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Work: effect on number and duration of activities per day Bull, Christopher Neil 1967

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WORK:  EFFECT ON NUMBER AND DURATION OF ACTIVITIES PER DAY  by  CHRISTOPHER NEIL BULL B. A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in the Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1967  In presenting  this  f o r an advanced t h a t the study,  thesis i n p a r t i a l  degree a t  freely  thesis for  s c h o l a r l y purposes  Department  o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department  It  i s understood  that  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be  permission.  of_Anthropology nnti .Snrinlngy  _^gZAgriljl9&7  extensive copying of  this  may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date  a v a l ] a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n - f o r  or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  requirements  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,, I agree  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t I further  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  copying allowed  ABSTRACT In two s t u d i e s i n t h e 1930's s t a t i s t i c s were g e n e r a t e d t o show how p e o p l e spent t h e i r time d u r i n g a t w e n t y - f o u r hour period.  These s t a t i s t i c s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e number  of a c t i v i t i e s , t h e d u r a t i o n o f such a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e people w i t h whom t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e .  The method o f d a t a  c o l l e c t i o n was a d i a r y o r l o g o f a c t i v i t i e s c o v e r i n g a day, which was f i l l e d o u t by t h e respondent, e i t h e r d u r i n g t h e day, o r from h i s memory o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s o f y e s t e r d a y . With t h e l a c k o f any t h e o r e t i c a l schema w i t h which t o approach t h e problem o f how p e o p l e spent t h e i r t i m e , t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was completed t o put f o r w a r d a t h e o r e t i c a l model, t h e assumpt i o n s o f which c o u l d be v e r i f i e d w i t h t h e d a t a we had c o l l e c t e d . The d a t a c o n s i s t e d o f t h e Time-Records o f 308 i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1965  respondents  i n an i n d u s t r i a l  community o f twenty thousand. It was suggested t h a t persons who have i n common c e r t a i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l a l s o r e p o r t a s i m i l a r number o f a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g a day. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s looked a t were work s h i f t , work s t a t u s , f a m i l y s i z e , and t h e company s i z e i n which p e o p l e work. number o f a c t i v i t i e s  I t was a l s o proposed t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e r e p o r t e d i n a day t h e l e s s t h e v a r i a n c e ii  o f t h e time spent on such a c t i v i t i e s .  We were abTe, t h e r e f o r e ,  t o t e s t f i v e hypotheses on our d a t a h a v i n g e x p l a i n e d our r e s e r v a t i o n s o f the r e s t r i c t i o n s put on t h e d a t a by t h e TimeRecord method o f data c o l l e c t i o n . Our r e s u l t s show t h a t persons who work a t an " o f f - p h a s e " time r e p o r t a g r e a t e r number o f a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g a day than do persons who work a normal day.  The e f f e c t o f work s t a t u s  on t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s does not appear t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . W i t h r e s p e c t t o f a m i l y s i z e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found but t h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l drop i n the number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by f a m i l i e s o f t h r e e o r f o u r p e r s o n s . We a l s o found t h a t t h e persons who work f o r the l a r g e s t company  i n t h e community r e p o r t a g r e a t e r number o f a c t i v i t i e s  than do persons who do not work f o r t h a t company.  With r e s p e c t  t o the v a r i a n c e o f t h e time spent on a c t i v i t i e s , we found i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t cases t h a t the g r e a t e r the number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d i n a day the l e s s t h e v a r i a n c e o f time spent on those act ivi t ies. Our hypotheses d e r i v e d from our t h e o r e t i c a l  schema  a l l o w e d us t o make c e r t a i n p r e d i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d i n a day.  The f i n d i n g s o u t l i n e d above  were found t o r e f u t e our p r e d i c t i o n s i n t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were i n the d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e t o t h a t o f our predictions. theoretical  I t was t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e , because we had a schema, t o go back t o our assumptions and f i n d o u t  iii  where we had gone wrong.  In c h a n g i n g our assumptions we w i l l  now have a g r e a t e r p r e d i c t i v e power i n our t h e o r y .  The  changes were based on f u r t h e r w o r k i n g s w i t h t h e d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n we had on the persons w i t h whom an a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d o u t .  I t appeared t h a t an assumption  was i n c o r r e c t . The assumption s t a t e d t h a t a c t i v i t i e s which r e q u i r e d a number o f persons t o be p r e s e n t  would be o f a s h o r t e r  d u r a t i o n than t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s not r e q u i r i n g t h e presence o f others.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  V  ..  LIST OF TABLES  vi i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  .  viii  CHAPTER I.  THE PROBLEM OUTLINED  1  II.  SELECTED LITERATURE  5  III.  METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS  14  IV.  A THEORETICAL SCHEMA  20  Definitions Postulates Working D e f i n i t i o n s Hypotheses V.  DATA COLLECTION AND CODING C o d i f i c a t i o n of Time-Record  VI.  RESULTS:  TESTS OF HYPOTHESES  S h i f t Work Work Status Family Size Company S i ze Mean Number of Units and Their V a r i a b i l i t y . . . VII.  EVALUATION:  VIII.  SUMMARY AND FURTHER RESEARCH  20 23 25 28 33 36 kl kl k3 kk kS kS  RESULTS AND THE THEORETICAL SCHEMA... 50  v  56  PAGE 31BLI0GRAPHY - 'Time-Budget' Studies  50  BIBLIOGRAPHY - General  61  APPENDICES  vi  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  I.  MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY WORK SHIFT  42  II.  MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY WORK STATUS  43  III.  MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY FAMILY SIZE  44  IV.  MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY EMPLOYER SIZE  45  V.  VARIABILITY OF TIME SPENT ON UNITS BY SUBSAMPLES  46  VI.  MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY INTERVIEWER  47  VII.  MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY EDUCATION  kS  vi i  .ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The v / r i t e r advisor, put  i s i n d e b t e d t o D r . M. M e i s s n e r ,  f o r h i s time  spent  forward a t a l l stages  The w r i t e r a l s o w i s h e s for  in consultation,  t o thank  Nosanchuk f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s  of  Special  P r o f e s s o r R. A. H. R o b s o n  allowed project.  the writer  and D r . T. A.  concerning  acknowledgement  Industrial Relations  and t h e a d v i c e  i n the w r i t i n g of this thesis.  h i s a d v i c e on t h e o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n ;  methods.  the thesis  statistical  i s given to the Institute  (U. B. C.) f o r t h e f e l l o w s h i p  t o s p e n d t h e summer o f 1966  The S t a t i s t i c a l  (U. B. C.) made a v a i l a b l e  Centre  f o rthe Social  on t h i s Sciences  t o t h e w r i t e r many o f i t s  programmes.  V I  **T I I  which  CHAPTER I  THE PROBLEM OUTLINED  Man h a s many c o n c e p t i o n s standard clock has  o f t i m e a s d u r a t i o n , t h e most  d e v i c e f o r t h e measurement o f t h i s d i m e n s i o n  time.  found  The s o c i a l  i tnecessary  scientist  being  i n h i s s t u d y o f human  t o use t h e dimension  o f time  in various  w a y s ; when o b s e r v i n g t h e " s t r u c t u r e " o f a b e h a v i o u r a l at  a g i v e n moment  over a s p e c i f i e d  behaviour  situation  i n t i m e ; a n d when o b s e r v i n g b e h a v i o u r a l time d u r a t i o n .  time, f o r example twenty-four  changes  Also, given a f i n i t e d u r a t i o n of  hours,  social  scientists  have  tried  t o d e s c r i b e t h e t y p e s , d u r a t i o n s , and i n t e n s i t y  of a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t have been p e r f o r m e d by s p e c i f i c  individuals,  within  that given time p e r i o d .  s e r v e and measure b e h a v i o u r  groups o f  One o f t h e m e t h o d s u s e d t o o b -  in a limited  time  g i v e n t h e name " T i m e - B u d g e t i n g " by some s o c i a l the measuring  instrument  q u e s t i o n t h a t has f i r s t research should  the s o c i a l start  w i t h which t h i s  where Iti s  research i s  concerned.  The why s u c h  scientists  i s a d i a r y o r l o gof behaviours.  t h i s method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n primarily  p e r i o d h a s been  t o be a n s w e r e d , h o w e v e r , i s  be c a r r i e d  out.  s c i e n c e s a r e now d e v e l o p e d  t o answer such  practical  I t m i g h t be s t a t e d t h a t  t o the stage  that they can  q u e s t i o n s a s how wel1 p e o p l e a r e  1  2  spending t h e i r l i v e s .  This question is indeed important but i t  is so dependent on value judgements that the social sciences as such w i l l nature.  rarely be in a position to make judgements of such a The research we have carried out asks nearly the same  question but without the value loading, that i s : how do people spend t h e i r lives?  From a methodological  viewpoint, a v a l i d ,  r e l i a b l e , and feasible technique must be found which w i l l  allow  the social s c i e n t i s t to portray time expenditures. The main task is to map out what is to be measured.  There  are no accepted or natural units, such as single physical objects, in which to measure the quantity of most behavioural activities  (Homans, 1961).  However, each unit of a c t i v i t y takes  time to perform thus allowing us a common measure f o r a c t i v i t i e s . Such a measure leaves open the question of the intensity of the a c t i v i t i e s and the meaning of the a c t i v i t i e s for the individuals; although of real  importance these are questions that cannot, at  present, be integrated into our research.  Therefore, time is  the concept most readily available to us and w i l l be the main measure used in this study. During a given time period some people w i l l exhibit a greater number of a c t i v i t i e s , no matter how they are measured, than w i l l other people.  At the same time i t can be observed that  people spend d i f f e r e n t durations of time on any given a c t i v i t y , and many social s c i e n t i s t s have measured such durations.  Studies  have been made on s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s to look at the characterist i c s of persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g in that a c t i v i t y and the durations  3  o f such p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  G. A. S t e i n e r (1963)  the d i a r y method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ,  r e p o r t s t h a t he used  i n a f o l l o w - u p study by The  American Research Bureau, t o look a t t h e i n c i d e n c e o f w a t c h i n g television.  A l s o , many s t u d i e s have been done t o look a t t h e  time spent and by whom, i n " v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " e s p e c i a l l y t h e work o f Komarovsky ( 1 9 3 3 , The  problems on which t h i s r e s e a r c h  See  19^6). i s focused a r e o f a  more g e n e r a l n a t u r e than t h e problems p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d by r e s e a r c h e r s who have focused on s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s o r on a s p e c i f i c moment i n t i m e .  The f i r s t problem i s t o d i s c o v e r whether  o r not those persons who p a r t i c i p a t e activities  i n the same number o f  i n t h e same g i v e n time p e r i o d a r e randomly d i s t r i b u t e d  among a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n .  That i s t o s a y , can we p r e d i c t t h a t  persons who have i n common c e r t a i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e p o r t t h e same number o f a c t i v i t i e s period?  i n t h e same g i v e n  That persons who have i n common c e r t a i n s o c i a l  t e r i s t i c s tend t o p a r t i c i p a t e both  will  time charac-  i n f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n i n  the same a c t i v i t i e s has been a l r e a d y demonstrated by the s t u d i e s outlined  i n t h e p r e v i o u s paragraph.  However, t o the best o f o u r  knowledge, t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d  in a given  time  p e r i o d has not been looked a t w i t h r e s p e c t t o groups who have i n common s o c i a l The  characteristics.  second problem on which t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l  focus  p r e d i c t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e number of a c t i v i t i e s  is to  reported  in a g i v e n time p e r i o d and t h e d u r a t i o n s o f such a c t i v i t i e s . Due t o t h e f i n i t e q u a l i t y o f a day (though t h i s  i s not t r u e i n  a c t u a l i t y , people s t i l l look upon and act as i f a day is of f i n i t e duration)  i f a person is to p a r t i c i p a t e in more a c t i v i t i e s  than other people, then there w i l l be a necessary reduction in the time spent on such a c t i v i t i e s .  This reduction in the dura-  t i o n would be necessary i f one wished to get a l l the a c t i v i t i e s completed in time.  Both these problems are formulated into a  t h e o r e t i c a l schema from which several hypotheses are drawn to be tested on the data that were coded with these s p e c i f i c problems in mind. Previous s t u d i e s , to be o u t l i n e d in the next chapter, have been of a d e s c r i p t i v e nature.  In c o n t r a s t , we have attempted to  formulate, in a l l i t s t e n t a t i v e g l o r y , a t h e o r e t i c a l schema which would act as a guide f o r c o d i f y i n g the data and f o r formulating the questions we wished to put to that d a t a .  The research is  c a r r i e d out s p e c i f i c a l l y to f i l l the t h e o r e t i c a l gap that e x i s t s . The problems are in the form of f i v e hypotheses which w i l l be drawn from t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l schema and tested to v e r i f y the assumpti ons in the schema. at a r e :  The main s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to be looked  the time at which worlc is c a r r i e d out; the degree of  status at work; the s i z e of the f a m i l y ; and the s i z e of the work organization to which a person belongs.  V/ith the r e f u t a t i o n or  v e r i f i c a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c problems asked of the data then, in the space allowed, further r e l a t i o n s h i p s that are found in the data v/i 11 be presented in d e s c r i p t i v e form.  It is hoped that these  e m p i r i c a l l y derived r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l modify and increase the p r e d i c t i v e power of the t h e o r e t i c a l model.  CHAPTER I I  SELECTED LITERATURE  The works to be outlined in this chapter do not represent a comprehensive review of a l l the publications that have dealt with the concept and use of "Time-Budgeting."  Four works are picked  for their contribution to the ideas which are presented later the formulation of the theoretical schema.  in  It should, however, be  noted that these publications represent almost f i f t y per cent of the rather scant l i t e r a t u r e at present a v a i l a b l e .  A full  biblio-  graphy of the publications known to us is given before the general bibliography.  Also included in the reviews  is a discussion of a  work concerning the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t work s h i f t s on non-work time.  It was used to generate some of the conditions under which  some of the hypotheses are tested. The f i r s t of the two oldest and most important studies carried out was Leisure: A Suburban Study (Lundberg, Komarovsky, and Mclnery,  1934).  The authors' technique was to request people  to complete a diary of their day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s during as long a period as it was p o s s i b l e .  One subject managed to keep a diary  for a whole year, a few for seven days, but most for only a single day.  The compilation of these records was done by the respondents  r e c a l l i n g what a c t i v i t i e s  they had participated in "yesterday."  5  A  6 count o f the number o f items recorded t o t a l l e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100,000 from the 2,460 persons who c o n s i d e r e d completed. then a l l  f i l l e d out the 4,460 d i a r i e s  ( I f a person completed, say, t h r e e d a y s ,  t h r e e d i a r i e s were used.)  There was,  average o f twenty-two e n t r i e s per day.  t h e r e f o r e , an  The a u t h o r s found i t  i m p o s s i b l e t o comply w i t h the requirement of a random s a m p l i n g o f W e s t c h e s t e r County due t o r e f u s a l t o n i n e t y per c e n t .  r a t e s as h i g h as e i g h t y - f i v e  Of the t o t a l sample used, 1544, o r s i x t y -  t h r e e per cent o f the respondents, were h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s who f i l l e d out the d i a r y i n the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . findings  The scope o f the  i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by the i n c l u s i o n o f such a l a r g e  number o f respondents from one s e t t i n g ; w h i l e a t the same time another l i m i t  i s the unweighted  use of d i a r i e s which were completed  by the same respondents over a p e r i o d o f t i m e . those persons who  A bias is given to  p e r s e v e r e d w i t h the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r d i a r i e s .  W i t h r e s p e c t t o the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the d i v e r s e e n t r i e s found  i n the d i a r i e s , the a u t h o r s do not s p e l l o u t , except i n  some f o o t n o t e s ^ what c r i t e r i a t h e y used t o c l a s s i f y the a c t i v i t i e s i n t o the two c a t e g o r i e s o f l e i s u r e and n o n - l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . i s , t h e r e f o r e , d i f f i c u l t t o make an assessment of t h e i r  It  figures  c o n c e r n i n g t h e time spent on the v a r i o u s sub-samples they used t o l o o k a t these a c t i v i t i e s .  It appears^ that l e i s u r e i s s p l i t  n i n e c a t e g o r i e s which a l s o i n c l u d e a m i s c e l l a n e o u s c a t e g o r y .  into The  ^George A Lundberg, M i r r a Komarovsky, and Mary M. M c l n e r y , L e i s u r e : A Suburban Study (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934), pp. 92n 94n, 99n, 102n. 2  1 b i d . , T a b l e I I I , p.  99.  7  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , as s t a t e d by the a u t h o r s , was c a r r i e d o u t : . . . by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f what was found o b j e c t i v e l y p o s s i b l e on the one hand and c e r t a i n p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on the o t h e r . In t h e l a t t e r c o n n e c t i o n we had i n mind the p o s s i b l e v a l u e o f the data t o e d u c a t o r s , s o c i a l workers, and o t h e r community l e a d e r s in i n d i c a t i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f proposed community programs.3 It  is this  l a s t s e t o f c r i t e r i a which c o u l d c e r t a i n l y b i a s any  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f people's  activities.  It should be p o i n t e d out that the respondents were asked  in t h e i r  t o i n d i c a t e t h e person (s) w i t h whom the a c t i v i t i e s were  c a r r i e d o u t . The authors have made some p a r t i a l  analysis of this  type o f d a t a but o n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o those a c t i v i t i e s zed as " l e i s u r e " a c t i v i t i e s and o n l y by a comparison sexes.  study  The remainder  t i o n s found  categori-  between the  o f the book i s a c a t a l o g u e o f the o r g a n i z a -  i n the community such as c l u b s , churches, s c h o o l s , as  w e l l as t h e a r t s , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and the amount o f r e a d i n g i n the p o p u l a t i o n .  A good a n a l y s i s  i s i n c l u d e d o f the suburban  f a m i l y and i t i s when l o o k i n g a t t h i s direct  use o f the d a t a c o l l e c t e d  i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t they make  from t h e i r  diaries.  The second main study t o be reviewed was c a r r i e d out a few years  l a t e r and p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e Time-Budgets o f Human  Behaviour  (Sorokin and Berger,  1939).  T h i s study was t o answer  in p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e form, seven main q u e s t i o n s , the most important b e i n g : period; and  (l) What a c t i v i t i e s occupy a twenty-four  (2) How much time  i s spent on each o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s ;  (3) What p a r t o f t h e twenty-four hours  I b i d . , p. 89.  hour  i s spent w i t h whom?  Their  s a m p l e was d r a w n f r o m t h e B o s t o n a r e a and was s p l i t  two s u b - s a m p l e s : schedules  for at  the seventy-three  r e s p o n d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d  l e a s t f o u r w e e k s , and t h e  completed schedules  for at  into  103 respondents  l e a s t two w e e k s .  The  who  respondents  were: . . . r e l i e f w o r k e r s u n d e r t h e Works P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n or as w h i t e - c o l l a r e d unemployed i n B o s t o n and i t s v i c i n i t y pred o m i n a t e l y f e m a l e , w h i t e , s i n g l e and o f l o n g r e s i d e n c e i n and a b o u t t h e c i t y o f B o s t o n , 4 Approximately  1 0 0 , 0 0 0 s c h e d u l e s were d i s t r i b u t e d  of  which  1 0 , 0 0 0 were c o m p l e t e d w h i l e o n l y 4 , 0 0 0 t o 5 , 0 0 0 were used study.  The  as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r  Sunday, Tuesday,  was period  and S a t u r d a y w e r e s a m p l e d  in  proportions. From t h e s c h e d u l e s used  the  the a c t i v i t y  F i v e m i n u t e s was t a k e n a s t h e s m a l l e s t t i m e  t o be r e c o r d e d . equal  the  i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e t o c o m p l e t e t h e s c h e d u l e s t h e same  d a y and p r e f e r a b l y completed.  in  i t e m s on t h e s c h e d u l e s  The c r i t e r i a  in the study  into f i f t y - f i v e  the authors categories  used t o form t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s were  classified of  behaviour.  that  T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n had t o be d e t a i l e d , y e t m a n a g e able (and) was made p r i n c i p a l l y according to the overt b e h a v i o u r i s t i c nature of the a c t i v i t i e s . 5 The a u t h o r s  list  u s e d by t h e  respondents,  categories.  This  the f i f t y - f i v e  c a t e g o r i e s and each of  which are  information  included  is very useful  in each of  the  items  the  i n t h a t we now h a v e  ^ P i t i r i m A . S o r o k i n and C l a r e n c e 0.. B e r g e r , T i m e - B u d g e t s o f Human B e h a v i o u r ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939), p p . 7-8. 5  lb i d . . p p . 27-32.  e x p l i c i t knowledge of the way each of the response  items was  actually categorized; although, the c r i t e r i a used can only be inductively arrived a t .  On examination of the f i f t y - f i v e cate-  gories the authors decided to combine them into eight broad areas, two of which, for example, were:  activities directly satisfying  physiological needs, and a c t i v i t i e s of economic and chore nature. A list  is given of a l l the categories that are put into each of  the eight areas but no c r i t e r i a are given as to why £nd where each category f i t s .  However, the authors do e x p l i c i t l y point  out that categories can, and have been, placed into more than one area, and therefore there is some overlapping. The task the authors then set themselves  is to look at  each of these eight broad areas and to answer, using summary s t a t i s t i c s , the questions they set out to study.  A wealth of  s t a t i s t i c s is presented as well as a summary of the relationships between such variables as age, sex, day of the week, and the information that they had gathered with respect t o with -whom an a c t i v i t y occurred as well as the respondents'motives out that a c t i v i t y .  f o r carrying  A f i n a l chapter deals with their question of  how well people feel that they can predict their behaviour for the next day. This study is very valuable due to the s p e c i f i c  inclusion  of the method Sorokin and Berger used to c l a s s i f y such diverse material  into f i f t y - f i v e categories of a c t i v i t y .  The s t a t i s t i c s  of the frequency of behaviour, the social contacts of behaviour, the motives of behaviour, and the predictabi1ity of future behaviour, a l l give a r e a l i s t i c description of day-to-day  10  behaviours.  The scope o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  sample r e s t r i c t i o n s  t h a t c a n be u s e d  mainly t o the f u l l categories.  H o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d  to state  statements.  purposes,  due  in their behavioural  that there  There  i n be-  and a r e a l m o s t t h e  f o r comparative  p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e items  l a c k o f any t h e o r e t i c a l effort  idea o f d a i l y v a r i a t i o n s  The d a t a g i v e n a r e e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l  only s t a t i s t i c s  due t o  but t h e sample over d i f f e r e n t days o f t h e  week g i v e s t h e r e a d e r a f u l l e r haviour.  is limited  is a  complete  i s instead, a small  i n t h e i r summary o f t h e s t u d y a f e w e m p i r i c a l  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s they f e e l  w o u l d be u s e f u l  in suggesting  further  research. The period  next appearance o f "Time-Budget" s t u d i e s i s i n t h e  following  t h e Second World  War.  A r e p o r t appeared  f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e work and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s farmers collected  (Ross a n d B o s t i a n , 1 9 5 8 ) . in fill  2,617  of dairy  In t h e i r s t u d y Ross and B o s t i a n  recorded d i a r y days w i t h t h e main  o f t h e s t u d y b e i n g on how t o f i t  the a c t i v i t i e s  c a t e g o r i e s o f "work" and " l e i s u r e . " are given t o the respondents but they were requested  to indicate  fore, with the c r i t e r i a  used  A g a i n , no e x p l i c i t  i f they f e l t  o r a work a c t i v i t y . by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ,  criteria  their  behaviour,  t h a t an a c t i v i t y It i s , therethat the authors  place a c t i v i t i e s  into their  study  b u t t h e a u t h o r s do p o i n t o u t f o r t h e f i r s t  is limited  the problem  of participating  same moment i n t i m e . in t h e i r  findings.  two c a t e g o r i e s .  emphasis  i n t o t h e two  a s t o how t o c l a s s i f y  was e i t h e r a l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y  on t h e  The use o f t h i s  i n more t h a n o n e a c t i v i t y  T h i s problem  is raised  time,  at the  but not d e a l t  with  11  The most recent use of "Time-Budget" methods t o be d i s c u s s e d here  i s a r e p o r t o f a second  study o f W e s t c h e s t e r County which  s e t up t o be comparable t o t h a t done by Lundberg e t a l The a u t h o r  (Foote, 196!)  of the Lundberg s t u d y . time p e r i o d was  s e t out t o show some o f the He used  inadequacies  l o g sheets on which the minimum  i n d i c a t e w i t h whom the a c t i v i t y was  c a r r i e d out.  to  As w i t h the  (1939) the respondents were asked  complete t h e logs as t h e day p r o g r e s s e d . procedure was  (1934).  f i v e minutes and which a l s o i n c l u d e d a space  s t u d y by S o r o k i n and Berger  was  to  The e f f e c t o f t h i s  t o ensure t h a t the l o g s r e p r e s e n t e d " t o d a y " d a t a  e x c l u s i v e l y and the average number of e n t r i e s per day was t o be seventy-two.  found  T h i s number can be compared w i t h the Lundberg  s t u d y which used " y e s t e r d a y " d a t a where the average number o f e n t r i e s was  t w e n t y - t h r e e per day.  We  have no way o f knowing t h a t  these f i g u r e s a r e comparable because n e i t h e r s e t o f a u t h o r s s t a t e d t h e i r methods of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; o f the s t u d y by Foote  (1961) because,  r e c o r d when we  is especially true  t o the best o f our knowledge,  the f i n d i n g s have not been p u b l i s h e d . he has demonstrated  this  However, i t i s obvious t h a t  t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t l o s s of d e t a i l  r e l y on r e c a l l  has  in a  f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n of d i a r i e s .  The f i n a l work t o be reviewed does not use the d i a r y o r l o g method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n but s t i l l time and  i t s uses.  The study  touches upon the problem  ( B l a k e l o c k , I960) was  of  c a r r i e d out  t o r e s e a r c h the consequences o f s h i f t work f o r the c h o i c e o f a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e of the work s e t t i n g .  The a u t h o r drew h i s  sample from workers who were employed by a l a r g e o i l r e f i n e r y . He suggests t h a t s p e c i f i c segments of time v a r y i n t h e i r  liquidity  12  by the e x t e n t t o which activities.  Utility  to be r e l e v a n t . e s p e c i a l l y 5:00  the a v a i l a b l e time can be "exchanged" f o r  t h e o r y from the f i e l d  p.m.  t o 10:00  p.m.,  have a g r e a t e r l i q u i d i t y time can be exchanged f o r many  T h e r e f o r e , persons who  are on s h i f t work are o f t e n  d e p r i v e d o f the p a r t s o f the day which These  i s seen  B l a k e l o c k argues t h a t seme p a r t s o f the day,  v a l u e than do o t h e r s , i n that t h i s activities.  o f economics  have the g r e a t e s t  persons do not, t h e r e f o r e , p a r t i c i p a t e  liquidity.  in many a c t i v i t i e s  such as v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The e m p i r i c a l the t h e o r e t i c a l  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study a r e v e r y u s e f u l  f o r m u l a t i o n put forward  i s weak in that we  i t hard t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e time as a commodity, nor can we time as such can be exchanged f o r a n y t h i n g . more u s e f u l  t o view a c t i v i t i e s as d i f f e r i n g  due t o the number o f persons  Rather  see  i t would  in t h e i r  in f a c t  gether v.'ith the f l e x i b i l i t y o f an a c t i v i t y we  how be  flexibility  can  take p l a c e .  a comparatively i n f l e x i b l e a c t i v i t y ,  To-  look a t the  ranges o f time at which an a c t i v i t y can be performed.  i f participation  find  r e q u i r e d t o be present a t a given  moment i n time so that that a c t i v i t y can  be foregone  but  If work i s  then o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s must  in work i s t o be accomplished.  In  terms o f exchange then, we must look at the mechanisms which a f f e c : a person's c h o i c e t o exchange, not time f o r an 4  activity,  but r a t h e r one a c t i v i t y f o r a n o t h e r . In the Time-Budget s t u d i e s j u s t little  theoretical  coding of data.  reviewed, t h e r e was  very  p r e p a r a t i o n o f e i t h e r the c o l l e c t i o n or the  It appears t h a t the authors were i n t e r e s t e d i n  o b t a i n i n g as complete  and a c c u r a t e a stetement as p o s s i b l e o f  13 j u s t what p e o p l e do d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d . To c r i t i c i z e t h e e a r l y works because t h e y produced o n l y s t a t i s t i c s o f a d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r e would be u n f a i r . The a u t h o r s p i o n e e r e d in a f i e l d where l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e around which t h e y c o u l d b u i l d a t h e o r e t i c a l framework.  However, the l a t e s t work by  F o o t e (1961), even though o n l y a p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t , g i v e s no h i n t t h a t he has p r o g r e s s e d any f a r t h e r and produced some t h e o r e t i cal formulations.  It a p p e a r s t h a t F o o t e (1961) has c o n c e n t r a t e d  h i s e f f o r t s on l o o k i n g a t t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems  i n h e r e n t in  t h e d i a r y o r l o g as a t e c h n i q u e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and i t i s t o t h i s s u b j e c t t h a t we t u r n i n the next c h a p t e r b e f o r e o u t l i n i n g a t e n t a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l schema.  CHAPTER I 11 METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS It has been s t a t e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r t h a t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t must d e v i s e some t e c h n i q u e w h i c h c a n be used t o p o r t r a y time e x p e n d i t u r e s o v e r some s p e c i f i e d time d u r a t i o n . V i r t u a l l y a l l t h e s t u d i e s which have attempted  t o do t h i s have used some  type o f d i a r y o r l o g as t h e most u s e f u l instrument f o r c o l l e c t i n g such d a t a .  The review o f t h e s e s t u d i e s has n o t f o c u s e d on t h e  main reason why s o few s t u d i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e have been c a r r i e d out.  The problem w h i c h we w i l l now t a c k l e l i e s i n t h e method o f  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and t h e instrument o f c o l l e c t i o n . The f i r s t main b a r r i e r t o be overcome i n u s i n g t h e d i a r y method i s t h a t o f o b t a i n i n g a sample from some s p e c i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n , such t h a t t h e sample may be c o n s i d e r e d a random sample. In t h i s r e s p e c t t h e -hurdle t h a t has t o be overcome i s t h a t o f respondent  co-operation.  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a g r e a t  reluctance  t o keep a d i a r y which stems from t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s u s t a i n i n g some m i n i m a l amount o f e f f o r t o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e . In normal s o c i a l s u r v e y s a t e n p e r c e n t r e f u s a l r a t e i s o f t e n regarded as a c c e p t a b l e .  However, i n r e q u e s t i n g p e o p l e t o f i l l  out a d i a r y o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , the r e f u s a l rate soars t o nearer eighty t o ninety per cent. 14  T h i s f i g u r e i s m e n t i o n e d by  15 F o o t e (1961) and i s borne out b y the number o f completed d i a r i e s r e t u r n e d t o S o r o k i n and B e r g e r (1939). F o o t e (1961) a l s o r e p o r t s a s t u d y done b y a commercial s u r v e y f i r m i n T o l e d o in 1958 (unp u b l i s h e d ) where a g a i n the r e f u s a l r a t e was s t a g g e r i n g l y h i g h . It h a r d l y needs t o be p o i n t e d out t h a t such a r e f u s a l r a t e p l a y s complete havoc w i t h any s a m p l i n g methods.  Also, i f people  are g o i n g t o be asked t o complete a d i a r y then two c a l l s must be made:  f i r s t t o d i s t r i b u t e and e x p l a i n the d i a r y t e c h n i q u e ; and  s e c o n d , t o p i c k up c o m p l e t e d d i a r i e s .  Both t h e s e  drawbacks  a f f e c t t h i s method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n due t o t h e l a r g e c o s t i n v o l v e d w i t h o f t e n l i t t l e r e t u r n . T o overcome such c o s t s a method can be used where o n l y one c a l l o n the respondent i s n e c e s s a r y and t h e r e f o r e a p r e f e r a b l e method i n terms o f time and money. However, w i t h the o n e - c a l l t e c h n i q u e , we a g a i n run i n t o f u r t h e r drawbacks.  F o o t e (1961), i n comparing h i s s t u d y w i t h  t h a t o f Lundberg e t a l (1934), shows the s u p e r i o r i t y o f making r e s p o n d e n t s f i l l out a d i a r y d u r i n g t h e day o f the a c t i v i t i e s t h e y a r e t o r e c o r d , r a t h e r than a s k i n g them t o r e c a l l a p r e v i o u s day's a c t i v i t i e s .  As has been p o i n t e d o u t , the c o m p a r i s o n o f the  number o f e n t r i e s o n the d i a r i e s in the two s t u d i e s shows a subs t a n t i a l l o s s when memory i s r e l i e d on.  The o n e - c a l l t e c h n i q u e  has t o l i m i t i t s e l f t o c o l l e c t i n g d a t a which has been r e c a l l e d and we can e x p e c t a subsequent l o s s o f d e t a i l .  The p r e s e n t  r e s e a r c h used the o n e - c a l l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e , thus a l l e v i a t i n g t h e problem o f random s a m p l i n g .  The Time-Record we used was an  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l a r g e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and was f i l l e d out b y the  16  interviewer as the respondent r e c a l l e d h i s a c t i v i t i e s o f a s p e c i f i c p a s t d a y . The l o s s o f d e t a i l from t h e r e l i a n c e on memory w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , have a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on t h e d a t a we collected.  V/e a r e u n a b l e t o compare, a t t h e p r e s e n t , o u r d a t a  w i t h t h a t o f e i t h e r F o o t e o r Lundberg because we have no s t a t i s t i c s on t h e number o f e n t r i e s p e r T i m e - R e c o r d . It i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t o u t t h a t when u s i n g t h e TimeRecord method some a c t i v i t i e s w i l l n e v e r be r e c o r d e d . T h e r e a r e two main r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e o m i s s i o n s . F i r s t , r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l be u n w i l l i n g t o t e l l an i n t e r v i e w e r , o r r e c o r d t h e m s e l v e s on a d i a r y , c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s which a r e f e l t t o be e i t h e r o f a p r i v a t e n a t u r e , such as s e x o r d e f e c a t i o n , o r a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t which s e v e r e s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l w i l l be g i v e n , f o r example, acts.  illegal  The time spent on such a c t i v i t i e s has t o be a c c o u n t e d f o r  and must t h e r e f o r e g e t shunted i n t o o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , p r o b a b l y " l o a f a r o u n d , smoke, o r r e l a x , " f o r example.  Second, a d a y c a n  be seen as p o s s e s s i n g an i n f i n i t e number o f p a r t s d e p e n d i n g on how one w i s h e s t o p a r t i t i o n i t . U s u a l l y t h e s e p a r t s a r e d e f i n e d as d i v i s i o n s o f t i m e , hours o r m i n u t e s .  It i s r a r e t h a t a s t u d y  w i l l be done o f a c t i o n s which t a k e l e s s than one m i n u t e .  As i n  the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s we have reviewed we used f i v e m i n u t e s as the s m a l l e s t i n t e r v a l o f t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , we have a l o s s o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s which t a k e l e s s than f i v e m i n u t e s and a t t h e same t i m e we have i n some c a s e s p r o l o n g e d t h e d u r a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s or i n some c a s e s p r o t r a c t e d t h e d u r a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s .  Thus  an a c t i v i t y o f a s i x - m i n u t e d u r a t i o n was p r o b a b l y r e c o r d e d as f i v e m i n u t e s and an a c t i v i t y o f e i g h t m i n u t e s was p r o b a b l y  17  r e c o r d e d as t e n m i n u t e s .  The e f f e c t s o f b o t h t h e s e two major  problems on t h e a c c u r a c y o f a Time-Record c a n n o t be measured but we s h o u l d be f u l l y aware o f them. A n o t h e r p r o b l e m t o be overcome i s t h e manner o f how a c t i v i t i e s a r e t o be r e c o r d e d on the T i m e - R e c o r d .  T h a t a Time-Record  s h o u l d be s i m p l e t o c o m p l e t e and c l e a r l y l a i d o u t as t o t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l s , t h e space f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y , and the s p a c e f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f w i t h whom t h e a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d o u t , is a r e a l n e c e s s i t y . The c l a r i t y o f t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t i s doubly important i f the respondents themselves are to complete a Time-Record as a d i a r y , w i t h c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n as t o how t o i n d i c a t e t h e d u r a t i o n o f an a c t i v i t y .  This latter point is  important t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e r e i s no a m b i g u i t y when t h e d u r a t i o n s a r e t a b u l a t e d . The main p r o b l e m c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e c o r d i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s i s , however, whether o r n o t each a c t i v i t y i s t o be d e s c r i b e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t as he sees i t and w i s h e s t o d e s c r i b e i t , o r whether t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o d e s c r i b e h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n a p r e - c a t e g o r i z e d form o n l y . It c a n be argued t h a t any d e s c r i p t i o n o f an a c t i v i t y i s in f a c t a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , but t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between a r e s p o n d e n t d e s c r i b i n g h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s own terms and d e s c r i b i n g h i s a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g o n l y c a t e g o r i e s g i v e n t o him by the investigator.  It would seem a t p r e s e n t i m p o s s i b l e t o deduce  a p r i o r i i s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s from some t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . As i n t h e s t u d i e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , c a t e g o r i e s a r e a r r i v e d a t by i n d u c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s l a t t e r p r o c e d u r e i s t h a t o f r e l i a b l y  »8  c l a s s i f y i n g d i a r y e n t r i e s w r i t t e n by respondents  or Time-Record  e n t r i e s w r i t t e n by the i n t e r v i e w e r , and t o o b t a i n c o m p a r a b i l i t y between s t u d i e s . However, as Foote  (1961)  has p o i n t e d o u t , s u c c e s s i v e s t u d i e s  which keep the method o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n open and use the i n d u c t i v e method o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w i l l i n f a c t a l l o w f o r a g r e a t e r r e f i n e ment i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s such t h a t c o m p a r a b i l i t y w i l l be  increased.  It s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t the a p p e a r a n c e o f new a c t i v i t i e s the d e c r e a s e  and  in the o c c u r r e n c e o f o l d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be overcome.  If the q u e s t i o n o f u s i n g p r e - c a t e g o r i z e d a c t i v i t i e s i s f o r e c l o s e d then we l o s e o v e r a p e r i o d o f time those new a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have appeared i n the meantime and keep those a c t i v i t i e s which have become o b s o l e t e . Even w i t h a l l the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  problems which we have  o u t l i n e d above, the T i m e - R e c o r d does have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h recommend i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e . the T i m e - R e c o r d r e q u i r e s o f the respondent  First,  considerable  in e n t e r i n g i n t h e c o r r e c t p l a c e the u n i t o f a c t i v i t y . r e s p e c t the respondent  discipline In t h i s  i s r e q u i r e d t o r e c o n c i l e the time  spent  among v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s e i t h e r when he c o n s t r u c t s the d i a r y , as t h e day p r o g r e s s e s , o r when t h e day i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d from memory. T h e r e f o r e , the a c c u r a c y o f the d u r a t i o n s o f the e n t r i e s i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d o v e r the t e c h n i q u e o f a s k i n g the respondent r e c a l l the d u r a t i o n o f time spent on s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s .  to  Second,  the T i m e - R e c o r d a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r t o s t u d y the sequence o f e v e n t s and the respondent's  grouping of events.  With the i n -  c l u s i o n i n the d a t a o f w i t h whom the a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d o u t ,  19 t h e r e s e a r c h e r has a t hand a method o f s e e i n g how a c t i v i t i e s and p e r s o n s become s y n c h r o n i z e d d u r i n g a g i v e n time p e r i o d .  This  a s p e c t would be o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t , and seems t o be t h e reason  why  F o o t e (1961) chose husband and w i f e p a i r s t o keep h i s d i a r i e s i n the s e t t i n g o f t h e f a m i l y . T h i r d , the Time-Record  a l l o w s f o r the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n d i c a t i n g whether o r not more than one a c t i v i t y was t a k i n g p l a c e a t the same time and how c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s can o v e r l a p s e v e r a l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s .  A l l of the  simultaneous  a c t i v i t i e s w i l l , of c o u r s e , not be l i s t e d but a t l e a s t some i n c l u s i o n w i l l o c c u r , a f a c t which i n i t s e l f i s o f i n t e r e s t . In t h i s c h a p t e r we have t r i e d t o r a i s e seme o f the methodol o g i c a l problems which o c c u r when a d i a r y o r Time-Record to c o l l e c t data.  i s used  Some o f t h e s e problems a f f e c t e d the c o l l e c t i o n  o f d a t a used i n our r e s e a r c h .  How some o f t h e s e problems were  t a c k l e d w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n and c o d i f i c a t i o n o f d a t a .  Even w i t h t h e number o f  problems to overcome, i t i s f e l t t h a t the d i a r y method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g answers t o b a s i c q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e and n a t u r e o f d a y - t o - d a y  activities.  CHAPTER IV A THEORETICAL SCHEMA We have i n d i c a t e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s t h a t l i t t l e has been done i n t h e way o f p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n w i t h which t o s t u d y t h e d i v e r s e m a t e r i a l s g a t h e r e d when u s i n g a as the method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n .  Time-Record  It i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e ,  t o have a t h e o r e t i c a l schema from which c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn by means o f l o g i c a l d e d u c t i o n s . '  With the p r e d i c t i o n s deduced  t h e t h e o r y we may t e s t i f the t h e o r y can be c o r r o b o r a t e d .  from If  t h i s s h o u l d not be the c a s e the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i t i e s i n the d a t a s h o u l d a l l o w us t o throw up new and t e n t a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s . T h e s e new ideas w i l l then m o d i f y t h e t h e o r e t i c a l schema which w i l l a l l o w f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f new s i n g u l a r s t a t e m e n t s which c a n be v e r i f i e d o r f a l s i f i e d by new d a t a .  The schema o u t l i n e d below t a k e s the form o f a s e t o f  d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w e d by c e r t a i n p o s t u l a t e s from which a r e drawn f i v e e m p i r i c a l hypotheses  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a s e t o f working  def in i t ions. Def i n i t ions D e f i n i t i o n 1:  Time i s equated w i t h c l o c k t i m e .  \<arl Popper, The L o g i c o f S c i e n t i f i c D i s c o v e r y (New H a r p e r and Row, 1965), p. 33. 20  York:  21  The i n t e r v i e w e r when a s k i n g the respondent  to  answer the q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the T i m e - R e c o r d was i n s t r u c t e d t o use the f o l l o w i n g words:  "I'd  l i k e t o t a k e a r e c o r d o f what you d i d i n the l a s t twenty-four  hours, s t a r t i n g about . . . o ' c l o c k . "  A l s o , the Time-Record was s p l i t i n t o f i v e - m i n u t e segments and the h o u r s o f the day were marked a t the l e f t hand s i d e o f the r e c o r d . reasons i t i s f e l t t h a t respondents  For these used  the  c l o c k t o a i d them i n p l a c i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n appropriate D e f i n i t i o n 2:  order.  A d u r a t i o n i s an e x t e n s i o n o v e r c l o c k t i m e . A d u r a t i o n w i l l be used t o r e f e r t o a segment o f time and w i l l be a measure o f the l e n g t h o f time spent on an  Def i n i t i o n 3:  activity.  A moment i s a p o i n t i n t i m e . It r e f e r s t o a s p e c i f i c i n s t a n t e i t h e r d u r i n g a d u r a t i o n or as a p o i n t a t the s t a r t o r f i n i s h o f a duration.  D e f i n i t i o n k:  An a c t i v i t y i s a b e h a v i o u r a l event whose d u r a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d by a  respondent.  D e f i n i t i o n 5:1 A l l a c t i v i t i e s a r e bounded. They o c c u r f o r a d u r a t i o n w i t h an upper and lower bound w h i c h d e f i n e s the domain o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s .  22  D e f i n i t i o n 5:2  An a c t i v i t y i s more bounded t h e more e x a c t i t s doma i n.  D e f i n i t i o n 5:3  An a c t i v i t y i s l e s s bounded t h e l e s s e x a c t i t s doma i n.  D e f i n i t i o n 6:1  An a c t i v i t y i s 1imited when i t c a n o n l y o c c u r due t o t h e b e h a v i o u r o f more than one p a r t i c i pant a c t o r a t t h e moment t h e a c t i v i t y i s engaged i n .  D e f i n i t i o n 6:2  An a c t i v i t y i s more 1imited t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t a c t o r s r e q u i r e d .  D e f i n i t i o n 6:3  An a c t i v i t y i s l e s s 1imited t h e f e w e r t h e number of p a r t i c i p a n t actors required. The c o n c e p t o f l i m i t e d n e s s i s used t o p o i n t t o the n e c e s s i t y o f s y n c h r o n i z i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o f p e o p l e i n o r d e r t h a t an a c t i v i t y c a n be c a r r i e d out.  It i s f e l t t h a t t h i s s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n  a f f e c t s the exactness of the boundaries o f the domain o f an a c t i v i t y . D e f i n i t i o n 7:1  An a c t i v i t y i s c o n s t r a i n e d when i t i s both bounded and  D e f i n i t i o n 7:2  limited.  An a c t i v i t y i s u n c o n s t r a ined when i t i s o n l y bounded.  D e f i n i t i o n 8:  An i n d i v i d u a l has knowledge o f an a c t i v i t y when it i s a part o f that person's preference  order.  23  D e f i n i t i o n 9:  An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e f e r e n c e  order i s h i s ranking  of known a c t i v i t i e s a t a g i v e n moment. We a r e h e r e r e f e r r i n g t o e i t h e r an e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t rank based on a p e r s o n ' s needs w h i c h stem from p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and sociological forees.  It i s v i r t u a l l y  impossible  to separate these forces f o r a given a c t i v i t y a t a moment i n a d u r a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n 10:  T h e s t a t u s o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s h i s e v a l u a t e d rank and subsequent p o s i t i o n i n a p r e s t i g e h ierarchy.  D e f i n i t i o n 11:  D i s c r e t i o n i s the degree o f a b i l i t y t o choose a t a g i v e n moment t h e a c t i v i t y t o be p a r t i c i p a t e d in. T h i s c o n c e p t w i l l be used t o r e p r e s e n t  t h e idea  t h a t d i s c r e t i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e awareness o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on a c t i v i t i e s and t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s in a preference D e f i n i t i o n 12:  order.  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s t h e amount o f c o n t a c t individuals of various  with  statuses.  It i s f e l t t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h p e r s o n s o f d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s w i l l a f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge o f alternative activities. Postulates H a v i n g o u t l i n e d t h e c o n c e p t s t o be used i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  24 framework, i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o t u r n t o a s e r i e s o f p o s t u l a t e s which i n t u r n a l l o w f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h c a n be t e s t e d by t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o u s . P o s t u l a t e 1:  An i n d i v i d u a l w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s i n accordance with h i s preference order. At a g i v e n moment i n t i m e i t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t y that i s a t the top of h i s preference h ierarchy.  P o s t u l a t e 2:1  The h i g h e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t u s t h e g r e a t e r h i s differentiation.  P o s t u l a t e 2:2 The h i g h e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t u s t h e g r e a t e r h i s discretion. P o s t u l a t e 3:  The g r e a t e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o r d i s c r e t i o n t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s he has knowledge o f — t h e g r e a t e r h i s awareness o f the c o n s t r a i n t s on a c t i v i t i e s - ~ a n d t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s p r e f e r e n c e order.  P o s t u l a t e s 2:1, 2:2, and 3 a r e t h e l i n k between s t a t u s , the d i f f e r e n t i a l awareness a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t a t u s , and t h e knowl e d g e o f t h e number o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a t a g i v e n moment.  A l s o , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f know-  l e d g e , t h e r e w i l l be a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e awareness o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s , such a s boundedness o r 1 i m i t e d n e s s , o f a c t i v i t i e s .  25  P o s t u l a t e k:  The more l i m i t e d an a c t i v i t y t h e more bounded and t h e r e f o r e t h e more c o n s t r a i n e d t h a t a c t i v i t y .  P o s t u l a t e 5:  An i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a g r e a t e r number o f uncons t r a i n e d than c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s preference order will p a r t i c i p a t e in a greater number o f u n c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s than c o n s t r a i n e d act i v i t i e s .  P o s t u l a t e 6:  U n c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be o f a l o n g e r d u r a t i o n than w i l l c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s . A c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e q u i r e o t h e r p e r s o n s t o be p r e s e n t w i l l have b o u n d a r i e s t h a t a r e b e t t e r d e f i n e d than will unconstrained  P o s t u l a t e 7:  activities.  The s h o r t e r t h e d u r a t i o n o f u n i t s , i n a g i v e n time p e r i o d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e i r number.  P o s t u l a t e 8:  In a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w h i c h a p e r s o n i s a member, t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f p e r s o n s o f equal s t a t u s the l e s s a person's  differentiation.  Working D e f i n i t i o n s It i s n e c e s s a r y now t o d e f i n e t h e terms w h i c h w i l l be used in t h e subsequent  hypotheses  s o t h a t t h e assumptions  t h e o r e t i c a l framework c a n be t e s t e d on t h e d a t a .  in the  Many o f t h e s e  w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a r e t a k e n from t h e q u e s t i o n s and  subsequent  c o d i n g o f answers i n t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r i o r t o the T ime-Record.  26  1.  A unit.  A u n i t i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t has been r e p o r t e d by a respondent and as such a u n i t has t h e f o l l o w i n g properties. F i r s t , a u n i t has a d u r a t i o n o f a minimum o f f i v e m i n u t e s and a p o s s i b l e maximum o f t w e n t y - f o u r hours.  Second, a u n i t has been r e p o r t e d by a t  l e a s t one r e s p o n d e n t f o r a t l e a s t a d u r a t i o n o f f i v e minutes.  T h i r d , when the name g i v e n t o an  a c t i v i t y d i f f e r s w i t h i n and between r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e p o r t s , but t h e meaning o f the b e h a v i o u r r e p o r t e d i s j u d g e d t o be e q u i v a l e n t , then the u n i t and the a c t i v i t i e s name (s) a r e t a k e n t o be t h e same. (A f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n i s g i v e n i n t h e next c h a p t e r on t h e method o f c o d i n g . ) 2.  Work.  Work i s d e f i n e d as t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an o c c u p a t i o n o u t s i d e o f the d w e l l i n g u n i t and f o r which a form o f r e m u n e r a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d f o r the use o f time as l a b o u r . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n does not i n c l u d e m o o n l i g h t i n g o r work t a k e n home. A l l r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e sample were w o r k i n g .  The  d e t a i l s o f t h e sample w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n the next chapter. 3.  Normal work t i m e .  Normal work time i s d e f i n e d as a response  t o f o u r q u e s t i o n s (see Appendix A, q u e s t i o n s 6, 19,  87,  89 , x  2  which were coded t o make a c a t e g o r y  ^Appendix A i s an a b s t r a c t o f q u e s t i o n s coded from the interview schedule e x c l u d i n g the Time-Record.  27  "steady day s h i f t . " k.  O f f - p h a s e work t i m e .  O f f - p h a s e work time i s d e f i n e d a s a l l  r e p l i e s t o t h e f o u r q u e s t i o n s mentioned w i t h r e s p e c t t o normal work time, which were coded o t h e r t h a n t h e c a t e g o r y " s t e a d y day s h i f t . " 5.  S t a t u s a t work.  S t a t u s a t work i s d e f i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o  the number o f p e r s o n s s u p e r v i s e d . T h o s e p e r s o n s who s u p e r v i s e a t l e a s t one p e r s o n a r e seen a s having superior status.  Those p e r s o n s who s u p e r -  v i s e z e r o p e r s o n s a r e seen as h a v i n g i n f e r i o r s t a t u s (see Appendix A, q u e s t i o n 25). 6.  The f a m i l y . The f a m i l y i s d e f i n e d as t h e h o u s e h o l d in which a p e r s o n l i v e s .  This definition includes  p e r s o n s i n t h e h o u s e h o l d who would not be p a r t o f t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y . The s i z e o f t h e f a m i l y , t h e n , i s t h e number o f p e r s o n s l i v i n g i n t h e h o u s e h o l d in w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t l i v e s (see Appendix A, q u e s t ion 99). 7.  The l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r .  The l a r g e s t employer i s d e f i n e d as  the company which employs t h e g r e a t e s t number o f p e r s o n s i n M i l l p o r t , t h e town where t h e sample was t a k e n (see Appendix A, q u e s t i o n 19). 3.  The ranges o f d u r a t i o n s . The range o f a d u r a t i o n i s seen as t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f f i v e - m i n u t e  28  segments between t h e maximum and minimum number o f time segments r e p o r t e d f o r any g i v e n u n i t . Hypotheses From t h e s t a t e d p o s t u l a t e s and t h e w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s we a r e now a b l e t o s p e c i f y f i v e hypotheses w h i c h we c a n t e s t a g a i n s t the data c o l l e c t e d . Hypothesis  1.  Respondents who work a t an ' o f f - p h a s e ' t i m e w i l l r e p o r t a fewer number o f u n i t s i n a d a y than w i l l r e s p o n d e n t s who work a t a 'normal' 'Off-phase'  time.  respondents w i l l have 'knowledge' o f  a g r e a t e r number o f ' l e s s l i m i t e d ' u n i t s than 'more l i m i t e d ' u n i t s . V/ith t h e i r g r e a t e r 'knowledge' o f ' l e s s l i m i t e d ' u n i t s t h e y w i l l have a g r e a t e r number o f 'uncons t r a i n e d ' than ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r 'preference orders.'  (Postulate  k.)  W i t h a g r e a t e r number o f ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r 'preference orders' they w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e in more ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' than ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 5.) ' U n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s w i l l be o f a l o n g e r t i o n ' than w i l l ' c o n s t r a i n e d  1  units.  'dura-  (Postulate  6.)  A g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s o f a l o n g e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n a day.  29 The  longer  reported  Hypothesis  2.  the 'duration' of u n i t s the fewer u n i t s  i n a day.  (Postulate  7.)  R e s p o n d e n t s who a r e o f ' s u p e r i o r ' s t a t u s r e p o r t a g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s will  respondents of ' i n f e r i o r '  i n a day than  status.  Respondents o f ' s u p e r i o r ' s t a t u s w i l l 'discretion'  ( P o s t u l a t e 2:2)  The g r e a t e r  and ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n '  t h e number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' units 3.)  in their  have  and g r e a t e r  t i a t i o n . ' ( P o s t u l a t e 2:1.) 'discretion'  'preference  will  than  greater  'differentheir  the greater 'unconstrained'  orders.'  (Postulate  W i t h a g r e a t e r number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d '  'unconstrained' they w i l l  units  in their  participate  'unconstrained'  'preference  orders'  i n more ' c o n s t r a i n e d '  units.  strained'  units will  than w i l l  'unconstrained'  ( P o s t u l a t e 5.)  be o f a s h o r t e r units.  'duration' w i l l  than  'Con'duration'  (Postulate  A g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s o f s h o r t e r than o f a longer  than  6.)  'duration'  be r e p o r t e d i n  a day. The  shorter the 'duration' of units the greater  t h e number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d  i n a day.  (Postulate  7.)  Hypothesis  3:1  The g r e a t e r t h e ' f a m i l y s i z e '  t o which a  respon-  d e n t b e l o n g s t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f u n i t s reported  i n a day.  30  The l a r g e r t h e ' f a m i l y s i z e ' t h e l a r g e r t h e number of different statuses.  But t h e f e w e r t h e p e r s o n s  o f e q u a l s t a t u s , t h e g r e a t e r a f a m i l y member's 'differentiation.'  (Postulate  8.)  The g r e a t e r t h e ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' t h a n ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' in r e s p o n d e n t s ' ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s . ' 3.) H y p o t h e s i s 3:2  units  (Postulate  (Continued below.)  The g r e a t e r t h e ' f a m i l y s i z e ' t h e g r e a t e r r e s p o n d e n t s ' 'knowledge' o f 'more l i m i t e d ' t h a n ' l e s s 1imited' u n i t s . Respondents w i t h a g r e a t e r 'knowledge' o f 'more limited  1  u n i t s w i l l have a g r e a t e r number o f  'constrained' than 'unconstrained' 'preference orders.' Hypotheses  (Postulate  units in their k.)  3:1  and 3:2 ViIth a g r e a t e r number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r 'preference orders' they w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e in more ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' than ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d '  units.  ( P o s t u l a t e 5.) ' C o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s w i l l be o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than w i l l ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s .  ( P o s t u l a t e 6<)  A g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s o f s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than o f a l o n g e r ' d u r a t i o n ' w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n a day.  The shorter the 'duration' o f u n i t s the greater  31 the number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a d a y .  (Postulate  7.) H y p o t h e s i s h.  R e s p o n d e n t s who do n o t work f o r t h e ' l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r ' w i 1 1 r e p o r t a g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s 4  in a day than w i l l r e s p o n d e n t s who do work f o r t h e ' l a r g e s t employer.' The l a r g e r t h e e m p l o y e r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r the number o f p e r s o n s o f e q u a l s t a t u s and t h e less the ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' o f respondents organization.  in that  ( P o s t u l a t e 8.)  The l e s s t h e ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' t h e l e s s t h e number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' than ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s in t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s .  1  (Postulate  3.)  W i t h a g r e a t e r number o f ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s in t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s ' they w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e in more ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' than ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . (Postulate  5.)  ' U n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s w i l l be o f a l o n g e r t i o n ' than w i l l ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s .  'dura-  (Postulate  6.)  A fewer number o f u n i t s o f l o n g e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n a day. The l o n g e r t h e ' d u r a t i o n * o f u n i t s t h e fewer u n i t s reported i n a day.  ( P o s t u l a t e 7-)  32  Hypothesis  5.  The g r e a t e r the number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day the l e s s the 'ranges' o f the ' d u r a t i o n s '  of  such u n i t s . 'Constrained'  u n i t s w i l l be o f a s h o r t e r  than w i l l ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d '  units.  'duration'  (Postulate  6.)  The g r e a t e r the number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day the s h o r t e r the ' d u r a t i o n s ' o f t h o s e u n i t s . (Postulate  7.)  The s h o r t e r t h e ' d u r a t i o n s ' o f u n i t s t h e l e s s the 'ranges' o f those u n i t s as ' c o n s t r a i n e d '  units.  The above t h e o r e t i c a l schema has been o u t l i n e d i n a formal manner so as t o c l a r i f y the c o n c e p t s u s e d .  In t h i s schema t h e  word d e r i v e d i s p e r h a p s i n c o r r e c t due t o the f a c t t h a t some o f the p o s t u l a t e s do not take on the s t r i c t form t h a t they  should;  t h a t i s t o say, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the p o s t u l a t e can n e v e r be empirically tested.  In t h i s schema some o f the p o s t u l a t e s c o u l d  be t e s t e d e m p i r i c a l l y but a t p r e s e n t , due t o the l a c k o f e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s , the p o s t u l a t e s have t o remain as a s s u m p t i o n s . In t h i s c h a p t e r we have o u t l i n e d in a formal way a t h e o r e t i c a l schema c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , p o s t u l a t e s u s i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , a s e t o f e m p i r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , and f i v e h y p o t h e s e s . The o u t l i n i n g o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s and w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a l l o w s us t o move t o the t o p i c o f the sample used t o c o l l e c t the d a t a w i t h which t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e t e s t e d . At t h e same t i m e we w i l l o u t l i n e the methods o f c o d i f i c a t i o n o f the d i v e r s e m a t e r i a l s t h a t have been c o l l e c t e d by the method o f the T i m e - R e c o r d .  CHAPTER V DATA COLLECTION AND CODING T h e d a t a used t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r were c o l l e c t e d f o r a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t c a r r i e d o u t by M. M e i s s n e r d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1965. o f t h e r e s e a r c h was "... t r i a l community."!  The s u b j e c t matter  t h e uses o f l e i s u r e time i n an i n d u s -  The community, " M i l l p o r t , " i s dependent upon  a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i o n s (plywood, p u l p , p a p e r , and saw m i l l s , t o g e t h e r w i t h l o g g i n g and a deep-sea p o r t t h r o u g h which most o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t s a r e moved). W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e a p r e t e s t was made by s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1965 i n t h e c i t y c l o s e s t t o t h e university.  O n l y a d u l t s who were p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g were p i c k e d  a t random from t h e c i t y d i r e c t o r y .  A s i m i l a r s a m p l i n g method was  used i n M i l l p o r t where a random sample o f w o r k i n g a d u l t s was drawn f r o m t h e M i l l p o r t d i r e c t o r y which had j u s t been p u b l i s h e d a f t e r an e n u m e r a t i o n i n December and J a n u a r y o f 1964-1965. Howe v e r , because o f t h e s i z e o f a s i n g l e company i n t h e community two samples were drawn i n s u c h a way t h a t f o r e v e r y t h r e e employees M a r t in M e i s s n e r , " A Study o f Work and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an I n d u s t r i a l Community, P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t , " (mimeo.; Vancouver: Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y and I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967). 1  33  34 of this large company one person was selected who was not working for that company.  This purposeful oversampling of company em-  ployees meant that the sample contained a large majority of men, manual workers, and employees paid an hourly wage.  Very few  women and self-employed people were interviewed; and none of the young, the o l d , or women who were only housewives. persons in the sample 308 of the total sample.  From the 462  interviews were completed, or  two-thirds  The reasons for the loss in the sample were:  a f i f t e e n per cent loss due to refusals, a three per cent loss due to i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , and a f i f t e e n per cent loss due to respondents no longer meeting the sample c r i t e r i a ,  i.e.,  dead,  moved, out of town, or now not working. During May of 1965 further pretests and revisions of the entire questionnaire were carried out in M i l l p o r t such that the f i v e student interviewers underwent extensive t r a i n i n g in the field.  Altogether the f i n a l  series of pretesting.  interviews were preceded by f i v e  During the last pretest  it was found that  the best method of approaching respondents was by sending a l e t t e r and then c a l l i n g at the respondent's home.  This method of  approach was used in the f i n a l  Nearly a l l the  interviews.  inter-  viewing was completed by July of 1965 and the coding of the main body of the interview schedule was completed by the spring of 1966.  When card punching had been completed the coding error  had been reduced to below the two per cent l e v e l . The part of the questionnaire to be used in this research is the Time-Record which took approximately a sixth of the ninety minutes which was the average length of time per interview.  The  35  T i m e - R e c o r d (see A p p e n d i x B) was a l o g , w r i t t e n by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r o f t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t , i n t h e respondent's  terms, d u r i n g  a t w e n t y - f o u r hour p e r i o d w h i c h had t o be t h e l a s t f u l l  working  day p r i o r t o t h e i n t e r v i e w .  immediately  I t s h o u l d be acknowledged  t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i s depending on t h e respondent t o r e c a l l h i s p r e v i o u s a c t i o n s and as we have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t i n a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e uses o f t h e d i a r y method, o u r d a t a s u f f e r due t o t h e l o s s o f d e t a i l when memories a r e u s e d . V/e must a l s o a t t h i s p o i n t s t a t e t h a t t h e s e a r e s e c o n d a r y d a t a c o l l e c t e d p r i o r t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l schema outlined in the previous chapter.  The p i t f a l l s o f secondary  data  a r e many b u t i n t h i s c a s e s e v e r a l have been overcome and a v o i d e d in t h a t t h e d a t a were g i v e n t o us u n c o d i f i e d . T h e problem and the main t h e o r e t i c a l ideas i n t h e schema were drawn up p r i o r t o the c o d i n g o f t h e T i m e - R e c o r d .  I t was f e l t t h a t i f t h e r e s e a r c h  were t o have been s t a r t e d from t h e b e g i n n i n g w i t h o u t t h e p r e s e n c e o f d a t a , then a s i m i l a r t y p e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e would have been used.  However, t h e expense o f c o l l e c t i n g such d a t a o u t w e i g h e d  the r e s t r i c t i o n s w h i c h had been p l a c e d on t h e d a t a .  These  r e s t r i c t i o n s stem from t h e format o f both t h e T i m e - R e c o r d and t h e r e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e which had been a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a sample randomly drawn from a s p e c i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n . The two main r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e :  f i r s t , the lack of  d e t a i l i n t h e T i m e - R e c o r d w h i c h i t i s f e l t was due t o t h e o v e r a l l l e n g t h o f t h e whole i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e ; and second, t h e l a c k o f d e t a i l w h i c h has been r e c o r d e d o f r e s p o n d e n t s ' w h i l e a t work.  activities  C o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Time-Record The Time-Record  (see Appendix B) was coded by t h e w r i t e r  d u r i n g a two-month p e r i o d i n t h e summer o f 1966. The c o d i n g was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner.  F i r s t , a random sample  p r o c e d u r e was s t a r t e d n o t i n g down from t h e Time-Records  sampled  a l l t h e items o f b e h a v i o u r r e p o r t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e i r terms.  T h i s s a m p l i n g o f t h e completed Time-Records was c o n t i n u e d  u n t i l no new a c t i v i t i e s appeared a s t h e sample was i n c r e a s e d . T h i s f a c t d i d n o t mean t h a t a l l a c t i v i t i e s had been d i s c o v e r e d p r i o r t o t h e f u l l c o d i n g j o b . However, i t was found t h a t d u r i n g t h e c o d i n g o n l y f i v e new c a t e g o r i e s o f a c t i v i t i e s were made. W i t h t h e l i s t o f t h e b e h a v i o u r s noted from t h e random sample i t was n e c e s s a r y t o make a code manual which c o u l d be used t o code t h e b e h a v i o u r s s o a s t o produce t h e g r e a t e s t reliability.  The c r i t e r i a used t o p l a c e r e p o r t e d b e h a v i o u r s i n t o  code c a t e g o r i e s was t h a t o f S o r o k i n and B e r g e r ,  that of equating  e v e n t s w h i c h a p p e a r t o have t h e same b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t e n t . As has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n d e f i n i n g a u n i t o f b e h a v i o u r when t h e name g i v e n a b e h a v i o u r d i f f e r s w i t h i n and between r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e p o r t s , but t h e meaning o f t h e b e h a v i o u r i s j u d g e d t o be t h e same, then t h e u n i t and t h e name a r e taken t o be t h e same. F o r example, " i n b e d " and " a s l e e p " were t a k e n t o d e n o t e t h e same beh a v i o u r a l e v e n t and were c a t e g o r i z e d under t h e same u n i t headed "sleep."  By t h i s means we were a b l e t o overcome d i f f e r e n c e s i n  woiding in the respondents' r e p o r t s . Supra, p . 8.  37 Two problems a r o s e i n t h e sample used t o make the code m a n u a l . The f i r s t was t h a t i n many c a s e s r e s p o n d e n t s ran t o g e t h e r t h e a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " g e t t i n g up" and " h a v i n g breakfast."  We t h e r e f o r e had t o produce a u n i t i n t o which both  t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be put i f t h e y were not s e p a r a t e d on the Time-Record.  T h i s i s the o n l y c a s e where a c t i v i t i e s o f a m u l t i p l e  n a t u r e o c c u r r e d where we were u n a b l e t o code i n t o s e p a r a t e u n i t s as we would have w i s h e d .  T h i s t r o u b l e i s a s p e c i f i c c a s e o f the  more g e n e r a l problem o f the c o d i f i c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o c c u r at t h e same moment i n t i m e .  When u n i t s o f a m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r a l  n a t u r e were made i t was d e c i d e d t h a t a l l u n i t s would be o f a mutually exclusive nature.  A respondent e i t h e r "watches  T.V."  or " e a t s " but n e v e r both a t t h e same time e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f m u l t i p l e u n i t s . In such a c a s e a respondent w i l l be coded i n t h e m u l t i p l e u n i t but not in the two s i n g l e u n i t s . F o r example, a respondent i s e i t h e r coded "watches T.V. and e a t s , " a m u l t i p l e u n i t , o r "watches T.V." and " e a t s , " two s i n g l e u n i t s , but n e v e r both t h e l a t t e r two and the f i r s t u n i t . T h e r e f o r e , u n i t s as coded a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , and t h i s a l l o w s f o r a c h e c k o f the c o d i n g o f a Time-Record  because a l l the time s p e n t on t h e u n i t s  s h o u l d add up t o 288 f i v e - m i n u t e segments o r t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s . The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s then a code o f the number o f f i v e - m i n u t e segments r e p o r t e d f o r t h e b e h a v i o u r a l u n i t s , and t h e r e i s no measure o f i n t e n s i t y o r v a l u e o f a u n i t i m p l i e d . In f i l l i n g out a Time-Record,  the minimum time segment  b e i n g f i v e m i n u t e s , i n t e r v i e w e r s were asked t o p l a c e a l i n e on the l e f t - h a n d m a r g i n b e s i d e t h e time a t which an a c t i v i t y was  38  started.  I t was t h e r e f o r e a s i m p l e b u t arduous t a s k t o c o u n t t h e  number o f f i v e - m i n u t e time segments between t h e s t a r t o f an a c t i v i t y and t h e s t a r t o f t h e next a c t i v i t y . w h o l e Time-Record  In such a way t h e  c o u l d be coded w i t h r e s p e c t t o time and t h e  f i g u r e s added up t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t o t a l was 288  five-minute  segments, which e q u a l l e d t h e whole d a y . The code manual (Appendix C) was worked o u t from t h e sample o f b e h a v i o u r s which has been c o l l e c t e d from t h e sample o f completed T i m e - R e c o r d s .  T h e r e s e a r c h a d v i s o r and h i s r e s e a r c h  a s s i s t a n t a i d e d t h e w r i t e r i n making up t h e code c a t e g o r i e s u s i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y . Two s u b samples o f t e n T i m e - R e c o r d s were coded i n d e p e n d e n t l y by t h e w r i t e r and t h e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t u s i n g t h e code manual, and then each sample was exchanged and coded a g a i n .  Any d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e  c o d i n g were noted and t h e a m b i g u i t i e s c l a r i f i e d .  The u n i t s ,  n i n e t y - t w o i n a l l , were then a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r s o t h a t t h e y f o l l o w e d , as b e s t a s p o s s i b l e , t h e o r d e r i n which t h e y would seem t o appear i n e v e r y d a y l i f e .  A l s o , a c t i v i t i e s were i d e n t i f i e d a s  h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e i n o r around t h e home, a t work, and e l s e w h e r e . F o r t h e a c t u a l o r d e r o f u n i t s s e e Appendix C. The n i n e t y - t w o u n i t s were then g i v e n boxes on a code s h e e t s o t h a t t h e f i r s t two boxes ( t h r e e f o r "work" and " s l e e p " ) were used t o i n d i c a t e t h e number o f f i v e - m i n u t e segments a respondent  r e p o r t e d f o r a u n i t . A t h i r d box was used t o code  " w i t h whom" t h e u n i t was c a r r i e d o u t .  In t h e c a s e s o f " v i s i t i n g "  o r " b e i n g v i s i t e d " two boxes were used t o i n d i c a t e " w i t h whom" the v i s i t i n g was done and " t o whom" t h e v i s i t was made, and  39  vice-versa f o r being v i s i t e d .  Respondents were g i v e n a s c o r e o f  zero i f they d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e in a u n i t . A l s o s e v e r a l u n i t s such a s "T.V.," " s h o p p i n g , " and " d r i v i n g t o and from" were coded i n t o more than one u n i t and we had, f o r example, "T.V. I" and "T.V.  I I . " T h e reason f o r making t h e s e s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s i s  so t h a t we c a n i n d i c a t e i n t h e t h i r d box t h a t when w a t c h i n g T.V. a respondent may have been i n t h e company o f h i s w i f e b u t t h a t l a t e r i n t h e d a y he a g a i n watched T.V. b u t t h i s time i n t h e company o f a f r i e n d .  By h a v i n g t h e s e two o r more u n i t s o f t h e  same a c t i v i t y we a r e a b l e t o make a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f o f w i t h whom an a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d .  However, a problem a r i s e s  when a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o w i t h whom an a c t i v i t y o c c u r s .  If a  p e r s o n watches T.V. w i t h h i s w i f e t w i c e d u r i n g a d a y then he w i l l have h i s e n t i r e T.V. w a t c h i n g time coded under "T.V. I . " If he were t o watch T.V. f i r s t w i t h h i s w i f e and then l a t e r i n t h e d a y w i t h a f r i e n d , then h i s times w i l l be s e p a r a t e l y coded i n both "T.V.  I" and "T.V. I I . " T h e e f f e c t o f t h i s c o d i n g i s t o d i s  t o r t t h e number o f u n i t s a p e r s o n r e p o r t s i n a day.  The error  occurs in four o f the u n i t s . The c o d i n g o n t o code s h e e t s was c a r r i e d o u t by t h e w r i t e r d u r i n g a three-week p e r i o d e n d i n g i n mid-August.  Each code s h e e t  was checked t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t o t a l number o f time segments added t o 288 f i v e - m i n u t e segments. T h e d a t a were t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e code s h e e t s t o a s e t o f d a t a c a r d s , f o u r c a r d s p e r respondent.  A c o m p l e t e r u n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n s was made on each  u n i t s o t h a t c o d i n g e r r o r s c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . Of t h e 308 r e s p o n d e n t s t h e r e were no adequate Time-Records  f o r seven  40 respondents:  two were o f q u e s t i o n a b l e q u a l i t y and no Time-  Record was completed f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e .  T h e r e f o r e we used  301 T i m e - R e c o r d s t o t e s t our h y p o t h e s e s . The S t a t i s t i c a l C e n t r e f o r The S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (U. B. C.) d e v e l o p e d f o r us a programme (MEIBUl) t o p r o v i d e t h e f o l l o w i n g statistics:  f o r each u n i t - the number o f r e s p o n d e n t s who r e p o r t  t h a t u n i t ; t h e t o t a l number o f time segments s p e n t by r e s p o n d e n t s on t h a t u n i t ; t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ; t h e v a r i a n c e and t h e maximum,  minimum, and range, o f time segments spent on t h a t u n i t .  A l s o , t h e programme f u r n i s h e d us w i t h a d i s t r i b u t i o n showing t h e number and p r o p o r t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s who r e p o r t N number o f u n i t s . The programme was a d a p t e d so t h a t c e r t a i n r e c o r d s c o u l d be excluded.  T h i s e x c l u s i o n a l l o w s us t o g e n e r a t e t h e s t a t i s t i c s  mentioned above f o r sub-samples which meet s t a t e d c o n d i t i o n s from o t h e r r e c o r d s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e whole o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These s t a t i s t i c s can t h e n be used f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s .  The  programme a l s o gave a w e i g h t o f f o u r t o r e s p o n d e n t s who d i d not work f o r t h e l a r g e company i n M i l l p o r t , t h u s e n s u r i n g t h a t the two samples w h i c h were drawn from t h e community as a whole r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t r u e p r o p o r t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . The d a t a t h e n c o n s i s t o f a w e i g h t e d sample o f 506 r e s p o n d e n t s from a s a m p l i n g u n i v e r s e o f 8,210 p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g adults recorded in the M i l l p o r t d i r e c t o r y .  The a c t i v i t i e s o f  t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s on t h e i r l a s t w o r k i n g day p r i o r t o t h e i n t e r view were coded i n t o n i n e t y - t w o b e h a v i o u r a l u n i t s .  Each u n i t  has the p r o p e r t y t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s an a c t i v i t y which has o c c u r r e d and been r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g a minimum time d u r a t i o n o f f i v e  minutes.  Each o f t h e s e u n i t s i s m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e such t h a t when  the t i m e spent by a r e s p o n d e n t on a l l t h e u n i t s he r e p o r t s has been added t o g e t h e r t h e number o f f i v e - m i n u t e t i m e segments w i l l equal one d a y . A programme was o b t a i n e d so t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y s t a t i s t i c s c o u l d be g e n e r a t e d  t o o b t a i n a measure o f t h e number  o f u n i t s a r e s p o n d e n t r e p o r t e d as w e l l a s t h e d u r a t i o n o f such units.  W i t h t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s we a r e now a b l e t o t u r n t o t h e t e s t  o f t h e f i v e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t we have p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d .  CHAPTER VI RESULTS:  TESTS OF HYPOTHESES  According to Hypothesis 1, persons on day s h i f t w i l l a greater number of a c t i v i t i e s  than persons not on day s h i f t .  The total sample of 502 respondents has been dichotomized persons who work on day s h i f t other s h i f t s  (161).  report  into  (3^1) and those persons who work on  A distribution  for each of the sub-samples  gave us the number of persons who reported N number of  activities.  From these two d i s t r i b u t i o n s we computed the mean number of units reported by persons in each sub-sample.  The t s t a t i s t i c was com-  puted to test for the level of the s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two means.  Our results are shown in Table  I.  TABLE I MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY WORK SHIFT  Work Time Normal Mean number of Units  Off Phase  15.21 (341)  16.06 (161)  hi  t  .001  43  From Table I it can be seen that our hypothesis is not confirmed and that there is a s i g n i f i c a n t difference in the opposite d i r e c t i o n to that we had hypothesized.  We find that those persons  who work at an off-phase time report an average of , 8 5 units more in a day than persons who work at a normal time. V/ork Status Our second hypothesis predicted that persons with high work status w i l l  report a greater number of a c t i v i t i e s  w i l l persons of low work status. together with the resultant  in a day than  The test is shown in Table  II  statistic.  TABLE  II  MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY WORK STATUS  Work Status Superior Mean number of Units  Inferior  15.27 (209)  With the s t a t i s t i c s  15.57 (293)  t  insig.  in Table II we find that there is no  s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two sub-sample means and that the effect of work status on the number of units reported small.  is  However, we wish to point out that again we have the data  showing that our prediction is in the wrong d i r e c t i o n because those persons with superior status report an average of .3 units less in a day than persons of i n f e r i o r  status.  44 Fami l y S i z e Our so would used  third  hypothesis  was t h a t a s t h e f a m i l y s i z e  t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s  reported  t h e mean number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d  i n a day.  increased We  again  i n a d a y b y members o f  families of different sizes.  In t h i s c a s e o u r s a m p l e was d i v i d e d  i n t o s i x sub-samples  t h e f a m i l y s i z e s o f one t o s i x o r  more p e r s o n s statistic  covering  i n the family.  T h e means and t h e F v a r i a n c e  ratio  t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  means a r e g i v e n  in Table I I I .  TABLE I I I MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY F A M I L Y S I Z E  Family  1 Mean number  2  3  Size  (number o f p e r s o n s )  5  4  ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ — — — — — — — — — — — - — — — —  6  F  —  of 15.78  Units  15.69  (37)  In T a b l e and  that  there  111  we f i n d  that there  15.31  (102)  (80)  i s no c o n s i s t e n t  insig.  pattern  H o w e v e r , we  would  i n t h e mean number o f  by f a m i l y s i z e s o f t h r e e a n d f o u r p e r s o n s .  The o v e r a l l  trend  number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d opposite  15.48  (133)  i s a s u b s t a n t i a l drop  t h e groups o f persons which could  family.  14.78  by t h e s i x f a m i l y s i z e s .  point out that there  are  (68)  i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean number  of u n i t s reported  units reported  14.76  (82)  be c o n s i d e r e d  the nuclear  seems t o be t h a t o f a d e c r e a s e  the greater  These  i n the  the s i z e o f the f a m i l y , the  d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t we had p r e d i c t e d .  45  Company S i z e In o u r f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s we had p r e d i c t e d t h a t p e r s o n s who worked f o r t h e l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r would r e p o r t fewer a c t i v i t i e s than would p e r s o n s who d i d n o t work f o r t h e l a r g e s t employer i n t h e community. Our sample was, t h e r e f o r e , d i c h o t o m i z e d  into  p e r s o n s who d i d n o t work f o r t h e l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r (268) and p e r s o n s who d i d (234). The mean number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by e a c h o f the two sub-samples, t o g e t h e r w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e t s t a t i s t i c , a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e IV. TABLE IV MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY EMPLOYER SIZE  Employer S i z e Not L a r g e s t Employer Mean number of Units  15.19  (268)  L a r g e s t Employer 15.74  (234)  t .05  The s t a t i s t i c s i n T a b l e IV show t h a t o u r h y p o t h e s i s i s d i s p r o v e d and t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t w h i c h we had p r e d i c t e d .  We f i n d t h a t  those p e r s o n s who worked f o r t h e l a r g e s t employer r e p o r t an a v e r a g e o f .55 u n i t s more i n a day than p e r s o n s who d i d n o t work f o r the l a r g e s t employer. Mean Number o f U n i t s and T h e i r V a r i a b i l i t y In o u r f i f t h h y p o t h e s i s we had p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r the mean number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d by a s e t o f p e r s o n s t h e l e s s  46  t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t i m e spent on t h o s e u n i t s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s can be t e s t e d on t h e s t a t i s t i c s which we g e n e r a t e d t o t e s t Hypotheses  1, 2, and 4.  In t h e s e t h r e e p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d hypo-  t h e s e s we have t h r e e means t h a t a r e g r e a t e r than t h e means o f t h e i r o p p o s i t e sub-sample.  We would, t h e r e f o r e , p r e d i c t t h a t  t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e time s p e n t on u n i t s i n t h e sub-samples  of  o f f - p h a s e work t i m e , i n f e r i o r work s t a t u s , and w o r k i n g f o r t h e l a r g e s t employer, w i l l be l e s s than t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e subsamples o f normal work t i m e , s u p e r i o r work s t a t u s , and n o t w o r k i n g f o r t h e l a r g e s t employer.  The amount o f v a r i a b i l i t y i s  measured by t h e p o o l e d e s t i m a t e s o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e time segments f o r a l l t h e u n i t s r e p o r t e d by e a c h s u b - s a m p l e .  A  v a r i a n c e r a t i o t e s t was conducted and t h e s t a t i c s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e V. TABLE V VARIABILITY OF TIME SPENT ON UNITS BY SUB-SAMPLES V a r i a n c e o f Time Segments by Sub-Samples Work S h i f t (Hypothesis l )  Off-Phase 682 (161)  Normal 3,553 (341)  F .01  Work S t a t u s ( H y p o t h e s i s 2)  Inferior 2,266 (293)  Superior 3,083 (209)  F .01  Employer S i z e (Hypothes i s 4)  Largest  Employer 91 (234)  Not L a r g e s t Employer 4,851 (268)  F .01  From T a b l e V we f i n d t h a t o u r h y p o t h e s i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y confirmed in a l l three cases.  It appears, t h e r e f o r e , that the  g r e a t e r t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d i n a day by a group o f p e r s o n s , t h e l e s s t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n time spent on such a c t i v i t i e s .  47  We have o u t l i n e d w i t h o u t comment t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s of our f i v e hypotheses.  However, b e f o r e we t u r n t o t h e i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s we wished t o t e s t f o r two b i a s e s w h i c h we f e l t c o u l d be p r e s e n t i n o u r d a t a .  Both o f t h e s e  b i a s e s stem from t h e use o f t h e Time-Record a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e .  Our w o r r y i s t o know j u s t how con-  s i s t e n t a m e a s u r i n g instrument do we have when we a s k p e o p l e t o r e c a l l from memory p r e v i o u s b e h a v i o u r s and how w e l l does an i n t e r v i e w e r e l i c i t and r e c o r d t h e r e s p o n s e s . The f i r s t b i a s we w i s h t o d i s c u s s i s t h e p o t e n t i a l e r r o r i n t r o d u c e d on t h e T i m e - R e c o r d by t h e r a p p o r t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r has with the respondent. the respondent  Rapport a f f e c t s t h e d e g r e e o f d e t a i l w h i c h  i s w i l l i n g t o g i v e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r and a l s o t h e  amount o f d e t a i l t h e i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l e n t e r on t h e T i m e - R e c o r d . We have, t h e r e f o r e , s p l i t o u r t o t a l sample i n t o s i x sub-samples, one f o r e a c h o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s , and u s i n g t h e v a r i a n c e r a t i o t e s t we were a b l e t o s e e i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n t h e T i m e - R e c o r d s c o m p l e t e d b y each i n t e r v i e w e r .  The s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n  Table VI. TABLE VI MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY INTERVIEWER  A  Mean number of Units  13.51 (69)  B 15.39 (101)  Interviewer D C 15.54 16.00 (92) (148)  E  F 14.00 (4)  F .01  kB  W i t h r e s p e c t t o T a b l e V I , t h e s t a t i s t i c s p r e s e n t e d show t h a t t h e r e i s i n f a c t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f u n i t s which have been r e p o r t e d by t h e respondents  i n t e r v i e w e d by  the s i x i n t e r v i e w e r s . The second b i a s we wished t o look a t was t h e e f f e c t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n on t h e r e p o r t s r e c o r d e d i n t h e T i m e - R e c o r d . As t h e T i m e - R e c o r d was completed  by a s k i n g p e o p l e t o r e c a l l t h e i r  a c t i v i t i e s from t h e p a s t , a s u b s t a n t i a l l o s s o f d e t a i l would be expected.  However, we would suggest t h a t t h i s l o s s i n r e c a l l  would be m i t i g a t e d by t h e amount o f e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d , such t h a t the g r e a t e r t h e e d u c a t i o n , t h e l e s s t h e l o s s i n d e t a i l and t h e r e f o r e t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d i n a d a y .  We  t h e r e f o r e d i v i d e d o u r sample i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n . The mean number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by each o f t h e s e subsamples,  together with the F r a t i o t e s t , are given in Table V I I . TABLE VII MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY EDUCATION  Educational Level Grade 8 and Less Mean number of Units  15.35 (163)  L e s s than Grade 12 -:- Other 15.39 (213)  Grade 12 •:• Other 15.70 (126)  F Insig.  We f i n d , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e VI I, t h a t t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n does n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a d a y . However, t h e r e appears t o be a s m a l l  49 i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d as e d u c a t i o n increases.  T h e r e c o u l d be a weak e f f e c t due t o b e t t e r memory o r  a r t i c u l a t i o n , thus a i d i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i n f i l l i n g o u t t h e T ime-Record. With t h e t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e which we have used, we w i s h t o p o i n t o u t t h a t o f t e n o u r sample s i z e s a r e l a r g e and t h e r e f o r e a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e between means w i l l be significant.  A l s o , we wished t o be s u r e t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s  from which t h e means were t a k e n a p p r o x i m a t e d a normal c u r v e .  We  used a weak t e s t , which was t o s e e i f s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n each o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f e l l w i t h i n one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e means o f t h o s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s .  We found t h a t i n  n i n e t e e n o u t o f t h e twenty-one c a s e s t h i s c o n d i t i o n was met, thus e n s u r i n g o u r t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were m e a n i n g f u l .  In t h e  two c a s e s where o u r t e s t was n o t met, t h e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s in e a c h o f t h e sub-samples was t h i r t y and f o u r r e s p e c t f u l l y .  CHAPTER VII EVALUATION:  RESULTS AND THE THEORETICAL SCHEMA  We have i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s e t up f i v e hypotheses t o be t e s t e d on a body o f d a t a .  We f i n d t h a t f o u r o f t h e s e  hypotheses  a r e not c o n f i r m e d , a l l showing d i r e c t i o n s o p p o s i t e t o t h o s e p r e d i c t e d , two s i g n i f i c a n t l y s o .  Our f i f t h h y p o t h e s i s , which  was  not dependent on t h e d i r e c t i o n found in the o t h e r f o u r h y p o t h e s e s , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n f i r m e d when t e s t e d on t h r e e d i f f e r e n t subsamples. assumptions  V/e c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t e i t h e r some o f our o r d e f i n i t i o n s i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework were  i n c o r r e c t , o r t h a t t h e r e had been a b i a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o our d a t a by our m e a s u r i n g  i n s t r u m e n t , the  Time-Record.  B e f o r e we t u r n e d t o the t h e o r e t i c a l schema we wished t o l o o k a t t h e two v a r i a b l e s w h i c h we i n t r o d u c e d a t the end o f the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e v a r i a b l e s o f e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w e r . V/e wished t o t e s t i f o u r m e a s u r i n g  instrument was b i a s e d by t h e s e  two f a c t o r s . The e f f e c t o f e d u c a t i o n appeared t o be minimal  even  though t h e r e was a t r e n d which appeared t o i n d i c a t e t h a t an i n c r e a s e in e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e d e t a i l o f the T i m e - R e c o r d s completed.  However, w i t h r e s p e c t t o the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v i e w e r s ,  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was n o t e d . 50  U s i n g the t e s t between means  51  p r o p o s e d by J . W. Tukey' we found t h a t i n f a c t no s i n g l e i n t e r viewer accounted f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e .  It appeared  t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s was not s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d due t o ( l ) t h e random a s s i g n ment o f r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n t e r v i e w e r s , and (2) t h e small  proportion  o f each i n t e r v i e w e r ' s r e s p o n d e n t s w h i c h appeared i n each o f t h e sub-samples.  T h e s e two c o n t r o l s were t h e f i r s t s e t o f e m p i r i c a l  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which were b r o u g h t t o bear on o u r f i n d i n g s . We wished then t o t u r n t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l schema t o p o i n t out, w i t h e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s found i n t h e d a t a , which o f our a s s u m p t i o n s were i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i n c o r r e c t .  In c a r r y i n g  out t h i s p r o c e d u r e we w i s h e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e b e n e f i t we d e r i v e d from t h e work spent on o b t a i n i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l schema w i t h which t o look a t t h e d a t a .  V/e were a b l e w i t h t h e n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s t o  d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t o u r f i n d i n g s were i n f a c t n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s and not j u s t d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s o f a s e l e c t e d random sample. V/e were a l s o a b l e t o use such n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s f o r t h e i r p o s i t i v e v a l u e o f showing t h a t o u r t h e o r y was i n p a r t e r r o n e o u s . T h e formal schema p e r m i t t e d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n c o r r e c t p o s t u l a t e s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e d e f i n i t i o n s . V/e examined each o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s in l i g h t o f t h e f i n d i n g s . The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d a t a used t o t e s t Hypothesis  1 was o p p o s i t e t o t h a t p r e d i c t e d , and o u r a t t e n t i o n  was f o c u s e d on P o s t u l a t e 6. T h i s p o s t u l a t e s t a t e d t h a t G. W. S n e d e c o r . S t a t i s t i c a l Methods (5th e d . ; Iowa: Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956), pp. 251-254.  52  " U n c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be o f a l o n g e r d u r a t i o n t h a n w i l l constrained a c t i v i t i e s . "  With t h i s p o s t u l a t e we e x p e c t e d t h a t  a c t i v i t i e s which were ' l i m i t e d ' would be o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' due t o t h e e f f e c t o f h a v i n g t o s y n c h r o n i z e p e o p l e t o be p r e s e n t during the a c t i v i t y .  As we have p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h i s i s a  p o s t u l a t e w i t h t h e s t a t u s o f a w o r k i n g assumption which c a n be t e s t e d e m p i r i c a l l y , and i t i s t o t h i s t e s t t h a t we next t u r n e d . In c o d i n g o u r d a t a we had t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o 'with whom' an a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d .  However, i n o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e 'with  whom' c a t e g o r i e s t h e a c t u a l number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t was n o t coded, b u t r a t h e r t h e c l a s s o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t (see page 1 o f A p p e n d i x C ) . We had, t h e r e f o r e , o n l y a p a r t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t d u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  I t was  d e c i d e d t o s p l i t t h e 'with whom c a t e g o r i e s i n t o t h r e e : 1  'with spouse o n l y , ' and 'with a n y o t h e r s . '  'alone,'  T h i s p r o c e d u r e gave  us a weak s c a l e o f t h e number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t even though t h e c a t e g o r y o f 'with spouse o n l y ' was a s p e c i a l c a s e o f two p e r s o n s b e i n g p r e s e n t , w i t h a l l o t h e r two-person c a s e s f a l l i n g i n t o o u r t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f 'with any o t h e r s . '  V/e o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e  u n i t s t h e a v e r a g e amount o f t i m e — t h e mean number o f f i v e - m i n u t e segments r e p o r t e d — f o r each o f t h e n i n e t y - t w o u n i t s when t h e d i f f e r e n t number o f p e r s o n s was p r e s e n t . We found o f t h e n i n e t y - t w o u n i t s , t h a t as t h e number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t i n c r e a s e d , t h i r t y - o n e o f t h e u n i t s showed a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f time spent on t h o s e u n i t s . Twenty-eight  u n i t s showed a d e c r e a s e i n t h e a v e r a g e time d u r a t i o n ,  w h i l e t h i r t y - t h r e e u n i t s showed no d e f i n i t e t r e n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o  53  the duration of time.  The lack of a trend in the thirty-three  units was due to either a lack of respondents in two of the 'with whom' categories or to the fact that a 'with whom' category was not applicable. were:  The c r i t e r i a for deciding if units increased  if the average number of time segments in the category  'with spouse only' was greater than in the category 'alone' and if the category 'with any others' was greater than either in the 'with spouse only' o_r 'alone' categories.  The c r i t e r i a for the  measurement of a decrease in the average number of time segments in the three categories were:  if the category 'with spouse only'  was less than the category 'with any other' and if the category 'alone' was less than either in the 'with spouse only' _or 'with any others' categories.  The d i f f i c u l t y we were attempting to  overcome was that 'with spouse only' was a special case of a category which would include the presence of only two people. To know the number of units which show an increase or decrease in the duration of time spent on such units was not an adequate test of Postulate 6.  The relative incidence of the  units as measured by the number of respondents who report the units was s i g n i f i c a n t .  On examination of the units which  increase  in the duration of time spent on them as the number of p a r t i c i pants increases, we found that these units were reported 4,387 times.  However, with respect to those units that showed a  decrease in the duration of time spent on them, we found that these units were reported 1,587 times.  The units in which no  definite trend could be observed were reported only 153 times. Units whose duration of time increases as the number  54 of participants increases are of considerably greater incidence than units that indicate a decrease in the duration of time. Our data would, therefore, disconfirm Postulate 6 as i t was  stated.  We found that a greater number of units, which  showed that as the number of participants increased so did the average duration of time spent on such units increase, were reported.  Therefore, we had to reverse Postulate 6 because we  found that a c t i v i t i e s which became 'more limited' and therefore more 'constrained those a c t i v i t i e s .  1  showed a longer 'duration' of time spent on Postulate 6 then became a working assumption  which stated "Unconstrained  a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be of a shorter  duration than w i l l constrained a c t i v i t i e s . " assumption we were able to examine why  With this working  the predictions of four  of our hypotheses were in the wrong d i r e c t i o n . In Hypotheses 1 to 4 we had used Postulate 6 to indicate the d i r e c t i o n of the relationships we expected would appear in our data.  However, we have had to change this postulate to a  working assumption which we stated in the last paragraph, thus allowing us to reverse the d i r e c t i o n of our previous predictions. We found that Hypotheses 1 and 4 were then s i g n i f i c a n t l y predicted in the correct d i r e c t i o n while Hypotheses 2 and 3 were in the correct d i r e c t i o n but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so.  In Hypothesis 2  we f e l t that the lack of d i s t i n c t i o n in our measurement of 'superior' status might have been the cause for the lack of significance.  However, i f we had continued  to s p l i t up a sample  to gain an increase in the measure of 'superior' status we would  55  have found o u r s e l v e s u s i n g sub-samples  of r e l a t i v e l y small  numbers, thus c o n s t r i c t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f o u r s t a t i s t i c a l tests.  In H y p o t h e s i s 3 we f e l t t h a t t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  was p r o b a b l y due t o o u r l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n o f the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . Our measure was o f f a m i l y s i z e r a t h e r t h a n o f family composition.  The l a r g e d r o p i n the mean number o f  a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by f a m i l y s i z e s o f t h r e e o r f o u r p e r s o n s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the s p e c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y , r a t h e r than s t r i c t l y s i z e , a f f e c t e d our r e s u l t s . Due t o the p r e s e n t l a c k o f d a t a on f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n we a r e unable to pursue t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n f u r t h e r . We have demonstrated t h a t w i t h a f o r m a l t h e o r e t i c a l  frame-  work we were a b l e t o use the e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s found in o u r d a t a t o r e f o r m u l a t e some o f our a s s u m p t i o n s .  This reformula-  t i o n now i n c r e a s e s the p r e d i c t i v e power o f our t h e o r y which can now be used t o l o o k a t new d a t a .  We have a l s o shown t h a t some  o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s we e n c o u n t e r e d were p o s s i b l y due t o o u r c h o i c e o f t h e measurement o f some o f the c o n d i t i o n s under which the h y p o t h e s e s , d e r i v e d from t h e t h e o r y , were t e s t e d . T h e r e would a p p e a r t o be some c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f o u r d a t a due t o the method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n but t h e e f f e c t was f e l t t o be m i n i m a l .  We  have,  however, p o i n t e d out the b i a s e s which s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when the Time-Record of data c o l l e c t i o n .  i s used i n the f u t u r e as an i n s t r u m e n t  CHAPTER VIII SUMMARY AND FURTHER RESEARCH In t h i s r e s e a r c h we have o u t l i n e d a t h e o r e t i c a l schema from which we p r e d i c t e d t h a t p e r s o n s who had i n common c e r t a i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would a l s o e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r amount o f b e h a v i o u r i n a g i v e n time p e r i o d .  The d i r e c t i o n s o f f o u r  h y p o t h e s e s were proved i n c o r r e c t by our d a t a and our f i f t h h y p o t h e s i s was c o n f i r m e d , showing t h a t as the number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n a day i n c r e a s e d t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e i n the v a r i a b i l i t y o f the time d u r a t i o n s o f t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s .  We a l s o found t h a t  as the number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s most o f t e n r e p o r t e d , i n c r e a s e d , then the d u r a t i o n o f time spent on t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e d .  With t h i s e m p i r i c a l  f i n d i n g we were a b l e t o l o c a t e an e r r o r we had made i n our assumptions  such t h a t a r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f our t h e o r y a l l o w e d us  t o make p r e d i c t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d a t a .  However, the  r e v i s e d t h e o r e t i c a l schema can o n l y be c o r r o b o r a t e d by new  data.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , w i t h our p r e s e n t d a t a we f e e l t h a t f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d be found t h a t would h e l p g i v e us f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the c o r r e c t n e s s o f the in the t h e o r y .  assumptions  F o r each o f t h e sub-samples we have used t o t e s t  o u r h y p o t h e s e s , we c o u l d o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h o f the a c t i v i t i e s a r e most o f t e n r e p o r t e d and the number o f r e p o r t e d 56  a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s o f 'with whom.'  This  i n f o r m a t i o n would v e r i f y t h e c o n c e p t s o f ' l i m i t e d ' and 'constrained.'  F u r t h e r c o n t r o l s on o u r data would a l l o w us t o see  the e f f e c t o f h a v i n g t o r e c a l l from memory e v e n t s which at d i f f e r e n t times us t o t e s t  i n the past.  This  occurred  i n f o r m a t i o n would e n a b l e  i f t h e weak e f f e c t o f e d u c a t i o n was due t o memory o r  to a r t i c u l a t i o n .  A second c o n t r o l would be t o see i f t h e day o f  the week t h a t i s r e p o r t e d on t h e Time-Record a f f e c t s t h e number, t y p e , and t h e ' w i t h whom' c a t e g o r i e s o f a c t i v i t i e s .  F i n a l l y , the  data a r e u s e f u l f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a problem which would at the length o f time,  i n a g i v e n d u r a t i o n , t h a t i s spent w i t h  the same c a t e g o r y o f ' w i t h whom' even though a c t i v i t i e s may change.  look  BIBLIOGRAPHY  TIME-BUDGET STUDIES  A r n q u i s t , F. I . a n d R o b e r t s , E. H. " T h e P r e s e n t U s e o f Work T i m e f o r F a r m Homemakers." B u i l e t i n No. 234, S t a t e C o l l e g e o f V / a s h i n g t o n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , J u l y , 1929. 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Say I t W i t h F i g u r e s , and Row, 1957.  kth e d . r e v . , New York, H a r p e r  APPENDIX A  APPENDIX A ABSTRACT OF MAIN CODE MANUAL  Question Number  Total P e r Cent  Q u e s t i o n Code I n t e r v i e w e r number  16 18 22 27 16 2 6,19 87,89  68 5 15 8 1 1 2  54 46  59 20 7 4 o  1 2 1 99  1 2 3 4 5 6  A B C D E F  Actual s h i f t 1 Steady day s h i f t Steady grave-yard s h i f t 2 A f t e r n o o n and day s h i f t a l t e r n a t i n g 3 4 T h r e e - s h i f t r o t a t i o n o v e r 7~day week T h r e e - s h i f t r o t a t i o n o v e r 5-day 5 week Steady a f t e r n o o n 6 Other 7 Where d o y o u w o r k ? 1 Not l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r 2-8 L a r g e s t e m p l o y e r Is t h e r e a n y o n e w o r k i n g u n d e r y o u r s u p e r v i s i on ? 1 None  2 3 4 5 6 7 8  1-2 3-4 5-9 10-19 20-29 30-49 50 a n d m o r e  How many p e o p l e a r e l i v i n g h e r e now, including yourself?  Question Number  Total Per Cent 3 16 14 26 20 U 3 2 0 3 30 34 3 10 5 9 0  Q u e s t i o n Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  9  Respondent 1 i v e s a l o n e 2 persons 3 persons 4 persons 5 persons 6 persons 7 persons 8 persons 9 p e r s o n s o r more  What was t h e l a s t grade you f i n i s h e d i n school? 1 Grade 4 and under (and no o t h e r training) 2 Grades 5 - 8 Grades 9 - 1 1 3 4 Under Grade 12 p l u s o t h e r t r a i n i n g Grade 12 o r completed h i g h s c h o o l 5 (and no o t h e r t r a i n i n g ) 6 Grade 12 o r completed h i g h s c h o o l plus other training Any u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l e d u c a t i o n 7 S No answer.  APPENDIX B  TIME S t a r t i n g  time  Ending  Day:  Day:  Time:  Time:  Time =  12  1  AM  2  AM  3  AM  4  AM  [a)  RECORD  time  Regular  Respondent s  work  S e r i a l  1  day:  1  Yes  2  No  A c t i v i t y  With  J= Do  you  see  (SPECIFY,  any AND  of MARK  the BY  people *)  you  mentioned  No.  on  any  other  occasions?  whom?  (b) 4 AM_  r i m e =  W i t h whom?  Activity  5 AM.^,  6 AM=—  7 AM;  -.4~  AM—  r  9 AM -L Do you see any of the people you mentioned on any other occasions? (SPECIFY, AND MARK BY *)  Time 9 AM-.:—.  10  AM-3S-  11  AM-  12  i  mss  2 PM.-.  Activity  With whom?  (o)  2 PM  3  4  5  T  i  m  e  -  With  Activity,  PM=-  PM,  PM-±=  6 PM== =  7  PM--= Do y o u s e e a n y o f t h e p e o p l e y o u m e n t i o n e d on a n y ( S P E C I F Y , AND MARK BY *)  other  occasions?  whom?  (a)  Do y o u see a n y o f t h e (SPECIFY, AND MARK BY  people *)  you mentioned  on any  other  occasions?  APPENDIX C  STUDY OF WORK AND LEISURE CODE  MANUAL  Tine  (Cards 4 - 7 ) Record  Q u e s t i o n 88: " ( I F RESPONDENT STARTED AND FINISHED WORK WITHIN THE LAST 24 HOURS:) I'd l i k e t o take a r e c o r d of what you d i d i n the l a s t 24 hours, s t a r t i n g about . . . o ' c l o c k y e s t e r d a y ( i . e . , 24 HOURS BEFORE BEGINNING OF INTERVIEW). (IF RESPONDENT HAS NOT STARTED AND FINISHED WORK IN THE LAST 24 HOURS:) I'd l i k e t o take a r e c o r d of what you d i d d u r i n g the l a s t day you worked, s t a r t i n g from the time you got up." Amount o f time spent on an i t e m o f a c t i v i t y i s coded i n f i v e - m i n u t e u n i t s . The sum f o r one 24-hour day i s 288 f i v e - m i n u t e u n i t s . Item 28 i s not counted. " ^ M u l t i p l e item, c o n t a i n i n g two or more items f o r each o f which t h e r e i s a s e p a r a t e code when coded s i n g l y . A m u l t i p l e i t e m i s not coded elsewhere, and i s counted i n the sum. "snack" i n c l u d e s food other than the t h r e e main meals, and/or any n o n - a l c o h o l i c drink. "beer" i n c l u d e s any a l c o h o l i c d r i n k . Column #s  Code  312,  WITH WHOM ( a p p l i e s t o each column under " w i t h whom" and whom")  315 e t c .  0 1 2 3 4 5  6 7 8 9 10 11 J 12 K 13 L  "to/by  No a c t i v i t y r e c o r d e d A c t i v i t y r e c o r d e d , No Answer w i t h whom Alone Spouse o r sweetheart ( i f married—spouse; i f single—sweetheart) Spouse/sweetheart and c h i l d r e n / p a r e n t s , p l u s any other (as i n '3' and » 5 ' ) C h i l d r e n o r p a r e n t s , p l u s any other ( i n a two or t h r e e - g e n e r a t i o n household: i f R i s a p a r e n t but not a g r a n d p a r e n t - - c h i l d r e n ; i f R i s a c h i l d but not a parent--parents) Household members other than spouse/sweetheart o r c h i l d / p a r e n t ( k i n and o t h e r s , i . e . , other than '3', '4', or ' 5 ' ) K i n not i n household Spouse/sweetheart and work mates, p l u s any other Spouse/sweetheart and any o t h e r s not work mates o r c h i l d / p a r e n t Work mates, p l u s any o t h e r s not spouse/sweetheart o r c h i l d / p a r e n t F r i e n d s o r n e i g h b o r s , p l u s any o t h e r s n o t spouse/sweetheart or c h i l d / p a r e n t o r work mate '• S t r a n g e r s o r persons i n f o r m a l o r c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s Any other combination  301-303  Respondent's s e r i a l number  304  C o d a b i l i t y o f Time Record 1 Not coded 2 Coded 3 Coded but o f l i m i t e d  quality  - 2 -  Column #3 5-rain With, units whom  Item #  305-306  307-308  309-311 312  313-314 315  7  9  13  Item and Code  NOCONT  Odd items which cannot elsewhere ( l i s t )  ODDS  home  SLEEP  Get up and wash, shave, g e t d r e s s e d (not i n c l u d i n g a bath, second washi n g , or a f t e r - w o r k shower) home  GETUP  home  BRKFST  home  UP+BRK  Get ready f o r work, a t home ( n o t i n c l u d i n g l u n c h box p r e p a r a t i o n , or g e t up and wash, or meals)  home  WREADY  Journey t o and from work I * * ( f o r I I see i t e m 64)  out  WRKTRI  Breakfast*  319-320 321  19  m  322-323 324  22  328-329  28  be coded  Sleep (main s l e e p i n g p e r i o d , n o t i n c l u d i n g nap, " l a i d down", e t c . )  16  25  TITLE  Time p e r i o d w i t h o u t r e c o r d e d cont e n t , or content i l l e g i b l e or u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e , or no answer  316-317 318  225-326 327  Setting  G e t up e t c . and b r e a k f a s t  I n t e r r u p t i o n of j o u r n e y work***  to/from  * (Item 16) F o r workers r e t u r n i n g from graveyard s h i f t , r e c o r d the meal f o l l o w i n g the a r r i v a l a t home as b r e a k f a s t u n l e s s t h a t meal i s d e s c r i b e d c o n v i n c i n g l y as a d i n n e r or l u n c h , or u n l e s s the meal a f t e r a main s l e e p p e r i o d i s c o n v i n c i n g l y desc r i b e d as b r e a k f a s t . I f i n doubt, judge by thenature of the a c t i v i t i e s o f other household members. Not everyone, though, must have had a b r e a k f a s t . ** (Item 25) I f uncontaminated add time f o r journey t o work t o time f o r journey from work, as l o n g as the d i f f e r e n c e between the two i s n o t g r e a t e r than two f i v e - m i n u t e units. I f contaminated, e s t i m a t e . Contamination means: (a) another i t e m i n t e r v e n e s and has s t a r t and end marked ( i n t h a t case do n o t i n c l u d e the i n t e r v e n i n g i t e m ) ; (b) another i t e m i n t e r v e n e s and i t s s t a r t and/or end a r e n o t marked ( i n t h a t case use the other j o u r n e y and m u l t i p l y by 2 i f the other journey i s uncontaminated); ( c ) both j o u r n e y s contaminated and i n t e r v e n i n g i t e m ( s ) n o t p r o p e r l y marked ( i n t h a t case check R's home and work l o c a t i o n s and e s t i m a t e time f o r one t r i p and m u l t i p l y by two). An i n t e r v e n i n g i t e m may be a t the b e g i n n i n g and/or end o f j o u r n e y . Do n o t i n c l u d e j o u r n e y t o l u n c h and back. *** (Item 28) Not counted i n t o t a l . I f the time f o r the i n t e r r u p t i o n of j o u r n e y ( s ) t o and from work i s n o t marked or i n c o m p l e t e l y marked, code the r e s u l t of s u b t r a c t i n g j o u r n e y t o work time as estimated from t o t a l time e x t e n d i n g from d e p a r t u r e t o a r r i v a l . Do n o t i n c l u d e estimated c o n t a m i n a t i o n s r e c o r d e d as o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e and/or a f t e r dep a r t u r e and a r r i v a l . I n c l u d e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between j o u r n e y t o work and j o u r n e y from work i f g r e a t e r than 2 u n i t s , u n l e s s t h e r e a r e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n the d a t a . I f such d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t l a b e l l e d code i n Item 5.  - 3 Column #s 5-min With units whom 330-331  332  Item Item and Code 30  Setting  Before-work a c t i v i t i e s at work s i t e ( t a l k to fellow workers, punch i n , coffee, change clothing) Work  PREWRK WORK  333-335  336  33  Work (not including moonlighting)  337-338  339  37  Work break other than lunch (coffee, tea, smoke break) (check questions 41-42 f o r consistency and additional information on WITH WHOM) Work  340-341  343-344  346-347 349-350  342  345  348 351  40  43  46  49  TITLE  ."work break other than lunch and games (playing cards)  Work  WKBRK  Work  BRKGAM  Lunch at work (includes eating lunch at nearby eating place that would substitute f o r a lunch room) Work  LUNWRK  "Lunch at work and games(playing cards)  Work  LUNGAM  Journey to lunch away from work, and back  Out  LUNTRP  352-353  354  52  Lunch at home  Home  LUNH0M  355-356  357  55  After-work a c t i v i t i e s at work s i t e (shower, washup, t a l k to fellow workers, change clothing)  Work  POSTWK  358-359  360  58  Moonlighting (time spent on second j o b ( s ) ; record separate from item 33--Work)  Work  M00NLI  »  361-362  363  61  Work at home (main job only)  Home  WKH0ME  364-365  366  64  Journey to/from work I I (see item 25)  Out  WRKTR2  Bath, second washing, shower, getting dressed, get ready f o r bed  Home  BATH  Supper or dinner at home  Home  SUPPER  Home  SUP+TV  367-368  369  67  370-371  372  70  373-374  375  73  376-377  378  76  Supper and watch TV at home  Housework: preparing meal or lunch box, wash dishes, sewing, make bed(s) (does not include: care of children; work around house--if a man; r e p a i r s on house; f u r n i t u r e ; car) . Home  HSEWRK  - 4 Column #s 5-min With units whom  Item Item and Code  Setting  TITLE  Sample  379  1 4  Co. Other  380 Card number 4 401-403 404-405  407-408  (card  columns 301-380)  Respondent's s e r i a l number 406  409  104  107  T r a n s i t i o n s (such as g e t t i n g out of the c a r and g o i n g i n t o the house, g e t t i n g ready t o go f o r d r i v e - - b u t not d r e s s i n g o r washing) Home  TRNSIT  Correspondence ( w r i t i n g l e t t e r s , r e a d i n g m a i l , p a y i n g b i l l s , conc e r n i n g s e l f and f a m i l y a f f a i r s , not work)  Home-  CORESP  Home  410-411  412  110  Telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n  413-414  415  113  Care of c h i l d r e n a t home ( i n c l u d e s baby-sitting, play with children, put c h i l d r e n t o bed)  Home  CHLDRN  C a r e o f c h i l d r e n and other act i v i t y ( l i s t other a c t i v i t i e s )  Home  CHLDR-+  Home  GARDEN  416-417  419-420  418  421  116  119  a t home  .PHONE  m  Gardening  y  422-423  424  122  Care of animals  Home  ANIMAL  425-426  427  125  Mechanics (work on c a r , m o t o r c y c l e , boat, t r a i l e r , lawn mower.) Home  MECHAN  Home maintenance, work o r p u t t e r around the house, wash c a r (Does not i n c l u d e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f house or f u r n i t u r e or a major p a i t i n g job)  Home  E4AINT  Home c o n s t r u c t i o n a t home ( i n c l u d e s making f u r n i t u r e and major painting jobs)  Home  C0NSTIN  428-429  431-432  430  433  128  131  434-435  436  134  Home c o n s t r u c t i o n out  Out  CNST0U  437-438  439  137  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l . a c t i v i t y or meeti n g a t home (does n o t i n c l u d e ent e r t a i n m e n t o r church. Check membership)  Home  INORMT  - 5 Column #s 5-min With Units whom 440-441  443-444  446-447  449-450  452-453  455-456  442  445  448  451  454  457  Item  # 140  143  146  149  152  155  Setting  Item and Code  TITLE  O r g a n i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t y o r meeti n g n o t a t home (does n o t i n c l u d e e n t e r t a i n m e n t or c h u r c h . Check membership).  Out  OUORMT  D r i v e t o something or from somet h i n g I * ( n o t to or from work) ( f o r I I and I I I see items 146 and 149)  Out  DRIVE1  D r i v e t o something o r from somet h i n g I I ( n o t t o and from work). (See items 143 and 149)  Out  DRIVE2  D r i v e t o something o r from somet h i n g I I I ( n o t t o o r from work) (See items 143 and 146)  Out  DRIVE3  D r i v e around, go f o r d i v e -or r i d e I ( f o r I I see i t e m 176)  Out  D R I A R 1  Walk t o something and from s omet h i n g ( n o t t o or from work).  Out  WALKTO  Out  WLKARD  458-459  460  158  Walk around, go  461-462  463  161  Shopping f o r goods and s e r v i c e s I ( n o t i n c l u d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l serv i c e s ) ( f o r I I see i t e m 276)  Out  SHOPGI  Meal o r snack o u t ( n o t i n c l u d i n g l u n c h near work p l a c e o r v i s i t i n g and meal)  Out  EATOUT  464-465  466  164  f o r walk  467-468  469  167  Beer o r other a l c o h o l i c d r i n k out  Out  EEERCU  470-471  472  170  P i c n i c out  Out  PCNCOU  473-474  475  173  L o a f i n g o u t , s i t t i n g around, sunbathing ( a t lake, i n h o t e l lobby, at s t r e e t corner, drug store)  Out  LOAFOU  D r i v e around, go f o r d r i v e , I I ( s e e i t e m 152)  Out  BRIAR2  476-477 478  176  ride  * (Item 143: WITH WHOM: i f two or more t r i p s a r e r e c o r d e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of o t h e r s , code the sum o f those t r i p s w i t h the same c a t e g o r y o f o t h e r s , and code t r i p s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f o t h e r s i n the sequence o f the WITH WHOM code, i . e . l o w e s t code number f i r s t , i n 143, 146, 149.  - 6Column #s 5-min With units whom  Item  #  Item and Code  Setting  TITLE  Sample  479  1 Co. 4 Other  •  Card number  480  5 501-503  (card columns 401-480).  -  Respondent's s e r i a l number  504-505  506  204  Read book(s)  Home  RDBOOK  507-508  509  207  Read, read paper, magazines (not books)*  Home  PAPER  510 511  512  210  "Read and watch TV*  Home  READTV  513-514  515  213  "Read and l i s t e n to Radio*  Home  RD+RAD  516-517  518  216  ^Read and beer*  Home  RDBEER  519-520  521  219  m Read and Talk*  Home  RDlllK  522-523  524  222  "'Read and Loaf*  Home  RDLOAF  525-526  527  225  Watch TV I * (for I I see item 369)  Home  TV1  528-529  530  228  "Watch TV and beer*  Home  TV BEER  531-532  533  231  ""Watch TV and t a l k *  Home  TVTALK  534-535  536  234  L i s t e n to radio*  Home  RADIO  537-538  539  237  Games*  Home  GAMES  540-541  542  240  000  543-544  545  243  Beer at home*  Home  BEER  546-547  548  246  Loaf, relax, "lay down", nap*  Home  LOAF  549-550  551  249  Talk*  Home  TALK  552-553  554  252  Snack at home  Home  SNACK  555-556  557  255  Hobby proper (other than mechanics or construction) a t home  Home  HOBBY  * Each of these items may include snack.  000  Column #s 5-min With units whom 558-559  561-562  560  563  Item  # 258  261  Setting  Item and Code Active participation sports  TITLE  i n organized Out  ORGSPT  A c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n unorganized s p o r t s (swimming). Out  NORGSP  564-565  566  264  Watching o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s .  Out  WATSPT  567-568  569  267  Hunting or f i s h i n g  Out  FISHUN  570-571  572  270  Entertainment i n organization not a t home (does n o t i n c l u d e c h u r c h , check membership)  X)ut  ORGENT  Entertainment out ( p l a n t tour,, c a r n i v a l , parade, movies, watching accident).  Out  ENTOUT  Shopping I I ( s e e i t e m 161)  Out  SH0PG2  573-574  576-577 579  575  578  273  276  Sample 1 4  580.  Co. Other  Card number. 6 (card columns 501-580).  Column #s 5-min With To/by units whom whom  Item  #  Item and Code  Setting  TITLE  Respondents s e r i a l number.  601-603 604-605  606 607  304  608-609  610 611  308  612-613  614 615  312  Being v i s i t e d (plus t a l k or snack) Home WITH WHOM ( i n whose company R i s when others v i s i t him) BY WHOM (who i s v i s i t i n g $)  GMPANY  m Being v i s i t e d and meal  Home  COMEAL  "Being v i s i t e d and watch TV (plus t a l k or snack)  Home  COMPTV  616-617  618 619  316  Being v i s i t e d and watch TV and beer (plus t a l k or snack)  Home  COTVBR  620-621  622 623  320  "Being v i s i t e d and games (plus talk, beer or snack)  Home  CCMPGM  "Being v i s i t e d and beer (plus t a l k or snack)  Home  COBEER  624-625  626 .  627  628-629  630 631  632-633  634 635  324  BLANK  332  V i s i t i n g (includes only time spent at place v i s i t e d ) (plus t a l k or snack). Out WITH WH0M:(in whose company i s R when he goes v i s i t i n g ) . TO WHOM: (whom i s R v i s i t i n g ) .  VISITG  636-637  638 639  336  " v i s i t i n g and meal  Out  VIMEAL  640-641  642 643  340  m V i s i t i n g and watch TV (plus talk or snack)  Out  VISITV  644-645  648-649  652-653  646 647  650 651  654 655  344  348 352  i  " V i s i t i n g and watch TV and beer (plus t a l k or snack)  "Visiting  and games (plus talk, beer or snack)  "Visiting  and beer (plus t a l k  VITVBR Out VISTGM Out  or snack)  VIBEER Out  356  " V i s i t i n g and work on car  660-661 662  360  R e l i g i o n out  Out  663-664 665  363  Religion a t home  Out  RELHOM  666-667 668  366  Music at home  Home  HMUSIC  656-657 658  659  Home  VISCAR RELOUT  - 9 Column  #s  5-min  With  Item  units  whom  #  669-670  671  369  Watch  672-673  674  372  P r o f e s s i o n a l  Item  a n d Code  TV  (lawyer's p i t a l ,  BLANK.  679  Sample. 1  680  225)  services  out  o f f i c e ,  Xray  a t  doctor)  Co. Other  Card  7  ( s e e item  d e n t i s t ,  675-678  4  II  Setting  number.  (card  columns  601-680).  Home Out hos-  TITLE  TV2 PRFSER  

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