r it  tially  related  to the nature o f the o c c u p a t i o n ,  spends o n l y 56% o f h i s s k i i n g  time w i t h i n the day zone.  shows the same p r o p o r t i o n a l v i s i t a t i o n  r e l a t e s t o her r e c r e a t i o n a l  time segments.  d i f f e r e n c e between the two aforementioned  groups,  kable p r o p e n s i t y o f the s a l e s group t o v i s i t much l e s s marked but s i m i l a r tendency shown by the managerial areas. and  The  housewife  t o the day zone and i t c o u l d  perhaps be t h a t t h i s p r e f e r e n c e o f the housewife areas  f o r the salesman  to ski i n non-local The one s i g n i f i c a n t lies  i n the remar-  the v a c a t i o n zone.  A  t o a v o i d the day zone areas i s  group, showing a 70% use o f day use s k i i n g  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the o n l y group which compares with the s a l e s  housewife  employed  groups f o r v a c a t i o n v i s i t a t i o n a r e those  in professional  and t e c h n i c a l  occupations.  end o f the s c a l e , craftsmen a r e conspicuous tion skiing.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they,  approximately  an e i g h t h o f t h e i r  for their  skiers  At t h e other lack o f vaca-  l i k e most o t h e r groups, s k i i n g time  spend  i n the weekend zone.  E d u c a t i o n has r e c e i v e d as l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n as o c c u p a t i o n i n  Although not i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter V I , the s a l e s group showed a d e f i n i t e p r o p e n s i t y t o v i s i t the Okanagan region and the Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks. T h i s s u b s t a n t i a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t salesmen t r a v e l l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia combine business with p l e a s u r e on t h e i r b u s i n e s s r o u t e s .  56. its  relationship  to encouraging  individual  mobility.  i n t h e O.R.R.R.C.  r e p o r t No. 3^ o n w i l d e r n e s s u s e i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t v i s i t o r s t o w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s had a d i s t i n c t educational higher  groups.  Consequently,  the educational level  wilderness q u a l i t i e s ,  belie a perfect  distant  zones  The d e d u c t i o n m i g h t be r e l a t i v e l y  c o n d i t i o n s , and thus would  education.  I t appears  increase i n spatial  education, while the " u n i v e r s i t y t h e weekend zone.  that  Suffice  graduate"  pattern  have a  tenstudy  that both  in the  to say, that  than  education.  last  there are at least  The p a t -  university"  t r e n d escape t h e  grounds f o r s t a t i n g  e d u c a t i o n h a v e a more  those with a u n i v e r s i t y  must be i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e d e d  to the level  seems t o s k i e x t e n s i v e l y  The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s  those s k i e r s without a u n i v e r s i t y  activity  unwilling  u s e o f more  mobility  t e r n o f t h e " p o s t - g r a d u a t e " f o l l o w s t h o s e w i t h "some  writer.  then  The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t  t h e s k i e r who h a s e x p e r i e n c e d some u n i v e r s i t y  within  value  a r e a s f r e q u e n t e d and i n t h e z o n a l p a t t e r n s o f  movement, t h e r e i s a c l e a r of  t h e more t h e y  r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c r e a s i n g  and i n c r e a s i n g  number o f d i f f e r e n t  be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e  s k i e r s might  d e n c y t o s k i o u t w i t h t h e day z o n e . would  i t might  solitude.  educated  l o c a l l y overcrowded  t o belong t o the higher  u s e r s have a t t a i n e d  including  be made t h a t more h i g h l y to accept  tendency  education.  restricted  Although i t  t h a t t h e r e may be no c a u s a l l i n k  between  t h e two.  and  -"Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n , Wi I d e r n e s s R e c r e a t i o n , S t u d y R e p o r t No. 3 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : 1962) , 131 .  57. In c o n c l u s i o n , v a r i a b l e acts but  i t may be s t a t e d that each  i n some way to a f f e c t  i t i s the i n c r e a s e  the a c t i v i t y  in skiing s k i l l  which  f i l t e r i n g e f f e c t on the market on t h i s zonal  The next and f i n a l tional there  question  the d e s i r e to  The v a r i o u s  f a c t o r s would seem to a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degree It i s t h e r e f o r e apparent  p a t t e r n s of s k i e r s ,  creates  expand one's sphere o f r e c r e a t i o n a l movement.  of t h i s movement.  socio-economic  socio-economic  to c o n d i t i o n the extent  that d i s t a n c e does have a level  of comparison.  to be asked concerns the d i r e c -  component o f movement w i t h i n each o f the t h r e e major zones. i s a c o n n e c t i v i t y between s p e c i f i c  groups, tors? chapter  regions and p a r t i c u l a r s k i i n g  i s i t a l i n k a g e based on socio-economic o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y The answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n which  patterns.  will  If  be found  i n v e s t i g a t e s the micro element  fac-  i n the f o l l o w i n g  o f generated movement  CHAPTER VI I  THE MICRO PICTURE^-AN AREA AND  REGIONAL COMPARISON  Broad, zonal comparisons have been made i n Chapter VI and i t remains t o look a t the movement p a t t e r n s w i t h i n the t h r e e zones to observe the i n t e r n a l  directional  component.  pervades the c h a p t e r i s the degree t o which of  specific  areas.  socio-economic and s k i l l  This  is first  The b a s i c q u e s t i o n which there i s a p o l a r i z a t i o n  groups t o p a r t i c u l a r  observed on the r e g i o n a l  portion of the chapter w i l l  regions and  s c a l e , then t h e f i n a l  view the c o n d i t i o n e r s o f d i r e c t i o n a l  move-  ment on an area s c a l e w i t h i n the day zone.  Two methods were used to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s d i r e c t i o n a l of " w i t h i n zone" movement when c o n s i d e r e d on the r e g i o n a l  factor  scale.  One  uses f a c i e s t r i a n g l e s t o determine a b s o l u t e t e n d e n c i e s f o r c e r t a i n groups t o be a t t r a c t e d  to p a r t i c u l a r  r e g i o n s , w h i l e another method  employs average d e v i a t i o n o f t h e mean.  In the former method,  rela-  t i o n s h i p s a r e d e r i v e d from p l o t t i n g component percentages using the three sides of a t r i a n g l e .  The t r i a n g l e s  percentage breakdown o f the market  i n F i g u r e 6 i n d i c a t e the  f o r each o f the e i g h t  over a range o f s i x socio-economic and one s k i l l each s u b d i v i d e d individual greater  i n t o groups o f t h r e e .  regions,  f a c t o r ; which a r e  B a s i c a l l y , the c l o s e r the  dot (region) i s to a s p e c i f i c v e r t e x o f the t r i a n g l e , the  i s the p u l l  o f the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which i s  IEDIUM  STUDENT:  o  UNIVERSITY  100% 10 /  OCCUPATION  MANAC "ERIAL  \»0  •'•V  S.H.S. xomj  EDUCATION  GRAO. H.S.  C.K.C. 1967  FIGURE 6 A REGIONAL COMPARISON USING FACIES TRIANGLES  a s s o c i a t e d with that p o i n t , on the p a r t i c u l a r tion.  regional  market  The more the dots c l u s t e r towards the c e n t r e o f the f a c i e s  t r i a n g l e the more homogeneous i s the market these c l u s t e r e d  c o m p o s i t i o n f o r each of  regions.  From F i g u r e 6 i t i s immediately c l e a r t h a t the market tion  composi-  i s dominated  with a very small  by the average and above-average  skilled  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the beginner group.  composi-  skier, Only  Squamish and the North Shore, the two c l o s e s t areas to Vancouver, show a tendency to a t t r a c t areas, therefore, average s k i e r .  l i e a l o n g a spectrum between the average and  The most immediately a c c e s s i b l e  Shore, has a d i s t i n c t the two major  beginners to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree. A l l above-  r e g i o n , the North  tendency to a t t r a c t the average s k i e r , w h i l e  r e s o r t areas o f the Canadian N a t i o n a l  Parks and the  S o u t h e a s t e r n U.S.A. r e s o r t s show a d e f i n i t e p r o p e n s i t y to a t t r a c t above-average  skier.  This  r e i n f o r c e s the p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d  p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r whereby the s k i l l spatial  mobility.  of the s k i e r may  the  i n the  be r e l a t e d  to h i s  The Kootenays, Mt. Baker, and the Southern U.S.A.  regions a t t r a c t v e r y s i m i l a r markets, w h i l e Squamish and the Okanagan attract  s i m i l a r l y talented  As  regards income,  skiers.  the low income group dominates the sample,  and the Canadian N a t i o n a l  Parks and S o u t h e a s t e r n U.S.A. regions a r e  n o t a b l e f o r the d i v e r g e n t  groups which  they a t t r a c t  are both l o c a t e d w i t h i n the v a c a t i o n zone. Canadian N a t i o n a l  even though they  On the one hand  the  Parks a t t r a c t a low income group, below $6,000 per  annum, w h i l e the S o u t h e a s t e r n U.S.A. ski r e s o r t s tend to a t t r a c t a  much h i g h e r of one  income group.  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the  income groups to these two major r e s o r t a r e a s , one i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  similar  i n Canada and  Most of the o t h e r regions i n d i c a t e q u i t e  income markets, although  Southern  polarization  the North  U.S.A. region tend to a t t r a c t  Shore mountains and  slightly  lower  income  the groups.  In e d u c a t i o n , the sample shows a b i a s towards the person has experienced have had  some u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n .  The  who  two other groups  who  no u n i v e r s i t y background e x e r t c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s power on  the shaping of the market.  The  Canadian N a t i o n a l Parks  region and  the Kootenays tend to a t t r a c t an e s p e c i a l l y high e d u c a t i o n a l market with the l a t t e r being h i g h l y student o r i e n t a t e d . be j u s t i f i e d  through  T h i s statement  a glance at the age, o c c u p a t i o n and  education  t r i a n g l e s , where the l o c a t i o n of the Kootenay area i s seen i d e n t i f i e d with a young, w e l l - e d u c a t e d ,  The  p a t t e r n of age  use  i s also  a b r i d g e between the young and  student  over f o r t y years of age,  showed no such  patronage.  W i t h i n the day  younger age  group, v e r i f y i n g  As  f o r i t spans widely  the medium age group.  s t r o n g e r b i a s i n favour of the medium age  The  Kootenays  U.S.A. r e s o r t s had a  group.  The o l d e r s k i e r s ,  specialization  zone the North  to be  group.  interesting  a t t r a c t e d young s k i e r s w h i l e the Southeastern  in t h e i r  Shore region a t t r a c t s a  remarks made e a r l i e r  i n the  thesis.  regards m a r i t a l s t a t u s , s i n g l e people p r e f e r r e d Mt.  p a r t i c u l a r l y , as w e l l as the Kootenay Region  and  Parks, w h i l e the Okanagan and  the Southeastern  tended  skier.  to a t t r a c t  the married  can  Baker  the Canadian N a t i o n a l  U.S.A. ski  resorts  The and  three  largest occupational  t e c h n i c a l , and  groups—students,  i n F i g u r e 6.  m a n a g e r i a l — w e r e compared  a rather i n t e r e s t i n g d i s p e r s i o n .  professional  While the  regions with  There  was  the day  and  weekend zones^.showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  v a r i a t i o n , these t h r e e v a c a t i o n  areas were each a s s o c i a t e d with one  of the t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l  Students  showed a p a r t i a l i t y  technical  group favoured  managerial  method was  f o r the Kootenays, the p r o f e s s i o n a l and  the Canadian N a t i o n a l  group p r e f e r r e d the Southeastern  In o r d e r  to add  Parks a r e a , w h i l e  specific  more depth to these o b s e r v a t i o n s , a second  socio-economic  and  skill  groups.  particular  The  of  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the method about to be d e s c r i b e d are  in  Figure 7 .  A complete a n a l y s i s of the  F i g u r e would merely be  the  U.S.A. r e s o r t r e g i o n .  a p p l i e d to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  regions and  groups.  results illustrated  information depicted  r e p e t i t i v e , but the i n f o r m a t i o n should  in t h i s be  noted  since i t i l l u s t r a t e s  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e g i o n a l market b i a s e s .  The  information obtained  map  was  based on  i n the f o l l o w i n g manner.  Socio-economic p r o f i l e s f o r each of the e i g h t s k i i n g  regions were  obtained.'  each of  The  socio-economic  b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s f o r a l l regions and and  skill  f a c t o r s were drawn up.  The  s e p a r a t e v a r i a b l e as a percentage of the market was as was  the average d e v i a t i o n of that group of means.  which were one  the  mean of each then c a l c u l a t e d , A l l regions  average d e v i a t i o n above or below the mean f o r the group  See Appendi x  C.  M A R K E T PROPENSITY  M A P USING AVERAGE DEVIATION  Key to S o c i o - E c o n o m i c & S k i l l  Factors  \  BRITISH  \ \  COLUMBIA  ALBERTA  - a l , 18, d l a 3 , e6  .VANCOUVER  /(c) + »Z, « 5 , d 3  (2) -  SKILL  1. e. 3.  Reginners Average Above Average  (b)  AGE  1. 2. 3.  Toung Medium Old  (»)  MARITAL STATUS  1. 2.  Married Single  (d)  INCOME  1. u n d e r $ 2. $ 6 to 3. S 10 to 4. o v e r S  (e)  OCCUPATION  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Housewives Students Managerial Prof. & Teob. Clerioal Sales C r a f t s ete. Other  (f)  EDUCATION  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  E l e m e n t a r y Sehool Some H i g h S o h o o l Grad. H i g h Sohool Some U n i v e r s i t y Grad. University Post G r a d u a t e  I.  West C e n t r a l V a n . East Central Van. North Van. West V a n . Rurnaby  + d 3 , e6  f5  cs,*  oo  d3 + a3, 12, b2 - al, dl, e2,  o l , e3, f 4 , d4, aZ, eZ, fi. fa. b l b3  1  Scale  in mi les  \  1  \  SKIING REGIONS 8qaamish M t . Baker S. U. S A . Okanagan Kootenays National Parks  t f  /  e.  MQNT. V  RESIDENCE  _  Boise • IDAHO  SA.  Resort  UTAH  j  VVYOM.  1 100  0 mis  2. 3. 4. 6.  6,000 9,999 14,999 15,000  {  100 !I  COL. Denver  "  —  N e g a t i v e p r o p e n s i t y f o r g r o u p to v i s i t  +  Positive  region  p r o p e n s i t y for group to v i s i t region  FIGURE 7 A REGIONAL COMPARISON USING AVERAGE DEVIATION  were a s s i g n e d notation.  that v a r i a b l e w i t h ,  These were c o l l e c t e d  g r a p h i c a l ly p o r t r a y e d  advantages.  be u t i l i z e d .  Not  total  market and  these  i n a g r a p h i c manner.  The  ment of the socio-economic  o n l y do they  two  i n d i c a t e the c h a r a c t e r of  the  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the s i n c e they  restrict  variables.  The  the advantage that more refinement  the average d e v i a t i o n i s accepted  p o s i t i v e and "negative v a l u e s may  they a l s o express  l i m i t a t i o n s of the degree of  i s p r o v i d e d , given that  be  the v a r i a b l e s ,  i t s advantages and i t was  felt  g r a p h i c nature of the f a c i e s t r i a n g l e , coupled with the nature o f the d a t a , made i t more s u i t a b l e  no doubt, i n the f i l t e r i n g  the  relatively  general  Namely, t h a t the market c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  homogeneity with added d i s t a n c e from Vancouver.  that  a des-  in t h i s instance.  I r r e s p e c t i v e of the method employed, however, one  lies,  and  obtained.  c r i p t i o n c o u l d have been based on e i t h e r , but  be made.  refine-  as a reasonable measure of v a r i a n c e . '  C l e a r l y each system of a n a l y s i s has  may  the  method u s i n g average d e v i a -  Furthermore, t h e r e are no problems of grouping  crude  are c a r t o -  f a c i e s t r i a n g l e s have  the r e g i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but  t h r e e v e r t i c e s are severe  t i o n has  f o r the e i g h t regions and  negative  in Figure 7 •  E i t h e r system may distinct  r e s p e c t i v e l y , a p o s i t i v e or  The  observation  show i n c r e a s i n g reason  for this  e f f e c t of d i s t a n c e on the market,  S i n c e the sample d i d not form a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n , standard d e v i a t i o n was not used. It i s debatable i f e i t h e r s t a t i s t i c i s r e a l l y r e l e v a n t but i t allowed an i n t u i t i v e l i n e to be supported by some degree of q u a n t i t a t i v e assessment. 2  65with the  s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  a t t r a c t i n g q u i t e d i s t i n c t groups. the  s k i e r s move i n t o the v a c a t i o n  i n t o d i f f e r e n t socio-economic and closer  r e l a t i o n s h i p may  preferences within  usually  illustrates and  clustered the  the day  patterns,  significant  the  directiona11y  day  zone no  are  such obser-  the day  zone areas  Likewise, Figure 7  l e s s o b s e r v a b l e i n the be  inferred that,  skill  residential i n t o the  t r u e that  areas of  i n terms of  day  within  be another f a c t o r which i s a f f e c t i n g movement  introduced  l o c a t i o n and  a group  factors  thus f a r  location within  study and  may  the  the  recreational  urban  prove to be a  i n d i c a t o r of d i r e c t i o n a l movement p a t t e r n s w i t h i n  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i v i t y has  day  resi-  received  little  research.  Urban geographers c e r t a i n l y have shown c o n s i d e r a b l e  interest  spatial  As  relationships  becomes a d i m i n i s h i n g well  deviations  It i s s u r p r i s i n g but  attention  in  In the  i n d i c a t i n g a s i m i l a r market.  A seventh f a c t o r ,  base i s , t h e r e f o r e ,  dential  zone.  as  groups, i n d i c a t i n g that  beyond those socio-economic and  emphasized.  zone.  skill  Consequently, i t c o u l d  zone t h e r e may  theory that  zone they d i v i d e up  In F i g u r e 6 i t i s c l e a r that  f a c t that  weekend zones.  T h i s v e r i f i e s the  regions  e x i s t between area v i s i t a t i o n and  the v a c a t i o n  v a t i o n s are o b t a i n e d . are  well  three vacation  be argued that  3john  factor  between work and i n the  residence.^  work  l i v e s of people, however, i t might  non-work v a l u e s , or  recreational  values,  may  W o l f o r t h , The Journey to Work (Vancouver: T a n t a l u s Pub., Th i s pub 1i cat i on i nc1udes an excel 1ent revi ew of the f i e l d of work-residence r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  1966).  66. c o n t r i b u t e i n c r e a s i n g l y to the c h o i c e of it  has  residential  location.  been suggested that such a trend does e x i s t with  summer c o t t a g e  use.  regard  no attempt was  made to uphold  p r o p o s i t i o n that s k i e r s i n t e n t i o n a l l y choose r e s i d e n t i a l which would g i v e them access  explained  to s k i i n g a r e a s .  that w i t h i n the day  by the f o l l o w i n g  That s k i e r s w i l l  It was  zone, d i r e c t i o n a l  postulated,  movement c o u l d  choose to ski w i t h i n the day  zone at that zone  residence.  i s v i a the F i r s t  be seen that major access  major access  The  to Mt.  Seymour  former, l i k e w i s e , s u p p l i e s  to W h i s t l e r Mountain, i n the Squamish a r e a , whereas  major c o r r i d o r s of movement to Mt.  Baker take  the east c e n t r a l s e c t o r of Vancouver, and directional  to Grouse  Narrows B r i d g e , w h i l e access  i s v i a the Second Narrows B r i d g e .  formula.^  be  hypothesis:  From F i g u r e 8 i t may Mountain  the  locations  area which i s most e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e from t h e i r c i t y of  to  k  In the Vancouver s i t u a t i o n  nevertheless,  Indeed  index which The  i s used  only adjustment  southerly  routes  the Burnaby s e c t o r .  two  through The  i n F i g u r e 8 i s d e r i v e d from Wolfe's r e q u i r e d was  based upon the  tacit  L In a seminar conducted i n March, 1967, Dr. Roy I Wolfe, from the Department of Highways, O n t a r i o , made the suggestion that he knew of a number of people who a c t u a l l y chose t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n in Toronto to gain immediate access to t h e i r summer c o t t a g e s , even though t h i s meant long t r a v e l l i n g hours d u r i n g the work week. ^Roy I . Wolfe, Parameters of Recreati ona1 T r a v e l i n Onta ri o, Research Paper No. R.B. I l l ( O n t a r i o Department of Highways, 1966), 31.  68. assumption that  the u n i t o f " v i s i t o r  "number o f t r i p s " w i t h i n  days" c o u l d  the day zone.  While t h i s was not t e s t e d  i s more than an i n t u i t i v e b a s i s f o r s t a t i n g that tion  be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r there  the p e r i o d of v i s i t a -  i n t h i s zone i s l e s s than one day and thus the number of v i s i t o r  days may be equated with the number of t r i p s ,  i n the d i r e c t i o n a l index  equation.  8 may be t e s t e d  The f i n d i n g s i l l u s t r a t e d  the aforementioned  there would be a s t r o n g  Mountain, due to ease o f a c c e s s ,  i t would f o l l o w from the hypod i r e c t i o n a l component t o Grouse  and a small  component d i r e c t e d towards  Mt. Seymour as a r e s u l t o f the i n t e r v e n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y Mountain.  On the broader s c a l e , access to W h i s t l e r ,  of c r o s s c i t y  against  hypothesis.  In the West Vancouver s e c t o r t h e s i s that  i n Figure  r o l e o f Grouse  through avoidance  t r a f f i c , would be expected to r e s u l t i n a d i r e c t i o n a l  dominance f o r t h i s area  over the s o u t h e r l y  l o c a t e d Mt. Baker.  The  observed behaviour o f s k i e r s would appear to uphold the p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n o f movement.  In North Vancouver i t was p o s t u l a t e d ponent would dominate that exerted to be a c o r r e c t assumption. Whistler  that the Mt. Seymour com-  by Grouse Mountain.  This  proved  However the f u r t h e r p r e d i c t i o n that  and Baker components would be equal proved to be erroneous  in view of Mt. Baker's s t r o n g e r  The  observed  pull.  p r o p o s i t i o n f o r west c e n t r a l Vancouver suggested that  Mt. would dominate i n the l o c a l would be e q u i v a l e n t  s i t u a t i o n and that  due to equal a c c e s s f a c t o r s .  Grouse  Baker and W h i s t l e r The f i r s t  proposition  was  i n c o r r e c t , f o r Mt. Seymour dominated.  be a c c e p t e d .  This  s e c t o r showed the g r e a t e s t degree of e q u i l i b r i u m  in terms of d i r e c t i o n , access  implying  to a l l f o u r s k i i n g  that  i t possesses maximum o v e r a l l  areas.  Such a s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m was area  expected, but i t was  Narrows  felt  the d i r e c t i o n a l  In Burnaby Bridge  components  tendency to v i s i t  was  Seymour v i a the Second p r e d i c t a b l e , with  movement t o Grouse Mountain and  Whistler.  i f they do not form c o n c l u s i v e p r o o f , at  s t r o n g l y a t t e s t to the e f f e c t o f access  travel  This  of Grouse and Seymour.  and to head south to Baker, was  These r e s u l t s ,  propinquity  southern tendency.  t h e r e might have been a c l o s e r p a r a l l e l  the s t r o n g  s u i t a b l y diminished  routes and  residential  least area  as prime c o n d i t i o n e r s o f the d i r e c t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l  from a c i t y  to the day zone h i n t e r l a n d .  to use the c l o s e s t r e c r e a t i o n a l area avoid  absent from the east c e n t r a l  of Vancouver, which showed a s t r o n g  between  The second, however, could  The general  tendency  w i t h i n the urban c e n t r e and to  c r o s s - c i t y t r a f f i c when t r a v e l l i n g outward from the c i t y a r e  significant  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of recreational a c t i v i t y patterns  the day zone, which a r e i l l u s t r a t e d  To summarize,  i t may  in this section.  be s a i d that two f a c t o r s of r e c r e a t i o n a l  movement w i t h i n an urban r e c r e a t i o n a l h i n t e r l a n d have been in t h i s c h a p t e r ,  through the urban based p e r s p e c t i v e .  d i s t a n c e as i t f i l t r a t e s  within  identified  The e f f e c t of  the market has been v e r i f i e d along with  the  70.  directional the  d i v i s i o n of v a r i o u s c l i e n t e l s to s p e c i f i c  v a c a t i o n zone.  weekend zones. be  W i t h i n the  The  residential  able skiing  day  essential location  areas.  to minimize the  The  s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the  l e s s apparent  and  a directional  i t s spatial  behaviour of  the  reach the  involved  findings  i n the  zone socio-economic f a c t o r s  factor  day  or  skiing  area, confirming  and  generally  to  to a v a i l -  suggests that he  recreational  to  even d i s -  related  relationship  in t h i s form of  and  appear  skier  in Chapter V,  wants the  activity,  throughout  thesis.  T h i s would c o n f i r m the the  is far  determinant would seem to be  time taken to  s t r o n g a c t i v i t y element  the  effect  s u b j e c t to much l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on  tance b a s i s . the  Such an  regions w i t h i n  day  travel  b e l i e f that the  demand f o r s k i i n g  zone i s s u f f i c i e n t l y high to n e c e s s i t a t e a m i n i m i z a t i o n time to the  demand f a c t o r  skiing  i s so  p r e f e r e n c e s based on  area.  Thus i t might be  s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n the area q u a l i t y  are  day  concluded that  within of the  zone that v i s i t a t i o n  seldom p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h i s zone.  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  T h i s study has been an attempt by a geographer to a n a l y z e recreational  movement p a t t e r n s from an urban base.  recreational  a c t i v i t y was chosen and one urban source s e l e c t e d .  actuality  E s s e n t i a l l y one In  i t was the s k i i n g h i n t e r l a n d from Vancouver, but i t might  e a s i l y have been the mountain c l i m b i n g h i n t e r l a n d from London, o r Montreal's  boating h i n t e r l a n d .  minor adjustments,  be a p p l i e d t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l  c i a t e d with any a c t i v i t y intended  The approach c o u l d , with a number o f  from any c i t y .  Although  movements a s s o the t h e s i s i s  to show c e r t a i n general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , d i s t i n c t  facts  about Vancouver's s k i i n g h i n t e r l a n d a r e revealed w i t h i n the t e x t . should, however, be made q u i t e c l e a r t h a t t h i s grapher,  not a marketing  It  i s the work o f a geo-  s p e c i a l i s t , and consequently  the t o t a l  market  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o p u l a t i o n a r e r e l e g a t e d t o a minor p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the nature o f the s p a t i a l r e s i d e n c e and the use a r e a .  i n t e r a c t i o n between the user's  I t must be conceded t h a t the known b i a s  of t h e sample precluded an a c c u r a t e market a n a l y s i s o r p r e d i c t i v e picture.  Had the study o b t a i n e d much g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l  a c c u r a t e market p i c t u r e c o u l d e a s i l y have been developed the methods d e s c r i b e d . highlight  Apart  from the noted  employing  As i t was, the w r i t e r was q u i t e content to  the g e o g r a p h i c a l  m o b i l i t y f a c t o r s as they  support an  p e r s p e c t i v e by emphasizing  related  to p r o p e n s i t y market  movement and characteristics.  problem o f sample s e l e c t i o n t h e r e a r e other  72. weaknesses i n the study. ficantly  An  increase  improved the q u a l i t y and  i n sample s i z e would have s i g n i -  depth of the f i n d i n g s .  a f u r t h e r r e - m a i l i n g o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e increment to the  s i z e of the  t i o n n a i r e u t i l i z e d was were posed w i t h i n as to be almost area and  might w e l l  assess v i s i t a t i o n successful  and  to a n a l y z e the  multiple could  user s a t i s f a c t i o n  r e s u l t s could  r e g r e s s i o n and  have been i n c l u d e d  competence.  relating  felt  to  The  One  to  methods employed  be questioned on a number of c o u n t s ,  i n the study. was  the  the o t h e r  l e a s t , to the  initial  advisable  but  sampling  be argued that methods beyond  Two  facies triangles  l i m i t s , however, were  limitation was  range  remarkably  the use of average d e v i a t i o n and  i n the d a t a , It was  7)  i n d i c e s was  be used more e x t e n s i v e l y .  For example, i t could w e l l  refinement  and  so ambiguous  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the b i v a r i a t e t a b l e used  imposed upon the w r i t e r . of  (6  the q u e s t i o n s  many of these would r e l a t e , i n d i r e c t l y at procedures.  however, was  which  have been expanded to i n c l u d e a wider  r a t e s and  could  valuable  In the d e t a i l e d sense, the ques-  Question 2,  i t s framework.  ranking.  would have added a  retrospect,  q u i t e e f f e c t i v e in answering the q u e s t i o n s  redundant, and  preferences to a l l o w  sample.  In  imposed by  the w r i t e r ' s own  to work w i t h i n  the  lack  statistical  these dual  constraints.  Cone 1usi ons  The  two  approach, p l a c e its  i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r s served i t i n the context  theoretical perspective  t i o n of such a  perspective.  of p r e v i o u s  into a practical  remaining f i v e c h a p t e r s c o n t a i n  to e x p l a i n the urban based research, v e h i c l e of  the f i n d i n g s d e r i v e d  and  translate  research.  The  through the adop-  73. In Chapter I I I , on demand, i t was weekend zones are d i s t i n c t l y attached vacation  zone i s d i f f e r e n t  radically factor. and  reduced w i t h i n  locality  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than with  factors.  friction  t h i s zone through the o p e r a t i o n  Once the s k i e r reaches the v a c a t i o n  area  that the day  standpoint  s k i e r does a p p r e c i a t e f a c t o r f o r he  f a c t s both  in Chapter  this  of a momentum  i s more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  simply  a v a i l a b i l i t y or  proximity  IV, where i t i s found that  i n c r e a s i n g freedom from the t r a v e l  i n d i c a t e s the  imply  that  s k i e r a s s e r t s any i s t i c s alone.  i n c r e a s i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n which he The  i t i s mainly w i t h i n the v a c a t i o n  real  s e l e c t i v i t y of a r e a ,  itself,  based on area  consistency  be a s s o c i a t e d with  vacation  zone where the demand f a c t o r i s reduced  economic and  skill  s k i e r ' s path  are c o n s i d e r e d  s e l e c t i o n may  to be asked  is l i a b l e to the  o n l y be p o s s i b l e w i t h i n  to  acti-  is—what  i n t o the v a c a t i o n and  zone?  In  are the e f f e c t s of  The  the  skill  the  i n emphasis,  f a c t o r s i n c o n s t r a i n i n g or p e r m i t t i n g  i n Chapter VI  character-  p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic and  Since actual  question  the  of p r e f e r e n c e s , v a r i a t i o n s  groups.  significant  derives  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , q u a l i t y of snow, e t c .  addition, within this overall t a s t e s can  friction  zone that  Chapter V suggests that such s e l e c t i v i t y  such as u p h i l l  the  aforementioned  be based upon the f a c i l i t i e s which r e l a t e most d i r e c t l y  dual  factor is  zone he becomes f o o t l o o s e  from each zone as he moves outward from the c i t y .  in  the  T h i s element of movement i s viewed from a q u a l i t y r a t h e r  than q u a n t i t y  vity  and  to t h e i r urban c e n t r e , w h i l e  inasmuch as the t r a v e l  thus h i s s e l e c t i o n of s k i i n g  with  revealed  the socioindivi-  r o l e s of v a r i o u s  i t i s found that the degree of  factors skiing  74.  skill  obtained  skill  i s c l o s e l y matched by an  distant  provides  zones, although  by the s k i e r ' s age  Accepting weekend and his  area  and  touchstone of zonal  increased propensity  the s k i l l  that d i r e c t i o n a l  then that a s k i e r has  and  group a f f i l i a t i o n s .  skill  it  groups, i t f o l l o w s  This proposition is v e r i f i e d that t h e r e i s  f a c t o r s do not  zone, what does?  skill  groups  remains to explain  S i n c e the demand  to suggest that  the  time to the s k i i n g area could be a primary  i s t e s t e d a g a i n s t observed d i r e c t i o n a l  i s found that avoidance of c r o s s - c i t y  the most proximous areas w i t h i n the day  question  i n t h i s zone i t seems l o g i c a l  of t r a v e l  This  A final  skill  movement w i t h i n the day  minimization factor.  regions.  I f socio-economic and  i s strongest  Since  s i m i l a r l y be a s s o c i a t e d with a d i s p e r s i o n  each of the t h r e e v a c a t i o n  factor  the  i s some r e l a t i o n s h i p between  p o l a r i z a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic and  directional  to some extent  to q u e s t i o n what a f f e c t s  socio-economic groups and  movement may  these  be answered.  more  reached the j u n c t i o n of  by the f i n d i n g s of Chapter V I I , where i t i s observed  to  to v i s i t  p a t t e r n of movement w i t h i n the v a c a t i o n zone.  preferences  a distinct  Increased  income.  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Chapter V that t h e r e  a l i g n e d along  use.  factor is conditioned  v a c a t i o n zones, i t i s important  directional  i t was  the best  do  indeed  t r a f f i c and  patterns  and  visitation  condition directional  of  movement  zone.  Thus through the use of the urban base p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s hoped t h a t novel  i n s i g h t s have been gained  i n t o the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between the user and the r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . briefly tred  p o s s i b l e extensions  t o , and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f , t h i s urban  next  logical  step i n f u r t h e r research would be to take  urban c e n t r e s and a s i n g l e a c t i v i t y and attempt to compare the  movement p a t t e r n s from each o f these c i t i e s . located  The c i t i e s  should be  i n d i s s i m i l a r p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n s , with c o n t r a s t i n g p o p u l a t i o n  characteristics,  in order  s i s t e n c y o f socio-economic  to observe  the c o n s i s t e n c y o r l a c k of con-  c o n t r o l s on movement w i t h i n v a r i o u s f u n c -  tional  zones.  area.  It i s t r u e that many o r i g i n d e s t i n a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e area  but  cen-  approach.  The two  It remains to o u t l i n e  Research might a l s o be extended  i t i s suggested  t h a t more research should  i n t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l based,  i n v o l v e an i n v e s t i g a -  t i o n o f the p r o p o r t i o n a t e make-up o f v i s i t o r s , based on t h e i r day, weekend o r v a c a t i o n m o t i v a t i o n s . study  that each group has a d i f f e r e n t  recreational and  It i s i m p l i c i t  motivation.  p e r s p e c t i v e and a d i f f e r e n t  A c l o s e r understanding  demand v a l u e s from an area c o u l d  of t h e i r  perceptions  lead t o more p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g  of v a c a t i o n a l areas devoid o f the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t are p r e s e n t l y e v i d e n t .  from the present  tendencies which  In a d d i t i o n a c l e a r e r understanding  o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y and r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s necessary,  i f o n l y to s t r e n g t h e n  the v a l i d i t y o f i n v e n t o r y  procedures.  It i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e at length on the p o s s i b l e extens i o n s to the urban based concept, Recreational  geography  but what o f i t s pragmatic  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p p l i e d geography.  value.  While t h e r e  76. may  be undertones o f humanitarianism inasmuch as s a t i s f a c t i o n  from r e c r e a t i o n undoubtedly " q u a l i t y of l i f e , " the problem o f an resources. time may  acts  the o v e r a l l  i n a p o s i t i v e way  derived  to enhance a s o c i e t y ' s  purpose of such r e s e a r c h i s to s o l v e  i n f i n i t e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  space, given  The w r i t e r s u g g e s t s , somewhat i d e a 1 i s t i c a 1 1 y , that  come when the needs of an urban p o p u l a t i o n w i l l  finite the  be understood  and measured from an a n a l y s i s o f i t s socio-economic c o m p o s i t i o n coupled with an a c c u r a t e i n v e n t o r y of a v a i l a b l e  resources.  From these  two  measured components a p l a n c o u l d be drawn up which would o p t i m i z e the use o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l land.  r e s o u r c e s o f any g i v e n m e t r o p o l i t a n h i n t e r -  In o r d e r to s t r i v e towards  of the q u e s t i o n s which  this,  have been posed  i t is essential in this thesis.  to ask some One  of the  most o p t i m i s t i c a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h methodology a v a i l a b l e at present i s the system a n a l o g approach.  It i s becoming c l e a r that t h i s may  supply  some o f the answers that the v a r i o u s g r a v i t y models have f a i l e d supply.  T h i s s u p e r i o r i t y may  socio-economic f a c t o r s may due  be p a r t i a l l y based on the f a c t  be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the system.  to  that  However,  to the imbalance o f r e s e a r c h to date the socio-economic i n p u t s  r e q u i r e d f o r such a system  i s as yet vague and  ill-defined.  It i s  the b e l i e f o f t h i s w r i t e r that such a s i t u a t i o n has developed of the over emphasis on the r e c r e a t i o n a l to a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l  groups.  cases i t s r o l e i s r e l a t i v e l y  area as an a t t r a c t i v e  T h i s work has p o i n t e d out that passive.  The geographer  remove t h i s over emphasis on area c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r i b u t e to optimization of recreational  because force  i n many  must attempt.to  i f he i s to con-  resource.use.  77.  There can be of urban  little  recreational  doubt, moreover, that  demand that most i n t e r e s t w i l l  the c o u r s e of the next few decades. s o c i e t y may  have a b s o l u t e s p a t i a l  recreationist friction crucial  i t i s i n the sphere  Beyond that  mobility.  i s highway o r i e n t a t e d  f a c t o r s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  and  time a l l groups  But as  subject  be d i r e c t e d i n  long as the  to socio-economic  d e a l t with i n t h i s study w i l l  i n the s o l u t i o n o f the "problem of  within  recreation."  be  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books and  Pamphlets  Besch, George. "Land Use and Other C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Needed f o r Devel o p i n g Winter Sports Areas i n Michigan." M.Sc. t h e s i s , Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1963 (Mimeographed.) C a t t o n , W i l l i a m . "Measuring a N a t i o n a l Park's A t t r a c t i v e n e s s . " U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1964. (Mimeographed.) 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"The Growth o f Inland and S e a s i d e Health Resorts i n England," S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , 55 (January, 1939), 15-25. G l i k s o n , A r t h u r . " R e c r e a t i o n a l Land Use," Man's Changing Role with the P h y s i c a l Environment, W. L. Thomas, e d i t o r . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chi cago Press , 1956. Pp. 896-914. Golman, Ruth D.  "Garibaldi  Gould J r . , Ernest M. No. 2 (1962).  Park," C.G.J. , 3 (November, 193'), 339-347.  " F o r e s t r y and R e c r e a t i o n , " Harvard Forest Papers,  Harper, Robert, Theodore H. Schmudde and Frank H. Thomas. " R e c r e a t i o n Based Economic Development and the Growth Point Concept," Land Economics, 4 2 ( F e b r u a r y , 1966), 95-100.  82. H a r r i s, C. D., and E. L. Ullman. "The Nature of C i t i e s , " Annals of the Ameri can Academy o f Po1i t i ca1 and Soci a 1 Sc i ence, 242, 7-17Hines, Gregory L. " W i l d e r n e s s Areas A r e E x t r a Market Problems i n Resource A l l o c a t i o n , " Journal of Land Economics, 27 (1952),  306-313.  Howes, Robert M. " R e c r e a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t i e s A r i s i n g out of Resevoir C o n s t r u c t i o n , " Ec. Geog., 15 ( J u l y , 1939), 250-255Hoyt, Homer. "The P a t t e r n o f Movement of R e s i d e n t i a l , Rental Neighbourhoods," Readings i n Urban Geography, H. M. Mayer and C l y d e F. Kohn, e d i t o r s . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s ,  1964.  H u f f , D a v i d . "A Topographic Model of Consumer Space P r e f e r e n c e s , " P.P.R.S.A., 6 ( I 9 6 0 ) . J o e r g , W. L. G. Review, 25  "Geography  and N a t i o n a l  (1935), 117-208.  Land P l a n n i n g , " Geog.  Jones, Stephen. " M i n i n g and T o u r i s t Towns i n the Canadian Rockies," Ec. Geog., 9 ( 1 9 3 3 ) , 368-378. K e r r , Helen V. "Motor Vagabonding on Vancouver ( J u l y , 1930), 253-268.  I s l a n d , " C ,G. J . , I  \  N  Knetsch, Jack L. "Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Demands and B e n e f i t s , " Journa1 of Land Economics, 39 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 387-396. Kohn, C. F. " R e s o r t S e t t l e m e n t s A l o n g the New A.A.A.G. , 45 (1955), 196. (Abstract.)  England Coast,"  LaPage, W i l b u r . "Some S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f F o r e s t Journal o f F o r e s t r y , 61 (I963), 32. McFarland, J . H.  "Are National  8 (1911-12) , 236-239.  McMurray, K. C.  (1930), 7-20.  Parks W o r t h w h i l e ?  1  Recreation,"  Si e r r a Club Bui 1.,  "The Use of Land f o r R e c r e a t i o n , " A.A.A.G., 20  Mather, Stephen T.  "Progress in National  Parks," S i e r r a Club Bui 1 . ,  11 (1920-1923) , 5-13. O b e r h o l t z e r , Emerst C.  1935) , 73-80.  "An  International  Park," C .G. J . , 10  (February,  83. Pearson, Ross N. "Some Values from R e c r e a t i o n a l Land Use i n Ogemaw County, M i c h i g a n , " Papers o f t h e Mi chi gan Academy o f Sci ence, A r t s and L e t t e r s , 40 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 217-227.  of  . "The Geography o f R e c r e a t i o n on a T r o p i c a l Geog., 56 (January, 1957), 12-21.  Primmer, George H. " I s l e R o y a l e — P o t e n t i a l 14 (October, 1938), 3^9-353•  National  Island,"  Journal  Park," Ec. Geog.,  Prophet, Edward C. "Types o f Recreati ona1 Land Use. A Study i n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n , " A.A.A.G., 26 (1936) , 74-76. Reissman, Leonard. " C l a s s , L e i s u r e and S o c i a l S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 19 (1954), 76-84. Robinson, G. W.S.  348.  "Tourists  in Corsica,"  Participation,"  Ec. Geog. , 33  American  ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 337-  S e l k e , A r t h u r C. "Geographic A s p e c t s o f the German T o u r i s t Trade," Ec. Geog. , 12 ( 1 9 3 6 ) , 205-216. Show, S. B. " P r i m i t i v e Areas i n the N a t i o n a l F o r e s t s o f C a l i f o r n i a , " S i e r r a Club Bui 1. , 18 ( F e b r u a r y , 1933), 23-30. S t a n t o n , W i l l i a m . "The Purpose and Source o f Seasonal M i g r a t i o n to A l a s k a , " Ec. Geog., 31 ( A p r i l , 1955), 138-148. Stead, Robert J . C. "Canada's Mountain (June, 1937), 319-335. .  Playgrounds," C .G . J . , 14  " P l a y g r o u n d s o f the P r a i r i e s , " C.G.J. ,  55-70. S t i l l w e l l , H. D a n i e l . " N a t i o n a l Parks i n B r a z i l . t i o n a l Geography," A.A.A.G. (T963) . T a y l o r , G. D. "Research i n Outdoor News, 3 (November, 1965) .  \  16 ( F e b r u a r y , 1938), A Study  i n Recrea-  R e c r e a t i o n i n P r i v a t e Land,"  Park  T a y l o r , G. D., and Roy Y. Edwards. "A Survey o f V i s i t o r s t o W e l l s Gray Park, B. C.," F o r e s t C h r o n i c l e , 36 (December, I 9 6 0 ) , 346-354. T r e s i d d e r , Donald. 15 ( F e b r u a r y ,  "An I n t r o d u c t i o n to S k i i n g , " S i e r r a Club Bui 1 . ,  1930), 64-68.  T r i c e , A l i c e M., and Samuel E. Wood. "Measurement o f R e c r e a t i o n B e n e f i t s , " Journal o f Land Economics, 34 (August, 1938). T r o t t e r , John E. "Some F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Attandance a t I l l i n o i s S t a t e Parks," Journal o f Geog. (January, 1965), 23.  85. Boan, J . A. The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f R e s e v o i r s i n R e c r e a t i o n . Ottawa: i n Background P a p e r s — R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow Conference 2, 1962.  Pp. 981-1001.  Crombie, H. L. Tourism i n R e l a t i o n to Natural Resources. Ottawa: i n Background Papers--Resources f o r Tomorrow Conference 2, 1962.  Pp. 969-979.  Department of B u s i n e s s and Economic Development. in I 11i noi s . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s , 1966.  Outdoor  Recreation  H e r r i n g t o n , Roscoe B. Ski i ng Trends and Opportuni t i es i n the Western States. U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper, INT. 3*, 1967. Lower Mainland Regional P l a n n i n g Board. B . C . , 1961.  Land f o r L e i s u r e .  K l o p c h i c , Dr. P e t e r . Report on S k i e r s 1966. Report No. O n t a r i o Department o f Tourism and I n f o r m a t i o n , 1967 Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Resources Review Commission. dent . Washington, D.C, 1962. . No.  3,  W i l d e r n e s s and  Recreation.  D.C:  16.  Ontario:  Report to the P r e s i -  Washington,  D.C.:  Study Report  1962.  . P r i v a t e Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s . Study Report No. 11, 1962. '  Vancouver,  Trends i n Ameri can L i v i ng and Outdoor Study Report No. 22, 1962.  Washington,  Recreat ion.  Ullman, E. The E f f e c t s of R e s e v o i r F l u c t u a t i o n on R e c r e a t i o n . Maramac, Appendix to Chapter V, December, 1961.  D.C:  Washington,  The  Wolfe, Roy I. Parameters o f R e c r e a t i o n a l Trave1 i n O n t a r i o . Research Paper No. R.B. 111. O n t a r i o : Department o f Highways, I966.  DEPT. O F GEOGRAPHY UNIVERSITY O F B.C.  12—Please rank (grade) the skiing area which you have visited this season according to the scale (poor to good—see below). Then specify in the appropriate square the numher of days which you skied al this area, this season. (Example: If you rated Tod Mt. with an 'above average' grade, and you skied there four days this season, the table would read as follows:  Dear Skier, The reason we have gone to the expense of sending you this questionnaire is because we believe that unless BO me thing is done, our ski slopes are going to get more and more over-crowded. By taking a few minutes of your time to fill in this questionnaire, giving us information about your preferences, opinions, ski habits, etc., you will provide a factual basis for future planning. We should point out that returns must be received prior to April 30th in order to be useful. Thank you very much for your co-operation.  (Geog. Dept. U.B.C.)  1—Do you travel to the skiing area by  B  a) : b) <  Specify  2—What is the maximum distance (in miles or hours) that you have been prepared to travel, this season, on:— _ hours a day excursion _ hours _ miles _ 2. a Weekend (Friday night-Sunday night) _ hours 3. a Long Weekend (2. plus holidays) 3—How many days did you ski during this past season? (1965-66) 1. mid week days _ ^ 2. weekend days and holiday days _. 3. vacation days (over four consecutive days) —How is your ski group usually composed  . days _ days _ days  Adult males Adult females Children males Children females  Circle as appropriate  5_What do you usually spend as an individual on a days skiing (incl. travel, food, entertainment, ski facilities, rentals, lessons etc.) $ 6— Which O N E of the following lack of moguls great variety of slopes large vertical drop  physical qualities of a skiing area do you think is most important:— Q high quality snow Q good weather Q beautiful scenery  7— Which O N E of the following amenity factors of a skiing area do you think is most important:— adequate tow facilities n well organised after-ski activities good eating facilities • good overnight accommodations adequate close car parking facilities 8— Assuming a surface lift (T-bar. Poma etc) were satisfactory, are you willing to pay an additional 20% fee to ride up a sld slope on a chair lift • Yes • No 9_Would you be willing to pay a 10% premium if you did not have to wait in a line over five minutes • Yes • No 10—How many years have you skied (including this season)  1  2-3  4-7  over 7  •  •  •  o  Poor  Area  Average  Above Average  Area  Below Average  Poor  Average  Above Average  CLASSIFICATION DATA Would you please complete the following classification section. We are interested for statistical purposes only and replies will he confidential. Address to nearest hundred block Marital status  •  Married  •  Single  Sex  •  Male  •  Female  Age  • •  12-18 19-22  • •  23 - 30 31-39  •41-50 Q over 50  What is your approximate annual income before taxes and payroll deductions •  under $6,000  •  $6,000 - $9,999  $10,000- $14,999  Q over $15,000  13, 14, 15. IS, Univ. or trade school  17, 18. 19, 20 PosL. Grad.  •  9. 10, 11, 12, High School  What is your occupation? THANK YOU FOR HAVING COMPLETED THIS QUESTIONNAIRE  This  questionnaire  provided  t h e bas  Good  ML Pilchuk • Lac I,e Jeune Holly burn Toil ML ML Seymour Ked ML Kamloops, S.C. Kimberley The Amber Kcvelstoke Green ML Silver Star Windermere S.C. Stevens Pass Lake Louise Sunshine Apex Alpine Diamond Head Silver King Forbidden Plateau Manning Park Grouse Mt. "ML Baker Morquav Big White Garibaldi Whistler ML Crystal Sun Valley  Education (Circle highest year completed)  Q a beginner [~] an average skier [~~] an above-average skier  Good  4  1. 2. 3. 4, 5. 6, 7, 8, Elementary 11—Do you consider yourself to be  Below Average  Tod Mt.  ta  for t h e thesis. (50% r e d u c t i o n )  APPENDIX B  A Comparison o f S k i i n g Samples i n Four S t u d i e s ( °/o )  B. C. Ski er Sample  Ontari o Travel Su rvey  Western States (Washi ngton)  Northeastern U.S.A. Sample  SEX Male Fema1e  78.6 21 .4  69.2 28.3  66 34  52.4 47.6  39.1 60.9  49.2 26.2 13.9 10.7  40.7 29.6 9.1 8.2  27 23 31 16  33.5 23-5 21.8 18.1  21  37 12 19 4 6  28.8 7.4 28.7 11 .6 6.6 7.1 4.3 ( 4.4  61.9 38.1  MARITAL STATUS Marri ed Si ngle  40.3 59.6  INCOME  Below $6000  $ 6000-$ 9999 $10000-$14999  Over $15000  OCCUPATION Students Housewi ves P r o f , and Tech. Clerical Manageri a 1 Craftsmen Sales Other  25-5  26.4 5.0 24.7 7.7 10.4 13.1 7.7 ( 4.7  32 10.3 9.1 10.3 27.6 (l7.3 .3  22 ^  15.8  (APPENDIX B - Continued) B. C. Ski e r Samp l e  Ontari o Travel Survey  Western States (Washi ngton)  Northeastern U.S.A. Samp 1e  EDUCATION EIementa ry S r . High School 4 2 . 7 Grad. High School Some Uni v e r s i t y Grad. U n i v e r s i t y 5 7 . 3 Post. Graduate  3-2 11 .9 27.6 24.3 18.9 14.1  41.6  39  58.6  ,61  (  7  16.2  \32  ( 43  18  83.8  (  .5 4.0  11.7 21 . 2  31-5  ( 31.1  AGE  12-18 19-22 23-30 31-40 41-50 Over 5 0  S l i g h t adaption  10.2 18.2 23-5 23.0 16.6 8.6  i n grouping.  19-9 17.7 30.7 19 9.7  36  7  25 26  6  5  19.6"  19.9  22.7 22.6 13-2 2.0  APPENDIX C.  Socio-economic  THIS  profile  WORKSHEET  REGIONS  of  WAS COMPLETED  FROM T H E S E ,  BIVARIATE  AND A V E R A G E  DEVIATIONS  TABLES  100  Male  FOR EIGHT  AND A NUMBER O F I N D I V I D U A L  Female  Scole  in  WERE  WERE  SKIING  AREAS. PRODUCED  CALCULATED.  200  miles.  MARITAL STATUS. Beginrs.  Avge.  \  Ab.Avge.  SKILL.  2-3 YEARS SKIED.  4-7  7+  RATING. DEMAND.  To  $5999  $6 000 $9 999  $10 000 $14 999  DIST.  $15000 +  ZONE.  INCOME. W.C Vane.  E.C. Vane.  N. Vane.  w. Vane.  ALL TOTALS  Burnaby.  100%  RESIDENCE. Element  Some H.S.  Grad. H.S.  Some Univ.  Grad. Univ.  Post. Grad.  12-18  19-22  23-30  31-40  41-50  Over 50  House -wives  Students  Mana -erial  Prof. -•-Tech.  Clerical.  EDUCATION.  AGE.  Sales  Craftsetc. Others  OCCUPATION.  C.K.C. 1967  APPENDIX D  D i s t a n c e , Demand and User S a t i s f a c t i o n  Indices f o r Twenty-Three  S k i i n g A r e a s W i t h i n Vancouver's S k i i n g  User Sat i s f a c t i on 1ndex  Vi si t a t i o n Rate ( vi si t o r / d a y s ) 1048  15  28 17 35  46  42  Di stance (miles) Grouse Mountain H o i l y b u r n Ri dge Mount Seymour Diamond Head Garibaldi Whi s t l e r Mt. Mount Baker Mount P i l c h u k Stevens Pass C r y s t a l Mountain Apex A l p i ne Big Whi t e Tod Mountain Si 1ver S t a r Red Mountai n Schweitzer B a s i n Lake Loui se Mount Norquay Sunshi ne V i 1 l a g e Ki mber1ey Bi g Mounta i n Sun Va11ey Aspen  Hinterland  8 10  70 73  110 148  187 225 240  300 300 320 400 489  536 568 585 625 752 837 1387  62 75 51 61  75 90 73 69 71 71 82 85 87 54 76 92 100 90  30 1125 46  55 403 370 57 100  78 91  55 128 149  54 35 59 53 79 27 36 174  100  The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s e s Chapters III and IV were; based on these f i gures.  21  r e f e r r e d to i n  0  

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