UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Competing responses and resistance to extinction Bradely, Harry Willard 1967

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COMPETING RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION by HARRY WILLARD BRADLEY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MA5TER PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n the Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1967 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h.i>s representatives. It is understood that copying or publ ica t ion of th is thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shal l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of P s y c h o l o g y The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date A u g u s t , 1967 i i ABSTRACT At b i r t h , male and f e m a l e r a t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r a h a n d l e d o r n o n h a n d l e d c o n d i t i o n . The h a n d l e d Ss were g i v e n t a c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n f o r a f i v e m i n u t e p e r i o d from days f i v e t o t w e n t y - f i v e . D u r i n g t h e preweaning p e r i o d Ss i n t h e n o n h a n d l e d c o n d i t i o n were g i v e n t h e l e a s t p o s s i b l e amount o f e x p e r i m e n t e r h a n d l i n g . When Ss were between 80 t o 100 days o l d bo t h h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d Ss were randomly a s s i g n e d t o one o f f o u r a c q u i s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n s and were t r a i n e d and t e s t e d i n a s t r a i g h t a l l e y runway. T h e s e c o n d i -t i o n s were; c o n t i n u o u s r e i n f o r c e m e n t i n a l a r g e g o a l b o x , c o n t i n u o u s r e i n f o r c e m e n t i n a s m a l l g o a l b o x , p a r t i a l r e i n -f o r c e m e n t i n a l a r g e g o a l b o x , and p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t i n a s m a l l box. Each S was t h e n g i v e n 60 a c q u i s i t i o n t r i a l s a t t h e r a t e o f 5 t r i a l s p e r day. F o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n t r i a l s a l l Ss r e c e i v e d 50 nonreward t r i a l s which were a l s o g i v e n i n b l o c k s o f 5 t r i a l s p e r day. On b o t h a c q u i s i t i o n and e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s , t i m e measures were t a k e n f o r s t a r t b o x and runway p e r f o r m a n c e . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a n a l y s i s a l l t i m e measures were c o n v e r t e d i n t o s p e e d s c o r e s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s , ( i . e . h a n d l i n g , r e w a r d s c h e d u l e and g o a l b o x s i z e ) , had a s i g n i f i -c a n t e f f e c t on t h e r a t e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l e x t i n c t i o n . I n f a n -t i l e h a n d l i n g , a p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e , and a l a r g e i i i g oalbox were a l l conducive t o d e c r e a s i n g the r a t e of ex-t i n c t i o n of a r u n n i n g response. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 METHOD 13 S u b j e c t s 13 Apparatus 13 Procedure 14 RESULTS 19 DISCUSSION 41 REFERENCES 50 V LIST OF TABLES Page T a b l e 1. F - V a l u e s f o r A c q u i s i t i o n Data 20 T a b l e 2. S t a r t i n g Speed S c o r e s on E x t i n c t i o n 21 T a b l e 3. Running Speed S c o r e s on E x t i n c t i o n 22 T a b l e 4. F - v a l u e s f o r Runway E x t i n c t i o n S c o r e s 2B T a b l e 5 . F - v a l u e s f o r S t a r t b o x E x t i n c t i o n S c o r e s 29 T a b l e 6. D a i l y Means f o r E x t i n c t i o n Data o f Goalbox and Reward S c h e d u l e T r e a t m e n t s 31 T a b l e 7. D i f f e r e n c e s Between E x t i n c t i o n Means 32 T a b l e 8. S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between E x t i n c t i o n Means o f P a r t i a l and Con-t i n u o u s Reward Groups 37 T a b l e 9. S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between E x t i n c t i o n Means o f L a r g e and S m a l l G o a l b o x Groups 38 T a b l e 10. Mean Number o f Competing Responses E m i t t e d D u r i n g E x t i n c t i o n 40 v i LI5T OF F I G U R E S Page Figure 1. I l l u s t r a t i o n of groups. 17 Figure 2. Mean running speed i n runway f o r each day of e x t i n c t i o n . 24 Figure 3. Mean s t a r t i n g speed from sta r t b o x f o r each day of e x t i n c t i o n . 26 Figure 4. Mean running speed f o r each day of e x t i n c t i o n with handled and non-handled Ss combined. 34 Figure 5. Mean s t a r t i n g speed f o r each day of e x t i n c t i o n with handled and non-handled Ss combined. 36 v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r would l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r. R o d e r i c k Wong and Dr. George A. Raymond w i t h o u t whose h e l p , encouragement and c r i t i c i s m t h i s s t u d y c o u l d not have been done. COMPETING RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION INTRODUCTION In r e c e n t y e a r s t h e p r o c e s s o f e x t i n c t i o n has been o f c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t t o many p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i s t s . In g e n e r a l , p a s t a t t e m p t s t o a r r i v e a t a t h e o r e t i c a l r e s o l u -t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f e x t i n c t i o n have not been s u c c e s s f u l ( G u t h r i e , 1935; H u l l , 1943 and P a v l o v , 1 9 2 7 ) . One o f t h e p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l impasse i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t e x t i n c t i o n can be v i e w e d as a phenomenon w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y . A l t h o u g h e x t i n c t i o n i s a p r o c e s s which can be o p e r a -t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f a phenomenon may not always be u n i t a r y and may v a r y i n l e v e l s o f com-p l e x i t y . One a t t e m p t t o c l a s s i f y and a n a l y z e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s i n terms o f v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y i s a s y s t e m p r o p o s e d by Underwood ( 1 9 5 7 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Underwood, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e e x t i n c t i o n a t t h r e e l e v e l s o f c o m p l e x i t y . As a " L e v e l - 1 c o n s t r u c t " e x t i n c t i o n i s s p e c i f i e d as a change i n e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h ich JE removes t h e r e ward o f a f o r m e r l y rewarded r e s p o n s e . N o t h i n g i s s a i d about t h e r e s u l t i n g b e h a v i o r a l change o f 1 2 S as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s o p e r a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand as a " L e v e l - 2 c o n s t r u c t " e x p e r i m e n t a l e x t i n c t i o n i s t h o u g h t o f as a b e h a v i o r a l phenomenon o f t h e S r e s u l t i n g from t h e r e m o v a l o f r e w a r d . " L e v e l - 3 c o n s t r u c t s " may be t h o u g h t o f as c a u s a l naming o r c a u s a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . L e v e l 2 and 3 c o n s t r u c t s a r e s i m i l a r e x c e p t t h a t a t L e v e l - 3 an i n f e r e n c e i s made about t h e p r o c e s s which c a u s e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n b e h a v i o r . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e t h e o r i e s p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d have d e a l t w i t h e x t i n c t i o n as a L e v e l - 3 c o n c e p t . I t f o l l o w s from t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t when d i s c u s s i n g e x t i n c t i o n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e phenomenon and i t s e x p l a n a t i o n . An example o f a " L e v e l - 3 c o n s t r u c t " i s G u t h r i e ' s (1935) e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e phenomenon o f e x p e r i m e n t a l e x t i n c t i o n . I t i s c o n c e i v e d o f as a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o c e s s which o c c u r s when S. makes i n t e r f e r i n g r e s p o n s e s d u r i n g nonrewarded t r i a l s . T h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e b e l i e v e d t o o c c u r b e c a u s e o f S's a n t i c i -p a t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r l y rewarded i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e . G u t h r i e m a i n t a i n s t h a t any new r e s p o n s e which c o n s i s t e n t l y o c c u r s d u r i n g nonreward w i l l be l e a r n e d ; and t h e r e f o r e i t w i l l i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e . T h i s would be t r u e s i n c e t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s o c c u r e n c e o f a s t i m u l u s and a r e s p o n s e i s c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o d u c e l e a r n i n g . In a runway s i t u a t i o n , where p a r t i a l - and c o n t i n u o u s - r e i n f o r c e -ment s c h e d u l e s a r e used d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n t r i a l s , t h e 3 r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e p r o v i d e s a s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n ( i n t h e t o t a l s t i m u l u s c o m p l e x ) , t o which t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r u n n i n g r e s p o n s e i s a s s o c i a t e d . D u r i n g t h e nonrewarded t r i a l s t h e s t i m u l u s complex i s a l t e r e d b e c a u s e no more r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s g i v e n . To t h i s a l t e r e d s t i m u l u s c o n d i t i o n a S_ w i l l e m it r e s p o n s e s which i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e d e s i r e d i n s t r u m e n t a l b e h a v i o r . A c c o r d i n g t o G u t h r i e , e x p e r i m e n t a l e x t i n c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e when t h e s t r e n g t h o f i n t e r f e r i n g r e s p o n s e s p r e -c l u d e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e . P a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t would be e x p e c t e d t o p r o d u c e g r e a t e r r e s i s t -ance t o e x t i n c t i o n t h a n c o n t i n u o u s r e i n f o r c e m e n t b e c a u s e t h e s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n and e x t i n c t i o n a r e more s i m i l a r under p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t c o n d i t i o n s t h a n under c o n t i n u o u s r e i n f o r c e m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . In o r d e r t o f o r m a l i z e G u t h r i e ' s b a s i c p o s t u l a t e s i n p r o b a b i l i s t i c terms E s t e s (1959) has d e v e l o p e d a m a t h e m a t i c a l model t o a c c o u n t f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o E s t e s 1 t h e o r y , c o n t i n u o u s non-r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r o v i d e s a s i t u a t i o n i n which c o m p e t i n g r e -s p o n s e s o c c u r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f s t i m u l i which a r e a s s o c i a -t e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e d i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e , c o n d i t i o n i n g o c c u r s and t h e co m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s t i m u l u s s i t u a t i o n . In such a s i t u a t i o n , t h e c o m p e t i n g r e -s p o n s e s g a i n a s s o c i a t i o n s a t t h e expense o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l b e h a v i o r . When c o n t i n u o u s nonreward f o l l o w s a s e r i e s o f 4 c o n t i n u o u s l y r e i n f o r c e d t r i a l s , cues a r i s i n g from t h e d i s -r u p t i o n o f t h e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e s e quence and cues from t h e changed s i t u a t i o n have a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f p r o d u c i n g c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s . T h e r e f o r e , a f t e r c o n t i n u o u s r e i n f o r c e m e n t , e x t i n c t i o n i s q u i t e r a p i d . Under a p a r t i a l - r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e , c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s which a r e c o n d i t i o n e d t o n o n - r e i n f o r c e m e n t e a r l y i n a c q u i s i -t i o n w i l l a l s o t e n d t o o c c u r on l a t e r r e i n f o r c e d t r i a l s . The r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d s t i m u l i a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s w i l l become c o n d i t i o n e d cues f o r t h e r e i n f o r c e d r e s p o n s e s and w i l l a i d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l b e h a v i o r d u r i n g c o n t i n u o u s n o n - r e i n f o r c e m e n t . In r e c e n t y e a r s some r e s e a r c h e r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e s p o n s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t i n u o u s n o n - r e i n f o r c e m e n t a f f e c t t h e r a t e o f e x t i n c t i o n by means o f an a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e mechanism. E v e r s i n c e T h o r n d i k e (1911) p r o p o s e d t h e Law o f E f f e c t , p s y c h o l o g i s t s have shown a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n a n t i c i -p a t o r y r e s p o n s e s . A n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e s a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : When a s t i m u l u s i s r e g u l a r l y f o l l o w e d i n t i m e by a r e s p o n s e - t h e r e w i l l d e v e l o p a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e r e s p o n s e t o "move f o r w a r d i n t i m e " , t o become a n t i c i p a t o r y , t o o c c u r t o t h e a n t e c e d i n g s t i m u l u s . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e Law o f E f f e c t s t a t e s t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f l e a r n i n g a r e s p o n s e i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s ' c o n s e q u e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e outcome o f a 5 g i v e n r e s p o n s e can be e i t h e r t o i n c r e a s e or d e c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a g i v e n r e s p o n s e w i l l o c c u r a g a i n . R e s e a r c h e r s such as H u l l ( 1 9 4 3 ) , Spence (1 9 5 6 ) , and Kimb l e ( 1 9 6 1 ) , who i n v o l v e h i g h e r o r d e r m e d i a t i n g mechan-is m s t o e x p l a i n an o r g a n i s m ' s b e h a v i o r would h o l d views c l o s e r t o an a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e e x p l a n a t i o n o f e x t i n c t i o n t h a n t o an i n t e r f e r e n c e t h e o r y e x p l a n a t i o n . Spence (1 9 5 6 ) , u s i n g t h e H u l l i a n c o n s t r u c t o f an r ^ - s ^ mechanism has p r o -v i d e d an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f r e w a r d i n g e v e n t s i n t h e development o f a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e s . In a s t r a i g h t -a l l e y runway a r a t w i l l make a consummatory r e s p o n s e (Rg) of e a t i n g f o o d when i t r e a c h e s t h e re w a r d i n t h e g o a l box. As a r e s u l t o f making t h e consummatory r e s p o n s e (Rg)» f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y f e e d i n g r e s p o n s e s , such as chewing and s a l i v a t i o n a r e c o n d i t i o n e d t o s t i m u l u s e v e n t s t h a t a r e i n c l o s e t e m p o r a l r e l a t i o n t o t h e g o a l . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t i m u l i f u r t h e r removed i n t i m e and s p a c e from R^ a c q u i r e t h e c a p a c i t y t o e l i c i t f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y f e e d i n g r e s p o n s e s ( r g ) t h r o u g h s t i m u l u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ; i t i s a l s o assumed t h a t t h e a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e s ( rg)» pr o d u c e i n t e r n a l cues ( s ^ ) , t o which i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e s may be a s s o c i a t e d , even when no f o o d i s p r e s e n t i n t h e g o a l box. Spence has s u g g e s t e d t h a t and have c e r t a i n p r o -p e r t i e s . S i n c e r i s seen as a r e s p o n s e , i t s h o u l d have a l l 6 t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a r e s p o n s e , ( i . e . can be c o n d i t i o n e d , can be g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r s t i m u l i , and can be e x t i n g -u i s h e d by n o n - r e i n f o r c e m e n t ) . The i n t e r o c e p t i v e s t i m u l i , Sg, i s v i e w e d as f o r m i n g p a r t o f t h e s t i m u l u s complex t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o h a b i t s t r e n g t h . Spence f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t has m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s and t h e r e f o r e c o n t r i b u t e s t o i n c e n t i v e m o t i v a t i o n . One can s e e from t h e above d i s c u s -s i o n , t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r an r ^ - s ^ mechanism t o have a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on an i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e . A l t h o u g h most i n c e n t i v e t h e o r i s t s b e l i e v e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t s e r v e s t o f a c i l i t a t e i n s t r u m e n t a l l e a r n i n g , B o l l e s (1967) n o t e d t h a t t h e y do not a g r e e on t h e way i n w h ich a n t i c i p a t i o n p r o d u c e s i t s e f f e c t s . Spence (1956) c o n s i d e r s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p between d r i v e and i n -c e n t i v e t o be a d d i t i v e and t h a t t h e y s e r v e as c o m p l i m e n t a r y s o u r c e s o f m o t i v a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, Brown (1961) be-l i e v e s a n t i c i p a t i o n i s a l e a r n e d s o u r c e o f d r i v e which adds t o o t h e r a n t e c e d e n t s o u r c e s o f d r i v e - s u c h as d e p r i v a t i o n -t o i n c r e a s e t h e t o t a l d r i v e s t r e n g t h . A few t h e o r i s t s , ( e . g . Mowrer, 1 9 6 0 ) , see d r i v e as p l a y i n g l i t t l e o r no p a r t i n m o t i v a t i n g b e h a v i o r , and e x p l a i n m o t i v a t i o n i n terms o f i n c e n t i v e f a c t o r s . Amsel (1958, 1962) has done a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g t h e assumed e f f e c t s o f f r u s t r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from g o a l box non-reward. A c c o r d i n g t o Amsel, when f r a c t i o n a l 7 g o a l r e s p o n s e s ( r g ) have d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f an i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e , n o n - r e i n f o r c e m e n t i n t h e s i t u a -t i o n w i l l p r o d u c e f r u s t r a t i o n which i s an a v e r s i v e m o t i v a -t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n . Through c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g , f r a c -t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y f r u s t r a t i o n (r^-s^.) d e v e l o p s t o t h e p r i m a r y a v e r s i v e c o n d i t i o n . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c t s as an i n h i b i t o r y mechanism i n non-reward, w h i l e p r o d u c e s d i r e c t i v e cues and can be c o n d i t i o n e d t o o t h e r c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e c o n s t r u c t , which i s assumed t o a r i s e from f r u s t r a t i o n , p r o -v i d e s a mechanism t o e x p l a i n t h e a c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f non-r e i n f o r c e m e n t . Adelman and Maatsch (1955) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n o f a r u n n i n g r e s p o n s e c o u l d be g r e a t l y i n -f l u e n c e d by t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n s e e l i c i t e d by nonreward. In t h e i r s t u d y a l l r a t s f i r s t l e a r n e d t o r u n down a s t r a i g h t a l l e y f o r f o o d . The Ss were t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups and t a u g h t t o make a d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e t o nonreward i n b o t h a c q u i s i t i o n and e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a r e s p o n s e t o nonreward, s u c h as r e t r a c i n g , which i n -t e r f e r e s o r i s d i r e c t l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l r u n -n i n g r e s p o n s e p r o d u c e s r a p i d e x t i n c t i o n . A r e s p o n s e such as ju m p i n g , which i s t e m p o r a l l y c o m p a t i b l e and does not i n t e r -f e r e w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l r e s p o n s e p r o d u c e s l i t t l e o r no d e c r e -ment i n t h e r u n n i n g b e h a v i o r d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . Adelman and Maatsch f o u n d i n a d d i t i o n t h a t t h e no r m a l e x t i n c t i o n 8 p r o c e d u r e o f b r i e f c o n f i n e m e n t i n t h e g o a l box p r o d u c e s an i n t e r m e d i a t e decrement i n t h e o r i g i n a l r u n n i n g r e s p o n s e . A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e which a f f e c t s r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n i s t h e s c h e d u l e o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n . The i n c r e a s e d r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n t h a t i s p r o d u c e d by p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t has been a c c o u n t e d f o r by many t h e o r i e s . However, a f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , H a l l c o n c l u d e s (1966, p. 2 5 3 ) : "One o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s no s i n g l e t h e o r y which can s u c c e s s f u l l y a c c o u n t f o r a l l t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s . " A c c o r d i n g t o Amsel's (1958) t h e o r y , i n t h e runway s i t u a t i o n under p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t , f r u s t r a t i o n d e v e l o p s when S_ does not en-c o u n t e r r e w a r d i n t h e g o a l box a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g a number o f r e i n f o r c e d t r i a l s . T h rough a f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y f r u s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s e mechanism, an e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e w i l l o c c u r t o a n t e c e d i n g s t i m u l i , and e v e n t u a l l y i s e l i c i t e d by cues f o u n d i n t h e s t a r t box. A l s o , f r u s t r a t i o n has s t i m u l u s p r o p e r t i e s which become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e o f r u n n i n g . On e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s , Amsel b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e 5.s i n t h e p a r t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d group have a s s o -c i a t e d t h e r u n n i n g r e s p o n s e w i t h f r u s t r a t i v e nonreward, w h i l e t h e c o n t i n u o u s l y r e i n f o r c e d Ss have not d e v e l o p e d t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e p a r t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d Ss w i l l t a k e a l o n g e r t i m e t o e x t i n g u i s h t h a n t h e c o n t i n u o u s l y r e i n f o r c e d S s . However, Wong and P a v l i k (1966) were u n a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f 9 m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s o f cues a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f r u s t r a t i v s no r e w a r d . I n s t e a d , Wong and P a v l i k f e l t t h e i r d a t a c o u l d be b e t t e r e x p l a i n e d i f f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y f r u s t r a t i o n was vi e w e d as e l i c i t i n g c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e t e n d e n c i e s t h a t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e d i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( W e i n s t o c k , 1954 and 1958; H u l s e and S t a n l e y , 1956; K i r k p a t r i c k , P a v l i k and R e y n o l d s , 1964) a l s o a c c o u n t f o r t h e p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t e f f e c t i n terms o f c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s . Most c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e t h e o r i s t s assume t h a t p a r t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d Ss emit n o n f u n c t i o n a l movements o r c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s on t h e n o n r e i n f o r c e d t r i a l s d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n o f an i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e . As a c q u i s i -t i o n c o n t i n u e s , t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s e r e s p o n s e s t o e x t i n g u i s h , drop o u t , .or be m o d i f i e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l b e h a v i o r d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . The c o n t i n u o u s l y r e i n f o r c e d group, however, emit few c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s c a n n o t be e x t i n g u i s h e d , dropped o u t , o r m o d i f i e d d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n and a r e a b l e t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s . In a r e c e n t s t u d y Jones and B r i d g e s (1966) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p a r t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d Ss make fe w e r c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s which c o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r u n n i n g b e h a v i o r d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . I f v iewed i n an a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e framework, an a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f b o t h p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t and 10 t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n s e e l i c i t e d by nonreward c o u l d be combined t o h e l p c l a r i f y t h e q u e s t i o n o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a n t e c e d e n t e v e n t s which c o n t r i b u t e t o r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e Adelman and Maatsch (1955) s t u d y were c o n g r u -ent w i t h an a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e a n a l y s i s o f e x t i n c t i o n . The e x t i n c t i o n r a t e o f t h e i r Ss was f o u n d t o be dependent upon whether t h e r e s p o n s e t o nonreward was c o m p a t i b l e o r i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e . I f p r e - g o a l s t i m u l i e l i c i t r e s p o n s e s which a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l b e h a v i o r , e x t i n c t i o n o c c u r s more r a p i d l y t h a n i f t h e s e s t i m u l i e l i c i t r e s p o n s e s which a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l b e h a v i o r . In comparing t h e c o n t i n u o u s v e r s u s p a r t i a l r e w a r d s i t u a t i o n , J o n e s and B r i d g e s (1966) f o u n d t h a t c o n t i n u o u s l y r e i n f o r c e d Ss make more n o n f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o nonreward t h a n do p a r t i a l l y r e w a r d e d Ss i n a runway s i t u a t i o n . In t h e i r a n t i c i p a t o r y form, t h e non-f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s may compete w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d r u n n i n g b e h a v i o r ; and t h e r e f o r e , p r o d u c e a r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d decrement i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e l e a r n e d b e h a v i o r d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g whether p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t and t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n s e e l i c i t e d by nonreward b o t h c o n t r i b u t e t o e x t i n c t i o n r e s i s -t a n c e . A l s o , t h e s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s whether preweaning h a n d l i n g has an e f f e c t on runway p e r f o r m a n c e d u r i n g a c q u i s i -t i o n and/or e x t i n c t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e 11 t r a i n i n g o f Ss ( o n e - h a l f o f which r e c e i v e d p r e w e a n i n g h a n d l i n g w h i l e t h e o t h e r h a l f r e c e i v e d no p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l h a n d l i n g ) t o r u n t o e i t h e r a l a r g e or a s m a l l g o a l box on e i t h e r a 50% o r 100% r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e , ( s e e F i g . 1 f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s ) . The Ss on t h e 100% re w a r d s c h e d u l e s h o u l d make few co m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s d u r i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n t r i a l s . T h i s would be e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h e Ss t h a t r a n t o a s m a l l g o a l box and r e c e i v e d r e i n f o r c e m e n t on a l l t r i a l s . As was s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r - when few n o n f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s a r e made d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n t h e r e i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s t o be e x t i n g u i s h e d , dropped o u t , o r m o d i f i e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s s h o u l d have been r e a d i l y a b l e t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e -spo n s e d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s . A l s o , once e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s a r e s t a r t e d t h e Ss s h o u l d have d e v e l o p e d v e r y r a p i d l y c o n s i d e r a b l e - as a r e s u l t o f b e i n g c o n f i n e d i n an empty g o a l box f o r a 10 s e c . p e r i o d on each t r i a l . In an a n t i c i p a t o r y form r^. - s h o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r a p i d e x t i n c t i o n o f an i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e . On t h e o t h e r hand, Ss which were t r a i n e d on a p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t a c q u i s i t i o n s c h e d u l e s h o u l d have made c o n -s i d e r a b l e n o n f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s which c o u l d have been e x t i n g u i s h e d , d r o p p e d o u t , o r m o d i f i e d d u r i n g t h e a c q u i s i -t i o n t r i a l s . The Ss which r a n t o a l a r g e g o a l box w i t h a 5Q% r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e not o n l y have an e x c e l l e n t 12 o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x h i b i t n o n f u n c t i o n a l e x t e r n a l r e s p o n s e s , b u t a l s o s h o u l d h a v e d e v e l o p e d r^ . - s ^ o n n o n r e w a r d t r i a l s w h i c h m a y h a v e b e c o m e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r u n n i n g r e s p o n s e . B e -c a u s e c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s a n d r ^ . - s ^ s h o u l d h a v e b e c o m e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r u n n i n g r e s p o n s e d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e y a r e t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e r u n n i n g r e s p o n s e d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . T h e p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t g r o u p s s h o u l d e x h i b i t a m o r e g r a d u a l d e c r e m e n t o f t h e i n -s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . T h e h a n d l e d a n i m a l s s h o u l d h a v e b e e n l e s s e x c i t a b l e a n d l e s s d i s t r a c t e d b y c h a n g e d s t i m u l i c o n d i t i o n s t h a n t h e n o n h a n d l e d a n i m a l s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e h a n d l e d g r o u p s s h o u l d s h o w l e s s o f a p e r f o r m a n c e d e c r e m e n t t h a n t h e i r c o m p a r a b l e n o n h a n d l e d g r o u p s d u r i n g t h e e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s . METHOD Sub i e c t s The Ss were 48 e x p e r i m e n t a l l y n a i v e male and f e m a l e a l b i n o r a t s d e r i v e d from t h e W i s t a r s t r a i n , r a n g i n g between 80-100 days o f age at t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . One h a l f o f t h e Ss had r e c e i v e d p r e w e a n i n g h a n d l i n g f o r a f i v e m i n u t e p e r i o d each day. The o t h e r Ss r e c e i v e d no p r e -e x p e r i m e n t h a n d l i n g . The 24 h a n d l e d and 24 n o n h a n d l e d Ss were b o t h randomly a s s i g n e d t o one o f f o u r a c q u i s i t i o n c o n -d i t i o n s ( s e e F i g . 1 ) . A p p a r a t u s The a p p a r a t u s used was a (3 x 25 x 6 i n . ) s t r a i g h t a l l e y runway w i t h a 3 x 12 x 6 i n . s t a r t box. Two g o a l boxes were u s e d . The l a r g e g o a l box measured 12 x 12 x 12 i n . and t h e s m a l l box was 3 x 12 x 6 i n . G u i l l o t i n e d o o r s s e p a r a t e d t h e a l l e y from b o t h t h e s t a r t box and t h e g o a l box. The runway g o a l boxes and s t a r t box were p a i n t e d a f l a t medium g r e y ; t h e g u i l l o t i n e d o o r s were p a i n t e d t h e same f l a t g r e y c o l o u r . The top o f t h e runway, s t a r t and g o a l boxes c o n s i s t e d o f heavy w i r e s c r e e n which was h i n g e d t o t h e s i d e w a l l s o f t h e a p p a r a t u s . M e t a l f o o d d i s h e s were p l a c e d i n each o f t h e two g o a l b o x e s. The d i s h e s measured two 13 14 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r and one q u a r t e r o f an i n c h h i g h . I l l u m i n a t i o n i n t h e room was p r o v i d e d by two shaded 100 watt b u l b s which were 84 i n . above t h e f l o o r o f t h e runway. L a t e n c y and r u n n i n g t i m e were measured u s i n g .01 s e c o n d e l e c t r i c t i m e r s which were a c t i v a t e d by p h o t o c e l l s . The t i m e s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d as f o l l o w s : l i f t i n g t h e g u i l l o t i n e door o f t h e s t a r t box a c t i v a t e d an e l e c t r i c t i m e r which was s t o p p e d when t h e 5, b r o k e a l i g h t beam which a c t i v a t e d a p h o t o c e l l s i x i n . from t h e s t a r t box d o o r . At t h e same t i m e t h e f i r s t t i m e r was s t o p p e d , a s e c o n d t i m e r was a u t o m a t i c a l l y s t a r t e d . The s e c o n d t i m e r was s t o p p e d when t h e S_ b r o k e a n o t h e r l i g h t beam which was 23 i n . from t h e s t a r t box door and two i n . from t h e g o a l box d o o r . P r o c e d u r e F o u r days p r i o r t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t Ss were p l a c e d on a d e p r i v a t i o n d i e t o f 10 gm. o f P u r i n a Rat Chow p e r day, and were m a i n t a i n e d on t h i s f e e d i n g s c h e d u l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i m e n t . Water was a v a i l a b l e i n t h e home cage a t a l l t i m e s . Each S was h a n d l e d f o r f i v e m i n u t e s p e r day and a l l o w e d t o e x p l o r e t h e a p p a r a t u s f o r 10 min. each day d u r i n g t h e f o u r - d a y p e r i o d . B e f o r e p r e t r a i n i n g t h e Ss i n b o t h t h e h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d g r o u p s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r a c q u i s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n s : (1) 50% reward and a l a r g e g o a l box, (2) 50% re w a r d and a s m a l l g o a l box, 15 (3) 100% reward and a l a r g e g o a l box, (4) 100% reward and a s m a l l g o a l box. The r e s u l t i n g e i g h t groups a r e o u t l i n e d i n F i g . 1. F o l l o w i n g h a n d l i n g and h a b i t u a t i o n , t h e p r e t r a i n i n g t r i a l s were r u n . P r e t r a i n i n g c o n s i s t e d o f two days i n which a l l Ss r e c e i v e d f i v e r e i n f o r c e d t r i a l s p e r day w i t h an i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l o f 12 t o 15 min. In t h e e v e n t t h a t an S_ c o m p l e t e d two c o n s e c u t i v e t r i a l s i n a t o t a l r u n n i n g t i m e o f l e s s t h a n two m i n u t e s p e r t r i a l , p r e t r a i n i n g was d i s c o n t i n u e d . I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g p r e t r a i n i n g , each S_ was g i v e n 60 a c q u i s i t i o n t r i a l s (5 t r i a l s p e r day f o r 12 c o n s e c u t i v e days) w i t h e i t h e r a l a r g e o r s m a l l g o a l box on e i t h e r a 50%- o r 1 0 0 % - r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e d e p e n d i n g on which o f t h e f o u r a c q u i s i t i o n c o n d i t i o n s t h e S_ had been a s s i g n e d . On a l l t r i a l s each S_ was d e t a i n e d i n t h e g o a l box - i n b o t h l a r g e and s m a l l boxes - f o r a p e r i o d o f 20 s e c . and r e c e i v e d r e -i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h r e e .45 gm. Noyes p e l l e t s on e i t h e r a p a r t i a l - o r c o n t i n u o u s - r e w a r d s c h e d u l e . T h e r e were f i v e t r i a l s p e r day w i t h an i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l o f 15 min. between t r i a l s . A f t e r t h e s t a r t box door had been r a i s e d , b o t h t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o l e a v e t h e s t a r t box, and t h e r u n n i n g t i m e i n t h e a l l e y were r e c o r d e d ; a l s o , a v i s u a l check was made o f t h e s t o p s and r e t r a c i n g made by each S_. A s t o p was d e f i n e d as any t i m e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r o b s e r v e d t h e S_ t o have s t o p p e d moving i n t h e runway. R e t r a c i n g was d e f i n e d as any t i m e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r p e r c e i v e d t h e S_ t o have t a k e n a t l e a s t 16 F i g . 1. I l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e e i g h t groups t h a t were used i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . 17 g o a l g o a l g o a l g o a l g o a l g o a l g o a l g o a l b o x b o x b o x b o x b o x b o x b o x b o x H p l H p s H c l H c s N p l N p s N c l N c s 18 f i v e s t e p s toward t h e s t a r t box a f t e r t h e S_ had i n t e r r u p t e d t h e f i r s t runway l i g h t beam. Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n t r i a l s , each 5_ r e c e i v e d 50 e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s a t a r a t e o f 5 t r i a l s p e r day. The e x t i n c t i o n s e r i e s was s t a r t e d t h e day a f t e r t h e a c q u i s i -t i o n phase had been c o m p l e t e d . Because o f t h e f a c t t h a t a l t e r i n g o f s t i m u l u s c o n d i t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e s t o e x p e r i m e n t a l e x t i n c t i o n , ( s e e H a l l , 1966, f o r a r e v i e w ) , t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r b o t h a c q u i s i t i o n and e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s were i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g two c o n d i t i o n s : (1) no r e ward was g i v e n on any e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s , and (2) i f an S_ d i d not e n t e r t h e g o a l box i n t h r e e m i n u t e s a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e s t a r t box, t h a t t r i a l was ended and t h e s c o r e r e c o r d e d f o r t h e runway t i m e was t h r e e m i n u t e s . RESULTS A c q u i s i t i o n An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on t h e mean o f S_s' s t a r t i n g s p e e d and r u n n i n g speed o v e r t h e f i v e d a i l y t r i a l s . T h ese s p e e d s c o r e s were computed by o b t a i n i n g t h e r e c i p r o c a l o f t h e r e c o r d e d t i m e measures. T a b l e 1 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f b o t h r u n n i n g and s t a r t i n g s peeds f o r a l l e x p e r i -m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s and t r e a t m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s d u r i n g a c q u i s i -t i o n . I t can be seen from T a b l e 1 t h a t t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t F - v a l u e o b t a i n e d d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n came from t h e e f f e c t o f i n f a n t i l e h a n d l i n g . No o t h e r s i n g l e t r e a t m e n t o r combina-t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t s had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t (p - r L.05). E x t i n c t i o n The means f o r s t a r t box s p e e d and runway s p e e d d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n made by Ss under t h e e i g h t e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e shown i n T a b l e 2. A g a i n b o t h s t a r t i n g t i m e and r u n n i n g t i m e s c o r e s f o r each S_ were c o n v e r t e d i n t o speed s c o r e s by t a k i n g t h e i n v e r s e s o f t h e t i m e measures. The mean s t a r t -box and runway speed s c o r e s f o r each group a r e shown i n T a b l e 1 f o r each day o f e x t i n c t i o n . I t i s o b v i o u s from i n s p e c t i o n o f T a b l e 2, T a b l e 3, F i g . 2 and F i g . 3, t h a t d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n , b o t h s t a r t b o x s p e e d and runway speed d e c r e a s e o v e r d a y s . I t can be seen 19 20 T a b l e 1 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e U s i n g t h e Mean I n v e r s e A c q u i s i t i o n Runway Speed S o u r c e d f Sum o f Mean S a u a r e F S a u a r e s Between Ss 47 159.24 3.3882 H a n d l i n g (H) 1 45.178 45.178 17.54 Reward (R) 1 .76297 .76297 0.30 Goalbox (G) 1 .02139 .02139 0.01 HxR 1 5.6819 5.6819 2.21 HxG 1 .07623 .07623 0.03 RxG 1 .38458 .38458 0.15 HxRxG 1 4.1223 4.1223 1.60 E r r o r 40 103.02 2.5754 A c q u i s i t i o n S t a r t b o x Speed Between J5s 47 164.10 3.4915 H a n d l i n g (H) 1 58.281 58.281 24.48 Reward (R) 1 .00778 .00778 0.02 Goalbox (G) 1 .86340 .86340 0.36 HxR 1 .24808 .24808 0.10 HxG 1 4.3954 4.3954 1.84 RxG 1 2.0411 2.0411 0.86 HxRxG 1 2.9384 2.9384 1.23 E r r o r 40 95.326 2.3831 T a b l e 2 Mean Speed S c o r e s D u r i n g E x t i n c t i o n S t a r t b o x Speed Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Hcs 2.859 2.463 2.422 1.887 1.625 1.345 1.143 0.779 0.808 0.610 H c l 2.335 2.075 2.219 1.545 1.045 1.014 1.097 0.947 0.959 0.997 Hps 3.022 2.984 3.062 2.482 1.787 1.160 1.527 1.101 1.224 0.898 H p l 3.058 3.105 3.083 2.852 2.813 2.594 2.548 2.113 1.798 1.878 Ncs 2.597 2.219 1.969 0.818 1.073 0.956 0.921 0.728 0.576 0.528 N c l 2.708 2.172 1.457 1.292 1.016 0.903 0.950 1.046 1.036 0.765 Nps 2.607 2.210 2.030 1.666 1.331 0.815 0.720 0.630 0.520 0.457 N p l 2.474 2.397 2.238 2.288 1.912 1.624 1.608 1.232 1.907 1.888 to T a b l e 3 Mean Speed S c o r e s D u r i n g E x t i n c t i o n Runway Speed Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Hcs 2.784 2.798 2.485 1.003 0.867 0.568 0.531 0.437 0.501 0.439 H c l ' 2.996 2.786 2.447 1.686 1.484 1.324 1.246 1.050 1.057 1.041 Hps 5.368 3.144 3.056 1.970 1.735 1.454 1.238 0.960 0.966 0.601 H p l 3.284 3.435 3.171 2.862 2.930 2.664 2.819 2.341 1.901 1.721 Ncs 2.850 2.483 1.505 0.820 0.675 0.532 0.453 0.280 0.181 0.073 N c i 2.742 2.169 1.708 1.284 0.955 0.390 0.515 0.532 0.296 0.096 Nps 2.274 2.188 1.865 1.639 1.310 1.072 1.024 0.657 0.768 0.477 Npl- 2.672 2.385 2.177 2.192 2.057 1.706 1.862 1.690 1.790 1.540 to 2. M e a n r u n n i n g s p e e d i n r u n w a y f o r e a c h d a y o f e x t i n c t i o n . MEAN RUNNING S P E E D -T/ IO IN SEC m x H O H > -< CO 2 5 F i g . 3. Mean s t a r t i n g speed from s t a r t b o x f o r each day o f e x t i n c t i o n . E X T I N C T I O N D A Y S 27 t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e o c c u r r e d r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n t r e a t m e n t which was a p p l i e d . The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s i s shown i n T a b l e s 4 and 5. The d a t a was a n a l y z e d u s i n g an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . The mean s p e e d s c o r e f o r each day was t h e measure used f o r a l l Ss i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . D u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n and e x t i n c t i o n , ( f o r b o t h s t a r t s p e e d and runway s p e e d ) , h a n d l e d Ss c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m n o n h a n d l e d Ss a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ( s e e T a b l e s 1, 4 and 5 ) . D u r i n g t h e e n t i r e s t u d y t h e d a i l y means o f r u n n i n g and s t a r t i n g speeds showed t h a t h a n d l e d a n i m a l s u s u a l l y p e r f o r m more r a p i d l y t h a n do n o n h a n d l e d S s . However, when a day by day c o m p a r i s o n between t h e s e groups was made u s i n g t h e Tukey T e s t , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d S s , e x c e p t d u r i n g t h e l a s t t h r e e days o f e x t i n c t i o n on b o t h s t a r t s p e e d and r u n n i n g s p e e d . As shown i n T a b l e s 4 and 5 , t h e two o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s used i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t - p e r c e n t a g e o f reward and s i z e o f g o a l b o x - a l s o had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on e x t i n c t i o n . In o r d e r t o examine t h e combined e f f e c t s o f g o a l b o x s i z e and p e r c e n t a g e o f r e w a r d i t i s b e s t not t o c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t s o f i n f a n t i l e h a n d l i n g . I f t h e d a t a i s a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d s c o r e s combined, t h e r e a r e no 28 Table 4 A n a l y s i s of Variance Using the Mean Inverse E x t i n c t i o n Runway Speed Source df Sum of Sauares Mean Square F Between Ss 47 206.76 4.3991 36.30 < .01 Handling (H) 1 33.918 33.918 20.45 <.Q1 Reward (R) 1 62.609 62.609 37.75 <.01 Goalbox (G) 1 32.990 32.990 19.89 <.01 HxR 1 .80782 .80782 0.49 HxG _ 1 2.4412 2.4412 1.47 RxG 1 7.3406 7.3406 4.43 < .05 HxRxG 1 .31042 .31402 0.19 E r r o r 40 66.339 1.6585 Days (D) 9 245.51 27.279 225.13 <.01 DxH 9 3.9616 .44018 3.63 <.01 DxR 9 13.140 1.4600 12.05 <.01 DxG 9 9.8567 1.0952 9.04 <.01 DxHxR 9 3.7904 .42115 3.48 <.01 DxHxG 9 2.4033 .26703 2.20 <.05 DxRxG 9 2.1435 .23817 1.97 <.05 DxHxRxG 9 .72458 .08051 0.66 E r r o r 360 43.621 .12117 T o t a l 479 531.91 29 Table 5 A n a l y s i s of Variance Using the Mean Inverse E x t i n c t i o n Startbox Speed Source df Sum of Mean Square F £. Squares Between Ss 47 155.51 3.3087 21.34 < .01 Handling (H) 1 21.611 21.611 13.03 < .01 Reward (R) 1 35.447 35.447 21.37 <.01 Goalbox (G) 1 11.585 11.585 6.99 <.05 HxR 1 4.9097 4.9097 2.96 HxG 1 .52788 .52788 0.32 RxG 1 14.550 14.550 8.77 <.01 HxRxG 1 .54141 .54141 0.33 E r r o r 40 66.338 1.6584 Days (D) 9 169.37 18.819 121.35 <.01 DxH 9 4.3672 .48524 3.13 <.01 DxR 9 4.6488 .51653 3.33 <.01 DxG 9 10.900 1.2111 7.81 <.01 DxHxR 9 1.6827 .18696 1.21 DxHxG 9 1.7872 .19857 1.28 DxRxG 9 3.6161 .40179 2.59 4.01 DxHxRxG 9 2.4667 .27408 1.77 E r r o r 360 55.830 .15508 T o t a l 479 410.180 30 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e g r o u p s , ( C s , C l , Ps, and PI) a t t h e end o f a c q u i s i t i o n on e i t h e r s t a r t i n g o r r u n n i n g s p e e d . However, i t can be seen from i n s p e c t i o n o f T a b l e 6, F i g . 4 and F i g . 5 t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f g o a l b o x s i z e and p e r c e n t a g e o f r e w a r d s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t s ex-t i n c t i o n . A l s o , t h e r e s u l t s o f T a b l e 4 and 5 show t h e com-b i n e d e f f e c t s o f g o a l b o x s i z e and p e r c e n t a g e o f r e w a r d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l f o r r u n n i n g speed and a t t h e .01 l e v e l f o r s t a r t i n g s p e e d . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e f o u r groups a r e shown d u r i n g t h e l a s t s i x days o f e x t i n c t i o n i n T a b l e 7. I f l o o k e d a t as i n d i v i d u a l t r e a t m e n t s , b o t h p e r c e n t a g e o f reward and g o a l b o x s i z e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e runway be-h a v i o r . The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e f f e c t s t h a t p e r -c e n t a g e o f r e w a r d had on s t a r t i n g and r u n n i n g speeds a r e shown i n T a b l e 8. I t can be seen from t h e t a b l e t h a t 5s which a c q u i r e t h e runway r e s p o n s e under a p a r t i a l r e i n -f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e s t a r t and r u n a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r s p e e d s d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n t h a n do Ss i n t h e c o n t i n u o u s l y r e i n f o r c e d g r o u p . I n s p e c t i o n o f T a b l e 9 r e v e a l s t h a t g o a l b o x s i z e a l s o had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on e x t i n c t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t e x t i n c t i o n o f b o t h s t a r t i n g and r u n n i n g speeds i s s l o w e r ... f o r Ss which r a n t o a s m a l l g o a l b o x t h a n f o r t h o s e which r a n t o t h e l a r g e g o a l b o x . Table 6 Mean Speed Scores During Extinction With the Handling Variable Collapsed Startbox Speed Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Cs 2.728 2.341 2.196 1.353 1.349 1.150 1.032 0.753 0.692 0.569 CI 2.521 2.123 1.838 1.418 1.031 0.958 1.024 0.997 0.997 0.881 Ps 2.815 2.597 2.546 2.074 1.559 0.988 1.124 0.866 0.872 0.677 PI 2.766 2.751 2.661 2.570 2.363 2.109 2.078 1.673 1.852 1.883 Runway Speed Cs 2.817 2.641 1.995 0.911 0.771 0.550 0.492 0.359 0.341 0.256 CI 2.869 2.477 2.078 1.485 1.220 0.857 0.881 0.791 0.677 0.569 Ps 2.821 2.666 2.460 1.805 1.523 1.263 1.131 0.808 0.866 0.539 PI 2.978 2.910 2.674 2.527 2.493 2.185 2.341 2.016 1.845 1.630 32 T a b l e 7 The L o c a t i o n of S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between Means Among Four Groups, as Found by a Tukey T e s t , f o r the L a s t S i x Days of E x t i n c t i o n 5 t a r t b o x Speed Days PI &. Ps PI &. CL PI &. Cs Ps cl C l Ps cl Cs C l cl Cs 5 * * * » * * #** * » * * g #** **# *#* 7 **« *#* *** g *** #** »#* g *»» **• *#* * IQ **» *** **» * Runway 5peed Days PI & Ps PI & C l PI & Cs Ps & C l Ps & Cs C l cl Cs 5 * * * * * * * * * # * # * #** g **# * * * *#* * * • * * * * 7 #*# *•* *** *** *** g *** *#* *** *** *** g *** *** *** #** * j^ g *#* *## *#* # # ** p <C.05 *** p <.01 F i g . 4. Mean r u n n i n g speed f o r each day o f e x t i n c t i o n w i t h h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d combined. M E A N R U N N I N G S P E E D - T/IO IN S E C . 7E 35 F i g . 5. Mean s t a r t i n g speed f o r each day of e x t i n c t i o n with handled and nonhandled Ss combined. M E A N S T A R T I N G S P E E D - T / I O IN S E C . Table 8 Comparison between Means of P a r t i a l l y and conti n u o u s l y Reinforced Groups During E x t i n c t i o n , I n d i c a t i n g S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Test Runway Speed as Found by a Tukey Dava lOOfa D i f f e r e n c e 1 2.8429 2.8993 0.0564 2 2.5590 2.7879 0.2289 3 2.0363 2.5672 0.5309** 4 1.1982 2.1658 0.9676** 5 0.9955 2.0079 1.0124** 6 0.7032 1.7239 1.0207** 7 0.6862 1.7356 1.0494** 8 0.5748 1.4120 0.8372** 9 0.5087 1.0846 0.5759** 10 0.4123 1.0846 0.6723** Startbox Speed 1 2.6245 2.7903 0.1658 2 2.2321 2.6738 0.4417** 3 2.0169 2.6031 0.5862** 4 1.3853 2.3219 0.9366** 5 1.1900 1.9609 0.7709** 6 1.0545 1.5482 0.4937** 7 1.0276 1.6008 0.5732** 8 0.8751 1.2692 0.3941* 9 0.8443 1.3622 0.5179** 10 0.7249 1.2799 0.5550** * p <.05 * p < .01 38 Table 9 Comparison Between Means of Large and Small Goalbox Groups During E x t i n c t i o n , I n d i c a t i n g S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s as Found by a Tukey Test Runway Speed Days Small Large D i f f e r e n c e 1 2.8188 2.9233 0.1045 2 2.6532 2.6936 0.0404 3 2.2276 2.3760 0.1484 4 1.3580 2.0060 0.6480** 5 1.1469 1.8565 0.7096** 6 0.9065 1.5207 0.6142** 7 0.8113 1.6106 0.7993** 8 0.5836 1.4032 0.8196** 9 0.6037 1.2609 0.6572** 10 0.3974 1.0995 0.7021** Startbox Speed 1 2.7712 2.6437 0.1275 2 2.4688 2.4370 0.0318 3 2.3708 2.2493 0.1215 4 1.7131 1.9941 0.2810* 5 1.4541 1.6967 0.2426* 6 1.0691 1.5335 0.4644** 7 1.0776 1.5508 0.4732** 8 0.8095 1.3348 0.5253** 9 0.7820 1.4244 0.6424** 10 0.6230 1.3818 0.7588** * p <.05 ** p <.01 3 9 The mean number o f c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s e m i t t e d by d i f f e r e n t Ss d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n i s shown i n T a b l e 10. A t - t e s t between means o f p a r t i a l and c o n t i n u o u s r e i n f o r c e d Ss r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e p a r t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d group showed fe w e r c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s t h a n d i d t h e c o n t i n u o u s l y r e i n -f o r c e d group (p ^-.01). A s i m i l a r a n a l y s e s was c o n d u c t e d on c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s f o r h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d g r o u p s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h a n d l e d Ss emit s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s (p <.05) t h a n t h e n o n h a n d l e d S s . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t when t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s were a n a l y z e d o v e r t i m e b l o c k s , t h e s e e f f e c t s v a r i e d w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t . On t h e f i r s t day o f e x t i n c t i o n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between Ss t h a t r a n t o e i t h e r a l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r g o a l box, o r between Ss t h a t r a n on a c o n t i n u o u s o r a p a r t i a l r e w a r d s c h e d u l e . However, as e x t i n c t i o n days p r o g r e s s , t h e d a t a shows t h a t b o t h g o a l b o x s i z e and t h e t y p e o f r e i n -f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e used p r o d u c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among g r o u p s . The r e s u l t s a r e i n c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e o f t h e h a n d l i n g v a r i a b l e which p r o d u c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d groups on t h e f i r s t day o f e x t i n c t i o n (p < . 0 1 ) . On t h e l a s t t h r e e days o f e x t i n c t i o n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d S s . 40 Table 10 Mean Number of Competing Responses Emitted During E x t i n c t i o n by Handled and Nonhandled Ss and by P a r t i a l and Continuous Reinforced Groups Days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .0833 .9167 1.7500 2.0000 1.6667 3.5000 3.8333 4.0833 100% .0833 .2500 1.5000 5.0000 6.0000 9.2500 8.9167 10.2500 12.0833 14.4167 Handled .0833 .0833 .4167 2.8333 3.3333 4.1667 4.1667 5.2500 6.3333 6.6667 Nonhandled .2500 1.8033 3.0833 4.4167 7.0833 6.4167 8.5000 9.5833 11.8333 DISCUSSION In g e n e r a l t h e r e s u l t s l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n s made p r i o r t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t . D u r i n g a c q u i s i -t i o n i n f a n t i l e h a n d l i n g was t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e which showed any r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . H a n d l i n g a l s o p r o d u c e d some o f t h e s t r o n g e s t e f f e c t s d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g t o n o t e t h a t Wong and J a m i e s o n (1967) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d Ss d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n o f r u n n i n g b e h a v i o r i n a T maze. Some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y and t h o s e o f Wong and J a m i e s o n c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f a s h i o n . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y n o n h a n d l e d a n i m a l s r e c e i v e d a m i n i m a l amount o f h a n d l i n g d u r i n g t h e 22 days which were r e q u i r e d t o t h e s t u d y . I t c o u l d have been t h a t t h e h a n d l i n g e f f e c t s were washed out i n t h e Wong and Jam i e s o n (1967) s t u d y , b e c a u s e o f e x c e s s i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l h a n d l i n g d u r i n g t h e 40 days which were r e q u i r e d t o r u n t h e s t u d y . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t h a n d l i n g r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h e s e two s t u d i e s o c c u r r e d s i m p l y b e c a u s e each e x p e r i m e n t used a d i f f e r e n t s i z e g o a l b o x and d i f f e r e n t r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e -d u l e s . I f i t i s t r u e t h a t n o n h a n d l e d a n i m a l s a r e more e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d t h a n h a n d l e d S s , t h u s a l l o w i n g a g r e a t e r 41 42 o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s t o t a k e p l a c e , t h e more one would e x p e c t a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e runway p e r f o r m a n c e between h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d g r o u p s . In t h e Wong and J a m i e s o n (1967) s t u d y , a l l Ss r a n t o a 3 i n . x 12 i n . x 6 i n . g o a l b o x on a 100% r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e . In t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t o n l y one o f t h e f o u r groups -r a n t o a s m a l l g o a l b o x on a c o n t i n u o u s r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e -d u l e - t h i s i s a s i t u a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be c o m p a r a b l e i n terms o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s t o be e l i c i t e d by S_. In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t t h e s m a l l e s t e x t i n c t i o n d i f f e r e n c e between h a n d l e d and non-h a n d l e d g r o u p s o c c u r r e d ( f o r b o t h s t a r t i n g and r u n n i n g speed) f o r Ss t h a t r a n t o a s m a l l g o a l b o x on a 100% r e i n -f o r c e d a c q u i s i t i o n s c h e d u l e . The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e be-tween h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d groups was f o u n d between Ss t h a t a c q u i r e d t h e runway r e s p o n s e on a p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e -ment s c h e d u l e w h i l e r u n n i n g t o a l a r g e g o a l b o x . I f c o n -s i d e r e d i n a c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e framework, such r e s u l t s c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d between t h e p r e -s e n t e x p e r i m e n t and t h e Wong and J a m i e s o n (1967) s t u d y . I t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e a u t h o r t h a t when more com-p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s o c c u r , ( i . e . under t h e 50%, l a r g e g o a l -box c o n d i t i o n s ) t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d between t h e runway p e r f o r m a n c e o f h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d 43 groups d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . T h i s c o u l d be t r u e i f h a n d l e d a n i m a l s a r e l e s s e m o t i o n a l and a r e t h e r e f o r e l e s s e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d i n a s i t u a t i o n where t h e r e would be more o p p o r -t u n i t y f o r c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s t o t a k e p l a c e . T h i s i d e a i s s u p p o r t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s which o c c u r r e d between h a n d l e d and non-h a n d l e d a n i m a l s d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n were f o u n d i n t h o s e Ss t h a t r a n t o a l a r g e g o a l b o x . A l s o , h a n d l e d Ss showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s t h a n n o n h a n d l e d 5 s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r r u n n i n g o r s t a r t i n g s p e e d c o u l d be f o u n d between h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d S s , (when o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s a r e d i s r e g a r d e d ) , f o r t h e l a s t t h r e e days o f e x t i n c t i o n . Two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s c o u l d be: (1) e i t h e r t h e n o n h a n d l e d a n i m a l s become more l i k e h a n d l e d Ss as a r e s u l t o f e x p e r i m e n t a l h a n d l i n g and/or (2) t h e h a n d l i n g v a r i a b l e i s n o t v e r y s t a b l e and i t s e f f e c t d i m i n i s h e s o v e r t i m e . In h i s s t u d y on t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f i n f a n t i l e hand-l i n g e f f e c t s o v e r t i m e , Du P r e e z (1964) f o u n d h a n d l i n g t o be v e r y s t a b l e o v e r a 220 day p e r i o d . At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e a u t h o r does not f e e l t h e d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s ob-t a i n e d i n t h e s e two s t u d i e s can be e x p l a i n e d . However, f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n which h a n d l e d and n o n h a n d l e d groups a r e r u n u s i n g t e s t s t h a t r e q u i r e few t r i a l s ( i . e . l i t t l e 44 h a n d l i n g d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t ) would p r o b a b l y h e l p d e t e r -mind t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f i n f a n t i l e h a n d l i n g o v e r t i m e . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g i f t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n s e e l i c i t e d by nonreward c o n t r i b u t e s t o r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n o f an i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e . Many r e s e a r c h e r s , ( i . e . W e i n s t o c k , 1954, and 1958; H u l s e and S t a n l e y , 1956; Jones and B r i d g e s , 1966 and 1967; K i r k p a t r i c k , P a v l i k and R e y n o l d s , 1964) a c c o u n t f o r t h e p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t e f f e c t i n terms o f c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n -s e s . U s i n g an a p p a r a t u s d e s i g n e d by B r i d g e s ( 1 9 6 5 ) , which e n a b l e d a u t o m a t i c c o u n t i n g o f competing r e s p o n s e s , J o n e s and B r i d g e s (1966) f o u n d t h a t p a r t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d Ss showed not o n l y fewer c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s but a l s o f a s t e r r u n n i n g speeds d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . In a n o t h e r s t u d y Jones and B r i d g e s (1967) t r a i n e d r a t s i n a runway, on e i t h e r a p a r t i a l - o r c o n t i n u o u s - r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e , w h i l e a l l 5s were s a t i a t e d . T hese Ss were t h e n g i v e n e x t i n c t i o n t r i a l s a f t e r each S. had been d e p r i v e d o f f o o d f o r 23 h o u r s . They f o u n d t h a t even when r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s g i v e n under s a t i a t e d c o n d i t i o n s - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n co m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s can s t i l l be d e t e c t e d d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y E. d i d not att e m p t t o d i f f e r -e n t i a t e between groups i n terms o f r e c o r d e d c o m p e t i n g 45 r e s p o n s e s . I n s t e a d , a rough c o u n t was made o f c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s , and d i f f e r e n t runway c o n d i t i o n s were used which would be c o n d u c t i v e t o a l l o w i n g d i f f e r i n g q u a n t i t i e s o f c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s . However, t h e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d f i n d i n g s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d by Jones and B r i d g e s (1966 and 1967) - t h a t i s , p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e d Ss emit fewer c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s d u r -i n g e x t i n c t i o n t h a n do c o n t i n u o u s r e i n f o r c e d S s . A l t h o u g h no c o m p e t i n g o r n o n f u n c t i o n a l movements c o u l d be d e t e c t e d by E w i t h any a c c u r a c y o r meaning d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n t r i a l s , i t i s assumed t h a t a t l e a s t n o n f u n c t i o n -a l runway b e h a v i o r had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x t i n g u i s h , drop o u t , o r be m o d i f i e d i n 5s under t h e p a r t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s by t h i s manner t h a t c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e t h e o r i s t s a c c o u n t f o r n o n f u n c t i o n a l runway r e s p o n s e s b e i n g l e s s l i k e l y t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . I t would not be a p p r o p r i a t e t o d i s c u s s any a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t e f f e c t s i n c e t h e d a t a i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , w i t h l i t t l e ex-c e p t i o n , t e n d s t o add s u p p o r t t o s u c h an e x p l a n a t i o n . Whether o r not t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a -t o r y g o a l r e s p o n s e s and f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y f r u s t r a -t i v e r e s p o n s e s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s . T h i s i s t r u e s i m p l y b e c a u s e o n l y one measure o f runway s p e e d was r e c o r d e d , ( i . e . r u n -46 n i n g s p eed i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e runway would have t o be r e c o r d e d ) . However, i n h i s s t u d y , B i n d r a (1963) d i v i d e d a 94 i n . runway i n h a l f and r e c o r d e d b e h a v i o r i n b o t h h a l v e s o f t h e runway. He f o u n d t h a t most o f t h e com-p e t i n g o r n o n f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s o c c u r r e d i n or n e a r t h e s t a r t b o x , and a l m o s t no i r r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r was f o u n d i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e runway. B i n d r a , t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e n o n r e i n f o r c e m e n t e f f e c t s d i d not s p r e a d backwards from t h e g o a l b o x as would have been t h e c a s e i n an a n t i c i -p a t o r y r e s p o n s e framework. D u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t E made i n c i d e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f where Ss s t o p p e d , s l o w e d down or t u r n e d a round i n t h e runway d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n , ( u n f o r t u n a t e l y E d i d not r e c o r d t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n any way). However, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t most o f t h e n o t i c e a b l e i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n r u n n i n g be-h a v i o r o c c u r r e d i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e runway. I f E_'s i n c i d e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e o b s e r -v a t i o n s would l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e i d e a o f an a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e mechanism o f b e h a v i o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o runway p e r -f o r m a n c e . A f u t u r e s t u d y , u s i n g more d e t a i l e d r e s p o n s e measures, w i t h t h e same groups as t h o s e employed i n t h e p r e -s e n t e x p e r i m e n t would be w o r t h w h i l e . In t h e p r o p o s e d s t u d y , r u n n i n g speed would be r e c o r d e d i n f o u r t o s i x e q u a l l e n g t h s o f t h e runway i n s t e a d o f u s i n g a s i n g l e mea-s u r e f o r r u n n i n g s p e e d . The r e s u l t i n g d a t a s h o u l d h e l p 47 d e t e r m i n e whether o r not a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e mechanisms a r e o p e r a t i n g . Adleman and Maatsch (1955) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n o f a r u n n i n g r e s p o n s e c o u l d be g r e a t l y i n -f l u e n c e d by t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n s e e l i c i t e d t o nonreward. They f o u n d t h a t t h e more c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l r e -spon s e was t h e r e s p o n s e t o nonreward, t h e s m a l l e r was t h e decrement i n runway p e r f o r m a n c e . In a s i m i l a r s t u d y , Bacon (1967) v a r i e d not o n l y t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n s e e l i c i t e d t o nonreward, b ut a l s o t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e c o n f i n e d i n t h e g o a l b o x d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . He f o u n d t h a t b o t h v a r i a b l e s combined a d d i t i v e l y t o d e t e r m i n e r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n . However, Bacon (1967) f e l t h i s r e s u l t s c o u l d b e s t be ex-p l a i n e d i n terms o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . T h a t i s , jumping out o f t h e g o a l b o x i n t e r f e r e s l e s s w i t h r u n n i n g b e h a v i o r t h a n w a i t i n g f o r E. t o l i f t t h e 5_ out o f t h e g o a l b o x , and imme-d i a t e r e m o v a l from t h e g o a l b o x a l l o w s f o r fewer i n t e r f e r i n g r e s p o n s e s t o be made t h a n does d e l a y e d r e m o v a l . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from h a v i n g Ss r u n n i n g t o e i t h e r a l a r g e o r s m a l l g o a l b o x can b e s t be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . The o n l y major d i f f e r -ence i n b e h a v i o r between groups t h a t r a n t o e i t h e r a l a r g e o r a s m a l l g o a l b o x was t h e amount and number o f c o m p e t i n g r e s p o n s e s e l i c i t e d i n t h e g o a l b o x d u r i n g e x t i n c t i o n . T h i s would be t r u e s i n c e t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e c o n f i n e d i n t h e 48 g o a l b o x and t h e way each S_ was removed from t h e g o a l b o x were t h e same. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t g o a l b o x s i z e and p a r -t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t s h o u l d combine a d d i t i v e l y t o g i v e g r e a t e r r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n 5s which r u n t o a l a r g e g o a l b o x under a p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e w i l l p r o b a b l y make more n o n f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s i n t h e g o a l b o x t h a n Ss which r u n t o a s m a l l box under e i t h e r a p a r t i a l o r a c o n t i n u o u s r e -i n f o r c e m e n t s c h e d u l e . The g r e a t e r number o f n o n f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s e m i t t e d by Ss which r u n t o a l a r g e g o a l b o x have a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t o drop o u t , t o be e x t i n g u i s h e d , o r t o be m o d i f i e d d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g e x t i n c -t i o n , n o n f u n c t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s a r e l e s s a b l e t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e r e s p o n d i n g o f t h e s e S s . 5 e c o n d l y , Ss r u n n i n g t o a l a r g e g o a l b o x have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make r u n n i n g and jumping movements i n t h e f a c e o f c o n t i n u o u s n o n r e i n f o r c e -ment. I t can be seen t h a t i n an a n t i c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e framework t h e s e r u n n i n g and jumping movements a r e more com-p a t i b l e w i t h r u n n i n g b e h a v i o r t h a n making no movement i n a s m a l l g o a l b o x . The b e l i e f t h a t p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t and g o a l b o x s i z e combine a d d i t i v e l y t o g i v e g r e a t e r r e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by bo t h runway and s t a r t b o x d a t a . The r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e o n l y c o m b i n a t i o n o f t r e a t -ments which p r o d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s d u r i n g ex-t i n c t i o n was reward s c h e d u l e and g o a l b o x s i z e , ( s e e T a b l e s 4 and 5 ) . 49 As a f i n a l o bservation, the author concludes that running speed measures are more s t a b l e than those f o r s t a r t i n g speed. Inspection of F i g . 2 and 3, and 4 and 5 suggests that there i s more u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a t i o n i n the s t a r t i n g speed data than i s found i n the running speed r e s u l t s . For t h i s reason the author suggests that i n the f u t u r e , s t u d i e s which are i n v e s t i g a t i n g s i m i l a r problems would f i n d i t more p r o f i t a b l e to subdivide the runway r e -sponse i n t o s e v e r a l s e q u e n t i a l u n i t s . More could be learned about competing responses and the e f f e c t s of an a n t i c i p a t o r y response mechanism i f running speeds were r e -corded from four to s i x equal u n i t s of the-runway, r a t h e r than using a s i n g l e measure f o r s t a r t i n g and running speed. REFERENCES Adelman, H. and Maatsch, J . R e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n s e e l i c i t e d by f r u s t r a -t i o n . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1955, 59, 61-65. Amsel, A. The r o l e o f f r u s t r a t i v e nonreward i n n o n c o n t i n -uous r e w a r d s i t u a t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 1958, 55, 102-119. Amsel, A. F r u s t r a t i v e nonreward i n p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e a r n i n g : some r e c e n t h i s t o r y and a t h e o r e t i c a l e x t e n s i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review. 1962, 69, 306-328. Bacon, W. E. R e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n f o l l o w i n g b l o c k i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l r e s p o n s e d u r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1965, 69, 515-521. Bacon, W. E. R e s i s t a n c e t o e x t i n c t i o n as a f u n c t i o n o f mode and t i m e o f r e m o v a l from g o a l b o x . Psychonomic  S c i e n c e . 1967, 8, 101-102. B i n d r a , D. E f f e c t s o f n o n r e i n f o r c e m e n t , d r i v e - d i m i n u t i o n , and punishment o f r e l e v a n t and i r r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r i n t h e runway. P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e c o r d , 1963, 13, 273-282. B o l l e s , R. C. T h e o r y o f M o t i v a t i o n . New Y o r k : H a r p e r Row, 1967. B r i d g e s , C. C. A l l - e l e c t r i c r e c o r d i n g i n a s t r a i g h t a l l e y . A m erican J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . 1966, 79, 131-133. Brown, J . S. The m o t i v a t i o n o f B e h a v i o r . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1961. Du P r e e z , P. D. The p e r s i s t e n c e o f some e f f e c t s o f h a n d l i n g i n i n f a n c y on t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e a d u l t r a t . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1964, 16, 147-155. G u t h r i e , E. R. P s y c h o l o g y o f L e a r n i n g . New Y o r k : H a r p e r Row, 1935. H a l l , J . F. The P s y c h o l o g y o f L e a r n i n g . New Y o r k : J . B. L i p p i n c o t t Co., 1966. 50 51 H a r r i s , S. S m i t h , M. and W e i n s t o c k , S. E f f e c t s o f non-r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f s u b s e q u e n t r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f r u n n i n g b e h a v i o r . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1958, 56, 151-157. H u l s e , S. and S t a n l e y , W. E x t i n c t i o n by o m i s s i o n o f f o o d as r e l a t e d t o p a r t i a l and s e c o n d a r y r e i n f o r c e m e n t . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1956, 52, 221-227. J o n e s , E. C. and B r i d g e s , C. C. The p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t . e f f e c t and c o m peting b e h a v i o r i n a l a t e n t l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Psychonomic S c i e n c e . 1967. 7, 119-120. J o n e s , E. C. and B r i d g e s , C. C. Competing r e s p o n s e s and t h e p a r t i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t e f f e c t . Psychonomic  S c i e n c e . 1966, 6, 483-484. K i m b l e , G. A. H i l q a r d and M a r q u i s 1 C o n d i t i o n i n g and L e a r n -i n g . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1961. K i r k p a t r i c k , D. R., P a v l i k , W. B. and R e y n o l d s , W. F. P a r t i a l - r e i n f o r c e d e x t i n c t i o n e f f e c t as a f u n c t i o n o f s i z e o f g o a l b o x . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l -ogy. 1964, 68, 515-516. Logan, F. A. and Wagner, A.R. Reward and P u n i shment. B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, 1965. M i l l e r , N. and D o l l a r d , J . S o c i a l L e a r n i n g and I m i t a t i o n . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941. Mowrer, 0. H. L e a r n i n g T h e o r y and B e h a v i o r . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1961. P a v l o v , I . P. C o n d i t i o n e d R e f l e x e s , ( t r a n s l a t e d by G. V. A n r e p ) , London: O x f o r d P r e s s , 1927. Spence, K. W. B e h a v i o r T h e o r y and C o n d i t i o n i n g . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. T h o r n d i k e , E. L. A n i m a l I n t e l l i g e n c e : e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1911. Underwood, B. J . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1957. Wagner, A. R. C o n d i t i o n e d f r u s t r a t i o n as a l e a r n e d d r i v e . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1963, 66, 142-148. 52 Weinstock, S. Resistance to e x t i n c t i o n of a running r e -sponse f o l l o w i n g p a r t i a l reinforcement under widely spaced t r i a l s . J o u rnal of Comparative and Physio-l o g i c a l Psychology. 1954, 47, 318-322. Weinstock, S. A c q u i s i t i o n and e x t i n c t i o n of a p a r t i a l l y r e i n f o r c e d running response at a 24-hour i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l . J o urnal of Experimental Psychology. 1958, 56, 151-157. Wong, R. and Jamieson, J . L. I n f a n t i l e handling and the f a c i l i t a t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and r e v e r s a l l e a r n i n g . Submitted to Qua r t e r l y Journal of Experimental Psy-chology. 1967. Wong, R. and P a v l i k , W. B. Cues a s s o c i a t e d with f r u s t r a -t i v e nonreward do not n e c e s s a r i l y have a v e r s i v e moti-v a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s . Psychonomic Science. 1966, 5, 325-326. 

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