UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social work intervention in the school setting Callahan, Marilyn 1967

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SOCIAL WORK INTERVENTION IN THE SCHOOL SETTING by M a r i l y n C a l l a h a n Santo Thomas D'Aquino Nancy H i g g i n s o n Agnes Ng B a r b a r a S e x t o n I r e n e Yaremko T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Req u i r e m e n t s f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1967 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e (^Oh>*xs<y f 2- Sf6 7 ABSTRACT D u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r 1965 - 1966 the Vancouver E a s t Y.W.CA. took p a r t i n a p r o j e c t aimed a t i m p r o v i n g the s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e s o f a s e l e c t e d group o f c h i l d r e n from the Woodland P a r k A r e a . T h i s p r o j e c t i n -v o l v e d the combined e f f o r t s o f the s c h o o l , the s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t group and the p r o v i s i o n o f f a m i l y s e r v i c e s . I t was hoped t h a t the team a p p r o a c h , as a p p l i e d t o the p r o b l e m o f s c h o o l m a l p e r f o r m a n c e , would p r o v i d e optimum s e r v i c e and f a c i l i t a t e f u t u r e c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i n the d i s t r i c t . A l -though a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h a t f i r s t y e a r , t h e r e was a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g i n the s c h o o l s t h a t the p r o j e c t had had b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s , some d e c i s i v e p r o o f was needed. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y was c o n c e i v e d , i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e change, i f any, w h i c h o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f s o c i a l work i n t e r -v e n t i o n . I n i t i a l r e s e a r c h was based upon an a n a l y s i s o f r a t i n g s c a l e r e -s u l t s , and i t was hoped, by the r e s e a r c h team, t h a t a " b e f o r e - a f t e r " p i c f c t e e would e v o l v e , and p r o v i d e some c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h would be u s e f u l i n e v a l u a -t i n g change i n the c h i l d r e n . However, a f t e r o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y o f the d a t a , i t became o b v i o u s t h a t a number o f problems hampered f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . The r a t i n g s c a l e c o u l d n o t be assumed e i t h e r v a l i d o r r e l i a b l e ; t h e r e were d i s c r e p a n c i e s between v e r b a l and r e c o r d e d judgements; t h e r e were d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the use o f the r a t i n g s c a l e amongst b o t h s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s and group w o r k e r s ; i n many c a s e s r a t i n g s c a l e s were l e f t i n c o m p l e t e and no c o r r e l a t i o n s o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d . Added to t h e s e p r o b l e m s , were the l a c k o f any c o n t r o l g r o u p s , so t h a t t h e r e was a p r o h i b i -t i v e number o f i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s , and u n c e r t a i n and d i f f e r i n g c r i t e r i a u sed f o r r e f e r r a l . The f o c u s o f the r e s e a r c h team t h e n c e n t r e d on f o r m a t i o n o f a new d e s i g n , w h i c h a t t e m p t s to a v o i d p r e v i o u s m i s t a k e s , p r o v i d e s new r a t i n g d e v i c e s , and o u t l i n e s a s t a t i s t i c a l method of a n a l y z i n g the d a t a t o be c o l l -e c t e d . I t i s t o be hoped t h a t w i t h t h i s d i f f e r e n t b a s i s and f o c u s a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t m i g h t be c a r r i e d o u t t o t r u l y e v a l u a t e s u c c e s s o f the p r o -gram, and f a c i l i t a t e f u t u r e p l a n n i n g and s e r v i c e s . i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapt e r I . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND I n i t i a l c o n c e r n about Woodland P a r k r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . Agreement f o r emergency a c t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a W o r k i n g Committee. Needs and r e s o u r c e s s t u d y . P h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the a r e a . I n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y p r o b l e m s . E t h n i c g roups. C u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n of c h i l d r e n . D e s c r i p t i o n of s c h o o l s . S o l u t i o n s u g g e s t e d by S t u d y . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of recommendations. E v a l u a t i o n S t u dy. S p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o f t h e s i s . I n c e p t i o n of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t p. 1 C h a p t e r I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Purpos e o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t groups. Group work r e s u l t s w i t h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The s c h o o l system and the c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d . E f f e c t o f f a m i l y on s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e . G e n e r a l t r e n d s i n l i t e r a t u r e p. 15 C h a p t e r I I I . PROBLEM FORMULATION O r i g i n a l p u r p o s e of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . A p p l i c a t i o n o f systems t h e o r y . P o s s i b l e c r i t e r i a o f r e f e r r a l . H y p o t h e s e s . A s s u m p t i o n s . O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s p. 23 C h a p t e r IV. RESEARCH DESIGN AND DATA ANALYSIS Pu r p o s e o f r a t i n g . C r e a t o r s of r a t i n g s c a l e . D e s c r i p t i o n of r a t i n g s c a l e and i t s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . Use o f r a t i n g s c a l e by v a r i o u s " e x p e r t s " . Sample chosen. C o l l e c t i o n o f the d a t a . Data a n a l y s i s . R e j e c t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s . Reasons f o r r e j e c t i o n . , p. 30 C h a p t e r V. EVALUATION OF THE PILOT PROJECT D i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t e a c h e r s ' i n i t i a l r a t i n g . D i s c r e p a n c i e s i n group w o r k e r s ' r a t i n g s . P r e v e n t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n of program. C r i t e r i a o f p r e v e n t i v e programs. P r e v e n t i v e programs and s o c i a l work v a l u e s . P r e d i c t a b i l i t y t e s t s . P r e v e n t i o n v e r s u s t r e a t m e n t . A d e s i g n t o e v a l u a t e p r e v e n t i v e programs. E v a l u a t i o n of s c h o o l p r o j e c t . Recommendations f o r a new d e s i g n p. 40 C h a p t e r V I . THE NEW DESIGN E m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e i n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . S e l e c t i o n o f group members. Theory o f competence. H y p o t h e s e s . O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s . A s s u m p t i o n s . Use o f c o n t r o l g r oups. Common r a t i n g e r r o r s . Group work c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n new d e s i g n . S t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n of e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r oups. S a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s . G a t h e r i n g d a t a . Measurement s c a l e . S e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e . S o c i o - m e t r i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s p. 56 B i b l i o g r a p h y • p. 84 App e n d i x A - R a t i n g S c a l e p. 89 A p p e n d i x B - R a t i n g Sheet p. 91 Appe n d i x C - C a l c u l a t i o n of C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t t o t e s t F i r s t Hypotheses p. 107 Appe n d i x D - Graphs (a) Graph 1:- Age C o m p o s i t i o n o f o r i g i n a l and F i n a l Sample p. 108 (b) Graph 2:- Grade C o m p o s i t i o n o f o r i g i n a l and F i n a l Sample p. 109 (c ) Graph 3:- Comparison o f I n i t i a l R a t i n g s by S c h o o l & Y.W.CA p. 110 Ap p e n d i x E - T a b l e s '\ • ) (a) T a b l e 1:- N a t i o n a l i t y p. I l l (b) T a b l e 2:- C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of O r i g i n a l and F i n a l Samples S c h o o l a t t e n d e d p. 112 (c ) T a b l e 3: - R e f e r r a l S o u r c e p. 113 (d) T a b l e 4:- A d u l t and Peer R e l a t i o n s h i p R a t i n g by S c h o o l on Ten Cases p. 114 (e) T a b l e 5:- A d u l t and S i b l i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p R a t i n g s by P r i m a r y Agency on Ten Cases p. 115 ( f ) T a b l e 6:- A d u l t and P e e r R e l a t i o n s h i p R a t i n g by Group Worker on Ten Cases p. 116 App e n d i x F - Y.W.CA. R e g i s t r a t i o n Form p. 117 Ap p e n d i x G - R e f e r r a l Form p. 118 Ap p e n d i x H - V e r b a l D e s c r i p t i o n Sheet p. 119 Ap p e n d i x I - E v a l u a t i o n o f V e r b a l D e s c r i p t i o n S h e e t . . . . p. 149 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s s t u d y has been made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t he c o - o p e r a t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s o f . a number o f p e o p l e . We w i s h t o e x p r e s s our s i n c e r e a p p r e c -i a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the f o l l o w i n g : Dr. G. H a m i l t o n , S c h o o l o f . S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e , g u i d a n c e and encouragement t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r . M i s s G. Gentleman, D i r e c t o r o f Vancouver E a s t Y.W.C.A. and Pender Y.W.C.A. f o r h e r c o - o p e r a t i o n , s u g g e s t i o n s and keen i n t e r e s t i n our p r o j e c t . The p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h i n g s t a f f o f the s c h o o l s c o n c e r n e d - Seymour, Mac-Don a l d , Grandview, and L o r d N e l s o n f o r so f a i t h f u l l y and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y c a r r y i n g o u t the program i n the s c h o o l s and o f f e r i n g t h e i r s u p p o r t and encouragement i n the s t u d y . SOCIAL WORK INTERVENTION IN THE SCHOOL SETTING 1. CHAPTER I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND I n November 1963, (64, p. 1) because o f a n o t i c e a b l e l a c k o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r boys i n t h a t a r e a o f E a s t Vancouver now known as Woodland P a r k , a m e e t i n g was convened under the a u s p i c e s o f t h e Wel-f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s i n whic h were r e p r e s e n t e d the s c h o o l , h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and r e c r e a t i o n agen-cy p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c i n g the a r e a . The n o t i c e a b l e l a c k o f s e r v i c e deve-l o p e d i n p a r t , because the Y.M.C.A. w h i c h had s e r v i c e d the a r e a , had moved from i t s l o c a t i o n on Commercial D r i v e , t o a new l o c a t i o n on E a s t Broadway i n 1960, l e a v i n g t he group s e r v i c e s f o r b o t h boys and g i r l s i n the a r e a , to the Y.W.C.A. T h i s t a s k was assumed by the Vancouver E a s t Y.W.C.A. u n t i l 1963, when the boy's program was t e r m i n a t e d because the funds t o c a r r y on were l a c k i n g . The gap c r e a t e d i n s e r v i c e s upon sev-e r a n c e o f the boy's program by the Vancouver E a s t Y.W.C.A., became o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o the s c h o o l s and M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h . I t was f e l t by t h e s e b o d i e s , as e x p r e s s e d a t the B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W orkers' m e e t i n g o f J a n u a r y 26, 1967, t h a t " t h i s group program, w h i l e q u i t e l i m i t -ed i n numbers, was v e r y e f f e c t i v e as a p r e v e n t i v e measure i n h e l p i n g boys w i t h a n t i - s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s . " So t h a t , a l t h o u g h the former meet-i n g was c a l l e d t o p e r c e i v e the g e n e r a l l a c k f o r c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s as w e l l as o t h e r groups i n the a r e a , t he s i x t o t w e l v e y e a r o l d boys were under s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Many o f the boys i n t h i s age range were d i s p l a y i n g a n t i - s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s o r b e g i n n i n g t o do so,.and i t was s t r o n g l y f e l t t h a t t h e r e was an u r g e n t need f o r some s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n . "Agreement was r e a c h e d a t t h i s m e e t i n g t h a t emergency a c t i o n s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n r e g a r d i n g t he p r o v i s i o n s o f s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r boys i n the s i x to t w e l v e y e a r o l d range d i s -2. p l a y i n g a n t i - s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s and t h a t i n o r d e r t o p l a n e f f e c t i v e l y f o r an o v e r a l l programme o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a , a s o c i a l needs and r e s o u r c e s s t u d y o f the a r e a would be c o n d u c t e d . A W o r k i n g Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d to c o n s i d e r ways and means of i m p l e m e n t i n g the m e e t i n g ' s p r o p o s a l s . " (64, p. 1) I n March 1964 (64) a n o t h e r m e e t i n g took p l a c e to e n d o r s e the W o r k i n g Committee's p l a n s " w h i c h i n c l u d e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n programme f o r s i x to t w e l v e y e a r o l d boys on an emer-gency, b a s i s and the immediate c a r r y i n g out o f the proposed needs and r e -s o u r c e s s t u d y o f the a r e a . The m e e t i n g a l s o c o n s t i t u t e d i t s e l f as the Woodland P a r k A r e a R e s o u r c e s C o u n c i l and an a d v i s o r y Committee was e s t a b -l i s h e d t o a c t as an e x e c u t i v e body to the C o u n c i l and t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g C o u n c i l p r o j e c t s . " (64) The p u r p o s e o f the s t u d y was t a k e n as h a v i n g been: ... u n d e r t a k e n so t h a t b a s i c p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l d a t a about the Woodland P a r k A r e a m i g h t be c o l l e c t e d , a n a l y s e d , and p r e -p a r e d i n a f o r m a t u s e a b l e by b o t h the community i t s e l f and the -agencies w h i c h s e r v e i t ... such d a t a was seen as the b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g on e i t h e r , a s h o r t term b a s i s -- t o a s s i s t i n the m e e t i n g o f immediate and u r g e n t needs o f the a r e a --o r a l o n g term b a s i s -- t o a s s i s t i n the o r d e r l y development o f s e r v i c e s t o the a r e a , w i t h a v i e w t o o b t a i n i n g maximum imp a c t upon the s o c i a l problems o f the a r e a ... (64, p. 2) The A r e a o f Woodland P a r k was a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d and b o u n d a r i e s e s t a b -l i s h e d by the Committee. These b o u n d a r i e s were a r t i f i c i a l i n t h a t they d i d n o t f o l l o w any sense of n e i g h b o u r h o o d l i n e s w h i c h may have e x i s t e d , b u t used the 1961 census to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r a r e a as T r a c t #7. (64) " I t was d e c i d e d t h a t Census T r a c t #7, w h i c h i s s p l i t by Commercial D r i v e be seen as the c o r e a r e a o f the s t u d y ..." (64) The b o u n d a r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h i s A r e a were drawn a t Nanaimo S t r e e t on the e a s t , F i r s t Avenue on the s o u t h , C l a r k D r i v e on the west and B u r r a r d I n l e t t o the n o r t h . " (63, p. 1) The f o c u s of the s t u d y was i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1. The economic, s o c i a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f the A r e a . 2. A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . 3. G e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n s o f the A r e a , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f needs, and the adequacy or inadequacy o f p r e s e n t f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s to meet t h e s e needs. (64, p. 3) The f i n d i n g s and s u g g e s t i o n s o f the s t u d y were p r e p a r e d i n F e b r u a r y o f 1965 and were summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. P h y s i c a l E n v i r o n m e n t A d j o i n i n g the " i n n e r ;£Sore" o f the c i t y , the s t u d y A r e a s e r v e s as a b u f f e r between c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l z o n es. D e t e r i o r a t i o n has r e s u l t e d from the age o f the r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s combined w i t h the e f f e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l p e n e t r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , from the west and n o r t h . There has been r e p l a c e m e n t o f s u b - s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g i n some s e c t i o n s by a partment b u i l d i n g s . S o c i a l E n v i r o n m e n t A t t r a c t e d to the A r e a a r e i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s s e e k i n g low r e n t a l h o u s i n g . As many o f t h e s e p e o p l e a r e h a y i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d j u s t i n g t o s o c i e t y , t h e r e i s an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s i n the A r e a . R e s i d i n g i n the A r e a . a l s o a r e a number o f c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c g r o u p s , the l a r g e s t two b e i n g I t a l i a n and C h i n e s e . G e n e r a l l y the p o p u l a t i o n p o s s e s s e s a low l e v e l o f s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t and a l a c k o f v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and hence i s h i g h l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o unemployment. M a t t e r s o f M a j o r Concern There i s a g e n e r a l apathy i n the A r e a toward c i v i c and community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Few r e s i d e n t s a r e aware o f what s e r v i c e s and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t . The c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y a r e c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d and l a c k v o c a t i o n a l a m b i t i o n s o r s c h o l a s t i c i n c e n t i v e . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e seems to e x i s t a c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t and d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s i m i l a t i n g on the p a r t o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . Among the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y e x c l u d -i n g C h i n e s e and I t a l i a n s , t h e r e i s a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s o c i a l p a t h o -l o g y , e.g. m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s , i l l e g i t i m a c y , b r o k e n homes. T h i s among o t h e r t h i n g s has r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t i n g a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . N a t u r e o f Needs and D e s i r a b l e F ocus o f S e r v i c e s W i t h i n the A r e a t h e r e i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e common t o l e s s p r i v i l e g e d s e c t i o n s o f u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s , e.g. p o v e r t y , unemployment, i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g . These and c e r t a i n problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , such as the low l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n and ina d e q u a c y o f v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s a r e g e n e r a l l y beyond the scope o f the s t u d y . However, t h e r e i s much o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e s s e n the imp a c t o f c o n d i t i o n s i n the a r e a , and t o p r e v e n t r e s u l t a n t s o c i a l m a l -a d j u s t m e n t o f the younger g e n e r a t i o n . On t h i s b a s i s t h e r e s h o u l d be a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f work w i t h f a m i l i e s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s on the needs o f c h i l d r e n and y o u t h . SPECIFIC.PROBLEMS AND SOME SUGGESTIONS TOWARDS THEIR SOLUTION E t h n i c o r M i n o r i t y Groups There i s a need to f a c i l i t a t e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f such g r o u p s . Care s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d to r e s p e c t e t h n i c customs and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r -e n c e s . Programs d e s i g n e d to r e a c h c h i l d r e n o f c&fchnic and c u l t u r a l m i n o r -i t y groups s h o u l d be accompanied by a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to and i n v o l v e m e n t o f p a r e n t s so as t o m i n i m i z e c o n f l i c t between the g e n e r a t i o n s . " C u l t u r a l D e p r i v a t i o n " o f C h i l d r e n Lack o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n poor s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e and p e r s o n a l i t y m a l a d j u s t m e n t s . Some s u g g e s t i o n s t o improve t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e : - s e r v i c e s f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n 3-4 y e a r s t o d e v e l o p o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l programs) - e n r i c h e d programs b o t h s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l , a t k i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1 l e v e l f o r c h i l d r e n from d i s a d v a n t a g e d f a m i l i e s . - programs t o p r o v i d e c u l t u r a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h use o f v a r i o u s forms o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( f i l m s , l e c t u r e s , books) - programs t o e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o become more aware o f v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b o t h t r a d e and p r o f e s s i o n a l , and the need to a c q u i r e s p e c -i a l i z e d s k i l l s . S o c i a l D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and Needs o f Y o u t h There i s a h i g h i n c i d e n c e i n the A r e a o f f a m i l y breakdown, c h a r -a c t e r d i s o r d e r s , i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h , j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and o t h e r s i g n s o f s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Of s p e c i a l c o n c e r n a r e the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s t h a t t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s have upon the c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d . More i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a r e r e q u i r e d , w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the e a r l y h e l p w i t h i n c i p i e n t f a m i l y problems- An e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g s m a l l group programs w i t h s o c i a l a d j u s t -ment f o c u s f o r 9-12 y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n , and an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e programs to s e r v e o t h e r age groups i s n e c e s s a r y . R e c r e a t i o n Requirements There a r e no P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n Community C e n t r e s i n the A r e a . The H a s t i n g s and G r a n d v i e w Community C e n t r e s -- t h r o u g h w h i c h the A r e a i s des-i g n e d t o be s e r v e d -- a r e n o t e a s i l y r e a c h e d by A r e a r e s i d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o l d e r p e r s o n s and c h i l d r e n . There i s a l s o a d e f i c i e n c y o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y -grounds . Hi g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e d the l a c k o f a swimming p o o l and a teenage m e e t i n g p l a c e . Day Care o f C h i l d r e n The A r e a c o n t a i n s a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s and w o r k i n g mothers who f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o supplement f a m i l y income. There 6. i s a l a c k o f day c a r e s e r v i c e s to e n s u r e adequate c a r e and s u p e r v i s i o n o f the c h i l d r e n . C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f S e r v i c e s W h i l e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t good i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e -s e n t l y e x i s t , a more f o r m a l i z e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s i s needed. I n a d d i t i o n , o n - g o i n g a t t e n t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r the o r d e r l y and. e f f e c t i v e development o f a p p r o p r i a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s . (64, pp i i and i i i ) A s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o the s c h o o l s w h i c h s e r v e the A r e a i s w a r r a n t e d , as t h i s t h e s i s w i l l f o c u s on s o c i a l group work i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s ; , s p e c i f i c a l l y , e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . There a r e two secondary s c h o o l s ( B r i t a n n i a and Templeton) and f i v e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s (Grandview, G r a n d v i e w Annex, L o r d N e l s o n , MacDonald and Seymour) wh i c h f i l l the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f the A r e a ; however, o n l y B r i t a n n i a i s s i t u a t e d w i t h -i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f the Woodland P a r k A r e a , the r e m a i n d e r a r e o u t s i d e the b o u n d a r i e s b u t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f , o f the s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s e s c h o o l s , r e s i d e i n Woodland P a r k , (64) so t h a t any s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w h i c h e x i s t s i n the Woodland P a r k A r e a w h i c h c o u l d o r does i n f l u e n c e the s o c i a l b e h a v i o r o r impede academic p e r f o r m a n c e o f the s t u d e n t s who r e s i d e i n the A r e a s e r i o u s l y c o n c e r n s t h e s e s c h o o l s . I t i s because o f t h i s f a c t t h a t the s c h o o l s have t a k e n a v e r y a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the Study. The Study has d i v i d e d the s c h o o l s i n t o two s e c t i o n s , the s e c o n d a r y and e l e m e n t a r y , and d i s c u s s e s the s i t u a t i o n s i n each a t some l e n g t h . H i g h S c h o o l s " B r i t a n n i a and Templeton have a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3000 s t u d e n t s , w i t h about twenty to t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f the s t u d e n t s b e i n g o f I t a l i a n o r i g i n . B r i t a n n i a has a f o r t y p e r c e n t C h i n e s e E n r o l l m e n t . (64, p. 8) I n b o t h s c h o o l s academic and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e adequate. The Woodland P a r k Study i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e main f o c u s o f c o n c e r n . a s seen by the s c h o o l "... c e n t r e s around the e f f e c t o f the s t a n d a r d s , v a l u e s , and a t t i t u d e s o f the home and community upon the p l a n s and g o a l s o f the s t u d e n t s Many o f the s t u d e n t s come from u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d homes, homes t h e r e f o r e which.may o f t e n be l a c k i n g i n c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t i m u l a t i o n , and because many o f them f u n c t i o n a t a " p o v e r t y " l e v e l , t h e r e e x i s t s i n many cas e s f e e l i n g s o f b a s i c i n s e c u r i t y , i n f e r i o r i t y , and l a c k o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e among s t u d e n t s . " (64, pp. 8-9) E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s "Grandview, Grandview Annex, L o r d N e l s o n , MacDonald and Seymour E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s s e r v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,500 s t u d e n t s . " (64, p. 9) The s c h o o l s r e p o r t t h a t c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n and grades 1 and 2 ex-p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g to the s c h o o l system because o f c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n and language b a r r i e r s which e x i s t i n the home. "A s u r v e y i n MacDonald S c h o o l d i s c o v e r e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t h a l f o f the s t u d e n t s i n Grad 2 had ne v e r been t o S t a n l e y P a r k . " (64, p. 9) The r e s u l t s o f t h i s l a c k o f s t i m u l a t i o n and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s g i v e r i s e t o f a i l u r e i n the i n i t i a l g r ades f o r many s t u d e n t s . Some a s s o c -i a t e d .problems, a r e : "... - non c o - o p e r a t i v e p a r e n t s - c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s - homes where d i s s e n s i o n and s t r i f e a r e p r e v a l e n t - b r o k e n homes and common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p s - problems f o r the s c h o o l s i n communicating w i t h p a r e n t s because o f language d i f f i c u l t i e s and h i g h r a t e s o f t r a n s i e n c y - d e f e n s i v e and d i s t r u s t f u l a t t i t u d e s by many p a r e n t s towards a u t h o r i t y - l a c k o f community i d e n t i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among the m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . " (64, pp. 8-9) 8. The Study made t w e n t y - e i g h t recommendations w h i c h were f o r m u l a t e d from the f i n d i n g s . These recommendations c o v e r e d a b r o a d range o f " l a c k s " and were made i n an a t t e m p t t o i n j e c t i n t o the A r e a the r e s o u r c e s w h i c h would h e l p t he i n h a b i t a n t s a c h i e v e b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t . Nine o f th e s e recommenda-t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t t o t h i s t h e s i s were: " 1 . That e v e r y e f f o r t be made t o use the f o l l o w i n g r e s o u r c e s more e f f e c t i v e l y i n the p r o v i s i o n o f l e i s u r e time and o t h e r s e r v i c e s i n the A r e a -K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b N e l s o n S c h o o l Seymour S c h o o l Woodland P a r k MacDonald S c h o o l Pandora P a r k Grandview S c h o o l V i c t o r i a P a r k Templeton S c h o o l G r a n d v i e w Park B r i t a n n i a S c h o o l Garden P a r k 2. That G r a n d v i e w S c h o o l a t F o u r t h . A v e n u e , be g i v e n h i g h p r i o r i t y as a l o c a l e s u i t a b l e f o r the development o f f u r t h e r l e i s u r e time s e r v i c e s . 3. That t he f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g be e n t e r e d i n t o by a g e n c i e s p r o v i d i n g l e i s u r e t i m e s e r v i c e s to the A r e a . T h i s would i n c l u d e the a g e n c i e s l o c a t e d i n the A r e a e.g. Vancouver E a s t Y.W.CA., and K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b , t h o s e on the p e r i p h e r y o f the A r e a , e.g. G i b b s Boys' C l u b , Broadway Y.M.C.A., and Pender Y.W.CA.,. and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n s p e c i a l s e r v i c e p r o j e c t s i n the A r e a e.g. Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n o f Ne i g h b o u r -hood S e r v i c e s . 4. That a b i l i t y to c o n v e r s e i n an a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e i g n language be emphasized as an i m p o r t a n t a s s e t f o r agency o r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l ; and t h a t such a b i l i t y be u t i l i z e d i n a d v i s i n g and i n f o r m i n g t he e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s . 5. That b r o a d e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n the E n g l i s h language and Can a d i a n c u l t u r e be d e v e l o p e d f o r b o t h p r e - s c h o o l e r s and a d u l t s i n the A r e a . Churches, p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s and p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d be i n c l u d e d as s p o n s o r s o f such programs w h i c h s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d a t l i t t l e o r no c o s t to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The programs s h o u l d s t r e s s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would h e l p r e s o l v e c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s . 6. That a l l a g e n c i e s , b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , a t t e m p t t o i n -c l u d e i n t h e i r programs th o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e f a m i l i a r t o the v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s , 7. That group work s e r v i c e s w i t h a s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t f o c u s f o r boys and g i r l s f rom ages e i g h t to t w e l v e y e a r s be p l a c e d on a perma-nent b a s i s , and t h a t such s e r v i c e s be expanded where p o s s i b l e . 8. That there, be an e x t e n s i o n o f the s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t f o c u s e d groups to a l l age r a n g e s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the f i v e t o seven y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n . 9. That a J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e program be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the A r e a t o i n c l u d e , 1. S p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s f o c u s e d to meet f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f o l d e r p e r s o n s , u s i n g the J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e method and e m p l o y i n g i t s t e c h n i q u e s t h r o u g h i n -d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y and group c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w s . .2, P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f a m i l y l i f e e d u c a t i o n programs upon the r e q u e s t o f s c h o o l s o r o t h e r a g e n c i e s . I n a d d i t i o n the J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e w o r k e r w i l l have a c c e s s to t h e s e a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s : a) S u p e r v i s e d Homemaker S e r v i c e b) L i m i t e d amounts o f emergency f i n a n c i a l h e l p c) I n d i g e n o u s l e a d e r s h i p when d e v e l o p e d , p a r t i c u - . l a r l y w i t h e l d e r l y p e o p l e . " (64, p. VI) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e recommendations was r e g a r d e d as s a t i s f a c t o r y and has been n o t e d w i t h some e n t h u s i a s m . "The s p e c i a l Program f o r e i g h t t o t w e l v e y e a r o l d boys w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d on an emergency b a s i s w i t h s t a f f s e r v i c e s o b t a i n e d from Cedar C o t t a g e Neighbourhood House and commencing wi,th .a-P-day camp program i n v o l v i n g some f i f t y boys w i t h i n the e i g h t t o t w e l v e y e a r o l d ra n g e , was e v a l u a t e d " (64, p. 5) and s u c c e s s e s were p r o -c l a i m e d w i t h t h i s program, as w e l l as the w i n t e r and s p r i n g program, ,and o t h e r community programs. (The s p e c i a l programs by t h e s c h o o l s f o r e i g h t t o t w e l v e y e a r o l d boys w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . ) "There has 10. been a major i n c r e a s e i n the e x p a n s i o n o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t f o c u s e d groups f o r e i g h t to t w e l v e y e a r o l d g i r l s . The Vancouver E a s t Y.W.CA. i s now p r o v i d i n g a t i t s Commercial D r i v e b u i l d i n g , f o u r t e e n such a f t e r - s c h o o l groups i n v o l v i n g some 118 g i r l s . One o f th e s e groups f o c u s e s on the e d u c a t i o n a l as w e l l as t h e a d j u s t m e n t needs o f new Can a d i a n members w i t h programs h i g h l i g h t i n g l e a r n i n g more o f C a n a d i a n customs and v a l u e s . The K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b , w h i c h f o r the p a s t y e a r and a h a l f has been o p e r a t i n g on a s p e c i a l p u r c h a s e - o f - s e r v i c e arrangement w i t h N o r t h Shore Neighbourhood House, now has i n c l u d e d i n i t s program a t the C l u b two s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t f o c u s e d groups f o r e i g h t t o t w e l v e y e a r o l d g i r l s . I n a d d i t i o n to i t s agency based programs f o r e i g h t t o t w e l v e y e a r o l d g i r l s the Y.W.CA., i n the S p r i n g o f 1965, was i n v o l v e d i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l " i n - s c h o o l " program a t G r andview S c h o o l . W i t h l e a d e r s h i p p r o v i d e d by the Y.W.CA. and the M e t r o -p o l i t a n Board o f H e a l t h ( p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s ) twenty-one g i r l s from Grades V I and V I I were p r o v i d e d w i t h a s p e c i a l s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t group program d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s . W i t h some v e r y e v i d e n t s u c c e s s i n h e l p i n g the g i r l s w i t h p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o b l e m s , and t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g them to be more r e s p o n s i v e t o the e d u c a t i o n a l program, the s p e c i a l group s e r v i c e s a r e b e i n g c o n t i n u e d a t the s c h o o l . " (63, p.6) "A good s t a r t has been made i n the e x t e n s i o n o f s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t f o c u s e d groups to f i v e t o seven y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n . The K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b now has two such g r o u p s , one each f o r boys and g i r l s i n i t s r e g u l a r program and hopes t o d e v e l o p more. The C l u b p r o v i d e s l e a d e r s h i p i n two " i n - s c h o o l " groups a t Seymour S c h o o l . These have been e s t a b l i s h e d a t the r e q u e s t o f the s c h o o l and a r e p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t f o c u s e d e x p e r i e n c e f o r some e l e v e n Grade 1 and 2 bo y s . The Vancouver E a s t Y.W.CA. i s p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p f o r two " i n -11. s c h o o l " groups ( k i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1) a t Seymour S c h o o l . A s t u d y con-d u c t e d by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s ' R e s e a r c h Department a t Seymour S c h o o l ( a c r o s s the s t r e e t from the K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b ) to d e t e r m i n e the number o f c h i l d r e n n e e d i n g s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t f o c u s e d s e r v i c e s i d e n t i f i e d some 75 boys and g i r l s . " ( 63, p. 7) A l l t he-adiorenoted group work s e r v i c e s w i t h a s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t f o c u s form p a r t o f the j o i n t f a m i l y s e r v i c e s program b e i n g d e v e l o p e d i n the A r e a , i n v o l v i n g the s e r v i c e s o f a worker from the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency and o t h e r community s e r v i c e s . (63, p. 7) T h i s i n v o l v e m e n t by the F a m i l y S e r -v i c e Agency was an a t t e m p t t o c o - o r d i n a t e s e r v i c e s , as the worker p r o v i d e s f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l i e s i n r e c e i p t o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , whose c h i l d r e n a r e members o f the s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t g r o u p s , and c o n s u l a -t i o n between the group agency, s c h o o l , and p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e w i t h the F a m i l y S e r v i c e w o r k e r t a k e s p l a c e f r e q u e n t l y so as t o g i v e optimum s e r v i c e and f a c i l i t a t e p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g i n the c l i e n t s s e r v e d . The s p e c i f i c f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s c e n t r e d on t h o s e groups o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n the " s p e c i a l s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t program" o f the Woodland P a r k P r o j e c t , r e f e r r e d by the s c h o o l s , p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , o r tho s e i n d i v i d u a l s who v o l u n t a r i l y r e f e r t h e m s e l v e s , . a n d a r e p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g a n t i - s o c i a l o r l i k e l y to d e v e l o p a n t i - s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s . T h i s t h e s i s l o o k s o n l y a t the group work program a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Vancouver E a s t Y.W.CA. to c u r t a i l t h e s e a n t i - s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s i f a g i v e n c h i l d pos-s e s s e s them, o r to p r e v e n t t h e i r development i f a g i v e n c h i l d d i s p l a y s s i g n s o f d e v e l o p i n g such t e n d e n c i e s i n the f u t u r e . The program i n c l u d e s b o t h boys and g i r l s , b u t had i t s b e g i n n i n g s w i t h the e i g h t to t w e l v e y e a r o l d boys who were o f s p e c i a l c o n c e r n to the Woodland Pa r k C o u n c i l . The o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t a r e , K i w a s s a , Cedar C o t t a g e , .and F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, b u t , t h i s t h e s i s has f o c u s e d on tho s e groups a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Van-c o u v e r E a s t Y.W.C.A. and pr o p o s e s to e v a l u a t e the r e s u l t s o f the group work i n t e r v e n t i o n a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Vancouver E a s t Y.W.C.A. on t h e s e groups o f c h i l d r e n . The R e p o r t o f I m p l e m e n t a t i o n p u b l i s h e d by the Woodland P a r k A r e a R e s o u r c e s C o u n c i l i n March o f 1966, i l l u s t r a t e s how t h i s program was d e v e l o p e d , i t s p u r p o s e , and i t s p l a n o f a c t i o n . I t s t a t e s : "The p r i n c i p a l s , n u r s e s and s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l o r s o f s c h o o l s i n t h i s a r e a have met t w i c e r e c e n t l y t o d i s c u s s the new boys' program. The main purpose o f t h e s e m e e t i n g s has been to c l a r i f y the r o l e o f each p e r s o n i n v o l v e d , i n o r d e r to a s s u r e t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a s p e c i a l s o c i a l a d j u s t -ment program and n o t j u s t a n o t h e r g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l program. The s c h o o l s f e e l t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be v e r y c l o s e f o l l o w - u p on e v e r y r e f e r r a l made and t h a t a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s s h o u l d be k e p t by a l l p e o p l e i n v o l v e d . " (63, p. 1 Ap p e n d i x C) I t went on to s u g g e s t v a r i o u s r o l e s f o r the a g e n c i e s a n d . p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . " S c h o o l •1. To make r e f e r r a l s av-These s h o u l d be done j o i n t l y by the P r i n c i p a l , P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurse and S p e c i a l C o u n s e l l o r . b. The P r i n c i p a l and S p e c i a l C o u n s e l l o r w i l l p r o v i d e back-ground on a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to the s c h o o l . c. The P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurse w i l l p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d . 2. To p r o v i d e f o l l o w - u p , the s c h o o l w i l l : a. R e p o r t p e r i o d i c a l l y on the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n . b. I n v o l v e the t e a c h e r s c o n c e r n e d . •c. A s s e s s the p r o g r e s s o f each i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r r a l a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . d. Have P r i n c i p a l , S p e c i a l C o u n s e l l o r , P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurse 13. and t e a c h e r meet agency w o r k e r s p e r i o d i c a l l y t o c a r r y on t h i s f o l l o w - u p p r o c e d u r e . Agency 1. To work w i t h s c h o o l i n s c r e e n i n g r e f e r r a l s . 2. To p r o v i d e a s p e c i a l i z e d program f o r boys w i t h s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s . 3. To keep i n to u c h w i t h the homes o f boys r e f e r r e d . 4. To keep the s c h o o l i n f o r m e d o f such p o i n t s a s ; ,a. F a i l u r e to a t t e n d . b. Degree o f c o - o p e r a t i o n from boy -and p a r e n t s . c. G e n e r a l p r o g r e s s of boy i n group. •5. To meet s c h o o l p e o p l e p e r i o d i c a l l y . D o c u m e n t a t i o n I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t : 1. Both s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l and agency w o r k e r s a l l o w time f o r a m e e t i n g once p e r month or a t agreed upon i n t e r v a l s . .2. S o c i a l w o r k e r s , t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s and s p e c i a l c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t on p r o g r e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . 3. The p e o p l e i n v o l v e d c o n t i n u e p l a n n i n g f u t u r e p r o c e d u r e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the c h i l d r e n c o n c e r n e d . 4. Each p e r s o n i n v o l v e d keep a r e c o r d o f s i g n i f i c a n t changes as the program c o n t i n u e s . 5. A t the end o f each term, a c o m p o s i t e r e p o r t on each c h i l d s h o u l d be drawn up. I n t h i s way i t would be p o s s i b l e to a s s e s s w i t h a f a i r d egree o f a c c u r a c y the e f f e c t the program i s h a v i n g . " (63, A p p e n d i x C, pp. 1-3) A l t h o u g h t h i s r e p o r t p e r t a i n s t o the s p e c i a l boys' program, i t was n o t e d t h a t s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d be worked o u t w i t h a g e n c i e s p r o -14. v i d i n g s i m i l a r programs f o r g i r l s . T h i s s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t p r o j e c t f o r a group was c o n s i d e r e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n . a s a r e s u l t o f a m e e t i n g between Dr. G. H a m i l t o n o f the U.B.C..School o f S o c i a l Work, and Mr. E. Helm, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f A l e x a n d e r Neighbourhood A c t i v i t i e s , ( w h i c h encompasses Cedar C o t t a g e ) d u r i n g the summer o f 1966. I t was s t a t e d t h a t an e v a l u a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t would be welcomed a t t h i s t ime by the a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d by Dr. H a m i l t o n w i t h Mr. M. S l a t e , M i s s . G. Gentleman and o t h e r s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t , and the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work's o f f e r o f a s s i s t a n c e was a c c e p t e d a f t e r a g r e e -ment among a l l a g e n c i e s and the s c h o o l s was s o l i c i t e d by M i s s G. Gentleman f o r an e v a l u a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h team was a s s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e t h i s p r o j e c t i n O c t o b e r o f 1966. 15. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE As was d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I the s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t groups were formed f o r the p u r p o s e o f c u r t a i l i n g a n t i - s o c i a l t e n d e n c i e s i f a c h i l d pos-s e s s e d such t e n d e n c i e s o r to p r e v e n t t h e i r development i f a c h i l d d i s p l a y e d s i g n s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s i n the f u t u r e . I t was the hope o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g and programming o f th e s e groups t h a t the c h i l d r e n who d i d n o t g e t a l o n g w e l l w i t h t h e i r p e e r s would l e a r n t o be more s o c i a b l e ; t h a t shy, q u i e t c h i l d r e n would become more o u t g o i n g ; and n o i s y , q u a r r e l s o m e c h i l d r e n would become more s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d as a r e s u l t o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a group f o r a y e a r . As a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p t o e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the so-c i a l a d j u s t m e n t groups i n i m p r o v i n g each c h i l d ' s s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , the r e -s e a r c h team c a r r i e d o u t a r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b i n g s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , v e r y few s t u d i e s have been done and c o n s e q u e n t l y v e r y l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e has been w r i t t e n on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r group work i n i m p r o v i n g s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t and/or academic p e r f o r m a n c e o f c h i l d r e n . -The m a j o r i t y o f the l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h has been w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t i s e i t h e r somewhat vague o r i n c o n c l u s i v e . F o r example, i n an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by D a n i e l s and o t h e r s on the use o f the group t h e r a p y a p p r o a c h w i t h p r e d e l i n q u e n t boys i n a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , the a u t h o r s g i v e o n l y d e s c r i p t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s o f improvement i n the boys. They f e l t the group t h e r a p y had p r e v e n t e d t h e s e boys from becoming d e l i n q u e n t . However, t h e r e was no f o l l o w - u p s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t t o see i f t h i s was r e a l l y so ( 1 2 ) . I n a n o t h e r a r t i c l e , d e s c r i b i n g group work w i t h s i x g i r l s i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h grade o v e r a two y e a r p e r i o d the a u t h o r , L o u i s e F r e y makes the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t o f r e s u l t s . "The most we c a n c l a i m i s t h a t we t r i e d t o and perhaps succeeded i n p r o v i d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e s e c h i l d r e n f o r the s t r u g g l e . Some were h e l p e d t o g e t a l o n g b e t t e r w i t h t e a c h e r s and p e e r s , had l e s s e n e d a n x i e t y , and r e c e i v e d b e t t e r g r a d e s . " ( 2 1 , p. 569) The improvement i n the g i r l s i s r e p o r t e d so s u b j e c t i v e l y t h a t one wonders i f some o f the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s d e s c r i b e d i n the F r e y a r t i c l e a r e n o t w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g on the p a r t o f the a u t h o r . Some o f the s t u d i e s found t h a t t h e r e was no improvement i n a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t and/or h i s academic p e r f o r m a n c e a f t e r he had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a group work program. I n a s t u d y d e s i g n e d by V i o l e t Gren-i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an i n t e n s i v e s t u d e n t a d j u s t m e n t p r o -gram c o n s i s t i n g o f b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and s m a l l group c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s i n a s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , i t was found t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l i t y change i n the t e e n a g e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program over a two y e a r p e r i o d . The c h i l d r e n ' s competence i n b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l s k i l l s d i d n o t improve any more t h a n o t h e r c h i l d r e n who were n o t t a k i n g p a r t i n the c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s -i o n s ( 2 7 ) . I n a n o t h e r s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by F r e e , 29 h i g h s c h o o l boys were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s . Group I r e c e i v e d no a t t e n t i o n beyond the r e g u l a r s c h o o l g u i d a n c e program. Group I I r e c e i v e d w eekly i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g f o r one s e m e s t e r . Group I I I r e c e i v e d two group work s e s s i o n s p er week f o r a t o t a l o f 26 s e s s i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y showed t h a t the e x p e c t e d g r e a t e r improvement o f Group I I and I I I over Group I d i d n o t o c c u r . Group I I I improved s l i g h t l y more th a n Group I I b u t n o t enough to draw any d e f -i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s . (19) Ham o v i t c h , i n h i s r e p o r t o f a f i v e y e a r s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by the Y o u t h C o n s u l t a t i o n S e r v i c e s o f New Y o r k , s t a t e s t h a t d e s p i t e the b e s t e f f o r t s o f t h i s agency i n h e l p i n g s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s t h r o u g h group work methods, t h e r e was no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n e i t h e r the g i r l s ' s o c i a l o r academ-i c p e r f o r m a n c e s a t s c h o o l . (29) Two o f the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d found t h a t t h e r e was improvement i n a c h i l d ' s academic performance a f t e r group c o u n s e l l i n g . I n a s t u d y r e p o r t -ed by Thoma of. 43 g i r l s age 13 to 17 y e a r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 30 group t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s , i t was found t h a t 867, o f the g i r l s improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r g r a d e s . (56) I n . a n o t h e r s t u d y r e p o r t e d by. C r i d e r two groups each c o n s i s t i n g o f n i n e f o u r t h g r a d e r s were formed. One group r e c e i v e d a group a c t i v i t i e s program f o r one and a h a l f h ours a week f o r 12 weeks. The o t h e r group d i d n o t r e c e i v e the a c t i v i t i e s program. The f i r s t group improved i n t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , the second group's r e a d i n g g o t worse. (11) How-e v e r a n o t h e r s t u d y , by D o e r i n g , r e p o r t e d t h a t group t h e r a p y d i d n o t a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t o f 50 boys aged 12 to 15 y e a r s a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e i r b e h a v i o r as i n d i c a t e d by l e s s . a c t i n g - o u t i n the c l a s s r o o m . (14) Perhaps the s t u d y . w h i c h most r e s e m b l e s the one b e i n g c a r r i e d out i n the Woodland P a r k P r o j e c t i s one w h i c h took p l a c e i n one o f the o l d & r s e c t i o n s o f South P h i l a d e l p h i a . The a r e a i s s i m i l a r t o the Woodland P a r k A r e a . The group program "was d e s i g n e d t o meet the m e n t a l h e a l t h needs o f e l e m e n t a r y - a g e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , w i t h emphasis on t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose p a r -e n t s a r e r e j e c t i n g o r i n a d e q u a t e . " (26, p. 582) I t was hoped t h a t e m o t i o n a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t c o u l d be p r e v e n t e d by e x p o s i n g some o f the c h i l d r e n " t o mod-i f y i n g group e x p e r i e n c e where they c o u l d e s t a b l i s h p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w p u p i l s and w i t h an a d u l t l e a d e r . . . . A v a r i e d program was d e v e l o p e d , i n c l u d i n g a r t s and c r a f t s , a t h l e t i c s , w i t h some emphasis on s k i l l , q u i e t games ( p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the s c h o o l s e s s i o n ) and d r a m a t i c s . F i e l d t r i p s were u t i l i z e d b o t h f o r t h e i r i n h e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e and to p r o -v i d e the boys w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m e a n i n g f u l p l a n n i n g . D i s c u s s i o n s iwere 18. an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the program. The boys were encouraged to e x p r e s s them-s e l v e s , f i r s t about the b e h a v i o r o f o t h e r s and l a t e r , t o some e x t e n t , about t h e i r own b e h a v i o r . " (26, pp. 584-85) The boys aged n i n e t o e l e v e n y e a r s who were members o f a group f o r l e s s t h a n one y e a r d i d n o t seem to p r o f i t g r e a t l y from the e x p e r i e n c e . The boys i n t h i s age range who were group members f o r two y e a r s e x h i b i t e d improvement i n s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e and i n academic a c h i e v e m e n t . A younger group o f boys, aged e i g h t and n i n e y e a r s showed improvement i n b o t h b e h a v i o r and academic achievement a f t e r o n l y one y e a r i n the group. (26) Because so few o f the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d were a b l e t o p r o v i d e con-c l u s i v e r e s u l t s o f the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f group work upon s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n , i t was f e l t t h a t perhaps t h e r e were so many f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n a c h i l d ' s poor academic and/or s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e a t s c h o o l t h a t a once o r t w i c e a week group s e s s i o n d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r was n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o change a c h i l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Two f a c t o r s which, a r e p a r t -i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l and academic a d j u s t m e n t a r e the s c h o o l system and the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n . The v e r y n a t u r e o f the s c h o o l system i t s e l f has been blamed f o r s t u d e n t m a l p e r f o r m a n c e . I t seems to be p a r t i c u l a r l y h a r m f u l f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n t h a t come from low-income, c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d f a m i l i e s . The m a j o r i t y o f the c h i l d r e n i n the s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t groups come from such f a m i l i e s . As Watson has s u g g e s t e d i n h i s f o r w a r d to The C u l t u r a l l y Dep-r i v e d C h i l d , "The A m e r i c a n p u b l i c s c h o o l i s a c u r i o u s h y b r i d : i t i s man-aged by a s c h o o l b o a r d drawn l a r g e l y from u p p e r c l a s s c i r c l e s ; i t i s t a u g h t by t e a c h e r s who come l a r g e l y from m i d d l e - c l a s s backgrounds;. and i t i s a t t e n d e d m a i n l y by c h i l d r e n from w o r k i n g - c l a s s homes. These t h r e e groups do n o t t a l k the same la n g u a g e . They d i f f e r i n t h e i r manners, power, and h i e r a r c h i e s o f v a l u e s . " (59, p. x) As P h i l i p S m i t h p o i n t s o u t r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e shows t h a t the p r e s e n t s c h o o l system f a i l s t o meet the b a s i c needs o f a s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y o f i t s p u p i l s . (54) Gordon, B e r k o w i t z , and Cacace come t o much the same c o n c l u s i o n about the s c h o o l s ystem, " . . . t h e t h e o r y t h a t many c h i l d r e n f a i l t o l e a r n because they a r e u n a b l e to see p e r s o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n i n the c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t was c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d by our s t u d y . The human r e a l i t i e s o f u r b a n l i v i n g a r e r a r e l y p r e s e n t e d t o them i n t e x t books o r i n the c o u r s e s o f s t u d y . " (26, p. 586) V i n t e r and S a r r i s u g g e s t t h a t the s a n c t i o n i n g p r o c e d u r e s o f the s c h o o l i r s y s t e m a c t u a l l y c r e a t e some o f the problems they a r e i n t e n d e d t o a l l e v i a t e . R e f e r r i n g t o the " g r a d i n g s y s t e m " u t i l i z e d i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m the a u t h o r s s t a t e : " I n the s h o r t r u n poor grades s e r v e as n e g a t i v e judgements, and i n the l o n g r u n they c u r t a i l p u p i l s ' f u t u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t s t u d e n t s were f r e q u e n t l y exposed t o a k i n d o f d o u b l e -o r even t r i p l e - p e n a l t y . Those who p e r f o r m e d b e l ow a c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d r e -c e i v e d a d v e r s e g r a d e s and m i g h t a l s o be d e n i e d as a d i r e c t consequence, a wide v a r i e t y o f p r i v i l e g e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l . They l o s t esteem among t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s , they were seldom c h o s e n f o r minor b u t p r e -s t i g e f u l c l a s s r o o m o r s c h o o l a s s i g n m e n t s , and they were e x c l u d e d from p a r t -i c i p a t i o n i n c e r t a i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s p r o c e s s , i n t u r n , o f t e n s u b j e c t e d such p u p i l s to n e g a t i v e p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a t h i r d p e n a l t y . " (58, p. 9) The p r o b l e m o f s o c i a l s t a t u s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system i s a c r u c i a l one. S i n c e the s c h o o l system i s s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o m i d d l e c l a s s s t a n d a r d s , l o w e r c l a s s c h i l d r e n a r e bound to come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h them. As L i n t o n has s t a t e d : "When the l a t t e r ( m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d r e n ) come to s c h o o l they e x p e r i e n c e a p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r a l e x p e c t a t i o n by t h e i r t e a c h e r s w h i c h i s v e r y s i m i l a r to what they a l r e a d y l e a r n e d a t home. Hence, the t r a n s -20. i t i o n i s from a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r to a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r . Bu t the d i s a d -v a n t a g e d c h i l d moves from a c c e p t a b l e to n o n - a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r , i n the eyes o f s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s who see the way he behaves and a c t s as ' s o c i a l l y de-f i a n t ' . " (34, p. 4) The c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d ' s problems a r e compounded by the s c h o o l ' s t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i a n c e on s t r u c t u r e d , f a c t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d c l a s s e s and p r e d i c t i o n o f f u t u r e s u c c e s s by s t a n d a r d I.Q. and a chievement t e s t s . The use o f I.Q. t e s t s t o measure i n t e l l i g e n c e has many d e f i c i e n c i e s . I n t h i s r e -g a r d S e x t o n p o i n t s o u t : "The t r u t h o f I.Q. s c o r e s . . . i s t h a t t h e r e i s no v a l i d way o f m e a s u r i n g n a t i v e , i n b o r n i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n f a c t , t h e r e i s n ' t even a g r e -ement about what i n t e l l i g e n c e i s o r what the I.Q. t e s t s t r y t o measure." (50, p. 6) The s c h o o l ' s use o f I.Q. t e s t s has a l s o been c r i t i c i s e d f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s . Reissman f e e l s : "There i s an i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t I.Q. s c o r e s o f u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d c h i l d r e n do n o t r e f l e c t t h e i r a b i l i t y , because the t e s t i t e m s i n c l u d e works t h a t a r e n o t i n the e x p e r i e n c e r e p e r t o i r e o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n . " (44, p. 51) T h i s a u t h o r a l s o f e e l s t h e s e c h i l d r e n l a c k m o t i v a -t i o n t o do w e l l i n the t e s t , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the examiner i s o f t e n d i s t a n t and b e s e t by f e a r s . L i n t o n has s t a t e d t h a t : "The r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween s o c i a l c l a s s and I.Q. has been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n numerous s t u d i e s showing t h a t , as s o c i a l c l a s s r i s e s , so does I.Q. and s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . F o r example, i n a s t u d y by the a u t h o r ( L i n t o n ) on a C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e was e s t a b l i s h e d a c l e a r and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and o c c u -p a t i o n , on the one hand, and s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t on the o t h e r . " (34, 35) The l o w e r c l a s s c h i l d ' s s t r u g g l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e the i d e a s and v a l u e s l e a r n e d i n s c h o o l may be h i n d e r e d r a t h e r t h a n h e l p e d by h i s home s i t u a t i o n . There may be v e r y l i t t l e s t i m u l a t i o n o r encouragement i n the d e p r i v e d c h i l d ' s home towards l e a r n i n g . Exposure t o books, m u s i c , p a i n t s , e t c e t e r a a r e min-i m a l as compared t o the home o f the m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d . A r e v i e w done by E.W. Gordon on the r e s e a r c h on s o c i a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n r e v e a l s t he f o l l o w i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. The home i s n o i s y , o v e r c r o w d e d , d i s o r g a n i z e d and a u s t e r e . 2. The a d u l t s ' modes a r e o u t o f tune w i t h the s c h o o l system and w i d e r community. 3. The c h i l d r e n , a r e weak i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n , v e r b a l i z a t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n towards l e a r n i n g . 4. G o a l s tend t o be more s e l f - c e n t e r e d , immediate and u t i l i -t a r i a n . (25) The c h i l d ' s p i c t u r e o f h i m s e l f and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s g a i n e d t h r o u g h h i s e x p e r i e n c e a t home p r i o r to h i s a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o s c h o o l s u c c e s s e s l a t e r on. (22, 51, 46) L i n t o n comments about the home e x p e r i e n c e s o f the d e p r i v e d c h i l d as f o l l o w s : " . . . t h e d e f i a n t c h i l d o f t e n comes from a home where the p a r e n t s ' v a l u e s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t and f r a g m e n t a r y . I n many ca s e s h i s p a r e n t s a r e a b s e n t from home a l l day and he had to l e a r n to fe n d f o r h i m s e l f . H i s time has been u n s t r u c t u r e d , p a s s i v e l y e x p e r i e n c e d and s u b j e c t e d t o a minimum o f a d u l t c o n t r o l . O f t e n he i s man-aged by p e e r s and a d u l t s who have l i t t l e o r no p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n h i s l i f e . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e t h a t c o n t r o l s , s t r u c t u r e and a c a r e -f u l l y o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l day may be view e d by him as f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f the r e s t r i c t i v e and p u n i t i v e n a t u r e o f the a d u l t w o r l d . " (34, p. 6) B e s i d e s the d i f f e r e n c e between the v a l u e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the low e r c l a s s f a m i l y and the demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the s c h o o l system the c h i l d may r e c e i v e l i t t l e o r no s u p p o r t from h i s f a m i l y t o a c h i e v e o r con-f o r m i n the s c h o o l . N a t u r a l l y encouragement from home i n c r e a s e s b o t h a 22. c h i l d ' s academic m o t i v a t i o n and h i s c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r b y . b u i l d i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards s c h o o l w h i c h i n t u r n l e a d t o f u l l e r use o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l and a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l esteem. I n a s t u d y by L u s z k i and Schmuck i t was found t h a t c h i l d r e n who f e l t t h e i r p a r e n t s a greed w i t h the aims o f the s c h o o l system made b e t t e r use o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y , ad-j u s t e d b e t t e r t o the s c h o o l and had a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s e l f - e s t e e m . (36) I t i s p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e two g e n e r a l t r e n d s i n the l i t e r a t u r e . One w h i c h d e a l s w i t h s t u d i e s attempting t o e v a l u a t e the s u c c e s s o f a s o c i a l work program i n i m p r o v i n g a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l f u n c t i o n i n g and one w h i c h a t t e m p t s to i s o l a t e the c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n a c h i l d ' s m a l p e r f o r m a n c e i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g . T h i s second t r e n d has emphasized t h a t a t t e m p t s t o i m p r o v e * a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l f u n c t i o n i n g must c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t s o f the s c h o o l system on the c h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . Such s t u d i e s c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s w i t h i n the s c h o o l system w h i c h i n h i b i t the s o c i a l growth o f the c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n w i l l be more f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n the n e x t c h a p t e r . 23. CHAPTER I I I PROBLEM FORMULATION The o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s o f a s o c i a l group work program on the pe r f o r m a n c e o f c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l . As the d a t a had. a l r e a d y been o b t a i n e d by the s o c i a l work agency and the s c h o o l i t was the f u n c t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h team to t a b u l a t e t h i s d a t a to d e t e r m i n e ( a ) , i f the c h i l d r e n improved i n t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n the Y.W.CA. o r s o c i a l work group and (b) . i f t h i s improvement c o u l d be c o r r -e l a t e d w i t h improvement i n the s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e o f the c h i l d . However, a f t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w o f the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t i t would be i m p o s s i b l e to r e l a t e improvement i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g t o the s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n because t h e r e was no c o n t r o l group p r o v i d e d i n the d e s i g n . A c h i l d ' s improved p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d thus be r e l a t e d t o any number o f i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s i n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . However, i t was p o s s i b l e t o t a b u l a t e change i n the c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m and/or i n t h e s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t group a c c o r d i n g to an ana-l y s i s o f the r a t i n g s c a l e A on a " b e f o r e - a f t e r " b a s i s . . I n o t h e r words, by t a b u l a t i n g a c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l s c o r e i n the s c h o o l and i n the s o c i a l a d j u s t -ment group and co m p a r i n g t h i s s c o r e w i t h the c h i l d ' s f i n a l s c o r e i t would be p o s s i b l e to i n d i c a t e change. I t would a l s o be p o s s i b l e t o c o r r e l a t e i n i t i a l s c h o o l and s o c i a l work r a t i n g s and f i n a l s c h o o l and s o c i a l work r a t i n g s to d e t e r m i n e i f a c h i l d p e r f o r m e d i n ; a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n i n two d i f f e r -e n t s e t t i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , because o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , we m o d i f i e d the purpose o f the s t u d y from an e v a l u a t i o n o f the s o c i a l work i n -t e r v e n t i o n t o . an e x p l o r a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n two d i f f e r e n t s e t -t i n g s . We, the r e s e a r c h team, d e c i d e d t o f o c u s on t h i s a r e a because the 24. o r i g i n a l program was d e s i g n e d t o h e l p a c h i l d i n h i s s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n ce t h r o u g h t r e a t m e n t i n a n o t h e r s e t t i n g . I f t h e r e was no r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween a c h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n the s c h o o l and i n the group work agency on the i n i t i a l a s sessment and i f improvement i n one s e t t i n g d i d n o t i n d i c a t e improvement i n the o t h e r , i t may u n d e r l i n e the f a c t t h a t much o f the c h i l d ' s d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s n o t o n l y from h i s own i n a b i l i t i e s b u t from the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l systems i n w h i c h he f u n c t i o n s . (59, 58, 34, 44, 50) I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n i t appears t h a t o n l y p a r t o f the t a s k r e -v o l v e s around c h a n g i n g the c h i l d ' s f u n c t i o n i n g and t h a t much a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be f o c u s e d upon m o d i f y i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l systems i n wh i c h he f u n c t i o n s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e expanded o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t t h e s e t t i n g i n f l u e n c e s the a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f the c h i l d we p l a n n e d t o compare the i n i t i a l r a t i n g s as marked on r a t i n g , s c a l e A ( see a p p e n d i x A) by the t e a c h e r and the s o c i a l group w o r k e r . A l t h o u g h t h i s may, appear somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o the e v i d e n c e quoted above, we would e x p e c t t h e s e i n i t i a l r a t i n g s t o c o r r e l a t e . We make t h i s s t a t e m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l e . I f we con-s i d e r the c h i l d and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t as an energy s y s t e m and the v a r i o u s a r e a s i n w h i c h he f u n c t i o n s as sub-systems we may e x p e c t t h a t s t r e s s in;;, one sub-system w i l l a f f e c t t he f u n c t i o n i n g o f the o t h e r sub-systems i n two g e n e r a l ways. (39, pp. 514-519) F i r s t l y , energy used t o m a i n t a i n the system w i l l be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the sub-system under s t r e s s , e i t h e r as arm-ament t o overcome the s t r e s s o r as a d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n to the s t r e s s . I n t h i s c a s e , the f u n c t i o n i n g i n the o t h e r sub-systems w i l l s u f f e r because o f a d e p l e t i o n o f energy a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i r u s e . A s i m p l e example o f t h i s would be the c h i l d who was e x p e r i e n c i n g , d i f f i c u l t y i n peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s and who f o c u s e d most o f h i s energy on b e t t e r a c c e p t a n c e i n the peer group a t the 25. expense o f h i s s c h o o l (academic) f u n c t i o n i n g and f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . T h i s may be a p a r t i c u l a r l y common p a t t e r n o f r e a c t i o n i n the l a t e n c y age c h i l d w i t h whom we a r e c o n c e r n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . ( 1 , 8, 28) The second p a t t e r n o f r e a c t i o n t o s t r e s s f o c u s e s upon the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t when one sub-system i s under s t r e s s , energy w h i c h f o r m e r l y went i n t o the pe r f o r m a n c e o f t h i s sub-system w i l l be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n o t h e r a r e a s t o compensate f o r the m a l f u n c t i o n -i n g s u b-system. Coleman (9) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s mechanism o f c o m p e n s a t i o n i s a common ego d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n and ,m:fey a l s o o c c u r i n . a n a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t an o r g a n i c d e f i c i e n c y by i n c r e a s e d f u n c t i o n i n g o f a n o t h e r o r g a n . The example w h i c h may o c c u r d u r i n g l a t e n c y would i n c l u d e the c h i l d who c a n n o t f u n c t i o n a d e q u a t e l y w i t h h i s p e e r s and thus seeks t o g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n by c o n c e n t r a t -i n g a l l o f h i s energy i n t o h i s academic p e r f o r m a n c e . ( T h i s , i n t u r n , w i l l p r o b a b l y f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e him from h i s p e e r s and so o n ) . I n t h i s s t u d y , we d i d n o t p l a n t o u n c o v e r w h i c h a r e a o f m a l f u n c t i o n -i n g a r o s e f i r s t , o n l y to s t a t e t h a t m a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n one sub-system a f f e c t s the p e r f o r m a n c e i n o t h e r sub-systems i n e i t h e r a n e g a t i v e way, t h a t i s , t h e i r a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m i s d e c r e a s e d because o f energy d e p l e t i o n , o r i n a p o s i t i v e way, t h a t i s , t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m i s i n c r e a s e d because o f c o m p e n s a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t he pe r f o r m a n c e o f any one sub-system i s a f f e c t e d by the e n v i r o -ment in#whieh t h a t s ub-system f u n c t i o n s . However, even i f t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t caused the o r i g i n a l s t r e s s w h i c h a f f e c t e d t he f u n c t i o n i n g o f a p a r t i c u l a r sub-system, the o t h e r sub-systems o f the whole w i l l be a f f e c t e d i n s p i t e o f the f a c t they may f u n c t i o n i n f a v o r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s p o s s i b l e to c o n c l u d e t h a t the c h i l d who i s m a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n the s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l e i t h e r m a l f u n c t i o n i n the community o r f a m i l y s e t t i n g o r w i l l " o v e r -p e r f o r m " i n t h e s e a r e a s . I n . a d d i t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t o u t t h a t p e r -formance i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g may be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o academic p e r f o r m -ance and s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the c h i l d may p e r f o r m 26. p o o r l y i n one a r e a and o v e r - p e r f o r m i n the o t h e r o r p e r f o r m p o o r l y i n b o t h . A l t h o u g h one may argue t h a t the s c h o o l i s one e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h the c h i l d i s f u n c t i o n i n g i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i v i d e t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t i n t o the c l a s s r o o m and the p l a y g r o u n d where two d i f f e r e n t atmospheres e x i s t . W i t h t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n mind, we w i s h to r e t u r n t o our o r i g i n a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n who m a l - p e r f o r m i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g w i l l m a l - p e r f o r m i n the agency s e t t i n g on the i n i t i a l a ssessment. Why would n o t some o f the c h i l d r e n o v e r - p e r f o r m ? I t i s our c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the c h i l d who " o v e r - p e r f o r m s " i s n o t as l i k e l y t o be r e f e r r e d t o a s o c i a l ad-j u s t m e n t group. C o n s i d e r the c h i l d who i s s o c i a l l y v e r y i n e p t and who f o c -uses a l l o f h i s energy i n h i s academic p e r f o r m a n c e . Such a c h i l d i s not l i k e l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d as much o f a p r o b l e m by the t e a c h e r as the c h i l d who p e r f o r m s p o o r l y i n b o t h academic and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . S i m i l a r l y , the c h i l d who p e r f o r m s p o o r l y a c a d e m i c a l l y and " o v e r - p e r f o r m s " s o c i a l l y i s more l i k e l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d f o r academic a s s i s t a n c e t h a n r e f e r r e d t o a s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t group by the t e a c h e r . T h e r e f o r e i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the c h i l d whose energy i s b e i n g u t i l i z e d i n d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n and whose p e r -formance i n a l l a r e a s i s a f f e c t e d i n a n e g a t i v e way w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o the s o c i a l work agency. And, as we have a r g u e d , t h i s " u n d e r - p e r f o r m a n c e " r e -a c t i o n w i l l permeate i n t o a l l o f h i s o t h e r sub-systems o f f u n c t i o n i n g , such as the f a m i l y and the community. T h e r e f o r e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e as the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s : 1. C h i l d r e n who a r e m a l - p e r f o r m i n g i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g w i l l be m a l - p e r f o r m i n g i n the group s e t t i n g on 'fch'e1. i n i t i a l a s s e s s m e n t . The second p a r t o f our t h e o r y c o n c e r n s the t a s k o f r e l i e v i n g s t r e s s i n a m a l - p e r f o r m i n g sub-system. Because a l l o f the o t h e r sub-systems have been a f f e c t e d i t may be d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e the o r i g i n a l a r e a s o f s t r e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the o r i g i n a l s t r e s s o r has d i s -a ppeared y e t the system m a i n t a i n s i t s e l f and i t s p e c u l i a r energy d i s t r i -b u t i o n because o t h e r s t r e s s o r s have a r i s e n from the o r i g i n a l one. Con-s i d e r , f o r example, the c h i l d who e x p e r i e n c e d a r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n h i s f i r s t grade a t s c h o o l . He may have been t e a s e d by the o t h e r c h i l d r e n and c o n s e q u e n t l y w i t h d r e w from s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . A f t e r he l e a r n s t o r e a d , he may s t i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s because o f the time he has l o s t , i n - h i s w i t h d r a w a l -and b e c a u s e - o f the p a t t e r n o f r e a c t i o n he has e s t a b l i s h e d i n w i t h d r a w a l . Perhaps the most e f f e c t i v e way t o r e l i e v e s t r e s s i n the s y s t e m i s t o f o c u s upon one s u b - s y s t e m r e g a r d l e s s o f whether i t was t h e o r i g i n a l a r e a o f s t r e s s , and a t t e m p t t o r e d r e s s the b a l a n c e o f energy i n t h i s s ub-system. W h i l e t h i s i s t a k i n g p l a c e , the o t h e r sub-systems . w i l l be a f f e c t e d because o f t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . It. c o u l d be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the o t h e r sub-system w i l l be a f f e c t e d i n , a n e g a t i v e way y e t t h i s i s n o t l i k e -l y t o o c c u r because o f the o r i g i n a l energy d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n i n the system b e f o r e the o n s e t o f the s t r e s s o r and the c o n s e q u e n t tendency o f a system to r e t u r n t o a p r e v i o u s b a l a n c e . C o n s i d e r a g a i n , the c h i l d w i t h the. o r i g -i n a l r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y whose s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s u f f e r e d as a consequence. I f t h e s e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e improved the c h i l d i s l e s s l i k e l y t o f e e l as s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about h i s r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y and w i l l thus have more, energy to f o c u s upon improvement r a t h e r t h a n i n d e f e n s i v e w i t h d r a w a l . We w i l l now t u r n t o the q u e s t i o n o f the way i n w h i c h the energy-b a l a n c e i n any one sub-system may be a l t e r e d . A t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r we emphasized t h a t .the causes o f m a l f u n c t i o n i n g e x i s t w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l and w i t h i n the e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h he f u n c t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e i t . i s e s s e n t i a l to a t t e m p t t o change b o t h . a r e a s , i f e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s a r e t o be o b t a i n e d . The c h i l d w i t h the r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y may need g l a s s e s and r e -m e d i a l a t t e n t i o n , y e t a t the same time i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o m o d i f y t e a c h -28. i n g methods and the p r o c e d u r e s o f d i v i d i n g the c l a s s i n t o c o m p e t i t i v e g r o u p s . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e r e was an a t t e m p t t o improve a c h i l d ' s s c h o o l performance t h r o u g h a s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e o u t s i d e the s c h o o l s e t t i n g where a c h i l d c o u l d d e v e l o p b a d l y needed s o c i a l s k i l l s . T h i s was an a t t e m p t to . change the i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . However, a l t h o u g h the c h i l d may d e v e l o p new s o c i a l s k i l l s o u t s i d e the s c h o o l s e t t i n g t h e s e may n o t c a r r y o v e r i n t o the s c h o o l s e t t i n g because t h e r e have been no s i m i l a r a t t e m p t s t o m o d i f y i n h i b i t i n g a s p e c t s i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g . V i n t e r (58, pp. 3-13) has o u t -l i n e d t h r e e major a r e a s i n the s c h o o l system w h i c h c a n i n h i b i t p e r f o r m a n c e : s a n c t i o n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , r e c o r d systems ( o r the tendency f o r a c h i l d ' s p r e -v i o u s h i s t o r y to t r a i l a f t e r him) and t e a c h e r p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h e r e f o r e we c o n c l u d e w i t h our second h y p o t h e s i s : 2. C h i l d r e n who improve i n the group s e t t i n g w i l l n o t improve t o a s i g n i f i c a n t degree i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g on the f i n a l a s s e s s m e n t . I n o r d e r t o t e s t our h y p o t h e s i s the r e s e a r c h team made the f o l l -o wing a s s u m p t i o n s : 1. The r a t i n g s c a l e i s v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . 2. The r a t i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s and p e e r s (6a and 6b on r a t i n g s c a l e A) i s an,adequate i n d i c a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e . I t was d e c i d e d to use o n l y the two r a t i n g s c o n c e r n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s to d e t e r m i n e the measurement o f a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n -i n g i n the s c h o o l and i n the s o c i a l work group as i t i s f e l t t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s and p e e r s i s the major f o c u s o f the l a t e n c y age c h i l d ' s s o c i a l d e v e l o p -ment. (15) The academic p e r f o r m a n c e o f the c h i l d was n o t c o n s i d e r e d because i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e from the r a t i n g s c a l e whether the c h i l d was marked a c c o r d i n g t o what he s h o u l d be p e r f o r m i n g as per h i s i n n a t e a b i l i t y or whether he was marked a c c o r d i n g t o h i s p e r f o r m a n c e i n the c l a s s as a whole. The academic p e r f o r m a n c e r a t i n g i s n o t r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t , s i n c e a c c o r d i n g to our t h e o r e t i c a l development, the c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d would l i k e l y be p e r f o r m i n g p o o r l y a c a d e m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y . 29. 3. The c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r group work program a d m i n i s t e r e d under s i m i l a r l y q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n the s o c i a l work agency. The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e terms u t i l i z e d i n our hypo-t h e s e s may be o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. C h i l d r e n : g i r l s , age 8 t o 12 y e a r s , , who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t program o f f e r e d by the W.C.A. and whose i n i t i a l and f i n a l s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e was r e c o r d e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s and group w o r k e r s on r a t i n g s c a l e A. 2. M a l - p e r f o r m i n g : a s c o r e o f 8 o r l e s s on the combined r a t i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s and p e e r s on the r a t i n g s c a l e A. 3. S c h o o l s e t t i n g : the s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h each c h i l d f u n c t i o n s . E i g h t d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the sample o f g i r l s feat 797„ o f the g i r l s came from the f o u r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e Woodlands P r o j e c t a r e a ; Seymour, MacDonald, Grand-v i e w and L o r d N e l s o n . 4. Group s e t t i n g : the 14 formed groups composed o f the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y and d i r e c t e d by the Y.W.CA. 5. I n i t i a l a ssessment: the November-December r a t i n g s t a k e n by t e a c h e r s and group w o r k e r s and marked on the r a t i n g s c a l e A. 6. Improvement: combined r a t i n g on b o t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s (6a and 6b on r a t i n g s c a l e A) i n -c r e a s e d by 4 p o i n t s . 7. F i n a l a s s e s s m e n t . The June r a t i n g s t a k e n by t e a c h e r s and group w o r k e r s and marked one the r a t i n g s c a l e A. 30. CHAPTER IV RESEARCH DESIGN.AND DATA ANALYSIS As the p r i n c i p a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t f o r the r e s e a r c h p r o -j e c t , a r a t i n g s c a l e was drawn up t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the p r e -v e n t a t i v e - t r e a t m e n t programs p r o v i d e d by t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h c h i l d r e n c a u s i n g c o n c e r n i n the s c h o o l . The r a t i n g s c a l e was t o be used n o t o n l y as an e v a l u a t i v e i n s t r u m e n t b u t a l s o as a means o f e x c h a n g i n g i n -f o r m a t i o n between the s c h o o l w h i c h had the c h i l d , the p r i m a r y agency w h i c h r e f e r r e d the c h i l d f o r s o c i a l group work s e r v i c e s and the group work ag-ency w h i c h was s u p p l y i n g the s e r v i c e s . D u r i n g the S p r i n g o f 1965 a committee r e p r e s e n t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t met p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r t h r e e months t o p r e p a r e the s c a l e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the f o l l o w i n g groups took an a c t i v e r o l e : 1. P r i n c i p a l s o f the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s e r v i n g the Woodland P a r k A r e a . 2. S p e c i a l s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s s e r v i n g the a r e a . 3. S o c i a l w o r k e r s from b o t h the group work and casework a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n s u p p l y i n g t h e s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s . 4. P u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s w o r k i n g w i t h i n the Woodland P a r k A r e a . A . p s y c h i a t r i s t and a p s y c h o l o g i s t w o r k i n g f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h U n i t #1 were used as c o n s u l t a n t s . A number o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s such as C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department and K i w a s s a G i r l s ' C l u b were c o n s u l t e d r e g a r d i n g the s c a l e . The R a t i n g S c a l e The r a t i n g s c a l e i t s e l f i s a s i n g l e mimeographed s h e e t d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e : s e c t i b n s v One s e c t i o n i s f i l l e d o u t by the s c h o o l , a n o t h e r s e c t i o n by the p r i m a r y agency r e f e r r i n g the c h i l d and the t h i r d s e c t i o n by the group work agency s u p p l y i n g the s e r v i c e . The two s e c t i o n s f i l l e d o u t by the s c h o o l and the group work agency a r e i d e n t i c a l . There a r e 14 d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s on w h i c h the c h i l d r e n a r e to be r a t e d . These 14 d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h seven a r e a s : r e -c o r d o f a t t e n d a n c e , r e c o r d o f l a t e n e s s , a c h i e v e m e n t , b e h a v i o u r , a t t i t u d e , r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s and a ppearance. I n the s e c t i o n f i l l e d o u t by the p r i m a r y agency t h e r e a r e 17 v a r i a -b l e s t o be r a t e d . E i g h t o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s have to do w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n : employment a d j u s t m e n t , f i n a n c i a l management, h o u s e k e e p i n g s t a n d -a r d s , c h i l d c a r e , h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s , s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and u n i t y , and s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s . The r e m a i n i n g n i n e v a r i a b l e s a r e the same as i n the s c h o o l and group work s e c t i o n s w i t h the e x c l u s i o n o f r e c o r d o f a t t e n d a n c e , r e c o r d o f l a t e n e s s and a c h i e v e m e n t . Each v a r i a b l e c o u l d be r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g from c a t e g o r y 1 - ' v e r y good' to c a t e g o r y 5 - 'very p o o r ' . Three o f the v a r i a b l e s were p r a c t i c a l l y l i m i t e d i n r e s p o n s e by " X i n g " c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f f . Thus i t was n o t p o s s i b l e to mark a c h i l d i n c a t e g o r y 1 or 2 on the v a r i a b l e s ' p a s s i v e ' and ' h o s t i l e ' , nor was i t p o s s i b l e t o mark c a t e g o r y 1, 2 o r 3 on the v a r i a b l e 'withdrawn'. I t was presumed t h i s was done because i t was con-f u s i n g to r a t e a c h i l d 'very good' o r 'good' i n ' p a s s i v i t y ' o r ' h o s t i l i t y ' o r even .'average' i n ' w i t h d r a w n e s s 1 . As a companion to the r a t i n g s c a l e e i g h t mimeographed s h e e t s o f o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were made up. (See A p p e n d i x B f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . ) F o r the e i g h t v a r i a b l e s w i t h w h i c h o n l y the p r i m a r y agency was c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l y more e l a b o r a t e d e f i n i -t i o n p r e p a r e d t h a n f o r t h o s e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a l l t h r e e groups marked. F o r example, under the v a r i a b l e 'employment a d j u s t m e n t 1 a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e was g i v e n c o n s i s t i n g o f f i v e p a r t s . Employment A d j u s t m e n t - A b i l i t y t o h o l d a j o b and m a i n t a i n s u p p o r t o f f a m i l y , t o l e r a t e f r u s t r a t i o n s . - Manner o f l o o k i n g f o r work. - R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h employer, employees. - Job p e r f o r m a n c e . •- L e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h j o b i n r e l a t i o n t o c a p a b i l i t i e s and t r a i n i n g . Each one o f t h e s e f i v e p a r t s was t h e n d e f i n e d i n each o f the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . F o r example: Manner o f l o o k i n g f o r work. 1. Very good - i s a g g r e s s i v e i n l o o k i n g f o r work. 2. Good - n o t a l w a y s a g g r e s s i v e i n l o o k i n g f o r work. More a c t i v e t h a n 3. .3. Average - needs some s u p p o r t i n l o o k i n g f o r work and has i n i t i a t i v e to f o l l o w up. • 4. Poor - n o t a g g r e s s i v e i n l o o k i n g f o r work -and needs much •support. 5. Very poor - not a g g r e s s i v e -and c a n n o t f o l l o w t h r o u g h on h e l p . A l t h o u g h the w o r k e r made o n l y one r a t i n g under 'employment a d j u s t m e n t 1 she had f i v e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s to c o n s i d e r i n f i v e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s making a t o t a l o f 25 d e f i n i t i o n s t o keep i n mind. The d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the r e m a i n i n g 14 v a r i a b l e s were somewhat more s i m p l e . No g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e was s u p p l i e d , o n l y the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . F o r example: R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A d u l t s . .1. Very good - i s more mature i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s t h a n f o r age group. E x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l l i k e d . Com-f o r t a b l e -with a d u l t s . . Has c o n s i d e r a t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r them. 2. Good - s l i g h t l y more mature t h a n 3 b u t n o t as s o p h i s t i c a t e d as 1. 3. Average - i s w e l l l i k e d by a d u l t s . I s c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a d u l t s . ( R e a c t s s e n s i t i v e l y t o a d u l t o p i n i o n ) 33. 4. Poor - cann o t g e t on w i t h a d u l t s , u n c o m f o r t a b l e , u n p o p u l a r . 5. V e r y poor - cann o t r e l a t e t o a d u l t s a t a l l , w i t h d r a w s o r s e v e r e c o n f l i c t l e a d i n g t o e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e . I n the s c h o o l s the r a t i n g s c a l e and d e f i n i t i o n s were u s u a l l y i n -t r o d u c e d and e x p l a i n e d i n a s t a f f m e e t i n g . I n some c a s e s the p r i n c i p a l s found time t o go ov e r the s c a l e and d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . I n t he group work a g e n c i e s and p r i m a r y r e f e r r a l agency i t was presumed t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h a t agency p r e s e n t a t the m e e t i n g s d u r i n g the dr a w i n g up o f the s c a l e i n t r o d u c e d and e x p l a i n e d the s c a l e and d e f i n i t i o n s to the s t a f f w h i c h would be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a r k i n g the s c a l e . I n the s c h o o l s the r a t i n g s c a l e s were marked by the c h i l d ' l s home-room t e a c h e r . I n some c a s e s the p r i n c i p a l and p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e were c o n s u l t e d . I n the group work agency the group worker who c o n d u c t e d the group the c h i l d was i n marked the s c a l e . I n the p r i m a r y agency the worker w o r k i n g w i t h the f a m i l y marked the s c a l e . The Sample The o r i g i n a l sample used i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 91 g i r l s a t t e n d i n g the a f t e r s c h o o l s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t groups a t the Vancouver E a s t Y.W.CA. d u r i n g t he 1965-66 s c h o o l term. The g i r l s ranged from s e v e n t o t h i r t e e n y e a r s b u t the m a j o r i t y were between n i n e and e l e v e n . (See App-e n d i x D Graph #1) T h e i r grade range was from one t o seve n . (See Appendix D Graph #2) F i f t y p e r c e n t o f the o r i g i n a l sample were C a n a d i a n w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g 50% r e p r e s e n t e d 15 d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s . (See Ap p e n d i x E T a b l e #1) E i g h t d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s were r e p r e s e n t e d b u t 79% o f the g i r l s came from the f o u r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s e r v i n g the Woodland Park A r e a ; Seymour, MacDonald, Grandview and L o r d N e l s o n . (See Ap p e n d i x E Ta b l e #2) F o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f the g i r l s s t a r t e d a t t e n d i n g the s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t groups a t the Y.W.CA. on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . Of the r e m a i n i n g 57%, the 34. m a j o r i t y (697,), were r e f e r r e d by the p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e w h i c h g e n e r a l l y meant t h a t the r e f e r r a l i n i t i a t e d from w i t h i n the s c h o o l . (See Appendix E T a b l e #3) The r e a s o n f o r r e f e r r a l ranged from p r e v e n t i v e r e a s o n s such as "Needs s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e " o r "needs f r i e n d s h i p s " t o t r e a t m e n t r e a s o n s " s i b -l i n g r i v a l r y , low f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h , . a n x i o u s , w i t h d r a w s " t o a m i x t u r e o f p r e v e n t i v e and t r e a t m e n t " L i m i t e d s e l f - c o n t r o l , l i m i t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n span, no e x p e r i e n c e i n f o r m i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . The f a m i l i e s o f t h e i f f a j -o r i t y o f the g i r l s r e f e r r e d (49 o u t o f 52) had c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s such, as the M e n t a l H e a l t h C e n t e r , C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n and C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Of the 14 g r o u p s , t h r e e groups were c o n d u c t e d by a f i r s t y e a r s t u d e n t from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work f o r e i g h t t o n i n e months w i t h a t r a i n e d M.S.W. group w o r k e r t a k i n g o v e r f o r the r e m a i n i n g one t o two months. The r e m a i n i n g 11 groups were c o n d u c t e d by t r a i n e d , e x p e r i e n c e d group w o r k e r s f o r t h e i r e n t i r e p e r i o d . The groups b e g a n . i n O c t o b e r , 1965 and r a n 30 t o 36 s e s s i o n s . A l l t he g i r l s were p l a c e d i n formed g r o u p s . The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a -t i o n was the grade p l a c e m e n t o f the g i r l and h e r e m o t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . Rea-son f o r r e f e r r a l , t h a t i s , the type o f symptom the g i r l was m a n i f e s t i n g , the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the g i r l , and the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the group w o r k e r were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the g r o u p s . G i r l s whose needs were not b e i n g met i n a p a r t i c u l a r group were s h i f t e d t o o t h e r groups a f t e r the C h r i s t m a s and E a s t e r b r e a k . C o l l e c t i o n o f the Data The f i r s t r a t i n g was done i n November-December o f 1965. The s e c -ond r a t i n g was done i n F e b r u a r y o f 1966 and the t h i r d r a t i n g was done i n June. U n f o r t u n a t e l y o n l y one o f the s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t u a l l y c o m p l e t e d 35. i ' t h e i r June r a t i n g s i n June. A n o t h e r s c h o o l p l a c e d a b r i e f v e r b a l comment on the r a t i n g s c a l e i n s t e a d o f m a r k i n g the c a t e g o r i e s . These comments were gen-e r a l l y t h e combined e f f o r t o f the p r i n c i p a l and homeroom t e a c h e r . I n November, 1966 t h r e e s c h o o l s were asked t o complete t h e i r June r a t i n g s c a l e s . I n one s c h o o l the t e a c h e r who had t a u g h t t h e c h i l d the p r e v i o u s term t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l completed t h e r a t i n g s . I n a n o t h e r s c h o o l , the June r a t i n g s were completed from t h e combined e f f o r t s o f the group w o r k e r i n -v o l v e d and t h e p r i n c i p a l . The t h i r d s c h o o l had changed p r i n c i p a l s and i t thus f e l l t o the t e a c h e r who had t a u g h t the c h i l d t h e p r e v i o u s term t o complete the r a t i n g s c a l e . I n most cases marks on the c i t i z e n s h i p p o r t i o n of the June, 1966 r e p o r t c a r d were used as a g u i d e i n c o m p l e t i n g the r a t i n g s c a l e s . R a t i n g s were done by p u t t i n g an X i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s q u a r e . On the f i r s t r a t i n g s Xs were a l s o p l a c e d on t h e l i n e between one c a t e g o r y and a n o t h e r . F o r example, an X c o u l d be p l a c e d on the l i n e between the 'average' s q u a r e and the 'poor' square t o i n d i c a t e a below average r a t i n g b u t n o t low enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d p o o r . T h i s system of m a r k i n g was changed as i t was found t o be c o n f u s i n g . I n some cases i t was n o t c e r t a i n whether an X was meant t o be i n t h e square or on an a d j a c e n t l i n e . A system of m a r k i n g was d e v i s e d whereby the r a t e r s c o u l d a s s i g n a p l u s or minus to an X. Thus, an X i n the 'average' s q u a r e w h i c h had a minus a t t a c h e d t o i t i n d i c a t e d a s l i g h t l y below average r a t -i n g . Of t h e 91 r a t i n g s c a l e s i n the o r i g i n a l sample i t was o n l y p o s s i b l e t o have 46 completed enough t o use i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y . E x c e p t i n grade c o m p o s i t i o n and r e f e r r a l s o u r c e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the g i r l s i n t h i s s m a l l e r sample d i d not d i f f e r m a r k e d l y from t h e o r i g i n a l sample. (See A p p e n d i x E T a b l e s 1, 2 and 3 and Graphs 1 and 2) I n o r d e r t o be i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r a t -i n g s from b o t h the s c h o o l and the Y.W.CA. had t o be co m p l e t e d f o r the v a r -i a b l e s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s ' and ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s ' . F o r s t a t i s t i c a l p u r p o s e s each c a t e g o r y was g i v e n a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e . Thus a r a t i n g o f 'very good' earned a s c o r e o f 10 a r a t i n g o f 'good' earned a s c o r e o f 8 and so on down t o 'very p oor' w h i c h earned a s c o r e o f 2. On the November-December r a t i n g Xs w h i c h were p l a c e d between one c a t e g o r y and a n o t h e r r e c e i v e d t he average s c o r e . F o r example an X p l a c e d between the 'average' and 'poor' c a t e g o r i e s r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f 5. How-ev e r d i f f i c u l t y was e n c o u n t e r e d i n a s s i g n i n g s c o r e s o f Xs w i t h minuses and p l u s e s a t t a c h e d . I t was f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c r i -m i n a t e between an X p l u s i n a c a t e g o r y and an X minus i n the n e x t h i g h e r c a t e g o r y . F o r example what d i f f e r e n c e was t h e r e b e t w e e n a c h i l d ' s be-h a v i o r who r e c e i v e d an X p l u s i n the 'average' c a t e g o r y meaning he was s l i g h t l y b e t t e r t h a n average and one who r e c e i v e d an X minus i n the 'good' c a t e g o r y meaning he was s l i g h t l y worse t h a n good? As a r e s u l t o f t h i s con-f u s i o n i d e n t i c a l v a l u e s were a s s i g n e d t o X minuses and X p l u s e s i n the n e x t l o w e r c a t e g o r y . Thus, i n an example o f two c h i l d r e n one o f whom r e c e i v e s an X p l u s i n the 'average' c a t e g o r y and the o t h e r o f whom r e c e i v e s an X minus i n the 'good' c a t e g o r y each r e c e i v e s a s c o r e o f sev e n . I n d i s c u s s -i n g t h i s p r o b l e m w i t h the p r i n c i p a l s and the group worker who s u p e r v i s e d t h e m a r k i n g o f the group work p o r t i o n o f the r a t i n g s c a l e s i t was t h e i r f e e l i n g t h a t t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e between an X p l u s i n one c a t e g o r y and an X minus i n the n e x t h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y . However, d e s p i t e t h e i r comments i t was f e l t t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the two r a t i n g s was n o t g r e a t en-ough t o w a r r a n t a d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e . Data A n a l y s i s I n a n a l y z i n g the d a t a from the r a t i n g s c a l e s c o m p l e t e d f o r the sample the r e s e a r c h team a t t e m p t e d t o t e s t s e v e r a l h y p o t h e s e s . F i r s t H y p o t h e s i s C h i l d r e n who a r e m a l - p e r f o r m i n g i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g w i l l be m a l - p e r f o r m i n g i n the group s e t t i n g on the i n i t i a l a s s e -ssment. When the s c o r e s o f the two v a r i a b l e s ( r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s ) a r e added t o g e t h e r the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e sum i s twenty, the l o w e s t i s two. I t was a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d t h a t a c h i l d r e c e i v i n g a s c o r e o f e i g h t o r l e s s on the a d d i t i o n o f the two i n -d i v i d u a l s c o r e s would be c o n s i d e r e d a m a l - p e r f o r m e r f o r the purpose o f the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s . S i x c a s e s o u t o f the sample o f 46 co m p l e t e d forms f e l l i n t o t h i s group o f mal-performer.s ,as i n i t i a l l y r a t e d by the s c h o o l . When the i n -i t i a l r a t i n g by the s c h o o l was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the i n i t i a l r a t i n g o f the group wo r k e r the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was found to be .16. (See Appen-d i x C f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ) A l t h o u g h s i x i s a c t -u a l l y t oo s m a l l a number from w h i c h t o c a l c u l a t e a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t n e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s c l e a r t h a t no c o r r e l a t i o n o f any.degree o f s i g n i f i c a n c e e x i s t s between the i n i t i a l r a t i n g o f the s c h o o l t e a c h e r and the group w o r k e r . The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . Second H y p o t h e s i s C h i l d r e n who improve i n the group s e t t i n g . . w i l l n o t improve t o a s i g n i f i c a n t degree i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g on the f i n a l a s s essment. A g a i n , i t was a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d t h a t f o r a . c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r t o be c o n s i d e r e d improved h i s combined r a t i n g on b o t h ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s ' and ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s ' must i n c r e a s e by f o u r o r more. T h i s would mean t h a t i d e a l l y he would improve one c a t e g o r y i n each o f the two v a r i a b l e s . 38. No c h i l d r e n were found t o have improved a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i o n s e t . Thus the r e s e a r c h team was u n a b l e t o t e s t t he second h y p o t h e s i s . By t h i s s t a g e o f the r e s e a r c h i t had become e v i d e n t t h a t a number of problems were i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e t e s t i n g o f the h y p o t h e s e s . There was the p u r e l y m e c h a n i c a l p r o b l e m o f the m a r k i n g o f the r a t i n g s c a l e s . I n some cases Xs were n o t p l a c e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f a square b u t were h u d d l e d i n some c o r n e r of t h e sq u a r e o r pe r c h e d on the l i n e above or below the sq u a r e making i t d i f f i -c u l t t o d e c i p h e r j u s t where the X was supposed t o be l o c a t e d . There was a l s o the p r o b l e m o f the change i n t h e way of i n d i c a t i n g g r a d a t i o n o f av e r a g e , of good o r p o o r . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned i n the f i r s t r a t i n g p e r i o d Xs were p l a c e d on t h e l i n e between one c a t e g o r y and a n o t h e r b u t i n l a t e r r a t i n g s X p l u s and X minus were- used. T h i s l e d t o the c o n f u s i o n of not knowing whether an X on a l i n e was e q u i v a l e n t t o an X minus or X p l u s . I n a few cases t h e r e was a d i s c r e p a n c y noted between t h e marks a c t u a l l y a p p e a r i n g on t h e r a t i n g s c a l e and t h e Y.W.C.A.'s r e c o r d o f what the r a t i n g s on a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d were. T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y remains u n e x p l a i n e d a l -though i t may be j u s t a c l e r i c a l e r r o r o c c u r r i n g when the r a t i n g s were c o p i e d from t h e r a t i n g s s h e e t t o the Y.W.C.A.'s p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s . The most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m o c c u r r i n g was t h e i n c o m p l e t i o n o f so many o f the r a t i n g . s c a l e s . O n l y t e n forms had t h e i r f i n a l r a t i n g s completed by the s c h o o l s i n June. The re m a i n d e r were completed f i v e months l a t e r ( i n November o f 1966) by the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l or homeroom t e a c h e r a t our r e q u e s t . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say how a c c u r a t e t h e s e r a t i n g s were. When a l l t h e s e problems o f t h e m a r k i n g o f t h e s c a l e were c o n s i d e r e d i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t he a c c u r a c y o f t h e d a t a i n many cases w a s c q u e s t -i o n a b l e . Thus no f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out on the p r e -s e n t d a t a e x c e p t f o r a b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f movement i n the f i r s t t e n com-p l e t e d c a s e s . (See Appendix E T a b l e 4, 5 and 6) From the r e s u l t s i t appears t h a t t h e r e i s e i t h e r no movement t a k i n g p l a c e o r e l s e the s c a l e i s not d e s i g n e d to show movement. I t i s the f e e l i n g o f the t h r e e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y t h a t the c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the groups improved i n behav-i o u r d u r i n g the s c h o o l term. I f t h e r e i s no movement i n d i c a t e d on the s c a l e t h e i r f e e l i n g i s t h a t i t i s the f a u l t o f the r a t i n g s c a l e and not because t h e r e i s no improvement t a k i n g p l a c e . Comments such as " M a i n t a i n the good S.A. ( S o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t ) work" and "The S.A. c l u b has been a s t i m u l a t i n g and r e w a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h i s g i r l " w h i c h appeared on one s c h o o l ' s June r a t i n g s i l l u s t r a t e the o p t i m i s t i c f e e l i n g t h e s e p r i n c i p a l s have f o r the group program. 40. CHAPTER V EVALUATION OF THE PILOT PROJECT T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l f o c u s upon an assessment o f the p i l o t p r o j e c t w i t h recommendations f o r a l t e r a t i o n s i n the s o c i a l work program and i n t h e s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o j e c t . One o f the major f i n d i n g s o f the p i l o t s t u d y was the d i s c r e p -ancy between the symptomatology o f the c h i l d r e n t h a t were r e f e r r e d and the symptomatology we e x p e c t e d i n the r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n as i n d i c a t e d i n the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s . I t d i d n o t appear t h a t the c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d were s o c i a l l y m a l - p e r f o r m i n g s t u d e n t s i n the c l a s s r o o m , f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the t e a c h e r s r a t e d t h e s e c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the a verage range o f p e r f o r m -ance i n such c r i t i c a l a r e a s as r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s . As was i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I o n l y s i x o f the f o r t y - s i x c h i l d r e n were r a t e d by the t e a c h e r s as b e l o w average i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s . A t f i r s t we c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s and p e e r s were n o t a v a l i d i n d i c a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s o v e r - a l l p e r -formance. However, we d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the r a t i n g a s s i g n e d the c h i l d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a d u l t s and p e e r s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the r a t i n g s a s s i g n e d on t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s on the s c a l e w h i c h d e s c r i b e d the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e . I n f a c t , t h e r e was a tendency t o e v a l u a t e a l l o f the c h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e as " a v e r a g e " i n a l l o f the a r e a s d e l i n i a t e d on the r a t i n g s c a l e . (See A p p e n d i x D Graph 3) As a second p o s s i b i l i t y to e x p l a i n the. t e a c h e r s ' i n i t i a l r a t -i n g we c o n s i d e r e d t h e f a c t t h a t the t e a c h e r s d i d n o t have r e a d y a c c e s s to the r a t i n g s h e e t B (See A p p e n d i x B) w h i c h d e s c r i b e d the b e h a v i o u r o f the c h i l d and the c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h t o a s s i g n such b e h a v i o u r on the r a t i n g 41. s c a l e A. A l t h o u g h a copy o f r a t i n g s h e e t B was a v a i l a b l e i n each s c h o o l each t e a c h e r was n o t p r o v i d e d w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l copy. M oreover, i t became c l e a r t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s were n o t g i v e n a c o n s i s t e n t , t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f the r a t i n g s c a l e s by t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the s c a l e p r i o r t o the m a r k i n g o f the s c a l e s . T h i s p o i n t s o u t t h e need f o r c l o s e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the s o c i a l work s t a f f and the t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s . I t was a l s o b r o u g h t t o our a t t e n t i o n t h a t the t i m i n g o f t h e m a r k i n g o f the s c a l e s was p o o r l y p l a n n e d . The s c a l e s were t o be admin-i s t e r e d d u r i n g r e p o r t c a r d time a t the s c h o o l when the t e a c h e r s were a l -r e a d y burdened w i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I many o f the June r a t i n g s were n o t c o m p l e t e d by the t e a c h e r s , p r o b a b l y because o f p r e s s u r e s i n t h e i r s c h e d u l e , b u t were s u b s e q u e n t l y marked by the p r i n c i p a l and group work s u p e r v i s o r s i x months l a t e r . There i s f u r -t h e r c o n c e r n w i t h the u s e f u l n e s s o f r a t i n g s h e e t B, as i t i s cumbersome to c o n s u l t and many o f i t s d e f i n i t i o n s a r e o b s c u r e . T h i s w i l l be more f u l l y e x p l o r e d i n the development of t h e new e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . A l t h o u g h the above f a c t o r s may h e l p e x p l a i n the t e a c h e r ' s i n -i t i a l r a t i n g , the f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t most o f the group w o r k e r s a l s o a s s -i g n e d " a v e r a g e " i n i t i a l r a t i n g s to t h e i r group members. (See A p p e n d i x D Graph 3) A l t h o u g h i t d i d n o t appear t h a t we were d e a l i n g w i t h . a group o f s o c i a l l y m a l - p e r f o r m i n g c h i l d r e n , a p e r u s a l o f the v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s h e e t (See A p p e n d i x H) p r e p a r e d by the group work agency i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e most common r e a s o n f o r r e f e r r a l was because o f f a u l t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s and p e e r s and t h a t many o t h e r r e a s o n s i n d i c a t i n g s o c i a l mal-p e r f o r m a n c e were g i v e n . (See A p p e n d i x I ) T h i s l e d us t o the p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e were n o t s u f f i c i e n t s t e p s on the r a t i n g s c a l e A .42. to i n d i c a t e t he mal- p e r f o r m a n c e o f the c h i l d ; f o r example, i f t h e r e had been a r a t i n g between average and poor such as "below a v e r a g e " many o f the c h i l d r e n may have been r a n k e d i n such a c a t e g o r y . T h i s was f u r t h e r c o n f i r m e d by the tendency on the p a r t o f the t e a c h e r s and group w o r k e r s t o a s s i g n " p l u s " and "minus" r a t i n g s t o the s c o r e s . a s o u t l i n e d i n Chap t e r I I I . We a l s o p u t f o r w a r d the p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the r a t i n g s c a l e was n o t v a l i d . I n a f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s i n i t i a l r a t i n g o f iVaverage" we c o n s u l t e d w i t h the D i r e c t o r o f the Vancouver E a s t Y.W.C.A. and w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l s o f the s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . B o t h s o u r c e s agreed t h a t the program was d e s i g n e d on a p r e v e n t i v e as w e l l as t r e a t m e n t b a s i s . I n o t h e r words, some o f the c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d were n o t s o c i a l l y m a l - p e r -f o r m i n g a t t h e p o i n t o f t h e r e f e r r a l , y e t t h e r e was a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e i r b e h a v i o u r m i g h t d e t e r i o r a t e i n the f u t u r e . M o r e o v e r , the p r i n c -i p a l s f e l t t h a t the program had become more p r e v e n t i v e - o r i e n t e d t h i s y e a r , 1966-1967, t h a n the y e a r d u r i n g w h i c h our r a t i n g s c a l e s were c o m p i l e d , 1965-1966. I n the f o r m u l a t i o n f o r the new d e s i g n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be aware o f t h i s p r e v e n t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n and s t u d y the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f s e t -t i n g up a n . e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n t h a t would f o c u s upon the e v a l u a t i o n o f a p r e v e n t i v e program. I n o r d e r t o p r o c e e d w i t h such a p l a n i t i s n e c e s s a r y to examine some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r e v e n t i v e programs and r e v i e w some a t t -empts t o e v a l u a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y such programs. Boehm ( 3 , p. 12) o u t l i n e s t h r e e f u n c t i o n s o f s o c i a l work: p r o -v i s i o n , r e s t o r a t i o n and p r e v e n t i o n . I f we t r a c e the development o f the p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work ( 5 , 13) we c a n i s o l a t e a p r o g r e s s i o n from e a r l y c h a r i t y movements a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the m o r a l o r d e r w h i c h f o c u s e d upon 43. p r o v i s i o n s e r v i c e s , t o a c o n c e r n w i t h the g r o w i n g s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c know-l e d g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y p s y c h o a n a l y s i s and a r e s u l t a n t f o c u s upon r e s t o r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . F i n a l l y w i t h our g r o w i n g c o n c e r n about the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l work and our tendency to p a t t e r n our p r o f e s s i o n a l growth a f t e r t h e m e d i c a l model, we have e x p r e s s e d r e c e n t i n t e r e s t i n p r e v e n t i v e s e r -v i c e . Y e t one o f the r e a l i s s u e s w i t h w h i c h we must cope i s whether i n f a c t , our s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s a t a s u f f i c i e n t l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t e t o e f f e c t p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l o r e e x a c t l y what we d e f i n e as a p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e . O f t e n we d e s c r i b e p r e v e n t i o n i n a l l o f our programs w i t h the r a t i o n a l e : ...no m a t t e r where the worker i s i n the s p e c t r u m o f s e v e r i t y , he i s p r e v e n t i n g because no m a t t e r how t r i v i a l o r s e v e r e the p r o b l e m i s , i t can g e t worse. ( 2 , p. 181) T h i s k i n d o f an approach o b s c u r e s the i s s u e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o m p l i c a t e s the t a s k o f e v a l u a t i n g such programs. However, we tend t o p r o p a g a t e such programs because they seem e a s i e r to s e l l t o a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n and to the p u b l i c because i t appears more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and more con-s t r u c t i v e t o p r e v e n t the o n s e t o f problems r a t h e r t h a n engage i n the con-t i n u a l "mop-up" p r o c e s s so e v i d e n t i n many s o c i a l work programs. T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n has much, v a l i d i t y y e t we must be c a u t i o u s about " . d e s c r i b i n g a l l o f o u r t a s k s i n terms o f p r e v e n t i o n o n l y . A f t e r a l l , we do have two o t h e r a s s i g n e d f u n c t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , i f p r e v e n t i v e programs a r e t o meet w i t h any s u c c e s s we must be v e r y c l e a r on t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . To e x p l o r e t h i s meaning we w i l l f i r s t c o n s i d e r the c r i t e r i a o f a p r e v e n t i v e program s e t up by the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers. (43) The i n i t i a l c r i t e r i o n f o r any p r e v e n t i v e program i s the i s o l a t i o n o f the s o c i a l p r o b l e m to be p r e v e n t e d . I f we t u r n t o our m e d i c a l model we f i n d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i r p u b l i c h e a l t h agency may be s e t up w i t h one o f i t s g e n e r a l g o a l s as " p r e v e n t i n g i l l h e a l t h " each o f t h e i r programs have s p e c i f i c s h o r t term g o a l s o f p r e v e n t i o n . T.B. c l i n i c s , i n n o c u l a t i o n p r o -grams, d e n t a l s e r v i c e s , and p r e n a t a l c l i n i c s o f f e r examples o f t h i s f a c t . I n the same way, the s o c i a l work agency may d e s c r i b e one o f i t s l o n g term g o a l s . a s p r e v e n t i n g s o c i a l m a l - f u n c t i o n i n g y e t each o f i t s p r e v e n t i v e programs must d e s c r i b e a s p e c i f i c s h o r t term g o a l w h i c h w i l l move the agency towards the d e s i r e d u l t i m a t e end. P r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s may h e l p d e c r e a s e the i n c i d e n c e o f " b a t t e r e d " b a b i e s , p r e m a r i t a l programs may de-c r e a s e d i v o r c e r a t e s and d e t a c h e d w o r k e r s may a f f e c t change i n d e l i n q u e -ncy s t a t i s t i c s . The second c r i t e r i o n o f a p r e v e n t i v e program s t a t e s t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e o f the s o c i a l p r o b l e m must be m e a s u r e a b l e i n some.way i f we a r e t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f the program. F o l l o w - u p and e v a l u a t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f a p r e v e n t i v e program as t h e r e may n o t be any immed-i a t e e x t e r n a l e v i d e n c e s o f change. I n t r e a t m e n t programs we c a n sub-j e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e some o f the s u c c e s s o f t h e program by r e c o r d i n g im-provement i n our c l i e n t s a f t e r the t r e a t m e n t p l a n i s ended. However, i n p r e v e n t i v e programs, the c l i e n t may r e m a i n a h e a l t h y , " w e l l a d j u s t e d " p a r t i c i p a n t t h r o u g h o u t the c o u r s e o f the program. One o f the problems i n the measurement o f s o c i a l problems i s the d i f f i c u l t y i n f o r m u l a t i n g o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . F o r example, i s the d e f i n i t i o n o f a m e n t a l l y i l l p e r s o n one who i s c o n f i n e d i n , a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l o r a j u v e n i l e d e l -i n q u e n t one who i s i n c a r c e r a t e d or even a r r e s t e d ? The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n o f a p r e v e n t i v e program s t a t e s t h a t the s o c i a l p r o b l e m to be p r e v e n t e d by a s o c i a l agency must be amenable to s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s f a c t may seem o b v i o u s y e t too o f t e n the p r o f e s s i o n i g n o r e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i t s own l i m i t a t i o n s . Some problems r e q u i r e more t h a n s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n and some can be more e f f e c t -45. i v e l y s o l v e d t h r o u g h o t h e r c h a n n e l s t h a n s o c i a l work. The f i n a l c r i t e r i o n o u t l i n e d s t a t e s t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e v i s e a p r e d i c t i v e s c a l e o r measurement whereby i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i n -d i v i d u a l s w i l l become, or have p r o b a b l e change of becoming, s u f f e r e r s of t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m t o be p r e v e n t e d . Beck ( 2 , p. 185) u n d e r l i n e s t h i s n e c e s s i t y : "...we cannot a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e a program as p r e v e n t i v e on the vague a s s u m p t i o n t h a t any p e r s o n a l o r s o c i a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t may somehow, somewhere, l e a d t o d e l i n q u e n c y . . . . Because o f our own i n e p t n e s s , as w e l l as because o f t h e e t e r n a l m y s t e r y o f human b e h a v i o u r , we w i l l p r o b a b l y n e v e r d e v e l o p a p r e d i c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t as a c c u r a t e , f o r example, as t h e S c h i c k t e s t f o r d i p t h e r i a s u s c e p -t i b i l i t y . But we can and w i l l d e t e r m i n e w i t h r e a s o n a b l e v a l i d i t y what f a c t o r s can be o b s e r v e d b e f o r e t h e development o f c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e us t o p r e d i c t the l i k e l i h o o d of such b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r i n g . " W i l e n s k y and Lebeaux, (61) on t h e o t h e r hand, do n o t c o n s i d e r our f u n c t i o n a t p r e s e n t t o be t h e development of i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i c t i v e t e s t s . They f e e l t h a t any such a t t e m p t s a r e f r a u g h t w i t h f a i l u r e because o f our p r e s e n t l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human b e h a v i o u r . I n s t e a d , we s h o u l d f o c u s upon a r e a s where we do have some knowledge f o r p r e d i c t i o n : s o c i a l s t a t i s t i c s , f o r example, " . . . t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a g i v e n n e i g h b o u r h o o d of g i v e n s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n w i l l have a h i g h or low r a t e o f d e l i n q u e n c y . " ( 6 1 , p. 264) T h i s c o n t r o v e r s y over t h e development o f i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i c t i v e t e s t s r a i s e s a n o t h e r i s s u e , the p e r e n n i a l q u e s t i o n of v a l u e . I f a t t h i s p o i n t i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g we a r e u n a b l e t o p r e d i c t i f any one segment of b e h a v i o u r i s l i k e -l y t o become "abnormal 1'' or '''maladjusted'1' and t h e r e f o r e , i f we a r e u n a b l e t o s t a t e whether any one t r e a t m e n t program i s e f f e c t i v e i n c o p i n g w i t h the f u r t h e r development o f such b e h a v i o u r , how can we t h e n impose such a program on any one c l i e n t group? I t would be l i k e the p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e i n n o c u l a t i n g us w i t h an unknown v a c c i n e t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e e f f e c t s o f an unknown i l l n e s s w i t h w h i c h we may or may n o t become i n f e c t e d i n the f u t u r e . V e r y few would v o l u n t e e r t o s u f -f e r t h e n e e d l e p r i c k f o r such a program. Yet such an i m p o s i t i o n of a. s i m i l a r l y 46. n e b u l o u s s o c i a l work program on any one group has many i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r such s o c i a l work v a l u e s as s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and marks th e i n c r e a s e o f p r o f e s s i o n -a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h o u t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. A l t h o u g h K e i t h - L u c a s i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n of s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s upon t h o s e r e q u e s t i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , he p o i n t s out many of t h e same v a l u e c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e d i n the i m p o s i t i o n of a p r e v e n t i v e program. Ther e can be no o b j e c t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , t o the a t t e m p t t o produce " a d j u s t m e n t " i n p e r s o n s who a r e aware of a l a c k o f t h i s somewhat u n d e f i n e d q u a l i t y i n t h e m s e l v e s and ask f o r h e l p i n a t t a i n i n g i t . T here can s i m i l a r l y be no o b j e c t i o n , i t would seem, t o t h e use o f some such c o n c e p t i n r e l a t i o n t o p e r s o n s who have d e m o n s t r a t e d a l a c k of " a d j u s t m e n t " t h r o u g h t h e i r b r e a k i n g of the law or t h e i r l e g a l l y d e t e r m i n e d i n a b i l i t y t o c a r e f o r t h e i r own a f f a i r s , a l -though i n t h e f i r s t c a s e perhaps s o m e t h i n g more - a r e c o g n i t i o n of p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - i s needed. There can, i t m i ght seem a g a i n , be no o b j e c t i o n t o the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l con-c e p t s t o the p u b l i c as a whole so t h a t t h o s e who w i s h t o make use of them may do s o , p r i v a t e l y or w i t h the h e l p o f o t h e r s . What does appear a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e k i n d of s o c i e t y t h a t would p r e s e r v e t h o s e v a l u e s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the W estern C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e i s t o a t t e m p t t o i n d u c e t h i s " a d j u s t m e n t " i n a c l a s s o f p e o p l e whose p r i -mary r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r government i s based on t h e i r need t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h the n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e . To do t h i s i n v o l v e s a c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n o f p e o p l e t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y u n d e m o c r a t i c . I t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a l a r g e c l a s s of p e o p l e , d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e o n l y by t h e i r economic c o n d i t i o n , who a r e i n need of " a d j u s t m e n t " w h i c h t h e s t a t e s h o u l d i n d u c e . Even i f i t be a d m i t t e d t h a t a l l p e o p l e would be b e t t e r o f f i f t h e y were p e r m i t t e d t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o a d j u s t , the s e l e c t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group would be u n w a r r a n t e d . ( 3 1 , p. 248) T h i s i m p o s i t i o n of a b l a n k e t p r e v e n t i v e program on t h o s e o f whom we know l i t t l e o t h e r t h a n the f a c t t h a t t h e y r e s i d e i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y d e p r i v e d a r e a i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , i n d e e d . The n e c e s s i t y of r e l i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i c t i v e t e s t s i s a p p a r e n t . The i s s u e of t h e development of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y t e s t s has been p u r s u e d most v i g o r o u s l y by the G l u e c k s i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of d e l i n q u e n c y . (23) However, the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t i n g the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y d e v i c e d e v e l o p e d by t h e G l u e c k s i s e v i d e n t i n a s t u d y quoted by Beck. (2) I n a s c h o o l i n a h i g h d e l i n q u e n c y a r e a t h e G l u e c k c r i t e r i a was used i n e a r l y grades to i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n l i k e l y t o become d e l i n q u e n t . O n e - h a l f of t h e sample was p r o v i d e d w i t h 47 . casework t r e a t m e n t and p s y c h o t h e r a p y and o n e - h a l f was ^--giv.e'n... no s e r v i c e . A f t -e r a two y e a r f o l l o w - u p c h i l d r e n t r e a t e d were l e s s symptomatic o f m a l a d j u s t e d b e h a v i o u r ; a f t e r f o u r y e a r s t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e and a f t e r s i x y e a r s the t r e a t e d group had a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r c o u r t or p o l i c e c o n t a c t r e c o r d t h a n the un-t r e a t e d group. What can we c o n c l u d e ? T hat t h e p r e d i c t i v e d e v i c e d i d not ade-q u a t e l y measure p r o b a b l e d e l i n q u e n c y and t h u s the samples were n o t matched, t h a t the t r e a t m e n t program was u s e l e s s o r t h a t i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s i n t h e e n v i r o n -ment a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e r e s u l t s . I n f a c t , we cannot i s o l a t e any one cause. A more u s e f u l d e s i g n t o t e s t p r e d i c t a b i l i t y s c a l e s would i n c l u d e the a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n of the t e s t t o a random sample o f the p r e d e l i n q u e n t age group and a f o l l o w -up s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h o s e t h a t s c o r e d h i g h on the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y t e s t a c t -u a l l y became d e l i n q u e n t . There would be no t r e a t m e n t program i n v o l v e d . T h i s i s what t h e G l u e c k s have a t t e m p t e d t o do i n t h e i r development of t h e i r p r e d i c -t i v e s c a l e b u t t h e r e s u l t s r e q u i r e c r o s s c u l t u r a l v a l i d a t i o n i n o t h e r s t u d i e s . A t t h i s p o i n t i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t may be h a z a r d o u s t o r e l y upon p r e d i c t i v e d e v i c e s as a n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r any p r e v e n t i v e program. I n -s t e a d i t may be more p r o f i t a b l e t o u t i l i z e our e x p e r t knowledge t o p r e d i c t g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s as W i l e n s k y and Lebeaux have s u g g e s t e d . However, t h e s e f o u r c r i t e r i a o f a p r e v e n t i v e program as o u t l i n e d above s h o u l d be con-s i d e r e d i n t h e s e t t i n g - u p and e v a l u a t i o n o f any s i m i l a r program. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p r e v e n t i v e program may have g i v e n the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a r i g i d d i c hotomy between p r e v e n t i v e and t r e a t m e n t programs. Even i n the p u b l i c h e a l t h f i e l d where p r e v e n t i o n p r o -grams a r e o f t e n more " p u r e " t h a n i n s o c i a l work i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e i s a continuum between p r e v e n t i v e and t r e a t m e n t programs and t h a t most p r e v e n t i v e programs p r e s u p p o s e some degree of i n f e c t i o n . I t i s u s u a l l y t h e symptoms of t h e i n f e c t i o n t h a t l e a d t o t h e development o f t h e p r e v e n t i v e program, and i t i s t h e s e same symptoms wh i c h o f t e n d e t e r m i n e who w i l l r e c e i v e t h e program. The degree o f t h e i n f e c t i o n d e t e r m i n e s whether a program w i l l be 48. more p r e v e n t i v e o r t r e a t m e n t o r i e n t e d . A l t h o u g h i t has been i m p l i c i t i n some o f our d i s c u s s i o n we w i l l now t u r n t o a few o f the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an e x p e r -i m e n t a l d e s i g n t o e v a l u a t e p r e v e n t i v e programs. The s i m p l e s t d e s i g n ; i n c l u d e s the measurement o f the i n c i d e n c e o f a s o c i a l p r o b l e m i n a p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n , the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p r e v e n t i v e program i n a sample o f the p o p u l a t i o n and a f o l l o w - u p measurement t o d e t e r m i n e i f the i n c i d e n c e o f the s o c i a l p r o b l e m has been a l t e r e d . The, o b v i o u s weaknesses i n such, a d e s i g n a r e e v i d e n t . F i r s t l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t as we have d i s c u s s e d t o d e t e r m i n e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s f o r many s o c i a l problems and t h e r e f o r e to measuce the i n c i d e n c e o f the pr o b l e m . S e c o n d l y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n c l u d e i n , a n y such program t h a t the d e c r e a s e i n t he i n c i d e n c e o f the s o c i a l p r o b l e m was r e l a t e d t o the p r e v e n t i v e program; t h e r e a r e too many i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . F i n a l l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e t up a c o n t r o l group i n such a d e s i g n w i t h o u t p r e s u p p o s i n g t h a t e v e r y o n e i n the sample has an e q u a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f becoming an incumbent o f the s o c i a l p r o b l e m . F o r example, i n a d e l i n q u e n c y p r e v e n t i o n program, we may match our s u b j e c t s i n age, r a c e and sex b u t t h i s i s n o t t o say we have matched samples i n terms o f o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p r e d e l i n q u e n c y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The second type o f d e s i g n a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l t h e s e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r -i a b l e s t h r o u g h the u t i l i z a t i o n o f a p r e d i c t i v e t e s t . We have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the development o f v a l i d and r e l i a b l e t e s t s . N a t u r a l l y , i f t h e t e s t i s n o t v a l i d and r e l i a b l e , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to match samples t o p r o -v i d e a c o n t r o l group and t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e t o make any. c o n c l u s i o n s about the v a l u e o f the s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . The most e f f e c t i v e d e s i g n a t the p r e s e n t would i n c l u d e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e above s t r a t e g i e s . I t would r e q u i r e the measurement o f the i n c i d e n c e o f the p r o b l e m i n a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n , the r i g o r o u s m a t c h i n g o f samples on as many v a r i a b l e s as seemed i m p o r t a n t a c c o r d i n g t o our knowledge o f the e t i o l o g y ' o f the 49. p roblem, the s e t t i n g up of a c o n t r o l group on the b a s i s o f such a m a t c h i n g , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a p r e v e n t i v e program, a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y w h i c h would measure the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the p r o b l e m i n the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the measurement of the i n c i d e n c e o f the s o c i a l p r o b l e m a f t e r the i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s f i n a l measurement would h e l p d e t e r m i n e i f the r a t e o f the i n c i d e n c e o f the s o c i a l p r o b l e m d e c r e a s e d o r i n c r e a s e d i n the g e n e r a l popu-l a t i o n and whether t h i s i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e was r e l a t e d t o the changes i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group o r t o o t h e r f a c t o r s . F o r example, i t would be u s e f u l to d e t e r m i n e t h a t i f t h e E group improved 10% over the C group b u t the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n improved 207, o v e r the E group, t h e n the C group was n o t r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , or i f the s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s were sound, t h e n the C group e x p e r i e n c e d o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s because o f t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t . As c a n be seen, the n e c e s s a r y d e s i g n o f an e x p e r i m e n t t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s o f a p r e v e n t i v e program .is e l a b o r a t e i n d e e d . As we have m e n t i o n e d , the d e s i g n o f a p r o j e c t s e t up t o e v a l u a t e - a t r e a t m e n t o r i e n t e d program can be l e s s e l a b o r a t e because i t i s n o t always n e c e s s a r y to i n c l u d e a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y nor i s i t n e c e s s a r y , to e v a l u a t e the i n c i d e n c e o f the p r o b -lem i n the p o p u l a t i o n under s t u d y . The s i m p l e s t e v a l u a t i v e d e s i g n f o r a t r e a t m e n t program i n c l u d e s a b e f o r e - a f t e r s t u d y w i t h a c o n t r o l g roup. I n such a d e s i g n i t i s n e c e s s a r y . t o measure the b e h a v i o u r to be changed by the - s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n b e f o r e -and a f t e r and t o match samples a c c o r d i n g to b e h a v i o u r symptoms as w e l l as o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the f o c u s o f a p r e v e n t i v e o r i e n t e d program .and the e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n n e c e s s a r y , t o e v a l u a t e such a program w i l l p r o v i d e a framework f o r o u r - e v a l u a t i o n o f the s c h o o l p r o j e c t . Was i t a p r e v e n t i v e o r i e n t e d program? What c o u l d be s u g g e s t e d to p r o v i d e more f o c u s to the p r o g -ram? What a r e the l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d i n the eva-l u a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t ? What k i n d o f e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n c a n be s e t up ac-c o r d i n g t o t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s and a c c o r d i n g t o the needs of the s c h o o l and the s o c i a l agency? 50. I f we r e t u r n t o the c r i t e r i a o f the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a p r e v e n t i v e program we can s t a t e g e n e r a l l y t h a t the s c h o o l p r o j e c t does n o t meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a p r e v e n t i v e - o r i e n t e d p r o -gram. F i r s t l y , i t does n o t i s o l a t e the s o c i a l p r o b l e m i t p l a n n e d to p r e v e n t . The g o a l o f the program as s t a t e d " t o p r e v e n t s o c i a l m a l f u n c t i o n i n g " i s b r o a d and d i f f u s e . Such, a program c o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o p r e v e n t s c h o o l d r o p o u t s , j u v -e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y o r m e n t a l i l l n e s s t o i l l u s t r a t e a few, more s p e c i f i c g o a l s . We have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d the n e c e s s i t y o f o u t l i n i n g s p e c i f i c g o a l s p a r t i c u l -a r l y t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s on w h i c h to choose an a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n -t i o n program. S e c o n d l y , because the s o c i a l p r o b l e m to be p r e v e n t e d was n o t i s o l a t e d i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s u r m i s e whether the p r o b l e m would be m e a s u r e a b l e o r ammenable t o s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e r e was no a t t e m p t t o choose t h o s e who may become incumbents o f the p r o b l e m n o r were t h e r e any o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l measures t a k e n t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s o f t h i s program on the s u b j e c t s o f the e x p e r i m e n t on a f o l l o w - u p b a s i s o r t o e v a l u a t e t r e n d s i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . We have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d the n e c e s s i t y o f s uch.a f o c u s and an e v a l u a t i v e d e s i g n i n the s e t t i n g up o f a p r e v e n t i v e program. We may con-c l u d e from t h i s t h a t the s c h o o l p r o j e c t would l i k e t o f o c u s upon l o n g - t e r m p r e -v e n t i o n b u t has n o t y e t i s o l a t e d what i t p l a n s t o p r e v e n t . Because o f t h i s , t h e p r o j e c t has l a c k e d the c o h e s i o n and p u r p o s e f u l n e s s p r o v i d e d by c l e a r - c u t l o n g range g o a l s . T h i s has l e d t o a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g between s o c i a l ag-ency and s c h o o l , and s o c i a l agency and r e s e a r c h s t a f f . M o r e o v e r , i f we con-s i d e r t h e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s e t up t o e v a l u a t e the program we r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e has been a tendency to f o c u s on s h o r t range t r e a t m e n t g o a l s ; d i d the c h i l d improve i n v a r i o u s a r e a s o f s c h o o l and s o c i a l p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h i n a s i x month p e r i o d ? More f o c u s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d t o the program i f l o n g range p r e v e n t i v e g o a l s were s e t up a l o n g w i t h some s h o r t term g o a l s w h i c h c o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o cope w i t h some o f the p r e s e n t i n g problems i n the r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n . I n o t h e r words, the l o n g range g o a l s c o u l d be d e f i n e d as the p r e v e n t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n c y o r s c h o o l f a i l u r e w h i l e the s h o r t term g o a l s c o u l d f o c u s on the a m e l i o r a t i o n o f problems i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t e n s e , w i t h d r a w n and a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . (See Appendix I ) I n s e t t i n g up. a d e s i g n t o e v a l u a t e the above program we must con-s i d e r o ur l i m i t a t i o n s as r e s e a r c h e r s . We have a l r e a d y o u t l i n e d the d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the e v a l u a t i v e d e s i g n o f a p r e v e n t i v e program because o f the n e c e s s i t y o f l o n g range f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s and the measurement o f g e n e r a l po-p u l a t i o n t r e n d s . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e s i g n a p r o j e c t w h i c h w i l l a t t e m p t to e v a l u a t e the s u c c e s s o f the program a c c o r d i n g to the s h o r t term g o a l s w h i c h would be more t r e a t m e n t - o r i e n t e d . As we have o u t l i n e d , t h i s would i n c l u d e a b e f o r e - a f t e r s t u d y w i t h a c o n t r o l g roup. T h i s c h a p t e r has. a t t e m p t e d t o p u t f o r w a r d some o f the weaknesses i n the o r i g i n a l s c h o o l p r o j e c t i n terms o f i t s f o c u s and the a t t e m p t s made to e v a l u a t e i t s s u c c e s s . We would l i k e t o c o n c l u d e w i t h some c o n c r e t e recom-mendations f o r the new d e s i g n . We have d e a l t w i t h our s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a change i n f o c u s o f the s t u d y i n the p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h . F i r s t l y , the n e c e s s i t y o f - c l o s e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the group work agency, the s c h o o l and the r e s e a r c h e r s i s e v i d e n t . Such c o - o r d i n a t i o n c o u l d be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h :.an i n i t i a l c o n f e r e n c e w i t h the t e a c h e r s and group w o r k e r s i n -v o l v e d i n the - s t u d y where the - r a t i n g s c a l e was d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l and the g o a l s o f the-program o u t l i n e d i n o r d e r t h a t the t e a c h e r s c o u l d r e f e r s u i t a b l e s t u d e n t s . I t would a l s o be h e l p f u l i f f u r t h e r c o n f e r e n c e s c o u l d be a r r a n g e d between t e a c h e r and group wo r k e r to d i s c u s s some a r e a s o f p r o g r e s s . I n t h i s way, the t e a c h e r s and group w o r k e r s c o u l d be w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r towards common g o a l s and n e i t h e r one would i n a d v e r t a n t l y sabotage the o t h e r ' s e f f o r t s . I t may.also p r o v e h e l p f u l f o r the r e s e a r c h team to c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t e a c h e r s and group work-e r s a t the end o f any one program y e a r t o r e l a t e the r e s u l t s o f the program as 52. i n d i c a t e d on the r a t i n g s c a l e s . I n t h i s w a y , the r e s e a r c h team c o u l d o f f e r some c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s o f the t e a c h e r s and group w o r k e r s e f f o r t s . C o - o r d i n a -t i o n c o u l d a l s o be improved i f the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group was c h o s e n from o n l y one s c h o o l . A l t h o u g h t h i s may p r e j u d i c e the e x p e r i m e n t i n terms o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d from w h i c h the -sample i s chosen, the e f f e c t s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l on the c h i l d t o name b u t two examples, i t c a n , a t the same ti m e , h e l p to e l i m i n a t e some o f the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s e v i d e n t when a l a r g e group o f c h i l d r e n , a r e c h osen from s e v e r a l s c h o o l s and a l a r g e community. I n a d d i t i o n , as we have m e n t i o n e d , o n e - s c h o o l and one s o c i a l work agency can mean c l o s e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , the n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g one group r e f e r the c h i l d r e n to the program i s e v i d e n t . I n the o r i g i n a l p r o j e c t , r e f e r r a l s were made from f a m i l y w o r k e r s , p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s , t e a c h e r s and s o c i a l w o r k e r s w h i l e some o f the c h i l d r e n were n o t r e f e r r e d b u t "walked i n " to the agency. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e s e c h a n n e l s o f r e f e r r a l r e m a i n open f o r the p r o j e c t as a whole b u t each r e -f e r r a l s o u r c e s h o u l d be v e r y c l e a r as to the g o a l s o f the p r o j e c t and the p r o -blems t h a t c a n be d e a l t . ; w i t h i n the group work program. However, t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l and c o n t r o l group i n the new d e s i g n s h o u l d b e - r e f e r r e d from one s o u r c e to e l i m i n a t e the problems o f p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n to make judgments on i n i t i a l b e h a v i o u r . F o r example, i f one o f the s h o r t term g o a l s i s the a m e l i o -r a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r t o improve the s o c i a l and academic p e r f o r m a n c e i n the s c h o o l i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t the t e a c h e r i s the q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n to r e f e r those c h i l d -r e n h a v i n g b e h a v i o u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g . • T h i r d l y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o e x p l o r e the type o f group work program c a r r i e d o u t i n the agency, to c l a r i f y the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f the s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n v o l v e d and h o p e f u l l y , t o c o n f i n e our e x p e r i m e n t a l group t o one or,two s o c i a l work groups under s i m i l a r l y q u a l i f i e d l e a d e r s , c a r r y i n g out s i m i l a r programs. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the type o f group work program i s n e c e s s a r y to d e t e r m i n e i f i t i s d e s i g n e d t o meet the p r e s e n t i n g needs and to m o d i f y t h i s b e h a v i o u r . At. 53. p r e s e n t , t h e agency i s o f f e r i n g a group l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h f o c u s e s upon r e -c r e a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a y . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y s t r u c t u r e d to meet many o f the needs o f the l a t e n c y age c h i l d . (15) However, i f the f o c u s o f t h e p r o j e c t a l t e r s somewhat t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the t r e a t m e n t o f p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r d i f f i c u l t i e s , the t y p e o f program may a l s o a l t e r t o i n c l u d e a more i n t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r and ways i n w h i c h t o m o d i f y such b e h a v i o u r . S c h e i d -l i n g e r (47, p. 434-445) o f f e r s an example o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f programs d e s i g n e d t o meet the v a r y i n g needs o f the l a t e n c y - a g e " c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d " c h i l d : the c l i n i c a l method, the c o m b i n a t i o n e d u c a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t method and the s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l method. The f i r s t g r oup, the " e x p e r i m e n t a l group t r e a t m e n t o f s e v e r e l y d e p r i v e d c h i l d r e n " i s an a t t e m p t t o r e a c h the c h i l d from the f a m i l y w i t h many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c l u d i n g " m i n o r i t y group s t a t u s , low income, i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g , overcrowded and b r o k e n homes... e m o t i o n a l d e p r i v a -t i o n and d e s t r u c t i v e p a r e n t a l h a n d l i n g . " (47, p. 435) The program p r e s e n t s a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e S l a v s o n approach (52) w i t h an emphasis upon a c t i v i t y , i n a s p a c i o u s w e l l e q u i p p e d p l a y a r e a w i t h peer group c o u p l e d w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g , n o n - d i r e c t i v e a d u l t . On a deeper l e v e l , t h e r e i s engendered a c l i m a t e o f b e n i g n r e g r e s s i o n , o f a spontaneous r e - l i v i n g o f c o n f l i c t , c o n f l i c t s from t h e p r e s e n t as w e l l as the p a s t . The a d u l t , the o t h e r c h i l d r e n , and the group as a whole a r e p e r c e i v e d and responded to on b o t h t h e s e l e v e l s : on the here-and-now l e v e l o f r e a l i t y and on the l e v e l o f s y m b o l i c i d e a t i o n where " a d u l t " c a n come t o s t a n d f o r p a r e n t and " c l u b " f o r f a m i l y . (47, p. 435) The second g r o u p , t h e " p a r a t h e r a p e u t i c a c t i v i t y group" f o c u s e s upon the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y b r i g h t c h i l d from the d e p r i v e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d t o h e l p him cope w i t h the demands o f the s c h o o l system. The s e t t i n g o f S l a v s o n 1 s a c t i v i t y group t h e r a p y i s u t i l i z e d b u t the program d i f f e r s i n t h a t t h e groups a r e l a r g e r , and g r a t i f i c a t i o n , r e g r e s s i o n , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n , as emphasized i n the f i r s t program, a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d s a l i e n t g o a l s . M o r e o v e r , the w o r k e r i s n o t p a s s i v e b u t p l a y s an a c t i v e r o l e as g u i d e and t e a c h e r . The l e v e l o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g r a n g e s from 5 4 . poor t o a v e r a g e . The major f o c u s i s upon r e a l i t y problems c o n c e r n i n g the s o c i a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d ' s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e , the l a t e n c y c h i l d ' s need f o r i m i t a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and an a t t e m p t t o expand the e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The t h i r d type o f program i s p a t t e r n e d a f t e r a m i l i t a r y c a d e t c o r p s on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t such o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e u n i f o r m s , d i s c i p l i n e , r a n k s and c e r e m o n i a l s a r e more a p p e a l i n g t o the lower c l a s s c h i l d t h a n the u s u a l s o c i a l programs. The program r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f the Boy S c o u t s w i t h an emphasis on the a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s . The membership o f such groups i n c l u d e s c h i l d r e n from " v u l n e r a b l e " n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , many o f whom a r e - a l r e a d y e x h i b i t i n g m a r k e d l y d e f i a n t b e h a v i o u r . T h i s r e v i e w o f t h r e e approaches u t i l i z e d f o r the l a t e n c y - a g e c h i l d f r om the l o w e r c l a s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d may have r e a l p e r t i n e n c e f o r the program to be o f f e r e d to the s c h o o l group i n t h i s s t u d y . The group work agency may be i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y good p o s i t i o n t o o f f e r the second t y p e o f program, the p a r a t h e r a p e u t i c . I n such a c a s e , i t would be i m p o r t a n t t o i s o l a t e a s u i t a b l e sample from the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n : c h i l d r e n o f good, average i n t e l l i g e n c e who were u n d e r a c h i e v i n g i n s c h o o l and whose s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g ranged from poor t o a v e r a g e . I f i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e were some s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l who r e q u i r e d t r e a t m e n t ( t h e r e appeared t o be a s m a l l number o f such c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d i n the p i l o t s t u d y , a c c o r d i n g t o a p e r u s a l o f V e r b a l D e s c r i p t i o n Sheet (See Appendix H) the agency may c o n s i d e r the s e t -t i n g up o f a s i m i l a r program d e s c r i b e d i n S c h e i d l i n g e r ' s e x p e r i m e n t a l group. F o u r t h l y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e d e s i g n a r a t i n g s c a l e t h a t w i l l be v a l i d and r e l i a b l e and d e v i s e a d e s c r i p t i v e form ( s i m i l a r t o A p p e n d i x B) w h i c h w i l l p r o v e more u s e f u l t o the r a t e r s . I t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l to m o d i f y the t i m -i n g o f the s c a l e t o the t e a c h e r ' s s c h e d u l e and the u n i v e r s i t y s c h e d u l e o f the r e s e a r c h e r s . Two r a t i n g s , one i n O c t o b e r and one i n March, may p r o v e most e f f e c t i v e . F i f t h l y , .another a r e a of c o n c e r n f o c u s e d upon the need f o r a c o n t r o l 55. group. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t w i t h o u t such,a c o n t r o l group i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e a c h i l d ' s improvement i n the s c h o o l o r i n the group to the s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e the program o f f e r e d by the agency and t o d e v e l o p more e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n programs. However, t h e q u e s t i o n o f a c o n t r o l group does r a i s e t he i s s u e o f v a l u e . Is) i t our p o s i t i o n as s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o d e t e r m i n e who w i l l and who w i l l n o t r e c e i v e t r e a t m e n t ? To deny t r e a t m e n t t o t h o s e who a p p a r e n t l y need i t may have s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a con-t r o l group beyond the i s s u e o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l n e c e s s i t y . The f i r s t argument s t a t e s t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t we a r e n o t aware i f the t r e a t m e n t group i s i n d e e d r e c e i v i n g t r e a t m e n t . As some s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d (42, 2) the c o n t r o l group o f t e n shows g r e a t e r improvement compared t o the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . The second argument i n f a v o r o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o n t r o l group s t a t e s t h a t the s o c i a l work agency i s o n l y a b l e t o p r o v i d e l i m i t e d s e r v i c e because o f i t s s t a f f and f a c i l i t y , l i m i t a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , some c h i l d r e n i n e v i t a b l y w i l l n o t r e c e i v e s e r -v i c e . I t may be p o s s i b l e to choose our c o n t r o l s from t h i s g r o u p . A t the same time i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e some c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the c a r e f u l m a t c h i n g o f con-t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l group i n o r d e r t o reduc e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s as much as p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f a m i l y as an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . I n the p i l o t p r o j e c t , we chose t o i g n o r e the s p a r s e r a t i n g s c o n c e r n i n g f a m i l i e s b u t i n the new d e s i g n a c c o r d i n g t o the s i z e o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the c o - o p e r a t i o n r e c e i v e d from community a g e n c i e s such.as p u b l i c h e a l t h o r f a m i l y s e r v i c e agency, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e some r a t i n g o f t h e f a m i l y w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n the m a t c h i n g o f sa m p l e s . The n e c e s s i t y o f w o r k i n g w i t h many o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s i s e v i d e n t f rom.;Appendix H ( n o t e numbers o f r e f e r r a l s t o M e n t a l H e a l t h A g e n c i e s ) b u t i s beyond the scope o f e i t h e r t he s c h o o l o r t h e Y.W.CA. CHAPTER VI THE NEW DESIGN THE PROBLEM There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d s c h o o l c h i l d r e n c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m and make up a s i z e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . The Can a d i a n M e n t a l H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n d e f i n e s emotion-a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n as th o s e "who a r e unhappy, i n s e c u r e w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s , who have poor r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t , who have e x c e s s i v e h o s t i l i t y o r f e a r s o r pha n t a s y l i f e , o r who have too many non-o r g a n i c p h y s i c a l c o m p l a i n t s o r too l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r body f u n c t i o n s w i t h o u t o r g a n i c c a u s e . " ( 3 3 , p. 7 7 ) I n 1 9 5 7 , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a had a t o t a l o f 3 , 2 0 2 p u p i l s d i a g n o s e d by s c h o o l m e d i c a l o f f i c e r s as e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d and n e e d i n g f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d 5 . 6 7 , o f the t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . M a n i t o b a , by c o m p a r i s o n , p r e s e n t e d the f o l l o w i n g p i c t u r e ( a l s o 1 9 5 7 ) . ( 3 3 ) — 20% r e q u i r e e x t r a a t t e n t i o n o f t e a c h e r . 1 0 0 7 , s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n -307o d i s c e r n a b l e problems . 1 0 7 . r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l _707. "normal d i a g n o s t i c work r a n g e " and/or s p e c i a l i z e d s u p e r v i s i o n _ D u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r 1 / 1 0 o f t h e s e become the extreme c l a s s -room p r o b l e m s . R e q u i r e psy-c h i a t r i c r e f e r r a l T h i s type o f breakdown shows t h a t t h e r e i s a con t i n u u m i n d e grees o f e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e r a n g i n g from " d i s c e r n a b l e p r o b l e m s " t o " r e q u i r i n g p s y c h i a -t r i c r e f e r r a l . " The term " m a l - p e r f o r m i n g c h i l d r e n " w i l l be used as w e l l , and i s c o n s i d e r e d as synonymous w i t h e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n . I n t h i s s t u d y we w i l l f o c u s on the c h i l d r e n who de m o n s t r a t e i n c l a s s a more o r l e s s c o n s t a n t o r c o n t i n u a l e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e p r o b l e m . T h i s would t h e n e l i m i n a t e the c h i l d r e n who show o n l y a s l i g h t and o c c a s i o n a l symptom o f d i s t u r b a n c e w h i c h may be due t o t r a n s i e n t s t r e s s . I t would a l s o e l i m i n a t e the v e r y s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r -bed c h i l d who o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e s i n t e n s i v e p s y c h i a t r i c a t t e n t i o n . a n d e x h i b i t s g r o s s l y m o r b i d w i t h d r a w a l , a u t i s t i c b e h a v i o u r , e t c e t e r a . I t would i n c l u d e c h i l d -r e n who show a p a t t e r n o f r e p e t i t i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s o r a c h r o n i c syndrome i n e i t h e r o f the two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s o f w i t h d r a w a l o r a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . " R e p e t i t i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s must be i n t e r p r e t e d as s i g n s o r symptoms o f deeper u n d e r l y i n g t e n s i o n s . " (6) W i t h the e x c l u s i o n o f s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h i a t r i c a t t e n t i o n , o r a more i n t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t be-yond the scope o f the group c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , the degree o f d i s t u r b a n c e o f the c h i l d r e n i n the groups would not. l i k e l y be so s e v e r e t h a t the whole group c o u l d n o t be made up o f r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n o n l y . I n o t h e r words, t h e i n c l u s i o n o f 'normal' c h i l d r e n i n the group to b a l a n c e the group s h o u l d n o t be n e c e s s a r y i f the groups were c a r e f u l l y worked o u t t o i n c l u d e a b a l a n c e o f b o t h a g g r e s s -i v e and w i t h d r a w n c h i l d r e n and a l s o t h o s e who may be m a l - p e r f o r m i n g academica-l l y , b u t may d e m o n s t r a t e o n l y a moderate m a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n o t h e r a r e a s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n c l u s i o n o f 'normal' c h i l d r e n m i g h t a l t e r the g o a l s o f the group w o r k e r . C r i t e r i a f o r r e f e r r a l o f c h i l d r e n f o r the group work t r e a t m e n t p r o -gram w i l l be expanded f u r t h e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . That t r e a t m e n t s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e to t h i s group o f c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r f o r m a t i v e y e a r s i s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . The p r o b l e m w h i c h p r e s e n t s i t s e l f f o r r e s e a r c h s t u d y i s whether the t r e a t m e n t program a d m i n i s t e r e d i s i n -deed e f f e c t i v e and t o what de g r e e . Group-work t r e a t m e n t has been found t o be e f f e c t i v e i n some s t u d i e s and n o t i n o t h e r s as n o t e d i n an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s . The problems o f c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t appear to be amenable to b o t h t r e a t m e n t and t e s t . There i s s t i l l a p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n the a r e a o f m e a s u r i n g r e s u l t s o f s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h m a l - p e r f o r m i n g c h i l d r e n y e t the p r o b l e m i n c l u d e s a s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n . o f the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n as a l r e a d y o u t l i n e d . 58. L e a d e r s i n the m e n t a l h e a l t h f i e l d have s t a t e d "We have good r e a s o n to b e l i e v e t h a t p s y c h i a t r i c and p s y c h o s o c i a l i l l n e s s has i t s o r i g i n s d u r i n g the f o r m a t i v e y e a r s , and t h e r e f o r e p r e v e n t a t i v e programs tend t o be f o c u s e d upon c h i l d r e n . I t has been thought t h a t i f p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and o t h e r s who shape th e l i v e s o f c h i l d r e n , c o u l d be made more a l e r t t o the needs o f c h i l d r e n , and more s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e s e needs, much l a t e r g r i e f and m e n t a l i l l n e s s c o u l d be a v o i d e d . " (16) Any f u r t h e r l i g h t s t u d i e s can throw on e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r e a t -ment f o r m a l - p e r f o r m i n g c h i l d r e n i s bound to be h e l p f u l . THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK An e a r l i e r c h a p t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e d t h e c r i t e r i a and c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f the p r e v e n t i v e program and the t r e a t m e n t program, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i n r e a l i t y t h e r e i s a c o ntinuum from p r e v e n t i o n t o t r e a t m e n t . S i n c e the p r e v e n -t i v e program i n v o l v e s an e l a b o r a t e d e s i g n ;and f r e q u e n t l y t a k e s s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e r e s u l t s c a n be m e a s u r e d , . i t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d beyond the scope o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y . W h i l e an e a r l i e r quote r e f e r r e d t o a l e r t n e s s t o needs o f c h i l d r e n and s u p p o r t o f t h e s e needs as p r e v e n t i n g l a t e r m e n t a l i l l n e s s , t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y o v b i o u s l y would be a l o n g term one. However s i n c e c h i l d r e n .are b e i n g r e f e r r e d w i t h d e f i n i t e symptomology t h a t i s ; a l r e a d y d i s c e r n a b l e and p r o b l e -m a t i c , the program c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a t r e a t m e n t program, w i t h a d e f i n i t e f a c t o r as a g g r e s s i o n , e t c e t e r a f o r measurement. A l t h o u g h t h e program may a l s o be p r e v e n t i v e as f a r as f u r t h e r p a t h o l o g y , t h i s w i l l n o t be the f o c u s o f the s t u d y . B e a r i n g i n mind t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s were r e f e r r e d because o f b e h a v i o u r (use. o f e n e r gy) problems as a g g r e s s i v e , w i t h d r a w n e t c e t e r a and poor a d u l t - p e e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s the g o a l o f t h e t r e a t m e n t group f o r the coming s t u d y c o u l d be t o p r o v i d e t h e - c h i l d w i t h s a t i s f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the group. We a r e r e l a t i n g t h i s t o R o b e r t W. W h i t e ' s t h e o r y on competence and sense o f comp-e t e n c e . (60, p. 30 and 186) " E x p l o r a t o r y and p l a y f u l a c t i v i t y , done " f o r i t s own s a k e " , r e v e a l s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a d a p t a t i o n and s u r v i v a l when we a p p r e c -i a t e t h a t i t i s t h r o u g h a c t i o n and the consequences of a c t i o n t h a t we l e a r n t o become e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h our s u r r o u n d i n g s . " W h i t e speaks o f competence to d e s c r i b e a p e r s o n ' s e x i s t i n g c a p a c i t y t o i n t e r a c t e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h h i s en-v i r o n m e n t , p o i n t i n g out t h a t competence i s l a r g e l y a consequence o f l e a r n i n g , the whole h i s t o r y o f t r a n s a c t i o n w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t . Sense o f competence con s t i t u t e s t he s u b j e c t i v e s i d e , " s i g n i f y i n g one's c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y f e l t competence - one's c o n f i d e n c e s - i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e n v i r o n m e n t . " These c o n c e p t s can a l s o be a p p l i e d t o i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s - one's sense o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence. Thus, p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d w i t h a c t i v i t i e s , e x p e r i e n c e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h g i v e h im s a t i s f a c t -i o n s e r v e t o improve h i s s e l f - i m a g e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f s e l f - i m a g e as i t r e -l a t e s t o s o c i a l and academic p e r f o r m a n c e has a l r e a d y been s t r e s s e d i n l i t e r a -t u r e . (48, 4) "Ego s t r e n g t h must a l s o be seen as c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o a c q u i r e d competence and sense o f competence." (60, p. 193) Ego s t r e n g t h has been de-f i n e d as " s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r " , "a c e r t a i n c a p a c i t y f'or f i g h t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o r as p r o p o s e d by W h i t e , a s t r o n g ego i s one w h i c h has d e v e l o p e d s u b s t a n t i a l competence i n d e a l i n g w i t h i m p u l s e and w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t . (60, p. 139) T h i s can be expanded c o n s i d e r a b l y : however f o r our p u r p o s e we need o n l y t o be aware o f one f u r t h e r p o i n t , t h a t a sense o f competence l e a d s one t o f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n and h o p e f u l l y f u r t h e r s u c c e s s . Success breeds s u c c e s s , w h i c h i n the s t u d y i n q u e s t i o n w i l l be e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e c h i l d f i r s t i n t h e t r e a t m e n t group and h o p e f u l l y h i s enhanced s e l f esteem w i l l accompany him t o h i s s c h o o l and home. There have been some s t u d i e s made on the c o - r e l a t i o n between emot-i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e . a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g ; some f i n d i n g t h a t e m o t i o n a l 60. d i s t u r b a n c e has an i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t . (45, pp. 239 - 253) O t h e r s t u d i e s have d i s p r o v e n the c o - r e l a t i o n . (62, p. 906) F o r our s t u d y , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t an a t t e m p t be made to measure p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n academic f u n c t i o n i n g be-f o r e and a f t e r t r e a t m e n t , and a h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s w i l l be i n c l u d e d f o r t e s t i n g . W i t h f u l l awareness t h a t t h e r e may be many s t r e s s o r s i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e such as f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , i t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t o i d e n t i f y and p o s i t -i v e l y improve, o r f o r the r e s e a r c h s t u d y , to c o n t r o l h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s would be -a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k i n d e e d . The A m e r i c a n O r t h o p s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e i r 1967 a n n u a l m e e t i n g hope to t a k e a c l o s e r l o o k a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s c h o o l l i f e and o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h o f c h i l d r e n , and t o d i s c u s s the g e n e r a l n o t i o n t h a t p r e v e n t i v e e f f o r t m i g h t e f f e c t i v e l y be d i r e c t e d a t e n h a n c i n g the c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y t o w i t h s t a n d s t r e s s , more t h a n a t r e d u c i n g the s t r e s s i t s e l f and c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r d e p r i v a t i o n s . (16) T h i s l e n d s f u r t h e r sup-p o r t t o a group work t r e a t m e n t program p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d w i t h competence-i n c r e a s i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e n a s t u d y t o t e s t r e s u l t s o f such a program. There i s a p a r t i c u l a r need f o r t e s t i n g , f o r w h i l # ; t h o s e a d m i n i s t e r i n g s e r v i c e s a r e p e r s o n a l l y s t r o n g l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e i s v a l u e i n what they do, and t h o s e to whom s e r v i c e has been r e n d e r e d i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s have been v o c a l i n t h e i r " b e l i e f s t h a t the s e r v i c e s have been h e l p f u l , o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e s e s e r -v i c e s a r e v e r y l i m i t e d i n number and scope. (30) THE"HYPOTHESES The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s have been s e l e c t e d f o r t e s t i n g : 1. S o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h a group o f s o c i a l l y m a l - p e r f o r m -i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l r e s u l t i n i m p r o v e d / s o c i a l - f u n c t i o n i n g . 2. C h i l d r e n who a r e s o c i a l l y m a l - p e r f o r m i n g who do n o t r e c e i v e s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n w i l l n o t improve i n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . 3. C h i l d r e n who a r e m a l - p e r f o r m i n g s o c i a l l y and a c a d e m i c a l l y who r e c e i v e s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n w i l l improve b o t h s o c i a l l y and a c a d e m i c a l l y . 61. The h y p o t h e s e s c i t e d i f p r o v e n t o be c o r r e c t w i l l l i n k W h i t e ' s t h e o r y o f competence i n a m e a n i n g f u l way t o an a r e a ( m a l - p e r f o r m i n g s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ) w h i c h m i g h t t h e n have expanded s e r v i c e s i n the f u t u r e . O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s S o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h i s d e s i g n s h a l l be employment o f the s o c i a l group work method. " S o c i a l group work i s a method o f r e n d e r i n g s e r v i c e t o p e r s o n s , t h r o u g h p r o v i d i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n g r o u p s . Development o f the p e r s o n toward h i s i n d i v i d u a l p o t e n t i a l , improvement o f r e l a t i o n s h i p and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g com-p e t e n c i e s and s o c i a l a c t i o n a r e r e c o g n i z e d as p u r p o s e s o f s o c i a l group work. The worker f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a framework o f e t h i c a l and s o c i a l v a l u e s . S o c i a l group work i s a g e n e r i c method w h i c h c a n be used i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s . The method i n c l u d e s c o n s c i o u s use o f worker-member r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s among members, and o f group a c t i v i t y . The w o r k e r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y u s e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l membersi.-and w i t h the group as a whole. He works as an e n a b l e r w i t h b o t h , h e l p i n g members and the group t o use t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s and s t r e n g t h s . He u s e s h i m s e l f d i f f e r e n t l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s pec-i f i c o b j e c t i v e s and h i s assessment o f members needs, i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s . " (40) I t seems a p p r o p r i a t e a t t h i s p o i n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between s o c i a l group work and group t h e r a p y o r p s y c h o t h e r a p y as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d , and thus f u r -t h e r c l a r i f y the p o s i t i o n o f the new d e s i g n . Konopka has a m p l i f i e d s o c i a l group work as b e i n g based on the competence a s o c i a l worker d e v e l o p s i n h i s t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n and t h a t i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m e n t a l h e a l t h and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . She goes on t o say t h a t i t s b e n e f i c i a r i e s a r e b o t h the s i c k and the h e a l t h y . I n c o n s i d e r i n g p s y c h o t h e r a p y she c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t makes r e f e r e n c e s p r i m a r i l y t o t h e g o a l o f a m e l i o r a t i n g s u f f e r i n g and i m p r o v i n g p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g 62. of i t s members. T h i s c o n f i n e s p s y c h o t h e r a p y t o work w i t h the i l l - e m o t i o n a l or m e n t a l , whereas s o c i a l group work employs i t s e l f w i t h n o t o n l y t h e i l l , b u t w i t h h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l s as w e l l . (32, pp. 29 - 30) The program w i l l have as a g o a l t h e p r o v i s i o n of a c t i v i t i e s , e x p e r i -ences and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t the c h i l d t o w i t h s t a n d s t r e s s and d e v e l o p competence i n c o p i n g w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . The group wo r k e r s h o u l d have a M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work degree w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l t h e o r e t i c a l base i n the group work method, or he may be a s t u d e n t i n h i s M.S.W. y e a r . For the p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , s o c i a l l y m a l - p e r f o r m i n g c h i l d r e n s h a l l be d e f i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. Those who a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y a b s e n t . Upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s , one may f i n d such f a c t o r s as: a) T r u a n c y - the c h i l d l e a v e s home f o r s c h o o l and may n o t a r r i v e . I f he a r r i v e s , he may n o t s t a y . He u s u a l l y s t a y s away from home un-t i l s c h o o l i s o v e r , a t t e m p t i n g t o make h i s p a r e n t s b e l i e v e he has been i n s c h o o l . When q u e s t i o n e d , he may f r a n k l y admit h i s h a t e of s c h o o l . I n v e s t i g a t i o n g e n e r a l l y shows he i s a poor s t u d e n t , more or l e s s d i s g r a c e d a t s c h o o l because o f h i s b e h a v i o u r , a n t i s o c i a l i n h i s a t t i t u d e s and o f t e n i n t r o u b l e on t h e p l a y g r o u n d as w e l l as i n the c l a s s r o o m . (52, p. 375) b) S c h o o l p h o b i a - "The t e r m . " s c h o o l p h o b i a " i n s t e a d of " f e a r of s c h o o l " i s used because when one u n d e r s t a n d s the dynamics o f the s i t u a t i o n , one f i n d s i t i s not r e a l l y s c h o o l t h a t t h e c h i l d i s a f r a i d o f . What he i s a f r a i d o f i s b e i n g s e p a r a t e d from h i s mother; so s c h o o l p h o b i a i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y , and the f e a r of s c h o o l i s a d i s p l a c e d one." (52, p. 377) c) I l l n e s s e s - i l l n e s s e s e x c l u d i n g the c h i l d h o o d d i s e a s e s as m e a s l e s , e t c . , w h i c h may have an e m o t i o n a l base and f r e q u e n t l y seem 63. t o be the cause o f absence from s c h o o l . (10, p. 334) 2. Those who a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y l a t e . Causes of c o n s i s t e n t l a t e n e s s s h o u l d be examined. Some of t h e dynamics w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e c o n s i s t e n t l y a b s ent group may be p r e s e n t as a h i g h degree of a m b i v a l e n c e about a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l because o f m i l d s c h o o l p h o b i a . 3. C o n s i s t e n t l y n e g a t i v e use o f e n e r g y . O n l y two b r o a d l y i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be employed h e r e . a) A g g r e s s i o n . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d i n terms o f q u a n t i t y , q u a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n . A g g r e s s i o n t o some degree i s norm-a l , b u t i t can however a l s o be m a l a d a p t i v e . There a r e g r e a t d i f f e r -ences i n degree and f r e q u e n c y o f a g g r e s s i v e e x p r e s s i o n s and when t h e y b e g i n t o h i n d e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l from h a v i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l r e l -a t i o n s h i p s , o r h i n d e r h i s f u n c t i o n i n g i n some o t h e r way, t h e y may be c o n s i d e r e d m a l a d a p t i v e . A g g r e s s i o n may be m a n i f e s t e d in-some of the f o l l o w i n g ways.- d i s o b e d i e n c e , d i s o r d e r l i n e s s i n c l a s s , s t u b b o r n e s s , d e f i a n c e , impudence o r r u d e n e s s , q u a r r e l s o m e n e s s , c r u e l t y or b u l l y -i n g , d e s t r u c t i o n o f s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s , d o m i n e e r i n g . (23, p. 151) "Because we have l e a r n e d t o deny our h o s t i l e ( o r a g g r e s s i v e ) f e e l i n g s , h o s t i l i t y - l i k e f e a r - may wear many masks." " H o s t i l i t y may a l s o be t u r n e d inward i n a " h a t e campaign" a g a i n s t o n e s e l f , f i n d i n g e x p r e s s -i o n i n m i g r a i n e headaches, p e p t i c u l c e r s , o r o t h e r p s y c h o s o m a t i c a f f l i c t i o n s or i n f e e l i n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n and s e l f - r e c r i m i n a t i o n . I n the background o f an i n t r a p u n i t i v e p e r s o n i s o f t e n a f e a r o f n o t be-i n g l o v e d o r b e i n g unworthy o f l o v e , t o g e t h e r w i t h a r i g i d c o n s c i e n c e and a h i g h l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n . " (10, p. 334) b) W i t h d r a w a l . " E v e r y i n d i v i d u a l , c h i l d o r a d u l t , escapes more or l e s s f r e q u e n t l y from t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s and d i f f i c u l t i e s o f e v e r y -day l i f e i n t o s i t u a t i o n s where he i s f r e e d from annoyances and can 64. g r a t i f y i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s w i t h m i n i m a l i n t e r r u p t i o n . . . However t h e s e e s c a p i n g w i t h d r a w i n g t e n d e n c i e s become p a t h o l o g i c a l when the y h i n d e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l from m e e t i n g s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " ( 2 3 , P.151) W i t h d r a w a l may be m a n i f e s t e d by l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l work, i n a t t e n t i o n , easy d i s c o u r a g e m e n t , u n h a p p i n e s s , d e p r e s s i o n , d r e a m i n e s s , temper t a n t r u m s , u n s o c i a b i l i t y , s h y n e s s , s e n s i t i v e n e s s , s u s p i c i o u s n e s s . I t would a l s o i n c l u d e the c h i l d who i s u s u a l l y o verdependent upon a d u l t s and on the p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d by r e g u -l a t i o n s , o r d e r l i n e s s , and r o u t i n e . " (23, P.152) ( A g a i n , i t may be s a i d t h a t b o t h a g g r e s s i v e o r w i t h d r a w a l t e n d e n c i e s on the p a r t o f the c h i l d be c o n s i d e r e d as m a l a d a p t i v e when t h e y appear c o n s i s t e n t l y enough t o be a u s u a l p a t t e r n or way of l i f e and a r e h i n d e r i n g him from m e e t i n g h i s s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . These two broad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a g g r e s s i o n and w i t h d r a w a l w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as th e y r e l a t e t o a d u l t - p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( o r as t h e y a f f e c t t he c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h o s e around h i m ) . I n t h i s d e s i g n , a d u l t - p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f the t o t a l p i c t u r e when o b s e r v i n g e i t h e r t h e c h i l d ' s a g g r e s s i o n or w i t h -d r a w a l . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s i s t h a t when one o b s e r v e s t h e mani-f e s t a t i o n o f a g g r e s s i o n , ( f o r example, ) d i s o b e d i e n c e , b u l l y i n g , e t c e t e r a , i t i s g e n e r a l l y as i t r e l a t e s t o some o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l . The aim i s t o make s i m p l e r c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h w i l l h o p e f u l l y f a c i l i t a t e more a c c u r a t e l y the t e a c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s and m a r k i n g . 4. P o o r academic p e r f o r m a n c e . The same c a t e g o r i e s and c o n c e p t s as used i n t h e o l d d e s i g n w i l l be used t o e v a l u a t e academic p e r f o r m a n c e . a) Language, a r t s - o r a l and w r i t t e n communication. The c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y f o r communication i s examined h e r e , w i t h assessment o f h i s ease or d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g i d e a s a c r o s s . b) Performance s k i l l s - manual dexterity, co-ordination, physical a c t i v i t y . A c h i l d with l i m i t e d s k i l l s or s k i l l s far below capacity, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f this i s a hindrance i n his meeting re-quirements i n the school s e t t i n g should be considered for r e f e r r a l . c) Abstract thinking - reasoning a b i l i t y and attention span. This category would include the c h i l d who has d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t i n g ideas or who cannot r e l a t e ideas, and has l i m i t e d concentration span. Children may. be referred for one or more of the above c i t e d reasons. Improved s o c i a l functioning s h a l l be taken to mean.a discernable upward movement on the r a t i n g scale. Children w i l l include-ages from 5-12, both sexes, any ethnic group. Only those referred w i l l be included i n the program, excluding those who may v o l u n t a r i l y "walk-in" or request admission as these youngsters may have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may d i f f e r from those r e f e r r e d . (49) .In the hypotheses c i t e d the independent variable (casual agent) i s s o c i a l work intervention, the dependent v a r i a b l e (effect) i s improved s o c i a l functioning. There may also be intervening variable-as maturation, f a m i l i a l changes. I t i s quite possible to observe and measure improved s o c i a l and academic performance at the end of a course of treatment, however one could not be c e r t a i n that s o c i a l work intervention made the d i f f e r e n c e , unless variables were co n t r o l l e d as rigorously as p o s s i b l e . These w i l l be discussed further i n the chapter. Assumptions The-assumptions being made-are: (1) the teacher's ratings 66. a r e v a l i d and r e l i a b l e ; (26,pp.581-586) (2) t h e r a t i n g s c a l e i s v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . A copy o f the r a t i n g s c a l e t o be used by the t e a c h e r i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x . M a l p e r f o r m i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l be s e l e c t e d f o r r e f e r r a l ^ b y the t e a c h e r and the i n i t i a l and f i n a l r a t i n g w i l l be made by h e r . The p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e , p r i n c i p a l , c o u n s e l o r , may s u p p l y the t e a c h e r w i t h f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c h i l d , however, r a t i n g s w i l l be made by her o n l y . (3) the s t r e s s e s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l changes b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d by c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t -ment group w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n g a c a d e m i c a l l y and/or s o c i a l l y a r e a l s o b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d by c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l group. DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT S i n c e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s an e v a l u a t i v e one - the e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( d i d i t work and i f so t o what d e g r e e ) of s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n i s the most h e l p f u l . An i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e e x p e r i -m e n t a l d e s i g n i s c o n t r o l - " c o n t r o l o f o b s e r v a t i o n s so t h a t i n -f o r m a t i o n i s p r e c i s e , v a l i d , and r e l i a b l e , and c o n t r o l of i n f e r e n c e s so t h a t a l l i / v . a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s or r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e e l i m i n a -t e d and t h e r e i s a l o g i c a l b a s i s on w h i c h t o a c c e p t o r r e j e c t a h y p o t h e s e s . (41.p.55) Thus a c o n t r o l group becomes e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h may be o p e r a t i n g and t o i n c r e a s e t h e s e n s i t i v i t y i n t e s t i n g r e s u l t s and d e t e r m i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A . J . Kahn s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , random a s s i g n m e n t o f c ases t o e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups i s t h e p r e f e r r e d method. (41.p.66) Care would have t o be e x e r c i s e d t h a t one t r e a t m e n t group d i d n o t have a l l o f i t s s t u d e n t s from one t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s , or even one s c h o o l . W i t h awareness t h a t t h e r e may be some f a c t o r i n one s c h o o l ' s 67. s ystem i t s e l f w h i c h may n e g a t i v e l y - a f f e c t some v u l n e r a b l e c h i l -d r e n , i t i s hoped t h a t random a s s i g n m e n t to the groups w i l l n e u t r a l i z e the d i f f e r e n c e t h i s v a r i a b l e m i ght make i n the u l t i m a t e r e s u l t . No a t t e m p t w i l l be made i n t h i s s t u d y t o i s o l a t e and i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s e i t h e r w i t h i n the s c h o o l system o r the c h i l d ' s f a m i l i a l s y stem w h i c h may e i t h e r n e g a t i v e l y o r p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t h i s f u n c -t i o n i n g . S i n c e the group work t r e a t m e n t f o c u s , .as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e c h i l d ' s competence and sense o f competence to d e a l w i t h h i s environment i n c l u d i n g i t s s t r e s s e s , .and s i n c e t h e s e f a c t o r s h o p e f u l l y w i l l b a l a n c e o u t e q u a l l y i n c o n t r o l and t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , the e n v i r o n m e n t a l changes s h o u l d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e i t h e r group o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n to the o t h e r . T h i s r a i s e s t he ques-t i o n o f m a t c h i n g s t u d e n t s i n the c o n t r o l group w i t h t h o s e i n the t r e a t m e n t on the b a s i s o f s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s . T o t a l c o n t r o l i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e as i t i s i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g . E x a m i n a t i o n o f matched p a i r s o f c h i l d r e n may p r o v i d e ; some v a l u a b l e d a t a : however i f a tre m e n d o u s l y n e g a t i v e f a m i l i a l change a f f e c t s one c h i l d o f the p a i r - i t may n o t g i v e a t r u e p i c t u r e o f e f f e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t . I f on the o t h e r hand the t o t a l s c o r e o f t h e c o n t r o l group as a whole i s compared w i t h the t o t a l s c o r e o f the t r e a t -ment group as a whole, one would more l i k e l y o b s e r v e the r e s u l t s i n - a n o v e r a l l v i e w . I t . s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e to compare groups o f c h i l -d r e n w i t h s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s , i . e . , o b s e r v i n g whether the w i t h d r a w n c h i l d r e n r e s p o n d more f a v o u r a b l y t o t r e a t m e n t t h a n the a g g r e s s i v e , and a l s o c omparing the w i t h d r a w n group o f c h i l d r e n i n t r e a t m e n t w i t h t h o s e i n the c o n t r o l group. B e f o r e and a f t e r t e s t i n g o r r a t i n g o f b o t h c o n t r o l and t r e a t m e n t group i s r e q u i r e d to make the c o m p a r i s o n s . I n the c o n t r o l groups spoken of h e r e , no s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n would be g i v e n to the c h i l d r e n o t h e r t h a n the b e f o r e -and a f t e r r a t i n g made by the t e a c h e r ..and p o s s i b l y the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a s e l f - r a t i n g t e s t ( w h i c h would a l s o be g i v e n t o the t r e a t m e n t group c h i l d r e n ) . .This s e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y f u r t h e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the c h i l d r e n i n the t r e a t m e n t group may i m p r o v e - s i m p l y because they a r e r e c e i v i n g a t t e n t i o n r a t h e r t h a n because o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . ( 4 1 , p..286) I n o r d e r to t e s t whether t h i s m i g h t have o c c u r r e d and thus c o n t r o l o r measure the p l a c e b o o r "Hawthorne e f f e c t " , . a n o t h e r c o n t r o l group l e d by an u n t r a i n e d v o l u n t e e r would be n e c e s s a r y . T h i s c o n t r o l group would r e c e i v e - a t t e n t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c t i v i t y , however the program a c t i v i t i e s would be u n s t r u c t u r e d and g o a l s u n d e f i n e d . H o p e f u l l y , h a v i n g t h i s c o n t r o l group w i l l p r o v i d e i n c r e a s e d v a l i d i t y t o the f i n a l r e s u l t s s i n c e t h e r e s h o u l d be g r e a t e r c e r t a i n t y t h a t i t was s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n and n o t m e r e l y a t t e n t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n improved s o c i a l and/or academic p e r f o r m a n c e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t b o t h the t e a c h e r and the group worker mark the c h i l d ' s r a t i n g b e f o r e and a f t e r t r e a t m e n t . To a c h i e v e g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y amongst the t e a c h e r s and group w o r k e r s i n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c o n c e p t s , s c a l e , e t c . , i t i s a d v i s a b l e to have a l i a i s o n p e r s o n , p o s s i b l y a s o c i a l work s t u d e n t w o r k i n g on t h i s p r o j e c t t o a c t as i n t e r p r e t e r , .answer any q u e s t i o n s or c o n c e r n s they may have. As s u g g e s t e d i n an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r , the t i m i n g o f the -teacher's r a t i n g o f the c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be worked o u t so t h a t i t f a l l s a t a time when t e a c h e r s a r e n o t p r e s s e d w i t h o t h e r d u t i e s . R a t e r s s h o u l d be a l e r t e d to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r own b i a s e s . Common e r r o r s a r e (1) the ' h a l o ' e r r o r - the r a t e r i s aware o f one a s p e c t o f the r a t e e ' s c h a r a c t e r o r performance and a l l o w s t h i s t o i n f l u e n c e h i s e n t i r e e v a l u a t i o n ; (2) the c e n t r a l tendency - a l l a r e marked ' a v e r a g e 1 . T h i s happens when the r a t e r p l a y s i t s a f e , i s un-s u r e , has too l i t t l e t ime and e f f o r t i n r a t i n g , o r has i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . (3) c o n s t a n t e r r o r s - r a t e r may be (a) too h a r s h (b) too e a s y ; (4) m i s c e l l a n e o u s b i a s e s - r a t e e ' s r a c e o r n a t i o n a l i t y , r e l i g i o n , s e x . (18) S e l f - a w a r e n e s s on the p a r t o f the r a t e r i s im-p o r t a n t t o l e s s e n chances o f - c o u n t e r - t r a n s f e r e n c e . We would l i k e t o s e t down a few more r u l e s f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l group by e l a b o r a t i n g on the s t i m u l i , s u b j e c t s , e n v i r o n m e n t , and the c o n t r o l o f i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y . We r e - e m p h a s i z e t h i s p o i n t o f the r u l e s because s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n -t i o n w i l l be -our s o l e s t i m u l i t o the s u b j e c t s , and s o c i a l work i n t e r -v e n t i o n w i l l be the v a r i a b l e to be measured. A group work group, as i has been o u t l i n e d by T r e c k e r , s h o u l d be s m a l l enough to e n a b l e the members t o know one a n o t h e r i n t i m a t e l y and f o r the members to have a p a r t i n the f u n c t i o n i n g o f the group. I t must have some degree o f c o h e s i v e n e s s , some f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g , some bond t h a t w i l l h o l d the members o f the group t o g e t h e r f o r a t l e a s t a minimum p e r i o d o f t i m e . The group work group must a l s o be a b l e t o a c c e p t the -agency and the worker and t o e s t a b l i s h .a c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them. (57,pp.62-64) -The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f group p r e s s u r e i n c h a n g i n g i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e has been found i n many r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n group d y n a m i c s . P e r t i n e n t f i n d i n g s a r e : the more c o h e s i v e the group, the more l i k e l y i s the group to a f f e c t change on i t s members ( L e w i n 1948 & H e i n t z 1949); the more a t t r a c t i v e the group i s t o members, the g r e a t e r i s the i n f l u e n c e on i t s members ( F e s t i n g e r 1950). ( 7 ) , S i n c e our group i s f o c u s e d on t r e a t m e n t t o a f f e c t i n d i v i d u a l change, the group s h o u l d have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s p e c i -f i e d above. The group w o r k e r w i l l endeavour to u t i l i z e t he r e l a t i o n s h i p she has w i t h h e r group members t o a f f e c t change i n t h e i r m a l per f o r m i n g s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . The group g o a l w i l l be t h e p r o m o t i o n o f competence and sense o f competence t h r o u g h i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s and competence i n i n c r e a s i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . Group programs s h o u l d be made a t t r a c t i v e t o members and a l s o be c o n s i s t e n t t o the group g o a l . S i n c e we e x p e c t s u b j e c t s r e f e r r e d w i l l have m a l - f u n c -t i o n i n g b e h a v i o u r i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , the group w o r k e r w i l l want to he m i n d f u l o f a s p e c i f i c g o a l o r g o a l s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l i n the g r oup. I n s e l e c t i n g members t o the group, t h e group worker s h o u l d t a k e c a r e t h a t s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f members a r e w e l l b a l a n c e d t o e n a b l e the group t o f u n c t i o n and t o become a h e a l i n g -.media. Though a l l members w i l l be m a l - p e r f o r m e r s , they .may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f u n c t i o n i n a d e q u a t e l y i n the same a r e a . One whose achievement may be low a c a d e m i c a l l y may have f a i r l y good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s o r a d u l t s ; some may e x h i b i t poor r e l a -t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s o r a d u l t s because o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e u s e o f a g g r e s s i o n ; o t h e r s may show the same symptom o f poor r e l a t i o n s h i p s , however, because o f w i t h d r a w a l . These two causes o f a g g r e s s i o n and w i t h d r a w a l may b a l a n c e each o t h e r i n the group s i t u a t i o n . The s i z e o f the group, a c c o r d i n g t o our f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n , s h o u l d be s m a l l enough t o a l l o w each i n d i v i d u a l member t o r a e e i v e s u f f i -c i e n t a t t e n t i o n from the group w o r k e r , thus the number o f members i n t he group s h o u l d - p r e f e r a b l y n o t exceed t e n . We a r e aware o f the f a c t t h a t one group wo r k e r w i l l n o t be -able t o h a n d l e a l l our ex-p e r i m e n t a l sample. Two or t h r e e group w o r k e r s may have t o be i n -v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . I n t h i s c a s e , c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n and c o -o r d i n a t i o n would, t h e r e f o r e , be r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e u n i f o r m i t y o f s e r v i c e . W i t h t h e - a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l group w o r k e r s employed i n t h i s p r o j e c t a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s , they would th e n be e x p e c t e d t o g i v e u n i f o r m s e r v i c e w i t h .a l i t t l e h e l p from c o n f e r e n c e s amongst t h e m s e l v e s and some d i r e c t i o n s from the d i r e c t o r o f the Y.W.CA. p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . Our e x p e r i m e n t a l e n v ironment w i l l be the Vancouver E a s t Y.W.CA., and samples w i l l be drawn from v a r i o u s s c h o o l s . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . W i t h r e g a r d s to i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s , .we -are aware o f our l i m i t a t i o n i n c o n t r o l l i n g t he f a m i l i a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f o ur s u b j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the •area i n w h i c h we -are c o n d u c t i n g our s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , the use o f c o n t r o l groups w i l l be the -means o f our c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s e - i n t e r v e n -i n g v a r i a b l e s . The c o n t r o l groups may a l s o s e r v e - t h e p u r p o s e o f gua r d i n g , a g a i n s t the t h i r d i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e , - m a t u r a t i o n , .and may d i s t i n g u i s h s o c i a l group work i n t e r v e n t i o n from u n - d i r e c t e d group i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h has been mentioned p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s s t u d y . To e x p l a i n t h i s c o n t r o l i n m a t h e m a t i c a l f orm, i f w e - l e t X b e - t h e f a m i l i a l f a c t o r i n the t h r e e groups ( E x p e r i m e n t a l , C o n t r o l I , and C o n t r o l I I ) , Y, the c u l t u r a l f a c t o r , Z the improvement o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g due t o m a t u r a t i o n , T & T' the t o t a l improvement o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f the E x p e r i m e n t a l group and the two c o n t r o l groups w i t h the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t mere group i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l n o t h e l p 72. i n i m p r o v i n g s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , and then k, t h e improvement due t o t r e a t m e n t , t h e r e s u l t w i l l be: T-T' == (k + X + Y + Z\ - (X + Y + Z) = k S i n c e we use the method o f m a t c h i n g t o d i v i d e our e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s , t h e t h r e e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s a r e h e r e b y seen c a n c e l l i n g each o t h e r out by comparing t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group w i t h t h e two c o n t r o l g roups. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o f improvement may t h e n be t e s t e d by t t e s t o f S i g n i f i c a n c e between two means of Independent Samples. (38.pp.79-81) Reasons f o r c h o o s i n g t h i s t e s t a r e : i t i s commonly used t o t e s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e two means f o r s m a l l samples; i t a l s o a l l o w s us t o compare t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n groups i n r e g a r d t o b e f o r e and a f t e r t r e a t m e n t i n each c a s e . The w o r k i n g s t e p s may be l a i d out as such: (Exper From S'I^X - //V/ i m e n t a l ) / ( C o n J r i P - ^ " ' ^ - / ^ ^ Ajj -hAt2.-2- M A6-SKI - X ~ 2 _ 73. T h e - l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o be used w i l l be a t 0.05. I n the same manner we can compare the s i g n i f i c a n c e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two c o n t r o l g r o u p s , and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the c o n t r o l group I I where s u b j e c t s w i l l have u n d i r e c t e d group i n t e r a c t i o n s . 5. S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s . The p o p u l a t i o n from w h i c h samples a r e t o be drawn w i l l be s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f grade 2 t o grade 5 i n the f o u r p u b l i c s c h o o l s , namely Seymour, MacDonald, Grandview and L o r d N e l s o n o f the Woodland P a r k a r e a . Samples must have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d i n our o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s (mal-p e r f o r m i n g i n s c h o o l ) , and t h e y must be c h i l d r e n who a r e r a t e d toward t h e n e g a t i v e s i d e o f the r a t i n g s c a l e (see s c a l e ) . The t e a c h e r s i n t h e f o u r s c h o o l s w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b o t h i n i t i a l and f i n a l r a t i n g . They o n l y w i l l r e f e r c ases t o t h e r e s e a r c h team. P u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s or s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s concerned w i l l be a l l o w e d t o g i v e o p i n i o n t o t h e t e a c h e r s about t h e c h i l d r e n who a r e c o n s i d e r e d as m a l - p e r f o r m i n g , b u t w i l l n o t make r e f e r r a l s . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h i s measure i s t a k e n t o a s s u r e u n i f o r m i t y o f r a t i n g and a l s o t o s i m p l i f y the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f d a t a l a t e r . R e f e r r a l forms w i l l t h e n be s c r e e n e d by the r e s e a r c h team of t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U. B. C. and checks o f t h e r e -f e r r a l s w i l l be t a k e n by o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the samples by a s o c i o - m e t r i c t y p e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e n t o t h e c l a s s e s where our samples w i l l be drawn, and a s e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e w i t h w h i c h the samples w i l l r a t e t h e m s e l v e s upon e n t e r i n g the group t o w h i c h t h e y w i l l be a s s i g n e d . H a v i n g o b t a i n e d the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the sample, t h e r e s e a r c h team w i l l match t h e samples i n r e s p e c t t o age, g r a d e , p r o b l e m a r e a and t h e n a s s i g n them randomly t o t h e e x p e r i m e n -74. t a l and t h e two c o n t r o l g roups. C h i l d r e n a s s i g n e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l group w i l l be n o t i f i e d t h r o u g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s t o go f o r t r e a t m e n t whereas c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o n t r o l group I w i l l n o t r e c e i v e a d d i t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n e i t h e r from t h e t e a c h e r o r t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d . F o r t h e c o n t r o l group I I , c h i l d r e n w i l l a l s o be n o t i f i e d by t e a c h -e r s t o go f o r group s e s s i o n s a t th e Y.W.CA. b u t t h e y w i l l n o t r e c e i v e a n y t h i n g more t h a n u n d i r e c t e d group i n t e r a c t i o n . No group g o a l s and i n d i v i d u a l g o a l s w i l l be p l a n n e d f o r them. Th'euperson who w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s group w i l l be a v o l u n t e e r w i t h o u t any s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g . The s i z e o f the sample w i l l be w i t h i n t h e range o f 20 t o 30 i n each group c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l . U s u a l l y a s m a l l sample o f t h i s k i n d w i l l l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o some s t a t i s -t i c a l e r r o r s , i n t h i s c a s e , a ty p e I I e r r o r . T h i s means t h a t w h i l e we e x p e c t t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n b o t h groups t o be a l i k e , t h e y a r e , i n f a c t , d i f f e r e n t due t o t h e s m a l l samples t h a t we have l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r the a r e a o f ma l - p e r f o r m a n c e even though m a t c h i n g i s employed. However, we have t o t a k e t h i s f o r an e t h i c a l r e a s o n . The w i t h -h o l d i n g o f t r e a t m e n t from m a l - p e r f o r m i n g c h i l d r e n i s f r e q u e n t l y found t o be o b j e c t i o n a b l e by t h o s e who a r e concerned about t he c h i l d r e n ' s w e l f a r e . We, n e v e r t h e l e s s , w i l l use c o n t r o l groups w i t h the r e a s o n i n g t h a t many s o c i a l a g e n c i e s have w a i t i n g l i s t s because they can n o t s e r v e a l l c l i e n t s , and t h i s would l i k e l y happen a t t h e Y.W.CA. T h e r e f o r e , d e p r i v i n g about 40 c h i l d r e n from t r e a t m e n t f o r a p e r i o d o f 7 t o 8 months w i l l n o t be as u n e t h i c a l as i t may seem. A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e r e has n o t y e t been any p r o o f t h a t t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s k i n d r e a l l y does h e l p such b e h a v i o u r . 6. Method o f G a t h e r i n g Data. A measurement s c a l e has been con-s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o our o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . M a l p e r f o r m a n c e such as t r u a n c y , s c h o o l p h o b i a , and p h y s h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s e s w i l l be measured q u a n t i t a t i v e l y by l o o k i n g a t the r e c o r d o f s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e , w h i c h w i l l i n c l u d e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f h i s coming l a t e t o s c h o o l . The m e a s u r i n g o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f use o f energy such as a g g r e s s i o n and w i t h d r a w a l w i l l be on t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p e e r s and a d u l t s . F o r academic a c h i e v e -ment, we w i l l measure a l o n g t h e a r e a o f communication i n b o t h w r i t t e n and o r a l e x p r e s s i o n , manual d e x t e r i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n span. The t e a c h e r s i n t h e f o u r s c h o o l s mentioned above w i l l be our s o u r c e o f d a t a i n f o r m a t i o n . To en s u r e o b j e c t i v i t y i n r a t i n g , two c h e c k s , t h e s o c i o g r a m t e s t and t h e s e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e s t a t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n w i l l be used b e f o r e and a f t e r the t r e a t -ment p e r i o d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , the group w o r k e r s w i l l a l s o be asked t o r a t e t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group a t t h e f i n a l r a t i n g . The r a t i n g s c a l e w i l l be t h e same as t h o s e used by th e t e a c h e r s . Upon e n t e r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and t h e c o n t r o l group I I , t h e c h i l d w i l l be h e l p e d by t h e group w o r k e r s ( t r a i n e d o r u n t r a i n e d ) t o r a t e h i m s e l f on t h e s e l f r a t i n g s c a l e . The r e a s o n f o r h a v i n g ,the group wo r k e r do t h i s i s t h a t she w i l l be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o f i n d o ut t h e t r u e f e e l i n g s o f t h e c h i l d r e g a r d i n g h i s s c h o o l b e h a v i o u r . The group wo r k e r o f the t r e a t m e n t group, by h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o examine and e v a l u a t e h i m s e l f , w i l l a l s o g a i n more i n s i g h t w h i c h w i l l , a s s i s t h e r i n a s s e s s i n g the c h i l d and h i s problem.and p l a n n i n g a t r e a t m e n t g o a l f o r him. To ensure c l a r i t y i n . d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a m e e t i n g be h e l d b e f o r e t h e p r o j e c t s t a r t s t o e n a b l e t h e r e s e a r c h team, the t e a c h e r s and t h e group w o r k e r s concerned t o have a common i d e a o f why and how t h i s p r o j e c t i s g o i n g t o be c a r r i e d o u t . The r e s e a r c h team s h o u l d e x p l a i n c l e a r l y and i n d e t a i l t he r a t i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the measurement s c a l e s . The r e f e r r a l forms w h i c h a r e a c t u a l l y t h e i n i t i a l r a t i n g s o f the samples s h o u l d be completed by t h e end of O c t o b e r , 1967. The r e s e a r c h team may have to use a p p r o x i m a t e l y a month i n s c r e e n i n g t h e r e f e r r a l s , c l e a r i n g d o u b t s about r a t i n g s , and s e l e c t i n g samples f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g roups. F i n a l r a t i n g s f o r a l l t h r e e groups e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l w i l l have t o t a k e p l a c e i n March, 1968 t o a l l o w the r e -s e a r c h team t o have some ti m e t o a n a l y s e t h e r e s u l t s , draw up t h e c o n c l u s i o n s and e v a l u a t e the whole s t u d y f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . I t i s our c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the s u c c e s s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l r e l y much on the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the s c h o o l s , t h e group work agency and the c o - o r d i n a t i o n e f f o r t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h team. S o c i a l Work I n t e r v e n t i o n and S c h o o l F u n c t i o n i n g . Measurement S c a l e 77 Name o f s t u d e n t : Age Grade S c h o o l Name of t e a c h e r : Agency:_ Group: Group worker: Date o f r a t i n g : Which one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e way you f e e l about t h e c h i l d ? P l e a s e check one. 1. R e c o r d o f A t t e n d a n c e S t a t i s t i c a l V a l u e s No absence +3 • One day or l e s s a b s e n t on one s c h o o l term +2 Two days a b s e n t i n one s c h o o l term +1 Four absences w i t h i n one s c h o o l term 0 More t h a n s i x days a b s e n t i n one s c h o o l term -1 Ten days a b s e n t w i t h i n one s c h o o l term -2 More t h a n t e n absences i n one s c h o o l term showing tendency o f d r o p p i n g out -3 2. R e c o r d o f L a t e n e s s has n e v e r been l a t e +3 l a t e no more t h a n one day i n a month +2 l a t e no more t h a n two days i n a month +1 about f o u r l a t e n e s s e s i n a month 0 More t h a n s i x l a t e n e s s e s i n a month -1 e i g h t l a t e n e s s e s i n a month -2 more t h a n e i g h t l a t e n e s s e s i n a month -3 3. P e e r R e l a t i o n s h i p ( F r i e n d l y h e r e b y means one who has warm s i n t i m a t e f e e l i n g towards o t h e r s ) 78. S t a t i s t i c a l V a l u e s .... F r i e n d l y t o t h e whole c l a s s / g r o u p +3 .... F r i e n d l y t o about 3 q u a r t e r o f the c l a s s / g r o u p +2 .... F r i e n d l y t o h a l f o f the c l a s s / g r o u p +1 .... F r i e n d l y t o l e s s t h a n a h a l f o f the c l a s s / g r o u p 0 .... F r i e n d l y t o l e s s t h a n a q u a r t e r o f the c l a s s / g r o u p - 1 .... F r i e n d l y t o no more t h a n two i n c l a s s or group -2 .... F r i e n d l y t o none i n c l a s s / g r o u p -3 R e l a t i o n s h i p t o A d u l t s .... E x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l l i k e d by a d u l t s +3 .... C o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a d u l t s +2 .... Can res p o n d a p p r o p r i a t e l y . t o a d u l t d i r e c t i o n +1 .... Can a c c e p t l i m i t s f rom a d u l t s 0 .... U n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a d u l t s f o r r e a s o n s o f b e i n g s l i g h t l y w i t h d r a w n or h o s t i l e -1 .... Can n o t a c c e p t l i m i t s from a d u l t s o r overdependent on a d u l t d i r e c t i o n -2 .... Can n o t r e l a t e t o a d u l t s f o r b e i n g w i t h d r a w n or h o s t i l e -3 n o t e : P l e a s e s p e c i f y " w i t h d r a w n " or " h o s t i l e " i f t he l a s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a r e b e i n g c h e c k e d . Academic P e r f o r m a n c e P l e a s e r a t e t he c h i l d i n each o f the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s ( a s s i g n from -3 t o +3 on t h e f o l l o w i n g s c a l e f o r each i t e m ) -3 - 2 - 1 0 +1 +2 +3 I I 1 I t 1 ^  1 C o n s i d e r a b l y Some what About a v e r a g e Some what c o n s i d e r a b l y v e r y below a v e r a g e b e l ow average a v e r a g e above av e r a g e above average much above average P o i n t s (Use whole number) .... A b i l i t y t o communicate i n w r i t i n g .... A b i l i t y t o communicate o r a l l y .... Manual d e x t e r i t y ( C o - o r d i n a t i o n , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ) .... C o n c e n t r a t i o n span i n c l a s s / g r o u p P l e a s e answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s i n q u a n t i t i v e terms. (1) How many times had t h e c h i l d been p u n i s h e d i n s c h o o l f o r the l a s t s i x months? (2) How o f t e n does the c h i l d draw a t t e n t i o n i n c l a s s / g r o u p by u p s e t t i n g the c l a s s / g r o u p w i t h i n a month? Name of s t u d e n t : Name o f s c h o o l : _ Grade: S e l f - r a t i n g S c a l e ( f o r c h i l d r e n i n grade 2 t o grade 5 ) A g e n c y : _ Group: _Age: Name of group w o r k e r : Name of t e a c h e r : (who h e l p t he c h i l d i n r a t i n g h e r s e l f ) Date o f r a t i n g : 1. P l e a s e name one o f the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s t e l l s t he way you f e e l about s c h o o l . G i v e a ( ) i n f r o n t o f the number you choose. (1) I l i k e t o go t o s c h o o l t o l e a r n and t o p l a y . ( 2 ) I go t o s c h o o l because my p a r e n t s want me t o . (3) I, would r a t h e r s t a y a t s c h o o l t h a n t o s t a y a t home i n day t i m e . (4) I do n o t l i k e s c h o o l v e r y much because I d i s l i k e home work. ( 5 ) I do n o t l i k e s c h o o l because I can n o t get a l o n g w i t h my t e a c h e r s . .... (6) I do n o t l i k e s c h o o l because I cannot g e t a l o n g w i t h my c l a s s mate. .... (7) I do n o t know e x a c t l y why b u t I f e e l uneasy when I have t o go t o s c h o o l . P l e a s e answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g y o u r o p i n i o n about a d u l t s w i t h " y e s " or "no". A d u l t s h e r e means some one who i s much o l d e r t h a n you, f o r example, p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s and so f o r t h . (1) Do you l i k e t o be w i t h a d u l t s ? (yes , no ) ( 2 ) Do you l i k e t o t a l k t o a d u l t s ? (yes , no ) (3) Do you l i k e t o p l a y w i t h a d u l t s ? (yes , no ) (4) A r e you v e r y shy w i t h a d u l t s ? (yes , no ) 81. (5) Do you get an g r y e a s i l y i f you can n o t have what you want from a d u l t s (yes , no ) (6) Do you always obey a d u l t o r d e r s ? (yes , no ) (7) Does i t make you angry i f y o u r t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , or o t h e r a d u l t s t r y t o t e l l you what t o do? (yes , no ) (8) Do you always depend on a d u l t s t o t e l l you what t o do? (yes , no ) 82. S o c i o - m e t r i c Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( f o r c h i l d r e n i n grade 2 t o grade 5) Name of s c h o o l : Date o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Grade: Name o f t e a c h e r : P l e a s e answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . 1. Whom do you l i k e b e s t i n t h i s c l a s s ? you can name more than one. 2. Whom do you u s u a l l y p l a y w i t h a t r e c e s s time? 3. Whom do you u s u a l l y t a l k t o i n c l a s s when you have s o m e t h i n g t o t e l l a t s c h o o l ? 4. Whom do you w i s h t o s i t w i t h i n t h i s c l a s s ? You can p u t as many c h o i c e s as you l i k e . 5. I f you had a b i r t h d a y p a r t y t o - d a y , whom do you want t o i n v i t e from t h i s c l a s s ? 83. I n s t r u c t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t r a t i n g t h i s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. P r o v i d e each s t u d e n t w i t h a s h e e t of paper w h i c h l i s t s t he name of e v e r y s t u d e n t i n t h e c l a s s . 2. Read t o t h e c l a s s t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h : " I h e l p you w i t h y o u r r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g and many o t h e r t h i n g s . I a l s o want t o h e l p you i n making f r i e n d s . I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , I must know how you f e e l about e v e r y one i n t h i s room and how each one f e e l s about y ou. T h e r e f o r e , t o - d a y I am a s k i n g you t o t e l l us how you f e e l about t h e o t h e r i n t h i s room by a n s w e r i n g the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . The name s h e e t h e r e i s t o h e l p you t o s p e l l t h e i r names." 84. B i b l i o g r a p h y 1. Banes, L. " D i r e c t Casework Treatment o f L a t e n c y Age C h i l d , " S o c i a l Casework, X L I I ( A p r i l , . 1 9 6 1 ) , 184-88. 2. Beck, B.M. "Can S o c i a l Work P r e v e n t S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , " The S o c i a l W e l f a r e Forum, P u b l i s h e d f o r the N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : New Y o r k , 1960, 180-93. 3. Boehm, W. "The N a t u r e o f S o c i a l Work," S o c i a l Work, I I I ( A p r i l 1958), 10-18. 4. B r o o k o v e r , W.B., e t a l . " S e l f - c o n c e p t o f A b i l i t y and S c h o o l A c h i e v e m e n t , " S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , X X V I I I ( S p r i n g , 1964). 5. B r u c e , M. The Coming o f the W e l f a r e S t a t e . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . .1961. 6. B u h l e r , C h a r l o t t e , C h i l d h o o d Problems and the T e a c h e r . New Y o r k : Henry H o l t & Co., 1952. 7. C a r t w r i g h t , Dorwin, " A c h i e v i n g change i n p e o p l e : some a p p l i c a t i o n s o f group dynamic t h e o r y , " i n C u r r e n t P e r s p e c t i v e s i n S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . E d i t e d b y . H o l l a n d e r , E.P. and Hunt, R.G. New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. 8. Cohen, Y. The T r a n s i t i o n From C h i l d h o o d to A d o l e s c e n c e . Chicago:. A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1964. 9. Coleman, James C. Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y and Modern L i f e . 3 r d ed. C h i c a g o : S c o t t , Foresman.and Company, 1964. •10. Coleman, James C. P e r s o n a l i t y Dynamics and E f f e c t i v e B e h a v i o u r . C h i c a g o : S c o t t , Foresman and Company, 1960. 11. C r i d e r , M i l d r e d M u r r a y . "A Study o f the E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Group Guidance Upon P e r s o n a l i t y C o n f l i c t and Reading R e t a r d a t i o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n M i s s i s s i p p i ^ . , 1964. 12. D a n i e l s , EN., Benson, R.S. Wook, M.L., and Berman, L. "A Group Approach t o P r e d e l i n q u e n t Boys, T h e i r Teachers and P a r e n t s i n a J r . H i g h , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f Group P s y c h o t h e r a p y , X ( J u l y , . 1 9 6 0 ) 346-52. 13. de S c h w e i n i t z , K a r l . E n g l a n d ' s Road to S o c i a l S e c u r i t y . 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P r i n c i p l e s o f P e r s o n n e l Management. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1960. 19.. F r e e , J o h n E l l s w o r t h . "An E x p e r i m e n t "to Show the P o s s i b l e C o n t r i b u t i o n o f S o c i a l Group Work to C o u n s e l i n g i n I m p r o v i n g the A d j u s t m e n t o f D e f i a n t H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s , " U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1964. .20. F r e n c h , D a v i d G. ( e d i ) . M e a s u r i n g R e s u l t s i n S o c i a l Work. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952. .21. F r e y , L o u i s e A. "A S o c i a l Group Work Approach t o S o c i a l l y D i s a d v a n t a g e d G i r l s i n a S c h o o l , " C h i l d W e l f a r e , XLIV (December,.1965), 563-69. 22. Gabbard, H a z e l . 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" E f f e c t s on E m o t i o n a l D i s t u r b a n c e i n C h i l d h o o d i n I n t e l l i g e n c e , " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , XXXV ( O c t o b e r , 1965), 906-908. 63. Woodland Park. A r e a Resources C o u n c i l . "A Review o f I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the Recommendations Made i n 'A S t u d y , o f the Woodlands P a r k A r e a . " Vancouver, B.C., 1966. (Mimeographed) 64. Woodland P a r k A r e a R e s o u r c e s C o u n c i l . "A Study o f the Woodland P a r k A r e a . " Vancouver, B.C. 1965. (Mimeographed) 89. APPENDIX A INDIVIDUAL RECORD FORM RATING SCALE Use s e p a r a t e I n s t r u c t i o n S heet when r a t i n g . Mark w i t h X. Date:_ Name: Add r e s s : T e l . S o u r c e C r i t e r i a o f Measurement R a t i n g S c a l e V.Good 1. Good 2. Average 3. Poor 4. V.Poor 5. SCHOOL 1. R e c o r d o f a t t e n d a n c e 2. R e c o r d of l a t e n e s s 3. Achievement: (a) L a n g u a g e , A r t s (b) P e r f o r m a n c e s k i l l s ( c ) A b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g 4. B e h a v i o u r (use of en e r g y ) (a) A g g r e s s i v e (b) P a s s i v e /// / / . ( c ) Withdrawn /// / / / / / 5. A t t i t u d e : (a) H o s t i l e V/. (b) C o - o p e r a t i v e ( c ) O p t i m i s m - p e s s i m i s m 6. R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h (a) A d u l t s (b) P e e r s 7. Appearance 90. Source ' C r i t e r i a o f Measurement R a t i n g S . c a l e V.Good 1. Good 2. Average 3. Poor 4. V.Poor 5. PRIMARY SOCIAL AGENCY FAMILY 1. Employment A d j u s t m e n t 2. F i n a n c i a l Management 3. H o u s e k e e p i n g S t a n d a r d s 4. C h i l d Care 5. H e a l t h P r a c t i c e s 6. S o c i a l A c t i v i t i e s 7. F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s & U n i t y 8. S p e c i a l P roblems CHILD B e h a v i o u r (use o f en e r g y ) (a) A g g r e s s i v e (b) P a s s i v e //// // ( c ) Withdrawn //// ///./ A t t i t u d e (a) H o s t i l e (b) C o - o p e r a t i v e (c). O p t i m i s m - p e s s i m i s m R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h {a) A d u l t s (b) S i b l i n g s Appearance 3ROUP TORK AGENCY 1. R e c o r d o f A t t e n d a n c e 2. R e c o r d o f L a t e n e s s 3. Achievement (a) L a n g u a g e , A r t s (b) P e r f o r m a n c e s k i l l s ( c ) A b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g 4. B e h a v i o u r (a) A g g r e s s i v e '/// '// (Use o f (b) P a s s i v e /// /,• '//// energy) ( c ) Withdrawn / / / / ' / 5. A t t i t u d e (a) H o s t i l e (b) C o - o p e r a t i v e ( c ) O p t i m i s m - p e s s i m i s m 6. R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h (a) A d u l t s (b) P e e r s 7. Appearance APPENDIX B RATING SHEET DEFINITIONS FOR USE BY PRIMARY SOCIAL AGENCY t^lga: i n f o r m a t i o n o f Sch o o l and Group work agency I n d i v i d u a l R e c o r d Form •_ Page 1 R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n V e r y Good 1. Good 2. A v erage 3. EMPLOYMENT ADJUSTMENT - A b i l i t y t o h o l d a job and m a i n t a i n s u p p o r t o f f a m i l y , t o l e r a t e f r u s t r a t i o n s - A b l e t o h o l d a j o b , s u p p o r t f a m i l y always -Can h o l d j o b , s u p p o r t f a m i l y -Can h o l d a j o b , changes w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g s u p p o r t o f f a m i l y -Manner o f l o o k i n g f o r work - I s a g g r e s s i v e i n l o o k -i n g f o r work -Not always a g g r e s s i v e i n l o o k i n g f o r work. More a c t i v e t h a n 3. -Needs some s u p p o r t i n l o o k i n g f o r work and has i n i t i a t i v e t o f o l l o w up. - R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h e m p l o y e r , employees -Can r e l a t e w e l l t o b o t h employer ( a u t h o r i t y ) and f e l l o w w o r k e r s . - R e l a t e s w e l l - R e l a t e s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l . Can r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g j o b s . -Job P e r f o r m a n c e -Performs v e r y w e l l . Needs l i t t l e o r no s u p e r v i s i o n . -Performs w e l l , b u t n o t as w e l l as 1. - w i t h o r w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n - P e r f o r m s w e l l . - L e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h j o b i n r e l a t i o n t o c a p a b i l i t i e s and t r a i n i n g . - S a t i s f i e d w i t h j o b . %s w o r k i n g t o c a p a b i -l i t y and l e v e l o f s k i l l . -Some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s w h i c h can be r e s o l v e d on own i n i t i a t i v e . W o r k i n g t o c a p a c i t y . -Some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , b u t can t o l e r a t e t h e s e . May need s u p p o r t t o s t r i v e f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . W o r k i n g t o c a p a c i t y . Page 1 (Cont R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n Poor 4. V e r y Poor 5. EMPLOYMENT ADJUSTMENT - A b i l i t y t o h o l d a j o b and m a i n t a i n s u p p o r t o f f a m i l y , t o l e r a t e f r u s t r a t i o n s -Cannot h o l d j o b . S h o r t p e r i o d s o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t needed. -Never h o l d s a j o b f o r l o n g . On p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r l o n g p e r i o d s , o r unemp 1 oyab 1 e . -Manner o f l o o k i n g f o r work -Not a g g r e s s i v e i n l o o k -i n g f o r work and needs much s u p p o r t -Not a g g r e s s i v e and cannot f o l l o w t h r o u g h on h e l p . - R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h e m p loyer, employees - R e l a t i o n s h i p p o o r , e s p e c i a l l y a u t h o r i t y . -Very p o o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . -Job P e r f o r m a n c e -Cannot p e r f o r m w e l l u n l e s s c o n s t a n t l y s u p e r v i s e d . -Performance v e r y p o o r even under s u p e r v i s i o n - L e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h j o b i n r e l a t i o n t o c a p a b i l i t i e s and t r a i n i n g . - D i s s a t i s f i e d , b u t can r e s o l v e t h i s w i t h o u t l o s i n g j o b . Working below c a p a c i t y . -Never s a t i s f i e d ; o r s a t i s f i e d because cannot s t r i v e f o r b e t t e r and has poo r a b i l i t y anyway. Page 2 R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n V e r y Good 1. Good 2. A v e r a g e 3. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT -Degree o f agreement on management between f a m i l y heads -Always agree on how to h a n d l e money. -Are a b l e t o a g r e e on h a n d l i n g . I f c o n f l i c t e a s i l y r e s o l v e d . -Can a g r e e most t i m e s on h a n d l i n g . Some c o n f l i c t but n e v e r s e r i o u s - R e a l i t y o f b u d g e t t i n g , i n r e l a t i o n t o b a s i c needs o f f o o d , s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g , m e d i c a l - B a s i c needs met f i r s t - B a s i c needs u s u a l l y met f i r s t . - B a s i c needs met f i r s t most o f t i m e . I f n o t , does n o t d e v e l o p i n t o a p a t t e r n . - R e l a t i o n . o f d e b t t o income and management of d e b t . -None or v e r y few d e b t s Can always be met w i t h i n income. Never b e h i n d i n payments. -Few d e b t s f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s b u t can be met w i t h i n income. Never i n a r r e a r s . -Always c a r r y some debt but w i t h i n income. Take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n m e e t i n g a r r e a r s . Page 2 ( C o n t ' d . ) R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n Poor 4. V e r y P o o r 5. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT -Degree o f agreement on management between f a m i l y heads -Frequent d i s a g r e e m e n t s on h a n d l i n g . Need h e l p t o r e s o l v e t h e s e . - C o n s t a n t d i s a g r e e m e n t s on h a n d l i n g . - R e a l i t y o f b u d g e t t i n g , i n r e l a t i o n t o b a s i c needs o f f o o d , s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g , m e d i c a l - B a s i c needs n o t always met f i r s t , but w e l f a r e o f c h i l d r e n n o t s e r -i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d . I m p u l s i v e b u y i n g . - B a s i c needs n o t a d e q u a t e l y met. Much imp i i 1 s e ;:b uy i n g . - R e l a t i o n o f debt t o income and management o f d e b t . -Have d e b t s t a k e n on w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g income. Cannot meet and need h e l p t o do s o . -Overwhelming debt t o p o i n t where l e g a l , s t e p s have been t a k e n . Page 3 R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n V e r y Good 1. Good 2. - Average 3. HOUSEKEEPING STANDARDS - C l e a n l i n e s s i n home and p r o p e r t y -House and y a r d always c l e a n . E x t r a e f f o r t made t o make a t t r a c t i v e -House always c l e a n , y a r d same. Some e x t r a e f f o r t - n o t as much as (!)• -House g e n e r a l l y c l e a n , y a r d sometimes n o t c l e a n b u t get around t o do i t . - O r d e r l i n e s s i n home and p r o p e r t y -House and y a r d always i n good o r d e r , t i d y . E x t r a e f f o r t made. - U s u a l l y t i d y and o r d e r l y . - O r d e r l y i n house. Maybe n o t always i n y a r d . -Meal p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n -Meals p r e p a r e d i n a t t r a c t i v e way. On t i m e . N u t r i t i o u s . J -Meals p r e p a r e d w e l l , on t i m e . Not always made a t t r a c t i v e o r i n t e r e s t -i n g . -Meals p r e p a r e d on t i m e , d i e t a d equate. -Adequacy o f f u r n i t u r e and equipment. i -Have enough f u r n i t u r e and equipment, some e x t r a s . - S u f f i c i e n t f u r n i t u r e . -Adequate f u r n i t u r e , some make-do. -Care o f c l o t h i n g . - C l o t h i n g i s always c l e a n , i n good r e p a i r . - C l o t h i n g c l e a n , r e p a i r e d . - C l o t h i n g u s u a l l y c l e a n , may l a g i n t h i s o r r e p a i r s o c c a s i o n a l l y . - H e a t i n g - H e a t i n g i s adequate. - H e a t i n g adequate. - H e a t i n g adequate. Page 3 (Cont'd.) R a t i n g Ca t e g o r y and . D e f i n i t i o n Poor 4. V e r y Poor 5. SOUSEKEEPING STANDARDS - C l e a n l i n e s s i n home and p r o p e r t y -House u s u a l l y n o t c l e a n , y a r d u n c l e a n . -House and y a r d d i r t y and u n s a n i t a r y ; a p u b l i c h e a l t h h a z a r d . - O r d e r l i n e s s i n home and p r o p e r t y - D i s o r d e r l y appearance. - D i s o r d e r l y . -Meal p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n - I r r e g u l a r m e a l s , no a t t e n t i o n t o d i e t -p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d t o h e a l t h . - I r r e g u l a r meals,, some m i s s e d , d i e t e x t r e m e l y poor. - a c t u a l l y a h e a l t h h a z a r d . -Adequacy o f f u r n i t u r e and equipment - F u r n i t u r e i n a d e q u a t e -Many e s s e n t i a l i t e m s o f f u r n i t u r e m i s s i n g . -Care o f c l o t h i n g . - C l o t h i n g d i r t y most o f ti m e , i n poor s t a t e o f r e p a i r . S p o r a d i c a l l y make e f f o r t . - C l o t h i n g e x t r e m e l y , d i r t y , n e v e r r e p a i r e d r agged. - H e a t i n g - H e a t i n g n o t always adequate. -No h e a t i n g o r n o t a t t e n d e d enough t o p o i n t o f b e i n g a c t u a l h e a l t h h a z a r d . Page 4 R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n V e r y Good 1. Good 2. Average 3. CHILD CARE - P h y s i c a l c a r e ( p e r s o n a l c l e a n l i n e s s , h e a l t h needs, adequacy o f c l o t h i n g ) - C h i l d r e n - a l w a y s c l e a n , h e a l t h needs met, enough c l o t h i n g , s e v e r a l e x t r a s - C h i l d r e n c l e a n , h e a l t h needs met, enough c l o t h i n g , few e x t r a s or n o t - C l e a n , h e a l t h needs met but n o t always immediate-l y , adequate c l o t h i n g , no e x t r a s . E m o t i o n a l : - A f f e c t i o n - A f f e c t i o n d i s p l a y e d c o n s i s t e n t l y , warmly - A f f e c t i o n c o n s i s t e n t . - A f f e c t i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y e x p r e s s e d . - S t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r - B e h a v i o u r s t a n d a r d s conform t o g e n e r a l s o c i e t y s t a n d a r d s . - Beh av i o u r \ s t and a r d s c o n f o r m ; t o s o c i e t y ' s -Same as (2) -Method o f punishment -Punishment a p p r o p r i a t e , n ever s e v e r e o r r i g i d , p l e n t y o f a p p r o v a l -Punishment a p p r o p r i a t e , may use more p h y s i c a l t h a n ( 1 ) , l e s s a p p r o v a l , but do g i v e i t -Punishment u s u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e , u s u a l l y p h y s i c a l , never a b u s i v e , . a p p r o v a l g i v e n - C o n s i s t e n c y o f d i s c i p l i n e , l i m i t s e t t i n g . - D i s c i p l i n e always con-s i s t e n t , c l e a r - D i s c i p l i n e u s u a l l y con-s i s t e n t and c l e a r - D i s c i p l i n e u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t -Way p a r e n t s s h a r e t a s k - P a r e n t s always agree on c a r e and t r a i n i n g , can s h are - P a r e n t s s h a r e t a s k s , some times d i s a g r e e , b u t can r e a c h compromise. -Some d i s a g r e e m e n t be-tween p a r e n t s b u t can a gree to d i s a g r e e . Page 4 ( C o n t ' d . ) R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n Poor 4. V e r y Poor 5. CHILD CARE - P h y s i c a l c a r e ( p e r s o n a l c l e a n l i n e s s , h e a l t h needs, adequacy o f c l o t h i n g ) - U s u a l l y n o t c l e a n , h e a l t h needs a t t e n t i o n ; j u s t enough c l o t h i n g , a t t i m e s n o t enough -Always u n c l e a n , h e a l t h h a z a r d s , nevercenough c l o t h i n g E m o t i o n a l : - A f f e c t i o n - A f f e c t i o n r a r e l y ex-p r e s s e d , l i t t l e warmth - N e g l e c t , Cannot show a f f e c t i o n o r warmth -S t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r -Standards n o t c l e a r and n o t always con-f o r m i n g -Standards, a n t i - or a - s o c i a l -Method o f punishment -Punishment n o t always a p p r o p r i a t e , m o s t l y p h y s i c a l , sometimes a b u s i v e , r i g i d , no a p p r o v a l -Punishment a b u s i v e , s e v e r e , r i g i d , i n a p p r o -p r i a t e . May be cause f o r l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n . - C o n s i s t e n c y o f d i s c i p l i n e , l i m i t s e t t i n g . ^ I n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e -Lack of d i s c i p l i n e -Way p a r e n t s s h a r e t a s k -Cannot agree o r s h a r e t a s k s , c o u l d w i t h much s u p p o r t - P a r e n t s s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e Page 5 R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n V e r y Good 1. Good 2. A v e r a g e 3. SOCIAL ACTIVITIES - R e l a t i o n s h i p and a c t i v -i t i e s w i t h r e l a t i v e s - P l e a s a n t s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h r e l a t i v e s . -Same as ( 1 ) . May n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n as many a c t i v i t i e s . -Have p l e a s a n t s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h some r e l a t i v e s , not w i t h o t h e r s - I n f o r m a l f r i e n d s h i p s -Same w i t h f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o u r s -As above -Same as f o r r e l a t i v e s , c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s n o t v e r y wide b u t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s good. E n j o y a c t i v i t i e s . - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i -zed community a c t i v i t i e s - A c t i v e i n a t l e a s t one o r g a n i z e d c l u b , l e a d e r -s h i p q u a l i t i e s , e n j o y a c t i v i t i e s -May be a c t i v e i n o r g a n i z e d group. Some l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s . - W i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n o r g a n i z e d c l u b i f a s k e d , may on own i n i t i a t i v e . : - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n un-o r g a n i z e d community a c t i v i t i e s - A c t i v e i n a t l e a s t one u n o r g a n i z e d i n f o r m a l group -More i n f o r m a l t h a n f o r m a l g r o u p s . -Some u n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s , would p r e f e r t o o r g a n i z e d ones. Page 5 ( C o n t ' d . ) R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n Poor 4. V e r y P o o r 5. SOCIAL ACTIVITIES - R e l a t i o n s h i p and a c t i v -i t i e s w i t h r e l a t i v e s - R e l a t i o n s h i p s on whole no t good. May s h a r e some a c t i v i t i e s , b u t not e s p e c i a l l y p l e a s a n t -Poor r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n t i n u a l c o n f l i c t , sometimes p h y s i c a l . A c t i v i t i e s may i n v o l v e a s o c i a l o r d e l i n q u e n t ' a c t s . - I n f o r m a l f r i e n d s h i p s -Few f r i e n d s , go out r a r e l y , do n o t e n j o y g o i n g o u t . -Same as f o r r e l a t i v e s - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i -zed community a c t i v i t i e s -Never j o i n s o r g a n i z e d groups -Never t h i n k s o f p a r t i -c i p a t i o n and, i f does, i s d i s r u p t i v e . - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n un-o r g a n i z e d community a c t i v i t i e s -May j o i n , but does n o t e n j o y , drops o u t . May be d i s r u p t i v e . - I l l e g a l , i f any, g r o u p s . Page 6 R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n V e r y Good 1. Good 2. A v e r a g e 3. HEALTH PRACTICES -Concern';*for i l l h e a l t h , h a n d i c a p s -Show a p p r o p r i a t e and adequate c o n c e r n f o r i l l h e a l t h , g i v e p r o p e r c a r e -Show c o n c e r n f o r i l l h e a l t h , adequate c a r e g i v e n . May n o t always be as prompt as (1) -Concern shown f o r i l l h e a l t h , g i v e adequate c a r e most t i m e s -Promptness i n s e e k i n g n e c e s s a r y d e n t a l and m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n -Always seek m e d i c a l , d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n p r o m p t l y -Seek m e d i c a l and d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n , u s u a l l y p r o m p t l y . May g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o one -Seek m e d i c a l and d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n . May d e l a y o r g i v e p r e f e r e n c e t o one, but n e v e r endanger h e a l t h . - F o l l o w t h r o u g h on t r e a t -ment -Ab l e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h v e r y w e l l on t r e a t m e n t - F o l l o w s t h r o u g h on t r e a t m e n t - F o l l o w , t h r o u g h on t r e a t m e n t , sometimes d e l a y - P r e v e n t i v e measures -Use o f community h e a l t h r e s o u r c e s - P r a c t i s e d i s e a s e p r e -v e n t i o n a l w a y s , use community r e s o u r c e s w e l l - D i s e a s e p r e v e n t i o n adequate - P r e v e n t i o n a dequate, n o t a l w a y s c o n s i s t e n t - S l e e p i n g and e a t i n g h a b i t s . -Good s l e e p i n g and e a t i n g h a b i t s -Good s l e e p i n g and e a t i n g h a b i t s - S l e e p i n g and e a t i n g okay on t h e whole Page 6 (Cont'd.) R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n Poor 4. V e r y Poor 5. HEALTH PRACTICES -Concern f o r i l l h e a l t h , h a n d i c a p s - L i t t l e c o n c e r n shown f o r i l l h e a l t h , adequate c a r e n o t always g i v e n . P o t e n t i a l danger. Need h e l p and s u p p o r t . -Lack o f c o n c e r n , n e v e r g i v e n p r o p e r c a r e . A c t u a l danger, n e g l e c t . -Promptness i n s e e k i n g n e c e s s a r y d e n t a l and m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n -Leave m e d i c a l and d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n u n t i l c r i s i s , sometimes even n e g l e c t t h i s . P o t e n t i a l danger -Never seek a t t e n t i o n u n l e s s f o r c e d . A c t u a l danger. - F o l l o w t h r o u g h on t r e a t -ment - R a r e l y f o l l o w t h r o u g h on t r e a t m e n t , even i f can a f f o r d i t . -Never f o l l o w t h r o u g h on t r e a t m e n t u n l e s s f o r c e d . - P r e v e n t i v e measures -Use o f community h e a l t h r e s o u r c e s -No r e g a r d f o r p r e v e n t i o n p o t e n t i a l b u t n o t a c t u a l danger -Complete l a c k o f p r e v e n t i o n , r e a l danger - S l e e p i n g and e a t i n g h a b i t s . - S l e e p i n g and e a t i n g h a p h a z a r d , r e s u l t i n g i n poor g e n e r a l h e a l t h -Poor s l e e p i n g and e a t i n g h a b i t s , r e s u l t i n g i n h e a l t h breakdown, d i s e a s e Page 7 R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n V e r y Good 1. Good 2. A verage 3. FAMILY UNITY & RELATION-SHIPS - M o t h e r - f a t h e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s - P a r e n t s get on w e l l t o -g e t h e r , l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , e n j o y each o t h e r , cope w i t h c o n f l i c t t h e mselves - P a r e n t s g e t on w e l l . L i v e t o g e t h e r , some c o n f l i c t . I f need h e l p , use i t v e r y w e l l . - P a r e n t s t o g e t h e r or s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d b u t can a c c e p t t h i s r e a l i s t i -c a l l y . Do n o t p r o j e c t blame. I f d i f f i c u l t i e s , can r e s o l v e on own o r w i t h h e l p . - P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n -s h i p . - P a r e n t - c h i l d e n j o y each o t h e r , warm a f f e c t i o n a t e . C h i l d r e n f e e l s e c u r e . -Warm and a f f e c t i o n a t e . C h i l d r e n F e e l s e c u r e . ^ - A f f e c t i o n a t e and warm m o s t l y w i t h c h i l d r e n . Sometimes c o n f l i c t b u t can r e s o l v e t h i s . - S i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p - C h i l d r e n can p l a y t o -g e t h e r d e p e n d i n g on age, l o y a l , normal s q u a b b l i n g - C h i l d r e n a b l e t o p l a y t o g e t h e r , sometimes s q u a b b l e need h e l p t o r e s o l v e . Can use h e l p w e l l . - C h i l d r e n can p l a y t o g e t h e r , may s q u a b b l e , can be s e t t l e d . - T o t a l f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y , t h e way f a m i l y a c t s as a u n i t , t o t a l e m o t i o n a l atmosphere - F a m i l y f e e l s s e c u r e , atmosphere i s warm, can h a n d l e c o n f l i c t , p u l l t o g e t h e r , s a t i s f i e d w i t h f a m i l y l i f e . Can show mutual c o n c e r n r e a d i l y . - F a m i l y a c t s as a u n i t , some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s b u t can work t h e s e o u t . Can show m u t u a l c o n c e r n . - F a m i l y f e e l s s e c u r e , can cope w i t h u p h e a v a l . E n j o y s a c t i v i t i e s as a u n i t , b u t n o t as f r e -q u e n t l y as (1) and (2) B a s i c a l l y s a t i s f i e d . M u t u a l c o n c e r n shown. Page 7 (Cont'd.) R a t i n g ! C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n P oor 4. V e r y Poor 5 . FAMILY UNITY & RELATION-SHIPS - M o t h e r - f a t h e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s - P a r e n t s t o g e t h e r a r e i n c o n f l i c t , o r a c t u a l l y s e p a r a t e d . Could n o t r e s o l v e w i t h o u t con-s i d e r a b l e h e l p . - P a r e n t s s e p a r a t e d or t o g e t h e r f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s . C o n s t a n t c o n f l i c t . P h y s i c a l abuse. L e g a l i n v o l v e -ment, ( e . g . F a m i l y C o u r t . ) - P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n -s h i p . -Not o f t e n a f f e c t i o n a t e or warm w i t h c h i l d r e n . Make u n r e a l i s t i c demands r e s u l t i n g i n c o n f l i c t . P o t e n t i a l danger. -Never show a f f e c t i o n o r c o n c e r n . Always i n c o n f l i c t . C h i l d r e n i n a c t u a l danger. A u t h o r i t y needed. - S i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p - C h i l d r e n f i g h t and s q u a b b l e . Don't c a r e about l o y a l t y , p o t e n t i a l danger. - C h i l d r e n f i g h t c o n s t a n t l y . D i s l o y a l , p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e a c t u a l danger. - T o t a l f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y , the way f a m i l y a c t s as a u n i t , t o t a l e m o t i o n a l atmosphere - F a m i l y r a r e l y a c t s as a u n i t , cannot e n j o y a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t h e r . D i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h f a m i l y l i f e , v e r y l i t t l e m u tual c o n c e r n . -No c o h e s i v e n e s s a t a l l , l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r each o t h e r . Get n o t h i n g out o f f a m i l y l i f e . F a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n . Breakdown a c t u a l or imminent. Page 8 R a t i n g C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n V e r y Good 1. Good 2. Av e r a g e 3. SPECIAL PROBLEMS - R e s o r t s t o . s o c i a l l y d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r -a l c o h o l i s m , d e l i n q u e n c y , i l l e g i t i m a t e p r e g n a n c y , g a m b l i n g , d r u g a d d i c t i o n , e t c . -Never r e s o r t s t o d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r . A c t i v e l y d i s a p p r o v e s and can gu i d e c h i l d r e n appro-p r i a t e l y . -Do n o t r e s o r t t o d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r . -Would n o t r e s o r t t o d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r . May have been one a c t ( e . g . i l l e g i t i m a t e p r e g n a n c y ) b u t f a m i l y cope w e l l w i t h t h i s . Page 8 ( C o n t ' d . ) C a t e g o r y and D e f i n i t i o n R a t i n g Poor 4. V e r y Poor 5. SPECIAL PROBLEMS - R e s o r t s t o s o c i a l l y d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r -a l c o h o l i s m , d e l i n q u e n c y , i l l e g i t i m a t e p regnancy, g a m b l i n g , d r u g a d d i c t i o n , e t c . - D e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r of one form o r a n o t h e r . Has n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d law, b u t p o t e n t i a l danger e x i s t s . - S e r i o u s d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r . A c t u a l danger. A u t h o r i t y has been i n v o l v e d . APPENDIX C CALCULATION OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TO TEST FIRST HYPOTHESIS sum o f the s c h o o l ' s i n i t i a l r a t i n g on peer and a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , sum o f the group w o r k e r ' s i n i t i a l r a t i n g on p e e r and a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t Rough Work Case No. X Y XZ YZ XY 8 8 9 64 81 72 26 8 12 64 144 96 28 8 10" 64 100 80 41 8 10 j 64 100 80 55 8 11 64 121 88 87 6 10 36 100 60 46 62 356 646 476 I The Mean Rating by the ; School on Adult and Peer Relationships I II The Mean Rating by the School on a l l the^ Variables Marked III The Mean Ra.tins and Peer Relationships by Legend Mean of the . ^Ratings F a l l s Between 5 and 7 Mean of the Ratings Is Greater th'an 7 Mean of the jRatings Is Less than 5 O-l APPENDIX E 1 TABLE # 1 - N a t i o n a l i t y Number i n O r i g i n a l Sample N a t i o n a l i t y Number i n F i n a l Sample 507o = 4 5 Canadian 27 = 597o 1 5 I t a l i a n 7 3 Dutch 0 3 Japanese 0 3 C h i n e s e 3 1 Czech 1 1 S c a n d i n a v i a n 0 2 B e l g i u m . 2 1 P o l i s h 0 2 German 1 3 . P o r t u g e s e 2 2 Negro 0 . 3 N a t i v e I n d i a n 'i 1 2 B r i t i s h 2 1 A u s t r a l i a n 0 \ 1 U k r a n i a n 0 3 Unknown 0 9 1 T o t a l 4 6 APPENDIX E CHARACTERISTICS OF ORIGINAL AND FINAL SAMPLES TABLE #2 - S c h o o l s A t t e n d e d Number i n O r i g i n a l Sample S c h o o l A t t e n d e d Number i n F i n a l Sample .20 Seymour 13 25 Macdonald 17 17 Grandview 9 10 L o r d N e l s o n 7 5 L a u r a S e c o r d 0 10 S t . F r a n c i s 0 1 D i c k e n s 0 1 N i g h t i n g a l e 0 .2 Unknown 0 91 T o t a l 46 113. APPENDIX E TABLE .#3'".-. R e t e r n a l Source Number i n O r i g i n a l Sample R e t e r n a l Source Number i n F i n a l Sample 36 P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurse 26 6 R e l a t i o n s ( p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s ) 2 3 Casework A g e n c i e s 0 2 Oth e r S o c i a l A g e n c i e s 2 • 5 R e f e r r e d b u t Source Unknown 2 39 S t a r t e d V o l u n t a r i l y 14 46 T o t a l 46 I n o r i g i n a l sample 577, r e f e r r e d 437> v o l u n t a r y 69% o f tho s e r e f e r r e d were r e f e r r e d by P.H.N. I n f i n a l sample 707, r e f e r r e d ,30% v o l u n t a r y 817, o f those r e f e r r e d were r e f e r r e d by P.H.N. APPENDIX E TABLE #4 ADULT & PEER RELATIONSHIP RATINGS BY SCHOOL ON TEN CASES Case #1 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement Case #2 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 8 +2 A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 Peers 8 6 8 -2+2=0 Pee r s 6 6 6 0 Case #3 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement Case #4 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 8 10 8 +2T2=0 A d u l t s 8 10 6 •+2-4=-2 Pee r s 8 10 8 +2-2=0 Pee r s 8 10 6 +2-4=-2 Case #5 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement Case #7 Nov.-Dec.I F e b . ] J u n e Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 A d u l t s 5 | 4 6 -l+2=+l P e e r s 6 6 6 0 Pe e r s 6 J 6 6 0 Case.#8 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement Case #9 Nov.-Dec. |Feb.|June[Movement A d u l t s 4 6 6 +2 A d u l t s 6 6 5 -1 Pee r s 4 4 5 +1 Pee r s 6 6 6 1 0 Case #12 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement Case #26 Nov.-Dec. Feb.|June Movement A d u l t s 8 6 6 -2 A d u l t s 6 4 7 -2+3=+l P e e r s 8 6 6 -2 Peers 2 6 | 6 +4 R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a) A d u l t s b) P e e r s R a t i n g s : Very.Good = 10 Good = 8 • Average = 6 Poor = 4 Very Poor = 2 O v e r a l l Movement o f the Group w i t h A d u l t s (+2 - 2 + 1 + 2 - 1 - 2 + 1) = +1 W i t h P e e r s (-2 + 1 - 2 + 4) = + 1 115 APPENDIX E TABLE #5 ADULT & SIBLING RELATIONSHIP RATINGS BY PRIMARY AGENCY ON.TEN CASES Case #1 JNov.-Dec.|Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 4 .5 6 +.2 S i b s 6 6 6 0 Case #3 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 S i b s 4 6 6 +2 Case #5 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 S i b s 6 6 6 v o JCase:#8 Nov.-Dec. Feb, June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 5 -1 S i b s 4 4 5 +1 Case #12 Nov.-Dec. Feb, June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 S i b s 6 6 6 0 Case #2 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 6 • 5 5 -1 S i b s ^ 6 -1 Case #4 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 S i b s 6 6 6 0 Case #7 Nov.-Dec. |Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 4 4 6 +2 S i b s 4 1 4 5 +1 Case #9 Nov.-Dec. Feb. |june Movement A d u l t s 6 i 6 | 6 0 S i b s 6 6 | 6 J 0 Case #26 |Nov.-Dec. |Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 S i b s 4 6 1 5 +2-l=+l R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a) A d u l t s b) . S i b l i n g s R a t i n g s : V e r y Good Good Average Poor V e r y /Poor 10 8 6 4 2 O v e r a l l Movement o f t h e Group w i t h A d u l t s (+2 - 1 + 2 - 1) = + 2 W i t h S i b s (-1 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1) = + 4 APPENDIX E TABLE #6 • ADULT & PEER RELATIONSHIP RATINGS BY GROUP WORKER ON TEN CASES Case #1 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 Pee r s 4 5 5 +1 Case #3 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement Adu1ts 6 6 6 0 Pee r s 6 6 7 +1 Case #5 Nov.-Dec. Feb.. June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 Pee r s 5 6 6 +1 Case #8 Nov.-Dec. Feb.. June Movement A d u l t s 4 6 7 +3 Pee r s 5 5 5 0 Case ..#12 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 4 6 6 +2 Pee r s 4 5 5 +1 R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a) A d u l t s b ) , P e e r s R a t i n g s : Very Good = 10 Good = 8 - Average = 6 Poor ..= h Very Poor = 2 Case. #2 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 8 6 5 -3 P e e r s 6 5 5 - 1 Case #4 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 6 0 Pe e r s 6 6 6 0 Case :#7 Novvr.Dec . 1 ; E'eb., June-lMovement A d u l t s 6 5 6 -1+1=0 Peers 5 5 5 | 0 Case.#9 Nov.-Dec. Feb. June Movement A d u l t s 8 7 , 6 -2 Pee r s 8 7 . 6 -2 . Case #26 Nov.-Dec. Feb. . June Movement A d u l t s 6 6 5 -1 Peers 6 6 5 .-1 O v e r a l l Movement o f the Group w i t h A d u l t s (-3 + 3 - 2 + 2 - -1) = - 1 W i t h P e e r s (+1 - 1 + 1 + 1 - 2 + 1 - 1) = 0 117 . APPENDIX F Y.W.C.A. REGISTRATION FORM DATE . . .196 NAME OF MEMBER b i r t h d a t e Mo. day y e a r ADDRESS PHONE FATHER'S NAME OCCUPATION BIRTHPLACE .MOTHER'S NAME OCCUPATION BIRTHPLACE GUARDIAN'S NAME OCCUPATION BOTH PARENTS LIVING AT HOME ' RELIGION & CHURCH NATIONALITY BROTHERS & SISTERS NAMES & AGES GRADE OTHERS LIVING ;AT HOME ( i n same house) SCHOOL GRADE OCCUPATION HEALTH PROBLEMS DOCTOR PHONE •FRIENDS AGES & GRADES INTERESTS OTHER GROUPS MEMBER BELONGS TO (Community, Church group) Which Day Which Day • HAS BEEN Y MEMBER BEFORE YES NO YWCA ACTIVITIES & CLUB GROUPS TOOK PART I N LAST YEAR ACTIVITIES & CLUB GROUPS REGISTERED IN THIS YEAR IN EMERGENCY CALL PHONE . • SIGNATURE AGE 118. R e f e r r e d to C o n t a c t P e r s o n APPENDIX G REFERRAL TORM R e g i s t r a t i o n Date R e f e r r i n g Agency Agency - Phone SURNAME CLIENT ADDRESS P r e v . A d d r e s s TELEPHONE Home: Work: NAME BIRTHDATE BIRTHPLACE SCHOOL & GRADE o r OCCUPATION OTHER AGENCIES MENTAL HYGIENE CLINIC F a t h e r Mother C h i l d r e n O t h e r s i n home R e l a t e d b ackground i n f o r m a t i o n o f c l i e n t and f a m i l y : Reason f o r r e f e r r a l ( w i t h some i n d i c a t i o n o f ty p e o f s e r v i c e t h ought to be r e q u i r e d ) . I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a b i l i t y . t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n group program, p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s w h i c h might a f f e c t group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , . a n d h e a l t h . F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h you f e e l m i ght be h e l p f u l . Arrangements f o r f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h group program. APPENDIX H NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. 1 Seymour 7 2 Ref . P.;H.N. J u l y / 6 5 Not f u n c t i o n i n g t o a b i l i t y F a m i l y s c a p e g o a t T e n s i o n symptoms B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s . 11 Seymour 7 2 Ref. P.H.N. J u l y / 6 5 D i f f i c u l t i e s i n p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 12 MacDonald 7 2 Mother r e q -e s t J u l y / 6 5 Needs s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e Uses i l l n e s s e s A t t e n t i o n s e e k i n g . D i f f i c u -l t y w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s . V e r y immature 2 Seymour 7 2 Ref. P.H.N. J u l y / 6 5 B r i g h t , demands a t t e n t i o n A c t s shy, r e a l l y a g g r e s s i v e Withdraws, g e t s r a s h e s . B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 13 MacDonald 7 2 S t a r t e d Oct./65 P o s i t i v e s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e 14 Grandview 8 2 Ref . Withdrawn Few f r i e n d s APPENDIX H NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 1 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY Seymour P r o v . M.H. 2/63 - 4/63 C.A.S. - 8/61 - 4/63 C.C.A.S. - 1961 F.S.A. - 1959, 1962 - 66 Student,. M.S.W. 1 - 7 mo.,. 1 - 2 mo. Can. 11 Seymour C.S.S.D. - 62 - 66 M.H. 11/64 - 5/65 F.S.A. - 11/63 11/65 - 11/66 Can. 12 MacDonald M.H. Can. Seymour .7 M.H. - 11/63 - 8/65 F.S.A. - 8/66 - 11/66 Can. 13 MacDonald Can. 14 Grandview M.H. F.S.A. - 11/61 9/66 - 11/66 Can. Page 2 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. 15 Grandview 7 2 S i s t e r r e f . /64. S t a r t e d Oct./65 D i f f i c u l t y i n e x p r e s s i n g aggres * T e n s i o n symptoms D i f f i c u l t y w i t h p e e r s 16 MacDonald 2 R e f . P.H.N Nov./65 Immature, p o u t s , needs s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e D i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i n g t o p e e r s Low f e e l i n g o f s e l f - w o r t h . 17 MacDonald 2 S t a r t e d . Nov./65 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 18 Seymour 2 S t a r t e d Nov./65 C u l t u r a l P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 19 MacDonald 8 2 Ref. Nov./65 C.A.S. No c o n s i s t e n t a f f e c t i o n a t home. M a s t u r b a t e s . D i f f i c u l t y w i t h a d u l t and pe e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Low f e e l i n g o f s e l f - w o r t h 20 Grandview 8 2 Ref . Nov./65 P.H.N. A t t e n t i o n s e e k e r F a m i l y scapegoat Low f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h S e e k i n g p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s 21 MacDonald 2 Ref . Nov./65 Needs f r i e n d s h i p R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s P.H.N. NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 2 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 15 Grandview 7 2 M.H. - 5/65 - 6/66 F.S.A. - 6/66 - 11/66 1 - . 7 mo., 1 - 2 mo. Can. 16 MacDonald 2 28/30 8 mo. - 1 B.S.W. Can. 17 MacDonald 2 2 9/30 ii 18 Seymour 2 25/30 ii I t a l i a n 19 MacDonald 8 2 C.A.S. M.H. 28/30 II Can. 20 Grandview 8 2 M.H. 22/30 II Can. 21 MacDonald 2 19/30 II Can. Page 3 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. & DATE 22 Seymour 9 2 Re f . O ct. P.H.N. 7 6 4 F l i g h t y . P o o r home s i t u a t i o n . Not f u n c t i o n -i n g t o a b i l i t y Needs t o d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d s . P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e . 23 Grandv iew 8 2 Re f . Nov. F.S.A. 7 6 5 S i b l i n g r i v a l r y , unhappy, l i e s , s t e a l s R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s Low f e e l i n g o f s e l f - w o r t h 24 MacDonald 8 2 F a t h e r r e q -u e s t / 65 C u l t u r a l S o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e C u l t u r a l P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 5 Seymour 8 2 r e p . R e f . O c t . , P.H.N. 7 6 4 L i m i t e d s e l f c o n t r o l L i m i t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n span No e x p e r i e n c e i n f o r m i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 25 Seymour 8 3 R e f , P.H. N. C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s B e h a v i o u r 26 Grandview 8 3 Re f . J u l y / 6 5 P.H.N. S t e a l i n g , shy o r d e f i a n t B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p p e e r s and a d u l t ; 27 MacDonald 9 3 Re f . 0 c t . / 6 4 P.H.N. D i f f i c u l t y i n f o r m i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . U n u s u a l independence NUMBER SCHOOL AGE • GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 3 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 22 Seymour 9 2 M.H. 17/30 8 mo..- 1 B.S.W. Can. 23 Grandview 8 2 F.S.A. 12/65 - 11/66 25/30 II Dutch 24 MacDonald 8 2 6/13 II Japanese 5 Seymour 8 2 r e p . C.S.S. M.H. -F.S.A. C.A.S. D. - 61 -• 6 1 - 6 5 - 8/65 -- 2/62 -66 11/66 12/65 20/35 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. Ch i n e s e 25 Seymour 8 3 M.H. 18/35 II I t a l i a n 26 Grandview 8 3 C • S • S • M.H. -F.S.A. C.A.S. D. - 64 -6 5 - 6 6 - 10/65 - 11/64 66 - 6/66 - 66 33/35 II Can. 27 MacDonald 9 3 M.H. C.A.S. - 1959 3/3 moved II Can. NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. 28 MacDonald 9 •3 Ref. Oct./64 P.H.N. A v o i d s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s Withdraws o r becomes a g g r e -s s i v e Does n o t t r u s t a d u l t s . 29 MacDonald 9 3 Ref. 0 c t . / 6 4 P.H.N. L i t t l e s e l f c o n f i d e n c e Does n o t t r u s t a d u l t s A p p r e h e n s i v e o f l i m i t s F a t h e r r e j e c t s p r o f , h e l p 30 • Seymour 9 3 S i s t e r Ref. S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 5 C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 6 Seymour 9 3 Ref. 0 c t . / 6 4 P.H.N. R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s Low s e l f r e g a r d B e h a v i o u r 10 MacDonald 9 2 r e p . Mother r e q -u e s t J u l y / 6 5 Shy, needs s o c i a l c o n t a c t s Peer r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t -i e s S e l f i d e n t i t y F a m i l y s i t u a t i o n 31 L. N e l s o n 9 3 Ref. J u l y / 6 5 P.H.N. L i m i t e d s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e F a m i l y s i t u a t i o n B e h a v i o u r ( s u l k s ) S u r f a c e c o n t a c t s NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 4 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 28 MacDonald C • A • S * C.S.S.D. M.H. 35/35 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. Can. 29 MacDonald M.H. 34/35 Can. 30 Seymour M.H. 24/35 I t a l i a n Seymour M.H. - 64 - 65 F.S.A. - 5/65 - 11/66 C.A.S. adopt - 3/65 24/35 Can. 10 MacDonald 2 rep. M.H. 30/34 Can. 31 L. N e l s o n 9 3 C.S.S.D. S a l v . Army 30/34 II Can. NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. Page 5 REASON Y.W.C.A. 32 L. N e l s o n 9 3 Ri H . N J u l y / 6 5 L i m i t e d s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e F a m i l y s i t u a t i o n B e h a v i o u r S u r f a c e c o n t a c t s 8 Grandview 9 3 Ref. Feb./65 P.H.N. S i b l i n g r i v l a r y Low f e e l i n g s e l f - w o r t h a n x i o u s , w i t h d r a w n 33 MacDonald 9 3 S i s t e r r e f . Oct./65 s t a r t e d J u l y / 6 5 F a m i l y s i t u a t i o n A t t e n t i o n s e e k e r P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 34 MacDonald 9 3 Ref . Feb./65 P.H.N. La c k s s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e L a c k s s t i m u l a t i o n No c o n s i s t e n c y a t home B e h a v i o u r T e n s i o n symptoms F a m i l y s i t u a t i o n 35 L. N e l s o n 9 3 S t a r t e d Oct./65 P.H.N, c o n t a c t (Y.W. r e f . ) P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e T e n s i o n symptoms 36 L. N e l s o n 9 4 Ref . J u l y / 6 5 P.H.N. . L i m i t e d s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e Low s e l f - r e g a r d R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 4 Seymour 9 4 R e f . P.H.N. L i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e i n Oct./65 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A v o i d s group c o n t a c t s . NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 5 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 32 L. N e l s o n 9 3 C.S.S.D. S a l v . Army 31/34 1 -- 9 mo. B.S.W. Can. 8 Grandview 9 3 M.H. - 5/65 - 6/66 F.S.A. - 6/66 - 11/66 30/34 II Czec. 33 MacDonald 9 3 'M.H. - 1960 - 66 F.S.A. - 3/66 - 11/66 30/34 . II Can. 34 MacDonald 9 3 M.H. C.A.S. C.S.S.D. 21/34 II Can. 35 L. N e l s o n 9 3 22/34 . n Scand. 36 L. N e l s o n 9 4 M.H. 28/36 II Can. 4 Seymour 9 4 C.S.S.D. - 61 - 66 M.H. - 61 - 65 28/36 II C h i n e s e F.S.A. - 8/65 - 11/66 C.A.S. - 2/62 - 12/65 Page 6 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. 37 L. N e l s o n 10 4 S t a r t e d Oct/63 C u l t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s Non a c c e p t i n g o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n 38 L. N e l s o n 10 4 S t a r t e d Oct./63 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 39 L. S e c o r d 10 4 S t a r t e d Oct./65 Shy P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 40 Seymour 10 4 Ref.P.H.N. June/65 C u l t u r a l Needs s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e No p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s about s e l f . 41 L. N e l s o n 10 4 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 4 P.H.N, c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . F.S.A. c o n t a c t r e : f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n R e s i s t a n t t o a d u l t s F i n d s a g g r e s s i o n a p r o b l e m . M o t h e r / d a u g h t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o b l e m 42 S t . F r a n c i s 10 4 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 4 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e A s s e t t o group NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 6 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 37 L. N e l s o n 10 4 M.H. 26/36 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. B e l g i u m 38 L. N e l s o n 10 4 18/36 " Can. 39 L. Se c o r d 10 4 30/36 " P o l i s h 40 Seymour 10 4 M.H. 27/36 " I t a l i a n 41 L. N e l s o n 10 4 F.S.A. - 27/36 " German 5/65 - 4/66 42 S t . F r a n c i s 10 4 30/36 II Can. Page 7 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. & DATE 43 Grandview 9 4 S t a r t e d P.H.N, c o n t a c t . Y.W. r e f . D i f f i c u l t y i n poor 0 c t . / 6 4 F.S.A. c o n t a c t r e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Needs s i t u a t i o n . c o n s t a n t a d u l t s u p p o r t 44 Grandview 9 3 r e p . Mother Few f r i e n d s Low f e e l i n g s s e l f w o r t h . r e q u e s t S i b l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s F a m i l y s c a p e g o a t s t a r t e d D i f f i c u l t y f o r m i n g 0 c t . / 6 4 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 45 Seymour .P.H.N. Jan./65 Over p r o t e c t e d Not f u n c t i o n i n g t o a b i l i t y T e n s i o n symptoms 3 Seymour 9 4 P.H.N. No s e l f c o n f i d e n c e B e h a v i o u r Oct. Tense, over a n x i o u s P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e C o n t i n u e d emphasis on s e l f w o r t h . 46 Grandview 9 4 Ref.P.H.N. P a r e n t s d i v o r c e d . C h i l d B e h a v i o u r . R e l a t i o n s h i p J u l y / 6 4 e m o t i o n a l l y u p s e t . w i t h p e e r s . H o s p i t a l i z e d . A t t e n t i o n s e e k e r . Uses i l l n e s s . NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 7 (C o n t ' d . ) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 43 Grandview 9 4 22/35 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. Can. 44 Grandview 9 3 r e p . 30/35 " Can. 45 Seymour 9 4 M.H. 25/35 " I t a l i a n 3 Seymour 9 4 M.H. 11/63 - 8/65 34/35 " Can. F.S.A. 8/65-11/66 46 Grandview 9 4 C.A.S. - 1960 18/35 " P o r t u g u e s e M.H. - '62 - 6 6 s i c k F.S.A. - 12/59 - 7/62; 10/62 - 11/62, 6/65 - 11/66 Page 8 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. 47 Seymour 9 1 Spec. Ref.C.A.A.R. J u l y / 6 4 Out o f r e g u l a r s c h o o l 1 y r . P h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p , d i f f i c u l t y i n p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p B e h a v i o u r , R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s . F a m i l y s i t u a t i o n 48 L. S e c o r d 9 4 S t a r t e d Oct./63 R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s . 49 D i c k e n s 9 4 S t a r t e d Oct./63 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h C a n a dian c h i l d r e n 50 Seymour 9 4 S t a r t e d Oct./65 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e C u l t u r a l 51 L. S e c o r d 10 4 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 4 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 52 MacDonald 5 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 5 No c l o s e f r i e n d s 53 MacDonald 11 6 S t a r t e d P.H.N, c o n t a c t . V e r y a d u l t i n manner Oct./64 R e f . Y.W. NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 8 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 47 Seymour 9 1 C.A.S. Spec. C.S.S.D. M.H. 26/35 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. Can. Negro 48 L. S e c o r d 9 4 3/35 Q u i t . 49 D i c k e n s 9 4 10/35 Q u i t , l i v e s t o o f a r away II German 50 Seymour 9 4 7/22 II Japanese 51 L. S e c o r d 10 4 27/35 II I t a l i a n 52 MacDonald 5 24/34 II Can. 53 MacDonald 11 6 M.H. 31/34 " Can. Page 9 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. & DATE 54 MacDonald 11 5 Ref.P.H.N. Needs e x t r a a c t i v i t i e s T e n s i o n symptoms 0 c t . / 6 4 L i m i t e d home env i r o n m e n t F a m i l y s i t u a t i o n S t i m u l a t i o n 55 Grandview Ref.P.H.N. Oct./65 D e f i a n t , a g g r e s s i v e No r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s or a d u l t s . 56. Seymour 10 5 Ref .P.H.N. C r i e s e a s i l y . Over Low s e l f image Oct./64 a n x i o u s . Immature T e n s i o n symptoms s o c i a l l y P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e Few f r i e n d s 57 Seymour 9 5 R e f . P.H.N. Low o p i n i o n o f s e l f Low s e l f image Oct./64 No f r i e n d s C o n t i n u e development l i m i t e d l i f e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s 58 Seymour 12 5 R e f . Low s e l f r e g a r d C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s Apr./64 T e n s i o n symptoms Low s e l f r e g a r d C u l t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s 59 Seymour 10 Spec. R e f . 0 c t . / 6 4 P.H.N. E x t r e m e l y shy No s e l f c o n f i d e n c e Won't t a l k Low s e l f r e g a r d NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 9 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 54 MacDonald 11 5 14/15 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. Can. 55 Grandview C.S.S.D. - 64 - 66 30/34 " Can. M.H. - 65 - 66 F.S.A. - 10/65 - 6/66 C.A.S. v- 11/64 - 66 v.. 56. Seymour 10 5 M.H. 26/34 " Can. 57 Seymour 9 5 M.H. 20/34 " Ca n a d i a n 58 Seymour 12 5 M.H. 22/34 " I t a l i a n 59 Seymour 10 Spec. C.S.S.D. M.H. 22/34 II Can. I n d i a n Page 10 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.C.A. 60 MacDonald 10 5 Ref.P.H.N. Low s e l f r e g a r d D i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s 61 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 1 P.H.N, c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . D i f f i c u l t y i n p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Gets o t h e r s i n t o t r o u b l e 62 MacDonald 10 5 S t a r t e d -0 c t . / 6 2 P.H.N, c o n t a c t ( F a m i l y d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ) E x t r e m e l y shy and q u i e t G r o w ing s e l f c o n f i d e n c e Need p o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 63 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 1 P.H.N, c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . No f a t h e r . Mother works. S i b l i n g r i v a l r y . Low s e l f image A t t e n t i o n s e e k e r D i f f i c u l t y w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s . E x t r e m e l y a g g r e s s i v e . 64 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 S t a r t e d Oct./61 P.H.N, c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . A t t e n t i o n s e e k e r D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s . E x t r e m e l y a g g r e s s i v e . 65 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 1 P.H.N, c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . A t t e n t i o n s e e k i n g D i f f i c u l t y w i t h a d u l t s Page 10 (Cont'd.) NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 60 MacDonald 10 5 M.H. F.S.A 11/66 - '60-'66 . 3/66 -28/34 .1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. Can. 61 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 30/35 II I t a l i a n 62 MacDonald 10 5 M.H. • F.S.A -'-1764 - 8/65 .- 8/65 - 11/66 25/35 II Canad i a n 63 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 32/35 I t a l i a n 64 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 32/35 II > I t a l i a n 65 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 31/35 II Dutch OO \ Page 11 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.C.A. 66 MacDonald 10 5 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 4 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e A n x i o u s , c o m p e t i t i v e 67 MacDonald 10 5 S t a r t e d Oct./65 C u l t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e B e h a v i o u r 68 MacDonald 10 5 S t a r t e d Oct./63 C u l t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s T e n s i o n symptoms 69 S t . F r a n c i s 10 5 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 2 P.H.N, c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . No mother P e e r c o n t a c t . Chance t o be own age. 70 MacDonald 11 5 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 4 C u l t u r a l . B e h a v i o u r C o m p e t i t i v e 71 L. N e l s o n 11 6 S t a r t e d Oct./63 P.H.N, c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . C u l t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s Over c o n s c i e n t i o u s D i f f i c u l t y i n peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s 72 Seymour 11 6 Ref . 63 C • A. • S • D i f f i c u l t y w i t h p e e r s I n a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 11 (Co n t ' d . ) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 29/31 Moved 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. I t a l i a n 25/35 Japanese 32/35 I t a l i a n 26/35 Can. 22/35 I t a l i a n S t u d e n t B.S.W. 9 mo. M.S.W. 2 mo. B e l g i u m Can. Negro 66 MacDonald 10 5 67 MacDonald 10 5 68 MacDonald 10 5 69 S t . F r a n c i s . 10 70 MacDonald 11 71 L. N e l s o n 11 6 P.H.N. 72 Seymour 11. C.S.S.D. C.A.S. P.H.N. Page 12 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.C.A. 9 Grandview 12 6 Ref.P.H.N. J u l y / 6 5 A p a t h e t i c , T r u a n c y Not a c h i e v i n g Few f r i e n d s 73 Seymour 12 7 B r o t h e r r e f . / 6 2 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 1 R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a d u l t s R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s B e h a v i o u r , low s e l f w o r t h 74 L. N e l s o n 11 6 P.H.N. T e n s i o n symptons Mother r e f . June/64 R e f . Oct./64 P.H.N. No f r i e n d s D i f f . i n e x p r e s s i n g emotions B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 75 12 6 P.H.N. S i b l i n g r i v a l r y No s e l f w o r t h A t t e n t i o n s e e k i n g B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 76 MacDonald 11 6 Ref.P.H.N. 0 c t . / 6 4 R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 77 MacDonald 11 6 S t a r t e d Oct./65 C u l t u r a l NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY Page 12 (Cont'd.) ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY Grandv iew 12 C.S.S.D. - 64 - 66 M.H. - 65 - 66 F.S.A. - 10/65 - 6/66 C.A.S. - 11/64 - 66 B.S.W. M.S.W. 9 mo. 2 mo. Can. 73 Seymour 12 Can. 74 L. N e l s o n 11 C.S.S.D. M.H. Can. 75 12 M.H. 76 MacDonald 11 M.H. Ch i n e s e 77 MacDonald 11 6 1 -;9 mp. B.S.W. P o r t u g u e s e Page 13 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. 7 Grandv iew 11 6 S i s t e r r e f . / 6 4 . S t a r t e d Oct./65 P.H.N. &-F.S.A. c o n t a c t A t t e n t i o n s e e k i n g B e h a v i o u r 78 S t . F r a n c i s 12 6 S i s t e r r e f . / 5 8 S t a r t e d O c t . / 6 1 -P.H.N. c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 79 L. S e c o r d 11 6 S t a r t e d Oct./61 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e T e n s i o n symptoms 80 S t . F r a n c i s 13 6 S t a r t e d Oct./65 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 81 L. S e c o r d 11 6 S t a r t e d Oct./61 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e 82 Grandview 11 6 S t a r t e d Oct./65 P.H.N. F a m i l y c o n t a c t Y.W. r e f . s i t u a t i o n p o o r . P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e B e h a v i o u r 83 MacDonald 11 6 S t a r t e d Oct./64 C u l t u r a l P e e r r e l a t i o n s d i f f i c u l t i e s T e n s i o n symptoms Page 13 (Cont'd.) NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 7 Grandview 11 6 M.H. - 11/64 - 8/66 F.S.A. - 12/58 6/62 - 5/63 11/63-12/63 7/64 - 11/66 C.A.S. - 60 U.G.H. (H.C.C.) 11/65 -- 6/66 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. B r i t i s h 78 S t . F r a n c i s 12 6 " I t a l i a n 79 L. S e c o r d 11 6 1 1 A u s t r a l i a n 80 S t . F r a n c i s 13 6 " I t a l i a n 81 L. Secord 11 6 " Canadian 82 Grandview 11 6 C.S.S.D. " Can. 83 MacDonald . 11 6 " P o r t u g u e s e Page 14 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED & DATE REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.CA. 84 S t . F r a n c i s 11 7 S t a r t e d 0 c t . / 6 1 Shy P e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s 85 Grandview 11 7 Ref. P.H.N. Oct./64 Seeks a t t e n t i o n S i b l i n g r i v a l r y R e s e n t s mother B e h a v i o u r R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s 86 Grandview 11 7 Ref.P.H.N. Oct./62^ Develop p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p f u r t h e r . M o t h e r / d a u g h t e r p r o b l e m No f r i e n d s Low f e e l i n g o f s e l f w o r t h 87 Grandview 11 7 Ref. I n -S c h o o l -Group Jan./65 S t a r t e d Oct./65 P h y s i c a l l y and v e r b a l l y a t t a c k s o t h e r s . L i e s . D i f f i c u l t y w i t h p e e r s and a d u l t s . 88 N i g h t i n g a l e 11 7 S t a r t e d Oct./65 P o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e P e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Immature s o c i a l l y Page 14 (C o n t ' d . ) NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 84 S t . F r a n c i s 11 7 10/25 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. Dutch 85 Grandview 11 7 M.H. - 11/64 - 8/66 C.A.S. - 1960 V.G.H. (H.C.C.) 11/65' F.S.A. - 12/58, :.6/62 - 5/63 11/63 - 12/63 7/64 - 11/66 25/38 -6/66 II B r i t i s h 86 Grandview 11 7 C.S.S.D. 13/25 II U k r a n i a n 87 Grandview 11 7 25/38 II Can. 88 N i g h t i n g a l e 11 7 C.S.S.D. 26/38 II Can. I n d i a n Page 15 NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE REFERRED REASON SOURCE OF REF. REASON Y.W.C.A. & DATE 90 L. N e l s o n 11 Mother 's r e q u e s t S t a r t e d Apr./66 G e t t i n g i n t o bad company S t e a l i n g , s e e i n g p s y c h i a t r i s t and P.H.N. 89 S t . F r a n c i s 11 S t a r t e d Oct./65 T e n s i o n symptons Peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s F a m i l y s i t u a t i o n 91 11 7 S t a r t e d A p r i l / 6 6 P o s i t i v e Group e x p e r i e n c e Page 15 (Cont'd.) NUMBER SCHOOL AGE GRADE OTHER AGENCY ATTEND. CHANGES IN WORKER NATIONALITY 90 L. N e l s o n 11 7 M . H . . P s y c h o l o g i s t 6/11 1 - 9 mo. B.S.W. Can. I n d i a n 89 S t . F r a n c i s 11 7 23/38 " Can. 91 11 7 6/11 C a n . 149. APPENDIX I EVALUATION OF VERBAL DESCRIPTION SHEET CHART A PRELIMINARY. ANALYSIS OF FORM C THE REASONS FOR SOCIAL WORK SERVICE AS SEEN BY: A. GROUP WORK AGENCY 91 C h i l d r e n r a t e d 1. r e q u i r i n g p o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e - o n l y 11.1% 2. r e q u i r i n g p o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r 18%, symptomatology. 3. b e h a v i o r d i f f i c u l t i e s •--• 26%, a. r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h - a d u l t s , and/or p e e r s 56% b. t e n s e , a n x i o u s 17% c. a g g r e s s i v e , a t t e n t i o n s e e k i n g 17% d. w i t h d r a w n 9% e. immature .-2% f . o v e r l y o b e d i e n t • • 1% g. - s t e a l i n g ; •- 1%, h. p s y c h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s e s •-— 1%, i . l y i n g • • 1% 4. poor s e l f image 21%, 5. c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s • 177, 6. f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n — • --• 11%, B. OTHER COMMUNITY AGENCY (SCHOOL, .PUBLIC HEALTH, -FAMILY SERVICE) 57 C h i l d r e n r a t e d 1. r e q u i r i n g p o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e o n l y — 27, 2. r e q u i r i n g p o s i t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r • — 4% symptomatology 3. b e h a v i o u r d i f f i c u l t i e s a. r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s and p e e r s 42% ' b,. t e n s e — 11% c. a g g r e s s i v e • •-- •- 16% d. withdrawn. •. • — • 16% e. immature 2% f . poor s e l f c o n t r o l —. 27, g. s t e a l i n g 5% h. .psychosomatic i l l n e s s . —__. .. 4% i . l y i n g 4% j . t r u a n c y •-— • • 2% k. m a s t u r b a t i o n • • • 27, 1. u n d e r c h i e v e m e n t a t s c h o o l • • • • 97, 4. poor s e l f image 127> 5. c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s • •• 5% 6. f a m i l y . d i f f i c u l t i e s • 3 5 % 7 . p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p •—•- 2%, 

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