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Environmental traffic standards Barford, Jeromy Charles 1968

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ENVIRONMENTAL TRAFFIC STANDARDS by JEROMY CHARLES BARFORD B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex tens i ve copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by h i s represen -t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community and Regional Planning, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 26, 1 9 6 8 .  ABSTRACT The transportation problem i s usually seen as one of c i r c u l a t i o n or a c c e s s i b i l i t y . There i s , however, a second dimension which i s consistently ignored--that of environmental quality. The f i r s t work to consider t h i s second aspect of the problem as an in t e g r a l part of the planning process was a study conducted for the Ministry of Transport i n Great B r i t a i n , e n t i t l e d T r a f f i c In Towns. The report did. not develop major concepts of environment beyond a rudimentary l e v e l , and there i s a c r i t i c a l need to extend i t s ideas into environmental standards that can be applied in planning situations. I t i s hypothesized, that environ-mental t r a f f i c standards can be defined, and applied to a p a r t i c u l a r environment to determine whether the quality of that environment Is above or below that suggested, by the standards. It i s f i r s t necessary to examine the importance of the environment for man i n order to establish a framework for further analysis. Research In the f i e l d of sensory r e s t r i c t i o n shows that varied experience within the environ-ment i s necessary to maintain man's behavioural e f f i c i e n c y . The environment i s equally important from a physiological viewpoint. Environmental considerations are therefore c r i t -i c a l l y important for planning. The environment must s a t i s f y i i i a range of fundamental needs, which can be defined, into three broad, groups—physiological, psychological, and s o c i a l . They form an hierarchy of s p e c i f i c i t y , and are further extended and focussed by the special requirements of a part-i c u l a r type of environment. The needs of a shopping street environment are a c t i v i t y and variety, safety, and comfort. Sim i l a r l y , the motor vehicle has a set of environmental needs. The motor vehicle i s a man-machine system, and. the needs can be measured. In terms of space and free-flow f o r the l a t t e r , and safety and orientation for the former com-ponent. Set against these needs are a series of environ-mental effects produced by the motor vehicle, which are leading to an increasing deterioration of the physical envi-ronment. The major effects are safety, noise, fumes, and v i s u a l intrusion, a l l of which have serious implications for human health and well-being, and. impinge upon a l l three classes of man's basic needs. Standards are a means of measuring quality i n the components of a community's structure. Environmental t r a f -f i c standards can most conveniently be formulated i n terms of performance c r i t e r i a , which w i l l provide means for test-ing the degree of hazard or nuisance created by the motor vehic l e . To be e f f e c t i v e they must be based, on sound data and. objective research, and r e l a t e to those groups of people who are most sensitive to the e f f e c t s . Based, on a review of pertinent l i t e r a t u r e and research the following environ-mental t r a f f i c standards can be defined: i v 1 . S a f e t y : a) primary b a s i s — t h a t there should be no motor v e h i c l e a c c i d e n t s causing i n j u r y or death; b) a d e s i r a b l e volume of 250 vph, and an ac c e p t a b l e volume of 500 vph i n both d i r e c t i o n s . 2. Noise: a) an e x t e r n a l sound l e v e l of 60d.BA by day and. 45d.BA by n i g h t i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas, and a l e v e l o f 65d.BA i n commercial areas, which should not be exceeded, f o r more than t en percent of the time. 3 . A i r P o l l u t i o n : a) at the adverse l e v e l — " o x i d a n t i n d e x " — 0 . 1 5 ppm f o r one hour by the potassium i o d i d e method; b) at the s e r i o u s l e v e l — c a r b o n monoxide— J O ppm f o r e i g h t hours or 120 ppm f o r one hour. 4 . V i s u a l I n t r u s i o n : a) u n i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e l p a r k i n g . A shopping s t r e e t environment was examined i n the l i g h t o f t h r e e o f these standards to t e s t both the hypothesis and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the standards themselves. The q u a l -i t y of the selected, environment was found, to be below t h a t suggested, by the standards f o r s a f e t y , n o i s e , and. v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n d u r i n g two o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s . The o b s e r v a t i o n s tended, to q u e s t i o n the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the p e d e s t r i a n delay concept used, i n f o r m u l a t i n g the standard, f o r Safety. There does appear, however, to be a l i n k between the three stand-v ards and t r a f f i c volumes, and i t may therefore be possible to reduce these to one common standard. I t i s unlikely that simple repair jobs w i l l r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t improve-ment i n the quality of existing environments. Dramatic steps are needed l n the di r e c t i o n of a new urban form and alternatives modes of movement. Areas for further research are suggested. v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people, both known and unknown, have contrib-uted to thi s study. But I would p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e to express my appreciation to Dr. V. Setty Pendakur, who has been a continual source of stimulation and. c r i t i c i s m from the beginning; and to Professor Brahm Wiesman, whose com-ments during the f i n a l stages helped me to Improve the c l a r i t y of expression. I owe a debt also to my fellow students, Art Cowie and. Jim Gossland, whose observations at various times have expanded my undestanding of some of the problems involved. v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS x i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 The Transportation Problem: The Second Dimension Purpose of the Study Hypothesis Scope of the Study Organization I I . MAN AND ENVIRONMENT 9 The Place of Environment i n Planning The Importance of Environment Environmental Needs Typology of Needs Physiological Needs Psychological Needs Social Needs The Shopping Street Environment Summary I I I . THE MOTOR VEHICLE AND ENVIRONMENT 29 Environmental Needs of the Motor Vehicle Environmental Effects Safety Noise Fumes Visual Intrusion Summary v i i i Chapter Page IV. ENVIRONMENTAL TRAFFIC STANDARDS kQ Perspective Safety Noise Air P o l l u t i o n Visual Intrusion Summary V. CASE STUDY 65 Introduction Safety Noise Visual Intrusion VI. REVIEW 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 i x LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Damage Risk Levels 5^  2. Motor Vehicle Accidents at Intersections along 4 l s t Avenue, Kerrisdale, January, 1965 - March, I968 62 3 . Sound Level and. T r a f f i c Volumes, Thursday Example 71 4. Sound Level and T r a f f i c Volumes, Saturday Example 73 5. Hourly T r a f f i c Volumes and Required Reductions 75 x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Sound Level and T r a f f i c Volumes, Thursday Example 72 2 . Sound Level and T r a f f i c Volumes, Saturday Example 7*4-3 . Sound Level related to T r a f f i c Volume . . . 80 4 . Noise and T r a f f i c Density 81 Map 1. Vancouver 64 2 . Kerrlsdale 66 x i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Movement i s the h o r l z a n t a l and v e r t -i c a l framework of the c i t y ; but i t i s only a framework, and the p i c t u r e i s w i t h i n that framework, more Im-portant, more determining, more worthy. Romaldo Gi u r g o l a * The Transportation Problem: The Second Dimension. As average car-ownership r a t e s i n North America s t e a d i l y increase towards the one car per family l e v e l and beyond to two or more cars per f a m i l y , the accomodation of motor v e h i c l e s i n our towns and c i t i e s w i l l be an ever-growing and i n c r e a s i n g l y urgent problem. The s o - c a l l e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem has a t t r a c t e d a great deal of a t t e n -2 t i o n i n recent years, but i t remains a dilemma of vast p r o p o r t i o n s without the resources to t a c k l e i t adequately. This problem i s most u s u a l l y seen as one of c i r c u -l a t i o n or a c c e s s i b l i t y — h o w to get from point A to po i n t B i n the minimum amount of time and with the min i -mum amount of i n t e r r u p t i o n . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planner and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n engineer appear obsessed with the ideas of flow and turbulence, with t r a f f i c volumes and c a p a c i t i e s , and with the geometries of road and i n t e r -s e c t i o n : a l l to promote the unceasing and " e f f i c i e n t " 1 2 movement of the motor vehicle. Large-scale transport-3 atlon studies, such as that carried out i n Chicago, have analyzed the problems l n depth and developed many sophisticated a n a l y t i c a l methods which undoubtedly represent much needed advances i n the f i e l d . Many stud-ies have also been made of the economic and s o c i a l con-sequencles of highway Improvements."* There Is a second dimension to t h i s t r a f f i c prob-lem, however, which both planners and engineers have consistently ignored. This Is the damage that the motor vehicle i n f l i c t s on the environments through which l t passes. The central concern of urban and regional plan-ning i s the environment. Planners are dedicated to the improvement of the environment as an arena i n which to l i v e , committed to the Improvement of the quality of l i f e . Transportation planners, however, have hitherto shown a chronic lack of appreciation for the physical environment and Its place at the core of planning, and have largely ignored the environmental impact of the motor vehicle. This i s perhaps due on the one hand to the unquestioning acceptance and exaggerated use of the automobile l n our society, such that we have now become an auto-centric culture;^ and on the other to a f a i l u r e to recognize the extremely damaging side-effects of Its use. The f i r s t work to consider th i s aspect of the t r a f f i c problem as an integral part of the transportation 3 planning process was a study conducted for the Ministry of Transport i n Great B r i t a i n by Colin Buchanan, and en-t i t l e d 'Traffic i n Towns.^ Buchanan i l l u s t r a t e d by taking four examples the scale of road improvements necessary to accomodate predicted l e v e l s of t r a f f i c when a certain l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a. certain standard of environ-ment were to be maintained. The environmental Impact of the motor vehicle was examined l n terms of danger, noise, fumes, and v i s u a l intrusion, and, the argument put forward that the needs of t r a f f i c should be balanced against the many other needs that a good environment should s a t i s f y . Buchanan, however, did not develop major concepts of environment and environmental management beyond a ru d i -mentary l e v e l . These were roughly defined i n some cases, but he l e f t many avenues open for further research. There i s a c r i t i c a l need to take some of the ideas and examine the i r background more thoroughly. I t should then be possible to extend them into standards or performance c r i t e r i a which can be applied i n planning situations, and which af f o r d a means of testing the degree of hazard or nuisance created by the motor ve h i c l e . Purpose of the Study. The purpose of this study i s to continue and extend Buchanan's work, and develop a series of environ-mental t r a f f i c standards against which to measure the p o t e n t i a l l y damaging side-effects of the motor vehicle; and. i n the l i g h t of these standards to examine an example of a p a r t i c u l a r type of environment. As an outgrowth, the study w i l l demonstrate the c r u c i a l importance of the environment for man's physical, psychological, and s o c i a l well-being, and the need for environmental considerations to be Incorporated e x p l i c i t l y into every facet of the planning process. Such environmental standards should, f u l f i l two major requirements. F i r s t , they should have a s c i e n t i f i c and objective basis. Second, they should, recognize the inherent differences between, and the various needs of, di f f e r e n t types of environments. Only when there are r a t i o n a l l y defined standards can present environments and future proposals for development and redevelopment be tested with any meaningfulness, and the quality of those environments be Improved and enhanced. There are, of course, d i f f i c u l t i e s i n such a pro^ j e c t . However much we try to be objective, the environ-ment s t i l l remains e s s e n t i a l l y subjective i n n a t u r e — or perhaps i n d i v i d u a l Is a better term. Each person experiences " h i s " environment i n a di f f e r e n t way, and to a di f f e r e n t extent, dependant upon such factors as s o c i a l status, educational l e v e l , and immediate state of mind. What to some people may be an annoying noise or an unatrac-t i v e c o l l e c t i o n of signs, may not be noticed by other people at a l l , or may be experienced p o s i t i v e l y by s t i l l others. There i s thus the danger when confronted by t h i s 5 type of si t u a t i o n , as there i s elsewhere l n planning, of a t t r i b u t i n g one's own values to others. Despite these d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, acceptable standards can be devised and applied. Hypothesis. I t Is hypothesised that environmental t r a f f i c standards can be defined and applied to a p a r t i c u l a r environment to determine whether the quality of that environment i s above or below that suggested by the standards. Throughout the study, by environment i s meant the micro, urban, physical<environment, the physical surround-ings for l i v i n g , outside buildings. And by t r a f f i c i s meant motor vehicles, both moving and at r e s t . Scope of the Study. The scope of t h i s study i s r e s t r i c t e d to those aspects of the environment ;which are d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y affected by the presence of motor vehicles, both moving and at r e s t , and to the quality of the environment as i t i s affected by t r a f f i c . In order to establish a framework for t h i s analysis, i t w i l l be f i r s t necessary to consider the environment i n a more general sense, and to establish i t s importance for man. The l a t t e r stages of the study w i l l be more s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned with a p a r t i c u l a r type of environment, namely a shopping street. 6 The study must perforce examine only a small seg-ment of the t o t a l problem of environmental q u a l i t y , and cannot discuss some of the wider issues, such as design and environmental perception, which are v i t a l l y important to an o v e r a l l understanding of the larger problem, and which are the subjects of a growing body of research.''' The basic premise i s that the quality of the environment must be improved for reasons of human health and well-being, and that the standards to be formulated i n Chapter IV represent the sort of standards that must be applied i f t h i s objective i s to be achieved. Obviously, application w i l l involve questions of economics, but these are largely beyond the scope of this present study. Organization. Chapter II w i l l examine the nature and importance of the environment i n general terms, discuss the basic environmental needs of man, and then more s p e c i f i c a l l y analyse the more p a r t i c u l a r needs of a shopping street environment. Chapter III w i l l s i m i l a r l y outline the needs of t r a f f i c i n r e l a t i o n to the environment, and discuss more f u l l y the environmental impact of the motor veh i c l e . Chapter IV w i l l establish a series of four environmental t r a f f i c standards, which w i l l be based on an examination of pertinent l i t e r a t u r e and research. Chapter V w i l l present the case study conducted i n the Kerrisdale shopping d i s t r i c t of Vancouver to test a 7 p a r t i c u l a r environment and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the stand-ards themselves. F i n a l l y , Chapter VI w i l l discuss the conclusions and implications that may be drawn from t h i s study. 8 REFERENCES. "Architecture i n Change," i n Marcus Whiffen (ed.), The Architect and the City (Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1966), p. ITS. •^See, for example, J. R. Meyer, J . F. Kain, and M. Wohl, The Urban Transportation Problem (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965)1 and Wilfred Owen, The Metropolitan TransportationProblem (Revised Edition; Washington: The Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n , I966). 3state of I l l i n o i s , Chicago Area Transportation Study, Volumes I and II (Chicago: Western Engraving and Embossing Co., 1959 and i960). ^For a review of such studies see U.S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of Public Roads, Off i c e of Research and Development, Economics Requirements Division, Highways and Economic and. Social Changes (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 196V). 5serge Chermayeff and Christopher Alexander, Community and Privacy (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1963T, P . 85. See also Marshall McLuhan, Understanding, Media (New York: McGraw-Hill Paperbacks, 1965), Chapter XXII, pp. 217-225. 6Great B r i t a i n , Ministry of Transport, T r a f f i c ln Towns: Reports of the Steering Group and the Working Group appointed by the Minister of Transport (London: H.M.S.O., 1963). Cited hereafter as Buchanan, T r a f f i c In Towns. 7 See, for example, Martin Krampen (ed.), Design and Planning (New York: Hastings House, 1965); and Journal of Social Issues, XXII, No. 4 (October, 1966). CHAPTER II MAN AND ENVIRONMENT The Place of.Environment In Planning. The nineteenths century Industrial Revolution, which resulted, i n economic reorganization and further technolog-i c a l development, also led to, and i n fact demanded, the increasing urbanization of society. The focus on manu-facturing production placed a premium on the natural locat-ional advantages to be found i n the urban centre.* And t h i s trend towards the growth of c i t i e s was reinforced by advances i n medicine and public health practices, and by the release of large numbers of a g r i c u l t u r a l workers as productivity i n that sector Increased. These l a t t e r were then able to take advantage of the employment opport-u n i t i e s created by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Urbanization, however, was not achieved without costs, and. the speed by which these processes occurred gave r i s e to many severe problems. These problems were not i n them-selves unique to thi s period of history, but i t was their scale which made them so serious. The origins of urban planning l i e i n part i n the s o c i a l reform movements that these problems—squalid housing and inadequate sanitary f a c i l i t i e s , f or example—produced, and. i n the successive 9 10 p u b l i c h e a l t h a c t s passed i n Great B r i t a i n during' the l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century which sought to r e l i e v e these problems. Concern f o r planning thus arose from a deep concern f o r environmental q u a l i t y . But despite wealth and grow-ing t e c h n o l o g i c a l a b i l i t y , we remain i n grave danger of desecr a t i n g both the n a t u r a l and. man-made environments. Indeed, current concern f o r the problems of water and a i r p o l l u t i o n i s symptomatic of the co n d i t i o n s f a c i n g us, and of the i n t e r e s t i n the q u a l i t y of our environment. Notwithstanding i t s o r i g i n s and the f a c t that environ-ment i s the core of planning, planners have on the whole shown a f r i g h t e n i n g l a c k of e x p l i c i t concern and app r e c i -a t i o n f o r environmental q u a l i t y . Research i n t o the prac-t i c a l aspects of the urban environment, and of man's r e l a t i o n s with h i s surroundings, has u n t i l r e c e n t l y been very s m a l l , and i t i s only i n the l a s t few years that t h e o r e t i c a l constructs have begun to emerge. The reason why planners should be involved, i n t h i s work i s q u i t e simple. In Canada i n 1966 72 percent of the population l i v e d i n urban centres; i n 1980 i t i s estimated p that 81 percent w i l l l i v e In urban centres. The q u a l i t y of those urban surroudlngs w i l l be of fundamental import-ance to the q u a l i t y of the l i v e s that are led. w i t h i n them. Environment has p r e v i o u s l y been defined to mean i n the context of t h i s study the micro, urban, p h y s i c a l environment. This can be seen as a system, In which the 11 various elements are constantly seeking, i n ecological terms, an equilibrium. Man i s only one unit in. t h i s system, continually reacting and interacting with a l l other elements in the environment. Because the non-human, elements are closely related to the human elements through, for example, the production of food and oxygen, any dele-terious effect that even remotely impinges upon t h i s eco-system cannot be tolerated. And the planner i s i n essence manipulating the elements of the environment In such a way as to optimize human behavioural e f f i c i e n c y , designing an environmental system to match human capacities and l i m i t a t i o n s . The Importance of Environment. Man experiences his surroundings through h i s senses, primarily the visu a l and. auditory senses. An insight into the importance of man's environment can be gained from the research of psychologists, especially In the f i e l d s of sensory r e s t r i c t i o n and deprivation. Much of t h i s has been based on r i g i d l y controlled laboratory experiments, and th i s precludes extensive generalizing from the findings. But they remain none the l e s s valuable from a evaluatory and suggestive viewpoint. Man constantly needs varying forms of stimulation to function adaptlvely i n his environment. Sensory depri-vation experiments, which seek to reduce sensory stimula-t i o n to an absolute minimum, have indicated that too long 12 an exposure to unchanging sensory input produces physio-l o g i c a l , c o g n i t i v e , p e r c e p t u a l , and a f f e c t i v e impairments.-^ Among the e f f e c t s which have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d are a d i s -turbance of e l e c t r i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the b r a i n ; an increase i n s e n s i t i v i t y to p a i n , and some suggestion of an increase l n v i s u a l and auditory s e n s i t i v i t i e s ; d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i r e c t i v e t h i n k i n g and concentration; some impairment i n colour p e r c e p t i o n ; and va r y i n g degrees of emotional d i s -turbance. I t i s not the l e v e l of s t i m u l a t i o n per se which i s so important l n c o r t i c a l a rousal and i t s r e s u l t i n g behavioural e f f i c i e n c y . ^ Rather i t i s the l e v e l of stim-u l u s or sensory v a r i a t i o n — l n other words, the l e v e l of s t i m u l a t i o n must be var i e g a t e d i n p a t t e r n and/or time.^ One of the b a s i c human m o t i v a t i o n a l f o r c e s i s a d r i v e to maintain a constant range of v a r i e d sensory input In order to maintain c o r t i c a l a rousal at an optimal l e v e l . V a r i e d experience w i t h i n the environment Is thus necessary to maintain man*s capacity f o r adaptation, and to s u s t a i n h i s i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s . 7 The need f o r complexity and v a r i e t y i n sensory s t i m u l a t i o n has al s o been discussed by Rapoport and Kantor. They have shown that humans p r e f e r ambiguous, complex patterns In t h e i r v i s u a l f i e l d s , and that t h i s i s a funda-mental preference. There i s , however, a range of percep-t u a l input s t r e t c h i n g from sensory d e p r i v a t i o n , or mono-tony, to sensory s a t i a t i o n , or chaos. I n the former there i s not enough to observe, and i n the l a t t e r too much. Where the environment produces sensory s a t i a t i o n (over-load), people respond by f i l t e r i n g out the overload to such a degree that they may suffer hallucinations as a re s u l t of sensory underload.^ These controlled experiments can be related to the act u a l i t y of urban l i f e through the question of mental health. McHarg suggests, aft e r c i t i n g research by a hos-p i t a l i n the eastern United, States, that the physical environment of the cit y i s generally so chaotic that people have to f i l t e r out i n order to survive. But i f there i s too l i t t l e for them to grasp, they f i n a l l y f i l t e r too much and become under-stimulated.*^ This under-stimu-l a t i o n may be a contributory cause of mental disease. While the studies are not conclusive and show some discrepancies between the subjects' reports and objective test r e s u l t s , they do indicate the overwhelming importance not only of the environment I t s e l f , but also of i t s quality, for man's sensory, and thus behavioural, e f f i c i e n c y . The environment conditions man's mental and physical person-a l i t y , and environmental factors have the i r most profound and l a s t i n g effects when they Impinge upon a young organ-ism during the formative phases of development. 1 1 Rats, for example, raised i n an "enriched" environment (in terms of sensory stimulation) develop mentally and physically faster than do rats raised i n normal or "impoverished" environments.^ 14 Not only Is the environment psychologically im-portant, but, as w i l l become more apparent below and in Chapter I I I , i s equally important from a physiological point of view. To function e f f i c i e n t l y and to carry out necessary int e r n a l processes, the human body needs a certain input of various substances. Many of these i t derives from the environment surrounding i t . Environmental Needs. Environmental considerations of this nature have not generally been recognized by planners, and thus have not been incorporated to any great degree into the planning process. Admittedly there are problems in transposing research findings into p r a c t i c a l use. But where the planner f a i l s to consider the basic environmental needs of the people for whom he i s planning, the consequences can be large and serious, and. the r e s u l t i n g environments un-sulted to the needs, or unrelated to the former experi-ences, of those intended to l i v e i n them. An example of t h i s type of s i t u a t i o n i s described by Jane Jacobs In the low-income housing projects of New York, where the type of environment created both inside and outside the project buildings was almost foreign to the relocated f a m i l i e s . 1 3 Environmental considerations are c r i t i c a l l y import-ant for t r a f f i c and c i r c u l a t i o n planning as well as for other facets of the planning process. The motor vehicle 15 i s one element i n the environment which may react with the micro-environments through which i t passes to produce both physiological and psychological effects on the people i n those environments. The purpose of this study i s to develop a series of environmental t r a f f i c standards against which to measure these e f f e c t s . This, however, i s no easy task, for we are at once confronted with the a b i l i t y of man to adapt phy s i o l o g i c a l l y and psychologically to d i f f e r i n g environments, and dif f e r e n t l e v e l s of quality. But i n thi s adaptation process man runs the r i s k of reducing his oper-ating e f f i c i e n c y , and thus of impairing his physical and mental health, i f the environment i s les s than optimal. Human behaviour i s motivated by a variety of needs, desires and purposes. These may or may not be consciously r e a l i z e d by Individuals. In an affluent society the basic pattern of motivational behaviour becomes modi-f l e d to a large extent by that society's a b i l i t y to s a t i s -fy many of these, and the importance of the more funda-mental needs are distorted or not e x p l i c i t l y recognized. These must, however, be defined, for they form the only r a t i o n a l basis on which to establish environmental standards. When dealing with the micro-environment i n the c i t y , we are also confronted by a broad range of types of environ-ment—the r e s i d e n t i a l environment; the commercial environ-ment; and the i n d u s t r i a l environment, for instance. Each of these have t h e i r own set of s p e c i f i c needs beyond the fundamental needs that any environment should s a t i s f y . 16 These basic needs can be seen as an hierarchy not only interms of what Maslow has c a l l e d prepotency, but also i n terms of s p e c i f i c i t y , ranging from the general environmental needs to the more s p e c i f i c needs of, say, a commercial environment. The quality of any environment thus becomes the degree to which i t s a t i s f i e s the range of needs. Typology of Needs. A three-part typology of basic environmental needs has been developed, consisting of physiological, psycho-l o g i c a l , and s o c i a l needs. While a hierarchy of s p e c i f i c i t y can be distinguished, and the various sub-components of each basic need amplified, the three groups of needs must not be thought of as being completely separate. Rather they are an i n t e r r e l a t e d and. integrated system. Moreover, i t i s not possible i n every case to put a p a r t i c u l a r need d e f i n i t e l y into one category. They overlap; and one need may be expressed, through another i n a d i f f e r e n t category. The typology as presented here should not be thought of as an i n c l u s i v e l i s t of man's basic needs, or of those more p a r t i c u l a r l y related to the physical environment. Por the purposes of discussion a three-level hier-archy has been i d e n t i f i e d . At the f i r s t l e v e l of abstraction i s the simple recognition of physiological, psychological, and. s o c i a l needs. At the second and t h i r d l e v e l s these are progressively amplified into sub-components. 17 Physiological Needs. The most prepotent of a l l human needs are the physiological needs. The sub-components at the second l e v e l include the needs for food, shelter, water, sexual expression, sunlight and a i r , and physical exercise. A5 Further d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n occurs at the t h i r d l e v e l . The human body, for example, needs a certain daily intake of protein, carbohydrates, and vitamins to function e f f i c i -ently, and thus each in d i v i d u a l must vary his food con-sumption to meet these requirements. 1^ To take another instance, open space of varying kinds i s necessary to s a t i s f y the body's exercise needs. Psychological Needs. Previous discussion has already i l l u s t r a t e d the importance of psychological needs, and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n with the physical well-being of the human body. Of great Importance at the second l e v e l i s the need for security. This i s much more simple and recog-nizable i n Infants and children than l t i s ln adults. I l l n e s s , for instance, may temporarily destroy a child's sense of s t a b i l i t y and security, and produce a reaction of 17 fear. To generalize, a c h i l d t y p i c a l l y prefers a safe, orderly, predictable, and organized world. This finds a p a r a l l e l i n the very common adult preference for the fam-i l i a r rather than the unfamiliar, for the known rather than the unknown. At the t h i r d l e v e l security finds expression i n the need for human scale i n the urban environment: i n other 18 words, that building form and space should r e l a t e to the human being, i t s dimensions and capacities. Examples of present-day architecture go beyond the human being in the i r scale and tend to break open the c i t y . The motor vehicle i n motion also tends to the same e f f e c t s . Ultimately t h i s may lead to a f e e l i n g that man does not belong— a f e e l i n g of unrelatedness that may produce withdrawl and 18 a loss of security. A second expression of security at t h i s t h i r d l e v e l i s the need for safety. In a psychological sense, t h i s means freedom from a f e e l i n g of danger or r i s k associated with any p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . But safety also implies freedom from actual physical danger, and i t therefore tran-scends the d i s t i n c t i o n between physiological and psycho-l o g i c a l needs. Based on his wide case experience, Maslow has found cravings i n some people which can only be s a t i s f i e d by 19 beauty. These he has termed aesthetic needs, but because they overlap the conatlve and cognative needs contained i n his hierarchy of prepotency, they are impossible to i s o l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y . They would, appear, however, to be related to the second l e v e l psychological need for a variety of sensory stimulation or a s u f f i c i e n t degree of complexity to stimulate c u r i o s i t y and exploration, which the previous d i s c i s s i o n revealed. This finds expression i n people's p o s i t i v e response to contrasts i n the physical environment, especially those between building and space, 19 and qualitatively between rich and poor segments of the environment.fc This need is complementary to that for sufficient order in the environment to f a c i l i t a t e Its comprehension. As man moves through the environment he organizes the sensory cues (including colour,, shape, motion, touch, smell, and sound) of his surroundings into a coherent pattern. The ease by which the parts can be recognized 21 and organized has been called " l e g i b i l i t y " ; and the quality in a physical object that gives i t a high proba-b i l i t y of evoking a strong image in any observer has been termed "imageability".'^ A distinctive and legible environment that results in a continuity not only offers security, but, through i t , i t i s also possible to heighten the depth of human experience. Social Needs. Human beings are essentially gregarious animals, and thus need a certain amount of social Inter-action. Studies of the effects of social isolation reported by Schultz, 2 3 while their findings are to some extent spec-ulative and thus limited, show that the effects are similar to those produced by sensory restriction and deprivation. Isolation with a small group produces emotional and cognitive effects when the confinement is of a long period. The physical environment must thus provide a plat-form for a range of human interaction, from direct face-to-face contact to the opportunity merely to watch other people. People "should be free to wander about, to s i t 20 around, to look i n shop windows, to meet and gossip, to contemplate the scene and the architecture and the h l s -24 tory . . . . n This need for contact must be balanced against the need for privacy, a need, which forms a part of a l l three categories. These three basic needs are fundamental and. universal, and with the various l e v e l s of sub-components must form the basis f o r a l l planning. In a c t u a l i t y they become modified by d i f f e r e n t cultures expressed i n terms of attitudes and. values, and. these i n turn can d i f f e r within cultures by place and in time. It must also be recognized that these needs are part of a system, and that pursuit of one need, to the exclusion of a l l others w i l l endanger the t o t a l system. The needs must therefore be balanced, throughout the various l e v e l s of the system. The Shopping Street Environment. These broad needs are further extended and more s p e c i f i c a l l y focussed by the special requirements of a p a r t i c u l a r type of environment. Once environmental t r a f f i c standards have been established, a p a r t i c u l a r environment w i l l be examined In the l i g h t of these standards, both to test the hypothesis formulated. In Chapter I and the applic-a b i l i t y of the standards themselves. A shopping street environment has been selected for t h i s purpose, and the special needs of t h i s type of environment w i l l now be d i s -cussed. Shopping i s primarily a pedestrian set of a c t i v i t i e s , and the approach to any analysis of the shopping street environment must therefore be through the needs of pedes-t r i a n s . In the North American context shopping predomin-antly takes place i n stores located along a street. Instances of the purely pedestrian shopping centre are s t i l l rare, and the pedestrian must thus compete for space with the motor vehi c l e . The l a t t e r has become an i n t e g r a l part of the shopping street environment, and i t s own peculiar needs w i l l be discussed i n the next chapter. A street i s "a form of layout consisting of a car-riageway for vehicles, flanking pavements for pedestrians, and with frontage development with dire c t access to prem-25 l s e s for pedestrians and occasionally for vehicles." J As such i t performs a number of functions. I t provides a means of direct access to the buildings which l i e on i t or just behind. I t provides a means of physical communi-cation between one part of an urban area and another for people, vehicles, and sometimes animals. I t i s a means of affording contact for those l i v i n g or working on the street and those l i v i n g around, acting as a public space for work, play and l e i s u r e . D As a fourth function r e l a t e d to that of communication, the street serves as a component of one element i n the five-element urban st r u c t u r a l system devised by Lynch. 2 7 Streets are part of the path system, and thus act as means of orientation. 22 A shopping street i s bounded on one or both sides by shops which have show windows and entrance doors at the back edge of the sidewalk facing a roadway. From the pedestrian viewpoint, the shopping street has a number of essential environmental requirements. F i r s t , there must be a f e e l i n g of a c t i v i t y , variety, and lntersest. This can be partly produced by crowds. Host shopping streets are two-sided, and because It i s undesirable to have one side inactive the pedestrian must be able to cross and. recross the space between the two rows of shop windows. The effect of a c t i v i t y can be heightened by a variety of shopping frontage and shop front design, and. by careful control of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the heights of b u i l d -ings along the street and the width between the building 28 facades. This i s best achieved, by narrowness, and the f e e l i n g would be destroyed by the widening of the roadway to accomodate an increasing volume of vehicular t r a f f i c . A c t i v i t y would also demand the exclusion of the dead spaces created by the blank walls of banks and post-offices, and by parking l o t s and f i l l i n g stations, which interrupt the continuity of the window display. A second requirement i s safety from t r a f f i c . We have already noted the d e s i r a b i l i t y of being able to cross from one side of the street to the other. This does not mean solely signalized crossings or marked crosswalks with pedestrian right-of-way at each intersection, but i d e a l l y the a b i l i t y for the pedestrian to cross safely 23 and at w i l l along the whole length of the block without having to negotiate a ba r r i e r of either parked or moving vehicle s . A constant or even p a r t i a l flow of vehicles can be a continual source of anxiety not only to those people trying to cross the street, but also to those walk-ing along the sidewalk. A London survey of some years ago revealed, that there were three times as many accidents on roads with many shops as there were along purely r e s i -dential stretches of the same r o a d s . ^ A t h i r d requirement, related i n part to safety, i s comfort. Ideally, a shopping environment should pro-vide protection from the weather. This could be achieved, by arcaded sidewalks, or through the use of canopies. The sidewalks should also be wide enough to handle the expected density of pedestrian t r a f f i c , and accomodate couples walking hand i n hand, for example, playing children, and various pieces of street furniture. Shopping i s not solely a necessity but also a chance to mix with other people. I t Is to some degree a s o c i a l entertainment, and window-shopping i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y . The shopping environment must therefore be one that people can enjoy—where they can wander about and f e e l part of the area. A l l these considerations may point to the conclusion that the shopping environment should be t r a f f i c - f r e e and a pedestrian precinct. This would, however, be too hasty a conclusion on the evidence presented so f a r . Such a Zk proposal may not s u i t , nor indeed be possible, i n every s i t u a t i o n . Pedestrian-vehicle segregation i s currently enjoying a pos i t i o n as the panacea of many of the problems that confront us with regard to t r a f f i c i n the urban environment. The tempo of the vehicle and the pedestrian are widely held to be incompatible, the vehicle being twenty times heavier and faster, demanding four to s ix times the pavement of the pedestrian,3° and creating an environment t o t a l l y out of scale with the pedestrian. While admitting these to be true, i t should also be noted that some types of wheeled vehicles are completely com-pati b l e with the pedestrian, and moreover can add v i t a l i t y to the scene. Summary. It has been demonstrated i n t h i s chapter through a review of some of the findings of sensory r e s t r i c t i o n and deprivation experiments that the physical environment i s of fundamental importance to man. The quality of the environment i s the degree to which i t s a t i s f i e s a range of basic human needs. These form a three-part typology c l a s s i f i e d on the basis of physiological, psychological, and s o c i a l needs, and can be amplified into a three-level hierarchy of s p e c i f i c i t y . There are also a variety of dif f e r e n t types of environments, each with a set of special requirements, and both the basic needs and the more part-i c u l a r needs of s p e c i f i c environments must be planned for in urban areas. 25 This analysis w i l l now provide a framework to examine the interaction of the motor vehicle and, the environment. In the next chapter l t w i l l be shown that the motor vehicle also has a set of environmental needs. Yet at the same time It has a number of effects on the phys-i c a l environment which are po t e n t i a l l y damaging to man, and which have severe implications for many of man's basic needs. 26 REFERENCES. ^Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, F o u r t h Annual Review (Ottawa: The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967), p. 1?4T 2 I b i d . , T a b l e 7 - 4 , p. 186. Urban c e n t r e s a r e d e f i n e d as thos e w i t h 1,000 p e r s o n s o r more. ^Duane P. S c h u l t z , S g n s o r y J R e s t r i c t i o n (New York: Academic P r e s s , 1965), p. T7 ^ I b i d . , Chapter V. ^The c e r e b r a l c o r t e x i s t h e major p a r t o f the b r a i n w hich e n a b l e s man t o u n d e r s t a n d the meaning o f the s i g n a l s from the v a r i o u s senses which t e l l him what i s g o i n g on b o t h around him and w i t h i n h i s body. 6Duane P. S c h u l t z , op. c i t . , p.22. ''Donald W. F i s k e , and S a l v a t o r e R. Maddi, F u n c t i o n s °L Varied. E x p e r i e n c e (Homewood, 111.: The Dorsey P r e s s , I96I) P.55. ®Amos Rapoport, and Robe r t E. K a n t o r , " C o m p l e x i t y and A m b i g u i t y i n Urban D e s i g n , " J o u r n a l o f the American l5§tltute_ofplanners, X X X I I I , No.~4" TJuly, 19o"77, 210-221. ^ I a n McHarg, "The Ecology o f the C i t y , " i n Marcus W h i f f e n ( e d . ) , The A r c h i t e c t and the C i t y (Cambridge: The M.I.T. P r e s s , 19667, p. 6~47 1 0 I M d . x l R e n e Dubos, "Man A d a p t i n g , " i n W i l l i a m R. Ewald, Jr. ( e d . ) , Environment f o r Man (B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 196"7l, P . 1 8 T -1 2 D . K r e c h , M. R. Rosenzweig, and E. L. B e n n e t t , " R e l a t i o n between B r a i n - C h e m i s t r y and P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g among R a t s r a i s e d i n E n r i c h e d and Imp o v e r i s h e d Environments," Journal o f C o m p a r a t i v e and P h y s i o l o g i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , LV, No.5 Tseptember, 19o277~8"0"l^B07. 1 3 j a n e J a c o b s , The Death and. L i f e o f Great American C i t i e s (New York: Random House, 19~o"l77 P» 15* A. H. Maslow, Motivat 1on_and P e r s o n a l i t y (New Yo r k : Harper and. Row, 1954), p. 8~3. 27 Maslow describes an hierarchy of needs from physiological, through safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, to the need for s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . The concept of prepotency expresses the idea that i f no needs are being s a t i s f i e d , then behaviour i s directed solely towards s a t i s -fying physiological needs, these being the most prepotent. When these have become s a t i s f i e d to a certain extent, then the s a t i s f a c t i o n of safety needs emerges as a motivational force. ^ F o r a discussion of human needs see Fred V. Hein, and Dana L. Farnsworth, L i v i n g (4th Edition; Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co., l9o"5). See also William L. Slayton, and Richard Dewey, "Urban Redevelopment and the Urbanite," i n Coleman Woodbury (ed.), The Future of C i t i e s and Urban Redevelopment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953) , p. 3 1 3 - 3 1 7 . ^ F r e d V. Hein, and Dana L. Farnsworth, op. c i t . , pp. 7 8 - 9 1 . ^A. H. Maslow, og. c i t . , p. 85 . This and. other points would tend to suggest the usefulness of children as a basis for environmental planning research. Responses to environmental stimuli are conditioned by education and experience, and. therefore with age comes a l e s s "true" response. 18 An excellent discussion of scale i s contained i n Hans Blumenfeld, "Scale i n C i v i c Design," Town Planning Review, XXIV, No. 1 ( A p r i l , 1953), P« 35-L°~. See also Edward T. H a l l , The Hidden Dimension (Garden City, N.Y.J Doubleday, 1966) . !9 A. H . Maslow, op. c i t . , p. 97 . on David Lowenthal, Address to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Graduate Geography Club, November 6 , 19^7; and Kevin Lynch, and Malcolm Rlvkin, "A Walk around, the Block," Landscape, VIII, No. 3 (Spring, 1 9 5 8 ) , 2 4 - 3 4 . 21 Kevin Lynch, The Image of.the City (Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1960l,~pp. 2 - 3 . 2 2 I b i d . , p. 9 . 2 3 o u a n e P. Schultz, op_. c i t . ?4 Colin D. Buchanan, "Standards and Values i n Motor Age Towns," Journal of the Town PIanni ng Ins t l t u t e , XLVII, No. 10 (December, I96T) , 325. 2^Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, p. 222. 28 2 6N. P. Allen, "The Street In Evolution," Journal of the Town Planning I n s t i t u t e , LIII, No. 2 (February, 19°77* oT-6^5. 2?Kevin Lynch, op. c i t . , pp. 4 9 - 6 2 . The other elements are edges, d i s t r i c t s , nodes, and landmarks. 2 ^ W i l f r e d Burns, B r i t i s h Shopping Centres (London: Leonard H i l l , 1 9 5 9 ) , P. 7 5 . ^9R. J. Smeed, "Accident Rates," International Road Safety and T r a f f i c Review, I I I , No. 2 (Spring, 1955T, p. 7k~. 3°Barry Benepe, "Pedestrian i n the City," T r a f f 1 c Quarterly, XIX, No. 1 (January, 1 9 6 5 ) , 36". CHAPTER III THE MOTOR VEHICLE AND ENVIRONMENT Environmental I^eeds of the Motor Vehicle. The importance of the physical environment for man's physical, psychological, and s o c i a l weil-being was discussed i n Chapter I I , and a typology of man's basic environmental needs was developed.. A second unit in the urban physical environment i s the motor vehicle, which s i m i l a r l y has a set of environmental needs that must be s a t i s f i e d for i t to function e f f i c i e n t l y . The needs of the motor vehicle (and. by t h i s i s meant primarily the passenger car) are derived on the one hand from i t being a free-wheeled, self-propelled machine, and. can be measured i n terms of space and free-flow. On the other hand, i t i s a man-machine system, and thus becomes an extension of man, adopting i n turn many of man's needs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of safety. The basic machine space needs are hence modified, to take into account man's poten-t i a l errors i n judgement. For example, a passenger car may be six feet in width, and as a machine could operate e f f i c i e n t l y within a roadway width of seven feet. But due to the human component of the system, the lane width must be enlarged, to, say, twelve feet.* 29 30 In terms of the machine component of the system, the environmental needs of the motor vehicle can de d i v i -ded into two parts—needs for movement and needs for park-ing or storage. Those for movement are partly r e f l e c t e d i n the alignment and cross-section elements of current geometric design standards for roads. These standards vary according to the design volumes, the design speeds, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the road, and. the l e v e l of service demanded. To take the example of an undivided urban c o l -l e c t o r street with a design speed of t h i r t y miles per hour, the Canadian Good Roads Association recommend that the travelled lanes should, have a width of twelve feet, 2 and. parking lanes a width of ten feet; alignment standards suggest a maximum gradient of eight percent, a minimum stop-ping distance of 200 feet, a minimum passing sight d i s t -ance of 800 feet, and a maximum degree of curve of 21.0. Ideally, the motor vehicle should be able to operate i n conditions of free-flow. Thus any f r i c t i o n factors that might p o t e n t i a l l y impede free-flow should be elim-inated. Those which can be manipulated or controlled, include t r a f f i c signals, the actions of vehicles within the vehicle stream, parked vehicles, vehicles entering the stream from intersections, and both vehicles and pedestrians crossing the d i r e c t i o n of flow. The parking needs can be accomodated i n three p r i n -c i p l e ways: curb-side parking, grade-level o f f - s t r e e t l o t s , and m u l t i - l e v e l parking structures. The Canadian Good 3 1 Roads Association recommend a space 2 2 feet i n length for each car for p a r a l l e l parking at the curb.^ H i t t e r , i n discussing ground l e v e l l o t s , uses a basic rectangular space of 18 by 8.5 feet for each car, which can be com-bined i n d i f f e r e n t ways according to the layout.^ Subsiduary to these movement and parking needs are needs analogous to man's food and clothing needs. The motor vehicle requires such commercial f a c i l i t i e s as f i l l i n g stations, repair garages, and. body shops, which must be associated with the above-mentioned f a c i l i t i e s . With regard to the human component, the environ-mental needs can be seen primarily i n terms of safety and, o r i e n t a t i o n . The safety of the driver i s i n part dependant upon adequate t r a f f i c engineering measures related to design volume and design speed, and the f r i c t i o n factors noted above. Safety i s also related to comfort, and the road i t s e l f should, contribute to making driving as pleas-urable as possible. Thirdly, i t i s related to the actual design of the motor vehicle i t s e l f , both the shape and construction of the exterior body, and. the layout and f i n i s h of the i n t e r i o r . The second major need i s that of orientation-?-the driver must know where he i s going, where he i s , and must be made aware of the various regulations governing his use of the roadway. Whereas the pedestrian relates d i r e c t l y to the townscape, and his environment must provide a high l e v e l of interest and variety, the driver i s not 32 involved with the environment to the same degree, and his appreciation and s e n s i t i v i t y i s at a much lower l e v e l . Because of the speed d i f f e r e n t i a l and the need, for a high degree of concentration, d e t a i l becomes of much les s import-ance to the driver than to the pedestrian. Thus the scale and l e g i b i l i t y of the motor vehicle environment i s of a quite d i f f e r e n t order than that of the pedestrian, and i t must be related to the tempo and rhythm of vehicular move-ment. The question of orientation and communication also involves the use of signs to convey messages. Lettering i s d i f f i c u l t to read when moving at almost any speed, and wherever possible i t i s better to use symbols to transmit the information. The s p e c i f i c needs of the pedestrian i n a shopping street environment were discussed i n Chapter I I . In the same way, the motor vehicle, largely as a conveyor of future pedestrians, has a set of s p e c i f i c needs i n terms of access and parking which must be s a t i s f i e d by th i s type of environment. These, i n c i d e n t a l l y , closely r e l a t e to the expressed desires of shopkeepers, who view a continual flow of t r a f f i c past their shop fronts as an economic advantage. Due to the multi-functional nature of the street, however, access and. parking needs are p o t e n t i a l l y in con-f l i c t with one-another, and, more Importantly, with the needs of the pedestrian. The passenger car needs to be able to penetrate d i r e c t l y to the curb i n front of the shop in which the 33 driver intends to make his or her purchase, or, i f there i s no p a r t i c u l a r choice, to park at the curb-side, where the driver can then proceed, to window-shop on foot.^ Where curb-side parking i s not possible, parking must be provided within easy walking access to the shops. Transit vehicles need to be able to stop at points along the street to unload and to pick up passengers. And access must be provided for service vehicles, preferably at the rear, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y at the front, of the shop premises. Because most shopping streets are also being used as a means of communication between d i f f e r e n t parts of the urban area, these parking needs w i l l c o n f l i c t with the free-flow needs of through vehicles. Environmental Effects. Set against these environmental needs are a number of environmental effects produced by the motor vehicle both when moving and. at rest, which are leading to an increasing deterioration of the urban physical environment. The trans-portation and t r a f f i c problem i n towns, c i t i e s , and metro-p o l i t a n areas i s conventionally seen i n terms of increasing motor vehicle usage (which i s compounding the d i f f i c u l t i e s and f r u s t r a t i o n created by an urban form p a r t i c u l a r l y unsulted to mass motor vehicle movement);:. i n terms of d e c l i -ning t r a n s i t patronage; and i n terms of inadequate finan-c i a l and planning arrangements. Even i f a l l these problem areas are recognized, the usual approach has been to attempt 34 to increase the road, network i n step with t r a f f i c demand, an obsolete and. in e f f e c t u a l e f f o r t which only serves to widen the chaos by att r a c t i n g more t r a f f i c . But while t r a f f i c congestion and parking d i f f i c u l t -i e s receive widespread recognition, and while transportation planners are changing t h e i r approach to one of balancing demand, with the available network by u t i l i z i n g a range of transportation modes, the deterioration of the urban environment from the side-effects of the motor vehicle i s almost universally ignored. The major exception i s the increasing number of road accidents, which are the subject of mounting public pressure and new l e g i s l a t i v e measures designed to a l l e v i a t e the problem. This non-recognition of the declining quality of the urban environment i s most l i k e l y the r e s u l t of the almost complete acceptance of the motor vehicle as an integral and necessary part of dai l y l i f e , with the consequence that we take i t and i t s less desirable effects very much for granted. Many c r i t i c s have denounced the erosion of c i t i e s , the endless sprawl of suburbia, and the movement towards a greater impersonality of human contact that the motor 7 vehicle i s held In part to produce. But for a l l t h i s , the motor vehicle plays a v i t a l part i n the communications and economic l i f e of urban centres. However, the adverse consequences of motor t r a f f i c i n towns i s a matter of great and increasing seriousness which demands urgent atten-t i o n . To take any other view "would, be to put oneself 35 out of l i n e with a whole section of s o c i a l endeavour directed over many years to the r a i s i n g of environmental standards, and the promotion of understanding and enjoyment of the Q v i s u a l arts, architecture and landscape design". The Buchanan Report, Traff1c_In_Towns, was the f i r s t major document to examine the environmental effects of the motor vehicle to any degree, and to suggest that environmental considerations of this nature should be recognized as an e x p l i c i t part of the planning process. In the report, Buchanan outlined four major environmental effects--safety, noise, fumes, and. v i s u a l intrusion. These were not analysed to any depth, however, and. the remainder of this chapter w i l l be devoted to a more exten-sive examination of the problems. Safety. Safety, i n the sense which i s meant here, i s free-dom from danger or r i s k s associated with motor vehicles, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n motion, and of a l l the influences on the environment It i s the most c r i t i c a l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate the Idea of safety from accidents, and the l a t t e r can be viewed as a negative indicat i o n of the degree of safety i n any environment. In the United States i n 1966, deaths due to motor vehicle accidents accounted for k7 percent of the t o t a l number of accidental deaths (53,000 out of 113,000); 9 and. motor vehicle accidents were the major cause of a c c i -36 dental deaths for a l l age groups except for those under one year and those 7 5 years or over. Of the t o t a l number of disabling i n j u r i e s , motor vehicles accounted for 1 7 » 5 p e r c e n t . 1 0 Comparable figures are not available f o r Canada, but i t i s reasonable to expect that a similar relationship e x i s t s . Seven out of ten accidental deaths associated with motor vehicles occurred i n places c l a s s i f i e d as r u r a l , and the victims were mostly occupants of motor vehicles. In urban areas, however, 3 6 percent of the victims were ped e s t r i a n s . 1 1 Of a l l pedestrians Injured or k i l l e d i n urban areas approximately two-thirds were crossing or entering streets at the time of the accident. Most f r e -quently, the crossing was between intersections for persons 1 9 years or below, and at intersections for those 2 0 or above. i 2 Safety not only requires freedom from actual danger and r i s k , but equally as important a f e e l i n g of security. Safety and security are prerequisites for a c i v i l i z e d l i f e , and against this standard the urban environment leaves much to be desired. The continual presence of moving veh-i c l e s i n any environment Is a constant threat to that safety and security, especially i n the case of urban areas to that of the pedestrian. Parked cars l i n i n g a street are also a hazard to pedestrians where they r e s t r i c t the l a t t e r * s a b i l i t y to see on-coming vehicles, while at the same time r e s t r i c t i n g the driver's a b i l i t y to see pedestrians. 37 The lack of pedestrian safety r e s u l t s from pedes-tri a n s and vehicles competing for the use of the same space at the same time. This i s obviously most c r i t i c a l at street intersections and along busy shopping streets where there i s a continual flow of pedestrians from one side of the street to the other. In such situations the safety of the pedestrian w i l l depend upon the number and speed of vehicles, the exposure of pedestrians to vehicles-, (the intensity of c o n f l i c t between them), pedestrian and driver attitudes and s k i l l s , external controls on vehicles and pedestrians such as s i g n a l i z a t i o n , ambient conditions, and automobile design. Noise. Noise i s defined as "sound which i s undesired by the 13 r e c i p i e n t " . Over the l a s t century, man has become sub-jected to increasing amounts of noise i n the urban environ-ment, such that noise l e v e l s are now presenting a hazard to health. The sense of hearing i s subject to decay with age: t h i s effect i s known as presbycusis. Hearing begins to decline i n the age group 10 -19 years, and as age advances l t becomes more pronounced, a f f e c t i n g the appreciation of higher tones f i r s t . ^ In a study reported by Beales, 1^ H i n c h c l i f f e compared the hearing of a r u r a l and. an urban population i n the age groups 55-64 and 65-75 years. He found a mean hearing loss of 18 decibels (abbreviated d.B) 38 and 25dB for the r u r a l , and. 45 &B and 49dB for the urban population, a fact which can only be explained by the d i f f e r -ences i n noise between the two environments. A further study by Rosen, which compared an iso l a t e d t r i b a l popu-l a t i o n l i v i n g i n a r e l a t i v e l y noise-free environment to various ages of an healthy population l i v i n g i n the United States, showed that the hearing decline with age was greater for those l i v i n g i n c i t i e s and occured e a r l i e r . 1 7 Noise can i n t e r f e r e with many phases of human health and l i f e . It may prevent sleep and reduce stress. I t may intrude into our physical privacy, or our thoughts and feelings, and r e s u l t l n annoyance and i r r i t a t i o n (in general, i t i s the unexpected noise that i r r i t a t e s most). It may i n t e r f e r e with s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s such as communication, especially conversation, education, and recreation. And i t may a f f e c t working e f f i c i e n c y by disturbing the con-centration needed for some s p e c i f i c task. Beyond t h i s , evidence shows that exposure to excessive noise over a long duration does r e s u l t i n physical damage to hearing, 18 and that t h i s i s permanent. A B r i t i s h committee established to consider the problem of noise concluded that i n London "road t r a f f i c i s , at the present time, the predominant source of annoyance, 19 and no other single source Is of comparable importance". In a survey of 5^0 points equally spaced over 3° square miles of central London, analysis of the results from 400 points showed that at 84 percent of these noise from road t r a f f i c 3 9 20 predominated. At the same time, a sample of 1,400 people were questioned about noise and i t s importance r e l a t i v e to other factors. Asked the question "If you could change just one of the things you don't l i k e about l i v i n g round 21 here, which would you choose?", 11 percent chose noise. The committe outlined f i v e p r i n c i p a l sources of vehicle noise. The predominant noises were caused by pro-pulsion—engine, exhaust, and transmission. The others were horns, brake squeal, door slamming, and loose loads or b o d i e s . 2 2 To these can be added t i r e squeal, and the hum of t i r e s on wet roads. The steady flow of passenger car t r a f f i c alone i s not necessarily i r r i t a t i n g . The highest noise l e v e l s are usually produced by heavy trucks and vehicles such as buses, p a r t i c u l a r l y when accelerating. Trucks pass a given point le s s often, because they usually comprise a small percent-age of the t r a f f i c stream, and the load burst of noise that r e s u l t s i s more d i s t r a c t i n g and. annoying. However, the B r i t i s h committee found that t r a f f i c noise i n the United States was generally l e s s obtrusive. This was attributed to the t r a f f i c being more homogenous: fewer buses; fewer trucks at peak periods due to r e s t r i c t i o n s on d e l i v -e r i e s ; American cars being higher powered and. l e s s seldom driven at high engine revolutions; and the flow of t r a f f i c being interrupted less frequently.^ 3 40 Fumes. The problem of a i r p o l l u t i o n has received an i n -creasing amount of attention i n recent years, primarily due to the recognition that the r i s i n g l e v e l s of a i r p o l l u t i o n are a s i g n i f i c a n t danger to health. There i s now the fear that we are discharging more wastes into the atmosphere than can be handled by such natural processes as d i l u t i o n , and that the build-up of pollutants w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t b i o l o g i c a l and physical effects as yet unknown. The health effects of acute p o l l u t i o n episodes have for a long time been established, and pollutants i n con-junction with certain meteorological conditions, such as those which caused the severe London fogs of December, 1952, and December, 1962, can r e s u l t i n death. However, there i s no simple cause and effect r e l a t i o n s h i p between a i r p o l l u -t i o n and disease. I t i s l i k e l y that p o l l u t i o n i s not the sole cause of any disease, but that i t might aggravate already existing conditions and p r e c i p i t a t e i l l n e s s . Further, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to extrapolate from the data on p o l l u t i o n disasters to the low l e v e l s of p o l l u t i o n to which people are exposed i n more normal urban situations. At these l e v e l s , human adaptive mechanisms and tolerance may confer s i g n i f i c a n t protection, and the Influences on public health are much more subtle. But the evidence collected to date suggests that a i r p o l l u t i o n i s a con-tributory factor i n eye i r r i t a t i o n ; chronic obstructive lung diseases involving asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema; 24 and cancer of the lung and respiratory t r a c t . 41 There are two broad classes of atmospheric pollutants-a) particulate matter, consisting of s o l i d or l i q u i d p a r t i c l e s greater than 100 microns (1 micron = 10~^cm) to aerosols of le s s than 1.0 to 0.01 microns; b) gases and vapours, including the permanent gases and those substances which have b o i l i n g points of below about 2 0 0 ° C 2 5 Within the former group, the motor vehicle, or more part-i c u l a r l y the inte r n a l combustion engine by reason of the f u e l i t burns, i s a s i g n i f i c a n t source of hydrocarbons. Within the l a t t e r group, i t contributes through i t s exhaust 99 percent of the carbon monoxide i n the atmosphere, which next to carbon dioxide i s the most abundant atmospheric 26 pollutant; and i s a major source of oxides of nitrogen. These are the three p r i n c i p a l contaminants produced by the operation of the motor vehi c l e . Carbon monoxide i s toxic i n the form i n which i t i s emitted, and. combining with heamoglobin i n the blood r e s u l t s i n a decreased oxygen carrying capacity, which may i n turn lead to anexia i n exposed persons. 2 7 Hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen, on the other hand, undergo photo-chemical reaction i n the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight to produce a number of compounds which may be toxic, i r r i t a t e eyes and the respiratory system, damage 28 vegetation, and. impair v i s i b i l i t y . The nature and severity of a i r p o l l u t i o n w i l l vary with the number of vehicles, the presence of other sources 42 of po l l u t i o n , topographical features, and meteorological conditions, notably winds and temperature inversions. Conditions i n Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a , have attracted a great deal of research, and the C a l i f o r n i a Department of Public Health estimated i n I960 that hydrocarbon emissions had to be reduced, by 80 percent and carbon monoxide by 70 percent 29 before acceptable a i r quality could be obtained. ' But that c i t y i s not alone i n t h i s problem, and with increasing use of the motor vehicle p o l l u t i o n effects w i l l become more apparent i n other c i t i e s . Normal conditions i n Los Angeles show ribbons of high contaminant concentration over heavily t r a v e l l e d a r t e r i e s , and lower but more widespread concen-trations throughout the community. The peak period, of contaminants i s associated, with the morning and afternoon t r a f f i c peaks. While these are the periods of the greatest concentrations of t r a f f i c , the stop-and-go driving con-d i t i o n s produced by congestion are those associated with 30 the greatest degree of emissions. Vi s u a l Intrusion. While strong cases can be put forwarder safety, noise, and fumes as s i g n i f i c a n t environmental effects of the motor vehicle with serious consequences for human health and. well-being, the question of v i s u a l intrusion i s more subjective. It i s , however, no less serious, and. may be shown to c o n f l i c t to some degree with the need for c l a r i t y i n the environment which the previous discussion has revealed. 43 This intrusion into the environment i s of two kinds. The f i r s t i s the intrusion of the motor vehicle i t s e l f , both moving and at rest, into almost every corner, so that wherever one looks one i s confronted with a continual mass of vehicles of every shape and hue. "Buildings seem to r i s e from a p l i n t h of c a r s , " 3 * and the effect that was o r i g i n -a l l y created or intended by the a r c h i t e c t u r a l expression i s broken or destroyed. Shopping streets become lined, with cars, and during peak shopping periods and under conditions of inadequate parking cars may s p i l l over into surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l areas. We have already noted that the motor vehicle transcends the intimacy of human scale demanded for ped-es t r i a n a c t i v i t y to that l a t t e r * s ultimate destruction. The second kind of v i s u a l intrusion i s that created, by a l l the paraphernalia somehow necessary to s a t i s f y the demands of the motor vehicle. The signs and signals which attempt to dir e c t and. regulate t r a f f i c c l u t t e r the environ-ment with redundant r e p e t i t i o n , and confusion, where sim-p l i c i t y , c l a r i t y and sparsity could, achieve much more. The f i l l i n g s t ation and the parking l o t are two of the most unstimulating forms i n the urban environment which tend to destroy any sense of scale with t h e i r openness. A continued lack of concern for v i s u a l intrusion may u l t i -mately lead to a general apathy towards the quality of urban l i f e , and an unwillingness to become involved i n urban a f f a i r s . LL Summary. The motor vehicle i s a man-machine system, and i t s environmental needs can be i d e n t i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n to the two components of th i s system. For the machine component they can be seen i n terms of space and free-flow; for man, i n terms of safety and. orientation. In contrast, however, the motor vehicle has a series of effects on the environ-ments through which i t passes, the most serious of these being safety, noise, fumes, and. v i s u a l intrusion. E e f f e r r i n g back to the typology of needs developed i n the previous chapter, these environmental effects may have a deleterious effect on a l l three classes of needs. The danger presented by both a moving and a stationary motor vehicle a f f e c t s safety i n both i t s physiological and psychological senses. The effect of noise i s s i m i l a r l y physiological and psychological. Fumes and pollutants under certain conditions can have a serious e f f e c t on the quality of the a i r we breathe, and. hence on the human body, and at the same time af f e c t the appearence of the environ-ment. And the v i s u a l intrusion of the motor vehicle and i t s paraphernalia can affe c t the psychological need for c l a r i t y and for human scale. In r e l a t i o n to the shopping street environment, the motor vehicle c o n f l i c t s with the requirements for safety and comfort. I t may well, however, serve to heighten the f e e l i n g of a c t i v i t y and variety. 45 While Buchanan outlined these ef f e c t s , he did not extend the general statement and attempt to formulate environmental t r a f f i c standards which might be applied i n planning s i t u a t i o n s — a defect which he free l y admits. In the next chapter current research and viewpoints w i l l be examined to determine a tentative series of t r a f f i c standards which may then serve as the basis for further research and review. 4 6 REFERENCES, ^Canadian Good Roads Association, Geometric Design Committee, Manual of Geometric Design Standards (Ottawa: The Association~ 1 9 6 3 ), Figure C2 .2 , p. 5 o . 2 I b i d . 3lbid., Table B l , p. 19 . ^Ibid., Figure C2 . 2 , p. 66. 5Paul R i t t e r , Planning for Man and. Motor (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1964), p . ~ 8 5 . ^Frederick Gibberd, Town_Design (4th Edition; London: The Architectural Press, 19&2T, p. 110. 7See, for example, Jane Jacobs, The Death and L i f e of Great American^Ci t i e s (New York: Random House, 1961), Chapter XVIII, pp. 3 3 5 - 3 7 1 . 8Buchanan, T r a f f i c In Towns, p. 2 3 . ^National Safety Council, Accident Facts (Chicago: The Council, 1967), P . 3* Other p r i n c i p a l classes account-ing for accidental deaths were Work: 10$; Home: 26$; and Public: 1 0 I b i d . Work accidents accounted for 19$; Home: 42$; and Public: 22$. i l l b i d . , p. 41. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 5 0 . 13 -'Great B r i t a i n , Committee on the Problem of Noise, Flnal_ReEort (London: H.M.S.O., 1963), P - 2 . * ^ P h i l i p H. Beales, Noise, Hearing and Deafness (London: Michael Joseph, 1 9 6 3 7 7 P« 131* 1 5 I b i d . , p. 132. ^The decibel i s an international unit measuring the intensity (loudness) of noise. I t i s based on a logarithmic scale and involves the r a t i o of two i n t e n s i t i e s — a standard reference intensity (that just barely audible) and the inten-s i t y being measured. Each lOdB increase corresponds to an approximate doubling of loudness. 47 1 7 P h i l l p H. Beales, op. c i t . , pp. 1 3 2 - 1 3 3 . 1 8 I b i d . , p. 143. eat B r i t a i n , Committee on the Problem of Noise, qp. c i t . , p. 2 7 . 2 0 I b i d . , p. 2 2 . 2 1 I b l d . , Table 4, p. 24. 2 2 I b i d . , pp. 4 3 - 4 4 . 2 3 l b i d . , p. 2 9 . 2 i |See Donald 0 . Anderson, "Effects of Air Contamin-ation on Health," Paper A3-2, Background Papers prepared for the_Natlonal Conference on~"Pollution. and_our Envlron-ment".(Montreal: Canadian Council of Resource Ministers, 1 9 & 7 ) . 25Morris Katz, "Nature and Sources of A i r P o l l u t i o n , " Paper A2-2, Background. Papers prepared for the National Cqnference on "Pollution and^our_Envlronment 1 r ^Montreal: Canadian Council of Resource Ministers, 19°77> PP. 4 - 5 . 2 6 I b i d . , pp. 14 -31 . 2 7 I b i d . , p. 2 8 . 2 8 J o h n A. Maga, "Vehicular P o l l u t i o n Effects i n Urban Development," Journal of the Urban Planning and Development Div i s i o n , Proceedings of the American Society of C i v i l Engineers, XCIII, No. UP4 (December, 1 9 6 7 ) , 2 3 1 . 2 9Ibid.., p. 239 3°Morris Katz, qp_. c i t . , Tables 20 and 2 1 , p. 3 5 . 3 xBuchanan, Traffic_inJTqwns, p. 2 2 . CHAPTER IV ENVIRONMENTAL TRAFFIC STANDARDS Perspective. Standards are a series of c r i t e r i a established for measuring the excellence of quality i n components of a community's structure. Those established by community by-laws, or used for such planning purposes as calcu l a t i n g the park acreage needed i n a p a r t i c u l a r area, most usually take the form of minimum standards which have become recog-nized as f u f i l l i n g a community's basic needs. Quite often, however, these standards are based more on t r a d i t i o n and a period of long use than on any current o b j e c t i v i t y , and thus do not necessarily correspond to present conditions and needs. A form of standard which i s gaining increasing acceptance i s the performance standard, which provides a c r i t e r i o n for testing the degree of hazard or nuisance created by certain a c t i v i t i e s . 1 For instance, high-rise r e s i d e n t i a l buildings might be allowed to locate i n a single-family r e s i d e n t i a l zone i f they met certain perform-ance standards with regard to th e i r effect on the sun-l i g h t i n g , daylightlng, privacy, and amenity of the single-family dwellings. Environmental t r a f f i c standards can most conveniently be formulated i n terms of performance 48 49 c r i t e r i a , for the motor vehicle must be made to meet certai n requirements i n r e l a t i o n to safety, noise, a i r p o l l u t i o n , and v i s u a l intrusion i f the quality of the environment i s to be preserved and. enhanced. Any standards set must be based on sound, data and objective research. The discussion i n Chapter III out-lined, the most l i k e l y basis for formulating such standards. Noise and. a i r p o l l u t i o n , for example, were shown to aff e c t human physiology i n a number of ways, and i f the l e v e l s at which these effects begin to occur can be established, then acceptable standards can be defined r e l a t i v e l y precisely. But i t was also noted that the reaction to these effects i s i n many cases individual and subjective, and that some people are more sensitive than others. Therefore, to be e f f e c t i v e , the standards r e l a t i n g to noise and. a i r p o l l u -t i o n must be based on those groups of persons xiho are most sensitive to noise and p o l l u t i o n e f f e c t s . While the motor vehicle's effect on pedestrian safety i s absolute i n terms of accidents, i t was also shown that the effect was psychological i n terras of creating a decrease i n the sense of security. Thus before a standard can be established, some measure of this e f f e c t must be defined. Such a measure w i l l be perhaps l e s s precise and. more subjective than i n the case of p o l l u t i o n ; but i f a large enough sample can be taken over which to analyse behaviour patterns, then some degree of o b j e c t i v i t y can be achieved. 50 The question of vi s u a l intrusion emerged as the most subjective of the motor vehicle's environmental e f f e c t s , and i t may well prove impossible to establish any workable standard. But i f we accept that the si t u a t i o n i s at present unsatisfactory, then some indications as to methods of improvement can be made. As a preface to further discussion, i t should be noted that the environmental t r a f f i c standards formulated below are not fine l i n e s that distinguish between good and bad conditions. Rather, they indicate the approximate point at which under some circumstances there may be undesirable e f f e c t s . Safety.. Inasmuch as accidents r e s u l t i n g from vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-pedestrian c o n f l i c t are a negative i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of safety In any environment, the primary basis for any standard r e l a t i n g to safety i s that there should be no motor vehicle accidents causing injury or death i n any environment. This measure, however, f a i l s to take into account the psychological element l n s a f e t y — t h a t i s that people, especially pedestrians, should f e e l safe as well as be safe. Vehicle-pedestrian c o n f l i c t takes place primarily during the act of the pedestrian crossing the road at or between intersections, and consequently the danger of injury or death i s greatest at these points. Presumably 51 a pedestrian w i l l only cross the road when he believes i t i s safe to do so. Studies have shown that t h i s judgement i s a subjective impression of the degree of r i s k involved, and that i t i s related to the speed and distance of on-p coming t r a f f i c . . A study of a crossing on a. main road in a busy part of Manchester, England, showed that when approaching vehicles were 2.5 seconds or less away, only one person out of the jSk who had the opportunity crossed; when the vehicle was four or f i v e seconds away, about half the people who could cross did so; and when the vehicle was ten seconds or more away, pedestrians without exception would cross the road.3 The d i s t r i b u t i o n for each time i n t e r v a l was shown to conform closely to that expected, and other studies c i t e d by the authors confirm t h e i r findings. I t i s possible on the basis of t h i s data to formulate a c r i t e r i o n which r e f l e c t s the psychological element i n safety. Based on the observed fact that pedestrians without exception w i l l cross a road i f an on-coming vehicle i s ten seconds or more away and on the requirement that a pedestrian should be able to cross a street whenever he wants to with a minimum of delay, and assuming a random d i s t r i b u t i o n of vehicles t r a v e l l i n g along a street, to establish a standard i t i s then necessary to determine the volume of vehicles that w i l l give a certain probability of a ten second gap occuring at any time. A 50 percent 52 probability i s assumed to be reasonable and practicable. Using Poisson d i s t r i b u t i o n i t i s found that a volume of 252 vehicles per hour (vph) i n both directions w i l l give a 50 percent l i k l i h o o d of no vehicles passing a p a r t i c u l a r k point during any ten second period. Thus i n the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n and within the l i m i t i n g assumptions a volume of 250 vph or below w i l l give a desirable l e v e l of safety i n any environment i n r e l a t i o n to t r a f f i c . However, a f i v e second vehicle gap, allowing half the pedestrians to cross, might prove acceptable, and t h i s would give a volume of 5 0 k vph i n both directions along the street (rounded to 500 vph) as an acceptable l e v e l of safety. Under these volume conditions i t i s anticipated that the delay to those pedestrians who have to wait w i l l be quite small. Tanner has shown that with an acceptance gap of f i v e seconds and a volume of 288 vph i n both d i r e c t -ions, there i s a 66 percent probability of not being delayed, and. an 80 percent probability of not being delayed longer than two seconds.*' This standard would apply to a two-lane s i t u a t i o n , where the width of the road i s not a c r i t i c a l factor. In the case of four lanes, with an increase of road width, both the i d e a l and the acceptable volumes would need, to be reduced to allow for the fact that the wider the road the longer i t w i l l take to cross, and hence the longer the required acceptance gap. 53 Although not based on the same approach, th i s stand-ard, for environmental safety i s comparable to Buchanan's, and subsequent, calculations of environmental capacity. Buchanan's approximate d e f i n i t i o n of environmental cap-acity i n r e l a t i o n to a 22 foot carriageway was 250 passenger car units (pcu) per hour."'7 Subsequent research i n England has shown environmental capacity to be approximately 500 pcu per hour, with a desirable value of about 300 pcu per hour o where th i s can be achieved i n an o v e r a l l design. The v a l i d i t y of t h i s standard rests on i t s assump-tions and on the data, which might not apply to the North American s i t u a t i o n . Further research into pedestrian behaviour patterns and the effect of non-random flow must be carried out i n order to confirm or modify i t s applica-b i l i t y . However, i t has been demonstrated that the creation of a number of very short inte r v a l s and a few very long i n t e r v a l s by s l g n a l i z a t i o n w i l l reduce the probability of obtaining a short gap, but at the same time w i l l increase the probability of long gaps, hence reducing the waiting time for these.9 Noise. In the previous chapter i t was established that noise, especially t r a f f i c noise because of i t s ubiquity, has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on accelerating the decline of hearing due to increasing age, and that continuous exposure to excessive l e v e l s of noise i s l i k e l y to lead to permanent 54 deafness. A great deal of research has been undertaken i n an attempt to define the l e v e l at which deafness i s l i k e l y to occur, termed the c r i t i c a l sound l e v e l . The most important factors believed to a f f e c t the capacity of a noise to produce a hearing loss are i t s intensity (loudness), spectrum (frequency range), time pattern, and. the duration of the individual's exposure.10 The r i s k of damage to hear-ing appears to be greatest for the sounds between 2,400 and 4,800 cycles per second ( c p s ) . 1 1 But due to the wide range of i n d i v i d u a l s e n s i t i v i t y the c r i t i c a l sound l e v e l has been d i f f i c u l t to define p r e c i s e l y . The B r i t i s h Medical Association has stated that continuous exposure throughout one's working l i f e to noise whose intensity exceeds 85dB i n the speech frequencies 2 5 0 - 4 , 0 0 0 cps may cause permanent damage to h e a r i n g . 1 2 This, however, assumes that intensity i s the most important TABLE 1 DAMAGE RISK LEVELS (After Burns and L i t t l e r ) Frequency band S.P.L. value (cps) (dB) 37-5 -150 100 150-300 90 300-600 85 600-1200 85 1200-2400 80 2400-4800 80 Source: W.Burns and T . S . L i t t l e r 55 factor i n evaluating danger from noise; the consideration of other factors would suggest a lower l e v e l . Burns and L i t t l e r have established c r i t i c a l l e v e l s for various f r e -quencies of broad band noise (see Table 1) based on expo-sure experienced for an eight hour day, f i v e day week through-out one's working lifetime. 1-^ These indicate a c r i t i c a l l e v e l of 80d.B i n the frequency range 1,200-4,800 cps, increasing to lOOdB i n the frequency range 37.5-150 cps. 14 Noise from t r a f f i c f a l l s i n the low frequencies, but the frequency spectrum of t r a f f i c noise would make a standard based on Burns and. L i t t l e r ' s damage r i s k l e v e l s excessively complicated. Furthermore, the liklihood. of continuous exposure to these c r i t i c a l l e v e l s i n the urban environment i s small. However, as with safety, the phys-i c a l component i s supplemented by a psychological component, which was defined i n Chapter III as annoyance or i r r i t a t i o n . I f annoyance l e v e l s can be established, they would form a more acceptable basis for defining a standard. Through s o c i a l surveys i t i s possible to discover how much noise people are prepared to stand, without serious complaint, complaint being an Indication of annoyance. Using such c r i t e r i a , the Wilson Committee i n England was able to establish acceptable l e v e l s of noise i n dwellings which should not be exceeded for more than ten percent of the time. In busy urban areas these were set at 50dBA by day, and. 35dBA by n i g h t . 1 ^ For other types of buildings, where speech communication i s important, and shops should. 56 be included i n t h i s category, i t was suggested that 55dBA should not be exceeded. 1^ Noise enters a building mainly through the windows, or i n the case of shops through doors, and with f u l l y open windows there i s a difference of 5dBA between inte r n a l and external l e v e l s . With a partly open window the insu-l a t i o n effect i s approximately lOdBA. 1 7 Assuming that windows should be enabled to be at least partly open when required, i t follows that an external sound l e v e l i n r e s i -dential areas of 6 0 d B A and 45dBA by night should not be exceeded for more than ten percent of the time i f accept-able i n t e r n a l l e v e l s are to be achieved. In non-residential areas higher noise l e v e l s may be permitted, and i n a comm-e r c i a l area an external sound l e v e l of 650LBA would be an acceptable standard on the above basis. It i s anticipated that, because of d i f f e r e n t acoustical conditions, t h i s l e v e l would not i n t e r f e r e with speech communication on the street. I t should also be noted that the l e v e l com-pares with the maximum noise l e v e l established by the Swiss Anti-Noise Commission for commercial areas. 60dB by day and 50dB by night, with infrequent peaks of ?5dB by day, 1 ft are accepted as the maximum. • L O A i r P o l l u t i o n . In defining standards for the a i r p o l l u t i o n caused by motor vehicles, i t must be recognized that this i s but one part of the wider problem of community a i r p o l l u t i o n , 57 and. that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to Isolate one group or several groups of contaminants, l e t alone treat them i n d i v i d u a l l y . While motor vehicles are the major source of carbon monox-ide, and a s i g i f i c a n t source of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen, the t o t a l p o l l u t i o n problem i s very complex, involving variable amounts of substances i n the atmosphere from a variety of sources, that undergo as yet inadequately understood reactions. Furthermore, due to cost factors some degree of p o l l u t i o n i s at present inevitable, and thus to formulate standards i t becomes necessary to define acceptable l e v e l s of pollutants. The physiological effects of p o l l u t i o n were di s -cussed i n the preceding chapter, and the standards should be based on the l e v e l s of contaminants at which certain specified e ffects begin to occur i n the most sensitive groups of people. The net effect of pollutants depends on a number of modifying factors, and cannot be r e l i a b l y pre-dicted from the mere s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a concentration of a pollutant at one place and at one time. The ambient a i r quality standards for the State of C a l i f o r n i a , the only comprehensive standards yet formulated i n North America, are based on and supported by available, r e l i a b l e scien-t i f i c data,* 9 and i t i s therefore reasonable to accept these, at l e a s t on an interim basis, as applicable to the current study. The effects of p o l l u t i o n vary both i n kind and i n severity, and the seriousness of the effect determines the 58 urgency of control. The C a l i f o r n i a Department of Public Health recognizes three l e v e l s of e f f e c t s : 1) "adverse" l e v e l - the l e v e l at which there w i l l be sensory i r r i t a t i o n , damage to vegetation, reduction i n v i s i b i l i t y , or similar e f f e c t s ; 2) "serious" l e v e l - the l e v e l at which there w i l l be the a l t e r a t i o n of bodily function or which i s l i k e l y to lead to chronic disease; 3) "emergency** l e v e l - the l e v e l at which i t i s l i k e l y that acute sickness or death i n sensi-t i v e groups of people w i l l occur. On the basis of these l e v e l s , the Department defines a series of standards for ambient a i r quality. Of these, two are related to motor vehicle p o l l u t a n t s : 2 1 a-) at the adverse l e v e l - "oxidant index" - 0 .15 parts per m i l l i o n of a i r (ppm) for one hour by the potassium iodide method; 2 2 b) at the serious l e v e l - carbon monoxide - JO ppm for eight hours or 120 ppm for one hour (at which l e v e l there occurs interference with oxygen transport by blood). There are as yet i n s u f f i c i e n t data to establish firm a i r quality standards for oxides of nitrogen. 2 3 The oxidant index i s based on an empirical assoc-i a t i o n of eye i r r i t a t i o n , plant damage, and photochemical aerosol formulation with smog effects, and i s an i n d i r e c t Indicator of the effects of p o l l u t i o n . It refers to sub-59 stances, including hydrocarbons, which have t h e i r o r i g i n i n photochemical reaction, and w i l l be used u n t i l adequate procedures for the measurement of the individual substances have been developed. In contrast, the carbon monoxide standard represents a medical judgement of a l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n t impairment of bodily function i n a sensitive segment of the population. Visual Intrusion. The question of v i s u a l intrusion i s very much a matter of personal opinion, but to ignore the problem because of this fact w i l l probably r e s u l t i n the destruct-ion of many urban values. I t i s probably impossible under the present state of knowledge to define standards which can be agreed upon by a l l . This i s perhaps not necessary, and i t may be more reasonable to base this segment of the environmental standards on the M s e n s i b i l i t i e s of an a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n t e l l i g e n t observer'", despite the obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s i n defining such a person. The application of the above environmental t r a f f i c standards, especially that related to safety, would most l i k e l y lead to a reduction of moving vehicles i n the environ-ments to which they are applied. This leaves, however, the continued i n t r u s i o n of parked vehicles. An i d e a l standard would prohibit the use of streets for parking, and. r e t a i n the space for the purposes of both vehicular and pedestrian access and passage; but the inadequate provision of o f f - s t r e e t 60 parking i n existing environments makes thi s impossible. Nevertheless, considerations of both v i s u a l intrusion and safety demand some reduction i n street parking, especially i n commercial areas. In general, therefore, u n i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e l parking only should be permitted, i n order both to reduce the v i s u a l i n trusion of the motor vehicle and to ensure maximum i n t e r v i s i b i l i t y between driver and pedes-t r i a n . While i t may be possible to reduce the absolute number of t r a f f i c signs, for reasons of safety they cannot be allowed to merge into the environment. Greater atten-ti o n must be paid to the p r i n c i p l e s of design, and. because the messages of d i r e c t i o n a l and. regulatory signs frequently involve safety, they should, therefore be simple, sure, e f f e c t i v e , and understandable, and. located, where necessary to protect and d i r e c t the general public. They might also be used, to create or enhance a. f e e l i n g of v i t a l i t y , and. so further add to the urban scene. Special attention must also be paid to the f i l l i n g s tation. Although the motor vehicle has been In existence for over 60 years, an a r c h i t e c t u r a l expression re l a t e d to i t s needs and rhythm of movement that at the same time does not destroy the exi s t i n g urban structure has yet to emerge. Again, the problem of v i s u a l intrusion has cono-tations wider than that of mere t r a f f i c . What i s p a r t i c -u l a r l y needed i s a set of overa l l v i s u a l c r i t e r i a that can apply to the urban physical environment. Summary_ of Environmental T r a f f i c Standards. 1. Safety: a) primary basis--that there should be no motor vehicle accidents causing injury or death; b) a desirable volume of 250 vph, and an acceptable volume of 500 vph i n both directions. 2. Noise: a) an external sound l e v e l of 60dBA by day and 45dBA by night i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas, and a l e v e l of 65d3A i n commercial areas, which should not be exceeded for more than ten percent of the time. 3. Air P o l l u t i o n : a) at the adverse l e v e l — " o x i d a n t index"—0 . 1 5 PPm for one hour by the potassium iodide method; b) at the serious level--carbon monoxide--30 ppm for eight hours or 120 ppm for one hour. 4. V i s u a l Intrusion: a) u n i l a t e r a l p a r a l l e l parking. 62 REFERENCES. F. Stuart Chapln, J r . , Urban Land Use Planning (2nd Edition; Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s Press, I965), P. 378. o ''John Cohen, E. J . Dearnaley, and C. E. M. Hansel, "The Risk taken i n crossing a Road," i n William Haddon, J r . , Edward A. Suchman, and David Klein (eds.), Accident Research (New York: Harper and Row, 1964), pp. 3 4 7 - 3 5 1 . 3 l b i d . , p. 348. ^Total number of vehicles = T vph Selected safe acceptance gap = 10 sees. .-.Xt = ' r /3600 vpsec x 10 sees. = T / 3 6 0 By Poisson p [ 0 , T /360] = 0 .5 i . e . T / 3 6 0 = 0.7 T = 0.7 x 36O = 252 vph 5 j . C. Tanner, "The Delay to Pedestrians crossing a Road," Biometrika, XXXVIII, Parts 3 and 4 (December, 1951) , Figure 2 , p. 39T. 6Environmental capacity denotes the maximum acceptable flow of vehicles having regard of the need to maintain environmental qua l i t y . Buchanan, Traff 1 c__ln Towns, p.221. 7Buchanan, Traffic_in_Towns, p. 204. o Ernest H. Doubleday, " T r a f f i c i n a Planned Environ-ment," T r a f f i c Quarterly, XX, No. 2 ( A p r i l , 1966), 184. Passenger car units are a measure of t r a f f i c volume which considers various types of vehicle l n terms of the equiva-lent number of passenger cars. The equivalents w i l l d i f f e r according to the layout of the section of the highway system under consideration, but for general purposes buses, for example, are rated as 3*0 peu. Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, p. 221. ^Karl Moskowitz, "Waiting for a Gap i n a T r a f f i c Stream," Highway Research Board, Proceedings of the 3 3 r d Annual Meeting (Washington: National Academy of Sciences -National Research Council, 1954), p. 393. 1 0 P h i l i p H. Beales, Nolse t Hearing and Deafness (London: Michael Joseph, 196"5l, p. 168. 63 •"•K. P. H. Murrell, Ergonomics (London: Chapman and H a l l , 1965), P. 283. 12philip H. Beales, op. c i t . , p. 163. 13W. Burns, and T. S. L i t t l e r , "Noise," i n B. S. F. S c h i l l i n g (ed.), Modern Trends in Occupational Health (London: Butterworth and Co., I950~T> P. 25'3. ^See, for example, G. L. Bonvallet, "Levels and Spectra of T r a f f i c , I n d u s t r i a l , and Residential Area Noise," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, XXIII, No. 4 TJuly, 195lT7~I*:35-^39. eat B r i t a i n , Committee on the Problem of Noise, F i n a l Report (London: H . M . S . O . , 1963), p. 32. The dBA unit, T A T weighted decibels, represents the sound pressure so weighted as to correspond more closely to the frequency response of the human ear. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 33. 1 7 l b i d . , p. 3-+. 1 8 0 . Schenker-Sprflngli, "Down with Decibels," Unesco Courier, XX, No. 7 (July, 1967)» P. 7. ^ C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Public Health, Technical Report of C a l i f o r n i a Standards for Ambient A i r Quality and Motor Vehicle Exhaust iBerkeley: 196"0j. 2 0 I ^ i d . , pp. 13-14. 2 1 I b i d . , Table 1, p. 15. 22The potassium iodide method i s based on the absorp-t i o n of oxidant from the a i r i n an a l k i l i n e solution of potassium iodide. On a c i d i f i c a t i o n , iodine i s l i b e r a t e d from a buffered, neutral potassium iodide solution. The l i g h t transmittancy of the yellow solution that i s obtained i s measured with the aid of a double-cell cblourimeter, and continuously recorded on a s t r i p chart. See Morris B. Jacobs, The Chemical Analysis of Air_Pollutants (New York: Inter-science Publishers, I 9 6 0 T , pp. 219-226" and p. 400. ^ C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Public Health, op. c i t . , Chapter IX, "Nitrogen Oxides," pp. 79-80. 2^Christopher Tunnard, and Boris Pushkarev, Man-Made America: Chaos or Control (New Haven: Yale Uni-v e r s i t y Press, 1963), p. 35. CHAPTER V CASE STUDY Introduction. A series of interim standards for the four major environmental effects of the motor vehicle were developed i n Chapter IV. In this chapter a p a r t i c u l a r environment i s examined i n the l i g h t of these standards. This has a two-fold purpose. F i r s t , to test the hypothesis that environmental t r a f f i c standards can be applied to a part-i c u l a r environment to determine whether the quality of that environment i s above or below that suggested by the standards; and i f the quality should be below, to suggest methods by which i t might be enhanced.. Second, to examine the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the standards themselves, to analyse such defects as they might have, and to indicate ways i n which they might be improved. The p a r t i c u l a r environment chosen for the case study examination i s the Kerrisdale shopping d i s t r i c t i n the City of Vancouver. This i s a t y p i c a l example of a shopping street, stretching for approximately six blocks along West klst Avenue, a major east-west a r t e r i a l street, between Maple and Larch Streets. It i s a well-established shopping area, comprised, of a wide variety of stores of both a l o c a l 65 L A N D U S E K E Y Commercial Automotive Parking Residential Institutional Crosswalk • • • • • i -1 » I . 67 and a regional nature, and immediately surrounded by a pre-dominantly low-rise and, high-rise apartment area. The case study i s only concerned with that segment of the shopping street as defined on north and south by the shop facades, on the east by the most westerly crosswalk at the 4 l s t Avenue and West Boulevard intersection, and on the west by the most easterly crosswalk at the 4 l s t Avenue and Larch Street i n t e r s e c t i o n . The o v e r a l l v i s u a l impress-ion along the street i s one of heterogeneity. The arrange-ment of stores i s very much the r e s u l t of growth by acretion, such that there i s a mixture of old and. new buildings.* In general the stores are i n an above-average state of repair, and. t h i s implies a prosperous and popular shopping area. The roadway throughout i s 46 feet i n width, with two travelled, lanes, and. eight foot parking lanes on both sides. In the block immediately west of the Boulevard the shop facades are mostly two-storey, and t h i s combined with the width of the roadway and the sidewalks gives a sense of enclosure and intimacy. I t also serves to heighten the f e e l i n g of a c t i v i t y along this part of the street. This contrasts with the remainder of the street, where the facades are predominantly one-storey and set further back from the curb, thus giving a greater sense of openness, which i s accentuated i n the most westerly block by f i l l -ing stations. Time and resources did not allow a f u l l - s c a l e analysis of the environment i n the l i g h t of the environ-68 mental t r a f f i c standards over a long period of time and under a variety of conditions. The results obtained are therefore subject to t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . Two periods were chosen i n which to test the standards for safety and noise. These were a Thursday and a Saturday afternoon, the former being taken to I l l u s t r a t e "normal" weekday conditions, and the l a t t e r the expected period of peak shopping a c t i v i t y . V i s u a l intrusion, though not exactly temporal i n nature, was evaluated, during the same periods. It was decided not to attempt to examine the stand-ards for a i r qua l i t y . The equipment necessary i s r e l a t i v e l y sophisticated. At the same time the a i r p o l l u t i o n problem i s community-wide i n character and cannot be adequately reduced to a point l o c a t i o n . It would therefore only be meaningful to consider t h i s on a comprehensive and c i t y -wide basis. However, odour and smoke effects were noted, from individual vehicles during both the test periods. Safety. The primary basis for the standard for safety i s that there should be no motor vehicle accidents causing injury or death i n the environment. An analysis of a c c i -dent data (Table 2) compiled by the T r a f f i c Division of the City of Vancouver Engineering Department for the f i v e intersections within the length of the shopping street shows that over the l a s t three years a t o t a l of 83 a c c i -dents have occured. Only two of these d i r e c t l y involved 69 TABLE 2 MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS AT INTERSECTIONS ALONG 41st AVENUE, KERRISDALE, JANUARY, 1965 - MARCH, I968. Location Rear Angle H o / T u r n Swiped Backup Fed. Total West Boulevard. 18 8 4 2 1 - 33 Yew 10 3 1 1 - 1 16 Vine 9 - . - - - —. 9 Balsam 4 4 1 2 1 — 12 Larch 4 6 1 1 - 1 13 Total 45 21 7 6 2 2 83 Percent 5 4 . 2 25 .3 8 . 5 7 .2 2 .4 2 .4 100 Source: T r a f f i c Division, Department of Engineering, City of Vancouver. a pedestrian, and of the remainder just over one half were rear-end c o l l i s i o n s . U n t i l the Spring of I967 the pedes-t r i a n crosswalks, with the exception of those at the Boule-vard, were a l l uncontrolled, and It i s therefore l i k e l y that a proportion of the rear-end. c o l l i s i o n s can be a t t r i b -uted to pedestrians crossing the road. No data were a v a i l -able on mid-block accidents. Data for the remainder of the City indicate that the number of accidents along this shopping street i s comparable to other shopping streets i n Vancouver, notably the East Hastings, West 4 th Avenue, and South Granville shopping d i s t r i c t s . 2 Kerrisdale and these three other locations are recognized by the T r a f f i c Division as being major hazard areas. Although only two pedestrian a c c i -dents have taken place i n the l a s t three years, the number 70 of rear-end c o l l i s i o n s suggests that there i s a degree of c o n f l i c t between vehicles and pedestrians, and. that the l e v e l of pedestrian safety i s not of a high order. It i s also perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t to note i n passing that the pedes-t r i a n activated, signal introduced within the l a s t year at the inter s e c t i o n of Yew Street and 4 l s t Avenue was not i n s t a l l e d for reasons of pedestrian safety, but at the request of B.C. Hydro Transit Division to reduce delay' to t r a n s i t vehicles caused by the heavy flow of pedestrians across the road.3 The second, part of the standard for safety suggests that, to achieve a desirable l e v e l of pedestrian safety i n crossing the road, a t r a f f i c volume of 250 vph should not be exceeded; and to achieve an acceptable l e v e l , a volume of 500 vph should not be exceeded. To test t h i s counts were made of t r a f f i c volumes i n f i v e minute units through-out the two test periods. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Tables 3 and 4 , and graphically In Figures 1 and 2 . There are wide fluctuations between f i v e minute units on the Thursday (Figure 1), with pronounced peaks around 3 . ^ 5 pm and 5 .00 pm. S l i g h t l y less pronounced fluctuations occur on the Saturday (Figure 2 ) , but again a peak occurs around 5 .00 pm. Hourly volumes on the l a t t e r occasion are much higher, a probable r e s u l t of a high degree of shopping a c t i v i t y i n the Kerrisdale and neigh-bouring shopping d i s t r i c t s . 71 TABLE 3 SOUND LEVEL AND TRAFFIC VOLUMES, THURSDAY EXAMPLE. 5 Min. Period Mean Sound Vehicles/ Hourly Beginning Level dBA 5 Min. Volumes 2.00 64 93 2.05 63 89 2.10 62 70 2.15 60 65 2 .20 61 77 2.25 62 59 2.30 64 72 2.35 63 55 2 . 4 0 64 63 2 . 4 5 61 74 2.50 60 67 2 .55 62 65 849 3.00 63 77 3 . 0 5 68 71 3.10 64 83 3.15 67 86 3 . 2 0 62 68 3.25 66 80 3.30 67 77 3.35 66 79 3 .40 66 89 3 . 4 5 66 100 3 . 5 0 67 85 3 . 5 5 . 65 88 983 4 . 0 0 65 77 4 . 0 5 63 81 4.10 61 67 4.15 61 70 4.20 60 84 4.25 62 76 4 . 3 0 62 73 4.35 63 81 4 . 4 0 62 92 4 . 4 5 62 93 4 . 5 0 62 96 4.55 63 76 966 72 Fig.1.—Sound Level and Traffic Volume/ Thursday Example. o o o CD O 00 O o *~ -suiuu aA^/sspjqeA-vaP I3*3! punos U E B H 1 1 1 1 1 i Ul cu o tz u JC o V) > 73 TABLE 4 SOUND LEVEL AND TRAFFIC VOLUMES, SATURDAY EXAMPLE. 5 Min. P e r i o d Mean Sound V e h i c l e s / Hourly Beginning L e v e l d.BA 5 Min. Volumes 2.00 86 2.05 66 81 2.10 66 83 2.15 67 83 2.20 65 84 2.25 66 101 2.30 66 87 2.35 65 83 2.40 63 98 2.45 64 99 2.50 68 95 2.55 64 75 1055 3.00 66 85 3.05 66 93 3.10 63 87 3.15 64 89 3.20 67 75 3.25 66 84 3.30 65 71 3.35 65 91 3.40 65 91 3.45 65 92 3.50 67 81 3.55 65 90 1029 4.00 65 93 4.05 64 96 4.10 66 97 4.15 66 101 4.20 62 86 4.25 68 88 4.30 67 91 4.35 64 90 4.40 62 97 4.45 64 86 4.50 63 115 4.55 63 104 1144 60 sound vehicles 2.00 3.00 4.00 T i m e - p m 5.00 75 On both occasions hourly volumes were well above the acceptable l e v e l for pedestrian safety as defined by the standard, and this indicates that this p a r t i c u l a r environment has a r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of environmental safety i n r e l a t i o n to t r a f f i c . In order to achieve an acceptable l e v e l i t would be necessary to reduce t r a f f i c TABLE 5 HOURLY TRAFFIC VOLUMES AND REQUIRED REDUCTIONS. Time Volume Required Reduction Percent Reduction Acc. Des. Acc.~ Des. Thursday 2.00-3.00 84-9 349 599 41 71 3.00-4.00 983 483 733 49 75 4.00-5.00 966 466 716 48 74 Saturday 2.00-3.00 1055 555 805 53 76 3.00-4.00 1029 529 779 51 76 4.00-5.00 1144 644 894 55 78 flow along the shopping street by approximately 40 to 50 percent i n the Thursday example, and by 50 to 55 percent i n the Saturday example (Table 5) . To achieve a desirable l e v e l i t would be necessary to reduce the flow by approx-imately 75 percent i n both cases. It i s estimated that approximately 70 percent of the t r a f f i c t r a v e l l i n g along 4 1st Avenue at t h i s point during weekdays i s through traf f i c , ' 4 ' and thus has neither o r i g i n or destination i n the area. I f this t r a f f i c could, be removed, then the desirable l e v e l of safety could almost be achieved. It i s l i k e l y , however, that through t r a f f i c 76 represents a smaller proportion of the t o t a l In the Sat-urday example, and thus alternative measures must be adopted i f the quality of the environment i s to be increased. The l o c a t i o n of parking l o t s behind the shopping street within easy walking distance might be an e f f e c t i v e measure combined with r e s t r i c t i o n s on through t r a f f i c and non-essential vehicles i f the l o t s can be integrated struct-u r a l l y into the surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l environment. Such "solutions" are essentially short run, however. Even i f through t r a f f i c could, be diverted from hist Avenue onto, say, 37th Avenue and. k 5 t h Avenue, and only l o c a l t r a f f i c allowed to penetrate Into the shopping d i s t r i c t , the increased flow along these l a t t e r streets would undoubt-edly lower the environmental quality of the r e s i d e n t i a l areas through which i t would pass. This i l l u s t r a t e s the dilemma with which planners are faced i n attempting to Improve environmental quality, and the absolute need, for a comprehensive approach. In the long run, stop-gap meas-ures are no answer, and i t must be recognized that the present urban structure i s inadequate i n terms of our present and future needs and desires. The approach adopted in formulating t h i s standard, for safety rests largely on theore t i c a l considerations. It was based primarily on pedestrian^acceptance gaps i n a random Stream of vehicles, and on the assumption that the pedestrian should be free to cross the road with the mini-mum of delay at any time. These conditions, however, are 77 r a r e l y to be obtained, and, moreover, observations i n the case study area tend, to question the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the delay concept. This i s only r e l e v a n t to the standard i f i t can be proved that delay i s a s i g n i f i c a n t - f a c t o r to the p e d e s t r i a n . The crosswalk s i t u a t e d at the centre of g r a v i t y of the shopping s t r e e t (Yew Street and 4 l s t Avenue) i s con-t r o l l e d by a p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v a t e d s i g n a l . While t h i s increases the p h y s i c a l safety of the p e d e s t r i a n , i t does so by i n t e r r u p t i n g both the flow of v e h i c l e s and pedestrians. The average delay occasioned to pedestrians who have to wait i s approximately 20 seconds, f a r greater than the accept-able average delay of two seconds used by Buchanan.-? I t then becomes a question of determining i f t h i s amount of delay i s i n f a c t annoying to the p e d e s t r i a n . I t i s suggested that delay i s not s i g n i f i c a n t to the average ped e s t r i a n . The standard, as formulated does not take i n t o account the e f f e c t of s o c i e t a l c o n d i t i o n i n g : that i s that the North American p e d e s t r i a n i s conditioned to wait f o r the "walk" s i g n a l before c r o s s i n g . This becomes accepted and thus delay becomes r e l a t i v e l y unimportant. However, more research must be undertaken on the question of p e d e s t r i a n delay, and i f I t does prove to be unimportant, a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of safety i n c r o s s i n g the road may then be achieved, at l e a s t i n the short run, by c o n t r o l l e d p e d e s t r i a n crosswalks, r a t h e r than by reducing t r a f f i c flow. Nevertheless, t h i s does not l e s s e n the d e s i r a b i l i t y i n 78 environments which are primarily pedestrian for freedom of movement and the a b i l i t y to cross the road with the mini-mum of delay at any time, and for freedom from danger or r i s k . And i n existing environments, where the cost of separating t r a f f i c from pedestrians i s most often pro-h i b i t i v e , this can only be attained by reducing t r a f f i c flow. Noise. Measurements of the sound l e v e l i n * A* weighted decibels were taken during the two test periods with a type 1551-B sound l e v e l meter manufactured by the General Radio Company. The measurement point was situated just east of the most easterly crosswalk at Yew Street and 4 l s t Avenue, and at the curb. It was not possible to obtain a suitable graphic recorder; accordingly, readings were taken at 30 second inte r v a l s and converted into a mean value f o r f i v e minute periods corresponding to the t r a f f i c counts. This gives an i n d i c a t i o n of the o v e r a l l sound climate. The data are again presented i n Tables 3 and 4 , and i n Figures 1 and 2 . The standard suggested that the sound l e v e l i n a commercial area should not exceed 65&BA for more than ten percent of the time. In the Thursday example (Figure 1) the mean sound l e v e l exceeded 65&BA for approximately 23 percent of the time over the t o t a l three hour period, but remained below that l e v e l for the periods 2 . 0 0 - 3 . 0 0 pm and 4 . 0 0 - 5 . 0 0 pm. The Saturday example (Figure 2) shows 79 g e n e r a l l y higher readings, as might be expected with the higher t r a f f i c flows, but l e s s f l u c t u a t i o n between f i v e minute u n i t s . The sound l e v e l exceeded the standard, f o r approximately 49 percent of the time throughout the t o t a l p e r i o d . The JO second readings show frequent peaks due to a c c e l e r a t i n g v e h i c l e s , predominantly trucks and. small European car s . The measurements i n d i c a t e that the environ-ment i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y with regard, to sound l e v e l . Figure 1 tends to demonstrate that sound l e v e l i n general v a r i e s with the volume of t r a f f i c . Using the data c o l l e c t e d i n the two t e s t periods, sound l e v e l (measured i n terms of the f i v e minute means) was p l o t t e d against v e h i c l e s (per f i v e minutes) on a graph, and a r e g r e s s i o n l i n e c a l c u l a t e d (Figure 3). Further a n a l y s i s showed that the c o e f f i c i e n t of determination ( r 2 ) was 7*8 p e r c e n t — i n o t h e r words that the r e g r e s s i o n e x p l a i n s only 7.8 per-cent of the " t o t a l e r r o r " ( t o t a l sum of squares) i n the sound l e v e l . This i s a very weak c o r r e l a t i o n and suggests t h a t , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , sound l e v e l i s not s t r i c t l y related, to the volume of t r a f f i c , but to the con-d i t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l v e h i c l e s as they pass. The con-t i n u a l stopping and s t a r t i n g of the t r a f f i c stream tends to r a i s e the general sound c l i m a t e , and to produce f r e -quent peaks of noise w e l l above 6 5 d B A . This leads to the perhaps p a r a d o x i c a l conclusion t h a t , w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s , the sound l e v e l could prob-ably be reduced to the acceptable l e v e l by measures designed 80 81 to even out the flow of t r a f f i c . However, l t was noted, during the test periods that under conditions approaching free flow with a moderately heavy t r a f f i c volume the sound climate was approximately 68-70dBA. Studies i n England have shown that on roads with a 30 m.p.h. speed l i m i t , the noise l e v e l r i s e s appreciably with increasing t r a f f i c for Fig.4.—Noise and Traffic Density. 0 500 1000 1500 200 0 Total Traffic vph Source- Greater London Council, Traffic Noise. 2500 3000 densities below about 1 ,200 vph. Above this figure the noise l e v e l r i s e s very l i t t l e (Figure 4 ) . The 65&BA l e v e l i s attained at a l i t t l e over 500 vph. This, however, i s a mean l e v e l , and i t would therefore be necessary to r e s t r i c t v ehicle flow to a lower volume i n order to achieve the standard. Further research would be needed, to establish 82 t h i s volume, hut i t might be expected to work out at about 300-400 vph. This standard has many of the same implications for planning remedial measures as does that for safety. I t would, seem that i f through t r a f f i c could be removed, then an acceptable sound, l e v e l could be attained. This i s prob-ably the only p r a c t i c a l "solution" as far as the existing environment i s concerned, for the physical alterations necessary to reduce sound l e v e l s would, be p r o h i b i t i v e and u n r e a l i s t i c . But again, the diversion of t r a f f i c i s merely s h i f t i n g the problem to another environment. An alternative would be to treat the source of the problem rather than the symptoms, and. devise more ef f e c t i v e methods of reducing actual vehicle noise. Visual Intrusion. With the exception of bus and loading zones, in t e r -sections and. driveways, throughout both test periods parked, vehicles l i n e d both sides of the roadway along the length of the shopping street and s p i l l e d over into the surround-ing r e s i d e n t i a l area. Thus from th i s t h i r d point of view the quality of the environment f a l l s below the standard, as established. Directional and regulatory signs, however, were not v i s u a l l y oppressive. This i s not to say that they are acceptable. I t could as easily mean that they are not performing an e f f e c t i v e function, or that they are being overpowered by more dominant shop signs. Moreover, as was 83 noted previously, the use of good design can enable signs to create, or add to, a sense of v i t a l i t y . The standard for v i s u a l intrusion suggested that parking should, be allowed on only one side of the street. To achieve t h i s l t would be necessary to provide additional parking space within easy walking distance of the shopping str e e t . At present l i t t l e space i s provided i n the lanes behind the stores, and i t i s l i k e l y that these cannot accom-odate more space. The alternative i s again to provide o f f -street parking behind the shopping street. In fact two grade-level l o t s have been b u i l t immediately south of the shopping street i n the block just west of the Boulevard. However, such l o t s must be integrated into the r e s i d e n t i a l environment. 84 REFERENCES, •••Community and Regional Planning Studies, Student Project No. 6 , Sub-Urban Centres: The Case of the Dunbar D i s t r i c t (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966), P. 23 . i n t e r v i e w with H. Crawford, T r a f f i c Division, Department of Engineering, City of Vancouver, March 29 , 1968. 3 l n t e r v i e w with R. Boyes, T r a f f i c Division, Depart-ment of Engineering, City of Vancouver, November 22 , I 9 6 8 . ^Estimated on the basis of interzonal flows tabu-l a t e d l n Vancouver, B.C., A Study of Highway Planning, Technical Report No. 2 , Analysis and Forecast of Motor Vehicle Travel (Vancouver: 1959) , Tables 13A and 13B. 5Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, p. 204. 6Greater London Council, T r a f f i c Noise (London: The Council, I966) , p. 6 . CHAPTER VI REVIEW The case study presented i n Chapter V has shown that environmental t r a f f i c standards can be applied to a pa r t i c u l a r environment to determine whether the quality of that environment i s above or below that suggested by the standards. The application of three of the four standards to the Kerrisdale shopping d i s t r i c t demonstrated that i n terms of safety, noise, and v i s u a l intrusion the quality of that environment f a l l s below that suggested i n each case. I t i s also apparent from the case study that any attempt to improve the quality of the urban environment would require a t o t a l l y comprehensive approach throughout the whole metropolitan area, and that simple repair jobs to existing environments w i l l not s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhance environmental qua l i t y . Measures designed to remove non-essential t r a f f i c from certain environments only serve to transfer the problems to others. Further, we are faced with a legacy of buildings and urban form representing the f i n a n c i a l and. s o c i a l investment of many decades. While t h i s form i s cl e a r l y inadequate i n the environmental terms di s -cussed i n t h i s study, the physical changes needed to a l l e v i a t e the problems only in part w i l l be p r o h i b i t i v e . Yet, can we afford not to Improve the quality of the environment when 8 5 86 human health and well-being i s at stake? I f we are to main-t a i n a certain l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a certain stand-ard of environment, th i s w i l l ultimately mean some major st r u c t u r a l alterations to the urban form as Buchanan demon-strated. This w i l l become increasingly c r i t i c a l i f car-ownership and car-use r i s e to expected proportions. 1 The four environmental t r a f f i c standards presented i n t h i s study are a f i r s t step towards preserving and enhan-cing environmental qu a l i t y . However, the case study revealed cert a i n defects i n the standards themselves. The importance of delay to the pedestrian crossing the road must be estab-l i s h e d by further research, and the standard for safety may have to be revised by such findings. The v a l i d i t y of a 5 0 percent probability must also be further examined, together with the effect on gap lengths of a non-random stream of t r a f f i c . While i t may be possible to improve pedestrian safety i n existing environments by means other than by re-ducing t r a f f i c volume, th i s In no way questions the fact that freedom of movement i s a necessary quality i n situations which are primarily pedestrian. Under such circumstances the standard remains v a l i d , and should be applied to a l l future development following the present type of urban form. The standard for v i s u a l intrusion i s f e l t to be the weakest of the three, and the review of the l i t e r a t u r e and the case study tend to question whether standards for t h i s effect can indeed, be defined. Intrusion i s more a question of design, education, and awareness, and. of eventually applying a body 87 of research from such f i e l d s as perception to resolving con-f l i c t s . The standard for noise would appear to be generally adequate on the basis of the case study. But further research i s needed to confirm or modify the noise l e v e l s leading to annoyance i n the North American context, and to examine a l t e r -native methods of reducing engine noise and. the effects of, for example, various road, surface materials and. screening on noise l e v e l s . There would appear to be a l i n k between safety, noise and v i s u a l intrusion, and t r a f f i c volumes. A further step i s therefore to attempt to establish this l i n k more strongly, and possibly reduce the three standards to one common stand-ard based on acceptable or desirable t r a f f i c volumes i n a given s i t u a t i o n . This would give the added advantage of a common approach and reduce the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of treating only one effect and increasing the nuisance of the others. Attempts to reduce noise i n an environment by evening out the t r a f f i c flow might conceivably adversely a f f e c t safety by increasing t r a f f i c volumes. Because of the diverse fac-tors that influence p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s , i t i s less l i k e l y that th i s fourth standard can be subsumed into an ov e r a l l t r a f f i c standard. The case study applied three of the standards to one environment over a l i m i t e d time period. While the results obtained are f e l t to r e f l e c t the normal afternoon situation, quite d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s would be obtained at other times and under d i f f e r e n t conditions. The study must now be extended 88 to cover a range of situations and conditions. Such analyses should be more comprehensive than the present study and make use of more sophisticated data gathering systems on a 2 k-hour monitoring basis over extended periods. I t w i l l then be poss-i b l e to make comparisons between similar types of environ-ment. At the same time the study should be extended to cover the other types of micro-environment, and to formulate not only environmental t r a f f i c standards but also other perform-ance c r i t e r i a to measure the hazard or nuisance from other effects i n these environments. I t would then be possible to undertake comprehensive environmental studies of p a r t i c u l a r environments. The approach followed i n formulating the standards i s f e l t to be generally v a l i d . Environment i s a broad area of concern which involves a range of separate, but complementary, d i s c i p l i n e s . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of planners undertaking exten-sive research into i t s many facets are small, and to tackle the problems adequately i t i s therefore necessary to borrow from the existing body of research i n associated f i e l d s . Apart from the standards themselves, however, the study has raised certain areas f o r research i n which planners must take a part although they extend beyond the confines of "planning". A typology of man's basic needs was presented, i n Chapter I I . This l i s t must become more refined and exten-ded, and the needs better analyzed; the ways i n which these are affected by culture must be examined, together with the means by which t h i s approach can be incorporated into the 0 8 9 planning process. Chapter II also pointed, to the need, for more research into the relationship between man and. his phys-i c a l environment, p a t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d s of environmental perception and. mental health, and. the question of human scale. On a wider scale, the l a t t e r stages of the study have ra i s e d three other major areas for research. Although the widespread a l t e r a t i o n of existing environments i s u n r e a l i s t i c , we are i n danger of perpetuating present conditions i n future developments unless we develop alternative urban forms, coupled with new network patterns. While new modes of move-ment may lessen the environmental impact of t r a f f i c , more research could be conducted into ways of reducing movement, and hence t r a f f i c , through land, use planning. Some problems of adoption and. implementation have also been made apparent, but i t i s hoped, that these w i l l be resolved by further research and education. It has' been shown that acceptable noise and p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s can be de-fined with a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of precision, and such l e v e l s have been adopted by govermental bodies i n Great B r i t -ain, West Germany, Switzerland, and the United States as the basis for regulations. Again, i f safety i n the environment i s e x p l i c i t l y recognized by public bodies as a necessary objective, a more precise standard can be defined. The reg-u l a t i o n and control of aesthetics, however, i s l e g a l l y d i f f i -c u l t , highly complex, and. of dubious public acceptance. It would therefore seem that a better approach would, be to stimu-l a t e public concern and s o l i c i t voluntary action than to attempt to formulate standards. 90 This study has perforce considered only a small seg-ment of the t o t a l environmental problem, and has properly r a i s e d more questions than l t has answered. I t has shown that t r a f f i c i s a serious environmental problem, and that the mix-ture of people and vehicles at the present l e v e l s i s not con-ducive to good environment. In the f i n a l analysis and under the present conditions of physical layout, the two dimensions of the t r a f f i c p r o b l e m — a c c e s s i b i l i t y and environmental qual-i t y — a r e v i r t u a l l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e . The increasing demand for better access as more vehicles crowd, the e x i s t i n g network of roads w i l l ultimately lead to a progressive lowering of en-vironmental quality unless some dramatic steps are taken i n the d i r e c t i o n of a new urban form and alternative modes of movement. The quality of the environment i s of c r i t i c a l import-ance i f we are to plan for human health and. well-being. The costs of human deterioration are immeasurably greater than purely economic considerations. Planners, and especially transportation planners, must recognize that t r a f f i c i s not all-important, and that the primary concern i s how people l i v e . There i s no sense i n planning for t r a f f i c without planning as intensively for people's other needs. REFERENCES. iThe rate of growth i n Canada's motor vehicle pop-u l a t i o n was 7 . 9 percent annually between 1 9 k 5 and. I965. I t i s predicted that there w i l l be a further 60 percent r i s e by 1980 to 11 m i l l i o n vehicles, or 2 . 3 persons per vehicle. Economic Council of Canada, Fourth Annual Review (Ottawa: The Queen's Printer, 1967) , P. 199. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Alexander, Christopher. The City as a Mechanism for sus-taining Human Contact. Berkeley: Center for Planning and Development Research, University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1966. Beales, P h i l i p H. Noise. Hearing andDeafness. London: Michael Joseph, 1965. Berry, Brian J. L. Commercial Structure and Commercial Bli g h t . 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