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Bath in the time of Ralph Allen : a cultural survey. Rogers, Barbara Marion 1968

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BATH IN THE TIME OF RALPH ALLEN: A CULTURAL SURVEY  BY BARBARA MARION ROGERS B.A. Hons., U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1938  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1968  In p r e s e n t i n g of  the  requirements  this  for  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e  University of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  shall  freely available  I  make i t  further  of  this  in partial  for  the  I agree t h a t  the  Library  for reference  and  study.  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n for  thesis  at  fulfilment  extensive  s c h o l a r l y purposes  copying  may be g r a n t e d  t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . is for  understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f  this  by It  thesis  f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  ii /Abstract The f o l l o w i n g survey o f the changing aspects of  l i f e i n Bath d u r i n g the f i r s t  f i f t y years o f the  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y makes no c l a i m to be an exhaustive study o f the s u b j e c t , but endeavours  to show how  the  p e r s o n a l i t y o f one o f her c i t i z e n s d i d much to i n f l u e n c e the  development  o f the c i t y .  Bath, seen as a complete  p i c t u r e i n m i n i a t u r e o f E n g l i s h s o c i e t y o f the time, possessed i n Ralph A l l e n a man i n t e r e s t s ; a man who  eager to forward her  combined w i t h h i s v a s t p e r s o n a l  fortune a c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y which earned him the  r e s p e c t and v e n e r a t i o n o f many o f the most o u t s t a n d -  ing  f i g u r e s o f the age.  At h i s death a unique phase i n  Bath's h i s t o r y was brought to an end. In  p r e p a r i n g t h i s survey I have c o n s u l t e d the  works o f v a r i o u s contemporary  commentators as w e l l as  the  w r i t i n g s o f a number *of modern s o c i a l h i s t o r i a n s  who  have examined i n d e t a i l the c i v i c ,  social,  and  a r c h i t e c t u r a l growth o f the c i t y d u r i n g the p e r i o d under review.  Most v a l u a b l e among these have been  Barbeau's L i f e a n d L e t t e r s at Bath i n the X V I I I t h Century, 1  R.A.L. Smith's Bath, Bryan L i t t l e ' s Bath P o r t r a i t  and  W i l l a r d Connely's Beau Nash: Monarch o f Bath and Tunbridge Wells.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y I was  unable to use P r o f e s s o r  iii Benjamin Boyce's The Benevolent Man; A L i f e o f Ralph A l l e n o f Bath, which was not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l l a t e i n 1967,  a f t e r the f i n a l d r a f t o f t h i s t h e s i s had been  completed. In the  a d d i t i o n to the above,  I have a l s o  consulted  works o f those p r i n c i p a l e i g h t e e n t h century authors  who were d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the c u l t u r a l l i f e o f Bath, and who have g i v e n us immediate  and v i v i d impressions  d e r i v e d from the d a i l y l i f e o f t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y  city.  Defoe, S t e e l e , Pope, F i e l d i n g , Goldsmith, and S m o l l e t t a l l knew Bath w e l l , and a l l have i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e i r works the  essence o f Bath l i f e .  Moreover,  Pope and F i e l d i n g  were much indebted t o A l l e n p e r s o n a l l y ; PJope c a r r i e d on a constant correspondence w i t h him, and F i e l d i n g used him as the p r o t o t y p e f o r Squire A l l w o r t h y i n Tom Jones. for left  As  Goldsmith, he c e n t r e d h i s i n t e r e s t on Beau Nash and f o r us t h e . f i r s t f u l l  length b i o g r a p h i c a l study o f  t h i s dynamic contemporary o f A l l e n . In  summary, I have attempted to show, through  contemporary his  and l a t e r documents, that Ralph A l l e n , by  manifold a c t i v i t i e s ,  t u r a l development  c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to the c u l -  o f Bath, and t h a t Bath i t s e l f was a  b r i l l i a n t m i r r o r , r e f l e c t i n g the ever-changing c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l l i f e o f England  itself.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II.  Page THE DEVELOPMENT OF BATH THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE CITY  1 . . . .  Nash's Reforms and Plans  5  Architectural  7  Developments  Ralph A l l e n and John Wood: P r i o r Park III.  IV.  SOCIETY, MANNERS AND PERSONALITIES  14  AT  BATH DURING NASH'S REGIME  24  Beau Nash a t Bath  24  S o c i a l L i f e a t Bath  29  SOCIAL LIFE AT PRIOR PARK Ralph A l l e n as a P e r s o n a l i t y  V.  5  59 . . . .  59  V i s i t o r s to P r i o r Park  65  The F i e l d i n g connection w i t h P r i o r Park . . .  74  Alexander Pope's c o n n e c t i o n w i t h P r i o r Park  81  THE CULTURAL MILIEU OF BATH DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY  I l l  V  CHAPTER VI.  Page BATH AND THE NOVEL IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY  135  Fortune-hunters a t Bath i n the n o v e l s o f Defoe and S m o l l e t t . . .  135  P h y s i c i a n s a t Bath i n S m o l l e t t ' s novels  147  Bath Neighbourhood and L o c a l Characters R e f l e c t e d i n F i e l d i n g ' s Writings  162  A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1  A PLAN OF 18TH CENTURY BATH KEY TO PLAN OF BATH A SKETCH-MAP FROM THOMAS THORPE'S ACTUAL SURVEY OF THE CITY OF BATH, 1742  199  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I should l i k e t o express my gratitude t o Professor Stanley E. Read f o r h i s p a t i e n t and h e l p f u l guidance d u r i n g the w r i t i n g o f the manuscript.  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Dr. Geoffrey C r e i g h f o r a l l his help.  KEY  TO PLAN OF BATH  1 2 3 4 5  Abbey Church Cross Bath Hot Bath C o l d Bath King s Bath  6 7  14 15  Pump Room [ Harvey, 1706] Lower Assembly Rooms: " H a r r i s o n ' s , " 1708 "Dame L i n d s e y ' s " Ballroom, 1717 "Thayer's" [ J . Wood I, 1728] S t . John's H o s p i t a l f j . Wood I, 1727J Queen Square [ j . Wood I, 1728 - C . 1 7 3 5 J S t . Mary's Chapel f.J. Wood I, 1735] General, or M i n e r a l Water H o s p i t a l [ j . Wood I, 1738J Kingsmead Square, Globe Inn North and South Parades, Duke S t r e e t , P i e r r e p o n t S t r e e t [ j . Wood I, 1740 - 1 7 4 8 ] Orchard S t r e e t Theatre [ J e l l y and Palmer, 1750J The C i r c u s [ j . Wood I and I I , 1754 - 1765J  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26  Gay S t r e e t [ j . Wood I I , 1 7 5 6 ] Milsom S t r e e t , 1763 Brock S t r e e t [ J . Wood I I , 1765J The Octagon [ L i g h t o l e r , 1767] The Royal C r e s c e n t [ " j . Wood I I , 1767 - 1775J Assembly Rooms [ j / . Wood I I , 1767 - 1771] P u l t e n e y Bridge, jjdesigned by Robert Adam, 1 7 7 l J The G u i l d h a l l [T.{ Baldwin, 1775J North Colonnade, Pump Room [Baldwin, 1 7 8 6 j Laura P l a c e , Great P u l t e n e y S t r e e t [Baldwin, 1 7 8 8 j Lady Huntingdon's Chapel  8.. 9 10 11 12 13  A B C D  Saw Close Upper Borough Walls Lower Borough W a l l s Lilliput Alley  1  r o -k:.\  I  THE DEVELOPMENT OF BATH AFTER The d e v e l o p m e n t o f of  18th  century  city  men o f v i s i o n  18th  city  at  century  the  At  the  turn of  the  century,  civic  of  an o b s c u r e  c a n be t r a c e d  town was  civic  to  an a l m o s t  But the  still  period of  i n Bath  since  amenities.  a walled i n area the  city  in of  the  architecture. emergence city  fortuitous happening. had l o n g been  f r e q u e n t e d d u r i n g the  c i t y was r u s t i c ,  essential  ccuincidence  and a r t i s t i c  Roman B a t h s  i n v a l i d s who s o u g h t r e l i e f had e x i s t e d  century  and r e l a t i v e l y remote and p r o v i n c i a l  Although the the  still  completely transformed  century English  The e x t r a o r d i n a r y  the  setting.  and no l a r g e r  By m i d - 1 8 t h  g o o d f o r t u n e was t h e  18th  of  extent  opportunity while,  B a t h was  and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h t h e  flowering of  the  creation  a worthy  distinction,  h a d d o u b l e d i n a r e a and was Its  their  instance  and c u l t u r a l m i l i e u w h i c h  o r i g i n a l Roman t o w n .  appearance.  of  c r e a t e d a demand f o r  the  however,.was  i n v o l v e d i n the  social  town o f no a r c h i t e c t u r a l than the  Unique,  took advantage  same t i m e ,  evolved there  B a t h was n o t an i s o l a t e d  growth.  to which the  1702  i n the the  summer months b y  "waters;"  time o f  forgotten,  and g a m b l i n g  Charles  II's  visit.  p r o v i n c i a l and l a c k i n g i n  The t u r n i n g p o i n t i n i t s  history  2 was  the d e c i s i o n o f Queen Anne to "take the waters" there  i n 1702,  and again i n 1703;  and whither the Court r e p a i r e d ,  the f a s h i o n a b l e w o r l d would i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w . London was  the s o c i a l c e n t r e o f the kingdom, but,  s i n c e t r a v e l abroad had not yet become as f a s h i o n a b l e i t was was  as  to become i n Regency days, a s u i t a b l e summer r e s o r t  completely  those days was  l a c k i n g , and the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e considered excessively boring.  the o n l y t h e a t r e pleasures  London  " f o r p l e a s u r e or i n t r i g u e , " and  was  the  a f f o r d e d by the p r o v i n c e s were "merely r u r a l ,  the company s p l e n e t i c , r u s t i c and v u l g a r . "  People o f  f a s h i o n were o b l i g e d to spend the summer season a s o l i t u d e o f country farmers;  of  "amidst  s q u i r e s , parsons' wives ... or  they wanted some p l a c e where they might have  each o t h e r ' s  company and win  each o t h e r ' s money.  Gambling i n England, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n London, had by t h i s time reached the p r o p o r t i o n s o f a n a t i o n a l d i s e a s e among the l e i s u r e d c l a s s e s o f both sexes, men  the  g a t h e r i n g round the c a r d t a b l e s at Almack's, White's 2  and Boodle's, the women i n t h e i r own  drawing rooms.  S p e c u l a t i o n and r i s k were a p a s s i o n sought f o r , and  found,  ••-Oliver Goldsmith, " L i f e o f R i c h a r d Nash" i n Works, Globe e d i t i o n (1925), p. 519. 2  A.S. T u r b e r v i l l e , E n g l i s h Men and Manners i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century (1926), 1959/ ed. p. 88.  3 and f o r t u n e s were l o s t and made "at the t u r n o f a c a r d or  a throw from a dice-box. "1 N a t u r a l l y , to London, the "great mart o f every  folly,  sharpers from every country d a i l y a r r i v e d . " 2  P r o f e s s i o n a l gamblers d u r i n g the w i n t e r ,  3  from A i x and Spa f l o c k e d t o London  and as soon as people w i t h money t o  stake began t o p a t r o n i z e Bath, the p r o f e s s i o n a l s and sharpers l o s t no time i n f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r wake. t h i s i n e v i t a b l e crowd o f gamesters  Among  and t h e i r c u l l i e s was  R i c h a r d Nash, a p r o f e s s i o n a l gamester who had made a name for  h i m s e l f i n London as an o r g a n i z e r o f s o c i a l  ceremonies,  but who depended f o r h i s l i v e l i h o o d upon h i s gains a t the tables. Nash's a r r i v a l a t Bath i n 1705 was motivated by the hopes o f making money, b u t the outcome o f h i s v i s i t was  the making o f Bath.  No sooner had he a r r i v e d than  he began to s p e c u l a t e upon the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c o n v e r t ing  the c i t y i n t o an a t t r a c t i v e r e s o r t w i t h h i m s e l f as  leader.  Nor d i d he ever l o s e s i g h t o f the l u r e o f the  gaming t a b l e s f o r p r o s p e c t i v e v i s i t o r s . his  From 1705 t i l l  death i n 1761, Nash's career was i n t i m a t e l y  -KA.E. 2  Richardson, Georgian England  0.  Goldsmith, p. 519.  W.  Connely,  3  linked  (1931), p. 83.  Beau Nash (1955), p. 12.  4 w i t h the fortunes o f Bath and o f her s i s t e r - c i t y , Wells.  Tunbridge  W i t h i n a v e r y s h o r t time h i s power was such t h a t he  was acclaimed "uncrowned King o f Bath, the A r b i t e r o f Elegance, D i c t a t o r o f Manners o f p o l i t e  R.A.L. Smith, Bath  (1944), p. 54.  society."1  II  THE  TRANSFORMATION OF THE CITY Nash's Reforms and Plans  "Beau" Nash saw the n e c e s s i t y f o r t a k i n g p r a c t i c a l steps to i n t r o d u c e improvements i n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e he c o u l d hope to organize s o c i a l l i f e on the s c a l e t h a t he envisaged.  The c i t y was "mean and contemptible" w i t h "no  e l e g a n t b u i l d i n g s , no open s t r e e t s ... the Pump Room was without  a d i r e c t o r , the chairmen i n s u l t e d t h e i r customers."  The o n l y lodgings a v a i l a b l e t o v i s i t o r s were " p a l t r y t h o expensive  ... f l o o r e d w i t h boards, c o l o u r e d brown w i t h  soot and s m a l l beer t o h i d e the d i r t . the Pump Room where v i s i t o r s gathered  Nash o r g a n i z e d d a i l y to d r i n k the  waters, had the s t r e e t s paved, l i g h t e d and cleaned, r e p r e s s e d the i n s o l e n c e o f the chairmen and gave t i e s t o genuine i n v a l i d s .  Houses and promenades soon  began t o improve, so t h a t , having its  facili-  f r e e d the c i t y  from  r u s t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , Nash was able to concentrate  upon the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s l i k e l y to a t t r a c t moneyed and p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g The  visitors.  a c t u a l b u i l d i n g o f e i g h t e e n t h century Bath  grew o u t o f t h i s n e c e s s i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g accommodation  1  0 . Goldsmith,  p. 520.  1  6 for a g e n e r a t i o n o f people who  were l e a r n i n g to demand  higher standards o f comfort and f o r whom elegance now  c o n s i d e r e d de r i g e u r . F u r t h e r , the v i t a l importance o f adequate  munications between London, the source o f Bath's and the new  r e s o r t , c o u l d not be i g n o r e d .  eminent people who on h o r s e b a c k ,  1  were a p p a l l i n g . was  was  comprosperity,  N e a r l y a l l the  v i s i t e d Bath as l a t e as 1710  travelled  and c o n d i t i o n s o f road t r a v e l a t t h i s  time  By mid-century the s p r i n g l e s s stage coach  i n g e n e r a l use on the Bath Road, and l a t e r i n the  century, when r e g u l a r changes o f horses c o u l d be made at the p o s t i n g inns, the p o s t - c h a i s e became a s a f e r more r a p i d means o f t r a v e l l i n g to the West.  2  and  But even  so, the v e r y thought o f the speed t h a t c o u l d be  attained  was  The  a source o f alarm to p o t e n t i a l t r a v e l l e r s .  C h r o n i c l e , l a t e i n the century, warns readers o f the  Bath dangers  o f e x c e s s i v e speeding: The p u b l i c were f r i g h t e n e d by assurances t h a t i f the speed got up to ten m i l e s per hour i t would be a c l e a r tempting o f Providence, the b r a i n would be i n j u r e d , dreadf u l a c c i d e n t s would c e r t a i n l y happen. A l l who t r a v e l l e d  p.  R.E.M. Peach, L i f e and Times o f Ralph A l l e n 48.  (1895),  T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the m a i l coach s e r v i c e was the work o f John Palmer o f Bath, who was a l s o p r o p r i e t o r o f the Orchard S t r e e t Theatre. (See p. 127). Palmer e n l i s t e d the h e l p o f W i l l i a m P i t t , and i n 1784 the f i r s t m a i l coach was e s t a b l i s h e d between London and Bath. 2  7 must f i r s t make t h e i r w i l l s ... Instances were o f f e r e d ... of passengers who had d i e d suddenly o f apoplexy from the r a p i d i t y o f the motion.1 In  the e a r l y c e n t u r y the dangers to be encountered  on the Bath Road were somewhat more immediate.  The journey  from London took two days and n i g h t s over unending mud ruts.  and  I f the coach d i d not get b u r i e d i n a d i t c h , or o v e r -  t u r n , t h e r e was  still  the p r o b a b i l i t y o f meeting l u r k i n g o  highwaymen as the t r a v e l l e r s drew near to Bath. i t was  Since  not a t a l l i n Nash's i n t e r e s t t h a t p r o s p e c t i v e  gamblers  should be robbed b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the gaming  t a b l e s o f Bath, he undertook to send agents to catch the  highway r o b b e r s .  Thus he e l i m i n a t e d a t l e a s t one o f  the  hazards o f the Bath Road.  At the same time, r o a d -  b u i l d i n g g r a d u a l l y improved, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t , i n Nash's time, Bath was  already  so crowded w i t h v i s i t o r s t h a t the  r e b u i l d i n g o f the c i t y i n a s t y l e b e f i t t i n g the demands of  the age became a worthwhile p r o p o s i t i o n . A r c h i t e c t u r a l Developments Thus i t became imperative i n the f i r s t  decades,  •kjerom Murch, Bath C e l e b r i t i e s (1893) , pp. I l l - 112, p a r a p h r a s i n g the Bath C h r o n i c l e , Feb. 24, 1785. 2  W.  Connely, p.  39.  G.M. T r e v e l y a n , I l l u s t r a t e d S o c i a l H i s t o r y : I I I , P e l i c a n e d i t i o n (1964), p. 160.  8 as Bath developed i n t o a r e s o r t f o r the l e a d e r s o f f a s h i o n , w i t and p u b l i c a f f a i r s ,  t h a t i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e should r e f l e c t  the s p i r i t o f t h i s age o f elegance. This was rendered p o s s i b l e because  o f the a v a i l -  a b i l i t y o f funds, the i n t e r e s t shown by men o f t a s t e and r e s o u r c e s , because  o f the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a c e r t a i n  citi-  zen named Ralph A l l e n to employ the l o c a l Bathstone f o r b u i l d i n g , and because o f the d e c i s i o n o f Bath's g r e a t e s t a r c h i t e c t , John Wood the e l d e r , to s e t t l e i n Bath i n 1727.1 These two men were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c r e a t i o n o f the 18th century c i t y .  A l l e n developed the  l o c a l q u a r r i e s o f s o f t honey-coloured stone a t Combe Down w h i l e Wood, an a r t i s t  "imbued w i t h a p a s s i o n f o r c l a s s i c a l  a r c h i t e c t u r e , planned a c i t y b e s i d e the Avon w i t h b u i l d i n g s as harmonious as those w i t h which P a l l a d i o had adorned the banks o f the Brenta and the P o . "  2  Together they produced  Ijohn Wood i n h i s Essay towards a D e s c r i p t i o n o f Bath (1749) s t a t e s t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n was made o n l y a f t e r an assurance t h a t roads i n t o Bath were to be improved by Acts o f P a r l i a m e n t . He had a p l a n o f Bath sent to him i n Y o r k s h i r e and there he worked o u t designs f o r s e c t i o n s o f the c i t y , which he took to London to show t o Dr. Gay and the E a r l o f Essex, both land-owners i n Bath. In s p i t e o f t h e i r l a c k o f enthusiasm Wood proceeded to Bath and decided t o modify h i s f i r s t grandiose p l a n . He was immediately b e s e t by Dame Lindsey, to b u i l d her an Assembly House. (from W. Connely's paraphrase o f Wood's Essay, pp. 2 32 - 242, i n Beau Nash, pp. 86 - 87). Wood's p r e v i o u s experiences i n c l u d e d work on the s w i f t l y d e v e l o p i n g Grosvenor-Cavendish area o f f a s h i o n a b l e London (Bryan L i t t l e , Bath P o r t r a i t (1961), p. 45) . I r i s Origo i n Horizon, V o l . V I I , No. 1, p. 6.  9 in  architecture,  of  the  of  t h e P a l l a d i a n c i t y was added t h e w o r k o f h i s  18th  therefore  architecture Two life  as  Room.  this  by  the  the  o f the  father's  between  essential  of  the  schemes city.  architect,  e l d e r Wood's b u i l d i n g  death  1727  i n 1754.  for  o f Nash,  the p a t t e r n  What the  of  too,  social  c o n t r i b u t e d to the d r i n k i n g  function of  social  Pump Room was r e - b u i l t i n  Harvey,  John  and 1771.-'-  Nash d e c r e e d t h a t  earlier  son,  a Pump Room and an A s s e m b l y  be made an e s s e n t i a l  end the  expressions  " P a l l a d i a n Bath" includes  years  buildings  To t h e  d e v i s e d b y Nash were  the waters To  after  be t e r m e d  Thus t h e  rebirth  most s u c c e s s f u l  century s p i r i t .  Wood t h e Y'ounger may  one o f t h e  the of  life. 1706  and s u b s e q u e n t l y r e - b u i l t  three  9  times b e f o r e  the end o f  the  century.  Dances had h i t h e r t o been h e l d , i n f o r m a l l y , i n the open a i r , or i n the town h a l l . d i g n i t y to the proceedings, missioned 1717  In order  t o lend  greater  a c e r t a i n H a r r i s o n was com-  i n 1708, to b u i l d a s e t o f Assembly Rooms.  In  "Dame L i n d s e y ' s " b a l l r o o m was added to " H a r r i s o n ' s "  Assembly Rooms.  One o f the e l d e r Wood's f i r s t p r o j e c t s ,  See Key t o P l a n o f Bath. John Strahan o f B r i s t o l a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the b u i l d i n g o f Bath d u r i n g the 1730's ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Kingsmead d i s t r i c t : see P l a n o f Bath). Because he was t r e a t e d "with j e a l o u s y and unworthy s p i t e " by the e l d e r Wood (Bryan L i t t l e , p. 53) he has always been so much overshadowed by Wood as to be almost f o r g o t t e n .  a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n 172 7 was the r e - b u i l d i n g , the Assembly  i n 1728, o f  Rooms, to be known as "Thayer's Rooms" u n t i l  1740, when they were taken over by the manager, W i l t s h i r e . Although he was o b l i g e d t o modify i n a d r a s t i c manner, h i s o r i g i n a l p l a n s f o r Bath, the e l d e r Wood was able t o f u l f i l l achievements (1727)  2  Square  a t l e a s t a p a r t o f h i s dream i n such  as S t . John's H o s p i t a l , h i s f i r s t  f o l l o w e d by Chandos B u i l d i n g s  building  (1727), Queen  (1728 - c. 1735) and S t . Mary's Chapel  (1735).  3  He a l s o b u i l t the General, or M i n e r a l Water H o s p i t a l (1738)  4  i n order to c a r r y out the p h i l a n t h r o p i c scheme  o f a group o f Bath c i t i z e n s f o r the treatment o f poor patients,  f o r which purpose Nash had opened a p u b l i c  subscription.  Among i t s patrons, the h o s p i t a l  included  Ralph A l l e n and John Wood, w h i l s t i t s o r g a n i z e r and d i r e c t o r was Dr. W i l l i a m O l i v e r , the p h y s i c i a n c e l e b r a t e d f o r h i s c h a r i t y to the poor.  W i l l i a m Hoare's  p a i n t i n g o f "Dr.  O l i v e r examining p a t i e n t s " hangs i n the Royal M i n e r a l Water H o s p i t a l t o t h i s day.  See P l a n o f Bath, (7). These names, d e r i v i n g from managers and d i r e c t o r s , r e c u r f r e q u e n t l y i n the w r i t i n g s o f 18th century v i s i t o r s t o Bath. 1  See P l a n o f Bath, (§). 3  S e e P l a n o f Bath, (9), © See P l a n o f Bath, (Ll) .  .  Wood began i n 1740 t o l a y out the North and South Parades, Duke S t r e e t and P i e r r e p o n t S t r e e t .  They were  completed i n 1748, and rose from the gardens where the medieval monks o f Bath Abbey had f i r s t c u l t i v a t e d the grapes f o r the c e l e b r a t e d wine o f Bath.''"  Wood had always  intended t o endow the c i t y w i t h a parade b e f i t t i n g the elegance o f the f a s h i o n a b l e world, where beauty, elegance and f i n e r y might d i s p l a y i t s e l f Yet  i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e i t s e l f  f o r the a d m i r a t i o n o f a l l . "there i s a p l a i n  unadorned  s i m p l i c i t y about the whole work, which i s i n the most austere t r a d i t i o n o f the e i g h t e e n t h century."2 C o r i n t h i a n facades Queen Square,  With i t s  l i k e w i s e an example o f  c l a s s i c a l s e v e r i t y has, on account o f i t s e x q u i s i t e p r o p o r t i o n s , been d e s c r i b e d as "The true consummation o f English Palladian s t y l e . "  3  U n t i l the 1770's when super4  seded by the Royal Crescent was  and Bathwick,  Queen Square  one o f the most f a s h i o n a b l e p l a c e s o f r e s i d e n c e i n  Bath and f o r a time Wood r e s i d e d there h i m s e l f . Leading u p h i l l from Queen Square, Gay S t r e e t ^ was built  i n 1756 by the younger Wood, as a l i n k w i t h the l a s t  W.  ±  Connely, p. 87.  See Plan o f Bath,  2  R.A.L. Smith, p. 73.  3  R.A.L. Smith, p. 70.  12 o f h i s f a t h e r ' s undertakings  —  The C i r c u s . 1  Before the  b u i l d i n g o f the C i r c u s was f a r advanced, the e l d e r Wood died  ( i n 1754) and the work was c a r r i e d o u t by h i s son  d u r i n g the years 1754 to 1765. E d i t h S i t w e l l c a l l s i t "the superb C i r c u s , w i t h i t s f a n t a s t i c and m a g n i f i c e n t houses."  2  S i n g u l a r indeed, i n t h i s c i r c u l a r  i s the design o f three t i e r s o f continuous  structure,  frieze  sup-  p o r t e d by columns i n the I o n i c , D o r i c and C o r i n t h i a n orders. While W.S. Landor was moved to d e c l a r e t h a t "there was n o t h i n g i n Rome or i n the world to equal two  it,"  18th century v o i c e s were r a i s e d i n s h r i l l p r o t e s t  a g a i n s t the C i r c u s , t h a t o f Mrs. E l i z a b e t h Montagu, i n 1779  4  and t h a t o f Matthew Bramble i n S m o l l e t t ' s Humphrey  Clinker  (1771) .  5  Many o f the l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the 18th  ISee Plan o f Bath, 2  .  Q u o t e d by R.A.L. Smith, p. 71.  Imaginery Conversations, quoted by A. Barbeau i n L i f e and L e t t e r s a t Bath i n the XVIIIth Century (1904), pp. 283 - 284 and notes. i n the i n s i d e i t i s a n e s t o f boxes, i n which I would be s t i f l e d , i f the masonry were n o t so bad as to l e t i n the wind i n many p l a c e s . " (Quoted by I r i s Origo i n Horizon, V o l . V I I , No. 1, 1965, p. 6 ) . 5 "The C i r c u s i s a p r e t t y bauble, c o n t r i v e d f o r shew, and looks l i k e Vespasian's amphitheatre turned o u t s i d e i n ..." (Humphrey C l i n k e r (1771), L e t t e r o f 23 A p r i l , D o l p h i n e d i t i o n , p. 39).  3  13  century c i t y were due to the c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f A l l e n , Wood and Nash. for  the H o s p i t a l ,  Circus.^ was  This l a s t had h i s word to say even i n the designs f o r the Parades, Queen Square and the  Wood, i n a d d i t i o n to h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l  theories,  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g to Bath modern methods i n  construction.  From Y o r k s h i r e he brought excavators and  masons, from London, c a r p e n t e r s and i n t r o d u c e d to the West Country the use o f the l e v e r , p u l l e y and windlass.2 Wood began h i s p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h A l l e n i n working on the l a t t e r ' s town house i n L i l l i p u t  Alley,-  5  near t o ,  and conforming i n s t y l e w i t h The Parades, and so s i t u a t e d as to face s l o p i n g gardens, and a view o f the h i l l s beyond.^ The two men were able to combine t h e i r t a l e n t s and resources to  achieve a common purpose.  f r i a b l e Bathstone  Wood knew how  t h a t A l l e n was  to work the v e r y  determined to launch on  ^ A u s t i n J . King and B.H. Watts, "The Renaissance o f the C i t y " i n The M u n i c i p a l Records o f Bath quoted by J . Murch i n Bath C e l e b r i t i e s , pp. 178 - 179. ^ M u n i c i p a l Records, quoted by Murch, p.  179.  See P l a n o f Bath, A l l e n , l a t e l y made Postmaster o f Bath, moved the o l d p o s t o f f i c e from i t s q u a r t e r s i n the nave o f an o l d church i n the slums "at the bottom o f t h a t d i r t y and loathsome Bath S t r e e t " (Peach, L i f e and Times o f Ralph A l l e n , pp. 61 - 62) and accommodated i t i n h i s new house, i n 1728. Connely, pp. 89 - 90. The house commanded a view o f Hampton Down on which R i c h a r d Jones l a t e r b u i l t Sham C a s t l e . Sham C a s t l e or, "Ralph A l l e n ' s F o l l y " c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1762 e x e m p l i f i e s the 18th century custom o f "improving" landscapes by the a d d i t i o n o f pseudo-Gothic or other p i c t u r e s q u e s t r u c t u r e s . 'J. Murch, Bath C e l e b r i t i e s , p.  180.  the market, and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a n a l i z i n g the R i v e r Avon between Bath and B r i s t o l  (where o t h e r s had failed),"'"  thus opening a waterway f o r the exports from A l l e n ' s Combe Down qu ar r ie s. But the most b r i l l i a n t example, i n i t s scope and i m a g i n a t i v e appeal, o f the c o - o p e r a t i o n between these two men was d e s t i n e d t o be the mansion and p r o p e r t y o f P r i o r Park.  A l l e n possessed the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and the  d a r i n g to p r o j e c t the idea o f such magnificence, w h i l e Wood had the r e q u i s i t e s k i l l and genius t o make o f A l l e n ' s dream a r e a l i t y .  Ralph A l l e n and John Wood: P r i o r  Park  Ralph A l l e n began h i s c a r e e r a t Bath i n 1715, as a postal clerk.  2  The son o f an innkeeper i n Cornwall,  3  A l l e n worked as a boy f o r h i s grandmother, who was i n charge o f the p o s t o f f i c e a t S t . Columb.  A passing  i n s p e c t o r n o t i c e d the boy and o b t a i n e d f o r him a vacancy i n the p o s t o f f i c e a t Bath.  Although i t was thought by  many t h a t the f a m i l y had l i v e d i n c o n d i t i o n s o f d i r e poverty, R i c h a r d Graves, a c l o s e f r i e n d d u r i n g the l a s t  X  2  J . Murch, p. 180. Peach,  p. 56.  Rev. F r a n c i s K i l v e r t , "Ralph A l l e n and P r i o r i n Remains i n Prose and Verse (1866), p. 141. 3  Park"  15 fourteen  years o f R a l p h ' s  epithet  of  Allen's  father  of  life,  'low-born A l l e n ' " appears  affirmed that  was b y no means  inn o f that day;'was  and i n t u r n e d u c a t e d h i s c h i l d r e n .  Ralph,  o f B a t h a n d owner o f w i d e e s t a t e s ,  received his sisters  d e t e r m i n e d upon a r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n  and i n e f f i c i e n c y .  obtained a concession  Park.  o f Bath  career;  in return  See  2  Quoted by K i l v e r t ,  Allen system  and to  defray  T h i s was t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t o f for forty  of h i s great wealth.  x  mail  for which con-  of ^2,000,  he h e l d t h e c o n t r a c t  and i t was t h e s o u r c e  cross-  a system o f i n c r e d i b l e  t o work t h e c r o s s - p o s t a l  e x p e n s e s o f working*'  3  Allen  o f the system o f  c e s s i o n he h a d t o p a y a y e a r l y r e n t  Allen's  apparently  From t h e government  throughout E n g l a n d and Wales,  the  when a l e a d i n g  H i t h e r t o n e a r l y a l l l o c a l and c r o s s - c o u n t r y  h a d t r a v e l l e d b y way o f L o n d o n , slowness  well-educated  a t b o t h Hampton a n d P r i o r  When he was a p p o i n t e d p o s t m a s t e r  posts.  warranted.  t o have been a t y p i c a l l a n d l o r d  the r o a d s i d e p o s t i n g  citizen  "Mr. Pope's  years  0  Much o f t h e  p . 85. p.  141.  3 Peach,  p.  56.  H e r b e r t Joyce, H i s t o r y o f the Post O f f i c e 147. Quoted b y Barbeau, p . 244. 4  p.  5 Peach, 6  p.  Kilvert,  60. p.  176.  (1893),  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the sources o f A l l e n ' s wealth i s to be found i n the "Diary" o f a c e r t a i n R i c h a r d Jones, who became c l e r k o f the works t o A l l e n i n 1731,  and r e -  mained c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h him u n t i l 1764.1 A c l o s e f r i e n d o f A l l e n ' s a t t h i s time was General Wade2whose n a t u r a l daughter A l l e n had r e c e n t l y married. Wade and A l l e n worked together t o improve the amenities o f Bath.  Troops were employed to c o n s t r u c t "highland  roads" around  the c i t y and t o c l e a r the slums around the  p o s t o f f i c e which A l l e n was i n process o f r e f o r m i n g . In the e a r l y 1730's A l l e n a c q u i r e d p r o p e r t y on the neighbouring Combe Down w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f q u a r r y i n g the stone t h e r e , b e i n g convinced o f the value o f the Bathstone  f o r b u i l d i n g purposes,  o f marketing  it.  and o f the p o s s i b i l i t y  Defoe d e s c r i b e s A l l e n ' s i n v e n t i o n o f a  machine t o convey huge b l o c k s o f stone from the top o f Combe Down t o the Avon, where they were conveyed to a l l p a r t s o f E n g l a n d , mentions A l l e n ' s  3  by water  w h i l e R i c h a r d Jones' D i a r y  " c a r r i a g e road" f o r "the conveyance  i K i l v e r t o b t a i n e d t h i s "Diary" from a Bath b o o k s e l l e r and quotes from i t i n h i s Remains i n Prose and Verse as b e a r i n g "strong i n t e r n a l evidence o f t r u t h . " (p. 175). 2  Wade was M.P. f o r Bath i n 1727.  D a n i e l Defoe, A Tour Through Great B r i t a i n 27), 7th e d i t i o n , I I , p. 300. 3  (1724 -  17  o f stone to ... the D o l m e a d s . T h i s  "tramway" was  a p p a r e n t l y b u i l t some years b e f o r e work on P r i o r began, and was for s k i l l e d century.2  Park  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c r e a t i n g a l o c a l demand  labour which continued throughout the 19th Bathstone was  used i n b u i l d i n g the B r i s t o l  Stock Exchange and f o r S t . Batholomew's H o s p i t a l i n London,  and became known l o c a l l y when used by John  3  Wood i n b u i l d i n g Queen Square, Wood S t r e e t , and the North and South  Parades.^  But A l l e n began to encounter p r e j u d i c e s  and  o b j e c t i o n s on the p a r t o f the London a r c h i t e c t s , 5 set their  faces a g a i n s t the use o f Bathstone.  who The  grand design f o r P r i o r Park o r i g i n a t e d i n A l l e n ' s  desire  to prove to a l l and sundry the q u a l i t i e s o f the Combe Down stone, "by e x h i b i t i n g i t to g r e a t e r advantage,  and  as a p p l i e d to a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f uses than i t ever had been b e f o r e . " 6 -•-Quoted by K i l v e r t , p.  175.  2  Peach,  p.  82.  3  Defoe,  Tour, 7th e d i t i o n , I I , p.  ^ K i l v e r t , p. 176. 5  Peach,  p.  Quoting R.  300.  Jones.  100.  ^ K i l v e r t , pp. 147 - 148. Quoting Woods' Essay Towards a D e s c r i p t i o n o f Bath, p. 227.  The o r i g i n a l p l a n was t o d i s p l a y a l l the d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s o f architecture."''  The f i r s t design was f o r a  mansion "'where the Orders o f A r c h i t e c t u r e were t o shine f o r t h i n a l l t h e i r g l o r y ; b u t the Warmth o f the R e s o l u t i o n a t l a s t a b a t i n g an humble s i m p l i c i t y took i t s p l a c e ' and  i f the e v e n t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d by Wood  to express  t h i s l a s t q u a l i t y , then h i s o r i g i n a l concep-  t i o n must have been m a g n i f i c e n t i n the extreme."  2  "This  m a g n i f i c e n t b u i l d i n g stands on a t e r r a c e , about 100 f e e t below the summit o f Combe Down, and 400 f e e t above the c i t y o f Bath. two  I t c o n s i s t s o f a house i n the c e n t r e ,  p a v i l i o n s , and two wings o f o f f i c e s , a l l u n i t e d by  arcades,  and making one continued  is built  i n the C o r i n t h i a n s t y l e , and crowned by a  balustrade.  line of building.  It  The c e n t r e p a r t , p r o j e c t i n g from the plane,  forms one o f the most c o r r e c t and noble p o r t i c o e s i n the kingdom, supported by s i x l a r g e l o f t y , and superb columns. At the bottom o f the lawn, b e f o r e the house, i s a p i e c e o f water, and over  i t a P a l l a d i a n b r i d g e a t the head o f  a c o n s i d e r a b l e lake p l e n t i f u l l y stocked w i t h  ±  W. Ison, Georgian B u i l d i n g s o f Bath - 6. Quoting from Wood's Essay. 3  3  K i l v e r t , p. 148.  2  135  fish."  K i l v e r t , p. 148.  (1948), pp.  The Reverend R i c h a r d Graves, Rector o f C l a v e r t o n for over  f i f t y years and author o f the S p i r i t u a l  Quixote j ,  wrote: "The p l e a s u r e ground o f P r i o r Park, though not e x t e n s i v e , i s b e a u t i f u l l y romantic, o f the v a r i o u s r i l l s  and good use i s made  o f water, which appear t o i s s u e from  a rock s t r i c k e n by the wand o f Moses (a statue o f whom i s p l a c e d above i t ) ,  and, t r i c k l i n g down the p r e c i p i c e , are  c o l l e c t e d below i n t o a s e r p e n t i n e r i v e r , which i s o r n a mented by a f i c t i t i o u s b r i d g e , designed by Mr. Pope, to c o n c e a l i t s t e r m i n a t i o n , " and adds t h a t "there i s a g o t h i c b u i l d i n g a t the top, or r a t h e r a t one s i d e o f the p l e a s u r e ground, which was intended  f o r the head  gardener, b u t which i s r e a l l y a comfortable  and e l e g a n t  d w e l l i n g f o r a s m a l l g e n t e e l f a m i l y , and has l a t e l y been r e n t e d by many people o f f o r t u n e . There i s a l o c a l legend t h a t s t i l l p e r s i s t s , t o the e f f e c t t h a t Wood was unable t o b e l i e v e t h a t A l l e n had  s u f f i c i e n t wealth  t o pay f o r the m a g n i f i c e n t mansion  he e n v i s i o n e d , u n t i l A l l e n showed him the a c t u a l c o i n s . K i l v e r t ' s source  f o r t h i s s t o r y was H. V. Lansdown, an  a r t i s t and c o l l e c t o r o f reminiscences writes:  o f Bath.  Lansdown  "When Mr. A l l e n had determined to b u i l d the present  mansion a t P r i o r Park, he sent f o r John Wood the a r c h i t e c t K i l v e r t , pp.148 - 9.  Quoting R i c h a r d Graves.  who w a i t e d upon him a t the p o s t o f f i c e i n L i l l i p u t where A l l e n then r e s i d e d .  Alley,  'I want you,' s a i d A l l e n , 'to  b u i l d me a c o u n t r y house on the P r i o r ' s e s t a t e a t Widcombe. A l l e n then d e s c r i b e d the s o r t o f p l a c e he wished e r e c t e d ; but when he e n t e r e d i n t o the d e t a i l s , and t a l k e d private  about a  chapel, w i t h a t r i b u n e f o r the f a m i l y p a p o r t i c o  of gigantic  dimensions;' a grand entrance h a l l and wings  of o f f i c e s f o r coach houses,  stables,  e t c . the a s t o n i s h e d  a r c h i t e c t began t o t h i n k the postmaster had taken leave o f h i s senses. cost of b u i l d i n g  'Have you, s i r , s a t down and counted the such a p l a c e ? '  'I have,  1  replied Allen;  'and f o r some time p a s t have been l a y i n g by money f o r the purpose.'  'But,' s a i d Wood, 'the p l a c e you are t a l k i n g  about would be a p a l a c e and n o t a house;  you have not the  l e a s t i d e a o f the money 'twould take to complete i t . ' 'Well,' r e j o i n e d  Allen,  'come t h i s way.  1  He then took  him i n t o the next room, and opening a c l o s e t door showed him a s t r o n g box.  'That box i s f u l l o f guineas:'  a r c h i t e c t shook h i s head.  A l l e n opened another  and p o i n t e d t o a second and a t h i r d . tated.  'Well,' s a i d A l l e n ,  Wood s t i l l  The  closet, hesi-  'come i n t o t h i s room-' a  f o u r t h and a f i f t h were d i s c o v e r e d .  The a r c h i t e c t now  began t o open h i s eyes w i t h wonder.  ' I f we have not money  enough here, come i n t o t h i s bedroom. and,  l o J an e i g h t h appears.  1  A s i x t h , a seventh,  C h u c k l i n g i n h i s t u r n a t the  astonishment  o f the a r c h i t e c t , A l l e n now i n q u i r e d i f the  house c o u l d be b u i l t .  ' I ' l l b e g i n the plans  immediately,  r e p l i e d Wood; 'I see there i s money enough to e r e c t even a p a l a c e ; and I ' l l b u i l d you a palace t h a t s h a l l be the a d m i r a t i o n o f a l l beholders.''"  1  A l l e n c o u l d c l a i m t h a t h i s c o s t l y b u t determined e f f o r t t o prove the q u a l i t i e s o f Bathstone was j u s t i f i e d when P r i o r Park stood i n majesty, commanding the panorama of the c i t y below, and c l e a r l y v i s i b l e a l l t o admire. theory. "The  from the c i t y , f o r  I t stood as a t a n g i b l e p r o o f o f A l l e n ' s  And to the e l d e r Wood, too, i t brought reward.  fame o f Bath spread everywhere," and c o n t r a c t s were  made for works to be s u p e r v i s e d by Wood. Wood had worked f o r A l l e n f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e years, b u t a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n now arose between the two  men.  Wood had designed P r i o r Park w i t h a view to  s e c u r i n g u n i t y o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l e f f e c t , b u t he had a l s o i n mind c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s which were intended t o be unique Peach a t t r i b u t e s the d e c i s i o n o f the two men t o separate, to a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n concerning the r o o f i n g o f the s t a b l e s , s a y i n g t h a t "on completion o f the f i r s t p a r t o f the work Wood's d i r e c t connection w i t h A l l e n ceased," and  K i l v e r t , pp. 178 - 179. Peach, p. 101.  that  "the E a s t e r n wing, P a l l a d i a n Bridge  and p l a n t i n g were  e n t r u s t e d to other hands, a year o r so b e f o r e Wood's death."  1  2  R i c h a r d Jones r e p l a c e d Wood c.. 173 9,  designed  the E a s t wing and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a n d s c a p i n g . T h i s i n c l u d e d a f r o n t lawn and a " p l e n t i f u l s p r i n g gushing  o u t o f a rock covered w i t h  ... f a l l i n g  ... a cascade  i n t o a lake a t the f o o t o f the h i l l ...  below the house." b r i d g e over  firs  3  Jones says t h a t he b u i l t the P a l l a d i a n  the "pond" i n 1755,  4  and mentions a p e d e s t a l  to the south o f the house, b e a r i n g on the four  panels,  b a s - r e l i e f s o f the works o f A l l e n ' s f a t h e r - i n - l a w ,  General  Wade, " r e p r e s e n t i n g the c u t t i n g and b l a s t i n g o f the rocks when the roads were formed i n the Highlands by him." The  Bathstone and Cotswold stone  grew i n r e p u t a t i o n , b e i n g dressed s t y l e s now i n f a s h i o n .  i n g e n e r a l , soon  t o s u i t the a r c h i t e c t u r a l  In t h i s way, l o c a l Bath m a t e r i a l s  were t o a f f e c t the development o f c l a s s i c a l design,  even  J-Peach, p. 88. 2  Kilvert,  p. 175.  3  Peach, p. 113.  Quoting from Jones'  "Diary".  A copy o f the b r i d g e a t W i l t o n (near S a l i s b u r y ) , the p r o p e r t y o f the E a r l s o f Pembroke. 4  K i l v e r t , p. 176.  Quoting from Jones'  "Diary".  though London continued to be the main source o f i n f l u e n c e . F u r t h e r , l o c a l craftsmen i n such p l a c e s as Bath s t i l l inventive s k i l l  used  i n d e v i s i n g d e t a i l i n the m a t e r i a l used^  based on c l a s s i c a l p r o t o t y p e s .  In f a c t , so g r e a t was the  r e p u t a t i o n both o f Bathstone and P o r t l a n d stone a t t h i s p e r i o d t h a t they were  "considered e s s e n t i a l to the appear-  ance and l a s t i n g q u a l i t y o f b u i l d i n g s o f the f i r s t  A.E. Richardson, Georgian England, p. 117.  rank.  1 , 1  Ill SOCIETY, MANNERS AND PERSONALITIES AT BATH DURING NASH'S REGIME Beau Nash a t Bath Nash's r a p i d promotion as " A r b i t e r o f Elegance, D i c t a t o r o f Manners" was personality.  a triumph o f sheer f o r c e o f  H i s biographer, Goldsmith, w r i t i n g a f t e r  Nash's death, p a i n t s  t h i s scene o f the e a r l y century  w i t h Nash as i t s c e n t r a l f i g u r e . may  be l a r g e r than l i f e - s i z e ,  impression o f an e x t r a o r d i n a r y figure.  Even though the p o r t r a i t  Goldsmith does convey  and h i g h l y p i c t u r e s q u e  "He had too much m e r i t not to become remarkable, 1  yet too much f o l l y to a r r i v e a t g r e a t n e s s . " ance was  the  His  appear-  s i n g u l a r and a r r e s t i n g , a d e l i b e r a t e p a r t o f  Nash's c a r e f u l l y planned mise en scene i n which had to be r i v e t t e d on h i s own went by h i s appearance  personality.  attention  As the years  grew more and more s i n g u l a r .  He  always wore a white h a t  (merely "to secure i t from b e i n g  s t o l e n " ) ; h i s dress was  tawdry and he mixed the f a s h i o n s  o f the p a s t g e n e r a t i o n and h i s own.  H i s equipage  sumptuous, he t r a v e l l e d " i n a p o s t - c h a r i o t with outriders, o f expensive  was  and s i x greys,  footmen, French horns and every d i s p l a y 2 parade."  " L i f e o f R. Nash," p. Goldsmith, p.  515.  526.  25 The was  killed  then Master o f Ceremonies, Captain Webster, i n a d u e l and Nash succeeding t o the post,  immediately  s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to put i n t o  effect  h i s reforms  and plans f o r the development o f the r e s o r t .  As soon as he undertook p e r s o n a l l y the c o n t r o l o f the o n l y r e c o g n i z e d p l a c e o f entertainment,  the Pump  Room, i n 1706, the number o f "noble" v i s i t o r s began to i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y ; and when, i n 1708, " H a r r i s o n s " Assembly Rooms were b u i l t , organized. the waters," tial  1  entertainments  c o u l d be p r o p e r l y  Such entertainments, which i n c l u d e d " d r i n k i n g gambling and dancing,  f e a t u r e s o f Bath's s o c i a l l i f e  o f the century.  continued to be essenf o r the g r e a t e r p a r t  Nash a l s o brought 6 musicians  from London  2 and o r g a n i z e d an a r c h e s t r a .  "Nash's Pump Room O r c h e s t r a "  s u r v i v e d u n t i l the 1940's. Nash would t o l e r a t e no p r i v a t e p a r t i e s . was  Dancing  p e r m i t t e d from 6 o ' c l o c k u n t i l 11 o ' c l o c k i n the  evening, b u t no p e r m i s s i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d to continue dancing a f t e r t h a t hour.  Attendance a t Assemblies  made o b l i g a t o r y , and Nash's "Code o f Laws," posted  was i n the  Pump Room r e g u l a t i n g dress and deportment a t dances, came to be r e l i g i o u s l y observed by h i s " s u b j e c t s , " n e i t h e r rank See p. 9. Goldsmith,  p. 521.  nor f o r t u n e s h i e l d i n g them from h i s  resentment.  Manners, a t the time o f Nash's a r r i v a l a t Bath, were s a d l y i n need o f reform.  The amusements o f the  p l a c e were n e i t h e r e l e g a n t nor were they conducted w i t h 2  delicacy.  "The n o b i l i t y s t i l l p r e s e r v e d a t i n c t u r e o f  Gothic haughtiness and r e f u s e d t o keep company w i t h the gentry a t any p l a c e o f p u b l i c entertainment.  Smoking i n  the Rooms was p e r m i t t e d ; gentlemen and l a d i e s  appeared  i n a d i s r e s p e c t f u l manner a t p u b l i c entertainments i n aprons and b o o t s .  With an eagerness common to those  whose p l e a s u r e s come b u t seldom, they g e n e r a l l y t i n u e d them too l o n g . they danced  till  con-  I f the company l i k e d each other  morning."  3  Nash's reforms i n c l u d e d the outlawing o f duels ( i n which he was o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l ) and the wearing o f swords.  In l i k e manner, swearing was a l s o p r o h i b i t e d . In a l l matters, Nash had the w i t t o r e a l i z e  that  o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l l i f e would be a stronger f o r c e i n a t t r a c t ing  " s o c i e t y " than the p r e v a l e n t coarseness or even c a r e l e s s  ness o f manners.  Even the Duchess o f Queensberry  had her  apron t o r n from her by Nash a t a p u b l i c Assembly, and 4  -"-Goldsmith, p. 522. 2  I b i d . , p. 520.  3  I b i d . , pp. 520 - 521.  4  I b i d . , p. 523.  the  f a c t t h a t she took the rebuke i n good p a r t  to the p r e s t i g e t h a t Nash a l r e a d y enjoyed. t h a t u n d e r l a y Nash's o r g a n i z a t i o n was t h a t  testifies  The p r i n c i p l e "healing  issued  from change o f scene, o f c l i m a t e and o f s o c i e t y , b u t t h a t r e l a x a t i o n , t o be o f b e n e f i t , must be d i s c i p l i n e d ,  1 , 1  and  the r e g u l a t i o n o f d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s was r i g i d l y adhered t o . Important newcomers were welcomed by a p e a l o f the Abbey b e l l s , b u t were expected t o pay s u b s c r i p t i o n s a t the Assembly rooms, f o r the music i n the Pump Room, f o r the use o f the p r i v a t e walks, f o r books borrowed from the booksellers house.  and for pen, i n k and paper a t the c o f f e e  2  The bathing  day;'s programme was as c a r e f u l l y o r g a n i z e d :  i n the morning, t o which "the lady i s brought i n  a c l o s e c h a i r ... i n her b a t h i n g water  clothes  ( i s presented) w i t h a l i t t l e  i n t o which  (she)  ... and i n the  f l o a t i n g d i s h ...  puts a handkerchief, a snuff-box and  3  a nosegay." breakfasts,  The day passes a t the Pump Room, a t p u b l i c at concerts.  t h a t do n o t "tease  Optional  l e c t u r e s may be attended,  the understanding."  walk i n the meadows ... w h i l e others l-W. Connely, p. 63. 2 Goldsmith, p. 524. 3  I b i d . , pp. 524 - 525.  A f t e r church, "some  are seen s c a l i n g some  28 of  those romantic p r e c i p i c e s t h a t overhang  the c i t y . " 1  B a l l s , p l a y s or v i s i t s ' conclude the evening, and every Tuesday and F r i d a y t h e r e i s a s u b s c r i p t i o n b a l l . t h i s manner every amusement soon improved administration. was'necessary to  "In  under Mr. Nash's  The m a g i s t r a t e s o f the c i t y found t h a t he  and u s e f u l " and r e a d i l y p a i d the same r e s p e c t  h i s " f i c t i t i o u s r o y a l t y t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y e x t o r t e d by 2  r e a l power." Bath s o c i e t y and manners as presented by w r i t e r s as Durfey, O d i n g s e l l s , Defoe,  such  and S m o l l e t t i n  the f i r s t h a l f o f the century, d i f f e r w i d e l y from G o l d smith's g e n e r a l v e r d i c t on Nash's r e f i n i n g But Goldsmith found t h a t  "he was  influence.  the f i r s t who  diffused  a d e s i r e o f s o c i e t y and an e a s i n e s s o f address among a whole people, who  were f o r m e r l y censured by  foreigners  - f o r a reservedness o f behaviour and an awkward t i m i d i t y i n t h e i r f i r s t approaches  ... That ease and open access  f i r s t a c q u i r e d t h e r e , our gentry brought back to the m e t r o p o l i s , and thus the whole kingdom by degrees became more r e f i n e d by l e s s o n s o r i g i n a l l y d e r i v e d from him. Coarseness  and r u s t i c i t y o f manners d i d continue  iGo l d s m i t h , p. 52 5. 2  I b i d . , p.  1,3  525.  ^Preface to " L i f e o f R i c h a r d Nash".  29 to  e x i s t f a r i n t o the 18th century.  But, " i f they  g r a d u a l l y diminished, and f i n a l l y disappeared," wrote Barbeau i n 1904, "Bath and other s o c i a l c e n t r e s o f the same c l a s s had a good d e a l to do w i t h the improvement.  1 1 1  The reason  f o r such a change l a y i n the f a c t t h a t an  example was s e t by a s o c i e t y which had been p o l i s h e d by f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h c o u r t s and by f o r e i g n t r a v e l . the same time,  Bath enjoyed  t h a t e x i s t e d nowhere e l s e  2  At  f a c i l i t i e s of intercourse because people  from w i d e l y  d i f f e r i n g walks o f l i f e were able to meet there on terms of  e q u a l i t y t h a t were n o t g e n e r a l l y t o l e r a t e d i n 18th  century s o c i e t y .  A t a l l events, whether they e x e r c i s e d  a r e f i n i n g i n f l u e n c e or otherwise,  there was h a r d l y a  c h a r a c t e r one can mention i n t h a t century b u t was seen in  the famous Pump Room where Beau Nash p r e s i d e d .  S o c i a l L i f e a t Bath W r i t e r s o f the e a r l y 18th century who mention Bath, do tend to s t r e s s the l e s s d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l l i f e and o f manners to the e x c l u s i o n o f more positive qualities.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , there have s u r v i v e d  numerous o b s e r v a t i o n s made by d i v e r s v i s i t o r s to the c i t y ,  -•-A. Barbeau, L i f e and L e t t e r s a t Bath i n the 18th Century (1904), pp. 188 - 189. 2  Barbeau, p. 189.  30  who  commented on,  d e s c r i b e d and e v a l u a t e d  scene, and whose impressions able.  the  contemporary  are by no means a l l unfavour-  T h e i r o p i n i o n s , n a t u r a l l y , l i k e those o f the p u r e l y  c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s , were c o l o u r e d by p e r s o n a l b i a s or what they c o n s i d e r e d But, regarded  by  t h a t Bath ought to o f f e r i t s v i s i t o r s .  however o b j e c t i v e l y 18th century Bath i s  i n r e t r o s p e c t , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to deny  t h a t f r i v o l i t y was, feature.  a t a l l times,  i t s most d i s t i n c t i v e  T h i s f r i v o l i t y i m p l i e d an i r r e s p o n s i b l e a t t i -  tude towards c e r t a i n values which would normally  obtain  d u r i n g the o r d i n a r y course o f l i f e a t home, but which could with  impunity  be d i s c a r d e d at a r e s o r t o f f a s h i o n  whose r a i s o n d'etre was  the p u r s u i t o f evanescent p l e a s u r e s .  Furthermore, the adoption  o f a loose code o f behaviour  the i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d a concomitant  irresponsibility  towards the v a l u e s and the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f other and  the prevalence  i n d i f f e r e n c e to the others.  people,  of a general a t t i t u d e of callous f e e l i n g s and  the r e p u t a t i o n s o f  Such an a t t i t u d e i s o n l y too e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e  i n the s o c i a l l i f e o f the e a r l i e r p a r t o f the  century.  Because s o c i e t y e x i s t e d o n l y so long as season" l a s t e d , i t was who  by  a t r a n s i e n t one  "the  and the people  composed t h i s s o c i e t y tended to be r e c k l e s s and  seek p l e a s u r e at whatever the c o s t .  The  enjoyment o f the  season depended a b s o l u t e l y upon e x t r a c t i n g every o f " d i v e r s i o n " t h a t the p l a c e , the people and s i t u a t i o n would y i e l d .  to  l a s t drop  the human  31 Some v i s i t o r s went to "the Bath" because they s i n c e r e l y sought medical h e l p ; some used the cure as a p r e t e x t f o r going there, though o t h e r s went f o r the sake o f c o n g e n i a l companionship.  While  sharpers  preyed  upon the p l e a s u r e - s e e k e r s and quacks upon the i n v a l i d s , s o c i a l climbers sought  to b e t t e r t h e i r s t a t u s by m i n g l i n g  on terms o f e q u a l i t y w i t h people who would ignore them elsewhere  than a t a p l e a s u r e r e s o r t ; and, always w e l l -  represented, was t h a t " f r i n g e " s o c i e t y i n v a r i a b l y  found  i n an environment i n which money and s o c i a l p r e s t i g e are the key a t t r a c t i o n s . By n o t i n g what types o f people were a t t r a c t e d to  the r e s o r t , and by r e f l e c t i n g on the impressions  they  recorded, i t i s p o s s i b l e to form some i d e a o f the s p i r i t of  18th century Bath, and i n what way t h i s s p i r i t  d u r i n g the course o f the century.  changed  By the end o f t h i s  p e r i o d , Bath had changed t o such an extent, t h a t i t was rapidly losing i t s distinctive  "18th century" c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s and r e v e r t i n g t o i t s former  status of a p r o v i n c i a l  market-town, w h i l e i t was a t the same time i n process o f becoming a p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e f o r those who sought peace, and q u i e t r e t i r e m e n t .  When Jane Austen,  the l a s t o f i t s  18th century n o v e l i s t s , d i e d , the glamour o f Bath had a l r e a d y faded, and w i t h i t , the e s s e n t i a l l y human q u a l i t y w i t h which i t s motley had e n l i v e n e d i t .  crowd o f v i s i t o r s o f t h a t century  The  remarks o f a very e a r l y commentator on  the  s o c i a l scene r e v e a l the r a p i d i t y w i t h which, d u r i n g very f i r s t  decade o f the century,  developed i t s own The  social life  i n Bath  particular characteristics.  Tatler published a l e t t e r  In  able element i n s o c i e t y there, and expressed seeing  formid-  indignation  "the noble s p i r i t o f gentlemen degenerated to  t h a t o f p r i v a t e cut-purses."1 1709  1709,  "from Bath" i n which R i c h a r d  S t e e l e observed t h a t the sharpers were an a l r e a d y  at  the  An  i s s u e o f 8 October,  r e v e a l s the f a c t t h a t London p h y s i c i a n s were a l r e a d y  e x p l o i t i n g the s i t u a t i o n by season, and  f l o c k i n g to Bath d u r i n g  s e i z i n g the p r a c t i c e o f l o c a l d o c t o r s .  the Steele  p r o t e s t s t h a t there w i l l be a s u f f i c i e n t number o f p h y s i c i a n s i n Bath i f "there are but two left  i n town.  1,2  medical  He was  doctors to one  to r e t u r n to the a t t a c k a g a i n s t  abuses when he v i s i t e d the c i t y i n person, i n Two  who  the s o c i a l l i f e was  she  (who  was  spa  bored  found t h e r e ) , and Joseph Addison,  "gone to Bath w i t h p a s t o r a l (Ambrose) P h i l i p s f o r  -Tatler, No.  65,  T a t l e r , No.  78, Oct.  See  -  !  1713.  years b e f o r e t h i s , notable v i s i t o r s to the  i n c l u d e d W i l l i a m Wycherley,^ Lady O r r e r y with  patient  pp.  154  Sept. 8, 8,  1709. 1709.  155.  Wycherley f i r s t v i s i t e d the c i t y i n  1706.  33 his  eyes."- -  Addison recorded i n The S p e c t a t o r , the  1  impressions o f Simon Honeycomb, who  found t h a t :  A sober modest man was always looked upon by both sexes as a p r e c i s e unfashioned f e l l o w o f no l i f e or spirit. I t was o r d i n a r y f o r a man who had been drunk i n good company, or passed a n i g h t w i t h a wench, to speak o f i t next day b e f o r e women f o r whom he had the g r e a t e s t r e s p e c t . He was reproved, perhaps, w i t h a blow o f the fan, or an Oh, f i e j But the lady s t i l l p r e s e r v e d an apparent approbation i n her countenance ..." D a n i e l Defoe a l s o v i s i t e d Bath i n 1711, c o l l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l f o r h i s d e s c r i p t i v e Tour Great B r i t a i n , and had l i t t l e new  resort:  while  Through  to say i n favour o f the  "The b e s t p a r t b e i n g but a Barren Subject,  and the worst P a r t m e r i t i n g r a t h e r a S a t y r , than a Description."  I t was  f o r m e r l y a r e s o r t f o r c r i p p l e s but  ... now we may say i t i s the Resort o f the Sound r a t h e r than the S i c k ; the Bathing i s made more a Sport and D i v e r t i o n than a P h y s i c a l P r e s c r i p t i o n f o r H e a l t h and the Town i s taken up w i t h R a f f l i n g , Gameing, V i s i t i n g and i n a Word, a l l s o r t s o f G a l l a n t r y and L e v i t y . The whole Town indeed i s a Round o f the utmost D i v e r t i o n . "  3  He d e s c r i b e s the b a t h i n g , the ... Walks i n the Great Church, and a t the R a f f l i n g Shops which are kept ( l i k e the C l o y s t e r a t Batholomew F a i r ) i n  -•-J. S w i f t to S t e l l a , J o u r n a l (1766), Aug. quoted by Connely, p. 43. 2  S p e c t a t o r , No.  3  Defoe,  179,  24,  1711,  1711.  A Tour, Everyman's L i b r a r y  (1928), I I , p.  34.  34 the Churchyard and ground a d j o i n i n g . In the afternoon there i s g e n e r a l l y a Play, though the Decorations are mean, and the Performance a c c o r d i n g l y ; b u t i t answers for the company here (not the A c t o r s ) make the Play, to say no more. He mentions the r e g u l a r evening b a l l and "dancing a t l e a s t twice a week ... where there never  fails  i n the season to  be a g r e a t d e a l o f v e r y good company." Defoe w r i t e s o f the h o t s p r i n g s , t h a t the d r i n k i n g of  the waters i n a d d i t i o n to b a t h i n g i n them i s c o n s i d e r e d  to be a modern i n n o v a t i o n , b u t adds t h a t "I my s e l f drank the waters o f the Bath above f i f t y years ago; But be i t so, ...  ' t i s a Modern D i s c o v e r y compared to the former Use o f  these W a t e r s . "  1  Commentators a t t h i s time have much to say on the s u b j e c t o f mixed b a t h i n g , which may have been the reason t h a t Nash decided to p u t an end to such a " s c a n d a l . " Steel* regarded the p r a c t i c e w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e m i s g i v i n g ,  2  w h i l e Defoe had t h i s t o say: In the Cross-Bath The Ladies and Gentlemen pretend to keep some d i s t a n c e , and each to t h e i r proper s i d e , b u t f r e q u e n t l y mingle here too, as i n the King's and Queen's Bath, though n o t so o f t e n ; and the Place b e i n g b u t narrow, they converse f r e e l y , and t a l k , make vows, and sometimes Love.  1  Tour,  1928 e d i t i o n , I I , p. 35.  2  Guardian,  3  Tour,  No. 174, 1713.  1928 e d i t i o n , I I , p. 34.  35 S t e e l e was  amused d u r i n g h i s v i s i t  the s i g h t o f dancers on t h e i r way sometimes e n t e r t a i n e d h i m s e l f q u a n t i t y o f ground was and what l i t t l e  to the minuet,  and  h i d under spreading p e t t i c o a t s ,  patches of e a r t h were covered by  spirit  at  "by o b s e r v i n g what a l a r g e  w i t h wigs and h a t s , " but he was the democratic  i n 1713  ready  creatures  to pay t r i b u t e to  o f Nash's o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l  when he viewed "the mixed mass o f a l l ages and  dignities  upon a l e v e l , p a r t a k i n g o f the same b e n e f i t s o f and m i n g l i n g i n the same d i v e r s i o n s . " ! His  life,  nature,  impressions,  however, o f some other aspects o f s o c i a l l i f e , were more i r o n i c and much l e s s favourable, and he undoubtedly would have agreed w i t h a l a t e r commentator, Doran, who that  remarked  "the l a d i e s were the o n l y s a i n t s some worshippers  came (to the Abbey) to adore," and t h a t the s i d e s o f some of  the pews had had  to be r a i s e d to stop o g l i n g d u r i n g  s e r v i c e s between the sexes,  an a l t e r a t i o n which d i d not,  however, remove the p r a c t i c e o f p a s s i n g notes pew  from one  to another.2 Concerning  the degree to which women a t Bath were  by t h i s time a d d i c t e d to gambling, S t e e l e ' s i r o n y grows more i n c i s i v e .  J-Guardian,  These were w i l l i n g , he s a i d , to  No.  174,  "sacrifice  1713.  ^Connely, p. 48. Quoting our Great Towns (p. 90).  from J . Doran's Memories o f  the f o r t u n e s o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n l i k e a Spartan or a Roman dame."  To c a s t a d i c e was  w e l l - t u r n e d arm,  the i d e a l way  and to s c a t t e r the rays o f the diamond,"  and yet, here a t the gaming t a b l e s , lilies  "to d i s p l a y the  ladies  "wore t h e i r  and roses i n t e d i o u s watching and r e s t l e s s l u c u b r a -  t i o n s , " what they r e a l l y craved, being, to emulate To S t e e l e ,  i t was  manhood.  an undoubted argument o f t h e i r ease o f  conscience t h a t they would go d i r e c t l y from church to the gaming-table,  "and so h i g h l y reverence p l a y as t o make i t  a g r e a t p o i n t o f t h e i r e x e r c i s e on Sundays.  1,1  Alexander Pope p a i d h i s f i r s t v i s i t to Bath i n when Wycherley  and Thomas P a r n e l l were a l s o p r e s e n t .  d e s c r i b e s to Martha  1714,  Pope  Blount (when he has time to " n e g l e c t  the company o f a g r e a t number o f l a d i e s " t o w r i t e to h e r ) , his  first  impressions o f the c i t y .  From h i s window he  commands the p r o s p e c t o f "twenty or t h i r t y " i n one o f the f i n e s t promenades i n the w o r l d . his  excuse  i s t h a t he has s l i d ,  I f he f o r g e t s  Martha,  he cannot t e l l how,  a l l the amusements o f the p l a c e . "  H i s day  " i s shared by  Pump-Assemblies, the Walkes, the Chocolate houses, Shops, P l a y s , Medleys,  "into  Raffling  e t c . , " and he i s endeavouring  become agreeable by i m i t a t i o n . "  "to  In t h i s same l e t t e r he  comments on Nash as h a v i n g an impudent a i r , and f u r t h e r adds  Guardian, No.  174,  1713.  37 I have i n one week run t h r o whatever they c a l l d i v e r t i n g here, and I should be ashamed t o pass two j u s t i n the same t r a c k . I w i l l t h e r e f o r e but take a T r i p t o L o n g - l e a t (which i s twelve m i l e s hence) t o v i s i t my L o r d Lansdowne, and r e t u r n to London. 1  1  2  Pope was to v i s i t Bath many times i n subsequent y e a r s , and by 1738 had become an annual p a t i e n t a t the spa.  H i s c h i e f c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the c i t y a f t e r  this  ;  however, dated from the beginning o f h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Ralph A l l e n , W i l l i a m Warburton Park.  and t h e i r c i r c l e a t P r i o r  3  John Gay f o l l o w e d Pope t o Bath i n 1715, and the Duke and Duchess o f Malborough  appeared t h e r e i n 1716, 4  a f t e r two years of p o l i t i c a l e x i l e i n F l a n d e r s . was the f i r s t o f s e v e r a l v i s i t s , a peal of b e l l s .  This  and was g r e e t e d w i t h  Nash was i n v i t e d t o t h e i r house and 5  the Duchess found him "a most engaging man,"  w i t h whom  she s t r u c k up a s i n c e r e , i n f o r m a l f r i e n d s h i p ^ she. c o r responded w i t h him f o r many y e a r s .  The Malboroughs  L o n g l e a t House near Warminster, seat o f the Marquesses of Bath was b u i l t d u r i n g the 16th century by John o f Padua. I t i s famed f o r i t s l i b r a r y , p a i n t i n g s and f u r n i t u r e . Pope t o Martha Blount, Oct. 6, [1714] Correspondence o f A. Pope, ed. George Sherburn (1956), 5 V o l s . , I', pp'. 259 - 261. 2  3  S e e pp. 81 - 110.  4 Connely, p. 49. 5  I b i d . , p. 49.  6  I b i d . , p. 106.  38  soon became known to the Bath gambling w o r l d ; she, habituee o f the gaming t a b l e s , p l a y i n g h i g h any  i n t e r r u p t i o n w h i l e a t the  "not  resenting  than at p i q u e t  Goldsmith records  famed f o r her  an  t a b l e s ; the Duke, because  he would venture to p l a y no higher sixpence a game.  and  as  g e n e r o s i t y , " was  t h a t the  at  Duchess,  approached by Nash  i n the Assembly Rooms, for a s u b s c r i p t i o n to h i s H o s p i t a l . The  Duchess hedged, p r o t e s t e d  out o f her w i t s  t h a t she was  "frightened  -- t h a t she would d i e , " but  f i n a l l y after  much a l t e r c a t i o n , Nash agreed to compound w i t h her t h i r t y guineas.  Her  grace however, seemed  displeased  w i t h the whole evening, and when Nash approached t a b l e where she was crying, later,  "You  playing,  ugly d e v i l ;  she b i d him  I hate the  stand  not angry.  the  farther,  sight of youi"  a f t e r a run o f luck, she r e l e n t e d to the  o f adding another ten guineas,  "to l e t him  for  see  But  extent she  was  1,2  The  Malboroughs' f i r s t v i s i t o c c u r r e d  i n the h i s t o r y o f the  a t a moment  c i t y ' s development when the number  o f v i s i t o r s was  i n c r e a s i n g so r a p i d l y t h a t , i n order to  accommodate the  i n f l u x , the Assembly Rooms, under Dame 3  L m d s e y ' s management, had  J-See p.  10.  2  G o l d s m i t h , p.  3  S e e p.  9,.  542.  to be  expanded,  and  this  expansion  i n t u r n , by i n c r e a s i n g the f a c i l i t i e s  entertainment,  a t t r a c t e d an even g r e a t e r number o f  p e r s o n a l i t i e s eminent i n London s o c i e t y . visitors  an was  In  i n c l u d e d the Duchess o f Queensbury,  gouty a t f i f t y and foremost  l o s i n g h i s e y e s i g h t , but  comic d r a m a t i s t o f the age,"  " h y s t e r i c a l d i s o r d e r , " and Mrs. f l i r t i n g w i t h John Gay,  Mrs.  2  1721, Congreve, "still  the  Lady B r i s t o l f o r  Peggy Bradshaw  who  w h i l e the l a t t e r danced  attendance upon h i s then patroness, Shrewsbury.  for  Bradshaw was  the Duchess o f  c a r e f u l to r e c o r d the  d a i l y g o s s i p o f the p l a c e i n her correspondence, i n s p i t e o f her pronouncement t h a t Bath was and  nonsense."  " a l l noise  J  Defoe r e t u r n e d to Bath i n the f o l l o w i n g year (1722) and was  more f a v o u r a b l y impressed  scene than he had been i n 1711. and  w i t h the  "Everything looks  social gay  serene here ... i t ' s a p l a c e of u n i v e r s a l s o b r i e t y ;  to be drunk a t Bath i s as scandalous  as mad."  He  however, h o r r i f i e d a t the s p e c t a c l e t h a t the baths the bathers p r e s e n t e d :  -•-See pp.  26 - 27.  2 Connely, p. 3  I b i d . , p.  66.  66.  "The  was and  smoke and slime of the waters,  the promiscuous m u l t i t u d e o f the people i n the bath, w i t h n o t h i n g but t h e i r heads and hands above the water," gave him a l i v e l y i d e a o f c e r t a i n F r a A n g e l i c o p a i n t i n g s he had seen i n I t a l y :  "Of Purgatory, w i t h heads and hands  u p l i f t e d i n the midst o f smoke, j u s t as they are here."-*Lady Hervey v i s i t e d the c i t y i n 1725, remark on the many "well-conducted p l e a s u r e s "  and her 2  t h a t she  found t h e r e stands i n marked c o n t r a s t to the impression o f Bath s o c i e t y g i v e n i n G a b r i e l O d i n g s e l l ' s  satirical  comedy, The Bath Unmask'd, w r i t t e n and produced i n t h i s same year; conformed  and whether or not Odingsells'-. p r e s e n t a t i o n to f a c t ,  i t was w r i t t e n a t the v e r y time when  the p r e s t i g e o f Bath was b e i n g enhanced by the patronage which r o y a l v i s i t o r s now began to extend to the c i t y . The  f i r s t o f these was  Lady Walsingham, daughter o f George  I and the Duchess o f K e n d a l l , her v i s i t  4  and Nash took advantage o f  to a c c e l e r a t e the pace o f the d i v e r s i o n s i n 5  order to encourage  f u r t h e r r o y a l patronage.  Before the  a r r i v a l o f P r i n c e s s Amelia i n 1728, which d i d much to x  T o u r , quoted by Connely, p. 70 from the 1722  edition.  2 Lady Hervey t o Mrs. Howard S u f f o l k , quoted by Connely, p. 81. 3  4  S e e pp. 117 - .119. S h e became the w i f e o f Lord C h e s t e r f i e l d i n 1732.  •^Connely, p. 81.  enhance the c i t y ' s r e p u t a t i o n ,  notable v i s i t o r s  Fanny Braddock.  " a f f a i r e " o f Fanny  The d i s a s t r o u s  included  Braddock, and Nash's u n a v a i l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n on her b e h a l f , were recounted by both Goldsmith  p  and John  3  Wood,  and may have been the b a s i s o f F i e l d i n g ' s  "History  o f Mrs. F i t z p a t r i c k " i n Tom Jones,^ an episode which  intro-  duces Nash i n person i n t o the n o v e l . In the same year t h a t P r i n c e s s Amelia the c i t y ,  visited  S w i f t spent t e n days a t Bath w h i l e the Beggar's  Opera was b e i n g performed  t h e r e , Gay h i m s e l f b e i n g p r e s e n t  5  for the o c c a s i o n ;  and Lord O r r e r y a r r i v e d i n 1730, when  Thayer's Rooms were opened f o r the purpose o f accommodating the dancers.^  But O r r e r y was n o t impressed by what he saw  o f the dancing.  He seemed to n o t i c e o n l y the e l d e r l y ,  "the Methusalems and Abrahams," who "dance w i t h as much v i g o u r a t the baths as i f they had f l o u r i s h e d i n a courant a t C h a r l e s the Second's r e s t o r a t i o n . "  Apart from these,  and the " a n t i d i l u v i a n s o f l e s s e r note and fewer y e a r s , " Barbeau,  p. 83.  " L i f e o f R i c h a r d Nash," pp. 533 - 536.  2  3  446  Essay Towards a D e s c r i p t i o n o f Bath, x i i , pp. - 452. 4  S e e pp. 188 - 189.  5  S e e p. 12 3. See p. 10-.  Lord O r r e r y was "Mr.  s t r u c k by l i t t l e e l s e than the s i g h t o f  P i t t w i t h a swinging  a d i f f e r e n t way  cane,, and two  eyes each l o o k i n g  ... and many l o r d s , p i c k p o c k e t s , broken  merchants and d i s c o n s o l a t e widows."1 Nevertheless,  the c i t y continued to develop as a  p l a c e o f entertainment w i t h the r e - b u i l d i n g o f the Pump Room i n 1732  i n time to welcome P r i n c e s s Amelia  second v i s i t ) ,  i n t h a t year.  The p r i n c e s s bore Nash no  grudge f o r the f a c t t h a t , on her  f i r s t v i s i t , he  r e f u s e d to a l l o w her to continue dancing, her p l e a d i n g , a f t e r eleven o'clock, he d e c l a r e d , b e i n g  "as changeless  had  i n spite of  "the laws o f  as the laws of  The P r i n c e o f Orange a r r i v e d two Goldsmith  (on her  years  Bath," Lycurgus.  later.  r e c o r d s t h a t the P r i n c e showed g r e a t favour  to Nash, f o l l o w e d the cure, and  i n g r a t i t u d e for recovered  h e a l t h , presented him w i t h a j e w e l l e d snuff-box.  Nash  responded by having an o b e l i s k s e t up to commemorate the Prince's  visit.  3  Bath was and  c e r t a i n l y gaining rapidly i n prestige  i n r e p u t a t i o n , but t h a t t h i s r e p u t a t i o n was  not for  p a r t i c u l a r l y s o l i d q u a l i t i e s i s suggested by a French commentator d u r i n g the same year.  Quoted by Connely, pp. Connely, p. Goldsmith,  89. p.  542.  95 - 96.  1  43 The Abbe' Antoine Prevost, author o f Memo i r e s e t aventures d'un homme de q u a l i t e ,  1  and t r a n s l a t o r o f  many E n g l i s h works i n c l u d i n g Richardson's f l e d t o England  n o v e l s , had  i n 1723 when h i s B e n e d i c t i n e s u p e r i o r s  a t St. Germain-des-Pres d e t a i n e d a l e t t r e de cachet a g a i n s t him.  In 1733,  again i n England,  he made a tour  o f the country's w a t e r i n g - p l a c e s , which he d e s c r i b e d as "perhaps o f a l l p l a c e s i n the w o r l d those i n which p l e a s u r e s are most l a v i s h l y m u l t i p l i e d and continue with least interruption.  1 , 2  He v i s i t e d Bath i n 1734,  and the impressions he recorded r e v e a l the way i n which an experienced and w i d e l y t r a v e l l e d Frenchman o f t h a t p e r i o d r e a c t e d t o the f r i v o l i t i e s o f Bath  life:  We s h a l l f i n d here a t a l l times, Beauties o f a l l ages who come t o show o f f t h e i r charms, young g i r l s and widows i n quest o f Husbands, married women who seek s o l a c e f o r the unpleasant Ones they possess, P l a y e r s making o r becomi n g Dupes, Musicians, Dancers, A c t o r s , growing r i c h on the p l e a s u r e f o r which o t h e r s pay, and s h a r i n g i t w i t h them; f i n a l l y , Dealers i n a l l kinds o f Jewels, d e l i c a c i e s , and g a l l a n t r i e s , t a k i n g advantage o f a k i n d o f enchantment which b l i n d s every one i n these realms o f enjoyment, t o s e l l f o r t h e i r weight i n g o l d t r i f l e s one i s ashamed o f having brought a f t e r l e a v i n g the p l a c e . 3  1-Abbe Antoine Prevost, Memoires e t aventures d'un homme de q u a l i t e . P u b l i c a t i o n began i n 1728, V o l . V I I , c o n t a i n e d Manon Lescaut (1731). 2 . >" Abbe Antoine Prevost, Le Pour e t Contre (1733 - 1740), 20 V o l s . , No. 38. Quoted by Barbeau, p. 80, note 3. Le Pour e t Contre, No. 38. Quoted by Barbeau, p. 80.  44 In  s p i t e o f so much l e v i t y e x h i b i t e d , the charms  of  the p l a c e were not l o s t upon the Abbe", who  at  the l a c k o f f o r m a l i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t s s o c i e t y .  " I t i s d i f f i c u l t , " he wrote,  was  delighted  "to imagine a n y t h i n g more  agreeable than the easy and f a m i l i a r l i f e t h a t every one adopts;and  indeed, even the most h i g h - r a n k i n g v i s i t o r s  experienced the contagion o f the c i t y ' s g a i e t y and appeared w i l l i n g to enter i n t o the s p i r i t o f the l i f e there, and t h i s i n an age noted f o r i t s u s u a l l y r i g i d  class  distinc-  tions . Those eminent members o f the n o b i l i t y who the  frequented  spa f o r reasons o f h e a l t h or p l e a s u r e a l s o added  and v i v a c i t y to the scene. t i e s was  colour  Prominent among such p e r s o n a l i -  the E a r l o f C h e s t e r f i e l d whose views and comments  on the scene c o n t r i b u t e to the sum o f impressions t h a t have s u r v i v e d .  contemporary  Chesterfield paid a  y e a r l y v i s i t to the spa, and much o f h i s correspondence i s dated from Bath, i n c l u d i n g a number o f the l e t t e r s to 2 his  son.  In a d d i t i o n to t a k i n g the cure, C h e s t e r f i e l d  Le Pour e t Contre, No.  38.  Quoted by Barbeau, p. 80.  2  E a r l o f C h e s t e r f i e l d , L e t t e r s , ed. Lord Mahon (1892), and L e t t e r s to h i s Son, P h i l i p Stanhope, Esq. (1774). A l s o dated from Bath are the o b i t u a r y n o t i c e s o f Montesquieu and F o n t a n e l l e , which he sent to the London Evening Post i n 1755 and 1765 (Barbeau, p. 86, note 1 ) .  enjoyed the s o c i a l p l e a s u r e s o f the Assembly Rooms, v i s i t e d Lady Huntingdon's chapel o u t o f c u r i o s i t y ! (his  s i s t e r was a f e r v e n t M e t h o d i s t ) , and was so f a r  regarded as a Bathonian  as t o be appointed  one o f  the f i r s t governors o f the M i n e r a l Water H o s p i t a l . ^ He was p a t r o n i z i n g i n h i s a t t i t u d e t o R i c h a r d Nash, whom he found a somewhat r i d i c u l o u s  person:  Nash ... gave a b a l l a t Lindsey's ... he wore h i s g o l d - l a c e d c l o t h e s on t h i s o c c a s i o n , and looked so f i n e t h a t , s t a n d i n g by chance i n the middle o f the dancers, he was taken by many a t a d i s t a n c e f o r a g i l t g a r l a n d . 3  On h i s v i s i t  o f 1734, C h e s t e r f i e l d w i t h h i s w i f e ,  the German-speaking Countess o f Walsingham,4 was welcomed w i t h a p e a l o f b e l l s , and Nash c a l l e d upon the E a r l a t his  home, where a t the time were gathered such n o t a b l e s  as Pope, w i t h Martha Blount, Lady S u f f o l k and Bolingbroke. C h e s t e r f i e l d ' s 1738 v i s i t had a p o l i t i c a l I t was a move on the p a r t o f P i t t ,  Cobham, L y t t l e t o n ,  Bubb Doddington and C h e s t e r f i e l d h i m s e l f ^ —  a l l o f whom  1  See  2  S e e p. 10.  3  C h e s t e r f i e l d t o Lady S u f f o l k , L e t t e r s , O c t . I I , p. 14.  1734, 4  motive.  p. 50.  S e e p. 40.  5  Connely,  p. 103.  6  I b i d . , p. 114.  30,  were opponents o f the Walpole m i n i s t r y —  to support  F r e d e r i c k P r i n c e o f Wales a g a i n s t the King.  The reason  g i v e n f o r i n v i t i n g the P r i n c e and P r i n c e s s to Bath was to c e l e b r a t e the b i r t h o f F r e d e r i c k ' s h e i r . wrote i n connection  Chesterfield  w i t h the r o y a l v i s i t t h a t the p a r t y  needed a p l a c e to muster a n t i - m i n i s t e r i a l f o r c e s , and f o r planning operations.^  He mentions t h a t he chose Bath  because " t h i s e l e g a n t  town much resembles the Bajae o f  the l u x u r i o u s Romans.  L i k e t h a t , i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  i t s waters, i t s magnificence and i t s p l e a s u r e s .  Itis  there t h a t twice a year h e a l t h , d i v e r s i o n s , p o l i t i c s and p l a y , a t t r a c t what i s c a l c u l a t e d b e s t  company.  1,2  C h e s t e r f i e l d made use o f Nash i n p r e p a r i n g f o r the event, a c e l e b r a t i o n t h a t was to exceed any f e s t i v i t i e s ever seen a t Bath.  The r o y a l couple were met a t  the c i t y gates by the mayor and c o r p o r a t i o n who  preceded  them bareheaded i n a p r o c e s s i o n  lodging  t o the P r i n c e ' s  i n Queen Square, where the company, hands. the with and  i n c l u d i n g Nash, k i s s e d  In the evening a grand b a l l marked the opening o f  festivities,  and the town l a t e r presented  an address, w h i l s t the l a t t e r presented s a l v e r t o the c i t y ,  the P r i n c e a s i l v e r cup  and a goId-enamelled snuff-box t o  a r l o f C h e s t e r f i e l d , M i s c e l l a n e o u s Works: t o which are p r e f i x e d Memoirs o f h i s L i f e . By M. Maty (1778), 2 V o l s . , I, p. 88. ^Miscellaneous  Works, I, p_. 88.  Nash.  Nash's g r a t i t u d e f o r t h i s r o y a l favour and f o r the  success  o f the v i s i t was expressed  by an o b e l i s k i n Queen  Square,^ twice as high as t h a t e r e c t e d f o r the P r i n c e o f Orange.  Since Nash c o n s i d e r e d  that only a t r u l y  great  w r i t e r c o u l d be c a l l e d upon f o r an i n s c r i p t i o n f o r the o b e l i s k , he decided finally,  t o ask Pope t o w r i t e one.  The l a t t e r  and most r e l u c t a n t l y y i e l d e d to Nash's i n s i s t e n c e ,  but sent only, such an i n s c r i p t i o n as "scarce a Common Councilman i n the C o r p o r a t i o n o f Bath b u t c o u l d have done as well.'"^ mentioned.  Pope s t i p u l a t e d t h a t h i s name should not be 3  In the same year Nash, a t the h e i g h t o f h i s g l o r y , was showered w i t h g i f t s o f snuff-boxes  from noble v i s i t o r s  and a f u l l - l e n g t h p o r t r a i t o f him was p l a c e d i n the Assembly Rooms between the busts o f Newton and Pope, which event l e d to  the penning o f the f o l l o w i n g epigram: Immortal Newton never spoke More t r u t h than here y o u ' l l f i n d ; Nor Pope h i m s e l f e'er penn'd a joke Sever'r on mankind. The p i c t u r e p l a c ' d the busts between, Gives s a t y r i t s f u l l s t r e n g t h , Wisdom and w i t are l i t t l e seen But f o l l y a t f u l l l e n g t h .  IConnely, pp. 115 - 116. 2  G o l d s m i t h , p. 543.  Pope, L e t t e r s to Nash o f [ ? A p r i l , 1739] and o f [c.15 May, 1739], Correspondence o f Alexander Pope, ed. G. Sherburn, IV, p. 170 and IV, p. 176, a l s o quoted by Goldsmith, p. 543. 3  48 I t has never been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t these l i n e s were a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n by C h e s t e r f i e l d . G o l d s m i t h 1 2 i n h i s b i o g r a p h y o f Nash, and R i c h a r d Graves claim t h a t t h e y were, and t h e i r o p i n i o n has r e c e i v e d p o p u l a r 3 s u p p o r t , but Peach a t t r i b u t e s t h e v e r s e s t o Jane B r e r e t o n , k a c o n t r i b u t o r t o The Gentleman's Magazine. C h e s t e r f i e l d r e t a i n e d a b r i l l i a n t p l a c e i n Bath s o c i e t y even when d e a f n e s s was making i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r him  t o remain a c t i v e i n p u b l i c l i f e .  Even though he  s t a t e d i n 1752:, " J e s u i s revenu des B a i n s t o u t  aussi  f  f  sourd que j ' y s u i s a l l e ; j e n ' a i p l u s d'esperance ®t s  y  me v o i c i b i f f e pour t o u j o u r s de l a s o c i e t e . "  5  Horace  l " L i f e o f R. Nash," p.544. p R. Graves, Festoons ( 1 7 6 6 ) , p. 36. A . Barbeau i n L i f e and L e t t e r s a t Bath i n t h e X V I I I t h C e n t u r y . p.~~4"3, n o t e 1, a t t r i b u t e s t h e l i n e s to C h e s t e r f i e l d . 3  ^""It i s c l e a r t h a t C h e s t e r f i e l d has no c l a i m t o t h e i r authorship." They " a r e t o be found i n V o l . I o f Soutthey's Specimens o f L a t e r E n g l i s h V e r s e , p. 392 and were w r i t t e n by Jane B r e r e t o n , who d i e d i n 1740." Peach quotes v e r s e 2, 2 a s : "Adds t o t h e thought much s t r e n g t h . " He adds t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , w h i c h was i n r e a l i t y a s t a t u e , was not i n e x i s t e n c e u n t i l many y e a r s a f t e r t h e v e r s e s were w r i t t e n . ( L i f e and Times o f Ralph A l l e n , pp. 223-224). ^ C h e s t e r f i e l d , L e t t e r LXIX, Dec. 18, 1752, M i s c e l l a n e o u s Works, I I , p. 205.  49 Walpole wrote o f him t h r e e years l a t e r :  "While England and  France are a t war, and Mr. Fox and Mr. P i t t going to war, his  l o r d s h i p i s c o o l l y amusing h i m s e l f a t p i c q u e t a t  Bath."^  So f u l l y ,  indeed, d i d he remain an o u t s t a n d i n g  f i g u r e i n s o c i e t y , t h a t i n h i s o l d age the younger generat i o n modelled themselves upon him, as a p e r f e c t type o f the  p o l i t e n e s s , the f i n e manners,  and the w i t o f the p a s t .  2  Since 18th century Bath was "a complete p i c t u r e in  l i t t l e of English society,  3  i t must i n e v i t a b l y  experi-  ence t o some measure t h a t movement which s t i r r e d the whole country and which was e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i t h e t i c a l to the main c u r r e n t o f 18th century l i f e and thought, t h a t o f Methodism. A band o f a p o s t l e s suddenly appeared among the assemblage of i d l e r s , f r i b b l e s and l i b e r t i n e s ; above the d i n o f t h i s V a n i t y F a i r r i s e v o i c e s , f e r v e n t and a u s t e r e ; Wesley elbows Nash on the Parades; and i n the p u b l i c s t r e e t s , b e f o r e a mocking or a h o s t i l e crowd, unbidden preachers speak o f s a l v a t i o n and judgement, o f the w o r l d t h a t passeth away and o f l i f e e v e r l a s t i n g . ^ John and Charles Wesley had l a t e l y opened a chapel i n B r i s t o l , whence they proceeded to Bath i n 1739.  John  preached there s e v e r a l times b e f o r e l a r g e and mixed crowds,  L e t t e r s o f Horace Walpole, ed. Peter Cunningham 9 V o l s . , I I , p. 480, March 29, 1755. 1  2  Barbeau, p. 87.  3  I b i d . , p. 152.  4  I b i d . , p. 153.  (1891),  although Nash t r i e d , w i t h o u t success, t o i n t e r r u p t the meetings.  R i c h a r d Graves, i n h i s S p i r i t u a l Quixote,  recounts an i n c i d e n t , p o s s i b l y f i c t i t i o u s ,  i n which  Nash even e n l i s t e d h i s O r c h e s t r a , ^ r e i n f o r c e d by French horns and kettle-drums t o p l a y "God Save the K i n g , " secure i n the b e l i e f t h a t no one would dare t o i n t e r r u p t o  "so l o y a l a p i e c e o f music."^ But i n t h a t same year there a r r i v e d a t Bath a formidable personage, Huntingdon,  the g r e a t S e l i n a , Countess o f  the a r i s t o c r a t i c champion o f Methodism.  Nash, n o t d a r i n g t o a f f r o n t so p a t r i c i a n a convert, went so f a r as to l i s t e n to W h i t e f i e l d i n her house, but found h i m s e l f a t once, and to h i s g r e a t annoyance, the t a r g e t o f b r o a d s i d e s and o f s a t i r i c a l v e r s e s i n the Pump Room. He was t o be known h e n c e f o r t h as the Rev. R i c h a r d Nash, who had promised h i s f i r s t sermon on the morrow.  Nash  had now i n c u r r e d d e f e a t both by opposing evangelism and i n countenancing i t , Huntingdon's  house.  and a b r u p t l y ceased c a l l i n g a t Lady 4  !See p. 25. ^R. Graves, The S p i r i t u a l Quixote (1773), e d i t i o n o f 1967, p. 145. The n o v e l uses Bath s e t t i n g s f o r a s a t i r i c a a t t a c k upon Methodism. Her husband was the f r i e n d o f Ralph A l l e n , Pope and W. Warburton. 3  4  C o n n e l y , p. 144.  51 T h i s lady soon became an o u t s t a n d i n g f i g u r e i n Bath.  She r e t u r n e d there i n 1747 and continued t o v i s i t  the c i t y d u r i n g the next f i f t y y e a r s .  In 1765 she b u i l t  her famous c h a p e l i n the Paragon where, a f t e r 1766, f r e q u e n t l y preached.''"  Wesley  A f e a r l e s s , domineering, yet sympa-  t h e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y , Lady Huntingdon, whether  i n London or  at Bath, a t t r a c t e d a h o s t o f o u t s t a n d i n g 18th century p e r s o n a l i t i e s to d i s c u s s r e l i g i o n and t o l i s t e n to Wesley 2  and W h i t e f i e l d .  Among these were the Duchess o f Malborough,  Lady S u f f o l k , Chatham, Horace Walpole and C h e s t e r f i e l d . Many came merely out o f c u r i o s i t y , but even C h e s t e r f i e l d was  moved to o f f e r h e r ^ 2 0 towards the b u i l d i n g o f a  tabernacle."  "new  3  In Bath i t s e l f the number o f converts to Methodism seems to have been c o n s i d e r a b l e , as i s a t t e s t e d by the many l o c a l s c r i b b l e r s who their  facile wit.  made Methodism  the b u t t o f  And, as the century progressed, even  ••-Barbeau, p. 162. See Plan o f Bath, (26) . 2 From 1752 onward, W h i t e f i e l d preached o f t e n a t Bath. Southey's L i f e o f Wesley (1820), (Barbeau, p. 158 and note 9) . Quoted by Barbeau, p. 159, and note 1. Barbeau gives as h i s source, L i f e and Times o f S e l i n a , Countess o f Huntingdon, by a member o f the Houses o f S h i r l e y and Hastings, who quotes a l e t t e r , C h e s t e r f i e l d to Lady Huntingdon, June 18, 1749, which i s not given i n the M i s c e l l a n e o u s Works or i n Mahon's or Bradshaw's e d i t i o n o f h i s correspondence.  at  Bath,  "that centre o f f r i v o l i t y , "  the f a r - r e a c h i n g  e f f e c t s o f the movement came t o be f e l t , and began t o e x e r c i s e a sobering  i n f l u e n c e on i t s s o c i a l l i f e .  process was a very gradual 18th  century,  one, b u t by the c l o s e o f the  the once d i s s o l u t e r e s o r t may w e l l have  undergone the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n itself.  The  t h a t was t o change England  Barbeau i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t a reformed Bath may  be one o f the reasons t h a t  "the b i r d s o f passage she was  wont to a t t r a c t " then deserted her. ^ The  more profound e f f e c t s o f t h i s s p i r i t , however,  were by no means apparent i n the d a i l y round o f amusement t h a t p r e o c c u p i e d the great m a j o r i t y o f v i s i t o r s  during  the decade f o l l o w i n g Wesley's appearance a t the spa. There loomed, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  a t t h i s time, a s e r i o u s  t h r e a t t o the p r o s p e r i t y and p o p u l a r i t y o f Bath, when stringent parliamentary  l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t the e v i l s  o f gambling was passed i n the years 1739, 1740 and 1745. I t was a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o a s t i l l v i t a l and  s p e l t , i n the long run,  social  activity,  d i s a s t e r to R i c h a r d Nash, who  began to experience f i n a n c i a l l o s s e s from which he never recovered.  Although gambling g r a d u a l l y ceased t o be the  paramount a t t r a c t i o n t h a t Bath c o u l d o f f e r , d u r i n g the  Barbeau, p. 167.  1740's i t was s t i l l her b i g g e s t a s s e t .  Ingenious  minds  began d e v i s i n g methods o f circumventing the gaming laws as q u i c k l y as the A c t s came i n t o f o r c e , u n t i l  finally,  a k i n d o f s i m p l i f i e d r o u l e t t e , c a l l e d E 0 (Even and Odd) was invented a t Tunbridge W e l l s .  I t s i d e - s t e p p e d the  law simply by s u b s t i t u t i n g l e t t e r s f o r numbers. i n t r o d u c e d E 0 t o W i l t s h i r e ' s Rooms, and Bath  Nash  immediately  took on a new lease o f l i f e when gamblers from a l l p a r t s o f England  f l o c k e d to the new game, secure i n t h e i r  belief  t h a t i t was w i t h i n the law. Whether i n Simpson's or i n W i l t s h i r e ' s , by the dim l i g h t o f the candelabra, the r a t t l e o f d i c e , the s h u f f l e o f cards, the c l i n k o f g l a s s e s , the j i n g l e o f c o i n , mingled w i t h the r i p p l e o f b a l l s a t E O. 1  At the same time the p r e s t i g e o f the c i t y was maintained because r o y a l v i s i t o r s continued to extend t h e i r patronage  to i t .  In 1740, P r i n c e s s e s Mary o f  Hesse, and C a r o l i n a v i s i t e d the c i t y ;  i n 1746 P r i n c e s s e s  C a r o l i n a and Augusta attended a c o r o n a t i o n b a l l t h e r e , w h i l e 1752 saw the v i s i t o f Augusta and the Duke o f York. Of much weight i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o honour the c i t y was the f a c t t h a t r a p i d and s t r i k i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l progress was t r a n s f o r m i n g Bath i n t o an imposing  Connely,  p. 128.  See pp.. 8 - 9.  and b e a u t i f u l c i t y .  2  54 T h i s development,  o f the utmost  importance t o leaders o f  s o c i e t y i n an age o f elegance, both quickened the i n t e r e s t of r o y a l v i s i t o r s , But apart during at  and i n s p i r e d t h e i r patronage.^ from i t s elegance, s o c i e t y as a whole,  t h i s p e r i o d , does not seem to have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d  Bath by any m a n i f e s t a t i o n  subjects o f conversation  o f t a l e n t or w i t .  A l l serious  were banished from the Pump Room  and the Parades, as having no p a r t i n the Bath season. Only t r i f l e s were o f i n t e r e s t , as i s demonstrated by the o u t - p o u r i n g o f thousands o f pamphlets, verses  "valueless i n proportion  m i s c e l l a n i e s and  to the s l i g h t n e s s o f the  i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t t h a t produced them.  1,2  Even i f one makes allowance f o r the a s p e r i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e d her comments on s o c i a l l i f e , Mrs. E l i z a b e t h Montagu's o p i n i o n on the matter may be accepted. "I  t h i n k " she wrote  i n 1740,  t h a t one may l i v e here (at Bath) a t as s m a l l expense o f w i t as i n any p l a c e I ever was i n my l i f e , and by a l l the r u l e s o f economy, the disbursement b e a r i n g p r o p o r t i o n to the r e c e i v i n g s , one ought to l a y o u t very l i t t l e . 3  Connely, p. 126. 2 Barbeau, p. 110.  See pp. m  -.115.  3  E l i z a b e t h Montagu, L e t t e r s p u b l i s h e d by Matthew Montagu, E s q . (1809), 4 V o l s . L e t t e r o f Jan. 1740, I, "p. "907 • (Barbeau, .p. I l l ) .  Yet, once again, commentators on the Bath scene o f the 1740's and 1750's d i f f e r w i d e l y i n t h e i r ments.  pronounce-  R.E.M. Peach, w r i t i n g some one hundred and f i f t y  years l a t e r , was shocked a t the immorality p r e v a i l i n g a t Bath i n the 1740's.  "The age was t r u l y a v i c i o u s one,  and the worst o f i t s v i c e s cumulated  i n Bath."  Although  i t was an age "not a l t o g e t h e r incompatible w i t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e v i r t u e , "  "these were d i f f i c u l t amidst so  much p r o f l i g a c y and so many shameless v i c e s . "  1  G.  Monkland, on the o t h e r hand, w r i t i n g i n 1852, maintained t h a t Nash, a man o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y a b i l i t y ,  to have l e d  and governed Bath a t such a time (as the mid-18th  century)  must have possessed strong sense, sound judgment and 2 wonderful t a c t . In 1752, Lady Luxborough,  a s i s t e r o f Lord  Bolingbroke, was t r y i n g t o persuade her f r i e n d W i l l i a m Shenstone,  to j o i n her a t Bath.  Her l e t t e r ,  i n marked  c o n t r a s t t o the comments o f Peach, suggests t h a t there was much i n Bath l i f e a t the time t h a t was a t t r a c t i v e and c o n g e n i a l .  "We can o f f e r you," she t e l l s  Shenstone:  F r i e n d l y conversations, f r i e n d l y springs, f r i e n d l y r i d e s and walks, f r i e n d l y p a s t u r e s t o d i s s i p a t e gloomy  •"-R.E.M. Peach, L i f e and Times o f Ralph A l l e n , p. 219. 2 G. Monkland, " L i t e r a t u r e and L i t e r a t i o f Bath;" an essay r e a d a t the L i t e r a r y Club ,(1854') , p. 86.  56 thoughts, f r i e n d l y b o o k s e l l e r s who ... w i l l f u r n i s h you w i t h a l l the new books, f r i e n d l y chairmen who w i l l c a r r y you through storm and tempest f o r sixpence and seldom l e s s — f o r Duchesses t r e a d the s t r e e t s here unattended. We have a l s o f r i e n d l y O t h e l l o s , F a l s t a f f s , R i c h a r d I l l ' s and H a r l e q u i n s , who e n t e r t a i n one d a i l y f o r h a l f the p r i c e o f your G a r r i c k s , Barrys and R i c h ' s . We can a l s o o f f e r you f r i e n d l y s o l i t u d e , f o r one can be a n c h o r i t e here w i t h o u t b e i n g d i s t u r b e d by the q u e s t i o n 'Why?' Would you see the f o r t u n a t e Mr. A l l e n , h i s f i n e house and stone q u a r r i e s ? Would you see our law-giver, Mr. Nash, whose white hat commands more r e s p e c t and nonr e s i s t a n c e than the crowns o f some k i n g s ? To promote s o c i e t y and good manners, and a c o a l i t i o n o f p a r t i e s and ranks, to suppress s c a n d a l and l a t e hours are h i s views, and he succeeds r a t h e r b e t t e r than h i s b r o t h e r monarchs g e n e r a l l y d o . l Very s i m i l a r to the Abbe P r e v o s t ' s impressions r e c o r d e d i n 1734, the  to the e f f e c t t h a t he was  charmed at  easy and f a m i l i a r mode o f l i f e he found a t Bath,  another French Abbe, Monsieur Le Blanc, i n d e s c r i b i n g his  impressions o f Bath i n 1745,  found t h a t , u n l i k e the  waters o f Bourbon, where o n l y i n f i r m , p a r a l y t i c v a l e t u d i n a r i a n persons were to be seen, Bath was  and the  p l a c e i n a l l England, to enjoy good h e a l t h and to t u r n i t to good a c c o u n t . the  2  As compared w i t h those o f London,  Abbe found t h a t the l a d i e s v.;„.'. • . a t Bath were no  longer r e s e r v e d and i n a c c e s s i b l e , but g e n t l e and easy with strangers.  -••Letter to W.  "As a r u l e , a p a r t y o f E n g l i s h women  Shenstone,  quoted by Connely, pp. 152  -  153. o  /  ''Abbe Le Blanc, L e t t r e s d'un F r a n c o i s , La Haye (1745) , 3 Vols. L e t t e r LXXXVIII, I I I , p. 310. (Barbeau, p. 12, note 2 ) .  57  t a k i n g t e a , i s a r a t h e r d u l l assembly" he "The most g a l l a n t o f men  continued.  are shy o f p r e s e n t i n g them-  s e l v e s to such a company who  speak v e r y l i t t l e  unless  s l a n d e r loosens t h e i r tongues," whereas a t Bath,  "the  T e a - P a r t i e s are extremely gay."''" The Abbe' Le Blanc has a theory as to the reason t h a t women a t Bath  "are indeed d i f f e r e n t b e i n g s " when,  because o f the wearisome u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e i r o r d i n a r y life,  they leave London f o r the spa.  A visit  to the  spa i s v e r y p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t o f s i x months o f i n t r i g u e and c o n s i d e r a t i o n . illness,  "The  fair  p a t i e n t has had to f e i g n  to win over the s e r v a n t s , to c o r r u p t the doctor,  to persuade  an aunt, to deceive a husband," so she  n a t u r a l l y seeks compensation has taken.  He concludes t h a t  f o r a l l the t r o u b l e she "pleasure i s a l l the more  a t t r a c t i v e to Englishwomen i n t h a t i t i s u n f a m i l i a r to them, and t h a t i t c o s t s them a-good d e a l . "  T h e i r melan-  c h o l y temperament, which o f t e n r e s t r a i n s them from p l e a s u r e , must make them more keenly a l i v e to i t when they once g i v e themselves  up to i t . "  As f o r the young men who come here  x  "to take a course as i t were, i n p r o f l i g a c y , "  Blanc, No.  LXXXVIII, pp.  312  - 313.  (Barbeau, p. 82).  L e t t r e s d'un F r a n c o i s , LXXXVIII, I I I , pp... - 313. (Barbeau, p. 82, note 1).  2  312  Le  frequent the spa: they  . „  and c o n s i d e r a season a t Bath the l a s t t r a i n i n g necessary b e f o r e approaching London.-'-  " I t i s here," says the Abbe  Le Blanc, "that s u c c e s s f u l l i b e r t i n e s come from a l l q u a r t e r s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s , " and "he who has a t t r a c t e d much a t t e n t i o n i n the autumn a t Bath w i l l i n f a l l i b l y make a season i n London the f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r . He e x c i t e s the c u r i o s i t y o f Duchesses,  and i s observed  o f a l l the women o f the Court.  1 , 2  ^Barbeau,  p. 108.  L e t t r e s d'un F r a n g o i s , LXXXVIII, (Barbeau, p. 108, note 3 ) . 2  I I I , p. 312.  IV SOCIAL LIFE AT PRIOR PARK Ralph A l l e n as a P e r s o n a l i t y "In  the f r i v o l o u s Bath o f Beau Nash A l l e n r e p r e -  sents the s o l i d q u a l i t i e s and the v i r t u e s o f p r i v a t e life."  He  i s a t the same time, the g r e a t c i v i c  figure,^  and although Mayor o f Bath o n l y once, he e x e r c i s e d , his  until  death, a commanding i n f l u e n c e upon the a f f a i r s o f the  cxty. Although the b u i l d i n g s and grounds o f h i s great mansion, house was  P r i o r Park, were n o t completed b e f o r e 1743, opened i n 1741,  and i n t h i s same year Ralph  A l l e n established a p a r t i c u l a r pattern of s o c i a l for  life  h i m s e l f and f o r a number o f o u t s t a n d i n g 18th century  p e r s o n a l i t i e s , a p a t t e r n which was in  the  1764.  to l a s t u n t i l h i s death  With the p a s s i n g o f the Maecenas o f Bath, a  unique phase  i n her s o c i a l h i s t o r y a l s o ended.  R.E.M.  Peach says t h a t the s o c i a l l i f e a t P r i o r Park, i n a d d i t i o n to  b e i n g unique i n c h a r a c t e r , was  o f a " s p e c i a l and p e c u l i a r  R.A.L. Smith, Bath, p. 66. 2 F.H. Dudden, Henry F i e l d i n g : H i s L i f e , Works and Times (1952), 2 V o l s . , I, p. 408. 3 See pp. 21 - 22.  60 historical significance."  1  That i t c o u l d e x i s t a t a l l ,  l e t alone continue a t such a h i g h  l e v e l of excellence  f o r 22 years, was due to the combination o f p r o d i g i o u s m a t e r i a l means, w i t h the r a r e p e r s o n a l i t y and the e x t r a o r d i n a r y q u a l i t i e s o f the master o f the house.  A  r e a l i z a t i o n o f why t h i s l i f e was unique i s impossible unless  i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d as an e x p r e s s i o n  of Allen's  personality. Henry F i e l d i n g ' s t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d  "likeness" of  2  A l l e n , as Squire A l l w o r t h y has  i n Tom Jones  i s t h a t which  made the w i d e s t appeal t o the imagination  of posterity,  and was everywhere regarded as a p o r t r a i t by those who knew him p e r s o n a l l y . F r a n c i s K i l v e r t , w r i t i n g a hundred years declared, out  "at the d i s t a n c e o f a century  later,  he s t i l l  i n b o l d r e l i e f as "The Man o f B a t h ' , "  says t h a t the marvellous charm o f A l l e n ' s  4  stands  w h i l e Peach personal  c h a r a c t e r was " e s t a b l i s h e d by a l a r g e and v a r i e d body o f competent and independent w i t n e s s e s . " ^ x  L i f e and Times o f Ralph A l l e n , p. 129.  2  S e e pp. 167 - 182.  ^Wilbur Cross, H i s t o r y o f Henry F i e l d i n g (1918), 3 V o l s . , I I , p. 162. 4  Remains i n Prose and Verse:"Ralph A l l e n and P r i o r Park," p. 132. L i f e and Times o f Ralph A l l e n , Pre face ,vlL«:  r  K i l v e r t can f i n d o n l y one d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e among contemporaries  o f A l l e n who  commented upon h i s c h a r a c t e r .  P h i l i p Thicknesse, author o f the Prose Bath Guide f o r the Year  1778,  a man  notorious for h i s i r r i t a b l e ,  vindictive  and sometimes malevolent spirit"'' charged A l l e n w i t h a f f e c t i n g a s i m p l i c i t y o f manners and address, s a y i n g t h a t he was  "deeply charged w i t h p r i d e , and without  address enough to c o n c e a l i t , " even though h i s  "plain-  quaker-coloured s u i t o f c l o t h e s and s h i r t s l e e v e s w i t h o n l y a c h i t t e r l i n g up the s l i t , the v u l g a r eye."  might and d i d deceive  N e v e r t h e l e s s , h a v i n g been i n v i t e d to  "a most m a g n i f i c e n t dinner a t (Allen's) t a b l e , " Thicknesse concedes t h a t the man was  not mean and  "seemed to take  i n f i n i t e p a i n s to show h i s munificence i n a l l r e s p e c t s . Kilvert,  commenting on Thicknesse's c r i t i c i s m o f A l l e n ' s  dress, i s convinced t h a t ,  f a r from b e i n g d e c e p t i v e i n  i n t e n t , h i s a p p a r e l corresponded w i t h the g e n e r a l s o b r i e t y of A l l e n ' s c h a r a c t e r , s i n c e h i s countenance denoted  a steady  3  and sedate demeanour.  H i s d r e s s , i n an age  delighting  i n gay c o l o u r s and expensive m a t e r i a l s , c o n s i s t e d i n a Barbeau, p. 288,  note  4.  2  P. Thicknesse, Prose Bath Guide f o r the Year (1778?) quoted by K i l v e r t i n Remains, p. 172.  1778  3  K i l v e r t , Remains, p. 171. This d e s c r i p t i o n c o r r e s ponds w i t h W i l l i a m Hoare's drawing o f A l l e n now i n the p o s s e s s i o n o f the C o r p o r a t i o n o f the C i t y o f Bath.  p l a i n s u i t of broad-cloth,  g e n e r a l l y o f a dark c o l o u r ,  with  In s t r o n g c o n t r a s t , a t a s t e  linen equally plain.  f o r elegance was seen i n h i s "equipage," i n which he "maintained  a c e r t a i n s t a t e and d i g n i t y s u i t a b l e to h i s  mansion, h i s v i s i t o r s ,  and h i s g e n e r a l s t y l e o f l i v i n g ;  d r i v i n g commonly i n t o Bath, as i s r e p o r t e d , and  i n h i s coach  four."1 The  testimony  o f Bishop Hurd, who knew A l l e n w e l l ,  b e i n g a f r i e n d o f long s t a n d i n g and a frequent a t P r i o r Park, seems to bear out the g e n e r a l  visitor impression  t h a t A l l e n made upon h i s contemporaries: Mr. A l l e n was a man o f p l a i n good sense, and the most benevolent temper .... He was o f t h a t generous composit i o n t h a t h i s mind enlarged w i t h h i s f o r t u n e ; and the wealth he so honourably a c q u i r e d he spent i n a s p l e n d i d h o s p i t a l i t y and the most e x t e n s i v e c h a r i t i e s . H i s house, i n so p u b l i c a scene a s . t h a t o f Bath, was open t o a l l men o f rank and worth, and e s p e c i a l l y to men o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d p a r t s and l e a r n i n g , whom he honoured and encouraged, and whose r e s p e c t i v e merits he was enabled to a p p r e c i a t e by a n a t u r a l discernment and s u p e r i o r good sense, r a t h e r than any a c q u i r e d use and knowledge o f l e t t e r s . H i s domestic v i r t u e s were above a l l p r a i s e . With these q u a l i t i e s he drew to h i m s e l f u n i v e r s a l respect.2 Samuel D e r r i c k , w r i t i n g s h o r t l y b e f o r e A l l e n ' s death, confirms Hurd's o p i n i o n , and dwells upon A l l e n ' s g r a v i t y and courtesy,  and h i s amiable c h a r a c t e r ,  saying  t h a t he and h i s w i f e were "the parents o f the i n d u s t r i o u s  K i l v e r t , Remains, p. 171. 2  pp.  ''R. Hurd, L i f e o f Bishop War bur ton, quoted by K i l v e r t , 171 - 172.  poor, the p r o t e c t o r s o f the r e a l l y d i s t r e s s e d , and the nourishers  o f d i s t r e s s e d genius."-'-  studied i n vain  W i l l i a m Warburton  "to f i n d where A l l e n ' s weakness l a y , "  2  and when A l l e n d i e d i n 1764, h i s f r i e n d o f many years' standing,  W i l l i a m P i t t , p a i d the f o l l o w i n g t r i b u t e to  him  i n a l e t t e r to Mrs. A l l e n : "In Mr. A l l e n , mankind  has  l o s t such a benevolent and tender f r i e n d as, I f e a r ,  not a l l the example o f h i s v i r t u e s w i l l have power t o 3  r a i s e up to the w o r l d again."  There seem: to have c o -  e x i s t e d i n A l l e n two a p p a r e n t l y  contradictory  on the one hand, a p e r s o n a l  tendencies:  modesty and s i m p l i c i t y ,  sug-  g e s t i n g a d e s i r e to a v o i d p u b l i c i t y , and on the other, a d e s i r e f o r the s p e c t a c u l a r  as seen i n h i s mode o f l i v i n g ,  which he made p o s s i b l e by b u i l d i n g up a great d e l i b e r a t e l y f o r a d i s p l a y o f magnificence. calls his  " s p l e n d i d " h o s p i t a l i t y achieved  fortune  used  What Hurd  dimensions  s c a r c e l y e q u a l l e d elsewhere a t t h a t time i n England even i n the houses o f the landed Whig a r i s t o c r a t s , and t h i s S. D e r r i c k , l e t t e r o f May 10, 1763, quoted by K i l v e r t , Remains, p. 166. See a l s o p. 91. 2 Warburton, L e t t e r t o Doddridge, Feb. 1743, quoted by Barbeau, p. 248. W i l l i a m P i t t t o Mrs. A l l e n , 4 June, 1764, quoted by Peach, Preface ix:, from the Chatham Correspondence (1838 - 4 0 ) . 3  splendor  was  f r e q u e n t l y matched i n the great names or  the great merits o f the guests who to be  i n v i t e d to h i s house and The  r e c e p t i o n was  table.  l o r d l y , and A l l e n always  expected a l l guests from Bath who concerts  or to dinner,  in winter,  were o n l y too w i l l i n g  were i n v i t e d f o r  to s l e e p at the mansion;  he would have them accompanied by  watchmen or by  link-boys.^  which e n t e r t a i n i n g was  Yet,  despite  the warmth and  private  the s c a l e upon  maintained, there was  or r e p e l l i n g o s t e n t a t i o n towards guests,  and  who  no s t a t e l y f e l t always  s i n c e r i t y o f the welcome extended to them.  A l l e n , having no p a r t i c u l a r preference succeeded i n b r i n g i n g together d i f f e r i n g walks of l i f e ,  men  f o r rank or wealth,  and women o f w i d e l y  thus e f f a c i n g what Peach c a l l s  "the s t i f f and preposterous b a r r i e r s and t i e s by which s o c i e t y was  kept asunder."  conventionali3  I t becomes apparent t h a t P r i o r Park was  an  pensable component o f t h a t unique phenomenon t h a t 18th  century  Bath.  opportunities  Whilst  and  I b i d . , p. L i f e and  century  o f necessity,, a t r a n s i e n t s o c i e t y  a l o o s e l y organized  Peach, L i f e and  was  the c i t y c o u l d o f f e r m u l t i f o l d  f o r encounters between eminent 18th  p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i t was,  indis-  community, whereas A l l e n d e l i b e r -  Times, p.  130. Times, p.  129.  130.  a t e l y c r e a t e d a g r a c i o u s and e l e g a n t ^and, i n s p i t e o f all,  exclusive^  environment to which l e a d i n g f i g u r e s i n  art,  l i t e r a t u r e and p o l i t i c s brought a c o n t r i b u t i o n ,  and  e n r i c h e d the whole by the f a c t o f t h e i r presence t h e r e .  V i s i t o r s to P r i o r Among the eminent  Park  18th century f i g u r e s , one o f  the e a r l i e s t to v i s i t P r i o r Park on i t s opening i n 1741, was Alexander Pope, who, the spa, had.formed  a l r e a d y a well-known f i g u r e a t  a friendship with A l l e n .  1  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n t r o d u c i n g W i l l i a m Warburton  Pope was to P r i o r  2  Park, a l s o i n 1741. L i n c o l n s h i r e , who  Warburton,  a country parson from  became Pope's l i t e r a r y executor,  e d i t o r o f Pope's works ( i n 1751), and who an e d i t i o n o f Shakespeare  ( i n 1747) was  always a con-  t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e i n the P r i o r Park scene. and large-boned,  1,3  Warburton  published  " T a l l , robust  soon became a f a m i l i a r  figure  i n the household, and such was A l l e n ' s r e g a r d f o r him t h a t he gave Warburton  h i s f a v o u r i t e n i e c e i n marriage i n 1746;  procured f o r him through the i n f l u e n c e o f W i l l i a m P i t t the Deanery o f B r i s t o l and subsequently the B i s h o p r i c o f See pp.81  - 84.  See pp.94 - 95. Dudden, I, p.  409.  Gloucester  ( i n 1760) ; and as a f i n a l g e s t u r e , the r e v e r -  s i o n o f h i s e s t a t e s o f C l a v e r t o n and P r i o r Park a f t e r the death o f Mrs. A l l e n . K i l v e r t i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t a l l these b e n e f i t s r e s u l t e d from the way i n which Warburton c u l t i v a t e d to advantage h i s i n i t i a l  successfully  introduction.  At  a l l events, he appeared t o have been a d i f f i c u l t c h a r a c 2  ter.  He was n e a r l y always o f the p a r t y  p e r m i t t e d to do as he p l e a s e d .  and was w i s e l y  He was d e f i c i e n t i n  humour, a r r o g a n t and o p i n i o n a t e d and would brook no arguments.  Peach, however, maintains t h a t  Warburton  was bound to A l l e n by more than s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t ,  admired  3  him i n o r d i n a t e l y , and was h i s f a i t h f u l champion.  Isaac  D ' I s r a e l i claimed t h a t the a r r o g a n t and v i t u p e r a t i v e Warburton was o n l y such i n h i s assumed c h a r a c t e r ; " i n p r i v a t e l i f e he was the c r e a t u r e o f benevolence, touched by generous p a s s i o n s . "  4  And R i c h a r d Graves, always k i n d l y ,  always a l e r t to the b e t t e r s i d e o f a man's c h a r a c t e r , on 5 h i s f i r s t v i s i t to P r i o r Park found Warburton one o f the Remains, pp. 152 - 153. 2  A f t e r h i s marriage to Miss Gertrude Tucker i n 1746. he became a permanent member o f the P r i o r Park household. 3  L i f e and Times, p. 140.  I . D ' I s r a e l i , Q u a r r e l s o f Authors quoted by K i l v e r t i n Remains, p. 160. 4  5  S e e p. 71.  (1814), I, p. 134,  67 p o l i t e s t men  he had ever seen, who  everyone who  spoke," paying "deference to h i s i n f e r i o r s ,  as most o f the company were."  was  " a t t e n t i v e to  Graves seems to f i n d as  s u f f i c i e n t reason f o r Warburton's s u p e r i o r i t y , the t h a t : "he was In  then Dean o f  Bristol."  t h i s same year o f 1741,  fact  1  a n o t a b l e group o f  p e r s o n a l i t i e s a t P r i o r Park i n c l u d e d John Arbuthnot, John Gay, In  1743  Park, cut  C h e s t e r f i e l d , Bolingbroke and C h a r l e s Yorke.  Bolingbroke and C h e s t e r f i e l d were again a t P r i o r  and i t was  i n t h i s year t h a t Pope and Martha Blount  s h o r t t h e i r s t a y , and l e f t the A l i e n s a b r u p t l y as the  r e s u l t of a "quarrel.  1,2  i n 1749,  when Henry F i e l d i n g  and h i s s i s t e r were almost d a i l y guests a t P r i o r "the amiable and accomplished" present.  Bishop Hurd was  Park,  also  A f r i e n d and d i s c i p l e of Warburton, and a l r e a d y 4 well-known as a c r i t i c and t h e o l o g i a n , he was to become 3  Quoted by K i l v e r t i n Remains, pp. 159 - 160. Fielding p r a i s e d Warburton's v a s t and v a r i e d l e a r n i n g (see p.180). But Dr. Johnson, although a p p r e c i a t i n g "the wonderful extent and v a r i e t y " o f Warburton's knowledge, d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was "too m u l t i f a r i o u s to be always exact" (S. Johnson, L i v e s o f the E n g l i s h Poets, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press (1906), 2 V o l s . , I I , p. 275) . S e e pp. 99 - 108. 3  2  K i l v e r t , Remains, pp. 163 4  B a r b e a u , p.  275.  -  164.  68 Bishop o f L i c h f i e l d , Coventry and Worcester, i n t u r n . With a r e p u t a t i o n f o r b e i n g " p r e c i s e and f a s t i d i o u s , " 1 he was, a t the same time "held i n h i g h and deserved esteem a t P r i o r P a r k . " morning  A t the Abbey Church where d a i l y  2  s e r v i c e s were h e l d , c o u l d be heard "the s i l v e r y  p e r i o d s o f the e x c e l l e n t Bishop" whom h i s admirers f o n d l y called  "the Beauty o f H o l i n e s s . "  3  Another guest a t t h i s time was W i l l i a m Hoare, a predecessor o f Gainsborough as a p a i n t e r whose name i s i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h Bath.  Hoare was one o f A l l e n ' s  f r i e n d s , and stood f o r many years a t the head o f h i s p r o fession i n that c i t y .  4  Among the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the  c e n t u r y whom he p a i n t e d were R i c h a r d Nash,^ W i l l i a m P i t t (twice), Samuel D e r r i c k ^ and C h r i s t o p h e r Anstey; and i t was p r o b a b l y a t Bath t h a t Camden, C h e s t e r f i e l d , the Dukes o f G r a f t o n and Newcastle, Pope, and A l l e n  7  s a t t o him.  Sudden, I, p. 410. 2  K i l v e r t , Remains, pp. 163 - 164.  ^ A u s t i n Dobson i n P r e f a c e t o A. Barbeau's L i f e and Letters, i x . 4  R. Graves, The T r i f l e r s  (1806), p. 67.  5  The engraving appears i n the 1762 e d i t i o n o f Goldsmith's L i f e o f R. Nash (Barbeau, p. 287, note 4 ) . ^Master o f Ceremonies  a t Bath i n 1763.  Barbeau, pp. 2 87 - 288. The p o r t r a i t s o f P i t t , Camden and A l l e n were hung i n the Town H a l l , and t h a t o f D e r r i c k i n the Assembly Rooms (Barbeau, p. 287, note 5 ) . 7  Peach says o f Hoare,  t h a t he was  "an accomplished a r t i s t ,  a r i p e s c h o l a r , and a v e r y g r a c i o u s man, Graves, who "not  1 , 1  and R i c h a r d  met Hoare a t P r i o r Park, wrote t h a t he  o n l y one o f the most v i r t u o u s ,  f e n s i v e men,  f r i e n d l y and  was  inof-  b u t one o f the b e s t c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s , both  i n Greek and L a t i n , w i t h whom I was  ever a c q u a i n t e d . "  James Quin, the a c t o r , on h i s r e t i r e m e n t from the  London stage, s e t t l e d a t Bath, where he spent the 3  l a s t s i x t e e n years o f h i s l i f e . f r e q u e n t l y a t P r i o r Park. but  Quin's g i f t  Quin met  Warburton  They were not on good terms,  f o r prompt r e p a r t e e g e n e r a l l y gave him  the v i c t o r y i n v e r b a l b a t t l e s .  On one o c c a s i o n Warburton,  a p p a r e n t l y s e e k i n g to degrade Quin from the s o c i a l e q u a l to the i n f e r i o r s t a t u s o f a " p l a y e r , " asked him to g i v e a specimen o f h i s dramatic a r t . A l l e n , then a t Warburton, r e f e r e n c e was  Quin, l o o k i n g f i r s t a t  i n such a manner t h a t the  understood by a l l the company,  4  recited,  from Otway's Venice P r e s e r v e d : Honest men Are the s o f t and easy cushions on which knaves repose and f a t t e n .  L i f e and Times, p.  134.  Quoted by K i l v e r t , Remains, p. i.e.,  from 1751 to  1766.  Barbeau, p. 2 76, note 2. Peach, L i f e and Times, p.  139.  157.  70 An o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t o r was Thomas Edwards, the 1  critic,  who a l s o aroused Warburton's enmity.  writes K i l v e r t ,  "Since"  " l i t e r a r y s u b j e c t s formed the u s u a l  c o n v e r s a t i o n " and the c o n t r o v e r s y was running h i g h , Edwards i n c u r r e d Warburton's mortal h a t r e d through an unexpected  display of erudition.  "To t h i s  circumstance,"  K i l v e r t adds " i s a t t r i b u t e d Edwards' Canons o f C r i t i c i s m (a keen s a t i r e upon Warburton's e d i t i o n o f Shakespeare) which was f o l l o w e d up by Warburton w i t h i n c e s s a n t attacks;/ i n every new e d i t i o n o f Pope, i n the Essay on C r i t i c i s m , and i n the Dunciad.  o  •3  The Countess o f Huntingdon at  was another  visitor  t h i s p e r i o d , as a l s o were John Wood, Lady Luxborough  (in  1752), Marshal Wade ( f a t h e r o f the f i r s t Mrs. A l l e n )  and S i r John Cope, commander o f the r o y a l army d e f e a t e d at  the b a t t l e o f Preston Pans; he who " o u t r i d the express"  to  inform the King o f the event.  H i s Majesty observed t h a t  "he was the f i r s t g e n e r a l he ever heard o f who brought the news o f h i s own d e f e a t " and immediately upon the g e n e r a l .  4  turned h i s back  R i c h a r d Graves who recounts the  -"-Edwards a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o Pope's g r o t t o . See pp. 88 - 90. Pope's d e s i r e f o r "minerals" i s mentioned i n t h e i r correspondence. 2 K i l v e r t , Remains, pp. 156 - 157, q u o t i n g D ' I s r a e l i ' s Q u a r r e l s o f Authors, I, pp. 91 - 92 note. , S e e pp. 50 - 51. 3  ^ K i l v e r t , Remains, pp. 158 - 159, quoting R i c h a r d  Graves.  i n c i d e n t , must have been p r e s e n t when the s t o r y was t o l d a t Ralph A l l e n ' s t a b l e , and Cope s a i d :  "Aye, so i t i s  w r i t t e n , b u t you must never b e l i e v e anything you read i n the newspapers."  1  R o y a l t y was a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a t P r i o r Park. 1750 the P r i n c e and P r i n c e s s o f Wales w i t h t h e i r  In  daughter,  Augusta, were e n t e r t a i n e d "to t e a a t P r i o r Park" b e f o r e 2 a t t e n d i n g a command performance a t the t h e a t r e i n Bath. Two years l a t e r P r i n c e s s Amelia  and h e r b r o t h e r , the Duke  o f York, were a l s o e n t e r t a i n e d by A l l e n , who o f f e r e d them P r i o r Park d u r i n g h i s absence a t Weymouth. I t was i n 1750 t h a t R i c h a r d Graves, one o f the most p i c t u r e s q u e c h a r a c t e r s i n the P r i o r Park appeared i n person.  scene,  He was made Rector o f the neighbour-  i n g p a r i s h o f C l a v e r t o n , and from 1750 t i l l h i s death i n 1794, was never absent parish.  f o r a month together from h i s  He knew Bath i n t i m a t e l y , was u n i q u e l y  w i t h the l o c a l h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n  4  conversant  and i s one o f the  most a u t h o r i t a t i v e sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n concerning p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the neighbourhood whom he knew, or ••"Quoted by K i l v e r t i n Remains, p. 159. 2 S.M. Rosenfeld, S t r o l l i n g P l a y e r s and drama i n the P r o v i n c e s 1660 - 1765 (1939), p. 183. See p. 129.3  Peach, Remains, p. 130. 4  Dudden, I I , p. 593.  about whom he l e a r n t a t f i r s t h a n d . Graves was one o f the best-known neighbours.  1  Peach says t h a t  and most esteemed o f  "A w i t , and a most voluminous w r i t e r , "  2  he soon became a h i g h l y popular f i g u r e a t P r i o r Park and 3  an i n t i m a t e f r i e n d o f A l l e n ' s .  Kilvert refers  continu-  a l l y t o the a u t h o r i t y o f " t h i s amiable and g i f t e d person, whose ... good humour and s p r i g h t l y s a l l i e s  ... must have 4  been a welcome a d d i t i o n t o the c i r c l e o f P r i o r Park." T h i s g r e a t f a v o u r i t e w i t h A l l e n and h i s guests i s desc r i b e d by Peach: A p e c u l i a r - l o o k i n g man w i t h a s i n g u l a r g a i t ... dressed i n the c l e r i c a l s t y l e o f the p e r i o d — b l a c k a n d - a l l - b l a c k ... He always c a r r i e d a b l a c k baggy umbrella, which he h e l d b e f o r e him ... H i s f e a t u r e s , w h i l e p l e a s a n t and i n t e l l e c t u a l , wore an eager e x p r e s s i o n , and he never walked b u t t r o t t e d . Graves was the f r i e n d o f Lady Luxborough, and o f W i l l i a m Shenstone whom he i n t r o d u c e d t o P r i o r Park where they met W i l l i a m Hoare, the p a i n t e r . ^  This was i n 1752,  the year i n which Graves mentions meeting another c e l e b r i  Dudden says t h a t R. Graves' testimony cannot be d i s r e g a r d e d . Henry F i e l d i n g , I I , p. 593. i  2 L i f e and Times, p. 134,.  .  3  A l l e n bought C l a v e r t o n Manor i n 1758 and dined there r e g u l a r l y once a week. "^Remains, p. 161. ^ L i f e and Times, p. 134. ^Peach, L i f e and Times, p. 134.  then on a v i s i t to Bath. i n Mr.  "I met Mr.  (Samuel) Richardson  Leaks, the b o o k s e l l e r ' s , p a r l o u r (whose s i s t e r  Richardson had m a r r i e d ) . "  Graves  d e s c r i b e s Richardson's  d e l i g h t a t b e i n g honoured by an i n v i t a t i o n to P r i o r "He  t o l d me he was  Park. man  going to dine w i t h Mr. A l l e n , a t P r i o r  'Twenty years ago' he s a i d ,  i n Great B r i t a i n ; and now  "I was  the most obscure  I am admitted to the company  o f the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r s i n the kingdom'.  1,1  "The company o f the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r s " may been a l l t h a t impressed such a man The  Park:  have  as Samuel Richardson.  impact upon h i s c i r c l e , o f the man,  A l l e n ^ a n d the  g r a c i o u s s e t t i n g A l l e n had c r e a t e d , i s expressed i n a more s e n s i t i v e v e i n by the t a l e n t e d , but u n f o r t u n a t e , Charles Yorke, whose sudden and mysterious death on a t t a i n i n g the o f f i c e o f Lord C h a n c e l l o r ( i n 1770)  "hor-  r i f i e d the p u b l i c mind, and wrung the h e a r t s o f so many 2  admiring f r i e n d s . " Yorke wrote:  After  a visit  "The n a t u r a l beauty  most d e l i g h t f u l spots I ever saw."  to P r i o r Park i n 1746,  ... makes i t one o f the He wonders a t :  The elegance and judgement w i t h which a r t has been employed, and the a f f e c t a t i o n o f f a l s e grandeur c a r e f u l l y avoided ... but even scenes o f t h i s k i n d ... were the l e a s t o f i t s charms to me. I soon found those scenes animated  Graves, quoted by K i l v e r t , Remains, p. K i l v e r t , Remains, p.  154.  159.  74 by the presence o f the master; the t r a n q u i l i t y and harmony o f the whole o n l y r e f l e c t i n g back the image of h i s own temper, an appearance o f wealth and p l e n t y w i t h p l a i n n e s s and f r u g a l i t y , and y e t no one envying, because a l l are warmed i n t o f r i e n d s h i p and g r a t i t u d e by the r a y s o f h i s benevolence.1  The F i e l d i n g c o n n e c t i o n w i t h P r i o r Park The author o f the Dunciad and the author o f Tom Jones — these are the two guests whose presence sheds an undying l u s t r e on the s p l e n d i d domain o f P r i o r Park, whose memory l i n g e r s round a l l i t s s t a t e l y rooms, i t s avenues, i t s t e r r a c e d garden; the two whom the imagination b e s t loves to p i c t u r e t h e r e . i n a l l t h e i r d i v e r s i t y o f mind and body ... F i e l d i n g — t a l l , broad-shouldered, robust, o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h l i f e and s p i r i t s ; c h a t t i n g h e a r t i l y w i t h everyone he comes across ... keeping the r e s t o f the company i n good humour ... the serene f i g u r e o f A l l e n , amiable, y e t g r a v e l y d i g n i f i e d , or Warburton, w i t h h i s massive head and n a t u r a l l y imperious manner. Tripping g a i l y up t o them comes the e x c e l l e n t Graves ... 2  3  F i e l d i n g ' s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h P r i o r Park, and the r e s u l t o f t h i s c o n n e c t i o n upon the s t r u c t u r e o f Tom Jones, was  a t l e a s t i n p a r t due to the f a c t that h i s 4  s i s t e r had been l i v i n g a t Widcombe Park, p r o b a b l y s i n c e 1739.^ "•"Quoted by K i l v e r t , p.  w i t h i n view o f P r i o r  Peach^ d e s c r i b e s Sarah F i e l d i n g 155.  2  works  A c c o r d i n g to Hoare's p o r t r a i t i n Warburton's  3 Barbeau, pp. 273 4  Peach,  complete  - 274,  L i f e and Times o f R. A l l e n , p.  133.  ^R.E.M. Peach, H i s t o r i c Houses i n Bath .and T h e i r Assoc i a t i o n s (1883), p. 32. °Peach, L i f e and Times, p.  133.  as "a handsome w e l l - b r e d l a d y " w i t h whom A l l e n had a close friendship. Simple, was  Sarah,  unmarried  formed  author o f the n o v e l , David  and had no p r i v a t e means.  Over the  years A l l e n , w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n , not o n l y gave her f i n a n c i a l a i d ,  1  and thus a g r e a t measure o f  s e c u r i t y , but always bestowed upon her h i s " c h i v a l r o u s a t t e n t i o n , kindness  and b o u n t y . "  pass her door on h i s way  to and  2  D a i l y , A l l e n would  from the c i t y ,  her somewhat d u l l e x i s t e n c e by a k i n d l y word.  and  cheer  She  was  seldom omitted as a guest a t h i s t a b l e , and would be  con-  3  veyed  to P r i o r Park i n h i s c a r r i a g e . I t i s not known a t what date A l l e n made the a c q u a i n t -  ance o f her b r o t h e r , Henry.  Sarah may  o f b r i n g i n g them t o g e t h e r .  In the w i n t e r o f 1741  4  have been the means -  1742,  Pope and Warburton spent s e v e r a l weeks together a t P r i o r 5 Park. "There t o o , " w r i t e s Wilbur Cross, "at near the R. Graves, The T r i f l e r s , p. 77, s t a t e d t h a t A l l e n gave her an allowance o f / 1 0 0 a year. Sarah undertook to p u b l i s h (as a s e q u e l to David Simple), The F a m i l i a r Letters i n 1747, to which her b r o t h e r c o n t r i b u t e d a P r e f a c e and 5 o f the l e t t e r s . Among the s u b s c r i b e r s (who i n c l u d e d Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and S. Richardson), A l l e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ordered 5 s e t s (Cross, H i s t o r y o f Henry F i e l d i n g , I I , pp. 46 - 47). ±  2  3  4  P e a c h , L i f e and Times, p. I b i d . , p.  133.  B a r b e a u , p.  267.  See pp. 94 - 95.  133.  same time had been Fielding.  'courteously e n t e r t a i n e d ' Henry  F i e l d i n g and Pope may  1 , 1  never have met  at  P r i o r Park, but A l l e n must have c o n t r i b u t e d to an understanding between the poet and  the n o v e l i s t .  Thereafter  F i e l d i n g began to p r a i s e the s c h o l a r s h i p o f Warburton also.  At a l l events,  2  a f t e r the summer A s s i z e s o f  F i e l d i n g went to Bath, probably to d r i n k the w a t e r s . was  the b e g i n n i n g  of a residence  s e v e r a l months o f each y e a r instigation.^  According  r e s i d e n c e was road,  there,  visit  sometimes f o r  and p o s s i b l y at A l l e n ' s .  4  to t r a d i t i o n , F i e l d i n g ' s f i r s t  a t Twerton-on-Avon, on the lower  and a m i l e and  known as  accompanied by h i s w i f e ,  I t i s probable t h a t t h i s  3  1742,  Bristol  a h a l f from Bath, i n a house s i n c e  " F i e l d i n g ' s Lodge."6  At a l a t e r date,  tradition  has  i t , F i e l d i n g s e t t l e d a t Widcombe, i n the lodge b e l o n g -  ing  to Widcombe Manor, an e s t a t e which A l l e n had  recently  7  purchased.  Widcombe Manor and Lodge are s i t u a t e d below  -^H. F i e l d i n g , I, p. 377. 2  Cross,  I, p.  3  I b i d . , p.  377.  4  I b i d . , p.  379.  5  Dudden, I, p.  "Mr.  a l s o p.  163.  377.  412.  Cross, I, p. 379. q u a r t e r o f Bath. 7 Cross,  See  I, p. 379 Bennet's house."  Twerton i s now  p a r t o f an i n d u s t r i a  See  from Thorpe's Survey  sketch map  P r i o r Park and the view w i t h which F i e l d i n g must have become v e r y f a m i l i a r was Jones.  d e s t i n e d to p l a y a p a r t i n Tom  1  I t i s d o u b t f u l whether F i e l d i n g would have  lived  f o r any l e n g t h o f time i n such a neighbourhood w i t h o u t being i n c o n t a c t w i t h h i s s i s t e r ,  and although o n l y a  t r a d i t i o n t h a t cannot be confirmed, i t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t Sarah, l i k e her b r o t h e r , l i v e d a t Widcombe Lodge and the  "that A l l e n p e r m i t t e d the F i e l d i n g s to occupy  Lodge, whenever they so d e s i r e d , and t h a t i t eventu-  a l l y became Sarah's home."  Peach s t a t e s t h a t  2  b r o t h e r Henry ... l i v e d w i t h h i s s i s t e r at Yew That Tom Jones  (published i n 1749) was  w r i t t e n w h i l e F i e l d i n g was  l i v i n g a t Twerton  "her Cottage." partly  i s stated  4  by h i s contemporary,  R i c h a r d Graves,  have met F i e l d i n g i n person but who  who  may  or may  d i n e d more than once  at C l a v e r t o n Manor a f t e r 1757 w i t h Sarah F i e l d i n g . ^ g a r r u l o u s Mr. Graves, who x  C r o s s , I, p. .379.  2  C r o s s , I I I , p.  not  knew a l l about the  The  local  113.  3  L i f e and Times, p.  133.  S e e p. '71. -^The T r i f l e r s , quoted by K i l v e r t i n Remains i n Prose and Verse, p. 157. 4  78 celebrities,  1  says t h a t F i e l d i n g  "dined almost d a i l y a t  P r i o r Park, w h i l e he was w r i t i n g h i s n o v e l , Tom and  Jones,"  l i v e d a t Twerton " i n the f i r s t house on the r i g h t  hand, w i t h a spread eagle over the d o o r . "  2  Wilbur Cross a s s e r t s t h a t the f i r s t books o f Tom Jones,  and some o f the l a t e r chapters, were composed a t  Twerton and i t may be assumed t h a t , a f t e r he had r e l i n quished The True P a t r i o t ,  and was e d i t i n g the J a c o b i t e ' s  J o u r n a l , F i e l d i n g spent the summer and autumn o f 1746 a t Twerton and r e t u r n e d f o r b r i e f e r p e r i o d s the two f o l l o w ing y e a r s .  But b e f o r e the n o v e l had passed  through the  p r e s s , he had permanently s e t t l e d a t Bow S t r e e t as a j u s t i c e o f the p e a c e .  3  In The T r i f l e r s , R i c h a r d Graves mentions, among his  friends  i n the P r i o r Park c i r c l e ,  s e v e r a l persons o f  d i s t i n c t i o n who came i n c i d e n t a l l y i n t o the l i f e o f F i e l d i n g , including  Lord Camden, Shenstone, Lady Luxborough and  Warburton.  4  In Tom Jones F i e l d i n g was generous i n h i s  p r a i s e o f Warburton's l e a r n i n g , y e t , n o t u n t i l two years  Cross, I I , p. 112. 2  ^•The T r i f l e r s , quoted by K i l v e r t i n Remains, p. 157. - See p. 198. 3  Henry F i e l d i n g ,  4  Cross,  I I , p. 111.  I I , p. 110.  a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s n o v e l d i d Warburton condescend to n o t i c e F i e l d i n g ' s merits as a w r i t e r . By the year 1751, failing.  F i e l d i n g ' s h e a l t h was  1  already  Only those immediately a s s o c i a t e d w i t h him were  aware to what extent i l l n e s s , and h i s experience as a p o l i c e m a g i s t r a t e were t a k i n g t h e i r t o l l o f him.  There  were members o f Ralph A l l e n ' s c i r c l e who  c o u l d not, or  would not, understand how  taxing F i e l d i n g ' s  the s t r a i n was  powers to maintain h i s outward j o c u l a r i t y . for  example, w r i t i n g to a f r i e n d ,  c o n t r a s t s A l l e n and  R i c h a r d Hurd,  from P r i o r Park,  thus  Fielding:  I wish you had seen Mr. A l l e n . He comes up to my n o t i o n o f my f a v o u r i t e s i n Queen E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n ; good sense i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p l a i n e s t manners — simplex et nuda V e r i t a s . I dined w i t h him yesterday, where I met Mr. F i e l d i n g — a poor, emaciated, worn-out rake, whose gout and i n f i r m i t i e s have got the b e t t e r even o f h i s buffoonery.2 Presumably,  " t h i s d i v i n e o f formal morals," as  i g n o r a n t o f F i e l d i n g ' s works as o f h i s l i f e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s he was  then performing,  and the v a s t  f e l t cheated o f  the j e s t s he expected on such a s o c i a l o c c a s i o n . Thomas Edwards, who  And  must have heard much from other P r i o r  I c r o s s , I I , p. 127.  See p. 180,  footnote 2.  p F. K i l v e r t , Memoirs o f the L i f e and W r i t i n g s o f R i c h a r d Hurd (1860), p. 45, quoted by W. Cross, I I , p. 310. 'Wilbur Cross, I I , pp. 310  - 311.  Park f r i e n d s about F i e l d i n g , even i f he never met him, so l i t t l e knew or understood the r e a l import o f the Voyage to  Lisbon, and the courage which i t s " t r i f l i n g "  masked,  as to w r i t e to h i s f r i e n d , Samuel Richardson, o f h i s indignation. he  "That a man who had l e d such a l i f e as  ( F i e l d i n g ) had, should t r i f l e  i n t h a t manner when  immediate death i s b e f o r e h i s eyes, i s amazing." was confirmed i n h i s o p i n i o n t h a t , of  Hurd  "with a l l h i s parade  pretences to v i r t u o u s and humane a f f e c t i o n , the f e l -  low has no h e a r t .  And s o — h i s k n e l l i s k n o l l e d .  1 , 1  But, when F i e l d i n g d i e d i n 1754, Ralph A l l e n , ever l o y a l , continued t o show g r e a t s o l i c i t u d e to Sarah F i e l d i n g as a l s o to her b r o t h e r ' s second w i f e and her children. will,  He had been appointed executor o f F i e l d i n g ' s  but, although renouncing the e x e c u t i o n o f the w i l l ,  he c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n and bequeathed to his  the widow, h e r c h i l d r e n , and to Sarah, _/100 a p i e c e , a t death.  Of the few l i k e n e s s e s o f F i e l d i n g t h a t were  made, A l l e n possessed a p o r t r a i t based on Hogarth's ing  o f him.  draw-  I t now hangs i n the Royal M i n e r a l Water  H o s p i t a l i n Bath.  3  ^Correspondence o f Richardson, ed. A.L. Barbauld 6 V o l s . , I l l , p. 135, quoted by Cross, I I I , p. 97.  (1804),  "'Dudden, I I , p. 1059. John F i e l d i n g was g i v e n the g u a r d i a n s h i p o f the c h i l d r e n . Dudden, I I , p. 1057.  81 Sarah F i e l d i n g d u r i n g her l a t e r years spent much of  her time a t Bath.  Apparently A l l e n allowed her t o make  Widcombe Lodge her permanent home, and continued t o extend to  her h i s p r o t e c t i o n .  1  She d i e d i n 1768, and was b u r i e d  i n the stone church a t Charlcombe near Bath.  I t was the  very church which Henry F i e l d i n g and C h a r l o t t e the  "Sophia Western"  Cradock,  o f Tom Jones and h e r o i n e o f Amelia,  had chosen f o r t h e i r marriage.  Alexander Pope's c o n n e c t i o n w i t h P r i o r Park Standing i n the long g a l l e r y , once the l i b r a r y o f the house, one can c a l l up the f r a i l , s l i g h t l y deformed f i g u r e of Pope, h i s d e l i c a t e e x p r e s s i v e f a c e ; he appears i n h i s morning undress -- a dark grey w a i s t c o a t and blue d r e s s i n g gown — he d i s c u s s e s the p l a n o f the l a s t book o f the Dunciad w i t h Warburton. Or again, the c e n t r e o f a chosen group, he r e t a i l s some anecdote; l e s s b r i l l i a n t , however, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n than i n w r i t i n g , he f a l l s r e a d i l y i n t o s i l e n c e o r a b s t r a c t i o n , seldom going 'beyond a p a r t i c u l a r easy smile',4 l a u g h i n g very r a r e l y , and 'never ... very heartily".^ 2  3  Barbeau  1  See  i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t the f r i e n d s h i p between  p. 77.  S e e h i s p a s t e l p o r t r a i t by W. Hoare i n the N a t i o n a l P o r t r a i t G a l l e r y , London. (Barbeau, p. 274, note 2 ) . 2  3  S. Johnson, L i v e s o f the Poets I I , p. 296.  J . Spence, Anecdotes, V, p. 206. Although p u b l i s h e d only i n 1820, the Anecdotes were w e l l known and much quoted during the 18th c e n t u r y . 4  J . Spence, V, p. 206 q u o t i n g Mrs. Rackett. (Barbeau, p. 274).  Ralph A l l e n and Pope dated from about the year  1732,  quoting i n support of t h i s , a fragment o f a l e t t e r  from  Pope to A l l e n which appears i n Ruffhead's l i f e o f Pope p u b l i s h e d i n 1769.  George Sherburn, on the o t h e r hand,  states that: No important new correspondents emerge ( i n 1732) but the year i s n o t a b l e f o r the Swift-Gay correspondence as w e l l as f o r Pope's l e t t e r s t o h i s noble l o r d s B a t h u r s t , B u r l i n g t o n , Peterborow, and Oxford. I t i s a year of l i t e r a r y labour r a t h e r than of s o c i a l amusement. 3  Sherburn a l s o mentions v i s i t t o Bath and was Pope was  (after  t h a t Pope's f i r s t "known"  t h a t o f 1716)  took p l a c e i n 1728  t o be the l a s t u n t i l the death o f h i s mother. a l s o d i s c o u r a g e d by the r e a l i z a t i o n 4  waters d i d h i s h e a l t h no good.  t h a t the  H i s mother d i e d i n 1733;  and i n the f o l l o w i n g year he p a i d a s h o r t v i s i t t o Bath. Sherburn makes no mention of A l l e n ' s name i n connection w i t h Pope u n t i l h i s foreword f o r the year  1736  and t h i s , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of Pope's L i f e and L e t t e r s , p.  251.  0 . Ruffhead, L i f e of A. Pope, Esq. (Barbeau, p. 256, note 2). 2  264.  (1769), p.  465.  •^Correspondence of A. Pope, ed. G. Sherburn, I I I , p. (Hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as Correspondence). ^Correspondence 5 Correspondence ^i.e.,  I I , p.  467.  I I I , p.  Correspondence  399.  IV, p. 1.  83 l e t t e r s the year b e f o r e .  This f i r s t  e d i t i o n o f the  l e t t e r s was an e l a b o r a t e p l o t c o n t r i v e d  by Pope, "so  as t o make i t only r i g h t i n s e l f - d e f e n c e  to publish  h i s own e d i t i o n o f h i s l e t t e r s . "  1  But i t was from the  p e r u s a l o f h i s f i r s t e d i t i o n that A l l e n conceived the 2 desxre o f knowing Pope. Johnson: " F i l l e d  This*publication,  says Samuel  the n a t i o n w i t h the p r a i s e s  of h i s  candour, tenderness and benevolence, the p u r i t y o f h i s purposes, and the f i d e l i t y  of h i s f r i e n d s h i p . "  And Bonamy  3  Dobree: "The l e t t e r s were acclaimed; everybody s a i d what a g r e a t and good man Mr. Pope must be: the  great  'good man  1  and among them was  o f the time, Ralph A l l e n  Pope t o l d A l l e n o f h i s i n t e n t i o n  ,.."  "to vindicate  4  When  h i s own  p r o p e r t y , by a genuine e d i t i o n , " w i t h so much z e a l d i d A l l e n c u l t i v a t e the f r i e n d s h i p , the  that he o f f e r e d  t o pay  c o s t o f a new e d i t i o n . ~^ Sherburn w r i t e s t h a t a t the time o f meeting A l l e n ,  Pope was presumably p r e p a r i n g the " a u t h e n t i c " and  edition,  was d e s i r o u s -- though not too h o p e f u l -- o f r e c e i v i n g  a subscription X  B.  t h a t would enable him t o a v o i d e x c e s s i v e  Dobre*e, Alexander Pope, e d i t i o n o f 1963, pp. 83 - 84.  2 S. Johnson, L i v e s o f the Poets I I , p. 270. 3 L i v e s o f the Poets I I , p. 270. 4  A. ^S.  Pope, p. 84. Johnson, L i v e s  of the Poets I I , p. 270.  84 indebtedness to h i s new In  A p r i l of 1736  s t a t e s t h a t t h i s was  admirer and "angel," Ralph A l l e n . 1 he wrote to A l l e n , and Sherburn  the f i r s t  of Pope's l e t t e r s t o A l l e n .  2  W r i t i n g from Twickenham, Pope thanks A l l e n f o r his. verykind v i s i t  and y e t more f o r the extreme z e a l and  friend-  s h i p he has m a n i f e s t e d on the o c c a s i o n o f the " l e t t e r s , " "in my  so warm a D e s i r e t h a t I should be j u s t i f i e d even d u r i n g l i f e which t r u l y i s l e s s my  concern than yours ..."  From t h i s sentence i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t A l l e n had v i s i t e d the poet and o f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l  just  assistance.^  By the f o l l o w i n g year (1737), the f r i e n d s h i p had a p p a r e n t l y extended t o i n c l u d e Mrs. A l l e n , who me much by what you t e l l me,  "obliges  & has a g r e a t Right i n me,  because I am very much yours."  Pope r e g r e t s having t o 5  be i n Bath, i n s t e a d of j o i n i n g the A l i e n s a t Widcombe. But even though not under the same r o o f , they presumably met a t Bath and Pope had a l r e a d y t o l d L y t t l e t o n t h a t : "Were i t not f o r a hankering ... a f t e r some f r i e n d s , "  he  Correspondence IV, p. 1. 2  Correspondence IV, p. 9, note 1. A l l e n t o Pope have been p r e s e r v e d . Pope to A l l e n , p. 9. 3  4 5  74.  7 April  No l e t t e r s from  £l736~}, Correspondence IV,  Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 9, note 1. Pope t o A l l e n ,  8 June, 1737.  Correspondence IV, p.  85 "could l i v e w i t h honest Mr. In 1738,  o f the new  Allen a l l his correspondents,  Lord Orrery, were the most n o t a b l e . the S a t i r e s was  x  Allen  and  The E p i l o g u e  2  to  p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s same year, and so great  an esteem had Pope by now anxious  life."  conceived  for A l l e n , that,  to make t h i s e v i d e n t even i n h i s works, he begged  A l l e n ' s p e r m i s s i o n to mention h i s name i n one of the poems o f the E p i l o g u e , t h a t you are no Man  "provided I say  two  ... f o r example  o f h i g h b i r t h or q u a l i t y ? "  The  3  c o u p l e t , w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d , but s c a r c e l y t a c t f u l : L e t low-born A l l e n , w i t h an awkward shame Do good by s t e a l t h & b l u s h to f i n d i t fame might w e l l have caused some o f f e n c e to the man  whose  obscure o r i g i n s were a matter o f common knowledge. i t as i t may,  i n November Pope o f f e r s amende  Be  honorable  by changing the e p i t h e t "low-born" to "humble," a s s u r i n g A l l e n t h a t every one w i l l be t o l d t h a t the change was made a t A l l e n ' s or any  not  f r i e n d ' s request, but by the w r i t e r ' s  -•-Pope to L y t t l e t o n , 12 Dec. 1736 . Works, ed. W. E l w i n and W.J. Courthope, 10 V o l s . (1871 - 1881), IX, p. 172. 2  Pope to A l l e n , 28 A p r i l 92 - 93. 3  pp.  S h e r b u r n , i n Correspondence IV, p. [l738X  91.  Correspondence IV,  4pope, E p i l o g u e to the S a t i r e s (1738), Dialogue I, 135 - 136, quoted by Barbeau, p. 257. The e p i t h e t , "lowborn" appeared o n l y i n the quarto o f 1738 and i n the D u b l i n e d i t i o n o f t h a t year. (Barbeau, p. 257, note 2 ) .  86  knowledge t h a t he m e r i t e d i t .  He e x p l a i n s t h i s change by  declaring: I have found a V i r t u e i n You, more than I c e r t a i n l y knew b e f o r e , t i l l I made Experiment o f i t : I mean H u m i l i t y : I must t h e r e f o r e i n j u s t i c e to my own Conscience of i t , bear testimony to i t , & change the E p i t h e t I f i r s t gave you . . . 1  So g r e a t was  the a t t r a c t i o n t h a t A l l e n e x e r c i s e d on Pope  by t h i s time as to be a t l e a s t comparable w i t h t h a t o f h i s "demi-god," B o l i n g b r o k e . to  In t h i s year (1738), Pope wrote  A l l e n t h a t should Bolingbroke be o b l i g e d to v i s i t  Bath, he  (Pope), w i l l have "Two  and, some few weeks l a t e r : p l a c e , such as i t was  Temptations  to go  the  Thither;"  "When the Bath grows a p r i v a t e  i n the Court o f King B l a d u d ,  3  I will  4 come & l i v e w i t h  you."  The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f e x i s t e n c e t h a t Pope had e v o l v e d s i n c e the death o f h i s mother i n 1733, began to ••-Pope to A l l e n , pp. 144 - 145. Pope to A l l e n , 119. 2  p.  2 Nov. [l738~). Correspondence 19 Aug.  [l738~].  IV,  Correspondence  IV,  3  A legendary B r i t i s h King s a i d to have been the greatgrandson o f Aeneas. The s t o r y runs t h a t Bladud, a f t e r b a t h i n g i n the muddy swamp by the r i v e r Avon, was cured of l e p r o s y . This induced him to c l e a n the muddy, but h e a l i n g s p r i n g s t h e r e , and c o n s t r u c t baths, thus l a y i n g the foundations o f the c i t y o f Bath (R.A.L. Smith, Bath, pp. 11 - 12). Pope to A l l e n , 134. 4  p.  10 Oct. [1738"].  Correspondence  IV,  2  show a v a r i a t i o n from w i n t e r s spent at home w i t h but b r i e f e x c u r s i o n s to London, and a month-long in July.  "ramble"  By the autumn o f 1739 there were two  deciding  f a c t o r s : h i s h e a l t h , and h i s new-found f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Ralph A l l e n . Bath.  1  Both o f these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l e d him to  Whether a t Hampton Manor, A l l e n ' s v i l l a a t  Bathampton, or l a t e r on, a t P r i o r Park, Pope was  a  f a m i l i a r and constant guest, ever-expected, e v e r 2 welcome. wrote:  Rxchard Graves, A l l e n ' s i n t i m a t e  "Mr. Pope was  friend,  an almost constant i n t i m a t e i n the  f a m i l y d u r i n g the Bath season f o r many y e a r s . "  J  But  Pope would have another c a l l upon h i s a t t e n t i o n , when the Dowager Duchess o f Malborough,  a difficult  sometimes keep him away from h i s Bath  lady, would  friends.  Both your Grace & Mr. A l l e n have done f o r me more than I am worth; he has come a hundred m i l e s to f e t c h me; & I t h i n k i n g r a t i t u d e I should s t a y w i t h him f o r ever, had I not an e q u a l O b l i g a t i o n to come back to Your G r a c e . 4  In  mid-November, 1739, Pope attempted a cure  Isherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 2  Barbeau, p..253.  3  The T r i f l e r s ,  pp. 66 - 67.  Pope to the Duchess o f Malborough Correspondence IV, p. 457. 4  157.  f?  June,  88 at the B r i s t o l W e l l , ! but the accommodations f o r t a k i n g the waters there were so u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n c o l d weather t h a t a f t e r a f o r t n i g h t he r e t u r n e d t o Widcombe, to be 2 w i t h the A l i e n s .  He was  a d v i s e d by Dr. O l i v e r  and  Dr.  3  Cheyne, water  both eminent Bath p h y s i c i a n s , to mix the  Bristol  (brought by c a r r i e r on the Avon Canal) w i t h the  h o t water o f Bath.  I f t h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n f a i l e d , he  to t r y the water o f the Lyncombe Spa,  was  d i s c o v e r e d the  p r e v i o u s year, the w e l l b e i n g on the Lyncombe h i l l s i d e not f a r from A l l e n ' s h o u s e .  4  Pope's connection a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time, w i t h A l l e n and A l l e n ' s neighbourhood, was  to be o f  importance  w i t h r e g a r d to the b u i l d i n g o f h i s g r o t t o a t Twickenham. A l l e n a t the time was  q u a r r y i n g the Bathstone  Combe Down area f o r h i s b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s and  i n the for export,  5  He g i v e s an "Account of B r i s t o l and the C o u n t r y s i d e " to Martha Blount: l e t t e r s o f ? 19 Nov, 1739 Correspondence IV, pp. 200 - 202, and o f 24 Nov., 1739 IV, pp. 204 - 205. "The C i t y o f B r i s t o l i t s e l f i s v e r y unpleasant and no c i v i l i z e d Company i n i t . " (p. 204). x  2  S e e pp.  > S e e pp. 3  10, 157  157. -  159.  4 Benjamin Boyce, "Mr. Pope, i n Bath, Improves the Design o f h i s G r o t t o , " p. 143, i n R e s t o r a t i o n and Eighteenth-Century L i t e r a t u r e (1963). Boyce r e f e r s to Wood's Essay, I, pp. 79 81. 5  S e e pp.  16- - 17.  and Pope p r o b a b l y came to know something about the s t r a t a o f rock under the s u r f a c e o f t h i s area. v i s i t e d one o f A l l e n ' s q u a r r i e s .  He may have  Although he had con-  s i d e r e d h i s g r o t t o " f i n i s h e d , " about the year 172 5 , h i s enthusiasm  was aroused  anew, and he now envisaged  a type  o f " g r o t t o " b e a r i n g some resemblance to an a c t u a l q u a r r y ( l i k e those on Combe Down) and the n a t u r a l rock  1  formations  o f the Cotswolds. Dr. O l i v e r was an eager f r i e n d o f Pope's and "must 2  have been an important  a b e t t o r i n the new p l a n . "  He  e n l i s t e d the h e l p o f a C o r n i s h r e l a t i v e named B o r l a s e , who was an amateur g e o l o g i s t .  E a r l y i n 1740, Borlase  began sending shipments o f stones,  "Mundicks & M i n e r a l s "  and w r i t t e n advice to Twickenham, and A l l e n sent b u t i o n s from h i s Combe Down q u a r r i e s .  3  contri-  Pope was d e l i g h t e d  w i t h these g i f t s which gave a new impetus to h i s " g r o t t o f y i n g , " b u t a t the same time begged A l l e n n o t t o t h i n k : "That when I thank you for Water, Wine, A l a b a s t e r ,  Spars  & Snakestones, they were the b e s t t h i n g s I have ever had from y o u . "  4  1  Boyce, pp. 144 - 1 4 6 .  2  I b i d . , p. 1 4 6 .  3  I b i d . , pp. 146 - 1 4 9 .  Pope to A l l e n , p. 2 3 5 . 4  19 A p r i l [l74o"] .  Correspondence IV,  I f the r e s u l t i n g g r o t t o a t Twickenham was more "domestic" than i t s West Country models t h a t had aroused Pope's enthusiasm, Boyce remarks t h a t i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s "true t o n a t u r e " i n the way Pope had planned i t i n the w i n t e r o f 1739 - 1740,  "with encouragement from a c h e e r f u l  Bath d o c t o r , an amateur C o r n i s h g e o l o g i s t , and a generous quarry owner."  1  But, back i n the c o l d w i n t e r o f 1739 a t Bath, Pope, i n s p i t e o f h i s good f r i e n d s  1  medical advice, and  f r i e n d l y s o l i c i t u d e , had grown weary and d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h the c i t y o f Bath.  As time passed, he grew a c t i v e l y  to d i s l i k e the p l a c e , and the presence o f A l l e n there was  f i n a l l y h i s s o l e inducement  hood.  to s t a y i n the neighbour-  "But f o r your News o f my q u i t t i n g Twitnam f o r Bath,"  he was t o w r i t e t o Jonathon Richardson: I n q u i r e i n t o my Years, i f they are p a s t the bounds o f Dotage? ask my Eyes, i f they can See, & my n o s t r i l s i f they can s m e l l ? To p r e f e r Rocks & D i r t , t o flowry Meads & s i l v e r Thames, & Brimstone & Fogs t o Roses & Sunshine? When I a r r i v e a t these Sensations, I may s e t t l e a t Bath; o f which I never y e t dreamt, f u r t h e r , than t o l i v e j u s t o u t o f the Sulphurous P i t & a t the Edge o f the Fogs, a t Mr. A l l e n ' s f o r a month or so. I l i k e the p l a c e so l i t t l e , t h a t H e a l t h i t s e l f should not draw me t h i t h e r , tho F r i e n d s h i p has, twice or t h r i c e .  ^"Mr.  Pope i n Bath ...," p. 153.  o  ^Pope t o J . Rxchardson. E l w i n & Courthope i n Works, IX, p. 508, date the l e t t e r : 21 Nov. 1739, b u t Sherburn, Correspondence IV, p. 484 maintains t h a t i t was dated 21  Nov. [ 1 7 4 3 J .  To Hugh B e t h e l , i n November o f 1739, he w r i t e s t h a t he w i l l be v e r y l i t t l e will  a t Bath, b u t t h a t a l e t t e r  f i n d him:  At Ralph A l l e n ' s Esq's, a t Widcomb, where I s h a l l l i v e , read and p l a n t away my time, l e a v i n g the Madness o f the L i t t l e Town beneath me, as I've done the Madness o f the Great Town behind me.l The w i n t e r o f 1739 - 1740 was b i t t e r l y c o l d and kept Pope at Bath u n t i l February o f 1740.  2  Pope noted t h a t A l l e n ' s  g r e a t c h a r i t y to the country people who  s u f f e r e d so  i n t e n s e l y d u r i n g t h a t w i n t e r , l e d him t o employ some hundreds  o f l a b o u r i n g men by opening a q u a r r y f o r which  he had, as y e t , no r e a l use: Whoever i s lame, or any way d i s a b l e d , he g i v e s weekly allowances t o the w i f e or c h i l d r e n ... (and) t o other Poor. God made t h i s Man r i c h , to shame the Great, & wise to humble the Learned ... I have p a s t t h i s Christmas w i t h the Most Noble Man o f E n g l a n d . 3  I f Pope was paying a glowing t r i b u t e t o h i s f r i e n d , Dr. O l i v e r , w r i t i n g o n l y n i n e days e a r l i e r t o B o r l a s e , had, i n h i s t u r n , p a i d a g r e a t t r i b u t e to both o f these men w i t h  Pope t o H. B e t h e l , Bath 27 Nov. 1739. IV, pp. 205 - 207. p  ^Sherburn,  i n Correspondence  IV, p. 157.  Pope t o F o r t e s c u e , 2 3 J a n . 1740. pp. 221 - 222. J  Correspondence  Correspondence  IV,  ^Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 222, note 1, f i n d s a p a r a l l e l i n t h i s t r i b u t e , to F i e l d i n g ' s p o r t r a y a l o f A l l e n i n Tom Jones.  whom he was he w r i t e s :  on terms o f i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s h i p . "He  Of Pope,  i s the f r e e s t , humblest, most e n t e r t a i n -  i n g Creature you ever met w i t h " whose f r i e n d s h i p w i t h A l l e n w i l l d e l i v e r the l a t t e r ' s name " i n the most amiable l i g h t to P o s t e r i t y . " other, he  They are extremely happy i n each  continues:  The one f e e l i n g g r e a t Joy i n the good Heart, & Strong Sense o f h i s t r u l y generous Host, w h i l e the other, w i t h the most p l e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n , d r i n k s i n R i v e r s o f Knowledge c o n t i n u o u s l y f l o w i n g from the L i p p s o f h i s d e l i g h t f u l Stranger.1 Before r e t u r n i n g to Twickenham to continue working on h i s g r o t t o , Pope remained f o r a w h i l e a t Allen's, i n some hopes t h a t he had o f s e r v i n g him out h i s garden e t c . "  2  P r i o r Park which was years.  3  "a l i t t l e  i n laying  The garden r e f e r r e d t o , i s t h a t o f i n process o f b u i l d i n g d u r i n g these  Pope had mentioned i n a l e t t e r o f November,  1739,  h i s i n t e n t i o n o f " l i v i n g , r e a d i n g & p l a n t i n g away h i s time 4 at A l l e n ' s , "  and h i s l e t t e r o f May  15, 1740 to A l l e n ,  suggests t h a t by t h i s date, the l a y i n g out o f the grounds B o r l a s e Correspondence (Penzance L i b r a r y ) V o l . I, f o i 119, quoted by Boyce, p. 147. A portion of t h i s l e t t e r i s a l s o quoted by Sherburn, Correspondence IV, p. 222, note 1 2  Pope to F o r t e s c u e , 5 Jan. 1740. pp. 216 - 217. 3  S e e pp. 18 - 19.  4  S e e p. 91.  Correspondence IV,  93 o f P r i o r Park had reached an advanced s t a g e : I t i s my f i r m r e s o l u t i o n to i n h a b i t the Room a t the end o f your G a l l e r y one F o r t n i g h t a t l e a s t i n September, & as much longer as I can, to see your Gardens f i n i s h e d (ready f o r Mrs A l l e n ' s Grotto & Cascade i n the f o l l o w i n g years) . He e n q u i r e s a f t e r the h e a l t h o f the A l i e n s :  "After  t h a t o f the Elms we p l a n t e d on each Side o f the Lawn? and o f the l i t t l e Woodwork to j o i n one wood t o the other below, which I hope you p l a n t e d t h i s S p r i n g . " t h a t the t a s t e o f Pope was out the house, and t h a t mind i s s t i l l  1  K i l v e r t says  e x e r t e d both w i t h i n and w i t h -  "the impress o f h i s s u g g e s t i v e  traceable there."  K i l v e r t also  mentions  a l i n g e r i n g t r a d i t i o n t h a t a s s i g n s the name o f "Pope's Study" to a r u s t i c b u i l d i n g , shed,  2  l a t e r used as a c a t t l e -  and "Pope's House" ( s o - c a l l e d ) , t o a cottage a t 3  the f o o t o f Beechen  Cliff.  There i s a r u i n e d g r o t t o , o f which one o f three arches s u r v i v e s , below the west wing o f P r i o r Park, where 4 Pope's dog was b u r i e d ,  and which may be  "Mrs  G r o t t o " r e f e r r e d to i n the l e t t e r o f 15 May, Pope to A l l e n , pp. 238 - 239.  15 May,  1740.  Allen's 1740.  One  Correspondence IV,  2  On a f o o t p a t h through the " M i l e - f i e l d . "  (Kilvert).  F . K i l v e r t , "Prose Essay on the Connection o f Pope w i t h the West o f England ... and Bath ..." i n Remains i n Prose and Verse (1766), p. 124. 3  P r i o r Park Magazine, V o l . XII, No. 1, 1965, p. 27. -In May, 1738, Pope had g i v e n A l l e n a Great Dane puppy, one o f "Bounce's" progeny. (Boyce, p. 145). 4  o f the walks to the lake below the house i s s t i l l known as  "Pope's Walk."  x  Although no meeting seems to have taken p l a c e between Pope and h i s f u t u r e f r i e n d , Warburton,  until  2 April,  1740,  so f a r as Pope was  concerned the major  p u b l i c a t i o n o f 1739 had been Warburton's V i n d i c a t i o n o f the Essay on Man.  The f a c t that h i s " r i v a l  mentor,"  Bolingbroke, had withdrawn to France i n 1739, a i d e d the i n c r e a s i n g ascendancy o f Warburton over Pope's  mind.  And Pope's d e s i r e o f b r i n g i n g together t h i s new f r i e n d , and Ralph A l l e n , was d e c i s i v e to the f u t u r e career o f Warburton.  Late i n 1741 A l l e n took Pope down to P r i o r  Park f o r a long v i s i t ,  and the l a t t e r soon p r e v a i l e d  upon h i s h o s t t o i n v i t e Warburton to j o i n them. intention  4  Pope's  (which he r e a l i z e d ) was .to work there under  lp r i o r Park Magazine, p. 27. Barbeau s t a t e s t h a t i t i s o f l a t e r date than the poet's sojourn i n the neighbour hood. ( L i f e and L e t t e r s a t Bath, p. 2 74, note 1 ) . Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 214. Correspondence IV, p. 157. Warburton had defended Pope's Essay a g a i n s t Crousaz's a t t a c k s so w e l l , "that Pope f e l l i n t o h i s arms and ... e s t a b l i s h e d him as a kind of protector." (B. Dobre"e, A. Pope, p. 80). 4  S e e p. 75.  95 Warburton's  guidance, a t the Fourth Book o f The D u n c i a d ;  x  and he wrote i n glowing terms o f the i d e a l surroundings and c o n d i t i o n s f o r work t h a t P r i o r Park o f f e r e d . house would be an i n v i o l a b l e asylum to you," he  "This told  Warburton, and the worthy Man who i s the Master o f i t i n v i t e s you i n the s t r o n g e s t terms, & i s one who would t r e a t you w i t h Love & V e n e r a t i o n , r a t h e r than what h i s World c a l l s C i v i l i t y & Regard .... You 1 want no Servant here, your Room w i l l be next to mine ... Here i s a L i b r a r y , and a G a l l e r y n i n e t y f o o t long to walk i n and a Coach whenever you would take the a i r w i t h me.? 1  Ten days l a t e r , he f u r t h e r p r e s s e s the p o i n t , i n c i d e n t a l l y , makes a p r o p h e t i c remark:  and,  "You w i l l owe  me  a r e a l O b l i g a t i o n by b e i n g made acquainted w i t h the Master o f t h i s House; and by s h a r i n g w i t h me, what I t h i n k one o f 3 the c h i e f S a t i s f a c t i o n s o f my L i f e , H i s F r i e n d s h i p . " Thus d i d Warburton become an i n t i m a t e o f Ralph A l l e n ' s circle,  and, so f a r as Pope's  career was  concerned, t h e i r  r e u n i o n i n the w i n t e r o f 1741 - 1742 r e s u l t e d i n the p l a n n i n g o f Book IV o f the Dunciad a t P r i o r P a r k .  4  Bonamy  l-And p o s s i b l y a t the r e v i s i o n o f the f i r s t . t h r e e (Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 32 3). Pope to Warburton, pp. 370 - 371.  books  12 Nov.  1741.  Correspondence IV,  Pope to Warburton, 2 2 Nov. p. 373. See a l s o pp. 65 - 66.  1741.  Correspondence IV,  2  3  " A g r e a t p a r t o f the new poem was read and h i g h l y approved; the r e s t was f i n i s h e d i n the year 1742." Warburton, Works I, p. 40, quoted by Barbeau, p. 260, note 2. Warburton c h i e f p a r t o f the notes on Dunciad IV. (Barbeau, p. 259, note 2 ) . 4  w  r  o  t  e  t  h  e  96  Dobree, d e s c r i b i n g Warburton as a d u l l , heavy, ambitious, b u l l y i n g man,  "whom nobody seems to have l i k e d w h i l e he  l i v e d , and most have contemptuously l o a t h e d s i n c e he d i e d , " r e g r e t s t h a t t h i s leaden-minded man  1  should have become 2  guardian o f Pope's memory and .works, f i n d s l i t t l e of genuine worth i n t h e i r  and George Sherburn association:  The two men were a t once so t r a n s p a r e n t l y aware of t h e i r s e r v i c e a b l e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s t o each other t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n — one h e s i t a t e s to c a l l i t f r i e n d s h i p — became permanent. I t took longer f o r Pope ( i n good King George's golden words) t o make Warburton a bishop than i t d i d f o r Warburton t o make Pope a C h r i s t i a n : but such were the rewards of t h e i r c o n n e x i o n . 3  During the summer of 1742, Warburton v i s i t e d  Prior  Park w h i l e Pope's entanglement w i t h the Dowager Duchess of Malborough prevented him from j o i n i n g h i s f r i e n d u n t i l October.  there  The death o f h i s landlady l e d t o some t a l k  of h i s s e t t l i n g at Widcombe w i t h A l l e n , w h i l e Martha Blount might s e t t l e a t Hampton Manor, but no d e f i n i t e plans were 4 made. Meanwhile, h i s l i t e r a r y labour c o n s i s t e d o f the  x  S e e pp.  66 - 67, 69.  o  Instead of "the amiable and s e n s i t i v e , but too modest Spence, who would have done i t a l l so much b e t t e r . " (A. Pope, p. 80). 3 Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 214. Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 375. A l l e n , 8 Dec. [1742], pp. 430 - 431.  A l s o , Pope t o  f i n a l r e v i s i o n o f the D u n c i a d ,  and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a  1  d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n o f h i s works, w i t h commentary by 2 Warburton.  Pope's l e t t e r s o f 1742, p r i n c i p a l l y o f course,  those addressed t o Warburton,  seem t o prove t h a t he was  by now convinced t h a t the former's a u t h o r i t y as a commenta4  t o r was i n d i s p e n s a b l e ;  and t h e i r c l o s e c o n t a c t d u r i n g the  long v i s i t t o the A l i e n s i n the w i n t e r o f 1741 t o 1742 f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d the a u t h o r i t y o f Warburton over the . 5 poet. The problems  o f the poet, R i c h a r d Savage, which  absorbed much o f Pope's a t t e n t i o n a t t h i s time, a l s o touch Pope t o A l l e n , London, 8 Feb. 1741, r e f e r s t o the p r i n t i n g o f the "Widcomb" Poem, "which must be The New Dunciad ( i . e . , Book I V ) , upon which Pope e v i d e n t l y worked at Allen's house. I t was p u b l i s h e d 20 March, 1742." (Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 387, note 3 ) . x  2  Sherburn, i n Correspondence 3  IV, p. 375.  A t l e a s t 9 i n the Sherburn e d i t i o n f o r t h a t year.  Pope t o A l l e n , 27 Dec. [ 1 7 4 2 ] : "When you w r i t e t e l l Mr. W. how much i t i s owing t o him t h a t (Dunciad IV) i s complete, & how much I t h i n k i t advantaged by h i s Notes & Discourses before i t . " (Correspondence IV, pp. 432 433) . 4  5  In h i s poem, La R e l i g i o n , L o u i s Racine had a t t a c k e d the Essay on Man on d o c t r i n a l grounds. Pope p r o t e s t e d t h a t h i s o p i n i o n s conformed t o those o f P a s c a l and Fenelon, and sent Racine Warburton's V i n d i c a t i o n as i n c o n t e s t i b l e evidence t o t h i s e f f e c t . (Pope t o L. Racine, 1 Sept. 1742, Correspondence IV, pp. 415 - 416). Racine acknowledged Pope's view i n a generous l e t t e r o f 25 Oct. 1742 (IV, pp. 422 - 423).  98 upon the l a t t e r s r e l a t i o n s w i t h A l l e n , 1  to h i s f r i e n d i n September, Misunderstandings,  i n s o f a r as, w r i t i n g  "Savage plagues me w i t h h i s  & M i s e r i e s " he asks A l l e n to a c t as  i n t e r m e d i a r y i n adding to a l e t t e r to Savage, "an order for f i v e guineas," & to " i n q u i r e whether he be i n any p a r t i c u l a r misfortune, or i n p r i s o n ? "  1  With t h i s  remittance, Pope confesses t o h i s f r i e n d :  "I can  final really  a s s i s t him no f u r t h e r , nor w i l l i t be i n t h a t case to any 9  purpose." A t the time when A l l e n was and w h i l e Warburton was  e l e c t e d Mayor o f Bath  s t a y i n g a t Widcombe, Pope had  expressed a n x i e t y to be w i t h them, but h i s l e t t e r o f 23 September  (1742), r e f l e c t s the i n c r e a s i n g f r a i l t y o f h i s  health: I am so crazy, & see a Journey w i t h so much Apprehension & so l i t t l e p l e a s u r e , t h a t were i t not we are u n f o r t u n a t e l y so f a r asunder, I would never more go twenty miles from home. The l e a s t c o l d I c a t c h takes from me a l l Enjoyment o f my L i f e & a l l comfort o f C o n v e r s a t i o n . 3  He d i d journey to Widcombe i n October,  "which ... no  c o u l d do w i t h a b e t t e r Heart, or a more jaded Body,"  man 4  Savage was imprisoned f o r debt i n B r i s t o l , i n 1742. D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l Biography, ed. L e s l i e Stephen. x  Pope to A l l e n [ l 3 Sept. 17421. Correspondence IV, p. 417. The l e t t e r to R. Savage f o l l o w s , pp. 417 - 418. 2  3  Pope to A l l e n , Correspondence  IV, pp. 420  4 Pope, i n the same l e t t e r , p.  421.  - 421.  but by the f o l l o w i n g year, c o u l d undertake no  further  t r a v e l i n w i n t e r , so p a i d h i s v i s i t to A l l e n i n J u l y o f 1743,  together w i t h Warburton and Martha B l o u n t .  w r i t i n g to another dining  friend, early i n July,  "en malade," w i t h C h e s t e r f i e l d  1  mentioned  ("there i s not  one man  a t Bath b e s i d e s whom I know"), and d e c l a r e d  t h a t he  "was  this place." was  never more a t ease i n h i s l i f e 2  Pope,  than a t  Yet, w i t h i n a month, the whole s i t u a t i o n  to change, and Pope was  to leave P r i o r Park f o r the  l a s t time. There may  have been two reasons f o r Pope s abrupt 1  3  departure.  On the one hand, Pope appeared  somewhat  annoyed a t A l l e n ' s r e f u s a l to lend one o f h i s houses to h i m s e l f and h i s f r i e n d , George Arbuthnot. •"-Sherburn, i n Correspondence  IV, p.  436.  Pope to the E a r l o f Marchmont [ j u l y , Correspondence IV, pp. 458 - 459. 2  Pope seemed  1743],  3  J . Spence t h i n k s t h a t reasons f o r h i s q u a r r e l were: The r e f u s a l o f Bathampton Manor to M. Blount; the r e f u s a l of A l l e n ' s c a r r i a g e to take her to the Roman C a t h o l i c Chapel, and Mrs. A l l e n ' s s u s p i c i o n s as to the nature o f the i n t i m a c y between M. Blount and Pope. (Anecdotes, pp. 358 - 359, quoted by Barbeau, p. 262, note 3). R. Warner g i v e s as the reason, the r e f u s a l to lend the Manor to M. Blount, "which so exasperated the l i t t l e wasp, t h a t he q u i t t e d h i s house i n d i s g u s t , " t h i s remark i s quoted by Peach, who observes: "There i s not one word o f t r u t h i n t h i s statement" ( L i f e and Times, p. 94).  100 to be growing r e s t i v e under A l l e n ' s k i n d , b u t p e r s i s t e n t hospitality.  A l l e n , he t e l l s Arbuthnot,  "absolutely  d e c l a r e s you s h a l l be h i s guest a t h i s own house .... I t o l d him both you & I should be Easyer a t the other house ... b u t a l l t o no purpose."  He doubts whether  Arbuthnot w i l l care to s t a y so long a t A l l e n ' s , "I owne I s h o u l d n o t . "  adding,  i  At the same time, the presence o f Martha Blount a t P r i o r Park may not have been conducive t o harmony i n the household.  Pope, ever anxious on her b e h a l f , had  asked the A l i e n s to extend t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n to Miss Blount, by i n v i t i n g her t o s t a y .  Her mother had r e c e n t l y  died, and the "tenderness" o f Miss Blount's d i s p o s i t i o n and a " D e j e c t i o n o f S p i r i t s " had thrown h e r i n t o so weak a c o n d i t i o n , t h a t Pope dreaded the consequence b e i n g l e f t a t home.  o f her  "She i s i n T e r r o r s a t every t h i n g , "  wrote Pope and: " A l l my p r e s e n t Care i s f o r t h i s poor, f o o l i s h l y - t e n d e r , but e x c e e d i n g l y honest, Woman ... f o r indeed Many Dangers compass her round a t t h i s time." Martha  Blount's e v i d e n t s t a t e o f t e n s i o n may w e l l  have p r e c i p i t a t e d a q u a r r e l t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to s e v e r a l  Pope to S. Arbuthnot, 2 3 J u l y , IV, pp. 461 - 462. Pope t o A l l e n , pp. 452 - 453. 2  12 Apr. [1743^,  1743.  Correspondence  Correspondence IV,  101 h i s t o r i a n s , broke o u t between her h o s t s and Martha Blount. Pope had a l r e a d y l e f t the A l l e n ' s house, George Arbuthnot  1  to B r i s t o l .  2  to t r a v e l with  Sherburn suggests t h a t  "Miss Blount has perhaps been blamed too much," and t h a t the " q u a r r e l " has l a r g e l y been presented by h i s t o r i a n s through the eyes o f Pope's b i o g r a p h e r , Ruffhead, who was p r e j u d i c e d i n favour o f Warburton and the A l i e n s .  3  K i l v e r t s t a t e s t h a t Ruf Ahead*s L i f e o f Pope i s thought t o have been s a n c t i o n e d by Warburton, so t h a t i t thereby c o n s t i t u t e s  "reliable evidence,"  4  and quotes  Ruffhead as s a y i n g t h a t Miss Blount: "Behaved h e r s e l f i n so a r r o g a n t and unbecoming a manner t h a t i t o c c a s i o n e d an i r r e c o n c i l a b l e breach between her and some p a r t o f Mr. Allen's  family."  5  Peach a s s e r t s  that:  The t r u t h i s t h a t both Martha Blount and Mrs. A l l e n were women o f h i g h temper; t h a t Pope was i n some way the  ••-Evidently i n some annoyance because o f A l l e n ' s r e f u s a l to lend them a house. (Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 436) . 2  Correspondence  IV, p. 463, note 1.  3  I b i d . , p. 463, note 1.  K i l v e r t , "Essay on the Connection o f Pope ... w i t h Bath," p. 131. 4  Ruffhead, Lxfe o f Pope, quoted by K i l v e r t i n h i s "Essay on ... Pope," pp. 131 - 132.  102 cause o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the two women, and t h a t the poet and Miss Blount a t once l e f t P r i o r P a r k . ! In  Remains i n Prose and Verse, K i l v e r t  quotes  Polwhele's B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketches i n Cornwall (1831) t o the  e f f e c t t h a t o l d Mrs. E l l i o t ,  a s i s t e r o f Ralph A l l e n  (with whom Polwhele was w e l l acquainted, as a boy i n Truro)  2  a f f i r m e d t h a t both Pope and Miss Blount o c c a s i o n e d  much uneasiness t o h e r b r o t h e r " i n consequence  o f what Dr.  Johnson c a l l e d her 'indecent arrogance'," and t h a t the q u a r r e l l a y between Mrs. A l l e n and "that i n s o l e n t "Dr. Johnson u n h a p p i l y f o l l o w s R u f f h e a d " that:  "Mrs. Blount ... comported  4  lady."  i n stating  h e r s e l f w i t h such indecent  arrogance t h a t she p a r t e d w i t h Mrs. A l l e n i n a s t a t e o f such i r r e c o n c i l e a b l e d i s l i k e ,  and the door was f o r ever  barred against her." C e r t a i n l y Miss Blount's l e t t e r t o Pope a f t e r h i s departure r e v e a l s a s t a t e o f extreme a g i t a t i o n , a c c u s i n g the  e n t i r e household o f "much g r e a t e r inhumanity than I  c o u l d conceive any body should show;" she i s bent on  L i f e and Times, p. 94. The A l i e n s were a C o r n i s h f a m i l y . Remains, p. 153. Sherburn,  i n Correspondence  3  IV, p. 463, note 1.  L i v e s o f the Poets I I , pp. 292 - 293.  l e a v i n g a t once,  " f o r I r e a l l y do t h i n k , these people  would shove me out, i f I d i d not go soon" and adding t h a t her p r e s e n t s t a t e i s " d e p l o r a b l e . " Pope's r e p l y was  x  e q u a l l y a g i t a t e d , u r g i n g her to  leave P r i o r Park a t once: A l l I beg i s , t h a t you'1 not s t a y a moment a t the o n l y p l a c e i n England (I am s a t i s f y d ) where you can be so used; & where ... I w i l l never s e t f o o t more — however w e l l I might wish the Man, the Woman i s a Minx, & an i m p e r t i n e n t one. Warburton  too, comes under a t t a c k .  Pope says he  dare not d i r e c t t h i s l e t t e r to Miss Blount h e r s e l f because: " I should not wonder i f l i s t e n e r s a t doors should open L e t t e r s . t o l d him he  W.  flattered."  i s a sneaking Parson, & I 2  But he takes the blame upon h i m s e l f f o r b e i n g the cause o f the t r o u b l e : "The b i t t e r R e f l e c t i o n t h a t I was w h o l l y the unhappy cause o f i t . "  Nevertheless,  h i s a n i m o s i t y towards A l l e n i s r e v e a l e d by a remark to the Duchess o f Malborough when he asks her to w r i t e to Lord C h e s t e r f i e l d a t B a t h ,  4  because he f e a r s t h a t her  M. Blount to Pope [ 2 8 J u l y or 4 Aug. Correspondence IV, p. 462. 1  1743]..  Pope to M. Blount [ e a r l y Aug. 1743] , Correspondence IV, pp. 463 - 464. 2  3 Pope, i n the same l e t t e r , p. 463. ^Through which Pope was p a s s i n g en route f o r B r i s t o l . Miss Blount a p p a r e n t l y reached London by 16 August.  104 letter  "under Mr. A l l e n ' s Cover," had been opened.  But Pope was e v i d e n t l y embarrassed  x  a t the n e c e s s i t y he  9  f e l t i n avoiding Allen,  and asked Dr. O l i v e r n o t to  r e v e a l h i s presence f o r one n i g h t a t Bath,  "or Mr.  A l l e n w i l l take i t i l l . " Very soon a f t e r t h i s , a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h A l l e n 3  began, and f o r the r e s t o f the year, l e t t e r s to A l l e n (and d o u b t l e s s from him —  n o t preserved) worked g r a d u a l l y  4  towards  t h i s end.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n view o f the i n c r e a s -  i n g warmth i n the tone o f Pope's l e t t e r s to A l l e n , and the apparent renewal o f the f r i e n d s h i p on i t s e a r l i e r f o o t i n g , the w i l l made by Pope and p u b l i s h e d a f t e r h i s death i n May, 1744 i n s o f a r as i t concerns A l l e n , seems to suggest t h a t there s u b s i s t e d i n Pope's mind, some l i n g e r i n g resentment over the " q u a r r e l . " h i s executors to pay A l l e n j * 150,  Pope o r d e r s  as being, "to the b e s t  o f h i s c a l c u l a t i o n , " the sum t h a t he had r e c e i v e d Allen.  from  Should the l a t t e r r e f u s e the payment, he i s asked  to bequeath bequeaths  the money to the Bath H o s p i t a l .  Pope a l s o  some o f h i s books to A l l e n .  Pope to the Duchess o f Malborough, Correspondence IV, p. 465.  6 Aug. 1743.  9  Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 470, note 1, and Pope t o Dr. O l i v e r , 28 Aug. 1743, IV, p. 470. Pope to Dr. O l i v e r , p. 469. 3  4Sherburn,  18 Aug. [1743], Correspondence IV,  i n Correspondence  IV, p. 436.  105 The w i l l , 12  December,  according  1743.  to  S h e r b u r n , was made on  Courthope  1  l i k e w i s e mentions  Decem-  2 ber  of  that year.  between  September,  for A l l e n ' s affection will,  health,  are  of  Strictness  world,  that I  to  yours,  & Essence  I wish her  in  the  2  points  to  Correspondence  IV, p .  501,  of Pope,"  i n Works,  Pope t o A l l e n , 13 S e p t . , 23 N o v . , 1743, Correspondence  Form,  either  in  sentence  note V, p. 30 O c t . , IV.  i n .the  your S e l f  a hope,  but)  And as  u s u a l w i t h any  first  letter  "Life  3  the  without  not wrong,  sincerity  as One who t a k e s p a r t  The w o r d i n g o f  above  evident  P o s t go,  o n l y the  as w e l l as  you,  4  the  i s w i t h a l l the  ...  Concern."  and  making h i s  o f our F r i e n d s h i p . "  " A c q u a i n t me as  concerns  let  (not  terminating with: that  admiration  and a s s u r i n g y o u , Y o u a r e  I would preserve  say,  concern  reciprocate Allen's  "I w o u l d n o t  "It  of  written 3  year,  T h r e e weeks b e f o r e  anxious  regards Mrs. A l l e n :  letters  end o f t h e  and p r o f e s s i o n s  friendship:  imagine t h a t  i n Pope's  and t h e  manifest.  t h a n k i n g you f o r  the  1743  Pope a p p e a r s  tender  to  And y e t  . . . ; "  thing that  quoted or  an  1. 341. 8 Nov.,  17 N o v . ,  P o p e t o A l l e n , 23 N o v . [ l 7 4 3 ] , C o r r e s p o n d e n c e I V , p p . 485 - 486. H i s l e t t e r t o J . R i c h a r d s o n ( q u o t e d on p . 90) shows t h a t he e v e n c o n t e m p l a t e s a r e t u r n t o B a t h . 4  106 a f f i r m a t i o n expressed by A l l e n , t h a t the e s s e n t i a l nature of their  f r i e n d s h i p had not been d e s t r o y e d .  In s p i t e o f  the p r o t e s t a t i o n s , can a c e r t a i n r e s e r v e on Pope's p a r t , be d e t e c t e d from a r e a d i n g o f the e n t i r e When A l l e n was Pope's w i l l ,  letter?  acquainted w i t h the content o f  a f t e r the l a t t e r * s death, t h e r e i s a t r a d i -  t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Dr. Johnson, t h a t Mr. Pope "was  t h a t he observed simply,  always a bad accomptant, and i f to  the / 150 he had put a cypher more, he had come nearer over to the M i n e r a l Water H o s p i t a l i n Bath.  Johnson  a l s o l a y s the  blame f o r the w i l l upon Martha Blount, a v e r r i n g t h a t Pope, having long been under her domination, and now i n the d e c l i n e o f l i f e and unable to r e s i s t o f her temper  "the v i o l e n c e  ..., " complied w i t h her demand and  h i s w i l l w i t h female resentment. Johnson  tottering  In t h i s connection  i s f o l l o w i n g Ruf Ahead's l e a d .  the w i l l i n h i s biography o f Pope and makes Martha  "polluted  The  latter  quotes  ( p u b l i s h e d i n 1769),  Blount r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such an " o s t e n t a 4  t i o u s reimbursement" o f a l l t h a t Pope owed to A l l e n ,  L i v e s o f the Poets I I , p. 2  I b i d . , p.  293.  293.  o J  0 . Ruffhead, L i f e o f A. Pope, Esq., p.  ^Ruffhead, quoted by Barbeau,  546.  p. 265, note  3.  107 whereas Joseph Spence, who Martha Blount  knew Pope p e r s o n a l l y , quoted  as s a y i n g she had never read the w i l l ,  t h a t when Pope mentioned to her she begged him, out,  the c l a u s e i n question,  i n v a i n , to omit i t .  Barbeau p o i n t s  1  t h a t i f Ruffhead i s the source o f a l l the  a g a i n s t Martha Blount, head's L i f e was  and  bias  i t i s an open s e c r e t t h a t  Ruff-  w r i t t e n under the i n s p i r a t i o n of, i f  not  i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Warburton, who  one  occasion  on more than  shows ( i n the posthumous e d i t i o n o f Pope's o  Works) t h a t he was  i l l - d i s p o s e d towards Miss  Blount.  Whatever the reason commentators suggest as motivating  Pope i n t h i s  of A l l e n in his w i l l ,  "petulant & contemptuous mention"-  a l l t h e i r accounts o f the  agree i n s t a t i n g , or at l e a s t ,  implying  their  Pope's f r i e n d , O r r e r y w r i t e s i n June, 1744 being  affair  disapproval.  of Allen's  "extremely enraged;" and avows t h a t the whole matter J.  Spence, Anecdotes V, pp.  357  -  358.  o  Barbeau, p. 262, note 2, g i v e s as an example, Warburton's attempt to deprive her o f the d e d i c a t i o n o f Pope's E p i s t l e "Of the Characters o f Women," c i t i n g E l w i n and Courthope, I I I , pp. 10 - 11 i n support o f t h i s remark. J  1  S.  Johnson, L i v e s o f the Poets I I , p.  292.  108 i s indeed a p e r f e c t mystery t o h i m . However, d u r i n g life,  there was nothing  x  the l a s t few months o f Pope's to i n d i c a t e such an e v e n t u a l i t y .  His h e a l t h was d e c l i n i n g so r a p i d l y t h a t h i s were c o n f i n e d  to concentration  activities  upon the e d i t i o n o f h i s  works, w i t h Warburton's commentary, and upon h i s f r i e n d ships.  2  As regards h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h A l l e n , i n t h i s  s p r i n g o f 1744, the l e t t e r s s t i l l express esteem and affection,  "from a Man, whom you w i l l  disinterested,  f i n d ... w h o l l y  & upon generous P r i n c i p l e s , Your F r i e n d . "  J  A l l e n planned a v i s i t to London i n March, 1744, and i t was 4 a t Twickenham The  t h a t the two f r i e n d s met f o r the l a s t time.  A l i e n s v i s i t e d Pope on Good F r i d a y , and d u r i n g  this  L o r d O r r e r y to M a l l e t , 14 J u l y , 1744: "I f i n d people i n g e n e r a l seem s u r p r i s e d a t the l a s t a c t o f one departed f r i e n d ... I t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. A ( l l e n ) i s extremely enraged a t h i s share o f money ... o r r a t h e r a t the manner i n which i t i s given, and which i s indeed a mystery t o me" (Works, ed. E l w i n & Courthdpe, V I I I , p. 523) .. 1  Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 488. Pope to A l l e n , 25 Feb. [ 1744^. Correspondence IV, - 503, w r i t t e n from Chelsea H o s p i t a l .  3  502  T h e A c t f o r b i d d i n g C a t h o l i c s t o r e s i d e w i t h i n 10 m i l e s o f London, now invoked because o f the threatened J a c o b i t e i n v a s i o n from France, would have made a meeting i n London d i f f i c u l t (Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 504, note 3), had not Pope's s t a t e o f h e a l t h made i t impossible f o r him to t r a v e l a t the time. Pope to Warburton [March, 1744], IV, pp. 505 - 506. 4  109 meeting they d i s c u s s e d openly and "misunderstanding,"  f r e e l y the r e c e n t  and p a r t e d , apparently, on the b e s t  of  terms.  On E a s t e r Sunday Pope wrote a "coloured r e p o r t "  of  the meeting to Martha Blount.  I f w r i t i n g had not been  so d i f f i c u l t Pope says, he would have t o l d her t h a t p a s t between Mr. A l l e n & h i m s e l f . " t h a t the l e t t e r was difficult  both p h y s i c a l l y and  x  "everything  Sherburn  finds  psychologically  f o r Pope because he had gone much f u r t h e r  towards r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h the A l i e n s than he  found  2  i t d i p l o m a t i c to confess to Martha.  A l l e n had s t r o n g l y  v i n d i c a t e d h i m s e l f and h i s w i f e a g a i n s t the reproach o f w i s h i n g to o f f e n d the other couple, and a t t r i b u t e d the t r o u b l e to a misunderstanding "never  i n h i s l i f e was  between the two women, and  so s o r r y a t any disappointment.  "I thought her  (Mrs. A l l e n ' s ) Behaviour  Pope observes,  "but i n mine I d i d my v e r y b e s t to show  I was  unconcerned ..."  himself  At p a r t i n g , A l l e n had  2  shy"  invited  "to come again a t h i s r e t u r n i n a f o r t n i g h t , "  Pope to Martha Blount IV, pp. 510 - 511. . x  a little  1,3  4  (25 March, 1744), Correspondence  Correspondence IV, p. 510,  note  1.  ^Whether the d i f f i c u l t y had a r i s e n over Bathampton Manor (p. 99) or the r e f u s a l o f A l l e n ' s c a r r i a g e (p. 99 footnote 3 ) , Sherburn concludes t h a t the q u a r r e l had a f f e c t e d the l a d i e s more than i t d i d the two men. (Correspondence IV, p. 510, note 1) . Pope to Martha Blount [ 25 March, 17441 . IV, p. 511. 4  Correspondence  110 b u t they were n o t d e s t i n e d to meet a g a i n .  Pope had hoped  he might meet and dine w i t h them "on the road," on t h e i r r e t u r n t o Widcombe, but c o u l d n o t do s o .  x  His l a s t  letter  to A l l e n , d i c t a t e d b u t s i g n e d by Pope, from "Chelsea C o l l e g e " ^ says: "I am now not a b l e to express a g r e a t p a r t o f my good sentiments f o r you, much l e s s to w r i t e , " and concludes: "I must j u s t s e t my hand to my h e a r t . Yours / A. Pope.  1,3  Pope to A l l e n 1 ? 9 A p r i l , p. 517. x  1744J , Correspondence  IV,  2 i . e . Chelsea H o s p i t a l , where he was s t a y i n g , p r o b a b l y for h i s l a s t treatment from Dr. Cheselden (Sherburn, i n Correspondence IV, p. 522, note 2 ) . Pope t o A l l e n , 7 May \_ 1744^, Correspondence IV, p. 522. T h i s i s a l s o the l a s t l e t t e r from Pope t o be i n c l u d e d i n Sherburn's e d i t i o n o f The Correspondence. 3  V THE  CULTURAL MILIEU OF BATH DURING THE HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY Bath p l a y e d  a conspicuous p a r t i n the  l i f e o f England d u r i n g the century,  on the one  first  hand as she  o f the p e r i o d , on the other,  the  f i g u r e d i n the w r i t i n g s t h a t the  o f l i f e gave  a r t i s t i c achievement t h e r e .  she has  artistic  f i f t y years o f  to the extent  l a r development o f the Bath way for  FIRST  opportunity  I t i s i n the n o v e l  f i g u r e d most prominently.  singu-  Although the  1  that  representa-  t i o n o f Bath s o c i e t y i n the dramatic works o f the  period  p  is  inconsiderable,  the development o f t h e a t r e  i n the  city,  made p o s s i b l e by e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and by the presence o f g i f t e d men  and women was  a remarkable achievement  gave to Bath the b r i l l i a n t p o s i t i o n she has the h i s t o r y o f the E n g l i s h s t a g e .  3  She was  occupied  and in  i n t r u t h , "the  Queen of the West". The  poetic t r a d i t i o n i s less distinguished.  the Dunciad the shade o f S e t t l e p o i n t s out to x  S e e Chapter  VI.  2  S e e pp.  115  -  119.  3  S e e pp.  119  -  134.  Cibber:  In  "Each cygnet sweet o f Bath and Tunbridge race .... "  L  Pope i s a l l u d i n g to the " t u n e f u l w h i s t l i n g " o f the wouldbe poets who  i n t h e i r m u l t i t u d e s had descended  upon Bath.  During the whole o f the 18th century the charms o f Bath c a l l e d forth a torrent of panegyrics, of d e s c r i p t i v e p i e c e s , o f s a t i r e s , o f conundrums and a c r o s t i c s .  The  most favoured themes were the f a i r women and t h e i r liers,  the pangs o f love, or, i n another v e i n ,  s c a n d a l and the a b s u r d i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . farrago o f s t a l e compliments,  cava-  local "This  2  of s i l l y and p r e t e n t i o u s  g a l l a n t r i e s , o f p o i n t l e s s epigrams,  a c r o s t i c s and bouts  rimes, i s the d u l l e s t r e a d i n g i n the w o r l d . "  3  So numerous were the p o e t a s t e r s i n 1713  that  R i c h a r d Steele s t y l e d them the "Water Poets" (a t i t l e which they by no means resented) and mentioned Guardian No.  174  them i n  as  ... an innocent t r i b e .... who never w r i t e out o f the season, and whose works are u s e f u l w i t h the waters .... There are an hundred t o p i c s put i n t o metre every year, viz. 'The lover i s inflamed i n the water; o r , 'the nymph f e e l s her own p a i n , without r e g a r d i n g her l o v e r ' s torment'. These b e i n g f o r ever repeated, have a t p r e s e n t a very good e f f e c t ; and a p h y s i c i a n assures me, t h a t laudanum i s almost out o f doors a t the B a t h . 4  Pope, Dunciad, A. Barbeau, ;  I b i d . , p.  I I I , 154.  L i f e and L e t t e r s , p. 224.  30 September,  1713.  221.  113 "A Dream: or the Force o f Fancy" the o l d e s t l o c a l poem y e t d i s c o v e r e d , was x  a c o l l e c t i o n of short  poems each e u l o g i s i n g one o f the l a d i e s then t a k i n g the waters, and s e t the p a t t e r n f o r an i n t e r m i n a b l e s e r i e s . These were f o l l o w e d by p o r t r a i t s , o f no g r e a t e r l i t e r a r y merit, which were p u b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e l y or w i t h and madrigals i n the keepsakes period.  One  epigrams  and m i s c e l l a n i e s o f the  such s e l e c t i o n c a l l e d the -"'Bath M i s c e l l a n y "  expresses the hope "by showing c e a l e d Genius's  these specimens  o f con-  ... to convince Pope and S w i f t t h a t there o  are more poets i n England than themselves.'" Monkland, however, mentions  1  a l o c a l poet who  seems  to have enjoyed a g r e a t e r r e p u t a t i o n d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t o f the c e n t u r y : In the days o f Beau Nash, Mary Chandler, the s i s t e r o f Dr. Chandler, proved h e r s e l f as accomplished w i t h her pen as w i t h her needle — she was p r a c t i s i n g as a m i l l i n e r , and wrote a s p i r i t e d poem, d e s c r i p t i v e o f Bath which she d e d i c a t e d to the P r i n c e s s Amelia. However, i t was  not u n t i l the 1760's t h a t  any  p o e t r y worthy o f s u r v i v a l appeared i n connection w i t h  Barbeau (p. 2 22) w r i t i n g i n 1904, s t a t e s t h a t i t was p r i n t e d i n 1710. The B r i t i s h Museum Catalogue g i v e s 1719 as the date o f p r i n t i n g . T h e Bath M i s c e l l a n y f o r the Year 1740: Wrote by the Gentlemen and L a d i e s o f t h a t P l a c e . C o n t a i n i n g a l l the Lampoons, S a t y r s , P a n e g y r i c s , e t c . , f o r that Year. Bath: 1741. (Barbeau, x v i i i ) . 2  J  Bath  G. Monkland, Supplement to L i t e r a t u r e and L i t e r a t i o f (1855), p. 25.  114 Bath, when C h r i s t o p h e r Anstey was t o produce h i s New Bath Guide i n 1766. Batheaston  But the p o e t a s t e r s had n o t d i e d out.  Villa,  two miles from Bath,  At  a c e r t a i n Lady  M i l l e r began o r g a n i z i n g i n 1769, s o c i a l and l i t e r a r y g a t h e r i n g s intended to emulate the London salons o f such " b l u e s t o c k i n g s " as Mrs E l i z a b e t h Montagu. were h e l d r e g u l a r l y a t Batheaston  Poetic contests  i n an e a r n e s t i f some-  what l u d i c r o u s attempt to e s t a b l i s h a h i g h l e v e l o f "refinement."  Even Horace Walpole attended the c o n t e s t s  a t which, as he mentions i n h i s l e t t e r s : f l u x o f q u a l i t y a t Bath contend  "... a l l the  f o r the p r i z e s . "  "A  Roman vase, d r e s s e d w i t h p i n k r i b a n d s and myrtles r e c e i v e s the p o e t r y " and the w r i t e r s o f the " b r i g h t e s t compositions" "kneel to Mrs C a l l i o p e ,  1  crowned by i t w i t h myrtle  k i s s her f a i r hand, and a r e .... Be dumb, unbelievers.' 9  The  c o l l e c t i o n i s printed, published —  and her " C i c e r o n i a n u r n "  ."  Lady M i l l e r  w r i t e s Monkland "added to the  l i t e r a r y n o t e r i e t y o f Bath,  i f not t o i t s fame, as i n  t r u t h , her p o e t i c a l c o n c e i t s were r a t h e r the j e s t  than  i . e . , Lady M i l l e r . 2 L e t t e r s o f Horace Walpole, e d i t i o n o f 1891, VI, pp. 170 - 172. These statements are borne out by R i c h a r d Graves, a constant v i s i t o r t o the house, i n The T r i f l e r s , pp. 11 - 12. (Barbeau, p. 226). 3  D i s c o v e r e d a t F r a s c a t i i n 1757. (G. Monkland, L i t e r a t u r e and L i t e r a t i o f Bath, p. 20 n o t e ) .  -- T  115 the  a d m i r a t i o n o f men o f r e a l  Drama o f  the  e a r l y p e r i o d does n o t p r e s e n t  flattering  image o f t h e  during  first  or  the  some p a r t  of  Both p l a y s are  action,  its of  so p u b l i c  as  anonymous w r i t e r is  direct  "as  eminent  magnitude  ...  that at  i n London,  but  is  action, itself.  of  con-  t h i s p e r i o d manners liasons  the  f o r w i c k e d n e s s as  were  so e a s i l y  formed  In  2  1700  Bath d e c l a r e d  that  London,) ' b a t i n g  a Valley of Pleasure, any i n t r i g u e o r  mimick'd  the  reflections  o f A Step to  there  written  i n Bath  i n the w a t e r i n g - p l a c e s .  'tis  I n i q u i t y , Nor i s  century  a  there.  i n E n g l a n d so d i s s o l u t e ,  nor v i c e  Bath  18th  takes place  and s o c i e t y  Barbeau s t a t e s  the  In two c o m e d i e s  o f the  i n t e n d e d as  t e m p o r a r y manners  nowhere  spa.  quarter the  talent."  yet  a  debauch  Sink acted  there."  S i n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l gaming and f o r t u n e h u n t i n g were  two major, r e a s o n s  Bath,  both avocations  at  the  for  were p o p u l a r as  f o r w r i t e r s who u s e d B a t h as  -'-Literature  time,  subject  a setting.  and L i t e r a t i o f B a t h ,  frequenting  p.  matter  As h a s  already  20.  o Life  and L e t t e r s  at  Bath,  p.  105.  A Step to the Bath w i t h a C h a r a c t e r quoted by Barbeau, p . 106. 3  o f the  Place  (1700),  116 been shown,  1  the importance o f cards and d i c e i n the  d a i l y l i f e o f v i s i t o r s to the spa was  primordial,  such p u r s u i t s culminated^only too f r e q u e n t l y , of violence.  Quarrels  in'many i n s t a n c e s  arising  to duels  from dishonest  and  i n scenes play led  i n s p i t e o f Beau Nash's  attempts to a v e r t these l a s t , and s u i c i d e s were o f t e n caused by l o s s e s a t the gaming t a b l e s . I t i s t h i s atmosphere  of violence that p a r t i c u l a r l y  a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f both the w r i t e r s o f these e a r l y comedies,  and both comedies  i n c l u d e a scene between p l a y e r s  i n a gaming house. Thomas Durfey's The Bath or The Western Lass,  a  l i c e n t i o u s comedy w r i t t e n i n 1701 and performed a t Drury Lane i n the f o l l o w i n g year, seems to have enjoyed some success.  The s e t t i n g o f the opening scene o f The Bath 3  i s the King's Bath it  or a room a d j o i n i n g i t . Genest  calls  "a t o l e r a b l e comedy, but i t r e f l e c t s the coarseness 4  i  S e e pp. 35 - 36, . 52 - 53.  T h e a c t o r - d r a m a t i s t , Samuel Foote, whose Maid o f Bath (1771) a l s o r e f l e c t e d manners and s o c i e t y i n t h a t c i t y i n h i s day, remembered an o c c a s i o n on which a t r i c k s t e r was h u r l e d from an upper window by h i s v i c t i m s . (Memoirs o f Samuel Foote, Esq. (1778), quoted by Barbeau, pp. 98 - 99). 2  S e e Plan o f Bath, (f) . 4 J . Genest, Some Account o f the E n g l i s h Stage from the R e s t o r a t i o n i n 1660 to 1830 (1832), 10 V o l s , I I , p. 236. 3  117 and b r u t a l i t y t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n such p l a c e s . ing  scene o f A c t  only character  IV takes p l a c e  The  open-  i n a gaming house.  The  o f any o r i g i n a l i t y i n the p l a y i s the  "Western Lass" h e r s e l f .  A l l the other personages belong  to the c u r r e n t r e p e r t o r y o f the day,  "the male and  female  rakes o f E n g l i s h comedy at the t u r n o f the century," a p a r t .from two  s p e c i f i c scenes, the manners and  r e f l e c t the s o c i e t y and g e n e r a l way. The in  1725,  written  performed a t L i n c o l n ' s Inn F i e l d s on Feband  acted about seven times, does not  refinement i n morals and manners d u r i n g  years t h a t had The  i n a very  Bath Unmasked, by G a b r i e l O d i n g s e l l s ,  1725  suggest any  speech  x  first  r u a r y 27,  l i f e o f Bath o n l y  but,  intervened  the  s i n c e the appearance o f Durfey's  Bath.  The same d i s r e p u t a b l e s o c i e t y and the same l a x manners are d e p i c t e d i n t h i s mediocre p l a y . O d i n g s e l l s work shows l i t t l e power o f o b s e r v a t i o n or o f d e s c r i p t i o n , but i t s suggestion o f a f r i v o l o u s and e q u i v o c a l s o c i e t y seems to r e f l e c t the idea t h a t London audiences e n t e r t a i n e d o f Bath at t h i s t i m e . 1  2  In the L i n c o l n ' s  Inn F i e l d s p r o d u c t i o n  r o l e as S i r Captious W h i f f l e , was who  a leading  p l a y e d by John H i p p i s l e y  some years l a t e r undertook the b u i l d i n g o f the Orchard  Barbeau, p. 2  I b i d . , pp.  178. 178  -  179.  118 S t r e e t Theatre i n B a t h .  1  The theme o f t h i s s a t i r i c a l comedy i s the havoc wrought by gaming amongst people who to l o s e ,  and a t y p i c a l scene i s t h a t o f the opening o f  A c t I, Scene rising  c o u l d not a f f o r d  ii.  In a gaming room: "Lady Ambs-ace  from a t a b l e i n a fury, w h i l s t the sharpers  d i v i d e her money: FIRST SHARPER: I p r o f e s s we would not r e f u s e your Ladyship a few p i e c e s , but cash runs low a t t h i s time - and t h i s i s such an Iron age t h a t a gentleman has a v i l l a i n o u s time o f i t to l i v e upon c r e d i t . Your Ladyship cannot want money. Whenever you are prepared we w i l l give you your revenge. LADY A: Get you gone f o r a s e t o f bloodhoundsJ .... here are my d e i t i e s (takes up dice) though I have no s a c r i f i c e to o f f e r them .... Yet such i s the power o f your charms t h a t r a t h e r than want o f f e r i n g s f o r you I ' l l keep a s e t o f b r a v o s i n ..pay, who s h a l l cut t h r o a t s and rob a l t a r s to adorn your s h r i n e . 3  4  Other scenes o f The Bath Unmasked take p l a c e i n H a r r i s o n ' s Gardens, various lodgings.  The Grove, b e f o r e the Abbey and i n In A c t I, Scene  i i Pander remarks o f  Bath manner s: People always come to the Bath w i t h the same happy D i s p o s i t i o n f o r I d l e n e s s and P l e a s u r e . Men o f l a r g e fortunes come to spend 'em. Those o f s m a l l ones expect some lucky c a s t o f Chance to r a i s e them; the Wise and the W i t t y are content to p l a y the F o o l and F o o l s pass  See p. 126. Connely, p. 80. i.e., h i r e d assassins The Bath Unmasked (1725), A c t I, Scene  ii.  119 f o r Wits .... Lords, and Pickpockets c o n s o r t v e r y amicably t o g e t h e r ; and a profound Statesman s h a l l s i t and look d i v e r t e d a t a Puppet-show, or a Match o f W h i s t l i n g , as i f he was p r o j e c t i n g a Scheme to cheat the N a t i o n or buy himself a T i t l e . Odingsells  1  o p i n i o n o f the l a d i e s a t Bath i s  expressed by Pander, who  volunteers that:  Coquettes e n l a r g e t h e i r conquests, prudes indulge i n a corner, and are demure i n p u b l i c (though thanks to spreading l i b e r t i n i s m t h a t c l a s s d i m i n i s h e s d a i l y ) ; p r o f e s s e d l a d i e s o f p l e a s u r e f i n d c u l l i e s i n abundance.  These dramatic works are o f l i t t l e  interest  except as s a t i r i c a l commentaries on the s o c i a l I t was  not u n t i l R. B. Sheridan produced  ( i n 1775)  The  scene.  Rivals  t h a t , u s i n g as m a t e r i a l f o r comedy the types,  the a b s u r d i t i e s and i n t r i g u e s , the g a i e t y and  vitality  o f Bath s o c i e t y o f which  he. had much p e r s o n a l knowledge, 2 he made t h a t c i t y immortal on the stage. By t h a t time Bath was  a l r e a d y renowned  the kingdom f o r her t h e a t r e and d u c t i o n and a c t i n g t h e r e .  throughout  f o r the q u a l i t y o f p r o -  In f a c t , the h i s t o r y o f the  The Bath Unmasked, A c t I, Scene  ii.  B.S. Penley, The Bath Stage: a H i s t o r y o f Dramatic Representations i n Bath (1892) , p. 55 s t a t e s t h a t p o r t i o n s o f the .School f o r Scandal (1777), undoubtedly had t h e i r o r i g i n i n the g o s s i p o f Pump Room scandal-mongers. For the Bath p r o d u c t i o n , which was h i g h l y acclaimed i n the c i t y , the author h i m s e l f superintended r e h e a r s a l s , and took immense p a i n s w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n . 2  120 Bath stage "may  be s a i d to be a h i s t o r y o f the E n g l i s h  stage i n m i n i a t u r e . " 1 A 1694 p l a n o f Bath shows t h a t a s t a b l e had been transformed i n t o a rudimentary t h e a t r e , and the m u n i c i p a l a r c h i v e s , although incomplete, r e c o r d t h a t mysteries and m i r a c l e s were a c t e d i n Bath, and a l s o t h a t numerous a c t o r s and v i s i t o r s v i s i t e d the c i t y ,  from  o  E l i z a b e t h a n times onward. Nash's a r r i v a l i n 1705,  But i t was  only after Richard  t h a t a r e a l t h e a t r e was  built.  3  The b u i l d i n g o f t h e a t r e s , as such, i n the p r o v i n c e s , a c t u a l l y dated from the second h a l f o f the 18th century.  Before t h i s time, s t r o l l i n g p l a y e r s used t e n t s  or booths w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g , w h i l e "stock" or r e p e r t o r y companies would make use o f any a v a i l a b l e h a l l , not o f f e r r e g u l a r p e r f o r m a n c e s .  4  Bath was  somewhat o f  an e x c e p t i o n i n t h i s matter, however, because an i n the development  and d i d  interest  o f t h e a t r e r e s u l t e d from the second  v i s i t o f Queen Anne i n 1703,  and i t was  r e c o r d e d a t the  time by C o l l y Cibber t h a t the Drury Lane Company went X  B.S.  Penley, The Bath Stage, P r e f a c e , v i i .  Barbeau, pp. 62 - 63. 3 S. R o s e n f e l d , S t r o l l i n g P l a y e r s and Drama i n the P r o v i n c e s : 1660 - 1765, p. 166. 4 G.D.H. Cole i n Johnson's England, ed. A.S. T u r b e r v i l l e (1933), 2 V o l s . , I, p. 212. 2  121 down to Bath to e n t e r t a i n the Queen t h e r e . evidence  1  Additional  t h a t an i n t e r e s t i n t h e a t r e e x i s t e d a t t h i s  e a r l y date i s the f a c t t h a t , i n t h i s same year, Mrs. Nance O l d f i e l d appeared a t Bath as Lenora i n Crowne's S i r Courtly. Nice  (1665) .  She was the f i r s t o f a long  l i n e o f a c t r e s s e s who were to make t h e i r name on the Bath stage.  By 172 7, Mrs. O l d f i e l d had made such a r e p u t a -  2  t i o n i n London t h a t f o r C o l l y Cibber's p r o d u c t i o n o f Vanbrugh's Provoked Husband, the t h e a t r e was f i l l e d - o n account o f her wonderful a c t i n g i n the p a r t o f Lady Townly.  3  John Wood, the a r c h i t e c t , mentions t h a t a t h e a t r e was b u i l t i n Bath as e a r l y as 1705, by s u b s c r i p t i o n supported  "by people o f the h i g h e s t rank, who p e r -  m i t t e d t h e i r names to be engraven on the i n s i d e o f the house" as a p u b l i c testimony it.  o f t h e i r l i b e r a l i t y towards  T h i s t h e a t r e appears on Wood's map o f Bath o f 1735. I t  4  x  Rosenfeld,  p. 168.  2  I b i d . , pp. 168 - 169.  W i l b u r Cross, H i s t o r y o f Henry F i e l d i n g , I, p. 61. F i e l d i n g , i n Tom Jones, w r i t e s as i f he were p r e s e n t on the f i r s t night. The l e a d i n g p a r t i n F i e l d i n g ' s Wedding Day (1743) was intended f o r Mrs. O l d f i e l d b u t she d i e d before the p l a y c o u l d be produced. (Wilbur Cross, I, p. 74). 3  E s s a y towards a D e s c r i p t i o n o f Bath, quoted by Rosenfeld, pp. 169 - 170. 4  122 stood on the s i t e o f the present M i n e r a l Water H o s p i t a l and was known as  e r e c t e d f o r the Company of John Power, who "the Duke o f Grafton's s e r v a n t s . "  Power was  former comedian o f the King's Company i n London. Company was Farquhar's was  suppressed  i n 1706,  were a  His  1  but i t i s recorded t h a t  R e c r u i t i n g O f f i c e r , produced i n t h i s same year,  a c t e d a t Bath "before the Duke and Duchess o f  and other people o f q u a l i t y , " the o c c a s i o n b e i n g  Beaufort the 2  r e c e p t i o n o f the news o f P r i n c e Eugene's v i c t o r y . A v e r y popular  f e a t u r e a t t h i s time i n the  were the puppet shows, and The  Tatler,  city,  mentions the 3  r i v a l r y t h a t e x i s t e d between p l a y e r s and puppets.  Ladies  o f q u a l i t y i n t h e i r t u r n made use o f the p l a y e r s for t h e i r own  aggrandizement and  jealousies.  i n the cause o f t h e i r own  Both o f these c o n d i t i o n s suggest  4  t h e a t r e a t Bath s t i l l  petty  that  l a c k e d s t a b i l i t y and any degree  o f independence. The  f i r s t a c t o r o f note to make h i s name on  Bath stage was  Henry G i f f a r d , who  - Rosenfeld, p. L  appeared there i n  the 1719,  170.  o  Rosenfeld, p. 170, 1706.  24, 3  T a t l e r , / May  4  Rosenfeld,  p.  quoting The D a i l y Courant,  14,.17, 171.  1709.  Sept.  123 and l a t e r l e f t to make h i s r e p u t a t i o n i n London,  1  where  he became manager o f Goodman's F i e l d s , bought h a l f the shares o f Drury Lane i n 1733,  and removed to L i n c o l n ' s p  Inn F i e l d s i n 1736, where he produced F i e l d i n g ' s Pasquin. But G i f f a r d ' s renown l a y s t i l l itself,  i n the f u t u r e .  t h e a t r e a t t h i s time seems to have done  In Bath little  more than s u r v i v e , and Defoe, v i s i t i n g the c i t y i n 1711, made the remark t h a t make the P l a y . "  "the Company here  (not the A c t o r s )  3  However, a t u r n i n the p l a y e r s ' fortunes came about i n 1728, when the s i t u a t i o n was arily  —  —  at least  tempor-  improved by the performance a t Bath, o f The  Beggar's Opera, John Gay h i m s e l f b e i n g p r e s e n t , and s u p e r v i s i n g the whole o p e r a t i o n .  The B r i s t o l News com-  mented, concerning the g r e a t success o f t h i s p r o d u c t i o n : "We  don't indeed much wonder a t t h e i r  (the p l a y e r s ' ) p e r -  forming o f i t so w e l l , when we hear, t h a t Mr. Gay hath taken so much Pains to i n s t r u c t them."  4  Jonathan S w i f t  wrote i n the same y e a r : "I have been a t the Bath about ten days  .... the Beggar's Opera i s a c t e d h e r e ; but our P o l l y ^Penley, p. 32. 2  W i l b u r Cross, I, pp. 148,  178,  217.  Defoe, Tour Thro' Great B r i t a i n , p. 35. See p. 34. 3  p.  ^ B r i s t o l News, May 174.  11, 1728,  1928 e d i t i o n , I I ,  quoted by R o s e n f e l d ,  124 has got no fame, though the a c t o r s have got money."! At t h i s p e r i o d p l a y s were a l s o b e i n g performed i n some o f the g r e a t houses o f the neighbourhood, i n s t a n c e , a t Longleat,  as f o r  where Lord Weymouth, f a t h e r o f  the f i r s t Marquess o f Bath, sent, i n 1733, from the spa to e n t e r t a i n h i s g u e s t s .  f o r the p l a y e r s  Scenes were mounted  f o r the p l a y e r s i n the g r e a t p a r l o u r , and when they a r r i v e d an eye-witness remarked  that  "This was  as e n t e r t a i n i n g a  p a r t as any, and put her i n mind o f Scarron's c o m i c a l ,.3 romance." As regards the Bath t h e a t r e i t s e l f , p l a y e r s and audiences were c o n t i n u a l l y l a b o u r i n g under o f b e i n g housed  the disadvantage  i n s m a l l and i n c o n v e n i e n t premises; audiences  were, o f n e c e s s i t y ,  l i m i t e d , and a c t o r s i l l - p a i d .  -*-Works o f Jonathan S w i f t , ed. Walter S c o t t XVII, p. 221. o  During  (1814) ,  See p. 37, footnote 1.  3 From the Autobiography and Correspondence o f Mrs. Delaney (1861), I, p. 424, quoted by Rosenfeld, p. 177. Mrs. Delaney (who i n 1786 i n t r o d u c e d Fanny Burney a t c o u r t ) , stayed a t Bath a l s o i n 1736, and wrote to S w i f t i n t h a t y e a r : "I t h i n k Bath a more comfortable p l a c e t o l i v e i n than London ... You are a t l i b e r t y to partake o f a l l the entertainment, or l e t them alone j u s t as i t s u i t s your humour." (Mrs. Delaney, l e t t e r to S w i f t , A p r i l 22, ,1736, Autobiography, I, pp. 553 - 554, quoted by Barbeau, 'p. 49, note 3)1  125 the  17 30*s t h e a t r e  were  "bespoken"  at  B a t h was  at  by i n d i v i d u a l s  1  a very  low e b b .  Plays  ( i n c l u d i n g Richard Nash), 2  and C h e s t e r f i e l d , d u r i n g h i s the  poor  attendance at  Countess o f  visit,  theatrical  seventeen  Following h o u s e s when t h e  the  play  souls,  closure  commented on  performances:  B u r l i n g t o n bespoke the  ence c o n s i s t e d o f  the  1734  . . . .  "The  the  audi-  o f w h i c h I made  the  Licencing Act of  new H o s p i t a l ,  1737  4  came i n t o  and t h e  o f f e r e d asylum under the b a l l r o o m o f They now s t y l e d t h e m s e l v e s and somehow c o n t r i v e d t o comings o f  their  force,  cellar were  with their  expected  endure  the  were  t h e A s s e m b l y Room.  survive  in spite  of  the  only four  short-  T h e r e was no  and a u d i e n c e s who h a d to  heads  "to  players  of  "The B a t h Company o f C o m e d i a n s , "  new s u r r o u n d i n g s . ^  c e n i u m and no s c e n e r y ,  3  of p r o v i n c i a l p l a y -  B a t h T h e a t r e was p r o m p t l y d e m o l i s h e d b y o r d e r  trustees of  one."  f e e t below the  the n o i s e o f dancers  pros-  sit  in a  ceiling  above,  and  -"-To " b e s p e a k " : a t e r m u s e d a t t h i s p e r i o d meaning t o " o r d e r " o r " r e q u e s t " the performance o f a p a r t i c u l a r p l a y . ••' S e e 2  p.  45.  C h e s t e r f i e l d , l e t t e r to quoted by Connely, p . 103. 3  4  Rosenfeld,  5  Penley,  p.  p.  178.  Lady S u f f o l k ,  See a l s o  p.  Oct.  31,  1734,  10.  29.  ° T h e y . were a l s o e n c o u r a g e d b y N a s h , who was k e e p as many forms o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t as p o s s i b l e , the c i t y .  anxious to alive in  126 the s m e l l o f t a l l o w candles below."  x  But the premises proved so h i g h l y inadequate t h a t i n 1747 the p l a y e r s moved to the Globe Inn i n Kingsmead Square, thence to the George Inn near the Cross B a t h .  2  S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s , a scheme f o r the b u i l d i n g o f an independent and adequate t h e a t r e was a B r i s t o l t h e a t r e manager.  proposed by  This was John H i p p i s l e y ,  who  3  was  an a c t o r o f r e p u t e ,  enced manager.  i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g an e x p e r i -  The importance o f H i p p i s l e y ' s p r o j e c t l a y  i n i t s g i v i n g Bath an o p p o r t u n i t y to develop a stage p e c u l i a r l y i t s own,  and i n keeping w i t h the unique  social  c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r e v a i l e d there, and proved to be a v i t a l f a c t o r i n the c i t y ' s f u t u r e as a r e s o r t f o r a p p r e c i a t i v e theatre-goers.  H i p p i s l e y argued t h a t the p r o f i t s  from  the e x i s t i n g arrangement would not support "a l a r g e r or a b e t t e r Company o f A c t o r s .  And n o t h i n g can be more d i s -  agreeable than f o r Persons o f the f i r s t Q u a l i t y , and those o f the lowest Rank, to be seated on the same Bench t o g e t h e r . •"•Jerora Murch, Bath C e l e b r i t i e s , p. 411. "Rosenfeld, p. 179. the years 1745 - 1747. See P l a n o f Bath, 2 , 3  12 .  117.  T h e Bath J o u r n a l , Nov. 181. 4  p.  S e e p.  Source: The Bath J o u r n a l d u r i n g  30, 1747,  quoted by Rosenfeld,  127 John Wood remarked t h a t H i p p i s l e y ' s scheme met w i t h such approval  from "People o f Rank and D i s t i n c t i o n , " 1 t h a t  although H i p p i s l e y d i e d i n 1748, the scheme was proceeded with. The  e n t e r p r i s e was now taken i n hand by a l o c a l  brewer and chandler  named John Palmer, who bought up a l l  the shares o f the o l d a c t i n g company and b u i l t a new theatre  i n Orchard S t r e e t which opened i n October, 1750.  He was a s s i s t e d , and succeeded, by h i s son (also John Palmer), who became the Orchard S t r e e t ' s v e r y able manager; and  later,  i t s p r o p r i e t o r , u n t i l 1785.  The younger Palmer  was  a l s o the manager o f a group o f t h e a t r e s  i n B r i s t o l and  n e i g h b o u r i n g towns, w i t h c i r c u l a t i n g companies i n which many o f the l e a d i n g a c t o r s and a c t r e s s e s o f the day made t h e i r names.  In h i s quest f o r good a c t o r s , Palmer was  i n the h a b i t o f paying y e a r l y v i s i t s to the p r i n c i p a l t h e a t r e s o f England, and as a r e s u l t o f such  journeying,  r e a l i z e d t h a t the e x i s t i n g methods o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n must be  improved i f he was t o succeed i n a t t r a c t i n g t a l e n t . He  d i d succeed, a f t e r o b t a i n i n g government support, i n r e p l a c i n g the p r i m i t i v e one-horse c a r t s then i n g e n e r a l use, by  John Wood, Essay, p. 166.  L  -Penley, p. 64. G.D.H. Cole i n Johnson's England, I, p. 212.  5  128 f a s t e r c a r r i a g e s , thus t r a n s f o r m i n g the whole system o f cross-country t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  1  w h i l s t h i s work a l s o  extended to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the m a i l coach throughout E n g l a n d .  2  In t h i s way,  Palmer was  service  responsible  for improving c o n d i t i o n s o f t r a v e l and, a t the same time, enhancing the s o c i a l r e p u t a t i o n and p o p u l a r i t y o f Bath on account o f the h i g h standard o f a c t i n g and o f p l a y s which c o u l d be o f f e r e d by the Orchard S t r e e t Theatre. The s u c c e s s f u l opening performance t h e a t r e was which was  at this  t h a t o f Shakespeare's Henry IV, P a r t I ,  3  f o l l o w e d d u r i n g the next few years, by most  o f the comedies and t r a g e d i e s t h a t were i n favour a t Drury Lane or Covent Garden a t t h i s Chetwood, a contemporary wrote  i n 1749,  period.  h i s t o r i a n o f the t h e a t r e ,  t h a t a l r e a d y a t t h a t time Bath had a r e p u -  t a t i o n f o r audiences h i g h l y e x a c t i n g i n t h e i r demands: "An audience as d i f f i c u l t to be p l e a s e d as t h a t i n London, b e i n g g e n e r a l l y Persons o f the h i g h e r Rank t h a t frequent these d i v e r s i o n s i n the C a p i t a l .  x  Barbeau,  2  S e e p.  p. 68, note 3.  1,4  That Bath was c o n s i d e r e d  Murch, pp. 105  - 108.  6.  3  Barbeau, p.  66.  W.R. Chetwood, A G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f the Stage, from i t s o r i g i n i n Greece to the p r e s e n t time (1749), quoted by Penley, p. 32. 4  129 a t t h i s time, a centre whence a c t o r s might hope to graduate to the London stage, a l s o appears from Chetwood's remark t h a t a c e r t a i n a c t o r , had had  "the Fortune to  g i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n there (at Bath), insomuch  that several  Persons o f D i s t i n c t i o n and Taste promised to recommend him to one o f the e s t a b l i s h e d t h e a t r e s i n London." The Palmers had been much encouraged  x  in their  plans to b u i l d , on account o f the b r i l l i a n t audiences t h a t had attended t h e a t r i c a l performances d u r i n g the two p r e ceding seasons,.  It can be seen t h a t Bath t h e a t r e had  been p a t r o n i z e d by "Persons o f the h i g h e r Rank" even b e f o r e the opening o f the Orchard S t r e e t Theatre from an item i n the Bath J o u r n a l to the e f f e c t t h a t on J u l y 16, 1750, N i c h o l a s Rowe's Tamerlane was  performed a t the  Kingsmead Theatre a t the command o f the Lady  Augusta.  "The P r i n c e and P r i n c e s s o f Wales attended a f t e r t e a a t Ralph A l l e n ' s . "  drinking  2  The Orchard S t r e e t Theatre f l o u r i s h e d f o r f i f t y years and became a t r a i n i n g ground f o r g r e a t a c t o r s d u r i n g the second h a l f o f the century, although, u n t i l 1755, Assembly  Rooms (now known as "Simpson's"  Chetwood, quoted by Penley, p.  the  from the name o f  32.  2 y,Bath J o u r n a l , J u l y 16, 1750, quoted by Rosenfeld, p. 183. See a l s o p. 71.  130 i t s manager), continued t o o f f e r  t h e a t r i c a l performances  and was even c o n s i d e r e d a r i v a l ,  even though a c t o r s would  shift  In 1755, however, on the  between the two t h e a t r e s .  death o f Mr. Simpson, Palmer succeeded i n s e c u r i n g f o r the Orchard  S t r e e t Theatre,  formances .  the monopoly o f a l l dramatic  per-  x  At t h i s p e r i o d , s i n c e dramatic performances were., under the L i c e n c i n g A c t i l l e g a l , circumventing  some companies took to  the law by the subterfuge o f " c o n c e r t s , "  i n order t o a v o i d t h r e a t s o f p r o s e c u t i o n . be g i v e n  A p l a y would  ( g r a t i s ) between two s e c t i o n s o f a concert, 2  which l a s t was p e r m i t t e d by law.  That the Methodist  element sought to have the law e n f o r c e d i s suggested by Mrs.  Charke, an a c t r e s s and daughter o f C o l l y Cibber, who 3  p l a y e d a t Chippenham i n 1749, and l a t e r a t Bath,  but,  a p a r t from a few i n s t a n c e s o f attempted enforcement o f the l a w ,  4  t h e a t r e s were, on the whole, l e f t unmolested.  x  Penley,  2  R o s e n f e l d , pp. 9, 197.  5  p. 31.  A N a r r a t i v e o f the L i f e o f Mrs. C h a r l o t t e Charke" (1755), Constable's M i s c e l l a n y (1929), Rosenfeld, pp. 182, 19 4 Mrs. Charke decided to leave Bath when both playhouses were shut down "consequent upon i n f o r m a t i o n lodged a g a i n s t them under the L i c e n c i n g A c t . " Simpson's re-opened three weeks l a t e r as "The Concert Room." (Rosenfeld, pp. 196 - 197 3 , 1  5  R o s e n f e l d , pp. 8 - 9 , 196.  131 Indeed, such was the h o l d t h a t the drama had a t t h i s time t h a t t h e A c t was, f o r the most p a r t , ignored, and the s t r o l l e r s by t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e won t h e i r way, i n s p i t e o f i t , from vagabondage to the r e c o g n i t i o n o f Theatres R o y a l . x  In 1768, through the e f f o r t s o f John Palmer, the Orchard S t r e e t Theatre was granted, by A c t o f Parliament, the s t a t u s o f "Theatre R o y a l . "  The Bath Theatre became 2  the f i r s t r o y a l t h e a t r e o f the p r o v i n c e s . Contemporary  l o c a l newspaper items are an i n d i c a -  t i o n o f popular t a s t e i n t h e a t r e a t Bath i n mid-century. Even b e f o r e the b u i l d i n g o f the Orchard S t r e e t Theatre i n 1750, w h i l e premises were so inadequate to the needs o f both p l a y e r s and t h e a t r e - g o e r s , such r e c o r d s n e v e r t h e l e s s show a wide range i n the c h o i c e o f p l a y s .  Barbeau,  draw-  i n g h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from the Bath C h r o n i c l e f o r the years 1746  - 1751 says t h a t although the performances were r a r e ,  the r e p e r t o r y a t Simpson's Rooms  J  "was n o t i l l - c h o s e n ; "  t h a t Shakespeare was r e p r e s e n t e d by O t h e l l o , The Merchant o f Venice, R i c h a r d I I I and Romeo and J u l i e t .  Restoration  drama i n c l u d e d Otway's Orphan (1680) which was performed at a h a l l i n Kingsmead S t r e e t ,  4  N a t h a n i e l Lee's Theodosius  -•-Rosenfeld, p. 9. H i t h e r t o , o n l y Drury Lane and Covent Garden Theatres had been granted r o y a l p a t e n t s . (Penley, p. 35). 2  3  S e e p. 129.  T h e Bath J o u r n a l , February 12, 1749 - 1750, quoted by Barbeau, p. 65, note 3. 4  132 (1680), Thomas Southerne's Constant Couple  Oroonoko  1  (1695) and  Farquhar's  (1700), w h i l e 18th century drama i n c l u d e d  S t e e l e ' s Constant Lover, Mrs C e n t i l e v r e ' s Gamester  (1705),  Addison's Cato, Gay's Beggar's Opera, G a r r i c k ' s Albumazar and Miss i n her Teens and L i l l o ' s George B a r n w e l l .  2  An impression o f those t h e a t r i c a l items which were popular i n the years immediately the Orchard S t r e e t Theatre may  f o l l o w i n g the opening o f  be gained from S. Rosenfeld's  mention o f the a c t u a l number o f performances the "season" f o r the years 1750 she mentions f o r 1755  to 1755.  given during  Those  performances  i n c l u d e both the Orchard S t r e e t and 3  Simpson's Rooms as f u l l y a d v e r t i s e d i n the newspapers. The p o p u l a r i t y o f d i f f e r e n t items may be deduced from the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e composed from Rosenfeld's f i g u r e s : 1750  1751-1752  1753-1754  1755  Elizabethan & Jacobean, o f which:  7  -  -  22  Shakespearian  5  11  14  19  Restoration  4  7  9  12  18th Century  9  23  11  36  10  31  29  57  "Afterpieces" -•-Rosenfeld, p.  203.  2 Barbeau,  p.  65.  S t r o l l i n g P l a y e r s , pp. 203 - 204. In 1755 Palmer secured the monopoly f o r dramatic See p. 130. 3  performances.  133 The  above t a b l e shows c l e a r l y the sudden i n c r e a s e  i n the number o f E l i z a b e t h a n and Jacobean p l a y s performed i n 1755  whereas the p o p u l a r i t y o f Shakespeare had  x  s t e a d i l y a f t e r 1751.  Eighteenth  increased  century p l a y s seem to have  enjoyed g r e a t e r p o p u l a r i t y than d i d R e s t o r a t i o n drama. There i s a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the p o p u l a r i t y o f " A f t e r p i e c e s " d u r i n g these mid-century y e a r s .  Bath  f o l l o w e d f a i t h f u l l y the p r e v a l e n t 18th century  tastes  i n t h e a t r i c a l o d d i t i e s which cannot be c l a s s e d as r e g u l a r drama.  I t has been seen t h a t e a r l y i n the century puppet  shows had  a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d a t h r e a t to the development o  o f t r u e drama i n the city^ 1715  and Rosenfeld  records t h a t i n  puppet shows a t Bath i n c l u d e d nine d i f f e r e n t  items  which were " m i g h t i l y frequented by a l l s o r t s o f Q u a l i t y , and Punch, w i t h h i s Gang soon broke the S t r o l e r s , enjoyed the C i t y o f Bath by themselves" the  and  traditional  Punch having by t h i s time changed from a " r o a r i n g , lewd, r a k i s h , empty F e l l o w " to a speaker "of choice Apothegms and s t e r l i n g W i t . " By 1760 See p.  y  J  the number had  dropped to  five.  122.  R o s e n f e l d , p. 171 quoting a-Satire on H a r l e y (Oxford): "A Second Tale o f a Tub: or the, H i s t o r y o f Robert Powel the Puppet Show-Man" (1715). 3  134 Homes Dudden comments on the e v o l u t i o n o f the " A f t e r p i e c e " as a h i g h l y popular item i n 18th century t h e a t r e where Pantomime, was  1  a l s o known as "Entertainment"  p r e s e n t e d as a r u l e , n o t i n the p l a c e o f r e g u l a r  drama, b u t along w i t h i t as the " A f t e r p i e c e . "  So popu-  l a r d i d t h i s become t h a t o f t e n the p l a y had to be c u r t a i l e d i n order to leave time f o r the A f t e r p i e c e . Although allowance must be made f o r a probable i n c r e a s e i n the number o f performances  which would be g i v e n i n  Bath w h i l e Simpson's Rooms and the Orchard S t r e e t were both i n o p e r a t i o n and a c e r t a i n r i v a l r y  Theatre  existed,  3  the f a c t t h a t i n 1755 the number o f A f t e r p i e c e s p r a c t i c a l l y doubled t h a t o f the p r e v i o u s year i s s t r i k i n g evidence o f i t s appeal t o the h i g h l y e x a c t i n g audience of  "Persons o f D i s t i n c t i o n and T a s t e " i n Bath t o whom 4  Chetwood a l l u d e s i n h i s General H i s t o r y o f the Stage.  -Created by John R i c h , the London producer (A.S. T u r b e r v i l l e , E n g l i s h Men and Manners i n the 18th Century, e d i t i o n o f 1964, p. 408). 2 Henry F i e l d i n g , I, pp. 36 - 37. F i e l d i n g ' s Tumble Down D i c k p a r o d i e d John Rich's c u r r e n t type o f Pantomime. R i c h i s a l s o accused i n the parody, of c u t t i n g down O t h e l l o to make room f o r an A f t e r p i e c e (Wilbur Cross, Henry F i e l d i n g , I, pp. 194 - 195, I I I , pp. 299 - 300). 3  S e e pp.- 129 - 130.  4  S e e p. 129.  VI BATH AND THE NOVEL IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY Fortune-hunters a t Bath i n the novels o f Defoe and S m o l l e t t While gambling a t Bath i s p o r t r a y e d by the dramat i s t s Durfey and Odingsells,-'- for tune-hunting for  f r e q u e n t i n g t h i s c i t y i s a f a v o u r i t e theme o f other  w r i t e r s o f the f i r s t h a l f o f the century. the 18th century Bath was  tended  Defoe's unfavourable 1711  Britain  2  visit  suggest.  impression o f Bath d u r i n g  as recorded i n h i s Tour Through Great  i s a l s o expressed  allows h i s M o l l F l a n d e r s  3  i n f i c t i o n a l form when he to make a sad comment upon  her p e r s o n a l disappointment  to  approach  to r e p l a c e the s o r d i d mercenary motives which  the w r i t e r s o f the e a r l y years  city.  Throughout  to be a r e c o g n i z e d centre f o r  match-making, but g r a d u a l l y a more romantic  his  as a reason  as a fortune-hunter  in this  When, a f t e r her r e t u r n from V i r g i n i a she was  take a journey to B r i s t o l ,  going to the B a t h , "  pp.  116  -  expecting  4  1  See  2  S e e pp.  3  D.  4  M o l l F l a n d e r s , p.  she  "took the d i v e r s i o n o f  "something or other might  119.  33 - 34.  Defoe, M o l l F l a n d e r s 109.  obliged  (1722).  happen her way t h a t might mend h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . admits t h a t she d i d go there  Moll  Mi  " i n the view o f t a k i n g any-  t h i n g t h a t might o f f e r , " b u t p r o t e s t s t h a t she "meant n o t h i n g b u t i n an honest way." that  She was soon t o d i s c o v e r  "Bath i s a p l a c e o f g a l l a n t r y enough; expensive and  f u l l o f snares" where a f t e r spending  the whole l a t t e r  season, she c o n t r a c t e d some unhappy acquaintances, she r e f l e c t s ,  "rather prompted the f o l l i e s I f e l l  wards i n t o than  f o r t i f i e d me a g a i n s t them."  p l e a s a n t l y enough keeping  which, after-  She l i v e d  " f i n e company," but w i t h the  d e p l e t i o n o f her stock o f money her hopes o f advancement a l s o vanished. for  "I was i n the wrong p l a c e " she says  sadly,  here was no "honest sea c a p t a i n or o t h e r " who might  have proposed matrimony: "But I was a t the Bath, where men f i n d a m i s t r e s s sometimes, b u t v e r y r a r e l y look f o r a wife. "  2  Such was the probable hunter ; b u t male adventurers  d e s t i n y o f a woman f o r t u n e there were who d i d indeed  descend upon Bath i n search o f a w i f e , although i n t e r e s t e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n p r o c u r i n g a w i f e w i t h s u f f i c i e n t money to support  a husband.  In contemporary f i c t i o n the most  c e l e b r a t e d fortune-hunters  t o v i s i t Bath were S m o l l e t t ' s  M o l l F l a n d e r s , pp. 109 - 110. I b i d . , p. 110.  Roderick Random, F i e l d i n g ' s Mr. F i t z p a t r i c k ,  1  and  later o  i n the century, C h r i s t o p h e r Anstey's C a p t a i n Cormorant.^ Tobias S m o l l e t t i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a p h y s i c i a n , o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s i d e d a t Bath d u r i n g the season i n the hope t h a t v i s i t i n g  i n v a l i d s might c a l l him i n p r o f e s s i o n -  's  ally.  There i s no r e c o r d o f the date o f h i s presence i n  the c i t y b e f o r e 1752  4  but h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the Bath  scene i n R o d e r i c k Random (1748) and P e r e g r i n e P i c k l e is  (1751)  evident. S m o l l e t t ' s works suggest "the nightmare o f an  outraged h y g e n i s t . "  5  In h i s "Essay on the E x t e r n a l Use  o f Water With P a r t i c u l a r Remarks on the M i n e r a l Waters o f Bath" o f 1752 he contended t h a t the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o p e r t i e s x  S e e p. 188-.  I n the New Bath Guide o f 1766. T h i s i s d e s c r i b e d by Horace Walpole as: "A s e t o f l e t t e r s i n v e r s e s ... desc r i b i n g the l i f e o f Bath ... so much w i t , so much humour, fun and p o e t r y ... never met together b e f o r e . " L e t t e r s (1891), IV, p. 50, quoted by Barbeau, L i f e and L e t t e r s a t Bath, p. 231. (See a l s o p.156) . Although, u n l i k e the work o f S m o l l e t t , " A n s t e y ' s aim was l i g h t and good-humoured s a t i r e , Barbeau f i n d s t h a t the sceme o f the New Bath Guide — e i t h e r by a c c i d e n t or design — was adopted by S m o l l e t t for h i s Humphrey C l i n k e r (1771) ( L i f e and L e t t e r s , p. 233) . 2  4  L.S. Benjamin, (1927), p. 79. 4  L i f e and L e t t e r s o f Tobias S m o l l e t t  I b i d . , p. 80. W. A l l e n , The E n g l i s h Novel (1954), p. 69.  138 o f the waters had been g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d , which d i d nothing 1753,  x  to a t t r a c t p a t i e n t s a t Bath, and  medicine f o r It  i s i n h i s f i c t i o n t h a t S m o l l e t t has  conveying h i s p r o t e s t a g a i n s t what he  what he c o n s i d e r e d  of l i f e  in  of h i s confreres,  or  to be the a p p a l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s under  which cures were u n d e r t a k e n .  In Roderick Random and  2  P i c k l e the scenes connected w i t h Bath are  e q u a l l y a s a t i r e upon the  follies,  vices of society i n general. first  saw  succeeded  But h i s s a t i r e i s not d i r e c t e d  s o l e l y a g a i n s t the m a l p r a c t i c e s  Peregrine  abandoned  letters.  the w a t e r i n g p l a c e s .  the  in  a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Ferdinand Count Fathom  and h i s f a i l u r e as a medical p r a c t i t i o n e r he  in  an argument  a f f e c t a t i o n s and  L i k e those episodes i n  n o v e l d e s c r i b i n g l i f e a t sea and  able London, the Bath scene are  " r e l e n t l e s s , savage  cartoons i n h a b i t e d by c a r i c a t u r e s . " The  picaresque  Sage's G i l Bias whither S m o l l e t t  in fashion-  3  adventures i n the manner o f  Le  i n c l u d e a number o f episodes at Bath, sends the u n p r i n c i p l e d Roderick Random  -•-L.S. Benjamin, p.  80.  •'This a t t i t u d e f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n Humphrey C l i n k e r (1771). P a r t i c u l a r l y v i o l e n t on t h i s s u b j e c t are the judgments passed by Matthew Bramble i n the l e t t e r s o f A p r i l 20 from the Hot W e l l , and o f A p r i l 28 from Bath. (Dolphin e d i t i o n , pp. 26 - 28, 51 - 54). W.  3  A l l e n , The E n g l i s h Novel, p.  70.  139 as a fortune-hunter  to win  wealthy Miss Snapper.  the hand and  fortune o f the  I n t e l l i g e n t and w i t t y , Miss Snapper  i s however a c r i p p l e , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ,  Smollett  b r i n g s to bear h i s powers o f accurate o b s e r v a t i o n combined with  i n t e n s e p a s s i o n , upon the d e s c r i p t i o n o f Miss  Snapper's o r d e a l on e n t e r i n g the Bath Assembly Rooms. Here, where she  i s exposed to the c a l l o u s n e s s and  bru-  t a l i t y o f manners o f the assembled company S m o l l e t t i n t r o d u c e s the reader  to the Bath scene:  We no sooner entered, than the eyes o f everybody present were turned upon us; and when we had s u f f e r e d the martyrdom o f t h e i r looks f o r some time, a whisper c i r c u l a t e d at our expense ... accompanied w i t h many contemptuous smiles and t i t t e r i n g observations. The unmannerly behaviour o f the whole company "seemed to be assumed merely to put her out o f countenance." At t h i s p o i n t R i c h a r d Nash, present on the o c c a s i o n , comes under a t t a c k from the author. says S m o l l e t t  The  c e l e b r a t e d Mr.  " p e r c e i v i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n o f the  took upon h i m s e l f the task o f g r a t i f y i n g t h e i r still  f u r t h e r , by exposing  my  Nash, assembly,  ill-nature  m i s t r e s s to the edge o f h i s  wit. " In w i t , however, he was whose r e t o r t  matched by Miss Snapper  " r a i s e d such an u n i v e r s a l laugh" t h a t Nash  T. S m o l l e t t , Roderick l v , p. 331.  Random (1748), Everyman e d i t i o n  (1927),  140 l o s t h i s composure and "was  o b l i g e d to sneak o f f i n a  v e r y l u d i c r o u s a t t i t u d e " whereas Miss Snapper was  applauded  to the s k i e s f o r the b r i l l i a n c y o f her w i t "and her a c q u a i n t ance immediately c o u r t e d by the b e s t people o f both sexes i n the room."  x  0 l i v e r Goldsmith accepts t h i s i n c i d e n t as b e i n g a u t h e n t i c and mentions t h a t i t " i s t o l d i n a c e l e b r a t e d romance."  2  While S m o l l e t t uses the i n c i d e n t to suggest  a d i s a g r e e a b l e c h a r a c t e r whose former imperturbable assurance and freedom o f manner had  "degenerated i n t o  3  impertinence"  F i e l d i n g ' s mention o f Nash i n Tom  and h i s commendation o f him i n the Covent Garden are both generous and s y m p a t h e t i c .  4  The l a s t  Jones Journal  mentioned  works appeared w i t h i n three years o f the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Roderick Random. On y e t another o c c a s i o n the Assembly  Rooms g i v e  S m o l l e t t an o p p o r t u n i t y to p o r t r a y an aspect o f contemp o r a r y manners a t Bath.  On r e c e i v i n g an i n s u l t i n g  Roderick Random, l v , p.  billet  331.  Works_, Globe e d i t i o n . " L i f e o f R i c h a r d Nash, " p. 550. I t appears i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form i n The J e s t s o f Beau Nash (1763), pp. 67 - 68. (Barbeau, pp. 45, note 2, 188, note 2 ) . 2  J  Barbeau, p. 45.  4  S e e p. 189,  footnote 2.  141 a t the door o f the Long Room, the hero a f f r o n t s the w r i t e r o f i t , reduces a young lady p r e s e n t and  vexation,  receives  x  to t e a r s o f s p i t e  a c h a l l e n g e from the sneering  Lord  Quiverwit, whom he "meets, engages and vanquishes" i n a 2 duel-  In consequence o f t h i s v i c t o r y Random i s acclaimed  i n the c o f f e e house next day "by a g r e a t many o f those v e r y persons who had shunned me the p r e c e d i n g d a y . "  3  A number o f episodes i n P e r e g r i n e P i c k l e occurring his  a t Bath enable S m o l l e t t  also  t o extend even f u r t h e r  s a t i r e upon the s o c i e t y and manners o f t h a t  city.  P e r e g r i n e P i c k l e a l s o s e t s o u t f o r Bath when the  season b e g i n s ,  "panting w i t h the d e s i r e o f d i s -  tinguishing himself world."  4  a t t h a t r e s o r t o f the f a s h i o n a b l e  He proceeds t o d i r e c t h i s a t t e n t i o n to " g a l l a n t r y . "  His r e p u t a t i o n  f o r being  immense fortune,  "of a good f a m i l y and h e i r t o an  r e i n f o r c e d w i t h s p r i g h t l i n e s s o f conver-  s a t i o n , and a most i n s i n u a t i n g address" renders him so i r r e s t i b l e t h a t he has soon "set a l l the l a d i e s by the ear  and f u r n i s h e d  a l l the hundred tongues o f s c a n d a l w i t h  f u l l employment," w h i l s t meeting "with such advances from  x  M e l i n d a , Random's former  2  R o d e r i c k Random, l i x .  3  lbid.,  4  T . S m o l l e t t , P e r e g r i n e P i c k l e (1751), Everyman e d i t i o n r e p r i n t ) , 2 V o l s . , I, l x v i i i , p. 336.  (1956  love.  Ix, p. 361.  142 some o f the f a i r i n h i s amours. The from  sex ... rendered him extremely f o r t u n a t e  1 , 1  f a i r sex, as d e p i c t e d here by S m o l l e t t range  "those inamoratas who  whom there i s no  were turned o f t h i r t y " w i t h  " n e c e s s i t y o f proceeding by t e d i o u s  addresses," to ... those who laboured under the d i s e a s e o f c e l i b a c y , from the p e r t miss o f f i f t e e n , who w i t h a f l u t t e r i n g h e a r t t o s s e s her head, b r i d l e s up, and g i g g l e s i n v o l u n t a r i l y a t s i g h t o f an handsome young man, to the s t a i d maid o f twenty-eight, who ... m o r a l i z e s on the v a n i t y o f beauty, the f o l l y o f youth ... and e x p a t i a t e s on f r i e n d s h i p , benevolence and good sense, i n the s t y l e of a p l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h e r . 2  "In  such a d i v e r s i t y o f d i s p o s i t i o n s " P e r e g r i n e ' s con-  quests  "were attended w i t h a l l the h e a r t burnings,  a n i m o s i t i e s and t u r m o i l s o f j e a l o u s y and  spite."  The younger c l a s s m o r t i f i e d t h e i r s e n i o r s i n public,  " t r e a t i n g them w i t h t h a t i n d i g n i t y which ... i s  by the consent who  ... of mankind, l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t those  are c a l l e d o l d maids,  11  these l a s t r e t o r t i n g  " i n the  p r i v a t e machinations o f s l a n d e r , supported by experience and s u b t i l i t y o f i n v e n t i o n . "  J  •'-Peregrine P i c k l e , I, l x x , p. 2  I b i d . , p.  343.  3  I b i d . , p.  343.  342.  143 Among the r i v a l s , not a day passed without b e i n g c i r c u l a t e d some s c a n d a l those who  "whispered  there  as s e c r e t s among  were known to be communicative, so t h a t i n a  few hours,  i t became the g e n e r a l t o p i c o f d i s c o u r s e . "  x  This n o v e l a l s o g i v e s an i n s t a n c e of the p r e v a i l i n g c r u e l t y towards those who a disadvantage. witnesses  were thought  to be a t  P e r e g r i n e , a t the house o f Lady P l a u s i b l e ,  a scene i n which a "wit" among the  guests,  spurred on by h i s hostess, torments a deaf o l d man the g e n e r a l d e l i g h t o f the company who a loud f i t o f (laughter. " man  "burst out  —  that his  i n f i r m i t y a f f o r d the company.  subsequent chapter, the o l d man Crabtree  —  one  r e v e a l s to P e r e g r i n e t h a t he  f e i g n i n g deafness  into  P e r e g r i n e l e a r n s t h a t the o l d  i s i n v i t e d because of the entertainment  misanthropy and  to  In a  Cadwallader is in reality,  i n order to t u r n the t a b l e s upon h i s  tormentors. S m o l l e t t , the e s s e n t i a l l y embittered appointed man,  and  dis-  puts i n t o the mouth o f Crabtree, the  c l e a r s i g h t e d man  among t h i s horde^, the f o l l o w i n g words:  "I have l e a r n e d t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s o f mankind are where the same; t h a t common sense and honesty bear  Iper e g r i n e P i c k l e , I, l x x , p. ''Ibid.,  lxxi.  one  344.  everyan  144  infinitely  s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n to f o l l y and v i c e . "  Crabtree  1  i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , no more m o r a l l y e l e v a t e d than o t h e r s . He  d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as appearing  i n the world, not  "a s o c i a l c r e a t u r e , but merely as a s p e c t a t o r , who banquets h i s spleen i n b e h o l d i n g h i s enemies at heads."  By f e i g n i n g deafness,  he  as ...  logger-  i s able to become master  o f a thousand l i t t l e s e c r e t s , and the l a d i e s " d i v e s t t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n o f a l l r e s t r a i n t before him,"  and t h i s same  method he p r a c t i c e s upon the s u p e r c i l i o u s pedant, petulant c r i t i c ,  the fawning t o o l ,  "species o f knaves and abounds. "  s l y sharper  and  the every  f o o l s w i t h which t h i s kingdom  2  S m o l l e t t dwells f r e q u e n t l y on the p r a c t i c e s o f the  " s l y sharper"  i n this novel.  panion on the way systems a t B a t h . "  Peregrine  to the spa l e a r n " a l l the  and h i s compolitical  3  S m o l l e t t d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the London o r g a n i z a t i o n which f u r n i s h e s Bath w i t h London adventurers  fortune-hunters  and  sharpers.  were i n the h a b i t o f employing agents  throughout England to whom they p a i d a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n  ••-Peregrine P i c k l e , I, l x x i i , I b i d . , p. 3  2  Ibid., 4  357.  lxvii,  I b i d . , p.  p.  337.  337.  pp.  356  -  357.  of  the  profits,  e q u i p p i n g them and m a k i n g good  s u s t a i n e d by them. love  to  ladies  part of  the  of  Some a g e n t s were d e l e g a t e d fortune"  dowries  where  experts  in  tinuously yet  in wait  for  unsuspecting v i c t i m s . were made b y t h o s e "at  Bath,  the  sharpers  w h i c h no s h a r p e r  m o n o p o l i z e d the  the  ignorant  extortion most  punishing  and h i s  company o f  describe sharpers  and a r e  Peregrine  are  important  card-  infamous to  of  the  case o f  I,  Bath,  "those  and e x p e l l e d  the  sporters, play.  from and  M i  a scheme  society,"  which  "for permits  Bath i n which a whole  a t work a t  lxvii,  be  highest  the  billiard  v a n q u i s h e d b y an o p p o n e n t who assumes  Pickle,  and  returns  the  companion p r o j e c t  seen  con-  and unwary,  i n a l l kinds of  a scene a t  those  o f money f r o m  c a n be t o o  those v i l l a i n o u s pests o f to  all  In a d d i t i o n ,  who f r e q u e n t e d  a bank a g a i n s t  p.  a  E v e n women a d v e n -  g u e s t was b r o k e ,  advantage  Peregrine  table  "frequent  and e v e n c a r e s s e d b y p e r s o n s  had c o n s t i t u t e d  Smollett  to  and b o w l s " w o u l d be  But t h e  b y whom t h e i r  "making  marriage.  allowed."  r a n k and d i s t i n c t i o n , " and i n t h e agents,  day o f  horse-races.  t u r e r s were e m p l o y e d f o r  received  trained  " b i l l i a r d s , tennis  others would attend  tables,  on the  games o f h a z a r d a r e  lying  to  on c o n d i t i o n o f h a n d i n g over  received  O t h e r s w o u l d be c a r e f u l l y places  losses  337.  the  146 a i r o f a " s e l f - c o n c e i t e d dupe."  1  As S m o l l e t t r e c r e a t e s  the atmosphere o f the gaming-room, the t o t a l a b s o r p t i o n o f those who  stood to g a i n much, or to l o s e more than they  dared imagine, the t e n s i o n mounts and the onlookers i n the excitement as the sharpers begin to r e a l i z e the t i d e i s t u r n i n g i n favour o f t h e i r supposed  join that  victims.  While the sharpers w a i t e d i n i n t o l e r a b l e suspense:  "The  b l o o d forsook t h e i r cheeks, and the i n t e r j e c t i o n zounds.' pronounced  ... i n a tone o f d e s p a i r , proceeded  from every  mouth .... They were overwhelmed w i t h h o r r o r and ment. " o f the  astonish-  At every h a z a r d t h e i r opponent had taken the v i s a g e s 'sharpers" had adopted d i f f e r e n t shades o f  complexion  from p a l e to yellow, which degenerated to a. mahogany t i n t . And now  that  "they saw  seventeen hundred pounds o f t h e i r  stock depending upon a s i n g l e s t r o k e , they stood l i k e so many swarthy Moors, j a u n d i c e d w i t h t e r r o r and v e x a t i o n " w h i l e the complexion o f the p l a y e r appeared as l i v i d i f a gangrene had a l r e a d y s e t i n , and he was swallow  a bumper o f brandy  t h i s proved h i s undoing. the game.  f a i n to  to steady h i s nerves.  But  He aimed so b a d l y as to l o s e  There arose a t t h i s p o i n t  "an u n i v e r s a l groan  as i f the whole u n i v e r s e had gone to wreck." adventurers,  as  Of the  "one turned up h i s eyes to heaven and b i t  ^-Peregrine P i c k l e ,  I, l x i x , p.  338.  147 h i s nether  lip.; another  gnawed h i s f i n g e r s  ... a t h i r d  blasphemed w i t h h o r r i d i m p r e c a t i o n s " w h i l e the p l a y e r sneaked o f f , g r i n d i n g h i s t e e t h together, w i t h a look t h a t b a f f l e s a l l d e s c r i p t i o n , and, threshold, exclaiming,  as he c r o s s e d the  "A damned b i t e , by  G—d."  x  P h y s i c i a n s a t Bath i n S m o l l e t t ' s novels P e r e g r i n e P i c k l e had another  aspect o f Bath l i f e .  a l s o much to l e a r n  concerning  While s t i l l d i r e c t i n g h i s  a t t e n t i o n to g a l l a n t r y , he began to p e r c e i v e t h a t among the s e c r e t agents o f s c a n d a l , none were so busy as the physicians:  "A c l a s s o f animals who  l i v e i n this place,  l i k e so many ravens hovering about a carcase, and even p l y f o r employment, l i k e s c u l l e r s a t Hungerford Most o f these had  correspondents  Stairs."  i n London,  2  who  f u r n i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning p r o s p e c t i v e p a t i e n t s coming to Bath, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the fees t h a t might c o n c e i v a b l y be charged. a l s o had  l o c a l agents,  These Bath p h y s i c i a n s  a p o t h e c a r i e s and nurses, who  would  inform them o f the p r i v a t e a f f a i r s o f each f a m i l y , thus e n a b l i n g the p h y s i c i a n s "to g r a t i f y the rancour o f malice, arouse  the spleen o f peevish i n d i s p o s i t i o n s and e n t e r t a i n  the eagerness o f i m p e r t i n e n t c u r i o s i t y .  ^Peregrine P i c k l e , I, l x i x , pp. 2  Ibid.,  l x x , p.  3  I b i d . , p.  344.  344.  ,l3  340 -  Peregrine also  341.  l e a r n e d t h a t i t was a common p r a c t i c e among p h y s i c i a n s a t Bath to dissuade  t h e i r p a t i e n t s from d r i n k i n g the water  "that the cure, and i n consequence t h e i r attendance, might be  longer  protracted."1  Although P e r e g r i n e remains throughout the n o v e l e n t i r e l y i n c h a r a c t e r as a p i c a r e s q u e hero, he serves, i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g an independent personage f o l l o w i n g a d e s t i n y o f h i s own, the f u n c t i o n o f a l i t e r a r y  device  p e r m i t t i n g S m o l l e t t to express a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l  opinion  o f p r e v a l e n t f o l l y and v i c e . b i l l i a r d p l a y e r s , Peregrine  As i n the episode o f the i s made to p l a y a f a r c i c a l  t r i c k upon the Bath p h y s i c i a n s , a t r i c k designed  t o draw  r i d i c u l e upon the m a l p r a c t i c e s and a b s u r d i t i e s o f the medical p r o f e s s i o n "and p r a c t i c e a p l e a s a n t P r o j e c t o f Revenge upon the P h y s i c i a n s o f the P l a c e . " Peregrine  To t h i s end  summoned every doctor a v a i l a b l e to the bedside  o f an i n v a l i d ,  "an o l d o f f i c e r , whose temper, n a t u r a l l y  impatient, was, by repeated sublimated  2  a t t a c k s o f the gout ...  i n t o a remarkable degree o f v i r u l e n c e and  perverseness." Each doctor made a d i f f e r e n t d i a g n o s i s o f the  ^Peregrine  P i c k l e , I, lxx, p. 345.  2  I b i d . , p. 342.  3  I b i d . , p. 345.  malady "supported authors,  by a v a r i e t y o f q u o t a t i o n s  a n c i e n t as w e l l as modern" but,  not e x p l i c i t enough to decide  from  medical  s i n c e these were  the dispute  "the  contention  rose to such a p i t c h o f clamour" as to wake the p a t i e n t from the f i r s t s l e e p he had enjoyed i n the space o f ten whole days. erupted  When the p a t i e n t rang h i s b e l l the  i n t o h i s room and  the c o l o n e l , seeing  doctors  himself  "surrounded by these gaunt m i n i s t e r s o f death," sprang out o f bed  "with i n c r e d i b l e a g i l i t y " and  w i t h a c r u t c h u n t i l he finally,  l a i d about him  f e l l exhausted upon h i s bed.  When,  i t dawned on the p h y s i c i a n s t h a t they had been  made v i c t i m s o f a hoax, n o t h i n g remained f o r them but sneak " s i l e n t l y o f f w i t h and  subject  "to the r i d i c u l e  In Ferdinand o f medical satire.  the l o s s they had  sustained"  o f a l l the company i n town."  Count Fathom S m o l l e t t ' s  malpractices  to  denunciation  i s s t i l l more f e r o c i o u s i n i t s  I f Bath i s not a c t u a l l y the scene o f those  parts  o f the n o v e l connected w i t h the medical p r o f e s s i o n , the s a t i r e i s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t E n g l i s h watering  places i n  general. Fathom, at one  stage  i n h i s picaresque  J-Peregrine P i c k l e , I, l x x , pp.  346  -  348.  career,  1  r e p a i r e d to the B r i s t o l Spring. -  Here, as was  1  "Fathom ...  formed the  ... nucleus o f the beau monde  the s o u l t h a t animated the whole s o c i e t y . an o b j e c t o f admiration  advice was  an o r a c l e . "  i n the room he defeated p l i e d at the w e l l . he was  One  before  Fathom was  " i n f i n i t e l y superior  t h a t henceforward he was i n the p l a c e u n t i l  a l a r g e audience who  accorded the v i c t o r y s i n c e  judges had  no  that  i d e a " so  s o l i c i t e d by every v a l e t u d i -  "the poor doctor was  utterly  3  S h o r t l y afterwards Fathom decided —  "his  i n every a c q u i s i t i o n but  to be  deserted by h i s p a t i e n t s . "  says S m o l l e t t  that  i n argument an o l d p h y s i c i a n  o f s o l i d l e a r n i n g , o f which the  narian  i t followed  day,  ...  Because  1,2  he was  h i s wont  to become a p h y s i c i a n .  h i s adventurer's i n s t i n c t t o l d him  —  "wisely"  In t h i s  he would be  capacity  in a position  -•-"The B r i s t o l Hotwells, though important and much frequented by people o f the same rank as Bath's more eminent patrons, were complementary to Bath and not i t s r e a l r i v a l . " (Bryan L i t t l e , Bath P o r t r a i t , p. 35).Matthew Bramble and h i s f a m i l y stayed at the "Hot W e l l " b e f o r e v i s i t i n g Bath (Humphrey C l i n k e r , three l e t t e r s o f A p r i l 20 and 21). A. .Pope attempted a cure at the B r i s t o l W e l l i n 1739 (See p.'88). T . S m o l l e t t , Ferdinand Count Fathom (1751), N o v e l i s t ' s L i b r a r y 1821 e d i t i o n , 10 Vols.', I l l , xxxv, p. 79. 2  3  I b i d . , p.  80.  151 "to l e a r n the s e c r e t s o f h i s p a t i e n t s or t o c a p t i v a t e the h e a r t o f an h e i r e s s or a r i c h w i d o w .  M±  To t h i s end he  bought a few medical books, s t u d i e d them and r e p a i r e d t o Tunbridge W e l l s t o p r a c t i s e .  There by a combination o f  deviousness and sheer b l u f f , he succeeded  i n triumphing  3  over a medical  rival.  When l a t e r i n London, " i n consequence o f a lucky miscarriage,"  Fathom e f f e c t e d a true cure "his fame soon  diffused i t s e l f  i n t o a l l the corners o f the great  and h i s f u t u r e seemed assured. the town t a l k " remarks  capital"  4  "When a p h y s i c i a n becomes  Smollett,  ... he g e n e r a l l y concludes h i s b u s i n e s s more than h a l f done, even though h i s fame should w h o l l y t u r n upon h i s m a l p r a c t i c e : insomuch t h a t some members o f the f a c u l t y ... complain ... t h a t they never had the misfortune t o be p u b l i c l y accused o f homicide. At t h i s p o i n t i n the adventures o f Fathom^Smollett i n t e r p o l a t e s a passage which i s an e n l i g h t e n i n g  commentary  upon p r e v a i l i n g manners a t the w a t e r i n g p l a c e s ,  and s p e c i -  fically,  a t Bath.  Notwithstanding h i s f o r t u n a t e  ^Ferdinand Count Fathom, I I I , 1, p. 116. 2  I b i d . , p. 116.  3  Ibid., I i .  4  Ibid.,  liii,  p. 125.  5  I b i d . , p. 124  experience  152 i n London, Fathom had l e f t Tunbridge W e l l s f u l l y t h a t success i n a p r o v i n c i a l spa was p a s s p o r t to success i n London.  realizing  not n e c e s s a r i l y a  T h i s knowledge  ... was grounded upon a maxim which u n i v e r s a l l y p r e v a i l s among the E n g l i s h people, namely, to o v e r l o o k and w h o l l y n e g l e c t , on t h e i r r e t u r n to the m e t r o p o l i s , a l l the connections they may have chanced to a c q u i r e d u r i n g t h e i r r e s i d e n c e a t any o f the medical w e l l s ; and thus s o c i a l d i s p o s i t i o n i s so s c r u p u l o u s l y maintained, t h a t two persons who l i v e d i n the most i n t i m a t e correspondence at Bath or Tunbridge W e l l s , s h a l l , i n four and twenty hours, so t o t a l l y f o r g e t t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p , as to meet i n S t . James's Park w i t h o u t b e t r a y i n g the l e a s t token o f r e c o g n i t i o n ; so t h a t one would imagine those m i n e r a l waters were so many streams i s s u i n g from the water o f Lethe, so famed o f o l d f o r washing away a l l t r a c e s o f memory and r e c o l l e c t i o n . 1 Such episodes and commentaries found i n S m o l l e t t ' s n o v e l s have been quoted i n some d e t a i l i n order to p r e s e n t t h i s n o v e l i s t ' s case.  S m o l l e t t had c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge  o f Bath l i f e , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine e x t e n t h i s view was may  a b i a s e d one,  to what  and to what extent he  have d i s t o r t e d the image because he d e r i v e d a p e r s o n a l  -'-Ferdinand Count Fathom, I I I , l i , p. 121. A c c o r d i n g to S i r Walter Scott, t h i s s i t u a t i o n s t i l l o b t a i n e d one hundred years l a t e r . "The s o c i e t y o f such p l a c e s i s r e g u l a t e d by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e " and whatever degree o f i n t i m a c y and s o c i a b i l i t y may e x i s t among people o f d i f f e r i n g ranks " i t i s not understood to imply any d u r a t i o n beyond the l e n g t h o f the season. No i n t i m a c y can be supposed to be more c l o s e f o r the time, and more t r a n s i t o r y i n i t s endurance than t h a t which i s a t t a c h e d to a w a t e r i n g p l a c e acquaintance." (St. Ronan's W e l l (1824) I n t r o d u c t i o n ) .  153 s a t i s f a c t i o n from imaginary s i t u a t i o n s wherein p h y s i c i a n s might be completely d i s c o m f i t e d . to  the  That i s  say: d i d a'personal grudge impel him t o w i l f u l  tortion?  dis-  David Hannay, i n h i s biography of S m o l l e t t  q u e s t i o n s the i d e a t h a t the n o v e l i s t ever d i d t r y to o b t a i n a m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e a t Bath and maintains t h a t he was  genuinely fond of the c i t y :  "The m e d i c a l l i f e of the  p l a c e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r i t s quackery,  had an endless  a t t r a c t i o n f o r him, but h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s are enough to account f o r h i s f a i l u r e as a d o c t o r . "  1  Barbeau maintains t h a t S m o l l e t t , f a i l i n g t o a t t r a c t p a t i e n t s h i m s e l f , would not have f o r g i v e n h i s 2  s u c c e s s f u l r i v a l s a t Bath,  but Walter A l l e n p o i n t s to  the p r e f a c e t o Roderick Random as r e v e a l i n g S m o l l e t t ' s reason f o r a crude and b r u t a l exposure brutal society. ... a man born a l l h i s senses he f l i n g s back i n d i g n a t i o n he got. 3 In  X  D.  and  A l l e n d e s c r i b e s S m o l l e t t as with a s k i n too few, and a f f r o n t e d i n by l i f e as he has experienced i t ; and at s o c i e t y , with a l l the contempt and can muster, r a t h e r more than he has  t h i s p r e f a c e S m o l l e t t pays homage to Cervantes  Hannay, L i f e of Tobias S m o l l e t t (1887), p.  2  L i f e and L e t t e r s at Bath, p. 3  of a crude  94.  T h e E n g l i s h Novel, pp. 68 - 69.  112.  154 who,  "by an i n i m i t a b l e p i e c e o f r i d i c u l e , reformed  t a s t e o f mankind" and p o i n t e d out life." his  "the  the  f o l l i e s of ordinary  W h i l s t a l s o acknowledging h i s debt to Le Sage f o r  g e n e r a l p l a n , S m o l l e t t seems to suggest h i s  own  b a s i c a l l y s e r i o u s purpose when he c r i t i c i z e s Le Sage for  i n c i t i n g the reader  nation.  "The  to mirth r a t h e r than to  indig-  d i s g r a c e s o f G i l B i a s " he w r i t e s , are " f o r  the most p a r t , such as r a t h e r e x c i t e m i r t h than compassion." "This conduct, i n my  o p i n i o n , not o n l y d e v i a t e s  from p r o -  b a b i l i t y , but prevents t h a t generous i n d i g n a t i o n which ought to animate the reader  a g a i n s t the s o r d i d and v i c i o u s d i s -  p o s i t i o n o f the w o r l d .  M ±  Whether or not S m o l l e t t ' s corps  a t Bath was  indictment  o f the  medical  j u s t i f i e d might be determined by a com-  p a r i s o n w i t h o p i n i o n s v o i c e d by other r e s p o n s i b l e  con-  temporaries.  Anstey  Both R i c h a r d  are s a t i r i c a l ,  S t e e l e and  Christopher  i n a more good-natured v e i n than i s S m o l l e t t ,  i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e to the p h y s i c i a n s . mentioned, S t e e l e was  As has  a l r e a d y been  a t t a c k i n g medical abuses and  the  behaviour o f p h y s i c i a n s at Bath as e a r l y as 1709.  In  a 1713  the  i s s u e o f the Guardian he avers  "oppression  of c i v i l i t i e s "  t h a t he underwent from  i R o d e r i c k Random, Preface, 2  S e e p.  32.  t h a t such was  4-5.  "the  155 sage members o f the f a c u l t y " as to f r i g h t e n him  "from  making such i n q u i r i e s i n t o the nature o f these s p r i n g s , as would have f u r n i s h e d out a n o b l e r entertainment upon the  Bath" than the l o o s e h i n t s he has g i v e n .  these " c h a r i t a b l e gentlemen" cured i n a week's time had i n h i s l i f e , " t h e i r humanity.  Thanks to  S t e e l e claims t h a t he  "of more distempers than he ever  the p h y s i c i a n s almost k i l l i n g him w i t h The s o l i c i t u d e o f which S t e e l e  found  h i m s e l f the o b j e c t i n c l u d e d the p r e s c r i p t i o n o f "a something,  was  little  a t h i s f i r s t coming, to keep up h i s s p i r i t s "  by one o f the f a c u l t y , w h i l s t another, the next ordered him to be b l e d f o r h i s f e v e r .  A third  morning, proferred  a cure f o r the scurvy, another a r e c i p e f o r the dropsy. "In  v a i n d i d he modestly d e c l i n e these f a v o u r s , " f o r e a r l y  the  next morning he was  awakened by an apothecary  who  brought him a dose from one o f h i s w e l l - w i s h e r s , which S t e e l e p a i d f o r "but w i t h a l , t o l d him s e v e r e l y t h a t he never took p h y s i c . " hereupon  His l a n d l o r d , S t e e l e concludes,  took him f o r an I t a l i a n merchant t h a t suspected  poison, but the apothecary, I was  "with more s a g a c i t y ,  certainly a physician myself."  guessed  x  C h r i s t o p h e r Anstey a t a l a t e r date c o n t r i b u t e s his  s a t i r e upon the Bath p h y s i c i a n s i n s e v e r a l  1  G u a r d i a n No.  174.  Sept.  1713.  "letters"  156 o f h i s New Bath Guide.  L e t t e r VI, r e f e r s to the legend  o f the founding o f Bath, and the h e a l i n g powers o f the 1 springs: Since the Day t h a t King Bladud f i r s t found o u t the Bogs, And thought them so good f o r h i m s e l f and h i s Hogs, No one o f the F a c u l t y ever has t r y ' d These e x c e l l e n t Waters t o cure h i s own Hide ...2 But such s a t i r e does n o t r e p r e s e n t the views o f a l l r e l i a b l e commentators upon c o n d i t i o n s a t the spa. Many o f these g e n u i n e l y sought r e l i e f i n the medical treatments a v a i l a b l e  from t h e i r ailments  there.  Barbeau, who i n c l i n e s to the view t h a t S m o l l e t t ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n was motivated by some p e r s o n a l grudge,  3  p o i n t s o u t t h a t the l a t t e r e i t h e r d i d n o t see, o r d i d not choose to mention t h a t there a l s o e x i s t e d  learned  and honourable p r a c t i t i o n e r s , among whom Barbeau names Dr. Moysey,  4  Dr. H a r t l e y , the f r i e n d o f Pope and Warburton,  and Dr. Henry H a r i n g t o n .  5  This l a s t i s mentioned by Jerom  ••-See p. 86 and f o o t n o t e 3. 2  C . Anstey, The New Bath Guide  (1766), L e t t e r VI, 65 - 68.  L i f e and L e t t e r s a t Bath, pp. 94 - 95. Chapter l x x o f P e r e g r i n e P i c k l e (I, p. 342) d e s c r i b e s "a p l e a s a n t P r o j e c t o f Revenge upon the P h y s i c i a n s o f the P l a c e . " 3  ^Mentioned w i t h " a f f e c t i o n and esteem" by C h e s t e r f i e l d i n h i s correspondence. (Barbeau, p. 94). ^Barbeau, p. 95.  157 Murch as a Bath H o s p i t a l p h y s i c i a n known "to the country round" f o r h i s benevolence and f o r h i s love o f l i t e r a t u r e , w h i l e George Monkland r e f e r s to him as "a t r u e son o f Apollo, s k i l l e d alike  i n music and medicine" who " f o r  s i x t y years o f h i s l i f e the  c o n t r i b u t e d to the w e l f a r e ,  harmony, and the d e l i g h t o f our c i t y . " 2 Perhaps  the most eminent names are those o f Dr.  O l i v e r and Dr..Cheyne i f o n l y on account o f the long a s s o c i a t i o n o f both men w i t h Ralph A l l e n and w i t h Pope. Barbeau  i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t although these d o c t o r s , and  o t h e r s o f the same c l a s s , were ignored by the s a t i r i s t s , the  f a u l t l a y w i t h the i n v a l i d s o f Bath.  I f the i n v a l i d s  o c c a s i o n a l l y became the prey o f the "ravens," i t was by no means o f n e c e s s i t y b u t through t h e i r own f o l l y and imprudence. Henry F i e l d i n g r e f e r s to "Dr. H a r r i n g t o n " and Dr. Brewster by name i n Tom J o n e s .  4  He a l s o composed  some extempore v e r s e s i n the Pump Room d u r i n g h i s 1742 v i s i t t o the spa, which v e r s e s were addressed to a young lady, and conclude w i t h a t r i b u t e to the s k i l l o f Dr.  J-Bath C e l e b r i t i e s ,  xv, p .  148.  ^ L i t e r a t u r e and L i t e r a t i o f Bath, p. 2 9 . L i f e and L e t t e r s , p. 9 5 . H . F i e l d i n g , Tom Jones ( 1 7 4 9 ) , Penguin e d i t i o n XVIII, i v , p. 8 2 3 . See p. 1 8 7 . 4  (1966)  158 Brewster, who Mrs.  may have been p r e s c r i b i n g a t the time, f o r  Fielding:  x  But say, sweet maid, what waters can remove The pangs o f c o l d d e s p a i r , o f hopeless love? The p a i n s (of love) which ... we endure Not Brewster, g l o r y o f h i s a r t , can c u r e . These  2  l i n e s were p u b l i s h e d i n the M i s c e l l a n i e s  to which both Brewster and H a r i n g t o n s u b s c r i b e d . Few  men  o f l e t t e r s who  J  4  had experience o f the  medical r e s o u r c e s i n Bath were more i n need o f s k i l f u l p h y s i c i a n s than was  Alexander Pope and no man would have  been more ready to c r i t i c i z e had he thought h i s p h y s i c i a n s were mere c h a r l a t a n s .  Yet h i s correspondence r e v e a l s again  and again h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r ^ h i s i n t e n s e g r a t i t u d e to eminent Bath d o c t o r s who  were l i k e w i s e contemporaries o f  Tobias S m o l l e t t ' s . As e a r l y as 1738 Pope mentions Dr. Cheyne^ i n a l e t t e r to A l l e n :  W.  X  " I f ever I change my R e l i g i o n i t s h a l l  Cross, H i s t o r y o f Henry F i e l d i n g , I, pp. 377 - 378.  2  Quoted by Wilbur Cross, I, p.  3  1743, I, 114.  4  378.  (W. Cross, I,,p.  W i l b u r Cross, I I , p.  378).  174.  ^Dr. George Cheyne was an a u t h o r i t y on hypochondria: Sherburn, Correspondence.IV, p. 449, note 3. Sherburn here s t a t e s t h a t Cheyne was f i r s t mentioned i n Pope's l e t t e r to A l l e n o f 27 D e c , 1742.  7  159 be to h i s (Dr. Cheyne's), or to the Quakers, I am not determined to which."! Beau Nash, a l s o a p a t i e n t o f Cheyne's, would engage w i t h the doctor i n s p i r i t e d d i s p u t e s a t Morgan's c o f f e e house, the Beau d e s i g n a t i n g the p o r t l y doctor as "the most s e n s i b l e f o o l he ever knew" f o r l i v i n g on a d i e t of  f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s , and f o r h i s f a i t h i n the complete  e f f i c a c y o f e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l use o f the Bath waters, and  George L y t t l e t o n ,  i n a l e t t e r to Pope  (1736) g i v e s an  admirable d e s c r i p t i o n o f Cheyne's c h a r a c t e r : The Immortal Doctor Cheney ... i s the g r e a t e s t Singul a r i t y , and the most D e l i g h t f u l l I ever met w i t h . I am not h i s P a t i e n t , b u t am to be h i s D i s c i p l e , and to see a Manuscript o f h i s which comprehends a l l that i s necessary, s a l u t a r y , or u s e f u l , e i t h e r f o r the Body or the Soul. 3  That Pope was to become deeply attached to Dr. Cheyne i s shown from the f o l l o w i n g passage i n a l e t t e r to  L y t t l e t o n from Bath:  Tho I enjoy deep Quiet, I can't say I have much Pleasure or even any Object t h a t o b l i g e s me to smile, except Dr. Ch. who i s y e t so v e r y a c h i l d i n t r u e S i m p l i c i t y o f Heart, t h a t I love him; as He loves Don Quixote, f o r the Most M o r a l and Reasoning Madman i n the World.  IV,  Ipope to A l l e n , p. 120. W.  2  Sherburn, Correspondence  Connely, Beau Nash, p. 69.  L y t t l e t o n to Pope, 4 Dec. f~1736"]. 46. 3  p.  19 Aug. |_ 1738 J .  Correspondence IV,  160 He i s ,  says Pope,  Guile,"  or,  "an I s r a e l i t e  i n the  a good k i n d o f  language  Man, n o r Dr.  the  c i v i c development o f  in  1740:  There l i v e s not  you  an  2  Hospital 4  Bath  i n connection with  was a v e r y c l o s e and t h e  former  the  friend of  mentions D r .  in  both Oliver  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h D r . Moysey and D r . H a r t l e y i n h i s  letters.5  W r i t i n g to  Dr. Oliver  P r a y make my c o m p l i m e n t s have h a d s u c h o b l i g a t i o n s t o d u r i n g my w h o l e l i f e , t h a t I F r i e n d s and my E n e m i e s , were And i t was  to  Pope 208.  to  Lyttleton,  p.  Pope 242.  to  S.  2  3  See  p.  4  See  pp.  i n 1743  Pope  says:  to D r . H a r t l e y . . . . I the b e s t o f your f a c u l t y , w i s h a l l o t h e r s , b o t h my their Patients.6  D r . H a r t l e y t h a t Pope t u r n e d f o r h e l p when,  p.  x  Gerrard,  12 D e c ,  1739.  Correspondence IV,  17 May, 1740.  Correspondence IV,  10. 91  - 92.  A s f o r example, t h a t o f Correspondence I V , p . 433. 5  p.  foolish  who p l a y e d s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p a r t  Pope and R a l p h A l l e n in  "as  no  I p r o m i s e d my s e l f  a Truer P h i l o s o p h e r . "  Oliver,  M i n e r a l Water  . . . .  is  as one s h a l l meet w i t h . "  Pope w r o t e  Benefit  from D r . C h e y n e ' s Care  Honester  Shakespeare,  acquaintance  am g l a d y o u f o u n d the  would  of  C h r i s t i a n Creature  To a n o t h e r "I  i n whom t h e r e  ^Pope t o D r . O l i v e r , 470.  27 D e c . [17421 t o  28 A u g . , 1743.  Allen.  Correspondence IV,  161 d i s t r a u g h t w i t h a n x i e t y about the s t a t e o f Martha Blount's h e a l t h i n the s p r i n g o f 1743, he put her i n the care o f the  Aliens at Prior Park.  you  ... t o ingage Dr. H a r t l e y s P a r t i c u l a r Care o f her a t  her  f i r s t Coming, f o r I am alarmed a t the Apprehension o f  1  Pope wrote to A l l e n :  "I beg  2 her  Distemper, which  i s more and more f a t a l ..."  That Ralph A l l e n , who was c e r t a i n l y i n a p o s i t i o n to  know the c a p a c i t i e s o f the Bath p h y s i c i a n s , was  also  t r e a t e d by O l i v e r and H a r t l e y w h i l e "extremely i l l o f an Inflammatory F e v e r " i n 1743, i s suggested i n a l e t t e r  from  Pope who expresses g r e a t r e l i e f a t h i s f r i e n d ' s r e c o v e r y . I t was i n h i s l a s t l e t t e r to Ralph A l l e n from "Chelsea C o l l e g e " s h o r t l y b e f o r e h i s d e a t h  4  dictated t h a t Pope  expressed once more h i s g r a t i t u d e to O l i v e r and H a r t l e y and p a i d h i s generous t r i b u t e to the m e d i c a l f a c u l t y : Pray g i v e him (Dr. H a r t l e y ) my thanks f o r h i s k i n d p r e s c r i p t i o n and l i k e w i s e to Dr. O l i v e r f o r another ... there i s no end o f my k i n d treatment from the F a c u l t i e they are i n g e n e r a l the most Amiable Companions, and the b e s t f r i e n d s as w e l l as the most l e a r n e d men I know. 5  The consequences o f t h i s v i s i t to P r i o r Park have been d i s c u s s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the q u a r r e l between Pope and the A l i e n s . See p. 100. ^Pope to A l l e n , 12 A p r i l f 1743~J. Correspondence 453. P a r t o f t h i s l e t t e r i s a l s o quoted on p.'100. Pope to A l l e n , 476 - 477. 3  4  S e e p. 110.  5  Pope to A l l e n ,  30 Oct. [ l 7 4 3 ] .  7 May f l 7 4 4 ] .  Correspondence  Correspondence  IV, p. IV, pp.  IV, p. 52 2.  162 Bath Neighbourhood and L o c a l C h a r a c t e r s Reflected i n Fielding's Writings While mentioning  him i n the other two n o v e l s ,  it  i s i n Tom Jones t h a t F i e l d i n g makes e x t e n s i v e use  of  an a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , t h a t Ralph A l l e n o f P r i o r  Park who was such a determining f o r c e i n 18th century Bath's s o c i a l l i f e  and manners, and i n her a r c h i t e c t u r a l  and a r t i s t i c development;^ and i t i s thanks  to the r a p -  p o r t between these two men t h a t an eminent Bath c h a r a c t e r has come to f i l l  a p l a c e o f o u t s t a n d i n g importance  l i t e r a t u r e o f 18th century The  first  England.  mention o f Ralph A l l e n ,  Andrews p u b l i s h e d i n February  i n Joseph  1742, o c c u r r e d a t a time  when the author was i n c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l was borrowing Although  money, and was unable  difficulties,  to pay h i s debts.  as was mentioned i n "The F i e l d i n g  with P r i o r Park" ,  i n the  connection  i t i s n o t known a t what date the two  2  men became acquainted, F i e l d i n g c e r t a i n l y d i d r e c e i v e u n s o l i c i t e d a s s i s t a n c e from A l l e n b e f o r e the p u b l i c a t i o n of  Joseph Andrews.  J  Samuel D e r r i c k , i n a l e t t e r o f 1763  s t a t e d t h a t b e f o r e the two men met, A l l e n had sent  x  S e e pp-. 15  2 3,/ 59 - 65.  2  S e e pp. 75 - 76.  I t i s n o t known whether the g i f t was made b e f o r e or a f t e r a p e r s o n a l acquaintance, Wilbur L. Cross, H i s t o r y of,Henry F i e l d i n g , I, p. 377. 3  163 Fielding  "a p r e s e n t o f  merit."!  200  At a l l events, F i e l d i n g made an a l l u s i o n i n  Joseph Andrews to A l l e n ' s though  i n consideration of h i s  " c h a r i t a b l e a c t i o n s , " as  i n f e r r i n g t h a t he had had p e r s o n a l experience  o f them.  2  F i e l d i n g f i r s t mentions A l l e n as one o f examples o f "high people" who,  w h i l s t they are an honour  to t h e i r h i g h rank, make t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y p o s s i b l e to those whom Fortune hath them."  3  And Wilbur C r o s s  4  two  "as easy as  ... p l a c e d below  i d e n t i f i e s as A l l e n , the  man  d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s same chapter as: The commoner, r a i s e d higher above the m u l t i t u d e by s u p e r i o r t a l e n t s than i s i n the power o f h i s p r i n c e to e x a l t him; whose behaviour to those he hath o b l i g e d i s more amiable than the o b l i g a t i o n i t s e l f . ^ F i e l d i n g f u r t h e r a l l u d e s to t h i s man's h o s p i t a l i t y towards even "The  lowest o f h i s acquaintance" i n "that p a l a c e  where they are so c o u r t e o u s l y e n t e r t a i n e d " ^ as  though  S . D e r r i c k , L e t t e r s (1767) . L e t t e r o f 10 May, 1763, I I , p. 58 c i t e d by Wilbur Cross, I, p. 377. Rev. F. K i l v e r t , i n Remains, p. 158 a l s o quotes R. Graves to t h i s e f f e c t . X  2  W i l b u r Cross, I, p.  377.  3  H. F i e l d i n g , Joseph Andrews (1742), Norton e d i t i o n (1958), pp. 167 - 168. 4  Henry F i e l d i n g ,  I, p.  377.  5  Joseph Andrews, I I I , i , p. 6  I b i d . , p. 168.  See pp. 76,  168. 175.  Library  speaking from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . commoner F i e l d i n g d e c l a r e s , from the l i f e ,  The p i c t u r e o f t h i s  "must be known" i t i s "taken  and not intended to exceed i t . "  x  Allen's  house i s a l s o mentioned by the hero, Joseph, d u r i n g a moral d i s q u i s i t i o n on "The among mankind"  few i n s t a n c e s o f  charity  to which Fanny l i s t e n s e a g e r l y w h i l e  Parson Adams s t r e t c h e d on h i s back,  snores l o u d l y .  "Nobody s c a r c e doth any good" says Joseph, consent i n commanding goodness" y e t none to deserve t h a t commendation.  "All rail  and a l l are eager to be what they abuse."  " a l l men  endeavour a t wickedness, "Are a l l the  g r e a t f o l k s wicked then?" asks Fanny, and Joseph  replies  t h a t t h e r e are some e x c e p t i o n s , and to t h i s e f f e c t ,  quotes  "Squire Pope, The g r e a t poet" a t Lady Booby's t a b l e  (where  Joseph w a i t e d as footman) t e l l i n g s t o r i e s o f such.  One  these,  "a man  "mentioned  t h a t l i v e d a t a p l a c e c a l l e d Ross,"  and  i n the book o f v e r s e s " i s , o f course, the  o f Ross" o f Pope's Moral E s s a y s .  3  of  And another such  "Man man,  "at the Bath," continues Joseph:  ^Joseph Andrews, I I I , i , p.  290.  2  Ibid.,  3  A.  v i , pp. 209  168.  - 211.  Pope, Moral Essays  (1731 - 35), E p i s t l e I I I , 250  -  165 One A I - A I - I f o r g e t h i s name, b u t i t i s i n the book o f v e r s e s . This man hath b u i l t up a s t a t e l y house too, which the s q u i r e ( Pope 1 l i k e s v e r y w e l l ; b u t h i s c h a r i t y i s seen f u r t h e r than h i s house, though i t stands on a h i l l , aye, and b r i n g s him more honour t o o . 2  Wilbur Cross says t h a t i n t h i s passage F i e l d i n g  attributed  to A l l e n a l l the q u a l i t i e s t h a t Pope had bestowed on the 3  "Man o f Ross" says Joseph,  i n the book o f v e r s e s .  " I t was h i s c h a r i t y "  i n the same passage,  ... t h a t p u t him to the book where the s q u i r e says he puts a l l those who deserve i t , and t o be sure, as he f Squire Pope} l i v e s among a l l the g r e a t people, i f there were any such, he would know them. 4  AMELIA appeared a t a time when once again, F i e l d i n g ' s f i n a n c e s were running low, so t h a t he turned yet again to l i t e r a t u r e w h i l e c a r r y i n g on w i t h the d u t i e s of h i s court.  The n o v e l was d e d i c a t e d t o Ralph A l l e n  E s q . , ^ from whom he had r e c e i v e d so much p e c u n i a r y a s s i s t a n c e and v a l u a b l e c o u n s e l .  7  F i e l d i n g expressed,  x  S e e p. 191.  2  J o s e p h Andrews, I I I , v i , pp. 210 - 211.  % e n r y Fielding,  I, p. 377.  4  J o s e p h Andrews, I I I , v i , p. 211.  5  W i l b u r Cross, I I , p. 303.  H . F i e l d i n g , Amelia (1751), Everyman's L i b r a r y The D e d i c a t i o n \£s dated 12 D e c , 1751. 6  7  F . K i l v e r t , Remains i n Prose and Verse, p. 158.  (1950).  166 h i s g r e a t debt t o A l l e n when he observed t h a t t h i s n o v e l "was s i n c e r e l y designed to promote the cause o f v i r t u e , t o expose  some o f the most glowing e v i l s ,  as w e l l p u b l i c as  p r i v a t e , which then i n f e s t e d the country." Ralph A l l e n , because o f such an attempt,  11  He had chosen  "The b e s t man i s the p r o p e r e s t p a t r o n and he i s sure t h a t  w i l l agree t o t h i s a p p e l a t i o n .  "the p u b l i c v o i c e "  "Should a l e t t e r ,  indeed  be thus addressed, DETUR OPTIMO, there are few persons who would t h i n k i t wanted any o t h e r d i r e c t i o n . "  x  Ralph A l l e n does n o t p l a y a p a r t i n the n o v e l itself,  u n l e s s , as Wilbur Cross suggests Dr. H a r r i s o n ' s  a c t i o n p a r a l l e l s the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f A l l e n i n the l i f e o f F i e l d i n g and h i s w i f e , by making h i s appearance  a t the  opportune moment to a i d a young couple i n f i n a n c i a l A l l e n perhaps took Henry and C h a r l o t t e to Bath.  straits.  "Certainly 9  he gave them a house t o l i v e i n near h i s mansion,  just  as Dr. H a r r i s o n a i d e d Booth and Amelia i n s i m i l a r circumstances . Wilbur Cross sees i n Dr. H a r r i s o n a l e a r n e d b r o t h e r o f S q u i r e A l l w o r t h y i n Tom Jones,  "Conservative i n h i s  o p i n i o n s , bent upon a i d i n g h i s f r i e n d s i n d i s t r e s s , imposed  easily  upon by a rogue, and sometimes b l i n d e d by h i s  Amelia,  dedication.  Henry F i e l d i n g ,  I I , p. 333.  See a l s o p. 76.  167 p r e j u d i c e s , " 1 but adds t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n , k i n s h i p extends no f u r t h e r . "  "This c l o s e  2  Of the D e d i c a t i o n o f Amelia to Ralph A l l e n , v e r t remarks t h a t , s t r o n g as the expressions "they  flowed  may  from the h e a r t o f the w r i t e r , and  able to any human b e i n g they may  Kil-  appear  i f applic-  f a i r l y be taken to have  been so to the noble-minded personage to whom they were addressed"  3  and Wilbur  Cross:  Dr. H a r r i s o n became F i e l d i n g ' s mouthpiece .... Almost always, whether F i e l d i n g spoke through h i s c h a r a c t e r s or i n h i s own person, h i s thought and emotion rose to the h i g h e s t plane .... The d e d i c a t i o n to Ralph A l l e n i s among the f i n e s t memorials ever e r e c t e d to f r i e n d s h i p . 4  The  " p o r t r a y a l " o f Ralph A l l e n as Squire  has been a s u b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n s i n c e the f i r s t  Allworthy appearance  o f the n o v e l , but most o f the a t t e n t i o n has been devoted to d e c i d i n g to what extent  "Allworthy"  i s or i s not,  a portrait  o f A l l e n , and whether t h i s p o r t r a i t i s " s u c c e s s f u l " or not, both from the s t a n d p o i n t o f f i d e l i t y to the o r i g i n a l , of i t s l i t e r a r y  merits.  Arguments r e s t r i c t e d merely to the q u e s t i o n a g a i n s t the  "success" o f A l l w o r t h y are, u n l e s s Tom  J-Henry F i e l d i n g , 2  I b i d . , p.  ^Remains, p. 4  and  I I , p. 324.  324. 158.  Henry Fielding,  I I , p.  353.  See pp.' 176  -  f o r or Jones  177.  168 be' c o n s i d e r e d as no more than a p i e c e o f entertainment i n the form o f a n o v e l o f manners, b e s i d e the p o i n t .  The  reason t h a t he chose to p o r t r a y A l l e n was  latter  t h a t the  f u r n i s h e d an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f F i e l d i n g ' s e t h i c a l theory o f the " t r u l y benevolent mind," a theory which he as such, o n l y i n 1752,  but which i s i m p l i c i t  formulated  in his earlier  writings. C e r t a i n papers o f F i e l d i n g ' s Covent Garden J o u r n a l o f 1752  c o n t a i n what amounts to a c l e a r statement o f the  c o n c l u s i o n s he had reached as the r e s u l t o f a l i f e - l o n g study o f h i s f e l l o w men,  and those  " v i r t u e s " i n man  which, he c o n s i d e r e d , are most g r e a t l y to be Although  i t s apparent o b j e c t was,  admired.  to be  "A Paper  o f Entertainment and News," the prime o b j e c t o f the Covent Garden J o u r n a l , says F i e l d i n g , was, the  age.  "to c o r r e c t and  reform"  1  The  " v i r t u e " which F i e l d i n g admired  o t h e r s was what he c a l l e d f i e d with  "benevolence,  above a l l  "good n a t u r e , " which he  identi-  or the love o f doing good.  1,2  He  d e s c r i b e d i t as ... a q u a l i t y i n which, though there i s l i t t l e o f g l a r i n g pomp and o s t e n t a t i o n , there i s much o f s o l i d and i n t r i n s i c  ^Quoted by Wilbur Cross, I I , p.  364.  H. Dudden, Henry F i e l d i n g , I I , p. 915, Covent Garden J o u r n a l , 25 Feb., 1752. 2  q u o t i n g the  169 worth .... I f i t be n o t admirable, i t i s i n the h i g h e s t degree, amiable. I f i t doth not c o n s t i t u t e the h e r o i c , i t adorns the human, and i s e s s e n t i a l to the C h r i s t i a n character.1 F i e l d i n g s t r e s s e d the most s t r o n g l y "the most e x q u i s i t e p l e a s u r e " which attends the performance action,  2  of a beneficent  "the s e c r e t comforts which a good h e a r t may  d i c t a t e from w i t h i n even when a l l w i t h o u t are s i l e n t , " t h i s supreme "happiness" d e r i v i n g from the consciousness of  "having r e l i e v e d the misery or c o n t r i b u t e d to the w e l l -  b e i n g o f one's f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s . "  4  In the D e d i c a t i o n o f  Tom Jones he speaks o f "that s o l i d inward comfort o f mind, which i s the sure companion o f innocence and v i r t u e . " Charity,  5  i n the sense o f l i b e r a l i t y to those i n  need, i s the most obvious form o f doing good, and s i n c e C h a r i t y i s e n j o i n e d both by the Law o f Nature, and by the D i v i n e Law as formulated i n the Jewish and C h r i s t i a n s c r i p t u r e s , F i e l d i n g draws the c o n c l u s i o n  "that a person  v o i d o f c h a r i t y i s unworthy o f the a p p e l a t i o n o f a C h r i s t i a n ; t h a t he hath no pretence e i t h e r to goodness or j u s t i c e , or even t o the character  o f humanity."  i F i e l d i n g , Covent Garden J o u r n a l , o f 1915. 2  Ibid.,  25 Feb., 1752.  3  Ibid.,  14 March, 1752.  4  Ibid.,  2 June,  5  Dedication,  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s a  25 Feb.,  1752. E d i t i o n  1752, quoted by H. Dudden, I I , p. 917.  p. 37.  170 man without fool.  c h a r i t y i s not only a knave, but "a downright  h 1  As examples o f the "Good-Natured" c h a r a c t e r , F i e l d i n g c r e a t e d Parson Adams i n Joseph Andrews, H a r r i s o n i n Amelia, and  "Axylus"  2  Dr.  i n the Covent Garden J o u r n a l ,  Squire A l l w o r t h y i n Tom Jones.  The  D e d i c a t i o n o f Tom Jones i s no mere d u t i f u l  passage o f vague m o r a l i z i n g c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o mid-eighteenth  century  to an understanding  l i t e r a r y modes.  It i s essential  o f the purpose o f the n o v e l , so long  as t h i s l a s t i s c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t o f the Covent Garden J o u r n a l Although  statements. F i e l d i n g s t a t e s t h a t f o r the "purposes"  he has i n mind he has employed a l l h i s w i t and humour "to laugh mankind out o f t h e i r f a v o u r i t e f o l l i e s and v i c e s , "  3  4  the u n d e r l y i n g m o t i f s are deeply  serious.  His "sincere  endeavour" he w r i t e s , has been " t o recommend goodness and Covent Garden J o u r n a l , 16 May, 1752, quoted by Dudden I I , p. 918. 2  See p. 179, footnote 4. Tom Jones, D e d i c a t i o n , p. 38. How l i t t l e F i e l d i n g s s e r i o u s n e s s o f purpose was understood by some o f those a s s o c i a t e d with him d u r i n g the P r i o r Park y e a r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r by Bishop Hurd and Thomas Edwards, the c r i t i c , has been demonstrated i n "The F i e l d i n g connection with P r i o r Park," pp. '79 - 80. 3  4  171 innocence," to " d i s p l a y t h a t beauty o f v i r t u e which may a t t r a c t the admiration has  o f mankind,"1 to which end he  employed the f i c t i o n a l form —  t h a t i s to say —  illus-  t r a t i o n o f h i s theme: "For an example i s a k i n d o f p i c t u r e , i n which v i r t u e becomes as i t were an o b j e c t o f s i g h t , and s t r i k e s us w i t h an i d e a o f  its  loveliness."  2  In the l i g h t o f these passages from the D e d i c a t i o n i t becomes c l e a r t h a t F i e l d i n g was aiming  a t much more  than a n o v e l o f manners on a l e v e l on which  "real"  c h a r a c t e r s , events or s e t t i n g s were used f o r no b e t t e r reason  than t h a t they were ready to hand, f a m i l i a r and  convenient  "copy."  Therefore,  the d i d a c t i c purpose  i n h e r e n t i n Tom Jones o b l i g e s the c r i t i c t o consider the A l l e n - A l l w o r t h y p o r t r a i t i n a l a r g e r context  than  t h a t o f the n o v e l i t s e l f s i n c e i t ought t o be r e l a t e d to the body o f F i e l d i n g ' s thought.  This e n t a i l s a s h i f t -  i n g o f the emphasis from a p u r e l y l i t e r a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n to t h a t o f a Ralph A l l e n who f i g u r e s i n F i e l d i n g ' s w r i t i n g s both as h i m s e l f , and as a f i c t i t i o u s  Even though F i e l d i n g claims the c h a r a c t e r o f "Allworthy"  character.  i n the D e d i c a t i o n t h a t  i s i n s p i r e d by three  x  Tom Jones, D e d i c a t i o n , p. 37.  2  I b i d . , p. 37.  men:  172 George L y t t l e t o n , Bedford,  h i s patron  and b e n e f a c t o r ,  and Ralph A l l e n , Wilbur  the Duke o f  Cross maintains  that  the i n c l u s i o n o f the f i r s t two men was an a f t e r t h o u g h t o n l y , and intended by way o f compliment, Allen's virtues  1  whereas i t was  t h a t F i e l d i n g wished to immortalize.  F i e l d i n g never q u i t e a s s e r t e d t h a t A l l w o r t h y was a p o r t r a i t o f A l l e n , but when the n o v e l was completed, the c h a r a c t e r d i s p l a y e d so many o f A l l e n ' s t r a i t s as to be regarded  as such by those who knew him.  kindliness,  generous s p i r i t ,  "In A l l w o r t h y ' s  h o s p i t a l i t y , and c h a r i t i e s ,  they a t once saw t h e i r f r i e n d a t P r i o r P a r k . " encourages the reader "Allworthy's  one  to i d e n t i f y A l l w o r t h y w i t h  Fielding Allen.  mind, he s a i d i n substance ... was b u t a  copy o f A l l e n ' s , " Lyttleton,  3  4  and i n the D e d i c a t i o n ,  addressing  F i e l d i n g w r i t e s : "As a g r e a t poet says o f  o f you, ... y o u  1  Do good by s t e a l t h , and b l u s h to f i n d i t fame 5 11  which l i n e i s a q u o t a t i o n  from Pope's E p i l o g u e t o the .  -'-In h i s D e d i c a t i o n , F i e l d i n g acknowledges h i s debt t o L y t t l e t o n , t o whom he p a r t l y owed h i s e x i s t e n c e "during g r e a t p a r t o f the time" o f w r i t i n g the n o v e l . Without L y t t l e t o n ' s a s s i s t a n c e " t h i s h i s t o r y had never been completed. " (Dedication, p. 35). 2  Henry F i e l d i n g ,  3  Wilbur  Cross,  4  Ibid.,  p. 162.  I I , p. 162.  I I , p. 162.  ^ D e d i c a t i o n , p. 36.  173 S a t i r e s , Dialogue I, 1. 136, and addressed by Pope to Ralph  Allen.  1  Although v e r y few d e t a i l s o f A l l e n ' s a c t u a l were used i n Tom Jones,  life  F i e l d i n g draws a v e r y c l o s e p a r a l l e l  between A l l w o r t h y and A l l e n .  As an example:  Above a l l o t h e r s , men o f genius and l e a r n i n g shared the p r i n c i p a l p l a c e i n h i s favour ... f o r though he had missed the advantage o f a l e a r n e d education, y e t b e i n g b l e s t w i t h v a s t n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s , he had so w e l l p r o f i t e d by a v i g o r o u s , though l a t e a p p l i c a t i o n to l e t t e r s , and by much c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h men o f eminence i n t h i s way, t h a t he was h i m s e l f a v e r y competent judge i n most kinds of l i t e r a t u r e 2  and another, when Squire A l l w o r t h y walked o u t on h i s terrace  3  on a May morning as the sun r o s e :  Than which one o b j e c t above i n t h i s lower c r e a t i o n c o u l d be more g l o r i o u s , and t h a t Mr. A l l w o r t h y h i m s e l f p r e s e n t e d : a human b e i n g r e p l e t e w i t h benevolence, m e d i t a t i n g i n what manner he might render h i m s e l f most a c c e p t a b l e t o h i s C r e a t o r , by doing most good to h i s creatures. 4  "That was c e r t a i n l y Ralph A l l e n " w r i t e s Wilbur  Cross,  "walking on the t e r r a c e o f P r i o r Park to enjoy the f r e s h air  ... and the d i s t a n t view o f B a t h . "  x x  5  S e e p. 85. o  ^Tom Jones,  I, x, p. 74.  See a l s o p. 62.  S e e p. 18- , f o r K i l v e r t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f A l l e n ' s mansion. 3  4  Tom Jones,  I, i v , p. 59.  5  Henry F i e l d i n g ,  I I , p. 163.  174 I f a s l i g h t pomposity i s d e t e c t a b l e i n the A l l w o r t h y d e s c r i b e d by F i e l d i n g i n the f o r e g o i n g passage, Wilbur  Cross  suggests t h a t , l i k e many s e l f - e d u c a t e d men  o f humble b i r t h , A l l e n had a c q u i r e d  from r e a d i n g "a  s t a t e l y and pompous manner o f speech, as i f t h a t were the s t y l e among the learned, which F i e l d i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y i m i t a t e d , o f t e n w i t h a touch o f q u i e t humour,  1 , 1  ther  and f u r -  i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s by c i t i n g the example o f the long  oration  (two and a h a l f pages i n length) which  Allworthy,  Squire  s i t t i n g up i n bed, d e l i v e r e d to h i s f a m i l y  when he thought he was going to d i e o f a severe  cold.  2  Although very few d e t a i l s o f A l l e n ' s l i f e were used i n Tom Jones, there are a s u f f i c i e n t number o f p o i n t s upon which the A l l e n - A l l w o r t h y c h a r a c t e r s are found to be parallel.  Both were men o f great wealth,  i n person, o f good c o n s t i t u t i o n and s o l i d  "both  agreeable  understanding."  Both were slow to d e t e c t a rogue, so ingenuous were t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r s .  "Both were benevolent to the p o i n t where  benevolence becomes a weakness, having imposed upon by Allen,  adventurers."  3  l i k e Allworthy,  3-Henry F i e l d i n g ,  Tom Jones, V, v i i ,  3  Wilbur  Cross,  favoured  I I , p. 163.  2  a comic aspect when  pp. 226 - 229.  I I , p. 163.  men o f genius and  175  learning:  "Neither Mr.  A l l w o r t h y ' s house, nor h i s h e a r t were  shut a g a i n s t any p a r t o f mankind, but they were both more p a r t i c u l a r l y open to men  of m e r i t . "  Squire A l l w o r t h y ' s  x  h o s p i t a l i t y was  s i m i l a r i n a l l p o i n t s , to t h a t dispensed  by Ralph A l l e n :  "To say the t r u t h , t h i s was  i n the kingdom where you was deserving i t . "  2  Nor  sure to g a i n a dinner by  d i d Mr. A l l w o r t h y " b o u n t i f u l l y  bestow meat, d r i n k and  l o d g i n g on men  i n r e t u r n f o r "entertainment, subserviency." house was  the o n l y house  o f w i t and l e a r n i n g "  instruction,  flattery,  On the c o n t r a r y , "every person  p e r f e c t master o f h i s own  follow h i s i n c l i n a t i o n s  ...  and  i n the  time" and f r e e to  "within the r e s t r i c t i o n s o n l y o f  law, v i r t u e and r e l i g i o n . "  Not o n l y those who  worthy's equals i n f o r t u n e , and whose presence  were A l l might be  c o n s i d e r e d a favour, were so t r e a t e d by t h e i r host,  but  even those  an  "whose i n d i g e n t circumstances  eleemosynary abode convenient  makes such  to them, and who  are t h e r e -  f o r e l e s s welcome to a g r e a t man's t a b l e because they stand i n need o f i t . "  3  T h i s l a s t remark cannot but be  read w i t h F i e l d i n g ' s experience o f A l l e n ' s h o s p i t a l i t y towards h i m s e l f i n mind.  •'-Tom Jones,  4  I, x, p. 74.  2  I b i d . , p.  74.  3  I b i d . , p.  75.  4  S e e pp. 76,  163  -  164.  See a l s o p.  62.  176 Wilbur Cross i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t F i e l d i n g has d e a l t in  "correspondences" between A l l e n and A l l w o r t h y r a t h e r  than i n copying an exact o r i g i n a l , and suggests t h a t the w r i t e r amused h i m s e l f by imagining how an A l l e n who r e c e i v e d i n t o h i s household a l l k i n d s o f people would behave " i f they should happen to be B l i f i l , Square,  Tom Jones,  Thwackum, and the r e s t o f t h a t motley  company."1  Taking i n c i d e n t s and t r a i t s o f c h a r a c t e r together, Wilbur Cross concludes t h a t "Allworthy appears as a shadowy counterpart o f A l l e n —  a l i k e n e s s r a t h e r than a p o r t r a i t . "  Homes Dudden, i n h i s biography o f F i e l d i n g , latter,  sees the  i n h i s d e s i r e to p o r t r a y an " i d e a l l y good man,"  and i n h i s attempt to do so by p r e s e n t i n g a " g l o r i f i e d p o r t r a i t " o f h i s f r i e n d and patron, as l a b o u r i n g under the disadvantage o f " p a i n t i n g such a l i k e n e s s as would be a c c e p t a b l e t o the l i v i n g o r i g i n a l . "  The r e s u l t he says,  " i s not s u c c e s s f u l " s i n c e he f i n d s the f i g u r e o f A l l w o r t h y " s t i f f and wooden, and l a c k i n g i n l i f e l i k e n e s s .  1 , 3  This  i d e a l l y good man i s "too d u l l and u n i n t e l l i g e n t to be a l t o g e t h e r admirable,  1 , 4  and because  l a c k i n g the sense  -'-Henry F i e l d i n g , I I , p. 163. 2  I b i d . , p. 164.  3  Dudden,,H. F i e l d i n g ,  4  I b i d . , p. 646.  I I , p. 646.  2  177 to c o n f i n e h i s b e n e f a c t i o n s  to d e s e r v i n g o b j e c t s , he  becomes the dupe o f p l a u s i b l e h y p o c r i t e s and And  adventurers.  x  as he i s wanting i n s a g a c i t y , so a l s o i s he d e f i c i e n t  i n humour.  Dudden c r i t i c i z e s the solemn s e r i o u s n e s s , the  g r a v e l y decorous behaviour and ponderous, high-toned d i s c o u r s e s which seem to ape the s t y l e o f the p e r f e c t l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l man, as conceived by the s t o i c w r i t e r s . Allworthy,  he concludes,  can command r e s p e c t b u t as an  e a r t h l y p a t t e r n o f heavenly goodness, human s p e c i e s , "  3  he i s i n a d e q u a t e .  "the g l o r y o f the  2  4  Barbeau f i n d s t h a t the over-simple, conventional  figure o f Allworthy  over-  s u f f e r s from t h e l i t e r a r y  p o i n t o f view and t h a t the r a t h e r weak and credulous ness o f A l l w o r t h y  kind-  does n o t render the e n e r g e t i c , a c t i v e ,  p r a c t i c a l s i d e o f the o r i g i n a l A l l e n , w h i l e R.E.M. Peach 5  •^enry F i e l d i n g , I I , p. 646. Dudden c i t e s as an example o f l a c k o f p e r s p i c a c i t y , A l l w o r t h y ' s d i s m i s s a l o f Tom w i t h o u t an examination o f t h e charges brought a g a i n s t him (VI, i i ) . As f u r t h e r examples he suggests: IV, i ; V I I , x i i ; I I , V ; V, v i i ; XVII, i i i ; XVIII, x. 9  '"Heaven o n l y can know him, can know t h a t benevolence which i t copied from i t s e l f , and sent upon e a r t h as i t s own p a t t e r n . " (Tom Jones, V I I I , i i , p. 370). 3  XII,  4  H e n r y F i e l d i n g , I I , p. 646.  5  x, p. 583.  L i f e and L e t t e r s a t Bath, p. 270, note 3.  178 makes F i e l d i n g l a r g e l y answerable f o r the n o t i o n t h a t A l l e n was " d e f i c i e n t i n the stronger elements o f c h a r a c t e r " but excuses t h i s on the grounds t h a t i t would have been i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h F i e l d i n g ' s g e n e r a l p l a n to p o r t r a y anyt h i n g beyond the s o f t e r and more amiable q u a l i t i e s o f h i s model, " j u s t as i t would be absurd  to w h o l l y  i d e n t i f y the  domestic scenery amidst which Squire A l l w o r t h y moves, w i t h the scenery o f P r i o r Park."  Maintaining nevertheless,  t h a t A l l w o r t h y was capable o f firmness and r e s o l u t i o n "on supreme o c c a s i o n s , " Peach f i n d s i n him "the conception o f gentleness  and s t r e n g t h harmoniously blended  in a beautiful  character."1 Wilbur  Cross concedes t h a t A l l w o r t h y i s "not  altogether successful." heart,  "but he i s saved  H i s head i s s a c r i f i c e d to h i s from b e i n g a f o o l by a c e r t a i n  q u i e t humour and a determination, when once to punish Wilbur  undeceived,  the r a s c a l s t h a t have f e d upon him."2  Cross  While  f i n d s a complete c o n t r a s t as regards  char-  a c t e r drawing i n Squire Western, he c o n s i d e r s A l l w o r t h y a c h a r a c t e r o f one c o n s i s t e n t p i e c e from beginning  to end  o f the n o v e l , a " s t a t i o n a r y f i g u r e , " whose kindness, s i m p l i c i t y and generous nature  "shine i n the v a r i e d l i g h t s  •Life and Times o f Ralph A l l e n , Preface, x i v - xv. Henry F i e l d i n g ,  I I , p. 207.  179 turned upon him." And t h i s , Wilbur Cross concludes, was i n e v i t a b l e f o r the v e r y reason t h a t F i e l d i n g began the p o r t r a i t u r e with A l l e n d e f i n i t e l y i n mind.  Wilbur  1  Cross's c o n c l u s i o n seems to bear o u t the  argument t h a t the A l l e n - A l l w o r t h y p o r t r a i t should be accepted i n the wider of  life;  2  and s t i l l  context o f F i e l d i n g ' s  criticism  f u r t h e r grounds f o r arguing the  i n t e n t i o n o f F i e l d i n g to p r e s e n t A l l e n - A l l w o r t h y e x a c t l y as he d i d can be found i n Cross's suggestion o f A l l w o r t h y as a Cervantes  type.  P a r t r i d g e i n Tom Jones,  never  fathoms, d e s p i t e h a r d experiences, the motives o f men and reads l i f e  i n the l i g h t o f h i s w h i m s i c a l dreams j u s t  as Parson Adams i n Joseph Andrews^ reads i t i n the l i g h t of  a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e , and Don Quixote  of  chivalry.  Likewise Squire A l l w o r t h y (writes Wilbur  Cross), with a difference, the  i n t h a t o f romances  i s i n l i n e w i t h the k n i g h t and  parson:  J-Henry F i e l d i n g , 2  I I , p. 209.  S e e pp.. 168' - 171.  ^Walter A l l e n w r i t e s : " F i e l d i n g was indebted l a r g e l y to Cervantes f o r h i s conception o f the n o v e l . " The E n g l i s h Novel, p. 69. I n the P r e f a c e (xxvi - x x v i i ) , F i e l d i n g s t a t e s t h a t "Adams ... i s designed a c h a r a c t e r o f p e r f e c t s i m p l i c t y , and ... the goodness o f h i s h e a r t w i l l recommend him t o the good-natured." 4  180 He i s b l i n d e d by the g l a r e o f an unblemished chara c t e r i n t o t a k i n g h y p o c r i t e s and pretenders f o r what they seem; o n l y the most c o n c l u s i v e evidence can induce him t o change h i s favourable o p i n i o n o f men by whom he has been g r o s s l y d e c e i v e d . ! I f F i e l d i n g endowed h i s f i c t i t i o u s Squire A l l worthy w i t h an "unblemished c h a r a c t e r , " h i s o p i n i o n o f the prototype, Ralph A l l e n , two o c c a s i o n s .  i s made abundantly  c l e a r on  In the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter t o Book X I I I  he mentions A l l e n  (coupled w i t h L y t t l e t o n ) by name:  And thou ... Humanity, b r i n g a l l t h y tender s e n s a t i o n s . I f thou h a s t a l r e a d y disposed o f them a l l between t h y A l l e n and thy L y t t l e t o n , s t e a l them awhile from t h e i r bosoms .... From these alone proceed the noble d i s i n t e r e s t e d f r i e n d s h i p ... and a l l those strong energies o f a good mind . . .2 and i n the prologue  t o Book V I I I , "Concerning the  M a r v e l l o u s , " there i s no suggestion t h a t the man here d e s c r i b e d i s the f i c t i t i o u s A l l w o r t h y , s i n c e the passage occurs i n an i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter  i n t e r p o l a t e d i n t o the  n o v e l and having no connection w i t h the s t o r y .  J-Henry F i e l d i n g ,  Fielding  I I , p. 205.  P p . 608 - 609. In t h i s same chapter, F i e l d i n g a l s o mentions W i l l i a m Warburton, t o whom he generously pays homage as the keeper o f the key t o a l l the treasures-: o f l e a r n i n g (p. 609) . See pP- 78 - 79. 2  0 n l y a few o f the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapters have any o r g a n i c connection w i t h the s t o r y , and i n c l u d e , as i n V I I I , i , independent essays on the a r t o f f i c t i o n . Although he makes no s p e c i f i c mention o f V I I I , i , Cross says t h a t i t was c l e a r l y the n o v e l i s t ' s custom i n r e v i s i o n , t o i n s e r t such r e f e r e n c e s or a l l u s i o n s t o persons and events as would g i v e p o i n t t o h i s n a r r a t i v e . (H. F i e l d i n g , I I , pp. 103 - 104) . 3  a f f i r m s t h a t he has known a man  whom he d e s c r i b e s  as  b e i n g endowed w i t h a p e n e t r a t i n g genius which had enabled him  to r a i s e a l a r g e fortune out to him,"  "where no  was  chaulked  out  i n j u s t i c e or i n j u r y to any one, w i t h  beginning  possessing h i s i n t e g r i t y with"the h i g h e s t  advantage to trade, and a v a s t i n c r e a s e o f the p u b l i c revenue;" a man  who  spent one  p a r t o f h i s fortune " i n  d i s c o v e r i n g a t a s t e s u p e r i o r to most, by works where the h i g h e s t d i g n i t y was  u n i t e d w i t h the p u r e s t  simplicity,"  and another p a r t " i n d i s p l a y i n g a degree o f goodness s u p e r i o r to a l l men,  by a c t s o f c h a r i t y to o b j e c t s whose  o n l y recommendations were t h e i r m e r i t s , or t h e i r wants." P o s s i b l y w i t h h i s own  debt to such a man  i n mind,  F i e l d i n g speaks o f the o b j e c t o f h i s admiration  x  as  being  "most i n d u s t r i o u s i n s e a r c h i n g a f t e r merit i n d i s t r e s s , most eager to r e l i e v e i t , and then as c a r e f u l , too c a r e f u l ) to conceal what he had man's house and h o s p i t a l i t y , which they  flowed,  noble, without  !See  pp.  done."  2  Of  2  S e e p.  172.  3  S e e pp.  64';  this  " a l l denoted the mind from  and were a l l i n t r i n s i c a l l y r i c h  t i n s e l or e x t e r n a l o s t e n t a t i o n . "  162  (perhaps  -  163.  74.  3  and In  182 glowing  terms F i e l d i n g speaks o f t h i s man's " v i r t u e , " as  a Christian,  "a most tender husband ... a warm and f i r m  f r i e n d , a knowing and a c h e a r f u l companion, i n d u l g e n t to h i s servants, h o s p i t a b l e to h i s neighbours, to the poor, and benevolent  to a l l mankind."  charitable  x  "Quis Credet?" asks F i e l d i n g , and r e p l i e s : "and yet I know a man who i s a l l t h a t I have here d e s c r i b e d .  F i e l d i n g claimed t h a t a l l h i s c h a r a c t e r s are i n harmony w i t h human nature and, "to keep them t r u e to l i f e " says Wilbur Cross,  "he l e t h i s memory ... p l a y about p e r -  sons he had known, they were h i s models, so to speak." But Cross adds t h a t , i f based on o b s e r v a t i o n , t h i s does not mean t h a t F i e l d i n g was free from t r a d i t i o n a l and r a t h e r a r t i f i c i a l methods i n moulding h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s . Not  3  so i n the drawing o f Squire Western's c h a r a c t e r ,  which takes shape and e v o l v e s , as the n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s .  ( u n l i k e Squire  Allworthy"s)  Squire Western emerges as the  most c o l o u r f u l c h a r a c t e r i n Tom Jones, w h i r l w i n d o f contending p a s s i o n s . "  1  Tom Jones,  V I I I , i , p. 365.  2  I b i d . , p. 365.  3  H . F i e l d i n g , I I , p. 205.  Wilbur Cross, I I , p. 210.  4  "a v e r i t a b l e  N e i t h e r Western  183 nor h i s home i s ever d e s c r i b e d , as though F i e l d i n g  wished  to c o n c e a l the i d e n t i t y o f t h i s J a c o b i t e s q u i r e , whose c h a r a c t e r , he knew, would be r e s e n t e d by h i s p o l i t i c a l opponents,  1  but he i s given a l o c a l h a b i t a t i o n - i n Somerset-  and a name.  A c c o r d i n g t o Wilbur Cross no one has q u i t e  found out the o r i g i n a l .  With r e g a r d to l o c a l Somerset  c h a r a c t e r s employed by F i e l d i n g f o r the s e t t i n g i n the neighbourhood  o f Bath, a t r a d i t i o n says t h a t he was S i r  P a u l e t S t John, o r Mildmay, b l u f f o l d Tory sportsman,  2  whom Dudden d e s c r i b e s as a  a f r i e n d o f Bolingbroke and  Pope and, as owner o f e s t a t e s near E a s t Stour and near Glastonbury was p o s s i b l y known to F i e l d i n g i n p e r s o n .  3  However, Dudden i n c l i n e s t o the view t h a t F i e l d i n g d i d not c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o one s i n g l e model b u t gathered h i s m a t e r i a l from the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f s e v e r a l other s q u i r e s whom he had met w h i l e h u n t i n g i n Somerset and D o r s e t .  4  Squire Western, w i t h h i s broad Somerset d i a l e c t , h i s v o l l e y o f oaths and curses,5 h i s extravagant  " c a p e r i n g s " ^ and  I w i l b u r Cross, I I , p. 166. N o t e s and Queries, 11 s. VI, 470, Dec. 14, 1912, c i t e d by W i l b u r Cross, I I , p. 166. 2  H./Dudden, I I , p. 641, c a l l s him "Horace Walpole"s 'old Mildmay'" o f The L e t t e r s , ed. Toynbee (1903-5), 16,Vols .', . . VI, p. 208. 3  1  4  H.  ^Tom 6  F i e l d i n g , I I , pp. 641 - 642. Jones, V I ,  Ix.  I b i d . , VI, v i i ;  XVI,  ii;  XVII,  iii;  XVIII, x i i .  184 "hallowings,"  ±  h i s uncouth manners, was  a sportsman o f  the o l d s c h o o l and the f i n a l and p e r f e c t embodiment o f F i e l d i n g ' s s t u d i e s o f the t y p i c a l Turberville time  "booby s q u i r e . "  mentions that, the t y p i c a l s q u i r e s o f t h i s  ( c i t i n g S i r Roger de Coverley as another  l i v e d on t h e i r own their  A.S.  2  example) ,  r u r a l e s t a t e s and seldom went beyond  immediate county town.  The r u r a l boorishness  of  the s q u i r e a r c h y , o f which Western i s a t y p i c a l example, came i n the process o f time, to be m i t i g a t e d .  They no  longer c o n f i n e d themselves to " i n t e r e s t s i n the board, the h u n t i n g  f i e l d s and p r i z e pigs."  3  trencher-  Fielding's  West Country Squire had not y e t undergone the  refining  i n f l u c e n c e o f c o n t a c t w i t h the m e t r o p o l i s , which Turberville,  i n c r e a s e d as the century advanced  and  t r a v e l l i n g became more r a p i d and more comfortable the r e s u l t  t h a t t h i s k i n d of p r o v i n c i a l i s m was  iTom Jones, V,  ii;  VII, i i i ,  v i ; X, v i ; XVIII, x i i .  Dudden, I I , 642. P r e l i m i n a r y sketches were Badger and S i r Gregory Kennel. ^ E n g l i s h Men 130.  and Manners i n the 18th Century,  E n g l i s h Men  and Manners, pp.  4  with  corrected.  2  72,  says  129  -  130.  Squire pp.  4  185 Peach i s quoted by B a r b e a u P h i l i p Bennet,  1  as a s s e r t i n g t h a t  the owner o f Widcombe House,  p r o t o t y p e o f S q u i r e Western.  was the  Barbeau a l s o quotes  G.H.  Wright, as s t a t i n g i n 1864: I t i s s i n g u l a r , y e t s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h a t no p e r s o n a l d e s i g n a t i o n has been g i v e n by b i o g r a p h e r s ; l o c a l i s s u f ficient. But t h i s may be a s s e r t e d , 'A s p o r t i n g s q u i r e ' 'of h i g h degree,' and a neighbour o f Ralph A l l e n ' s , had a daughter ... and the f a i r lady d i d marry a f o u n d l i n g , and thus she became possessed o f two a d j o i n i n g e s t a t e s . 3  Of a l l o f t h i s , o f course, Barbeau adds, not the s l i g h t e s t proof i s o f f e r e d .  4  G. Monkland mentions  t h a t "many o f the  scenes i n t h i s highly-wrought ' H i s t o r y ' are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Bath and i t s neighbourhood"  and t h a t  "a gentleman o f the  name o f Bayley, I have a s c e r t a i n e d , then l i v e d a t the house c l o s e t o the church a t Widcombe, the supposed r e s i d e n c e o f Squire Western."5  1R.E.M. Peach, Bath O l d and New (1888), pp. 225 226, quoted by Barbeau, p. 269, note 1. In L i f e and Times o f Ralph A l l e n , p. 206, Peach a l s o s t a t e s t h a t the second w i f e o f R. A l l e n was the s i s t e r o f P h i l i p Bennet o f Widcombe House, who was MP f o r Bath, 1741 - 1747. 2  S e e p. 76 and footnote 7.  G.H. Wright, H i s t o r i c Guide to Bath by Barbeau, p. 269, note 1. 3  4  Life  (1864), quoted  and L e t t e r s , p. 269, note 1.  ^ L i t e r a t u r e and L i t e r a t i o f Bath, p. 13.  186 Monkland s t a t e s t h a t many o f the scenes are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Bath neighbourhood.  1  Fielding  also  draws many o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s (apart from those o f A l l w o r t h y and Western) from r e a l men and women.  Not every one o f  them had an exact o r i g i n a l , n o t every i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d as recounted i n the s t o r y , nor i s there absence o f pure fiction,  so t h a t i t i s impossible to say how f a r f a c t i s  mingled w i t h f i c t i o n i n a n o v e l t h a t reads as though i t were a l l t r u e .  But F x e l d i n g c a l l e d i t "a h i s t o r y , "  having as i t s motto: Mores hominum multorum f o r the very reason t h a t i t was so l a r g e l y based on p e r s o n a l r e m i n i s cences o f r e a l men and women.  3  There a r e some two hundred  c h a r a c t e r s , e i t h e r w i t h f i c t i t i o u s names, or no names, b u t p r o b a b l y a l l drawn from memories a s s o c i a t e d w i t h London and the West C o u n t r y .  4  Of h i s f r i e n d s and acquaintances,  some bear t h e i r r e a l names, w i t h o u t e n t e r i n g l a r g e l y the s t o r y .  into  In most cases they are mentioned i n order t o  r e c e i v e a compliment from the  author.5  Among those who are i d e n t i f i a b l e w i t h o r i g i n a l s i n  -'-Literature and L i t e r a t i , p. 13. 2  W i l b u r Cross, I I , pp. 161 - 162.  3  I b i d . , p. 1.61.  4  I b i d . , p. 172.  5  I b i d . , p. 173.  187 the v i c i n i t y o f Bath i s Mr. W h i t e f i e l d , l a n d l o r d o f the B e l l Inn a t G l o u c e s t e r and F i e l d i n g had  "brother to the g r e a t  preacher."!  stayed many times a t the B e l l Inn, and upon  no other minor c h a r a c t e r i n the n o v e l " d i d he d w e l l w i t h more p l e a s a n t r e c o l l e c t i o n s . " o f the H i l l "  3  (whom Tom  encounters  Inn), a l o c a l c h a r a c t e r born, Mark, near Glastonbury  Man  a f t e r l e a v i n g the  says F i e l d i n g ,  i n Somerset.  In Book XVIII, the he  There i s a l s o "The  i n 1657  Bell at  4  "philosopher" Square, knowing  i s about to d i e , w r i t e s to Mr A l l w o r t h y to make amends  for h i s p a s t treatment Bath whither  o f Tom.  The  letter  i s w r i t t e n from  Square had r e s o r t e d to d r i n k the waters and to  c o n s u l t Dr. Brewster and  "Dr. H a r r i n g t o n " who  and well-known p h y s i c i a n s o f t h a t c i t y .  were a c t u a l ,  5  F i e l d i n g does not mention h i s s i s t e r Sarah  by  name, but the book t h a t Sophia Western i s r e a d i n g when she  i s i n t e r r u p t e d by her aunt i s e v i d e n t l y David  Simple,^  "the p r o d u c t i o n of a young lady o f f a s h i o n , whose good  -'-Tom Jones, V I I I , v i i i , ^Wilbur  Cross, I I , p.  p. 387. 175.  -a J  Tom Jones, V I I I , x - xv.  4  Ibid.,  x i , p.  See pp;  i v , p.  823.  6wilbur Cross, I I , p.  173.  5  I b i d . , XVIII,  404.  See p.  156 75.  -  157.  "understanding" t h i n k s Sophia, "doth honour and whose good h e a r t i s an honour  t o her sex,  t o human n a t u r e . "  To  t h i s sentiment Mrs Western r e p l i e s : "Yes, the author i s o f a v e r y good f a m i l y ; b u t ... i s not much among people one knows."  She has never r e a d the book she adds, " f o r  the b e s t judges say, there i s n o t much i n i t . " 1 9  "The H i s t o r y o f Mrs. F i t z p a t r i c k , " i n t o Tom Jones, has been mentioned "Social L i f e at Bath"  3  interpolated  i n connection w i t h  as being, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y ,  based on the s t o r y o f Fanny Braddock,  an a c t u a l person  whom Beau Nash c o u n s e l l e d i n v a i n when she became the v i c t i m o f a fortune-hunter a t Bath.  Harriet  Fitzpatrick's  predicament c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f the o r i g i n a l Fanny Braddock, her husband b e i n g "among the gay young f e l l o w s " who spent the season a t B a t h , hunter, niece  5  4  and a t y p i c a l f o r t u n e -  ready t o accept whichever o f two women, the  ( H a r r i e t ) o r her aunt  (Mrs. Western), might  x  Tom Jones, VI, v, p. 265.  2  XI,  3  S e e p.  produce  i v , v, v i i . '41-.  F i e l d i n g comments on the s u b j e c t o f manners a t Bath t h a t "people o f q u a l i t y a t t h i s time l i v e d separate from the r e s t o f the company, and excluded them from a l l t h e i r parties." (Tom Jones, XI, i v , p. 518). 4  "His designs were s t r i c t l y honourable, as the phrase i s ; t h a t i s , t o r o b a lady o f h e r fortune by way o f marriage." (XI, i v , p. 519).  189 the "ready money" he so much needed.!  Fielding  also  i n t r o d u c e s R i c h a r d Nash by name i n t o the n o v e l a t t h i s point.  "I cannot omit e x p r e s s i n g my g r a t i t u d e to the  kindness intended me by Mr Nash" d e c l a r e s H a r r i e t ,  "who  took me one day a s i d e , and gave me advice, which i f I had followed, I had been a happy woman."2  Fielding  "quotes" the words o f Nash, who mentions h i s " p r e t t y Sophy Western" w i t h sympathy, b u t has l i t t l e use f o r the o l d aunt, Mrs Western:  "I never advise o l d women:  f o r i f they take i t i n t o t h e i r heads to go to the d e v i l , it  i s no more p o s s i b l e , than worthwhile, to keep them  from him.  1 , 3  H a r r i e t and her c o u s i n Sophia meet a t the i n n a t Upton whither coach  X  the; former had journeyed from Bath i n a  "belonging t o Mr. King o f Bath," an a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r  X I , v, p. 52 3.  X. i v , p. 521. W. Connely remarks t h a t whether or not F i e l d i n g was making use o f the a c t u a l s t o r y , he took advantage i n Tom Jones, o f saying a good word f o r Nash a t a time when the Master stood i n need o f i t (Beau Nash, p. 142). Nash i s a l s o commended i n the Covent Garden J o u r n a l o f August 24, 1752, f o r h i s "well-known prudent management ... w i t h r e g a r d to the r e g u l a t i o n o f the d i v e r s i o n s , the accommodation o f persons r e s o r t i n g to Bath and the g e n e r a l good o f the c i t y . " (Quoted by Connely, p. 156). The o c c a s i o n was the u n v e i l i n g o f the statue o f Nash i n 1752 i n Bath, a t which F i e l d i n g a s s i s t e d . " F i e l d i n g ... saw i n Nash what S m o l l e t t had chosen t o d i s r e g a r d " (Connely, p. 140). See pp. 139 - 140. 2  Tom Jones, XI, i v , p. 521.  190 d e s c r i b e d by F i e l d i n g as: "One o f the w o r t h i e s t and honeste s t men  t h a t ever d e a l t i n h o r s e - f l e s h , and whose coaches  we h e a r t i l y recommend to a l l our readers who road."I  I t may  t r a v e l that  a l s o be noted t h a t Bath i s s p e c i f i c a l l y  mentioned by H a r r i e t as having been her intended d e s t i n a t i o n i n her f l i g h t  from I r e l a n d and her husband  to throw myself i n t o the p r o t e c t i o n o f my aunt Western  , or o f your f a t h e r ,  Western's Bath.  1,2  " i n order Mrs  which d e t a i l p l a c e s Squire  r e s i d e n c e d e f i n i t e l y i n the neighbourhood o f  F u r t h e r , w i t n e s s i n g the a r r i v a l o f Sophia and  her maid a t the Upton  i n n , P a r t r i d g e e x c l a i m s : "I warrant  n e i t h e r o f them are a b i t b e t t e r than they should be. couple o f Bath t r u l l s ,  I ' l l answer f o r them."  In the a l l e g o r y , the N e x t "  4  A  3  "A Journey from T h i s World to  a s a t i r i c a l account o f a journey to Elysium,  the t r a v e l l e r s reach a b i f u r c a t i o n o f two roads, the one  J-Tom Jones, X, v i , p. 2  I b i d . , XI, v i i ,  p.  488.  536.  I b i d . , X, v, p. 483. Barbeau s t a t e s t h a t the e s t a b l i s m e n t o f loose women a t Bath seems to have been p r o v e r b i a l ( L i f e & L e t t e r s , p. 106, note 6 ) . See a l s o p.M^ . 3  ^ F i e l d i n g , "A Journey from This World to the Next" p u b l i s h e d i n The M i s c e l l a n i e s I I (1743). (Wilbur Cross I I I , p. 309).  191 l e a d i n g to greatness and the other to goodness. take the second one, which leads through  They  "the most d e l i g h t f u l imaginable," l o v e l y flower-spangled meadows, but  w i t h s c a r c e l y a b u i l d i n g i n s i g h t except f o r one: handsome b u i l d i n g  "A  ... g r e a t l y resembling a c e r t a i n  one  by the Bath."1 In the same year M i s c e l l a n i e s was  (1743) t h a t volume I I o f the  p u b l i s h e d ; Pope, wrote i n a l e t t e r to  Ralph A l l e n : F i e l d i n g has sent the Books you s u b s c r i b e d f o r by ye hands imployed i n conveying ye 20 11. to him. In one Chapt o f ye Second V o l . he has p a i d you a p r e t t y complement upon your House. 2  The passage, quoted to P r i o r  above, may  w e l l have been a r e f e r e n c e  Park. Joseph Andrews c o n t a i n s one  s p e c i f i c reference  to A l l e n ' s house, and w i t h i t , a mention o f Pope. Speaking o f A l l e n d u r i n g h i s d i s c o u r s e on ("one  "charity,"  A I - A I - I f o r g e t h i s name"), he adds t h a t  3  "this  gentleman hath b u i l t up a s t a t e l y house too, which the squire  Pope  l i k e s v e r y w e l l " and  " I t stands on a  ^Quoted by H. Dudden, I, p. 430, I, p. 383.  and by W.  hill."  Cross,  Pope to A l l e n , A p r i l 12, 1743. B r i t i s h Museum, Egerton MSS, 1947. (Wilbur Cross, I, p. 383) . 2  3  S e e p.  164.  4  Joseph  Andrews, p.  210.  4  192 In outdoor of  Tom  Jones  scenery  interiors,  precise  and  none  i n giving  by  h i s  in  Somerset,  of at  details a l l .  on  1  using  their  familiar.  He  description  constituting  And  way  existing  distances between  obviously  i s l i t t l e  yet  information with  travellers  quoting  there  to  London  hostelries  to  and  any  make-up  i s  very  roads  from  taken  Glastonbury  inns  places with which  was  the  Fielding  regard  of  and  he  was  to  the  not  indifferent  but  like  the  majority  he  seems  to have  2 charms his  18th  ferred His  of  century  nature  ideal  estate;  natural  3  scenery,  contemporaries,  "improved"  was  a  where  finely  and  yet,  i n  "Prior's  art, to  situated,  " a r t " and  A t Eshur, a t Stowe, P r i o r ' s Park, days are imagination while we art i n improving natur  by  of pre-  nature  unadorned.  elegantly  cultivated  "nature" were  combined:  a t W i l t o n , a t E a s t b u r y , and at too short for the r a v i s h e d admire the wondrous power o f e,  Park"  nature  seems  to  triumph,  and  appears:  -•-Dudden,  I I , p.  703.  ? 0 f t h e n a t u r a l s c e n e r y b e s t known t o h i m he says: "The same t a s t e , t h e same i m a g i n a t i o n , w h i c h luxuriously r i o t s i n ... e l e g a n t s c e n e s , c a n b e a m u s e d w i t h o b j e c t s of far inferiour note. The w o o d s , t h e r i v e r s , t h e lawns o f Devon and D o r s e t , a t t r a c t the eye o f the ingenious traveller Tom J o n e s , X I , i x , p p . 5 4 5 546. Dudden,  I I , p.  703.  193 In her r i c h e s t a t t i r e , and a r t dressed with the modestest s i m p l i c i t y .... Here nature indeed pours f o r t h the c h o i c e s t t r e a s u r e s which she hath l a v i s h e d on t h i s w o r l d . x  In the f i r s t p a r t o f the novel which l a y s i n much d e t a i l , the foundation f o r the main a c t i o n o f the r e s t o f the s t o r y , there occurs what i s , f o r F i e l d i n g , a lengthy d e s c r i p t i o n o f Squire A l l w o r t h y ' s e s t a t e , its  s i t u a t i o n , and the "prospect o f the v a l l e y beneath."  The house i s d e s c r i b e d as being i n the "Gothick  stile"  which c o u l d produce nothing n o b l e r than the A l l w o r t h y house, having  "an a i r of grandeur i n i t , t h a t s t r u c k  you with, awe, and r i v a l ' d the b e a u t i e s o f the best Grecian a r c h i t e c t u r e . " He d e s c r i b e s a lake a t the f o o t o f the h i l l , "a q u a r t e r o f a m i l e below the house" which " f i l l e d the c e n t r e of a b e a u t i f u l p l a i n " and out o f which i s s u e d a r i v e r which meandered through meadows and woods, " t i l l  an amazing v a r i e t y o f  i t emptied i t s e l f  i n t o the sea;  w i t h a l a r g e arm of which and an i s l a n d beyond i t , the p r o s p e c t was c l o s e d . " To the r i g h t o f t h i s v a l l e y he c o n t i n u e s , opened another,  "adorned w i t h s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s , and terminated  by one of the towers o f an o l d r u i n e d abbey, grown over with i v y . "  To the l e f t  x  Tom Jones,  2  lbid.,  l a y "a very f i n e park ... agreeably  XI, i x , p. 545.  I , i v , p. 58.  194 v a r i e d with a l l the d i v e r s i t y t h a t h i l l s , and water, l a i d out w i t h admirable to  t a s t e , but owing l e s s  a r t than t o nature, c o u l d g i v e . "  concludes,  lawns, wood,  Beyond t h i s ,  he  "the country g r a d u a l l y rose i n t o a r i d g e of  w i l d mountains, the tops of which were above the c l o u d s . " The readers of Tom  Jones, having i d e n t i f i e d  1  Squire  A l l w o r t h y w i t h Ralph A l l e n , have always been p u z z l e d by the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the above d e s c r i p t i o n and r e a l P r i o r Park and i t s p r o s p e c t .  the  Among contemporary  2 c r i t i c s , Old England, performance was  Tom  eager to p o i n t out what a s o r r y  Jones,  c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to F i e l d i n g ' s  " e r r o r " i n thus d e s c r i b i n g A l l w o r t h y ' s e s t a t e , C o l e r i d g e was mistake saw  while  to regard the d e s c r i p t i o n as a chorographic  and wonder from what p o i n t of vantage F i e l d i n g  those w i l d , cloud-covered mountains, s i n c e the so-  c a l l e d mountains o f Somerset here are o n l y h i l l s ; the c i t y of Bath f i l l s Prior 1  4  and  the p r o s p e c t as seen from the a c t u a l  Park.  Tom  Jones,  I, i v , pp.  58 - 59.  o  A newspaper e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1743 by the Broad Bottom A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and to which C h e s t e r f i e l d c o n t r i b u t e d (Cross, I I , p. 13). "To r e c o n c i l e t h i s D e s c r i p t i o n w i t h P r o b a b i l i t y w i l l be the D i f f i c u l t y .... A most e x t e n s i v e ken indeed! and shows the a c c u r a t e Author endued with more than a second-sighted Mind." (Old England, May 27, 1749, quoted by W. Cross, I I , 153). 4  C r o s s , I I , pp.  152,  164.  195 In p o i n t o f f a c t , F i e l d i n g ' s d e s c r i p t i o n  is a  composite one, b u t Cross remarks t h a t no d e t a i l o f t h i s composite scene appears to have been f i c t i t i o u s . 1 Allen's  house i s o f the C o r i n t h i a n  apparently preferred  order,  2  Ralph  but F i e l d i n g  the "Gothick s t i l e " or, t h i n k s  Cross, may have wished to pay a compliment i n Tom Jones to h i s f r i e n d , Sanderson M i l l e r , who, i n the 1740's was  adorning h i s Tudor house a t Radway, w i t h G o t h i c  turrets.  3  Factual  i n Tom Jones, was the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  s p r i n g gushing o u t o f the f i r - c o v e r e d rock, cascade, hill,  falling  in a  and f i n a l l y r e a c h i n g the lake a t the f o o t o f the  as d e p i c t e d by F i e l d i n g ' s contemporary R i c h a r d  Graves and quoted i n "Ralph A l l e n and P r i o r P a r k . " Both Wilbur  4  Cross and Homes Dudden have i d e n t i f i e d  F i e l d i n g ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the "prospect" from the h o u s e  5  w i t h the view from the t o p o f Tor H i l l to the n o r t h e a s t  •'-Henry F i e l d i n g , I I , p. 166. 2  S e e p. 18.  H. F i e l d i n g , I I , 164. M i l l e r , a conspicuous, mid-18th century s q u i r e , " s k i l l e d " i n G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e , e n t e r t a i n e d F i e l d i n g , L y t t l e t o n , and P i t t w h i l e Tom Jones was s t i l l i n MS form. "By common r e p o r t " P i t t and L y t t l e t o n bore a hand i n the r e v i s i o n o f the n o v e l , and h e l p e d spread abroad i t s fame. (W. Cross, I I , pp. 112 - 113, 114). 3  4  S e e p.;19.  5  C r o s s , I I , pp. 165 - 166, Dudden, I I , p. 602.  o f Glastonbury, which does correspond w i t h t h a t i n Book I, chapter i v , i n every d e t a i l .  T h i s summit, w r i t e s  Dudden, F i e l d i n g must f r e q u e n t l y have v i s i t e d . 1  From  t h i s h e i g h t on a f i n e morning, he c o u l d c l e a r l y have b e h e l d the scene he d e s c r i b e s ; the "meandering r i v e r " b e i n g the Brue; the "sea," the B r i s t o l channel; the " i s l a n d , " S t e r t I s l a n d i n Bridgewater  Bay; w h i l e the  "ruined abbey" would be Glastonbury and "the r i d g e o f w i l d mountains," The Quantocks and Mendips. way  In t h i s  F i e l d i n g t r a n s f e r r e d the s i t e o f P r i o r Park, Combe  Down, Bath to Tor H i l l , p a r t o f Somerset.  2  Glastonbury i n a n o t so d i s t a n t  For t h i s reason the n a r r a t i v e o f the  e a r l i e r stages o f the journey o f Tom and Sophia,  "con-  c e i v e d as having t h e i r homes i n the neighbourhood o f Glastonbury," e x a c t l y agrees w i t h t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . While Monkland suggests the house c l o s e t o Widcombe church as the "supposed r e s i d e n c e " o f Squire Western,  x  Park 2  4  i t has been suggested by G.H. Wright^  that  When s t a y i n g w i t h r e l a t i v e s a t nearby Sharpham (Henry F i e l d i n g , I I , p. 602).  Dudden, I I , pp. 602 - 603.  3  I b i d . , p. 603.  4  S e e p. 185;  % i s t o r i c Guide t o Bath, p. 381.  1 9 7  the scene o f the " b a t t l e " i n the churchyard d u r i n g which M o l l y Seagrim i s rescued by Tom,1 i s t h a t o f C l a v e r t o n .  2  A f i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f an a c t u a l l o c a l i t y i n Tom Jones may be t h a t o f a c e r t a i n " l i t t l e p a r l o u r " mentioned i n the  "Invocation"  "The l i t t l e  to Book X I I I .  parlour  When F i e l d i n g speaks o f  i n which I s i t a t t h i s  instant,"  3  he may have been g i v i n g a c l u e to the reader as to the place is  i n which he was w r i t i n g Tom J o n e s .  The passage  4  an i n v o c a t i o n t o f u t u r e fame "when I s h a l l be read  w i t h honour, by those who never knew nor saw me."5 i t is  i n t h i s passage t h a t he speaks o f "The r e a l worth  which once e x i s t e d i n my C h a r l o t t e " who i s presented in  the n o v e l  "under the f i c t i t i o u s name o f S o p h i a , " 6  and o f "the p r a t t l i n g babes, whose innocent o f t e n been i n t e r r u p t e d by my l a b o u r s . " '  p l a y hath  The assumption  t h a t Tom Jones was p a r t l y w r i t t e n w h i l e F i e l d i n g was  1  Tom Jones, IV, v i i i .  T h e n e i g h b o u r i n g p a r i s h . R. A l l e n bought Manor i n 1 7 5 8 . See p. 7 2 , footnote 3 . 2  3  Tom Jones, X I I I , p. 6 0 7 . I I , pp. 1 0 8 - 1 0 9 .  4  Cross,  5  Tom Jones, X I I I ,  6  Claverton  i , p. 6 0 7 .  I b i d . , p. 6 0 7 .  I b i d . , p. 6 0 8 . These are h i s c h i l d r e n , H a r r i o t and W i l l i a m (Cross, I I , p. 1 0 9 ) . 7  l i v i n g a t Twerton-on-Avon, near Bath, has d i s c u s s e d i n "The At"Fielding s  F i e l d i n g connection w i t h P r i o r  Lodge," w r i t e s Wilbur  1  a l r e a d y been  Cross,  Park."  "as one  through the q u a i n t doorway, there i s 'a l i t t l e  x  enters  parlour'  ... w i t h an a n c i e n t f i r e p l a c e , unchanged s i n c e F i e l d i n g sat and wrote t h e r e . "  2  I t i s c l e a r however, Cross  adds,  t h a t even though the l i t t l e p a r l o u r a t Twerton e x a c t l y f i t s the s i t u a t i o n as F i e l d i n g d e s c r i b e s i t , " i t must be l e f t undetermined where he composed the most passage t h a t ever came from h i s p e n . "  1pp. ;77 2  H.  3  Ibid.,  - 78.  Fielding, p.  I I , p.  111.  111.  3  eloquent  199  A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l l e n , W a l t e r . The E n g l i s h Novel: a s h o r t h i s t o r y . P e l i c a n e d i t i o n , 1958.  critical  Anstey, C h r i s t o p h e r . The New Bath Guide: o r , the Memoirs o f the B-R-D f a m i l y . In a s e r i e s o f poetical epistles. Bath, 1807" Barbeau, A. L i f e and L e t t e r s a t Bath i n the X V I I I t h Century. London, 1904. Benjamin, Lewis S a u l . The L i f e and L e t t e r s o f Tobias S m o l l e t t . P o r t Washington, N.Y., 1927. Boyce, Benjamin. "Mr. Pope, i n Bath, Improves the Design o f h i s G r o t t o , " i n R e s t o r a t i o n and E i g h t e e n t h Century L i t e r a t u r e ; essays i n honor o f A l a n Dugald M c K i l l o p . U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1963. Chesterfield, Philip, Earl of. 3 vols. London, 1892. Esq.  L e t t e r s , ed. F. Bradshaw.  . L e t t e r s to h i s son, P h i l i p Stanhope, 2 vols. London, 1774.  . M i s c e l l a n e o u s Works: to which are p r e - ' f i x e d Memoirs o f h i s L i f e . By M. Maty. 2 v o l s . London, 1778. Connely, W i l l a r d . Beau Nash: Monarch o f Bath and Tunbridge W e l l s . London, 1955. Cross, Wilbur L. The H i s t o r y o f Henry F i e l d i n g . • New Haven, 1918.  3 vols.  Defoe, D a n i e l . A Tour Through the Whole I s l a n d o f Great Britain. A Tour Through England and Wales, e t c . E x t r a c t s from A Tour ... I n t r o d . by G.D.H. C o l e . 2 v o l s . Everyman's L i b r a r y , 1928. 7th e d i t i o n . 4 vols. London, 1769.  200 . Flanders.  The Fortunes and M i s f o r t u n e s o f M o l l New York: Washington Square Press, 1962.  D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l Biography, The, ed. L e s l i e Stephen and Sidney Lee. 22 v o l s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1921 - 22. Dobree, Bonamy. Alexander Pope. Press, 1963.  London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  Dudden, F. Homes. F i e l d i n g : h i s l i f e , works and times. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952. Durfey, Thomas. 1701.  The Bath o r the Western L a s s .  F i e l d i n g , Henry. Amelia. L i b r a r y , 1950. Jensen.  2 vols.  London,  London: Everyman's  . The Covent Garden J o u r n a l , ed. G.E. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1915.  . The H i s t o r y o f the Adventures o f Joseph Andrews and h i s F r i e n d Mr. Abraham Adams. New York: Norton L i b r a r y , 1958. Mutter. Foote, Samuel.  . The H i s t o r y o f Tom Jones, ed. R.P.C. Penguin E n g l i s h L i b r a r y , 1966. The Maid o f Bath.  1771.  Genest, John. Some Account o f the E n g l i s h Stage the R e s t o r a t i o n i n 1660 t o 1830. 10 v o l s . 1832.  from Bath,  Goldsmith, O l i v e r . " L i f e o f R i c h a r d Nash, Esq.," Works. London: Globe e d i t i o n , 1925. Graves, R i c h a r d . The Festoons. A C o l l e c t i o n o f Epigrams, a n c i e n t and modern. London, 1766. . The S p i r i t u a l Quixote, or the Summer's Ramble o f Mr. G e o f f r y Wildgoose, ed .""Clarence Tracy. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967. .  The T r i f l e r s .  London, 1806.  201 Hannay, David. The L i f e o f Tobias S m o l l e t t i n Great W r i t e r s , ed. E.S. Robertson. London, 1887. Ison, W.  Georgian B u i l d i n g s o f Bath.  London,  Johnson, Samuel. L i v e s o f the E n g l i s h P o e t s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1906. Kilvert, Francis. 1866.  Remains i n Prose and V e r s e .  1952. 2 vols. Bath,  L i t t l e , Bryan. Bath P o r t r a i t : The Story o f Bath, i t s L i f e and i t s B u i l d i n g s . B r i s t o l , 1961. Monkland, George. Bath, 1854.  L i t e r a t u r e and L i t e r a t i o f Bath.  . Supplement to the L i t e r a t u r e L i t e r a t i o f Bath. Bath, 1855.  and  Murch, Jerom. B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketches o f Bath C e l e b r i t i e s , /Ancient and Modern, w i t h some fragments o f L o c a l History. Bath, 1893. Odingsells, Gabriel.  The Bath Unmasked.  1725.  Origo, I r i s . "The P l e a s u r e s o f Bath i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century," i n H o r i z o n , Winter 1965, V I I I , No. 1, p. 6. Peach, R.E.M. H i s t o r i c Houses i n Bath and T h e i r A s s o c i a t i o n . London, 1883. . The L i f e and Times o f Ralph A l l e n o f P r i o r Park, Bath, i n t r o d u c e d by a s h o r t account o f Lyncombe and Widcombe ... London, 1895. Penley, B e l v i l l e , S. The Bath Stage: A H i s t o r y o f Dramatic R e p r e s e n t a t a t i o n s i n Bath. Bath H e r a l d O f f i c e , 1892. Pope, Alexander. The Correspondence o f Alexander Pope, ed. George Sherburn. 5 v o l s . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956. . The Works o f Alexander Pope ..., ed. W. E l w i n and W.J. Courthope. 10 v o l s . London, 1871 - 89. . The Works o f Alexander Pope, Esq., ed. W i l l i a m L i s l e Bowles. 10 v o l s . London, 1806.  202 Richardson, A.E. Georgian England: a survey o f S o c i a l L i f e ... from 1700 to 1820. London, 1931. Rosenfeld, S y b i l Marion. the P r o v i n c e s , 1660 Press, 1939.  S t r o l l i n g P l a y e r s and drama i n - 1765. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y  Ruffhead, Owen. L i f e o f A. Pope, Esq. ... w i t h a c r i t i c a l essay on h i s w r i t i n g s and genius. London, 1769. S c o t t , S i r Walter.  S t . Ronan's W e l l .  Sheridan, R i c h a r d B r i n s l e y .  Edinburgh,  The R i v a l s .  1775.  The School f o r Scandal. Smith, R.A.L.  Bath.  London,  1824.  1777.  1944.  S m o l l e t t , T o b i a s . The Adventures o f Ferdinand Count Fathom, i n N o v e l i s t ' s L i b r a r y . 10 v o l s . 1821. 2 vols.  . The Adventures o f P e r e g r i n e P i c k l e . London: Everyman's L i b r a r y , 1930.  . The Adventures of Roderick Random. London: Everyman's L i b r a r y , 1956 r e p r i n t . ' New  . The E x p e d i t i o n o f Humphrey C l i n k e r . York: D o l p h i n e d i t i o n .  Spence, Joseph. Anecdotes, ..., ed. S.W. S i n g e r .  Observations, and Characters London, 1820.  S w i f t , Jonathan. The Works o f Jonathan S w i f t Walter S c o t t . 19 v o l s . Edinburgh, 1814. Trevelyan, G.M. Illustrated Social History. P e l i c a n e d i t i o n , 1964. T u r b e r v i l l e , A.S. Century. New  ed. 4 vols.  E n g l i s h Men and Manners i n the E i g h t e e n t h York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959.  , ed .'""Johnson ' s England. Clarendon Press, 1952.  2 vols.  Walpole, Horace. L e t t e r s , ed. Peter Cunningham. London, 1891.  Oxford: 9 vols.  \  203 Wood, John. Essay towards a D e s c r i p t i o n o f Bath. edition. London, 1749. Wright, G.H.  The H i s t o r i c Guide to Bath.  2nd  Bath, 1864.  PERIODICALS Guardian, The.  Mar. 1713 - O c t . 1713.  P r i o r Park Magazine. S p e c t a t o r , The. T a t l e r , The.  V o l . X I I . No. 1.  1965, p. 27.  1 Mar. 1711 - 6 Dec. 1712.  Apr. 1709 - J a n . 1711.  

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