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Work: effect on number and duration of activities per day Bull, Christopher Neil 1967-08-04

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WORK: EFFECT ON NUMBER AND DURATION OF ACTIVITIES PER DAY by CHRISTOPHER NEIL BULL B. A., Un i ve rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept t h i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y ava l ]able f o r reference and s tudy, I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n - f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of_Anthropology nnti .Snrinlngy The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada D a t e_^gZAgriljl9&7 ABSTRACT In two stu d i e s in the 1930's s t a t i s t i c s were generated to show how people spent t h e i r time during a twenty-four hour p e r i o d . These s t a t i s t i c s provided information on the number of a c t i v i t i e s , the dur a t i o n of such a c t i v i t i e s , and the people w i t h whom these a c t i v i t i e s took p l a c e . The method of data c o l l e c t i o n was a d i a r y or log of a c t i v i t i e s c overing a day, which was f i l l e d out by the respondent, e i t h e r during the day, or from h i s memory of h i s a c t i v i t i e s of yesterday. With the lack of any t h e o r e t i c a l schema with which to approach the problem of how people spent t h e i r time, the present research was completed to put forward a t h e o r e t i c a l model, the assump t i o n s of which could be v e r i f i e d w i t h the data we had c o l l e c t e d . The data c o n s i s t e d of the Time-Records of 308 respondents interviewed during the summer of 1965 in an i n d u s t r i a l community of twenty thousand. It was suggested that persons who have in common c e r t a i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l a l s o report a s i m i l a r number of a c t i v i t i e s during a day. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s looked at were work s h i f t , work s t a t u s , f a m i l y s i z e , and the company s i z e in which people work. It was a l s o proposed that the grea t e r the number of a c t i v i t i e s reported in a day the less the variance i i of the time spent on such a c t i v i t i e s . We were abTe, t h e r e f o r e , to t e s t f i v e hypotheses on our data having explained our res e r v a t i o n s of the r e s t r i c t i o n s put on the data by the Time- Record method of data c o l l e c t i o n . Our r e s u l t s show that persons who work at an "off-phase" time report a greater number of a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g a day than do persons who work a normal day. The e f f e c t of work status on the number of a c t i v i t i e s does not appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t . With respect to f a m i l y s i z e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found but there was a s u b s t a n t i a l drop in the number of a c t i v i t i e s reported by f a m i l i e s of three or four persons. We a l s o found that the persons who work f o r the l a r g e s t company in the community report a greater number of a c t i v i t i e s than do persons who do not work f o r that company. With respect t o the variance of the time spent on a c t i v i t i e s , we found in three d i f f e r e n t cases that the greater the number of a c t i v i t i e s reported in a day the less the variance of time spent on those act i v i t i e s . Our hypotheses derived from our t h e o r e t i c a l schema allowed us t o make c e r t a i n p r e d i c t i o n s concerning the number of a c t i v i t i e s reported in a day. The f i n d i n g s o u t l i n e d above were found to refute our p r e d i c t i o n s in that the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were in the d i r e c t i o n opposite to that of our p r e d i c t i o n s . It was th e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e , because we had a t h e o r e t i c a l schema, to go back to our assumptions and f i n d out i i i where we had gone wrong. In changing our assumptions we w i l l now have a greater p r e d i c t i v e power i n our theory. The changes were based on f u r t h e r workings w i t h the data, e s p e c i a l l y with the information we had on the persons w i t h whom an a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d out. It appeared that an assumption was i n c o r r e c t . The assumption sta t e d that a c t i v i t i e s which re quired a number of persons to be present would be of a sho r t e r d u r a t i o n than those a c t i v i t i e s not r e q u i r i n g the presence of ot h e r s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS .. V LIST OF TABLES vi i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . v i i i CHAPTER I. THE PROBLEM OUTLINED 1 I I . SELECTED LITERATURE 5 I I I . METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS 14 IV. A THEORETICAL SCHEMA 20 Definitions 20 Postulates 23 Working Definitions 25 Hypotheses 28 V. DATA COLLECTION AND CODING 33 Codification of Time-Record 36 VI. RESULTS: TESTS OF HYPOTHESES kl Shift Work kl Work Status k3 Family Size kk Company S i ze kS Mean Number of Units and Their V a r i a b i l i t y . . . kS VII. EVALUATION: RESULTS AND THE THEORETICAL SCHEMA... 50 VIII. SUMMARY AND FURTHER RESEARCH 56 v PAGE 31BLI0GRAPHY - 'Time-Budget' Studies 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY - General 61 APPENDICES v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY WORK SHIFT 42 II . MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY WORK STATUS 43 I I I . MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY FAMILY SIZE 44 IV. MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY EMPLOYER SIZE 45 V. VARIABILITY OF TIME SPENT ON UNITS BY SUBSAMPLES 46 VI. MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY INTERVIEWER 47 VII. MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY EDUCATION kS v i i .ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The v / r i t e r i s i n d e b t e d t o Dr. M. M e i s s n e r , t h e t h e s i s a d v i s o r , f o r h i s ti m e s p e n t i n c o n s u l t a t i o n , and the a d v i c e put f o r w a r d a t a l l s t a g e s i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . The w r i t e r a l s o w i s h e s t o thank P r o f e s s o r R. A. H. Robson f o r h i s a d v i c e on t h e o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n ; and Dr. T. A. Nosanchuk f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g s t a t i s t i c a l methods. S p e c i a l acknowledgement i s g i v e n t o t h e I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s (U. B. C.) f o r the f e l l o w s h i p w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e w r i t e r t o spend t h e summer o f 1966 on t h i s p r o j e c t . The S t a t i s t i c a l C e n t r e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (U. B. C.) made a v a i l a b l e t o the w r i t e r many o f i t s programmes. * * T V I I I CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM OUTLINED Man has many c o n c e p t i o n s o f t i m e as d u r a t i o n , t h e most s t a n d a r d d e v i c e f o r t h e measurement o f t h i s d i m e n s i o n b e i n g c l o c k t i m e . The s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i n h i s s t u d y o f human b e h a v i o u r has found i t n e c e s s a r y t o use t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t i m e i n v a r i o u s ways; when o b s e r v i n g t h e " s t r u c t u r e " o f a b e h a v i o u r a l s i t u a t i o n a t a g i v e n moment i n t i m e ; and when o b s e r v i n g b e h a v i o u r a l changes o v e r a s p e c i f i e d t i m e d u r a t i o n . A l s o , g i v e n a f i n i t e d u r a t i o n o f t i m e , f o r example t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have t r i e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e t y p e s , d u r a t i o n s , and i n t e n s i t y o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have been performed by s p e c i f i c groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s , w i t h i n t h a t g i v e n t i m e p e r i o d . One o f t h e methods used t o ob s e r v e and measure b e h a v i o u r i n a l i m i t e d t i m e p e r i o d has been g i v e n t h e name " T i m e - B u d g e t i n g " by some s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s where th e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t i s a d i a r y o r l o g o f b e h a v i o u r s . I t i s t h i s method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h i s r e s e a r c h i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d . The q u e s t i o n t h a t has f i r s t t o be answered, however, i s why such r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t . I t might be s t a t e d t h a t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e now d e v e l o p e d t o t h e s t a g e t h a t t h e y can s t a r t t o answer such p r a c t i c a l q u e s t i o n s as how wel1 p e o p l e a r e 1 2 spending their lives. This question is indeed important but it is so dependent on value judgements that the social sciences as such will rarely be in a position to make judgements of such a nature. The research we have carried out asks nearly the same question but without the value loading, that is: how do people spend their lives? From a methodological viewpoint, a valid, reliable, and feasible technique must be found which will allow the social scientist to portray time expenditures. The main task is to map out what is to be measured. There are no accepted or natural units, such as single physical objects, in which to measure the quantity of most behavioural activities (Homans, 1961). However, each unit of activity takes time to perform thus allowing us a common measure for a c t i v i t i e s . Such a measure leaves open the question of the intensity of the activities and the meaning of the activities for the individuals; although of real importance these are questions that cannot, at present, be integrated into our research. Therefore, time is the concept most readily available to us and will be the main measure used in this study. During a given time period some people will exhibit a greater number of act i v i t i e s , no matter how they are measured, than will other people. At the same time it can be observed that people spend different durations of time on any given activity, and many social scientists have measured such durations. Studies have been made on specific activities to look at the characteris tics of persons participating in that activity and the durations 3 of such p a r t i c i p a t i o n . G. A. S t e i n e r (1963) reports that he used the d i a r y method of data c o l l e c t i o n , in a follow-up study by The American Research Bureau, t o look at the incidence of watching t e l e v i s i o n . A l s o , many studies have been done t o look at the time spent and by whom, in "v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " See e s p e c i a l l y the work of Komarovsky ( 1933 , 1 9 ^ 6 ) . The problems on which t h i s research i s focused are of a more general nature than the problems p r e v i o u s l y studied by researchers who have focused on s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s or on a s p e c i f i c moment in time. The f i r s t problem i s to di s c o v e r whether or not those persons who p a r t i c i p a t e in the same number of a c t i v i t i e s in the same given time period are randomly d i s t r i b u t e d among a given p o p u l a t i o n . That is to say, can we p r e d i c t that persons who have in common c e r t a i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l report the same number of a c t i v i t i e s in the same given time period? That persons who have in common c e r t a i n s o c i a l charac t e r i s t i c s tend to p a r t i c i p a t e both in frequency and d u r a t i o n in the same a c t i v i t i e s has been already demonstrated by the s t u d i e s o u t l i n e d in the previous paragraph. However, to the best of our knowledge, the number of a c t i v i t i e s reported in a given time period has not been looked at with respect to groups who have in common s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The second problem on which t h i s research w i l l focus is to p r e d i c t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of a c t i v i t i e s reported in a given time period and the durations of such a c t i v i t i e s . Due to the f i n i t e q u a l i t y of a day (though t h i s i s not tr u e in a c t u a l i t y , people s t i l l look upon and act as i f a day is of f i n i t e duration) i f a person is to par t i c ipate in more a c t i v i t i e s than other people, then there w i l l be a necessary reduction in the time spent on such a c t i v i t i e s . This reduction in the dura t ion would be necessary i f one wished to get a l l the a c t i v i t i e s completed in t ime. Both these problems are formulated into a theoret ica l schema from which several hypotheses are drawn to be tested on the data that were coded with these s p e c i f i c problems in mind. Previous s tud ies , to be out l ined in the next chapter, have been of a descr ipt ive nature. In contrast , we have attempted to formulate, in a l l i t s tentat ive g lory , a theoret ica l schema which would act as a guide for codi fy ing the data and for formulating the questions we wished to put to that data . The research is carr ied out s p e c i f i c a l l y to f i l l the theoret ical gap that e x i s t s . The problems are in the form of f i v e hypotheses which w i l l be drawn from th is theoret ical schema and tested to v e r i f y the assump t ions in the schema. The main socia l character i s t i cs to be looked at are : the time at which worlc is carr ied out; the degree of status at work; the s ize of the fami ly ; and the s ize of the work organization to which a person belongs. V/ith the refutat ion or v e r i f i c a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c problems asked of the data then, in the space allowed, further re lat ionships that are found in the data v/i 11 be presented in descr ipt ive form. It is hoped that these empi r i ca l l y derived relat ionships w i l l modify and increase the pred ic t ive power of the theoret ical model. CHAPTER I I SELECTED LITERATURE The works to be outlined in this chapter do not represent a comprehensive review of al l the publications that have dealt with the concept and use of "Time-Budgeting." Four works are picked for their contribution to the ideas which are presented later in the formulation of the theoretical schema. It should, however, be noted that these publications represent almost f i f t y per cent of the rather scant l iterature at present avai lable. A fu l l b ib l io  graphy of the publications known to us is given before the general bibliography. Also included in the reviews is a discussion of a work concerning the effects of different work shifts on non-work time. It was used to generate some of the conditions under which some of the hypotheses are tested. The f i r s t of the two oldest and most important studies carried out was Leisure: A Suburban Study (Lundberg, Komarovsky, and Mclnery, 1934). The authors' technique was to request people to complete a diary of their day-to-day act iv i t ies during as long a period as it was possible. One subject managed to keep a diary for a whole year, a few for seven days, but most for only a single day. The compilation of these records was done by the respondents recal l ing what act iv i t ies they had participated in "yesterday." A 5 6 count of the number of items recorded t o t a l l e d approximately 100,000 from the 2,460 persons who f i l l e d out the 4,460 d i a r i e s considered completed. (If a person completed, say, three days, then a l l three d i a r i e s were used.) There was, t h e r e f o r e , an average of twenty-two e n t r i e s per day. The authors found i t impossible t o comply with the requirement of a random sampling of Westchester County due t o r e f u s a l rates as high as e i g h t y - f i v e to n i n e t y per cent. Of the t o t a l sample used, 1544, or s i x t y - three per cent of the respondents, were high school students who f i l l e d out the d i a r y in the classroom s e t t i n g . The scope of the f i n d i n g s is s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d by the i n c l u s i o n of such a large number of respondents from one s e t t i n g ; while at the same time another l i m i t i s the unweighted use of d i a r i e s which were completed by the same respondents over a period of time. A bias is given to those persons who persevered with the completion of t h e i r d i a r i e s . With respect to the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the d i v e r s e e n t r i e s found in the d i a r i e s , the authors do not s p e l l out, except in some footnotes^ what c r i t e r i a they used to c l a s s i f y the a c t i v i t i e s i nto the two cat e g o r i e s of l e i s u r e and n o n - l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . It i s , t h e r e f o r e , d i f f i c u l t to make an assessment of t h e i r f i g u r e s concerning the time spent on the various sub-samples they used to look at these a c t i v i t i e s . It appears^ that l e i s u r e i s s p l i t i n t o nine c a t e g o r i e s which a l s o include a miscellaneous category. The ^George A Lundberg, M i r r a Komarovsky, and Mary M. Mclnery, L e i s u r e : A Suburban Study (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1934), pp. 92n 94n, 99n, 102n. 21 b i d . , Table I I I , p. 99. 7 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , as stated by the authors, was ca r r i e d out: . . . by considerations of what was found objec t i v e l y possible on the one hand and c e r t a i n p r a c t i c a l considerations on the other. In the l a t t e r connection we had in mind the possible value of the data to educators, s o c i a l workers, and other community leaders in indicat i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y of proposed community programs.3 It is t h i s last set of c r i t e r i a which could c e r t a i n l y bias any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of people's a c t i v i t i e s . It should be pointed out that the respondents in t h e i r study were asked to indicate the person (s) with whom the a c t i v i t i e s were ca r r i e d out. The authors have made some p a r t i a l analysis of t h i s type of data but only with respect to those a c t i v i t i e s categori zed as " l e i s u r e " a c t i v i t i e s and only by a comparison between the sexes. The remainder of the book is a catalogue of the organiza tions found in the community such as clubs, churches, schools, as well as the a r t s , adult education, and the amount of reading in the population. A good analysis is included of the suburban family and i t is when looking at th i s i n s t i t u t i o n that they make d i r e c t use of the data co l l e c t e d from t h e i r d i a r i e s . The second main study to be reviewed was car r i e d out a few years l a t e r and published under the t i t l e Time-Budgets of Human  Behaviour (Sorokin and Berger, 1939). This study was to answer in purely d e s c r i p t i v e form, seven main questions, the most important being: (l) What a c t i v i t i e s occupy a twenty-four hour period; (2) How much time is spent on each of the a c t i v i t i e s ; and (3) What part of the twenty-four hours is spent with whom? Ibid., p. 89. T h e i r s a m p l e was drawn f r o m t h e B o s t o n a r e a and was s p l i t i n t o two s u b - s a m p l e s : t h e s e v e n t y - t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d s c h e d u l e s f o r a t l e a s t f o u r w e e k s , and t h e 103 r e s p o n d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d s c h e d u l e s f o r a t l e a s t two w e e k s . The r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e : . . . r e l i e f w o r k e r s u n d e r t h e Works P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r a s w h i t e - c o l l a r e d unemployed i n B o s t o n and i t s v i c i n i t y p r e  d o m i n a t e l y f e m a l e , w h i t e , s i n g l e and o f l o n g r e s i d e n c e i n and a b o u t t h e c i t y o f B o s t o n , 4 A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 s c h e d u l e s were d i s t r i b u t e d o f w h i c h 1 0 , 0 0 0 were c o m p l e t e d w h i l e o n l y 4 , 0 0 0 t o 5 , 0 0 0 were used in t h e s t u d y . The i n s t r u c t i o n s were t o c o m p l e t e t h e s c h e d u l e s t h e same d a y and p r e f e r a b l y as soon a s p o s s i b l e a f t e r t h e a c t i v i t y was c o m p l e t e d . F i v e m i n u t e s was t a k e n as t h e s m a l l e s t t i m e p e r i o d t o be r e c o r d e d . S u n d a y , T u e s d a y , and S a t u r d a y were s a m p l e d i n e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s . From t h e s c h e d u l e s used i n t h e s t u d y t h e a u t h o r s c l a s s i f i e d t h e i t e m s on t h e s c h e d u l e s i n t o f i f t y - f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o u r . The c r i t e r i a used t o f o r m t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s were t h a t The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n had t o be d e t a i l e d , y e t manage  a b l e (and) was made p r i n c i p a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o v e r t b e h a v i o u r i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s . 5 The a u t h o r s l i s t t h e f i f t y - f i v e c a t e g o r i e s and e a c h o f t h e i tems used by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , w h i c h a r e i n c l u d e d i n e a c h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s v e r y u s e f u l i n t h a t we now have ^ P i t i r i m A . S o r o k i n and C l a r e n c e 0.. B e r g e r , T i m e - B u d g e t s  o f Human B e h a v i o u r ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939), p p . 7-8. 5 lb i d . . p p . 27-32. explicit knowledge of the way each of the response items was actually categorized; although, the c r i t e r i a used can only be inductively arrived at. On examination of the f i f t y - f i v e cate gories the authors decided to combine them into eight broad areas, two of which, for example, were: activities directly satisfying physiological needs, and activities of economic and chore nature. A l i s t is given of a l l the categories that are put into each of the eight areas but no c r i t e r i a are given as to why £nd where each category f i t s . However, the authors do ex p l i c i t l y point out that categories can, and have been, placed into more than one area, and therefore there is some overlapping. The task the authors then set themselves is to look at each of these eight broad areas and to answer, using summary sta t i s t i c s , the questions they set out to study. A wealth of statistics is presented as well as a summary of the relationships between such variables as age, sex, day of the week, and the in formation that they had gathered with respect to with -whom an activity occurred as well as the respondents'motives for carrying out that activity. A final chapter deals with their question of how well people feel that they can predict their behaviour for the next day. This study is very valuable due to the specific inclusion of the method Sorokin and Berger used to classify such diverse material into f i f t y - f i v e categories of activity. The statistics of the frequency of behaviour, the social contacts of behaviour, the motives of behaviour, and the predictabi1ity of future behaviour, a l l give a re a l i s t i c description of day-to-day 10 b e h a v i o u r s . The scope o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s l i m i t e d due t o sample r e s t r i c t i o n s but the sample o v e r d i f f e r e n t days o f t h e week g i v e s t h e r e a d e r a f u l l e r i d e a o f d a i l y v a r i a t i o n s i n be h a v i o u r . The d a t a g i v e n a r e e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l and a r e a l m o s t the o n l y s t a t i s t i c s t h a t can be used f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , due m a i n l y t o t h e f u l l p u b l i c a t i o n o f the items i n t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l c a t e g o r i e s . However, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e r e i s a complete l a c k o f any t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s . There i s i n s t e a d , a s m a l l e f f o r t t o s t a t e i n t h e i r summary o f t h e s t u d y a few e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h e y f e e l would be u s e f u l i n s u g g e s t i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The n e x t appearance o f "Time-Budget" s t u d i e s i s i n t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e Second World War. A r e p o r t appeared on t h e f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e work and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s o f d a i r y f a r m e r s (Ross and B o s t i a n , 1 9 5 8 ) . In t h e i r s t u d y Ross and B o s t i a n c o l l e c t e d i n f i l l 2 , 6 1 7 r e c o r d e d d i a r y days w i t h t h e main emphasis o f t h e s t u d y b e i n g on how t o f i t t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e two c a t e g o r i e s o f "work" and " l e i s u r e . " A g a i n , no e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a a r e g i v e n t o t h e re s p o n d e n t s as t o how t o c l a s s i f y t h e i r b e h a v i o u r , but t h e y were r e q u e s t e d t o i n d i c a t e i f t h e y f e l t t h a t an a c t i v i t y was e i t h e r a l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y o r a work a c t i v i t y . I t i s , t h e r e  f o r e , w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a used by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h a t t h e a u t h o r s p l a c e a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e i r two c a t e g o r i e s . The use o f t h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d but t h e a u t h o r s do p o i n t out f o r the f i r s t t i m e , t h e problem o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n more than one a c t i v i t y a t t h e same moment i n t i m e . T h i s problem i s r a i s e d but not d e a l t w i t h i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s . 11 The most recent use of "Time-Budget" methods t o be discussed here i s a report of a second study of Westchester County which was set up t o be comparable t o that done by Lundberg et a l ( 1 9 3 4 ) . The author (Foote, 196 ! ) set out to show some of the inadequacies of the Lundberg study. He used log sheets on which the minimum time period was f i v e minutes and which a l s o included a space t o i n d i c a t e with whom the a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d out. As with the study by Sorokin and Berger (1939) the respondents were asked to complete the logs as the day progressed. The e f f e c t of t h i s procedure was t o ensure that the logs represented "today" data e x c l u s i v e l y and the average number of e n t r i e s per day was found t o be seventy-two. This number can be compared w i t h the Lundberg study which used "yesterday" data where the average number of e n t r i e s was twenty-three per day. We have no way of knowing that these f i g u r e s are comparable because n e i t h e r set of authors has sta t e d t h e i r methods of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true of the study by Foote (1961) because, to the best of our knowledge, the f i n d i n g s have not been publi s h e d . However, i t is obvious that he has demonstrated that there is a great loss of d e t a i l in a record when we r e l y on r e c a l l f o r the completion of d i a r i e s . The f i n a l work to be reviewed does not use the d i a r y or log method of data c o l l e c t i o n but s t i l l touches upon the problem of time and i t s uses. The study (Blakelock, I960) was c a r r i e d out t o research the consequences of s h i f t work f o r the choice of a c t i v i t i e s outside of the work s e t t i n g . The author drew h i s sample from workers who were employed by a large o i l r e f i n e r y . He suggests that s p e c i f i c segments of time vary in t h e i r l i q u i d i t y 12 by the extent to which the a v a i l a b l e time can be "exchanged" for a c t i v i t i e s . U t i l i t y theory from the f i e l d of economics is seen to be relevant. Blakelock argues that seme parts of the day, e s p e c i a l l y 5:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., have a greater l i q u i d i t y value than do others, in that t h i s time can be exchanged f o r many a c t i v i t i e s . Therefore, persons who are on s h i f t work are often deprived of the parts of the day which have the greatest l i q u i d i t y . These persons do not, therefore, p a r t i c i p a t e in many a c t i v i t i e s such as voluntary organizations. The empirical findings of this study are very useful but the the o r e t i c a l formulation put forward is weak in that we find i t hard to conceptualize time as a commodity, nor can we see how time as such can be exchanged f o r anything. Rather i t would be more useful to view a c t i v i t i e s as d i f f e r i n g in t h e i r f l e x i b i l i t y due to the number of persons required to be present at a given moment in time so that that a c t i v i t y can in fact take place. To gether v.'ith the f l e x i b i l i t y of an a c t i v i t y we can look at the ranges of time at which an a c t i v i t y can be performed. If work is a comparatively i n f l e x i b l e a c t i v i t y , then other a c t i v i t i e s must be foregone i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n in work is to be accomplished. In terms of exchange then, we must look at the mechanisms which affec 4: a person's choice to exchange, not time for an a c t i v i t y , but rather one a c t i v i t y f o r another. In the Time-Budget studies j u s t reviewed, there was very l i t t l e t h e o r e t i c a l preparation of e i t h e r the c o l l e c t i o n or the coding of data. It appears that the authors were interested in obtaining as complete and accurate a stetement as possible of 13 j u s t what p e o p l e do d u r i n g a s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d . To c r i t i c i z e t h e e a r l y works because t h e y produced o n l y s t a t i s t i c s o f a d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r e would be u n f a i r . The a u t h o r s p i o n e e r e d in a f i e l d where l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e around which t h e y c o u l d b u i l d a t h e o r e t i c a l framework. However, the l a t e s t work by F o o t e (1961), even though o n l y a p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t , g i v e s no h i n t t h a t he has p r o g r e s s e d any f a r t h e r and produced some t h e o r e t i  c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s . It a p p e a r s t h a t F o o t e (1961) has c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s e f f o r t s on l o o k i n g a t t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems i n h e r e n t in t h e d i a r y o r l o g as a t e c h n i q u e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and i t i s t o t h i s s u b j e c t t h a t we t u r n i n the next c h a p t e r b e f o r e o u t l i n i n g a t e n t a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l schema. CHAPTER I 11 METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS It has been s t a t e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r t h a t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t must d e v i s e some t e c h n i q u e which can be used t o p o r t r a y t i m e e x p e n d i t u r e s o v e r some s p e c i f i e d time d u r a t i o n . V i r t u a l l y a l l t h e s t u d i e s which have attempted t o do t h i s have used some typ e o f d i a r y o r l o g as t h e most u s e f u l i n s t r u m e n t f o r c o l l e c t i n g such d a t a . The re v i e w o f t h e s e s t u d i e s has not f o c u s e d on t h e main reason why s o few s t u d i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e have been c a r r i e d o u t . The problem which we w i l l now t a c k l e l i e s i n t h e method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and t h e in s t r u m e n t o f c o l l e c t i o n . The f i r s t main b a r r i e r t o be overcome in u s i n g t h e d i a r y method i s t h a t o f o b t a i n i n g a sample from some s p e c i f i e d p o p u l a  t i o n , such t h a t t h e sample may be c o n s i d e r e d a random sample. In t h i s r e s p e c t t h e -hurdle t h a t has t o be overcome i s t h a t o f resp o n d e n t c o - o p e r a t i o n . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a g r e a t r e l u c t a n c e t o keep a d i a r y which stems from t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s u s t a i n i n g some minimal amount o f e f f o r t o v e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e . In normal s o c i a l s u r v e y s a t e n per c e n t r e f u s a l r a t e i s o f t e n r e g a r d e d as a c c e p t a b l e . However, i n r e q u e s t i n g p e o p l e t o f i l l o u t a d i a r y o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e f u s a l r a t e s o a r s t o n e a r e r e i g h t y t o n i n e t y p e r c e n t . T h i s f i g u r e i s mentioned by 14 15 F o o t e (1961) and i s borne out by the number o f completed d i a r i e s r e t u r n e d t o S o r o k i n and B e r g e r (1939). F o o t e (1961) a l s o r e p o r t s a s t u d y done by a commercial s u r v e y f i r m i n T o l e d o in 1958 (un p u b l i s h e d ) where a g a i n the r e f u s a l r a t e was s t a g g e r i n g l y h i g h . It h a r d l y needs t o be p o i n t e d out t h a t such a r e f u s a l r a t e p l a y s complete havoc w i t h any s a m p l i n g methods. A l s o , i f p e o p l e ar e g o i n g t o be asked t o complete a d i a r y then two c a l l s must be made: f i r s t t o d i s t r i b u t e and e x p l a i n the d i a r y t e c h n i q u e ; and s e c o n d , t o p i c k up compl e t e d d i a r i e s . Both t h e s e drawbacks a f f e c t t h i s method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n due t o t h e l a r g e c o s t i n v o l v e d w i t h o f t e n l i t t l e r e t u r n . T o overcome such c o s t s a method can be used where o n l y one c a l l on the respondent i s n e c e s s a r y and t h e r e f o r e a p r e f e r a b l e method i n terms o f time and money. However, w i t h the o n e - c a l l t e c h n i q u e , we a g a i n run i n t o f u r t h e r drawbacks. F o o t e (1961), i n comparing h i s s t u d y w i t h t h a t o f Lundberg e t a l (1934), shows the s u p e r i o r i t y o f making r e s p o n d e n t s f i l l out a d i a r y d u r i n g t h e day o f the a c t i v i t i e s t h e y a r e t o r e c o r d , r a t h e r than a s k i n g them t o r e c a l l a p r e v i o u s day's a c t i v i t i e s . As has been p o i n t e d o u t , the comparison o f the number o f e n t r i e s on the d i a r i e s in the two s t u d i e s shows a sub s t a n t i a l l o s s when memory i s r e l i e d on. The o n e - c a l l t e c h n i q u e has t o l i m i t i t s e l f t o c o l l e c t i n g d a t a which has been r e c a l l e d and we can e x p e c t a subsequent l o s s o f d e t a i l . The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h used the o n e - c a l l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e , thus a l l e v i a t i n g t h e problem o f random s a m p l i n g . The Time-Record we used was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l a r g e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and was f i l l e d out by the 16 i n t e r v i e w e r as t h e respondent r e c a l l e d h i s a c t i v i t i e s o f a s p e c i f i c p a s t d a y . The l o s s o f d e t a i l from t h e r e l i a n c e on memory w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , have a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on t h e d a t a we c o l l e c t e d . V/e a r e u n a b l e t o compare, a t the p r e s e n t , our d a t a w i t h t h a t o f e i t h e r F o o t e o r Lundberg because we have no s t a t i s  t i c s on the number o f e n t r i e s p e r T i m e - R e c o r d . It i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t out t h a t when u s i n g t h e Time- Record method some a c t i v i t i e s w i l l n e ver be r e c o r d e d . T h e r e a r e two main reasons f o r t h e s e o m i s s i o n s . F i r s t , r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l be u n w i l l i n g t o t e l l an i n t e r v i e w e r , o r r e c o r d t h e m s e l v e s on a d i a r y , c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s which a r e f e l t t o be e i t h e r o f a p r i v a t e n a t u r e , such as sex o r d e f e c a t i o n , o r a c t i v i t i e s a g a i n s t which s e v e r e s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l w i l l be g i v e n , f o r example, i l l e g a l a c t s . The time spent on such a c t i v i t i e s has t o be a c c o u n t e d f o r and must t h e r e f o r e get shunted i n t o o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s , p r o b a b l y " l o a f a r o u n d , smoke, o r r e l a x , " f o r example. Second, a day can be seen as p o s s e s s i n g an i n f i n i t e number o f p a r t s d e p e n d i n g on how one wishes t o p a r t i t i o n i t . U s u a l l y t h e s e p a r t s a r e d e f i n e d as d i v i s i o n s o f t i m e , hours o r m i n u t e s . It i s r a r e t h a t a s t u d y w i l l be done o f a c t i o n s which t a k e l e s s than one m i n u t e . As i n the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s we have reviewed we used f i v e m inutes as th e s m a l l e s t i n t e r v a l o f t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , we have a l o s s o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s which t a k e l e s s than f i v e m inutes and a t the same ti m e we have i n some c a s e s p r o l o n g e d t h e d u r a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s o r in some c a s e s p r o t r a c t e d t h e d u r a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s . Thus an a c t i v i t y o f a s i x - m i n u t e d u r a t i o n was p r o b a b l y r e c o r d e d as f i v e m i n u t e s and an a c t i v i t y o f e i g h t minutes was p r o b a b l y 17 r e c o r d e d as t e n m i n u t e s . The e f f e c t s o f b o t h t h e s e two major problems on the a c c u r a c y o f a Time-Record cannot be measured but we s h o u l d be f u l l y aware o f them. A n o t h e r problem t o be overcome i s the manner o f how a c t i v i  t i e s a r e t o be r e c o r d e d on the T i m e - R e c o r d . T h a t a Time-Record s h o u l d be s i m p l e t o c o m p l e t e and c l e a r l y l a i d o u t as t o the time i n t e r v a l s , t h e space f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y , and the space f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f w i t h whom the a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d o u t , i s a r e a l n e c e s s i t y . The c l a r i t y o f t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t i s d o u b l y i m p o r t a n t i f the r e s p o n d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s a r e t o complete a Time-Record as a d i a r y , w i t h c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n as t o how t o i n d i c a t e t he d u r a t i o n o f an a c t i v i t y . T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t i s important t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e r e i s no a m b i g u i t y when the d u r a t i o n s a r e t a b u l a t e d . The main problem c o n c e r n i n g the r e c o r d i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s i s , however, whether o r n o t each a c t i v i t y i s t o be d e s c r i b e d by t h e respondent as he sees i t and wishes t o d e s c r i b e i t , o r whether the respondent s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o d e s c r i b e h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n a p r e - c a t e g o r i z e d form o n l y . It c an be argued t h a t any d e s c r i p t i o n o f an a c t i v i t y i s i n f a c t a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , but t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between a respondent d e s c r i b i n g h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s own terms and d e s c r i b i n g h i s a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g o n l y c a t e g o r i e s g i v e n t o him by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . It would seem a t p r e s e n t i m p o s s i b l e t o deduce a p r i o r i i s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s from some t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . As i n the s t u d i e s o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , c a t e g o r i e s a r e a r r i v e d a t by i n d u c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s l a t t e r p r o c e d u r e i s t h a t o f r e l i a b l y »8 c l a s s i f y i n g d i a r y e n t r i e s w r i t t e n by r e s p o n d e n t s o r T i m e-Record e n t r i e s w r i t t e n by the i n t e r v i e w e r , and t o o b t a i n c o m p a r a b i l i t y between s t u d i e s . However, as F o o t e ( 1 9 6 1 ) has p o i n t e d o u t , s u c c e s s i v e s t u d i e s which keep t h e method o f c a t e g o r i z a t i o n open and use the i n d u c t i v e method o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , w i l l i n f a c t a l l o w f o r a g r e a t e r r e f i n e  ment i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s such t h a t c o m p a r a b i l i t y w i l l be i n c r e a s e d . It s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t t h e a ppearance o f new a c t i v i t i e s and the d e c r e a s e in the o c c u r r e n c e o f o l d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be overcome. If the q u e s t i o n o f u s i n g p r e - c a t e g o r i z e d a c t i v i t i e s i s f o r e c l o s e d t h e n we l o s e o v e r a p e r i o d o f time those new a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have appeared i n t h e meantime and keep those a c t i v i t i e s which have become o b s o l e t e . Even w i t h a l l the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems which we have o u t l i n e d above, the Time-Record does have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which recommend i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e . F i r s t , t h e Time-Record r e q u i r e s o f the respondent c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c i p l i n e i n e n t e r i n g i n t h e c o r r e c t p l a c e the u n i t o f a c t i v i t y . In t h i s r e s p e c t t h e respondent i s r e q u i r e d t o r e c o n c i l e the time s p e n t among v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s e i t h e r when he c o n s t r u c t s the d i a r y , as t h e day p r o g r e s s e s , o r when t h e day i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d from memory. T h e r e f o r e , the a c c u r a c y o f t h e d u r a t i o n s o f t h e e n t r i e s i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d o v e r the t e c h n i q u e o f a s k i n g the respondent t o r e c a l l t h e d u r a t i o n o f time s p e n t on s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s . Second, the Time-Record a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r t o s t u d y the sequence o f e v e n t s and t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s g r o u p i n g o f e v e n t s . With the i n  c l u s i o n i n the d a t a o f w i t h whom the a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d o u t , 19 t h e r e s e a r c h e r has a t hand a method o f s e e i n g how a c t i v i t i e s and p e r s o n s become s y n c h r o n i z e d d u r i n g a g i v e n time p e r i o d . T h i s a s p e c t would be o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t , and seems t o be t h e reason why F o o t e (1961) chose husband and w i f e p a i r s t o keep h i s d i a r i e s i n the s e t t i n g o f t h e f a m i l y . T h i r d , the Time-Record a l l o w s f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n d i c a t i n g whether o r not more than one a c t i v i t y was t a k i n g p l a c e a t the same time and how c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s can o v e r l a p s e v e r a l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . A l l o f t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s a c t i v i t i e s w i l l , o f c o u r s e , not be l i s t e d but a t l e a s t some i n  c l u s i o n w i l l o c c u r , a f a c t which i n i t s e l f i s o f i n t e r e s t . In t h i s c h a p t e r we have t r i e d t o r a i s e seme o f the methodo l o g i c a l problems which o c c u r when a d i a r y o r Time-Record i s used t o c o l l e c t d a t a . Some o f t h e s e problems a f f e c t e d the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a used i n o u r r e s e a r c h . How some o f t h e s e problems were t a c k l e d w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n and c o d i f i c a t i o n o f d a t a . Even w i t h t h e number o f p r o b l e m s to overcome, i t i s f e l t t h a t the d i a r y method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g answers t o b a s i c q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e and n a t u r e o f d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v i t i e s . CHAPTER IV A THEORETICAL SCHEMA We have i n d i c a t e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s t h a t l i t t l e has been done i n t h e way o f p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n w i t h which t o s t u d y t h e d i v e r s e m a t e r i a l s g a t h e r e d when u s i n g a Time-Record as the method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . It i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o have a t h e o r e t i c a l schema from which c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn by means o f l o g i c a l d e d u c t i o n s . ' With the p r e d i c t i o n s deduced from t h e t h e o r y we may t e s t i f the t h e o r y can be c o r r o b o r a t e d . If t h i s s h o u l d not be the c a s e the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i t i e s i n the d a t a s h o u l d a l l o w us t o throw up new and t e n t a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s . These new ideas w i l l then m o d i f y t h e t h e o r e t i c a l schema which w i l l a l l o w f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f new s i n g u l a r s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h c a n be v e r i f i e d o r f a l s i f i e d by new d a t a . The schema o u t l i n e d below t a k e s the form o f a s e t o f d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w e d by c e r t a i n p o s t u l a t e s from which a r e drawn f i v e e m p i r i c a l h y p o t h e s e s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a s e t o f w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s . Def i n i t i ons D e f i n i t i o n 1: Time i s e q u a t e d w i t h c l o c k t i m e . \<arl Popper, The L o g i c o f S c i e n t i f i c D i s c o v e r y (New York: H a r p e r and Row, 1965), p. 33. 2 0 21 The i n t e r v i e w e r when a s k i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o answer the q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e Time-Record was i n s t r u c t e d t o use the f o l l o w i n g words: " I ' d l i k e t o t a k e a r e c o r d o f what you d i d i n t h e l a s t t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s , s t a r t i n g about . . . o ' c l o c k . " A l s o , the Time-Record was s p l i t i n t o f i v e - m i n u t e segments and t h e h ours o f the day were marked a t the l e f t hand s i d e o f the r e c o r d . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s i t i s f e l t t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s used the c l o c k t o a i d them i n p l a c i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r d e r . D e f i n i t i o n 2: A d u r a t i o n i s an e x t e n s i o n o v e r c l o c k t i m e . A d u r a t i o n w i l l be used t o r e f e r t o a segment o f time and w i l l be a measure o f t h e l e n g t h o f time s p e n t on an a c t i v i t y . Def i n i t i o n 3: A moment i s a p o i n t i n t i m e . It r e f e r s t o a s p e c i f i c i n s t a n t e i t h e r d u r i n g a d u r a t i o n o r as a p o i n t a t the s t a r t o r f i n i s h o f a d u r a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n k: An a c t i v i t y i s a b e h a v i o u r a l e v e n t whose d u r a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d by a r e s p o n d e n t . D e f i n i t i o n 5:1 A l l a c t i v i t i e s a r e bounded. They o c c u r f o r a d u r a t i o n w i t h an upper and lower bound which d e f i n e s the domain o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . 22 D e f i n i t i o n 5:2 An a c t i v i t y i s more bounded the more e x a c t i t s doma i n. D e f i n i t i o n 5:3 An a c t i v i t y i s l e s s bounded the l e s s e x a c t i t s doma i n. D e f i n i t i o n 6:1 An a c t i v i t y i s 1 i m i t e d when i t can o n l y o c c u r due t o t h e b e h a v i o u r o f more than one p a r t i c i  pant a c t o r a t the moment the a c t i v i t y i s engaged i n . D e f i n i t i o n 6:2 An a c t i v i t y i s more 1 i m i t e d t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t a c t o r s r e q u i r e d . D e f i n i t i o n 6:3 An a c t i v i t y i s l e s s 1 i m i t e d t h e fewer t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t a c t o r s r e q u i r e d . The c o n c e p t o f l i m i t e d n e s s i s used t o p o i n t t o the n e c e s s i t y o f s y n c h r o n i z i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o f p e o p l e in o r d e r t h a t an a c t i v i t y c a n be c a r r i e d o u t . It i s f e l t t h a t t h i s s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n a f f e c t s t h e e x a c t n e s s o f the b o u n d a r i e s o f the domain o f an a c t i v i t y . D e f i n i t i o n 7:1 An a c t i v i t y i s c o n s t r a i n e d when i t i s both bounded and l i m i t e d . D e f i n i t i o n 7:2 An a c t i v i t y i s u n c o n s t r a ined when i t i s o n l y bounded. D e f i n i t i o n 8: An i n d i v i d u a l has knowledge o f an a c t i v i t y when i t i s a p a r t o f t h a t p e r s o n ' s p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r . 23 D e f i n i t i o n 9: An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r i s h i s r a n k i n g o f known a c t i v i t i e s a t a g i v e n moment. We a r e here r e f e r r i n g t o e i t h e r an e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t rank based on a p e r s o n ' s needs w h i c h stem from p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and s o c i o l o g i c a l f o r e e s . It i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e s e f o r c e s f o r a g i v e n a c t i v i t y a t a moment i n a d u r a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n 10: The s t a t u s o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s h i s e v a l u a t e d rank and subsequent p o s i t i o n i n a p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y . D e f i n i t i o n 11: D i s c r e t i o n i s t h e de g r e e o f a b i l i t y t o choose a t a g i v e n moment the a c t i v i t y t o be p a r t i c i p a t e d i n . T h i s c o n c e p t w i l l be used t o r e p r e s e n t t h e id e a t h a t d i s c r e t i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e awareness o f the c o n s t r a i n t s on a c t i v i t i e s and t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n a p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r . D e f i n i t i o n 12: D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s the amount o f c o n t a c t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o f v a r i o u s s t a t u s e s . It i s f e l t t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h persons o f d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s w i l l a f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge o f a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . P o s t u l a t e s H a v i n g o u t l i n e d t h e c o n c e p t s t o be used i n the t h e o r e t i c a l 24 framework, i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o t u r n t o a s e r i e s o f p o s t u l a t e s which i n t u r n a l l o w f o r t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s which can be t e s t e d by t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o u s . P o s t u l a t e 1: An i n d i v i d u a l w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r . At a g i v e n moment i n time i t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t y t h a t i s a t the top o f h i s p r e f e r e n c e h i e r a r c h y . P o s t u l a t e 2:1 The h i g h e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t u s t h e g r e a t e r h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . P o s t u l a t e 2:2 The h i g h e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t u s t h e g r e a t e r h i s d i s c r e t i o n . P o s t u l a t e 3: The g r e a t e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o r d i s c r e t i o n t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s he has knowledge o f — t h e g r e a t e r h i s awareness o f the c o n s t r a i n t s on a c t i v i t i e s - ~ a n d t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r . P o s t u l a t e s 2:1, 2:2, and 3 a r e the l i n k between s t a t u s , the d i f f e r e n t i a l awareness a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t a t u s , and the know le d g e o f t h e number o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a t a g i v e n moment. A l s o , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f know l e d g e , t h e r e w i l l be a d i f f e r e n c e in the awareness o f the p r o p e r t i e s , such as boundedness o r 1 i m i t e d n e s s , o f a c t i v i t i e s . 25 The more l i m i t e d an a c t i v i t y t h e more bounded and t h e r e f o r e t h e more c o n s t r a i n e d t h a t a c t i v i t y . An i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a g r e a t e r number o f uncon s t r a i n e d t h a n c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s in h i s p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n a g r e a t e r number o f u n c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s than c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s . U n c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be o f a l o n g e r d u r a t i o n than w i l l c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s . A c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e q u i r e o t h e r p e r s o n s t o be p r e s e n t w i l l have b o u n d a r i e s t h a t a r e b e t t e r d e f i n e d than w i l l u n c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s . The s h o r t e r t h e d u r a t i o n o f u n i t s , i n a g i v e n time p e r i o d , t he g r e a t e r t h e i r number. In a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f which a p e r s o n i s a member, t h e g r e a t e r t he number o f p e r s o n s o f eq u a l s t a t u s t he l e s s a p e r s o n ' s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . W orking D e f i n i t i o n s It i s n e c e s s a r y now t o d e f i n e t he terms which w i l l be used in t h e subsequent h y p o t h e s e s so t h a t t h e ass u m p t i o n s i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework can be t e s t e d on t h e d a t a . Many o f t h e s e w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a r e t a k e n from t h e q u e s t i o n s and subsequent c o d i n g o f answers i n t h e s e c t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r i o r t o the T ime-Record. P o s t u l a t e k: P o s t u l a t e 5: P o s t u l a t e 6: P o s t u l a t e 7: P o s t u l a t e 8: 26 1. A u n i t . A u n i t i s an a c t i v i t y t h a t has been r e p o r t e d by a respondent and as such a u n i t has t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s . F i r s t , a u n i t has a d u r a t i o n o f a minimum o f f i v e m i n u t e s and a p o s s i b l e maximum o f t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s . Second, a u n i t has been r e p o r t e d by a t l e a s t one respondent f o r a t l e a s t a d u r a t i o n o f f i v e m i n u t e s . T h i r d , when the name g i v e n t o an a c t i v i t y d i f f e r s w i t h i n and between r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e p o r t s , but t h e meaning o f the b e h a v i o u r r e p o r t e d i s j u d g e d t o be e q u i v a l e n t , then the u n i t and the a c t i v i t i e s name (s) a r e t a k e n t o be t h e same. (A f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n i s g i v e n i n t h e next c h a p t e r on t h e method o f c o d i n g . ) 2. Work. Work i s d e f i n e d as t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an o c c u p a t i o n o u t s i d e o f the d w e l l i n g u n i t and f o r which a form o f r e m u n e r a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d f o r the use o f time as l a b o u r . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n does not i n c l u d e m o o n l i g h t i n g o r work t a k e n home. A l l r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e sample were w o r k i n g . The d e t a i l s o f t h e sample w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n the next c h a p t e r . 3. Normal work t i m e . Normal work time i s d e f i n e d as a response t o f o u r q u e s t i o n s (see Appendix A, q u e s t i o n s 6, 2 19, 87, 89x, which were coded t o make a c a t e g o r y ^Appendix A i s an a b s t r a c t o f q u e s t i o n s coded from the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e e x c l u d i n g t h e T i m e - R e c o r d . 27 " s t e a d y day s h i f t . " k. O f f - p h a s e work t i m e . O f f - p h a s e work time i s d e f i n e d as a l l r e p l i e s t o the f o u r q u e s t i o n s mentioned w i t h r e s p e c t t o normal work time, which were coded o t h e r t h a n t he c a t e g o r y " s t e a d y day s h i f t . " 5 . S t a t u s a t work. S t a t u s a t work i s d e f i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the number o f p e r s o n s s u p e r v i s e d . T h o s e p e r s o n s who s u p e r v i s e a t l e a s t one p e r s o n a r e seen a s h a v i n g s u p e r i o r s t a t u s . Those p e r s o n s who s u p e r  v i s e z e r o p e r s o n s a r e seen as h a v i n g i n f e r i o r s t a t u s (see Appendix A, q u e s t i o n 2 5 ) . 6. The f a m i l y . The f a m i l y i s d e f i n e d as t h e h o u s e h o l d in which a p e r s o n l i v e s . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e s p e r s o n s i n the h o u s e h o l d who would not be p a r t o f t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y . The s i z e o f the f a m i l y , t h e n , i s t h e number o f p e r s o n s l i v i n g i n t h e h o u s e h o l d i n w h i c h t h e respondent l i v e s (see Appendix A, q u e s t ion 99). 7. The l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r . The l a r g e s t employer i s d e f i n e d as the company which employs the g r e a t e s t number o f p e r s o n s i n M i l l p o r t , t h e town where t h e sample was taken (see Appendix A, q u e s t i o n 19). 3. The ranges o f d u r a t i o n s . The range o f a d u r a t i o n i s seen as t he d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f f i v e - m i n u t e 28 segments between t h e maximum and minimum number o f time segments r e p o r t e d f o r any g i v e n u n i t . H ypotheses From the s t a t e d p o s t u l a t e s and the w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s we a r e now a b l e t o s p e c i f y f i v e h y p o t h e s e s which we can t e s t a g a i n s t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 1. Respondents who work a t an ' o f f - p h a s e ' t i m e w i l l r e p o r t a fewer number o f u n i t s i n a day th a n w i l l r e s p o n d e n t s who work a t a 'normal' t i m e . ' O f f - p h a s e ' r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l have 'knowledge' o f a g r e a t e r number o f ' l e s s l i m i t e d ' u n i t s than 'more l i m i t e d ' u n i t s . V/ith t h e i r g r e a t e r 'knowledge' o f ' l e s s l i m i t e d ' u n i t s t h e y w i l l have a g r e a t e r number o f 'uncon s t r a i n e d ' than ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s . ' ( P o s t u l a t e k.) With a g r e a t e r number o f ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s ' t h e y w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n more ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' than ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 5.) ' U n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s w i l l be o f a l o n g e r 'dura t i o n ' than w i l l ' c o n s t r a i n e d 1 u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 6.) A g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s o f a l o n g e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n a day. 29 The l o n g e r t h e ' d u r a t i o n ' o f u n i t s t h e fewer u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day. ( P o s t u l a t e 7.) H y p o t h e s i s 2. Respondents who a r e o f ' s u p e r i o r ' s t a t u s w i l l r e p o r t a g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s i n a day t h a n w i l l r e s p o n d e n t s o f ' i n f e r i o r ' s t a t u s . Respondents o f ' s u p e r i o r ' s t a t u s w i l l have g r e a t e r ' d i s c r e t i o n ' ( P o s t u l a t e 2:2) and g r e a t e r ' d i f f e r e n  t i a t i o n . ' ( P o s t u l a t e 2:1.) The g r e a t e r t h e i r ' d i s c r e t i o n ' and ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' t h a n ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s . ' ( P o s t u l a t e 3.) W i t h a g r e a t e r number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' t h a n ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s ' t h e y w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n more ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' t h a n ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 5.) 'Con s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s w i l l be o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' t h a n w i l l ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 6.) A g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s o f s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than o f a l o n g e r ' d u r a t i o n ' w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n a day. The s h o r t e r t h e ' d u r a t i o n ' o f u n i t s t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day. ( P o s t u l a t e 7.) H y p o t h e s i s 3:1 The g r e a t e r t h e ' f a m i l y s i z e ' t o which a respon dent b e l o n g s t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day. 30 The l a r g e r t he ' f a m i l y s i z e ' t h e l a r g e r t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s e s . But the fewer the p e r s o n s o f e q u a l s t a t u s , the g r e a t e r a f a m i l y member's ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . ' ( P o s t u l a t e 8.) The g r e a t e r t he ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' t h e g r e a t e r t he number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' t h a n ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s in r e s p o n d e n t s ' ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s . ' ( P o s t u l a t e 3.) ( C o n t i n u e d below.) H y p o t h e s i s 3:2 The g r e a t e r t h e ' f a m i l y s i z e ' t h e g r e a t e r r e s p o n  d e n t s ' 'knowledge' o f 'more l i m i t e d ' t h a n ' l e s s 1imited' u n i t s . Respondents w i t h a g r e a t e r 'knowledge' o f 'more l i m i t e d 1 u n i t s w i l l have a g r e a t e r number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' t h a n ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s . ' ( P o s t u l a t e k.) Hypotheses 3:1 and 3:2 Vi Ith a g r e a t e r number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s ' t h e y w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e in more ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' than ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 5.) ' C o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s w i l l be o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than w i l l ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 6<) A g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s o f s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than o f a l o n g e r ' d u r a t i o n ' w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n a day. T h e s h o r t e r t h e ' d u r a t i o n ' o f u n i t s the g r e a t e r 31 the number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day. ( P o s t u l a t e 7.) H y p o t h e s i s h. Respondents who do not work f o r the ' l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r ' 4 w i 1 1 r e p o r t a g r e a t e r number o f u n i t s i n a day than w i l l r e s p o n d e n t s who do work f o r the ' l a r g e s t employer.' The l a r g e r t he employer o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r the number o f p e r s o n s o f e q u a l s t a t u s and t h e l e s s t h e ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . ( P o s t u l a t e 8.) The l e s s t h e ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' t h e l e s s t h e number o f ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' than ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s . 1 ( P o s t u l a t e 3.) W i t h a g r e a t e r number o f ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r s ' t h e y w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n more ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' t h a n ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 5.) ' U n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s w i l l be o f a l o n g e r 'dura t i o n ' t h a n w i l l ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 6.) A fewer number o f u n i t s o f l o n g e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n a day. The l o n g e r t h e ' d u r a t i o n * o f u n i t s t h e fewer u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day. ( P o s t u l a t e 7-) 32 H y p o t h e s i s 5. The g r e a t e r the number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day t h e l e s s t h e 'ranges' o f t h e ' d u r a t i o n s ' o f such u n i t s . ' C o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s w i l l be o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' than w i l l ' u n c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 6.) The g r e a t e r the number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day t h e s h o r t e r t h e ' d u r a t i o n s ' o f t h o s e u n i t s . ( P o s t u l a t e 7.) The s h o r t e r t h e ' d u r a t i o n s ' o f u n i t s t h e l e s s the 'ranges' o f t h o s e u n i t s as ' c o n s t r a i n e d ' u n i t s . The above t h e o r e t i c a l schema has been o u t l i n e d i n a f o r m a l manner so as t o c l a r i f y t h e c o n c e p t s u s ed. In t h i s schema t h e word d e r i v e d i s p e r h a p s i n c o r r e c t due t o the f a c t t h a t some o f t h e p o s t u l a t e s do n o t t a k e on t h e s t r i c t form t h a t t h e y s h o u l d ; t h a t i s t o say, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e p o s t u l a t e can n e v e r be e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d . In t h i s schema some o f t h e p o s t u l a t e s c o u l d be t e s t e d e m p i r i c a l l y but a t p r e s e n t , due t o t h e l a c k o f e m p i r i  c a l f i n d i n g s , t h e p o s t u l a t e s have t o remain as a s s u m p t i o n s . In t h i s c h a p t e r we have o u t l i n e d i n a f o r m a l way a t h e o r e t i  c a l schema c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , p o s t u l a t e s u s i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , a s e t o f e m p i r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , and f i v e h y p o t h e s e s . The o u t l i n i n g o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s and w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a l l o w s us t o move t o t h e t o p i c o f t h e sample used t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a w i t h which t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e t e s t e d . A t t h e same time we w i l l o u t l i n e t h e methods o f c o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d i v e r s e m a t e r i a l s t h a t have been c o l l e c t e d by t h e method o f the T i m e - R e c o r d . CHAPTER V DATA COLLECTION AND CODING The d a t a used t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r were c o l l e c t e d f o r a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t c a r r i e d o u t by M. M e i s s n e r d u r i n g t he summer o f 1965. The s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e r e s e a r c h was "... t h e uses o f l e i s u r e time i n an i n d u s  t r i a l community."! The community, " M i l l p o r t , " i s dependent upon a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i o n s (plywood, p u l p , paper, and saw m i l l s , t o g e t h e r w i t h l o g g i n g and a deep-sea p o r t t h r o u g h which most o f the i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t s a r e moved). W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e a p r e t e s t was made by s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1965 i n the c i t y c l o s e s t t o the u n i v e r s i t y . O n l y a d u l t s who were p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g were p i c k e d a t random from t h e c i t y d i r e c t o r y . A s i m i l a r s a m p l i n g method was used i n M i l l p o r t where a random sample o f w o r k i n g a d u l t s was drawn from t h e M i l l p o r t d i r e c t o r y which had j u s t been p u b l i s h e d a f t e r an e n u m e r a t i o n i n December and J a n u a r y o f 1964-1965. How e v e r , because o f t h e s i z e o f a s i n g l e company i n the community two samples were drawn i n su c h a way t h a t f o r e v e r y t h r e e employees 1 M a r t i n M e i s s n e r , " A Study o f Work and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an I n d u s t r i a l Community, P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t , " (mimeo.; Vancouver: Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y and I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967). 33 34 of this large company one person was selected who was not working for that company. This purposeful oversampling of company em ployees meant that the sample contained a large majority of men, manual workers, and employees paid an hourly wage. Very few women and self-employed people were interviewed; and none of the young, the o ld , or women who were only housewives. From the 462 persons in the sample 308 interviews were completed, or two-thirds of the total sample. The reasons for the loss in the sample were: a f i f teen per cent loss due to refusals, a three per cent loss due to inaccessibi l i ty , and a f i f teen per cent loss due to respondents no longer meeting the sample c r i t e r i a , i . e . , dead, moved, out of town, or now not working. During May of 1965 further pretests and revisions of the entire questionnaire were carried out in Mil lport such that the f ive student interviewers underwent extensive training in the f i e l d . Altogether the f inal interviews were preceded by f ive series of pretesting. During the last pretest it was found that the best method of approaching respondents was by sending a letter and then ca l l ing at the respondent's home. This method of approach was used in the f inal interviews. Nearly a l l the inter viewing was completed by July of 1965 and the coding of the main body of the interview schedule was completed by the spring of 1966. When card punching had been completed the coding error had been reduced to below the two per cent level . The part of the questionnaire to be used in this research is the Time-Record which took approximately a sixth of the ninety minutes which was the average length of time per interview. The 35 Time-Record (see Appendix B) was a l o g , w r i t t e n by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r o f t he a c t i o n s o f the r e s p o n d e n t , i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s terms, d u r i n g a t w e n t y - f o u r hour p e r i o d w hich had t o be t h e l a s t f u l l w o r k i n g day p r i o r t o the i n t e r v i e w . I t s h o u l d be acknowledged i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i s de p e n d i n g on the respondent t o r e c a l l h i s p r e v i o u s a c t i o n s and as we have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out in a p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h the uses o f t h e d i a r y method, o u r d a t a s u f f e r due t o t h e l o s s o f d e t a i l when memories a r e u s e d . V/e must a l s o a t t h i s p o i n t s t a t e t h a t t h e s e a r e s e c o n d a r y d a t a c o l l e c t e d p r i o r t o the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l schema o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The p i t f a l l s o f s e c o n d a r y d a t a a r e many but i n t h i s c a s e s e v e r a l have been overcome and a v o i d e d i n t h a t t h e d a t a were g i v e n t o us u n c o d i f i e d . The problem and th e main t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s i n the schema were drawn up p r i o r t o the c o d i n g o f the Ti m e - R e c o r d . It was f e l t t h a t i f t h e r e s e a r c h were t o have been s t a r t e d from the b e g i n n i n g w i t h o u t t he p r e s e n c e o f d a t a , t h e n a s i m i l a r t y p e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e would have been u s e d . However, the expense o f c o l l e c t i n g such d a t a outweighed the r e s t r i c t i o n s which had been p l a c e d on the d a t a . T hese r e s t r i c t i o n s stem from t he for m a t o f both t h e Time-Record and t h e r e s t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e which had been a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a sample randomly drawn from a s p e c i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n . The two main r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e : f i r s t , t h e l a c k o f d e t a i l in the Time-Record which i t i s f e l t was due t o the o v e r a l l l e n g t h o f t h e whole i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e ; and second, t he l a c k o f d e t a i l which has been r e c o r d e d o f r e s p o n d e n t s ' a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e a t work. C o d i f i c a t i o n o f the Time-Record The Time-Record (see Appendix B) was coded by t h e w r i t e r d u r i n g a two-month p e r i o d i n the summer o f 1966. The c o d i n g was c a r r i e d o u t i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. F i r s t , a random sample p r o c e d u r e was s t a r t e d n o t i n g down from the Time-Records sampled a l l t h e items o f b e h a v i o u r r e p o r t e d by the r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e i r t e r m s . T h i s s a m p l i n g o f the completed Time-Records was c o n t i n u e d u n t i l no new a c t i v i t i e s appeared as t h e sample was i n c r e a s e d . T h i s f a c t d i d not mean t h a t a l l a c t i v i t i e s had been d i s c o v e r e d p r i o r t o the f u l l c o d i n g j o b . However, i t was found t h a t d u r i n g t h e c o d i n g o n l y f i v e new c a t e g o r i e s o f a c t i v i t i e s were made. Wit h t he l i s t o f the b e h a v i o u r s noted from t he random sample i t was n e c e s s a r y t o make a code manual which c o u l d be used t o code t he b e h a v i o u r s s o as t o produce the g r e a t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . The c r i t e r i a used t o p l a c e r e p o r t e d b e h a v i o u r s i n t o code c a t e g o r i e s was t h a t o f S o r o k i n and B e r g e r , t h a t o f e q u a t i n g e v e n t s w h i c h a p p e a r t o have t h e same b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t e n t . As has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n d e f i n i n g a u n i t o f b e h a v i o u r when t h e name g i v e n a b e h a v i o u r d i f f e r s w i t h i n and between r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e p o r t s , but t h e meaning o f the b e h a v i o u r i s j u d g e d t o be the same, then t h e u n i t and the name a r e taken t o be the same. F o r example, " i n bed" and " a s l e e p " were t a k e n t o denote t he same be h a v i o u r a l e v e n t and were c a t e g o r i z e d under the same u n i t headed " s l e e p . " By t h i s means we were a b l e t o overcome d i f f e r e n c e s i n w o i d i n g i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e p o r t s . Supra, p. 8. 37 Two problems a r o s e i n t h e sample used t o make the code manual. The f i r s t was t h a t i n many c a s e s r e s p o n d e n t s ran t o g e t h e r t h e a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " g e t t i n g up" and " h a v i n g b r e a k f a s t . " We t h e r e f o r e had t o produce a u n i t i n t o which both t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be put i f t h e y were not s e p a r a t e d on the T i m e - R e c o r d . T h i s i s the o n l y c a s e where a c t i v i t i e s o f a m u l t i p l e n a t u r e o c c u r r e d where we were u n a b l e t o code i n t o s e p a r a t e u n i t s as we would have w i s h e d . T h i s t r o u b l e i s a s p e c i f i c c a s e o f the more g e n e r a l problem o f the c o d i f i c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o c c u r a t t h e same moment i n t i m e . When u n i t s o f a m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r a l n a t u r e were made i t was d e c i d e d t h a t a l l u n i t s would be o f a m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e n a t u r e . A respondent e i t h e r "watches T.V." o r " e a t s " but n e v e r both a t t h e same time e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f m u l t i p l e u n i t s . In such a c a s e a respondent w i l l be coded i n t h e m u l t i p l e u n i t but not in the two s i n g l e u n i t s . F o r example, a respondent i s e i t h e r coded "watches T.V. and e a t s , " a m u l t i p l e u n i t , o r "watches T.V." and " e a t s , " two s i n g l e u n i t s , but n e v e r both t h e l a t t e r two and the f i r s t u n i t . T h e r e f o r e , u n i t s as coded a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , and t h i s a l l o w s f o r a c h e c k o f the c o d i n g o f a Time-Record because a l l the time s p e n t on t h e u n i t s s h o u l d add up t o 288 f i v e - m i n u t e segments o r t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s . The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s then a code o f the number of f i v e - m i n u t e segments r e p o r t e d f o r t h e b e h a v i o u r a l u n i t s , and t h e r e i s no measure o f i n t e n s i t y o r v a l u e o f a u n i t i m p l i e d . In f i l l i n g out a Time-Record, the minimum time segment b e i n g f i v e m i n u t e s , i n t e r v i e w e r s were asked t o p l a c e a l i n e on the l e f t - h a n d m a r g i n b e s i d e t h e time a t which an a c t i v i t y was 38 s t a r t e d . It was t h e r e f o r e a s i m p l e but arduous t a s k t o co u n t t h e number o f f i v e - m i n u t e time segments between t h e s t a r t o f an a c t i v i t y and the s t a r t o f the next a c t i v i t y . In such a way t h e whole Time-Record c o u l d be coded w i t h r e s p e c t t o time and t h e f i g u r e s added up t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t o t a l was 288 f i v e - m i n u t e segments, which e q u a l l e d t h e whole day. The code manual (Appendix C) was worked out from the sample o f b e h a v i o u r s which has been c o l l e c t e d from t h e sample o f compl e t e d T i m e - R e c o r d s . The r e s e a r c h a d v i s o r and h i s r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t a i d e d t h e w r i t e r i n making up the code c a t e g o r i e s u s i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y . Two sub- samples o f t e n Time-Records were coded i n d e p e n d e n t l y by the w r i t e r and t h e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t u s i n g t h e code manual, and then each sample was exchanged and coded a g a i n . Any d i f f e r e n c e s in the c o d i n g were noted and the a m b i g u i t i e s c l a r i f i e d . The u n i t s , n i n e t y - t w o i n a l l , were then a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r so t h a t t h e y f o l l o w e d , as b e s t as p o s s i b l e , t h e o r d e r i n which t h e y would seem t o a p p e a r i n e v e r y d a y l i f e . A l s o , a c t i v i t i e s were i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e i n o r around t h e home, a t work, and e l s e w h e r e . F o r t h e a c t u a l o r d e r o f u n i t s see Appendix C. The n i n e t y - t w o u n i t s were then g i v e n boxes on a code s h e e t so t h a t t h e f i r s t two boxes ( t h r e e f o r "work" and " s l e e p " ) were used t o i n d i c a t e t h e number o f f i v e - m i n u t e segments a respondent r e p o r t e d f o r a u n i t . A t h i r d box was used t o code " w i t h whom" the u n i t was c a r r i e d o u t . In t h e c a s e s o f " v i s i t i n g " o r " b e i n g v i s i t e d " two boxes were used t o i n d i c a t e " w i t h whom" the v i s i t i n g was done and " t o whom" t h e v i s i t was made, and 39 v i c e - v e r s a f o r b e i n g v i s i t e d . Respondents were g i v e n a s c o r e o f z e r o i f t h e y d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e in a u n i t . A l s o s e v e r a l u n i t s such a s "T.V.," " s h o p p i n g , " and " d r i v i n g t o and from" were coded i n t o more than one u n i t and we had, f o r example, "T.V. I" and "T.V. I I . " The reason f o r making t h e s e s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s i s so t h a t we c a n i n d i c a t e i n t h e t h i r d box t h a t when w a t c h i n g T.V. a respondent may have been i n t h e company o f h i s w i f e but t h a t l a t e r in the day he a g a i n watched T.V. but t h i s time i n the company o f a f r i e n d . By h a v i n g t h e s e two o r more u n i t s o f the same a c t i v i t y we a r e a b l e t o make a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f o f w i t h whom an a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d . However, a problem a r i s e s when a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o w i t h whom an a c t i v i t y o c c u r s . I f a p e r s o n watches T.V. w i t h h i s w i f e t w i c e d u r i n g a day then he w i l l have h i s e n t i r e T.V. w a t c h i n g time coded under "T.V. I . " If he were t o watch T.V. f i r s t w i t h h i s w i f e and then l a t e r i n th e day w i t h a f r i e n d , then h i s times w i l l be s e p a r a t e l y coded i n both "T.V. I" and "T.V. I I . " The e f f e c t o f t h i s c o d i n g i s t o d i s t o r t t h e number o f u n i t s a p e r s o n r e p o r t s i n a day. The e r r o r o c c u r s i n f o u r o f t h e u n i t s . The c o d i n g o n t o code s h e e t s was c a r r i e d o ut by the w r i t e r d u r i n g a three-week p e r i o d e n d i n g i n mid-August. Each code s h e e t was checked t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t o t a l number o f time segments added t o 288 f i v e - m i n u t e segments. The d a t a were t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e code s h e e t s t o a s e t o f d a t a c a r d s , f o u r c a r d s p e r re s p o n d e n t . A com p l e t e run o f d i s t r i b u t i o n s was made on each u n i t s o t h a t c o d i n g e r r o r s c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . Of t h e 308 res p o n d e n t s t h e r e were no adequate Time-Records f o r seven 40 r e s p o n d e n t s : two were o f q u e s t i o n a b l e q u a l i t y and no Time- Record was completed f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e . T h e r e f o r e we used 301 Time-Records t o t e s t our h y p o t h e s e s . The S t a t i s t i c a l C e n t r e f o r The S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (U. B. C.) d e v e l o p e d f o r us a programme (MEIBUl) t o p r o v i d e the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s : f o r each u n i t - the number o f r e s p o n d e n t s who r e p o r t t h a t u n i t ; t he t o t a l number o f time segments s p e n t by r e s p o n d e n t s on t h a t u n i t ; t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ; t h e v a r i a n c e and t h e maxi mum, minimum, and range, o f time segments spent on t h a t u n i t . A l s o , the programme f u r n i s h e d us w i t h a d i s t r i b u t i o n showing t h e number and p r o p o r t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s who r e p o r t N number o f u n i t s . The programme was a d a p t e d so t h a t c e r t a i n r e c o r d s c o u l d be ex c l u d e d . T h i s e x c l u s i o n a l l o w s us t o g e n e r a t e the s t a t i s t i c s m entioned above f o r sub-samples which meet s t a t e d c o n d i t i o n s from o t h e r r e c o r d s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e whole o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These s t a t i s t i c s can t h e n be used f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . The programme a l s o gave a weight o f f o u r t o r e s p o n d e n t s who d i d not work f o r the l a r g e company i n M i l l p o r t , t hus e n s u r i n g t h a t the two samples w h i c h were drawn from t h e community as a whole r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t r u e p r o p o r t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . The d a t a t h e n c o n s i s t o f a w e i g h t e d sample o f 506 r e s p o n d e n t s from a s a m p l i n g u n i v e r s e o f 8,210 p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g a d u l t s r e c o r d e d i n t h e M i l l p o r t d i r e c t o r y . The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s on t h e i r l a s t w o r k i n g day p r i o r t o t h e i n t e r  view were coded i n t o n i n e t y - t w o b e h a v i o u r a l u n i t s . Each u n i t has the p r o p e r t y t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s an a c t i v i t y which has o c c u r r e d and been r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g a minimum time d u r a t i o n o f f i v e m i n u t e s . Each o f t h e s e u n i t s i s m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e such t h a t when th e t i m e s p e n t by a respondent on a l l the u n i t s he r e p o r t s has been added t o g e t h e r t h e number o f f i v e - m i n u t e t ime segments w i l l e q u a l one day. A programme was o b t a i n e d so t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y s t a t i s t i c s c o u l d be g e n e r a t e d t o o b t a i n a measure o f t h e number o f u n i t s a respondent r e p o r t e d as w e l l as t h e d u r a t i o n o f such u n i t s . With t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s we a r e now a b l e t o t u r n t o the t e s t o f t h e f i v e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t we have p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . CHAPTER VI RESULTS: TESTS OF HYPOTHESES According to Hypothesis 1, persons on day shif t wi l l report a greater number of act iv i t ies than persons not on day sh i f t . The total sample of 502 respondents has been dichotomized into persons who work on day shift (3^1) and those persons who work on other shifts (161). A distr ibution for each of the sub-samples gave us the number of persons who reported N number of ac t i v i t i es . From these two distributions we computed the mean number of units reported by persons in each sub-sample. The t s ta t i s t i c was com puted to test for the level of the signif icant difference between the two means. Our results are shown in Table I. TABLE I MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY WORK SHIFT Work Time Normal Off Phase t Mean number of Units 15.21 (341) 16.06 (161) .001 hi 43 From Table I it can be seen that our hypothesis is not con firmed and that there is a signif icant difference in the opposite direction to that we had hypothesized. We find that those persons who work at an off-phase time report an average of ,85 units more in a day than persons who work at a normal time. V/ork Status Our second hypothesis predicted that persons with high work status wi l l report a greater number of act iv i t ies in a day than wi l l persons of low work status. The test is shown in Table II together with the resultant s t a t i s t i c . TABLE II MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY WORK STATUS Work Status Superior Inferior t Mean number of Units 15.27 (209) 15.57 (293) insig. With the s tat is t ics in Table II we find that there is no signif icant difference between the two sub-sample means and that the effect of work status on the number of units reported is small . However, we wish to point out that again we have the data showing that our prediction is in the wrong direction because those persons with superior status report an average of .3 units less in a day than persons of inferior status. 44 Fami l y S i ze Our t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t as t h e f a m i l y s i z e i n c r e a s e d s o would t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d i n a day. We a g a i n used t h e mean number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day by members o f f a m i l i e s o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s . In t h i s c a s e o u r sample was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x sub-samples c o v e r i n g t h e f a m i l y s i z e s o f one t o s i x o r more p e r s o n s i n t h e f a m i l y . The means and t h e F v a r i a n c e r a t i o s t a t i s t i c t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the means a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e I I I . TABLE I I I MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY FAMILY SIZE F a m i l y S i z e (number o f p e r s o n s ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 F Mean number ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ — — — — — — — — — — — - — — — — — o f U n i t s 15.78 15 .69 14.76 14.78 15.48 15.31 i n s i g . (37) (82) (68) (133) (102) (80) In T a b l e 111 we f i n d t h a t t h e r e i s no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n and t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d by t h e s i x f a m i l y s i z e s . However, we would p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l d r o p i n t h e mean number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d by f a m i l y s i z e s o f t h r e e and f o u r p e r s o n s . These a r e t h e groups o f p e r s o n s w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y . The o v e r a l l t r e n d seems t o be t h a t o f a d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d the g r e a t e r t h e s i z e o f t h e f a m i l y , the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t we had p r e d i c t e d . 45 Company S i z e In o u r f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s we had p r e d i c t e d t h a t p e r s o n s who worked f o r t h e l a r g e s t employer would r e p o r t fewer a c t i v i t i e s than would p e r s o n s who d i d n o t work f o r t h e l a r g e s t employer i n t h e community. Our sample was, t h e r e f o r e , d i c h o t o m i z e d i n t o p e r s o n s who d i d not work f o r t h e l a r g e s t employer (268) and p e r s o n s who d i d (234). The mean number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by each o f the two sub-samples, t o g e t h e r w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e t s t a t i s t i c , a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e IV. TABLE IV MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY EMPLOYER SIZE Employer S i z e Not L a r g e s t Employer L a r g e s t Employer t Mean number o f U n i t s 15.19 (268) 15.74 (234) .05 The s t a t i s t i c s i n T a b l e IV show t h a t o u r h y p o t h e s i s i s d i s p r o v e d and t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t which we had p r e d i c t e d . We f i n d t h a t t h o s e p e r s o n s who worked f o r the l a r g e s t employer r e p o r t an a v e r a g e o f .55 u n i t s more i n a day th a n p e r s o n s who d i d not work f o r t h e l a r g e s t e mployer. Mean Number o f U n i t s and T h e i r V a r i a b i l i t y In o u r f i f t h h y p o t h e s i s we had p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r the mean number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d by a s e t o f p e r s o n s t h e l e s s 46 t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t i m e s p e n t on t h o s e u n i t s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s can be t e s t e d on the s t a t i s t i c s which we g e n e r a t e d t o t e s t Hypotheses 1, 2, and 4. In t h e s e t h r e e p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d hypo t h e s e s we have t h r e e means t h a t a r e g r e a t e r than t h e means o f t h e i r o p p o s i t e sub-sample. We would, t h e r e f o r e , p r e d i c t t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e time s p e n t on u n i t s i n the sub-samples o f o f f - p h a s e work t i m e , i n f e r i o r work s t a t u s , and w o r k i n g f o r the l a r g e s t employer, w i l l be l e s s than t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n the sub- samples o f normal work t i m e , s u p e r i o r work s t a t u s , and not wo r k i n g f o r t h e l a r g e s t e m p l o y e r . The amount o f v a r i a b i l i t y i s measured by the p o o l e d e s t i m a t e s o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f the time segments f o r a l l t h e u n i t s r e p o r t e d by e a c h sub-sample. A v a r i a n c e r a t i o t e s t was c o n d u c t e d and the s t a t i c s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e V. TABLE V VARIABILITY OF TIME SPENT ON UNITS BY SUB-SAMPLES V a r i a n c e o f Time Segments by Sub-Samples Work S h i f t ( H y p o t h e s i s l ) O f f - P h a s e 682 (161) Normal F 3,553 (341) .01 Work S t a t u s ( H y p o t h e s i s 2) I n f e r i o r 2,266 (293) S u p e r i o r F 3,083 (209) .01 Employer S i z e (Hypothes i s 4) L a r g e s t Employer 91 (234) Not L a r g e s t Employer F 4,851 (268) .01 From T a b l e V we f i n d t h a t o u r h y p o t h e s i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n f i r m e d in a l l t h r e e c a s e s . I t a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the g r e a t e r the number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d i n a day by a group o f p e r s o n s , t he l e s s t h e v a r i a b i l i t y in time s p e n t on such a c t i v i t i e s . 47 We have o u t l i n e d w i t h o u t comment t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s o f o u r f i v e h y p o t h e s e s . However, b e f o r e we t u r n t o the i n t e r  p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s we wished t o t e s t f o r two b i a s e s w h ich we f e l t c o u l d be p r e s e n t i n our d a t a . Both o f t h e s e b i a s e s stem from t h e use o f t h e Time-Record as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . Our wo r r y i s t o know j u s t how con s i s t e n t a m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t do we have when we ask p e o p l e t o r e c a l l from memory p r e v i o u s b e h a v i o u r s and how w e l l does an i n t e r v i e w e r e l i c i t and r e c o r d t h e r e s p o n s e s . The f i r s t b i a s we w i s h t o d i s c u s s i s the p o t e n t i a l e r r o r i n t r o d u c e d on t h e Time-Record by the r a p p o r t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r has w i t h t h e r e s p o n d e n t . Rapport a f f e c t s t h e d e g r e e o f d e t a i l which t h e respondent i s w i l l i n g t o g i v e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r and a l s o t h e amount o f d e t a i l the i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l e n t e r on the T i m e - R e c o r d . We have, t h e r e f o r e , s p l i t o u r t o t a l sample i n t o s i x sub-samples, one f o r e a c h o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s , and u s i n g the v a r i a n c e r a t i o t e s t we were a b l e t o see i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n the Time-Records co m p l e t e d by each i n t e r v i e w e r . The s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I . TABLE VI MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY INTERVIEWER I n t e r v i e w e r A B C D E F F Mean number o f U n i t s 13.51 (69) 15.39 15.54 16.00 (101) (92) (148) 14.00 .01 (4) kB With r e s p e c t t o T a b l e V I , the s t a t i s t i c s p r e s e n t e d show t h a t t h e r e i s i n f a c t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f u n i t s which have been r e p o r t e d by the re s p o n d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d by the s i x i n t e r v i e w e r s . The second b i a s we wished t o l o o k a t was t h e e f f e c t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n on the r e p o r t s r e c o r d e d i n the T i m e - R e c o r d . As t he Time-Record was completed by a s k i n g p e o p l e t o r e c a l l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s from t he p a s t , a s u b s t a n t i a l l o s s o f d e t a i l would be e x p e c t e d . However, we would s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s l o s s i n r e c a l l would be m i t i g a t e d by the amount o f e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d , such t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e e d u c a t i o n , t he l e s s t he l o s s in d e t a i l and t h e r e  f o r e t he g r e a t e r t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d i n a day. We t h e r e f o r e d i v i d e d o u r sample i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n . The mean number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by each o f t h e s e sub- samples, t o g e t h e r w i t h t he F r a t i o t e s t , a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e V I I . TABLE VII MEAN NUMBER OF REPORTED UNITS BY EDUCATION E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l Grade 8 L e s s than Grade Grade 12 and L e s s 12 -:- Othe r •:• Othe r F Mean number o f 15.35 15.39 15.70 U n i t s (163) (213) (126) I n s i g . We f i n d , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e VI I, t h a t the l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n does n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the number o f u n i t s r e p o r t e d i n a day. However, t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a s m a l l 49 i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d as e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e s . T h e r e c o u l d be a weak e f f e c t due t o b e t t e r memory o r a r t i c u l a t i o n , thus a i d i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i n f i l l i n g o ut t h e T ime-Record. With t h e t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e which we have used, we w i s h t o p o i n t out t h a t o f t e n o u r sample s i z e s a r e l a r g e and t h e r e f o r e a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e between means w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t . A l s o , we wished t o be s u r e t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s from which t h e means were t a k e n a p p r o x i m a t e d a normal c u r v e . We used a weak t e s t , which was t o see i f s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s i n each o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n s f e l l w i t h i n one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e means o f t h o s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . We found t h a t i n n i n e t e e n o u t o f the twenty-one c a s e s t h i s c o n d i t i o n was met, thus e n s u r i n g o u r t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were m e a n i n g f u l . In the two c a s e s where our t e s t was not met, t h e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n e a c h o f t h e sub-samples was t h i r t y and f o u r r e s p e c t f u l l y . CHAPTER VII EVALUATION: RESULTS AND THE THEORETICAL SCHEMA We have i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s e t up f i v e h y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d on a body o f d a t a . We f i n d t h a t f o u r o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e not c o n f i r m e d , a l l showing d i r e c t i o n s o p p o s i t e t o t h o s e p r e  d i c t e d , two s i g n i f i c a n t l y s o . Our f i f t h h y p o t h e s i s , which was not dependent on t h e d i r e c t i o n found in the o t h e r f o u r h y p o t h e s e s , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n f i r m e d when t e s t e d on t h r e e d i f f e r e n t sub- samples. V/e c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t e i t h e r some o f o u r a s s u m p t i o n s o r d e f i n i t i o n s i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework were i n c o r r e c t , o r t h a t t h e r e had been a b i a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o o u r d a t a by o u r m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t , the T i m e - R e c o r d . B e f o r e we t u r n e d t o the t h e o r e t i c a l schema we wished t o l o o k a t t h e two v a r i a b l e s w h i c h we i n t r o d u c e d a t the end o f the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e v a r i a b l e s o f e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w e r . V/e w i s h e d t o t e s t i f o u r m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t was b i a s e d by t h e s e two f a c t o r s . The e f f e c t o f e d u c a t i o n appeared t o be minimal even though t h e r e was a t r e n d which appeared t o i n d i c a t e t h a t an i n  c r e a s e in e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e d e t a i l o f the Time-Records c o m p l e t e d . However, w i t h r e s p e c t t o the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v i e w e r s , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was n o t e d . U s i n g the t e s t between means 50 51 p r o p o s e d by J . W. Tukey' we found t h a t i n f a c t no s i n g l e i n t e r  v i e w e r a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . I t appeared t h a t t he e f f e c t o f the i n t e r v i e w e r s was not s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o the hy p o t h e s e s t e s t e d due t o ( l ) the random a s s i g n  ment o f r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n t e r v i e w e r s , and (2) the s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f each i n t e r v i e w e r ' s r e s p o n d e n t s which appeared in each o f the sub-samples. These two c o n t r o l s were the f i r s t s e t o f e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which were brought t o bear on o u r f i n d i n g s . We wished then t o t u r n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l schema t o p o i n t o u t , w i t h e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s found in the d a t a , which o f our a s s u m p t i o n s were i n the f i r s t p l a c e i n c o r r e c t . In c a r r y i n g out t h i s p r o c e d u r e we wished t o d e m o n s t r a t e the b e n e f i t we d e r i v e d from the work s p e n t on o b t a i n i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l schema w i t h which t o l o o k a t t h e d a t a . V/e were a b l e w i t h t he n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t our f i n d i n g s were i n f a c t n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s and not j u s t d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s o f a s e l e c t e d random sample. V/e were a l s o a b l e t o use such n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s f o r t h e i r p o s i t i v e v a l u e o f showing t h a t o u r t h e o r y was in p a r t e r r o n e o u s . The form a l schema p e r m i t t e d t he i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n c o r r e c t p o s t u l a t e s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e d e f i n i t i o n s . V/e examined each o f the h y p o t h e s e s in l i g h t o f t h e f i n d i n g s . The d i r e c t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n the d a t a used t o t e s t H y p o t h e s i s 1 was o p p o s i t e t o t h a t p r e d i c t e d , and our a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s e d on P o s t u l a t e 6. T h i s p o s t u l a t e s t a t e d t h a t G. W. Snedecor. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods (5th ed.; Iowa: Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956), pp. 251-254. 52 " U n c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be o f a l o n g e r d u r a t i o n t h a n w i l l c o n s t r a i n e d a c t i v i t i e s . " W i t h t h i s p o s t u l a t e we e x p e c t e d t h a t a c t i v i t i e s w hich were ' l i m i t e d ' would be o f a s h o r t e r ' d u r a t i o n ' due t o t h e e f f e c t o f h a v i n g t o s y n c h r o n i z e p e o p l e t o be p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e a c t i v i t y . As we have p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h i s i s a p o s t u l a t e w i t h t h e s t a t u s o f a w o r k i n g a s s u m p t i o n which can be t e s t e d e m p i r i c a l l y , and i t i s t o t h i s t e s t t h a t we next t u r n e d . In c o d i n g o u r d a t a we had t h e i n f o r m a t i o n as t o 'with whom' an a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d . However, i n o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the 'with whom' c a t e g o r i e s t h e a c t u a l number o f pe r s o n s p r e s e n t was not coded, but r a t h e r the c l a s s o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t (see page 1 o f App e n d i x C ) . We had, t h e r e f o r e , o n l y a p a r t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t d u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . It was d e c i d e d t o s p l i t t h e 'with whom1 c a t e g o r i e s i n t o t h r e e : ' a l o n e , ' 'with spouse o n l y , ' and 'with any o t h e r s . ' T h i s p r o c e d u r e gave us a weak s c a l e o f the number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t even though t h e c a t e g o r y o f 'with spouse o n l y ' was a s p e c i a l c a s e o f two p e r s o n s b e i n g p r e s e n t , w i t h a l l o t h e r two-person c a s e s f a l l i n g i n t o o u r t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f 'with any o t h e r s . ' V/e o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f the u n i t s t h e a v e r a g e amount o f t i m e — t h e mean number o f f i v e - m i n u t e segments r e p o r t e d — f o r each o f the n i n e t y - t w o u n i t s when t h e d i f f e r e n t number o f p e r s o n s was p r e s e n t . We found o f t h e n i n e t y - t w o u n i t s , t h a t as the number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t i n c r e a s e d , t h i r t y - o n e o f t h e u n i t s showed an i n c r e a s e i n t h e a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f time sp e n t on t h o s e u n i t s . T w e n t y - e i g h t u n i t s showed a d e c r e a s e i n the a v e r a g e time d u r a t i o n , w h i l e t h i r t y - t h r e e u n i t s showed no d e f i n i t e t r e n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o 53 the duration of time. The lack of a trend in the thirty-three units was due to either a lack of respondents in two of the 'with whom' categories or to the fact that a 'with whom' category was not applicable. The c r i te r ia for deciding if units increased were: if the average number of time segments in the category 'with spouse only' was greater than in the category 'alone' and if the category 'with any others' was greater than either in the 'with spouse only' o_r 'alone' categories. The c r i te r ia for the measurement of a decrease in the average number of time segments in the three categories were: if the category 'with spouse only' was less than the category 'with any other' and if the category 'alone' was less than either in the 'with spouse only' _or 'with any others' categories. The d i f f i cu l t y we were attempting to overcome was that 'with spouse only' was a special case of a category which would include the presence of only two people. To know the number of units which show an increase or decrease in the duration of time spent on such units was not an adequate test of Postulate 6. The relative incidence of the units as measured by the number of respondents who report the units was s ignif icant . On examination of the units which increase in the duration of time spent on them as the number of p a r t i c i  pants increases, we found that these units were reported 4,387 times. However, with respect to those units that showed a decrease in the duration of time spent on them, we found that these units were reported 1,587 times. The units in which no definite trend could be observed were reported only 153 times. Units whose duration of time increases as the number 54 of participants increases are of considerably greater incidence than units that indicate a decrease in the duration of time. Our data would, therefore, disconfirm Postulate 6 as it was stated. We found that a greater number of units, which showed that as the number of participants increased so did the average duration of time spent on such units increase, were reported. Therefore, we had to reverse Postulate 6 because we found that activities which became 'more limited' and therefore more 'constrained 1 showed a longer 'duration' of time spent on those a c t i v i t i e s . Postulate 6 then became a working assumption which stated "Unconstrained activities will be of a shorter duration than will constrained ac t i v i t i e s . " With this working assumption we were able to examine why the predictions of four of our hypotheses were in the wrong direction. In Hypotheses 1 to 4 we had used Postulate 6 to indicate the direction of the relationships we expected would appear in our data. However, we have had to change this postulate to a working assumption which we stated in the last paragraph, thus allowing us to reverse the direction of our previous predictions. We found that Hypotheses 1 and 4 were then significantly pre dicted in the correct direction while Hypotheses 2 and 3 were in the correct direction but not significantly so. In Hypothesis 2 we f e l t that the lack of distinction in our measurement of 'superior' status might have been the cause for the lack of significance. However, if we had continued to split up a sample to gain an increase in the measure of 'superior' status we would 55 have found o u r s e l v e s u s i n g sub-samples o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l numbers, thus c o n s t r i c t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f o u r s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s . In H y p o t h e s i s 3 we f e l t t h a t t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was p r o b a b l y due t o o u r l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n o f the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . Our measure was o f f a m i l y s i z e r a t h e r t h a n o f f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n . The l a r g e d r o p i n the mean number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r t e d by f a m i l y s i z e s o f t h r e e o r f o u r p e r s o n s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the s p e c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y , r a t h e r t h a n s t r i c t l y s i z e , a f f e c t e d o u r r e s u l t s . Due t o the p r e s e n t l a c k o f d a t a on f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n we a r e u n a b l e t o p u r s u e t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n f u r t h e r . We have de m o n s t r a t e d t h a t w i t h a f o r m a l t h e o r e t i c a l frame work we were a b l e t o use the e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s found in o u r d a t a t o r e f o r m u l a t e some o f our a s s u m p t i o n s . T h i s r e f o r m u l a  t i o n now i n c r e a s e s the p r e d i c t i v e power o f our t h e o r y which can now be used t o l o o k a t new d a t a . We have a l s o shown t h a t some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s we e n c o u n t e r e d were p o s s i b l y due t o o u r c h o i c e o f t h e measurement o f some o f the c o n d i t i o n s under which the h y p o t h e s e s , d e r i v e d from t h e t h e o r y , were t e s t e d . T h e r e would a p p e a r t o be some c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f o u r d a t a due t o the method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n but t h e e f f e c t was f e l t t o be m i n i m a l . We have, however, p o i n t e d out the b i a s e s which s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when the Time-Record i s used i n the f u t u r e as an i n s t r u m e n t o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . CHAPTER VI I I SUMMARY AND FURTHER RESEARCH In t h i s r e s e a r c h we have o u t l i n e d a t h e o r e t i c a l schema from which we p r e d i c t e d t h a t p e r s o n s who had i n common c e r t a i n s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would a l s o e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r amount o f b e h a v i o u r i n a g i v e n time p e r i o d . The d i r e c t i o n s o f f o u r h y p o t h e s e s were proved i n c o r r e c t by o u r d a t a and o u r f i f t h h y p o t h e s i s was c o n f i r m e d , showing t h a t as t h e number o f a c t i v i  t i e s i n a day i n c r e a s e d t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e i n t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e t i m e d u r a t i o n s o f t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s . We a l s o found t h a t as t h e number o f p e r s o n s p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s most o f t e n r e p o r t e d , i n c r e a s e d , then t h e d u r a t i o n o f time s p e n t on t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e d . With t h i s e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g we were a b l e t o l o c a t e an e r r o r we had made i n o u r a s s u m p t i o n s such t h a t a r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f our t h e o r y a l l o w e d us t o make p r e d i c t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d a t a . However, t h e r e v i s e d t h e o r e t i c a l schema can o n l y be c o r r o b o r a t e d by new d a t a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w i t h o u r p r e s e n t d a t a we f e e l t h a t f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d be found t h a t would h e l p g i v e us f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f the a s s u m p t i o n s i n t he t h e o r y . F o r each o f t h e sub-samples we have used t o t e s t o u r h y p o t h e s e s , we c o u l d o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on which o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s a r e most o f t e n r e p o r t e d and t h e number o f r e p o r t e d 56 a c t i v i t i e s f o r the separate c a t e g o r i e s of 'with whom.' T h i s information would v e r i f y the concepts of ' l i m i t e d ' and 'con s t r a i n e d . ' Further c o n t r o l s on our data would a l l o w us to see the e f f e c t of having to r e c a l l from memory events which occurred at d i f f e r e n t times in the past. This information would enable us to t e s t i f the weak e f f e c t of education was due to memory or to a r t i c u l a t i o n . A second c o n t r o l would be to see i f the day of the week that i s reported on the Time-Record a f f e c t s the number, type, and the 'with whom' cat e g o r i e s of a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , the data are useful f o r the formulation of a problem which would look at the length of time, in a given d u r a t i o n , that i s spent with the same category of 'with whom' even though a c t i v i t i e s may change. BIBLIOGRAPHY TIME-BUDGET STUDIES A r n q u i s t , F. I. and R o b e r t s , E. H. "The P r e s e n t Use o f Work Time f o r Farm Homemakers." Bui l e t i n No. 234, S t a t e C o l l e g e o f V/ashington A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , J u l y , 1929. Bakke, E. W. The Unemployed Man: A S o c i a l S t u d y. New Yo r k , E. P. D u t t o n , 1934. Bevans, G. E. How Workingmen Spend T h e i r Spare Time. New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1913. C a r p e n t e r , R. S. "The Share o f F a m i l y Members i n Work and L e i s u r e . " D i v i s i o n o f C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n , U. S. De p a r t  ment o f A g r i c u l t u r e (mimeo.). C l a r k , R. M. and Gray, G. "The R o u t i n e and Seasonal Work o f Nebraska Farm Women." B u l l e t i n No. 238. U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , J a n u a r y 1930. Comstock, A. "Time and t h e C o l l e g e G i r l . " S c hool and S o c i e t y . March, 1925. C r a w f o r d , I . Z. "The Use o f Time by Farm Women." B u i l e t i n No. 146. U n i v e r s i t y o f Idaho A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , J a n u a r y , 1927. de G r a z i a , S. Of Time, Work, and L e i s u r e . New York, Doubleday, 1964. F o o t e , N. N. "Methods f o r Study o f Meaning i n Use o f Time." A g i n g and L e i s u r e , ed. R. W. K l e e m e i e r , New York, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. F r a y s e r , M. E. "The Use o f L e i s u r e i n S e l e c t e d R u r a l Areas o f South C a r o l i n a . " Bui l e t i n No. 263, South C a r o l i n a A g r i c u l  t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , M arch, 1930. G a m b r i l l , M. e t a l . " V a s s a r C o l l e g e Time Survey." V a s s a r J o u r n a l  of U n d e r g r a d u a t e S t u d i e s . V o l . I, 1926. 58 59 Girard, A. "Le Budget-Temps de la Femme Mariee dans les Agglomerations Urbaines." Population. 13 (1958), 591-618. Girard, A. and Bastide, H. "Le Budget-Temps de la Femme Mariee a la Campagne." Population, 14 (1959), 253-284. Knee land, H. "Is the Modern Housewife a Lady of Leisure?" Survey-Graphic, June 1, 1929. . "Homemaking in This Modern Age." Journal of the  American Association of University Women. January, 1934. Lundberg, G. A . , Komarovsky, M., and Mclnerny, M. A. Leisure: A  Suburban Study. New York, Columbia University Press, 1934. Meissner, M. "A Study of Work and Social Participation in an Industrial Community." Vancouver, Department of Anthropology and Sociology and Institute of Industrial Relations, University of Br i t ish Columbia, 1967 (mimeo.). Monroe, D. et a l . "Determination of Standard for the Establ ish ment of Household Budgets for the Expenditure of Money, Time and Energy." Journal of Home Economics. XXIV (Dec. 1932), XXV (January and February 1933). Mutual Broadcasting System. "A Nationwide Study of Living Habits." A national survey conducted by J . A. Ward Inc., New York, 1954, unpublished. Rankin, J . 0. "The Use of Time in Farm Homes." Bui let in No. 230. University of Nebraska Agricultural Experimental Station, December, 1928. Richardson, J . F. "The Use of Time by Rural Housemakers in Montana." Bui let in No. 271, Montana State Agricultural Experimental Station, February, 1933. Ross, J . E. and Bostian, L, R. The Time Use Patterns and Communications Act iv i t ies of Wisconsin Farm Families in  Wintertime. Department of Agricultural Journalism, College of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, Bulletin 28, March, 1958. Sorokin, P. A. and Berger, C. Q.. Time-Budgets of Human Behaviour. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1939. Stoetzel, J . "Une Etude du Budget-Temps de la Femme dans les Agglomerations Urbaines." Population, 3 (1948), 47-62. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Year Book. 1933, 385-39^. 60 Whittemore, M. and N e i l , B. "Time F a c t o r s i n t h e B u s i n e s s o f Homemaking i n Rhode I s l a n d . " Bui l e t i n No. 221. Rhode I s l a n d S t a t e C o l l e g e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , September, 1929. W i l s o n , M. "The Use o f Time by Oregon Farm Homemakers." Bui l e t i n No. 256, Oregon S t a t e C o l l e g e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , November, 1929. BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL B l a k e l o c k , E. "A New Look a t t h e New L e i s u r e . " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 4 (I960), 446-467. F o o t e , N. N. "Methods f o r Study o f Meaning i n Use o f Time." A g i n g and L e i s u r e , e d . R. W. K l e e m e i e r , New Y o r k , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. Homans, G. C. S o c i a l B e h a v i o u r : I t s E l e m e n t a r y Forms. New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , 1961, p. 38. Komarovsky, M. "A Co m p a r a t i v e St u d y o f V o l u n t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s o f Two Suburban Communities." P u b l i c a t i o n o f The S o c i o  l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a . 27 (1933), 83-93. • "The V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s o f Urban D w e l l e r s . " A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, (1946), 686-698. Lundberg, G. A., Komarovsky, M. and M c l n e r n y , M. A. L e i s u r e : A  Suburban S t u d y . New Y o r k , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. M e i s s n e r , M. "A Study o f Work and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an I n d u s t r i a l Community." Vancouver, Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y and I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r  s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 7 (mimeo.). Popper, K a r l . The L o g i c o f S c i e n t i f i c D i s c o v e r y . New York, H a r p e r and Row, 1965. Ross, J . E. and B o s t i a n , L. R. The Time Use P a t t e r n s and Communications A c t i v i t i e s o f W i s c o n s i n Farm F a m i l i e s i n  W i n t e r t i m e , Department o f A g r i c u l t u r a l J o u r n a l i s m , C o l l e g e o f A g r i c u l t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , B u l l e t i n 28, March 1958. Snedecor, G. W. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods. 5th e d . , Iowa, Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. S o r o k i n , P. A. and B e r g e r , C. Q. Time-Budgets o f Human B e h a v i o u r . Cambridge, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939. 61 62 S t e i n e r , Gary A. The P e o p l e Look a t T e l e v i s i o n : A Study o f  A u d i e n c e A t t i t u d e s . New York, Knopf, 1963, pp. 11-12. T u r a b i a n , K. L. A Manual f o r W r i t e r s o f Term Papers, T h e s e s . and D i s s e r t a t i o n s , C h i c a g o , The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1955. Walker, H. M. and Lev, J . S t a t i s t i c a l I n f e r e n c e . New York, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1953. Z e i s e l , H. Say I t With F i g u r e s , kth e d . r e v . , New York, H a r p e r and Row, 1957. APPENDIX A APPENDIX A ABSTRACT OF MAIN CODE MANUAL Q u e s t i o n T o t a l Number Per Cent Q u e s t i o n Code I n t e r v i e w e r number 6,19 87,89 16 1 A 18 2 B 22 3 C 27 4 D 16 5 E 2 6 F A c t u a l s h i f t 68 1 Steady day s h i f t 5 2 Steady g r a v e - y a r d s h i f t 15 3 A f t e r n o o n and day s h i f t a l t e r n a t i n g 8 4 T h r e e - s h i f t r o t a t i o n o v e r 7~day week 1 5 T h r e e - s h i f t r o t a t i o n o v e r 5-day week 1 6 Steady a f t e r n o o n 2 7 Other Where do you work? 54 1 Not l a r g e s t employer 46 2-8 L a r g e s t employer Is t h e r e anyone w o r k i n g under y o u r s u p e r - v i s i on ? 59 1 None 20 2 1-2 7 3 3-4 4 4 5-9 o 5 10-19 1 6 20-29 2 7 30-49 1 8 50 and more 99 How many p e o p l e a r e l i v i n g h ere now, i n c l u d i n g y o u r s e l f ? Q u e s t i o n T o t a l Number Per Cent Q u e s t i o n Code 3 1 Respondent 1 i v e s a l o n e 16 2 2 p e r s o n s 14 3 3 p e r s o n s 26 4 4 p e r s o n s 20 5 5 p e r s o n s U 6 6 p e r s o n s 3 7 7 p e r s o n s 2 8 8 p e r s o n s 0 9 9 p e r s o n s o r more What was t h e l a s t grade you f i n i s h e d i n s c h o o l ? 3 1 Grade 4 and under (and no o t h e r t r a i n i n g ) 30 2 Grades 5 - 8 34 3 Grades 9 - 1 1 3 4 Under Grade 12 p l u s o t h e r t r a i n i n g 10 5 Grade 12 o r completed h i g h s c h o o l (and no o t h e r t r a i n i n g ) 5 6 Grade 12 o r completed h i g h s c h o o l p l u s o t h e r t r a i n i n g 9 7 Any u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l e d u c a t i o n 0 S No answer. APPENDIX B T I M E R E C O R D [a) S t a r t i n g t i m e D a y : T i m e : E n d i n g t i m e D a y : T i m e : R e g u l a r w o r k d a y : 1 Y e s 2 N o R e s p o n d e n t 1 s S e r i a l N o . 1 2 = T i m e A c t i v i t y W i t h w h o m ? 1 A M 2 A M 3 A M 4 A M J = D o y o u s e e a n y o f t h e p e o p l e y o u m e n t i o n e d o n a n y o t h e r o c c a s i o n s ? ( S P E C I F Y , A N D M A R K B Y * ) (b) 4 AM_ r i m e = 5 AM.^ , 6 AM=— 7 AM; AM—r 9 AM -L Activity With whom? -.4~ Do you see any of the people you mentioned on any other occasions? (SPECIFY, AND MARK BY *) 9 AM-.:—. Time A c t i v i t y With whom? (o) 1 0 AM-3S- 1 1 AM- 12 i mss 2 PM.-. 2 PM T i m e - Activity, W i t h whom? ( a ) 3 P M = - 4 PM, 5 P M - ± = 6 PM== = 7 P M - - = Do you s e e any o f t h e p e o p l e you m e n t i o n e d on any o t h e r o c c a s i o n s ? (SPECIFY , AND MARK BY *) Do y o u see a n y o f t h e p e o p l e y o u m e n t i o n e d o n a n y o t h e r o c c a s i o n s ? (SPECIFY, AND MARK BY *) APPENDIX C STUDY OF WORK AND LEISURE CODE M A N U A L (Cards 4 - 7 ) Tine Record Question 88: "(IF RESPONDENT STARTED AND FINISHED WORK WITHIN THE LAST 24 HOURS:) I'd l i k e to take a record of what you did i n the l a s t 24 hours, s t a r t i n g about . . . o'clock yesterday ( i . e . , 24 HOURS BEFORE BEGINNING OF INTERVIEW). (IF RESPONDENT HAS NOT STARTED AND FINISHED WORK IN THE LAST 24 HOURS:) I'd l i k e to take a record of what you did during the l a s t day you worked, s t a r t i n g from the time you got up." Amount of time spent on an item of a c t i v i t y i s coded i n five-minute units. The sum for one 24-hour day i s 288 five-minute units. Item 28 i s not counted. " ^ M u l t i p l e item, containing two or more items for each of which there i s a separate code when coded sin g l y . A multiple item i s not coded elsewhere, and i s counted i n the sum. "snack" includes food other than the three main meals, and/or any non-alcoholic drink. "beer" includes any a l c o h o l i c drink. Column #s Code 312, 315 etc. WITH WHOM (applies to each column under "with whom" and "to/by whom") 0 No a c t i v i t y recorded 1 A c t i v i t y recorded, No Answer with whom 2 Alone 3 Spouse or sweetheart ( i f married—spouse; i f single—sweetheart) 4 Spouse/sweetheart and children/parents, plus any other (as i n '3' and » 5 ' ) 5 Children or parents, plus any other ( i n a two or three-generation household: i f R i s a parent but not a grandparent--children; i f R i s a c h i l d but not a parent--parents) 6 Household members other than spouse/sweetheart or child/parent (k i n and others, i . e . , other than '3', '4', or ' 5 ' ) 7 Kin not i n household 8 Spouse/sweetheart and work mates, plus any other 9 Spouse/sweetheart and any others not work mates or child/parent 10 - Work mates, plus any others not spouse/sweetheart or child/parent 11 J Friends or neighbors, plus any others not spouse/sweetheart or child/parent or work mate '• ' 12 K Strangers or persons i n formal or contractual r e l a t i o n s 13 L Any other combination 301-303 Respondent's s e r i a l number 304 C o d a b i l i t y of Time Record 1 Not coded 2 Coded 3 Coded but of li m i t e d q u a l i t y - 2 - Column #3 5-rain With, units whom 305-306 307-308 309-311 312 313-314 315 316-317 318 319-320 321 322-323 324 225-326 327 328-329 Item # Item and Code Setting TITLE 7 9 13 16 19 22 25 28 Time period without recorded con tent, or content i l l e g i b l e or unin- terpretable, or no answer Odd items which cannot be coded elsewhere ( l i s t ) Sleep (main sleeping period, not including nap, " l a i d down", etc.) home Get up and wash, shave, get dressed (not in c l u d i n g a bath, second wash ing, or after-work shower) Breakfast* mGet up etc. and breakfast Get ready for work, at home (not including lunch box preparation, or get up and wash, or meals) Journey to and from work I * * (f o r I I see item 64) Interruption of journey to/from work*** home home home home out NOCONT ODDS SLEEP GETUP BRKFST UP+BRK WREADY WRKTRI * (Item 16) For workers returning from graveyard s h i f t , record the meal following the a r r i v a l at home as breakfast unless that meal i s described convincingly as a dinner or lunch, or unless the meal a f t e r a main sleep period i s convincingly des cribed as breakfast. I f i n doubt, judge by thenature of the a c t i v i t i e s of other household members. Not everyone, though, must have had a breakfast. ** (Item 25) I f uncontaminated add time for journey to work to time for journey from work, as long as the di f f e r e n c e between the two i s not greater than two five-minute u n i t s . I f contaminated, estimate. Contamination means: (a) another item intervenes and has s t a r t and end marked ( i n that case do not include the intervening item); (b) another item intervenes and i t s s t a r t and/or end are not marked ( i n that case use the other journey and multiply by 2 i f the other journey i s uncontaminated); (c) both journeys contaminated and intervening item(s) not properly marked ( i n that case check R's home and work locatio n s and estimate time for one t r i p and multiply by two). An intervening item may be at the beginning and/or end of journey. Do not include journey to lunch and back. *** (Item 28) Not counted i n t o t a l . I f the time f o r the i n t e r r u p t i o n of journey(s) to and from work i s not marked or incompletely marked, code the r e s u l t of subtracting journey to work time as estimated from t o t a l time extending from departure to a r r i v a l . Do not include estimated contaminations recorded as occurring before and/or a f t e r de parture and a r r i v a l . Include the d i f f e r e n c e between journey to work and journey from work i f greater than 2 un i t s , unless there are j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r the dif f e r e n c e i n the data. I f such d i f f e r e n c e i s not l a b e l l e d code i n Item 5. - 3 - Column #s 5-min With units whom 330-331 332 333-335 336 337-338 339 340-341 342 343-344 345 346-347 348 349-350 351 352-353 354 355-356 357 358-359 360 361-362 363 364-365 366 367-368 369 370-371 372 373-374 375 376-377 378 Item 30 33 37 Item and Code Setting TITLE 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 Before-work activities at work site (talk to fellow workers, punch in, coffee, change clothing) Work Work (not including moonlighting) Work Work break other than lunch (coffee, tea, smoke break) (check questions 41-42 for consistency and additional information on WITH WHOM) Work ."work break other than lunch and games (playing cards) Work Lunch at work (includes eating lunch at nearby eating place that would substitute for a lunch room) Work "Lunch at work and games(playing cards) Journey to lunch away from work, and back Lunch at home After-work a c t i v i t i e s at work site (shower, washup, talk to fellow workers, change clothing) Moonlighting (time spent on sec ond job(s); record separate from item 33--Work) Work at home (main job only) Journey to/from work II (see item 25) Bath, second washing, shower, get ting dressed, get ready for bed Supper or dinner at home Supper and watch TV at home Work Out Home Work » Work Home Out Home Home Home Housework: preparing meal or lunch box, wash dishes, sewing, make bed(s) (does not include: care of children; work around house--if a man; repairs on house; furniture; car) . Home PREWRK WORK WKBRK BRKGAM LUNWRK LUNGAM LUNTRP LUNH0M POSTWK M00NLI WKH0ME WRKTR2 BATH SUPPER SUP+TV HSEWRK - 4 - Column #s 5-min With units whom 379 380 401-403 404-405 406 407-408 409 410-411 412 413-414 415 416-417 418 419-420 421 422-423 424 425-426 427 428-429 430 431-432 433 434-435 436 437-438 439 Item 104 107 110 113 116 119 122 125 128 131 134 137 Item and Code Sample 1 Co. 4 Other Card number 4 (card columns 301-380) Setting Respondent's s e r i a l number Trans i t i o n s (such as gett i n g out of the car and going i n t o the house, getting ready to go f o r drive--but not dressing or washing) Correspondence (writing l e t t e r s , reading mail, paying b i l l s , con cerning s e l f and family a f f a i r s , not work) Telephone conversation at home Care of c h i l d r e n at home (includes b a b y - s i t t i n g , play with c h i l d r e n , put c h i l d r e n to bed) Home m C a r e of ch i l d r e n and other ac t i v i t y ( l i s t other a c t i v i t i e s ) Gardening Care of animals Home- Home Home Home Home y Home Mechanics (work on car, motorcycle, boat, t r a i l e r , lawn mower.) Home Home maintenance, work or putter around the house, wash car (Does not include construction of house or f u r n i t u r e or a major p a i t i n g job) Home construction at home ( i n  cludes making f u r n i t u r e and major painting jobs) Home construction out Organizational. a c t i v i t y or meet ing at home (does not include en tertainment or church. Check mem bership) Home Home Out T I T L E TRNSIT CORESP .PHONE CHLDRN CHLDR-+ GARDEN ANIMAL MECHAN E4AINT C0NSTIN CNST0U Home INORMT - 5 - Column #s 5-min With Units whom 440-441 442 443-444 445 446-447 448 449-450 451 452-453 454 455-456 457 458-459 460 461-462 463 464-465 466 467-468 469 470-471 472 473-474 475 476-477 478 Item # 140 Item and Code 143 146 149 152 155 158 161 164 167 170 173 176 Organization of a c t i v i t y or meet ing not at home (does not include entertainment or church. Check membership). Drive to something or from some thing I * (not to or from work) (fo r II and I I I see items 146 and 149) Drive to something or from some thing I I (not to and from work). (See items 143 and 149) Drive to something or from some thing I I I (not to or from work) (See items 143 and 146) Drive around, go for dive -or r i d e I ( f o r I I see item 176) Walk to something and from s ome- thing (not to or from work). Walk around, go f o r walk Shopping f or goods and services I (not incl u d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l ser v i c e s ) ( f o r I I see item 276) Meal or snack out (not in c l u d i n g lunch near work place or v i s i t i n g and meal) Beer or other a l c o h o l i c drink out P i c n i c out Loafing out, s i t t i n g around, sun bathing (at lake, i n hotel lobby, at s t r e e t corner, drug store) Drive around, go for d r i v e , r i d e I I (see item 152) Setting TITLE Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out OUORMT DRIVE1 DRIVE2 DRIVE3 D R I A R 1 WALKTO WLKARD SHOPGI EATOUT EEERCU PCNCOU LOAFOU BRIAR2 * (Item 143: WITH WHOM: i f two or more t r i p s are recorded with d i f f e r e n t categor ies of others, code the sum of those t r i p s with the same category of others, and code t r i p s with d i f f e r e n t categories of others i n the sequence of the WITH WHOM code, i . e . lowest code number f i r s t , i n 143, 146, 149. - 6 - Column #s 5-min With units whom Item # Item and Code Setting TITLE 479 Sample 1 Co. 4 Other • 480 Card number 5 (card columns 401-480). 501-503 - Respondent's serial number 504-505 506 204 Read book(s) Home RDBOOK 507-508 509 207 Read, read paper, magazines (not books)* Home PAPER 510 511 512 210 "Read and watch TV* Home READTV 513-514 515 213 "Read and lis t e n to Radio* Home RD+RAD 516-517 518 216 ^Read and beer* Home RDBEER 519-520 521 219 m Read and Talk* Home RDlllK 522-523 524 222 "'Read and Loaf* Home RDLOAF 525-526 527 225 Watch TV I* (for II see item 369) Home TV1 528-529 530 228 "Watch TV and beer* Home TV BEER 531-532 533 231 ""Watch TV and talk* Home TVTALK 534-535 536 234 Listen to radio* Home RADIO 537-538 539 237 Games* Home GAMES 540-541 542 240 000 000 543-544 545 243 Beer at home* Home BEER 546-547 548 246 Loaf, relax, "lay down", nap* Home LOAF 549-550 551 249 Talk* Home TALK 552-553 554 252 Snack at home Home SNACK 555-556 557 255 Hobby proper (other than mech anics or construction) at home Home HOBBY * Each of these items may include snack. Column #s 5-min With units whom 558-559 560 561-562 563 564-565 566 567-568 569 570-571 572 573-574 575 576-577 578 579 Item # 258 261 264 267 270 273 276 Item and Code Setting TITLE A c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n organized sports Out Act i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n unorganized sports (swimming). Out Watching organized sports. Out Hunting or f i s h i n g Out Entertainment i n organization not at home (does not include church, check membership) X)ut Entertainment out (plant tour,, c a r n i v a l , parade, movies, watch ing accident). Out Shopping I I (see item 161) Out Sample 1 Co. 4 Other ORGSPT NORGSP WATSPT FISHUN ORGENT ENTOUT SH0PG2 580. Card number. 6 (card columns 501-580). Column #s 5-min With To/by units whom whom 601-603 604-605 606 607 608-609 610 611 612-613 614 615 616-617 618 619 620-621 622 623 624-625 626 . 627 628-629 630 631 632-633 634 635 636-637 638 639 640-641 642 643 644-645 646 647 648-649 650 651 652-653 654 655 656-657 658 660-661 662 663-664 665 666-667 668 659 Item # 304 308 312 316 320 324 332 336 340 344 348 352 356 360 363 366 Item and Code Respondents serial number. Setting TITLE Being visited (plus talk or snack) Home WITH WHOM (in whose company R is when others v i s i t him) BY WHOM (who is v i s i t i n g $) m Being visited and meal "Being visited and watch TV (plus talk or snack) Being visited and watch TV and beer (plus talk or snack) "Being visited and games (plus talk, beer or snack) "Being visited and beer (plus talk or snack) BLANK V i s i t i n g (includes only time spent at place visited) (plus talk or snack). WITH WH0M:(in whose company i s R when he goes v i s i t i n g ) . TO WHOM: (whom is R vi s i t i n g ) . Home Home Home Home Home Out " v i s i t i n g and meal m Vis i t i n g and watch TV (plus talk or snack) "Vis i t i n g and watch TV and beer (plus talk or snack) " V i s i t i n g and games (plus talk, beer or snack) " V i s i t i n g and beer (plus talk or snack) "Vi siting and work on car Religion out Religion at home Music at home Out Out i Out Out Out Out Out Home Home GMPANY COMEAL COMPTV COTVBR C C M P G M COBEER VISITG VIMEAL VISITV VITVBR VISTGM VIBEER VISCAR RELOUT RELHOM HMUSIC - 9 - C o l u m n # s 5 - m i n W i t h I t e m u n i t s w h o m # I t e m a n d C o d e S e t t i n g T I T L E 669-670 671 369 W a t c h TV I I ( s e e i t e m 225) H o m e TV2 672-673 674 372 P r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s o u t O u t P R F S E R ( l a w y e r ' s o f f i c e , X r a y a t h o s  p i t a l , d e n t i s t , d o c t o r ) 675-678 679 680 BLANK. S a m p l e . 1 C o . 4 O t h e r C a r d n u m b e r . 7 ( c a r d c o l u m n s 601-680). 

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