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Hannah More : her message and her method Andrews, Margaret Winters 1968

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HANNAH MORE:  HER MESSAGE AND HER METHOD  by MARGARET WINTERS ANDREWS B.A., D e n i s o n U n i v e r s i t y ,  1954  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e Department of History  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  required standard  THE/ UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June,  1968  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y . a v a i l a b l e f o r Study. thesis  I further  r e f e r e n c e and  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  c o p y i n g of  this  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my  Department or by h its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department of  permission.  History  June. 1 9 6 8  It  i s understood t h a t  copying  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 , Canada Date  I agree  Columbia  ii Abstract  Hannah More (1745-1833), t h e d a u g h t e r o f an ished  gentleman-schoolmaster, rose through  talent  into  the b r i l l i a n t  quarter of the an  and  eighteenth century.  E v a n g e l i c a l and  paigns  for "vital  morals.  She  j o i n e d the religion"  day  o f S o m e r s e t , and  books f o r r i c h  and  ditional  and  revival  Her and  the composition  philosophy  f e a r s and  the i n d u s t r i a l ic  Wars.  and  of  ideas. saw  s t r u c t u r e , cemented by  last  became cam-  manners establish-  "improving"  s t r e s s e d deep p e r s o n a l zeal, ignored  social that  they  Her  tra-  s o c i e t y as deference  p a r t of the broader  and  commitment,  industrialization  framework; a t t h e  still  same t i m e  and  accepted  r e v o l u t i o n s , and  the  i t played  p r i v a t i o n s o f t h e moment w h i c h grew French  evan-  regular religious duties.  assumed t h a t E n g l i s h m e n o f v a r i o u s r a n k s  upon t h e  the  and Hannah More i n t e n d e d  r e l i g i o n was  missionary  social  she  w o r k s were v e h i c l e s f o r h e r  method o f p e r s u a s i o n  traditional  age  f o r reformation of  conservative social  scripturalism, Her  and  t h e means f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e s e  paternalism.  gelical  In middle  "Clapham S a i n t s " i n t h e i r  through  an o r g a n i c , h i e r a r c h i c a l and  s o c i e t y of the  s c h o o l s f o r t h e poor i n t h e Mendip  r e l i g i o u s philosophy,  s h o u l d be  literary-  poor.  These d i d a c t i c and  charm and  made h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h  ment o f Sunday and Hills  London l i t e r a r y  impover-  from the  from  Napoleon-  iii Her  b o o k s were p o p u l a r ,  a t t i t u d e s matched t h o s e  primarily  because her  o f many o f h e r c o u n t r y m e n ; many  o f h e r o p p o n e n t s were even more c o n s e r v a t i v e t h a n Her  p o p u l a r i t y d i d not d e c l i n e n o t i c e a b l y u n t i l  death. ingly  By m i d - n i n e t e e n t h  after her  c e n t u r y h e r i d e a s were i n c r e a s -  o u t o f k e e p i n g w i t h t h o s e h e l d by p a r t o f t h e r e a d i n g  public, hastened  and f o r them t h e o b s o l e s c e n c e  o f her s o c i a l  the eclipse of her religious writings.  group c o n t i n u e d t o a c c e p t relationship could  s h e was.  still  views  Another  the o l d inter-dependent  o r t o f a s h i o n new o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e s .  social They  a c c e p t Hannah M o r e ' s v i e w s and p r o v i d e d h e r  with readers during the greater part of the nineteenth century.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  CHAPTER  I:  CHAPTER  II:  .  .  Hannah More  .  Hannah M o r e ' s M e s s a g e : o f Her Times  CHAPTER I I I :  IV:  V:  Conclusion  A Product .  .  .  .  .  .  .  F o r t h e Lower  .  .  .  For the "Better .  Hannah M o r e ' s M e t h o d : .  .  .  of People  Orders  CHAPTER  .  Hannah M o r e ' s M e t h o d : Sort  CHAPTER  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  .  .  .  .  .  .  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS T h e r e a r e many p e o p l e this  thesis possible.  T h e s t a f f o f t h e B r i t i s h Museum a n d  of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h patient  and i n g e n i o u s  of B r i t i s h  whose a s s i s t a n c e h a s made  Columbia l i b r a r y  i n answering q u e r i e s .  Columbia h i s t o r y  British on  feasible.  department have been p a r t i c u l a r l y  t i m e and h e l p . history,  the f i r s t  Dr. John N o r r i s guided  three chapters.  tact.  a grant  Two members o f  generous with  their  my r e a d i n g i n modern  and gave v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s  and c r i t i c i s m s  D r . James W i n t e r d i r e c t e d my  r e s e a r c h from i t s i n c e p t i o n with and  The U n i v e r s i t y  department p r o v i d e d  w h i c h made r e s e a r c h i n E n g l a n d that  have been  thoroughness,  perception,  W i t h o u t t h e encouragement and c o - o p e r a t i o n  o f my  husband and c h i l d r e n t h e t a s k c o u l d n e v e r have been undertaken  n o r completed.  To them a l l I g i v e s i n c e r e  thanks.  CHAPTER I Hannah More Hannah More i s known t o h i s t o r y as a minor e i g h t e e n t h century d r a m a t i s t , a member o f l i t e r a r y s a l o n s , an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e E v a n g e l i c a l r e v i v a l , and an educator o f young l a d i e s and o f t h e poor.  She was a l l o f these, but was  best known t o her contemporaries  as a d i d a c t i c author.  She  wrote to convince her r e a d e r s t h a t a s e t o f r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l i d e a s should be implemented i n t h e i r l i v e s .  She was  one p a r t o f a crusade t o improve the manners, p r i n c i p l e s , and s p i r i t u a l i t y o f England,  and t h e V i c t o r i a n s ' c o n f o r m i t y , a t  l e a s t e x t e r n a l l y , t o i t s standards i s a measure o f i t s s u c c e s s . Her d i d a c t i c books were w e l l r e c e i v e d because she s a i d something which was important to her r e a d e r s , i n a way which evoked a sympathetic  response.  Her own l i f e experiences i n -  f l u e n c e d t h e message she o f f e r e d and t h e propaganda methods which she employed.  As a c o n s e r v a t i v e parvenu i n a p e r i o d o f  r e v o l u t i o n she appears to have s t r u c k a note which harmonized w i t h t h e emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n o f a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f her countrymen.  I f her ideas p a r a l l e l e d  those o f her r e a d e r s her responses t o t h e contemporary e n v i r onment may have been t y p i c a l o f t h e i r s .  Thus f a m i l i a r i t y with  her l i f e throws l i g h t upon Hannah More, t h e propagandist, and upon h e r p e r i o d . Her f a t h e r , Jacob More, had hoped t o enter t h e church, but t h e f a i l u r e o f a l a w s u i t a g a i n s t a c o u s i n meant t h a t t h i s  2 was  not economically p o s s i b l e , and so he had chosen t e a c h i n g  as a c a r e e r .  With the l o w e r i n g of h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l expecta-  t i o n s he l e f t h i s n a t i v e N o r f o l k and moved west t o tershire.  When Hannah was  born on February  master o f the Free School a t Fishponds Her f a t h e r gave a l l f i v e daughters  Glouces-  2, 1745»  he  was  i n Stapleton parish.1  t h e i r b a s i c education,  even b e f o r e they were o l d enough f o r formal i n s t r u c t i o n r e c i t e d the r o l l i n g speeches from f a v o r i t e Greek and  and  he  Latin  t e x t s and then t r a n s l a t e d them i n t o E n g l i s h f o r the b e n e f i t o f the l i t t l e g i r l s upon h i s knee.2  Although  Jacob More had  been f o r c e d t o r e l i n q u i s h a c a r e e r i n the church i t s h o l d upon h i s h e a r t had not weakened.  He i n c u l c a t e d i n h i s  moral p r i n c i p l e s based upon r e l i g i o n and He was  daughters  Sabbatarianism.3  a h i g h churchman, but had been i n f l u e n c e d by d i s s e n t .  H i s mother was  a staunch P r e s b y t e r i a n and two  of h i s great-  u n c l e s had been c a p t a i n s i n O l i v e r Cromwell*s army.^ b l e n d o f orthodoxy  and p u r i t a n i s m , passed on t o h i s  p r e d i s p o s e d them to respond movement w i t h i n the Hannah was and was  His daughters,  with sympathy to the E v a n g e l i c a l  church. t h e next t o youngest o f the More s i s t e r s  e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d as the b r i g h t e s t of a c l e v e r f a m i l y .  Before she was  f o u r she had r e c i t e d her catechism i n church  t o t h e a d m i r a t i o n o f the m i n i s t e r and had amazed her by t e a c h i n g h e r s e l f t o r e a d .  parents  She d e l i g h t e d i n w r i t i n g ,  and  c r e a t e d " s u p p o s i t i o u s l e t t e r s t o depraved c h a r a c t e r s to r e c l a i m 'them from t h e i r errors"** and composed poems and essays. added a p p l i c a t i o n t o a b i l i t y :  a c l e r i c a l L a t i n t u t o r who  She was  3 l a t e r engaged to p o l i s h her education  said that she had  learned  more, i n a shorter period, than any student he had ever known.  0  Her studies included modern languages (French, Spanish, and I t a l i a n ) and history and l i t e r a t u r e . ^ o  In early childhood chronic i l l health became evident. Her f i r s t biographer, writing j u s t a f t e r her death, spoke of a recurrent "morbid s e n s i b i l i t y of constitution, which exposed Q  her to severe suspensions of her mental a c t i v i t y . " been suggested that t h i s was f o r a nervous breakdown.^°  I t has  a nineteenth century euphemism This diagnosis i s questionable.  Except f o r the lengthy i n c a p a c i t a t i n g i l l n e s s which coincided with the vituperative Blagdon controversy  (a public b a t t l e  between conservative and Evangelical church factions over one of her Mendip schools) her i l l health did not stop her pen f o r any length of time. her intimately wrote:  Bishop of London, Beilby Porteus who knew "You well know that . . . the vigour of  your mind i s i n inverse r a t i o to the strength of your body."^ She suffered from bronchitis, " b i l i o u s fever," ague, nervous 1 o  headaches, and sleeplessness.  While i t xs l i k e l y that  she  was susceptible to respiratory ailments, much of her i l l  health  may  a sen-  have been triggered by emotional pressures.  s i t i v e , ambitious, and insecure person.  She was  I l l n e s s may  have been  an unconscious escape from, or e f f e c t of, f r u s t r a t i o n and 1"?  internal c o n f l i c t .  She did not use i l l n e s s as an excuse  for giving up i n the face of pressure, she merely  continued  to work from bed, with some of the problems held at bay her chamber door.  by  4 T h e r e were s t r e s s e s upon a l l o f t h e More g i r l s a s daughters o f a gentleman  i n reduced circumstances.  were o t h e r s t o w h i c h Hannah a l o n e was s u b j e c t .  There  There i s e v i -  dence t h a t h e r p a r e n t s d i s a g r e e d about h e r t r a i n i n g , two  roles i n l i f e  were t h e r e f o r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e c h i l d .  a f a m i l y w i t h no s o n upon whom t o p i n t h e f a m i l y Hannah a s t h e most p r o m i s i n g o f t h e f i v e stitute.  and t h a t  girls,  In  aspirations, was t h e s u b -  H e r m o t h e r seems t o h a v e b e e n w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y b e h i n d  s u c h a r o l e f o r h e r d a u g h t e r , f o r i t was s h e who b o u g h t  Hannah  the longed f o r quire o f paper f o r her j u v e n i l e l i t e r a r y e f forts^  a n d who s u p p o r t e d Hannah's e n t r e a t i e s f o r p e r m i s s i o n  t o u n d e r t a k e new s t u d i e s . ^ - * of female pedantry.  J a c o b More h a d a s t r o n g  dislike  He s t a r t e d t o i n s t r u c t Hannah i n b o t h  L a t i n and mathematics,  b u t was s o a l a r m e d a t h e r p r o g r e s s  t h a t he permanently d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e l a t t e r  study.1°  Their  d a u g h t e r ' s a d u l t ambivalence echoed t h e p a r e n t s ' l a c k o f a g r e e 17 ment. '  In her didactic  the f i e l d  works she s e t s t r i c t  o f feminine learning,  always observe h e r s e l f . natural destiny  boundaries t o  b o u n d a r i e s which  she d i d not  She assumed t h a t m a r r i a g e was t h e  f o r women, b u t c h o s e t o r e m a i n s i n g l e .  She  condemned women who were a g g r e s s i v e , y e t waged s u c c e s s f u l war upon t h e M e n d i p f a r m e r s and m a g i s t r a t e s who were opposed  t o her schools.  initially  She v a l u e d t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e  w o r l d o f t h e g r e a t and s h e l i k e d  to shine i n a social  yet she considered these d e s i r e s l a c k i n g i n C h r i s t i a n  group, humility  and f e m i n i n e s u b m i s s i o n . ^  T h i s d u a l i t y o f g o a l s may h a v e  helped t o produce c o n f l i c t  which sought r e l e a s e i n i l l n e s s .  5 All Their  the  More g i r l s must h a v e f e l t  f a t h e r was  a g e n t l e m a n who  t h e i r m o t h e r was  below t h e  cation"  daughter o f  ing  and  i n the  little  social  h a l f the  and  s a l a r y of  was  a career  p l a i n edu-  a country clergyman.  Teach-  which y i e l d e d  M o r e ' s s a l a r y was  s u b s e q u e n t l y b e t w e e n £20  t o t h i s i n c o m e by  and  a c r e d i t a b l e farmer."19  p r e s t i g e or wealth.  1745  insecure.  seen b e t t e r days,  l i n e of g e n t i l i t y — " o f  mid-eighteenth century  year u n t i l  add  "the  had  socially  and  I t was  £15  £25,  per  or  about  possible  to  taking private students i n addition  to  20 his  thirty  charity children.  p o s i t i o n was c e a s e t o be stretched  precarious. "gentle."  to cover v i s i t s  London, and eligible  f a m i l y income c o u l d to the  not  marriage markets of  Upon t h e i r  father's death poverty  threat.  What c o u l d  career  was  little  not  respect  girls,  efforts.  yet  fully  The  would  respectable.  i n many h o m e s ,  father's occupation,  2 2  A  but  that  There  but  was  where were  f u t u r e must h a v e a p p e a r e d u n c e r t a i n  t h e y knew t h a t  i t d e p e n d e d upon t h e i r  to  own  2 3  The their native their  t h e y had  their  or  gentlewomen 21  p r e f e r a b l e to going i n t o domestic s e r v i c e . teaching,  Bath  doweries to a t t r a c t  impoverished  yet  would  have  suitors.  they to teach?  and  a farmer they  were no  A literary  school  the  I f they married  social  case there  governess r e c e i v e d was  More s i s t e r s '  i n any  become a r e a l do?  The  The  s i s t e r s were n o t  i n t e l l i g e n c e , t r a i n e d by  character, won  without resources.  f o s t e r e d by  their  father's  the precepts  f r i e n d s i n B r i s t o l who  Apart  of  from  teaching,  religion,  were i n a p o s i t i o n  to  6  help them and d i d so.  When t h e e l d e s t c h i l d , Mary, was o n l y  n i n e t e e n these f r i e n d s enabled  t h e two o l d e s t g i r l s t o s e t  up a g i r l s ' b o a r d i n g school i n B r i s t o l . * ^  The Mores may a l s o  have had t h e patronage o f t h e Beaufort f a m i l y .  J  I t i s cer-  t a i n t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Norborne B e r k e l y , l a t e r Baron B o t t e n t o u r t , uncle o f t h e f i f t h Duke o f Beaufort, the S t a p l e t o n master's p o s i t i o n f o r Jacob More. of  obtained The Duchess  Beaufort and her mother, Mrs. Boscawen, were a l s o good  f r i e n d s o f Hannah More a f t e r h e r s o r t i e i n t o London s o c i e t y , yet  t h e evidence does not show a c t i v e help from t h e Beauforts  w h i l e t h e More s i s t e r s were unknown g i r l s .  Their  supporters  were more l i k e l y won by t h e Mores' m e r i t s than by a r i s t o c r a t i c patronage. When Mary and E l i z a b e t h More s e t up s c h o o l i n 1757 t h e i r t h r e e younger s i s t e r s j o i n e d them, f i r s t as students and l a t e r as m i s t r e s s e s . and  Hannah was then twelve y e a r s o l d ,  i t was an opportune time t o widen her i n t e l l e c t u a l and  s o c i a l horizons.  The s c h o o l f l o u r i s h e d and soon a t t r a c t e d 26  t h e daughters o f s u b s t a n t i a l and r e s p e c t e d B r i s t o l  families.  These g i r l s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s o f t e n became Hannah More's f r i e n d s and were u s e f u l t o h e r . B r i s t o l was t h e g r e a t e s t p o r t a f t e r London.  I t mon-  o p o l i z e d most o f t h e Welsh t r a d e , d i d a good b u s i n e s s  with  I r e l a n d and t h e western c o u n t i e s o f England, and grew r i c h from t h e s l a v e t r a d e . processed  I t a l s o manufactured g l a s s and p o t t e r y ,  l i m e and z i n c , and r e f i n e d West I n d i a n sugar.  The  merchants were wealthy and reputed t o be more o s t e n t a t i o u s  7 and l e s s r e f i n e d than those o f London.  N e v e r t h e l e s s they  p a t r o n i z e d l e c t u r e s and t h e t h e a t e r as w e l l as c o c k f i g h t s and b u l l b a i t i n g , and managed t o p r e s e n t "a g r e a t f a c e o f s e r i o u s n e s s and r e l i g i o n . "  The m a g i s t r a t e s were " s t r i c k i n  e x a c t i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e Sabbath."27 After Stapleton v i l l a g e l i f e , t i n g environment  B r i s t o l was a s t i m u l a -  f o r an a t t r a c t i v e , i n t e l l i g e n t ,  g i r l , 2 $ and Hannah More took advantage o f i t .  and charming  There were  o u t s t a n d i n g men who v i s i t e d o r l i v e d i n B r i s t o l , and who became h e r f r i e n d s and added t o h e r e d u c a t i o n .  Thomas Sheridan,  f a t h e r o f R i c h a r d B r i n s l e y , was so impressed with v e r s e s w r i t t e n by t h e s i x t e e n year o l d g i r l t h a t he asked t o meet her. son.29  Thus commenced  a l o n g f r i e n d s h i p with both f a t h e r and  xhe astronomer  James Ferguson  asked her t o c r i t i c i s e  h i s compositions, and taught h e r science.30  J o s i a h Tucker,  l a t e r Dean o f G l o u c e s t e r , Tory i n p o l i t i c s and l i b e r a l i n h i s f r e e t r a d e economics, submitted h i s p o l i t i c a l pamphlets f o r her i n s p e c t i o n . 3 1  A l i n e n d r a p e r , Samuel Peach, whom David  Hume had asked t o c o r r e c t h i s H i s t o r y o f England  for Scotti-  cisms helped t o form Hannah More's l i t e r a r y t a s t e and sense of c r i t i c i s m . 3 2  James Stonehouse, doctor and clergyman,  f r i e n d o f a c t o r David G a r r i c k , o f Nonconformist  P h i l i p Dodd-  r i d g e , and o f Methodist George W h i t e f i e l d , was a neighbour, c o u n s e l l o r , and dear f r i e n d . and r e l i g i o u s w r i t e r s  3 3  He guided her study o f theology  and t o him may be c r e d i t e d her ecu-  menical t a s t e i n r e l i g i o u s  literature.  8 The move t o B r i s t o l not o n l y gave Hannah More t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r education and i n f l u e n t i a l f r i e n d s , but a l s o u l t i m a t e l y gave her f i n a n c i a l independence.  She became en-  gaged t o W i l l i a m Turner, wealthy s q u i r e o f Belmont and n e a r l y t w i c e her age, who was c o u s i n and h o l i d a y host t o two p u p i l s of  t h e More's s c h o o l .  advantageous master.  He was "generous  and s e n s i b l e " and an  match f o r t h e p e n n i l e s s daughter o f a s c h o o l  Hannah More s o l d her i n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o o l and  ordered her t r o u s s e a u .  Three times t h e wedding date was s e t  and t h r e e times t h e h e s i t a n t groom postponed t h e event. t h a t p o i n t she broke t h e engagement.  Turner, s t i l l  At  protesting  t h a t he wanted t o marry her, i n s i s t e d upon s e t t l i n g an a n n u i t y upon h e r (Dr. Stonehouse  accepted i t on Hannah More's b e h a l f  and without h e r knowledge),  and l e f t her £ 1 , 0 0 0 i n h i s w i l l . 3 4  Years l a t e r W i l l i a m Turner appeared a t t h e More s i s t e r s ' country home and f r i e n d l y i n t e r c o u r s e was resumed, a t e s t i mony t o t h e c h a r a c t e r and s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n o f them both. The f i n a n c i a l r e s u l t s o f t h i s episode were b e n e f i c i a l ; the  emotional ones were l e s s happy.  I t i s easy t o imagine the  emotional t u r m o i l caused by t h i s romantic misadventure.  Han-  nah More must have f e l t p e r s o n a l l y r e j e c t e d and may have come to  doubt her s e x u a l a p p e a l .  Apart from her i n n e r doubts t h e r e  was t h e embarrassment o f meeting acquaintances and making explanations.  She never a g a i n r i s k e d a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s e  p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e s , and f i r m l y turned h e r back on marriage. She l a t e r r e c e i v e d o f f e r s o f marriage from t h e poet, Dr. John Langhorn,  a t t h a t time r e c t o r o f Blagdon, Somerset,  and from  9 the e c c e n t r i c Lord Monboddo. -* 3  Both men were e l i g i b l e and  were f r i e n d s whose company she enjoyed, but her answer was, "No."  She had t r i e d the feminine r o l e s e t i n c h i l d h o o d by  her f a t h e r .  Through no f a u l t o f her own ( W i l l i a m Turner seems  t o have been a middle-aged b a c h e l o r unable t o take t h e f i n a l step i n t o matrimony) t h i s r o l e was denied her. f r e e t o t r y t h e c o m p e t i t i v e course suggested a t t i t u d e , and to seek success through  She was  then  by her mother's  her l i t e r a r y  talents.  The need t o succeed may have been i n t e n s i f i e d by the p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n o f her f r e q u e n t l y postponed wedding. ^ 3  I n s e c u r i t y , t h e l e g a c y o f Hannah More's y o u t h f u l experiences, seems to have had a l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e . c a r i o u s s o c i a l and economic p o s i t i o n , ambiguity  of l i f e  and broken engagement may have a f f e c t e d her h e a l t h . i n f l u e n c e d her s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s i d e a s . uncomfortable  The p r e role,  I t also  A person who i s  i n a g i v e n s o c i a l m i l i e u may c l i n g to t h e s t a t u s  quo f o r s e c u r i t y or t r y to c r e a t e a new o r d e r where o t h e r s w i l l be e q u a l l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d ; Hannah More's s o c i a l i d e a s were c o n s e r v a t i v e and her r e l i g i o u s ones were i n n o v a t o r y .  Her p e r -  sonal experience with i n s e c u r i t y may have i n c r e a s e d her awareness o f i t s presence  among her contemporaries  as they a d j u s t e d  t o new demographic, economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , making her a more e f f e c t i v e  propagandist.  D u r i n g t h e B r i s t o l y e a r s , 1757-1774, Hannah More began to w r i t e s e r i o u s l y . 7 3  she wrote her e a r l y dramas f o r t h e  p u p i l s of the boarding school:  Search A f t e r Happiness, w r i t t e n  i n 1762, p r o v i d e d u n o b j e c t i o n a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e i r amateur  10  t h e a t r i c a l s , and c i r c u l a t e d from s c h o o l t o s c h o o l i n manuscript form f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e i t s p u b l i c a t i o n .  The s c h o o l ' s  c h i l d r e n a l s o produced Sacred Dramas b e f o r e t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1 7 8 2 . D u r i n g these y e a r s Hannah More s t u d i e d p l a y product i o n a t B r i s t o l ' s e x c e l l e n t Theatre Royal and made f r i e n d s among t h e a c t o r s and a c t r e s s e s .  She wrote her f i r s t  full-  f l e d g e d p l a y , The I n f l e x i b l e C a p t i v e , i n B r i s t o l and took i t w i t h h e r on her f i r s t  t r i p to London.^  When she a r r i v e d i n  t h e m e t r o p o l i s she found t h a t some o f her e p i t a p h s ,  light  p o e t r y , and hymns had preceeded h e r , f o r when she entered S i r Joshua Reynold's drawing room t o f i r s t meet Samuel Johnson he g r e e t e d her w i t h a verse o f "Morning Hymn."39  Edmund Burke  f o l l o w e d s u i t on a s i m i l a r o c c a s i o n , c h o o s i n g as h i s c o m p l i ment an e p i t a p h i n B r i s t o l ' s R e d c l i f f Church which had been w r i t t e n by Hannah More.40 Her conquest o f London i s a remarkable episode. yet  Not  t h i r t y , with few c o n t a c t s i n t h e c a p i t a l , she was welcomed  d u r i n g t h e s i x weeks o f her f i r s t ures o f l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y .  v i s i t by d i s t i n g u i s h e d f i g -  A B r i s t o l f r i e n d , Mrs. L o v e l l  Gwatkin, p r o v i d e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o S i r Joshua Reynolds and his  sister.  Through them she met and impressed  and Dr. Johnson.  Edmund Burke  A mutual f r i e n d , perhaps Dr. Stonehouse,  showed G a r r i c k a l e t t e r from Hannah More d e s c r i b i n g h i s p e r formance as L e a r .  He asked t o meet t h e author  d e l i g h t e d w i t h each o t h e r . Mrs.  and they were  The next day he i n t r o d u c e d her t o  E l i z a b e t h Montagu, one of t h e l e a d i n g h o s t e s s e s o f t h e  bluestocking l i t e r a r y set.41  The r e c e p t i o n g i v e n to Hannah  11 More by t h e s e c e l e b r i t i e s t e s t i f i e s t o her a t t r a c t i v e ality.  person-  The impression g i v e n by her f i r s t b i o g r a p h e r , and  propagated  by most subsequent n i n e t e e n t h century b i o g r a p h e r s ,  i s o f a devout,  charitable precisian.  I f Hannah More had  been o n l y t h a t her h i s t o r y would have been very d i f f e r e n t . She was e n t h u s i a s t i c , d e l i g h t e d w i t h her new (always a winning t r a i t ) , and ready c o n v e r s a t i o n .  w e l l educated,  acquaintances  and endowed w i t h w i t ,  Her correspondence  r e c r e a t e s drawing  rooms and d i n i n g rooms f i l l e d with merriment t o which she c o n t r i b u t e d her f u l l  share.  The l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century London s o c i e t y was composed o f o v e r l a p p i n g c i r c l e s . visit  The i n t r o d u c t i o n s o f her f i r s t  l e d t o o t h e r s and her acquaintance  expanded.  Although  l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s c o n t a i n e d her f a v o r i t e f r i e n d s , she was exposed t o t h e r o u t s , " a t homes," and m u s i c a l s o f t h e l e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l s e t s , e s p e c i a l l y as her l i t e r a r y renown grew and she was sought by h o s t e s s e s eager t o d i s p l a y a new brity. extended fines.  cele-  London s o c i e t y was a r i s t o c r a t i c , but t h e r u l i n g c l a s s t h e entree t o t a l e n t and w i t born o u t s i d e i t s conHannah More was one o f t h e s e .  R e c o g n i t i o n by t h e  g r e a t e s t names i n t h e l a n d must have soothed t h e h u m i l i a t i o n of  her broken engagement.  However, London was not u n a l l o y e d  s a t i s f a c t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t .  Many o f "the great and t h e gay"  were not r e l i g i o u s , and t h e i r v a l u e s were m a t e r i a l i s t i c and selfish.  She d i d not accept t h e i r standards, but she had t o  r e c o n c i l e t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n c r e a t e d by t h e p l a u d i t s o f t h e great w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t she o f t e n condemned t h e i r  12  moral v a l u e s .  She a l s o had to j u s t i f y her presence i n t h e  midst o f such people; as she s a i d o f h e r s e l f , "What doest thou here  Elijah?"  4 2  D u r i n g her r e g u l a r w i n t e r v i s i t s t o London over n e a r l y t h i r t y y e a r s she found i n t h e b l u e s t o c k i n g g r o u p ^ 4  a b l e compromise f o r t h i s dilemma.  a  n  accept-  The group was r a t i o n a l ,  moral, and i n some cases r e l i g i o u s , and Hannah More's s c r u p l e s were q u i t e i n t h e i r midst.  B l u e s t o c k i n g s came from middle  c l a s s and a r i s t o c r a c y , and f o r her t h e r e was s e c u r i t y i n t h e company o f t h e former because i t was f a m i l i a r , and g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e presence o f t h e l a t t e r because i t was p r e s t i g i o u s . She was not a snob 4 but was t h r i l l e d t o win acceptance by 4  the Mrs. Mary Delany^S h o r e f u s e d t o know Dr. Johnson. w  Her  b l u e s t o c k i n g f r i e n d s i n c l u d e d t h e wealthy s o c i e t y h o s t e s s E l i z a b e t h Montagu, t h e i m p u l s i v e , c h i l d - l i k e l i t e r a r y h o s t e s s E l i z a b e t h Vessey, t h e Greek s c h o l a r E l i z a b e t h C a r t e r , Frances Boscawen who was widow o f an admiral and mother o f a Duchess, shy young Fanny Burney o f E v e l i n a fame, and t h e Dowager Duchess o f P o r t l a n d , mother o f t h e prime m i n i s t e r .  Among t h e  b l u e s t o c k i n g gentlemen were Horace Walpole, Benjamin  Stilling-  f l e e t , t h e n a t u r a l i s t grandson o f t h e seventeenth c e n t u r y bishop, t h e poet R i c h a r d Owen Cambridge, Soame Jenyns, author o f View o f t h e I n t e r n a l Evidence o f t h e C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n . G a r r i c k , Johnson, and B o s w e l l . T h i s c o t e r i e was a t i t s z e n i t h i n t h e 1770*s and e a r l y 1 7 8 0 * s , and c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y o f middle aged and e l d e r l y men and women w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l  i n t e r e s t s who p r e f e r r e d conver-  s a t i o n - - a n a r t enjoyed f o r i t s own s a k e , the  not as a t o o l — t o  4 0  f a s h i o n a b l e and u b i q u i t o u s c a r d games.  At a time when  w e l l - r e a d women tended t o h i d e t h e i r l e a r n i n g t h e b l u e s t o c k i n g l a d i e s took p r i d e i n g a t h e r i n g f o r informed c o n v e r s a t i o n r a t h e r than empty-headed female c h a t t e r .  While b l u e s t o c k i n g s  might gather f o r a cozy d i n n e r o r an i n t i m a t e evening o f conv e r s a t i o n they d i d not i s o l a t e themselves from t h e beau monde. They j o i n e d i n t h e formal c i r c l e o f f o p s , d i l e t t a n t i ,  poli-  t i c i a n s , and s o c i e t y matrons i n t h e g l i t t e r i n g opulence o f Mrs. Montagu's s a l o n .  Mrs. Boscawen t h o u g h t f u l l y p r o v i d e d  for  c a r d s i n some rooms and f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n i n o t h e r s so that  the  " b l u e s " and t h e s o c i a l b u t t e r f l i e s need not unduly oppress  each o t h e r .  Mrs. Vessey's simple cake and lemonade and i n -  f o r m a l touch managed t o make " d i f f e r e n t k i n d s amalgamate." At  such b l u e s t o c k i n g g a t h e r i n g s . . . sober duchesses [were! seen, Chaste w i t s , and c r i t i c s v o i d o f s p l e e n ; P h y s i c i a n s , f r a u g h t with r e a l s c i e n c e , And Whigs and T o r i e s i n a l l i a n c e ; Poets, f u l f i l l i n g C h r i s t i a n d u t i e s , J u s t lawyers, r e a s o n a b l e b e a u t i e s ; Bishops who preach, and peers who pay, And countesses who seldom p l a y ; L e a r n d a n t i q u a r i e s , who, from c o l l e g e , R e j e c t t h e r u s t , and b r i n g the knowledge; And, hear i t , age, b e l i e v e i t , y o u t h , — Polemics, r e a l l y s e e k i n g t r u t h ; And t r a v e l l e r s o f t h a t r a r e t r i b e , Who've seen t h e c o u n t r i e s they d e s c r i b e ; ^ ' T  She had a number o f acquaintances and some good f r i e n d s apart from the l i t e r a t i .  Her l e t t e r s r e v e a l her c h a t t i n g w i t h  Lord Howe upon h i s r e t u r n from America,48 s t r o l l i n g i n a garden  w i t h the l a n d s c a p e r John " C a p a b i l i t y " Brown,  and  flirting  w i t h her "beaux" General Oglethorpe, t h e founder of Georgia"*® and General P a o l i , l e a d e r of t h e C o r s i c a n i n s u r g e n t s a g a i n s t the French and Genoese.-*•"•  Lord C h a n c e l l o r and Lady B a t h u r s t  opened t h e i r home t o her and t h e i r purse t o her  charities,  and Lady Spencer, mother o f the n o t o r i o u s Duchess of Devons h i r e , e n t e r t a i n e d her a t S t . Albans.^2  Edmund Burke e n l i s t e d  her h e l p w i t h h i s campaign correspondence i n the 1774  Bristol  election.53 She b e n e f i t e d from her London v i s i t s .  They taught  her the mores o f upper c l a s s s o c i e t y , and they brought  her  p r a i s e and r e c o g n i t i o n from members of t h a t s e l e c t world. As the y e a r s passed p r a i s e ceased t o s a t i s f y her. i m p a t i e n t with the a r t i f i c i a l  She grew  s o c i a l forms o f the m e t r o p o l i s  and longed f o r s o l i t u d e away from the b u s t l e o f the c i t y . " *  4  B i o g r a p h e r s of Hannah More have seen a sharp c o n t r a s t between the w o r l d l y f i r s t h a l f o f her l i f e and the r e l i g i o u s l a t t e r part.-*-*  The c o n t r a s t was  k i n d and developed g r a d u a l l y . In  one o f degree r a t h e r than  She was  devout from c h i l d h o o d .  B r i s t o l she wrote hymns f o r Dr. Stonehouse and  dramas f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .  religious  In the ' s e v e n t i e s she was  a  s t r i c t S a b b a t a r i a n amidst London society,-*** chose S t . P a u l ' s e p i s t l e s i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t r a n s l a t i o n s f o r summer and wrote moral essays f o r young l a d i e s .  reading,57  In the e a r l y ' e i g h -  t i e s she r e f u s e d t o go to the t h e a t e r because o f r e l i g i o u s scruples.5^  Many o f her London f r i e n d s were a l s o s e r i o u s  about t h e i r r e l i g i o n :  Mrs. Boscawen, Mrs. Montague, and  Mrs.  H e s t e r Chapone were " l a d i e s of h i g h c h a r a c t e r f o r p i e t y ,  , , : > y  60  and Samuel Johnson was  "a most z e a l o u s C h r i s t i a n . "  these y e a r s she numbered s e v e r a l b i s h o p s among her  During friends:  B e i l b y Porteus, Robert Lowth, Shute B a r r i n g t o n , Thomas Newton, and R i c h a r d Watson. Although Hannah More had l o n g been devout near her f o r t i e t h b i r t h d a y she began t o p r o f e s s the v i t a l r e l i g i o n o f the E v a n g e l i c a l s , a p a r t y which had been growing i n the o f England s i n c e mid-century. °^  Church  The E v a n g e l i c a l s wanted t o  r e p l a c e c l e r i c a l l a x i t y w i t h z e a l , and r e k i n d l e p e r s o n a l s p i r i t u a l i t y among a l l churchmen.  In order to encourage  genuine p i e t y they censured p u r s u i t s which g r a t i f i e d c e n t e r e d , r a t h e r than God-centered,  f e e l i n g s — g a m b l i n g , osten-  t a t i o u s d r e s s , t h e a t r i c a l performances, S a b b a t h — a n d urged meaningful God  self-  s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f the  and emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  through p r i v a t e devotions, p u b l i c worship, and  charitable  works. The E v a n g e l i c a l s and M e t h o d i s t s were s i m i l a r i n many respects.**  Both sought t o r e v i v e v i t a l p e r s o n a l C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  2  and both based t h e i r f a i t h upon a l i t e r a l the B i b l e .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  D u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e o u t e r world  t i n u a l l y confused the two tinguishable.  con-  groups; n e v e r t h e l e s s they were d i s -  The E v a n g e l i c a l c l e r g y u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d t h e i r  m i n i s t r a t i o n s to t h e i r own  p a r i s h , w h i l e the M e t h o d i s t s gen-  e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d a system of i t i n e r a n c y , t a k i n g "the world for their parish."  The M e t h o d i s t s depended p r i m a r i l y upon  the Methodist o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a c h i n e r y — t h e  societies,  16  c i r c u i t s , and conference, with t h e i r superintending  officers-  while the Evangelicals t y p i c a l l y worked within the parochial system.  Although both accepted the a r t i c l e s of f a i t h , they  received more emphasis from the Evangelicals. the century there were other d i s t i n c t i o n s .  The  By the end of Evangelicals  used a more d i g n i f i e d and calm method of preaching,  and con-  verted mainly i n the upper and upper middle classes of society. Theologically the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two was l e s s c l e a r cut.  groups  Generally speaking the Evangelicals were  moderate C a l v i n i s t s , and the Methodists were Arminian,63  but  George Whitefield's branch of Methodism was C a l v i n i s t i c ,  and  prominent Evangelicals—William Wilberforce, leader of the Clapham sect, Thomas Gisborne, the f i n e s t sermon writer of h i s day, and Hannah More—were Arminian.  A l l of the r e v i v a l -  i s t s believed i n the personal influence of the Holy S p i r i t , the t o t a l degeneracy of man,  the vicarious nature of Christ's  atonement, and the necessity of God's grace for salvation, but the Wesleyans ascribed to t h e i r leader's doctrine of C h r i s t i a n perfection, a b e l i e f that was unacceptable to a l l Evangelicals. Hannah More moved slowly, over a period of years, into the Evangelical c i r c l e through two i n t e r e s t s :  she wanted  to f i n d a more s a t i s f y i n g r e l i g i o n , and she wished to see the a b o l i t i o n of the slave trade.  In 1 7 8 7 she began to attend  St. Mary's Woolnoth to hear the blunt ex-slaver and c a l , John Newton.  Evangeli-  Often she "afterwards went and sat an hour  with him, and came home with two pockets f u l l of sermons."^  4  T h e i r correspondence  began t h e same y e a r and r e c o r d s her  i t u a l s t r u g g l e "between a c o n c e p t i o n o f r e l i g i o n as an tial  spir-  essen-  o f l i f e and a conception o f r e l i g i o n as t h e e s s e n t i a l o f In London i n 1776 she met  life." ^ 0  Lord Barham, and h i s wife.**  Charles Middleton,  later  The Middletons were among the  0  f i r s t a b o l i t i o n i s t s and i n the 1 7 8 0 s they e n l i s t e d Hannah T  More*s help i n t h e campaign to support a p a r l i a m e n t a r y  bill.  I n 1787 she met W i l b e r f o r c e , t h e twenty-eight year o l d l e a d e r of  the movement, and through him came t o be a p a r t o f the  group o f E v a n g e l i c a l s who  a f t e r 1 7 9 2 l i v e d about Clapham  Common.°7 The members o f t h a t Clapham s e c t became her c l o s e friends. did  She was  n o t a b l e f o r her l o n g f r i e n d s h i p s , and  not abandon her b l u e s t o c k i n g f r i e n d s o r other London  acquaintances,  but as the y e a r s passed her time and  were more and more absorbed gelicals. at  she  i n t o the p r o j e c t s o f the Evan-  Among her Clapham f r i e n d s was  twenty-six governor  interest  Zachary  Macaulay,  of S i e r r a Leone and from 1 8 0 2 t o 1 8 1 6  e d i t o r o f the E v a n g e l i c a l organ The C h r i s t i a n Observer.  His  w i f e had been a m i s t r e s s o f the More s i s t e r s * B r i s t o l s c h o o l . Hannah More was  god-mother to t h e i r daughter Hannah, l a t e r  Lady T r e v e l y a n , and h o s t e s s , playmate, and mentor to t h e i r 6Q son Tom,  l a t e r Lord Macaulay.  Thornton,  7  Other f a v o r i t e s were Henry  banker and member o f p a r l i a m e n t , and h i s f a m i l y , 7 0  C h a r l e s Grant, one o f the c o u r t of d i r e c t o r s o f the East I n d i a Company, and Lord Teignmouth, a former of  India.  governor-general  The Clapham group l i v e d l i v e s of " p r a c t i c a l  18 Christianity."  P a r t o f each day, a t l e a s t t h r e e hours, was  devoted t o p r a y e r and s p i r i t u a l renewal.  The r e s t o f t h e i r  waking hours were devoted t o implementing t h e i r C h r i s t i a n c r e e d i n c h a r i t a b l e a c t i v i t i e s and crusades t o improve e t y ' s manners and morals.  soci-  The u l t i m a t e aim o f t h e s e good  works was t o b r i n g t h e i r f e l l o w men t o a s t a t e o f g r a c e . ^ Why d i d Hannah More become an E v a n g e l i c a l ?  One pos-  s i b l e reason, a d m i t t e d l y s p e c u l a t i v e , i s t h a t she found emot i o n a l s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r type o f C h r i s t i a n i t y .  She wrote t o  John Newton, "Upon t h e arch o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e more I p r e s s , the  stronger I f i n d i t . " ^  2  Adoption o f t h e E v a n g e l i c a l  approach t o r e l i g i o n p r o v i d e d s e c u r i t y i n s e v e r a l ways. deep p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God could f i l l  A  an emotional  v o i d i n the middle-aged s p i n s t e r .  Absolute commitment t o God,  p l a c i n g Him i n t h e c e n t e r o f l i f e ,  passed t h e i n i t i a t i v e  the  from  i n d i v i d u a l t o God. He was then t h e d i r e c t o r and t h e i n -  d i v i d u a l t h e instrument o f h i s w i l l . ^ 3  The r e g u l a r p e r s o n a l  d i s c i p l i n e demanded by t h e E v a n g e l i c a l f a i t h — p r a y e r ,  intro-  s p e c t i o n , s e l f - d e n i a l , and good w o r k s — i n i t s e l f p r o v i d e d a f a m i l i a r and secure framework f o r l i f e . She may a l s o have found i n E v a n g e l i c a l i s m a c h a l l e n g e for  her a b i l i t i e s a t a time when she had conquered t h e London  l i t e r a r y world and was s e e k i n g new o u t l e t s f o r her t a l e n t s . The E v a n g e l i c a l b a t t l e a g a i n s t s i n and i n f i d e l i t y was never ending; she would never a g a i n need t o l o o k f o r new worlds t o conquer.  When she e n l i s t e d i n t h e E v a n g e l i c a l army she d e t e r -  mined t o t e a c h both t h e r i c h and t h e poor t o be t r u e  19 Christians.  The means were her Mendip s c h o o l s and her  p u b l i s h e d works. In 1785 Hannah More bought a summer c o t t a g e , Green, t e n m i l e s from B r i s t o l on t h e Exeter road.  Cowslip  I t s pur-  chase was a symptom o f her d i s c o n t e n t w i t h h e r London c e n t e r e d life.  She had not then found t h e new d i r e c t i o n t h a t E v a n g e l i -  c a l i s m soon p r o v i d e d . from t h e a r t i f i c i a l  Cowslip Green was bought as a r e t r e a t  s o c i a l conventions  as a spot f o r l e i s u r e and m e d i t a t i o n .  o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s , and 7 4  A v i s i t from W i l b e r -  f o r c e i n 1789 ended l e i s u r e , and a l s o t h e d i s c o n t e n t o f p u r poselessness.  He was a p p a l l e d a t the s p i r i t u a l ignorance o f  the i n h a b i t a n t s o f Cheddar, a Mendip v i l l a g e nearby.  He  o f f e r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e funds f o r a Sunday s c h o o l i f Hannah More and h e r younger s i s t e r Martha would p r o v i d e t h e super-  • • 75 vxsxon. J  The conquest  o f t h e Mendips  by t h e two More s i s t e r s  i s as i m p r e s s i v e i n i t s own way as t h e e l d e r ' s e a r l i e r conquest o f London.  Two f a r from robust women e s t a b l i s h e d Sunday  s c h o o l s and day s c h o o l s f o r c h i l d r e n , evening i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a d u l t s , and f r i e n d l y b e n e f i t c l u b s f o r t h e women i n a dozen communities which were s c a t t e r e d over f i f t y connected  by deeply r u t t e d , muddy roads.  square m i l e s , and  By b e i n g out f o r  t h i r t e e n hours and t r a v e l i n g by horseback the s i s t e r s c o u l d v i s i t two s c h o o l s each Sunday.  The aim o f the Mores was t o  save s o u l s , b u t s i n c e c l e a n l i n e s s and g o d l i n e s s , i n d u s t r y and r e l i g i o n were i n s e p a r a b l y u n i t e d i n t h e s i s t e r s ' minds t h e p h y s i c a l as w e l l as t h e s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e o f t h e Mendip poor  benefited.  The two women encountered  obstacles.'  They com-  bated t h e ignorance and s u p e r s t i t i o n o f the people they to  h e l p , t h e absenteeism  and i n d i f f e r e n c e o f the l o c a l  wished clergy,  the s c a r c i t y o f proper t e a c h e r s , and t h e h o s t i l i t y o f t h e l o c a l farmers who rebellion.  f e l t that education was  The o b s t a c l e s were overcome.  the b e g i n n i n g o f In Cheddar (where .  mothers r e f u s e d at f i r s t t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l f o r f e a r they would be shipped over-seas) t h e r e were a t the end of six  y e a r s two hundred c h i l d r e n and two hundred a d u l t s r e g u l a r -  l y attending instruction.7$  C h a r l e s Moss, bishop o f Bath  and  W e l l s , agreed t o appoint to the Mendip p a r i s h e s clergymen  who  were sympathetic t o Sunday s c h o o l s . suggested by Hannah More who clergy.79  He even accepted names  gave her patronage to E v a n g e l i c a l  i f t e a c h e r s c o u l d not be found, the s i s t e r s t r a i n e d  a l o c a l c o l l i e r o r m i l k maid f o r the t a s k .  The once  antagon-  i s t i c N a i l s e a farmers began to take t u r n s v i s i t i n g the Sunday s c h o o l and t o h e l p d i s c i p l i n e the c h i l d r e n . c o u l d w r i t e t o W i l b e r f o r c e , "God  o v  Hannah More  has b l e s s e d the work beyond  81 a l l my  hopes." The More's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l i s only a p a r t i a l  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e success of t h e Mendip s c h o o l s , f o r i n the  1780*s Sunday s c h o o l s f l o u r i s h e d a l l over the country  subsequent ter.  t o Robert Raikes s u c c e s s f u l experiment  The movement's success was  humanitarianism,  compounded from a  i n Gloucesgrowing  an awakening m i s s i o n a r y s p i r i t w i t h i n the  church, lower c l a s s y e a r n i n g s f o r a b e t t e r way  of l i f e ,  and  upper c l a s s attempts to use r e l i g i o n to keep t h e poor i n t h e i r proper  station.  21 Her  a p p l i e d r e l i g i o n r e a c h e d f a r beyond h e r  neighbourhood  through her t r a c t s ,  gious novel.  She  feel  the s p i r i t  sought  She  wrote  faith  f o r t h e upper  e s s a y s , and  truly  reli-  religious,  i n s t e a d of merely  and t o a p p l y t h e s p i r i t  primarily  aristocracy  t o make E n g l a n d  of i t s Christian  s e r v i n g i t s forms,  didactic  own  social  to daily  to ob-  practice.  o r d e r s , f o r i n an  r e f o r m must s p r e a d f r o m t h e t o p down.  I t was  not  until  the d i r e c t i o n of reform threatened to reverse i t s e l f ,  under  the stimulus of the French Revolution, that  for  she  wrote  the "lower o r d e r s . " Hannah More c o n t i n u e d t o t e a c h t h e C h r i s t i a n way  life  by w r i t t e n word and  b e r 7,  1833.  I n 1802  dence a m i l e d i s t a n t joined her.  example u n t i l  h e r d e a t h on  and h e r s i s t e r s  poor o f Wrington, 3  and  the obstinately  soon  to the droves of  t o meet t h e  remnant.  She  while f a i t h f u l l y  wrote  celei n the  charm t o t h e end^S and was  loved  1819,  She  kept  massive her  by t h e c h i l d r e n o f h e r  f r i e n d s a s s h e had b e e n by t h e i r p a r e n t s . and  of  e l e v e n books  answering a  from a l l p a r t s o f the w o r l d .  between 1813  and  i t necessary to continue w r i t i n g  sinful  a f t e r t h e age o f s i x t y ,  died,  to the r i c h  r e l i g i o n among t h e h i g h e r c l a s s e s  but she f e l t  correspondence  wished  2  Hannah More f o u n d g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n  " i n c r e a s e o f genuine  for  to extend h o s p i t a l i t y  many f r o m a b r o a d , who  brated author.  society,"^  resi-  They c o n t i n u e d t o n o u r i s h t h e Mendip s c h o o l s and  women's c l u b s , t o be b e n e v o l e n t n e i g h b o u r s ^  visitors,^  Septem-  s h e moved t o B a r l e y Wood, a l a r g e r from C o w s l i p Green,  of  A f t e r her  sisters  young companions l i v e d w i t h  her  22  and helped w i t h t h e correspondence which were o f t e n taught by former  and v i s i t e d t h e s c h o o l s , students.^°  I n 1828 t h e  l a r g e B a r l e y Wood establishment was too much f o r her s t r e n g t h , and she moved t o nearby C l i f t o n .  There she d i e d f i v e y e a r s  later. Hannah More had been r i c h l y endowed with t a l e n t s which brought  her success by the world's standards, y e t such  success was not enough t o meet her deepest needs.  She turned  t o E v a n g e l i c a l i s m , and found a s a t i s f y i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with God.  The f r u i t s o f t h i s experience demanded an  o u t l e t i n a c t i o n , and she sought,  f o r t h e r e s t o f her l i f e ,  to b r i n g t o her countrymen t h e r e l i g i o n which she had found rewarding f o r h e r s e l f .  23 Footnotes •'"Henry Thompson, The L i f e o f Hannah More: w i t h N o t i c e s o f Her S i s t e r s (London, 1838), p. 5. W i l l i a m Roberts ( e d . ) , Memoirs o f t h e L i f e and Correspondence o f Mrs. Hannah More (London, 1834J, V o l . I , p. 12. 2  3  I b i d . . V o l . I , p. 15.  4  I b i d . . V o l . I , p. 7.  5  I b i d . . V o l . I , p . 14.  ^Joseph C o t t l e , E a r l y R e c o l l e c t i o n s : C h i e f l y R e l a t i n g t o t h e Late Samuel T a y l o r C o l e r i d g e D u r i n g H i s Long Residence i n B r i s t o l (London, 1837), V o l . I , p. 81, n o t e . 7  M. G. Jones, Hannah More (Cambridge, 1952), p. 13.  ^Roberts, op., c i t . . V o l . I , p. 11. 9  I b i d . . V o l . I , p. 17.  I®Jones, oo.. c i t . , p. 18. ^ R o b e r t s , op., c i t . . V o l . I l l , p . 35, Bishop Porteus t o Hannah More, S t . James Square, 1789. With a h i g h f e v e r , a p u l s e above one hundred, and under s e d a t i o n she wrote t h e p r e f a c e t o t h e seventh e d i t i o n o f Moral Sketches, f o u r t e e n manus c r i p t pages, i n two days. I b i d . . V o l . IV, p . 112, Hannah More t o Mr. and Mrs. Huber, B a r l e y Wood, 1820. •--". . . a t one time I very seldom c l o s e d my eyes i n s l e e p f o r f o r t y days and n i g h t s . " I b i d . , V o l . IV, p. 43, Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , B a r l e y Wood, 1818. 2  ^ F l o y d L. Ruch, Psychology and L i f e (Chicago, 1948), pp. 501 - 504. -•-^Roberts, op., c i t . . V o l . I , p. 14. 15ibid.. V o l . I , pp. 12 - 13, "The mother . . . was as anxious f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r p r o m i s i n g daughter, as the f a t h e r was f e a r f u l o f i t s consequences . . . ." l 6  I b i d . . V o l . I , p. 12.  •*-". . . l i k e B e a t r i c e , *I would I were a man, f o r not b e i n g one, I d i d not c a r e t o say much i n so l a r g e and l e a r n e d an assembly. However, . . I d i d venture to say a l i t t l e . . . ." Roberts, op., e x t . , V o l . I , p. 395, Hannah More t o her s i s t e r , London, 1785. 7  1  24 •-"8James J . Hornby (ed.) Remains o f Alexander Knox (London, 1837), V o l . IV, pp. 166 - 169, Alexander Knox t o Mrs. P e t e r La Touche, B a r l e y Wood, September 10 and 14, 1804. •^Roberts, op_. c i t . . V o l . I , p. 7. M . G. Jones, The C h a r i t y School Movement; A Study o f E i g h t e e n t h Century P u r i t a n i s m i n A c t i o n (2nd. ed.; London, 1964), p. 100; Great B r i t a i n S e s s i o n a l Papers 1825, V o l . X, PP. 53 - 55. 20  Anna L a e t i t i a Barbauld ( e d . ) , Correspondence o f Samuel Richardson (London, 1804), V o l . I l l , p . 90. I n 1757 a woman would p u b l i s h a work " a t t h e hazard o f f o r f e i t i n g a l l her hopes o f a s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e world, and f r i e n d s h i p w i t h the r e s t o f her sex." M a r y W o l l s t o n e c r a f t , The R i g h t s o f Women ( p u b l i s h e d w i t h J . S. M i l l ' s The S u b j e c t i o n o f Women; London, 1929, [ F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1792J), p . 162. 2 2  23Roberts, op,, c i t . . V o l . I , p . 66, from one o f Hannah More's s i s t e r s , London, 1776. C h a r l o t t e M. Yonge, Hannah More (London, 1888), p. 6. She i n c o r r e c t l y g i v e s Mary's age as twenty-one. See Jones Hannah More, p. 237, note 1 and p . 4. 2 4  25jones, Hannah More, p. 10. 2 6  I b i d . . p . 9.  27J. F. N i c h o l l s and John T a y l o r ( e d s . ) , B r i s t o l Past and Present ( B r i s t o l , 1881-1882), V o l . I l l , passim. The quotat i o n i s on p . 198 and was taken from an up-dated e d i t i o n o f D a n i e l Defoe's A Tour Through t h e I s l a n d o f Great B r i t a i n ( 6 t h e d i t i o n , 1761). A l s o see R i c h a r d J e n k i n s , Memoirs o f t h e B r i s t o l Stage ( B r i s t o l , 1826), pp. 66 - 67. 28  For testimony t o her charm see Roberts, op_. c i t . , V o l . I , pp. 15 - 16; Walter Sidney S c o t t ( e d . ) , L e t t e r s o f Maria Edgeworth and Anna L e t i t i a Barbauld (London, 1953), p. 74, A. L. Barbauld t o M i s s C a r r , Stoke Newington, October 16, 1812 . 2^Roberts, op., e x t . , V o l . I , p . 15; p. 180 Hannah More t o Mrs. Boscawen, B r i s t o l , May 13, 1780; p . 140, Hannah More t o Mrs. Gwatkin, Hampton, March 5, 1778; p. 395, Hannah More t o her s i s t e r , London, 1785. 3  °Ibid..  V o l . I , p. 16.  25 I b i d . , V o l . I , p . 71 n o t e ; p . 221, M r s . K e n n i c o t t Hannah More, O x f o r d , 1782; J o n e s , Hannah More, p . 10. 3 1  to  3 2  Roberts,  op., c i t . .  V o l . I , p p . 16 - 17.  I b i d . . V o l . I , p p . 30 - 31, p . 33, and p . 56, Hannah M o r e t o one o f h e r s i s t e r s , L o n d o n , 1775. 3 3  3 4 i i d . . V o l . I , p p . 31 - 34, J o n e s , Hannah More, p p . 15 - 16, [Thomas de Quincey!?, "Mrs. Hannah M o r e , " T a i t ' s E d i n b u r g h M a g a z i n e . December, 1833, p . 300 g i v e s t h e amount o f t h e a n n u i t y a s £400. D  15 J o n e s , Hannah More, p p . 18 and 62. Hannah More r e m a i n e d f r i e n d s o f them b o t h . See R o b e r t s , op., e x t . , V o l . I , pp. 19 - 29, L a n g h o r n e t o Hannah More, O c t o b e r 22, 1773 and F e b r u a r y 12, 1775j p p . 252 - 253, Hannah More t o h e r s i s t e r , London, 1782; V o l . I I , p p . 22 - 23, Hannah More t o h e r s i s t e r , London, May 10, 1786. J  • ^ R o b e r t s , op., c i t • . V o l . I , p . 34, "The i m p u t a t i o n o f i n c o n s t a n c y , o r a c a l c u l a t i n g p r u d e n c e " was made by some p e o p l e when t h e r u p t u r e became known. •77  *"See Appendix. Except f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n date o f S l a v e T r a d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e r e i s t a k e n f r o m J o n e s , Hannah More, p p . 272 - 274. ^ J o n e s , Hannah More, p p . 17 - 18; J e n k i n s , op., e x t . , p . 37 and p p . 82 - 83. 3  39Roberts, sisters,  op_. c i t . .  V o l . I , p . 48.  4 ° I b i d . . V o l . I , p . 214, Hannah More t o one o f h e r London, 1781. E p i t a p h on M r s . L i t t l e 0 c o u l d t h i s v e r s e h e r f a i r example s p r e a d , And t e a c h t h e l i v i n g w h i l e i t p r a i s d t h e d e a d ! T h e n , r e a d e r , s h o u l d i t s p e a k h e r hope d i v i n e , Not t o r e c o r d h e r f a i t h , b u t s t r e n g t h e n t h i n e ; Then s h o u l d her e v e r y v i r t u e s t a n d c o n f e s t , T i l l every v i r t u e k i n d l e d i n thy b r e a s t . But i f t h o u s l i g h t t h e m o n i t o r y s t r a i n , And s h e h a s l i v e d , t o t h e e a t l e a s t , i n v a i n ; Y e t l e t h e r d e a t h an a w f u l l e s s o n g i v e , The d y i n g C h r i s t i a n s p e a k s t o a l l t h a t l i v e . Enough f o r h e r t h a t h e r e h e r a s h e s r e s t , T i l l God's own p l a u d i t s h a l l h e r w o r t h a t t e s t . T  ^Roberts,  op., e x t . , V o l . I , p p . 47 - 50.  4 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 56, London, 1775. 2  Hannah More t o a  sister,  26 " ^ S o u r c e s f o r t h e b l u e s t o c k i n g s a r e : J o n e s , Hannah More, c h a p , i i i , "The L i t e r a t i ; " W a l t e r S. S c o t t , T h e B l u e s t o c k i n g L a d i e s ( L o n d o n , 1947); R. B r i m l e y J o h n s o n ( e d . ) , B l u e s t o c k i n g L e t t e r s (New Y o r k , 1926). 4 4  C f . [ d e Quincey], l o c . c i t . . p p . 312 -  314.  5 R e r t s , oj>. c i t . , V o l . I , p p . 172 - 173, Hannah More t o h e r s i s t e r , London, 1780. 4  O D  H a n n a h More, Works o f Hannah More ( L o n d o n , 1834), V, p . 314. 4%>  Vol.  4 7  Ibid.,  48R berts, 1779. 0  London,  V o l . V, p . 321.  49ibid..  V o l . I , p. 159,  V o l . I , p. 267,  Hannah More t o h e r s i s t e r ,  Hampton, December 3 1 ,  1782.  5 0 i b i d . , V o l . I , p . 400, Hannah More t o h e r s i s t e r , London, 1785; p . 316, f r o m t h e same t o t h e same, A d e l p h i , 1784; p . 3 5 9 , f r o m t h e same t o t h e same, London, 1784; and p . 3 3 9 , Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W e l l e r P e p y s , B r i s t o l , J u l y 17,  1784. Hampton,  5 ^ I b i d . . V o l . I , p . 242, Hannah More t o h e r s i s t e r , 1782.  sister,  5 2 i b i d . . V o l . I , p p . 311 - 312, Hannah More t o h e r H o l y w e l l H o u s e , S t . A l b a n s , M a r c h , 1784. 53jones, Hannah More, p p . 19 - 20.  5 4 R b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p p . 11 - 12, Hannah More t o h e r s i s t e r , London, F e b r u a r y 17, 1786; V o l . I , p . Hannah More t o h e r s i s t e r , Hampton, 1782. 0  5 5  P.  Ibid.,  V o l . I I , pp. 4 -  242,  5 and J o n e s , Hannah More.  77.  sister,  ^ R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p . 113, Hannah More t o h e r F a r n b o r o u g h P l a c e , 1777.  57Roberts, op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p . 144, Hannah More t o M r s . G w a t k i n , A u g u s t 9 , 1778. 5^Ibid., V o l . I , p. 275, London, M a r c h 7 , 1783.  London,  Hannah More t o M a r t h a More,  5 9 i b i d . . V o l . I , p . 57, Hannah More t o a 1775.  sister,  27 E a r l o f Bessborough (ed.), G e o r g i a n a . E x t r a c t s from the Correspondence o f Georgiana. Duchess o f Devonshire (London, 1955), p . 17, Lady S p e n c e r t o t h e D u c h e s s , T u e s d a y , O c t o b e r 11, 1774. ^ S o u r c e s f o r t h e E v a n g e l i c a l s a r e : S. C. C a r p e n t e r , E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y C h u r c h and P e o p l e ( L o n d o n , 1959), c h a p , x x i i , "The E v a n g e l i c a l s ; " J o n e s , Hannah More, p p . 97 - 100; G. R. B a l l e i n e , A H i s t o r y o f t h e E v a n g e l i c a l P a r t y i n t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n , 1909), c h a p , i v , "The E a r l y E v a n g e l i c a l s ; " John Henry Overton, The E v a n g e l i c a l R e v i v a l i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( L o n d o n , 1907), c h a p , i v , "Methodism and Evangelicalism." ^ T h e f o l l o w i n g two p a r a g r a p h s a r e drawn f r o m op. c i t . , c h a p , i v , "Methodism and E v a n g e l i c a l i s m . " 2  Overton,  ^ I b i d . , p . 45. A m o d e r a t e C a l v i n i s t was a b l e t o a g r e e w i t h t h e T h i r t y - N i n e A r t i c l e s , s t r e s s e d man's w i c k e d n e s s and h e l p l e s s n e s s w i t h o u t d i v i n e a i d , and s a i d l i t t l e a b o u t t h e " d e c r e e s " o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , s e e I b i d . . pp. 195 - 198. 3  her  64Roberts, op., ext., s i s t e r , London, 1787. °5Jones,  family,  V o l . I I , p.  Hannah More, p .  54,  Hannah More t o  89.  ^ R o b e r t s , op., e x t . , V o l . I , p . 77, London, 1776.  Hannah More t o h e r  ^ S o u r c e s f o r t h e Clapham s e c t a r e : B a l l e i n e , op., c i t c h a p , v, "The Clapham S e c t ; " James S t e p h e n , E s s a y s i n E c c l e s i a s t i c a l B i o g r a p h y (2nd ed.; London, 1850), V o l . I I , c h a p , i v , "The Clapham S e c t ; " E r n e s t M a r s h a l l Howse, S a i n t s i n P o l i t i c s . T h e 'Clapham S e c t ' and t h e G r o w t h o f Freedom ( L o n d o n , 1953), c h a p , i i , " B r o t h e r h o o d o f C h r i s t i a n P o l i t i c i a n s ; " F o r d K. Brown, F a t h e r s o f t h e V i c t o r i a n s . The Age o f W i l b e r f o r c e ( C a m b r i d g e , 1961), p a s s i m . °^Hannah M o r e ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e f l e c t s t h e t r a n s i tion. A p a r t f r o m l e t t e r s t o h e r s i s t e r s Volume I i s m a i n l y t o London f r i e n d s ; i n Volume I I J o h n Newton and H o r a c e W a l p o l e a r e c o n t r a s t i n g key f i g u r e s ; i n Volume I I I t h e l e t t e r s a r e t o and f r o m E v a n g e l i c a l s and t h o s e o f h e r London f r i e n d s who s h a r e d h e r c h a r i t a b l e and r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s ; and Volume I V ' s l e t t e r s a r e l a r g e l y t o and f r o m a new g e n e r a t i o n o f E v a n gelicals. Death o f c o u r s e p l a y e d a p a r t i n t h e change f o r h e r L o n d o n a c q u a i n t a n c e s were u s u a l l y o l d e r t h a n Hannah M o r e . °^George O t t o T r e v e l y a n , L i f e and L e t t e r s o f L o r d M a c a u l a y ( L o n d o n , 1908), pp. 24 - 25; " M a c a u l a y a s a Boy D e s c r i b e d i n Two U n p u b l i s h e d L e t t e r s o f Hannah M o r e , " Macftillan's M a g a z i n e . V o l . I ( F e b r u a r y , i 8 6 0 ) , p p . 289 - 293.  28 S t a n d i s h Meacham, H e n r y T h o r n t o n o f Clapham 17601815 ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1964), p p . 48 - 4 9 ; E. M. F o r s t e r , M a r i a n n e T h o r n t o n . 1797-1887. A D o m e s t i c B i o g r a p h y ( L o n d o n , 1956), p a s s i m . 7 G  his  a t t i t u d e toward Roberts, 23, 1788. 7 2  July  T h e s e summarize t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e Clapham s e c t . op_. c i t . ,  V o l . I I , p . 116, C o w s l i p  I b i d . . V o l . I I , p . 464, Hannah More t o J o h n C o w s l i p G r e e n , September 15, 1796. 7 3  Green,  Newton,  7 4 i b i d . . V o l . I I , p p . 87 - 88, Hannah M o r e t o J o h n Newton, C o w s l i p G r e e n , 1787. 7 5 i b i d . . V o l . I I , p . 217, Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , 1789(?), R o b e r t I s a a c a n d Samuel W i l b e r f o r c e , T h e L i f e o f W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e ( L o n d o n , 1838), V o l . I I , p p . 299 302 n o t e t h a t i n 1798 W i l b e r f o r c e p l e d g e d £100, H e n r y T h o r n t o n , £100, a n d M r s . B o u v e r i e (who u s e d Henry T h o r n t o n a s h e r a l m o n e r ) , £200; A r t h u r R o b e r t s ( e d . ) , M e n d i p A n n a l s o r a N a r r a t i v e o f t h e C h a r i t a b l e L a b o u r s o f Hannah a n d M a r t h a More i n T h e i r N e i g h b o u r h o o d . B e i n g t h e J o u r n a l o f M a r t h a More (2nd e d . ; L o n d o n , 1 8 5 9 ) , p . 13. ^ S o u r c e s f o r t h e Mendip c h a r i t i e s a r e : A r t h u r Robe r t s , op,, c i t . . p a s s i m : a n d W i l l i a m R o b e r t s , oj>. c i t . . V o l . I I , p p . 206 - 224 a n d 298 - 322, V o l . I l l , p p . 133 - 136, Hannah More t o D r . Beadon, B i s h o p o f B a t h a n d W e l l s , 1801.  77 'The d i l i g e n t W i l b e r f o r c e s a i d o f Hannah More, " I t w o u l d b e d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d any one who l a b o u r s s o d i l i g e n t l y , u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h I f e a r I s h o u l d g i v e up t h e s t r u g g l e , a n d f a l l back i n t o my e a s y c h a i r . " Wilberforce, OP. c i t . . V o l . I I , p . 314. W i l l i a m R o b e r t s , o p . e x t . , V o l . I I , p p . 301 - 302 and p . 305, Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , 1791. ( T h e d a t e i s i n c o r r e c t ; i t i s more l i k e l y t o b e 1795.) 7 8  79Arthur R o b e r t s , op., e x t . , p . 185 a n d p . 4 4 . 8 0  Ibid..  p . 199.  81 W i l l i a m R o b e r t s , o p . c i t . . V o l . I I , p . 305, Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , 1791. ( T h e d a t e i s i n c o r r e c t ; i t i s more l i k e l y t o b e 1795.) A l e x a n d e r H. J a p p ( e d . ) , De O u i n c e v M e m o r i a l s . B e i n g L e t t e r s and O t h e r R e c o r d s , h e r e f i r s t p u b l i s h e d w i t h C o m m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m C o l e r i d g e , t h e W o r d s w o r t h s . Hannah M o r e . 8 2  29 P r o f e s s o r W i l s o n a n d O t h e r s ( L o n d o n , 1891), V o l . I I , L e t t e r s o f Mary d e Q u i n c e y a n d o f M r s . d e Q u i n c e y , p a s s i m . 8 3  William  R o b e r t s , op., c i t . , V o l . I V , p . 253.  4 l b i d . . V o l . I V , p . 167, Hannah M o r e t o Rev. D. W i l s o n , B a r l e y Wood, 1822, "My c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t w i c k e d n e s s i s w i c k e d e r t h a n i t u s e d t o b e , and t h a t g o o d n e s s i s better;.-" A l s o s e e p . 240, Hannah More t o Mr. and M r s . H u b e r , B a r l e y Wood, A u g u s t 3, 1825. 8  ^Forster,  o j j . c i t . . p . 48;  W i l l i a m R o b e r t s , op., e x t . , V o l . I V , p p . 176 - 177, Hannah M o r e t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , 1823. 0 0  CHAPTER I I Hannah M o r e ' s M e s s a g e ;  A P r o d u c t o f Her Time  Men's i d e a s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s o c i a l , experience,  by t h e w o r l d t h e y  economic, and p o l i t i c a l  and by t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  know:  structures that  l e g a c y which they  they inherit.  I n t h e same p e r i o d t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s v a r y w i t h g e o g r a p h i c a n d social position.  There  senting diversity  o f e x p e r i e n c e and o f a c u t e n e s s o f o b s e r v a t i o n .  It  i s always  a spectrum  i s t h e r e f o r e with a sense o f inadequacy  intellectual about  history  attempts  history  By s e p a r a t i n g t h e warp o f i n t e l -  from t h e weft  the pattern i s lopsided  that the student o f  t o g e n e r a l i z e and c a t e g o r i z e  i n s t i t u t i o n s or ideas.  lectual  of opinion repre-  the fabric  at least  i s d i s t o r t e d , but i f  t h e c o l o u r s remain  true.  Hannah M o r e ' s i d e a s and t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r e i n t e r w o v e n , and  h e r message, h e r m i l i e u ,  defined  interaction  although  s e p a r a t e l y must be s t u d i e d t o g e t h e r . She was b o r n i n t o  1745, and l i v e d  on u n t i l  became a n i n d u s t r i a l hind sight her l i f e  and t h e i r  the f i r s t 1833.  nation.  h a l f o f the century, i n  During her l i f e t i m e  L o o k i n g b a c k w i t h t h e wisdom o f  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was t h e most i m p o r t a n t  span,  y e t Hannah More was v i r t u a l l y  A recent study o f the working  England  event o f  unaware o f i t .  c l a s s f r o m 1780 t o 1832  that d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the working  c l a s s developed  identity of interest  and t h a t  within i t s e l f ,  concludes  a sense o f  the ruling  class  u n d e r w e n t a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s " i n t h e f a c e o f a n i n s u r g e n t working class.  T h u s t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s p r e s e n c e was, i n 1832, t h e  31 most s i g n i f i c a n t this  factor i n British p o l i t i c a l  same p e r i o d Hannah More t h o u g h t  traditional, salutory  hierarchical  reminder  n o m i c and  social  that  social  t h o s e who  and  life.""*"  wrote i n terms o f  structure. live  During  She  through  c h a n g e do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  presents a  momentous  see t h e  eco-  process  clearly. It  i s nevertheless necessary  i n a s t u d y o f Hannah  More's r o l e as a p r o p a g a n d i s t t o c o n s i d e r t h e impact trialization century. and  I t affected  her audience  alization but in  upon E n g l a n d  they  i n the second  read.  T h e y may  crafts  between p a r e n t s and  and  not have i d e n t i f i e d  o f t h e changes i n t h e i r  recognized the e f f e c t s . sensed  children,  They saw  brought  f o r i t determined t o her  industri-  economic  distress  insubordination i n the and m a s t e r s  and  wrote  environment,  relations  servants.  a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e f i r s t century,  indus-  h a l f of the eighteenth  t h e background a g a i n s t which she  as t h e cause  depressed  of  half of  t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e message  It i s the  she  readers.  Mid-century  i s an a r b i t r a r y  line  of demarcation,  and  t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a p e r i o d does not change w i t h t h e t u r n i n g o f the calendar. to  Nevertheless i t i s possible,  g e n e r a l i z e about  e x c e p t i o n s need not  the nature of a p e r i o d .  presence  h a l f of the eighteenth century  s l o w l y - g r o w i n g d e m o g r a p h i c and and  The  o f t e n necessary, of  i n v a l i d a t e the conclusions.  D u r i n g t h e second  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  and  industrial  economic changes c o n n e c t e d  the with  r e v o l u t i o n s became more e v i -  2 dent.  The  p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d a t an  accelerating rate  and  labour and  was p l e n t i f u l .  more p r o d u c t i v e .  Farms became l a r g e r , more s p e c i a l i z e d , The i n v e n t i o n o f t h e steam e n g i n e and  s p i n n i n g j e n n y meant t h a t f r o m home t o f a c t o r y .  t h e s p i n n i n g o f c o t t o n began t o move  Transportation  b r o u g h t more r a p i d a n d f r e q u e n t enabled  bulky  stage  their  As a r e s u l t social  T h e m a r k e t town a n d t h e r e g i o n g a i n e d  of the v i l l a g e  as t h e f o c a l point  time o f m o b i l i t y , both s o c i a l  the turnpikes  s e r v i c e , and t h e c a n a l s  goods t o b e moved c h e a p l y .  E n g l i s h m e n were aware o f e a c h o t h e r ; widened.  improved:  horizons  a t t h e expense  for production.  and g e o g r a p h i c ,  more  I t was a  and i n t h e c o u r s e  o f movement some men b e n e f i t e d and some men s u f f e r e d , b u t a l l faced, ing,  although  perhaps unconsciously,  a world  t h a t was c h a n g -  t h a t was new, a n d t h a t was t o a d e g r e e unknown. These impersonal  forces affected the lives of English-  men o f a l l c l a s s e s , a n d c h a n g e d f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n s o f l i f e . traditional  village life  d i dnot disappear  c r e a s i n g l y o l d ways were r e p l a c e d b y new. especially  i n t h e home c o u n t i e s ,  h u s b a n d r y who h a d l i v e d ure  and eaten  over n i g h t ,  but i n -  3  Day l a b o u r e r s  began,  to replace the servants i n i n t h e farm h o u s e .  4  Enclos-  g e n e r a l l y meant t h e l o s s o f common r i g h t s f o r t h e t i t l e l e s s  cottagers  and w i t h o u t  the auxiliary  income f o r m e r l y  patch  were c o m p l e t e l y  a t t h e mercy o f e c o n o m i c f l u c t u a t i o n s . - *  the d e c l i n e o f cottage  a n d c o m m o n - g r a z i n g cow, t h e s e  p r o v i d e d by  t h e i r vegetable  out  The  labourers With  i n d u s t r y men, women, a n d c h i l d r e n went  o f t h e home where t h e y  h a d worked a s a f a m i l y u n i t t o b e -  come d a y w o r k e r s i n f a r m o r f a c t o r y .  They e x p e r i e n c e d  r e g u l a r work a n d g r e a t e r d i s c i p l i n e ,  i n l a r g e r groups.  more Rapid  33 t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n , by t h r e a t e n i n g t h e s t a t u s o f o l d s k i l l s , c r e a t e d i n s e c u r i t y f o r many workers.**  F o r those who d r i f t e d  from r u r a l t o urban areas? t h e r e was a l o s s o f a l l t h a t was f a m i l i a r and a sense o f anonymity i n a s t r a n g e and u g l y  world.  The middle c l a s s e s f l o u r i s h e d and grew i n t h e new environment.  High war-time p r i c e s brought p r o s p e r i t y t o f a r Q  mers and p r o v i d e d a s t i m u l u s f o r improved a g r i c u l t u r e . women c o u l d become " l a d i e s o f l e i s u r e " f o r household  Farm  items  such as soap and candles no l o n g e r had t o be produced i n t h e home, t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n s u r e d an abundant supply o f domestic s e r v a n t s , and t h e new wealth meant o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a genteel education.  0.  Expanding technology  i o u s s k i l l e d craftsman  and enabled  benefited the ingen-  him t o make a comfortable  f o r t u n e w i t h l i t t l e c a p i t a l i f he possessed application.  e n t e r p r i s e and  I n c r e a s i n g t r a d e gave o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g r e a t e r  p r o s p e r i t y t o men i n commerce, banking, i n s u r a n c e , and law. Upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y meant t h a t t h e r i s i n g middle c l a s s members were f a c e d with adjustment t o t h e o u t l o o k ,  standards,  and customs o f t h e next rung o f t h e s o c i a l l a d d e r . Wealthy landowners took advantage o f t h e g r e a t e r ease of  t r a v e l and o f h i g h e r incomes"'" t o spend more time i n London, 0  the w a t e r i n g p l a c e s , and country house p a r t i e s . T h e y  spent  l e s s time upon t h e i r e s t a t e s , and t h e i n t i m a t e knowledge o f t h e i r t e n a n t s and s e r v a n t s , f o s t e r e d by day t o day r e l a t i o n ships, declined.  The l a c k o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t undermined t h e  humanizing f a c t o r i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b o r d i n a t i o n and consequently t h e system  itself.  34 The b u s t l e and v i t a l i t y o f change i n the second o f the c e n t u r y were i n marked c o n t r a s t to t h e s t a b i l i t y balance o f t h e f i r s t h a l f .  half and  The r e v o l u t i o n a r y economic f o r c e s  were s l o w l y d e v e l o p i n g but they had not y e t gathered  sufficient  momentum to i n t r u d e upon the g e n e r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  A f t e r the  p a s s i o n a t e r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s o f the  seven-  t e e n t h century and the r e s u l t i n g t u r m o i l many Englishmen a breathing period.  sought  S o c i e t y ' s s t r u c t u r e s tended to d i s p l a y 12  e q u i l i b r i u m i f not harmony. a b l e sameness. c i p l e s o f 1688 throne.  In p o l i t i c s t h e r e was  a comfort-  Both Whigs and T o r i e s agreed w i t h the p r i n and u n i t e d i n a d e s i r e f o r s t a b i l i t y o f the  P e r s o n a l i t i e s and s e l f - i n t e r e s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d p a r t i e s ,  not p o l i c y . ^ 3  The Walpole era s t r e s s e d peace and an unadven-  turesome f o r e i g n p o l i c y .  Most Englishmen were content w i t h  B r i t a i n ' s c o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s and c h e r i s h e d no dreams o f 1 A.  i m p e r i a l expansion.  In a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e b a s i s o f the n a t i o n -  a l wealth,*-* t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a n d l o r d s and t e n a n t s c r e a t e d a sense o f mutual c o n f i d e n c e and dependence.^  inter-  I n the church the m i s s i o n a r y s p i r i t of Queen  Anne's day subsided*? and churchmen maintained a c a u t i o u s balance between deism and z e a l .  There were v i o l e n t  doctrinal  d i s p u t e s between t h e o l o g i a n s which kept c l e r i c a l pens busy but were not designed t o arouse r e l i g i o u s enthusiasm C h r i s t i a n s to a d i s r u p t i v e p i t c h . b a s i s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y was  of ordinary  The i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  doctrinal  strengthened, but as a s p i r i t u a l  f o r c e f o r godly l i v i n g i t d e c l i n e d .  There were devout C h r i s -  t i a n s , l i k e the Wesleys o f Epworth, tucked away i n c o r n e r s o f  35 England  who c a r r i e d on t h e seventeenth  century p a t t e r n o f  f a m i l y p r a y e r s , B i b l e r e a d i n g and good works, but they were i n a m i n o r i t y and were o f t e n persecuted f o r t h e i r ties. * 1  H i s t o r i a n s o f the Church o f England  "peculiari-  conclude t h a t t h e  g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f r e l i g i o n f o r much o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n 18  t u r y was d e s i c c a t e d , complacent, and r a t i o n a l . Philosophy, l i t e r a t u r e , and theology d i s p l a y e d r a t i o n a l restraint.  Reason had vanquished  s t i t i o n , and enthusiasm  much o f t h e medieval  was s u s p e c t .  super-  F o r many t h e O l d T e s t a -  ment Jehovah, God o f t h e P u r i t a n s , had given way t o t h e Great Watch Maker, God o f t h e d e i s t s .  "Even the orthodox  [christian/}  who r e t a i n e d t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l b a s i s , f e l t t h a t f a i t h must be grounded f i r m l y upon Nature b e f o r e one had r e c o u r s e t o supernature."*  0  There were vehement t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s but  both s i d e s by t a c i t agreement kept argument on a s u p e r f i c i a l 20  l e v e l and avoided fundamental i s s u e s ,  i s s u e s which might  upset t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l framework.  In l i t e r a t u r e ,  r e l i g i o n , and p h i l o s o p h y t h e r e was a m o r a l i z i n g tendency. Samuel Richardson,  Thomas S h e r l o c k , and Bernard  de M a n d e v i l l e  a l l c h a r t e d the c o r r e c t , r i g h t , s a f e , o r necessary action.  L i b e r a l l y educated  course o f  Englishmen i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f  the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t y p i c a l l y sought c o o l r a t i o n a l brium.  Alexander  equilirr  Pope's monotonous c o u p l e t s , Lord S h a f t e s -  bury's complacent optimism, Lord C h e s t e r f i e l d ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h form, and David H a r t l e y ' s mathematical c a t e g o r i e s f o r p l e a s u r e and p a i n a l l demonstrate t h e sway o f reason. vated men were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y concerned  Culti-  w i t h t h e law o f  36  nature, codes o f m o r a l i t y , s o c i a l c o n t r a c t s , and c o r r e c t manners—all  o f which were r a t i o n a l l y , not i n t u i t i v e l y  per-  c e i v e d , and a l l o f which d e f i n e d b a r r i e r s a g a i n s t c h a o s . * 2  The  f o r c e s o f economic and s o c i a l change i n t h e second  p a r t o f t h e century had t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l c o u n t e r p a r t .  When  p r e s s u r e s f o r i d e o l o g i c a l change c h a l l e n g e d those f o r s t a b i l i t y , descendents from e a r l i e r decades, each s i d e had i t s adherents. E n g l i s h thought  o f t h e second h a l f o f t h e century was t u r b u l e n t  w i t h c u r r e n t s pushing forward past.  t o new times and backward t o t h e  B e l i e f s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y when they a r e given  in action.  reality  The t i d e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l change i s e v i d e n t i n econ-  omical reform which curbed r o y a l patronage and i n t h e e f f o r t s o f Major John C a r t w r i g h t and Thomas Hardy f o r p a r l i a m e n t a r y reform.  I t was a l s o expressed  i n t h e emotionalism  E v a n g e l i c a l and Wesleyan r e v i v a l , t h e romanticism c l i f f e s g o t h i c n o v e l s , t h e feminism f  of the o f Anne Rad-  o f Mary W o l l s t o n e c r a f t ,  and t h e r e p u b l i c a n i s m o f Thomas Paine. C o n s e r v a t i v e t r e n d s were a l s o evident and i n t e n s i f i e d as t h e century drew t o a c l o s e .  Those who were comfortable  w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l arrangements were not eager t o experiment.  The French R e v o l u t i o n brought t h i s n a t u r a l conser-  vatism t o a r e a c t i o n a r y p i t c h .  Subsequent attempts by t h e  masses t o change t h e i r economic o r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n u s u a l l y aroused  f e a r s o f Jacobinism,  ges o f r e v o l u t i o n .  and enthusiasm  brought down c h a r -  F r i e n d s o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r formed  the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P r e s e r v i n g L i b e r t y and Property a g a i n s t Republicans  and L e v e l l e r s .  The government supported t h e  37 e f f o r t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and against  seditious writing.  service,  1792  in legislation  a broader  Combination  I t strengthened  definition of treason.  France of  I n 1799  a p p e a r e d t o 1819  1770*s and sidiarily  i n the f o l l o w i n g  and  i n t o c r i m i n a l laws.  extended  established a  P r i o r to t h i s period, i n the  A f t e r 1788  increasingly influential.  she  reversed t h i s  Her  last  i n n o v a t i o n s and  reforms  a background o f r e a c t i o n  industrial  public  book, a g r o u p  by t h e  of  when v a r i o u s octogen-  It  was  ( i n s p i r e d by t h e F r e n c h  Revo-  agricultural  r e v o l u t i o n s ) t h a t Hannah More w r o t e and  her  read. Hannah M o r e ' s message h a s  is  sub-  order  were s t i r r i n g b u t t h e  l u t i o n ) s u p e r i m p o s e d upon c h a n g e ( c a u s e d and  committee  e a r l y 1780*s s h e w r o t e p r i m a r i l y t o amuse and to instruct.  2 2  the Revolution i n  a r i a n d i d not change t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f her prime. against  passed.  r e p r e s s i o n , which  when p a r l i a m e n t  and  the  coincide  s e l e c t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s w o r k s , a p p e a r e d i n 1825 liberal  1800  works almost  when Edmund B u r k e * s T h o u g h t s on  inquiry  and was  and  intelligence  A c t s a g a i n s t w o r k e r s * o r g a n i z a t i o n s were  w i t h t h e p e r i o d o f r e a c t i o n and 1790  the  proclamation  against l a r g e p u b l i c meetings,  Hannah M o r e * s most i m p o r t a n t  from  issued a  s u s p e n d e d H a b e a s C o r p u s i n 1794,  year brought for  i n May  a conservative aspect  p a r a l l e l to the c a r e f u l l y preserved  h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y , and changes which upset  a r a d i c a l one  the balance,  which  e q u i l i b r i u m of the which corresponds  first to  c h a n g e s w h i c h became more  evident as the century p r o g r e s s e d .  Her  r e a c t i o n to the formalism of the f i r s t  radical  s i d e was  p a r t of the  a  century  the  and  her conservative  manifestations chief  aspect  was r e i n f o r c e d by t h e b u r g e o n i n g  o f change o f t h e s e c o n d h a l f c e n t u r y .  i n t e r e s t l a y w i t h r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l  religion  Her  i s s u e s and h e r  sought t o change t h e e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s  of the church, while her s o c i a l philosophy  b a s e d upon  religion  s o u g h t t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s quo. Hannah More, i n common w i t h h e r f e l l o w and  w i t h t h e M e t h o d i s t s , was r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t  tualism  and "deadness o f h e a r t "  the  early Georgian church. °  war  against  as important  tion's  evidence.  a place  w h i c h was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  In s p i t e o f t h e church's  i n theologians' thought as r e v e l a t h e c l e r g y d i d n o t emphasize t h e  o f man's c o r r u p t i o n  s a l v a t i o n by h i s own e f f o r t s .  that  active  Nature's evidence f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y  Generally  unpleasant doctrines merit  the i n t e l l e c -  d e i s m i t h a d b e e n i n f e c t e d by t h e a n t a g o n i s t ' s  optimism and r a t i o n a l i s m . held  Evangelicals  conformity  and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o  They gave t h e  impression  t o t h e o u t w a r d f o r m o f m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s 0A  duties  was enough t o i n s u r e  to re-introduce that  and God.  corruption,  struggle  i n g and d e v o t i o n a l was n o t " h i g h " doctrine  h i s own s i n f u l n e s s and  t o do good w i t h o u t d i v i n e a i d ,  t h e p r e s e n c e , c o m p a s s i o n , a n d mercy o f  The s e r v i c e s o f t h e c h u r c h c o u l d  his personal  and  R e l i g i o n was s o m e t h i n g  He had t o f e e l  hisinability  he t h e n had t o f e e l J  Hannah More wanted  t h e emotional element.  a man h a d t o f e e l .  basic  salvation.  f o rvital  material  a i d the individual i n  religion.  Evangelical  preach-  w e r e u s e f u l a i d s , b u t Hannah M o r e  c h u r c h and s a c r a m e n t s , t h e r e l i g i o u s s e a s o n s ,  took a subordinate p l a c e  to pietism.  39  Important as d o c t r i n e s a r e . . . y e t except t h e l e a d i n g ones, f o r which we ought t o be ready t o be l e d t o t h e s t a k e , they y i e l d much w i t h me t o the p u r i f y i n g o f t h e inward hidden man o f t h e h e a r t . Conformity t o God, a w a l k i n g i n h i s s t e p s , s p i r i t u a l mindedness, a subduing t h e o l d Adam w i t h i n u s — h e r e i s t h e g r a n d . d i f f i c u l t y and t h e a c c e p t a b l e o f f e r i n g t o God! 2  The i n d i v i d u a l ' s d a i l y s t r u g g l e t o come i n t o emotional c o n t a c t with h i s Maker was u l t i m a t e l y a matter o f p r i v a t e p r a y e r , B i b l e r e a d i n g , and s o u l s e a r c h i n g . tions. the  A man had t o f e e l t h e proper emo-  P r i d e was t h e most s e r i o u s v i c e f o r i t stood between  i n d i v i d u a l and h i s communion w i t h God.  Only t h e humble  and c o n t r i t e were a b l e t o admit h e l p l e s s n e s s , a p r e c o n d i t i o n to  reception of g r a c e .  2 7  Her r e l i g i o n was emotional, but i t was a l s o p r a c t i c a l . It  has l i t t l e  i n common w i t h an o t h e r - w o r l d l y mysticism, but  taught t h a t t h e f r u i t s o f a l i v e l y f a i t h were n e c e s s a r i l y e v i 28 dent i n d a i l y l i f e . -  4 0  There was as much s t r e s s upon C h r i s t i a n  d u t i e s as upon C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t .  A person's c a l l i n g was h i s  sphere f o r C h r i s t i a n a c t i o n , and he was t o make t h e b e s t pos29 s x b l e use o f h i s time t h e r e i n .  7  D i l i g e n c e and e f f i c i e n c y  were f a v o r i t e v i r t u e s and i d l e n e s s a prime v i c e .  Apart from  a man's c a l l i n g t h e r e was t h e need f o r him t o perform c h a r i t a b l e good works as a f u r t h e r avenue o f C h r i s t i a n a c t i o n . T h i s necessary c o n t a c t w i t h t h e world, p a r t o f which was unconverted t o t r u e C h r i s t i a n i t y and t h e r e f o r e e x c e p t i o n a l l y s i n f u l , p r e s e n t e d a problem. to  I t was a C h r i s t i a n ' s duty  t r y t o c o n v e r t and b e t t e r t h e world, y e t he r a n a r i s k o f  c o n t a g i o n from i t s v i c e s .  Hannah More proposed a t w o f o l d  s o l u t i o n — a v o i d a n c e and a n t i d o t e .  Popular v i c e s were t o be  avoided, among them t h e t h e a t e r , profane and s e n t i m e n t a l  lit-  e r a t u r e , c a r d s , and, u n l e s s t h e r e was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d o i n g e f f e c t i v e m i s s i o n a r y work, w o r l d l y assemblies.  She condemned  these amusements because they were a waste o f time and because they s t i r r e d t h e p a s s i o n s .  Passions such as a v a r i c e , v a n i t y ,  and r i v a l r y were e v i l f o r they stood between man and God, they made man's emotions s e l f - c e n t e r e d , not God-centered.  Hannah  More was a s t e p - c h i l d i f n o t t h e daughter o f t h e age o f reason f o r she discouraged emotions u n l e s s they were d i r e c t e d God. ® 3  toward  The a n t i d o t e was maintenance o f an a c t i v e f a i t h by  such r e g u l a r r e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s as f a m i l y p r a y e r s , p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n s , r e g u l a r attendance a t church, r e l i g i o u s r e a d i n g , and r e l i g i o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h f e l l o w C h r i s t i a n s . I r o n i c a l l y some o f t h e E v a n g e l i c a l e f f o r t s t o s t r e n g then t h e church r e c o i l e d upon i t .  T h e i r emphasis upon t h e  t e a c h i n g s o f t h e B i b l e by i m p l i c a t i o n gave a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n t o t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e church.  They responded  approv-  i n g l y t o v i t a l C h r i s t i a n s , whether A n g l i c a n s o r d i s s e n t e r s , and t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n r a i s e d t h e s t a t u s o f competitors w i t h 11 the Church o f England.  When E v a n g e l i c a l s dwelt upon t h e  church's t r u e f u n c t i o n they s i m u l t a n e o u s l y drew a t t e n t i o n t o i t s f a i l u r e to f u l f i l l  it.  Hannah More was c a r e f u l i n her  s t o r i e s and n o v e l t o p o r t r a y clergymen  as models o f p i e t y ,  i n d u s t r y , and c h a r i t y , and y e t any r e a d e r c o u l d p l a c e b e s i d e t h i s image an absentee, i n e f f i c i e n t , o r d i s i n t e r e s t e d man w i t h whom they were a c t u a l l y a c q u a i n t e d .  clergy-  The E v a n g e l i c a l s  41 emphasized i n d i v i d u a l r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s , and as a r e s u l t d o t a l a c t i v i t i e s seemed l e s s important.  sacer-  Similarly their stress  upon l a y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t e a c h i n g and v i s i t i n g o f t h e s i c k undermined a t r a d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l f u n c t i o n . the E v a n g e l i c a l campaign threatened  To many churchmen  t h e church,  and they saw  the E v a n g e l i c a l s as r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . Although Hannah More and t h e o t h e r E v a n g e l i c a l s a g i t a t e d f o r r e l i g i o u s change they looked to t h e p a s t f o r t h e i r model and a u t h o r i t y . they intended  L i k e t h e seventeenth c e n t u r y  Puritans  t o r e v i v e t h e "pure" p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p a s t , not  t o r e v o l u t i o n i z e by t e a r i n g down an a n c i e n t  institution.  T h e i r c h i e f and i r r e f u t a b l e a u t h o r i t y was t h e B i b l e , f o r i n 32  it  lay divine revelation.  I t contained  a l l that a C h r i s t i a n  needed t o know f o r s a l v a t i o n and so t h e E v a n g e l i c a l s s t u d i e d it  assiduously.  Hannah More was a staunch A n g l i c a n and accep-  t e d t h e l i t u r g y and a r t i c l e s o f f a i t h ,  3 3  although they were  not as fundamental t o her r e l i g i o n as t h e B i b l e . h e r s e l f i n t h e great seventeenth century T a y l o r , I s s a c Barrow, and John T i l l o t s o n .  She steeped  theologians—Jeremy She d i d not c o n f i n e  h e r s e l f t o A n g l i c a n d i v i n e s and read widely and with for religious inspiration.  tolerance  Among an assortment o f authors she  was able t o f i n d i n t h e p a s t e v a n g e l i c a l l y - m i n d e d 34 these were t h e French Port Royal authors,  men.  Among  seventeenth cen-  t u r y P u r i t a n w r i t e r s R i c h a r d B a x t e r ~* n d John M i l t o n , W i l l i a m 3  a  Law who had g r e a t i n f l u e n c e upon John Wesley, and d i s s e n t e r P h i l l i p Doddridge whose R i s e and Progress  of R e l i g i o n i n the  Soul was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f W i l b e r f o r c e .  These  42 authors p r o v i d e d a s t i m u l a t i n g s p i r i t u a l d i e t and evidenced a l i n e o f c o n t i n u i t y w i t h t h e past f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n p i e t y she worked t o r e v i v e i n t h e church o f h e r day.  She c e r t a i n l y d i d  not c o n s i d e r h e r s e l f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y . Hannah More's s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y was completely t i o n a l and t h e e i g h t e e n t h century h e i r t o two medieval cepts:  tradicon-  t h e o r g a n i c s o c i a l theory which compared s o c i e t y t o a  human body i n which a l l p a r t s were harmoniously  interrelated  with t h e w e l f a r e o f each dependent upon t h e w e l f a r e o f a l l , and t h e "great c h a i n o f b e i n g " theory which p l a c e d t h e u n i v e r s e i n a l i n e o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n r a n g i n g from God and t h e a n g e l s down to  t h e lowest forms o f l i f e .  Her s o c i a l views, commonplace i n  her p e r i o d , represented a d e s i r e t o h o l d f a s t t o t h e s t a b i l i t y and b a l a n c e o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e century i n t h e f a c e o f change.  They were f i r s t  g i v e n t o her by her Tory f a t h e r , r e -  i n f o r c e d by h e r B r i s t o l f r i e n d s and perhaps c r y s t a l i z e d by t h e American R e v o l u t i o n which she condemned.  Although they were  not c r e a t e d by t h e E n g l i s h r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e French t i o n , they were strengthened  Revolu-  by i t , and t h e r e a c t i o n brought  p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n t h e 1790's t o an e q u a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e position. S u b o r d i n a t i o n , upon p r i n c i p l e s o f r e l i g i o n , was t h e essence o f Hannah More's s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y .  R e l i g i o n was a  guarantee o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n s o c i e t y and God t h e u l t i m a t e s u b o r d i n a t i n g agent.  I n H i s wisdom He designed a world i n  which s u b o r d i n a t i o n and i n e q u a l i t y o f a b i l i t y , o f p o s i t i o n , of  happiness,  and o f power were f a c t s o f l i f e .  43 . . . t h e gospel can make no p a r t o f a scheme i n which . . . want and misery a r e c o n s i d e r e d as e v i l s a r i s i n g s o l e l y from t h e d e f e c t s o f human governments, and not as making p a r t o f t h e d i s p e n s a t i o n s of God* i n which poverty i s represented as merely a p o l i t i c a l e v i l , and t h e r e s t r a i n t s which tend t o keep t h e poor honest, a r e p a i n t e d as t h e most f l a grant i n j u s t i c e . The gospel can make no p a r t o f a system i n which t h e absurd i d e a o f p e r f e c t i b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d as a p p l i c a b l e t o f a l l e n c r e a t u r e s * i n which t h e c h i m e r i c a l p r o j e c t o f consumate e a r t h l y happiness (founded on t h e mad p r e t e n c e o f l o v i n g t h e poor b e t t e r than God l o v e s them) would d e f e a t t h e d i v i n e p l a n , which meant t h i s world f o r a scene o f d i s c i p l i n e , not o f remuneration.36 Men were God's c h i l d r e n and a s such owed obedience t o him. They were a l l s u b o r d i n a t e might present in  to h i s w i l l .  an h e i r a r c h i c a l pyramid o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n , but  r e l a t i o n t o God a l l men were e q u a l , 3  obedient  The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e  7  and i f they were  t o Him they would a l l be rewarded w i t h e t e r n a l l i f e  where t h e r e would be e q u a l i t y . 3  8  doxes i n C h r i s t i a n s u b o r d i n a t i o n .  There were then two p a r a In t h i s world men must  accept w i l l i n g l y a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e based on s u b o r d i n a t i o n and t h e d i s c o m f o r t s and i n j u s t i c e s which might be i n h e r e n t in  i t ; by so d o i n g they would i n h e r i t e t e r n a l l i f e f r e e o f  subordination.  Secondly s u b o r d i n a t i o n was t h e p r e s c r i b e d  c h a r a c t e r o f human s o c i e t y ; a t t h e same time a l l men were e q u a l l y subordinate  t o t h e w i l l o f God and equal i n H i s s i g h t .  Although r e l i g i o n enforced i t bearable.  s u b o r d i n a t i o n i t a l s o made  A l l men were b r o t h e r s through t h e i r common sub-  o r d i n a t i o n t o God t h e f a t h e r , and b r o t h e r l y l o v e and kindness soothed the c h a f f i n g o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n ' s yoke.39  Religion  taught not o n l y t h e c o r r e c t r e l a t i o n t o God but a l s o t h e  44  p r o p e r a t t i t u d e and d u t i e s t o f e l l o w men,  and t h e l o v e o f God  naturally- overflowed i n sympathy and c h a r i t y towards humanity. R e l i g i o n explained aspects  and enforced  of s o c i e t y exemplified  subordination  i t . From the s m a l l e s t u n i t ,  the f a m i l y , t o t h e l a r g e s t , t h e s t a t e , s u b o r d i n a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l principle. ®  but a l l  was t h e  I n t h e f a m i l y t h e woman was below  4  her husband, t h e c h i l d below h i s mother, and t h e servant his  master. -*-  below  Submission was not a n a t u r a l but r a t h e r an a c -  4  q u i r e d t r a i t , and education  was necessary from i n f a n c y f o r  c h i l d r e n brought " i n t o the world a c o r r u p t n a t u r e and e v i l disposition."  4 2  Both boys and g i r l s needed l e s s o n s i n submis-  s i o n , but they were o f g r e a t e r importance f o r g i r l s , f o r they were s u b s e r v i e n t  i n more o f l i f e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Hannah More  wrote: G i r l s s h o u l d be l e d t o d i s t r u s t t h e i r own judgment; they should l e a r n not t o murmur a t e x p o s t u l a t i o n ; they should be accustomed t o expect and to endure opposition. I t i s a l e s s o n w i t h which t h e world w i l l not f a i l t o f u r n i s h them; and they w i l l not p r a c t i s e i t t h e worse, f o r h a v i n g l e a r n t i t t h e sooner.43  Family members must submit t o those above them but they must a l s o be k i n d to those below them. his  A husband's l o v e f o r  w i f e would l e a d him t o "improve and e x a l t " her c h a r a c t e r .  He would encourage her a d v i c e affairs. "* 4  and ask her t o share i n h i s  The f i n a l d e c i s i o n was h i s t o make, but he would  i n c l u d e her i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n .  Parents'  c h i l d r e n was a s i g n o f t h e i r l o v e .  discipline of their  A s p o i l e d c h i l d was an  unhappy c h i l d and l a t e r would be an unhappy a d u l t f o r d i s c i p -  4 4  l i n e was e s s e n t i a l f o r moral e x c e l l e n c e — a q u a l i t y which not o n l y l e d t o happiness i n t h i s world  ( s i n c e happiness tended  t o f o l l o w v i r t u e ) , but more i m p o r t a n t l y  i n t h e world t o come.4°  The master's and m i s t r e s s ' s d i s c i p l i n e o f s e r v a n t s sprang from motives o f kindness.  The parents  similarly  and c h i l d r e n i n  a d d i t i o n were t o be t h o u g h t f u l and c o n s i d e r a t e i n t h e demands they made upon t h e s e r v a n t s and never i n f r i n g e upon t h e i r hours o f meals and rest.47 C l a s s s t r u c t u r e was f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e on a more complex level.  There were more members i n t e r a c t i n g but s t i l l i f each  f u l f i l l e d h i s d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s then harmony and w e l l b e i n g f o r a l l p r e v a i l e d , and c o n v e r s e l y n e g l e c t on t h e part o f one^section The  o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e harmed a l l . 4  d i f f e r e n t ranks and o r d e r s had d i f f e r e n t  8  responsibilities  and d i f f e r e n t t a l e n t s , and a man was not t o p i n e f o r a p o s i t i o n f o r which he had no a p t i t u d e , but r a t h e r t o e x e r c i s e h i s own God-given t a l e n t s i n h i s own sphere t o t h e best o f h i s a b i l i t y . Such a man, r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s rank, was worthy o f r e s p e c t by all.49  The h i g h e r a man's p o s i t i o n t h e g r e a t e r h i s r e s p o n s i -  bilities.  Noblesse o b l i g e was a C h r i s t i a n duty which a l s o  m i t i g a t e d d i s c o n t e n t , a powerful c o n s i d e r a t i o n a f t e r t h e outbreak o f r e v o l u t i o n i n France. Reciprocal obligations also characterized p o l i t i c a l subordination.  Hannah More was an ardent  admirer o f a l l t h i n g s  E n g l i s h and f e l t t h a t her country's mixed c o n s t i t u t i o n superbly i l l u s t r a t e d t h e b e n e f i t s o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n and r e c i p r o c i t y : each p a r t gave support,  each p a r t r e c e i v e d support,  and each  p a r t gave s t r e n g t h and s t a b i l i t y t o a l l . - * "  S u b j e c t s owed  duty t o t h e i r r u l e r y e t p r i n c e s should never m u l t i p l y the o c c a s i o n s f o r e x a c t i n g obedience.5-*Hannah More's i d e a l s o c i e t y s u f f e r e d rude shocks  from  t h e s o c i a l and economic changes connected with the i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n s , changes which became more e v i dent as t h e century p r o g r e s s e d .  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of small  gentry, farmers, and urban middle c l a s s expressed i t s e l f i n p r e s s u r e s f o r p o l i t i c a l reform, f o r r e d u c t i o n i n s i n e c u r e s , and f o r a more balanced r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the  country.52  Absentee l a n d l o r d s , l a r g e r farm and f a c t o r y u n i t s , and m o b i l i t y o f l a b o u r weakened deference and p a t e r n a l i s m .  As the v e r t i c a l  t i e s weakened the h o r i z o n t a l ones strengthened and c l a s s a n t a gonism was p o s s i b l e . 5 3  Men  were t a k i n g advantage o f the eco-  nomic o p p o r t u n i t i e s to r i s e i n the world, through c o m p e t i t i o n not c o - o p e r a t i o n , and they judged s o c i a l m o b i l i t y t o be good. The spokesmen of t h e new  t r e n d s — W i l l i a m Godwin, Thomas Paine,  Adam S m i t h — w e r e concerned w i t h t h i s world, not w i t h t h e next, and l o o k e d t o experience b e f o r e r e v e l a t i o n . t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the new  They made e x p l i c i t  s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s ,  and  f o r c e d them upon t h e i r r e a d e r s ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Hannah More was  aware t h a t t h e r e were s o c i a l and  nomic changes, but she d i s a p p r o v e d .  eco-  She d e p l o r e d t h e i n s u b -  o r d i n a t i o n , "In no age has the p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y been so contemptuously  t r e a t e d , o r every s p e c i e s of s u b o r d i n a t i o n so  d i s d a i n f u l l y trampled upon."54  She noted that b a k i n g and  brewing were no l o n g e r done i n r u r a l homes and worked t o  47  r e s t o r e " t h e good o l d management."55 fancy e d u c a t i o n g i v e n t o farmers'  she d i s l i k e d t h e new  daughters:  E v e r y t h i n g they have been taught t o do i s o f no use, w h i l e they a r e u t t e r l y unacquainted w i t h a l l which they ought t o have known. . . . . F o r t h e w i f e o f a farmer, she was t o o i d l e ; f o r t h e w i f e o f a tradesman, she was t o o expensive; f o r t h e w i f e o f a gentleman, she was too i g n o r a n t . 56  She knew t h a t s o c i a l m o b i l i t y was a f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e , h e r f i c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e r s p r a c t i s e i t , but she f e l t i t u n d e s i r a b l e , "Those who a r e r a i s e d , by some sudden s t r o k e , much above the station  i n which D i v i n e Providence had p l a c e d them seldom t u r n  out very good o r very happy."57  There i s no evidence t o sug-  gest t h a t she was aware o f t h e economic b a s i s f o r t h e s l o t h f u l , v a i n , and c o m p e t i t i v e p r a c t i c e s which she c r i t i c i s e d .  She was  f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e south and i t s t r a d i t i o n a l t r a d e s and occup a t i o n s and had no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e n o r t h and l i t t l e with the new i n d u s t r i e s . 5 8  Prom h e r p o i n t o f view these c h a l l e n g e s t o  her i d e a l s o c i e t y stemmed from man's c o r r u p t nature and cons e q u e n t l y t h e r e would always be i n j u s t i c e wrought by t y r a n n i c a l f a t h e r s , u n j u s t p r i n c e s , s l o t h f u l l a b o u r e r s , and s e l f i s h masters.  Human p e r f e c t i b i l i t y was i m p o s s i b l e i n t h i s world so  t h e r e would always be some i n j u s t i c e and s u f f e r i n g  i n i t , and  men, a c c o r d i n g to Hannah More, must accept t h i s f a c t as inevitable. Yet s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e loomed l a r g e t o some o f her contemporaries.  The American c o l o n i e s and the French poor fought  f o r t h e n a t u r a l r i g h t s which they f e l t were j u s t l y t h e i r s , and  48 they claimed r e b e l l i o n as one o f these r i g h t s . b e l i e v e d t h a t r e b e l l i o n was injustice.  Hannah More  never j u s t i f i e d , not even t o r i g h t  She d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the o f f i c e and the  v i d u a l , and s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o the o f f i c e — t o the r u l e r , a r c h , master, o r s q u i r e — w a s t e r o f t h e man  who  filled  t o r e s i s t power was  patri-  necessary r e g a r d l e s s o f the charac-  it.  S i n c e a l l power came from  t o r e s i s t t h e o r d i n a n c e o f God.57  and i n d o i n g so her l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y broke down.  God  This  view had t o be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e E n g l i s h r e v o l u t i o n o f  Glorious Revolution  indi-  1688  The  was  . . . one o f those r a r e and c r i t i c a l cases, which can never be pleaded as a precedent by d i s c o n t e n t or d i s a f f e c t i o n . I t was a s i n g u l a r i n s t a n c e , when a h i g h duty was o f n e c e s s i t y superseded by a h i g h er* and when t h e paramount r i g h t s o f law and cons c i e n c e u n i t e d i n u r g i n g the p a i n f u l but i r r e s i s t i b l e necessity.60 She avoided s u g g e s t i n g c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g other c r i t i c a l cases.  Nor does she suggest how  such  the r i g h t s o f law  and c o n s c i e n c e can be paramount when c o n t e s t i n g with God's o r d i n a n c e s and d e l e g a t e d power. The  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , b e i n g God's handiwork, was  bas-  i c a l l y good and the f l a w s which were t h e r e sprang o n l y from the e v i l i n men.  Improvement was  f l a w s , not o f r a z i n g the e d i f i c e , ^ upon s a c r i l e g e .  a matter of c o r r e c t i n g these x  a d e s t r u c t i o n which verged  She shared many views with her f r i e n d Edmund  Burke and her i n d i g n a t i o n a t r a d i c a l p r o p o s a l s c o u l d have been his:  49  . . . t h e modern i d e a o f improvement does n o t c o n s i s t i n a l t e r i n g , but e x t i r p a t i n g . We do not reform, but s u b v e r t . We do not c o r r e c t o l d s y s tems, but demolish them; f a n c y i n g t h a t when e v e r y t h i n g s h a l l be new, i t w i l l be p e r f e c t . ... . E x c e l l e n c e i s no l o n g e r considered a s an experimental t h i n g , which i s t o grow g r a d u a l l y out o f o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e , and t o be improved by t h e accumulating a d d i t i o n s brought by the wisdom o f s u c c e s s i v e a g e s . 0 2  Yet i n h e r own way Hannah More was a s o c i a l reformer ** and possessed a r e f o r m e r ' s z e a l .  She sought t o change mankind,  the source o f t h e world's t r o u b l e s ; i f e v i l came from man's c o r r u p t nature then she proposed t o t u r n men's h e a r t s t o God so t h a t H i s grace might t r a n s f o r m  them.  f a l s e t o a t r u e r e l i g i o n was a r a d i c a l  C o n v e r s i o n from a process.  . . . t h e r e was no such t h i n g as mending i d o l a t r y ; i t was not a b u i l d i n g t o be r e p a i r e d ; i t must be demolished; no m a t e r i a l s were t o be p i c k e d out from i t s r u i n s towards t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e v e r l a s t i n g e d i f i c e ; t h e r u b b i s h must be r o l l e d away. A c l e a r stage must be l e f t f o r t h e new order o f t h i n g s ; . . . ,°4 The  converted would then be a b l e t o b e t t e r , though not p e r -  f e c t l y , execute God's p l a n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n w i t h l o v e , kindness, j u s t i c e , and harmony.  would f u n c t i o n R e l i g i o n would  r e c t i f y a monarch's p r i n c i p l e s and cure i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n  i n the  s u b j e c t s , and t h e r e would be no demand f o r r e b e l l i o n s i n c e t h e r e would be no need f o r i t . reform through c o n v e r s i o n , was a v a i l a b l e t o a l l .  In order t o b e l i e v e i n s o c i a l  she had to b e l i e v e t h a t s a l v a t i o n  She p a r t e d  company with many o f t h e  E v a n g e l i c a l s i n her Arminianism, ^ 0  50 . . . the p o s s i b i l i t y of salvation i s universal; the i n v i t a t i o n i s as l a r g e as t h e benevolence o f God, t h e persons i n v i t e d as numerous as h i s whole rational creation. 0 0  I t f o l l o w e d t h a t "none a r e excluded exclude themselves."*'  7  [from s a l v a t i o n ] who do not  T h e o r e t i c a l l y those who were unregener-  a t e were so from c h o i c e and she c o u l d t h e o l o g i c a l l y j u s t i f y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n commonly made between t h e d e s e r v i n g and t h e undese r v i n g poor.  R i o t e r s should r e c e i v e no r e l i e f ,  "but with t h e  q u i e t , c o n t e n t e d , hard-working man" she would share her " l a s t morsel o f b r e a d . " ° 8  However, on a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l she knew  t h a t t h e r e were many i n England who had never had a chance t o learn of Christianity.  I n some areas the p a r i s h e s were t o o  l a r g e o r the c l e r g y inadequate i n number o r q u a l i t y and o f t e n the poor had no c l o t h e s s u i t a b l e f o r church.^9  j n h e r own  Mendip H i l l s Hannah More found miners and workers i n g l a s s houses who knew n o t h i n g o f England's e s t a b l i s h e d  religion.  She t h e r e f o r e taught t h e h i g h e r o r d e r s t h a t n o b l e s s e o b l i g e c o n s i s t e d not o n l y o f r e l i e v i n g the p h y s i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n s o f t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s but a l s o o f r e l i e v i n g t h e i r s p i r i t u a l ance, and t h a t c h a r i t y presupposed moral reform.  ignor-  This cluster  o f concepts i s l o g i c a l , g r a n t i n g her p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s ,  nonethe-  l e s s i t must have encouraged h y p o c r i s y among t h e poor. Her acceptance o f s u f f e r i n g , p o v e r t y , and ignorance as i n e v i t a b l e seems c a l l o u s today.  Perhaps her r e a l  compassion  f o r t h e u n f o r t u n a t e would have l e d her t o modify her views, i f t h i s world were t h e only one under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  For her t h i s  world was o n l y a p r e l u d e t o e t e r n i t y and even a l i f e t i m e o f  51 s u f f e r i n g here was  but a moment s u b t r a c t e d from i n f i n i t e  The very f a c t t h a t i n t h i s world v i c e was  time.  o f t e n rewarded and  v i r t u e p e n a l i z e d strengthened her b e l i e f i n an a f t e r l i f e where compensation  would be made and j u s t i c e f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d . ?  generously arranged matters so t h a t those who  God  0  were most subor-  d i n a t e i n t h i s world, women and the poor, were spared many o f the temptations and were thus i n a p r e f e r r e d p o s i t i o n f o r i n heritance of eternal l i f e . ? *  When condemning her acceptance o f  misery i t i s necessary t o l o o k a t her a c t i o n s as w e l l as her words.  In the Mendip H i l l s she gave generous r e l i e f t o the  poor i n times o f s u f f e r i n g ?  2  and, more important, gave t i r e -  l e s s l y ©f her time and money t o help t h e s e poor t o help thems e l v e s — t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g i n manual s k i l l s , t e a c h i n g o f economic household management, and f o u n d i n g o f s i c k n e s s b e n e f i t c l u b s . She was  a p p a l l e d a t the workhouse c o n d i t i o n s , asked her  e n t i a l f r i e n d s t o work f o r t h e i r improvement,?  influ-  and e a g e r l y  3  promoted the cause o f L o u i s a t h e wandering l u n a t i c and o f Anne Y e a r s i e y the wretchedly poor milkmaid  and p o e t e s s .  Hannah  More accepted s u f f e r i n g as i n e v i t a b l e , but d i d a l l she c o u l d to m i t i g a t e i t s pangs. Hannah More was did  sufficiently realistic  not always do what they knew was  remaining untouched  t o know t h a t  r i g h t , and t h a t some  by c o n v e r s i o n , had no d e s i r e t o do  men  men,  right.  R e l i g i o n t h e r e f o r e c o u l d not be the s o l e bulwark a g a i n s t i n subordination.  Law  was  the b e s t s u b s i d i a r y a i d t o r e l i g i o n ?  and shared some o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . s u b o r d i n a t e to law and i t t r e a t e d a l l men  A l l men  4  were e q u a l l y  equally,75 hence i t  52 c o u l d prevent some i n j u s t i c e s which e v i l men would otherwise perpetrate.  N e v e r t h e l e s s law was o n l y a dim r e f l e c t i o n o f  d i v i n e law, and b e i n g made by f a l l i b l e men was a t b e s t fect.  imper-  I t i g n o r e d s i n s such as l y i n g and i n g r a t i t u d e which  Hannah More f e l t must t h e r e f o r e be o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y  heinous  nature because they were "judged above t h e reach o f human punishment, and . . . r e s e r v e d f o r the f i n a l j u s t i c e o f God himself." ^ 7  Although Hannah More, when w r i t i n g f o r t h e lower  o r d e r s , p o i n t e d out t h a t a poor man c o u l d go t o law w i t h a r i c h man  77  she must have known t h a t l a w s u i t s were t o o expensive  f o r many poor men.  She presumably ranked t h i s i n e q u a l i t y o f  o p p o r t u n i t y with t h e many t r i a l s t h e u n f o r t u n a t e were asked t o endure i n an i m p e r f e c t world. Hannah More's amalgamation o f r e f o r m a t i o n and conservat i s m were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of her time. to  Her d e s i r e t o reform,  c o n v e r t , t o make t h i s world a b e t t e r p l a c e had p a r a l l e l s  i n o t h e r reform movements o f t h e p e r i o d and possessed for  appeal  a s o c i e t y emerging from a f a i r l y s t a b l e , formal e r a .  People might not sympathize  with h e r views, but they were  f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e impulse.  On t h e o t h e r hand h e r determined  g r i p upon t h e s t a b l e s o c i a l o r d e r o f the p a s t was t y p i c a l o f the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of  t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n France became e v i d e n t .  Hannah More's  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c responses o f h e r p e r i o d i n c r e a s e d h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a d i d a c t i c  writer.  53 Footnotes ^E. P. Thompson, The Making o f the E n g l i s h Working C l a s s ( V i n t a g e Books paperback e d i t i o n : New York, 1966), pp. 11 - 12. T h a t the two h a l v e s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h century a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as u n i t s does not deny c o n t i n u i t y . The populat i o n i n c r e a s e which began about 1740 and a c c e l e r a t e d s h a r p l y a f t e r 1780 grew from the run o f good h a r v e s t s between 1715 and the 1750*s. E n c l o s u r e was a c e n t u r y - l o n g p r o c e s s , but i t a c c e l e r a t e d as the decades passed. S i l k was manufactured i n f a c t o r i e s throughout the c e n t u r y . Nor i s i t t o deny t h a t t h e r e were cases o f g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y i n the second h a l f o f t h e century than i n the f i r s t . G. E. Mingay, E n g l i s h Landed S o c i e t y i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century (London, 1963), p . 39 and p. 47 s t a t e s t h a t the composition o f landowners was more s t a b l e i n the l a s t h a l f o f the century than i t had been f o r t h e p r e v i o u s two hundred y e a r s . 2  Mary M i t f o r d ' s Our V i l l a g e (London, 1910 [1824-1832] ) shows how s l o w l y change came t o some a r e a s . 3  I v y Pinchbeck, Women Workers i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n (London, 1930), pp. 37 - 40. 4  $E. C. K. Gonner, Common Land and I n c l o s u r e (London, 1912), pp. 362 - 368. W. E. T a t e , The E n g l i s h V i l l a g e Commun i t y and the E n c l o s u r e Movements (London, 1967), pp. 174 - 175. P h y l l i s Deane, The F i r s t I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n (Cambridge, 1965), p. 224. ". . . i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n meant an i n s e c u r e as w e l l as a r i s i n g standard o f l i v i n g f o r the m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e . " p . 236. ^Thompson, oj>. c i t . . p . 244 f f . He speaks p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century y e t sees t h e t h r e a t t o t r a d e s * s t a t u s e x i s t i n g i n the e i g h t e e n t h century as w e l l , p . 253. ^ G e n e r a l l y a g r i c u l t u r e was r e q u i r i n g more l a b o u r . A. H. John, "Aspects o f E n g l i s h Economic Growth i n the F i r s t H a l f o f the E i g h t e e n t h Century," Essays i n Economic H i s t o r y , ed. M. E. Carus-Wilton (London, 1954), I I , p . 364 p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e were r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s and t h a t i n the midland c l a y areas l a b o u r was moving from the country t o towns and industrial cities. C f . Deane, op_. c i t . . pp. 138 - 139. O  Deane, oj>. c i t . . p . 48. ^Pinchbeck,  op., c i t . , pp. 33 - 37.  l^Mingay, ojp.. c i t . . p . 20. He says t h a t landed income i n 1790 was 40 t o 50 percent more than a t mid-century.  54 Dorothy M a r s h a l l , Eighteenth Century England ( L o n d o n , 1962), p . 23 f o r t h e c o n t r a s t o f t h e e a r l y e i g h teenth century. l L e s l i e Stephen, H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Thought i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y (New Y o r k , 1962 [ f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1876J), V o l . I I , pp. 282 - 283. 2  •""^Marshall, op_. c i t . , p . 43, P p . 58 - 60. For Lord B o l i n g b r o k e ' s a t t i t u d e t o p a r t y s e e S t e p h e n , op., c i t . . V o l . I I , p p . 144 - 145. 14  M a  r shall,  op., e x t . , p . 233.  •^^Mingay, op., c i t . . Ibid.,  l 6  p p . 4 - 5.  p p . 186 - 187.  1 J o h n Henry Overton, The E v a n g e l i c a l R e v i v a l i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( L o n d o n , 1900 [ f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1889J), PP. 2 - 3 . 7  •*- John H e n r y O v e r t o n and F r e d e r i c k R e l t o n , T h e E n g l i s h Church from t h e A c c e s s i o n o f George I t o t h e End o f t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y (1714-1800) ( L o n d o n , 1906), p p . 1 - 2, p . 4, p p . 63 - 64, p p . 6 9 - 7 0 . S. C . C a r p e n t e r , E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y C h u r c h and P e o p l e ( L o n d o n , 1959), c h a p , x, "The P a r i s h e s , " a n d p p . 273 - 277. The r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l c a n be dated from John W e s l e y ' s c o n v e r s i o n i n 1738. T h e 1740 s saw J o h n B e r r i d g e , W i l l i a m Romaine, and W i l l i a m Grimshaw become e v a n g e l i c a l . T h e 1750*s b r o u g h t J o h n Newton, J o h n F l e t c h e r , a n d H e n r y Venn i n t o the f o l d . T h e e a r l y r e a c t i o n o f churchmen t o t h e r e v i v a l o f e m o t i o n i n r e l i g i o n was t o " s e t t h e i r f a c e s a l l t h e more a g a i n s t t h e r e l i g i o n o f f e e l i n g " O v e r t o n and R e l t o n , op., e x t . , p . 73. By 1760 t h e r e were v e r y f a i n t s i g n s o f improvement i n the general church tone. I b i d . , p p . 158 - 161. 8  f  • ^ ^ B a s i l W i l l e y , The E i g h t e e n t h Century  ( B o s t o n , 1961 (Jcirst p u b l i s h e d i n 1940J), P. 3. 2 0  Stephen,  Background  o p . e x t . , V o l . I I , p . 313.  ^ T h e f o r e g o i n g p a r a g r a p h d o e s n o t deny t h e i n t u i t i v e aspect o f Lord Shaftesbury's moral sense, t h e d e v o t i o n a l n a t u r e o f W i l l i a m Law's w o r k s , t h e a p p e a l t o t h e h e a r t o f J o h n W e s l e y , o r t h e s e n t i m e n t a l i t y o f Samuel R i c h a r d s o n ' s C l a r i s s a Harlowe. However, t h e s e were more p r o p h e t i c o f t h e l a t e r f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f e v a n g e l i c a l i s m and r o m a n t i c i s m t h a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s p i r i t o f the time. 2  2 2  Asa  B r i g g s , The Age o f Improvement 1783-1867 ( L o n d o n ,  1959), p p . 133 - 136.  55 G e o r g i a n a , Lady C h a t t e r t o n ( e d . ) , M e m o r i a l s . P e r s o n a l and H i s t o r i c a l o f A d m i r a l L o r d Gambier. G.C.B. ( L o n d o n , 1861), V o l . I , p . 213, Hannah More t o S i r C h a r l e s M i d d l e t o n , B a t h , 8 J a n . , 1793. 3  2  Vol.  4overton,  op_. e x t . , p p . 144 - 145.  25nannah More, Works o f Hannah More ( L o n d o n , 1834), I l l , chap, xx i s t y p i c a l .  W i l l i a m R o b e r t s ( e d . ) , M e m o i r s o f t h e L i f e and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f M r s . Hannah More ( L o n d o n , 1834), V o l . I V , p . 90. 2 o  2  ? M o r e , op_. e x t . , V o l . X, p . 283.  2 8  M o r e , op_. e x t . , V o l . I l l ,  2 9  Ibid..  V o l . IX, chap.  p p . 351 - 352.  viii.  E v e n r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s were deep b u t n o t d i s r u p t i v e . The i d e a l was a c h i e v e d by S t . P a u l : " H i s ardent f e e l i n g s bet r a y h i m i n t o no i n t e m p e r a n c e o f s p e e c h , i n t o no i n e q u a l i t y o f action. H i s p i e t y i s f r e e from e c c e n t r i c i t y , h i s f a i t h from presumption." I b i d . , V o l . X, p . 149. 3 0  ^ C h a t t e r t o n , op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p . 210, Hannah More t o S i r C h a r l e s M i d d l e t o n , B a t h , 8 J a n u a r y , 1793. A l s o s e e O v e r t o n and R e l t o n , og. e x t . , p . 249. " A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f d i s s e n t e r s t o churchmen was o n e t o t w e n t y - f o u r , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h one t o f o u r , a n d t h e enormous d i f f e r e n c e was l a r g e l y due t o the r e v i v a l . " 3 2  M o r e , op_. e x t . , V o l . I V , p . 149.  R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I l l , p . 229, Hannah More t o Mr. Knox, B a r l e y Wood, 1805. More, op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p . 289. 3 3  Rev.  ^ R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I l l , p . 283, Hannah More t o J o s e p h B e r r i n g t o n , B a r l e y Wood, 1809. 35it>id.. V o l . I l l , p . 203, f r o m 3 o  M o r e , op_. c i t . . V o l . I l l ,  3 7  Ibid..  V o l . I , p . 88.  3 8  Ibid..  V o l . I l l , p . 204.  3  h e r j o u r n a l f o r 1803.  p . 31.  ° I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p . 366 and V o l . I , p . 216.  4 0  Ibid..  V o l . I l l , p . 283.  56 4 1 i b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 227. 42ibid., Vol. I l l ,  p. 47.  43ibid., Vol. I l l ,  p. 106.  44ibid., Vol. I l l ,  p. 260.  45ibid., Vol. I l l ,  p. 69.  4 6  ibid.,  Vol. I l l ,  47ibid., Vol. I l l , 4 8  ibid.,  49ibid., 5 0  5 1  p. 104, p. 133. p. 82, V o l . I , p. 83.  V o l . I I , p. 226, and V o l . IV, p. 203. V o l . I* P. 4, p. 25, p. 100.  I b i d . , V o l . IV, p. 37. I b i d . , V o l . IV, p. 38.  -> Mingay, op. c i t . , p. 261. 2  ^^Asa B r i g g s , "The Language o f 'Class* i n E a r l y t e e n t h Century England," Essays i n Labour H i s t o r y . eds. Asa B r i g g s and John S a v i l l e (London, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 53 and p. 47.  54More, op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p. 313 and V o l . I l l , p. 100.  Hannah More was not a l o n e . "But what you say . . . o f ' f i l i a l obedience not b e i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e age,* i s so t r u e i n these t o p s y - t u r v y times, that i t seems as much a b o l i s h e d i n t h i s country, as n o b i l i t y and l o y a l t y i n France. Parents are now a f r a i d o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n — m a s t e r s of t h e i r s e r v a n t s — a n d , i n S t a t e t r i a l s , judges o f t h e p r i s o n e r s . " Roberts, op_. c i t • V o l . I l l , p. 73, C h a r l e s Burney to Hannah More, Chelsea C o l l e g e , A p r i l , 1799.  55More, op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p. 175 and p. 177. 56 I b i d . , V o l . I , p. 108. 57 I b i d . . V o l . I , p. 283. 58g i i t C o a l b r o o k d a l e . Her r e a c t i o n shows no c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e town*s c h i e f i n d u s t r y , apart from a e s t h e t i c ones. " . . . Colebrook Dale, the most wonderful mixture o f Elysium and T a r t a r u s my eyes ever beheld* steam-engines, h i l l s , wheels, f o r g e s , f i r e s , and dunnest and densest smoke, and t h e most stupendous i r o n - b r i d g e , a l l r i s i n g amidst h i l l s that i n n a t u r a l beauty r i v a l Dovedale and Matlock," Roberts, op_. e x t . , V o l , I I I , p. 349, Hannah More to Mr. H a r f o r d , Shrewsbury, September 9, 1811. n e  v  s  57 59jiore, op., c i t . . V o l . I I , p . 227. 6 0  Ibid.,  V o l . IV, p.  6 l  Ibid..  Vol. I l l ,  384.  p.  23.  °^Loc. c i t . ° Ibid.. V o l . I I , p. 3  6 4  Ibid..  V o l . X, p .  222. 76.  ^ O v e r t o n and R e l t o n , op., c i t . . , p . 140. Augustus T o p l a d y and W i l l i a m Romaine were " s t r o n g " C a l v i n i s t s . John Newton, Thomas S c o t t , W i l l i a m Cowper, and most o f t h e Clapham g r o u p were " m o d e r a t e " C a l v i n i s t s . 0 0  More,  op_. e x t . , V o l . X, p .  ° Ibid.. V o l . I l l , p. 7  6 8  Ibid..  V o l . I I , p.  236.  342.  118.  ^ R o b e r t s , op_. c i t . . V o l . I I , p . 306. Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , 1791. (The date i s i n c o r r e c t ; i t i s p r o b a b l y 1795.)  p.  7 0  More,  op., ext.., V o l . I l l , p .  133.  7 1  More,  op.. c i £ . , V o l . I , p p . 150-141; V o l . I l l ,  205; V o l . 14, p . 225.  H e n r y Thompson, T h e L i f e o f Hannah More w i t h N o t i c e s o f H e r S i s t e r s ( L o n d o n , 1838), p . 373 s a y s t h a t s h e f r e q u e n t l y s p e n t £900 p e r y e a r o n c h a r i t i e s . 7 2  7 3  Chatterton,  7 4  More,  7  op., c i t . . V o l . I , p p . 262 -  op_. e x t . , V o l . I V , p .  5 l b i d . . V o l . I V , p . 32.  7 6  Ibid..  V o l . VI, p.  294.  7 7  Ibid..  V o l . I I , p . 223.  50.  264.  CHAPTER I I I Hannah More's Method;  For t h e " B e t t e r S o r t o f  I n p e r s u a s i o n what one important  than how  says i s important,  one says i t .  but no more  I f Hannah More's message  rooted i n t h e p a s t , her p r e s e n t a t i o n was present.  People."  was  grounded i n the  Her r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n stemmed from the p i e t y ,  d i s c i p l i n e , and  single-mindedness  o f p u r i t a n i s m , and  s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y grew from the medieval  her  concept o f an o r g a n i c  s o c i e t y , i g n o r i n g the e f f e c t s o f economic changes brought by the p r e v i o u s t h r e e centuries.  However, when she  considered  a p e r s u a s i v e technique she had a c l e a r i f narrow v i s i o n s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l to  those who  f a c t s of the day.  were e x p e r i e n c i n g s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , who  economic d i s l o c a t i o n , and who the p o l i t i c a l  She  of spoke  suffered  watched with v a r y i n g emotions,  r e v o l u t i o n a c r o s s the E n g l i s h Channel.  spoke to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs engendered by t h i s  She en-  vironment. D u r i n g her l i f e  she wrote f o r a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s ,  but most o f her many books were designed c l a s s r e a d e r s , f o r those who read books.  f o r middle and upper  had money and l e i s u r e t o buy  and  John Wesley had sent word to Hannah More s a y i n g ,  " T e l l her to l i v e i n the world; t h e r e i s the sphere o f her u s e f u l n e s s ; they w i l l not l e t us come n i g h them."*  He  was  r i g h t f o r "they" d i d r e c e i v e her books. One  reason, although a s u b s i d i a r y one, was  t h a t Han-  nah More's s t y l e f o l l o w e d the model s e t by the r e c o g n i z e d  59 m a s t e r s o f t h e day,  Samuel J o h n s o n  polished,  elevated,  and  formal.  speech.  She  consistently  colloquial  and  Edward G i b b o n .  It  was  I t c o u l d n e v e r be t a k e n f o r used m u l t i p l e  parallels:  R e l i g i o n i s an i n d e f i n i t e t e r m , a vague word, w h i c h may be made t o i n v o l v e a v a r i e t y o f m e a n i n g s , and t o amalgamate a number o f discrepancies.3 In t h i s  example s h e u s e d two  c o n s i s t i n g o f two p l i c a t i o n was gory—but  the  elements, t h e second of t h r e e .  not used f o r r a n g e — t o l i s t  f o r emphasis.  parallels.  sets of p a r a l l e l s ,  She was  also  The  members o f a  fond of  multicate-  antithetical  I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e t h e r e a r e two  c a l members, e a c h w i t h t h r e e  first  antitheti-  elements.  I f y o u a d v a n c e , y o u g l o r i f y God, and p r o m o t e y o u r own s a l v a t i o n , i f y o u r e c e d e , y o u i n j u r e t h e c a u s e y o u now i n t e n d t o s e r v e , and b r i n g upon yourself a fearful condemnation.4  Her d i c t i o n  f a v o u r e d words t h a t were g e n e r a l  words s u c h a s "communities,"  "doctrines,"  and  non-sensory,  "errors,"  "church," "character," "pursuits," " d i s t i n c t i o n s , " "inhabitants,"  "mass."  a c r o s s her  "materials,"  Although she avoided the Johnsonian  h a b i t of frequent use o f e r u d i t e she d i d o c c a s i o n a l l y  "opinions,"  L a t i n and G r e e k  derivatives,  scatter a " p u l l u l a t i o n , " or a  "variolus,"  pages.  She r e l i e v e d  the s o p o r i f i c  effect  of the r e g u l a r  e n c e s and g e n e r a l t e r m s , by r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i f i c events, o r p e r s o n a l i t i e s ,  and by t h r u s t s a t human  cad-  contemporary foibles.  60 Typical  i s h e r d e l i n e a t i o n o f two  a b l e even today: are  t h e new tions her  a n a t u r a l fondness f o r b u s t l e , or  a l o v e o f n o t i c e , " and  and  t i m i d C h r i s t i a n by  . . . 'does s h e  pray  animal  t h e p h r a s e o l o g i s t s who  the  "impetuosity  e x t e m p o r e ? " and  of t h e i r  "*Will  1  alarm  she  ques-  tell  experience? "^ 1  The reinforced  traditional  s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e may  h e r message.  It, like  f a m i l i a r to a generation  a counterpart  were a c c e p t e d other,  o f her  her  b r o u g h t up  v e n t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n and was  recogniz-  t h e p i o u s l a d y whose b u s y c h a r i t a b l e p u r s u i t s  " i n f l u e n c e d by  activity,  C h r i s t i a n types,  balance ideal  s u b t l y have  s o c i a l philosophy,  on  the  Rambler.  I t s con-  o f element a g a i n s t  social  structure.  was  element  I n one  there  b a r r i e r s t o d i s o r d e r l y f l i g h t s o f words, i n  of actions.  T h o s e who  p r a c t i c e which she  f e a r e d the  a d v o c a t e d may  changes i n  have b e e n l e s s  as t h e words which conveyed t h e i d e a s  rolled  the  religious  apprehensive  along i n  the  f a m i l i a r n e o - c l a s s i c a l cadence. Her  s t y l e had  structure.  She  pathy with  her  r i n g t o her  persuasive  reader.  She  felow-countrymen.  apart  and  pathised; ties  reader  p r e a c h but by  i n these  When s h e  t o w h i c h men  "we"  a r e prone** she  when  of em-  refer-  condemned f a u l t s when s h e  Christian l i f e  pleasures.  specific  from t h o s e establish  c o n d e m n a t i o n , and  r a t h e r showed s h e  enumerating the  to  f r e q u e n t l y used  s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f a v i r t u o u s and  included the  apart  w r o t e i n a manner d e s i g n e d  thus included h e r s e l f i n the of the  aspects  She  d i d not  u n d e r s t o o d and temptations  showed t h a t  she  and  she spoke  she stand symfrail-  a l s o had  been  61 s u b j e c t t o them. not  vague g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , s h e d i d  speak o f s i n i n g e n e r a l , but o f p a r t i c u l a r  period. to  She a v o i d e d  She a p p e a l e d  the self-evident  practical, rapport  t o common s e n s e ,  sins ofthe  t o common  truth of her propositions.  rational  Englishmen as one o f t h e i r  e s t a b l i s h e d she c o u l d proceed Hannah More was a w i d e l y  number.  correspondence  With  because h e r  She had t o b e a s e n -  s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t i n order t o be an e f f e c t i v e Her  She s p o k e t o  t o convert.  read author  message was r e l e v a n t t o h e r a u d i e n c e .  experiences,  p r o v i d e s abundant e v i d e n c e  propagandist.  t h a t s h e was an  a s t u t e amateur p s y c h o l o g i s t , a d d r e s s i n g h e r s e l f t o t h e i n t e r ests o f those  t o whom she s p o k e .  The f o l l o w i n g excerpt  from  a l e t t e r t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e t e l l i n g o f h e r e f f o r t s t o win t h e wealthy Cheddar f a r m e r s her  skill  1  support  f o r h e r s c h o o l , shows  i n action.  . . . I f o u n d t h a t f r i e n d s must b e s e c u r e d a t a l l events, f o r i f these r i c h savages s e t t h e i r f a c e s a g a i n s t u s , a n d i n f l u e n c e d t h e p o o r p e o p l e , I saw t h a t n o t h i n g b u t h o s t i l i t i e s w o u l d ensue* s o I made e l e v e n more o f t h e s e a g r e e a b l e v i s i t s ; a n d as I improved i n t h e a r t o f c a n v a s s i n g , had b e t ter success. M i s s W i l b e r f o r c e would have been s h o c k e d , had s h e s e e n t h e p e t t y t y r a n t s whose i n s o l e n c e I s t r o k e d a n d tamed, t h e u g l y c h i l d r e n I p r a i s e d , t h e p o i n t e r s and s p a n i e l s I c a r e s s e d , t h e c i d e r I commended, and t h e wine I s w a l l o w e d . A f t e r these i r r e s i s t i b l e f l a t t e r i e s , I i n q u i r e d o f e a c h i f h e c o u l d recommend me t o a h o u s e ; a n d s a i d t h a t I had a l i t t l e p l a n which I hoped would s e c u r e t h e i r o r c h a r d s from b e i n g robbed, t h e i r r a b b i t s f r o m b e i n g s h o t , t h e i r game f r o m b e i n g s t o l e n , and which might l o w e r t h e p o o r - r a t e s . I f e f f e c t be t h e b e s t p r o o f o f eloquence, t h e n mine was a good s p e e c h , f o r I g a i n e d a t l e n g t h t h e h e a r t y c o n c u r r e n c e o f t h e w h o l e p e o p l e , and t h e i r promise t o discourage o r favour t h e poor i n  62 p r o p o r t i o n a s t h e y were a t t e n t i v e o r n e g l i g e n t i n sending t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 7  This a b i l i t y  t o understand  them u n d o u b t e d l y and  tianity"  herself to  smoothed h e r p r o g r e s s upwards i n B r i s t o l  London s o c i e t y  h e r charm.  o t h e r s and t o a d a p t  a n d must have b e e n o n e o f t h e s e c r e t s o f  When s h e w r o t e t o c o n v e r t  s h e wanted a s d e e p l y  England  to "true  Chris-  t o w i n f r i e n d s t o God's c a u s e  a s s h e had e a r l i e r w i s h e d t o w i n them t o h e r own, a n d s h e d i d not  abandon a w e l l - p r o v e d As  to  an a m a t e u r p s y c h o l o g i s t s h e d i r e c t e d  b a s i c human n e e d s .  headings:  as a person  for  emotional  T h e s e may b e g r o u p e d u n d e r t h r e e m a i n  o f worth and importance,  and p h y s i c a l  ed t o t h o s e n e e d s w h i c h s u i t e d of  group she d i d n o t a p p e a l  tion.  When w r i t i n g  appeal-  for  i n most c a s e s .  this condi-  provided with t h e  In addition,  was a n e s s e n t i a l  accep-  part o f her p h i l -  Seeking b e t t e r conditions could lead  to insubordina-  When w r i t i n g f o r t h e p o o r s h e d i d s p e a k t o t h e n e e d  p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , i f t h e r e appeared  alternative,  but f o r the well-to-do  the d e s i r e f o r importance To to  Hannah More  to a desire for better l i v i n g  t a n c e o f one's l o t i n l i f e osophy.  and t h e n e e d  h e r p u r p o s e and h e r a s s e s s m e n t  T h e u p p e r o r d e r s were c o m f o r t a b l y  material things of l i f e  for  security.  t h e contemporary upper c l a s s mind.  tions.  h e r message  t h e need f o r p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , t h e need t o be  regarded both  technique.  t o b e no e f f e c t i v e  she appealed  and f o r s e c u r i t y .  a p p r e c i a t e her persuasive technique  see i t i n use.  rather to  Practical  i t i s necessary  P i e t y , p u b l i s h e d i n 1811, w e l l  63  i l l u s t r a t e s her  approach to  her  m a t u r e w r i t i n g and  the  first  e d i t i o n was  the  i t was  upper c l a s s .  one  o f her  bespoken b e f o r e  It  represents  most p o p u l a r  i t appeared i n the  s h o p s and  i t went t h r o u g h t h i r t e e n e d i t i o n s t o t a l i n g  copies.  A n a l y s i s o f t h e method o f p e r s u a s i o n  this  0  book r e v e a l s  three  e n v i r o n m e n t , an  groups w i t h i n philosophic In w o r t h and  universe, this  appeal to  the  E n g l i s h s o c i e t y , and  the  Practical  and and  regard.*  P i e t y she  valued t h a t He  by  reminded her  o m n i p o t e n t God,  provided  the  l e s s unworthy o f  would not i t .  She  o f human e s t e e m one  more r e w a r d i n g l o v e — t h a t  specific  promise of  appeal f o r the f o r the  socially  social  charity,  but  s a g e was  a p p l i c a b l e to the  f e s s i o n a l man, The  not  respect  the value  m i g h t be,  the of  to  It seek  s a l v a t i o n , but  indicated that  neglected  ladder,  then merit  and  no  would  matter  how  a more i m p o r t a n t  and  everyone.  i s o l a t e d , t h e l o n e l y , and  wife,  the  man  who  was  of  they  eternal l i f e .  of God—was a v a i l a b l e to  down t h e  fashion.  Eng-  instances"  He  failures:  current  r u l e r of  "inexhaustible  among t h e s e t h e  0  His w i l l .  had  an  readers that  t o do  This  in  s p o k e t o man's n e e d t o f e e l  C h r i s t i a n t o r e t u r n God's l o v e  bereft  used  appeal through f a m i l i a r  remained f o r the  be  24,000  reader:  i n t e r e s t s of an  book  concepts.  i m p o r t a n c e when she  were l o v e d  she  main approaches t o t h e  a p p e a l t o u n i v e r s a l human n e e d s i n t e r m s o f lish  books—  the  slipping  and  the  m a i d e n a u n t who  was  given  by  the  family  The  same mes-  circle.  s u c c e s s f u l , to the  d a r l i n g of  s o c i e t y , and  o f r e c o g n i t i o n by  the  the  respected leader  transient  pro-  of  world  64 crumbled  into  love.  The  middle  link  i n s i g n i f i c a n c e b e f o r e the e t e r n a l  s t a t u s b e s t o w e d by men, i n the  God,  Hannah More t o l d h e r she  were a f t e r  " c h a i n o f b e i n g , " was  w i t h t h e s t a t u s g i v e n by  t o God,  who  also told  eyes of t h e i r peers  r e a d e r s t h a t they  of their  recommend s u c h  of the  inferiors.  She  " g r e a t , " was  by t h e i r p a t r o n o r m a s t e r .  public She  without  her  r e a d e r s t h a t no  a sphere  someone, and  nent  was  a powerful  t o o much  herself  generally, that  and  She  be-  example,  i n f l u e n c e f o r improvf o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n  Reputation,  by h e r  of influence*  no m a t t e r  e v e r y o n e was  She  flattered  influence,  flattery—having  and  humble,  l o o k e d up  to p o i n t out  was  to  by  the i n f l u e n c e of and  the  promi-  she d i d not  e s t a b l i s h e d empathy w i t h h e r imperfections i n their  w h i c h must be c o r r e c t e d b e f o r e t h e i r  full  how  both the obscure  s t r e s s upon t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , b u t  e r s she proceeded tianity  one,  therefore could convert through  example.*"*"  ploy i d l e  its  i n the  o p i n i o n were p r o m i n e n t weapons i n t h e Clapham a r s e n a l .  told  their  important  a course to her r e a d e r s .  i n g s o c i e t y because dependents n a t u r a l l y set  were  them t h a t t h e y were i m p o r t a n t  and  the  t h e most h i g h .  l i e / e d , a s d i d t h e Clapham group especially  a l l but  n o t h i n g i n comparison  the parvenu t o i g n o r e the o p i n i o n of t h e world she d i d not  v a l u e o f God's  emread-  Chris-  i n f l u e n c e reached  p o t e n t i a l ,-*-  2  T h i s e m p h a s i s upon i n f l u e n c e and p l a c e d Hannah More and necessary  t o be p o p u l a r  the world's  h e r r e a d e r s i n a dilemma. i n o r d e r to win  C h r i s t i a n i t y , y e t a t t h e same t i m e  the world  opinion  It  was  to  true  Christian principles  must  n o t be s a c r i f i c e d  i n order  t o win p o p u l a r i t y .  s o m e t i m e s be p o s s i b l e t o b a l a n c e  I t might  n e a t l y between t h e a l t e r n a -  t i v e s , b u t i f a d e c i s i o n had t o be made a man's own s o u l came  first. I f h i s good name be p u t i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h any o t h e r e a r t h l y good, he w i l l p r e s e r v e i t , however d e a r may b e t h e good he r e l i n q u i s h e s ; b u t i f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n l i e between h i s r e p u t a t i o n and h i s c o n s c i e n c e , h e h a s no h e s i t a t i o n i n m a k i n g t h e s a c r i f i c e , c o s t l y a s i t i s . . . . f o r he knows t h a t i t i s not t h e l i f e o f h i s soul.14  She  touched  that and  they  h e r r e a d e r s ' d e s i r e f o r d i s t i n c t i o n by s h o w i n g  were i m p o r t a n t  God and men.  I f heavenly  w o r l d l y i n t e r e s t s c l a s h e d , God's came f i r s t  were o f more l a s t i n g She to  t o both  appealed  consequence. t o t h e human n e e d f o r r e c o g n i t i o n , b u t  an e v e n g r e a t e r e x t e n t  ity.  Practical  insecurity."  since His  she appealed  t o t h e need f o r s e c u r  P i e t y c o u l d w e l l be s u b t i t l e d ,  Time and t i m e  again the author  "A s t u d y i n  portrayed the  i n s e c u r i t i e s o f t h e world:  . . . we a r e c o n t i n u a l l y f l y i n g t o f a l s e r e f u g e s , c l i n g i n g t o f a l s e h o l d s , r e s t i n g on f a l s e supports, as they a r e u n c e r t a i n , they d i s a p p o i n t us; as they a r e weak, t h e y f a i l u s ; b u t a s t h e y a r e numerous, when o n e f a i l s , a n o t h e r p r e s e n t s i t s e l f . Till t h e y s l i p f r o m u n d e r u s , we n e v e r s u s p e c t how much we r e s t e d upon them. L i f e g l i d e s away i n a p e r p e t u a l s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e s e f a l s e d e p e n d e n c i e s and successive privations.15  I n t h i s passage words o f i n s e c u r i t y - — " f a l s e , " " u n c e r t a i n , " "disappoint," " s l i p " — a r e  juxtaposed  with  words o f s e c u r i t y -  66 "refuges," "holds," "supports." contrasted  of  was e m p h a s i s e d , i n p a r t ,  s e c u r i t y w h i c h God o f f e r e d . importance,  and a l s o  often  t o contrast  God's l o v e p r o v i d e d  one o f e m o t i o n a l s e c u r i t y .  p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h God c o u l d privation  were  w i t h men's w i s h e s .  Insecurity the  The f a c t s o f l i f e  i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  men's c l u b s  A deep  In a period  when p a r e n t s and s o c i a l  than to personal compatibility,***  provided a congenial  a sense  compensate f o r e m o t i o n a l  a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s w i t h an e y e t o m a t e r i a l  advantage r a t h e r  with  substitute  a n d when  f o r a harmonious  home many u p p e r c l a s s women must h a v e b e e n s u s c e p t i b l e t o s u c h an a p p e a l . God,  Hannah More went s o f a r a s t o s u g g e s t  that  a s a n answer t o men's a f f e c t i v e n e e d s , was an a c c e p t a b l e  substitute  f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f men's p h y s i c a l  w h i c h were o f t e n  needs,  n o t met i n t h e G o d - o r d a i n e d s o c i a l  needs  structure.  She  compared a p r o s p e r o u s w i c k e d man w i t h a s u f f e r i n g good  one  i n these  terms:  I s i t n o t d i s t i n c t i o n enough t h a t t h e o n e , t h o u g h sad, i s safe* t h a t t h e o t h e r , though c o n f i d e n t , i s insecure? I s n o t t h e one a s f a r from r e s t as he i s f r o m v i r t u e ? a s f a r f r o m e n j o y m e n t o f q u i e t , a s f r o m t h e hope o f h e a v e n ? a s f a r f r o m p e a c e , a s he i s f r o m G o d ? 1 7  God  offered  security  i n t h i s w o r l d and i n t h e n e x t , and t h i s  was o n e o f t h e c h i e f a t t r a c t i o n s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y a s Hannah M o r e drew i t . Yet  as t h e reader of P r a c t i c a l Piety  progresses  t h r o u g h t h e volume he i s aware i t e m p h a s i z e s n o t C h r i s t i a n  67 security  but  v a r i o u s forms o f i n s e c u r i t y .  entitled  "Happy D e a t h s " w h i c h d e a l s n o t w i t h t h e s e r e n e  ing of sincere Christians lapsed Christian  and  There i s a  but w i t h the d e a t h  the i n f i d e l .  beds o f  chapter pass-  the  Hannah More warned a g a i n s t  t h i n k i n g " t h a t heaven i s c h e a p l y o b t a i n e d , t h a t a m e r c i f u l God  i s easily pleased."*  Such thoughts  8  lulled  one  "into  a  IQ  dangerous s e c u r i t y " was  of Christ,  for salvation.  hope o f r e f o r m .  Her  7  who  rested  she  i n d u c e him  des-  aware o f h i s d a n g e r  said,  "We  secure  f e e l i n s e c u r e , make  do  not t e l l  a  f r i e n d o f h i s danger i n o r d e r t o g r i e v e o r t e r r i f y to  method  after a l l a true Christian  When he was As  Christian  and make him  wonder i f he r e a l l y was  tined was  i n t o a " f a l s e peace,"  t o rouse the l a p s e d o r nominal  on t h e p r o m i s e s him  and  t o a p p l y t o h i s p h y s i c i a n , and  there  sick him,  t o have  but  recourse  20 to  h i s remedy."  emotional  The  involvement  c h a p t e r on p r a y e r d w e l l s on t h e and  deep  self-examination inherent i n prayer  which i s a c c e p t a b l e i n G o d s s i g h t .  The  f  t i o n of prayer i n the f i r s t  paragraph  antithetical defini-  i n v i t e s the reader  to  ask h i m s e l f , "To w h i c h camp do I b e l o n g ? " I t i s not eloquence, but earnestness; not d e f i n i t i o n o f h e l p l e s s n e s s , but t h e f e e l i n g o f i t ; n o t f i g u r e s o f speech, but compunction of soul.21 The to  rest be  o f t h e c h a p t e r makes him  i n t h e r i g h t one.  Her  c h o i c e o f imagery  inforces  the sense  image,  i l l n e s s which presaged  ity  2 2  f o r reform.  of insecurity.  War  was  f e e l t h a t he i s v e r y  I l l n e s s was  death  another  2 3  and  and  unlikely  subtly rea  t h e end  favourite of  r e c a l l e d the  opportundangers  68 of the  current  struggle with  French Revolution. cal  She  need f o r emotional  It one  psychologiand  appealed to the obverse s i d e  stressed insecurity  i n order  to  of en-  t o s e e k God's s e c u r i t y . i s interesting  that  the  s e c u r i t y she  portrayed  was  of passive acceptance rather than the a c t i v e ordering  chaos.  She  2 4  d i d not  men's e f f o r t s ; not  readers*  the  s e c u r i t y i n s t r e s s i n g God's l o v e  same n e e d when s h e  c o u r a g e men  the h o r r o r s o f  appealed to her  t h e hope o f s a l v a t i o n , s h e the  F r a n c e and  s u g g e s t t h a t s e c u r i t y was  i t was  r e c e i v e d as  an a p p r o a c h d e s i g n e d  tents,  but  a gift  to appeal  r a t h e r t o t h e weary and  a period of  created  f r o m God.  to reformers  by  This  and  of  was  malcon-  troubled conservatives  in  upheaval.  Hannah More s p o k e t o t h e n e e d f o r p h y s i c a l as w e l l emotional  s e c u r i t y , and  applicable, Physical  a p p r o a c h became l e s s  f o r i t presumed c o n c u r r e n c e w i t h  s e c u r i t y was  presented  here her  God  as  provided  by  t h e bulwark o f  social  the  order.  emotional  quo.  As  had  t h e c u s t o m a r y and  the  Christianity stead  was  of breaking  f u r n i s h e s new  identified i n on  fences  the  to  with  i t s order,  and  f r e s h strength to  tianity  was  painted  economic, p o l i t i c a l , those  who  feared alteration  Order  was  diversity.  "Christianity,  in-  society, . . .  i t s subordinations." -*  social  also  additional security to i t s 2  a stabilizing  and  u n i t y not  regulations of  repose,  as  order.  she  s e c u r i t y , she  as t h e b u t t r e s s o f s o c i a l o r d e r . i t was  widely  status  drew C h r i s t i a n i t y  familiar,  as  f o r c e i n a world  Chrisof  c h a n g e — a p o r t r a y a l aimed  or novelty.  Conflict  and  at  dis-  69 o r d e r were v i c e s ,  2 7  o r i n o t h e r words, s i n .  To u p s e t t h e  e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r , t h e s t a t u s quo, was s i n and b y i m p l i c a t i o n to  support  i t was v i r t u e .  Hannah More assumed t h a t  ers  favoured continuation o f the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l  and  they undoubtedly  held  from  selfishness,  Christianity lowed t h a t  hearing that  fear,  was a p o w e r f u l  means t o t h e d e s i r e d Christianity  As h e r c h o i c e o f i m a g e r y  She  so i t s u p p o r t e d  the concept  end, i t f o l -  H e r e Hannah More  Christians. a sense o f  of organic order.  s p o k e o f " t h e t h r e a d s and f i l a m e n t s w h i c h g e n t l y , b u t t i e [the C h r i s t i a n  "golden  chain of Christian d u t i e s , "  niscent of the social being"  graces]  a figure  and o f t h e o f speech  o f w i d e a p p l i c a t i o n , and  sections of society.  s h e was w e l l  qualified  A s one who h a d r i s e n  t o speak t o o t h e r p a r v e n u s .  t h o s e who h a d l o n g b e e n p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g  s o c i a l l y prominent  cussed  guests, t h e language  areas sociFor  each  y e a r ' s income and w i t h a t t r a c t i n g t o each p a r t y a l a r g e r of  remi-  her psychological s e n s i t i v i t y to  i t w i t h e q u a l shrewdness t o touch t h e s e n s i t i v e  particular  ally  2 0  2 8  concept.  a p p e a l t o human n e e d s i n l a n g u a g e she used  together"  philosophy inherent i n the "great chain  Hannah More u s e d  of  If  by b e i n g good  had f o s t e r e d  firmly,  of  (perhaps  l e d them t o what was f o r h e r t h e h e a r t o f t h e  was w r i t i n g t o make them t r u e  insecurity,  view  B u t were t h e y good C h r i s t i a n s ?  skillfully  matter—she  this  arrangements  o r i n e r t i a ) was v i r t u o u s .  they should support  Christians. had  liked  her read-  group  w i t h which she d i s -  r e l i g i o u s p r o g r e s s must have h a d a f a m i l i a r  ring, "Let  70  t u s b e s o l i c i t o u s t h a t no d a y p a s s w i t h o u t of  our holiness,  wider  some  augmentation  some added h e i g h t i n o u r a s p i r a t i o n s ,  expansions  i n t h e compass o f o u r v i r t u e s . "  some  She a s k e d  3 0  them t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s  w i t h r e l i g i o u s p r o g r e s s as they  had  H e r e m p h a s i s upon e f f i c i e n c y , t h e  with s o c i a l  value o f time,  progress.  and t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f d e c i s i v e n e s s * w o u l d 3  a p p e a l t o men o f b u s i n e s s .  Her derogation o f p r i d e ,  a t t r i b u t e o f the great a r i s t o c r a t i c a b l e t o t h o s e who had p e r h a p s  felt  families,  pride.  s o c i e t y which she  In Practical Piety  e r e n c e s t o good t a s t e a n d good u n d e r s t a n d i n g , h e r o t h e r works p r o v e d  by s u c h  into the mysteries o f  c u s t o m s , m a n n e r s , and s t a n d a r d s o f p o l i t e gave t o t h e newly a r r i v e d .  an  was n o t u n a c c e p t -  snubs caused  M o s t a t t r a c t i v e o f a l l was t h e g u i d a n c e  3 2  better illustrations  there are r e f 3 3  b u t some o f  of this  technique.  T h o u g h t s o n t h e I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e M a n n e r s o f t h e G r e a t . An Estimate o f t h e R e l i g i o n o f t h e Fashionable World. Coelebs i n Search o f a Wife,  and S t r i c t u r e s on t h e Modern S y s t e m o f F e m a l e  E d u c a t i o n were v e r i t a b l e  e t i q u e t t e books, a l b e i t  q u e t t e , f o r t h o s e e n t e r i n g a new s o c i a l m i l i e u . there i s a chapter devoted priate  pious  eti-  In the l a t t e r  t o c o n v e r s a t i o n — t o h i n t s on  appro-  s u b j e c t s f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n , t o " t h e t e m p e r s and d i s p o s i -  t i o n s t o b e i n t r o d u c e d i n i t , " and t o e r r o r s t o b e a v o i d e d . The  f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from t h i s  guisedly  she addressed  this  c h a p t e r shows how u n d i s -  group.  I am n o t d i s c o u r a g i n g s t u d y a t a l a t e p e r i o d i n l i f e , o r e v e n c e n s u r i n g s l e n d e r knowledge* . . . But i n s u c h c a s e s i t s h o u l d b e a t t e n d e d w i t h  71 peculiar humility: and t h e new p o s s e s s o r s h o u l d b e a r i n m i n d , t h a t what i s f r e s h t o h e r h a s b e e n l o n g known t o o t h e r s ; . . . . 3 4 In not  speaking to s p e c i f i c  to limit  h e r message t o o n e s e c t i o n o f t h e m i d d l e a n d  upper c l a s s e s . directed  g r o u p s Hannah More was c a r e f u l  I f s h e aimed comments a t p a r v e n u s s h e a l s o  them t o t h e l e a d e r s  of society.  L~There3 a r e t o be f o u n d , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e h i g h e r c l a s s o f f e m a l e s , t h e a m i a b l e and t h e i n t e r e s t i n g , . . . c h a r a c t e r s s o e n g a g i n g , s o e v i d e n t l y made f o r b e t t e r t h i n g s , so c a p a b l e o f r e a c h i n g high d e g r e e s o f e x c e l l e n c e , so formed t o g i v e t h e tone to C h r i s t i a n p r a c t i c e , as w e l l as t o fashion;^-*  She  a s t u t e l y suggested that  extend t h e i r virtues.  t h o s e who l e d f a s h i o n  s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e and a l s o l e a d  She s p o k e n o t o n l y  the  choicest  up i t s s l o p e s ,  o r remained a t i t s base.  " e v e r y a f f l i c t i o n " was r e a l l y  blessings" i fonly  men c o u l d  This  preached t o t h e lower orders, the  discontented  leader  She u r g e d  s e e beyond 3  of Christianity.  but also to  " a mercy a n d t h e s e v e r e s t  causes t o t h e purpose o f t h e a l l wise G o d . ° equality  i n Christian  to those at t h e top o f t h e s o c i a l  heap, and t o t h o s e p r o g r e s s i n g t h o s e who h a d f a l l e n  should  that trials  second  She s t r e s s e d t h e  was a message w h i c h s h e a l s o  b u t i t was e q u a l l y  applicable to  member o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , a p o t e n t i a l  i n p o p u l a r r e f o r m movements.  In P r a c t i c a l  P i e t y she  wrote,  C h r i s t i a n i t y h a s . . . no i n d i v i d u a l i m m u n i t i e s . . . . i f rank cannot p l e a d i t s p r i v i l e g e s , genius cannot c l a i m i t s d i s t i n c t i o n s . . . . The gospel  72 e n j o i n s t h e same p r i n c i p l e s o f l o v e and o b e d i e n c e on a l l o f e v e r y c o n d i t i o n ; o f f e r s t h e same a i d s u n d e r t h e same e x i g e n c i e s ; t h e same s u p p o r t s u n d e r a l l t r i a l s , t h e same p a r d o n t o a l l p e n i t e n t s ; t h e same S a v i o u r t o a l l b e l i e v e r s ; 3 7 She  countered  equality  the cry "Equality  and  F r a t e r n i t y " with  o f C h r i s t i a n b r o t h e r s i n t h e s i g h t o f God  the  their  father. As a s o u n d p s y c h o l o g i s t Hannah More p r e s e n t e d message i n terms s u i t e d t h i s does not message. of  h i s product.  unscrupulous  to t h e c o n d i t i o n s of her time,  i m p l y t h a t s h e was  A skillful  her  salesman  insincere  but  i n offering that  can b e l i e v e f i r m l y  i n the merits  Some t e n d t o condemn a l l p r o p a g a n d i s t s  as  because propaganda t e c h n i q u e s have been used  the unscrupulous  to manipulate  T h i s i s as i l l o g i c a l many f a c e t e d and  as i t i s unjust.  at different  cumstances d i f f e r e n t  o p i n i o n i n o u r own  day.*  by  5  Christian belief i s  t i m e s and  under d i f f e r e n t  cir-  a s p e c t s have r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r emphasis.  At t h e t u r n o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o s e which promoted t h e s t a t u s quo  were s t r e s s e d .  Hannah More was  among many f o r t h e s e p a r t s o f C h r i s t i a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e j o y s o f h e a v e n was  belief.  one An  spokesman equal  more i m p o r t a n t  i n her  view t h a n an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e good t h i n g s o f e a r t h . She  sought  to convince others of t h i s  eternal welfare.  That  o r d e r t o be  of  the welfare of the e s t a b l i s h e d  o r d e r a l s o b e n e f i t e d was In  f o r the sake  f o r t u n a t e but  their temporal  fortuitous.  an e f f e c t i v e p r o p a g a n d i s t Hannah More  s p o k e t o g e n e r a l n e e d s o f human b e i n g s and  to p a r t i c u l a r  needs  73 o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups;  f o r the same reason she spoke i n  the f a m i l i a r terms o f c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h i c concepts. were not enough metaphysicians  There  among her r e a d e r s to make an  appeal t o them as a group worth w h i l e , and she h e r s e l f l i k e d "metaphysical j a r g o n , "  3 0  dis-  but p h i l o s o p h i c concepts  and  vocabulary do not remain the property of p h i l o s o p h e r s .  When  she used language and concepts which had permeated from  the  p h i l o s o p h i c l e v e l she was  a s s o c i a t i n g her p r o p o s i t i o n s w i t h  accepted phrases and i d e a s and thus e a s i n g t h e i r own tance.  accep-  Her use of p r o g r e s s , u t i l i t a r i a n m o r a l i t y and  dualism i l l u s t r a t e t h i s t e c h n i q u e .  I t has been shown how  used p r o g r e s s t o appeal t o those r e a d e r s who gressed upwards s o c i a l l y .  indivishe  had i n f a c t p r o -  The concept of p r o g r e s s was i n  favour w i t h both C h r i s t i a n and i n f i d e l p h i l o s o p h e r s  4 0  and  language o f p r o g r e s s would s t r i k e a p o s i t i v e chord with  the  both  extremes o f a p h i l o s o p h i c s c a l e and a l s o with a wide range o f o r d i n a r y men.  Progress makes the s t a t u s quo  a strange bed-  f e l l o w , but Hannah More, and presumably some o f her r e a d e r s , r e c o n c i l e d the two with the Burkean theory of slow o r g a n i c change and e v o l u t i o n .  U t i l i t a r i a n m o r a l i t y had pervaded  p h i l o s o p h y f o r over a century and w h i l e moral philosophy the domain o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e r , e t h i c s was o r d i n a r y Englishman.  Hannah More was  moral was  the p r o p e r t y of the  t y p i c a l of her  educated  countrymen when she accepted the premises o f u t i l i t a r i a n morality.  For her the t h e o l o g i c a l s a n c t i o n was  the  effective  means of r e c o n c i l i n g the happiness of the i n d i v i d u a l , which men  n a t u r a l l y seek, w i t h t h e happiness o f a l l , which was  the  c r i t e r i o n of morality. with happiness * 4  Yet, she was  When she i d e n t i f i e d C h r i s t i a n duty  she was  speaking i n a f a m i l i a r c o n t e x t .  a r e l u c t a n t u t i l i t a r i a n f o r , w h i l e she  t h e t h e o l o g i c a l s a n c t i o n as the most e f f e c t i v e way men  good, she f e l t t h a t b e i n g good p u r e l y and  from a l o v e o f God was much more v i r t u o u s .  4 2  urged of making  unselfishly That she  laid  more s t r e s s on u t i l i t a r i a n than on u n s e l f i s h m o t i v a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t with her view o f human n a t u r e .  Even though Hannah  More emphasized the i n f l u e n c e o f example, had v e n e r a t i o n f o r p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and urged the avoidance o f s i n g u l a r i t y , when C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s were at s t a k e she spoke the language o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m , "Our  b u s i n e s s i s with o u r s e l v e s .  s i b i l i t y i s on our own  heads."  43  Our  respon-  In a p e r i o d when p a t e r n a l i s m ,  c r a f t g u i l d p r o t e c t i o n s , and t r a d e r e s t r i c t i o n s were b r e a k i n g down, unions were i n t h e i r i n f a n c y , and s t a t e f o r h e a l t h and education s t i l l d u a l was  responsibility  l a y i n the f u t u r e the  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s own  temporal  welfare.  indiviHannah  More, as i n t h e case of p r o g r e s s and u t i l i t a r i a n m o r a l i t y , took the f a m i l i a r concept and a p p l i e d i t to the s p i r i t u a l sphere where i t s f a m i l i a r i t y presumably a i d e d i t s acceptance. There i s one f a c e t of her method which i s b e t t e r  il-  l u s t r a t e d from the t o t a l range of her d i d a c t i c works and  her  one n o v e l than from P r a c t i c a l P i e t y alone, and t h a t i s her s p e c i a l appeal t o women.  In the l a s t q u a r t e r o f the e i g h -  t e e n t h century middle c l a s s women turned i n t o r e a d e r s ,  4 4  and  Hannah More p r o v i d e d r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d t o them.  She used t h e b a s i c methods which have a l r e a d y been  75 discussed  b u t s h a p e d them t o t h e s o c i a l  example s h e s t r e s s e d  r o l e o f women. F o r  t h e p o t e n t i a l power f o r m o r a l  reform  inherent  i n women's i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e i r h u s b a n d s and c h i l -  d r e n . 45  On women d e p e n d e d " i n no s m a l l  o f t h e whole r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n . " 4 ^ regard  degree t h e p r i n c i p l e s  She t o l d women t h a t  compensated f o r t h e i r i n f e r i o r  God's  social position:  "What-  e v e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s may e x i s t ; w h a t e v e r  inferi-  o r i t y may b e a t t a c h e d  t o woman f r o m t h e s l i g h t e r f r a m e o f h e r  body, o r t h e more c i r c u m s c r i b e d i s one g r e a t  p o w e r s o f h e r mind  and l e a d i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e which r a i s e s h e r impor-  t a n c e and even e s t a b l i s h e s h e r e q u a l i t y . exalted .  women t o t r u e  . . there  included in ary  C h r i s t i a n i t y has  and u n d i s p u t e d d i g n i t y ; i n C h r i s t  i s neither  'male n o r f e m a l e . * » 4 7  Jesus  ^11 o f h e r b o o k s  i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h a t were a p p l i c a b l e t o women, C o e l e b s  S e a r c h o f a W i f e was c a s t f o r m w h i c h was i n g r e a t  were s p e c i f i c a l l y the  . . . there  i n t h e shape o f a n o v e l — a demand by women,4 and t h r e e 8  d i r e c t e d t o women:  C h a r a c t e r o f a Young P r i n c e s s .  System o f Female E d u c a t i o n , principally  towards Forming  and E s s a y s on V a r i o u s  a natural  books  S t r i c t u r e s o n t h e Modern  designed f o r Young L a d i e s .  t o women may r e f l e c t  Hints  liter-  Subjects.  Her s p e c i a l  attention  i n t e r e s t i n h e r own s e x ,  or i t  may  be one more i n d i c a t i o n o f h e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o f o r c e s i n  her  environment.  T h e r e were i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f m i d d l e  c l a s s women who were b e t t e r  e d u c a t e d , who h a d more l e i s u r e  t i m e a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l , a n d who were t h e r e f o r e o f good d e e d s and r e a d e r s o f r e l i g i o u s b o o k s .  p o t e n t i a l doers  76  I l l u s t r a t i n g Hannah More's method from one book negl e c t s e v o l u t i o n i n her t e c h n i q u e .  Between 1 7 7 7 and 1 8 1 9 the  v a r i o u s modes o f appeal, and her message, remained  fundamen-  t a l l y the same, but by emphasizing one type o f appeal o r p a r t o f her message the tone o f t h e books v a r i e d .  one  Essays on  V a r i o u s S u b j e c t s , p r i n c i p a l l y designed f o r Young L a d i e s ( 1 7 7 7 ) and Thoughts on t h e Importance o f the Manners o f the Great (1788)  were p u b l i s h e d before the French R e v o l u t i o n aroused  f e a r s f o r t h e s o c i a l o r d e r and b e f o r e her Mendip s c h o o l s drew her i n t e r e s t away from the m e t r o p o l i s .  She was  still  part of  London s o c i e t y and untouched, or only r e c e n t l y touched,  by  E v a n g e l i c a l i s m which a t t r a c t e d her i n c r e a s i n g l y a f t e r 1 7 8 7 . A l l o f these circumstances a f f e c t e d her e a r l y p u b l i c  criticism  o f the g r e a t , and p r o v i d e d a c o n t r a s t f o r such l a t e r works as P r a c t i c a l P i e t v and C h r i s t i a n M o r a l s .  In the e a r l y  didactic  books she spoke as a l a y , not a s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l churchwoman; she spoke f a m i l i a r l y o f t h e standards o f the world o f t h e g r e a t , not as one who There was  had, to a l a r g e e x t e n t , renounced  them.  l e s s s t r e s s upon the t h r e a t o f h e l l and upon man's  s i n f u l n e s s and more upon optimism t h i s world o f a r e l i g i o u s l i f e .  and upon the advantages She d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t  to reform c o u l d p l a c e her r e a d e r s ' s o u l s i n j e o p a r d y ,  in  failure 4 0  but  then went on to p i t the j o y s o f r e l i g i o n a g a i n s t those o f w o r l d l y p r a c t i c e s , 5 ° c o n f i d e n t t h a t r e l i g i o n would emerge v i c t o r i o u s and concluded that  "the moral and  scene about us b e g i n s to b r i g h t e n . " ^  intellectual  Although the r i c h  the great were urged t o spread c o r r e c t p r i n c i p l e s  and  and  77  practices i n the lower orders through example'' insubordinat i o n was not seen as a threat. Those books which appeared after the French Revolution erupted are more pessimistic, s t r i c t , and d o c t r i n a l .  In An  Estimate of the Religion of the Fashionable World (1791) she t o l d "the great" that they were undermining r e l i g i o n , that many of them neglected public worship, l a b e l l e d piety hypocr i s y , and encouraged free thinking and insubordination.-*  3  T  n  Remarks on the Speech of M. Dupont. made i n the French Convent i o n (1793) she warned that the distresses of France could v i s i t England and that anarchy and atheism went hand i n hand.54 It behooved men to examine t h e i r own consciences and reform l e s t " i t s h a l l please the Almighty i n h i s anger to loose t h i s infatuated [French] people, as a scourge."55 the  S t r i c t u r e s on  Modern System of Female Education (1799) i s an elaboration  of Thoughts on the Importance of the Manners of the Great, but there are noticeable differences.  Hannah More was l e s s d i f f i -  dent i n her condemnation of the prevalent practices among the upper c l a s s which she believed to be at variance with a Christ i a n l i f e , and was outspoken i n her c r i t i c i s m of children's b a l l s , extravagant apparel, and d u e l l i n g .  She used war, pro-  fane l i t e r a t u r e , and potential s o c i a l "inversion"56 as pressing reasons f o r immediate reform.  This book r e f l e c t e d the  growing devotional .and doctrinal q u a l i t y of her compositions with two chapters on prayer and one on the Christian doctrines of corruption, redemption, and conversion through grace. Coelebs i n Search of a Wife (1808) expressed her detachment  f r o m London s o c i e t y .  While  that a Christian l i f e  c o u l d n o t be l i v e d  the in  model f a m i l y ,  she d i d not  the Stanleys,  go s o f a r as t o s a y i n the metropolis,  and t h e h e r o C o e l e b s ,  lived  t h e c o u n t r y and t h e n o m i n a l C h r i s t i a n s c o n v e r t e d i n t h e  course of the novel to "true" C h r i s t i a n i t y , spend  l e s s time i n the c i t y  determined  to  whose w i c k e d ways p r o v i d e d c o n -  stant temptation. The  F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n and  p a r t t h e changed The  tone i n h e r w r i t i n g f o r t h e upper  f e a r o f an E n g l i s h w o r k i n g c l a s s r e b e l l i o n ,  sibility the to  N a p o l e o n i c Wars e x p l a i n i n  of a French invasion  created  s t a t e o f mind and  sought  in  tone.  was  She came t o f e e l  t r i n e s from which C h r i s t i a n away f r o m London s o c i e t y  responded  and n a t i o n a l  s i n and  alteration  i t essential  t o emphasize  r e f o r m had t o grow.  As  the she  f r e e t o c e n s u r e more  As s h e grew o l d e r  she  and t h e t h r e a t  docdrew  strictly  naturally  l o o k e d t o t h e w o r l d t o come; h e r books t o o k on a more cast  and  to indicate defects i n society's  s h e was  metropolitan worldliness.  tual  of  became a more d e e p l y c o n v i n c e d E v a n g e l i c a l ,  no l o n g e r c o n t e n t m e r e l y  manners.  Hannah More  T h e r e were p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e  She  part  t o u s e i t a s an i m p u l s e f o r  r e f o r m when s h e d w e l t upon i n d i v i d u a l insecurity.  and t h e p o s -  among a t l e a s t  r u l i n g c l a s s a mood o f u n c e r t a i n t y . this  orders.  spiri-  o f d e a t h o c c u p i e d a more i m p o r t a n t  p o s i t i o n i n them. All public liked  o f Hannah M o r e ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s her  style,  quite  apart  sold well.  from h e r s o c i a l  The and  reli-  g i o u s message, f o r even t h o s e e a r l y p l a y s and poems w h i c h  were  79 moral sold  b u t n o t r e l i g i o u s were p o p u l a r . s i x editions i n the f i r s t  f o u r thousand for  two  t h e poem "Ode  5 8  h o u s e - d o g a t Hampton" s o l d one and  Thomas C a d e l l ,  first  years;  copies i n a fortnight  the a u t h o r ;  Search A f t e r  and  Happiness  Percy s o l d n e a r l y  5 7  earned  n e a r l y £600  t o D r a g o n , Mr. G a r r i c k ' s thousand  the publisher,  c o p i e s i n a week;5°  o f f e r e d h e r a s much f o r h e r  volume o f p o e t r y , " S i r E l d r e d o f t h e Bower and  B l e e d i n g Rock," as O l i v e r G o l d s m i t h serted V i l l a g e . " demand.  0 0  didactic  received  for his  o f w h i c h was  hours. *  French Convention, emigrant  exhausted  i n a week, and  the t h i r d  the  i n four  Dupont. made i n t h e  published f o r the b e n e f i t  earned £240.  clergy,  the  s e v e n l a r g e e d i t i o n s i n a few months,  Remarks on t h e S p e e c h o f M.  6  "De-  works were i n e v e n g r e a t e r  T h o u g h t s on t h e I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e Manners o f  G r e a t went t h r o u g h second  Her  had  the  of the  French  S t r i c t u r e s on t h e Modern  62  S y s t e m o f F e m a l e E d u c a t i o n s o l d 19,000 c o p i e s i n t h i r t e e n editions,  seven o f which were p r i n t e d  H i n t s towards Forming six  e d i t i o n s o f one  Search o f a Wife the f i r s t  year.  ^Marmion* and  thousand  I t was  Coelebs ."  S t . Paul, seven  Spirit  6 3  c o p i e s each**  4  and  Coelebs i n  21,000 c o p i e s , w i t h t w e l v e e d i t i o n s i n  1  "the f a s h i o n to t a l k o f n o t h i n g but C h r i s t i a n Morals  6 6  s o l d 10,000 c o p i e s e a c h , The of  year.  the C h a r a c t e r o f a Young P r i n c e s s s o l d  sold 6 5  i n the f i r s t  thousand  o f P r a y e r . 17,500.  67  C h a r a c t e r and  and M o r a l  Practical Writings  f i v e h u n d r e d , and She  £30,000 f r o m h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s .  6 8  Sketches  admitted that  her l a s t  book,  she had made  80 These c i r c u l a t i o n of her readers. first  figures represent only a  A f t e r 1780  book p r i c e s d o u b l e d ,  and  quarter o f the nineteenth century the p r i c e  again.  The  r e s u l t was  but the r i c h , ^ 9 others.  a  d i d own  A c o n t e m p o r a r y o f Hannah M o r e ' s e s t i m a t e d t h a t  ten r e a d e r s .  lating libraries  The  7 0  less affluent  where a s i n g l e c o p y r e a c h e d  15s.  t o a guinea, o r about  t o t h e good e f f e c t  subscription  morals  of society.  unsympathetic The  The  heat.72  j  n  her  as a r t f u l ,  drew p e n  i n the cause  the royal  a s a b l e , and  o f t h e system."73  reforms:  h a i r d r e s s i n g on Sunday, and  and  by  "useful."  for their  disagreed with "HANNAH  was,  a s c r i b e as  ever  The  t h a t she was  early biographer  her books w i t h s p e c i f i c  c e r t s and  as u s e f u l  f a m i l y , c o u n t r y clergymen,  An  and  acknowledged  have accounted  her p e r s u a s i v e s k i l l :  members o f p a r l i a m e n t a l l f e l t English society.  refer-  upon t h e manners  against her  s u c c e s s may  admired  perhaps,  sador,  l e t t e r s are  h i s r a d i c a l phase W i l l i a m Cobbett  h e r message b u t  volume.''  were c o n v i n c e d  t h a t h e r work was  s c u r r i l o u s pamphlets d i r e c t e d and  ranged  reviews o f her books, even t h o s e  reviewers, admitted  her influence,  ited  In t h e i r  h e r b o o k s had  circu-  audience.  the p r i c e of a quarto  t h a t h e r b o o k s were i n f l u e n t i a l . ences  the  a wide  Many o f Hannah M o r e ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  every  Education  readers used  In the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century the annual from  doubled  b o o k s s h a r e d them w i t h  c o p y o f S t r i c t u r e s on t h e Modern S y s t e m o f F e m a l e had  i n the  t h a t b o o k s were p r o h i b i t i v e t o a l l  j t h o s e who  m  fraction  American  ambas-  journalists,  and  an i n f l u e n c e i n  contemporary  cred-  the diminution of of the s o c i a l  lie,  con"Not  81 at home."  Her  74  admirers b e l i e v e d that  " u s e f u l n e s s " of female occupations.  she  had  increased  the  I t was  due  t o Hannah  More's i n f l u e n c e t h a t M a r i a n n e T h o r n t o n , d a u g h t e r o f t h e gelical  b a n k e r and  handy s c h o o l  and  member o f p a r l i a m e n t ,  encouraged to impart  "was  her  Evan  taken to  any-  knowledge t o  the  7 "» less fortunate."  Hannah More made v i s i t i n g t h e p o o r  J  f a s h i o n a b l e pastime f o r young  a  ladies.  h e l , i n h e r " C o e l e b s , " by r e p r e s e n t i n g h e r p a t t e r n y o u n g l a d y a s r e g u l a r l y d e v o t i n g two e v e n i n g s i n a week t o m a k i n g h e r r o u n d among t h e v i l l a g e p o o r , u n f o r t u n a t e l y made i t a f a s h i o n and a rage . . . . The i m p u l s e was g i v e n , however, and n o t h i n g c o u l d s t o p i t . I t a c t e d a t f i r s t c h i e f l y w i t h i n the E v a n g e l i c a l p a r t y ; but t h a t p a r t y became a t l e n g t h , g r e a t enough t o g i v e t h e t o n e t o s o c i e t y a t l a r g e ; and t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h u s s u p e r i n t e n d i n g t h e p o o r h a s become so g e n e r a l , t h a t I know no one c i r c u m s t a n c e by w h i c h t h e manners, s t u d i e s and o c c u p a t i o n s o f E n g l i s h women h a v e b e e n so e x t e n s i v e l y m o d i f i e d , o r so s t r i k i n g l y c o n t r a - d i s t i n g u i s h e d from those of a former generation.76  Her  w r i t i n g s were c o n s i d e r e d  the  i n c r e a s e i n p i e t y and  n o t i c e a b l e i n the that  they,  the r e v i v a l  country,77  or t h e i r  to have " l a r g e l y  a  n  d  her  acquaintances,  contributed"  of r e l i g i o n  which  was  correspondents t o l d  had  been  to  her  spiritually  78 t o u c h e d by  her  Her Practical  books.'  works were a l s o r e a d  abroad.  P i e t v " i n many h a n d s " i n Sweden, and  Search o f a Wife popular  i n Iceland.  t h e message o f P r a c t i c a l  P i e t v and  and  the  Missionaries  Singhalese  Practical Writings  read of  Sacred  S t . Paul  Coelebs i n  A Russian  princess  C h r i s t i a n Morals to  Dramas and in their  The  own  found  Character  language.  took  heart, and Coelebs  82 i n Search o f a Wife was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o French and f a v o u r a b l y reviewed by Mme.  de S t a e l .  Two  P e r s i a n noblemen took P r a c t i c a l  P i e t v home from England i n t e n d i n g to t r a n s l a t e i t i n t o Per79 sxan. come.  America gave Hannah M o r e s works an e n t h u s i a s t i c welf  B e f o r e her death 30,000 c o p i e s o f Coelebs i n Search o f  a Wife had been s o l d t h e r e .  Search A f t e r Happiness,  her  f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n , was p r i n t e d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a the year a f t e r i t came out i n England, i n Boston i n 1796, Worcester, and i n 1811 works had American  a year l a t e r i n  again i n P h i l a d e l p h i a .  A  A l l her o t h e r  e d i t i o n s , e v e n t u a l l y even H i n t s towards  Forming t h e C h a r a c t e r o f a Young P r i n c e s s , which was  judged  t o be i n a p p l i c a b l e to a r e p u b l i c u n t i l twenty y e a r s a f t e r i t s 82  p u b l i c a t i o n i n England. An American f e l t t h a t she had proba b l y been o f f a r more use i n e l e v a t i n g "the standard o f female education and female c h a r a c t e r , than any o t h e r person An examination o f Hannah More's propaganda throws l i g h t upon the E n g l i s h mind o f her day.  living.  8 3  technique.84  It i s difficult  t o r e c a p t u r e the psychology o f a prosperous farmer's daughter, a s e r i o u s young lawyer, o r a f r i v o l o u s London h o s t e s s — p e o p l e who  experienced o r understood t h e f e a r o f i n v a s i o n  following  the French l a n d i n g a t F i s h g u a r d , t h e shock o f mutiny i n the navy, the t e r r o r o f L u d d i t e r i o t s , and the d i s t r e s s by the d i s a s t r o u s h a r v e s t s o f 1799  and 1800.  engendered  Hannah More knew  the needs, a s p i r a t i o n s , and s t r e s s e s o f the people o f southern England i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s f o r she l i v e d amidst t h e m .  85  The p o p u l a r i t y o f her works i n d i -  c a t e s t h a t she s t r u c k the r i g h t note and endorses her i n t e r p r e tation.  83 Her her  presuppositions  readers  would accept  T h a t human n a t u r e threat  followed  s c h o l a r s had called  was  as  naturally corrupt  out  One  assumed  irrefutable and  hell  from her  t u r e s had had  readers  not  to the  presuppositions  Bible  touched the  had  no  and  and  the p o p u l a r i t y of and  literal  e d u c a t e d p u b l i c any She  8 7  b e l i e v e d s o c i e t y t o be  social,  e c o n o m i c , and  The  political  truth of  a s s u m p t i o n was s t a t u s quo,  Thomas P a i n e and change i n the  that  hoary medieval  conflict The  they  d i d not  want r a d i c a l d i d not  sinful.  men  who  and  the  contem-  A  the fur-  continuation reform.  believe that  Hannah More d i d she  the repressive l e g i s l a t i o n  spoke to and  the  i t s strict  countryside.  These p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s religious  prevalence  theory.  d e s i r e d the  s t r u c t u r e was  the  concept  frequent  readers  w r i t e f o r them o r t h e i r s y m p a t h i z e r s ;  enforcement a c r o s s  her  prompted  her  not  supported  had  intellectual  Major John C a r t w r i g h t  social  than  faction i s indicative of  f a c t s and  that  scrip-  more d e e p l y  a l s o assumed t h a t  Adam S m i t h .  condemnation of p o l i t i c a l  same l a g b e t w e e n s o c i a l  her  a harmonious organism i n which  natural place.  w o r k s o f Thomas Hobbes and  of the  real  However,  a f i r m h o l d upon E n g l i s h m i n d s e v e n a f t e r t h e  ther  authority.  earlier  same p a s s a g e s .  consistency  t o u c h e d Hannah M o r e .  conflict  porary  that  a very  hundred y e a r s  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the  been g i v e n  books, doubts about the  of  B i b l e a s an  She  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e v a s t number o f d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a -  judging  had  the  revealing.  corollaries.  pointed  t i o n s w h i c h had  they  are  were a l l b a s i c p a r t s o f  s o c i a l philosophy,  o f what s h e  her  s a i d ; they  were  a l s o p a r t o f h e r p e r s u a s i v e method, o f how cast  h e r r e a d e r s i n h e r own  numerous and  That  responsive i n d i c a t e s that  f l e c t i o n s of that nah  image.  More was  image.  she s a i d  it.  She  h e r r e a d e r s were  they wished  t o be  To many o f h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  n o t t h e a m u s i n g o d d i t y s h e may  reHan-  a p p e a r t o modern  readers. The  motives  She  believed  and  insecure world.  w o r l d and  that  she a p p e a l e d  to are equally revealing.  h e r r e a d e r s were l i v i n g i n a t h r e a t e n i n g To  importance  them s h e o f f e r e d  a s an  security  i n the  i n s t r u m e n t o f good i n t h i s  Some o f h e r r e a d e r s i g n o r e d t h e p r e c a r i o u s n a t u r e o f e x i s t e n c e and  f o r t h e s e she  emphasized i n s e c u r i t y .  q u i t e p o s s i b l e t o make p e o p l e who unconsciously  i n s e c u r e respond  one. their  It i s  are c o n s c i o u s l y secure  according to t h e i r  next  but  unconscious  88 rather than feels that  conscious state.  A w e l l known p s y c h o a n a l y s t  the events of h i s t o r y  a l t e r n a t i n g world  interact  with cycles  of  moods.  In each c a r e l e s s p e r i o d l a t e n t p a n i c o n l y w a i t s f o r c a t a s t r o p h e — f a m i n e s , p e s t and d e p r e s s i o n s , o v e r p o p u l a t i o n and m i g r a t i o n , s u d d e n s h i f t s i n technology or i n l e a d e r s h i p — t o cause a shrinkage i n t h e w o r l d image, a k i n d o f c h i l l a t t a c k i n g t h e sense o f i d e n t i t y of l a r g e masses." 0  I f t h i s i s t r u e the combination t e e n t h and industrial, and  of c r i s e s i n the l a t e  eigh-  e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s — t h e demographic, and  agricultural  the Napoleonic  changes, the French R e v o l u t i o n  Wars—must  of foreboding i n the middle  have e n c o u r a g e d  and  such  upper c l a s s e s ,  0 0  a  and  sense made  85 them p a r t i c u l a r l y  s u s c e p t i b l e t o Hannah M o r e ' s c a l l .  b e e n shown t h a t t h e s e c u r i t y s h e p r o p o s e d was active, luation,  acceptive  not c r e a t i v e .  a significant  part  wanted t o t u r n t o t h e p a s t new  solution f o r the  I f s h e was  o f upper  not  r i g h t i n her  and m i d d l e c l a s s  f o r security rather  future.  passive  I t has  eva-  England  than forge  a  86 Footnotes  1952),  ^Quoted  by M. G. J o n e s , Hannah More  (Cambridge,,  p . 103.  M o n t h l v Review. 2nd s e r i e s , V o l . X I I (1793), p . 361. C i t e d b y W. K. W i m s a t t , J r . , The P r o s e S t y l e o f Samuel J o h n s o n (New Haven, 1941), p . 129. H i s i n s i g h t s have a l s o made t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h p o s s i b l e . 2  ^Hannah More, T h e Works o f Hannah More  (London,  1853), V o l . X I , p . 49. 4  Ibid..  V o l . X I , p . 56.  5  Ibid..  V o l . X I , p . 89 a n d p . 100.  6  Ibid..  Vol. VIII,  p . 100 and p . 212.  W i l l i a m s R o b e r t s ( e d . ) , Memoirs o f t h e L i f e and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f M r s . Hannah More ( L o n d o n , 1834), V o l . I I , pp. 207-208, G e o r g e H o t e l , C h e d d a r , 1789. 7  L o u i s P. T h o r p e , T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f M e n t a l H e a l t h Y o r k , 1950), p p . 39 - 41. 8  (New  R o b e r t s , op_. c i t . . V o l . I l l , p . 3 2 7 . H i l l Wickham ( e d . ) , J o u r n a l s and C o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f Thomas S e d g e w i c k W h a l l e v . o f Mendip L o d g e . S o m e r s e t ( L o n d o n , 1863), V o l . I I , n o t e p . 346. 9  1 0  n  Ibid.,  l 2  1  M o r e , op_. c i t . , V o l . V I I I , p p . 119 - 121.  Ibid..  V o l . V I I I , p p . 185 - 186. Vol. VIII,  p p . 246 - 253.  3 i b i d . . V o l . V I I I , p . 255.  1 4  Ibid..  V o l . V I I I , p . 263.  1 5  Ibid.,  V o l . V I I I , p . 123.  l ^ G . E . Mingay, E n g l i s h Landed S o c i e t y E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( L o n d o n , 1963), p . 29. 1 7  M o r e , op., c i t . , V o l . V I I I ,  p . 396.  l 8  Ibid..  Vol. VIII,  1 9  Ibid..  V o l . V I I I , p . 362 - 363.  2 0  Ibid..  V o l . VIII,  p . 366.  p . 90.  i n the  87 2 1  Ibid..  2 2  M o r e , op_. e x t . , V o l . V I I I , pp.  2  3lbid..  V o l . V I I I , p.  84.  V o l . V I I I , p.  239  and  373  p.  -  374.  389.  24por example: "... there i s something i n f i n i t e l y s o o t h i n g to the f e e l i n g s of a C h r i s t i a n , something inexpressi b l y t r a n q u i l l i z i n g t o h i s m i n d , t o know t h a t he h a s n o t h i n g t o do w i t h e v e n t s , b u t t o s u b m i t t o them; t h a t he has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n s o f l i f e , b u t t o a c q u i e s c e i n them, a s t h e d i s p e n s a t i o n s o f e t e r n a l Wisdom;" I b i d . , V o l . V I I I , p . 391. A l s o see p. 125. 2  5ibid.,  V o l . V I I I , p.  165.  F o r example, s h e recommended b e c o m i n g " h a b i t u a t e d t o look death i n the f a c e , " to a n t i c i p a t e "the agonies o f d i s s o l v i n g n a t u r e " b e c a u s e when " h a b i t u a t e d t o t h e c o n t e m p l a t i o n , he w i l l n o t , a t l e a s t , h a v e t h e d r e a d f u l a d d i t i o n s o f s u r p r i s e and n o v e l t y t o a g g r a v a t e t h e t r y i n g s c e n e . " I b i d . . V o l . V I I I , p. 415. 2 6  2 7  Ibid.,  V I I I , P.  182.  2 8  Loc. cit.  °Ibid., V o l .  V I I I , P.  117.  3°Ibid., V o l .  V I I I , P.  175.  2  3 1  Ibid.,  Vol.  Vol.  V I I I , PP .  188  3 2 i b i d . , V o l . V I I I , PP . 218 c u s s e s t h i s p o i n t i n "The Clapham S e c t : Some S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l A s p e c t s , " V o l . V, V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s (September, 1961), p. 46. 33  M o r e , OEA  ext.,  Vol.  34lbid.. Vol.  Ill,  35ibid.. Vol.  V I I I , p.  114.  3°Ibid., V o l .  V I I I , p.  131.  37ibid.. Vol.  V I I I , pp.  155  F l o y d L. Chicago, 1948), p. 3 8  p.  V I I I , pp.  -  107.  220.  -  156.  Ruch, Psychology and 665.  3°Roberts, op_.  106  c i t . . Vol.  I I , p.  L i f e (3rd 371.  ed.:  88 °Leslie Stephen, H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Thought i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h Century (Harbinger paper back e d i t i o n : New York, 1 9 6 2 , [ f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 8 7 6 J ) ; V o l . I , pp. 120 - 1 2 1 , p. 121 note 24' V o l . I I , pp. 228 - 229. 4  41  42  4 3  M o r e , op.. c±t., V o l . V I I I , p. 1 2 3 , pp. 176 - 1 7 7 . M o r e , op_. e x t . , V o l . V I I I , p. 1 7 7 . I b i d . . V o l . V I I I , p. 1 0 5 .  J . M. S. Tompkins, The Popular Novel i n England 1770-1800 (London, 1 9 3 2 ) , p. 2 . 4 4  45More, pj>. c i t . . V o l . I l l , 4 6  Ibid..  Vol.I l l ,  p. 4 4 .  4 7  Ibid..  Vol.I l l ,  p. 2 0 4 .  M  chap. i .  Q  ** Jane Austen, The Complete Novels o f Jane Austen (New York, n.d.), pp. 1077 - 1 0 8 0 . 49  M o r e , op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p. 240 - 2 4 4 .  5°Ibid.. V o l . I I , pp. 272 - 2 7 3 . " R e l i g i o n . . . imposes fewer s a c r i f i c e s , not o n l y o f r a t i o n a l , but o f p l e a s u r a b l e enjoyment, than t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d dominion o f any one vice. Her s e r v i c e i s not o n l y s a f e t y h e r e a f t e r , but freedom here. She i s not so t y r a n n i z i n g as a p p e t i t e , so e x a c t i n g as the w o r l d , nor so d e s p o t i c as f a s h i o n . " 5 1  Ibid.,  V o l . I I , P. 2 7 9 .  5 i b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 2 8 1 . 2  53ibid.,  Vol. II, Introduction,  54ibid.,  V o l . I I , pp. 402 - 403 •  55ibid.,  V o l . I I , P. 4 0 5 .  5 6  i b i d . . , V o l . I I I , pp. 13 -  chap, i , and p. 3 1 3 .  1 4 , 33 - 3 4 , and p. 2 3 .  S^Henry Thompson, The L i f e o f Hannah More w i t h N o t i c e s of Her S i s t e r s (London, 1 8 3 8 ) , p . 27. Thompson had t h e use o f l e t t e r s from Hannah More t o Thomas C a d e l l , her p u b l i s h e r . H i s f i g u r e s f o r t o t a l s a l e s would only be those made up t o 1 8 3 8 a t the l a t e s t . 5 8  I b i d . . p. 3 3 .  59 I b i d . . p. 3 6 .  89 60 I b i d . . p. 6 l  28.  I b i d . . p. 81.  R o b e r t s , oj>. c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 359; Thompson, op. c i t . , p. 144, b e l i e v e d the book helped t h e p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n on b e h a l f o f the emigrant c l e r g y reach £1,000. E l i e Halevy s e t s t h e s u b s c r i p t i o n at £33,775, A H i s t o r y o f the E n g l i s h People i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century. V o l . I , England i n 1815. t r a n s . E. I . Watkin and D. A. Barker (paperback ed.; London, 1964), p. 479. 6 2  63  Thompson, ojp.. c i t . , p.  ° Ibid.. p. 4  237.  ^Thompson, op_. e x t . , p. 66  170.  244.  A 1  exander H. Japp ( e d . ) , De Quincey Memorials Being L e t t e r s and Other Records, here F i r s t P u b l i s h e d w i t h Communic a t i o n s from C o l e r i d g e , the Wordsworths. Hannah More. P r o f e s s o r Wilson, and Others (London, 1891), V o l . I I , p. 3, Jane t o Thomas De Quincey, Wednesday, May 17, 1809. S c o t t ' s "Marmion" s o l d 11,000 c o p i e s i n the f i r s t y e a r . R i c h a r d D. A l t i c k , The E n g l i s h Common Reader. A S o c i a l H i s t o r y of the Mass Reading P u b l i c 1800-1900 (Chicago. 19 57). p. 262. ^Thompson, op., e x t . , pp. 287, 266, 307, and 258. T h e Reverend Dr. Valpy, "Cursory Reminiscences o f Hannah More," The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted by Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XXXIV (March. 1835). p. 169. 6 8  6  °Altick,  op_. c i t . . pp. 52 and  260.  7°Roberts, QJJ^ e x t . , V o l . I l l , p. 83, Mrs. K e n n i c o t t t o Hannah More, Richmond, A p r i l 19, 1799. Thompson, op. e x t . , p. 176, judged the same book to have had twenty r e a d e r s f o r each copy. A Review o f Popular T a l e s by M a r i a Edgeworth, The Edinburgh Review. V o l . IV ( J u l y , 1804), p. 329 estimated t h a t t h e r e were 80,000 r e a d e r s i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. 7 1 l t i ek, op. e x t . , pp. A  62.  72peter Pinder {Dr. John Wolcot] , N i l A d m i r a r i ; o r . a Smile a t a Bishop: o c c a s i o n e d bv An H y p e r b o l i c a l Eulogy on M i s s Hannah More, by Dr. P o r t e u s . i n h i s l a t e Charge to the C l e r g y . A l s o E x p o s t u l a t i o n ; or an Address to Miss Hannah More. L i k e w i s e . D u p l i c i t y , o r The Bishop; and S i m p l i c i t y , o r The Curate; and F i n a l l y . An Ode t o some Robin Red-Breasts i n a Country C a t h e d r a l (London, 1799), no page numbers. F . J . Harvey Darton ( e d . ) , The L i f e and Times o f Mrs. Sherwood (1775-1851) from the D i a r i e s o f C a p t a i n and Mrs. Sherwood  90 (London, 1 9 1 0 ) , p. 1 8 8 . C h a r l e s F o r s t e r , The L i f e o f John Jebb. P.P. F.E.S. Bishop o f L i m e r i c k . A r d f e r t and Aghadoe. with a S e l e c t i o n from h i s L e t t e r s (London, 1 8 3 6 ) , V o l . I I , p. 5 5 , t o M i s s Jebb, June 3 0 , 1 8 0 5 . Edward Spencer, T r u t h s . r e s p e c t i n g Mrs. Hannah More's Meeting-Houses. and t h e Conduct of her F o l l o w e r s ; addressed t o t h e C u r a t e o f Blagdon (Bath, 1 8 0 2 ) , pp. 4 8 - 4 9 , and 6 4 . A l i c e C. C. Gauseen ( e d . ) , A L a t e r Pepvs. The Correspondence o f S i r W i l l i a m W e l l e r Peovs. B a r t . . Master i n Chancery 1 7 5 8 - 1 8 2 5 . with Mrs. Chapone, Mrs. H a r t l e y . Mrs. Montagu. Hannah More. W i l l i a m Franks. S i r James MacPonald. Major R e n n e l l . S i r N a t h a n i e l W r a x a l l . and o t h e r s (London, 1 9 0 4 ) , p. 3 1 4 , S i r W i l l i a m Pepys t o Hannah More, 1 8 1 3 . The E c l e c t i c Review. V o l . V I I (May, 1 8 1 1 ) , p. 4 4 3 . E l i z a b e t h and F l o r e n c e Anson ( e d s . ) , Mary Hamilton Afterwards Mrs. John Pickenson a t Court and a t Home. From L e t t e r s and D i a r i e s 1 7 5 6 1816 (London. 1 9 2 5 ) , pp. 2 1 7 - 2 1 8 , D i a r y , Saturday, J u l y 1 6 , 1784. James J . Hornby ( e d ) , The Remains o f Alexander Knox. Esq. (London, 1 8 3 7 ) , V o l . IV, pp. 3 2 6 - 3 2 7 , Alexander Knox t o Hannah More. V i s c o u n t e s s K n u t s f o r d , L i f e and L e t t e r s o f Zacharv Macaulav (London, 1 9 0 0 ) , p . 3 0 0 , Martha More t o Zachary Macaulay, B a r l e y Wood, May 4 , 1 8 1 3 , Roberts, op., c i t . , passim. B r i t i s h C r i t i c S e r i e s 1 , V o l XLII ( J u l y , 1 8 1 3 ) , p. 6. #  G . p . H. and Margaret C o l e ( e d s . ) , The O p i n i o n s o f W i l l i a m Cobbett (London, 1 9 4 4 ) , p . 1 3 3 . 7 3  ^Thompson, op_. e x t . , p. 8 1 . E . M. F o r s t e r , Marianne Thornton. Domestic Biography (London, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 2 2 4 . 7 5  1797-1887:  A  7' f\  Anna L e t i t i a Le Breton ( e d . ) , Correspondence o f W i l l i a m E l l e r v Channing. P.P. and Lucv A i k i n . from 1 8 2 6 t o 1842 (London, 1 8 7 4 ) , pp. 3 9 6 - 3 9 7 , Lucy A i k i n t o P r . Chann i n g , Hampstead, June 30, I 8 4 I . 77 ''Gaussen, op., e x t . , V o l . I I , pp. 3 1 4 - 3 1 5 , S i r W i l l i a m Pepys t o Hannah More, 1 8 1 3 . " O b i t u a r y o f Mrs. Hannah More," The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted by Members o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church. XXXII (October. 1 8 3 3 ) . Roberts, op., c i t . V o l . I l l , pp. 4 3 2 - 4 3 3 , M i s s Jane P o r t e r t o Hannah More, Long P i t t o n , Surrey, E a s t e r Pay (T.815?J . R o b e r t s , op. c i t . . V o l . I l l , pp. 3 2 2 - 3 2 3 , Rev. John Venn t o Hannah More, Clapham A p r i l 30, 1 8 1 0 . 7 8  I b i d . . V o l . IV, pp. 4 - 6 , P r i n c e s s Sophia Metscherskey t o Hannah More, S t . Petersburgh, October 2 2 , o l d s t y l e C l 8 l 7 ? J j pp. 1 8 - 1 9 . Review o f C o e l e b s . ou l e Choix d'une Espose. Roman moral, contenant des Remarques s u r l e s Usages et l e s P e v o i r s domestique. sur l a R e l i g i o n e t s u r l e s Moeurs. par Mde. Hannah More, The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted by 7 9  91 Members o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h . V o l . X V I I Pp. 595 - 600. 8 o  T h o m p s o n , op_. e x t . , pp.  244 -  (September,  1818),  245.  H a r r y B. W e i s s , Hannah M o r e ' s Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s i n A m e r i c a (New Y o r k , 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 5. 8 x  " • ' L e t t e r , The C h r i s t i a n O b s e r v e r . C o n d u c t e d by Members of t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XXXII ( O c t o b e r , 1 8 3 3 ) , c o n t a i n ed i n a n o t e p . 6 3 0 . °3L  o c  . cit.  R u c h , op_. e x t . , pp. 666 - 667 g i v e s a l i s t o f s i x c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f propaganda. Hannah More u s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r t e c h n i q u e s from h i s l i s t : "1. I f y o u h a v e an i d e a t o p u t o v e r , k e e p p r e s e n t ing i t incessantly. Keep t a l k i n g ( o r p r i n t i n g ) s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and p e r s i s t e n t l y . 8 4  3. I n e v e r y p o s s i b l e way, c o n n e c t t h e i d e a y o u w i s h t o p u t o v e r w i t h t h e known d e s i r e s o f y o u r a u d i e n c e . Remember t h a t w i s h e s a r e t h e b a s i s o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f i d e a s i n more c a s e s t h a n l o g i c i s . 4. Make y o u r s t a t e m e n t c l e a r and i n s u c h l a n g u a g e t h a t y o u r a u d i e n c e c a n r e p e a t them, i n t h o u g h t , w i t h o u t t h e n e e d f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g them. 6. F o r t h e most permanent e v e n t u a l r e s u l t s , aim your propaganda a t t h e c h i l d r e n : mix i t i n y o u r p e d a g o g y . " The f o r e g o i n g i s q u o t e d by Ruch f r o m K. D u n l a p , C i v i l i z e d L i f e ( W i l k i n s Co., 1 9 3 4 ) , p p . 360 - 3 6 1 . -'Hannah More was n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e N o r t h and h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h m i n d may n o t be a p p l i c a b l e t h e r e . For c o n t r a s t o f n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n p a t t e r n s s e e A s a B r i g g s , T h e Age o f Improvement 1 7 8 3 - 1 8 6 7 ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 9 ) , p p . 50 - 5 7 . 8 6  176.  Stephen,  op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p p . 170 - 1 7 2 and 1 7 5  -  87 More, op_. e x t . , V o l . X, pp. v i - v i i . She r e c o g n i z e d d i f f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on " a b s t r u s e p o i n t s " i n S t . P a u l ' s l e t t e r s b u t t h o s e were " r a r e o c c u r r e n c e " and d i d n o t effect the essential doctrines. ® Thorpe, 8  op_. e x t . , p .  64.  E r i c k H. E r i k s o n , Y o u n g Man L u t h e r . A S t u d y i n P s y c h o a n a l y s i s and H i s t o r y ( N o r t o n L i b r a r y p a p e r b a c k e d i t i o n : New Y o r k , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 7 5 . 8 9  92 Cf. The Annual R e g i s t e r f o r 1811, "General H i s t o r y , " p. 89, "The commercial d i s t r e s s e s , i n d i c a t e d by l i s t s o f bankr u p t s more numerous than were ever b e f o r e known, induced among the middle c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y a k i n d o f desponding apathy, adapted t o damp . . . p o l i t i c a l ardour . . . . At t h e same time t h e u n c e r t a i n s t a t e o f h i s Majesty's h e a l t h , and o f the consequent d u r a t i o n o f t h e regency, and t h e system o f government l i k e l y t o be pursued under i t , kept persons i n t h e s u p e r i o r ranks i n a s t a t e o f dubious e x p e c t a t i o n . " y u  CHAPTER IV / /  Hannah M o r e ' s M e t h o d : Hannah M o r e ' s t a l e s adapted level  her s o c i a l  o f t h e new  l a b o u r i n g man. "Burke  and  apparent  and b a l l a d s f o r t h e l o w e r  or unskilled Appropriately  f o r a Halfpenny."  v i s e d new  r e a d e r , and  To  classes  comprehension  to the purse of  V i l l a g e P o l i t i c s has been  "Turn the C a r p e t , " "Bishop  methods, and t h e i r influence,  Orders  r e l i g i o u s message t o t h e  f o r B e g i n n e r s " and  Analogy  F o r t h e Lower  r e a c h t h i s new  for tract  called  Butler's  audience she  s u c c e s s , m e a s u r e d by s a l e s  set a pattern  the  w r i t i n g and  de-  and distri-  bution f o r the nineteenth century. Early Will  i n 1792  Chip, appeared  p a r t one.  P a i n e was  her f i r s t  Village Politics  i n answer t o Thomas P a i n e ' s R i g h t s o f o n l y one p a r t o f t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c  response to the r e v o l u t i o n p o e t s Southey,  pamphlet,  B l a k e , and  i n France. Burns  Richard Price  French events.  to  t h e N a t i o n a l Assembly,  adopted  the t i t l e  r e f o r m g a i n e d new tutional formed  and many s y m p a t h e t i c  at a  The  of  rudi-  forth  Englishmen  The movement f o r p o l i t i c a l Society  Information r e v i v e d , wealthy  f o r Promoting  and  influential  t h e S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s o f t h e P e o p l e , and  w o r k i n g men  preached,  c o n g r a t u l a t o r y messages went  of "Citizen." impetus.  early  i n praise  S u c h j o u r n a l s a s Hogs Wash w r o t e  mentary e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ;  Man,  r h a p s o d i z e d , Mary W o l l s t o n e -  c r a f t , W i l l i a m Godwin, and James M a c k i n t o s h w r o t e the  bv  Constiliberals  educated  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e London C o r r e s p o n d i n g S o c i e t y .  In  94 the country p r o v i n c i a l Corresponding c o n t a i n i n g both The it  gentry  first  and w o r k i n g c l a s s members.  p a r t o f R i g h t s o f Man p o s e d a new t h r e a t :  was w r i t t e n i n words w h i c h t h e common man c o u l d  grasp,  i t was w i d e l y  distributed  the various c o n s t i t u t i o n a l it  S o c i e t i e s s p r a n g up,  disseminated  among t h e l o w e r  easily  o r d e r s by  and c o r r e s p o n d i n g s o c i e t i e s , and  i d e a s w h i c h d i s m a y e d many t h o u g h t f u l  Englishmen.  As t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n o f p e o p l e i n E n g l a n d d i d n o t make t h e Government, t h e y a r e n o t a c c o u n t a b l e f o r i t s d e f e c t s ; b u t t h a t s o o n e r o r l a t e r i t must come i n t o t h e i r hands t o u n d e r g o a n a t i o n a l r e f o r m a t i o n , i s a s c e r t a i n a s t h a t t h e same t h i n g h a s happened i n F r a n c e . ^  Edmund B u r k e h a d p e r c e i v e d w i t h i n t h e F r e n c h threat to orderly book g a v e r i s e  government t h r o u g h o u t  t o wide spread  Revolution a  Europe before  Paine*s  upper c l a s s apprehension.  November 1 7 9 0 h i s T h o u g h t s o n t h e R e v o l u t i o n i n F r a n c e for  t h e educated.  When P a i n e ' s  masses Hannah More, a s W i l l to  the level  In appeared  poison threatened t o i n f e c t the  Chip, took  ideas similar  t o Burke's  o f t h e b a r e l y l i t e r a t e v i l l a g e l a b o u r e r and  artisan. The  impulse  f o r her f i r s t  publication  f o r the lower  o r d e r s c a n b e s t b e d e s c r i b e d i n h e r own w o r d s : As s o o n a s I came t o B a t h , o u r d e a r B i s h o p o f London came t o me w i t h a d i s m a l c o u n t e n a n c e , and t o l d me t h a t I s h o u l d r e p e n t i t on my d e a t h - b e d , i f I , who knew so much o f t h e h a b i t s and s e n t i ments o f t h e l o w e r o r d e r s o f p e o p l e , d i d n o t w r i t e some l i t t l e t h i n g t e n d i n g t o o p e n t h e i r e y e s u n d e r t h e i r p r e s e n t w i l d i m p r e s s i o n s o f l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y . . . . a g a i n s t my w i l l and my j u d g m e n t , on o n e s i c k d a y , I s c r i b b l e d a l i t t l e p a m p h l e t  95 c a l l e d ' V i l l a g e P o l i t i c s , by W i l l C h i p ; and t h e v e r y n e x t m o r n i n g a f t e r I had f i r s t c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a , I s e n t i t o f f t o R i v i n g t o n , c h a n g i n g my b o o k s e l l e r , i n o r d e r t h e more s u r e l y t o e s c a p e detection.2 1  The  pamphlet  The  s e c r e t was s h o r t - l i v e d  poured i n t o  by  acted  a quarter  and s o o n l e t t e r s o f  approbation  4  and  Rivington sold i t  and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p u r c h a s e r s  were  people  M r s . Montagu s e n t c o p i e s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t o a l l t h e  c o u n t i e s where she had c o r r e s p o n d e n t s .  The p a r s o n  N o r t h u m b e r l a n d p a r i s h was s o d e l i g h t e d w i t h  G l o u s t e r s h i r e gentleman o r d e r e d In t y p i c a l  eighteenth century  i n f l u e n c e were c a l l e d  Although  for a similar  and a  purpose.  a t Richmond where s h e h a d a c o u n t h e Duchess o f B e a u f o r t , a t  They i n t u r n d i s t r i b u t e d  tive circles.  there  M r s . Boscawen s e n t c o p i e s t o  r e s i d e n c e , and t o h e r d a u g h t e r ,  Badminton.  intended  f a s h i o n t h e n e t w o r k o f f a m i l y and  into play.  t h e c l e r g y m a n and a p o t h e c a r y  a gross  of her  i t t h a t he  to get a thousand c o p i e s p r i n t e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n  try  3  with t h e upper c l a s s e s ,  as agents f o r i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n . 5  hundred.  Green.  p a m p h l e t was p o p u l a r  the thousands  of rank.  f o r t w o p e n c e o r 3s.  Cowslip  The they  sold  them w i t h i n t h e i r  respec-  the report that P i t t  had h i r e d Hannah g More t o w r i t e a n t i - r e v o l u t i o n a r y t r a c t s was i n c o r r e c t , the government d i d h e l p w i t h t h e d i s p e r s a l  of Village  Politics  by  o sending The  "many t h o u s a n d s " o f c o p i e s t o S c o t l a n d and I r e l a n d .  Attorney  General  a l s o recommended  f o r P r e s e r v i n g L i b e r t y and P r o p e r t y  throughout  upper c l a s s e s f e l t  Politics  Village  i t to the Association  against Republicans  Levellers for distribution  7  the country.*  effective  0  and  That t h e  i s evidenced  by  96 its  r e - i s s u e d u r i n g the post-war unrest  early  thirties.  1 1  Hannah More was  a g a i n u s e d t h e c h a r a c t e r s Tom dialogue  work w i t h  Cheap R e p o s i t o r y  education.  To  1 3  Her  initial  n e i g h b o u r h o o d and  n a t i o n a l s c o p e and  volved.  By  her  and  t o s e t up  experience  and  initiated The  enlarged  become i n -  a subscription fund  was  subsidize the production  c o s t so t h a t t h e t r a c t s c o u l d  with  the items  the  dred  per c e n t .  his  influential  similar in  the  the  first  year,  but  and  g u i n e a s and  the p l a n .  over  e v e n t o c a r r y some p r o f i t , not  necessary.  to compete  of three  1 0  hun-  asked  His  and  £1,000 w e r e s u b s c r i b e d  t h e t r a c t s were s o o n f o u n d  s u b s c r i p t i o n was The  On  f r i e n d s t o a l s o support  e f f o r t s brought success  t h e m s e l v e s and of  chapmen a t a p r o f i t  Horace W a l p o l e gave f i v e  own  m a t c h women t o  t h e p l a n had  w i t h Henry T h o r n t o n s e r v i n g as t r e a s u r e r .  1 5  to  a shop i n h e r  E v a n g e l i c a l f r i e n d s had they  provide  c o n f i n e themselves  e a r l y 1795  In January o f t h a t y e a r  hawked by  she  the  the poor to read yet  o f d u b i o u s wisdom and  p l a n was  1 4  Anvil  the  Tracts. "  get hawkers, p e d d l e r s ,  d i s t r i b u t e the t r a c t s .  with i t f o r  Jack  t h a t the l i t e r a t e poor d i d not  the B i b l e .  to  and  the c r i s e s of  T r a c t s grew f r o m Hannah M o r e ' s  teach  " s a f e " r e a d i n g m a t t e r was  taught  pleased  f o r m i n t h e Cheap R e p o s i t o r y The  no  Hod  and  so t h e  t o pay  for  continuation  1 7  format of the p r o j e c t v a r i e d d u r i n g i t s l i f e t i m e .  o p e n i n g day,  M a r c h 3,  1795  twenty t r a c t s  and  broadsides  were  g i v e n t o a g r o u p o f r i b b o n b e d e c k e d hawkers i n Samual H a z a r d ' s Bath l i b r a r y ,  i n the presence of  s u b s c r i b i n g l a d i e s and  gentle-  18 men.  No  f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n s were made u n t i l May.  From t h a t  97 d a t e onward t h r e e  t r a c t s were p u b l i s h e d  month, " o f w h i c h one moral t a l e , religion  and  and  one  a  'Sunday r e a d i n g '  added.  Hannah M o r e had for sent  the  tracts.  She  stupidity  each a  more deluxe  annual c o l l e c t e d  to which the  ballad  2 0  difficulty  deplored  "the  . . . w e e k l y i n p r o s e and  kingdom f o r t h e  of  a c h e a p and  T h e r e were a l s o  e i g h t page b a l l a d b o o k l e t s be  first  (which contained  E a r l y i n 1796  e a c h month.  broadsides could  the  a b a l l a d ( i n b r o a d s i d e f o r m ) , one  l e s s tale)."*°  e d i t i o n appeared v o l u m e s and  was  on  Repository,"  finding suitable  variety of trash that  verse  and  material  was  from a l l p a r t s amazed t h a t  enough t o p r o d u c e s u c h s t u f f ,  of  is  the  "there  or vanity  was  enough  to  21 desire to publish i t . " had  t o be  severely  She  edited:  p h r a s e o l o g y c h a n g e d , and were so one  o f dreams and 22 word o f i t " h e r s e l f .  politics was  that  she  felt  the m a t e r i a l .  b o o k s and  broadsides,  which she  was  f o r the  for  her  own  for  her  t r a c t s so  Told  by  s e l e c t i o n abridged.  ghosts that  she,  O t h e r s were so  sister She  2 4  Sally,  purposes,  the  herself.  that  Many i t e m s  " d i d not full  and  did research  t h e . p r o f a n e and  purpose.  2 5  and  She  on  believe  of love 23  S h e w i n g how  result  c l o s e f r i e n d s wrote the  popular  chap-  literature  sans c u l o t t e  chapbook  selected rakish t i t l e s  T h e r e was  and  The  revolutionary  adapted the  t h e y were a b l e  hawkers.  piece  s t y l e made more f a m i l i a r , t h e  t r y i n g t o combat, b u y i n g a v i r t u a l  library  w a r e s s o l d by  every  t h a t t h e y were u n s u i t a b l e .  t h a t Hannah More, h e r  most o f  the  the  full  found that n e a r l y  and  technique woodcuts  t o compete w i t h t h e  other  The  Sally.  from b e i n g  Story Sallv  of S i n f u l of the  Green  she  98 was  first  Sal;  l e d t o become S i n f u l  a n d how a t l a s t  hopeless  and a f t e r w a r d s  s h e came t o a m e l a n c h o l y ,  end; b e i n g t h e r e i n  town a n d c o u n t r y .  Sally,  Drunken  and almost  a w a r n i n g t o a l l y o u n g women i n  I t was a c c o m p a n i e d by " a woodcut o f a  p r o f l i g a t e - l o o k i n g y o u n g woman r e c l i n i n g amid r u b b i s h o n t h e floor o f a ruined barn." incidents  2 7  The t h a t used seller  ported  machinery o f d i s t r i b u t i o n  for Village 2 9  Politics.  even t h e Archbishop 3 1  Bishop  than  book-  eagerly  o f Canterbury  Porteus  sup-  other  kept  a large display of and d i s t r i b u t e d  Members o f P a r l i a m e n t  3 2  gentlemen formed committees f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n  and W e s t m i n s t e r .  with  He l o a d e d d e p a r t i n g  a s a permanent f e a t u r e o f h i s l i b r a r y , children.  helped  o f London was an a c t i v e  inspire.  of tracts,  them t o t h e London c h a r i t y  i n the  T h e Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s b r o k e new  ground i n t r y i n g t o r e a c h t h e p o o r through a s t h e c h a p b o o k s and b r o a d s i d e s . enlist  8  t h e p r o j e c t w i t h Hannah M o r e * s e p i s c o p a l f r i e n d s i n  m i s s i o n a r i e s with bundles  City  2  was more t h o r o u g h  The c l e r g y  3 0  w o r k e r f o r t h e p l a n he h a d h e l p e d  and  l i f e .  a n d s c h o o l s and i n d i v i d u a l s s u b s c r i b e d  dissemination.  tracts  real  T h e r e were t h e u s u a l  them o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s .  the f o r e f r o n t ; their  h e r p l o t s on a c t u a l  a n d drew t h e d e t a i l s t o o f r o m  outlets,  through  She b a s e d  2 0  hawkers and p e d d l e r s  t h e same  channels  Hannah M o r e ' s f r i e n d s  as salesmen.  Henry Thornton  helped quiz-  z e d them o n t h e e c o n o m i c s o f t h e t r a d e , t h e D u c h e s s o f G l o u c e s t e r persuaded  a p a s s i n g orange g i r l  to sell  t r a c t s , and  Lady Howard n o t o n l y s u p p l i e d s m a l l s h o p s w i t h t h e t r a c t s , b u t performed  t h e more d i f f i c u l t  feat of banishing the "vicious  99 t r a s h " from s i x o f them.  J  The prxces o f t h e t r a c t s were l o w —  a £d., I d . , and l ^ d . — w i t h r e d u c t i o n s f o r mass buying.  The  gentry c o u l d get penny t r a c t s t o g i v e away a t twenty-four o r twenty-five f o r l s . 6 d . for  and hawkers o r i g i n a l l y got t w e n t y - f i v e  l O d . and a f t e r February 1796 got twenty-four  for 6 d .  The c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e t r a c t s was a s t o n i s h i n g .  3 4  "There  had never been a n y t h i n g l i k e i t i n t h e h i s t o r y of E n g l i s h books."  35  Between March 3, t h e f i r s t day and A p r i l 18 t h r e e  hundred thousand  c o p i e s were s o l d , by J u l y seven hundred  thou-  sand, and a t t h e end o f the f i r s t y e a r over two m i l l i o n .  The  3 0  c i r c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s o f Paine's R i g h t s o f Man, a p r e v i o u s r e c o r d - b r e a k e r , o f f e r a b a s i s f o r comparison.  In the f i r s t  year, p a r t one, p r i c e d at 3s. s o l d 50,000 c o p i e s .  In t h e  s p r i n g o f 1792, p a r t two came out i n a 6 d . e d i t i o n as w e l l as the more expensive one, and p a r t one a l s o appeared i n the 6 d . form.  I n a month's time 32,000 c o p i e s o f t h e cheap e d i t i o n  were s o l d and i n 1793 200,000 c o p i e s o f R i g h t s o f Man were a l l e g e d t o be i n c i r c u l a t i o n . ' 0  Hannah More experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s with p r i n t e r s from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t venture; continued throughout for  they  i t s l i f e , and were p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e  t h e c l o s i n g of t h e p r o j e c t .  3 8  The s t r a i n o f working t o a  monthly d e a d l i n e i n c o n j u n c t i o n with her exhausting work w i t h t h e s c h o o l s began t o a f f e c t her h e a l t h .  3 9  In September 1798  she s o l d t h e r i g h t t o p u b l i s h r e p r i n t s o f the t r a c t s t o a new p r i n t i n g company, and disbanded  the d i s t r i b u t i n g organization.  One o f t h e two o r i g i n a l p r i n t e r s c o n t i n u e d t o produce t h e  100 t h r e e m o n t h l y Cheap R e p o s i t o r y f o r over a year, proposition. bearing It  was  His broader e d i t o r i a l  year fall  1817  had  W e l s h m i n e r s had  Fields  common  had  b e e n wet,  p u r p o s e and  "crisis".  the harvest  been b r e a d r i o t s  The  poor,  i n East  and  Anglia,  f a r as S t . A l -  i n the  cause of u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e .  i n the  The  In  among t h e p r o v i n c i a l  winter Hampton  London m e e t i n g e a r l y i n J a n u a r y  o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons.  The  Liverpool's  P e a c e , and  administration—the  s u s p e n d e d f o r n e a r l y t w e l v e months,  spies increased  s e n t a t i o n s "from the w r i t e f o r the  highest  r e s t l e s s lower  Hannah More u t i l i z e d Tract plan.  t h a n a d o z e n new times.  activities,  the  Justices and  repre-  q u a r t e r s " u r g e d Hannah More t o orders. * 4  t h e wisdom g a i n e d  i n the  Cheap  I n u n d e r e i g h t weeks s h e w r o t e more  p i e c e s , and The  their  1817  juxtaposition of  i n t e l l i g e n c e organization of Lords Lieutenant,  t h e new  pro-  December H e n r y Hunt had harangued l a r g e c r o w d s i n  reform  Repository  lower  been machine w r e c k i n g i n Nottingham.  H a b e a s C o r p u s A c t was  of the  still  reader.  another p e r i o d of  events s e r i o u s l y alarmed Lord  local  paying  again wrote f o r the  walked i n a hunger-march as  culminating  f o r the  she  f o r the  brought growing a c t i v i t y  Clubs,  a  for tracts  accomplished her  T h e r e had  t h e r e had  November and  saw  o f 1816  corn p r i c e s high.  also  she  cheap, s a f e l i t e r a t u r e  b a n s , and  policy  was  4  nonetheless  summer and  business  direction  f a m i l i a r name must h a v e d i s t r e s s e d Hannah M o r e . ®  The  Spa  i n d i c a t i o n that the  n e a r l y two d e c a d e s b e f o r e  orders, vided  the  an  T r a c t s u n d e r h i s own  rewrote previous  Anti-Cobbett  published  t r a c t s to  some o f t h e  suit items,  101 b u t most o f them c i r c u l a t e d  as t r a c t s .  Concerned  gentlemen  a g a i n formed  a London d i s t r i b u t i o n c o m m i t t e e , and  Manchester.  Hannah More a g a i n d e s i g n e d t h e t r a c t s  hawkers*  a halfpenny.  She  i n v e s t i g a t e t h e enemy's goods, b u t w r o t e more v i r u l e n t l y  "and  for after  wade t h r o u g h  t h e new  o r t h e s e p t u g e n a r i a n was  r e a d i n g s i x l i n e s o f one  n o t h i n g , no n o t  even t h e wish  themselves niques. and  reveal her s o c i a l  In her c o l l e c t e d  M i d d l e R a n k s " and  The  retail  attitudes  4  the  tracts  and p r o p a g a n d a t e c h tales, dialogues, i n the  What s o r t s  background  o f her i n t e n d e d  c l a s s c h a r a c t e r s were wealthy  tradesmen,  was  distribution  i n t o those f o r "Persons  a daughter  widow o f a g e n t e e l t r a d e s m a n , " and m e r c h a n t " who  stopped,  of  l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r s i n the s t o r i e s  poems i n d i c a t e t h e s o c i a l  perous  she  blasphemy." ""  industry;  f o r " t h e Common P e o p l e . "  p e o p l e were t h e y ?  Among t h e m i d d l e  and  works t h e b a l l a d s ,  a l l e g o r i e s were d i v i d e d  easily  t o answer, c o u l d make [ h e r /  Hannah M o r e ' s methods o f p r o d u c t i o n and efficiency,  to  generation  more  tract  another l i n e o f such u n p a r a l l e l e d  show h e r t h o r o u g h n e s s ,  pricing  o n c e more t r i e d  either  in  f o r the  b a s k e t s , d e c o r a t i n g them w i t h w o o d c u t s , and  them a t a penny and  shocked  a l s o one  audience.  farmers,  o f a clergyman  who  proswas  a widow o f a b a n k r u p t  l i v i n g on "a v e r y n a r r o w i n c o m e . "  and  Her  the  "great lab-  o u r i n g h e r o s and h e r o i n e s were a shoemaker, a w e a v e r , a b l a c k smith, farmer, tant  a c a r p e n t e r , a shepherd, and  a daughter  t e a c h e r i n the  traditional  a collier,  a postboy  o f a v i l l a g e l a b o u r e r who  village  occupations.  school.  The  become  became  assis-  I n e v e r y c a s e t h e s e were  n e g l e c t o f t h e new  factory  workers  102  by Hannah M o r e and h e r c i r c l e  i s i n t e r e s t i n g testimony to  t h e i r u n a w a r e n e s s o f momentous new The  trends.  s t y l e of her w r i t i n g i n d i c a t e s that  h e r a u d i e n c e was  l i t e r a t e but not l i b e r a l l y  stead of c l a s s i c a l  allusions,  ally  assumed  educated.  In-  t h e r e are r e f e r e n c e s to popular  s o n g s o r t o t h e w r i t i n g o f P a i n e and C o b b e t t . and  she  Her  vocabulary  s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e a r e s i m p l e and d i a l o g u e i s o c c a s i o n larded with vernacular phrases.  She  assumed t h a t  o d i c a l s were more commonly r e a d t h a n b o o k s . s p e e c h by  a m i d d l e c l a s s h e r o Mr.  The  peri-  following  Trueman i l l u s t r a t e s  her  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a b o u t h e r a u d i e n c e ' s e d u c a t i o n and r e a d i n g habits:  I remember t o h a v e r e a d i n some book, a m a g a z i n e , I s u p p o s e f o r my r e a d i n g d o e s n o t go f a r , o f a g r e a t s c h o l a r o f t h e l a s t age, Locke, I t h i n k , was t h e g e n t l e m a n ' s name, . . . he n e v e r s a i d a word a b o u t e v e r y man's s t u d y i n g p o l i t i c s ; I s u p p o s e by t h a t he t h o u g h t i t a deep s t u d y , f i t o n l y f o r s u c h w i s e men as h i m s e l f . I m y s e l f h a v e h e a r d s e n s i b l e men s a y — t h a t t o u n d e r s t a n d p o l i t i c s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d many o t h e r t h i n g s , more t h a n a r e t o be p i c k e d up i n a Saturday's Register.43  The  u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e s t o r i e s and  i s t h e same a s t h a t  o f h e r works f o r t h e u p p e r  ballads  c l a s s e s but  p r e s e n t e d i t i n a f a s h i o n d e s i g n e d t o make i t c l e a r and i n g t o more humble r e a d e r s .  portrayed t y p i c a l and  showed how  evils  appeal-  She showed t h r o u g h t h e words  a c t i o n s o f her c h a r a c t e r s th e C h r i s t i a n  life  in practice.  and t e m p t a t i o n w h i c h w o r k i n g men  a Christian  s h o u l d meet them.  The message  e n h a n c e d by h e r shrewd a n a l y s i s o f human n a t u r e .  The  she  and She faced was  following  103 capsule  s k e t c h d i s p l a y s i t , and  t h e common r e a d e r s by  must h a v e e s p e c i a l l y d e l i g h t e d  the unvarnished  representation of  the  gentry:  S i r J o h n was t h o u g h t l e s s , l a v i s h , and i n d o l e n t . The S q u i r e was o v e r - f r u g a l , b u t a c t i v e , s o b e r , and n o t ill-natured. S i r J o h n was one o f t h o s e p o p u l a r s o r t o f p e o p l e who g e t much p r a i s e , a n d y e t do l i t t l e good; . . . He was . . . a l w a y s r e a d y t o g i v e h i s g u i n e a ; b u t I q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r he w o u l d h a v e g i v e n up h i s h u n t i n g and h i s gaming, t o have c u r e d e v e r y g r i e v a n c e i n the land. . . . He n e i t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t e d b e t w e e n the degrees o f d i s t r e s s , nor the c h a r a c t e r s o f the distressed. . . . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e S q u i r e w o u l d a s s i s t Mrs. J o n e s [Hannah More l i g h t l y disguised"/ i n any o f h e r p l a n s , i f i t c o s t him n o t h i n g , so s h e shewed h e r good s e n s e by n e v e r a s k i n g S i r J o h n f o r a d v i c e , o r t h e S q u i r e f o r s u b s c r i p t i o n s , and by t h i s p r u d e n c e g a i n e d t h e f u l l s u p p o r t o f both.44  The  S q u i r e and  filled  t h e i r proper  ment, y e t in est, of  S i r J o h n had social  e a c h i n h i s way  h i s domaine. making her the t a l e , "The  t h e i r f a u l t s yet they roles.  was  looking after  Hannah More was p o i n t , and,  adding  a few  T h e r e was  R i o t or Half a Loaf  gentry  the l e s s  who  Anvil, to  a popular  tune,  "A  and  Tom  Cobbler  Hod,  i s Better than  a mason, and  t h e r e Was."  f r i e n d s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t q u e l l e d two B a t h and  one  intercopies  truths.45 No  Bread," i s This  i s i n t h e f o r m o f a d i a l o g u e between  a blacksmith,  fortunate  p i c k e d up  i l l u s t r a t i v e o f h e r method w i t h t h e l o w e r o r d e r s . w r i t t e n i n 1795,  ful-  room f o r i m p r o v e -  c a p t u r i n g her r e a d e r s '  f o r any  plain  still  was  ballad,  Jack  t o be  sung  Hannah More and  incipient  riots,  one  in Hull.  . . . a v e r y f o r m i d a b l e r i o t among t h e c o l l i e r s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f B a t h , was h a p p i l y p r e v e n t e d by  her in  104  t h e b a l l a d o f 'The R i o t . * T h e p l a n was t h o r o u g h l y s e t t l e d ; t h e y were r e s o l v e d t o work no more, b u t t o a t t a c k f i r s t t h e m i l l s , and t h e n t h e g e n t r y . A gentleman o f l a r g e f o r t u n e got i n t o t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e , a n d a few h u n d r e d s were d i s t r i b u t e d and sung w i t h t h e e f f e c t , as they say, mentioned a b o v e . 46 T h i s remarkable makes  efficacy,  although p o s s i b l y merely  "The R i o t " an a p p r o p r i a t e i t e m f o r d e t a i l e d "The  hearsay, analysis.  Riot" Tom  Come, n e i g h b o u r s , no l o n g e r be p a t i e n t a n d q u i e t , Come l e t u s go k i c k up a b i t o f a r i o t ; I'm h u n g r y , my l a d s , b u t I ' v e l i t t l e t o e a t , So w e ' l l p u l l down t h e m i l l s , and w e ' l l s e i z e a l l t h e meat: I ' l l g i v e y o u good s p o r t , b o y s , a s e v e r y o u saw, So a f i g f o r t h e j u s t i c e , a f i g f o r t h e l a w . D e r r y down. T h e n h i s p i t c h f o r k Tom s e i z e d — H o l d a moment, .'isays J a c k , I ' l l shew t h e e t h y b l u n d e r , b r a v e b o y , i n a c r a c k , And i f I d o n ' t p r o v e we h a d b e t t e r be s t i l l , I ' l l a s s i s t t h e e s t r a i g h t w a y t o p u l l down e v e r y m i l l ; I ' l l shew t h e e how p a s s i o n t h y r e a s o n d o e s c h e a t , Or I ' l l j o i n t h e e i n p l u n d e r f o r b r e a d and f o r meat. D e r r y down. What a whimsey t o t h i n k t h u s o u r b e l l i e s t o f i l l , F o r we s t o p a l l t h e g r i n d i n g by b r e a k i n g t h e m i l l : B e c a u s e I am h u n g r y and want t o be f e d , T h a t i s s u r e no w i s e r e a s o n f o r w a s t i n g my b r e a d : And j u s t s u c h w i s e r e a s o n s f o r m e n d i n g t h e i r d i e t A r e u s e d by t h o s e b l o c k h e a d s who r u s h i n t o r i o t . D e r r y down. I would n o t t a k e comfort from o t h e r s " d i s t r e s s e s , B u t s t i l l I w o u l d mark how God o u r l a n d b l e s s e s ; F o r though i n O l d England t h e t i m e s a r e but s a d , A b r o a d , I am t o l d , t h e y a r e t e n t i m e s a s b a d ; In t h e l a n d o f t h e pope t h e r e i s s c a r c e any g r a i n , And ' t i s w o r s e s t i l l , t h e y s a y , b o t h i n H o l l a n d and S p a i n . D e r r y Down.  Let See  us l o o k t o t h e h a r v e s t o u r wants t o b e g u i l e , t h e l a n d s w i t h r i c h c r o p s how t h e y e v e r y where s m i l e ! Meantime t o a s s i s t u s , by e a c h w e s t e r n b r e e z e , Some c o r n i s b r o u g h t d a i l y a c r o s s t h e s a l t s e a s ! Of t e a w e ' l l d r i n k l i t t l e , o f gin* n o n e a t a l l , And w e ' l l p a t i e n t l y w a i t , and t h e p r i c e s w i l l f a l l . D e r r y down. But i f we're n o t q u i e t , t h e n l e t u s n o t wonder I f t h i n g s grow much w o r s e by o u r r i o t and p l u n d e r ; And l e t u s remember whenever we meet, The more a l e we d r i n k , b o y s t h e l e s s we s h a l l e a t . On t h o s e d a y s s p e n t i n r i o t , no b r e a d y o u b r o u g h t home; Had y o u s p e n t them i n l a b o u r , y o u must h a v e had some. D e r r y down. A d i n n e r o f h e r b s , s a y s t h e w i s e man, w i t h q u i e t , I s b e t t e r t h a n b e e f amid d i s c o r d and r i o t . I f t h e t h i n g c o u l d be h e l p ' d , I'm a f o e t o a l l strife, And I p r a y f o r a p e a c e e v e r y n i g h t o f my l i f e ; But i n m a t t e r s o f s t a t e n o t an i n c h w i l l I budge, B e c a u s e I c o n c e i v e I'm no v e r y good j u d g e . D e r r y down. But  t h o u g h p o o r , I c a n work, my b r a v e boy, w i t h the best, L e t t h e k i n g and t h e p a r l i a m e n t manage t h e r e s t ; I l a m e n t b o t h t h e war and t h e t a x e s t o g e t h e r , Though I v e r i l y t h i n k t h e y d o n ' t a l t e r t h e w e a t h e r . The k i n g , a s I t a k e i t , w i t h v e r y good r e a s o n , May p r e v e n t a b a d law, b u t c a n ' t h e l p a bad s e a s o n . D e r r y down. The p a r l i a m e n t men, a l t h o u g h g r e a t i s t h e i r power, Y e t t h e y c a n n o t c o n t r i v e u s a b i t o f a shower; And I n e v e r y e t h e a r d , t h o u g h o u r r u l e r s a r e w i s e , T h a t t h e y know v e r y w e l l how t o manage t h e s k i e s ; F o r t h e b e s t o f them a l l , a s t h e y f o u n d t o t h e i r cost, Were n o t a b l e t o h i n d e r l a s t w i n t e r ' s h a r d f r o s t . D e r r y down. B e s i d e s , I must s h a r e i n t h e w a n t s o f t h e t i m e s , B e c a u s e I h a v e had my f u l l s h a r e i n i t s c r i m e s ; And I'm a p t t o b e l i e v e t h e d i s t r e s s w h i c h i s s e n t , I s t o p u n i s h and c u r e u s o f a l l d i s c o n t e n t . But h a r v e s t i s c o m i n g — p o t a t o e s a r e come! Our p r o s p e c t c l e a r s up; y e c o m p l a i n e r s , be dumb! D e r r y down.  106 And t h o u g h I ' v e no money, and t h o u g h I ' v e no l a n d s , I ' v e h e a d o n my s h o u l d e r s , and a p a i r o f good hands; So I ' l l work t h e w h o l e d a y , and on S u n d a y s I ' l l s e e k A t c h u r c h how t o b e a r a l l t h e wants o f t h e week. The g e n t l e f o l k s t o o w i l l a f f o r d u s s u p p l i e s , T h e y ' l l s u b s c r i b e — a n d t h e y ' l l g i v e up t h e i r p u d d i n g s and p i e s . D e r r y down. T h e n b e f o r e I'm i n d u c e d t o t a k e p a r t i n a r i o t , I ' l l a s k t h i s s h o r t q u e s t i o n — W h a t s h a l l I g e t by i t ? So I ' l l e ' e n w a i t a l i t t l e , t i l l c h e a p e r t h e b r e a d , F o r a m i t t i m u s hangs o ' e r e a c h r i o t e r ' s h e a d ; And when o f two e v i l s I'm a s k ' d w h i c h i s b e s t I ' d r a t h e r b e h u n g r y t h a n hang'd, I p r o t e s t . D e r r y down. Quoth Tom, t h o u a r t r i g h t ; i f I r i s e , I'm a T u r k ; So h e t h r e w down h i s p i t c h f o r k , and went t o h i s work.  Hannah M o r e p e r s u a d e d o n two l e v e l s , the i m p l i c i t .  The main purpose o f t h e s t a t e d  R i o t " was t o d i s s u a d e i n c i p i e n t examined  t h e e x p l i c i t and  rioters.  argument i n "The  To do t h i s s h e f i r s t  t h e c a u s e o f Tom Hod's d e c i s i o n t o a t t a c k t h e l o c a l  m i l l s and b u t c h e r s .  I t was h u n g e r ,  but hunger  was c a u s e d by  t h e p o o r h a r v e s t , w h i c h i n t u r n was t h e r e s u l t weather.  Before r e v e a l i n g t h e t r u e cause o f t h i s chain o f  e f f e c t s she d i s c u s s e d causes which m a l c o n t e n t s , b u t which would k i n g and p a r l i a m e n t . ly  o f adverse  constructed,  h a d b e e n p u t f o r w a r d by  n o t e x p l a i n t h e bad w e a t h e r — t h e  The sequence  of this  argument was  clever-  f o r w h i l e i t was p o s s i b l e t o blame t h e g o v e r n -  ment f o r u n r e l i e v e d h u n g e r ,  i t was r i d i c u l o u s  ponsible f o r lack of rain.  The r e a l  to hold i t res-  cause o f t h e d i s t r e s s  was  man's w i c k e d n e s s , o f w h i c h d i s c o n t e n t was o n e a s p e c t . A f t e r s t a t i n g t h e cause o f t h e s c a r c i t y solutions.  Implicit  i n the basic  she t u r n e d t o  c a u s e was a b a s i c  cure—men  s h o u l d mend t h e i r w a y s — a n d a g a i n be a v a i l a b l e . for obtaining half number:  social  i n due c o u r s e a whole l o a f  I n t h e meantime s h e o f f e r e d a loaf.  suggestions  H e r s u g g e s t i o n s were t h r e e i n  co-operation, self-help,  and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e .  Among t h e s a c r i f i c e s were t h e p e r n i c i o u s l u x u r i e s , Rioting d i d not qualify  as a u s e f u l  f o o d p r o c e s s o r s and h i n d e r e d tion; buy  i t wasted time  food.  was s t i l l  solution  instead o f producing  i n reserve—rioters from  was one who p r e v e n t e d  o f hanging.  o f persuasion against  and also  t h e members o f p a r l i a m e n t  albeit  p i e s rather than  these p o i n t s suggested  riot-  T h e r e was p o s i -  and g e n t r y .  The k i n g  the p r o t e c t o r o f h i s people,  were " w i s e . "  The upper  s u f f e r e d u n d e r t h e h a r s h w e a t h e r , and t h e y  fices, All  Parliament,  bad laws,  produc-  t h e c l i n c h i n g one  i n g s h e made a v a r i e t y o f s u b s i d i a r y p o i n t s . t i v e progaganda f o r t h e King,  food  income w i t h which t o  ran the risk  t h e main stream  g i n and t e a .  f o r i t destroyed  r a t h e r than helped  I f a l l o t h e r arguments f a i l e d ,  Apart  would  bread,  the social  orders  t o o made  t o a i d t h e lower  sacri-  orders.  s t r u c t u r e w h i c h Hannah  More b e l i e v e d i n , a s t r u c t u r e where e a c h man a n d o r d e r h a d a proper and  function,  and a l l were i n t e r - r e l a t e d ,  a i d i n g each o t h e r .  suffering  S h e must have t h o u g h t  c l a s s reader held s i m i l a r s o c i a l  views,  together  t h a t her working  f o r s u b s i d i a r y argu-  ments i n a p i e c e o f p e r s u a s i o n i n o r d e r t o be u s e f u l t o t h e main purpose,  must e l i c i t  create h o s t i l i t y and  retard  a sympathetic  response  or else  they  w h i c h i s t r a n s f e r e d t o t h e m a i n argument,  r a t h e r than  a i d t h e cause.  108 In man.  He  ability and  "The  was  h a r d w o r k i n g and  self-respect  b e c a u s e he  d e v o u t and  was  He  full  d e f e a t e d by  L o r d h e l p s t h o s e who  not  esting,  strain  of self-confidence  He  agitate for social  S u c h a man  and  was  and  He  the  was  and  obedient  Hannah M o r e ' s i d e a l ,  for practical  political  i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s lends support and  reasons—he  reforms.  and  political  more e f f e c t i v e . age"  No  quell  clouds of i n d u s t r i a l  landscape  two In  a  changes i n may  p i c t u r e of themselves.  England  also  industrialization,  i d e a s , t h e mass o f w o r k i n g men  t r u e Hannah M o r e ' s u n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e  and  It i s inter-  to her b e l i e f .  economic " t a k e o f f " i n t o  n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s a t work i n t h e  and  patient  loyal  I f t h e poem d i d i n f a c t  have c l u n g t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  "golden  spheres  i t , and subscribed t o  when t h e r e were many i n d i c a t i o n s o f c o r r e l a t e d  was  was  however, t h a t Hannah More b e l i e v e d t h i s model was  t i m e o f war  social  was  help themselves."  him  i n his.  on t h e p o o r r a t e s , made a good employee,  t h e w o r k i n g man's i d e a l . riots,  gloried  competence i n  r e g u l a r i n h i s d u t i e s t o God,  the upper c l a s s e s admired  working  W i t h h i s b e t t e r s he  4 8  recognized their  the laws o f h i s k i n g .  p l a c e d no did  of i t .  a c t i o n w h i c h were b e y o n d h i s k n o w l e d g e .  adage, "The  and  proud  with h i s p e e r s .  under a d v e r s i t y , but not  to  drew a p i c t u r e o f t h e i d e a l  t o t a k e c a r e o f h i m s e l f , and  submissive of  R i o t " she  still  If  this  " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " ecoo f h e r day smoke m a r r e d  she p a i n t e d w i t h i t s r u r a l  made h e r the  labourers  craftsmen. Apart  from  e x p l i c i t p e r s u a s i o n Hannah More u s e d  o b v i o u s means o f c o n v i n c i n g h e r  readers.  The  choice of  less  r:  109  d i a l o g u e form was u s e f u l .  I t avoided t h e p r e a c h i n g tone t h a t  would be i n e v i t a b l e i f t h e l e s s o n was b e i n g taught by a nonpeer and c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d good from b a d — r e c o g n i t i o n o f o n l y b l a c k and white c o n v e n i e n t l y ignored t h e many p o s s i b l e shadings o f grey which would b l u r t h e c l a r i t y o f her message. She s e t pugnacious Tom, f u l l o f bravado and d i s r e s p e c t f o r law and o r d e r , out f o r s p o r t as much a s f o r bread, a g a i n s t Jack t h e r a t i o n a l , manly, i n d u s t r i o u s spokesman f o r God, law, and the s o c i a l order.  The bet p l a c e d i n t h e second stanza p r o v i d e s  tension t o hold the reader's i n t e r e s t .  Would Jack f a i l t o con-  v i n c e Tom and be f o r c e d t o j o i n him i n h i s m i l l wrecking? The names o f Hannah More's c h a r a c t e r s were u s u a l l y significant.  " B r a g w e l l , " "Worthy," "Squeeze," and "Trueman"  i n d i c a t e d t h e i r b e a r e r ' s c h a r a c t e r , and so, l e s s o b v i o u s l y , did  "Tom Hod" and "Jack A n v i l . "  "Tom" c o u l d c a l l t o mind Tom  Paine and h i s r a d i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , and t h e d o u b t i n g of  Jesus.  disciple  "Hod" was t h e mason's trough and i n d i c a t e d Tom's  o c c u p a t i o n which i n t u r n suggested  t h e s e c r e t oaths o f f r e e -  masonry—rites  which were suspect as a cover f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y  organizations.  "Jack" was a nickname f o r John and r e m i n i s c e n t  of  John B u l l and o f S t . John, t h e author o f t h e book o f Reve-  lations.  An a n v i l was t h e d u r a b l e form upon which m a l l e a b l e  o b j e c t s were shaped.  Jack A n v i l , t h e b l a c k s m i t h wrought  a r t i c l e s o f t h e most l a s t i n g m a t e r i a l .  The mason's b l o c k s  f e l l when t h e mortar crumbled. I n t h e course o f her s t a n z a s Hannah More played upon her r e a d e r s ' p r e j u d i c e s and b i a s e s .  She admitted and  110 sympathized  w i t h t h e h a r d s h i p s o f war and h i g h t a x e s , and  l i n k e d domestic indirectly,  peace w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l  "How c a n y o u p r o m o t e w a r f a r e  peace.  She a s k e d  upon b u t c h e r s and  m i l l e r s a t home when y o u d e p l o r e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e war w i t h France?" Catholic agree  S h e m e n t i o n e d t h e p o p e and hoped t h a t t h e a n t i f e e l i n g s o f the populace  that s c a r c i t y  nighted papists.  was P r o v i d e n c e ' s  They c o u l d t h e n  ment t h a t s c a r c i t y  i n England  sins of the people.  She c o n n e c t e d  them r e a d i l y t o  way o f d e a l i n g w i t h b e -  a c c e p t more e a s i l y  was a l s o  doing placed r i o t i n g i n a less was a t r a d i t i o n a l  would l e a d  God's p u n i s h m e n t f o r  murder w i t h  riot  acceptable position.  E n g l i s h response  to distress,  destroyed  human l i f e .  4  9  and by s o Rioting  but while the  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y crowd m e r r i l y d e s t r o y e d p r o p e r t y rarely  her argu-  they  Hannah More p l a y e d upon  this  reluctance. In brushed  "The R i o t " Hannah More p r e a c h e d  lightly  t o be c h e e r f u l  over  vein.  other c o u n t r i e s .  be w o r s e " d e v i c e and was u s e d over t h e worst  now" theme.  of her approach t o t h e poor, "The  England  was b l e s s e d i n  T h i s was t h e " t h i n g s c o u l d  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e "we're  T h i s hearty optimism  was  "The  n ,  Tis  typical  and t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e d o s e i n  R i o t " was m i l d when compared t o t h a t o f a t r a c t  appropriately  She  the m i s e r i e s o f a "spare d i e t " i n order  i n a Pollyanna  comparison with  optimism.  called  A l l f o r t h e Best."  Riot" i s directed  to different  needs than h e r w r i t i n g s f o r t h e upper ranks.  fundamental  human  She s t r e s s e d t h e  need f o r p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e need t o f e e l  Ill o f w o r t h and t o t h e n e e d f o r s e c u r i t y . the gallows involved  insecurity,  t h e b e s t means o f g e t t i n g h a l f  Although  t h e w h o l e poem c e n t e r e d upon  a l o a f o f bread  l o a f was t e m p o r a r i l y o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n . case i n a l l o f her t r a c t s . is  the threat of  The t h r e a t  s i n c e a whole  This i s not the  of death  f o r the wicked  a f r e q u e n t theme and T h e D e a t h o f Mr. Fantom. t h e G r e a t  Reformist i s devoted  to a lurid  rors of a republican. social  She a l s o d w e l t  u s e f u l n e s s , t h e importance,  of society.  Women were t a u g h t  good h o u s e h o l d were u s e f u l and  description  frequently  that  Correlated  o f t h e downs of the  w i t h h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon p h y s i c a l  It  i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t  s h e knew t h a t  needs  o f heaven.  " p i e i n thesky,  a n d b y e " was n o t g o i n g t o a p p e a l t o h u n g r y men h e r e and  now.  She showed J a c k A n v i l  comfort which she l i s t e d strength  " t o bear  the ballad  She  they  example.  "The R i o t " i s h e r u n u s u a l n e g l e c t o f t h e b l i s s  is  that  s t o c k i n g s , and a l l were r e m i n d e d  in  bye  member  t h e y were i m p o r t a n t a s  when g a t h e r i n g w o o l f r o m t h e b r a m b l e s  of their  ter-  upon t h e  o f even t h e l o w l i e s t  managers, s m a l l c h i l d r e n were t o l d  knitting i t into  importance  of the dying  knew t h a t  An tribution  a l l t h e wants o f t h e week."  The appeal o f  not to C h r i s t i a n  a l t r u i s m , and  i n J a c k ' s q u e s t i o n , "What s h a l l  I g e t by i t ? "  i n a matter  f o r most  yet the religious  was n o t t h e hope o f h e a v e n b u t  i s to self-interest,  made e x p l i c i t  altruism  t o be devout,  of survival  self-interest  dominated  men.  a n a l y s i s o f t h e machinery of tracts,  f o r p r o d u c t i o n and d i s -  and o f t h e a r g u m e n t s u s e d  and t h e m o t i v e s  112 a p p e a l e d t o i n t h e t e x t o f t h e p a m p h l e t s d o e s n o t answer t h e essential  question,  "How i n f l u e n t i a l  difficult,  and when an h i s t o r i a n  his  i s an i n d i c a t i o n  answer  found.  d o e s n o t mean t h a t ence i s t h e dynamic travel  clearly very  That a f i n a l  i s unprofitable. history.  I t s mode  e l u s i v e n e s s adds t o i t s f a s c i n a t i o n . t h e p o o r r e a d and e n j o y t h e t r a c t s ?  figures  t o have i n f l u e n c e d  into  Salisbury Plain  by t h e r i c h  them.  the nineteenth century.  the majority,  f o r t h e poor.  t u r i e s have f e l t  F o r example, t h e  e d i t i o n s o f The S h e p h e r d How-  o f t h e t r a c t s were b o u g h t  Recent students o f t h e working e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y  that the t r a c t s  propaganda were i n e f f e c t i v e  and o t h e r  nineteenth cen-  counter-revolution-  because t h e y d i d n o t speak t h e  l a n g u a g e o f t h e common man, o r e l s e o f f e n d e d  dependent  The c i r c u l a -  f o r 1840, i 8 6 0 , 1874, 1876 and 1883.  c l a s s reader i n the l a t e  s i o n . 5°  I f they d i d  a r e i m p r e s s i v e and t h e t r a c t s c o n t i n u e d t o be  e v e r many, p o s s i b l y  of  Influ-  schools o f thought. I t s  B r i t i s h Museum C a t a l o g u e l i s t s l a t e r  ary  sampling but  i s unobtainable  element i n i n t e l l e c t u a l  s e e n i n w a x i n g and w a n i n g  reprinted well  of  answer  a t e n t a t i v e answer  t r a c t s were l i k e l y  tion  o f o n l y t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h he h a s  i s o f t e n unknown o r o b s c u r e , y e t i t s p a s s i n g i s  Did the  An answer i s  t r i e s t o determine i n f l u e n c e  He h o p e s i t r e p r e s e n t s a c r o s s s e c t i o n  h a s no way o f k n o w i n g .  of  were t h e y ? "  i t h a s a l s o been s u g g e s t e d t h a t  h i m by c o n d e s c e n -  tract  writers,  being  upon t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s t o a i d i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  t h e i r p r o d u c t s , conformed t o upper c l a s s r a t h e r than lower  class criteria.51 Hannah More.  These judgements  do n o t a p p e a r a p p l i c a b l e t o  113 Her letters,  theory  o f w r i t i n g f o r t h e poor, s t a t e d i n h e r  makes i t c l e a r t h a t  t r a c t s t o appeal  she c o n s c i o u s l y  designed  her  t o t h e p o o r , and t h a t s h e t h o u g h t s h e knew  what w o u l d a t t r a c t  them.  Now i t h a s o c c u r r e d t o me t o w r i t e a v a r i e t y o f t h i n g s some where between v i c i o u s p a p e r s and hymns, f o r i t i s i n v a i n t o w r i t e what p e o p l e w i l l n o t read:52 Dry m o r a l i t y o r r e l i g i o n w i l l n o t answer t h e end, f o r we must e v e r b e a r i n mind t h a t i t i s a p l e a s a n t p o i s o n t o w h i c h we must f u r n i s h an a n t i d o t e . C a t e c h i s m s and Sermons a l r e a d y abound: 53 I am r e s o l v e d , i n t r y i n g t o r e f o r m t h e p o o r , t o p l e a s e them t o o , a p o i n t w h i c h I t h i n k we do n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t e n d t o . We a r e v e r y a p t t o f o r g e t t h e y h a v e t h e same t a s t e s , a p p e t i t e s , a n d f e e l i n g s a s o u r s e l v e s ; a y , and t h e same good s e n s e , t o o , t h o u g h n o t r e f i n e d by e d u c a t i o n . I t h e r e f o r e conc e i v e t h a t i n w r i t i n g f o r them we a r e n o t t o l o w e r t h e s e n s e , b u t o n l y t h e p h r a s e o l o g y and s t y l e , and t o a v o i d h a r d w o r d s and a l l u s i o n s t o t h i n g s t h e y h a v e h a d no o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n . 5 4 I am a t a l o s s f o r a good t i t l e t o my p l a n , I do n o t l i k e t o u s e t h e word p o o r ; ' t i s n o t c o n s o l a t o r y a n d a l l u r i n g — ' t i s l i k e c a l l i n g names and reminding people o f t h e i r misfortune.55  Hannah More h a d many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o know w e l l members o f t h e l o w e r o r d e r s . the  She h a d , a s a c h i l d ,  scholars i n her father's c h a r i t y school  Stapleton. Hills  Through h e r s c h o o l s  a l s o knew c o t t a g e  labourers,  contact  with  i n the v i l l a g e of  and women's c l u b s i n t h e Mendip  s h e knew t h e r u r a l p o o r — p a r t i c u l a r l y m i n e r s ,  makers, a g r i c u l t u r a l  various  glass  and v i l l a g e c r a f t s m e n — a n d s h e  s p i n n i n g and s t o c k i n g k n i t t i n g i n d u s t r i e s .  I f i n d t h a t s p i n n i n g l i n e n i s a s t a r v i n g employment: a woman must add g r e a t s k i l l t o g r e a t i n d u s t r y , t o  114 get one s h i l l i n g and s i x p e n c e p e r week; w h e r e a s t h e same e x e r t i o n s w i l l e n a b l e h e r t o g e t n e a r t h r e e s h i l l i n g s by s p i n n i n g w o o l . Now, i t strikes me t h a t i t w o u l d be p r o f i t a b l e and p l e a s a n t , i f t h e y c o u l d be t a u g h t t o s p i n t h e w o r s t e d f o r t h e i r own k n i t t i n g ; and I h a v e f o u n d o u t a m a n u f a c t u r e r whom I hope I s h a l l p r e v a i l upon t o buy t h e s t o c k i n g s ; b u t as t h e y w i l l p r o b a b l y s p i n a g r e a t d e a l more m a t e r i a l t h a n t h e y c a n u s e , I must f i n d a n o t h e r who w i l l t a k e t h e y a r n when spun . . . . I can get wheels f o r s p i n n i n g wool f o r about f o u r s h i l l i n g s and s i x p e n c e e a c h . . .  .56  She  had  some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e  officers  f r o m Bow  S t r e e t took p a r t  London l o d g i n g h o u s e s f o r an girl  and  her  past  with  seducer.  She  London.  i n a lengthy  eloped  fourteen  w r o t e , My  t i m e has  M  On  another occasion  attempted s u i c i d e , a g i r l  she  She  search  been and  and  through  year o l d  thief-takers, o f f i c e r s of justice,  kind of people."-" o f an  seamy s i d e o f  school  literally  such p r e t t y  went t o t h e  whose " f a t h e r had  aid  s o l d her  s i x t e e n i n t h e K i n g ' s Bench, t o a f e l l o w - p r i s o n e r , " and her  i n lodgings  o f her  " i n a s t r e e t of very  s t a t i o n she  had  bad  fame."^  8  For  at  found  a woman  unique o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r knowledge o f  t h e poor.-59 The struck  the  most c o n v i n c i n g ,  r i g h t n o t e i s t e s t i m o n y by  t h e y were i n f l u e n c e d by labourer  though s c a n t y ,  left  little  the  tracts.  written  proof  that  the poor themselves The  turn  of the  evidence of h i s ideas  h i s c l a s s remains f o r the h i s t o r i a n o f the p e r i o d  but  largely inarticulate.  heart  due  to i n f l u e n c e of the  s e l v e s o r many more. of  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s the  few  motives, vital  known c a s e s o f c h a n g e  t r a c t s may  most common and  o f t e n repeated  represent  only  most v a g u e  c o n v i c t i o n on  that  century  and  and  The  she  of them-  evidence the  part  of  Hannah M o r e ' s f r i e n d s  and a c q u a i n t a n c e s t h a t  a g r e a t d e a l o f good t h r o u g h h e r t r a c t s . diffuse  i s the evidence o f p a r t i c u l a r  R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s were o f b e n e f i t York b o o k s e l l e r that  of  c l e r g y m e n t h a t t h e Cheap  "single  That t h e philosophy  i s indicated  effective  by t h e r e s p o n s e  male i n h a b i t a n t  requesting  that  their  community m i g h t s e n d up an a d d r e s s ,  sive  of their horror of revolutionary principles,  d e s i r e to prove t h e i r  loyalty  . . .  h i m s e l f i n an a s s o -  i f i t were n e c e s s a r y , o r , a t any r a t e , little  on any s u i t a b l e  expres-  and t h e i r  occasion."  T h e r e a r e r e c o r d e d a few s p e c i f i c c a s e s where t h e t r a c t s to  have a f f e c t e d  behavior.  T h e r e were t h e two r i o t s  s t o p p e d by Hannah M o r e ' s b a l l a d  "The R i o t "  6 4  him  books  0 3  seem  reputedly  and t h e r e was a  " p o o r s a i l o r , who r e f u s e d two g u i n e a s f o r s a v i n g a man's because t h e l i t t l e  was  i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n and  came f o r w a r d , b e g g i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o e n r o l l ciation,  The  6 2  s c h o o l s t h e same v i e w s w h i c h  to the villagers  Every  and o f a  0  t h e men o f Shipham i n " a t i m e o f g r e a t  disloyalty."  less  to t h e i r p a r i s h e s ^  a p p e a r e d on t h e p a g e s o f t h e t r a c t s . repellent  Slightly  6 0  " t h e p o o r were v e r y f o n d o f t h e m . "  More s i s t e r s t a u g h t i n t h e i r  not  s h e was d o i n g  [ t h e Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s ] ,  life,  told  he must n o t be p a i d f o r d o i n g good, b u t must do i t f o r t h e  l o v e o f God."65  T h e R e v e r e n d J . Venn, r e c t o r  corded the conversion o f a p a r i s h i o n e r  o f Clapham r e -  i n evangelically  detail:  The c a s e w h i c h h a s s u g g e s t e d t h e s e r e f l e c t i o n s , i s t h a t o f a p o o r man i n t h i s v i l l a g e , who l a t e l y d i e d i n a most p e n i t e n t and happy s t a t e , w h i c h he owed e n t i r e l y t o t h e p e r u s a l o f y o u r l i t t l e t r a c t s . He was a d r i v e r o f one o f t h e s t a g e c o a c h e s i n t h i s  toned  116 p l a c e , was v e r y d r u n k e n a n d p r o f l i g a t e , and never attended a p l a c e o f worship; but beginning t o s i n k u n d e r t h e i n j u r i e s w h i c h dram d r i n k i n g d i d t o h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n , one o f o u r b e n e v o l e n t visit o r s o f t h e d i s t r i c t i n w h i c h he l i v e d , c a l l e d upon him, a n d l e f t w i t h h i m a p a r c e l o f t r a c t s . ' S o r r o w f u l Sam* was t h e o n e w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r u c k h i m , a n d was b l e s s e d , I t h i n k I may j u s t l y say, t o h i s e n t i r e c o n v e r s i o n . H i s i l l n e s s was l o n g a n d l i n g e r i n g , b u t he g a v e e v e r y s a t i s f a c t i o n which c o u l d be d e s i r e d o f a s o l i d change o f h e a r t ; and upon h i s d e a t h he e a r n e s t l y d e s i r e d t h a t a c o p y o f t h a t t r a c t m i g h t be g i v e n t o e a c h o f h i s c h i l d r e n , w i t h a s o l e m n c h a r g e t o them t o r e a d i t o v e r e v e r y month. H i s widow was a l s o v e r y d e e p l y i m p r e s s e d , and i s become now, I hope, t r u e l y r e l i g i o u s ; and t h u s h a s a w h o l e f a m i l y , p r o b a b l y , b e e n r e s c u e d f r o m r u i n by t h a t e x c e l l e n t t r a c t . 0 0  This particular editorship f o r lower  tract  was w r i t t e n by S a l l y More, b u t u n d e r t h e  o f Hannah i t w o u l d h a v e c o n f o r m e d t o h e r s t a n d a r d s class  literature.  Even i f i t i s conceded t h a t t h e t r a c t s l a c k e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e tone evidence  f o r t h e common man, a c o n c e s s i o n  d o e s n o t seem t o s u p p o r t ,  simply because they the  they  were c h e a p , s i m p l e  that the  may h a v e been  read  r e a d i n g matter.  second h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h century  In  t h e number o f w o r k i n g  c l a s s men and women who c o u l d r e a d was g r o w i n g , due t o t h e Sunday s c h o o l s , t h e c h a r i t y standard  of living,  s c h o o l s , and a s l i g h t l y  higher  and t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e d demand f o r cheap  r e a d i n g m a t t e r w h i c h was s u i t a b l e f o r t h e s e m i - l i t e r a t e . were a v a i l a b l e n e a r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y  chap-books,  books ( a cheap form o f t h e G o t h i c n o v e l ) , almanacs, and  illegal  insufficient low.  newspapers o f a r a d i c a l  tendency. ?  f o r t h e demand and t h e q u a l i t y  0  There blue-  broadsides,  T h e s u p p l y was  was i n many  cases  Hannah M o r e ' s s p r i g h t l y , w e l l - w r i t t e n t r a c t s w i t h  their  common s e n s e and t o u c h e s o f w i t must h a v e a p p e a r e d a s g r e e n oases i n a desert the  generation  of literary  trash.  b r o u g h t up upon Hannah M o r e ' s t r a c t s s a i d ,  "Next t o J o h n Bunyan, [Hannah MoreJ instance  A man who b e l o n g e d t o  i s t h e most  remarkable  o f a p e r s o n a b l e t o make e x p o s i t i o n o f d o c t r i n a l  v i e w s t o be i n t e r e s t i n g r e a d i n g ,  e v e n t o t h o s e who a r e i n d i f -  ferent  about o r opposed t o t h e d o c t r i n e s t h e m s e l v e s . "  tracts  formed "a p r i n c i p a l  library,"** were o n l y  part  o f many an E n g l i s h  cottager's  and a l t h o u g h i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t  9  Her  tracts  kept f o r d i s p l a y t o t h e clergyman o r v i s i t i n g l a d -  70 les by  i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y were r e a d a print-hungry  people.  some " u s e f u l " i n f o r m a t i o n It  i s evident  f o r amusement  T h e i r a u t h o r w o u l d h a v e hoped rubbed o f f i n t h e p r o c e s s .  t h a t Hannah More knew t h e p o o r ,  t o s p e a k t h e i r l a n g u a g e , and a p p e a l e d t o a t l e a s t readers.  Archdeacon Paley  f o r Contentment Addressed t o t h e L a b o u r i n g P a r t displayed  7  difficult  .  to dispute.  Paley's  This i s lost  because o f f a u l t y some t r a c t  Hannah M o r e .  of the B r i t i s h  I t i s a verdict  itself  i s a pleasure  a m i d s t a b u n d a n c e " — w e r e more l i k e l y  ate than convince the p o o r .  against  i n Reasons  strained rationalizations of  blessings of poverty—"Frugality .  some o f h e r  an i n f e r i o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e common l a n -  guage t h a n Hannah More d i d i n h e r t r a c t s . *  the  tried  T h i s was n o t t r u e o f a l l t r a c t w r i t e r s o f h e r d a y .  One o f h e r f r i e n d s o b s e r v e d t h a t  Public  that  7 2  . .  to alien-  The charges o f i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s  knowledge o r method a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y w r i t e r s o f t h e 1790's but n o t a g a i n s t  laid  118 In upon t h e  assessing  poor i s only  i n f l u e n c e of the one  the  t r a c t s were w r i t t e n  was  more w i d e s p r e a d .  Tract  point  E n g l i s h poor, t h e i r  d i s t r i b u t o r s f o r a l o n g time to  1799  of the  Religious Tract  both E v a n g e l i c a l s Cheap R e p o s i t o r y enjoyed the  Richard  Princess  . . . c h a r m e d " by  h i s own  Society,  Dissenters,  s o u l had  the  Owen C a m b r i d g e t h o u g h t t h a t  appearing the of better  each i s s u e .  d i e t of  decades of the  popularity  their  as upper c l a s s r e a d i n g  up  to  faithful  an  On  wrote  not  have  edition  resulted i n  i n the  explanations matter.  idealized version  other  per-  Politics.  two the  first  two  life  f o r the t r a c t s '  They may and  o f a w o r l d which the the  and  7  7 8  contemporary l a b o u r i n g reflection  "amused  tracts, 5  u p p e r c l a s s e s f o r an  several possible  and  t r a c t s commenced  E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n b r o u g h t up  knew f r o m a d i s t a n c e . trayed  could  in Village  century.  by the  T h e s e t r a c t s were s t a p l e s i n  7 7  nineteenth  There are  a mirror  of the  Swift  was  a clergyman  q u a l i t y paper s u i t a b l e f o r b i n d i n g  e d i t i o n s of literary  c l o s e l y upon  7 4  one  Cheap R e p o s i t o r y  demand f r o m t h e  founding  upper c l a s s e s read  tracts,  b e e n t o u c h e d by  a year a f t e r the  The  7 3  Sophia of Gloucester  f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n Hannah More had Nearly  through  a body s p o n s o r e d  followed The  w i t h them.  religion  ballads.  T r a c t s ' success.  tracts.  as much as that  and  appeal  come a d o p t e d Hannah  l o y a l t y and  w h o l e s o m e l y e n t e r t a i n i n g t a l e s and in  Although  w e a l t h y were d e l i g h t e d  More's t e c h n i q u e o f t e a c h i n g  effect  of c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  f o r the The  tracts their  charmed  held  by  well-to-do  hand t h e y may  o f a w o r l d t h a t was  have  have p o r -  passing,  much  119 to t h e r e g r e t o f t h e upper l a y e r s o f s o c i e t y .  Cobbett harkened  back t o a s i m i l a r i d e a l i z e d golden age i n h i s appeals t o t h e o r d i n a r y Englishman.  The t r a c t s *  simple, t r u s t i n g f a i t h i n a  God who made e v e r y t h i n g come r i g h t i n t h e end may have s t r u c k a r e s p o n s i v e cord i n c u l t i v a t e d as w e l l as common Englishmen. C e r t a i n l y t h e e v a n g e l i c a l approach t o r e l i g i o n gained ground i n England as t h e decades passed and t h e f a t h e r s o f t h e B i b l e r e a d i n g and d o m e s t i c a l l y p r a y i n g V i c t o r i a n s may have responded t o Hannah More's e v a n g e l i c a l message, even i n very simple form. The t r a c t s were a l s o p o p u l a r abroad.  Some were t r a n s -  l a t e d i n t o I t a l i a n and c i r c u l a t e d through t h e new r e p u b l i c ,  7 9  the Rajah o f Tanjore p r e f e r e d Hannah More's t r a c t s t o Johnson's 80 Rambler.  t h e t r a c t s were "read w i t h a v i d i t y " a t S i e r r a  81 Leone,  and a f t e r t h e war t h e P a r i s R e l i g i o u s T r a c t  Society  wanted t o p r i n t an expensive e d i t i o n o f s e l e c t e d t r a c t s f o r the F r e n c h .  America was deluged w i t h t r a c t s .  8 2  I n 1796 P i t t  r e p o r t e d t h a t 40,000 t r a c t s had been sent t o A m e r i c a .  In  83  J u l y 1797 W i l l i a m Cobbett, then i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , ordered two thousand o f each o f t h e Cheap R e p o s i t o r y t r a c t s from Hannah 84.  More. *  Zachary Macaulay  i n S i e r r a Leone sent specimens o f  the t r a c t s t o a correspondent, Dr. Samuel Hopkins, i n Newport, 8* >  Rhode I s l a n d .  0  The t r a c t s were a l s o p r i n t e d i n America.  They were p u b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e l y , as they appeared i n England, and i n 1800 as a s e r i a l i n f o r t y - t w o weekly i s s u e s .  The  most p o p u l a r t r a c t s c o n t i n u e d to be r e p r i n t e d f o r y e a r s , and at mid-century a s e l e c t i o n was b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n New York by the American T r a c t S o c i e t y and i n P h i l a d e l p h i a by the E p i s c o p a l  120  Female T r a c t S o c i e t y . c o p i e s o f The  At one  time t h e r e were more than 150,000  Shepherd o f S a l i s b u r y P l a i n , one  in circulation.  The  8 7  of the  tracts,  American p u r i t a n t r a d i t i o n and i n t e r e s t  i n r e v i v a l i s m can e x p l a i n the t r a c t s * p o p u l a r i t y i n the  United  S t a t e s , but the reason f o r t h e i r appeal i n v a r i o u s c o r n e r s  of  Europe, A f r i c a , and A s i a which possessed c u l t u r e s and r e l i g i o n s very d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f England remains a mystery. Once again, s o c i a l and o l d and  i n her t r a c t s as i n her essays and  r e l i g i o u s philosophy,  new.  She  innovated  Hannah More was  a blend  when she s e l e c t e d the  of  seductive  format o f the chapman's wares f o r her pure t a l e s and and  her  ballads  when she adapted the E v a n g e l i c a l penchant f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n  to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a c t s .  With the poor as with the  she depended upon the appeal o f a t r a d i t i o n a l concept o f ety.  She  assumed t h a t they were "Church and K i n g " and  respond t o arguments based upon t h i s assumption. p u b l i c a t i o n s augmented other  centuries.  c h i l d r e n o f the r i c h and  would cheap  f o r c e s — W e s l e y a n i s m , the  Loyal  e n f o r c e m e n t — w h i c h fought i n -  i n the l a t e eighteenth  They helped teach  soci-  Her  A s s o c i a t i o n s , the r e p r e s s i v e law subordination  rich  and  early  nineteenth  r e l i g i o n of the heart to  the  o f the poor, c o n t r i b u t e d to the  im-  provement i n manners and morals which contemporaries noted approvingly,  and  aided, by t h e i r mere m u l t i p l i c i t y , the  of a l a b o u r i n g c l a s s reading p u b l i c .  growth  121 Footnotes Thomas Paine, The R i g h t s o f Man ( D o l p h i n ed., New York, p u b l i s h e d with R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e R e v o l u t i o n i n France by Edmund Burke, 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 3 7 1 . 2 W i l l i a m Roberts, Memoirs o f the L i f e and C o r r e s pondence o f Mrs. Hannah More (London, 1 8 3 4 ) , V o l . I I , p. 3 7 8 , Hannah More t o Mrs. Boscawen, Bath, 1 7 9 3 . [bate i s i n c o r r e c t , probably January, 1 7 9 2 J ^Georgiana, Lady C h a t t e r t o n ( e d . ) , Memorials. Pers o n a l and H i s t o r i c a l of Admiral Lord Gambler. G.C.B. (London, 1 8 6 1 ) , V o l . I , p. 2 0 5 , Hannah More to Mrs. Bouverie, Bath, 24 December 1792 . ^Roberts, op_. c i t . , V o l . I I , pp. 346 - 3 5 2 , Bishop Porteus, Mrs. Montagu, and Mrs. Boscawen t o Hannah More, 1 7 9 2 . -*Ibid. . V o l . I I , p. 3 5 1 . Mrs. Boscawen t o Hannah More, 1 7 9 2 . P. 3 7 9 , Hannah More to Mrs. Boscawen, Bath, 1 7 9 3 , [Date i s i n c o r r e c t , probably January, 1 7 9 2 . J I b i d . , V o l . I I , p. 3 4 9 , Mrs. Montagu t o Hannah More, 1 7 9 2 . I b i d . , V o l . I I , pp. 3 50 Hannah More, 1 7 9 2 . 7  3 5 1 , Mrs. Boscawen t o  I b i d . . V o l . I l l , p. 1 3 2 , Hannah More to Dr. Beadon, Bishop o f Bath and W e l l s , 1 8 0 1 . 8  9  I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 3 4 6 .  I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 3 4 8 , Bishop Porteus t o Hannah More, Fulham, £L792j. 1 0  R. K. Webb, The B r i t i s h Working C l a s s Reader 1 7 9 0 L i t e r a c y and S o c i a l Tension (London, 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 4 2 . 1:L  1848.  -•• ^The B r i t i s h Museum Catalogue of P r i n t e d Books. V o l . XXXVIII, c o l . 5 7 0 , a s c r i b e s another pamphlet by W i l l Chip t o Hannah More, A Country Carpenter's C o n f e s s i o n o f F a i t h ; with a few p l a i n remarks on The Age o f Reason. I n a l e t t e r from W i l l Chip. Carpenter, i n Somersetshire, to T. P a i n , Stavmaker. i n P a r i s . 1 7 9 4 . G. H. Spinney, "Cheap R e s p o s i t o r y T r a c t s : Hazard and M a r s h a l l E d i t i o n , " The L i b r a r y A Q u a r t e r l y Review o f B i b l i o g r a p h y . 4 t h S e r i e s , V o l . XX (December, 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 297 t h i n k s i t i s "very probable t h a t i t i s her work," and mentions t h a t i t was entered a t S t a t i o n e r s ' H a l l on 1 1 Oct., 1 7 9 4 . Hannah More w r i t i n g t o S i r Charles M i d d l e t o n from Cowslip Green,  122  30 October [JL794J adds i n a p o s t s c r i p t , " I never saw o r heard of a pamphlet a d v e r t i s e d by t h e name o f W i l l Chip, and which I suppose i s a s c r i b e d t o me." C h a t t e r t o n , op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p. 268. Hannah More i n t h e same l e t t e r d i s c u s s e d h e r p l a n s f o r the Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s so concealment o f p r o d u c i n g t h i s s o r t o f work was not a motive. Furthermore honesty was one o f her c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . She might remain s i l e n t w h i l e a u t h o r s h i p o f one o f her anonymous works was d i s c u s s e d , but she would not deny i t o u t r i g h t . * R o b e r t s , op., e x t . , V o l . I l l , p. 135. to Bishop Beadon, 1801. 3  Hannah More  I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 454 and pp. 427 - 428, Bishop Porteus t o Hannah More, London, 1795 and 1794. C h a t t e r t o n , op. c i t . . V o l . I , pp. 266 - 268, Hannah More t o S i r C h a r l e s M i d d l e t o n , Cowslip Green, 30 October £71794}. l 4  C h a t t e r t o n , op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p . 349, Hannah More to S i r C h a r l e s M i d d l e t o n , Bath, January 10 [17967. 1 5  1°W. S. Lewis ( e d . ) , The Y a l e E d i t i o n o f Horace Walp o l e ' s Correspondence w i t h Hannah More. Lady Browne. Lady George Lennox. Lady Mary Coke. Anne P i t t . Lady Hervey. Lady S u f f o l k . Mary Hamilton (Mrs. John Dickenson) (New Haven, 1961), V o l . XXXI, pp. 395 - 3 9 7 , Horace Walpole t o Hannah More, B e r k e l e y Square, Saturday, January 24, 1795. 1 7  S p i n n e y , l o c . e x t . p . 302.  B a t h C h r o n i c l e . March 4, 1795. l o c . c i t . . p. 302. l 8  Quoted by Spinney,  -^Spinney, l o c . c i t . . p. 302. 2 0  I b i d . , p. 3 0 3 .  2 l C h a t t e r t o n , op. £it., V o l . I , p. 294. 2 2 i b i d . , V o l . I , p. 274. 23Roberts, op_. c i t . V o l . I I , p. 432. The s e l e c t i o n s too f u l l o f l o v e and p o l i t i c s were from W i l l i a m Mason. She d i d not know "what so great a man w i l l say a t h a v i n g any o f h i s offerings r e j e c t e d . " F o r a u t h o r s h i p see Spinney, l o c . e x t . , pp. 310 311. Nearly h a l f t h e t r a c t s were w r i t t e n by Hannah More. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t o t h e r s were by W i l l i a m Mason, Henry Thornton, John Newton, S e l i n a M i l l s , and Zachary Macaulay. 2 4  123 25R berts, op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p. 4 2 8 , Bishop Porteus t o Hannah More, 1 7 9 4 . 0  2o  S p i n n e y , l o c . c i t . . p. 295.  R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p. 429, Hannah More t o Rev. J . Newton, Bath, 1794. Henry Thompson, The L i f e o f Hannah More with N o t i c e s o f Her S i s t e r s (London,.1838), p. 153. 2 7  28  C h a t t e r t o n , op., e x t . , V o l . I , p. 2 8 5 , Hannah More t o Mrs. Bouverie, Cowslip Green, August 14, [ 1 7 9 5 3 . I The Way t o P l e n t y "the p a r t you w i l l meet w i t h , about h a v i n g a s h o u l der o f mutton on E a s t e r Monday, was taken from a c o n v e r s a t i o n I had . . . l a s t E a s t e r Monday, when we met your c a r p e n t e r , & c , going to keep the h o l i d a y . " n  F o r a l i s t o f b o o k s e l l e r s see A. de Morgan, Notes and Queries. 3 r d S e r i e s , V o l . VI (September 2 4 , 1 8 6 4 ) , p. 2 4 2 . 2 9  3°Spinney, l o c . e x t . , p. 3 0 9 . R o b e r t s , op_. c i t . , V o l . I I , pp. 430 - 432, Hannah More t o her s i s t e r , London, 1795 and pp. 445 - 4 4 6 , Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , London, 1 7 9 6 . 3 1  12  I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 4 3 1 , Hannah More to her s i s t e r , London, 1795? p. 4 5 6 , Bishop Porteus t o Hannah More, Sunbridge, October 9 , 1 7 9 5 ; pp. 458 - 4 5 9 , Hannah More to Zachary Macaulay, Bath, January 6 , 1 7 9 6 . C h a t t e r t o n , op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p. 3 4 9 , Hannah More to S i r C h a r l e s Middleton, Bath, January 1 0 , 3 3  3 4  [17961.  S p i n n e y , l o c . e x t . , p. 3 0 3 .  R i h a r d D. A l t i c k , The E n g l i s h Common Reader, A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f the Mass Reading P u b l i c 1800-1900 (Chicago, 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 7 5 . 3 5  c  S p i n n e y , l o c . e x t . , pp. 301 - 3 0 2 . The f i g u r e o f two m i l l i o n f o r t h e f i r s t year appears i n Roberts, op_. e x t . , V o l . I l l , p. 6 1 , Hannah More's J o u r n a l , September 2 2 , 1 7 9 8 . 3 6  17  ' " A l t i c k , op., e x t . , pp.  69-70  C h a t t e r t o n , op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p. 2 7 4 , Hannah More to Mrs. Bouverie, January 1795 ( ? ) . Spinney, l o c . c i t . . pp. 303 309. M. G. Jones, Hannah More (Cambridge, 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 142 - 1 4 3 . Miss Jones has drawn on l e t t e r s i n t h e F o r s t e r Papers. 3 8  R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I l l , p. 9 2 , Rev. James Bean to Hannah More, C a r s h a l t o n , May, 1 7 9 9 . 3 9  124 Spinney, l o c • c i t . . p. 308. Samuel M a r s h a l l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a t y p i c a l Hannah More theme, " I t ' s a l l f o r the b e s t , " i s expressed by a poor c o b b l e r whose w i f e presented him w i t h t r i p l e t s i n s t e a d o f the expected s i n g l e mouth t o f e e d : *0 never you mind' Says I , 'Be r e s i g n ' d , There's no use t o f r e t and t o stew.' Now sure I was r i g h t For b e f o r e the next n i g h t The two e l d e s t took l e a v e and withdrew. *R. J . White, Waterloo t o P e t e r l o o (London: Mercury Books, 1 9 6 3 ) , passim, p a r t i c u l a r l y chaps, i x , x i , and x i i . Roberts op., e x t . , V o l . I l l , p. 4 7 3 , Hannah More to S i r W i l l i a m W. Pepys, B a r l e y Wood, January 24, 1817. 4  42Roberts, op_. ext., V o l . I l l , p. 4 6 8 , Hannah More t o the Misses Roberts. The paragraph i s based on pp. 4 6 6 - 481, l e t t e r s w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r of 1 8 1 7 from Hannah More to the Misses Roberts, S i r W i l l i a m W. Pepys, and Mr. H a r f o r d . H a n n a h More, Works of Hannah More (London, V o l . XI, p. 144. 43  4 4  Ibid..  V o l . I, pp. 169  -  1834),  170.  % a n n a h More was charged with " l e t t i n g t h e poor know t h a t the great have f a u l t s . " She replied i n p a r t , "They must be very d u l l i f they have not found out the f a u l t s a l l u d e d t o before . . . . When I wrote f o r the poor, I o n l y spoke o f t h e i r f a u l t s , and kept those of t h e great out of s i g h t , and i n each s t o r y i n t r o d u c e d a most exemplary clergyman, and none but such." Roberts, op., ext., V o l . I l l , pp. 390 - 391, Hannah More to Lady O l i v i a Sparrow, 1813. She c o u l d not have been unaware t h a t she r e v e a l e d the f a u l t s o f the g r e a t . Probably, i n the above q u o t a t i o n , she was on the d e f e n s i v e and g l o s s e d over her exposure of a r i s t o c r a t i c f o i b l e s . 4  ^ R o b e r t s , op., ext., V o l . I I , p. 3 8 6 , Hannah More t o Mrs. Boscawen, Cowslip Green, November, 1 7 9 3 . The date i s wrong, i t i s more l i k e l y t o be at l e a s t two y e a r s l a t e r ; and Henry Thompson, op_. ext., p.158. 47  M o r e , op., e x t . , V o l . VI, pp. 6 2 - 6 5 .  A l t i c k , op_. ext., p. 104, w r i t e s , "The most s e r i o u s mistake made by Hannah More and her g e n e r a t i o n of d i s c i p l e s was t o underestimate the independence and i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the humbly born Englishman. T h e i r assumption was t h a t he was a d u l l beast who, i f he were t r e a t e d with some kindness, c o u l d be r e l i e d upon t o f o l l o w the b i d d i n g of h i s s u p e r i o r s . They d i d not reckon on the p o s s i b i l i t y that he had a mind of h i s 4 8  125 own, a stubborn w i l l , and a s t r o n g sense o f h i s own dignityeven i n t h e midst o f d e g r a d a t i o n . Because of t h i s , t r a c t s and t h e b e a r e r s o f t r a c t s o f t e n rubbed him t h e wrong way." T h i s comment suggests that Mr. A l t i c k has not read Hannah More widely o r t h o r o u g h l y . G e o r g e Rude, The Crowd i n H i s t o r y A Study of Popular D i s t u r b a n c e s i n France and England 1730-1848 (New York, 1964), P. 2 5 5 . H 7  ° W e b b , op_. e x t . , pp. 27 - 2 8 , pp. 159 - 160. A l t i c k op. e x t . , pp. 104 - 1 0 7 . He suggests, however, t h a t t h i s was increasingly true after 1815. 5  ^^Webb, op_. e x t . , p. 159. 5 C h a t t e r t o n , op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p. 275. 2  5 I b i d . . V o l . I , p. 2 6 7 , Hannah More t o S i r C h a r l e s M i d d l e t o n , Cowslip Green, 30 October ( l 7 9 4 j . 3  5 4  I b i d . . V o l . I , pp. 275 - 276.  S ^ I b i d . . V o l . I , p. 268, Hannah More to S i r C h a r l e s M i d d l e t o n , Cowslip Green, 30 October, [1794]. 56Roberts, op., e x t . , V o l . I I , pp. 218 - 219. Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , Cowslip Green, n.d., 0.789?] I b i d . , V o l . I I , pp. 334 - 336, Hannah More t o Mrs. K e n n i c o t t , London, A p r i l 2 3 , [1792]. 5 7  R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , pp. 338 - 3 3 9 , Hannah More t o her s i s t e r , London, 1 7 9 2 . 5 8  5 9 c h a t t e r t o n , op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p. 266, Hannah More t o S i r C h a r l e s M i d d l e t o n , Cowslip Green, 30 October, [1794J . "My f a m i l i a r acquaintance with v u l g a r l i f e l e a d s me t o t h e knowl e d g e o f some s m a l l avenues t o u s e f u l n e s s , which much b e t t e r people than myself, who l i v e i n the g r e a t world, cannot know." ^ R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , pp. 452 - 4 5 3 , Bishop Porteus to Hannah More, London, 1 7 9 5 ; pp. 348 - 3 4 9 , Mrs. Montagu t o Hannah More, 1 7 9 2 . I b i d . . V o l . I l l , p. 197, Hannah More's J o u r n a l f o r 1 8 0 3 , September 3 0 , pp. 92 - 93, Reverend James Bean t o Hannah More, C h a r s h a l t o n , May, 1799. 6 l  62 Roberts, op. e x t . , V o l . I I , p. 4 5 5 , Bishop to Hannah More, Sunbridge, October 9, 1795.  Porteus  126 ^ A r t h u r Roberts ( e d . ) , Mendip Annals: o r . a N a r r a t i v e o f t h e C h a r i t a b l e Labours of Hannah and Martha More i n T h e i r Neighbourhood. Being t h e J o u r n a l of Martha More (2nd ed.: London, 1859), note, p. 242. 6 4  S e e pp. 103 - 104 supra.  ^ W i l l i a m Roberts, p_p_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p. 446, Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , London, 1796. I b i d . . V o l . I l l , pp. 321 - 322, J . Venn t o Hannah More, Clapham, A p r i l 30, 1810. 6 6  r g a r e t D a l z i e l , Popular F i c t i o n o f One Hundred Years Ago (London, 1957), pp. 5 - 8 . ^ A. de Morgan, l o c . e x t . , p. 241. 8  6 9 enry Thompson, op_. e x t . , p. 150. w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s o f Hannah More's death. H  He was w r i t i n g  70 Webb, op_. c i t . . p. 27. The s t a t i s t i c s upon which he bases h i s comments come from t h e J o u r n a l o f S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y o f London. V o l . I , p. 457 - 458 (December, 1830), and V o l . XI, p. 218 (August, 1848). I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Webb's c o n c l u s i o n i s based upon London sources and Thompson's upon those o f r u r a l Somersetshire. 71  ' W i l l i a m Roberts, op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p. 351. Boscawen t o Hannah More, 1792. 72Newcastle, 1819 A L e t t e r t o W i l l i a m Paley. A Poor Labourer, i n Answer Addressed t o t h e Labouring 1793).  Mrs.  D-7931. For a r e a c t i o n to i t see M.A. Archdeacon o f C a r l i s l e , from to H i s Reason f o r Contentment. P a r t o f the B r i t i s h P u b l i c (London,  7 3 A l t i c k , op. e x t . , p. 76. 7 4 w i l l i a m Roberts, op_. e x t . , V o l . I l l , p. 470, P r i n c e s s Sophia t o Hannah More, Bagshot Park, January 21 JJL8173. 7 5 w i l l i am Roberts, op_. e x t . , V o l . I l l , p. 197, Hannah More's J o u r n a l f o r 1803, September 30. 7 6 i j d . . V o l . I I , p. 348, Bishop Porteus to Hannah More, Fulham, [17923. Also see p. 350, Mrs. Boscawen t o Hannah More, 1792. The Duchess r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s l e t t e r i s t h e Duchess o f B e a u f o r t . D  7 7 i b i d . , V o l . I I , pp. 457 - 458. l o c . e x t . , p. 303.  A l s o see Spinney,  127 78 ' A . de Morgan, l o c . e x t . , p. 241. C h a t t erton, op_. e x t . , V o l . I , p . 334, Hannah More t o Mrs. B o u v e r i e , Bath, December 28, U179727 g  W i l l i a m Roberts, op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , pp. 433 - 434, Lady Waldegrave t o a f r i e n d , n.d. 8 o  S l l b i d . . V o l . I l l , p. 5, Bishop Porteus t o Hannah More, S t . James Square, January 16, 1797. I b i d . . V o l . IV, pp. 35 - 36, Hannah More t o t h e Misses Roberts, 1818. A l s o see p. 120, Hannah More t o S i r W i l l i a m W. Pepys, B a r l e y Wood, December 23, 1820. 8 2  I b i d . . V o l . I I , p. 470, Hannah More to Martha More, Fulham Palace, 1796. 8 3  C h a t t e r t o n , op., e x t . , V o l . I , p . 329, Hannah More t o S i r C h a r l e s M i d d l e t o n , j j u l y 28, 1797 J . V i s c o u n t e s s Knutsf o r d , L i f e and L e t t e r s of Zacharv Macaulay (London, 1900), pp. 177 - 178, Hannah More to Zachary Macaulay, Cowslip Green, September 8, 1797* G. D. H. C o l e ( e d . ) , L e t t e r s from W i l l i a m Cobbett t o Edward Thornton w r i t t e n i n the Years 1797-1800 (London, 1937), p. 5, B u s t l e t o n , 27 August, 1798. 8 4  5 R n u t s f o r d , op_. e x t . , p. 180. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know what t h i s extreme C a l v i n i s t who denied that unr.egenerate s o u l d c o u l d o r should pray thought o f Hannah More's Arminian t r a c t s . For Hopkins see Edmund S. Morgan, The G e n t l e P u r i t a n ; A L i f e o f Ezra S t y l e s 1727-1795 (New Haven, 1962), chap, x i , passim. 8  OA  Harry B. Weiss, Hannah More's Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s i n America (New York, 1946), pp. 5 - 6 . 87  Ibid.»  pp. 9 - 10.  CHAPTER V Conclusion Hannah More, a v i l l a g e s c h o o l master's became a c e l e b r i t y . of  daughter,  Her name was f a m i l i a r t o a g e n e r a t i o n  C h r i s t i a n s from c h i l d h o o d , * and a t B a r l e y Wood she r e c e i v e d  more v i s i t s from "bishops, nobles, and persons o f d i s t i n c t i o n o  than perhaps any p r i v a t e f a m i l y i n the kingdom."  How d i d she  achieve such eminence? Patronage  launched h e r c a r e e r .  Her p e r s o n a l charm  enhanced h e r t a l e n t s , and those B r i s t o l acquaintances whom she impressed  i n her youth helped h e r t o g a i n entree i n t o  London l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y .  John Langhorne, poet, c r i t i c , and  r e j e c t e d s u i t o r , d i d much t o help her e a r l y l i t e r a r y c a r e e r . He wrote the prologue t o The I n f l e x i b l e C a p t i v e and an admiring  review o f her f i r s t volume o f poems f o r the February 1776  Monthly Review.  3  Dr. James Stonehouse probably recommended  her to h i s f r i e n d s , David G a r r i c k and Samuel Johnson, both o f whom helped t o make h e r a n o t a b l e f i g u r e i n l i t e r a r y London. G a r r i c k ensured the success o f Percy by h i s p e r s o n a l s u p e r i n tendence o f the p r o d u c t i o n and wrote t h e prologue and e p i logue.  4  Johnson's judgement that she was "the most powerful  v e r s i f i c a t r i x i n the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , " weight among the In  5  was sure t o c a r r y  literati.  o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a prominent p l a c e i n the l i t e r a r y  world Hannah More needed t a l e n t , f o r t h e c u l t i v a t e d century reader would not accept an i n e l e g a n t s t y l e .  eighteenth 6  In  129 g e n e r a l her contemporaries approved o f the way  she  wrote,  although most were more moderate i n t h e i r enthusiasm Bishop Porteus who  7  than  fulsomely p r a i s e d S t r i c t u r e s on the Modern  System o f Female Education i n one o f h i s e p i s c o p a l charges t o the c l e r g y : ery,  "Such b r i l l i a n c e o f w i t , such r i c h n e s s o f imag-  such v a r i e t y and f e l i c i t y  o f a l l u s i o n , such neatness  and  elegance o f d i c t i o n , as are not, I conceive, e a s i l y t o be found combined and blended t o g e t h e r i n another work i n the E n g l i s h language."  Her measured p e r i o d s appear a r t i f i c i a l  to  a modern reader, and i t i s when she abandoned the c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y mode, and addressed the lower o r d e r s o r her c o r r e s pondents t h a t her words come t o l i f e , and t h a t her i n s i g h t i n t o human m o t i v a t i o n , and s k i l l i n c h a r a c t e r d e l i n e a t i o n become to  most apparent.  one age may  But what seems s t i l t e d o r i n s i n c e r e  seem d e e p l y - f e l t t o another.  Her r e p u t a t i o n as a d r a m a t i s t and poet was made p r i o r to  her c o n v e r s i o n t o E v a n g e l i c a l i s m and ensured t h a t her  " s e r i o u s " books would be read. i n l a t e 1777  Lord L y t t l e t o n watched every p e r f o r -  mance f o r the f i r s t week. Percy was  9  Ten y e a r s l a t e r a London r e v i v a l  w e l l r e c e i v e d , and moved C h a r l e s Fox t o t e a r s . *  The f o l l o w i n g y e a r she p u b l i s h e d her f i r s t vated c r i t i c i s m o f "the g r e a t . " Hannah More:  i n London  i t became the most s u c c e s s f u l tragedy to p l a y  t h e r e f o r many y e a r s .  of  When Percy appeared  "Many who  0  evangelically moti-  James Stephen wrote t o  too r a r e l y open a r e l i g i o u s book w i l l  read a work o f yours, even on p r a c t i c a l p i e t y , l e s t they should seem t o be i g n o r a n t o f such n o v e l i t i e s i n the l i t e r a r y  130 world as a r e sure t o engage g e n e r a l attention.'*** The fundamental reason f o r h e r p o p u l a r i t y was t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f h e r a t t i t u d e s with those o f most o f her readers.  The E c l e c t i c Review i n 1811 accounted  f o r her "high  esteem w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e " by n o t i n g t h a t "her p r i n c i p l e s , though t o o s t r i c t f o r g e n e r a l adoption, a r e a f t e r a l l t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g t o t h e f e e l i n g s o f mankind, t h e most s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r wants, the most concordant s t a n d i n g s and experience  . . . ."*  w i t h t h e i r under-  Thomas de Quincey, an  2  a n t i p a t h e t i c c r i t i c , f e l t that h e r works were e s p e c i a l l y adapted t o those "who seek, i n a l l they read, t o see t h e i r own o r d i n a r y sentiments r e f l e c t e d . " * Teignmouth wrote Hannah More:  3  The E v a n g e l i c a l Lord  " I t i s sure that we have many  e x c e l l e n t manuals o f p i e t y and d e v o t i o n ; but t h e p u b l i c v a r i e s , and those p r o d u c t i o n s o n l y which are adapted  taste  to i t  w i l l s t i m u l a t e i t . . . you possess t h e t a l e n t o f a d a p t i n g your w r i t i n g s t o a l l t a s t e s , w i t h very few e x c e p t i o n s . " *  4  The B r i t i s h C r i t i c a p p r o v i n g l y noted " t h e soundness o f [Hannah More'sJ p r i n c i p l e s i n e v e r y t h i n g which regards our e s t a b l i s h ments i n church and state."*-*  Hannah More was h e r s e l f  con-  s c i o u s t h a t her success was due i n p a r t to h e r response t o a p r e v a i l i n g p u b l i c mood. I f I have been favoured w i t h a measure o f success, which has as much exceeded my e x p e c t a t i o n as my desert, I ascribe i t p a r t l y t o a d i s p o s i t i o n i n the p u b l i c mind t o encourage, i n these days o f alarm, a t t a c k , and a g i t a t i o n , any p r o d u c t i o n s o f which t h e tendency i s f a v o u r a b l e t o good o r d e r and C h r i s t i a n morals . . . . I n some i n s t a n c e s I t r u s t I have w r i t t e n seasonably, when I have  131 not been a b l e t o w r i t e w e l l . S e v e r a l p i e c e s , perhaps o f small value i n themselves, have helped t o supply i n some i n f e r i o r degree the exigence o f the moment . . . . On t h a t which had o n l y a temporary use, I do not a s p i r e t o b u i l d a l a s t i n g r e p u t a t i o n . 16 As the eighteenth improvement occurred cern. ?  and  the s u f f e r i n g o f the i l l , s l a v e d , and  aged, orphaned, c r i m i n a l , and  sought i t s r e l i e f .  gave up p a s t r y and  A country woman "was 1 8  en-  the  lady  Even the imperious Lady  r e s t r i c t e d bread consumption i n  her household d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f s c a r c i t y . s t i l l i n her teens,  humanitarian con-  women were i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of  d o c t o r o f a l l the country r o u n d . " Holland  progressed a n o t i c e a b l e  i n E n g l i s h manners and  R e s p o n s i b l e men  1  century  1 9  Elizabeth Fry,  v i s i t e d the Norwich poor and  sick.  Jonas  Hanway helped e s t a b l i s h Magdalen H o s p i t a l , and brought  the  cause o f young chimney sweeps and  the  House o f Commons. c o u r t and won  London f o u n d l i n g s t o  G r a n v i l l e Sharp took the s l a v e ' s cause t o  the d e c i s i o n t h a t a s l a v e was  f r e e as soon as  20 he s e t f o o t on E n g l i s h  soil.  Toward the end o f the century gion became " f a s h i o n a b l e , " and o f man  fjwerej. the haut t o n . "  2 1  the semblance o f  " m o r a l i t y and  the whole duty  For some r e l i g i o n became a  form o f n a t i o n a l i s m and Hannah More commented i n 1792: i s the f a s h i o n t o a f f e c t t o be r e l i g i o u s and i n v e i g h i n g a g a i n s t the wickedness o f France! many who  reli-  "It  to show i t by I r e a l l y know  b e l i e v e they are p i o u s on no o t h e r g r o u n d . "  22  Most  o f her d i d a c t i c w r i t i n g c o i n c i d e d w i t h the p e r i o d o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y alarm i n E n g l a n d .  2 3  i n an era of government s e c r e t  132 committees,  s p i e s and t r e a s o n t r i a l s ,  o f l o c a l watch and ward  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and o f troop m a n o e u v e r s to  many people turned  24  r e l i g i o n as a second l i n e o f defence a g a i n s t i n s u b o r d i n a -  tion. 5 2  Some who  t h a t t h e i r own  f e a r e d s o c i a l i n v e r s i o n became convinced  outward, i f not inward, conformity t o r e l i g i o u s  p r a c t i c e s was necessary f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the s o c i a l order;26 by a d m i t t i n g the e q u a l i t y o f s o u l s they helped t o b r i d g e t h e d e v e l o p i n g gap between the "two f l e c t e d a t t e n t i o n from s o c i a l There was ton.  equality.  n a t i o n s " and  de-  2 7  a r e l i g i o s i t y which had preceded the  new  Many people had as c h i l d r e n been t r a i n e d i n C h r i s t i a n  p r e c e p t s and f o l l o w e d them i n a d u l t l i f e .  They were not  n e c e s s a r i l y " v i t a l " C h r i s t i a n s , but l i k e the c o r r e c t Lady Spencer who  possessed a sense o f "duty" t o God and to her  fellowmen,  and b e l i e v e d i n the u t i l i t y o f a r e p u t a t i o n f o r 28  rectitude.  Others, l i k e Lady Spencer's daughter, the Duch-  ess o f Devonshire, intended t o f o l l o w t h e i r C h r i s t i a n but found d e s p i t e a w i l l i n g s p i r i t  training,  t h a t the f l e s h was weak.  The Duchess read sermons, wrote (when i n p e r i l ) hymns, heard her c h i l d r e n ' s p r a y e r s , and f e l t pangs of c o n s c i e n c e i f on Sunday (as o f t e n happened) she p l a y e d c a r d s , o r o v e r s l e p t missed c h u r c h ,  2 9  but a t t h e same time, through  and compulsive gambling,  and  extravagance  she went i n t o debt t o approximately  £100,000 and bore an i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter by C h a r l e s Grey, the f u t u r e prime m i n i s t e r .  Even t h o s e who  " q u i t e abhor[redJ  t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n " o f t e n had "a c o n s i d e r a b l e share o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n theology" ® which they a i r e d i n s o c i e t y . 3  133  I n t h i s m i l i e u Hannah More's books found readers.  willing  Those who were apprehensive o f domestic u n r e s t and  n a t i o n a l danger were t r a n q u i l i z e d by h e r p l a t i t u d i n o u s s o c i a l views.  The humanitarians gleaned from her pages i d e a s f o r  improving t h e l o t o f t h e p o o r — c o l l e c t i o n s o f cheap, n o u r i s h i n g r e c i p e s , h i n t s on t h e establishment o f a c h a r i t y s c h o o l , methods f o r b r i n g i n g f r a u d u l e n t shopkeepers  to justice.  The  devotees o f r e l i g i o u s books chose hers because they were t h e new vogue i n d e v o t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , and were d i r e c t e d t o contemporary  issues.  The i r r e l i g i o u s might read h e r books i n  o r d e r t o d e r i d e them e f f e c t i v e l y . There were contemporaries who disapproved o f Hannah More's books.  The warmth o f t h e i r c r i t i c i s m i n d i c a t e s h e r  i n f l u e n c e upon s o c i e t y ; t h e r a t i o n a l e behind i t r e v e a l s cons e r v a t i s m among her d e t r a c t o r s as w e l l as h e r admirers. Her s o c i a l views were not p a r t i c u l a r l y  controversial,  and g e n e r a l l y o n l y t h e r a d i c a l f r i n g e wished t o c h a l l e n g e a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y b u i l t upon s u b o r d i n a t i o n .  A few o f her  women f r i e n d s d i d murmur a g a i n s t t h e great s u p e r i o r i t y she granted men over women. * 3  W i l l i a m Cobbett r e s e n t e d her e f 12  f o r t s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e poor w i t h t h e i r s u f f e r i n g , wanted t o s t i r them t o reform.  J  f o r he  Both he and Hannah More looked  backward t o a "golden age" which was b e i n g undermined by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , but he was acute enough t o c o r r e c t l y the cause o f t h e s o c i a l  distinguish  changes.  The most heated c r i t i c i s m came from those who o b j e c t e d t o her r e l i g i o u s views.  I n t h e e i g h t e e n t h century r e l i g i o u s  134 i s s u e s e x c i t e d general i n t e r e s t , and u n b e l i e v e r s and as w e l l as the o r t h o d o x troversies.  3 3  liberals,  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e l i g i o u s  con-  The nuances o f b e l i e f , p r a c t i c e , o r merely  of  emphasis v a r i e d among church p a r t i e s , and a d e f i n i t i o n o f orthodoxy  f r e q u e n t l y became l o s t i n a maze o f p o l e m i c s .  Some c r i t i c s ,  the "nominal  C h r i s t i a n s , " objected to  making r e l i g i o n the touchstone of l i f e . r e l i g i o n was  s e n s i b l e and proper, and were offended when  Hannah More suggested tain.  They f e l t that t h e i r  t h a t t h e i r s a l v a t i o n was  For them r e l i g i o n was  should remain t h e r e . t i o n and s o c i a l l i f e  f a r from c e r -  necessary i n i t s p l a c e , but  R e l i g i o n should not dominate conversa3 4  f o r i t was  a p e r s o n a l matter and  "the  world i n general [hadj n o t h i n g t o do w i t h one's f a i t h . " ^ 3  Nor should r e l i g i o n i n t e r f e r e w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n a l amusements of  s o c i e t y ; * * t o emphasize t h i s view the Westminster s c h o o l 3  boys burned her i n e f f i g y  3 7  and a London matron had a dummy,  dressed t o r e p r e s e n t a d i s a p p r o v i n g Hannah More, p r e s i d e over her "baby  ball."  3 8  The most f e r o c i o u s a t t a c k s upon Hannah More's r e l i gious views came from men With a b u s i v e language,  who  were themselves  deeply  religious.  i n pamphlets and a r t i c l e s , t h e s e f e l l o w  C h r i s t i a n s charged her w i t h s u b v e r s i o n o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d church, w i t h b e i n g a r e l i g i o u s r a d i c a l .  They b e l i e v e d t h a t  r e l i g i o u s f a c t i o n weakened church a u t h o r i t y and t h a t the Evang e l i c a l campaign was  l e a d i n g towards church schism.  They  saw  Hannah More as a woman d r i v e n t o head a s e c t ( b u i l t upon her Sunday s c h o o l s ) by p e r s o n a l ambition and the need f o r 3 9  135 recognition.  4 0  These church c o n s e r v a t i v e s resented her t o l e r -  ance f o r C h r i s t i a n s o u t s i d e o f t h e established church.  They  charged t h a t she took communion "from t h e hands o f a Layman!!!" *  ( I n r e a l i t y i t was from a popular  4  preacher  Non-conformist  i n Bath, W i l l i a m Jay) and t h a t she c o n s i d e r e d  o l i c p r i e s t a minister of God.  42  I n her admission  a Cath-  that truth  c o u l d be found o u t s i d e t h e e s t a b l i s h e d church they saw a t h r e a t t o t h e A n g l i c a n Church's a u t h o r i t y .  These c r i t i c s  c a l l e d h e r a C a l v i n i s t and a M e t h o d i s t — l a b e l s which r e f l e c t t h e i r own c o n s e r v a t i v e f e a r s , f o r one c o u l d l e a d t o Antinomi a n i s m , and t h e other t o enthusiasm, both o f which d i s r u p t e d church o r d e r . The philosophy  c o n s e r v a t i v e complaints came prominently  before t h e p u b l i c i n t h e Daubeny  d i s p u t e and t h e Blagdon c o n t r o v e r s y . a heated pamphlet w a r w h i l e she maintained  4 3  a g a i n s t her r e l i g i o u s  I n both cases t h e r e was  between her f r i e n d s and opponents  a discreet silence.  I n both h e r oppo-  nents a t t a c k e d her as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e E v a n g e l i c a l party.  The d i s p u t e generated deeply  f e l t a n i m o s i t i e s among  the Somerset gentry, d i v i d i n g the c o u n t r y s i d e , and i n some cases f a m i l i e s , i n t o two opposed camps. The Daubeny d i s p u t e began when t h e Reverend  Charles  Daubeny, m i n i s t e r o f C h r i s t ' s Church, Bath, p u b l i s h e d a c r i t i c i s m o f Hannah More's comment on S a i n t Paul's E p i s t l e t o the Romans c o n t a i n e d  i n her S t r i c t u r e s on t h e Modern System  o f Female E d u c a t i o n .  She had s a i d t h a t S a i n t Paul b e l i e v e d  C h r i s t i a n p r a c t i c e s n a t u r a l l y grow from a C h r i s t i a n f a i t h "as  136 any o t h e r consequence grows out o f i t s cause."  44  Daubeny,  seconded by The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review, o b j e c t e d t h a t t h i s view would render n e e d l e s s human e x e r t i o n i n t h e work o f s a l v a t i o n . Her f r i e n d s answered t h a t Daubeny i m p l i e d t h a t Hannah More annexed C h r i s t i a n p r a c t i c e t o mere p r o f e s s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , and that n o t h i n g c o u l d be f u r t h e r from t h e p r i n c i p a l theme o f her w o r k s — t o t a l C h r i s t i a n commitment. **  The  4  and counter charges continued u n t i l they were absorbed the more prominent Blagdon c o n t r o v e r s y which "raged  charges into  so l o n g  and so l o u d l y t h a t a l l England became aware o f i t s e x i s t e n c e and  progress." * 4x  The Blagdon c o n t r o v e r s y o f 1801 and 1802 c e n t e r e d about a disagreement between Hannah More and t h e Reverend Thomas Bere, c u r a t e o f Blagdon, over t h e f i t n e s s o f t h e t e a c h e r o f t h e Blagdon s c h o o l , one o f t h e s c h o o l s under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e More s i s t e r s . Methodist  Bere claimed t h a t t h e t e a c h e r was a  and was c o n v e r t i n g an A n g l i c a n Sunday s c h o o l i n t o  an u n l i c e n s e d c o n v e n t i c l e .  4 7  The d i s p u t a n t s brought o t h e r  r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s i n t o t h i s l o c a l i s s u e . a i r e d t h e advantages and disadvantages  They  o f Sunday s c h o o l s ,  4 8  some pamphleteers a d v o c a t i n g them because they i n c u l c a t e d r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s which kept t h e lower o r d e r s  submissive,  o t h e r s abusing them because education l e d t o s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and r e v o l u t i o n .  Some combatants v i g o r o u s l y supported t h e  e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e church and c l e r g y , and f e l t t h e E v a n g e l i c a l s were weakening both bodies by t h e i r advocacy o f l a y l e a d e r s h i p and i n f l u e n c e  4 9  i n such t r a d i t i o n a l l y  clerical  p r e s e r v e s as education, and by t h e i r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e c l e r g y . E v a n g e l i c a l s had i n v e i g h e d a g a i n s t c l e r i c a l "dumb dogs" and Hannah More's s u p p o r t e r s had claimed t h a t Bere preached  an  h e r e t i c a l sermon a g a i n s t t h e T r i n i t y . E a r l y i n the n i n e t e e n t h century The E c l e c t i c Review had p r o p h e t i c a l l y observed More's books rendered  t h a t the t i m e l i n e s s of Hannah  t h e i r " c e l e b r i t y and u s e f u l n e s s , however  extensive . . . necessarily . . . t r a n s i e n t . "  5 0  During  her  l i f e t i m e her d e t r a c t o r s were i n a m i n o r i t y , but soon a f t e r her death i n 1833  the t i d e of p u b l i c o p i n i o n began to t u r n a g a i n s t  her.  Thomas Babbington Macaulay r e f u s e d t o review  her  l i f e o r works because of h i s a f f e c t i o n and r e g a r d f o r her:  "I  In 1837  . . . c o u l d not p o s s i b l e w r i t e about her u n l e s s I wrote i n her p r a i s e ; and a l l the p r a i s e which I c o u l d g i v e to her w r i t i n g s , even a f t e r s t r a i n i n g my  c o n s c i e n c e i n her favour would be f a r  indeed from s a t i s f y i n g any o f her a d m i r e r s . "  5 1  Sydney Smith,  not r e s t r a i n e d by p e r s o n a l t i e s , burned her Works i n h i s garden.  5 2  The environment f o r which Hannah More wrote was By mid-nineteenth  century change was  r e b e l l i o n ; i t was  a f a c t of l i f e ,  ted,  no l o n g e r t i n g e d w i t h  which most Englishmen  some w i t h r e s i g n a t i o n , o t h e r s with enthusiasm.  5 3  The  and d e s p i t e p e s s i m i s t i c M a l t h u s i a n  p r e d i c t i o n s the working c l a s s standard o f l i v i n g was improving.  accep-  England  had c l e a r l y changed s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of the c e n t u r y . p o p u l a t i o n had doubled,  fading.  probably  A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y had r i s e n , but  q u a r t e r of the wheat consumed came from abroad.  one  Trade and  138 i n d u s t r y were t h e b a s i s of n a t i o n a l p r o s p e r i t y , although c u l t u r e s t i l l absorbed one  agri-  f i f t h of the n a t i o n ' s l a b o u r f o r c e  and a f f e c t e d , through the h a r v e s t s , t h e economic c y c l e s . - * The  i n d u s t r i a l and m e r c a n t i l e c l a s s e s had  grown w i t h the i n -  c r e a s e i n power, machines, and n a t i o n a l output.  Technical  i n n o v a t i o n s had changed whole i n d u s t r i e s ; t e x t i l e was  production  f a c t o r y centered, and the hand loom weavers were s u f f e r i n g  into extinction.  The r a i l r o a d mania of the 1840's had  pro-  duced 5,000 m i l e s of t r a c k by 1850-*-* and p o i n t e d t h e way n a t i o n a l economy.  L e g i s l a t i o n had  simultaneously  to a  recognized  l o n g - d e v e l o p i n g changes, and a u t h o r i z e d f u r t h e r change: 1832  4  the  Reform B i l l acknowledged the middle c l a s s "stake i n the  n a t i o n " and doubled  the e l e c t o r a t e ; the M u n i c i p a l Reform Act  swept away the a n c i e n t town c o r p o r a t i o n s and r e p l a c e d them with m u n i c i p a l boroughs governed by c o u n c i l s which were e l e c ted by a l l r a t e p a y e r s ; and C a t h o l i c Emancipation  and t h e r e p e a l  o f the T e s t and C o r p o r a t i o n A c t s removed p o l i t i c a l and d i s a b i l i t i e s from non-Church members, and admitted composition  o f s t a t e and s t a t e church need not be  economic  that  identical.  Observable f a c t s o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t e d the concept harmonious o r g a n i c s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  the  of an  Economic c o m p l e x i t i e s  grew as England's economy came to depend to a g r e a t e r extent upon overseas  raw m a t e r i a l s and markets; with complexity  c o n f l i c t o f economic i n t e r e s t s became.more e v i d e n t . c o m p e t i t i o n brought a sense o f i s o l a t i o n . wrote, "In great c i t i e s men of gain.  In 1845  the  For some Disraeli  are brought- together by the d e s i r e  They are not i n a s t a t e o f c o o p e r a t i o n , but o f  isolation For of  . . . .  Modern s o c i e t y acknowledges no n e i g h b o u r . "  50  o t h e r s c o n f l i c t encouraged a drawing t o g e t h e r i n the f a c e a common enemy.  A sense o f c l a s s i d e n t i t y s l o w l y developed,  and t h e concept o f c l e a v a g e between c l a s s e s and i n t e r e s t s o f t e n r e p l a c e d t h a t o f c o n t i n u i t y between o r d e r s .  5 7  The Grand  Na-  t i o n a l C o n s o l i d a t e d Trades Union r e f l e c t e d t h e drawing t o g e t h e r of  working c l a s s members.  There were, however, c o n f l i c t s o f  i n t e r e s t w i t h i n as w e l l as between c l a s s e s , so c l e a v a g e was complex  and i n c o m p l e t e . In t h i s new  nistic.  5 8  s e t t i n g Hannah More's books were anachro-  By mid-century some of her r e l i g i o u s views were  r e p u d i a t e d as i l l i b e r a l by the E v a n g e l i c a l s .  T h e i r organ,  The C h r i s t i a n O b s e r v e r . r e g r e t t e d "the narrowness o f mind which could lead  [the Mores] t o speak o f ( s i c . ) 'wish t o prevent t h e  s t u p i d and r u i n o u s i d e a o f Methodism the  people.*"  5 9  p o s s e s s i n g the minds o f  Hannah More's assumptions about t h e s o c i a l  a t t i t u d e s o f the poor were l e s s a c c u r a t e .  The C h r i s t i a n  Ob-  s e r v e r remarked t h a t poor people would not "submit t o be l e c t u r e d as a c l a s s , s t i l l  l e s s t o be addressed as i n f e r i o r s . "  Housemaids k i c k [ e d j away a t r a c t  ' f o r s e r v a n t s , ' and  rjwerel very j e a l o u s o f b e i n g 'put upon.*" * 6  6 0  mechanics  The Mechanics  I n s t i t u t e s , S o c i e t y f o r D i f f u s i o n o f U s e f u l Knowledge, and such cheap weekly magazines as Chambers* J o u r n a l had come i n t o b e i n g and p r o v i d e d i n t e l l e c t u a l "improvement" as w e l l as amusement u n a l l o y e d w i t h " s t r i c t " r e l i g i o n .  Deference to s o c i a l  s u p e r i o r s no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r i l y permeated s o c i a l  relationships,  a l t h o u g h i t remained an a c c e s s o r y t o t h e "cash nexus."  As The  140 C h r i s t i a n Observer noted, "To be addressed as i n f e r i o r s  . . .  may be t o l e r a t e d from an employer, but i t w i l l not be t o l e r ated i n a book; f o r t h e master pays wages, but t h e book pays ft o  none."  "The g r e a t " no longer  r e l i s h e d her thoughts,  stric-  t u r e s o r h i n t s upon t h e i r manners, morals, amusements, and education.  The B r i t i s h Museum Catalogue l i s t s no e d i t i o n o f  her Works a f t e r 1853, and w i t h t h e exception  o f t r a c t s * * and 3  an 1879 e d i t i o n o f Coelebs i n Search o f a Wife, a l l her subsequent E n g l i s h language e n t r i e s a r e d e v o t i o n a l , dramatic, o r p o e t i c compositions. the t w e n t i e t h  These c a t e g o r i e s were r e i s s u e d w e l l i n t o  century:  Percy was r e p r i n t e d i n 1911, and s e l -  e c t i o n s from h e r poems together t r a g e d i e s i n 1931.  with B i b l e Dramas and h e r  A new and a b b r e v i a t e d  e d i t i o n o f her  correspondence appeared i n 1925. Changes i n s o c i a l customs helped t o render her books obsolete.  Hannah More, always modest and o f t e n p e r c i p i e n t i n  a s s e s s i n g her own a b i l i t i e s , observed that she had not added one  o r i g i n a l i d e a t o t h e stock o f general  o f study had been l i f e and manners.** and  4  knowledge; h e r f i e l d  When t h e mode o f l i f e  t h e form o f manners changed many o f her s t r i c t u r e s l o s t  t h e i r p o i n t and t h e i r p e r t i n e n c e .  Changes i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e  a c c e l e r a t e d her d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a r i t y .  She had w r i t t e n , "Be-  tween him who w r i t e s and him who reads, t h e r e must be a p a r t nership  . . . i n mental p r o p e r t y ;  t a s t e and ideas."****  a sort of joint-stock of  By mid-century many Englishmen saw s o c i -  ety as dynamic not s t a t i c .  They b e l i e v e d i n improvement and  Samual Smiles not Hannah More caught t h e p u b l i c mood; "God  141 h e l p s those who  h e l p themselves" not "Be content i n t h e  s t a t i o n God has p l e a s e d to p l a c e you" was the c u r r e n t c a t c h word.  In 1851  66  John Ruskin wrote,  "Now  that a man  may make  money, and r i s e i n the world, and a s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f , unreproached, with p e o p l e once f a r above him  . . .  i t becomes a  v e r i t a b l e shame t o him t o remain i n t h e s t a t e he was in  "  born  6 7  Hannah More's mode o f e x p r e s s i o n became a The measured n e o - c l a s s i c a l s t y l e l o s t i t s vogue. a f t e r her death Thomas de Quincey  liability. Three months  wrote:  As a w r i t e r , how eminently a r t i f i c i a l she was, . . . i s e v i d e n t from the very s t r u c t u r e o f her sentences; which a r e a l l t u r n e d i n a l a t h e , and are so e n t i r e l y dependent f o r t h e i r e f f e c t upon a n t i t h e s i s , o r d i r e c t c o n t r a p o s i t i o n i n the words, even where t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r none i n the thoughts, t h a t once a g r e a t poet C d s w o r t h J , opening one o f her works and r e a d i n g a paragraph, made t h i s remark to me: "These f e e b l e t h i n k e r s dare not t r u s t a s i n g l e thought t o i t s n a t i v e powers: so a f r a i d are they o f seeming d u l l , and so c o n s c i o u s o f no i n n a t e r i g h t to c h a l l e n g e o r support a t t e n t i o n , t h a t each p a r t i c u l a r sentence i s p o l i s h e d i n t o a s p a r k l i n g and independent whole; so t h a t , open the book where you w i l l , a l l has an e x t e r i o r b r i l l i a n c y , and w i l l bear b e i n g detached without any i n j u r y t o i t s e f f e c t , h a v i n g no s o r t o f n a t u r a l cohesion w i t h t h e context . . . ."68 W o r  The Lake D i s t r i c t c o t e r i e was ary  i n t h e van o f a change i n l i t e r -  t a s t e which u l t i m a t e l y became wide spread.  I n 1861  the  author o f L i t e r a r y Women o f England, a c o l l e c t i o n o f b i o g r a p h ies, and  complained t h a t Hannah More's s t y l e was . . . thoroughly J o h n s o n i a n , "  69  "too a n t i t h e t i c a l ,  and by the end o f t h e cen-  t u r y she was judged t o be "an e n c y c l o p o e d i a o f a l l l i t e r a r y vices."  7 0  142 The a n t i p a t h e t i c r e a c t i o n continued throughout t h e century, and by i t s end Hannah More, t h e l e a d e r o f humanitarian  reforms i n her own day, s t o o d condemned o f i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o  s o c i a l needs.  J . L. and Barbara Hammond complained that " i t  never seems t o have c r o s s e d " h e r mind " t h a t i t was d e s i r a b l e t h a t men and women should have decent wages, o r decent homes, or  that t h e r e was something wrong with t h e arrangements o f a  s o c i e t y that l e f t the mass o f people i n t h i s plight. **7  tine Birrell  Augus-  compounded h e r crime by adding h y p o c r i s y t o  insensitivity: Hannah More was t h e f i r s t , and I t r u s t t h e worst, o f a l a r g e c l a s s . . . . T h i s c l a s s may be imp e r f e c t l y d e s c r i b e d as "the w e l l - t o - d o C h r i s t i a n * . I t i n h a b i t e d snug p l a c e s i n t h e country- and kept an e x c e l l e n t , i f n o t d a i n t y , t a b l e . The money i t saved i n a b a l l - r o o m i t spent upon a greenhouse. I t s h o r s e s were f a t , and i t s coachmen i n v a r i a b l y p r e s e n t a t f a m i l y p r a y e r s . I t s pet v i r t u e was Church t w i c e on Sunday, and i t s p e c u l i a r h o r r o r s t h e a t r i c a l entertainments, dancing, and t h r e e penny p o i n t s . Outside i t s garden w a l l l i v e d t h e poor, who, i f v i r t u o u s , were f o r ever c u r t s e y i n g t o t h e ground o r wearing net uniforms, except when e x p i r i n g upon t r u c k l e - b e d s b e s e e c h i n g God to b l e s s t h e young l a d i e s o f The Grange o r t h e Manor House, as t h e case might be.72  A  Although change, p r o g r e s s , cleavage, and i n d i v i d u a l i s m were p a r t o f t h e V i c t o r i a n psyche, t h e r e were a n t i t h e t i c a l attitudes. ety  F o r some mid-century  Englishmen  an a t o m i s t i c  soci-  o f u n f e t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l i s m seemed t o l e a d t o anarchy, and  as t h e o l d s o c i a l o r d e r d i e d under t h e impact o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n they c o n s t r u c t e d new " o r g a n i c " systems.  Marxism and  t h e i d e a l s t a t e s designed by C o l e r i d g e , C a r l y l e , and Ruskin  s t r e s s e d t h e interdependence  o f t h e s o c i a l components.  by s i d e w i t h t h e l a i s s e z - f a i r e s p i r i t fears.  Matthew A r n o l d wrote:  existed conservative  "That profound  sense o f s e t t l e d  o r d e r and s e c u r i t y , without which a s o c i e t y l i k e ours l i v e and grow a t a l l ,  Side  73  cannot  sometimes seems t o be b e g i n n i n g t o  t h r e a t e n us w i t h t a k i n g i t s d e p a r t u r e . "  7 4  Apart from t h e  i n t e l l e c t u a l s , t h e r e were o r d i n a r y men who were r e l u c t a n t t o abandon t h e o l d s o c i a l concepts because they had grown up bel i e v i n g them t r u e .  Scattered across B r i t a i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  r u r a l a r e a s , many s t i l l social  f e l t deference t o be t h e " r i g h t "  attitude. The d e s i r e f o r p a t t e r n and harmony, and t h e f e a r o f  d i s o r d e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Hannah-More*s continued p o p u l a r ity  among c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  Enclaves o f h e r  s u p p o r t e r s e x i s t e d amidst her d e t r a c t o r s , and i n 1866 t h e i  authors o f a l i t e r a r y reminiscence claimed that w h i l e n e a r l y all  o f Hannah More's female contemporaries  were f o r g o t t e n h e r  r e p u t a t i o n had "stood t h e t e s t o f t i m e ; " she s t i l l r e c e i v e d "honour and homage from t h e e x i s t i n g g e n e r a t i o n . " f l u e n c e l i n g e r e d l o n g e s t i n c i r c l e s sympathetic  7 5  Her i n -  t o her p u r i t a n  and S a b b a t a r i a n views, and t o h e r r e l i g i o n o f t h e h e a r t .  An  American i n 1900 r e c a l l i n g t h e " s t r a i t and t a l l boundaries s e t about 'Sunday Reading'" i n her c h i l d h o o d remembered The Works of  Mrs. Hannah More as "an o a s i s i n t h e Sahara  mons and semi-detached  tracts."  7 0  o f bound s e r -  Her v i t a l B i b l e r e l i g i o n  was c o n s i s t e n t with l a t e r f u n d a m e n t a l i s t C h r i s t i a n i t y . type o f C h r i s t i a n may have.read  her r e l i g i o u s message,  This  u n d i s t u r b e d by t h e s o c i a l one, f o r r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l conservatism  o f t e n go hand i n hand.  The appearance i n 1883 o f  P i e t a s P r i v a t a : t h e book o f p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n , p r a y e r s , and meditations.  C h i e f l y from t h e w r i t i n g s o f Hannah More i n d i -  c a t e s t h a t one e d i t o r t r i e d to untwine h e r s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s from h e r r e l i g i o u s w r i t i n g .  The middle and upper c l a s s r e a d -  i n g p u b l i c favoured b i o g r a p h i e s o f Hannah More l o n g a f t e r p a r t o f i t had turned away from her d i d a c t i c w o r k s . graphical perspective  i s revealed  The b i o -  77  by t h e t i t l e s :  Pioneer  Women and The L i b r a r y o f C h r i s t i a n Biography. Hannah More's t r a c t s c o n t i n u e d t o be r e - i s s u e d .  Tract  s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t a i n and America r e p r i n t e d t h e Cheap Repository t r a c t s well i n t o the nineteenth century.  The s o c i e t i e s  may have misjudged t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t r a c t s * r e c i p i e n t s ' i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t those who r e l i n q u i s h e d o l d b e l i e f s r e l u c t a n t l y continued t o respond t o Hannah More's p h i l o s o p h y o f harmony, contentment and d e f e r e n c e . Society  o f New York i n 1851 a d v e r t i s e d  The American sixty-seven  Tract  o f the  Cheap R e p o s i t o r y t r a c t s i n t h e i r "Youth's L i b r a r y . "  7 8  Favour-  i t e t r a c t s — e s p e c i a l l y t h e p o p u l a r Shepherd o f S a l i s b u r y P l a i n — w e r e r e p r i n t e d i n London i n t h e 1850 s, l 8 6 0 * s , and f  1880*s.  I n 1861 one o f her b i o g r a p h e r s t o l d o f Welsh t r a n s -  l a t i o n s being dispersed  among t h e poor where she b e l i e v e d  added " t o t h e happiness o f many a c o t t a g e home." many o f t h e poor d i s l i k e d b e i n g p a t r o n i z e d ,  79  Although  the r u r a l labour-  e r s were slow t o abandon o l d a t t i t u d e s and a contemporary t h a t they would " s t i l l bear a l i t t l e p r i n t e d  they  felt  'talking t o . * "  8 0  145 Middle and upper c l a s s p a r e n t s may s t i l l  have stocked t h e i r  n u r s e r i e s w i t h t h e t r a c t s as pure and simple l i t e r a t u r e f o r novice readers. Hannah More's d i d a c t i c compositions were p o p u l a r i n her own p e r i o d because her p h i l o s o p h y r e f l e c t e d t h a t o f many of ial  her readers.  Judged by t h e c r i t e r i a  o f her time, her soc-  t h e o r y was c o n s e r v a t i v e , her r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h y  tory.  Her most p r o l i f i c  innova-  contemporary c r i t i c s were conserva-  t i v e s who o b j e c t e d t o h e r r e l i g i o u s n o v e l t i e s .  Study o f  Hannah More's works, and o f contemporary and subsequent r e a c t i o n t o them p r o v i d e s a reminder  t h a t i n t h e midst o f  the f i r s t i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , harbinger o f fundamental s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f England's  and i n t e l l e c t u a l changes, a p o p u l a t i o n wanted t o conserve  the t r a d i t i o n a l aspects o f l i f e .  Although t h e passage o f  time made her views appear a n a c h r o n i s t i c t o many, o t h e r s  still  found them a p p e a l i n g f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h century.  Today h e r volumes tend t o gather dust, unopened  except by those who seek t o r e - c a p t u r e a bygone mood.  146 Footnotes R e v i e w o f Moral Sketches of P r e v a i l i n g Opinions and Manners. F o r e i g n and Domestic: w i t h R e f l e c t i o n s on Prayer, by Hannah More, The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XVIII (October, 1819), p. 668. x  Joseph Cottle, Early Recollections; Chiefly Relating t o t h e L a t e Samuel C o l e r i d g e . D u r i n g H i s Long Residence i n B r i s t o l (London, 1837), V o l . I , p. 80. 2  3  M. G. Jones, Hannah More (Cambridge, 1952), p. 19.  l l i a m Roberts ( e d . ) , Memoirs o f t h e L i f e and Correspondence o f Mrs. Hannah More (London, 1834), V o l . I , p. 122 Hannah More t o her s i s t e r , G e r r a r d S t r e e t , 1777, and p. 116, David G a r r i c k t o Hannah More, Broadlands, 1777. 5 l b i d . , V o l . I I , note p. 343. "Robert Isaac and Samuel W i l b e r f o r c e ( e d . ) , The Correspondence o f W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e (London, 1840), V o l . I , p. 143, J . Bowdler Jun. t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , 25 L i n c o l n ' s Inn, Thursday n i g h t [Sept., 1808?^. 7  'Review o f Essays on V a r i o u s S u b j e c t s . P r i n c i p a l l y Designed f o r Young L a d i e s, by Hannah More, Monthly Review o r L i t e r a r y J o u r n a l . V o l . LVII (September, 1777), p. 201; Roberts, op. c i t . , V o l . I l l , p. 90 and p. 377, W i l l i a m Pepys t o Hannah More Wimpole S t r e e t 1799 and March 31, 1813; C h a r l o t t e B a r r e t t ( e d . ) , D i a r y and L e t t e r s o f Madam D'Arblav (1778-1840)(London, 1904), V o l . I , p. 403; Review o f An Address t o Mrs. Hannah More on t h e C o n c l u s i o n o f the Blagdon C o n t r o v e r s y , with O b s e r v a t i o n s on an Anonymous T r a c t e n t i t l e d "A Statement o f F a c t s " , by Thomas Bere, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . XI ( A p r i l , 180 2), p. 419; Review o f Percy, The Monthly Review o r L i t e r a r y J o u r n a l . V o l . LVIII ( J a n . 1778), pp. 23 - 26. I n g e n e r a l , her s t y l e i n Coelebs i n Search o f a Wife r e c e i v e d n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m : The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted by Members of t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . V I I I (Feb. 1809), p. 113 and pp. 120-212; The London Review. V o l . I (Feb.-May, 1809), pp. 424 - 444. F o r a f a v o u r a b l e review o f s t y l e f o r t h i s book see The Edinburgh Review, o r C r i t i c a l J o u r n a l . V o l . XIV ( A p r i l , 1809), p. 151. P e t e r Pindar [Dr. John W o l c o t l , N i l A d m i r a r i ; o r . a Smile a t a Bishop; Occasioned by an H y p e r b o l i c a l Eulogy on Miss Hannah More, by Dr. P o r t e u s , i n H i s Late Charge t o t h e C l e r g y , A l s o E x p o s t u l a t i o n ; or an Address t o Miss Hannah More. L i k e w i s e . D u p l i c i t y , or t h e Bishop; and S i m p l i c i t y , o r t h e Curate: a P a i r o f T a l e s . Moreover, an Ode t o t h e B l u e S t o c k i n g - C l u b , and F i n a l l y , an Ode t o Some Robin Red-Breasts i n a Country C a t h e d r a l (London, 1799), pages not numbered. 8  147 9 R o b e r t s , op_. c i t . , V o l . I , pp. 140 - 141, Hannah More t o Mrs. Gwatkin, March 5, 1778; E. V. Knox, "Percy (A T a l e o f a Dramatic S u c c e s s ) , " The London Mercury. V o l . X I I I (Mar., 1926), p. 511. R o b e r t s , op_. c i t . , her s i s t e r , London, 1787. i 0  V o l . I I , p. 54, Hannah More t o  I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 328, Ormond S t r e e t , London, A p r i l 30, 1811; p. 432 Jane P o r t e r t o Hannah More, Long D i t t o n , Surrey, E a s t e r Day Q.815?!. i : L  1 2  V o l . V I I I (May), p. 435.  *3 LThomas de Quincey] , "Mrs. Hannah More," T a i t * s Edinburgh Magazine. D e c , 1833, p. 321. ^ R o b e r t s , op., c i t . , V o l . I l l , Portman Square, May 28, 1811.  pp. 331 - 332,  -^Review o f The Works o f Hannah More. V o l . XVII  ( 1 8 0 1 ) , p. 526.  ^ H a n n a h More, The Works of Hannah More (London, 1 8 3 4 ) , V o l . I, pp. v i i - v i i i . A s a B r i g g s , The Age o f Improvement (London, 1959), p. 13 and pp. 66 - 74. 1 7  1783-1867  F . J . Harvey Darton ( e d . ) , The L i f e and Times o f Mrs. Sherwood (1775-1851) from the D i a r i e s o f C a p t a i n and Mrs. Sherwood (London, 1 9 1 0 ) , p. 188. l 8  T h e E a r l o f I l c h e s t e r ( e d . ) , The J o u r n a l o f E l i z a b e t h Lady H o l l a n d (1791-1811) (London, 1 9 0 8 ) , V o l . I I , p. 59. 1 9  • • D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l Biography. 2  -""Ilchester, op_. c i t . , V o l . I, p. 258.  2 2  R o b e r t s , op., c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 312, Jan. 1, 1792, Bath.  R . J . White, Waterloo t o P e t e r l o o (Mercury ed.; London, 1963), chap, i x "Alarm". 23  24 ^ I b i d . , p. I l l , "In 1812 t h e r e were a l r e a d y more t r o o p s i n t h e L u d d i t e areas than had gone t o the Peninsula w i t h W e l l e s l e y i n 1808." White c i t e s as h i s source F. 0. D a r v a l l , P u b l i c Order and Popular D i s t u r b a n c e s i n Regency England, p. 1. 2  5 l l c h e s t e r , op., c i t . ,  V o l . I I , p. 16.  148 26(-f v. Kiernan, " E v a n g e l i c a l i s m and The French R e v o l u t i o n " F a s t and P r e s e n t . No. 1 (Feb., 1952), p. 45. 2 7  I b i d . . pp. 49 - 50.  T h e E a r l o f Bessborough, Georgiana E x t r a c t s from the Correspondence o f Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire (London, 1955), pp. 2 1 - 2 2 , Lady Spencer t o the Duchess o f Devonshire, Wimbledon Park, A p r i l 14, 1775. 2 8  2  3  9 l b i d . . p. 200, p. 218, and p. 18 and p. °Ilchester,  50.  op_. c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 28; a l s o see p.  22.  R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I, pp. 190 - 191, Frances Boscawen to Hannah More, 1780. 3 1  G . D. H. C o l e and Margaret C o l e ( e d s . ) , The Opinions o f W i l l i a m Cobbett (London, 1944), p. 133 and p. 136. Before 1802 Cobbett was an e n t h u s i a s t i c admirer o f Hannah More and helped to d i s t r i b u t e her t r a c t s i n America. In t h a t y e a r he and h i s p a t r o n W i l l i a m Windham opposed W i l b e r f o r c e and Hannah More over t h e i s s u e o f b u l l b a i t i n g and opposed the l a t t e r i n the Blagdon Controversy, G. D. H. C o l e (ed.) L e t t e r s from W i l l i a m Cobbett t o Edward Thornton W r i t t e n i n the Years 1797 1800 (London, 1937), p. 5, pp. 11 - 12, p. 76. 3 2  3 3 i i c h e s t e r , op_. c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 60, p. 55, p. 44, p. 45, p. 28. Lady Sarah Lennox r e p r e s e n t s another type; her l e t t e r s c o l l e c t e d i n t o two volumes i g n o r e r e l i g i o n , the Count e s s o f I l c h e s t e r and Lord S t a v o r d a l e ( e d s . ) , The L i f e and L e t t e r s o f Lady Sarah Lennox 1745-1826. Daught er o f C h a r l e s . 2nd Duke o f Richmond, and s u c c e s s i v e l y t h e wife of S i r Thomas C h a r l e s Bunbury, B a r t . , and o f the Hon. George Napier; A l s o a Short P o l i t i c a l Sketch o f the Years 1760 to 1763 by Henry Fox. 1st Lord H o l l a n d (London, 1901). 34R i f Coelebs i n Search o f a Wife, by Hannah More, The Edinburgh Review, o r C r i t i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . XIV ( A p r i l , 1809), p. 150. e v  e w  0  W. S. Lewis ( e d . ) , The Y a l e E d i t i o n of Horace Walp o l e ' s Correspondence. V o l . XXXI Horace Walpole's Correspondence w i t h Hannah More. Lady Browne. Lady George Lennox. Lady Mary Coke. Anne P i t t . Lady Hervey, Lady S u f f o l k . Mary Hamilton (Mrs. John Dickenson) (New Haven, 1961), note p. 390 q u o t i n g Lady Theresa Lewis ( e d . ) , E x t r a c t s from the J o u r n a l s and Correspondence o f Miss Berry (1866), V o l . I I , p. 91. 35  •^Review o f Coelebs i n Search o f a Wife, by Hannah More, The Edinburgh Review, o r C r i t i c a l J o u r n a l , V o l . XIV ( A p r i l , 1809), pp. 148 - 149; review o f The Controversy between Miss Hannah More and the Curate o f Blagdon R e l a t i v e t o  149 the Conduct o f h e r Teacher o f the Sunday School i n t h a t P a r i s h : w i t h t h e O r i g i n a l L e t t e r s , and Explanatory Notes, by Thomas Bere; o f A L e t t e r t o t h e Rev. Thomas Bere. Rector o f Butacombe. Occasioned bv h i s Late Unwarrantable A t t a c k on Mrs. Hannah More; With an Appendix. C o n t a i n i n g L e t t e r s and Other Documents R e l a t i v e t o t h e E x t r a o r d i n a r y Proceedings a t Blagdon. by S i r Abraham.Elton; and o f A n Appeal t o the P u b l i c on t h e Controversy between Hannah More, t h e Curate o f Blagdon. and t h e Rev. S i r Abraham E l t o n . B a r t . , by Thomas Bere, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . IX ( J u l y , 1801), p. 287; Sappho Search rjpseud.J , A P o e t i c a l Review o f Miss Hannah More's S t r i c t u r e s on Female E d u c a t i o n (London. 1800), p. 30 and p . 41; O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e E f f e c t o f T h e a t r i c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , with Respect t o R e l i g i o n and Morals Occasioned bv t h e P r e f a c e t o t h e T h i r d Volume o f the Works o f Mrs. H. More (Bath, 1804), p . 22; A L e t t e r t o the Author o f Thoughts on t h e Manners o f t h e Great (London, 1788), pp. 104 - 105 and pp. 108 - 109. K a t h e r i n e B a l d e r s t o n ( e d . ) . T h r a l i a n a : The D i a r y of Mrs. H e s t e r Lynch T h r a l e ( L a t e r Mrs. P i o z z i ) . 1776-1809 (Oxford, 1942), V o l . I I , note p. 1000. 3 7  R o b e r t s , op_. e x t . , V o l . I I , p. 322, Hannah More t o W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e , Bath, 1792. 3 8  Thomas Bere, An Address t o Mrs. Hannah More, on t h e C o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Blagdon C o n t r o v e r s y . With O b s e r v a t i o n s on an Anonymous T r a c t E n t i t l e d 'A Statement o f F a c t s . ' (London, 1801) , p. 5 ; A r c h i b a l d Mac Sarcasm jjaseudT] , The L i f e o f Hannah More with a C r i t i c a l Review o f Her W r i t i n g s (London, 1802) , p . 87, pp. 66 - 67. 39  °"What e l s e , can o c c a s i o n , t h e weekly paragraphs with which a l l the p r o v i n c i a l papers teem r e s p e c t i n g HANNAH MORE'S c h a r i t y , m o r a l i t y and u n i v e r s a l benevolence!—No o b j e c t of d i s t r e s s s o l i c i t s p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , but HANNAH MORE and a brace o f h e r s i s t e r s , appear i n c a p i t a l s as b e n e f a c t o r s : even t h e blue covers o f t h e Methodist Magazine, are made t o pour f o r t h t h e i r t r i b u t e o f a d u l a t i o n . " Edward Spencer, T r u t h s . R e s p e c t i n g Mrs. Hannah More's Meeting-Houses. and the Conduct o f Her F o l l o w e r s ; Addressed to t h e Curate o f Blagdon (Bath, 1802), p. 49. 4  R e v i e w o f An Address t o Mrs. Hannah More, on t h e Conc l u s i o n o f t h e Blagdon Controversy; With O b s e r v a t i o n s on an Anonymous T r a c t E n t i t l e d 'A Statement o f F a c t s ' . by Thomas Bere, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . XI ( A p r i l , 1802), pp. 428 - 429. 4i  ^ G i d e a o n ' s Cake o f B a r l e y Meal; A L e t t e r t o the Rev. W i l l i a m Romaine, on h i s Preaching f o r t h e Emigrant P o p i s h C l e r g y ; With Some S t r i c t u r e s on Mrs. Hannah More's Remarks. P u b l i s h e d f o r ~ T h e i r B e n e f i t (2nd ed.; London. 1793), P. 49.  150 4 3 good b i b l i o g r a p h y o f the pamphlets i s i n Ford K. Brown, F a t h e r s o f the V i c t o r i a n s : The Age o f W i l b e r f o r c e (Cambridge, 1961), pp. 539 - 541. A l s o see The B r i t i s h C r i t i c and The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review f o r 1801 and 1802. A  44  M o r e , op., c i t . ,  Ill,  pp. 351  -  352.  -*A M i n i s t e r o f the Church o f England) A L e t t e r t o t h e Rev. C h a r l e s Daubenv. L.L.B. on Some Passages Contained i n H i s L e t t e r t o Mrs. Hannah More (London. 1799). p. 15J A Layman o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church, A B r i e f C o n f u t a t i o n o f the Rev. Mr. Daubenv's S t r i c t u r e s on Mr. R i c h a r d Baxter, i n the Appendix t o H i s Guide t o the Church: and a l s o o f H i s Animadversions on Mrs. Hannah More. In a L e t t e r to t h e E d i t o r o f S i r James Stonhouse's L e t t e r s (Shrewsbury. 1801). p. 15. 4  4  6 [ d e Q u i n c e y l , l o c . c i t . . p.  299.  Thomas Bere, The Controversy between Mrs\ Hannah More, and the Curate o f Blagdon; R e l a t i v e t o t h e Conduct o f her Teacher o f the Sunday School i n That P a r i s h with the O r i g i n a l L e t t e r s , and Explanatory Notes (London, 1801), p. 35. 47  W i l l i a m Shaw, Suggestions R e s p e c t i n g a P l a n o f N a t i o n a l Education, w i t h C o n j e c t u r e s on the Probable Consequences o f Non-Descript Methodism and Sunday-Schools; i n a l e t t e r Addressed t o H i s Grace the Archbishop o f Canterbury (Bath. 1801), p. 9; A F r i e n d o f the Establishment, The Force o f C o n t r a s t Continued: o r E x t r a c t s and Animadversions w i t h O c c a s i o n a l S t r i c t u r e s on the C o n t r a s t e r and Others of Mr. Bere's Opponents, and Observations on the E f f e c t s o f Mrs. H. More's Schools to Which i s Added, a P o s t s c r i p t , on the E d i t o r s of the British Critic. R e s p e c t f u l l y Submitted to t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Those Who Have I n t e r e s t e d Themselves i n the Blagdon Controversy ( B r i s t o l , 1802), pp. 75 - 77 and p. 70; Spencer, op_. c i t . , p. 66; Bere, An Address to Mrs. Hannah More . . . , p. 32; A Layman, The Blagdon Controversy; or Short C r i t i c i s m s on the Late Dispute between the Curate of Blagdon. and Mrs. Hannah More. R e l a t i v e t o Sunday S c h o o l s , and Monday P r i v a t e Schools (Bath, 1801), p. 29. 4 8  S p e n c e r , op., c i t . , p. 48; Review of Suggestions R e s p e c t i n g a P l a n o f N a t i o n a l Education . • . , by W i l l i a m Shaw and of The Blagdon Controversy . . . R e l a t i v e t o Sunday Schools . . . , by A Layman, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. IX (August, 1801), p. 394; Review o f An Address t o Mrs. Hannah More . . . , by Thomas Bere, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. XI ( A p r i l , 1802), p. 423. 49  5  ° T h e E c l e c t i c Review. VII (May,  1811), p.  435.  5lGeorge Otto T r e v e l y a n , The L i f e and L e t t e r s o f Lord Macaulay (London, 1908), p. 335, From T. B. Macaulay t o Napier, C a l c u t t a , June 15, 1837.  151 CO  S. Addleshaw, "Hannah More, Blue-Stocking and Reformer," The Church Quarterly Review. Vol. CXVIII ( A p r i l , J  1934), p.  58.  5 P h y l l i s Deane, The F i r s t Industrial Revolution (Cambridge, 1965), p. 249. 3  5 4  I b i d . , p. 228.  5 5 s r i g g s , op., c i t . . p.  395.  5°Svbil or the Two Nations (Penguin ed., 1954), p. 40. Cited by Raymond Williams, Culture and Society (Penguin ed.; Harmondsworth, 1963), p. 109. 5 Briggs, op_. c i t . , p. 297. 7  5 For a b r i e f account of the historiography of Evangelicalism i n general see Standish Meacham, "The Evangelical Inheritance," Journal of B r i t i s h Studies. Vol. I l l , (Nov. 1963), p. 88. 8  59"Hannah More and Her S i s t e r , " a review of Mendip Annals: or. a Narrative of the Charitable Labours of Hannah and Martha More i n Their Neighbourhood. Being the Journal of Martha More, edited by Arthur Roberts, The Christian Observer. Conducted bv Members of the Established Church. Vol. LVIII (Feb., 1859), p.  6o  128.  "Hannah More and Her S i s t e r , " l o c . c i t . . p. 123.  6 Nemo £pseud.J , "Hannah More's, and Her S i s t e r ' s Cheap Repository t r a c t s ; with Anecdotes, &C," The Christian Observer. Conducted bv Members of the Established Church. Vol. LXIII ( D e c , 1864), p. 947. A  ^"Hannah More and Her S i s t e r , " l o c . c i t . . p. 123. 63  S e e below, p. 144.  °^Uore, op_. c i t . , Vol. I, pp. v i - v i i . 6 5  i b i d . , Vol. I, p. x i .  6°Asa Briggs, V i c t o r i a n People, a Reassessment of persons and Themes 1851-67 (Penguin ed.. Harmondsworth. 1965)» pp. 126 - 127. "Pre-Raphaelitism," Works. Vol. XII, p. 342, c i t e d by Walter E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n Frame of Mind 1830-1870 (New Haven, 1957), p. 187. 67  ^ [ d e QuinceyJ, l o c . c i t . , p. 321. 8  ^ Jane Williams, (London, 1861), p. 327. 9  152 Augustine B i r r e l l ,  7 o  I I , P. 255.  Collected  Essays (London, 1899),  T h e Town Labourer 1760-1832. The New C i v i l i z a t i o n (London: paperback e d i t i o n , 1966 [ " f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 191ZT), pp. 220 - 225. 7 1  J  72 7  ^Birrell.  OP . c i t . . p.  256.  R . W i l l i a m s , ojg. c i t • , p. 146. C u l t u r e and Anarchy, p. 42. C i t e d by R. W i l l i a m s , op. c i t . . p. 132. 7 3  7 4  S . C. and Mrs. H a l l , "Memories of the Authors o f the Age: A s e r i e s o f W r i t t e n P o r t r a i t s (from P e r s o n a l Acquaintance) of Great Men and Women o f the Epoch," The A r t Journal. No. 54, new s e r i e s (June, 1866), p. 187. 7 S  M a r i o n Harland [Mary V i r g i n i a Hawes, afterwards TerhuneJ , Hannah More (New York, 1900), p. i i i . 7 o  77Biographies appeared i n 1834,  1838,  1854  (2),  1862, 1882, 1888 (2), 1900, 1911, 1925, 1928, 1947, 1952, 1955.  T h i s l i s t i s not e x h a u s t i v e .  78 Harry B. Weiss, Hannah More's Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s i n America (New York, 1946), pp. 9 - 10.  7 9 w i l l i a m s , op., c i t . . p. 340. 8o  Nemo, l o c . c i t . . p.  947.  1856, and  153 Bibliography Books and T r a c t s * I n d i c a t e s t r a c t s which a r e i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h century t r a c t s . An Address t o P a r e n t s . E a r n e s t l y Recommending Them t o Promote the Happiness o f T h e i r C h i l d r e n bv a Due Regard t o T h e i r V i r t u o u s E d u c a t i o n . Uxbridge, 1787. 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A Comparative View of the New Plan o f Educat i o n Promulgated bv Mr. Joseph L a n c a s t e r i n H i s T r a c t s Concerning the I n s t r u c t i o n o f the C h i l d r e n o f the Labouring Part o f the Community, and of the System o f C h r i s t i a n Education Founded bv Our Pious F o r e f a t h e r s f o r t h e I n i t i a t i o n o f the Young Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church i n the P r i n c i p l e s o f the Reformed Rel i g i o n . London, 1805. *Tucker, J o s i a h . L e t t e r s t o the Rev. Dr. Keppis Occasioned bv H i s T r e a t i s e E n t i t l e d A V i n d i c a t i o n o f the P r o t e s t a n t D i s s e n t i n g M i n i s t e r with Regard to T h e i r Late A p p l i c a t i o n t o P a r l i a m e n t . G l o u c e s t e r , 1773. von H a l l e r , Baron A. L e t t e r s to H i s Daughter on the T r u t h s o f the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n . London, 1780. Wakefield, G i l b e r t . A Reply to Thomas Paine*s Second P a r t o f t h e Age o f Reason. London, 1795. *Wales, W i l l i a m . An I n q u i r y i n t o the Present State of Populat i o n i n England and Wales, and the P r o p o r t i o n Which the Present Number of I n h a b i t a n t s Bears to t h e Number at Former P e r i o d s . London, 1781.  167 Watson, J . Steven. The Reign o f George I I I 1760-181I. V o l . X I I o f The Oxford H i s t o r y o f England. Ed. by George C l a r k . Oxford, I960. Webb, R. K. The B r i t i s h Working C l a s s Reader 1790-1848. L i t e r a c y and S o c i a l T e n s i o n . London, 1955. Weiss, Harry B. Hannah More's Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s i n America. New York, 1946. Whalley, Thomas Sedgewick. Animadversions on the Curate o f Blagdon*s Three P u b l i c a t i o n s . E n t i t l e d The Controversy between Mrs. Hannah More and the Curate o f Blagdon. &c. An Appeal t o the P u b l i c , and An Address t o Mrs. Hannah More; with Some A l l u s i o n s to H i s Cambrian Descent from "Gwvr Ap Glendour. Ap Cadwalleder. Ap S t v f n i g . " as A f f i r m e d and Set F o r t h by H i m s e l f , i n t h e Twenty-Eighth Page o f H i s Appeal t o t h e P u b l i c . London, 1802. Whitbread, Samuel. Substance of a Speech on t h e Poor Laws. D e l i v e r e d i n t h e House o f Commons on Thursday. February 19. 1807. London, 1807. White, T. H. The Age o f S c a n d a l . An E x c u r s i o n through a Minor P e r i o d . P e l i c a n ed.; Harmondsworth, 1962. White, R. J . Waterloo t o P e t e r l o o . 1963.  Mercury Books ed.; London,  Wickham, H i l l ( e d . ) . J o u r n a l s and Correspondence o f Thomas Sedgewick Whalley. o f Mendip Lodge. Somerset. 2 vols. London, 1863. W i l b e r f o r c e , Robert Isaac and Samuel ( e d s . ) . The Correspondence o f W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e . 2 v o l s . London, 1840. . The L i f e o f W i l l i a m W i l b e r f o r c e . 1838.  Vol. I I .  London,  W i l b e r f o r c e , W i l l i a m . A P r a c t i c a l View o f t h e P r e v a i l i n g R e l i g i o u s System o f P r o f e s s e d C h r i s t i a n s , i n t h e H i g h e r and Middle C l a s s e s i n T h i s Country, C o n t r a s t e d w i t h Real C h r i s t i a n i t y . 8th ed.; London, 1805. W i l l i a m s , Jane.  The L i t e r a r y Women o f England.  London, 1861.  W i l l i a m s , Raymond. C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y 1780-1950. ed.; Harmondsworth, 1963.  Penguin  Wimsatt, W. K., J r . The Prose S t y l e of Samuel Johnson. New Haven, 1941.  168 W o l l s t o n e c r a f t , Mary. The R i g h t s o f Women p u b l i s h e d with J . S. M i l l ' s S u b j e c t i o n o f Women . London, 1929. ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1792.) *Wood, I . Some Account o f the Shrewsbury House o f I n d u s t r y . I t s Establishment and R e g u l a t i o n s ; w i t h H i n t s t o Those Who May Have S i m i l a r I n s t i t u t i o n s i n View. 4 t h ed.j Shrewsbury, 1795. Woolsey, Sarah Chauncey ( e d . ) . The Autobiography and C o r r e s pondence o f Mrs. Delanv. V o l . I . Boston, 1898. Yonge, C h a r l o t t e M.  Hannah More.  Articles  London, 1888.  and P e r i o d i c a l s  Addleshaw, S. "Hannah More, B l u e - S t o c k i n g and Reformer," The Church Q u a r t e r l y Review. V o l . CXVIII ( A p r i l J u l y , 1934), PP. 57 - 79. A i k i n - S n e a t h , Betsey. "Hannah More," The London Mercury. V o l . XXVIII (Oct., 1933), PP. 528 - 536. A n t i - P r o f a n u s . L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r , The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . V (Jan., 1 8 0 0 ) , pp. 80 - 8 1 . Armstrong, M a r t i n . "In Darkest Mendip," The London Mercury. V o l . IV (Oct., 1 9 2 1 ) , pp. 602 - 612. Bennett,  C h a r l e s H. "Text o f Horace Walpole's Correspondence w i t h Hannah More," Review o f E n g l i s h S t u d i e s . V o l . I l l , new s e r i e s (Oct., 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 341 - 345.  Best, G. F. A. "The E v a n g e l i c a l s and t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church i n t h e E a r l y 1 9 t h Century," J o u r n a l o f T h e o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s . V o l . X ( 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 63 - 78. "The  Blagdon C o n t r o v e r s y , " The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . XVII ( A p r i l , 1801), pp. 4 4 4 — - 4 4 5 .  "Blagdon C o n t r o v e r s y , " The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . XIX (Jan.,  1802), pp. 90 - 94.  The C o t t a g e r ' s Monthly V i s i t o r .  A p r i l , 1821.  Crosse, Edward. L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r , The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . IX (Aug., 1801), pp. 415 - 419.  169 C u r r i e , R. and H a r t w e l l , R. M. Review o f The Making o f t h e E n g l i s h Working C l a s s , by E. P. Thompson, The Economic H i s t o r y Review, V o l . XVIII, second s e r i e s ( D e c , 1965), PP.  633 - 643.  de Morgan, A.  Notes and Q u e r i e s . 3rd S e r i e s , VI (September  24, 1864), P P . 241 - 245.  jjde Quincey, ThomasJ . "Autobiography o f an E n g l i s h OpiumE a t e r , " T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine (Aug., 1840). r L  .7 "Mrs. Hannah More, " T a i t ' s Edinburgh Magazine (December, 1833), pp. 293 - 321.  "Duty o f Prayer f o r our Gracious Queen; with H. More's Remarks on the Stage," The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XXXVII (May,  1839), pp. 276 - 282.  E.S.  L e t t e r t o the E d i t o r , The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . IX  (June, 1801), pp. 201 - 203.  F o r s t e r , E. M. "Mrs. Hannah More," The N a t i o n and the Athenaeum. V o l . XXXVIII ( J a n . 2, 1926), pp. 493 - 494. H a l l , S. C. and Mrs. "Memories o f the Authors o f the Age: A s e r i e s o f W r i t t e n P o r t r a i t s (from Personal Acquaintance) o f Great Men and Women o f the Epoch," The A r t J o u r n a l . No. 54, new s e r i e s (June, 1866), pp. 186 -  188.  "Hannah More," M e l i o r a : a Q u a r t e r l y Review o f S o c i a l S c i e n c e i n I t s E t h i c a l . Economical. P o l i t i c a l , and A m e l i o r a t i v e Aspects. V o l . VI, (1864), P P . 250 - 262. Harner, Joyce Mary. "The E n g l i s h Women N o v e l i s t s and t h e i r Connection with the F e m i n i s t Movement (1688-1797)," Smith C o l l e g e S t u d i e s i n Modern Languages. V o l . XL, Nos. 1-3 (October 1929, January and A p r i l 1930). J . S.  L e t t e r t o the E d i t o r , The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review, V o l . V. (March, 1800), pp. 320 - 332.  Kiernan, V. " E v a n g e l i c a l i s m and the French R e v o l u t i o n , " Past and Present. No. 1 (Feb. 1952), pp. 44 - 56. Knox, E. V. "Percy' (A T a l e o f a Dramatic S u c c e s s ) , " The London Mercury, V o l . X I I I (March, 1926), pp. 509 - 515. "Last Days o f Dr. Johnson, The Q u a r t e r l y Review, and Hannah More," The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XXXIV (Jan., 1835), pp. 5 1 - 6 2 .  170 L e t t e r s from Hannah More and Mrs. Cowley, The Gentleman's Magazine (Aug., 1779), p . 407. L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r , The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church, V o l . XVIII (Sept., 1819), pp. 581 - 582. L e t t e r t o t h e E d i t o r , The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XXXII  (Oct., 1833), pp. 629 - 631.  "Macaulay as a Boy, D e s c r i b e d i n Two Unpublished L e t t e r s o f Hannah More," MacMillan's Magazine. V o l . I , (Feb.,  1860), pp. 289 - 293.  Meacham, S t a n d i s h . "The E v a n g e l i c a l I n h e r i t a n c e , " J o u r n a l o f B r i t i s h S t u d i e s . V o l . I l l (November, 1963), pp. 80 -  104.  "Mrs. Grant on the C a p a b i l i t i e s o f Females f o r P u b l i c L i f e , " The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . V I I I (June, 1809), pp. 365 -  368..  Nemo jpseud.l . "Hannah More's, and Her S i s t e r ' s Cheap Reposit o r y T r a c t s ; w i t h Anecdotes, &c," The C h r i s t i a n Observ e r . Conducted bv Members o f t h e . E s t a b l i s h e d Church.  V o l . LXIII ( D e c , 1864), pp. 944 - 949.  "Obituary, Mrs. Martha More," The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members of t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XVIII (Nov.,  1819), pp. 757 - 760.  "Obituary, The Hon. and R i g h t Rev. t h e Bishop o f L i c h f i e l d and Coventry," The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members of t h e Established Church. V o l . XXXV (May, 1836),  PP. 315 - 318.  "On t h e E f f i c a s y o f D i v i n e Grace," The E v a n g e l i c a l V o l . XVI ( A p r i l , 1808), pp. 199 - 204. P o l i t i c s f o r t h e People.  Part I I , Nos. 5, 8, 9.  Magazine. 1794.  "Remarks on Mr. Romaine's L e t t e r ; with L e t t e r s o f B e r r i d g e , " The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XXXVI ( A p r i l . 1837). P P .  220 - 223.  Review o f A B r i e f Sketch o f t h e P r i n c i p a l Features Which D i s t i n g u i s h t h e Character o f H i s Present Majesty. George the T h i r d , by T. Dutton, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review.  V o l \ XI (Feb., 1802), pp. 182 - 187.  171 Review o f A L e t t e r Humbly Addressed to the Most Reverend and Right Reverend t h e Archbishops and Bishops o f t h e Church o f England. The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . XI (Feb., 1802), pp. 176 - 182. Review o f A L e t t e r to Mrs. Hannah More, on Some Part o f Her Late P u b l i c a t i o n . E n t i t l e d S t r i c t u r e s on Female Educ a t i o n , to Which I s Subjoined a D i s c o u r s e on Genesis XV. 6. Preached a t C h r i s t Church i n Bath, by C h a r l e s Daubeny, A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . IV (Nov., 1799), pp. 253 - 256. Review o f A L e t t e r t o Mrs. Hannah More, on Some Part o f Her Late P u b l i c a t i o n E n t i t l e d " S t r i c t u r e s on Female Education.'* t o Which i s Subjoined, a D i s c o u r s e on Genesis XV.6. Preached at C h r i s t ' s Church, i n Bath. The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . XVI ( D e c , 1800), p. 687. Review o f An Address to Mrs. Hannah More, on t h e C o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Blagdon Controversy, with O b s e r v a t i o n s on an Anonymous T r a c t E n t i t l e d "A Statement o f F a c t s . " by Thomas Bere, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . XI ( A p r i l , 1802), pp. 417 - 431. Review o f A P o e t i c a l Review o f Miss Hannah More's S t r i c t u r e s on Female Education, The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . XVI (Aug., 1800), p. 202. Review o f A Statement o f F a c t s R e l a t i v e t o Mrs. H. More's S c h o o l s . Occasioned by Some L a t e M i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . XVIII (Aug., 1801), pp. 216 - 217. Review o f C h r i s t i a n Morals, by Hannah More, The B r i t i s h V o l . XLII ( J u l y , 1813), pp. 6 - 18.  Critic.  Review o f Coelebs i n Search o f a Wife, by Hannah More, The B r i t i s h C r i t i c V o l . XXXIII (May, 1809), pp. 481 - 494. Review o f Coelebs i n Search of a Wife, by Hannah More, The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted by Members o f t h e Establ i s h e d Church. V o l . V I I I (Feb., 1809), pp. 109 - 122. Review o f Coelebs i n Search o f a Wife, by Hannah More, The Edinburgh Review o r C r i t i c a l J o u r n a l . V o l . XXVII ( A p r i l , 1809), PP. 145 - 151. Review o f Coelebs i n Search of a Wife, by Hannah More, The London Review. V o l . I (Feb.-May, 1809), pp. 424 - 444. Review o f Coelebs. o r l e Choix d'une Espose. Roman moral, contenant des Remarques s u r l e s Usages e t l e s D e v o i r s  172 domestique. sur l a R e l i g i o n et sur l e s Moeurs. Par Mde. Hannah More, T r a d u i t de 1 * A n g l a i s s u r l a t r e i z ieme e d i t i o n , par M. Huber de H a r t w e l l Farm, The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XVII (Sept., 1 8 1 8 ) , pp. 595 - 6 0 0 . Review o f Essay on t h e Character and P r a c t i c a l W r i t i n g s o f S a i n t P a u l , by Hannah More, The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . V, new s e r i e s (Jan., 1 8 1 6 ) , pp. 86 - 9 4 . Review o f Essavs on V a r i o u s S u b j e c t s . P r i n c i p a l l y Designed f o r Young L a d i e s , by Hannah More, The Monthly Review or L i t e r a r y J o u r n a l , V o l . LVII (Sept. 1777), pp. 200 207. Review o f H i n t s t o t h e P u b l i c and the L e g i s l a t u r e on the Nature and E f f e c t o f E v a n g e l i c a l Preaching, by A B a r r i s t e r , P a r t 1, The E v a n g e l i c a l Magazine. V o l . XVI (March, 1 8 0 8 ) , pp. 131 - 1 3 4 . Review o f P a r t I I , V o l . XVI (Aug. 1 8 0 8 ) , pp. 350 - 3 5 1 . Review o f H i n t s toward Forming the Character o f a Young P r i n c e s s , by Hannah More, The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . XXVI (Sept., 1 8 0 5 ) , pp. 244 - 2 5 3 . Review o f H i n t s towards Forming the Character o f a Young P r i n cess . by Hannah More, The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . IV (Aug., 1 8 0 5 ) , pp. 487 - 4 9 8 . Review o f H i n t s towards Forming t h e Character o f a Young P r i n c e s s , by Hannah More, The Edinburgh Review o f C r i t i c a l J o u r n a l . V o l . X I I (Oct., 1 8 0 5 ) , pp. 91 - 1 0 0 . Review o f H i n t s toward Forming the Character o f a Young P r i n cess, by Hannah More, The Monthly Review o r L i t e r a r y J o u r n a l . V o l . XLVII (June, 1 8 0 5 ) , pp. 180 - 188. Review o f Mendip Annals: a N a r r a t i v e o f the C h a r i t a b l e Labours of Hannah and Martha More, ed. by A r t h u r Roberts, The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted by Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . LVIII (Feb., 1 8 5 9 , pp. 122 - 1 2 8 . Review o f Moral Sketches o f P r e v a i l i n g O p i n i o n s and Manners. F o r e i g n and Domestic; with R e f l e c t i o n s on Prayer, by Hannah More, The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted by Members o f the E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . XVIII (Oct., 1 8 1 9 ) , pp. 668 - 6 8 5 . Review o f Percy as i t was acted a t t h e Theatre-Royal i n Covent Garden, The Monthly Review or L i t e r a r y J o u r n a l . V o l . L V I I I (Jan., 1 7 7 8 ) , pp. 23 - 2 6 .  173 Review o f Peter Not I n f a l l i b l e ! o r a Poem Addressed to Peter Pindar, Esq. on Reading H i s N i l A d m i r a r i . a Late I l l i b e r a l Attack on the Bishop o f London; together w i t h Unmanly Abuse o f Mrs. Hannah More: a l s o L i n e s Occasioned by H i s Ode to Some Robin Red B r e a s t s i n a Country C a t h e d r a l . The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . V (March, 1800), pp. 314 - 315. Review of Popular T a l e s , by Maria Edgeworth, The Edinburgh Review o r C r i t i c a l J o u r n a l . V o l . V I I I ( J u l y , 1804),  PP. 329 - 337.  Review o f P r a c t i c a l P i e t v . by Hannah More, The B r i t i s h V o l . XXXVIII (Sept., 1811), pp. 234 - 246.  Critic,  Review o f P r a c t i c a l P i e t y , by Hannah More, The E c l e c t i c Review,  V o l . V I I (May, 1811), pp. 435 - 443.  Review o f Remarks on t h e Speech o f M. Dupont. Made i n t h e N a t i o n a l Convention o f France on the S u b j e c t s o f R e l i g i o n and P u b l i c Education, by Hannah More, The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . I (May, 1793), pp. 31 - 34. Review o f S t r i c t u r e s on t h e Modern System o f Female Education, by Hannah More, The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . X I I I (Jan.,  1799), pp. 643 - 651.  Review o f S t r i c t u r e s on the Modern System of Female Education, w i t h a View o f t h e P r i n c i p l e s and Conduct P r e v a l e n t among Women of Rank and Fortune, by Hannah More, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . IV (Oct., 1799), pp. 190 -  199.  Review o f Suggestions R e s p e c t i n g a Plan o f N a t i o n a l Education. by W i l l i a m Shaw, o f The Blagdon Controversy: o r Short C r i t i c i s m s on the Late D i s p u t e between t h e Curate o f Blagdon and Mrs. Hannah More. R e l a t i v e to Sunday Schools and Monday P r i v a t e S c h o o l s , by a Layman, o f A Statement o f F a c t s R e l a t i v e t o Mrs. H. More's Schools Occasioned bv Some Late M i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and o f A L e t t e r to the Rev. T. Bere. R e c t o r o f Butcombe. The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . IX (Aug., 1801), pp. 391 -  397.  Review o f T a l e s o f F a s h i o n a b l e L i f e bv Maria Edgeworth. The Edinburgh review o r C r i t i c a l J o u r n a l . V o l . XXVIII  ( J u l y , 1809), pp. 375 -  388.  Review o f The Controversy between Miss Hannah More and t h e Curate o f Blagdon R e l a t i v e t o t h e Conduct o f Her Teacher o f the Sunday School i n That P a r i s h ; w i t h the O r i g i n a l L e t t e r s , and Explanatory Notes, by Thomas Bere; o f A L e t t e r to the Rev. Thomas Bere.  174 Rector o f Butcombe. Occasioned bv H i s Late Unwarranta b l e A t t a c k on Mrs. Hannah More: with an Appendix. C o n t a i n i n g L e t t e r s and Other Documents R e l a t i v e to the E x t r a o r d i n a r y Proceedings at Blagdon. by Rev. S i r Abraham E l t o n , Bart . ; and o f An Appeal to the P u b l i c on the Controversy between Hannah More, the Curate of Blagdon. and the Rev. S i r Abraham E l t o n , B a r t . , by Thomas Bere. The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . IX ( J u l y , 1801) , pp. 277 - 296. Review o f The I n f l u e n c e of the Female Character Upon S o c i e t y . Considered More E s p e c i a l l y with Reference to the Present C r i s e s , i n a Sermon Preached i n the P a r i s h Church o f S t . John, a t Hackney, on Sunday. November 22. 1801, by the Rev. Henry Handley N o r r i s , The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review, V o l . XI (Feb., 1802), pp. 145 - 155. Review o f The L i f e of Hannah More, with N o t i c e s of her S i s t e r s , by Henry Thompson, The E c l e c t i c Review. V o l . VI, new s e r i e s (Oct., 1839), pp. 438 - 459. Review of The Works of Hannah More i n E i g h t Volumes. I n c l u d i n g S e v e r a l P i e c e s never before P u b l i s h e d . The B r i t i s h C r i t i c . V o l . XVII (May, 1801), pp. 526 - 530. Review, p a r t I I , o f An Essay on War to Restore and Perpetuate Peace. Good Order, and P r o s p e r i t y to the Nations, by Bryce Johnston, The A n t i - J a c o b i n Review. V o l . XI (Jan., 1802) , pp. 14 - 19. Smyth, C h a r l e s . "The E v a n g e l i c a l Movement i n P e r s p e c t i v e , " The Cambridge H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l . V o l . V I I (1943), pp. 160 - 174. Snodgrass, A. E. "Dr. Johnson's P e t t e d Lady," C o r n h i l l Magaz i n e . V o l . LXXV (September, 1933), pp. 336 - 342. Soulbury, V i s c o u n t . "Women of I n f l u e n c e , 1750-1800," The Q u a r t e r l y Review. V o l . CCXCVII (Oct., 1959), pp. 400 407.  -  S p r i n g , David. "The Clapham S e c t : Some S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l A s p e c t s , " V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s . V o l . V (September, 1961), PP. 35 - 48. The  S t . James C h r o n i c l e : o r . B r i t i s h Evening-Post. Aug. 12 and F r i . , Aug 11, 1778.  Sat.,  Valpy, The Rev. Dr. "Cursory Reminiscences of Hannah More," The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted bv Members of the Establ i s h e d Church. V o l . XXXIV (Mar., 1935), pp. 166 - 169.  175 " W i l b e r f o r c e and H i s Contemporaries - John Newton and Hannah More," The C h r i s t i a n Observer. Conducted by Members o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d Church. V o l . L X I I I (Nov., 1864), pp. 823 - 845.  176 Appendix Hannah More's major w r i t i n g s as p u b l i s h e d i n her l i f e t i m e 1773  The Search a f t e r  Happiness.  1774  The I n f l e x i b l e C a p t i v e . A Tragedy.  1776  S i r E l d r e d o f the Bower and the B l e e d i n g Rock. Legendary T a l e s .  1777  Ode t o Dragon. Mr. G a r r i c k ' s house-dog at Hampton.  Two  Essays on V a r i o u s S u b j e c t s , P r i n c i p a l l y designed f o r Young L a d i e s . 1778  Percy. A Tragedy.  1779  The F a t a l Falsehood. A Tragedy.  1782  Sacred Dramas, C h i e f l y Intended f o r Young Persons, t o Which i s Added S e n s i b i l i t y . A Poem.  1786  F l o r i o . A Poem. Bas B l e u o r C o n v e r s a t i o n . A Poem.  1788  The S l a v e Trade. A Poem. Thoughts on t h e Importance o f t h e Manners o f t h e Great.  1789  Bishop Bonner's Ghost. A Poem.  1790  An Estimate o f t h e R e l i g i o n o f t h e F a s h i o n a b l e World.  1792  Village  1793  Remarks on t h e Speech o f M. Dupont. Made i n the French Convention.  1795-8  Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s .  1799  S t r i c t u r e s on t h e Modern System o f Female E d u c a t i o n .  180 5  H i n t s towards Forming the C h a r a c t e r o f a Young P r i n c e s s ,  1808  Coelebs i n Search o f a Wife.  1811  Practical  Politics.  Pietv.  177 1812  C h r i s t i a n Morals.  1815  The C h a r a c t e r and P r a c t i c a l W r i t i n g s of S t . P a u l .  1817-8  T r a c t s and r e p r i n t s of the Cheap R e p o s i t o r y T r a c t s .  1819  Moral  1821  The Feast of Freedom.  Sketches.  B i b l e Rhymes. 1825  The S p i r i t o f P r a y e r .  Cheap Repository T r a c t s a s c r i b e d t o Hannah More The A p p r e n t i c e ' s Monitor; or Indentures i n Verse. The Carpenter; or the Danger of E v i l Company. The Gin Shop; or a Peep i n t o a P r i s o n . The H i s t o r y of Tom White, the P o s t i l l i o n . The Market Woman, a True T a l e , or Honesty  i s the Best P o l i c y .  The Roguish M i l l e r ; or Nothing Got by C h e a t i n g . The Shepherd  of S a l i s b u r y  Plain.  P a t i e n t Joe: o r the Newcastle  Collier.  The R i o t : or H a l f a Loaf I s B e t t e r than No The Way  Bread.  to Plenty.  The Honest M i l l e r o f G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e . The Two  Wealthy Farmers;  o r the H i s t o r y of Mr. B r a g w e l l .  Robert and R i c h a r d . The A p p r e n t i c e Turned  Master.  The H i s t o r y o f I d l e Jack Brown. The Shopkeeper Turned Jack Brown i n P r i s o n .  Sailor.  178 The Hackney Coachman, o r the Way t o Get a Good F a r e . Sunday Reading; On C a r r y i n g R e l i g i o n i n t o t h e Common Business of L i f e . Turn t h e Carpet; o r t h e Two Weavers. B e t t y Brown, t h e S t . G i l e s ' s Orange G i r l . Sunday Reading; The Grand A s s i z e s ; o r General Gaol D e l i v e r y . A Hymn o f P r a i s e f o r t h e Abundant Harvest o f 1796. B l a c k G i l e s t h e Poacher. Sunday Reading; Bear Ye One Another's Burdens; of T e a r s .  o r the V a l l e y  The Cottage Cook, o r Mrs. Jones's Cheap Dishes e t c . The Good M i l i t i a m a n . Tawnev Rachel, o r t h e Fortune  Teller.  The Sunday S c h o o l . The Two Gardeners. The Day o f Judgement. The H i s t o r y o f Hester Wilmot. The Ladv and t h e Pve; o r Know T h y s e l f . Sunday Reading;  The S t r a i t Gate and the Broad Way.  The H i s t o r y o f Mr. Fantom. t h e New Fashioned P h i l o s o p h e r and h i s Man W i l l i a m . Sunday Reading:  The P i l g r i m s . An A l l e g o r y .  Dan  and Jane; o r F a i t h and Works.  The  Plum-cakes.  

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